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(19) 



Europaisches Patentamt 
European Patent Office 
Office europeen des brevets 



(11) 



BP 1 347 452 A2 



(12) 



EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION 



(43) 


Date of publication: 


(51) intci7: G11B 20/18, G11B 7/007 




24.09.2003 Bulietin 2003/39 


\^ ' f 


Annliratinn numbpr" 03005d75 3 




(22) 


Date of filing: 17.03.2003 




(84) 


Designated Contracting States: 


(72) Inventors: 




AT BE EG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES Fi FR GB GR 


• Taicaiiashi, Yoshihisa 




HU IE IT LI LU MC NL PT RO SE Si SK TR 


Osaka-shi, Osaka 532-0022 (JP) 




Designated Extension States: 


• Ito, Motoshi 




AL LT LV MK 


Osaka-shi, Osaka 536-0001 (JP) 






• Ueda, Hiroshi 


(30) 


Priority: 20.03.2002 JP 2002079593 


Nara 639-0223 (JP) 


(71) 


Applicant: MATSUSHITA ELECTRIC INDUSTRIAL 


(74) Representative: Balsters, Robert et ai 




CO., LTD. 


Novagraaf International S.A. 




Kadoma-shi, Osaka 571-8501 (JP) 


25, avenue du Pal My 






1220 Les Avanchets - Geneva (CH) 


(54) 


Information recording medium, recording and reproduction apparatus and method 



(57) An infornnation recording nriedium includes a 
data area for recording user data, and a defect manage- 
ment area for recording a defect list for managing N 
number of defect areas existing in the data area, where 
N is an integer satisfying N > 0. The defect list includes 
a header located at a fixed position in the defect list, N 
number of defect entries respectively including position 
infomnation on positions of the N number of defect are- 



as, and an anchor. The header, the N number of defect 
entries, and the anchor are located in this order. The 
header includes a defect list identifier for identifying the 
defect list, first update times information, and a defect 
entry number representing the number of the defect en- 
tries. The anchor includes an anchor identifier for iden- 
tifying the anchor, and second update times infomnation . 



FIG.1 



CM 
< 
CM 

1^ 
CO 



lU 



Lead-in 
area 
101 



Data area 
102 



Lead-out 
area 
103 



ht defect 
manageotent area 



2nd defect 
managenent area 



User area 



Spare area 



M05M 



3rd defect 
management area 



4th defect 
management area 



—100 



-104 



Disc definition 
structure 



Defect list 



Unused area 
^113 



■106 
■107 
108 
-109 



111 



-112 



% 



Header 



1st defect 
entry 



2nd defect 
entry 



\122' 
Al23 



(N-l)th defect 
entry 



Nth defect 
entry 



Anchor 



-121 



-124\ 
125 ' 



'126 



Padding data /127\ 



Defect list 
identifier 



Defect entry 
rHinber ~i.i32 



1st update times 
information 



131 



^-133 



1st defect 

position 

information 



1st substitute 
position 
information 



Anchor identifier 



2nd update times 
information 



Reserve information- 53 



'141 



•142 



■161 



.152 



Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (PR) 



1 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



2 



Description 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 

1 . FIELD OF THE INVENTION: 

[0001 ] The present invention relates to an information 
recording nriedium, a recording apparatus, a reproduc- 
tion apparatus, a recording method, and a reproduction 
nnethod, providing improved information reliability. More 
specifically, the present invention relates to an informa- 
tion recording medium, a recording apparatus, a repro- 
duction apparatus, a recording method, and a reproduc- 
tion method, allowing for updating of a defect list having 
a size of 2EGG (Error Correction Code) or larger and 
deletion of a defect entry. 

2. DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART 

[0002] Recently, large capacity replaceable informa- 
tion recording media and disc drive apparatuses for driv- 
ing such information recording media are becoming 
more and more popular. As large capacity replaceable 
information recording media, optical discs such as, for 
example, DVDs (Digital Versatile Discs) are well known. 
A disc drive apparatus irradiates an optical disc with la- 
ser light and thus forms very small pits in the optical disc 
so as to record information. The disc drive apparatus 
also irradiates an optical disc with laser light and repro- 
duces a change in the reflectance caused by the pits as 
information. Large capacity replaceable information re- 
cording media are suitable to a disc drive apparatus per- 
forming information recording and reproduction in this 
manner. However, since the optical discs are replacea- 
ble, a defect caused by dust or scratches may exist on 
a recording surface thereof. 

[0003] In order to guarantee the reliability of informa- 
tion recorded or reproduced by the disc drive apparatus, 
it is necessary to perform defect management of man- 
aging a defect existing on the optical disc. The defect 
management used for a conventional disc drive appa- 
ratus is described in the physical standards of 
DVD-RAM (e.g., "DVD Specifications for Rewritable 
Disc (DVD-RAM) Parti PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS 
Version 2.0"; hereinafter, referred to as the "DVD-RAM 
Standards"). Chapter 5 of the DVD-RAM Standards in- 
cludes a description on the layout of a disc. 
[0004] Figure 12 shows a data structure of an infor- 
mation recording medium 1200 according to the 
DVD- RAM Standards. 

[0005] The information recording medium 1200 in- 
cludes a lead-in area 1201 for recording information re- 
garding the disc, a data area 1202 for recording user 
data, and a lead-out area 1203 showing thetennination 
position of the user data. 

[0006] The lead-in area 1201 includes DMA1 (Defect 

Management Area) and DMA2 for recording defect 
management information used for managing a defect 



area existing in the data area 1202, and reserved areas 
1204 and 1205 for future expansion. 
[0007] The data area 1202 includes a user area 1206 
for recording user data and a spare area 1207. When 
5 there is a defect area in the user area 1206, the user 
data which is to be recorded in the defect area is record- 
ed in the spare area 1207 instead of a portion of the user 
area 1206 corresponding to the defect area. 
[0008] The lead-out area 1203 includes DMAS and 
DMA4 for recording defect management information 
used for managing a defect area existing in the data ar- 
ea 1202, and reserved areas 1208 and 1209 for future 
expansion, like the lead-in area 1201. 
[0009] DMA1 through DMA4 have the same defect 
^5 management information recorded in multiplex. The 
reason for this is that the information recorded in DMA1 
through DMA4 cannot be a target of defect manage- 
ment. Even if some of DMA1 through DMA4 have a de- 
fect area and the information recorded on the informa- 
nt? tion recording medium cannot be reproduced, as long 
as at least one of DM A1 through DMA4 is defect-free, 
the defect management infomnation recorded in that ar- 
ea can be normally reproduced. Accordingly, loss of us- 
er data is prevented, which improves reliability. 
25 [0010] DMA1 includes a DDS (Data Definition Struc- 
ture) 1210, a PDL (primary Defect List) 1211, and an 
SDL (Secondary Defect List) 1212, 
[0011] The DDS 1210 includes information regarding 
a partition defining the PDL 1211 and the SDL 1212. 
30 [0012] The PDL 1211 is position information (list) of 
defect areas (for example, defect sectors) detected in 
the user area 1206 and the spare area 1207 at the time 
of shipping of the information recording medium, i.e., at 
the time of initialization of the information recording me- 
35 dium. This list basically does not change unless the in- 
formation recording medium is subjected to physical for- 
matting. 

[0013] According to the DVD-RAM Standards, the to- 
tal size of the DDS 1210 and the PDL 1211 fits in one 
40 ECC (Error Correction Code) block. The size of the SDL 
1212 also fits in one ECC block. An ECC block is a unit 
of error correction in DVD-RAM, and has a size of 32 
kbytes in 1 6 sectors (each sector has a size of 2 kbytes). 
This size of one ECC block will be referred to as "1 ECC 
45 size". 

[0014] Figure 13 shows a detailed data structure of 
the SDL 1212. 

[001 5] Unlike the PDL 1 21 1 , the SDL 1 21 2 is informa- 
tion (list) which changes when a defect area (for exam- 
50 pie, defect sector) is detected during recording or repro- 
duction. When a defect area is detected, the SDL 1212 
is written in each of DMA1 through DMA4 at a timing 
appropriate to the disc drive apparatus used. 
[0016] The SDL 1212 includes a header 1301 , a first 
55 defect entry 1302, a second defect entry 1303, an 
Nth defect entry 1304, and an unused area 1305. 
[0017] The header 1301 includes, for example, an 
identifier which represents that the area is the SDL 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



2 



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EP 1 347 452 A2 



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1212, the total number of defect entries (N in the case 
of Figure 13), and the number of times the SDL 1212 
has been updated. 

[001 8] The first defect entry 1 302 includes first defect 

position information 1306 showing the position of a de- 
fect area existing in the user area 1206 and first substi- 
tute position information 1307 showing the position of a 
part of the spare area 1207 in which the user data has 
been recorded instead of the defect area (for example, 
a substitute sector). The second defect entry 1303 in- 
cludes second defect position information and second 
substitute position infomriation. The Nth defect entry in- 
cludes Nth defect position information and Nth substi- 
tute position information. Each of the defect position in- 
formation and the substitute position infomnation is gen- 
erally a sector number. 

[0019] The unused area 1305 exists in the case where 
the total size of the header 1301 and the first through 
Nth defect entries 1302 through 1304 is less than 1 ECC 
size. In this case, padding data (for example, 0) which 
is meaningless information is recorded in the unused ar- 
ea 1305. 

[0020] There is a risk that while the disc drive appa- 
ratus is writing the SDL 1212 in DMA1 through DMA4 
of the information recording medium 1200, the power of 
the disc drive apparatus may be turned off and process- 
ing may be interrupted. In such a case, the disc drive 
apparatus detemnines the update result of the defect 
management areas (DMA1 through DMA4) by the fol- 
lowing procedure. 

(1) Error correction is performed on the SDL 1212 
having 1 ECC size. When the error correction is ac- 
curately performed, the SDL 1212 is determined to 
have been updated normally. 

(2) The step of (1) is performed on all the SDLs in- 
cluded in DMA1 through DMA4. 

(3) Regarding all the SDLs determined to have been 
updated normally in step (2), the numbers of up- 
dates of the SDLs included in the header are com- 
pared with one another. The SDL having the largest 
number of updates is determined to be the correct 
SDL (latest SDL). 

[0021 ] As described above, when the size of the SDL 
1212 is 1 ECC size, the determination of the correct SDL 
can be perfomned accurately even when the power of 
the disc drive apparatus is turned off. Thus, the reliability 
of user data is guaranteed with no user data being lost. 
[0022] Recently, as the amount of information to be 
recorded on information recording media is increased, 
high density recording technology and large capacity 
technology have remarkably improved. For example, 
using blue lasers, infomnation recording media having a 
larger capacity than that of conventional optical discs 
are now under development. Since such an information 



recording medium allows a larger capacity of informa- 
tion to be recorded thereon, the size of the SDL is larger 
than 1 ECC size. As long as the size of the SDL is 1 ECC 
size or smaller as according to the DVD-RAIVI Stand- 
5 ards, no problem arises. When the size of the SDL ex- 
ceeds 1 ECC size, the following problems occur. In the 
following case, the size of the SDL is assumed to be 
4ECC size. 

[0023] It is assumed that the following occurs to one 

DMA (for example, DMA1) as a result of the size of the 
SDL becoming 4ECC size instead of the conventional 
1 ECC size. 

• The header is completely updated. 

• The SDL is updated up to 2ECC blocks, and the 
power of the disc drive apparatus is turned off ex- 
actly when the third ECC block is starting to be up- 
dated. 

[0024] In this case, according to the conventional 
method of determining the SDL update result, error cor- 
rection in units of 1 EGG is normally performed. Compar- 
ing the number of updates of the SDL in DMA1 with that 
of the SDLs in DMA2 through DMA4, the number of up- 
dates of the SDL in DMA1 is maximum. Therefore, al- 
though the updating of the SDL in DMA1 fails in the mid- 
dle, the SDL in DMA1 is erroneously determined to be 
the normal, latest SDL. 

[0025] One solution proposed to solve this problem is 
to add a header for each ECC block of the SDL having 
4ECCsize. Each header includes, forexample, an iden- 
tifier which represents that the area is the SDL, the total 
number of defect entries, and the number of updates of 
the SDL. 

[0026] Figure 14 shows a data structure of an SDL 
1400 having 4ECC size. 

[0027] The SDL 1 400 includes a first ECC block 1 401 , 
a second ECC block 1402, a third ECC block 1403, and 
a fourth ECC block 1404. 

[0028] The first ECC block 1401 includes a header 
1405, a first defect entry 1406, a second defect entry 
1407, an (M-1)th defect entry 1408, and an Mth de- 
fect entry 1409. 

[0029] The second ECC block 1 402 includes a header 
1410, an (l\/l4-1)th defect entry 1411, an Nth defect 
entry 1412, and an unused area 1413. 
[0030] The third ECC block 1403 includes a header 
1414 and an unused area 1415. 
[0031] The fourth ECC block 1404 includes a header 
1416 and an unused area 1417. 

[0032] The headers 1405, 1410, 1414 and 1416 each 
include, for example, an identifier which represents that 
the area is the SDL, the total number of defect entries, 
and the number of updates of the SDL. The first through 
Nth defect entries 1406 through 1409, 1411 and 1412 
each include defect position information and substitute 
position information. In the unused areas 1413, 1415 



15 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



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EP 1 347 452 A2 



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and 1417, padding data (for exannple, 0) which is mean- 
ingless information is recorded. 
[0033] In this case, the disc drive apparatus deter- 
mines the update result of the defect management are- 
as (DIVIAI through DIVIA4) by the following procedure. s 

(1) For the SDL 1400 having 4ECC size, error cor- 
rection is performed on the first ECC block 1401. 
When the error correction is accurately performed, 
the first ECC block 1401 is determined to have been 10 
updated normally. This step is performed on the 
second through fourth ECC blocks 1402 through 
1404 In the SDL 1400. When the error correction on 
the first through fourth ECC blocks 1401 through 
1404 is accurately performed, the step (2) is per- 
formed. 

(2) The numbers of updates of the headers 1405, 
1 41 0, 1 41 4 and 1 41 6 respectively added to the first 
through fourth ECC blocks 1401 through 1404 are 20 
compared with one another. When the numbers of 
updates of the headers 1405, 1410, 1414 and 1416 
are all of the same value, the SDL 1400 is deter- 
mined to have been updated normally. 

25 

(3) Steps (1 ) and (2) are performed on all the SDLs 
in DMA2 through DMA4. 

(4) Regarding the SDLs determined to have been 
updated normally in step (3), the numbers of up- 30 
dates of the SDLs included in the header are com- 
pared with one another. The SDL having the largest 
number of updates is determined to be the correct 
SDL (latest SDL). 



[0034] As described above, when the size of the SDL 
1400 exceeds 1 ECC size, a header is provided for each 
1 ECC block of the SDL, so that the correct SDL can be 
determined even when the power of the disc drive ap- 
paratus is turned off. Thus, the reliability of user data is 
guaranteed with no user data being lost. 
[0035] There is another conventional technology for 
improving the reliability of data (see, for example, Jap- 
anese Laid-Open Publication No. 8-293187). 
[0036] Figure 15 shows a data structure of another 
conventional information recording medium 1500. 
[0037] The structure of the information recording me- 
dium 1500 is identical with the structure of the informa- 
tion recording medium 1200 except for the structure of 
an SDL 1501 and except that the size of the SDL 1501 
is not limited to 1 ECC size. Regarding Figure 15, iden- 
tical elements previously discussed with respect to Fig- 
ure 12 bear identical reference numerals and the de- 
tailed descriptions thereof will be omitted. 
[0038] The SDL 1501 includes a defect list identifier 
1502 which represents that the area is the SDL 1501 , a 
reserved field 1503 for future expansion, first update in- 
formation 1 504 and second update information 1 51 0 for 



determining whether defect management information is 
old or new, a registered defect number 1505 which rep- 
resents the number of defect sectors registered in the 
SDL 1501, first defect position information 1506 and 
second defect position information 1508 which repre- 
sent the position of a defect sector, first substitute posi- 
tion information 1507 and second substitute position in- 
formation 1 509 which represent the position of a substi- 
tute sector for substituting the defect sector, and an un- 
used field 1 51 1 for registering defect sectors which may 
be detected in the future. The first update information 
1504 and the second update information 1510 are, for 
example, numbers of times of recording. As long as the 
SDL 1501 is updated normally, the content of the first 
update information 1504 and the content of the second 
update information 1510 are identical to each other. 
[0039] In this case, the disc drive apparatus deter- 
mines the update result of the defect management are- 
as (DMA1 through DMA4) by the following procedure. 

(1) Regarding the SDL 1501, the content of the first 
update information 1504 and the content of the sec- 
ond update information 1510 are compared with 
one another. When the content of the first update 
information 1504 and the content of the second up- 
date information 1510 are identical to each other, 
the SDL 1501 is determined to have been updated 
nomnally. 

(2) Step (1) is performed on all the SDLs in DMA2 
through DI\/IA4. 

(3) Regarding the SDLs detemnined to have been 
updated nomrially in step (2), the contents of the up- 
date information in the SDLs are compared with one 
another. The SDL having the largest amount of up- 
date information is determined to be the correct 
SDL (latest SDL). 

40 [0040] As described above, as long as the first update 
information and the second update information added 
to the SDL included in one of DMA1 through DMA4 are 
correctly read, the detemnination of the correct SDL can 
be performed accurately, regardless of the size of the 

45 SDLs. 

[0041] However the SDL 1400 shown in Figure 14 

has the following problems. A header needs to be added 
to all of the four ECC blocks included in the SDL 1 400. 
This lowers the processing efficiency of updating the 
50 SDL 1400. In addition, a header (for example, the head- 
er 1410) is provided between one defect entry (for ex- 
ample, the Mth defect entry 1409) and another defect 
entry (for example, the (M+1)th defect entry 1411). Due 
to this structure, the operations of, for example, search- 
es ing for, adding, and deleting a defect entry are compli- 
cated. 

[0042] The information recording medium 1500 
shown in Figure 15 has the problem that the second up- 



4 



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EP 1 347 452 A2 



8 



date information 1511 may not be correctly read. 
[0043] Figure 1 6 shows data structures of defect lists 
in various states of the SDL 1501 in the information re- 
cording medium 1500 shown in Figure 15. Part (a) 
shows a data structure of a pre-update defect list. Part 

(b) shows a data structure of a defect list which was up- 
dated normally. Part (c) shows a data structure of a de- 
fect list which was not updated normally. With reference 
to Figure 16, how the SDL 1501 is updated, in the case 
where a sector which was previously determined as be- 
ing registered as a defect area and then determined as 
being normal later, will be described. 

[0044] The data structure of the SDL 1501 shown in 
part (a) of Figure 16 is the same as that shown in Figure 
15. Inpart(a) of Figure 16, the content of the first update 
infomnation 1504 and the second update information 
1510 are both M, and the registered defect number 1505 
is 2. 

[0045] Part (b) of Figure 1 6 shows a post-update data 
structure of the SDL 1501 in the case where the SDL 
1 501 is updated normally. The content of the first update 
infomnation 1504 is updated from M to M+1. The regis- 
tered defect number 1505 is updated from 2 to 1 . The 
position information of the defect sector which has been 
determined as being normal (second defect position in- 
formation 1508) and the position information of the sub- 
stitute sector for substituting that sector (second substi- 
tute position information 1509) are deleted. Thus, the 
first defect position information 1506 and the first defect 
position infonnation 1507 are left. The content of the 
second update information 1510 is updated from M to 
M+1 , like the first update information 1504. The second 
update Information 1510 is located subsequent to the 
first substitute position information 1507. The unused 
field 1 51 1 is increased by the size corresponding to the 
second defect position information 1 508 and the second 
substitute position information 1509 which have been 
deleted. 

[0046] Part (c) of Figure 1 6 shows a post-update data 
structure of the SDL 1501 in the case where the SDL 
1501 Is not updated normally. It is assumed that imme- 
diately after the registered defect number 1505 Is up- 
dated, the disc drive apparatus is turned off. In this case, 
the first update information 1 504 and the registered de- 
fect number 1505 are updated normally as In part (b) of 
Figure 16. However, the second defect position informa- 
tion 1508, the second substitute position information 
1509, the second update information 1510 and the un- 
used field 1511 remain the same as those in the pre- 
update data structure shown in part (a) of Figure 16. 
[0047] In the case of the data structure shown in part 

(c) of Figure 16, determination on the update result is 
performed. The disc drive apparatus uses, for example, 
the updated registered defect number 1505 to read the 
second defect position information 1508 as the second 
update information 1 510. The disc drive apparatus com- 
pares the content of the first update Information 1504 
and the content of the second defect position informa- 



tion 1508 read as the second update information 1510. 
When the content of the first update information 1504 
and the content of the second defect position informa- 
tion 1508 unfortunately match each other, the disc drive 
5 apparatus determines that the SDL 1501 has been up- 
dated normally even though the updating of the SDL 
1501 was a failure. 

[0048] In the case where the infonnation recording 
medium 1500 shown in Figure 15 considers error cor- 
10 rectlon of the size of 1 ECC and the size of the SDL 1 501 
does not exceed 1ECC size, the problem described 
above with reference to part (c) of Figure 16 does not 
occur. However, when the size of the SDL 1 501 exceeds 
1 ECC size, the above-described problem occurs. 

15 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 

[0049] According to one aspect of the invention, an 
information recording medium includes a data area for 

20 recording user data, and a defect management area for 
recording a defect list for managing N number of defect 
areas existing in the data area, where N is an integer 
satisfying N > 0. The defect list Includes a header locat- 
ed at a fixed position in the defect list, N number of defect 

25 entries respectively including position information on 
positions of the N number of defect areas, and an an- 
chor. The header, the N number of defect entries, and 
the anchor are located in this order in the defect list. The 
header includes a defect list identifier for identifying the 

30 defect list, first update times information representing 
the number of times which the defect list has been up- 
dated, and a defect entry number representing the 
number of the N number of defect entries. The anchor 
includes an anchor Identifier for identifying the anchor 

35 of the defect list, and second update times information 
representing the number of times which the defect list 
has been updated. 

[0050] In one embodiment of the invention, the defect 
list includes at least two blocks, and the defect list is 
40 recorded in units of one block. 

[0051] According to another aspect of the invention, 
a recording apparatus for recording information on an 
information recording medium is provided. The informa- 
tion recording medium includes a data area for record- 
's ing user data, and a defect management area for re- 
cording a defect list for managing N number of defect 
areas existing in the data area, where N is an integer 
satisfying N > 0. The defect list includes a header locat- 
ed at a fixed position in the defect list, N number of defect 
50 entries respectively including position information on 
positions of the N number of defect areas, and an an- 
chor. The header, the N number of defect entries, and 
the anchor are located in this order In the defect list. The 
header includes a defect list identifier for identifying the 
55 defect list, first update times information representing 
the number of times which the defect list has been up- 
dated, and a defect entry number representing the 
number of the N number of defect entries. The anchor 



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EP 1 347 452 A2 



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includes an anchor identifier for identifying the anchor 
of the defect list, and second update times information 
representing the number of times which the defect list 
has been updated. The recording apparatus includes a 
recording section for recording the information on the 
information recording medium, a storage section for 
storing the information to be recorded on the information 
recording medium, and a latest defect list, and a control 
section for controlling execution of defect management 
processing which is performed using the recording sec- 
tion and the storage section. The latest defect list in- 
cludes a latest header, P number of latest defect entries, 
and a latest anchor, wherein P is an integer satisfying P 
> 0 where P = N or P N. The latest header includes 
first latest update times information and a latest defect 
entry number P. The latest anchor includes second up- 
date times information having a content identical to that 
of the first update times information. The defect man- 
agement processing includes the steps of (a) determin- 
ing (i) whether another defect area exists in the data ar- 
ea, (ii) whether a normal defect area exists among the 
N number of defect areas, or (iii) neither (i) nor (ii) is the 
case, (b) when it is determined In the step (a) that an- 
other defect area exists in the data area, or that a normal 
defect area exists among the N number of defect areas, 
updating the P number of latest defect entries into P' 
number of latest defect entries, where P' is an integer 
satisfying P' > 0 where P = P' or P ^ P'; and updating 
the latest defect entry number from P to P'; (c) incre- 
menting, by one, each of the first latest update times 
information and the second latest update times informa- 
tion, and (d) recording the latest defect list updated In 
the steps (b) and (c) in the defect management area. 
[0052] In one embodiment of the invention, the step 
(d) includes the step of recording the updated latest de- 
fect list in the defect management area in the order of 
the updated latest header, the updated P' number of lat- 
est defect entries, and the updated latest anchor, or in 
the order of the updated latest anchor, the updated P' 
number of latest defect entries , and the updated latest 
header. 

[0053] In one embodiment of the invention, the step 
(b) includes the step of, when it is determined in the step 

(a) that another defect area exists in the data area, add- 
ing another defect entry to the latest defect list. 
[0054] In one embodiment of the invention, the step 

(b) includes the step of, when it is determined in the step 
(a) that a normal defect area exists among the N number 
of defect areas, deleting a defect entry including position 
infomnation on a position of the normal defect area from 
the P number of latest defect entries. 

[0055] In one embodiment of the invention, the infor- 
mation recording medium further includes another de- 
fect management area for recording a defect list having 
a content identical to that of the defect list recorded in 
the defect management area. The control section con- 
trols execution of the step (d) for the another defect man- 
agement area. 



[0056] According to still another aspect of the inven- 
tion, a recording method for recording information on an 
information recording medium is provided. The informa- 
tion recording medium includes a data area for record- 
5 ing user data, and a defect management area for re- 
cording a defect list for managing N number of defect 
areas existing in the data area, where N is an integer 
satisfying N > 0. The defect list includes a header locat- 
ed at a fixed position in the defect list, N number of defect 
10 entries respectively including position information on 
positions of the N number of defect areas, and an an- 
chor. The header, the N number of defect entries, and 
the anchor are located in this order in the defect list. The 
header includes a defect list identifier for identifying the 
^5 defect list, first update times information representing 
the number of times which the defect list has been up- 
dated, and a defect entry number representing the 
number of the N number of defect entries. The anchor 
includes an anchor Identifier for identifying the anchor 
20 of the defect list, and second update times information 
representing the number of times which the defect list 
has been updated. The recording is performed using a 
latest defect list. The latest defect list Includes a latest 
header, P number of latest defect entries, and a latest 
25 anchor, wherein P is an integer satisfying P > 0 where 
P = N or P ^ N. The latest header includes the first up- 
date times information and a latest defect entry number 
P. The latest anchor includes second update times in- 
formation having a content identical to that of the first 
30 update times information. The recording method in- 
cludes the steps of (a) determining (i) whether another 
defect area exists In the data area, (ii) whether a normal 
defect area exists among the N number of defect areas, 
or (iii) neither (i) nor (ii) is the case, (b) when It is deter- 
35 mined in the step (a) that another defect area exists In 
the data area, orthat a normal defect area exists among 
the N number of defect areas, updating the P number 
of latest defect entries into P' number of latest defect 
entries, where P' is an integer satisfying P' > 0 where P 
40 = p' or P ?^ P' ; and updating the latest defect entry 
number from P to P'; (c) incrementing, by one, each of 
the first latest update times information and the second 
latest update times information, and (d) recording the 
latest defect list updated in the steps (b) and (c) in the 
45 defect management area. 

[0057] In one embodiment of the invention, the step 
(d) includes the step of recording the updated latest de- 
fect list in the defect management area in the order of 
the updated latest header, the updated P' number of lat- 
50 est defect entries, and the updated latest anchor, or in 
the order of the updated latest anchor, the updated P' 
number of latest defect entries , and the updated latest 
header. 

[0058] In one embodiment of the invention, the step 
55 (b) includes the step of, when it is determined in the step 
(a) that another defect area exists in the data area, add- 
ing another defect entry to the latest defect list. 
[0059] In one embodiment of the invention, the step 



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(b) includes the step of, when it is deternnined in the step 
(a) that a nornnal defect area exists among the N nunnber 
of defect areas, deleting a defect entry including position 
infomnation on a position of the normal defect area from 
the P number of latest defect entries, 
[0060] In one embodiment of the invention, the infor- 
mation recording medium further includes another de- 
fect management area for recording a defect list having 
a content identical to that of the defect list recorded in 
the defect management area. The control section con- 
trols execution of the step (d) for the another defect man- 
agement area. 

[0061] According to still another aspect of the inven- 
tion, a reproduction apparatus for reproducing informa- 
tion recorded on an information recording medium is 
provided. The information recording medium includes a 
data area for recording user data, and a defect manage- 
ment area for recording a defect list for managing N 
number of defect areas existing in the data area, where 
N is an integer satisfying N > 0. The defect list includes 
a header, N number of defect entries respectively includ- 
ing position information on positions of the N number of 
defect areas, and an anchor. The header located at a 
fixed position in the defect list, the N number of defect 
entries, and the anchor are located in this order in the 
defect list. The header includes a defect list identifierfor 
identifying the defect list, first update times information 
representing the number of times which the defect list 
has been updated, and a defect entry number repre- 
senting the number of the N number of defect entries. 
The anchor includes an anchor identifierfor identifying 
the anchor of the defect list, and second update times 
infomnation representing the number of times which the 
defect list has been updated. The reproduction appara- 
tus includes a reproduction section for reproducing the 
information recorded on the information recording me- 
dium, a storage section for storing the reproduced infor- 
mation, and a control section for controlling execution 
of defect management processing which is performed 
using the reproduction section and the storage section, 
the control section having an inherent defect list identi- 
fierfor identifying the defect list and an inherent anchor 
identifier for identifying the anchor of the defect list. The 
defect management processing includes the steps of (a) 
reproducing the defect list identifier, the defect entry 
number, and thef irst update times information which are 
included in the header, and determining whether or not 
a content of the inherent defect list identifier matches a 
content of the reproduced defect list identifier, (b) calcu- 
lating a position of the anchor in the defect list using the 
reproduced defect entry number when it is determined 
in the step (a) that the content of the inherent defect list 
identifier matches the content of the reproduced defect 
list identifier, (c) reproducing the anchor identifier and 
the second update times information based on the cal- 
culated position of the anchor, and determining whether 
or not a content of the inherent anchor identifier matches 
a content of the reproduced anchor identifier, (d) deter- 



mining whether or not a content of the first update times 
information matches a content of the second update 
times information when it is determined in the step (c) 
that the content of the inherent anchor identifier matches 

5 the content of the reproduced anchor identifier, and (e) 
specifying the defect list recorded in the defect manage- 
ment area as the latest defect list when it is determined 
in the step (d) that the content of the first update times 
information matches the content of the second update 

10 times information. 

[0062] In one embodiment of the invention, the infor- 
mation recording medium further includes another de- 
fect management area for recording a defect list having 
a content identical to that of the defect list recorded in 

^5 the defect management area. The control section con- 
trols execution of the defect management processing for 
the another defect management area. The step (e) in- 
cludes the steps of (e^) performing the steps (a) through 
(d) for the another defect management area, and (e2) 

20 specifying the defect list including the update times in- 
formation having a largest number of updates as the lat- 
est defect list. 

[0063] According to still another aspect of the inven- 
tion, a reproduction method for reproducing information 

25 recorded on an information recording medium is provid- 
ed. The information recording medium includes a data 
area for recording user data, and a defect management 
area for recording a defect list for managing N number 
of defect areas existing in the data area, where N is an 

30 integer satisfying N > 0. The defect list includes a head- 
er, N number of defect entries respectively including po- 
sition information on positions of the N number of defect 
areas, and an anchor. The header located at a fixed po- 
sition in the defect list, the N number of defect entries, 

35 and the anchor are located in this order in the defect list. 
The header includes a defect list identifierfor identifying 
the defect list, first update times information represent- 
ing the number of times which the defect list has been 
updated, and a defect entry number representing the 

40 number of the N number of defect entries. The anchor 
includes an anchor identifier for identifying the anchor 
of the defect list, and second update times information 
representing the number of times which the defect list 
has been updated. The reproduction method includes 

45 the steps of (a) reproducing the defect list identifier, the 
defect entry number, and the first update times informa- 
tion which are included in the header, and determining 
whether or not a content of an inherent defect list iden- 
tifier for identifying the defect list matches a content of 

50 the reproduced defect list identifier, (b) calculating a po- 
sition of the anchor in the defect list using the repro- 
duced defect entry number when it is determined in the 
step (a) that the content of the inherent defect list iden- 
tifier matches the content of the reproduced defect list 

55 identifier, (c) reproducing the anchor identifier and the 
second update times information based on the calculat- 
ed position of the anchor, and determining whether or 
not a content of an inherent anchor identifierfor identi- 



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tying the anchor of the defect list matches a content of 
the reproduced anchor identifier, (d) determining wheth- 
er or not a content of the first update times information 
matches a content of the second update times informa- 
tion when it is determined in the step (c) that the content 
of the inherent anchor identifier matches the content of 
the reproduced anchor identifier, and (e) specifying the 
defect list recorded In the defect management area as 
the latest defect list when it is determined In the step (d) 
that the content of the first update times information 
matches the content of the second update times infor- 
mation. 

[0064] In one embodiment of the invention, the infor- 
mation recording medium further includes another de- 
fect management area for recording a defect list having 
a content identical to that of the defect list recorded in 
the defect management area. The step (e) includes the 
steps of (e^) performing the steps (a) through (d) forthe 
another defect management area, and (e2) specifying 
the defect list Including the update times Information 
having a largest number of updates as the latest defect 
list. 

[0065] According to still another aspect of the inven- 
tion, an information recording medium includes a data 
area for recording user data, and a defect management 
area for recording a defect list for managing N number 
of defect areas existing in the data area, where N is an 
integer satisfying N > 0. The defect list includes a header 
located at a fixed position in the defect list, N number of 
defect entries respectively Including position informa- 
tion on positions of the N number of defect areas, and 
an anchor located at a fixed position in the defect list. 
The header, the N number of defect entries, and the an- 
chor are located in this order in the defect list. The head- 
er includes a defect list identifier for identifying the de- 
fect list, first update times information representing the 
numberoftimes which the defect list has been updated, 
and a defect entry number representing the number of 
the N number of defect entries. The anchor includes 
second update times information representing the 
numberoftimes which the defect list has been updated. 
[0066] In one embodiment ofthe invention, the defect 
list includes at least two blocks, and the defect list is 
recorded in units of one block. 

[0067] According to still another aspect of the inven- 
tion, a recording apparatus for recording Information on 
an information recording medium is provided. The infor- 
mation recording medium includes a data area for re- 
cording user data, and a defect management area for 
recording a defect list for managing N number of defect 
areas existing in the data area, where N is an Integer 
satisfying N > 0. The defect list includes a header locat- 
ed at a fixed position in the defect list, N number of defect 
entries respectively Including position information on 
positions ofthe N number of defect areas, and an anchor 
located at a fixed position in the defect list. The header, 
the N number of defect entries, and the anchor are lo- 
cated in this order in the defect list. The header includes 



a defect list identifier for identifying the defect list, first 
update times information representing the number of 
times which the defect list has been updated, and a de- 
fect entry number representing the number of the N 

5 number of defect entries. The anchor includes second 
update times information representing the number of 
times which the defect list has been updated. The re- 
cording apparatus Includes a recording section for re- 
cording the Information on the information recording me- 

10 dium, a storage section for storing the information to be 
recorded on the information recording medium, and a 
latest defect list, and a control section for controlling ex- 
ecution of defect management processing which is per- 
formed using the recording section and the storage sec- 

^5 tlon. The latest defect list includes a latest header, P 
number of latest defect entries, and a latest anchor, 
wherein P is an Integer satisfying P > 0 where P = N or 
P ^ N. The latest header includes first latest update 
times information and a latest defect entry number P. 

20 The latest anchor Includes second update times Infor- 
mation having a content Identical to that of the first up- 
date times information. The defect management 
processing includes the steps of (a) determining (i) 
whether another defect area exists in the data area, (ii) 

25 whether a normal defect area exists among the N 
number of defect areas, or (iii) neither (i) nor (ii) is the 
case, (b) when it is determined in the step (a) that an- 
other defect area exists in the data area; orthata nomnal 
defect area exists among the N number of defect areas, 

30 updating the P number of latest defect entries Into P' 
number of latest defect entries, where P' is an integer 
satisfying P' > 0 where P = P' or P ^ P'; and updating 
the latest defect entry number from P to P' ; (c) Incre- 
menting, by one, each of the first latest update times 

35 information and the second latest update times informa- 
tion, and (d) recording the latest defect list updated in 
the steps (b) and (c) in the defect management area. 
[0068] In one embodiment of the invention, the step 
(d) includes the step of recording the updated latest de- 

40 feet list in the defect management area in the order of 
the updated latest header, the updated P' number of lat- 
est defect entries, and the updated latest anchor, or in 
the order of the updated latest anchor, the updated P' 
number of latest defect entries, and the updated latest 

45 header. 

[0069] In one embodiment of the Invention, the Infor- 
mation recording medium further includes another de- 
fect management area for recording a defect list having 
a content identical to that of the defect list recorded in 
50 the defect management area. The control section con- 
trols execution ofthe step (d) forthe another defect man- 
agement area. 

[0070] According to still another aspect of the inven- 
tion, a recording method for recording Infomnatlon on an 
55 Information recording medium Is provided. The Informa- 
tion recording medium Includes a data area for record- 
ing user data, and a defect management area for re- 
cording a defect list for managing N number of defect 



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areas existing in the data area, where N is an integer 
satisfying N > 0. The defect list includes a header locat- 
ed at at ixed position in the defect list, N nunnber of defect 
entries respectively including position information on 
positions of the N number of defect areas, and an anchor 
located at a fixed position in the defect list. The header, 
the N number of defect entries, and the anchor are lo- 
cated in this order in the defect list. The header includes 
a defect list identifier for identifying the defect list, first 
update times information representing the number of 
times which the defect list has been updated, and a de- 
fect entry number representing the number of the N 
number of defect entries. The anchor includes second 
update times information representing the number of 
times which the defect list has been updated. The re- 
cording is performed using a latest defect list. The latest 
defect list includes a latest header, P number of latest 
defect entries, and a latest anchor wherein P is an in- 
teger satisfying P > 0 where P = N or P N. The latest 
header includes the first update times information and 
a latest defect entry number P. The latest anchor in- 
cludes second update times information having a con- 
tent identical to that of the first update times information . 
The recording method includes the steps of (a) deter- 
mining (i) whether another defect area exists in the data 
area, (ii) whether a normal defect area exists among the 
N number of defect areas, or (iii) neither (i) nor (ii) is the 
case, (b) when it is determined in the step (a) that an- 
other defect area exists in the data area, or that a normal 
defect area exists among the N number of defect areas, 
updating the P number of latest defect entries into P' 
number of latest defect entries, where P' is an integer 
satisfying P' > 0 where P = P' or P ?£= P'; and updating 
the latest defect entry number from P to P'; (c) incre- 
menting, by one, each of the first latest update times 
information and the second latest update times informa- 
tion, and (d) recording the latest defect list updated in 
the steps (b) and (c) in the defect management area. 
[0071] In one embodiment of the invention, the step 
(d) includes the step of recording the updated latest de- 
fect list in the defect management area in the order of 
the updated latest header, the updated P' number of lat- 
est defect entries, and the updated latest anchor, or in 
the order of the updated latest anchor, the updated P' 
number of latest defect entries, and the updated latest 
header. 

[0072] In one embodiment of the invention, the infor- 
mation recording medium further includes another de- 
fect management area for recording a defect list having 
a content identical to that of the defect list recorded in 
the defect management area. The method further com- 
prises the step of executing the step (d) for the another 
defect management area. 

[0073] According to still another aspect of the inven- 
tion, a reproduction apparatus for reproducing informa- 
tion recorded on an information recording medium is 
provided. The information recording medium includes a 
data area for recording user data, and a defect manage- 



ment area for recording a defect list for managing N 
number of defect areas existing in the data area, where 
N is an integer satisfying N > 0. The defect list includes 
a header located at a fixed position in the defect list, N 
5 number of defect entries respectively including position 
information on positions of the N number of defect are- 
as, and an anchor located at a fixed position in the defect 
list. The header, the N number of defect entries, and the 
anchor are located in this order in the defect list. The 
header includes a defect list identifier for identifying the 
defect list, first update times information representing 
the number of times which the defect list has been up- 
dated, and a defect entry number representing the 
number of the N number of defect entries. The anchor 
includes second update times information representing 
the number of times which the defect list has been up- 
dated. The reproduction apparatus includes a reproduc- 
tion section for reproducing the information recorded on 
the information recording medium, a storage section for 
storing the reproduced information, and a control sec- 
tion for controlling execution of defect management 
processing which is performed using the reproduction 
section and the storage section, the control section hav- 
ing an inherent defect list identifier for identifying the de- 
fect list. The defect management processing includes 
the steps of (a) reproducing the defect list identifier, the 
defect entry number, and the first update times informa- 
tion which are included in the header, and determining 
whether or not a content of the inherent defect list iden- 
tifier matches a content of the reproduced defect list 
identifier, (b) reproducing the second update times in- 
formation included in the anchor and determining 
whether or not a content of the first update times infor- 
mation matches a content of the second update times 
information when it is determined in the step (a) that the 
content of the inherent defect list identifier matches the 
content of the reproduced defect list identifier, and (c) 
specifying the defect list recorded in the defect manage- 
ment area as the latest defect list when it is determined 
in the step (b) that the content of the first update times 
information matches the content of the second update 
times information. 

[0074] In one embodiment of the invention, the infor- 
mation recording medium further includes another de- 
fect management area for recording a defect list having 
a content identical to that of the defect list recorded in 
the defect management area. The control section con- 
trols execution of the defect management processing for 
the another defect management area. The step (c) in- 
cludes the steps of (ci) performing the steps (a) and (b) 
for the another defect management area, and (cg) spec- 
ifying the defect list including the update times informa- 
tion having a largest number of updates as the latest 
defect list. 

[0075] According to still another aspect of the inven- 
tion, a reproduction method for reproducing information 

recorded on an information recording medium is provid- 
ed. The information recording medium includes a data 



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area for recording user data, and a defect management 
area for recording a defect list for managing N number 
of defect areas existing in tlie data area, wliere N is an 
integer satisfying N > 0. The defect list includes a header 
located at a fixed position in the defect list, N number of 5 
defect entries respectively including position informa- 
tion on positions of the N number of defect areas, and 
an anchor located at a fixed position in the defect list. 
The header, the N number of defect entries, and the an- 
chor are located in this order in the defect list. The head- io 
er includes a defect list identifier for identifying the de- 
fect list, first update times information representing the 
number of times which the defect list has been updated, 
and a defect entry number representing the number of 
the N number of defect entries. The anchor includes 
second update times information representing the 
number of times which the defect list has been updated. 
The reproduction method includes the steps of (a) re- 
producing the defect list identifier, the defect entry 
number, and the first update times information which are 20 
included in the header, and determining whether or not 
a content of an inherent defect list identifier for identify- 
ing the defect list matches a content of the reproduced 
defect list identifier, (b) reproducing the second update 
times information included in the anchor and determin- 25 
ing whether or not a content of the first update times 
information matches a content of the second update 
times information when it is determined in the step (a) 
that the content of the inherent defect list identifier 
matches the content of the reproduced defect list iden- 30 
tifier, and (c) specifying the defect list recorded in the 
defect management area as the latest defect list when 
it is determined in the step (b) that the content of the first 
update times information matches the content of the 
second update times information. 35 
[0076] In one embodiment of the invention, the infor- 
mation recording medium further includes another de- 
fect management area for recording a defect list having 
a content identical to that of the defect list recorded in 
the defect management area. The step (c) includes the 40 
steps of (c^) performing the steps (a) and (b) for the an- 
other defect management area, and (Cg) specifying the 
defect list including the update times infonnation having 
a largest number of updates as the latest defect list. 
[0077] Thus, the invention described herein makes 45 
possible the advantages of providing an information re- 
cording medium, a recording apparatus, a reproduction 
apparatus, a recording method, and a reproduction 
method, allowing for updating of an SDL (defect list) 
having a size of 2ECC or larger and deletion of a defect so 
entry. 

[0078] These and other advantages of the present in- 
vention will become apparent to those skilled in the art 
upon reading and understanding the following detailed 
description with reference to the accompanying figures, ss 



BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 
[0079] 

Figure 1 shows a data structure of an information 
recording medium 100 according to a first example 
of the present invention; 

Figures 2A through 2D show detailed data struc- 
tures of a header 121, a first defect entry 122, an 
anchor 126, and an unused area 113; 

Figure 3 is a block diagram of a recording and re- 
production apparatus 300 according to a first exam- 
ple of the present invention; 

Figure 4 is a flowchart illustrating a procedure of de- 
fect management processing for specifying the lat- 
est defect list in the first example; 

Figure 5 is flowchart illustrating a procedure of de- 
fect management processing for updating the latest 
defect list in the first example; 

Figure 6 shows a data structure of a defect list, dur- 
ing the processing for adding a defect entry in the 
first example, in various states of (a) before update, 
(b) when the defect list has been updated normally 
and (c) when the defect list has not been updated 
normally; 

Figure 7 shows a data structure of a defect list, dur- 
ing the processing for deleting a defect entry in the 
first example, in various states of (a) before update, 
(b) when the defect list has been updated normally 
and (c) when the defect list has not been updated 
normally; 

Figure 8 shows a data structure of a defect list, dur- 
ing the processing for changing a defect entry in the 
first example, in various states of (a) before update, 
(b) when the defect list has been updated normally 
and (c) when the defect list has not been updated 
nomnally; 

Figure 9 shows a data structure of an information 
recording medium 900 according to a second ex- 
ample of the present invention; 

Figure 10 is a flowchart illustrating a procedure of 
defect management processing for specifying the 
latest defect list in the second example; 

Figure 11 shows a data structure of a defect list, 
during the processing for adding a defect entry in 
the second example, in various states of (a) before 
update, (b) when the defect list has been updated 
normally and (c) when the defect list has not been 



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updated normally; 

Figure 12 shows a data structure of an infornnation 
recording nnedium 1 200 according to tlie DVD- RAM 
Standards; 

Figure 13 shows a detailed data structure of an SDL 
1212; 

Figure 14 shows a data structure of an SDL 1400 
having 4ECC size; 

Figure 15 is a data structure of another conventional 
information recording medium 1500; and 

Figure 16 shows a data structure of an SDL 1501 
of the information recording medium 1500 shown in 
Figure 15 in various states of (a) before update, (b) 
when the defect list has been updated normally and 
(c) when the defect list has not been updated nor- 
mally. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED 
EMBODIMENTS 

[0080] Hereinafter, the present invention will be de- 
scribed by way of illustrative examples with reference to 
the accompanying drawings. 

(Example 1) 

(1) Information recording medium 

[0081 ] Figure 1 shows a data structure of an informa- 
tion recording medium 100 according to a first example 
of the present invention. 

[0082] The information recording medium (optical 
disc) 100 may be, for example, a rewritable optical disc. 
The optical disc 1 00 is assumed to be subjected to error 
correction in units of 1 EGG block. An EGG block is a unit 
of error correction in the field of optical discs. An ECC 
block has, for example, a size of 32 kbytes in 1 6 sectors 
(each sector has a size of 2 kbytes). This size of one 
ECC block will be referred to as "1 ECC size", hereinaf- 
ter. It is assumed that the recording of information on 
the optical disc 100 and updating of the information on 
the optical disc 100 are performed in units of 1 ECC. 
[0083] The data structure shown in Figure 1 is the 
structure of the optical disc 100 after position informa- 
tion on N number of defect areas in a defect manage- 
ment area is noimally recorded (N is an integer satisfy- 
ing N > 0). A defect area is, for example^ a defect sector. 
[0084] The optical disc 100 includes a data area 102 
for recording user data, and a lead-in area 101 and a 
lead-out area 1 03 acting as a buffer area when a record- 
ing and reproduction apparatus (not shown) overruns 
by the movement of an optical head (not shown). 
[0085] The data area 1 02 includes a user area 1 06 for 



recording user data and a spare area 107. When there 
is a defect area (for example, a defect sector) in the user 
area 106, the user data which is to be recorded in the 
defect area is recorded in the spare area 107 instead of 
5 a portion of the user area 1 06 corresponding to the de- 
fect area. 

[0086] The lead-in area 101 includes a first defect 
management area 104 and a second defect manage- 
ment area 105 for recording defect management infor- 
mation used for managing a defect area existing in the 
data area 1 02. 

[0087] The lead-out area 103 includes a third defect 
management area 1 08 and a fourth defect management 
area 109 for recording defect management information 
used for managing a defect area existing in the data ar- 
ea 102, like the lead-in area 101. 
[0088] The first defect management area 104, the 
second defect management area 105, the third defect 
management area 108, and the fourth defect manage- 
ment area 109 are respectively located at physically 
specific positions on the optical disc 100. 
[0089] In the first defect management area 104, the 
second defect management area 105, the third defect 
management area 108 and the fourth defect manage- 
ment area 109, the same information for defect man- 
agement is recorded in multiplex. The reason for this is, 
as described above, thatthe information recorded in the 
first, second, third and fourth defect management areas 
1 04, 1 05, 1 08, and 1 09 cannot be a target of defect man- 
agement. Even if some of the first, second, third and 
fourth defect management areas 1 04, 1 05, 108, and 1 09 
have a defect area and the information recorded in the 
defect area cannot be reproduced, as long as at least 
one of the four defect management areas is defect-free, 
the defect management information recorded in that ar- 
ea can be normally reproduced. Accordingly, loss of the 
user data is prevented, which improves reliability. In the 
first example, the optical disc 100 includes the four de- 
fect management areas 1 04, 1 05, 1 08, and 1 09, but the 
number of defect management areas may be any 
number of one or more. 

[0090] In the first defect management area 1 04, a disc 
definition structure 111 and a defect list 112 for manag- 
ing N number of defect areas existing in the data area 
102 (N is an integer satisfying N > 0) are recorded. The 
first defect management area 104 includes an unused 
area 113. 

[0091 ] The disc definition structure 1 1 1 is information 
representing the disc structure, for example, whether or 
not the disc 100 has been subjected to defect manage- 
ment. This infonnation also includes information regard- 
ing the spare area 1 07. The disc definition structure 111 
is located at a physically specific position in the first de- 
fect management area 104. The disc definition structure 
111 has a prescribed size. 

[0092] In the unused area 113, currently meaningless 
information is recorded. Generally, padding data 127 
(for example, 0) is recorded in the unused area 113. 



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EP 1 347 452 A2 



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When a new defect area is detected in the user area 
106, a defect entry for managing the new defect area is 
added to the defect list 112. As a result, the size of the 
unused area 113 is decreased by the size of the added 
defect entry. 

[0093] The defect list 112 includes a header 121, a 
first defect entry 122, a second defect entry 123, an 
(N-I)th defect entry 124, an Nth entry 125, and an an- 
chor 126. The header 121 , the first through Nth entries 
122 through 125, and the anchor 126 are located in this 
order in the defect list 112. 

[0094] In the first exannple, it is assumed that the total 
of the size of the defect list 112 and the size of the un- 
used area 113 is 4ECC. The total size is not limited to 
4ECC and is arbitrary. 

[0095] The header 121 includes a defect list identifier 
131 which represents that the area is the defect list 112, 
a defect entry number 1 32 which represents the number 
of entries included in the defect list 112, and first update 
times information 133 which represents the number of 
times which an updated defect list has been recorded 
inthefirst defect management area 104. In Figure 1, the 
defect entry number 132 is N (N is an integer satisfying 
N > 0), and the content of the first update times informa- 
tion 133 is M (M is an integer satisfying M > 0). The de- 
fect list identifier 131 may be located, for example, at 
the start of the header 121 as shown in Figure 1 . 
[0096] The header 1 21 is located at a physically spec- 
ified position. In the first example, the header 121 is lo- 
cated at the start of the defect list 112. The position of 
the header 1 21 in the defect list 1 1 2 is arbitrary as long 
as the header 121, the first through Nth defect entries 
122 through 125, and the anchor 126 are located in this 
order in the defect list 112. 

[0097] In the case of the optical disc 100 shown in Fig- 
ure 1 ,the defect entry number 132 is N. Thus, the defect 
list 112 includes the first defect entry 122, and the 
Nth defect entry 125. The first defect entry 122 includes 
first defect position information 141 which is position in- 
formation showing the position of a defect area, and first 
substitute position information 142 which is position in- 
formation showing the position of a part of the spare ar- 
ea 107 which is usable instead of the defect area. Like- 
wise, the second defect entry 123 includes second de- 
fect position information and second substitute position 
information. The (N-I)th defect entry 124 and the Nth 
defect entry 1 25 also have substantially the same struc- 
ture. Here, each of the first defect position information 
141 and the first substitute position information 142 is 
generally a sector number. 

[0098] The defect entries are generally located such 

that the defect position information included therein is 
in an ascending order. More specifically, when, for ex- 
ample, the defect position information is a sector 
number, defect position information having the smaller 
sector number is located in the first defect entry 122 as 
the first defect position information 141. After this, the 
defect entries are located in the order of the sector num- 



bers. Defect position information having the larger sec- 
tor number is located in the Nth defect entry 125 as Nth 
defect position information. 

[0099] The defect entries in the defect list 112 do not 
5 need to be located in an ascending order. For example, 
the defect entries may be located such that the sector 
numbers are in a descending order. Alternatively, the 
defect entries may be located randomly. 
[0100] The anchor 126 includes an anchor identifier 
1 51 for identifying that the area is an anchor of the defect 
list 112, second update times information 1 52 which rep- 
resents the number of times which the updated defect 
list has been recorded in the first defect management 
area 104, and reserve information 153 for future expan- 
sion. In Figure 1 , the content of the second update times 
information 152 is M (M is an integer satisfying M > 0), 
and is the same as that of the first update times infor- 
mation 133. As long as the first defect management area 
104 is updated normally, the content of the first update 
times information 133 and the content of the second up- 
date times infomnation 152 are identical to each other. 
The anchor identifier 151 may be located, for example, 
at the start of the anchor 126 as shown in Figure 1 . 
[0101] In this specification, the first and second up- 
date times information 133 and 152 represent the 
number of times which the updated defect list has been 
recorded in the first defect management area 104 (i.e., 
the number of times which the defect list 112 has been 
updated and recorded on the optical disc 100). The first 
and second update times information 133 and 152 may 
represent the number of times which the defect list has 
been updated (i.e., the number of times which the defect 
list has been updated in the storage section described 
below). In the following description, the first and second 
update times information 133 and 152 represent the 
number of times which the updated defect list has been 
recorded in the first defect management area 104. 
[0102] The anchor 126 is located subsequently to the 
Nth defect entry 125. It should be noted that since the 
size of the defect list 112 is variable, the position at 
which the anchor 126 is located is also variable. 
[01 03] Next, the header 1 21 , the first defect entry 122, 
the anchor 126 and the unused area 113 will be de- 
scribed in detail. 

[0104] Figures 2A through 2D respectively show de- 
tailed data structures of the header 121 , the first defect 
entry 122, the anchor 126 and the unused area 113. 
[0105] In Figures 2A through 2D, "BP" represents the 
bit position, and "Val" represents the binary value cor- 
responding to each BP. In the example shown in Figures 
2A through 2D, the size of each of the header 121 , the 
first defect entry 122, the anchor 126 and the unused 
area 113 is 8 bytes (bit position 0 through bit position 
63). 

[0106] Figure 2 A shows an exemplary detailed struc- 
ture of the header 121. In this example, Val for only the 

bit position 62 ofthe defect list identifier 131 is 1 (Val=1); 
i.e., 0 X 4000 in hexadecimal representation. 



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[0107] Figure 2B shows an exemplary detailed struc- 
ture of the first defect entry 122. It is assumed that the 
maximum number of the sector among the sectors us- 
able in the data area 102 is 0 x 07FFFFFF in hexadec- 
imal representation. The maximum value which has a 
possibility of being registered as the first defect position 
information 141 in the first defect entry 122 is 0 x 
07FFFFFF in hexadecimal representation as shown in 
Figure 2B. 

[0108] Figure 2C shows an exemplary detailed struc- 
ture of the anchor 126. In this example, Val for all the bit 
positions 59 through 63 in the anchor identifier 151 is 1 
(Val = 1); i.e., 0 x FFFF in hexadecimal representation. 
[0109] Figure 2D shows an exemplary detailed struc- 
ture of the unused area 113. In the unused area 113, 
the padding data 127 is generally recorded. In the un- 
used area 113, Val = 0. In Figure 2D, 0 is recorded as 
the padding data, but the padding data is not limited to 0. 
[01 1 0] For the defect list identifier 1 31 and the anchor 
identifier 151 , a value which is distinguishable from any 
other defect entry and that of the unused area 113 is 
adopted. As shown in Figure 2C, Val = 1 is set for at 
least one of the bit positions 59 through 63 which are 
never 1 in any defect entry or the unused area 113. 
[0111] Similarly, as shown in Figure 2A, Val = 1 is set 
for at least one of the bit positions 59 through 63 which 
are never 1 in any defect entry or the unused area 113, 
such that the value sequence of the bit positions 59 
through 63 in the defect list identifier 131 is different from 
that of the bit positions 59 through 63 in the anchor iden- 
tifier 151. 

[0112] Owing to such settings, the anchor identifier 
151 is distinguishable from the defect list identifier 131 , 
any defect entry, and the unused area 113. The defect 
list identifier 131 is also distinguishable from the anchor 
identifier 151, any defect entry, and the unused area 
113. 

[01 1 3] The values for the defect list identifier 1 31 and 
the anchor identifier 151 in Figures 2A and 2C are mere 
examples, and the values are not limited to these. 
[01 14] In the first example, the defect list identifier 1 31 
and the anchor identifier 151 are distinguished from any 
defect entry and the unused area 113 and further the 
defect list identifier 131 and the anchor identifier 151 are 
distinguishable from each other as described above. 
Therefore, even when any defect entry is read as the 
anchor identifier 151 in the anchor 126, that defect entry 
is never erroneously determined as the anchor identifier 
151. Accordingly, it can be easily determined whether 
or not the defect list 112 has been updated normally. 
[0115] Since it is not necessary to provide a header 
for each 1 ECC size, the processing efficiency of updat- 
ing the defect list is improved. Since the header is not 
interposed between two defect entries, defect entries 
can be easily searched for, added, and deleted. 
[0116] The following description will be made with the 
premise that the optical disc 100 has the data structure 
shown in Figure 1. 



(2) Reproduction/recording (update) 

[0117] Figure 3 is a block diagram of a recording and 
reproduction apparatus 300 according to the first exam- 

5 pie. The recording and reproduction apparatus 300 
records information on the optical disc 100 and/or repro- 
duces infonnation recorded on the optical disc 100. 
[01 18] The recording and reproduction apparatus 300 
includes a control section 301, a recording and repro- 

10 duction section 302, and a storage section 303. 

[01 1 9] The control section 301 controls the operation 
of the recording and reproduction section 302. The con- 
trol section 301 may be,forexample, aCPU.Thecontrol 
section 301 has an inherent defect list identifier for iden- 

^5 tifying the defect list 112 of the optical disc 100 and an 
inherent anchor identifier for identifying the anchor 126 
of the defect list 112 of the optical disc 100, which are 
stored initially. The contents (values) of the inherent de- 
fect list identifier and the inherent anchor identifier are 

20 correct and are not rewritable. The control section 301 
uses the recording and reproduction section 302 and the 
storage section 303 to control the execution of the fol- 
lowing processing: (a) defect management processing 
for specifying the latest defect list among the defect lists 

25 which are recorded in the first through fourth defect 
management areas 104, 105, 108 and 109; and (b) de- 
fect management processing for updating the defect 
lists which are recorded in the first through fourth defect 
managementareas104, 105, 108 and 109 into the latest 

30 defect list. 

[0120] The recording and reproduction section 302 
records information on the optical disc 100 and/or repro- 
duces the information recorded on the optical disc 100. 
Such recording/reproduction is performed by, for exam- 

35 pie, emitting laser so as to write the information on the 
optical disc 100 as a signal and/or so as to read the in- 
formation written as a signal on the optical disc 100. 
[0121] The storage section 303 stores information to 
be recorded on the optical disc 100 and/or stores infor- 

40 mation which has been reproduced from the optical disc 
100. The storage section 303 may be, for example, a 
random access memory (RAM). Owing to the operation 
of the control section 301, the storage section 303 in- 
cludes a defect list area saved for storing the defect list 

45 112 reproduced from a defect management area (for ex- 
ample, the first defect management area 104) of the op- 
tical disc 100 or a latest defect list to be recorded in the 
defect management area. 

50 (2-1 ) Defect management processing for specifying the 
latest defect list 

[0122] Next, the operation of defect management 
processing for specifying the latest defect list performed 
55 by the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 will be 
described. 

[0123] The control section 301 executes the defect 
management processing. The control section 301 fol- 



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lows the procedure of the defect tnanagement process- 
ing to request the recording and reproduction section 
302 to reproduce the infornnation of the disc definition 
structure 111 located at the start of the first defect man- 
agement area 1 04 and store the reproduced information 
from the disc definition structure 1 1 1 in the storage sec- 
tion 303. 

[0124] Upon the request from the control section 301 , 
the recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces 

the information of the disc definition structure 111 from 
the optical disc 100 and stores the information in the 
storage section 303. The recording and reproduction 
section 302 reports to the control section 301 that the 
reproduction and storage of the information of the disc 
definition structure 111 has been completed. 
[0125] Upon receiving the report from the recording 
and reproduction section 302, the control section 301 
checks whether or not the optical disc 1 00 has been sub- 
jected to defect management, based on the information 
of the disc definition structure 111 stored in the storage 
section 303. 

[01 26] When confirming that the optical disc 1 00 has 

been subjected to defect management, the control sec- 
tion 301 requests the recording and reproduction sec- 
tion 302 to reproduce the header 121 located at a fixed 
position of the defect list 112 (in the example of Figure 
1, at the start of the defect list 112) recorded in the first 
defect management area 104 and to store the repro- 
duced header 121 in the storage section 303. 
[0127] Upon the request from the control section 301 , 
the recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces 
the header 121 located at the start of the defect list 1 12 
recorded in the first defect management area 104 and 
store the reproduced header 121 in the storage section 
303. The recording and reproduction section 302 re- 
ports to the control section 301 that the reproduction and 
storage of the header 121 has been completed. 
[0128] Upon receiving the report from the recording 
and reproduction section 302, the control section 301 
compares the content of the inherent defect list identifier 
initially stored in the control section 301 with the content 
of the defect list identifier 131 included in the header 1 21 
stored in the storage section 303 to check whether or 
not the stored infornnation is the header 1 21 in the defect 
list 112. 

[01 29] When the two contents compared match each 
other, the control section 301 determines that the stored 
information is the header 121 in the defect list 112 and 
proceeds with the defect management processing. 
When the two contents compared do not match each 
other, the control section 301 determines that updating 
of the first defect management area 104 failed (abnor- 
mal defect management area) and terminates the defect 
management processing. The two contents compared 
do not match each other when, for example, there is a 
defect area in the first defect management area 1 04 and 
thus information cannot be read therefrom. 
[0130] In order to identify the anchor 126 in the defect 



list 112 recorded in the first defect management area 
104, the control section 301 uses the defect entry 
number 132 included in the header 121 stored in the 
storage section 303 to calculate the position of the start 
5 of the anchor 1 26 in the defect list 112, The position of 
the start of the anchor 126 can be obtained by multiply- 
ing the defect entry number 1 32 by the size of one defect 
entry which is a fixed value. 

[01 31 ] The control section 301 requests the recording 
and reproduction section 302 to reproduce the anchor 
126 in the defect list 112 based on the calculated posi- 
tion, and store the reproduced information in the storage 
section 303. 

[01 32] Upon the request from the control section 301 , 
^5 the recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces 
the information present at the designated position in the 
defect list 112 and stores the reproduced information in 
the storage section 303. The recording and reproduction 
section 302 reports to the control section 301 that the 
20 reproduction and storage of the information present at 
the designated position has been completed. 
[0133] Upon receipt of the report from the recording 
and reproduction section 302, the control section 301 
compares the content of the inherent anchor identifier 
25 initially stored in the control section 301 with the content 
of the information located at the start of the entire infor- 
mation stored in the storage section 303 to check wheth- 
er or not the stored information Is the anchor 126 in the 
defect list 112. The "information located at the start of 
so the entire information stored in the storage section 303" 
is the information expected to be the anchor identifier 

151 included in the anchor 126. 

[01 34] When the two contents compared match each 
other, the control section 301 determines that the stored 
35 information is the anchor 126 in the defect list 112 and 
proceeds with the defect management processing. 
When the two contents compared do not match each 
other, the control section 301 detemriines that updating 
of the first defect management area 104 failed (abnor- 
40 mal defect management area) and terminates the defect 
management processing. The two contents compared 
do not match each other when, for example, the infor- 
mation present at the position calculated using the de- 
fect entry number 132 is not the anchor 126. More spe- 
45 cifically, the two contents compared do not match each 
other when, for example, the recording and reproduction 
apparatus 300 is turned off while the first through Nth 
defect entries 1 22 through 1 25 in the defect list 112 are 
being updated. In this case, the defect entry number 1 32 
50 included in the header 121 does not match the total 
number of the first through Nth defect entries 122 
through 125. 

[01 35] The control section 301 compares the content 
of the first update times information 133 included in the 
55 header 121 with the second update times information 

1 52 included in the anchor 1 26 stored in the storage sec- 
tion 303. 

[01 36] When the two contents compared match each 



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other, the control section 301 determines that the first 
defect management area 104 has been updated nor- 
mally, and proceeds with the defect management 
processing. 

[0137] When the two contents compared do not 
match each other, the control section 301 determines 
that updating of the first defect management area 104 
failed (abnonnal defect management area) and termi- 
nates the defect management processing. The two con- 
tents compared do not match each other when, for ex- 
ample, the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is 
turned off while the first through Nth defect entries 122 
through 1 25 in the defect list 112 are being updated and 
therefore updating of the defect entries 1 22 through 1 25 
is not completed. In this case, the content of the first 
update times information 1 33 included in the header 1 21 
does not match the content of the second update times 
information 152 included in the anchor 126. 
[0138] The control section 301 performs substantially 
the same processing for each of the second defect man- 
agement area 105, the third defect management area 
108 and the fourth defect management area 109. 
[0139] After checking whether or not each of the first 
through fourth defect management areas 104, 105, 108 
and 109 is a normal defect management area, the con- 
trol section 301 specifies the latest defect management 
area among the defect management areas which have 
been determined to be normal, as follows. The control 
section 301 makes a comparison of the first update 
times information 133 recorded in the defect manage- 
ment areas which have been determined to be normal, 
and specifies the defect management area having the 
largest number of updates as the latest defect manage- 
ment area. The defect list recorded in the specified latest 
defect management area is specified as the latest defect 
list. 

[0140] For specifying the latest defect management 
area, the second update times infomnation 152 included 
in the anchor 126 may be used instead of the first update 
times information 133. 

[0141] The control section 301 requests the recording 
and reproduction section 302 to reproduce the defect 
list recorded in the specified latest defect management 
area and store the reproduced defect list in the defect 
list area saved in the storage section 303. 
[01 42] Upon the request from the control section 301 , 
the recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces 
the defect list recorded in the specified latest defect 
management area and stores the reproduced defect list 
in the defect list area in the storage section 303. The 
recording and reproduction section 302 reports to the 
control section 301 that the reproduction and storage of 
the defect list has been completed. 
[0143] Thus, the operation of defect management 
processing for specifying the latest defect list perfomned 
by the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is 
completed. 

[0144] Using the specified latest defect list, the user 



data recorded in the data area 1 02, for example, can be 
reproduced. In this case, the control section 301 re- 
quests the recording and reproduction section 302 to re- 
produce the user data based on the latest defect list and 
5 Store the reproduced user data in the storage section 
303. 

[0145] Upon the request from the control section 301 , 
the recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces 
the user data from the data area 102 and stores the re- 
produced user data in the storage section 303. 
[01 46] Information recording may be performed using 
the specified latest defect list. 

[0147] Figure 4 shows a procedure of defect manage- 
ment processing for specifying the latest defect list in 
the first example. The defect management processing 
is executed by the control section 301 . Hereinafter each 
step of the procedure of defect management processing 
will be described. The procedure of defect management 
processing is started after it is confirmed that the optical 
disc 100 has been subjected to defect management. 
Whether or not the optical disc 100 has been subjected 
to defect management is determined based on the disc 
definition structure 111 in the optical disc 100. 
[0148] Step S401 : The defect list identifier 131, the 
defect entry number 132 and the first update times in- 
formation 133 included in the header 121 are repro- 
duced. The content of the reproduced defect list identi- 
fier 1 31 is compared with the content of the inherent de- 
fect list identifier. The inherent defect list identifier iden- 
tifies the defect list 112 in the optical disc 100. The in- 
herent defect list identifier has a correct value which is 
not rewritable. The inherent defect list identifier may be 
initially stored in the control section 301 . When the two 
contents compared match each other, the defect man- 
agement processing advances to step S402. When the 
two contents compared do not match each other, the 
defect management processing advances to step S406. 
[0149] Step S402: When the content of the defect list 
identifier 131 and the content of the inherent defect list 
identifier are determined to match each other in step 
S401 , the reproduced information is determined to be 
the header 121 in the defect list 112. Using the defect 
entry number 132 included in the header 121, the posi- 
tion of the start of the anchor 1 26 in the defect list 112 
is calculated. The position of the start of the anchor 1 26 
is obtained by multiplying the defect entry number 132 
by the size of one defect entry which is a fixed value. 
The defect management processing advances to step 
8403. 

[0150] Step S403: Based on the position obtained in 
step S402, information expected to be the anchor iden- 
tifier 151 and the second update times information 152 
included in the anchor 126 are reproduced. The content 
of the information expected to be the anchor identifier 
1 51 is compared with the content of the inherent anchor 
identifier. The inherent anchor identifier identifies the 
anchor of the defect list 112. The inherent anchor iden- 
tifier has a correct value which is not rewritable. The in- 



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herent anchor identifier is initially stored in the control 
section 301 . When the two contents compared are de- 
termined to match each other, the defect management 
processing advances to step S404. When the two con- 
tents compared are determined not to match each other, 
the defect management processing advances to step 
S406. 

[0151] Step S404: When the content of the informa- 
tion expected to be the anchor identifier 151 and the 

content of the inherent anchor identifier are determined 
to match each other in step S403, the stored information 
is determined to be the anchor 126 in the defect list 112. 
The content of the first update times information 1 33 in- 
cluded in the header 121 is compared with the content 
of the second update times information 152 included in 
the anchor 126. When the two contents compared are 
determined to match each other, the defect manage- 
ment processing advances to step S405. When the two 
contents compared are determined not to match each 
other, the defect management processing advances to 
step S406. 

[0152] Step S405: When the content of the first up- 
date times information 133 and the content of the sec- 
ond update times information 152 are determined to 
match each other in step S404, the first defect manage- 
ment area 1 04 is determined to have been updated nor- 
mally. Then, the defect management processing ad- 
vances to step S407. 

[0153] Step S406: When the contents compared are 
determined not to match each other in steps 8401 , 8403 
or S404, updating of the first defect management area 
104 is determined to have failed (abnormal defect man- 
agement area), and the defect management processing 
for the first defect management area 104 is tenninated. 
The defect management processing advances to step 
S407. 

[01 54] Step S407: It is determined whether or not the 
operations in steps 8401 through 8406 have been per- 
formed for all the defect management areas in the opti- 
cal disc 1 00. When the operations in steps 8401 through 
8406 have not been performed for all the defect man- 
agement areas, the defect management processing re- 
turns to step 8401 . When the operations in steps 8401 
through S406 have been performed for all the defect 
management areas, the defect management process- 
ing advances to step 8408. 

[0155] Step S408: The latest defect list is specified. 
IVIore specifically, the latest defect management area 
among the defect management areas determined to be 
normal is specified, as follows. A comparison is made 
of the first update times information (or the second up- 
date times information) recorded in the defect manage- 
ment areas determined to be normal, and the defect 
management area having the largest number of updates 
is specified as the latest defect management area. The 
defect list recorded in the specified latest defect man- 
agement area is specified as the latest defect list. 
[0156] When the latest defect list of the optical disc 



1 00 is specified by steps 8401 through S408, the defect 
management processing is completed. Using the latest 
defect list obtained in step 8408, the user data recorded 
in the data area 102, for example, can be reproduced. 

(2-2) Defect management processing for updating the 
latest defect list 

[0157] Returning to Figure 3, the operation of defect 
management processing for updating the latest defect 
list performed by the recording and reproduction appa- 
ratus 300 will be described. In the following example, 
the defect list is updated when another defect area is 
detected while the user data is being recorded in the 
data area 102 of the optical disc 100, or when a portion 
of the user area 106 which was previously determined 
to be a defect area is determined to be a normal defect 
area while the user data recorded in the data area 102 
is being reproduced. Throughout this specification, a 
"normal defect area" is defined to mean an area which 
was previously determined to be a defect area but cur- 
rently has no defect and allows information to be record- 
ed therein and/or allows information therein to be repro- 
duced. An area which was previously determined to be 
a defect area is currently determined to be a normal de- 
fect area when, for example, the defect is caused by 
dust or stain such as a fingerprint on the surface of the 
optical disc. In this case, when the user cleans the sur- 
face of the optical disc to remove the dust or stain, the 
area in which the dust or stain existed (i.e., the area 
which was previously determined to be a defect area) is 
currently determined to be a normal area usable for re- 
cording/reproduction. 

[0158] The storage section 303 stores the latest de- 
fect list. The latest defect list may be located in the de- 
fect list area in the storage section 303. The latest defect 
list includes the latest header, P number of latest defect 
entries (P is an integer satisfying P > 0 where P = N or 
P ^ N), and the latest anchor. In the first example, the 
latest header, the P number of latest defect entries, and 
the latest anchor are located in the latest defect list in 
this order. The latest header is located at a fixed position 
in the latest defect list. The latest anchor is located sub- 
sequently to the Pth latest defect entry among the P 
number of latest defect entries. The latest header in- 
cludes the latest defect list identifier, the first latest up- 
date times information and the latest defect entry 
number P. The content of the latest defect list identifier 
is always the same as that of the inherent defect list 
identifier stored in the control section 301 . The latest an- 
chor includes the latest anchor identifier and the second 
latest update times information which has the same con- 
tent as that of the first latest update times information. 
The content of the latest anchor identifier is always the 
same as that of the inherent anchor list identifier stored 
in the control section 301. It is assumed that the P 
number of latest defect entries are arranged in an as- 
cending order of the defect position information (defect 



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sector numbers). The latest defect list may include an 
unused area. It is not always necessary that the latest 
header includes the latest defect list identifier. Similarly, 
it is not always necessary that the latest anchor includes 

the latest anchor identifier. 

[0159] The above-deschbed arrangement of the lat- 
est header and the P number of latest defect entries and 
the latest anchor is merely an example. The arrange- 
ment of the latest header and the P number of latest 
defect entries and the latest anchor in the latest defect 
list is arbitrary. 

[0160] The control section 301 executes the defect 
management processing. The control section 301 re- 
quests the recording and reproduction section 302 to 
determine whether (a) another defect area exists in the 
data area 102, (b) a defect area which was previously 
determined to be a defect area is currently a normal de- 
fect area, or (c) neither (a) nor (b) is the case. Whether 
or not another defect area exists in the data area 102 is 
determined by, for example, comparing a signal ob- 
tained by reproducing data immediately after user data 
is recorded with a signal representing user data to be 
recorded. When these signals match each other, the us- 
er data is determined to have been normally recorded 
in the data area 102. When these signals do not match 
each other, it is determined that the user data has not 
been normally recorded in the data area 102 and anoth- 
er defect area exists in the data area 102. 
[01 61 ] When determining that another defect area ex- 
ists in the data area 102 or that the area which was pre- 
viously determined to be a defect area is currently a nor- 
mal defect area, the control section 301 updates the lat- 
est defect list stored in the storage section 303. 
[0162] Specific procedures of updating the latest de- 
fect list will be described. There are three cases of up- 
dating the latest defect list, namely, (i) addition of a de- 
fect entry, (ii) deletion of a defect entry; and (iii) change 
of a defect entry. Each of these cases will be described 
one by one. 

(i) Addition of a defect entry 

[01 63] When it is detemnined that another defect area 
exists in the user area 106, a defect entry including the 
position information on the position of the another defect 
area is added to the latest defect list. Based on the de- 
fect position information on the detected defect area, the 
control section 301 determines the position of the defect 
entry to be added. The control section 301 shifts the oth- 
er defect entries and the latest anchor existing subse- 
quent to the determined position toward the unused ar- 
ea, and adds the defect entry including the position in- 
formation on the another defect area at the determined 
position. As a result, the P number of latest defect en- 
tries are updated to P' number of latest defect entries (P 
^ P', P < P'). 

[0164] Following the addition of the defect entry, the 
control section 301 updates the latest defect entry 



number from P into P'. In this case, the latest defect en- 
try number is increased by the number of the added de- 
fect entries (i.e., by the number of the detected defect 
sectors). 

5 [0165] After the P number of latest defect entries and 
the latest defect entry number P are updated, the control 
section 301 increments, by one, the content of the first 
latest update times information included in the latest 
header and the content of the second latest update 
times information included in the latest anchor. 

(ii) Deletion of a defect entry 

[0166] When an area which was previously deter- 
mined to be a defect area is currently determined to be 
a normal defect area, the control section 301 deletes the 
defect entry Including the position information on the ar- 
ea determined to be the normal defect area. The control 
section 301 then shifts the defect entries located sub- 
sequent to the deleted defect entry and the latest anchor 
toward the latest header by the size of the deleted defect 
entry. The unused area is expanded by the size of the 
deleted defect entry, and the control section 301 records 
padding data (for example, 0) in the expanded portion 
of the unused area. As a result, the P number of latest 
defect entries are updated to P' number of latest defect 
entries (P ^ P', P > P'). 

[0167] Following the deletion of the defect entry, the 
control section 301 updates the latest defect entry 
number from P into P'. In this case, the latest defect en- 
try number is decreased by the number of the deleted 
defect entries (i.e., by the number of the defect sectors 
detemnined to be normal). 

[0168] After the P number of latest defect entries and 
the latest defect entry number P are updated, the control 
section 301 increments, by one, the content of the first 
latest update times information included in the latest 
header and the content of the second latest update 
times information included in the latest anchor. 

(iii) Change of a defect entry 

[01 69] When another defect area is determined to ex- 
ist in the spare area 107, the control section 301 rewrites 
the substitute position information corresponding to the 
another defect area in the latest defect list. The substi- 
tute position information corresponding to the another 
defect area is rewritten into substitute position informa- 
tion representing a portion other than the another defect 
area in the spare area 107. 

[01 70] The control section 301 changes the latest de- 
fect entry number from P to P' (P = P' since no defect 
entry is added to or deleted from the latest defect list). 
Although the number of the latest defect entries remains 
the same, the substitute position information included is 
different. Throughout this specification, "updating of a 
defect list" encompasses the case of not changing the 
number of defect entries included in the defect list in ad- 



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dition to the case of changing the number of defect en- 
tries included in the defect list. 
[01 71 ] After the P nunnber of latest defect entries and 
the latest defect entry number P are updated, the control 
section 301 increments, by one, the content of the first 
latest update times information included in the latest 
header and the content of the second latest update 
times information Included in the latest anchor. 
[0172] The operations (i) through (iii) are performed 
by the control section 301 for the latest defect list stored 
in the storage section 303. In the case where the first 
and second update times information 133 and 152 rep- 
resent the number of times which the updated latest de- 
fect list has been recorded in the first defect manage- 
ment area 104, the first and second latest update times 
information may each be incremented by one only once 
before the updated latest defect list is recorded in the 
first defect management area 104. By contrast, in the 
case where the first and second update times informa- 
tion 133 and 152 represent the number of times which 
the latest defect list has been updated in the storage 
section 303, the first and second latest update times in- 
formation may be incremented by one each time the lat- 
est defect entries and the latest defect entry number are 
updated. 

[0173] The control section 301 requests the recording 
and reproduction section 302 to record the latest defect 
list updated in the storage section 303 in the first defect 
management area 104 of the optical disc 100. For ex- 
ample, the control section 301 requests the recording 
and reproduction section 302 to record the updated lat- 
est header, the updated P' number of latest defect en- 
tries, and the updated latest anchor in the first defect 
management area 104 in this order. 
[0174] Upon the requestfrom the control section 301 , 
the recording and reproduction section 302 records the 
updated latest defect list in the first defect management 
area 104. The updated defect list replacing the defect 
list 112 is recorded in the first defect management area 
104 in the order of the latest header replacing the header 
121 , the latest defect entries replacing the first through 
Nth defect entries 122 through 125, and the latest an- 
chor replacing the anchor 126. The recording and repro- 
duction section 302 reports to the control section 301 
that the recording of the updated latest defect list in the 
first defect management area 104 has been completed. 
[01 75] The control section 301 requests the recording 
and reproduction section 302 to record the latest defect 
list updated in the storage section 303 in each of the 
second through fourth defect management areas 105, 
108 and 109. More specifically, again, the control sec- 
tion 301 requests the recording and reproduction sec- 
tion 302 to record the updated latest header, the updat- 
ed latest defect entries, and the updated latest anchor 
in this order in the second through fourth defect man- 
agement areas 105, 108 and 109. 
[0176] Upon the requestfrom the control section 301 , 
the recording and reproduction section 302 records the 



updated latest defect list in each of the second through 
fourth defect management areas 105, 108 and 109. 
[0177] Thus, the operation of defect management 
processing for updating the latest defect list performed 
5 by the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is 
completed. 

[0178] The order of recording the updated latest de- 
fect list is not limited to the above-described order of the 
latest header, the P' number of latest defect entries, and 
the latest anchor. As long as the header 121, the N 
number of defect entries 122 through 125, and the an- 
chor 126 are located in this order in the defect list 112, 
the control section 301 may request the recording and 
reproduction section 302 to record the updated latest 

^5 anchor, the updated P' number of latest defect entries, 
and the updated latest header in this order in each of 
the first through fourth defect management areas 104, 
105, 108 and 109, and the recording and reproduction 
section 302 may record the updated latest defect list in 

20 each of the first through fourth defect management ar- 
eas 104, 105, 108 and 109 upon the request from the 
control section 301 . 

[01 79] Figure 5 shows a procedure of defect manage- 
ment processing for updating the latest defect list in the 
25 first example. The defect management processing is ex- 
ecuted by the control section 301 . Hereinafter, each step 
of the procedure of defect management processing will 
be described. 

[0180] Step S501 : It is determined whether (a) anoth- 

30 er defect area exists in the data area 102, (b) a defect 
area which was previously determined to be a defect 
area is currently a normal defect area, or (c) neither (a) 
nor (b) is the case. When it is determined that (a) another 
defect area exists in the data area 102 or that (b) the 

35 defect area is currently a normal defect area, the defect 
management processing advances to step S502. When 
it is determined that neither (a) nor (b) is the case, the 
defect management processing is terminated. Such a 
determination is, for example, performed when record- 

40 ing user data in the data area 102 or reproducing user 
data recorded in the data area 102. 
[0181] Step S502: The latest defect entries and the 
latest defect entry number P are updated. The P number 
of latest defect entries are updated to P' number of latest 

45 defect entries. The latest defect entry number P is up- 
dated to P'. 

[01 82] More specifically, when another defect area is 
determined to exist in the user area 1 06, another defect 
entry is added to the latest defect list. Next, the latest 

50 defect entry number is increased by the number of the 
added defect entries (P p', p < p'). 
[0183] When another defect is determined to exist in 
the spare area 107, the substitute position information 
corresponding to the another defect area in the latest 

55 defect list is rewritten. The substitute position informa- 
tion corresponding to the another defect area is rewrit- 
ten into substitute position information representing a 
portion other than the another defect area in the spare 



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area 107. The latest defect entry number is not changed 
(P-P')- 

[0184] When an area which was previously deter- 
nnined to be a defect area is currently determined to be 
a normal defect area, the defect entry including the po- 
sition information on the position of the defect area 
which was previously determined to be a defect area is 
deleted. Next, the latest defect entry number is de- 
creased by the number of the deleted defect entries (i. 
e., the number of defect areas (number of sectors) cur- 
rently determined to be normal) (P ^ P', P > P'). 
[0185] When the latest defect entries and the latest 
defect entry number P are updated, the defect manage- 
ment processing advances to step S503. 
[0186] Step S503: The first and second latest update 
times information are each incremented by one. Then, 
the defect management processing advances to step 
S504. 

[0187] Step S504: The latest defect list updated in 
steps 8502 and S503 is recorded in the first defect man- 
agement area 1 04 of the optical disc 1 00. For example, 
the updated latest header, the updated P' number of lat- 
est defect entries, and the updated latest anchor are re- 
corded in the first defect management area 104 in this 
order. Then, the defect management processing ad- 
vances to step S505. As long as the header 121 , the N 
number of defect entries 122 through 125, and the an- 
chor 126 are located in this order in the defect list 112, 
the updated latest anchor, the updated P' number of lat- 
est defect entries, and the updated latest header may 
be recorded in this order in the first defect management 
area 104. 

[0188] Step S505: It is determined whether or not the 
updated defect list has been recorded in all the defect 
management areas of the optical disc 100 (in this case, 
the first through fourth defect management areas 104, 
105, 108 and 109). When the updated defect list has 
been recorded in all the defect management areas of 
the optical disc 100, the defect management processing 
is terminated. When the updated defect list has not been 
recorded in all the defect management areas of the op- 
tical disc 100, the defect management processing re- 
turns to step S504. 

[0189] As described above, the arrangement of the 
latest header, the P' number of latest defect entries and 
the latest anchor in the latest defect list is arbitrary. The 
updated latest defect list is recorded in each of the first 
through fourth defect management areas 104, 105, 108 
and 109 of the optical disc 100 as follows. Such that the 
updated latest header is located at the position of the 
header 121 , the updated P' number of latest defect en- 
tries are located at the positions of the defect entries 
1 22 through 1 25, and the updated latest anchor is locat- 
ed at the position of the anchor 126, the updated latest 
defect list is recorded in each of the first through fourth 
defect management areas 1 04, 1 05, 1 08 and 1 09 in the 
order of the updated latest header, the updated P' 
number of latest defect entries, and the updated latest 



anchor or in the order of the updated latest anchor, the 
updated P' number of latest defect entries, and the up- 
dated latest header. 

[01 90] In the above description, the updated latest de- 

5 feet list is recorded on the optical disc 100 shown in Fig- 
ure 1 where the optical disc 100 has been subjected to 
defect management. Next, recording of the updated lat- 
est defect list on an optical disc in an initial state imme- 
diately after being shipped from the plant will be de- 
scribed. 

[0191] An optical disc in an initial state is assumed to 
have the same structure as that shown in Figure 1 ex- 
cept that, for example, the defect list 112 (Figure 1 ) has 
no information. In such optical disc, neither a defect list 
identifier for identifying the defect list nor an anchor 
identifier for identifying the anchor of the defect list is 
recorded. Therefore, in the case where the latest defect 
list includes neither the latest defect list identifier nor the 
latest anchor identifier, the defect management 
processing of recording the latest defect list includes the 
process of recording the defect list identifier and the an- 
chor Identifier in addition to the process of recording the 
latest defect list in the defect management area. In the 
case where the latest defect list includes the latest de- 
fect list identifier and the latest anchor identifier, no de- 
tailed explanation will be given since the processing was 
described above with reference to Figure 5. 
[01 92] The control section 301 requests the recording 
and reproduction section 302 to record the latest defect 
list stored in the storage section 303 in the defect man- 
agement area of the optical disc and to record the inher- 
ent defect list identifier and the inherent anchor identifi- 
er, which are initially stored in the control section 301, 
in a defect management area of the optical disc. More 
specifically, the inherent defect list identifier is recorded 
in the defect management area so as to be located at 
the start of the header 121 . The inherent anchor identi- 
fier is recorded in the defect management area so as to 
be located at the start of the anchor 126. In this case, 
an arbitrary value is recorded as the latest defect entry 
number and as the latest defect entry of the latest defect 
list which respectively correspond to the defect entry 
number 132 and the first through Nth defect entries 122 
through 125. As the first update times information and 
as the second update times information, for example, 0 
or 1 is recorded. The values to be recorded as the first 
and second update times information are arbitrary as 
long as the values are equal to each other and represent 
that recording has been performed on an optical disc in 
the initial state only once. 

[0193] The method for recording the defect list iden- 
tifier and the anchor identifier in the defect management 
area is not limited to the above-described method. For 
example, the inherent defect list identifier already stored 
in the control section 301 is given as the latest defect 
list identifier at the start of the latest header of the latest 
defect list stored in the storage section 303. Similarly, 
the inherent anchor identifier already stored in the con- 



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EP 1 347 452 A2 



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trol section 301 is given as the latest anclior identifier at 
the start of the latest anchor of the latest defect list. As 
the defect management processing performed on an 
optical disc in the initial state, the latest defect list includ- 
ing the latest defect list identifier and the latest anchor 
identifier obtained in this manner may be recorded in the 
defect management area. 

[0194] This process of defect management process- 
ing is performed in steps S504 and S505 in Figure 5. 
[0195] In the first example, it is accurately determined 
whether or not the defect management area has been 
updated nomially. This will be described in three differ- 
ent cases of update. In the following explanation, the 
optical disc 100 is used. 

(Specific example 1 : when a defect entry is added) 

[0196] Figure 6 shows data structures of a defect list 
in various states. Part (a) shows a data structure of a 
pre-update defect list. Part (b) shows a data structure of 
a defect list which was updated normally. Part (c) shows 
a data structure of a defect list which was not updated 
normally. 

[01 97] Figure 6 shows the case where another defect 
area (defect sector) is detected in the user area 1 06 and 

one defect entry is added. The addition of the defect en- 
try is performed as described above with reference to 
Figures 3 and 5. 

[01 98] Part (a) of Figure 6 shows a data structure be- 
fore the defect list is updated. The defect list shown in 
part (a) is the same as the defect list 1 1 2 shown in Figure 
1 . The defect list includes a first defect entry, and an 
Nth defect entry. The defect entry number is N, and the 
content of each of the first update times information and 
the second update times information is M. 
[01 99] Part (b) of Figure 6 shows a data structure after 
the defect list is updated normally (one defect entry is 
added normally). When one defect entry is added nor- 
mally to the defect list, the defect list includes the first 
defect entry, . . . , the Nth defect entry, and an (N+1 )th de- 
fect entry. The number of defect entries is increased by 
one from the state in part (a) of Figure 6. The defect 
entry number is updated from N to N+1 . The content of 
each of the first update times information and the sec- 
ond update times information is updated from M to M+1 . 
[0200] Following the addition of the defect entry, the 
position of the anchor is shifted toward the unused area 
by the size of the added defect entry from the position 
shown in part (a) of Figure 6. The shifted position of the 
anchor is calculated as follows. The defect entry number 
(N+1) included in the header is multiplied by the size of 
one defect entry. The shifted position of the anchor is 
away toward the unused area from the end of the header 
by the multiplication result. At this point, the information 
which is read from the calculated position matches the 
value of the inherent anchor identifier of the control sec- 
tion 301. Thus, it is confirmed that the anchor is read. 
In addition, the content of the first updated times infor- 



mation matches the content of the second updated 
times information. Thus, it can be determined that the 
defect list has been updated normally. 
[0201] Part (c) of Figure 6 shows a datastructure of a 
5 defect data in the case where the update failed before 
the anchor is recorded. The failure occurs when, for ex- 
ample, the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is 
turned off while the defect list is being updated. In part 
(c) of Figure 6, the defect list includes the first defect 
entry, and the Nth defect entry, like in part (a) of Fig- 
ure 6. Although the defect list includes the same defect 
entries as those of part (a) of Figure 6, the defect entry 
number is updated from N to (N+1 ). The content of the 
first update times information is updated from M to 
(M+1). However, the content of the second update times 
information is M like in part (a) of Figure 6. In this case, 
the anchor is not located at the position which is ob- 
tained by multiplying the defect entry number (N+1) in- 
cluded in the header by the size of one defect entry. The 
information which is read from the position calculated 
as the position of the anchor is padding data (=0 in part 
(c) of Figure 6) which is recorded in the unused area 
and is meaningless information. The information which 
is read as the position of the anchor is different from the 
value of the inherent anchor identifier of the control sec- 
tion 301. Thus, it is determined that the updating of the 
defect list failed. 

(Specific example 2: when a defect entry is deleted) 

[0202] Figure 7 shows data structures of a defect list 
in various states. Part (a) shows a data structure of a 
pre-update defect list. Part (b) shows a data structure of 
a defect list which was updated normally. Part (c) shows 
a data structure of a defect list which was not updated 
normally. 

[0203] Figure 7 shows the case where a defect area 
which was previously determined to be a defect area is 

currently determined to be a normal defect area, and the 
defect entry including the position information on the po- 
sition of the defect area which is currently determined 
to be the normal defect area is deleted. The deletion of 
the defect entry is performed as described above with 
reference to Figures 3 and 5. 

[0204] Part (a) of Figure 7 shows a data structure be- 
fore the defect list is updated. The defect list shown in 
part (a) is the same as the defect list 112 shown in Figure 
1. 

[0205] Part (b) of Figure 7 shows a datastructure after 
the defect entry is deleted normally. When one defect 
entry is deleted normally from the defect list, the defect 
list includes the first defect entry, . . . , and an (N-1 )th de- 
fect entry. The number of defect entries is decreased by 
one from the state in part (a) of Figure 7. The defect 
entry number is updated from N to N-1 . The content of 
each of the first update times infomnation and the sec- 
ond update times information is updated from M to M+l . 
[0206] Following the deletion of the defect entry, the 



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EP 1 347 452 A2 



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position of the anchor is shifted toward the header by 
the size of the deleted defect entry from the position 
shown in part (a) of Figure 7. The shifted position of the 
anchor is calcu lated as follows. The defect entry number 
(N-1) included in the header is nnultiplied by the size of 5 
one defect entry like in Specific exannple 1 . The shifted 
position of the anchor is away toward the unused area 
from the end of the header by the multiplication result. 
At this point, the information which is read from the cal- 
culated position matches the value of the inherent an- io 
chor identifier of the control section 301 .Thus, it is con- 
firmed that the anchor is read. In addition, the content 
of the first updated times information matches the con- 
tent of the second updated times information. Thus, it 
can be determined that the defect list has been updated 
normally. 

[0207] Part (c) of Figure 7 shows a data structure of 

a defect data in the case where the update failed before 
the anchor is recorded. The failure occurs when, for ex- 
ample, the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is 20 
turned off while the defect list Is being updated. In part 
(c) of Figure 7, the defect list includes the first defect 
entry, and the Nth defect entry, like in part (a) of Fig- 
ure 7. Although the defect list includes the same defect 
entries as those of part (a) of Figure 7, the defect entry 25 
number is updated from N to (N-1). The content of the 
first update times information is updated from M to 
(M+1 ). However, the content of the second update times 
information is IVI like in part (a) of Figure 7. In this case, 
the anchor is not located at the position which is ob- 30 
tained by multiplying the defect entry number (N-1) in- 
cluded in the header by the size of one defect entry. The 
information which is read from the position calculated 
as the position of the anchor is the Nth defect position 
information which is included in the Nth defect entry. The 35 
value of the inherent anchor identifier of the control sec- 
tion 301 is different from any of the defect list identifier, 
the defect entries, or the padding data as described 
above with reference to Figures 2A through 2D. Thus, 
it never occurs that the content of the Nth defect position 40 
infomnation accidentally matches the value of the inher- 
ent anchor identifier, resulting in an erroneous determi- 
nation that the defect list has been updated normally. 

(Specific example 3: when a defect entry is changed) 

[0208] Figure 8 shows data structures of a defect list 
in various states. Part (a) shows a data structure of a 
pre-update defect list. Part (b) shows a data structure of 
a defect list which was updated normally. Part (c) shows so 
a data structure of a defect list which was not updated 
normally. 

[0209] Figure 8 shows the case where another defect 
area exists in the spare area 107 which is used as the 
substitute area (substitute sector) for the defect area ss 
(defect sector) represented by the (N-I)th defect posi- 
tion information, and the substitute position information 
in the (N-1)th defect entry is changed. The change of 



the defect entry is performed as described above with 
reference to Figures 3 and 5. 

[021 0] Part (a) of Figure 8 shows a data structure be- 
fore the defect list is updated. The defect list shown in 
part (a) is the same as the defect list 112 shown in Figure 
1. 

[021 1 1 Part (b) of Figure 8 shows a data structure after 
the defect list is changed normally (after the substitute 
position information is changed normally) . Since no de- 
fect entry is added or deleted, the defect list includes 

the first defect entry and the Nth defect entry like in 

part (a) of Figure 8. The number of defect entries is N 
like in part (a) of Figure 8. The content of each of the 
first update times information and the second update 
times information is updated from M to M+l . 
[0212] Accordingly, the position of the anchor after the 
update is the same as the position of the anchor before 
the update. The position of the anchor is calculated as 
follows. The defect entry number N included in the head- 
er is multiplied by the size of one defect entry. The po- 
sition of the anchor Is away toward the unused area from 
the end of the header by the multiplication result. At this 
point, the information which is read from the calculated 
position matches the value of the inherent anchor iden- 
tifier of the control section 301 . Thus, it is confirmed that 
the anchor is read. In addition, the content of the first 
updated times information matches the content of the 
second updated times information. Thus, it can be de- 
termined that the defect list has been updated normally. 
[0213] Part (c) of Figure 8 shows a data structure of 
a defect data in the case where the update failed before 
the anchor is recorded. The failure occurs when, for ex- 
ample, the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is 
turned off while the defect list is being updated. In part 
(c) of Figure 8, the defect list includes the first defect 
entry, and the Nth defect entry, like in part (a) of Fig- 
ure 8. The defect entry number is N like in part (a) of 
Figure 8. The content of the first update times informa- 
tion is updated from M to (M+1). However, the content 
of the second update times information is M like in part 
(a) of Figure 8. In this case, the position which is ob- 
tained by multiplying the defect entry number N included 
in the header by the size of one defect entry is the correct 
position of the anchor. However, since the content of the 
first update times information is different from the con- 
tent of the second update times information, it never oc- 
curs that the defect list is erroneously determined to 
have been updated normally. 

[0214] In the first example, the header 121 includes 
the defect list identifier 131. The header 121 is located 
at a physically specified position in the optical disc 100 
and therefore does not need to include the defect list 
identifier 131 . Even without the defect list identifier 131 , 
the same effect as described in the first example can be 
provided. 

[021 5] As described above, according to the first ex- 
ample of the present invention, the information record- 
ing medium 1 00 includes the data area 1 02 for recording 



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user data, and the defect management areas 104, 105, 
108 and 109 for recording a defect list used for manag- 
ing N number of defect areas existing in tine data area 
102 (N is an integer satisfying N > 0). The defect list 112 
includes the header 1 21 , the N number of defect entries 
respectively including the position information on the po- 
sitions of the N number of defect areas, and the anchor 
1 26. The header 1 21 , the N number of defect areas, and 
the anchor 126 are located in this order in the defect list 
112. 

[0216] Owing to such a structure, the size of the defect 
list 112 is variable. Since the size of the defect list 1 12 

is varied in accordance with the number of detected de- 
fect areas (defect sectors), the size of the defect list 112 
is decreased when the number of the defect areas is 
small. Namely, the defect list 112 is accommodated in 
a small ECC size (e.g., 1 ECC size). When the size of 
the defect list 1 12 is small, the time required for record- 
ing the defect list 112 in the defect management area is 
shorter and the processing efficiency is improved. Even 
when a defect area exists in the remaining ECC blocks 
(unused area) of the defect management area other 
than the defect list 112, that defect management area 
can be processed as a normal defect management ar- 
ea. Accordingly, data in the defect management area 
can be normally reproduced. 

[0217] According to the first example of the present 
invention, the header 121 includes the defect list iden- 
tifier 131 for identifying the defect list 112, the first up- 
date times information 133 representing the number of 
times which the defect list 112 has been updated, and 
the defect entry number 132 representing the number 
of defect entries. The anchor 126 includes the anchor 
identifier 151 for identifying the anchor of the defect list 
112, and the second update times information 152 rep- 
resenting the number of times which the defect list 1 12 
has been updated. 

[0218] Owing to such a structure, rt is not necessary 

to provide a header for each 1 ECC size even when the 
size of the defect list 1 1 2 is not accommodated in 1 ECC 
size. Thus, the processing efficiency of updating the de- 
fect list 112 is improved. Since the header is not inter- 
posed between the two defect entries, defect entries can 
be, for example, searched for, added and deleted easily. 
[0219] The content of the anchor identifier 151 is dif- 
ferent from any of the defect list identifier 131 , the defect 
entry number 132, the first update times information 
133, the defect entries, or the second update times in- 
formation 152. As such, even when a defect entry is de- 
leted, the information which is erroneously read as the 
anchor identifier 151 never matches the content of the 
inherent anchor identifier. Therefore, the defect list 112 
Is not erroneously determined to have been updated 
normally when it has not been updated nomnally. 



(Example 2) 

(1) Information recording medium 

5 [0220] Figure 9 shows a data structure of an informa- 
tion recording medium 900 according to a second ex- 
ample of the present invention. 
[0221] The information recording medium (optical 
disc) 900 may be, for example, a rewritable optical disc. 

10 The optical disc 900 is assumed to be subjected to error 
correction in units of 1 ECC block. An ECC block is a unit 
of error correction in the field of optical discs. This size 
of one ECC block will be referred to as "1ECC size", 
hereinafter. It is assumed that the recording of informa- 

^5 tion on the optical disc 900 and updating of the informa- 
tion on the optical disc 900 are performed in units of 
1 ECC block. 

[0222] The data structure shown in Figure 9 is the 
structure of the optical disc 900 after position informa- 
nt? tion on N number of defect areas in a defect manage- 
ment area is normally recorded (N is an integer satisfy- 
ing N > 0). A defect area is, for example, a defect sector. 
[0223] The optical disc 900 includes a data area 902 
for recording user data, and a lead-in area 901 and a 
25 lead-out area 903 acting as buffer areas when a record- 
ing and reproduction apparatus (not shown) overruns 
by the movement of an optical head (not shown). 
[0224] The data area 902 includes a user area 906 for 
recording user area and a spare area 907. When there 
30 Is a defect area (for example, a defect sector) in the user 
area 906, the user data which is to be recorded in the 
defect area is recorded in the spare area 907 instead of 
a portion of the user area 906 corresponding to the de- 
fect area. 

35 [0225] The lead-in area 901 includes a first defect 
management area 904 and a second defect manage- 
ment area 905 for recording defect management infor- 
mation used for managing a defect area existing in the 
data area 902. 

40 [0226] The lead-out area 903 includes a third defect 
management area 908 and a fourth defect management 
area 909 for recording defect management information 
used for managing a defect area existing in the data ar- 
ea 902, like the lead-in area 901 . 

45 [0227] The first defect management area 904, the 
second defect management area 905, the third defect 
management area 908, and the fourth defect manage- 
ment area 909 are respectively located at physically 
specific positions in the optical disc 900. 

50 [0228] In the first defect management area 904, the 
second defect management area 905, the third defect 
management area 908 and the fourth defect manage- 
ment area 909, the same information for defect man- 
agement is recorded in multiplex. The reason for this is, 

55 as described above in the first example, that the infor- 
mation recorded in the first, second, third and fourth de- 
fect management areas 904, 905, 908, and 909 cannot 
be a target of defect management. Even if some of the 



22 



43 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



44 



first, second, third and fourtli defect nnanagennent areas 
904, 905, 908, and 909 have a defect area and the in- 
formation recorded in the defect area cannot be repro- 
duced, as long as at least one of the four defect man- 
agement areas is defect-free, the defect management 
information recorded in that area can be nomnally repro- 
duced. Accordingly, loss of the user data is prevented, 
which improves reliability. In the second example, the 
optical disc 900 includes the four defect management 
areas 904, 905, 908, and 909, but the number of defect 
management areas may be any number of one or more. 
[0229] In the first defect management area 904, a disc 
definition structure 911 and a defect list 912 for manag- 
ing N number of defect areas existing in the data area 
902 (N is an integer satisfying N > 0) are recorded. 
[0230] The disc definition structure 91 1 is information 
representing the disc structure, for example, whether or 
not the disc 900 has been subjected to defect manage- 
ment. This information also includes information regard- 
ing the spare area 907. The disc definition structure 91 1 
is located at a physically specific position In the first de- 
fect management area 904. The disc definition structure 
911 has a prescribed size. 

[0231] The defect list 912 includes a header 921, a 
first defect entry 922, a second defect entry 923, an 
(N-1)th defect entry 924, an Nth entry 925, and an an- 
chor 927 located at a fixed position in the defect list 91 2. 
The defect list 91 2 further includes an unused area 926, 
unlike in the first example. The header 921, the first 
through Nth entries 922 through 925, and the anchor 
927 are located in this order in the defect list 912. 
[0232] In the second example, it is assumed that the 
size of the defect list 912 is4ECC. The size of the defect 
list 912 is not limited to 4ECC and is arbitrary. 
[0233] The header 921 includes a defect list identifier 
931 which represents that the area is the defect list 91 2, 
a defect entry number 932 which represents the number 
of defect entries included in the defect list 912, and first 
update times information 933 which represents the 
number of times which an updated defect list has been 
recorded in the first defect management area 904. In 
Figure 9, the defect entry number 932 is N (N is an in- 
teger satisfying N >0), and the content of the first update 
times information 933 is IVI (M is an integer satisfying M 
> 0). The defect list identifier 931 may be located, for 
example, at the start of the header 921 shown in Figure 
9. 

[0234] The header 921 is located at a physically spec- 
ified position. In the second example, the header 921 is 
located at the start of the defect list 912. The position of 
the header 921 in the defect list 912 is arbitrary as long 
as the header 921, the first through Nth defect entries 
922 through 925, and the anchor 927 are located in this 
order in the defect list 912. 

[0235] In the case of the optical disc 900 shown in Fig- 
ure 9, the defect entry number 932 is N. Thus, the defect 
list 912 includes the first defect entry 922, and the 
Nth defect entry 925. The first defect entry 922 includes 



first defect position information 941 which is position in- 
formation showing the position of a defect area, and first 
substitute position information 942 which is position in- 
formation showing the position of a part of the spare ar- 

5 ea 907 which is usable instead of the defect area. Like- 
wise, the second defect entry 923 includes second de- 
fect position information and second substitute position 
information. The (N-I)th defect entry 924 and the Nth 
defect entry 925 also have substantially the same struc- 

10 ture. Here, each of the first defect position information 
941 and the first substitute position information 942 is 
generally a sector number 

[0236] The defect entries are generally located such 
that the defect position information included therein is 

^5 in an ascending order. More specifically, when, for ex- 
ample, the defect position information is a sector 
number, defect position information having the smaller 
sector number is located in the first defect entry as the 
first defect position information 941 . After this, the defect 

20 entries are located in the order of the sector numbers. 
Defect position Information having the larger sector 
number is located in the Nth defect entry 925 as Nth 
defect position information. 

[0237] The defect entries in the defect list 912 do not 
25 need to be located in an ascending order. For example, 

the defect entries may be located such that the sector 

numbers are in a descending order. Alternatively, the 

defect entries may be located randomly. 

[0238] In the unused area 926, currently meaningless 
30 information is recorded. Generally, padding data 952 

(for example, 0) is recorded in the unused area 926. 

When a new defect area is detected in the user area 

906, a defect entry for managing the new defect area is 

added to the defect list 912. As a result, the size of the 
35 unused area 926 is decreased by the size of the added 

defect entry. 

[0239] The anchor 927 includes second update times 
information 951 which represents the number of times 
which the updated defect list has been recorded in the 

40 first defect management area 904. In Figure 9, the con- 
tent of the second update times information 951 is M (M 
is an integer satisfying M > 0), and is the same as that 
of the first update times information 933. As long as the 
first defect management area 904 is updated normally, 

45 the content of the first update times information 933 and 
the content of the second update times information 951 
are identical to each other. 

[0240] In this specification, the first and second up- 
date times information 933 and 951 represent the 

50 number of times which the updated defect list has been 
recorded in the first defect management area 904 (i.e., 
the number of times which the defect list 91 2 has been 
updated and recorded on the optical disc 900). The first 
and second update times information 933 and 951 may 

55 represent the number of times which the defect list has 
been updated (i.e., the number of times which the defect 
list has been updated in the storage section described 
below). In the following description, the first and second 



23 



45 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



46 



update times information 933 and 951 represent the 
number of times which the updated defect list has been 
recorded in the first defect management area 904. 
[0241 ] The anchor 927 is located at a fixed position in 
the defect list 912, unlike in the first example. The an- 
chor 927 is preferably located which is determined 
based on the position of the header 921 . In the second 
example, the anchor 927 is located at the position of the 
end ofthe defect list 91 2, i.e., at the end of the first defect 
management area 904. Since the size of the defect list 
912 is fixed at 4ECC, the anchor 927 is located at the 
end of the fourth ECC block from the start of the defect 
list 912. However, as long as the header 921, the 1st 
through Nth defect entries 922 through 925, and the an- 
chor 927 are located in the defect list 912 in this order, 
the anchor 927 may be fixed at an arbitrary position in 
the defect list 912. 

[0242] In the optical disc 900 in the second example, 
the anchor 927 is located at a physically fixed position 
in the defect list 912. The header 921 includes the first 
update times infoimation 933, and the anchor 927 in- 
cludes the second update times information 951 . Since 
the position of the anchor 927 is fixed, the content of the 
first update times information 933 and the content of the 
second update times infomnation 951 are compared with 
each other without fail. Accordingly, it can be easily de- 
termined whether or not the defect list 91 2 has been up- 
dated normally. 

[0243] The following description will be made with the 
premise that the optical disc 900 has the data structure 
shown in Figure 9. 

(2) Reproduction/recording (update) 

[0244] The recording and reproduction apparatus 300 
shown in Figure 3 is used for recording information on 
the optical disc 900 according to the second example 
and/or reproducing information recorded on the optical 
disc 900. Unlike in the first example, the control section 
301 in the second example has only an inherent defect 
list identifier for identifying the defect list 912 in the op- 
tical disc 900 stored thereon. The content (value) of the 
inherent defect list identifier is correct and is not rewri- 
table. The description ofthe recording and reproduction 
apparatus 300 shown in Figure 3 is provided in the first 
example and will not be repeated here. 

(2-1) Defect management processing for specifying the 
latest defect list 

[0245] Next, with reference to Figure 3, the operation 
of defect management processing for specifying the lat- 
est defect list performed by the recording and reproduc- 
tion apparatus 300 will be described. 
[0246] The control section 301 executes the defect 
management processing. The control section 301 fol- 
lows the procedure of the defect management process- 
ing to request the recording and reproduction section 



302 to reproduce the information of the disc definition 
structure 91 1 located at the start of the first defect man- 
agement area 904 and store the reproduced information 
from the disc definition structure 911 in the storage sec- 
5 tion 303. 

[0247] Upon the request from the control section 301 , 
the recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces 
the information of the disc definition structure 911 from 
the optical disc 900 and stores the information in the 
storage section 303. The recording and reproduction 
section 302 reports to the control section 301 that the 
reproduction and storage of the information of the disc 
definition structure 911 has been completed. 
[0248] Upon receiving the report from the recording 
^5 and reproduction section 302, the control section 301 
checks whether or not the optical disc 900 has been sub- 
jected to defect management, based on the information 
of the disc definition structure 911 stored in the storage 
section 303. 

20 [0249] When confirming that the optical disc 900 has 
been subjected to defect management, the control sec- 
tion 301 requests the recording and reproduction sec- 
tion 302 to reproduce the header 921 located at a fixed 
position of the defect list 912 (in the example of Figure 

25 9 J at the start of the defect list 912) recorded in the first 
defect management area 904 and store the reproduced 
header 921 in the storage section 303. 
[0250] Upon the request from the control section 301 , 
the recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces 

30 the header 921 located at the start of the defect list 912 
recorded in the first defect management area 904 and 
store the reproduced header 921 in the storage section 
303. The recording and reproduction section 302 re- 
ports to the control section 301 that the reproduction and 

35 storage of the header 921 has been completed. 

[0251] Upon receiving the report from the recording 
and reproduction section 302, the control section 301 
compares the content ofthe inherent defect list identifier 
initially stored in the control section 301 with the content 

40 of the defect list identifier 931 included in the header 921 
stored in the storage section 303 to check whether or 
not the stored information is the header 921 in the defect 
list 912. 

[0252] When the two contents compared match each 
45 other, the control section 301 determines that the stored 
information is the header 921 in the defect list 912 and 
proceeds with the defect management processing. 
When the two contents compared do not match each 
other, the control section 301 determines that updating 
50 of the first defect management area 904 failed (abnor- 
mal defect management area) and terminates the defect 
management processing. The two contents compared 
do not match each other when, for example, there is a 
defect area in the first defect management area 904 and 
55 thus information cannot be read therefrom. 

[0253] In order to confirm the content of the first up- 
date times information 933 and the content of the sec- 
ond update times information 951 in thef irst defect man- 



24 



47 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



48 



agement area 904, the control section 301 requests the 
recording and reproduction section 302 to reproducethe 
anchor 927 located at the fixed position in the defect list 
912 (in Figure 9, at the end of the fourth ECC block from 
the start of the defect list 912) and store the reproduced 
anchor 927 in the storage section 303. 
[0254] Upon the request from the control section 301 , 
the recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces 
the anchor 927 located at the designated position in the 
defect list 912 and stores the reproduced anchor 927 in 
the storage section 303. The recording and reproduction 
section 302 reports to the control section 301 that the 
reproduction and storage of the anchor 927 has been 
completed. 

[0255] The control section 301 compares the content 
of the first update times information 933 included in the 
header 921 with the content of the second update times 
information 951 included in the anchor 927 stored in the 
storage section 303. 

[0256] When the two contents compared match each 
other, the control section 301 determines that the first 
defect management area 904 has been updated nor- 
mally, and proceeds with the defect management 
processing. 

[0257] When the two contents compared do not 

match each other, the control section 301 determines 
that updating of the first defect management area 904 
failed (abnormal defect management area) and termi- 
nates the defect management processing. The two con- 
tents compared do not match each other when, for ex- 
ample, the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is 
turned off while the first through Nth defect entries 922 
through 925 in the defect list 912 are being updated, in 
this case, the content of the first update times informa- 
tion 933 included in the header 921 does not match the 
content of the second update times information 951 in- 
cluded in the anchor 927. 

[0258] The control section 301 performs substantially 

the same processing for each of the second defect man- 
agement area 905, the third defect management area 
908 and the fourth defect management area 909. 
[0259] After checking whether or not each of the first 
through fourth defect management areas 904, 905, 908 
and 909 is a normal defect management area, the con- 
trol section 301 specifies the latest defect management 
area among the defect management areas which have 
been determined to be normal, as follows. The control 
section 301 makes a comparison of the first update 
times information 933 recorded in the defect manage- 
ment areas which have been detemnined to be normal, 
and specifies the defect management area having the 
largest number of updates as the latest defect manage- 
ment area. The defect list recorded in the specified latest 
defect management area is specified as the latest defect 
list. 

[0260] The second update times information 951 in- 
cluded in the anchor927 may be used for specifying the 
latest defect management area instead of the first up- 



date times information 933. 

[0261 ] The control section 301 requests the recording 
and reproduction section 302 to reproduce the defect 
list recorded in the specified latest defect management 

5 area and store the reproduced defect list in the defect 
list area saved in the storage section 303. 
[0262] Upon the request from the control section 301 , 
the recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces 
the defect list recorded in the specified latest defect 
management area and stores the reproduced defect list 
in the defect list area in the storage section 303. The 
recording and reproduction section 302 reports to the 
control section 301 that the reproduction and storage of 
the defect list has been completed, 

15 [0263] Thus, the operation of defect management 
processing forspecifying the latest defect list performed 
by the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is 
completed. 

[0264] Using the specified latest defect list, the user 
20 data recorded in the data area 902, for example, can be 
reproduced. In this case, the control section 301 re- 
quests the recording and reproduction section 302 to re- 
produce the user data based on the latest defect list and 
store the reproduced user data in the storage section 
25 303. 

[0265] Upon the request from the control section 301 , 
the recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces 
the user data from the data area 902 and stores the re- 
produced user data in the storage section 303. 
30 [0266] Information recording may be performed using 
the specified latest defect list. 

[0267] Figure 10 shows a procedure of defect man- 
agement processing for specifying the latest defect list 
in the second example. The defect management 

35 processing is executed by the control section 301 . Here- 
inafter, each step of the procedure of defect manage- 
ment processing will be described. The procedure of de- 
fect management processing is started after it is con- 
firmed that the optical disc 900 has been subjected to 

40 defect management. Whether or not the optical disc 900 
has been subjected to defect management is deter- 
mined based on the disc definition structure 911 in the 
optical disc 900. 

[0268] Step S1 001 : The defect list identifier 931 , the 
45 defect entry number 932 and the first update times in- 
formation 933 included in the header 921 are repro- 
duced. The content of the reproduced defect list identi- 
fier 931 is compared with the content of the inherent de- 
fect list identifier. The inherent defect list identifier iden- 
50 tifies the defect list 912 in the optical disc 900. The in- 
herent defect list identifier has a correct value which is 
not rewritable. The inherent defect list identifier may be 
initially stored in the control section 301 . When the two 
contents compared match each other, the defect man- 
55 agement processing advances to step SI 002. When the 
two contents compared do not match each other, the 
defect management processing advances to step 
S1003. 



25 



49 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



50 



[0269] Step S1002: When the content of the defect 
list identifier 931 and the content of the inherent defect 
list identifier are determined to match each other in step 
S1001 , the reproduced information is detemriined to be 
the header 921 in the defect list 912. The anchor 927 
located at a fixed position (in Figure 9, at the position of 
the fourth ECC block from the start of the defect list 91 2) 
is reproduced. The content of the first update times in- 
formation 933 included in the header 921 is compared 
with the content of the second update times information 
951 included in the anchor 927. When the two contents 
compared are determined to match each other, the de- 
fect management processing advances to step S1 004. 
When the two contents compared are determined not to 
match each other, the defect management processing 
advances to step S1003. 

[0270] Step S1003: When the content of the defect 
list identifier 931 and the content of the inherent defect 
list identifier are determined not to match each other in 
step SI 001 , or when the content of the first update times 
information 933 and the content of the second update 
times information 951 are determined not to match each 
other in step 81 002, updating of the first defect manage- 
ment area 904 is determined to have failed (abnormal 
defect management area), and the defect management 
processing for the first defect management area 904 is 
terminated. The defect management processing ad- 
vances to step 81 005. 

[0271] Step S1 004: When the content of the first up- 
date times information 933 and the content of the sec- 
ond update times information 951 are determined to 
match each other in step S1002, the first defect man- 
agement area 904 is determined to have been updated 
normally. Then, the defect management processing ad- 
vances to step S1 005. 

[0272] Step SI 005: It is determined whether or notthe 
operations in steps S1001 through SI 004 have been 
perfomried for all the defect management areas in the 
optical disc 900. When the operations in steps S1001 
through S1 004 have not been performed for all the de- 
fect management areas, the defect management 
processing returns to step S1 001 . When the operations 
in steps SI 001 through SI 004 have been performed for 
all the defect management areas, the defect manage- 
ment processing advances to step S1006. 
[0273] Step SI 006: The latest defect list is specified. 
More specifically, the latest defect management area 
among the defect management areas determined to be 
normal is specified, as follows. A comparison is made 
of the first update times information (or the second up- 
date times information) recorded in the defect manage- 
ment areas determined to be normal, and the defect 
management area having the largest number of updates 
is specified as the latest defect management area. The 
defect list recorded in the specified latest defect man- 
agement area is specified as the latest defect list. 
[0274] When the latest defect list of the optical disc 
900 is specified by steps S1 001 through SI 006, the de- 



fect management processing is completed. Using the 
latest defect list obtained in step SI 006, the user data 
recorded in the data area 902, for example, can be re- 
produced. 

(2-2) Defect management processing for updating the 
latest defect list 

[0275] Returning to Figure 3, the operation of defect 
management processing for updating the latest defect 
list performed by the recording and reproduction appa- 
ratus 300 will be described. In the following example, 
the defect list is updated when another defect area is 
detected while the user data is being recorded in the 
data area 902 of the optical disc 900, or when a portion 
of the user area 906 which was previously determined 
to be a defect area is determined to be a normal defect 
area while the user data recorded in the data area 902 
is being reproduced. Throughout this specification, a 
"normal defect area" is defined to mean an area which 
was previously determined to be a defect area but cur- 
rently has no defect and allows information to be record- 
ed therein and/or allows information therein to be repro- 
duced. An area which was previously determined to be 
a defect area is currently determined to be a normal de- 
fect area when, for example, the defect is caused by 
dust or stain such as a fingerprint on the surface of the 
optical disc. In this case, when the user cleans the sur- 
face of the optical disc to remove the dust or stain, the 
area in which the dust or stain existed (i.e., the area 
which was previously determined to be a defect area) is 
currently determined to be a normal area usable for re- 
cording/reproduction. 

[0276] The storage section 303 stores the latest de- 
fect list. The latest defect list may be located in the de- 
fect list area in the storage section 303. The latest defect 
list includes the latest header, P number of latest defect 
entries (P is an integer satisfying P > 0 where P = N or 
P N), and the latest anchor. The latest header, the P 
number of latest defect entries, and the latest anchor 
are located in the latest defect list in this order. The latest 
header is located at a fixed position in the latest defect 
list. The latest anchor is also located at a fixed position 
in the latest defect list. The latest header includes the 
latest defect list identifier, the first latest update times 
information and the latest defect entry number P. The 
content of the latest defect list identifier is always the 
same as that of the inherent defect list identifier stored 
in the control section 301. The latest anchor includes 
the second latest update times information which has 
the same content as that of the first latest update times 
information. It is assumed that the P number of latest 
defect entries are arranged in an ascending order of the 
defect position infomnation (defect sector numbers ) . 
The latest defect list may include an unused area. It is 
not always necessary that the latest header includes the 
latest defect list identifier. 

[0277] The above-described arrangement of the lat- 



10 



15 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



26 



51 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



52 



est header and the P number of latest defect entries and 
the latest anchor is merely an example. The arrange- 
ment of the latest header and the P number of latest 
defect entries and the latest anchor in the latest defect 

list is arbitrary. 

[0278] The control section 301 executes the defect 
management processing. The control section 301 re- 
quests the recording and reproduction section 302 to 
determine whether (a) another defect area exists in the 
data area 902, (b) a defect area which was previously 
determined to be a defect area is currently a normal de- 
fect area, or (c) neither (a) nor (b) is the case. Whether 
or not another defect area exists in the data area 902 is 
determined by, for example, comparing a signal ob- 
tained by reproducing data immediately after user data 
is recorded with a signal representing user data to be 
recorded. When these signals match each other, the us- 
er data is determined to have been normally recorded 
in the data area 902. When these signals do not match 
each other, it is determined that the user data has not 
been nomnaliy recorded in the data area 902 and anoth- 
er defect area exists in the data area 902. 
[0279] When determining that another defect area ex- 
ists in the data area 902 or that the area which was pre- 
viously determined to be a defect area is currently a nor- 
mal defect area, the control section 301 updates the lat- 
est defect list stored in the storage section 303. 
[0280] Specific procedures of updating the latest de- 
fect list will be described. There are three cases of up- 
dating the latest defect list, namely, (i) addition of a de- 
fect entry, (ii) deletion of a defect entry; and (iii) change 
of a defect entry. Each of these cases will be described 
one by one. 

(i) Addition of a defect entry 

[0281 ] When it is determined that another defect area 
exists in the user area 906, a defect entry including the 
position information on the position of the another defect 
area is added to the latest defect list. Based on the de- 
fect position information on the detected defect area, the 
control section 301 determines the position of the defect 
entry to be added. The control section 301 shifts the oth- 
er defect entries and the latest anchor existing subse- 
quent to the determined position toward the unused ar- 
ea, and adds the defect entry including the position in- 
formation on the another defect area at the determined 
position. As a result, the P number of latest defect en- 
tries are updated to P' number of latest defect entries (P 
^P\P< P'). 

[0282] Following the addition of the defect entry, the 
control section 301 updates the latest defect entry 
number from P into P'. In this case, the latest defect en- 
try number is increased by the number of the added de- 
fect entries (i.e., by the number of the detected defect 
sectors). 

[0283] After the P number of latest defect entries and 
the latest defect entry number P are updated, the control 



section 301 increments, by one, the content of the first 
latest update times information included in the latest 
header and the content of the second latest update 
times information included in the latest anchor. 

5 

(ii) Deletion of a defect entry 

[0284] When an area which was previously deter- 
mined to be a defect area is currently determined to be 

10 a normal defect area, the control section 301 deletes the 
defect entry including the position information on the ar- 
ea determined to be the normal defect area. The control 
section 301 then shifts the defect entries located sub- 
sequent to the deleted defect entry toward the latest 

^5 header by the size of the deleted defect entry. The un- 
used area is expanded by the size of the deleted defect 
entry, and the control section 301 records padding data 
(for example, 0) in the expanded portion of the unused 
area. As a result, the P number of latest defect entries 

20 are updated to P' number of latest defect entries (P ^ 
P', P > P'). 

[0285] Following the deletion of the defect entry, the 
control section 301 updates the latest defect entry 
number included in the latest header from P into P'. In 

25 this case, the latest defect entry number is decreased 
by the number of the deleted defect entries (i.e., by the 
number of the defect sectors determined to be normal). 
[0286] After the P number of latest defect entries and 
the latest defect entry number P are updated, the control 

30 section 301 increments, by one, the content of the first 
latest update times information included in the latest 
header and the content of the second latest update 
times information included in the latest anchor. 



[0287] The operation in this case is the same as the 
operation described in the first example, and will not be 

repeated here. 

[0288] The operations of (i) through (iii) are performed 
by the control section 301 for the latest defect list stored 
in the storage section 303. As in the first example, in the 
case where the first and second update times informa- 
tion 933 and 951 represent the number of times which 
the updated latest defect list has been recorded in the 
first defect management area 904, the first and second 
latest update times information may each be increment- 
ed by one only once before the updated latest defect list 
is recorded in the first defect management area 904. By 
contrast, in the case where the first and second update 
times information 933 and 951 represent the number of 
times which the latest defect list has been updated in 
the storage section 303, the first and second latest up- 
date times information may be incremented by one each 
time the latest defect entries and the latest defect entry 
number are updated. 

[0289] The control section 301 requests the recording 
and reproduction section 302 to record the latest defect 



35 (ill) Change of a defect entry 



40 



45 



50 



27 



53 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



54 



list updated in the storage section 303 in the first defect 
nnanagennent area 904 of the optical disc 900. For ex- 
annple, the control section 301 requests the recording 
and reproduction section 302 to record the updated lat- 
est header, the updated P' number of latest defect en- 
tries, and the updated latest anchor in the first defect 
management area 904 in this order. 
[0290] Upon the request from the control section 301 , 
the recording and reproduction section 302 records the 
updated latest defect list in the first defect management 
area 904. The updated defect list replacing the defect 
list 912 is recorded in the first defect management area 
904 in the order of the latest header replacing the header 
921 , the latest defect entries replacing the first through 
Nth defect entries 922 through 925, and the latest an- 
chor replacing the anchor 927. The recording and repro- 
duction section 302 reports to the control section 301 
that the recording of the updated latest defect list in the 
first defect management area 904 has been completed. 
Unlike in the first example, the anchor 927 is located at 
the fixed position, i.e., at the end of the fourth ECC block 
from the start of the defect list 91 2 in the optical disc 900 
in the second example. Therefore, even when the total 
size of the header 921 and the defect entries in the de- 
fect list 912 is accommodated in 1 ECC size, data of at 
least two ECC blocks, i.e. , the data for the first ECC 
block and the data for the fourth ECC block need to be 
recorded. 

[0291 ] The control section 301 requests the recording 
and reproduction section 302 to record the latest defect 
list updated in the storage section 303 in each of the 
second through fourth defect management areas 905, 
908 and 909. More specifically, again, the control sec- 
tion 301 requests the recording and reproduction sec- 
tion 302 to record the updated latest header, the updat- 
ed latest defect entries, and the updated latest anchor 
in this order in the second through fourth defect man- 
agement areas 905, 908 and 909. 
[0292] Upon the requestfrom the control section 301 , 
the recording and reproduction section 302 records the 
updated latest defect list in each of the second through 
fourth defect management areas 905, 908 and 909. 
[0293] Thus, the operation of defect management 
processing for updating the latest defect list performed 
by the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is 
completed. 

[0294] The order of recording the updated latest de- 
fect list is not limited to the above-described order of the 
latest header, the P' number of latest defect entries, and 
the latest anchor. As long as the header 921 , the N 
number of defect entries 922 through 925, and the an- 
chor 927 are located in this order in the defect list 912, 
the control section 301 may request the recording and 
reproduction section 302 to record the updated latest 
anchor, the P' number of latest defect entries, and the 
latest header in this order in each of the first through 
fourth defect management areas 904, 905, 908 and 909, 
and the recording and reproduction section 302 may 



record the updated latest defect list in each of the first 
through fourth defect management areas 904, 905, 908 
and 909 upon the request from the control section 301 . 
[0295] Returning to Figure 5, a procedure of defect 
5 management processing for updating the latest defect 
list in the second example will be described. The defect 
management processing is executed by the control sec- 
tion 301. The operations in steps S501 through S503 
and S505 are substantially the same as those of the first 
10 example, and will not be repeated here. 

[0296] Step S504: The updated latest defect list is re- 
corded in the first defect management area 904 of the 
optical disc 900. For example, the updated latest head- 
er, the updated P' number of latest defect entries, and 
^5 the updated latest anchor are recorded in the first defect 
management area 904 in th is order. As long as the head- 
er 921 , the N number of defect entries 922 through 925, 
and the anchor 927 are located in this order in the defect 
list 912, the updated latest anchor, the updated P' 
20 number of latest defect entries, and the updated latest 
header may be recorded in this order in the first defect 
management area 904. In the optical disc 900, the an- 
chor 927 is located at the fixed position in the defect list 
91 2 (in Figure 9, at the end of the fourth ECC block from 
25 the start of the defect list 912). Therefore, even when 
the total size of the header 921 and the defect entries 
in the defect list 912 is accommodated in 1 ECC size, 
data of at least two ECC blocks, i.e. , the data for the 
first ECC block and the data for the fourth ECC block 
30 are recorded. 

[0297] As described above, the arrangement of the 
latest header, the P' number of latest defect entries and 
the latest anchor in the latest defect list is arbitrary. The 
updated latest defect list is recorded in each of the first 
35 through fourth defect management areas 904, 905, 908 
and 909 of the optical disc 900 as follows. Such that the 
updated latest header is located at the position of the 
header 921 , the updated P' number of latest defect en- 
tries are located at the positions of the defect entries 
40 922 through 925, and the updated latest anchor is locat- 
ed at the position of the anchor 927, the updated latest 
defect list is recorded in each of the first through fourth 
defect management areas 904, 905, 908 and 909 in the 
order of the updated latest header, the updated P' 
45 number of latest defect entries, and the updated latest 
anchor or in the order of the updated latest anchor, the 
updated P' number of latest defect entries, and the up- 
dated latest header. 

[0298] In the above description, the updated latest de- 
50 feet list is recorded on the optical disc 900 shown in Fig- 
ure 9 where the optical disc 900 has been subjected to 
defect management. Next, recording of the updated lat- 
est defect list on an optical disc in an initial state imme- 
diately after being shipped from the plant will be de- 
55 scribed. 

[0299] An optical disc in an initial state is assumed to 

have the same structure as that shown in Figure 9 ex- 
cept that, for example, the defect list 912 (Figure 9) has 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



28 



55 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



56 



no infornnation. In such optical disc, no defect list iden- 
tifierfor identifying the defect list is recorded. Therefore, 
in the case where the latest defect list does not include 
the latest defect list identifier, the defect management 
processing of recording the latest defect list includes the 
process of recording the defect list identifier in addition 
to the process of recording the latest defect list in the 
defect management area. In the case where the latest 
defect list includes the latest defect list identifier, no de- 
tailed explanation will be given since the processing was 
described above with reference to Figure 5. 
[0300] The control section 301 requests the recording 
and reproduction section 302 to record the latest defect 
list stored in the storage section 303 in the defect man- 
agennent area of the optical disc and to record the inher- 
ent defect list identifier, which is initially stored in the 
control section 301 , in the defect management area of 
the optical disc. More specifically, the inherent defect list 
identifier is recorded in the defect management area so 
as to be located at the start of the header 921. In this 
case, an arbitrary value is recorded as the latest defect 
entry number and as the latest defect entry of the latest 
defect list which respectively correspond to the defect 
entry number 932 and the first through Nth defect entries 
922 through 925. As the first update times information 
and as the second update times information, for exam- 
ple, 0 or 1 is recorded. The values to be recorded as the 
first and second update times information are arbitrary 
as long as the values are equal to each other and rep- 
resent that recording has been performed on an optical 
disc in the initial state only once. 
[0301] The method for recording the defect list iden- 
tifier in the defect management area is not limited to the 
above-described method. For example, the inherent de- 
fect list identifier already stored in the control section 
301 is given as the latest defect list identifier at the start 
of the latest header of the latest defect list stored in the 
storage section 303. As the defect management 
processing performed on an optical disc in the initial 
state, the latest defect list including the latest defect list 
identifier obtained in this manner may be recorded in the 
defect management area. 

[0302] This process of defect management process- 
ing is performed in steps S504 and S505 in Figure 5. 
[0303] In the second example, it is accurately deter- 
mined whether or not the defect management area has 
been updated normally. This will be described below. In 
the following explanation, the optical disc 900 is used. 

(Specific example 1 : when a defect entry is added) 

[0304] Figure 1 1 shows data structures of a defect list 
in various states. Part (a) shows a data structure of a 
pre-update defect list. Part (b) shows a data structure of 
a defect list which was updated normally. Part (c) shows 
a data structure of a defect list which was not updated 
normally. 

[0305] Figure 11 shows the case where another de- 



fect area (defect sector) is detected in the user area 906 
and one defect entry is added. The addition of the defect 
entry is performed as described above with reference to 
Figures 3 and 5. 
5 [0306] Part (a) of Figure 11 shows a data structure 
before the defect list is updated. The defect list shown 
in part (a) is the same as the defect list 912 shown in 
Figure 9. The defect list Includes a first defect entry, 
and an Nth defect entry. The defect entry number is N, 
and the content of each of the first update times infor- 
mation and the second update times information is M. 
[0307] Part (b) of Figure 11 shows a data structure 
after the defect list is updated normally (one defect entry 
is added normally). When one defect entry is added nor- 
mally to the defect list, the defect list includes the first 
defect entry the Nth defect entry, and an (N+1 )th de- 
fect entry. The number of defect entries is increased by 
one from the state in part (a) of Figure 11 . The defect 
entry number is updated from N to N+1 . The content of 
each of the first update times infornnation and the sec- 
ond update times information is updated from IVI to M+l . 
[0308] Following the addition of the defect entry, the 
size of the unused area is decreased by the size of the 
added defect entry like Specific example 1 , but the po- 
sition of the anchor is fixed. The content of the first up- 
dated times information matches the content of the sec- 
ond updated times information. Thus, it can be deter- 
mined that the defect list has been updated normally. 
[0309] Part (c) of Figure 1 1 shows a data structure of 
a defect data in the case where the update failed before 
the anchor is recorded. The failure occurs when, for ex- 
ample, the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is 
turned off while the defect list is being updated. In part 
(c) of Figure 11 , the defect list includes the first defect 
entry, and the Nth defect entry, like in part (a) of Fig- 
ure 1 1 . Although the defect list includes the same defect 
entries as those of part (a) of Figure 11 , the defect entry 
number is updated from N to (N+1). The content of the 
first update times information is updated from M to 
(M+1). However, the content of the second update times 
information is M like in part (a) of Figure 11. Since the 
content of the first updated times information does not 
match the content of the second updated times informa- 
tion, it is determined that the updating of the defect list 
failed. 

[0310] In the case where a defect entry is changed or 

a defect entry is deleted, it can be determined whether 
or not the defect list has been updated normally by com- 
paring the content of the first update times information 
and the content of the second update times information 
in substantially the same manner. 
[0311] In the second example, the anchor 927 in- 
cludes only the second update times information 951 . 
As in the first example, the anchor 927 may also include 
an anchor identifier for identifying the anchor in the de- 
fect list 912. In this case also, the same effect as de- 
scribed in the second example can be provided. 
[0312] In the second example, the header 921 in- 



15 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



29 



57 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



58 



eludes the defect list identifier 931. The header 921 is 
located at a physically specified position in the optical 
disc 900 and therefore does not need to include the de- 
fect list identifier 931 . Even without the defect list iden- 
tifier 931 , the same effect as described in the second 
example can be provided. 

[0313] As described above, according to the second 
example of the present invention, the information re- 
cording medium 900 includes the data area 902 for re- 
cording user data, and the defect management areas 
904, 905, 908 and 909 for recording a defect list used 
for managing N number of defect areas existing in the 
data area 902 (N is an integer satisfying N > 0). The 
defect list 912 includes the header 921, the N number 
of defect entries respectively including the position in- 
formation on the positions of the N number of defect ar- 
eas, and the anchor 927 located at a fixed position in 
the defect list 912. The header 921 includes the first up- 
date times information 933, and the anchor 927 includes 
the second update times infomnation 951. 
[031 4] Since the anchor 927 is located at the fixed po- 
sition, other infomriation is never erroneously repro- 
duced as the anchor 927. Namely, the content of the first 
update times information 933 and the content of the sec- 
ond update times information 951 can be compared with 
each other without fail. Accordingly, it can easily be de- 
termined whether or not the defect list 91 2 has been up- 
dated normally. 

[0315] Again, since the anchor 927 is located at the 
fixed position, it is not necessary to calculate the position 
of the anchor 927 and check whether or not the anchor 
927 is located at the calculated position as is necessary 
in the first example, in order to reproduce the anchor 
927. Therefore, the processing of defect management 
can be simplified and improved in speed. 
[031 6] It is not necessary to provide a header for each 
1 ECC size even when the size of the defect list 912 is 
not accommodated in 1 ECC size. Thus, the processing 
efficiency of updating the defect list 912 is improved. 
Since the header is not interposed between the two de- 
fect entries, defect entries can be, for example, 
searched for, added and deleted easily. 
[0317] As described above, an information recording 
medium according to the present invention includes a 
data area for recording user data and a defect manage- 
ment area for recording a defect list used for managing 
N number of defect areas (N is an integer satisfying N 
> 0) existing in the data area. The defect list includes a 
header, N number of defect entries respectively includ- 
ing the position information on the positions of the N 
number of defect areas, and an anchor. The header, the 
N number of defect entries, and the anchor are located 
in this order in the defect list. Owing to such a structure, 
the size of the defect list is variable, and therefore the 
processing speed is improved in accordance with the 
size of the defect list. 

[0318] With the information recording medium ac- 
cording to the present invention, the header includes a 



defect list identifier for identifying the defect list, first up- 
date times information representing the number of times 
which the defect list has been updated, and a defect en- 
try number representing the number of defect entries. 
5 The anchor includes an anchor identifier for identifying 
the anchor of the defect list, and second update times 
information representing the number of times which the 
defect list has been updated. It is not necessary to pro- 
vide a header for each 1 ECC size even when the size 
of the defect list is not accommodated in 1 ECC size. 
Thus, the processing efficiency of updating the defect 
list is improved. Since the header is not interposed be- 
tween the two defect entries, defect entries can be, for 
example, searched for, added and deleted easily. 
^5 [0319] The content of the anchor identifier is different 
from any of the defect list identifier, the defect entry 
number, the first update times information, the defect 
entries, or the second update times information. As 
such, even when a defect entry is deleted, the informa- 
nt? tion which is erroneously read as the anchor identifier 
never matches the content of the inherent anchor iden- 
tifier. Therefore, the defect list is not erroneously deter- 
mined to have been updated normally when it has not 
been updated normally. 
25 [0320] Various other modifications will be apparent to 
and can be readily made by those skilled in the art with- 
out departing from the scope and spirit of this invention. 
Accordingly, it is not intended that the scope of the 
claims appended hereto be limited to the description as 
30 set forth herein, but rather that the claims be broadly 
construed. 



de- 



a header located at a fixed position in the 
defect list, 

50 N number of defect entries respectively in- 

cluding position information on positions of 
the N number of defect areas, and 
an anchor; 

55 the header, the N number of defect entries, and 

the anchor are located in this order in the defect 

list; 

the header includes: 



Claims 

35 

1. An infomnation recording medium, comprising: 

a data area for recording user data, and 
a defect management area for recording a 
40 feet list for managing N number of defect ar( 

existing in the data area, where N is an inte 
satisfying N > 0; 

wherein: 

45 

the defect list includes: 

a header located at a fixed position in 
defect list, 

50 N number of defect entries respectively 



30 



59 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



60 



a defect list identifier for identifying the de- 
fect list, 

first update times information representing 
the number of times which the defect list 
has been updated, and 5 
a defect entry number representing the 
number of the N number of defect entries; 
and 

the anchor includes: io 

an anchor identifier for identifying the an- 
chor of the defect list, and 
second update times information repre- 
senting the number of times which the de- 
feet list has been updated. 

2. An information recording medium according to 
claim 1 , wherein the defect list includes at least two 
blocks, and the defect list is recorded in units of one 20 
block. 

3. A recording apparatus for recording information on 
an information recording medium, wherein the in- 
formation recording medium includes a data area 25 
for recording user data, and a defect management 
area for recording a defect list for managing N 
number of defect areas existing in the data area, 
where N is an integer satisfying N > 0; wherein: the 
defect list includes a header located at a fixed po- 30 
sition in the defect list, N number of defect entries 
respectively including position information on posi- 
tions of the N number of defect areas, and an an- 
chor; the header, the N number of defect entries, 
and the anchor are located in this order in the defect 35 
list; the header includes a defect list identifier for 
identifying the defect list, first update times informa- 
tion representing the number of times which the de- 
fect list has been updated, and a defect entry 
number representing the number of the N number 40 
of defect entries; and the anchor includes an anchor 
identifier for identifying the anchor of the defect list, 
and second update times information representing 

the number of times which the defect list has been 
updated; ^5 
the recording apparatus comprising: 

a recording section for recording the informa- 
tion on the information recording medium, 
a storage section for storing the information to so 
be recorded on the information recording me- 
dium, and a latest defect list, and 
a control section for controlling execution of de- 
fect management processing which is per- 
fomned using the recording section and the ss 
storage section; 

wherein: 



the latest defect list includes a latest header, P 
number of latest defect entries, and a latest an- 
chor, wherein P is an integer satisfying P > 0 
where P = N or P N; 

the latest header includes first latest update 
times information and a latest defect entry 
number P; 

the latest anchor includes second update times 
information having a content identical to that of 

the first update times information; and 

the defect management processing includes 

the steps of: 

(a) determining (i) whether another defect 
area exists in the data area, (ii) whether a 
normal defect area exists among the N 
number of defect areas, or (iii) neither (i) 
nor (ii) is the case, 

(b) when it is determined in the step (a) that 
another defect area exists in the data area, 
or that a nomial defect area exists among 
the N number of defect areas, updating the 
P number of latest defect entries Into P' 
number of latest defect entries, where P' is 
an integer satisfying P' > 0 where P = P' or 
P ^ P'; and updating the latest defect entry 
number from P to P'; 

(c) incrementing, by one, each of the first 
latest update times information and the 
second latest update times information, 

and 

(d) recording the latest defect list updated 
in the steps (b) and (c) in the defect man- 
agement area. 

4. A recording apparatus to claim 3, wherein the step 
(d) includes the step of recording the updated latest 
defect list in the defect management area in the or- 
der of the updated latest header, the updated P' 
number of latest defect entries, and the updated lat- 
est anchor, or in the order of the updated latest an- 
chor, the updated P' number of latest defect entries, 
and the updated latest header. 

5. A recording apparatus according to claim 4. where- 
in the step (b) includes the step of, when it is deter- 
mined in the step (a) that another defect area exists 
in the data area, adding another defect entry to the 
latest defect list. 

6. A recording apparatus according to claim 4, where- 
in the step (b) includes the step of, when it is deter- 
mined in the step (a) that a normal defect area exists 
among the N number of defect areas, deleting a de- 
fect entry including position information on a posi- 
tion of the normal defect area from the P number of 
latest defect entries. 



31 



i2 62 

latest defect list; the latest defect list includes a lat- 
est header, P number of latest defect entries, and a 
latest anchor, wherein P is an integer satisfying P > 
0 where P = N or P N; the latest header includes 
the first update times information and a latest defect 
entry number P; and the latest anchor includes sec- 
ond update times information having a content iden- 
tical to that of the first update times information; 
the recording method comprising the steps of: 



61 EP 1 347 452 

7. A recording apparatus according to claim 4, where- 
in the information recording medium further in- 
cludes another defect management area for record- 
ing a defect list having a content identical to that of 
the defect list recorded in the defect management s 
area, 

wherein the control section controls execution 
of the step (d) for the another defect management 
area. 

10 

8. A recording apparatus according to claim 3 , where- 
in the step (b) includes the step of, when it is deter- 
mined in the step (a) that another defect area exists 
in the data area, adding another defect entry to the 
latest defect list. ^5 



9. A recording apparatus according to claim 3 , where- 
in the step (b) includes the step of, when it is deter- 
mined in the step (a) that a normal defect area exists 
among the N number of defect areas, deleting a de- 20 
feet entry including position information on a posi- 
tion of the normal defect area from the P number of 
latest defect entries. 

1 0. A recording apparatus according to claim 3 , where- 25 
in the information recording medium further in- 
cludes another defect management area for record- 
ing a defect list having a content identical to that of 
the defect list recorded in the defect management 
area, 30 

wherein the control section controls execution 
of the step (d) for the another defect management 
area. 

11 . A recording method for recording information on an 35 
information recording medium, wherein the infor- 
mation recording medium includes a data area for 
recording user data, and a defect management ar- 
ea for recording a defect list for managing N number 

of defect areas existing in the data area, where N 40 
is an integer satisfying N > 0; wherein: the defect 
list includes a header located at a fixed position in 
the defect list, N number of defect entries respec- 
tively including position information on positions of 
the N number of defect areas, and an anchor; the 45 
header, the N number of defect entries, and the an- 
chor are located in this order in the defect list; the 
header includes a defect list identifierfor identifying 
the defect list, first update times information repre- 
senting the number of times which the defect list has so 
been updated, and a defect entry number repre- 
senting the number of the N number of defect en- 
tries; and the anchor includes an anchor identifier 
for identifying the anchor of the defect list, and sec- 
ond update times information representing the 55 
number of times which the defect list has been up- 
dated; 

wherein the recording is performed using a 



(a) determining (i) whether another defect area 
exists in the data area, (ii) whether a normal de- 
fect area exists among the N number of defect 
areas, or (iii) neither (i) nor (ii) is the case, 

(b) when it is determined in the step (a) that an- 
other defect area exists in the data area, or that 
a normal defect area exists among the N 
number of defect areas, updating the P number 
of latest defect entries into P' number of latest 
defect entries, where P' is an integer satisfying 
P' > 0 where P = P' or P P' ; and updating the 
latest defect entry number from P to P'; 

(c) incrementing, by one, each of the first latest 
update times information and the second latest 
update times information, and 

(d) recording the latest defect list updated in the 
steps (b) and (c) in the defect management ar- 
ea. 

12. A recording method to claim 11 , wherein the step 
(d) includes the step of recording the updated latest 
defect list in the defect management area in the or- 
der of the updated latest header, the updatedp' 
number of latest defect entries, and the updated lat- 
est anchor, or in the order of the updated latest an- 
chor, the updated P' number of latest defect entries, 
and the updated latest header. 

13. A recording method according to claim 1 2, wherein 
the step (b) includes the step of, when it is deter- 
mined in the step (a) that another defect area exists 
in the data area, adding another defect entry to the 
latest defect list. 

14. A recording method according to claim 1 2, wherein 
the step (b) includes the step of, when it is deter- 
mined in the step (a) that a normal defect area exists 
among the N number of defect areas, deleting a de- 
fect entry including position information on a posi- 
tion of the normal defect area from the P number of 
latest defect entries. 

15. A recording method according to claim 1 2, wherein 
the information recording medium further includes 
another defect management area for recording a 
defect list having a content identical to that of the 
defect list recorded in the defect management area, 

wherein the control section controls execution 



32 



63 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



64 



of the step (d) for the another defect management 
area. 

16. A recording method according to claim 1 1 , wherein 

the step (b) includes the step of, when it is deter- 
mined in the step (a) that another defect area exists 
in the data area, adding another defect entry to the 
latest defect list. 

17. A recording method according to claim 1 1 , wherein 
the step (b) includes the step of, when it is deter- 
mined in the step (a) that a normal defect area exists 
among the N number of defect areas, deleting a de- 
fect entry including position information on a posi- 
tion of the normal defect area from the P number of 
latest defect entries. 

18. A recording method according to claim 1 1 , wherein 
the information recording medium further includes 
another defect management area for recording a 
defect list having a content identical to that of the 
defect list recorded in the defect management area, 

wherein the control section controls execution 
of the step (d) for the another defect management 
area. 

19. A reproduction apparatus for reproducing informa- 
tion recorded on an information recording medium, 
wherein the information recording medium includes 
a data area for recording user data, and a defect 
management area for recording a defect list for 
managing N number of defect areas existing in the 
data area, where N is an integer satisfying N > 0; 
wherein: the defect list includes a header, N number 
of defect entries respectively including position in- 
formation on positions of the N number of defect ar- 
eas, and an anchor; the header located at a fixed 
position in the defect list, the N number of defect 
entries, and the anchor are located in this order in 
the defect list; the header includes a defect list iden- 
tifier for identifying the defect list, first update times 
information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated, and a defect entry 
number representing the number of the N number 
of defect entries; and the anchor includes an anchor 
Identifier for identifying the anchor of the defect list, 
and second update times information representing 
the number of times which the defect list has been 
updated; 

the reproduction apparatus comprising: 

a reproduction section for reproducing the in- 
formation recorded on the information record- 
ing medium, 

a storage section for storing the reproduced in- 
formation, and 

a control section for controlling execution of de- 
fect management processing which is per- 



formed using the reproduction section and the 
storage section, the control section having an 
inherent defect list identifier for identifying the 
defect list and an inherent anchor identifier for 
5 identifying the anchor of the defect list; 

wherein: 

the defect management processing includes 
10 the steps of: 

(a) reproducing the defect list identifier, the 
defect entry number, and the first update 
times information which are included in the 

IS header, and determining whether or not a 

content of the inherent defect list identifier 
matches a content of the reproduced de- 
fect list identifier, 

(b) calculating a position of the anchor in 
20 the defect list using the reproduced defect 

entry number when It Is determined In the 
step (a) that the content of the inherent de- 
fect list identifier matches the content of the 
reproduced defect list identifier, 

25 (c) reproducing the anchor identifier and 

the second update times information 
based on the calculated position of the an- 
chor, and determining whether or not a 
content of the inherent anchor identifier 

30 matches a content of the reproduced an- 

chor identifier, 

(d) determining whether or not a content of 
the first update times infomnation matches 
a content of the second update times infor- 
ms mation when it is determined in the step (c) 

that the content of the inherent anchor 
identifier matches the content of the repro- 
duced anchor identifier, and 

(e) specifying the defect list recorded in the 
40 defect management area as the latest de- 
fect list when it is determined in the step (d) 
that the content of the first update times in- 
formation matches the content of the sec- 
ond update times information. 

45 

20. A reproduction apparatus according to claim 19, 
wherein the information recording medium further 
includes another defect management area for re- 
cording a defect list having a content identical to that 
50 of the defect list recorded in the defect management 
area, 

wherein: 

the control section controls execution of the de- 
55 feet management processing for the another 

defect management area; and 
the step (e) includes the steps of: 



33 



65 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



66 



(e^) performing the steps (a) through (d) for 
the another defect management area, and 
(82) specifying the defect list including the 
update times information having a largest 
number of updates as the latest defect list. 

21. A reproduction method for reproducing information 
recorded on an information recording medium, 
wherein the information recording medium includes 

a data area for recording user data, and a defect 
management area for recording a defect list for 
managing N number of defect areas existing in the 
data area, where N is an Integer satisfying N > 0; 
wherein: the defect list Includes a header, N number 
of defect entries respectively Including position in- 
formation on positions of the N number of defect ar- 
eas, and an anchor; the header located at a fixed 
position In the defect list, the N number of defect 
entries, and the anchor are located in this order in 
the defect list; the header includes a defect list iden- 
tifier for identifying the defect list, first update times 
information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated, and a defect entry 
number representing the number of the N number 
of defect entries; and the anchor includes an anchor 
identifier for identifying the anchor of the defect list, 
and second update times information representing 
the number of times which the defect list has been 
updated; 

the reproduction method comprising the steps 

of: 



tifier, and 

(e) specifying the defect list recorded in the de- 
fect management area as the latest defect list 
when it is determined in the step (d) that the 
5 content of the first update times information 

matches the content of the second update 
times information. 

22. A reproduction method according to claim 21 , 
10 wherein the information recording medium further 
includes another defect management area for re- 
cording a defect list having a content identical to that 
of the defect list recorded in the defect management 
area, 

^5 wherein: 

the step (e) includes the steps of: 

(e-|) performing the steps (a) through (d) for 
20 the another defect management area, and 

(62) specifying the defect list including the 
update times information having a largest 
number of updates as the latest defect list. 

25 23. An information recording medium, comprising: 

a data area for recording user data, and 
a defect management area for recording a de- 
fect list for managing N number of defect areas 
30 existing in the data area, where N is an integer 

satisfying N > 0; 



25 23. 



(a) reproducing the defect list identifier, the de- 
fect entry number, and the first update times in- 
formation which are included in the header, and 35 
determining whether or not a content of an in- 
herent defect list identifierfor identifying the de- 
fect list matches a content of the reproduced 
defect list Identifier, 

(b) calculating a position of the anchor in the 40 
defect list using the reproduced defect entry 
number when it is determined in the step (a) 
that the content of the inherent defect list iden- 
tifier matches the content of the reproduced de- 
fect list identifier, 45 

(c) reproducing the anchor identifier and the 
second update times Information based on the 
calculated position of the anchor, and determin- 
ing whether or not a content of an inherent an- 
chor identifier for identifying the anchor of the 50 
defect list matches a content of the reproduced 
anchor identifier, 

(d) determining whether or not a content of the 
first update times information matches a con- 
tent of the second update times information 55 
when it is detemnined in the step (c) that the 
content of the Inherent anchor identifier match- 
es the content of the reproduced anchor iden- 



wherein: 

the defect list includes: 

a header located at a fixed position in the 
defect list, 

N number of defect entries respectively in- 
cluding position Information on positions of 
the N number of defect areas, and 
an anchor located at a fixed position in the 
defect list; 

the header, the N number of defect entries, and 
the anchor are located in this order in the defect 

list; 

the header includes: 

a defect list identifier for identifying the de- 
fect list, 

first update times information representing 

the number of times which the defect list 

has been updated, and 

a defect entry number representing the 

number of the N number of defect entries; 

and 



34 



67 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



68 



the anchor includes second update tinnes infor- 
mation representing the nunnber of tinnes which 
the defect list has been updated. 

24. An information recording medium according to 
claim 23, wherein the defect list includes at least 
two blocks, and the defect list is recorded in units 
of one block. 

25. A recording apparatus for recording information on 
an information recording medium, wherein the in- 
formation recording medium includes a data area 
for recording user data, and a defect management 
area for recording a defect list for managing N 
number of defect areas existing in the data area, 
where N is an integer satisfying N > 0; wherein: the 
defect list includes a header located at a fixed po- 
sition in the defect list, N number of defect entries 
respectively including position information on posi- 
tions of the N number of defect areas, and an an- 
chor located at a fixed position in the defect list; the 
header, the N number of defect entries, and the an- 
chor are located in this order in the defect list; the 
header includes a defect list identifier for identifying 
the defect list, first update times information repre- 
senting the number of times which the defect list has 
been updated, and a defect entry number repre- 
senting the number of the N number of defect en- 
tries; and the anchor includes second update times 
information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated; 

the recording apparatus comprising: 

a recording section for recording the informa- 
tion on the information recording medium, 
a storage section for storing the information to 
be recorded on the information recording me- 
dium, and a latest defect list, and 
a control section for controlling execution of de- 
fect management processing which is per- 
fomned using the recording section and the 
storage section; 

wherein: 

the latest defect list includes a latest header, P 
number of latest defect entries, and a latest an- 
chor, wherein P is an integer satisfying P > 0 
where P = N or P ^ N; 

the latest header includes first latest update 
times information and a latest defect entry 
number P; 

the latest anchor includes second update times 
information having a content identical to that of 
the first update times information; and 
the defect management processing includes 
the steps of: 



(a) determining (i) whether another defect 
area exists in the data area, (ii) whether a 
normal defect area exists among the N 
number of defect areas, or (iii) neither (i) 

5 nor (ii) is the case, 

(b) when it is determined in the step (a) that 
another defect area exists in the data area, 
or that a nomial defect area exists among 
the N number of defect areas, updating the 

10 p number of latest defect entries into P' 

number of latest defect entries, where P' is 
an integer satisfying P' > 0 where P = P' or 
P ^ P'; and updating the latest defect entry 
number from P to P'; 
IS (c) incrementing, by one, each of the first 

latest update times information and the 
second latest update times information, 
and 

(d) recording the latest defect list updated 
20 in the steps (b) and (c) in the defect man- 

agement area. 

26. A recording apparatus to claim 25, wherein the step 
(d) includes the step of recording the updated latest 

25 defect list in the defect management area in the or- 
der of the updated latest header, the updated P' 
number of latest defect entries, and the updated lat- 
est anchor, or in the order of the updated latest an- 
chor, the updatedp' number of latest defect entries, 
30 and the updated latest header. 

27. A recording apparatus according to claim 26, 
wherein the information recording medium further 
includes another defect management area for re- 

35 cording a defect list having a content identical to that 
of the defect list recorded in the defect management 
area, 

wherein the control section controls execution 
of the step (d) for the another defect management 

40 area. 

28. A recording apparatus according to claim 25, 
wherein the information recording medium further 
includes another defect management area for re- 

45 cording a defect list having a content identical to that 
of the defect list recorded in the defect management 
area, 

wherein the control section controls execution 
of the step (d) for the another defect management 
50 area. 

29. A recording method for recording information on an 
information recording medium, wherein the infor- 
mation recording medium includes a data area for 

55 recording user data, and a defect management ar- 
ea for recording a defect list for managing N number 
of defect areas existing in the data area, where N 
is an integer satisfying N > 0; wherein: the defect 



15 



20 



25 



55 



35 



69 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



70 



list includes a header located at a fixed position in 
the defect list, N number of defect entries respec- 
tively including position information on positions of 
the N number of defect areas, and an anchor locat- 
ed at a fixed position in the defect list; the header, 5 
the N number of defect entries, and the anchor are 
located in this order in the defect list; the header 
includes a defect list identifier for identifying the de- 
fect list, first update times information representing 
the number of times which the defect list has been io 
updated, and a defect entry number representing 
the number of the N number of defect entries; and 
the anchor includes second update times informa- 
tion representing the number of times which the de- 
fect list has been updated; ^5 

wherein the recording is performed using a 
latest defect list; the latest defect list includes a lat- 
est header, P number of latest defect entries, and a 
latest anchor, wherein P is an integer satisfying P > 
0 where P = N or P ^ N; the latest header includes 20 
the first update times information and a latest defect 
entry number P; and the latest anchor includes sec- 
ond update times information having a content iden- 
tical to that of the first update times information; 

the recording method comprising the steps of: 25 

(a) determining (i) whether another defect area 
exists in the data area, (ii) whether a normal de- 
fect area exists among the N number of defect 
areas, or (iii) neither (i) nor (ii) is the case, 30 

(b) when it is determined in the step (a) that an- 
other defect area exists in the data area, or that 
a normal defect area exists among the N 
number of defect areas, updating the P number 

of latest defect entries into P' number of latest 35 
defect entries, where P' is an integer satisfying 
P' > 0 where P = P' or P P' ; and updating the 
latest defect entry number from P to P'; 

(c) incrementing, by one, each of the first latest 
update times information and the second latest 40 
update times information, and 

(d) recording the latest defect list updated in the 
steps (b) and (c) in the defect management ar- 
ea. 

45 

30. A recording method to claim 29, wherein the step 
(d) includes the step of recording the updated latest 
defect list in the defect management area in the or- 
der of the updated latest header, the updated P' 
number of latest defect entries, and the updated lat- so 
est anchor, or in the order of the updated latest an- 
chor, the updated P' number of latest defect entries, 
and the updated latest header. 

31 . A recording method according to claim 30, wherein ss 
the information recording medium further includes 
another defect management area for recording a 
defect list having a content identical to that of the 



defect list recorded in the defect management area, 
wherein the method further comprises the 
step of executing the step (d) for the another defect 
management area. 

32. A recording method according to claim 29, wherein 
the Information recording medium further includes 
another defect management area for recording a 
defect list having a content identical to that of the 
defect list recorded in the defect management area, 

wherein the method further comprises the 
step of executing the step (d) for the another defect 
management area. 

33. A reproduction apparatus for reproducing informa- 
tion recorded on an information recording medium, 
wherein the information recording medium includes 
a data area for recording user data, and a defect 
management area for recording a defect list for 
managing N number of defect areas existing in the 
data area, where N is an integer satisfying N > 0; 
wherein: the defect list includes a header located at 
a fixed position in the defect list, N number of defect 
entries respectively including position information 
on positions of the N number of defect areas, and 
an anchor located at a fixed position in the defect 
list; the header, the N number of defect entries, and 
the anchor are located in this order in the defect list; 
the header includes a defect list identifier for iden- 
tifying the defect list, first update times information 
representing the number of times which the defect 
list has been updated, and a defect entry number 
representing the number of the N number of defect 
entries; and the anchor includes second update 
times information representing the number of times 
which the defect list has been updated; 

the reproduction apparatus comprising: 

a reproduction section for reproducing the in- 
formation recorded on the information record- 
ing medium, 

a storage section for storing the reproduced in- 
formation, and 

a control section for controlling execution of de- 
fect management processing which is per- 
formed using the reproduction section and the 
storage section, the control section having an 
inherent defect list identifier for identifying the 
defect list; 

wherein: 

the defect management processing includes 
the steps of: 

(a) reproducing the defect list identifier, the 
defect entry number, and the first update 
times information which are included in the 



36 



71 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



72 



header, and determining whetlier or not a 
content of the inherent defect list identifier 
matches a content of the reproduced de- 
fect list identifier, 

(b) reproducing the second update times 
information included in the anchor and de- 
tennining whether or not a content of the 
first update times information matches a 
content of the second update times infor- 
mation when it is detemnined in the step (a) 
that the content of the inherent defect list 
identifier matches the content of the repro- 
duced defect list identifier, and 

(c) specifying the defect list recorded in the 
defect management area as the latest de- 
fect list when it is determined in the step (b) 
that the content of the first update times in- 
formation matches the content of the sec- 
ond update times information. 

34. A reproduction apparatus according to claim 33, 
wherein the information recording medium further 

includes another defect management area for re- 
cording a defect list having a content identical to that 
of the defect list recorded in the defect management 
area, 

wherein: 

the control section controls execution of the de- 
fect management processing for the another 
defect management area; and 
the step (c) includes the steps of: 

(c^) performing the steps (a) and (b) for the 
another defect management area, and 
(Cg) specifying the defect list including the 
update times information having a largest 
number of updates as the latest defect list. 

35. A reproduction method for reproducing information 
recorded on an information recording medium, 
wherein the information recording medium includes 
a data area for recording user data, and a defect 
management area for recording a defect list for 
managing N number of defect areas existing in the 
data area, where N is an integer satisfying N > 0; 
wherein: the defect list includes a header located at 
a fixed position in the defect list, N number of defect 
entries respectively including position information 
on positions of the N number of defect areas, and 
an anchor located at a fixed position in the defect 
list; the header, the N number of defect entries, and 
the anchor are located in this order in the defect list; 
the header includes a defect list identifier for iden- 
tifying the defect list, first update times information 
representing the number of times which the defect 
list has been updated, and a defect entry number 
representing the number of the N number of defect 



entries; and the anchor includes second update 
times information representing the number of times 
which the defect list has been updated; 

the reproduction method comprising the steps 

5 of: 

(a) reproducing the defect list identifier, the de- 
fect entry number, and the first update times in- 
formation which are included in the header, and 

10 determining whether or not a content of an in- 

herent defect list identifier for identifying the de- 
fect list matches a content of the reproduced 
defect list identifier, 

(b) reproducing the second update times infor- 
is mation included in the anchor and determining 

whether or not a content of the first update 
times infomnation matches a content of the sec- 
ond update times information when it is deter- 
mined in the step (a) that the content of the in- 
20 herent defect list identifier matches the content 

of the reproduced defect list identifier, and 

(c) specifying the defect list recorded in the de- 
fect management area as the latest defect list 
when it is determined in the step (b) that the 

25 content of the first update times information 

matches the content of the second update 
times information. 

36. A reproduction method according to claim 35, 
30 wherein the information recording medium further 
includes another defect management area for re- 
cording a defect list having a content identical to that 
of the defect list recorded in the defect management 
area, 

35 wherein: 

the step (c) includes the steps of: 

(c^) performing the steps (a) and (b) forthe 
another defect management area, and 
(Cg) specifying the defect list including the 
update times information having a largest 
number of updates as the latest defect list. 



10 



15 



20 



45 



50 



37 



EP 1 347 452 A2 




38 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



Header 



132 



133 





Defect list identifier 
(16 bits) 


Defect entry number 
(16 bits) 


1st update times 
information (32 bits) 


BP 


63 59 48 


47 32 


31 0 


Val 


0100 0000 0000 0000 


• • • • 


• • • • 



122 u^FIG,2B 



1st defect entry 



142 





1st defect position information 
(32 bits) 


1st substitute position 
information (32 bits) 


BP 


63 59 48147 32 


31 0 


Val 


0000 0111 nil nil • . . im 


• • • • 



126^, FIQ,2C 

' 151 Anclior 



153 

4 



152 



Anchor identifier 
(16 bits) 



Reserve information 
(16 bits) 



2nd update times ^ 
information (32 bits) 



BP 



63 59 



48 



47 



32 



31 



Val 



1111 1111 1111 1111 



113 


FIG. 2D 


Unused area 127 


/ 




Padding data ^ 


BP 


63 59 


0 


Val 


0000 0000 000 0000 


• • • • .... 0000 0000 0000 



39 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



FIG. 3 



Control section 



-301 



Storage section 



Recording and 
reproduction 
section 



'302 



303 




-100 



40 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



FIG, 4 



( START ) 



S401 

"Do the defect 
ist identifiers match 
each other?. 

YES 



NO 



The position of the anchor is calculated. — S402 



S403 

"00 the anchor 
identifiers match 
each other? 



NO 



YES 



S404 



8405 



I 



Do the 1st update 
limes information and the 2nd^ 
jjpdate times information match ^ 
each other? 

YES 



NO 



Normal defect management area 



S406 



Abnormal defect management area 



J 



NO 



S407 

Has the 
'determination been done~ 
for all the defect management, 
areas? " 



YES 



The latest defect list is specified. 
C END ) 



-^8408 



41 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



FIG, 5 



C START ) 



Does another 
defect area exist? 



S501 



Is the area previously determined to 
be a defect area currently a 
normal defect area? 



NO 



YES 



The latest defect entries and the 
latest defect entry number are updated. 



S502 



The latest update times 
information is updated. 



S503 




42 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



FIG. 6 



(a) (» (c) 



Hea 


der 


identifier 


0 x 4000 


\ 
\ 

\ 

\ 
\ 

\ 
\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

V 


identifier 


|0x400 


1 
1 

i 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

1 
I 

t 

I 

t 

t 

1 

1 

1 

f 

1 


Defect list ^^^^ 
identifier j 


ueTecx eniry 
number 


1 ^ 


ueieci entry 
number 


1 N+1 


Defect entry i 
number j 


iSI upuaie limes 
information 


M 


isi upoate 
times information 




1st update \ 
times information | 


1st 




1*;t ripfpfii' nflsitinn 
information 


iOxOOlO 


lot UCI CliL puoi IIUII 

information 


0x0010 

V — 


1st defect position i^^Qp^Q 
information J_ 

position informatiofij 


entry 


1st substitute 
position information 


h 

0x0800 


1st substitute 
position information 


0x0800 


2nd 

defect 

entry 

t 


2nd defect 
position information 


0 x 0020 



2nd defect 
position information 


0 x 0020 


2nd defect 
position information 


0x0020 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 






• 










i 

(N-l)th 

defect 

entry 

-4- 


lirUin oeTeci 
position information 

llrljin SUDSlltUte 

position information 


0 x 0080 


0x0810 


(N-I)th defect 
position information 

(Irl)tfl SUDStltUte 

position information 1 


0 x 0050 
0 x 0840 


(N-i)tn defect 
position information 

" (N-lTth"substitrt 
position inforfnation 


|0 x 0080 

h 

0 x 0870 


Nth 

defect 
entry 


Nth defect 
position information 


0 x 0090 


Nth defect 
position. information 


0 x 0080 


Nth defect 
position information 


0 x 0090 

L 


Nth substitute 
position information 




OxOSSO 


Ntn SUDStltUte | 
position information 1 


0 x 0870 


Ifth substitute 
position information 


0x0880 


Ancl- 


lor 


Anchor identifier 


OxFFFF 


(N+1)th defect | 
position informatiofil 

fN+lTth substitutei 

position informationl 


0 x 0090 
0 x 0880 


Anchor identifier 


OxFFF 


times information 


M 


2nd update 
times information 


M 


Unu( 
ar( 


5a 


Padding 
data j 


0 x 0000 
OxOOOO 

6 x 0000 
0 X 0000 


Anchor identifier! 

2n(i update i 
times inforniation | 


OxFFFF 
M+1 


Padding 
data 

1 


0 x 0000 
0 x 0000 

0 x 0000 
0 x 0000 


Padding 1 
data 1 


0 x 0000 
OxOOOO 

0 x 0000 
0x0000 



43 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



FIG. 7 



(a) (b) (c) 



Hea 


der 


Defect 1 i st 
identifier 


|0x400( 


) 


Defect 1 ist 
Identifier 


j0x400( 




uerec L i i sx 

identifier 


j0 x 4000 


Defect entrv 
number 


1 N 




Dpfpfit pntru 

U\i 1 &u U CI 1 LI y 

number 


1 N-1 




ucTecL entry 
number 


N-1 


1 O L UpUO LC L 1 liICO 

Information 


1 M 




let 1 in/to fa 
loL UpGaLe 

times information 


j M+1 




1st update 

times information 


j M+1 


1st 

defe 


ct 


1st defect position 
information 


10x001 
j 




1st defect position 
information 


jOxOOIC 




1st defect oosition 
information 


10x0010 


entry 

-i- 


1st substitute 
position information 


lOxOSOO 


1st substitute 
position information 


10x0800 




1st substitute 
position information 


h 

j0xO80O 


2nd 

defect 
entry 

t 


2nd defect 
position information 


1 A . . f\t\t\f\ 

10 x 0020 

1 


2nd defect 
position information 


10x0020 


2nd defect 
position Information 


10x0020 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 


\ 

V 

\ 

\ 

I 

\ 

\ 

\ 

V 

V 

\ 
\ 
\ 

\ 
\ 

\ 

\ 
\ 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 






• 








■ 


i 

(N-l)th 

defect 

entry 

-\- 


position information 


0x0080 


(N-I)th defect 
position information 


0x0090 


(N-ljtn deiect 
position information 


0x0080 


fN-1Uh qiiktitiitp 

\}\ \} ux i>UU!>L 1 LULC 

position information 


0x0870 


/ 
/ 
/ 

/ 
/ 

t 

f 


(N-I)th substitute 
position information 


0x0880 


IN-I)tn substitute 
position information 




0x0870 


Nth 

defect 
entry 


Ntii defect 
position information 


0x0090 


Anchor identifier 


OxFFFF 


Nth defect 
position information 

Nth substitute | 
position information i 


0 x 0090 
0x0880 


Nth substitute 
position infonnationj 


0x0880 


2nd update i 
times information | 




Anchor 


Anchor identifier! 


OxFFF 


Padding j 
data 1 

j 


0x0000 
0x0000 

OxOOOO 
5x0000 


Anchor identifier! 


OxFFFF 






2nd update 1 
times information ■ 




2nd undate ! 
times information j 


M 


Unus 
are 


;ed 


i 

Padd i ng j 
data 1 

|( 
i( 


0 x 0000 
OxOOGO 

1x0000 
1x0000 


i 

Padd 1 ng j 
data I 


3x0000 
3 x 0000 

1x0000 
1x0000 



44 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



FIG. 8 



(a) (b) (c) 



Hea 


der 


Defect 1 i st 
identifier 


10x400 




Defect list 
identifier 


iOx400 


Q 

V 


Defect 1 ist 
identifier 




Defect entry 

number 


1 N 




Defect entry 
number 


! N 

1 11 




Defect entry 
number 


< N 


1st update times 
information 


M 




1st update 
times information 


i M+1 
1 III ' 1 


) 
1 


1st update 
times information 


' M+l 

1 HP 1 


1st 

Hpfp 


r.t 


1st defect position 
inforraation 


jOxOOIC 




1st defect position 
information 

1st sii)stitute 

position information 


jOxOOK 
f — 
|0xO80C 


1st defect position 
information 

1st substitute 
position information 


10x0010 

f- — 

10x0800 


entry 

-i- 


1st substitute 
position information 


iOxOBOO 


2nd 

defect 
entry 

t 


2nd defect 
position information 


jOx0020 
j 


2nd defect 
position information 


i0xOO20 




2nd defect 
position information 


10x0020 


2nd substitute 

position information 


0x0810 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 


2nd substitute 
position infomation 


0x0810 






1 • 










i 

(If-I)th 

defect 

entry 


(N-I)th defect 
position information 


0x0080 

-— - 


(N-I)th defect 
position information 




(N-1)th defect 
position information 


U X UUoU 


(N-Dth substitute 
position information 


0 x 0870 


(N-l)th substitute 
position information! 


V ^ VlvU 




(N-I)th substitute 
position information 


n Y Afiin 

UXUo/U 


Nth 


Nth defect 

position information 


0 x 0090 


Nth defect 

position informationj 


0 x 0090 


Nth defect 
position Information 


0 x 0090 


entr 


y 


Nth substitute 
position information, 


0 x 0880 


Nth substitute | 
position information! 


0 x 0880 




Nth substitute ] 
position informationj 


0 x 0880 


Anch 


or 


Anchor identifier j 


OxFFF 


Anchor Identifier} 
— -----T 1 


OxFFF 


Anchor identifier j 


OxFFFF 


2nd update i 
times information | 


M 


2nd update | 
times information j 


M+1 


2nd update j 
times information | 


M 


Unus 
are 


ed 

a 


j 
j 

Padding j 
data ; 

|( 
!( 


OxOOOO 
OxOOOO 

)xflO00 
1x0000 


1 
j 

Padding i 
data 1 

!( 

\{ 


0 x 0000 
0x 0000 

1x0000 
1x0000 




i 

Padding j 
data 1 


OxOOOO 
)xOOOO 

xOOOO 
xOOOO 



45 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



CO 



CM 
CO 



CO 
CO 













CO 




i— 


to 1— 






. — a:> 


CZ 






a> 


1 » cu 




+j — 


•4— » 1— 






o <u 




<o cz 


O 








i| 


o -o 


<l> Z3 




o — 


d 1= 


-»-» — 

D9 



CSJ 



CsJ 



I 






-»-» 






O 




o 






a» 




03 
























CO 


-o 






>-> 


CL> 












-1^ 










to 










^— 


a> 









o 







r — 1 

C3 




O 




V. 
CO 




-o 

O) 
CO 


Anch 


c: 









o> I 

J. 



— o 

H— V_ 

■cr -i-j 
o 

O 3 

CO L— 



C3> 





/ 




/ 




/ 


CD 


/ 
/ 




/ 






CO 




<L> 




1~ 




CO 




+-» 




o c: 








M— E 








"O fc»0 




CO 




+j c: 




CO CO 









LO 

o 



CO 

O 



o «= 

M— E 

"O touO 
CO 

-o C 

C= CO 



f 


/ 








CO 
















CO 


CO 


CO 


a> 




a> 




-M -l-> 




CO 


C3 C= 


CO 


03 0> 




03 




a> 


CO 




CO 


ca. 


CO 




CO 


"o a 




»— CO 















CO 




03 








CO 








o cz 




03 03 




H- E 




03 a> 




-o two 




CO 




-c= cr 




-•-» CO 







I €0 
CO 

03 CO 



CO 
CO 



CO CO o> 

o 



46 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



FIG, 1 0 



( START ) 



S1001 




Normal defect management area 



Abnormal defect management area 



NO 



SI 005 

^ Has the ^ 
determination been done 
Jor all the defect management 
areas? ^ 



YES 



The latest defect list is specified. 

~3ir 

QnT) 



31 006 



47 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



FIG. 1 1 

(a) (b) (c) 





3der 


Defect list 
identifier 


toxinni 




Defect 1 ist 
identifier 


iUX4UU 




Defect list 
identifier 


lA iAAA 

10x4000 


Defect entry 
number 


' N 
\ 11 




Defect entry 
number 






Defect entry 
number 


1 N+i 


1st update times 
information 


1 M 




1st update 
times information 


i If ■ i 

I M+1 




1st update 
times information 


j M+1 


1st 
def( 


iCt 


1st defect position 
information 


iOxOOK 


) 


1st defect position 
information 


ioxDOl 




1st defect position 
Information 


in ynnm 

iU aUUIU 


entry 


1st substitute 
position information 


10x080 




1st substitute 
position information 


0x080 


1st substitute 
position information 


.|_ 

•nyncon 

lUXUolAi 


2nd 

defect 

entry 


2nd defect 
position, inforination 


10x0020 
1 




2nd defect 
position inforination 






2nd defect 
position information 


!nYnn9n 
1 


2nd substitute 
position information 


10x081 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x081 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 
















1 

(N-I)th 
defect 
entry 

—1— 


(»*1)th defect 
position information 


0 x 0080 



(N~1)th defect 
position information 

' (N-n'thTubs'titTtr 
position information 


0 x 0050 
— — 
0x0840 


(N-I)th defect 
position information 


0 x 0080 


(N-I)th substitute 
position information 


0x0870 


(IH)th substitute 
position information 




0x0870 


Nth 
def€ 
entr 


iCt 

7 

f 


Nth defect 
position infonnation 

Nth substitute 
position information! 


0x0090 
0 x 0880 


Nth defect 
position information^ 
Nth substitute | 
position informatfonj 


0x0080 
0x0870 


Nth defect 
position information 
Nth substitute | 
position information 1 


0x0090 
0 x 0880 


Unuj 
arc 


5ed 
^a 


1 

Padding ] 
data 1 

|( 
!( 


0 x 0000 
0 x 0000 

1x0000 
IxOOOO 


(N+1)th defect • 
position information! 
'(N+1)th"substrtute[ 
position information! 


0x0090 
IxOMO 

J \JO0\f 


! 

Padd i ng j 
data 1 

|c 

it 


0 x 0000 
0 x 0000 

IxOOOO 
IxOOOO 




1 

Padding j 
data ; 

j( 


0 x 0000 
1x0000 


Anc 

\ 


hor 


2nd update | 
times infonnation 1 


M 




2nd update j 
times information 1 


M+1 




2nd update j 
times information 1 


M 



48 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



FIG. 12 



Lead-in 
area 

1201 



Data area 
1202 



Lead-out 
area 

1203 



DMA1 



Reserved area 



DMA2 



Reserved area 



User area 



Spare area 



DMAS 



Reserved area 



DMA4 



Reserved area 




-1210 

1ECC 
-1211 



1ECC 
-1212] 



49 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



FIG, 1 3 




Header 


-1301 


1st defect ^ 


-1302 


1st defect position information 


entry 


1st substitute position information' 


2nd defect 


-1303 


2nd defect position information 


entry 


2nd substitute position information 


• 
• 




Nth defect ^ 


-1304 


Nth defect position information 


entry 


Nth substitute position information 


Unused area ^ 


-1305 



-1306 



50 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



FIG, 14 



1400 / 



140H 



4ECC 



SDL 



1402^ 



1403 
1404^ 



Header 



1st defect 
entry 



2nd defect 
entry 



—1407 



(N-Dth defect 
entry 



Mth defect 
entry 



Header 



'1405 
'1406 



-1408 



—1409 
— 14lT 



(M+l)th defect 
entry -1—1411 



Nth defect 4—1412 
entry 



Unused area 



Header 



Unused area 



Header 



Unused area 



Identifier, defect entry number, 
number of times of update 



1st defect position information 
1st substitute position information 



2nd defect position information 

2nd substitute position information 



(M-I)th defect position information 
(M-I)tfi substitute position information 



Mth defect position information 
nth substitute position information 



Identifier, defect entry number, 
number of times of update 



(11+1 )th defect position information 



(m+Dth substitute position information 



Nth defect position information 



^1413 



^1414 
'HlV 

'1417- 



Nth substitute position information 



Padding data 



Identifier, defect entry number, 
number of times of update 



Padding data 



Identifier, defect entry number, 
number of times of update 



Padding data 



lECC 



1ECC 



lEOC 



1ECG 

1 



51 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



FIQ.15 



-1500 



Leac- 
area 

1201 



m 



Data area 
1202 



Lead-out 
area 

1203 



DMA1 



DMA2 



User area 



Spare area 



DMA3 



DMA4 



DDS 
PDL 



SDL 



-1212 
-1501 



-1206 



-1207 



Defect list 

identifier 



Reserved field 



1st update 
information 



Registered defect 
number 



1st defect position 
nformation 



1st substitute 
position information 



2nd defect position 
information 



2nd substitute 
position information 



1509 
1510 

Unused field H511 



2nd update 
Information 



-1502 

-1503 
-1504 

-1505 
-1506 
-1507 
-1508 



52 



EP 1 347 452 A2 



FIG. 1 6 





1501 

(a) 




(b) 




(c) 


1502- 


Defect list 
identifier 




Defect list 
identifier 

1 WiWI lb 1 1 1 Wl 




Defect list 

irlonfi f ior 


1503- 


- Reserved field 




Reserved field 




Reserved field 


1504- 


Ist update 
' information: M 




1st update 
Information: M+l 




1st update 
information: M+l 


1505- 


Registered 
' defect number: 2 




Registered 
defect number: 1 




Registered 
defect number: 1 


1506 — 


1st defect position 
information 




1st defect position 
information 




1st defect position 
information 


1507- 


1st substitute 
■position information 




Ist substitute 
position information 




1st substitute 
position information 


1508 — 


2nd defect position 
information 


/ 

/ 


2nd update 
information: H+l 


\ 

\ 
\ 

\ 

\ 


2nd defect position 
inforiBation 


1509- 


2nd substitute 
■position information 


II 




\ 

\ \ 
\ \ 
\ \ 
\ \ 
\ 


2nd substitute 
position information 


1510 — 


2nd update 
- information: M 


/ 
/ 

/ 

/ 




\ 

\ 
\ 
\ 

\ 

V 


2nd update 
Information: HI 








Unused field 






1511- 


- Unused field 








Unused field 



53