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WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION 
International Bureau 




PCT 

INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : 

G11B 20/18, 20/12, 20/10, 7/00, 20/00 



Al 



(11) International Publication Number: WO 00/07185 

(43) International Publication Date: 10 February 2000 (10.02.00) 



(21) International Application Number: PCT/KR99/00374 

(22) International Filing Date: 15 July 1999 (15.07.99) 



(30) Priority Data: 

1998/30320 
1998/31406 
1998/39797 



28 July 1998 (28.07.98) 
1 August 1998 (01.08.98) 
24 September 1998 (24.09.98) 



(71) Applicant: LG ELECTRONICS INC. [KR/KR]; 
Yoido-dong, Youngdungpo-gu, Seoul 150-010 (KR). 



KR 
KR 
KR 



20, 



(72) Inventors: LEE, Myong, Gu; Hyondae Apt., 601-104, 
Kummaeul, Pyongchon-dong, Tongan-gu, Anyang-shi, 
Kyonggi-do 431-070 (KR). PARK, Yong, Cheol; Jukong 
Apt., 215-204, Wonmun-dong, Kwachon-shi, Kyonggi-do 
427-030 (KR). JEONG, Kyu, Hwa; Sinwondang Apt., 
701-1101, Songsa-dong, Tokyang-gu Koyang-shi, 
Kyonggi-do 412-020 (KR). SHIN, Jong, In; 830-26, 
Anyang-dong, Manan-gu, Anyang-shi, Kyonggi-do 
430-010 (KR). 

(74) Agents: KIM, Yong, In et al.; Dae Heung Building, 13th 
floor, 648-23 Yeoksam-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-080 
(KR). 



(81) Designated States: AE, AL, AM, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, 
BR, BY, CA, CH, CN, CU, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, GB, 
GD, GE, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, 
KP, KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MD, MG, MK, 
MN, MW, MX, NO, NZ, PL, PT, RO, RU, SD, SE, SG, SI, 
SK, SL, TJ, TM, TR, TT, UA, UG, UZ, VN, YU, ZA, ZW, 
ARIPO patent (GH, GM, KE, LS, MW, SD, SL, SZ, UG, 
ZW), Eurasian patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, 
TM), European patent (AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, 
FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE), OAPI patent 
(BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, GW, ML, MR, NE, 
SN, TD, TG). 



Published 

With international search report. 



I command/ 
data 



608 

-4- 



(54) Title: METHOD AND APPARATUS OF RECORDING DATA IN THE OPTICAL RECORDING MEDIUM 

(57) Abstract 

The present invention relates to 
an optical recording medium and opti- 
cal recording medium record/playback 
apparatus and method, for managing 
defective areas in a rewritable opti- 
cal recording medium. Particularly, 
the present invention adds a linear re- 
placement control (LRC) bit to a sec- 
ondary defective list (SDL) entry to dis- 
criminate a defective block information 
that is listed at the SDL entry accord- 
ing to a linear replacement algorithm 
from a defective block information that 
is listed at the SDL entry according 
to a skipping algorithm, thereby al- 
lowing the optical recording medium 
record/playback apparatus to transmit 
correct information to a host. Further- 
more, when a defective block requir- 
ing a new replacement block is found 
while recording or playing back data 
when spare area is full, instead of car- 
rying out the linear replacement, the 
LRC bit is set in the SDL entry along 
with the location information of the de- 
fective block to indicate that the corre- 
sponding SDL entry was made when 
the spare area was full, whereby data 
is not written in the defective block or 

data of the defective block is not read when rewriting or reproducing the data afterward. Consequently, the present invention can effect 
efficient management over the disc. 




HOST 



FOR THE PURPOSES OF INFORMATION ONLY 



Codes used to identify States party to the PCT on the front pages of pamphlets publishing international applications under the PCT. 



AL 


Albania 


ES 


Spain 


LS 


Lesotho 


SI 


Slovenia 


AM 


Armenia 


FI 


Finland 


LT 


Lithuania 


SK 


Slovakia 


AT 


Austria 


FR 


France 


LU 


Luxembourg 


SN 


Senegal 


AU 


Australia 


GA 


Gabon 


LV 


Latvia 


sz 


Swaziland 


AZ 


Azerbaijan 


GB 


United Kingdom 


MC 


Monaco 


TD 


Chad 


BA 


Bosnia and Herzegovina 


GE 


Georgia 


MD 


Republic of Moldova 


TG 


Togo 


BB 


Barbados 


GH 


Ghana 


MG 


Madagascar 


TJ 


Tajikistan 


BE 


Belgium 


GN 


Guinea 


MK 


The former Yugoslav 


TM 


Turkmenistan 


BF 


Burkina Faso 


GR 


Greece 




Republic of Macedonia 


TR 


Turkey 


BG 


Bulgaria 


HU 


Hungary 


ML 


Mali 


TT 


Trinidad and Tobago 


BJ 


Benin 


IE 


Ireland 


MN 


Mongolia 


UA 


Ukraine 


BR 


Brazil 


IL 


Israel 


MR 


Mauritania 


UG 


Uganda 


BY 


Belarus 


IS 


Iceland 


MW 


Malawi 


US 


United States of America 


CA 


Canada 


IT 


Italy 


MX 


Mexico 


uz 


Uzbekistan 


CF 


Central African Republic 


JP 


Japan 


NE 


Niger 


VN 


Viet Nam 


CG 


Congo 


KE 


Kenya 


NL 


Netherlands 


YU 


Yugoslavia 


CH 


Switzerland 


KG 


Kyrgyzstan 


NO 


Norway 


ZW 


Zimbabwe 


CI 


Cdte dTvoire 


KP 


Democratic People's 


NZ 


New Zealand 






CM 


Cameroon 




Republic of Korea 


PL 


Poland 






CN 


China 


KR 


Republic of Korea 


PT 


Portugal 






CU 


Cuba 


KZ 


Kazakstan 


RO 


Romania 






CZ 


Czech Republic 


LC 


Saint Lucia 


RU 


Russian Federation 






DE 


Germany 


LI 


Liechtenstein 


SD 


Sudan 






DK 


Denmark 


LK 


Sri Lanka 


SE 


Sweden 






EE 


Estonia 


LR 


Liberia 


SG 


Singapore 







WO 00/07185 



PCT/KR99/00374 



DESCRIPTION 

Method and apparatus of recording data in the optical recording medium 

Technical field 

The present invention relates to an optical recording medium which allows rewriting, 
and more particularly to a method and apparatus of recording data in the optical recording 
medium, wherein defect areas can be managed. 

Background Art 

An optical storage medium is generally divided into a read only memory (ROM), a 
write once.read many (WORM) memory into which data can be written one time, and 
rewritable memories into which data can be written several times. Rewritable optical storage 
mediums, i.e. optical discs, include rewritable compact discs (CD-RW) and rewritable digital 
versatile discs (DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, DVD+RW). 

The operations of writing and playing back data in a rewritable optical disc may be 
repeated. This repeated process alters the ratio of storage layers for recording data into the 
optical disc from the initial ratio. Thus, the optical discs lose its characteristics and generate 
an error during recording/playback. This degradation is indicated as a defective area at the 
time of formatting, recording on or playing back from an optical storage medium. Also, 
defective areas of a rewritable optical disc may be caused by a scratch on its surface, particles 
of dirt and dust, or errors during manufacture. Therefore, in order to prevent writing into or 
reading out of the defective area, management of such defective areas is necessary. 



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FIG. 1 shows a defect management area (DMA) in a lead-in area and a lead-out area 
of the optical disc to manage a defect area. Particularly, the data area is divided into a 
plurality of zones for the defect area management, where each zone is further divided into a 
user area and a spare area. The user area is where data actually written and the spare area is 
5 used when a defect occurs in the user area. 

There are four DMAs in one disc, e. g. DVD-RAM, two of which exist in the lead-in 
area and two exist in the lead-out area. Because managing defective areas is important, the 
same contents are repeatedly recorded in all four DMAs to protect the data. Each DMA 
comprises two blocks of 32 sectors, where one block comprises 16 sectors. The first block of 
1 0 the DMA, called a DDS/PDL block, includes a disc definition structure (DDS) and a primary 
defect list (PDL). The second block of the DMA, called an SDL block, includes a secondary 
defect list (SDL). The PDL corresponds to a primary defect data storage and the SDL 
corresponds to a secondary defect data storage. 

The PDL generally stores entries of defective sectors caused during the manufacture 
15 of the disc or identified when formatting a disc, namely initializing and re-initializing a disc. 
Each entry is composed of an entry type and a sector number corresponding to a defective 
sector. The SDL lists defective areas in block units, thereby storing entries of defective 
blocks occurring after formatting or defective blocks which could not be stored in the PDL 
during the formatting. As shown in FIG. 2, each SDL entry has an area for storing a sector 
2 0 number of the first sector of a block having defective sectors, an area for storing a sector 
number of the first sector of a block replacing the defective block, and reserved areas. 

Also, each SDL entry is assigned a value of 1 bit for forced reassignment marking 



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(FRM). A FRM bit value of 0 indicates that a replacement block is assigned and that the 
assigned block does not have a defect. A FRM bit value of 1 indicates that a replacement 
block has not been assigned or that the assigned replacement block has a defect. Thus, to 
record data in a defective block listed as a SDL entry, a new replacement block must be found 
5 to record the data. Accordingly, defective areas, i.e. defective sectors or defective blocks, 

within the data area are replaced with normal or non-defective sectors or blocks by a slipping 
replacement algorithm and a linear replacement algorithm. 

The slipping replacement is utilized when a defective area or sector is recorded in the 

r 

PDL. As shown in FIG. 3A, if defective sectors m and n, corresponding to sectors in the user 
1 0 area, are recorded in the PDL, such defective sectors are skipped to the next available sector. 
By replacing the defective sectors by subsequent sectors, data is written to a normal sector. 
As a result, the user area into which data is written slips and occupies the spare area in the 
amount equivalent to the skipped defective sectors. 

The linear replacement is utilized when a defective block is recorded in the SDL or 
15 when a defective block is found during playback. As shown in FIG. 3B, if defective blocks m 
and n, corresponding to blocks in either the user or spare area, are recorded on the SDL, such 
defective blocks are replaced by normal blocks in the spare area and the data to be recorded in 
the defective block are recorded in an assigned spare area. To achieve the replacement, a 
physical sector number (PSN) assigned to a defective block remains, while a logical sector 
20 number (LSN) is moved to the replacement block along with the data to be recorded. Linear 
replacement is effective for non real-time processing of data. For convenience, a data which 
does not require real time processing is hereinafter called a personal computer (PC)-data. 



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If a replacement block listed in the SDL is found to be defective, a direct pointer 
method is applied to the SDL listing. According to the direct pointer method, the defective 
replacement block is replaced with a new replacement block and the SDL entry of the 
defective replacement block is modified into a sector number of the first sector of the new 
5 replacement block. 

FIG. 4A shows a procedure to manage a defective block found while writing or 
reading data into or from the user area. FIGS. 4B ~ 4D show embodiments of SDL entries 
generated according to the linear replacement algorithm. Each SDL entry has, in order, a 
FRM, a sector number of the first sector of the defective block, and a sector number of the 
1 0 first sector of the replacement block. 

For example, if the SDL entry is (1, blkA, 0) as shown in FIG. 4B, a defective block 
has been newly found during the reproduction and is listed in the SDL. This entry indicates 
that a defect occurs in block blkA and that there is no replacement block. The SDL entry is 
used to prevent data from being written into the defective block in the next recording. Thus, 
1 5 during the next recording, the defective block blkA is assigned a replacement block according 
to the linear replacement. 

An SDL entry of (0, blkA, blkE), shown in FIG. 4C, indicates that the assigned 
replacement block blkE has no defect and data to be written into the defective block blkA in 
the user area is written into the replacement block blkE in the spare area. An SDL entry of (1, 
2 0 blkA, blkE) shown in FIG. 4D, indicates that a defect occurs in the replacement block blkE of 
the spare area which replaced the defective block blkA of the user area. In such case, a new 
replacement block is assigned according to the direct pointer method. 



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FIG. 5 is a partial diagram of an optical disc recording/playback (R/P) device relating 
to the recording operation. The optical disc (R/P) device includes an optical pickup to write 
data into and playback data from the optical disc; a servo unit controlling the optical pickup 
to maintain a certain distance between an object lens of the optical pickup and the optical 
disc, and tp maintain a constant track; a data processor either processing and transferring the 
input data to the optical pickup, or receiving and processing the data reproduced through the 
optical pickup; an interface transmitting and receiving data to and from an external host; and 
a micro processor controlling the components. The interface of the optical disc R/P apparatus 
is coupled to a host such as a PC, and communicates commands and data with the host. 

If there is data to be recorded in an optical disc R/P apparatus, the host sends a 
recording command to the optical disc R/P apparatus. The recording command comprises a 
logical block address (LBA) designating a recording location and a transfer length indicating 
a size of the data. Subsequently, the host sends the data to be recorded to the optical disc R/P 
apparatus. Once the data to be written onto an optical disc is received, the optical disc R/P 
apparatus writes the data starting from the designated LBA. At this time, the optical disc R/P 
apparatus does not write the data into areas having by referring to the PDL and SDL which 
indicate defects of the optical disc. 

Referring back to FIG. 4A, the optical disc R/P apparatus skips physical sectors listed 
in the PDL and replaces the physical blocks listed in the SDL. within the area between A and 
B, with assigned replacement blocks in the spare area during the recording. If a defective 
block not listed in the SDL or a block prone to an error is found during the recording or 
playback, the optical disc R/P apparatus considers such blocks as defective blocks. As a 



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result, optical disc R/P apparatus searches for a replacement block in the spare area to rewrite 
the data corresponding to the defective block and lists the first sector's number of the 
defective block and the first sector's number of the replacement block at the SDL entry. 

To perform the linear replacement, namely to write the data into the assigned 
5 replacement block in the spare area when finding a defective block (listed or not listed in the 
SDL), the optical disc R/P apparatus must move the optical pickup from the user area to the 
spare area and then back to the user area. Because moving the optical pickup may take time, 
a linear replacement interferes a real time recording. 

Thus, defect area management methods for real time recording, such as audio visual 
10 apparatus, have been extensively discussed. One method is to use a skipping algorithm where 
a defective block is skipped and data is written into the next normal block, similarly to the 
slipping replacement algorithm. If this algorithm is employed, the optical pickup does not 
need to be moved to the spare area whenever a defective block is found, such that the time 
needed for moving the optical pickup can be reduced and the interference with the real time 
15 recording can be removed. 

For example, if the PC-data which does not require real time processing, as shown in 
FIG. 4A, is received when the SDL is used, the linear replacement algorithm is executed upon 
finding defective blocks blkA and blkB. If the received data requires real time, as shown in 
the area between B and C of FIG. 4 A, the skipping algorithm is used upon finding defective 
20 block blkC. Namely, the linear replacement is not performed. For linear replacement, the 

PSN of the defective block is maintained as is and the LSN of the defective block is moved to 
the replacement block. For the skipping algorithm, both the LSN and PSN of the defective 



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block blkC are maintained as they are. 

Accordingly, when the host reads the data recorded according to the skipping 
algorithm, the microprocessor transmits all data including data of defective blocks through 
the interface. However, the host cannot identify the data of the skipped defective block since 
5 it does not have information regarding the skipped defective blocks, resulting in an incorrect 
playback of the data. Therefore, the microprocessor of the optical disc R/P apparatus must 
instruct the optical pickup not to read the data of defective blocks among the data playback 
from the optical disc and transmitted to the host. Here, the information regarding the 
defective blocks, as shown in FIGS. 4B ~ 4D, remains in the SDL and the microcomputer 

1 0 may transmit the information to the host, on request. 

The SDL is information on defective blocks with respect to the linear replacement 
algorithm. However, the microprocessor cannot discriminate information recorded with 
respect to linear replacement from information recorded with respect to skipping algorithm 
not performing the linear replacement Consequently, if skipping algorithm has been used, 

15 the microprocessor may transmit incorrect information to the host. Likewise, the host cannot 
identify the data of skipped defective blocks, resulting in an erroneous playback of data. 

Moreover, because of the size of the spare may not be sufficient, the spare area may 
become full while the DMA has redundant areas for listing defective blocks at the PDL or 
SDL entries. If the spare area is full, a spare full flag in the DMA is set. The spare area may 

2 0 become full prior to the DMA when the initial allocation of spare area is insufficient or when 
the available spare area is quickly reduced due to defects, particularly burst defects occurring 
in the spare area. Because it is desirable to increase the recording capacity of the optical disc, 



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a method of further reducing the size of the spare area has been considered. In such case, 
however, there is a higher possibility that the spare area will become full prior to the DMA. 

Consequently, if the optical disc R/P apparatus finds a defective block that is not 
listed in the SDL or is listed in the SDL but requires a new replacement block as shown in 
FIGS. 4B ~ 4D while recording or playing back data, it checks the spare full flag of the DMA. 
If the spare full flag is in a reset state which indicates that available spare areas remain, the 
apparatus records the data of the defective block in a replacement block in the spare area and 
lists a new SDL entry or modifies the existing SDL entry. On the other hand, if the spare full 
flag is in a set state, which indicates that the spare area is full, a linear replacement cannot be 
executed even if the DMA has redundant area. If the linear replacement cannot be executed 
when necessary, the management of defective area cannot be maintained. As a result, the disc 
cannot be used. 

Disclosure of Invention 

Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to solve at least the problems and 
disadvantages of the related art. 

An object of the present invention is to provide an optical disc and a defect management 
method for managing defect of the optical disc according to whether a replacement block has 
been assigned. 

Another object of the present invention is to provide a data recording method and 
apparatus which discriminately store and manage information on defective blocks within the 
optical disc according whether a replacement block has been assigned. 



8 



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Still another object of the present invention is to provide an optical disc, a defect 
management method for managing defect of such optical disc, and data recording method and 
apparatus for storing information on defective blocks according to whether linear replacement 
is performed. 

5 A further object of the present invention is to provide an optical disc, a defect 

management method for managing defect of such optical disc, and data recording method and 
apparatus for storing information on defective blocks without application of linear replacement 
if there is no available replacement area. 

A still further object of the present invention is to provide an optical disc, a defect 
10 management method for managing defect of such optical disc, and data recording method and 
apparatus for discriminately storing information on defective blocks skipped for real time 
processing or skipped due to a full spare area, and information on defective blocks related to 
linear replacement algorithm. 

A still further object of the present invention is to provide an optical disc, a defect 
15 management method for managing defect of such optical disc, and data recording method and 
apparatus for discriminately storing information on defective blocks listed at SDL entries by 
giving identification information to the SDL entries according to whether linear replacement is 
performed. 

Additional advantages, objects, and features of the invention will be set forth in part in 
2 0 the description which follows and in part will become apparent to those having ordinary skill in 
the art upon examination of the following or may be learned from practice of the invention. The 
objects and advantages of the invention may be realized and attained as particularly pointed out 



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in the appended claims. 

To achieve the objects and in accordance with the purposes of the invention, as embodied 
and broadly described herein, an optical disc has a DMA for managing defects and comprises an 
area for recording identification information in the DMA. The identification information allows 
5 discrimination between when a replacement block has been assigned according to a linear 
replacement algorithm and when a replacement block is not assigned. The area for recording the 
identification information is assigned in a reserved area of a SDL entry in the DMA. The 
identification information indicates that a defective block was listed in the SDL either while data 
was recorded according to a skipping algorithm or when a spare area was full. 

10 A defect management method of an optical disc according to the present invention 

comprises determining whether to assign a replacement block if a defective block is found during 
recording in the optical disc; and storing information on the defective block and storing 
identification information to discriminate a defective block with an assigned replacement block 
from a block without an assigned replacement block, based upon the results of the determination. 

15 Information regarding a replacement block is not stored during real time recording. Also, 

information regarding a replacement block is not assigned when there is no available replacement 
area. The identification information is stored at a secondary defect list in a defect management 
area together with the defective block information. Moreover, the forced reassignment marking 
information is reset to 0. Furthermore, the defective block information discriminated based upon 

2 0 the identification information is notified to a host that transmits a recording command. 

In another embodiment, a defect management method of an optical disc according to the 
present invention comprises detecting existence/non-existence of an available replacement area 



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if a defective block is found while recording the data in the optical disc; and storing information 
on the defective block and identification information indicating that a replacement block is 
assigned if available replacement area exists or a replacement block is not assigned if available 
replacement area does not exist. Available replacement block is determined not to exist if the 
5 data is recorded by skipping the defective block. Also, available replacement block is determined 
not to exist if the spare area is full. 

In still another embodiment, a data recording method of an optical disc comprises 
receiving data and information of areas where data will be written in the optical disc; reading 
defective area information of the optical disc; detecting whether the defective area information 

10 covers a defective block that is found during the recording; detecting whether a replacement 
block is assigned to the defective block based upon the identification information contained in 
the defective area information if the found defective block is covered by the defective area 
information, and if a replacement block is assigned, writing the data in the assigned replacement 
block and, if not, finding a new available replacement block to write the data therein; and 

1 5 determining whether the defective block will be replaced with a replacement block if the 
defective block is not covered by the defective area information, and storing information on the 
defective block and the identification information to discriminate if a replacement block is 
assigned to the defective block in the defect management area of the disc based upon a result of 
the determination. The identification information is represented with at least one bit of a 

2 0 reserved area at a secondary defect list within the defect management area. 

Moreover, a real time data recording method of an optical disc according to the present 
invention comprises receiving data and information regarding the area where the data will be 



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written in the optical disc; skipping a defective block and writing the data in a following normal 
block if the defective block is found during the real time recording; and storing information 
regarding the skipped defective block discriminately from information on a defective block 
replaced with a replacement block. 
5 The identification information is set to indicate that the defective block is not replaced 

with a replacement block. If the defective block is found while recording the data by skipping 
defective blocks and if information regarding a replacement block for the defective block is listed 
at a secondary defect list entry, the replacement block information is maintained as is when the 
defective block information is stored. 

10 Furthermore, an optical disc recording apparatus comprises a controller detecting a 

defective block and determining whether a replacement block is assigned to the defective block 
while recording the data; an optical pickup recording and playing back data in/from the optical 
disc according to control of the controller; and a storage unit storing information regarding the 
defective block and identification information to discriminate whether a replacement block is 

15 assigned to a defective block. 

The storage unit does not store the replacement block during real time recording and 
represents this fact using the identification information. The storage unit also does not store the 
replacement block if there is no available replacement area and represents this fact using the 
identification information. 

2 0 Brief Description of Drawings 

The invention will be described in detail with reference to the following drawings in 



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which like reference numerals refer to like elements wherein: 
FIG. 1 shows a data area of a conventional optical disc; 
FIG. 2 illustrates a structure of a conventional SDL entry; 
FIG. 3 A illustrates a conventional slipping replacement algorithm; 
FIG. 3B illustrates a conventional linear replacement algorithm; 

FIG. 4 A illustrates a state of recording data according to the linear replacement algorithm 
or skipping algorithm when using SDL in the conventional optical disc; 

FIGS. 4B to 4D illustrate embodiments of SDL entries listing information regarding 
defective blocks occurring when recording or playing back data according to the linear 
replacement algorithm; 

FIG. 5 is a block diagram of a conventional optical disc recording/playback apparatus; 

FIG. 6 is a block diagram of an optical disc recording/playback apparatus according to 
the present invention; 

FIG. 7A illustrates assigning identification information to an SDL entry according to an 
optical disc defect managing method of the present invention; 

FIGS. 7B to 7D illustrate SDL entries discriminately listed while recording or playing 
back data according to the skipping algorithm and linear replacement algorithm using the 
identification information; 

FIG. 8A and 8B are flow charts showing how defective area is managed using the 
identification information of FIG. 7 according to the present invention; and 

FIG. 9 illustrates an SDL entry listed while recording or playing back data according to 
the skipping algorithm after changing a definition of FRM in the optical disc defect managing 



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method according to the present invention. 

Mode for Carrying Out the Invention 

Reference will now be made in detail to the preferred embodiments of the present 
invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. The present 
5 invention distinguishably lists information regarding defective blocks in the SDL according to 
whether linear replacement has been executed upon finding defective blocks while recording or 
playing back data in or from an optical disc. In one embodiment, the present invention 
distinguishably lists such information by assigning an identification information. In an another 
embodiment, such information is distinguishably listed by changing a part of the FRM definition. 

10 In the first embodiment of the present invention, information indicating whether or not 

a corresponding defective block is listed while data is recorded according to the linear 
replacement algorithm is written in a reserved area in the SDL entry. 

FIG. 6 shows an optical disc recording/playback apparatus according to the present 
invention comprising an optical pickup 602 recording and playing back data in and from an 

1 5 optical disc 60 1 ; a servo unit 603 controlling the optical pickup 602 to maintain a certain distance 
from an object lens of the optical pickup 602 to the optical disc 601 , and to maintain a specified 
track; a data processor 604 processing the input data and transmitting the processed data to the 
optical pickup 602; a DMA information storage unit 606 reading and storing DMA information 
written in a DMA area of the optical disc via the data processor 604; an interface 605 

20 transmitting and receiving data to and from an external host 608; and a controller 607 detecting 
whether a defective block exists during recording/playback of data and determining whether a 



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linear replacement has been executed to the defective block. The interface 605 of the optical disc 
R/P apparatus is coupled to the host 608, such as a PC, and communicates commands and data 
with the host 608. 

When a rewritable optical disc, for example a DVD-RAM, is inserted into the apparatus 
5 of the present invention, the SDL and PDL entries listed in the DMA area of the optical disc 601 
are stored in the DMA information storage unit 606 through the data processor 604 under the 
control of the controller 607. At this time, the identification information indicating whether 
linear replacement has been performed with respect to a corresponding defective block is added 
into the DMA information stored in the DMA information storage unit 105. 
1 0 For example, at least one bit of the reserved area in the existing SDL entry is assigned as 

the identification information (ID Info) bit. The ID Info bit is set to either a value of 1 or 0 to 
distinguish whether the linear replacement has been executed to the information listed in the 
SDL. Namely, the linear replacement algorithm is not performed when skipping algorithm is 
performed or when the spare area is full. In the present invention, the ID Info bit is called a 
15 linear replacement control (LRC) bit and shown in FIG. 7 A. 

Referring to FIG. 7 A, each SDL entry comprises an LRC area, an area for storing a sector 
number of the first sector of a block having defective sectors, and an area for storing a sector 
number of the first sector of a replacement block replacing the defective block. Because the LRC 
bit has a different meaning from the FRM bit, the FRM may also be included in the SDL. 
20 However, in this embodiment of the present invention, the FRM bit is not used. 

As shown in FIG. 7B, a LRC bit value of 0 in the SDL entry means that the SDL entry 
was made while recording the data according to the linear replacement algorithm. As shown in 



15 



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FIG. 7C or 7D, a LRC bit value of 1 means that the SDL entry was made while recording the data 
according to the skipping algorithm rather than the linear replacement or while the spare area is 
full. When a defective block is found during recording of data according to the linear 
replacement algorithm, the data corresponding to the defective block is recorded in a replacement 
5 block and the LRC bit is reset to 0, provided that the spare area is not full. Otherwise, if the 
spare area is full, the linear replacement is not performed and the LRC bit is set to 1 . Also, when 
a defective block is found while recording the data according to the skipping algorithm, the 
defective block is skipped and the LRC bit of an SDL entry corresponding to the defective block 
is set to 1 . 

1 0 Once a predetermined time has passed, for example, during the recording of data or after 

completing the recording, the controller 607 transmits information regarding the defective blocks 
to the host. At such time, the controller 607 can detect whether or not the corresponding SDL 
entry was made while recording the data according to the linear replacement algorithm based 
upon the LRC bit, thereby being able to transmit a correct information to the host. Accordingly, 

1 5 the host can appropriately command not to record/playback data in/from defective blocks listed 
in the SDL. 

The host may issue a write/read command in view of the defective blocks listed in the 
SDL. Namely, the host would command not to record or playback data in or from defective 
blocks listed in the SDL. The optical disc R/P apparatus receives both the data and information 
2 0 of areas where data will be written in the optical disc, and reads a information regarding defective 
areas of the optical disc. The optical disc R/P apparatus detects whether the defective area 
information covers a defective block that is found during the recording; and detects whether a 



16 



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replacement block is assigned to the defective block based upon the identification information 
contained in the defective area information if the found defective block is covered by the 
defective area information. If a replacment block is assigned, writing the data in the assigned 
replacement block and, if not, finding a new available replacement block to write the data 
5 therein. The optical disc R/P apparatus further determines whether the defective block will be 
replaced with a replacement block if the defective block is not covered by the defective area 
information, and stores information on the defective block and the identification information to 
discriminate if a replacement block is assigned to the defective block in the defect management 
area of the disc based upon a result of the determination. The identification information is 
1 0 represented with at least one bit of a reserved area at a secondary defect list within the defect 
management area. 

Thus, the optical disc R/P apparatus bypasses the defective blocks listed in the SDL while 
writing/reading the data. In such case, the LRC bit of SDL entry is set to 1 upon encountering 
a new defective block and location information of the defective block is entered. Since 

1 5 information regarding the replacement block is not necessary, the existing value is kept as is or 
a value of 0 is entered 

Alternatively, if the host issues a write/read command regardless of the defective block 
information in the SDL, the controller 607 of the optical disc R/P apparatus identifies the 
defective blocks listed in the SDL based upon the DMA information stored in the DMA 

2 0 information storage unit 606 during the data record/playback. If the read command is issued, 
whether a replacement block should be found can be determined based upon the LRC bit of the 
SDL entry where the defective block is listed. If the write command is issued, the LRC bit of an 



17 



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existing entry may change depending upon whether the linear replacement algorithm or not. 
Here, a newly found defective block is processed in the same way as described above. For 
example, if a defective block listed in the SDL is found while recording data according to the 
skipping algorithm, the defective block is skipped and the LRC bit of the SDL entry 
corresponding to the defective block is set to 1 . 

At this time, if the information regarding a replacement block is written in the area for 
storing the sector number of the first sector of the replacement block in the SDL entry, the 
information is maintained as is. For example, a SDL entry of (0, blkC, blkG) as shown in FIG. 
7B, means that data was recorded according to the linear replacement algorithm and a 
replacement block has been assigned. If such a SDL entry is met while recording data according 
to the skipping algorithm, the defective block blkC is skipped and the SDL entry is modified into 
(1, blkC, blkG) as shown in FIG. 7C. 

Thus, the SDL entry of (1 , blkC, blkG) as show in FIG. 7C, means that data was recorded 
according to the skipping algorithm, a defect occurred in block blkC, and the information 
regarding the replacement block blkG is maintained but not used during the record/playback.. 
A SDL entry of (1 , blkC, 0) as shown in FIG. 7D, means that data was recorded according to the 
skipping algorithm and a new defective block blkC was found and entered. If such SDL entry 
is found while recording the data according to the skipping algorithm, the defective block blkC 
is skipped and the SDL entry is maintained as is. 

If the information regarding the replacement block of the spare area, which was 
previously listed in the SDL entry according to the linear replacement algorithm, is maintained 
in the SDL entry as it was while recording the data according to the skipping algorithm, the 



18 



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replacement block information can be used in subsequent recordings. In other words, when 
writing data into such defective block listed in the SDL according to the linear replacement 
algorithm, if the replacement block information does not exist, a replacement block for the 
defective block must be newly assigned to the spare area. However, if the information regarding 
5 the replacement block is maintained, the location of the replacement block previously assigned 
can be used as the newly assigned replacement block. 

For example, a block following the replacement block blkH, shown in FIG. 4A, is 
assigned as the new replacement block. Since a replacement block that was previously assigned 
cannot be re-used, the available capacity of the optical disc is reduced, thereby decreasing the 

1 0 efficiency of the optical disc. Therefore, if the replacement block information is maintained even 
while recording data according to the skipping algorithm, as described above, the replacement 
block previously assigned can be re-used as is when writing data according to the linear 
algorithm in a subsequent recording, thereby increasing the efficiency of the optical disc. 

Specifically, if the information regarding the replacement block blkG, where data of the 

15 defective block blkC was written during the linear replacement recording, is kept in the SDL 
entry during the real time recording, the data of the defective block blkC is written not into anew 
replacement block in the spare area but into the replacement block blkG, which has already been 
assigned, during the next linear replacement recording. 

Meanwhile, if a defective block requiring a new replacement block is found during the 

2 0 record/playback using the linear replacement, but there is no replacement block for the defective 
block, namely the spare area is full (provided the DMA has redundancy), the LRC bit value of 
the SDL entry is set to 1 . At this time, a replacement block does not exist. As a result, the 



19 



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replacement block information is not listed and the location information of the defective block 
is listed as shown in FIG. 7D. If the spare full flag and the LRC bit is set to 1 during the 
playback or recording, data of the defective block cannot be read and data cannot be written in 
the defective block because the replacement block for the defective block does not exist and the 
5 linear replacement cannot be executed. 

FIG. 8A and 8B are flow charts showing the above operations of the optical disc R/P 
apparatus according to the present invention. If there is data to be recorded, the host inputs a 
write command and if there is playback of data, the host inputs a read command, via the interface 
of the optical disc R/P apparatus (800). Once a write or read command is received from the host, 

10 the controller 607 of the optical disc R/P apparatus determines whether the input data requires 
a real time recording/playback (802). 

When the data is determined to require real time recording, the apparatus starts to write 
the data on a location of the LBA designated by the host (804). A determination is made whether 
writing of data is completed (806) and if a defective block is found when the writing of data is 

1 5 not completed (808), the defective block is skipped and the data is written in a next normal block 
(810). Information regarding the skipped defective block is entered in the SDL (812) and sent 
to the host (814). This information is entered in a way distinguishable from an information of 
a defective block found while performing the linear replacement algorithm. Thus, the controller 
607 can distinguish SDL entry made while recording data according to the skipping algorithm 

2 0 from a SDL entry made while recording data according to the linear replacement algorithm. For 
this purpose, the LRC bit of the SDL is set to 1 and the location information of the defective 
block is entered in the SDL entry. 

20 



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The defective block found in step 808 may be a newly encountered defective block or a 
block already listed in the SDL. If the defective block is not listed in the SDL, the defective 
block is new and the location information regarding the defective block is listed in the SDL entry 
by setting the LRC bit to 1 , such as (1 , blkC, 0) shown in FIG. 7D. If the defective block is listed 
5 in the SDL, the SDL is corrected by setting the LRC bit to 1 and maintaining the information 
regarding the replacement block, such as (1 5 blkC, blkG) shown in FIG. 7C. Such procedure is 
performedf until the recording of data by the write command of the host is completed. If the 
writing is completed (806), the controller 607 transmits a command execution report to the host 
(816). 

1 0 When the data is determined to require real time playback, the apparatus starts to read the 

data from a location of the LBA designated by the host (804). As in the recording, a 
determination is made whether reading of data is completed (806). However, if a defective block 
is found when the reading of data is not completed (808), the defective block may skipped, a 
partially correct data may be read from the defective block or zero padding data may be returned 

1 5 (not shown in FIG. 8 A). Information regarding the skipped defective block is entered in the SDL 
(812) and sent to the host (814). Such procedure is performed until the playback of data by the 
read command of the host is completed. If the reading is completed (806), the controller 607 
transmits a command execution report to the host (816). 

During recording/playback, the controller 607 may send the information regarding the 

2 0 defective block to the host in various ways. For example, the defective block information can 
be embedded in a header for transmission to the host, or a new command allowing recognition 
of the skipped block can be generated and transmitted to the host, or the defective block 



21 



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information may be transmitted together with the command execution report to the host after 
completing the recording/playback of the real time data. 

If it is determined that the data to be recorded does not require real time recording in step 
802, namely the data is PC-data, the controller 607 writes/reads the data starting on/from the 
LBA designated by the host (820). If a read command is received, the playback is carried out 
starting from the LBA designated by the host and if a write command is received, the recording 
is carried out starting from the LBA designated by the host. When writing/reading of data is not 
completed (822) and if a defective block is found (824), a determination is made whether the 
defective block is listed in the SDL (826). 

If the defective block is not listed in the SDL, a replacement block from the spare area 
is assigned. Thus, the spare full flag is checked to determined whether there are any available 
replacement blocks, i.e. whether the spare area is full (828). A spare full flag of 1 indicates that 
there are no available replacement blocks. If there are no available replacement blocks, the LRC 
information in the SDL is set to 1 , the location information of the defective block is listed and 
the location information of the replacement block is set to 0, such as (1 , blkC, 0) shown in FIG. 
7D (830). The information on defective block is transmitted to the host (832) and a report of an 
error in the recording/playback process is sent to the host (834). 

If the spare area is not full during writing of data, a replacement block is assigned and the 
data to be written in the defective block is written in the replacement block (836). Also, the 
location information of the defective block and the replacement block is listed in the SDL and 
the LRC information in the SDL is set to 0, such as (0, blkC, blkG) shown in FIG. 7B (836). The 
information on defective block is transmitted to the host (838) and the process returns to step 820 



22 



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to record more data (840). 

During reading of data, even if there are available replacement blocks, data cannot be read 
from the defective block. Accordingly, the a report of an error in the playback is sent to the host 
(840). However, the information on the defective block may be transmitted to the host for future 
5 use (838) and a replacement block may even be assigned for use in the next recording (not 
shown). If a replacement block is assigned, the location information of the defective block and 
the replacement block is listed in the SDL and the LRC information in the SDL is set to 0 in step 
836. 

If the defective block is listed in the SDL, a further determination is made whether a 
10 replacement block has been assigned (842). Namely, if the LRC bit is 0, the SDL entry was 
made previously while recording/playback of data according to the linear replacement algorithm. 
Thus, the recording/playback is continued according to the linear replacement algorithm (844) 
and the process returns to step 820 for more recording/playback of data. In other words, if a 
replacement block is assigned to the SDL entry, the optical pickup is moved to the replacement 
1 5 block and the data is written/read in/from the replacement block. If the LRC bit of the SDL entry 
is 1 and a replacement block is listed, such as (1, blkC, blkG) shown in FIG. 7C, the listed 
replacement block is used to perform the linear replacement and the LRC bit is corrected to 0, 
making the SDL entry to (0, blkC, blkG) shown in FIG. 7B. 

If the assigned replacement block is defective, a new replacement block may be assigned 
20 according to the direct pointer method and the data is then written/read in/from the assigned 
replacement block. However, if the spare area becomes full prior to the DMA and there is no 
replacement block to be assigned, the location information of the defective block of the SDL 



23 



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entry is maintained and the LRC bit is changed into 1, such as (1, blkC, 0) shown in FIG. 7D, 
indicating not to execute the linear replacement. 

If a replacement block has not been assigned in the SDL entry, the spare full flag is 
checked to determined whether there are any available replacement blocks (846). Namely, if the 
5 LRC bit of the SDL entry is set to 1, the SDL entry may have been made while data was 
written/read according to the skipping algorithm or while the spare area was full. Accordingly, 
if there aremo available replacement blocks, i.e. the spare area is full, the a report of a write/read 
error in the recording/playback process is sent to the host (834). However, when formatting an 
optical disc whose spare area is full, the SDL may be moved to the PDL depending upon the 

1 0 formatting method, such that the spare area may no longer be full. In any case, if the spare area 
is not full, the process is the same as when the spare area is not full for defective blocks not listed 
in the SDL (836-840). 

The above procedure for non real time data is carried out until the recording/playback of 
data by the writing/reading command of the host is completed. If the writing/reading is 

15 completed* the controller 607 sends a command execution report to the host (848). Here, the 
controller 607 sends the information regarding the skipped defective block to the host in the 
various methods as described above with reference to FIG. 8A, step 816. 

In a second embodiment of the present invention, the definition of the FRM is changed 
to distinguish a linear replacement from a skipping replacement. If a defective block blkC is 

2 0 found while recording data according to the skipping algorithm in real time, the SDL entry is 
listed as (0, blkC, 0) shown in FIG. 9. At this time, a replacement block is not needed, so the 
information regarding the replacement block in the spare area is not changed or is listed as 0. 



24 



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Only the definition of the FRM changes. 

For example, if FRM and the replacement block are both 0, it is modified to be 
recognized as indicating a defective block found while performing the skipping algorithm or as 
indicating an assigned replacement block rather than a defective case of performing the linear 
5 replacement. This is because the defective block, even if found during the real time recording, 
is skipped and a replacement block for the defective block does not exist in the spare area. In 
addition, this aims at distinguishing the SDL entry listed according to the skipping algorithm 
from the SDL entry listed according to the linear replacement algorithm. Even under the 
condition that the area between B and C in FIG. 4A was listed according to the linear 

1 0 replacement algorithm and the defective block information such as (0, blkC, blkG) was kept as 
the SDL entry, if the area is used for rewriting according to the skipping algorithm, the SDL entry 
is modified into (0 5 blkC, 0). 

In sum, the present invention has the following advantages. Primarily, since the 
controller can detect existence/non-existence of the linear replacement based upon the LRC bit 

15 assigned to each SDL entry, the optical disc R/P apparatus (namely, a drive) can transmit the 
correct information to the host. Accordingly, even if incorrect data of skipped blocks, namely 
previous data written in the skipped blocks is reproduced by the optical disc R/P apparatus and 
transmitted to the host during the reproduction of data, the host discards the data of the skipped 
blocks and reads only the data of normal blocks based upon the defective block information 

2 0 received from the controller. In other words, the present invention can prevent an error occurring 
when the host does not know the information regarding the skipped blocks. 

Also, even if finding a defective block listed in the SDL while carrying out the playback 



25 



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command from the host, the controller can distinctly determine whether to find a replacement 
block or to discard the defective block and return only an error message to the host. Finally, 
when a defective block requiring a new replacement block is found while recording or playing 
back data under while the spare area is full, instead of carrying out the linear replacement, the 
5 LRC bit is set in the SDL entry along with the location information of the defective block to 
indicate that the corresponding SDL entry was made when the spare area was full, whereby the 
data is not written in the defective block or data of the defective block is not read when rewriting 
or reproducing the data afterwards. Consequently, the present invention allows efficient 
management over the disc and increases durability of the disc. 
1 0 The foregoing embodiments are merely exemplary and are not to be construed as limiting 

the present invention. The present teachings can be readily applied to other types of apparatuses. 
The description of the present invention is intended to be illustrative, and not to limit the scope 
of the claims. Many alternatives, modifications, and variations will be apparent to those skilled 
in the art. 



26 



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CLAIMS 

1. An optical recording medium with a defective management area (DMA) for 
managing defects of the optical recording medium, comprising an area in the DMA to record 
identification information, wherein said identification information indicates whether a 

5 replacement block has been assigned according to a linear replacement. 

2. An optical recording medium of claim 1, wherein said area to record the 
identification information is assigned into a reserved area of a secondary defective list (SDL) 
entry in said DMA. 

3. An optical recording medium of claim 1 , wherein said identification information 
10 indicates if a defective block information in a SDL was entered while writing data according to 

a skipping algorithm or while a spare area of the optical recording medium was full. 

r 

4. A defect management method of an optical recording medium xbr managing 
defective blocks found during a recording of data, said method comprising: 

(A) determining if a replacement block should be assigned upon finding a defective block 
15 during a writing of data in the optical recording medium; and 

(B) storing information regarding the defective block indicating whether a replacement 
block has been assigned for the defective block according to a linear replacement based upon 
results of step (A). 



27 



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5. A defect management method of claim 4, wherein in step (A), the replacement 

r 

block is not assigned during a real time recording of data. 

6. A defect management method of claim 5, wherein in step (A), skipping the 
defective block and setting a LRC information to indicate that a replacement block has not been 
assigned according to a linear replacement. 

7. A defect management method of claim 5, wherein in step (A), resetting a forced 
reassignment marking information to 0. 

8. A defect management method of claim 4, wherein in step (A), the replacement 
block is not assigned if there is no available replacement area. 

9. A defect management method of claim 4, wherein in step (B), the information 
regarding the defective block is stored together with the defective block information in a 
secondary defective list (SDL) of a defective management area. 

» 

10. A defect management method of claim 9, wherein if the defective block found 
during a non real time writing of data is not listed in the SDL and if there are no available 
replacement area, said method further comprising: 

setting and storing a LRC information to indicate that a replacement block has not been 
assigned; 



28 



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storing a location information of the defective block; and 

setting and storing a location information of a replacement block to 0. 

1 1 . r A defect management method of claim 9, wherein if the defective block found 
during a non real time writing of data is not listed in the SDL and if there is available 
replacement area, said method further comprising: 

assigning a replacement block to the defective block; 

writing data to the replacement block assigned to the defective block; and 

setting and storing a LRC information to indicate that a replacement block has been 
assigned; 

storing a location information of the defective block; and 

setting and storing a location information of the replacement block assigned to the 
defective block. 

12. A defect management method of claim 9, wherein if the defective block found 
during a non real time writing of data is listed in the SDL and if there is already a replacement 
block assigned to the defective block, performing a linear replacement using said replacement 
block already assigned to the defective block. 

13. A defect management method of claim 9, wherein if the defective block found 
during a non real time writing of data is listed in the SDL and if there is no replacement block 
assigned to the defective block, said method further comprising: 



29 



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assigning a replacement block to the defective block, if there is available replacement 

area; 

writing data to the replacement block assigned to the defective block; and 
setting and storing a LRC information to indicate that a replacement block has been 
assigned; 

storing a location information of the defective block; and 

setting and storing a location information of the replacement block assigned to the 
defective block. 

14. A defect management method of claim 4, wherein the information regarding the 
defective block is transmitted to a host. 

15. A defect management method of claim 1 4, wherein the information regarding the 
defective block is embedded in a header for transmission to the host. 

16. A defect management method of claim 14, wherein the information regarding the 
defective block is transmitted together with a command execution report to the host after 
completing the recording of the data. 

17. A data recording method of an optical recording medium having identification 
information within a defective management area for managing defects, said data recording 
method comprising: 



30 



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receiving data and information regarding a location where data will be written in the 
optical recording medium; 

reading a defective area information of the optical recording medium; 

detecting whether said defective area information covers a defective block found during 
5 the data recording; 

detecting whether a replacement block has been assigned to the found defective block 
based upon an identification information contained in the defective area information if the 
defective block is covered by the defective area information; 

writing the data in the assigned replacement if a replacement block is assigned to the 
10 defective block, and finding a new replacement block to write the data if a replacement block is 
not assigned; and 

determining whether to assign a replacement block to the defective block if the defective 
block is not covered by the defective area information, and storing information regarding the 
defective block and an identification information indicating whether a replacement block is 
15 assigned to the defective block in the defect management area based upon the determination 
whether to assign a replacement block. 

18. A data recording method of claim 1 7, wherein said identification information is 
represented by at least one bit in a reserved area of a secondary defective list within the defective 
management area. 

20 

19. A real time data recording method of an optical recording medium having 



31 



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identification information within a defect management area for managing defective, said real 
time data recording method comprising: 

(A) receiving data and information regarding the location where data will be written in 
the optical recording medium; 
5 (B) skipping a defective block and writing the data in a normal block following the 

defective block if the defective block is found during a real time recording; and 

(C) storing information regarding the skipped defective block distinctively from an 
information regarding a defective block replaced by a replacement block. 

10 20. A real time data recording method of claim 19, wherein in step (C), storing the 

information regarding the skipped defective block with an identification information indicating 
that the defective block is not replaced with a replacement block. 

21. A real time data recording method of claim 20, if information regarding a 
15 replacement block of the skipped defective block is already listed in a secondary defective list 

entry, maintaining the information regarding the replacement when storing the information 
regarding the skipped defective block. 

22. An optical recording medium recording apparatus for recording data according 
20 to a recording command transmitted from a host, said recording apparatus comprising: 

a storage unit storing information regarding defective blocks and storing identification 
information indicating whether a replacement block is assigned to the defective block. 

32 



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a controller detecting a defective block and determining whether a replacement block is 
assigned to the defective block utilizing the information regarding defective blocks and the 
identification information stored in the storage unit; and 

an optical pickup writing and reading data in and from an optical recording medium 
according to a control of the controller; and 

23. A recording apparatus of claim 22, wherein during a real time recording, the 
storage unit stores the identification information indicating that a replacement block is not 
assigned. 

24. A recording apparatus of claim 23 , wherein the storage unit stores the 
identification information indicating that a replacement block is not assigned, if there is no 
available replacement area. 



WO 00/07185 



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FIG.1 



lead-in 
area 



DMA1 
reserved 

DMA2 
reserved 



user 
area 



lead-out 
area 



DMA3 
reserved 

DMA4 
reserved 



FIG.2 



b63 



362 b56 b55 



b32 b31 b24 b23 



bo 



FRM 



reserved 



sector number of 
first sector of 
defective block 



reserved 



sector number of 

first sector of 
replacement block 



1 - 10 



WO 00/07185 



PCT/KR99/00374 



FIG.3A 



sec 
num 



toi 
ibe 



LSN 



defect sector 



i i 



m sectors 



n sectors 



[— — { (m+n)sectors 





j 




• * 




i 


user area 






j spare area 


It 11 1 
_ 1 1 .11 1 



FIG.3B 



m data block 



sector 
number 

user area 
or 

spare area 



LSN 



n data block 



/ i/ i 



LSN 
spare area 



sector 
number \ 



t 














1 

1 




1 

u 

1 





(m+n) 
spare blocks 



2-10 



WO 00/07185 



PCT/KR99/00374 



o 

CD 

o 
o. 

CO 



Lxj" 
-O 



3 



o 

CD 



CD 

to 

Z3 



I 



O 

"6 
no 

CD 

£ 



o 

CD 



T 

00 
O 



o 

CD 
CO 



O 
CD 
CO 



f 

o 



C7> 



CO 



CQ 



o £ 



o 

1 

o 

CL. 



o 

CD 
CO 



3-10 



WO 00/07185 



PCT/KR99/00374 



FIG.4B 



1 blkA 0 



FIG.4C 



0 blkA blkE 



FIG.4D 



1 blkA blkE 



4-10 



WO 00/07185 



PCT/KR99/00374 



FIG.5 



optical disc recording/ 
playback apparatus 

i 



optical disk 

L 




pickup 



servo unit 




data 




interface 




processor 






i 


i 


i 




i 



microprocessor 



command/ 
data 




5-10 



WO 00/07185 



PCT/KR99/00374 



FIG.6 



601 



600 



_L_„. 



603 

4- 



servo unit 



controller 



t 



602 



604 

4 



data 
processor 



605 

4 



interface 



command/ 
data 




DMA information 
storage unit 



607 



606 



6-10 



WO 00/07185 



PCT/KR99/00374 



RG.7A 



b63 b62 bei b56 bss b32 b3i b24 b23 bo 



reserved 


LRC 


reserved 


sector number of 
first sector of 
defective block 


reserved 


sector number of 

first sector of 
replacement block 



FIGJB 



0 blkC blkG 



FIG.7C 



1 blkC blkG 



FIG.7D 



1 blkC 0 



7-10 



WO 00/07185 



PCT/KR99/00374 



FIG.8A 



( Stort ) 







Input recording/playback command - 



800 




no 



804 

yes 





816 




Send command execution 




report to host 


1 


r 



Skipping defective block, recording 
data to succeeding block in case of 
recording, skip defective block 
when recording 



C End ) 



Set LRC information in SDL to T 
and register location information 
of defective block 



810 



812 



Transmit defective block 
information to host 



I 



•814 



8-10 



WO 00/07185 



PCT/KR99/00374 



FIG.8B 



® 



Record/playback data 




Set LRC information 
in SDL to T, list 
loacation information 
of defective block, 
and reset location 
information of 
replacement block 
to '0' 



832 

4- 



Assign new replace 
-ment block, write 
data to the replace 
-ment block in case 
of recording, 
register new SDL 
enrty with LRC 
of 0 



Treansmit defective 
block information 
to host 



834 

4- 



Record/playback 
data according 
to linear 
replacement 
algorithm, 
reset LRC to '0' 



838 



-r 

844 




Transmit defective 
block information 
to host 



© 



yes 



no 



© 



® 



Report record/ 
playback error 
to host 



C End ) 



840 

4- 



Go to (3) in case of 
playback, 

go to (5) in case of 
recording 



9-10 



WO 00/07185 



PCT/KR99/00374 



FIG.9 



0 blkC 0 



10 - 10 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



International application No. 

PCT/KR 99/00374 



A. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 
IPC 7 : G 1 1 B 20/18, 20/12, 20/10, 7/00, 20/00 

According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 



B. FIELDS SEARCHED 



Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 

IPC 7 : Gil B 20/00, 7/00 



Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 



Electronic data base consulted during the international search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) 
WPI 



C. DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category* 



Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



EP 0 837 472 A2 (SONY CORP.), 22 April 1998 (22.04.98), abstract; 
fog.1,2; claim 1; column 3, line 51- column 3, line 13. 

JP 08-249 659 A (HITACHI ELECTRON ENG CO., LTD.), 31 
January 1997 (31.01.97), In: Patent Abstracts of Japan [CD-ROM]. 

EP 0 845 780 Al (MATSUSHITA ELECTRIC IND CO., LTD.), 03 
June 1998 (03.06.98), abstract; fig.1,5,6,7; claim 1; column 4, line 5 
column 5, line 31. 



1-24 



1-24 



1-24 



| | Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box C. ^3 See patent family annex. 



* Special categories of cited documents: 

(t A" document defining the general state of the art which is not 

considered to be of particular relevance 
„E" earlier application or patent but published on or after the international 

filing date 

„L" document which may throw doubts on priority ciaim(s) or which is 
cited to establish the publication date of another citation or other 
special reason (as specified) 

„0" document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or other 
means 

„P 4 document published prior to the international filing date but later than 
the priority d ate claimed 



„T" later document published after the international filing date or priority 
date and not in conflict with the application but cited to understand 
the principle or theory underlying the invention 
„X" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 
considered novel or cannot be considered to involve an inventive step 
when the document is taken alone 
„Y" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 
considered to involve an inventive step when the document is 
combined with one or more other such documents, such combination 
being obvious to a person skilled in the art 
„&" document member of the same patent family 



Date of the actual completion of the international search 

17 September 1999 (17.09.99) 



Date of mailing of the international search report 

22 September 1999 (22.09.99) 



Name and mailing adress of the ISA/AT 

Austrian Patent Office 
Kohlmarkt 8-10; A-1014 Vienna 

Facsimile No. 1/53424/200 

Form PCT/ISA/210 (second sheet) (July 1998) 



Authorized officer 

Berger 
Telephone No. 1/53424/453 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 

Inform jt\ on patent family members 



Ir. ational application No. 

PCT/KR 99/00374 



I ft Recherchenbericht 
angef flbrtes Paientdokument 
Patent document cited 
in search report 
Document de brevet cite 
dans le rapport de recherche 


Datua der 
VerSffentlichung 
Publication 
date 
Date de 
publication 


Mitqlied(er) der 
Palenttaulie 
Patent family 

feftbre(s) de la 
fawille de brevets 


Datua der 
Verfiffentlichung 
Publication 

date 
Date de 
publication 




EP A2 8374-72 


22-04-1998 


EP A3 837472 
JP A2 10125006 


16-12- 
15-05- 


1998 
1993 


JP A2 8249659 


27-09-1996 


keine — none - rien 




EP Ai 845780 


03-06-1998 


CM A 1192818 
EP A4 845780 
WO Al 9707505 


09-09- 
09-06- 
27-02- 


1998 
1999 
1997 



Form PCT/lSA/2 10 (patent family annex) (July 1998)