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(19) 



J) 



Europaisches Patentamt 
European Patent Office 
Office europeen des brevets 



(11) 



EP1 152 414 A2 



(12) 



EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION 



(43) Date of publication: 


(51) lntCl7: G11B 20/18 


07.11.2001 Bulletin 2001/45 


(21) Application number: 011 13676.9 




(22) Date of filing: 06.08.1999 




(84) Designated Contracting States: 


• Ito, Motoshi 


DE FR GB IT NL 


Osakashi, Osaka 536-0001 (JP) 




• Ueda, Hiroshi 


(30) Priority: 22.10.1998 JP 30080398 


Hirakatashi, Osaka 573-1193 (JP) 




• Fukushima, Yoshihisa 


(62) Document number(s) of the earlier application(s) in 


Osakashi, Osaka 536-0008 (JP) 


accordance with Art. 76 EPC: 




99115579.7/0 997 904 


(74) Representative: Balsters, Robert et al 




Novapat International SA, 


(71 ) Applicant: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. 


9, rue du Valais 


Kadoma-shi, Osaka-fu, 571-8501 (JP) 


1202 Geneve (CH) 


(72) Inventors: 


Remarks: 


• Sasaki, Shinji 


This application was filed on 20 - 06 - 2001 as a 


Osakashi, Osaka 533-0013 (JP) 


divisional application to the application mentioned 




under INID code 62. 



(54) Information recording medium, and method and apparatus for managing defect thereof 



(57) An information recording medium includes a 
disk information area; a user area including a plurality 
of sectors; and a spare area including at least one sector 
which, when at least one of the plurality of sectors in- 
cluded in the user area is a defective sector, is usable 
instead of the at least one defective sector. The spare 



area is located radially inward from the user area. A 
physical sector number of a sector to which a logical 
sector number "0" is assigned, among the plurality of 
sectors included in the user area and the at least one 
sector included in the spare area, is recorded in the disk 
information area. 



CM 
< 



CVJ 



FIG. 3 

4 

Lead-in ... V 



Disk information 
area 



Data recording 
area 



Disk information 
area 



Lead-out 



D MA1 



D M A2 



Spare area 



User area 



DMA3.„ 

w 



DPS 



_PDL_ 



11-^ 

13- v 

14— - 



System reservation 
area 



FAT area 



Root directory 
area 



File data 
area 



Rle 

^management 
area 10 



CL 
LU 



Printed by Jouve ; 75001 PARIS (FR) 



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EP1 152 414 A2 



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Description 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 

1 . FIELD OF THE INVENTION: 

[0001 ] The present invention relates to an information 
recording medium, and a method and an apparatus for 
managing a defect thereof. 

2. DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART: 

[0002] A representative information recording medi- 
um having a sector structure is an optical disk. Recently, 
the density and capacity of optical disks have been im- 
proved. Therefore, it is important to guarantee the reli- 
ability of optical disks. 

[0003] Figure 23 shows a logical structure of a con- 
ventional optical disk. 

[0004] As shown in Figure 23, the optical disk includes 
two disk information areas 4 and a data recording area 
5. The data recording area 5 includes a user area 6 and 
a spare area 8. The spare area 8 is located radially out- 
ward from the user area 6 on the optical disk. 
[0005] The user area 6 includes a system reservation 
area 11, a FAT (File Allocation Table) area 12, a root 
directory area 13, and a file data area 14. The system 
reservation area 11, the FAT area 12, and the root di- 
rectory area 1 3 are collectively referred to as a file man- 
agement area 10. A first sector of the file management 
area 10 is located as a sector to which logical sector 
number "0" (LSN:0) is assigned. 
[0006] Methods for managing defects of an optical 
disk are included in ISO/IEC1 0090 standards (hereinaf- 
ter, referred to as the "ISO standards") provided by the 
International Organization of Standardization regarding 
90 mm optical disks. 

[0007] Hereinafter, two methods for managing de- 
fects included in the ISO standards are described. 
[0008] One of the methods is based on a slipping re- 
placement algorithm. The other method is based on a 
linear replacement algorithm. These algorithms are de- 
scribed in Chapter 19 of the ISO standards. 
[0009] Figure 24 is a conceptual view of the conven- 
tional slipping replacement algorithm. In Figure 24, each 
of the rectangle boxes represents a sector. Characters 
in each sector represent a logical sector number (LSN) 
assigned to the sector. The rectangle boxes having an 
LSN represent normal sectors, and the hatched rectan- 
gle box represents a defective sector. 
[0010] Reference numeral 2401 represents a se- 
quence of sectors including no defective sector in the 
user area 6, and reference numeral 2402 represents a 
sequence of sectors including one defective sector in 
the user area 6. 

[001 1 ] When a first sector in the user area 6 is a nor- 
mal sector, LSN:0 is assigned thereto. LSNs are as- 
signed to a plurality of sectors included in the user area 



6 in an increasing order from the first sector to which 
LSN:0 is assigned. 

[0012] When the user area 6 includes no defective 
sector, LSN:0 through LSN:m are assigned to the sec- 
5 tors in the user area 6 sequentially from the first sector 
to a last sector thereof as represented by the sequence 
of sectors 2401 . 

[0013] If a sector in the sequence of sectors 2401 to 
which LSN:i is assigned was a defective sector, the as- 
signment of the LSNs is changed so that LSN:i is not 
assigned to the defective sector but to a sector immedi- 
ately subsequent to the defective sector. Thus, the as- 
signment of the LSNs are slipped by one sector in the 
direction toward the spare area 8 from the user area 6. 
As a result, the last LSN:m is assigned to a first sector 
in the spare area 8 as represented by the sequence of 
sectors 2402. 

[001 4] Figure 25 shows the correspondence between 
the physical sector numbers and the LSNs afterthe slip- 
ping replacement algorithm described with reference to 
Figure 24 is executed. The horizontal axis represents 
the physical sector number, and the vertical axis repre- 
sents the LSN. In Figure 25 ; chain line 2501 indicates 
the correspondence between the physical sector num- 
bers and the LSNs when the user area 6 includes no 
defective sector. Solid line 2502 indicates the corre- 
spondence between the physical sector numbers and 
the LSNs when the user area 6 includes defective sec- 
tors I through IV. 

[0015] As shown in Figure 25, no LSN is assigned to 
the defective sectors I through IV. The assignment of 
the LSNs is slipped in the direction toward an outer por- 
tion from an inner portion of the optical disk (i.e., in the 
increasing direction of the physical sector number). As 
a result, the LSNs are assigned to a part of the sectors 
in the spare area 8 which is located immediately after 
the user area 6. 

[0016] An advantage of the slipping replacement al- 
gorithm is that a delay in access caused by a defective 
sector is relatively small. One defective sector delays 
the access merely by a part of the rotation correspond- 
ing to one sector. A disadvantage of the slipping replace- 
ment algorithm is that the assignment of all the LSNs is 
slipped after one defective sector. An upper level appa- 
ratus such as, for example, a host personal computer 
identifies sectors by LSNs assigned thereto. When the 
assignment of the LSNs to the sectors is slipped, the 
host computer cannot manage user data recorded in the 
optical disk. Accordingly, the slipping replacement algo- 
rithm is not usable after the user data is recorded in the 
optical disk. 

[0017] Figure 26 is a conceptual view of the conven- 
tional linear replacement algorithm. In Figure 26, each 
of the rectangle boxes represents a sector. Characters 
in each sector represent a logical sector number (LSN) 
assigned to the sector. The rectangle boxes having an 
LSN represent normal sectors, and the hatched rectan- 
gle box represents a defective sector. 



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[0018] Reference numeral 2601 represents a se- 
quence of sectors including no defective sector in the 
user area 6, and reference numeral 2602 represents a 
sequence of sectors including one defective sector in 
the user area 6. 

[0019] If a sector in the sequence of sectors 2601 to 
which LSN:i is assigned was a defective sector, the as- 
signment of the LSNs is changed so that LSN:i is not 
assigned to the defective sector. Instead, LSN:i is as- 
signed to, among a plurality of sectors included in the 
spare area 8, a sector which is unused yet and has a 
minimum physical sector number (e.g., a first sector of 
the spare area 8) as represented by the sequence of 
sectors 2602. Thus, the defective sector in the user area 
6 is replaced with a sector in the spare area 8. 
[0020] Figure 27 shows the correspondence between 
the physical sector numbers and the LSNs after the lin- 
ear replacement algorithm described with reference to 
Figure 26 is executed. The horizontal axis represents 
the physical sector number, and the vertical axis repre- 
sents the LSN. In Figure 27, the solid line 2701 indicates 
the correspondence between the physical sector num- 
bers and the LSNs when the user area 6 includes two 
defective sectors. The two defective sectors in the user 
area 6 are replaced by replacing sectors in the spare 
area 8, respectively. 

[0021] An advantage of the linear replacement algo- 
rithm is that replacement of a defective sector does not 
influence other sectors since defective sectors and re- 
placing sectors correspond to each other one to one. A 
disadvantage of the linear replacement algorithm is that 
a delay in access caused by a defective sector is rela- 
tively large. Accessing a replacing sector instead of a 
defective sector requires a seek operation over a rela- 
tively long distance. 

[0022] As can be appreciated, the advantage and dis- 
advantage of the linear replacement algorithm are con- 
verse to the advantage and disadvantage of the slipping 
replacement algorithm. 

[0023] Figure 28 shows an example of assignment of 
the LSNs to the sectors. In the example shown in Figure 
28, it is assumed that the user area 6 has a size of 
1 00000, the spare area 8 has a size of 1 0000, and the 
user area 6 includes four defective sectors. 
[0024] LSNs are assigned to the sectors in accord- 
ance with the slipping replacement algorithm described 
above. 

[0025] First, LSN:0, which is a first LSN, is assigned 
to a sector having a physical sector number:0. Then, 
LSNs are assigned to the sectors in an increasing order 
toward an outer portion from an inner portion of the op- 
tical disk (i.e., toward the spare area 8 from the user 
area 6). No LSN is assigned to the defective sectors. 
The LSN which would be assigned to each defective 
sector is assigned to a sector immediately subsequent 
thereto. As a result, the assignment of the LSNs is 
slipped in the direction toward an outer portion from an 
inner portion of the optical disk by the number of the 



defective sectors. 

[0026] In the example shown in Figure 28, the user 
area 6 includes four defective sectors I through IV as 
described above. LSN:99996 through LSN:99999, 
5 which would be assigned to the four sectors I through 
IV if the four sectors I through IV were not defective, are 
assigned to four sectors in the spare area 8, respective- 
ly, having physical sector numbers of 100000 through 
100003. The reason for this is that the assignment of 
the LSNs is slipped by the number of the defective sec- 
tors (four in this example). 

[0027] In Figure 28, the sectors in the spare area 8 
having the physical sector numbers of 1 00004 through 
109999 are collectively referred to as an "LR spare ar- 
ea". The LR spare area is defined as an area in the spare 
area 8 to which no LSN is assigned. The LR spare area 
is used in the linear replacement algorithm as a replac- 
ing area. 

[0028] As shown in Figure 27, the conventional linear 
replacement algorithm has a problem in that, when a 
sector having a small physical sector number is defect- 
ed as a defective sector, a delay in access caused by 
the defective sector is relatively large since the distance 
between the defective sector and the replacing sector 
is relatively long. Since the file management area 1 0 lo- 
cated in the vicinity of the sector to which LSN:0 is as- 
signed is accessed each time a file is recorded, a de- 
fective sector in the file management area 10 may di- 
rectly cause undesirable reduction in the access speed 
to the optical disk. The file management area 10, which 
is frequently accessed, is expected to have the highest 
possibility of generating a defective sector. 
[0029] In order to find the first address of the replacing 
area (i.e. , LR spare area) used in the linear replacement 
algorithm, the number of sectors by which the assign- 
ment of the LSNs is slipped in the slipping replacement 
algorithm needs to be calculated. The amount of calcu- 
lation increases as the disk capacity increases. 



[0030] According to one aspect of the invention, an 
information recording medium includes a disk informa- 
tion area; a user area including a plurality of sectors; 
and a spare area including at least one sector which, 
when at least one of the plurality of sectors included in 
the user area is a defective sector, is usable instead of 
the at least one defective sector. The spare area is lo- 
cated radially inward from the user area. A physical sec- 
tor number of a sector to which a logical sector number 
"0" is assigned, among the plurality of sectors included 
in the user area and the at least one sector included in 
the spare area, is recorded in the disk information area. 
[0031] In one embodiment of the invention, a logical 
sector number is assigned to the sectors included in the 
user area other than the at least one defective sector in 
a decreasing order from the sector to which a last logical 
sector number is assigned. 



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40 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 



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EP 1 152 414 A2 



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[0032] In one embodiment of the invention, a physical 
sector number of the at least one defective sector is re- 
corded in the disk information area. 
[0033] In one embodiment of the invention, the com- 
bined user area and spare area is divided into a plurality 
of zones, and a logical sector number assigned to a first 
sector of each of the plurality of zones is recorded in the 
disk information area. 

[0034] In one embodiment of the invention, the com- 
bined user area and spare area is divided into a plurality 
of zones. Data recorded in the information recording 
medium is managed on an ECC block-by-ECC block ba- 
sis. A logical sector number is assigned to the sectors 
included in the user area other than the at least one de- 
fective sector so that a first sector of each of the plurality 
of zones matches a first sector of a corresponding ECC 
block. 

[0035] According to another aspect of the invention, 
a method for managing a defect of an information re- 
cording medium including a disk information area; a us- 
er area including a plurality of sectors; and a spare area 
including at least one sector which, when at least one 
of the plurality of sectors included in the user area is a 
defective sector, is usable instead of the at least one 
defective sector, the spare area being located radially 
inward from the user area. The method includes the 
steps of (a) assigning a last logical sector numberto one 
of the plurality of sectors included in the user area; (b) 
calculating a location fulfilling a prescribed capacity, with 
a location of the sector to which the last logical sector 
number is assigned being fixed; (c) assigning a logical 
sector number "0" to a sector positioned at the location 
calculated by the step (b); and (d) recording a physical 
sector number of the sector to which the logical sector 
number "0" is assigned in the disk information area. 
[0036] In one embodiment of the invention, the step 
(b) includes the steps of (b-1 ) detecting the at least one 
defective sector included in the user area; and (b-2) cal- 
culating the location fulfilling the prescribed capacity 
based on the number of the at least one defective sector 
detected in the step (b-1). 

[0037] In one embodiment of the invention, the meth- 
od further includes the step of (e) recording the at least 
one defective sector detected in the step (b-1 ) in the in- 
formation recording medium. 

[0038] In one embodiment of the invention, the com- 
bined user area and spare area is divided into a plurality 
of zones, and the method further includes the step of (f) 
recording a logical sector number assigned to a first sec- 
tor of each of the plurality of zones in the disk information 
area. 

[0039] In one embodiment of the invention, the com- 
bined user area and spare area is divided into a plurality 
of zones. Data recorded in the information recording 
medium is managed on an ECC block-by-ECC block ba- 
sis. The method further includes the step of (g) assign- 
ing a logical sector numberto the sectors included in the 
user area other than the at least one defective sector so 



that a first sector of each of the plurality of zones match- 
es a first sector of a corresponding ECC block. 
[0040] According to still another aspect of the inven- 
tion, an apparatus for managing a defect of an informa- 
5 tion recording medium including a disk information area; 
a user area including a plurality of sectors; and a spare 
area including at least one sector which, when at least 
one of the plurality of sectors included in the user area 
is a defective sector, is usable instead of the at least one 
defective sector, the spare area being located radially 
inward from the user area. The apparatus executes de- 
fect management processing, which comprises the 
steps of (a) assigning a last logical sector numberto one 
of the plurality of sectors included in the user area; (b) 
calculating a location fulfilling a prescribed capacity, with 
a location of the sector to which the last logical sector 
number is assigned being fixed; (c) assigning a logical 
sector number "0" to a sector positioned at the location 
obtained by the step (b); and (d) recording a physical 
sector number of the sector to which the logical sector 
number "0" is assigned in the disk information area. 
[0041] In one embodiment of the invention, the step 
(b) includes the steps of (b-1 ) detecting the at least one 
defective sector included in the user area; and (b-2) cal- 
culating the location fulfilling the prescribed capacity 
based on the number of the at least one defective sector 
detected in the step (b-1). 

[0042] In one embodiment of the invention, the defect 
management processing further includes the step of (e) 
recording the at least one defective sector detected in 
the step (b-1) in the information recording medium. 
[0043] In one embodiment of the invention, the com- 
bined user area and spare area is divided into a plurality 
of zones. The defect management processingf urther in- 
cludes the step of (f) recording a logical sector number 
assigned to a first sector of each of the plurality of zones 
in the disk information area. 

[0044] In one embodiment of the invention, wherein 
the combined user area and spare area is divided into 
a plurality of zones, data recorded in the information re- 
cording medium is managed on an ECC block-by-ECC 
block basis, and the defect management processing fur- 
ther includes the step of (g) assigning a logical sector 
number to the sectors included in the user area other 
than the at least one defective sector so that a first sector 
of each of the plurality of zones matches a first sector 
of a corresponding ECC block. 

[0045] Thus, the invention described herein makes 
possible the advantages of providing (1) an information 
recording medium and a method and an apparatus for 
managing a defect thereof for keeping a delay in access 
relatively small even when a defective sector is detected 
in a file management area located in the vicinity of a 
sector to which LSN:0 is assigned; and (2) an informa- 
tion recording medium, and a method and an apparatus 
for managing a defect thereof for allowing the location 
of an LR spare area to be found with substantially no 
calculation. 



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[0046] These and other advantages of the present in- 
vention will become apparent to those skilled in the art 
upon reading and understanding the following detailed 
description with reference to the accompanying figures. 

5 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 
[0047] 

Figure 1 a block diagram showing a structure of an io 
information processing system in an example ac- 
cording to the present invention; 

Figure 2 is a diagram showing a physical structure 

of an optical disk 1 ; 15 

Figure 3 is a diagram showing a logical structure of 
the optical disk 1 ; 

Figure 4 is a diagram showing a structure of a DMA; 20 

Figure 5 is a diagram showing a structure of a DDS; 

Figure 6A is a diagram showing a structure of a 
PDL; 25 

Figure 6B is a diagram showing a structure of an 
SDL; 

Figure 7 is a conceptual view of a slipping replace- 30 
ment algorithm according to the present invention; 

Figure 8 is a graph illustrating the correspondence 
between physical sector numbers and LSNs after 
the slipping replacement algorithm shown in Figure 35 
7 is executed; 

Figure 9 is a conceptual view of a linear replace- 
ment algorithm according to the present invention; 

40 

Figure 10 is a graph illustrating the correspondence 
between physical sector numbers and LSNs after 
the linear replacement algorithm shown in Figure 7 
is executed; 

45 

Figure 11 is a flowchart illustrating a process of ex- 
amination of a disk; 

Figure 12 is a flowchart illustrating a process of find- 
ing a physical sector number of a sector to which 50 
LSN:0 is assigned; 

Figure 13 is a flowchart illustrating a process of the 
function FUNC (TOP, END) shown in Figure 12; 

55 

Figure 1 4 is a diagram showing an example of LSNs 
assigned to the sectors after the examination of the 
disk; 



Figure 15 is a flowchart illustrating a process of re- 
cording data to the optical disk 1 ; 

Figure 16 is a flowchart illustrating a process of re- 
placement processing executed in steps 1508 and 
1509 shown in Figure 15; 

Figure 17 is a graph illustrating the correspondence 
between physical sector numbers and LSNs after 
the slipping replacement algorithm shown in Figure 
7 and the linear replacement algorithm shown in 
Figure 9 are executed; 

Figure 18 is a flowchart illustrating a process of re- 
cording an AV file in the optical disk 1 ; 

Figure 19 is a diagram showing a structure of a data 
recording area having the AV file recorded therein; 

Figure 20 is a diagram showing a physical structure 
of an optical disk having two zones; 

Figure 21 is a graph illustrating the correspondence 
between physical sector numbers and LSNs of the 
optical disk shown in Figure 20 after the slipping re- 
placement algorithm shown in Figure 7 is executed; 

Figure 22A is a conceptual view of a slipping re- 
placement algorithm according to the present in- 
vention; 

Figure 22B is a graph illustrating the correspond- 
ence between physical sector numbers and LSNs 
after the slipping replacement algorithm shown in 
Figure 22A is executed; 

Figure 22C is a diagram showing a structure of a 
DDS of the optical disk shown in Figure 20; 

Figure 23 is a diagram showing a logical structure 
of a conventional optical disk; 

Figure 24 is a conceptual view of a conventional 
slipping replacement algorithm; 

Figure 25 is a graph illustrating the correspondence 
between physical sector numbers and LSNs of the 
conventional optical disk after the conventional slip- 
ping replacement algorithm is executed; 

Figure 26 is a conceptual view of a conventional lin- 
ear replacement algorithm; 

Figure 27 is a graph illustrating the correspondence 
between physical sector numbers and LSNs of the 
conventional optical disk after the conventional lin- 
ear replacement algorithm is executed; and 



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Figure 28 is a diagram showing an example of LSNs 
assigned to the sectors of the conventional optical 
disk. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS 

[0048] Hereinafter, the present invention will be de- 
scribed by way of illustrative examples with reference to 
the accompanying drawings. 

(Example 1) 

1 . Structure of an information processing system 

[0049] Figure 1 shows a structure of an information 
processing system in a first example according to the 
present invention. The information processing system 
includes an upper level apparatus 200 and a disk re- 
cording and reproduction apparatus 100. The disk re- 
cording and reproduction apparatus 100 records infor- 
mation to a rewritable optical disk 1 or reproduces infor- 
mation recorded in the optical disk 1 in accordance with 
a command from the upper level apparatus 200. The 
upper level apparatus 200 is, for example, a personal 
computer. 

[0050] The upper level apparatus 200 includes a CPU 
201 , a main memory 204, a bus interface (bus l/F) 203, 
a processor bus 202, an I/O bus 205, a hard disk device 
(HDD) 206, a display processing section 207, and an 
input section 208. The upper level apparatus 200 is con- 
nected to the disk recording and reproduction apparatus 
100 through the I/O bus 205. 

[0051] The processor bus 202 is a high speed bus 
through which the CPU 201 accesses the main memory 
204. The processor bus 202 is connected to the I/O bus 
205 through the bus l/F 203. 

[0052] In the example shown in Figure 1 , the I/O bus 
205 is a personal computer extended bus such as, for 
example, a PCI bus or an ISA bus. The I/O bus 205 can 
be an arbitrary multi-purpose bus of, for example, SCSI 
(Small Computer System Interface), ATA (At Attach- 
ment), USB (Universal Serial Bus), or IEEE1394. 
[0053] The display processing section 207 converts 
display information sent through the I/O bus 205 into a 
signal such as, for example, an RGB signal, and outputs 
the resultant signal. 

[0054] The input section 208 receives data from an 
input device such as, for example, a keyboard or a 
mouse and sends the data to the CPU 201 through the 
I/O bus 205. 

[0055] The HDD 206 is a secondary memory device 
for inputting and outputting data with the main memory 
204 through the I/O bus 205. The HDD 206 has an op- 
erating system such as, for example, MS-DOS® or Win- 
dows® and a program file stored therein. The main 
memory 204 is loaded with the operating system and 
the program file, and the operating system and the pro- 
gram file are operated by the CPU 201 in accordance 



with an instruction from the user. The operation results 
are displayed on a screen by the display processing sec- 
tion 207. 

[0056] The disk recording and reproduction appara- 
5 tus 1 00 includes a microprocessor 1 01 , a data recording 
and reproduction control section 102, a bus control cir- 
cuit 103 and a memory 104. 

[0057] The microprocessor 101 controls the elements 
in the disk recording and reproduction apparatus 100 in 
10 accordance with a control program built in the micro- 
processor 101 to execute various types of processing. 
Defect management processing and replacement 
processing described below are executed by the micro- 
processor 101 . 

15 [0058] The data recording and reproduction control 
section 102 controls recording of data to and reproduc- 
tion of data from the optical disk 1 in accordance with 
an instruction from the microprocessor 101. The data 
recording and reproduction control section 102 adds an 

20 error correction code to the data during recording, and 
executes error detection processing and error correc- 
tion processing during reproduction. In general, data 
coded by encoding processing such as, for example, 
CRC or ECC is recorded in the optical disk 1 . 

25 [0059] The bus control circuit 103 receives a com- 
mand from the upper level apparatus 200 through the I/ 
O bus 205, and transmits and receives data with the up- 
per level apparatus 200 through the I/O bus 205. 
[0060] The memory 104 is used for storing data during 

30 various types of processing executed by the disk record- 
ing and reproduction apparatus 100. For example, the 
memory 104 has an area used as an intermediate buffer 
during data recording or reproduction and an area used 
by the data recording and reproduction control section 

35 102 for the error correction processing. 

[0061] The optical disk 1 is a circular information re- 
cording medium to which data can be recorded and from 
which data can be reproduced. Usable as the optical 
disk 1 is an arbitrary information recording medium such 

40 as, for example, a DVD-RAM disk. Data recording and 
reproduction is performed on a sector- by-sector basis 
or on a block-by-block basis. 

2. Physical structure of the optical disk 1 

45 

[0062] Figure 2 shows a physical structure of the op- 
tical disk 1 . The circular optical disk 1 has a plurality of 
concentric tracks or a spiral track 2 formed therein . Each 
of the tracks or track 2 is divided into a plurality of sectors 
50 3. The optical disk 1 includes at least one disk informa- 
tion area 4 and a data recording area 5. 
[0063] The disk information area 4 has, for example, 
a parameter required for accessing the optical disk 1 . In 
the example shown in Figure 2, the optical disk 1 has 
55 one disk information area 4 in an innermost part and one 
disk information area 4 in an outermost part thereof. The 
disk information area 4 in the innermost part is also re- 
ferred to as a "lead-in area". The disk information area 



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4 in the outermost part is also referred to as a "lead-out 
area". 

[0064] The data recording area 5 has data recorded 
therein. Data is recorded to and reproduced from the 
data recording area 5. Each of all sectors in the data 
recording area 5 has an absolute address referred to as 
a physical sector number pre-assigned thereto. 

3. Logical structure of the optical disk 1 

[0065] Figure 3 shows a logical structure of the optical 
disk 1. The data recording area 5 includes a user area 

6 and a spare area 7. 

[0066] The user area 6 is prepared for storing user 
data. Usually, the user data is stored in the user area 6. 
Each of sectors included in the user area 6 has a logical 
sector number (LSN) assigned thereto, by which the 
sector is accessed. The upper level apparatus 200 
shown in Figure 1 accesses a sector in the optical disk 
1 using the LSN to perform recording and reproduction 
of data. 

[0067] The spare area 7 includes at least one sector 
which, when a sector in the user area 6 becomes defec- 
tive, can be used in place of the defective sector. A sec- 
tor in the user area 6 becomes defective by, for example, 
scratches : stains or quality decline of the user area 6 of 
the optical disk 1 . The spare area 7 is located radially 
inward from the user area 6. Preferably, the spare area 

7 is located immediately radially inward from the user 
area 6. 

[0068] The user area 6 includes a system reservation 
area 11, a FAT (File Allocation Table) area 12, a root 
directory area 13, and a file data area 14. Such a struc- 
ture is in conformity to an MS-DOS file system. The 
structure shown in Figure 3 is merely an example. 
[0069] The system reservation area 1 1 has parameter 
information and volume information of the optical disk 1 
stored therein as a boot sector. Such information can be 
referred to by the upper level apparatus 200. 
[0070] In order for the upper level apparatus 200 to 
access the optical disk 1 , the upper level apparatus 200 
needs to access the system reservation area 11 with 
certainty. A logical sector number "0" (LSN:0) is as- 
signed to a first sector of the system reservation area 
11. Sizes and locations of entries in the system reser- 
vation area 11 are predetermined. 
[0071] The FAT area 12 has stored therein location 
information indicating locations of files and directories 
in the file data area 14 and a FAT indicating locations of 
empty areas. 

[0072] The root directory area 13 has entry informa- 
tion on files and sub-directories stored therein. The entry 
information includes, for example, a file name, directory 
name, file attribute and updating date information. 
[0073] The system reservation area 1 1 , FAT area 12, 
and root directory area 13 are collectively referred to as 
a file management area 10. The file management area 
10 is positioned at a location on the optical disk 1 cor- 



responding to a fixed LSN. 

[0074] The file data area 14 has stored therein data 
which represents a directory associated with the root di- 
rectory and data which represents a file. As described 
5 above, in order that the upper level apparatus 200 may 
access data stored in the file data area 14, the upper 
level apparatus 200 needs to access the file manage- 
ment area 10 before accessing the file data area 14. 

10 4. Method for managing a defect of the optical disk 1 

[0075] In order to manage a defective sector in the 
optical disk 1, a PDL (Primary Defect List) and an SDL 
(Secondary Defect List) are used. 
15 [0076] When initializing the optical disk 1 , a defective 
sector is detected in accordance with the slipping re- 
placement algorithm. The detected defective sector is 
registered in the PDL. When recording data to the opti- 
cal disk 1 , a defective sector is detected in accordance 
20 with the linear replacement algorithm. The detected de- 
fective sector is registered in the SDL. The reliability of 
the optical disk 1 is guaranteed by registering the defec- 
tive sector in the PDL or SDL. 

[0077] The PDL and SDL are stored in a DMA (Defect 
25 Management Area). A DDS (Disk Definition Structure) 
is also stored in the DMA. 

4.1 . Structure of the DMA 

30 [0078] Figure 4 shows a structure of the DMA. The 
DMA is a part of the disk information area 4 shown in 
Figures 2 and 3. 

[0079] The DMA is described as DMA1 through 
DMA4 in Chapter 18 of ISO standards regarding the lay- 

35 out in an optical disk. Two out of four DMAs (e.g., DMA1 
and DMA2) are located in the disk information area 4 
arranged at the inner portion of the optical disk, and the 
remaining two DMAs (e.g., DM A3 and DMA4) are locat- 
ed in the disk information area 4 arranged at the outer 

40 portion of the optical disk 1 (Figure 3). In the four DMAs, 
identical information is multiplex-recorded in order to 
compensate for a defective sector in a DMA which can- 
not be replaced with a replacing sector. 
[0080] Figure 4 shows an example of the disk infor- 

45 mation area 4 arranged at the in ner portion of the optical 
disk 1, which includes DMA1 and DMA2 among the four 
DMAs. 

[0081] The DMA1 has a DDS, a PDL and an SDL 
stored therein. DMA2 through DMA4 have an identical 
50 structure with that of DMA1 . 

4.1 .1 Structure of the DDS 

[0082] Figure 5 shows a structure of the DDS. 
55 [0083] The DDS includes a header. The header in- 
cludes, for example, an identifier indicating the informa- 
tion is the DDS. The DDS further includes an entry for 
storing partition information, an entry for storing PDL lo- 



20 



7 



13 



EP 1 152 414 A2 



14 



cation information, an entry for storing SDL location in- 
formation, and an entry for storing a physical sector 
number of a sector to which the logical sector number 
"0" (LSN:0) is assigned to. 

4.1.2 Structure of the PDL 

[0084] Figure 6A shows a structure of the PDL. 
[0085] The PDL includes a header and a plurality of 
entries (first through m'th entries in the example shown 
in Figure 6A). The header includes, for example, an 
identifier indicating the information is the PDL and the 
number of entries of defective sectors registered in the 
PDL. Each entry stores a physical sector number of the 
defective sector. 

4.1 .3. Structure of the SDL 

[0086] Figure 6B shows a structure of the SDL. 
[0087] The SDL includes a header and a plurality of 
entries (first through n'th entries in the example shown 
in Figure 6B). The header includes, for example, an 
identifier indicating the information is the SDL and the 
number of entries of defective sectors registered in the 
SDL. Each entry includes a physical sector number of 
the defective sector and the physical sector number of 
the replacing sector in which data is recorded instead of 
the defective sector. The SDL is different from the PDL 
in having the physical sector number of the replacing 
sector. 

4.2 Slipping replacement algorithm 

[0088] Figure 7 is a conceptual view of a slipping re- 
placement algorithm executed by the disk recording and 
reproduction apparatus 100 (Figure 1) in the first exam- 
ple according to the present invention. In Figure 7, each 
of the rectangle boxes represents a sector. Characters 
in each sector represent an LSN assigned to the sector. 
The rectangle boxes having an LSN represent normal 
sectors, and the hatched rectangle box represents a de- 
fective sector. 

[0089] Reference numeral 71 represents a sequence 
of sectors including no defective sector registered in the 
PDL, and reference numeral 72 represents a sequence 
of sectors including one defective sector registered in 
the PDL. 

[0090] When a last sector in the user area 6 is a nor- 
mal sector, LSN:m is assigned to the last sector. LSNs 
are assigned to a plurality of sectors included in the user 
area 6 in a decreasing orderf rom the last sectorto which 
LSN:m is assigned. 

[0091] When the PDL includes no defective sector, 
LSN:m through LSN:0 are assigned to the sectors in the 
user area 6 sequentially from the last sector to a first 
sector thereof as represented by the sequence of sec- 
tors 71 . 

[0092] If a sector in the sequence of sectors 71 to 



which LSN:i is assigned was a defective sector, the as- 
signment of the LSNs is changed so that LSN:i is not 
assigned to the defective sector but to a sector immedi- 
ately before the defective sector. Thus, the assignment 
5 of the LSNs is slipped by one sector in the direction to- 
ward the spare area 7 from the user area 6. As a result, 
the last sector LSN:0 is assigned to a last sector of the 
spare area 7 as represented by the sequence of sectors 
72. 

10 [0093] Figure 8 shows the correspondence between 
the physical sector numbers and the LSNs afterthe slip- 
ping replacement algorithm described with reference to 
Figure 7 is executed. The horizontal axis represents the 
physical sector number, and the vertical axis represents 
15 the LSN. In Figure 8, chain line 81 indicates the corre- 
spondence between the physical sector numbers and 
the LSNs when the user area 6 includes no defective 
sector. Solid line 82 indicates the correspondence be- 
tween the physical sector numbers and the LSNs when 
20 the user area 6 includes defective sectors I through IV. 
[0094] As shown in Figure 8, no LSN is assigned to 
the defective sectors I through IV. The assignment of 
the LSNs are slipped in the direction toward an inner 
portion from an outer portion (i.e., in the decreasing di- 
25 recti on of the physical sector number). As a result, an 
LSN is assigned to a part of the spare area 7 located 
immediately radially inward from the user area 6. 
[0095] As described above, when one or more defec- 
tive sectors are registered in the PDL, the assignment 
30 of the LSNs is slipped in the direction toward an inner 
portion from an outer portion of the optical disk 1, with 
the location of the sector to which the last LSN is as- 
signed being fixed. As a result, LSNs are assigned to 
one or more sectors in the spare area 7 located radially 
35 inward from the user area 6 of the optical disk 1. The 
number of the sectors in the spare area 7 to which the 
LSNs are assigned equals the number of the defective 
sectors in the user area 6. 

[0096] The location of a sector to which the LSN:0 is 
40 to be assigned is calculated so as to fulfill a prescribed 
capacity (e.g. , 4.7 GB), with the location of the sector to 
which the last LSN is assigned being fixed. The calcu- 
lation is performed based on the number of the defective 
sectors detected in the user area 6. LSN:0 is assigned 
45 to the sector positioned at the calculated location. The 
prescribed capacity is the capacity which is required to 
be secured as an area in which user data can be record- 
ed. As described above, when the user area 6 includes 
one or more defective sectors, a prescribed capacity (e. 
50 g., 4.7 GB) can always be secured by using a part of the 
spare area 7 instead of the user area 6. 
[0097] When the last sector of the user area 6 is a 
normal sector, the last LSN is assigned to the last sector 
of the user area 6. When the last sector of the user area 
55 6 is a defective sector, the last LSN is assigned to a nor- 
mal sector closest to the last sector. 
[0098] The physical sector number of the sector to 
which LSN:0 is assigned is stored in an entry in the DDS 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



8 



15 



EP 1 152 414 A2 



16 



(Figure 5). The entry is referred to by the upper level 
apparatus 200 for recording data in the optical disk 1 . 
By referring to the entry, the upper level apparatus 200 
can obtain the physical sector number corresponding to 
LSN:0 without performing a calculation. As a result, a 
high speed access to the sector having LSN:0 assigned 
thereto is realized. 

[0099] For recording data in the optical disk 1 , the up- 
per level apparatus 200 needs to access the sector hav- 
ing LSN:0 assigned thereto, with certainty. Accordingly, 
the capability of accessing the sector to which LSN:0 is 
assigned at a high speed is very effective in accessing 
the optical disk 1 at a high speed. 

4.3 Linear replacement algorithm 

[0100] Figure 9 is a conceptual view of a linear re- 
placement algorithm executed by the disk recording and 
reproduction apparatus 100 (Figure 1). In Figure 9, the 
rectangle boxes each represent a sector. Characters in 
each sector represent an LSN assigned to the sector. 
The rectangle boxes having an LSN represent normal 
sectors, and the hatched rectangle box represents a de- 
fective sector. 

[0101] Reference numeral 91 represents a sequence 
of sectors including no defective sector in the SDL, and 
reference numeral 92 represents a sequence of sectors 
including one defective sector in the SDL. 
[0102] If a sector in the sequence of sectors 91 to 
which LSN:i is assigned was a defective sector, the as- 
signment of the LSNs is changed so that LSN:i is not 
assigned to the defective sector. Instead, LSN:i is as- 
signed to a sector which is unused yet and has a mini- 
mum physical sector number (e.g., a first sector of the 
LR spare area; described later with reference to Figure 
1 4) as represented by the sequence of sectors 92. Thus, 
the defective sector in the user area 6 is replaced with 
a sector in the LR spare area. 

[0103] LSN:i can be assigned to, among the plurality 
of sectors included in the LR spare area, a sector which 
has not been used yet and has a maximum physical sec- 
tor number (e.g., a sector having a physical sector 
number which is less by 1 than the physical sector 
number of the sector to which LSN:0 is assigned). It is 
not important in which order the sectors in the LR spare 
area are used. 

[01 04] Figure 1 0 shows the correspondence between 
the physical sector numbers and the LSNs after the lin- 
ear replacement algorithm described with reference to 
Figure 9 is executed. The horizontal axis represents the 
physical sector number, and the vertical axis represents 
the LSN. In Figure 10, solid line 1001 indicates the cor- 
respondence between the physical sector numbers and 
the LSNs when the user area 6 includes two defective 
sectors. 

[0105] It can be appreciated from Figure 10 that the 
distance between the defective sector and the replacing 
sector (number of physical sectors) is significantly re- 



duced compared to that in the conventional art (Figure 
27). 

5. Operations of the disk recording and reproduction 
5 apparatus 100 

[0106] The disk recording and reproduction appara- 
tus 100 performs the operations of 5.1 through 5.3 as 
initialization of the optical disk 1 . The examination of the 
10 disk (5.1) is also referred to as the physical formatting 
and usually performed once on one optical disk 1. 

5.1 : Examination of the disk 



5.3: Recording of initial data in the file system 

[0107] After performing the initialization, the disk re- 
20 cording and reproduction apparatus 100 performs the 
operations of 5.4 and 5.5 each time a file is written or 
read. 

5.4 Recording of data (recording of the file system and 
25 the file data) 

5.5 Reproduction of the data 

[0108] Hereinafter, the above-mentioned operations 
30 will be described in detail. 

5.1 Examination of the disk 

[0109] Examination of the disk is performed at least 
35 once before recording data in the optical disk 1 in order 
to guarantee the quality of the optical disk 1 . When the 
number of the defective sectors per optical disk is re- 
duced to several by the improvement in production tech- 
nology of optical disks, it will not be necessary to exam- 
40 ine all optical disks to be shipped. It will be sufficient to 
examine sampled optical disks. 

[0110] The examination of the disk is performed by 
writing data on a specific test pattern in all the sectors 
of the disk and then reading the data from all the sectors. 
45 Such examination of the disk is also referred to as "cer- 
tify processing". 

[0111] In the examination of the disk, the slipping re- 
placement algorithm is executed. As a result, one or 
more defective sectors are registered in the PDL. 
50 [0112] Figure 11 is a flowchart illustrating a process 
of examination of the disk. 

[0113] In step 1101 , the address of a first sector of the 
user area 6 is set as a writing address. In step 1102, it 
is determined whetherthe sector address has been nor- 
55 mally read or not. The reason why this is determined is 
that, since the sector address needs to be read in order 
to write the data in the sector, the data cannot be written 
in the sector if an error occurs in reading the sector ad- 



15 5.2: LSN assignment 



9 



17 



EP1 152 414 A2 



18 



dress. 

[0114] When it is determined that an error has oc- 
curred in reading the sector address in step 1102, the 
physical sector number of the defective sector is stored 
in a first defect list (step 1111). 

[0115] When it is determined that no error has oc- 
curred in reading the sector address in step 1 1 02, spec- 
ified test data is written in the sector at the writing ad- 
dress (step 1103). 

[0116] In step 1104, it is determined whether the writ- 
ing address is a last address or not. When the writing 
address is determined not to be a last address, "1" is 
added in the writing address (step 1105). Then, the 
processing goes back to step 1102. Such processing is 
repeated; and when the writing address reaches the last 
address, the processing goes to step 1106. 
[0117] In step 1106, the address of the first sector of 
the user area 6 is set as a reading address. In step 1 1 07, 
data on the reading address is read. In step 1108, it is 
determined whether the read data is identical with the 
written data or not (i.e., whether the data was success- 
fully written or not). 

[0118] When it is determined an error has occurred in 
writing the data in step 1 1 08, the physical sector number 
of the defective sector is stored in a second defect list 
(step 1112). 

[0119] In step 1109, it is determined whetherthe read- 
ing address is the last address or not. When the reading 
address is determined not to be the last address, "1" is 
added in the reading address (step 1110). Then, the 
processing goes back to step 1107. In step 1108, error 
determination is performed. Such processing is repeat- 
ed; and when the reading address reaches the last ad- 
dress, the first defect list and the second defect list are 
put together into one list (step 1113). The PDL is created 
by sorting the sectors in the list in the order of the phys- 
ical sector number (step 1114). The PDL is recorded in 
the disk information area 4 together with the DDS (step 
1115). 

5.2 LSN assignment 

[0120] The LSN assignment is performed as de- 
scribed with reference to Figures 7 and 8. When a de- 
fective sector is registered in the PDL, the assignment 
of the LSNs is slipped in the direction toward an inner 
portion from an outer portion of the optical disk 1 , with 
the location of the sector to which the last LSN is as- 
signed being fixed. A sector to which LSN:0 is assigned 
is determined, and then the physical sector number of 
the sector to which LSN:0 is assigned is stored in the 
DDS. 

[0121] Figure 12 is a flowchart illustrating a process 
of finding the physical sector number of the sector to 
which LSN:0 is assigned. 

[0122] As initial setting, the physical sector number of 
the first sector of the user area 6 is substituted into a 
variable UTSN (step 1201). The value of the variable 



UTSN is written in the DDS in a later step. 
[0123] Next, the value of the variable UTSN is substi- 
tuted into a variable TOP (step 1202), and the physical 
sector number of the last sector of a search area is sub- 

5 stituted into a variable END (step 1 203). The search ar- 
ea is an area, the number of the defective sectors in 
which needs to be found. During a first loop, the physical 
sector number of the first sector of the user area 6 is 
substituted into the variable TOP, and the physical sec- 

10 tor number of the last sector of the user area 6 is sub- 
stituted into the variable END. 

[0124] Based on the variable TOP and the variable 
END, the number of the defective sectors included in 
the search area is calculated (step 1204). For example, 
15 the number of the defective sectors included in the 
search area is given as a return value SKI P of a function 
FUNC (TOP, END). 

[0125] The value of the variable UTSN is reduced by 
the return value SKI P. That is, UTSN=UTSN-SKI P is ex- 
20 ecuted (step 1205). Thus, the physical sector number 
of the sector positioned at a location, obtained by skip- 
ping by the number of the defective sectors included in 
the user area 6 from the first sector in the user area 6, 
can be obtained. 
25 [0126] Steps 1202 through 1205 are repeated until it 
is determined that the return value SKIP matches 0 in 
step 1 206, in order to deal with the case where a sector 
in the spare area 7 is registered in the PDL as a defective 
sector. 

30 [01 27] The value of the variable UTSN obtained in this 
manner indicates the physical sector number of the sec- 
tor to which LSN:0 is to be assigned. Accordingly, the 
value of the variable UTSN is stored in the DDS as the 
physical sector number of the first sector of the user area 
35 6 (step 1207). 

[0128] Figure 13 is a flowchart illustrating a process 
of the function FUNC(TOP, END) in step 1 204 shown in 
Figure 12. The function FUNC (TOP, END) is realized 
by finding the number of entries in the PDL in the search 
40 area. 

[0129] As initial setting, 0 is substituted into the vari- 
able SKIP, which indicates the number of entries (step 
1301), andthetotal number of entries read from the PDL 
is substituted into a variable n (step 1302). 
45 [0130] In step 1303, it is determined whetherthe value 
of the variable n is equal to 0 or not. When Yes, the value 
of the variable SKIP is returned as a return value of the 
function FUNC (TOP, END) instep 1308. When the total 
number of entries in the PDL is 0, value 0 is returned as 
50 the value of the variable SKI P, and the processing is ter- 
minated. When No in step 1 303, the processing advanc- 
es to step 1304. 

[0131] The physical sector number (PDE:n) of then'th 
entry is read from the PDL (step 1304). In step 1305, it 
55 is determined whether or not the PDE:n is equal to or 
greater than the value of the variable TOP and also 
equal to or smaller than the value of the variable END. 
When Yes, the search area is considered to include a 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



10 



19 



EP1 152 414 A2 



20 



defective sector registered in the PDL and "1" is added 
to the value of the variable SKIP (step 1 306). When No 
in step 1305, the processing advances to step 1307. 
[0132] In step 1307, "1" is subtracted from the value 
of the variable n, and the processing goes back to step 
1303. In this manner, the operations in steps 1303 
through 1 307 are repeated for all the entries included in 
the PDL. Thus, the number of the defective sectors in 
the search area can be obtained as the value of the var- 
iable SKIP. 

[01 33] Figure 1 4 shows an example of assignment of 
the LSNs to the sectors. In the example shown in Figure 
14, it is assumed that the user area 6 has a size of 
100000, the spare area 7 has a size of 10000, the 
number of entries registered in the PDL by the exami- 
nation of the disk (i.e., the number of the defective sec- 
tors detected by the examination of the disk) is four, and 
the four defective sectors were all detected in the user 
area 6. 

[0134] LSNs are assigned to the sectors in accord- 
ance with the slipping replacement algorithm described 
above. 

[0135] First, LSN:99999, which is a last LSN, is as- 
signed to a sector having a physical sector number: 
1 09999. Then, the LSNs are assigned to the sectors in 
a decreasing ordertoward an inner portion from an outer 
portion of the optical disk 1 (i.e., toward the spare area 
7 from the user area 6). No LSN is assigned to the de- 
fective sectors. Instead, the LSN which would be as- 
signed to each defective sector is assigned to a sector 
immediately before the defective sector. As a result, the 
assignment of the LSNs is slipped in the direction toward 
an inner portion from an outer portion of the optical disk 
1 by the number of the defective sectors. 
[0136] In the example shown in Figure 14, the user 
area 6 includes four defective sectors I through IV as 
described above. LSN:0 through LSN:3, which would be 
assigned to the four sectors I through IV if the four sec- 
tors I through IV were not defective, are assigned to four 
sectors in the spare area 7, respectively, having physical 
sector numbers of 9996 through 9999. The reason for 
this is that the assignment of the LSNs are slipped by 
the number of the defective sectors (four in this exam- 
ple). 

[01 37] The physical sector number:9996 of the sector 
to which LSN:0 has been assigned is recorded in the 
DDS as the physical sector number of the first sector of 
the extended user area 6. 

[0138] In Figure 14, the sectors in the spare area 7 
having the physical sector numbers of 0 through 9995 
are collectively referred to as an "LR spare area". The 
LR spare area is defined as an area in the spare area 7 
to which no LSN is assigned. The LR spare area is used 
as a replacing area in the linear replacement algorithm. 
[0139] The physical sector number of the first sector 
of the LR spare area is fixed to 0. The physical sector 
number of the last sector of the LR spare area is ob- 
tained by subtracting 1 from the physical sector number 



recorded in the DDS. Accordingly, substantially no 
amount of calculation is required to access the LR spare 
area. 

5 5.3 Recording of initial data in the file system 

[0140] The disk recording and reproduction appara- 
tus 100 records initial data of the file system to the op- 
tical disk 1 in accordance with a logical format instructed 

10 by the upper level apparatus 200. The logical format is 
represented using the LSN. The initial data is, for exam- 
ple, data recorded in the system reservation area 11, 
the FAT area 12 and the root directory area 13 (i.e., the 
file management area 10) shown in Figure 3. 

15 [0141] The area in which the initial data is recorded is 
managed by the upper level apparatus 200 using the 
LSN. Especially, a first sector of the system reservation 
area 1 1 needs to be a sectorto which LSN:0 is assigned. 
Accordingly, the upper level apparatus 200 cannot in- 

20 struct the disk recording and reproduction apparatus 
100 to record the initial data unless the LSN is deter- 
mined. The content of the initial data is determined by 
the upper level apparatus 200. 

[0142] The defect management during the recording 
25 of the initial data is performed in accordance with the 
linear replacement algorithm. The processing for re- 
cording the initial data is identical with the processing 
for recording data in the file management area 10 de- 
scribed below in section 5.4.2, and thus detailed de- 
30 scription thereof is omitted here. 

5.4. Recording of data (recording of the file system and 
the file data) 

35 [0143] Figure 15 is a flowchart illustrating a process 
of recording data to the optical disk 1 . The processing 
shown in Figure 1 5 includes recording of data in the file 
data area 14 (steps 1501 through 1509) and recording 
of data in the file management area 10 (steps 1510 

40 through 1517). 

5.4.1 Recording of data in the file data area 14 

[01 44] In step 1 501 , a writing address is set. The writ- 
45 jng address is an LSN of a first sector of the file data 
area 14 (i.e., recording area) in which data is to be writ- 
ten. The LSN is determined by the upper level apparatus 
200, referring to the FAT which manages locations of 
files and empty areas : and then is sent to the disk re- 
50 cording and reproduction apparatus 100. 

[0145] The FAT is read from the optical disk 1 by the 
disk recording and reproduction apparatus 100 before 
data is written, and then is stored in the main memory 
204 of the upper level apparatus 200. The CPU 201 re- 
55 fers to the FAT stored in the main memory 204 to deter- 
mine the LSN of the first sector of the recording area. 
The resultant LSN is stored in the memory 104 of the 
disk recording and reproduction apparatus 1 00 together 



11 



21 



EP 1 152 414 A2 



22 



with a recording instruction command. The microproc- 
essor 1 01 executes the operations in the following steps 
based on the LSN stored in the memory 104. 
[0146] In step 1502, it is determined whether the sec- 
tor address has been normally read or not. The reason 
why this is determined is that, since the sector address 
needs to be read in order to write data into the sector, 
the data cannot be written in the sector when an error 
occurs in reading the sector address. 
[0147] When it is determined that an error has oc- 
curred in step 1 502, the defective sector is replaced with 
a normal sector in the LR spare area (Figure 14) in step 
1508. 

[0148] When it is determined that no error has oc- 
curred in reading the sector address in step 1502, data 
is written in a sector of the file data area 14 designated 
by the LSN. The data is sent from the I/O bus 205 of the 
upper level apparatus 200, buffered in the memory 104, 
and written in the file data area 14. 
[0149] In step 1504, verify processing is performed. 
The verify processing refers to reading data from the 
sector in which the data was written in step 1503 and 
comparing the read data with the written data or per- 
forming an operation using an error correction code to 
check whether the data was successfully written or not. 
[0150] In step 1505, it is determined whether an error 
has occurred or not. When it is determined that an error 
has occurred, the defective sector is replaced with a nor- 
mal sector in the LR spare area (Figure 14) in step 1509. 
[0151] In step 1506, it is determined whether all the 
data has been recorded or not. When it is determined 
that all the data has been recorded, a writing address is 
set at the next LSN (step 1507). Then ; the processing 
goes back to step 1502. Such processing is repeated. 
When it is determined that all the data has been record- 
ed, the recording of the data in the file data area 14 is 
completed. 

[0152] Figure 16 is a flowchart illustrating a process 
of replacement processing executed in steps 1508 and 
1509 shown in Figure 15. 

[0153] In step 1601 , a sector in the spare area 7 to 
which no LSN is assigned (i.e., a sector in the LR spare 
area) is used as a replacing sector. 
[0154] In step 1602, data which was to be recorded 
in the defective sector is recorded in the replacing sec- 
tor. Although not shown in Figure 16, operations corre- 
sponding to those in steps 1 502 through 1 509 in Figure 
1 5 are performed in order to write the data in the replac- 
ing sector. When an error is detected when writing the 
data in the replacing sector, another sector in the LR 
spare area is used as the replacing sector. 
[0155] In step 1 603, the physical sector number of the 
defective sector and the physical sector number of the 
replacing sector are registered in the SDL. Thus, the de- 
fective sector is associated with the replacing sector 
used instead of the defective sector. 
[0156] The optical disk 1 is not accessed to update 
the SDL each time the operation in step 1 603 is execut- 



ed. In step 1 603, the physical sector number of the de- 
fective sector and the physical sector number of the re- 
placing sector are stored in a defect list stored in the 
memory 104. After it is determined that all the data has 
5 been recorded in step 1 506 in Figure 15, the SDL is cre- 
ated and recorded in the disk information area 4. 
Processing time is shortened by minimizing the number 
of times of accessing the optical disk 1 in this manner. 

10 5.4.2 Recording of data in the file management area 10 

[0157] After the recording of the data in the file data 
area 14 is completed, the data is recorded in the file 
management area 10. The reason for this is that, since 
15 management data such as, for example, FAT is updated 
by recording the data in the file data area 1 4, the updat- 
ed management data needs to be recorded in the file 
management area 10. 

[0158] The processing of recording the data in the file 
20 management area 1 0 (steps 1510 through 1 51 7 in Fig- 
ure 15) is identical with the processing of recording the 
data in the file data area 14 (steps 1501 through 1509 
in Figure 1 5) except for the content of the data and the 
recording area. Therefore, a detailed description of the 
25 recording of the data in the file management area 10 is 
omitted. 

[01 59] Figure 1 7 shows the correspondence between 
the physical sector numbers and the LSNs afterthe slip- 
ping replacement algorithm and the linear replacement 

30 algorithm are executed. The horizontal axis represents 
the physical sector number, and the vertical axis repre- 
sents the LSN. In Figure 17, chain line 1701 indicates 
the correspondence between the physical sector num- 
bers and the LSNs when the user area 6 includes no 

35 defective sector. Solid line 1702 indicates the corre- 
spondence between the physical sector numbers and 
the LSNs when the four defective sectors are registered 
in the PDL and two defective sectors are registered in 
the SDL. 

40 [0160] In the example shown in Figure 17, two defec- 
tive sectors are detected when the data is recorded in 
the file management area 10. The two defective sectors 
are replaced with replacing sectors in the LR spare area 
in the spare area 7. 

45 [0161] The file management area 10 is located in an 
area starting with LSN:0. It can be appreciated from Fig- 
ure 17 that the distance (number of physical sectors) 
between the defective sector in the file management ar- 
ea 10 and the replacing sector in the spare area 7 is 

50 significantly shortened compared to that of the conven- 
tional art (Figure 27). For example, the distance in this 
example (Figure 17) is about 10000 whereas the dis- 
tance in the conventional art (Figure 27) is 100000 or 
more. The shortened distance enhances the access 

55 speed to the optical disk 1 . 



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5.5 Reproduction of the data 

[0162] For reproducing the data, the upper level ap- 
paratus 200 refers to the management data such as, for 
example, FAT to search for the location of a file. The 
upper level apparatus 200 instructs the disk recording 
and reproduction apparatus 100 to access the file man- 
agement area 1 0 to refer to the management data. The 
disk recording and reproduction apparatus 100 access- 
es the sector to which LSN:0 is assigned, with certainty. 
The physical sector number of the sector is recorded in 
the DDS. Accordingly, the disk recording and reproduc- 
tion apparatus 100 can access the sector to which LSN: 
0 is assigned at a high speed by referring to the DDS. 
[0163] The upper level apparatus 200 instructs the 
reading location in the file data area 14 to the disk re- 
cording and reproduction apparatus 100 using the LSN. 
The disk recording and reproduction apparatus 100 re- 
fers to the PDL and the SDL to convert the LSN desig- 
nated by the upper level apparatus 200 to a physical 
sector number and reads the data from the sector hav- 
ing the physical sector number. 

[0164] As described above, in the first example ac- 
cording to the present invention, the spare area 7 is lo- 
cated radially inward from the user area 6 of the optical 
disk 1. The assignment of LSNs is slipped in the direc- 
tion toward an inner portion from an outer portion, with 
the location of the sector to which the last LSN is as- 
signed being fixed. The location of the sector to which 
thefirst LSN (LSN:0) is assigned is recorded in the DDS. 
[01 65] The last LSN is not necessarily assigned to the 
last sector of the user area 6. When the last sector of 
the user area 6 is a defective sector, the last LSN is as- 
signed to a normal sector in the user area 6 closest to 
the last sector. 

[0166] In the first example according to the present 
invention, the defect management is performed on a 
sector-by-sector basis. Alternatively, the defect man- 
agement can be performed on a block-by-block basis, 
each block including a plurality of sectors. In such a 
case, block numbers are registered in the PDL and the 
SDL instead of the physical sector numbers. The defect 
management can be performed by any appropriate unit. 
The same effect can be obtained regardless of the unit. 
[0167] In the first example according to the present 
invention, the upper level apparatus 200 and the disk 
recording and reproduction apparatus 100 are connect- 
ed to each other through the I/O bus 205. Alternatively, 
the upper level apparatus 200 and the disk recording 
and reproduction apparatus 100 can be connected to 
each other in any manner (e.g., with wires or in a wire- 
less manner). The elements in the disk recording and 
reproduction apparatus 100 can be connected to one 
another in any manner. 

(Example 2) 

[0168] Methods for managing a defect of an optical 



disk which are preferable to AV files (Audio Visual Data 
Files; i.e., time-continuous video and audio data files), 
for which real-time recording and reproduction is impor- 
tant have been proposed in, for example, Goto et al., 

5 International Publication W098/14938. According to 
such methods, when AV files are recorded in the optical 
disk 1 , defect management is performed using a file sys- 
tem which is managed by the upper level apparatus 200 
without performing replacement processing based on 

10 the linear replacement algorithm. 

[0169] Hereinafter, an example of a method for man- 
aging a defect of an optical disk according to the present 
invention applied to an AV file system will be described. 
[0170] The information processing system has the 

15 structure shown in Figure 1. The optical disk 1 has the 
physical structure shown in Figure 2 and the logical 
structure shown in Figure 3. The file system is different 
from the MS-DOS file system described in the first ex- 
ample, but is common therewith in that the file manage- 

20 ment area 1 0 is positioned at a location in the user area 
6 having a fixed LSN. 

6. Operation of the disk recording and reproduction 
apparatus 100 

25 

[0171] The disk recording and reproduction appara- 
tus 100 performs the operations of 6.1 through 6.3 as 
initialization of the optical disk 1 . 

30 6.1 : Examination of the disk 

6.2: LSN assignment 

6.3: Recording of initial data in the file system 

35 

[0172] After performing the initialization, the optical 
recording and reproduction apparatus 100 performs the 
operations of 6.4 and 6.5 each time a file is written or 
read. 

40 

6.4 Recording of data (recording of the file system and 
the file data) 

6.5 Reproduction of the data 

45 

[0173] The operations of 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.5 are 
identical with those of 5.1 , 5.2, 5.3 and 5.5, and will not 
be described in detail. 

50 6.4 Recording of data (recording of the file system and 
the file data) 

[0174] Figure 18 is a flowchart illustrating a process 
of recording data in the optical disk 1 . The processing 
55 shown in Figure 18 includes recording of an AV file in 
the file data area 14 (steps 1801 through 1809) and re- 
cording of the AV file in the file management area 10 
(steps 1810 through 1817). 



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6.4.1 Recording of the AV file in the file data area 14 

[0175] The upper level apparatus 200 issues an AV 
file recording command to the disk recording and repro- 
duction apparatus 100. The disk recording and repro- 
duction apparatus 100 receives the AV file recording 
command and executes the processing of recording the 
AV file in the file data area 14. 

[0176] The processing of recording the AV file in the 
file data area 14 (Figure 18) is identical with the process- 
ing of recording the data in the file data area 14 (Figure 
15) except for steps 1808 and 1809. 
[0177] Instep 1808, an area including a defective sec- 
tor is registered in the file management information as 
a defective area. 

[0178] In step 1809, an empty area continuous to the 
defective area is set. Then, the processing goes back 
to step 1802. 

[01 79] As can be appreciated from above, the disk re- 
cording and reproduction apparatus 100 does not per- 
form replacement processing even when a defective 
sector is detected when an AV file recording command 
is received. 

[0180] Figure 19 shows a data recording area 5 after 
the AV file is recorded. 

[0181] It is assumed that an AV file referred to as 
"V1 .MPG" (hereinafter, referred to as the "V1 .MPG file") 
is recorded in the file data area 1 4 and a defective sector 
is detected in the AV file. In Figure 19, a defective area 
including the defective sector is hatched. A1 , A2 and A3 
represent a first LSN of each area, and L1 , L2 and L3 
represent a length of each area. The first LSN of the 
defective area is A2, and the length thereof is L2. 
[0182] The V1. MPG file is managed by a file man- 
agement table stored in the FAT area 12. The file man- 
agement table is linked with a file entry of the V1 .MPG 
file stored in the root directory area 13. 
[01 83] The file management table includes therein the 
first LSNs and lengths of the areas in which the AV file 
is located. The file management table further includes 
attribute data for identifying whether data has been re- 
corded in the area orthe area is a defective area in which 
no data has been recorded. In step 1808 shown in Fig- 
ure 18, attribute data of an area starting from LSN:A2 
and having a length of L2 is set to be a defective area 
in which no data has been recorded. Thus, at the time 
of reproduction, this area is recognized to be defective. 
As a result, reproduction of the defective area can be 
skipped. 

[0184] In the example shown in Figure 19, the file 
management table includes information on three areas 
on the V1 .MPG file. The file management table shown 
in Figure 19 indicates that an area starting from LSN:A1 
and having a length of L1 and another area starting from 
LSN:A3 and having a length of L3 have data recorded 
therein and that the area starting from LSN :A2 and hav- 
ing a length of L2 has no data recorded therein. 
[01 85] As can be appreciated from the above, the file 



management table allows a defective area to be identi- 
fied based on the LSN. For reproducing the V1 .MPG file, 
the AV file can be continuously reproduced while skip- 
ping the defective area. 
5 [0186] The recording based on the AV file recording 
command is performed on a block-by-block basis, each 
block including a plurality of sectors because the size of 
the AV file is relatively large. Accordingly, the informa- 
tion stored in the FAT area 1 2 and the root directory area 
13 has block addresses. The size of the file system man- 
agement information is reduced by managing the data 
on a block-by-block basis. The block-by-block recording 
can be performed by repeating sector- by-sector record- 
ing a plurality of times. Accordingly, the fundamental op- 
eration of the disk recording and reproduction apparatus 
100 is similar to the operation described above. 

6.4.2 Recording of data in the file management area 10 

[0187] The processing of recording the AV file in the 
file management area 1 0 (Figure 1 8) is identical with the 
processing of recording the data in the file management 
area 10 (Figure 15). When a detective sector is detected 
when the AV file is recorded in the file management area 
10, replacement processing is performed in steps 1816 
and 1 81 7. The reason for this is that the defective sector 
detected in the file management area 10 storing the file 
management table cannot be logically managed by the 
file management table. 

[0188] When data for which real-time recording and 
reproduction is not very important, such as, for example, 
computer data (hereinafter, referred to as the "PC data") 
is recorded in the optical disk 1 , the upper level appara- 
tus 200 issues a PC file recording command to the disk 
recording and reproduction apparatus 100. The opera- 
tions of the disk recording and reproduction apparatus 
100 in this case are identical with the operations of 5.1 
through 5.5. 

[01 89] As described above, a method for managing a 
defect of an optical disk which is suitable to AV files is 
provided in the second example according to the 
present invention. 

(Example 3) 

[01 90] A ZCLV system information recording medium , 
in which the combined spare area and user area is di- 
vided into a plurality of zones which have different disk 
rotation speeds, such as a DVD-RAM disk or the like, 
has a guard area on the border between adjacent zones. 
[01 91 ] Figure 20 shows a physical structure of an op- 
tical disk 1a having two zones. The optical disk 1a has 
zone 0 in an inner part thereof and zone 1 located radi- 
ally outward from zone 0. A guard area 2001 is provided 
on the border between zones 0 and 1 so as to cover a 
part of each zone. A part 2001a of the guard area 2001 
in zone 0 and a part 2001b of the guard area 2001 in 
zone 1 each include at least one track. 



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[01 92] The part 2001 a and the part 2001 b of the guard 
area 2001 have tracks of different structures. Accord- 
ingly, the signal quality in the guard area 2001 is inferior, 
and therefore the guard area 2001 is not suitable for re- 
cording. The guard area 2001 is set as an area in which 
no data is to be recorded. The locations and sizes of the 
zones 0 and 1 and guard area 2001 are fixed based on 
the optical disk 1a. 

[0193] The structure of the information processing 
system is as shown in Figure 1. The logical structure of 
the optical disk 1a is identical with that of the optical disk 
1 shown in Figure 3. 

[01 94] Figure 21 shows the correspondence between 
the physical sector numbers and the LSNs after the slip- 
ping replacement algorithm is executed. The horizontal 
axis represents the physical sector number, and the ver- 
tical axis represents the LSN. In Figure 21, chain line 
2101 indicates the correspondence between the physi- 
cal sector numbers and the LSNs when the user area 6 
includes no defective sector. Solid line 2102 indicates 
the correspondence between the physical sector num- 
bers and the LSNs when the user area 6 includes four 
defective sectors. 

[0195] As shown in Figure 21 , no LSN is assigned to 
the defective sectors. The assignment of the LSNs are 
slipped in the direction toward an inner portion from an 
outerportion of theoptical disk1a(i.e., in the decreasing 
direction of the physical sector number) as in the first 
and the second examples. 

[0196] As also shown in Figure 21, no LSN is as- 
signed to the guard area 2001. The assignment of the 
LSNs is performed so that the LSNs are continuous be- 
tween two ends of the guard area 2001. Accordingly, 
data is not recorded in the guard area 2001 . 
[01 97] The spare area 7 and the file management ar- 
ea 10 having a first sector to which LSN:0 is assigned 
are located in the same zone. Accordingly, the process- 
ing of replacing a defective sector which is detected 
when the data is recorded in the file management area 
10 can be performed in a single zone, without requiring 
a seek operation across the border between the zones. 
[0198] In a DVD-RAM disk, an error correction code 
is calculated over a plurality of sectors. Therefore, the 
plurality of sectors is defined as one block. For example, 
an ECC block includes 16 sectors. In such a case, the 
optical disk is designed so that multiples of the block 
size are equal to the size of each zone. However, when 
LSNs are assigned in accordance with the slipping re- 
placement algorithm, one block can possibly be located 
over two zones across the guard area 2001 depending 
on the number of detected defective sectors. The rea- 
son for this is that the number of LSNs assigned to each 
zone varies in accordance with the number of the de- 
fective sectors. 

[0199] Figure 22A is a conceptual view of a slipping 
replacement algorithm executed by the disk recording 
and reproduction apparatus 100 (Figure 1 ) on the optical 
disk 1a. In Figure 22A, each of the rectangle boxes rep- 



resents a sector. Characters in each sector represent 
an LSN assigned to the sector. The rectangle boxes 
having an LSN represent normal sectors, and the 
hatched rectangle boxes represent a defective sector. 
5 In the example shown in Figure 22A, an ECC block for 
calculating the error detection code includes 1 6 contin- 
uous sectors. However, the number of the sectors in- 
cluded in the ECC block is not limited to 16. An ECC 
block can include any number of sectors. 
10 [0200] Reference numeral 2201 represents a se- 
quence of sectors including no defective sector in the 
user area 6. Reference numeral 2202 represents a se- 
quence of sectors including one defective sector in the 
user area 6 (with no block correction). Reference nu- 
15 meral 2203 represents a sequence of sectors including 
one defective sector in the user area 6 (with block cor- 
rection). Block correction will be described below. 
[0201 ] When a last sector in zone 1 is a normal sector, 
the last LSN:m is assigned to the last sector of zone 1 . 
20 LSNs are assigned to the plurality of sectors included in 
the user area 6 in a decreasing order from the sector to 
which the last LSN:m is assigned. 
[0202] When the user area 6 includes no defective 
sector, LSN:m through LSN:0 are sequentially assigned 
25 from the last sector to the first sector in the user area 6 
as represented by the sequence of sectors 2202. 
[0203] When a sector in the sequence of sectors 2201 
to which LSN:i is assigned was a defective sector, the 
assignment of the LSNs is changed so that LSN:i is not 
30 assigned to the defective sector but to a sector immedi- 
ately before the defective sector. Thus, the assignment 
of the LSNs is slipped by one sector in the direction to- 
ward the spare area 7 from the user area 6. As a result, 
LSN:0 is assigned to a last sector of the spare area 7 
35 as represented by the sequence of sectors 2202. 

[0204] In the sequence of sectors 2202, an ECC block 
to which LSN:kthrough LSN:k+15 are assigned is locat- 
ed over the zones 0 and 1 across the border. In order to 
prevent one ECC block from being located over two or 
40 more zones, block correction is performed. 

[0205] A sequence of sectors 2203 is obtained as a 
result of block correction performed on the sequence of 
sectors 2201. The sequence of sectors 2202 includes 
one defective sector in zone 1 . In this case, the sector 
45 2203 is obtained by slipping the LSN assignment to the 
sequence of sectors 2202 by 1 5(=1 6-1 ) sectors in the 
direction toward the spare area 7 from the user area 6. 
[0206] As described above, when the user area 6 in- 
cludes a defective sector, block correction of the LSN 
50 assignment is performed so that the first sector of each 
zone matches the first sector of the ECC block of the 
zone. Such an operation prevents one block from being 
located over a plurality of zones. As a result, an access 
to a plurality of zones does not occur when recording 
55 and reproduction is performed to and from one block. 
This allows the time period required for recording or re- 
production of data to be shortened. This also allows data 
in one blockto be read continuously. Therefore, a mem- 



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ory for calculation and an operation apparatus which are 
required for preliminary pipeline processing can be cur- 
tailed without disturbing the pipeline processing of error 
correction. 

[0207] Figure 22B shows the correspondence be- 
tween the physical sector numbers and the LSNs after 
the slipping replacement algorithm described with refer- 
ence to Figure 22A is executed. The horizontal axis rep- 
resents the physical sector number, and the vertical axis 
represents the LSN. In Figure 22B, chain line 2211 is 
identical with chain line 2101 in Figure 21 , and dashed 
line 2212 is identical with chain line 2102 in Figure 21. 
[0208] It is assumed that, as a result of performing as- 
signment of the LSNs represented by dashed line 221 2, 
one block is located across the guard area 2001 ; i.e., a 
part of the block is located in zone 0 and the rest of the 
block (fraction of the block) is located in zone 1 . 
[0209] In this case, the assignment of the LSNs is per- 
formed in an increasing direction by the fraction of the 
block located in zone 1 . Due to such assignment, the 
block located across the guard area 2001 is entirely lo- 
cated in zone 0, and the first sector of the next block is 
located as the sector immediately after the guard area 
2001 of zone 1 . Accordingly, the first sector of the block 
can be located as each of recordable first sector in each 
zone with certainty. 

[0210] Solid line 221 3 in Figure 22B shows the results 
of the assignment of the LSNs. As can be appreciated, 
as a result of the assignment of the LSNs, the LSNs cor- 
responding to the fraction of the block are assigned to 
the sectors in zone 0. As can be appreciated, the as- 
signment of the LSNs represented by solid line 2213 
prevents the block from being located across the guard 
area 2001 . 

[0211] In the optical disk 1a, the location of the sector 
to which LSN:0 is to be assigned is calculated as a lo- 
cation fulfilling a prescribed capacity (4.7 GB), with the 
location of the sector to which the last LSN is assigned 
being fixed. The location is calculated based on the 
number of the defective sectors detected in each of the 
plurality of zones. LSN:0 is assigned to the sector posi- 
tioned at the resultant location. The physical sector 
number of the sector to which the LSN:0 is assigned is 
stored in the entry of the DDS. 

[0212] The LSN assigned to the first sector of each 
zone is stored in the entry of the DDS. By this operation , 
a high speed access to the first sector of each zone is 
realized without calculation. 

[0213] Figure 22C shows a structure of the DDS. The 
DDS includes entries for storing the LSNs assigned to 
the first sector of each zone. The number of the entries 
is equal to the number of zones. For example, when the 
optical disk 1a includes two zones (zone 0 and zone 1), 
the DDS includes an entry for storing an LSN assigned 
to the first sector of zone 0 and an entry for storing an 
LSN assigned to the first sector of zone 1 . 
[0214] As described above, in the third example ac- 
cording to the present invention, a method for managing 



a defect of an optical disk having a plurality of zones is 
provided. Also provided in the third example according 
to the present invention is a method for managing a de- 
fect of such an optical disk for, when block-by-block re- 
5 cording is performed, preventing a block from being lo- 
cated across a guard area. 

[0215] In the third example, the optical disk 1a has 
two zones. Alternatively, the optical disk can have three 
or more zones. Also, in such cases, LSNs can be as- 
signed to sectors so that the first sector of the block is 
located as the recordable first sector of each zone. 
[0216] As described above, according to an informa- 
tion recording medium of the present invention, a spare 
area is located radially inward from a user area. When 
a defective sector is detected in a file management area 
located in the vicinity of LSN:0, the defective sector is 
replaced with a replacing sector in the spare area in ac- 
cordance with the linear replacement algorithm. Since 
the distance between the defective sector and the re- 
placing sector is relatively small, a delay in access 
caused by the defective sector is relatively small. The 
file management area, which is accessed frequently, 
has a high possibility of including a defective sector. Ac- 
cordingly, the above-described reduction in the delay in 
access caused by a defective sector detected in the file 
management area is significantly effective in shortening 
the time period required for recording or reproducing da- 
ta. 

[021 7] A physical sector number of the sectorto which 
LSN: 0 is assigned is stored in a disk information area. 
The physical sector number of the first sector in the re- 
placement area (LR spare area) used in the linear re- 
placement algorithm is fixed. The physical s ctor number 
of the last sector in the LR spare area may be deter- 
mined by subtracting "1" from the physical sector 
number recorded in the disk information area. Accord- 
ingly, the location of the LR spare area can be obtained 
with substantially no calculation by referring to the phys- 
ical sector number recorded in the disk information area. 
[0218] When the information recording medium is di- 
vided into a plurality of zones, the defective sector de- 
tected in the file management area and the replacing 
sector are located in the same zone. Accordingly, no ac- 
cess to the file management area is to a plurality of 
zones. Thus, the time period required for recording or 
reproduction of data can be shortened. 
[0219] When block-by-block recording is performed, 
the first sector of the block can be located as a record- 
able first sector in each zone. Accordingly, an access to 
a plurality of zones does not occur when recording to 
and reproduction from one block. This allows the time 
period required for recording or reproduction of data to 
be shortened. This also allows data in one block to be 
read continuously. Therefore, a memory for calculation 
and an operation apparatus which are required for pre- 
liminary pipeline processing can be curtailed without 
disturbing the pipeline processing of error correction. 
[0220] Various other modifications will be apparent to 



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and can be readily made by those skilled in the art with- 
out departing from the scope and spirit of this invention. 
Accordingly, it is not intended that the scope of the 
claims appended hereto be limited to the description as 
set forth herein, but rather that the claims be broadly 
construed. 



Claims 

1. An information recording medium, comprising: 

a disk information area; 

a user area including a plurality of sectors; and 
a spare area including at least one sector which 
is usable when at least one of the plurality of 
sectors included in the user area is a defective 
sector, 

wherein: 

the spare area is located radially inward 
from the user area, 

a physical sector number of a sector to 
which a logical sector number "0" is as- 
signed, among the plurality of sectors in- 
cluded in the user area and the spare area, 
is recorded in the disk information area, 
logical sector numbers are respectively as- 
signed to the sectors included in the user 
area in a decreasing order from the sector 
to which a last logical sector number is as- 
signed, and 

any logical sector number is not assigned 
to the defective sector included in the user 
area. 

2. An information recording medium, comprising: 

a disk information area; 

a user area including a plurality of sectors; and 
a spare area including at least one sector which 
is usable when at least one of the plurality of 
sectors included in the user area is a defective 
sector, 

wherein: 

the spare area is located radially inward 
from the user area, 

a physical sector number of a sector to 
which a logical sector number "0" is as- 
signed, among the plurality of sectors in- 
cluded in the user area and the spare area, 
is recorded in the disk information area, 
logical sector numbers are respectively as- 
signed to the sectors included in the user 
area in a decreasing order from the sector 
to which a last logical sector number is as- 
signed, and 



the sectors included in the spare area are 
used from the sector which is located radi- 
ally outward. 

5 3. An information recording medium, comprising: 



a disk information area; 

a user area including a plurality of sectors; and 

a spare area including at least one sector which 

is usable when at least one of the plurality of 

sectors included in the user area is a defective 

sector, 

wherein: 



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physical sector numbers of the sectors in- 
cluded in the spare area are smaller than 
those of the sectors included in the user ar- 
ea, 

a physical sector number of a sector to 
which a logical sector number "0" is as- 
signed, among the plurality of sectors in- 
cluded in the user area and the spare area, 
is recorded in the disk information area, 
logical sector numbers are respectively as- 
signed to the sectors included in the user 
area in a decreasing order from the sector 
having a larger physical sector number to 
the sector having a smaller physical sector 
number, and 

any logical sector number is not assigned 
to the defective sector included in the user 
area. 

4. An information recording medium, comprising: 
a disk information area; 

a user area including a plurality of sectors; and 
a spare area including at least one sector which 
is usable when at least one of the plurality of 
sectors included in the user area is a defective 
sector, 

wherein: 

physical sector numbers of the sectors in- 
cluded in the spare area are smaller than 
those of the sectors included in the user ar- 
ea, 

a physical sector number of a sector to 
which a logical sector number "0" is as- 
signed, among the plurality of sectors in- 
cluded in the user area and the spare area, 
is recorded in the disk information area, 
logical sector numbers are respectively as- 
signed to the sectors included in the user 
area in a decreasing order from the sector 
having a larger physical sector number to 
the sector having a smaller physical sector 
number, and 



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the sectors included in the spare area are 
used from the sector which is located radi- 
ally outward having a larger physical sector 
number. 

5 

An information recording medium, comprising: 
a disk information area; 

a user area including a plurality of sectors; and 
a spare area including at least one sector which io 
is usable when at least one of the plurality of 
sectors included in the user area is a defective 
sector, 

wherein: 

15 

the spare area is located radially inward 
from the user area, 

a physical sector number of a sector to 
which a logical sector number "0" is as- 
signed, among the plurality of sectors in- 20 
eluded in the user area and the spare area, 
is recorded in the disk information area, 
logical sector numbers are respectively as- 
signed to at least two sectors of the plurality 
of sectors included in the user area in a de- 25 
creasing order from the sector to which a 
last logical sector number is assigned, and 
any logical sector number is not assigned 
to the defective sector included in the user 
area. 30 

An information recording medium, comprising: 

a disk information area; 

a user area including a plurality of sectors; and 35 
a spare area including at least one sector which 
is usable when at least one of the plurality of 
sectors included in the user area is a defective 
sector, 

wherein: 40 

the spare area is located radially inward 
from the user area, 

a physical sector number of a sector to 
which a logical sector number "0" is as- 45 
signed, among the plurality of sectors in- 
cluded in the user area and the spare area, 
is recorded in the disk information area, 
logical sector numbers are respectively as- 
signed to at least two sectors of the plurality so 
of sectors included In the user area In a de- 
creasing order from the sector to which a 
last logical sector number is assigned, and 
the sectors included in the spare area are 
used from the sector which is located radi- 55 
ally outward. 

An information recording medium, comprising: 



a disk information area; 

a user area including a plurality of sectors; and 
a spare area including at least one sector which 
is usable when at least one of the plurality of 
sectors included in the user area is a defective 
sector, 

wherein: 

physical sector numbers of the sectors in- 
cluded in the spare area are smaller than 
those of the sectors included in the user ar- 
ea, 

a physical sector number of a sector to 
which a logical sector number "0" is as- 
signed, among the plurality of sectors in- 
cluded in the user area and the spare area, 
is recorded in the disk information area, 
logical sector numbers are respectively as- 
signed to at least two sectors of the plurality 
of sectors included in the user area in a de- 
creasing order from the sector having a 
larger physical sector number to the sector 
having a smaller physical sector number, 
and 

any logical sector number is not assigned 
to the defective sector included in the user 

area. 

8. An information recording medium, comprising: 
a disk information area; 

a user area including a plurality of sectors; and 
a spare area including at least one sector which 
is usable when at least one of the plurality of 
sectors included in the user area is a defective 
sector, 

wherein: 

physical sector numbers of the sectors in- 
cluded in the spare area are smaller than 
those of the sectors included in the user ar- 
ea, 

a physical sector number of a sector to 
which a logical sector number "0" is as- 
signed, among the plurality of sectors in- 
cluded in the user area and the spare area, 
is recorded in the disk information area, 
logical sector numbers are respectively as- 
signed to at least two sectors of the plurality 
of sectors included in the user area in a de- 
creasing order from the sector having a 
larger physical sector number to the sector 
having a smaller physical sector number, 
and 

the sectors included in the spare area are 
used from the sector which is located radi- 
ally outward. 



18 



35 



EP1 152 414 A2 



36 



10. A method for managing a defect of an information 
recording, medium including a disk information ar- 
ea; a user area including a plurality of sectors; and 
a spare area including at least one sector which is 
usable when at least one of the plurality of sectors 
included in the user area is a defective sector, phys- 
ical sector numbers of the sectors included in the 
spare area being smaller than those of the sectors 
included in the user area, the method comprising 
the steps of: 

(a) assigning a last logical sector numberto one 
of the plurality of sectors included in the user 
area; 

(b) calculating a location fulfilling a prescribed 
capacity in a direction from the sector having a 
larger physical sector numberto the sector hav- 
ing a smaller physical sector number, with ref- 
erence to a location of the sector to which the 
last logical sector number is assigned; 

(c) assigning a logical sector number "0" to a 
sector positioned at the location calculated by 
the step (b); and 

(d) recording a physical sector number of the 
sector to which the logical sector number "0" is 
assigned in the disk information area. 

1 1 . A method according to claim 9, wherein the step (b) 
includes the steps of: 



(b-1). 

12. A method according to claim 10, wherein the step 
(b) includes the steps of: 

(b-1) detecting the at least one defective sector 
included in the user area; and 
(b-2) calculating the location fulfilling the pre- 
scribed capacity based on the number of the at 
least one defective sector detected in the step 
(b-1). 

1 3. A method according to claim 9, wherein the step (b) 
includes the step of: 

(b-3) using the sectors included in the spare 
area from the sector which is located radially out- 
ward. 

14. A method according to claim 10, wherein the step 
(b) includes the step of: 

(b-3) using the sectors included In the spare 
area from the sector having a larger physical sector 
number. 

15. An apparatus for managing a defect of an informa- 
tion recording medium including a disk information 
area; a user area including a plurality of sectors; and 
a spare area including at least one sector which is 
usable when at least one of the plurality of sectors 
included in the user area is a defective sector, the 
spare area being located radially inward from the 
user area, 

wherein: 

the apparatus performs a defect managing 
processing, the defect managing processing in- 
cludes the steps of: 

(a) assigning a last logical sector numberto one 
of the plurality of sectors included in the user 

area; 

(b) calculating a location fulfilling a prescribed 
capacity, with reference to a location of the sec- 
tor to which the last logical sector number is as- 
signed; 

(c) assigning a logical sector number "O" to a 
sector positioned at the location calculated by 
the step (b); and 

(d) recording a physical sector number of the 
sector to which the logical sector number "O" is 
assigned in the disk Information area. 

16. An apparatus for managing a defect of an informa- 
tion recording medium including a disk Information 
area; a user area Including a plurality of sectors; 
and a spare area including at least one sector which 
is usable when at least one of the plurality of sectors 
included in the user area is a defective sector, phys- 
ical sector numbers of the sectors included in the 



(b-1 ) detecting the at least one defective sector 
included in the user area; and 55 
(b-2) calculating the location fulfilling the pre- 
scribed capacity based on the number of the at 
least one defective sector detected in the step 



9. A method for managing a defect of an information 
recording medium including a disk Information ar- 
ea; a user area including a plurality of sectors; and 
a spare area including at least one sector which is 
usable when at least one of the plurality of sectors 5 
included in the user area Is a defective sector, the 
spare area being located radially inward from the 
user area, the method comprising the steps of: 

(a) assigning a last logical sector numberto one io 
of the plurality of sectors included in the user 
area; 

(b) calculating a location fulfilling a prescribed 
capacity, with reference to a location of thesec- 
torto which the last logical sector number is as- 15 
signed; 

(c) assigning a logical sector number "0" to a 
sector positioned at the location calculated by 
the step (b); and 

(d) recording a physical sector number of the 20 
sector to which the logical sector number "0" is 
assigned in the disk information area. 



25 



30 



35 



40 



50 



19 



37 

spare area being smaller than those of the sectors 
included in the user area, 
wherein: 

the apparatus performs a defect managing 
processing, the defect managing processing in- 5 
eludes the steps of: 

(a) assigning a last logical sector numberto one 
of the plurality of sectors included in the user 
area; 10 

(b) calculating a location fulfilling a prescribed 
capacity in a direction from the sector having a 
larger physical sector numberto the sector hav- 
ing a smaller physical sector number, with ref- 
erence to a location of the sector to which the 15 
last logical sector number is assigned; 

(c) assigning a logical sector number "0" to a 
sector positioned at the location calculated by 
the step (b); and 

(d) recording a physical sector number of the 20 
sector to which the logical sector number "0" is 
assigned in the disk information area. 

17. An apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the 
step (b) includes the steps of: 25 

(b-1 ) detecting the at least one defective sector 
included in the user area; and 
(b-2) calculating the location fulfilling the pre- 
scribed capacity based on the number of the at 30 
least one defective sector detected in the step 
(b-1). 

18. An apparatus according to claim 16, wherein the 
step (b) includes the steps of: 35 

(b-1 ) detecting the at least one defective sector 
included in the user area; and 
(b-2) calculating the location fulfilling the pre- 
scribed capacity based on the number of the at 40 
least one defective sector detected in the step 
(b-1). 

19. An apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the 
step (b) includes the step of: 45 

(b-3) using the sectors included in the spare 
area from the sector which is located radially out- 
ward. 

20. An apparatus according to claim 16, wherein the 50 
step (b) includes the step of: 

(b-3) using the sectors included In the spare 
area from the sector having a larger physical sector 
number. 

55 

21. A reproduction apparatus for reproducing informa- 
tion recorded in the information recording medium 
according to claim 1. 



38 

22. A reproduction apparatus for reproducing informa- 
tion recorded in the information recording medium 
according to claim 2. 

23. A reproduction apparatus for reproducing informa- 
tion recorded in the information recording medium 
according to claim 3. 

24. A reproduction apparatus for reproducing informa- 
tion recorded in the information recording medium 
according to claim 4. 

25. A reproduction apparatus for reproducing informa- 
tion recorded in the information recording medium 
according to claim 5. 

26. A reproduction apparatus for reproducing informa- 
tion recorded in the information recording medium 
according to claim 6. 

27. A reproduction apparatus for reproducing informa- 
tion recorded in the information recording medium 
according to claim 7. 

28. A reproduction apparatus for reproducing Informa- 
tion recorded in the information recording medium 
according to claim 8. 

29. A recording apparatus for recording information in 
the information recording medium according to 
claim 1 . 

30. A recording apparatus for recording information in 
the information recording medium according to 
claim 2. 

31. A recording apparatus for recording information in 
the information recording medium according to 
claim 3. 

32. A recording apparatus for recording information in 
the information recording medium according to 
claim 4. 

33. A recording apparatus for recording information in 
the information recording medium according to 
claim 5. 

34. A recording apparatus for recording information in 
the information recording medium according to 
claim 6. 

35. A recording apparatus for recording information in 
the information recording medium according to 
claim 7. 

36. A recording apparatus for recording information in 
the information recording medium according to 



EP1 152 414 A2 



20 



39 



EP1 152 414 A2 



40 



claim 8. 

37. An information recording medium, comprising: 

a disk information area; and 
a data recording area including a plurality of 
sectors to which physical sector number are re- 
spectively assigned; 
wherein: 

the disk information area includes an ar- 
ea for recording a physical sector number of a 
sector to which a logical sector number "O" is 
assigned, among the plurality of sectors includ- 
ed in the data recording area. 

38. An information recording medium, comprising: 



10 



which a logical sector number "O" Is as- 
signed, among the plurality of sectors in- 
cluded in the data recording area, is re- 
corded in the disk information area, 
the data recording area is divided into a 
plurality of zones, and 
a logical sector number of a first sector 
among the sectors to which logical sector 
numbers are assigned in each of the plu- 
rality of zones is recorded in the disk infor- 
mation area. 



15 



a disk information area; and 

a data recording area including a plurality of 

sectors to which physical sector number are re- 20 

spectively assigned; 

wherein: 

a physical sector number of a sector to 
which a logical sector number "O" is assigned, 
among the plurality of sectors included in the 25 
data recording area, is recorded in the disk in- 
formation area. 



39. An information recording medium, comprising: 

30 

a disk information area; and 
a data recording area including a plurality of 
sectors to which physical sector number are re- 
spectively assigned; 

wherein: 35 



the disk information area includes an area 
for recording a physical sector number of 
a sector to which a logical sector number 
"0" is assigned, among the plurality of sec- 40 
tors included in the data recording area, 
the data recording area is divided into a 
plurality of zones, and 
the disk information area further includes 
an area for recording a logical sector 45 
number of a first sector among the sectors 
to which logical sector numbers are as- 
signed in each of the plurality of zones. 



40. An information recording medium, comprising: 



a disk information area; and 
a data recording area including a plurality of 
sectors to which physical sector number are re- 
spectively assigned; 55 
wherein: 



a physical sector number of a sector to 



21 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG.1 

Upper level apparatus 
-201 



CPU 



204 



1 



207 



200 



202 



Processor bus 1 



Main 
memory 



Display 

processing 

section 



Busl/F 



1/0 bus 



206, 



HDD 



Command 



t 



Disk recording 



103 



203 



208 
1 



Input 
section 



*205 



Data 



100 



and reproduction apparatus 



Bus control 



^ circuit 



104- 



Microprocessor 



Memory 



101 



102 



Data recording 
and reproduction 

control section 




OpticoT di s 




Display 



Keyboard 
Mouse 



22 



EP1 152 414 A2 




23 



EP1 152 414 A2 



£= 

£ 
o 

c: o 

<D O CO 

LZE o 

A 



CO 



CL. 



/ 



CD 
CO 
CD 



E 

CO 
>« 
CO 



CD 

o 









o 


o 


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CD 


o 


^_ 




O 














o 




o 







n 



7 



-a. 

CD O 



Y 



CN 



o 

CD 

o 

2£ 
o 
o_ 

CO 



a 

CD 



cd 

CO 



7 



CO 



Y7 



/ 



N 



s 



\ 



/ 



:ion 




ing 


tion 




informal 


area 


3 record 
area 


informal 


area 
i 


CO 

O 




o 
a 


Disk 






/ 

to 









o 
cu 



o 
I 

O 

CU 



24 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 4 



DMA1 



DMA2 



DDS 



PDL 



.SQL 



25 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 5 

DDS 



Header 



Partition information 



PDL location information 



SDL location information 

Physical sector number of sector 
to which LSN:0 is assigned 



26 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 6 A 

PDL 



1st entry 
2nd entry 
3rd entry 



m'th entry 



Header(total number of entries) 



Physical sector number of 1st 
defective sector 



Physical sector number of 2nd 
defective sector 



Physical sector number of 3rd 
defective sector 



Physical sector number of m'th 
defective sector 



27 



EP1 152 414 A2 



CD 
CO 





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cz 










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cz 




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CD O 

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CZ CD 




E 


ec 


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ec 


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ec 




in* 


cz 


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nu 


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CZ 


CO 




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o 


cn 
cz 


o 


cz 


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CP 

cz 




cn 


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CD 


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o 


cu 


o 


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CD 


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sec 


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sec 


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sec 




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28 



EP1 152 414 A2 



CD 

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CD 
CO 

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o 
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CO 



a 

CD 



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CO 



o 







+ 


± 


csj 


CNJ 




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CD 
CD 



1 



CD 



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CD 



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00 O 



29 



EP1 152 414 A2 




30 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 9 



Physical sector number- 



Q1 H—LR spare area-*4 

vj ' 1 



-User area 6- 



NAINA 



92 



NA I 0 I li-3li-2li-1l i M+2IH-31 Cm] 



ID 1 NA 1 0 1 1 i-3 1 j-2 1 HH^ 14-111+21 i4-3 1 [ 



m 



Normal sector (Characters in the box indicate LSN; 

"NA" refers to that LSN has not been assigned.) 



V/A Defective sector 



31 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 1 0 

H-ggj^-H User area 6 




32 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 1 1 

110K 



( Start ) 



Initial setting of address 



1105 




r ^ Error (address read error) 
, Lrrpr \^ occurred 
jeterminatioc 



No error 



Test data is written 



1 is added 
to address 



1111 



Stored in 1st defect 
list as defective sector 




1104 



Final address 



Initial setting of address 



1110 

\ 



-1106 



Data is read 



-1107 



1108 




Error (data read error) 



occurred 



V is added 
to address 



No error 



1 



Stored in 2nd defect 
list as defective sector 



final address 
Jeterminatioru 



-1109 



Final address A 1 13 



1st defect list and 2nd 
defect list are combined 



Addresses are sorted 
and PDL is created 



•1114 
-1115 



Registered in PDL 



33 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 12 



C Start) 



Physical sector number of 

first sector of user area 

is substituted into variable UTSN 



1201 



Variable UTSN is substituted 
into variable TOP 



Last physical sector number 
of search area is substituted 
into variable END 



1202 



1203 



Number of entries in PDL is calculated 

SKP = FUNC (TOP, END) 
Return value SKIP: number of entries 



1204 



No 



SKIP is subtracted from 
variable UTSN 



1205 




Variable UTSN is recorded in DDS 
as physical sector number of 
first sector of user area 



1207 



34 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 13 



r 



Initialization 
of variable 



"0" is substituted into 
variable SKIP 



1301 



Total number of entries is 
read from PDL and substituted 
into variable n 



1302 




Address of n'th entry, 
PDE: n, is read 



1304 




Yes (entered) 
\ 



1306 

< 



'1 is added to 
variable SKIP 



T is subtracted from n 



1307 



I 



Value of variable SKIP 
is returned 



1308 



35 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 1 4 



7- 



Physical sector 

number LSN assignment 



* 


O 1 


NA 


LR spare a 


"ea 




NA 


Spare area 






. 






9995j 


NA 






9996 


0 (First LSN) 


(Size: 10000) 




1 




2 








3 






10000 


4 








♦ 








y/////////////, 


















User area 






• 
• 






-//////////////. 














(10000+0-2 








(10000+0-1 


y////////////, 






10000+i 


\ 










(Size: 10000) 




99997 




99998 






109999 


99999 (Last LSN) 



-First sector 
of extended 
user area 6 



H 
I 

IV 



\/////A Defective sector registered in PDL 



LSN I Normal sector 

(Characters in the box indicate LSN;' 
"NA" refers to that LSN has not 
been assigned. 



36 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 15 

- 1501 \r 



C Start ) 

_L 



Initial setting of address 



Recording of 
data to file 
data area 14 



1507 



1502 

1503 
1504 

1505- 




. Error occurred » 
(address r ead error) 



No error 



Data is 


written 




Replacement 






. i 


Verify 





V 



1508 



jdetenmmatio. 



Next address 




is set 





:rror occurred x 
ata read error) 

" 1 r 1 509 

No error Replacement / 



Recording of data 
to file management 
area 10 



1515 




\ 




Next ad 


dress 


is set 





1511 



completion 
eterminatto 

Completion 



■1506 



ieteTmmatiqr 



.Error occurred . 
(address read error) 



Jo error /-151 1 



File management information 



is written to 



1512 



V 



ile management area 



Replacement! \f 



1516 



Verify 



1513 




Error occurred 
(data read error) 

— i 



Replacement 
i 



1/ 



1517 




1514 



37 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 16 



C Start ) 

Replacing sector from spare 
area is assigned 



1601 



Designated data is written 
in replacing sector 



Registered in SDL 



•1602 



-1603 



38 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 1 7 



h- a S r gJ r 7-~H User area 6 




39 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 1 8 



C Start ) 



Initial setting of address 



Recording of 
data to file 
data area 14 



1807 



1802 



1803 



File system processing 
by upper level apparatus 



Rewriting 




Error occurred 
(address error) 



error) [ r 



1808 



o error 



Data is written 



I 



Verify 



1805- 



Next address 
is set 



jetermmatioc 



Registered in file 
management information 
as defective sector 



X 



Skip: to the next 
address assigned 



1 



No 



Data 
compjetipn 
jeterminatio" 



No error (aX e°rrT d 
1806 



1809 



Recording of data 
to file management 
area 10 



1815 



1811 



[Completion 



Error occurred 



^^nTiinatioji-^ 

|No error/- 1811 




Rle management information is 
written to file management area 


1812^ 




Replacement 



V 



1816 



Verify 



1813 x 



letermSatiox 



Error occurred 
(data error) 



Next address 
is set 



No error 



| |Replocement[j / 



1817 




1814 



_[C_ompletion 
C End ) 



40 



EP1 152 414 A2 



File management table 



FIG. 1 9 



LSN:0- 
11- 
12- 

13- 

14- 
A1- 



A2- 
A3- 



LR spare area 



System reservation 
area 



FAT area 



Root directory area 



File data area 



"V1.MPG" 



Starting 
location 

(LSN) 


Length 


Attribute 




m 




A1 


L1 


Data recording 
area 


A2 


L2 


Defective area with 
no data recorded 


A3 


L3 


Data recording 
area 









File name 



"V1.MPG" 



First 

location (LSN ) 



A1 



L1 
L2 

L3 



41 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 20 




\ 



42 



EP1 152 414 A2 




43 



EP1 152 414 A2 




EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG.22B 

h-aPeaV— User area 6 



1 — i — Zone 0 Zone 1 




45 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIQ.22C 

DDS 



Header 



Partition information 



PDL location information 



SDL location information 

Physical sector number of sector 
to which LSN:Q is assigned 

LSN assigned to first sector 

of zone 0 

LSN assigned to first sector 
of zone 1 



LSN assigned to first sector 
of zone n 



EP1 152 414 A2 



cz 

£ 

CD 
O 

go 
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e 


o 


o 


o 


o 




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o 

CD O 




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CO __ 


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aj O 




CD 




»— CD 

E ^ 


FAT 


■° a 

» 


File d< 


CD 




o 


CO 




o 






or: 












V 


/ 

CNJ 


/ 














;ion 






tion 










o 




E 


o 


o o 


E 


O 




CD 


O CD 


u 
O 




p 


t_ 


CD L_ 








U 












a 






CO 




o 


CO 








Q 







r 

to 



47 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 24 



-Physical sector number- 



2401 



-User area 6 ■ 



i-3|i-2|j-1| j |j-Hli+2|i+3 



HL 



2402 



0 



\-1\\-2\\-\Y//A i CHIM] B 



Spare 
' area 8 - 



NAINA 



ML 



JH 



I 



NA 



_NA 



Last LSN: m 

Normal sector (Characters in the box indicate LSN; 

"NA" refers to that LSN has not been assigned.) 

Y//A Defective sector 



[ 



48 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 25 

Spare 

User area H— areaH 




Physical sector number 



49 



EP1 152 414 A2 



FIG. 26 



2601 



2602 



-Physical sector number - 



-User area 6- 



Spare 
area 8 



li-31i-2li-1l I D5I523M] 1 m I NA [ NA 



i-3li-2li-1K^i+1li+2li+3l I m I I I NA I EE 



Normal sector / Characters in the box indicate LSN; 

I "NA" refers to that LSN has not 
\been assigned. 



V/A Defective sector 



50 



EP1 152 414 A2 




51 



EP1 152 414 A2 



28 



Physical sector 

number LSN assignment 



User area 
{Size: 100000) 



Spare area 
(Size: 10000) 



LR spare area 



i-1 

» 

i 

i+1 



99999 



100000 



100004 



109999 



0 (First ISN) 



1 



_2_ 



i-1 



99995 



99996 



99997 



99998 



99999(Last LSN) 



NA 



NA 



E 



1 



IV 



Defective sector registered in PDL 



Normal sector 

/Characters in the box indicate LSN; 

"NA" refers to that LSN has not 
\been assigned. 



52