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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 

International Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
23 September 2004 (23.09.2004) 




PCT 



(10) International Publication Number 

WO 2004/081926 Al 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : 



G11B 7/007 



(21) International Application Number: 

PCT/KR2004/000503 

(22) International Filing Date: 11 March 2004 (11.03.2004) 



(25) Filing Language: 

(26) Publication Language: 



English 
English 



(30) 



Priority Data: 

10-2003-0015858 
10-2003-0019964 
60/477,955 
10-2004-0007533 



13 March 2003 (13.03.2003) KR 

3 1 March 2003 (3 1 .03.2003) KR 

13 June 2003 (13.06.2003) US 

5 February 2004 (05 .02.2004) KR 



(71) Applicant (for all designated States except US): SAM- 
SUNG ELECTRONICS CO. LTD. [KR/KR] ; 416, Mae- 
tan-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, 442-742 Gyeonggi-do 
(KR). 



(72) Inventors: HWANG, Sung-Hee; 

189, Gaepo-dong, Gangnam-gu, 



420-403 Jugong Apt., 
135-240 Seoul (KR). 



KO, Jung- Wan; 315-401 Cheongmyung Maeul 3-danji, 
Daewoo Apt., 956-2, Yeongtong-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Su- 
won-si, 443-737 Gyeonggi-do (KR). LEE, Kyung-Geun; 
229-1006 Sibeomdanji Woosung Apt., 16, Seohyun 
1-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, 463-050 Gyeonggi-do 
(KR). 

(74) Agent: LEE, Young-Pil; The Cheonghwa Building, 
1571-18, Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, 137-874 Seoul (KR). 



(81) 



(84) 



Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of national protection available): AE, AG, AL, AM, 
AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, 
CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, 
GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, 
KG, KP, KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, 
MK, MN, MW, MX, MZ, NA, NT, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, 
PL, PT, RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, S Y, TJ, TM, TN, 
TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of regional protection available): ARIPO (BW, GH, 
GM, KE, LS, MW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), 
Eurasian (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), Euro- 
pean (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FT, FR, 
GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI, SK, 

[ Continued on next page] 



(54) Title: WRITE ONCE DISC, METHOD OF MANAGING DATA AREA OF WRITE ONCE DISC, AND APPARATUS AND 
METHOD FOR REPRODUCING DATA THEREFOR 



!-H 1 CLUSTER 



On 



TDMA #0 



00 



TDMA 





TDDS IDENTIFIER 




TDDS UPDATE COUNT=00h 


TDDS 


FIRST PSN OF DRIVE AND DISC ' 
INFORMATION AREA 


FIRST PSN OF TDFL 




SIZE OF SPARE AREA #1 




SIZE OF SPARE AREA #2 


TDFL 


TDFL HEADER INFORMATION ! 


OOh PADDING 



TMMA #0 



o 



(57) Abstract: A write once disc allowing management of a data area, a method of managing the data area of the write once disc, 
an apparatus recording data on the write once disc, an apparatus and method of reproducing data from a write once disc. The write 
once disc, includes a lead-in zone, a data area, and a lead-out zone. The write once disc includes a predetermined area storing 
area allocation information which indicates whether at least one section of the data area is allocated for disc defect management. 
In the disc and method, area allocation information specifying a structure of the data area is recorded on the disc, thus allowing 
a recording/reproducing apparatus to recognize the data area structure. Therefore, allocating areas, such as a spare area, for disc 
defect management other than an area for storing user data, to the data area is possible. The allocation of the areas for disc defect 
management to the data area enables effective use of the write once disc. 



WO 2004/081926 Al lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 



TR), OAPI (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, GQ, GW, For two-letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 

ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations" appearing at the begin- 

Publishcd* ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 

— with international search report 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



WRITE ONCE DISC, METHOD OF MANAGING DATA AREA OF WRITE ONCE DISC, 
AND APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR REPRODUCING DATA THEREFOR 

Technical Field 

5 The present invention relates to a write once disc, and more particularly, to a 

write once disc which allows allocation of an area storing data other than user data, a 
• method of managing a data area of the write once disc, an apparatus recording data in 
the write once disc, and a method and apparatus reproducing data from the write once 
disc. 

10 

Background Art 

Defect management is performed to allow a user to rewrite user data of a 
portion of a user data area in which a defect occurs to a new portion of the user data 
area of a disc, thereby compensating for a loss in data caused by the defect. In 
15 general, defect management is performed using linear replacement or slipping 

replacement methods. In the linear replacement method, a user data area in which a 
defect occurs is replaced with a spare data area having no defects. In the slipping 
replacement method, a user data area having a defect is slipped to use the next user 
data area having no defects. 

20 Both linear replacement and slipping replacement methods are applicable only 

to discs such as a DVD-RAM/RW on which data can be repeatedly recorded and 
recording can be performed using a random access method. 

Meanwhile, methods of disc defect management even on a write once disc on 
which rewriting of data is not allowed, using the linear replacement method have been 
25 developed. 

However, there are cases where disc defect management cannot be 
performed on a write once disc with a recording/reproducing apparatus, using the linear 
replacement method. For instance, when data is recorded on the write once disc in 



l 



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real time, it is difficult to perform disc defect management thereon with the 
recording/reproducing apparatus, using the linear replacement method. 

For this reason, a spare area is allocated to a write once disc only when disc 
defect management using the recording/reproducing apparatus is required. That is, 
5 the allocation of the spare area is determined by a user's intention. 

Also, it is possible to allocate not only spare areas but also other areas to a 
data area of the write once disc for disc defect management, if necessary. 

However, when other areas, not for user data, are allocated to the data area, 
the recording/reproducing apparatus is not capable of recognizing the structure of the 
10 data area. 

In other words, if the write once disc contains no information regarding the 
data area structure, the recording/reproducing apparatus is not capable of determining 
whether other areas for information other than user data are allocated to the data area 
or not, and determining the position and size of a user data area when the other areas 
15 are formed. 

After a write operation, information that specifies areas containing data is 
written in a bit map format to a predetermined area of a disc, thereby enabling 
facilitation of a further write operation or a read operation. 

More specifically, a recordable area of a disc consists of a plurality of clusters 
20 that are data recording units or error correction units. If clusters containing data and 
blank clusters are recorded as information in the bit map format, the 
recording/reproducing apparatus can readily access a desired area during a write or 
read operation. 

In particular, bit map information specifying areas containing data is very 
25 useful when using a write once disc. In other words, it is required to fast detect a 
cluster next to a cluster in which data is most recently recorded so as to write data to 
the write once disc. The bit map information enables fast detection of the next cluster. 



2 



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Also, it is possible to check a change in the recording state of a write once disc 
and detect the original data recorded before the change occurs, using the bit map 
information. The disc recording state may change by recording further data to the 
write once disc containing data 

Disclosure of the Invention 

The present invention provides a write once disc on which both user data and 
other data can be recorded and managed in a data area. 

The present invention also provides a disc whose data recording state can be 
easily checked. 

The present invention also provides a method of managing a data area of a 
write once disc so that both user data and other data can be recorded and managed in 
the data area. 

The present invention also provides a recording apparatus recording and 
managing both user data and other data in a data area of a write once disc. 

The present invention also provides a method of reproducing data from a write 
once disc on which user data and other data are recorded in a data area. 

The present invention also provides an apparatus reproducing data from a 
write once disc on which user data and other data are recorded in a data area. 

According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided a write once 
disc including a lead-in zone, a data area, and a lead-out zone, the disc including a 
predetermined area storing area allocation information that indicates whether at least 
one section of the data area is allocated for disc defect management. 

According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a write 
once disc with at least one record layer, including at least one data area which stores 
user data, and at least one predetermined area which stores area allocation information, 



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which indicates whether at least one section of the at least one data area is allocated 
for disc defect management. 

According to yet another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a 
method of managing a data area of a write once disc, receiving an instruction regarding 
5 whether allocation of at least one portion of the data area of the disc for disc defect 
management is required and recording area allocation information, which indicates 
whether the at least one section of the data area is allocated for disc defect 
management, in a predetermined area of the disc. 

According to still another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a 
10 recording apparatus including a recording/reproducing unit which records data on or 
reads data from a write once disc; and a controller which controls the 
recording/reproducing unit to record area allocation information, which indicates 
whether at least one section of a data area of the disc is allocated for disc defect 
management, in a predetermined area of the disc, in response to an instruction 
15 regarding whether allocation of the at least one section to the data area is required. 

According to still another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a 
method of reproducing data from a write once disc, including accessing a 
predetermined area of the disc to read area allocation information, and obtaining 
information regarding location of at least one section of a data area of the disc, which is 
20 allocated for disc defect management, from the area allocation information. 

According to still another aspect of the present invention, there is provided an 
apparatus reproducing data from a write once disc, including a reading unit which reads 
the data from the disc, and a controller which controls the reading unit to access a 
predetermined area of the disc so as to read area allocation information and obtain 
25 information regarding a location of the at least one section of a data area of the disc, 
which is allocated for disc defect management, from the area allocation information. 

Additional aspects and/or advantages of the invention will be set forth in part in 
the description which follows and, in part, will be obvious from the description, or may 
be learned by practice of the invention. 

4 



WO 2004/081926 PCT/KR2004/000503 



Brief Description of the Drawings 

These and/or other aspects and advantages of the invention will become 
apparent and more readily appreciated from the following description of the 
5 embodiments, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings of which: 

FIGs. 1A and IB illustrate structures of a write once disc according to 
embodiments of the present invention; 

FIG. 2 illustrates a structure of a single record layer disc allowing management of 
a data area, according to an embodiment of the present invention; 
10 FIG. 3 illustrates a detailed structure of the Temporary Disc Defect Structure 

(TDDS) area shown in FIG. 2; 

FIG. 4 illustrates a detailed structure of the Space Bit Map (SBM) area of FIG. 2; 

FIG. 5 illustrates a structure of a single record layer disc allowing management of 
a data area, according to another embodiment of the present invention; 
15 FIG. 6 illustrates a detailed structure of the TDDS + SBM area shown in FIG. 5; 

FIG. 7 illustrates a structure of a single record layer disc allowing management of 
a data area, according to another embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 8 illustrates a detailed structure of the Temporary Disc Management Area 
(TDMA) shown in FIG. 7; 
20 FIG. 9 illustrates a detailed structure of the disc & drive information + SBM area 

shown in FIG. 7; 

FIG. 10 illustrates a structure of a single record layer disc allowing management 
of a data area, according to another embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 11 illustrates a detailed structure of the TDMA#1 shown in FIG. 10; 
25 FIG. 12 illustrates a detailed structure of a cluster, shown in FIG. 11, in which 

both an TDDS and an SBM are recorded; 

FIG. 13 illustrates a detailed structure of a cluster containing disc initialization 
information obtained during disc initialization; 

FIG. 14 illustrates a detailed structure of a cluster containing disc re-initialization 
30 information; 

FIG. 15 illustrates a structure of an SBM area according to an embodiment of the 
present invention; 



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FIG. 16 illustrates a finalized SBM area according to an embodiment of the 
present invention; 

FIG. 17 is a block diagram of a recording apparatus according to an embodiment 
of the present invention; and 
5 FIG. 18 is a flowchart illustrating a method of managing a data area of a write 

once disc, according to an embodiment of the present invention. 

Best mode for carrying out the Invention 

Reference will now be made in detail to the embodiments of the present 
10 invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein like 
reference numerals refer to the like elements throughout. The embodiments are 
described below to explain the present invention by referring to the figures. 

FIG. 1 A illustrates a structure of a write once disc (hereinafter referred to as 
the 'disc') according to an embodiment of the present invention that is a single record 

15 layer disc having a record layer LO, The disc includes a lead-in zone, a data area, and 
a lead-out zone. The lead-in zone is located in an inner part of the disc and the 
lead-out zone is located in an outer part of the disc. The data area is present between 
the lead-in zone and the lead-out zone and is divided into a user data area and a spare 
area. The spare area has a predetermined size starting from the beginning of the data 

20 area. 

FIG. 1B illustrates a disc that is a double record layer disc having two record 
layers LO and L1. A lead-in zone, a data area, and an outer area are sequentially 
formed from an inner part of the first record layer L0 to its outer part. Also, an outer 
area, a data area, and a lead-out zone are sequentially formed from an outer part of the 

25 second record layer L1 to its inner part. Unlike the single record layer disc of FIG. 1 A, 
the lead-out zone of the second record layer L1 is present in the inner part of the 
second record layer L 1. That is, the disc has an opposite track path (OTP) in which 
data is recorded starting from the lead-in zone at the inner part of the first record layer 
LO toward the outer part and continuing from the outer area of the second record layer 

30 L1 to the lead-out zone at the inner part. Spare areas are allocated to the first and 
second record layers LO and L1, respectively. 



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In this embodiment, the spare areas are present between the lead-in zone and 
the user data area and between the outer area and the user data area. However, the 
positions and numbers of spare areas are not limited. 

Initialization of a disc according to the present invention will now be described. 

5 Disc initialization is a preliminary record operation that is performed prior to use of a 
disc. More specifically, information regarding the structure of a data area is written to a 
predetermined area of the disc, thereby enabling a recording/reproducing apparatus to 
recognize the data area structure. The information specifies whether areas, e.g., a 
spare area, in which data, regarding disc defect management using a 

10 recording/reproducing apparatus, other than user data is recorded are allocated to a 
data area, and specifies the positions of the areas allocated to the data area. If disc 
initialization information, i.e., the information regarding the data area structure, is 
recorded after the disc initialization, the recording/reproducing apparatus is capable of 
checking the presence and positions of the areas in which information other than the 

15 user data is recorded and detecting an area in which the user data is to be recorded. 

Hereinafter, embodiments of a disc in which a spare area for disc defect 
management is formed in a data area, according to the present invention, will be 
described with reference to FIGs. 2 through 9. 

FIG. 2 illustrates a structure of a single record layer disc allowing management 
20 of a data area, according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 
2, a lead-in zone of the disc includes Defect Management Areas (DMA) DMA1 and 
DMA2, a recording condition test area, a Temporary Disc Defect Structure (TDDS) area, 
a Temporary DeFect List (TDFL) area, a space bit map area, and a disc & drive 
information area. 

25 In general, when a disc is loaded into a recording/reproducing apparatus, the 

recording/reproducing apparatus reads information from a lead-in zone and/or a 
lead-out zone to determine how to manage the disc and perform a read/write operation. 
Therefore, if the amount of the information recorded in the lead-in zone and/or the 
lead-out zone increases, a longer time will be spent preparing the recording or 

30 reproducing of the data after loading the disc. To solve this and/or other problems, the 

7 



WO 2004/081926 PCT/KR2004/000503 

present invention proposes temporary management information containing a TDDS and 
a TDFL, the temporary management information being recorded in a TDFL or a TDDS 
formed, separated from the lead-in zone and/or the lead-out zone. 

If no more data will be recorded on the disc, the recording/reproducing 
apparatus begins disc finalization during which the recorded TDFL and TDDS are 
recorded as defect management information in the DMA. Through the disc finalization, 
only the most recently recorded TDFL and TDDS are copied to the DMA. Accordingly, 
the recording/reproducing apparatus can complete disc initialization rapidly by reading 
only the most recently updated information from the DMA. In this case, the defect 
management information is stored in a plurality of areas, thereby increasing the 
reliability of information. 

Disc defect management according to this embodiment uses the linear 
replacement method, and thus, the TDFL specifies an area, i.e., a defective area, of the 
disc in which a defect occurs, and a replacement area that substitutes for the defective 
15 area. The TDFL further specifies whether the defective area is a single defective 
cluster, or a continuous defective cluster in which a series of defects occur physically. 
The TDDS, which is information managing the TDFL, specifies the recording position of 
the TDFL. 

The lead-in zone includes the space bit map (SBM) area that contains bit map 
20 information regarding an area containing data, i.e., information regarding a data 
recordable area. 

The data area includes spare areas #1 and #2 and a user data area. 

In this embodiment, the spare areas #1 and #2 are formed at the start and end 
of the data area, respectively, for a case where disc defect management is performed 
25 .using a recording/reproducing apparatus during disc initialization. 

The lead-out zone includes DMAs #3 and #4 and other areas. 

When a user decides to perform disc defect management using the 
recording/reproducing apparatus and instructs the recording/reproducing apparatus to 

8 



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allocate spare areas in a data area, the recording/reproducing apparatus allocates the 
spare areas #1 and #2 to predetermined portions of the data area, e.g., at the start and 

end of the data area. Then, the recording/reproducing apparatus records area 
allocation information, which indicates the allocation of the spare areas #1 and #2, in a 

5 first cluster of a TDDS area . Th e a rea allocation information may specify the sizes of 
the allocated spare areas #1 and #2. If starting and ending addresses of the spare 
areas #1 and #2 are determined, for example, when the spare areas #1 and #2 are 
positioned at the start and end of the data area, respectively, the recording/reproducing 
apparatus can recognize the allocation of the spare areas #1 and #2 and the position 

10 and size of each spare area based on information regarding the spare area sizes. 

When the starting and ending addresses of the spare areas #1 and #2 are not 
predetermined, the starting and ending addresses are determined and recorded or the 
information regarding sizes of the spare areas #1 and #2 is recorded in the first cluster 
of the TDDS area. 

is In this embodiment, the area allocation information is recorded in the TDDS 

area but can be recorded in another area. 

After recording the area allocation information in the first cluster of the TDDS, 
a bit map is recorded in a first cluster of the SBM area, the bit map recording bit 
corresponding to the positions of the first clusters of the TDDS and the SBM area with 1 
20 and recording bits corresponding to the positions of the other clusters as 0. 

If the user does not desire to perform disc defect management using the 
recording/reproducing apparatus, the recording/reproducing apparatus records the area 
allocation information, which describes the sizes of the spare areas #1 and #2 as 0, in 
the first cluster of the TDDS. 

25 After recording the area allocation information in the TDDS, a bit map, which 

indicates the bits corresponding to the positions of the first clusters of the TDDS and 
the SBM area as 1 and indicates the bit corresponding to the positions of the other 
clusters as 0, is recorded in the first cluster of the SBM area. 



9 



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As previously mentioned, it is possible to change the structure of the data area 
by re-initializing the disc and updating the area allocation information, even if the area 
allocation information was recorded in the TDDS and data was recorded on the disc 
during the previous disc initialization. Disc re-initialization will be later described with 
5 reference to FIG. 14. 

When the user does not require disc defect management using the 
recording/reproducing apparatus, no information will be recorded in the DMA. In this 
case, the area allocation information recorded in the TDDS area is recorded in the DMA 
even if disc finalization is not being performed. 

10 Meanwhile, a re-writable disc does not include the TDDS, and thus, 

reproducing information from a disc with a TDDS area containing area allocation 
information, using a reproducing apparatus for re-writable discs is not possible because 
of incompatible data structures. To solve this and/or other problems, information 
recorded in the TDDS area is copied to a DMA when performing disc finalization on the 

15 disc. 

In other words, if disc defect management using the recording/reproducing 
apparatus will not be performed, the area allocation information recorded in the TDDS 
area is recorded in the DMA prior to disc finalization, thereby enabling reproduction of 
information from a disc using a re-writable disc reproducing apparatus. 

20 FIG. 3 illustrates a structure of the TDDS area shown in FIG. 2, according to 

an embodiment of the present invention. 

A TDDS is recorded in a cluster of a TDDS area at least once until a recording 
operation ends. In general, a plurality of TDDS #0, TDDS #1, ... are recorded in the 
TDDS area. In this embodiment, TDDS #0 is recorded in a cluster of a TDDS area 
25 once when a recording operation ends. 

Referring to FIG. 3, the TDDS area consists of a plurality of clusters. A 
cluster is a basic unit of record and consists of a predetermined number of sectors. A 
sector is a physical basic unit of a disc. 



10 



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During disc initialization, when a user determines whether a spare area will be 
allocated or not, area allocation information indicating the user's determination is 
recorded in the TDDS #0. The TDDS #0 includes a TDDS identifier, counter 
information indicating the number of updates to the TDDS #0, position information 
regarding drive information, position information regarding a corresponding TDFL, if any, 
information regarding the size of a spare area #1 , and information regarding the size of 
a spare area #2. As previously described, when the user does not require disc defect 
management using the recording/reproducing apparatus and allocates spare areas in a 
data area, the sizes of spare areas #1 and #2 are recorded as '0'. 

Although a detailed structure of a TDFL area is not illustrated, a TDFL #i 
contains information regarding defects occurring in data recorded during a recording 
operation #i and information regarding replacements for the defects. Also, previous 
TDFLs #0, #1, #2, #i-1 are not accumulated in the TDFL #i and only information 
regarding defects occurring in a recording area made during the corresponding 
recording operation #i is recorded in the TDFL#i, thereby minimizing a recording 
capacity and enabling efficient use of a recording space of a TDDS. 

FIG. 4 illustrates a structure of the SBM area shown in FIG. 2, according to an 
embodiment of the present invention. The SBM area comprises a plurality of clusters 
and each SBM #i is recorded in a cluster. 

Each SBM #i includes an SBM header area and a bit map area. In the SBM 
header area, SBM identifier information, counter information indicating the number of 
updates to the SBM #i, and a finalization flag are recorded. The finalization flag will be 
later described. 

The bit map area contains a bit map that indicates clusters containing data 
and blank clusters with different bit values in cluster units with respect to entire 
recordable areas of a disc. 

After recording a TDDS #0, an SBM #0 is recorded in a first cluster of the SBM 
area. In the bit map of the SBM #0, a bit corresponding to the position of a first cluster 



n 



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of a TDDS and a bit corresponding to the position of the first cluster are expressed with 
1, and bits corresponding to the remaining clusters are expressed with 0. 

Accordingly, recording size information regarding spare areas in the TDDS #0 
allows the recording/reproducing apparatus to check the presence of spare areas and 
5 determine the positions or sizes of allocated spare areas. Also, the 

recording/reproducing apparatus is capable of rapidly recognizing an area containing 
data and a blank area of the disc by recording the SBM #0 after recording the TDDS 
#0. 

In the disc, shown in FIG. 2, a TDDS area, a TDFL area, and an SBM area are 
10 individually formed and a TDDS, a TDFL, and an SBM are recorded therein in cluster 
units, respectively. However, recording of the TDDS and the SBM is not limited to 
these areas, that is, they may be recorded in different areas. 

FIG. 5 illustrates a structure of a single record layer disc allowing management 
of a data area, according to an embodiment of the present invention. In this 
15 embodiment, a lead-in zone includes an area in which both a TDDS and an SBM are 
recorded. 

When a user desires to perform disc defect management using a 
recording/reproducing apparatus and instructs the recording/reproducing apparatus to 
allocate spare areas, the recording/reproducing apparatus allocates spare areas #1 and 
20 #2 at the start and end of a data area in predetermined sizes, respectively. 

Then, the recording/reproducing apparatus records allocation information, 
which indicates the allocation of the spare areas #1 and #2, in first clusters of the TDDS 
and the SBM. 

FIG. 6 illustrates a detailed structure of the TDDS + SBM area shown in FIG. 5. 
25 Referring to FIG. 6, a TDDS and an SBM are recorded in a cluster. The TDDS 

contains size information, i.e., area allocation information, regarding each spare area 
and the SBM, and the SBM contains a bit map. 



12 



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After recording the area allocation information in a first cluster of the TDDS + 
SBM area, the bit map records a bit for the position of the first cluster of the TDDS + 
SBM area as 1 and bits for the positions of the other clusters as 0. 

FIG. 7 illustrates a structure of a single record layer disc management of a 
5 data area, according to an embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, 
a lead-in zone includes a Temporary Disc Management Area (TDMA) area in which 
both a TDFL and a TDDS are recorded, and a disc & drive information + SBM area in 
which both disc and drive information and an SBM are recorded. That is, the TDFL 
and TDDS are recorded in a cluster and the disc & drive information and SBM are 
10 recorded in a cluster. 

Similarly to the embodiments shown in FIGs. 2 and 5„ a user determines disc 
defect management using a recording/reproducing apparatus and instructs the 
recording/reproducing apparatus to allocate spare areas to a data area of a disc. 
Then, the recording/reproducing apparatus allocates spare areas #1 ancl #2 to the start 
15 and end of the data area in predetermined sizes. 

Next, the recording/reproducing apparatus records area allocation information 
that indicates the allocation of the spare areas #1 and #2 in a first cluster of the TDMA. 

FIG. 8 illustrates a detailed structure of the TDMA shown in FIG. 7. The 
TDMA consists of clusters in which disc defect management information is recorded. 
20 In each cluster, a TDDS and a TDFL are recorded. The TDDS contains information 
regarding positions of the spare areas, the information being area allocation 
information. 

FIG. 9 illustrates a detailed structure of the disc & drive information + SBM 
area shown in FIG. 7, according to an embodiment of the present invention, 

25 Each cluster contains disc & drive information and SBM information. The 

SBM information contains a bit map. 



13 



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Information regarding spare areas is recorded in a first cluster of a TDMA. 
Next, a bit map indicates bits for first clusters of the TDMA and the disc & drive 
information and SBM area with 1 and bits for the remaining clusters with 0. 

FIG. 10 illustrates a structure of a single record layer disc allowing 
5 management of a data area, according to an embodiment of the present invention. 
Unlike the disc according to the embodiments described above, the disc of FIG. 10 
further includes a TDMA #2 in a data area, in addition to a TDMA#1 in a lead-in zone. 

The TDMAs #1 and #2 are different from each other in that updated 
information is recorded in the TDMA#1 either before ejecting of a disc from a 
10 recording/reproducing apparatus or during disc initialization, and updated information 
is recorded in the TDMA #2 in operation units during the recording of data on the disc. 
Here, the operation units are units in which a verify-after-write method is facilitated. In 
the verify-after-write method, data is recorded in cluster units and then verified. 

If a TDMA is allocated only to a lead-in zone, the size of the TDMA is limited, 
15 thus making it difficult to frequently update information. The number of necessary 
information updates may be reduced by updating a TDDS when ejecting the disc from 
the recording/reproducing apparatus. However, in this case, the updating of the TDDS 
will be incompletely terminated when power to the recording/reproducing apparatus is 
interrupted due to an unexpected accident, such as a power failure, during a write 
20 operation. 

To solve this and/or other problems, the disc of FIG. 10 further includes the 
TDMA #2 in the data area. The TDDS is updated and recorded in the TDMA #2 in 
units in which the verify-after-write method is facilitated, thereby preparing for a failure 
in updating the TDDS due to an interruption of the power supply. Just prior to 

25 ejecting the disc, final defect information and state information regarding the disc are 
repeatedly recorded in both the TDMAs #1 and #2, thereby increasing the robustness 
of information. 

The reason for forming the TDMA #2 in the data area is that frequent updating 
of information in the TDMA #2 requires the TDMA #2 to be spacious. On the other 

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hand, the TDMA#1 is not required to be spacious and thus is formed in the lead-in 
zone (or a lead-out zone). 

If a user does not desire disc defect management using a 
recording/reproducing apparatus or does not require allocation of the TDMA#2 
5 although the user wants disc defect management using the recording/reproducing 
apparatus during disc initialization, the TDMA #2 will not be allocated to the data area 
and area allocation information indicating this information is recorded in the TDMA#1. 

FIG. 11 illustrates a detailed structure of the TDMA #1 shown in FIG. 10. 
Referring to FIG. 11, a TDFL, a TDDS, and an SBM are recorded in the TDMA#1. 
10 More specifically, both the TDDS and the SBM are recorded in a cluster TDDS + SBM 
#k and the TDFL is recorded in another cluster (k is an integer greater than 0). The 
TDMA #2 has the same construction as the TDMA#1 and its detailed description will be 
omitted. 

FIG. 12 illustrates a detailed structure of the cluster TDDS + SBM #k, shown in 
15 FIG. 11 , in which both a TDDS and an SBM are recorded. Referring to FIG. 12, the 
TDDS specifies the positions of a recording condition test area, drive information, a 
TDFL, spare areas #1 and #2, a TDMA #2, a TDDS + SBM area for another record 
layer, and a TDDS + SBM area for another TDMA. 

If the starting and ending addresses of each area of the disc are determined, 
20 information regarding the sizes of spare areas #1 and #2 and TDMA #2 as their position 
information is sufficient. Otherwise, the position information is indicated with their 
starting and ending addresses corresponding to each area of the disc. 

If the disc has at least two record layers, an SBM for each record layer is 

required. 

25 FIG. 13 illustrates a detailed structure of a cluster TDDS + SBM #0 containing 

disc initialization information obtained during disc initialization. FIG. 13 illustrates a 
case where spare areas #1 and #2 and a TDMA #2 are formed in a data area. 
Referring to FIG. 13, information regarding sizes of spare areas #1 and #2 and the 



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TDMA#2 is recorded as disc initialization information. In this case, it is understood 
that starting and ending addresses of each area have already been determined. 

Even if spare areas are allocated to the data area and the disc is initialized by 
recording area allocation information that indicates the allocation, the structure of the 
5 data area may be changed by re-initializing the disc and updating the area allocation 
information. 

FIG. 14 illustrates a detailed structure of a cluster TDDS + SBM #n+1 
containing disc re-initialization information. Referring to FIG. 14, information that 
specifies a change in the sizes of spare areas #1 and #2 and a TDM A #2 is recorded in 
10 a TDDS area. 

Let us assume that the spare area #1 , the TDMA #2, a user data area, and the 
spare area #2 are sequentially formed in a data area, and defect information is 
recorded in the spare area #2 starting from a cluster with the largest address to a 
cluster with the smallest address. In this case, disc re-initialization is performed to 
15 effectively use a recording area between a cluster with the largest address of the user 
data area and the cluster with the smallest address of the spare area #2. 

In other words, the disc re-initialization increases or decreases the size of the 
spare area #2, thus enabling effective use of the recording area. 

Disc re-initialization information is recorded in at least one cluster TDDS + 
20 SBM belonging to a TDMA #1 or the TDMA #2. 

Hereinafter, an SBM that is information regarding a data recording area will be 
described in greater detail. 

FIG. 15 illustrates a structure of an SBM area according to an embodiment of 
the present invention. Referring to FIG. 15, SBMs #0 through #n, which provide data 
25 recording area information, are recorded in the SBM area. In this embodiment, an 
SBM #i is recorded in a cluster (i is an integer from 0 to n). However, as illustrated in 
FIGs. 6 through 9, SBM #i may be recorded together with other information in a cluster. 



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Each SBM #i provides header information containing an SBM descriptor, a 
finalization flag, and an update counter; and a bit map #i (i is an integer from 0 to n) that 
indicates recordable areas of entire recording areas of the disc in cluster units. 

If data is further recorded on the disc and data recording area information 
5 changes, each SBM #i, which contains a new bit map describing data recording areas, 
is generated and recorded. In this case, the update counter represents the number of 
times the data recording area information is updated. 

An instant of time when each SBM #i is generated and updated may be 
differently determined depending on a program installed in a recording/reproducing 
10 apparatus. However, after recording data on the disc, a new SBM #i must be 
generated and recorded before ejecting the disc from the recording/reproducing 
apparatus. 

The finalization flag indicates whether the disc is finalized or not. 

FIG. 16 illustrates a finalized SBM area according to an embodiment of the 
present invention. The finalization flag for a header of an SBM is set to 0 and 
recorded together with other information. Referring to FIG. 16, an SBM recorded right 
before disc finalization is an SBM #n. If a finalization command is given from a host 
such as a computer to a recording/reproducing apparatus, the recording/reproducing 
apparatus indicates completion of disc finalization by changing a finalization flag among 
information regarding the SBM #n, which is last updated, from 0 to 1 , and recording the 
SBM #n again. 

If necessary, the recording/reproducing apparatus may allow no more SBMs to 
be recorded by recording data such as "ffh" in an area next to an area containing the 
SBM #n having the finalization flag T, thereby preventing additional recording of data 

25 on the disc. 

A user can maintain the recording state of the disc at an instant of time when 
disc finalization is performed, based on an SBM having the finalization flag T, Even if 
data recorded on the finalized disc is changed or new data is added to the original data 
without permission, detecting the original data recorded during the disc finalization by 

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referring to a bit map contained in the SBM having the finalization flag '1' is possible. 
Therefore, data that is added after the disc finalization can be easily detected. 

An area in which each SBM #i is recorded is positioned in at least one of a 
data area, a lead-in zone, and a lead-out zone as shown in FIGs. 1 A and 1B. 

5 Spare areas and TDMAs are allocated to a data area in the above 

embodiments, but an area to which the spare areas and the TDMAs are allocated and 
areas allocated to the data area are not limited. For example, a TDMA area and a 
TDDS area may be further allocated to the data area. Also, a TDDS area and an 
SBM area are allocated to a lead-in zone in the above embodiments but may be formed 

10 in a data area or a lead-out zone. 

Although not shown in the drawings, a TDFL area may be formed in the data 
area. In this case, if a user desires disc defect management using a 
recording/reproducing apparatus, the user allocates a spare area #1 , a spare area #2, 
and the TDFL area and records a TDDS and an SBM as described above. The TDFL 
is may be positioned between the lead-in zone and the spare area #1 , between the spare 
area #1 and a user data area, at the middle of the user data area, between the user 
data area and the spare area #2, and between the spare area #2 and a lead-out area, 

If the user does not desire disc defect management using the 
recording/reproducing apparatus, the allocation of spare areas is not required. 
20 However, if the user records data in real time using disc defect information obtained by 
scanning a disc, the TDFL area is required to store the disc defect information. 
Therefore, the TDFL is allocated during disc initialization. 

In the above embodiments according to the present invention, management of 
spare areas and recording of a bit map are described with respect to a single record 
25 layer disc. However, the present invention can be applied to a dual record layer disc. 

A write once disc according to the present invention includes a TDMAfor disc 
defect management. However, if the disc is a re-writable disc, the disc includes a DMA 
but does not include a TDMA. Therefore, a re-writable disc recording/reproducing 
apparatus is not capable of reproducing/recording data from/on a disc with a TDMA, 

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that is, a disc compatibility issue is caused. For a solution to the disc compatibility, a 
TDFL recorded in a TDDS area is copied to a TDMA prior to finalization of the disc. 

FIG. 17 is a block diagram of a recording/reproducing apparatus according to 
an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 17, the 
5 recording/reproducing apparatus includes a recording/reproducing unit 1, a controller 2, 
and a memory 3. 

Under control of the controller 2, the recording/reproducing unit 1 records data 
on a disc 100 according to the present invention and reads the data from the disc 100 
to verify the accuracy of the recorded data. 

10 The controller 2 manages a data area of the disc 100. Also, the controller 2 

performs a verify-after-write method in which data is recorded on the disc 100 in 
predetermined units and the accuracy of the recorded data is verified to detect if an 
area of the disc 100 has a defect. More specifically, the controller 2 records user data 
on the disc 100 in predetermined units and verifies the recorded user data to detect an 

15 area of the disc 100 in which a defect exists. Next, the controller 2 creates a 

Temporary DeFect List (TDFL) and a Temporary Disc Defect Structure (TDDS) that 
specify a position of the area with the defect. Next, the controller 2 temporarily stores 
the created TDFL and TDDS in the memory 3. When the amount of the stored TDFL 
and TDDS reaches a predetermined level, the controller 2 records the TDFL and TDDS 

20 in a predetermined area, e.g., a Temporary Disc Management Area (TDMA), of the disc 
100. 

Here, the disc 100 includes discs according to the aforementioned 
embodiments of the present invention. 

When a user decides to perform disc defect management using the recording 
25 apparatus such as that shown in FIG. 17 and instructs the recording apparatus to 

allocate spare areas in a data area, the recording apparatus allocates the spare areas, 
e.g., a spare area #1 and a spare area #2, to predetermined portions of the data area 
of the disc, e.g., at the start and end of the data area. 



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Then, the recording/reproducing apparatus records area allocation information, 
which indicates the allocation of the spare areas #1 and #2, in a first cluster of a TDDS. 
The area allocation information may specify sizes of the allocated spare areas #1 and 
#2. If starting and ending addresses of the spare areas #1 and #2 are determined, for 
5 example, when the spare areas #1 and #2 are positioned at the start and end of the 
data area, respectively, the recording apparatus can recognize the allocation of the 
spare areas #1 and #2 and also the positions and sizes of the spare areas #1 and #2 
based only on information regarding the spare area sizes. 

For this reason, when the starting and ending addresses of the spare areas #1 
10 and #2 are not determined, these addresses are determined and recorded or the 

information regarding sizes of the spare areas #1 and #2 is recorded in the first cluster 
of the TDDS. 

A method of managing a data area of a disc using a recording apparatus 
according to an embodiment of the present invention will now be described with 
15 reference to FIGs. 17 and 18. 

FIG. 18 is a flowchart illustrating a method of managing a data area of the disc 
100, according to an embodiment of the present invention. Initialization of the disc 
100 is performed in response to user input before recording user data on the disc 100 
(operation 110). Next, an instruction regarding whether allocation of at least one 

20 section of a data area of the disc 100 for disc defect management is required or not is 
transmitted to the controller 2 from a host apparatus such as a computer (operation 
120). As previously mentioned, allocation of a section, such as a spare area or a 
TDMA, of the data area for disc defect management is regarded as well known to those 
skilled in the art. Alternatively, a recording/reproducing apparatus other than the host 

25 apparatus is capable of determining whether the at least one section of the data area 
will be allocated. 

Next, the controller 2 controls the recording/reproducing unit 1 to record area 
allocation information, which describes whether the at least one section of the data area 
has been allocated or not, in a predetermined area of the disc 100 (operation 130). 



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The area allocation information may specify a size of the at least one portion for disc 
defect management. 

Assuming that, as shown in FIG. 2, the at least one section for disc defect 
management includes a spare area #1 and a spare area #2 and a starting position of 
the spare area #1 and an ending position of the spare area #2 have been located at a 
start and end of the data area, respectively. In this case, a recording apparatus is 
capable of recognizing not only allocation of the spare areas #1 and #2, but also their 
location and sizes based only on information regarding the sizes of the spare areas #1 
and #2. 

When a user does not require disc defect management when using the 
recording apparatus and does not allocate the at least one section, such as a spare 
area, of the data area, the area allocation information indicating the size of the at least 
one section as 0 is recorded in a predetermined area of the disc 100. 

The area allocation information may be recorded in a TDDS formed in at least 
one of a lead-in zone, a data zone, and a lead-out zone of the disc 1 00. Also, a TDDS 
may be recorded in various areas as shown in FIGs. 3, 6, 8, and 12. 

After the initialization of the disc 100 is completed by recording the area 
allocation information on the disc 100 in operation 130, the recording apparatus may 
record the user data on the disc 100 and perform disc defect management. 

After operation 130, the recording apparatus records the user data in a user 
data area of the disc 100 and performs disc defect management using the spare areas 
and the TDMA (operation 140). 

Even after disc initialization, re-initialization of the disc 100 allows changing of 
a structure of the data area of the disc 100. 

Next, the disc 100 is re-initialized in response to user input (operation 150). 
Then, a_command that instructs the structure of the data area to be redefined by 
allocation of new areas thereto is input from the host apparatus to the controller 2. 



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Then, the controller 2 controls the recording/reproducing unit 1 to record area 
allocation information regarding the new areas in a predetermined area of the disc 100, 
thereby updating the area allocation information (operation 160). 

Information, e.g., an SBM, regarding areas containing data is recorded on the 
5 disc 100. Header information of the SBM includes a finalization flag that represents 
whether more data can be recorded on a disc. When the finalization flag is 1 , a 
change in a disc recording state may be checked and the original data before the 
change may be detected, using a bit map corresponding to the finalization flag 1. 

If the user does not desire to perform disc defect management using the 
10 recording apparatus, no data is recorded in a DMA. Thus, the area allocation 

information recorded in the TDMA is recorded in the DMA regardless of whether disc 
finalization is completed or not. 

Because a re-writable disc does not include a TDDS area, reproducing data 
from a write one disc with a TDMA containing area allocation information, using a 
15 re-writable disc reproducing apparatus is not possible due to compatibility problems. 
To solve this and/or other problems, information recorded in the TDMA is recorded in 
the DMA during disc finalization, thereby enabling disc compatibility. 

If disc defect management using the recording apparatus is not required, the 
area allocation information recorded in the TDMA is recorded in the DMA before disc 
20 finalization, thereby enabling reproduction of data from the disc using the re-writable 
disc reproducing apparatus. 

For example, although not shown in the drawings, a reproducing apparatus 
reproducing data from the disc 100 containing the area allocation information, 
according to the present invention, having a similar structure to that of the recording 
25 apparatus of FIG. 17 except that the reproducing apparatus includes only a reproducing 
unit, for only data reading, instead of the recording/reproducing unit 1 of the 
recording/reproducing apparatus. When the disc 100 is loaded into the reproducing 
apparatus according to the present invention, the reproducing apparatus accesses a 
predetermined area, e.g., a TDMA, which contains the last updated area allocation 

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information so as to read the last updated area allocation information. Then, the 
reproducing apparatus obtains, from the last updated area allocation information, 
information regarding the location of at least one section of the data area for disc defect 
management. As described above, the at least one section includes the TDMA and 
5 the spare areas. Because the reproducing apparatus is capable of completely 
recognizing a structure of the data area based on the area allocation area, the 
reproducing apparatus can read not only the user data but also data, for disc defect 
management, which is stored in the TDMA and the spare areas allocated to the data 
area. 

10 As described above, according to the present invention, area allocation 

information regarding a structure of a data area is recorded on a write once disc, thus 
allowing a recording/reproducing apparatus to recognize the data area structure. 
Therefore, allocating areas, such as a spare area, for disc defect management other 
than an area for storing user data, to the data area, enables efficient use of the disc. 

15 Also, after disc initialization, the structure of the data area may be changed by 

updating the area allocation information through disc re-initialization. 

Further, a bit map, which specifies data recordable areas, is recorded in a 
predetermined area of the disc, thereby enabling the recording/reproducing apparatus 
to quickly access a desired area. The bit map also allows the recording/reproducing 
20 apparatus to check whether there is a change in a disc recording state and detect data 
originally recorded before the change, the change being occurred by recording 
additional data on the disc. 

Although a few embodiments of the present invention have been shown and 
described, it would be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes may be made 
25 in this embodiment without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention, the 
scope of which is defined in the claims and their equivalents. 



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CLAIMS 

1 . A write once disc including a lead-in zone, a data area, and a lead-out 
zone, the disc comprising: 

a predetermined area storing area allocation information that indicates whether 
at least one section of the data area is allocated for disc defect management. 

2. The disc of claim 1 , wherein the area allocation information comprises 
information specifying a size of the at least one section of the data area. 

3. The disc of claim 1 , wherein the section allocated to the data area for disc 
defect management includes at least one of a spare area, a temporary disc defect 
structure (TDDS) area, a temporary defect list (TDFL) area, and a temporary defect 
management area (TDMA). 

4. The disc of claim 1 , further comprising: 

a space bit map (SBM) information area in which data recording area information 
is recorded, 

wherein the data recording area information contains header information and a 
bitmap that indicates areas containing data. 

5. The disc of claim 4, wherein when the area allocation information is 
recorded in a predetermined cluster of the predetermined area, a bit of the bitmap 
corresponding to the predetermined cluster is recorded as a predetermined value that 
indicates the predetermined cluster contains data. 

6. The disc of claim 4, wherein the header information comprises a 
finalization flag that indicates whether more data is recordable on the disc. 

7. The disc of claim 3, wherein the predetermined area in which the area 
allocation information is recorded is the TDDS area. 



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8. The disc of claim 7, further comprising a defect management area (DMA) 
in which the area allocation information recorded in the TDDS area is copied when the 
data area does not include an area for disc defect management. 

5 9. The disc of claim 1 , further comprising: 

a first temporary defect management area (TDMA) formed in the lead-in zone; 

and 

a second TDMA formed in the data area, 

wherein the area allocation information indicates allocation of the second TDMA 
io to the data area, and the predetermined area in which the area allocation information is 
recorded is one of the first and second TDMAs. 

10. The disc of claim 9, wherein the first TDMA is an area in which an updated 
TDDS is recorded at least once before ejecting the disc from a recording and/or 

is reproducing apparatus, and 

the second TDMA is an area in which the updated TDDS is recorded in units of 
predetermined operations during which data is recorded. 

11 . The disc of claim 1 , wherein the area allocation information is recorded in 
20 at least one cluster of the predetermined area and updated area allocation information 

is recorded in at least one different cluster of the predetermined area. 

1 2. A method of managing a data area of a write once disc, comprising: 
receiving an instruction regarding whether allocation of at least one section of the 

25 data area of the disc for disc defect management is required; and 

recording area allocation information, which indicates whether the at least one 
section of the data area is allocated for disc defect management, in a predetermined 
area of the disc. 

30 1 3. The method of claim 12, wherein the recording the area allocation 

information comprises recording information specifying a size of the at least one section 
of the data area. 



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14. The method of claim 12, wherein the recording of the area allocation 
information comprises recording the area allocation information in a temporary disc 
defect structure (TDDS) area formed in at least one of a lead-in zone, the data area, 
and a lead-out zone of the disc. 

5 

1 5. The method of claim 1 2, further comprising: 
recording information regarding a data recordable area, 

wherein the information regarding a data recordable area comprises header 
information and a bit map that indicates areas containing data. 

10 

16. The method of claim 15 wherein the recording of the information 
regarding the data recordable area comprises recording a bit value of the bit map 
corresponding to a predetermined area that contains data indicating whether the at 
least one section of the data area is allocated, as a predetermined value indicating an 

15 area containing data. 

17. The method of claim 15, wherein the header information comprises a 
finalization flag that indicates whether more data is recordable on the write once disc. 

20 18. The method of claim 13, wherein the recording the area allocation 

information comprises recording the area allocation information to indicate the size of 
the at least one section as 0 when the at least one section of the data area is not 
allocated. 



25 1 9. The method of claim 1 2, further comprising: 

recording the area allocation information, which is recorded in a temporary 
defect management area (TDMA), in a defect management area (DMA). 

20. The method of claim 12, wherein the at least one section of the data area 
30 comprises at least one of a spare area, a TDDS area, a TDFL area, and a TDMA. 



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21 . The method of claim 12, wherein the recording the area allocation 
information comprises recording the area allocation information, which indicates 
allocation of a second TDMAto the data area, in one of a first TDMAand the second 
TDMA which are formed in a lead-in zone of the disc. 

5 

22. The method of claim 21 , wherein the first TDMA is an area in which an 
updated TDDS is recorded before ejecting the write once disc from a recording and/or 
reproducing apparatus, and 

the second TDMA is an area in which the updated TDDS is recorded in units of 
10 predetermined operations during which data is recorded. 

23. The method of claim 12, further comprising: 

updating the area allocation information by recording area allocation information, 
which specifies a change in a size of the at least one section, in a predetermined area 
15 in response to a command that instructs the size of the at least one section to be 
changed. 

24. The method of claim 14, wherein during the recording the area allocation 
information, the area allocation information is recorded in at least one cluster starting 

20 from a start of the TDDS. 

25. A recording and/or reproducing apparatus, comprising: 

a recording and/or reproducing unit which records data on or reads data from a 
write once disc; and 

25 a controller which controls the recording and/or reproducing unit to record area 

allocation information, which indicates whether at least one section of a data area of the 
disc is allocated for disc defect management, in a predetermined area of the disc, in 
response to an instruction regarding whether allocation of the at least one section to the 
data area is required. 

30 

26. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the area allocation information 
includes information specifying a size of the at least one section. 



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27. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the controller controls the recording 
and/or reproducing unit to record the area allocation information in a temporary disc 
defect structure (TDDS) formed in at least one of a lead-in zone, the data area, and a 

lead-out zone of the disc. 

5 

28. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the controller controls the recording 
and/or reproducing unit to record information regarding a data recordable area in a 
predetermined area of the disc, 

wherein the information regarding the data recordable area comprises a bitmap 
10 indicating header information and the data recordable area. 

29. The apparatus of claim 28, wherein the controller controls the recording 
and/or reproducing unit to record a bitmap value, which corresponds to the 
predetermined area storing the area allocation information indicating whether the at 

15 least one section of the data area is allocated, as a predetermined value indicating an 
area containing data. 

30. The apparatus of claim 28, wherein the header information comprises a 
finalization flag indicating whether more data is recordable on the disc. 

20 

31 . The apparatus of claim 26, wherein the controller controls the recording 
and/or reproducing unit to record the area allocation information indicating a size of the 
at least one section as 0 when the at least one section of the data area is not allocated. 

25 32. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the controller controls the recording 

and/or reproducing unit to record the area allocation information, which is recorded in a 
temporary defect management area (TDMA), in a defect management area (DMA). 

33. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the at least one section comprises at 
30 least one of a spare area, a TDDS area, a TDFL area, and a TDMA. 



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34. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the controller controls the recording 
and/or reproducing unit to record the area allocation information, which indicates 
allocation of a second TDMA to the data area, in one of a first TDMA and the second 
TDMA which are formed in a lead-in zone of the disc. 

35. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the first TDMA is an area in which 
updated TDDS is recorded at least once before the disc is ejected from the recording 
apparatus, and 

the second TDMA is an area in which the updated TDDS is recorded in 
predetermined operation units. 

36. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the controller controls the 
recording/reproducing unit to record the area allocation information, which includes 
information specifying a size of the at least one section, in the predetermined area of 
the disc, in response to a command that instructs the at least one section to be 
changed. 

37. The apparatus of claim 27, wherein the controller controls the 
recording/reproducing unit to record the area allocation information in at least one 
cluster starting from a start of the TDDS. 

38. A method of reproducing data from a write once disc, comprising: 
accessing a predetermined area of the disc to read area allocation information; 

and 

obtaining information regarding a location of at least one section of a data area 
of the disc, which is allocated for disc defect management, from the area allocation 
information. 

39. The method of claim 38, wherein the area allocation information 
comprises information specifying a size of the at least one section. 



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40. The method of claim 38, wherein the predetermined area storing the area 
allocation information is a TDDS area formed in at least one of a lead-in zone, the data 
area, and a lead-out zone of the disc, and 

wherein the area allocation information is included in the TDDS. 

5 

41 . The method of claim 38, wherein the at least one section comprises at 
least one of a spare area, a TDDS area, a TDFL are, and a TDMA. 

42. An apparatus reproducing data from a write once disc, comprising: 
io a reading unit which reads data from the disc; and 

a controller which controls the reading unit to access a predetermined area of 
the disc to read area allocation information and obtain information regarding a location 
of at least one section of a data area of the disc, which is allocated for disc defect 
management, from the area allocation information. 

15 

43. The apparatus of claim 42, wherein the area allocation information 
comprises information specifying a size of the at least one section. 

44. The apparatus of claim 42, wherein the predetermined area storing the 
20 area allocation information is a TDDS area formed in at least one of a lead-in zone, the 

data area, and a lead-out zone of the disc, and 

the area allocation information is included in the TDDS. 

45. The apparatus of claim 42, wherein the at least one section comprises at 
25 least one of a spare area, a TDDS area, a TDFL area, and a TDMA. 

46. A write once disc with at least one record layer, comprising: 
at least one data area which stores user data; and 

at least one predetermined area which stores area allocation information, which 
30 indicates whether at least one section of the at least one data area is allocated for disc 
defect management. 



30 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



47. The disc of claim 46, wherein the area allocation information comprises 
information specifying a size of the at least one section. 

48. The disc of claim 46, wherein the at least one section comprises at least 
5 one of a spare area, a TDDS area, a TDFL area, and a TDMA. 

49. The disc of claim 46, wherein the area allocation information indicates a 
size of the at least one section as 0 when the at least one section of the data area is 
not allocated. 

10 

50. A recording medium, comprising: 

a first area having a first predetermined size storing defect management 
information; 

a second area having a second predetermined size used to record user data; 
15 and 

a third area having a third predetermined size storing data replacing defective 
units detected within the second area based on the defect management information, 
wherein the second area is adjacent to the first area. 

20 51 . The recording medium of claim 50, wherein the first area is at least one of 

a lead-in area and a lead-out area on the recording medium. 

52. The recording medium of claim 50, wherein the first, second, and third 
predetermined sizes of the respective corresponding areas of the recording medium are 

25 changed by reinitializing the recording medium to update the respective predetermined 
sizes. 

53. The recording medium of claim 52, wherein when defect management will 
not be performed the predetermined size of the third area is set to zero to maximize the 

30 size of the second area. 

54. The recording medium of claim 50, wherein the recording medium is a 
write once optical disc. 



31 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



55. The recording medium of claim 54, wherein the first area is at least one of 
a lead-in area and a lead-out area on the write once optical disc. 

5 56. The recording medium of claim 55, wherein the first area is divided into a 

plurality of defect management areas positioned adjacent to each other. 

57. The recording medium of claim 56, wherein the first, second, and third 
predetermined sizes of the respective corresponding areas of the write once disc are 

10 changed by reinitializing the write once disc to update the respective predetermined 

sizes. 

58. The recording medium of claim 57, wherein when defect management will 
not be performed the predetermined size of the third area is set to zero to maximize the 

15 size of the second area. 

59. The recording medium of claim 56, wherein at least one of the plurality of 
defect management areas is a space bit map area specifying bit map information 
corresponding to a data recordable area, wherein a recording/reproducing apparatus is 

20 able to quickly access a desired area. 



32 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



1/17 

FIG. 1A 



LO 




DATA AREA 






( 


r 








LEAD_IN 

ZONE 


SPARE 
AREA 


USER DATA AREA 


LEAD_OUT 
ZONE 






FIG. IB 






LO 




DATA AREA 






I 


r 








LEADJN 
ZONE 


SPARE 
AREA 


USER DATA AREA 


OUTER 
AREA 



LEAD.OUT 
ZONE 


USER DATA AREA 


SPARE 
AREA 


OUTER ! 
AREA 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



2/17 





O □ D 




DMA#2 




RECORDING CONDITION TEST AREA 


LEADJN 
ZONE 


TDDS AREA 


TDFL AREA 




SPACE BIT MAP AREA 




DISC AND DRIVE INFORMATION AREA 




DMA#1 




■ « ■ 




SPARE AREA1 


DATA ARFA 


USER DATA AREA 




SPARE AREA2 | 




■ ■ ■ 


LEAD_OUT 
ZONE 


DMA #4 


■ ■ ■ 




DMA #3 




■ ■ ■ 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



3/17 

FIGo 3 



1 CLUSTER 




TDDS IDENTIFIER 



TDDS UPDATE COUNT=00h 



POSITION INFORMATION REGARDING 
DRIVE INFORMATION 

POSITION INFORMATION REGARDING TDFL 



SIZE OF SPARE AREA #1 



SIZE OF SPARE AREA #2 



TDDS AREA 



TDDS #0 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



4/17 



cr 



LU 
Q 



m 

CO 



o 

O 
ll 



o 
o 



s 

CL. 



CD 
CO 



O 

o 
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< 



cr 

LU 
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CO 



DC 
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o 



m 

CO 

+ 
o 

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nr 



LU O 

9 Q 

Z LU 
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DC 
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o 

LU 
Q QC 



CO 
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DC 



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cr 



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m fcc 

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3 

DC 
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CQ 

LU 

O 
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CL, 
CO 



DC 



CO 
ZD 
S 

o 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



5/17 

FIGo 5 





a a a 




DMA #2 




RECORDING CONDITION TEST AREA 


LEADJN 
ZONE 


TDDS+SBM AREA 




TDFL AREA 




DISC AND DRIVE INFORMATION AREA 




DMA #1 




■ ■ ■ 




SPARE AREA1 


DATA AREA 


USER DATA AREA j 




SPARE AREA2 




■ ■ ■ i 


LEAD.OUT 
ZONE 


DMA #4 


urn* 




DMA #3 




■ ■ ■ 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



6/17 



oc 

LU 
LL 



LU 

Q 

CO 
Q 
Q 



o 
o 
If 



O 
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LU 

Q 
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CO 

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o 



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a. 



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LU 

DC 
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LL 
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LU 
M 
CO 



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CC 
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CO 
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CD 

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WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



7/17 

FIGo 7 





□ □ □ 




DMA #2 




RECORDING CONDITION TEST AREA 


LEAD IN 


TDMA 


ZONE 


DISC AND DRIVE INFORMATIONS- 
SPACE BIT MAP AREA 




DMA #1 




■ ■ ■ 




SPARE AREA1 


riATA A 1 — ) 1 ' A 

DATA AREA 


I IQPD RATA ADCA 
Uotn UA I A AntA 




SPARE AREA2 




■ ■ ■ 


LEAD.OUT 
ZONE 


DMA #4 


■ a a 




DMA #3 




■ a a 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



8/17 



co 







o 


















CO 


















Q 










o 






00=1 


Q 

< 








CM 








DUN 


IIVE 




— 1 
LU 


REA 


S5 


er 
o 




DC 
LU 


o 


CC 

Q 


AR 


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1 1— t 


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LU 


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LU 


LU 




LL- 


LU 

1 


SN OF 




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GC 


DC 


DC 


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ATIO 


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l I 

CO 


SU 


TP 


DC 


TP 


OF 


OF 




o 


CO 


o 


CO 


LU 


LU 


TDFl 




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TDI 


FIR 


LU 


FIR 


SIZ 


ZIS 


_cr 
o 
o 








CO 








J 








Q 






LU 








o 






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f— 






h» 



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WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



9/17 



cc 

LU 



LU 
Q 



CO 
CO 



o 
o 



o 
o 

LLJ 
Q_ 



CO 



o 
o 
II 



o 



cc 

LU 
S Q 
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CO LU 



O LU 
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Q 



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Q 



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DC 

o 



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LU 

x 

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or 



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=«5 



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h-H 



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LU 

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co 



o 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



10/17 

FIG D 10 



LEADJN 
ZONE 


a m a 


DMA #2 


RECORDING CONDITION TEST AREA 


TDMA #1 


DRIVE INFORMATION AREA 


DMA #1 


■ ■ ■ 


DATA AREA 


SPARE AREA1 


USER DATA AREA 


TDMA #2 


SPARE AREA2 


LEADJDUT 
ZONE 


■ ■ ■ 


DMA #4 


■ ■ ■ 


DMA #3 


■ ■ ■ 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



11/17 

FIGo 1 1 

TDDS+SBM #0 

TDFL #0 
TDDS+SBM #1 



TDMA #1 



FIG. 12 





TDDS IDENTIFIER 




TDDS UPDATE COUNT 




DRIVE INFORMATION POSITION INFORMATION 




TDFL POSITION INFORMATION 


TDDS 


RECORDING DONDITION TESTABLE POSITION 
INFORMATION 


POSITION INFORMATION REGARDING TDDS+ 
SBM AREA FOR ANOTHER RECORD LAYER 




POSITION INFORMATION REGARDING TDDS+ 
SBM IN ANOTHER TDMA 




SIZE OF TDMA #2 




SIZE OF SPARE AREA #1 j 




SIZE OF SPARE AREA #2 




c ■ ■ 






SBM IDENTIFIER 




SBM 
HEADER 


SBM UPDATE COUNT 


SBM 




FINALIZATION FLAG 




BIT 
MAP 


■ ■ ■ 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



12/17 

FIGo 13 





TDDS IDENTIFIER 




TDDS UPDATE COUNT=00h 




POSITION INFORMATION REGARDING DRIVE 
INFORMATION 




TDFL POSITION INFORMATION=00h 




RECORDING CONDITION TESTABLE POSITION 
INFORMATION 


TDDS 


POSITION INFORMATION REGARDING TDDS+ 
SBM IN ANOTHER RECORD LAYER=O0h 




POSITION INFORMATION REGARDING TDDS+ \ 
SBM IN ANOTHER TDMA=00h 




SIZE OF TDMA #2 




SIZE OF SPARE AREA #1 




SIZE OF SPARE AREA #2 




m 


■ ■ 






SBM IDENTIFIER 




SBM 
HEADER 


SBM UPDATE COUNT=00h 


SBM 




FINALIZATION FLAG=0 




BIT 
MAP 


■ ■ ■ 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



13/17 

FIGo 14 





TDDS IDENTIFIER 




TDDS UPDATE COUNT=n+1 




POSITION INFORMATION REGARDING DRIVE ; 
INFORMATION 




TDFL POSITION INFORMATION 




RECORDING CONDITION TESTABLE POSITION 
INFORMATION 


TDDS 


POSITION INFORMATION REGARDING TDDS+ 
SBM IN ANOTHER RECORD LAYER 




POSITION INFORMATION REGARDING TDDS+ 
SBM IN ANOTHER TDMA 




SIZE OF CHANGED SPARE AREA #1 




SIZE OF CHANGED SPARE AREA #2 




■ 


■ ■ 






SBM IDENTIFIER 




SBM 
HEADER 


SBM UPDATE COUNT=n+1 


SBM 




FINALIZATION FLAG=0 




BIT 
MAP 


a ■ ■ 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



14/17 

FIGc 15 



SBM#0 


FINALIZATION FLAG=0 


UPDATE COUNTER=0 


BIT MAP #0 

tW II 1 V Iff \ 1 if 


SBM #1 


FINALIZATION FLAG=0 


UPDATE COUNTER=1 


BIT MAP #1 


■ ■ ■ 


■ ■ a 


SBM #n 


FINALIZATION FLAG=0 


UPDATE COUNTER=n 


BIT MAP #n 


■ ■ ■ 


a ■ ■ 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



15/17 

FIGo 16 



SBM #0 


FINALIZATION FLAG=0 


UPDATE COUNTER=0 


BIT MAP #0 


SBM #1 


FINALIZATION FLAG=0 


UPDATE COUNTER=1 


BIT MAP #1 


■ ■ ■ 


■ ■ ■ 


SBM #n 


FINALIZATION FLAG=0 


UPDATE COUNTER=n 


BIT MAP #n 


SBM #n 


FINALIZATION FLAG=1 


UPDATE COUNTER=n 


BIT MAP #n 


NON-RECORDING 
AREA 


ffh 


■ ■ ■ 


■ ■ ■ 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



16/17 

FIG. 17 



1 



RECORDING/ 
REPRODUCING 
UNIT 

1 



100 



INPUT 



^1 



CONTROLLER 



MEMORY 



WO 2004/081926 



PCT/KR2004/000503 



17/17 

FIGo 18 



START ^ 



START INITIALIZATION OF WRITE ONCE DISC —110 



RECEIVE INSTRUCTION REGARDING WHETHER 
ALLOCATION OF AT LEAST ONE SECTION OF 
DATA AREA FOR DISC DEFECT MANAGEMENT 
IS REQUIRED 



— 120 



RECORD AREA ALLOCATION INFORMATION TO 
PREDETERMINED AREA OF THE WRITE 
ONCE DISC 



— 130 



RECORD DATA AND PERFORM DISC DEFECT 
MANAGEMENT 



— 140 



START RE-INITIALIZATION OF WRITE 
ONCE DISC 



— 150 



UPDATE AREA ALLOCATION INFORMATON — 1 60 



( END ) 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



Int >nal application No. 
PCT/KR2004/000503 



A. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 
IPC7 G11B 7/007 

According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 

B. FIELDS SEARCHED 

Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 
Gl IB 7/007 G11B 20/18 G11B7/00 Gl IB 20/12 



Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 
Korean Patents and applications for inventions since 1975 
Korean utility models and applications for utility models since 1975 



Electronic data base consulted during the intertnational search (name of data base and., where practicable, search terms used) 
WPI, PAJ "defect, management, DMA, lead-in, lead-out, temporary, SBM(space bit map)" 



C. DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category* 


Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 


Relevant to claim No. 


A 


WO 00-46805 Al (MATSUSHITA ELECTRIC INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD.) 10 Aug. 2000 
See the whole document 


1,12, 25,38, 42, 46, 
50 


A 


WO 0 1-67449 A2 (MATSUSHITA ELECTRIC INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD.) 13 Sep. 2001 
See the whole document 


1,12, 25, 38, 42, 46, 
50 


A 


JP 2002-288938 A (TOSHIBA CORP.) 04 Oct 2002 
See the whole document 


1,12, 25,38,42, 46, 
50 


A 


WO 00-54274 Al (MATSUSHITA ELECTRIC INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD.) 14 Sep. 2000 
See the whole document 


1,12, 25,38,42, 46, 
50 


P,A 


KR 2003-0083 119 A (LG Electronics Inc.) 30 Oct. 2003 
See the whole document 


1, 12, 25, 38, 42, 46, 
50 


| Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box C. Q See patent family annex. 



* Special categories of cited documents: 

"A" document defining the general state of the art which is not considered 

to be of particular relevance 
"E" earlier application or patent but published on or after the international 

filing date 

"L" document which may throw doubts on priority claim(s) or which is 
cited to establish the publication date of citation or other 
special reason (as specified) 

"O" document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or other 
means 

"P" document published prior to the international filing date but later 
than the priority date claimed 



"T" later document published after the international filing date or priority 

date and not in conflict with the application but cited to understand 

the principle or theory underlying the invention 
"X" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered novel or cannot be considered to involve an inventive 

step when the document is taken alone 
"Y" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered to involve an inventive step when the document is 

combined with one or more other such documents,such combination 

being obvious to a person skilled in the art 

document member of the same patent family 



Date of the actual completion of the international search 
23 JUNE 2004 (23.06.2004) 


Date of mailing of the international search report 
24 JUNE 2004 (24.06.2004) 


Name and mailing address of the ISA/KR 
jjPMhk Korean Intellectual Property Office 
■Ta^Zl 920 ^r 13311 - 01011 ^ Seo-gu 3 Daejeon 302-701, 
^Rt TBF"* Republic of Korea 

Facsimile No. 82-42-472-7140 


Authorized officer — 

KIM : Yong Woong i^k^) 
Telephone No. 82-42-48 1 -5698 ^%LM^-^ 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (second sheet) (January 2004)