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(19) 



J 



(12) 



(43) Date of publication: 

11.10.2000 Bulletin 2000/41 

(21) Application number: 99117781.7 

(22) Date of filing: 09.09.1999 



Europaisches Patentamt 
European Patent Office 
Off ice europeen des brevets (11) EP 1 043 723 A1 

EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION 

(51) IntCI 7 : G11B 20/18 



(84) 


Designated Contracting States: 


(72) 


Inventors: 




AT BE CH CY DE DK ES Fl FR GB GR IE IT LI LU 


• 


Ito, Motoshi 




MCNLPTSE 




Jotoku Osakashi, Osaka 536-0001 (JP) 




Designated Extension States: 


• 


Ueda, Hiroshi 




AL LT LV MK RO SI 


• 


Hirakatashi, Osaka 573-1193 (JP) 
Gotoh, Yoshiho 


(30) 


Priority: 08.03.1999 JP 5978199 




Jotoku Osakashi, Osaka 536-0023 (JP) 


(60) 




• 


Fukushima, Yoshihisa 


Divisional application: 




Osaka-shi, Osaka 536-0008 (JP) 




00112567.3/1 041 561 






00112566.5/1 041 560 


(74) 


Representative: 




00112565.7/1 041 559 




Kiigele, Bernhard et al 


(71) 






NOVAPAT INTERNATIONAL SA, 


Applicant: 




9, Rue du Valais 




MATSUSHITA ELECTRIC INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD. 




1202 Geneve (CH) 




Kadoma-shi, Osaka 571-8501 (JP) 





(54) Information recording medium, information recording method, information recording 
apparatus and information reproducing apparatus 

(57) An information recording medium of the 
present invention includes: a volume space in which 
user data is recorded; a spare area including a replace- 
ment area which may be used in place of a defective 
area included in the volume space; and a defect man- 
agement information area in which defect management 
information for managing the defective area is recorded. 
The defect management information includes status 
information indicating whether the defective area is 
replaced by the replacement area. 



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Printed by Xerox (UK) Business Services 
2.16.7 (HRSJ/3.6 



1 

Description 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 

1 . FIELD OF THE INVENTION: s 

[0001] The present invention relates to an informa- 
tion recording medium, an information recording 
method, an information recording apparatus and an 
information reproducing apparatus. 10 

2. DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART: 

[0002] An optical disk is a type of information 
recording medium which has a sector structure. In is 
recent years, as the recording density and the capacity 
of an optical disk have been increased, it has become 
more important to ensure the reliability thereof. In order 
to ensure the reliability, an optical disk apparatus per- 
forms defect management in which a sector on the disk 20 
which cannot be used for recording/reproduction (here- 
inafter, referred to as a "defective sector") is replaced by 
another sector having a good condition. One standard 
for such defect management is ISO/IEC 10090 for 90 
mm optical disks (hereinafter, referred to as the "ISO 25 
standard"), which is published from International Stand- 
ards Organization (ISO). 

[0003] As the first prior art example, an ECC block 
which is used by a DVD standard and the defect man- 
agement method according to the ISO standard will be 30 
briefly described below. 

[0004] Figure 1 7 illustrates a physical structure of a 
disk 1 . The disk 1 has a plurality of tracks 2 provided in 
the form of concentric circles or a spiral. Each of the 
tracks 2 is divided into a plurality of sectors 3. The disk 35 
1 includes one or more disk information areas 4 and a 
data recording area 5. 

[0005] The disk information area 4 stores various 
parameters needed to access the disk 1 . In the example 
illustrated in Figure 1 7, two disk information areas 4 are 40 
provided respectively along the inner and outer periph- 
eries of the disk 1 . The disk information area 4 along the 
inner periphery is also called a "lead-in" area, while the 
disk information area 4 along the outer periphery is also 
called a "lead-out" area. 45 
[0006] Data is recorded/reproduced on/from the 
data recording area 5. Each sector 3 in the data record- 
ing area 5 is assigned an absolute address which is 
called a "physical sector number". 

[0007] Figure 18A illustrates a structure of an ECC so 
(error correcting code) block which is a unit of error cor- 
recting code calculation. An ECC block contains main 
data (172 bytes x 48 rows), an inner code parity PI 
obtained by calculating error correcting codes for each 
row (in the horizontal direction), and an outer code par- 55 
ity PO obtained by calculating error correcting codes for 
each column (in the vertical direction). 
[0008] An error correction method using such inner 



2 

and outer parities is generally called a "product code- 
based error correction method". The product code- 
based error correction method is an error correction 
method which is effective for both random errors and 
burst errors (a group of localized errors). For example, 
consider a case where some random errors occurred, 
as well as two rows of burst errors due to a scratch 
made on the disk 1 . Most of such burst errors are cor- 
rectable using the outer codes, because they are 2-byte 
errors in the vertical direction. A column with many ran- 
dom errors may not completely be corrected by outer 
codes. Some errors may remain after an error correc- 
tion operation using outer codes. However, such 
remaining errors are in most cases correctable using 
inner codes. Even if some errors still remain after the 
error correction operation using inner codes, such 
errors can further be reduced by performing an error 
correction operation using outer codes again. By 
employing such product codes, DVDs realize a suffi- 
cient error correction capability while saving the parity 
redundancy. In other words, the capacity for user data is 
increased by such saving of the parity redundancy. 
[0009] In a larger capacity DVD, each ECC block 
includes 16 sectors so as to realize both an increased 
error correction capability and a reduced redundancy. 
The ECC block illustrated in Figure 18A includes only 4 
sectors for the sake of simplicity. 
[0010] Figure 18B illustrates an arrangement of 
sectors included in an ECC block. The outer code pari- 
ties PO of the ECC block are divided into rows and pro- 
portionally distributed among the sectors. As a result, 
each recording sector includes data of 182 bytes x 13 
rows. 

[0011] An upper level control unit (this generally 
corresponds to a host computer) instructs an optical 
disk apparatus to record or reproduce data by sectors. 
When instructed to reproduce data from a sector, the 
optical disk apparatus reproduces an ECC block includ- 
ing the sector from the disk, performs error correction 
on the reproduced data, and returns only a portion of 
the data which corresponds to the designated sector. 
When instructed to record data on a sector, the optical 
disk apparatus reproduces an ECC block including the 
sector from the disk, performs error correction on the 
reproduced data, and replaces a portion of the data 
which corresponds to the designated sector with record- 
ing data which has been received from the upper level 
control unit. Then, the optical disk apparatus recalcu- 
lates error correcting codes for the ECC block and adds 
them to the ECC block, before the ECC block including 
the designated sector is recorded on the disk. Particu- 
larly, such a recording operation is called a "read modi- 
fied write" operation. 

[001 2] In the following description, a "block" means 
an ECC block as described above. 
[0013] Figure 19 illustrates an exemplary physical 
space of the disk 1 for use with the defect management 
method according to the ISO standard. The data record- 



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ing area 5 includes a volume space 6 and a spare area 
9. 

[0014] The volume space 6 is managed by consec- 
utive addresses, called "logical sector numbers". The 
volume space 6 includes a logical volume space 6a and s 
logical volume structures 6b for storing information on 
the structure of the logical volume space 6a. 
[0015] The spare area 9 includes at least one sec- 
tor (for example, #1 spare block) which may be used in 
place of a defective sector if such a defective sector 
occurs in the volume space 6. 

[0016] In the example illustrated in Figure 19, a file 
A (indicated as "File-A"in Figure 19) exists directly 
under a root directory (indicated as "ROOT" in Figure 
19). Among data blocks a to c included in the data 
extent of the root directory, the data block c is defective. 
The defective block c is replaced by #1 spare block in 
the spare area 9. Among data blocks d to g included in 
the data extent of the file A, the data block f is defective. 
The defective block f is replaced by #2 spare block in 
the spare area 9. 

[0017] The replacement of each defective block by 
a spare block in the spare area 9 is registered in a sec- 
ondary defect list ("SDL"). The SDL is stored in a defect 
management information area as a part of defect man- 
agement information. 

[0018] More recently, there is an attempt in the art 
to use a rewritable optical disk in a less expensive form 
of a bare disk with no cartridge, as a read-only optical 
disk. In view of the defect management, however, a bare 
disk is more likely to get fingerprints thereon, and the 
number of defective sectors may increase unexpectedly. 
Therefore, it is proposed in the art to use a dynamically 
expandable spare area rather than a fixed spare area. 
[0019] Moreover, the increased capacity of an opti- 
cal disk, along with the motion picture compression 
technique having been put into practical use, has paved 
the way to recording/reproduction of motion pictures 
on/from an optical disk. However, the conventional 
defect management method may not be suitable for 
such a motion picture application, in which real time 
processing is required. In particular, if a defective sector 
is replaced by a spare sector which is physically distant 
from the defective sector, it may take too much time to 
move the optical head to such a distant spare sector for 
ensuring the real time processing. Therefore, it has 
been proposed in the art to employ a new defect man- 
agement method instead of the conventional method 
where a defective sector is replaced by a physically dis- 
tant spare sector. 

[0020] As the second prior art example, a proposed 
method for recording/reproducing AV data (i.e., audio 
video data) will be described below. 
[0021] Each of Figures 20A and 20B illustrates an 
arrangement of AV data on a disk, which is suitable for 
AV data recording/reproduction. In Figures 20A and 
20B, a suffix "h" denotes a hexadecimal number. 
[0022] Figure 20A illustrates an AV data arrange- 



ment where there is no defective sector. If there is no 
defective sector, the AV data including #1 data to #4 
data can be recorded in sectors having consecutive log- 
ical sector numbers (LSN). Similarly, the AVdata can be 
reproduced by reproducing the sectors having the con- 
secutive logical sector numbers. 
[0023] Figure 20B illustrates an AV data arrange- 
ment where 1 6 sectors having logical sector numbers of 
n to n+OFh are detected as defective sectors while 
recording data therein. In this case, the ECC block 
including the detected defective sector is skipped. As a 
result, #3 data is recorded in sectors having logical sec- 
tor numbers of n+1 Oh to n+1 Fh, and #4 data is recorded 
in the following sectors having logical sector numbers of 
n+20h to n+2Fh. Such an operation of skipping sectors 
by ECC blocks is referred to as a "block skip". 
[0024] Figure 21 illustrates an exemplary physical 
space of the disk 1 which is suitable for AV data record- 
ing/reproduction. 

[0025] In the example illustrated in Figure 21 , a file 
A (indicated as "File-A" in Figure 21) containing AV data 
exists directly under a root directory (indicated as 
"ROOT" in Figure 21). Among data blocks a to c 
included in the data extent of the root directory, the data 
block c is defective. The defective block c is replaced by 
#1 spare block in the spare area 9. It is assumed that a 
defective block f is detected while recording the AV data 
extent of the file A in an area provided for the AV data 
extent. In such a case, the defective block f is skipped. 
As a result, the AV data extent of the file A is recorded 
while being divided into an AV data extent I (including 
the data blocks d and e) and another AV data extent II 
(including the data blocks g and h). 
[0026] The replacement of the defective block c by 
#1 spare block in the spare area 9 is registered in the 
SDL. However, the defective block f is not registered in 
the SDL because the defective block f was only skipped, 
and the defective block f is not replaced by a spare 
block (no spare block has even been allocated thereto). 
[0027] However, there is a problem associated with 
the presence of such a defective block which is not reg- 
istered in the SDL. The problem will be described below 
with reference to Figures 22A to 22C. 
[0028] Figure 22A illustrates a normally recorded 
ECC block. The ECC block is recorded over a plurality 
of sectors. Each sector begins with an ID containing the 
physical sector number of the sector, etc. Data is 
recorded in the area following the ID. The data is 
obtained by adding error correcting codes to main data 
and further interleaving the main data having the error 
correcting codes added thereto (see Figure 18). 
[0029] Figure 22B illustrates an ECC block for 
which an overwrite operation failed. When the ECC 
block illustrated in Figure 22A is overwritten with new 
data, new error correcting codes are calculated accord- 
ing to the new main data, and added to the ECC block. 
In the example illustrated in Figure 22B, however, the 
third sector has a defective ID. Therefore, the first two 



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sectors are overwritten with data of a new ECC block, 
while the other two sectors remain to have the data of 
an old ECC block. 

[0030] Figure 22C illustrates the structure of repro- 
duced data from the ECC block for which the overwrite 5 
operation failed. When the four sectors illustrated in Fig- 
ure 22 B are reproduced, the new data and the old data 
are mixed with each other (in Figure 22C, the new data 
and the old data are hatched in different directions). 
This means that an error correction always fails in the 10 
vertical direction using the outer code parity PO. 
[0031] As can be appreciated from the description 
above, a block for which a recording operation even 
once failed becomes a block from which data cannot be 
reproduced. The read modified write operation is is 
required to record data in some sectors of this block. 
However, a read modified write operation for such an 
unreproducible block will always fail. Thus, this block 
becomes a block on which data can no longer be 
recorded. Such a block cannot later be replaced by a 20 
replacement block because data to be transferred to the 
replacement block cannot be reproduced from the 
block, as in the read modified write operation. 
[0032] If the dynamically expandable spare area 
was used with the ISO standard defect management 25 
method which is designed for use with a fixed-size 
spare area, the spare area may temporarily be 
exhausted (i.e., no available spare area), which would 
never happen in the conventional techniques. There is 
no method proposed in the art to manage a defective 30 
block which is detected while the spare area is tempo- 
rarily exhausted. Since a read modified write operation 
for such an unmanaged defective block fails, data can- 
not be recorded by sectors in the defective block. 
[0033] Also when recording/reproducing AV data 35 
on/from the disk, a read modified write operation for a 
skipped defective block fails, thereby experiencing the 
same problem as just described above. 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 40 

[0034] According to one aspect of this invention, an 
information recording medium includes: a volume space 
in which user data is recorded; a spare area including a 
replacement area which may be used in place of a 45 
defective area included in the volume space; and a 
defect management information area in which defect 
management information for managing the defective 
area is recorded. The defect management information 
includes status information Indicating whether the 50 
defective area is replaced by the replacement area. 
[0035] In one embodiment of the invention, when a 
recording operation of the user data for the defective 
area is skipped, the status information indicating that 
the defective area is not replaced by the replacement 55 
area is written in the defect management information 
area. 

[0036] In one embodiment of the invention, the 



spare area is an expandable area. When there are no 
available spare area in the replacement area temporar- 
ily, the status information indicating that the defective 
area is not replaced by the replacement area is written 
in the defect management information area. 
[0037] In one embodiment of the invention, the 
defect management information includes first location 
information indicating a location of the defective area 
and second location information indicating a location of 
the replacement area. The status information indicates 
whether the defective area is replaced by the replace- 
ment area based on whether a value of the second loca- 
tion information is equal to a predetermined value. 
[0038] In one embodiment of the invention, the 
defect management information includes first location 
information indicating a location of the defective area, 
second location information indicating a location of the 
replacement area, and a flag indicating whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement area. The 
status information indicates whether the defective area 
is replaced by the replacement area based on a value of 
the flag. 

[0039] In one embodiment of the invention, the 
defective area is detected by ECC blocks each of which 
is a unit of an error correction operation. The defective 
area is replaced by the replacement area by ECC 
blocks. 

[0040] According to another aspect of this inven- 
tion, an information recording method for recording 
information on an information recording medium is pro- 
vided. The information recording medium includes: a 
volume space in which user data is recorded; a spare 
area including a replacement area which may be used 
in place of a defective area included in the volume 
space; and a defect management information area in 
which defect management information for managing the 
defective area is recorded. The method includes the 
steps of: detecting the defective area: and recording 
status information indicating whether the defective area 
is replaced by the replacement area in the defect man- 
agement information area. 

[0041] In one embodiment of the invention, the 
method further includes the step of skipping a recording 
operation of the user data for the defective area. When 
the recording operation of the user data for the defective 
area is skipped, the status information indicating that 
the defective area is not replaced by the replacement 
area is written in the defect management information 
area. 

[0042] In one embodiment of the invention, the 
spare area is an expandable area. The method further 
includes the step of detecting that the spare area tem- 
porarily runs out of available replacement areas. When 
there are no available spare area in the replacement 
area temporarily, the status information indicating that 
the defective area is not replaced by the replacement 
area is written in the defect management information 
area. 



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[0043] In one embodiment of the invention, the 
defect management information includes first location 
information indicating a location of the defective area 
and second location information indicating a location of 
the replacement area. The status information indicates 
whether the defective area is replaced by the replace- 
ment area based on whether a value of the second loca- 
tion information is equal to a predetermined value. 
[0044] In one embodiment of the invention, the 
defect management information includes first location 
information indicating a location of the defective area, 
second location information indicating a location of the 
replacement area, and a flag indicating whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement area. The 
status information indicates whether the defective area 
is replaced by the replacement area based on a value of 
the flag. 

[0045] In one embodiment of the invention, the 
defective area is detected by ECC blocks each of which 
is a unit of an error correction operation. The defective 
area is replaced by the replacement area by ECC 
blocks. 

[0046] According to still another aspect of this 
invention, an information recording apparatus for 
recording information on an information recording 
medium is provided. The information recording medium 
includes: a volume space in which user data is 
recorded; a spare area including a replacement area 
which may be used in place of a defective area included 
in the volume space; and a defect management infor- 
mation area in which defect management information 
for managing the defective area is recorded. The appa- 
ratus includes: a detection section for detecting the 
defective area; and a recording section for recording 
status information indicating whether the defective area 
is replaced by the replacement area in the defect man- 
agement information area. 

[0047] In one embodiment of the invention, the 
apparatus further comprises a skip section for skipping 
a recording operation of the user data for the defective 
area. When the recording operation of the user data for 
the defective area is skipped, the recording section 
writes in the defect management information area the 
status information indicating that the defective area is 
not replaced by the replacement area. 
[0048] In one embodiment of the invention, the 
spare area is an expandable area. The apparatus fur- 
ther includes a further detection section for detecting 
that the spare area temporarily runs out of available 
replacement areas. When there are no available spare 
area in the replacement area temporarily, the recording 
section writes in the defect management information 
area the status information indicating that the defective 
area is not replaced by the replacement area. 
[0049] In one embodiment of the invention, the 
defect management information includes first location 
information indicating a location of the defective area 
and second location information indicating a location of 



the replacement area. The status information indicates 
whether the defective area is replaced by the replace- 
ment area based on whether a value of the second loca- 
tion information is equal to a predetermined value. 

5 [0050] In one embodiment of the invention, the 
defect management information includes first location 
information indicating a location of the defective area, 
second location information indicating a location of the 
replacement area, and a flag indicating whether the 

10 defective area is replaced by the replacement area. The 
status information indicates whether the defective area 
is replaced by the replacement area based on a value of 
the flag. 

[0051] In one embodiment of the invention, the 
is defective area is detected by ECC blocks each of which 
is a unit of an error correction operation. The defective 
area is replaced by the replacement area by ECC 
blocks. 

[0052] According to still another aspect of this 

20 invention, an information reproducing apparatus for 
reproducing information recorded on an information 
recording medium is provided. The information record- 
ing medium includes: a volume space in which user 
data is recorded: a spare area including a replacement 

25 area which may be used in place of a defective area 
included in the volume space; and a defect manage- 
ment information area in which defect management 
information for managing the defective area is recorded. 
The defect management information includes status 

30 information indicating whether the defective area is 
replaced by the replacement area. The apparatus 
includes: a determination section for determining 
whether the defective area is replaced by the replace- 
ment area with reference to the status information; and 

35 a control section for controlling a reproducing operation 
of the user data according to the determination. 
[0053] In one embodiment of the invention, when 
the defective area is not replaced by the replacement 
area, the control section skips a reproducing operation 

40 for the defective area. 

[0054] In one embodiment of the invention, when 
the defective area is not replaced by the replacement 
area, the control section outputs data having a fixed 
value as data obtained by reproducing the defective 

45 area, regardless of data in the defective area. 

[0055] In one embodiment of the invention, the 
defective area is detected by ECC blocks each of which 
is a unit of an error correction operation. The defective 
area is replaced by the replacement area by ECC 

so blocks. The error correction operation includes a first 
error correction operation for correcting errors within a 
single sector and a second error correction operation for 
correcting errors over a plurality of sectors. When the 
defective area is not replaced by the replacement area, 

55 the control section performs the first error correction 
operation, without performing the second error correc- 
tion operation, for data in the defective area so as to out- 
put data which is corrected by the first error correction 



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operation. 

[0056] Thus, the invention described herein makes 
possible the advantages of: (1) providing an information 
recording medium where it is possible to manage a 
defective block even when there is no spare block avail- s 
able to replace the defective block so as to reduce the 
risk that the read modified write operation fails, thereby 
increasing the reliability: (2) providing an information 
recording method having such a feature; (3) providing 
an information recording apparatus having such a fea- 
ture; and (4) providing an information reproducing appa- 
ratus having such a feature. 

[0057] These and other advantages of the present 
invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art 
upon reading and understanding the following detailed 
description with reference to the accompanying figures. 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 

[0058] 

Figure 1A is a diagram illustrating a structure of a 
physical space of a disk 1 which is an information 
recording medium according to Embodiment 1 of 
the present invention; 25 

Figure 1 B is a diagram illustrating a structure of an 
SDL 13 illustrated in Figure 1 A: 

Figure 1C is a diagram illustrating a structure of an 
SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13; 

Figure 1 D is a diagram illustrating another structure 
of the SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13; 

Figure 1 E is a diagram illustrating another structure 
of the SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13; 

Figure 2 is a diagram illustrating an exemplary 
physical space of the disk 1 where a file A contain- 40 
ing AV data is recorded on the disk 1 ; 

Figure 3 is a diagram illustrating an exemplary 
physical space of the disk 1 where the file A con- 
taining AV data and then a file B containing non-AV 45 
data are recorded on the disk 1 ; 

Figure 4 is a diagram illustrating an exemplary 
physical space of the disk 1 where the spare area is 
temporarily exhausted (i.e., out of available replace- so 
ment areas); 

Figure 5 is a diagram illustrating an exemplary 
physical space of the disk 1 where a file C recording 
operation is retried after expanding a second spare 55 
area 8; 

Figure 6 is a conceptual diagram illustrating a prin- 



ciple of recording AV data on, or reproducing 
recorded AV data from, the disk 1 ; 

Figure 7 is a block diagram illustrating a structure of 
an information recording/reproducing system 700 
according to Embodiment 2 of the present inven- 
tion: 



Figure 1 1 is a procedure of a method for reproduc- 
ing normal computer data (not real time data) 
recorded on the disk 1 using the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 1020; 



Figure 13 is a flow chart illustrating a procedure of 
a recording operation performed by the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 1020; 

Figure 14 is a block diagram illustrating a structure 
of a disk recording/reproducing drive 1420 accord- 
ing to Embodiment 4 of the present invention: 

Figure 15 is a flow chart illustrating a procedure of 
a reproducing operation performed by the disk 
recording/reproducing drive 1420; 

Figure 16 is a flow chart illustrating a procedure of 
a recording operation performed by the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 1420; 

Figure 17 is a diagram illustrating a physical struc- 
ture of the disk 1 ; 

Figure 18A is a diagram illustrating a structure of an 
ECC block which is a unit of error correcting code 
calculation; 

Figure 18B illustrates an arrangement of sectors 
included in an ECC block; 

Figure 1 9 illustrates an exemplary physical space of 



Figure 8 is a diagram illustrating a procedure of a 
10 method for recording a file containing AV data on 
the disk 1 using the information recording/reproduc- 
ing system 700; 

Figure 9 is a diagram illustrating a procedure of a 
15 method for reproducing a file containing AV data 
recorded on the disk 1 using the information record- 
ing/reproducing system 700; 

Figure 10 is a block diagram illustrating a structure 
20 of a disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 accord- 
ing to Embodiment 3 of the present invention; 



Figure 12 is a flow chart illustrating a procedure of 
a reproducing operation performed by the disk 
30 recording/reproducing drive 1 020; 



6 



11 

the disk 1 for use with a defect management 
method according to the ISO standard; 

Figure 20A illustrates an arrangement of AV data 
where there is no defective sector; s 

Figure 20B illustrates an arrangement of AV data 
where there is a defective sector; 

Figure 21 illustrates an exemplary physical space of 10 
the disk 1 which is suitable for AV data record- 
ing/reproduction; 

Figure 22A is a diagram illustrating a normally 
recorded ECC block; 15 

Figure 22B is a diagram illustrating an ECC block 
for which an overwrite operation failed; 

Figure 22C is a diagram illustrating a structure of 20 
reproduced data from an ECC block for which an 
overwrite operation failed; 

Figure 23A is a diagram illustrating an exemplary 
format for a "SKIP WRITE" command; 25 

Figure 23B is a diagram illustrating another exem- 
plary format for a "SKIP WRITE" command; 

Figure 24A is a diagram illustrating an exemplary 30 
format for a "REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS" com- 
mand; and 

Figure 24B is a diagram illustrating an exemplary 
format for data which is reported in response to a 35 
"REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS" command. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODI- 
MENTS 

40 

[0059] Various embodiments of the present inven- 
tion will be described below with reference to the fig- 
ures. 

(Embodiment 1) 45 

[0060] A disk 1 is a rewritable information recording 
medium. The disk 1 may be any type of information 
recording medium, including a DVD-RAM. Data can be 
recorded on the disk 1 . The data recorded on the disk 1 so 
can be reproduced therefrom. The recording and repro- 
duction of the data is performed by sectors or by blocks. 
[0061] The physical structure of the disk 1 is the 
same as that illustrated in Figure 17, and therefore will 
not further be described below. 55 
[0062] Figure 1 A illustrates a structure of the physi- 
cal space of the disk 1 . The disk 1 includes one or more 
disk information areas 4 and a data recording area 5. In 



12 

the example illustrated in Figure 1A, two disk informa- 
tion areas 4 are provided respectively along the inner 
and outer peripheries of the disk 1 . The disk information 
area 4 along the inner periphery is also called a "lead- 
in" area, while the disk information area 4 along the 
outer periphery is also called a "lead-out" area. 
[0063] Data is recorded/reproduced on/from the 
data recording area 5. Each sector in the data recording 
area 5 is assigned an absolute address which is called 
a physical sector number (hereinafter, abbreviated as a 
"PSN"). 

[0064] The data recording area 5 includes a volume 
space 6 and a first spare area 7. 
[0065] The volume space 6 is an area provided for 
storing user data. Each sector included in the volume 
space 6 is assigned a logical sector number (hereinaf- 
ter, abbreviated as an "LSN") for accessing the volume 
space 6. Data is recorded/reproduced by accessing 
each sector of the disk 1 using LSN. 
[0066] The first spare area 7 includes at least one 
sector which may be used in place of a defective sector 
if such a defective sector occurs in the volume space 6. 
The first spare area 7 is arranged on the inner periphery 
side of the disk 1 with respect to the volume space 6, so 
that when a defective sector occurs in an area storing 
the file management information (free space manage- 
ment information, the file entry of the root directory, 
etc.), such a defective sector can be replaced quickly. 
The file management information is stored near the sec- 
tor which is assigned an LSN "0". Thus, by arranging the 
first spare area 7 on the inner periphery side of the disk 
1 with respect to the volume space 6, the seek distance 
between a defective sector and a replacement sector 
can be reduced. In this way, the speed of the defective 
sector replacement process is increased. Since the file 
management information is frequently accessed, the file 
management information requires high data reliability. 
Therefore, it is quite effective to quickly replace a defec- 
tive sector which occurs in the area storing the file man- 
agement information. 

[0067] The volume space 6 includes a logical vol- 
ume space 6a and logical volume structures 6b for stor- 
ing information on the structure of the logical volume 
space 6a. The logical volume space 6a stores free 
space management information indicating whether a 
sector in the logical volume space 6a is used or free, 
one or more data extents storing the contents of the file, 
and a file entry in which one or more data extents corre- 
sponding to the file are registered. Each file is managed 
by using the various types of information. 
[0068] The disk information area 4 includes a con- 
trol data area 4a and a defect management information 
area 4b. The defect management information area 4b 
stores defect management information 10 for managing 
defective sectors. 

[0069] The defect management information 10 
includes a disk definition structure 11 , a primary defect 
list (hereinafter, abbreviated as a "PDL") 12 and a sec- 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



7 



13 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



14 



ondary defect list (hereinafter, abbreviated as an "SDL") 
13. 

[0070] The PDL 12 is used to manage defective 
sectors which are detected during a pre-shipping 
inspection of the disk 1 . The pre-shipping inspection of 
the disk 1 is usually conducted by the manufacturer of 
the disk 1. 

[0071] The SDL 13 is used to manage defective 
sectors which are detected during use of the disk 1 by a 
user. 

[0072] Figure 1B illustrates a structure of the SDL 
13. 

[0073] The SDL 1 3 includes: a secondary defect list 
header ("SDL header") 20 containing an identifier which 
identifies the list as an SDL; number of SDL entries 
information 21 indicating the number of SDL entries reg- 
istered in the SDL: and one or more SDL entries 22 (1st 
entry to m th entry in the example illustrated in Figure 
1B). The number of SDL entries information 21 being 
"0" indicates that there is no defective sector registered 
in the SDL. 

[0074] Figure 1C illustrates a structure of the SDL 
entry 22. 

[0075] The SDL entry 22 includes a status field 22a, 
a field 22b for storing information which indicates the 
location of the defective sector, and a field 22c for stor- 
ing information which indicates the location of a replace- 
ment sector for the defective sector. 
[0076] The status field 22a is used to indicate 
whether the defective sector is replaced by a replace- 
ment sector. The location of the defective sector is rep- 
resented by, for example, the PSN of the defective 
sector. The location of the replacement sector is repre- 
sented by, for example, the PSN of the replacement 
sector. 

[0077] For example, the status field 22a may 
include a 1-bit flag 22a-1 and a reserved area 22a-2. 
For example, the 1 -bit flag 22a-1 being "1 " may indicate 
that the defective sector is not replaced by a replace- 
ment sector, and it being "0" may indicate that the defec- 
tive sector is replaced by a replacement sector. 
[0078] Alternatively, the status field 22a may 
include a 1-bit exhaustion flag 22a-3, a 1-bit AV flag 
22a-4 and a reserved area 22a-5 (see Figure 1 D). Each 
of the exhaustion flag 22a-3 and the AV flag 22a-4 is a 
flag indicating the reason why the defective sector is not 
replaced by a replacement sector. For example, the 
exhaustion flag 22a-3 being "1" may indicate that the 
defective sector is not replaced by a replacement sector 
because the first spare area 7 is exhausted. For exam- 
ple, the AV flag 22a-4 being "1" may indicate that the 
defective sector is not replaced by a replacement sector 
because it is a defective sector which was detected 
while recording AV data on the disk 1 . 
[0079] Instead of providing the status field 22a, a 
predetermined value, which indicates that "no replace- 
ment sector available (i.e., the defective sector is not 
replaced by a replacement sector)", may alternatively 



be inserted in the field 22c which is for storing informa- 
tion indicating the location of a replacement sector (see 
Figure 1E). The predetermined value may be "0", for 
example. 

5 [0080] Figures 1C to 1E are only exemplary, and 
the format for the SDL entry 22 is not limited to those 
illustrated in Figures 1C to 1E. The SDL entry 22 may 
take any format as long as the SDL includes the status 
information which indicates whether the defective sector 

10 is replaced by a replacement sector. 

[0081] For example, by setting the field 22c to a 
predetermined value while the status field 22a is being 
"1", it is possible to increase the number of statuses 
which can be distinguished from one another. For exam- 

15 pie, the field 22c being set to "0" may indicate that a 
newly detected defective sector is not replaced by a 
replacement sector, and the replacement sector has not 
been assigned. For example, the field 22c being set to 
a value other than "0" may indicate that a previously 

20 detected defective sector was replaced by the replace- 
ment sector, that is specified by the field 22c, but the 
replacement is cancelled. 

[0082] While the defect management is performed 
by sectors in the above-described example, the defect 

25 management may alternatively be performed by blocks 
each including a plurality of sectors. In such a case, 
information indicating the location of a defective block 
(rather than a defective sector; e.g., the PSN of the 
leading sector of the defective block), and information 

30 indicating the location of a replacement block (rather 
than a replacement sector; e.g., the PSN of the leading 
sector of the replacement block) may be registered in 
the SDL. It is alternatively possible to perform defect 
management by ECC blocks each of which is a unit of 

35 an error correction operation. 

[0083] Thus, by storing in the defect management 
information area, status information which indicates 
whether a defective area (a defective sector or a defec- 
tive block) is replaced by a replacement area (a replace- 

40 ment sector or a replacement block), it is possible to 
manage the status where a defective area has been 
detected but is not replaced by a replacement area. 
[0084] Figure 2 illustrates an exemplary physical 
space of the disk 1 where a file A containing AV data is 

45 recorded on the disk 1 . 

[0085] In the example illustrated in Figure 2, a file A 
(indicated as "File-A" in Figure 2) exists directly under a 
root directory (indicated as "ROOT" in Figure 2). Among 
data blocks a to c included in the data extent of the root 

so directory, the data block c is defective. The defective 
block c is replaced by #1 spare block in the first spare 
area 7. It is assumed that a defective block f is detected 
while recording the AV data extent of the file A in an 
area provided for the AV data extent. In such a case, the 

55 defective block f is skipped. As a result, the AV data 
extent of the file A is recorded while being divided into 
an AV data extent I (File-A) (including the data blocks d 
and e) and another AV data extent II (File-A) (including 



8 



15 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



16 



the data blocks g and h). 

[0086] The first SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indi- 
cates that the defective block c is replaced by #1 spare 
block in the first spare area 7. 

[0087] The second SDL entry 22 in the SDL 1 3 indi- s 
cates that the defective block f (which was detected 
while recording AV data on the disk 1 and thus skipped) 
is not replaced by a replacement block. 
[0088] Figure 3 illustrates an exemplary physical 
space of the disk 1 where the file A containing AV data 
and then a file B containing non-AV data (i.e., a type of 
data other than AV data) are recorded on the disk 1 . 
[0089] In the example illustrated in Figure 3, the 
defective block f is designated as a location where the 
data extent of the file B is to be recorded. As a result, 
the defective block f is replaced by #2 spare block in the 
first spare area 7. Along with this replacement process, 
the value in the status field 22a of the second SDL entry 
22 in the SDL 13 is changed from "1" to "0", and infor- 
mation which indicates the location of #2 spare block is 
stored in the field 22c thereof. 

[0090] It is assumed that the size of the data extent 
of the file B is equal to the size of one block. The struc- 
ture information of the data extent of the file B is 
described in the file entry of the File B. LSNs corre- 
sponding to the file B are described as "used" in the free 
space management information. The file B is registered 
in the data extent of the root directory. 
[0091] If the optical disk apparatus attempts to 
record data in some sectors of the defective block f , not 
knowing that the defective block f is a defective block for 
which an AV data recording operation failed, the result 
will not be the same as described above for the follow- 
ing reason. The optical disk apparatus performs a read 
modified write operation so as not to change data in 
other sectors belonging to the same ECC block as the 
sector for which a recording operation is requested. The 
optical disk apparatus attempts to perform the data 
reproduction step of the read modified write operation in 
the ECC block, but always fails. As a result, it is not pos- 
sible to obtain data in the unit of ECC blocks, as 
required to record the data in a spare block. Thus, 
replacement cannot even be made. 
[0092] If the optical disk apparatus knows that the 
defective block f is a defective block for which an AV 
data recording operation failed, it can determine that no 
effective user data is recorded in the defective block f. 
Such a determination can be made because AV data, 
which is required to be recorded in a real time manner, 
needs to be recorded on the disk 1 by ECC blocks. In 
other words, the optical disk apparatus is never 
requested to rewrite only some of the sectors in an ECC 
block. Therefore, a read modified write operation (for 
rewriting only the sector for which a recording operation 
is requested without changing data in the other sectors 
belonging to the same ECC block) is not required for a 
skipped defective block. Thus, it is possible to create an 
ECC block by filling the other sectors with "0"s and to 



record the created ECC block in a replacement spare 
block. 

[0093] Figure 4 illustrates an exemplary physical 
space of the disk 1 where the spare area is temporarily 
exhausted (i.e., out of available replacement areas). 
[0094] As compared to the physical space illus- 
trated in Figure 2, an expandable second spare area 8 
is additionally allocated in the data recording area 5. 
Along with the allocation of the second spare area 8, the 
size of the volume space 6 and the size of the logical 
volume space 6a are reduced according to the size of 
the second spare area 8. Prior to the allocation of the 
second spare area 8, the volume structure 6b along the 
outer periphery of the disk 1 is moved toward the inner 
periphery of the disk 1 . The size of the free space man- 
agement information is adjusted according to the size of 
the logical volume space 6a. 

[0095] In the example illustrated in Figure 4, a file A 
(indicated as "File-A" in Figure 4), a file B (indicated as 
"File-B" in Figure 4), and a file C (indicated as "File-C" in 
Figure 4), which is now being recorded, exist directly 
under a root directory (indicated as "ROOT" in Figure 
4). 

[0096] A data block c included in the data extent of 
the root directory is defective. The defective block c is 
replaced by #1 spare block in the first spare area 7. 
[0097] A data block f included in the data extent of 
the file A is defective. The data block f is replaced by #2 
spare block in the first spare area 7. 
[0098] Data blocks h and j included in the data 
extent of the file B are defective. The data blocks h and 
j are replaced respectively by #3 spare block and #4 
spare block in the second spare area 8. When a data 
block m was to be recorded as the data extent of the file 
C, the data block m was detected as a defective block 
during the recording operation, and no available spare 
block existed in the first spare area 7 or in the second 
spare area 8. Thus, the file C is incomplete. 
[0099] As compared to the structure of the SDL 13 
illustrated in Figure 1B, the SDL 13 is additionally pro- 
vided with a field 23 for storing information which indi- 
cates the location of the second spare area 8. For 
example, the PSN of the leading sector of the second 
spare area 8 may be stored in the field 23 as the infor- 
mation indicating the location of the second spare area 
8. The field 23 is provided for dynamically expanding the 
second spare area 8. 

[0100] The first SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indi- 
cates that the defective block c is replaced by #1 spare 
block in the first spare area 7. 

[0101] The second SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indi- 
cates that the defective block f is replaced by #2 spare 
block in the first spare area 7. 

[0102] The third SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indi- 
cates that the defective block h is replaced by #3 spare 
block in the second spare area 8. 
[01 03] The fourth SDL entry 22 in the SDL 1 3 indi- 
cates that the defective block j is replaced by #4 spare 



15 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



9 



17 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



18 



block in the second spare area 8. 
[0104] The fifth SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indi- 
cates that the defective block m is not replaced by a 
spare block. 

[0105] Figure 5 illustrates an exemplary physical 5 
space of the disk 1 where the file C recording operation 
is retried after expanding the second spare area 8. 
[0106] As illustrated in Figure 5, the second spare 
area 8 has been expanded. The size of the volume 
space 6 and the size of the logical volume space 6a are 
reduced according to the expansion of the second 
spare area 8. 

[0107] Prior to the expansion of the second spare 
area 8, the volume structure 6b along the outer periph- 
ery of the disk 1 is moved toward the inner periphery of 
the disk 1. The size of the free space management 
information is adjusted according to the size of the logi- 
cal volume space 6a. 

[0108] The data block m included in the data extent 
of the file C is replaced by #5 spare block in the 
expanded second spare area 8. The data extent of the 
file C includes three data blocks I, m and n. The struc- 
ture information of the data extent of the file C is 
described in the file entry of the file C. LSNs corre- 
sponding to the file C are described as "used" in the free 
space management information. The file C is registered 
in the data extent of the root directory. 
[0109] The fifth SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indi- 
cates that the data block m is replaced by #5 spare 
block in the expanded second spare area 8. 
[01 1 0] Unlike when an AV data recording operation 
fails, when a non-AV data recording operation fails, the 
defective block may contain effective user data. A recov- 
ery process for such a defective block is somewhat 
more complicated than in the case where the defective 
block does not contain effective user data. 
[0111] It is assumed that the optical disk apparatus 
is requested to record data in a sector included in a 
defective block (ECC block) to which no replacement 
block has been allocated. In such a case, the optical 
disk apparatus reproduces data from the other sectors 
in the ECC block which includes the sector by using only 
the inner code parities PI (see Figure 22C) which are 
independently provided for the respective sectors, and 
performs a read modified write operation using the 
reproduced data. 

[0112] In this way, although the error correction 
capability is reduced because the outer code parity PO 
is not used, it is possible to correct errors to the extent 
the errors are correctable only with the inner code parity 
PI. 

[01 1 3] Where a defective block to which no replace- 
ment block has been allocated is registered in the SDL 
only when there is no effective user data in the defective 
block, a defective block recovery process to be per- 
formed is similar to that described above which is per- 
formed after failure of an AV data recording operation. 
[0114] As described above, when a defective area 



is detected while recording data which requires real 
time processing (e.g., AV data), the data is not recorded 
in the defective area (i.e., the defective area is skipped). 
The location of the defective area is written in the defect 
management information area 4b of the disk 1 . Moreo- 
ver, status information indicating that the defective area 
is not replaced by a replacement area is also written in 
the defect management information area 4b of the disk 
1 . When it is requested to record data which does not 
require real time processing (e.g., non-AV data) in the 
defective area, the defective area is replaced by a 
replacement area without performing a read modified 
write operation. The location of the replacement area is 
written in the defect management information area 4b of 
the disk 1. 

[0115] Thus, by replacing a defective area with a 
replacement area while avoiding a read modified write 
operation which is known to always fail, it is possible to 
successfully record data which does not require real 
time processing in the replacement area. 
[0116] Moreover, a replacement area is not allo- 
cated to a defective area until it is actually requested to 
record data in the defective area. This provides an 
advantage in that no replacement area is wasted. 
[0117] Where a spare area is expandable, the 
spare area may temporarily run out of available replace- 
ment areas. When no replacement area can be allo- 
cated to a detected defective area because the spare 
area is temporarily out of available replacement areas, 
the location of the defective area is written in the defect 
management information area 4b of the disk 1 . Moreo- 
ver, status information indicating that the defective area 
is not replaced by a replacement area (no replacement 
area has been allocated thereto) is written in the defect 
management information area 4b of the disk 1 . Alter the 
spare area is expanded and a replacement area is 
made available, the replacement area is allocated to the 
defective area and the defective area is replaced by the 
replacement area. The location of the replacement area 
is written in the defect management information area 4b 
of the disk 1 . 

[0118] In the above-described information record- 
ing medium, a replacement area is not allocated to a 
defective area upon detection of the defective area, but 
it is allocated thereto only when effective data is 
recorded in a logical volume space which corresponds 
to the defective area. Such an information recording 
medium has an advantage in that the spare area can be 
efficiently used. 

[0119] Moreover, the advantage of efficiently using 
the spare area is not dependent upon the structure of 
the error correcting code which requires a read modified 
write operation. 



[0120] An embodiment of an information record- 
ing/reproducing system for recording information on, or 



15 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



55 (Embodiment 2) 



10 



19 

reproducing recorded information from, the disk 1 as 
described in Embodiment 1 above will now be 
described with reference to the figures. 
[0121] Figure 6 is a conceptual diagram illustrating 
a principle of recording AV data on, or reproducing s 
recorded AV data from, the disk 1 . 
[0122] AV data is recorded on the disk 1 with refer- 
ence to the free space management information in the 
logical volume space. The system searches for a free 
area in the logical volume space based on the free 10 
space management information. The number of blocks 
of the continuously free area needs to be greater than 
the number of blocks required for the AV data to be 
recorded by at least a predetermined number. The pre- 
determined number corresponds to the number of is 
blocks for which a skip operation is to be allowed. When 
a free area satisfying such a condition is found, the free 
area is allocated to the AV data. 
[0123] In the example illustrated in Figure 6, a free 
area 62 included in an area 61 is allocated to AV data 20 
63. The area 61 is a part of the logical volume space 6a. 
The free area 62 includes blocks B 1 to B i0 - 
[0124] Parameters for a skip recording instruction 
are produced based on the size of the free area 62 
which is allocated to the AV data 63 (i.e., the size of the 25 
allocated area) and the size of the AV data 63 (i.e., the 
AV data size). 

[0125] Reference numeral 65 denotes a recording 
operation performed when a skip recording instruction 
is executed. 30 
[01 26] Defective block detection is performed while 
recording the AV data 63 in the free area 62. The AV 
data 63 is recorded in the free area 62 while skipping 
each defective blockdetected. In the example illustrated 
in Figure 6, the blocks B 4 and B 7 are defective. There- 35 
fore, a portion of the AV data 63 is recorded in the 
blocks B r B 3 , another portion of the AV data 63 is 
recorded in the blocks B 5 -B 6 , and the remaining portion 
of the AV data 63 is recorded in the blocks B 8 -B 9 . Fol- 
lowing the AV data 63, padding data 64 is recorded in 40 
the block B 9 . The padding data 64 is provided so that 
the end of the padding data 64 coincides with a block 
boundary. As a result of the recording operation, the 
blocks B-j-Bs, B 5 -B 6 and B 8 -B 9 become "used", while 
the other blocks B 4> B 7 and B 10 remain "free". 45 
[0127] The locations of the defective blocks B 4 and 
B 7 are stored in a defect list 66a. The contents of the 
defect list 66a are written in the SDL 13 in the defect 
management information area 4b of the disk 1 at any 
appropriate time, and are reported to the file system as so 
a skip list 66b as necessary. Based on the reported skip 
list 66b, the file system determines the location of an AV 
data extent 66c which indicates the area where the AV 
data 63 is recorded, and the location of a padding extent 
66d which indicates the ECC blockfraction (i.e., sectors 55 
having no AV data in an ECC block partially including 
AV data), so as to update the file management informa- 
tion. 



20 

[0128] Parameters for a skip reproducing instruc- 
tion include the size of the allocated area and the AV 
data size. 

[0129] Reference numeral 67 denotes a reproduc- 
ing operation performed when a skip reproducing 
instruction is executed. 

[0130] The AV data 63 recorded on the disk 1 is 
reproduced with reference to the SDL 13. The AV data 
63 is reproduced while skipping the defective blocks 
registered in the SDL 13. 

[0131] Figure 7 is a block diagram illustrating a 
structure of an information recording/reproducing sys- 
tem 700 according to Embodiment 2 of the present 
invention. 

[0132] As illustrated in Figure 7, the information 
recording/reproducing system 700 includes: an upper 
level control unit 71 0 for controlling the overall system; a 
disk recording/reproducing drive 720 for controlling the 
recording/reproduction of the rewritable disk 1 (not 
shown in Figure 7) according to the instruction from the 
upper level control unit 710; a magnetic disk apparatus 
750; an AV data output section 760 for converting digital 
AV data to an analog AV signal and outputting the ana- 
log AV signal; an AV data input section 770 for convert- 
ing the input analog AV signal to digital AV data: and an 
I/O bus 780 for receiving/transmitting data and control 
information. 

[0133] The upper level control unit 710 includes a 
microprocessor in which a control program and an arith- 
metic memory are provided. The upper level control unit 

710 further includes: a recording area allocation section 

711 for allocating a recording area when recording data; 
a file management information creation section 712 for 
creating file management information for each recorded 
file; a file management information interpretation sec- 
tion 713 for calculating the location where the file is 
recorded and determining the attribute information of 
the file based on the file management information; a 
data buffer memory 714 for temporarily storing data; 
and an instruction issuing section 715 for issuing an 
instruction to the disk recording/reproducing drive 720. 
[0134] The instruction issuing section 715 includes: 
a skip recording instruction issuing section 716 for issu- 
ing a skip recording instruction which requests data to 
be recorded while skipping defective areas; a recording 
location request instruction issuing section 717 for issu- 
ing a recording location request instruction which 
requests recording location information to be returned 
(the information is used after data is recorded to deter- 
mine the area where the data has been recorded); and 
a skip reproducing instruction issuing section 718 for 
issuing a skip reproducing instruction which requests 
data to be reproduced while skipping defective areas. 
[0135] The disk recording/reproducing drive 720 
includes a microprocessor in which a control program 
and an arithmetic memory are provided. The disk 
recording/reproducing drive 720 is made of a mechani- 
cal section, a signal processing circuit, etc., which are 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



11 



21 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



22 



controlled by the microprocessor. The disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 720 operatively includes: an 
instruction processing section 721 for processing an 
instruction from the upper level control unit 710; a 
recording control section 730 for controlling the record- 
ing operation on the rewritable disk 1 ; and a reproduc- 
tion controlling section 740 for controlling the 
reproducing operation from the rewritable disk 1 . 
[0136] The instruction processing section 721 
includes: a skip recording instruction processing section 
722 for processing a skip recording instruction; a 
recording location request instruction processing sec- 
tion 723 for processing a recording location request 
instruction; and a skip reproducing instruction process- 
ing section 724 for processing a skip reproducing 
instruction. 

[0137] The recording control section 730 includes: 
a defective area detection section 731 for detecting a 
defective area during a recording operation; a skip 
recording controlling section 732 for recording data 
while skipping defective areas which are detected dur- 
ing the recording operation; a recording location storing 
memory 733 for storing information relating to the loca- 
tion where data is recorded; a data verifying section 734 
for reading out recorded data so as to determine 
whether the data has been normally recorded: a record- 
ing control information memory 735 for storing control 
information (e.g., the recording start location, and the 
recording length) which is required when recording 
data; a recording data storing memory 736 for tempo- 
rarily storing recording data received from the upper 
level control unit 710; and a skip location recording sec- 
tion 737 for recording a defective area, which has been 
detected and skipped during a recording operation, in 
the defect management information. 
[0138] The reproduction controlling section 740 
includes: a reproduction location storing memory 743 
for storing information relating to the location from which 
data is reproduced; a skip reproduction controlling sec- 
tion 742 for reproducing data while skipping defective 
areas with reference to the reproduction location storing 
memory 743; a reproduction control information mem- 
ory 745 for storing control information (e.g., the repro- 
duction start location, and the reproduction length) 
which is required when reproducing data; a read-out 
data storing memory 746 for temporarily storing data 
which has been read out from the rewritable disk 1 ; and 
a skip location reading section 747 for reading out the 
location of a defective area to be skipped from the 
defect management information and storing it in the 
reproduction location storing memory 743. 
[0139] Next, a method for recording a file containing 
AV data on the disk 1 using the information record- 
ing/reproducing system 700 illustrated in Figure 7 will 
be described below. 

[0140] Figure 8 illustrates the steps of the recording 
method. 

[0141] In Figure 8, it is assumed that the file man- 



agement information for a file ("AV_FILE") recorded on 
the rewritable disk 1 is read out when the disk 1 is 
inserted into the disk recording/reproducing drive 720, 
then interpreted by the file management information 
5 interpretation section 713, and stored in the upper level 
control unit 71 0. 

[0142] Moreover, in Figure 8, reference numeral 81 
denotes operations performed by the upper level control 
unit 710, reference numeral 82 denotes those per- 

10 formed by the disk recording/reproducing drive 720, and 
reference numeral 83 denotes instructions, data and 
operation results flowing through the l/F protocol 
between the upper level control unit 710 and the disk 
recording/reproducing drive 720. 

is [0143] (Step 801) The upper level control unit 710 
controls the AV data input section 770 to start an AV 
data receiving operation. The AV data received by the 
AV data input section 770 is converted into digital data 
at the AV data input section 770, and then transmitted 

20 through the I/O bus 780 to be stored in the data buffer 
memory 714. 

[0144] (Step 802) Prior to an AV data recording 
operation, the recording area allocation section 711 of 
the upper level control unit 710 obtains information indi- 

25 eating a free area of the rewritable disk 1 from the file 
management information interpretation section 713, 
and allocates the free area as a recording area. The 
recording area allocation section 71 1 performs the area 
allocation operation in view of the size of the area to be 

30 allocated and the physical distance from one area to 
another so that the AV data can be smoothly repro- 
duced. 

[0145] (Step 803) The skip recording instruction 
issuing section 716 of the upper level control unit 710 

35 obtains location information of the area allocated by the 
recording area allocation section 711, and issues a 
"SKIP WRITE" command (a skip recording instruction) 
to the disk recording/reproducing drive 720. The skip 
recording instruction issuing section 716 specifies the 

40 location information of the area allocated by the record- 
ing area allocation section 711 and the recording size 
information, as parameters for the "SKIP WRITE" com- 
mand. Following the "SKIP WRITE" command, data 
having a size as specified by this command is trans- 

45 ferred from the data buffer memory 714 to the disk 
recording/reproducing drive 720. 
[0146] Each of Figures 23A and 23B illustrates an 
exemplary format for the "SKIP WRITE" command. 
[0147] Figure 23A illustrates an exemplary format 

so for the "SKIP WRITE" command such that it is possible 
to specify both the allocated area and the size of the 
data to be recorded through a single issuance of the 
command. Byte 0 stores a unique instruction code indi- 
cating that it is a "SKIP WRITE" command. Bytes 2-5 

55 store an LSN indicating the leading sector of the allo- 
cated area. Bytes 6-7 store the number of sectors corre- 
sponding to the size of the data to be recorded (data 
length). Bytes 8-9 store the number of sectors corre- 



12 



23 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



24 



sponding to the size of the allocated area (area length). 
[0148] Figure 23B illustrates an exemplary format 
for the "SKIP WRITE" command such that the allocated 
area and the size of the data to be recorded can be 
specified through a number of issuances of the com- 
mand. Byte 0 stores a unique instruction code indicating 
that it is a "SKIP WRITE" command. An operation 
option is provided at bit 0 of byte 1 . The operation option 
being "1" indicates that the command specifies the allo- 
cated area. The operation option being "0" indicates 
that the command specifies the size of the data to be 
recorded. When the operation option is "1", bytes 2-5 
store an LSN indicating the leading sector of the allo- 
cated area, while bytes 7-8 store the number of sectors 
corresponding to the size of the allocated area (area 
length). When the operation option is "0", bytes 7-8 
store the number of sectors corresponding to the size of 
the data to be recorded (data length). 
[0149] The command formats illustrated in Figures 
23A and 23B are merely examples of the format for the 
"SKIP WRITE" command. The "SKIP WRITE" com- 
mand may employ any other format as long as the loca- 
tion information of the allocated area and the size 
information of the data to be recorded can be specified. 
[0150] (Step 804) Upon receipt of the "SKIP 
WRITE" command issued from the upper level control 
unit 710, the skip recording instruction processing sec- 
tion 722 of the disk recording/reproducing drive 720 ini- 
tializes the recording control information memory 735 
and the recording location storing memory 733 accord- 
ing to the "SKIP WRITE" command, and activates the 
skip recording controlling section 732. The skip record- 
ing controlling section 732 records data from the record- 
ing data storing memory 736 into non-defective blocks 
of the disk 1 while detecting any defective block (includ- 
ing newly-found defective blocks and those which have 
already been registered in the SDL) using the defective 
area detection section 731 . Each time a defective block 
is detected, the number of blocks which can be skipped 
(stored in the recording control information memory 
735) is decremented by one, and the location of the 
defective block is stored in the recording location storing 
memory 733. Each time a block is successfully 
recorded, the number of blocks which have been 
recorded (stored in the recording control information 
memory 735) is incremented by one. When the record- 
ing operation for the number of blocks requested is 
completed before the number of blocks which can be 
skipped becomes 0 or less, the process is normally ter- 
minated. When it is instructed to verify reproduced data 
after the recording operation, the defective blocks 
detected by the defective area detection section 731 , as 
well as those detected by the data verifying section 734, 
are skipped. 

[0151] As described above, the skip recording con- 
trolling section 732 continues the recording operation 
until all data is normally recorded while skipping the 
defective areas detected during the recording operation 



and storing the skipped location information. 
[0152] (Step 805) The disk recording/reproducing 
drive 720, having performed the skip recording opera- 
tion, returns a "complete" status to the upper level con- 

5 trol unit 710. 

[0153] (Step 806) The recording location request 
instruction issuing section 717 of the upper level control 
unit 710 issues to the disk recording/reproducing drive 
720 a "REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS" command for 

10 inquiring location information of the defective areas 
skipped in the skip recording operation in step 804. 
[0154] Figure 24A illustrates an exemplary format 
for the "REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS" command. 
Byte 0 stores a unique instruction code indicating that it 

is is a "REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS" command. Bytes 
7-8 store an upper limit value for the size of data to be 
reported. 

[0155] Figure 24B illustrates an exemplary format 
for data which is reported in response to the "REPORT 

20 SKIPPED ADDRESS" command. Bytes 0-1 store the 
number of location information points to be reported. 
For byte 4 and thereafter, each set of four bytes stores 
location information of a skipped defective area. 
[01 56] The command and data formats illustrated in 

25 Figures 24A and 24B are merely exemplary. The com- 
mand and the data may employ any other format as 
long as it is possible to inquire the location information 
of the skipped defective areas. 
[0157] (Step 812) The skip location recording sec- 

30 tion 737 registers, as an SDL entry, the location infor- 
mation of the defective area which was stored in the 
recording location storing memory 733 during the skip 
recording operation in step 804. Thus, the defect man- 
agement information is updated. 

35 [0158] (Step 807) Upon receipt of the "REPORT 
SKIPPED ADDRESS" command, the recording location 
request instruction processing section 723 of the disk 
recording/reproducing drive 720 returns, as skipped 
address data, the location information of the defective 

40 area which was stored in the recording location storing 
memory 733 during the skip recording operation in step 
804. 

[0159] (Step 808) Upon receipt of the skipped 
address data, the file management information creation 

45 section 712 of the upper level control unit 710 creates 
file management information. The file management 
information creation section 712 creates the file entry of 
the AV file while determining that data has been 
recorded in areas other than the skipped areas as indi- 

so cated by the skipped address data, and sets the bit of 
the free space management information corresponding 
to each area in which data is determined to be recorded 
to "1" ("used"). The file management information crea- 
tion section 712 further specifies the skipped areas from 

55 the skipped address data returned in step 807, and sets 
the bit of the free space management information corre- 
sponding to each of the skipped areas to "0" ("free"). 
When the end of the file extent lies in the middle of (but 



13 



25 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



26 



not at the end of) an ECC block, the file management 
information creation section 712 registers the remaining 
area of the ECC block as a padding extent. At this time, 
the extent type of the padding extent is set to "1", indi- 
cating that it is a padding extent, and sets the bit of the 
free space management information corresponding to 
the padding extent areas to "1" ("used"). Then, the file 
management information creation section 712 stores 
the created file management information in the data 
buffer memory 714 for recording the file management 
information on the rewritable disk 1 . 
[0160] (Step 809) The upper level control unit 710 
issues a "WRITE" command requesting the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 720 to record, by a conventional 
recording method, the file management information 
which is stored in the data buffer memory 714. As 
parameters for the "WRITE" command, the LSN at 
which the recording operation is stated and the number 
of sectors to be recorded are specified. 
[0161] (Step 810) The disk recording/reproducing 
drive 720 receives the "write" command and records the 
file management information on the disk 1 according to 
a conventional recording method. Any defective area 
which is detected during the recording operation in 
response to the "WRITE" command is replaced by a 
conventional replacement method. 
[0162] (Step 811) The disk recording/reproducing 
drive 720 having recorded all of the data specified by 
the "WRITE" command returns a "complete" status to 
the upper level control unit 710. 
[0163] Step 812 may be performed immediately 
after step 804, or when a predetermined period of time 
has passed after performing step 811 while no request 
has been issued from the upper level control unit 710. 
[0164] As described above, the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 720 detects and skips defective 
areas while recording AV data which requires real time 
processing on the disk 1. No replacement area is allo- 
cated to the skipped defective areas, but the location of 
the skipped defective areas is recorded in the defect 
management information area 4b of the rewritable disk 
1. 

[0165] Next, a method for reproducing a file con- 
taining AV data which is recorded on the disk 1 by using 
the information recording/reproducing system 700 illus- 
trated in Figure 7 will be described below. 
[0166] Figure 9 illustrates the steps of the reproduc- 
ing method. 

[0167] In Figure 9, reference numeral 91 denotes 
operations performed by the upper level control unit 
710, reference numeral 92 denotes those performed by 
the disk recording/reproducing drive 720, and reference 
numeral 93 denotes instructions, data and operation 
results flowing through the l/F protocol between the 
upper level control unit 710 and the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 720. 

[0168] (Step 901) Upon loading of the rewritable 
disk 1 and when updating the defect management infor- 



mation, the disk recording/reproducing drive 720 reads 
out the defect management information on the rewrita- 
ble disk 1 using the skip location reading section 747, 
and stores it in the reproduction location storing mem- 
5 ory 743. 

[0169] (Step 902) The recording area allocation 
section 71 1 of the upper level control unit 71 0 allocates 
the AV data recording area (which has previously been 
allocated in step 802) as a reproducing area. 

10 [0170] (Step 903) The skip reproducing instruction 
issuing section 718 of the upper level control unit 710 
obtains the location information of the area allocated in 
step 902, and issues a "SKIP READ" command (a skip 
reproducing instruction) to the disk recording/reproduc- 

15 ing drive 720. The skip reproducing instruction issuing 
section 718 specifies the location information of the 
area allocated in step 902 and the reproducing size 
information, as parameters for the "SKIP READ" com- 
mand. Following the "SKIP READ" command, data hav- 

20 ing a size as specified by this command is transferred 
from the disk recording/reproducing drive 720 to the 
data buffer memory 714 (step 905). 
[0171] The "SKIP READ" command can be defined 
similarly as the "SKIP WRITE" command. For example, 

25 a unique instruction code indicating that it is a "SKIP 
READ" command may be set in byte 0 in the format 
illustrated in Figure 23A or 23B. This is merely an exam- 
ple of the format for the "SKIP READ" command. The 
"SKIP READ" command may employ any other format 

30 as long as the location information of the allocated area 
and the size information of the data to be reproduced 
can be specified. 

[0172] (Step 904) Upon receipt of the "SKIP READ" 
command issued from the upper level control unit 710, 

35 the skip reproducing instruction processing section 724 
of the disk recording/reproducing drive 720 initializes 
the reproduction control information memory 745 
according to the "SKIP READ" command, and activates 
the skip reproduction controlling section 742. The skip 

40 reproduction controlling section 742 reproduces data 
from non-defective blocks of the disk 1 with reference to 
the reproduction location storing memory 743, and 
stores the reproduced data in the read-out data storing 
memory 746. Each time a block is successfully repro- 

45 duced, the number of blocks which have been repro- 
duced (stored in the reproduction control information 
memory 745) is incremented by one. When the repro- 
ducing operation for the number of blocks requested is 
completed, the process is normally terminated. 

so [0173] (Step 905) The AV data stored in the read- 
out data storing memory 746 in step 904 is transferred 
to the upper level control unit 710. 
[0174] (Step 906) The received AV data is trans- 
ferred to the AV data output section 760. The AV data 

55 output section 760 converts input data to an analog AV 
signal and outputs the analog AV signal. 
[0175] (Step 907) The disk recording/reproducing 
drive 720 having performed the skip reproducing opera- 



14 



27 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



28 



tion returns a "complete" status to the upper level con- 
trol unit 710. 

[0176] As described above, the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 720 references the defect man- 
agement information when reproducing AV data which 
requires real time processing, whereby the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 720 can reproduce the AV data 
while skipping defective areas on the rewritable disk 1. 

(Embodiment 3) 

[0177] Another embodiment of an information 
recording/reproducing system for recording information 
on, or reproducing recorded information from, the disk 1 
as described in Embodiment 1 above will now be 
described with reference to the figures. 
[0178] Figure 10 is a block diagram illustrating a 
structure of a disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 
according to Embodiment 3 of the present invention. 
The disk recording/reproducing drive 1 020 is connected 
to the upper level control unit 710 illustrated in Figure 7 
via the I/O bus 780. 

[0179] The disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 
includes a microprocessor in which a control program 
and an arithmetic memory are provided. The disk 
recording/reproducing drive 1020 is made of a mechan- 
ical section, a signal processing circuit, etc., which are 
controlled by the microprocessor. The disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 1020 operatively includes: an 
instruction processing section 1021 for processing an 
instruction from the upper level control unit 710; a 
recording control section 1030 for controlling the record- 
ing operation on the rewritable disk 1 ; a reproduction 
controlling section 1040 for controlling the reproducing 
operation from the rewritable disk 1; a replacement 
information storing memory 1050 for storing information 
of defective blocks and information of replacement 
blocks allocated thereto; and a data buffer 1060 for tem- 
porarily storing recording data and reproduced data. 
[0180] The instruction processing section 1021 
includes: a recording instruction processing section 
1022 for processing a normal recording instruction 
which does not involve a skip recording operation; and a 
reproducing instruction processing section 1024 for 
processing a normal reproducing instruction which does 
not involve a skip reproducing operation. 
[0181] The recording control section 1030 includes: 
a data synthesis section 1031 for converting sector- 
wise recording data (recording data which is arranged in 
the unit of sectors) into ECC block-wise recording data 
(recording data which is arranged in the unit of ECC 
blocks) : a block recording section 1 032 for recording the 
ECC block-wise data on the rewritable disk 1 ; a replace- 
ment allocation section 1033 for allocating a spare block 
for replacing a defective block: an SDL update section 
1034 for recording the contents of the replacement 
information storing memory 1050 in the SDL on the 
rewritable disk 1 ; and an ECC fraction checking section 



1035. 

[0182] The reproduction controlling section 1040 
includes: a "0" data filling section 1041 for rewriting a 
portion of the data buffer 1060 with "0"s, a block repro- 

5 ducing section 1042 for reproducing ECC block-wise 
data from the rewritable disk 1 : an SDL reading section 
1043 for storing the contents reproduced from the SDL 
on the rewritable disk 1 in the replacement information 
storing memory 1050; and an ECC fraction adjustment 

10 section 1044. 

[0183] Next, a method for reproducing normal com- 
puter data (not real time data) recorded on the disk 1 by 
using the disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 illus- 
trated in Figure 10 will be described below. 

15 [0184] Figure 11 illustrates the steps of the repro- 
ducing method. 

[0185] In Figure 11, reference numeral 111 denotes 
operations performed by the upper level control unit 
710, reference numeral 112 denotes those performed 

20 by the disk recording/reproducing drive 1 020, and refer- 
ence numeral 113 denotes instructions, data and oper- 
ation results flowing through the l/F protocol between 
the upper level control unit 710 and the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 720. The reproducing operation 

25 performed by the disk recording/reproducing drive 1 020 
will be described only briefly below, and detailed 
description thereof will be provided later. 
[0186] (Step 1101) Upon loading of the rewritable 
disk 1 and when updating the defect management infor- 

30 mation, the disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 reads 
out the defect management information on the rewrita- 
ble disk 1 using the SDL reading section 1043, and 
stores it in the replacement information storing memory 
1050. 

35 [01 87] (Step 1 1 02) The upper level control unit 71 0 
analyzes the file structure so as to determine the loca- 
tion of an area where computer data is stored. 
[0188] (Step 1103) The upper level control unit 710 
obtains information indicating the location of the area 

40 which has been determined instep 1102, and issues a 
"READ" command (a normal reproducing instruction) to 
the disk recording/reproducing drive 1020. 
[0189] (Step 1104) Upon receipt of the "READ" 
command, the reproducing instruction processing sec- 

45 tion 1024 of the disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 
reads out the specified data from the rewritable disk 1 , 
and transfers the data to the upper level control unit 710 
(step 1 105). The disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 
having transferred all of the data requested returns a 

so "complete" status (step 11 07). 

[0190] (Step 1106) The reproduced data is trans- 
ferred via the l/F protocol and stored in the data buffer 
memory 714 of the upper level control unit 710. 
[0191] As the upper level control unit 710 receives 

55 the "complete" status via the l/F protocol, the data 
stored in the data buffer memory 714 is used as compu- 
ter data. 

[0192] Figure 12 is a flow chart illustrating a proce- 



15 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



30 



29 

dure of the reproducing operation (step 1104 in Figure 
11) performed by the disk recording/reproducing drive 
1020 

[0193] The area requested to be reproduced is 
specified by sectors. The ECC fraction adjustment sec- s 
tion 1044 determines the ECC blocks that include the 
area requested to be reproduced (step 1201). Assum- 
ing that S is the LSN of the leading sector of the area 
requested to be reproduced, N is the number of sectors 
of the area requested to be reproduced, and E is the 10 
number of sectors of one ECC block, then, the LSN 
(S_ECC) of the leading sector of the area which needs 
to be reproduced and the number of sectors (N_ECC) of 
the area which needs to be reproduced in view of the 
ECC block can be determined by the following expres- is 
sions. 

S_ECC = [S/E]xE 

N_ECC = [(S+N+E-1)/E]xE - S_ECC 20 

where [a] denotes the largest integer not exceed- 
ing a. 

[0194] If all of the blocks which need to be repro- 
duced have not completely been stored in the data 25 
buffer 1060 (step 1202), the SLD is referenced (step 
1203). If the block to be reproduced is not registered in 
the SDL as a defective block, the process proceeds to 
step 1204. If the block to be reproduced is registered in 
the SDL as a defective block to which a replacement 30 
spare block has been allocated, the process proceeds 
to step 1205. If the block to be reproduced is registered 
in the SDL as a defective block to which a replacement 
spare block has not been allocated, the process pro- 
ceeds to step 1206. 35 
[0195] In step 1204, the block to be reproduced is 
reproduced. In step 1205, the replacement spare block 
is reproduced instead of the block to be reproduced. In 
step 1206, "0" data filling section 1041 create the ECC 
block filled with "0" instead of reproducing the data from 40 
disk 1 . The ECC block filled with "0"s is created by, for 
example, filling a predetermined area of the data buffer 
1060 with "0"s. 

[0196] If all of the blocks which need to be repro- 
duced have completely been stored in the data buffer 45 
1060 (step 1202), the data stored in the data buffer 
1060 is transferred to the upper level control unit 710 
(step 1207), and the process is terminated. 
[0197] Where the block to be reproduced is regis- 
tered in the SDL as a defective blockto which a replace- so 
ment spare block has not been allocated, it is 
alternatively possible to immediately determine a repro- 
duction error while reporting the error to the upper level 
control unit 710, rather than creating an ECC blockfilled 
with "0"s as the reproduced data for the defective block. 55 
When a reproduction error is reported to the upper level 
control unit 710, the upper level control unit 710 
instructs a data recording operation for the block, thus 



performing a replacement operation which will be 
described later. As a result, the defective block is 
replaced by a reproducible spare block in the logical vol- 
ume space. 

[0198] As described above, when it is requested to 
reproduce data from a defective block to which a 
replacement spare block has not been allocated, the 
disk recording/reproducing drive 1 020 returns data filled 
with "0"s as reproduced data, without reporting a repro- 
duction error. Alternatively, when it is requested to 
reproduce data from a defective block to which a 
replacement spare block has not been allocated, the 
disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 may report a 
reproduction error without wasting time for a reproduc- 
ing operation which is likely to fail. 
[0199] The steps of the method for recording nor- 
mal computer data (not real time data) on the disk 1 are 
substantially the same as those of the reproducing 
method as illustrated in Figure 11, except that a 
"WRITE" command is issued instead of a "READ" com- 
mand, and recording data is transmitted in the reverse 
direction instead of reproduced data. 
[0200] Figure 13 is a flow chart illustrating a proce- 
dure of the recording operation performed by the disk 
recording/reproducing drive 1020. 
[0201] The disk recording/reproducing drive 1020 
receives data to be recorded from the upper level con- 
trol unit 710, and stores it in the data buffer 1060 (step 
1301). 

[0202] The area requested to be recorded is speci- 
fied by sectors. ECC fraction checking section 1035 
determines the ECC blocks that include the area 
requested to be reproduced. 

[0203] Furthermore, the ECC fraction checking 
section 1035 determines to perform a buffering opera- 
tion for the fraction according to existence of the frac- 
tion. Such a buffering operation is accomplished by 
steps 1202-1206 which are surrounded by a broken line 
in Figure 12. 

[0204] If the leading sector of the area requested to 
be recorded is not the leading sector of an ECC block 
(i.e. if S^S_ECC) (step 1303), a buffering operation is 
performed for the ECC block including the leading sec- 
tor (step 1304). 

[0205] If the last sector of the area requested to be 
recorded is not the last sector of an ECC block (i.e., if 
S+N*S_ECC+N_ECC) (step 1305), a buffering opera- 
tion is performed for the ECC block including the last 
sector (step 1306). 

[0206] The data synthesis section 1031 synthe- 
sizes the data obtained in step 1301 with the data 
obtained in steps 1 303-1 306. As a result, recording data 
corresponding to all of the ECC blocks to be recorded is 
provided in the data buffer 1060 (step 1307). 
[0207] If all of the blocks which need to be recorded 
have not completely been recorded on the rewritable 
disk 1 (step 1308), the SDL is referenced (step 1309). 
As a result, if the block to be recorded is not registered 



16 



31 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



32 



in the SDL as a defective block, the process proceeds to 
step 1310. If the block to be recorded is registered in the 
SDL as a defective block to which a replacement spare 
block has been allocated, the process proceeds to step 
1312. If the block to be recorded is registered in the SDL 
as a defective block to which a replacement spare block 
has not been allocated, the process proceeds to step 
1311. 

[0208] In step 1310, data is recorded in a block to 
be recorded. In step 1312, data is recorded in a replace- 
ment spare block instead of the block to be recorded. In 
step 131 1 , the replacement allocation section 1022 allo- 
cates a replacement spare block to the defective block, 
then the data is recorded in the replacement spare 
block (step 1312). 

[0209] There are two methods for allocating a 
replacement spare block for a defective block in step 
131 1 . As described above with reference to Figures 1C 
to 1 E, it is possible to determine whether a replacement 
block was previously allocated to a defective block 
based on the value of the field 22c storing the location 
of the replacement block. If no replacement block was 
previously allocated to the defective block (e.g., if the 
value of the field 22c is "0"), a free spare block is newly 
allocated to the defective block. If a replacement block 
was previously allocated to the defective block (e.g., if 
an address of a previously allocated replacement block 
is described in the field 22c), the same replacement 
block as that which was previously allocated to the 
defective block is allocated again to the defective block. 
[021 0] If all of the blocks which need to be recorded 
have not completely been recorded on the rewritable 
disk 1 (step 1308), it is determined whether the SDL 
needs to be updated (step 1313). For example, where a 
replacement spare block has been newly allocated to 
the defective block in step 1311, the SDL needs to be 
updated. If the SDL needs to be updated, the SDL is 
updated (step 1314), and the process is terminated. 
[0211] As described above, when the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 1020 is requested to record data 
in a defective block to which a replacement spare block 
has not been allocated, a replacement spare block is 
first allocated to the defective block, after which the data 
is recorded in the replacement spare block. In this way, 
the recording data is recorded on the disk 1 by ECC 
blocks. Any ECC block fraction is adjusted by, for exam- 
ple, filling the fraction with "0"s. 

(Embodiment 4) 

[0212] Still another embodiment of an information 
recording/reproducing system for recording information 
on, or reproducing recorded information from, the disk 1 
as described in Embodiment 1 above will now be 
described with reference to the figures. 
[0213] Figure 14 is a block diagram illustrating a 
structure of a disk recording/reproducing drive 1420 
according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention. 



The disk recording/reproducing drive 1420 is connected 
to the upper level control unit 710 illustrated in Figure 7 
via the I/O bus 780. Elements in Figure 14 having like 
reference numerals to those shown in Figure 10 will not 

5 further be described. 

[0214] The disk recording/reproducing drive 1420 
operatively includes: an instruction processing section 
1021 for processing an instruction from the upper level 
control unit 710; a recording control section 1430 for 

10 controlling the recording operation on the rewritable 
disk 1; a reproduction controlling section 1440 for con- 
trolling the reproducing operation from the rewritable 
disk 1 ; a replacement information storing memory 1050 
for storing information of defective blocks and informa- 

15 tion of replacement blocks allocated thereto; and a data 
buffer 1060 for temporarily storing recording data and 
reproduced data. 

[021 5] As compared to the recording control section 
1030 described in Embodiment 3 above, the recording 

20 control section 1430 additionally includes a remaining 
spare block detection section 1437 for determining the 
number of spare blocks remaining available. 
[0216] As compared to the reproduction controlling 
section 1040 described in Embodiment 3 above, the 

25 reproduction controlling section 1440 does not include 
the "0" data filling section 1041, but rather includes a 
sector reproducing section 1441 for reproducing data 
recorded on the rewritable disk 1 by sectors. 
[021 7] The steps of the method for reproducing nor- 

30 mal computer data (not real time data) are the same as 
those described in Embodiment 3 above (Figure 11), 
and therefore will not further be described below. 
[0218] Figure 15 is a flow chart illustrating a proce- 
dure of the reproducing operation performed by the disk 

35 recording/reproducing drive 1420. The procedure illus- 
trated in Figure 15 is different from that illustrated in Fig- 
ure 12 for the following reason. If an ECC block to be 
reproduced is registered in the SDL as a defective block 
to which a replacement spare block has not been allo- 

40 cated (step 1503), the sector reproducing section 1441 
performs a sector-wise reproducing operation for each 
of sectors included in the ECC block to be reproduced 
(step 1507). 

[0219] Referring to Figure 22C, the sector-wise 
45 reproducing operation will be described below. Since 
the inner code parity PI is obtained by calculating error 
correcting codes for each row (in the lateral direction), 
the inner code parities PI correctly correspond to the 
main data for each sector (i.e., in Figure 22c, the hatch- 
so ing direction for the main data area matches that for the 
inner code parities PI). Therefore, errors can be cor- 
rected with the inner code parities PI, though the error 
correction capability is reduced. For example, when a 
data recording operation stops at a boundary between 
55 sectors due to a defective ID, the error may be corrected 
with a high probability even with the inner code parities 
PI alone. 

[0220] As described above, the disk record- 



17 



33 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



34 



ing/reproducing drive 1420 can reproduce a defective 
block to which a replacement spare block has not been 
allocated by recovering correct data from the overwrit- 
ten sectors in the defective block while recovering data 
previously recorded in the other sectors in the defective 
block which have not been overwritten. 
[0221] Figure 16 is a flow chart illustrating a proce- 
dure of the recording operation performed by the disk 
recording/reproducing drive 1420. The procedure illus- 
trated in Figure 1 6 is different from that illustrated in Fig- 
ure 13 for the following reason. If a block-wise data 
recording operation on the rewritable disk 1 fails, the 
block for which the recording operation failed is regis- 
tered in the SDL as a defective block. Moreover, before 
allocating a replacement spare block to a defective 
block, the process is terminated with an error if there is 
no spare block available. 

[0222] The disk recording/reproducing drive 1420 
receives data to be recorded from the upper level con- 
trol unit 710, and stores it in the data buffer 1060 (step 
1601). 

[0223] The area requested to be recorded is speci- 
fied by sectors. An area including the area requested to 
be recorded is determined by ECC blocks (step 1602). 
[0224] If there is any ECC block fraction, a buffering 
operation for the fraction is performed. Such a buffering 
operation is accomplished by steps 1502-1506 which 
are surrounded by a broken line in Figure 15. 
[0225] By synthesizing the data obtained in step 
1601 with the data obtained in steps 1603-1606, record- 
ing data corresponding to all of the ECC blocks required 
for the recording operation is provided in the data buffer 
1060 (step 1607). 

[0226] If all of the blocks which need to be recorded 
have not completely been recorded on the rewritable 
disk 1 (step 1608), the SDL is referenced (step 1609). 
As a result, if the block to be recorded is not registered 
in the SDL as a defective block, the process proceeds to 
step 1 61 0. If the blockto be recorded is registered in the 
SDL as a defective block to which a replacement spare 
block has been allocated, the process proceeds to step 
1612. If the block to be recorded is registered in the SDL 
as a defective blockto which a replacement spare block 
has not been allocated, the process proceeds to step 
1615. 

[0227] In step 1610, data is recorded in a block to 
be recorded. In step 1612, data is recorded in a replace- 
ment spare block instead of the blockto be recorded. In 
step 1615, the remaining spare block detection section 
1437 determines whether there are any available spare 
blocks in the spare area. If there is an available spare 
block in the spare area, the replacement spare block is 
allocated to the blockto be recorded (step 1611), and 
data is recorded in the replacement spare block (step 
1612). 

[0228] In step 1 61 0 or step 1 61 2, if block-wise data 
recording operation on the rewritable disk 1 fails (step 
1616), the block for which the recording operation failed 



is registered in the SDL as a defective block (step 
1 61 7), and the process returns to step 1 609 to retry the 
recording operation. 

[0229] If all of the blocks which need to be recorded 

5 have completely been stored on the rewritable disk 1 
(step 1608), or if there is no available spare block in the 
spare area (step 1615), it is determined whether the 
SDL needs to be updated (step 1613). For example, 
where a replacement spare block has been newly allo- 

10 cated to the defective block in step 1611, the SDL needs 
to be updated. Also where a defective block which has 
been detected in step 1617 is newly registered in the 
SDL, the SDL needs to be updated. If the SDL needs to 
be updated, the SDL is updated (step 1614), and the 

15 process is terminated. 

[0230] Where the process is terminated after all of 
the blocks have completely been recorded (step 1608), 
the termination is determined to be normal. Where the 
process is terminated after spare area exhaustion (step 

20 1615), the termination is determined to be a termination 
with an error. 

[0231] As described above, the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive 1420 always registers a detected 
defective block in the defect management information 

25 area even if no spare block is available for replacement. 
Moreover, when the disk recording/reproducing drive 
1420 is requested to record data in a defective blockto 
which a replacement spare block has not been allo- 
cated, the drive can synthesize the record data received 

30 from the upper level control unit with the correct data 
from the overwritten sector and the previous data from 
the other sectors in the defective block in which the ter- 
minating occurred during recording. Such synthesized 
recording data is recorded on the disk 1 by ECC blocks. 

35 [0232] While the parameters transferred by the l/F 
protocol include the area start location, the size, etc., in 
Embodiments 2, 3 and 4, it is apparent to those skilled 
in the art that the parameters may be any other param- 
eters as long as they can be subjected to an arithmetic 

40 operation to obtain the same information. Moreover, the 
data transmission between the upper level control unit 
and the disk recording/reproducing drive, and that 
between the disk recording/reproducing drive and the 
rewritable disk, may be sequential or parallel. Further- 

45 more, it is also apparent to those skilled in the art that 
when the upper level control unit and the disk record- 
ing/reproducing drive are integrated together, the 
parameters may be transferred by using a shared mem- 
ory, or the like. 

so [0233] According to the information recording 
medium of the present invention, defect management 
information including status information which indicates 
whether a defective area is replaced by a replacement 
area is recorded in the defect management information 

55 area. With this status information, it is possible to man- 
age the status where a defective area has been 
detected but is not replaced by a replacement area. 
[0234] When a defective area is detected while 



18 



35 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



36 



recording data which requires real time processing 
(e.g., AV data) on the information recording medium, 
the defective area is skipped. The location of the defec- 
tive area and status information indicating that the 
defective area is not replaced by a replacement area 
are written in the defect management information area. 
When it is requested to record data which does not 
require real time processing (e.g., non-AV data) in the 
defective area, a replacement area is allocated to the 
defective area without performing a read modified write 
operation, thereby successfully performing the 
requested recording operation. Moreover, a replace- 
ment area is not allocated to the defective area until it is 
actually requested to record data in the defective area. 
This provides an advantage in that no replacement area 
is wasted. 

[0235] Where a spare area is expandable, the 
spare area may temporarily run out of available replace- 
ment areas. When no replacement area can be allo- 
cated to a detected defective area because the spare 
area is temporarily out of available replacement areas, 
the location of the defective area and status information 
indicating that the defective area is not replaced by a 
replacement area are written in the defect management 
information area. After the spare area is expanded and 
a replacement area is made available, the replacement 
area is allocated to the defective area. The location of 
the replacement area is written in the defect manage- 
ment information area. 

[0236] According to the information recording 
method and the information recording apparatus of the 
present invention, defect management information, 
including status information which indicates whether a 
defective area is replaced by a replacement area, is 
recorded in the defect management information area. 
Thus, effects similar to those described above are 
obtained. 

[0237] According to the information reproducing 
apparatus of the present invention, it is determined 
whether a defective area is replaced by a replacement 
area with reference to the status information, so as to 
control the reproducing operation of user data accord- 
ing to the determination. Thus, user data can be repro- 
duced even if a defective area is not replaced by a 
replacement area. 

[0238] When it is requested to reproduce data from 
a defective area to which a replacement area has not 
been allocated, user data may be reproduced while 
skipping the defective area. Alternatively, data having a 
fixed value (e.g., data filled with "0"s) may be output as 
reproduced data obtained by reproducing the defective 
area. Alternatively corrected data may be reproduced 
by not performing error correction with error correcting 
codes which expand over a plurality of sectors, while 
only performing error correction with error correcting 
codes which do not expand over a plurality of sectors 
(e.g., error correcting codes within each sector). 
[0239] Various other modifications will be apparent 



to and can be readily made by those skilled in the art 
without departing from the scope and spirit of this inven- 
tion. Accordingly, it is not intended that the scope of the 
claims appended hereto be limited to the description as 
5 set forth herein, but rather that the claims be broadly 
construed. 

Claims 



a volume space in which user data is recorded; 
a spare area including a replacement area 
which may be used in place of a defective area 
included in the volume space; and 
a defect management information area in 
which defect management information for man- 
aging the defective area is recorded, wherein 
the defect management information includes 
status information indicating whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement 
area. 

2. An information recording medium according to 
claim 1 , wherein when a recording operation of the 
user data for the defective area is skipped, the sta- 
tus information indicating that the defective area is 
not replaced by the replacement area is written in 
the defect management information area. 

3. An information recording medium according to 
claim 1, wherein: 

the spare area is an expandable area; and 
when there are no available spare area in the 
replacement area temporarily, the status infor- 
mation indicating that the defective area is not 
replaced by the replacement area is written in 
the defect management information area. 

4. An information recording medium according to 
claim 1 , wherein: 

the defect management information includes 
first location information indicating a location of 
the defective area and second location infor- 
mation indicating a location of the replacement 
area; and 

the status information indicates whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement 
area based on whether a value of the second 
location information is equal to a predeter- 
mined value. 

5. An information recording medium according to 
claim 1, wherein: 

the defect management information includes 



10 1. An information recording medium, comprising: 



15 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



55 



19 



37 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



38 



first location information indicating a location of 
the defective area, second location information 
indicating a location of the replacement area, 
and a flag indicating whether the defective area 
is replaced by the replacement area; and 5 
the status information indicates whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement 
area based on a value of the flag. 

6. An information recording medium according to 10 
claim 1, wherein: 

the defective area is detected by ECC blocks 
each of which is a unit of an error correction 
operation; and 15 
the defective area is replaced by the replace- 
ment area by ECC blocks. 

7. An information recording method for recording 
information on an information recording medium, 20 
the information recording medium comprising: 

a volume space in which user data is recorded; 
a spare area including a replacement area 
which may be used in place of a defective area 25 
included in the volume space; and 
a defect management information area in 
which defect management information for man- 
aging the defective area is recorded, the 
method comprising the steps of: so 
detecting the defective area; and 
recording status information indicating whether 
the defective area is replaced by the replace- 
ment area in the defect management informa- 
tion area. 35 

8. An information recording method according to claim 
7, the method further comprising the step of skip- 
ping a recording operation of the user data for the 
defective area, wherein: 40 

when the recording operation of the user data 
for the defective area is skipped, the status 
information indicating that the defective area is 
not replaced by the replacement area is written 45 
in the defect management information area. 

9. An information recording method according to claim 
7, wherein: 

50 

the spare area is an expandable area; 
the method further comprises the step of 
detecting that the spare area temporarily runs 
out of available replacement areas; and 
when there are no available spare area in the 55 
replacement area temporarily, the status infor- 
mation indicating that the defective area is not 
replaced by the replacement area is written in 



the defect management information area. 

10. An information recording method according to claim 
7, wherein: 

the defect management information includes 
first location information indicating a location of 
the defective area and second location infor- 
mation indicating a location of the replacement 
area; and 

the status information indicates whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement 
area based on whether a value of the second 
location information is equal to a predeter- 
mined value. 

1 1 . An information recording method according to claim 
7, wherein: 

the defect management information includes 
first location information indicating a location of 
the defective area, second location information 
indicating a location of the replacement area, 
and a flag indicating whether the defective area 
is replaced by the replacement area; and 
the status information indicates whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement 
area based on a value of the flag. 

12. An information recording method according to claim 
7, wherein: 

the defective area is detected by ECC blocks 
each of which is a unit of an error correction 
operation; and 

the defective area is replaced by the replace- 
ment area by ECC blocks. 

13. An information recording apparatus for recording 
information on an information recording medium, 
the information recording medium comprising: 

a volume space in which user data is recorded; 
a spare area including a replacement area 
which may be used in place of a defective area 
included in the volume space; and 
a defect management information area in 
which defect management information for man- 
aging the defective area is recorded, the appa- 
ratus comprising: 

a detection section for detecting the defective 
area; and 

a recording section for recording status infor- 
mation indicating whether the defective area is 
replaced by the replacement area in the defect 
management information area. 

14. An information recording apparatus according to 



15 



30 



50 



20 



39 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



40 



claim 13, wherein: 

the apparatus further comprises a skip section 
for skipping a recording operation of the user 
data for the defective area; and s 
when the recording operation of the user data 
for the defective area is skipped, the recording 
section writes in the defect management infor- 
mation area the status information indicating 
that the defective area is not replaced by the 10 
replacement area. 

15. An information recording apparatus according to 
claim 13, wherein: 

15 

the spare area is an expandable area; 
the apparatus further comprises a further 
detection section for detecting that the spare 
area temporarily runs out of available replace- 
ment areas; and 20 
when there are no available spare area in the 
replacement area temporarily, the recording 
section writes in the defect management infor- 
mation area the status information indicating 
that the defective area is not replaced by the 25 
replacement area. 

16. An information recording apparatus according to 
claim 13, wherein: 

30 

the defect management information includes 
first location information indicating a location of 
the defective area and second location infor- 
mation indicating a location of the replacement 
area; and 35 
the status information indicates whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement 
area based on whether a value of the second 
location information is equal to a predeter- 
mined value. 40 

17. An information recording apparatus according to 
claim 13, wherein: 

the defect management information includes 
first location information indicating a location of 
the defective area, second location information 
indicating a location of the replacement area, 
and a flag indicating whether the defective area 
is replaced by the replacement area; and 
the status information indicates whether the 
defective area is replaced by the replacement 
area based on a value of the flag. 

18. An information recording apparatus according to 
claim 13, wherein: 

the defective area is detected by ECC blocks 



each of which is a unit of an error correction 
operation; and 

the defective area is replaced by the replace- 
ment area by ECC blocks. 

19. An information reproducing apparatus for reproduc- 
ing information recorded on an information record- 
ing medium, the information recording medium 
comprising: 

a volume space in which user data is recorded; 
a spare area including a replacement area 
which may be used in place of a defective area 
included in the volume space; and 
a defect management information area in 
which defect management information for man- 
aging the defective area is recorded, 
wherein the defect management information 
includes status information indicating whether 
the defective area is replaced by the replace- 
ment area, the apparatus comprising: 
a determination section for determining 
whether the defective area is replaced by the 
replacement area with reference to the status 
information; and 

a control section for controlling a reproducing 
operation of the user data according to the 
determination. 

20. An information reproducing apparatus according to 
claim 19, wherein when the defective area is not 
replaced by the replacement area, the control sec- 
tion skips a reproducing operation for the defective 
area. 

21. An information reproducing apparatus according to 
claim 19, wherein when the defective area is not 
replaced by the replacement area, the control sec- 
tion outputs data having a fixed value as data 
obtained by reproducing the defective area, regard- 
less of data in the defective area. 

22. An information reproducing apparatus according to 
claim 19, wherein: 



45 

the defective area is detected by ECC blocks 
each of which is a unit of an error correction 
operation; 

the defective area is replaced by the replace- 
50 ment area by ECC blocks; 

the error correction operation includes a first 
error correction operation for correcting errors 
within a single sector and a second error cor- 
rection operation for correcting errors over a 
55 plurality of sectors; and 

when the defective area is not replaced by the 
replacement area, the control section performs 
the first error correction operation, without per- 



15 



20 



21 



41 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



forming the second error correction operation, 
for data in the defective area so as to output 
data which is corrected by the first error correc- 
tion operation. 



22 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 1A 



4 ' 



Disk information 
area 



Data recording 
area 



Disk information 
area 



Control data 
area 



Defect management 
information area 



4a 



.4b 



1 



7 \ 



First spare 
area 



Volume space 



Disk definition 
structure 



Primary defect 
list (PDL) 



Secondary defect 
list 



ary defect 
(SDL) -13 



-11 
-12 



HO 



-4 



Volume structure 



Logical 
volume space 



^6b 
-6a 



Volume structure 



-6b 



FIG. 1B 



1st entry 



M* entry 



I 



13 



SOL header 



Number of SDL entries information 



SDL entry 



SDL entry 



20 
21 

22 



22 



23 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 1 C 



22 


22a 

\ 


22b 

\ 




22c 

\ 


Status 


Location of 
defective sector 


Reserved 
(=0) 


Location of 
replacement sector 


22a-1 

\ 


22a-T"^^ 

< 






Rag 


Reserved (=0) 





FIG. 1D 



22a 

< 


22b 

< 




22c 

\ 


Status 


Location of 
defective sector 


Reserved 
(=0) 


Location of 
replacement sector 


22a-3 

\ 


22a-V 

\ 


\ 






Exhaustion 
flag 


AV flag 


Reserved (=0) 





FIG. IE 



22 



r -- - 


*• 

22b 

I 




22c 

\ 


Reserved 
(=0) 


Location of 
defective sector 


Reserved 
(=0) 


Indication of 
"no replacement* 



24 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



i 



FIG. 2 



Disk ^formation 
area 4 



Defect manqgement information onea 
ire If 



Control data area 



if, 



First spare 
area 

Volume structure 



2 soare block 



4a 
-4b 



7 



Free space 

management information 



ie entry 



Data block a" 



°teS nt I Data block b , 
(ROOT) | Dob block el 




frata block e" 
rtoblock < 



•10 



Disk definition structure 



SDL heqder 



timber of SDt entries informofenN 



Q Defective block c 



1 iDefectivfthlndtf 



f 1 spare b 



o 



^1 

2(5 
-21 
22 



•13 



J22J 



\22q 
6b 



22b 



22c 



Data block! 



w 

CO 

a <o o 
° o cn 



8 £ 
a> _3 
o 



area 



T 



Unallocated area 



Volume structure 



Disk information Defect management information area 



Control data area 



--6b 
—4b 
— 4a 



25 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



i 



FIG. 3 



Disk information 
area 4 



Defect management infomwtion oreo 



1'' 




co 



to 



.£ co E 
8 E > 



T 



Control dato area 



4a 



Rrst spare 
oreo 



"Volume stature 



2 spare block 



1 we block 



Free space 

management information 



age_ 
File en 



Data extent 
(ROOT) 



Data block a 



Data block b , 
Data blocked 



entry (FUe-BJ 



Unallocated area 



Volume structure 



Disk information Def ect ^rmroqement ^formation orea 
a rea 4 Control data area 



4b 



r 



10 



Disk definition structure 



.EQL 



SDL header 



Biiaraisi. i !r.wn'is.T.! i a.v.?4.i 




22a 
'6b 



22b 



22c 



I— 6b 
-4b 
h-4a 



26 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



1 



FIG. 4 



Disk information 
area 4 



in 



o 

CO 



O CO o 

o 8 » 

f :j 

O O 

q 



Control data area 



tefect management information area 



,4a 
V4b 



First spare 
area 
Volume 



1 apflB Mock 

ictiire 



Free space 

management information 



tie entry 



Data extent 
(ROOT) 



imrr 

ita block i 



Data block a 
Data block b" 



I Data block 



Unallocated area 



File eri 



Data extent 
(File-A) 



ija block d 
Data block e" 



)c£(J 



Data block f I - 1 



z 



r 



40 



6b 

/ 



SDL header 



Second spare area location inform 



Number of SDL entries infonnoBon^ 



IDefec&ie bloiA c 



Q TDefecfte hlodif 



0 [Defective block h, 



0 IDefective block 1 



1 irteferfiim blndtrn 



1 spare block 



2 spare block 



3 spore block 



4spqre block 22 



0 



M 
(201 
23 



21 
22 
22 



H3 



22 



1221 



22a 22b 



22c 



Data block q 



Unallocated area 



File en ; 



Btotd^foc^rtl 



D ? a « ta * rDato block. , 
(Hle-B) BDatc block il -i 
Data block k 



Unallocated area 



Unallocated area 



i 



8" 



Volume structure 



Second spare #4 spare block 
area I #3 spare block 



Disk information management information area 
a rea 4l Control data area 

1 



—6b 



-4b 
— 4a 



27 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 5 



Disk information 



o 

CO 



4> 

o g w 

.5 « £ 



Disk 



i 



Control datq area 
1 nronoqemem info 



formation area 



First spare 
area 



2 spare block n 



Volume structure 



1 spare block 



Ppgg space 
management information 



Fife en 



Data extent 
(ROOT) 



3ta block a 
Data block b 



Unallocated area 



File enti 



^Datd^lx:^ 



n » , < i ^ota block d 

D SA rt L™ block e i 

( nie - A ) I Data block fl J 

Data block g 



/ Disk definition stmrtiire ^1 




22a 22b 



Unallocated area 

Data extent r 
(File— B) 



Data block i 



lC35I2S9Jf'> 



Unallocated area 



File entry fFile— C) 
n . , ..I Data block 1 

(File-C) rPato block n 



Unallocated area 



Volume structure 



8< Second spare 
area 



6 spare block 



5 spqre block J 



4spqre block — 1 



a rea 4-1 Control data area 



T 



3 .spore block -* 

nformraon area — 4b 



--6b 



28 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 6 

Used area 



Free area 62 



Used area 




Bi 82 B3 B4 B5 Be B7 B 8 B9 Bio 



61 




2 



Allocated area 



-AV data size 



.Number q^. 



1 \ 



Padding data 64 



1 



AV data 
extent 



Padding 
extent 



^66d 



Skip list 



!_66b 



,13 



Defect list 



SDL 



67 



66a 7 , ' . 1 

- Reproduction — ' * ■ 



-Allocated area- 



-AV data size 



29 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 7 

Information recording/reproducing system 



I 



700 



Upper level control unit /711 



Recording area 
allocation section 



Fie manaqement inform 
interpretation section 



j713 
lationl 



File rnanaoernent information 
creation section 



Data buffer memory 



hstruction issuing sectiorr~712 



/-715 



Skip recording instruction 
issuing section 



Skip reproducing instruction 
issuing section 



Recording location request 
instruction issuing section 



716 

717 



718 



[ 1/0 bus 



-710 



,714 770 



Ja 



TO 
r-l input 
section 



AV input 



output 
section 



I 



AV output 



r 



760 
780 




750 



r 



tgpponrtusj 
722^1 
723 

731- 
732- 

733- 
730— H 



742- 

743- 
740- 



I Disk recording/reproducing dr ive 



hstruction processing section 



r 720 



Skip recording instruction II Skip reproducing instnitffonl 791 
processing section processing section Nl 



processing 



Recording location request 
instruction processing section 



Recording control section 



Defective area 
detection section 



Data verifying section 



Skip recording 
controlling section 



Recording control 
information memory 



Recording location 
storing memory 



Recording data 
storing memory 



Skip location " 
recording section 



Reproduction controlling section 



Skip reproduction 
controlling section 



Reproduction control 
lfor motion memory 



in 



Reproduction location 
storing memory 



Read-out data 
storing memory 



Skip location 
reading section 



721 

-734 

-735 

-736 
-737 

-745 

'746 
-747 



30 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG.8 (Recording start) fl1 



0-5; 



80 



"S5 



cz o 
a> a? 

cnc 

11 

<n O 

1 H 



\ 



Start receiving 
AV data 



Allocate recording 
area for "AVJTLE* 




■T 



808 



Create file, 
management 

information 

for "AV.FILE" 



C End ) 



1 



83 



82 



803 



II 
1 1 

-H-- 



Issue SKIP WRITE 
command 



805 



Return complete 
status 



Issue "REPORT 
SKIPPED ADDRESS' 
command 



806 



8^07 



Return location 
information of 
area skipped 
during recording 



809 



Issue WRITE 
command 



811 



Return "complete* 
status 



804 



Skip recording 
operation for 

"AVJTLE" data 



812 



Update SDL 



810 



1 



Record fite 
management 

information 



1 



31 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 9 



o 

es 

— - 



(Reproduction start) g<| 



■Mil 

p 



Allocate reproducing 
area for AVJlf" 



906 
1 



Transfer received 
AV data to AV 
output secfaon 




1 



93 



901 



"V 2 ... 



903 



Issue SKP 
command 



READ 



905 



Transfer AV data 



^907 



Return "complete* 
status 



Read SDL 



T3 

a> 



Skip reproducing 
operation for 
"AVJTLE" data 



904 



"[^ y \ 



( End ) 



32 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 10 



1022- 

1031- 
1033- 

1035- 
1050- 

1041- 
1043- 



I/Obus 

{ Disk recording/reproducing 



nstruction processing section 



1021 



dnve 
/1 020 



Recording instruction 
processing section 



Reproducing instruction 
processing section 



-1024 



Recording control section 



Data synthesis section 



Block recording section 



Replacement allocation 
section 



SDL update section — 



ECC fraction „ 
checking section 



~ Replacement information 
storing memory 


Data buffer 


Reproduction controlling section 


"(f data filling section 


Block reproducing section - 


SDL reading section 


ECC fraction „ 
adjustment section 



-1032 
-1034 

-1030 
-1060 

-1042 
-1044 



1040 



33 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 1 1 



(Reproduction stori^ ^ 



" / L 



-o CO 
o 



-1102 



Search reproducing 
area for "PCJIE" 



o 

8-P 



yo6 



Store received data 
in buffer memory 



i 



113 



1101 /« 



1103 



Issue READ 
command 



f_ 



1105 



Transfer 

reproduced data 



Read SDL 



Reproduce 
"PCJFBJE" data 




34 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 12 



(Reproduction start} 




^1201 

Buffering^ operation^ 



Block unregistered 
as defective block 



1204 
J 



Block registered 
n, , . . , , , as defective block . 
Block registered (no replacement available 
as defective block 
(replacement available) 

1205 



Reproduce original 
data block 

i 



Reproduce replacement 
spare block 



i 



1206 

_1_ 



fill ECC block 
with "0"a 



J 



V 



Transfer reproduced 
data to host 



-1207 



35 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 13 (Recording start J 

\ 



Transfer recording data from host 
I 




Block unregistered 
as defective block 



1310 



Record on original 

data block 
1 



Block registered 
as defective block 
Block registered, (no replacement available) 
as defective block * 
(replacement available) | Allocate replacement] 
1312 ^ i k 1 




36 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 14 



1441- 
1043- 



| Disk recording/reproducing d rive 



Ihstaiction processing section 





Recording control section 


1031 — 


- Data synthesis section 


Block recording section - 


1033 — - 


- Replacement allocation 
section 


SOL update section 


1035—- 


ECC faction ^. 
checking section 


Remaining spare block 0 
detection section 






1050—- 


- Replacement information 
storing memory 


Data buffer 



Reproduction controlling section 



Sector reproducing section 



Block reproducing section 



SDL reading section 



EQP fraction „ 
adjustment section 



1420 
— 1021 

-1032 
-1034 

-1437 

-1430 
-1060 

-1042 
-1044 



1440 



37 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 15 



(Reproduction start) 



■1501 

Buffering ojteration_ 




Block unregistered 
as defective block 



1504 150 N 5 



Block registered 
as defective block, 
(replacement available) 



Reproduce original 
data block 

i 



Reproduce replacement 
spare block 

i 



Repeat sector 
reproducing 
operation for the 
number of sectors 
of one block 



\ 



Block registered 
as defecbve block 
loo replacement available) 



1506 



Transfer reproduced 
data to host 



-1507 



38 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 16 (Recording storP) 

I Transfer recording data from host V fSOi 
* ~ 



Check ECC block fraction 




Reqister 
defective 



in SOL 



Block registered 
as defective block 



Block unregistered ^ (no replacement available) 

as defective block B | ock registered n 0 
,cs defective block. r — 



1610 

L 



(replacement availabie) 



Record on 
original data 
block 




Record on 
replacement 
spare block 




L 1616 



Allocate 
replacement 




-1612 



1611 




39 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 1 7 





40 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG.18A 



Main Data 




V V Vv Main . Data : ;^y;-; 


■ 


>:MvM--"M^ n Data- v- v 











FIG.18B 



^: : ^^:y. Main Data i*;.V ^ vX-V-;-; 


i 




/MY/ 










n 



41 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



i 



FIG, 1 9 



Disk information 
area 4 



Control dota qreo 



O CO 



Voume strw 



o 

CO 
<U 

o 
o 

o g op 

.5 m F 
"S -2 
© c © 
o c > 

£^ — 
o o 



o 



± 



area 

T 



infoffnotion areq 



cture 



fx 



Free space L e 
management information 



Data extent 
(ROOT) 



le entry (ROOT) 
^' Data block a 



, Data Mock b . 
I Data block ^ 



Unallocated area 



File enj 



l^ata^bfoc^ 



( Rle " A ) iData block fl -, 
l)ata block q 



Unallocated area 



Volume 



Spare area 



stDjciune. 
{1 spar 
r2 sbor 



1 spare block 



w2 spore block 
*3 spqre block 
#4 scare block 



{5 spare block 



, i ■ ir 6 spare block 

Disk information Defect nfwnoqement information oritr 



Control data area 



^6b 



SDL header 



Second spore area location inf< 



Number of SDL entr 



Data block c 



Data block f 



Bon information 
inf<PWtl9fl{ s 2) 



1 spare block 
1 2 spare block 



Defective block 
location information 



Replacement block 
location information 



42 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG. 2 OA 

LSN n-20h n-IOh 



n+10h n+20h 



#1 data 


#2 data 


#3 data 


#4 data 



-Access sequence- 



FIG.20B 

LSN n-20h n-IOh 



n 



n+IOh n+20h n+30h 



#1 data [ #2 data 

— Access 

sequence 



#3 data 



U data 



43 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



, FIG. 21 

Disk information! Control doto oreo 



oreo 4 



Defect gjinojemflft information area 




o 

CO 

in 



o go 

o c > 

£-2 _ 
o a 



Disk in ormcLn 



area 



Volume structure 



Free space t . 
management information 



He en 



Data extent 
(ROOT) 



try jmrr 

Data block "a" 



Data block b' . 
Data block ci 



,6b 



Unallocated area 



Volume structure 



Disk definition structure 



_EQL 



SDL header 



Number of SDL entries informofa'on^ T) 



Bats block c IMsircrc block 



Defective block 
location information 



Replacement block 
location information 



^6b 



Spare area 



Defect marcwement tfiferriKroon area 
Control data area 



44 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG.22A 



44-Main Data^ 


i 


-mm. 


7V7 













—Sector — - 


ECC block - 





FIG.22B 





i 








i 







Defective ID 



h ECC block A 



FIG.22C 







Y///////s 









►Encoded data for overwritten ECC block 



►Encoded data for original ECC block 

Encoded data for overwritten ECC block 
•Encoded data for original ECC block 



45 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG.23A 





7 16 5 4 3 2 110 


0 


SKIP WRITE identification code 


1 


Reserved 


2 




3 
4 


Logical sector number 


5 




6 
7 


Data length 


8 
9 


Area length 


10 
11 


Reserved 



FIG.23B 





7I6I5I4 3 21110 


0 


SKIP WRITE identification code 


1 


Reserved 1 


2 




3 
4 

5 


Logical sector number or reserved 


6 


Reserved 


7 
8 


Area length or data length 


9 


Reserved 



Operation option 



46 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



FIG.24A 





7 16 5 4 3 2 1 0 


o 

U I 


RFPftRT SK1PPFD ADDRFSS identification rode 

i\urv/i\i orvrruu nuui\i_oo lucuuiivuuuii uuuc 


1 
i 

2 




3 


Reserved 


4 




5 




6 


Reserved 


7 
8 


Upper limit value for data size 


9 


Reserved 



FIG.24B 





7 1 6 I 5 4 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 0 


0 

1 


Number of location information points (=N) 


2 
3 


Reserved 


4 

5 
6 
7 


Location information of 
skipped defective area f 1 


8 
9 

10 
11 


Location information of 
skipped defective area §2 








Location information of 
skipped defective area fN 



47 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



European Patent 
Office 



EUROPEAN SEARCH REPORT 



Application Number 

EP 99 11 7781 



DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category 



Citation of document with indication, whore appropriate, 
of relevant passages 



Relevant 
to claim 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE 
APPLICATION (lnLCI.7) 



A 
A 
A 



WO 96 27882 A (CIRRUS LOGIC INC) 
12 September 1996 (1996-09-12) 

* page 13, line 20 - page 18, line 21; 
figures 3-5 * 

US 5 235 585 A (BISH JOHN E ET AL) 
10 August 1993 (1993-08-10) 

* the whole document * 

US 5 818 654 A (ATSATT SEAN R ET AL) 
6 October 1998 (1998-10-06) 

WO 96 30902 A (IBM ;IBM UK (GB)) 
3 October 1996 (1996-10-03) 

EP 0 866 456 A (MATSUSHITA ELECTRONICS 
CORP) 23 September 1998 (1998-09-23) 



1-3,7-9, 
13-15,19 



1-19 



G11B20/18 



TECHNICAL FIELDS 
SEARCHED (lnLCL7) 



G11B 



The present search report has been drawn up for all claims 



Place of search 

THE HAGUE 



Date of completion of the search 

17 April 2000 



Examiner 

Devergranne, C 



CATEGORY OF CrTED DOCUMENTS 

X : particularly relevant if taken alone 

Y : particularly relevant if combined with another 

dooument of the same category 
A : techno logical background 
O : non-written disclosure 
P : intermediate dooument 



T : theory or principle underlying the invention 
E : earlier patent document, but publish ed on, or 

after the filing date 
D : document cited in the application 
L : document cited for other reasons 

& : member of the same patent family, corresponding 
document 



48 



EP 1 043 723 A1 



ANNEX TO THE EUROPEAN SEARCH REPORT 
ON EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION NO. 



EP 99 11 7781 



This annex lists the patent family members relating to the patent documents cited in the above-mentioned European search report. 
The members are as contained in the European Patent Office EDP file on 

The European Patent Office is in no way liable for these particulars which are merely given for the purpose of information. 

17-04-2000 



Patent document 
cited in search report 



Publication 
date 



Patent family 
member(s) 



Publication 
date 



WO 9627882 



12-09-1996 



EP 



0879466 A 



25-11-1998 



US 5235585 


A 


10 


-08- 


1993 


JP 


1998475 


C 


08-12-1995 












JP 


5204559 


A 


13-08-1993 












JP 


7027440 


B 


29-03-1995 


US 5818654 


A 


06 


-10- 


1998 


NONE 








WO 9630902 


A 


03 


■10- 


1996 


US 


5548572 


A 


20-08-1996 












CA 


2168286 


A 


01-10-1996 












CN 


1181153 


A 


06-05-1998 












DE 


69511730 


D 


30-09-1999 












0E 


69511730 


T 


06-04-2000 












EP 


0818041 


A 


14-01-1998 












JP 


8279155 


A 


22-10-1996 


EP 0866456 


A 


23 


-09- 


•1998 


CN 


1209899 


A 


03-03-1999 












WO 


9814938 A 


09-04-1998 



Si For more details about this annex : see Official Journal of the European Patent Office, No. 12/82 



49