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cited in the European Search 
Report of EP o<? I 5" staz. <=\ 
Your Ref.:o ^/>^^^n/^-d^ tUs<^ 



(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 

(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 

International Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
17 March 2005 (17.03.2005) 




(10) International Publication Number 

WO 2005/024792 A2 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : 



G11B 



(21) International Application Number: 

PCT/KR2004/002209 

(22) International Eiling Date: 

2 September 2004 (02.09.2004) 



(25) Eiling Language: 

(26) Publication Language: 



English 
English 



(30) Priority Data: 

10 2003-0062674 

8 September 2003 (08.09.2003) KR 
1 0-2003-007 1 1 27 13 October 2003 (13.1 0.2003 ) KR 
1 0-2004-0036073 20 May 2004 (20.05.2004 ) KR 

(71) Applicant (for all designated States except US): LG 
ELECTRONICS INC. [KR/KR]; 20, Yoido-dong, 
Youngdungpo-gu, Seoul 150-721 (KR). 

(72) Inventor; and 

(75) Inventor/Applicant (for US only): PARK, Yong Cheol 

[KR/KR J; 215-204, Jugong APT., Wonmundong, Gwa- 
chon-si, Gyeonggi-do 427-740 (KR). 



(74) Agents: BAHNG, Hae Cheol et aL; KBK & Associates, 
15th Floor Yo Sam Building, 648-23, Yeoksam-dong, 
Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135-080 (KR). 

(81) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of national protection available): All, AG, AL, AM, 
AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, 
CO, CR, CU, CZ, DEi, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, PI, 
GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, 
KG, KP, KR, KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD. 
MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MZ, NA. NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, 
PI I, PL, PT, RO, RU, SC:, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SY TJ, I'M, 
TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, US, UZ, VC, VN, YD, ZA, ZM, 
ZW. 

(84) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of regional protection available): ARIPO (BW, GH, 
GM, KE, LS, MW, MZ, NA, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, 
ZW), Eurasian (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
European (AT, BE, BG, CLI, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, EI, 
ER, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI, 
SK, TR), OAPI (BE, BJ, CP, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, GQ, 
GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Published: 

— without international search report and to be republished 
upon receipt of that report 

I Continued on next page } 



(54) Title: WRITE-ONCE OPTICAL DISC, AND METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR RECORDING MANAGEMENT INFOR- 
MATION ON THE WRITH-ONCE OPTICAL DISC 



< 
ON 



Lead-in Area 



TDMA0 



Data Area 



0SA0 



ISA0 



TDMA1 



TDFL 


SRRI 


SRRI 


TDFL 




TDDS 


TDDS 


TDDS 


TDDS 



jPclusters 
Nx256 clusters 



Lead- Out Area 



* DMA : Disc Management Area 

* TDMA : Temporary DMA 

* ISA : Inner Spare Area 

* 0SA : Outer Spare Area 

* TDFL : Temporary Defect List 

* TDDS : Temporary Disc Definition Structure 

* SRR : Sequential Recording Range 

* SRRI : SRR [information 



CD (57) Abstract: A write-once optical disc and a method and apparatus for recording management information of the write -once opti- 
ca 

cal disc, are provided. The method includes sequentially recording data in the at least one recording-unit in the direction of increasing 
Q address; padding, with padding data, a remaining non-recorded part of a last recording -unit when terminating the sequential record- 
er ing of the data: and recording padding identification information on the recording medium, the padding identification information 

identifying which part of the at least one recording-unit is padded. 



BNSDOCID: <WO ___2005024792A2_I_: 



WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

WRITE-ONCE OPTICAL DISC, AND METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR 
RECORDING MANAGEMENT INFORMATION ON THE WRITE-ONCE 

OPTICAL DISC 



5 Technical Field 

The present invention relates to a write-once optical disc, a method for 
recording management information of the write-once optical disc and a 
method and apparatus for recording and playing back the write-once optical 
disc. 

10 

Background Art 

As an optical recording medium, optical discs on which high-capacity data 
can be recorded are widely being used. Among them, a new high-density 
optical recording medium (HD-DVD), for example, a Blu-ray disc, has been 
15 recently developed for recording and storing high-definition video data and 
high-quality audio data for a long term period. 

The Blu-ray disc is the next generation HD-DVD technology and the next 

generation optical recording solution, and has an excellent capability to 

store data more than the existing DVDs. Recently, a technical specification 

2 0 of international standard for HD-DVD has been established. Related with 

this, various standards for a write-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO) are being 

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prepared following the standards for a rewritable Blu-ray disc (BD-RE). 
Among the standards for the write-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO), a method for 
recording management information has been discussed. This method 
involves a recording method of an information indicating a recording status 
5 of the disc, which is one of the characteristics of the write-once optical disc. 
The information indicating the recording status of the disc allows a host or a 
user to easily find a recordable area on the write-once optical disc. In the 
existing write-once optical discs, this information is named variously. For 
example, in the case of CD series, this information is named a track 
10 information; in the case of DVD series, this information is named an RZone 
or a fragment. 

Accordingly, there is an increasing demand for a method of efficiently 
recording the management information corresponding to the recording 
status of the high-density optical disc. And this method must be provided 
15 with the standardized information in order to secure mutual compatibility. 
In addition, there is a demand for a method of recording the management 
information on a disc, which can be applied to a write-once high-density 
optical disc performing defect management, as well as to the Blu-ray discs. 

2 o Disclosure of Invention 

Accordingly, the present invention is directed to an optical disc and a 

2 

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WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

method and apparatus for recording disc management information, and 
particularly to a method and apparatus for efficiently managing the disc 
recording status information, which substantially obviate one or more 
problems due to limitations and disadvantages of the related art. 
An object of the present invention is to provide a method and apparatus for 
defining types of sequential recording ranges (SRRs) and recording 
information on the SRRs in an SRR information (SRRI). 

Another object of the present invention is to provide a method and 
apparatus for recording SRRI as disc recording status information that can 
be applied to a write-once optical disc on which physical defect management 
is performed, and to provide a method and apparatus for recovering a 
damaged SRRI from a write-once optical disc. 

Additional advantages, objects, and features of the invention will be set forth 
in part in the description which follows and in part will become apparent to 
those having ordinary skill in the art upon examination of the following or 
may be learned from practice of the invention. The objectives and other 
advantages of the invention may be realized and attained by the structure 
particularly pointed out in the written description and claims hereof as well 
as the appended drawings. 

It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the 
following detailed description of the present invention are exemplary and 

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explanatory and are intended to provide further explanation of the invention 
as claimed. 



Brief Description of Drawings 

The accompanying drawings, which are included to provide a further 
understanding of the invention and are incorporated in and constitute a part 
of this application, illustrate embodiment(s) of the invention and together 
with the description serve to explain the principle of the invention. In the 
drawings: 

FIG. 1 illustrates an overall structure of a write-once optical disc and a 
method for recording management information on the write-once optical disc 
according to the present invention; 

FIGs. 2A through 2D illustrate different types of opened SRRs of a write- 
once optical disc according to the present invention; 

FIGs. 3A through 3E illustrate different types of closed SRRs of a write-once 
optical disc according to the present invention; 

FIG. 4A illustrates an example of padding identification information when 
padding dummy data to a closed SRR of a write-once optical disc according 
to the present invention; 

FIG. 4B illustrates an example of padding identification information when 
padding dummy data to an opened SRR of a write-once optical disc 

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WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

according to the present invention; 

FIG. 5 illustrates an overall structure of a write-once optical disc and a 
method for recording SRRI as disc management information according to the 
present invention; 

5 FIG. 6A illustrates a structure of an SRR entry list recorded in an SRRI 
according to the present invention; 

FIG. 6B illustrates an example of an SRR entry recorded in the SRR entry 
list of FIG. 6A according to the present invention; 

FIG. 6C illustrates an example of a structure of a list of opened SRRs field of 
10 an SRRI according to the present invention; 

FIGs. 7 A through 1 IB illustrate a process of recording SRRI according to the 
disc recording status in a write-once optical disc according to the present 
invention; and 

FIG. 12 is a flowchart illustrating a method of using SRRIs of a write- 
15 once optical disc when the latest SRRI is damaged according to an 

embodiment of the present invention; 

FIGs. 13A and 13B illustrate a method of restoring the latest SRRI in 
the write-once optical disc according to an embodiment of the present 
invention; and 

2 0 FIG. 14 illustrates a recording/ playback apparatus for a write-once optical 

disc according to an embodiment of the present invention. 

5 

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Best Mode for Carrying Out the Invention 

Reference will now be made in detail to the preferred embodiments of the 
present invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying 
5 drawings. Wherever possible, the same reference numbers will be used 
throughout the drawings to refer to the same or like parts. 
For the convenience of description, a write-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO) is 
described for example. Most of the terminologies in this specification are 
widespread general words but there are some words selected and used by 
10 the inventor, the meaning of which will be described in detail in the 
corresponding description. The present invention should be understood not 
based on the simple meanings of the words but based on the specifically 
described meanings of the words, if such meanings have been discussed. 
When a plurality of areas are formed on a disc and the areas are recorded 
15 sequentially, each of these areas is called a "sequential recording range" 
(SRR). An SRR is a unit of recording (sequential recording-unit) for 
sequential recording user data. An SRR has a size of one or more clusters. 
"SRR information" (SRRI) is a name for information identifying a recording 
status of a disc. SRRI is applied to a sequential recording mode of the disc 
2 0 and pertains to one or more SRRs. "Padding" means filling an unrecorded 
area in an SRR with dummy data or zeros at a user's request or under 

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WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

control of a recording/ playback apparatus (FIG. 12). "Session" is composed 
of one or more consecutive SRRs and identifies SRRs for compatibility to the 
specification only for playbacks. 

FIG. 1 illustrates a structure of a write-once optical disc such as a BD-WO 
5 and a method for recording disc management information according to the 
present invention. The disc shown in FIG. 1 has a single recording layer as 
an example. But the present invention is not limited to such, and is 
applicable to a disc having dual or multiple recording layers. 
Referring to FIG. 1, the disc includes a lead-in area, a data area, and a lead- 

10 out area, all at the recording layer. The lead-in and lead-out areas have a 
plurality of disc (or defect) management areas (DMA1 - DMA4) for storing 
the same defect management information repeatedly. In the data area, an 
inner spare area ISAO and/ or an outer spare area OSA0 for replacing 
defective areas is provided. 

15 It is known that a rewritable optical disc does not have or need a large DMA 
since its DMA can be written and erased repeatedly, even if the disc has the 
DMA of a limited size. This is not the case for a write-once optical disc such 
as a BD-WO. Since the write-once optical disc cannot be re-recorded on the 
area that was recorded once, the write-once optical disc needs and has a 

2 0 larger management area. To more effectively store management information, 
in the write-once optical disc the management information is temporarily 

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WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

stored in a temporary disc management area (TDMA). When the disc is 
ready to be finalized/ closed, then the management information stored in a 
final/latest TDMA is transferred to a DMA for more permanent storage. 
As shown in FIG. 1, the disc includes two TDMAs: TDMAO and TDMA1. The 
TDMAO is allocated to the lead-in area and has a fixed, non-variable size. 
The TDMA1 is allocated to the outer spare area OSAO and has a size variable 
in accordance with the size of the spare area. The size P of the TDMA1 may 
be, for example, P = (N * 256) / 4 clusters where N is a positive integer, 
which is about one fourth of the size of the entire outer spare area OSAO. 
In each of the TDMAO and TDMA1, temporary defect list (TDFL) information 
and temporary disc definition structure (TDDS) information together (TDFL 
+ TDDS) can be recorded in one recording-unit (e.g., one cluster in the case 
of a BD-WO), or SRRI and TDDS information together (SRRI + TDDS) can be 
recorded in one recording-unit as shown. The SRRI is recorded when a 
sequential recording mode is used, whereas SBM (space bit map) is used 
when a random recording mode is used. 

At each update time, (TDFL + TDDS) or (SRRI + TDDS) are recorded to the 
TDMA in the size of one cluster. In the example of FIG. 1, a TDFL and a 
TDDS are recorded in one cluster of the TDMAO, an SRRI and a TDDS are 
recorded in the next cluster of the TDMAO, an SRRI and a TDDS are 
recorded in the next cluster of the TDMAO, and so on. 

8 

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WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

If a defective area occurs within the data area, a process of replacing it with 
the spare area is carried out. The TDFL is the information that manages this 
process as the defect list. In the case of a single layer disc, the TDFL is 
recorded with the size of 1 cluster to 4 clusters according to the size of the 
5 defect list. SRRI is information informing of whether a specific area of the 
disc is recorded or unrecorded. The SRRI can be widely used when the disc 
is of a consecutive recording type. That is, the SRRI can be usefully applied 
to the case where the disc is recorded in a sequential or incremental 
recording mode. In addition, the TDDS information is generally recorded on 

10 the last sector among the 32 sectors within one cluster of the management 
area. Information for general management and defect management of the 
disc is recorded as part of the TDDS information, and the TDDS information 
is generally always recorded last when the management information is 
updated within the TDMA. 

15 The present invention relates to a method of generating and recording disc 
recording status information, which is applied to a new high density optical 
disc such as a BD-WO. In the present invention, SRRI is used as the disc 
recording status information, and various types of SRRs are defined as 
shown in FIGs. 2A through 3E. The detailed structure of SRRI will be 

2 0 described referring to FIGs. 5A through 6C. The present invention also 

defines and distinguishes different types of SRRs formed on the disc and 

9 

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WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

uses them to record and playback the optical disc. A method of newly 
defining the types of the SRRs and creating information identifying the types 
of distinguished SRRs will be described in detail. 

FIGs. 2A to 2D illustrate different types of opened SRRs for the write-once 
5 optical disc (e.g., a BD-WO) according to the present invention. An opened 
SRR is an SRR in which data can be recorded. If the SRR is recordable, the 
SRR has "next writable address" (NWA). Accordingly, the opened SRR is the 
SRR having the NWA. The SRR that does not have the NWA and is not 
recordable is called a closed SRR. The closed SRR will be described referring 

10 to FIGs. 3A through 3E. 

More specifically, FIG. 2A shows an invisible SRR that is one type of an 
opened SRR. The invisible SRR is generally always formed on an outermost 
section of a disc or an initial black disc and means an unrecorded area. In 
other words, only a start address of the invisible SRR is defined and an end 

15 address of the invisible SRR means an end of user data. Since data is not 
yet recorded, "last recorded area" (LRA) has a zero value and the NWA has 
the same value as the start address of the invisible SRR. 

FIG. 2B shows an incomplete SRR that is another type of an opened SRR. 
The incomplete SRR is an SRR that is partially recorded in the invisible SRR 
2 0 of FIG. 2A. In other words, only a start address of the incomplete SRR is 
defined and an end address of the incomplete SRR means an end of user 

10 

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WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

data. However, since data is partially recorded in the incomplete SRR, the 
LRA of the incomplete SRR represents the last address at which normal user 
data is recorded and the NWA is the next address from the LRA of the 
incomplete SRR. That is, the NWA is the first PSN of the next available 
5 unrecorded cluster in the related SRR. 

In the opened SRR, if the SRR is partially recorded, the relation between the 
LRA and the NWA will be now described in detail in relation with padding 
shown in FIG. 2B. The enlarged view of the small dotted box portion in FIG. 
2B is provided at a lower portion of the drawing. 

10 In other words, LRA means the area in which user data are actually 
recorded. If the user data are recorded on some sectors in one cluster 
consisting of thirty-two sectors, the physical sector number (PSN) of the 
corresponding sector on which the user data are recorded is the LRA of the 
SRR as shown in FIG. 2B. However, since the basic recording-unit of the 

15 Blu-ray disc is a cluster, NWA representing an additionally recordable area 
will be the PSN of a header sector of the following cluster. Accordingly, if 
data is recorded on some sectors of the cluster and recording is finished (i.e., 
the sequential recording is terminated), the remaining unrecorded sectors 
are padded with dummy data according to the present invention. For 

2 0 instance, the remaining unrecorded sectors of the cluster are padded with 

zeros as shown. If all the user data are recorded on even the last sector of 

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WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

the cluster, it is obvious that the padding described is not necessary. 
FIG. 2C shows an empty SRR that is yet another type of an opened SRR. 
The empty SRR is formed generally not at an outermost section of the disc, 
but is formed generally at a middle section to record data in contrast to the 
invisible SRR and the incomplete SRR of FIGs. 2A and 2B. In other words, it 
is the case where a host or user makes an SRR, but does not yet record data 
on the SRR. Since the empty SRR has a start address and an end address 
but is not yet recorded, the LRA of the empty SRR has a "zero" value and the 
NWA has the same value as the start address of the empty SRR. 
FIG. 2D shows a partially recorded SRR that is yet another type of an 
opened SRR. The partially recorded SRR is an SRR that is partially recorded 
in the empty SRR of FIG. 2C. Accordingly, the partially recorded SRR has a 
start address and an end address. Since data is partially recorded in the 
partially recorded SRR, the LRA of the partially recorded SRR represents the 
last address at which normal data is recorded and the NWA is the next 
writable address from the LRA. 

In the opened SRR of FIG. 2D, if the SRR is partially recorded, the enlarged 

view of the small dotted portion in FIG. 2D shows the relation between the 

LRA and NWA in relation with padding. The detailed description on this 

feature is omitted since it is the same as the description of FIG. 2B. 

Accordingly, referring to FIGs. 2A through 2D, the opened SRRs of the 

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present invention are classified into the unrecorded opened SRRs (FIGs. 2A 
and 2C) and the partially recorded opened SRRs (FIGs. 2B and 2D). The 
partially recorded opened SRRs (FIGs. 2B and 2D) can be classified into an 
opened SRR padded after the LRA, and an unpadded opened SRR. 
5 According to the present invention, the total number of opened SRRs at any 
given time is limited to a predetermined number in the write-once optical 
disc due to a difficulty in management if the number of opened SRRs is large. 
For example, the total number of the opened SRRs on the disc may be 
sixteen at most in the BD-WO of the present invention. The information on 

10 the location and the number of the opened SRRs can be referred to using a 
"list of opened SRRs" field and a "number of opened SRRs" field in a header 
of the SRRI. The "list of opened SRRs" field and the "number of opened 
SRRs" field in the SRRI header will be described later when the SRRI 
structure is discussed referring to FIGs. 5 through 6C. 

15 FIGs. 3A to 3E illustrate different types of closed SRRs for a write-once 
optical disc such as a BD-WO according to the present invention. A closed 
SRR is an SRR in which data (e.g., user data) cannot be recorded. If the 
SRR is not recordable, the SRR does not have a NWA. The closed SRR may 
be created because the SRR is fully recorded. Also, the closed SRR may be 

2 0 created because a user or host closes the SRR by a close command even 
though a recordable area remains in the SRR. 

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Particularly, FIG. 3A shows an empty SRR that is one type of a closed SRR. 
The empty SRR is an opened empty SRR (FIG. 2C) that is closed by a close 
command without any user-data recording thereto. Accordingly, FIG. 3A 
shows a closed empty SRR and FIG. 2C shows an opened empty SRR. 
5 FIG. 3B shows a partially recorded SRR that is another type of a closed SRR. 
The partially recorded SRR of FIG. 3B is the opened partially recorded SRR 
of FIG. 2D that is closed by a close command without any additional user- 
data recording thereto. Accordingly, FIG. 3B shows a closed partially 
recorded SRR and FIG. 2D shows an opened partially recorded SRR. 
10 FIG. 3C shows a complete SRR that is yet another type of a closed SRR. The 
complete SRR is an SRR in which user data are recorded fully in the SRR, or 
which is padded fully with dummy data. The complete SRR exists only 
among the closed SRRs. 

FIG. 3D shows a closed partially recorded SRR that is yet another type of a 
15 closed SRR. The partially recorded SRR of FIG. 3D is an SRR that is padded 
with dummy data in a recordable area after its LRA when closing the opened 
partially recorded SRR of FIG. 2D. Herein, all the recordable areas or only 
some recordable areas (for example, one or more clusters) of the SRR after 
its LRA or NWA may be padded with dummy data used as padding data. In 
2 0 addition, when some areas are padded, a specific character code such as 
ASCII characters may be recorded as the padding data, instead of recording 

14 

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the dummy data so as to represent that the SRR is closed. In this case, the 
specific character code to be used as the padding data can be characters 
such as "CLSD" representing that a corresponding SRR is closed. 
FIG. 3E shows an empty SRR that is another type of a closed SRR. The 
5 empty SRR of FIG. 3E is an SRR that is padded with specific dummy data in 
a recordable area after its LRA and then closed when closing the opened 
empty SRR of FIG. 2C. Herein, all the recordable areas or only some 
recordable area (for example, one or more clusters) of the SRR after its LRA 
or NWA may be padded with dummy data used as padding data. In addition, 

10 when some areas are padded, a specific character code such as ASCII 
characters may be recorded as the padding data, instead of recording the 
dummy data so as to represent that the SRR is closed. In this case, the 
specific character code to be used as the padding data can be characters 
such as "CLSD" representing that a corresponding SRR is closed. 

15 If the closed SRRs of FIGs. 3D and 3E are fully padded with dummy data up 
to the end address, the closed SRRs of FIGs. 3D and 3E are the same SRRs 
as the complete SRR described above referring to FIG. 3C. In other words, 
in the present invention, in determining the type of the closed SRR, the 
closed SRRs are defined to distinguish the case of closing the unrecorded 

2 0 remaining area(s) of the SRR without padding (FIGs. 3A and 3B) from the 
case of padding and closing the unrecorded remaining area(s) of the SRR 

15 

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(FIGs. 3D and 3E) when the opened SRR is changed into the closed SRR by 
a close command. 

Additionally, in the present invention, when closing an SRR, it is possible to 
close the SRR without padding or to close the SRR after padding with 
5 specific padding data. It is considered that the Blu-ray disc is compatible to 
a disc only for playback in the same family though SRRs or if unrecorded 
areas are padded. A recording/ playback apparatus (e.g., as shown in FIG. 
14) can selectively pad the disc so that the freedom of the design of the 
recording/ playback apparatus is further ensured. When padding the disc, a 
10 recording/ playback part (e.g., the component 10 in FIG. 14) of the 
recording/ playback apparatus can automatically record specific data, so 
that the component 10 receives specific data from a controller and can solve 
the time problem in the case of padding 

FIGs. 4A and 4B illustrate examples of padding identification information 
15 when padding dummy data respectively to a closed recorded SRR and an 
opened SRR of a write-once optical disc according to an embodiment of the 
present invention. The padding may be performed to an opened SRR when 
closing the opened SRR. But, it can also be performed to an opened SRR in 
response to a command not necessarily to close the SRR (e.g., in the cases of 
2 0 FIGs. 2B and 2D where padding is performed for terminating the sequential 
recording). That is, FIG. 4A is related to FIG. 2B or 2D, and FIG. 4B is 

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related to FIG. 3D or 3E. 

More specifically, FIG. 4A shows a case where the actual user data is 
recorded on only some areas of one cluster and the remaining areas of the 
cluster are padded with dummy data in the case of an opened SRR. FIG. 4 A 
5 shows that padding identification information "Padding_flag w for 
distinguishing a sector in which actual user data is recorded from a sector 
padded with dummy data is set as control flag in the corresponding cluster. 
There exist 32 Paddingjlags each corresponding to one of the 32 sectors of 
each cluster of an SRR. 

10 As shown in FIG. 4A, in this example, since sector 0 - sector 29 are the 
areas in which user data are recorded, the Padding_flag for each of these 
sectors is set to a certain value, e.g., "Ob," so as to indicate that no padding 
is present to the corresponding sector. On the other hand, since sector 30 
and sector 31 are the areas padded with padding data, the Padding_flag for 

15 each of these sectors is set to a value such as "lb" so as to indicate that 
padding is present in the corresponding sectors. 

In this example, the LRA represents the location (first PSN) of sector 29. 
Accordingly, the optical recording/ playback apparatus can decode a cluster 
including the LRA, read the Padding_flag corresponding to each of the 
2 0 sectors and then accurately recognize a sector padded with dummy data in 
the cluster. 

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FIG. 4B shows that a specific cluster of the recordable areas in an SRR is 
fully padded with dummy data in the case of closing the SRR. FIG. 4B 
shows that padding identification information "Padding_flag" for 
distinguishing an SRR closed without padding from an SRR closed after 
padding is set as control flag in the corresponding cluster. 

As shown in FIG. 4B, in this example, since sector 0 - sector 31 are the 
areas padded fully with dummy data, the Paddingjlag for each of these 32 
sectors is set to a certain value such as "lb*, to indicate that the 
corresponding sectors are padded. Consequently, the optical 
recording/ playback apparatus can decode a cluster having the padding 
identification information (Padding_flag) as describe above, read the 
Paddingjlag corresponding to each of the sectors and then accurately 
recognize that all the sectors in the cluster are padded with dummy data. 
In other words, FIG. 4A relates to padding for terminating the sequential 
recording on the disc whereas FIG. 4B relates to padding for closing an SRR. 
FIG. 4A shows that all the remaining sectors in the related cluster are 
padded with dummy data when the sequential recording is terminated. 
Each padding flag corresponds to each sector of the cluster, and is set to 
"lb" if the corresponding sector is padded. In the case of FIG. 4 A, padding 
occurs one sector at a time. On the other hand, in the case of FIG. 4B, one 
or more clusters (one cluster at a time) are padded when closing the SRR. 

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For one cluster padding, 32 padding flags corresponding to 32 sectors of 
that cluster are all set to "lb" to indicate the padding of that cluster as 
shown in FIG. 4B. 

FIGs. 5 through 6C illustrate a structure of SRRI and information included 
5 in the SRRI according to the present invention. 

Particularly, FIG. 5 illustrates the overall structure of an SRRI. The SRRI 
pertains to one or more SRRs and is management information providing disc 
recording status. The SRRIs are recorded in TDMA(s) (e.g., the TDMAO) in 
the optical disc structure of FIGs. 1 and 5. As shown in FIG. 5, each SRRI 

10 60 in a TDMA is composed of three parts: a header 50, a list of SRR entries 
30 and an SRR list terminator 40. The header 50 identifies the SRRI. The 
list of SRR entries 30 represents the recording status of each of the 
corresponding SRRs. The SRR list terminator 40 represents an end or 
termination of the SRRI. 

15 The header 50 is located at a header in the SRRI and includes an "SRRI 
structure identifier" field 51, a "List of opened SRRs" field 52, a "Number of 
SRR entries" field 53 and a "Number of opened SRRs" field 54, so that the 
overall SRR entry contents can be checked before the SRR entry list is read. 
Herein, the "SRRI structure identifier" field 51 identifies the SRRI. The "List 

2 0 of opened SRRs" field 52 informs of the location (identification) of the opened 
SRRs associated with the corresponding SRRI and will be described later in 

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more detail referring to FIG. 6C. The "Number of SRR entries" field 53 
represents the total number of all SRRs associated with the SRRI 60. The 
"Number of opened SRRs" field 54 represents the total number of opened 
SRRs. 

After the header 50, the list of SRR entries (or the SRR entry list) 50 is 
recorded in the SRRI. After the last SRR entry, the end of the SRRI is 
marked with the SRR list terminator 40. The SRR list terminator 40 is 
meaningful as information indicating an end location of the corresponding 
SRRI if the SRRI has a variable size. 

Accordingly, as disc management information, the SRRI is composed of the 
header 50, the SRR entry list 30 and the SRR list terminator 40. All such 
information is recorded in batch whenever it is updated. 

FIG. 6A illustrates an example of the SRR entry list 30 recorded in an SRRI 
according to the present invention. As shown in FIG. 6A, the SRR entry list 
30 is composed of one or more SRR entries 35. Each of the SRR entries 35 
carries information on one SRR (identified by the SRR number) on the disc, 
has a size of eight bytes (64 bits) and represents the recording status of the 
corresponding SRR. Each SRR entry 35 includes a status field 31 (Status 1) 
for storing the status of the corresponding SRR, a start address field 32 for 
storing a start address of the corresponding SRR, another status field 33 
(Status 2) for storing the status of the corresponding SRR, and a last 

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recorded address (LRA) field 34 for storing the LRA of the corresponding SRR 
(i.e., the end address of the user data stored in the SRR). Generally, the 
start address of the corresponding SRR in the start address field 32 is 
represented as a physical sector number (PSN). 
5 According to an embodiment, the first 4 most significant bits (b63-b60) 
among the 64 bits of the SRR entry 35 are allocated to the first status field 
31, the next 28 bits (b59-b32) of the SRR entiy 35 are allocated to the start 
address field 32, the next 4 bits (b31-b28) of the SRR entiy 35 are allocated 
to the second status field 33, and the last 28 bits (b27-b0) of the SRR entry 

10 35 are allocated to the LRA field 34. 

FIG. 6B illustrates an example of the SRR entry 35 recorded in the SRR 
entry list 30 according to the present invention. The Status 1 field 31 is 
used to store information identifying whether or not any padding is 
performed in the corresponding SRR. The Status 2 field 33 is used to store 

15 information identifying whether or not the corresponding SRR is the start of 
a session. 

As shown in FIG. 6B, out of the 4 heading bits allocated to the Status 1 field 
31, one bit is used to store a padding identification information "P_flag" 
identifying whether or not the SRR has been padded with padding data. The 
2 0 other three bits of the 4 heading bits are reserved for any change of 
regulation. 

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It should be noted that the padding identification information "P_flag" 
recorded in the SRR entry is similar to the padding identification 
information "Padding_flag" described referring to FIGs. 4A and 4B. However, 
they have different objects. If a specific SRR is finally padded, the P_flag is 
recorded in the SRR entry to directly represent that the corresponding SRR 
is a padded SRR. Accordingly, the optical recording/ playback apparatus 
(FIG. 12) can easily check whether or not the corresponding SRR is padded 
by examining the P_flag recorded as management information in the SRR 
entry. After that, the optical recording/ playback apparatus decodes the 
corresponding cluster (SRR) described above referring to FIGs. 4A and 4B 
and reads from the cluster the value of the Padding_flag corresponding to 
each sector of the SRR, so that the optical recording/ playback apparatus is 
able to determine how much of the SRR is padded after its LRA. 
In the example of FIG. 6B, the first bit (31a) of the Status 1 field 31 carries 
the P-flag and the remaining 3 bits (31b) of the field 31 are reserved. If P_flag 
= lb, it means that the corresponding SRR is a padded SRR (i.e., the SRR 
has at least some portion that is padded with padding data). If P_flag = Ob, 
it means that the corresponding SRR is an unpadded SRR. 
The Status 2 field 33, which is allocated with 4 bits, carries information on 
whether or not the corresponding SRR is the session start SRR. One bit of 
the four-bit field 33 carries a session identification information "S_flag" 

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identifying whether or not the corresponding SRR is a start SRR of a session. 
The other three bits of the field 33 are reserved for any change of regulation. 
In the example, the first bit (33a) of the four-bit field 33 stores the S-flag and 
the remaining 3 bits (33b) are reserved. If S_flag = lb, it means that the 
5 corresponding SRR is a start SRR of a session. If S_flag = Ob, it means that 
the corresponding SRR is not a start SRR of a session. 

One reason for identifying a start of a session through the S_flag is to 
provide compatibility with existing disc structures such as DVDs that 
allocate additional area (for example, border-in/ border-out) to distinguish 

10 sessions. However, allocation of the additional area reduces the entire 
recording capacity of the disc. As such, the present invention overcomes 
this limitation by providing the session identification information (S_flag) in 
the SRR entry 35. Accordingly, the session structure of the entire disc can 
be easily recognized using the session identification information SJIag in 

15 the SRR entry 35 without having to allocate additional areas to store such 
session distinguishing information. 

For the convenience of description of the present invention, the PJfrag and 
the S_Jlag are depicted as separate status information stored in separate 
status fields of an SRR entry, but they can be stored together in one status 
2 0 field of the SRR entry. 

The LRA field 34 of the SRR entry 35 is a field for recording an end address 

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(LRA) of user data recorded in the corresponding SRR and stores an end 
address of the user data (excluding any padding data) recorded in the 
corresponding SRR 

FIG. 6C illustrates a detailed structure of the "List of opened SRRs" field 52 
5 of the SRRI in FIG. 5 according to an embodiment of the present invention. 
The information stored in the field 52 is used to determine the 
location/identification of each opened SRR. As shown in FIG. 6C, one or 
more opened SRR numbers are recoded in the "List of opened SRRs" field 52 
as location information of the opened SRRs. Two bytes are allocated to 

1 0 record an opened SRR number identifying a particular SRR. 

In the present invention, if there are at most sixteen opened SRRs on the 
disc, the location (identification) of the corresponding opened SRRs (and 
thus the opened SRR entries) is recorded through each opened SRR number. 
Accordingly, when loading an optical disc having the disc structure of the 

15 present invention, the recording/ playback apparatus can determine the 
location of recordable areas (NWA) of the disc based on the opened SRR 
information of the present invention. In other words, the location of the 
opened SRR on the current disc should be known to record data. Since the 
information identifying whether a corresponding SRR is an opened SRR or a 

2 0 closed SRR is not provided specifically in the SRR entry, the 
identification/ location of the opened SRR is recorded in the header of the 

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SRRI and can be accessed easily, so that the optical recording/ playback 
apparatus is able to easily read the SRR entry associated with the identified 
opened SRR. 

Accordingly, only the SRR having the SRR number recorded on the "List of 
5 opened SRRs" field 52 is additionally recordable as an opened SRR. After 
that, if the SRR is changed into a closed SRR, the SRR number of the closed 
SRR is removed from the "List of opened SRRs" field 52 so that it is possible 
to easily distinguish the opened SRR from the closed SRR. 
A method for updating the SRRI representing the disc recording status 
10 according to the present invention will be now described. Particularly, a 
method of opening and closing SRRs and sessions, padding an SRR with 
dummy data and recording SRRIs will be described referring to FIGS. 7A- 
11B. 

FIGs. 7A through 11B illustrate sequentially a method of recording SRRI 
15 according to the disc recording status in the write-once optical disc of the 
present invention. More specifically, FIGs. 7A through 11B show 
sequentially how the different types of SRRs (shown in FIGs. 2A through 3E) 
on the disc are created and how to record the SRRI using the sequential 
steps performed according a time flow. These methods are implemented on 
2 0 the write-once optical disc such as BD-WO having the SRR, the SRRI and 
the disc structure as discussed herein in connection with FIGs. 1-6C. 

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FIG. 7 A shows Step 1 in which the entire area of the disc is recordable as an 
initial black disc and a portion designated by a thick arrow indicates the 
NWA location. The start location of the disc is the NWA. Herein, only one 
SRR (SRR #1) exists on the disc. This is the invisible SRR shown in FIG. 2A. 
5 Accordingly, a session is in the initial state of the disc wherein only one 
opened session #1 exists. The disc is a blank disc and the SRRI is not yet 
recorded on the disc. A session is an upper-level recording-unit compared to 
the lower-level recording-unit such as an SRR, and includes at least one 
SRR. A plurality of sessions can be recorded on the disc and such a disc is 

10 called a multi-session disc. 

FIG. 7B shows Step 2 in which data (e.g., user data) are partially recorded 
on the blank disc of FIG. 7 A, but the session #1 is not yet closed. Herein, 
only one SRR (SRR #1) exists on the disc, which is the incomplete SRR 
shown in FIG. 2B. The session #1 is maintained as the opened session. As 

15 shown in FIG. 7B, the user data is recorded in a portion of the incomplete 
SRR #1 and an unrecorded portion (e.g., sector(s)) of the SRR #1 (cluster) is 
padded with dummy data. As described above, the padded sector of the 
SRR is indicated with "Padding_flag - lb" which is recorded in a designated 
area of the cluster, e.g., within the padded sector of the cluster/ SRR #1. 
2 0 FIG. 7C illustrates a process of recording an SRRI in the management area 
of the disc when the disc is in the state of FIG. 7B. For the convenience of 

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explanation, only certain portions among all the different components of the 
disc structure and SRRI structure shown in FIGs. 1 and 5 are shown. For 
instance, although the (SRRI + TDDS) or (TDFL + TDDS) are recorded in 
each cluster of the TDMA such as the TDMAO of the disc as discussed above, 
5 only the SRRI is shown in the TDMAO of FIG. 7C, and the TDFL and/or 
TDDS is omitted for the sake of clarity. Further, only the "List of opened 
SRRs" field 52 and the "List of SRR entries" field 30 among the different 
fields of the SRRI shown in FIG. 5 are shown. 

The disc recording status of FIG. 7C is the case where only one opened SRR 
10 (SRR #1) is present in all the disc area as in FIG. 7B. As shown in FIG. 7C, 
when the incomplete SRR #1 is formed without closing the session as in FIG. 
7B, the SRRI #1 (60a) pertaining to the SRR #1 is generated and recorded in 
the TDMAO. In the SRRI #1 (60a), the SRR number (SRR #1) of the opened 
SRR #1 is recorded in its "List of opened SRRs" field 52a. In the "List of SRR 
15 entries" field 30a of the SRRI #1 (60a), only one SRR entry 35a pertaining to 
the SRR #1 is present. The SRR entry 35a (or SRR entries 35b-35p 
discussed later) has the SRR entry structure of FIGs. 6A and 6B discussed 
above. 

In the SRR entry 35a, since some portions of the SRR #1 are padded finally, 
2 0 the P_flag is set to "lb" as the status information of the corresponding SRR 
#1. Since the SRR #1 is the start SRR of the opened session #1, the S_flag 

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is set to "lb" as the status information of the corresponding SRR #1. 
FIG. 8A shows Step 3 in which a session close command is received and 
executed at Step 2 of FIG. 7B. In response to the session close command, 
the area on which user data is recorded is separated into an independent 
closed SRR and a new session is created at the area following the user data 
recorded area. For instance, as shown in FIG. 8A, the portion of the area 
that is recorded fully with the user data at Step 2 becomes the complete 
SRR #1 (closed SRR) which in turn forms the closed session #1. In addition, 
the unrecorded area becomes an invisible SRR #2 (opened SRR) which in 
turn forms an opened session #2 at the same time. 

FIG. 8B illustrates a process of recording the disc recording status (SRRI) as 
it pertains to the disc state as of FIG. 8A. Since the SRRI is a second 
recorded SRRI, this SRRI is named SRRI #2 (60b). The SRRI #2 (60b) is 
recorded next to the SRRI #1 (60a) in the TDM AO. For recording the status 
of the disc of FIG. 8A, since the entire area of the disc has only one opened 
SRR (SRR #2) and only one closed SRR (SRR #1), the SRR number of the 
opened SRR #2 is recorded in the "List of opened SRRs" field 52b of the SRRI 
#2, and information on the SRRs #1 and #2 is recorded in the "List of SRR 
entries" field 30b of the SRRI #2 respectively as SRR entries 35b and 35c. 
The SRR entry (e.g., 35b) shadowed in FIG. 8B (and in other figures) 
indicates that it is a closed SRR entry. Accordingly, since user data is not 

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yet recorded in the newly created SRR #2, the P_flag of the SRR #2 entry 
(35c) is set to "Ob". Since the SRR #2 is the start SRR of the opened session 
#2, the S_flag of the SRR #2 entry (35c) is set to "lb*. 

FIG. 9A shows Step 4 in which two opened SRRs are additionally reserved to 
5 newly record data when the disc is in the state of FIG. 8A. Accordingly, the 
newly created opened SRRs are opened empty SRRs #2 and #3 and have 
NWAs indicated by thick arrows. As a result, the opened session #2 is 
composed of the empty SRRs #2 and #3 and an invisible SRR #4. 
FIG. 9B illustrates a process of recording the disc recording status (SRRI) as 

10 it pertains to the disc state as of FIG. 9A. Since the SRRI is a third recorded 
SRRI, the SRRI is named SRRI #3 (60c). The SRRI #3 (60c) is recorded 
adjacent to the SRRI #2 (60b) in the TDMA0. For recording the status of the 
disc of FIG. 9A, since the entire area of the disc has three opened SRRs 
(SRRs #2, #3 and #4) and one closed SRR (SRR #1), the SRR numbers (SRRs 

15 #2, #3 and #4) of the opened SRRs are recorded in the "List of opened SRRs" 
field 52c of the SRRI #3. Information on all four SRRs (SRRs #1 - #4) is 
recorded in the "List of SRR entries" field 30c of the SRRI #3 respectively as 
SRR entries 35d-35g. 

Accordingly, since information on the newly created SRR #2, #3 and #4 is 
2 0 recorded in the SRRI #3 (60c) and user data is not yet recorded on the SRRs 
#2, #3 and #4, the P_flags of the corresponding SRR entries 35e, 35f, 35g 

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are set to "lb". However, since the SRRs #3 and #4 are not the start SRR of 
the opened session #2, but the SRR #2 is the session start SRR, the S_flags 
of the SRR #2 entry 35e, the SRR #3 entry 35f and the SRR #4 entry 35g are 
set respectively to "lb", "Ob" and "Ob". 

FIG. 10A shows Step 5 in which user data is recorded in the empty SRR #2 
and in the invisible SRR #4 of FIG. 9A. Accordingly, the first empty SRR #2 
is changed into a partially recorded SRR #2, and the invisible SRR #4 is 
changed into an incomplete SRR #4, but the opened empty SRR #3 is not 
changed. The SRR #2 is recorded with user data without padding. The SRR 
#4 is recorded with user data and is also padded with padding data. In the 
padded sector of the SRR #4, the Padding_flag is set to "lb". 
FIG. 10B illustrates a process of recording the disc recording status (SRRI) 
as it pertains to the disc state as of FIG. 10A. Since the SRRI is a fourth 
recorded SRRI, the SRRI is named SRRI #4 (60d). The SRRI #4 (60d) is 
recorded next to the SRRI #3 (60c). For recording the status of the disc of 
FIG. 10A, since the entire area of the disc has three opened SRRs (SRRs #2 - 
#4) and one closed SRR (SRR #1), the SRR numbers of the opened SRRs 
(SRRs #2 - #4) are recorded in the "List of opened SRRs" field 52d of the 
SRRI #4 (60d). Information on all four SRRs (SRRs #1 - #4) is recorded in 
the "List of SRR entries" field 30d of the SRRI #4 (60d) respectively as SRR 
entries 35h-35k. 

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At this step, the number of the SRR entries and the location of the opened 
SRRs are the same as those shown in FIG 9B, but since user data is 
recorded on a specific opened SRR, the LRA of the recorded opened SRR 
entiy is changed and the value of the P_flag is also changed. In other words, 
5 information on the recorded SRRs #2 and #4 is updated. Since the SRR #2 
is recorded with user data without padding, the P__flag of the SRR #2 entiy 
35i is maintained to be "Ob". Since the SRR #4 is recorded with user data 
and is padded, the P_flag of the SRR #4 entiy 35k is changed to be "lb". 
FIG. 11A shows Step 6 in which a session close command is received and 

10 executed when the disc is in the state of FIG. 10A. As shown in FIG. 11 A, 
the additionally recordable portion of the opened SRR or a part of the 
additionally recordable portion of the opened SRR is padded with dummy 
data before the opened SRR is closed. As described above, the padding 
operation is an optional feature. In addition, when the padding is performed, 

15 specific data (for example, "CLSD" as character code) may be recordable as 
the padding data as described above. 

The SRRs #2, #3 and #4 that were previously opened SRRs are changed into 
a closed partially recorded SRR #2, a closed empty SRR #3 and a complete 
SRR #4, which in turn form the closed session #2. In the SRRs #2 and #3, 
2 0 an additionally recordable area remains but is changed into a closed SRR by 
a close command. Herein, some portion is alternatively padded with dummy 

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data. Accordingly, all the sectors in the cluster/ SRR (e.g. FIG. 4B) padded 
with dummy data are set with Padding_flag = lb. However, even in this case, 
LRA recorded in the SRR entry means an end location where the user data 
are actually recorded. Dummy data portion does not affect the 
determination of the LRA location as described above. A remaining 
outermost SRR #5 is an invisible SRR #5, which in turn forms a new opened 
session #3. 

FIG. 11B illustrates a process of recording the disc recording status (SRRI) 
as it pertains to the disc state as of FIG. 1 1A. Since the SRRI is a fifth 
recorded SRRI in the management area, the SRRI is named SRRI #5 (60e). 
The SRRI #5 (60e) is recorded next to the SRRI #5 (60d) in the TDM AO. For 
recording the status of the disc of FIG. 1 1A, since the entire area of the disc 
has one opened SRR (SRR #5) and four closed SRRs (SRRs #1 - #4), the SRR 
number of the opened SRR (SRR #5) is recorded in the "List of opened SRRs" 
field 52e of the SRRI #5, and all the previous opened SRR numbers (for 
example, SRRs #2, #3 and #4 in FIG. 10B) recorded in the SRRI #4 are 
removed from the current opened SRR list 52e. Removal of the SRRs from 
the "List of opened SRRs" field means that such SRRs are closed. 
Information on all five SRRs (SRRs #1 - #5) is recorded in the "List of SRR 
entries" field 30e of the SRRI #5 respectively as SRR entries 351-35p. 
Since the SRRs #2 and #3 are padded with dummy data in response to the 

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close command, the Pjlags of the SRR #2 entiy 35m and the SRR #3 entry 
35n are changed to "lb" to indicate that at least a part of the corresponding 
SRR is padded with padding data. Since the LRA of an SRR entry is an end 
location where the user data is actually recorded, the LRAs of the SRRs #2 - 
#4 have the same value as the previous LRAs recorded in the SRRI #4 (60d). 
In addition, since user data is not yet recorded on the newly created 
invisible SRR #5, the PJlag of the SRR #5 entry 35p is set to be "Ob". Since 
the SRR #5 is a start SRR of the new session #3, the S_flag of the SRR #5 
entry 35p is set to be "lb". 

As can be seen through FIGs. 7A to 11B, SRRI is the information 
indicating the recording status of the current disc. When loading the 
optical disc of the present invention into the recording/ playback 
apparatus, the recording/ playback apparatus should check the latest 
SRRI (SRRI #5, in the above example) finally recorded in the 
management area. Since only the latest SRRI correctly indicates the 
final recording status of the disc, it is possible to check the location of 
the additionally recorded SRR. 

However, when the power is suddenly turned off while using the disc 
or the disc is damaged, the latest SRRI of the disc may not be read out 
correctly. At this time, the final recording status need to be 
reconstructed using the latest SRRI among the non-damaged SRRIs. 

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According to the present invention, the SRR is padded in the padding 
operation when the SRR is to be closed, and this padding information 
can be used to reconstruct the final recording status of the disc even 
when the latest SRRI on the disc is at a damaged condition. Through 
5 it, it is possible to recover the latest SRRI and the current recording 

status of the disc. 

FIGs. 12, 13A and 13B illustrate a method of recording data on a 
write-once optical disc according to the present invention. This 
method estimates the final recording status of the disc, recovers the 
10 latest SRRI of the disc even when the latest SRRI is damaged. The 

recording/ playing back can be performed using the final recording 
status obtained from the latest SRRI. 

When the corresponding SRRI is judged as a defective area and the 
recorded information is not reliable, the SRRI is said to be damaged. 
15 If the latest SRRI is damaged, it means that the final recording status 

of the disc cannot be obtained from the latest SRRI. Therefore, the 
recordable location of the disc cannot be known. In the worst case, 
the disc itself cannot be used any more. 

The present invention provides the method of correctly recovering the 
2 0 final recording status of the disc when the latest SRRI is damaged. 

Particularly, FIG. 12 is a flowchart illustrating a method of recovering 

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the final recording status of a write-once optical disc such as a BD- 
WO and performing the recording/ playback operation on the disc 
according to an embodiment of the present invention. The disc 
contains the disc structure and the SRRI structure as discussed above. 
5 Referring to FIG. 12, if the disc is loaded in an optical 

recording/ playback apparatus such one shown in FIG. 14, the latest 
SRRI recorded within the management area (e.g., the TDMAO) is read 
. out. Then, it is checked whether or not the read SRRI is damaged 
(S10). 

10 If the latest SRRI is not damaged, the final disc recording status is 

obtained from the latest SRRI (S21). Then using the latest SRRI, the 
recording is performed to only the additionally recordable area and/ or 
the playback operation is performed to the already recorded area (S22). 
The information on such areas is obtained from the latest SRRI. 

15 On the other hand, if the step S10 determines that the latest SRRI is 

damaged, the latest SRRI among the non-damaged SRRI(s) is 
determined (S31). Then this latest non-damaged SRRI is read out 
(S32). The damaged SRRI can be recovered using the latest non- 
damaged SRRI and the actual recording status of the disc (S33). Step 

2 0 S33 may be an optional step- The recording is performed to the 

additionally recorded area and/ or the playback operation is performed 

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to the already recorded area (S34). Information on such areas can be 
determined from the latest non-damaged SRRI and /or the actual 
recording status of the disc. After the recording/ playback step S34, 
the newly changed recording status may be recorded as a new SRRI in 
the management area. 

FIGs. 13A and 13B illustrates an example of the step S33 in FIG. 12 of 
recovering the final recording status when the latest SRRI (SRRI #5 in 
the example of FIG. 11B) is damaged. For the convenience of 
explanation, the SRRI recording method of FIGs. 7 A to 11B will be 
described as an example. 

As shown in FIG. 13A, if the SRRIs are in the normal status, the SRRI 
#5 (60e) becomes the latest SRRI of the disc. However, if the SRRI #5 
is damaged, the recording/ playback apparatus reads the latest SRRI 
among the non-damaged SRRIs. In the example, the SRRI #4 (60d) is 
the latest SRRI among the non-damaged SRRIs #1 - #4. 
The actual recording status associated with Step 6 in FIG. 1 1A can be 
determined from the SRRI #5 (60e) which is written as indicated in 
FIG. 11B. However, since the SRRI #5 (60e) is damaged, the latest 
SRR information that can be checked by the recording/ playback 
apparatus is the SRRI #4 (60d). But the SRRI #4 does not necessarily 
carry the final recording status of the disc since the SRRI #5 carries 

36 

2005024792A2 l_> 



WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

this information. Then, in order to recover the final recording status 
of the disc without using the SRRI #5, the SRRI #4 and the actual 
final recording status of the disc need to be compared. This can be 
accomplished as follows. 
5 The recording/ playback apparatus (e.g., FIG. 14) checks the location 

of the opened SRR(s) and the associated LRA information from the 
SRRI #4. In the example of FIG. 13A, it is determined from the "List of 
opened SRRs" field 52d of the SRRI #4 (60d) that there are three 
opened SRRs #2, #3 and #4. Then by accessing the LRA field of these 

10 SRR entries corresponding to these opened SRRs from the "List of SRR 

entries" field 30d of the SRRI #4 (60d), the LRAs are obtained and 
used to verify whether the corresponding SRR is truly an opened SRR. 
In this regard, only the opened SRR(s) identified in the field 52d of the 
SRRI #4 (60d) are examined. The location recorded with the closed 

15 SRR(s) may not be verified. Once an opened SRR is changed to a 

closed SRR, the closed SRR cannot be changed back to an opened 
SRR. As a result, the recovery of the final SRR information is possible 
by checking whether, each of the opened SRR(s) is changed to the 
closed SRR. 

2 0 In the case of the SRRs #2 and #3 that are identified as the opened 

SRRs in the field 52d of the SRRI #4 (60d), each of the SRRs #2 and 

37 

BNSDOC1D: <WO 2005024792A2 I > 



WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

#3 is examined to determine whether or not predetermined padding 
data (e.g., dummy data) are recorded after its LRA (identified in the 
LRA field of the entry), as can be seen from FIG. 11A (actual final disc 
recording status). If the padding is detected, then the 
recording/ playback apparatus determines that the corresponding 
opened SRR is changed to a closed SRR. 

In the case of the SRR #4 that is recognized as the opened SRR from 
the field 52d of the SRRI #4, the recording/ playback apparatus 
examines the SRR #4 to determine whether or not the padding data 
(e.g., dummy data) are presented after its LRA location in FIG. 11A 
(actual final disc recording status). The SRR #4 can be analyzed as 
the opened SRR in the actual final disc recording status. Also, it can 
be seen that an area after the LRA location of the SRR #4 is recordable, 
i.e., this area is the NWA. Then in the recording/ playback apparatus, 
the already recorded area of the original SRR #4 is determined to a 
closed SRR (new closed SRR #4) and only the recordable area of the 
original SRR #4 is analyzed as the opened SRR (new SRR #5). Thus 
the contents of the damaged SRRI #5 can be reconstructed by using 
the above analysis results. Moreover, since the information necessary 
to perform the recording operation by the recording/ playback 
apparatus is the additionally recordable position information (NWA), 

38 

2005024792A2_I_> 



WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

the NWA location in association with the old and new SRR #4 is not 
changed and thus can be used by the recording/ playback apparatus. 
FIG. 13B illustrates a result of the recovery of the latest SRRI #5 by 
the process of FIG. 13A as discussed above. This result accords with 
5 the final recording status of the actual disc. Accordingly, the 

recording/ playback apparatus again records the selectively recovered 
latest SRRI #5 within the management area (at this time, as the SRRI 
#6 (60f)), or performs the recording to only the additionally recordable 
area. The SRRI #6 (60f) includes the "List of opened SRRs* field 52f 

10 identifying the SRR #5, and the "List of SRR entries" field 30f 

containing SRR entries 35q~35u corresponding respectively to the 
SRRs #1 - #5. Also, even, if the recovered SRRI #5 is not recorded as 
the SRRI #6, data recording is performed from the recovered NWA 
information and the recording status as changed by the data 

15 recording to the recovered NWA is recorded as a new SRRI #6. 

FIG. 14 illustrates an optical disc recording/ playback apparatus 
according to the present invention. This apparatus or other suitable 
apparatus or system can be used to implement the disc and/ or SRRI 
structures and methods of the present invention discussed herein. 

2 0 Referring to FIG. 14, the optical disc recording/ playback apparatus 

includes a recording/ playback unit 10 for recording and/ or 

39 



BNSDOCID: <WO_ 2005024792A2 . 1 . 



WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

reproducing data to /from the optical disc and a controller 20 for 
controlling the recording/ playback unit 10. All the elements of the 
recording/ playback apparatus are operatively coupled. The controller 
20 transmits a command for recording and/or reproducing to/from a 
5 special recording , area such as an SRR/session on the disc, to the 

recording/ playback unit 10. The recording/ playback unit 10 records 
and/ or reproduces data to/from the disc according to the commands 
of the controller 20. 



1 0 Industrial Applicability 

The recording/ playback unit 10 includes an interface unit 12, a pick- 
up unit 11, a data processor 13, a servo unit 14, a memory 15 and a 
microcomputer 16. The interface unit 12 communicates with external 
devices such as the controller 20. The pick-up unit 11 records or 

15 reproduces data to/from the optical disc directly. The data processor 

13 receives a reproduction signal from the pick-up unit 11, restores a 
preferred signal, modulates a signal proper to the optical disc, and 
transmits the signal. The servo unit 14 controls the pick-up unit 11 
to read the signal from the optical disc or to record the signal to the 

20 optical disc. The memory 15 stores temporarily data and various 

information including management information as discussed herein. 

40 

BNSDOCID:<WO 2005024792A2_ I > 



WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

The microcomputer 16 controls the components of the 
recording/ playback unit 10. Since the recording/ playback apparatus 
shown in FIG. 14 can selectively perform a padding operation, a 
designer can more freely design the recording/ playback apparatus. 
5 The recording/ playback unit 10 can automatically store specific data 

during a padding operation. 

The method of recording and playing back data on an optical disc 
is classified into two kinds. The first one is the case of FIGs. 4A 
through 11B, which involves the method of completely recording 
10 data on an opened SRR, forcedly padding the remaining sector(s) 

in the cluster including the LRA, and recording information 
identifying whether or not padding has been performed to the 
remaining sector(s), or determining whether or not to pad the 
cluster and recording padding identification information according 
15 to the padding when closing an SRR. 

The second one is the method of effectively recovering a damaged 
SRRI using the padding information of FIGs. 12-13B. When 
closing an SRR, padding the SRR is optionally performed. 
However, if the padding is performed to the SRR and then the SRR 
is closed, then this padding information can be used 



20 



advantageously to recover data. 

41 



BNSDOCID: <WO_._ 2005024792A2_I_> 



mvtz-i 1)1 PCT/KR2004/002209 

The first recording/ playback method of the optical disc according 
to an embodiment of the present invention will be described in 
detail. When the optical disc such as a BD-WO is loaded into the 
recording/ playback apparatus such as the one shown in FIG. 12, 
the latest SRRI is read as the latest disc management information 
recorded in a TDM A. Furthermore, the SRRI header and the SRR 
entry(ies) recorded in the latest SRRI are read and temporarily 
stored in the memory 15 of the recording/ playback unit 10. 
The stored SRRI represents the latest disc recording status. The 
opened SRR(s). can be identified through the SRRI header 
information. Through the SRR entry(ies), data can be recorded in 
the entire area of the disc or the existence and location of the non- 
recording status and opened session can be checked. Also, it can 
be identified whether or not the SRR has been padded with 
padding data. All such information can be used when the optical 
disc is recorded and played back. 

Then, data (e.g., user data) is recorded on a specific opened SRR. 
When the data is completely recorded in the opened SRR, the 
unrecorded sector(s) in the cluster including the LRA is padded 
with dummy data (e.g., for stability and robust reasons) and the 
padding identification information Padding_flag is set to "lb". For 

42 



2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

each of the padded sectors, Paddingjlag corresponding to each 
sector is set to "lb". If the sector is not padded, then the 
corresponding PaddingjQag is set to "0b'\ Also, when the SRR 
entry in the SRRI is updated, the SRR status information P_flag is 
set to "lb" to indicate that the corresponding SRR has at least 
some part that is padded. 

Additionally, even in the case where the SRR is closed by a close 
command of the controller 20, the microcomputer 16 can select 
whether a recordable area (for example, one cluster) closed after 
padding or without padding. In the above case, a designer can 
design so that the recording/ playback unit 10 automatically pads 
the SRR with padding data and closes the SRR unconditionally 
without a padding command from the controller 20. The above 
function is called "automatic padding function" by the 
recording/ playback unit 10. The automatic padding function is 
more advantageous to reduce padding operation time, compared to 
the case where the recording/ playback unit 10 receives dummy 
data by a padding command and pads the SRR thereafter. 
In addition, if the SRR status is changed by padding as described 
above, the Padding_flag is set to lb according to each padded 
sector. Furthermore, the P_flag is set to lb in the corresponding 

43 



2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

SRR entry. Different recording/ playback apparatuses can use 
such information. 

Accordingly, the types and definitions of the SRRs as defined by 
the present invention and a method of recording the SRRI 
according to the defined SRR types and definitions, are provided. 
Accordingly, various recording/ playback apparatuses having 
desired functions can be used to access the present disc. 
In addition, the second method for recording and playing back 
data by recovering the optical disc will be described. When an 
optical disc is loaded into the recording/ playback apparatus, the 
microcomputer 16 controls the pickup unit 11 to read the latest 
SRRI recorded in the set management area such as TDMA of the 
corresponding disc. The microcomputer 16 determines whether 
the latest SRRI is damaged. If it is determined that the latest SRRI 
is damaged, the latest SRRI is estimated and recovered from non- 
damaged SRRIs as described above referring to FIGs. 12, 13A and 
13B. When the opened SRR is changed into the closed SRR by a 
close command, the dummy data with which the disc is padded is 
checked, so that the latest SRRI can be recovered as described 
above. 

If the recovered latest SRRI or the original latest SRRI is not 



2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

damaged, the recording/ playback unit 10 checks the location of 
the additionally recordable opened SRR based on the 
corresponding latest SRRI, records data, receives a close command 
of the controller 20, pads some portion (or entire area) of an 
additionally recordable area remaining in the opened SRR with 
dummy data, and represents that the SRR is changed to a closed 
SRR. The changed disc recording status is recorded as a new 
(latest) SRRI in a management area. After that, when the 
corresponding optical disc is loaded again, the final disc recording 
status can be exactly checked from the latest SRRI. 
The method for recording management information of the write- 
once optical disc according to the present invention includes 
defining new SRR types and session types. If an open SRR is 
padded or if the SRR is closed by padding, padding identification 
information Padding_flag is set appropriately and recorded in the 
padded area. Other padding identification information Pjflag is 
recorded in the SRR entry. Consequently, in the write-once optical 
disc having the new physical structure, the management 
information can be effectively recorded and managed. When the 
SRR is closed after padding, the padding information can be used 
to recover the damaged SRRI. 



WO 2005/024792 



PCT/KR2004/002209 



Claims 

1. A method for recording management information on a recording 
medium including a sequential recording-unit composed of at least 
one basic recording-unit, the at least one basic recording-unit 
composed of a plurality of sectors, the method comprising: 
recording user data sequentially from a writable location in the 
sequential recording-unit in the direction of increasing address; 
padding, with padding data, remaining unrecorded sectors of a last 
basic recording-unit when a last recorded location of the last basic 
recording-unit does not match with a boundary of the last basic 
recording-unit; and 

recording padding identification information identifying which part of 
the at least one basic recording-unit is padded, the padding 
identification information being composed of a plurality of padding 
flags, each of the padding flags pertaining to each of the sectors. 

2. The method of claim 1, the method further comprising: 
removing a sequential recording-unit identity from an opened 
sequential recording-unit information when the sequential recording- 

47 

2005024792A2 I > 



WO 2005/024792 

unit is closed. 



PCT/KR2004/002209 



3. The method of claim 2, the method further comprising: 
padding, with the padding data, one or more basic recording-units 
from the new writable location; and 

recording the padding identification information to indicate that one 
or more basic recording-units are padded. 

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the writable location in the 
sequential recording-unit is moved to a new writable location, the new 
writable location being a first sector of an available adjacent basic 
recording-unit. 

5. A method for recording management information on a recording 
medium including at least one recording-unit, the method comprising: 
sequentially recording data in the at least one recording-unit in the 
direction of increasing address; 

padding, with padding data, a remaining non-recorded part of a last 
recording-unit when terminating the sequential recording of the data; 
and 

48 



2005024792A2 I > 



WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

recording padding identification information on the recording medium, 
the padding identification information identifying which part of the at 
least one recording-unit is padded. 



6. The method of claim 5, wherein each recording-unit is a cluster, 
and in the padding step, all remaining non-recorded sectors of the last 
cluster are padded with the padding data. 



7. The method of claim 6, wherein in the recording step, the 
1 o padding identification information includes a plurality of padding flags 

each assigned to a sector of the cluster, and the padding flags are set 
to a certain value depending on whether or not the assigned sector is 
padded. 



15 8. The method of claim 6, wherein in the padding step, the 

padding occurs one sector at a time. 



9. The method of claim 7, wherein each cluster is composed of 32 
sectors, such that there are 32 padding flags corresponding 
2 0 respectively to 32 sectors of the cluster. 



49 



BNSDOCID: <WO 2005024792A2_I_> 



WO 2005/024792 



PCT/KR2004/002209 



10. The method of claim 5, wherein the padding, identification 
information is recorded in a management area of the recording 
medium. 

11. The method of claim 5, wherein in the padding step, the 
padding data is zero. 

12. A method for recording management information on a recording 
medium including at least one sequential recording range (SRR), each 
SRR being composed of at least one cluster, the method comprising: 
recording user data in an SRR; and 

padding, with padding data, a remaining non-recorded area of a last 
cluster in the SRR when terminating the recording of the user data. 

13. The method of claim 12, wherein in the padding step, the 
padding data is zero. 

14. The method of claim 12, wherein in the padding step, all 
2 0 remaining non-recorded sectors of the last cluster are padded with the 

50 

BNSDOCID: <WO ___„ 2005024792A2.. \_> 



10 



15 



WO 2005/024792 

padding data. 



PCT/KR2004/002209 



15. A recording medium comprising: 

a sequential recording-unit composed of at least one basic recording- 
unit, the at least one basic recording-unit composed of a plurality of 
sectors; 

user data sequentially recorded from a writable location in the 
sequential recording-unit in the direction of increasing address; 
padding data recorded in remaining unrecorded sectors of a last basic 
recording-unit when a last recorded location of the last basic 
recording-unit does not match with a boundary of the last basic 
recording-unit; and 

padding identification information identifying which part of the at 
least one basic recording-unit is padded, the padding identification 
information being composed of a plurality of padding flags, each of the 
padding flags pertaining to each of the sectors. 

16. The recording medium of claim 15, further comprising: 
padding data recorded in one or more basic recording-units from the 
new writable location; and 

51 

2005024792A2 I > 



WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

padding identification information to indicate that the one or more 
basic recording-units are padded. 



17. The recording medium of claim 15, wherein the writable location 
5 in the sequential recording-unit is moved to a new writable location, 

the new writable location being a first sector of an available adjacent 
basic recording-unit. 

18. A recording medium comprising: 
at least one recording-unit; 

data recorded sequentially in the at least one recording-unit in the 
direction of increasing address; 

padding data recorded in a remaining non-recorded part of a last 
recording-unit when terminating the sequential recording of the data; 
and 

padding identification information recorded on the recording medium, 
the padding identification information identifying which part of the at 
least one recording-unit is padded. 

2 0 19. The recording medium of claim 18, wherein each recording-unit 

52 

BNSDOCID. <WO 2005024792A2 f. > 



10 



15 



WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

is a cluster, and all remaining non-recorded sectors of the last cluster are 
padded with the padding data. 



20. The recording medium of claim 19, wherein the padding 
5 identification information includes a plurality of padding flags each 

assigned to a sector of the cluster, and the padding flags are set to a 
certain value depending on whether or not the assigned sector is 
padded. 

10 21. The recording medium of claim 19, wherein the padding occurs 

one sector at a time. 

22. The recording medium of claim 19, wherein each cluster is 
composed of 32 sectors, such that there are 32 padding flags 

15 corresponding respectively to 32 sectors of the cluster. 

23. The recording medium of claim 18, wherein the padding 
identification information is recorded in a management area of the 
recording medium. 

20 

53 

BNSDOCID: <WO . 2005024792A2 I > 



WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

24. The recording medium of claim 18, wherein the padding data is 
zero. 



25. A recording medium comprising: 

at least one sequential recording range (SRR), each SRR being 
composed of at least one cluster; 

user data recorded in a particular SRR among the at least one SRR; 
and 

padding data recorded in a remaining non-recorded area of a last 
cluster in the particular SRR when terminating the recording of the 
user data. 



26. The recording medium of claim 25, wherein the padding data is 



zero. 



27. The recording medium of claim 25, wherein all remaining non- 
recorded sectors of the last cluster are padded with the padding data. 



28. An apparatus for recording management information on 



54 



_ 2005024792A2 L> 



WO 2005/024792 PCT7KR2004/002209 

recording medium including a sequential recording-unit composed of 
at least one basic recording-unit, the at least one basic recording-unit 
composed of a plurality of sectors, the apparatus comprising: 
a recording/ reproducing part to record user data sequentially from a 
writable location in the sequential recording-unit in the direction of 
increasing address; to pad, with padding data, remaining unrecorded 
sectors of a last basic recording-unit when a last recorded location of 
the last basic recording-unit does not match with a boundary of the 
last basic recording-unit; and to record padding identification 
information identifying which part of the at least one basic recording- 
unit is padded, the padding identification information being composed 
of a plurality of padding flags, each of the padding flags pertaining to 
each of the sectors. 

29. The apparatus of claim 28, wherein the writable location in the 
sequential recording-unit is moved to a new writable location, the new 
writable location being a first sector of an available adjacent basic 
recording-unit. 



30. An apparatus for recording management information on a 



WO 2005/024792 PCT/KR2004/002209 

recording medium including at least one recording-unit, the 
apparatus comprising: 

a recording/reproducing part to sequentially record data in the at 
least one recording-unit in the direction of increasing address; to pad 
with padding data a remaining non-recorded part of a last recording- 
unit when terminating the sequential recording of the data; and to 
record padding identification information on the recording medium, 
the padding identification information identifying which part of the at 
least one recording-unit is padded. 



31. An apparatus for recording management information on a 
recording medium including at least one sequential recording range 
(SRR), each SRR being composed of at least one cluster, the apparatus 
comprising: 

a recording/reproducing part to record user data in an SRR, and to 
pad with padding data a remaining non-recorded area of a last cluster 
in the SRR when terminating the recording of the user data. 



._2005024792A2_I_> 



56 



WO 2005/024792 



PCT/KR2004/002209 



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FIG. 3A 



Start address 



Closed empty 
SRR 



No NWA 



End address 



FIG. 3B 



Start address 



LRA 



Closed partially 
recorded SRR 



No NWA 

FIG. 3C 



End address 



Start address 



Complete SRR 



No NWA 

FIG. 3D 



Start address 



LRA 



Closed partially recorded 
SRR -with padding 



LRA 
End address 



End address 



^//A (option) 



No NWA^_ P addin g dummy 
data 



FIG. 3E 



Start address 



Closed empty 
SRR with padding 



End address 



(option) j 



padding dummy 
data 



No NWA 



BNSDOCID: <WO 2005024792A2 _L > 



WO 2005/024792 



PCT/KR2004/002209 



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FIG. 4A 



1 cluster 
(32 sectors) 



1 cluster 
(32 sectors) 



sector 0 




sector 1 




sector 2 








sector 29 




sector 30 




sector 31 




FIG. 4B 


sector 0 




sector 1 




sector 2 








sector 29 




sector 30 




sector 31 





> 



Padding_flag=Ob 
(user data recorded) 



Padding_flag=lb 
(dummy data padded) 



> Padding_flag=lb 
(dummy data padded) 



BNSDOCID: <WO 2O05024792A2 I > 



WO 2005/024792 



PCT/KR2004/002209 



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WO 2005/024792 



PCT/KR2004/002209 



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FIG. 6A 



List of SRR entries(30) 
32 33 



31— 



b63 • -b60 


/ b59 • • b32 


b31^« • b28 


b2? • ■ bo 


-status 1 


* Start address 
of SRR #n 


status 2 


LRA of ^ 
SRR #n > 


status 1 


Start address 
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status 2 


LRA of - 
SRR #n+l 


status 1 


Start address 
of SRR #n4-2 


status 2 


LRA of 
SRR #11+2 " 












FIG. 6B 

SRR entry(35) 



r 



8 byte (64 bits) 
A 



4 bits 


28 bits 


4 bits 


28 bits 


1 31 

F ^ 


32 


33 


34 ! 
1 ^ 1 


Status 1 


1 + 

Start address 


I + 1 

Status 2 


LRA 



31a 
-4 



P_ 
Flag(lbit) 



31b 



Reserved 
(3bits) 



33a 



Flag(lbit) 



Reserved 
(3bits) 



j 



V 7 

lb : padding is performed 
Ob : no padding operation 



-1 

33b 



lb : session start SRR 
Ob : others 



2005024792A2..I > 



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PCT/KR2004/002209 



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WO 2005/024792 



PCT/KR2004/002209 



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BNSDOCID; <WO 2005024792A2.J_> 



(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCX) 



(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 

Internationa] Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
17 March 2005 (17.03.2005) 




PCT 



11 



(10) International Publication Number 

WO 2005/024792 A3 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : 



Gl IB 20/10 



(21) International Application Number: 

PCT/KR2004/002209 

(22) International Filing Date: 

2 September 2004 (02.09.2004) 



(25) Filing La.igr.age: 

(26) Publication Language: 



linglish 
litiglish 



(30) Priority Oala: 

10-2003-0062674 

8 September 2003 (08.09.2003) KR 
10-2003-0071 127 1 3 October 2003 (13.10.2003) KR 
10-2004-0036073 20 May 2004 (20.05.2004) KR 

(71) Applicant (for all designated States except US): LG 
ELECTRONICS INC. [KR/KRj; 20, Yoido-dong, 
Youngdungpo-gu, Seoul 150-721 (KR). 

(72) Inventor; and 

(75) Inventor/Applicant (for US only): PARK, Yong Cheol 

[KR/KR|; 215-204, Jugong APT., Wonmun-dong, Gwa- 
chon-si, Gyeonggi-do 427-740 (KR). 

(74) Agents: BAHNG, Hae Cheol et al.; KBK & Associates, 
15th Floor Yo Sam Building, 648-23, Yeoksam-dong, 
Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135-080 (KR). 



(81) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of national protection available): AH, AG, AL, AM, 
AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, 

co, c:r, cu, cz, de, dk, dm, dz, ec, eh, hg, hs, FI, 

GB, GD, GH, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KH, 
KG, KP, KR, KZ, LC, LK, HR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, 
MG, MK. MN, MW, MX, MZ, NA, NT, NO, NZ, OM, PG, 
PH. PL, l y r, RO, RU, SC, SD, SH, SG, SK, SL, SY, TJ, TM, 
TN, TR, IT, TZ, UA, UG, US, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, 

zw. 

(84) Designated States {unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of regional protection available): ARTPO (BW, GH, 
GM, KH, LS, MW, MZ, NA, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, 
ZW), Eurasian (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
European (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, El, 
FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LU. MC, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI. 
SK, TR), OAPI (BF, BJ, CH, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, GQ, 
GW, ML. MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Published: 

— with international search report 

— before the expiration of the time limit for amending the 
claims and to be republished in the event of receipt of 
amendments 

(88) Date of publication of the international search report: 

14 July 2005 

/ Continued on next page/ 



(54) Title: WRITE-ONCE OPTICAL DISC, AND METHOD AND APPARATUS EOR MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 
THEREON 



Lead-in Area 



TDM A 0 



Data Area 



OSAO 



IS AO 



TDMA 1 



CO 

in 



TDFL 


SRRI 


SRRI 


TDFL 




TDDS 


TDDS 


TDDS 


TDDS 



|Pclusters 
Kx256 clusters 



Lead-Out Area 



♦ DMA : Disc Management Area 

• TDMA : Temporary DMA 

♦ ISA : Inner Spare Area 

♦ OSA : Outer Spare Area 

* TDFL : Temporary Defect List 

* TDDS : Temporary Disc Definition Structure 

• SRR : Sequential Recording Range 

* SRRI : SRR Information 



CD (57) Abstract: A write-once optical disc and a method and apparatus for recording management information of the write -once opti- 
^ cal disc, are provided. The method includes sequentially recording data in the at least one recording-unit in the direction of increasing 

address; padding, with padding data, a remaining non-recorded part of a last recording-unit when terminating the sequential record- 
er ing of the data; and recording padding identification information on the recording medium, the padding identification information 

identifying which pari of the at least one recording-unit is padded. 



BNSDOCID: <WO 2005024792A3_ 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT international application No 

J PCT/KR 2004/002209 


A. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 

IPC 7, G11B 20/10 

According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 


B. FIELDS SEARCHED 


Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 

IPC 7 : G11B 20/10 


Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 
G11B 


Electronic data base consulted during the international search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) 

WPI 


C. DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 


Category* 


Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 


Relevant to claim No. 


A 


JP 2001069440 A (SANYO) 10 March 2001 (10.03.2001) 


1, 5, 12, 15, 18, 
25, 28, 30, 31 


A 


JP 1 1203792 B2 (NEC) 4 September 2001 (04.09.2001) 


1, 5, 12, 15, 18, 
25, 28, 30, 31 


A 


JP 10187356 A (TOSHIBA) 14 July 1998 (14.07.1998) 


1, 5, 12, 15, 18, 
25, 28, 30, 31 


C3 Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box C. 


S See patent family annex. 




* Special categories of cited documents: "V later document published after the international filing date or 
"A" document defining the general state of the art which is not considered priority date and not in conflict with the application but cited 

to be of particular relevance to understand the principle or theory underlying the invention 
"E" earlier application or patent but published on or after the international "X'* document of particular relevance; the claimed invention 

filing date cannot be considered novel or cannot be considered to involve 
W L" document which may throw doubts on priority claim(s) or which is an inventive step when the document is taken alone 

cited to establish the publication date of another citation or other "Y" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention 

special reason (as specified) cannot be considered to involve an inventive step when the 
"O" document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or other document is combined with one or more other such 

nieans documents, such combination being obvious to a person 
"P" document published prior to the international filing date but later than skilled in the art 

the priority date claimed " & " document member of the same patent family 


Date of the actual completion of the international search 

19 April 2005(19.04.2005) 


Date of mailing of the international search report 

4 May 2005 (04.05.2005) 


Name and mailing address of the ISA/ AT 

Austrian Patent Office 

Dresdner Strafte 87, A-1200 Vienna 


Authorized officer 

GROSSING G. 


Facsimile No. +43 / 1 / 534 24 / 535 


Telephone No. +43 / 1 / 534 24 / 386 



Form PCT/1SA/210 (second sheet) (January 2004) 



BNSDOCID: <WO 2005024792A3J > 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 

Information on patent family members 



Int^Hltional aD plication No. 

PCT/KR 2004/002209 



jp 



jp 



Patent document cited 
in search report 



Publication 
date 



Patent family 
member(s) 



Publication 
date 



10187356 
A2 



11203792 
B4 



20010694 
40A2 



none 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (patent family annex) (July 1998; reprint January 2004) 



BNSDOCID:<WO 2005024792A3 ..!_> 



cited in the European Search 
Report of EPcR ^S5323.S 
Your Ref.:<p(y^o,c^^o/«ti^t^ ^ t 



(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 

International Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
8 April 2004 (08.04.2004) 




PCT 



IIIIK 

(10) International Publication Number 

WO 2004/029941 Al 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : G11B 7/00, 1 1/00 

(21) International Application Number: 

PCT/KR2003/002009 

(22) International Filing Date: 

30 September 2003 (30.09.2003 ) 



(25) Filing language: 

(26) Publication Language: 



English 
English 



(30) Priority Data: 

10-2002-0059341 

10-2003-001 1832 



30 September 2002 (30.09.2002) KR 
25 February 2003 (25.02.2003) KR 



(71) Applicant: LG ELECTRONICS INC. 1KR/KR]; 20, 
Yoido-dong, Youngdungpo-gu, Seoul 150-721 (KR). 

(72) Inventors: PARK, Yong Cheol; 215-204, Jugong APT., 
Wonmun-dong, Gwachon-si, Gyeonggi-do 427-030 (KR). 
KIM, Sung Dae; 1 1 10-1406, Jugong APT., Sanbon l(il)- 
dong, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do 435-746 (KR). 



(74) Agents: BAHNG, Hae Cheol et al.; Kims International 
Patent & Law Office, 15th Floor, Yo Sam Building, 648-23, 
Yeoksam-dong, Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135-080 (KR). 

(81) Designated Slates (national): AF, AG, AL, AM, AT, AIL 

AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, BX. CA, CM, CN, CO, CR, CU, 
CZ, DF, DK, DM, DZ, FC, EE, EG, FS, FI, GB, GD, GE, 
Gil, GM, MR, HU, ID, IE, IN, IS, JP, KF, KG, KP, KR, 
KZ, LC, FK, FR, FS, FT, LU, FV. MA. MD, MG, MK, 
MN, MW, MX, MZ, NI, NO. NZ, OM, PG, PH, PF, PT, 
RO, RU, SC, SD, SF, SG, SK, SF, SY, TJ, TM, TN, TR, 
XT, TZ, UA, UG, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

(84) Designated States (regional)'. ARIPO patent (GIF GM, 
KF, FS, MW, MZ, SD, SF. SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), 
Eurasian patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
European patent (AT, BE, BG, CI I, CY, CZ, DF, DK, EE, 
FS, IT, FR, GB, GR, HU, IF, IT, LU, MC, NF, PT, RO, 
SE, SI, SK, TR), OAPI patent (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, 
GA, GN, GQ, GW, MF, MR, NE, SN, TD, TO). 

Published: 

— with international search report 

~ before the expiration of the time limit for amending the 
claims and to be republished in the event of receipt of 
amendments 

I Continued on next page] 



== (54) Title: W r RITF-ONCF OPTICAF DISC", AND METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR RECORDING MANAGEMENT IN FOR- 
ESEE MATION ON WRITE-ONCE OPTICAF DISC 



Lead-in Area 



TDMA1 



Data Area 



0SA0 



ISA0 



OS 



Sector 
0 

i S 

cluster Sector 
30 



Sector 

31 



Track 
-Info 
or 
SBM 



TDDS part 



TDMA2 



TDFL 


Tracld 
-Info 
or 
fiRM 


Track 
-Info 1 
or 
SRM 


TDFL 




TDDS 
part 


TDDS 
part 


TDDS i TDDS 
part 1 part 



Pclusters 
Nx256 clusters 



Lead- Out Area 



* DMA : Defect Management Area 

* TDMA : Temporary DMA 

* ISA : Inner Spare Area 

* 0SA : Outer Spare Area 

* TDFL : Temporary Defect List 

*TDDS : Temporary Disc Definition Structure 



(57) Abstract: A write-once optical recording medium, and a method and apparatus for recording management information on the 
recording medium are provided. The method includes recording, in a temporary defect management area (TDMA), management 
£^ information produced while the recording medium is in use, and transferring and recording the latest management information of 
^ the TDMA in a final defect management area (DMA) of the recording medium at a DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 



BNSDOCID: <WO 



2004029941A1 I > 



WO 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

1 

WRITE-ONCE OPTICAL DISC, AND METHOD AND 
APPARATUS FOR RECORDING MANAGEMENT INFORMATION ON 

WRITE-ONCE OPTICAL DISC 

5 Technical Field 

The presem invention relates to a writable-once optical disc and a 
management information recording method and apparatus, and more particularly, to 
a method and apparatus for efficiently recording management information on a 
1 0 writable-once optical disc. 

Background Art 

Optical disc, which is a kind of optical recording media and can record a large 
15 amount of data, is widely being used. Today, a kind of innovative high-density 
digital versatile disc (HD-DVD) such as a blue ray disc (Blu-ray Disc), which can 
record and store video data of high quality and audio data of high fidelity for a long 
time, is under development. 

The Blu-ray disc is a next generation optical recording solution that can store 
2 0 a larger amount of data than a conventional DVD. The Blu-ray disc employs a blue- 
violet laser with the wavelength of 405 nm which is shorter than the wavelength of 
650 nm of a red laser used to access a conventional DVD. The Blu-ray disc has 
generally a thickness of 1.2 mm and a diameter of 12 cm. It includes a light 
transmission layer whose thickness is 0.1 mm so that the Blu-ray disc can store a 
2 5 larger amount of data than the current DVDs. 

Various standards related to the Blu-ray discs are in development. Among 
the different types of Blu-ray discs, a Blu-ray Disc Rewritable (BD-RE) and a Blu- 
ray Disc Write-Once (BD-WO) are being developed. 

FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a structure of a recording area of a general 

BNSDOCID: <WO_... 2004029941 A1 I > 



WO 2004/02994 1 PCT/KR2003/002009 

2 

BD-RE. Referring to FIG. 1, the BD-RE includes a recording layer divided into a 
lead-in area, a data area and a lead-out area. The data area includes a user data area 
for recording user data thereon, and an inner spare area ISAO and an outer spare area 
OS AO each allocated in the inner tracks and the outer tracks of the disc. These spare 
5 areas are used as replacement areas for replacing data in a defective area of the user 
data area according to linear replacement. 

In the BD-RE, if a defective area is found in the user data area during 
recording, data in the defective area is transferred to and recorded on a spare area. 
Further, as defect management information for managing the defective area, position 

10 information and the like relating to the defective area and the corresponding spare 
area are recorded on defect management areas (DMA 1 ~ DMA 4) in the lead-in area 
and the lead-out area. Also, since data can be recorded on and erased from any area 
of the BD-RE repeatedly (since the BD-RE is rewritable), the entire BD-RE can be 
randomly used irrespective of a specific recording mode. 

15 In contrast, in a writable-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO), data can be recorded 

only one time on a specific area of the disc. As a result, the BD-WO has certain 
limitations pertaining to recording modes and in randomly using the entire area of 
the disc due to the defect management difficulty. 

Further, in a BD-WO, management of the defective areas is one of the 

2 o important matters that needs to be addressed, especially for data recording operations. 
But since the BD-WO is still in the early development stage, there are no schemes, 
no disc structures, no apparatuses, and no methods on how to manage the defective 
areas of the BD-WO and record management information on the BD-WO, which 
will be needed for the BD-WO to be commercially viable and operationally feasible. 

2 5 Accordingly, for the BD-WO, a unified specification is required that would satisfy 
the aforementioned advanced requirements. But any proposed specification relating 
to the current BD-RE cannot be used because it does not address the needs of the 
BD-WO. 



BNSDOCID: <WO __. 2004029941 A1 I > 



WO 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



3 

Disclosure of Invention 

Accordingly, the present invention is directed to a writable-once optical disc 
and a management information recording method and apparatus that substantially 
5 obviate one or more problems due to limitations and disadvantages of the 
background art. 

An object of the present invention is to provide a method of recording disc 
management information such as timing, contents and location information in a 
plurality of management areas of a write-once optical disc. 

10 Additional advantages, objects, and features of the invention will be set forth 

in part in the description which follows and in part will become apparent to those 
having ordinary skill in the art upon examination of the following or may be learned 
from practice of the invention. The objectives and other advantages of the invention 
may be realized and attained by the structure particularly pointed out in the written 

15 description and claims hereof as well as the appended drawings. 

To achieve these objects and other advantages and in accordance with the 
purpose of the invention, as embodied and broadly described herein, a method of 
recording management information on a write-once optical recording medium, the 
recording medium including a temporary defect management area (TDMA) and a 

2 0 final defect management area (DMA), includes: recording, in the TDMA, 
management information produced while the recording medium is in use; and 
transferring and recording the latest management information of the TDMA in the 
DMA at a DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

In accordance with an aspect of the invention, a method of recording 

2 5 management information on a write-once optical recording medium, the recording 
medium including a temporary defect management area (TDMA) and a final defect 
management area (DMA), the DMA including a defect list area for storing therein 
defect list information, includes: if no defect management is to be performed on the 
recoding medium, setting a predetermined value in the defect list area of the DMA; 

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recording, in the TDMA, management information produced while the recording 
medium is in use; and transferring and recording the latest management information 
of the TDMA in the DMA when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, an apparatus for recording 
5 management information on a write-once optical recording medium, the recording 
medium including a temporary defect management area (TDMA) and a final defect 
management area (DMA), includes a combination of elements configured for: 
recording, in the TDMA, management information produced while the recording 
medium is in use; and transferring and recording the latest management information 

10 of the TDMA in the DMA at a DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, an apparatus for recording 
management information on a write-once optical recording medium, the recording 
medium including a temporary defect management area (TDMA) and a final defect 
management area (DMA), the DMA including a defect list area for storing therein 

15 defect list information, includes a combination of elements configured for: setting a 
predetermined value in the defect list area of the DMA if no defect management is to 
be performed on the recoding medium; recording, in the TDMA, management 
information produced while the recording medium is in use; and transferring and 
recording the latest management information of the TDMA in the DMA when the 

2 o recording medium is to be finalized. 

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a write- once optical 
recording medium for recording management information thereon, includes: at least 
one recording layer including a temporary defect management area (TDMA) and a 
final defect management area (DMA), wherein management information produced 

25 while the recording medium is in use is recorded in the TDMA, and the latest 
management information of the TDMA is transferred and recorded in the DMA at a 
DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a write-once optical 
recording medium for recording management information thereon, includes: at least 

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5 

one recording layer including a temporary defect management area (TDMA) and a 
final defect management area (DMA), the DMA including a defect list area for 
storing therein defect list information, wherein if no defect management is to be 
performed on the recoding medium, a predetermined value is set in the defect list 
5 area of the DMA; management information produced while the recording medium is 
in use is recorded in the TDMA; and the latest management information of the 
TDMA is transferred and recorded in the DMA when the recording medium is to be 
finalized. 

It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the 
10 following detailed description of the present invention are exemplary and 
explanatory and are intended to provide further explanation of the invention as 
claimed. 



Brief Description of the Drawings 

15 

Further objects and advantages of the invention can be more fully understood 
from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying 

drawings, in which: 

FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a structure of a general single-layer BD-RE: 
2 0 FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an optical recording/reproducing device 

according the present invention; 

FIG. 3 illustrates a structure of a writable-once optical disc such as a single 
layer BD-WO according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 4 illustrates an example of a DDS structure on a rewritable disc, a TDDS 
2 5 structure on a BD-WO and a disc management information recording method for the 
BD-WO according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 5 illustrates a structure of a writable-once optical disc such as a single 
layer BD-WO according to another embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 6A shows an exemplary structure of a DMA of a single-layer BD-WO 

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6 

according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 6B illustrates the structure of the DMA of FIG. 6A, a TDMA structure 
and a method of transferring data from the TDMA to the DMA according to an 
embodiment of the present invention; 
5 FIG. 6C shows an exemplary structure of a DMA of a dual-layer BD-WO 

according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 7 shows a chart for explaining the timing, contents and location 
information associated with the DMA fill-in process of a BD-WO according to a first 
embodiment of the present invention; 
10 FIG. 8 shows a chart for explaining the timing, contents and location 

information associated with the DMA fill-in process of a BD-WO according to a 
second embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 9A shows a chart for explaining the timing, contents and location 
information associated with the DMA fill-in process of a BD-WO according to a 
1 5 third embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 9B shows an example of the DMA to which the DMA fill-in process of 
FIG. 9A is applied; and 

FIG. 10 shows examples of values of a TDDS/DDS status flag recorded as 
part of the DDS information in the DDS section of the DMA according to the present 
2 o invention. 

Best mode for Carrying Out the Invention 

Reference will now be made in detail to the preferred embodiments of the 
2 5 present invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. 
Wherever possible, the same reference numerals will be used throughout the 
drawings to refer to the same or like parts. 

FIG. 2 is an example of a block diagram of an optical disc 
recording/reproducing device 20 according to an embodiment of the present 



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invention. The optical disc recording/reproducing device 20 includes an optical 
pickup 22 for writing/reading data to/from an optical recording medium 21 , a servo 
unit 23 for controlling the pickup 22 to maintain a distance between an objective lens 
of the pickup 22 and the recording medium 21 and for tracking relevant tracks on the 
recording medium 21, a data processor 24 for processing and supplying input data to 
the pickup 22 for writing, and for processing data read from the recording medium 
21, an interface 25 for exchanging data and/or commands with any external host 30, 
a memory or storage 27 for storing information and data therein including defect 
management data as needed (e.g., temporary defect management information, etc.) 
associated with the recording medium 21, and a microprocessor or controller 26 for 
controlling the operations and elements of the recording/reproducing device 20. 
Data to be written/read to/from the recording medium 21 may also be stored in the 
memory 27 if needed. All the components of the recording/reproducing device 20 
are operatively coupled. The recording medium 21 is a recording medium of write- 
once type such as a BD-WO. 

All the methods and disc structures discussed herein according to the present 
invention can be implemented using the recording/reproducing device 20 of FIG. 2 
or any other suitable device/system. For example, the microcomputer 26 of the 
device 20 may be used to control allocation of the disc structure and to control the 
recording of management information on the recording medium and the transferring 
of the management information from a temporary area (e.g., TDMA) to a permanent 
or final area (e.g., DMA) on the recording medium 21. The TDMA and DMA will 
be discussed later in more detail. 

A management information recording method for a writable-once optical disc 
such as a BD-WO according to the preferred embodiments of the present invention 
will be now described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. For a 
discussion convenience, a writable-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO) will be exemplified. 
Herein, two types of a BD-WO - a single layer BD-WO and a dual layer BD-WO - 
are discussed. The single layer BD-WO has a single recording layer, whereas the 



WO 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

8 

dual layer BD-WO has two recording layers. 

FIG. 3 illustrates a structure of a writable-once optical recording medium 
such as a single-layer BD-WO according to an embodiment of the present invention. 
Referring to FIG. 3, the BD-WO includes a lead-in area, a data area, and a lead-out 
5 area allocated on the single recording layer. Each of the lead-in area and the lead-out 
area includes a plurality of defect management areas (DMA 1 and DMA 2; DMA 3 
and DMA 4) for storing therein DMA information for defect management. Each of 
the DMAs 1-4 has a fixed size, e.g., 32 clusters. Generally, in view of the 
importance of defect management, the same information is written in each of the 

10 DMAs 1-4 so that if one of the DMAs is defective, then a different DMA can be 
accessed to obtain the defect management information. 

It should be noted that in a general BD-RE, since data can be repeatedly 
recorded on and erased from a DMA (although the size of the DMA is limited), a 
DMA of large size is not required. However, in a BD-WO according to the present 

15 invention, since data cannot be repeatedly recorded on and erased from the DMA, a 
DMA of large size is required for defect management. 

Still referring to FIG. 3, the lead-in area further includes a temporary defect 
management area (TDM A 1) for temporarily storing defect management information 
therein. The data area includes an inner spare area ISAO, a user data area, and an 

2 0 outer spare area OSA0. Parts of or the entire ISAO and OSA0 are used as 
replacement areas for defective areas in the user data area according to linear 
replacement. For instance, during a recording of data into the user data area, if a 
defective area in the user data area is detected, then the data written or to be written 
to this defective area is transferred to a spare area (e.g., ISAO or OSA0) according to 

25 a linear replacement scheme. The outer spare area OS AO includes a temporary 
defect management area (TDMA 2). The defect management information 
temporarily stored in the TDMA 1 and/or TDMA 2 is also referred to herein as 
TDMA information. 

In one embodiment, the TDMA 1 allocated to the lead-in area has a fixed size, 

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WO 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

9 

whereas the TDMA 2 allocated to the outer spare area OSA0 has a variable size 
depending upon the size of the spare area(s). For example, if the OSA0 has a size of 
N x 256 clusters where N > 0 (N = integer), then the TDMA 2 has a size of P clusters 
where P = (Nx 256)/4. 
5 In one example, the same information may be written in each of the TDMAs 

1 and 2. In another example, the TDMAs 1 and 2 may be sequentially used to 
sequentially record the TDMA information. Regardless, during replacement writing 
operations for writing data of a defective area onto a spare area, TDMA information 
is generated (e.g., under control of the microcomputer 26) and written onto the 

10 TDMAs 1 and/or 2. The TDMAs are also updated periodically or as needed. When 
the BD-WO is ready to be finalized or the DMA is to be filled in for other reasons, 
then the TDMA information (latest version) temporarily written in the TDMA(s) is 
transferred and written onto one or each of the DMAs 1-4. This transfer process will 
be discussed later in more detail. 

15 The TDMA information written in each of the TDMAs 1 and 2 includes 

temporary defect list (TDFL) information and temporary disc definition structure 
(TDDS) information. In one embodiment, the TDFL information includes one or a 
plurality of TDFLs (TDFL #1 ~ TDFL #n). Each TDFL includes one or a plurality 
of defect entries identifying defects and corresponding replacement areas on the disc. 

2 0 Each defect entry includes location information pertaining to a defective area of the 
user data area and the corresponding replacement area. For example, during a data 
recording operation on the BD-WO, if a defective area is found in the user data area, 
then data written or to be written in that defective area is written in a part 
(replacement area) of a spare area (e.g., IS AO or OS AO) according to a linear 

2 5 replacement scheme. Then the information pertaining to the defective area and the 
replacement area and their relationship is entered as a defect entry in the TDFL. For 
instance, this information may include a first physical sector number of the defective 
area on the disc, a first physical sector number of the replacement area (spare area) 
corresponding to that defective area, and any other data pertaining to the defect for 

.. 2004029941A1. I._> 



WO 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

10 

defect management. 

In one embodiment, the TDDS information written in each of the TDMAs 1 
and 2 includes one or a plurality of TDDSs (TDDS #1 ~ TDDS #n). Each TDDS has 
a fixed size (e.g., one cluster) and includes location information pertaining to the 
5 TDFL(s) so that the location of any TDFL can be quickly identified by accessing the 
TDDS(s). This location information is also referred to herein as the TDDS part and 
can be written in a portion of Sector 0 of the one cluster. Here, a cluster has 32 
sectors each sector having 2048 bytes. As an example only, the TDDS part may 
include one or more physical sector numbers each indicating a location of a TDFL 
10 written on the BD-WO, and any other information pertaining to the TDFL 
information. 

Furthermore, each TDDS includes recording mode information (RM) and 
disc usage management information. The recording mode information identifies a 
recording mode of the BD-WO and can be written in a portion of Sector 0 of the one 
15 cluster. The disc usage management information identifies the status of a recording 
area of the BD-WO, and can be represented in one of the two forms: track 
information (Track-Info) and space bitmap information (SBM). This structure of the 
TDDS will be discussed in more detail later by referring to FIG. 4. 

As the data recording operation for writing data into the data area progresses, 
2 0 the TDMAs may be updated periodically to reflect any recently discovered defective 
areas and corresponding replacement areas. After each updating of the TDMA, a 
TDFL and a corresponding TDDS, which may include all previous TDMA 
information and the recently generated TDMA information, may be written in the 
TDMA. In this aspect, the latest TDDS and TDFL written in the TDMA of the BD- 
2 5 WO would include the latest TDMA information. Then when the BD-WO is to be 
finalized or the DMA(s) is ready to be filled in, the latest TDDS and TDFL written 
on the BD-WO are transferred and written in one or each of the DMAs 1-4 as the 
final and most-updated defect management information. 

FIG. 4 illustrates a DDS structure of a rewritable disc, an example of a TDDS 

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WO 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

11 

structure on a BD- WO and a disc management information recording method for the 
BD-WO according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 4, 
in the DDS of a general rewritable optical disc, only 60 byte information 
corresponding to an extremely small portion of 1 cluster is used to store therein the 
5 DDS information. The entire remaining part of the DDS is all set to 'zero padding'. 

In contrast, in the BD-WO, the entire TDDS area is used to store therein the 
TDDS information. As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the TDDS part and the recording 
mode information are written in Sector 0 of the cluster assigned as the TDDS, 
whereas Sectors 1-31 store therein the disc usage management information (Track- 

10 Info or SBM). In another example, the disc usage management information can be 
recorded on the first 31 sectors (Sectors 0 - 30) in the TDDS, and any remaining 
disc usage management information can be recorded on the last 32 nd sector (Sector 
31) in the TDDS along with the TDDS part and recording mode information. 

The recording mode information identifies one of a plurality of recording 

15 modes employed in the BD-WO according to the present invention. In this example, 
a value of "0000 0000" may be used to indicate a sequential recoding mode, and a 
value of "0000 0001" may be used to indicate a random recording mode. Obviously, 
other examples are possible. Information about the BD-WO according to the present 
invention can be variously determined depending upon the needs through a process 

2 0 of specification regulation. 

The disc usage management information is varied in dependence upon the 
disc usage. In the BD-WO, the disc usage management information is required for 
accurately searching and detecting the start point of an available recording area, and 
is used to distinguish a recording area from a non-recording area on the disc. In this 

25 aspect the disc usage management information indicates where the available 
recording area and the recorded area are located within the data area (e.g., user data 
area). 

As mentioned above, the disc usage management information can be 
represented as either the track information (Track-Info) or the space bitmap 

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WO 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

12 

information (SBM). The Track-Info is generally used when the BD-WO is recorded 
in a sequential recording mode. The SBM is generally used when the BD-WO is 
recorded in a random recording mode. These recording modes can be determined 
depending on the recording mode identified in the recording mode information 
5 stored in the TDDS. 

In conventional writable-once optical discs, the recording status/mode 
information is expressed as 'track information' in case of compact disc series, and as 
'Rzone', 'Fragment' or 'recording range' in case of DVD series. But in the present 
invention, the aforementioned various expressions relating to the recording 
10 status/mode information are commonly designated as 'Track-Info', and accordingly 
the Track-Info will be appreciated as having such meaning irrespective of 
expressions. 

In one example, since the tracks on the BD-WO are sequentially used to 
record during the sequential recording mode, the Track-Info identifies the start point 
15 (location) of the recording area (e.g., user data area) of the BD-WO, and the end 
point (location) of the last recorded portion of the recording area. This information 
then indicates the start of the next available portion of the recording area on the BD- 
WO. 

The bitmap information identifies a start point of an available recordable 
2 0 portion of the recording area on the BD-WO using bit values such as '0' and T. 
For instance, if a particular cluster area of the recording area on the BD-WO has 
been recorded, then it is indicated by allocating a value of ' V to every minimal 
recording unit (1 cluster). If a cluster area of the recording area has no recorded data 
thereon, then that cluster is assigned to a value of '0'. In this manner, if the SBM 
25 indicates that a particular cluster has a value of * V assigned thereto, then it indicates 
that that cluster has been already used (i.e., it has recorded data thereon). If the SBM 
indicates that a particular cluster has a value of '0', then it indicates that that cluster 
has not been used yet (i.e., it has no recorded data thereon). Obviously, the reversal 
or some other values may be used to indicate the recording/non-recording state of 

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each area unit such as the clusters of the user data area. Thus, the SBM makes it 
possible to express a recording usage status of the disc even in the random recording 
mode. 

FIG. 5 illustrates a structure of a writable-once optical disc such as a single 
5 layer BD-WO according to another embodiment of the present invention. The BD- 
WO structure of FIG. 5 is identical to the BD-WO structure of FIG. 3, except that the 
TDDS part and the recording mode information (RM) of TDDS information are 
updated and written after each update state as shown in FIG. 5. In this aspect, the 
disc usage management information (Track-Info or SBM) is stored in Sectors 0-30 
10 of one cluster of the TDMA, and the TDDS part and RM are stored in Sector 31 of 
the one cluster. In another example, the TDDS part and RM may be stored in Sector 
0 of one cluster of the TDMA, and the Track-Info or SBM may be stored in Sectors 
1-31 of the one cluster. 

Now, the method of transferring the TDMA information from the TDMA to 
15 the DMA according to the embodiments of the present invention will be explained 
by referring to FIGS. 6A-10. This transfer process is also called a DMA fill-in 
process. 

FIG. 6A shows an exemplary structure of a DMA of a single-layer BD-WO, 
and FIG. 6B illustrates the structure of the DMA of FIG. 6A, a TDMA structure and 
2 0 a method of transferring data from the TDMA to the DMA according to an 
embodiment of the present invention. The DMA shown in FIGS. 6A and 6B equals 
one or each of the DMAs 1-4 shown in FIG. 3. 

Referring to FIGS. 6A and 6B, the DMA is composed of 32 clusters. The 
Clusters 1-4 of the DMA are designated as a DDS section, whereas the Clusters 5-32 
2 5 of the DMA are designated as a DFL section. All the clusters of the DMA in the 
BD-WO are designated for storing management data. 

During the DMA fill-in process, the latest TDDS information from the 
TDMA is transferred to and recorded in each of Cluster 1 to Cluster 4 of the DMA as 
DDS information. In this example, the latest TDDS part (TO) and the latest disc 

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14 

usage management information (Track-Info or SBM) (DO) of the TDDS information 
are transferred onto the DMA. As a result, the same DDS information is four times 
recorded in the DMA. The latest TDFL information from the TDMA is also 
transferred to and recorded in Clusters 5-32 of the DMA as DFL information. Here, 
5 the same DFL information can be recorded in the DMA up to seven times by 
designating four clusters of the DMA for recording the DFL information therein. In 
one example, the TDDS part written in the DDS section of the DMA may identify 
the location of the DFLs in the DMA on the BD-WO, and not necessarily the 
location of the TDFLs in the TDMA on the BD-WO. Storing the same information 

10 repeatedly in the DDS section or the DFL section ensures that the DMA information 
is not lost (e.g., due to a defect in a portion of the DMA) and is accurately and 
completely accessed each time it is needed. 

FIG. 6C shows an exemplary structure of a DMA of a dual-layer BD-WO 
according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 6C, one 

15 DMA of the dual- layer BD-WO is composed of a DMA part (Clusters 1 -32) from a 
first recording layer L0 of the BD-WO, and a DMA part (Clusters 33-64) from a 
second recording layer (LI) of the BD-WO, which are accessed according to the 
tracking direction indicated with the arrow. The same DDS information (e.g., for 
both recording layers) is repeatedly recorded on the Clusters 1 — 8 of the DMA, and 

2 0 the same DFL information is repeatedly recorded on the Clusters 9 - 64 of the DMA, 
up to the maximum of, e.g., seven times. In addition, the BD-WO includes a lead-in 
area, a data area and an outer zone area on the first recording layer, and a lead-out 
area, a data area and an outer zone area on the second recording layer. Each of the 
data areas may include at least one spare area and a user data area. The lead-in area 

2 5 of the first recording layer may include a TDMA and first and second DMAs. The 
lead-out area of the second recording layer may include another TDMA and first and 
second DMAs. Here, as an example, one DMA shown in FIG. 6C may be composed 
of the first DMAs from the first and second recording layers, or of the second DMAs 
from the first and second recording layers. Additional DMAs may also be provided 



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in the outer zone areas. The spare area(s) may include additional TDMA(s). 

Similar to the single layer BD-WO, the TDMAs in the lead-in/lead-out area 
of the dual layer BD-WO may have a fixed size, whereas the TDMAs in the spare 
areas may have a variable size depending upon the size of the spare area(s). The use 
5 and structure of the DMAs and TDMAs on the single layer BD-WO as discussed 
herein applies equally to the DMAs and TDMAs on the dual layer BD-WO. 

In one embodiment, the latest disc usage management information is recorded 
each on the front part of a first DMA in the lead-in area and/or on the front/rear part 
of a DMA in the lead-out area (depending on whether the disc has a single or 

1 o multiple recording layers). This allows the disc usage management information to 

be accessed quickly at the initial loading time of the disc. Further, the data reliability 
and data preservation can be assured by repetitive recording of same information in 
different parts of the disc. 

FIG. 7 shows a chart for explaining the timing, contents and location 
15 information associated with the DMA fill-in process of a BD-WO according to a first 
embodiment of the present invention. This DMA fill-in process is applicable to the 
BD-WO structures shown in FIGS. 3 and 5-6C, or other suitable BD-WO structures. 

Referring to FIG. 7, the time for transferring the TDM A information into the 
DMA of the BD-WO is when the BD-WO is to be finalized. Defect management is 

2 0 performed on the BD-WO. As a result, the TDM A information produced while the 

BD-WO is in use is recorded in the TDMA, and when the BD-WO is to be finalized, 
the latest TDMA information from the TDMA is transferred to and recorded in the 
DMA. 

The time for finalization is generally divided into three cases. The first case 
2 5 (50a) is when no more recording is performed on the BD-WO (e.g., data recording in 
the user data area is completed, or no user data area remains on the disc). The second 
case (50b) is when the TDMA is full of data and no further TDMA information can 
be recorded therein. As one example only, this case may occur if the entire 
TDMA(s) for recording the TDMA information have been used. The third case 

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(50c) is when the user requests a finalization of the BD-WO. As one example only, 
the user or host may request the finalization of the BD-WO even though some user 
data area or the TDMA is not full, or even though the user data recording in the user 
data area is not completed. 
5 In all three cases of timing, the contents transferred from the TDMA to the 

DMA are the latest TDDS and TDFL information written in the TDMA of the BD- 
WO. The latest TDDS information and the latest TDFL information written in the 
TDMA are transferred to a DDS section and a DFL section of the DMA, respectively, 
during the DMA fill-in process. 
10 FIG. 8 shows a chart for explaining the timing, contents and location 

information associated with the DMA fill-in process of a BD-WO according to a 
second embodiment of the present invention. This DMA fill-in process is applicable 
to the BD-WO structures shown in FIGS. 3 and 5-6C or other suitable BD-WO 
structures. 

15 The second embodiment addresses a scenario when the defect management 

(DM) on the BD-WO is not to be performed. Whether or not the DM is to be 
performed on the BD-WO can be determined during the initialization of the BD-WO 
or some other time based on known factors such as a user or host command not to 
perform defect management, etc. Referring to FIG. 8, if it is determined that the DM 

2 0 is not be performed (50d) on the BD-WO (e.g., when the disc is initialized), then a 
specified value, sign or other indication is set in a DFL section of the DMA. This 
indication indicates that no DM is performed on the BD-WO (e.g., no defect lists are 
recorded on the BD-WO or no linear replacement schemes are performed to transfer 
the data of a defective user area to a replacement/spare area). When no DM is to be 

25 performed, A/V (audio/video) data can be recorded in real time. Here, since no DM 
is performed during the disc recording (e.g., into the user data area), no TDFLs are 
generated and the predetermined value or some other fixed indication can be set in 
the DFL section of the DMA. In one example, the predetermined value for 
indicating no DM is set in the DFL section of the DMA in advance before the 



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finalization of the BD-WO (e.g., at the disc initialization). At this time, the entire 
DFL section of the DMA may be padded with the zero value. In another variation, a 
predetermined value (e.g., zero) or some other indication may be set in the TDFL 
area of the TDMA, and then this value (TDFL information) may be transferred to the 
5 DFL section of the DMA while the TDDS information is transferred to the DDS 
section of the DMA during the DMA-fill in process (i.e., at the finalization of the 
BD-WO). 

The process of transferring the TDDS information from the TDDS of the 
TDMA to the DDS section of the DMA in the second embodiment is identical to that 

10 of the first embodiment of FIG. 7. More specifically, after it is determined that no 
DM is to be performed on the BD-WO and then when the BD-WO is ready to be 
finalized, then the TDDS information is transferred to the DDS section of the DMA. 
As shown in FIG. 8, during the finalization of the BD-WO, in the first case (50a) 
when no more recording is performed on the BD-WO, in die second case (50b) when 

15 the TDMA is full, and in the third case when the user requests finalization of the 
BD-WO, the latest TDDS information from the TDMA is transferred and recorded in 
the DDS section of the DMA as part of DMA fill-in process. 

For example, if the DMA fill-in process of FIG. 8 is applied to the DMA 
structure of FIG. 6 A, the Clusters 1-4 of the DMA would store therein the 

2 o predetermined value (e.g., zero), and the latest TDDS information from the TDMA 
is transferred and recorded in the DDS section of the DMA. AS discussed above, the 
same latest TDDS information can be recorded up to seven times in the Cluster 5-32 
of the DMA. That is, in the maximum 7 repetition recording, the same latest TDDS 
information is written in the Clusters 5-8, the Cluster 9-12, the Cluster 13-16, ... and 

2 5 the Clusters 29-32 of the DMA. 

FIG. 9A shows a chart for explaining the timing, contents and location 
information associated with the DMA fill-in process of a BD-WO according to a 
third embodiment of the present invention. This DMA fill-in process is applicable to 
the BD-WO structures shown in FIGS. 3 and 5-6C or other suitable BD-WO 



BNSDOCID: <WO 2004029941A1 l.> 



WO 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

18 

structures. 

The third embodiment addresses a scenario when no more data can be 
recorded in the user data area of the BD-WO, but the spare area(s) and the TDMA(s) 
are not full and can still be used to perform defect management. If any recordable 
5 area remains in the spare area (e.g., ISAO and OSA0) and the TDMA (e.g., TDMAs 
1 and 2) even though no more recordable area exists in the user data area of the BD- 
WO (e.g., because the user data area is full, etc.), then at that time, the latest TDDS 
and TDFL information from the TDMA is transferred and recorded into an area of 
the DMA. Subsequently, when the BD-WO is ready to be finalized, the latest TDDS 

10 and TDFL information at that time from the TDMA is transferred and recorded into 
another area of the DMA, such as the remaining area of the DMA. 

Referring to FIG. 9A, in this embodiment, the DM is performed even during 
the reproduction of the BD-WO. Particularly, if the spare area and the TDMA are 
not full and are available for use in the DM even though the recordable user data area 

15 is not available (50e), the latest TDMA information of the TDMA at this time is 
transferred and recorded in only a partial area of the DMA before the finalization of 
the BD-WO. Subsequently, when the BD-WO is to be finalized (50b or 50c), the 
latest TDMA information of the TDMA at that time is then transferred and recorded 
in the remaining or another area designated of the DMA. 

2 0 Here, the time for finalization is divided into two cases 50b and 50c, which 

are identical to the two cases 50b and 50c in FIG. 7. Briefly, the first case (50b) is 
when the TDMA is full of data and no further TDMA information can be recorded 
therein. The second case (50c) is when the user requests a finalization of the BD- 
WO. 

2 5 FIG. 9B shows an example of the DMA to which the DMA fill-in process of 

FIG. 9A is applied. As shown in FIG. 9B, when the situation 50e occurs, the latest 
TDDS information is written as DDS information into two clusters (e.g., Clusters 1 
and 2) of the DMA, and the latest TDFL information is written as DFL information 
into four clusters (e.g., Clusters 5-8) of the DMA. Here the latest TDFL information 



BNSDOCID: <WO 2004029941 A 1 I > 



WO 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

19 

is written once in Clusters 5-8 without any repetition. Then when the disc is to be 
finalized (50b or 50c), the latest TDDS information of that time is written as DDS 
information into two clusters (e.g., Clusters 3 and 4) of the DMA and the latest 
TDFL information of that time is written as DFL information into the remaining 
clusters of the DMA. For instance, the same TDFL information can be written up to 
six times in the Clusters 9-32 of the DMA. Other variations are possible. 

FIG. 10 shows examples of values of a TDDS/DDS status flag recorded as 
part of the DDS information in the DDS section of the DMA according to the present 
invention. Such status flag can be used in all the disc structures and methods 
discussed herein according to the different embodiments of the present invention. 
This status flag informs the user, host or other entity under which status/case the 
TDDS or DDS information has been recorded on the BD-WO. The TDDS or DDS 
status flag may be of one-byte size or some other size. 

For instance, in each of the above-discussed first to third embodiments of the 
present invention, the DDS information written in the DDS section of the DMA may 
include a DDS status flag. Similarly, the TDDS information written in the TDMA 
may include a TDDS status flag. One status flag having different values may be 
used to indicate different recording statuses of the TDDS and DDS information. In 
the alternative, separate TDDS status flag and DDS status flag can be used. 

Referring to FIG. 10, if the same status flag is used for both the TDDS and 
DDS information, then the status flag of '0000 0000' may mean that the BD-WO is 
finalized in response to the user's request (50c) and that the management 
information (e.g., DDS information) is recorded in the DMA. The status flag of 
'0000 1111' may mean that the BD-WO is finalized because no more recording is 
allowed in the user data area (50a) and that the management information (e.g., DDS 
information) is recorded in the DMA. The status flag of ' 1 1 1 1 0000' may mean that 
the BD-WO is finalized because the TDMA is full (50b) and that the management 
information (e.g., DDS information) is recorded in the DMA. The status flag of 
'1111 1 1 1 1' may mean that the management information (e.g., TDDS information) 



WO 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



20 

is recorded in the TDMA while the disc is in use. Obviously other variations or 
status flag values are possible. 

Industrial applicability 

5 

Using the status flag discussed above, the status of the BD-WO can be 
determined or confirmed. For instance, when the disc is loaded for reproduction, the 
TDDS/DDS status flag value can be examined to determine under what 
circumstances and in what manner the DMA fill-in process occurred on the disc. 
1 0 Thus, the efficient use of the disc can be assured. 

It will be apparent to those skilled in the art than various modifications and 
variations can be made in the present invention. Thus, it is intended that the present 
invention covers the modifications and variations of this invention provided they 
come within the scope of the appended claims and their equivalents. 



BNSDOCID: <WO ..._2004029941A1 „!._> 



WO 2004/029941 

What is claimed is: 



21 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



1 . A method of recording management information on a write-once 
optical recording medium, the recording medium including a temporary defect 
5 management area (TDMA) and a final defect management area (DMA), the method 
comprising: 

recording, in the TDMA, management information produced while the 
recording medium is in use; and 

transferring and recording the latest management information of the TDMA 
10 in the DMA at a DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the DMA fill-in stage of the recording 
medium is when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

15 3. The method of claim 2, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized 

when no more recording in a user data area of the recording medium is allowed. 

4. The method of claim 3, wherein in the transferring step, the latest 
management information includes latest temporary defect list information and latest 

2 0 temporary disc definition structure information associated with the recording 
medium. 

5. The method of claim 2, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized 
when the TDMA is full and no more management information can be recorded in the 

2 5 TDMA. 

6. The method of claim 5, wherein in the transferring step, the latest 
management information includes latest temporary defect list information and latest 
temporary disc definition structure information associated with the recording 

BNSDOCID: <WO 2004029941 A1 J _> 



WO 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

22 

medium. 



7. The method of claim 2, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized in 
response to a user's request. 

5 

8. The method of claim 7, wherein in the transferring step, the latest 
management information includes latest temporary defect list information and latest 
temporary disc definition structure information associated with the recording 
medium. 

10 

9. The method of claim 1, wherein the recording medium further includes a 
spare area and a user data area, and 

wherein in the transferring step, the DMA fill-in stage is when a recordable 
area remains in the spare area and the TDMA even though no recordable area 
15 remains in the user data area of the recording medium, and latest management 
information of the TDMA at that time is transferred into a first area of the DMA. 



10. The method of claim 9, further comprising: 

transferring and recording latest management information of the TDMA into 
2 0 a second area of the DMA at a second DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

11. The method of claim 10, wherein the second DMA fill-in stage of the 
recording medium is when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

2 5 12. The method of claim 11, wherein if the management information is 

recorded hi the first area of the DMA, then a defect management is performed during 
reproduction of the recording medium; and if the management information is 
recorded in the second area of the DMA, then a defect management is not performed 
during reproduction of the recording medium. 



BNSDOCID: <WO 200402994 1 A 1 I > 



WO 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



23 

13. The method of claim 1 1, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized 
when the TDMA is full and no more management information can be recorded in the 
TDMA. 

5 

14. The method of claim 13, wherein in at least one of the transferring steps, 
the latest management information includes latest temporary defect list information 
and latest temporary disc definition structure information associated with the 
recording medium. 

10 

15. The method of claim 11, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized 
in response to a user's request. 

16. The method of claim 15, wherein in at least one of the transferring steps, 
15 the latest management information includes latest temporary defect list information 

and latest temporary disc definition structure information associated with the 
recording medium. 

17. The method of claim 1, wherein the recording medium is a writable-once 
2 0 Blu-ray disc (BD-WO). 

18. The method of claim 1, wherein in the transferring step, the latest 
management information includes a status flag indicating a type of the DMA fill-in 
stage. 

25 

19. A method of recording management information on a write-once optical 
recording medium, the recording medium including a temporary defect management 
area (TDMA) and a final defect management area (DMA), the DMA including a 
defect list area for storing therein defect list information, the method comprising: 

BNSDOCiD: <WO 2004029941 A1 I > 



WO 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

24 

if no defect management is to be performed on the recoding medium, setting 
a predetermined value in the defect list area of the DMA; 

recording, in the TDMA, management information produced while the 
recording medium is in use; and 
5 transferring and recording the latest management information of the TDMA 

in the DMA when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

20. The method of claim 19, wherein the DMA further includes a disc 
definition structure area for storing therein disc definition structure information, and 

10 wherein in the transferring step, the latest management information of the 

TDMA is transferred to the disc definition structure area of the DMA and is latest 
disc definition structure information associated with the recording medium. 

21. The method of claim 19, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized 
15 when no more recording in a user data area of the recording medium is allowed. 

22. The method of claim 19, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized 
when the TDMA is full and no more management information can be recorded in the 
TDMA. 

20 

23. The method of claim 19, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized 
in response to a user's request 

24. The method of claim 19, wherein the recording medium is a writable-once 
2 5 Blu-ray disc (BD-WO). 

25. The method of claim 19, wherein in the transferring step, the latest 
management information includes a status flag indicating a type of the fmalization of 
the recording medium. 



BNSDOCID: <WO 2004029941 A1 J. > 



WO 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

25 

26. An apparatus for recording management information on a write-once 
optical recording medium, the recording medium including a temporary defect 
management area (TDMA) and a final defect management area (DMA), the 
apparatus comprising: 

5 means for recording, in the TDMA, management information produced while 

the recording medium is in use; and 

means for transferring and recording the latest management information of 
the TDMA in the DMA at a DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

10 27. An apparatus for recording management information on a write-once 

optical recording medium, the recording medium including a temporary defect 
management area (TDMA) and a final defect management area (DMA), the DMA 
including a defect list area for storing therein defect list information, the apparatus 
comprising: 

1 5 means for setting a predetermined value in the defect list area of the DMA if 

no defect management is to be performed on the recoding medium; 

means for recording, in the TDMA, management information produced while 
the recording medium is in use; and 

means for transferring and recording the latest management information of 
2 0 the TDMA in the DMA when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

28. A write-once optical recording medium for recording management 
information thereon, the recording medium comprising: 

at least one recording layer including a temporary defect management area 
2 5 (TDMA) and a final defect management area (DMA), 

wherein management information produced while the recording medium is in 
use is recorded in the TDMA, and 

the latest management information of the TDMA is transferred and recorded 
in the DMA at a DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

BNSDOCID: <WO 2004029941 A1 J > 



WO 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



26 

29. The recording medium of claim 28, wherein the DMA fill-in stage of the 
recording medium is when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

5 30. The recording medium of claim 29, wherein the recording medium is to 

be finalized when no more recording in a user data area of the recording medium is 
allowed. 

31. The recording medium of claim 30, wherein the latest management 
10 information transferred and recorded in the DMA includes latest temporary defect 

list information and latest temporary disc definition structure information associated 
with the recording medium. 

32. The recording medium of claim 29, wherein the recording medium is to 
15 be finalized when the TDMA is full and no more management information can be 

recorded in the TDMA. 

33. The recording medium of claim 32, wherein the latest management 
information transferred and recorded in the DMA includes latest temporary defect 

2 0 list information and latest temporary disc definition structure information associated 
with the recording medium. 

34. The recording medium of claim 29, wherein the recording medium is to 
be finalized in response to a user's request. 

25 

35. The recording medium of claim 34, wherein the latest management 
information transferred and recorded in the DMA includes latest temporary defect 
list information and latest temporary disc definition structure information associated 
with the recording medium. 



BNSDOCID: <WO 2004029941A1 I > 



WO 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



27 

36. The recording medium of claim 28, wherein the at least one recoding 
layer further includes a spare area and a user data area, and 

wherein the DMA fill-in stage is when a recordable area remains in the spare 
area and the TDMA even though no recordable area remains in the user data area of 
the recording medium, and latest management information of the TDMA at that time 
is transferred into a first area of the DMA. 

37. The recording medium of claim 36, wherein latest management 
information of the TDMA is transferred and recorded into a second area of the DMA 
at a second DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

38. The recording medium of claim 37, wherein the second DMA fill-in stage 
of the recording medium is when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

39. The recording medium of claim 38, wherein if the management 
information is recorded in the first area of the DMA, then a defect management is 
performed during reproduction of the recording medium; and if the management 
information is recorded in the second area of the DMA, then a defect management is 
not performed during reproduction of the recording medium. 

40. The recording medium of claim 38, wherein the recording medium is to 
be finalized when the TDMA is full and no more management information can be 
recorded in the TDMA. 

41. The recording medium of claim 40, wherein the latest management 
information recorded in at least one of the first and second areas of the DMA 
includes latest temporary defect list information and latest temporary disc definition 
structure information associated with the recording medium. 



WO 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



28 

42. The recording medium of claim 38 , wherein the recording medium is to 
be finalized in response to a user's request. 

5 43. The recording medium of claim 42, wherein the latest management 

information recorded in at least one of the first and second areas of the DMA 
includes latest temporary defect list information and latest temporary disc definition 
structure information associated with the recording medium. 

10 44. The recording medium of claim 28 3 wherein the recording medium is a 

writable-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO). 

45. The recording medium of claim 28, wherein the latest management 
infomiation includes a status flag indicating a type of the DMA fill-in stage. 

15 

46. A write-once optical recording medium for recording management 
information thereon, the recording medium comprising: 

at least one recording layer including a temporary defect management area 
(TDMA) and a final defect management area (DMA), the DMA including a defect 
2 0 list area for storing therein defect list information, 

wherein if no defect management is to be performed on the recoding medium, 
a predetermined value is set in the defect list area of the DMA, 

management information produced while the recording medium is in use is 
recorded in the TDMA, and 
2 5 the latest management information of the TDMA is transferred and recorded 

in the DMA when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

47. The recording medium of claim 46, wherein the DMA further includes a 
disc definition structure area for storing therein disc definition structure information, 



BNSDOCID: <WO 2004029941A1 I > 



WO 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

29 

and 

wherein when the recoding medium is to be finalized, the latest management 
information of the TDMA is transferred to the disc definition structure area of the 
DMA and is latest disc definition structure information associated with the recording 
5 medium. 

48. The recording medium of claim 46, wherein the recording medium is to 
be finalized when no more recording in a user data area of the recording medium is 
allowed. 

10 

49. The recording medium of claim 46, wherein the recording medium is to 
be finalized when the TDMA is full and no more management information can be 
recorded in the TDMA. 

15 50. The recording medium of claim 46, wherein the recording medium is to 

be finalized in response to a user's request 

51. The recording medium of claim 46, wherein the recording medium is a 
writable-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO). 
2 0 52. The recording medium of claim 46, wherein the latest management 

information includes a status flag indicating a type of the finalization of the 
recording medium. 



2004029941 A1 .!_: 



WO 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



2/11 



C\2 




BNSDOCID: <WO 2004029941A1 !...> 



WO 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



3/11 



CO 



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CD 



cd 

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TDDS Part 
(include 
Recording Mode) 


Disc 
Track- Info 
or 
SBM 


Sector 0 


Sector 1 

( 
) 

Sector 31 



CD 
CO 



BNSDOCID: <WO 2004029941A1 l_> 



WO 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



4/11 



FIG. 4 



DDS 



TDDS 



1 cluster 




Disc management 
information^ or DDS) 



TDDS Part 



V/////////, 



sector 0 



sector 1 

S 

sector 31 



<Rewritable Disc> 



7777^ 



'////////A 



Re c ording mod e 



Track- Info 
or 
SBM 



P 

) Di 



Disc 
management 
information 

(or TDDS 
information) 



<Write-Once DisO 

* Recording mode 

• 0000 0000b : Sequential Recording 

• 0000 0001b : Random Recording 



BNSDOCID: <WO.__. 2004029941 A 1 ...I > 



WO 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



5/11 



cd 
CP 

-< 
+-> 

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cd 

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cd 
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to 

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TDFL 

1 iv 1 Jj 


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part 


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or 


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part 


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or 

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part 


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part 



cd 

CP 

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31 



3 

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BNSDOCID: <WO 2004029941A1 I > 



WO 20(14/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



6/11 



FIG. 6A 



Single Layer BP- WO 



DMA 



Cluster 


Cluster 


Cluster 




Cluster 


Cluster 


1 


2 


3 




31 


32 



Cluster 1~4 


DDS ^repetition) 


Cluster 5~8 


1 st position of DFL 


Cluster 9~12 


2 nd position of DFL 






Cluster 29~32 


reposition of DFL 



BNSDOCID: <WO. 2004029941 A 1 _l„ > 



WO 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



7/11 



o 

• r— < 

I 

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E— < 



00 

co 

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PQ 
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BNSDOCID: <WO. 



_2004029941A1. I_> 



WO 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



8/11 



FIG. 6C 

Dual Layer BP- WO 

Tracking direction 



Layer LO 


Cluster 
1 


Cluster 
2 


Cluster 
3 


• • • 


Cluster 
31 


Cluster 
32 


Layer LI 


Cluster 
64 


Cluster 
63 


• • • 


Cluster 
35 


Cluster 
34 


Cluster 
33 



Tracking direction 



Clusters 1 ~ 8 


DDS 


Clusters 9 ~ 16 


1 st position of DFL 


• 


• 
• 


Clusters 57 ~ 64 


7 th position of DFL 



BNSDOCID; <WO._ 2004029941 A1 I > 



WO 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



9/11 

FIG. 7 





DMA fill-in 
timing 


contents 


Location in DMA 


50a—- 


-- No more record 


Latest 
TDDS & TDFL 


DDS & DFL 


Finalization -< 
50b — / ' 


TDMA Full 


Latest 
TDDS & TDFL 


DDS & DFL 


50c—- 


— User selection 


Latest 
TDDS & TDFL 


DDS 8c DFL 




FIG. 8 






DMA fill-in 
timing 


contents 


Location in DMA 


50d- 

r 


Non D.M 


Predetermined 
Value 
(ex.zero padding) 


DFL 


50a—- 


■- No more record 


Latest TDDS 


DDS 


Finalization < 


TDMA Full 


Latest TDDS 


DDS 


50c— - 


- User selection 


Latest TDDS 


DDS 



• D.M : Defect Management 

• DMA : Defect Management Area 



BNSDOCID: <WO 200402994 1 A 1 __ I _ > 



WO 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



10/11 



FIG. 9A 



r 



50e 

50b—' 
Finalization < 

50c—' 



DMA fill-in 
timing 


contents 


Location in DMA 


- No more record 
But Spare k TDMA left 


Latest 
TDDS k TDFL 


Part of DMA 


TDMA Full 


Latest 
TDDS k TDFL 


Remainder of DMA 


User selection 


Latest 
TDDS & TDFL 


Remainder of DMA 



D.M : Defect Management 
DMA : Defect Management Area 



FIG. 9B 



Clusters 1-2 


DDS 

(before Finalization) 


Clusters 3 ~ 4 


DDS 

(at Finalization) 


Clusters 5 ~ 8 


DFL 

(before Finalization) 


Clusters 9 ~ 12 


1st position of DFL 
(at Finalization) 


• 
• 


• 


Clusters 29 ~ 32 


6th position of DFL 
(at Finalization) 



BNSDOCID: <WO 2004029941A1 I > 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



International application No. 

PCT/KR 03/02009-0 



CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 
IPC 7 : G11B 7/00, 11/00 



According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 
B. FIELDS SEARCHED " _ 



Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 

IPC 7 : G11B 7/00, 11/00 



Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 

G1 1B 7/0045, 11/10, 11/12, 13/04, 20/10, 20/12 



Electronic data base consulted during the international search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) 

WPI 



C. DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category I Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



US 5805536 A (Gage et al.) 8 September 1998 (08.09.98) 
US 5247494 A (Ohno et al.) 21 September 1993 (21 .09.93) 
EP 0556046 A1 (Sony) 1 8 August 1 993 (1 8.08.93) 



1,19,26-28,46 



1,19,26-28,46 



1,19,26-28,46 



I | Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box C 



See patent family annex. 



* Special categories of cited documents: 

„A" document defining the general state of the art which is not 

considered to be of particular relevance 
JE" earlier application or patent but published on or after the international 

filing date 

„L U document which may throw doubts on priority ctaim(s) or which is 
cited to establish the publication date of another citation or other 
special reason (as specified) 

,,0" document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or other 
means 

„P" document published prior to the international filing date but later than 



„T" later document published after the international Filing date or priority 

date and not in conflict with the application but cited to understand 

the principle or theory underlying the invention 
„X" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered novel or cannot be considered to involve an inventive step 

when the document is taken alone 
„Y*' document of particular relevance, the claimed invention cannot be 

considered to involve an inventive step when the document is 

combined with one or more other such documents, such combination 

being obvious to a person skilled in the art 
„&" document member of the same patent family 



Date of the actual completion of the international search 

23 January 2004 (23.01 .2004) 


Date of mailing of the international search report 

12 February 2004 (12.02.2004) 


Name and mailing adress of the ISA/ AT 

Austrian Patent Office 

Dresdner Strafie 87 5 A- 1200 Vienna 

Facsimile No. 1/53424/535 


Authorized officer 

GROSSING G. 

Telephone No. 1/53424/386 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (second sheet) (July 1998) 



RN.qnncm- <wo 2004029941A1 I > 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 

Information on patent family members 



interScional aoDlication No" 

PCT/KR 03/02009-0 



Patent document cited 
in search report 



Publication 
date 



Patent family 
member(s) 



Publication 
date 



EP 


A 


556046 




KR 


B 


275000 


2000-12-15 










DE 


T 


69318053T 


1998-08-20 










DB 


D 


69318053D 


1998-05-28 










US 


A 


5309419 


1994-05-03 










EP 


A 


0556046 


1993-08-18 










JP 


A 


5225570 


1993-09-03 


US 


A 


5247494 


1993-09-21 


JP 


A 


60263353 


1985-12-26 


US 


A 


5805536 


1998-09-08 






none 





PCT/ISA/210 (patent family annex) (July 199S) 



BNSDOCID: <WO 2004029941A1 I >