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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 

International Bureau 




lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 



(43) International Publication Date (10) International Publication Number 

13 January 2005 (13.01.2005) PCT WO 2005/004154 A2 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : 
(21) International Application Number: 



G11B 27/00 



(22) International Filing Date: 

(25) Filing Language: 

(26) Publication Language: 

(30) Priority Data: 

2003-272084 



PCT/JP2004/010007 
7 July 2004 (07.07.2004) 
English 
English 

8 July 2003 (08.07.2003) JP 



(71) Applicant (for all designated States except US): MAT- 
SUSHITA ELECTRIC INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD. 

[JP/JP1; 1006, Oaza Kadoma, Kadoma-shi, Osaka, 
5718501 (JP). 

(72) Inventors; and 

(75) Inventors/Applicants (for US only): ITO, Motoshi. 
UEDA, Hiroshi. 



(74) Agents: YAMAMOTO, Shusaku et al.; Fifteenth Floor, 
Crystal Tower, 2-27, Shiromi 1-chome, Chuo-ku, Osaka- 
shi, Osaka, 5406015 (JP). 

(81) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of national protection available): AE, AG, AL, AM, 
AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, 
CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, 
GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, KE, KG, 
KP, KR, KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, 
MK, MN, MW, MX, MZ, NA, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, 
PL, FT, RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, S Y, TJ, TM, TN, 
TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, US, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

(84) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of regional protection available): AR1PO (BW, GH, 
GM, KE, LS, MW, MZ, NA, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, 
ZW), Eurasian (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
European (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, 
FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI, 

/ Continued on next page] 



(54) Title: WRITE-ONCE RECORDING MEDIUM, RECORDING METHOD, RECORDING APPARATUS, REPRODUCTION 
METHOD, AND REPRODUCTION APPARATUS 



1/0 bus 



•170 



Optical disc apparatus. 



100 



O 



110 



Command processing section 



120 



Recording control section 



130 



Reproduction control section 



Management 
information 
storing buffer 



140 



Data buffer 



150 



Recording management processing section 



160- 



Management 
information 
reading section 



Management 
information 
writing section 



161 



163 



Management 
information 
updating section 



162 



Management 
information 
position memory 



154 



(57) Abstract: A write -once recording medium is 
provided, which comprises a management informa- 
tion area for recording management information for 
managing a recorded state, and a user data area for 
recording user data. The user data area is configured 
to contain at least one recording area. At least one 
session is configured to contain at least one of the at 
least one recording area. The management informa- 
tion contains range information indicating a record- 
ing range of the at least one recording area and iden- 
tification information for identifying the recording 
area located at a boundary of the session. 



WO 2005/004154 A2 I II III 1^ 



SK, TR), OAPI (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, GQ, 
GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Published: 

— without international search report and to be republished 
upon receipt of that report 



For two -letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 
ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations 1 ' appearing at the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



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- 1 - 
DESCRIPTION 

WRITE -ONCE RECORDING MEDIUM, RECORDING METHOD , RECORDING 
APPARATUS, REPRODUCTION METHOD , AND REPRODUCTION APPARATUS 

5 

TECHNICAL FIELD 

The present Invention relates to a write-once 
recording medium comprising a management information area 
for recording management information for managing a recorded 
state and a user data area for recording user data, and a 
method and apparatus for recording data onto the write -once 
recording medium, and a method and apparatus for reproducing 
data from the write -once recording medium. 

BACKGROUND ART 

Optical discs are information recording media that 
are compatible between a plurality of apparatuses . Examples 
of optical discs include, for example, the CD which was 
originally developed for recording music and recently are 
widely used for recording data, DVD which was developed for 
recording digital video and are rapidly becoming widespread, 
and next -generation optical discs which are currently being 
developed for recording high-quality video, such as for 
high-definition television or the like. 

These optical discs are roughly categorized into 
three groups in terms of the recording/reproduction method: 
30 a read-only type; a write-once type; and a rewritable type. 

Write -once optical discs are made of a recording material, 
from which recorded data cannot be erased. Data can be 
recorded once in the same place on the medium. For example, 



10 



15 



20 



25 



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CD-R and DVD-R are write-once optical discs. Write-once 
optical discs are also referred to as write-once-many- read 
optical discs- For rewritable optical discs, data can be 
recorded many times in the same place on the medium. For 
5 example, CD-RW and DVD-RAM are rewritable optical discs. 

Write-once optical discs are not rewritable due to 
the characteristics of the recording material. Therefore, 
it is necessary to manage recorded areas and unrecorded areas . 

10 In a CD-R, the recording start position and the last recorded 
position of each music composition are managed so as to 
incrementally record in units of a music composition. The 
unit of a music composition is called a track (hereinafter 
also referred to as a "TRACK" so as to distinguish it from 

15 a track indicating a groove). In a CD-R, data is recorded 
sequentially in units of a track from its inner periphery 
to its outer periphery. A plurality of recorded TRACKS are 
managed as a session including a plurality of recorded TRACKS 
(hereinafter referred to as a "SESSION" ) . An area for storing 

20 management information for managing a recorded state is called 
a program management area (hereinafter also referred to as 
a "PMA" ) . 

For DVD-R, an RZone (corresponding to a TRACK of CD) , 
25 a Border (corresponding to a SESSION of CD) , and a recording 
management area (hereinafter also referred to as an " RMA " ; 
corresponding to a PMA of CD) are defined (for example, SFF 
80901 standard, n Mt. Fuji Command for Multimedia Devices" , 
Section 4.16 entitled "Recording for DVD-R media"). 

30 

There is a technique for applying a method for 
managing areas allocated on DVD-R compatibly to read-only 
DVD-ROM (for example, Japanese Laid-Open Publication 



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No. 2001-148166). 

In a data structure recorded In an RMA of DVD-R, a 
recording management data (hereinafter also referred to as 
5 an "RMD") is defined. 

Figure 23 shows a field 3 of an RMD. The field 3 
of an RMD stores information indicating the positions of 
a maximum of 512 Borders (corresponding to a SESSION of CD) . 

Figure 24 shows a field 4 of an RMD „ Figure 25 shows 
fields 5 to 12 of an RMD . The field 4, and the fields 5 to 
12 of an RMD store information indicating the positions of 
a maximum of 2302 RZone's (corresponding to a TRACK of CD) . 

However, in conventional techniques for managing 
recording areas , the number of recording areas to be managed 
is currently already large. If the conventional techniques 
are applied without modification to a larger capacity of 
future media, management information is adversely enlarged. 

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION 

According to an aspect of the present invention, a 
write-once recording medium is provided, comprising: a 
management information area for recording management 
information for managing a recorded state; and a user data 
area for recording user data . The user data area is configured 
to contain at least one recording area. At least one session 
is configured to contain at least one of the at least one 
recording area. The management information contains range 
information indicating a recording range of the at least 
one recording area and identification information for 



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identifying the recording area located at a boundary of the 
session. 

In one embodiment of this invention, the 
5 identification information is a f lagprovided to the recording 
area. The flag has either a value of n 0" or a value of *1" . 

In one embodiment of this invention, the flag having 
a value of "1" is provided to the recording area located 
10 at the beginning of the session. 

In one embodiment of this invention, the value of 
the flag provided to the recording area contained in a session 
of the at least one session is inverse to the value of the 
15 flag provided to the recording area of another session of 
the at least one session adjacent to that session. 

In one embodiment of this invention , a distinct number 
is provided to the at least one recording area. The 
20 identification information is an array containing a number 
provided to the recording area located at the beginning of 
the session. 

According to another aspect of the present invention , 
25 a recording method for a write-once recording medium is 
provided. The medium comprises: a management information 
area for recording management information for managing a 
recorded state; and a user data area for recording user data. 
The user data area is configured to contain at least one 
30 recording area . At least one session is configured to contain 
at least one of the at least one recording area. The 
management information contains range information 
indicating a recording range of the at least one recording 



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area and identification information for identifying the 
recording area located at a boundary of the session. The 
method comprises the steps of : (a) generating the management 
information; and (b) recording the management information 
5 into the management information area. 

In one embodiment of this invention, the step of (a) 
comprises generating the management information so that at 
least one of the at least one recording area is divided into 
10 two recording areas. 

In one embodiment of this invention, the step of (a) 
comprises generating the management information so that 
recording is disabled. 

In one embodiment of this invention, before the step 
of (a), it is determined whether or not the number of the 
at least one recording area is less than a predetermined 
value M, where M is an integer of 2 or more. 

In one embodiment of this invention, the step of (a) 
comprises dividing an outermost recording area of the at 
least one recording area into two where the end of recorded 
portion of the outermost recording area is a boundary, and 
generating the management information so that recording is 
disabled from the beginning to the end of recorded portion 
of the outermost recording area. 

In one embodiment of this invention, the step of (a) 
30 further comprises, when a boundary of the session is newly 
added, determining whether or not a recording area of the 
at least one recording area containing a sector having a 
maximum sector number has been recorded. 



15 



20 



25 



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According to another aspect of the present invention , 
a recording apparatus for a write-once recording medium is 
provided. The medium comprises: a management information 
5 area for recording management information for managing a 
recorded state; and a user data area for recording user data. 
The user data area is configured to contain at least one 
recording area . At least one session is configured to contain 
at least one of the at least one recording area. The 

10 management information contains range information 
indicating a recording range of the at least one recording 
area and identification information for identifying the 
recording area located at a boundary of the session. The 
apparatus comprises: (a) a section for generating the 

15 management information; and (b) a section for recording the 
management information into the management information area. 

According to another aspect of the present invention , 
a reproduction method for a write-once recording medium is 

20 provided. The medium comprises: a management information 
area for recording management information for managing a 
recorded state; and a user data area for recording user data. 
The user data area is configured to contain at least one 
recording area . At least one session is configured to contain 

2 5 at least one of the at least one recording area. The 
management information contains range information 
indicating a recording range of the at least one recording 
area and identification information for identifying the 
recording area located at a boundary of the session. The 

30 method comprises the steps of: (a) reading the management 
information from the management information area; and 
(b) recognizing information regarding the session based on 
the management information read out. 



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In one embodiment of this invention, the step of (b) 
comprises: (b-1) obtaining the total number of the at least 
one session based on the management information read out; 
5 (b-2) obtaining a recording area of the at least one recording 

area located at the beginning of a last session of the at 
least one session; and (b-3) obtaining a session of the at 
least one session belonging to a predetermined recording 
area of the at least one recording area. 

10 

In one embodiment of this invention, the 
identification information is a flag provided to the at least 
one recording area. The flag has either a value of n 0" or 
a value of 11 1 " - The flag having a value of n 1 " is provided 

15 to a recording area of the at least one recording area located 
at the beginning of each of the at least one session • The 
step of (b-1) comprises obtaining the total number of the 
at least one session based on the flag having a value of 
"1" . The step of (b-2) comprises obtaining a recording area 

20 of the at least one recording area located at the beginning 
of a last session of the at least one session based on a 
last flag of the flag(s) having a value of "1". A distinct 
number is provided to each of the at least one session. The 
step of (b-3) comprises obtaining a number provided to a 

25 session of the at least one session to which the predetermined 
recording area belongs, based on the number of the flag(s) 
having a value of T of the flag(s) over the range from 
a recording area of the at least one recording area located 
at the beginning of a leading session of the at least one 

30 session to the predetermined recording area. 

In one embodiment of this invention, the 
identification information is a f lagprovided to the recording 



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area . The flag has either a value of " 0 " or a value of " 1 " . 
The value of the flag provided to the recording area contained 
in a session of the at least one session is inverse to the 
value of the flag provided to the recording area of another 
5 session of the at least one session adjacent to that session. 
The step of (b-1) comprises obtaining the total number of 
the at least one session based on the number of inversions 
of the value(s) of the flag(s) . The step of (b-2) comprises 
obtaining a recording area of the at least one recording 

10 area located at the beginning of a last session of the at 
least one session, based on the flag having the last inverted 
value. A distinct number is provided to each of the at least 
one session. The step of (b-3) comprises obtaining a number 
provided to a session of the at least one session to which 

1 5 the predetermined recording area belongs , based on the number 
of inversions of the value(s) of the flag(s) over the range 
from a recording area of the at least one recording area 
located at the beginning of a leading session of the at least 
one session to the predetermined recording area. 

20 

In one embodiment of this invention , a distinct number 
is provided to each of the at least one recording area. The 
identification information is an array of anumber(s) provided 
to a recording area of the at least one recording area located 

25 at the beginning of each of the at least one session. The 
step of (b-1) comprises obtaining the total number of the 
number(s) contained in the array . The step of (b-2) comprises 
obtaining a recording area of the at least one recording 
area located at the beginning of a last session, based on 

30 a last number of the number(s) contained in the array. A 
distinct number is provided to each of the at least one session . 
The step of (b-3) comprises obtaining a number provided to 
a session of the at least one session to which the predetermined 



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recording area belongs, based on the number of number (s) 
smaller than the number provided to the predetermined 
recording area contained in the array. 

5 According to another aspect of the present invention , 

a reproduction apparatus for a write-once recording medium 
is provided . The medium comprises : a management information 
area for recording management information for managing a 
recorded state; and a user data area for recording user data. 

10 The user data area is configured to contain at least one 
recording area . At least one session is configured to contain 
at least one of the at least one recording area. The 
management information contains range information 
indicating a recording range of the at least one recording 

15 area and identification information for identifying the 
recording area located at a boundary of the session. The 
apparatus comprises: (a) a section for reading out the 
management information from the management information area ; 
and (b) a section for recognizing information regarding the 

20 at least one session based on the management information 
read out . 

Thus, according to the write-once recording medium 
of the present invention, one session is comprised of at 

25 least one of the at least one recording area, and management 
information contains identification information for 
identifying a recording area located at a boundary of a ses sion . 
Therefore, a boundary of a session can be identified based 
on only a recording area located at the beginning of a session . 

30 As a result , the size of information for identifying a boundary 
of a session can be reduced. 



In addition, according to the write-once recording 



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medium of the present invention, management information can 
contain information indicating a recording area located at 
the beginning of a session, thereby making it possible to 
reduce the size of the management information. Therefore, 
5 if the size of an area for incrementally writing management 
information is the same, the number of times with which the 
user can incrementally write management information can be 
increased. If the number of times with which the user can 
incrementally write management information is the same, the 
10 size of an area for incrementally writing management 
information can be reduced. As a result, a capacity for 
recording user data can be increased. 

According to the recording method and the recording 
apparatus of the present invention, it is possible to 
record/reproduce management information onto/from the 
write-once recording medium of the present invention . Since 
management information can be recorded onto the write- once 
recording medium having only a small size of area for recording 
management information, the time required for searching for 
the latest management information can be reduced . As a result , 
the time required from when the user loads the write-once 
recording medium into an apparatus to when a user data area 
of the write-once recording medium is ready to access, can 
be reduced* 

Thus, the invention described herein makes possible 
the advantages of providing a write- once recording medium 
having a smaller size of management information and a larger 
30 capacity; a method and apparatus for recording data to the 
write-once recording medium; and a method and apparatus for 
reproducing data from the write-once recording medium. 



15 



20 



25 



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These and other advantages of the present invention 
will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon reading 
and understanding the following detailed description with 
reference to the accompanying figures. 

5 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 

Figure 1 is a diagram showing a structure of an 
optical disc 1 according to an embodiment of the present 
10 invention. 

Figure 2 is a diagram showing a data structure of 
management information 8 according to an embodiment of the 
present invention . 

15 

Figure 3 is a diagram showing a transition from an 
unrecorded area, a recorded area, to a 0 -padding recorded 
area on the optical disc 1. 

20 Figure 4 is a diagram showing a transition of the 

contents of entry number array 10 and recording area entry 11 . 

Figure 5 is a diagram showing a transition from an 
unrecorded area, a recorded area, to a 0 -padding recorded 
25 area on the optical disc 1. 

Figure 6 is a diagram showing a transition of the 
contents of the entry number array 10 and the recording area 
entry 11. 

30 

Figure 7 is a diagram showing another exemplary data 
structure of the management information 8 according to an 
embodiment of the present invention. 



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Figure 8 is a diagram showing a transition of the 
contents of the entry number array 10 and the recording area 
entry 11. 

5 

Figure 9 is a diagram showing still another exemplary 
data structure of the management information 8 according 
to an embodiment of the present invention. 

10 Figure 10 is a diagram showing a transition of the 

contents of the entry number array 10 and the recording area 
entry 11. 

Figure 11 is a diagram showing an exemplary structure 
15 of an optical disc apparatus 100 according to an embodiment 
of the present invention. 

Figure 12 is a flowchart showing a recording 
procedure according to an embodiment of the present invention. 

20 

Figure 13 is a flowchart showing details of a 
procedure for reading management information. 

Figure 14 is a flowchart showing details of a 
25 procedure for writing management information. 

Figure 15 is a flowchart showing details of a 
procedure for adding a recording area. 

30 Figure 16 is a flowchart showing details of a 

procedure for closing a recording area. 

Figure 17 is a flowchart showing details of a 



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procedure for closing a session. 

Figure 18 is a diagram showing an exemplary structure 
of an optical disc apparatus 200 according to an embodiment 
5 of the present invention. 

Figure 19 is a flowchart showing a reproduction 
procedure according to an embodiment of the present invention . 

10 Figure 20 is a flowchart showing an exemplary 

calculation procedure according to an embodiment of the 
present invention . 

Figure 21 is a flowchart showing another exemplary 
15 calculation procedure according to an embodiment of the 
present invention . 

Figure 22 is a flowchart showing still another 
exemplary calculation procedure according to an embodiment 
20 of the present invention. 

Figure 23 is a diagram showing a field 3 of an RMD. 

Figure 24 is a diagram showing a field 4 of an RMD. 

25 

Figure 25 is a diagram showing fields 5 to 12 of an 

RMD . 

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION 

Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention 
will be described in the following sections (1. Write-once 
recording medium ) , ( 2 - 1 . Recording apparatus ) , 



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(2-2. Recording method), (3-1. Reproduction apparatus), 
and (3-2. Reproduction method) with reference to the 
accompanying drawings . 

5 1. Write-once recording medium 

Figure 1 shows a structure of an optical disc 1 
according to an embodiment of the present invention. 

The optical disc 1 is in the shape of a disc. In 
the optical disc 1, a spiral track groove 2 is provided. 
In the track groove 2, a plurality of blocks 3 are provided. 
The block 3 is a unit for error correction as well as a unit 
for recording/reproduction of information. 

The optical disc 1 has a lead-in area 4, a lead-out 
area 6, and a data area 5 for recording user data. The data 
area 5 is configured to have at least one recording area. 
Recording/reproduction of data is performed with respect 
to the data area 5. 

The lead-in area 4 and the lead- out area 6 serve as 
margins which allows an optical head (not shown) to follow 
the track groove 2 when the optical head accesses an end 
of the data area 5 and overruns the data area 5. 

The lead-in area 4 has a management information 
area 7 for recording management information 8 for managing 
a recorded state. A plurality of pieces of management 
information 8 may be, for example, used to manage a recorded 
area and an unrecorded area. A plurality of pieces of 
management information 8 are each recorded in at least one 
block 3. 



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- 15 

Figure 2 shows a data structure of the management 
information 8 according to an embodiment of the present 
invention . 

5 Each management information 8 contains a management 

information header 9 for identifying one of a plurality of 
pieces of management information 8, an entry number array 10 
of incrementally writable recording areas, and a plurality 
of recording area entries 11. The entry number array 10 is 
10 information for identify a recording area, in which data 
can be recorded. 

Each recording area entry 11 contains 
identification information for identifying a recording area 
15 located at a boundary of a session, and range information 
indicating a recording range of at least one recording area. 

The identification information is, for example, a 
session start flag 12 which indicates which of the recording 

20 area entries 11 is a boundary (e.g., the beginning or the 
like) of a session. A session start flag 12 is given to at 
least one recording area, having a value of n 0" or "1". For 
example, a session start flag 12 having a value of M l w is 
given to a recording area located at a boundary (e.g., the 

25 beginning or the like) of a session. In each recording area 
entry 11, a number (1 to N) following # indicates an entry 
number. Thus, at least one recording areas are each given 
distinct entry numbers. N is an integer of 1 or more. One 
session is comprised of at least one of the recording areas. 

30 

Range information contains, for example, a start 
position 13 and a last recorded position 14 of a recording 
area . 



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Thus, the recording area of the present invention 
corresponds to the TRACK of CD-R and the RZone of DVD-R. 
The session of the present invention corresponds to the 
5 SESSION of CD-R and the Border of DVD-R. The session of the 
present invention contains none of the lead-in area 4, the 
lead- out area 6, a Border- In area (not shown), and a 
Border-Out area (not shown) (see Figure 3 described below) . 
Therefore, the entry number array 10 corresponds to 
10 information from Byte 0 to Byte 5 (Figure 24). The 
recording area entries 11 correspond to information obtained 
by adding the session start flag 12 to information of Byte 16 
and thereafter (Figure 24) and from Byte 0 to Byte 2047 
(Figure 25) . 

15 

In DVD-R (a conventional write-once medium), 
2048 bytes of management information is required for 
management of a maximum of 512 Borders (corresponding to 
a session of the present invention) (Figure 23) . In the 
20 present invention, one bit of the recording area entry 11 
is allocated to the session start flag 12, thereby making 
it possible to manage a session. 

Hereinafter, session management according to an 
25 embodiment of the present invention will be described below. 

Figure 3 shows a transition from an unrecorded area, 
a recorded area, to a 0 -padding recorded area on the optical 
disc 1. In Figure 3, the unrecorded area of the optical 
30 disc 1 has a white background color, the recorded area has 
a black background color, and the 0 -padding recorded area 
is hatched. 



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Figure 4 shows a transition of the contents of the 
entry number array 10 and the recording area entry 11. 

Portion (a) of Figure 3 and portion (a) of Figure 4 
5 show concurrent states. Portion (b) of Figure 3 and 
portion (b) of Figure 4 show concurrent states. Similarly, 
portion (c) to portion (g) of Figure 3 and corresponding 
portion (c) to portion (g) of Figure 4 show concurrent states . 

10 Portion (a) of Figure 3 and portion (a) of Figure 4 

show an initial state of the optical disc 1. 

The data area 5 is configured to contain a recording 
area #1. The session #1 contains a recording area #1. No 
15 information has been recorded in the recording area #1. 

In the entry number array 10, a number n l" is 
registered which indicates that the recording area #1 is 
incrementally writable . In another portion of the entry 
20 number array 10, a number "0" is registered which indicates 
that there is no incrementally writable recording area other 
than the recording area #1. 

In the recording area entry #1, the session start 
25 flag 12 is set to be a value of "1", the start position 13 
of the recording area #1 is set to be a position PI, and 
the last recorded position 14 of the recording area #1 is 
set to be a value of "0" which indicates an unrecorded state . 
The position PI indicates the beginning of the data area 5. 
30 In a recording area entry #2 and a recording area entry #3, 
the session start flag 12, the start position 13, and the 
last recorded position 14 of the recording area #2 and the 
recording area #3 are set to be "0" so as to indicate that 



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there is no corresponding recording area. 

Portions (b) of Figures 3 and 4 show a state of the 
data area after a RESERVE TRACK command has been received 
5 from a higher- level control apparatus. The RESERVE TRACK 
command indicates reservation of a recording area . Note that 
commands from a higher- level control apparatus ( for example , 
a RESERVE TRACK command) are defined in a general host command 
standard (see, for example, see SFF 80901 standard, "Mt. Fuji 
Command for Multimedia Devices", Section 4.16 entitled 
"Recording for DVD-R media"). 

The management information 8 is generated (or 
changed) to indicate that the recording area #1 from the 
position PI to the end of the data area 5 is divided into 
a recording area #1 from the position PI to a position P3 
and a recording area #2 from the position P3 to the end of 
the data area 5. The recording area #1 and the recording 
area #2 belong to the session #1. P3 is a value obtained 
by adding a size designated by the RESERVE TRACK command 
to PI. In the data area 5, there is no recorded area. 

In the entry number array 10 , a number n l" indicating 
that the recording area #1 is incrementally writable and 
a number "2" indicating that the recording area #2 is 
incrementally writable, are registered. In the entry number 
array 10, entry numbers are sorted in the descending order. 
Note that the sorting order of the entry number array 10 
is not limited to the descending order, and the sorting may 
be performed in the ascending order or may not be performed. 

In the recording area entry #2, the session start 
flag 12 of the recording area #2 is set to be a value of 



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n 0" , and the start position 13 of the recording area #2 is 
set to be the position P3. 

Hereinafter, the contents of management information 
5 which have no change are not described for the sake of brevity . 

Portions (c) of Figures 3 and 4 show a state of the 
data area 5 after the RESERVE TRACK command has been received 
from the higher- level control apparatus. 

10 

The management information 8 is generated (or 
changed) to indicate that the recording area #2 from the 
position P3 to the end of the data area 5 is divided into 
a recording area #2 from the position P3 to a position P5 

15 and a recording area #3 from the position P5 to the end of 
the data area 5 . The recording area #1 is not changed. The 
recording area #1, the recording area #2, and the recording 
area #3 belong to the session #1. P5 has a value obtained 
by adding a size designated by the RESERVE TRACK command 

20 to P3 . In the data area 5, there is no recorded area. 

In the entry number array 10, in order to indicate 
that the recording area #3 has been added r a number n 3" is 
added which indicates that the recording area #3 is 
25 incrementally writable. 

In the recording area entry #3, the session start 
flag 12 of the recording area #3 is set to be a value of 
n 0" , and the start position 13 of the recording area #3 is 
30 set to be the position P5. 

Portions (d) of Figures 3 and 4 show a state of the 
data area 5 after a WRITE command has been received from 



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a higher-level control apparatus. The WRITE command 
indicates recording of data into the recording area #1 and 
the recording area #2. 



5 By recording data into the recording area #1, the 

last recorded position 14 of the recording area #1 is changed 
into a position ( P2 - 1 ) . By recording data into the recording 
area #2, the last recorded position 14 of the recording 
area #2 is changed into a position (P4-1). 

10 

Note that since the last recorded position 14 is 
defined as the position of a recorded block 3, the last 
recorded position 14 is a position obtained by subtracting 
1 from the position P2 or a position by subtracting 1 from 

15 the position P4 . However, for example, if the last recorded 
position 14 is defined as the position of the next recorded 
block 3, it is not necessary to subtract 1. For the sake 
of convenience,, hereinafter, session management according 
to an embodiment of the present invention will be descried 

20 below, while the last recorded position 14 is defined as 
the position of a recorded, block 3. 



In the recording area entry #1, the last recorded 
position 14 of the recording area #1 is set to be the 
25 position (P2-1). In the recording area entry #2, the last 
recorded position 14 of the recording area #2 is set to be 
the position (P4-1). 

Portions (e) of Figures 3 and 4 show a state of the 
30 data area 5 after a CLOSE TRACK/ SESSION command for a 
designated TRACK (the recording area #1 is designated) has 
been received from a higher-level control apparatus. The 
CLOSE TRACK /SESSION command for a designated TRACK (the 



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recording area #1 is designated) indicates that it is no 
longer necessary to record further information into the 
recording area #1. 

5 0 -padding data is recorded into an unrecorded area 

of the recording area #1 (an area from the position P2 to 
the position P3 ) , and the recording area #1 becomes closed. 
In order to indicate that the recording area #1 is not 
incrementally writable B the number "1" is removed from the 
10 entry number array 10. 

Portions (f ) of Figures 3 and 4 show a state of the 
data area 5 after a CLOSE TRACK/SESSION command for a 
designated TRACK (the recording area #2 is designated) has 
15 been received from a higher-level control apparatus. The 
CLOSE TRACK/ SESSION command for a designated TRACK (the 
recording area #2 is designated) indicates that it is no 
longer necessary to record further information into the 
recording area #2 . 

20 

0 -padding data is recorded into an unrecorded area 
of the recording area #2 (an area from the position P4 to 
the position P5) , and the recording area #2 becomes closed. 
In order to indicate that the recording area #2 is not 
25 incrementally writable, the number "2" is removed from the 
entry number array 10 . 

Portions (g) of Figures 3 and 4 show a state of the 
data area 5 after a CLOSE TRACK/SESSION command for a 
30 designated a SESSION (the session #1 is designated) has been 
received from a higher-level control apparatus. 

The closed recording area #1 and the closed recording 



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area #2 belong to the session #1, while the recording area 
#3 having no recorded information belongs to the session #2. 

In the recording area entry #3, the session start 
5 flag 12 is set to be a value of "1" . Thus, the session start 
flag 12 is given to a plurality of recording areas, which 
has any one of a value of "0" and a value of "1" . The session 
start flag 12 having a value of n 1" is given to a recording 
area located at the beginning of a session. 

10 

Figure 5 shows a transition from an unrecorded area, 
a recorded area, to a 0 -padding recorded area on the optical 
disc 1. In Figure S, the unrecorded area of the optical 
disc 1 has a white background color, the recorded area has 
15 a black background color, and the 0 -padding recorded area 
is hatched. 

Figure 6 shows a transition of the contents of the 
entry number array 10 and the recording area entry 11. 

20 

Figure 5 shows what follows Figure 3. Figure 6 
shows what follows Figure 4 . 

Portions (g r ) of Figures 5 and 6 show concurrent 
25 states . Portion (h) of Figures 5 and 6 show concurrent states . 
Similarly, portions (i) to (1) of Figure 5 and corresponding 
portions (i) to (1) of Figure 6 show concurrent states. 
Portion (g') of Figure 5 shows the same state as that of 
portion (g) of Figure 3 . Portion (g r ) of Figure 6 shows the 
30 same state as that of portion (g) of Figure 4. Therefore, 
Portions (g') of Figures 5 and 6 are not described. 

Portions (h) of Figures 5 and 6 show a state of the 



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data area 5 after a RESERVE TRACK command has been received 
from a higher-level control apparatus. 

The management information 8 is generated (or 
5 changed) to indicate that the recording area #3 from the 
position P5 to the end of the data area 5 is divided into 
a recording area #3 from. the position P5 to a position P6 
and a recording area #4 from the position P6 to the end of 
the data area 5. The recording area #1 and the recording 
10 area #2 are not changed. The recording area #1 and the 
recording area #2 belong to the session #1. The recording 
area #3 and the recording area #4 belong to a session #2. 
P6 is a value obtained by adding a size designated by the 
RESERVE TRACK command to P5 . 

15 

In the entry number array 10, a number n 4 ff indicating 
that the recording area #4 is incrementally writable, is 
registered to indicate that the recording area #4 has been 
added . 

20 

In the recording area entry #4, the session start 
flag 12 of the recording area #4 is set to have a value of 
w 0", while the start position 13 of the recording area #4 
is set to be the position P6 . 

25 

Portions (i) of Figures 5 and 6 show a state of the 
data area 5 after a WRITE command has been received from 
a higher- level control apparatus. The WRITE command 
indicates recording of data into the recording area #3 and 
30 the recording area #4. 

By recording data into the recording area #3, the 
last recorded position 14 of the recording area #3 is changed 



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Into a position (P7-1) . By recording data into the recording 
area #4, the last recorded position 14 of the recording 
area #4 is changed into a position (P8-1). 

5 In the recording area entry #3, the last recorded 

position 14 of the recording area #3 is set to be the 
position (P7-1). In the recording area entry #4, the last 
recorded position 14 of the recording area #4 is set to be 
the position (P8-1). 

10 

Portions (j) of Figures 5 and 6 show a state of the 
data area 5 after a CLOSE TRACK/ SESSION command for a 
designated TRACK (the recording area #3 is designated) has 
been received from a higher-level control apparatus. The 
15 CLOSE TRACK/SESSION command for a designated TRACK (the 
recording area #3 is designated) indicates that it is no 
longer necessary to record further information into the 
recording area #3. 

20 0 -padding data is recorded into an unrecorded area 

of the recording area #3 (an area from the position P7 to 
the position P6 ) , and the recording area #3 becomes closed. 
In order to indicate that the recording area #3 is not 
incrementally writable, the number w 3" is removed from the 

25 entry number array 10. 

Portions (k) of Figures 5 and 6 show a state of the 
data area 5 after a CLOSE TRACK/ SESSION command for a 
designated TRACK (the recording area #4 is designated) has 
30 been received from a higher-level control apparatus. The 
CLOSE TRACK/SESSION command for a designated TRACK (the 
recording area #4 is designated) indicates that it is no 
longer necessary to record further information into the 



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recording area #4. 

The recording area #4 from the position P6 to the 
end of the data area 5 is an outermost recording area. 
Therefore, the management information 8 is generated (or 
changed) to indicate that the recording area #4 from the 
position P6 to the end of the data area 5 is divided into 
a recording area #4 from the position P6 to a position P8 
and a recording area #5 from the position P8 to the end of 
the data area 5. The recording area #4 becomes closed. The 
recording area #1, the recording area #2, and the recording 
area #3 are not changed. 

In order to indicate that the recording area #4 is 
not incrementally writable, the number u 4" is removed from 
the entry number array 10. In order to indicate that the 
recording area #5 has been added, a number "5" is added into 
the entry number array 10 , which indicates that the recording 
area #5 is incrementally writable. 

Portions (1) of Figures 5 and 6 show a state of the 
data area 5 after a CLOSE TRACK/ SESSION command for a 
designated SESSION (the session #2 is designated) has been 
received from a higher-level control apparatus. 

The closed recording area #3 and the closed recording 
area #4 belong to the session #2, while the recording area #5 
having no recorded information belongs to the session #3. 

In the recording area entry #5, the session start 
flag 12 is set to be a value of n l". 



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Thereafter, steps similar to those which are 
described with reference to portions (g' ) to (1) of Figures 5 
and 6 are repeatedly performed until all of desired user 
data are recorded. 

5 

A READ DISC INFORMATION command and a READ TRACK 
INFORMATION command are commands which are issued from a 
higher- level control apparatus to inquire the state of a 
SESSION and the state of a TRACK, respectively (for example, 
10 SFF 809 Oi standard, "Mt • Fuji Command for Multimedia Devices " , 
Section 4.16 entitled "Recording for DVD-R media"). To 
provide compatibility with conventional CD-R and DVD-R r it 
is reported in response to these commands that a TRACK is 
present in each of a plurality of recorded areas . 

15 

Specifically, in the case of the state shown in 
portions (h) of Figures 5 and 6 , it is reported that SESSION#l 
has TRACK# 1 and TRACK#2 and SESSION#2 has TRACK #3 and TRACKS 4 . 

20 In the case of the state shown in portions (1) of 

Figures 5 and 6, it is reported that SESSION#l has TRACK #1 
and TRACK#2 , SESSION#2 has TRACK #3 and TRACK# 4 , and SESSION#3 
has TRACK# 5 . 

25 By managing the transitions shown in Figures 3, 4, 

5 and 6, the end user can record user data using a writing 
software called CD Burning (for example, an application 
corresponding to Disc~At-Once, Trac3c-At-Once, and 
Session-At-Once recording operations). 

30 

In this embodiment of the present invention, 
0 -padding data is recorded into an unrecorded area of a 
recording area in response to a CLOSE TRACK/ SESSION command 



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for a designated TRACK. The 0 -padding data may be any data. 
In addition , for example, management information maybe caused 
to indicate that any data is recorded in an unrecorded area 
of a recording area, while , in fact, no data is recorded 
in an unrecorded area of a recording area. 

The order of the session start flag 12, the start 
position 13, and the last recorded position 14 arranged in 
the recording area entry 11 is not limited to this order. 

As long as it can be determined whether or not a 
predetermined recording area is located at the beginning 
of a session, the last recorded position of a recording area 
can be referenced instead of the start position 13 of a 
recording area in order to recognize the beginning of a session . 
The size of a recording area may be referenced instead of 
the start positioner the last recorded position of a recording 
area. 

The management information header 9 may contain , for 
example, the number of recording area entries registered 
in the entry number array 10 (i.e., the total number of 
incrementally writable recording areas ) , the number of 
entries registered in the recording area entry 11 (i.e., 
the total number of recording areas ) , or the number of session 
start flags 12 having a value of "1" (i.e. , the total number 
of sessions) . 

Thus, according to the write-once recording medium 
of the present invention, one session is comprised of at 
least one of the at least one recording area, and management 
information contains identification information for 
identifying a recording area located at aboundary of a session. 



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Therefore, a boundary of a session can be identified based 
on only a recording area located at the beginning of a session . 
As a result , the size of information for identifying a boundary 
of a session can be reduced. 

5 

In addition, according to the write-once recording 
medium of the present invention, management information can 
contain information indicating a recording area located at 
the beginning of a session, thereby making it possible to 

10 reduce the size of the management information. Therefore, 
if the size of an area for incrementally writing management 
information is the same, the number of times with which the 
user can incrementally write management information can be 
increased. If the number of times with which the user can 

15 incrementally write management information is the same, the 
size of an area for incrementally writing management 
information can be reduced. As a result, a capacity for 
recording user data can be increased. 

20 The write-once recording medium according to the 

embodiment of the present invention has heretofore been 
described with reference to Figures 2 to 6. 

For example, in the embodiment of Figures 2 to 6, 
2 5 the management information area 7 corresponds to a 
"management information area for recording management 
information for managing a recorded state" . The data area 5 
corresponds to a "user data area for recording user data, 
which is configured to contain at least one recording area" . 
30 Each of the sessions #1 to #3 corresponds to a "session which 
is comprised of at least one of the at least one recording 
area". The session start flag 12 corresponds to 
"identification information for identifying a recording area 



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located at a boundary of a session" . Information indicating 
the start position 13 of a recording area and information 
indicating the last recorded position 14 of a recording area 
corresponds to "range information indicating a recording 
5 range of at least one recording area" . 

However / the write-once recording medium of the 
present invention is not limited to the embodiment of Figure 2 
to 6 . As long as the write-once recording medium has the 

10 above -de scribed "management information area for recording 
management information for managing a recorded state" , "user 
data area for recording user data, which is configured to 
contain at least one recording area", and "session which 
is comprised of at least one of the at least one recording 

15 area" , and information to be recorded onto the write-once 
recording medium is the above-described "identification 
information for identifying a recording area located at a 
boundary of a session" and "range information indicating 
a recording range of at least one recording area", the 

20 write-once recording medium can have any structure. 

Identification information may be, for example, a 
session toggle flag (see Figure 7). Alternatively, 
identification information may be an entry number array of 
25 a recording area at the beginning of a session ( see Figure 9 ) . 

Figure 7 shows another exemplary data structure of 
the management information 8 according to an embodiment of 
the present invention. In Figure 7, information which is 
30 the same as information contained in the management 
information 8 of Figure 2 is indicated by the same reference 
numeral, and its description is omitted. 



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A difference between the management information 8 
of Figure 2 and the management information 8 of Figure 7, 
is that the session start flag 12 contained in the management 
information 8 of Figure 2 is replaced with the session toggle 
5 flag 15 contained in the management information 8of Figure 7. 
The session toggle flag 15 is provided to at least one 
recording area, which has any one of a value of M 0" and a 
value of "1". The value of the session toggle flag 15 provided 
to a recording area contained in a session is inverse to 
10 the value of the session toggle flag 15 provided to a recording 
area contained in a session adjacent to that session. 

Figure 8 shows a transition of the contents of the 
entry number array 10 and the recording area entry 11. 
15 Portions (1) of Figure 5 and 8 show a concurrent state. 

Portions (1) of Figure 5 and 8 show a state of the 
data area 5 after a CLOSE TRACK/ SESSION command for a 
designated SESSION (the session #2 is designated) has been 
20 received from a higher-level control apparatus. 

A closed recording area #1 and a closed recording 
area #2 belong to a session #1. A closed recording area #3 
and a closed recording area #4 belong to the session #2. 
25 A recording area #5 in which no information has been recorded 
belongs to a session #3. The recording area #5 is the only 
incrementally writable recording area. 

In the recording area entry #1 and the recording area 
30 entry #2, the session toggle flag 15 is set to have a value 
of "1". In the recording area entry #3 and the recording 
area entry #4, the session toggle flag 15 is set to have 
a value of n 0" . In the recording area entry #5, the session 



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toggle flag 15 is set to have a value of "1". 

The initial value of the session toggle flag 15 is 
not limited to a value of "1". When the initial value of 
5 the session toggle flag 15 is set to be a value of "0", the 
session toggle flag 15 is set to have a value of n 0" in the 
recording area entry #1 and the recording area entry #2, 
the session toggle flag 15 is set to have a value of "1" 
in the recording area entry #3 and the recording area entry #4 , 
10 and the session toggle flag 15 is set to have a value of 
"0" in the recording area entry #5. 

Thus, according to the above -described exemplary 
write-once recording medium of the present invention, by 

15 containing, in the management information, information 
indicating a recording area located at the beginning of a 
session , the quantity of management information can be reduced . 
Therefore, if the size of an area for incrementally writing 
management information is the same, the number of times with 

20 which the user can incrementally write management information 
can be increased. If the number of times with which the user 
can incrementally write management information is the same, 
the size of an area for incrementally writing management 
information can be reduced. As a result, a capacity for 

25 recording user data can be increased. 

Figure 9 shows still another exemplary data 
structure of the management information 8 according to an 
embodiment of the present invention. In Figure 9, 
30 information which is the same as information contained in 
the management information 8 of Figure 2 is indicated by 
the same reference numeral, and its description is omitted. 



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A difference between the management Information 8 
of Figure 2 and the management information 8 of Figure 9, 
is that the session start flag 12 contained in the management 
information 8 of Figure 2 is replaced with an entry number 
5 array 16 of a recording area at the beginning of a session 
contained in the management information 8 of Figure 9 . The 
entry number array 16 is comprised of entry numbers of 
recording areas located at the beginnings of sessions. For 
example, in the entry number array 16 , the first number is 

10 an entry number (i.e., a number " 1 " ) of a recording area 
#1 located at the beginning of a session #1 , the second number 
is an entry number (i.e. , a number "3") of a recording area 
#3 located at the beginning of a session #2, ... . The entry 
numbers are listed in the ascending order . Thus , in the entry 

15 number array 16 , the entry number of a recording area located 
at the beginning of each session is stored. When a session 
is not present, a number "0" is stored. 

Figure 10 shows a transition of the contents of the 
20 entry number array 10 and the recording area entry 11. 
Portions (1) of Figure 5 and 10 show a concurrent state. 

Portions (1) of Figure 5 and 10 show a state of the 
data area 5 after a CLOSE TRACK/ SESSION command for a 
25 designated SESSION (the session #2 is designated) has been 
received from a higher-level control apparatus. 

A closed recording area #1 and a closed recording 
area #2 belong to a session #1. A closed recording area #3 
30 and a closed recording area #4 belong to the session #2. 

A recording area #5 in which no information has been recorded 
belongs to a session #3. The recording area #5 is the only 
incrementally writable recording area. 



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Therefore, the entry number array 16 contains the 
entry number "1" of the recording area #1, the entry number 
"3" of the recording area #3, and the entry number w 5" of 
5 the recording area #5, and the number n 0". 

Thus, according to the above-described exemplary 
write-once recording medium of the present invention, by 
containing, in the management information, information 
indicating a recording area located at the beginning of a 
session, the quantity of management information can be reduced. 
Therefore, if the size of an area for incrementally writing 
management information is the same, the number of times with 
which the user can incrementally write management information 
can be increased. If the number of times with which the user 
can incrementally write management information is the same, 
the size of an area for incrementally writing management 
information can be reduced* As a result, a capacity for 
recording user data can be increased. 

For example, conventionally, 4 bytes are required 
to indicate a boundary of a session. In the above -described 
exemplary write-once recording medium of the present 
invention , only 1 or 2 bytes are required to indicate a boundary 
of a session. 

According to the write- once recording medium of the 
present invention of Figures 9 and 10, it is simple to 
calculate the total number of sessions, so that a session 
30 number to which each recording area belongs can be quickly 
calculated, as compared to the write-once recording medium 
of the present invention of Figures 3 to 6. As a result, 
a READ DISC INFORMATION command and a READ TRACK INFORMATION 



10 



15 



20 



25 



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command (for example, SFF 80901 standard, "Mt . Fuji Command 
for Multimedia Devices", Section 4.16 entitled "Recording 
for DVD-R media) can be processed with high speed. 

5 2-1. Recording apparatus 

Hereinafter, a recording apparatus according to an 
embodiment of the present invention will be described with 
reference to the accompanying drawings. 

10 Figure 11 shows an exemplary structure of an optical 

disc apparatus 100 according to an embodiment of the present 
invention . 

The optical disc apparatus 10O serves as a recording 
15 apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention , 
when recording information. 

The optical disc apparatus 100 is connected to an 
I/O bus 170. The I/O bus 170 is connected to a higher-level 
20 control apparatus (not shown) . The higher- level control 
apparatus is typically a host computer. 

The optical disc apparatus 100 is configured to load 
an optical disc 1 thereinto. The optical disc apparatus 100 

25 comprises a command processing section 110 for processing 
a command from a higher- level control apparatus, a recording 
control section 120 for controlling recording of the optical 
disc 1, a reproduction control section 130 for controlling 
reproduction of the optical disc 1 , a management information 

30 storing buffer 140 for storing management information 8 
(Figure 1) , a data buffer 150 for temporarily storing 
recording data, and a recording management processing 
section 160 for processing management information 8. 



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The recording management processing section 160 
comprises a management information reading section 161, a 
management information writing section 163 for writing 
5 management information 8, stored in the management 
information storing buffer 140, into a management 
information area 7 (Figure 1), a management information 
updating section 162 for updating management information 8 , 
stored in the management information storing buffer 140, 
10 in accordance with a command from a higher-level control 
apparatus , and a management information position memory 164 
for storing the position of the latest management 
information 8. 

15 The management information reading section 161 

searches for management information 8 which was last recorded 
in the pieces of management information 8 recorded in the 
management information area 7 . The management 

information 8 last recorded in the management information 

20 area 7 is read out into the management information storing 
buffer 140 . 



2-2. Recording method 

Hereinafter, a recording method according to an 
25 embodiment of the present invention will be described with 
reference to the accompanying drawings. 



Figure 12 shows a recording procedure according to 
an embodiment of the present invention. 

30 

The recording procedure is performed by the recording 
management processing section 160. The recording 

management processing section 160 performs steps 201 to 208. 



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The management information reading section 161 performs 
reading of management information (step 201). The 
management information writing section 163 performs writing 
of management information (step 207). The management 
5 information updating section 162 performs the remainder of 
the recording procedure (steps 202 to 206 and step 208). 

Hereinafter, the recording procedure of the 
embodiment of the present invention will be described with 
10 reference to Figures 11 and 12 step by step. Hereinafter, 
for example,, a procedure for recording management 
information 8 containing a session start flag and the like 
onto a write-once recording medium will be described. 

15 Step 201: when the optical disc 1 is loaded in the 

optical disc apparatus 100, the management information 
reading section 161 reads the latest management 
information 8, and stores the read latest management 
information 8 into the management information storing 

20 buffer 140. 

Note that when the latest management information 8 
is read out in step 201, it may be determined whether or 
not the number of recording areas is less than a predetermined 
25 value of M, where M is an integer of 2 or more. 

Step 202: the optical disc apparatus 100 is ready 
to receive commands relating to the optical disc 1 from a 
higher-level control apparatus until the optical disc 1 is 
30 ejected or the power source is turned off. 

When a RESERVE TRACK command is issued to the optical 
disc 1, the process goes to step 203. When a CLOSE 



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TRACK/ SESSION command ±s issued to the optical disc 1, the 
process goes to step 204. When a WRITE command is issued 
to the optical disc 1, the process goes to step 208. 

5 The RESERVE TRACK command is a command from a 

higher-level control apparatus, which requests reservation 
of a recording area. The CLOSE TRACK/ SESSION command is a 
commandfrom a higher -level control apparatus , which requests 
closure of a recording area. The WRITE command is a command 
10 from a higher-level control apparatus, which requests 
recording of data. 

Step 203: when the RESERVE TRACK command is received , 
management information 8 stored in the management 
15 information storing buffer 140 is generated (or changed) 
so as to add a recording area. 

For example, referring to portions (h) of Figures 5 
and 6, management information 8 is generated (or changed) 

20 to indicate that the recording area #3 from the position P5 
to the end of the data area 5 is divided into a recording 
area #3 from the position P5 to a position P6 and a recording 
area #4 from the position P6 to the end of the data area 5. 
In the entry number array 10, a number "4" indicating that 

25 the recording area #4 is incrementally writable, is registered 
to indicate that the recording area #4 has been added. In 
the recording area entry #4, the session start flag 12 of 
the recording area #4 is set to have a value of "0" , while 
the start position 13 of the recording area #4 is set to 

30 be the position P6. 

After generation (or change), the process goes to 
step 207. 



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Step 204: when the CLOSE TRACK/SESSION command is 
received, it is determined whether a subject to be closed 
is a TRACK or a SESSION . When it is determined that the subject 
5 to be closed is a TRACK, the process goes to step 205. When 
it is determined that the subject to be closed is a SESSION, 
the process goes to step 206. 

Step 205: management information 8 stored in the 
10 management information storing buffer 140 is generated (or 
changed) to close a recording area (TRACK). 

For example, referring to portions (jj) of Figures 5 
and 6, 0 -padding data is recorded into an unrecorded area 
15 of the recording area #3 (an area from the position P7 to 
the position P6) , and the recording area #3 becomes closed. 
In order to indicate that the recording area #3 is not 
incrementally writable, the number " 3 " is removed from the 
entry number array 10. 

20 

After generation (or change), the process goes to 
step 207. 

Step 206: management information 8 stored in the 
25 management information storing buffer 140 is generated (or 
changed) so as to close a recording area belonging to an 
outermost session . 

For example, referring to portions (1) of Figures 5 
30 and 6, the closed recording area #3 and the closed recording 
area #4 belong to the session #2, while the recording area #5 
having no recorded information belongs to the session #3. 
In the recording area entry #5, the session start flag 12 



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Is set to be a value of "1". 

After generation (or change), the process goes to 
step 207. 

5 

Step 207: when the management information 8 stored 
in the management information storing buffer 140 is updated, 
the latest management information 8 is incrementally written 
into an incrementally writable area in the management 
10 information area 7 . 

Step 208: when the WRITE command is received, it is 
determined what incrementally writable position matches a 
designated recording start position, and transferred data 

15 is recorded onto the optical disc 1. The incrementally 
writable position can be obtained based on the last recorded 
position 14 of the recording area entry 11 registered in 
the entry number array 10 . The value of the last recorded 
position 14 of the management information 8 stored in the 

20 management information storing buff er 140 is generated (or 
changed) based on the recorded position. 

For example, referring to portions (i) of Figures 5 
and 6, by recording data into the recording area #3, the 
25 last recorded position 14 of the recording area #3 is changed 
into a position (P7-1) • By recording data into the recording 
area #4, the last recorded position 14 of the recording 
area #4 is changed into a position (P8-1) . 

30 Generally, when a position is indicated by a sector 

number , a value indicating an incrementally writable position 
is obtained by adding 1 to a value indicating the last recorded 
position 14. Note that when the last recorded position 14 



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±s not registered (value: 0), a value indicating an 
incrementally writable position is the same as a value 
indicating the start position 13 of a recording area. 

5 When an ECC (error correction code) is comprised o£ 

16 sectors as in DVD, an actual incrementally writable 
position is a multiple of .16. Therefore, although the four 
fundamental operations of arithmetic are required to some 
extent to obtain an incrementally writable position, an 
10 incrementally writable position can be obtained based on 
the last recorded position 14 or the start position 13; 

Figure 13 shows a procedure for reading management 
information . 

15 

Hereinafter, a procedure for reading management 
information will be described step by step in detail with 
reference to Figures 11 and 13 (for step 201, see Figure 12). 

20 Step 301: the reproduction control section 130 

searches for the position of last recorded management 
information 8 in the management information area 7 . 
Position information indicating the position is stored in 
the management information position memory 164. 

25 

Step 302: the reproduction control section 130 
references the positional information stored in the 
management information position memory 164, reproduces the 
management information 8, and stores the reproduced 
30 management information 8 into the management information 
storing buffer 140. When no management information 8 has 
been recorded in the management information area 7 (for 
example, a brand-new optical disc 1 is loaded in the optical 



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disc apparatus 100), the management Information 8 is 
initialized (portion (a) of Figure 4). 

Step 303: the reproduction control section 130 
5 searches for the end of a recorded area from the last recorded 
position 14 as a starting point, obtains an actual last 
recorded position 14 , and updates management information 8 
storedin themanagement information storingbuf f er 140 based 
on information indicating the actual last recorded 
10 position 14. Thereafter, the process is ended. 

The last recorded position 14 of each recording area 
reproduced from the management information 8 may be different 
from the actual last recorded position , i.e. , includes error 

15 to some extent- This is because when the last recorded 
position 14 of management information 8 is updated every 
time the WRITE command is received, a very large number of 
management information areas 7 are required. For this 
reason, it is assumed that management information 8 is 

20 incrementally written into the management information area 7 
only when a recording area is added or closed (Figure 12) . 
Therefore, the reproduction control section 130 obtains an 
actual last recorded position 14 by searching for the end 
of a recorded area using the last recorded position 14 as 

25 a starting point. 

Step 303 may be omitted if the latest contents of 
the management information storing buffer 140 can be 
guaranteed to be incorporated into management information 8 
30 of a management information area 7 when the optical disc 1 
is ejected, or the optical disc apparatus 100 is turned off, 
assuming that the optical disc apparatus 100 has a back-up 
power source. 



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Figure 14 shows details of a procedure for writing 
management information . 

5 Hereinafter, a procedure for writing management 

information will be described in detail with reference to 
Figures 11 and 14 (for step 207 , see Figure 12). 

Step 401: the recording control section 120 
10 references positional information stored in the management 
information position memory 164 to incrementally write the 
management information 8 stored in the information storing 
buffer 140 to the management information area 7 . 

15 Step 402: based on the incrementally written area, 

positional information stored in the management information 
position memory 164 is changed to information indicating 
the incrementally writable position of the management 
information area 7. Thereafter, the process is ended. 

20 

Figure 15 shows a procedure for adding a recording 
area in detail. 

Hereinafter, a procedure for adding a recording area 
25 will be described step by step in detail with reference to 
Figures 11 and 15 (for step 203, see Figure 12). 

Step 501: it is determined whether or not there is 
a space in the entry number array 10 and the recording area 
30 entry 11 (i.e., whether or not there is a field having a 
value of n 0" in the fields of the entry number array 10 and 
the fields of the recording area entry 11, or whether or 
not the number of fields already used of the fields of the 



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entry number array 10 and the fields of the recording area 
entry 11 is less than the maximum number) . 

When it is determined that there is a space, the 
5 process goes to step 502, in which the entry number array 10 
having a space or an entry number #m corresponding to a 
recording area in the recording area entry 11 is used. When 
it is determined that there is not a space, the process goes 
to step 503 . 

10 

Step 502: it is determined whether or not an area 
having a size equal to or greater than a size (S) requested 
by a higher -level control apparatus area can be secured (i.e. , 
the size of an area from an incrementally writable position 
15 to the end of the data area 5 is greater than S) * Note that 
an incrementally writable position can be obtained based 
on the start position 13 and the last recorded position 14 
of a recording area # (m-1) . 

20 When it is determined that a sufficient area can be 

secured, the process goes to step 504. When it is not 
determined that a sufficient area can be secured, the process 
goes to step 503. 

25 Step 503: information indicating the contents of an 

error is sent to the higher-level control apparatus, and 
the process is ended. 

Step 504: a value obtained by adding the size S to 
30 the incrementally writable position of the recording area 
#(m-l) is set to be the start position 13 of the recording 
area entry #m, and the process goes to step 505. 



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For example, when no recording area #(m-l) has been 
recorded (the last recorded position 14 is 0), a value 
obtained by adding the size S to the start position 13 of 
the recording area #{m-l) is set to be the start position 13 
5 of the recording area #m. 

Step 505: the value m is added to the entry number 
array 10, and the process is ended, 

10 Figure 16 shows a procedure for closing a recording 

area . 

Hereinafter , a procedure for clos ing a recording area 
will be described step by step in detail with reference to 
15 Figures 11 and 16 (for step 205, see Figure 12). 

Step 601 : it is determined whether or not a recording 
area entry number (TRACK number ) designated by a higher- level 
control apparatus corresponds to a recording area entry number 
20 contained in the entry number array 10. 

When the determination is affirmative, the process 
goes to step 602, in which the entry number #m of the recording 
area is used. When the determination is not affirmative, 
25 the process goes to step 603. 

Step 602: it is determined whether or not the 
recording area #m is an outermost recording area . For example , 
when the start position 13 of the recording area entry # (m 
30 +1) is 0, it can be determined that the recording area #m 
is an outermost recording area. 

When it is determined that the recording area #m is 



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an outermost recording area (Yes), the process goes to 
step 604. When it is determined that the recording area #m 
is not an outermost recording area (No), the process goes 
to the step 606. 

5 

Step 603: information indicating the contents of 
error is sent to the higher-level control apparatus, and 
the process is ended. 

10 Step 604: the start position 13 of the recording area 

entry #(m+l) is set to he an incrementally writable position, 
and the process goes to step 605 . The incrementally writable 
position is obtained from the start position 13 and the last 
recorded position 14 of the recording area entry #m 

15 (portions (k) of Figures 5 and 6). 

Step 60 5: the value (m+1 ) is added to the entry number 
array 10, and the process goes to step 607. 

20 Step 606: 0 -padding data is recorded into an area 

from the incrementally writable position to the start 
position 13 of the recording area entry #(m+l), and the 
process goes to step 607. 

2 5 Note that in this step, recording data may not be 

necessarily 0 -padding data. This step itself maybe omitted. 

Step 607: the value m is changed to a value of 0 in 
the entry number array 10. 

30 

Figure 17 shows details of a procedure for closing 
a session. 



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Hereinafter, a procedure for closing a session will 
be described step by step in detail with reference to 
Figures 11 and 17 (for step 206, see Figure 12). 

5 Step 701: it is determined whether or not only a 

single value indicating an outermost recording area is 
registered in the entry number array 10. 

When the determination is affirmative (Yes), the 
10 process goes to step 702. When the determination is not 
affirmative (No), the process goes to step 703. 

Generally, in a write -once recording medium, such 
as CD-R or DVD-R, TRACK needs to have been closed in order 

15 to close SESSION . For example, the condition is satisfied 
when all recording areas excluding an outermost recording 
area which is an unrecorded area are in the non- increment ally 
writable state (see portion (f ) of Figure 4 and portion (k) 
of Figure 6) . In step 701, it is determined whether or not 

20 the above-described condition is satisfied. 

Step 702: it is determined whether or not the last 
recorded position 14 of an outermost recording area entry 
has a value of n 0 " . 

25 

When the determination is affirmative (Yes), the 
process goes to step 704. When the determination is not 
affirmative (No), the process goes to step 703. 

30 Step 703: information indicating the contents of 

error is sent to the higher-level control apparatus, and 
the process is ended. 



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Step 704: the value of the session start flag 12given 
to an outermost recording area entry is set to be a value 
of "1", and the process is ended, 

5 Note that step 702 of the session closing procedure 

(steps 701 to 704) is an example in which when a boundary 
of a session is newly added, it is determined whether or 
not a recording area containing a sector having a maximum 
sector number of at least one recording area has already 
10 been recorded. 

According to the recording method and the recording 
apparatus of the present invention, it is possible to record 
management information onto the write-once recording medium 

15 of the present invention. Since management information can 
be recorded onto the write-once recording medium having only 
a small size of area for recording management information, 
the time required for searching for the latest management 
information can be reduced. As a result, the time required 

20 from when the user loads the write-once recording medium 
into an apparatus to when a user data area of the write-once 
recording medium is ready to access, can be reduced. 

A recording method according to an embodiment of the 
25 present invention has heretofore been described with 
reference to Figures 12 to 17. 

For example, in the embodiment of Figure 12, step 203, 
step 205, step 206 and step 208 correspond to the "step of 
30 generating management information containing range 
information indicating a recording range of at least one 
recording area and identification information for 
identifying a recording area located at a boundary of a 



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session" and step 207 corresponds to the "step of recording 
the resultant management information into a management 
information area" . 

5 However, the recording method of the present 

invention is not limited to the embodiment of Figure 12. 
The recording method of the present invention may be achieved 
by any arbitrary procedure as long as the procedure has 
functions of the "step of generating management information 
10 containing range information indicating a recording range 
of at least one recording area and identification information 
for identifying a recording area located at a boundary of 
a session" and the " step of recording the resultant management 
information into a management information area" . 

15 

For example, when management information 8 
containing a session toggle flag is recorded onto a write-once 
recording medium (Figures 7 and 8) , the step of causing the 
session toggle flag 15 of a recording area immediately before 

20 the recording area #m (i.e. , a recording area # (m-1) ) to 
have the same value as that of the session toggle flag 15 
is performed in conjunction with the step of adding a recording 
area (step 504 in Figure 15). In addition, the step of 
inverting the session toggle flag 15 of the recording area 

25 #m with respect to that of the recording area #(m-l) is 
performed instead of the step of closing a session (step 704 
in Figure 17 ) . 

For example, when management information 8 
30 containing an entry number array of a recording area at the 
beginning of a session is recorded onto a write-once recording 
medium (Figures 9 and 10) , the step of registering the entry 
number of an outermost recording area into the entry number 



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array 16 is performed instead of the step of closing a session 
(step 704 in Figure 17). 

3-1, Reproduction apparatus 
5 Hereinafter, a reproduction apparatus according to 

an embodiment of the present invention will be described 
with reference to the accompanying drawings . 

Figure 18 shows an exemplary structure of an optical 
10 disc apparatus 200 according to an embodiment of the present 
invention. 

The optical disc apparatus 200 serves as a 
reproduction apparatus according to an embodiment of the 
15 present invention, when reproducing information. 

The optical disc apparatus 200 is connected to an 
I/O bus 270. The I/O bus 270 is connected to a higher-level 
control apparatus (not shown). The higher-level control 
20 apparatus is typically a host computer. 

The optical disc apparatus 200 is configured to load 
an optical disc 1 thereinto . The optical disc apparatus 200 
comprises a command processing section 210 for processing 

25 a command from a higher-level control apparatus, a 
reproduction control section 230 for controlling 
reproduction of the optical disc 1 , a management information 
storing buffer 240 for storing management information 8 
(Figure 1), a data buffer 250 for temporarily storing 

30 reproduced data, and a recording management processing 
section 260 for processing management information 8. 

The recording management processing section 260 



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comprises a management information reading section 261 and 
a management information recognizing section 265. 

The management information reading section 261 
5 searches for last recorded management information 8 among 
at least one piece of management information 8 recorded in 
a management information area 7, and outputs the management 
information 8 last recorded in the management information 
area 7 into a management information storing buffer 240. 

10 

The management information recognizing section 265 
generates data based the contents of the management 
information storing buffer 240 in response to a command from 
a higher-level control apparatus and outputs the data to 
15 the higher-level control apparatus. 

3-2. Reproduction method 

Figure 19 shows a reproduction procedure according 
to an embodiment of the present invention. 

20 

Hereinafter, a reproduction procedure according to 
an embodiment of the present invention will be described 
step by step with reference to Figures 18 and 19 . 

25 Step 1201: when the optical disc 1 is loaded in the 

optical disc apparatus 200, the management information 
reading section 261 reads out the latest management 
information 8, and stores the latest management 
information 8 into the management information storing 

30 buffer 240. 

Step 1202: the optical disc apparatus 200 is ready 
to receive commands relating to the optical disc 1 from a 



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higher-level control apparatus until the optical disc 1 is 
ejected or the power source is turned off. 

When a READ DISC INFORMATION command is issued to 
5 the optical disc 1, the process goes to step 1203. When a 
READ TRACK INFORMATION command is issued to the optical disc 1 , 
the process goes to step 1206 . When other commands are issued 
to the optical disc 1, the process goes to step 1210. 

The READ DISC INFORMATION command is a command from 
a higher-level control apparatus, which requests a report 
of disc information. The READ TRACK INFORMATION command is 
a command from a higher-level control apparatus, which 
requests a report of track information. 

Step 1203: the total number of sessions is calculated 
(determined) based on the management information 8 read out . 

Step 1204: a recording area which is located at the 
beginning of the last session, is determined (calculated). 

Step 1205: other information (for example, a leading 
recording area on the optical disc 1 ( consistently the number 
"1"), the last recording area in the last session (i.e., 
the last recording area of the optical disc 1), etc.) is 
obtained. Thereafter, the process goes to step 1211. 

Step 1206: when the READ TRACK INFORMATION command 
is received from a higher-level control apparatus, it is 
determined whether or not TRACK is designated (a recording 
area is designated). 

If the determination is affirmative (Yes), the 



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process goes to step 1208. If the determination is not 
affirmative (No), the process goes to step 1207. 

Step 1207: a recording area to which the designated 
5 logic sector number belongs is determined. 

Step 1208: a session to which a predetermined 
recording area (the designated recording area or a recording 
area to which the designated logic sector number belongs) 
10 is determined (calculated). 

Step 1209 : other information (for example, the start 
position of a recording area (corresponding to the start 
position 13) , the last position of user data (corresponding 
15 to the last recorded position 14 ) , the number of free blocks , 
etc. ) is determined, and the process goes to step 1211 • Note 
that the number of free blocks can be calculated by the four 
fundamental operations of arithmetic based on at least one 
of the start position 13 and the last recorded position 14. 

20 

Step 1210: when other commands are received from a 
higher-level control apparatus, processing is performed in 
accordance with the contents of the command, the process 
goes to step 1211. 

25 

Step 1211: data is transferred to a higher-level 
control apparatus . 

Figure 20 shows an exemplary calculation procedure 
30 according to an embodiment of the present invention. 

The calculation procedure is performed by the 
management information recognizing section 265 based on 



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management information 8 containing a session start flag 
(Figures 2 to 6) . The calculation procedure calculates the 
total number of sessions (step 1203 in Figure 19) and 
determines a recording area located at the beginning of a 
5 last session (step 1204 in Figure 19) , and determines a 
session to which a predetermined recording area belongs 
(step 1208 in Figure 19). 

Note that in the calculation of the total number of 
10 sessions (step 1203 in Figure 19) and the determination of 
a recording area located at the beginning of a last session 
( step 1204 in Figure 19 ) , the total number of recording areas 
is designated as Tspec. In the determination of a session 
to which a predetermined recording area belongs (step 1208 
15 in Figure 19 ), the number of a desired recording area is 
designated as Tspec, 

Hereinafter, an exemplary calculation procedure 
according to an embodiment of the present invention will 
20 be described step by step with reference to Figure 20. 

Step 1301: the number T of a recording area is 
initialized to a number " 1" , and the number S of a session 
is initialized to a number "0" . 

25 

Step 1302 : it is determined whether or not the number 
T of a recording area is equal to or smaller than the number 
Tspec of the designated recording area. 

30 If the determination is affirmative (Yes), the 

process goes to step 1303. If the determination is not 
affirmative (No) , the process is ended. 



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Step 1303: the value of the session start flag 12 
given to the recording area #T is substituted into F (F= 
the value of the session start flag 12 given to the recording 
area #T) . 

5 

Step 1304: it is determined whether or not the value 
of F is equal to a value of "1". 

If the determination is affirmative , the process goes 
10 to step 1305. If the determination is not affirmative, the 
process goes to step 1307. 

Step 1305: " 1" is added to the session number S. 
Thereafter, the process goes to step 1306. 

15 

Step 1306: T is substituted into Tfirst (the number 
of a recording area located at the beginning of a session) . 

Step 1307: 1 is added to the recording area number 
20 T to proceed into the next recording area. 

If the total number of recording areas is substituted 
into Tspec, the total number of sessions is stored into S, 
and the number of a recording area located at a last session 
25 is stored into Tfirst. 

If the number of a desired recording area is 
substituted into Tspec, the number of a session to which 
the recording area belongs is stored into S, and the number 
30 of a recording area located at the beginning of the session 
is stored into Tfirst. 

Figure 21 shows another exemplary calculation 



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procedure according to an embodiment of the present invention . 

The calculation procedure is performed by the 
management information recognizing section 265 based on 
5 management information 8 containing a session toggle flag 
( Figures 7 and 8 ) . The calculation procedure calculates the 
total number of sessions (Step 1203 in Figure 19) , determines 
a recording area located at the beginning of a last session 
(Step 1204 in Figure 19) , and determines a session to which 
10 a predetermined recording area belongs (Step 1208 in 
Figure 19) . * 

A method for designating Tspec, and the meanings of 
S after calculation and Tfirst, are similar to those which 
15 are described with reference to Figure 20. In Figure 21, 
the same step as that in Figure 20 is referenced with the 
same reference numeral , and its description is omitted. 

Hereinafter, another exemplary calculation 
20 procedure according to an embodiment of the present invention 
will be described step by step with reference to Figure 21. 

Step 1401t before performing step 1302, the 
previous flag value Fpre is initialized to a value of w 0". 

25 

Step 1402: instead of performing step 1304 
(Figure 20), it is determined whether or not the current 
flag value F is inverse to the previous flag value Fpre. 

30 If the determination is affirmative (Yes), the 

process goes to step 1305. If the determination is not 
affirmative (No), the process goes to step 1403. 



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Step 1403: before proceeding to the next recording 
area (step 1307), the previous flag value Fpre is set to 
be the current flag value F (Fpre=F). 

5 Figure 22 shows still another exemplary calculation 

procedure according to an embodiment of the present invention . 

The calculation procedure is performed by the 
management information recognizing section 265 based on 

10 management information 8 containing an entry number array 
of recording areas located at sessions (Figures 9 and 10) . 
The calculation procedure calculates the total number of 
sessions (step 1203 in Figure 19), determines a recording 
area located at the beginning of a last session (Step 1204 

15 in Figure 19) , and determines a session to which a 
predetermined recording area belongs (step 1208 in 
Figure 19 ) . 

A method for designating Tspec, and the meanings of 
20 S after calculation and Tfirst, are similar to those which 
are described with reference to Figure 20. 

Hereinafter, still another exemplary calculation 
procedure according to an embodiment of the present invention 
25 will be described step by step with reference to Figure 22. 

Step 1501: the session number S is initialized to 
a number n 1 " . 

30 Step 1502: Tfirst is initialized to the number of 

a recording area located at the beginning of the session 
#S. 



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Step 1503: Tnext is set to be the number of a recording 
area located at the next session #(S+1). 

Step 1504: it is determined whether or not Tnext 

5 exists. 

If the determination is affirmative (Yes: Tnext^O) , 
the process goes to step 1505. If the determination is not 
affirmative (No: Tnext =0), the process is ended. 

10 

Step 1505: it is determined whether or not Tnext is 
equal to or smaller than the designated recording area number 
Tspec . 

15 If the determination is affirmative (Yes), the 

process goes to step 1506. If the determination is not 
affirmative (No), the process is ended. 

Step 1506: Tfirst is set to be Tnext. 

20 

Step 1507: 1 is added to the session number S to 
proceed the next session. 

Thus, according to the reproduction method and the 
25 reproduction apparatus of the present invention, management 
information can be reproduced from the write -once recording 
medium of the present invention. The size of an area for 
reproducing management information is small in the write- once 
recording medium of the present invention. Therefore, it 
30 is possible to reduce the time required for searching for 
the latest management information. As a result, it is 
possible to reduce the time spent from when the user loads 
the write -once recording medium into an apparatus to when 



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a user data area of the write- once recording medium becomes 
accessible. 

The reproduction method of the embodiment of the 
5 present invention has been heretofore described with 
reference to Figures 19 to 22. 

For example, in the embodiment of Figure 19, 
step 1201 corresponds to the "step of reading out management 
10 information from a management information area" , and 
steps 1203, 1204 and 1208 correspond to the "step af 
recognizing information regarding a session based on the 
management information read out". 

However, the reproduction method of the present 
invention is not limited to the embodiment of Figure 19. 
The reproduction method of the present invention may be 
achieved by any arbitrary procedure as long as the procedure 
has functions of the "step of reading out management 
information from a management information area" and the "step 
of recognizing information regarding a session based on the 
management information read out". 

Embodiments of the present invention will be 
25 described with reference to Figures 1 to 22. 

The layout of areas in the write -once recording medium 
of the embodiments of the present invention is provided as 
an example. In the embodiments, the management information 
30 area 7 is provided in the lead-in area 4. The present 
invention is not limited to this . The management information 
area 7 may be provided in an area other than the lead-in 
area 4. For example, the management information area 7 is 



15 



20 



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provided may be provided in the lead- out area 6 or the data 
area 5 . 

In the above -described embodiments of the present 
5 invention , the order of reading information from areas is 
provided as an example. For example, management 
information 8 is incrementally written into a management 
information area 7 of the optical disc 1 from its inner 
periphery to its outer periphery* The present invention is 
10 not limited to this. Management information 8 may be 
incrementally written into a management information area 1 
of the optical disc 1 from its outer periphery to its inner 
periphery . 

15 Although certain preferred embodiments have been 

described herein, it is not intended that such embodiments 
be construed as limitations on the scope of the invention 
except as set forth in the appended claims . Various other 
modifications and equivalents will be apparent to and can 

20 be readily made by those skilled in the art, after reading 
the description herein, without departing from the scope 
and spirit of this invention. All patents , published patent 
applications and publications cited herein are incorporated 
by reference as if set forth fully herein. 

25 

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY 

For a large-capacity optical disc capable of 
recording/reproduction using short -wavelength laser (e.g. , 
30 blue laser) and an apparatus capable of 
recording/reproduction of the optical disc, a reduction in 
the size of management information is useful in terms of 
the available capacity of an optical disc and the memory 



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capacity of an apparatus . 

The present Invention can be applied to not only 
write-once recording medium but also, for example, 
5 rewritable recording medium which is virtually used as 
write -once recording medium. 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



- 61 - 
CLAIMS 

1. A write-once recording medium, comprising: 

a management information area for recording 
5 management information for managing a recorded state; and 
a user data area for recording user data, 
wherein the user data area is configured to contain 
at least one recording area, 

at least one session is configured to contain at least 
10 one of the at least one recording area, and 

the management information contains range 
information indicating a recording range of the at least 
one recording area and Identification information for 
identifying the recording area located at a boundary of the 
15 session. 

2. A write-once recording medium according to claim 1, 
wherein : 

the identification information is a flag provided 
20 to the recording area; and 

the flag has either a value of M 0" or a value of "1". 

3. A write-once recording medium according to claim 2, 
wherein the flag having a value of "1" is provided to the 

25 recording area located at the beginning of the session . 

4. A write-once recording medium according to claim 2, 
wherein the value of the flag provided to the recording area 
contained in a session of the at least one session is inverse 

30 to the value of the flag provided to the recording area of 
another session of the at least one session adjacent to that 
session . 



WO 2005/004154 PC T/JP2004/0 10007 

- 62 - 

5. A write-once recording medium according to claim 1, 
wherein : 

a distinct number is provided to the at least one 
recording area; and 
5 the identification information is an array 

containing a number provided to the recording area located 
at the beginning of the session. 

6» A recording method for a write-once recording medium, 
wherein the medium comprises : 

a management information area for recording 
management information for managing a recorded state; and 
a user data area for recording user data, 
wherein the user data area is configured to contain 
at least one recording area, 

at least one session is configured to contain at least 
one of the at least one recording area, 

the management information contains range 
information indicating a recording range of the at least 
one recording area and identification information for 
identifying the recording area located at a boundary of the 
session, 

the method comprising the steps of: 

(a) generating the management information; and 

(b) recording the management information into the 
management information area* 

7 . A recording method according to claim 6 , wherein the step 
of (a) comprises: 
30 generating the management information so that at 

least one of the at least one recording area is divided into 
two recording areas . 



10 



15 



20 



25 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



- 63 - 

8 . A recording method according to claim 6 , wherein the step 
of (a) comprises: 

generating the management information so that 
recording is disabled. 

5 

9 . A recording method according to claim 6 , wherein before 
the step of (a) # it is determined whether or not the number 
of the at least one recording area is less than a predetermined 
value M, where M is an integer of 2 or more. 

10 

10. A recording method according to claim 8, wherein the 
step of (a) comprises: 

dividing an outermost recording area of the at least 
one recording area into two where the end of recorded portion 
15 of the outermost recording area is a boundary, and generating 
the management information so that recording is disabled 
from the beginning to the end of recorded portion of the 
outermost recording area. 

20 11. A recording method according to claim 6, wherein the 
step of (a) further comprises: 

when a boundary of the session is newly added, 
determining whether or not a recording area of the at least 
one recording area containing a sector having a maximum sector 

25 number has been recorded. 

12 . A recording apparatus for a write -once recording medium, 

wherein the medium comprises: 

a management information area for recording 
30 management information for managing a recorded state; and 
a user data area for recording user data, 
wherein the user data area is configured to contain 

at least one recording area. 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



- 64 - 

at least one session is configured to contain at least 
one of the at least one recording area, 

the management information contains range 
information indicating a recording range of the at least 
5 one recording area and identification information for 
identifying the recording area located at a boundary of the 
session, 

the apparatus comprising: 

(a) a section for generating the management 
10 information; and 

(b) a section for recording the management 
information into the management information area. 

13 . A reproduction method for a write-once recording medium, 
15 wherein the medium comprises: 

a management information area for recording 
management information for managing a recorded state; and 
a user data area for recording user data, 
wherein the user data area is configured to contain 
2 0 at least one recording area, 

at least one session is configured to contain at least 
one of the at least one recording area, 

the management information contains range 
information indicating a recording range of the at least 
25 one recording area and identification information for 
identifying the recording area located at a boundary of the 
session, 

the method comprising the steps of: 

(a) reading the management information from the 
30 management information area; and 

(b) recognizing information regarding the session 
based on the management information read out . 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



14. A reproduction method according to claim 13, wherein 
the step of (b) comprises: 

(b-1) obtaining the total number of the at least one 
session based on the management information read out; 
5 (b-2) obtaining a recording area of the at least one 

recording area located at the beginning of a last session 
of the at least one session; and 

(b-3 ) obtaining a session of the at least one session 
belonging to a predetermined recording area of the at least 
10 one recording area, 

15. A reproduction method according to claim 14, wherein: 

the identification information is a flag provided 
to the at least one recording area; 
15 the flag has either a value of w 0" or a value of w l w • 

the flag having a value of "1" is provided to a 
recording area of the at least one recording area located 
at the beginning of each of the at least one session; 

the step of (b-1 ) comprises obtaining the total number 
20 of the at least one session based on the flag having a value 
of w l"; 

the step of (b-2) comprises obtaining a recording 
area of the at least one recording area located at the beginning 
of a last session of the at least one session based on a 

2 5 last flag of the flag(s) having a value of u l"; 

a distinct number is provided to each of the at least 
one session; and 

the step of (b-3) comprises obtaining a number 
provided to a session of the at least one session to which 

3 0 the predetermined recording area belongs , based on the number 

of the flag(s) having a value of "T of the flag(s) over 
the range from a recording area of the at least one recording 
area located at the beginning of a leading session of the 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



- 66 - 

at least one session to the predetermined recording area. 

16. A reproduction method according to claim 14 , wherein: 
the identification information is a flag provided 
5 to the recording area; 

the flag has either a value of n 0" or a value of "1" ; 
the value of the flag provided to the recording area 
contained in a session of the at least one session is inverse 
to the value of the flag provided to the recording area of 
10 another session of the at least one session adjacent to that 
session; 

the step of (b-1) comprises obtaining the total number 
of the at least one session based on the number of inversions 
of the value(s) of the flag(s); 

15 the step of (b-2) comprises obtaining a recording 

area of the at least one recording area located at the beginning 
of a last session of the at least one session, based on the 
flag having the last inverted value; 

a distinct number is provided to each of the at least 

20 one session; and 

the step of (b-3) comprises obtaining a number 
provided to a session of the at least one session to which 
the predetermined recording area belongs , based on the number 
of inversions of the value(s) of the flag(s) over the range 

25 from a recording area of the at least one recording area 
located at the beginning of a leading session of the at least 
one session to the predetermined recording area. 

17. A reproduction method according to claim 14, wherein: 
30 a distinct number is provided to each of the at least 

one recording area; 

the identification information is an array of a 
number (s) provided to a recording area of the at least one 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



recording area located at the beginning of each of the at 
least one session; 

the step of (b-1) comprises obtaining the total number 
of the number (s) contained in the array; 
5 the step of (b-2) comprises obtaining a recording 

area of the at least one recording area located at the beginning 
of a last session, based on a last number of the number(s) 
contained in the array; 

a distinct number is provided to each of the at least 
10 one session; and 

the step of (b-3) comprises obtaining a number - 
provided to a session of the at least one session to which 
the predetermined recording area belongs , based on the number 
of number(s) smaller than the number provided to the 
15 predetermined recording area contained in the array. 

18. A reproduction apparatus for a write-once recording 
medium, wherein the medium comprises: 

a management information area for recording 
20 management information for managing a recorded state; and 
a user data area for recording user data, 
wherein the user data area is configured to contain 
at least one recording area, 

at least one session is configured to contain at least 
25 one of the at least one recording area, 

the management information contains range 
information indicating a recording range of the at least 
one recording area and identification information for 
identifying the recording area located at a boundary of the 
30 session, 

the apparatus comprises: 

(a) a section for reading out the management 
information from the management information area; and 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



- 68 - 

(b ) a section for recognizing information regarding 
the at least one session based on the management information 
read out. 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 





WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



2/23 



CM 




WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



3/23 



FIG. 3 



(a) 



(b) 



(c) 



(d) 



(e) 



(f) 



(g) 



Data area 5 
Session #1 

Recording 
- area — 
#1 



Session #1 



Recording 
- area— ► 

#1 



Recording 
- area — 
#2 







Recording 


Recording 




area — ^ 
#1 


#2 


< 



Session #1 



Recording 

— area 

#3 



Session Si- 



Recording 
4 — area — ► 

#1 



Recording 
4 — area _> 

#2 



Recording 

— area 

#3 




P1 



P2 I P4 
P3 



T 

P5 



Session #1- 



Recording 
area — ► 

#1 



Recording 
« — area — ► 

#2 



Recording 

— area 

#3 





- 

Recording 
4 — area — ► 


Recording 
4 area ^ 




#1 


#2 


< 



Session #1- 



Recording 

— area 

#3 



Session #1 



Recording 
«— area — ► 

#1 



Recording 
4 — area — ► 

#2 



Session #2- 

Recording 

area 

#3 



Unrecorded 



Recorded 



20-padding£ 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



4/23 

FIG. 4 



10 12 Last recorded 

restart position 13 position 14 



(a) 



(b) 



(c) 



(d) 



(e) 



(f) 



(g) 



1 


#1 


1 


P1 


0 


0 


#2 


0 


0 


0 


0 


#3 


0 


0 


n 
u 


10 




12 

^-^ Start position 1 3 


Last recorded 
position 14 


2 


#1 


1 


P1 


0 


1 


#2 


0 


P3 


0 


0 


#3 


0 


0 


n 
u 


10 




12 

restart position 1 3 


1 o cf" mr»r»ma/i 
Ldbu itJCUi U6U 

i*Nf»ic>i , l~ir"\r*i 1 A. 

POOIUUI) 1 *T 


3 


#1 


1 


PI 


0 


2 


#2 


0 


P3 


0 


1 


#3 


0 


P5 


n 


10 

j 




r 


12 

-^Start position 1 3 


nocsrKnn 14 


3 


#1 


1 


P1 


P2 - 1 


2 


#2 


0 


P3 


P4 - 1 


1 


#3 . 


0 


P5 


n 
U 


10 




12 

/-^Start position 1 3 


Last recorded 
position 14 


3 


#1 


1 


PI 


P2 - 1 


2 


#2 


0 


P3 


P4 - 1 


U 




0 


P5 


n 

u 


1 □ 

J 




12 

^Start position 1 3 


1 • II 

Last recorded 
position 14 


3 


#1 


1 


P1 


P2 - 1 


0 


#2 


0 


P3 


P4 - 1 


0 


#3 


0 


P5 


0 


10 




12 

restart position 1 3 


Last recorded 
position 14 


3 


#1 


1 


P1 


P2 - 1 


0 


#2 


0 


P3 


P4 - 1 


0 


#3 


1 


P5 


0 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



FIG. 5 



5/23 



Data area 5 



Session #1 



Recording 
«— area — ► 

#1 



Recording 
r< — area — ► 
#2 



-Session #2 

Recording 

area — 

#3 



Session #1 



Recording 
«_ area — ► 

#1 



Recording 
« — area — ► 

#2 



Session #2- 



Recording 
k— area — ► 

#3 



Recording 
— area — 
#4 



Session #1 



Recording 
<— area — ► 

#1 



Recording 
< — area — ► 
#2 



Session #2- 



Recording 
< — area — ► 
#3 



Recording 
— area — 

#4 



f 

pi 



t 

P5 



Session #1 




P6 



Recording 
-area — ► 

#1 



Recording 
k— area — ► 
#2 



P7 



P8 



Session #2- 



Recording 
h — area — ► 
#3 



Recording 
area — 

#4 



Session #1 



Recording (Recording 
< — ^rp^ — ►H — area 
#2 



-area 
#1 



Session #2- 



Re cording 
< — area 
#3 



Recording 
area -> 

#4 



Recording 
— area — 
#5 



Session #1 



Recording 



_area_> 
#1 



Recording 



< area 

#2 



Session #2 — ► 



Recording 



^_area. 
#3 



Recording 



area 

#4 



Session #3- 
Recording 



area. 
#5 



Unrecorded 



Recorded 



20-padding £ 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



FIG. 6 



6/23 



(g ) 



(h) 



(i) 



(j) 



(k) 



(I) 



Last recorded 



,10 12 v 


Start position 1 3 


position 14 


3 


#1 


1 


P1 


P2 


0 


#2 


0 


P3 


P4 


0 


#3 


1 


P5 


0 




#4 


0 


0 


0 




#5 


0 


0 


0 










Last recorded 


/ 10 12 


\ .. 


Start position 1 3 


position 14 


4 


#1 


1 


l_ P1 


P2 - 1 


3 


#2 


0 


P3 


P4- 1 


0 


#3 


1 


P5 


0 




#4 


0 


P6 


0 




#5 


0 


0 


0 










Last recorded 


/ 10 12 


\ 


Start position 1 3 


position 14 


4 


#1 


1 


PI 


P2 - 1 


3 


#2 


0 


P3 


P4- 1 


0 


#3 


1 


P5 


P7- 1 




#4 


0 


P6 


P8 - 1 




#5 


0 


0 


0 










Last recorded 


7 10 12 


\ 


Start position 1 3 


position 14 


4 


#1 


1 


PI 


P2- 1 


0 


#2 


0 


P3 


P4 - 1 


0 


#3 


1 


P5 


P7 - 1 




#4 


0 


P6 


P8- 1 




#5 


0 


0 


0 










Last recorded 


/ 10 12 




Start position 1 3 


position 14 


5 


#1 


1 


PI 


P2 - 1 


0 


#2 


0 


P3 


P4- 1 


0 


#3 


1 


P5 


P7 - 1 




#4 


0 


P6 


P8 - 1 




#5 


0 


P8 


0 










Last recorded 


/10 12 


\ 


Start position 1 3 


position 14 


5 


#1 


1 


P1 


P2 - 1 


0 


#2 


0 


P3 


P4 - 1 


0 


#3 


1 


P5 


P7-1 




#4 


0 


P6 


P8 - 1 




#5 


1 


P8 


0 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



7/23 



LO 



CO 



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-o 

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SI 

c 
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c 

CD 

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-CO 

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(5 

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§ o 

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bfl F 

2 £ 

c o 

CO M= 




WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



8/23 



FIG. 8 



(i) 



.10 



15 



Start position 1 3 



Last recorded 
position 14 



5 


#1 


1 


P1 


P2- 1 


0 


#2 


1 


P3 


P4- 1 


0 


#3 


0 


P5 


P7 - 1 






#4 


0 


P6 


P8 - 1 




#5 


1 


P8 


0 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



9/23 



CO 




© 

© © 
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bJD O 
CO *+3 
C CO 

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co 

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co £ 

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WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



10/23 



FIG. 10 



(I) 



/ 10 


/1 8 


Start position 1 3 


Last recorded 
position 14 


5 


1 


#1 


P1 


P2 - 1 


0 


3 


#2 


P3 


P4 - 1 


0 


5 


#3 


P5 


P7 - 1 




0 


#4 


P6 


P8 - 1 




0 


#5 


P8 


0 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



FIG. 11 



11/23 



I/O bus 



170 



Optical disc apparatus 



100 



110 



Command processing section 



120 



Recording control section 



130 



Reproduction control section 



Management 
information 
storing buffer 



140 



Data buffer 



Recording management processing section 



160 



150 





^161 




162 




Management 
information 
reading section 


Management 
information 
updating section 








164 




Management 
information 
writing section 


163 


Management 
information 
position memory 











WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



12/23 

FIG. 12 



C Start ) 





f s 




Reading of management 
information 





RESERVE 
TRACK 




Addition of 
recording area 



WRITE 



CLOSE 
TRACK/SESSION 



1 



208 



Update of 
Last recorded position 




I 



SESSION 



Closure of 
recording area 



206 



Closure of 
session 



207 



Writing of 
management 
information 



i 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



FIG. 13 

( Start 



13/23 



D 



301 



Search for last recorded 
management information 



Reproduction of 
management information 



Search for true 
Last recorded position 



,164 




Management information | 
position memory 



140 



Management information 
storing buffer 



C 



End 



FIG. 14 



C Start ) 



401 



Recording of 
management information 



402 



Updating of position of 
management information 



164 



/ 




J Management information 
\ position memory 



140 



Management information 
storing buffer 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



FIG. 15 



14/23 



( Start ) 



Is there space in 
management information? 



Space (#m) 



501 



No space -i 




Over size 



503 

J. 



Report 
of error 



Size secured 

i 



Start position of recording area #m = 
incrementally writable position of 
recording area #(m-1) + S 



Add #m to entry number array 1 0 of 
incrementally writable recording areas 



504 



505 



( End J 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



FIG. 16 



15/23 




No subject 
recording - 



area 



Subject recording area (#m) 




603 



Report 
of error 



Start position of recording 
area #(m+1) is set to be 
incrementally writable 
position of #m 



606 



0-padding recording of data area from (the 
recording end position of #m) + 1 to the 
recording area start position of #(m+1) 



605 



Add #(m+1) to entry 
number array 1 0 of 
incrementally writable 
recording areas 



Remove #m from entry number array 
of incrementally writable recording areas 



607 



k- 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



16/23 

FIG. 17 

C~ Start ~) 




Session start flag of the 
outermost recording area = 1 



( End ) 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



17/23 



FIG. 18 



I/O bus 



A 



270 



Optical disc apparatus 



200 



210 



Command processing section 



230 



Reproduction control section 



Management 
information 
storing buffer 



240 



Data buffer 



Recording management processing section 



260 



250 



Management 
information 
reading section 



261 



Management 
information 
recognizing 
section 



265 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



18/23 



FIG. 19 



( Start D 



> 


,1201 

r s — ' 




Reading of management information 




READ i 




L __/1202 



DISC 
INFO. 



1 



Calculation of total 
number of sessions 



Determination of 
leading recording area 
in last session 




Other commands 
1210 



Processing of 
other commands 



1207 



1205 



Determination of 
other information 



Yes 



Determination 
of the designated 
recording area 

I 



1208 



Determination of a session to 
which the recording area belongs 



1209 



Determination of other information 



1211 



Data transfer 
I 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



19/23 



FIG. 20 



c 



Start 



1301 



(Recording area number) T=1 
(Session number) S=0 




F = flag value of recording area #T 




No 



1307 



Yes 



1305 



Add 1 to S 



1306 




(Number of a recording 

area at the 
beginning of a session) 

Tfirst = T 

i 



No 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



20/23 

FIG. 21 ( start ) 



> 


.1301 


(Recording area number) T=1 
(Session number) S=0 


> 


1401 

r s — / 



(Previous flag value)Fpre=0 




F = flag value of 
recording area #T 


> 


1402 




1403 



(Number of a 
recording area at the 
beginning of a session) 
Tfirst =T 



J 



Fpre = F 



1307 



Add 1 to T 



No 



v 



( End ) 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



21/23 



FIG. 22 



( Start ) 



1501 



(Session number) S=1 



1502 



Tfirst = number of a recording area 
at the beginning of session S 



1503 



Tnext = number of a recording 

area at the beginning of session (S+1) 



1504 




Yes 



1505 




Yes 1 506 
± / — 7 



Tfirst = Tnext 



1507 



Add 1 to S 



No 



No 



c 



End 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



22/23 

FIG. 23 



Byte 


contents 


0-3 


Start Sector Number of Border-out #1 


4 — 7 


Start Sector Number of Border-out #2 


8—11 


Start Sector Number of Border-out #3 






2036 - 2039 


Start Sector Number of Border-out #510 


2040 — 2043 


Start Sector Number of Border-out #51 1 


2044 - 2047 


Start Sector Number of Border-out #512 



FIG. 24 



Byte 


contents 


0 - 1 


Invisible/Incomplete RZone Number (Last RZone Number) 


2-3 


Current Appendable Reserved RZone Number 1 


4 — 5 


Current Appendable Reserved RZone Number 2 


6-15 


Reserved 


16 — 19 


Start Sector Number of RZone #1 


20 — 23 


Last Recorded Address of RZone #1 


24 — 27 


Start Sector Number of RZone #2 


28 — 31 


Last Recorded Address of RZone #2 






2032 — 2035 


Start Sector Number of RZone #253 


2036 — 2039 


Last Recorded Address of RZone #253 


2040 — 2043 


Start Sector Number of RZone #254 


2044 — 2047 


Last Recorded Address of RZone #254 



WO 2005/004154 



PCT/JP2004/010007 



23/23 



FIG. 25 



Byte 


contents 


0 ~ 3 


Start Sector Number of RZone #n 


4-7 


Last Recorded Address of RZone #n 


8 - 11 


Start Sector Number of RZone #(n+1) 


12 ~ 15 


Last Recorded Address of RZone #(n+1) 






2032 ~ 2035 


Start Sector Number of RZone #(n+254) 


2036 ~ 2039 


Last Recorded Address of RZone #(n+254) 


2040 ~ 2043 


Start Sector Number of RZone #(n+255) 


2044 — 2047 


Last Recorded Address of RZone #(n+255)