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(19) 



J) 



Europaisches Patentamt 
European Patent Office 
Office europeen des brevets 



(11) 



EP 1 298 659 A1 



(12) 



EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION 



(43) 


Date of publication: 


(51) lntCl7: G11B 20/18 




02.04.2003 Bulletin 2003/14 


(21) 


Application number: 02026964.3 




(22) 


Date of filing: 20.04.1999 




(84) 


Designated Contracting States: 


(72) Inventor: Ko, Jung-wan 




r^c CO hi 1 

DE FR GB NL 


Yong in-city, Kyunki-do (KR) 


(30) 


Priority: 20.04.1998 KR 9814059 


(74) Representative: Parkinson, Neil Scott et al 




24.06.1998 KR 9823913 


Appleyard Lees, 




23.07.1998 KR 9829733 


15 Clare Road 




27.08.1998 KR 9834880 


Halifax HX1 2HY (GB) 




01.09.1998 KR 9835847 








Remarks: 


(62) 


Document number(s) of the earlier application(s) in 


This application was filed on 04 - 1 2 - 2002 as a 




accordance with Art. 76 EPC: 


divisional application to the application mentioned 




99303057.6 / 0 952 573 


under INID code 62. 


(71) 


Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD. 






Suwon-City, Kyungki-do (KR) 





(54) Recording medium for storing defect management information for recording real time data, 
defect managing method therefor, and real time data recording method 



lO 
CO 

CO 

o> 

CM 



(57) A recording medium for storing defect manage- 
ment information to record real time data, a defect man- 
aging method therefor, and a method of recording real 
time data, are provided. The recording medium stores 
information representing use or non-use of linear re- 
placement defect management in which a defective ar- 
ea on the recording medium is replaced with the spare 
area, in orderto record realtime data. While maintaining 
compatibility between the defect managing method and 
a defect managing method based on a current 
DVD-RAM standard, i.e., while allowing report of the fact 
that there are blocks which have not been linearly re- 
placed, linear replacement is not performed when real 
time data is recorded. Thus, real time data can be re- 
corded and reproduced. 



FIG. 9 




CANCEL LINEARLY- 
REPLACED DEFECT 



RECORD INFORMATION 
REPRESENTING THAT 
DEFECT HAS NOT 
BEEN LINEARLY 
REPLACED, N SDL 



CL 
LD 



Printed by Jouve ; 75001 PARIS (FR) 



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Description 

[0001] The present invention relates to the field of 
managing a disk and its defects, and more particularly, 
to a recording medium for storing defect management 
information with respect to whether linear replacement 
is used, a method of effectively managing defects to 
record and/or reproduce video and/or audio data from 
a digital versatile disc random access memory 
(DVD-RAM) in real time, and a method of recording data 
in real time using defect management information. 
[0002] Real time recording or reproduction means 
that a given amount of data is necessarily recorded or 
reproduced within a given time since input information 
is lost if it is not processed at the moment data is input, 
and since a phenomenon such as pause of an image or 
temporary interruption of music occurs with reproduc- 
tion of data as abnormal information if data is not record- 
ed or reproduced at a predetermined speed. The above- 
described problems are caused since the input of infor- 
mation cannot be temporally controlled by a recording 
and reproducing apparatus. 

[0003] In the DVD-RAM standard version 1 .0, a meth- 
od of managing defects generated on a disk has been 
disclosed to increase the reliability of data recorded on 
the disk. Slipping replacement and linear replacement 
are included as the disclosed defect management meth- 
od: the first method processes defects detected in an 
initializing process; and the second method replaces an 
error correction code (ECC) block unit (16-sector unit) 
including a sector having a defect generated during use 
of the disc with a defect-free ECC block in a spare area. 
[0004] The slipping replacement is used to minimize 
a reduction in the recording or reproduction speed due 
to defects, in which a logical sector number to be pro- 
vided to a defective sector is provided to a sector next 
to the defective sector detected during a certification 
process for investigating defects of a disc when the disc 
is initialized, that is, data is recorded or reproduced by 
slipping a sector on which a defect is generated during 
recording or reproduction. Here, a real physical sector 
number is pushed back by the sector number designat- 
ed by slipping the defective sector. Such a left-behind 
phenomenon is solved by using as many sectors as 
there are defects in a spare area located at the end por- 
tion of a corresponding recording area. 
[0005] However, the slipping replacement cannot be 
used for a defect generated while a disc is used. When 
a defective portion is disregarded and skipped, discon- 
tinuity is generated on logical sector numbering, which 
means that the slipping replacement violates file system 
rules. Thus, the linear replacement is used when a de- 
fect is generated during use of the disc, which means 
the replacement of an ECC block including a defective 
sector with an ECC block existing in a spare area. 
[0006] When the linear replacement is used, no vac- 
uum exists in a logical sector number, however, the po- 
sition of a sector on a disc is discontinuous, and real 



data corresponding to a defective ECC block exists in 
the spare area. 

[0007] As described above, when real time recording, 
in which the time for temporarily-input information can- 
5 not be arbitrarily delayed, such as, recording of broad- 
cast information or a real image, is necessary, informa- 
tion is recorded in an area to be linearly-replaced by un- 
dergoing a process in which a real pickup goes up to the 
spare area and searches for an area to be linearly re- 
10 placed, and a process in which the real pickup comes 
back. Hence, the recording speed is reduced, so that 
information input in real time cannot be continuously re- 
corded when the linear replacement is used. 
[0008] It is prescribed that a DVD-RAM drive accord- 
's jng to the DVD-RAM standard version 1 .0 processes all 
of this defect management to reduce the burden of the 
host computer used in the drive. The host computer is 
designed to transmit a command ordered not to manage 
defects to the drive using a command denoted in an in- 
20 terface standard. That is, if the host computer deter- 
mines whether defect management will be performed, 
the defect management itself is supposed to be per- 
formed by the drive. 

[0009] Even when the host computer does not man- 
25 age defects according to the need of an application pro- 
gram, the DVD-RAM disc according to the DVD-RAM 
standard version 1 .0 must necessarily manage defects 
recorded in a primary defect list (PDL) and a secondary 
defect list (SDL) according to a defect management rule 
30 if an area slipping replaced or linear replaced due to de- 
fect management performed by another drive exists. 
Here, it is prescribed that the position of a defective sec- 
tor replaced according to slipping replacement should 
be recorded in the PDL, and the position of a defective 
35 block replaced according to linear replacement should 
be recorded in the SDL. That is, when data is recorded 
after setting the fact that a specific drive should not per- 
form defect management using the linear replacement, 
it cannot be ensured that other drives must also not per- 
40 form the linear replacement on the same disc. 

[0010] Therefore, when real time recording is per- 
formed by a current DVD-RAM disc, it may be difficult 
because of an area to be used by the linear replace- 
ment. 

45 [0011] With a view to solve or reduce the above prob- 
lems, it is an aim of embodiments of the present inven- 
tion to provide a recording medium for storing defect 
management information associated with whether line- 
ar replacement is used or not, to record real time data. 
50 [0012] It is another aim to provide a recording medium 
for storing information for showing a plurality of different 
defect management modes according to the type of data 
to be recorded. 

[001 3] It is still another aim to provide a recording me- 
55 dium for allocating a spare area for only real time re- 
cording whose space can be effectively utilized. 
[0014] It is yet another aim to provide a method of 
managing a defect of a recording medium which can 



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record real time data and can have maximum compati- 
bility with a general DVD-RAM disc. 
[0015] It is still yet another aim to provide a method 
of recording real time data using the defect manage- 
ment information associated with whether the linear re- 
placement is used. 

[0016] According to a first aspect of the invention, 
there is provided a defect managing method for a disc 
recording and/or reproducing apparatus, comprising the 
steps of: 

(a) recording information representing use or non- 
use of linear replacement defect management with 
respect to an entire disc or a specific area of the 
disc on the disc; and 

(b) determining whether a defective area of the disc 
is to be replaced by a block in a spare area of the 
disc using linear replacement according to the in- 
formation representing use or non-use of the linear 
replacement defect management. 

[0017] Preferably, said step (a) comprises recording 
the information representing use or non-use of linear re- 
placement for the entire disc in a reserved area of a disc 
certification flag in a disc definition structure (DDS) of 
the disc, wherein the disc is a digital versatile disc-ran- 
dom access memory (DVD-RAM) disc. 
[0018] Preferably, said step (a) comprises recording 
the information representing use or non-use of linear re- 
placement for the specific area of the disc in a reserved 
area of a group certification flag in a disc definition struc- 
ture (DDS) of the disc, wherein the disc is a digital ver- 
satile disc-random access memory (DVD-RAM) disc. 
[0019] The defect managing method may further 
comprise the step of (a) recording the information rep- 
resenting use or non-use of linear replacement upon in- 
itialization of the disc. 

[0020] The defect managing method may further 
comprise the step of (a) recording the information rep- 
resenting use or non-use of linear replacement just be- 
fore real time data is recorded on the disc. 
[0021 ] Preferably, the information representing use or 
non-use of linear replacement is information for showing 
a plurality of defect management modes, and is record- 
ed in a reserved area of a disc definition structure (DDS) 
of the disc. 

[0022] Preferably, the information showing the plural- 
ity of defect management modes includes information 
representing that slipping replacement and linear re- 
placement are applied with respect to all data to be re- 
corded in a user data area on the disc, information rep- 
resenting that linear replacement is selectively applied 
according to type of the data on the disc, and information 
representing that linear replacement is not applied to all 
the data to be recorded in the recording area on the disc. 
[0023] Preferably, the information representing use or 
non-use of linear replacement indicates use of a defect 
managing method dedicated for real time recording in 



which linear replacement is not performed by allocating 
only a spare area for slipping replacement. 
[0024] The spare area for slipping replacement is al- 
located to a last group of the disc, and the information 
5 representing use or non-use of linear replacement is re- 
corded in a reserved area of each of a disc definition 
structure (DDS) and a primary defect list (PDL) of the 
disc. 

[0025] Preferably, in said step (b) in response to the 
information representing use or non-use of linear re- 
placement representing the non-use of linear replace- 
ment, the defect managing method comprises not using 
linear replacement for real time data to be recorded on 
the disc, and using linear replacement for data to be re- 
corded on the disc other than the real time data. 
[0026] Preferably, in step (b) in response to the infor- 
mation representing use or non-use of linear replace- 
ment represents the non-use of linear replacement, the 
defect managing method comprises not using linear re- 
placement regardless of whether data to be recorded 
on the disc is real time data. 

[0027] The defect managing method may further 
comprise the step of: (c) cancelling the linear replace- 
ment of a defect on an area of the disc where real time 
data is to be recorded, in response to the information 
representing use or non-use of linear replacement rep- 
resenting the non-use of linear replacement. 
[0028] In step (c) linear replacement may be can- 
celled using a flag representing that the linear replace- 
ment has been cancelled using a reserved bit in a sec- 
ondary defect list (SDL), storing information represent- 
ing that the defective block has been replaced in a 
Forced Re-Assignment Marking (FRM) bit of the SDL, 
and storing a start sector number of the defective block 
and a start sector number of the replacement block in 
the SDL. 

[0029] The defect managing method may further 
comprise the step of (c) leaving only a start sector 
number of the defective block in a secondary defect list 
(SDL), storing information representing that the defec- 
tive block has not been replaced in a Forced Re-Assign- 
ment Marking (FRM) bit of the SDL showing whetherthe 
defective block has been replaced, and storing informa- 
tion representing that the defective block has not been 
replaced in a start sector number of the replacement 
block in the SDL. 

[0030] The defect managing method may further 
comprise the step of: (c) recording only a start sector 
number of the defective block having a defect generated 
while using the disc on which the information that the 
linear replacement defect management will not be used 
has been recorded, in a secondary defect list (SDL), re- 
cording information representing that the defective 
block has not been replaced in a Forced Re-Assignment 
Marking (FRM) bit of the SDL showing whether the de- 
fective block has been replaced, and recording informa- 
tion that the defective block has not been replaced in a 
start sector number of the replacement block in the SDL. 



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[0031] The defect managing method may further 
comprise the step of: (c) performing defect management 
based on linear replacement when a defect is generated 
during use of the disc on which the information that the 
linear replacement defect management will be used has 
been recorded. 

[0032] According to another aspect of the invention, 
there is provided a method of recording real time data 
while managing a defect on a disc using a disc recording 
and/or reproducing apparatus, the method comprising 
the steps of: 

(a) determining whether defect management mode 
information representing whether defect manage- 
ment based on linear replacement is to be used; 

(b) determining whether data to be recorded on a 
disc is the real time data, in response to the defect 
management mode information being information 
that the linear replacement not to be used; 

(c) determining whether a linearly-replaced defect 
exists in an area of the disc in which the data is to 
be recorded, in response to the data to be recorded 
being the real time data; and 

(d) determining whether a new defect is detected in 
the area in which to record the data, in response to 
no linearly-replaced defect existing in the area in 
which to record the data, and recording the real time 
data in a designated part of the area in which to 
record the data in response to the new defect not 
being detected. 

[0033] The method of recording real time data may 
further comprise the steps of: (e) performing defect 
management in response to the defect management 
mode information being information representing that 
the linear replacement is to be used in said step (a); and 
(f) performing the defect management in responsetothe 
data to be recorded not being the real time data in said 
step (b). 

[0034] The method may further comprise the step of: 
(e) cancelling linear replacement in response to the lin- 
early-replaced defect existing in the area in which to 
record the data, in said step (c). 

[0035] The method may further comprise the step of: 
(e) comprising the steps of leaving only a start sector 
number of a defective block in the SDL, storing informa- 
tion representing that the defective block has not been 
replaced in a Forced Re-Assignment Mark (FRM) bit of 
the SDL showing whether the defective block has been 
replaced, and recording information representing that 
the defective block has not been replaced in a start sec- 
tor number of a replacement block in the SDL. 
[0036] Step (e) may comprise the steps of setting a 
flag representing that linear replacement has been can- 
celled using a reserved bit of the SDL, storing informa- 
tion representing that a defective block has been re- 
placed in a Forced Re-Assignment Mark (FRM) bit of 
the SDL, and recording a start sector number of a de- 



fective block and a start sector number of a replacement 
block in the SDL. 

[0037] The method of recording real time data may 
further comprise the step of: (e) recording information 
5 representing that linear replacement has not been per- 
formed, in response to a new defect being detected in 
said step (d). 

[0038] The method may further comprise the step of: 
(e) the steps of leaving only a start sector number of a 
defective block in the SDL, storing information repre- 
senting that the defective block has not been replaced 
in a Forced Re-Assignment Mark (FRM) bit of the SDL 
showing whetherthe defective block has been replaced, 
and recording information representing that the defec- 
tive block has not been replaced in a start sector number 
of a replacement block in the SDL. 
[0039] Preferably, the disc is a digital versatile disc- 
random access memory (DVD-RAM) disc having a de- 
fect definition structure (DDS), and the defect manage- 
ment mode information is information representing use 
or non-use of linear replacement for the entire disc, and 
is stored in a reserved area of a disc certification flag in 
the DDS. 

[0040] Preferably, the disc is a digital versatile disc- 
random access memory (DVD-RAM) disc having a de- 
fect definition structure (DDS), and the defect manage- 
ment mode information is information representing use 
or non-use of linear replacement for only some data 
groups of the disc, and is stored in a reserved area of a 
group certification flag in the DDS. 
[0041] Preferably, the defect management mode in- 
formation includes information representing that slip- 
ping replacement and linear replacement are applied to 
all the data to be recorded on the disc, information rep- 
resenting that linear replacement is selectively applied 
according to type of data, or information representing 
that linear replacement is not applied to all the data to 
be recorded on the disc, and the defect management 
mode information is stored in a reserved area of the 
DDS. 

[0042] Preferably, the disc is a digital versatile disc- 
random access memory (DVD-RAM) disc having a de- 
fect definition structure (DDS) and a primary defect list 
(PDL), and the defect management mode information is 
information representing the use of a defect managing 
method for only real time recording in which linear re- 
placement is not used by allocating only the spare area 
for slipping replacement, and is stored in a reserved ar- 
ea of the DDS and a reserved area of the PDL. 
[0043] According to one aspect of the invention, there 
is provided a recording medium including a recording 
area and a spare area, for storing information represent- 
ing use or non-use of linear replacement defect man- 
agement in which a defective area on the recording me- 
dium is replaced with the spare area. 
[0044] Preferably, the information representing use or 
non-use of linear replacement contains information as- 
sociated with the entire recording medium. 



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[0045] The information representing use or non-use 
of linear replacement preferably contains information 
associated with parts of the recording medium. 
[0046] The recording medium may be a disc desig- 
nated by a digital versatile disc (DVD) standard. 

The recording medium may be a DVD-RAM disc 
designated by a DVD-RAM standard. 
[0047] The information representing use or non-use 
of linear replacement is preferably recorded in a re- 
served area of a disc certification flag and a group cer- 
tification flag in a disc definition structure (DDS) provid- 
ed by the DVD-RAM. 

[0048] The information representing use or non-use 
of linear replacement is preferably stored upon initiali- 
zation. The information representing use or non-use of 
linear replacement may be stored just before recording 
the real time data. 

[0049] Preferably, only the start sector number of a 
block having a defect generated while real time data is 
recorded on the recording medium is recorded in a sec- 
ondary defect list (SDL) ; information representing that 
the defective block has not been replaced is recorded 
in an FRM bit of an SDL entry for representing replace- 
ment or non-replacement of the defective block, and in- 
formation representing non-replacement is recorded in 
the start sector number of a replacement block of the 
SDL entry. 

[0050] Information representing that linear replace- 
ment has been cancelled may be further stored in a re- 
served bit of the SDL entry, information representing 
that the defective block has been replaced is stored in 
the FRM bit of the SDL entry, and the start sector 
number of the defective block and that of the replace- 
ment block are stored in the SDL entry. 
[0051] The information representing use or non-use 
of linear replacement preferably includes information 
representing that linear replacement is applied with re- 
spect to every data on a recording medium, information 
representing that linear replacement is selectively ap- 
plied according to the type of data, and information rep- 
resenting that linear replacement is not applied to every 
data on the recording medium, and this information is 
stored in the reserved area of the DDS. 
[0052] When real time data is recorded, a spare area 
for linear replacement is preferably not allocated, and 
only a spare area for slipping replacement is allocated. 
[0053] The spare area for slipping replacement is 
preferably allocated in the last group of the recording 
medium by the size of sectors capable of processing a 
maximum number of entries capable of registering a pri- 
mary defect list (PDL). 

[0054] Preferably, information representing use or 
non-use of linear replacement, denoting use of a defect 
managing method for only real time recording in which 
linear replacement is not used by allocating only the 
spare area for slipping replacement, is stored in a re- 
served area of the DDS and the PDL. 
[0055] According to another aspect of the invention, 



there is provided a recording medium for storing defect 
management mode information for showing a plurality 
of defect management modes representing use or non- 
use of linear replacement according to the type of data 
5 to be recorded. 

[0056] The defect management mode information 
may be stored in a reserved area of the DDS of a defect 
management area (DMA). 

[0057] The defect management mode information 
10 preferably includes first defect management mode in- 
formation representing that slipping replacement and 
linear replacement are applied to every data on the re- 
cording medium, second defect management mode in- 
formation representing that linear replacement is selec- 
ts tively applied according to the type of data, and third 
defect management mode information representing that 
linear replacement is not applied to every data on the 
recording medium. 

[0058] According to a further aspect of the invention, 
20 there is provided a recording medium for storing infor- 
mation representing non-application of linear replace- 
ment to all data on the recording medium in a defect 
management area, in which only a spare area for slip- 
ping replacement is allocated. 
25 [0059] The defect management area is preferably a 
reserved area in the DDS and the PDL, and the spare 
area for slipping replacement can process a maximum 
number of entries capable of registering the PDL. 
[0060] According to another aspect of the invention, 
30 there is provided a defect managing method for a disc 
recording and/or reproducing apparatus, comprisingthe 
steps of: 

(a) recording information representing use or non- 
35 use of linear replacement defect management with 

respect to the entire disc or a specific area of a disc; 
and 

(b) determining whether a defective area will be re- 
40 placed by a block in a spare area using linear re- 
placement according to information representing 
use or non-use of the linear replacement defect 
management. 

45 [0061] Preferably, in step (a), information represent- 
ing use or non-use of linear replacement for the entire 
disc is recorded in a reserved area of a disc certification 
flag in the DDS provided by the DVD-RAM. 
[0062] Preferably, in step (a), information represent- 
so ing use or non-use of linear replacement for the specific 
area of the disc is recorded in a reserved area of a group 
certification flag in the DDS provided by the DVD-RAM. 

Preferably, in step (a), the information represent- 
ing use or non-use of linear replacement is recorded up- 
55 on initialization of the disc. Alternatively, the information 
representing use or non-use of linear replacement may 
be recorded just before real time data is recorded on the 
disc. 



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[0063] The information representing use or non-use 
of linear replacement is preferably information for show- 
ing a plurality of defect management modes, and this 
information is recorded in a reserved area of the DDS. 
[0064] Preferably, the information showing the plural- 
ity of defect management modes includes information 
representing that slipping replacement and linear re- 
placement is applied with respect to all data on the re- 
cording medium, information representing that linear re- 
placement is selectively applied according to the type of 
data, and information representing that linear replace- 
ment is not applied to all data on the recording medium. 
[0065] The information representing use or non-use 
of linear replacement preferably denotes the use of a 
defect managing method dedicated for real time record- 
ing in which linear replacement is not performed by al- 
locating only a spare area for slipping replacement. 
[0066] The spare area for slipping replacement may 
be allocated to the last group of a disc, and the informa- 
tion representing use or non-use of linear replacement 
recorded in the reserved area of the DDS and the PDL. 
[0067] Preferably, in step (b), when the information 
representing use or non-use of linear replacement rep- 
resents the non-use of linear replacement, linear re- 
placement is not used for real time data, but linear re- 
placement is used for data other than real time data. In 
step (b). when the information representing use or non- 
use of linear replacement represents the non-use of lin- 
ear replacement, linear replacement is preferably not 
used regardless of whether data is real time data. 
[0068] The defect managing method may further 
comprise the step of: (c) cancelling the linear replace- 
ment of a defect on an area where real time data is to 
be recorded, when the information representing use or 
non-use of linear replacement represents the non-use 
of linear replacement. 

[0069] In step (c), the linear replacement may be can- 
celled using a flag representing that the linear replace- 
ment has been cancelled using a reserved bit in an SDL, 
information representing that a defective block has been 
replaced is preferably stored in an FRM bit of the SDL 
entry, and the start sector number of the defective block 
and the start sector number of a replacement block may 
be stored in the SDL entry. 

[0070] In step (c), preferably only the start sector 
number of a defective block is left in an SDL, information 
representing that a defective block has not been re- 
placed is stored in an FRM bit of the SDL entry showing 
whether the defective block has been replaced, and in- 
formation representing that the defective block has not 
been replaced is stored in the start sector number of a 
replacement block are stored in the SDL entry. 
[0071] The defect managing method may further 
comprise the step of: (d) recording only the start sector 
number of a block having a defect generated while using 
a disc on which information that the linear replacement 
defect management will not be used has been recorded, 
in an SDL, recording information representing that a de- 



flective block has not been replaced in the FRM bit of 
the SDL entry showing whether the deflective block has 
been replaced, and recording information that the de- 
flective block has not been replaced in the start sector 

5 number of a replacement block in the SDL entry. 

[0072] The defect managing method may further 
comprise the step of: (e) performing defect manage- 
ment based on linear replacement when a defect is gen- 
erated during use of a disc on which information thatthe 

10 linear replacement defect management will be used has 
been recorded. 

[0073] According to another aspect of the invention, 
there is provided a method of recording real time data 
while managing a defect on a disc using a disc recording 
15 and/or reproducing apparatus, the method comprising 
the steps of: (a) determining whether defect manage- 
ment mode information representing whether defect 
management based on linear replacement will be used; 

(b) determining whether data to be recorded is real time 
20 data, when the defect management mode information 

is information that the linear replacement will not be 
used; (c) determining whether a linearly-replaced detect 
exists in an area to record data in, when the data to be 
recorded is real time data; and (d) determining whether 

25 a new defect is detected in the area to record data in, 
when no linearly-replaced defect exists in the area to 
record data in. and recording the real time data in a de- 
sired area when the new defect is not detected. 
[0074] The method of recording real time data may 

30 further comprise the steps of: (e) performing defect 
management when the defect management mode infor- 
mation is information representing that the linear re- 
placement will be used, in step (a); and (f) performing 
defect management when data to be recorded is not real 

35 time data in step (b). 

[0075] The method may further comprise the step of: 

(g) canceling linear replacement when a linearly-re- 
placed defect exists in an area to record data in, in step 

(c) . 

40 Preferably, in step (g), only the start sector number 

of a defective block is left in the SDL, information rep- 
resenting that the defective block has not been replaced 
is stored in an FRM bit of the SDL entry showing whether 
the defective block has been replaced, and information 

45 representing that the defective block has not been re- 
placed is recorded in the start sector number of a re- 
placement block in the SDL entry. 
[0076] Preferably, in step (g), a flag representing that 
linear replacement has been cancelled is set using a re- 

50 served bit of the SDL entry, information representing 
that a defective block has been replaced is stored in an 
FRM bit of the SDL entry, and the start sector number 
of the defective block and the start sector number of a 
replacement block are recorded in the SDL entry. 

55 [0077] The method may further comprise the step of: 

(h) recording information representing that linear re- 
placement has not been performed, when a new defect 
is detected in step (d). 



6 



11 



EP 1 298 659 A1 



12 



[0078] Preferably, in step (h), only the start sector 
number of a defective block is left in the SDL, informa- 
tion representing that the defective block has not been 
replaced is stored in an FRM bit of the SDL entry show- 
ing whether the defective block has been replaced, and 
information representing thatthe defective block has not 
been replaced is recorded in the start sector number of 
a replacement block in the SDL entry. 
[0079] The defect management mode information 
may be information representing use or non-use of lin- 
ear replacement for the entire disc, and is stored in a 
reserved area of a disc certification flag in a DDS pro- 
vided by DVD-RAM. Alternatively, the defect manage- 
ment mode information may be information represent- 
ing use or non-use of linear replacement for some data 
groups of the disc, and stored in a reserved area of a 
group certification flag in a DDS provided by DVD-RAM. 
[0080] The defect management mode information 
preferably includes information representing that slip- 
ping replacement and linear replacement are applied to 
all data on a disc, information representing that linear 
replacement is selectively applied according to the type 
of data, and information representing that linear replace- 
ment is not applied to all data on the disc, and this in- 
formation is stored in a reserved area of a DDS provided 
by DVD-RAM. 

[0081] The defect management mode information 
may be information representing the use of a defect 
managing method for only real time recording in which 
linear replacement is not used by allocating only the 
spare area for slipping replacement, and is stored in a 
reserved area of a DDS provided by DVD-RAM and the 
PDL. 

[0082] For a better understanding of the invention, 
and to show how embodiments of the same may be car- 
ried into effect, reference will now be made, by way of 
example, to the accompanying diagrammatic drawings, 
in which: 

Figure 1 is a view for explaining a defect manage- 
ment method using slipping replacement of a re- 
cording medium; 

Figure 2 is a view for explaining a defect manage- 
ment method using linear replacement of a record- 
ing medium; 

Figure 3 is a table of a defect definition structure 
(DDS) ; 

Figures 4A and 4B illustrate the structures of the 
disc certification flag and the group certification flag 
shown in Figure 3, respectively; 

Figure 5 is a table of the contents of a secondary 
defect list (SDL) ; 

Figure 6 illustrates the structure of the spare area 



full flag shown in Figure 5; 

Figure 7 illustrates the structure of the SDL entry 
shown in Figure 5; 

5 

Figures 8A and 8B illustrate the structures of the 
disc certification flag and the group certification flag 
of the DDS for recording real time data proposed by 
embodiments of the present invention, respectively; 

10 

Figure 9 is a flowchart illustrating an embodiment 
of a method of recording data according to a defect 
management method of the present invention; 

15 Figure 1 0 illustrates an example of the structure of 
an improved SDL entry for canceling linear replace- 
ment as proposed by the present invention; 

Figure 11 illustrates an example of a DDS for storing 
20 information for indicating a plurality of different de- 
fect management modes proposed by the present 
invention; 

Figure 1 2 is a table showing allocated spare areas 
25 for recording real time data as proposed by embod- 
iments of the present invention; and 

Figure 13 illustrates a DDS and the structure of a 
primary defect list (PDL) for storing defect manage- 
so ment mode information as proposed by embodi- 
ments of the present invention for allocating the 
spare areas for only real time recording shown in 
Figure 12. 

35 [0083] Preferred embodiments of a recording medium 
storing defect management information for recording re- 
al time data, a defect managing method using the same, 
and a real time data recording method will now be de- 
scribed with reference to the attached drawings. 

40 [0084] First, slipping replacement and linear replace- 
ment will be described in detail referring to Figures 1 
and 2 in order to help in the understanding of the present 
invention. 

[0085] Figure 1 is a view for explaining a defect man- 
45 agement method using the slipping replacement. Phys- 
ical addresses on a disc shown in Figure 1 are recorded 
as P1, P2, P3, Pn, and logical addresses must be 
provided to record real data in this physically-segment- 
ed sector. These logical addresses act as addresses al- 
so lowing a real file system to search for its own data. How- 
ever, the relationship between the physical addresses 
and the logical addresses is made in a disc initialization 
process. If a defect is detected on the third physical sec- 
tor P3 as shown in Figure 1 , a logical address is not des- 
55 ignated to this defective sector and a logical sector 
number L3 is designated to the next physical sector P4. 
Then, the logical sectors are sequentially pushed back 
by the number of defective sectors, and a spare area 



7 



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EP 1 298 659 A1 



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located at the end of a corresponding data group is used 
by the pushed portion. In this slipping replacement 
method, effective processing in sector units is possible 
by simply slipping a defective region, and a pickup does 
not need to move to a different place upon recording and 
reproduction by simply disregarding and skipping a de- 
fective portion. Thus, the defective region can be avoid- 
ed while minimizing the delay time. Here, the position of 
a defective sector replaced by the slipping replacement 
is recorded in the PDL. 

[0086] Figure 2 is a view for explaining a defect man- 
agement method using linear replacement. In the linear 
replacement for processing defects generated while a 
disc is used after being initialized, the defects are man- 
aged in an ECC block unit, i.e., in units of 1 6 sectors. In 
other words, when an error is generated at a specific 
sector and a defect is thus detected, if the movement in 
units of at least 1 6 sectors is not made for error correc- 
tion, the error correction unit of each data previously re- 
corded in a disc must be changed. Thus, processing in 
an ECC block unit must be performed, and the slipping 
replacement method of slipping a defective sector and 
designating a logical sector cannot be used since the 
logical address of an area where data has already been 
recorded cannot be changed. When a defect is gener- 
ated in a logical block LB3 as shown in Figure 2, the 
defective region is recorded in the SDL to be prevented 
from being used, and the defective portion is replaced 
with a usable block existing in a spare area. The re- 
placed block (SBk in Figure 2) in the spare area has the 
same logical block number (LB3) as the erroneous 
block. 

[0087] In a reproduction sequence, as shown in Fig- 
ure 2, reading is continued just before to a defective 
block as in an area 1 , a replaced ECC block existing in 
the spare area is read by moving a pickup or the like as 
in an area 2, and data is continuously read from a block 
right next to the defective block as in an area 3. In order 
to process defects as described above, pickup move- 
ment is caused such as a process for searching for data 
and a process for returning to the block right next to the 
defective block after reading the replaced block. Thus, 
much time is required to read or write data, so that this 
defect management is not appropriate for real time re- 
cording. 

[0088] Figure 3 is a table of a disc definition structure 
(DDS) existing in a defect management area (DMA) of 
a DVD-RAM. In particular, a byte position (BP) 3, a disc 
certification flag, records the certified contents of the en- 
tire disc, and BPs 16 through 39, group certification 
flags, record the contents of certification of 24 data 
groups. 

[0089] In addition, BPs 0 and 1 are DDS identifiers, 
and BPs 4 through 7 are the values of counters for up- 
dating DDS/PDL representing the total number of times 
in which a DDS/PDL block is updated and rewritten. 
That is, when initialization starts, the value of a counter 
is set to be "0", and increases by one whenever the 



DDS/PDL is updated or rewritten. All DDS/PDL and SDL 
blocks must have the same counter value after format- 
ting is completed. BPs 8 and 9 denote the number of 
groups, and, for example, 24 groups are recorded as 

5 "0018" (hexadecimal). 

[0090] Figure 4A illustrates the structures of the disc 
certification flag shown in Figure 3. When a bit b7 among 
three bits b7, b6 and b-5 representing an in-process state 
is "0b" it indicates format completion, and when the bit 

10 b7 is "1b", it indicates an under-formation state. When 
the bit b6 is "0b", it indicates the progress of formatting 
using full certification, and when the bit b6 is "1b", it in- 
dicates the progress of formatting using partial certifica- 
tion. When the bit b5 is "0b", it indicates the progress of 

15 formatting on the entire disc, and when the bit b5 is "1b", 
it indicates the progress of formatting on only groups, 
and indicates that the group certification flag is effective. 
When a bit b1 representing user certification is "0b", it 
indicates that a disc has never been certified by a user, 

20 and when the bit b1 is "1b", it indicates that a disc has 
been certified one or more times by a user. When a bit 
bO representing disc manufacturer certification is "0b" it 
indicates that a disc has never been certified by a man- 
ufacturer, and when the bit 0 is "1b", it indicates that the 

25 disc has been certified one or more times by the manu- 
facturer. Other bits b4, b3 ; and b2 are reserved. How- 
ever, "in-process" is set to be "1 x x" by any certification 
before formatting, and when formatting is completed, 
the "in-process" is reset to be "000". 

30 [0091] Figure 4B illustrates the structure of each of 
the group certification flags of the bit positions 16 
through 39 shown in Figure 3. When a bit b7 among two 
bits b7 and b6 representing an in-process state is "0b", 
it indicates format completion of a corresponding group, 

35 and when the bit b7 is "1b", it indicates that the corre- 
sponding group is being formatted. When the bit b6 is 
"0b", it indicates that the group is being formatted using 
full certification, and when the bit b6 is "1 b", it indicates 
that the group is being formatted using partial certifica- 
te tion. When a bit b1 representing user certification is "0b", 
it indicates that the group has never been certified by a 
user, and when the bit b1 is "1b", it indicates that the 
group has been certified one or more times by a user. 
Other bits b5, b4, b3, b2, and bO are reserved. 

45 [0092] Figure 5 is a table showing the contents of a 
secondary defect list (SDL). RBP is the position of a rel- 
ative byte starting with 0. Relative byte positions 0 and 
1 are SDL identifiers, and relative byte positions 2 and 
3 are reserved. Relative byte positions 4 through 7 de- 

50 note the total number of updated SDL blocks, and SDL 
updating counter values increases by one wheneverthe 
content of SDL is updated. Relative byte positions 8 
through 1 5 denote spare area full flags, and relative byte 
positions 16 through 19 denote DDS/PDL updating 

55 counter values each indicating the total number of times 
the DDS/PDL block is updated and rewritten. The coun- 
ter value is set to be "0" when initialization starts, and 
increases by 1 whenever the DDS/PLD is updated or 



8 



15 



EP 1 298 659 A1 



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rewritten. As mentioned above, all the DDS/PDL and 
SDL blocks must have the same count value after for- 
matting is finished. Relative byte positions 20 and 21 
are reserved, and relative byte positions 22 and 23 in- 
dicate the number of entries in the SDL. The remaining 
relative byte positions indicate each SDL entry. 
[0093] Figure 6 illustrates the structure of the spare 
area full flag of the relative byte positions 8 through 15 
shown in Figure 5. In Figure 6, if a bit representing a 
corresponding group is "1", it indicates that no spare 
blocks are left in the corresponding group, and if the bit 
is "0", it indicates that a spare block remains in the cor- 
responding group. 

[0094] Figure 7 illustrates the structure of the SDL en- 
try shown in Figure 5. In Figure 7, FRM is a bit repre- 
senting whether a defective block has been replaced. 
When the defective block has been replaced, FRM 
records a binary "0", and when the defective block has 
not been replaced or no spare areas exist, FRM records 
a binary "1 ". The SDL entry includes the sector number 
of the first sector of a defective block, and the sector 
number of the first sector of a replacement block. Here, 
if the defective block has not been replaced, a hexadec- 
imal "000000" is recorded in an area where the first sec- 
tor number of the replacement block is recorded. 
[0095] Meanwhile, in real time recording, whether cor- 
responding data can be processed within a given time 
becomes more important than some errors of real data. 
In particular, in the case of an image or the like, an error 
is generated to part of a screen when a small error exists 
in the image. On the other hand, when input data cannot 
be processed in time, continuous data error is generated 
to make normal reproduction impossible. Therefore, the 
processing of data in time is more important. 
[0096] Thus, as for the real time recording, a method 
allowing non-use of the linear replacement must be sug- 
gested. When the linear replacement is not used, there 
must be a portion recording the fact that a corresponding 
disc is in use without using the linear replacement. A 
method of recording such a content will be described 
referring to Figures 8A and 8B. 

[0097] Figures 8A and 8B illustrate the structures of 
the disc certification flag and the group certification flag 
of the DDS proposed by the present invention to record 
real time data, respectively. The structures of the disc 
certification flag and the group certification flag of Fig- 
ures 8A and 8B are the same as those of Figures 4A 
and 4B except for a bit position b2. That is, as shown in 
Figure 8A, when the entire corresponding disc is used 
without the linear replacement, the bit position b2 of the 
disc certification flag is set as "1", and when the corre- 
sponding disc is used by the linear replacement as in 
the prior art, the bit position b-2 is set as "0". In Figures 
8A and 8B, information associated with use or non-use 
of the linear replacement stored in the bit position 2(b2) 
is called a disc defect management mode. 
[0098] Also, when only specific groups are partially in- 
itialized to prevent the linear replacement, as shown in 



Figure 8B, the bit position 2(b2) of the group certification 
flag for a corresponding group is set as "1 11 to indicate 
that linear replacement is not performed on a data re- 
gion in the corresponding group. In an embodiment of 

5 the present invention, the bit positions 2(b2) of the disc 
certification flag and the group certification flag are used 
as shown in Figures 8A and 8B, but another reserved 
bit can be used. Here, each existing b2 region is re- 
served, and its value is recorded as "0". 

10 [0099] When the bit b2 for a disc defect management 
mode of the disc certification flag or group certification 
flag is set as "1" upon initialization of a disc, the SDL 
records only the start sector address of a block having 
a defect generated during use of the disc, records an 

15 FRM bit of the SDL entry as "1 ", and the linear replace- 
ment is not performed. A hexadecimal "000000" is re- 
corded in an area for recording the first sector number 
of a replacement block of the SDL entry. 
[0100] In this way, while compatibility between a de- 

20 feet managing method based on a current DVD-RAM 
standard and a method of the present invention is main- 
tained, i.e., while a method capable of indicating the ex- 
istence of non-linearly-replaced blocks as in an existing 
defect managing method is suggested, a method allow- 

25 jng a defective block not to be linearly replaced is also 
provided to thereby accomplish recording and reproduc- 
tion of real time data. 

[0101] A determination of whether a defective region 
will be replaced by a block existing in a spare area using 

30 linear replacement is made by information associated 
with use or non-use of linear replacement defect man- 
agement recorded in a defect management region on 
the entire disc or a specific area of the disc regardless 
of the type of data to be recorded in a corresponding 

35 area. 

[0102] Also, a determination of whether a defective 
region will be replaced by a block existing in a spare 
area using the linear replacement is made by informa- 
tion associated with use or non-use of linear replace- 
40 ment defect management recorded in a defect manage- 
ment region on the entire disc or in a specific area on 
the disc in the case of only data required to be recorded 
in real time. 

[0103] A method of preventing linear replacement 
45 with respect to the entire disc or a specific group of discs 
was described on the basis of the above-described em- 
bodiment. In another embodiment, when a disc defect 
management mode is set as "1", it can be used as in- 
formation that the linear replacement is not performed 
50 with respect to a block having a defect in an area of a 
disc for recording information requiring real time record- 
ing and reproduction, but the linear replacement can be 
performed with respect to an area of a disc not requiring 
realtime recording. In this case, when data not requiring 
55 real time recording has already been recorded in an ar- 
ea in which real time data must be recorded, and a de- 
fective region is thus linearly replaced, the linear re- 
placement of the defective region must be capable of 



9 



17 



EP 1 298 659 A1 



18 



being canceled. Therefore, when the disc defect man- 
agement mode is set as "1 ", this can meanthatthe linear 
replacement of the defect can be cancelled when real 
time information is recorded. 

[0104] In order to prevent entire linear replacement 
with respect to the entire disc or a given group on the 
disc, information associated with the disc defect man- 
agement mode is set as "1" upon initialization. On the 
other hand, when linear replacement is not performed 
only in the case of recording real time data, there is no 
need to set the defect management mode information 
upon initialization. That is, when it is determined that 
there is a necessity for recording real time data in a disc, 
the disc defect management mode is set as "1 " just be- 
fore the real time data is recorded. At this time, a deter- 
mination of whether a corresponding disc is suitable for 
recording real time data is made on the basis of the 
amount or distribution of a defect generated on the disc. 
When it is determined that the disc is suitable, the disc 
defect management mode is set as "1". Otherwise, a 
process for informing a user that the disc is not suitable 
for recording real time data is required. 
[0105] Figure 9 is a flowchart illustrating a method of 
recording data in real time without performing defect 
management using linear replacement with respect to 
only data desired to be recorded when the disc defect 
management mode is "1". 

[0106] In Figure 9, first, a determination of whether a 
disc defect management mode is "1" is set before re- 
cording of data on a disc begins, in step S1 01. If the disc 
defect management mode is "1 11 , it is determined wheth- 
er data to be recorded is real time data ; in step S1 03. If 
the defect management mode is "0", every data is re- 
corded on the basis of a general defect managing meth- 
od defined in the standard book version 1.0, in steps 
S1 02 and S1 08. When it is determined in step S1 03 that 
data to be recorded is not real time data, step S102 of 
performing general defect management is performed. 
When it is determined in step S103 that data to be re- 
corded is real time data, it is determined whether an al- 
ready-linearly-replaced defect exists in an area where 
data is to be recorded, in step S1 04. 
[0107] When it is determined in step S1 04 that the lin- 
early replaced defect exists in the area to record data 
in, the linearly-replaced defect is canceled, in step S1 05. 
When no linearly-replaced defect exists in the area to 
record data in, it is determined whether a newly-detect- 
ed defect exists in the area to record data in, in step 
S106. 

[0108] When it is determined in step S106 that a new 
defect is detected, information representing that a de- 
fect has not been linearly replaced is recorded in a sec- 
ondary defect list (SDL) of a defect management area, 
in step S107. Next, data is recorded in a desired area 
in step S108. Also, when a new defect is not detected 
in step S1 06, step S1 08 of recording real time data in a 
desired region is performed. 

[01 09] Step S1 05 of cancelling a linearly-replaced de- 



fect, and step S107 of recording information represent- 
ing that a defect has not been linearly replaced are per- 
formed by recording the first sector number of a replace- 
ment block as a hexadecimal "000000", among linearly- 
5 replaced defect information recorded in the SDL, and by 
recording the FRM information as "1". In this case, since 
the disc defect management mode is set as "1", it can 
be recognized from the comparison of this mode infor- 
mation with FRM information that the meaning of the 
FRM information becomes different from that of existing 
FRM information. 

[01 1 0] That is, the FRM information based on the ex- 
isting standard book denotes that a block having a de- 
fect generated for a certain reason has not been re- 
placed with a block in a spare area or no spare areas 
can be replaced. On the other hand, FRM information 
based on a new definition is added to the meaning of 
the existing FRM and can be information representing 
that when the disc defect management mode is "1 ", the 
linear replacement of a defective block replaced by an 
existing linear replacement method has been cancelled 
for real time recording, or the defective block has not 
been linearly replaced for real time recording. 
[0111] Since a disc whose defect management mode 
is set as "1 " is likely to include real time information, the 
disc can be utilized as information of prohibiting reallo- 
cation of information on a disc without consideration of 
real time information. Piece collection of collecting the 
pieces of a file on a disc, and read after reallocation can 
be included as a method of reallocating the information 
on a disc. The read after allocation is a method of read- 
ing data and then replacing a data block likely to have 
a defect with a block located in a spare area. 
[0112] Figure 10 illustrates the structure of an im- 
proved SDL entry for cancelling linear replacement pro- 
posed by the present invention. When an already-re- 
placed defect exists on a corresponding disc upon re- 
cording of real time data, a method of recording the in- 
formation of an area, in which the first sector number of 
the replacement block as described above is recorded, 
as a hexadecimal "000000" and setting an FRM bit as 
"1 " is exemplified as a process for cancelling the linear 
replacement. 

[0113] This method can minimize the change in the 
existing standard. However, in this method, the informa- 
tion of a block which is determined as defective and re- 
placed must be deleted, so that linear replacement may 
be arbitrarily performed, cancelled, and again per- 
formed without sequentially using a spare area. In par- 
ticular, when a linearly-replaced block in the spare area 
is defective and again replaced, information associated 
with the linearly-replaced defective block in the spare 
area is lost. 

[0114] Thus, it would be preferable that blocks in a 
corresponding spare area are sequentially used when 
linear replacement occurs, and that even when the lin- 
ear replacement is cancelled, information associated 
with a block in the spare area replacing a corresponding 



15 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



10 



19 



EP 1 298 659 A1 



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defect block is maintained. When only a region record- 
ing an FRM bit and the first sector number of a replace- 
ment block is used to maintain information associated 
with the replaced sector number of the spare area, it is 
not possible to tell if the corresponding replaced block 
has again been replaced on account of a defect or if the 
linear replacement has been cancelled to record real 
time data. 

[0115] In order to solve such a problem, a cancelled 
linear replacement (CLR) flag is newly defined by using 
a spare bit of the SDL entry which is not in use. When 
linear replacement with respect to a corresponding SDL 
entry is cancelled for recording real time data, a method 
of setting the CLR flag as "1 " can be used. Here, when 
the CLR flag is set as "0", it indicates a replacement 
block allocated without being used by real time data. In 
the structure of an SDL entry of Figure 1 0, for example, 
a bit b31 not in use is used as the CLR flag. 
[0116] Meanwhile, defect management information 
for recording real time data can be roughly divided into 
three cases in which: (1) real time data is not recorded 
on the entire disc; (2) two types of data, i.e., real time 
data and non-real time data, coexist on a disc, and a 
linear replacement defect managing method is not used 
with respect to only the real time data; and (3) only the 
real time data is recorded in the entire disc, i.e., the lin- 
ear replacement defect managing method is not used 
with respect to all recorded data. 
[0117] Particularly in thethird case, realtime replace- 
ment is not used for the entire disc, so that a spare area 
for defect management can be set to a smaller size than 
in the first and second cases. This will be described in 
detail later referring to Figures 12 and 13. 
[0118] When these three or more defect managing 
methods are applied to one disc, various correspond- 
ences are possible according to the purpose of use of 
a disc, and the disc can be more effectively used. How- 
ever, considering a condition such as the case of chang- 
ing and using discs between reproduction apparatuses, 
the defect management conditions in which a corre- 
sponding disc is used must be described in more detail. 
1 -bit disc defect management mode information repre- 
senting use or non-use of linear replacement described 
in Figure 8 is deficient for defect management informa- 
tion in the above case. 

[0119] Thus, as shown in Figure 11 , defect manage- 
ment mode information capable of representing linear 
replacement or non-linear replacement depending on a 
plurality of different defect management modes is stored 
in a reserved byte located in the DDS of the defect man- 
agement area (DMA) on a disc. That is, Figure 1 1 shows 
the case of using two significant bits b7 and b6 of the 
relative byte position BP10 of DDS, i.e.. the eleventh 
byte thereof, by taking defect management (DM) mode 
depending on use or non-use of linear replacement as 
an example. 

[0120] As shown in Figure 11 , when the DM mode in- 
formation is "00b", it indicates that the slipping replace- 



ment and the linear replacement are applied to all data 
on a disc, when the DM mode information is "01b", it 
indicates that the linear replacement is selectively ap- 
plied according to the type of information (here, real time 

5 data and non-real time data), and when the DM mode 
information is "10b", it indicates that the linear replace- 
ment is not used with respect to every data. 
[0121] That is, when the DM mode information is 
"00b", the slipping replacement and the linear replace- 

10 ment are mandatory, and this mode is only for data other 
than real time data in the first case described above. 
When the DM mode information is "01b", the linear re- 
placement is mandatory, but the linear replacement for 
real time data is optional. This mode is defect manage- 
rs ment for a hybrid disc including both real time data and 
non-real time data in the second case described above. 
When the DM mode information is "1 0b", only the slip- 
ping replacement is allowable, and this mode is defect 
management for only real data in the third case de- 

20 scribed above. When the DM mode information is " 1 0b" , 
the physical layout of a disc can be changed. 
[0122] Meanwhile, since linear replacement cannot 
be used to record real time data, a spare area necessary 
for linear replacement does not actually become neces- 

25 sary. Forthis case, in the present invention, only a spare 
area for slipping replacement is set in the last group 
without allocating a spare area for linear replacement 
as shown in Figure 12. In particular, the spare area set 
in the last group (here, a thirty fourth group) allocates 

30 7680 sectors (480 ECC blocks) to a spare area for slip- 
ping replacement to process a maximum of 7679 entries 
capable of being registered in a primary defect list 
(PDL). In Figure 12, sect denotes a sector, blk denotes 
block, and rev denotes revolutions. 

35 [0123] In orderto obtain the compatibility between the 
present invention and an existing defect management 
structure, a flag, capable of discriminating a case in 
which spare areas for only slipping replacement are al- 
located only for real time recording from a case in which 

40 spare areas for linear replacement and slipping replace- 
ment are allocated according to an existing defect man- 
agement method, is represented with significant bits b7 
and b6 of the relative byte position BP 10 in the DDS 
and the PDL, as shown in Figure 13. 

45 [0124] As shown in Figure 13, when two significant 
bits b7 and b6 representing a DM mode on the byte po- 
sition BP 1 0 of the DDS/PDL are "00b", it indicates that 
an existing defect managing method is applied, and 
when the two significant bits b7 and b6 are "1 0b", a de- 

50 feet managing method for only real time recording with- 
out linear replacement, in which only the spare area for 
slipping replacement is allocated in the last group of a 
disc, is applied. Thus, spare areas are allocated by a 
method dedicated for real time recording, thereby in- 

55 creasing the efficiency due to the application of the 
space of a disc. 

[0125] As described above, while compatibility be- 
tween a method of the present invention and a defect 



11 



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EP 1 298 659 A1 



22 



managing method based on the current DVD-RAM 
standard is maintained, linear replacement is not per- 
formed when real time data is recorded. Thus, real time 
data can be recorded and reproduced. 
[0126] In embodiments of the present invention, infor- 
mation representing a plurality of different defect man- 
agement modes depending on the type of data to be 
recorded is stored, so that various correspondences are 
possible according to the purpose of use of the record- 
ing medium. Thus, the recording medium can be more 
effectively used. 

[0127] Also, in embodiments of the present invention, 
when real time data is recorded, spare areas are allo- 
cated to be used for only real time. Thus, the effective- 
ness due to the application of the space of a disc can 
be increased. 

[0128] The reader's attention is directed to all papers 
and documents which are filed concurrently with or pre- 
vious to this specification in connection with this appli- 
cation and which are open to public inspection with this 
specification, and the contents of all such papers and 
documents are incorporated herein by reference. 
[0129] All of the features disclosed in this specifica- 
tion (including any accompanying claims, abstract and 
drawings), and/or all of the steps of any method or proc- 
ess so disclosed, may be combined in any combination, 
except combinations where at least some of such fea- 
tures and/or steps are mutually exclusive. 
[01 30] Each feature disclosed in this specification (in- 
cluding any accompanying claims, abstract and draw- 
ings), may be replaced by alternative features serving 
the same, equivalent or similar purpose, unless ex- 
pressly stated otherwise. Thus, unless expressly stated 
otherwise, each feature disclosed is one example only 
of a generic series of equivalent or similar features. 
[0131] The invention is not restricted to the details of 
the foregoing embodiment(s). The invention extends to 
any novel one, or any novel combination, of the features 
disclosed in this specification (including any accompa- 
nying claims, abstract and drawings), or to any novel 
one, or any novel combination, of the steps of any meth- 
od or process so disclosed. 



Claims 

1 . A defect managing method for a disc recording and/ 
or reproducing apparatus, comprising the steps of: 

(a) recording information representing use or 
non-use of linear replacement defect manage- 
ment with respect to an entire disc or a specific 
area of the disc on the disc; and 

(b) determining whether a defective area of the 
disc is to be replaced by a block in a spare area 
of the disc using linear replacement according 
to the information representing use or non-use 
of the linear replacement defect management. 



2. The defect managing method as claimed in claim 
1 , wherein said step (a) comprises recording the in- 
formation representing use or non-use of linear re- 
placement for the entire disc in a reserved area of 
5 a disc certification flag in a disc definition structure 

(DDS) of the disc, wherein the disc is a digital ver- 
satile disc-random access memory (DVD-RAM) 
disc. 

10 3. The defect managing method as claimed in claim 
1 , wherein said step (a) comprises recording the in- 
formation representing use or non-use of linear re- 
placement for the specific area of the disc in a re- 
served area of a group certification flag in a disc def- 

15 inition structure (DDS) of the disc, wherein the disc 
is a digital versatile disc-random access memory 
(DVD-RAM) disc. 

4. The defect managing method as claimed in any one 
20 of the above claims, wherein said step (a) compris- 
es recording the information representing use or 
non-use of linear replacement upon initialization of 
the disc. 

25 5. The defect managing method as claimed in any one 
of the above claims, wherein said step (a) compris- 
es recording the information representing use or 
non-use of linear replacement just before real time 
data is recorded on the disc. 

30 

6. The defect managing method as claimed in any one 
of the above claims, wherein the information repre- 
senting use or non-use of linear replacement is in- 
formation for showing a plurality of defect manage- 

35 ment modes, and is recorded in a reserved area of 
a disc definition structure (DDS) of the disc. 

7. The defect managing method as claimed in claim 
6, wherein the information showing the plurality of 

40 defect management modes includes information 
representing that slipping replacement and linear 
replacement are applied with respect to all data to 
be recorded in a user data area on the disc, infor- 
mation representing that linear replacement is se- 

45 lectively applied according to type of the data on the 
disc, and information representing that linear re- 
placement is not applied to all the data to be record- 
ed in the recording area on the disc. 

50 8. The defect managing method as claimed in any one 
of the above claims, wherein the information repre- 
senting use or non-use of linear replacement indi- 
cates use of a defect managing method dedicated 
for real time recording in which linear replacement 

55 is not performed by allocating only a spare area for 
slipping replacement. 

9. The defect managing method as claimed in claim 



12 



23 



EP 1 298 659 A1 



24 



8, wherein the spare area for slipping replacement 
is allocated to a last group of the disc, and the in- 
formation representing use or non-use of linear re- 
placement is recorded in a reserved area of each 
of a disc definition structure (DDS) and a primary 5 
defect list (PDL) of the disc. 

1 0. The defect managing method as claimed in any one 
of the above claims, wherein in said step (b) in re- 
sponse to the information representing use or non- io 
use of linear replacement representing the non-use 

of linear replacement, the defect managing method 
comprises not using linear replacement for real time 
data to be recorded on the disc, and using linear 
replacement for data to be recorded on the disc oth- 15 
er than the real time data. 

1 1 . The defect managing method as claimed in any one 
of the above claims, wherein in step (b) in response 

to the information representing use or non-use of 20 
linear replacement represents the non-use of linear 
replacement, the defect managing method compris- 
es not using linear replacement regardless of 
whether data to be recorded on the disc is real time 
data. 25 

1 2. The defect managing method as claimed in any one 
of the above claims, further comprising the step of: 



13. The defect managing method as claimed in claim 
12, wherein said step (c) comprises cancelling the 
linear replacement using a flag representing that 
the linear replacement has been cancelled using a 40 
reserved bit in a secondary defect list (SDL), storing 
information representing that the defective block 
has been replaced in a Forced Re-Assignment 
Marking (FRM) bit of the SDL, and storing a start 
sector number of the defective block and a start sec- 45 
tor number of the replacement block in the SDL. 

14. The defect managing method as claimed in claim 
12, wherein said step (c) comprises leaving only a 
start sector number of the defective block in a sec- 50 
ondary defect list (SDL), storing information repre- 
senting that the defective block has not been re- 
placed in a Forced Re-Assignment Marking (FRM) 

bit of the SDL showing whether the defective block 
has been replaced, and storing information repre- 55 
senting that the defective block has not been re- 
placed in a start sector number of the replacement 
block in the SDL. 



15. The defect managing method as claimed in any one 
of claims 1 to 11 , further comprising the step of: 

(c) recording only a start sector number of the 
defective block having a defect generated while 
using the disc on which the information that the 
linear replacement defect management will not 
be used has been recorded, in a secondary de- 
fect list (SDL), recording information represent- 
ing that the defective block has not been re- 
placed in a Forced Re-Assignment Marking 
(FRM) bit of the SDL showing whether the de- 
fective block has been replaced, and recording 
information that the defective block has not 
been replaced in a start sector number of the 
replacement block in the SDL. 

16. The defect managing method as claimed in any one 
of claims 1 to 11 , further comprising the step of: 

(c) performing defect management based on 
linear replacement when a defect is generated 
during use of the disc on which the information 
that the linear replacement defect management 
will be used has been recorded. 

17. A method of recording real time data while manag- 
ing a defect on a disc using a disc recording and/or 
reproducing apparatus, the method comprising the 
steps of: 

(a) determining whether defect management 
mode information representing whether defect 
management based on linear replacement is to 
be used; 

(b) determining whether data to be recorded on 
a disc is the real time data, in response to the 
defect management mode information being in- 
formation that the linear replacement not to be 
used; 

(c) determining whether a linearly-replaced de- 
fect exists in an area of the disc in which the 
data is to be recorded, in response to the data 
to be recorded being the real time data; and 

(d) determining whether a new defect is detect- 
ed in the area in which to record the data, in 
response to no linearly-replaced defect existing 
in the area in which to record the data, and re- 
cording the real time data in a designated part 
of the area in which to record the data in re- 
sponse to the new defect not being detected. 

18. The method of recording real time data as claimed 
in claim 1 7, further comprising the steps of: 

(e) performing defect management in response 
to the defect management mode information 
being information representing that the linear 



10 



15 



(c) cancelling the linear replacement of a defect 30 
on an area of the disc where real time data is 
to be recorded, in response to the information 
representing use or non-use of linear replace- 
ment representing the non-use of linear re- 
placement. 35 



50 



55 



13 



25 



EP 1 298 659 A1 



26 



replacement is to be used in said step (a); and 
(f) performing the defect management in re- 
sponse to the data to be recorded not being the 
real time data in said step (b). 

19. The method of recording real time data as claimed 
in claim 1 7, further comprising the step of: 

(e) cancelling linear replacement in response 
to the linearly-replaced defect existing in the ar- 
ea in which to record the data, in said step (c). 

20. The method as claimed in claim 19, wherein said 
step 

(e) comprises the steps of leaving only a start 
sector number of a defective block in the SDL, 
storing information representing that the defec- 
tive block has not been replaced in a Forced 
Re-Assignment Mark (FRM) bit of the SDL 
showing whether the defective block has been 
replaced, and recording information represent- 
ing that the defective block has not been re- 
placed in a start sector number of a replace- 
ment block in the SDL. 

21. The method as claimed in claim 19, wherein said 
step 

(e) comprises the steps of setting a flag repre- 
senting that linear replacement has been can- 
celled using a reserved bit of the SDL, storing 
information representing that a defective block 
has been replaced in a Forced Re-Assignment 
Mark (FRM) bit of the SDL, and recording a start 
sector number of a defective block and a start 
sector number of a replacement block in the 
SDL. 

22. The method of recording real time data as claimed 
in claim 1 7, further comprising the step of: 

(e) recording information representing that lin- 
ear replacement has not been performed, in re- 
sponse to a new defect being detected in said 
step (d). 

23. The method as claimed in claim 22, wherein said 
step 

(e) comprises the steps of leaving only a start 
sector number of a defective block in the SDL, 
storing information representing that the defec- 
tive block has not been replaced in a Forced 
Re-Assignment Mark (FRM) bit of the SDL 
showing whether the defective block has been 
replaced, and recording information represent- 
ing that the defective block has not been re- 



placed in a start sector number of a replace- 
ment block in the SDL. 

24. The method as claimed in any one of claims 1 7 to 
5 23, wherein the disc is a digital versatile disc-ran- 
dom access memory (DVD-RAM) disc having a de- 
fect definition structure (DDS), and the defect man- 
agement mode information is information repre- 
senting use or non-use of linear replacement forthe 

10 entire disc, and is stored in a reserved area of a disc 
certification flag in the DDS. 

25. The method as claimed in any one of claims 17 to 
23, wherein the disc is a digital versatile disc-ran- 
dom access memory (DVD-RAM) disc having a de- 
fect definition structure (DDS), and the defect man- 
agement mode information is information repre- 
senting use or non-use of linear replacement for on- 
ly some data groups of the disc, and is stored in a 

20 reserved area of a group certification flag in the 
DDS. 

26. The method as claimed in any one of claims 17 to 
25, wherein the defect management mode informa- 
tion includes information representing that slipping 
replacement and linear replacement are applied to 
all the data to be recorded on the disc, information 
representing that linear replacement is selectively 
applied according to type of data, or information 
representing that linear replacement is not applied 
to all the data to be recorded on the disc, and the 
defect management mode information is stored in 
a reserved area of the DDS. 

27. The method as claimed in any one of claims 17 to 
25, wherein the disc is a digital versatile disc-ran- 
dom access memory (DVD-RAM) disc having a de- 
fect definition structure (DDS) and a primary defect 
list (PDL), and the defect management mode infor- 
mation is information representing the use of a de- 
fect managing method for only real time recording 
in which linear replacement is not used by allocating 
only the spare area for slipping replacement, and is 
stored in a reserved area of the DDS and a reserved 
area of the PDL. 



10 



30 



35 



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I End sector 
number 


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| 4104 | 


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| 4300 


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I 4496 I 


| 4594 


| 4692 


| 4788 | 


| 4886 


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| 5082 i 


| 5180 


I 5278 | 


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| 5570 


1 5668 


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39960 ~ 


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58980 - 


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F7160 - 


| 106C80 ' 


116DC0 - 


| 127520 - 


| 1382A0 " 


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EP 1 298 659 A1 



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24 



EP 1 298 659 A1 



J 



European Patent 
Office 



EUROPEAN SEARCH REPORT 



Application Number 

EP ©2 02 6964 



DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category 



P.A 



Citation of document with indication, where appropriate, 
of relevant passages 



US 5 528 571 A (FUNAHASM TAKESHI 
18 June 1996 (1996-06-18) 
* abstract * 
column l t 1 ine 27 
column 2, line 11 
column 6, line 19 
column 9* line 66 
column 10, line 63 
column 15, line 44 



ET AL) 



line 59 * 

column 3, line 35 * 
line 35 * 

column 10, line 24 * 
line 67 * 
line 65 * 



* column 22, line 23 - column 23, line 3 

* figure 5 * 

ECMA : STANDARDIZING INFORMATION AND 
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: "Standard ECMA-272 
: 12G mm DVD Rewritable Disk (DVD- RAM) " 
February 1998 (1998-92) XP0O2114221 

* page 43-51 * 

WO 98 14938 A (FUKUSHIMA YOSHIHISA ;G0TQH 
YOSHIHO (OP); UEDA HIROSHI (JP); HATSUS) 
9 April 1998 (1998-04-09) 

* abstract * 

& EP 0 866 456 A (MATSUSHITA ELECTRIC 

INDUSTRIAL CO. LTD) 

23 September 1998 (1998-09-23) 

* abstract * 

* column 1, line 5 - column 5 S line 29 * 

* column 6,, line 49 - column 10, line 57 * 

* figures 1,3,24 * 

EP 0 383 298 A (SONY CORP) 
22 August 1998 (1990-08-22) 

* column 1, line 3 - column 2, line 1 * 

* column 2, line 24 - line 51 * 

* column 5, line 3 - column 7, line 4 * 

* column 7, line 31 - line 58 * 

* figures 3,4 * 

-/-- 



The present search report has been drawn up for all claims 



Relevant 
to claim 



1-27 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE 
APPLICATION (lnt.Ci.7) 



G11B20/18 



1-27 



1-27 



1-27 



TECHNICAL FIELDS 
SEARCHED (lnl.CI.7) 



G11B 



1-27 



Place of search 

THE HAGUE 



Dale of completion of Ihe search 

4 February 20Q3 



Barel-Faucheux, C 



CATEGORY OF CITED DOCUME NTS 

X : particularly relevant if taken atone 

Y : particularly relevant if combined with another 

document of the same category 
A : technological background 
O : non-written d isclosure 
P : intermediate document 



T : theory or principle underlying the invention. 
E : earlier patent document, but published cn, or 

alter the filing date 
D : document cited In the application 
L :: document elded lor cither reasons 

& : member of the same patent family, corresponding 
document 



25 



EP 1 298 659 A1 



European Patent 
Office 



EUROPEAN SEARCH REPORT 



Application Number 

EP 92 02 6964 



DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category 



Citation of document with indication, where appropriate, 
of relevant pass age s 



Relevant CLASSIFICATION OF THE 
to claim APPLICATION (lnt.CI.7) 



EP O 798 716 A (TOKYO SHIBAURA ELECTRIC 
CO) 1 October 1997 (1997-19-01) 

* abstract k 

* column 1 - column 3 r line 10 * 

* column 7, line 46 - line 48 * 

* column 8, line 30 - column 9, line 6 * 

* column 11. line 40 - line 47 * 

* column 12, line 8 - column 15, line 35 



1-27 



TECHNICAL FIELDS 
SEARCHED (lnt.CI.7) 



The present search report has been drawn up for all claims 



Place of search 

THE HAGUE 



Date erf completion ol the search 

4 February 2903 



Examiner 

Barel-Faucheux, C 



CATEGORY OF CITED DOCUMENTS 

X : particularly relevant if taken alone 

Y : particularly relevant if combined with another 

document of the same category 
A : technological background 
O : non-written disclosure 
P : intermediate document 



T : theory or principle underlying the inventior 
E : earlier patent document, but published on, or 

afteir the filing date 
D ; document cited in the application 
L : document cited lor other reasons. 

member of the same patent family, corresponding 
document 



26 



EP 1 298 659 A1 



ANNEX TO THE EUROPEAN SEARCH REPORT 

ON EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION NO. EP 02 02 6964 



This annex lists the patent family members relating to the patent documents cited in the above-mentioned European search report. 
The members are as contained in the European Patent Office EDP file on 

The European Patent Office is in no way liable lor these particulars which are merely given for the purpose of information. 

04~Q2~2QG3 



Patent document 
cited in search report 



Publication 
date 



Patent; family 
member(s| 



Publication 
date 



US 5528571 


A 


18-06-1996 


JP 


7057398 A 


03-03-1995 








IIS 


5508989 A 




wu yoi £ +y 3o 


A 
n 




ft J 


1209899 


A 


Uj Uj 133;) 










69799188 


01 


£.4 -til- C IJUC. 










69709188 


T2 












69712307 


Dl 


UD-UD-cUUt 








u t 


69712307 


T2 


19. 1 9_ 9O09 








EP 


1018734 


Al 


12-07-20OO 








EP 


1031979 


Al 


3O-08-2O00 








FP 

Lr 


1096490 


Al 










CD 
L r 


0866456 


Al 










uin 


9814938 


Al 










hp 


3098237 


B2 


ID" 1W - cLUUU 








."IP 
u r 


2000322:876 


A 


ll*T 11" CUUU 








■IP 
u r 


3097918 


B2 










ID 


2000322840 


A 












6292625 


Bl 










Si's 


6282365 


Bl 


j ;>fi-fift~?flfli1 

uO"UO"CUUl 








us 


6314235 


Bl 


06-11-2001 


EP Q383298 


A 


22-08-1990 


JP 


2216668 A 


29-08-1990 








JP 


2725343 


B2 


11-03-1998 








JP 


2216670 


A 


29-08-1990 








JP 


2725345 


B2 


11-03-1998 








DE 


69021227 


Dl 


07-09-1995 








DE 


69021227 T2 


04-04-1996 








EP 


0383298 A2 


22-08-1990 








US 


5130969 A 


14-07-1992 


EP 0798716 


A 


01-10-1997 


JP 


3113200 


B2 


27-11-2000 








JP 


9259547 


A 


03-10-1997 








CN 


1164731 


A ,B 


12-11-1997 








DE 


69700222 


Dl 


24-06-1999 








DE 


69700222 


T2 


25-11-1999 








EP 


9798716 


A2 


01-10-1997 








KR 


262469 


Bl 


01-08-2000 








US 


5991253 


A 


23-11-1999 








US 


5883867 


A 


16-03-1999 



For more details about this annex : see Official Journal of the European Patent Office, No. 12/82 



27