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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 

mi 



(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 

Internationa] Bureau 




(43) International Publication Date 
16 September 2004 (16.09.2004) 



PCT 



(10) International Publication Number 

WO 2004/079729 Al 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : G11B 7/007 

(21) International Application Number: 

PCT/KR2004/000017 

(22) International Filing Date: 8 January 2004 (08.01.2004) 

(25) Filing Language: English 

(26) Publication Language: English 

(30) Priority Data: 

10-2003-0002091 13 January 2003 (13.01.2003) KR 
10-2003-0002092 13 January 2003 (13.01.2003) KR 
10-2003-0012867 

28 February 2003 (28.02.2003) KR 

(71) Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD. 
[KR/KR] ; 416, Maetan-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, 
Gyeonggi-do 442-742 (KR). 



(72) Inventors: HWANG, Sung-Hee; 420-403 Jugong Apt., 
189 Gaepo-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-240 (KR). KO, 
Jung-Wan; 315-401 Daewoo Apt., 956-2, Cheongmyung 
Maeul 3-danji, Yeongtong-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Su- 
won-si, Gyeonggi-do 442-470 (KR). LEE, Kyung-Geun; 
122-1002 Sibeom Hanshin Apt., 87, Seohyun-dong, 
Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-050 (KR). 

(74) Agent: LEE, Young-Pil; The Cheonghwa Building, 
1571-18, Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-874 (KR). 

(81) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of national protection available): AE, AG, AL, AM, 
AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, 
CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FT, 
GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, 
KG, KP, KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, 
MK, MN, MW, MX, MZ, NA, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, 
PL, PT, RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SY, TJ, TM, TN, 
TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

[ Continued on next page] 



( start) 



(54) Title: DISC WITH TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA, AND DISC DEFECT MANAGEMENT METHOD 
AND APPARATUS THEREFOR 

(57) Abstract: A write once disc with at least one 
record layer includes a temporary defect manage- 
ment area in which temporary defect information 
regarding only defect detected during a correspond- 
ing recording operation, and temporary defect man- 
agement information for managing the temporary 
defect information are recorded; and defect man- 
agement areas in which the temporary defect infor- 
mation and temporary defect management informa- 
tion recorded in the temporary defect management 
area are recorded as defect information and defect 
management information, respectively. 



0\ 

as 
i> 
o 

o 
o 

O 



RECORD ONLY INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT 

IN DATA RECORDED ACCORDING TO FIRST 
RECORDING OPERATION AS FIRST TDFL IN TDMA 



RECORD MANAGEMENT INFORMATION FOR 
MANAGING FIRST TDFL AS FIRST TDDS IN TDMA 



1001 



•1002 



■ 1003 

IS DISC FINALI2ATI0N REQUIRED? 



YES 





NO 


INCREASE INDEXES GIVEN TO RECORDING 
OPERATION, TDFL, AND TDDS 



•1004 



RECORD ALL OF RECORDED TDFL AND 
TDDS IN DMA 



•1005 



WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



DISC WITH TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA, AND DISC 
DEFECT MANAGEMENT METHOD AND APPARATUS THEREFOR 



5 Technical Field 

The present invention relates to disc defect management, and 
more particularly, to a disc with a temporary defect management area 
(TDMA) and a disc defect management method and apparatus therefor. 

Background Art 

10 Disc defect management is the process of rewriting data stored in 

a user data area of a disc in which a defect exists to a new portion of the 
disc's data area, thereby compensating for data loss otherwise caused 
by the defect. In general, disc defect management is performed using a 
linear replacement method or a slipping replacement method. In the 

15 linear replacement method, the user data area in which a defect exists is 
replaced with a spare data area having no defects. In the slipping 
replacement method, the user data area with the defect is slipped and 
the next user data area having no defects is used. Both the linear 
replacement and slipping replacement methods are, however, applicable 

20 only to discs such as a DVD-RAM/RW, on which data can be repeatedly 
recorded and recording can be performed using a random access 
method. In other words, the linear replacement and slipping 
replacement methods are difficult to be applied to write once discs on 
which recording is allowed only once. 

25 In general, the presence of defects in a disc is detected by 

recording data on the disc and confirming whether the data has been 
recorded correctly on the disc. However, once data is recorded on a 
write once disc, it is impossible to overwrite new data and manage 
defects therein. 



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After the development of a CD-R and a DVD-R, a high-density 
write once disc with a recording capacity of several dozen GBs was 
introduced. This type of disc can be used as a backup disc since it is 
not expensive and allows random access that enables fast reading 

5 operations. However, disc defect management is not available for write 
once discs. Therefore, a backup operation may be discontinued when a 
defective area (i.e., an area where a defect exists) is detected during the 
backup operation. In general, a backup operation is performed when a 
system is not frequently used (e.g., at night when a system manager 

10 does not operate the system. In this situation, it is more likely that the 
backup operation will be discontinued because a defective area of a 
write once disc is detected. 



Disclosure of the Invention 

15 An aspect of the present invention provides a write once disc, and 

a disc defect management method and apparatus applicable to the write 
once disc. 

An aspect of the present invention also provides a disc in which 
disc defect management can be performed even when a disc defect is 
20 detected during a recording operation, thus allowing the recording 
operation to be performed without interruption, and a disc defect 
management method and apparatus therefor. 

An aspect of the present invention also provides a disc in which 
defect information can be effectively recorded, and a disc defect 
25 management method and apparatus therefor. 

Additional aspects and/or advantages of the invention will be set 
forth in part in the description which follows and, in part, will be obvious 
from the description, or may be learned by practice of the invention. 



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According to an aspect of the present invention, a write once disc 
with at least one record layer includes a temporary defect management 
area in which temporary defect information regarding only a defect 
detected during a corresponding recording operation, and temporary 

5 defect management information for managing the temporary defect 
information are recorded; and defect management areas in which the 
temporary defect information and the temporary defect management 
information recorded in the temporary defect management area are 
recorded as defect information and defect management information, 

10 respectively. 

According to another aspect of the present invention, a write once 
disc includes a temporary defect management area in which temporary 
defect information regarding only a defect detected during a 
corresponding recording operation, and temporary defect management 

15 information for managing the temporary defect information are recorded; 
a temporary finalized defect management area in which temporary 
finalized defect information that includes at least a portion of the 
temporary defect information recorded in the temporary defect 
management area, and temporary finalized defect management 

20 information for managing the temporary finalized defect information are 
recorded; and defect management areas in which all of the recorded 
temporary defect information and temporary defect management 
information are recorded as defect information and defect management 
information, respectively, during disc finalization where, the temporary 

25 defect information and the temporary defect management information 
are recorded as a pair of information in the temporary defect 
management area. 

According to yet another aspect of the present invention, a - 
method of managing disc defects, includes recording only information 
30 regarding a defect detected in data, which is recorded in a data area of a 



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disc during a recording operation having an index of i, where i is an 
integer, as ith temporary defect information in a temporary defect 
management area; recording management information for managing the 
ith temporary defect information as ith temporary defect management 
5 information in the temporary defect management area; repeating the 
recording the ith temporary defect information and the recording the ith 
temporary defect management information at least once while increasing 
the index i given to a corresponding recording operation, the temporary 
defect information, and the temporary defect management information by 
10 1 ; and reading and writing all of the recorded temporary defect 

management information and temporary defect information in a defect 
management area. 

According to still another aspect of the present invention, a 
method of managing disc defects, includes recording temporary 

15 management information that includes temporary defect information and 
temporary defect management information regarding data, which is 
recorded in a data area of a disc according to a recording operation 
having an index of i, where i is an integer, as ith temporary defect 
management information in a temporary defect management area in 

20 units of a predetermined number of blocks; repeating the recording the 
temporary management information at least once while increasing the 
index i given to a corresponding recording operation and the temporary 
management information by 1; recording temporary finalized defect 
management information, which is obtained based on all recorded 

25 temporary management information, in a temporary finalized defect 

management area whenever the ith temporary management information 
is recorded k times, wherein k is an integer more than or equal to 2; 
repeating the recording the ith temporary management information, the 
repeating the recording, and the recording the temporary finalized defect 

30 management information at least once; and reading all of recorded 
temporary defect management information and temporary defect 



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information and recording the temporary defect management information 
and temporary defect information in a defect management area. 

According to still another aspect of the present invention, a 
recording and reproducing apparatus includes a recording/reading unit 

5 that records data on and/or reads data from a disc; and a controller that 
controls the recording/reading unit to record information regarding a 
defect detected from the recorded data, which is recorded in a data area 
of the disc in recording operation units, as temporary defect information 
in a temporary defect management area, and record management 

10 information for managing the temporary defect information in the 
temporary defect management area. 

According to still another aspect of the present invention, a 
recording and/or reproducing apparatus includes a recording/reading unit 
that records data on and/or reads data from a disc; and a controller that 

15 controls the recording/reading unit to record information regarding a 

defect detected from the recorded data, which is recorded in a data area 
of the disc according to a first recording operation, as first temporary 
defect information in a temporary defect management area; records 
defect management information for managing the first temporary defect 

20 information as first temporary defect management information in the 
temporary defect management area; records data in the data area while 
increasing the index i given to a corresponding recording operation, the 
temporary defect information, and the temporary defect management 
information by 1; and reads all of the recorded temporary defect 

25 information and temporary defect management information in a defect 
management area during disc finalization. 

According to still another aspect of the present invention, a 
recording and/or reproducing apparatus includes a recording/reading unit 
that records data on and/or reads data from a disc; and a controller that 
30 controls the recording/reading unit to record temporary defect 



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management information in a temporary defect management area in 
units of a predetermined number of blocks; and record temporary 
finalized defect management information obtained based on all of 
temporary defect management information, which is recorded in the 

5 temporary defect management information, in a temporary finalized 
defect management area whenever the temporary defect management 
information is recorded k times, the management information including 
temporary defect information regarding data recorded in a data area of 
the disc according to a recording operation, and temporary defect 

10 management information. 

Brief Description of the Drawings 

These and other aspects and/or advantages of the present 
invention will become more apparent and more readily appreciated by 
describing in detail embodiments thereof with reference to the 
15 accompanying drawings in which: 

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a recording apparatus according to an 
embodiment of the present invention; 

FIGs. 2Aand 2B illustrate structures of a disc according to 
embodiments of the present invention; 
20 FIG. 3 A illustrates a data structure of a disc according to an 

embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 3B illustrates a data structure of a disc with defect 
management areas (DMAs) and a temporary DMA (TDMA) shown in FIG. 
3A; 

25 FIGs. 4A through 4C illustrate data structures of a TDMA 

according to embodiments of the present invention; 

FIGs. 5Aand 5B respectively illustrate data structures of 
temporary defect management information TDDS #/ and a copy thereof, 
according to an embodiment of the present invention; 



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FIG. 6 illustrates a data structure of temporary defect information 
TDFL #/ according to another embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 7 illustrates diagrams explaining recording of data in a user 
data area A and a spare area 6, according to an embodiment of the 
5 present invention; 

FIGs. 8Aand 8B illustrate data structures of temporary defect 
information TDFL #0 and TDFL #1 recorded as illustrated in FIG. 7; 

FIG. 9 illustrates a data structure of information regarding defect 

#i; 

io FIG. 10 is a flowchart illustrating a disc defect management 

method according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 11 is a flowchart illustrating a disc defect management 
method according to another embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 12A illustrates a data structure of a disc according to another 
15 embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 12B illustrates a data structure of a disc with DMAs, a TDMA, 
and a temporary finalized DMA (TFDMA) shown in FIG. 12A; 

FIG. 13 is a reference diagram illustrating the relationship between 
a TDMA and a TFDMA, according to an embodiment of the present 
20 invention; 

FIGs. 14A and 14B illustrate data structures of a TFDMA 
according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 15 is a flowchart illustrating a disc defect management 
method according to a yet another embodiment of the present invention; 
25 and 

FIG. 16 is a flowchart illustrating a disc defect management 
method according to still another embodiment of the present invention. 



Best mode for carrying out the Invention 

Reference will now be made in detail to the embodiments of the 
present invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying 



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drawings, wherein like reference numerals refer to the like elements 
throughout. The embodiments are described below to explain the 
present invention by referring to the figures. 

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a recording apparatus according to 
5 an embodiment of the present invention. The recording and/or 

reproducing apparatus includes a recording/reading unit 1 , a controller 2, 
and a memory 3. The recording/reading unit 1 records data on a disc 
100, which is an information storage medium according to an 
embodiment of the present invention. The recording/reading unit 1 

10 further reads back the data from the disc 1 00 to verify the accuracy of 
the recorded data. The controller 2 performs disc defect management 
according to an aspect of the present invention. In this embodiment, the 
controller 2 uses a verify-after-write method, in which data is recorded on 
the disc 100 in predetermined units of data and the accuracy of the 

15 recorded data is verified to detect if an area of the disc 100 has a defect. 
In other words, the controller 2 records user data on the disc 100 in 
units of recording operations, and verifies the recorded user data to 
detect an area of the disc 1 00 in which a defect exists. Thereafter, the 
controller 2 creates information indicating a position of the area with the 

20 defect and stores the created information in the memory 3. When the 
amount of the stored information reaches a predetermined level, the 
controller 2 records the stored information as temporary defect 
information on the disc 100. While described in terms of a recording 
apparatus, it is understood that the apparatus of FIG. 1 further 

25 reproduces data according to a further aspect of the invention. 

According to an aspect of the invention, the recording operation is 
an operation unit determined according to a user's intention or a 
recording work to be performed. According to this embodiment, a 
recording operation indicates a process in which the disc 100 is loaded 
30 into the recording apparatus, data is recorded on the disc 100, and the 



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disc 1 00 is taken out from the recording apparatus. During the 
recording operation, data is recorded and verified at least once. In 
general, the data is recorded and verified several times. Defect 
information obtained using the verify-after-write method is temporarily 
5 stored as temporary defect information in the memory 3. 

When a user presses the eject button (not shown) of the 
recording and/or reproducing apparatus in order to remove the disc 100 
after recording the data or the recording operation is otherwise 
designated as being completed, the controller 2 expects the recording 

io operation to be terminated. The controller 2 reads the defect 

information from the memory 3, provides the defect information to the 
recording/reading unit 1, and controls the recording/reading unit 1 to 
record the defect information on the disc 1 00. In the shown example, 
the defect information is recorded as the temporary defect information on 

15 the disc 100 in recording operation units. The recording defect 

information in the recording operation units is understood as recording 
information regarding a defect detected during only a corresponding 
recording operation unit. However, it is understood that other definitions 
for recording operations can be used. 

20 When the recording of data is completed (i.e., additional data will 

not be recorded on the disc 100), the disc 100 needs to be finalized. 
The controller 2 controls the recording/reading unit 1 to rewrite the 
recorded temporary defect information and the recorded temporary 
defect management information, which are stored in the disc 100, as 

25 defect management information to a defect management area (DMA) of 
the disc 100. 

FIGs. 2Aand 2B illustrate structures of the disc 100 of FIG. 1 
according to embodiments of the present invention. FIG. 2A illustrates 
in detail a single record layer disc 100 having a record layer L0. The 
30 disc 100 includes a lead-in area, a data area, and a lead-out area. The 

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lead-in area is located in an inner part of the disc 100 and the lead-out 
area is located in an outer part of the disc 100. The data area is present 
between the lead-in area and the lead-out area and is divided into a user 
data area and a spare area. 

5 The user data area is an area where the user data is recorded. 

The spare area is a replacement area for a user data area having a 
defect and serves to compensate for the loss in the recording area due 
to the defect. On the assumption that defects may occur within the disc 
100, it is preferable that the spare area assumes about 5% of the entire 
10 data capacity of the disc 100, so that a greater amount of data can be 
recorded on the disc 100. However, it is understood that other amounts 
can be used as the spare area. 

FIG. 2B illustrates a double record layer disc 100 having two 
record layers L0 and L1. A lead-in area, a data area, and an outer area 

is are sequentially formed from the inner part of the first record layer LO to 
its outer part. Also, an outer area, a data area, and a lead-out area are 
sequentially formed from the outer part of the second record layer L1 to 
the inner part. Unlike the single record layer disc 100 of FIG. 2A, the 
lead-out area is present in the inner part of the disc 100 of FIG. 2B. 

20 That is, the disc 100 of FIG. 2B has an opposite track path (OTP) in 
which data is recorded starting from the lead-in area of the first record 
layer L0 toward its outer area and continuing from the outer area of the 
second record layer L1 to its lead-out area. The spare area is allotted to 
each of the record layers LO and L1. 

25 In this embodiment, the spare areas are present between the 

lead-in area and the user data area and between the user data area and 
the outer area. However, if necessary, a portion of the user data area 
may be used as another spare area. That is, more than one spare area 
may be present between the lead-in area and the lead-out area. 



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However, the positions of the spare areas are not limited to this 
arrangement. 

For disc defect management, a disc 100 according to an aspect 
of the present invention includes a temporary defect management area 

5 (TDMA), or includes both the TDMA and a temporary finalized DMA 
(TFDMA). Hereinafter, disc defect management using a TDMA, 
according to an embodiment of the present invention shown in FIG. 3A, 
and disc defect management using both the TDMA and a TFDMA, 
according to another embodiment of the present invention shown in FIG. 

10 12A will be described. 

FIG. 3A illustrates a data structure of the disc 1 00 of FIGS. 2 and 
2B according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to 
FIG. 3A, if the disc 100 is a single record layer disc of FIG. 2A, a defect 
management area (DMA) and a temporary DMA (TDMA) are formed in a 

15 lead-in area. Alternatively, the DMA may be included in both the lead-in 
area and a lead-out area, or the TDMA may also be included in the 
lead-out area. That is, the DMA and the TDMA may be present in at 
least one of the lead-in area and the lead-out area. If the disc 1 00 is a 
double record layer disc shown in FIG. 2B, the DMA and the TDMA are 

20 respectively present in a lead-in area and a lead-out area located at an 
inner part of the disc 100. The DMA may further be included in the 
lead-out area and an outer area that are located at an outer part of the 
disc 1 00. Accordingly, the DMA and the TDMA are present in at least 
one of the lead-in area, the lead-out area, and the outer area according 

25 to an aspect of the invention. 

In general, information relating to managing disc defects in the 
disc 100 is recorded in the DMA. Such information specifies or includes 
the structure of the disc 100 for disc defect management, whether the 
disc defect management is performed, defect information, the location of 
30 the defect information, and the position and size of a spare area. In this 

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embodiment, because the disc 100 is a write once disc, new data is 
recorded after previously recorded data when the above information 
changes. 

In general, when a disc 100 is loaded into a recording and/or 
5 reading apparatus such as that shown in FIG. 1 , the apparatus reads 
data from a lead-in area and a lead-out area of the disc 100 to determine 
how to manage the disc 100 and record data on or read data from the 
disc 100. However, if the amount of data recorded in the lead-in area 
and/or the lead-out area increases, a longer time is spent on preparing 

10 the recording or reproducing of data after the loading of the disc 1 00. To 
solve this problem, an aspect of the present invention uses temporary 
defect management information and temporary defect information that 
are to be recorded in a TDMA. The TDMA is allotted to the lead-in area 
and/or the lead-out area of a disc 100, and is separated from the DMA. 

15 That is, only last-recorded defect information and defect management 
information, which are required to perform disc defect management, are 
recorded in the DMA, thereby reducing the amount of information that 
the recording/reading unit 1 requires for a recording/reproducing 
operation. 

20 In the shown embodiment, since the disc defect management is 

performed using the linear replacement method, the temporary defect 
information includes information indicating the position of an area of the 
disc 100 having a defect and information indicating the position of an 
area of the disc 100 that is replacement for the area having the defect. 

25 While not required, preferably, the temporary defect information further 
includes information indicating whether the defect occurs in a single 
defect block or physically continuous defect blocks. The temporary 
defect management information is used to manage the temporary defect 
information and includes information indicating the location of the 

30 temporary defect information recorded on the disc 100. Detailed data 



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structures of temporary defect information and temporary defect 
management information will be explained later. It is understood that 
the temporary defect information can include other information, and that 
other methods of defect management could be used. 

5 In the shown embodiment, the temporary defect information and 

temporary defect management information are recorded every time when 
a recording operation ends. In the TDMA, information regarding a 
defect occurring in data recorded during a recording operation #0 and 
information regarding its replacement are recorded as temporary defect 

io information #0, and information regarding a defect occurring in data 
recorded during a recording operation #1 and information regarding its 
replacement are recorded as temporary defect information #1 . Further, 
management information for managing temporary defect information #0, 
#1 is recorded as temporary defect management information #0, #1 in 

15 the TDMA, the management information specifying the recording 

locations of the temporary defect information #0, #1 . When additional 
data cannot be recorded in the data area or a user does not wish to 
record additional data therein (i.e., disc finalization is required), the 
temporary defect information and temporary defect management 

20 information recorded in the TDMA are rewritten to the DMA. 

The temporary defect information and the temporary defect 
management information are rewritten to the DMA for the following 
reasons. In the case that additional data will not be recorded on the 
disc 100 (i.e., the disc 100 needs to be finalized), only last recorded ones 

25 of the temporary defect management information and temporary defect 
information, which have been updated several times, are again recorded 
in the DMA. Thus, the recording/reading unit 1 can quickly read defect 
management information from the disc 100 just by reading the last 
recorded defect management information, thereby enabling fast 

30 initializing of the disc 1 00. Further, recording of the temporary defect 



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information and temporary defect management information in the DMA 
increases the reliability of information; 

In this embodiment, defect information contained in previously 
recorded temporary defect information #0, #1, #2, and #i-l is not 
5 included in the temporary defect information #/. That is, only information 
regarding a defect detected from a recording area during a 
corresponding recording operation #/ is included in the temporary defect 
information #/. For instance, the temporary defect information #0 
specifies a defect detected during a recording operation #0, and the 

10 temporary defect information #1 specifies only a defect detected during a 
recording operation #1. Accordingly, it is possible to effectively use a 
recording area of the TDMA. In other words, the recording area of the 
lead-in area (or the lead-out area or the outer area) including the TDMA 
is smaller than a data area where user data is recorded. Nevertheless, 

15 if information regarding a defect detected whenever a recording 

operation is performed is recorded to include all of information regarding 
defects detected during previous recording operations, data may not be 
further recorded in the TDMA before the data area is full of data. For 
this reason, in this embodiment, temporary defect information includes 

20 only information regarding a defect detected during a related recording 
operation. Instead, during disc finalization, all defect information 
included in the temporary defect information #0, #1 , #2, #i is read and 
written to the DMA. 

In the case of a high-density disc with a recording capacity of 
25 several dozens of GBs, it is desirable that a cluster is allocated to an 
area in which temporary defect management information #i is recorded 
and four to eight clusters are allocated to an area in which temporary 
defect information #i is recorded. This is because it is preferable to 
record new information in units of clusters to update information when a 
30 minimum physical unit of record is a cluster, although the amount of 



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temporary defect information #i is just several KBs. A total amount of 
defects allowed in a disc is preferably about 5 percent of the disc 
recording capacity. For instance, about four to eight clusters are 
required to record temporary defect information #i, considering that 
5 information regarding a defect is about 8 bytes long and the size of a 
cluster is 64 KBs long. 

The verify-after-write method can also be performed on temporary 
defect information #i and temporary defect management information #i. 
When a defect is detected, information recorded in an area of a disc 
10 having a defect may be either recorded in a spare area using linear 

replacement, or recorded in an area adjacent to the TDMA using slipping 
replacement. 

FIG. 3B illustrates a data structure of a disc with a TDMA and a 
DMA shown in FIG. 3A. Referring to FIG. 3B, two DMAs (i.e., DMA #1 

15 and DMA #2) are formed to increase the robustness of defect 

management information and defect information. TDMA denotes a 
temporary defect management area; Test denotes an area in which 
recording conditions of data are measured; Drive and Disc information is 
an area in which information regarding a drive used during a recording 

20 and/or reproducing operation(s) and disc information are recorded; and 
Buffer 1, Buffer 2, and Buffer 3 are buffers indicating borders of the 
respective areas. 

FIG. 4A illustrates a data structure of temporary management 
information TDMA according to an embodiment of the present invention. 

25 Referring to FIG. 4A, corresponding temporary defect information and 
temporary defect management information are recorded as a pair of 
information in the TDMA. More specifically, temporary management 
information TDMA #0, TDMA #1 are sequentially recorded starting from 
the start of the TDMA. A pair of corresponding temporary defect 

30 management TDDS #0 and temporary defect information TDFL #0 are 

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included twice in the temporary management information TDMA #0. A 
pair of corresponding temporary defect management information TDDS 
#7 and temporary defect information TDFL #7 are included twice in 
temporary management information TDMA #1. A reason for recording 
5 the same information twice is to increase the reliability and robustness of 
the information. The temporary defect management information TDDS 
#0, #7, specifies the locations of the corresponding temporary defect 
information TDFL #0, #7, respectively. Each temporary defect 
management information further specifies the location of temporary 

10 defect information recorded right before its corresponding temporary 
defect information. For instance, the temporary management 
information TDMA #7 sequentially includes a pair of the temporary defect 
information TDFL #1 and temporary defect management information 
TDDS #7, and a copy of the temporary defect information TDFL #1 and 

15 temporary defect management information TDDS #7. The temporary 
defect management information TDDS #1 contains location information 
regarding the temporary defect information TDFL #1 and a copy of 
temporary defect information TDFL #0 recorded right before the 
temporary defect information TDFL #1. The copy of the temporary 

20 defect management information TDDS #1 contains location information 
regarding its corresponding copy of the temporary defect information 
TDFL #7, and location information regarding the temporary defect 
information TDFL #7. As described above, if temporary defect 
management information further specifies the location of temporary 

25 defect information recorded right before corresponding temporary defect 
information, it is possible to more rapidly read all recorded temporary 
defect information than where temporary defect information is 
accumulatively recorded. The number of recording the temporary defect 
management information TDDS #0, #7 and the temporary defect 

30 information TDFL #0, #7 is not limited. 



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FIG. 4B illustrates a data structure of a TDMA according to 
another embodiment of the present invention. Compared to the TDMA 
of FIG. 4A, corresponding temporary defect information and temporary 
defect management information are recorded as a pair of information in 

5 the TDMA of FIG. 4B, but the sequence of recording the information is 
not the same. More specifically, temporary management information 
TDMA #0, #7 is sequentially recorded starting from the end of the TDMA. 
A pair of corresponding temporary defect management TDDS #0 and 
temporary defect information TDFL #0 are included twice in the 

10 temporary management information TDMA #0. A pair of corresponding 
temporary defect management information TDDS #7 and temporary 
defect information TDFL #7 are included twice in temporary management 
information TDMA #7, thereby increasing the reliability and robustness of 
the information. The temporary defect management information TDDS 

15 #0, #7 specifies the locations of their corresponding temporary defect 
information TDFL #0, #7 respectively. Each temporary defect 
management information further specifies the location of the temporary 
defect information recorded right before its corresponding temporary 
defect information. For instance, the temporary management 

20 information TDMA #7 sequentially includes a pair of the temporary defect 
information TDFL #1 and the temporary defect management information 
TDDS #7, and a copy of the temporary defect information TDFL #1 and 
the temporary defect management information TDDS #1. Also, the 
temporary defect management information TDDS #1 contains location 

25 information regarding the temporary defect information TDFL #1 and a 
copy of the temporary defect information TDFL #0 recorded right before 
the temporary defect information TDFL #7. The copy of the temporary 
defect management information TDDS #7 contains location information 
regarding its corresponding copy of the temporary defect information 

30 TDFL #7, and the location information regarding temporary defect 
management information TDFL #7. 



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FIG. 4C illustrates a data structure of a TDMA according to yet 
another embodiment of the present invention. Compared to the TDMAs 
shown in FIGs. 4Aand 4B, corresponding temporary defect information 
and temporary defect management information are recorded twice as a 
5 pair of information in the TDMA of FIG. 4C, and the recording positions of 
the pairs of information are not the same. More specifically, the TDMA 
of FIG. 4C is divided into two parts, and temporary management 
information TDMA #/ and a copy thereof are recorded in the different 
parts. However, the TDMA can be divided into more than two parts and 
10 the temporary management information TDMA #/ can be recorded more 
than twice. 

As shown in FIGs. 4A through 4C, when temporary defect 
information and temporary defect management information, which 
constitute temporary management information TDMA #/, are recorded in 

is a TDMA, the information are recorded as a pair of information in units of 
a predetermined number of blocks. For instance, temporary defect 
information TDFL #1 and temporary defect management information 
TDDS #7, which constitute temporary management information TDMA #7, 
are recorded together in a block. Also, a copy of the temporary defect 

20 information TDFL #1 and a copy of the temporary defect management 
information TDDS #1 are recorded together in a block. 

Likewise, corresponding temporary defect information and 
temporary defect management information are recorded as a pair of 
information in a predetermined number of blocks, thereby making the 
25 sizes of areas where pairs of temporary defect information and 

temporary defect management information are recorded equal to one 
another. 

FIG. 5A illustrates a data structure of temporary defect 
management information TDDS #/. Referring to FIG. 5A, the temporary 
30 defect management information TDDS #/ includes an identifier for the 

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temporary defect management information TDDS #/, a pointer to the 
recording position of a copy of temporary defect information TDFL #i-1 
recorded right before corresponding temporary defect information TDFL 
#/, and a pointer to the recording position of the temporary defect 
5 information TDFL #/'. 

FIG. 5B illustrates a data structure of a copy of temporary defect 
management information TDDS #/'. Referring to FIG. 5B, the copy of 
temporary defect management information TDDS #/ contains an identifier 
for the copy of the temporary defect management information TDDS #/, a 
10 pointer to the recording position of the temporary defect information 
TDFL #/ recorded in the temporary defect management information 
TDDS #/, and a pointer to the recording position of a copy of the 
temporary defect information TDFL #/. 

FIG. 6 illustrates a data structure of temporary defect information 
15 TDFL #/. Referring to FIG. 6, temporary defect information TDFL #i 
contains an identifier for the temporary defect information TDFL #/, and 
information regarding a defect detected during a corresponding recording 
operation #i. That is, information regarding defects detected during 
previous recording operations #0, #1, is not included in the 
20 temporary defect information TDFL #/. Here, the information regarding 
a defect indicates the positions of the defect and its replacement and 
whether the defect occurs in a single defect block or continuous defect - 
blocks. 

FIG. 7 is a reference diagram illustrating in detail recording of data 
25 in a user data area A and a spare area B, according to an embodiment of 
the present invention. Data can be processed in units of sectors or 
clusters according to an aspect of the invention. A sector denotes a 
minimum unit of data that can be managed in a file system of a computer 
or in an application. A cluster denotes a minimum unit of data that can 



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be physically recorded on a disc at once. In general, one or more 
sectors constitute a cluster. 

There are two types of sectors: a physical sector and a logical 
sector. The physical sector is an area on a disc where a sector of data 
5 is to be recorded. An address for detecting the physical sector is called 
a physical sector number (PSN). The logical sector is a unit in which data 
can be managed in a file system or an application. An address for 
detecting the logical sector is called a logical sector number (LSN). A 
disc recording/reading apparatus such as that shown in FIG. 1 detects 

10 the recording position of data on a disc 100 using a PSN. In a computer 
or an application relating to the data, all of the data is managed in units 
of LSNs and the position of data is detected using an LSN. LSNs and 
PSNs are mapped by a controller 2 of the recording/reading apparatus, 
based on whether the disc 100 contains a defect and an initial recording 

15 position of data. 

Referring to FIG. 7, the user data area A and the spare area B 
includes PSNs that are sequentially allocated to a plurality of sectors (not 
shown). In general, each LSN corresponds to at least one PSN. 
However, since LSNs are allocated to non-defective areas, including 
20 replacement areas recorded in the spare area B, the correspondence 
between the PSNs and the LSNs is not maintained when a disc 100 has 
a defective area, even if the size of a physical sector is the same as a 
size of a logical sector. 

In the user data area A the user data is recorded either in a 
25 continuous recording mode or a random recording mode. In the 

continuous recording mode, the user data is recorded sequentially and 
continuously. In the random recording mode, the user data is randomly 
recorded. In the user data area A, sections 1001 through 1007 denote 
predetermined units of data in which the verify-after- write method is 
30 performed. A recording apparatus records user data in section 1001 , 

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returns to the start of section 1 001 , and checks if the user data is 
appropriately recorded or a defect exists in section 1 001 . If a defect is 
detected in a portion of section 1001, the portion is designated as defect 
#1 . The user data recorded in defect #1 is also recorded on a portion of 

5 the spare area B. Here, the portion of the spare area B in which data 
recorded in defect #1 is rewritten is called replacement #1 . Next, the 
recording apparatus records user data in section 1002, returns to the 
start of section 1002, and checks whether the data is properly recorded 
or a defect exists in section 1 002. If a defect is detected in a portion of 

10 section 1002, the portion is designated as defect #2. Likewise, 

replacement #2 corresponding to defect #2 is formed in the spare area 6. 
Further, defect #3 and replacement #3 are designated in section 1003 
of the user data area A and the spare area B, respectively. In section 
1004, a defect does not occur and a defective area is not designated. 

15 The recording apparatus records information regarding defect #1 , 

#2, and #3 occurring in sections 1001 through 1004 as temporary defect 
information TDFL #0 in a TDMA, when recording operation #0 is 
expected to end, after the recording and verifying of data to section 1004 
(i.e., when a user presses the eject button of a recording apparatus or 

20 recording of user data allocated in a recording operation is complete). 
Also, management information for managing temporary defect 
information TDFL #0 is recorded as temporary defect management 
information TDDS #0 in the TDMA. 

When recording operation #1 starts, data is recorded in sections 
25 1 005 through 1 007 and defects #4 and #5 and replacements #4 and #5 
are formed in the user data area A and the spare area B, respectively, as 
explained for sections 1001 through 1004. If the second recording 
operation is expected to end, the recording apparatus records 
information regarding defects #4 and #5 as temporary defect information 
30 TDFL #1, and records the information contained in the defect information 



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TDFL #1 once again. Thereafter, temporary management information 
for managing the temporary defect information TDFL #1 is recorded as 
temporary defect management information TDDS #1 in the TDMA. 

FIGs. 8A and 8B illustrate data structures of the temporary defect 
5 information TDFL #0 and #7 recorded as explained with respect to FIG. 7. 
FIG. 9 illustrates a data structure of information regarding defect #i 
recorded as explained with reference to FIG. 7. Referring to FIGs. 8A 
and 8B f the temporary defect information TDFL #0 describes defects 
detected during a recording operation #0. That is, the temporary defect 
10 information TDFL #0 contains information regarding defects #1 , #2, and 
#3. The information regarding defect #1 indicates the position of an 
area in which defect #1 exists and the position of an area in which 
replacement #1 is recorded. The information regarding defect #2 
indicates the position of an area in which defect #2 exists, and the 
15 position of an area in which replacement #2 is recorded. The 

information regarding defect #3 the position of an area in which defect #3 
exists, and the position of an area in which replacement #3 is recorded. 

Temporary defect information TDFL #1 describes only defects 
detected during a recording operation #1 . That is, the temporary defect 

20 information TDFL #1 contains information regarding defects #4 and #5. 
Temporary defect information according to an aspect of the present 
invention describes only defects detected during a corresponding 
recording operation. For disc finalization, all of temporary defect 
information recorded in a TDMA must be read and written to a DMA. 

25 For this reason, as previously mentioned with reference to FIGs. 4A, 4B, 
5A, and 5B, temporary defect management information contains both 
information regarding the location of corresponding temporary defect 
information and information regarding the location of temporary defect 
information recorded right before the corresponding temporary defect 

30 information. Accordingly, it is possible to more rapidly read all recorded 



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temporary defect information than where all recorded temporary defect 
information is accumulatively recorded. 

FIG. 9 illustrates a data structure of information regarding a defect 
#i according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to 

5 FIG. 9, the information regarding a defect #i describes a pointer to the 
defect #i and a pointer to a corresponding replacement #i. Further, 
while not required in all aspects, the information regarding the defect #i 
may further include state information that indicates whether the defect #i 
occurs in continuous defect blocks or a single defect block. The 

10 inclusion of the state information into the information regarding the defect 
#i is optional. If the defect #i occurs in the continuous defect blocks, the 
state information further represents whether the pointer for defect #i 
points to the start or end of the continuous defect blocks and whether the 
pointer for replacement #i points to the start or end of a replacement 

15 block that replaces defect #i. When the state information indicates the 
pointer for defect #i as the start of the continuous defect blocks and the 
pointer for replacement #i as the start of the replacement block, the 
pointer for defect #i represents a starting physical sector number of the 
continuous defect blocks and the pointer for replacement #i represents a 

20 starting physical sector number of replacement #i. In contrast, when the 
state information indicates the pointer for defect #i as the end of the 
continuous defect blocks and the pointer for replacement #i as the end of 
the replacement block, the pointer for defect #i represents an ending 
physical sector number of the continuous defect blocks and the pointer 

25 for replacement #i represents an ending physical sector number of 

replacement #i. The definition of at least two continuous defect blocks 
where defects exist using state information enables effectively recording 
of information and saves a space of recording, even if information 
regarding defects is not recorded in units of blocks. Here, the block 

30 denotes a logical record unit of data. 



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The pointer for defect #i specifies a starting and/or ending point(s) 
of defect #i. The pointer for defect #i may include a starting PSN of 
defect #i. The pointer for replacement #i specifies a starting and/or 
ending points of replacement #i. The pointer for replacement #i may 
5 also include a starting PSN of replacement #L 

Hereinafter, embodiments of a disc defect management method 
according to an aspect of the present invention using the recording unit 1 
of FIG. 1 and the disc 100 according to the embodiment of the present 
invention shown in FIG. 3A, will be described with reference to the 
10 accompanying drawings. 

FIG. 10 is a flowchart illustrating a disc defect management 
method according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring 
to FIG. 10, the recording apparatus of FIG. 1 records information 
regarding data, which is recorded according to a first recording operation, 

15 as first temporary defect information in a TDMA of a disc 1 00 (action 
1001 ). This process serves to manage disc defects. The recording 
apparatus records temporary management information for managing the 
first temporary defect information as first temporary defect management 
information in the TDMA (action 1002). It is checked whether finalizing 

20 of the disc 100 is required (action 1003). If it is determined in action 
1003 that the finalizing of the disc 100 is not required, actions 1001 and 
1002 are repeated while increasing indexes given to each recording 
operation, temporary defect information, and temporary defect 
management information by 1 (action 1004). However, if it is 

25 determined in action 1003 that disc finalization is required, all of recorded 
temporary defect management information and temporary defect 
information are read and recorded in a DMA (action 1005). That is, all 
of the recorded temporary defect management information and 
temporary defect information are recorded as the final defect 

30 management information and final defect information in the DMA, 



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respectively. The final defect information and final defect management 
information may be repeatedly recorded to increase the reliability of data 
detection. Further, the verify-after-write method may be performed on 
the final defect management information and final defect information. If 
5 a defect is detected from this information, an area of the disc 1 00 having 
the defect and the following area containing data may be regarded as 
being unavailable (i.e., the area is designated as a defective area), and 
the final defect management information and final defect information 
may be again recorded after the defective area. 

o FIG. 11 is a flowchart illustrating a disc defect management 

method according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring 
to FIG. 11, the recording apparatus of FIG. 1 records user data in a data 
area of a disc 100 in units of data to facilitate the verify-after-write 
method (action 1 101 ). The data recorded in action 11 01 is verified to 

1 5 detect an area of the disc 1 00 having a defect (action 1 1 02). The 
controller 2 of FIG. 1 designates the area having the defect as a 
defective area, controls the recording/reading unit 1 to rewrite data 
recorded in the defective area to a spare area so as to create a 
replacement area, and creates pointer information specifying the 

20 positions of the defective area and the replacement area (action 1 1 03). 
The pointer information is recorded as first temporary defect information 
in the memory 3 of FIG. 1 (action 1 1 04). The first temporary defect 
information may further include state information describing whether the 
defect occurs in a single defect block or continuous defect blocks. It is 

25 checked whether a current recording operation is expected to end (action 
1 1 05). If it is determined in action 1 1 05 that the recording operation is 
not expected to end, actions 1101 through 1104 are repeated until the 
recording operation ends. 

If it is determined in action 1105 that the recording operation is 
30 likely to end (i.e., when the recording of the user data is completed 



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according to a user input or according to the first recording operation), 
the controller 2 controls the recording/reading unit 1 to read the first 
temporary defect information from the memory 3 and record the first 
temporary defect information as first temporary defect information TDFL 
5 #0 in a TDMA (action 1106). Management information for managing the 
first temporary defect information TDFL #0 is recorded as first temporary 
defect management information TDDS #0 twice in the TDMA, the first 
temporary defect management information TDDS #0 recorded right after 
the first temporary defect information TDFL #0 (action 1107). It is 

10 understood that the number of times of recording temporary defect 
management information and temporary defect information are not 
limited. It is checked whether disc finalization is required (action 1108). 
If it is determined in action 1108 that disc finalization is not required, 
actions 1101 through 1107 are repeated. Whenever actions 1101 

15 through 1107 are repeated, indexes given to a recording operation, 
temporary defect information, and temporary defect management 
information are increased by 1 (action 1109). However, temporary 
defect information TDFL #1 specifies only information regarding a defect 
detected during a recording operation #1 . That is, temporary defect 

20 information TDFL #1 does not contain information regarding defects 
detected during the previous recording operation #0. Further, the 
temporary defect management information TDDS #1 describes the 
location of corresponding temporary defect information TDFL #1 and the 
location of temporary defect information TDFL #0 recorded right before 

25 the temporary defect information TDFL #7. 

If it is determined in action 1108 that disc finalization is needed, 
all of recorded temporary defect information TDFL #0, #1, #M, #/ and 
temporary defect management information TDDS #0, #7, #/ are 

recorded as the final defect information DFL and the final defect 
30 management information DDS in the DMA, respectively (action 1110). 
The final defect information DFL and the final defect management 



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information DDS may be repeatedly recorded several times to increase 
the reliability of data detection. Similarly, the verify-after-write method 
may be performed on the final defect information and defect 
management information. If a defect is detected in this information, an 
5 area of the disc having the defect and the following area containing data 
may be regarded as being unavailable (i.e., the area is designated as a 
defective area), and the final defect management information and defect 
information may be again recorded after the defective area. 

FIG. 12A illustrates a data structure of the disc 100 of FIG. 2 
10 according to another embodiment of the present invention. Referring to 
FIG. 12A, if the disc 100 is a single record layer disc shown in FIG. 2A, a 
defect management area (DMA), a temporary defect management area 
(TDMA), and a temporary finalized defect management area (TFDMA) 
are formed in a lead-in area of the disc 100. Further, the DMA may be 
15 further formed in a lead-out area. Alternatively, the lead-out area may 
include the TDMA and the TFDMA. That is, the DMA, the TDMA, and 
the TFDMA may be present in at least one of the lead-in area and the 
lead-out area. If the disc 100 is a double record layer disc shown in FIG. 
2B, the DMA, the TDMA, and the TFDMA are present in a lead-in area 
20 and a lead-out area that are located at an inner part of the disc 100, 

respectively. The DMA may further be included in the lead-out area and 
an outer area that are located at an outer part of the disc 100. 
Accordingly, the DMA and the TDMA are present in at least one of the 
lead-in area, the lead-out area, and the outer area. 

25 According to this embodiment and as similarly explained in the 

embodiment shown in FIG. 3A, the temporary defect management 
information and the temporary defect information (which together 
constitute temporary management information) are recorded in the 
TDMA. The TDMA is allotted to the lead-in area and/or the lead-out 

30 area, being separated from the DMA. If the temporary defect 



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information is recorded more than a predetermined number of times, all 
recorded temporary defect information is read from the TDMA and 
recorded in the TFDMA. If defect information is required, for example, 
to reproduce user data recorded in a data area of the disc 100 even 
5 before disc finalization, considerable time may be spent reading all 
temporary defect information from separate areas. Therefore, even 
before disc finalization, the recorded temporary defect information is 
read from the separate areas and recorded in the same area, thereby 
reducing the amount of time spent reading the defect information. 

io During the disc finalization, all recorded temporary defect 

information and temporary defect management information are recorded 
as final information in the DMA. In this embodiment, since disc defect 
management is performed using the linear replacement method, the 
temporary defect information includes information indicating the position 

15 of an area of the disc 100 having a defect and information indicating the 
position of an area of the disc 100 that is replacement for the area 
having the defect. The temporary defect management information is 
used to manage the temporary defect information and includes 
information regarding the location of the temporary defect information 

20 recorded on the disc 100. 

In this embodiment, the temporary defect information and 
temporary defect management information are recorded every time a 
recording operation ends, in the TDMA, information regarding a defect, 
which occurs in data recorded during recording operation #1 and 

25 information regarding a replacement area are recorded as temporary 
defect information TDFL #1. Information regarding a defect, which 
occurs in data recorded during recording operation #2, and information 
regarding a replacement area are recorded as temporary defect 
information TDFL #2. Further, management information for managing 

30 temporary defect information TDFL #1 , #2 is recorded as temporary 



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defect management information TDDS #1 , #2 in the TDMA. the 
management information specifies the locations of the temporary defect 
information TDFL #1 , #2 according to an aspect of the invention. In this 
embodiment, defect information contained in previously recorded 

5 temporary defect information TDFL #1 , #2, and #i-1 is not included in the 
temporary defect information TDFL #/. That is, only information 
regarding a defect detected from a recording area during a 
corresponding recording operation #/' is included in the temporary defect 
information TDFL #/. Accordingly, the amount of information regarding 

io defects can be minimized, thus enabling effectively use of a recording 
area of the TDMA. In other words, the recording area of the lead-in 
area (or the lead-out area or the outer area) including the TDMA is 
smaller than a data area where user data is recorded. Nevertheless, if 
information regarding a defect detected whenever a recording operation 

15 is performed is recorded to include all information regarding defects 
detected during previous recording operations, data may not further be 
recorded in the TDMA before the data area is full with data. For this 
reason, in this embodiment, only defect information for a related 
recording operation is recorded as temporary defect information. 

20 When the number of times of recording the temporary defect 

information reaches a predetermined number k, all of the recorded 
temporary defect information is written to the TFDMA. If necessary, all 
of the temporary defect information recorded is recorded as temporary 
finalized defect management information in the TFDMA even before disc 

25 finalization, thereby accelerating data reading. 

When additional data cannot be recorded or will not be recorded 
in the data area (that is, disc finalization is required), the defect 
information recorded in the temporary defect information area and the 
defect management information recorded in the TDMA are recorded in 
30 the DMA. For the disc finalization, all of the information regarding 



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defects contained in the recorded temporary defect information #1, #2, #i 
must be read and written to the DMA. For this reason, temporary 
finalized defect management information that is last recorded in the 
TFDMA is first read. Then, the other temporary defect information is 
5 read from the TDMA. Thus, it is possible to more rapidly obtain desired 
information than se where the TFDMA does not exist. 

Meanwhile, the verify-after-write can be performed on the 
temporary defect information TDFL #i and. the temporary defect 
management information TDDS #i, respectively. When a defect is 
10 detected, information recorded in an area of a disc having a defect may 
be either recorded in a spare area using linear replacement, or recorded 
in an area adjacent to the TDMA using slipping replacement. 

FIG. 12B illustrates a data structure of a disc with a TDMA, DMAs, 
and a TFDMA shown in FIG. 12A. Referring to FIG. 12B, two DMAs (i.e., 
DMA#1 and DMA #2) are formed to increase the robustness of defect 
management information and defect information. However, it is 
understood that a single DMA can be used, and that more than two 
DMAs can be used. TDMA denotes a temporary defect management 
area, TFDMA denotes a temporary finalized defect management area; 
Test denotes an area in which recording conditions of data are 
measured; Drive and Disc information is an area in which information 
regarding a drive used during a recording and/or reproducing 
operation(s), disc information, and information regarding disc finalization 
are recorded; and Buffer 1, Buffer 2, and Buffer 3 are buffers indicating 
borders of the respective areas. 

FIG. 13 is a reference diagram illustrating the relationship 
between a TDMA and a TFDMA according to an aspect of the present 
invention. Referring to FIG. 13, when recording temporary defect 
information and temporary defect management information are recorded 
30 as temporary management information a predetermined number of times 

30 



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(i.e., k), all of the recorded temporary management information is 
collected and recorded as temporary finalized defect management 
information in the TFDMA. For instance, when temporary defect 
management information is recorded k times (i.e., the temporary 

5 management information TDMA #1 , #2, .... #k are recorded), in the 
TDMA, all of the temporary management information TDMA #1 , #2, .... 
#k are collected and recorded as temporary finalized defect management 
information TFDMA #1 in the TFDMA. Later, when temporary 
management information is again recorded k times (i.e., the temporary 

10 management information TDMA #k+1 , #k+2, #2k are recorded), all of the 
temporary management information TDMA #k+1, #k+2, #2k are collected 
and recorded as temporary finalized defect management information 
TFDMA #2 in the TFDMA. 

The temporary finalized defect management information TFDMA 
15 #1 includes all of the temporary defect information contained in the 
temporary management information TDMA #1, #2, #kxn, and further 
includes information regarding the recording position of next temporary 
management information TDMA #kxn+1. Therefore, even before disc 
finalization, the recording/reading unit 1 reads all the temporary defect 
20 information included in a last recorded temporary finalized defect 

management information stored in the TFDMA, and reads all temporary 
defect information from next temporary management information stored 
in the TDMA based on the information regarding the location of the next 
temporary finalized defect management information from the last 
25 recorded temporary finalized defect management information. 

Accordingly, it is possible to more rapidly obtain defect information than 
where temporary finalized defect management information is not 
recorded. 

A data structure of a TDMA according to the embodiment of the 
30 present invention shown in FIG. 12A may also be embodied as illustrated 



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in FIGs. 4A through 4C. A data structure of temporary defect 
management information TDDS #/ may be as shown in FIG. 5A. A data 
structure of a copy of the temporary defect management information 
TDDS #/' may be as shown in FIG. 5B. A data structure of temporary 
5 defect information TDFL #/ may be as shown in FIG. 6. 

FIGs. 14A through 14D illustrate data structures of a TFDMA 
according to embodiments of the present invention. More specifically, 
FIG. 14A illustrates a data structure of a TFDMA according to an 
embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 14A, temporary 

10 finalized defect management information TFDMA #1, TFDMA #2, TFDMA 
#n are sequentially recorded starting from the start of the TFDMA. In 
the temporary finalized defect management information TFDMA #n t 
corresponding temporary finalized defect management information 
TFDDS #n and temporary finalized defect information TFDFL #n are 

15 included twice to increase the reliability and robustness of information. 
The temporary finalized defect management information TFDDS #n 
specifies the location of the corresponding temporary finalized defect 
information TFDFL #n and the location of defect information last 
recorded in temporary finalized defect information TFDFL #n. Let us 

20 assume that temporary defect management information is recorded k 
times and the temporary finalized defect management information 
TFDDS #n is recorded. In this case, the temporary finalized defect 
management information TFDDS #n describes the location of next 
temporary management information TDMA #kxn+1. A number of times 

25 of recording the temporary finalized defect management information 
TFDDS #n and the temporary finalized defect information TFDFL #n is 
not limited. 

FIG. 14B illustrates a detailed data structure of the TFDMA of 
FIG. 14A. Referring to FIG. 14B, temporary finalized defect 
30 management information TFDMA #1, #2, #n is respectively recorded 



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whenever temporary management information TDMA is recorded k times. 

Accordingly, temporary finalized defect information TFDFL #n further 
includes all of recorded temporary defect information TDFL #1, #2, #kxn. 

Temporary finalized defect management information TFDDS tin 
5 includes a pointer pointing to the location of corresponding temporary 
finalized defect information TFDFL tin and a pointer pointing to the 
location of next temporary management information TDMA #kxn+1. 
Here, k denotes an integer more than or equal to 2. 

FIG. 14C illustrates a data structure of a TFDMA according to 

io another embodiment of the present invention. Compared to FIG. 14A, 
the sequence of recording temporary finalized defect management 
information in the TDFMA of FIG. 14C is not the same. More specifically, 
temporary finalized defect management information TFDMA #1, TFDMA 
#2, TFDMA tin are sequentially recorded starting from the end of the 

15 TFDMA. In the temporary finalized defect management information 
TFDMA tin, corresponding temporary finalized defect management 
information TFDDS tin and temporary finalized defect information TFDFL 
tin are included twice to increase the reliability and robustness of 
information. The temporary finalized defect management information 

20 TFDDS tin specifies the location of the corresponding temporary 
finalized defect information TFDFL tin and the location of defect 
information that is last included in the temporary finalized defect 
information TFDFL tin. For instance, when temporary management 
information TDMA is recorded k times and the temporary finalized defect 

25 management information TFDDS tin is recorded, the temporary finalized 
defect management information TFDDS tin describes the location of next 
temporary management information TDMA #kxn+1. k denotes an integer 
that is 2 or greater. 



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A number of recording the temporary finalized defect 
management information TFDDS #n and the temporary finalized defect 
information TFDFL #n is not limited. 

FIG. 14D illustrates a detailed data structure of theTFDMAof 
5 FIG 14C. Referring to FIG. 14D, temporary finalized defect 

management information TFDMA#1, #2, #n is respectively recorded 
whenever temporary management information TDMA is recorded k times. 
In this case, temporary finalized defect information TFDFL #n further 
includes all of recorded temporary defect information TDFL #1, #2, 
10 #n. The temporary finalized defect management information TFDDS #n 
includes a pointer pointing to the location of corresponding temporary 
finalized defect information TFDFL #n and a pointer pointing to the 
location of next temporary management information TDMA #kxn+1. 
Here, k denotes an integer more than or equal to 2. 

15 In this embodiment, a process of recording data in a user data 

area and a spare area is as illustrated in FIG. 7. Also, data structures of 
temporary defect information TDFL #0 and #1 recorded as illustrated in 
FIG. 7, are as shown in FIGs. 8A and 8B, respectively. A data structure 
of a defect #i is as shown in FIG. 9. 

Hereinafter, embodiments of disc defect management according 
to the present invention using the recording apparatus of FIG. 1 and the 
disc 100 of FIG. 12A will be described. FIG. 15 is a flowchart illustrating 
a disc defect management method according to an embodiment of the 
present invention. Referring to FIG. 15, n is set to 1 in the recording 
apparatus of FIG. 1 (action 1201). Here, n is a variable that denotes an 
order of a recording operation and is an integer that is equal to or more 
than 1. Next, for disc defect management, only information regarding a 
defect in data recorded according to an n m recording operation is 
recorded as n 01 temporary defect information in a temporary defect 
management area (TDMA) (action 1201). Next, management 

34 



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information for managing the n m temporary defect information is 
recorded as n th defect management information in the TDMA (action 

1 203) . Corresponding temporary defect information and temporary 
defect management information may be recorded as a pair of information 

5 in the TDMA in units of a predetermined number of blocks, (e.g., in a 
block). 

Next, whether disc finalization is required is checked (action 

1 204) . If it is determined in action 1 204 that disc finalization has yet to 
be required, whether n is a multiple of k is checked (action 1 205). If n is 

io not a multiple of k, actions 1 202 through 1 203 are repeated while 

increasing n by 1 (action 1208). When n is determined to be a multiple 
of k in action 1205, all of recorded temporary defect information is 
recorded as n/k m temporary finalized defect information in a temporary 
finalized defect management area (TFDMA) (action 1 206). Next, 

15 management information for managing the n/k lh temporary finalized 
defect information and information regarding the location of next 
temporary defect information (and/or temporary defect management 
information) are recorded as n/k 01 temporary finalized defect 
management information in the TFDMA (action 1 207). Next, actions 

20 1202 through 1203 are repeated while increasing n by 1 until n is a 
multiple of k, before next disc finalization. 

If it is determined in action 1204 that disc finalization is required, 
all of the recorded temporary defect management information and 
temporary defect information are read from the TFDMA and the TDMA 

25 and recorded in the DMA (action 1209). More specifically, all temporary 
defect information included in temporary finalized defect management 
information that is last recorded in the TFDMA is read. Then, the 
locations of the other temporary defect information recorded in the TDMA 
are detected based on the last recorded temporary defect finalized 

30 management information so as to read the other temporary defect 



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information. Next, all of the recorded temporary defect management 
information and temporary defect information are recorded as final defect 
management information and defect information in the DMA t respectively. 
The final defect management information and the final defect 
5 information may be recorded repeatedly to increase the reliability of 

information. Also, the verify-after-write method can be performed on the 
final defect management information and the final defect information. If 
a defect is detected, an area of the disc 100 having the defect and the 
following area containing data may be regarded as being unavailable (i.e., 
10 the area is designated as a defective area), and the final temporary 
defect management information and temporary defect information may 
be again recorded after the defective area. 

FIG. 16 is a flowchart illustrating a disc defect management 
method according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring 

15 to FIG. 16, n is set as 1 in the recording apparatus of FIG. 1 (action 1301). 
The recording apparatus records user data in a data area of the disc 
100 in units of data to facilitate the verify-after-write method (action 1302). 
Next, the data recorded in action 1302 is verified to detect an area of 
the disc 100 having a defect (action 1303). The controller 2 of FIG. 1 

20 designates the area having the defect as a defective area, controls the 
recording/reading unit 1 to rewrite data recorded in the defective area to 
a spare area so as to create a replacement area, and creates pointer 
information that points to the positions of the defective area and the 
replacement area (action 1304). The pointer information is recorded as 

25 temporary defect information in the memory 3 of FIG. 1 (action 1305). 
The temporary defect information may further include state information 
describing whether the defect occurs in a single defect block or 
continuous defect blocks. It is checked whether a current recording 
operation is expected to end (action 1306). If it is determined in action 

30 1306 that the recording operation is not expected to end, actions 1302 
through 1305 are repeated. 



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If it is determined in action 1306 that the recording operation is 
likely to end, (i.e., when the recording of the user data is complete by 
user input or according to the first recording operation), the controller 2 
controls the recording/reading unit 1 to read the temporary defect 

5 information from the memory 3 and record it as temporary defect 
information TDFL #1 in a TDMA (action 1 307). Temporary defect 
management information TDDS #1 is recorded as management 
information for managing the temporary defect information TDFL #1 
twice right after the temporary defect information TDFL #1 (action 1308). 

10 The numbers of recording temporary defect management information 
and temporary defect information are not limited. Corresponding 
temporary defect information and temporary defect management 
information may be recorded as a pair of information in the TDMA in 
units of a predetermined number of blocks (e.g., in a block). 

15 Next, it is checked whether disc finalization is required (action 

1 309). If it is determined in action 1 309 that disc finalization is not 
required, actions 1302 through 1308 are repeated while increasing n by 
1 (action 1313). Whenever actions 1302 through 1308 are repeated, 
indexes given to temporary defect information, temporary defect 

20 management information, temporary finalized defect information, and 
temporary finalized defect management information are increased by 1 
(action 1314). However, temporary defect information TDFL #i specifies 
only information regarding defects detected during a recording operation 
#i (that is, it does not contain information regarding defects detected 

25 during the previous recording operations #1 , #2, #i-1 ). 

If n is determined to be a multiple of k in action 131 0, all recorded 
temporary defect information is recorded as temporary finalized defect 
information TFDFL #1 even before disc finalization (action 1311). Next, 
management information for managing the temporary finalized defect 
30 information TFDFL #1 and information regarding the location of next 



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temporary defect information TDFL (and/or temporary defect 
management information TDDS) are recorded as temporary finalized 
defect management information TFDDS #1 (action 1312). Also, 
whenever n is a multiple of k before disc finalization is required, actions 
5 1311 and 1312 are repeated while increasing indexes given to temporary 
finalized defect information TFDFL and temporary defect management 
information TDDS by 1. 

If it is determined in action 1309 that the finalizing of the disc 100 
is needed, all recorded temporary defect information TDFL and 

10 temporary defect management information TDDS are read from the 
TDMAand a TFDMAand recorded as final defect information DFL and 
defect management information DDS in the DMA, respectively (action 
131 5). The final defect information DFL and the final defect 
management information DDS may be repeatedly recorded several times 

15 to increase the reliability of data detection. Similarly, the 

verify-after-write method may be performed on the final defect 
information and defect management information. If a defect is detected 
in this information, an area of the disc having the defect and the following 
area containing data may be regarded as being unavailable (i.e., the 

20 area is designated as a defective area), and the final temporary defect 
management information and temporary defect information may be again 
recorded after the defective area. 

Industrial Applicability 

25 As described above, an aspect of the present invention provides 

a disc defect management method that is applicable to write once discs. 
A write once disc according to an embodiment of the present invention 
includes a temporary defect management area (TDMA) where 
information regarding defects (i.e., defect information) detected during 

30 respective recording operations is recorded. Therefore, during disc 



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finalization, all defect information is read from the TDMA and recorded in 
a defect management area (DMA) at once, thus enabling effective use of 
a defect management area of the write once disc. In particular, 
temporary defect management information specifies both the location of 

5 corresponding temporary defect information and the location of 

temporary defect information recorded right before the corresponding 
temporary defect information. For this reason, it is possible to 
accelerate reading of all recorded temporary defect information. In the 
case of a write once disc, since disc defect management can also be 

10 performed while recording use data, a backup operation can be 
completed without interruptions. Also, since defect information is 
recorded in a temporary defect information area in recording operation 
units, it is possible to more effectively use a recording space than where 
defect information is accumulatively recorded for every recording 

15 operation. Thus, disc defect management can be performed on a data 
area even if the TDMA is not large. 

A write once disc according to another embodiment of the present 
invention includes a TDMA and a temporary finalized defect 
management area (TFDMA). Information regarding defects (i.e., defect 

20 information) detected during each recording operation is recorded in the 
TDMA. When defect information is recorded a predetermined number 
of times in the TDMA, all recorded defect information is collected and 
recorded in the TFDMA. Also, information regarding the recording 
location of next defect information to be recorded in the TDMA is further 

25 recorded in the TFDMA even before disc finalization, thereby enabling 
fast reading of the defect information. During disc finalization, all 
temporary defect information recorded in the TDMA and the TFDMA is 
read and recorded in a DMA at once, thus enabling effective use of the 
DMA. 



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While not required in ail aspects of the invention, it is understood 
that the controller 2 can be a computer implementing the method using a 
computer program encoded on a computer readable medium. The 
computer can be implemented as a chip having firmware, or can be a 
5 general or special purpose computer programmable to perform the 
method. It is further understood that the method can be used with 
optical media, such as CD-R, DVD-R, Blu-ray and Advanced Optical 
Discs (AODs). Also, it is understood that the method can be used with 
rewritable media. 

10 In addition, it is understood that, in order to achieve a recording 

capacity of several dozen gigabytes, the recording and/or reproducing 
unit 1 could include a low wavelength, high numerical aperture type unit 
usable to record dozens of gigabytes of data on the disc 100. Examples 
of such units include, but are not limited to, those units using light 

15 wavelengths of 405 nm and having numerical apertures of 0.85, those 
units compatible with Blu-ray discs, and/or those units compatible with 
Advanced Optical Discs (AOD). 

While this invention has been particularly shown and described 
with reference to embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those 
20 skilled in the art that various changes in form and details may be made 
therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as 
defined by the appended claims and their equivalents. 



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What is claimed is : 

1 . A write once disc, comprising: 

at least one record layer on which data is recorded; 
a temporary defect management area having first temporary 
5 defect information regarding only a defect in the recorded data detected 
during a corresponding first recording operation other than a prior 
recording operation, and first temporary defect management information 
for managing the first temporary defect information; and 

at least one defect management area in which the temporary 
10 defect information and temporary defect management information 
recorded in the temporary defect management area are recorded as 
defect information and defect management information, respectively, 

wherein the defect information and defect management 
information and/or the temporary defect information and temporary 
15 defect management information are used by a recording and/or 

reproducing apparatus to perform defect management with respect to the 
data recorded on the at least one record layer. 

2. The write once disc of claim 1 , wherein the at least one 
20 defect management area comprises at least two defect management 

areas. 

3. The write once disc of claim 1 , wherein the temporary 
defect information and temporary defect management information are 

25 recorded as a pair of information adjacent to each other in the temporary 
defect management area. 

4. The write once disc of claim 3, wherein the temporary 
defect information and temporary defect management information are 

30 recorded several times, and the temporary defect management 



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information includes information regarding a location of corresponding 
temporary defect information. 

5. The write once disc of claim 3, wherein the temporary 

5 defect management information includes information regarding a location 
of previous temporary defect information recorded in the prior recording 
operation before the first temporary defect information. 

6. The write once disc of claim 1 , further comprising a 

10 replacement area in which a replacement is recorded to replace the 
defect in the recorded data, wherein the temporary defect information 
includes a pointer pointing to a location of the defect and a pointer 
pointing to a location of the replacement for the defect. 

15 7. The write once disc of claim 6, wherein the temporary 

defect information further includes state information specifying and 
distinguishing between whether the defect occurs in one of continuous 
defect blocks and a single defect block. 

?o 8. The write once disc of claim 7, wherein the state 

information specifies that the defect occurs in the continuous defect 
blocks and that the pointer for the defect and the pointer for the 
replacement indicate starting positions of the defect and the replacement, 
respectively. 

25 

9. The write once disc of claim 7, wherein the state 
information specifies that the defect occurs in the continuous defect 
block and that the pointer for the defect and the pointer for the 
replacement indicate end positions of the defect and the replacement, 
30 respectively. 



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1 0. A method of managing disc defects, comprising: 
recording only information regarding a defect detected in data, 
which is recorded in a data area of a disc during a recording operation 
having an index of i, where i is an integer, as ith temporary defect 
5 information in a temporary defect management area of the disc; 

recording management information for managing the ith 
temporary defect information as ith temporary defect management 
information in the temporary defect management area; 

repeating the recording temporary defect information and the 
io recording the temporary defect management information at least once 
while increasing the index i given to the recording operation, the 
temporary defect information, and the temporary defect management 
information by 1 so as to record temporary defect information and 
temporary defect management information having only defect 
15 information for the corresponding one of the recording operations; and 
reading and writing all of the recorded temporary defect 
management information and temporary defect information in a defect 
management area of the disc. 

20 11. The method of claim 1 0, wherein the reading and writing is 

performed after recording of data in the data area according to a last 
recording operation. 

1 2. The method of claim 1 0, wherein the recording the 
25 temporary defect information and the recording the temporary defect 

management information comprises sequentially recording the temporary 
defect information and the temporary defect management information as 
a pair of information adjacent to each other, starting from an end of the 
temporary defect management area. 



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13. The method of claim 12, wherein the recording the 
temporary defect information and the recording the temporary defect 
management information comprises recording the temporary defect 
information and the temporary defect management information several 

5 times. 

14. The method of claim 12, wherein the recording the 
temporary defect management information comprises recording 
information regarding a location of the temporary defect information 

10 corresponding to the temporary defect management information, and 
information regarding a location of temporary defect information 
recorded during another recording operation having the index of at least 
H. 

15 15. The method of claim 10, wherein the recording the 

temporary defect information and the recording the temporary defect 
management information comprises recording the temporary defect 
information and the temporary defect management information 
sequentially as a pair of information adjacent to each other, starting from 

20 an end of the temporary defect management area. 

1 6. The method of claim 1 5, wherein the recording the 
temporary defect information and the recording the temporary defect 
management information comprises recording the temporary defect 

25 information and the temporary defect management information several 
times. 

1 7. The method of claim 1 5, wherein the recording the 
temporary defect management information comprises recording 

30 information regarding a location of the temporary defect information 
corresponding to the temporary defect management information, and 



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information regarding a location of temporary defect information 
recorded during another recording operation having the index of at least 

5 1 8. The method of claim 10, wherein the recording the 

temporary defect information comprises: 

recording the data in predetermined units during the ith recording 
operation: 

verifying the recorded data to detect a defective area of the disc 
10 where a defect exists; 

storing information regarding the defective area and information 
regarding a replacement area for the defective area as the ith temporary 
defect information in a memory of a recording apparatus; 

repeating the recording data in predetermined units and the 
15 verifying the recorded data at least once; and 

reading the information stored in the memory and writing the 
read information as the ith temporary defect information in the temporary 
defect management area when the recording operation ends. 

20 1 9. A recording and/or reproducing apparatus comprising: 

a recording/reading unit that records data on and/or reads data 

from a disc; and 

a controller that controls the recording/reading unit to record in a 
temporary defect management area temporary defect information 

25 regarding a defect detected from a portion of the data recorded in a data 
area of the disc in a corresponding one of recording operation units, and 
to record in the temporary defect management area temporary defect 
management information for managing the temporary defect information 
in the temporary defect management area, where the temporary defect 

30 information does not include information regarding another defect 
defected during a prior recording operation unit. 



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20. The recording apparatus of claim 19, wherein the controller 
controls the recording/reading unit to record corresponding temporary 
defect information and temporary defect management information as a 
5 pair of information adjacent to each other. 



21 . The recording apparatus of claim 19, wherein the controller 
controls the recording/reading unit to record corresponding temporary 
defect information and temporary defect management information in the 

10 temporary defect management area for each of the recording operation 
units, and to read all of recorded temporary defect information and 
temporary defect management information and to record the read 
temporary defect information and temporary defect management 
information in a defect management area during disc finalization. 

15 

22. A recording and/or reproducing apparatus comprising: 

a recording/reading unit that records data on and/or reads data 
from a disc; and 

a controller that controls the recording/reading unit to record 

20 information regarding a defect detected from data, which is recorded in a 
data area of the disc according to recording operation having an index of 
i, where i is an integer as ith temporary defect information in a temporary 
defect management area; to record defect management information for 
managing the ith temporary defect information as ith temporary defect 

25 management information in the temporary defect management area; 
record data in the data area while increasing the index i given to a 
corresponding recording operation, a corresponding temporary defect 
information, and a corresponding temporary defect management 
information by 1; and to record all of the recorded temporary defect 

30 information and temporary defect management information in a defect 
management area during disc finalization. 



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23. The recording apparatus of claim 22, wherein the controller 
controls the recording/reading unit to record data in the data area 
according to a last recording operation, and to record all of recorded 

5 temporary defect information and temporary defect management 
information as final defect information and defect management 
information, respectively, in the defect management area. 

24. The recording apparatus of claim 22, wherein the controller 
10 controls the recording/reading unit to sequentially record corresponding 

temporary defect information and temporary defect management 
information as a pair of information, starting from a start of the temporary 
defect management area. 

15 25. The recording apparatus of claim 22, wherein the controller 

controls the recording/reading unit to sequentially record corresponding 
temporary defect information and temporary defect management 
information as a pair of information, starting from an end of the 
temporary defect management area. 

20 

26. The recording apparatus of claim 24, wherein the controller 
controls the recording/reading unit to record information regarding a 
location of the temporary defect information corresponding to the 
temporary defect management information and information regarding a 

25 location of temporary defect information recorded during another 
recording operation having the index of at least i-1 . 

27. The recording apparatus of claim 22, further comprising a 
memory unit, 

30 wherein the controller controls the recording/reading unit to record 

data in predetermined units according to a predetermined recording 



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operation having a common index; verifies the recorded data to detect a 
defective area of the disc in which a defect exists; creates information 
regarding the defective area and information regarding a replacement 
area for the defective area; stores the created information as temporary 
5 defect information in the memory unit; and controls the recording/reading 
unit to record the data recorded in an area following the defective area in 
predetermined units according to the recording operation, read the 
temporary defect information from the memory unit, and record the read 
temporary defect information in the temporary defect management area. 

10 

28. A write once disc with at least one record layer, comprising: 
a temporary defect management area having temporary defect 
information regarding only a defect in data recorded in the user data area 
detected during a corresponding recording operation without having 
15 information on another defect occurring during a prior recording 

operation, and temporary defect management information for managing 
the temporary defect information; 

a temporary finalized defect management area having temporary 
finalized defect information that includes at least a portion of the 
20 temporary defect information recorded in the temporary defect 
management area, and temporary finalized defect management 
information for managing the temporary finalized defect information; and 
at least one defect management area in which all of the recorded 
temporary defect information and temporary defect management 
25 information are recorded as defect information and defect management 
information, respectively, during disc finalization, 
wherein: 

the temporary defect information and the temporary defect 
management information are recorded as a pair of information in the 
30 temporary defect management area, and 



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the defect information and the defect management 
information and/or the temporary defect information and the temporary 
defect management information are used by a recording and/or 
reproducing apparatus for performing defect management with respect to 
5 the recorded data on the disc. 

29. The write once disc of claim 28, wherein: 

the temporary finalized defect management information is 
recorded whenever the temporary defect management information is 
10 recorded k times, and 

k is an integer that is more than or equal to 2. 

30. The write once disc of claim 29, wherein the temporary 
finalized defect management information is obtained based on all 

15 temporary management information recorded when the temporary 
finalized defect management information is to be recorded. 

31 . The write once disc of claim 30, wherein the temporary 
finalized defect management information comprises all of the temporary 

20 defect information included in the temporary management information 
recorded when the temporary finalized defect management information 
is desired to be recorded. 

32. The write once disc of claim 29, wherein the at least one 
25 defect management area comprises at least two defect management 

areas. 

33. The write once disc of claim 28, wherein the temporary 
defect information and the temporary defect management information 

30 are recorded adjacent to each other in the temporary defect 
management area. 



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34. The write once disc of claim 28, wherein the temporary 
defect information and the temporary defect management information 
are recorded as a pair of information in the temporary defect 

5 management area in units of a predetermined number of blocks. 

35. The write once disc of claim 33, wherein the temporary 
defect information and the temporary defect management information 
are recorded several times, and the temporary defect management 

10 information further includes information regarding a recording location of 
corresponding temporary defect information. 

36. The write once disc of claim 33, wherein the temporary 
defect information includes a pointer pointing to the location of a defect 

15 and a pointer pointing to a location of a replacement area for the defect. 

37. The write once disc of claim 35, wherein the temporary 
defect management area is divided into a plurality of parts, and a copy of 
the temporary defect information and the temporary defect management 

20 information are recorded in each of the plurality of parts. 

38. A method of managing disc defects, comprising: 
recording temporary management information that includes 

temporary defect information and temporary defect management 
25 information regarding data, which is recorded in a data area of a disc 
according to a recording operation having an index of i, where i is an 
integer, as ith temporary management information in a temporary defect 
management area in units of a predetermined number of blocks; 
repeating the recording the ith temporary management 
30 information at least once while increasing the index i given to the 

recording operation and the temporary management information by 1 ; 



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recording temporary finalized defect management information, 
which is obtained based on all of the recorded temporary management 
information, in a temporary finalized defect management area whenever 
the temporary management information is recorded k times, wherein k is 

5 an integer more than or equal to 2; 

repeating the recording the temporary management information, 
the repeating the recording the ith temporary management information 
while increasing the index i at least once, and the recording the 
temporary finalized defect management information at least once; and 

io reading all of the recorded temporary defect management 

information including temporary management information recorded in the 
temporary finalized defect management information and temporary 
defect information and recording the temporary defect management 
information and temporary defect information in a defect management 

is area. 

39. The method of claim 38, wherein the reading and recording 
the temporary defect management information are performed after 
recording of data in the data area according to a last recording operation. 

20 

40. The method of claim 38, wherein: the recording the 
temporary defect management information comprises sequentially 
recording the temporary defect information and the temporary defect 
management information as a pair of information adjacent to each other, 

25 starting from a start of the temporary defect management area. 

41 . The method of claim 40, wherein: 

the recording the temporary defect management information 
comprises recording the temporary defect information and the temporary 
30 defect management information repeatedly, and 



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each temporary defect management information specifies a 
location of a corresponding temporary defect information and a location 
of a temporary defect information that is recorded during another 
recording operation having the index of at least 

5 

42. The method of claim 41 , wherein: 

the disc includes a plurality of temporary defect management 
areas, and 

the recording the temporary defect management information 
10 comprises recording a copy of the temporary defect information and the 
temporary defect management information in each of the plurality of 
temporary defect management areas. 

43. The method of claim 38, wherein the recording the 

is temporary defect management information comprises recording the 
temporary defect information and the temporary defect management 
information sequentially as a pair of information adjacent to each other, 
starting from an end of the temporary defect management area. 

20 44. The method of claim 43, wherein the recording the 

temporary defect management information comprises recording the 
temporary defect information and the temporary defect management 
information repeatedly. 

25 45. The method of claim 44, wherein: 

the disc includes a plurality of temporary defect management 
areas, and 

the recording the temporary defect management information 
comprises recording a copy of the temporary defect information and the 
30 temporary defect management information in each of the plurality of 
temporary defect management areas. 



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46. The method of claim 44, wherein: 

the recording the temporary defect management information 
comprises recording the temporary defect information and the temporary 
5 defect management information repeatedly, and 

each of the temporary defect management information specifies a 
location of corresponding temporary defect information and a location of 
temporary defect information that is recorded during another recording 
operation having the index of at least i-1 . 

10 

47. The method of claim 38, wherein the recording the 
temporary defect management information comprises: 

recording data in predetermined units during a corresponding 
recording operation having a common index: 
15 verifying the recorded data to detect a defective area of the disc 

in which a defect exists; 

storing information regarding the defective area and information 
regarding a replacement area for the defective area as temporary defect 
information in a memory of a recording apparatus; 
20 repeating the recording the data, the verifying the recorded data, 

and the storing the information at least once; and 

reading temporary defect information from the memory, and 
recording the temporary defect information and temporary defect 
management information for managing the temporary defect information 
25 in the temporary defect management area in units of a predetermined 
number of blocks, when the recording operation ends. 

48. A recording apparatus comprising: 

a recording/reading unit that records data on and/or reads data 

30 from a disc; and 

a controller that controls the recording/reading unit to record 



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temporary management information in a temporary defect management 
area in units of a predetermined number of blocks, wherein the 
temporary management information includes temporary defect 
information regarding data recorded in a data area of the disc according 
5 to a corresponding recording operation, and temporary defect 

management information for managing the temporary defect information; 
and to record temporary finalized defect management information 
obtained based on all of the recorded temporary defect management 
information in a temporary finalized defect management area whenever 
10 the temporary management information is recorded k times after k 
recording operations. 

49. The recording apparatus of claim 48, wherein the controller 
controls the recording/reading unit to record the temporary defect 

15 information and the temporary defect management information, which 
constitute the temporary defect information, as a pair of information to be 
adjacent to each other. 

50. The recording apparatus of claim 48, wherein the controller 
20 controls the recording/reading unit to record information regarding the 

location of temporary defect information corresponding to the temporary 
defect management information, and information regarding the location 
of temporary defect information recorded in a prior recording operation 
right before the recording operation of the corresponding temporary 
25 defect information. 

51 . The recording apparatus of claim 48, wherein the controller 
controls the recording/reading unit to record defect information and 
defect management information, which is obtained based on all recorded 

30 temporary management information and temporary finalized defect 



54 



WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



1 



RECORDING/ 
READING UNIT 




100 



1/16 

FIG. 1 



USER INPUT 



CONTROLLER 



MEMORY 



FIG. 2A 



LO 




DATA AREA 






1 










LEAD-IN 


SPARE 
AREA 


USER DATA AREA 


LEAD-OUT 



LO 




FIG. 2B 

DATA AREA 






1 










LEAD-IN 


SPARE 
AREA 


USER DATA AREA 


OUTER 
AREA 




LEAD-OUT 


USER DATA AREA 


SPARE 
AREA 


OUTER 
AREA 




< ■ ■ 




s 




1 

L1 




DATA AREA 







WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



2/16 

FIG. 3A 




RECORDING OPERATION 

#0< 

RECORDING OPERATION 



, LEAD-IN/ 
OUTER AREA 



> DATA AREA 




SPARE AREA 



'77/7. 

/ / / y / / 



/ / 



- r- -y--r -s- 7 -/- -7-7 
7/7/7/// 
/ / / / / 



I LEAD-OUT/ 
OUTER AREA 



WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



3/16 

FIG. 3B 



7 7 7 



z 





Buffer 3 



Test 



7 7 7 
.TDMA 

<^7" 
/DMA 1 



7 





7 





Buffer 2 



Drive and Disc information 



Buffer 1 



FIG. 4A 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
LOCATION OF COPY OF TDFL #0 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
LOCATION OF TDFL #1 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
LOCATION OF TDFL #1 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
LOCATION OF COPY OF TDFL #1 





^ ! 


TDFL #1 


TDDS #1 


copy of TDFL #1 


copy of TDDS #1 



TDMA 



TDMA #0 



TDMA #1 



WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



4/16 

FIG. 4B 





TDMA 












♦ ♦ • 


TDMA #1 


TDMA #0 












copy of TDDS #1 


copy of TDFL #1 


TDDS #1 


TDFL #1 






/ 

/ 

/ 







INFORMATION REGARDING 
LOCATION OF TDFL #1 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
LOCATION OF COPY OF TDFL #1 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
LOCATION OF COPY OF TDFL #0 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
LOCATION OF TDFL #1 



WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



6/16 
FIG. 5A 

TDDS #\ 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

IDENTIFIER FOR TDDS §\ 
POINTER FOR COPY OF TDFL 
POINTER FOR TDFL #i 

FIG. 5B 

COPY OF TDDS §'\ 




IDENTIFIER FOR COPY OF TDDS #i 
POINTER FOR TDFL #i 
POINTER FOR COPY OF TDFL #i 



FIG. 6 



TDFL #i 




IDENTIFIER FOR TDFL #i 



INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT 
OCCURRING DURING RECORDING OPERATION #i 



WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



7/16 



?REPUCEMENT^: 



^REPLACEMENT * 



^REPLACEMENT *° 



^REPLACEMENT ^ 



REPLACEMENT^ 



< 

LiJ 

O _ 

z 

O 

o 
o 



-DEFECT ^5 



UJ 



o 
o 

LjJ 



K DEFECT^ 



;DEFECT; 
> > \ y ., , . ,y 



k DEFECJ; 5 , 



DEFECT: 



\ 



0 




WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



8/16 
FIG. 8A 



TDFL #0 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #1 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #2 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #3 



FIG. 8B 



TDFL #1 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #4 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #5 




FIG. 9 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #i 



POINTER FOR 
DEFECT #i 



POINTER FOR 
REPLACEMENT #i 



WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



9/16 

FIG. 10 



(start) 













RECORD ONLY INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT 

IN DATA RECORDED ACCORDING TO FIRST 
RECORDING OPERATION AS FIRST TDFL IN TDMA ! 



RECORD MANAGEMENT INFORMATION FOR 
MANAGING FIRST TDFL AS FIRST TDDS IN TDMA 



1003 

IS DISC FINALIZATION REQUIRED? 




1002 



YES 



INCREASE INDEXES GIVEN TO RECORDING 
OPERATION, TDFL, AND TDDS 



1004 



I 



RECORD ALL OF RECORDED TDFL AND 
TDDS IN DMA 



1005 



( Tend") 



WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



10/16 



FIG. 11 Csrm) 













RECORD USER DATA IN DATA AREA IN UNITS OF 
DATA TO FACILITATE VERIFY-AFTER-WRITE METHOD 






VERIFY USER DATA TO DETECT DEFECTIVE AREA OF 
DISC HAVING DEFECT 



1101 



CREATE POINTER INFORMATION THAT POINTS OUT 
TO POSITIONS OF DEFECTIVE AREA AND REPLACEMENT AREA 



1103 



STORE POINTER INFORMATION AS TDFL IN MEMORY — 1104 



IS RECORDING 
OPERATION EXPECTED TO END?. 



1105 



YES 



READ TDFL FROM MEMORY AND RECORD IT 
AS FIRST TDFL $0 



1106 



RECORD FIRST TDDS #0 IN THE TDMA 


— 1107 


— F~D~isC FINALIZATION NEEDED? =■ 

~Tno 


YES 




INCREASE INDEXES GIVEN TO RECORDING 
OPERATION, TDFL, AND TDFL BY 1 


— 1109 










RECORD ALL OF RECORDED TDFL #0, #1, .. , #i-1, 
f\ AND TDDS #0, #1, .. , #1-1, #i AS FINAL 
I DFL AND FINAL DDS IN THE DMA. 


— 1110 



( END ) 



WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



11/16 



FIG. 12A 



Z 





RECORDING OPERATION 

RECORDING OPERATION 

#2< 




/ / / 
TDMA 





yTFDMA 




> LEAD-IN/ 
OUTER AREA 




SPARE AREA 



-r—z—r 



////// DMA^' / / / s 
/ / / / / sss' s s / / / 



'7' 

/' 
. J?. 



DATA AREA 



LEAD-OUT/ 
OUTER AREA 



WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



12/16 
FIG. 12B 



/ 7 7 
^DMA 2 





Buffer 3 



Test 



7 



7 — 7 — ?— 7 

TDMA 



.TFDMA 



V////W. V//77, 



Buffer 2 



Drive and Disc information 



Buffer 1 



FIG. 13 



TDMA §\ 



TDMA §2 



TDMA §k 



TDMA #k+1 



TDMA 



TFDMA #1 



TFDMA #2 



TDMA #2k 




TFDMA 



WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



13/16 
FIG. UA 



|tfdfl §i 



TFDDS #n 



copy of TFDFL #n 



copy of TFDDS #n 



TFDMA 



TFDMA #1 



TFDMA §2 



TFDMA #n 



FIG. 14B 



TDFL #1 



TDFL #2 



TDFL #k*n 



POINTER FOR TFDFL #n 



POINTER FOR TDMA #k*n+1 



1 
1 

! 








TFDFL #n 


TFDDS #n 


copy of TFDFL #n 


copy of TFDDS #n 



TFDMA 



TFDMA #1 TFDMA §2 



TFDMA #n 



WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



14/16 

FIG. 14C 



TFDMA 



TFDMA #n 


♦ • • 


TFDMA #2 


TFDMA #1 






TFDFL #n 


TFDDS #n 


copy of TFDFL #n 


copy of TFDDS #n 



FIG. 14D 



TFDMA 







TFDMA #n 


• ♦ • 


TFDMA #2 


TFDMA #1 



TFDFL #n 


TFDDS #n 


copy of TFDFL #n 


copy of TFDDS #n 



TDFL #1 



TDFL #2 



POINTER FOR TFDFL #n 



POINTER FOR TDMA #k*n+1 



TDFL #k*n 



WO 2004/079729 



PCT7KR2004/000017 



(start) 



15/16 

FIG. 15 



n=1 



1201 



RECORD ONLY INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT IN DATA, WHICH IS RECORDED 
ACCORDING TO Nth RECORDING 
OPERATION, AS Nth TDFL IN TDMA 



1202 



RECORD MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 
FOR MANAGING Nth TDFL AS Nth 
TDDS IN TDMA 



1204 




— 1203 



YES 



N - MULTIPLE OF K? 
NO 



YES 



_Z1 



1208 



n=n+ 1 



1206 



RECORD (N/K)th TFDFL 



_Z1 



1207 



RECORD (N/K)th TFDDS 
I 



I 



RECORD ALL OF RECORDED TDDS 
AND TDFL IN DMA 



209 



QnT) 



WO 2004/079729 



PCT/KR2004/000017 



16/16 



FIG. 16 



(start) 



n=1 



•1301 



RECORD USER DATA IN DATA AREA IN UNITS OF 
DATA TO FACILITATE VERIFY- AFTER -WRITE METHOD 



VERIFY USER DATA TO DETECT DEFECTIVE AREA 
OF DISC HAVING DEFECT 



CREATE POINTER INFORMATION THAT SPECIFIES 
POSITIONS OF DEFECTIVE AREA AND REPLACEMENT AREA 



'1302 



■1303 



'1304 



STORE POINTER INFORMATION IN MEMORY —1305 




READ TDFL FROM MEMORY AND 
RECORD IT AS TDFL #1 



1306 



'1307 



RECORD TDDS #1 IN TDMA 



— 1308 



1309 

IS DISC FINALIZATION REQUIRED? 



YES 



Tno 


^1310 




<Cir~ N = MULTIPLE OF K? 1 





NO 


RECORD TFDFL #1 I 


,1313 






^1312 




i+1 




RECORD TFDDS #1 


,1314 






INCREASE INDEXES GIVEN TO TDFL. TDDS, 
TFDFL, AND TFDDS BY 1 







RECORD ALL OF RECORDED TDFL AND — ^-15 

TDDS AS DFL AND DDS 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 


International application No. 




PCT/KJR2004/000017 



A. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 



IPC7 G11B 7/007 

According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 

B. FIELDS SEARCHED 

Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 
IPC 7 Gl IB 7/00-7/24, Gl IB 20/00-20/24 

Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 



Electronic data base consulted during the intertnational search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) 
WPI, PAJ M defect^"management , ^ ,, optical"' , temporary ,, 



DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category* 



Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



Y 
Y 
Y 



JP 13-351337 A (SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO. LTD.) 21 DECEMBER 2001 
See abstract. 

JP 09-320204 A(SONY CORP.) 12 DECEMBER 1997. 
See abstract 

JP 07-057397 A (RICOH CO. LTD.) 03 MARCH 1995. 
See abstract. 



1, 10, 19 
1, 10, 19 
1, 10, 19 



| | Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box C. Q See patent family annex. 



-p.. 



Special categories of cited documents: 

document defining the general state of the art which is not considered 
to be of particular relevance 

earlier application or patent but published on or after the international 
tiling date 

document which may throw doubts on priority ciaim(s) or which is 
cited to establish the publication date of citation or other 
special reason (as specified) 

document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or other 
means 

document published prior to the international filing date but later 
than the priority date claimed 



later document published after the international filing date or priority 
date and not in conflict with the application but cited to understand 
the principle or theory underlying the invention 
document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 
considered novel or cannot be considered to involve an inventive 
step when the document is taken alone 

document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 
considered to involve an inventive step when the document is 
combined with one or more other such documents,such combination 
being obvious to a person skilled in the art 
document member of the same patent family 



Date of the actual completion of the international search 
30 APRIL 2004 (30.04.2004) 


Date of mailing of the international search report 
30 APRIL 2004 (30.04.2004) 


Name and mailing address of the ISA/KR 
^PHh^ Korean Intellectual Property Office 
M ^tS!^ 920 Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-701 , 
R e P u blic of Korea 

Facsimile No. 82-42-472-7140 


Authorized officer ^^—^ 

SONG, Jin Suk (jS^S^ 
Telephone No. 82-42-481-5694 M^jWU/ 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (second sheet)' (January 2004)