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(19) 



Europaisches Patentamt 
European Patent Office 
Office europeen des brevets 



(11) 



BP 1 564 740 A1 



(12) 



EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION 

published in accordance witli Art. 158(3) EPC 



(A-3) Date of Dublication* 


int m 7- f511R0n/19 ni1R 90/10 
\^\) int L/l.' . Ul 1 ID ^U/ 1 \Jl \ ID ^U/ 1 u, 


1 7.08.2005 Bu iietin 2005/33 


tall D 27/00, (jil 1 D 7/0045, 


(21) Application number: 03775835.6 


G11B 7/007 


(22) Dateof filing: 19.11.2003 


(86) International application nunnber: 


PCT/JP2003/014719 




(87) International publication number: 




WO 2004/049332 (10.06.2004 Gazette 2004/24) 


(84) Designated Contracting States: 


(72) Inventors: 


AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES Fl FR GB GR 


• TERADA, Mitsutoshi 


HU IE IT LI LU MC NL PT RO SE SI SK TR 


Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0001 (JP) 


Designated Extension States: 


• KOBAYASHI, Shoei 


AL LT LV MK 


Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0001 (JP) 


(30) Priority: 22.11.2002 JP 2002339094 


(74) Representative: Muller, Frithjof E., Dipl.-lng. 




MUller Hoffmann & Partner 


(71) Applicant: Sony Corporation 


Patentanwalte 


Tokyo 141-0001 (JP) 


Innere Wiener Strasse 17 




81667 Miinchen (DE) 



(54) RECORDING MEDIUM, RECORDING DEVICE, REPRODUCTION DEVICE, RECORDING 
METHOD, AND REPRODUCTION METHOD 



(57) A recording medium that is a write-once record- 
ing medium with data rewritability, thereby increasing 
the usability of the write-once recording medium, is pro- 
vided. In a write-once recording medium, a main data 
area has a normal record and playback sub-area (a user 
data section), a rewriting replacement sub-area (an 
OSA), and a replacement management sub-area (an 
ISA). In response to a request to write data to an address 



FIG. 1 



at which data has been recorded, the rewritten data is 
recorded in the rewriting replacement sub-area (the 
OSA), and replacement management information that 
associates the original address with the address in the 
rewriting replacement sub-area is recorded into the re- 
placement management sub-area (the ISA). Thus, data 
rewriting is achieved. Accordingly, a write-once record- 
ing medium can be substantially used as a data rewri- 
table recording medium. 



O 
CO 




CONTROL DATA 
AREA 
DMA 

TEST-WRITE AREA 
BUFFER AREA 



lU 



Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR) 



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Description 

Technical Field 

[0001] The present invention relates to recording me- 
dia, particularly, write-once media, including an optical 
disk, and to a recording apparatus, a recording method, 
a playback apparatus, and a playback method for such 
recording media. 

Background Art 

[0002] One technique for recording and playing back 
digital data is a data recording technique using, for ex- 
ample, an optical disk (including a magneto-optical 
disk), such as a CD (Compact Disk), an MD (Mini-Disk), 
or a DVD (Digital Versatile Disk), as a recording medi- 
um. Optical disk is a general term for recording media 
of the type in which a disc of a thin metal plate protec- 
tively coated with plastic is irradiated with laser light and 
a change in the reflected light is used to capture a signal. 
[0003] Optical disks include, for example, playback- 
only disks known as CD, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, and so 
forth, and user-data-recordable disks known as MD, 
CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, 
DVD-RAM, and so forth. The recordable disks employ 
the magneto-optical recording method, the phase- 
change recording method, the dye-change recording 
method, and so on to record data. The dye-change re- 
cording method is also referred to as a write-once re- 
cording method, which provides one-time-data-record- 
able and non- rewritable media. This is suitable for data 
preservation purposes and the like. On the other hand, 
the magneto-optical recording method and the phase- 
change recording method, which enable data to be re- 
written, are employed for various applications, such as 
recording of various types of content data including mu- 
sic, motion pictures, games, and application programs. 
[0004] Recently, high-density optical disks, referred to 
as DVR (Data & Video Recording), have been devel- 
oped to achieve remarkably large capacity disks. 
[0005] For example, in recently developed high-den- 
sity disks, data recording and playback is conducted un- 
der the conditions wherein a laser (so-called blue laser) 
having a wavelength of 405 nm is combined with an ob- 
jective lens having an NA (numerical aperture) of 0.85. 
In this case, about 23.3 GB (gigabytes) of data can be 
recorded and piayed back on a 12-cm-diameter disk 
with a format efficiency of about 82% at a track pitch of 
0.32 \im and a linear density of 0.12 ^im/bit in recording 
and playback units of 64-KB (kilobyte) data blocks. 
[0006] High-density write-once or rewritable disks 
have also been developed. 

[0007] In order to record data onto a recordable disk 
that employs the magneto-optical recording method, the 
dye-change recording method, the phase-change re- 
cording method, or the like, tracking guide means for a 
data track is required. Thus, a pregrooved disk, or a disk 



having grooves formed in advance, is used, and the 
grooves or lands (plateau portions in cross section be- 
tween the grooves) are used as data tracks. 
[0008] Furthermore, address information must be re- 
5 corded in order to record data in position on a data track. 
In some cases, the address information is recorded us- 
ing wobbled grooves. 

[0009] Specifically, the track onto which data is to be 
recorded is formed in advance as, for example, a pre- 

10 groove, and the sidewall of the pregroove is wobbled 
according to address information. 
[0010] During recording or playback, the address is 
read from the wobble information that is obtained as re- 
flected-light information. Thus, data can be recorded 

15 and played back in a desired position, for example, even 
when pit data or the like that indicates an address is not 
formed in advance on a track. 

[0011] The address information added as wobbled 
grooves prevents the need for, for example, discrete ad- 
20 dress areas on the tracks to record addresses as, for 
example, pit data. The address areas are no longer nec- 
essary, and therefore, the recording capacity of live data 
becomes large. 

[0012] The absolute-time (address) information ex- 
25 pressed by the wobbled grooves is referred to ATI P (Ab- 
solute Time In Pregroove) or ADIP (Adress In Pre- 
groove), 

[0013] One known technique for such data-recorda- 
ble (not playback- only) recording media is that a spare 

30 area is provided for replacing the area in which data is 
recorded on the disk. This is a defective-area manage- 
ment technique for performing appropriate recording 
and playback operations using a spare recording area 
in place of a portion unsuitable for data recording due 

35 to a defect on a disk, such as a scratch. 

[001 4] One defective-area managing technique is dis- 
closed in, for example, PCT Japanese Translation Pat- 
ent Publication No. 2002-521786. 
[0015] In one-time recordable optical recording me- 

40 dia, such as a CD-R, a DVD-R, and a high-density write- 
once disk, it is impossible to record data onto a recorded 
area. 

[0016] Most file systems to be recorded onto optical 
recording media are specified on the assumption that 

45 the file systems are used on non-recordable playback- 
only media (ROM-type disks) or rewritable media (RAM- 
type disks). The file systems for one-time recordable 
media, i.e., write-once recording media, are specified so 
that certain functions are limited while special functions 

50 are added. 

[0017] This is the reason that the file systems for 
write-once optical recording media are not widely pop- 
ular. For example, FAT (File Allocation Table) file sys- 
tems compatible with various types of OS in information 

55 processing devices cannot be immediately used for the 
write-once media. 

[001 8] Write-once media are suitable for data preser- 
vation and the like and are widely used. If write-once 



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media is also capable of supporting the FAT file systems 
described above without changing the general specifi- 
cation thereof, write-once media would provide higher 
usability. 

[0019] However, in order to immediately use widely 
accepted file systems, such as FAT file systems, or the 
RAIVI or hard-disk file systems, the capability of writing 
data at the same address, i.e., data rewritability, is es- 
sential. As is known, one of the features of the write- 
once media is non-rewritabiiity, and it is therefore im- 
possible to immediately use the file systems described 
above that are used for rewritable recording media. 

Disclosure of Invention 

[0020] In view of such a situation, it is an object of the 
present invention to provide a write-once recording me- 
dium with data rewritability, thereby increasing the usa- 
bility of the write-once recording medium. 
[0021] The present invention provides a recording 
medium having a main data area that is a write-once 
recordable section in which data is writable once, and a 
management/control area in which management/con- 
trol information for recording and playing back data on 
the main data area is recorded. The main data area in- 
cludes a normal record and playback sub-area in which 
data is recorded and played back, a rewriting replace- 
ment sub-area into which rewritten data is recorded in 
response to a request to rewrite the data recorded in the 
normal record and playback sub-area, and a replace- 
ment management sub-area in which replacement man- 
agement information between the data that is to be up- 
dated in the normal record and playback sub-area ac- 
cording to a rewrite request and the rewritten data that 
is recorded in the rewriting replacement sub-area in re- 
sponse to the rewrite request is recorded. 
[0022] The sizes of the rewriting replacement sub-ar- 
ea and the replacement management sub-area are de- 
fined by the management/control information recorded 
in the management/control area. 
[0023] The management/control information record- 
ed in the management/control area includes information 
indicating whether or not the rewriting replacement sub- 
area and the replacement management sub-area are 
available. 

[0024] The management/control area is a write-once 

recordable section in which data is writable once, and 
includes a management/control-information placement 
sub-area for updating the management/control informa- 
tion for the rewriting replacement sub-area and the re- 
placement management sub-area. 
[0025] The present invention further provides a re- 
cording apparatus for a recording medium having a 
write-once recordable section in which data is writable 
once, the write-once recordable section including a 
main data area and a management/control area in which 
management/control information for recording and play- 
ing back data on the main data area is recorded. The 



recording apparatus includes writing means for writing 
data, and formatting control means. The formatting con- 
trol means causes the writing means to record the man- 
agement/control information in the management/control 

5 area so that the following sub-areas are formed in the 
main data area: a normal record and playback sub-area 
in which data is recorded and played back; a rewriting 
replacement sub-area into which rewritten data is re- 
corded in response to a request to rewrite the data re- 

10 corded in the normal record and playback sub-area, and 
a replacement management sub-area in which replace- 
ment management infomnation between the data that is 
to be updated in the normal record and playback sub- 
area according to a rewrite request and the rewritten da- 

^5 ta that is recorded in the rewrite replacement sub-area 
in response to the rewrite request is recorded. 
[0026] The present invention further provides a re- 
cording apparatus for a recording medium having a 
main data area that is a write-once recordable section 

20 in which data is writable once, and a management/con- 
trol area in which management/control infomnation for 
recording and playing back data on the main data area 
is recorded, the main data area including a normal 
record and playback sub-area in which data is recorded 

25 and played back, a rewriting replacement sub-area into 
which rewritten data is recorded in response to a request 
to rewrite the data recorded in the normal record and 
playback sub-area, and a replacement management 
sub-area in which replacement management informa- 

30 tion between the data that is to be updated in the nonnal 
record and playback sub-area according to a rewrite re- 
quest and the rewritten data that is recorded in the re- 
writing replacement sub-area in response to the rewrite 
request recorded. The recording apparatus includes 

35 writing means for writing data, confirming means for, up- 
on a request to write data to the main data area, con- 
firming whether or not the address specified by the write 
request is an address at which data has been recorded, 
determining means for when the confirming means con- 

40 firms that the address is an address at which data has 
been recorded, determining whether or not the data is 
rewritable and recordable using the rewriting replace- 
ment sub-area and the replacement management sub- 
area, and write control means. When the confirming 

45 means confirms that the address specified by the write 
request is an address at which no data has been record- 
ed, the write control means controls the writing means 
so as to write the data to the address specified by the 
write request. When the confirming means confirms that 

50 the address specified by the write request is an address 
at which data has been recorded and when the deter- 
mining means determines that the data is rewritable and 
recordable, the write control means controls the writing 
means so as to write the data in accordance with the 

55 write request to the rewriting replacement sub-area 
while recording the replacement management informa- 
tion into the replacement management sub-area. 
[0027] The present invention further provides a play- 



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back apparatus for a recording medium having a main 
data area that is a write-once recordable section in 
which data is writable once, and a management/control 
area in which management/control information for re- 
cording and playing back data on the main data area is 
recorded, the main data area including a normal record 
and playback sub-area in which data is recorded and 
played back, a rewriting replacement sub-area into 
which rewritten data is recorded in response to a request 
to rewrite the data recorded in the normal record and 
playback sub-area, and a replacement management 
sub-area in which replacement management informa- 
tion between the data that is to be updated in the normal 
record and playback sub-area according to a rewrite re- 
quest and the rewritten data that is recorded in the re- 
writing replacement sub-area in response to the rewrite 
request is recorded. The playback apparatus includes 
reading means for reading data, confirming means for, 
upon a request to read data from the main data sub- 
area, confimning whether or not the address specified 
by the read request is an address at which data has 
been rewritten, and read control means. When the con- 
firming means confirms thatthe address specified by the 
read request is not an address at which data has been 
rewritten, the read control means controls the reading 
means so as to read the data from the address specified 
by the read request. When the confirming means con- 
firms that the address specified by the read request is 
an address at which data has been rewritten, the read 
control means controls the reading means so as to read 
the data in accordance with the read request from the 
rewriting replacement sub-area based on the replace- 
ment management Information recorded in the replace- 
ment management sub-area. The present invention fur- 
ther provides a recording method for recording data onto 
a recording medium having a write-once recordable 
section in which data is writable once, the write-once 
recordable section including a main data area and a 
management/control area in which management/con- 
trol information for recording and playing back data on 
the main data area is recorded, wherein the manage- 
ment/control infomnation is recorded in the manage- 
ment/control area so that the following sub-areas are 
formed in the main data area: a normal record and play- 
back sub-area in which data is recorded and played 
back, a rewriting replacement sub-area into which re- 
written data is recorded in response to a request to re- 
write the data recorded in the normal record and play- 
back sub-area, and a replacement management sub- 
area in which replacement management information be- 
tween the data that is to be updated in the normal record 
and playback sub-area according to a rewrite request 
and the rewritten data that is recorded in the rewriting 
replacement sub-area in response to the rewrite request 
is recorded. 

[0028] The present invention further provides a re- 
cording method for recording data onto a recording me- 
dium having a main data area that is a write-once re- 



cordable section in which data is writable once, and a 
management/control area in which management/con- 
trol information for recording and playing back data on 
the main data area is recorded, the main data area in- 
5 eluding a normal record and playback sub-area in which 
data is recorded and played back, a rewriting replace- 
ment sub-area into which rewritten data is recorded in 
response to a request to rewrite the data recorded in the 
normal record and playback sub-area, and a replace- 
10 ment management sub-area in which replacement man- 
agement information between the data that is to be up- 
dated in the nomnal record and playback sub-area ac- 
cording to a rewrite request and the rewritten data that 
is recorded in the rewriting replacement sub-area in re- 
^5 sponse to the rewrite request is recorded. The recording 
method includes a confirming step of, upon a request to 
write data to the main data area, confirming whether or 
not the address specified by the write request is an ad- 
dress at which data has been recorded, a determining 
20 step of, when it is confirmed in the confirming step that 
this address is an address at which data has been re- 
corded, determining whether or not the data is rewritable 
and recordable using the rewriting replacement sub-ar- 
ea and the replacement management sub-area, a first 
25 writing step of, when it is confirmed in the confirming 
step that the address specified by the write request is 
an address at which no data has been recorded, writing 
the data to the address specified by the write request, 
and a second writing step of, when it is confirmed in the 
30 confirming step that the address specified by the write 
request is an address at which data has been recorded 
and when it is determined in the determining step that 
the data is rewritable and recordable, writing the data in 
accordance with the write request to the rewriting re- 
35 placement sub-area and recording the replacement 
management information into the replacement manage- 
ment sub-area. 

[0029] The present invention further provides a play- 
back method for playing back data on a recording me- 
40 dium having a main data area that is a write-once re- 
cordable section in which data is writable once, and a 
management/control area in which management/con- 
trol information for recording and playing back data on 
the main data area is recorded, the main data area in- 
45 eluding a normal record and playback sub-area in which 
data is recorded and played back, a rewriting replace- 
ment sub-area into which written data is recorded in re- 
sponse to a request to rewrite the data recorded in the 
normal record and playback sub-area, and a replace- 
so ment management sub-area in which replacement man- 
agement information between the data that is to be up- 
dated in the normal record and playback sub-area ac- 
cording to a rewrite request and the rewritten data that 
is recorded in the rewriting replacement sub-area in re- 
55 sponse to the rewrite request is recorded. The playback 
method includes a confirming step of, upon a request to 
read data from the main data area, confirming whether 
or not the address specified by the read request is an 



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address at which data has been rewritten, a first reading 
step of, when it is confirnned in the confirnning step that 
the address specified by the read request is not an ad- 
dress at which data has been rewritten, reading data 
from the address specified by the read request, and a 
second reading step of, when it is confirnned in the con- 
firming step that the address specified by the read re- 
quest is an address at which data has been rewritten, 
reading the data in accordance with the read request 
from the rewriting replacement sub-area based on the 
replacement management information recorded in the 
placement management sub-area. 
[0030] Accordingly, in the present invention, a write- 
once recording medium has a main data area including 
a normal record and playbacl< sub-area, a rewriting re- 
placement sub-area, and a replacement management 
sub-area. In a recording apparatus, upon a request to 
write data to an address at which data has been record- 
ed in the normal record and playback sub-area, that is, 
upon an Instruction to rewrite the data, the written data 
Is recorded Into the rewriting replacement sub-area, and 
replacement management Information that associates 
the original address with the address in the rewriting re- 
placement sub-area is recorded into the replacement 
management sub-area. Thus, data rewriting is 
achieved. 

[0031] In a playback apparatus, upon a request to 
read data from an address at which the data has been 
rewritten in the manner described above, the replace- 
ment management Information Is referred to, and the 
data is read from the address in the rewriting replace- 
ment sub-area that replaces the requested address. 
Thus, even when data has been rewritten, the rewritten 
data can be successfully read. 

Brief Description of the Drawings 

[0032] 

Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of a disk according to 

an embodiment of the present invention. 

Fig. 2 is a diagram showing DMAs in the disk of the 

embodiment. 

Fig. 3 is a diagram showing the sequence of used 

DDSs in the disk of the embodiment. 

Fig. 4 Is a table showing the description of the DDS 

in the disk of the embodiment. 

Fig. 5 is a diagram showing ISA and OSA in the disk 

of the embodiment. 

Fig. 6 Is a table showing the description of ATL in 
the disk of the embodiment. 
Fig. 7 is a table showing list management informa- 
tion that is contained in the ATL in the disk of the 
embodiment. 

Fig. 8 Is a diagram showing address transfer Infor- 
mation that Is contained in the ATL in the disk of the 

embodiment. 

Fig. 9 is a block diagram of a disk drive apparatus 



according to the embodiment. 
Fig. 1 0 is a flowchart showing a formatting process 
according to the embodiment. 
Fig. 11 is a flowchart showing a recording process 
5 according to the embodiment. 

Fig. 12 is a flowchart showing a playback process 
according to the embodiment. 

Best Mode for Carrying Out the Invention 

10 

[0033] An optical disk according to an embodiment of 
the present Invention will now be described. A disk drive 
apparatus (record and playback apparatus) that per- 
forms recording and playback of the optical disk will also 
^5 be described. The description will be made according to 
the following sequence: 

1 . Disk Structure 

2. DMA 
20 3. ISA and OSA 

4. Disk Drive Apparatus 

5. Formatting Process 

6. Recording Process 

7. Playback Process 

25 

1 . Disk Structure 

[0034] An optical disk according to an embodiment 
will first be described. This optical disk is implemented 
30 as a write-once disk In the category of high-density op- 
tical disks, referred to as DVR (Data & Video Record- 
ing). 

[0035] Example physical parameters of the high-den- 
sity optical disk according to this embodiment will bede- 
35 scribed. 

[0036] The optical disk in this example is 120 mm in 
diameter and 1 .2 mm in thickness. This disk looks like 
a CD (Compact Disc) disk or a DVD (Digital Versatile 
Disc) disk. 

40 [0037] Under the conditions wherein a so-called blue 
laser is used as the record/playback laser and a high-NA 
optical system is used, with a narrow track pitch, a high 
linear density, etc. , user data having a capacity of about 
23 Gbytes can be recorded and played back on the 

45 1 2-cm-diameter disk. 

[0038] Fig. 1 shows the disk layout (area structure). 
[0039] A lead-in zone, a data zone, and a lead-out 
zone reside on the disk, from the inner circumferential 
side. 

50 [0040] In view of the structure of record/playback re- 
gions, a pre-recorded Information section PIC that re- 
sides at the innermost side of the lead-in zone is used 
as a playback-only section, and the section that extends 
from a management section in the lead-in zone to the 

55 lead-out zone Is used as a one-time recondable write- 
once section. 

[0041] In the playback-only section and the write- 
once section, recording tracks that are formed of wob- 



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bled grooves are spirally formed. The grooves serve as 
a tracking guide for laser-spot tracing. Tine grooves also 
serve as recording tracl<s on which data is recorded and 
played bacl<. 

[0042] In this example, an optical disk wherein data is 
recorded in the grooves will be described. However, the 
present invention is not limited to such a groove-record- 
ing optical disk, and may be implemented as a land-re- 
cording optical disk wherein data is recorded in lands 
between the grooves, or a land-groove-recording optical 
disk wherein data is recorded in the grooves and lands. 
[0043] The grooves serving as recording tracks are 
wobbled according to a wobble signals. A disk drive ap- 
paratus for such an optical disk irradiates a laser spot 
onto a groove to detect the position of the edges of this 
groove from the reflected light thereof, and extracts a 
shifted component in the radial direction of the disk at 
the edges, which is caused by moving the laser spot 
along the recording track, thereby playing back the wob- 
ble signals. 

[0044] A wobble signal includes modulated address 
infomnation (physical address, other additional informa- 
tion, etc.) of the recording track at the position at which 
the signal is recorded. The disk drive apparatus demod- 
ulates the address infomnation, etc., from the wobble 
signal, thereby performing address control and the like 
for data recording or playback. 

[0045] The lead-in zone shown in Fig, 1 resides in, for 
example, an inner region that spans 24 mm in radius. 
[0046] The pre-recorded information section PIC re- 
sides in a portion in the lead-in zone, which spans 22.2 
mm to 23.1 mm in radius. 

[0047] The pre-recorded infomnation section PIC has 
playback-only information recorded in advance thereon 
in the form of wobbled grooves, including disk informa- 
tion such as recording and playback power require- 
ments, disk region information, information for use in 
copy protection, and so on. Such information may be 
recorded in the form of embossed pits or the like. 
[0048] Although not shown, a BCA (Burst Cutting Ar- 
ea) may reside in a portion further towards the inside 
than the pre-recorded information section PIC. In the 
BCA, a unique ID that is unique to the disk recording 
medium is recorded by a recording method of burning 
out the recording layer. That is, recording marks are con- 
centrically arranged to produce barcode-type recorded 
data. 

[0049] A management/control information section re- 
sides a portion in the lead-in zone, which spans, for ex- 
ample, 23.1 mm to 24 mm in radius. 
[0050] The management/control information section 
defines a predetermined area format having a control 
data area, a DMA (Defect (Disc) Management Area), a 
test-write area, a buffer area, and so on. 
[0051 ] The control data area in the management/con- 
trol information section has the following management/ 
control information recorded thereon: the disk type, the 
disk size, the disk version, the layer structure, the chan- 



nel bit length, BCA information, the transfer rate, data 
zone position information, the recording linear velocity, 
record/playback laser power information, etc. 
[0052] The test-write area defined in the manage- 

5 ment/control information section is used for a test write 
or the like when the data record/playback conditions, 
such as laser power during recording/playback, are set. 
The test-write area is therefore an area for adjusting the 
record/playback conditions. 

10 [0053] The DMA is also defined in the management/ 
control information section. In the field of optical disks, 
generally, DMA is referred to as a "defect management 
area" in which replacement management information of 
a defective area on the disk is recorded. However, the 

^5 DMA of the disk in this example is not used for replace- 
ment management of a defective area (but it can also 
be used for this), but is used as an area in which man- 
agement/control information for data rewriting on this 
write-once disk is recorded. In this sense, this DMA 

20 functions as a "disc management area". Particularly in 
this case, the DMA contains management information 
for ISA and OSA, as described below. 
[0054] The details of the DMA are described below, 
[0055] The data zone resides in an outer portion in the 

25 lead-in zone, which spans, for example, 24.0 mm to 58.0 
mm in radius. The data zone is a region in which user 
data is actually recorded and played back. The data 
zone has a start address ADdts and an end address AD- 
dte, which are indicated by the data zone position infor- 

30 mation in the control data area described above. 

[0056] In the data zone, an ISA (Inner Spare Area) 
resides at the innermost side, and an OSA (Outer Spare 
Area) resides at the outermost side. As described below, 
in the disk in this example, the OSA is used as a rewriting 

35 replacement area, and the ISA is used as a replacement 
management area. 

[0057] The ISA resides at the beginning of the data 
zone, having a predetemnined number of clusters (1 

cluster = 65536 bytes). 
40 [0058] The OSA resides inward from the end of the 
data zone, having a predetermined number of clusters. 
The sizes of the ISA and the OSA are defined in the 
DMA. 

[0059] In the data zone, a user data section is be- 
45 tween the ISA and the OSA. The user data section is a 
normal record and playback region that is used for nor- 
mal user data recording and playback. 
[0060] The location , that is, a start address ADus and 
an end address ADue, of the user data section, is de- 
50 fined in the DMA. 

[0061] The lead-out zone resides in a portion further 
towards the outside than the data zone, which spans, 
for example, 58.0 mm to 58.5 mm in radius. The lead- 
out zone is a management/control infomnation section, 
55 in which a control data area, a DMA, a buffer area, and 
so on are formed in a predetermined format. Like the 
control data area in the lead-in zone, the control data 
area has, for example, various management/control in- 



6 



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formation recorded thereon. Like the DMA in the lead- 
in zone, the DMA is provided as a region in which man- 
agement information for the ISA and OSA is recorded. 

2. DMA 

[0062] The structure of the DMAs recorded in the 
lead-in zone and the lead-out zone will now be de- 
scribed. As described above, each DMA in this example 

contains management/control information for managing 
the ISA and the OSA that enable data to be rewritten to 
the write-once disk. 

[0063] Fig. 2 shows a DMA 1 that represents the DMA 
in the lead-in zone, and a DMA 2 that represents the 
DMA in the lead-out zone. 

[0064] In the example shown, the size of each DMA 
is 32 clusters (32 x 65536 bytes). It is to be understood 
that the DMA size is not limited to 32 clusters. 
[0065] Either the DMA 1 in the lead-in zone or the 
DMA 2 in the lead-out zone contains pieces of detailed 
disk information DDSs (disc definition structures) each 
being composed of one cluster. 

[0066] The 32 clusters (CL1 to CL32) of the DMA 1 
and the 32 clusters (CL1 to CL32) of the DMA 2, i.e., a 
total of 64 clusters, are retained, in which DDSs DDS#1 
to DDS#64 are recorded. 

[0067] The DDS information has a size of one cluster, 
and recording of DDS#1 to DDS#64 means that the 
DDS can be written 64 times. In other words, the DDS 
itself can be updated 64 times. 

[0068] Fig. 3 shows the sequence of use in the DMAs. 

When the DDS is first written to the DMA, the DDS is 

recorded as DDS#1 in the cluster CL1 of the DMA 1 . 

[0069] When the DDS is updated, the updated DDS 

is recorded as DDS#2 in the cluster CL2 of the DMA 1 . 

At this time, DDS#1 is no longer valid. 

[0070] Thereafter, each time the DDS is updated, the 

clusters are used in turn according to the sequence 

shown in Fig. 3 to write a new DDS. 

[0071] Afterall 32 clusters of the DMA 1 are used, the 

clusters of the DMA 2 in the lead-out zone are used in 

turn from the first cluster to update the DDS. 

[0072] Thus, the DDS on the outermost side is valid 

at each time. 

[0073] The details of the DDS are shown in Fig. 4. 
[0074] As described above, the DDS has a size of one 
cluster (= 65536 bytes). 

[0075] In Fig. 4, the first byte of the 65536-byte DDS 
is indicated by byte 0. The number of bytes indicates the 
number of bytes necessary for data description. 
[0076] Two bytes from byte 0 and byte 1 contain a 
DDS identifier for identifying the DDS cluster. 
[0077] One byte at byte 2 defines the DDS format 
number (fomnat version). 

[0078] Four bytes from byte 32 to byte 35 define the 
start of the user data section in the data zone, that is, 
the location of LSN (logical sector number) "0" is defined 
by PSN (phisical sector number). 



[0079] Four bytes from byte 36 to byte 39 define the 
end of the user data area in the data zone, which is de- 
fined by LSN (logical sector address). 
[0080] Four bytes at byte 40 to byte 43 define the size 

5 of the ISA (inner spare area) in the data zone. 

[0081] Four bytes from byte 44 to byte 47 define the 
size of the OSA (outer spare area) in the data zone. 
[0082] One byte at byte 52 defines a spare-area avail- 
ability flag that indicates whether or not data is rewritable 

10 using the ISA and the OSA. The spare-area availability 
flag is used to indicate that the ISA or the OSA is full. 
[0083] The remaining bytes from byte 3 to byte 31 , 
from byte 48 to byte 51 , and from byte 53 to byte 65535 
are reserved (undefined) portions. 

15 [0084] In this manner, the DDS contains the address- 
es of the user data section , the size of the ISA and OSA, 
and the spare-area availability flag. Therefore, the DDS 
constitutes management/control information for area 
management of the ISA and OSA in the data zone. 

20 [0085] The DDS is updated when the descriptions of 
the DDS at each time are made different from the actual 
disk state. More specifically, the DDS is updated when 
the size of the OSA is changed or the spare-area avail- 
ability flag is changed. 

25 [0086] In other words, the disk in this example is a 
write-once recording medium that is configured such 
that the clusters of the DMAs are used as spare areas 
for the DDS (i.e., management/control information) to 
substantially update the DDS for managing the data 

30 zone. 

[0087] Since the DDS can be updated, the area sizes 
of the ISA and the OSA can be flexibly set depending 
upon the system used or the usage. 
[0088] Each of the lead-in zone and the lead-out zone 

35 may include a plurality of DMAs. 

[0089] For example, the lead-in zone includes two 
DMAs, and the lead-out zone includes two DMAs. In this 
case, the two DMAs in the lead-in zone may be used as 
the DMA 1 shown in Fig. 2 for DDS#1 to DDS#32, and 

40 the two DMAs in the lead-out zone may be used as the 
DMA 2 shown in Fig. 2 for DDS#33 to DDS#64. This 
means double writing of the DDS in order to increase 
data security. 

[0090] Alternatively, the two DMAs in each of the lead- 
45 in zone and the lead-out zone may be used as separate 
DDS areas, and may be used for DDS#1 to DDS#128. 
In this case, the DDS can be updated a larger number 

of times. 



[0091] The ISA and the OSA will now be described. 
[0092] As shown in Fig. 5(a), the ISA resides on the 
innermost side in the data zone, having a size of M clus- 
55 ters. The OSA resides on the outemnost side in the data 
zone, having a size of X clusters. 
[0093] The M clusters of the ISA and the X clusters of 
the OSA are defined as the sizes defined in the DDS. 



50 3. ISA and OSA 



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EP 1 564 740 A1 



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The sizes of the ISA and OSA are defined in the DDS 
in the manner described above, thereby setting the ISA 
and the OSA in the data zone. By updating the DDS, for 
example, the size of the OSA may be increased. 
[0094] The OSA is a rewriting replacement area into 
which rewritten data is recorded in response to a request 
to rewrite the data that is recorded in the user data sec- 
tion, i.e., a normal record/playback region. 
[0095] The ISA is a replacement management area in 
which an address transfer list (ATL) that is replacement 
management information between the data that is to be 
updated in the user data section according to a rewrite 
request and the rewritten data that is recorded in the 
OSA in response to this rewrite request is recorded. 
[0096] For example, as shown in Fig. 5(a), it is as- 
sumed that an address AD1 in the user data section in- 
dicates the location in which data has been recorded. 
When a request to write the data at the address AD1 , i. 
e., a rewrite request, is issued, no data can be written 
to the address AD1 because of a write-once recording 
medium. The rewritten data Is written to, for example, 
an address AD2 in the OSA. 

[0097] Then, the address transfer list ATL including 
address transfer information that associates the ad- 
dress AD1 with the address AD2 and that Indicates that 
the data at the address AD1 is recorded at the address 
AD2 is recorded into the ISA. 

[0098] Accordingly, in rewriting data, the rewritten da- 
ta is recorded in the OSA, and the data location transfer, 
which Is caused by the rewriting operation, Is managed 
by the address transfer list in the ISA. Thus, the data on 
a write-once disk would be substantially rewritten (as 
viewed from, for example, the OS in the host system, 
the file system, etc.). 

[0099] The ISA is maintained as an area of M clusters, 
and one cluster of address transfer list ATL Is recorded 
into the ISA. 

[0100] As shown in Fig. 5(b), a first address transfer 

list ATL #1 is recorded in the first cluster of the ISA. 
Thereafter, each time the address transfer list ATL is up- 
dated, the updated address transfer list ATL is recorded 
as address transfer lists ATL #2, #3, ... in the subse- 
quent clusters of the ISA in turn, as shown in Fig. 5(b). 
[0101] The OSA is maintained as a region of X clus- 
ters, and rewritten data DT is recorded in the OSA in 
units of clusters. As shown in Fig. 5(c), the rewritten data 
DT is recorded in one-cluster regions in turn from the 
last cluster of the OSA towards the top cluster without 
intermission. 

[01 02] Fig. 6 shows the structure of the address trans- 
fer list ATL. 

[0103] The address transfer list ATL has one cluster, 
i.e., 65536 bytes, by way of example. The byte position 
Indicates the relative position, wherein the top of one 
cluster is indicated by byte 0. 

[0104] Sixty -four bytes from byte 0 to byte 63 contain 
list management information. 

[01 05] Eight bytes from byte 64 to byte 71 contain first 



address transfer information ati#1 . 
[0106] If N pieces of address transfer information ati 
Is recordable In one address transfer list ATL, the sets 
of eight bytes of address transfer Information ati#2 to 

5 ati#N are subsequently recordable. 

[0107] The remaining bytes from byte (NX8+64) to 
byte 65535 are reserved portions. 
[0108] The list management information contained in 
the 64 bytes from byte 0 to byte 63 has a structure shown 

10 in Fig, 7. 

[01 09] Two bytes from byte 0 to byte 1 contain an ATL 
Identifier for identifying the cluster of the address trans- 
fer list ATL. 

[0110] One byte at byte 2 defines the ATL format 

^5 number (version number). 

[01 1 1] Four bytes from byte 1 2 to byte 1 5 define the 
number N of pieces of address transfer information ati 
registered. This is value "N" of the address transfer in- 
formation ati#1 to ati#N contained at byte 64 and the 

20 following bytes, as shown In Fig. 6. 

[0112] Four bytes from byte 24 to byte 27 define the 
number of clusters that indicates the size of an unre- 
corded space in the OSA. The number of clusters also 
indicates the number of times the data will be rewritable. 

25 [0113] The remaining bytes from byte 3 to byte 11, 
from byte 1 6 to byte 23, and from byte 28 to byte 63 are 
reserved portions. 

[0114] Fig. 8 shows the structure of the address trans- 
fer information ati that is registered in the address trans- 
30 fer list ATL. 

[0115] As described above, the address transfer in- 
formation ati is information having 8 bytes (i.e., 64 bits 
bO to b63). 

[0116] The bits b32 to b59 show the address at which 
35 the data is requested to be rewritten (overwritten), which 

is indicated by a physical sector address. For example, 

the address AD1 shown in Fig. 5 is shown. 

[0117] The bits bO to b31 show the address of the 

OSA at which the rewritten data is actually written, which 
40 is indicated by a physical sector address. For example, 

the address AD2 shown in Fig. 5 is shown. 

[0118] The bits b60 to b63 and the bits b28 to b31 are 

reserved, and are all set to "0". 

[01 1 9] The address transfer list ATL having the struc- 
45 ture described above is recorded in the ISA. Thus, it can 
be appropriately managed that the data that Is rewritten 
to an address In the user data section Is recorded Into 
the OSA. 

50 4. Disk Drive Apparatus 

[01 20] A disk drive apparatus that supports the write- 
once disk described above will now be described. 
[0121] The disk drive apparatus in this example for- 
55 mats a write-once disk, for example, a disk in which only 
the pre-recorded infomiatlon section PIC shown in Fig. 
1 is formed, wherein no data is recorded in the write- 
once section, thus achieving the disk layout shown in 



8 



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EP 1 564 740 A1 



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Fig. 1 . The disk drive apparatus also records and plays 
back data on the user data section of the disk that is 
formatted in this manner. 

[0122] As is to be understood, the disk drive appara- 
tus also performs recording/updating into the DMA, the 
ISA, and the OSA during the formatting operation, or if 
necessary. 

[0123] Fig. 9 shows the configuration of the disk drive 
apparatus. 

[0124] A disk 1 is the write-once disk described 
above. The disk 1 is mounted on a turntable (not shown), 
and is rotated by a spindle motor 52 at a constant linear 
velocity (CLV) during recording/playback, 
[01 25] An optical pickup (optical head) 51 picks up the 
ADIP address that is embedded as a wobbled groove 
track in the disk 1 , and the management/control infor- 
mation serving as pre-recorded information. 
[0126] During initial formatting or user-data recording, 
management/control information or user data is record- 
ed into tracks in the write-once section by the optical 
pickup. During playback, the recorded data is picked up 
by the optical pickup. 

[0127] The pickup 51 includes a laser diode serving 
as a laser source, a photodetector for detecting reflected 
light, an objective lens from which a laser beam is out- 
put, and an optical system (not shown) that irradiates 
the laser beam onto a disk recording surface via the ob- 
jective lens and that guides the reflected light to the pho- 
todetector. 

[0128] The objective lens in the pickup 51 is held so 
as to be movable in the tracking direction and the focus- 
ing direction by a two-axis mechanism. 
[0129] The overall pickup 51 is movable in the radial 
direction of the disk by a sled mechanism 53. 
[0130] The laser diode in the pickup 51 is driven by a 
drive signal (drive current) from a laser driver 63 to emit 
laser light. 

[0131] The reflected-light infomnation from the disk 1 

is detected by the photodetector in the pickup 51 , and 
is converted into an electrical signal according to the 
amount of received light, which is then supplied to a ma- 
trix circuit 54. 

[01 32] The matrix circuit 54 includes a current-to-volt- 
age converter circuit, a matrix computation/amplification 
circuit, and so on for supporting the output currents from 
a plurality of light-receiving devices serving as the pho- 
todetectors, which are subjected to matrix computation 
to generate necessary signals. 

[0133] For example, a high-frequency signal (play- 
back data signal) corresponding to playback data, a fo- 
cus error signal for servo control, a tracking error signal, 
and so on are generated. 

[0134] A signal corresponding to the wobbled 
grooves, that is, a push-pull signal that is a signal for 
detecting a wobbled portion, is also generated. 
[0135] In some cases, the matrix circuit 54 is integrat- 
ed into the pickup 51 . 

[0136] The playback data signal output from the ma- 



trix circuit 54 is supplied to a reader/writer circuit 55. The 
focus error signal and the tracking error signal are sup- 
plied to a servo circuit 61, and the push-pull signal is 
supplied to a wobble circuit 58. 

5 [0137] The reader/writer circuit 55 performs process- 
ing on the playback data signal to obtain binary data, to 
generate playback clocks using a PLL, and so forth. In 
this way, the reader/writer circuit 55 plays back the data 
that is picked up by the pickup 51 , and supplies the re- 

10 suiting data to a modem circuit 56. 

[0138] The modem circuit 56 has the function of de- 
coding data in playback, and the function of encoding 
data in recording. 

[0139] In decoding during playback, the modem cir- 

^5 cuit 56 performs demodulation of run-length limited 
code based on the playback clocks. 
[0140] An ECC encoder/decoder 57 performs ECC 
encoding to perform error correcting coding in record- 
ing, and performs ECC decoding to perform error cor- 

20 rection in playback. 

[0141] In playback, the ECC encoder/decoder 57 cap- 
tures the data demodulated by the modem circuit 56 in 
an internal memory, and performs error detecting/cor- 
recting processing, de-interleaving, and the like to ob- 

25 tain playback data. 

[0142] The data decoded into the playback data by 
the ECC encoder/decoder 57 is read according to an 
instruction from a system controller 60, and is then 
transferred to a device connected thereto, for example, 

30 an A/V (Audio-Visual) system 120. 

[0143] The push-pull signal that is output as a wob- 
bled-groove signal from the matrix circuit 54 is proc- 
essed by the wobble circuit 58. The push-pull signal, 
which is ADIP information, is demodulated by the wob- 

35 ble circuit 58 into a data stream constituting an ADIP 
address, and the demodulated signal is supplied to an 
address decoder 59. 

[0144] The address decoder 59 decodes the supplied 
data to obtain the address value, and supplies it to the 

40 system controller 60. 

[0145] The address decoder 59 further generates 
clocks by performing PLL processing on the wobble sig- 
nals from the wobble circuit 58, and supplies the clocks 
to the components as, for example, encoding clocks for 

45 recording. 

[01 46] The push-pull signal that is output as the push- 
pull signal from the matrix circuit 54 as a wobbled- 
groove signal and that is pre-recorded information PIC 
is bandpass-filtered by the wobble circuit 58, and the 

50 resulting data is supplied to the reader/writer circuit 55, 
where the supplied data is converted into a binary data 
bit stream. The resulting data bit stream is ECC decoded 
and de-interleaved by the ECC encoder/decoder 57, 
and the pre-recorded infonnation is extracted. The ex- 

55 tracted pre-recorded infonnation is supplied to the sys- 
tem controller 60. 

[01 47] The system controller 60 performs various op- 
eration settings, copy protection processing, etc., based 



9 



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EP 1 564 740 A1 



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on the read pre-recorded information. 
[01 48] I n recording , recording data is transferred from 
the A/V system 120. This recording data is sent to a 
memory of the ECC encoder/decoder 57 for buffering. 
[0149] The ECC encoder/decoder 57 performs en- 
coding on the buffered recording data, such as error cor- 
recting coding, interleaving, and sub-coding. 
[0150] The ECC encoded data is modulated by the 
modem circuit 56 according to, for example, RLL (1-7) 
P P, and the resulting data is supplied to the reader/writer 
circuit 55. 

[0151] The encoding clocks serving as reference 

clocks for encoding in recording employ the clocks that 
are generated from the wobble signals in the manner 
described above. 

[01 52] The recording data that is generated by encod- 
ing is subjected to recording compensation by the read- 
er/writer circuit 55 to finely adjust the optimal recording 
power for the properties of the recording layer, the con- 
figuration of the laser spot, the recording linear velocity, 
etc., to adjust the laser drive pulse waveform, or the like. 
Then, the resulting data is sent as laser drive pulses to 
the laser driver 63. 

[0153] In the laser driver 63, the supplied laser drive 
pulses are applied to the laser diode in the pickup 51 to 
activate laser beam emission. Thus, pits are formed in 
the disk 1 according to the recording data. 
[0154] The laser driver 63 includes a so-called APC 
(auto power control) circuit for controlling the laser out- 
put so as to become constant irrespective of the tem- 
perature or the like, while monitoring the laser output 
power that is output from a laser power monitoring de- 
tector in the pickup 51. The target laser outputs in re- 
cording and playback are defined by the system control- 
ler 60. In recording and playback, the respective laser 
output levels are controlled so as to reach the target val- 
ues. 

[0155] The servo circuit 61 generates focus, tracking, 
and sled servo drive signals from the focus error signal 
and tracking error signal from the matrix circuit 54 to ex- 
ecute servo operations. 

[0156] Specifically, the focus drive signal and the 
tracking drive signal are generated based on the focus 

error signal and the tracking error signal to drive a fo- 
cusing coil and atracking coil ofthe two-axis mechanism 
in the pickup 51 . Thus, a tracking servo loop and a focus 
servo loop are established by the pickup 51 , the matrix 
circuit 54, the servo circuit 61 , and the two-axis mecha- 
nism. 

[0157] The servo circuit 61 turns off the tracking servo 
loop in responsetoatrack-jump instruction from the sys- 
tem controller 60, and outputs a jump-drive signal to 
jump the track. 

[0158] The servo circuit 61 further generates a sled 
error signal that is obtained as a low-frequency compo- 
nent of the tracking error signal, or a sled-drive signal 
based on access execution control or the like from the 
system controller 60 to drive the sled mechanism 53. 



The sled mechanism has a mechanism (not shown) in- 
cluding a main shaft for holding the pickup 51 , a sled 
motor, a transmission gear, and so on. The sled motor 
is driven according to the sled-drive signal to slide the 
5 pickup 51 as required. 

[0159] A spindle servo circuit 62 controls the spindle 
motor 52 to perform CLV rotation. 
[0160] The spindle servo circuit 62 obtains the clocks 
that are generated by performing PLL processing on the 
wobble signals as the current rotational velocity infor- 
mation of the spindle motor 52, and compares the ob- 
tained infomnation with predetermined CLV reference 
velocity information to generate a spindle error signal. 
[0161] In playing back data, the playback clocks (the 
reference clocks for decoding) that are generated by 
PLL in the reader/writer circuit 55 constitute the current 
rotational velocity information of the spindle motor 52. 
This information may be compared with predetermined 
CLV reference velocity information to generate a spindle 
error signal. 

[0162] The spindle servo circuit 62 outputs a spindle 
drive signal that is generated according to the spindle 
error signal, and drives the spindle motor 52 to perform 
CLV rotation. 

[0163] The spindle servo circuit 62 further generates 
a spindle drive signal according to a spindle kick/brake 
control signal from the system controller 60, and drives 
the spindle motor 52 to start, stop, accelerate, deceler- 
ate, and so forth. 

[0164] The operations of such a servo system and 
record/playback system are controlled by the system 
controller 60 that is implemented by a microcomputer. 
[0165] The system controller 60 performs various 
processing in response to commands from the A/V sys- 
tem 120. 

[0166] For example, when a write command is sent 
from the A/V system 120, first, the system controller 60 
moves the pickup 51 to the address to be written. Then, 
the data (for example, MPEG-2 video data, audio data, 
or the like) that is transferred from the A/V system 120 
is encoded by the ECC encoder/decoder 57 and the mo- 
dem circuit 56 in the manner described above. As de- 
scribed above, the laser drive pulses from the reader/ 
writer circuit 55 are supplied to the laser driver 63, thus 
activating recording. 

[0167] For example, when a read command to trans- 
fer data (MPEG-2 vide data or the like) that is recorded 
in the disk 1 is supplied from the /W system 120, first, 
seeking control for the specified address is performed. 
Specifically, the servo circuit 61 is instructed that the 
pickup 51 accesses the target address that is specified 
by the seek command. 

[0168] Then, operation control necessary for transfer- 
ring the data of the specified data section to the A/V sys- 
tem 120 is performed. Specifically, data is picked up 
from the disk 1 , and is then decoded/buffered, etc., by 
the reader/writer circuit 55, the modem circuit 56, and 
the ECC encoder/decoder 57 to transfer the requested 



15 



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30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



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data. 

[01 69] I n recording and playing back data, the system 
controller 60 nnay use the ADIP address that is detected 
by the wobble circuit 58 and the address decoder 59 to 
perform accessing or record/playback control. 
[01 70] At a certain tinne, for exannple, when the disk 1 
is loaded, the system controller 60 performs reading of 
the unique ID that is recorded in the BCA in the disk 1 
(if the BCA is formed) or the pre-recorded information 
(PIC) that is recorded as wobbled grooves in the play- 
back-only section. 

[0171] In this case, first, seek control for the BCA or 

a pre-recorded data zone PR is performed. Specifically, 
the servo circuit 61 is instructed that the pickup 51 ac- 
cesses the innermost portion of the disk. 
[0172] Then, the pickup 51 performs a playback trace 
to obtain the push-pull signal, which is reflected-light in- 
formation. The wobble circuit 58, the reader/writer circuit 
55, and the ECC encoder/decoder 57 perform decoding 
to obtain playback data, which is BCA information or 
pre-recorded Information. 

[0173] Based on the read BCA information or pre-re- 
corded information, the system controller 60 performs 
laser power settings, copy protection processing, and 
so on. 

[0174] Although the disk drive apparatus that is con- 
nected to the A/V system 1 20 is shown in Fig. 9, the disk 
drive apparatus of the present invention may be con- 
nected to, for example, a personal computer or the like. 
[01 75] The disk drive apparatus of the present inven- 
tion is not necessarily connected to another device. In 
this case, an operation unit or a display unit is addition- 
ally provided, or the data input/output interface is differ- 
ent from that shown in Fig. 9. That is, recording and play- 
back are carried out in response to a user operation, 
and terminals for inputting and outputting various data 
are provided. 

[0176] A variety of configurations may be conceiva- 
ble. For example, the disk drive apparatus of the present 
invention may be implemented as a recording-only de- 
vice and a playback-only device. 

5. Formatting Process 

[0177] The write-once disk 1 used in this disk drive 
apparatus may be shipped from the factory in the unfor- 
matted form. The write-once disk 1 in the unformatted 
form only contains the pre-recorded information that is 
defined as wobbled grooves in the playback-only sec- 
tion shown in Fig. 1 , the ADIP address that is defined 
as wobbled grooves in the write-once section, and the 
like. 

[0178] Thus, before the disk 1 is used, the disk 1 is 
formatted to fomn the management section in the lead- 
in zone, as described above, and to set the ISA and the 
OSA in the data zone based on the information recorded 
in the DOS of the DMA. 

[01 79] Fig. 1 0 shows a control process of the system 



controller 60 for this formatting process. 
[0180] In a formatting operation, first, instep FIG, pre- 
recorded information is captured. The system controller 
60 causes the pickup 51 to access the disk innermost 

5 portion to capture pre-recorded information. Based on 
the captured pre-recorded information, the system con- 
troller 60 obtains basic information of the disk 1 . 
[0181] In step F11 , the sizes of the ISA and the OSA 
are defined. The sizes of the ISA and the OSA may be 

10 set to fixed values in advance by a formatting program 
in the system controller 60, or may be instructed by, for 
example, the AA/ system 120 or an application, OS, or 
the like of a personal computer that is connected there- 
to. 

15 [0182] In step F12, the start address ADus and the 
end address ADue of the user data section are deter- 
mined from the address of the data zone and the sizes 
of the ISA and the OSA defined in step F11 . 
[0183] The start address ADdts and the end address 
20 ADdte of the data zone are recorded in, for example, the 
pre-recorded infomnation, and are thus recognized by 
the system controller 60. The start address ADus of the 
user data section is given by adding the number of clus- 
ters of the ISA to the start address ADdts of the data 
25 zone. The end address ADue of the user data section 
is given by subtracting the number of clusters of the OSA 
from the end address ADdte of the data zone. 
[0184] In steps F11 and F12, the description of the 
DDS (see Fig. 4) in the DMA is determined, and, in step 
30 F13, first DDS data, i.e., DDS#1 , is generated. 

[0185] In step F14, the DMA including the DDS data 
DDS#1 , the management/control information of the con- 
trol data area, etc., are recorded in the management 
section in the lead-in zone. Specifically, the manage- 
rs ment section is generated so as to contain the DM A that 
has the DDS data DDS#1 recorded in the first cluster 
and the information of the control data area that is gen- 
erated based on the pre-recorded information and the 
likewhile maintaining a test-write area and abutter area. 
40 [0186] Therefore, the formatted disk shown in Fig. 1 
is obtained. 

[0187] The formatting process described above may 
be performed by a formatting disk drive apparatus be- 
fore the disk is shipped. 

45 

6. Recording Process 

[0188] The processing of the system controller 60 
when data is recorded onto the disk 1 by the disk drive 
50 apparatus will now be described with reference to Fig. 
11. 

[0189] It is assumed that a request to write data at the 
logical sector address ADx(L) is sent to the system con- 
troller 60 from a host device such as the AA/ system 1 20 . 
55 [0190] The process proceeds from step F1 01 to step 
F1 02, in which the system controller 60 first detennines 
whether or not the logical sector address ADx(L) is an 
address at which data has been recorded. 



11 



21 



EP 1 564 740 A1 



22 



[0191] In this case, first, the specified logical sector 
address ADx(L) is converted into a physical sector ad- 
dress ADx(P). 

[0192] The physical sector address ADx(P) is deter- 
mined by adding a "start physical sector address of the 
user data section", which is recorded in the DDS, to the 
logical sector address ADx(L). 
[0193] Then, it is determined whether or not the phys- 
ical sector address ADx(P) is an address at which data 
has been recorded. 

[01 94] If this physical sector address ADx(P) is an ad- 
dress at which no data has been recorded, the process 

proceeds from step F102 to step F103, in which data is 
recorded in the physical sector address ADx(P). Then, 
the process ends. 

[01 95] This is a standard recording process for the us- 
er data section. 

[01 96] If the physical sector address ADx(P) specified 
by the write request is an address at which data has 
been recorded, the process proceeds from step F1 02 to 
step F1 04, in which it is detemriined whether or not either 
the OSA or the ISA is full. This determination is per- 
formed using the spare-area availability flag of the DDS 
shown in Fig. 4. Whether or not the OSA is full may also 
be determined by checking the number of clusters avail- 
able in the OSA in the list management information of 
the ISA shown in Fig. 7. 

[0197] If both the ISA and the OSA have an empty 
space, the process of the system controller 60 proceeds 
from step F1 04 to step F1 05, in which the pickup 51 ac- 
cesses the OSA to record the data, which is requested 
to be written at the physical sector address ADx(P), at 
the empty address in the OSA, that is, the address that 
is determined according to the writing sequence of the 
data DT shown in Fig. 5(c). 

[01 98] In step F1 06, data is recorded in the ISA, if nec- 
essary. 

[0199] If the address of the OSA at which the data is 

recorded in step F1 05 is indicated by ADx (OSA), in step 
F106, a new address transfer list ATL in which the ad- 
dress transfer information ati (see Fig. 8) that includes 
the physical sector address ADx(P) as the original phys- 
ical sector address and the address ADx(OSA) as the 
replaced physical sector address is added to the ad- 
dress transfer list ATL (see Fig. 6) and in which the 
number of clusters available in the OSA is updated in 
the list management information (see Fig. 7) is recorded 
in the ISA. 

[0200] After the address transfer list ATL contained in 
the ISA is updated, the processing in response to the 
write request ends. Accordingly, the system controller 
60 can support a request to write data at a recorded ad- 
dress, that is, a rewrite request, using the ISA and the 
OSA. 

[0201] If either the OSA or the ISA is full in step F104, 
and the rewritten data is not recordable or the address 

transfer list ATL is not updatable, this write request can- 
not be supported. The process proceeds from step F1 04 



to step F107, in which an error indicating that there is 
no writable space is returned to the host system, and 
the process ends. 

5 7. Playback Process 

[0202] The processing of the system controller 60 
when data is played back on the disk 1 by the disk drive 
apparatus will now be described with reference to Fig. 
12. 

[0203] It is assumed that a request to read data from 
the logical sector address ADx(L) is sent to the system 
controller 60 from a host device such as the AN system 
120. 

[0204] The process proceeds from step F201 to step 
F202, in which the system controller 60 determines 
whether or not the data at the logical sector address ADx 
(L) has been rewritten, that is, whether or not this ad- 
dress has been registered in the address transfer list 
ATL. 

[0205] In this case, first, the specified logical sector 
address ADx(L) is converted into a physical sector ad- 
dress ADx(P). 

[0206] Then, it is determined whether or not the phys- 
ical sector address ADx(P) has been registered as the 
original physical sector address in any address transfer 
information ati in the address transfer list ATL. 
[0207] If the physical sector address ADx(P) has not 
been registered in the address transfer list ATL, the 
process proceeds from step F202 to step F203, in which 
it is determined whether or not the physical sector ad- 
dress ADx(P) is an address at which data has been re- 
corded. 

[0208] If this address is an address at which no data 
has been recorded, in step F205, an address error is 
returned to the host, and the process ends. 
[0209] If the physical sector address ADx(P) is an ad- 
dress at which data has been recorded, in step F204, 
the data is played back from the physical sector address 
ADx(P), and the process ends. 
[021 0] This is a standard playback process for the us- 
er data section. 

[021 1 ] If the physical sector address ADx(P) specified 
by write request has been registered in the address 
transfer list ATL in step F202, the process proceeds from 
step F202 to step F206, in which the replaced physical 
sector address ADx(OSA) is read from the correspond- 
ing address transfer Information ati in the address trans- 
fer list ATL. This address is an OSA address. 
[0212] In step F207, the system controller 60 reads 
the data from the address ADx(OSA) in the OSA that is 
registered as the replaced physical sector address, and 
the read data is transferred to a host device such as the 
AA/ system 120. Then, the process ends. 
[0213] Accordingly, after data is rewritten, in response 
to a request to play back the rewritten data, the latest 
data can be appropriately played back and transferred 
to a host device. 



15 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



12 



23 



EP 1 564 740 A1 



24 



[021 4] According to the disk and disk drive apparatus 
of the embodiment described above, a write-once disk 
capable of supporting a write request to the same ad- 
dress and capable of using a file system that is not avail- 
able in a traditional write-once disk is achieved. A file 
system compatible with various types of OS, such as 
FAT file systems, can be immediately used to exchange 
data without being aware of the difference in OS. 
[0215] As is to be understood, it is possible to rewrite 
not only user data but also directory information, such 
as FAT, that is recorded in the user data section. There- 
fore, file systems in which directory information and the 
like are updated occasionally, such as FAT file systems, 
are suitably applied. 

[0216] In the A/V system 120, video data or audio data 
would be updated in such a medium as long as a re- 
cordable area is left in the ISA or the OSA. 
[0217] In the foregoing description, the ISA and the 
OSA are used for data rewriting, whereas, the ISA and 
the OSA may also be used as spare areas for a defective 
area. If there is a defective-area address on the disk, 
the data to be written to this address is recorded at an 
address in the OSA, and both addresses are registered 
as address transfer information ati in the ISA. 
[0218] While a disk according to an embodiment and 
a disk drive apparatus for the disk have been described, 
the present invention is not limited to the examples de- 
scribed above, and a variety of modifications may be 
made without departing from the scope of the invention. 
[0219] For example, the recording medium of the 
present invention may be implemented as recording 
media other than optical disk media. 
[0220] As is understood from the foregoing descrip- 
tion, the present invention achieves the following advan- 
tages: 

[0221] According to the present invention, in a write- 
once recording medium, a main data area (i.e., a data 
zone) has a nonrial record and playback sub-area (i.e., 
a user data section), a rewriting placement sub-area (i. 
e., an OSA), and a replacement management sub-area 
(i.e., an ISA). Upon a request to write data to an address 
at which data has been recorded in the normal record 
and playback sub-area, that is, upon an instruction to 
rewrite data, the rewritten data is recorded in the rewrit- 
ing replacement sub-area, and replacement manage- 
ment information (i.e., an ATL) that associates the orig- 
inal address with the address in the rewriting replace- 
ment sub-area is recorded in the replacement manage- 
ment sub-area. Thus, data rewriting is achieved. Upon 
a request to read data from an address at which the data 
has been rewritten in the manner described above, the 
replacement management information is referred to, 
and the data is read from the address in the rewriting 
replacement sub-area that replaces the requested ad- 
dress. Thus, even when data has been rewritten, the 
rewritten data can be successfully read. 
[0222] According to the present invention, therefore, 
a write-once recording medium can be substantially 



used as a data rewritable recording medium. Such a 
write-once recording medium can support file systems 
compatible with rewritable recording media, such as 
FAT systems. Thus, advantageously, write-once record- 

5 ing media with remarkably high usability is achieved. 
[0223] A FAT file system, which is a standard file sys- 
tem in an information processing device such as a per- 
sonal computer, supports recording and playback on re- 
writable recording media from various types of OS (op- 

10 erating system). According to the present invention, a 
write-once recording medium can immediately support 
the FAT file system to exchange data without being 
aware of the different in OS. 

[0224] Moreover, according to the present invention, 
^5 as long as there Is left a recordable area, a write-once 
recording medium can be used as a data writable re- 
cording medium. Thus, advantageously, write-once re- 
cording media can effectively be used, and waste of re- 
sources can be avoided. 
20 [0225] The sizes of the rewriting replacement sub-ar- 
ea and the replacement management sub-area are de- 
fined by the management/control information (i.e., a 
DDS) that is recorded in the management/control area. 
Thus, the size of the rewriting replacement sub-area or 
25 the replacement management sub-area can be flexibly 
set depending upon the system used or the usage by 
setting or updating the management/control informa- 
tion. 

[0226] Moreover, the management/control informa- 
30 tion that is recorded in the management/control area in- 
cludes information indicating whether or not the rewrit- 
ing replacement sub-area and the replacement man- 
agement sub-area are available. Thus, an apparatus, 
such as a recording apparatus, can easily and correctly 
35 determine rewritability. 

[0227] In a case where the management/control sec- 
tion is also a write-once recordable area, the manage- 
ment/control section includes a management/control-in- 
formation replacement sub-area for updating the man- 
40 agement/control information (i.e., a DDS) for the rewrit- 
ing replacement sub-area and the replacement man- 
agement sub-area. Thus, the management/control in- 
formation can be updated. 



45 

Claims 

1. A recording medium having a main data area that 
is a write-once recordable section in which data is 
50 writable once, and a management/control area in 
which management/control information for record- 
ing and playing back data on the main data area is 
recorded, 

wherein the main data area includes: 

55 

a normal record and playback sub-area in 

which data is recorded and played back; 

a rewriting replacement sub-area into which re- 



13 



25 



EP 1 564 740 A1 



26 



written data is recorded in response to a re- 
quest to rewrite tine data recorded in the nornnal 
record and playback sub-area; and 
a replacennent nnanagement sub-area in wliicli 
replacement managennent information be- 5 
tween the data that is to be updated in the nor- 
mal record and playback sub-area according to 
a rewrite request and the rewritten data that is 
recorded in the rewriting replacennent sub-area 
in response to the rewrite request is recorded. io 

2. A recording medium according to claim 1 , wherein 
the sizes of the rewriting replacement sub-area and 
the replacement management sub-area are defined 
by the management/control information recorded in 
the management/control area. 

3. A recording medium according to claim 1 , wherein 
the management/control information recorded in 

the management/control area includes information 20 
indicating whether or not the rewriting replacement 
sub-area and the replacement management sub- 
area are available. 

4. A recording medium according to claim 1 , wherein 25 
the management/control area is a write-once re- 
cordable section in which data is writable once, and 
includes a management/control-information re- 
placement sub-area for updating the management/ 
control information for the rewriting replacement 30 
sub-area and the replacement management sub- 
area. 

5. A recording apparatus for a recording medium hav- 
ing a write-once recordable section in which data is 35 
writable once, the write-once recordable section in- 
cluding a main data area and a management/con- 
trol area in which management/control information 

for recording and playing back data on the main da- 
ta area is recorded, said recording apparatus com- 40 
prising: 

writing means for writing data; and 
formatting control means for causing the writing 
means to record the management/control infor- 
mation in the management/control area so as 
to form in the main data area: 

a normal record and playback sub-area in 
which data is recorded and played back; so 
a rewriting replacement sub-area into 
which rewritten data is recorded in re- 
sponse to a request to rewrite the data re- 
corded in the nomnal record and playback 
sub-area; and ss 
a replacement management sub-area in 
which replacement management informa- 
tion between the data that is to be updated 



in the normal record and playback sub-ar- 
ea according to a rewrite request and the 
rewritten data that is recorded in the rewrit- 
ing replacement sub-area in response to 
the rewrite request is recorded. 

6. A recording apparatus for a recording medium hav- 
ing a main data area that is a write-once recordable 
section in which data is writable once, and a man- 
agement/control area in which management/con- 
trol information for recording and playing back data 
on the main data area is recorded, the main data 
area including a normal record and playback sub- 
area in which data is recorded and played back, a 
rewriting replacement sub-area into which rewritten 
data is recorded in response to a request to rewrite 
the data recorded in the normal record and play- 
back sub-area, and a replacement management 
sub-area in which replacement management infor- 
mation between the data that is to be updated in the 
nomnal record and playback sub-area according to 
a rewrite request and the rewritten data that is re- 
corded in the rewriting replacement sub-area in re- 
sponse to the rewrite request is recorded, said re- 
cording apparatus comprising: 

writing means for writing data; 
confirming means for, upon a request to write 
data to the main data area, confirming whether 
or not the address specified by the write request 
is an address at which data has been recorded; 
determining means for, when the confirming 
means confirms that the address is an address 
at which data has been recorded, determining 
whether or not the data is rewritable and record- 
able using the rewriting replacement sub-area 
and the placement management sub-area; and 
write control means for when the confirming 
means confirms that the address specified by 
the write request is an address at which no data 
has been recorded, controlling the writing 
means so as to write the data to the address 
specified by the write request, and, when the 
confirming means confirms that the address 
specified by the write request is an address at 
which data has been recorded and when the 
determining means determines that the data is 
rewritable and recordable, controlling the writ- 
ing means so as to write the data in accordance 
with the write request to the rewriting replace- 
ment sub-area while recording the replacement 
management information into the replacement 
management sub-area. 

7. A playback apparatus for a recording medium hav- 
ing a main data area that is a write-once recordable 

section in which data is writable once, and a man- 
agement/control area in which management/con - 



14 



27 



EP 1 564 740 A1 



28 



trol information for recording and playing back data 
on the nnain data area is recorded, the main data 
area including a normal record and playback sub- 
area in which data is recorded and played back, a 
rewriting replacement sub-area into which rewritten 5 
data is recorded in response to a request to rewrite 
the data recorded in the normal record and play- 
back sub-area, and a replacement management 
sub-area in which replacement management infor- 
mation between the data that is to be updated in the io 
normal record and playback sub-area according to 
a rewrite request and the rewritten data that Is re- 
corded in the rewriting replacement sub-area in re- 
sponse to the rewrite request is recorded, said play- 
back apparatus comprising: 

reading means for reading data; 
confirming means for, upon a request to read 
data from the main data sub-area, confirming 
whether or not the address specified by the 20 
read request is an address at which data has 
been rewritten; and 

read control means for, when the confirming 
means confirms that the address specified by 
the read request is not an address at which data 25 
has been rewritten, controlling the reading 
means so as to read the data from the address 
specified by the read request, and, when the 
confirming means confirms that the address 
specified by the read request is an address at 30 
which data has been rewritten, controlling the 
reading means so as to read the data in accord- 
ance with the read request from the rewriting 
replacement sub-area based on the replace- 
ment management information recorded in the 35 
replacement management sub-area. 

8. A recording method for recording data onto a re- 
cording medium having a write-once recordable 
section in which data is writable once, the write- 40 
once recordable section including a main data area 
and a management/control area in which manage- 
ment/control information for recording and playing 
back data on the main data area is recorded, 

wherein the management/control information 
is recorded in the management/control area so as 
to form in the main data area: 

a normal record and playback sub-area in 
which data is recorded and played back; so 
a rewriting replacement sub-area into which re- 
written data is recorded in response to a re- 
quest to rewrite the data recorded in the normal 
record and playback sub-area; and 
a replacement management sub-area in which ss 
replacement management information be- 
tween the data that is to be updated in the nor- 
mal record and playback sub-area according to 



a rewrite request and the rewritten data that is 
recorded in the rewriting replacement sub-area 
in response to the rewrite request is recorded. 

9. A recording method for recording data onto a re- 
cording medium having a main data area that is a 
write-once recordable section in which data is wri- 
table once, and a management/control area in 
which management/control information for record- 
ing and playing back data on the main data area is 
recorded, the main data area including a normal 
record and playback sub-area in which data is re- 
corded and played back, a rewriting replacement 
sub-area into which rewritten data is recorded in re- 
sponse to a request to rewrite the data recorded in 
the nomnal record and playback sub-area, and a re- 
placement management sub-area in which replace- 
ment management information between the data 
that is to be updated in the normal record and play- 
back sub-area according to a rewrite request and 
the rewritten data that is recorded in the rewriting 
replacement sub-area in response to the rewrite re- 
quest is recorded, said recording method compris- 
ing: 

a confirming step of, upon a request to write da- 
ta to the main data area, confirming whether or 
not the address specified by the write request 
is an address at which data has been recorded; 
a determining step of, when it is confirmed in 
the confirming step that this address is an ad- 
dress at which data has been recorded, deter- 
mining whether or not the data is rewritable and 
recordable using the rewriting replacement 
sub-area and the replacement management 
sub-area; 

a first writing step of, when it is confirmed in the 
confirming step that the address specified by 
the write request is an address at which no data 
has been recorded, writing the data to the ad- 
dress specified by the write request; and 
a second writing step of, when it is confirmed 
in the confirming step that the address specified 
by the write request is an address at which data 
has been recorded and when it is determined 
in the determining step that the data is rewrita- 
ble and recordable, writing the data in accord- 
ance with the write request to the rewriting re- 
placement sub-area and recording the replace- 
ment management information into the re- 
placement management sub-area. 

10. A playback method for playing back data on a re- 
cording medium having a main data area that is a 
write-once recordable section in which data is wri- 
table once, and a management/control area in 
which management/control information for record- 
ing and playing back data on the main data area is 



15 



29 



EP 1 564 740 A1 



recorded, the main data area including a nornnal 
record and playback sub-area in whicin data is re- 
corded and played back, a rewriting replacennent 
sub-area into which rewritten data is recorded in re- 
sponse to a request to rewrite the data recorded in 5 
the normal record and playback sub-area, and a re- 
placement management sub-area in which replace- 
ment management information between the data 
that is to be updated in the normal record and play- 
back sub-area according to a rewrite request and io 
the rewritten data that is recorded in the rewriting 
replacement sub-area in response to the rewrite re- 
quest is recorded, said playback method compris- 
ing: 

15 

a confirming step of, upon a request to read da- 
ta from the main data area, confirming whether 
or notthe address specified by the read request 
is an address at which data has been rewritten; 
a first reading step of, when it is confirmed in 20 
the confirming step that the address specified 
by the read request is not an address at which 
data has been rewritten, reading data from the 
address specified by the read request; and 
a second reading step of, when it is confimned 25 
in the confirming step that the address specified 
by the read request is an address at which data 
has been rewritten, reading the data in accord- 
ance with the read request from the rewriting 
replacement sub-area based on the replace- 30 
ment management information recorded in the 
replacement management sub-area. 



16 



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17 



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^< CDCO 
CO O I— ^ 



21 



EP 1 564 740 A1 



FIG. 6 



BYTE POSITION 


DESCRIPTION 


NUMBER OF BYTES 


0-63 


LIST MANAGEMENT 
INFORMATION 


64 


64-71 


ADDRESS TRANSFER 
INFORMATION ati #1 


8 


72-135 


ADDRESS TRANSFER 
INFORMATION at! #2 


8 










ADDRESS TRANSFER INFOR- 
MATION ati #N (N^O} 


8 


(N X 8+64)-65535 


RESERVED, ALL OOh 


65536-(Nx8+64) 



22 



EP 1 564 740 A1 



FIG. 7 



64 

BYTES 







BYTE 
POSITION 


DESCRIPTION 


NUMBER 
OF BYTES 


0-1 


ATL IDENTIFIER ='Al' 


2 


2 


ATL FORMAT NUMBER 


1 


3—11 


RESERVED. ALL OOh 


9 


12—15 


NUMBER OF PIECES OF ADDRESS 
TRANSFER INFORMATION REGISTERED (N) 


4 


16-23 


RESERVED, ALL OOh 


8 


24—27 


NUMBER OF CLUSTERS 
AVAILABLE IN OSA 


4 


28-63 


RESERVED, ALL OOh 


36 



FIG. 8 



: : 

•e 8 BYTES — ^ 



b63 • • • b60 


b59 ••• 532 


b31 ■ • • b28 


b27 • ■ • bO 


RESERVED, 
0000b 


ORIGINAL PHYSICAL 
SECTOR ADDRESS 


RESERVED, 
0000b 


REPLACED 
PHYSICAL SECTOR 
ADDRESS 



23 



EP 1 564 740 A1 



O 
04^ 



LU 






O 




LU 




O 




\ 


o 


o 


o 


z 


LU 


LU 



tu 

I 

I 

>-o 

coo 



to 



IRCUIT 




RESS 
ODER 


o 


M — 


oo 

QUJ 



in 




24 



EP 1 564 740 A1 



FIG. 10 



C FORMATTING 



\v PROC 


ESS J 






CAPTURE PRE-RECORDED 
INFORMATION (PIC) 






DEFINE ISA AND OSA SIZES 






DETERMINE ADDRESS OF USER 
DATA SECTION FROM ADDRESS 
OF DATA ZONE AND ISA AND 
OSA SIZES 






GENERATE DDS DATA 






DEFINE MANAGEMENT 
SECTION INCLUDING DMA, 
CONTROL DATA AREA, ETC. 







F12 



( END ) 



25 



EP 1 564 740 A1 



FIG. 11 



c 



RECORDING 



PROD 



ESS 




F104 



NO-WRITABLE- 
SPACE ERROR 



F107 



( END j 



RECORD DATA 
IN OSA 



F105 



RECORD ADx- 
MANAGEMENT 
ATL IN ISA 



F106 



26 



EP 1 564 740 A1 




27 



EP 1 564 740 A1 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



International application No. 

PCT/JP03/14719 



A. CLASSIHCATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 

Int.Cl^ G11B20/12, 20/10, 27/00, 7/0045, 7/007 



According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 



B. FIELDS SEARCHED 



Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 
Int.Cl'^ G11B20/12, 20/10, 27/00, 7/0045, 7/007 



Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 
Jitsuyo Stiinan Koho 1922-1996 Toroka Jitsuyo- Shinan Koh.o 1994-2003 

Kokai Jitsuyo Shinan Kbho 1971-2003 Jitsuyo Shinan Torokn Koho 1996-2003 



Electronic data base consulted during the international search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) 



C. DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category* 



Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



JP 6-338139 A (Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.)/ 
06 Deceinber, 1994 (06,12.94), 
Column 1, line 18 to column 3, line 3 
(Family: none) 

JP 3-4 5164 A (Hitachi Video Engineering Kabushiki 
Kaisha) , 

27 February, 1991 (27.02.91), 

Page 2, lower right column, lines 3 to 14; page 6, 
upper right column, line 20 to page 7, upper 
left column, line 4; Figs. 2, 10 
(Family: none) 



1-10 



1-10 



I I Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box C. | [ See patent family annex. 



* Special cathodes of cited documents: 'T' 
"A'' document defining the general state of the art which is not 

considered to be of particular relevance 
"E" earlier documsnt but published on or after the international filing "X" 

date 

"L" document which may throw doubts on priori^ claim(s) or which is 

cited to establish the publication date of another citation or other "Y" 
special reason (as specified) 

"O" document refernng to an oral disclosure, use » exMbttion or other 
means 

"F" document published prior lo the international filing date but later 
than the priority date claimed 



latsr document published after the international filing date or 
priority date and not in conflict with the application but cited to 
understand the principle or theory underlying the invention 
document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 
considered novel or cannot be considered to involve an inventive 
step when the documsnt is taken alone 

document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 
considered to involve an inventive step when the document is 
combined with one or more other such documents, such 
combination being obrvious to a person skilled in the art 
document member of the same patent family 



Date of the actual completion of the international search 
18 December, 2003 (18.12.03) 


Date of mailing of the international search report 

13 January, 2004 (13.01.04) 


Name and mailing address of the ISA/ 

Japanese Patent Office 

Facsimile No. 


Authorized officer 
Telephone No. 



Form PCr/ISA/210 (second sheet) (July 1998) 



28