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WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION 
International Bureau 




PCT 

INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 
G11B 20/18 



Al 



(11) International Publication Number: WO 00/54274 

(43) International Publication Date: 14 September 2000 (14.09.00) 



(21) International Application Number: PCT/JP99/04889 

(22) International Filing Date: 8 September 1999 (08.09.99) 



(30) Priority Data: 

11/59781 



8 March 1999 (08.03.99) 



JP 



(81) Designated States: CN, ID, KR, MX. 

Published 

With international search report. 



(71) Applicant: MATSUSHITA ELECTRIC INDUSTRIAL CO., 

LTD. [JP/JP]; 1006, Oaza Kadoma, Kadoma-shi, Osaka 
571-8501 (JP). 

(72) Inventors: ITO, Motoshi; 17-25-302, Furuichi 3-chome, 

Joto-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 536-0001 (JP). UEDA, Hi- 
roshi; 4-3426, Gotenyama Minamimachi, Hirakata-shi, 
Osaka 573-1193 (JP). GOTOH, Yoshiho; 5-1-3, Hi- 
gashinakahama, Joto-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 536-0023 (JP). 
FUKUSHIMA, Yoshihisa; 14-C-508, Sekime 6-chome, 
Joto-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 536-0008 (JP). 

(74) Agent: YAMAMOTO, Shusaku; 15th floor, Crystal Tower, 
2-27, Shiromi 1-chome, Chuo-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 
540-6015 (JP). 



(54) Title: INFORMATION RECORDING MEDIUM, INFORMATION RECORDING METHOD, INFORMATION RECORDING 
APPARATUS AND INFORMATION REPRODUCING APPARATUS 



22 



, ^ 

22a 22b 

< < 




22c 
( 


Status 


Location of 
defective sector 


Reserved 
(=0) 


Location of 
replacement sector 


22a-1 

< 


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Rag 


Reserved (=0) 





(57) Abstract 

An information recording medium of the present invention includes: a volume space in which user data is recorded; a spare area 
including a replacement area which may be used in place of a defective area included in the volume space; and a defect management 
information area in which defect management information for managing the defective area is recorded. The defect management information 
includes status information indicating whether the defective area is replaced by the replacement area. 



FOR THE PURPOSES OF INFORMATION ONLY 



Codes used to identify States party to the PCT on the front pages of pamphlets publishing international applications under the PCT. 



AL 


Albania 


ES 


Spain 


LS 


Lesotho 


SI 


Slovenia 


AM 


Armenia 


FI 


Finland 


LT 


Lithuania 


SK 


Slovakia 


AT 


Austria 


FR 


France 


LU 


Luxembourg 


SN 


Senegal 


AU 


Australia 


GA 


Gabon 


LV 


Latvia 


sz 


Swaziland 


AZ 


Azerbaijan 


GB 


United Kingdom 


MC 


Monaco 


TD 


Chad 


BA 


Bosnia and Herzegovina 


GE 


Georgia 


MD 


Republic of Moldova 


TG 


Togo 


BB 


Barbados 


GH 


Ghana 


MG 


Madagascar 


TJ 


Tajikistan 


BE 


Belgium 


GN 


Guinea 


MK 


The former Yugoslav 


TM 


Turkmenistan 


BF 


Burkina Faso 


GR 


Greece 




Republic of Macedonia 


TR 


Turkey 


BG 


Bulgaria 


HU 


Hungary 


ML 


Mali 


TT 


Trinidad and Tobago 


BJ 


Benin 


IE 


Ireland 


MN 


Mongolia 


UA 


Ukraine 


BR 


Brazil 


IL 


Israel 


MR 


Mauritania 


UG 


Uganda 


BY 


Belarus 


IS 


Iceland 


MW 


Malawi 


US 


United States of America 


CA 


Canada 


IT 


Italy 


MX 


Mexico 


uz 


Uzbekistan 


CF 


Central African Republic 


JP 


Japan 


NE 


Niger 


VN 


Viet Nam 


CG 


Congo 


KE 


Kenya 


NL 


Netherlands 


YU 


Yugoslavia 


CH 


Switzerland 


KG 


Kyrgyzstan 


NO 


Norway 


zw 


Zimbabwe 


CI 


Cdte d'lvoirc 


KP 


Democratic People's 


NZ 


New Zealand 






CM 


Cameroon 




Republic of Korea 


PL 


Poland 






CN 


China 


KR 


Republic of Korea 


PT 


Portugal 






cu 


Cuba 


KZ 


Kazakstan 


RO 


Romania 






cz 


Czech Republic 


LC 


Saint Lucia 


RU 


Russian Federation 






DE 


Germany 


LI 


Liechtenstein 


SD 


Sudan 






DK 


Denmark 


LK 


Sri Lanka 


SE 


Sweden 






EE 


Estonia 


LR 


Liberia 


SG 


Singapore 







WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



- 1 - 
DESCRIPTION 

INFORMATION RECORDING MEDIUM , INFORMATION RECORDING METHOD , 
INFORMATION RECORDING APPARATUS AND 
5 INFORMATION REPRODUCING APPARATUS 

TECHNICAL FIELD 
The present invention relates to an information 
recording medium, an information recording method, an 
10 information recording apparatus and an information 
reproducing apparatus . 

BACKGROUND ART 
An optical disk is a type of information recording 

15 medium which has a sector structure. In recent years, as 
the recording density and the capacity of an optical disk 
have been increased, it has become more important to ensure 
the reliability thereof . In order to ensure the reliability, 
an optical disk apparatus performs defect management in 

20 which a sector on the disk which cannot be used for 
recording/reproduction (hereinafter, referred to as a 
"defective sector") is replaced by another sector having 
a good condition. One standard for such defect management 
is ISO/IEC 10090 for 90 mm optical disks (hereinafter, 

25 referred to as the "ISO standard") , which is published from 
International Standards Organization (ISO). 

As the first prior art example, an ECC block which 
is used by a DVD standard and the defect management method 
30 according to the ISO standard will be briefly described 
below. 

Figure 17 illustrates a physical structure of a 



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disk 1 . The disk 1 has a plurality of tracks 2 provided in 
the form of concentric circles or a spiral- Each of the 
tracks 2 is divided into a plurality of sectors 3 . The 
disk 1 includes one or more disk information areas 4 and 
5 a data recording area 5. 

The disk information area 4 stores various 
parameters needed to access the disk 1. In the example 
illustrated in Figure 17, two disk information areas 4 are 
provided respectively along the inner and outer peripheries 
of the disk 1. The disk information area 4 along the inner 
periphery is also called a "lead- in" area, while the disk 
information area 4 along the outer periphery is also called 
a " lead - out " area . 

Data is recorded/reproduced on/from the data re- 
cording area 5 . Each sector 3 in the data recording area 5 
is assigned an absolute address which is called a "physical 
sector number" . 

Figure 18A illustrates a structure of an ECC (error 
correcting code) block which is a unit of error correcting 
code calculation. An ECC block contains main data (172 
bytes x 48 rows), an inner code parity PI obtained by 
calculating error correcting codes for each row (in the 
horizontal direction) , and an outer code parity PO obtained 
by calculating error correcting codes for each column (in 
the vertical direction). 

30 An error correction method using such inner and 

outer parities is generally called a "product code -based 
error correction method" . The product code-based error 
correction method is an error correction method which is 



10 



15 



20 



25 



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effective for both random errors and burst errors (a group 
of localized errors). For example, consider a case where 
some random errors occurred, as well as two rows of burst 
errors due to a scratch made on the disk 1. Most of such 
5 burst errors are correctable using the outer codes, because 
they are 2-byte errors in the vertical direction, A column 
with many random errors may not completely be corrected by 
outer codes. Some errors may remain after an error 
correction operation using outer codes. However, such 

10 remaining errors are in most cases correctable using inner 
codes. Even if some errors still remain after the error 
correction operation using inner codes, such errors can 
further be reduced by performing an error correction 
operation using outer codes again. By employing such 

15 product codes, DVDs realize a sufficient error correction 
capability while saving the parity redundancy. In other 
words , the capacity for user data is increased by such saving 
of the parity redundancy. 

20 In a larger capacity DVD, each ECC block includes 

16 sectors so as to realize both an increased error 
correction capability and a reduced redundancy. The ECC 
block illustrated in Figure 18A includes only 4 sectors for 
the sake of simplicity. 

25 

Figure 18B illustrates an arrangement of sectors 
included in an ECC block. The outer code parities PO of the 
ECC block are divided into rows and proportionally 
distributed among the sectors. As a result, each recording 
30 sector includes data of 182 bytes x 13 rows. 

An upper level control unit (this generally 
corresponds to a host computer) instructs an optical disk 



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apparatus to record or reproduce data by sectors. When 
instructed to reproduce data from a sector, the optical disk 
apparatus reproduces an ECC block including the sector from 
the disk, performs error correction on the reproduced data, 
5 and returns only a portion of the data which corresponds 
to the designated sector. When instructed to record data 
on a sector, the optical disk apparatus reproduces an ECC 
block including the sector from the disk, performs error 
correction on the reproduced data, and replaces a portion 

10 of the data which corresponds to the designated sector with 
recording data which has been received from the upper level 
control unit* Then, the optical disk apparatus re- 
calculates error correcting codes for the ECC block and adds 
them to the ECC block, before the ECC block including the 

15 designated sector is recorded on the disk. Particularly, 
such a recording operation is called a "read modified write" 
operation . 

In the following description, a "block" means an ECC 
20 block as described above. 

Figure 19 illustrates an exemplary physical space 
of the disk 1 for use with the defect management method 
according to the ISO standard. The data recording area 5 
25 includes a volume space 6 and a spare area 9. 

The volume space 6 is managed by consecutive ad- 
dresses, called "logical sector numbers". The volume 
space 6 includes a logical volume space 6a and logical 
30 volume structures 6b for storing information on the 
structure of the logical volume space 6a. 

The spare area 9 includes at least one sector (for 



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example , #1 spare block) which may be used in place of a 
defective sector if such a defective sector occurs in the 
volume space 6. 

5 In the example illustrated in Figure 19 , a file A 

(indicated as "File-A" in Figure 19) exists directly under 
a root directory (indicated as "ROOT" in Figure 19) . Among 
data blocks a to c included in the data extent of the root 
directory, the data block o is defective. The defective 
10 block o is replaced by #1 spare block in the spare area 9. 

Among data blocks d to g included in the data extent of the 
file A, the data block f is defective. The defective 
block f is replaced by #2 spare block in the spare area 9. 

15 The replacement of each defective block by a spare 

block in the spare area 9 is registered in a secondary defect 
list ("SDL"). The SDL is stored in a defect management 
information area as a part of defect management information. 

20 More recently, there is an attempt in the art to use 

a rewritable optical disk in a less expensive form of a bare 
disk with no cartridge , as a read-only optical disk. In view 
of the defect management, however, a bare disk is more likely 
to get fingerprints thereon, and the number of defective 

25 sectors may increase unexpectedly. Therefore, it is pro- 
posed in the art to use a dynamically expandable spare area 
rather than a fixed spare area. 

Moreover, the increased capacity of an optical disk, 
30 along with the motion picture compression technique having 
been put into practical use, has paved the way to 
recording/reproduction of motion pictures on/ from an 
optical disk. However, the conventional defect management 



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method may not be suitable for such a motion picture 
application , in which real time processing is required. In 
particular, if a defective sector is replaced by a spare 
sector which is physically distant from the defective sector, 
5 it may take too much time to move the optical head to such 
a distant spare sector for ensuring the real time processing. 
Therefore, it has been proposed in the art to employ a new 
defect management method instead of the conventional method 
where a defective sector is replaced by a physically distant 
10 spare sector. 



As the second prior art example, a proposed method 
for recording/reproducing AV data (i.e. , audio video data) 
will be described below. 

15 

Each of Figures 20A and 20B illustrates an 
arrangement of AV data on a disk, which is suitable for AV 
data recording/reproduction. In Figures 20A and 20B, a 
suffix "h" denotes a hexadecimal number. 

20 

Figure 20A illustrates an AV data arrangement where 
there is no defective sector. If there is no defective 
sector, the AV data including #1 data to #4 data can be 
recorded in sectors having consecutive logical sector 
25 numbers (LSN) . Similarly, the AV data can be reproduced by 
reproducing the sectors having the consecutive logical 
sector numbers. 



Figure 20B illustrates an AV data arrangement where 
30 16 sectors having logical sector numbers of n to n+OFh are 
detected as defective sectors while recording data therein. 
In this case, the ECC block including the detected defective 
sector is skipped. As a result, #3 data is recorded in 



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sectors having logical sector numbers of n+lOh to n+lFh, 
and #4 data is recorded in the following sectors having 
logical sector numbers of n+20h to n+2Fh. Such an operation 
of skipping sectors by ECC blocks is referred to as a "block 
5 skip". 

Figure 21 illustrates an exemplary physical space 
of the disk 1 which is suitable for AV data record- 
ing/reproduction • 

10 

In the example illustrated in Figure 21, a file A 
(indicated as "File-A" in Figure 21) containing AV data 
exists directly under a root directory (indicated as "ROOT" 
in Figure 21 ) . Among data blocks a to c included in the data 

15 extent of the root directory, the data block o is defective. 

The defective block o is replaced by #1 spare block in the 
spare area 9. It is assumed that a defective block f is 
detected while recording the AV data extent of the file A 
in an area provided for the AV data extent. In such a case, 

20 the defective block f is skipped. As a result, the AV data 
extent of the file A is recorded while being divided into 
an AV data extent I (including the data blocks d and e) and 
another AV data extent II (including the data blocks g and 
h). 

25 

The replacement of the defective block c by #1 spare 
block in the spare area 9 is registered in the SDL . However, 
the defective block f is not registered in the SDL because 
the defective block f was only skipped, and the defective 
30 block f is not replaced by a spare block (no spare block 
has even been allocated thereto). 



However, there is a problem associated with the 



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presence of such a defective block which is not registered 
in the SDL. The problem will be described below with 
reference to Figures 22A to 22C. 



Figure 22A illustrates a normally recorded ECC 
block . The ECC block is recorded over a plurality of sectors . 
Each sector begins with an ID containing the physical sector 
number of the sector, etc. Data is recorded in the area 
following the ID. The data is obtained by adding error 
correcting codes to main data and further interleaving the 
main data having the error correcting codes added thereto 
(see Figure 18) . 



Figure 22B illustrates an ECC block for which an 
15 overwrite operation failed. When the ECC block illustrated 
in Figure 22A is overwritten with new data, new error 
correcting codes are calculated according to the new main 
data, and added to the ECC block. In the example illustrated 
in Figure 22B, however, the third sector has a defective 
20 ID. Therefore, the first two sectors are overwritten with 
data of a new ECC block, while the other two sectors remain 
to have the data of an old ECC block. 



Figure 22C illustrates the structure of reproduced 
25 data from the ECC block for which the overwrite operation 
failed. When the four sectors illustrated in Figure 22B are 
reproduced, the new data and the old data are mixed with 
each other (in Figure 22C, the new data and the old data 
are hatched in different directions ) . This means that an 
30 error correction always fails in the vertical direction 
using the outer code parity PO. 



As can be appreciated from the description above, 



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a block for which a recording operation even once failed 
becomes a block from which data cannot be reproduced. The 
read modified write operation is required to record data 
in some sectors of this block. However, a read modified 
5 write operation for such an unreproducible block will always 
fail. Thus, this block becomes a block on which data can 
no longer be recorded. Such a block cannot later be replaced 
by a replacement block because data to be transferred to 
the replacement block cannot be reproduced from the block, 
10 as in the read modified write operation. 

If the dynamically expandable spare area was used 
with the ISO standard defect management method which is 
designed for use with a fixed- size spare area, the spare 
area may temporarily be exhausted (i.e. , no available spare 
area), which would never happen in the conventional 
techniques . There is no method proposed in the art to manage 
a defective block which is detected while the spare area 
is temporarily exhausted. Since a read modified write 
operation for such an unmanaged defective block fails, data 
cannot be recorded by sectors in the defective block. 

Also when recording/ reproducing AV data on/from the 
disk, a read modified write operation for a skipped defective 
block fails, thereby experiencing the same problem as just 
described above. 

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION 

According to one aspect of this invention, an 
information recording medium includes : a volume space in 
which user data is recorded; a spare area including a 
replacement area which may be used in place of a defective 



15 



20 



1 



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area included in the volume space; and a defect management 
information area in which defect management information for 
managing the defective area is recorded. The defect 
management information includes status information indi- 
5 eating whether the defective area is replaced by the 
replacement area. 

In one embodiment of the invention, when a recording 
operation of the user data for the defective area is skipped, 
] 10 the status information indicating that the defective area 

is not replaced by the replacement area is written in the 
defect management information area. 

In one embodiment of the invention, the spare area 
15 is an expandable area. When there are no available spare 
area in the replacement area temporarily, the status 
information indicating that the defective area is not 
replaced by the replacement area is written in the defect 
management information area. 

20 

In one embodiment of the invention, the defect 
management information includes first location information 
indicating a location of the defective area and second 
location information indicating a location of the 
25 replacement area. The status information indicates whether 
the defective area is replaced by the replacement area based 
on whether a value of the second location information is 
equal to a predetermined value. 



In one embodiment of the invention, the defect 
management information includes first location information 
indicating a location of the defective area, second location 
information indicating a location of the replacement area. 



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and a flag indicating whether the defective area is replaced 
by the replacement area. The status information indicates 
whether the defective area is replaced by the replacement 
area based on a value of the flag. 

5 

In one embodiment of the invention, the defective 
area is detected by ECC blocks each of which is a unit of 
an error correction operation. The defective area is 
replaced by the replacement area by ECC blocks. 

10 

According to another aspect of this invention, an 
information recording method for recording information on 
an information recording medium is provided. The 
information recording medium includes: a volume space in 

15 which user data is recorded; a spare area including a 
replacement area which may be used in place of a defective 
area included in the volume space; and a defect management 
information area in which defect management information for 
managing the defective area is recorded. The method in- 

20 eludes the steps of: detecting the defective area; and 
recording status information indicating whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement area in the 
defect management information area. 

25 In one embodiment of the invention, the method 

further includes the step of skipping a recording operation 
of the user data for the defective area. When the recording 
operation of the user data for the defective area is skipped, 
the status information indicating that the defective area 

30 is not replaced by the replacement area is written in the 
defect management information area. 



In one embodiment of the invention, the spare area 



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- 12 - 

is an expandable area. The method further includes the step 
of detecting that the spare area temporarily runs out of 
available replacement areas. When there are no available 
spare area in the replacement area temporarily, the status 
5 information indicating that the defective area is not 
replaced by the replacement area is written in the defect 
management information area. 

In one embodiment of the invention, the defect 
10 management information includes first location information 
indicating a location of the defective area and second 
location information indicating a location of the 
replacement area. The status information indicates whether 
the defective area is replaced by the replacement area based 
15 on whether a value of the second location information is 
equal to a predetermined value. 

In one embodiment of the invention, the defect 
management information includes first location information 

20 indicating a location of the defective area, second location 
information indicating a location of the replacement area, 
and a flag indicating whether the defective area is replaced 
by the replacement area. The status information indicates 
whether the defective area is replaced by the replacement 

25 area based on a value of the flag. 

In one embodiment of the invention, the defective 
area is detected by ECC blocks each of which is a unit of 
an error correction operation. The defective area is 
30 replaced by the replacement area by ECC blocks. 



an 



According to still another aspect of this invention, 
information recording apparatus for recording 



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information on an information recording medium is provided. 
The information recording medium includes : a volume space 
in which user data is recorded; a spare area including a 
replacement area which may be used in place of a defective 
5 area included in the volume space; and a defect management 
information area in which defect management information for 
managing the defective area is recorded. The apparatus 
includes: a detection section for detecting the defective 
area; and a recording section for recording status 
10 information indicating whether the defective area is re- 
placed by the replacement area in the defect management 
information area. 



In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus 
15 further comprises a skip section for skipping a recording 
operation of the user data for the defective area. When the 
recording operation of the user data for the defective area 
is skipped, the recording section writes in the defect 
management information area the status information 
20 indicating that the defective area is not replaced by the 
replacement area. 



In one embodiment of the invention, the spare area 
is an expandable area. The apparatus further includes a 

25 further detection section for detecting that the spare area 
temporarily runs out of available replacement areas . When 
there are no available spare area in the replacement area 
temporarily, the recording section writes in the defect 
management information area the status information 

30 indicating that the defective area is not replaced by the 
replacement area . 



In one embodiment of the invention, the defect 



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management information includes first location information 
indicating a location of the defective area and second 
location information indicating a location of the 
replacement area. The status information indicates whether 
the defective area is replaced by the replacement area based 
on whether a value of the second location information is 
equal to a predetermined value. 



In one embodiment of the invention, the defect 
10 management information includes first location information 
indicating a location of the defective area, second location 
information indicating a location of the replacement area, 
and a flag indicating whether the defective area is replaced 
by the replacement area. The status information indicates 
15 whether the defective area is replaced by the replacement 
area based on a value of the flag. 

In one embodiment of the invention, the defective 
area is detected by ECC blocks each of which is a unit of 
20 an error correction operation. The defective area is 
replaced by the replacement area by ECC blocks. 

According to still another aspect of this invention, 
an information reproducing apparatus for reproducing 

25 information recorded on an information recording medium is 
provided. The information recording medium includes: a 
volume space in which user data is recorded; a spare area 
including a replacement area which may be used in place of 
a defective area included in the volume space; and a defect 

30 management information area in which defect management 
information for managing the defective area is recorded. 
The defect management information includes status 
information indicating whether the defective area is re- 



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placed by the replacement area . The apparatus includes : a 
determination section for determining whether the defective 
area is replaced by the replacement area with reference to 
the status information; and a control section for 
5 controlling a reproducing operation of the user data 
according to the determination. 

In one embodiment of the invention, when the 
defective area is not replaced by the replacement area, the 
10 control section skips a reproducing operation for the 
defective area. 

In one embodiment of the invention, when the 
defective area is not replaced by the replacement area, the 
15 control section outputs data having a fixed value as data 
obtained by reproducing the defective area, regardless of 
data in the defective area. 

In one embodiment of the invention, the defective 
20 area is detected by ECC blocks each of which is a unit of 
an error correction operation. The defective area is 
replaced by the replacement area by ECC blocks. The error 
correction operation includes a first error correction 
operation for correcting errors within a single sector and 
25 a second error correction operation for correcting errors 
over a plurality of sectors . When the defective area is not 
replaced by the replacement area, the control section 
performs the first error correction operation, without 
performing the second error correction operation, for data 
30 in the defective area so as to output data which is corrected 
by the first error correction operation. 

Thus, the invention described herein makes possible 



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the advantages of: (1) providing an information recording 
medium where it is possible to manage a defective block even 
when there is no spare block available to replace the 
defective block so as to reduce the risk that the read 
5 modified write operation fails, thereby increasing the 
reliability; (2) providing an information recording method 
having such a feature; (3) providing an information 
recording apparatus having such a feature ; and ( 4 ) providing 
an information reproducing apparatus having such a feature. 

10 

These and other advantages of the present invention 
will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon reading 
and understanding the following detailed description with 
reference to the accompanying figures . 

15 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 

Figure 1A is a diagram illustrating a structure of 
a physical space of a disk 1 which is an information 
20 recording medium according to Embodiment 1 of the present 
invention; 

Figure IB is a diagram illustrating a structure of 
an SDL 13 illustrated in Figure 1A; 

25 

Figure 1C is a diagram illustrating a structure of 
an SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13; 

Figure ID is a diagram illustrating another 
30 structure of the SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13; 

Figure IE is a diagram illustrating another 
structure of the SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13; 



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Figure 2 is a diagram illustrating an exemplary 
physical space of the disk 1 where a file A containing AV 
data is recorded on the disk 1; 

5 

Figure 3 is a diagram illustrating an exemplary 
physical space of the disk 1 where the file A containing 
AV data and then a file B containing non-AV data are recorded 
on the disk 1; 

10 

Figure 4 is a diagram illustrating an exemplary 
physical space of the disk 1 where the spare area is 
temporarily exhausted (i.e., out of available replacement 
areas ) ; 

15 

Figure 5 is a diagram illustrating an exemplary 
physical space of the disk 1 where a file C recording 
operation is retried after expanding a second spare area 8 ; 

20 Figure 6 is a conceptual diagram illustrating a 

principle of recording AV data on, or reproducing recorded 
AV data from, the disk 1; 

Figure 7 is a block diagram illustrating a structure 
25 of an information recording /reproducing system 700 
according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention; 

Figure 8 is a diagram illustrating a procedure of 
a method for recording a file containing AV data on the disk 1 
30 using the information recording/reproducing system 700; 

Figure 9 is a diagram illustrating a procedure of 
a method for reproducing a file containing AV data recorded 



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on the disk 1 using the information recording/reproducing 
system 700; 

Figure 10 is a block diagram illustrating a 
5 structure of a disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 ac- 
cording to Embodiment 3 of the present invention; 

Figure 11 is a procedure of a method for reproducing 
normal computer data (not real time data) recorded on the 
10 disk 1 using the disk recording/reproducing drive 1020; 

Figure 12 is a flow chart illustrating a procedure 
of a reproducing operation performed by the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 1020; 

15 

Figure 13 is a flow chart illustrating a procedure 
of a recording operation performed by the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 1020; 

20 Figure 14 is a block diagram illustrating a 

structure of a disk recording/reproducing drive 1420 ac- 
cording to Embodiment 4 of the present invention; 

Figure 15 is a flow chart illustrating a procedure 
25 of a reproducing operation performed by the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 1420; 

Figure 16 is a flow chart illustrating a procedure 
of a recording operation performed by the disk record- 
30 ing/reproducing drive 1420; 

Figure 17 is a diagram illustrating a physical 
structure of the disk 1; 



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Figure 18A is a diagram illustrating a structure of 
an ECC block which is a unit of error correcting code 
calculation; 

5 

Figure 18B illustrates an arrangement of sectors 
included in an ECC block; 

Figure 19 illustrates an exemplary physical space 
10 of the disk 1 for use with a defect management method 
according to the ISO standard; 

Figure 20A illustrates an arrangement of AV data 
where there is no defective sector; 

15 

Figure 20B illustrates an arrangement of AV data 
where there is a defective sector; 

Figure 21 illustrates an exemplary physical space 
20 of the disk 1 which is suitable for AV data record- 
ing/reproduction ; 

Figure 22A is a diagram illustrating a normally 
recorded ECC block; 

25 

Figure 22B is a diagram illustrating an ECC block 
for which an overwrite operation failed; 

Figure 22C is a diagram illustrating a structure of 
30 reproduced data from an ECC block for which an overwrite 
operation failed; 

Figure 23A is a diagram illustrating an exemplary 



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format for a "SKIP WRITE " command; 

Figure 23B is a diagram illustrating another 
exemplary format for a "SKIP WRITE" command; 

Figure 24A is a diagram illustrating an exemplary 
format for a "REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS" command; and 

Figure 24B is a diagram illustrating an exemplary 
format for data which is reported in response to a "REPORT 
SKIPPED ADDRESS" command. 

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION 

Various embodiments of the present invention will 
be described below with reference to the figures. 

( Embodiment 1 ) 

A disk 1 is a rewritable information recording 
medium. The disk 1 may be any type of information recording 
medium, including a DVD -RAM. Data can be recorded on the 
disk 1. The data recorded on the disk 1 can be reproduced 
therefrom. The recording and reproduction of the data is 
performed by sectors or by blocks. 

The physical structure of the disk 1 is the same as 
that illustrated in Figure 17, and therefore will not 
further be described below. 

Figure 1A illustrates a structure of the physical 
space of the disk 1. The disk 1 includes one or more disk 
information areas 4 and a data recording area 5. In the 
example illustrated in Figure 1A, two disk information 



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areas 4 are provided respectively along the inner and outer 
peripheries of the disk 1. The disk information area 4 
along the inner periphery is also called a "lead-in" area, 
while the disk information area 4 along the outer periphery 
5 is also called a "lead-out" area. 

Data is recorded/reproduced on/from the data re- 
cording area 5. Each sector in the data recording area 5 
is assigned an absolute address which is called a physical 
10 sector number (hereinafter, abbreviated as a "PSN" ). 

The data recording area 5 includes a volume space 6 
and a first spare area 7. 

15 The volume space 6 is an area provided for storing 

user data. Each sector included in the volume space 6 is 
assigned a logical sector number (hereinafter, abbreviated 
as an "LSN" ) for accessing the volume space 6. Data is 
recorded/reproduced by accessing each sector of the disk 1 

20 using LSN. 

The first spare area 7 includes at least one sector 
which may be used in place of a defective sector if such 
a defective sector occurs in the volume space 6. The first 

25 spare area 7 is arranged on the inner periphery side of the 
disk 1 with respect to the volume space 6, so that when a 
defective sector occurs in an area storing the file 
management information (free space management information, 
the file entry of the root directory, etc. ) , such a defective 

30 sector can be replaced quickly. The file management 
information is stored near the sector which is assigned an 
LSN "0". Thus, by arranging the first spare area 7 on the 
inner periphery side of the disk 1 with respect to the volume 



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space 6, the seek distance between a defective sector and 
a replacement sector can be reduced. In this way, the speed 
of the defective sector replacement process is increased* 
Since the file management information is frequently ac- 
5 cessed, the file management information requires high data 
reliability. Therefore, it is quite effective to quickly 
replace a defective sector which occurs in the area storing 
the file management information. 

10 The volume space 6 includes a logical volume 

space 6a and logical volume structures 6b for storing 
information on the structure of the logical volume space 6a. 
The logical volume space 6a stores free space management 
information indicating whether a sector in the logical 

15 volume space 6a is used or free, one or more data extents 
storing the contents of the file, and a file entry in which 
one or more data extents corresponding to the file are 
registered. Each file is managed by using the various types 
of information. 

20 

The disk information area 4 includes a control data 
area 4a and a defect management information area 4b. The 
defect management information area 4b stores defect 
management information 10 for managing defective sectors . 

25 

The defect management information 10 includes a 
disk definition structure 11, a primary defect list 
(hereinafter, abbreviated as a "PDL" ) 12 and a secondary 
defect list (hereinafter, abbreviated as an "SDL") 13. 

30 

The PDL 12 is used to manage defective sectors which 
are detected during a pre- shipping inspection of the disk 1 . 
The pre -shipping inspection of the disk 1 is usually 



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conducted by the manufacturer of the disk 1. 

The SDL 13 is used to manage defective sectors which 
are detected during use of the disk 1 by a user. 

5 

Figure IB illustrates a structure of the SDL 13. 

The SDL 13 includes : a secondary defect list header 
( "SDL header" ) 20 containing an identifier which identifies 

10 the list as an SDL; number of SDL entries information 21 
indicating the number of SDL entries registered in the SDL; 
and one or more SDL entries 22 (1st entry to m th entry in 
the example illustrated in Figure IB) . The number of SDL 
entries information 21 being "0" indicates that there is 

15 no defective sector registered in the SDL. 

Figure 1C illustrates a structure of the SDL en- 
try 22. 

20 The SDL entry 22 includes a status field 22a , a 

field 22b for storing information which indicates the 
location of the defective sector, and a field 22c for storing 
information which indicates the location of a replacement 
sector for the defective sector. 

25 

The status field 22a is used to indicate whether the 
defective sector is replaced by a replacement sector. The 
location of the defective sector is represented by, for 
example, the PSN of the defective sector. The location of 
30 the replacement sector is represented by, for example, the 
PSN of the replacement sector. 

For example, the status field 22a may include a 



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1-bit flag 22a- 1 and a reserved area 22a- 2. For example, 
the 1-bit flag 22a-l being n l" may indicate that the 
defective sector is not replaced by a replacement sector, 
and it being "0" may indicate that the defective sector is 
5 replaced by a replacement sector. 

Alternatively, the status field 22a may include a 
1-bit exhaustion flag 22a- 3 , a 1-bit AV flag 22a- 4 and a 
reserved area 22a-5 (see Figure ID). Each of the exhaus- 

10 tion flag 22a- 3 and the AV flag 22a- 4 is a flag indicating 
the reason why the defective sector is not replaced by a 
replacement sector. For example, the exhaustion flag 22a- 3 
being "1" may indicate that the defective sector is not 
replaced by a replacement sector because the first spare 

15 area 7 is exhausted. For example, the AV flag 22a-4 being 
"1" may indicate that the defective sector is not replaced 
by a replacement sector because it is a defective sector 
which was detected while recording AV data on the disk 1. 

20 Instead of providing the status field 22a, a 

predetermined value, which indicates that "no replacement 
sector available (i.e. , the defective sector is not replaced 
by a replacement sector)", may alternatively be inserted 
in the field 22o which is for storing information indicating 

25 the location of a replacement sector (see Figure IE) . The 
predetermined value may be "0", for example. 

Figures 1C to IE are only exemplary, and the format 
for the SDL entry 22 is not limited to those illustrated 
30 in Figures 1C to IE. The SDL entry 22 may take any format 
as long as the SDL includes the status information which 
indicates whether the defective sector is replaced by a 
replacement sector . 



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For example, by setting the field 22c to a 
predetermined value while the status field 22a is being "1" . 
it is possible to increase the number of statuses which can 
5 be distinguished from one another- For example, the 
field 22c being set to "0" may indicate that a newly detected 
defective sector is not replaced by a replacement sector, 
and the replacement sector has not been assigned. For 
example, the field 22o being set to a value other than "0 n 
10 may indicate that a previously detected defective sector 
was replaced by the replacement sector, that is specified 
by the field 22c, but the replacement is cancelled- 

While the defect management is performed by sectors 
in the above -described example, the defect management may 
alternatively be performed by blocks each including a 
plurality of sectors. In such a case, information 
indicating the location of a defective block (rather than 
a defective sector; e.g., the PSN of the leading sector of 
the defective block) , and information indicating the 
location of a replacement block (rather than a replacement 
sector; e.g., the PSN of the leading sector of the 
replacement block) may be registered in the SDL. It is 
alternatively possible to perform defect management by ECC 
blocks each of which is a unit of an error correction 
operation. 

Thus, by storing in the defect management 
information area, status information which indicates 
30 whether a defective area (a defective sector or a defective 
block) is replaced by a replacement area (a replacement 
sector or a replacement block) , it is possible to manage 
the status where a defective area has been detected but is 



15 



20 



25 



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not replaced by a replacement area. 

Figure 2 illustrates an exemplary physical space of 
the disk 1 where a file A containing AV data is recorded 
5 on the disk 1. 

In the example illustrated in Figure 2, a file A 
(indicated as "File-A" in Figure 2) exists directly under 
a root directory (indicated as "ROOT" in Figure 2), Among 

10 data blocks a to o included in the data extent of the root 
directory, the data block o is defective. The defective 
block c is replaced by #1 spare block in the first spare 
area 7 . It is assumed that a defective block f is detected 
while recording the AV data extent of the file A in an area 

15 provided for the AV data extent. In such a case, the 
defective block f is skipped. As a result, the AV data 
extent of the file A is recorded while being divided into 
an AV data extent I (File-A) (including the data blocks d 
and e) and another AV data extent II (File-A) (including 

20 the data blocks g and h) . 

The first SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indicates that 
the defective block o is replaced by #1 spare block in the 
first spare area 7. 

25 

The second SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indicates that 
the defective block f (which was detected while recording 
AV data on the disk 1 and thus skipped) is not replaced by 
a replacement block. 

30 

Figure 3 illustrates an exemplary physical space of 
the disk 1 where the file A containing AV data and then a 
file B containing non-AV data (i.e., a type of data other 



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than AV data) are recorded on the disk 1. 

In the example illustrated in Figure 3, the 
defective block f is designated as a location where the data 
5 extent of the file B is to be recorded. As a result, the 
defective block f is replaced by #2 spare block in the first 
spare area 7. Along with this replacement process, the 
value in the status field 22a of the second SDL entry 22 
in the SDL 13 is changed from "1" to "0", and information 
10 which indicates the location of #2 spare block is stored 
in the field 22c thereof. 

It is assumed that the size of the data extent of 
the file B is equal to the size of one block. The structure 
15 information of the data extent of the file B is described 
in the file entry of the File B. LSNs corresponding to the 
file B are described as "used" in the free space management 
information. The file B is registered in the data extent 
of the root directory. 

20 

If the optical disk apparatus attempts to record 
data in some sectors of the defective block f , not knowing 
that the defective block f is a defective block for which 
an AV data recording operation failed, the result will not 

25 be the same as described above for the following reason. 

The optical disk apparatus performs a read modified write 
operation so as not to change data in other sectors belonging 
to the same ECC block as the sector for which a recording 
operation is requested. The optical disk apparatus at- 

30 tempts to perform the data reproduction step of the read 
modified write operation in the ECC block, but always fails. 
As a result, it is not possible to obtain data in the unit 
of ECC blocks, as required to record the data in a spare 



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block. Thus, replacement cannot even be made. 

If the optical disk apparatus knows that the 
defective block f is a defective block for which an AV data 
5 recording operation failed, it can determine that no 
effective user data is recorded in the defective block f . 
Such a determination can be made because AV data, which is 
required to be recorded in a real time manner, needs to be 
recorded on the disk 1 by ECC blocks. In other words, the 

10 optical disk apparatus is never requested to rewrite only 
some of the sectors in an ECC block. Therefore, a read 
modified write operation (for rewriting only the sector for 
which a recording operation is requested without changing 
data in the other sectors belonging to the same ECC block) 

15 is not required for a skipped defective block. Thus, it is 
possible to create an ECC block by filling the other sectors 
with H 0"s and to record the created ECC block in a replacement 
spare block. 

20 Figure 4 illustrates an exemplary physical space of 

the disk 1 where the spare area is temporarily exhausted 
(i.e., out of available replacement areas). 

As compared to the physical space illustrated in 
25 Figure 2, an expandable second spare area 8 is additionally 
allocated in the data recording area 5. Along with the 
allocation of the second spare area 8, the size of the volume 
space 6 and the size of the logical volume space 6a are 
reduced according to the size of the second spare area 8 . 
30 Prior to the allocation of the second spare area 8, the 
volume structure 6b along the outer periphery of the disk 1 
is moved toward the inner periphery of the disk 1 . The size 
of the free space management information is adjusted 



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according to the size of the logical volume space 6a. 

In the example illustrated in Figure 4, a file A 
(indicated as "File-A n in Figure 4). a file B (indicated 
as "File-B" in Figure 4) , and a file C (indicated as "File-C" 
in Figure 4), which is now being recorded, exist directly 
under a root directory (indicated as "ROOT" in Figure 4). 

A data block o included in the data extent of the 
root directory is defective. The defective block o is 
replaced by #1 spare block in the first spare area 7. 

A data block f included in the data extent of the 
file A is defective. The data block f is replaced by 
#2 spare block in the first spare area 7. 

Data blocks h and j included in the data extent of 
the file B are defective. The data blocks h and j are 
replaced respectively by #3 spare block and #4 spare block 
in the second spare area 8 . When a data block m was to be 
recorded as the data extent of the file C, the data block m 
was detected as a defective block during the recording 
operation, and no available spare block existed in the first 
spare area 7 or in the second spare area 8 . Thus , the file C 
is incomplete. 

As compared to the structure of the SDL 13 illus- 
trated in Figure IB, the SDL 13 is additionally provided 
with a field 23 for storing information which indicates the 
location of the second spare area 8. For example, the PSN 
of the leading sector of the second spare area 8 may be stored 
in the field 23 as the information indicating the location 
of the second spare area 8. The field 23 is provided for 



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dynamically expanding the second spare area 8. 

The first SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indicates that 
the defective block c is replaced by #1 spare block in the 
first spare area 7. 

The second SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indicates that 
the defective block f is replaced by #2 spare block in the 
first spare area 7. 

The third SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indicates that 
the defective block h is replaced by #3 spare block in the 
second spare area 8. 

The fourth SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indicates that 
the defective block j is replaced by #4 spare block in the 
second spare area 8. 

The fifth SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indicates that 
the defective block m is not replaced by a spare block. 

Figure 5 illustrates an exemplary physical space of 
the disk 1 where the file C recording operation is retried 
after expanding the second spare area 8. 

As illustrated in Figure 5 , the second spare area 8 
has been expanded. The size of the volume space 6 and the 
size of the logical volume space 6a are reduced according 
to the expansion of the second spare area 8. 

Prior to the expansion of the second spare area 8, 
the volume structure 6b along the outer periphery of the 
disk 1 is moved toward the inner periphery of the disk 1. 



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The size of the free space management information is adjusted 
according to the size of the logical volume space 6a. 



The data block m included in the data extent of the 
5 file C is replaced by #5 spare block in the expanded second 
spare area 8. The data extent of the file C includes three 
data blocks 1, m and n. The structure information of the 
data extent of the file C is described in the file entry 
of the file C. LSNs corresponding to the file C are de- 
10 scribed as "used" in the free space management information. 
The file C is registered in the data extent of the root 
directory. 



The fifth SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indicates that 
15 the data block m is replaced by #5 spare block in the 
expanded second spare area 8 . 

Unlike when an AV data recording operation fails, 
when a non-AV data recording operation fails, the defective 
20 block may contain effective user data. A recovery process 
for such a defective block is somewhat more complicated than 
in the case where the defective block does not contain 
effective user data. 



25 It is assumed that the optical disk apparatus is 

requested to record data in a sector included in a defective 
block (ECC block) to which no replacement block has been 
allocated. In such a case, the optical disk apparatus 
reproduces data from the other sectors in the ECC block which 

30 includes the sector by using only the inner code parities PI 
(see Figure 22C) which are independently provided for the 
respective sectors, and performs a read modified write 
operation using the reproduced data. 



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In this way, although the error correction 
capability is reduced because the outer code parity PO is 
not used, it is possible to correct errors to the extent 
5 the errors are correctable only with the inner code par- 
ity PI. 

Where a defective block to which no replacement 
block has been allocated is registered in the SDL only when 
10 there is no effective user data in the defective block, a 
defective block recovery process to be performed is similar 
to that described above which is performed after failure 
of an AV data recording operation. 

15 As described above, when a defective area is de- 

tected while recording data which requires real time 
processing (e.g. , AV data), the data is not recorded in the 
defective area (i.e., the defective area is skipped). The 
location of the defective area is written in the defect 

20 management information area 4b of the disk 1. Moreover, 
status information indicating that the defective area is 
not replaced by a replacement area is also written in the 
defect management information area 4b of the disk 1. When 
it is requested to record data which does not require real 

25 time processing (e.g., non-AV data) in the defective area, 
the defective area is replaced by a replacement area without 
performing a read modified write operation. The location 
of the replacement area is written in the defect management 
information area 4b of the disk 1. 

30 

Thus, by replacing a defective area with a 
replacement area while avoiding a read modified write 
operation which is known to always fail, it is possible to 



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successfully record data which does not require real time 
processing in the replacement area. 



Moreover, a replacement area is not allocated to a 
5 defective area until it is actually requested to record data 
in the defective area. This provides an advantage in that 
no replacement area is wasted* 

Where a spare area is expandable , the spare area may 
10 temporarily run out of available replacement areas. When 
no replacement area can be allocated to a detected defective 
area because the spare area is temporarily out of available 
replacement areas, the location of the defective area is 
written in the defect management information area 4b of the 
15 disk 1. Moreover, status information indicating that the 
defective area is not replaced by a replacement area (no 
replacement area has been allocated thereto) is written in 
the defect management information area 4b of the disk 1. 
After the spare area is expanded and a replacement area is 
20 made available, the replacement area is allocated to the 
defective area and the defective area is replaced by the 
replacement area. The location of the replacement area is 
written in the defect management information area 4b of the 
disk 1. 

25 

In the above -described information recording me- 
dium, a replacement area is not allocated to a defective 
area upon detection of the defective area, but it is 
allocated thereto only when effective data is recorded in 
30 a logical volume space which corresponds to the defective 
area. Such an information recording medium has an advantage 
in that the spare area can be efficiently used. 



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Moreover, the advantage of efficiently using the 
spare area is not dependent upon the structure of the error 
correcting code which requires a read modified write 
operation. 

5 

( Embodiment 2 ) 

An embodiment of an information record- 
ing/reproducing system for recording information on, or 
reproducing recorded information from, the disk 1 as de- 
10 scribed in Embodiment 1 above will now be described with 
reference to the figures. 

Figure 6 is a conceptual diagram illustrating a 
principle of recording AV data on, or reproducing recorded 
15 AV data from, the disk 1. 

AV data is recorded on the disk 1 with reference to 
the free space management information in the logical volume 
space. The system searches for a free area in the logical 

20 volume space based on the free space management information. 

The number of blocks of the continuously free area needs 
to be greater than the number of blocks required for the 
AV data to be recorded by at least a predetermined number. 
The predetermined number corresponds to the number of blocks 

25 for which a skip operation is to be allowed. When a free 
area satisfying such a condition is found, the free area 
is allocated to the AV data. 

In the example illustrated in Figure 6, a free 
30 area 62 included in an area 61 is allocated to AV data 63. 
The area 61 is a part of the logical volume space 6a. The 
free area 62 includes blocks B x to Bi 0 . 



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Parameters for a skip recording instruction are 
produced based on the size of the free area 62 which is 
allocated to the AV data 63 (i.e. , the size of the allocated 
area) and the size of the AV data 63 (i.e. , the AV data size) . 

5 

Reference numeral 65 denotes a recording operation 
performed when a skip recording instruction is executed. 

Defective block detection is performed while re- 
cording the AV data 63 in the free area 62. The AV data 63 
is recorded in the free area 62 while skipping each defective 
block detected* In the example illustrated in Figure 6 , the 
blocks B 4 and B 7 are defective. Therefore, a portion of the 
AV data 63 is recorded in the blocks B!-B 3 , another portion 
of the AV data 63 is recorded in the blocks B 5 -B 6 , and the 
remaining portion of the AV data 63 is recorded in the 
blocks B 8 -B 9 . Following the AV data 63, padding data 64 is 
recorded in the block B 9 . The padding data 64 is provided 
so that the end of the padding data 64 coincides with a block 
boundary. As a result of the recording operation, the 
blocks Bi-B 3 , B 5 -B 6 and B 8 -B 9 become "used", while the other 
blocks B 4 , B 7 and Bi 0 remain "free". 

The locations of the defective blocks B 4 and B 7 are 
25 stored in a defect list 66a. The contents of the defect 
list 66a are written in the SDL 13 in the defect management 
information area 4b of the disk 1 at any appropriate time, 
and are reported to the file system as a skip list 66b as 
necessary. Based on the reported skip list 66b, the file 
30 system determines the location of an AV data extent 660 which 
indicates the area where the AV data 63 is recorded, and 
the location of a padding extent 66d which indicates the 
ECC block fraction (i.e., sectors having no AV data in an 



10 



15 



20 



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ECC block partially including AV data) , so as to update the 
file management information. 

Parameters for a skip reproducing instruction 
5 include the size of the allocated area and the AV data size. 

Reference numeral 67 denotes a reproducing opera- 
tion performed when a skip reproducing instruction is 
executed . 

10 

The AV data 63 recorded on the disk 1 is reproduced 
with reference to the SDL 13 . The AV data 63 is reproduced 
while skipping the defective blocks registered in the 
SDL 13. 

15 

Figure 7 is a block diagram illustrating a structure 
of an information recording/reproducing system 700 
according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention. 

20 As illustrated in Figure 7, the information 

recording/reproducing system 700 includes: an upper level 
control unit 710 for controlling the overall system; a disk 
recording/reproducing drive 720 for controlling the re- 
cording/reproduction of the rewritable disk 1 (not shown 

25 in Figure 7) according to the instruction from the upper 
level control unit 710; a magnetic disk apparatus 750; an 
AV data output section 760 for converting digital AV data 
to an analog AV signal and outputting the analog AV signal; 
an AV data input section 770 for converting the input analog 

30 AV signal to digital AV data; and an I/O bus 780 for 
receiving/ transmitting data and control information. 



The upper level control unit 710 includes a 



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microprocessor in which a control program and an arithmetic 
memory are provided. The upper level control unit 710 
further includes: a recording area allocation section 711 
for allocating a recording area when recording data; a file 

5 management information creation section 712 for creating 
file management information for each recorded file; a file 
management information interpretation section 713 for 
calculating the location where the file is recorded and 
determining the attribute information of the file based on 

0 the file management information; a data buffer memory 714 
for temporarily storing data; and an instruction issuing 
section 715 for issuing an instruction to the disk 
recording /reproducing drive 720. 



15 The instruction issuing section 715 includes: a 

skip recording instruction issuing section 716 for issuing 
a skip recording instruction which requests data to be 
recorded while skipping defective areas; a recording 
location request instruction issuing section 717 for 

20 issuing a recording location request instruction which 
requests recording location information to be returned (the 
information is used after data is recorded to determine the 
area where the data has been recorded) ; and a skip 
reproducing instruction issuing section 718 for issuing a 

25 skip reproducing instruction which requests data to be 
reproduced while skipping defective areas. 



The disk recording/reproducing drive 720 includes 
a microprocessor in which a control program and an arithmetic 
30 memory are provided. The disk recording/reproducing 
drive 720 is made of a mechanical section, a signal 
processing circuit, etc., which are controlled by the 
microprocessor. The disk recording/ reproducing drive 720 



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operatively includes: an instruction processing sec- 
tion 721 for processing an instruction from the upper level 
control unit 710; a recording control section 730 for 
controlling the recording operation on the rewritable 
5 disk 1; and a reproduction controlling section 740 for 
controlling the reproducing operation from the rewritable 
disk 1. 

The instruction processing section 721 includes: a 
10 skip recording instruction processing section 722 for 
processing a skip recording instruction; a recording 
location request instruction processing section 723 for 
processing a recording location request instruction; and 
a skip reproducing instruction processing section 724 for 
15 processing a skip reproducing instruction. 

The recording control section 730 includes: a 
defective area detection section 731 for detecting a 
defective area during a recording operation; a skip 

20 recording controlling section 732 for recording data while 
skipping defective areas which are detected during the 
recording operation; a recording location storing mem- 
ory 733 for storing information relating to the location 
where data is recorded; a data verifying section 734 for 

25 reading out recorded data so as to determine whether the 
data has been normally recorded; a recording control 
information memory 735 for storing control information 
(e.g., the recording start location, and the recording 
length) which is required when recording data; a recording 

30 data storing memory 736 for temporarily storing recording 
data received from the upper level control unit 710; and 
a skip location recording section 737 for recording a 
defective area, which has been detected and skipped during 



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a recording operation, in the defect management informa- 
tion. 

The reproduction controlling section 740 includes: 
5 a reproduction location storing memory 743 for storing 
information relating to the location from which data is 
reproduced; a skip reproduction controlling section 742 for 
reproducing data while skipping defective areas with 
reference to the reproduction location storing memory 743; 

10 a reproduction control information memory 745 for storing 
control information (e.g. , the reproduction start location, 
and the reproduction length) which is required when 
reproducing data; a read- out data storing memory 746 for 
temporarily storing data which has been read out from the 

15 rewritable disk 1; and a skip location reading section 747 
for reading out the location of a defective area to be skipped 
from the defect management information and storing it in 
the reproduction location storing memory 743. 

20 Next, a method for recording a file containing AV 

data on the disk 1 using the information record- 
ing/reproducing system 700 illustrated in Figure 7 will be 
described below. 

25 Figure 8 illustrates the steps of the recording 

method. 

In Figure 8, it is assumed that the file management 
information for a file ( "AV^FILE" ) recorded on the 
30 rewritable disk 1 is read out when the disk 1 is inserted 
into the disk recording/reproducing drive 720, then 
interpreted by the file management information 
interpretation section 713, and stored in the upper level 



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control unit 710. 

Moreover, in Figure 8, reference numeral 81 de- 
notes operations performed by the upper level control 
5 unit 710, reference numeral 82 denotes those performed by 
the disk recording/reproducing drive 720, and reference 
numeral 83 denotes instructions, data and operation results 
flowing through the I/F protocol between the upper level 
control unit 710 and the disk recording/reproducing 
10 drive 720. 

(Step 801) The upper level control unit 710 con- 
trols the AV data input section 770 to start an AV data 
receiving operation. The AV data received by the AV data 
15 input section 770 is converted into digital data at the AV 
data input section 770, and then transmitted through the 
I/O bus 780 to be stored in the data buffer memory 714. 

( Step 802 ) Prior to an AV data recording operation , 
20 the recording area allocation section 711 of the upper level 
control unit 710 obtains information indicating a free area 
of the rewritable disk 1 from the file management 
information interpretation section 713, and allocates the 
free area as a recording area. The recording area 
25 allocation section 711 performs the area allocation 
operation in view of the size of the area to be allocated 
and the physical distance from one area to another so that 
the AV data can be smoothly reproduced. 

30 (Step 803) The skip recording instruction issuing 

section 716 of the upper level control unit 710 obtains 
location information of the area allocated by the recording 
area allocation section 711 , and issues a "SKIP WRITE" 



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command (a skip recording instruction) to the disk 
recording /reproducing drive 720. The skip recording in- 
struction issuing section 716 specifies the location 
information of the area allocated by the recording area 
5 allocation section 711 and the recording size information, 
as parameters for the "SKIP WRITE" command. Following the 
"SKIP WRITE" command , data having a size as specified by 
this command is transferred from the data buffer memory 714 
to the disk recording/reproducing drive 720. 

10 

Each of Figures 23A and 23B illustrates an exemplary 
format for the "SKIP WRITE" command. 



Figure 23A illustrates an exemplary format for the 
15 "SKIP WRITE" command such that it is possible to specify 
both the allocated area and the size of the data to be 
recorded through a single issuance of the command. Byte 0 
stores a unique instruction code indicating that it is a 
"SKIP WRITE" command. Bytes 2-5 store an LSN indicating the 
20 leading sector of the allocated area. Bytes 6-7 store the 
number of sectors corresponding to the size of the data to 
be recorded (data length). Bytes 8-9 store the number of 
sectors corresponding to the size of the allocated area (area 
length) . 

25 

Figure 23B illustrates an exemplary format for the 
"SKIP WRITE" command such that the allocated area and the 
size of the data to be recorded can be specified through 
a number of issuances of the command. Byte 0 stores a unique 
30 instruction code indicating that it is a "SKIP WRITE" command. 
An operation option is provided at bit 0 of byte 1. The 
operation option being "1" indicates that the command 
specifies the allocated area. The operation option being 



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"0" indicates that the command specifies the size of the 
data to be recorded. When the operation option is "l w , 
bytes 2-5 store an LSN indicating the leading sector of the 
allocated area, while bytes 7-8 store the number of sectors 
5 corresponding to the size of the allocated area (area length) . 
When the operation option is "0", bytes 7-8 store the number 
of sectors corresponding to the size of the data to be 
recorded (data length). 

10 The command formats illustrated in Figures 23A and 

23B are merely examples of the format for the " SKIP WRITE" 
command. The "SKIP WRITE" command may employ any other 
format as long as the location information of the allocated 
area and the size information of the data to be recorded 

15 can be specified. 



(Step 804) Upon receipt of the "SKIP WRITE" command 
issued from the upper level control unit 710 , the skip 
recording instruction processing section 722 of the disk 

20 recording/reproducing drive 720 initializes the recording 
control information memory 735 and the recording location 
storing memory 733 according to the "SKIP WRITE" command, 
and activates the skip recording controlling section 732. 
The skip recording controlling section 732 records data from 

25 the recording data storing memory 736 into non-defective 
blocks of the disk 1 while detecting any defective block 
(including newly-found defective blocks and those which 
have already been registered in the SDL) using the defective 
area detection section 731. Each time a defective block is 

30 detected, the number of blocks which can be skipped (stored 
in the recording control information memory 735) is 
decremented by one, and the location of the defective block 
is stored in the recording location storing memory 733. 



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Each time a block is successfully recorded, the number of 
blocks which have been recorded (stored in the recording 
control information memory 735) is incremented by one. 
When the recording operation for the number of blocks 
5 requested is completed before the number of blocks which 
can be skipped becomes 0 or less, the process is normally 
terminated. When it is instructed to verify reproduced data 
after the recording operation, the defective blocks de- 
tected by the defective area detection section 731, as well 
10 as those detected by the data verifying section 734, are 
skipped. 

As described above, the skip recording controlling 
section 732 continues the recording operation until all 
15 data is normally recorded while skipping the defective areas 
detected during the recording operation and storing the 
skipped location information. 

(Step 805) The disk recording/reproducing 
20 drive 720, having performed the skip recording operation, 
returns a "complete" status to the upper level control 
unit 710. 

(Step 806) The recording location request 
25 instruction issuing section 717 of the upper level control 
unit 710 issues to the disk recording/reproducing drive 720 
a " REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS" command for inquiring location 
information of the defective areas skipped in the skip 
recording operation in step 804. 

30 

Figure 24A illustrates an exemplary format for the 
"REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS" command. Byte 0 stores a unique 
instruction code indicating that it is a "REPORT SKIPPED 



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ADDRESS" command. Bytes 7-8 store an upper limit value for 
the size of data to be reported. 

Figure 24B illustrates an exemplary format for data 
5 which is reported in response to the "REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS" 
command. Bytes 0-1 store the number of location informa- 
tion points to be reported. For byte 4 and thereafter, each 
set of four bytes stores location information of a skipped 
defective area. 

10 

The command and data formats illustrated in Fig- 
ures 24A and 24B are merely exemplary. The command and the 
data may employ any other format as long as it is possible 
to inquire the location information of the skipped defective 
15 areas. 

(Step 812) The skip location recording section 737 
registers, as an SDL entry, the location information of the 
defective area which was stored in the recording location 
20 storing memory 733 during the skip recording operation in 
step 804. Thus, the defect management information is 
updated. 

(Step 807) Upon receipt of the "REPORT SKIPPED 
25 ADDRESS" command, the recording location request 
instruction processing section 723 of the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 720 returns, as skipped address data, 
the location information of the defective area which was 
stored in the recording location storing memory 733 during 
30 the skip recording operation in step 804. 

(Step 808) Upon receipt of the skipped address data, 
the file management information creation section 712 of the 



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upper level control unit 710 creates file management 
information. The file management information creation 
section 712 creates the file entry of the AV file while 
determining that data has been recorded in areas other than 
5 the skipped areas as indicated by the skipped address data, 
and sets the bit of the free space management information 
corresponding to each area in which data is determined to 
be recorded to "1" ("used"). The file management 
information creation section 712 further specifies the 

10 skipped areas from the skipped address data returned in 
step 807 , and sets the bit of the free space management 
information corresponding to each of the skipped areas to 
"0" ("free"). When the end of the file extent lies in the 
middle of (but not at the end of) an ECC block, the file 

15 management information creation section 712 registers the 
remaining area of the ECC block as a padding extent . At this 
time, the extent type of the padding extent is set to "1", 
indicating that it is a padding extent, and sets the bit 
of the free space management Information corresponding to 

20 the padding extent areas to "1" ("used"). Then, the file 
management information creation section 712 stores the 
created file management information in the data buffer 
memory 714 for recording the file management information 
on the rewritable disk 1. 

25 

(Step 809) The upper level control unit 710 issues 
a "WRITE" command requesting the disk recording/reproducing 
drive 720 to record, by a conventional recording method, 
the file management information which is stored in the data 
30 buffer memory 714. As parameters for the "WRITE" command, 
the LSN at which the recording operation is started and the 
number of sectors to be recorded are specified. 



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(Step 810) The disk recording/reproducing 
drive 720 receives the "WRITE" command and records the file 
management information on the disk 1 according to a 
conventional recording method. Any defective area which is 
5 detected during the recording operation in response to the 
"WRITE" command is replaced by a conventional replacement 
method. 

(Step 811) The disk recording/reproducing 
10 drive 720 having recorded all of the data specified by the 
"WRITE" command returns a "complete" status to the upper 
level control unit 710. 

Step 812 may be performed immediately after 
15 step 804, or when a predetermined period of time has passed 
after performing step 811 while no request has been issued 
from the upper level control unit 710. 

As described above, the disk recording/reproducing 
20 drive 720 detects and skips defective areas while recording 
AV data which requires real time processing on the disk 1. 
No replacement area is allocated to the skipped defective 
areas, but the location of the skipped defective areas is 
recorded in the defect management information area 4b of 
25 the rewritable disk 1. 

Next, a method for reproducing a file containing AV 
data which is recorded on the disk 1 by using the information 
recording/reproducing system 700 illustrated in Figure 7 
30 will be described below. 

Figure 9 illustrates the steps of the reproducing 

method. 



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In Figure 9, reference numeral 91 denotes opera- 
tions performed by the upper level control unit 710, 
reference numeral 92 denotes those performed by the disk 
5 recording/reproducing drive 720, and reference numeral 93 
denotes instructions, data and operation results flowing 
through the I/F protocol between the upper level control 
unit 710 and the disk recording/reproducing drive 720. 

10 (Step 901) Upon loading of the rewritable disk 1 

and when updating the defect management information, the 
disk recording/reproducing drive 720 reads out the defect 
management information on the rewritable disk 1 using the 
skip location reading section 747, and stores it in the 

15 reproduction location storing memory 743. 

(Step 902) The recording area allocation sec- 
tion 711 of the upper level control unit 710 allocates the 
AV data recording area (which has previously been allocated 
20 in step 802) as a reproducing area. 

(Step 903) The skip reproducing instruction issu- 
ing section 718 of the upper level control unit 710 obtains 
the location information of the area allocated in step 902, 

25 and issues a "SKIP READ" command (a skip reproducing 
instruction) to the disk recording/reproducing drive 720. 
The skip reproducing instruction issuing section 718 
specifies the location information of the area allocated 
in step 902 and the reproducing size information, as 

30 parameters for the "SKIP READ" command. Following the "SKIP 
READ" command, data having a size as specified by this 
command is transferred from the disk recording/reproducing 
drive 720 to the data buffer memory 714 (step 905). 



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The "SKIP READ" command can be defined similarly as 
the "SKIP WRITE" command. For example, a unique instruction 
code indicating that it is a "SKIP READ" command may be set 
5 in byte 0 in the format illustrated in Figure 23A or 23B. 
This is merely an example of the format for the "SKIP READ" 
command. The "SKIP READ" command may employ any other 
format as long as the location information of the allocated 
area and the size information of the data to be reproduced 
10 can be specified. 

(Step 904) Upon receipt of the "SKIP READ" command 
issued from the upper level control unit 710, the skip 
reproducing instruction processing section 724 of the disk 

15 recording/reproducing drive 720 initializes the 
reproduction control information memory 745 according to 
the "SKIP READ" command, and activates the skip reproduction 
controlling section 742. The skip reproduction control- 
ling section 742 reproduces data from non-defective blocks 

20 of the disk 1 with reference to the reproduction location 
storing memory 743, and stores the reproduced data in the 
read-out data storing memory 746. Each time a block is 
successfully reproduced, the number of blocks which have 
been reproduced (stored in the reproduction control 

25 information memory 745) is incremented by one. When the 
reproducing operation for the number of blocks requested 
is completed, the process is normally terminated. 

(Step 905) The AV data stored in the read-out data 
30 storing memory 746 in step 904 is transferred to the upper 
level control unit 710. 

(Step 906) The received AV data is transferred to 



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the AV data output section 760. The AV data output sec- 
tion 760 converts input data to an analog AV signal and 
outputs the analog AV signal. 

5 (Step 907) The disk recording/ reproducing 

drive 720 having performed the skip reproducing operation 
returns a "complete" status to the upper level control 
unit 710. 

10 As described above, the disk recording/reproducing 

drive 720 references the defect management information when 
reproducing AV data which requires real time processing, 
whereby the disk recording/reproducing drive 720 can 
reproduce the AV data while skipping defective areas on the 

15 rewritable disk 1. 

( Embodiment 3 ) 

Another embodiment of an information record- 
ing/reproducing system for recording information on, or 
20 reproducing recorded information from, the disk 1 as de- 
scribed in Embodiment 1 above will now be described with 
reference to the figures. 

Figure 10 is a block diagram illustrating a 
25 structure of a disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 ac- 
cording to Embodiment 3 of the present invention. The disk 
recording/reproducing drive 1020 is connected to the upper 
level control unit 710 illustrated in Figure 7 via the I/O 
bus 780. 

30 

The disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 includes 
a microprocessor in which a control program and an arithmetic 
memory are provided. The disk recording/reproducing 



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drive 1020 is made of a mechanical section, a signal 
processing circuit, etc., which are controlled by the 
microprocessor. The disk recording/reproducing 

drive 1020 operatively includes: an instruction processing 
5 section 1021 for processing an instruction from the upper 
level control unit 710; a recording control section 1030 
for controlling the recording operation on the rewritable 
disk 1; a reproduction controlling section 1040 for con- 
trolling the reproducing operation from the rewritable 
10 disk 1; a replacement Information storing memory 1050 for 
storing information of defective blocks and information of 
replacement blocks allocated thereto; and a data 
buffer 1060 for temporarily storing recording data and 
reproduced data. 

15 

The instruction processing section 1021 includes: 
a recording instruction processing section 1022 for 
processing a normal recording instruction which does not 
involve a skip recording operation; and a reproducing 
20 instruction processing section 1024 for processing a normal 
reproducing instruction which does not involve a skip 
reproducing operation. 

The recording control section 1030 includes: a data 
25 synthesis section 1031 for converting sector-wise 
recording data (recording data which is arranged in the unit 
of sectors) into ECC block-wise recording data (recording 
data which is arranged in the unit of ECC blocks); a block 
recording section 1032 for recording the ECC block-wise 
30 data on the rewritable disk 1; a replacement allocation 
section 1033 for allocating a spare block for replacing a 
defective block; an SDL update section 1034 for recording 
the contents of the replacement information storing mem- 



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ory 1050 in the SDL on the rewritable disk 1; and an ECC 
fraction checking section 1035. 



The reproduction controlling section 1040 in- 
5 eludes: a "0" data filling section 1041 for rewriting a 
portion of the data buffer 1060 with n 0"s, a block 
reproducing section 1042 for reproducing ECC block-wise 
data from the rewritable disk 1; an SDL reading section 1043 
for storing the contents reproduced from the SDL on the 
10 rewritable disk 1 in the replacement information storing 
memory 1050; and an ECC fraction adjustment section 1044. 

Next, a method for reproducing normal computer data 
(not real time data) recorded on the disk 1 by using the 
15 disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 illustrated in 
Figure 10 will be described below. 



Figure 11 illustrates the steps of the reproducing 

method. 

20 

In Figure 11, reference numeral 111 denotes 
operations performed by the upper level control unit 710, 
reference numeral 112 denotes those performed by the disk 
recording/reproducing drive 1020, and reference nu- 

25 meral 113 denotes instructions, data and operation results 
flowing through the I/F protocol between the upper level 
control unit 710 and the disk recording/reproducing 
drive 720 . The reproducing operation performed by the disk 
recording/reproducing drive 1020 will be described only 

30 briefly below, and detailed description thereof will be 
provided later. 



(Step 1101) Upon loading of the rewritable disk 1 



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and when updating the defect management information, the 
disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 reads out the defect 
management information on the rewritable disk 1 using the 
SDL reading section 1043, and stores it in the replacement 
5 information storing memory 1050. 

(Step 1102) The upper level control unit 710 ana- 
lyzes the file structure so as to determine the location 
of an area where computer data is stored. 

10 

(Step 1103) The upper level control unit 710 ob- 
tains information indicating the location of the area which 
has been determined in step 1102, and issues a "READ" command 
(a normal reproducing instruction) to the disk record - 
15 ing/reproducing drive 1020. 

(Step 1104) Upon receipt of the "READ" command, the 
reproducing instruction processing section 1024 of the disk 
recording/reproducing drive 1020 reads out the specified 
20 data from the rewritable disk 1, and transfers the data to 
the upper level control unit 710 (step 1105). The disk 
recording/reproducing drive 1020 having transferred all of 
the data requested returns a "complete" status (step 1107) . 

25 (Step 1106) The reproduced data is transferred via 

the I/F protocol and stored in the data buffer memory 714 
of the upper level control unit 710. 

As the upper level control unit 710 receives the 
30 "complete" status via the I/F protocol, the data stored in 
the data buffer memory 714 is used as computer data. 

Figure 12 is a flow chart illustrating a procedure 



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of the reproducing operation (step 1104 in Figure 11) 
performed by the disk recording/ reproducing drive 1020. 



The area requested to be reproduced is specified by 
5 sectors. The ECC fraction adjustment section 1044 deter- 
mines the ECC blocks that include the area requested to be 
reproduced (step 1201) . Assuming that S is the LSN of the 
leading sector of the area requested to be reproduced, N 
is the number of sectors of the area requested to be 
10 reproduced, and E is the number of sectors of one ECC block, 
then, the LSN (S_ECC) of the leading sector of the area which 
needs to be reproduced and the number of sectors (N_ECC) 
of the area which needs to be reproduced in view of the ECC 
block can be determined by the following expressions. 

15 

S_ECC = [S/E]xE 

N_ECC = [ (S+N+E-l)/E]xE - S_ECC 

where [a] denotes the largest integer not exceeding 

a. 

20 

If all of the blocks which need to be reproduced have 
not completely been stored in the data buffer 1060 
(step 1202), the SLD is referenced (step 1203). If the 
block to be reproduced is not registered in the SDL as a 

25 defective block, the process proceeds to step 1204. If the 
block to be reproduced is registered in the SDL as a defective 
block to which a replacement spare block has been allocated, 
the process proceeds to step 1205. If the block to be 
reproduced is registered in the SDL as a defective block 

30 to which a replacement spare block has not been allocated, 
the process proceeds to step 1206 . 



In step 1204, the block to be reproduced is 



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reproduced. In step 1205, the replacement spare block Is 
reproduced instead of the block to be reproduced. In 
step 1206 , "0" data filling section 1041 create the ECC block 
filled with "0" instead of reproducing the data from disk 1. 
5 The ECC block filled with "O^ is created by, for example, 
filling a predetermined area of the data buffer 1060 with 
"0"s. 

If all of the blocks which need to be reproduced have 
10 completely been stored in the data buffer 1060 (step 1202) # 
the data stored in the data buffer 1060 is transferred to 
the upper level control unit 710 (step 1207), and the 
process is terminated. 

Where the block to be reproduced is registered in 
the SDL as a defective block to which a replacement spare 
block has not been allocated, it is alternatively possible 
to immediately determine a reproduction error while 
reporting the error to the upper level control unit 710, 
rather than creating an ECC block filled with "0"s as the 
reproduced data for the defective block. When a 
reproduction error is reported to the upper level control 
unit 710, the upper level control unit 710 instructs a data 
recording operation for the block, thus performing a re- 
placement operation which will be described later. As a 
result, the defective block is replaced by a reproducible 
spare block in the logical volume space. 

As described above, when it is requested to 
30 reproduce data from a defective block to which a replacement 
spare block has not been allocated, the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 1020 returns data filled with "O"^ 
as reproduced data, without reporting a reproduction error. 



15 



20 



25 



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Alternatively, when it is requested to reproduce data from 
a defective block to which a replacement spare block has 
not been allocated, the disk recording/reproducing 
drive 1020 may report a reproduction error without wasting 
5 time for a reproducing operation which is likely to fail. 

The steps of the method for recording normal com- 
puter data (not real time data) on the disk 1 are 
substantially the same as those of the reproducing method 
as illustrated in Figure 11, except that a "WRITE" command 
is issued instead of a "READ" command, and recording data 
is transmitted in the reverse direction instead of 
reproduced data. 

Figure 13 is a flow chart illustrating a procedure 
of the recording operation performed by the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 1020. 

The disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 receives 
data to be recorded from the upper level control unit 710, 
and stores it in the data buffer 1060 (step 1301). 

The area requested to be recorded is specified by 
sectors. ECC fraction checking section 1035 determines the 
ECC blocks that include the area requested to be reproduced. 

Furthermore, the ECC fraction checking section 1035 
determines to perform a buffering operation for the fraction 
according to existence of the fraction. Such a buffering 
operation is accomplished by steps 1202-1206 which are 
surrounded by a broken line in Figure 12. 

If the leading sector of the area requested to be 



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recorded is not the leading sector of an ECC block (i.e., 
if S*S_ECC) (step 1303) , a buffering operation is performed 
for the ECC block including the leading sector (step 1304) . 

5 If the last sector of the area requested to be 

recorded is not the last sector of an ECC block (i.e., if 
S+N*S_ECC+N_ECC) (step 1305), a buffering operation is 
performed for the ECC block including the last sector 
(step 1306) . 

10 

The data synthesis section 1031 synthesizes the data 
obtained in step 1301 with the data obtained in 
steps 1303-1306. As a result , recording data corresponding 
to all of the ECC blocks to be recorded is provided in the 
15 data buffer 1060 (step 1307). 

If all of the blocks which need to be recorded have 
not completely been recorded on the rewritable disk 1 
(step 1308) , the SDL is referenced (step 1309). As a result , 

20 if the block to be recorded is not registered in the SDL 
as a defective block, the process proceeds to step 1310. 
If the block to be recorded is registered in the SDL as a 
defective block to which a replacement spare block has been 
allocated, the process proceeds to step 1312. If the block 

25 to be recorded is registered in the SDL as a defective block 
to which a replacement spare block has not been allocated, 
the process proceeds to step 1311. 

In step 1310, data is recorded in a block to be 
30 recorded. In step 1312, data is recorded in a replacement 
spare block instead of the block to be recorded. In 
step 1311, the replacement allocation section 1022 allo- 
cates a replacement spare block to the defective block, then 



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the data is recorded in the replacement spare block 
(step 1312) . 

There are two methods for allocating a replacement 
5 spare block for a defective block in step 1311. As de- 
scribed above with reference to Figures 1C to 1E # it is 
possible to determine whether a replacement block was 
previously allocated to a defective block based on the value 
of the field 22o storing the location of the replacement 

10 block. If no replacement block was previously allocated to 
the defective block (e.g., if the value of the field 22o 
is w 0 tt ), a free spare block is newly allocated to the 
defective block. If a replacement block was previously 
allocated to the defective block (e.g., if an address of 

15 a previously allocated replacement block is described in 
the field 22c) , the same replacement block as that which 
was previously allocated to the defective block is allocated 
again to the defective block. 

20 If all of the blocks which need to be recorded have 

not completely been recorded on the rewritable disk 1 
(step 1308), it is determined whether the SDL needs to be 
updated (step 1313). For example, where a replacement 
spare block has been newly allocated to the defective block 

25 in step 1311, the SDL needs to be updated. If the SDL needs 
to be updated, the SDL is updated (step 1314), and the 
process is terminated. 

As described above, when the disk record- 
30 ing/ reproducing drive 1020 is requested to record data in 
a defective block to which a replacement spare block has 
not been allocated, a replacement spare block is first 
allocated to the defective block, after which the data is 



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recorded in the replacement spare block • In this way, the 
recording data is recorded on the disk 1 by ECC blocks . Any 
ECC block fraction is adjusted by, for example, filling the 
fraction with n 0 n s. 

5 

(Embodiment 4) 

Still another embodiment of an information 
recording /reproducing system for recording information on, 
or reproducing recorded information from, the disk 1 as 
described in Embodiment 1 above will now be described with 
reference to the figures. 

Figure 14 is a block diagram illustrating a 
structure of a disk recording/reproducing drive 1420 ac- 
cording to Embodiment 4 of the present invention. The disk 
recording/reproducing drive 1420 is connected to the upper 
level control unit 710 illustrated in Figure 7 via the I/O 
bus 780. Elements in Figure 14 having like reference 
numerals to those shown in Figure 10 will not further be 
described. 

The disk recording/reproducing drive 1420 opera- 
tively includes: an instruction processing section 1021 for 
processing an instruction from the upper level control 
unit 710; a recording control section 1430 for controlling 
the recording operation on the rewritable disk 1; a 
reproduction controlling section 1440 for controlling the 
reproducing operation from the rewritable disk 1; a re- 
placement information storing memory 1050 for storing 
30 information of defective blocks and information of 
replacement blocks allocated thereto; and a data 
buffer 1060 for temporarily storing recording data and 
reproduced data. 



15 



20 



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As compared to the recording control section 1030 
described in Embodiment 3 above, the recording control 
section 1430 additionally includes a remaining spare block 
5 detection section 1437 for determining the number of spare 
blocks remaining available. 

As compared to the reproduction controlling sec- 
tion 1040 described in Embodiment 3 above, the reproduction 
10 controlling section 1440 does not include the M 0 H data 
filling section 1041, but rather includes a sector 
reproducing section 1441 for reproducing data recorded on 
the rewritable disk 1 by sectors. 

15 The steps of the method for reproducing normal 

computer data (not real time data) are the same as those 
described in Embodiment 3 above (Figure 11), and therefore 
will not further be described below. 

20 Figure 15 is a flow chart illustrating a procedure 

of the reproducing operation performed by the disk 
recording/reproducing drive 1420. The procedure illus- 
trated in Figure 15 is different from that illustrated in 
Figure 12 for the following reason. If an ECC block to be 

25 reproduced is registered in the SDL as a defective block 
to which a replacement spare block has not been allocated 
(step 1503), the sector reproducing section 1441 performs 
a sector-wise reproducing operation for each of sectors 
included in the ECC block to be reproduced (step 1507). 

30 

Referring to Figure 22C, the sector-wise 
reproducing operation will be described below. Since the 
inner code parity PI is obtained by calculating error 



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correcting codes for each row (in the lateral direction), 
the inner code parities PI correctly correspond to the main 
data for each sector (i.e., in Figure 22c, the hatching 
direction for the main data area matches that for the inner 
5 code parities PI) . Therefore, errors can be corrected with 
the inner code parities PI, though the error correction 
capability is reduced. For example, when a data recording 
operation stops at a boundary between sectors due to a 
defective ID, the error may be corrected with a high 
10 probability even with the inner code parities PI alone. 

As described above, the disk recording/reproducing 
drive 1420 can reproduce a defective block to which a 
replacement spare block has not been allocated by recovering 
15 correct data from the overwritten sectors in the defective 
block while recovering data previously recorded in the other 
sectors in the defective block which have not been 
overwritten . 

20 Figure 16 is a flow chart illustrating a procedure 

of the recording operation performed by the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 1420. The procedure illustrated in 
Figure 16 is different from that illustrated in Figure 13 
for the following reason. If a block-wise data recording 

25 operation on the rewritable disk 1 fails , the block for which 
the recording operation failed is registered in the SDL as 
a defective block. Moreover, before allocating a 
replacement spare block to a defective block, the process 
is terminated with an error if there is no spare block 

30 available. 

The disk recording/reproducing drive 1420 receives 
data to be recorded from the upper level control unit 710, 



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and stores it in the data buffer 1060 (step 1601). 

The area requested to be recorded is specified by 
sectors. An area including the area requested to be re- 
5 corded is determined by ECC blocks (step 1602). 

If there is any ECC block fraction, a buffering 
operation for the fraction is performed. Such a buffering 
operation is accomplished by steps 1502-1506 which are 
10 surrounded by a broken line in Figure 15. 

By synthesizing the data obtained in step 1601 with 
the data obtained in steps 1603-1606, recording data 
corresponding to all of the ECC blocks required for the 
15 recording operation is provided in the data buffer 1060 
(step 1607) . 

If all of the blocks which need to be recorded have 
not completely been recorded on the rewritable disk 1 

20 (step 1608 ) , the SDL is referenced ( step 1609). As a result, 
if the block to be recorded is not registered in the SDL 
as a defective block, the process proceeds to step 1610. 
If the block to be recorded is registered in the SDL as a 
defective block to which a replacement spare block has been 

25 allocated, the process proceeds to step 1612. If the block 
to be recorded is registered in the SDL as a defective block 
to which a replacement spare block has not been allocated, 
the process proceeds to step 1615. 

30 In step 1610, data is recorded in a block to be 

recorded. In step 1612, data is recorded in a replacement 
spare block instead of the block to be recorded. In 
step 1615, the remaining spare block detection section 1437 



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determines whether there are any available spare blocks in 
the spare area. If there is an available spare block in the 
spare area, the replacement spare block is allocated to the 
block to be recorded (step 1611), and data is recorded in 
5 the replacement spare block (step 1612). 

In step 1610 or step 1612, if block-wise data 
recording operation on the rewritable disk 1 fails 
(step 1616), the block for which the recording operation 
10 failed is registered in the SDL as a defective block 
(step 1617), and the process returns to step 1609 to retry 
the recording operation. 

If all of the blocks which need to be recorded have 
15 completely been stored on the rewritable disk 1 ( step 1608 ) , 
or if there is no available spare block in the spare area 
(step 1615), it is determined whether the SDL needs to be 
updated (step 1613). For example, where a replacement 
spare block has been newly allocated to the defective block 
20 in step 1611, the SDL needs to be updated. Also where a 
defective block which has been detected in step 1617 is newly 
registered in the SDL, the SDL needs to be updated. If the 
SDL needs to be updated, the SDL is updated (step 1614), 
and the process is terminated. 

25 

Where the process is terminated after all of the 
blocks have completely been recorded (step 1608), the 
termination is determined to be normal. Where the process 
is terminated after spare area exhaustion (step 1615), the 
30 termination is determined to be a termination with an error. 

As described above, the disk recording/reproducing 
drive 1420 always registers a detected defective block in 



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the defect management Information area even if no spare block 
is available for replacement. Moreover, when the disk 
recording/ reproducing drive 1420 is requested to record 
data in a defective block to which a replacement spare block 
5 has not been allocated, the drive can synthesize the record 
data received from the upper level control unit with the 
correct data from the overwritten sector and the previous 
data from the other sectors in the defective block in which 
the terminating occurred during recording. Such synthe- 
10 sized recording data is recorded on the disk 1 by ECC blocks . 

While the parameters transferred by the I/F protocol 
include the area start location, the size, etc., in 
Embodiments 2, 3 and 4, it is apparent to those skilled in 

15 the art that the parameters may be any other parameters as 
long as they can be subjected to an arithmetic operation 
to obtain the same information. Moreover, the data 
transmission between the upper level control unit and the 
disk recording/reproducing drive , and that between the disk 

20 recording/reproducing drive and the rewritable disk, may 
be sequential or parallel. Furthermore, it is also apparent 
to those skilled in the art that when the upper level control 
unit and the disk recording/reproducing drive are inte- 
grated together, the parameters may be transferred by using 

25 a shared memory, or the like. 

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY 

According to the Information recording medium of the 
30 present invention, defect management information including 
status information which indicates whether a defective area 
is replaced by a replacement area is recorded in the defect 
management information area. With this status information. 



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it is possible to manage the status where a defective area 
has been detected but is not replaced by a replacement area. 

When a defective area is detected while recording 
5 data which requires real time processing (e.g., AV data) 
on the information recording medium, the defective area is 
skipped. The location of the defective area and status 
information indicating that the defective area is not 
replaced by a replacement area are written in the defect 

10 management information area. When it is requested to record 
data which does not require real time processing (e.g., 
non-AV data) in the defective area, a replacement area is 
allocated to the defective area without performing a read 
modified write operation, thereby successfully performing 

15 the requested recording operation . Moreover , a replacement 
area is not allocated to the defective area until it is 
actually requested to record data in the defective area. 
This provides an advantage in that no replacement area is 
wasted. 

20 

Where a spare area is expandable, the spare area may 
temporarily run out of available replacement areas. When 
no replacement area can be allocated to a detected defective 
area because the spare area is temporarily out of available 

25 replacement areas, the location of the defective area and 
status information indicating that the defective area is 
not replaced by a replacement area are written in the defect 
management information area. After the spare area is 
expanded and a replacement area is made available, the 

30 replacement area is allocated to the defective area. The 
location of the replacement area is written in the defect 
management information area. 



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According to the information recording method and 
the information recording apparatus of the present 
invention, defect management information, including status 
information which indicates whether a defective area is 
5 replaced by a replacement area, is recorded in the defect 
management information area. Thus, effects similar to 
those described above are obtained. 

According to the information reproducing apparatus 
10 of the present invention, it is determined whether a 
defective area is replaced by a replacement area with 
reference to the status information, so as to control the 
reproducing operation of user data according to the 
determination. Thus, user data can be reproduced even if 
15 a defective area is not replaced by a replacement area. 

When it is requested to reproduce data from a 
defective area to which a replacement area has not been 
allocated, user data may be reproduced while skipping the 

20 defective area. Alternatively, data having a fixed value 
(e.g., data filled with "0"s) may be output as reproduced 
data obtained by reproducing the defective area. 
Alternatively, corrected data may be reproduced by not 
performing error correction with error correcting codes 

25 which expand over a plurality of sectors, while only 
performing error correction with error correcting codes 
which do not expand over a plurality of sectors (e.g. , error 
correcting codes within each sector) . 

30 Various other modifications will be apparent to and 

can be readily made by those skilled in the art without 
departing from the scope and spirit of this invention. 
Accordingly, it is not intended that the scope of the claims 



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appended hereto be limited to the description as set forth 
herein, but rather that the claims be broadly construed. 



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CLAIMS 

1. An Information recording medium, comprising: 

a volume space in which user data is recorded; 
5 a spare area including a replacement area which may 

be used in place of a defective area included in the volume 
space ; and 

a defect management information area in which defect 
management information for managing the defective area is 
10 recorded, wherein 

the defect management information includes status 
information indicating whether the defective area is re- 
placed by the replacement area. 

15 2. An information recording medium according to claim 1, 
wherein when a recording operation of the user data for the 
defective area is skipped, the status information 
indicating that the defective area is not replaced by the 
replacement area is written in the defect management 

20 information area. 

3. An information recording medium according to claim 1, 
wherein: 

the spare area is an expandable area; and 
25 when there are no available spare area in the 

replacement area temporarily, the status information 
indicating that the defective area is not replaced by the 
replacement area is written in the defect management 
information area. 

30 

4. An information recording medium according to claim 1 # 
wherein : 

the defect management information includes first 



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location information indicating a location of the defective 
area and second location information indicating a location 
of the replacement area; and 

the status information indicates whether the 
5 defective area is replaced by the replacement area based 
on whether a value of the second location information is 
equal to a predetermined value. 

5. An information recording medium according to claim 1, 
10 wherein: 

the defect management information includes first 
location information indicating a location of the defective 
area, second location information indicating a location of 
the replacement area, and a flag indicating whether the 
15 defective area is replaced by the replacement area; and 

the status information indicates whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement area based 
on a value of the flag. 

20 6. An information recording medium according to claim 1, 
wherein : 

the defective area is detected by ECC blocks each 
of which is a unit of an error correction operation; and 
the defective area is replaced by the replacement 
25 area by ECC blocks. 

7 . An information recording method for recording 
information on an information recording medium, the 
information recording medium comprising: 
30 a volume space in which user data is recorded; 

a spare area including a replacement area which may 
be used in place of a defective area included in the volume 
space ; and 



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a defect management information area in which defect 
management information for managing the defective area is 
recorded, the method comprising the steps of: 
detecting the defective area; and 
5 recording status information indicating whether 

the defective area is replaced by the replacement area in 
the defect management information area. 

8. An information recording method according to claim 7, 
the method further comprising the step of skipping a 
recording operation of the user data for the defective area, 
wherein : 

when the recording operation of the user data for 
the defective area is skipped, the status information 
indicating that the defective area is not replaced by the 
replacement area is written in the defect management 
information area. 



10 



15 



9- An information recording method according to claim 7, 
20 wherein: 

the spare area is an expandable area; 

the method further comprises the step of detecting 
that the spare area temporarily runs out of available 
replacement areas; and 
25 when there are no available spare area in the 

replacement area temporarily, the status information 
indicating that the defective area is not replaced by the 
replacement area is written in the defect management 
information area. 

30 

10. An information recording method according to claim 7, 
wherein: 

the defect management information includes first 



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location information indicating a location of the defective 
area and second location information indicating a location 
of the replacement area; and 

the status information indicates whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement area based 
on whether a value of the second location information is 
equal to a predetermined value. 

11. An information recording method according to claim 7, 
wherein : 

the defect management information includes first 
location information indicating a location of the defective 
area, second location information indicating a location of 
the replacement area, and a flag indicating whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement area; and 

the status information indicates whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement area based 
on a value of the flag. 

12. An information recording method according to claim 7, 
wherein: 

the defective area is detected by ECC blocks each 
of which is a unit of an error correction operation; and 

the defective area is replaced by the replacement 
area by ECC blocks. 

13. An information recording apparatus for recording 
information on an information recording medium, the 
information recording medium comprising: 

a volume space in which user data is recorded; 

a spare area including a replacement area which may 
be used in place of a defective area included in the volume 
space; and 



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a defect management information area in which defect 
management information for managing the defective area is 
recorded, the apparatus comprising: 

a detection section for detecting the defective 
5 area; and 

a recording section for recording status informa- 
tion indicating whether the defective area is replaced by 
the replacement area in the defect management information 
area. 

10 

14. An information recording apparatus according to 
claim 13, wherein: 

the apparatus further comprises a skip section for 
skipping a recording operation of the user data for the 
15 defective area; and 

when the recording operation of the user data for 
the defective area is skipped, the recording section writes 
in the defect management information area the status 
information indicating that the defective area is not 
20 replaced by the replacement area. 

15. An information recording apparatus according to 
claim 1 3 , wherein : 

the spare area is an expandable area; 
25 the apparatus further comprises a further detection 

section for detecting that the spare area temporarily runs 
out of available replacement areas; and 

when there are no available spare area in the 
replacement area temporarily, the recording section writes 
30 in the defect management information area the status 
information indicating that the defective area is not 
replaced by the replacement area. 



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16. An information recording apparatus according to 
claim 13, wherein: 

the defect management information includes first 
location information indicating a location of the defective 
5 area and second location information indicating a location 
of the replacement area; and 

the status information indicates whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement area based 
on whether a value of the second location information is 
10 equal to a predetermined value. 

17. An information recording apparatus according to 
claim 13, wherein: 

the defect management information includes first 
15 location information indicating a location of the defective 
area, second location information indicating a location of 
the replacement area, and a flag indicating whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement area; and 
the status information indicates whether the 
20 defective area is replaced by the replacement area based 
on a value of the flag. 

18. An information recording apparatus according to 
claim 13, wherein: 

25 the defective area is detected by ECC blocks each 

of which is a unit of an error correction operation; and 
the defective area is replaced by the replacement 
area by ECC blocks. 

30 19. An information reproducing apparatus for reproducing 
information recorded on an information recording medium, 
the information recording medium comprising: 

a volume space in which user data is recorded; 



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a spare area including a replacement area which may 
be used in place of a defective area included in the volume 
space; and 

a defect management information area in which defect 
5 management information for managing the defective area is 
recorded , 

wherein the defect management information includes 
status information indicating whether the defective area 
is replaced by the replacement area, the apparatus 
1 0 comprising : 

a determination section for determining whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement area with 
reference to the status information; and 

a control section for controlling a reproducing 
15 operation of the user data according to the determination. 

20. An information reproducing apparatus according to 
claim 19 , wherein when the defective area is not replaced 
by the replacement area, the control section skips a 

20 reproducing operation for the defective area. 

21. An information reproducing apparatus according to 
claim 19, wherein when the defective area is not replaced 
by the replacement area, the control section outputs data 

25 having a fixed value as data obtained by reproducing the 
defective area, regardless of data in the defective area. 

22. An information reproducing apparatus according to 
claim 19, wherein: 

30 the defective area is detected by ECC blocks each 

of which is a unit of an error correction operation; 

the defective area is replaced by the replacement 
area by ECC blocks; 



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the error correction operation includes a first 
error correction operation for correcting errors within a 
single sector and a second error correction operation for 
correcting errors over a plurality of sectors; and 
5 when the defective area is not replaced by the 

replacement area, the control section performs the first 
error correction operation, without performing the second 
error correction operation, for data in the defective area 
so as to output data which is corrected by the first error 
10 correction operation. 



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FIG. 1A 



4 

/ 

/ 

/ 


Control data 
area 




/ 


Defect management - 
information area 


Disk information 

WIU(> llllwl II 1 vl w 1 1 

area 




/ 

/ 

/ 




Data recording 
area 


-5 


Rrst spare 
area 


Volume space - 


Disk information 
area 


-4 



4a 



Disk definition 
structure 



Primary defect 
list (PDL) 



Secondary defect 
list 



]ry defect 
(SDL) ^ 



*11 
12 

*13 



HO 



Volume structure 



Logical 
volume space 



U6b 
■6a 



Volume structure 



~6b 



FIQ. 1B 



1st entry 



entry 



13 



SDL header 



Number of SDL entries information 
SDL entry 



SDL entry 



.20 
21 

22 



22 



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FIG. 1 C 



22 



ZZQ 

\ 


A 

22b 

< 




22c 

\ 


Status 


Location of 
defective sector 


Reserved 
(=0) 


Location of 
replacement sector 


22a- 1 

\ 


22a-2^--^ 

< 






Flag 


Reserved (=0) 





FIG. 1D 

22 



22a 

\ 


22b 

< 




22c 

< 


Status 


Location of 
defective sector 


Reserved 
(=0) 


Location of 
replacement sector 


22a-3 

\ 


22a-4~ 

\. 


'^22a-5_ 

< * 






Exhaustion 
flag 


AV flag 


Reserved (=0) 





FIG. 1E 



22 



f 


22b 

( 




22c 

< 


Reserved 
(=0) 


Location of 
defective sector 


Reserved 
(=0) 


Indication of 
"no replacement" 



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PCT/JP99/04889 



i 



FIG. 2 



Disk information 
area 4 

T 7 



bile entry (nie— AT 
AV data exte,nt | Data block d 
I (nie-A) I Data block e 

'dr\ r — TJr — 1 tW/WAW/Al 



CO 



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CD O 

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o 5 > 

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Disk information 
area 4 



Control data area 



Defect management information area 
First spare T#2 spare bloci 
area If 1 spore block 



3/25 



Volume structure 
Free space 

management information 
file entry (ROOT) 



p a a . . i Data block a 
D( ?° e i& nt Uata block b 



( RQ0T ) fa Data block ?! -I 



AV data ext 
I (File 



jve 
ent 



exter 



block , 

Data b ockg 

Data block h 



Unallocated area 



Volume structure 



Jefect management information area 



Control data area 



1 



/ 



•10 



Disk definition structure 


phi 


SDI hinder 


Nun 


iber of SDL entnes information 




0 


Defective block c 


ill SDare b 


ock 


1 


Defective block f 
« — — , „ 1 


' 0 



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20 
21 



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22a 
'6b 



22b 



22c 



-6b 
-4b 
-4a 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



i 



FIG. 3 



Disk information 
area 4 



T 



O CO 



o 

CO 



- o 

.EE CO £ 

^ <D -2 

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£-2 — 

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Disk information 
area 



T 



Control data area 



Defect management information area 



iiisisr 



4/25 

Aq 
/^4b 



Rrst spare 
area . , ... 
Volume structure 



Free space ~~ ~ 

management infor mation 

File en rv fTOTT 

7~~ ' , I Data block a 
Data extent 

File en 



Data block b 
I Data block cjh 



AV data extent 
I (Rle-A) 



try 



Data bfock'V 
Data block e" 



D fcW [DefectiveWfl 

AV data extent Data block q 
I (Rle-A) "Data block h 
File entry (Rle-B)' 



Unallocated area 



Volume structure 



Defect management information area 
Control data area 



L 



•10 



lition structure 



-EQL 



11 

__12 

-- SDL hfi ^ fir -20 
Number of SDL entries informafa'Qn(=?) f-9l 

' 22 
-22) 



0 



Defective block c 



Dgfgctiye tMf 



-13 



H22a 
'6b 



22b 



22c 



-6b 
■4b 
-4a 



WO 00/54274 



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i 



FIG A 



5/25 



Disk information 
area 4 



to 

° s 

•t= CO 

Is 

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o 



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Disk information 
area 4 

T 



Control data area 



Defect management information area 
First spare f ? spare hlncl. 
area [7] spare hlnrk 



Volume structure 
Free space 

management information 



lag 



ile entry 



n . . . i Data block a 
(ROOT) Ifc Data block Hi 



Unallocated area 



Data extent 
(File— A) 



Data block e 
I Data block f|b- 



Data block g 



Unallocated area 



File enti 



Data extent 
(File-B) 



I Data block hi -t 



i^atd^foc 



Data block i 



I Data block 



Data block 1< 



Unallocated area 



Unallocated area 
(File— CJ 



Data block 



I Data blocks 



Unallocated area 



Volume 



Second spare 
area 



structure 



•4 spare block 



^ spare hlock 
)efect management information area 



Control data area 



6b 

/ 



10 



7 



Z 



W1 

__'12 

, SDL header kri 

Second spare area location infnrmntinn 
' ^' ™ *TSUl 

>22 
■22 
-22 
22 
h22J 



Number of SDL entn 



0 Defective block c 



0 Defective block f 



0 Defective block h) 



0 Defective block I 



1 [Defective hhckm 



liL'jiiiin Mil 



1 spore block 



2 spare block 



3 spare block 



4spqre block 



JQ 



M3 



22a 



22b 



v 

22c 



II 



--6b 



-4b 
-4a 



WO 00/54274 - 



PCT/JP99/04889 



i 



FIG. 5 



Disk information 
area 4 



CO 



8 

O 
CL. 

<n 



LO 

* 8 

g 1 cL £ 
£ to £ 

"2 a-2 

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Disk information 
area 4 



.Control da 



Defect inaroemCTt inforrnotion areo 



;q .qrgq, 



6/25 
AQ 



Rrst spare 
area 



Volume structure 



#1 spore block 



Free space 

management information 



entry (ROOT) 
Data block a 



D ? ta ext f nt I Data block b 
(ROOT) pgfij block 3 - 



Unallocated area 
Pile en 



Data extent 



Data^bfocl^V 
Data block e 



fcaJT k\ uaia diqck e 
^ nie - A ) I Data block fj - 



Data block q 



Unallocated area 
File entry 



Data extent 
(File-B) 



lMa n fecj?| i 
Data block i 



I 



I Data block 



Data block 



Unallocated area 

File entry (Rle-C) 
n . . . I Data Dlockl 
D ?^ a , ex ¥ I Dote bCckWflt 
(Rle-C) rpata block n 



Unallocated area 



Volume structure 



Second spare 
area 



6 spare block 



5 spare block «* 



4 spare block 



■ .. ^ spare block 
Meet management inforrnotion area 



Control data area 



6b 



40 





MiffilUEfffliiMilciulWiJIi'Jj 


i / pm 


i / SDL header 


i Second snare area location infomnnHnn 


|Nur 


nber of SOL artr 


« informatipntSl 


0 


Defective block c 


#1 spare block 


0 


Defective block f 


f 2 spare block 


0 


Defective block h 


#3 spare bock 


0 


Defective block i 


f 4 spare block 


o 


Defective block m 


ff5sihirfl .block 



A] 
M 
2tf 
23 
21 



H3 



K2J 



22a 22b 



22c 



--6b 



-4b 
-4a 



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FIG. 6 



Used area 

7 



Free area 62 



Used area 



61 



Bi B 2 B 3 B 4 B 5 BdB7 



Allocated area 



AV data size 
^AV -data" >S 




^Number of 
skips allowed" 



Padding data 64 



\ 



1 



fa y Recording— -\ 
66c 65 ^ 1 ' 



4 



BTg^HBTlBaJl 



9^ Bio 



21 



AV data 
extent 



Padding 
extent 



.66d 



Skip list 



66b 



66a 



Defect list 
1 



1 



13 



SDL 




67 > 

-Reproduction 



2M 



;B$ 

AX 



B 4 



B 7 



B 



^Bio 



Z 



61 



Allocated area — 

•AV data size ■[ 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



8/25 

FIG. 7 

Information recording/reproducing system 



700 



Recording area 
allocation section 


Hie management information 
interpretation section 


File management information 
creation section 


Data buffer memory - 


Instruction issuing sectional 2 ^715 


Skip recording instruction 
issuing section 


Skip, reproducing instruction 
issuinq section 


Recording location request 
instruction issuing section - 






\ I/O bus 



•710 
714 770 



731 
732- 

733- 
730- 

742- 

743- 
740' 



i . ■ T> 

T Disk recording/reproducing dr ive 



AV data 

input 

section 



AV data 

output 

section 



AV input 
AV output 



760 
780 



Instruction processing section 



Skip recording instruction 1 1 Skip reproducing instruction 
processing section | | processing section 



Recording location request 
instruction processing section 



y-720 

-724 
-721 



Recording control section 



Defective area 
detection section 



Data verifying section 



Skip recording 
controlling section 



Recording location 
storing memory 



Recording control 
information memory 



Recording data 
storing memory 



Skip location 
recording section 



Reproduction controlling section 



Skip reproduction 
controlling section 



Reproduction control 
information memory 



Reproduction location 
storing memory 



Read-out data 
storing memory 



Skip location 
reading section 



-734 
-735 

-736 
-737 

-745 
-746 
-747 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



9/25 



FIG. 8 



(Recording start) 



o S 



18- 

CZ o J 

O o 
O o 



CO 



cE o 

CD <D 

E O 
CD 

o o 

ii 

LZ.S 



\ 



Start receiving 
AV data 



Allocate recording 
area for "AV_FJLE r 




-rh 



808 



Create file, 
management 

information 
for "AV_FLE" 



C End ) 



1 



83 



82 



803 



ii 
ii 

-14- 



bsue SKIP WRITE 
command 



805 



Return "complete* 
status 



Issue "REPORT 
SKIPPED ADDRESS* 
command 



I 

806 



807 



Return location 
information of 
area skipped 
during recording 



809 



Issue WRITE 
command 



811 
_L 



Return "complete" 
status 



804 



Skip recording 
operation for 

"AV_FILE" data 



812 



1 



Update SDL 



810 



1 



Record file, 
management 
information 



i 

•4- 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



10/25 



FIG. 9 



° 8- 

<D== 



<L> 
-♦— » 

II 
I? 

or a 



(Reproduction starQ ^ 



Allocate reproducing 
area for "AVJTLE" 




906 

1 



Transfer received 
AV data to AV 
output section 



1 



93 



901 



92 



903 



Issue SKIP READ 
command 



905 



Transfer AV data 



/-907 



Return complete" 
status 



Read SDL 



CD O 



Skip reproducing 
operation for 
"AVJTLE" data 



904 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



11/25 



FIG.10 



1022 

1031- 
1033- 

1035- 
1050- 

1041 - 
1043- 



1/0 bus 



780 



Instruction processing section 



t Disk recordinq/reproducinq^d rive 



Recording Instruction 
processing section 



1021 



Keproducing instruction 
processing section 



Recording control section 



Data synthesis section 



Block recording section 



Replacement allocation 
section 



SDL update section 



ECC .fraction,. 
checking section 



Replacement information 
stonng memory 



Data buffer 



Reproduction controlling section 



"0" data filling section 



Block reproducing section 



SDL reading section 



ECC fraction 
adjustment section 



y1020 
1024 

-1032 
-1034 

-1030 
-1060 

-1042 
-1044 



1040 



WO 00/54274 - 



PCT/JP99/04889 



12/25 



FIG. 1 1 



3 a) > 

O CO 

p 

o 



( Reproduction starQ ^ ^ 



Search reproducing 
area for W PC_FLE" 



.2 

-a £ 

p 

£-1 



1106 



Store received data 
in buffer memory 



1102 



1 



113 



1101 



\ 



1103 



Read SDL 



•4- 



Issue READ 
command 



1105 



Transfer 
reproduced data 



L 

Reproduce 
"PC_FLE" data 



£1107 



Return complete" 
status 



1104 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



13/25 



FIG. 12 



(Reproductio n start) 

7 



1201 

Buffering^ £peration_ 




Block unregistered 
as defective block 



1204 

J 



Reproduce original 
data block 



I 



Block registered 

. i . . , as defective block 

ac r ^9 lste L re( * (no replacement available) 
as defective block. v r 1 

(replacement available) 

[ / 1205 . 1206 



Reproduce replacement 
spare block 

I 



Rll ECC block 
with "0"s 



f 



Transfer reproduced 
data to host 



-1207 



( End ) 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



14/25 



FIG, 1 3 (Recor ding starP) 
* 



Transfer recording data from host 
* 



Check ECC block fraction 



. — -1 301 
1302 




1304 



1 



Buffer leading ECC block 



1306 



1 



Buffer last ECC block 



-1307 



Block unregistered 
as defective block 



1310 

1 



Record on original 

data block 

I 



Block registered 
• as defective block 

Block registered (no replacement available) 
as defective block * 
1 ^(replQceme nt available) | A||ocqte 

1312 r r r 



Record on replacement 
spare bl ock 

I 



1311 




( End ) 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



15/25 



FIG.14 



1031- 
1033- 

1035- 
1050- 

1441- 
1043- 



780 



I/O bus ^ 

f Disk recording/reproducing d rive 



Instruction processing section 



Recording control section 



- Data synthesis section 


Block recording section - 


- Replacement allocation 
section 


SDL update section 


ECC fraction 
checking section 


Remaining spare block , 
detection section 



Replacement information 
storing memory 



Data buffer 



Reproduction controlling section 



Sector reproducing section 


Block reproducing section - 


SDL reading section 


ECC fraction 
adjustment section 
r — 



-1420 
-1021 

-1032 
-1034 

•1437 

-1430 
-1060 

•1042 
'1044 



1440 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



16/25 



FIG. 15 



(Reproduction start) 

i 



1501 

Buffering operation_ 




Block unregistered 
as defective block 





1504 1 






Reproduce original 


data block 



Block registered 
os dcfcctivs block 

af&^ESdc (n ° replaCem i ent aVailQble) 
.(replacement available) . * 



Reproduce replacement 
spare block 



Repeat sector 
reproducing 
operation for the 
number of sectors 
of one block 



v. 



jr 

1506 



Transfer reproduced 
data to host 

( End ) 



-1507 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



17/25 

FIG. 1 6 ( Recording start ) 
t 



Transfer reco rding data from host 
* 



Check ECC block fraction 



. — -1601 
1602 




Block unregistered 



Block registered 
as defective block. 





1610 

' \ 


Record 
origina 
block 


on 

I data 



as defective block 
(replacement available) 



(no replacement available) 

f 



— ""^pare exhausted^ 
Yes 




WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



18/25 

FIG. 1 7 




WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



19/25 



FIG. 1 8 A 



J Main Data- V-V 


i 


vv Main . Data \':^y:'y:-^ 


///Ay 


;V;^ batq;;:V!;';V:V 




Main Data 







/ ; \ /; . V Main. Data: 



Main Data 




'Main Data 




L\\\\\\\\\\\ P0,\\\\\^\\\1 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



i 



FIG. 1 9 



Disk information 
area 4 

Tf 



to 



CO 
<D 

CD O 

o 8 8- 

o c > 

£-2 — 

o a 
o > 

o g 1 



9^ 



Disk information 
area 4 



Control data area 



20/25 



^6b 



Defect management information nrwi 
Volume structure 



Free space , . 
management inf ormation 

BE en rv (RUDTI 



Data extent 



Data block a" 
Data block b 



(ROOT) bOcta block cl -. 



Unallocated area 



file enti 



Data extent 
(File-A) 



Ijatd^btocl^" 



Data block 



Data block 



Data block q 



Unallocated area 



Volume 



structure 



Spare area 



1 spare block 



2 spare block 
#3 spore Nock 



4 spore block 



5 spore block 

$ .spore block 



Meet monogement information area 



Control data area 



Disk definition structure 



RDL 



SDL header 



Second spore nreo location informntin 



Number of SDL entries information! 



Data blonk c. 



Hntn hlnrkf 



iOiion 

M 



1 spore block 



^spnre block 



Defective block Replacement block 
location information location information 



-6b 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



21/25 

FIG. 2 OA 

LSN n-20h n-IOh n n+IOh n+20h 



#1 data 


#2 data 


#3 data 


#4 data 



Access sequence 



FIG.20B 

LSN n-20h n-10h n n+IOh n+20h n+30h 



#1 data 


#2 data 




#3 data 


#4 data 



Access - 
sequence 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



Disk information 
area 4 

TV 



, FIG.21 

itionl Control data area" 



LO 



a 

CO 



o 8 « 

Cfi <D 

,E cn F 

CD ~ 

O c o 

o E > 

<U =3 



Q 



4 

late 



Disk information 
area 4 



22/25 



-6b 



DM 



olume structure 



informntion nrai 



Free space 

management information 
Hie entry (RUDTT 



n , , , , Data block o 
D ?&^ ent Data block b 



( RQ0T ) \ Data block 



^2 



File entry (Rle— A) 

AVdqta extent ! Data block d 

I (Rle— A) ] Uata block e 
— — 



111 Defective block f 

AVdqta extent! Data block q 



jqta exien 



Data block n 



Unallocated area 



Volume .structure 

1 spare block 



Spare area 



w l spare block 
#3 spore block 



4 spare block 
l 5 spare block 
I #6 spare block 
m 



Defect management informotioii i area 
Control data orea 



71 



Disk Hfifinitif 


>n structure 


pni 


SDL header 


Number of SDL entn 


es informational) 


JData block c 
« — . — i 


±1 spare block 



location information 



Replacement block 
location information 



—6b 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



23/25 



FIQ.22A 



V//////A 


'//, 


Datar^ 








y//t////>. 






FIG.22B 



mm 


i 


^vMain Data^ 








b-^ ^ > s s i s s : 





Defective ID 




FIQ.22C 




5 Main Data 



2 2 TOTS 



Encoded data for overwritten ECC block 



Encoded data for original ECC block 

Encoded data for overwritten ECC block 
Encoded data for original ECC block 



WO 00/54274 " 



PCT/JP99/04889 



24/25 



FIG.23A 





/ I 6 5 4 3 9 


1 0 


0 


SKIP WKIIL identification code 


1 


! Reserved 


! 2 






3 
4 


Logical sector number 


5 






6 
7 


Data length 


8 
9 


Area length 


10 
11 


Reserved 



FIG.23B 





7I6I5 4l3l2 1 0 


0 


SKIP WRITE identification code 


1 


Reserved 


2 




3 
4 
5 


Logical sector number or reserved 


6 


Reserved 


7 
8 


Area length or data length 


9 


Reserved 



Operation option 



WO 00/54274 



PCT/JP99/04889 



25/25 

FIG.24A 





7 


6 5 4 3 2 1 0 I 


0 


REPO 


RT SKIPPED ADDRESS identification code 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


Reserved 


6 


Reserved 


7 
8 


Upper limit value for data size 


9 


Reserved 



FIG.24B 

TL 



o_ 
1 



8 



10 



11 



5 I 4 I 3 I 2 I 1 I 0 



Number of location information points (=N) 



Reserved 



Location information of 
skipped defective area f 1 



Location information of 
skipped defective area f2 



Location information of 
skipped defective area |N 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



PCT/JP 99/04889 



A. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATI 

IPC 7 G11B20/18 


rEB 


ft ■ W i i Am I-^i,, mm ■■ill ■■■■ill *- * rf"H — -fcJ 

Accoraiig *° irnemanonai raneni uiassfncai 


Ion (IPC) or to both national dasslflcation and IPO 


a HELD* SEARCHED 


Mnenum documentation searched (ctassttk 

IPC 7 G11B 


nation system foflowed by ctassffication symbols) 


Documentation searched other than mtifrnu 


m docurwntailon to the extent that euc^ docunients are Included In the fields searched 



Hectionte data base censutted Airing the kitemationa! search (name of data base and, where practical, search terms uaed) 



a DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category 4 Citation of document, wtth Indcatlon, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



WO 96 27882 A (CIRRUS LOGIC INC) 
12 September 1996 (1996-09-12) 
page 13, line 20 -page 18, line 21; 
figures 3-5 

US 5 235 585 A (BISH JOHN E ET AL) 
10 August 1993 (1993-08-10) 
the whole document 

US 5 818 654 A (ATSATT SEAN R ET AL) 
6 October 1998 (1998-10-06) 

W0 96 30902 A (IBM ;IBM UK (GB)) 
3 October 1996 (1996-10-03) 

EP 0 866 456 A (MATSUSHITA ELECTRONICS 
CORP) 23 September 1998 (1998-09-23) 



1-3,7-9, 
13-15,19 



1-19 



□ 



Further documents are Isted In the continuation of box C. 



Patent family members are Isted to annex 



° Sfrectal categories of cited documents : 

"A" document defrtog the general state of the art which Is not 

considered to be of particular relevance 
"E" earlier document but publshed on or after the International 

fling date 

T" document which may throw doubts on priority c!aJm(e) or 
which la cited to establish the puUlcaflon date of another 
cttatJon or other special reason (as specified) 

"O" document referring to an oral c1sc4oaure, use, exhbrtion or 



later document published after the international fling date 
or priority date and not In conflct with the apptcation but 
cited to understand the principle or theory underlying the 



"P" document publshed prior to the International flhng date but 
later than the priority date claimed 



"X* document of partkxiar re4ev*r*ce; the claimed Invention 
carinot be considered novel of cannot be considered to 
kivolve an Inventive step when the document Is taken alone 

"Y" document of particUar relevance; the corned twentkxi 

cannot be considered to Involve an taventfve step when the 
document Is combtied with on© or mors other such docu- 
ments, such <5omb4iatlon being obvious to a person ski led 
tithe art. 

document member of the same patent famly 



Date of me actual completion of the bitemailonal search 

17 February 2000 



Date of mallng of the international search report 

24/02/2000 



Name and maJtog address of the ISA 

European Patent Office, P.B. 5818 Patent! aan 2 
NL-2280HYRIJswiJk 
Tel. (461-70) 340-2040, Tx, 31 661 epo m, 
Fax: (+31-70) 340-3016 



Authorized officer 



Devergranne, C 



Form PCTA&AMO (second she«t) (July 1 0*2) 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



PCT/OP 99/04889 



Patent document 
cited In search report 


Publcaflon 
date 


Patent family 
members) 


PuMayon 


WO 9627882 


A 


12-09-1996 


EP 


0879466 A 


25-11-1998 


US 5235585 


A 


10-08-1993 


OP 
OP 
OP 


1998475 C 
5204559 A 
7027440 B 


08-12-1995 
13-08-1993 
29-03-1995 



US 5818654 A 06-10-1998 NONE 



W0 9630902 A 03-10-1996 US 5548572 A 20-08-1996 

CA 2168286 A 01-10-1996 

CN 1181153 A 06-05-1998 

DE 69511730 D 30-09-1999 

EP 0818041 A 14-01-1998 

OP 8279155 A 22-10-1996 



EP 0866456 A 23-09-1998 CN 1209899 A 03-03-1999 

WO 9814938 A 09-04-1998 



Rum PCTKMMO (prtMtfcnHy«m«4 (July 1092)