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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 

International Bureau 




(43) International Publication Date (10) International Publication Number 

25 March 2004 (25.03.2004) PCT WO 2004/025648 Al 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : 



(74) Agent: LEE, Young-Pil; The Cheonghwa Building, 
1571-18, Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-874 (KR). 



(22) International Filing Date: 

9 September 2003 (09.09.2003) 



(25) Filing Language: 



(26) Publication Language: 



10 September 2002 (10.IW.2002) KR 

I (71) Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD. 
' [KR/KR]; 416, Maetan-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, 

j 442-742 Gyeonggi-do (KR). 

| (72) Inventors: KO, Jung-Wan; 315-401 Daewoo Apt., 
! 956-2, Cheongmyung Maeul 3-danji, Youngtong-dong, 
j Paldal-gu, Suwon-si, 442-470 Gyconggi-do (KR). LEE, 
| Kyung-Geun; 122-1002 Sibeom Hanshin Apt., 87, 
J Seohyun-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, 463-050 
= Gyconggi-do (KR). 



(81) Designated States (national): AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, 
AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, 
CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, 
GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KP, KZ, LC, 
LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, MK, MN, MW, 
MX, MZ, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, SC, 
SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SY, TJ, TM, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, 
UG, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 



(84) Designated States (regional): ARIPO patent (GH, GM, 
KE, LS, MW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), 
Eurasian patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
European patent (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, 
ES, FT, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PT, RO, 
SE, SI, SK, TR), OAPI patent (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, 
GA, GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Published: 

— with international search report 

For two-letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 
iim " N.'Uw "it ( \>cl<\\ aihl.\blnv\ Unions " aifcariiis • > ' the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 




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(57) Abstract: A method and apparatus for allocating a spare area to a recording medium, and a recording medium thereof. The 
method includes recording data in a data area of the recording medium according to a first recording operation, creating information 
' regarding the adjusted spare area size, based on a defect contained in the recorded data, recording the information regarding the spare 
area and inroriunlion regarding the defect, in the data recorded according Ln ihc first recording operation, as first temporary defect 
^ information in the data area, and recording defect management information for managing the first temporary defect information as 
first temporary defect management information in a temporary defect management information area which is present in at least one 
^ of a lead-in area, a lead-out area, and an outer area of the recording medium. 



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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ADAPTIVELY ALLOCATING A 
SPARE AREA IN A RECORDING MEDIUM, AND A RECORDING 
MEDIUM HAVING A SPARE AREA ALLOCATED USING THE SAME 

5 Technical Field 

The present invention relates to an allocating of a spare area to a 
recording medium, and more particularly, to a method and apparatus for 
allocating a spare area to a recording medium for defect management, 
and a recording medium thereof. 

10 Background Art 

Generally, for defect management purposes, a spare area is 
allocated to a data area of a recording medium. The allocation of the 
spare area causes the data area to be divided into a user data area and 
the spare area. The spare area is an area of the recording medium 
15 reserved for use when a defect occurs in the data area. When the 
defect occurs, user data can be recorded in the spare area, thereby 
enabling a complete recording of user data to a recording medium. 

In general, the allocating, in the recording medium, of the spare 
area is performed during initialization. A ratio of the spare area to the 
20 data area is determined based on a defect rate of a recording medium, 
the characteristics of data to be recorded, the size of the data area, etc. 

However, when defects occur more frequently than expected, the 
spare area may become entirely filled with data, before completing data 
recording in the user data area. The exhaustion of the spare area 
25 prevents defect management from being performed on the remaining 
portion of the user data area. In contrast, a large part of the spare area 
may be left to be unused when defects occur less frequently than 
expected. In the former case, the size of the spare area, associated 
with the data area, ends up being excessively small, whereas in the latter 



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case, the size of the spare area ends up being excessively large. For 
both cases, the data area is not efficiently used. 

Defect management can be defined as a rewriting of user data, of 
a portion of a user data area in which a defect is detected, in a new 
5 portion of data area of a recording medium, thereby compensating for a 
loss in data caused by the defect. In general, defect management is 
performed using linear replacement or slipping replacement. In linear 
replacement, a user data area, in which a defect occurs, is replaced with 
a spare data area having no defects. In slipping replacement, user data 
10 recorded in a user data area having a defect is slipped to be recorded in 
the next user data area having no defects. 

Both linear replacement and slipping replacement are applicable 
only to recording media such as a DVD-RAM/RW on which data can be 
repeatedly recorded and where recording can be performed using a 

15 random access method. It is difficult to apply linear replacement and 
slipping replacement to a write once recording medium, where recording 
is allowed only once. In general, the presence of defects in a recording 
medium is detected by recording data on the recording medium and 
confirming, based on the recorded data, whether or not data can be 

20 recorded on the recording medium. However, once data is recorded on 
a write once recording medium, it is impossible to overwrite new data 
and manage defects therein. 

Meanwhile, after the development of CD-Rs and DVD-Rs, 
high-density write once recording media have been introduced, with the 

25 high-density write once recording media having a recording capacity of 
several dozens of giga-bytes (GB). These recording media can be used 
as backup recording media, since they are not expensive and allow 
random access which enables fast reading operations. However, defect 
management is not available for write once recording media. Therefore, 

30 a backup operation is discontinued when a defective area, i.e., an area 

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where a defect occurs, is detected during the backup operation, because 
defect management on a write once recording medium is not performed. 
In general, a backup operation is performed when a system is not 
frequently used, e.g., at night when a system manager does not operate 
5 the system. In this case, it is more likely that a backup operation is 
stopped when a defective area of a write once recording medium is 
detected. 

Disclosure of the Invention 

10 The present invention provides a method and apparatus for more 

efficiently allocating a spare area to a recording medium according to an 
occurrence rate of defects in the recording medium, thus enabling 
efficient use of a data area, and a recording medium having a spare area 
allocated thereon using these methods and apparatuses. 

15 The present invention also provides a method and apparatus for 

allocating a spare area to a write once recording medium according to an 
occurrence rate of defects in the recording medium, thus enabling 
efficient use of a data area, and a recording medium having a spare area 
allocated thereon using these methods and apparatuses. 

20 Additional aspects and/or advantages of the invention will be set 

forth in part in the description which follows and, in part, will be obvious 
from the description, or may be learned by practice of the invention. 

According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided 
a method of allocating a spare area for a recording medium, including 
25 recording data in a data area of the recording medium according to a first 
recording operation, creating information regarding an adjustment of a 
size of an allocated spare area of the recording medium, based on a 
defect detected in the recorded data during the first recording operation, 
recording the information regarding the adjustment of the size of the 



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spare area and information regarding the defect, in the data recorded 
according to the first recording operation, as first temporary defect 
information in the data area of the recording medium, and recording 
defect management information to the recording medium for managing 
5 the first temporary defect information as first temporary defect 

management information in a temporary defect management information 
area of the recording medium in at least one of a lead-in area, a lead-out 
area, and an outer area of the recording medium. 

There may be a repeating of another recording of data in the data 
10 area, a recording of another spare area size adjustment information, a 
recording of additional defect information, and recording of defect 
management information on the recording medium, and creating 
information regarding the additional adjusted spare area size while 
increasing an index of another recording operation, another temporary 
15 defect information area, and the temporary defect management 
information, by 1 , and a recording a lastly recorded temporary defect 
management information and temporary defect information in a defect 
management area (DMA) of the recording medium in at least one of the 
lead-in area, the lead-out area, and the outer area of the recording 
20 medium. 

The creating of the information regarding the adjustment of the 
size of the allocated spare area may include calculating an occurrence 
rate of defects, and creating information regarding the adjustment of the 
size of the allocated spare area based on the calculated occurrence rate. 
25 The creating of the information regarding the adjustment of the size of 
the allocated spare area based on the calculated occurrence rate may 
use the occurrence rate of defects and the adjustment of the size of the 
allocated spare area, or the occurrence rate of defects and a mapping 
table in which possible positions of the spare area are mapped. 



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The recording of data in the data area of the recording medium 
according to the first recording operation may include recording data in 
predetermined units of data on the recording medium, verifying the 
recorded data to detect an area of the recorded data in which a defect 
5 occurs, storing information designating the area having the defect and 
subsequent area, in which data is recorded after the area having the 
defect, as a defective area, in memory, recording data, on the recording 
medium, after the defective area in predetermined units, and the 
recording of the adjustment of the size of the allocated spare area and 
10 the defect information comprises reading the first temporary defect 
information from the memory and recording the read first temporary 
defect information in a first temporary defect information area of the data 
area on the recording medium. 

According to another aspect of the present invention, there is 
15 provided a a recording or recording and reproducing apparatus, including 
a recording/reading unit to record/read data on/from a recording medium, 
and a controller to control the recording/reading unit to record information, 
regarding a defect in data recorded in a data area of the recording 
medium according to a first recording operation, as first temporary defect 
20 information in the data area, to adjust a size of a spare area, of the 
recording medium, based on the defect and to control the 
recording/reading unit to record information regarding an adjustment of a 
size of the spare area in a first temporary defect management 
information area, and to control the recording/reading unit to record 
25 defect management information to manage the first temporary defect 
information area as first temporary defect management information in a 
temporary defect management information area on the recording 
medium in at least one of a lead-in area and a lead-out area of the 
recording medium. 



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The controller may control the recording/reading unit to record 
data in the data area while increasing an index of another recording 
operation, another temporary defect information, and another temporary 
defect management information, by 1, and control the recording/reading 
5 unit to record a lastly recorded temporary defect management 

information and temporary defect information in a defect management 
area, on the recording medium in at least one of the lead-in area and the 
lead-out area of the recording medium. 

The controller may calculate an occurrence rate of defects in the 
10 data recorded according to the first recording operation and adjusts the 
adjustment of a size of the allocated spare area based on the calculated 
occurrence rate. 

The controller may control the recording unit to record data in 
predetermined units of data according to a predetermined recording 
operation, verifie the recorded data to detect the defect in the recorded 
data, creating defective area information, used to designate an area of 
the recording medium having the defect and data recorded after the area 
having the defect, as a defective area, and store the defective area 
information as an ith temporary defect information in a memory, control 
the recording unit to record data in predetermined units of data after the 
defective area according to the predetermined recording operation, and 
control the recording/reading unit to read the ith temporary defect 
information from the memory after completing recording of data 
according to the predetermined recording operation and record the read 
data in an ith temporary defect information area of the data area on the 
recording medium. 

According to a further aspect of the present invention, there is 
provided a write once recording medium having a single record layer in 
which a lead-in area, a data area, and a lead-out area are sequentially 
30 formed, the recording medium including a defect management area on 

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the recording medium in at least one of the lead-in area and the lead-out 
area, and a temporary defect management information area which is 
present in at least one of the lead-in area and the lead-out area and in 
which information regarding a spare area is recorded to enable defect 
5 management of the recording medium. 

Brief Description of the Drawings 

The above and/or other aspects and advantages of the present 
invention will become more apparent by describing in detail 
10 embodiments thereof with reference to the attached drawings in which: 

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a recording apparatus according to an 
embodiment of the present invention; 

FIGS. 2A and 2B illustrate structures of recording media according 
to an embodiment of the present invention; 
15 FIG. 3 illustrates structures of the recording media shown in FIGS. 

2Aand2B; 

FIG. 4 is a detailed diagram illustrating recording operations 
according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating a relationship between a spare area 
20 and spare area information; 

FIGS. 6A and 6B illustrate data structures of temporary defect 
information #1 and #2 according to an embodiment of the present 
invention; 

FIG. 7 illustrates a data structure of a spare area according to an 
25 embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 8 illustrates a data structure of a spare area according to 
another embodiment of the present invention; and 

FIG. 9 is a flowchart illustrating a method for allocating a spare 
area to a recording medium according to an embodiment of the present 
30 invention. 



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Best mode for carrying out the Invention 

The present invention will now be described more fully with 
reference to the accompanying drawings, in which embodiments of the 
invention are shown. 

5 FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a recording apparatus according to an 

embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 1 , the recording 
apparatus includes a recording/reading unit 1, a controller 2, and a 
memory 3. The recording/reading unit 1 records data on a recording 
medium 100, e.g., an optical disc, and reads the data from the recording 

10 medium 100 so as to verify the accuracy of the recorded data. The 
controller 2 performs defect management and allocates a spare area to 
the recording medium 100 according to an occurrence rate of defects. 
For instance, the controller 2 increases the size of the spare area in the 
recording medium 100 when the occurrence rate of defects is larger than 

15 a predetermined threshold, and reduces the size of the spare area when 
the occurrence rate is smaller than the predetermined threshold. 
Information regarding the adjusted spare area size is recorded in a 
temporary defect information area of the recording medium 100, 
explained below in more detail. Here, there is no limit regarding a range 

20 of the predetermined threshold. However, the predetermined threshold 
is generally appropriately determined based on a general occurrence 
rate of defects. 

In this embodiment, the controller 2 uses a verify-after-write 
method. That is, the controller 2 controls the recording/reading unit 1 to 

25 record data in predetermined units and verify the accuracy of the 
recorded data. Next, the controller 2 creates defect information 
indicating the position of a defective area of the recording medium 100 
and stores it in the memory 3. Every time defect information is created, 
new defect information is stored in the memory 3. When the amount of 

30 the defect information reaches a predetermined level, the controller 2 

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records the defect information as temporary defect information on the 
recording medium 100. The controller 2 calculates the occurrence rate 
of defects and adjusts the size of the spare area based on the calculated 
occurrence rate. Information regarding the adjusted spare area size is 
5 added to the defect information for recording in the temporary defect 
information area of the recording medium 1 00. The temporary defect 
information and management information for managing spare area 
information are recorded as temporary defect management information 
on the recording medium 100. 

10 In this embodiment, the adjusted spare area size is periodically 

recorded in recording operation units. Thus, the spare area information 
as well as the temporary defect information is periodically recorded in 
recording operation units. In general, the recording operation is a unit of 
work determined according to user's intention or a recording work to be 

15 performed. According to this embodiment, a recording operation 

indicates a process in which the recording medium 100 is loaded into the 
recording apparatus, data is recorded on the recording medium 100, and 
the recording medium 100 is taken out from the recording apparatus. 
During the recording operation performed several times, generally data is 

20 recorded and verified at least once. Defect information obtained after 
the verify-after-write method is stored as the temporary defect 
information in the memory 3. 

When a user presses an eject button (not shown), of the recording 
apparatus, in order to remove the recording medium 100 after recording 
25 of data, the controller 2 expects the recording operation to be terminated. 
Then, the controller 2 adjusts the size of the spare area based on the 
temporary defect information stored in the memory 3. Further, the 
controller 2 controls the spare area information and the temporary defect 
information and the management information, for managing the 



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temporary defect information, to be recorded as the temporary defect 
management information on the recording medium 100. 

If the recording of data on the recording medium 100 is completed, 
no more data will be recorded on the recording medium 100, i.e., the 
5 recording medium 100 is to be finalized, and the controller 2 records the 
temporary defect information and the temporary defect management 
information in a defect management area (DMA) of the recording 
medium 100. 

FIGS. 2Aand 2B illustrate structures of the recording medium 100 
10 of FIG. 1 according to embodiments of the present invention. In detail, 
FIG. 2A illustrates the recording medium 100 having a single record layer 
recording medium with a record layer L0. The recording medium 100 
includes a lead-in area, a data area, and a lead-out area. The lead-in 
area is located in an inner radial portion of the recording medium 100 
15 and the lead-out area is located in an outer radial portion of the recording 
medium 1 00. The data area is present between the lead-in area and 
the lead-out area, and divided into a user data area and a spare area, 
with the user data area being an area where user data is recorded 

According to embodiments of the present invention, the size of a 
20 spare area is variable because the size can be adjusted based on the 
occurrence rate of defects in the recording medium 1 00. The spare 
area substitutes for the user data area having a defect to ensure that 
data being recorded to the user data area is not lost, due to the defect. 
Preferably, the spare area initially amounts to about 5% of the entire data 
25 capacity of the recording medium 100, so that more data can be 

recorded on the recording medium 100. Also, it is preferable that the 
spare area is located at an end of a recording area of the recording 
medium 100. Especially, in the case of a write once recording medium, 
the spare area must be located at an end of a recording area of the 
30 recording medium so that slipping replacement is performed while the 

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spare area data is recorded, starting from an inner radial portion toward 
an outer radial portion of the recording medium 100. 

FIG. 2B illustrates a recording medium 100 being a double record 
layer recording medium with two recording layers L0 and L1 . A lead-in 
5 area, a data area, and an outer area are sequentially formed from an 
inner radial portion of the first record layer L0 to an outer radial portion. 
Also, an outer area, a data area, and a lead-out area are sequentially 
formed from an outer radial portion of the second record layer L1 to an 
inner radial portion. Unlike the single record layer recording medium of 

10 FIG. 2A, the lead-out area of recording medium 100 in FIG. 2B is present 
in the inner radial portion of the recording medium 100. That is, the 
recording medium 100 of FIG. 2B has an opposite track path (OTP) 
where data is recorded starting from the lead-in area of the first record 
layer L0 toward the outer area and continues from the outer area of the 

15 second record layer L1 to the lead-out area. The respective spare 
areas are allocated in the first and second record layers L0 and L1 . In 
the recording medium 100 of FIG 2B, the spare areas are allocated at 
the end of each recording layer the recording medium 100, in a recording 
direction, so that their sizes can be changed while data is recorded, 

20 when slipping replacement is performed along the OTP. 

FIG. 3 illustrates an example of the structure of the recording 
medium 100 shown in FIGS. 2Aand 2B, according to another 
embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 3, a DMA is 
present in at least one of a lead-in area, a lead-out area, and an outer 
25 area of the recording medium 100. Also, a temporary defect 

management area is formed in at least one of the lead-in area and the 
lead-out area. During every recording operation, a temporary defect 
information area is formed in the data area and the size of a spare area 
is adjusted and re-allocated. 



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In general, information which relates to managing defects in the 
recording medium 100 is recorded in the DMA. Such information 
includes a structure of the recording medium 100 for defect management, 
the position of defect information, whether defect management is 
5 performed or not, and the position and size of a spare area, for example. 
In the case of a write once recording medium, new data is recorded 
after previously recorded data when the previously recorded data 
changes. In general, when a recording medium is loaded into a 
recording or recording and reproducing apparatus, the apparatus reads 

10 data from a lead-in area and a lead-out area of the recording medium to 
determine how to manage the recording medium and how to record or 
read data to or from the recording medium. However, if the amount of 
data recorded in the lead-in area increases, more time will be spent 
preparing the recording or reproducing of data after loading the recording 

15 medium. Accordingly, embodiments of the present invention utilize 
temporary defect management information and temporary defect 
information. That is, only the temporary defect management information, 
which is comparatively more important than the temporary defect 
information, is recorded in the lead-in area and the temporary defect 

20 information is recorded in the data area. Information regarding the 
spare area is recorded in the temporary defect information area. 

It is preferable that new information is added to the previously 
recorded information in the temporary defect information so that all 
recorded information is accumulated therein. The recording/reproducing 
25 apparatus reads the last recorded temporary defect information to 
identify defects throughout the recording medium. Thus, information 
regarding the location of the last recorded temporary defect information 
is recorded in the temporary defect management information area where 
the temporary defect management information is recorded. 



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More specifically, information regarding a defect occurring in the 
recorded data, and information regarding the size of the spare area, 
adjusted during recording operation #1 , are recorded in temporary defect 
information area #1 . Also, information regarding a defect occurring 
5 during recording operation #2, and information regarding the size of the 
spare area adjusted during recording operation #2, are recorded in 
temporary defect information area #2. Defect management information 

for managing temporary defect information areas #1 , #2 #i is 

recorded in the temporary defect management information area, with i 

10 being an integer. If no more data can be recorded on the recording 
medium 100 or a user does not want to record any more data on the 
recording medium 100, the recording medium 100 needs to be finalized 
and the temporary defect information, recorded in the temporary defect 
information area, and the temporary defect management information, 

15 recorded in the temporary defect management information area, are 
recorded in the DMA. Recording of information regarding the spare 
area is optional. 

The reason for recording the temporary defect management 
information and the temporary defect information in the DMA, will now be 

20 explained. When no more data is to be recorded on the recording 
medium 100, and the recording medium 100 needs to be finalized, the 
temporary defect management information, which is updated several 
times, and the temporary defect information recorded in the data area, 
are recorded in the DMA of the lead-in area, thereby enabling fast 

25 reading of information recorded in the recording medium 100. It is also 
possible to increase the reliability of reproducing the recorded 
information by recording the defect management information in a plurality 
of areas. 

In this embodiment, defect information recorded in temporary 
30 defect information areas #0 through #i-1 is repeatedly recorded in the 



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subsequent temporary defect information areas. Therefore, it is 
sufficient to read the defect information from the last temporary defect 
information area and record the read information in the DMA during the 
finalizing of the recording medium 100. Meanwhile, it is not preferable 
5 to record spare area information recorded in preceding temporary defect 
information areas #1, #2, #3,..., and #i-1 in temporary defect information 
area #i, because only recently updated spare area information is 
available. 

In the case of a high-density recording medium having recording 
io capacity of several dozens of GB, e.g., high-density blue ray optical disc, 
it is desirable that a great amount of temporary defect management 
information #i, which is recorded in the temporary defect management 
information area and corresponds to temporary defect information area 
#i, is assigned about 1 cluster, with the size of temporary defect 
15 information area #i being set from 4 to 8 clusters. This is because it is 
preferable to record new information in units of clusters in order to 
update information when a minimum physical recording unit is a cluster, 
although the amount of information recorded in temporary defect 
information area #i is just about several KB. Meanwhile, it is preferable 
20 that a total amount of defects allowed in a recording medium be about 5 
percent of the recording medium recording capacity. For instance, 
about 4-8 clusters are required to record temporary defect information #i, 
considering that information regarding a defect assumes about 8 bytes 
and the size of a cluster is about 64 KB. 

25 The verify-after-write method can be performed in temporary 

defect information area #i and temporary defect management 
information #i. When a defect is detected, information is recorded again 
in adjacent areas. 

FIG. 4 is a detailed diagram illustrating recording operations 
30 according to an embodiment of the present invention. 



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In the embodiment represented by FIG. 4, data may be processed 
in units of sectors or clusters. A sector denotes a minimum unit of data 
that is managed in a file system of a computer or an application, and a 
cluster denotes a minimum unit of data that can be physically recorded 
5 on a recording medium at one time. In general, one or more sectors 
constitute a cluster. 

There are two types of sectors: a physical sector and a logical 
sector. The physical sector is an area where a sector of data may be 
recorded on a recording medium. An address for detecting the physical 

10 sector is called a physical sector number (PSN). The logical sector is a 
sector unit for managing data in a file system or an application recorded 
in physical sectors on the recording medium, and an address for 
detecting the logical sector is called a logical sector number (LSN). A 
recording/reproducing apparatus detects the position of data to be 

15 recorded on a recording medium using a PSN. Whole data is managed 
in units of LSNs in a computer or an application which records data on a 
recording medium, i.e., the position of data to be recorded is detected 
using the LSN. The relationship between a LSN and a PSN is 
controlled by a controller of the recording/reproducing apparatus, based 

20 on whether or not a recording medium contains a defect, where the 
defect is present, and a physical sector number of an initial position of 
recording data. 

Referring to FIG. 4, A denotes a data area in which PSNs have 
been allocated to a plurality of sectors (not shown) in ascending order. 
25 In general, each LSN corresponds to at least one PSN. However, since 
LSNs are allocated to sectors, except for a defective sector, in ascending 
order, correspondences between individual PSNs and LSNs are not 
maintained when a recording medium has a defective area, even if the 
size of a physical sector is the same as that of a logical sector. 



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In FIG. 4, data unit sections CD through (9) denote a series of 
recorded units of data, with corresponding verifications being performed 
after each recording. In detail, a recording apparatus records user data 
in section ®, returns to the start of section ®, and starts checking if the 
5 user data has been appropriately recorded or whether a defect has 
occurred. If a defect is detected, an area covering the defect and data 
recorded after the defect in section (D is designated as defect area #1 . 
Next, the recording apparatus records the user data in section (D, 
returns to the start of section (2), and checks if the user data is 
10 appropriately recorded or whether a defect has occurred. If a defect is 
detected, an area covering the defect and data recorded after the defect 
in section (D is designated as defect area #2. Likewise, defect area #3 
is designated in section (3). However, since a defect is not detected in 
section (D, a defective area is not designated in section ©. 

15 Because the recording medium 100, according to an embodiment 

of the present invention, is a write once recording medium, it is desirable 
that data recorded after an area having a defect is not used and an area 
covering data recorded after the defect is designated a defective area, as 
well as the area covering the defect. Assuming that LSN i is allocated to 

20 an area where data is recorded, after an area having a defect, in order to 
use the data, the area where data is recorded after the area having LSN i 
must be denoted as LSN i-1 for data reproduction. However, if there is 
a section to which LSNs are not allocated, in ascending order, it is not 
easy to manage logic sectors. Therefore, in this embodiment, all of data 

25 areas after a defective area are also regarded as being defective areas, 
thereby increasing the efficiency of managing logic sectors. 

The size of the spare area is readjusted based on the number of 
previously detected defects, when recording operation #1 is expected to 
end, after the recording and verifying of data to the section ©, i.e., when 



16 



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a user presses an eject button of a recording apparatus or recording of 
user data during recording operation #1 is completed. Information 
regarding defects #1 through #3, occurring in the sections ® through ©, 
and spare area information are recorded in temporary defect information 
5 area #1 . Thus, temporary defect information area #1 contains 

information of defective areas for recording operation #1 , and information 
regarding the adjusted spare area size. Further, the size of the spare 
area is also readjusted in consideration of defects occurring in sections 
© - ®, when recording operation #2 is expected to end. Temporary 
10 defect information #2 contains information of defective areas for 

recording operation #2, the information recorded in temporary defect 
information area #1, and spare area information. 

FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating a relationship between a spare area 
and the spare area information. Referring to FIG. 5, the spare area 

15 information is recorded in temporary defect information areas #1 and #2, 
for example. When recording operation #1 is expected to end, the size 
of the spare area is adjusted and information regarding the adjusted 
spare area size is recorded in temporary defect information area #1 . 
The spare area information recorded in temporary defect information 

20 area #1 holds information regarding the spare area, the size of which is 
adjusted. Similarly, the spare area information recorded in temporary 
defect information area #2 holds information regarding the spare area, 
the size of which is again adjusted. After termination of recording 
operation #2, the spare area information is updated and recorded in 

25 temporary defect information area #2. 

FIGS. 6A and 6B illustrate data structures of temporary defect 
information #1 and #2 according to embodiments of the present 
invention. Referring to FIG. 6A, temporary defect information #1 
contains information regarding defects #1 through #3. The information 
30 regarding the defect #1 describes the position of the defect #1 , the 



17 



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information regarding the defect #2 describes the position of the defect 
#2, and the information regarding the defect #3 describes the position of 
the defect #3. 

Information regarding temporary defect information #1 is further 
5 contained in temporary defect information #1 . The information 
regarding temporary defect information #1 includes the position of 
temporary defect information #1 . However, temporary defect 
information #1 does not contain user data, and thus, it is not reproduced 
as user data during reproduction of user data. That is, for the 

10 reproduction of the user data, it is meaningless to distinguish between 
defective area #i and temporary defect information #1 because the user 
data is not contained therein. In conclusion, temporary defect 
information #1 contains information regarding its position, i.e., 
information regarding temporary defect information #1 , and thus can be 

15 used as useful information, for example, to indicate that the information 
is temporary defect information and not user data. 

In addition, information regarding the spare area is contained in 
temporary defect information #1 . The information regarding the spare 
area provides information regarding the spare area set after termination 
20 of recording operation #1 , enabling a recording apparatus to detect the 
position and size of the spare area for recording operation #2. 

Referring to FIG. 6B, temporary defect information #2 contains 
information regarding defects #4 and #5, in addition to the information 
contained in temporary defect information #1 . Temporary defect 

25 information #2 also contains information regarding temporary defect 
information #2, which indicates the position of temporary defect 
information #2, for the same reason as in temporary defect information 
#1 . Also, spare area information is further contained in temporary 
defect information #2. The information regarding the spare area 

30 provides information regarding the spare area set after termination of 



WO 2004/025648 



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recording operation #2, enabling a recording apparatus to detect the 
position and size of the spare area for a next recording operation. 

In this embodiment, information regarding defect #i includes 
information regarding the state of, e.g., state information, and the starting 
5 and ending positions of defect #i. In general, the state information is 
understood to be flag information that indicates whether a present area 
is a defective area or an area where temporary defect information is 
recorded. In the information regarding defect #i, the state information is 
the flag information which indicates that the present area is a defective 

10 area. The information regarding the starting position represents the 
start of the present area, i.e., the start of the defect #i. The information 
regarding the ending position represents the end of the present area, i.e., 
the end of the defect #i. Information regarding temporary defect 
information #i also includes information regarding the state of and the 

15 starting and ending positions of temporary defect information #i. In 
general, the state information is understood to be flag information that 
indicates whether a present area is a defective area where a defect 
occurs or an area where temporary defect information is recorded. In 
the information regarding temporary defect information #i, the state 

20 information is the flag information which indicates that the present area is 
an area in which temporary defect information is recorded, rather than a 
defective area. 

FIG. 7 illustrates a data structure of a spare area according to an 
embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 8 illustrates a data structure 
25 of a spare area according to another embodiment of the present 
invention. 

Referring to FIG. 7, spare area information indicates a starting 
position of the spare area. The starting position can be represented 
with a PSN. Referring to FIG. 8, spare area information indicates a size 
30 of the spare area. In this embodiment, since the ending position of the 

19 



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spare area is fixed, it is possible to easily detect the starting position of 
the spare area based on the information regarding the size of the spare 
area. 

FIG. 9 is a flowchart illustrating a method of allocating a spare 
5 area in a recording medium according to an embodiment of the present 
invention. Referring to FIG. 9, in operation 901 , a recording apparatus 
creates information regarding a defect in the data area, which is 
recorded on the recording medium according to a first recording 
operation, in order to manage a defect occurring in the recording medium. 

10 In operation 902, an occurrence rate of defects is calculated based on 
the defect in the data recorded, according to the first recording operation, 
and a size of a spare area is adjusted based on the calculated 
occurrence rate. Here, the recording apparatus may include a mapping 
table in which information regarding the sizes (or positions) of the spare 

15 area, which correspond to several occurrence rates of defects, is 

mapped for adjustment of the size of the spare area. In operation 903, 
the recording apparatus records information regarding the adjusted 
spare area size, as well as the defect information created in operation 
901 , in a first temporary defect information area. In operation 904, the 

20 recording apparatus records first defect management information for 
managing the first temporary defect information area in a temporary 
defect management information area in the recording medium. 

Next, it is checked whether the recording medium needs to be 
finalized, in operation 905. If it is determined that the recording medium 

25 does not need to be finalized, operations 901 through 904 are repeated 
while an index, given to the recording operation, the temporary defect 
information area, and the temporary defect management information, is 
increased by 1 , in operation 906. In operation 907, if it is determined in 
operation 905 that the recording medium needs to be finalized, the last 

30 recorded temporary defect management information and the 



20 



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corresponding temporary defect information, are recorded in a DMA, and 
information of the position of the last recorded data is recorded in a data 
area. That is, the last recorded temporary defect management 
information and temporary defect information are recorded as the final 
5 temporary defect management information and temporary defect 

information in the DMA. It is preferable that the spare area information 
is not recorded in the DMA, because the presence of the spare area 
becomes meaningless once the recording medium is finalized. Instead, 
information regarding the position of recorded data in a user data area, 
10 i.e., PSNs and LSNs, are recorded in the DMA. 

The final temporary information and final defect management 
information may be repeatedly recorded in the DMA so as to increase the 
reliability of data detection. Further, the verify-after-write method may 
be performed on the final temporary defect management information and 

15 temporary defect information. If a defect is detected from these two 
pieces of information, an area of the recording medium in which the 
defect occurs, and data recorded after the area having the defect, may 
be regarded as being unavailable, i.e., they are designated as a 
defective area, and the final temporary defect management information 

20 and temporary defect information may be again recorded after the 
defective area. 

Meanwhile, in the aforementioned embodiments, the size of a 
spare area is periodically adjusted per recording operation, but a period 
of the adjustment is not limited. For instance, the size of the spare area 
25 may be adjusted for every other recording operation. 

Industrial Applicability 

As described above, the present invention provides a method and 
apparatus that allocate a spare area according to an occurrence rate of 
30 defects in a recording medium, resulting in efficient use of a data area, 

21 



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and a recording medium having a spare area thereon using methods and 
apparatuses of embodiments of the present invention. In particular, 
defects occurring in write once recording medium can be managed and a 
spare area can be allocated according to the occurrence rate of defects 
5 in a recording medium, whereby a data area can be efficiently used. 

While this invention has been particularly shown and described 
with reference to aspects thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in 
the art that various changes in form and details may be made therein 
without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by 
10 the appended claims.' 



22 



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What is claimed is : 

1 . A method of allocating a spare area for a recording medium, 
comprising: 

recording data in a data area of the recording medium according 
5 to a first recording operation- 
creating information regarding an adjustment of a size of an 
allocated spare area of the recording medium, based on a defect 
detected in the recorded data during the first recording operation; 

recording the information regarding the adjustment of the size of 
10 the spare area and information regarding the defect, in the data recorded 
according to the first recording operation, as first temporary defect 
information in the data area of the recording medium; and 

recording defect management information to the recording 
medium for managing the first temporary defect information as first 
15 temporary defect management information in a temporary defect 

management information area of the recording medium in at least one of 
a lead-in area, a lead-out area, and an outer area of the recording 
medium. 

20 2. The method of claim 1 , further comprising: 

repeating another recording of data in the data area, a recording 
of another spare area size adjustment information, a recording of 
additional defect information, and recording of defect management 
information on the recording medium, and creating information regarding 

25 the additional adjusted spare area size while increasing an index of 

another recording operation, another temporary defect information area, 
and the temporary defect management information, by 1 ; and 

recording a lastly recorded temporary defect management 
information and temporary defect information in a defect management 

30 area (DMA) of the recording medium in at least one of the lead-in area, 
the lead-out area, and the outer area of the recording medium. 



23 



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3. The method of claim 2, wherein the recording of the lastly 
recorded temporary defect management information and temporary 
defect information is performed after recording data in the data area 

5 according to a last recording operation. 

4. The method of claim 2, wherein the recording of the lastly 
recorded temporary defect management information and temporary 
defect information further comprises recording information regarding 

io position information of recorded data in the data area. 

5. The method of claim 4, wherein the recording of the lastly 
recorded temporary defect management information and temporary 
defect information further comprises recording at least one of a physical 

15 sector number and a logical sector number as the position information. 

6. The method of claim 1 , wherein the creating of the 
information regarding the adjustment of the size of the allocated spare 
area comprises: 

20 calculating an occurrence rate of defects; and 

creating information regarding the adjustment of the size of the 
allocated spare area based on the calculated occurrence rate. 

7. The method of claim 6, wherein the creating of the 

25 information regarding the adjustment of the size of the allocated spare 
area based on the calculated occurrence rate uses the occurrence rate 
of defects and the adjustment of the size of the allocated spare area, or 
the occurrence rate of defects and a mapping table in which possible 
positions of the spare area are mapped. 

30 



24 



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8. The method of claim 6, wherein the creating of the 
information regarding the adjustment of the size of the allocated spare 
area based on the calculated occurrence rate comprises using 
information regarding starting position of the spare area to create the 

5 adjustment of the size of the allocated spare area. 

9. The method of claim 6, wherein the creating of the 
information regarding the adjustment of the size of the allocated spare 
area based on the calculated occurrence rate comprises information 

10 regarding a size of the spare area as the spare area information. 

1 0. The method of claim 1 , wherein the recording of data in the 
data area of the recording medium according to the first recording 
operation comprises: 

15 recording data in predetermined units of data on the recording 

medium; 

verifying the recorded data to detect an area of the recorded data 
in which a defect occurs; 

storing information designating the area having the defect and 
20 subsequent area, in which data is recorded after the area having the 
defect, as a defective area, in memory; 

recording data, on the recording medium, after the defective area 
in predetermined units, and 

the recording of the adjustment of the size of the allocated spare 
25 area and the defect information comprises reading the first temporary 
defect information from the memory and recording the read first 
temporary defect information in a first temporary defect information area 
of the data area on the recording medium. 

30 11. The method of claim 10, wherein the recording of data in 

the data area of the recording medium according to the first recording 



25 



WO 2004/025648 



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operation further comprises recording, on the recording medium, 
information designating the first temporary defect information area as a 
defective area in the first temporary defect information area. 

5 12. The method of claim 1 , further comprising: 

repeating a cycling of another recording of data in the data area, a 
recording of additional defect information, and recording of defect 
management information on the recording medium for multiple recording 
operations; and 

10 alternately recording information regarding additional adjusted 

spare area size for sequential recording operations. 

1 3. The method of claim 1 , wherein the size of the spare area 
is reduced when an occurrence rate of defects is smaller than a 

15 predetermined threshold. 

14. The method of claim 1 , wherein the size of the spare area 
is increased when an occurrence rate of defects is greater than a 
predetermined threshold. 

20 

1 5. A recording or recording and reproducing apparatus, 
comprising: 

a recording/reading unit to record/read data on/from a recording 
medium; and 

25 a controller to control the recording/reading unit to record 

information, regarding a defect in data recorded in a data area of the 
recording medium according to a first recording operation, as first 
temporary defect information in the data area, to adjust a size of a spare 
area, of the recording medium, based on the defect and to control the 

30 recording/reading unit to record information regarding an adjustment of a 
size of the spare area in a first temporary defect management 



26 



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PCT/KR2003/001876 



information area, and to control the recording/reading unit to record 
defect management information to manage the first temporary defect 
information area as first temporary defect management information in a 
temporary defect management information area on the recording 
5 medium in at least one of a lead-in area and a lead-out area of the 
recording medium. 

16. The apparatus of claim 1 5, wherein the controller controls 
the recording/reading unit to record data in the data area while increasing 

10 an index of another recording operation, another temporary defect 

information, and another temporary defect management information, by 
1, and controls the recording/reading unit to record a lastly recorded 
temporary defect management information and temporary defect 
information in a defect management area, on the recording medium in at 

15 least one of the lead-in area and the lead-out area of the recording 
medium. 

1 7. The apparatus of claim 1 5, wherein the controller 
calculates an occurrence rate of defects in the data recorded according 

20 to the first recording operation and adjusts the adjustment of a size of the 
allocated spare area based on the calculated occurrence rate. 

18. The apparatus of claim 1 5, wherein the controller creates 
information regarding the adjustment of a size of the allocated spare 

25 area, based on an occurrence rate of defects and the spare area size, or 
the occurrence rate of defects and a mapping table in which possible 
positions of the spare area are mapped. 

1 9. The apparatus of claim 1 5, wherein the controller creates a 
30 starting position information of the spare area as spare area information. 



27 



WO 2004/025648 



PCT/KR2003/001876 



20. The apparatus of claim 1 5, wherein the controller creates 
information regarding a size of the spare area as spare area information. 



21 . The apparatus of claim 1 5, further comprising memory, and 
5 wherein the controller controls the recording unit to record data in 

predetermined units of data according to a predetermined recording 
operation, verifies the recorded data to detect the defect in the recorded 
data, creating defective area information, used to designate an area of 
the recording medium having the defect and data recorded after the area 
10 having the defect, as a defective area, and stores the defective area 
information as an ith temporary defect information in the memory, 
controls the recording unit to record data in predetermined units of data 
after the defective area according to the predetermined recording 
operation, and controls the recording/reading unit to read the ith 
15 temporary defect information from the memory after completing 

recording of data according to the predetermined recording operation 
and record the read data in an ith temporary defect information area of 
the data area on the recording medium. 



20 22. The apparatus of claim 15, wherein: 

the controller repeats a cycling of another recording of data in the 

data area, a recording of additional defect information, and recording of 

defect management information on the recording medium for multiple 

recording operations; and 
25 the controller alternately records information regarding additional 

adjusted spare area size for sequential recording operations. 



23. The apparatus of claim 15, wherein a size of the spare area 
is reduced when an occurrence rate of defects is smaller than a 
30 predetermined threshold. 



28 



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PCT/KR2003/001876 



24. The apparatus of claim 1 5, wherein a size of the spare area 
is increased when an occurrence rate of defects is greater than a 
predetermined threshold. 

5 25. A write once recording medium having a single record layer 

in which a lead-in area, a data area, and a lead-out area are sequentially 
formed, the recording medium comprising: 

a defect management area on the recording medium in at least 
one of the lead-in area and the lead-out area; and 
10 a temporary defect management information area which is 

present in at least one of the lead-in area and the lead-out area and in 
which information regarding a spare area is recorded to enable defect 
management of the recording medium. 

15 26. The recording medium of claim 25, wherein management 

information for managing the temporary defect management information 
area to be recorded in the temporary defect management information 
area. 

20 27. The recording medium of claim 25, wherein spare area 

information contains information regarding a starting position of the spare 
area. 

28. The recording medium of claim 25, wherein spare area 
25 information contains information regarding a size of the spare area. 

29. The recording medium of claim 25, wherein information 
indicating a position of user data in the data area, is recorded in the 
defect management area. 

30 



29 



WO 2004/025648 



PCT/KR2003/001876 



30. The recording medium of claim 25, wherein a size of the 
spare area is reduced when an occurrence rate of defects is smaller than 
a predetermined threshold. 

5 31 . The recording medium of claim 25, wherein a size of the 

spare area is increased when an occurrence rate of defects is greater 
than a predetermined threshold. 



30 



WO 2004/025648 



PCT/KR2003/001876 



1/8 
FIG. 1 



USER INPUT 



100- 



RECORDING/ 
READING UNIT 




CONTROLLER 














< 




J) 


MEMORY 



FIG. 2A 



LO 



DATA AREA 



LEAD-IN 
AREA 



USER DATA AREA 



SPARE 
AREA 



LEAD-OUT 
AREA 



FIG. 2B 



LO 



DATA AREA 



LEAD-IN 
AREA 



USER DATA AREA 



SPARE 
AREA 



OUTER 
AREA 



LEAD-OUT 
AREA 



SPARE 
AREA 



USER DATA AREA 



OUTER 
AREA 



DATA AREA 



PCT/KR2003/001876 



2/8 

FIG. 3 



TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT 
INFORMATION AREA 



TEMPORARY DEFECT 
INFORMATION AREA #1 



TEMPORARY DEFECT 
INFORMATION AREA #2 



LEAD-IN 
WLEAD-OUT 
AREA 



. DATA AREA 



SPARE AREA 



LEAD-OUT 
/OUTER 
AREA 



WO 2004/025648 



PCT/KR2003/001876 



3/8 



:noiiv^ojni: 

AHVHOdWBJ.: 



13333^ 



103330^ 



■NOIlV^dOJNI: 
^10333(3^ 
k AyVd0d^31 N 



103330$ 



^tj 10333 0^ 



© 



© 



© 



© 



© 



© 



© 



© 



0 



WO 2004/025648 



PCT/KR2003/001876 



4/8 



V3dV 3aVdS 



o 

I— I 

fx* 



T 



:N0llVWy0JNi: 
UUVU0dW3i: 



:5# 1O3J30; 



« 

:N0llVNd03Ni: 



133330^ 



§Z§ 133330$ 



jjt# 133330^ 



WO 2004/025648 



PCT/KR2003/001876 



5/8 

FIG. 6A 



TEMPORARY DEFECT 
INFORMATION #1 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #1 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #2 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #3 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
TEMPORARY DEFECT 
INFORMATION #1 

INFORMATION REGARDING 
S D ARE AREA 



WO 2004/025648 



PCT/KR2003/001876 



6/8 



FIG. 6B 



TEMPORARY DEFECT 
INFORMATION #2 



t 

INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #1 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #2 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #3 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
TEMPORARY DEFECT 
INFORMATION #1 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #4 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #5 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
TEMPORARY DEFECT 
INFORMATION #2 



INFORMATION REGARDING: 
• SPARE AREA. . 



WO 2004/025648 



PCT/KR2003/001876 



7/8 
FIG. 7 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
SPARE AREA 



INFORMATION REGARDING STARTING 
POSITION OF SPARE AREA 



FIG. 8 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
SPARE AREA 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
SPARE AREA SIZE 



WO 2004/025648 



PCT/KR2003/001876 



8/8 

FIG. 9 



Q START ^ 



CREATE INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT IN DATA RECORDED 
FIRST RECORDING OPERATION 



-901 



ADJUST THE SIZE OF SPARE AREA — 902 



RECORD SPARE AREA INFORMATION 
AND DEFECT INFORMATION IN FIRST [—903 
TEMPORARY DEFECT INFORMATION AREA 



RECORD MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 
FOR MANAGING FIRST TEMPORARY 

DEFECT INFORMATION AREA AS FIRST 
TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT 

INFORMATION IN TEMPORARY DEFECT 
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION AREA 



-904 




906 



INCREASE INDEX, WHICH IS 
GIVEN TO RECORDING 
OPERATION, TEMPORARY 
DEFECT INFORMATION AREA, 
AND TEMPORARY DEFECT 
MANAGEMENT 
INFORMATION BY 1 



RECORD LASTLY RECORDED SPARE 

AREA INFORMATION, TEMPORARY 
DEFECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION, 
AND TEMPORARY DEFECT INFORMATION 
IN DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA 



( END ) 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



International application No. 
PCT/KR03/01876 



A. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 
IPC7 Gil B 20/18 

According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 

B. FIELDS SEARCHED 

Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 

IPC 7 Gl IB 20/18 Gl IB 20/12 Gl IB 7/00 



Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 
Korea Patents and applications for inventions since 1975 
Korea Utility models and applications for utility models since 1975 



Electronic data base consulted during the intertnational search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) 
"defect", "manage", "WORM" or "write-once", "optical disc" 



C. DOCUMENTS CONSD3ERED TO I 



Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



| | Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box C. 



|x~j See patent family a 



* Special categories of cited documents: "T" later document published after the international filing date or priority 
"A" document defining the general state of the art which is not considered date and not in conflict with the application but cited to understand 

to be of particular relevance the principle or theory underlying the invention 
"E" earlier application or patent but published on or alter the international "X" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

filing date considered novel or cannot be considered to involve an inventive 
"L" document which may throw doubts on priority claim(s) or which is step when the document is taken alone 

cited to establish the publication date of citation or other "Y" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

special reason (as specified) considered to involve an inventive step when the document is 
"O" document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or other combined with one or more other such documents.such combination 

means being obvious to a person skilled in the art 
"P" document published prior to the international filing date but later "&" document member of the same patent family 

than the priority date claimed 


Date of the actual completion of the international search 
23 DECEMBER 2003 (23.12.2003) 


Date of mailing of the international search report 
24 DECEMBER 2003 (24.12.2003) 


Name and mailing address of the ISA/KR 

^P^^_ Korean Intellectual Property Office 

W 920 Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-701 , 

^.^P' Republic of Korea 

Facsimile No. 82-42-472-7140 


Authorized officer ^ . 

HAN, Choong Hee (^uSOu 
Telephone No. 82-42-481-5700 ^LjS 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 

Information on patent family members 



cited in search report 



International applicati 
PCT/KR03/01876 



Patent family 
member(s) 



US 6,385,146 B2 
EP 0350920 A2 
US 6,367,038 B1 

US 4,835,757 A 



07 MAY 2002 
17 JAN 2002 
02 APR 2002 

30 MAY 1989 



WO 


00/54274 A1 


14 


SEP 2000 


EP 


1043723 B1 


20 


FEB 2002 


JP 


02-23417 A 


25 


JAN 1990 


US 


5,111,444 A 


05 


MAY 1992 


KR 


2000-34797 A 


26 


JUN 2000 


JP 


2003-115171 A2 


18 


APR 2003 


EP 


1260933 A3 


02 


MAY 2003 


JP 


63-58672 A 


14 


MAR 1988 


DE 


3728857 A1 


10 


MAR 1988 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (patent family annex) (July 1998)