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Europaisches Patentamt 
European Patent Office 
Office europeen des brevets 



(11) Veroffentiichungsnummer: 
(11) Publication number: 
(11) Numero de pubiicatlon: 



EP 1 547 066 AO 



Internationale Anmeldung veroffentlicht durch die 
Weltorganisation fur geistiges Eigentum unter der Nummer: 

WO 2004/029942 (art. 158 des EPU). 

International application published by the World 
Intellectual Property Organisation under number: 

WO 2004/029942 (art. 158 of the ERG). 

Demande Internationale publlee par I'Organlsation 
Mondiale de la Propriete sous le numero: 

wo 2004/029942 (art. 158 de la CBE). 



(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World InteUectual Property 
Organization 

International Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
8 April 2004 (08.04.2004) 




PCT 



lllllllllllllllllllllli^ 

(10) International Publication Number 

wo 2004/029942 Al 



(51) International Patent Classification^: GllB 7/00, 11/00 

(21) International Application Number: 

PCT/KR2003/002010 

(22) International Filing Date: 

30 September 2003 (30.09.2003) 



(25) Filing Language: 

(26) Publication Language: 



English 

English 



(30) Priority Data: 
10-2002-0059341 

30 September 2002 (30.09.2002) KR 
10-2003-0001859 11 January 2003 (11.01.2003) KR 

(71) Applicant: LG ELECTRONICS INC. [KRy^R]; 20, 
Yoido-dong, Youngdungpo-gu, Seoul 150-721 (KR). 

(72) Inventors: PARK, Yong Cheol; 215 204, Jugong APT., 
Wonmun-dong, Gwachon-si, Gyeonggi-do 427-030 (KR). 
KIM, Sung Dae; 1110-1406, Jugong APT., Sanbon 1(11)- 
dong, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do 435-746 (KR). 



(74) Agents: BAHNG, Hae Cheol et al.; Kims International 
Patent & Law Office, 15th Floor, Yo Sam Building, 648-23, 
Yeoksam-dong, Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135-080 (KR). 

(81) Designated States (national): AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, 
AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, 
CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, 
GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG. KP, KR, 

KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, MK, 
MN, MW, MX, MZ, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, PL, PT, 
RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SY, TJ, TM, TN, TR, 
TT, TZ, UA, UG, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

(84) Designated States (regional): ARIPO patent (GH, GM, 
KE, LS, IVIW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), 
Eurasian patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
European patent (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, 
ES, n, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PT, RO, 
SE, SI, SK, TR), OAPI patent (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, 
GA, GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Published: 

— with international search report 

— before the expiration of the time limit for amending the 
claims and to be republished in the event of receipt of 
amendments 

[ Continued on next page] 



(54) Title: WRITE-ONCE TYPE OPTICAL DISC, AND METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MANAGING DEFECTIVE AREAS 
ON WRITE-ONCE TYPE OPTICAL DISC USING TDMA INFORMATION 



BD-ffO 



UA(36) 



Data Area 



User Data Area 



DVU 
#1 



DVU 
#2 



OS 



Recording 1 



DVU 



OSA 



LOA 



Rec(SlO) 



"TDDS & TDFL" 
(TDMA)(36e) 







Cluster 


f Cluster 


Cluster 
#3 


/Cluster 


Cluster 


Cluster 
#6 













"DDS & DFL" 
(DMA)(36c) 



Rep(Sll) 



Rep(S13) 



Rep(S15) 





Cluster 


^ 

Cluster 




#4 


#2 



Rec(S14) 



o 



Rec(S12) 

(57) Abstract: A recording medium of writable once type, and a method and apparatus for managing a defective area on the record- 
ing medium are provided- The method includes detecting an existence of a defective area within a data area of the recording medium 
once data are written onto the data area in a data writing operation; writing data written in the defective area onto a spare area of 

the data area if the defective area is detected; writing temporary management information pertaining to the defective area, onto a 
temporary management area on the recording medium; and writing access information for accessing the temporary management 
information, onto a reserved area on the recording medium. 



wo 2004/029942 Al lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll^ 



For two-letter codes and other abbre\nations, refer to the "Guid- 
ance Notes on Codes and Abbre\nations" appearing at the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

1 

WRITE-ONCE TYPE OPTICAL DISC, AND METHOD AND 
APPARATUS FOR MANAGING DEFECTIVE AREAS ON WRITE- 
ONCE TYPE OPTICAL DISC USING TDMA INFORMATION 

Technical Field 

The present invention relates to an optical disc of write-once type, such as 
a Blu-ray Disc Write Once (BD-WO), and a method and apparatus for managing 
a defective area on the write-once type optical disc. 

Background Art 

A new type of high density optical disc such as a Blu-ray Disc Rewritahle 
(BD-RE) is being developed. A benefit of the BD-RE is that it has a rewritable 
capability where the quality video and audio data can be written, erased and 
rewritten thereon repeatedly. 

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a general optical disc device for 
writing/reproducing data to/from an optical disc such as a BD-RE. As shown 
in FIG. 1, the optical disc device includes an optical pickup 11 for 
recording/reproducing a signal to/from a BD-RE 10, a video disc recorder 
(VDR) system 12 for processing a signal from the optical pickup 11 as a 
reproduced signal, or demodulating and processing an external data stream into a 
writable signal suitable for writing onto the BD-RE 10, and an encoder 13 for 
encoding an extemal analog signal and providing the encoded signal to the VDR 
system 12. 

FIG. 2 shows a structure of a related art BD-RE. Referring to FIG. 2, 
the BD-RE is divided into a Lead-In Area (LIA), a data area, and a Lead-Out 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

2 

area (LOA), with an Inner Spare Area (ISA) and an Outer Spare Area (OSA) 
assigned to a fore end and a rear end of the data area. 

Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, the VDR system 12 of the optical disc device 
writes in the data area of the BD-RE the external data in clusters corresponding 
to an ECC block unit having a predetermined size of recording, after the VDR 
system 12 encodes and demodulates the external signal into a signal suitable for 
writing. During the writing process, if there is a defective area found in the 
data area of the BD-RE, the VDR system 12 carries out a series of replacement 
writing operations in which the clusters of data written onto the defective area is 
written onto one of the spare areas, e.g., on the ISA in place of the defective area. 
Therefore, even if there is a defective area in the data area of the BD-RE, the 
VDR system 12 can prevent a data writing error in advance by writing the 
clusters of data written in the defective area onto the spare area. 

A Blu-ray Disc Write-Once (BD-WO) is another type of high density 
optical disc that is being developed where a high quality of data can be recorded 
and reproduced to/from the disc. As the name may suggest, data can be written 
only once on the BD-WO and is not rewritable on the BD-WO, but the BD-WO 
can be read repeatedly. As a result, the BD-WO is useful where the 
rewritability of data on a recording medium is not desired. 

Unfortunately, since the BD-WO is still in the early development stage, 
there are no schemes, no disc structures, no apparatuses and no methods on how 
to manage the defective areas of the BD-WO, which will be needed for the BD- 
WO to be commercially viable and operationally feasible. 

Disclosure of Invention 



Accordingly, the present invention is directed to a technique for 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

3 

managing a defective area on an optical disc of write-once type such as a BD- 
WO. 

An object of the present invention is to provide a write-once type optical 
disc, and an apparatus and method for effectively managing a defective area of 
5 the write-once type optical disc. 

Additional features and advantages of the invention will be set forth in 
the description which follows, and in part will be apparent to those having 
ordinary skill in the art upon examination of the following or may be learned 
from practice of the invention. The objectives and other advantages of the 

10 invention will be realized and attained by the structure particularly pointed out in 
the written description and claims hereof as well as the appended drawings. 

In accordance with an aspect of the invention, a method for managing a 
defective area on a recording medium of writable once type, the recording 
medium including a data area, the data area having a spare area, comprises 

15 detecting an existence of a defective area within the data area of the recording 
medium once data are written onto the data area in a data writing operation; 
writing data written in the defective area onto the spare area if the defective area 
is detected; writing temporary management information pertaining to the 
defective area, onto a temporary management area on the recording medium; and 

20 writing access information for accessing the temporary management information, 
onto a reserved area on the recording medium. 

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a method for 
managing a defective area on a recording medium of writable once type, the 
recording medium including a data area, the data area having a spare area, 

25 comprises writing data written in the defective area onto the spare area if the 
defective area is detected; writing temporary management uiformation pertaining 
to the defective area, onto a temporary management area on the recording 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

4 

medium; writing access infomiation for accessing the temporary management 
information, onto a reserved area on the recording medium; and transferring, at 
finalization of a data writing operation on the recording medium, the temporary 
management information and the access information as defect management area 
5 (DMA) information into another area on the recording medium. 

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, an apparatus for 
managing a defective area on a recording medium of writable once type, the 
recording medium including a data area, the data area having a spare area, the 
comprises a combination of components for (a) detecting an existence of a 

10 defective area within the data area of the recording medium once data are written 
onto the data area in a data writing operation, (b) writing data written in the 
defective area onto the spare area if the defective area is detected, (c) writing 
temporary management information pertaining to the defective area, onto a 
temporary management area on the recording medium, and (d) writing access 

15 information for accessing the temporary management information, onto a 
reserved area on the recording medium. 

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, an apparatus for 
managing a defective area on a recording medium of writable once type, the 
recording medium including a data area, the data area having a spare area, 

20 comprises a combination of components for (a) writing data written in the 
defective area onto the spare area if the defective area is detected, (b) writing 
temporary management information pertaining to the defective area, onto a 
temporary management area on the recording medium, (c) writing access 
information for accessing the temporary management information, onto a 

25 reserved area on the recording medium, and (d) transferring, at finalization of a 
data writing operation on the recording medium, the temporary management 
information and the access information as defect management area (DMA) 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

5 

information into another area on the recording medium. 

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a recording medium 
of writable once type, comprises at least one recording layer including a data 
area, the data area having a spare area, wherein an existence of a defective area 
5 within the data area of the recording medium is detected once data are written 
onto the data area in a data writing operation, data written in the defective area is 
written onto the spare area if the defective area is detected, temporary 
management information pertaining to the defective area is written onto a 
temporary management area on the recording medium, and access information 

10 for accessing the temporary management information is written onto a reserved 
area on the recording medium. 

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a recording medium 
of writable once type, comprises at least one recording layer including a data 
area and an area outside of the data area, the data area having a spare area, 

15 wherein data written in a defective area of the data area is written onto the spare 
area if the defective area is detected, temporary management information 
pertaining to the defective area is written onto a temporary management area on 
the recording medium, access information for accessing the temporary 
management information is written onto a reserved area on the recording 

20 medium, and at finalization of a data writing operation on the recording medium, 
the temporary management information and the access information are 
transferred into the area outside of the data area as defect management area 
(DMA) information. 

It is to be understood that both the foregoing description and the 

25 following detailed description of the present invention are exemplary and 
explanatory and are intended to provide further explanation of the invention 
claimed 



wo 2004/029942 



PCT/KR2003/002010 



6 

Brief Description of the Drawings 

Further objects and advantages of the invention can be more folly 
5 understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the 
accompanying drawings, in which: 

FIG. 1 illustrates a related art optical disc device schematically; 
FIG. 2 illustrates a structure of a related art BD-RE; 
FIG. 3 illustrates a block diagram of an optical disc 
10 recording/reproducing device according to the present invention; 

FIG. 4 illustrates a structure of a BD-WO and a diagram illustrating a 
method for managing a defective area on the BD-WO in accordance with a 
preferred embodiment of the present invention; 

FIGS. 5 and 6 illustrate diagrams each showing management information 
15 produced and written according to the method of FIG. 4; 

FIG. 7 illustrates a structure of a dual layer BD-WO having the present 
invention applied thereto; and 

FIG. 8 illustrates a structure of a BD-WO and a diagram illustrating a 
method for managing a defective area on the BD-WO in accordance with 
20 another preferred embodiment of the present invention. 

Best mode for Carrying Out the Invention 

Reference will now be made in detail to the preferred embodiments of the 
25 present invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying 
drawings. 

FIG. 3 is an example of a block diagram of an optical disc 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

7 

recording/reproducing device 20 according to an embodiment of the present 
invention. The optical disc recording/reproducing device 20 includes an optical 
pickup 22 for writing/reading data to/fiom an optical recording medium 21, a 
servo unit 23 for controlling the pickup 22 to maintain a distance between an 
5 objective lens of the pickup 22 and the recording medium 21 and for tracking 
relevant tracks on the recording medium 21, a data processor 24 for processing 
and supplying input data to the pickup 22 for writing, and for processing data 
read from the recording medium 21, an interface 25 for exchanging data and/or 
commands with any extemal host 30, a memory or storage 27 for storing 

10 information and data therein including defect management data (e.g., temporary 
management information, etc.) associated with the recording medium 21, and a 
microprocessor or controller 26 for controlling the operations and elements of 
the recording/reproducing device 20. Data to be written/read to/from the 
recording medium 21 may also be stored in the memory 27. All the 

15 components of the recording/reproducing device 20 are operatively coupled. 

The recording medium 21 is a recording medium of write-once type such 
as a BD-WO. 

FIG. 4 illustrates a structure of a BD-WO and a method for managing a 
defective area on the BD-WO in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the 
20 present invention. 

Referring to FIG. 4, for example, the BD-WO includes a lead-in area 
(LIA) 36, a data area 31, and a lead-out area (LOA) 34. The data area 31 
includes a user data area 32 assigned with physical sector numbers (PSN) and 
logical sector numbers (LSN), and non-user data areas having only the physical 
25 sector numbers assigned thereto. 

The non-user data areas include an outer spare area (OS A) 35 for writing 
data in place of a defective area of the user data area 32, and a Temporary Defect 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

8 

List (TDFL) area 33 for writing temporary management information pertaining 
to the defective areas of the user data area 32 and to the spare area(s) replacing 
the defective areas. 

The data area 31 may fUrther include an inner spare area (ISA) (not 
5 shown) at a front part of the data area 31 in addition to or in Ueu of the OS A 35. 
The TDFL area may be located at a position adjacent to the OSA in lieu of the 
TDFL area 33 or in addition to the TDFL area 33. 

The LI A 36 includes a Defect Management Area (DMA) 36c at any part 
of the LIA 36, and a Temporary Disc Definition Structure (TDDS) area 36a at 
10 any part of the LIA 36. The TDDS area 36a stores therein TDDS information. 
The DMA 36c stores therein DMA information including Disc Definition 
Structure (DDS) information and Defect List (DFL) information. The TDDS 
information, DDS information and DFL information will be discussed later in 
more detail. 

15 The BD-WO can have one or two recording layers. A BD-WO having 

only a single recording layer (Layer 0) may include a single recording layer 
composed of a lead-in area (LIA), a data area, and a lead-out area (LOA), and is 
referred to herein as a single layer disc. A BD-WO having two recording 
layers (Layers 0 and 1) may include two recording layers each composed of a 

20 data area and a LIA (or LOA), and is referred to herein as a dual layer disc. 
The single layer disc can have a capacity of 23.3, 25.0 or 27.0 Gbytes, whereas 
the dual layer disc can have a capacity of 46.6, 50.0, or 54.0 Gbytes. 

It should be noted that all the different embodiments of the present 
invention (e.g., various methods discussed herein) are applicable to any type of a 

25 write-once optical disc, such as a single layer BD-WO or a dual layer BD-WO. 
Further, although the use of the recording/reproducing device 20 of FIG. 3 is 
discussed below in conjunction with the methods of the invention, the invention 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

9 

is not limited to such and encompasses other recording/reproducing devices as 
long as they are configured to implement the present methods. For instance, 
the device shown in FIG. 1 may be used to implement the present methods as 
needed. 

5 Referring to FIGS. 3 and 4, the optical disc recording/reproducing device 

20 writes data continuously on a predetermined writing sector in the user data 
area 32 of the BD-WO, where a writing sector may be set to be a Defect Verify 
Unit (DVU) of a certain recording size equivalent to one or more than one 
physical track or cluster on the BD-WO. 

10 After continuously writing the data on the DVUs for a set of data (e.g. 

Recording 1), the microcomputer 26 controls the pickup 22 to conduct a series 
of defective area detecting operations on the Recording 1 area of the BD-WO. 
A defective area detecting operation involves reproducing the data written in a 
DVU and verifying that the data was properly written on the DVU by e.g., 

15 comparing the actual data reproduced from the DVU with the data that was 
meant to be written on the DVU. If the verification result indicates that certain 
data was not properly recorded on a DVU, then the recording/reproducing device 
20 assumes that there is a defective area in that DVU of the BD-WO and 
rewrites the data (directed to the defective DVU) onto a spare area (e.g., OSA 

20 35) using a linear replacement scheme. 

For example, after writing first to fifth clusters of data (Clusters #1 #5) 
continuously as a first defect verify unit DVU #1 (step SIO), the microcomputer 
26 controls the pickup 22 to reproduce the data written on DVU #1 progressively 
(e.g., cluster by cluster), and detects if there is any defective area in DVU #1 by 

25 examining the reproduced data. If, for example, a defect is detected in the 
second cluster Cluster #2 (step SU) at the cluster area 32a where Cluster #2 is 
written, the microcomputer 26 controls the data processor 24 and the pickup 22 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

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to carry out a replacement writing operation. In the replacement writing 
operation, the data written to the Cluster #2 area 32a, which may be temporarily 
stored in the memory 27 or some other storage, are written onto a 
cluster/replacement area within the OSA 35 (step S12). In this instance, Cluster 
5 #2 data may be written in the OSA 35 starting from either the rear end or the 
fore end of the OSA 35, 

After the replacement writing for Cluster #2 is completed, the 
recording/reproducing device 20 checks the next cluster and so on until the last 
cluster in that DVU is checked. If, for example, a defective area is detected 

10 from the fourth cluster Cluster #4 (SI 3), the recording/reproducing device 20 
carries out a replacement writing operation as discussed above to write the data 
written in the defective Cluster #4 area onto a next available area within the 
OSA 35, e.g., an area adjacent to the replacement area for Cluster #2 (step SI 4). 
The replacement writing operations continue until data on all the 

15 defective clusters in the DVU are written in replacement areas such as spare 
areas. As a result, in this example, DVU #1 ends up having Clusters #1, #3, 
and #5 and two defective areas (original Clusters #2 and #4), where the 
replacement areas (OSA 35) are used to write data thereon in lieu of the two 
defective areas using a linear replacement scheme. 

20 Once the data recording (Recording 1) having a temporal continuity ends 

(which includes the data write operations, the defective area detecting operations 
and replacement writing operations for DVU #1, DVU #2, DVU #n), the 
microcomputer 26 writes temporary management information in the form of 
TDFL information onto the TDFL area 33. In the alternative, when the data 

25 recording (e.g.. Recording 1) having a temporary continuity ends in the middle 
of writing the data written in the defective area onto the OSA 35 during the 
replacement writing operation, the microcomputer 26 may write defect entries 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

11 

onto the TDFL area 33 as TDFL information at that point, and then update the 
TDFL information as needed subsequently. 

The temporary management information is used to manage the defective 
areas in the data area 31 of the BD-WO and to manage the data written in the 
5 replacement areas corresponding to the defective areas. The temporary 
management information may be managed as, e.g., TDFL information 
containing one or more TDFLs. FIG. 5 shows a stmcture of TDFL information 
according to an embodiment of the invention. 

As shown in FIG. 5, the TDFL information includes one or a pluraUty of 

10 TDFLs (TDFL #1 - TDFL #n). Each TDFL may include one or a plurality of 
defect entries Defect_Entry #1 - Defect_Entry #m. Each defect entry has a 
first physical sector number of a corresponding defective area (PSN of 
Defective), a first physical sector number of a replacement area corresponding to 
that defective area (PSN of Replacement), status information (Status), and any 

15 other data pertaining to a defect entry. That is, the PSN of Defective is a 
physical sector number of a starting point of a cluster area containing the defect. 
Similarly, the PSN of Replacement is a physical sector number of a starting point 
of a replacement area for replacing the defective cluster area. 

As an example only, if the status information (Status) is 'Status = 0000', 

20 this status information indicates that the management information written in the 
corresponding defect entry is a first-time management information on the data 
written in lieu of the defective area detected at the time of data writing operation. 
That is, it indicates that there is no defect in the replacement area (e.g., in the 
OSA 35) corresponding to the defective area. On the other hand, if the status 

25 information is 'Status = 1001% this status information indicates that the 
management information written in the corresponding defect entry is not the 
first-time management information, but is a second-time management 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

12 

information. That is, it indicates that there was a defect in the first replacement 
area (e.g., in the OS A 35) corresponding to the defective area and the current 
management information pertains to a new, second replacement area (e.g., in the 
OS A 35) that replaces the first defective replacement area in the OS A 35. 
5 Once the writing of the TDFL information (e.g., TDFL #1) for Recording 

1 is completed, the recording/reproducing device 20 may continue with another 
data writing operation (e.g.. Recording 2) having a temporal continuity. When 
the data writing operation (Recording 2) ends (which includes the defective area 
detecting operations and the replacement writing operations for all the DVUs of 
10 Recording 2 as discussed above), the temporary management information for 
Recording 2 may be written onto the TDFL area 33. This process may be 
repeated as long as all the data to be written in the data area of the BD-WO are 
properly written. 

For fast access to the TDFL information written thus far, the 
15 microcomputer 26 may be configured to write fast access information in other 
part(s) of the BD-WO. The fast access information may be, e.g.. Temporary 
Disc Definition Structure (TDDS) information and may be written in a reserved 
area 36a of the LIA 36 (FIG. 4). 

As shown in FIG. 5, for instance, the TDDS information includes one or 
20 more physical sector numbers (e.g., PSN of TDFL #1) each indicating a location 
of a TDFL written in the TDFL area 33, flag information (e.g.. Spare & TDFL 
Full Flag) for indicating whether or not the OSA area 35 and/or the TDFL area 
33 is full, and any other information pertaining to the TDFL information. Here, a 
single flag may be used to indicate whether both the OSA area 35 and the TDFL 
25 area 33 are full, or multiple flags may be used to indicate whether the OSA area 
35 and/or the TDFL area 33 is full. Temporary Defect Management Area 
(TDMA) information includes the TDDS information and the TDFL information. 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

13 

FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating the process of managing defects in 
replacement areas according to an embodiment of the present invention. 
Referring to FIGS. 4-6, as an example, in the data writing operation when the 
second cluster of data (Cluster #2) is written onto a replacement area 35a within 
5 the OSA 35 due to a defect in the corresponding cluster area 32a of the user data 
area 32, the recording/reproducing device 20 writes TDFL information 
pertaining to Cluster #2 onto the TDFL area 33 as discussed above. This TDFL 
information contains a first defect entry (e.g., Defect_Entry #1) pertaining to 
Cluster #2, a physical sector number of the replacement area 35a (PSN of 
Replacement Cluster #2), a physical sector number of the second cluster area 
32a having a defect (PSN of Defective Cluster #2), the status information of 
'Status = 0000', and so on. 

Thereafter, if a new defect is detected in the middle of reproduction of the 
second cluster of data Cluster #2 written in the replacement area 35a of the OSA 
35 according to the data reproduction operation (step S50), the second cluster of 
data Cluster #2 is written onto a second replacement area (e.g., area 35c) of the 
OSA 35 (step S51). The physical sector number of the second replacement 
area 35c (PSN of Replacement Cluster #2 (New)), the physical sector number of 
the second cluster area 32a of the user data area 32 having a defect (PSN of 
Defective Cluster #2), the status information of 'Status = 1001' (indicating 
double replacements), etc. are written onto the TDFL area 33 as a (m+l)th defect 
entry (Defect_Entry #(m+l)). Any defect in the replacement/spare areas is 
managed in this manner. 

When a data reproduction operation is carried out again, the second 
cluster of data written in the second replacement area 35c of the OSA 35 is read 
and reproduced based on the stored TDFL information of the (m+l)th defect 
entry while disregarding the TDFL information on the first defect entry written 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

14 

before. The status information of '1001' value included in the (m+l)th defect 
entry (Defect_Entry #(m+l)) indicates to the recording/reproducing device 20 to 
disregard the data obtained from using the previous defect entry (e.g., 
Defect_Entry#l). 

5 In this manner, different status values can be designated to indicate 

priority of defect entries. As a mere example, the status information of * HOT 
value associated with a defective cluster area may mean that the 
recording/reproducing device 20 should disregard the next lower priority defect 
entry having the status information of ' 1 00 1' value and associated with the same 

10 defective cluster area. That is, the status value of 4101' may indicate that a 
defect is present in the second replacement area and that the present replacement 
area is a third replacement area replacing the defective second replacement area 
of the OS A 35. Obviously, any value(s) can be used as the status information. 
In one embodiment, if the flag information (e.g. 'Spare & TDFL Full 

15 Flag') in the TDDS indicates that the OSA 35 and the TDFL area 33 are full 
with data, then the recording/reproducing device 20 does not carry out, but omits 
any unnecessary defective area detecting and replacement writing operations. 
But if the OSA 35 and the TDFL area 33 are not full with data based on the flag 
information, the recording/reproducing device 20 continues with the defective 

20 area detecting and replacement writing operations. The defective area 
detecting and replacement writing operations can be stopped without a command 
for finalizing the data writing on the BD-WO, such as a 'Disc Finalize' 
command. Such a conunand to finalize the data writing on the BD-WO can be 
generated by the microcomputer 26. For instance, if the user data area 32 or an 

25 operator's selected user data is full, then the command to finalize the data 
writing on the BD-WO may be generated. 

In another example, upon reception of the command for finahzing 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

15 

(finalize command) the data writing on the BD-WO, such as a 'Disc Finalize' 
command, in the middle of the defective area detecting and replacement writing 
operations, and if the flag information indicates that the OSA 35 and the TDFL 
area 33 are not full, then the recording/reproducing device 20 may keep 
5 performing the defective area detecting and replacement writing operations even 
though the recording/reproducing device 20 stops a general data writing 
operation (e.g., writing data into the user data area 32). 

At the finalization (e.g., in response to the finalize command), the 
microcomputer 26 reads the TDDS information and the TDFL information 

10 written thus far in the areas 36a and 33, respectively, and writes them 
permanently onto the Defect Management Area (DMA) 36c in the LIA 36 as 
DMA information. That is, TDMA information composed of the TDDS 
information and the TDFL information is transferred onto the DMA 36c as 
DMA information composed of the DDS information and DFL information. 

15 The DDS information and DFL information correspond respectively to the 
TDDS and the TDFL information, but in the DDS information, the PSNs stored 
in the TDDS information are modified to correspond to the location(s) of the 
DFLs instead of the location(s) of the TDFLs. 

The BD-WO may include a plurality of DMAs with the same DMA 

20 information stored in each of the DMAs, so that any loss or inaccurate reading of 
DMA information may be prevented in view of the duplicability of the DMA 
information from different DMAs. The first and second defect management 
areas DMA 1 and 2 may be assigned to the LIA, and third and fourth defect 
management areas DMA 3 and 4 may be assigned to the LOA. Accordingly, 

25 when a recording/reproducing device carries out a data reproduction operation, 
the data written in the replacement area(s) of the spare area, instead of the 
defective area(s) of the user data area, can be read and reproduced using the 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

16 

DDS information and the DFL information (DMA information) stored in any 
one of the DMAs. 

Moreover, the data written in a subsequent replacement area due to any 
defect in the replacement areas can be read and reproduced properly using the 
status information in the defect entries (Defect_Entrys). 

Furthermore, any unnecessary defect detecting and replacement writing 
operations can be stopped automatically with reference to the flag information 
(Spare & TDFL Full Flag) included in the TDDS information and the Uke, if the 
spare area and the TDFL area are full. 

FIG. 7 shows a structure of a dual layer BD-WO according to an 
embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 7, the BD-WO is a 
dual layer disc havmg a first layer (Layer #0) and a second layer (Layer #1). The 
first layer includes a LIA 36, a data area 31 and an outer zone area (Outer Zone 
0), whereas the second layer includes a data area 31, an outer zone area (Outer 
Zone 1), and a LOA 41, Also, a first outer spare area (OSA 0) 35 and a second 
outer spare area (OSAl) 42 may be assigned to non-user data areas adjacent to 
the outer zone (Outer Zone 0) of the first layer and the outer zone (Outer Zone 1) 
of the second layer, respectively 

Appl5dng the above-discussed concepts of the invention, a TDFL area 
may be located in a non-user data area 33 adjacent to the LIA 36 of the first layer, 
and a TDFL area may be located in a non-user data area 40 adjacent to the LOA 
41 of the second layer. Since the data writing operation generally occur from 
the start of the user data area 32a of the first layer (indicated here as "LSN=0") 
to the end of the user data area 32b of the second layer (indicated here as "Last 
LSN") in the dotted arrow direction as shown, the TDFL areas 33 and 40 may be 
used sequentially or independently to store therein the TDFL information. If 
the TDFL areas 33 and 40 are sequentially used, then the second TDFL area 40 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

17 

would not be used until the first TDFL area 33 is filled up. If the TDFL areas 
33 and 40 are used independently, each TDFL area may be assigned to contain 
information directed to only one layer. For instance, the TDFL area 33 may 
contain information pertaining to only the first layer (Layer #0), and the TDFL 
5 area 40 may contain information pertaining to only the second layer (Layer #1). 

Similarly, the LIA 36 and the LOA 41 may be used sequentially or 
independently to store therein the TDDS and/or DMA (DDS & DFL) 
information as discussed above. For instance, if the LIA 36 and the LOA 41 
are sequentially used, then the second TDDS area 41a may not be used imtil the 

10 first TDDS area 36a is filled up. If the LIA 36 and the LOA 41 are used 
independently, for instance, the first TDDS area 36a may contain information 
pertaining to only the first layer (Layer #0), and the second TDDS area 41a may 
contain information pertaining to only the second layer (Layer #1). 

Likewise, the first and second DMAs 36c and 41c may be used 

15 sequentially or independently. For instance, if the DMAs 36c and 41c are used 
sequentially, then the second DMA 41c would not be used until the first DMA 
36c is filled up. If the DMAs 36c and 41c are used independently, then the first 
DMA 36c may contain DMA information pertaining only to the first layer 
(Layer #0) (which may be obtained from the first TDMA areas 33 and 36a 

20 and/or the second TDMA areas 40 and 41a) or may contain DMA information 
entirely corresponding to the information stored in the first TDMA areas 33 and 
36a. In the same case, the second DMA 41c may contain DMA information 
pertaining only to the second layer (Layer #1) (which may be obtained from the 
first TDMA areas 33 and 36a and/or the second TDMA areas 40 and 41a), or 

25 may contain DMA information entirely corresponding to the information stored 
in the second TDMA areas 40 and 41a. Other variations are possible. 

Each TDFL area may have a recording size equivalent to 2048 physical 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

18 

clusters, and each OSA may have a recording size equivalent to multiple of 256 
physical clusters. 

FIG, 8 show a structure of a BD-WO and a diagram for illustrating a 
method of managing defective areas on the BD-WO according to another 
5 preferred embodiment of the present invention. This embodiment is identical 
to the embodiment shown in FIGS. 4-6 above, except that both the TDFL 
infoimation and the TDDS information are now written in a particular sector in 
frontA)ehind of the data area, for example, in the LIA. 

For example, referring to FIG. 8, the LIA 36 includes a DMA 36c for 
10 storing therein the DMA information composed of the DDS and DFL 
information, and a TDMA area 36e for storing therein the TDMA information 
composed of the TDDS and TDFL information. Other data may be also stored 
in the LIA 36. 

This concept of the FIG. 8 embodiment is equally applicable to a BD-WO 
15 having a plurality of recording layers. For example, the embodiment of FIG. 8 
is equally applicable to the dual layer BD-WO structure shown in FIG. 7. In 
that case, the structure of the dual layer BD-WO having DMA and TDMA 
information as discussed above in reference to FIG. 7 can be modified such that 
the TDFL areas can be located within the LIA and/or LOA of the dual layer BD- 
20 WO, in stead of being located within the data areas (33, 40) of the first and 
second layers. All other concepts associated with the FIG. 7 embodiment can 
apply herein. 

In the present invention, the data reproducing operation can occur 
currently, subsequently or prior to the data writing operation. The data writing 
25 operation can occur currently, subsequently or prior to the defect detecting 
operation and/or data replacement writing operation and/or the management 
information writing operation. Also in the present invention, the order in 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

19 

which the DDS area, DFL area, TDDS area, and the TDFL area are allocated 
within the LIA and LOA may vary. For instance, in FIG. 4, the TDDS area 36a 
may precede the DMA 36c in the LIA 36. 

5 Industrial applicability 

As has been described, the method and apparatus for managing a 
defective area on a recording medium of write-once type permit reading and/or 
reproducing of data written on a defective area of the recording medium such as 

10 BD-WO, properly by writing the data on a spare area in lieu of the defective area 
and managing the temporary management data, effectively. In addition, the 
method and apparatus can read and reproduce the data written in other 
replacement areas when the first replacement area is found to be defective, using 
status information in a defect entry. The method and apparatus can stop 

15 unnecessary defect detecting and/or replacement writing operations if the spare 
area (replacement area) and the TDFL area are indicated as full based on flag 
information stored in TDDS information. 

It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications 
and variations cm. be made in the present invention without departing fi:om the 

20 spirit or scope of the invention. Thus, it is intended that the present invention 
cover the modifications and variations of this invention provided they come 
within the scope of the appended claims and their equivalents. 



wo 2004/029942 



PCT/KR2003/002010 



20 

What is Claimed is; 

1. A method for managing a defective area on a recording medium of 
writable once type, the recording medium including a data area, the data area 

5 having a spare area, the method comprising: 

(a) detecting an existence of a defective area within the data area of the 
recording medium once data are written onto the data area in a data writing 
operation; 

(b) writing data written in the defective area onto the spare area if the 
10 defective area is detected; 

(c) writing temporary management information pertaining to the 
defective area, onto a temporary management area on the recording medium; and 

(d) writing access information for accessing the temporary management 
information, onto a reserved area on the recording medium. 

15 

2. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the writing step (c), the 
temporary management area is located within a non-user data area of the data 
area on the recording medium. 

20 3. The method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the recording medium 

includes first and second recording layers having first and second data areas, 
respectively, and wherein in the writing step (c), the temporary management area 
includes first and second temporary management areas respectively located 
within the first and second data areas. 

25 

4. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the writing step (c), the 
temporary management area is located outside of the data area on the recording 



wo 2004/029942 



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21 

medium. 

5. The method as claimed in claim 4, wherein the temporary management 
area is located in a lead-in area on the recording medium, 

5 

6. The method as claimed in claim 4, wherein the recording medium 
includes first and second recording layers, the first recording layer having a first 
data area and a lead-in area, the second recording layer having a second data 
area and a lead-out area, and wherein the temporary management area and the 

10 reserved area are both located within at least one of the lead-in area of the first 
recording layer and the lead-out area of the second recording layer. 

7. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the writing step (d), the 
reserved area is located outside of the data area on the recording medium. 

15 

8. The method as claimed in claim 7, wherein the reserved area is located 
in a lead-in area or a lead-out area on the recording medium. 

9. The method as claimed in claim 7, wherein the recording medium 
20 includes first and second recording layers having first and second data areas, 

respectively, and wherein in the writing step (d), the reserved area includes first 
and second reserved areas respectively located outside of the first and second 
data areas. 

25 10. The method as claimed in claim 2, wherein in the writing step (d), the 

reserved area is located outside of the data area on the recording medium. 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

22 

11. The method as claimed in claim 10, wherein the recording medium 
includes first and second recording layers having first and second data areas, 
respectively, 

in the writing step (c), the temporary management area includes first and 
5 second temporary management areas respectively located within the first and 
second data areas, and 

in the writing step (d), the reserved area includes first and second 
reserved areas respectively located outside of the first and second data areas. 

10 12. The method as claimed in claim 4, wherein in the writing step (d), the 

reserved area is also located outside of the data area on the recording medium. 

13. The method as claimed in claim 12, wherein the recording medium 
includes first and second recording layers having first and second data areas, 

15 respectively, 

in the writing step (c), the temporary management area includes first and 
second temporary management areas respectively located outside of the first and 
second data areas, and 

in the writing step (d), the reserved area includes first and second 
20 reserved areas respectively located outside of the first and second data areas. 

14. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the writing step (c), the 
temporary management information includes temporary defect list (TDFL) 
information having at least one temporary defect list (TDFL), the at least one 

25 temporary defect list identifying a location of the defective area and a location of 
a replacement area in the spare area corresponding to the defective area. 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

23 

15. The method as claimed in claim 14, whereiQ the at least one TDFL 
further includes status information identifying whether a defect is present in the 
replacement area of the spare area. 

5 16. The method as claimed in claim 15, further comprising: 

(e) examining status information in a current defect entry of the at least 
one TDFL during a data reproduction operation; and 

(f) disregarding data reproduced using a previous defect entry associated 
with the current defect entry, if the status information in the current defect entry 

10 indicates that a defect is present in a part of the spare area associated with the 
previous defect entry. 

17. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the writing step (d), the 
access information includes temporary disc definition structure (TDDS) 

15 information identifying location information pertaining to the temporary 
management iaformation on the recording medium. 

18. The method as claimed in claim 17, wherein in the writing step (d), 
the access information further includes flag information indicating whether at 

20 least one of the spare area and the temporary management area is full. 

19. The method as claimed in claim 1, further comprising: 

(g) transferring, at finalization of a data writing operation on the 
recording medium, the temporary management information and the access 

25 information as defect management area (DMA) information into an area outside 
of the data area on the recording medium. 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

24 

20. The method as claimed in claim 19, wherein in the transferring step 
(g), the area outside of the data area is a lead-in area or a lead-out area on the 
recording medium. 

5 21. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the recording medium is a 

Blu-ray Disc Write Once (BD-WO). 

22. A method for managing a defective area on a recording medium of 
writable once type, the recording medium including a data area, the data area 

10 having a spare area, the method comprising: 

writing data written in the defective area onto the spare area if the 
defective area is detected; 

writing temporary management information pertaining to the defective 
area, onto a temporary management area on the recording medium; 
15 writing access information for accessing the temporary management 

information, onto a reserved area on the recording medixmi; and 

transferring, at finalization of a data writing operation on the recording 
medium, the temporary management information and the access information as 
defect management area (DMA) information into another area on the recording 
20 medium. 

23. The method as claimed in claim 22, wherein in the transferring step, 
the another area on the recording medixrai includes at least one of a lead-in area 
and a lead-out area on the recording medium. 

25 



24. The method as claimed in claim 22, wherein the recording medium is 
a Blu-ray Disc Write Once (BD-WO). 



wo 2004/029942 



PCT/KR2003/002010 



25 



25. An apparatus for managing a defective area on a recording medium of 
writable once type, the recording medium including a data area, the data area 
having a spare area, the apparatus comprising: 

5 (a) means for detecting an existence of a defective area within the data 

area of the recording medium once data are written onto the data area in a data 
writing operation; 

(b) means for writing data written in the defective area onto the spare area 
if the defective area is detected; 
10 (c) means for writing temporary management information pertaining to 

the defective area, onto a temporary management area on the recording medium; 
and 

(d) means for writing access information for accessing the temporary 
management information, onto a reserved area on the recording medium, 

15 

26. An apparatus for managing a defective area on a recording medium of 
writable once type, the recording medium including a data area, the data area 
having a spare area, the apparatus comprising: 

(a) means for writing data written in the defective area onto the spare area 
20 if the defective area is detected; 

(b) means for writing temporary management information pertaining to 
the defective area, onto a temporary management area on the recording medium; 

(c) means for writing access information for accessing the temporary 
management information, onto a reserved area on the recording medium; and 

25 (d) means for transferring, at finalization of a data writing operation on 

the recording medium, the temporary management information and the access 
information as defect management area (DMA) information into another area on 



wo 2004/029942 

the recording medium. 



26 



PCT/KR2003/002010 



27. A recording medium of writable once type, comprising: 
at least one recording layer including a data area, the data area having a 
5 spare area, 

wherein an existence of a defective area within the data area of the 
recording medium is detected once data are written onto the data area in a data 
writing operation, 

data written in the defective area is written onto the spare area if the 
10 defective area is detected, 

temporary management information pertaining to the defective area is 
written onto a temporary management area on the recording medium, and 

access information for accessing the temporary management information 
is written onto a reserved area on the recording medium. 

15 

28. The recording medium as claimed in claim 27, wherein the data area 
includes a user data area and a non-user data area, and the temporary 
management area is located within the non-user data area on the recording 
medium. 

20 

29. The recording medium as claimed in claim 28, wherein the at least 
one recording layer includes first and second recording layers having first and 
second data areas, respectively, and the temporary management area includes 
first and second temporary management areas respectively located within the 

25 first and second data areas. 



30. The recording medium as claimed in claim 27, wherein the temporary 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

27 

management area is located outside of the data area on the recording medium. 



31 . The recording medium as claimed in claim 30, wherein the temporary 
management area is located in a lead-in area on the recording medium. 

5 

32. The recording medium as claimed in claim 30, wherein the at least 
one recording layer includes first and second recording layers, the first recording 
layer having a first data area and a lead-in area, the second recording layer 
having a second data area and a lead-out area, and wherein the temporary 

10 management area and the reserved area are both located within at least one of the 
lead-in area of the first recording layer and the lead-out area of the second 
recording layer. 

33. The recording medium as claimed in claim 27, wherein the reserved 
15 area is located outside of the data area on the recording medium. 

34. The recording medium as claimed in claim 33, wherein the at least 
one recording layer fiirther includes a lead-in area or a lead-out area, and the 
reserved area is located in the lead-in area or the lead-out area on the recording 

20 medium. 

35. The recording medium as claimed in claim 33, wherein the at least 
one recording layer includes first and second recording layers having first and 
second data areas, respectively, and the reserved area includes first and second 

25 reserved areas respectively located outside of the first and second data areas. 

36. The recording medium as claimed in claim 28, wherein the reserved 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

28 

area is located outside of the data area including the user data area on the 
recording medium. 

37. The recording medium as claimed in claim 36, wherein the at least 
5 one recording layer includes first and second recording layers having first and 

second data areas, respectively, 

the temporary management area includes first and second temporary 
management areas respectively located within the first and second data areas, 
and 

10 the reserved area includes first and second reserved areas respectively 

located outside of the first and second data areas. 

38. The recording medium as claimed in claim 30, wherein the reserved 
area is also located outside of the data area on the recording medium. 

15 

39. The recording medium as claimed in claim 38, wherein the at least 
one recording layer includes first and second recording layers having first and 
second data areas, respectively, 

the temporary management area includes first and second temporary 
20 management areas respectively located outside of the first and second data areas, 
and 

the reserved area includes first and second reserved areas respectively 
located outside of the first and second data areas. 

25 40. The recording medium as claimed in claim 27, wherein the temporary 

management information includes temporary defect list (TDFL) information 
having at least one temporary defect list (TDFL), the at least one temporary 



wo 2004/029942 PCT/KR2003/002010 

29 

defect list identifying a location of the defective area and a location of a 
replacement area in the spare area corresponding to the defective area. 

41. The recording medium as claimed in claim 40, wherein the at least 
5 one TDFL further includes status information identifying whether a defect is 

present in the replacement area of the spare area. 

42. The recording medium as claimed in claim 40, wherein the location 
of the defective area and the location of a replacement area in the spare area 

10 corresponding to the defective area are represented in physical sector numbers. 

43. The recording medium as claimed in claim 27, wherein the access 
information includes temporary disc definition structure (TDDS) information 
identifying location information pertaining to the temporary management 

15 information on the recording mediimi. 

44. The recording medium as claimed in claim 43, wherein the access 
information further includes flag information indicating whether at least one of 
the spare area and the temporary management area is full. 

20 

45. The recording medium as claimed in claim 27, wherein the at least 
one recording layer further includes an area outside of the data area on the 
recording medium, 

where, at finalization of a data writing operation on the recording 
25 medium, the temporary management information and the access information are 
transferred into the area outside of the data area as defect management area 
(DMA) information. 



wo 2004/029942 



PCT/KR2003/002010 



30 

46. The recording medium as claimed in claim 45, wherein the area 
outside of the data area is a lead-in area or a lead-out area on the recording 
medium. 

5 

47. The recording medium as claimed in claim 27, wherein the recording 
medium is a Blu-ray Disc Write Once (BD-WO). 

48. A recording medium of writable once type, comprising: 

10 at least one recording layer including a data area and an area outside of 

the data area, the data area having a spare area, 

wherein data written in a defective area of the data area is written onto the 
spare area if the defective area is detected, 

temporary management information pertaining to the defective area is 
1 5 written onto a temporary management area on the recording medium, 

access information for accessing the temporary management information 
is written onto a reserved area on the recording medium, and 

at finalization of a data writing operation on the recording medium, the 
temporary management information and the access information are transferred 
20 into the area outside of the data area as defect management area (DMA) 
information. 

49. The recording medium as claimed in claim 48, wherein the area 
outside of the data area on the recording medium includes at least one of a lead- 

25 in area and a lead-out area on the recording medium. 

50. The recording medium as claimed in claim 48, wherein the recording 



wo 2004/029942 



PCT/KR2003/002010 



31 

medium is a Blu-ray Disc Write Once (BD-WO). 



wo 2004/029942 



PCT/KR2003/002010 



1/8 



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GO 




INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



International application No. 
PCT/KR 03/02010-0 



CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 
IPC^G11B7/00, 11/00 

According to Internationa] Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 



B. FIELDS SEARCHED 



Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classijHcation symbols) 

IPC^:G11B7/00, 11/00 



Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 

G11B 7/0045, 11/10, 11/12, 13/04. 20/10. 20/12 



Electronic data base consulted during the international search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) 
WPI 



C. DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



US 5806636 A (Gage et al.) 8 September 1998 (08.09.98) 



US 5247494 A (Ohno et al.) 21 September 1993 (21 .09.93) 



EP 0556046 A1 (Sony) 18 August 1993 (18.08.93) 



1 ,22,25,26, 
27,48 

1.22,25,26. 
27, 48 

1,22,25,26, 
27,48 



I I Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box C, 



See patent family annex. 



* Special categories of cited documents: 

„A" document defining the general state of the art which is not 

considered to be of particular relevance 
„E" earlier application or patent but published on or after the international 

filing date 

„L*' document which may throw doubts on priority claim(s) or which is 
cited to establish the publication date of another citation or other 
special reason (as specified) 

„0'* document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or other 
means 

„P" document published prior to the international filing date but later than 
the priority date claimed 



„T" later document published after the international filing date or priority 

date and not in conflict with the application but cited to understand 

the principle or theory underlying the invention 
„X" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered novel or cannot be considered to involve an inventive step 

when the document is taken alone 
,»Y** document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered to involve an inventive step when the document is 

combined with one or more other such documents, such combinatioii 

being obvious to a person skilled in the art 
„&" document member of the same patent family 



Date of the actual completion of the international search 

22 January 2004 (22.01.2004) 



Date of mailing of the international search report 

1 2 February 2004 (1 2.02.2004) 



Name and mailing adress of the ISA/AT 

Austrian Patent Office 

Dresdner StraBe 87, A-1200 Vienna 

Facsimile No. 1/53424/535 



Authorized officer 



GROSSING G. 



Telephone No. 1/53424/386 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (second sheet) (July 1998) 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 

InfotmatLoa on patent family membecs 



Inta^Sonal application No. 

PCT/KR 03/02010-0 





Patent document cited 


Publication 




Patent family 


Publication 




III OCCtlbll ICPUII 


dste 




member(s) 


QalC 


EP 


A 556046 




KR 


B 


275000 


2000-12-15 








DE 


T 


693180E3T 


1998-08-20 








DE 


D 


69318053D 


1998-05-28 








US 


A 


5309419 


1994-05-03 








EP 


A 


0556046 


1993-08-18 








JP 


A 


5225570 


1993-09-03 


US 


A 5247494 


1993-09-21 


ap 


A 


60263353 


1985-12-26 


US 


A 5805536 


1998-09-08 






none 





PCT/ISA/210 patent family aanex) (July 1998)