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PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN 



(1 1 publication number : 2005-004912 
(43)Date of publication of application : 06.01.2005 



(51)Int.CI. 

» .' ; — 




G11B 20/12 
G11B 7/0045 
G11B 20/10 
G11B 27/00 




(21)Application number 


2003-168876 


(71)Applicant 


: SONY CORP 


(22)Date of filing : 


13.06.2003 


(72)Inventor : 


TERADA MITSUTOSHI 








KOBAYASHI SHOEI 


r ; : 






KURAOKA TOMOTAKA 



(54) RECORDING/REPRODUCING DEVICE AND RECORDING/REPRODUCING METHOD 

(57)Abstract: 

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To realize an appropriate 
update and a simple consistency processing of control 
information in a write-once recording medium. 
SOLUTION: In a system provided with a random access 
nature property by the use of the information of write-in 
existence presentation information (space bitmap) in write- 
once media, the control information including the space 
bitmap and the last recording position information (LRA) for 
showing the last position of already recorded user data is 
updated on a disk in accordance with the generation of a 
gap (unrecorded area) in an area before the LRA, or the 
disappearance of the gap. Compatibility of the control 
information on the disk and the recording status of user 
data is confirmed by detecting whether the gap (gap shown 
by the space bitmap) or the LRA in the control information 
coincides with the actual gap or LRA on the actual disk, in 
accordance with that the control information is updated on 
the disk by the generation or disappearance of the gap. 
When they are not matched, the updating is carried out so 
that the space bitmap or LRA is matched in the control information. 



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JP,2005-004912 5 A [CLAIMS] 



Page 1 of 3 



* NOTICES * 

JPO and INPIT are not responsible for any 
damages caused by the use of this translation. 

LThis document has been translated by computer. So the translation may not reflect the original 
precisely. 

2.**** shows the word which can not be translated. 
3.1n the drawings, any words are not translated. 



CLAIMS 



[Claim(s)] 
[Claim 1] 

Management information and user data are recorded on a write once record section in which one 
data write is possible, and. As the recording and reproducing device to a recording medium with 
which write-in existence presentation information which shows whether it is finishing [ data unit / 
every / in a field where the above-mentioned user data is recorded at least / data write ] as the 
above-mentioned management information, and final recording position information which shows the 
final position user data recorded are recorded, 

A record reproduction means which performs record reproduction of data to the above-mentioned 
recording medium, 

A memory measure which memorizes management information read from the above-mentioned 
recording medium, 

While updating the contents of management information memorized by the above-mentioned 
memory measure according to performing data recording by the above-mentioned record 
reproduction means, A control means which makes management information memorized by the 
above-mentioned memory measure according to a non-record section having occurred in a range to 
a position on a recording medium shown using the above-mentioned final recording position 
information on the management information concerned record on the above-mentioned recording 
medium by the above-mentioned record reproduction means, 
A recording and reproducing device characterized by preparation ******. 
[Claim 2] 

The recording and reproducing device according to claim 1 even if the above-mentioned control 
means responds to disappearance of the above-mentioned sheep record section in a range to a 
position shown using the above-mentioned final recording position information further, wherein it 
makes management information memorized by the above-mentioned memory measure record on the 
above-mentioned recording medium by the above-mentioned record reproduction means. 
[Claim 3] 

The above-mentioned final recording position information in management information which was 
read from the above-mentioned recording medium and was further memorized by the above- 
mentioned memory measure the above-mentioned control means, The recording and reproducing 
device according to claim 1 updating the above-mentioned final recording position information in 
management information memorized to the above-mentioned memory measure if perform processing 
which checks whether it consistents with the final position it has been user data recorded on 
[ whose ] the above-mentioned recording medium and it is not adjusted 
[Claim 4] 

The above-mentioned sheep record section distinguished by the above-mentioned write-in 
existence presentation information in management information which the above-mentioned control 
means was further read from the above-mentioned recording medium, and was memorized by the 



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JP,2005-004912,A [CLAIMS] 



Page 2 of 3 



above-mentioned memory measure, The recording and reproducing device according to claim 1 
updating the above-mentioned write-in existence presentation information in management 
information memorized to the above-mentioned memory measure if perform processing which 
checks whether the above-mentioned sheep record section on the above-mentioned recording 
medium consistents and it is not adjusted. 
[Claim 5] 

Management information and user data are recorded on a write once record section in which one 
data write is possible, and. As the recording and reproducing systems for a recording medium with 
which write-in existence presentation information which shows whether it is finishing [ data unit / 
every / in a field where the above-mentioned user data is recorded at least / data write ] as the 
above-mentioned management information, and final recording position information which shows the 
final position user data recorded are recorded, 

A memory step which reads management information from the above-mentioned recording medium, 
and is memorized to a memory measure, 

A renewal step corresponding to record which updates the contents of management information 
memorized by the above-mentioned memory measure according to performing data recording to the 
above-mentioned recording medium, 

A management information record step which makes management information memorized by the 
above-mentioned memory measure according to a non-record section having occurred on a 
recording medium in a range to a position shown using the above-mentioned final recording position 
information in management information updated by a renewal step corresponding to the above- 
mentioned record record on the above-mentioned recording medium, 
Recording and reproducing systems characterized by preparation ******. 
[Claim 6] 

The recording and reproducing systems according to claim 5 even if the above-mentioned 
management information record step responds to disappearance of a non-record section in a range 
to a position shown using the above-mentioned final recording position information further, wherein 
it is performed. 
[Claim 7] 

A confirmation step which checks whether the above-mentioned final recording position information 
in management information which was read from the above-mentioned recording medium by the 
above-mentioned memory step, and was memorized by the above-mentioned memory measure 
consistents with the final position it has been user data recorded on [ whose ] the above-mentioned 
recording medium, 

A consistency-ized renewal step which updates the above-mentioned final recording position 

information by the above-mentioned confirmation step in management information memorized to the 

above-mentioned memory measure when not consistented, 

The ****(ing) recording and reproducing systems according to claim 5. 

[Claim 8] 

A confirmation step which checks whether the above-mentioned sheep record section distinguished 
by the above-mentioned write-in existence presentation information in management information 
which was read from the above-mentioned recording medium by the above-mentioned memory step, 
and was memorized by the above-mentioned memory measure, and the above-mentioned sheep 
record section on the above-mentioned recording medium consistent, 
A consistency-ized renewal step which updates the above-mentioned write-in existence 
presentation information by the above-mentioned confirmation step in management information 
memorized to the above-mentioned memory measure when not consistented, 
The ****(ing) recording and reproducing systems according to claim 5. 



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JP,2005-004912,A [CLAIMS] Page 3 0 f 3 

[Translation done.] 



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JP,2005-004912,A [DETAILED DESCRIPTION] 



Page 1 of 30 



* NOTICES * 

JPO and INPIT are not responsible for any 
damages caused by the use of this translation. 

1. This document has been translated by computer. So the translation may not reflect the original 
precisely. 

2. **** shows the word which can not be translated. 
3.1n the drawings, any words are not translated. 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION 



[Detailed Description of the Invention] 
[0001] 

[Field of the Invention] 

Especially this invention relates to the recording and reproducing device and recording and 
reproducing systems for recording media, such as an optical disc as write once type media 
[0002] 

[Description of the Prior Art] 

As art for recording and playing digital data, for example CD (Compact Disk), There is data recording 
art which used optical discs (a magneto-optical disc is included), such as MD (Mini-Disk) and DVD 
(Digital Versatile Disk), for the archive medium. An optical disc is a general term for the archive 
medium which irradiates with a laser beam the disk which protected the metallic thin plate with the 
plastic, and reads a signal by change of the catoptric light. 

In an optical disc, as known, for example as CD, CD-ROM, a DVD-ROM, etc. The thing of the type 
only for playback, There is a type which user data can record as known for MD CD-R CD-RW 
DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, etc. The thing of a recordable type is that magneto optic 
recording, a phase change recording method, a coloring matter film change recording method, etc. 
are used, and record of data of it is enabled. A coloring matter film change recording method is also 
called a write once recording method, and since rewriting is [ that data recording is possible only for 
once, and ] impossible, it is made suitable for a data storage use etc. On the other hand, rewriting of 
data is possible for magneto optic recording or a phase change recording method, and they are used 
for various applications including record of the various contents data of music, an image, a game, an 
application program, etc. 
[0003] 

The high density optical disk called a Blu-ray Disc (Blu-ray Disc) is developed, and remarkable large 
scale-ization is attained in recent years. 

For example, in this high-density disk, it is supposed that laser (what is called blue laser) with a 
wavelength of 405 nm and NA perform data recording playback under the conditions of the 
combination of the object lens of 0.85, In track pitch 0.32micrometer and the line density of 
0.12micrometer/bit. when 64 KB (K byte) of data block is made into about 82% of format efficiency 
as one record reproduction unit, the record reproduction of the capacity about 23.3 GB (G byte) can 
be carried out to the disk of 1 2 cm of direct systems. 

A write once type and rewritable type are developed also in such a high-density disk 
[0004] 

In order to record data to the recordable disk of magneto optic recording, a coloring matter film 
change recording method, a phase change recording method, etc.. The guide mechanism for 
performing tracking over data tracks is needed, for this reason a slot (groove) is beforehand formed 
as a pregroove, and making into data tracks that groove or land (part of the shape of a section 



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JP,2005-004912,A [DETAILED DESCRIPTION] 



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^ plateau inserted into a groove and a groove) is performed. 
Although it is necessary to record address information as data is recordable on the position on data 
tracks, this address information may be recorded by carrying out wobbling (meandering) of the 
groove. 

That is, although the track which records data is beforehand formed as for example, a PURIGU loop, 
corresponding to address information, wobbling of the side attachment wall of this PURIGU loop is 
carried out 

If it does in this way, even if it does not form beforehand the pit data etc. which can read an 
address in the wobbling information acquired as reflected light information at the time of record and 
reproduction for example, in which an address is shown on a track, record reproduction of the data 
can be carried out to a desired position. 

The absolute time (address) information expressed by such groove by which wobbling was carried 

out is called ATIP (Absolute Time In Pregroove) or ADIP (Adress In Pregroove) 

[0005] 

The art of preparing an exchange area and making data recording positions changing on a disk is 
known for the archive medium in which such data recording is possible (it is not exclusively for 
playback). That is, when the part unsuitable for data recording exists with defects, such as a crack 
on a disk, it is the defect management technique with which proper record reproduction is made to 
be performed by preparing the shift record section replaced with the defective part 
[0006] 

By the way, if CD-R, DVD-R, and the write once type optical recording medium in which one record 
of the write once disk as a high-density disk, etc. is still more possible are observed, In the write 
once type recording medium, various kinds of restrictions exist from it being impossible to record 
data to a recorded field. 

Especially the updating technique of the management information corresponding [ on the write once 
type recording medium and ] to data recording has been one technical problem. 
Namely, if it responds to record of user data, usually, Management information being updated 
appropriately and managing the recording situation of user data by management information 
becomes the means which improve processing speed, when writing out data to a disk or reading data 
from a disk. 

However, it is not appropriate for the degree of record of user data by write once media to update 
management information on a disk. This is for consumption of the field which records management 
information to progress remarkably. 

And consideration of that the size of the record section of management information has restriction 
will need to impose conditions certain about record on the disk of management information. 
For example, he is trying to record on a disk the management information updated according to data 
recording within the recorder on condition that the writing of user data exceeded the specified 
quantity in DVD-R. 

By the time the management information currently recorded on the disk is rewritten by the state 
where the newest recording situation of the user data actually recorded on the disk was reflected, a 
time difference will arise from such a situation. That is, the period when the management 
information on a disk is not reflecting the recording situation of the user data on a disk arises 
[0007] 

Here according to situations, such as interruption to service, or power OFF, a write-in failure of the 
device by user's operation. When management information is not able to be appropriately updated on 
a disk, on a disk, management information and user data will be does not consistent with as, and the 
user data (that is, playback is impossible) which is not manageable will occur. 
In order to prevent such a thing, for example using nonvolatile memory power OFF also holds 
management information, and enable it to perform renewal of the management information on a disk 
at the next time, or. Various kinds of techniques, such as distinguishing the mismatching of the user 



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Jf ,2005-0049 12,A [DETAILED DESCRIPTION] 



Page 3 of 30 



data on management information and a disk, and performing recovery, are proposed. For example, it 
is indicated also to the following patent documents 1. 
[Patent documents 1] JP.2002-312940.A 
[0008] 

[Problem(s) to be Solved by the Invention] 

By the way, in the disk of recordable type, there are some in which the address (final recording 
position information which shows the final position user data recorded) of the last of user data is 
established as one of the management information. For example, it is referred to as LRA (Last 
Recorded Address). That is, at present, it is an address of the last of the field whose user data has 
been written in. 

What is necessary is just to record from the next address (LRA+1) of LRA in the write once type 
optical disc, when newly performing data recording in order to put sequentially from the head of a 
user data area and to usually record user data. 

On the other hand, the section to the address which carries out a recording start from LRA+1 is 
written in by dummy data (zero data etc.) etc. or the technique of registering with a disk as a non- 
record section is needed to perform record from a previous address further from LRA+1 
In a write once type optical disc, the conventional optical recording disk putting one by one and 
recording from the inner circumference side of a disk It is developed based on a ROM type and is 
because playback becomes impossible when there is a non-recording part. 
Such a situation has restricted the random access record in write once media. 

Luuuyj 

In order to raise random access nature also in a write once disk here, These people establish 
previously the write-in existence presentation information (space bit map information) which shows 
whether it is finishing [ data write ] about every data unit in a record section as management 
information in the application for patent 2003-06661, The art which enables it to distinguish the 
recorded field and the non-record section on a disk using this write-in existence presentation 
information was proposed. 

Thereby, in a write once disk, data recording can be performed not only to recording by putting one 
by one but to an address to write. In that case, processing of record of dummy data, etc. can also 
be performed as it is unnecessary, and this can realize speeding up of writing processing, mitigation 
of the processing burden of a device etc 
[0010] 

However, also in the method using such a space bit map, It is one of the technical problems to 
update management information (a space bit map and LRA) appropriately on a disk and the 
management domain on a disk is not consumed recklessly, It is called for that suitable management 
information writing processing which reconciles keeping the period management information and 
whose user data recording situation are mismatching if possible from delaying is made to be 
performed. 

Enabling it to consider it as matching states easily by the power OFF of a device, etc., also when it 
changes into the state where the management information and the user data recording situation on 
a disk continue being mismatching is called for. 

Although there is a technique holding the management information which should be written in a disk 
using the conventional nonvolatile memory about this point. The actual condition and nonvolatile 
memory have restriction in data update frequency, and since there is a situation of being unsuitable 
for recording the data updated frequently, the method which does not use nonvolatile memory is 
also called for. 
[001 1] 

[Means for Solving the Problem] 

In [in view of such a situation ] a write once type recording medium in this invention. It aims at 
enabling it to correspond simply, also when management information including write-in existence 

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presentation information (space bit map) and final recording position information (LRA) which shows 
the final position user data recorded is appropriately updated on a disk and there are a user data 
recording situation and mismatching. 
[0012] 

Management information and user data are recorded on a write once record section in which one 
data write is possible, and a recording and reproducing device of this invention. It is a recording and 
reproducing device to a recording medium with which write-in existence presentation information 
which shows whether it is finishing [ data unit / every / in a field where the above-mentioned user 
data is recorded at least / data write ] as the above-mentioned management information, and final 
recording position information which shows the final position user data recorded are recorded. And a 
record reproduction means which performs record reproduction of data to the above-mentioned 
recording medium, While updating the contents of management information memorized by the 
above-mentioned memory measure according to performing data recording by memory measure 
which memorizes management information read from the above-mentioned recording medium, and 
the above-mentioned record reproduction means, In a range to a position on a recording medium 
shown using the above-mentioned final recording position information on the management 
information concerned, it has a control means which makes management information memorized by 
the above-mentioned memory measure record on the above-mentioned recording medium by the 
above-mentioned record reproduction means according to a non-record section (gap) having 
occurred. 

Even if the above-mentioned control means responds to disappearance of the above-mentioned 
sheep record section in a range to a position shown using the above-mentioned final recording 
position information further, it makes management information memorized by the above-mentioned 
memory measure record on the above-mentioned recording medium by the above-mentioned record 
reproduction means. 

The above-mentioned final recording position information in management information which the 
above-mentioned control means was further read from the above-mentioned recording medium, and 
was memorized by the above-mentioned memory measure, If perform processing which checks 
whether it consistents with the final position it has been user data recorded on [ whose ] the 
above-mentioned recording medium and it is not adjusted, in management information memorized to 
the above-mentioned memory measure, the above-mentioned final recording position information is 
updated. 

The above-mentioned sheep record section distinguished by the above-mentioned write-in 
existence presentation information in management information which the above-mentioned control 
means was further read from the above-mentioned recording medium, and was memorized by the 
above-mentioned memory measure, If perform processing which checks whether the above- 
mentioned sheep record section on the above-mentioned recording medium consistents and it is not 
adjusted, in management information memorized to the above-mentioned memory measure, the 
above-mentioned write-in existence presentation information is updated 
[0013] 

Recording and reproducing systems of this invention are provided with the following. 
A memory step which reads management information from the above-mentioned recording medium, 
and is memorized to a memory measure as recording and reproducing systems for the above- 
mentioned recording medium. 

A renewal step corresponding to record which updates the contents of management information 
memorized by the above-mentioned memory measure according to performing data recording to the 
above-mentioned recording medium. 

A management information record step which makes management information memorized by the 
above-mentioned memory measure according to a non-record section having occurred on a 
recording medium in a range to a position shown using the above-mentioned final recording position 



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information in management information updated by a renewal step corresponding to the above- 
mentioned record record on the above-mentioned recording medium. 

The above-mentioned management information record step is performed even if it responds to 
disappearance of a non-record section in a range to a position shown using the above-mentioned 
final recording position information further. 

The above-mentioned final recording position information in management information which was 
read from the above-mentioned recording medium by the above-mentioned memory step, and was 
memorized by the above-mentioned memory measure, It has a confirmation step which checks 
whether it consistents with the final position it has been user data recorded on [ whose ] the 
above-mentioned recording medium, and a consistency-ized renewal step which updates the above- 
mentioned final recording position information by the above-mentioned confirmation step in 
management information memorized to the above-mentioned memory measure when not 
consistented. 

The above-mentioned sheep record section distinguished by the above-mentioned write-in 
existence presentation information in management information which was read from the above- 
mentioned recording medium by the above-mentioned memory step, and was memorized by the 
above-mentioned memory measure, It has a confirmation step which checks whether the above- 
mentioned sheep record section on the above-mentioned recording medium consistents, and a 
consistency-ized renewal step which updates the above-mentioned write-in existence presentation 
information by the above-mentioned confirmation step in management information memorized to the 
above-mentioned memory measure when not consistented 
[0014] 

In a system provided with random access nature in the above this invention by using write-in 
existence presentation information (space bit map) in write once media, It realizes updating on a disk 
management information including write-in existence presentation information (space bit map) and 
final recording position information (LRA) which shows the final position user data recorded to 
suitable timing. Namely, by realization of random access record, although a gap (non-record section) 
may occur in a field (field of an address younger than LRA) before LRA, According to generating or 
disappearance (that is, data recording to a field made into a gap) of this gap, management 
information is updated on a disk. 

Since management information is updated by generating or disappearance of a gap on a disk, it can 
be checked by detecting whether management information on a disk and the compatibility of a user 
data recording situation are in agreement with a gap on a disk with actual gap and LRA in 
management information, or LRA. 

And what is necessary is just to update in order to only adjust management information if 
consistency cannot be taken. That is, a space bit map and LRA may only be updated. 
[0015] 

[Embodiment of the Invention] 

Hereafter, while explaining the optical disc as an embodiment of the invention, the disk drive device 
used as the recorder to the optical disc and playback equipment is explained. Explanation is given in 
the following order. 

1. Disk structure 

2. DMA 

3. TDMA system 
3-1 TDMA 

3-2 ISA and OSA 

4. Disk drive device 

5. Generating and disappearance of gap 

6. Renewal of TDMA 



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} 6-1 Updating according to generating and disappearance of the gap 
6-2 Updating at the time of disk ejection 
6-3 Updating by the directions from a host 

7. Compatibility verification processing 

8. Effect and modification by this embodiment 
[0016] 

1. Disk structure 

The optical disc of an embodiment is explained first. This optical disc is feasible as a write once 
type disk in the category of the high density optical disk method called what is called a Blu-ray 
Disc. 
[0017] 

An example of the physical parameter of the high density optical disk of this embodiment is 
explained. 

As for 120 mm and disk thickness, as for the optical disc of this example, a diameter is set to 1.2 
mm as disk size. That is, at these points, if it sees in outside, it will become being the same as that 
of the disk of CD (Compact Disc) method, and the disk of a DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) method. 
And the thing for which what is called blue laser is used, and an optical system is set to high NA (for 
example, NA=0.85) as laser for record/reproduction, In a disk 12 cm in diameter, about 23G-25 G 
byte is realized as user data capacity by furthermore realizing a narrow track pitch (for example, a 
track pitch = 0.32 micrometer) and high line density (for example, recording linear density of 0.12 
micrometer) etc. 

What is called a two-layer disk with which the recording layer was made two-layer will also be 
developed, and, in the case of a two-layer disk, user data capacity will be about 50 G bytes 
[0018] 

Drawing 1 shows the layout (field composition) of an entire disk. 

As a field on a disk, a lead-in groove zone, a data zone, and a lead-out zone are allotted from the 
inner circumference side. 

It is if it sees as field composition about record and reproduction. Prerecording dead information 
area PIC by the side of the most inner circumference of the lead-in groove zones is made into 
reproduction dedicated regions, and let from the management domain of a lead-in groove zone to a 
lead-out zone be a recordable write once area once 
[0019] 

The recording track by a wobbling groove (winding slot) is formed in reproduction dedicated regions 
and a write once area at spiral shape. A groove is considered as the guide of the tracking in the 
case of trace by laser spot, and this groove is used as a recording track, and record reproduction of 
data is performed. 

Although the optical disc in which data recording is performed to a groove is assumed in this 
example, May apply this invention to the optical disc of the land recording method which records 
data on the land not only between the optical disc of such groove recordings but grooves, and, It is 
also possible to apply also to the optical disc of the land groove-recordings method which records 
data on a groove and a land. 
[0020] 

The groove used as a recording track serves as meandering shape according to a wobble signal. 
Therefore, in the disk drive device to an optical disc. Both the edge positions of the groove are 
detected from the catoptric light of the laser spot with which the groove was irradiated, By 
extracting the fluctuation components to the disk radial of both the edge position at the time of 
moving laser spot along a recording track, a wobble signal is renewable. 
[0021] 

The address information (a physical address, other additional information, etc.) of the recording 
track in that recording position is modulated by this wobble signal. Therefore, in a disk drive device, 



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? record of data, address control in the case of reproduction, etc. can be performed by recovering 
address information etc. from this wobble signal. 
[0022] 

The leadHn groove zone shown in drawing 1 serves as a field inside 24 mm in radius, for example. 
And 22.2-23.1 mm in radius in a lead-in groove zone is set to prerecording dead information area 
PIC. 

Disk information, such as record reproduction power conditions, the area information on a disk, the 
information used for copy protection, etc. are beforehand recorded on prerecording dead information 
area PIC as information only for playback by wobbling of the groove. These information may be 
recorded by an embossed pit etc. 
[0023] 

Although it is not illustrating, BCA (Burst Cutting Area) may be further provided in the inner 
circumference side from prerecording dead information area PIC. BCA records unique ID peculiar to 
a disk recording medium by the recording method which burns off a recording layer. That is, the 
record data of barcode form is formed by forming so that a recording mark may be arranged in 
concentric circle shape. 
[0024] 

Let ranges 23.1-24 mm in radius be management/control information region in a lead-in groove 
zone. 

In management/control information region, a control data area, DMA (Defect Management Area), 
The predetermined field format which has TDMA (Temporary Defect Management Area), test write 
area (OPC), a buffer area, etc. is set up. 
[0025] 

The following management/control information are recorded on the control data area in 
management/ control information region. 

That is, a disk type, disk size, a disk version, a layer system, channel bit length, BCA information, a 
transfer rate, data zone position information, recording linear velocity, record / reproducing-laser- 
power information, etc. are recorded 
[0026] 

Similarly the test write area (OPC) provided in management/control information region is used for 
the trial writing at the time of setting up data recording reproduction conditions, such as laser power 
at the time of record/reproduction, etc. That is, it is a field for record reproduction condition 
adjustment. 
[0027] 

Although DMA is provided in management/control information region, as for DMA, in the field of an 
optical disc, the shift management information for defect management is usually recorded. However, 
in the disk of this example, management/control information for DMA to realize data rewriting not 
only in shift management of a rejected region but in this write once type disk are recorded. By DMA, 
the management information of ISA and OSA which are mentioned later is recorded especially in 
this case. 

In order to enable data rewriting using alternating processing, the contents of DMA must also be 
updated according to data rewriting. For this reason, TDMA is provided. 

Additional recording of the shift management information is carried out to TDMA, and it is updated. 
The shift management information of the last (newest) eventually recorded on TDMA is recorded on 
DMA. 

Furthermore, the information called a space bit map and LRA is recorded on TDMA. These serve as 
information for realizing suitable random access nature, though it is write once media. 
DMA and TDMA are explained in full detail behind. 
[0028] 

Let 24.0-58.0 mm in radius by the side of a periphery be a data zone from a lead-in groove zone. A 



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} data zone is a field where record reproduction of the user data is actually carried out. In the data 
zone position information on the control data area mentioned above, start address ADdts of a data 
zone and ending-address ADdte are shown. 
[0029] 

in a data zone — the most-inner-circumference side — ISA (Inner Spare Area) — OSA (Outer 
Spare Area) is provided in the outermost periphery side. It is considered as a defect or the 
exchange area for data rewriting (address) so that ISA and OSA may be described later. 
ISA is formed with the cluster size (one cluster = 65536 bytes) of a predetermined number from the 
starting position of a data zone. 

OSA is formed in the inner circumference side with the cluster size of a predetermined number from 
the end position of a data zone. The size of ISA and OSA is described by the above-mentioned 
DMA. 
[0030] 

Let the section inserted into ISA and OSA in the data zone be a user data area. This user data area 

is a usual record reproduction field used for the record reproduction of user data usual. 

The position of a user data area, i.e., start address ADus, and ending-address ADue are described 

by the above-mentioned DMA. 

[0031] 

A periphery side lets 58.0-58.5 mm in radius be a lead-out zone from a data zone. A lead-out zone 
is made into management/control information region, and a control data area, DMA, a buffer area, 
etc. are formed in a predetermined format. Various kinds of management/control information are 
recorded on a control data area, for example like the control data area in a lead-in groove zone. 
DMA is prepared as a field where the management information of ISA and OSA is recorded like DMA 
in a lead-in groove zone. 
[0032] 

The recording layer shows drawing 2 the constructional example of the management/control 
information region in the one-layer disk of one layer. 

Except for the undefined section (reserve), each area of DMA2, OPC (test write area), TDMA, and 
DMA1 is formed in a lead-in groove zone so that it may illustrate. Each area of DM A3 and DMA4 is 
formed in a lead-out zone except for the undefined section (reserve). 

Although the control data area mentioned above was not shown, the graphic display relevant to this 
invention in the structure about that a part of control data area serves as DMA actually, for 
example and DMA/TDMA since was omitted. 
[0033] 

Thus, four DMA is provided in a lead-in groove zone and a lead-out zone. Shift management 
information with each DMA1-DMA4 [ same ] is recorded. 

However, according to TDMA being provided, and shift management information being recorded at 
the beginning using TDMA, and the alternating processing by data rewriting or a defect occurring, it 
is updated in the form where additional recording of the shift management information is carried out 
to TDMA. 

Therefore, DMA is not used but shift management is performed in TDMA until it carries out the 
FAINA rise of the disk, for example. If the FAINA rise of the disk is carried out, the newest shift 
management information currently recorded on TDMA at the time will be recorded on DMA, and the 
shift management of it by DMA will be attained 
[0034] 

Drawing 3 shows the case where it is the two-layer disk with which two recording layers were 
formed. The layer 0 and the 2nd recording layer are also called layer 1 for the 1st recording layer. 
In the layer 0, record reproduction is performed toward the periphery side from the disk inner 
circumference side. That is, it is the same as that of an one-layer disk. 

In the layer 1, record reproduction is performed toward the inner circumference side from the disk 



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periphery side. 

Advance of the value of a physical address also becomes as this direction. That is, in the layer 0. an 
address value increases to an inner circumference -> periphery, and an address value increases to 
periphery -> inner circumference in the layer 1 . 
[0035] 

Each area of DMA2, OPC (test write area), TDMA, and DMA1 is formed in the lead-in groove zone 
of the layer 0 like an one-layer disk. Since the outermost periphery side of the layer 0 does not 
serve as lead-out, it is only called the outer zone 0. And DMA3 and DMA4 are formed in the outer 
zone 0. 

The outermost periphery of the layer 1 serves as the outer zone 1. DMA3 and DMA4 are formed 
also in this outer zone 1. Let the most inner circumference of the layer 1 be a lead-out zone Each 
area of DMA2, OPC (test write area), TDMA, and DMA1 is formed in this lead-out zone. 
Thus, eight DMA is provided in a lead-in groove zone, the outer zones 0 and 1 , and a lead-out zone. 
TDMA is provided in each recording layer, respectively. 

Size of the lead-in groove zone of the layer 0 and the lead-out zone of the layer 1 is made the 
same as the lead-in groove zone of an one-layer disk. 

Size of the outer zone 0 and the outer zone 1 is made the same as the lead-out zone of an one- 
layer disk. 
[0036] 
2.DMA 

The structure of DMA recorded on a lead-in groove zone and a lead-out zone (in and the case of a 
two-layer disk outer zones 0 and 1) is explained. 
The structure of DMA is shown in drawing 4 . 

Here, the size of DMA shows the example made into 32 clusters (32x65536 bytes). A cluster is the 
minimum unit of data recording. 

Of course, DMA size is not limited to 32 clusters. Drawing 4 shows the data position of each 
contents [ in / considering each cluster of 32 clusters as the cluster numbers 1-32 / DMA ]. The 
size of each contents is shown as a cluster number. 
[0037] 

In DMA, the detailed information of a disk is recorded on the section of four clusters of the cluster 
numbers 1-4 as DDS (disc definition structure). Although drawing 5 describes the contents of this 
DDS, DDS is made into the size of one cluster and repetition record is carried out 4 times in the 
section of the four clusters concerned. 
[0038] 

The section of four clusters of the cluster numbers 5-8 serves as the 1st record section (DFL#1) of 
the defect list DFL Although drawing 6 describes the structure of the defect list DFL, the defect 
list DFL serves as data of four cluster sizes, and serves as composition which listed each shift 
address information in it. 

The section of four clusters of the cluster numbers 9-12 serves as the 2nd record section (DFL#2) 
of the defect list DFL 

The record section of defect list DFL#3 of the 3rd four clusters [ every ] henceforth - DFL#6 is 
prepared, and the section of four clusters of the cluster numbers 29-32 serves as the 7th record 
section (DFL#7) of the defect list DFL 

That is, seven record sections of defect list DFL#1 - DFL#7 are prepared for DMA of 32 clusters 
In order to record the contents of this DMA like this example in the case of the write once type 
optical disc in which 1-time writing is possible, it is necessary to perform processing called a FAINA 
rise. In that case, all of seven defect list DFL#1 written in DMA - DFL#7 are made into the same 
contents. 
[0039] 

The contents of DDS recorded on the head of DMA of above-mentioned drawing 4 are shown in 



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n drawing 5 . 

Let DDS be the size of one cluster (= 65536 bytes) as mentioned above. 

In drawing 5, the byte position shows the head byte of DDS which is 65536 bytes as the byte 0. A 

number of bytes shows the number of bytes of each data content 

[0040] 

DDS identifier [ for recognizing that it is a cluster of DDS ] (DDS Identifier) = "DS" is recorded on 2 
bytes of the byte positions 0-1. 

DDS model designation (version of a format) is shown in 1 byte of the byte position 2 
[0041] 

The update frequency of DDS is recorded on 4 bytes of the byte positions 4-7. In this example, it is 
not updated and shift management information is performed [ in / whose DMA itself was that in 
which shift management information is written at the time of a FAINA rise / TDMA ]. Therefore, 
when a FAINA rise is carried out eventually, the update frequency of DDS (TDDS: temporary DDS) 
performed in TDMA is recorded on the byte position concerned 
[0042] 

The head physical sector address (AD DFL) of the defect list DFL of [ in DMA ] is recorded on 4 
bytes of the byte positions 24-27. 

The head position of a user data area [ in / in 4 bytes of the byte positions 32-35 / a data zone ], 
That is, PSN (phisical sector number: physical sector address) shows the position of LSNOogical 
sector number: logical sector address)"0." 

4 bytes of the byte positions 36-39 show the end position of the user data area in a data zone by 
LSN (logic sector address). 

The size of ISA in a data zone is shown in 4 bytes of the byte positions 40-43. 

The size of OSA in a data zone is shown in 4 bytes of the byte positions 44-47. 

The exchange area enabled flag which shows whether data rewriting is possible using ISA and OSA 

is shown in 1 byte of the byte position 52. An exchange area enabled flag has it shown, when ISA or 

all OSA(s) are used. 

The byte positions other than these shall be considered as reserve (undefined), and shall be 00 h 

altogether. 

[0043] 

Thus, DDS contains the address of a user data area, the size of ISA and OSA, and an exchange area 
enabled flag. That is, it is considered as the management/control information which performs field 
management of ISA in a data zone, and OSA. 
[0044] 

Next, the structure of the defect list DFL is shown in drawing 6 . 

As drawing 4 explained, the defect list DFL is recorded on the record section of four clusters. 

In drawing 6, the data position of each data content in the defect list DFL of four clusters is shown 

as the byte position. 1 cluster =32 sector = it is 65536 bytes and is 1 sector =2048 byte. 

A number of bytes shows the number of bytes as size of each data content 

[0045] 

Let 64 bytes of the head of the defect list DFL be defect list maintenance information. 
The information, including information, a version, defect list update frequency, the number of entries 
of a defect list, etc., that it recognizes that it is a cluster of a defect list is recorded on this defect 
list maintenance information. 

After the byte position 64, 8 bytes each of shift address information ati are recorded as contents of 
an entry of a defect list. 

And immediately after shift address information ati#N of the effective last, 8 bytes of terminator 
information as a shift address information termination are recorded. 

At this DFL, even the last of that cluster is filled up with 00 h after a shift address information 
termination. 



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,[0046] 

64 bytes of defect list maintenance information become like drawing 7 . 

The character string "DF" is recorded on 2 bytes as an identifier of the defect list DFL from the 
byte position 0. 

1 byte of the byte position 2 shows the formal number of the defect list DFL 
4 bytes from the byte position 4 The number of times which updated the defect list DFL is shown. 
Let this be the value which succeeded the update frequency of the temporary defect list TDFL 
mentioned later. 

It is shown, 4 bytes from the byte position 12 of the number of entries in the defect list DFL, i.e., 
number of the shift address information ati. 

A cluster number shows 4 bytes from the byte position 24 of size of each free space of the 
exchange areas ISA and OSA. 

The byte positions other than these shall be considered as reserve, and shall be 00 h altogether 
[0047] 

The structure of the shift address information ati is shown in drawing 8 . That is, it is the information 

which shows each contents of an entry by which alternating processing was carried out. 

In the case of an one-layer disk, the total of the shift address information ati is a maximum of 32759 

pieces. 

The one shift address information ati comprises 8 bytes (64 bits). Each bit is shown as the bits b63- 
bO. 

The status information (status 1) of an entry is recorded on the bits b63-b60. 

In DFL, status information is set to "0000" and shows the usual alternating processing entry. 

Other status information values are later described in the case of explanation of the shift address 

information ati of TDFL in TDMA. 

[0048] 

Physical sector address PSN of the beginning of a taking the place agency cluster is shown in the 
bits b59-b32. That is, physical sector address PSN of the heading sector shows the cluster changed 
by a defect or rewriting. 

The bits b31-b28 are considered as reserve. Another status information (status 2) in an entry may 

be made to be recorded. 

[0049] 

Physical sector address PSN of the head of a shift place cluster is shown in the bits b27~b0. 
That is, when a cluster takes the place by a defect or rewriting, physical sector address PSN of the 
heading sector shows the cluster of the shift place. 
[0050] 

The taking the place agency cluster where the above shift address information ati is considered as 
one entry and which requires it for one alternating processing, and a shift place cluster are shown. 
And such an entry is registered into the defect list DFL of the structure of drawing 6 
[0051] 

In DMA, it is the above data structures and shift management information is recorded. However, as 

mentioned above, it is the time of carrying out the FAINA rise of the disk that these information is 

recorded on DMA, and the newest shift management information in TDMA is then reflected. 

In TDMA explained below, defect management, alternating processing for data rewriting, and renewal 

of the shift management information according to it will be performed. 

[0052] 

3. TDMA system 
3-1 TDMA 

Then, TDMA provided in management/control information region as shown in drawing 2 and drawing 
3_is explained Although TDMA (temporary DMA) is made into the field which records shift 
management information as well as DMA, it is updated by additional recording of the shift 



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% management information being carried out according to the alternating processing according to data 
rewriting or detection of the defect occurring. 
[0053] 

The structure of TDMA is shown in drawing 9 , 
Let sizes of TDMA be 2048 clusters, for example. 

A space bit map is recorded on the cluster of the beginning of the cluster number 1 as illustrating, 
the data zone (and the lead-in groove zone which are management/regulatory region.) whose space 
bit map is a main data field, for example It is the write-in existence presentation information that 1 
bit is assigned, respectively and it is made for each cluster to have it shown about each cluster 
which may include a lead-out zone (outer zone) by the value which is 1 bit whether it is finishing 
[writing]. 

Although all the clusters which constitute a data zone (or further a lead-in groove zone and a lead- 
out zone (outer zone)) at least are assigned to 1 bit in a space bit map, this space bit map can 
consist of sizes of one cluster. 

In the case of disks of two or more recording layers, such as a two-layer disk, it is recorded by one 
cluster which a space bit map corresponding for each class writes, or the space bit map of the 
recording layer should just be recorded in TDMA in each class. 
[0054] 

In TDMA, when alternating processing occurs by change of a data content etc., additional recording 
of the TDFL (temporary defect list) is carried out to the cluster of the head of the non-recording 
area in TDMA. Therefore, the first TDFL will be recorded, for example from the position of the 
cluster number 2. And according to generating of alternating processing, additional recording of the 
TDFL is henceforth carried out to the cluster position which does not vacate between. 
Let sizes of TDFL be a maximum of 4 clusters from one cluster. 
[0055] 

Since a space bit map is what shows the write-in situation of each cluster, it is updated according 
to data write occurring. In this case, a new space bit map is performed from the head of the free 
space in TDMA like TDFL. 

That is, within TDMA, a space bit map or TDFL will be added at any time 
[0056] 

Although the composition of a space bit map and TDFL is described below, Into the sector (2048 
bytes) at the tail end of one to 4 cluster set to the sector at the tail end of one cluster (2048 bytes) 
and TDFL which are made into a space bit map. TDDS which is the detailed information of an optical 
disc (temporary DDS (temporary disc definition structure) is recorded.) 
[0057] 

The composition of a space bit map is shown in drawing 10 . 

The bit corresponding to the cluster to which the space bit map expressed record / non-recorded 
state of one cluster on a disk with 1 bit, for example, the bit corresponding to the cluster of the 
non-recorded state was set to "0", and data recording was performed is a bit map set to "1" as 
mentioned above. 

One sector = in the case of 2048 bytes, the capacity of 25 GB of one recording layer can consist of 
bit maps of the size of 25 sectors. That is, a space bit map can consist of sizes of one cluster (=32 
sector). 
[0058] 

Drawing 10 shows 32 sectors in 1 cluster as the sectors 0-31. The byte position is shown as the 
byte position in a sector. 

The variety of information for management of a space bit map is recorded on the top sector 0. 
"UB" is first recorded on 2 bytes from the byte position 0 of the sector 0 as space bit map ID (Un- 
allocated Space Bitmap Identifier). 

A format version (formal number) is recorded on 1 byte of the byte position 2 t for example, it may 



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.be "00h." 

A layer number is recorded on 4 bytes from the byte position 4. That is, it is shown whether it 

corresponds to the layer 1 corresponding to the layer 0 in this space bit map. 

[0059] 

The bit map information (Bitmaplnformation) is recorded on 48 bytes from the byte position 16. 
A bit map information A start cluster position (Start ClusterFirst PSN), The starting position of bit 
map data (Start Byte Position of Bitmap data), The size (Validate Bit Length in Bitmap data) of bit 
map data shall be 4 bytes, respectively, and the remainder is considered as reserve. 
In a start cluster position (Start Cluster First PSN), the position of the first cluster managed by a 
space bit map on a disk is shown by PSN (physical sector address). 

The starting position (Start Byte Position of Bitmap data) of bit map data, The number of bytes as a 

relative position from Un-allocated Space Bitmap Identifier of the head of a space bit map shows 

the starting position of the bit map data itself. That position is shown although it becomes bit map 

data from the head byte position of the sector 1 in the example of this drawing 10 . 

The size (Validate Bit Length in Bitmap data) of bit map data expresses the size of bit map data 

with the number of bits. 

[0060] 

The actual bit map data (Bitmap data) is recorded from the byte position 0 of the 2nd sector (= 
sector 1) of the space bit map of this drawing 10. The size of bit map data is one sector per GB. 
Even this side of a final sector (sector 31) shall be considered as reserve, and the field after the last 
bit map data shall be "OOh." 

And TDDS is recorded on the final sector (sector 31) of a space bit map. 
[0061] 

Next, the composition of TDFL (temporary DFL) is described. Like above-mentioned drawing 9 , 
whenever TDFL is recorded on the empty area which follows a space bit map in TDMA and is 
updated, it is added to the head of empty area. 
The composition of TDFL is shown in drawing 1 1 . 

TDFL comprises one to 4 cluster. 64 bytes of a head are made into defect list maintenance 
information so that the contents may be understood compared with DFL of drawing 6 , It is same 
that 8 bytes next to the point that 8 bytes each of shift address information ati are recorded after 
the byte position 64, and the last shift address information ati#N are used as a shift address 
information termination. 

However, in TDFL of one to 4 cluster, it differs from DFL in that temporary DDS (TDDS) is recorded 

on 2048 bytes used as the sector of the last. 

[0062] 

In TDFL, it buries by 00 h to this side which is a final sector of the cluster to which a shift address 
information termination belongs. And TDDS is recorded on a final sector. When a shift address 
information termination belongs to the final sector of a cluster, it will bury by 0 to the final sector 
this side of the following cluster, and TDDS will be recorded on a final sector. 
[0063] 

64 bytes of defect list maintenance information are the same as the defect list maintenance 
information on DFL explained by drawing 7 . 

However, the consecutive numbers of the defect list of ** are recorded as 4 bytes of defect list 
update frequency from the byte position 4. The consecutive numbers of the defect list maintenance 
information in the newest TDFL show defect list update frequency by this. 
The number of entries in 4 bytes of defect list DFL from the byte position 12, That is, as for the 
size (cluster number) of the number of the shift address information ati, and each free space of 4 
bytes of exchange areas ISA and OSA from the byte position 24, the value at the renewal time of 
TDFL will be recorded. 
[0064] 



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.The structure of the shift address information ati in TDFL is the same as the structure of the shift 
address information ati in DFL shown by drawing 8, and the taking the place agency cluster where 
shift address information ati is considered as one entry and which requires it for one alternating 
processing, and a shift place cluster are shown. And such an entry is registered into the temporary 
defect list TDFL of the structure of drawing 11 , 
[0065] 

However, as the status 1 of the shift address information ati of TDFL it may be set to "0101" and 
"1010" in addition to "0000." 

That the status 1 is set to "0101" and "1010" is a case where shift management (burst 
transmission management) of the two or more clusters is carried out collectively, when alternating 
processing of two or more clusters which continue physically is carried out collectively. 
That is, when the status 1 is "0101" f as for the head physical sector address of the taking the place 
agency cluster of the shift address information ati, and the head physical sector address of a shift 
place cluster, the shift origin about the cluster of the head of two or more clusters which continue 
physically shows a shift place. 

When the status 1 is "1010", as for the head physical sector address of the taking the place agency 
cluster of the shift address information ati, and the head physical sector address of a shift place 
cluster, the shift origin about the cluster of the last of two or more clusters which continue 
physically shows a shift place. 

Therefore, none of two or more of those one clusters of every needs to enter the shift address 
information ati, and what is necessary is just to enter the two shift address information ati about a 
leading cluster and a termination cluster, when carrying out shift management of two or more 
clusters which continue physically collectively 
[0066] 

In TDFL, although fundamentally considered as the same structure as DFL as mentioned above, it 
has the features, like that size is extensible up to four clusters, that TDDS is recorded on the last 
sector, and burst transmission management is. enabled as the shift address information ati 
[0067] 

In TDMA, as shown in drawing 9 . a space bit map and TDFL are recorded, but. TDDS (temporary 
disc definition structure) is recorded on 2048 bytes as a sector of a space bit map and the last of 
TDFL as mentioned above. 

The structure of this TDDS is shown in drawing 12 . 

TDDS comprises one sector (2048 bytes). And the same contents as DDS in DMA mentioned above 
are included. Although DDS is one cluster (65536 bytes), it is to the byte position 52 that the 
substantial contents definition in DDS is performed as drawing 5 explained. That is, substantial 
contents are recorded in the heading sector of one cluster. For this reason, even if TDDS is one 
sector, the contents of DDS can be included. 

TDDS serves as the contents as DDS with the same byte positions 0-53 so that drawing 12 and 
drawing 5 may be compared and understood. However, it becomes a start physical address (AD 
DFL) of TDFL in TDDS consecutive numbers and TDMA from the byte position 24 from the byte 
position 4. 
[0068] 

The information which is not in DDS is recorded after the byte position 1024 of TDDS. 
LRA (Last Recorded Address) is recorded on 4 bytes from the byte position 1024 as final recording 
position information which shows the final position user data recorded. This is physical sector 
address PSN of the outermost periphery by which data recording is carried out in a user data area. 
The start physical sector address (AD BP0) of the newest space bit map in TDMA is recorded on 4 
bytes from the byte position 1028. 

Bytes other than these byte positions are considered as reserve, and all the contents are OOh 
[0069] 



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Thus. TDDS contains the address of a user data area, the size of ISA and OSA. and an exchange 
area enabled flag. That is, it is considered as the management/control information which performs 
field management of ISA in a data zone, and OSA It becomes being the same as that of DDS at this 
point. 

And it shall have further LRA which is the final recording position information on user data, and the 
information (AD BPO) which shows the position of the newest effective space bit map. 
TDDS new since this TDDS is recorded on a space bit map and the final sector of TDFL, whenever 
a space bit map or TDFL is added will be recorded. Therefore, within TDMA of drawing 9 . TDDS in 
the space bit map added at the end or TDFL turns into the newest TDDS, and the newest space bit 
map in it will be shown. 

Even if additional recording of the space bit map is carried out by this and it is updated, it enables it 

to grasp the space bit map which should be referred to at present 

[0070] 

3-2 ISA and OSA 

The position of ISA and OSA is shown in drawing 13 . 

ISA (inner spare area: inner circumference side exchange area) and OSA (outer spare area: 
periphery side exchange area) are fields secured in a data zone as an exchange area for the 
alternating processing of a defective cluster. 

ISA and OSA are used also as an exchange area for actually recording the data written in an object 
address, when [ which receives a recorded address ] it writes in, that is, there is a demand of data 
rewriting. 
[0071] 

Drawing 13 (a) is a case of an one-layer disk, ISA is provided in the most-inner-circumference side 

of a data zone, and OSA is provided in the outermost periphery side of a data zone. 

Drawing 13 (b) is a case of a two-layer disk, ISA0 is provided in the most-inner-circumference side 

of the data zone of the layer 0, and OSA0 is provided in the outermost periphery side of the data 

zone of the layer 0. ISA1 is provided in the most-inner-circumference side of the data zone of the 

layer 1, and OSA1 is provided in the outermost periphery side of the data zone of the layer 1. 

The sizes of ISA0 and ISA1 may differ in a two-layer disk. The size of OSA0 and OSA1 is the same. 

[0072] 

The size of ISA (or ISA0, ISA1) and OSA (or OSA0, OSA1) is defined within above-mentioned DDS 
and TDDS. 

The size (size) of ISA is determined at the time of initialization, a subsequent size is immobilization, 
and also after the size of OSA records data, it can be changed. That is, it is supposed that it is 
possible to expand OSA size by changing the value of the size of OSA recorded in TDDS in the 
case of renewal of TDDS etc. 
[0073] 

Alternating processing using these ISA and OSA is performed as follows. The case of data rewriting 
is mentioned as an example. For example, suppose that the demand of data write, i.e., rewriting, 
occurred to the cluster in a user data area to which data recording was already performed. In this 
case, since it is a write once disk and cannot write in that cluster, that rewriting data is written in a 
certain cluster in ISA or OSA. This is alternating processing. 

This alternating processing is managed as an entry of the above-mentioned shift address 
information ati. That is, the one shift address information ati is entered to the cluster address with 
which data recording was performed from the first, and the ******** cluster address wrote in 
rewriting data in ISA and OSA in the taking the place agency as a shift place. 
That is, it is recording rewriting data on ISA or OSA in data rewriting, and managing the shift of the 
data position by the rewriting concerned by the shift address information ati in TDFL in TDMA, 
Though it is a write once type disk, data rewriting is realized substantially (seeing from OS of a host 

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^system, a file system, etc.). 
[0074] 

The same may be said of the case of defect management, and when a certain cluster is made into a 
defect region, the data which should be written in there is written in a certain cluster in ISA and 
OSA by alternating processing. And the one shift address information ati is entered for management 
of this alternating processing. 
[0075] 

4. Disk drive device 

Next, the disk drive device (recording and reproducing device) corresponding to the above write 
once type disks is explained. 

The disk drive device of this example is in the state where the write once type disk, for example, 
prerecording dead information area PIC of drawing 1 , is formed, A write once area is performing 
format processing to the disk in the state nothing being recorded, The disk layout in the state where 
drawing 1 explained shall be formed, and record reproduction of data is performed to a user data 
area to the formatted [ such ] disk. At the time of necessity, record/updating to TDMA, ISA, and 
OSA are also performed. 
[0076] 

Drawing 14 shows the composition of a disk drive device. 

The disk 1 is a write once type disk mentioned above. The disk 1 is loaded into the turntable which 
is not illustrated and is rotated by a constant linear velocity (CLV) with the spindle motor 52 at the 
time of record/reproduction motion. 

And read-out of the management/control information as the ADIP address embedded by the optical 
pickup (optical head) 51 as wobbling of the groove track on the disk 1 or prerecording dead 
information is performed. 

Read-out of the data which management/control information, and user data were recorded on the 
track in a write once area by the optical pickup at the time of an initialization format and user data 
record, and was recorded by the optical pickup at the time of reproduction is performed 
[0077] 

The photodetector for detecting the laser diode used as a laser light source, and catoptric light in 
the pickup 51, The optical system (not shown) which irradiates a disk recording surface with the 
object lens and laser beam used as the outgoing end of a laser beam via an object lens, and leads 
the catoptric light to a photodetector is formed. 

In the pickup 51, the object lens is held movable by 2 axis mechanisms in the tracking direction and 
the focusing direction. 

The pickup 51 whole is made movable to a disk radial by the thread mechanism 53. 

The laser-light-emitting drive of the laser diode in the pickup 51 is carried out by the drive signal 

(drive current) from the laser driver 63. 

[0078] 

The reflected light information from the disk 1 is detected by the photodetector in the pickup 51, is 
made into the electrical signal according to light-receiving light volume, and is supplied to the matrix 
circuit 54. 

The matrix circuit 54 is equipped with a current voltage conversion circuit, matrix 
arithmetic/amplifying circuit, etc. corresponding to the output current from two or more photo 
detectors as a photodetector, and matrix arithmetic processing generates a required signal to it. 
For example, the focus error signal for the high frequency signal (regenerative data signal) 
equivalent to regenerative data and servo control, a tracking error signal, etc. are generated. 
A push pull signal is generated as the signal concerning wobbling of a groove, i.e., a signal which 
detects wobbling. 

The matrix circuit 54 may be constituted in one in the pickup 51. 

Supply the regenerative data signal outputted from the matrix circuit 54 to the reader/writer circuit 



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, 55, a focus error signal and a tracking error signal are supplied to the servo circuit 61, and a push 
pull signal is supplied to the wobble circuit 58, respectively. 
[0079] 

The reader/writer circuit 55 performs binarization processing, reproduction clock generation 
processing by PLL, etc. to a regenerative data signal, reproduces the data read by the pickup 51, 
and supplies it to the strange demodulator circuit 56. 

The strange demodulator circuit 56 is provided with the function part as a decoder at the time of 
reproduction, and the function part as an encoder at the time of record. 
At the time of reproduction, recovery processing of a run length Limited code is performed as 
decoding based on a reproduction clock. 

An ECC encoder / decoder 57 performs ECC encoding processing which adds an error correction 
code at the time of record, and ECC decoding which performs an error correction at the time of 
reproduction. 

At the time of reproduction, the data to which it restored in the strange demodulator circuit 56 is 
incorporated into an internal memory, error detection / correction processing, a DEINTA reeve, etc. 
are processed, and regenerative data is obtained. 

Based on directions of the system controller 60, the data decoded by even regenerative data by the 
ECC encoder / decoder 57 is read, and is transmitted to the connected host equipment 120, for 
example, AV (Audio-Visual) system. 
[0080] 

The push pull signal outputted from the matrix circuit 54 as a signal concerning wobbling of a groove 
is processed in the wobble circuit 58. It gets over to the data stream which constitutes an ADIP 
address in the wobble circuit 58, and the push pull signal as ADIP information is supplied to the 
address decoder 59. 

The address decoder 59 performs decoding about the data supplied, acquires an address value, and 
supplies it to the system controller 60. 

The address decoder 59 generates a clock by the PLL processing using the wobble signal supplied 
from the wobble circuit 58, for example, supplies it to each part as encode clocks at the time of 
record. 
[0081] 

As a push pull signal outputted from the matrix circuit 54 as a signal concerning wobbling of a 
groove, band pass filter processing is performed in the wobble circuit 58, and the push pull signal as 
prerecording dead information PIC is supplied to the reader/writer circuit 55. And after being 
binaryHzed and being considered as a data bit stream, by the ECC encoder / decoder 57, it ECC- 
decodes, and a DEINTA reeve is carried out and the data as prerecording dead information is 
extracted. The extracted prerecording dead information is supplied to the system controller 60. 
The system controller 60 can perform various operation setting processings, copy protection 
processing, etc. based on the read prerecording dead information. 
[0082] 

Although record data is transmitted from AV system 120 which is host equipment at the time of 
record, the record data is sent and buffered by the memory in an ECC encoder / decoder 57. 
In this case, an ECC encoder / decoder 57 adds error correction code addition, interleave, a sub- 
code, etc. as encoding processing of record data by which buffering was carried out. 
In the strange demodulator circuit 56, the abnormal conditions of a RLL(1-7) PP method are 
performed, and the data by which ECC encoding was carried out is supplied to the reader/writer 
circuit 55. 

The encode clocks which turn into a reference clock for such encoding processings at the time of 

record use the clock generated from the wobble signal as mentioned above. 

[0083] 

The record data generated by encoding processing, After fine adjustment of the optimum recording 



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.power to the characteristic of a recording layer, the spot form of a laser beam, recording linear 
velocity, etc., adjustment of a laser driving pulse waveform, etc. are performed as recording 
compensation processing in the reader/writer circuit 55, it is sent to the laser driver 63 as a laser 
driving pulse. 

In the laser driver 63, the supplied laser driving pulse is given to the laser diode in the pickup 51, 
and a laser-light-emitting drive is performed. The pit according to record data will be formed in the 
disk 1 by this. 
[0084] 

The laser driver 63 is provided with what is called an APC circuit (Auto Power Control), Monitoring 
laser output power with the output of the detector for a monitor of the laser power provided in the 
pickup 51, it controls so that the output of laser is not based on temperature etc. but becomes 
fixed. The desired value of the laser output at the time of record and reproduction is given from the 
system controller 60, and a laser output level controls it to become the desired value, respectively 
at the time of record and reproduction. 
[0085] 

From the focus error signal from the matrix circuit 54, and a tracking error signal, the servo circuit 
61 generates a focus, tracking, and the various servo drive signals of a thread, and performs servo 
operation. 

That is, according to a focus error signal and a tracking error signal, a focus drive signal and a 
tracking drive signal will be generated, and the focus coil of 2 axis mechanisms in the pickup 51 and 
a tracking coil will be driven. The tracking servo loop and focus servo loop by the pickup 51, the 
matrix circuit 54, the servo circuit 61, and 2 axis mechanisms are formed of this. 
[0086] 

According to the track jump instructions from the system controller 60, the servo circuit 61 makes 
a tracking servo loop off, is outputting a jump drive signal and performs track jump operation. 
[0087] 

The servo circuit 61 generates a thread drive signal based on the thread error signal acquired as a 
low-pass ingredient of a tracking error signal, the access execution control from the system 
controller 60, etc., and drives the thread mechanism 53. Although not illustrated in the thread 
mechanism 53, it has a mechanism by a main shaft, a thread motor, a transmission gear, etc. holding 
the pickup 51, and necessary slide movement of the pickup 51 is performed by driving a thread 
motor according to a thread drive signal. 
[0088] 

The spindle servo circuit 62 performs control which carries out CLV rotation of the spindle motor 2. 

The spindle servo circuit 62 obtains the clock generated by the PLL processing to a wobble signal 
as revolving speed information on the present spindle motor 52, is comparing this with 
predetermined CLV reference speed information, and generates a spindle error signal. 
Since the reproduction clock (clock used as the standard of decoding) generated by PLL in the 
reader/writer circuit 55 serves as revolving speed information on the present spindle motor 52 at 
the time of data reproduction, A spindle error signal is also generable by comparing this with 
predetermined CLV reference speed information. 

And the spindle servo circuit 62 outputs the spindle drive signal generated according to the spindle 
error signal, and performs CLV rotation of the spindle motor 62. 

The spindle servo circuit 62 generates a spindle drive signal according to the spindle kick / brake 
control signal from the system controller 60, and also performs operation of starting of the spindle 
motor 2, a stop, acceleration, a slowdown, etc. 
[0089] 

Various operations of the above servo systems and a record reproduction system are controlled by 
the system controller 60 formed with the microcomputer. 



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,The system controller 60 performs various processing according to the command from AV system 
120. 
[0090] 

For example, if a write-in command (write command) is taken out from AV system 120, the system 
controller 60 will move the pickup 51 to the address which should be written in first And encoding 
processing is performed as mentioned above by the ECC encoder / decoder 57, and the strange 
demodulator circuit 56 about the data (for example, the video data of various methods, such as 
MPEG 2, audio information, etc.) transmitted from AV system 120. And record is performed by the 
laser driving pulse from the reader/writer circuit 55 being supplied to the laser driver 63 as 
mentioned above. 
[0091] 

For example, when the read command which asks for transmission of some data (MPEG 2 video data 
etc.) currently recorded on the disk 1 from AV system 120 is supplied, seek operation control is 
performed for the purpose of the address directed first. That is, instructions are taken out to the 
servo circuit 61 and access operation of the pickup 51 which targets the address specified by the 
seek command is performed. 

Then, motion control required in order to transmit the data of the directed data section to AV 
system 120 is performed. That is, data read-out from the disk 1 is performed, decoding/buffering in 
the reader/writer circuit 55, the strange demodulator circuit 56, and the ECC encoder/decoder 57 
are performed, and the demanded data is transmitted. 
[0092] 

At the time of the record reproduction of these data, the system controller 60 can perform control 
of access or record reproduction operation using the ADIP address detected by the wobble circuit 
58 and the address decoder 59. 
[0093] 

When loaded with the disk 1, at the predetermined time the system controller 60, Read-out of 
unique ID recorded in BCA of the disk 1 and the prerecording dead information (PIC) currently 
recorded on reproduction dedicated regions as a wobbling groove (when BCA is formed) is 
performed. 

In that case, seek operation control is first performed for the purpose of BCA and the prerecording 
dead data zone PR. That is, instructions are taken out to the servo circuit 61 and access operation 
of the pickup 51 by the side of the disk most inner circumference is performed. 
Then, perform reproduction trace by the pickup 51 and the push pull signal as reflected light 
information is acquired, Decoding by the wobble circuit 58, the reader/writer circuit 55, and the ECC 
encoder/decoder 57 is performed, and the regenerative data as BCA information or prerecording 
dead information is obtained. 

The system controller 60 performs laser power setting out, copy protection processing, etc. based 
on the BCA information and prerecording dead information which did in this way and were read. 
[0094] 

Drawing 14 shows the cache memory 60a in the system controller 60. This cache memory 60a is 
used for maintenance of TDFL / space bit map read, for example from TDMA of the disk 1, and its 
updating. 

The system controller 60 performs read-out of TDFL / space bit map which controlled each part 
and was recorded on TDMA, when loaded with the disk 1, for example, and it holds the read 
information to the cache memory 60a. 

Then, when alternating processing by data rewriting or a defect is performed, TDFL / space bit map 

in the cache memory 60a are updated. 

[0095] 

For example, when alternating processing is performed by the writing of data, data rewriting, etc. and 
renewal of a space bit map or TDFL is performed, in TDMA of the disk 1 , may carry out additional 



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, recording of TDFL or the space bit map each time, but. If it is made such, consumption of TDMA of 
the disk 1 will be brought forward. 

Then, TDFL / space bit map is updated within the cache memory 60a until the disk 1 is ejected 
from a disk drive device, for example (discharge) and there are directions from host equipment. And 
in the time of ejection, etc., final TDFL / space bit map in the cache memory 60a (newest) are 
written in TDMA of the disk 1. Then, renewal of many TDFL / space bit maps will be summarized, it 
will be updated on the disk 1, and consumption of TDMA of the disk 1 can be reduced. 
On the other hand, if TDMA of the disk 1 is updated only when there are directions from the time of 
ejection or host equipment, there is concern that there are few updating opportunities. After user 
data is recorded on the disk 1, a period until TDMA is updated on the disk 1 will be in the state 
where TDMA and a user data recording situation are not adjusted, if it sees on the disk 1. 
Undesirably, for this reason, by this example, it mentions later, but lengthening such a period 
considers it as the renewal opportunity of TDMA on the disk 1 also with the case where the gap was 
generated according to user data record, or it disappears 
[0096] 

By the way, although the example of composition of the disk drive device of this drawing 14 was 
made into the example of the disk drive device connected to AV system 120, it is good also as that 
to which a personal computer etc. are connected as host equipment as a disk drive device of this 
invention. 

There may also be a gestalt which is not connected to the apparatus of further others. In that case, 
a final controlling element and an indicator are provided or the composition of the interface part of a 
data input/output differs from drawing 14 . That is, while record and reproduction are performed 
according to a user's operation, the terminal area for input and output of various data should just be 
formed. 
[0097] 

5. Generating and disappearance of gap 

Let generating and disappearance of a gap be a renewal opportunity of TDMA on the disk 1 in this 
example. A gap is explained first. 

The gap said by this example is the non-record section generated in the range (that is, LRA in a 
user data area inner circumference side) to the address on the recording medium shown by ** LRA 
for the final recording position information on user data. 

Since LRA is an address of the last recording sector of the recorded field which is in the outermost 
periphery side in a user data area, it can also be called non-record section which is in front of the 
recorded field in a user data area with a gap. 

Since user data generally packs and records from the disk inner circumference side to the write 
once disk, a gap here is not usually generated. However, the disk 1 of this example is provided with 
random access nature by using a space bit map, and does not need to pack and record user data 
recording operation from the inner circumference side. Therefore, an opportunity for the gap said by 
this example to generate arises. 
[0098] 

Drawing 1 5 explains the example of generation of a gap, and the situation of disappearance. Drawing 
15_(a) - (e) shows transition of the recording situation of the user data area on a disk, respectively. 
Drawing 15 (a) shows the state of the blank disk where no user data are recorded. In this case, 
although all user data areas are non-record sections, in the light of the above-mentioned definition, 
this is not a gap. That is, a gap does not exist in this state. 
[0099] 

Drawing 15 (b) is in the state which recorded the user datum from the middle of the disk of drawing 
15_(a). This recorded field will be called recorded field (Recorded) #1. 

In this case, the sector address of the last of recorded field #1 serves as LRA. Therefore, the non- 
record section by the side of inner circumference serves as a gap from recorded field #1. That is. a 

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,gap occurs. 

The non-record section (Un-recorded) by the side of a periphery is not a gap from recorded field 
#1. 

[0100] 

Drawing 15 (c) is in the state which recorded the user datum in the middle of the gap in the state of 
drawing 15 (b). This recorded field is set to recorded field #2. In this case, a gap will be divided into 
two. It means that the gap had also newly generated this. 

Since it is not what user data was recorded on the periphery side from recorded field #1, LRA is not 

changed. 

[0101] 

From the state of drawin g 15 (c). drawing 15 (d) performs user data record at the head of a user 
data area, and sets to recorded field #3, and performs user data record about the gap between 
recorded field #1 and #2, and shows the case where it is referred to as recorded field #4. 
Probably, about recorded field #3, user data record is performed about a part of the gap, and, in 
such a case, it does not become generating of a new gap from the head of the gap which already 
exists. 

About recorded field #4, it is in the state where the gap which had already existed was filled up with 
user data, and this serves as disappearance of a gap. 

Since the case of this d rawin g 1 5 (d) is not what user data was recorded on the periphery side from 

recorded field #1, either, LRA is not changed. 

[0102] 

Drawing 1 5 (e) is in the state which recorded the user datum from LRA from the state of drawing 15 
(d) in the middle of the non-record section (it is not a gap) of a periphery. This recorded field is set 
to recorded field #5. In this case, a non-record section will exist in the inner circumference side 
from recorded field #5, and this serves as a new gap. 

And since user data is recorded on the periphery side from recorded field #1 in this case, LRA is 

updated by the last sector address of recorded field #5. 

[0103] 

For example, according to record of user data, there are generating and disappearance of a gap as 
mentioned above, In this example, when there are generating and disappearance of such a gap, 
processing which writes the management information memorized by the cache memory 60a, i.e., the 
information on TDMA (that is, TDFL / space bit map), in the disk 1 is performed 
[0104] 

6. Renewal of TDMA 

6-1 Updating according to generating and disappearance of the gap 

Hereafter, the processing which updates TDMA to the disk 1 is explained. 

As contents of TDMA, as mentioned above, there are a space bit map and TDFL, and when 

recording operation of data is performed, a space bit map is certainly updated. The contents of 

TDFL are updated when the alternating processing by a defect or data rewriting occurs. 

TDDS is recorded on the final sector by a space bit map and TDFL, and LRA is contained in TDDS 

[0105] 

Although each information in such TDMA is updated if needed, below, it makes it an example to 
update the space bit map (TDDS which has LRA is included) which is what is certainly changed 
according to data recording in the disk 1, and is explained. 

When there is the necessity for renewal of TDFL as a case where alternating processing arises in 
data recording, it is carried out simultaneously with renewal of a space bit map, and does not carry 
out making reference each time in subsequent explanation. 
[0106] 

In the disk drive device of this example, the contents of the space bit map always memorized by the 
cache memory 60a are updated according to performing user data record on a disk. That is, updating 



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, which sets to "1 " the cluster to which record was performed is performed. When LRA changes, the 
value of LRA in TDDS of the final sector of the space bit map is updated. 

Therefore, the contents of the space bit map memorized by the cache memory 60a become a user 

data recording situation in the time, and the adjusted thing 

[0107] 

On the other hand, whenever the renewal of TDMA in the disk 1 (mainly renewal of a postscript of 
the space bit map in TDMA) performs user data record, it is not performed. 

In this example, following four are the opportunity to record the newest space bit map memorized by 
the cache memory 60a on the disk 1. 

- When a gap occurs by user data record 

- When a gap disappears by user data record 

- When the disk 1 is discharged (ejection) 

- When an updating instruction is published from a host 
[0108] 

Here, when a gap occurs by user data record, and when a gap disappears, the processing which was 
made to perform renewal of TDMA of the disk 1, i.e., the processing at the time of user data record, 
is explained. 

Each processing explained below turns into processing of the system controller 60 
[0109] 

Drawing 1 6 shows the processing at the time of user data record. 

Suppose that the write request of the user datum to a certain address N came from the host 
equipment of the AV system 120 grade to the system controller 60. 

In this case, processing of drawing 16 is performed in the system controller 60. At Step F101, data 
recording processing according to the demand from a host is performed first. 
This recording processing is performed by 1 cluster unit. 
[0110] 

Although the detailed procedure of data recording processing of Step F101 is not shown, the system 

controller 60 performs the following processings as processing in Step F101. 

About the address (cluster) which had data write first specified from a host, it checks a record 

settled or un-recording with reference to the space bit map in the cache memory 60a. 

If it has not recorded, processing which records the user data supplied to the specified address by 

the host will be performed. 

On the other hand, since this data write cannot be performed to the specified address if the 
specified address is record settled, data rewriting will be performed using an alternating processing 
function. That is, first, using ISA and OSA, alternating processing is possible, or no is judged, and if it 
is possible and is, this user data record will be performed to ISA or OSA. That is, it manages so that 
it may replace with the address N, and record may be performed to the cluster in ISA or OSA and 
the address N may take the place of the cluster in ISA or OSA. In this case, renewal of TDFL will 
[CHI ff Performed at the time of the renewal of a s P ace bit ma P at the following step F102. 

If data write to the address N is performed at Step F101, in Step F102, a space bit map will be 
updated within the cache memory 60a. That is, the cluster N which performed data write is shown 
as finishing [ writing ]. 

If the cluster N is an outermost periphery of user data at the time, LRA in TDDS of the final sector 

of a space bit map will also be updated 

[0112] 

Next, in Step F103, it is judged whether the gap explained by drawing 15 was generated by the 
writing processing in the above-mentioned step F101, or the gap disappeared. 
Processing of this step F103 is shown in drawing 17 in detail. 

At Step F201, the bit corresponding to the address N-1 is first acquired in the space bit map in the 



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, cache memory 60a, Le. f the space bit map updated at the last step F102. And at Step F202, it is 
judged whether it is whether the bit corresponding to the address N-1 is "1" "0." That is, it is 
judged whether the cluster in front of the cluster of the address N recorded this time is a recorded 
cluster. 

Here, supposing it has not recorded the address N-1, the non-record section will have produced in 
the inner circumference side from this data write position, it will progress to Step F204, and it will 
be judged that the gap occurred in this data write. 
[0113] 

On the other hand, supposing the address N-1 is record settled at Step F202, in a space bit map, 
the bit corresponding to the address N+1 will be acquired at Step F203 next And at Step F205, it is 
judged by whether it is whether the bit corresponding to the address N+1 is "1" "0" whether the 
next cluster of the cluster of the address N recorded this time is a recorded cluster, 
finishing [ record of the address N+1 ] — it is — finishing [ a case / the cluster before and behind 
the cluster recorded this time / record ] already — it is — that is, the address N recorded this time 
can be judged to be what was made into the gap until now. And it can be judged that the gap was 
buried by further this record. Therefore, at Step F206, it is judged that the gap disappeared 
depending on this record. 
[0114] 

If there is the address N+1 by un-recording at Step F205, it will be judged at Step F207 that there 

was no generating or disappearance of a gap depending on this record. 

[0115] 

If it judges whether there were any generating and disappearance of a gap by processing like this 
drawing 17, according to that result, processing will be branched at Step F104 of drawing 16 . 
When there are no generating and disappearance of a gap, it judges whether there is data which is 
Step F106 and has not been recorded yet, i.e., the data the recording request is done [ data ] by the 
host, and if it is, the sector number 32 will be applied to the address N, and it will be considered as 
the new address N. That is, let the following cluster be a write address. 
And it returns to Step F101 and data recording to the address N is performed 
[0116] 

On the other hand, when there are generating and disappearance of a gap at Step F104, It 
progresses to Step F105 and the space bit map updated by the space bit map / LRA F102 in the 
cache memory 60a at the time, i.e., a step, is written in TDMA on a disk. 
[0117] 

Processing of this step F105 is shown in drawing 18 in detail. 

Similarly the information on TDDS of drawing 12 currently held in the cache memory 60a 
(information for one sector containing LRA) is first added at Step F301 as a final sector of the 
space bit map in the cache memory 60a. 

And at Step F302, additional recording of the space bit map which added TDDS is carried out into 

TDMA (refer to drawing 9 ) of the disk 1. 

[0118] 

The above processing is performed until it is judged that the data which has not finished record at 
Step F106 was lost. 

Therefore, if generating and disappearance of a gap are immediately after user data record of the 
first one cluster when there is a data write demand for one cluster, for example from a host, TDMA 
of the disk 1 will be updated: 

When there is the above data write demand by two clusters, for example from a host, Immediately 
after user data record of the first one cluster, if there are generating and disappearance of a gap, at 
the time immediately after the 1 cluster writing, TDMA of the disk 1 is updated and user data record 
after 2 cluster eye is performed succeedingly after that. Of course, when there are generating and 
disappearance of a gap by user data record after 2 cluster eye, TDMA of the disk 1 is then updated. 



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[0119] 

6-2 Updating at the time of disk ejection 

Renewal of TDMA in the disk 1 (additional recording of a space bit map) is performed also in the 
case of disk ejection. 

Processing of the system controller 60 in the case of discharging the disk 1 from a disk drive device 

is shown in drawing 1 9 . 

[0120] 

When a user's operation or the directions from a host perform disk ejection, the system controller 
60 is Step F401, and checks whether in the cache memory 60a, there has been any renewal of a 
space bit map. 

If there is no renewal of a space bit map, control which progresses to Step F403 and discharges the 
disk 1 will be performed. This serves as the case where it is discharged without performing data 
recording once, after being loaded with the disk 1. 

On the other hand, when there is renewal of a space bit map by the cache memory 60a, it is Step 
F402 and additional recording of the space bit map (LRA is included) is carried out to TDMA of the 
disk 1. As for this, processing of above-mentioned drawing 18 will be performed. And after finishing 
renewal of TDMA, control which discharges the disk 1 at Step F403 will be performed 
[0121] 

6-3 Updating by the directions from a host 

Renewal of TDMA in the disk 1 (additional recording of a space bit map) is performed even if it 
responds to the directions from a host 

Drawing 20 shows processing of the system controller 60 when the TDMA update indication from a 

host occurs. 

[0122] 

When the TDMA update indication from a host occurs, the system controller 60 is Step F501, and 

checks whether in the cache memory 60a, there has been any renewal of a space bit map. 

If there is no renewal of a space bit map, processing will be finished without performing updating in 

particular to the disk 1. After being loaded with the disk 1, this serves as the case where update 

indication is published from a host, when data recording is not performed once. 

On the other hand, when there is renewal of a space bit map by the cache memory 60a, it is Step 

F502 and additional recording of the space bit map (LRA is included) is carried out to TDMA of the 

disk 1. As for this, processing of above-mentioned drawing 18 will be performed 

[0123] 

7. Compatibility verification processing 

By this example, TDMA of the disk 1 is updated by generating of a gap and disappearance, disk 
ejection, and the directions from a host as mentioned above. 

Moderate update frequency is realized by renewal of TDMA being performed by especially 

generating and disappearance of a gap. 

[0124] 

By and the thing for which renewal of TDMA with the disk 1 is performed again according to 
generating and disappearance of a gap. For example, if a gap and the compatibility of LRA are 
checked when loaded with a power turn or a disk, in the disk 1, the compatibility of the contents of 
TDMA and a user data recording situation can be checked. 

For example, in accidents, such as power supply cutoff before it, when it is judged that it is in the 
state where consistency cannot be taken, it is only updating a space bit map / LRA by the cache 
memory 60a in the right state, and can restore in the normal state. 
[0125] 

For this reason, when a disk drive device is made into a power turn, compatibility verification 
processing of drawing 21 is performed. 



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* Processing of this drawing 21 may be performed not only the time of a power turn but when loaded 
with the disk 1. 
[0126] 

Since it is already loaded with the disk 1 at the time if it is a power turn after being considered as 
power OFF, while it had been loaded with the disk 1, processing of drawing 21 is performed. If not 
loaded with the disk 1 at the time of a power turn, processing of drawing 21 is not performed though 
natural. 

Also the case of the power OFF as normal processing, or in power OFF by accidents, such as an 
artificial mistake, such as interruption to service, fault of a system action, and electric socket 
drawing, it contains with the power OFF when it is loaded with the disk 1 here. 
[0127] 

First, at Step F601, the newest space bit map in the inside currently recorded on TDMA of the disk 
1 and TDFL are read, and it incorporates into the cache memory 60a. The newest LRA exists in 
TDDS of a space bit map or the final sector of TDFL. 

And in Step F602, LRA which was read from the disk 1 and was cache-memory 60a Incorporated 

checks whether it actually consistents as LRA of the user data area of the disk 1. 

[0128] 

This LRA consistency confirmation processing is shown in drawing 22 in detail. 

At Step F701, it is first checked in the address (that is, the next address of LRA) of LRA+1 on the 

disk 1 whether data is actually recorded. 

According to a space bit map and LRA being updated by the disk 1 according to processing at the 
time of user data record being performed like above-mentioned drawing 16 , and there being gap 
generation and disappearance. If the address of LRA+1 has not been recorded at this step F701, 
LRA read from that disk 1 can be judged to be the right. 

For example, even when power supply cutoff happens in an accident during record of the portion of 
recorded field #5 of drawing 15 (e) temporarily, it is because renewal of TDMA is performed by 
processing of Step F105 of drawing 16 immediately after record of the cluster of the beginning of 
recorded field #5. 

Thus, if the compatibility of LRA is O.K., LRA consistency confirmation processing will be finished as 

it is. 

[0129] 

However, the compatibility of LRA can be taken when the address of LRA+1 is judged to be data 
recording settled at Step F701. That is, it is in the state where user data is recorded after LRA 
which should be a final address of user data. 

In this case, LRA read into the cache memory 60a at Steps F702-F704 is restored (consistency- 
izing). 

namely, — following LRA+1 at Step F702 — one by one — LRA+2 and LRA+3 — it actually plays 
on ... and a disk and a non-record section is searched. When address LRA+n is a non-record 
section, just before address LRA+ (n-1) is original LRA Then, at Step F703, the value of LRA in 
TDDS incorporated into the cache memory 60a is updated to LRA+ (n-1) which is a value of the 
original LRA. 

Then, the situation will be reflected in the space bit map although above-mentioned LRA+1 -LRA+ 
(n-1) is record settled. 

For this reason, in the space bit map which was read from the disk 1 and incorporated into the 
cache memory 60a at Step F704, it updates so that it may become finishing recording these 
addresses. 
[0130] 

Consistency confirmation processing of LRA is finished above. Step F703 and the update process of 
F704 are updating within the cache memory 60a to the last, and do not update TDMA in the disk 1 
at this time. 



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* moreover — following the above-mentioned LRA+1 in Step F702 and F703 — one by one — LRA+2 
and LRA+3, although the address which follows ... on a disk is played, a non-record section is looked 
for and just before the non-record section is made into the right LRA, This is not to generate a 
non-record section (that is, gap) between LRA in TDMA, and actual LRA, when processing of 
above-mentioned drawing 16 is performed at the time of user data record. When in other words LRA 
written to TDMA of the disk 1 does not consistent with a actual user data recording situation, 
actual LRA is because it becomes the recorded end-of-region end which continued from the 
address certainly shown by LRA written to TDMA. 
[0131] 

When consistency confirmation processing of LRA is performed like the above drawing 22 as Step 

F602 of drawing 21 . next at Step F603. The space bit map incorporated into the cache memory 60a 

is checked, and it is distinguished whether the gap shall exist in a space bit map. 

That is, the cluster or cluster group which serves as a non-record section in the address by the 

side of inner circumference from LRA checks [ 1 or ] whether more than one exist on a space bit 

map. 

[0132] 

Here, on a space bit map, if a gap does not exist, processing of drawing 21 will be finished. 

On the other hand, when a gap exists, it is Step F604 and consistency confirmation processing of a 

gap is performed. This serves as processing which checks whether the field made into the gap on 

the space bit map is really a gap. 

This processing is shown in drawing 23 in detail. 

[0133] 

The gap of the head of the fields made into a gap in the space bit map in the cache memory 60a at 
Step F801 is grasped first. 

And it is distinguished whether at Step F802, the address of the head of the gap is made to perform 
access, data read-out is performed, and it has actually recorded. The address should not be 
recorded if it is a gap truly. 

If it has not recorded, it will judge that consistency can be taken in a space bit map about the gap 
as it is actual, and will progress to Step F805. 

In Step F805, it judges whether the gap which is not verified in the field made into the gap in the 
space bit map still remains, and if it remains, Step F806 will detect the address made into the 
following gap on a space bit map. 

And it progresses to Step F802, and reproduces by accessing the gap like the above, and it is 

judged whether it is a non-record section. 

[0134] 

In Step F802, when data is recorded in the field made into a gap, consistency can be taken between 
the gap on a space bit map, and the actual gap. 

Then, processing which makes a space bit map consistency-ize by Step F803 and F804 is 
performed. 

First, it reproduces one by one from the head of the field made into the gap on the space bit map, 
and Step F803 is searched for a non-record section. 

If a non-record section is found in the range made into the gap on a space bit map, the non-record 
section or subsequent ones will be a actual gap. 

For example, when even address X-X+N is made into the gap (unrecorded) on the space bit map, 
supposing even address X-X+ (N-y) is data recording settled actually, a actual gap will be to 
address X+ (N-y+1) - address X+N. 

Then, at Step F804, the address recorded in the range made into the gap concerned is updated so 

that recording may become finishing on a space bit map. 

[0135] 

Since renewal of TDMA is performed by generating and disappearance of a gap by processing of 



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.above-mentioned drawing 16 . In the case of processing of this drawing 23 . it becomes finishing 
already recording all the addresses in a certain field (for example, above-mentioned address X-X+N) 
made into the gap on the space bit map, and that gap has not disappeared. When for example, 
address X+ (N-y+1) is discovered as a non-record section at the above-mentioned step F803, it 
becomes finishing from address X+ (N-y+1) recording a part in the range of address X+N, and it 
cannot happen that other gaps have arisen after that, either. 

Therefore, in Step F803, a non-record section is searched in the range to address X+N sequentially 
from the address X, and it only becomes a thing that the bit on the space bit map corresponding to 
a recorded cluster may be corrected to "1" which shows a record settled. 
[0136] 

Consistency confirmation processing of the gap of drawing 23 is performed as mentioned above. The 
update process of Step F804 is updating within the cache memory 60a to the last, and does not 
update TDMA in the disk 1 at this time. 
[0137] 

And compatibility verification processing of drawing 21 including LRA and consistency confirmation 
processing of a gap is performed as mentioned above. 

When processing of this drawing 21 is performed, the space bit map and LRA which were memorized 
by the cache memory 60a are adjusted with the actual user data recording situation on the disk 1. 
Then, renewal of the space bit map in TDMA on a actual disk is performed in each timing of 
generating of a gap and disappearance, disk ejection, and the directions from a host, as mentioned 
above. 
[0138] 

Processing of drawing 21 may be performed as mentioned above not only at the time of a power 
turn (at the time of the power turn in the state where it is loaded with the disk 1) but at the time of 
disk charge. 

Usually, considering that renewal of TDMA is performed at the time of disk ejection, at the time of 
the usual disk charge, a space bit map / LRA should always consistent with the actual user data 
recording situation. 

However, supposing a disk may be compulsorily discharged, for example in the case of the power 
OFF by an accident, etc., It also becomes preferred to also be loaded with the disk which is not 
adjusted at the time after being considered as the power turn, and to think, therefore to perform 
processing of above-mentioned drawing 21 at the time of disk insertion 
[0139] 

8. Effect and modification by this embodiment 

By this embodiment, a space bit map / LRA is updated by the cache memory 60a according to the 
recording operation of user data as mentioned above. 

The space bit map / LRA in the cache memory 60a are written in TDMA of the disk 1 in each timing 

of generating of a gap and disappearance, disk ejection, and the directions from a host. 

When considered as a power turn in the state where it is loaded with the disk 1 at least, 

compatibility verification processing is performed. 

The following effects are acquired by these. 

[0140] 

First, in a recording process, the renewal of TDMA on a disk is moderately attained by a space bit 
map / LRA being recorded on TDMA on the disk 1 according to generating/disappearing of a gap. 
That is, in addition to the renewal of TDMA in the time of ejection, or the case of the update 
indication from a host, renewal of TDMA is performed by the moderate number of times. This has 
too much renewal of TDMA, the management information field on the disk 1 is not consumed 
recklessly, either, there is too little renewal of TDMA, and the mismatching period of a space bit 
map / LRA, and a user data recording situation does not become long recklessly, either 
[0141] 



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, Since TDMA is updated by generation or disappearance of a gap on the disk 1, the contents of 
TDMA on the disk 1, and the compatibility of a user data recording situation, A gap (gap shown by a 
space bit map) and LRA can check by detecting whether it is in agreement with the gap on a actual 
disk, or LRA. 

If consistency cannot be taken, you may only update so that a space bit map and LRA may only be 
adjusted on the cache memory 60a at the time. 

For this reason, compatibility distinction and the correspondence processing in the case of 

mismatching are dramatically easy. 

[0142] 

It is not necessary to prepare the processing special as processing to the trouble of the record 
midst of the power off in the midst of performing writing processing of data, etc. by compatibility 
verification processing of drawing 21 being performed in consideration of the case where 
management of a recording situation has an error (mismatching), at the time of a power turn. 
If it is made to perform compatibility verification processing of drawing 21 also at the time of disk 
insertion, to the disk of the mismatching state by which forced discharge was carried out in the 
accident, and a pan. Also when loaded with the ** disk by which forced discharge was carried out 
with other disk drive devices (other apparatus by which renewal of TDMA is performed like this 
example), it can recover to matching states. 
[0143] 

In consideration of restoring the mismatching by an accident, it is not necessary to say that the 
TDMA information before updating is saved using nonvolatile memory so that clearly from operation 
of the above-mentioned embodiment. 

If the information frequently updated like especially a space bit map is taken into consideration, use 
of the nonvolatile memory which has restriction in a rewrite count is not appropriate, but according 
to this example, since it is not necessary to use nonvolatile memory, such a problem is also solved. 
Low cost-ization of a device can also be attained by, of course making unnecessary the backup 
means of a space bit map / LRA(s), such as nonvolatile memory. 
[0144] 

As mentioned above, although the disk of an embodiment and the disk drive device corresponding to 
it have been explained, this invention is not limited to these examples and can consider various 
modifications within the limits of a gist. 

For example, as TDMA update timing, it is not both generating of a gap, and disappearance, while 
may carry out. 

Although write once type an oneHayer disk and a two-layer disk are assumed as a recording 
medium concerning this invention, the disk which has a recording layer of three or more layers is 
also considered. This invention is applicable if it is furthermore not only by a disk gestalt but by 
write once media. 
[0145] 

[Effect of the Invention] 

So that I may be understood from the above explanation in this invention. In the system provided 
with random access nature by using write-in existence presentation information (space bit map) in 
write once media, Management information including write-in existence presentation information 
(space bit map) and the final recording position information (LRA) which shows the final position 
user data recorded can be updated on a disk to suitable timing. That is, since management 
information (a space bit map and LRA) is updated on a disk according to that a gap (non-record 
section) occurs in the field before LRA, or a gap disappearing, in a recording process, the renewal of 
management information on a disk is attained moderately. For example, in addition to the renewal of 
management information on the disk in the time of ejection, or the case of the update indication 
from a host, it becomes suitable that updating according to generation or disappearance of the gap 
is performed. That is, on a system action, there is too much updating, the management information 



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.field on a disk is not consumed recklessly, either, there is too little updating and the mismatching 
period of management information and a user data recording situation can be prevented also from 
becoming long recklessly. 
[0146] 

Since management information is updated by generation or disappearance of a gap on a disk, the 
management information on a disk, and the compatibility of a user data recording situation, The gap 
(gap shown by a space bit map) and LRA in management information can check by detecting 
whether it is in agreement with the gap on a actual disk, or LRA. And what is necessary is just to 
update so that a space bit map and LRA may be adjusted only in management information if 
consistency cannot be taken. 

For this reason, compatibility distinction and the correspondence processing in the case of 
mismatching are dramatically easy. It becomes unnecessary or to prepare the special restoration 
process corresponding to the mismatching by troubles, such as power off, by the above-mentioned 
processing being performed in the case of a power turn, etc. 

It is not necessary to save the management information before updating using nonvolatile memory. 
[Brief Description of the Drawings] 

[Drawing 1]It is an explanatory view of the area structure of the disk of an embodiment of the 
invention. 

[Drawingjfllt is an explanatory view of the structure of the one-layer disk of an embodiment. 
[Drawing 3]It is an explanatory view of the structure of the two-layer disk of an embodiment 
[Drawing 4]lt is an explanatory view of DMA of the disk of an embodiment 
[Drawing 5]It is an explanatory view of the contents of DDS of the disk of an embodiment. 
[Drawing 6]It is an explanatory view of the contents of DFL of the disk of an embodiment. 
[Drawing 7] It is an explanatory view of the defect list maintenance information on DFL of the disk of 
an embodiment, and TDFL 

[Drawing 8]It is an explanatory view of the shift address information of DFL of the disk of an 
embodiment, and TDFL 

[Drawing 9]It is an explanatory view of TDMA of the disk of an embodiment 

[Drawing 10]It is an explanatory view of the space bit map of the disk of an embodiment 

[Drawing 11]It is an explanatory view of TDFL of the disk of an embodiment 

[Drawing 12]It is an explanatory view of TDDS of the disk of an embodiment 

[Drawing 13]They are ISA of the disk of an embodiment and an explanatory view of OSA 

[Drawing 14]It is a block diagram of the disk drive device of an embodiment. 

[Drawing 15]They are generation of the gap of an embodiment, or an explanatory view of 

disappearance. 

[Drawing 16]It is a flow chart of the processing at the time of the user data writing of an 
embodiment 

[Drawing 17]It is a flow chart of the gap generation judging process of an embodiment 

[Drawing 18]It is a flow chart of the recording processing to the space bit map of an embodiment, 

and the disk of LRA. 

[Drawing 19]It is a flow chart of the recording processing to the space bit map at the time of 
ejection of an embodiment, and the disk of LRA 

[Drawing 20] It is a flow chart of the recording processing to the disk of the space bit map by the 
directions from the host of an embodiment, and LRA. 

[Drawing 21]It is a flow chart of the compatibility verification processing of an embodiment 
[Drawing 22]It is a flow chart of LRA consistency confirmation processing of an embodiment 
[Drawing 23]It is a flow chart of consistency confirmation processing of the gap of an embodiment 
[Description of Notations] 

1 A disk and 51 A pickup and 52 A spindle motor, 53 thread mechanisms, 54 A matrix circuit and 55 
A reader/writer circuit and 56 Strange demodulator circuit, 57 An ECC encoder/decoder, 58 wobble 



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JP,2005-004912,A [DETAILED DESCRIPTION] 



Page 30 of 30 



, circuits, and 59 [ A laser driver, 120 AV systems ] An address decoder and 60 A system controller 
and 60a Cache memory, 61 servo circuits, 62 spindle servo circuits, and 63 



[Translation done.] 



http:/Avww4.ipdl.inpit.gojp/cgi-b^ 7/27/2008 



JP,2005-004912,A [DRAWINGS] 



Page 1 of 15 



NOTICES * 

JPO and INPIT are not responsible for any 
damages caused by the use of this translation. 

LThis document has been translated by computer. So the translation may not reflect the original 
precisely. 

2.**** shows the word which can not be translated. 
3.1n the drawings, any words are not translated. 



DRAWINGS 

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JP,2005-004912,A [DRAWINGS] 



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JP,2005-004912,A [DRAWINGS] 



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JP,2005-004912,A [DRAWINGS] 
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JP,2005-004912 3 A [DRAWINGS] 



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JP,2005-004912,A [DRAWINGS] 



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JP.2005-004912.A [DRAWINGS] 



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JP,2005-004912,A [DRAWINGS] 

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[ Drawing 17] 



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JP,2005-004912,A [DRAWINGS] 



Page 12 of 15 




[Drawing 181 



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JP,2005-004912,A [DRAWINGS] 



Page 13 of 15 



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JP,2005-004912,A [DRAWINGS] 
[Drawin g 22] 



Page 14 of 15 




[Drawing 23] 




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JP,2005-004912,A [DRAWINGS] 



Page 15 of 15 



[Translation done.] 



http://ww4apdU^ 7/27/2008 



Docket No.: 0465-1029P 
(PATENT) 

IN THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE 



In re Patent Application of: 
Yong Cheol PARK et al. 

Application No.: 10/670,332 Confirmation No.: 5101 

Filed: September 26, 2003 Art Unit: 2624 

For: OPTICAL DISC, METHOD AND Examiner: Not Yet Assigned 

APPARATUS FOR MANAGING A 
DEFECTIVE AREA ON AN OPTICAL DISC. 



LETTER 

Commissioner for Patents 

P.O. Box 1450 

Alexandria, VA 22313-1450 

Sir: 

Under the provisions of MPEP § 2001.06(b), the Examiner is hereby advised of the 
following co-pending U.S. Application(s): 




Appl. No. Filing Date Group 

10/840,264 May 7, 2004 7733 

1 0/84 1,516 May 1 0, 2007 2627 

11/797,971 May 9, 2007 2186 



Birch, Stewart, Kolasch & Birch, LLP 



EHC/ktp 



Application No.: 10/670,332 



Docket No.:0465-1029P 



The subject matter contained in the above-listed co-pending U.S. application(s) may be 
deemed to relate to the present application, and thus may be material to the prosecution of this 
instant application. 

□ Copies of cited U.S. patent application(s) (specification, claims, and the drawings) or 
copies of the portion(s) of the application(s) which caused it(them) to be cited, including any 
claims directed to such portion(s) are attached hereto. 

Ex] Copies of the cited U.S. patent application(s) (specification, claims, and the drawings) are 
available on the USPTO's Image File Wrapper. Therefore copies thereof need not be attached. 

□ The materials in the envelope are considered trade secrets and are being submitted for 
consideration under MPEP § 724. 

The above-listed co-pending application(s) is(are) not to be construed as prior art. By 
bringing the above-listed application(s) to the attention of the Examiner, Applicant(s) do(does) 
NOT waive any confidentiality concerning the above-listed co-pending application(s) or this 
application. See MPEP § 101. Furthermore, if said application(s) should not mature into patents, 
such application(s) should be preserved in secrecy under the provisions of 35 U.S.C. § 122 and 
37 C.F.R. § 1.14. 



2 



EHC/ktp 



Application No.: 10/670,332 



Docket No.: 0465-1029P 



If necessary, the Commissioner is hereby authorized in this, concurrent, and future 
replies, to charge payment or credit any overpayment to our Deposit Account No. 02-2448 for 
any additional fees required under 37 C.F.R. § 1.16 or under § 1.17; particularly, extension of 



time fees. 



Dated: 



Respectfully submitted, 



0 s 2QG8 




By. 



Esther H. Chong C \ 

Registration No.: 40,953 ^ — ' 
BIRCH, STEWART, KOLASCH & BIRCH, LLP 
81 10 Gatehouse Road 
Suite 100 East 
P.O. Box 747 

Falls Church, Virginia 22040-0747 

(703)205-8000 

Attorney for Applicant 



Attachment(s) 



EHC/ktp