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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 

International Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
7 October 2004 (07.10.2004) 




PCT 



lllllllllllllllllll 

(10) International Publication Number 

WO 2004/086379 Al 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : G11B 7/0045 

(21) International Application Number: 

PCT/KR2004/000632 

(22) International Filing Date: 23 March 2004 (23.03.2004) 



(25) Filing Language: 



(26) Publication Language: 



English 



English 



(30) Priority Data: 

60/456,559 

10-2003-0018213 

60/473,894 

10-2003-0060545 

10-2004-0014247 



24 March 2003 (24.03.2003) US 

24 March 2003 (24.03.2003) KR 

29 May 2003 (29.05.2003) US 

30 August 2003 (30.08.2003) KR 

3 March 2004 (03.03.2004) KR 



(71) Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO. LTD. 
[KR/KR]; 416, Maetan-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, 
Gyeonggi-do 442-742 (KR). 

(72) Inventors: HWANG, Sung-Hee; 420-403 Jugong Apt., 
189, Gaepo-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-240 (KR). 
KO, Jung- Wan; 315-401 Cheongmyung Maeul 3-danji 
Daewoo Apt., 956-2 Yeongtong-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Su- 
won-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-737 (KR). LEE, Kyung-Geun; 
229-1006 Sibeomdanji Woosung Apt., 16, Seohyun 



1-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-050 
(KR). 

(74) Agent: LEE, Young-Pil; The Cheonghwa Building, 
1571-18 Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-874 (KR). 

(81) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of national protection available): AE, AG, AL, AM, 
AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, 
CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, R, 
GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, 
KG, KP, KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, 
MK, MN, MW, MX, MZ, NA, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, 
PL, PT, RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SY, TJ, TM, TN, 
TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

(84) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of regional protection available): ARIPO (BW, GH, 
GM, KE, LS, MW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), 
Eurasian (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), Euro- 
pean (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, 
GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI, SK, 
TR), OAPI (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, GQ, GW, 
ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Published: 

— with international search report 

For two-letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 
ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations" appearing at the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



(54) Title: METHOD OF OVERWRITING DATA IN WRITE-ONCE MEDIUM AND DATA RECORDING AND/OR REPRO- 
DUCING APPARATUS THEREFOR 



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O (57) Abstract: A method of overwriting data in a write-once information storage medium and a data recording and/or reproducing 
^ apparatus therefor. In the data overwriting method, a command to overwrite new data in a first area of the write-once information 
Q storage medium where data has already been recorded is issued. Then, the first area is considered as a defective area, and the new 
^ data is recorded in a second area. Thereafter, updated defect management information, including information about the locations of 
the first and second areas, is recorded in the write-once information storage medium. 



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METHOD OF OVERWRITING DATA IN WRITE-ONCE MEDIUM AND DATA 
RECORDING AND/OR REPRODUCING APPARATUS THEREFOR 

5 Technical Field 

The present invention relates to write-once information storage media, and 
more particularly, to a method of overwriting data in a write-once information storage 
medium and a data recording and/or reproducing apparatus for the write-once 
information storage medium. 

10 

Background Art 

Rewritable information storage media can be overwritten with new data in an 
area occupied with data. However, write-once information storage media can be 
written with information in a data-recordable area only once. Hence, data cannot be 

15 overwritten in write-once information storage media, and the already recorded data 
cannot be deleted or changed. 

Typically, a predetermined area in a user data area of an information storage 
medium is set to store a file system including a variety of information about data 
recorded on the information storage medium. 

20 In a rewritable information storage medium, an updated file system can be 

overwritten in a predetermined area occupied with an old file system, so that the area 
for storing file systems is fixed. On the other hand, write-once information storage 
media may not be overwritten. Accordingly, an updated file system must be written 
in an area other than the area where an old file system has already been recorded. 

25 Since a conventional data recording and/or reproducing apparatus is designed to 
read out a file system from only a fixed area of an information storage medium, the 
conventional system cannot read out a file system from write-once information 
storage media, in which the location where a file system is recorded varies. In other 
words, a reproduction compatibility problem may occur. Furthermore, since a 

30 conventional data recording and/or reproducing apparatus writes every updated file 
system in a different area of a write-once information storage medium, the 
conventional apparatus may spend much time in searching for a final file system. 

i 



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Disclosure of the Invention 

The present invention provides a method of overwriting data in a write-once 
information storage medium incapable of physical overwriting and a data recording 
5 and/or reproducing apparatus therefor. 

The present invention also provides a method of logically overwriting data in a 
write-once information storage medium incapable of physical overwriting so that data 
is easily updated and/or read out, and a data recording and/or reproducing apparatus 
therefor. 

10 According to an aspect of the present invention, a method of overwriting data 

in a write-once information storage medium comprises: receiving a command to 
overwrite new data in a first area of the write-once information storage medium 
where data has already been recorded; determining the first area as a defective area 
and recording the new data in a second area; and recording updated defect 

15 management information, including information about the locations of the first and 
second areas, in the write-once information storage medium. 

According to an aspect of the present invention, a method of overwriting data 
in a write-once information storage medium comprises: receiving a logical address to 
store new data from a host; determining whether a first area with a physical address 

20 on the write-once information storage medium corresponding to the logical address 
is occupied with data and, if the first area is occupied with data, determining the first 
area as a defective area and recording the new data in a second area with a physical 
address different from the physical address of the first area; and recording updated 
defect management information, including the physical addresses of the first and 

25 second areas, in the write-once information storage medium. 

According to another aspect of the present invention, a data recording and/or 
reproducing apparatus is provided, including a writer/reader and a controller. The 
writer/reader writes data to the write-once information storage medium or reads out 
the written data. When the controller receives a command to overwrite new data in 

30 a first area of the write-once information storage medium which is occupied with data, 
the controller determines the first area as a defective area and controls the 
writer/reader to record new data in a second area. The controller controls the 



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writer/reader to write updated defect management information, including information 
about the locations of the first and second areas, in the write-once information 
storage medium. 

According to another aspect of the present invention, a data recording and/or 
5 reproducing apparatus is provided, including a writer/reader and a controller. The 
writer/reader writes data to the write-once information storage medium or reads out 
the written data. The controller receives a logical address on the write-once 
information storage medium to store new data from a host, and determines whether 
a first area with a physical address on the write-once information storage medium 
10 corresponding to the logical address is occupied with data. If the first area is 
occupied with data, the controller determines the first area as a defective area and 
controls the reader/writer to write the new data in a second area with a physical 
address different than the physical address of the first area, and to write updated 
defect management information, including the physical addresses of the first and 
is second areas, to the write-once information storage medium. 

Additional aspects and/or advantages of the invention will be set forth in part 
in the description which follows and, in part, will be obvious from the description, or 
may be learned by practice of the invention. 

20 Brief Description of the Drawings 

The above and/or other features and advantages of the present invention will 
become more apparent and more readily appreciated from the following description 
of the embodiments taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which: 
FIG. 1 illustrates a data structure of a write-once information storage medium 
25 having a single recording layer, according to an embodiment of the present invention; 
FIG. 2 illustrates a data structure of a write-once information storage medium 
having a single recording layer, according to another embodiment of the present 
invention; 

FIGS. 3A and 3B illustrate a data structure of a write-once information storage 
30 medium having two recording layers, according to still another embodiment of the 
present invention; 



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FIGS. 4A and 4B illustrate directions in which spare areas are used according 
to the present invention; 

FIG. 5 is a block diagram of a data recording and/or reproducing apparatus 
according to an embodiment of the present invention; 
5 FIG. 6A through 6D illustrate a method of overwriting an updated file system in 

a write-once information storage medium 100, according to an embodiment of the 
present invention; 

FIG. 7 illustrates a defect list produced by a first logical overwriting according 
to the embodiment of FIGS. 6A through 6D; and 
10 FIG. 8 illustrates a defect list produced by a second logical overwriting 

according to the embodiment of FIGS. 6A through 6D. 

Best mode for carrying out the Invention 

Reference will now be made in detail to the embodiments of the present 
15 invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein 
like reference numerals refer to the like elements throughout. The embodiments 
are described below to explain the present invention by referring to the figures. 

FIG. 1 illustrates a structure of a write-once disk information storage medium 
100 having a single recording layer, according to an embodiment of the present 
20 invention. Referring to FIG. 1 , the storage medium 100 comprises a lead-in zone 
120, a data area 1 30 and a lead-out zone 140. An area 121 for recording both a 
temporary disc defect structure (TDDS) and a space bit map (SBM) is formed in the 
lead-in area 1 20. A separate area 1 22 for a temporary defect list (TDFL> is also 
formed in the lead-in area 120. Spare areas 1 and 2 (133 and 134, respectively) 
25 allocated to manage temporary disc defects are formed at the head and rear of the 
data area 130, respectively, to have predetermined sizes. 

Alternatively, the area 121 for both the TDDS and the SBM may be formed in 
at least one of the lead-out area 140 and the data area 130. 

Temporary disc defect management, spare areas allocated for temporary disc 
30 defect management, and an SBM will now be described in detail. Disc defect 

management denotes an operation in which, if a defect is generated in the user data 

4 



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recorded in a user data area 135, a new user data corresponding to the defective 
user data is recorded to compensate for the data lost due to the generated defect. 

Disc defect managements are roughly classified as a disc defect 
management using a linear replacement technique or a disc defect management 
5 using a slipping replacement technique. In the linear replacement technique, if a 
defect is generated in a user data area of a data area, the defective area is replaced 
by a non-defective spare area allocated in the data area. In a slipping replacement 
technique, a defective area is skipped, i.e., not used, and instead a non-defective 
area is used. 

10 The linear and slipping replacement techniques have been generally applied 

to information storage media that can record data several times in a random 
accessing method, such as, DVD-RAM/RW. 

As illustrated in FIG. 1, the write-once information storage medium 100 
according to an embodiment of the present invention also allocates the spare areas 

15 1 and 2 (133,1 34) in the data area 130 to perform defect management using the 
linear replacement technique. The spare areas 1 and 2 (133, 134) in the data area 
130 are allocated according to a command of a data recording and/or reproducing 
apparatus or a host when the write-once information storage medium is initialized to 
be used. 

20 When an information storage medium is loaded on a data recording and/or 

reproducing apparatus, the data recording and/or reproducing apparatus reads out 
information stored in lead-in and/or lead-out areas and ascertains how to manage 
the medium and how to record or reproduce data on the medium. As an amount of 
information recorded in the lead-in and/or lead-out areas increases, a time required 

25 for preparation for data recording or reproduction, after information storage medium 
loading, increases. To reduce the time required for data recording and/or 
reproduction preparation, the write-once information storage medium 100 of FIG. 1 
uses temporary management data, which includes TDDS and TDFL. 

ATDDS may include a TDDS identifier, an update counter, data about a 

30 location where a final TDFL has been recorded, data about a location where final 
disc and drive information has been recorded, data about a size of a spare area to 
replace a defective cluster, and the like. 



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ATDFL may include a TDFL identifier, an update counter, defect factors, a 
number of the defect factors, and the like. The defect factors include state data, 
data about locations of defective clusters, and data about locations of substitute 
clusters. The state data may indicate substitute data, types of the defective clusters, 
5 and the like. The types of defective clusters may include defective clusters 
necessary to be replaced, defective clusters unnecessary to be replaced, and 
clusters that are likely to be defective, and the like. 

The write-once information storage medium 100 of FIG. 1 stores an SBM 
which is "recording-status" data, which indicates whether data has been recorded in 
10 cluster units on the write-once information storage medium. The SBM is formed by 
allocating a bit value of 0 to occupied clusters and a bit value of 1 to unoccupied 
clusters. 

Accordingly, a data recording and/or reproducing apparatus can quickly check 
the recording status of the write-once information storage medium 100 of FIG. 1 by 
15 referring to a finally-updated SBM, thereby increasing an efficiency of the use of the 
medium. 

Although the write-once information storage medium 100 of FIG. 1 stores the 
SBM together with a TDDS in one cluster, the present invention is not limited by this 
embodiment. 

20 Since the SBM indicates whether data has been recorded in cluster units in 

the write-once information storage medium 100, the SBM must be finally updated 
after all other data including user data is recorded. 

FIG. 2 illustrates a structure of a write-once information storage medium 200 
having a single recording layer, according to another embodiment of the present 

25 invention. Referring to FIG. 2, the storage medium 200 comprises a lead-in zone 
220, a data area 230 and a lead-out zone 240. A temporary disc management area 
(TDMA) 221 and an SBM area 222 are separately allocated in the lead-in area 220. 
Spare areas 1 and 2 (233 and 234, respectively) used for managing temporary disc 
defects are allocated at the head and rear of the data area 230, respectively, to have 

30 predetermined sizes, and bound a user data area 235. 



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The TDMA area 221 is provided to store the TDDS and the TDFL and the 
SBM area 222 is provided to store the space bit map data in a similar manner as 
described above. 

FIGS. 3A and 3B illustrate a data structure of a write-once information storage 

5 medium 300 having first and second recording layers L0 and L1 , according to still 
another embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 3A illustrates a structure of the 
first recording layer L0, and FIG. 3B illustrates a structure of the second recording 
layer L1 . The structure of FIG. 3A may be considered as a structure of a write-once 
recording medium having a single layer. 

10 The data structure of the first recording layer L0 of FIG. 3A is similar to that of 

the write-once information storage medium 200 of FIG. 2 except that the SBM is 
stored in a temporary defect management area (TDMA) 321, together with a TDDS 
and a TDFL, instead of being stored in a separate area. The structure of the 
second recording layer L1 of FIG. 3B is the same as that of the first recording layer 

15 L0 of Fl G. 3A. An in ner area 0 (32 1 ) comprises the TDMA 32 1 of the first recording 
layer L0 and an inner area 1 (350) comprises a TDMA 351 of the second recording 
layer L1 . A data area 0 (330) comprises a spare area 1 (331 ), a user data area 331 
and a spare area 2 (332). A data area 1 (360) comprises a spare area 3 (363), a 
user data area 365 and a spare area 4 (364). 

20 FIGS. 4A and 4B illustrate directions in which spare areas (133, 134, 233, 234, 

331 , 332, 363, 364) are used according to the present invention. FIG. 4A refers to a 
write-once recording medium (e.g., 100, 200) having a single recording layer, and 
FIG. 4B refers to a write-once recording medium (e.g., 300) having two recording 
layers (i.e., first and second recording layers). Referring to FIGS. 4A and 4B, in the 

25 first recording layer (or the single recording layer), a data area excluding spare areas, 
that is, the user data area (135, 235, 333), is used in a direction 401 from an inner 
boundary 402 to an outer boundary 403 of the recording medium (100, 200, 300). 
In the second recording layer, the user data area 365 is used in a direction 405 from 
the outer boundary 403 to the inner boundary 402 of the recording medium 300. 

30 As shown in FIG. 4A, spare area 2 (135, 235, 333) is used in a direction 406 

which is opposite to the recording direction 401 of user data, that is, in the direction 
from the outer boundary 403 to the inner boundary 402 of the recording medium 

7 



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(1 00, 200, 300), so as to be easily extended. As shown in FIG. 4B, spare area 4 
(364) is used in a direction 407 from the inner boundary 402 to the outer boundary 
403 of the recording medium 300 so as to be easily extended. 

As described below, a write-once information storage medium according to 

5 the present invention may need a wider spare area than conventional information 
storage media in order to perform logical overwriting using defect management 
according to the present invention. Accordingly, it is preferable, but not necessary, 
to extend a spare area upon initialization of the information storage medium or during 
use of the information storage medium. In order that a spare area may be extended 

10 during the use of the information storage medium, data is preferably, but not 
necessarily, recorded in the spare area in a direction opposite to the recording 
direction of user data as illustrated in FIGS. 4A and 4B. 

Methods of overwriting data in the write-once information storage medium 
according to two embodiments of the present invention, will now be described with 

15 reference to the information storage medium 300 shown in FIGS. 3A and 3B. 

In an overwriting method according to an embodiment of the present 
invention, data may be overwritten in a write-once information storage medium 
incapable of being physically overwritten by using a logical overwriting technique. 
FIG. 5 is a block diagram of a data recording and/or reproducing apparatus 

20 500 according to an embodiment of the present invention. As illustrated in FIG. 5, 
the apparatus 500 comprises a writer/reader 510, a controller 520, and a memory 
530. The write-once information storage medium 300 is the same as the write-once 
information storage medium of FIG. 3A. 

The writer/reader 510 writes data to the write-once information storage 

25 medium 300 under control of the controller 520 and reads out the written data from 
the write-once information storage medium 300 to verify the same. 

Upon recording and/or reproducing of data on the write-once information 
storage medium 300, the controller 520 performs defect management using a TDMA 
that is included in the write-once information storage medium 300. 

30 The controller 520 follows a verifying-after-writing course, in which after data 

is recorded in predetermined units in the write-once information storage medium 300, 
the recorded data is verified to find defective data. Accordingly, the controller 520 



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records user data in predetermined units and verifies the recorded user data to 
identify defective data. The controller 520 produces a TDFL, which indicates the 
area where the defective data found during verification is stored, and a TDDS. The 
controller 520 stores the TDFL and the TDDS in the memory 530, collects a 

5 predetermined amount of TDFL and TDDS, and writes the collected TDFL and TDDS 
to the TDMA 321 allocated in the write-once information storage medium 300. 

The above-described overwriting of data in the write-once information storage 
medium 300 by the data recording and/or reproducing apparatus 500 of FIG. 5 will 
now be described in greater detail by taking an updated file system as an example of 

10 the data to be overwritten. 

If the data recording and/or reproducing apparatus performs defect 
management to record and/or reproduce data on a write-once information storage 
medium, a file system recorded on the write-once information storage medium may 
be updated by the defect management. In other words, the data recording and/or 

15 reproducing apparatus 500 receives data about an updated file system and a logical 
address of the write-once information storage medium to store the updated file 
system data from a host and then checks from the SBM whether a physical address 
corresponding to the logical address is occupied with data. The SBM is previously 
read out from the write-once information storage medium by the writer/reader 510 

20 and stored in the memory 530. If a determination is made that the physical address 
is occupied with data, the area with the physical address is determined as a 
defective area. Then, the updated file system is recorded in a spare area allocated 
to replace a defective area. 

If the data recording and/or reproducing apparatus 500 does not use such an 

25 SBM, the recording and/or reproducing apparatus 500 may decide an occupied area 
of data as a defective area through the verifying-after-writing method and then record 
the updated file system in the spare area. Thereafter, an updated TDDS and an 
updated TDFL are recorded in the TDMA 321 . 

FIGS. 6A through 6D illustrate a method of overwriting an updated file system 

30 in the write-once information storage medium 300. In the method described with 
reference to FIGS. 6A-6D, the first and second spare areas 331 and 332 are 
identified as SA1 and SA2 and are allocated at a head and a rear of the data area 

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(e.g., data area 330). Also, an area for storing a file system is allocated to the head 
of a user data area 335. 

In FIG. 6A, an initial file system FS #0 is recorded in an area ranging from the 
head of the user data area (335) to a predetermined location. In FIG. 6B, a first 

5 user data 601 is recorded next to the initial file system FS #0 in the user data area 
335, and then a first updated file system FS #1 produced after defect management is 
recorded in the second spare area SA2 according to the overwriting method of the 
above-described embodiment of the invention. In FIG. 6C, a second user data 602 
is recorded next to the first user data 601 in the user data area, and then a second 

10 updated file system FS #2 is recorded next to the first updated file system FS#1 . In 
FIG. 6D, updated second user data 603 is recorded next to the second user data 602 
in the user data area 335, and then a third updated file system FS #3 is recorded 
next to the second updated file system FS#2. 

The second spare area SA2 of FIG. 6D is extended from the second spare 

15 area SA2 shown in FIGS. 6A through 6C. In other words, when the second spare 
area SA2 of FIG. 6A is used up, the second spare area SA2 of FIG. 6A may be 
extended by re-initializing the write-once information storage medium 300. To easily 
extend a spare area such as the SA2, a direction in which the spare area is used, 
that is, a direction in which data is recorded in the spare area, is made opposite to a 

20 direction in which data is recorded in a user data area, e.g., 335. 

Even though the above-described logical overwriting continues on an identical 
logical sector number (LSN), the amount of data included in a defect list does not 
increase. For example, it is assumed that LSNs corresponding to physical sector 
numbers (PSNs) 100h to 1FFh in a user data area are OOh through FFh and that an 

25 initial file system is recorded in the PSNs 100h through 1 FFh. An LSN indicates a 
logical sector address, and a PSN indicates a physical sector address. 

In this case, as additional user data is recorded in the write-once information 
storage medium 300, a host issues a command to the data recording and/or 
reproduction apparatus 500 of FIG. 5 to overwrite a first updated file system in the 

30 LSNs OOh through FFh where the initial file system has been recorded. The data 
recording and/or reproduction apparatus determines sectors corresponding to the 
PSNs 100h through 1FFh as defective areas if it is determined using an SBM or 

10 



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through a verifying-after-writing process that the LSNs OOh through FFh are occupied 
with data. Then, the data recording and/or reproduction apparatus records the first 
updated file system (FS #1 ) in a spare area (e.g., SA2). FIG. 7 illustrates a defect 
list produced by a first logic overwriting in the method of FIGS. 6A through 6D. 
5 Referring to FIG. 7, the sectors corresponding to the PSNs 100h through 1 FFh where 
the initial file system is recorded are determined as defective sectors, and substitute 
sectors for the defective sectors are PSNs 11FFFh through 11F00h in a spare area 
(e.g., SA2). 

When a firstly-updated file system is recorded in the sectors LSN OOh through 
10 FFh by a first logic overwriting and then additional user data is recorded on a 

write-once information storage medium, a host commands the data recording and/or 
reproducing apparatus to overwrite a secondly-updated file system in the sectors 
LSN OOh through FFh. The data recording and/or reproduction apparatus 
determines the sectors corresponding to the PSNs 100h through 1FFh as defective 
15 areas when it is determined that the sectors corresponding to the LSNs OOh through 
FFh are occupied with data using an SBM or through a verifying-after-writing process. 
Then, the data recording and/or reproduction apparatus 500 records the 
secondly-updated file system (e.g., FS #2) in a spare area (e.g., SA2). 

FIG. 8 illustrates a defect list produced by a second logic overwriting in the 
20 method of FIGS. 6A through 6D. Referring to FIG. 8, the sectors corresponding to 
the PSNs 100h through 1FFh where the initial file system is recorded are determined 
as defective sectors, and substitute sectors for the defective sectors are PSNs 
H EFFh through 11E00h in a spare area (e.g., SA2). 

Compared with the defect lists of FIGS. 7 and 8, although a defect list is 
25 generated every time overwriting is performed on an identical LSN, only the PSN of 
the substitute sectors included in each of the defect lists is changed without an 
increase in the amount of data contained in each of the defect lists. 

A method of overwriting data in a write-once information storage medium, 
according to another embodiment of the present invention, will now be described. 
30 In this embodiment, the data overwriting is performed using a file system. 

To perform this overwriting, the data recording and/or reproducing apparatus 
500 of FIG. 5 receives a command from a host to reproduce data recorded in sectors 

n 



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LSN Oh through FFh, accesses a PSN, for example, 100h through 1FFh, 
corresponding to the LSN to read out data, and transmits the read-out data to the 
host. 

When the host tries to correct data received from the data recording and/or 
5 reproducing apparatus and then record the corrected data in the write-once 

information storage medium or to additionally record the data received from the data 
recording and/or reproducing apparatus in the write-once information storage 
medium 300, the data recording and/or reproducing apparatus 500 transmits an SBM, 
defect information, and the like to the host. The host distinguishes a 
10 data-recordable area from a data-unrecordable area in consideration of the state of a 
user data area (e.g. 333) to which data is logically allocated and the physical 
recording status of the user data area by referring to the SBM, the defect information, 
and the like, thereby selecting an overwritable area. In other words, a feature of the 
overwriting method according to this embodiment of the invention is that the host 
15 selects an overwritable area. 

Industrial Applicability 

The overwriting method according to the latter embodiment of the invention is 
suitable for write-once information storage media having a user data area with a 

20 large storage capacity. The overwriting method according to the former 

embodiment of the invention can prevent a consumption of a user data area by 
overwriting new data in a spare area for use in defect management. 

As described above, in the present invention, overwriting can be performed in 
write-once information storage media, which is incapable of physical overwriting, by 

25 using a logical overwriting technique. Thus, data recorded in write-once information 
storage media may be changed or updated. Also, when data required to be 
recorded in a fixed area of a write-once information storage medium, for example, a 
file system, is updated, the updated file system is recorded in a physical address 
different from the physical address where the original file system has been recorded, 

30 but the logical address where the updated file system is recorded is the same as that 
where the original file system has been recorded. Thus, the host recognizes that 

12 



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PCT/KR2004/000632 



the file system is always recorded in a fixed area, thus easily accessing and 
reproducing the file system. 

Although a few embodiments of the present invention have been shown and 
described, it would be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes may be 
5 made in this embodiment without departing from the principles and spirit of the 
invention, the scope of which is defined in the claims and their equivalents. 



13 



WO 2004/086379 



PCT/KR2004/000632 



CLAIMS 

1 . A method of overwriting data in a write-once information storage medium, 
the method comprising: 

5 receiving a command to overwrite new data in a first area of the write-once 

information storage medium where data has already been recorded; 

determining the first area as a defective area and recording the new data in a 
second area; and 

recording updated defect management information, including information about 
10 the locations of the first and second areas, in the write-once information storage 
medium. 

2. The method of claim 1 , wherein the recording of the new data comprises 
determining whether the first area is occupied with data, using recording-status 

15 information that represents the recording status of the write-once information storage 
medium by distinguishing occupied areas of data from unoccupied areas. 

3. The method of claim 2, wherein the recording-status information is a bit 
map produced by allocating different bit values to occupied and unoccupied clusters of 

20 the write-once information storage medium. 

4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the recording of the new data comprises 
writing the new data to the first area and thereafter verifying the written new data, and 
determining the first area as a defective area according to a result of the verification of 

25 the new data. 

5. The method of claim 1 , wherein data previously recorded in the first area 
is a previous file system, and the new data to be recorded in the second area is an 
updated file system. 

30 

6. The method of claim 5, wherein the second area is included in a spare 
area allocated in a data area of the write-once information storage medium. 



14 



WO 2004/086379 PCT/KR2004/000632 

7. The method of claim 6, wherein information about the updated file system 
is recorded in the spare area in a direction opposite to a direction in which user data is 
recorded. 

5 8. A method of overwriting data in a write-once information storage medium, 

the method comprising: 

receiving a logical address to store new data from a host; 

determining whether a first area with a physical address on the write-once 
information storage medium corresponding to the logical address is occupied with data 
10 and, if the first area is occupied with data, determining the first area as a defective area 
and recording the new data in a second area with a physical address different than the 
physical address of the first area; and 

recording updated defect management information, including the physical 
addresses of the first and second areas, in the write-once information storage medium. 

15 

9. The method of claim 8, wherein the recording of the new data comprises 
determining whether the first area is occupied with data, using recording-status 
information that represents the recording status of the write-once information storage 
medium by distinguishing occupied areas of data from unoccupied areas. 

20 

10. The method of claim 9, wherein the recording-status information is a bit 
map produced by allocating different bit values to occupied and unoccupied clusters of 
the write-once information storage medium. 

25 11. The method of claim 8, wherein the recording of the new data comprises 

writing the new data to the first area and thereafter verifying the written new data, and 
determining the first area as a defective area according to a result of the verification of 
the new data. 

30 12. The method of claim 8, wherein data previously recorded in the first area 

is a previous file system, and the new data to be recorded in the second area is an 
updated file system. 



15 



WO 2004/086379 



PCT7KR2004/000632 



13. A data recording and/or reproducing apparatus comprising: 

a writer/reader which writes data to the write-once information storage medium 
or reads out the written data; and 

a controller which determines as a defective area a first area of the write-once 
5 information storage medium which is occupied with data, when receiving a command to 
overwrite the new data in the first area, and controls the writer/reader to write new data 
in a second area and to write updated defect management information, including 
information about the locations of the first and second areas, in the write-once 
information storage medium. 

10 

14. The apparatus of claim 13, further comprising a memory which stores 
recording-status information that represents the recording status of the write-once 
information storage medium by distinguishing occupied areas of data from unoccupied 
areas, 

15 wherein the controller determines whether the first area is occupied with data, 

using the recording-status information. 



1 5. The apparatus of claim 14, wherein the recording-status information is a 
bit map produced by allocating different bit values to occupied and unoccupied clusters 
20 of the write-once information storage medium. 



16. The apparatus of claim 1 3, wherein the controller controls the 
writer/reader to write the new data to the first area, read out the new data from the first 
area to verify the new data, and to determine the first area as a defective area 

25 according to a result of the verification of the new data. 

17. The apparatus of claim 13, wherein data previously recorded in the first 
area is a previous file system, and the new data to be recorded in the second area is an 
updated file system. 

30 

18. The apparatus of claim 17, wherein the second area is included in a spare 
area allocated in a data area of the write-once information storage medium. 



16 



WO 2004/086379 



PCT/KR2004/000632 



19. The apparatus of claim 1 8, wherein the controller controls the 
writer/reader to write information about the updated file system to the spare area in a 
direction opposite to a direction in which user data is recorded. 

20. A data recording and/or reproducing apparatus comprising: 

a writer/reader which writes data to a write-once information storage medium 
and/or reads out the written data; and 
a controller which: 

receives a logical address from a host to store new data on the write-once 
information storage medium, 

determines whether a first area with a physical address on the write-once 
information storage medium corresponding to the logical address is occupied with data, 
and 

if the first area is occupied with data, determines the first area as a 
defective area and controls the reader/writer to write the new data in a second area with 
a physical address different from the physical address of the first area, and to write 
updated defect management information, including the physical addresses of the first 
and second areas, to the write-once information storage medium. 

21 . The apparatus of claim 20, further comprising a memory which stores 
recording-status information that represents the recording status of the write-once 
information storage medium by distinguishing occupied areas of data from unoccupied 
areas, 

wherein the controller determines whether the first area is occupied with data, 
using the recording-status information. 

22. The apparatus of claim 21 , wherein the recording-status information is a 
bit map produced by allocating different bit values to occupied and unoccupied clusters 
of the write-once information storage medium. 



17 



WO 2004/086379 PCT/KR2004/000632 

23. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein the controller controls the 
writer/reader to write the new data to the first area, read out the new data from the first 
area to verify the new data, and consider the first area as a defective area according to 
a result of the verification of the new data. 

5 

24. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein data previously recorded in the first 
area is a previous file system, and the new data to be recorded In the second area is an 
updated file system. 

10 25. A method of managing data on a write once information storage medium, 

the method comprising: 

designating a data area and storing first data in a first portion of the data area; 
storing an initial file structure which identifies a location of the stored first data in 
a second portion of the data area; 
15 storing second data in the first portion of the data area; and 

storing an updated file structure in a third portion of the data area which identifies 
a location of the first and second data in the first data area. 

26. The method of claim 25, wherein a direction of storing the first and second 
20 data on the storage medium is opposite a direction of storing the initial file structure and 

the updated file structure on the storage medium. 

27. A method of managing data on a write once information storage medium, 
the method comprising: 

25 designating a first portion of a data area of the storage medium as a user data 

area and storing first data in the user data area; 

storing an initial file structure which identifies a physical address of the stored 
first data in a second portion of the data area; 

determining whether second data is intended as update data for the stored first 

30 data; 

designating the physical address of the first data as a defective area and storing 
the designated physical address of the first data in a defect management list, if the 
second data is intended as update data for the first data; 



18 



WO 2004/086379 



PCT/KR2004/000632 



using the defect management list to exclude the physical address of the first data 
as an address for storing any data; 

storing the second data in the user data area; and 

storing an updated file structure which identifies a physical address of the stored 
second data in a third portion of the data area. 

28. The method of claim 27, wherein a direction of storing the first and second 
data on the storage medium is opposite a direction of storing the initial file structure and 
the updated file structure on the storage medium. 

29. The method of claim 27, wherein: 

the storing of the initial file structure comprises storing a logical address in 
correspondence with the physical address of the first data; and 

the storing of the updated file structure comprises storing the logical address in 
correspondence with the physical address of the second data so that the second data is 
accessible using a same logical address as the logical address of the first data. 

30. A method of updating data recorded on a once-write information storage 
medium using a host, the method comprising: 

obtaining first data, a system bit map and defect information from the information 
storage medium, the defect information including an identification of areas of the 
storage medium which are presently occupied with the first data or with other data; 

updating the first data using the host; 

selecting a data-recordable area of the information storage medium based on 
the system bit map and the defect information using the host; and 

transmitting the updated data to the information storage medium along with 
instructions to record the updated data in the selected data-recordable area. 



19 



WO 2004/086379 



PCT/KR2004/000632 



1/7 

FIG. 1 



100 







■ ■ ■ 






DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 2) 






RECORDING CONDITION TEST AREA 


120 — 


LEADJN 
AREA 


AREA FOR TEMPORARY DISC DEFECT STRUCTURE 
(TDDS) AND SPACE BIT MAP (SBM) 






TEMPORARY DEFECT LIST (TDFL) AREA 






DISC AND DRIVE INFORMATION AREA 






DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 1 ) 






m m m 






SPARE AREA 1 


130 — 


DATA 
AREA 


USER DATA AREA 






SPARE AREA 2 






mum 




LEADJDUT 
AREA 


DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 4) 


140 — 


BMW 






DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 3) 






■ ■ ■ 



■121 
122 



•133 
135 
134 



WO 2004/086379 



PCT/KR2004/000632 



2/7 

FIG. 2 



220 — 



230 — 



240 — 



200 



LEADJN 
AREA 


m m m 


DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 2) 


RECORDING CONDITION TEST AREA 


TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA 


SPACE BIT MAP AREA 


DISC AND DRIVE INFORMATION AREA 


DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 1) 


■ ■ ■ 


DATA 
AREA 


SPARE AREA 1 


USER DATA AREA 


SPARE AREA 2 


LEAD.OUT 
AREA 


m m m 


DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 4) 


■ ■ ■ 


DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 3) 


■ • ■ 



WO 2004/086379 



PCT/KR2004/000632 



3/7 

FIG. 3A 



320 — 



330 — 



340 — 



300 



L0 





■ ■ a 






DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 2) 




INNER 
AREA 
0 


RECORDING CONDITION TEST AREA 


• 


TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (TDMA) 






DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 1) 






■ m ■ 




DATA i 
AREA 


SPARE AREA 1 




USER DATA AREA 




0 


SPARE AREA 2 






■ ■ ■ 




OUTER 
AREA 


DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 3) 




■ ■ ■ 




0 


DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 4) 






m m m 





—321 



WO 2004/086379 



PCT/KR2004/000632 



4/7 

FIG. 3B 

/3 oo 

A1 



350 — 



INNER 
AREA 
1 



360 — 



DATA 
AREA 
1 



370 — 



OUTER 
AREA 
1 



DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 2) 



RECORDING CONDITION TEST AREA 



TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (TDMA) 



DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 1) 



SPARE AREA 3 



USER DATA AREA 



SPARE AREA 4 



DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 3) 



DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA (DMA 4) 



— 351 



—363 
—365 
—364 



WO 2004/086379 



PCT/KR2004/000632 



5/7 

FIG. 4A 





- — DATA AREA 0 - 


406 


INNER 
AREAO 


SPARE 
AREA 1 




SPARE/ 
AREA 2 


OUTER 
AREAO 



T 

402 



401 (135,235,333) 



T 
403 



FIG. 4B 



DATA AREA 1 



406 



INNER 
AREAO 



SPARE 
AREA 1 



SPARE, 
AREA 2 



OUTER 
AREAO 



INNER 
AREA 1 



SPARE 



'AREA 4 

I / I , . 

402 407 364 365 405 



SPARE 
AREA 3 



OUTER 
AREA 1 



333 



332 403 



FIG. 5 



510 



WRITER/READER 




(100,200, 300) 



520 



500 



CONTROLLER 



530 



MEMORY 



WO 2004/086379 



PCT/KR2004/000632 



6/7 



3 

CO 



a 

< 



< 
LU 

CC 

< 

I 



CO 



11 







3CM 




LU 



PQ 
CD 



O 
CD 



Q 

CD 



t-H 



»— i 



t— 1 
Pn 



WO 2004/086379 



PCT/KR2004/000632 



7/7 

FIG. 7 



PSN OF DEFECTIVE SECTOR 



PSN OF SUBSTITUTE SECTOR 



100h 


1 1 FFFh 


101h 


1 1 FFEh 


102h 


1 1 FFDh 


• • • 


1FDh 


1 1 F01 h 


1FFh 


11F00h 



FIG. 8 



PSN OF DEFECTIVE SECTOR 



PSN OF SUBSTITUTE SECTOR 



100h 


1 1 EFFh 


101h 


1 1 EFEh 


102h 


1 1 EFDh 


• • • 


1FDh 


1 1 E01 h 


1FFh 


11E00h 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



International application No. 
PCT/KR2004/000632 



A. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 
DPC7 G11B 7/0045 

According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 



FIELDS SEARCHED 



Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 
G06F G11B 



Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 



Electronic data base consulted during the intertnational search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) 



C DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category* 



Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



US 5940853(Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.) 17 August 1999 
see Abstract, Col.14 line 37 - Col.25 line 32, all Claims, Fig.2 - Fig.8 

US 6138203(Sony Corporation) 24 October 2000 
see Abstract, all Claims 

US 5946277(Pioneer Electronic Corporation) 3 1 August 1999 
see Abstract, all Claims 

WO 0046805 Al(Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.) 10 August 2000 
see the whole document 

KR 2000-0015037 A(LG Electronics Inc.) 15 March 2000 
see page 4 - page 5, Claims 1, 7, 9, Fig.5 



1,2, 13, 14 
8, 9,20,21 
1, 13, 14 

1,8,13, 20,25,27 
30 



I | Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box C. 



jx~| See patent family annex. 



* Special categories of cited documents: 

"A n document defining the general state of the art which is not considered 

to be of particular relevance 
M E" earlier application or patent but published on or after the international 

filing date 

"L" document which may throw doubts on priority claim(s) or which is 
cited to establish the publication date of citation or other 
special reason (as specified) 

M 0" document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or other 
means 

n P" document published prior to the international filing date but later 
than the priority date claimed 



"T" later document published after the international filing date or priority 

date and not in conflict with the application but cited to understand 

the principle or theory underlying the invention 
"X" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered novel or cannot be considered to involve an inventive 

step when the document is taken alone 
W Y" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered to involve an inventive step when the document is 

combined with one or more other such documents,such combination 

being obvious to a person skilled in the art 

document member of the same patent family 



Date of the actual completion of the international search 
17 JUNE 2004 (17.06.2004) 



Date of mailing of the international search report 
18 JUNE 2004 (18.06.2004) 



N ame a nd mailing address of the ISA/KR 

Jf^^k Korean Intellectual Property Office 

■ 25^3 920 Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejcon 302-701, 

m Republic of Korea 

Facsimile No. 82-42-472-7140 



Authorized officer 

LEE, BoHyung 
Telephone No. 82-42-481-5701 




Form PmVTSA/^in /WnnH chpftfi fTarmnrv 7()(\d\ 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 

Information on patent family members 



International application No. 
PCT/KR2004/000632 



Patent document 
cited in search report 



Publication 
date 



Patent family 
member(s) 



Publication 
date 



uo oy^fuooo 


17 HQ 1QQQ 

\f . uo . i yyy 


ID HQ OQ.QQQ/I AO 

Jr Uy-doooo4 A2 


04,11.1997 


Uo 0 IOO£Uo 


oa m onnn 


lffU 9^/002 Al 


A c Ac A nm 

15.05.1997 


IR f^QAROU 
UO DoHOc./ 1 


^1 flP. 1QQQ 

o i .uo. jyyy 


ID 1fi—9nQQO/1 AO 
Jr lU~£Uooy4 fxd 


0/\ 08. 1998 






on i lyuY fy a 


19.08.1998 


WO 0046805 A1 


10.08.2000 


US 20030191980 A1 


09.10.2003 






lib oooilrV 81 


17.06.2003 






id onoAccn do 
Jr oUyUobO od 


25.09.2000 






id onnnooo DO 

JF 3090322 B2 


18.09.2000 






id oadaooh do 

Jr 3090321 od 


18.09,2000 






ID QAAA.OOA DO 

Jr 3090320 d2 


4 O AO fVW\ 

18.09.2000 






id oonnoin do 

Jr 0090319 B2 


18.09.2000 






id onnnoio do 
Jr 3090318 B2 


18.09.2000 






ID QAOAO i 7 DO 

Jr 309031a od 


18.09.2000 






id oaaao^,^ do 
JP 3090310 Be 


4 A AA fV\A\rt 

18.09.2000 






tr 1 23947b Al 


11.09.2002 






EP 1026681 B1 


18.09.2002 


KR 2000-0015037 A 


15.03.2000 


KR 2000-0014100 A 


06.03.2000 






KR 2000-0010473 A 


15.02.2000 






W0 0007186 A1 


10.02.2000 






US 20040005140 A1 


08.01.2004 






US 20040004919 A1 


08.01.2004 






US 6625094 


23.09.2003 






JP 16-119014 A2 


15.04.2004 






JP 16-005942 A2 


08.01.2004 






JP 14-521787 T2 


16.07.2002 






EP 1347453 A2 


24.09.2003 






EP 1345223 A2 


17.09.2003 






EP 1027705 Al 


16.08.2000 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (patent family annex) (January 2004)