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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property Organization 

International Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
31 October 2002 (31,10.2002) 




PCT 



IIIIUIIIIIIIIIIIIIIlllllllll 

(10) International Publication Number 

WO 02/086888 A2 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : G11B 20/12 

(21) International Application Number: PCT/IB02/01386 

(22) International Filing Date: 18 April 2002 (18.04.2002) 

(25) Filing Language: English 

(26) Publication Language: English 



(30) Priority Data: 

01201480.9 
02075805.8 



24 April 2001 (24.04.2001) EP 
28 February 2002 (28.02.2002) EP 



(71) Applicant: KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS ELECTRON- 
ICS N.V. [NL/NL]; Groenewoudseweg 1, NL-5621 BA 
Eindhoven (NL). 

(72) Inventors: WEIJENBERGH, Paulus, G. P.; Prof. Holst- 
laan 6, NL-5656 AA Eindhoven (NL). NIJBOER, Jakob, 
G.; Prof. Holsdaan 6, NL-5656 AA Eindhoven (NL). 



(74) Agent: DEGUELLE, Wilhelmus, H., G.; Internationaal 
Octrooibureau B.V., Prof. Holstlaan 6, NL-5656 AA Eind- 
hoven (NL). 

(81) Designated States (national): AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, 
AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, 
CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, 
GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KP, KR, KZ, LC, 
LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, MK, MN, MW, 
MX, MZ, NO, NZ, OM, PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, SD, SE, SG, 
SI, SK, SL, TJ, TM, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, UZ, VN, 
YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

(84) Designated States (regional): ARIPO patent (GH, GM, 
KE, LS, MW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), 
Eurasian patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
European patent (AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, 
GB, GR, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE, TR), OAPI patent 
(BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, 
NE, SN, TD, TG). 



[Continued on next page] 



(54) Title: DEVICE AND METHOD FOR RECORDING INFORMATION 



< 

00 
00 
00 

00 

o 



Physical Sector 
of ECC block 


Main Data 
byte position 


Description 


number 
of bytes 


0 


Doto03 


Content Descriptor 




0 


04t0D7 


Unknown Content Descriptor 
Actions 


4 


0 


D8toD39 


Drive ID 


32 


0 


D40toO4t 


Session number 


2 


0 


D42tfl063 


Reserved and set to (00) 


22 


0 


D 64 toOgs 


Disc ID On Lead-In Zone only) 


32 


0 


D 9 6to0 12 7 


Application Dependent 


32 


0 


Dl2flto D143 


SES itemO 


16 


0 








0 


Dl28+ix16toD 143+ M6 


SES item! 


16 


0 








0 


01Z8+(N-1)xl6toDl43+(N.1)xl6 


SES item N-1 


16 


0 


Dl28+N*l6toD'2 047 


Reserved and set to (00) 


1 920-Nx16 


1 to 15 


DQto02Q47 


Reserved and set to (00) 


15x2 048 



(57) Abstract: A method and device for recording multiple information volumes on a record carrier, usually called multi -session 
recording, is described. The device has a mapping unit (31) for opening a session by recording intro data comprising a first buffer 
zone at the beginning of the start zone of the volume, and a session control block (SDCB) in a remaining blank area of the start zone 
after the buffer zone. The session control block comprises volume data indicative of the status and the contents of the session. The 
session is closed by recording session control data indicating that the information volume is closed in the remaining blank area, and 
closure data after the last user information recorded in the data zone for constituting the end zone of the volume. Further the device 
has a detecting unit (32) for retrieving the session control block from said start zone. 



wo 02/086888 A2 i uiii mi mi it mm urn mi i ii in iiiii iiiii iiiii inn mil mi limn mi mi mi 



Published: For two-letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 

— without international search report and to be republished ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations " appearing at the begin- 
upon receipt of that report ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

1 

Device and method for recording information 



The invention relates to a device for recording information in at least one 
information volume in a track in a recordable area on a record carrier, which information 
volume comprises a start zone, a data zone and an end zone, which device comprises 
recording means for recording marks representing the information and control means for 
5 recording and retrieving the information volume. 

The invention further relates to a method of recording information in at least 
one information volume in a track in a recordable area on a record carrier, which information 
volume comprises a start zone, a data zone and an end zone, which method comprises 
recording marks representing the information and control data constituting the information 
10 volume. 

The invention further relates to a record carrier having a track in a recordable 
area for recording at least one information volume, which information volume comprises a 
start zone, a data zone and an end zone, the track comprising marks representing the 
information and control data constituting the information volume. 

15 

A device and method for recording information signals on a record carrier is 
known from US 5,341,356 (PHN13661). The information is encoded in information block 
comprising data words and error correction words for correcting errors within the information 

20 block. The device comprises recording means for recording marks representing the 

information blocks. The information of at least one information block is modulated to a 
modulated signal and recorded in the track at predefined locations indicated by preformed 
track position information. The device records the information formatted in successive 
volumes, also called sessions, in a multi-session layout. Each volume has a start zone, also 

25 called lead-in, a data zone, and an end zone, also called lead-out. The device has control 
means for recording and retrieving position data indicative of the position of the recorded 
information volumes. In particular in the lead-out a pointer is recorded for locating the start 
zone of the session. Further the lead-in contains information about the position of the lead- 
out of that session, and hence of the start zone of the next session (if any). For locating a 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

2 

specific session the device may locate the last recorded session by detecting the border of the 
unrecorded area and reading the last lead-out, and follow the chain of sessions to the start of 
the recorded area. Alternatively the device may read the lead-in of the first session, and 
follow the chain of sessions by reading the lead-in of the consecutive volumes. Further 
session information, e.g. about the status and contents of the sessions, may be stored in a 
separate area outside the user data zone. The time for accessing a specific session is 
determined by the amount of time required for jumping along said chain of sessions and 
retrieving the session information. In a write once type of record carrier like CD-R the 
position data cannot be overwritten. 

It is an object of the invention to provide a more flexible system for recording 
the session information. 

For this purpose, the device as described in the opening paragraph is 
characterized in that the control means comprise session means for opening a session by 
recording intro data comprising a first buffer zone at the beginning of the start zone of the 
volume, and at least one session control block in a remaining blank area of the start zone after 
the buffer zone, the session control block comprising volume data indicative of the status and 
the contents of the session, and for closing the session for constituting the information 
volume by recording session control data indicating that the information volume is closed in 
the remaining blank area, and closure data after the last information recorded in the data zone 
for constituting the end zone of the volume, and detecting means for retrieving the session 
control block from said start zone. The method as described in the opening paragraph is 
characterized in that the method comprises opening a session by recording intro data 
comprising a first buffer zone at the beginning of the start zone of the volume, and at least 
one session control block in a remaining blank area of the start zone after the buffer zone, the 
session control block comprising volume data indicative of the status and the contents of the 
session, and closing the session for constituting the information volume by recording session 
control data indicating that the information volume is closed in the remaining blank area, and 
closure data after the last information recorded in the data zone for constituting the end zone 
of the volume. The record carrier as described in the opening paragraph is characterized in 
that the record carrier comprises an opened session having intro data comprising a first buffer 
zone at the beginning of the start zone of the volume, and at least one session control block in 
a remaining blank area of the start zone after the buffer zone, the session control block 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

3 

comprising volume data indicative of the status and the contents of the session, and a closed 
session constituting the information volume comprising session control data indicating that 
the information volume is closed in the start zone, and closure data after the last information 
recorded in the data zone for constituting the end zone of the volume. Recording session 

5 control blocks in the start zone of the session has the advantage that for the currently open 
session information for accessing that session and previous sessions is available at a location 
close to the location where user data is to be recorded. Keeping a blank area in the start zone 
allows further updates by writing further session control blocks during use of that session. 
When the session is to be closed, the remaining blank areas are recorded, which achieves 

10 compatibility with read-only type devices, which cannot cope with unrecorded areas. In 
addition recording session control blocks in the start zone of the session is advantageous in 
that such session information is available for read-only devices. Such a read-only device 
usually cannot access any information zone located before the lead-in zone defined for read- 
only type of record carriers. 

1 5 The invention is based on the following recognition. The inventors have seen 

that a substantial amount of the response time of a recording device to a recording request is 
due to the amount time required for retrieving position data of the session to be accessed. 
Subsequently the inventors have seen that the response time can be decreased by recording 
the status and contents information about the session in the start zone of the session itself. 

20 In an embodiment of the device the session control block comprises at least 

one previous session item, the previous session item comprising a start and an end address of 
a previously recorded information volume. This is advantageous for locating recorded data in 
previous sessions. In particular this applies to deleted data, e.g. files in a computer 
application, which have been deleted by removing their references from the user content 

25 management data, e.g. according to an UDF file system. When such a deleted file has to be 
recovered, the device can access the earlier recorded sessions for retrieving earlier versions of 
the content management data, which still have the reference data of the deleted data. 



30 These and other aspects of the invention will be apparent from and elucidated 

further with reference to the embodiments described by way of example in the following 
description and with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which 

Fig. la shows a record carrier (top view), 

Fig. lb shows a record carrier (cross section), 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

4 

Fig. 2 shows a recording device, 

Fig. 3 shows the alignment of ADIP and information blocks, 

Fig. 4 shows the ADIP word structure, 

Fig. 5 shows the ADIP error correction structure, 

Fig. 6 shows the ADIP modulation rules, 

Fig. 7 shows a table of Physical disc information, 

Fig. 8 shows leading edge correction times, 

Fig. 9 shows the record carrier sector numbering, 

Fig. 10 shows a layout of a recorded single-session disc, 

Fig. 1 1 shows the Inner Drive Area, 

Fig. 12 shows a format of a Session Map block, 

Fig. 13 shows a session item, 

Fig. 14 shows Recorded Area Indicators, 

Fig. 15 shows the Lead-in Zone, 

Fig. 16 shows the structure of a Control Data Block, 

Fig. 17 shows the Lead-Out zone, 

Fig. 1 8 shows the Outer Drive Area, 

Fig. 19 shows the layout of the Information Zone of a Multi-session disc, 
Fig. 20 shows details of opened Session n, 
Fig. 21 shows the general format of a Disc Control Block (DCB), 
Fig. 22 shows the Format of the Session DCB (SDCB), 
Fig. 23 shows a Reserved Area item, and 
Fig. 24 shows a Previous Session item. 
Corresponding elements in different Figures have identical reference numerals. 



Figure la shows a disc-shaped record carrier 1 1 having a track 9 and a central 
hole 10. The track 9, being the position of the series of (to be) recorded marks representing 
information, is arranged in accordance with a spiral pattern of turns constituting substantially 
parallel tracks on an information layer. The record carrier may be optically readable, called 
an optical disc, and has an information layer of a recordable type. Examples of a recordable 
disc are the CD-R and CD-RW, and writable versions of DVD, such as DVD+RW. Further 
details about the DVD disc can be found in reference: ECMA-267: 120 mm DVD - Read- 
only Disc - (1997). The information is represented on the information layer by recording 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

5 

optically detectable marks along the track, e.g. crystalline or amorphous marks in phase 
change material. The track 9 on the recordable type of record carrier is indicated by a pre- 
embossed track structure provided during manufacture of the blank record carrier. The track 
structure is constituted, for example, by a pregroove 14 which enables a read/write head to 

5 follow the track during scanning. The track structure comprises position information, e.g. 
addresses, for indication the location of units of information, usually called information 
blocks. The position information includes specific synchronizing marks for locating the start 
of such information blocks. The position information is encoded in frames of modulated 
wobbles as described below. 

10 Figure lb is a cross-section taken along the line b-b of the record carrier 1 1 of 

the recordable type, in which a transparent substrate 15 is provided with a recording layer 16 
and a protective layer 17. The protective layer 17 may comprise a further substrate layer, for 
example as in DVD where the recording layer is at a 0.6 mm substrate and a further substrate 
of 0.6 mm is bonded to the back side thereof. The pregroove 14 may be implemented as an 

1 5 indentation or an elevation of the substrate 1 5 material, or as a material property deviating 
from its surroundings. 

The record carrier 1 1 is intended for carrying information represented by 
modulated signals comprising frames. A frame is a predefined amount of data preceded by a 
synchronizing signal. Usually such frames also comprise error correction codes, e.g. parity 

20 words. A number of such frames constitute an information block, the information block 
comprising further error correction words. The information block is the smallest recordable 
unit from which information can be reliably retrieved. An example of such a recording 
system is known from the DVD system, in which the frames carry 172 data words and 10 
parity words, and 208 frames constitute an ECC block. 

25 In an embodiment of the record carrier the track comprises multi-session 

information according to the format described below with reference to Figures 19 to 24. 

Figure 2 shows a recording device for writing information on a record carrier 
1 1 of a type which is writable or re-writable, for example CD-R or CD-RW. The device is 
provided with recording means for scanning the track on the record carrier which means 

30 include a drive unit 21 for rotating the record carrier 1 1 , a head 22, a positioning unit 25 for 
coarsely positioning the head 22 in the radial direction on the track, and a control unit 20. 
The head 22 comprises an optical system of a known type for generating a radiation beam 24 
guided through optical elements focused to a radiation spot 23 on a track of the information 
layer of the record carrier. The radiation beam 24 is generated by a radiation source, e.g. a 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

6 

laser diode. The head further comprises (not shown) a focusing actuator for moving the focus 
of the radiation beam 24 along the optical axis of said beam and a tracking actuator for fine 
positioning of the spot 23 in a radial direction on the center of the track. The tracking actuator 
may comprise coils for radially moving an optical element or may alternatively be arranged 

5 for changing the angle of a reflecting element. For writing information the radiation is 
controlled to create optically detectable marks in the recording layer. For reading, the 
radiation reflected by the information layer is detected by a detector of a usual type, e.g. a 
four-quadrant diode, in the head 22 for generating a read signal and further detector signals 
including a tracking error and a focusing error signal for controlling said tracking and 

1 0 focusing actuators. The read signal is processed by read processing unit 30 of a usual type 
including a demodulator, deformatter and output unit to retrieve the information. Hence 
retrieving means for reading information include the drive unit 21, the head 22, the 
positioning unit 25 and the read processing unit 30. The device comprises write processing 
means for processing the input information to generate a write signal to drive the head 22, 

1 5 which means comprise an input unit 27, and modulator means comprising a formatter 28 and 
a modulator 29. The control unit 20 controls the recording and retrieving of information and 
may be arranged for receiving commands from a user or from a host computer. The control 
unit 20 is connected via control lines 26, e.g. a system bus, to said input unit 27, formatter 28 
and modulator 29, to the read processing unit 30, and to the drive unit 21, and the positioning 

20 unit 25. The control unit 20 comprises control circuitry, for example a microprocessor, a 

program memory and control gates, for performing the procedures and functions according to 
the invention as described below with reference to Figures 3 to 24. The control unit 20 may 
also be implemented as a state machine in logic circuits. During the writing operation, marks 
representing the information are formed on the record carrier. The marks may be in any 

25 optically readable form, e.g. in the form of areas with a reflection coefficient different from 
their surroundings, obtained when recording in materials such as dye, alloy or phase change 
material, or in the form of areas with a direction of magnetization different from their 
surroundings, obtained when recording in magneto-optical material. Writing and reading of 
information for recording on optical disks and usable formatting, error correcting and channel 

30 coding rules are well-known in the art, e.g. from the CD system. The marks can be formed by 
means of the spot 23 generated on the recording layer via the beam 24 of electromagnetic 
radiation, usually from a laser diode. User information is presented on the input unit 27, 
which may comprise of compression means for input signals such as analog audio and/or 
video, or digital uncompressed audio/video. Suitable compression means are described for 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

7 

audio in WO 98/16014-A1 (PHN 16452), and for video in the MPEG2 standard. The input 
unit 27 processes the audio and/or video to unit of information, which are passed to the 
formatter 28 for adding control data and formatting the data according to the recording 
format (as described below), e.g. by adding error correction codes (ECC) and/or interleaving. 

5 For computer applications units of information may be interfaced to the formatter 28 directly. 
The formatted data from the output of the formatter 28 is passed to the modulation unit 29, 
which comprises for example a channel coder, for generating a modulated signal which 
drives the head 22. Further the modulation unit 29 comprises synchronizing means for 
including synchronizing patterns in the modulated signal. The formatted units presented to 

1 0 the input of the modulation unit 29 comprise address information and are written to 

corresponding addressable locations on the record carrier under the control of control unit 20. 
The control unit 20 is arranged for recording and retrieving position data indicative of the 
position of the recorded information volumes. The device has session means comprising a 
mapping unit 3 1 coupled to the control unit 20 and detection means comprising a detection 

15 unit 32 coupled to the control unit 20 and the mapping unit 3 1 . The mapping unit 3 1 has an 
output 33 coupled to the formatter 28 for writing session control blocks in the start zone of 
the current session as described below. The detection unit 32 has an input 34 coupled to the 
read unit 30 for detecting the session control blocks from the session start zone. The detection 
unit 32 is coupled to the mapping unit 3 1 for transferring data from detected session control 

20 blocks for generating new session control blocks including the existing data. The mapping 
unit 31 is arranged for determining volume data about the status and contents of the 
information volume, also called session, in particular the start and end address of previous 
closed sessions and information about reserved areas in the session. First a session is opened 
by writing an intro zone including the volume data in a session control block including 

25 session items (SES), then user data can be written by a number of writing commands, and 
finally the session is closed by filling all remaining blank areas and recording further session 
control blocks and a closure part at the end zone of that volume, as described below. 

In an embodiment of the device the mapping unit is arranged for recording 
previous session items in the session control block. A previous session item is included for 

30 each closed session as described below with reference to Figures 22 and 24. 

A practical embodiment of the system for recording information according to 
the invention is as follows. The system specifies the mechanical, physical and optical 
characteristics of a 120 mm recordable optical discs with capacities of 4,7 Gbytes and 9,4 
Gbytes. It specifies the quality of the recorded and unrecorded signals, the format of the data 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

8 

and the recording method, thereby allowing for information interchange by means of such 
discs. The data can be written once and read many times using a non-reversible method. 
These discs are identified as DVD+R. The track shape is as follows. The recordable area, 
called the Information Zone, shall contain tracks formed from a single spiral groove. Each 

5 track shall form a 360° turn of a continuous spiral. Recordings shall be made in the groove. 
The tracks in the Information Zone contain a phase modulated sinusoidal deviation from the 
nominal centrelines, called wobble, which contains addressing information called Address- 
in-Pregroove or ADIP. The tracks shall be continuous in the Information Zone. The groove 
tracks shall start at a radius of 22,0 mm max. and end at a radius of 58,50 mm min. The track 

1 0 path shall be a continuous spiral from the inside (beginning of the Lead-in Zone) to the 

outside (end of the Lead-out Zone) when the disc rotates counter-clockwise as viewed from 
the optical head. The track pitch is the distance measured between the average track 
centrelines of adjacent tracks, measured in the radial direction. The track pitch shall be 0,74 
urn ± 0,03 um. The track pitch averaged over the Information Zone shall be 0,74 urn ± 0,01 

15 um. The wobble of the tracks is a sinusoidal deviation from the nominal centrelines, with a 
wavelength of 4,265 6 um ± 0,045 0 um (equivalent to 32 Channel bits). The Total Harmonic 
Distortion (THD) of the oscillator for generating the wobble sine wave shall be < -40 dB. The 
wobble is phase modulated by inverting wobble cycles. The information contained in the 
wobble modulation is called Address-in-Pregroove or ADIP. 

20 Figure 3 shows the alignment of ADIP and information blocks. The 

information blocks 37 to be recorded onto the disc must be aligned with the ADIP 
information 39 modulated in the wobble 38. It is shown that 93 wobbles correspond to 2 
Sync Frames, which are the start of an information block. Of each 93 wobbles, 8 wobbles are 
phase modulated with ADIP information. Further 1 wobble equals 32 Channel bits (= 32T) 

25 and one ADIP unit = 8 modulated wobbles per 2 Sync Frames. 

Figure 4 shows the ADIP word structure. 52 ADIP units are grouped into one 
ADIP word each. This means that one ADIP word corresponds to 4 x 13 x 2 Sync Frames = 
4 Physical Sectors. Each ADIP word consists of: 1 ADIP sync unit + 51 ADIP data units. The 
ADIP sync unit = 4 inverted wobbles for word sync + 4 monotone wobbles. The ADIP data 

30 unit = 1 inverted wobble for bit sync + 3 monotone wobbles + 4 wobbles representing one 
data bit. (seeO) 

The information contained in the data bits of an ADIP word is as follows: 
bit 1 : this bit is reserved and shall be set to ZERO. 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

9 

bit 2 to 23 : these 22 bits contain a Physical Address. Data bit 2 is the most significant bit 
(MSB) and data bit 23 is the least significant bit (LSB). The addresses increase by one for 
each next ADIP word. The first address in the Information Zone shall be such that Physical 

Address (00C000) is located at radius 24 »°$2 mm . 

5 bit 24 to 3 1 : these 8 bits contain auxiliary information about the disc, e.g. recording control 
information. In the Data Zone and the Lead-out Zone of the disc the auxiliary bytes shall be 
set to (00). In the Lead-in Zone of the disc the auxiliary bytes shall be used as follows: 
Bit 24 to 31 from 256 consecutive ADIP words shall form one ADIP Aux Frame with 256 
bytes of information. The first byte of each ADIP Aux Frame shall be located in an ADIP 

10 word with a Physical Address that is a multiple of 256 (Physical Address = (xxxxOO)). The 
contents of the 256 bytes are defined in Figure 7. 

bit 32 to 5 1 : these 20 bits contain error correction parities for the ADIP information. 

Figure 5 shows the ADIP error correction structure. For the ADIP error 
correction the ADIP data bits are grouped into 4-bit nibbles. The mapping of the data bits 
1 5 into the nibble array is defined in Figure 5. Bit 0 is a dummy bit, which shall be considered as 
set to ZERO for the error corrector. 

A nibble-based RS (13,8,6) code is constructed, of which the 5 parity nibbles N 8 to Nu, are 
defined by the remainder polynomial R(x): 



12 

R(*) = £ N < *' 2 "' = K*)* 5 modG PA (*) 

i=8 



20 where 



I(x) = X N »* 7 '' 
/=o 

4 

G PA (x) = Y\(x+a k ) 

a is the primitive root 00 1 0 of the primitive polynomial P(x) = x 4 + x + 1 
All bits of the 5 parity nibbles N 8 to Ni 2 shall be inverted before recording. 
25 Figure 6 shows the ADIP modulation rules. The ADIP units are modulated by 

inverting some of the 8 wobble cycles. Figure 6a shows Modulation of the ADIP word sync, 
Figure 6b shows Modulation of an ADIP ZERO bit, and Figure 6c shows Modulation of an 
ADIP ONE bit, wherein 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

10 

- PW is a positive wobble, which starts moving towards the inside of the disc. 

- NW is a negative wobble, which starts moving towards the outside of the disc. 

- all monotone wobbles are indicated as PWs. 

Figure 7 shows a table of Physical disc information. The 
5 Physical disc information is encoded in ADIP as described above. This information shall 
comprise the 256 bytes shown in Figure 7. It contains disc information and values used for 
the Optimum Power Control (OPC) algorithm to determine optimum laser power levels for 
writing. The information is copied into a recordable zone called the Control Data during 
initialization of the disc. The data contents are 
1 0 Byte 0 - Disc Category and Version Number 
Bits b7 to b4 shall specify the Disc Category, 

they shall be set to 1010, indicating a DVD+R disc. 
Bits b3 to bO shall specify the Version Number, 

they shall be set to 0000 indicating the version 
1 5 Byte 1 - Disc size and maximum transfer rate 
Bits b7 to b4 shall specify the disc size, 

they shall be set to 0000, indicating a 120 mm disc 
Bits b3 to bO shall specify the maximum read transfer rate, 

they shall be set to 1 1 1 1 indicating no maximum read transfer rate is specified 
20 Byte 2 - Disc structure 

Bit b7 to b4 shall be set to 0000 

Bits b3 to bO shall specify the type of the recording layer(s): 

they shall be set to 0010, indicating a write-once recording layer. 
Byte 3 - Recording density 
25 Bits b7 to b4 shall specify the average Channel bit length in the Information Zone, 

they shall be set to 0000, indicating 0,133 ^m 
Bits b3 to bO shall specify the average track pitch, 

they shall be set to 0000, indicating an average track pitch of 0,74 \im 
Bytes 4 to 15 - Data Zone allocation 
30 Byte 4 shall be set to (00). 

Bytes 5 to 7 shall be set to (030000) to specify PSN 196.608 of the first Physical Sector of 

the Data Zone 
Byte 8 shall be set to (00). 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

11 

Bytes 9 to 1 1 shall be set to (26053F) to specify PSN 2.491.71 1 as the last possible Physical 

Sector of the Data Zone. 
Bytes 1 2 to 1 5 shall be set to (00) 
Byte 16 - (00) shall be set to (00). 
5 Bytes 17 to 18 Reserved. These bytes are reserved and shall be set to (00). 

Bytes 19 to 26 Disc Manufacturer ID. These 8 bytes shall identify the manufacturer of the 

disc. Trailing bytes not used shall be set to (00). 
Bytes 27 to 29 - Media type ID. Disc manufacturers can have different types of media, which 

shall be specified by these 3 bytes. The specific type of disc is denoted in this 
10 field. 

Byte 30 - Product revision number. This byte shall identify the product revision number in 

binary notation. All discs with the same Disc Manufacturer ID and the same 

Product ID, regardless of Product revision numbers, must have the same 

recording properties (only minor differences are allowed: Product revision 
1 5 numbers shall be irrelevant for recorders). If not used this byte shall be set to 

(00) 

Byte 3 1 number of Physical format information bytes in use. This byte forms one 8-bit 
binary number indicating the number of bytes actually in use for Physical 
format information. It shall be set to (36) indicating that only the first 54 bytes 
20 of the Physical format information are used. 

Byte 32 - Reference recording velocity. This byte indicates the lowest possible recording 
velocity of the disc, which is also referred to as the Reference velocity, as a 
number n such that 

n = 10 x v re f (n rounded off to an integral value) 
25 It shall be set to (23) indicating a Reference writing speed of 3,49 m/s. 

3yt e 33 _ Maximum recording velocity. This byte indicates the highest possible recording 
velocity of the disc, as a number n such that 

n = 1 0 x v re f (n rounded off to an integral value) 
It shall be set to (54) indicating a maximum writing speed of 8,44 m/s. 
30 Byte 34 Wavelength AJND. This byte shall specify the wavelength in nanometers of 

the laser with which the optimum write parameters in the following bytes have 
been determined, as a number n such that 
n = Wavelength -600 
Byte 35 Reserved 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

12 

Byte 36 Maximum read power, Pr at reference velocity. This byte shall specify the 

maximum read power Pr in milliwatts at the reference velocity as a number n 
such that 

n = 20x(Pr-0,7) 

5 Byte 37 PIND at reference velocity. PIND is the starting value for the determination of 
Ppo used in the OPC algorithm. This byte shall specify the indicative value 
PIND of Ppo in milliwatts at the reference velocity as a number n such that 
n = 20 x (Pind - 5) 

Byte 3 8 Ptarget at reference velocity. This byte shall specify the target value for p, parget 
10 at the reference velocity used in the OPC algorithm as a number n such that 

n = 10 X Ptarget 

Byte 39 Maximum read power, Pr at maximum velocity. This byte shall specify the 

maximum read power Pr in milliwatts at the maximum velocity as a number n 
such that 

15 n = 20x(Pr-0,7) 

Byte 40 Pind at maximum velocity. Pind is the starting value for the determination of 
Ppo used in the OPC algorithm. This byte shall specify the indicative value 
PIND of Ppo in milliwatts at the maximum velocity as a number n such that 
n = 20x(PIND-5) 

20 Byte 4 1 ptarget at maximum velocity. This byte shall specify the target value for p, Ptarget 
at the maximum velocity used in the OPC algorithm as a number n such that 

n = 10 X ptarget 

Byte 42 Ttop (£4) first pulse duration for current mark £4 at reference velocity. 

This byte shall specify the duration of the first pulse of the multi pulse train 
25 when the current mark is a 4T or greater mark for recording at reference 

velocity. The value is expressed in fractions of the channel bit clock period as 
a number n such that 

T, °p/ • 

n=16x / T w and 4<n<40 

Byte 43 Ttop (=3) first pulse duration for current mark =3 at reference velocity. This 
30 byte shall specify the duration of the first pulse of the multi pulse train when 

the current mark is a 3T mark for recording at reference velocity. The value is 
expressed in fractions of the channel bit clock period as a number n such that 



WO 02/086888 PCTYIB02/01386 

13 

Tt °p/ 

n=16x / T w and 4£n£40 

Byte 44 Tmp multi pulse duration at reference velocity. This byte shall specify the 

duration of the 2nd pulse through the 2nd to last pulse of the multi pulse train 
for recording at reference velocity. The value is expressed in fractions of the 
5 channel bit clock period as a number n such that 

Tm p/ 

n=16x / T w and 4<n<16 

Byte 45 Tip last pulse duration at reference velocity. This byte shall specify the 

duration of the last pulse of the multi pulse train for recording at reference 
velocity. The value is expressed in fractions of the channel bit clock period as 
1 0 a number n such that 

V 

n=16x / T w and 4<n<24 

Byte 46 dTtop first pulse lead time at reference velocity. This byte shall specify the 
lead time of the first pulse of the multi pulse train relative to the trailing edge 
of the second channel bit of the data pulse for recording at reference velocity. 
1 5 The value is expressed in fractions of the channel bit clock period as a number 

n such that 

dTtop/ 

n=16x / Tw and 0<n<24 

Byte 47 dTle 1st pulse leading edge correction for previous space =3 at reference 

velocity. Bit 7 to bit 4 of this byte shall specify the leading edge correction for 
20 the 1 st pulse of the multi pulse train when the previous space was a 3T space 

for recording at reference velocity. The value is expressed in fractions of the 

channel bit clock period according to Figure 8. 
Byte 48 Ttop (>4) first pulse duration for current mark >4 at maximum velocity. This 

byte shall specify the duration of the first pulse of the multi pulse train when 
25 the current mark is a 4T or greater mark for recording at maximum velocity. 

The value is expressed in fractions of the channel bit clock period as a number 

n such that 

T top/ 

n= 16 x / T w and 4£n<40 

Byte 49 Ttop (3) first pulse duration for current mark =3 at maximum velocity. This 
30 byte shall specify the duration of the first pulse of the multi pulse train when 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

14 

the current mark is a 3T mark for recording at maximum velocity. The value is 
expressed in fractions of the channel bit clock period as a number n such that 

T top/ 

n=16x / T w and 4£n^40 

Byte 50 Tmp multi pulse duration at maximum velocity. This byte shall specify the 

duration of the 2nd pulse through the 2nd to last pulse of the multi pulse train 
for recording at maximum velocity. The value is expressed in fractions of the 
channel bit clock period as a number n such that 

T mp/ 

n= 16 x / T w and 4<n<16 

Byte 5 1 Tip last pulse duration at maximum velocity. This byte shall specify the 

duration of the last pulse of the multi pulse train for recording at maximum 
velocity. The value is expressed in fractions of the channel bit clock period as 
a number n such that 

V 

n= 16 x / T w and 4<n<24 

Byte 52 dTtop first pulse lead time at maximum velocity. This byte shall specify the 
lead time of the first pulse of the multi pulse train relative to the trailing edge 
of the second channel bit of the data pulse for recording at maximum velocity. 
The value is expressed in fractions of the channel bit clock period as a number 
n such that 



dT top / 

n=16x / Tw and 0£n£24 



Byte 53 dTle first pulse leading edge correction for previous space =3 at maximum 

velocity. Bit 7 to bit 4 of this byte shall specify the leading edge correction for 
the 1st pulse of the multi pulse train when the previous space was a 3T space 
for recording at maximum velocity. The value is expressed in fractions of the 
channel bit clock period according to Figure 8. 

Bytes 54 to 255 Reserved - All (00). These bytes shall be set to all (00). 

Figure 8 shows leading edge correction times. The parameter is called dT Je and 

is described above with Figure 7 in byte 47. Bit 3 to bit 0 of this byte shall be set to 0000. Bit 

combinations not specified shall not be used. 

Figure 9 shows the record carrier sector numbering. The recordable area is 

called information zone. The Information Zone shall contain all information on the disc 

relevant for data interchange. The Information Zone may contain one or more sessions. Each 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

15 

session shall be divided in three parts: a Lead-in/Intro Zone, a Data Zone and a Lead- 
out/Closure Zone. In double-sided discs there is one Information Zone per side. The Data 
Zones are intended for the recording of User Data. The Lead-in Zone contains control 
information. The Lead-out Zone allows for a continuous smooth lead-out and also contains 
control information. The Inner and Outer Drive Areas are meant for disc testing. A 
description is given for a Single-session disc. In such a disc, the Lead-in Zone, the Data Zone 
and the Lead-out Zone constitute the recordable area in which the information is recorded 
using a non-reversible effect. The layout of a Multi-session disc is defined later. 

Figure 10 shows a layout of a recorded single-session disc. The Information 
Zone of single-sided and of each side of double-sided discs are sub-divided in an Inner drive 
area, a Lead-in, a Data zone, a Lead-Out area and an Outer Drive area. The radii are indicated 
for the Zones by nominal values of the centre of the first (or last) track of the Zone. Physical 
Sector Numbers (PSNs) are shown of the first Physical Sector of the each Zone. The Data 
zone shall have a first PSN (030000). The PSNs increase by 1 for each next Physical Sector 
in the whole Information Zone. 

Figure 1 1 shows the Inner Drive Area. The Inner Drive Area is the innermost 
zone of the disc which is used by the drive for performing disc tests and OPC algorithms. The 
Physical Sector Number of the first and last Physical Sector of each part is indicated in 
hexadecimal and decimal notation and the number of Physical Sectors in each part are 
indicated in decimal notation. The following subdivision is shown: 

- Initial Zone: This Zone shall remain blank. 

- Inner Disc Test Zone: 16384 Physical Sectors reserved for drive testing and OPC. 

- Inner Disc Count Zone: 4096 Physical Sectors reserved for counting the number of OPC 
algorithms performed in the Inner Disc Test Zone. Whenever an ECC Block or part of it in 
the Inner Disc Test Zone has been recorded, the ECC Block shall be flagged by recording 4 
Physical Sectors in the Inner Disc Count Zone. 

- Inner Disc Administration Zone: 4096 Physical Sectors to be used for optional drive 
specific information. The first 16 physical sectors of this Zone shall be filled with all Main 
Data set to (00). The Inner Disc Administration Zone contains drive information, e.g. a drive 
identification (Drive ID) and data as defined by the drive manufacturer. 

- Session map Zone: 4096 Physical Sectors to store information about the locations of 
Sessions and recordings on the disc. The first 16 physical sectors of this Zone shall be filled 
with all Main Data set to (00). This Zone consists of 2 parts: 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

16 

part 1: consists of 191 ECC Blocks called Session Map blocks (SEM) to be used to store the 
locations of all Closed Sessions, 

part 2: consists of 1024 Physical Sectors, grouped in units of 4 sectors, where each unit 
corresponds to one ADIP word. These units shall be used as Recorded Area Indicators. 

5 Figure 12 shows a format of a Session Map block (SEM). Whenever a Session 

is closed, the next ECC Block in the Session map Zone, immediately following the last SEM, 
shall be recorded with the locations of all Closed Sessions. The first ECC Block in the 
Session map Zone has to be used as a run-in for the second ECC Block. If all 191 blocks 
have been used, additional Sessions still can be added, however the drive will have to apply a 

10 search procedure to find the additional Sessions. The Figure shows the following contents for 
the SEM for each physical sector: 

Physical Sector 0 / bytes DO to D3 - Content Descriptor. These bytes identify the Session 
DCB and shall be set to (544F4300), representing the characters "SDC" and 
the version number 0. 
1 5 Physical Sector 0 / byte D4 to D7 - Reserved. To be set to (00) 

Physical Sector 0 / byte D8 to D39 - Drive ID. These bytes shall contain the drive ID. 

Physical Sector 0 / byte D40 to D63 - Reserved. To be set to (00) 

Physical Sector 0 / byte D64 to D2047 - Session items. These bytes are grouped in units of 
16 bytes each. Each unit of 16 bytes can contain a Session item according to 
20 Figure 1 3. All unused bytes shall be set to (00). 

Figure 13 shows a session item. The Session Map block (SEM) shall contain a 

Session item for each Closed Session on the disc. The Session items shall be ordered with 

increasing numbers and addresses, as follows: 

byte B0 to B2: these 3 bytes identify the item type and shall be set to (53.53.4E), representing 
25 the characters "SSN". 

byte B3: this byte shall specify the sequence number of the Session specified in this item. 

byte B4 to B7: these 4 bytes shall specify the PSN of the first Physical Sector in the Data 
Zone of the Session specified in this item. 

byte B8 to Bl 1 : these 4 bytes shall specify the PSN of the last Physical Sector in the Data 
30 Zone of the Session specified in this item. 

byte B12 to B15: these 4 bytes are reserved and shall be set to (00). 

Figure 14 shows Recorded Area Indicators. The last part of the SEM zone for 

recording SEM blocks 61 is shown schematically. A mapping area 60 is located at the end of 

the SEM zone. The next zone, i.e. the Guard zone 62, is shown at the right end. The mapping 



WO 02/086888 PCT7IB02/01386 

17 

area is recorded starting at the highest address. A recorded part 64 indicates the recorded 
regions of the recordable area, and the unrecorded part 63 indicates unrecorded regions. To 
speed up the access of the disc, the recorder needs to know in which region of the disc the 
last written ECC Block can be found. For this purpose the mapping area is defined, based on 
recorded areas with the size of 4 Physical Sectors, each area corresponding to one ADIP 
word. These areas shall be recorded with random EFM signals. No gaps are allowed between 
recorded ADIP words. 1024 Physical Sectors have been reserved for this purpose, allowing 
to divide the disc into maximum 256 regions. The Recorded Area Indicators shall be used 
from the outer side of the SEM Zone towards the inner side of the SEM Zone. By means of 
an "HF-detection" the recorder can find the location of the start of the Recorded Area 
Indicators and determine the region in which the last recorded ECC Block can be found. Each 
region of 640 ECC Blocks between PSN = (030000) and PSN = (26053F) corresponds to one 
Recorded Area Indicator. All regions up to and including the last recorded ECC Block shall 
be indicated by their Recorded Area Indicator. In mathematical form: if the first Recorded 
Area Indicator is composed of the Physical Sectors with PSNRAI to PSNRAI + 3, than the 
last recorded ECC Block can be found between: 
PSN = {(02A47C)-(PSNRAI)}x(A0)+(030000) and 
PSN = {(02A47C)-(PSNRAI)}x(A0)+(030280) 
or in decimal notation: 

PSN = {173180-PSNRAI}xl60+196608 and 
PSN = {173180-PSNRAI}xl60+197248 

Figure 15 shows the Lead-in Zone. The Lead-in Zone is located at the inner 
side of the Information Zone. A maiden disc does not have any data recorded in the Lead-in 
Zone. After finalization of the disc or closing of the first Session, the Lead-in Zone shall be 
recorded as described below. Figure 15 shows the zones and the addresses, as follows 
(notation like in Figure 1 1): 

- Guard Zone 1 : The Guard Zone is used to create a minimum amount of Lead-in Zone 
required for compatibility. This zone shall contain 14.848 Physical Sectors, all filled with 
Main Data set to (00). 

- Reserved Zone 1 : 4096 Physical Sectors are reserved and shall be set (00). 

- Reserved Zone 2: 64 Physical Sectors are reserved and shall be set (00). 

- Inner Disc Identification Zone: 256 Physical Sectors reserved for information agreed upon 
by the data interchange parties. Each set of 16 Physical Sectors from one ECC Block is either 
a Disc Control Block (DCB) or recorded with all (00) Main Data. Each ECC Block in this 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

18 

Zone following one recorded with all (00) Main Data shall also be recorded with all (00) 
Main Data. 

- Reserved Zone 3: 64 Physical Sectors are reserved and shall be set (00). 

- Reference Code Zone: The recorded Reference Code Zone shall consist of the 32 Physical 
5 Sectors from two ECC Blocks which generate a specific Channel bit pattern on the disc. This 

shall be achieved by setting to (AC) all 2048 Main Data bytes of each corresponding Data 
Frame. Moreover, no scrambling shall be applied to these Data Frames, except to the first 
160 Main Data bytes of the first Data Frame of each ECC Block. 

- Buffer Zone 1 : This Zone shall consist of 480 Physical Sectors from 30 ECC Blocks. The 
10 Main Data of the Data Frames in this Zone shall be set to all (00). 

- Control Data Zone: This Zone shall consist of 3072 Physical Sectors from 192 ECC Blocks. 
The content of the 16 Physical Sectors of each ECC Block is repeated 192 times. 

- Buffer Zone 2: This recorded Zone shall consist of 512 Physical Sectors from 32 ECC 
Blocks. The Main Data of the Data Frames in this Zone shall be set to all (00). 

1 5 Figure 1 6 shows the structure of a Control Data Block. The first 2048 bytes 

constitute Physical format information, of which the contents are given in Figure 7. The next 
2048 bytes constitute Disc Manufacturing information. The last 14x 2048 bytes are available 
for Content Provider Information. In an embodiment of the device the 28.672 bytes of 
Content Provider Information are set to zero (00). Data received from a host be is blocked 

20 and not recorded in this field. This prevents data of a confidential nature, for example 

decryption keys for decoding video of a DVD video disc, to be recorded here. The Physical 
format information contains disc and format information. The information in bytes 0 to 255 
shall be copied from the ADIP auxiliary data during finalization of the disc or closing of the 
first Session, and shall reflect the actual status of the disc or first Session (e.g. the actual end 

25 of the Data Zone). All 256 bytes have the same definitions and contents as the Physical Disc 
information defined in Figure 7, except the following bytes: 
Byte 0 - Disc Category and Version Number 

Bits b7 to b4 shall specify the Disc Category indicating a DVD+R disc. 
Bits b3 to bO shall specify the Version Number of the System Description 
30 Byte 1 - Disc size and maximum transfer rate 
Bits b7 to b4 shall specify the disc size, 

they shall be set to 0000, indicating a 120 mm disc 
Bits b3 to bO shall specify the maximum read transfer rate. 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

19 

These bits may be set to one of the following values, depending on the 

maximum read-out speed needed by the application: 

0000: a maximum transfer rate of 2,52 Mbits/s 

0001 : a maximum transfer rate of 5,04 Mbits/s 
5 00 1 0: a maximum transfer rate of 1 0,08 Mbits/s 

1 1 1 1 : no maximum transfer rate is specified. 

All other combinations are reserved and shall not be used. 
Byte 2 - Disc structure 
Bitb7tob4 shall be set to 0000 
1 0 Bits b3 to bO shall specify the type of the recording layer(s): 

they shall be set to 0010, indicating a write-once recording layer. 
Bytes 4 to 1 5 - Data Zone allocation 
Byte 4 shall be set to (00). 

Bytes 5 to 7 shall be set to (030000) to specify PSN 1 96.608 of the first Physical Sector of 
15 the Data Zone 

Byte 8 shall be set to (00). 

Bytes 9 to 1 1 shall specify the Sector Number of the last Physical Sector of the Data 

Zone of the first Session. 
Bytes 12 to 15 shall be set to (00) 
20 Bytes 256 to 2 047 - Reserved. These remaining bytes have no relation to the ADIP 

information and shall be set to zero (00). 

Figure 17 shows the Lead-Out zone. At the top the data zone 70 for recording 
user data is shown. The data zone has 2.295.104 Physical Sectors of user data area. The start 
radius of the Data Zone is determined by the location of ADIP Physical Address (00C000). 
25 After the Data zone follows the Lead-out Zone. The Lead-out Zone is located at the outer 
side of the Information Zone. Figure 17 shows the following parts: 
- Buffer Zone 3: This recorded Zone shall consist of 768 Physical Sectors. The last possible 
start location of Buffer Zone 3 is (260540). The Main Data of the Data Frames in this Zone 
shall be set to all (00). 

30 - Outer Disc Identification Zone: 256 Physical Sectors reserved for information agreed upon 
by the data interchange parties. Each set of 16 Physical Sectors from one ECC Block is either 
a Disc Control Block (DCB) or recorded with all (00) Main Data. The contents of this Zone 
shall be equivalent to the contents of the last Inner Session Identification Zone (or to the 
contents of the Inner Disc Identification Zone in case of a Single-session disc). 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

20 

- Guard Zone 2: This Guard Zone is used as a protection for separating test writing zones 
from information zones containing user data. This Zone shall be filled with Main Data set to 
(00). This zone shall contain a minimum of 4096 Physical Sectors. 

- Outer Drive Area: The Outer Drive Area is the outermost zone of the disc which is used by 
5 the drive for performing disc tests and OPC algorithms. 

Figure 18 shows the Outer Drive Area, starting at the Guard zone 2. Then the 
following parts are shown: 

- Outer Disc Administration Zone: 4096 Physical Sectors to be used for optional drive 
specific information. The first 16 physical sectors of this Zone shall be filled with all Main 

10 Data set to (00). This zone can be used in the same way as the Inner Disc Administration 
Zone (see 0). 

- Outer Disc Count Zone: 4096 Physical Sectors reserved for counting the number of OPC 
algorithms performed in the Outer Disc Test Zone. 

- Outer Disc Test Zone: 16384 Physical Sectors reserved for drive testing and OPC 

1 5 algorithms. Whenever an ECC Block or part of it in the Outer Disc Test Zone has been 

recorded, the ECC Block shall be flagged by recording 4 Physical Sectors in the Outer Disc 
Count Zone. 

- Guard Zone 3 : This Zone shall remain blank. 

Figure 19 shows the layout of the Information Zone of a Multi-session disc. 

20 There can exist more than one session on the disc; session 1 , session 2 and the last session N 
are shown. A session with an Intro and a Closure is called a Closed Session. The first Session 
shall be preceded by a Lead-in Zone instead of an Intro Zone, the final Session shall be 
followed by a Lead-out Zone instead of a Closure Zone. Once a Lead-out Zone has been 
recorded, the disc is called "finalized" and no additional recordings to the disc shall be 

25 allowed. A session without an Intro and a Closure is called an Open Session. All sessions 
must be Closed Sessions, except for the last one, which is allowed to be an Open Session. 
User Data can only be appended to an Open Session. If all session are closed, a new Open 
Session can be added. The first Closed Session on the disc shall have a Lead-in as described 
with Figure 15. Subsequent Closed Sessions shall have an Intro as defined below. Every 

30 Closed Session shall have a Closure as defined below, except for the Final Session, which 
shall have a Lead-out as described with reference to Figure 17. 

Each new Session that occurs after the first Session starting at PSN 30000, 
shall start with an Intro Zone. The Intro Zone consists of a Buffer Zone A, an Inner Session 
Identification Zone, a Session Control Data Zone and a Buffer Zone B. All Physical Sectors 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

21 

in the Intro Zone shall have bits b27 to b26 of the Data Frame set to ZERO ZERO, 
identifying the Intro Zone as if it was a Data Zone as described with reference to Figure 9. 
The Buffer Zone A consists of 64 Physical Sectors which shall be set (00). The Inner Session 
Identification Zone consists of 256 Physical Sectors reserved for information agreed upon by 

5 the data interchange parties. Each set of 16 Physical Sectors from one ECC Block is either a 
Disc Control Block (DCB) (see Figure 21) or recorded with all (00) Main Data. Each ECC 
Block in this Zone following one recorded with all (00) Main Data shall also be recorded 
with all (00) Main Data. The Session Control Data Zone consists of 640 Physical Sectors 
from 40 ECC Blocks. The content of the 16 Physical Sectors of each ECC Block is repeated 

10 40 times. The structure of a Control Data Block shall be as shown in Figure 16. Finally 
Buffer Zone B consists of 64 Physical Sectors which shall be set (00). 

Each Session shall end with a Closure Zone consisting of two parts; a Buffer 
Zone C and an Outer Session Identification Zone. All Physical Sectors in the Closure Zone 
shall have bits b27 to b26 of the Data Frame set to ZERO ZERO, identifying the Closure 

1 5 Zone as if it was a Data Zone. The Buffer Zone C consists of 768 Physical Sectors which 
shall be set (00). The Outer Session Identification Zone consists of 256 Physical Sectors 
reserved for information agreed upon by the data interchange parties. Each set of 1 6 Physical 
Sectors from one ECC Block is either a Disc Control Block (DCB) (see Figure 21) or 
recorded with all (00) Main Data. The contents of this Zone shall be equivalent to the 

20 contents of the last Inner Identification Zone. 

Write once type record carriers according to the invention, e.g. DVD+R discs, 
shall be recorded sequentially from the inner side of the disc towards the outer side of the 
disc. Compatibility with Read Only devices can only be attained, when the disc has a Lead-in 
Zone, all Session have been closed and there are no blank areas between the start of the Lead- 

25 in Zone and the end of the last Closure or Lead-out Zone. 

Figure 20 shows details of opened Session n. New data can be added to the 
disc by appending data to an Open Session. If all Sessions have been closed, a new Session 
shall be opened. A new Session is opened by recording Buffer Zone A and an SDCB 
(Session Disc Control Bloc, see Figure 22) in the first ECC Block of the Inner Session 

30 Identification Zone. Additionally Buffer Zone B of the Intro shall be recorded. The first 
Session on a blank disc is opened by recording Reserved Zone 2 plus an SDCB in the first 
ECC Block of the Inner Disc Identification Zone, and additionally Buffer Zone 2 of the Lead- 
in Zone in case of the first Session on a blank disc shall be recorded. User Data added to the 
Data Zone shall be linked immediately to previously written User Data in the Data Zone or to 



WO 02/086888 PCT7IB02/01386 

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previously written data in one of the Reserved Areas. If a recorded area is preceded by a 
Reserved Area, an additional ECC Block is needed as a run-in for the first ECC Block of the 
recorded area. The additional ECC Block has to be considered as being part of the recorded 
area, and hence does not belong to the preceding Reserved Area. 
5 When no more user data needs to be recorded the session may be closed. 

When compatibility with DVD-RO devices is desired, all Sessions on the disc shall be 
closed. A Session is closed by recording all remaining parts in the Lead-in/Intro Zone and 
adding the Closure Zone. In the Lead-in Zone or Intro Zone the Control Data Zone is to be 
recorded. In each Intro the Session Control Data Zone shall be recorded with 40 ECC Blocks 
10 according to the format as described above with reference to Figure 15 with the following 
settings for the Physical Format Information: 
Byte 0 - Disc Category and Version Number 

Bits b7 to b4 shall specify the Disc Category, 
they shall be set to a predefined value, indicating a DVD+R disc. 
1 5 Bits b3 to bO shall specify the Version Number, 

they shall be set to a predefined value, indicating the version of the standard. 
Byte 1 - Disc size and maximum transfer rate 

Bits b7 to b4 shall specify the disc size, 
they shall be set to 0000, indicating a 120 mm disc 
20 Bits b3 to bO shall specify the maximum read transfer rate. 

These bits may be set to one of the following values (depending on the 
maximum read-out speed needed by the application): 
0000: they specify a maximum transfer rate of 2,52 Mbits/s 
0001 : they specify a maximum transfer rate of 5,04 Mbits/s 
25 0010: they specify a maximum transfer rate of 10,08 Mbits/s 

1111: they specify no maximum transfer rate is specified. 
All other combinations are reserved and shall not be used. 
Byte 2 - Disc structure 

Bit b7 to b4 shall be set to 0000 
30 Bits b3 to bO shall specify the type of the recording layer(s): 

they shall be set to 0010, indicating a write-once recording layer. 
Byte 3 - Recording density 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

23 

Bits b7 to b4 shall specify the average Channel bit length in the 
Information Zone, 

they shall be set to 0000, indicating 0,133 Jim 
Bits b3 to bO shall specify the average track pitch, 
5 they shall be set to 0000, indicating an average track pitch of 0,74 (im 

Bytes 4 to 15 - Data Zone allocation 

Byte 4 shall be set to (00). 

Bytes 5 to 7 shall specify the Sector Number of the first Physical Sector 
of the Data Zone of the current Session 
1 0 Byte 8 shall be set to (00). 

Bytes 9 to 1 1 shall specify the Sector Number of the last Physical Sector of 
the Data Zone of the current Session. 
Bytes 12 to 15 shall be set to (00) 
Bytes 16 to 255 - Reserved - All (00) 
1 5 These bytes shall not be copied from the ADIP information, but shall set to 

(00). 

Bytes 256 to 2 047 - Reserved - All (00) 

These remaining bytes have no relation to the ADIP information and shall be 

set to all (00). 

20 Disc manufacturing information and Content provider information as described above. 

The Closure Zone is defined as follows. At closing a Session, Buffer Zone C 
shall be recorded together with the Outer Session Identification Zone. 

When no more sessions are to be recorded the user can decide to finalize the 
disc. When the disc is being finalized, instead of a Closure Zone a Lead-out Zone as 
25 described above with reference to Figure 1 7 shall be recorded. After finalizing the disc, 
adding data is no longer possible. 

Figure 21 shows the general format of a Disc Control Block. Disc Control 
ECC Blocks (DCBs) are provided as a structure on the disc to include additional information 
for interchange between the data interchange parties. DCBs are recorded in the Inner and 
30 Outer Identification Zones of the disc or the Session. All DCBs shall have the same format 
for the first 40 data bytes. A special DCB is defined to reflect the status of the Session(s). If 
a Disc Control Block has to be updated, a substitute DCB shall be written immediately 
following the last written DCB in the Inner Session Identification Zone. Once a Session has 



WO 02/086888 PCT7IB02/01386 

24 

been closed, the DCBs can no longer be updated. The Main Data of each Disc Control Block 
is defined as follows (see Figure 21): 
Bytes DO to D3 - Content Descriptor 

- if set to (00000000) the DCB is unused.The Content Descriptor of all subsequent DCBs in 
5 this Inner or Outer Identification Zone shall be set to (00000000). All remaining bytes, D4 to 

D2 047 of Physical Sector 0 and DO to D2 047 of Physical Sector 1 to 15 shall be set to (00). 

- if set to (53444300) this DCB is a Session DCB (SDCB) as defined below. 

- all other values for the Content Descriptor are reserved. 

Each new DCB added to the Inner or the Outer Identification Block shall be written at the 

1 0 first available unwritten DCB location. 

Each DCB with a Content Descriptor not set to (00000000) in the Inner Identification Zone 
of a Session shall have an identical DCB in the Outer Identification Zone in the respective 
Session. The order of the DCBs in the Inner Identification Zone shall be the same as the order 
in the Outer Identification Zone. 

1 5 Bytes D4 to D7 - Unknown Content Descriptor Actions 

- These bits are provided to specify required actions when the content and use of the DCB are 
unknown (i.e. the content descriptor is not set to a known assigned value). These bytes form a 
field consisting of 32 individual bits. 

Bits b31 to b4 Reserved. These bits shall be set to all ZERO. 
20 Bit b3 DCB rewrite, if set to ONE, substituting the current DCB shall not be allowed, 

else it shall be set to ZERO. 
Bit b2 Formatting, if set to ONE, reformatting of the disc shall not be allowed or is 

not possible, else it shall be set to ZERO. 
Bit bl DCB read protect, if set to ONE, the information in this DCB is meant for use 

25 by the drive only and shall not be transferred outside the drive, else it shall be 

set ZERO. 

Bit bO Data Zone write, if set to ONE, recording shall not be allowed in the Data 

Zone, else it shall be set to ZERO. 
Bytes D8 to D39 Drive ID 
30 - Bytes D8 to D39 shall contain a unique descriptor, identifying the drive that has written the 
DCB. The format of this unique drive identifier shall be as follows: bytes D8 to D23 shall 
identify the manufacturer of the drive. Bytes D24 to D35 shall identify the model name/type 
number of the drive. Bytes D36 to D39 shall contain a unique serial number of the drive. The 
4 bytes shall form one 32-bit binary number. 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

25 

- Bytes D40 to D2047 Content Descriptor Specific. The bytes are specified by the description 
for the DCB with the actual Content Descriptor value. 

Physical Sector 1 to 15: Bytes DO to D2047 Content Descriptor Specific. The bytes are 
specified by the format description for the DCB with the actual Content Descriptor value. 

5 Figure 22 shows the Format of the Session Disc Control Block (SDCB). Both 

the Lead-in/Intro Zone and the Lead-out/Closure Zone of a Session shall contain an SDCB 
containing a Session map of the Session. The SDCB in the Inner and Outer Session 
Identification Zones shall be identical and have the content as follows: 
Physical Sector 0 / bytes D 0 to D3 - Content Descriptor. These bytes identify the Session 

10 DCB and shall be set to (53444300), representing the characters "SDC" and the version 
number 0. 

Physical Sector 0 / byte D 4 to D 7 - Unknown Content Descriptor Actions. The bytes shall be 
set to (0000000D) indicating that if this DCB is not known to the system, the DCB shall not 
be substituted, the disc can not be reformatted, writing to the Data Zone shall not be allowed, 
1 5 while transferring the DCB information from the drive to the host computer is allowed. 
Physical Sector 0 / byte D 8 to D39 - Drive ID. These bytes shall contain the drive ID as 
specified above with Figure 21 , bytes Dg to D 39 . 

Physical Sector 0 / bytes D40 to D41 - Session number. These bytes shall specify the sequence 
number of the Session to which the SDCB belongs. The first Session shall have sequence 
20 number 1 and each subsequent Session number shall be incremented by one. 

Physical Sector 0 / byte D 42 to D 6 3 - Reserved. These bytes are reserved and shall be set to 
(00) 

Physical Sector 0 / bytes D M to D 95 - Disc ID. In the SDCB in the Inner Disc Identification 
Zone in the Lead-in Zone of the first Session, these 32 bytes shall be recorded with a random, 
25 statistically unique, 256-bit binary number at initialization of the disc (opening of the first 
Session). In the SDCB in the Inner Session Identification Zone in the Intro of each next 
Session, bytes D w to D95 shall be set to all (00). 

Physical Sector 0 / byte D96 to D127 - Application dependent field. The field shall consist of 
32 bytes and is reserved for use by the application to store information such as specific copy 
30 protection data. If this setting is not specified by the application, the bytes shall be set to (00). 
In each Session these bytes can be set independently. 

Physical Sector 0 / byte Dm to D2047 - Session items (SES). These bytes are grouped in units 
of 16 bytes each. Each unit of 16 bytes can contain one of two different types of SES items: 
- a Reserved Area item that specifies Reserved Areas in the current Session 



WO 02/086888 PCT7IB02/01386 

26 

- a Previous Session item that specifies the start and end addresses of previous Sessions. 
All unused bytes shall be set to (00). 

Figure 23 shows a Reserved Area item. An SDCB can contain more than 1 
Reserved Area item. If there are no Reserved Areas, there shall be no Reserved Area items. If 
5 a new Reserved Area has to be added to an existing Open Session, a new SDCB is written in 
the Inner Identification Zone of the current Session, immediately following the last SDCB. 
The last written SDCB in the Inner Identification Zone is the valid SDCB. Reserved Areas in 
a Session shall not be overlapping. The Reserved Area items shall be ordered with increasing 
addresses. The Figure shows the layout of the Reserve Area item as follows: 
10 byte Bo to B 2 : these 3 bytes identify the item type and shall be set to (525356), representing 
the characters "RSV". 

byte B3: this byte shall specify the sequence number of the Reserved Area. The first Reserved 
Area in the Session shall have sequence number 1 and each subsequent Reserved Area 
number shall be incremented by one. 
1 5 byte B 4 to B 7 : these 4 bytes shall specify the PSN of the first Physical Sector belonging to the 
Reserved Area specified in this item. 

byte B 8 to Bn: these 4 bytes shall specify the PSN of the last Physical Sector belonging to the 
Reserved Area specified in this item. 

byte B12 to Bi 5 : these 4 bytes are reserved and shall be set to (00). 

20 Figure 24 shows a Previous Session item. An SDCB shall contain a Previous 

Session item for each Session preceding the current Session. The SDCB of the first Session 
shall not contain a Previous Session item. The Previous Session items shall be ordered with 
increasing addresses. The Figure shows the layout of the Previous Session item as follows: 
byte B 0 to B 2 : these 3 bytes identify the item type and shall be set to (53534E), representing 

25 the characters "SSN". 

byte B3: this byte shall specify the sequence number of the Previous Session specified in this 
item. 

byte B 4 to B 7 : these 4 bytes shall specify the PSN of the first Physical Sector in the Data 
Zone of the Previous Session specified in this item. 
30 byte B 8 to B u : these 4 bytes shall specify the PSN of the last Physical Sector in the Data 
Zone of the Previous Session specified in this item, 
byte B12 to Bi 5 : these 4 bytes are reserved and shall be set to (00). 

Although the invention has been explained mainly by embodiments using the 
DVD+R, similar embodiments are suitable for other optical recording systems. Also for the 



WO 02/086888 PCT7IB02/01386 

27 

information carrier an optical disc has been described, but other media, such as a magnetic 
disc or tape, may be used. It is noted, that in this document the word 'comprising' does not 
exclude the presence of other elements or steps than those listed and the word 'a' or 'an 1 
preceding an element does not exclude the presence of a plurality of such elements, that any 
5 reference signs do not limit the scope of the claims, that the invention may be implemented 
by means of both hardware and software, and that several 'means' may be represented by the 
same item of hardware. Further, the scope of the invention is not limited to the embodiments, 
and the invention lies in each and every novel feature or combination of features described 
above. 



WO 02/086888 PCTYIB02/01386 

28 

CLAIMS: 



1 . Device for recording information in at least one information volume in a track 
in a recordable area on a record carrier, which information volume comprises a start zone, a 
data zone and an end zone, which device comprises recording means (22) for recording 
marks representing the information and control means (20) for recording and retrieving the 

5 information volume, characterized in that the control means comprise session means (31) for 
opening a session by recording intro data comprising 

- a first buffer zone at the beginning of the start zone of the volume, and 

- at least one session control block (SDCB) in a remaining blank area of the start zone after 
the buffer zone, the session control block (SDCB) comprising volume data indicative of the 

1 0 status and the contents of the session, 

and for closing the session for constituting the information volume by recording 

- session control data indicating that the information volume is closed in the remaining blank 
area, and 

- closure data after the last information recorded in the data zone for constituting the end zone 
15 of the volume, and 

detecting means (32) for retrieving the session control block from said start zone. 

2. Device as claimed in claim 1, wherein the session control block (SDCB) 
comprises at least one previous session item, the previous session item comprising a start and 

20 an end address of a previously recorded information volume. 

3. Device as claimed in claim 2, wherein the previous session item comprising a 
previous session number indicating the sequence number of the previous session in sequence 
of information volumes previously recorded. 

25 

4. Device as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the session control block (SDCB) 
comprises a session number identifying the session to which the session control block 
belongs. 



WO 02/086888 PCT7IB02/01386 

29 

5 # Device as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the session means comprise means for 

recording at least one session map block (SEM) in a session map zone, the session map block 
comprising session items for each recorded volume that has a status of being closed, the 
session item (SES) comprising position data indicative of the position of the recorded 
information volumes, and the session map zone being located before the data zone of the first 
information volume. 

6. Device as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the session control block comprises at 
least one reserved area item, the reserved area item comprising a reserved area start address 
and a reserved area end address. 

7, Device as claimed in claim 6, wherein the reserved area item comprises a 
reserved area number identifying the reserved area. 

Device as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the session control block comprises a 
drive identification indicating the device that has recorded that session control block. 

9, Device as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the session means (3 1) are arranged for 

recording, included in the session control data, physical format information that indicates 
parameters of the record carrier. 

1 o. Device as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the session means (3 1) are arranged for 

recording, included in the closure data, a session control block (SDCB) having the same 
contents as a session control block in the start zone of the volume, the session control block 
comprising volume data indicative of the status and the contents of the completely recorded 
session. 

1 1 . Method of recording information in at least one information volume in a track 

in a recordable area on a record carrier, which information volume comprises a start zone, a 
data zone and an end zone, which method comprises recording marks representing the 
information and control data constituting the information volume, characterized in that the 
method comprisesopening a session by recording intro data comprising 
- a first buffer zone at the beginning of the start zone of the volume, and 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 

30 

- at least one session control block (SDCB) in a remaining blank area of the start zone after 
the buffer zone, the session control block comprising volume data indicative of the status and 
the contents of the session, 

and closing the session for constituting the information volume by recording 
5 - session control data indicating that the information volume is closed in the remaining blank 
area, and 

- closure data after the last information recorded in the data zone for constituting the end zone 
of the volume. 

10 12. Record carrier having a track in a recordable area for recording at least one 

information volume, which information volume comprises a start zone, a data zone and an 
end zone, the track comprising marks representing the information and control data 
constituting the information volume, characterized in that the record carrier comprises 
an opened session having intro data comprising 

15 - a first buffer zone at the beginning of the start zone of the volume, and 

- at least one session control block in a remaining blank area of the start zone after the buffer 
zone, the session control block (SDCB) comprising volume data indicative of the status and 
the contents of the session, 

and a closed session constituting the information volume comprising 
20 - session control data indicating that the information volume is closed in the start zone, and 

- closure data after the last information recorded in the data zone for constituting the end zone 
of the volume. 



WO 02/086888 



PCT/IB02/01386 




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2/19 



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FIG. 6c 



WO 02/086888 PCT/IB02/01386 



6/19 



Rvtp numhpr 


Content . Number of bytes 


A 
U 


Disc Category and Version Number 


— 


1 
1 


Disc size 




z 


Disc structure 






Recording density 




A f 1 ^ 


Data Zone allocation 




lo 


Set to (00) 




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Reserved — All (00) 


L 


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iy to zo 


Disc Manufacturer ID 


o 
o 


z / to Ly 


Media type ID 


J 




Product revision number 




31 


number of Physical format information bytes in use 




JZ 


Reference recording velocity 






Maximum recording velocity 


— 


1/1 


Wavelength a, ind 




35 


(TBD) 




36 


Maximum read power at reference velocity 


— — 


3 / 


Pjnq at reference velocity 


— — 


38 


Ptarset at reference velocity 


— — 


39 


Maximum read power at maximum velocity 


— 


40 


P IND at maximum velocity 




/1 1 
41 


^tareet a * maximum velocity 




AO 
4Z 


Ttop (^4) first pulse duration for cm 1 ^4 at reference velocity 




43 


Ttop ( = 3) first pulse duration for cm 1 =3 at reference velocity 




A A 
44 


T m p multi pulse duration at reference velocity 




4j 


Tip last pulse duration at reference velocity 


— 


AH 

40 


dTtop first pulse lead time at reference velocity 


— 


47 


dTi e 1 pulse leading edge correction for ps* =3 


— 


48 


Ttop fi rst pulse duration for cm 1 ^4 at maximum velocity 


— 


AQ 

4y 


Ttop (-3) first pulse duration for cm 1 =3 at maximum velocity 


— 


jU 


Tmp multi pulse duration at maximum velocity 


— 


M 


1 ip last pulse duration at maximum velocity 






dTtop first P u l se * ea d time at maximum velocity 




53 


dTi e l sl pulse leading edge correction for ps 2 =3 




54 to 255 


Reserved -All (00) FIG. 7 


202 



WO 02/086888 



PCT7IB02/01386 



7/19 



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WO 02/086888 



PCT/IB02/01386 



9/19 





Description 


Nominal radius 
in mm 


PSN of the first 
Physical Sector 


Number of 
Physical Sectors 


Inner Prive 

Area 


Initial Zone 


start 22,000 mm 




blank 


Inner Disc Test Zone 


start 22,643 mm 


(023480) 


16 384 


Inner Disc Count Zone 


start 23,079 mm 


(027480) 


4 096 


Inner Disc Administration Zone 


start 23,186 mm 


(028480) 


4 096 


Session Map Zone 


start 23,293 mm 


(029480) 


4 096 


Lead-in 


Guard Zone 1 


start 23,400 mm 


(02A480) 


14 848 


Reserved Zone 1 




(02DE80) 


4 096 


Reserved Zone 2 




(02EE80) 


64 


Inner Disc Identification Zone 




(02EEC0) 


256 


Reserved Zone 3 




(02EFC0) 


64 




Reference Code Zone 


start 23,896 mm 


(02FO00) 


32 


Buffer Zone 1 




(02F020) 


480 


Control Data Zone 




(02F200) 


3 072 


Buffer Zone 2 




(02FE00) 


512 


Data 


Data Zone 


start 24,000 mm 


(030000) 


2 295 104 max 


keaiJ-Qut 


Buffer Zone 3 


start 58,000 mm 
max 


(260540) max 


768 


Outer Disc Identification Zone 




(260840) max 


256 


Guard Zone 2 




(260940) max 


4096 min 


Outer PriYe 


Outer Disc Administration Zone 


start 58,053 mm 


(261940) 


4096 


Outer Disc Count Zone 


start 58,096 mm 


(262940) 


4096 


Area 


Outer Disc Test Zone 


start 58,139 mm 


(263940) 


16 384 


Guard Zone 3 


start 58,310 mm 


(2652C0) 


blank 



FIG.10 



WO 02/086888 



PCT/IB02/01386 



10/19 



Physical Sector 144 512 

Physical Sector 160 895 
Physical Sector 160 896 

Physical Sector 164 991 
Physical Sector 164 992 

Physical Sector 169 087 
Physical Sector 169 088 

Physical Sector 173 183 



Initial Zone 



Inner Disc Test Zone 
16 384 Physical Sectors 



Inner Disc Count Zone 
4 096 Physical Sectors 



Inner Disc Administration Zone 
4 096 Physical Sectors 



Session Map Zone 
4 096 Physical Sectors 



Guard Zone 1 



FIG.11 



Physical Sector (023480) 



Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 



Sector (02747F) 
Sector (027480) 

Sector (02847F) 
Sector (028480) 

Sector (02947F) 
Sector (029480) 



Physical Sector (02A47F) 



Physical Sector 
ofSEM block 


Main Data 
byte position 


Description 


number 
of bytes 


0 


Dnto D3 


Content Descriptor 


4 


0 


D4to D7 


Reserved and set to (00) 


4 


0 


D8to D39 


Drive ID 


32 


0 


D40 to D63 


Reserved and set to (00) 


24 


0 


D64 to D95 


Session item 0 


16 


0 








0 


D64+ix16toD95+ix16 


Session item i 


16 


0 








0 


D 64+ (N-1 ) x1 6 to D95 + (N-1 )x1 6 


Session item N-1 


16 


0 


D64+Nx16toD2 047 


Reserved and set to (00) 


1 984-NX16 


1 to 15 


Dnto D2 047 


Reserved and set to (00) 


15X2 048 



FIG.12 



WO 02/086888 



11/19 



PCT/IB02/01386 



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PCT7IB02/01386 



13/19 



Physical Sector 173 184 



Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 



Sector 188 
Sector 188 

Sector 192 
Sector 192 

Sector 192 
Sector 192 

Sector 192 
Sector 192 

Sector 192 
Sector 192 

Sector 192 
Sector 192 

Sector 193 
Sector 193 

Sector 196 
Sector 196 



031 
032 

127 
128 

191 
192 

447 
448 

511 
512 

543 
544 

023 
024 

095 
096 



Physical Sector 196 607 



Session Map Zone 



Guard Zone 1 
14 848 Physical Sectors 
with Main Data set to (00) 



Reserved Zone 1 
4 096 Physical Sectors 



Reserved Zone 2 
64 Physical Sectors 



Inner Disc Identification Zone 
256 Physical Sectors 



Reserved Zone 3 
64 Physical Sectors 



Reference Code Zone 
32 Physical Sectors 



Buffer Zone 1 
480 Physical Sectors 
with Main Data set to (00) 



Control Data Zone 
3 072 Physical Sectors 



Buffer Zone 2 
512 Physical Sectors 
with Main Data set to (00) 



Data Zone 

FIG.15 



Physical Sector (02A480) 



Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 

Physical 
Physical 



Sector 
Sector 

Sector 
Sector 

Sector 
Sector 

Sector 
Sector 

Sector 
Sector 

Sector 
Sector 

Sector 
Sector 

Sector 
Sector 



02DE7F) 
02DE80) 

02EE7F) 
02EE80) 

02EEBF) 
02EEC0) 

02EFBF) 
02EFC0) 

02EFFF) 
02F000) 

02F01F) 
02F020) 

02F1FF) 
02F200) 

02FDFF) 
02FE00) 



Physical Sector (02FFFF) 



Physical format information 
2 048 bytes 



Disc manufacturing information 
2 048 bytes 



Content provider information 
14 x 2 048 bytes 



FIG.16 



WO 02/086888 



PCT7IB02/01386 



14/19 



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LO 


LO 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


u 










u. 




O 




s 


O 


O 


O 


O 


O 


O 


o 


O 


O 




O 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


lo 


CO 


CO 


co 


CO 


co 


CO 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


"co 


'co 


'co 


'co 


"co 


"co 


"co 




>> 














sz 




SZ 






SZ 






Q_ 


Q_ 


a. 







WO 02/086888 



PCT/IB02/01386 



16/19 



Session 


Zone 


Description 


Number of 
Physical Sectors 




Inner Drive Area 


See Fig. 11 


— 


Session 1 


Lead-in 




See Fig. 15 


... 


Reserved Zone 2 


64 


Inner Disc Identification Zone 


256 








Control Data Zone 


3 072 


Buffer Zone 2 


512 

SJ 1 Cm 


Data " f 


Data Zone > ; v : * 


V : Ifimin 

;■.* , .. I U | Mill. t \ 


Closure 


Buffer Zone C 




768 

1 WW 




Outer Session Identification Zone 


256 


Session 2 


Intro 


Buffer Zone A 




64 


Inner Session Identification Zone 


256 


Session Control Data Zone 


640 


Buffer Zone B 


64 


Data - 




"V 16min "i\ 




Buffer Zone C 




768 


otosure 


Outer Session Identification Zone 


256 


• 
• 

Session N 


• 
• 


• 
• 


... 


Data 


Dab Zpnev;.; ;V ■ . 7;*' :> - : V 




Lead-out 


Buffer Zone 3 


See Fig. 17 


768 


Outer Disc Identification Zone 


256 










Outer Drive Area 


See Fig. 18 





FIG.19 



WO 02/086888 



PCT/IB02/01386 



17/19 



Session n-1 



Session n 



Data 

l/ inn 


Data Zone 


User Data * 7 7 




Buffer ZonG C 


48 ECC Blocks with (00) 


Closure 


Outer Session 
Identification Zone 


16 ECC Blocks with DCBs. 




Buffer Zone A 


4ECCBjbcksw^ 




Inner Session 


1 EQC'Bloqk-with an SDCIB ; 


Intro 


Irlpntifiratinn 7nnp 

IUCI lUllwuUul 1 falsi Iv 


blank 


Session 

Control Data Zone 


blank 




Buffer Zone B 


4 ECC\Blocks with (00) • 


Data 


Data Zone 


Reserved Area (optional) 






User Data \ :-/v-> 






blank 



FIG.20 



Physical Sector 
of each DCB 


Main Data BP 


Description ! 


0 


DntoD 3 


Content Descriptor 


0 


D4 to D7 


Unknown Content Descriptor Actions 


0 


D8toD39 


Drive ID 


0 


D40 to D2 047 


Content Descriptor Specific 


1 to 15 


Dq - D2 047 


Content Descriptor Specific 



FIG.21 



WO 02/086888 



PCT7IB02/01386 



18/19 



Physical Sector 
nf ECC block 


Main Data 
hvtp Dosition 


Description 


number 
of bytes 


o 


Dn to Dq 

u {j LU 


Content Descriptor 


4 


U 


U4 10 U7 


1 Inknnufn Pnntpnt npQPiintnr 

Actions 


4 


0 


D 8 to D39 


Drive ID 


32 


0 


D40tO D41 


Session number 


2 


0 


D49 to Dr3 


Reserved and set to (00) 


22 


0 


064 to D95 


Disc ID (in Lead-In Zone only) 


32 


0 


D96 to D1 27 


Application Dependent 


32 


0 


D-|28 to D 143 


SES item 0 


16 


0 








0 


Dl28+ixl6toD-|43 + jxi6 


SES item i 


16 


0 








0 


0l28+(N-1)xl6toDl43+(N-1)xl6 


SES item N-1 


16 


0 


Dl28+Nx16 toD2 047 


Reserved and set to (00) 


1 920-Nx16 


1 to 15 


DQto D2 047 


Reserved and set to (00) 


15x2 048 



FIG.22 



Item byte 


Description 


number 


position 




of bytes 


Boto B2 


Reserved Area item descriptor 


3 


B3 


Reserved Area number 


1 


B4toB7 


Reserved Area start address 


4 


BatoBn 


Reserved Area end address 


4 


Bi 2 toB 15 


Reserved and set to (00) 


4 



FIG.23 



WO 02/086888 



19/19 



PCT7IB02/01386 



Item byte 


Description 


number 


position 




of bytes 


Bo to B2 


Previous Session item 


3 




descriptor 




B3 


Previous Session number 


1 


B4toB7 


Previous Session start address 


4 


B8to Bn 


Previous Session end address 


4 


B 12 toB 15 


Reserved and set to (00) 


4 



FIG.24