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Europaisches Patentamt 
European Patent Office 
Office europeen des brevets 



(11) Veroffentiichungsnummer: 
(11) Publication number: 
(11) Numero de pubiicatlon: 



EP 1 597 722 AO 



Internationale Anmeldung veroffentlicht durch die 
Weltorganisation fur geistiges Eigentum unter der Nummer: 

WO 2004/077415 (art. 158 des EPU). 

International application published by the World 
Intellectual Property Organisation under number: 

WO 2004/077415 (art. 158 of the ERG). 

Demande Internationale publlee par I'Organlsation 
Mondiale de la Propriete sous le numero: 

wo 2004/077415 (art. 158 de la CBE). 



(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World InteUectual Property 
Organization 

International Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
10 September 2004 (10.09.2004) 




PCT 



lllllllllllllllllllllli^ 

(10) International Publication Number 

WO 2004/077415 Al 



(51) International Patent Classification^: GllB 7/00, 11/00 

(21) International Application Number: 

PCT/KR2003/002008 

(22) International Filing Date: 

30 September 2003 (30.09.2003) 



(25) Filing Language: 

(26) Publication Language: 



English 
English 



(30) Priority Data: 
10-2003-0011830 

25 February 2003 (25.02.2003) KR 
10-2003-0016775 18 March 2003 (18.03.2003) KR 

(71) Applicant: LG ELECTRONICS INC. [KR/KR]; 20, 
Yoido-dong, Youngdungpo-gu, Seoul 150-721 (KR). 

(72) Inventors: PARK, Yong Cheol; 215 204, Jugong APT., 
Wonmun-dong, Gwachon-si, Gyeonggi-do 427-030 (KR). 
KIM, Sung Dae; 1110-1406, Jugong APT., Sanbon l(il)- 
dong, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do 435-746 (KR). 



(74) Agents: BAHNG, Hae Clieol et al.; Kims International 
Patent & Law Office, 15th Floor, Yo Sam Building, 648-23, 
Yeoksam-dong, Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135-080 (KR). 

(81) Designated States (national)', AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, 

AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, 
CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FT, GB, GD, GE, 
GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KP, KR, 
KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, MK, 
MN, MW, MX, MZ, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, PL, PT, 
RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SY, TJ, TM, TN, TR, 
TT, TZ, UA, UG, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

(84) Designated States (regional)-. ARIPO patent (GH, GM, 
KE, LS, MW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), 
Eurasian patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
European patent (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, 
ES, K, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PT, RO, 
SE, SI, SK, TR), OAPI patent (BE, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, 
GA, GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Published: 

— with international search report 

For two-letter codes and other ahbre\nations, refer to the "Guid- 
ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations" appearing at the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



(54) Title: WRITE-ONCE OPTICAL DISC, AND METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR RECORDING MANAGEMENT INFOR- 
MATION ON WRITE-ONCE OPTICAL DISC 



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DFL (56 clusters) 



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To DDS in DMA { ZZIZl. 1 



(57) Abstract: A writable-once optical recording medium such as a BD-WO, and a method and apparatus for managing the writable- 
once optical recording medium, are provided- The recording medium includes at least one recording layer having at least one tem- 
porary defect management area and at least one final defect management area. The method includes recording temporary defect 
management information in the temporary defect management area of the recording medium, the temporary defect management in- 
formation including disc usage management infomiation indicating a recording use status of the recording medium; and transferring, 
at a transfer stage, the temporary defect management information from the temporary defect management area to the final defect 
management area of the recording medium. 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

1 

WRITE-ONCE OPTICAL DISC, AND METHOD AND 
APPARATUS FOR RECORDING MANAGEMENT INFORMATION ON 

WRITE-ONCE OPTICAL DISC 

5 Technical Field 

The present invention relates to a writable-once optical disc and a 
management information recording method and apparatus, and more particularly, 
to a method and apparatus for efficiently recording disc usage management 
1 0 information on a writable-once optical disc. 

Backgromid Art 

Optical disc, which is a kind of optical recording media and can record a 
15 large amount of data, is widely being used. Today, a kind of innovative high- 
density digital versatile disc (HD-DVD) such as a blue ray disc (Blu-ray Disc), 
which can record and store video data of high quality and audio data of high 
fidelity for a long time, is under development. 

The Blu-ray disc is a next generation optical recording solution that can 
2 0 store a larger amount of data than a conventional DVD. The Blu-ray disc 
employs a blue-violet laser with the wavelength of 405 nm which is shorter than 
the wavelength of 650 nm of a red laser used to access a conventional DVD. The 
Blu-ray disc has generally a thickness of 1.2 mm and a diameter of 12 cm. It 
includes a light transmission layer whose thickness is 0.1 mm so that the Blu-ray 
2 5 disc can store a larger amount of data than the current DVDs. 

Various standards related to the Blu-ray discs are in development. 
Among the different types of Blu-ray discs, a Blu-ray Disc Rewritable (BD-RE) 
and a Blu-ray Disc Write-Once (BD-WO) are being developed. 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

2 

FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a structure of a recording area of a 
general BD-RE. Referring to FIG. 1, the BD-RE includes a recording layer 
divided into a lead-in area, a data area and a lead-out area. The data area 
includes a user data area for recording user data thereon, and an inner spare area 
5 ISAO and an outer spare area OSAO each allocated in the inner tracks and the 
outer tracks of the disc. These spare areas are used as replacement areas for 
replacing data in a defective area of the user data area according to linear 
replacement. 

In the BD-RE, if a defective area is found in the user data area diuing 

10 recording, data in the defective area is transferred to and recorded on a spare 
area using linear replacement. Further, as defect management information for 
managing the defective area, position information and the like relating to the 
defective area and the corresponding spare area are recorded on defect 
management areas (DMA 1 DMA 4) in the lead-in area and the lead-out area. 

15 Also, since data can be recorded on and erased from any area of the BD-RE 
repeatedly (since the BD-RE is rewritable), the entire BD-RE can be randomly 
used irrespective of a specific recording mode. 

In contrast, in a writable-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO), data can be 
recorded only one time on a specific area of the disc. As a result, the BD-WO 

20 has certain limitations pertaining to recording modes and in randomly using the 
entire area of the disc due to the defect management difficulty. 

Further, in a BD-WO, management of the defective areas is one of the 
important matters that needs to be addressed, especially for data recording 
operations. But since the BD-WO is still in the early development stage, there 

25 are no schemes, no disc structures, no apparatuses, and no methods on how to 
manage the defective areas of the BD-WO, which will be needed for the BD- 
WO to be commercially viable and operationally feasible. Accordingly, for the 
BD-WO, a unified specification is required that would satisfy the 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

3 

aforementioned advanced requirements. But any proposed specification relating 
to the current BD-RE cannot be used because it does not address the needs of the 
BD-WO. 

5 Disclosure of Invention 

Accordingly, the present invention is directed to a writable-once optical 
disc and a management information recording method and apparatus that 
substantially obviate one or more problems due to limitations and disadvantages 
10 of the background art. 

An object of the present invention is to provide a writable-once optical 
disc and a management information recording method and apparatus for 
effectively recording and managing disc usage management information therein. 
Additional advantages, objects, and features of the invention will be set 
1 5 forth in part in the description which follows and in part will become apparent to 
those having ordinary skill in the art upon examination of the following or may 
be learned from practice of the invention. The objectives and other advantages of 
the invention may be realized and attained by the structure particularly pointed 
out in the written description and claims hereof as well as the appended 
2 0 drawings. 

To achieve these objects and other advantages and in accordance with the 
purpose of the invention, as embodied and broadly described herein, there is 
provided a method of managing a writable-once optical recording medium, the 
recording medium including at least one recording layer, the method comprising: 
2 5 providing a user area and a non-user area on the at least one recording layer of 
the recording medium; providing at least one temporary defect management area 
in at least one of the user area and the non-user area, the at least one temporary 
defect management area allocated to store therein temporary defect management 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

4 

information including disc usage management information, the disc usage 
management information indicating a recording or non-recording status of the 
user area of the recording medium; and providing at least one final defect 
management area in the non-user area. 
5 In accordance with an aspect of the present invention, a method of 

managing a writable-once optical recording medium, the recording medium 
including at least one recording layer, the at least one recording layer having at 
least one temporary defect management area and at least one final defect 
management area, includes: recording temporary defect management 
information in the at least one temporary defect management area of the 
recording medium, the temporary defect management information including disc 
usage management information indicating a recording use status of the recording 
medium; and transferring the temporary defect management information from 
the at least one temporary defect management area to the at least one final defect 
management area of the recording medium. 

In accordance with an aspect of the present invention, an apparatus for 
managing a writable-once optical recording medium, the recording medium 
including at least one recording layer, includes a combination of components 
configured for: providing a user area and a non-user area on the at least one 
recording layer of the recording medium; providing at least one temporary defect 
management area in at least one of the user area and the non-user area, the at 
least one temporary defect management area allocated to store therein temporary 
defect management information including disc usage management information, 
the disc usage management information indicating a recording or non-recording 
status of the user area of the recording medium; and providing at least one final 
defect management area in the non-user area. 

In accordance with an aspect of the present invention, an apparatus for 
managing a writable-once optical recording medium, the recording medium 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

5 

including at least one recording layer, the at least one recording layer having at 
least one temporary defect management area and at least one final defect 
management area, the apparatus includes a combination of components 
configured for: recording temporary defect management information in the at 
5 least one temporary defect management area of the recording medium, the 
temporary defect management information including disc usage management 
information indicating a recording use status of the recording medium; and 
transferring the temporary defect management information from the at least one 
temporary defect management area to the at least one final defect management 

1 0 area of the recording medium. 

In accordance with an aspect of the present invention, a writable-once 
optical recording medium includes: at least one recording layer including a user 
area and a non-user area; at least one temporary defect management area 
provided in at least one of the user area and the non-user area of the recording 

15 medium, so as to store therein temporary defect management information 
including disc usage management information, the disc usage management 
information indicating a recording or non-recording status of the user area of the 
recording medium;, and at least one final defect management area provided in the 
non-user area. 

2 0 In accordance with an aspect of the present invention, a writable-once 

optical recording medium includes: at least one recording layer including at least 
one temporary defect management area and at least one final defect management 
area, wherein temporary defect management information is recorded in the at 
least one temporary defect management area of the recording medium, the 

25 temporary defect management information including disc usage management 
information indicating a recording use status of the recording medium, and 
wherein the temporary defect management information is transferred from the at 
least one temporary defect management area to the at least one final defect 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

6 

management area of the recording medium. 

It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the 
following detailed description of the present invention are exemplary and 
explanatory and are intended to provide further explanation of the invention as 
5 claimed. 

Brief Description of the Drawings 

Further objects and advantages of the invention can be more folly 
10 understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the 
accompanying drawings, in which: 

FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a structure of a general single-layer BD- 

RE: 

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an optical recording/reproducing device 
1 5 according the present invention; 

FIG. 3 illustrates a structure of a writable-once optical disc such as a 
single layer BD-WO according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 4 illustrates an example of a DDS structure on a rewritable disc, a 
TDDS structure on a BD-WO and a disc management information recording 
2 0 method for the BD-WO according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 5 illustrates a structure of a writable-once optical disc such as a dual 
layer BD-WO according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIGS. 6A and 6B illustrate a structure of the clusters in a DMA of a dual 
layer BD-RE, for explaining forther the aspects of the present invention; 
2 5 FIG. 7 illustrates a structure of a DMA and a TDMA of a dual layer BD- 

WO and a method of transferring data from the TDMA to the DMA according to 
an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 8 illustrates a structure of a DMA and a TDMA of a dual layer BD- 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

7 

WO and a method of transferring data from the TDMA to the DMA according to 
an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 9 illustrates a structure of a DMA and a TDMA of a dual layer BD- 
WO and a method of transferring data from the TDMA to the DMA according to 
5 an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 10 illustrates a structure of a DMA and a TDMA of a dual layer BD- 
WO and a method of transferring data from the TDMA to the DMA according to 
an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 1 1 illustrates a structure of a DMA and a TDMA of a dual layer BD- 
1 0 WO and a method of transferring data from the TDMA to the DMA according to 
an embodiment of the present invention; and 

FIG. 12 illustrates a structure of a writable-once optical disc such as a 
single layer BD-WO according to another embodiment of the present invention. 

15 Best mode for Carrying Out the Invention 

Reference will now be made in detail to the preferred embodiments of the 
present invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying 
drawings. Wherever possible, the same reference numerals will be used 

2 0 throughout the drawings to refer to the same or like parts. 

FIG. 2 is an example of a block diagram of an optical disc 
recording/reproducing device 20 according to an embodiment of the present 
invention. The optical disc recording/reproducing device 20 includes an optical 
pickup 22 for writing/reading data to/from an optical recording medium 21, a 

25 servo unit 23 for controlling the pickup 22 to maintain a distance between an 
objective lens of the pickup 22 and the recording medium 21 and for tracking 
relevant tracks on the recording medium 21, a data processor 24 for processing 
and supplying input data to the pickup 22 for writing, and for processing data 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

8 

read from the recording medium 21, an interface 25 for exchanging data and/or 
commands with any external host 30, a memory or storage 27 for storing 
information and data therein including defect management data as needed (e.g., 
temporary defect management information, etc.) associated with the recording 
5 medium 21, and a microprocessor or controller 26 for controlling the operations 
and elements of the recording/reproducing device 20. Data to be written/read 
to/from the recording medium 21 may also be stored in the memory 27 if needed. 
All the components of the recording/reproducing device 20 are operatively 
coupled. The recording medium 21 is a recording medium of write-once type 

1 0 such as a BD-WO. 

All the methods and disc structures discussed herein according to the 
present invention can be implemented using the recording/reproducing device 20 
of FIG. 2 or any other suitable device/system. For example, the microcomputer 
26 of the device 20 may be used to control allocation of the disc structure and to 

15 control the recording of defect management data on the recording medium and 
the transferring of the defect management data from a temporary area (e.g., 
TDMA) to a permanent or final area (e.g.^ DMA) on the recording medium 21. 
The TDMA and DMA will be discussed later in more detail. 

A defect management information recording method for a writable-once 

20 optical disc such as a BD-WO according to the preferred embodiments of the 
present invention will be now described in detail with reference to the 
accompanying drawings. For a discussion convenience, a writable-once Blu-ray 
disc (BD-WO) will be exemplified. Herein, two types of a BD-WO - a single 
layer BD-WO and a dual layer BD-WO - are discussed. The single layer BD- 

25 WO has a single recording layer, whereas the dual layer BD-WO has two 
recording layers. 

FIG. 3 illustrates a stmcture of a writable-once optical recording medium 
such as a single-layer BD-WO according to an embodiment of the present 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

9 

invention. Referring to FIG. 3, the BD-WO includes a lead-in area, a data area, 
and a lead-out area allocated on the single recording layer. Each of the lead-in 
area and the lead-out area includes a plurality of defect management areas 
(DMA 1 and DMA 2; DMA 3 and DMA 4) for storing therein DMA information 
for defect management. Each of the DMAs 1-4 has a fixed size, e.g., 32 clusters. 
Generally, in view of the importance of defect management, the same 
information is written in each of the DMAs 1-4 so that if one of the DMAs is 
defective, then a different DMA can be accessed to obtain the defect 
management information. 

It should be noted that in a general BD-RE, since data can be repeatedly 
recorded on and erased from a DMA (although the size of the DMA is limited), a 
DMA of large size is not required. However, in a BD-WO according to the 
present invention, since data cannot be repeatedly recorded on and erased from 
the DMA, a DMA of large size is required for defect management. 

Still referring to FIG. 3, the lead-in area further includes a temporary 
defect management area (TDMA 1) for temporarily storing defect management 
information therein. The data area includes an inner spare area ISAO, a user data 
area, and an outer spare area OSAO. Parts of or the entire ISAO and OSAO are 
used as replacement areas for defective areas in the user data area according to 
0 linear replacement. The outer spare area OSAO includes a temporary defect 
management area (TDMA 2). The defect management information temporarily 
stored in the TDMA 1 and/or TDMA 2 is also referred to herein as TDMA 
information. 

In one embodiment, the TDMA 1 allocated to the lead-in area has a fixed 
5 size, whereas the TDMA 2 allocated to the outer spare area OSAO has a variable 
size depending upon the size of the spare area(s). For example, if the OSAO has 
a size of N x 256 clusters where N > 0 (N = integer), then the TDMA 2 has a 
size of P clusters where P = (N x 256)/4. 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

10 

In one example, the same information may be written in each of the 
TDMAs 1 and 2. In another example, the TDMAs 1 and 2 may be sequentially 
used to sequentially record the TDMA information. Regardless, during 
replacement writing operations for writing data of a defective area onto a spare 
area, TDMA infomiation is generated (e.g., under control of the microcomputer 
26) and written onto the TDMAs 1 and/or 2. The TDMAs are also updated 
periodically or as needed. When the BD-WO is ready to be finalized (e.g., data 
writing operation in the user data area is completed, the TDMA(s) are full, or a 
finalize command received firom a user, etc.), then the TDMA information (latest 
version) temporarily written in the TDMA(s) is transferred and written onto one 
or each of the DMAs 1-4. 

The TDMA information written in each of the TDMAs 1 and 2 includes 
temporary defect list (TDFL) infomiation and temporary disc definition stmcture 
(TDDS) information. In one embodiment, the TDFL information includes one 
or a plurality of TDFLs (TDFL #1 - TDFL #n). Each TDFL includes one or a 
plurality of defect entries identifying defects and corresponding replacement 
areas on the disc. Each defect entry includes location information pertaining to a 
defective area of the user data area and the corresponding replacement area. For 
example, during a data recording operation on the BD-WO, if a defective area is 
found in the user data area, then data written or to be written in that defective 
area is written in a part (replacement area) of a spare area (e.g., IS AO or OSAO) 
according to a linear replacement scheme. Then the information pertaining to 
the defective area and the replacement area and their relationship is entered as a 
defect entry in the TDFL. For instance, this information may include a first 
physical sector number of the defective area on the disc, a first physical sector 
number of the replacement area (spare area) corresponding to that defective area, 
and any other data pertaining to the defect for defect management. 

In one embodiment, the TDDS information written in each of the TDMAs 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

11 

1 and 2 includes one or a plurality of TDDSs (TDDS #1 TDDS #n). Each 
TDDS has a fixed size (e.g., one cluster) and includes location information 
pertaining to the TDFL(s) so that the location of any TDFL can be quickly 
identified by accessing the TDDS(s). This location information can be written in 
a portion of Sector 0 of the one cluster and may include one or more physical 
sector numbers each indicating a location of a TDFL written on the BD-WO, and 
any other information pertaining to the TDFL information. Here, a cluster has 
32 sectors each sector having 2048 bytes. 

Each TDDS also includes recording mode information. The recording 
mode information identifies a recording mode of the BD-WO and can be written 
in a portion of Sector 0 of the one cluster. The location information pertaining to 
the TDFL(s) and the recording mode information discussed above are also 
referred to herein as a TDDS part. Here, the TDDS part occupies the entire 
Sector 0 (or any other designated location area). 

Each TDDS fixrther includes disc usage management information, which 
identifies the status of a recording area of the BD-WO and which can be 
represented in one of the two forms: track information (Track-Info) and space 
bitmap information (SBM). This structure of the TDDS will be discussed in 
more detail later by referring to FIG. 4. 

As the data recording operation for writing data into the data area 
progresses, the TDMAs may be updated periodically to reflect any recently 
discovered defective areas and corresponding replacement areas. After each 
updating of the TDMA, a TDFL and a corresponding TDDS, which may include 
all previous TDMA information and the recently generated TDMA information, 
may be written in the TDMA. In this aspect, the latest TDDS and TDFL written 
in the TDMA of the BD-WO would include the latest TDMA information. Then 
when the BD-WO is to be fmahzed, the latest TDDS and TDFL written on the 
BD-WO are transferred and written in one or each of the DMAs 1-4 as the final 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

12 

and most-updated defect management inforaiation. 

FIG. 4 illustrates a DDS structure of a rewritable disc, an example of a 
TDDS structure on a BD-WO and a disc management information recording 
method for the BD-WO according to an embodiment of the present invention. 
As shown in FIG. 4, in the DDS of a general rewritable optical disc, only 60 hyte 
information corresponding to an extremely small portion of 1 cluster is used to 
store therein the DDS information. The entire remaining part of the DDS is all 
set to 'zero padding'. 

In contrast, in the BD-WO, the entire TDDS area is used to store therein 
the TDDS information. As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the TDDS part (including 
the location information and the recording mode information) are written in the 
entire Sector 0 of the cluster assigned as the TDDS, whereas Sectors 1-31 store 
therein the disc usage management information (Track-Info or SBM). In another 
example, the disc usage management information can be recorded on the first 3 1 
sectors (Sectors 0 ~ 30) in the TDDS, and any remaining disc usage management 
information can be recorded on the last 32"** sector (Sector 31) in the TDDS 
along with the TDDS part. 

The recording mode information identifies one of a plurality of recording 
modes employed in the BD-WO according to the present invention. In this 
example, a value of "0000 0000" may be used to indicate a sequential recoding 
mode, and a value of "0000 0001" may be used to indicate a random recording 
mode. Obviously, other examples are possible. Information about the BD-WO 
according to the present invention can be variously determined depending upon 
the needs through a process of specification regulation. 

The disc usage management information is varied in dependence upon the 
disc usage. In the BD-WO, the disc usage management information is required 
for accurately searching and detecting the start point of an available recording 
area, and is used to distinguish a recording area firom a non-recordrag area on the 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

13 

disc. In this aspect, the disc usage management inforaiation indicates where the 
available recording area and the recorded area are located within the data area 
(e.g., user data area). 

As mentioned above, the disc usage management information can be 
5 represented as either the track information (Track-Info) or the space bitmap 
information (SBM). The Track-Info is generally used when the BD-WO is 
recorded in a sequential recording mode. The SBM is generally used when the 
BD-WO is recorded in a random recording mode. These recording modes can 
be determined depending on the recording mode identified in the recording 

1 0 mode information stored in the TDDS . 

In conventional writable-once optical discs, the recording status/mode 
information is expressed as 'track information' in case of compact disc series, 
and as 'Rzone', 'Fragment' or 'recording range' in case of DVD series. But in 
the present invention, the aforementioned various expressions relating to the 

15 recording status/mode information are commonly designated as Track-Info', 
and accordingly the Track-Info will be appreciated as having such meaning 
irrespective of expressions. 

In one example, since the tracks on the BD-WO are sequentially used to 
record during the sequential recording mode, the Track-Info identifies the start 

2 0 point (location) of the recording area (e.g., user data area) of the BD-WO, and 
the end point (location) of the last recorded portion of the recording area. This 
information then indicates the start of the next available portion of the recording 
area on the BND-WO. 

The bitmap information identifies a start point of an available recordable 

25 portion of the recording area on the BD-WO using bit values such as '0' and '1'. 
For instance, if a particular cluster area of the recording area on the BD-WO has 
been recorded, then it is indicated by allocating a value of T to every minimal 
recording unit (1 cluster). If a cluster area of the recording area has no recorded 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

14 

data thereon, then that cluster is assigned to a value of '0\ In this manner, if the 
SBM indicates that a particular cluster has a value of T assigned thereto, then it 
indicates that that cluster has been already used (i.e., it has recorded data 
thereon). If the SBM indicates that a particular cluster has a value of '0\ then it 
5 indicates that that cluster has not been used yet (i.e., it has no recorded data 
thereon). Obviously, the reversal or some other values may be used to indicate 
the recording/non-recording state of each area unit such as the clusters of the 
user data area. Thus, the SBM makes it possible to express a recording usage 
status of the disc even in the random recording mode. 

10 FIG. 12 illustrates a structure of a writable-once optical recording 

medium, such as a single-layer BD-WO, according to another embodiment of 
the present invention. The BD-WO structure of FIG. 12 is identical to the BD- 
WO stmcture of FIG. 3, except that the TDDS part, which includes the location 
information of the TDFL(s) and the recording mode information, is updated and 

15 written after each update state, as shown in FIG. 12. In this aspect, the disc 
usage management information (Track-Info or SBM) is stored in Sectors 0-30 of 
one cluster, and the TDDS part is stored in Sector 31 of the one cluster. The 
TDDS part occupies the entire Sector 31. In another example, the TDDS part 
may be stored in the entire Sector 0 of one cluster, and the Track-Info or SBM 

2 0 may be stored in Sectors 1-3 1 of the one cluster. 

FIG. 5 illustrates a structure of a dual layer BD-WO according to an 
embodiment of the present invention. The structure of the dual layer BD-WO 
and designations of each area shown in FIG. 5 are exemplary for description 
convenience and understanding, and does not limit to the scope of the present 

2 5 invention. 

Referring to FIG. 5, the BD-WO includes two recording layers. The first 
recording layer (Layer 0 or LO) includes a lead-in area, a data area 40a, and an 
outer zone area Outer Zone 0. The second recording layer (Layer 1 or LI) 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

15 

includes a lead-out area, a data area 40b and an outer zone area Outer Zone 1. 
The lead-in area of the first recording layer (Layer 0) includes a temporary 
defect management area TDMA 1 and a plurality of final defect management 
areas DMAla and DMA 2a. The lead-out area of the second recording layer 
5 (Layer 1) includes a temporary defect management area TDMA 4, and a 
plurality of final defect management areas DMA lb and DMA 2b. Additional 
final defect management areas (e.g., DMAs 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b) are also provided in 
the Outer Zone 0 and/or the Outer Zone 1 . 

The data area 40a of the first recording layer (Layer 0) includes an inner 

10 spare area ISAO, a user data area 42a, and an outer spare area OSAO. The data 
area 40b of the second recording layer (Layer 1) includes an inner spare area 
ISAl, a user data area 42b, and an outer spare area OSAl. The outer spare area 
OSAO and/or the outer spare area OSAl includes a TDMA (e.g., TDMA 2 or 
TDMA 3). The arrows depicted in each of the areas shown in FIG. 5 are 

15 examples of a data recording direction. 

Similar to the single layer BD-WO, the TDMAs 1 and 4 may have a fixed 
size, whereas the TDMAs 2 and 3 in the spare areas may have a variable size 
depending upon the size of the spare area(s). For example, if the OSAO/OSAl 
has a size of N x 256 clusters where N > 0 (N = integer), then the TDMA 

2 0 2/TDMA 3 has a size of P clusters where P = (N x 256)/4. 

The use and structure of the DMAs and TDMAs on the single layer BD- 
WO as discussed above applies equally to the DMAs and TDMAs on the dual 
layer BD-WO. One difference is that each of the DMAs la-4b in each recording 
layer of the dual layer BD-WO has a size of 32 clusters such that a DMA in the 

25 first recording layer and a corresponding DMA in the second recording layer 
constitute one fiiU DMA. For instance, the DMAs la and lb constitute one 
DMA, the DMAs 2a and 2b constitute one DMA, the DMAs 3a and 3b 
constitute one DMA, and the DMAs 4a and 4b constitute one DMA. In this 



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16 

regard, same information is recorded in each of the DMAs la, 2a, 3a and 4a of 
the first recording layer. Information, which may be different from the 
information recorded in the DMAs la, 2a, 3a, 4a, is recorded in each of the 
DMAs lb, 2b, 3b and 4b. 

5 When the BD-WO is to be finahzed (e.g., data writing operation in the 

user data area is completed, the TDMA(s) are full, or a finalize command 
received from a user, a host, a disk manufeicturer, etc.), the TDMA information 
already stored in the TDMA(s) is now written onto the DMA(s) as DMA 
information. This process of transferring the TDMA information into the DMA 

0 will now be discussed according to the embodiments of the present invention by 
referring to FIGS. 6A-11, where dual layer BD-WOs are discussed. 

FIGS. 6A and 6B illustrate a structure of clusters for one DMA of a 
general dual layer BD-RE (rewritable disc) and are provided to explain further 
the aspects of the present invention. The method of transferring the TDMA 

5 information for the BD-WO according to the present invention assures some 
reciprocity with the rewritable optical disc (BD-RE). 

Similar to the DMA structure of the BD-WO, the BD-RE includes as 
shown in FIG. 6A, one DMA composed of a DMA part (Clusters 1 -32) from 
the first recording layer and a DMA part (Clusters 33-64) from the second 

0 recording layer, which are accessed according to the tracking direction indicated 
with the arrow. As shown in FIG. 6B, the same DDS information is repeatedly 
recorded on the Clusters 1 - 4 of the DMA, and the DFL information is 
repeatedly recorded on the Clusters 9 64 of the DMA. However, in the BD- 
RE, the Clusters 5 8 are not used at all for defect management. 

5 The present invention as shown in, e.g., FIGS. 7-11 provides a newly 

defined DMA structure for a dual layer BD-WO based on the DMA structure of 
the BD-RE of FIGS. 6A and 6B, for assuring reciprocity with the rewritable 
optical disc (BD-RE). Referring to FIGS. 7 to 11, several embodiments of the 



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17 

present invention will be discussed wherein, when the latest disc management 
information is finalized in a TDMA of the BD- WO, a disc finalize command is 
received, the TDMA(s) is full, etc., it is transferred and recorded on a DMA of 
the BD-WO. Particularly, the latest TDFL information and the latest TDDS 
5 information in a TDMA are transferred to the DMA as DFL information and 
DDS information, respectively. This transfer process is also called herein as the 
TDMA information transfer process. 

It should be understood that one DMA shown in each of FIGS. 7 to 10 
corresponds to one DMA composed of DMA parts from the first and second 

10 recording layers. For instance, one DMA (Clusters 1 ~ 64) shown in each of 
FIGS. 7-10 is composed of the DMA 2a (Clusters 1-32) in the first recording 
layer and the DMA 2b (Clusters 33-64) in the second recording layer of the BD- 
WO shown in FIG. 5. Also one TDMA shown in each of FIGS. 7-11 
corresponds to a TDMA (e.g., TDMA 1, 2, 3 or 4) on the BD-WO shown in FIG. 

15 5. 

FIG. 7 illustrates a structure of a DMA and a TDMA of a dual layer BD- 
WO and a method of transferring data from the TDMA to the DMA according to 
an embodiment of the present invention. 

Referring to FIG. 7, during the TDMA information transfer process, the 

2 0 latest defect management information (latest TDFL information and latest TDDS 
information) in the TDMA is transferred to and recorded on a DMA of the BD- 
WO. Among the TDDS information, the TDDS part (including the TDFL 
location information and the recording mode information) and the disc usage 
management information (Track-Info or SBM) (e.g., as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4) 

25 are transferred onto the DMA. In this example, the Clusters 1-8 of the DMA are 
designated as a DDS section, whereas the Clusters 9-64 of the DMA are 
designated as a DFL section. All the clusters of the DMA in the BD-WO are 
designated for storing management data. 



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More specifically, the disc usage management information (DO) and the 
TDDS part (TO) for the first recording layer LO, which may be written separately 
in the TDMA from the disc usage management information (Dl) and the TDDS 
part (Tl) for the second recording layer LI, are transferred and written 
5 separately and repeatedly into the DMA. In this example, the DO and TO for the 
first recording layer LO are repeatedly (four times) recorded on the Clusters 1 to 
4 of the DDS section. Further, the Dl and Tl for the second recording layer LI 
are repeatedly (four times) recorded on the Clusters 5 to 8 of the DDS section in 
the DMA. As a result, the DDS section of the DMA includes the latest TDDS 
0 part and the latest disc usage management information for the first and second 
recording layers written in the following order: DO&TO, DO&TO, DO&TO, 
DO&TO, Dli&Tl, Dl&Tl, Dl&Tl, Dl&Tl, where DO&TO or Dli&Tl is 
recorded in one unit size, e.g., one cluster size. In this aspect, in one example, 
the TO/Tl written in the DDS section of the DMA may identify the location of 
the DFLs in the DMA on the BD-WO, and not necessarily the location of the 
TDFLs in the TDMA on the BD-WO. 

Moreover, the Clusters 9-64 (DFL section) of the DMA are used to store 
therein DFL information which corresponds to or is based on the latest TDFL 
information in the TDMA. In this example, the same DFL information can be 
written repeatedly (e.g., up to seven times) in the DFL section of the DMA. 
Storing the same information repeatedly in the DDS section or the DFL section 
ensures that the DMA information is not lost (e.g., due to a defect in a portion of 
the DMA) and is accurately and completely accessed each time it is needed. 

In one embodiment, the latest disc usage management information is 
recorded each on the front part of a first DMA in the lead-in area and/or on the 
front/rear part of a DMA in the lead-out area (depending on whether the disc is a 
single layer or multiple layer). This allows the disc usage management 
information to be accessed quickly at the initial loading time of the disc. Further, 



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19 

the data reliability and data preservation can be assured by repetitive recording 
of same information in different parts of the disc. For instance, if the Clusters 1- 
32 of the DMA shown in FIG. 7 is assumed to correspond to the DMA 2a shown 
in FIG. 5, then the information recorded in the Clusters 1-32 shown in FIG. 7 is 
5 repeatedly recorded in each of the other DMAs la, 3a and 4a of the first 
recording layer. Similarly, if the Clusters 33-64 of the DMA shown in FIG. 7 is 
assumed to correspond to the DMA 2b shown in FIG. 5, then the information 
recorded in the Clusters 33-64 shown FIG. 7 is repeatedly recorded in each of 
the other DMAs lb, 3b and 4b of Hie second recording layer. 

10 FIG. 8 illustrates a structmre of a DMA and a TDMA of a dual layer BD- 

WO and a method of transferring data from the TDMA to the DMA according to 
an embodiment of the present invention. This example is identical to the 
example of FIG. 7, except that in this example, the latest disc usage management 
information DO and the latest TDDS part TO for the first recording layer LO is 4- 

15 times recorded in the Clusters 1-2 and 5-6 of the DMA, and the latest disc usage 
management information Dl and the latest TDDS part Tl for the second 
recording layer LI is also 4-times recorded in the Clusters 3-4 and 7-8 of the 
DMA. As a result, the DDS section of the DMA includes the latest TDDS part 
and the latest disc usage management information for the first and second 

20 recording layers written in the following order: DO&TO, DO&TO, Dl&Tl, 
Dl&Tl, DO«&TO, DO«feTO, Dl&Tl, Dl&Tl, where DO&TO or Dl&Tl is 
recorded in one unit size, e.g., one cluster size. In another variation, the 
Clusters 5 to 8 in the DMA can be in a reserved state without any repetitive 
recording such that only the Clusters 1-4 (and not the Clusters 5-8) have the DO, 

25 TO, D 1 and T 1 recorded thereon. 

FIG, 9 illustrates a structure of a DMA and a TDMA of a dual layer BD- 
WO and a method of transferring data from the TDMA to the DMA according to 
an embodiment of the present invention. This example is identical to the 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

20 

example of FIG. 7, except that in this example, each of the (DO&TO) and 
(Dl&Tl) for the first and second recording layers LO and LI is alternatively and 
repeatedly recorded in the DDS section of the DMA by the unit of, e.g., one 
cluster. 

5 Particularly, as shown in FIG. 9, the latest DO and TO for the first 

recording layer LO is recorded in each of the Clusters 1, 3, 5 and 7 of the DMA, 
and the latest Dl and Tl for the second recording layer LI is recorded in each of 
the Clusters 2, 4, 6 and 8 of the DMA. As a result, the DDS section of the DMA 
includes the latest TDDS part and the latest disc usage management information 
10 for the first and second recording layers written in the following order: DO&TO, 
Dl&Tl, DO&TO, Dl&Tl, DO&TO, Dl&Tl, DO&TO, Dl&Tl, where DO&TO or 
Dl&Tl is recorded in one unit size, e.g., one cluster size. In another variation, 
the Clusters 5 to 8 in the DMA can be in a reserved state without any repetitive 
recording such that only the Clusters 1-4 (and not the Clusters 5-8) have the DO, 
15 TO, D 1 and T 1 recorded thereon. 

FIG. 10 illustrates a structure of a DMA and a TDMA of a dual layer BD- 
WO and a method of transferring data firom the TDMA to the DMA according to 
an embodiment of the present invention. This example is identical to the 
example of FIG. 7, except that in this exan:q>le, the latest DO&TO and Dl&Tl 
20 are recorded in the DDS section of the DMA in that order. Then the same 
information is recorded in the reverse order in the subsequent fields, or the 
, subsequent fields are reserved. 

Particularly, in this example, as shown in FIG. 10, the latest DO and TO 
for the first recording layer LO are recorded in each of the Clusters 1, 4, 5 and 8 
25 of the DMA, and the latest Dl and Tl for the second recording layer LI are 
recorded in each of the Clusters 2, 3, 6 and 7 of the DMA. As a result, the DDS 
section of the DMA includes the latest TDDS part and the latest disc usage 
management information for the furst and second recording layers written in the 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

21 

following order: DO&TO, Dl&Tl, Dl&Tl, DO&TO, DO&TO, Dl&Tl, Dl&Tl, 
DOifeTO, where DO&TO or Dl&Tl is recorded in one unit size, e.g., one cluster 
size. In another variation, the Clusters 5 to 8 in the DMA are in a reserved state 
without any repetitive recording such that only the Clusters 1-4 (and not the 
5 Clusters 5-8) have the DO, TO, Dl and Tl recorded thereon in the order of: 
DO&TO, Dl&Tl, Dl&Tl, and DO&TO. 

The above sequence of DO&TO, Dl&Tl, Dl&Tl, and DO&TO prevents 
all or most of the disc usage management information for one recording layer 
from being simultaneously destroyed or illegible due to the fact that the 
10 recording area of the disc is substantially shaped in circles and a defect such as a 
scratch on the disc is generated in a linear direction across one or more circles. 

In the embodiments of FIGS. 7-10, if the track information (Track-Info) 
is used as the disc usage management information for the BD-WO, then the first 
and second disc usage management information DO and Dl for the first and 
15 second recording layers will be the same. As a result, the same latest disc usage 
management information is recorded in the DMA for both the first and second 
recording layers. 

FIG. 1 1 illustrates a structure of a DMA and a TDMA of a dual layer BD- 
WO and a method of transferring data from the TDMA to the DMA according to 

2 0 an embodiment of the present invention. This example is identical to the 
example of FIG. 7, except that in this example, the latest DO and TO for the first 
recording layer LO are repeatedly (e.g., four times) recorded in the Clusters 1 to 
4 of the DMA, and the latest Dl and Tl for the second recording layer LI are 
repeatedly (e.g., four times) recorded in the Clusters 33 to 36 of the DMA. Here, 

25 the Clusters 1-32 of the DMA are located on the first recording layer LO (e.g., as 
the DMA 2a of FIG. 5), and the Clusters 33-64 of the DMA are located on the 
second recording layer LI (e.g., as the DMA 2b of FIG. 5). As a result, the disc 
usage management information for the first recording layer is distinguished from 



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22 

the disc usage management information for the second recording layer by being 
recorded in different recording layers. Also, the Clusters 5-8 and 37-40 are 
reserved and the Clusters 9-32 and 41-64 are used to store therein DFL 
information as discussed above. 
5 Although the specific number and order of the repetitions have been 

identified for recording the DO&TO and Dl&Tl in association with the FIGS. 7- 
11 embodiments, the present invention is not lunited to such and encompasses 
any other number and/or different order of the repetitions. 

10 Industrial applicability 

According to the present invention, in a single layer BD-WO case, the 
latest TO and DO for the single recording layer are repeatedly recorded in the 
DDS section of the DMA. Similarly, the latest TDFL information is repeatedly 
1 5 recorded as needed in the DFL section of the DMA. 

It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications 
and variations can be made in the present invention. Thus, it is intended that the 
present invention covers the modifications and variations of this invention 
provided they come within the scope of the appended claims and their 
2 0 equivalents. 



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23 

What is claimed is ; 

1. A method of managing a writable-once optical recording medium, the 
recording medium including at least one recording layer, the method comprising: 
5 providing a user area and a non-user area on the at least one recording 

layer of the recording medium; 

providing at least one temporary defect management area in at least one 
of the user area and the non-user area, the at least one temporary defect 
management area allocated to store therein temporary defect management 
10 information including disc usage management information, the disc usage 
management information indicating a recording or non-recording status of the 
user area of the recording medium; and 

providing at least one final defect management area in the non-user area, 

15 2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the at least one final defect 

management area is provided to store therein the disc usage management 
information transferred from the at least one temporary defect management area. 

3. The method according to claim 2, wherein the at least one recording 
20 layer includes a plurality of recording layers each having a final defect 
management area, and the disc usage management information for each of the 
recording layers is separately recorded all in at least one of the final defect 
management areas of the recording layers. 

25 4. The method according to claim 2, wherein the at least one recording 

layer includes a plurality of recording layers each having a final defect 
management area, and the disc usage management information for each of the 
recording layers is separately and correspondingly recorded in the final defect 



wo 2004/077415 

24 

management area of the corresponding recording layer. 



PCT/KR2003/002008 



5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the recording medium is a 
writable-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO). 

5 

6. A method of managing a writable-once optical recording medium, the 
recording medium including at least one recording layer, the at least one 
recording layer having at least one temporary defect management area and at 
least one final defect management area, the method comprising: 

10 recording temporary defect management information in the at least one 

temporary defect management area of the recording medium, the temporary 
defect management information including disc usage management information 
indicating a recording use status of the recording mediimi; and 

transferring the temporary defect management information from the at 

15 least one temporary defect management area to the at least one final defect 
management area of the recording medium. 

7. The method according to claim 6, wherein the at least one recording 
layer includes a plurality of recording layers each having a final defect 

2 0 management area, and in the transferring step, the disc usage management 
information for each of the recording layers is separately recorded all in at least 
one of the final defect management areas of the recording layers. 

8. The method of claim 7, wherein the disc usage management 
25 information includes a first disc usage management information (DO) for a first 

recording layer of the recording medium and a second disc usage management 
information (Dl) for a second recording layer of the recording medium, such 
that in the transferring step, the first and second disc usage management 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

25 

information is recorded sequentially in at least one of the final defect 
management areas of the recording layers according to the following order: DO, 
DO, DO, DO, Dl, Dl, Dl and Dl. 

5 9. The method of claim 7, wherein the disc usage management 

information includes a first disc usage management information (DO) for a first 
recording layer of the recording medium and a second disc usage management 
information (Dl) for a second recording layer of the recording medium, such 
that in the transferring step, the first and second disc usage management 
10 information is recorded sequentially in at least one of the final defect 
management areas of the recording layers according to the following order: DO, 
DO, Dl, Dl, DO, DO, Dl and DL 

10. The method of claim 7, wherein the disc usage management 
15 information includes a first disc usage management information (DO) for a first 

recording layer of the recording medium and a second disc usage management 
information (Dl) for a second recording layer of the recording medium, such 
that in the transferring step, the first and second disc usage management 
information is recorded sequentially in at least one of the final defect 
2 0 management areas of the recording layers according to the following order: DO, 
Dl, DO, Dl, DO, Dl, DO and DL 

11. The method of claim 7, wherein the disc usage management 
information includes a first disc usage management information (DO) for a first 

25 recording layer of the recording medium and a second disc usage management 
information (Dl) for a second recording layer of the recording medium, such 
that in the transferring step, the first and second disc usage management 
information is recorded sequentially in at least one of the final defect 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

26 

management areas of the recording layers according to the following order: DO, 
D1,D1 and DO. 

12. The method according to claim 11, wherein a certain number of 
; fields, following the recorded first and second disc usage management 

information, in the at least one of the final defect management areas are reserved 
for other use. 

13. The method according to claim 6, wherein the at least one recording 
layer includes a plurality of recording layers each having a final defect 
management area, and the disc usage management information for each of the 
recording layers is separately and correspondingly recorded in the final defect 
management area of the corresponding recording layer. 

14. The method of claim 6, wherein the recording medixmi includes a 
recording area on the at least one recording layer, the recording area divided into 
a plurality of tracks, and the disc usage management information represents track 
position information identifying an end point of a last recorded track on the 
recording medium. 

15. The method of claim 6, wherein the disc usage management 
information represent a space bit map. 

16. The method according to claim 6, wherein the transferring step is 
performed when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

17. The method according to claim 16, wherein the recording medium is 
to be finalized if a data recording operation in a user data area of the recording 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

27 

medium is completed, if the at least one temporary defect management area is 
foil, or if a finalize command is received. 



18. The method according to claim 6, wherein in the transferring step, the 
transferred temporary defect management information forther includes 
temporary defect list information and temporary disc definition structure 
information, and is latest temporary defect management information written on 
the recording medixmi. 



19. The method according to claim 6, wherein the recording medium is a 
writable-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO). 

20. The method according to claim 6, wherein in the transferring step, the 
temporary defect management information tiransferred is the latest temporary 
defect management information stored in the at least one temporary defect 
management area. 



21. An apparatus for managing a writable-once optical recording medium, 
the recording medium including at least one recording layer, the apparatus 
comprising: 

means for providing a user area and a non-user area on the at least one 
recording layer of the recording mediimi; 

means for providing at least one temporary defect management area in at 
least one of the user area and the non-user area, the at least one temporary defect 
management area allocated to store therein temporary defect management 
information including disc usage management information, the disc usage 
management information indicating a recording or non-recording status of the 
user area of the recording medium; and 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

28 

means for providing at least one final defect management area in the non- 
user area, 

22. An apparatus for managing a writable-once optical recording medium, 
5 the recording medium including at least one recording layer, the at least one 

recording layer having at least one temporary defect management area and at 
least one final defect management area, the apparatus comprising: 

means for recording temporary defect management information in the at 
least one temporary defect management area of the recording medium, the 
0 temporary defect management information including disc usage management 
information indicating a recording use status of the recording medium; and 

means for transferring the temporary defect management information 
from the at least one temporary defect management area to the at least one final 
defect management area of the recording medium. 

23. A writable-once optical recording medium comprising: 
at least one recording layer including a user area and a non-user area; 
at least one temporary defect management area provided in at least one of 

the user area and the non-user area of the recording medium, so as to store 
therein temporary defect management information including disc usage 
management information, the disc usage management information indicating a 
recording or non-recording status of the user area of the recording medium; and 
at least one final defect management area provided in the non-user area. 

24. The recording medium according to claim 23, wherein the at least one 
final defect management area is provided on the recording medium to store 
therein the disc usage management information transferred fi:om the at least one 
temporary defect management area. 



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PCT/KR2003/002008 



29 

25. The recording medium according to claim 24, wherein the at least one 
recording layer includes a plurality of recording layers each having a final defect 
management area, and the disc usage management information for each of the 

5 recording layers is separately recorded all in at least one of the final defect 
management areas of the recording layers. 

26. The recording medium according to claim 24, wherein the at least one 
recording layer includes a plurality of recording layers each having a final defect 

10 management area, and the disc usage management information for each of the 
recording layers is separately and correspondingly recorded in the final defect 
management area of the corresponding recording layer. 

27. The recording medium according to claim 23, wherein the recording 
1 5 medium is a writable-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO). 

28. A writable-once optical recording medium comprising: 

at least one recording layer including at least one temporary defect 
management area and at least one final defect management area, 
2 0 wherein temporary defect management information is recorded in the at 

least one temporary defect management area of the recording medium, the 
temporary defect management information including disc usage management 
information indicating a recording use status of the recording medium, and 

wherein the temporary defect management information is transferred 
25 from the at least one temporary defect management area to the at least one final 
defect management area of the recording medium. 

29. The recording medium according to claim 28, wherein the at least one 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

30 

recording layer includes a plurality of recording layers each having a final defect 
management area, and the disc usage management information for each of the 
recording layers is separately recorded all in at least one of the final defect 
management areas of the recording layers. 

5 

30. The recording medium of claim 29, wherein the disc usage 
management information includes a first disc usage management information 
(DO) for a first recording layer of the recording medium and a second disc usage 
management information (Dl) for a second recording layer of the recording 

0 medium, such that the first and second disc usage management information is 
recorded sequentially in at least one of the final defect management areas of the 
recording layers according to the following order: DO, DO, DO, DO, Dl, Dl, Dl 
andDl. 

31. The recording medium of claim 29, wherein the disc usage 
management information includes a first disc usage management information 
(DO) for a first recording layer of the recording medium and a second disc usage 
management information (Dl) for a second recording layer of the recording 
medium, such that the first and second disc usage management information is 
recorded sequentially in at least one of the final defect management areas of the 
recording layers according to the following order: DO, DO, Dl, Dl, DO, DO, Dl 
andDl. 

32. The recording medium of claim 29, wherein the disc usage 
management information includes a first disc usage management information 
(DO) for a first recording layer of the recording medium and a second disc usage 
management information (Dl) for a second recording layer of the recording 
medium, such that the first and second disc usage management information is 



wo 2004/077415 PCT/KR2003/002008 

31 

recorded sequentially in at least one of the final defect management areas of the 
recording layers according to the following order: DO, Dl, DO, Dl, DO, Dl, DO 
andDl. 

5 33. The recording medium of claim 29, wherein the disc usage 

management information includes a first disc usage management information 
(DO) for a first recording layer of the recording medium and a second disc usage 
management information (Dl) for a second recording layer of the recording 
medium, such that the first and second disc usage management information is 
10 recorded sequentially in at least one of the final defect management areas of the 
recording layers according to the following order: DO, Dl, Dl and DO. 

34. The method according to claim 33, wherein a certain number of 
fields, following the recorded first and second disc usage management 

15 information, in the at least one of the final defect management areas are reserved 
for other use. 

35. The recording medium according to claim 28, wherein the at least one 
recording layer includes a plurality of recording layers each having a final defect 

2 0 management area, and the disc usage management information for each of the 
recording layers is separately and correspondingly recorded in the final defect 
management area of the corresponding recording layer. 

36. The recording medium of claim 28, wherein the recording medium 
25 includes a recording area on the at least one recording layer, the recording area 

divided into a plurality of tracks, and the disc usage management information 
represents track position information identifying an end point of a last recorded 
track on the recording medium. 



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32 



PCT/KR2003/002008 



37. The recording medium of claim 28, wherein the disc usage 
management information represent a space bit map. 

38. The recording medium according to claim 28 , wherein the temporary 
defect management information is transferred from the at least one temporary 
defect management area to the at least one fibial defect management area when 
the recording medium is to be finalized. 

39. The recording medium according to claim 38, wherein the recording 
medium is to be finalized if a data recording operation in a user data area of the 
recording medium is completed, if the at least one temporary defect management 
area is full, or if a finalize command is received. 

40. The recording medium according to claim 28, wherein the transferred 
temporary defect management information includes temporary defect list 
information and temporary disc definition structure information, and is latest 
temporary defect management information written on the recording medium. 

41. The recording medium according to claim 28, wherein the recording 
medium is a writable-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO). 

42. The method according to claim 28, wherein the temporary defect 
management information transferred is the latest temporary defect management 
information stored in the at least one temporary defect management area. 



wo 2004/077415 



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PCT/KR2003/002008 



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FIG, 4 



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( 

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30 


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31 





INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



International application No. 

PCT/KR 03/02008-0 



CLASSIFICATION OF SUB JECT MATTER 

IPC^:G11B7/00, 11/00 

According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 



B. FIELDS SEARCHED 



Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification sjonbols) 

IPC^:G11B7/00, 11/00 



Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 

G11B 7/0045, 11/10, 11/12. 13/04, 20/10, 20/12 



Electronic data base consulted during the international search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) 

WPI 



C. DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



US 5805536 A (Gage et al.) 8 September 1998 (08.09.98) 



US 5247494 A (Ohno et al.) 21 September 1 993 (21 .09.93) 



EP 0556046 Al (Sony) 18 August 1993 (18.08.93) 



1,6,21-23,28 



1,6,21-23,28 



1,6,21-23,28 



I I Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box C. 



See patent family annex. 



* Special categories of cited documents: 

„A" document defining the general state of the art which is not 

considered to be of particular relevance 
„E" earlier application or patent but published on or after the international 

filing date 

„L" document whicii may throw doubts on priority claim(s) or which is 
cited to establish the publication date of another citation or other 
special reason (as specified) 

„0'* document refen'ing to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or other 
means 

„P" document published prior to the international filing date but later than 
the priority date claimed 



„T" later document published after the international filing date or priority 

date and not in conflict with the application but cited to understand 

the principle or theory underlying the invention 
„X" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered novel or cannot be considered to involve an inventive step 

when the document is taken alone 
„Y" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered to involve an inventive step when the document is 

combined with one or more other such documents, such combination 

being obvious to a person skilled in the art 
„&" document member of the same patent family 



Date of the actual completion of the international search 

23 January 2004 (23.01 .2004) 



Date of mailing of the international search report 

12 February 2004 (12.02.2004) 



Name and mailing adress of the ISA/AT 

Austrian Patent Office 

Dresdner StraBe 87, A- 1200 Vienna 

Facsimile No. 1/53424/535 



Authorized officer 



GROSSING G. 



Telephone No. 1/53424/386 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (second sheet) (July 1998) 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 

Infoimatioti on patent fiamily members 



Intern^Bnal application No. 

PCT/KH 03/02008-0 



Patent document cited Publication Patent family Publication 

in search report date member{s) date 



EP 


A 


556046 




KR 


B 


275000 


2000-12-15 










DE 


T 


6931B053T 


1998-08-20 










DE 


D 


69318053D 


1998-05-28 










US 


A 


5309419 


1994-05-03 










SP 


A 


055604S 


1993-08-18 










JP 


A 


5225570 


1993-09-03 


US 


A 


5247494 


1993-09-21 


JP 


A 


60263353 


1985-12-26 


US 


A 


5805536 


1998-09-08 






none 





PCT/ISA/210 patent family annex) Quly 1998)