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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 

International Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
11 August 2005 (11.08.2005) 




PCT 



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(10) International Publication Number 

WO 2005/073971 A2 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : G11B 27/00 



(21) International Application Number: 



PCT/IB2005/050348 



(22) International Filing Date: 27 January 2005 (27.01.2005) 



(25) Filing Language: 

(26) Publication Language: 



English 
English 



(30) Priority Data: 

04100345.0 



30 January 2004 (30.01.2004) EP 



(71) Applicant (for all designated States except US): KONIN- 
KLUKE PHILIPS ELECTRONICS N.V. [NL/NL]; 
Groenewoudseweg 1, NL-5621 BA Eindhoven (NL). 

(72) Inventors; and 

(75) Inventors/Applicants (for US only): NIJBOER, Jakob, 

G. [NL/NL]; c/o Prof. Holstlaan 6, NL-5656 AA Eind- 
hoven (NL). IJTSMA, Pope [NL/NL]; c/o Prof. Holstlaan 
6, NL-5656 AA Eindhoven (NL). 

(74) Agents: UITTENBOGAARD, Frank et al.; Prof. Hoist 
laan 6, NL-5656 AA Eindhoven (NL). 

(81) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of national protection available): AE, AG, AL, AM, 
AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, 
CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, 
GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, 
KG, KP, KR, KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, 
MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MZ, NA, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, 
PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SY, TJ, TM, 



TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, US, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, 
ZW. 

(84) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of regional protection available): AR1PO (BW, GH, 
GM, KE, LS, MW, MZ, NA, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, 
ZW), Eurasian (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
European (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, 
FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IS, IT, LT, LU, MC, NL, PL, PT, RO, 
SE, SI, SK, TR), OAPI (BR BJ, CR CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, 
GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Declaration under Rule 4.17 : 

— as to applicant's entitlement to apply for and be granted 
a patent (Rule 4.17(H)) for the following designations AE, 
AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BW, BY, BZ, 
CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, 
EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, 
JP, KE, KG, KP, KR, KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, 
MD, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MZ, NA, NI, NO, NZ, OM, 
PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SM, SY, 
TJ, TM, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, 
ZM, ZW, ARIPO patent (BW, GH, GM, KE, LS, MW, MZ, 
NA, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), Eurasian patent (AM, 
AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), European patent (AT, 
BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, 
HU, IE, IS, IT, LT, LU, MC, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI, SK, 
TR), OAPI patent (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, GQ, 
GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG) 

Published: 

— without international search report and to be republished 
upon receipt of that report 

For two-letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 
ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations" appearing at the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



(54) Title: QUICK ACCESS TO DISC MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 



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Detec- 
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data area 



(57) Abstract: The invention relates to a method and a recording device for easy and quick access to record carrier management 
information stored on the record carrier itself. The invention further relates to a record carrier for use in such a method and recording 
device. 



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1 

Quick access to disc management information 



The current invention relates to a method and a recording device for recording 
information on a record carrier, especially a disc shaped record carrier of the write-once type, 
said record carrier comprising at least one area for storing disc management information. The 
current invention further relates to a record carrier, especially a disc shaped record carrier of 
5 the write-once type, comprising at least one area for storing disc management information. 

Optical recording systems, such as for example Blu-ray Disc, keep track of all 
sorts of disc management information during recording. Examples of such disc management 
information that needs to be tracked are the track and session structures of a disc, the location 

10 of defective area's on a disc, and the location of recorded and unrecorded areas on a disc. 

Generally, this disc management information needs to be updated many times during use of a 
disc. This is especially so in the case of random recording. 

For the purpose of storing and updating this disc management information, a 
special area is generally available on the disc itself. Such a special area is generally located in 

15 the Lead-in and/or the Lead-out zone of a disc. This special area may comprise, for example, 
a Defect List for storing the location of defective areas on a disc (and their replacement 
area's), and a Space Bit Map for storing the location of recorded and unrecorded areas, such 
as for example clusters, on a disc. Furthermore, tracks and sessions boundaries may be 
registered in this special area. In this application such a special area will be referred to as a 

20 Temporary Disc Management Area (TDMA). 

For a single layer disc (that is, a disc comprising a single information layer for 
storing the information to be recorded) this TDMA area is generally located in the Lead-in 
zone, and is referred to as TDMA0. For a dual layer disc (that is a disc comprising two 
information layers, referred to as layer L0 and layer LI) there is generally the same TDMA0 

25 area located in the Lead-in zone of layer L0, and additionally a second TDMA area, referred 
to as TDMA1, in the Lead-out zone of layer LI . In the Blu-ray Disc format specification both 
the TDMA0 and the TDMA1 are specified to have a fixed size of 2048 physical clusters. 

Especially for write-once discs, additional TDMA's may be defined to 
facilitate more storage space for storing the disc management information. These additional 



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areas may be useful when many updates are required, for example in the case of many ejects 
(possibly after short recordings), or when a more frequent update scheme is desired for more 
robustness, for example against power failures. In write-once discs the TDMA's cannot be 
overwritten (in contrast to rewritable discs), and therefore the additional storage space may 
5 be required. For example, a single layer write once disc may have, next to its TDMAO, at 
least one additional TDMA area (TDMA1 in figure 1), while a dual layer write once disc 
may have, next to its TDMAO and TDMA1, at least one additional TDMA area on layer L0 
and at least one on layer LI. In figure 2 these additional TDMA areas are called TDMA2, 
TDMA3, and TDMA4. 

10 Generally, the TDMA areas are allocated when a disc is initialised, at which 

time at least one TDMA area (TDMAO) is allocated for a single layer disc, and at least two 
TDMA areas (TDMAO and TDMA1) are allocated for a dual layer disc. Generally, the 
TDMA areas are used sequentially and in the following order: 
single layer disc: TDMAO -> TDMA1 ; 

15 dual layer disc: TDMAO TDMA1 ^ TDMA2 -> TDMA3 -» TDMA4 . 
Each TDMA area is generally filled up contiguously. 

In a Blu-ray Disc optical recording system the disc management information 
stored in a TDMA area on a disc is only updated for that parts that has changed. For example, 
when the Space Bit Map (SBM) of layer L0 (SBMO) has changed and the Space Bit Map of 

20 layer LI (SBM1) has not changed, only the updated Space Bit Map of layer L0 is written into 
the TDMA. A Temporary Disc Definition Sector (TDDS) contains pointers to the most recent 
version of the various structures in a TDMA (see figure 3). Now, a drive can find the most 
recent status by accessing the TDDS on a disc, reading the pointers, and subsequently 
accessing the relevant, and up-to-date, structures, like the SBMO and the SBM1 shown in 

25 figure 3. For this reason the last written cluster of a TDMA contains an up-to-date TDDS in a 
specific location (Data Frame 31 in cluster Z shown in figure 3) containing up-to-date 
pointers to the various structures. 

When a disc is inserted into a drive, the drive needs to find the TDMA that is 
30 in use as fast as possible. However, this can take some time. For example when the first n 
TDMA areas on a disc are already filled up and TDMA(n+l) is the TDMA area in use, the 
drive has to scan all the previous n TDMA areas before arriving at TDMA(n-J-l). Moreover, 
this scanning of a sequence of TDMA areas may take a very long time when parts of the 



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3 

sequence of TDMA areas is damaged, and the drive performs several retries before 
continuing to the next cluster. 

It is an object of the present invention to reduce this start-up time, especially 
5 when parts of the TDMA areas are damaged. This object is achieved by providing a method 
and a recording device as described below, and by providing a record carrier for use in the 
method and recording device according to the present invention. 

Both, a single layer disc and a dual layer disc comprise at least one TDMA 
10 area, that is the first TDMA area TDMAO. According to a first aspect of the present invention 
this first TDMA area, TDMAO, comprises signals indicating whether or not the first TDMA 
area itself and subsequent TDMA areas (in a sequence of TDMA areas) are in use. According 
to a second aspect of the present invention this first TDMA area, TDMAO, is followed by an 
area (referred to as Detection Area) which comprises signals indicating whether or not the 
15 first TDMA area and subsequent TDMA areas (in a sequence of TDMA areas) are in use. By 
retrieving information from these signals, a drive can jump directly to the last used TDMA 
area holding the most up-to-date disc management information. Now only information from 
the first TDMA area (that is, TDMAO) or the Detection Area needs to be retrieved, while all 
TDMA areas between this first TDMA area and the TDMA area holding the most up-to-date 
20 disc management information can be skipped. 

In a preferred embodiment the signals are in the form of the presence or 
absence of a high frequency (HF) mark. The indication used is the presence of a high 
frequency (HF) for a corresponding TDMA area in use on the disc. Now, the data content of 
the first TDMA area itself is not relevant for the detection. 

25 

The features and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the 
following more particular description of embodiments of the invention as illustrated in the 
accompanying drawings, where 

Fig. 1 shows an example of the locations of TDMA areas on a single layer 

30 disc, 

Fig. 2 shows an example of the locations of TDMA areas on a dual layer disc, 
Fig. 3 shows an example of information clusters written in the TDMA 
showing a TDDS in the last cluster, and 

Fig. 4 shows an example of a detection area with up to TDMA2 in use. 



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4 



Figure 1 shows by way of example a single layer write once disc. This disc 
has, next to its TDMAO, an additional TDMA1 area located at the outer side of the Outer 
Spare Area 0 (OSA0). Figure 2 shows by way of example a dual layer write once disc 
5 having, next to its TDMAO and TDMA1, one additional TDMA area on layer L0 and two 
additional TDMA areas on layer LI. These additional TDMA areas are called TDMA2, 
TDMA3, and TDMA4, and are located in the Outer Spare Areas OSA0 and OSA1 and in the 
Inner Spare Area ISA1, respectively. 

In these single layer and dual layer discs at least one TDMA area is available, 

10 that is TDMAO. In an embodiment of the invention a predefined number of clusters of the at 
least one TDMA area (TDMAO) is reserved to indicate a filled TDMA. This predefined 
number corresponds to the number of TDMA areas. In an alternative embodiment the at least 
one TDMA area (TDMAO) is followed by a Detection Area consisting of a predefined 
number of clusters reserved to indicate a filled TDMA (see figure 4). 

1 5 Figure 4 shows part of an information layer L0 of a dual layer disc (as is 

shown in figure 2) where a TDMO consisting of 1048 clusters is followed by a Detection 
Area consisting of 4 clusters. The indication used is the presence of a high frequency (HF) 
indicator for each cluster representing on of the four subsequent TDMA areas (TMDA1 to 
TDMA4 in figure 2). The presence of a high frequency (HF) in a cluster in the Detection area 

20 indicates that the corresponding TDMA area (1 ,2,3 or 4) on the disc is in use. The data 
content of the clusters in the Detection Area itself is not relevant for the detection. In the 
example shown in figure 4, TDMA2 is the TDMA area currently being used by the drive for 
TDMA updates, while TDMAO and TDMA1 are full or cannot be used anymore for some 
other reason. 

25 The presence of a high frequency (HF) in a cluster may be obtained by writing 

a pattern of marks in that cluster. The pattern of marks may, for example, represent random 
information since the information content of a cluster is not relevant for the detection. Now 
cluster having marks written in it have a high frequency (HF) signal present, while clusters 
having no marks written in it have no high frequency (HF) signal present 

30 When none of the four clusters in the Detection Area are written, that is none 

of them have a high frequency (HF) indicator, then the TDMAO is being used. In an 
alternative embodiment, an additional cluster is added for indicating whether or not the 
TDMAO area is being used. In the example above related to the dual layer disc shown in 



WO 2005/073971 PCT/IB2005/050348 



figure 2, the Detection Area would consist of five clusters, related to the TDMA areas 
(0,1,2,3 or 4). 

A drive according to the invention can quickly detect the TDMA area in use 
by jumping to the Detection Area, checking the presence or absence of the high frequency 
5 (HF) indicators, and subsequently scanning only the indicated TDMA. In an embodiment 
only the last written cluster in that TDMA area has to be read to be able to access all disc 
management information, because this last written cluster contains the Temporary Disc 
Definition Sector (TDDS). 

In a further embodiment the drive can jump directly to the Detection Area 
10 because this Detection Area has a fixed address on the disc. 

It is noted that the embodiment in which a high frequency (HF) indication is 
used results in a veiy robust detection mechanism. This because there is no need to read the 
correct data content; only the absence of presence of a high frequency (HF) is relevant. This 
embodiment easily survives scratches, dirt, and other damages to the media. This is 
1 5 especially so when a cluster requires about half a revolution (on the inner diameter) of the 
disc, which is rarely damaged completely. 

It is further noted that the invention is not limited to single layer and dual layer 
discs only, but that it likewise can be used advantageously in disc comparing any number of 
information layers for storing the information to be recorded. 



20 



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6 



CLAIMS: 



1. Record carrier comprising at least one area for storing disc management 
information, said record carrier further comprising and area comprising signals indicating 
whether or not the areas for storing disc management information are in use, each one of said 
signals related to one of said areas for storing disc management information. 

5 

2. Record carrier according to claim 1, wherein the area comprising signals 
indicating whether or not the areas for storing disc management information are in use is 
located inside a first one of said at least one area for storing disc management information. 

10 3. Record carrier according to claim 1, wherein the area comprising signals 

indicating whether or not the areas for storing disc management information are in use is 
located adjacent to a first one of said at least one area for storing disc management 
information. 

1 5 4. Record carrier according to anyone of the preceding claims wherein the 

signals indicating whether or not the areas for storing disc management information are in 
use are clusters on a record carrier, said clusters comprising marks for indicating a first status 
of said areas for storing disc management information and comprising no marks for 
indicating a second status of said areas for storing disc management information. 

20 

5. Record carrier according to claim 4, wherein the first status indicates that the 

areas for storing disc management information are in use, and the second status indicates that 
the areas for storing disc management information are not in use. 

25 6. Method for recoding information on a record carrier, said record carrier 

comprising at least one area for storing disc management information, said record carrier 
further comprising and area comprising signals indicating whether or not the areas for storing 
disc management information are in use, each one of said signals related to one of said areas 
for storing disc management information, 



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7 



the method comprising the steps 

of accessing the area comprising signals indicating whether or not the areas for storing disc 
management information are in use, 

of determining form said signals the last area for storing disc management information in use, 
5 and 

of retrieving the disc management information. 

7- Method according to claim 6, wherein the step of accessing the area 

comprising signals indicating whether or not the areas for storing disc management 
10 information are in use consist of jumping to a predefined location on the record carrier. 

S- Method according to claim 6, wherein the step of retrieving the disc 

management information comprises retrieving pointer information from a predefined location 
in the last area for storing disc management information in use, and subsequently retrieving 
1 5 the disc management information by using said pointer information. 

9. Recording device for recoding information on a record carrier, said record 

carrier comprising at least one area for storing disc management information, said record 
carrier further comprising and area comprising signals indicating whether or not the areas for 
20 storing disc management information are in use, each one of said signals related to one of 
said areas for storing disc management information, 

said recording device adapted for performing a method according to claims 6, 7, or 8. 



WO 2005/073971 



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