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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property Organization 

International Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
13 December 2001 (13.12.2001) 




PCT 



nun ii iii i mini ii inn ii i ii 

(10) International Publication Number 

WO 01/95330 A2 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : Gl IB 27/00 

(21) International Application Number: PCT7EP0 1/055 61 

(22) International Filing Date: 14 May 2001 (14.05.2001) 

(25) Filing Language: English 

(26) Publication Language: English 



(30) Priority Data: 

00201988.3 



6 June 2000 (06.06.2000) EP 



(71) Applicant: KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS ELECTRON- 
ICS N.V. [NL/NL]; Groenewoudseweg 1, NL-5621 BA 
Eindhoven (NL). 

(72) Inventors: IJTSMA, Pope; Prof. Holstlaan 6, NL-5656 
AA Eindhoven (NL). HAMELINCK, Dirk; Prof. Holst- 
laan 6, NL-5656 AA Eindhoven (NL). 



(74) Agent: DEGUELLE, Wilhelmus, H., G.; Internationaal 
Octrooibureau B.V., Prof. Holstlaan 6, NL-5656 AA Eind- 
hoven (NL). 

(81) Designated States (national): CN, JP, KR. 

(84) Designated States (regional): European patent (AT, BE, 
CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LU, MC, 
NL, PT, SE, TR). 

Published: 

without international search report and to be republished 
upon receipt of that report 

For two-letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 
ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations" appearing at the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



(54) Title: METHOD OF IMMEDIATE WRITING OR READING FILES ON A DISC LIKE RECORDING MEDIUM 



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(57) Abstract: A method of recording digital information signals on a removable rewritable disc like recording medium, the method 
comprising recording user data on a logical area of the disc and, prior to removal of the disc out of a recording/reproducing apparatus, 
finalizing the disc with a lead-in and lead-out area comprising predefined medium format data. A general purpose area within the 
logical area for other use than recording of user data, is being reserved. Such as use may be for example defect management. Further 
the method involves interrupting recording a lead-in area or a lead-out area at predefined splice points whenever a request for user 
data is made. 



WO 01/95330 PCT/EP01/05561 

1 

Method of immediate writing or reading files on a disc like recording medium. 



FIELD OF THE INVENTION 

The invention relates to a method of recording digital information signals on a 
removable rewritable disc like recording medium, as cited in the preamble of claim 1. 
The invention further relates to an apparatus for recording/reproducing digital information 
5 signals on/from a removable rewritable disc like recording medium as cited in the preamble 
of claim 6. 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 

The PC world needs a replacement for the floppy drive. A rewritable storage 

10 medium of the disc like optical type, such as the CD-RW, seems to be a logical choice 

because the read function of the magnetic floppy is already replaced by the CD-ROM. All 
PC's today are equipped with a CD-ROM and applications and software are distributed on 
CDROM. Therefore a recording medium like CD-RW or rewritable DVD, seems to be the 
perfect media to fill in the needed write capability. MO and ZIP/Jazz already tried to fill this 

15 gap, but they all miss compatibility with the installed base. That is exactly what CD-RW for 
instance can deliver with the installed base of over approximately 200 million CDROM 
drives (MR1.0 compatible). RW media are cheap and the capacity is sufficient for floppy use. 

Furthermore, manufacturers of operating systems wants to get rid of legacy 
material like the floppy drive, For OEM companies the idea is attractive, as they can replace 

20 the floppy drive, the CDROM and the DVD-ROM drive by a one spindle drive like a Combi 
and by a double writer in the future. It will also add a new feature to the drive other then the 
ever increasing speed 

There are products on the market (like DirectCD) which enable to use a CD- 
RW like a floppy drive, but they don't behave the way one would expect a CD floppy drive 

25 would do. The access time is too low, formatting time is too long and more important the 
drive does not fit into the strategy of current OS. The disc should be immediately available 
for dragging and dropping of files. A fast eject is required, deleting should be instant. Due to 
enable multiple drag and drop a defect management is required. However, the defect 
management should be done by the drive. This opens the way to use UDF 1.02 instead of 



WO 01/95330 PCT/EP01/05561 

2 

UDF1.5, which will not be supported on the write side by Microsoft. Further background 
formatting must be done by the drive and not by the application or OS to minimize bus 
traffic, and interaction between the drive and the OS. Finally, Read/Modify/Write for packets 
should be done by the drive. 
5 European Patent Application (NL000035), filed by applicant under filing 

number EP 99203111.2 and European Patent Application (PHN17659), filed by applicant 
under filing number 00200290.5, both incorporated by reference, are disclosing such a 
method and apparatus. 

However, the method of defect management disclosed is limited to one-packet 

10 based replacements, the size of the replacement packets being same to the size of the write- 
packet For instance, in case of CD-RW both sizes are 64 kB or 32 sectors. Although this is 
sufficient to cover Disk-Over- Write (DOW) problems of RW media, it appears to be 
inefficient with respect to robustness for local physical defects like finger prints, scratches 
and media weak-spots. DOW tends to wear out sectors equally within one written packets. 

15 Thus it makes a lot of sense to replace the whole unity in one step, since the indication that a 
part (2kB -sector) of the packet is wearing out can be interpreted as a wear-out warning for 
the whole packet. But due to the spiral-groove structure of an optical record carrier, non 
DOW defects, like the ones mentioned above, will typically appear on neighborhood tracks. 
For example a scratch of 3.5 cm from inner to outer diameter across the disk affects 

20 approximately 3.5 cm/ 1.5 ^m = 23300 tracks, in case of an CD-RW disk. This implies 

approximately 21000 * 64kByte = 1344 Mbyte. With a 74 min CD-RW disc with 500 Mbyte 
user area and approximately 40 Mb spare area, this is clearly not feasible. 

OBJECT AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 
25 In consequence, amongst other things, it is an object of the invention to 

obviate above-mentioned disadvantages. According to one of its aspects a method according 

to the invention is characterized as recited in the characterizing part of claim 1 and an 

apparatus according to the invention is characterized as recited according to the 

characterizing part of claim 6. 
30 Local physical defects, not effecting a whole packet, will then require less 

spare area then if a whole packet would be replaced. 

Further advantageous embodiments are characterized as recited in the 

remaining claims. 



WO 01/95330 PCT/EP01/05561 

3 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 

These and further aspects and advantages of the invention will be discussed in 
more detail hereinafter with reference to the disclosure of preferred embodiments, and in 
particular with reference to the appended Figures that show: 
5 Fig. 1 a basic disc lay-out of a CD-ROM; 

Fig. 2 the lay-out of a Main Defect Table (MDT) according to the invention; 

Fig. 3 the Main Defect Table (MDT) packet organization according to the 
invention, showing repeated sectors; 

Fig. 4 the Main Defect Table (MDT) packet organization according to the 
10 invention, showing the entries; 

Fig. 5 the Main Defect Table (MDT) layout; 

Fig. 6 the composition of a Main Info Packet (MIP); 

Fig. 7 the content of the Main Info Packet (MIP)/Second Info Packet (SIP); 
Fig. 8 the changes with respect the Secondary Defect Table (SDT) and the 
15 Temporary Defect Table (TDT), and 

Fig. 9 shows important boot sectors on the disc and their remapped locations 
in the spare area. 



20 DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS 

Fig. 1 illustrates schematically the basic format of a CD-ROM, as known from 
the relevant standard, which is often denoted to as the 'Yellow book', in analogy to the 'Red 
book' standard for the audio CD. Descriptions of the physical standard of the CD-ROM can 
be found in the public available documents ISO/IEC 10149, of the audio-CD in IEC 908. The 

25 physical standard for the recordable CD, denoted as the 'Orange book; is disclosed in 

ISO/IEC 1 1 172/1/2/3/. The standard for the logical format of the CD-ROM is described in 
ISO-9660 (the High Sierra standard) and for the recordable CD in ECMA 168/ISO13940 (the 
Frankfurter proposal). 

The data carrying area of the CD-ROM starts with a LEAD-IN area, a DATA 

30 AREA is available for user data and ends with a LEAD-OUT area. 

The methods for Defect Management and Formatting are described in 
European Patent Application (NL000035), filed by applicant under filing number EP 
99203111.2 and European Patent Application (PHN17659), filed by applicant under filing 
number 00200290.5, both incorporated by reference. 



WO 01/95330 PCT/EP01/05561 

4 

The defect sparing possibility of the method disclosed in the above-mentioned 
applications, is limited to one packet-based replacements. In case of CD-RW the packet size 
being 64 kB (32 sectors), equal to the packet write block size. In case of Disk-Over-Write 
(DOW) problems of RW media, this choice is sufficient. DOW tends to wear out packets 
5 equally within one written packet. Thus it is practical to replace the whole unit in one step, 
since the indication that a part (for instance a 2 kB sector) of the packet is wearing out, can be 
interpreted as a wear-out of the whole packet. 

However, due to the spiral-groove structure of a CD, non DOW defects such 
as fingerprints, scratches and local media defects will typically appear as short defects re- 

10 occurring on neighboring tracks. This means that within one spiral of a track, defects 
typically are located within the borders of one sector, locally preceded and followed by 
multiple sectors without defects. For example, for CD-RW with a 64 kB packet comprises 
approximately 5 tracks at the inner circle and approximately 2 tracks at the outer circle, 
typically only between 2 and 5 replacements of 2 kB packets are needed for a packet affected 

15 by the defect. The surrounding data-sectors of the same packet need not to be replaced. 

By choosing the size of a replacement area substantially lower than the packet 
write size, more defect replacements can be handled. For instance, in case of CD-RW, a 
radial scratch of 3.5 cm from the inner to the outer diameter across the disk, will claim 
approximately 40 Mb of sparing area, in case of a 2 kB packet replacement. The amount of 

20 crossings of a 80 minute disc being: 3.5 cm / 1.5 jam = 23300 minus scratches in link blocks 
(-20%) plus scratches affecting 2 sectors on the border (+10 %) = 21000. Thus requiring 
21000 pointers, leading to a Defect Area size of 21000 * 2kB = 42 Mb. Available on a 74 
min disc with a user area > 500 Mb the amount of 48 Mb. In case of 64 kB replacements, a 
scratch of 1 mm will be sufficient to fully claim the same 40 MB sparing area. 

25 The choice for 2kB sparing has the following consequences for drives. 

The defect table size needs to be relatively larger as each 2 kB replacement space is a 
potential pointer in the table, when accounting for the same amount of replacement area. As 
an extreme example, in the case of DOW wear-out of a packet, the defect table will contain 
32 entry-positions in stead of 1 kB in case of a 64 kB replacement system. 

30 To solve this problem, the Main Defect Table (MDT) is allowed to grow from 

1 packet to 8 packets maximal. This is illustrated in Fig 2, showing in Fig. 2A the MDT 
layout with a fixe size according to the method of defect management disclosed in the above- 
mentioned applications. Fig. 2B and Fig. 2C are showing the MDT layout according to the 
invention with a variable size, respectively with a minimum size and a maximum size. Next, 



WO 01/95330 PCT/EP01/05561 

5 

consecutive MDT packets are added in the Lead-in in a direction pointing to the inner . 
diameter. 

The disc starts with only one MDT packet (MDT1). Each packet is identified 
with an order number (1 ... 8 ) as will be shown with reference to Fig. 5 
5 Further a Main Info Packet (MIP) replaces the Sentinel Packet (STL) as 

disclosed in the above-mentioned applications, which will be explained with reference to 
Fig. 6. 

Fig. 3 shows the Main Defect Table (MDT) packet organization according to 
the invention, showing repeated sectors. Within each MDT packet, 4 sectors are repeated 3 

10 times in the depicted geographical order. This has the advantage of protecting against 

fingerprints. It is noted that a repeat factor of for instance 3 could also be chosen, being a 
matter of implementation. 

All addressing is 2 kB basedLogical Block Addressing (LB A). A complete 
replaced packet has 32 entries in the table. As an example, a packet may contain 8 * 337 = 

15 2696 pointers per packet, equivalent to a defect area of 5.26 MB, handling a scratch of V4 cm. 

Fig. 4 shows the Main Defect Table (MDT) packet organization according to 
the invention, showing the entries. The entries are ordered per 2 kB sector. Bit 4 and 5 
indicate the status : replaced ('00') and marked ('01'). These are ordered on ascending LBA 
and mixed in one block. This appears to be easier for the firmware. Other entries with value 

20 ('10') for bits 4 and 5, indicate available entries, which are ordered on replacement LBA. 
Finally unavailable entries are marked with ('11'). Preferably drives should keep available 
replacements ('10') available on sector base, which allows firmware to insert new defects 
easily. 

Fig. 5 shows 5 the Main Defect Table (MDT) layout according to its content. 

25 Fig. 6 shows the composition of a Main Info Packet (MIP), replacing the 

function of the Sentinel Packet (STL) of the method described in the above-mentioned 
applications. As the Main Defect Table (MDT) can significantly grow into the Lead-In 
Areas, long detection times with a Sentinel Packet (STL) may occur. The Main Info Packet 
(MIP) contains Main Defect Table (MDT) and Secondary Defect Table (SDT) packet 

30 positions. The Main Info Packet (MIP) further contains version info. The Main Info Packet 
(MIP) is repeated 32 times and is located on a fixed position (last packet Lead-in Area) and 
cannot be moved or spared. 



WO 01/95330 PCT/EP01/05561 

6 

A duplicate is located as the Secondary Info Packet (SIP) on the outside of the 
disc, see Fig. 8. Write or read problems for MIP or SIP means end of write capability. Disc 
with problems in the housekeeping should not be written on. 

However, the MIP and SIP are sparsely written as they only contain static information. 
5 Fig. 7 shows the content of the Main Info Packet (MIP)/Second Info Packet 

(SIP) per 2kB sector. 

Finally, Fig. 8 shows the changes of the Secondary Defect Table (SDT) and 
Temporary Defect Table (TDT) as disclosed in the above-mentioned applications. The status 
thereof being illustrated in Fig. 8 A, while the new embodiments being illustrated in Fig. 8B 
10 and 8C, respectively with a minimum size and maximum size. 

It is noted that the Sentinel Packet (STL) is replaced by a Secondary Info 
Packet (SIP), which has a fixed position, directly before the SUP packet and cannot be 
moved or spared. The Secondary Defect Table (SDT) is still a copy of the Main Defect Table 
(MDT) but now SDT1 . . . SDT8 is possible. 
15 Growing into the replacements results in marking the replacements as 

unusable. An update counter is still used to detect a mismatch between MSD and SDT. The 
SDT is changed in the same way as the SDT. 

Thus, a drive may replace complete 64 kB packets in case of DOW or in case 
of track problems during read and write and 2 kB replacements in case of scratches and 
20 fingerprints. 

A further aspect of a medium formatted as disclosed above is the cross- 
platform disk compatibility with CD-ROM and DVD-ROM systems and legacy CD-RW 
drives already in the market. Preferably the read-capability of legacy systems should be 
maximal. 

25 However, legacy read-capable systems might lack defect-remapping ability or 

a PC-system might not have the suitable file-system to read back the data as organized on 
disk. Therefore, to achieve read back compatibility, a measure is proposed to make sure that a 
remapping-drive will be installed on legacy PC-systems prior to reading the data content of 
the disk. Thereby avoiding data corruption due to incorrect physical address of the data. 

30 Further a measure is proposed that suitable files systems, if available, on the PC be used. An 
if no suitable file system is available on the system, the user is guided by a message, how to 
obtain and successfully install a suitable read-solution. Another measure is proposed to 
ensure that the RW format will allow to make bootable disks which need to be readable on all 
CD-read capable PC-systems, and allow the current mechanism of CD-booting such as 



WO 01/95330 PCT/EP01/05561 

7 

specified in the Bootable CD-ROM Format Specification, Version 1.0, January 25, 1995 
from Phoenix Technologies and IBM, shortly referred to as "El-Torito". 

Legacy write capable systems might have an application package and file 
system, required to perform legacy drag and drop on CD-RW. However, these systems 
5 typically lack capability to apply defect remapping or to update data in the Lead-In or Lead- 
Out. Measures are proposed to prevent that legacy systems will write to this media-format, 
thus in this case limit their capability to read-only solutions and thus avoiding incidental data 
corruption. 

The method according to the invention, will be explained with reference to 
10 Fig. 9. The method makes active use of a number of number of key features enables by using 
defect management in combination with key sectors for ISO 9660, data file systems and boot 
records. Some data-sectors play a gating role for enabling booting and file system read and 
write. Fig. 9 describes the case of CD-RW and UDF 1.02. However other embodiments may 
be obtained with other file systems, such as for example FAT and other media, such as for 
15 example DVBD+RW and DVD-RW. 

The key sectors are logical sector 17 for El-Tori toa booting, logical sector 16 
for ISO9660 booting, logical sector 256 (AD VP), n or n - 256 (2 nd AD VP) for UDF 1.02, 
with n being the last sector of the data zone. 

The measure is to spare sector 16, 17, 256 and n (or n-256) by a dedicated fill 
20 in of these sectors and write a replacement sector as follows: 

Sector number 16, being ISO structured, is used to upload a remap driver on 
the disk. This sector will be used by systems without a remapper. The sparing location of 
sector number 16, also being ISO structured, is used to store links to give a message or to a 
URL to download or install a file system. This replaced sector will be used by systems 
25 without UDF. 

Sector number 17, being a boot sector, is used to store links to an boot-image, 
This sector is used by systems without a remapper. The sparing location of sector number 17, 
is also a boot sector and contains links to the same boot-image. This sector is used by systems 
with a remapper. 

30 Sector number 256, n or (n-256) does not have any significant content. The 

sparing locations thereof however contain an UDF- AD VP and is being used by systems with 
UDF. 

Fig. 9A shows the location of the above-mentioned sectors on a disc formatted 
according the format specified in the previous-mentioned applications. Fig. 9B shows the 



WO 01/95330 PCT/EP01/05561 

8 

remapping of these locations to spare area according to an embodiment of the invention. 
Packet 1 is spared from too many overwrites by file system used of other sectors. This is 
done by replacing the complete packet as mentioned before. However the sector retains boot 
and ISO 9660 capabilities. Sectors 256, n-256 and n contains non UDF data, which prevents 
5 UDF to start and ISO 9660 to load the remapper driver. The General Purpose Area (GPA) 
contains the remapped sectors. 

The effect of the above structure applied to CD-RW media, when inserted into 
a drive with remapping capability or a legacy drive with remapping device-driver is (case 1) : 
a) enabling UDF reading when this file system is available on the PC 

10 b) showing the content of the ISO structure when no UDF reader is installed on the system. 
In this case the ISO-structure 2 can be used to show a message to the end user (no UDF 
available, where/how to get one, eventually even a URL for downloading a suitable UDF 
reader-driver from the internet) 

When the same disc is inserted into a drive without remapping capability, for a 

15 system without remapping-driver, this will result in (case 2) : 

a) launching the remapper-driver on the disk, as a result of loading the media by the PC- 
system via the ISO-link applied in ISO-structure-1 (links into a remapper driver on disk, 
eventually accompanied by a user-message) 

b) after a boot, the PC will have full remapping capability, and resultantly from then act same 
20 as a solution according to "case 1" 

The effect during powering on of the PC-system is (case 3): 
Due to the fact that original location and spared location are assured to keep the same content 
(see definition above), independent of the presence of a remapping capabilities of the PC- 
system (drive or driver), the PC-system will always obtain the correct boot-information (ref 
25 EL-TORITO mechanism). 

It is chosen to spare sector 17 at the formatting time of the media, in order to 
prevent that the packet containing sector- 17 can be worn out by DOW from other use prior to 
adding the boot-information. This way, sector 17 can be saved for later use, until the original 
sector- 17 will be filled in as boot sector. This way original location sector- 17 can 
30 safeguarded to allow legacy-system boot-compatibility 

Obviously, after execution of the boot, the drive will return as "case 1" or 

"case 2". 

Legacy drives/systems, although in some cases equipped with the suitable 
UDF file-system, should be prevented from writing to this medium (case 4): 



WO 01/95330 PCT/EP01/05561 

9 

Legacy drives do not have all capabilities required to cope correctly with the 
updating the defect-management-structures on the disk of the new CD-RW format (no 
sparing capability + nor ability to update MDT in the Lead-in). 

As a result, it is wise to restricted these systems to read-only from this type of 
5 media (otherwise this could lead to incidental data-loss or data-corruption). This can be 

achieved easily by making sure the read-remapper-driver (installed between drive and host) 
will not allow write commands to the drive. This way the drive will automatically be limited 
to read-only behavior. 

Finally it is remarked that although he invention has been described with 
10 reference to preferred embodiments thereof, it is to be understood that these are not limitative 
examples. Thus, various modifications thereof may become apparent to those skilled in the 
art, without departing from the scope of the invention, as defined by the claims. For instance 
a CD-RW may be replaced with a DVD-RW or the like. The method may be implemented in 
firmware in a drive or in an application controlling the drive. 
15 The applicability of the same proposal to other file systems , for example UDF 

1.02 +CD-RW and UDF with DVD+RW is obvious. 

The invention may be implemented by means of both hardware and software, 
and that several "means" may be represented by the same item of hardware. Further, the 
invention lies in each and every novel feature or combination of features. It is also remarked 
20 that the word "comprising" does not exclude the presence of other elements or steps than 
those listed in a claim. Any reference signs do not limit the scope of the claims. 



WO 01/95330 PCT/EP01/05561 

10 

CLAIMS: 



1. A method of recording digital information on a removable disc like recording 
medium, such as on optical disc, the method comprising: 

submitting fixed sized packets of user information for recording on the disc, 
the packets having a minimum packet size, 
5 allocating said packets to continuous sectors on the disc in a data area, said 

sectors having a minimum addressable sector size smaller than the minimum packet size, 
wherein said allocating comprises reallocating defect areas to a spare area on the disc, and 

recording said packets on the disc along a spiral track, 

characterized by, 

10 reallocating defect areas by a replacement area in a spare area, the size of the 

replacement area being substantially smaller than the minimum packet size. 

2. Method according to claim 1, wherein the minimum size of the replacement 
area is equal to the minimum addressable sector size. 

15 

3. Method according to claim 1, wherein the minimum size of the replacement 
area occupies less then one revolution of the spiral track 

4. Method according to claim 1, characterized by 

20 recording a defect table containing pointers to replacement areas, the size of 

the defect table being flexible. 

5. Method according to claim 2, characterized by 
repeating pointers in the defect table in spatial order. 

25 

6. An apparatus for recording digital information signals on a removable disc like 
recording medium, such as an optical disc, the apparatus comprising: 

input means for receiving signals representing fixed sized packets of user 
information for recording on the disc, the packets having a minimum packet size, 



WO 01/95330 PCT/EP01/05561 

11 

allocating means for allocating said packets to continuous sectors on the disc 
in a data area, said sectors having a minimum addressable sector size smaller than the 
minimum packet size, 

defect management means for reallocating defect areas to a spare area on the 

5 disc, 

recording means for recording the signals representing user data along a spiral 
track on the disc, 

characterized in that, 

the defect management means are adapted to reallocate defect areas by a 
10 replacement area in the spare area, the size of the replacement area being substantially 
smaller than the minimum packet size. 

7. An apparatus according to claim 6, characterized in that, 

the minimum size of the replacement area is equal to the minimum 
15 addressable sector size. 

8. An apparatus according to claim 6, characterized in that, 

the minimum size of the replacement area occupies less than one revolution of 
the spiral track. 

20 

9. An apparatus according to claim 8, characterized in that, 

the defect management means are adapted to record a defect table containing 
pointers to replacement areas, the size of the defect table being flexible. 



25 



10. An apparatus according to claim 9, characterized in that, 

the defect management means are adapted to record pointers in the defect table 
repeatedly in spatial order. 



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