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RB158,ij'72 




Presented to the 
LIBRARY of the 
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
by 



Gopp, Clark Pitmar Ltd. 



The Guide: 

H fIDanual 

FOR 

The Canadian Militia, 

(INFANTRY) 

EMBRACING 

THE INTERIOR ECONOMY, 

DUTIES, DISCIPLINE, DRESS, BOOKS AND CORRESPONDENCE 
OF A BATTALION IN BARRACKS OR CAMP, 

WITH 

REGULATIONS FOR MARCHES, TRANSPORT AND ENCAMP- 
MENT, ALSO FORMS AND BUGLE CALLS. 

FIFTH EDITION-RfeVISED. 



COMPILED BY 



COLONEL W. D. OTTER, C.B,, A.D.C., 

Commatiding Military District No. 2 ; 
Ifispector of Infa)itry, IV estem Division ; 

AND 

Late comma7tding the '‘'‘Queen's Ovoti Rifles" 
of Canada. 



TORONTO : 

THE COPP, CLARK COMPANY, LIMITED. 

1902. 



Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year 
one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight, by The Copp, 
Clark Company, Limited, Toronto, Ontario, in the Office of the 
Minister of Agriculture. 



PKEFACE TO FIRST EDITION, 



In submitting “The Guide” to the kind consideration 
of the Canadian Militia, I am led to hope that it may, to 
a certain extent, fill the place of that excellent Manual of 
Interior Economy, by Major F. E. Dixon, now out of 
print. 

I have endeavoured to put in a concise and handy form 
such information as will, I think, be generally useful in the 
working of a Battalion, not only in Barracks or camp, but 
also during the ordinary drills at Head- Quarters. For the 
latter purpose it may be said that very little knowledge or 
method is needed, but I hold the contrary opinion, and 
consider that the same’ discipline, regularity and order are 
required at home as on service ; and moreover, that the 
best time to acquire and practice soldierly habits is when 
quietly parading for weekly drills. I do not, of course, 
suppose that opportunities will offer on these occasions for 
the practice of every detail here provided for, but a vast 
deal can be done towards increasing the efificiency of the 
Militia by a rigid adherence to the system and. principles 
advocated. 

“The Guide” has been compiled from the following 
authorities, viz.. Queen’s Regulations, Army Act, Militia 
Regulations and Orders, Lord Wolseley’s Soldiers’ Pocket 
Book, Colonel Anderson’s Manual of Military Usages, the 
Standing Orders of Her Majesty’s 16th, 17th, 60th, 97th 
Regiments of Foot and the Rifle Brigade, to which I have 
added my own experience in the Active Militia of Canada, 
in the positions of Adjutant and Commanding Ofiicer. 

September, 1880. 



3 



EXTRACT FROM MILITIA GENERAL ORDERS. 



General Orders (7) 



Head-Quakters, 

Ottawa, 8th April, 1881. 

MILITARY BOOK. 



The Major-General commanding, recommends to the 
notice of Officers Commanding Battalions and Corps, a 
hook recently published by Lieut. -Col. Otter, Queen’s 
Own Rifles, Toronto, entitled “The Guide,” a Manual of 
Interior Economy, etc. 

By Command, 



(Signeci) WALKER POWELL, Colonel, 
Adjutant-General, 



TABLE OF CONTEOTS. 



PART I. — Interior Economy. 

Section I. — Private Soldiers. 

“ II. — Hon-Commissioned Officers. 

“ III. — Officers. 

“ IV.— Regimental Organization, Enrolment, 

‘ Discharge, Pay, Bands, Pioneers, 

Barracks, Orders, Hospital, Officers’ 
Mess,- Sergeants’ Mess, Company 
Messes, Regimental Institute, Choice 
of Quarters, Leave, Passes, Servants. 

PART II. — Duties. 

Section L— Roster of Duties. 

‘ ‘ II. — Daily Routine of Duties. 

‘‘ III. — Guards, Sentries, Escorts, Picquets, 

and Police. 

“ IV. — Orderly Duties, Officers, Non-Com. 

Officers and Men. 

‘‘ V. — Drills and Parades, Formation of Drill, 

Guard, Picquet, Tattoo, Ration, 
Sick, Muster, Orderly Room, Kit 
Inspection, and Funeral Parades, 
Dismissing Parades, etc. 

“ VI. — Aid of the Civil Power. 

PART III. — Discipline. 

Section I. — Powers of a Commanding Officer. 

“ II. — Courts Martial, Courts of Inquiry and 

Boards. 

“ III. — Offences Punishable by Civil Law. 

“ IV. — Prisoners. 

“ V. — Provost Regulations. 

“ VI. — Defaulters. 

“ VI I. — Complaints. 

5 



G 



CONTENTS, 



PART IV. — Dress. 

Section I. — Officers. 

II. — Non-Commissioned Officers and Men. 

PART V. — Books and Correspondence. 

Section I. — Regimental Books. 

“ II. — Company Books. 

‘‘ III. — Individual Books. 

“ IV. — Correspondence. 

PART VI. — Marches and Encampment. 

Section I. — Marches, Bivouac, Baggage, Transport. 

II. — Encampment, Pitching Tents, Kitchens, 
Water, Latrines. 

PART VII.— Forms. 

PART VIII.— Bugle Calls. 




PART I. 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 

SECTION L 

PRIVATE SOLDIERS. 

The Active Militia, being her first line of defence, Canada 
has to depend upon it for the suppression of all internal 
disorders, and, in case of sudden invasion or war, must 
look, for a time at least, to that force alone for protection. 

Under these circumstances the Militiaman, whatever 
may be his motives for enrolling, whether they be founded 
in patriotism, military ardour, a passion for display, or a 
desire for recreation, should bear in mind that from the 
moment he is attested he becomes a soldier and a servant 
of the state, and as such, parts for a time with the privi- 
leges of citizenship, having no will of his own, na liberty 
of action, no unrestrained freedom of speech. This is, no 
doubt, a severe trial to begin with, but it must be endured, 
for rigid discipline and perfect steadiness are indispensable 
in the ranks, and these can only be assured through the 
prompt resignation on the part of the soldier of all the 
license he may have enjoyed before entering the force. 

He should understand that subordination, in the most 
exact signification of the term, is his first and greatest 
obligation, as without it he is more dangerous and vexa- 
tious to his friends than to his enemies ; he degenerates 
into a brigand, and controverts the fundamental principles 
that gave him professional existence — the peace and safety 
7 



8 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



of the commonwealth. By subordination, as by a uni- 
versal intelligence, parts apparently the most diverse and 
discordant are operated on and combined in the strictest 
unison, with ease and advantage. The submission of the 
individual will produce uniformity and energy in the 
whole, and enable the directing power to work for the 
public benefit. By and under this beneficial influence 
immense bodies of undisciplined soldiers have been over- 
thrown and destroyed by comparatively insignificant bodies 
of better instructed men, and surely none but the most 
infatuated can feel repugnance at obeying instructions 
calculated to ensure at once safety and conquest. 

A well-known officer says that ^ ‘ the only true method 
of maintaining an army by voluntary enlistment is to 
make it popular, not only in the ephemeral sense that 
people will cheer it when parading the streets on its return 
from a successful campaign, nor in that sense, that the 
ordinary toasts at public banquets shall be received with 
cheers, but in the only sense in which it can be of any 
practical value by inducing young men to surrender their 
liberty for a considerable portion of their lives, to enter 
its ranks, submit to its discipline, and endure its hardships, 
for the honour and safety of their country. ” 

Obedience is the first duty of a soldier, and should be 
rendered unhesitatingly ; orders should not be questioned, 
nor the advisability of instant compliance with them be 
made a subject for discussion. The action of obedience 
should be mechanical in the quickness with which it fol- 
lows the order received, although in carrying it out the 
soldier can prove that he is something more than a mere 
machine by the intelligence he displays in executing it. 

Soldiers should be obedient and respectful to all Officers 
and Non-commissioned Officers, attentive to their drill. 



NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICE US. 



9 



silent, when in the ranks, clean in their persons and care- 
ful to keep their arms and accoutrements in good order. 

No soldier should speak slightingly or disrespectfully in 
any way of an Officer or Non-commissioned Officer, nor 
should he ever reply when in ranks if checked for neglect 
or irregularity. His thinking himself aggrieved will by 
no means excuse disobedience or disrespect, but his com- 
plaint, if made afterwards in a regular and respectful 
manner, will be attended to (see “Complaints.”) * 

Cursing and swearing, and the use of blasphemous and 
indecent language should never be indulged in. None but 
the most depraved minds can find pleasure in the use of 
brutal expressions. 

Drunkenness is a most serious crime and I’enders a 
soldier unfit to be trusted. Those bearing such a character 
should be debarred from all indulgences, and receive 
severe punishment. • 

SECTION II. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

The accurate execution of the greater part of the duties 
of a Battalion is in a great measure dependent upon the 
alertness and skill of the Non-commissioned Officers. 

The requisites for a good Non-commissioned Officer are 
sobriety, activity and zeal in the performance of duty, 
strict attention to the execution of, and obedience to, every 
order which may be given, vigilance and undeviating 
exactness in requiring from his juniors and the men, full 
and perfect performance of all duties required of them. 
He should be particular in his dress and a constant 
observer of passing occurrences, that he may obtain a 



10 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



knowledge of the customs and rules of the service, and be 
thereby enabled to act with certainty and decision when 
placed in situations of charge and responsibility. He 
requires to be a good drill, able to write orders distinctly, 
and make out all returns and states correctly. 

Hon- commissioned Officers should consider themselves 
upon duty at all times when in uniform, and maintain a 
constant supervision over the men, particularly of their 
own companies and sections ; they should assist the recruits, 
tell them the best men to associate with, and prompt, by 
their influence and example, the steady men and old sol- 
diers to treat the recruits kindly, set forth to them the 
consequences of misbehaviour, teach them military habits, 
punctuality at all parades and duties, and the necessity of 
obedience to orders, and impress on their miiid^i the maxim, 
that, right or wrong, soldiers should first obey, and if 
aggrieved complain afterwards. 

A Non-commissioned Officer should never under any 
circumstances, speak to or argue with a soldier under the 
influence of liquor, but at once take steps to have him 
confined. 

A Non-commissioned Officer should never permit, even 
in joke, indecent or blasphemous language to be used in 
his presence by any soldier, much less ofifeiid in this respect 
himself ; he should endeavour to preserve good order and 
correct behaviour among the men at all times. 

Non-commissioned Officers should not connive at or 
conceal irregularities. 

Non-commissioned Officers should not refuse to take a 
soldier before an Officer when asked', unless the Non-com- 
missioned Officer is on duty, or the soldier is guilty of some 
ofience for which he should be confined. 

Promotion should depend entirely upon merit, and al- 



NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 



11 



though length of service may give claim for consideration, 
it should give no claim whatever for advancement to posi- 
tions for which the individuals are not otherwise qualified. 
Such men, therefore, as render themselves most conspicu- 
ous by their zeal and ability should always be promoted in 
preference to those who, although of older standing, do not 
display an equal degree of merit ; seniority should only be 
considered where other qualifications are apparent. 

The moment Non-commissioned Officers become careless 
and negligent in the discharge of their duty, however irre- 
proachable their characters may be in other respects, they 
become unworthy of their rank and an injury to their corps. 

Non-commissioned Officers should never be employed 
personally on any duty of fatigue, nor be seen holding or 
leading a horse, carrying a bundle, basket, etc. , nor appear 
in any position beneath the dignity of their rank. 

Frequent catechetical examinations of the Non-commis- 
sioned Officers should be made by the Adjutant, and a 
nominal list kept in the orderly room, on which should be 
marked the result of each examination, so that those Non- 
commissioned Officers who are best qualified may be 
selected for promotion. 

The following positions held by Non-commissioned 
Officers and men of our Militia are ranks : 

Sergeant-Major. * 

Quarter-Master Sergeant. 

Colour Sergeant. 

Sergeant. 

Corporal. 

Private. 

* In the Imperial service there is a class called Warrant Officers, who 
are inferior to Officers, but superior to Non-commissioned Officers, and 
who hold their positions by warrant issued under the hand and seal of 



12 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



All other positions, such as Hospital Sergeant, Sergeant 
Instructor of Musketry, Paymaster Sergeant, Orderly 
Room Sergeant, Sergeant Drummer, Sergeant Piper, Ser- 
geant Bugler, etc., are appointments. 

When additional Hon-commissioned OfiScers are required 
to assist in the discharge of company duty. Corporals may 
be appointed to act as Sergeants, and private soldiers as 
Corporals, these are termed Lance Sergeants and Lance 
Corporals respectively. 

A Non-commissioned Officer or Private, on receiving an 
appointment, will thereupon be vested with the rank 
attached to that appointment, and this rank will be his 
permanent grade. The rank attached to any appointment 
is indicated in the title of such appointment ; in the case 
of Sergeant Instructor of Musketry, Sergeant Bugler, etc., 
ib is that of Sergeant. 

A -soldier may be removed from his appointment by 
order of his Commanding Officer, and will, in that case, 
revert to his permanent grade, remaining as a supernumer- 
ary in that rank until absorbed into the first vacancy, 
always providing that if his grade is higher than a Corporal 
he is qualified to perform the duties of the rank, if not, he 
should be reduced by authority obtained from the General 
Officer commanding the Militia. 

A Non-commissioned Officer reduced to a lower grade 
will take rank and precedence in the lower grade from the 
date of the signing of the original sentence of the Court 

the Secretary of State for War. In the Infantry, the Sergeant-Major 
and Bandmaster are warrant officers, but as this class does not exist in 
our Militia, the Sergeant-Major remains a Non-commissioned Officer, 
and the Bandmaster may be a civilian, entrusted with the instruction of 
the Band and permission to wear a special uniform, without rank or 
command, or a regularly enrolled Non-commissioned Officer. 



NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 



13 



Martial, or, in case of reduction, by order of the General 
Officer commanding the Militia from the date of such order. 

An acting Non-commissioned Officer of whatever rank 
can be ordered by his Commanding Officer to revert to his 
permanent grade. The permanent grade of a Lance Ser- 
geant is Corporal, that of a Lance Corporal is Private. 

Non-commissioned Officers may, with the consent of 
their Commanding Officer, resign their rank and revert to 
the rank and position they formerly held, but they are not 
allowed to do so in order to escape trial by Court Martial, 
without the special sanction of the General Officer com- 
manding the Militia. 

Non-commissioned Officers take seniority with one an- 
other as under, those bracketed together according to date 
of promotion or appointment : those to whose titles an 
asterisk is prefixed are not entitled to assume any com- 
mand on parade or duty except over such Non-commis- 
sioned Officers or men as may be specially placed under 
their orders. In matters of discipline, however, they will 
at all times exercise the full authority attached to their 
ranks. 

1. Sergeant-Major. 

2. Quarter-Master Sergeant. 

/Colour Sergeant. 

ISergeant Instructor of Musketry. 

^Sergeant. 

^Hospital Sergeant. 

^Paymaster Sergeant. 

*Orderly Koom Sergeant. 

Sergeant Drummer. 

^ ^ Sergeant Fifer. 

! Sergeant Piper. 

I Sergeant Bugler. 



14 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



Pioneer Sergeant. 

* Canteen Sergeant. 

Sergeant of the Band. 

Provost Sergeant. 

5. Lance Sergeant. 

6. Corporal. 

7. Lance Corporal. 

Paymaster and Orderly Boom Sergeants in the Imperial 
Army, after a certain number of years’ service in those 
appointments, obtain increased pay, with rank of Colour 
Sergeant and also Quarter-Master Sergeant. 

A Colour or Quarter-Master Sergeant, if appointed to 
either of these positions, does not lose his rank, but 
remains classed among those holding such ranks according 
to date of appointment. 

SERGEANT-MAJOR. 

The Sergeant-Major takes precedence of all other Non- 
commissioned Officers. His position being one of the 
greatest responsibility and importance he should be treated 
with every possible respect, and never be addressed by the 
Non-commissioned Officers and privates without the appel- 
lation of “ Sir.” When Non-commissioned Officers or pri- 
vates are speaking to him, they should stand at attention. 

He is the assistant to the Adjutant, under whose imme- 
diate orders he acts. Avoiding interference with the 
interior discipline of the companies, he can be of immense 
service by a general watchfulness, bringing to the notice of 
the Adjutant any departure from regimental orders in the 
conduct ^of fatigjies, of guards and sentries, of escorts, of 
drills, of men walking out of barracks, etc. , etc. 

He should conduct himself so as to merit the respect of 
every individual in his Battalion, and be an example of 
activity and soldier-like conduct. 



NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 



15 



As the well-being of a Battalion depends so much upon 
his conduct, he should be a man of sound sense and judg- 
ment, of a good temper, and kind, but firm in the execu- 
tion of his duty ; he should possess a knowledge of the 
characters and capabilities of all the Non-commissioned 
Officers and men. 

He keeps the rosters of all duties for the Non-commis- 
sioned Officers ; he gives out to the Orderly Sergeants of 
companies the orders and detail of duties for the following 
day ; he parades all guards, escorts and picquets for the 
inspection of the Adjutant, and at Tattoo he parades 
the Orderly Sergeants of companies and collects their 
reports, reporting to the Orderly Officer on duty ; he also 
attends at the orderly room with prisoners. 

He should keep accurate lists of defaulters, and see that 
they do not escape the punishment awarded, and that 
they are properly drilled and dismissed at the hour ap- 
pointed. He should see that a list of all men confined to 
barracks is kept in the Guard Eoom, the Canteen, and at 
the Gate. He should see that the written orders for the 
Guard are perfectly legible, and be responsible for the 
committal and release of all prisoners to and from the’ 
guard room, cells and military prison at the proper hours. 

The Sergeant-Major is entitled to a servant. 

An Assistant or second Sergeant-Major may be appointed 
when the duties are very heavy, to assist the Sergeant- 
Major, ranking immediately after him. 

QUARTER-MASTER SERGEANT. 

The Quarter- Master Sergeant is the immediate assistant 
of the Quarter- Master in all his various duties, and should 
as well as the Sergeant-Major, be a model of good conduct * 
and respectability. 



16 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



He should be present at the issue of all regimental stores, 
rations, fuel and ammunition, and should superintend the 
removal of the same when necessary ; also attend to the 
cleaning of Barracks or Camp ground. 

He should daily visit the barrack rooms, cook houses, 
or trendies, latrines, ash and refuse pits, and workshops, 
reporting any irregularity to the Quarter- Master ; also 
attend Barrack or Camp Inspections, to see that no im- 
proper charges are made against his Battalion. 

Under the supervision of the Quarter- Master, he should 
have charge of the camp equipage, the regimental baggage 
of his corps, and the regimental reserve ammunition, also 
the superintendence of the loading and conveyance of the 
same when on the line of march. 

The Pioneers are under his orders. 

COLOUR SERGEANTS. 

Colour Sergeants, who stand in the position of Company 
Sergeant-Major and Quarter-Master Sergeant,* should be 
irreproachable in their conduct, zealous and attentive in 
the performance of their duties, taking a pride in the 
cleanliness, soldierlike bearing and dress of the men of 
their companies, and attentive to the good order of their 
barrack rooms or tents. 

Colour Sergeants report direct to their Captains upon all 
subjects connected with the payment and general dis- 
cipline of their companies. 

They should be held responsible, that the crime reports 
of prisoners are made out for the Captain’s signature, also 
that the Duty Rosters of their companies are kept with 
the greatest exactness, and for the charge of all spare arms 
and accoutrements. 

They should keep the accounts between the men and 



NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 



17 



the Captain, and attend at the taking or giving over of 
barracks to be occupied or vacated by their companies, 
the drawing or exchanging of bedding or barrack utensils, 
also at all barrack and kit inspections. On these occasions 
they should note all damages or deficiencies in the different 
rooms or kits. When a man is absent without leave for 
twenty-four hours an inventory of his kit should be taken 
by the Colour Sergeant. 

The following rolls should be kept by Colour Sergeants 
to assist them in the discharge of their duties ; — 

1. A daily account of rations drawn for the company, 
kept in tabular form in a book. All changes or casualties 
should be carefully noted down in the column for remarks. 
In the same book should be kept a roll of men admitted to 
and discharged from Hospital or in confinement, with the 
dates of admission and discharge ; also the total number of 
days in Hospital. 

2. An alphabetical roll of the company, showing date 
of each man’s enlistment, age at original enlistment, coun- 
try, religion, trade, and present height. 

3. A company clothing roll, showing what articles have 
been issued to each man. 

4. A roll showing the number of arms, accoutrements, 
etc.^ in each man’s possession. In the column of remarks 
should be entered all damages to the arms, etc., which 
have been noted at any inspection, and to whom these are 
chargeable. 

5. A miscellaneous book in which should be entered an 
account of the distribution of the company’s bedding, 
showing the number of sets in each man’s possession, 

6. A distribution of the washing for the men. 

7. An account of necessaries drawn from regimental 

2 



18 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



store, giving tlie date of drawing, and the price of each 
article. 

8. A casualty state of the company, carefully noting in 
the column of remarks all changes that may take place in 
its strength. 

9. A list of men sleeping out of barracks. 

10. A roll of Non-commissioned Officers, with the dates 
of their promotions. 

11. An alphabetical roll of the company (including 
attached men) for muster parade, with the cause of absence 
from parade marked in ink opposite the man’s name. 

NON-COMMISSTONED OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF SECTIONS. 

The Non-commissioned Officer in charge of a section or 
sub-section should be responsible for the good order of his 
men’s appointments, and know the condition of every man’s 
kit, what part of a man’s necessaries are old and what new ; 
also, what articles require repair, and that such things as 
may be marked for repair, at any inspection, are repaired 
accordingly.^ If a man’s appointments are out of order or 
not proj)erly cleaned he should set him to work at them 
after parade, and not permit him to leave the barrack 
room, except on duty, until they are in a proper state. 

All damages and losses in barracks, rooms, or tents, 
should be traced to the individuals and reported to the 
Colour Sergeant ; general charges for barrack damages are 
to be avoided as much as possible. 

He should report every occurrence to the Colour Sergeant 
and the Officer in charge of the half company, and be present 
when the former makes an inventory of an absentee’s kit. 

The Non-commissioned Officer in charge of a room or 
tent should keep the Roster for the Orderly men of his 
room or tent, and be held responsible that the room or 



NON-OOMMISSIONED OFFieERS. 



19 



tent be thoroughly cleaned, swept and ventilated, the beds 
properly folded, and everything in order within half an 
hour after Reveille sounding. He should inspect each 
man’s berth on these occasions, and see that the accoutre- 
ments and clothing are all arranged according to orders. 
He should see that a correct roll of the men of his room is 
suspended at all times behind the barrack room door, and 
that the men sit down to their meals properly dressed. 
He should see every man in bed, the water can filled with 
water, and every precaution taken against fire by the time 
Lights Out is sounded. 

The Non-commissioned Ofiicer in charge of a section or 
sub-section of a company of the Active Militia should keep 
a book containing the names, (residence and business 
address) age, height, date of enlistment, etc., of the men 
in his section or sub-section, and be responsible that they 
are warned for parades and other duties, as well as having 
a general supervision over them as already described. 

HOSPITAL SERGEANT. 

The Hospital Sergeant is under the direct orders of the 
Surgeon, to whom he reports any irregularity or deviation 
from the Standing Orders connected with his department 
which may come under his notice (see “Hospital.”) 

SERGEANT INSTRUCTOR OF MUSKETRY. 

He should assist the Officer Instructor, under whose 
immediate orders he is placed, in all his duties in the Mus- 
. ketry instruction of the Battalion, and to which he is to 
confine himself exclusively during the season. 

He should not be subject to the orders of any Non- 
commissioned Officer, except as regards discipline, and is 
exempt from all Oarrison, Begimental and Barrack duties. 



20 



'INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



unless when not actually required for the performance of 
duties appertaining to his appointment, when he may be 
employed in any-manner suitable to his rank at the discre- 
tion of the Commanding Officer. 

PAYMASTER SERGEANT. 

The Paymaster Sergeant is under the orders of the Pay- 
master, whom he generally assists. 

ORDERLY ROOM SERGEANT. 

The Orderly Poom Sergeant is placed under the special 
charge and control of the Adjutant ; he has a general 
superintendence of the assistant clerks, and everything 
connected with the orderly room. 

He should never speak of any business which may be 
transacted in the orderly room to any one, except the 
Adjutant and Sergeant-Major, nor allow the clerks under 
him to do so. 

As the supply of stationery is a heavy charge, the 
Orderly Room Sergeant should take especial care that no 
improper or useless consumption thereof be permitted, and 
that every article of a durable kind be used so long as it 
is serviceable. 

BANDMASTER, OR SERGEANT OF THE BAND. 

The Bandmaster should be the sole instructor of the 
band, subject only to the directions of the Commanding 
Officer and Band Committee ; no other should interfere 
either in the practice or public playing of the band. 

The discipline of the band, like that of the drummers, 
buglers, etc., is in the hands of the Adjutant. 

The Bandmaster should make such suggestions to the 
President of the Band Committee as he may consider 



NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 



21 



beneficial to the band, with a view to their being for- 
warded to the Commanding Officer. 

He should have charge of the- clothing, appointments, 
music and instruments, being responsible to the Committee 
for their safe keeping. He should, inspect the instruments 
at regular periods, reporting to the President whenever an 
instrument is broken or out of order, and be particular in 
the care of the music, not permitting any copies of it to be 
taken without the special sanction of the Commanding 
Officer. 

SERGEANT DRUMMER, FIFER, ETC. 

The Sergeant Drummer, Fifer, Piper or Bugler is under 
the immediate orders of the Adjutant ; and responsible 
that the drummers, fifers, pipers or buglers are instructed 
in every part of their duty, that their instruments are 
kept in good order, that they practise daily under his 
superintendence, and that each is capable of performing 
his duty as a drummer, fifer, etc. He is also answerable 
for their conduct and general appearance, and keeps the 
roster of their duties. 

He should not permit drums to be beaten, or bugles, 
fifes or pipes to be sounded other than duty calls, except 
by orders from the Commanding Officer, Adjutant or 
Sergeant Major. 

^ On parade he should take charge of the Bands so far 
as relates to their movements during manoeuvres, and 
in case of danger through frightened horses, or at the 
instance of the Commanding Officer, should stop the 
music. 

* PIONEER SERGEANT. 

The Pioneer Sergeant is in charge of the pioneers, and 
should be, if possible, a carpenter by trade. He should 



22 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



have a thorough knowledge of his own, as well as a good 
idea of other trades. 

CANTEEN SERGEANT. 

For duties, see “Regimental Institute.” 

' PROVOST SERGEANT. 

A Non-commissioned Officer placed in charge of the 
Regimental or Garrison Prison, also of the Police. 

For duties see ‘ ‘ Provost Regulations. ” 

SECTION III. 

OFFICERS. 

Lord Wolseley says, “ An inefficient officer is a swindle 
upon the public.”. 

Ifc is necessary that an Officer should be well informed 
in the responsible part he has to perform. 

The first step a young officer should take towards quali- 
fying himself for command is to learn to obey, and to yield 
Teadily to the knowledge and experience of his superiors. 

Example is a duty of high importance in every degree 
of life ; in none of more utility and consequence than in 
the military profession. This consideration is earnestly 
recommended to all the officers. It is their example that 
regulates and determines the behaviour of the Non- 
commissioned Officers and men. 

Officers should always encourage and promote as much 
as possible healthful amusements amongst the men, and 
they cannot take too much pains to instil into their com- 
panies a degree of emulation and pride peculiar to each 
respectively, encouraging their men to take immediate cog- 



OFFICERS. 



23 



nizance themselves of irregularities reflecting on all. By 
encouraging such a spirit much will be done towards 
increasing the efficiency of the force ► 

Officers should at all times patiently hear any complaint 
which may be made in a respectful and proper manner by 
any of their men, and, if possible, apply a remedy, or, in 
more serious cases, report to the Captain, who, if necessary, 
will report to the Commanding Officer. A soldier should 
be always made to feel that his complaint j when well 
founded, will not be made in vain. Officers, however, are 
not to permit groundless and malicious reports to pass un- 
censured ; where malice is apparent, particularly when the 
complaint is against a Non-commissioned Officer, the per- 
son making it, together with his aides and abettors, 
should invariably be punished. Officers to whom any 
complaints are made should sift the matter thoroughly. 

Officers should endeavour to procure for themselves the 
confidence of the soldier in every respect. This is only 
attainable by attention to his real wants, by studying his 
character and treating him accordingly, by preserving a 
regular and steady discipline, by the dispensation of reward 
and punishments with certainty and impartiality, and by 
showing a decisiveness and fixed rule of action in every 
matter. Inconsistency and indecision can never command 
the respect and confidence of the men. 

An Officer should never discourage a well-behaved man 
from at any time seeking his friendly counsel and advice. 
Such terms between a superior and a subordinate, who from 
his good conduct is entitled to respect, is unlikely to lead 
to abuse, but rather to a feeling of confidence and the good 
of the service. 

Officers should at all times be anxious to preserve and 
uphold, by every means in their power, the authority and 



24 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



respectability of the Non-commissioned Officers ; no good 
can ever result in lessening them in their own or the men’s 
estimation,; rather than subject them to severe and public 
reprimands they should be reduced to the ranks, for a 
Non-commissioned Officer who will not be attentive to the 
admonition of, ijor be guided in his conduct by the advice 
of his superior, is unworthy of his position, and the sooner 
he is removed from it the better for the service. 

The most scrupulous punctuality, as to time and place 
is required from every one concerned in any military duty. 

Officers should consider it a material point of duty to 
pay strict attention to the appearance and conduct of the 
Non-commissioned Officers and men, as well off as on duty. 

Officers are at all times to take notice of any slovenliness, 
they may observe in guards, picquets, reliefs, fatigue parties 
or sentries. They should never permit any man to appear 
improperly dressed, or dirty in his person, or awkward or 
slovenly in the street, whether of their own or another 
Battalion, without noticing it, nor should they ever permit 
a soldier to pass without saluting, or allow a Non-commis- 
sioned Officer or private, when talking to them, to stand 
in a lounging or unsoldier-like manner. 

Officers should at all times endeavour to make each 
individual do his own duty. No sergeant is ever to be 
required to perform any duty which ought to be done by 
an Officer ; neither is an Officer to allow a sergeant to put 
his duty on a corporal ; each must do his own. The chain 
of responsibility should never be broken. 

Officers should be very careful not to reprimand or even 
speak to a man in liquor more than is necessary in confin- 
ing him, because it can have no good effect. A man in that 
condition is often led to a reply, and insolence of behaviour, 
which it becomes impossible to overlook. 



OFFICERS. 



25 



Officers should never suffer an answer to be made to 
an observation upon parade or when under arms. The 
soldier who behaves in so unmilitary a manner should be 
immediately checked. 

They are especially enjoined to avoid making remarks 
on any military order or regimental topic within the hear- 
ing of Non-commissioned Officers, soldiers or servants, a 
practice which is at all times injurious to good order and 
military discipline. 

The senior Officer present on parade, at mess, at all 
times, and in all places, is held responsible that no irregu- 
larity or impropriety passes unnoticed by him ; if such 
occur, he should immediately take proper steps to check 
or correct. 

It is the duty of every Officer to see the garrison and 
regimental orders daily, and to send for the order book, 
if not brought to him at the usual hour ; no plea is allowed 
for ignorance of orders. 

If the character or conduct of an Officer should be pub- 
licly impugned, he is bound within a reasonable time to 
submit the case to the Commanding Officer, dr to other 
competent military authority, for investigation. 

Officers should at all times appear dressed in accordance 
with the order of the station or garrison in which they 
may be serving ; an Officer cannot be too particular in 
this respect. 

COMMANDING OFFICER. 

A Commanding Officer is responsible to his Sovereign for 
the maintenance of discipline, efficiency, and a proper 
system of economy, in the unit under his command ; he is 
to exact from Officers and men the most implicit obedience 
to regulations, and he is not only to enforce by command, 



26 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



but to encourage by example, the energetic discharge of 
duty, and the steady endurance of the difficulties and 
privations which are inseparable from military service. 

His authority within his unit is paramount under all 
circumstances and in every situation of service ; he should 
give his best attention to promote a good understanding 
amongst the Officers, by advice to the young and inex- 
perienced, by timely interference to prevent disputes, and 
by taking immediate notice of any conduct likely to inter- 
rupt the harmony of the unit ; he should explain to the 
Officers in the most forcible manner, the consequences of 
allowing themselves to be misled by erroneous notions and 
false principles of honour, and he should endeavour in the 
event of any dispute or difference arising, to become the 
arbiter, and induce all concerned to accept his decision as 
final. 

The Commanding Officer should discountenance any 
disposition in his Officers to gamble, and also check any 
approach to practical joking. 

Courtesy among military men is indispensable to discip- 
line. Coijmianding Officers should not only bear this in 
mind, but they should inculcate the principle in those 
Under their command. Whenever it becomes necessary, 
in order to check carelessness or neglect of duty, admoni- 
tion or reproof (unless the occasion demands public 
example) should be conveyed privately, and whenever it 
is desirable to reward the zealous and the worthy, the 
fitting acknowledgment or praise should be bestowed in 
public. 

The Commanding Officer shall take frequent oppor- 
tunities of personally examining the Officers — more par- 
ticularly the Subalterns — upon every point connected with 
their duties in the Field, the Regulations and Orders, the 



OFFICERS. 



27 



Drill and Rifle Exercises, the Interior Economy and Dis- 
cipline of a Company. 

He should see that Officers are practically instructed in 
the duties of picquets and outposts, in the mode of conduct- 
ing patrols, and, as far "as may be practicable, in the con- 
struction of field-works. He should direct the Majors and 
Captains to take command of the parade, and in his pres- 
ence exercise the Battalion. The instruction and improve- 
ment of his men also form a most essential part of the 
supervision of a Commanding Officer. 

Whenever armed parties are called out for the perform- 
ance of any unusual duties, Commanding Officers should 
personally ascertain that the Officers in charge are fully 
acquainted with all orders and directions that bear on the 
service they may be called upon to perform. 

Commanding Officers are responsible and accountable for 
all public stores of whatever description belonging or 
appertaining to the units under their command ; the duties 
with which Officers commanding companies, etc. , or Quar- 
ter-Masters are charged being performed under the Com- 
manding Officer’s control and supervision. 

Commanding Officers should cause every order and cir- 
cular issued for general information and guidance either to 
be republished in Regimental Orders or otherwise circu- 
lated throughout the corps, and thus afford all Officers 
under their command every facility for becoming acquainted 
with the current changes in the regulations and orders. 
Ignorance of published orders should never be admitted as 
an excuse for their non-observance. 

An Officer in temporary command should not promul- 
gate any standing orders, or alter those already in existence 
without a reference to the Officer under whose immediate 



28 



INTERIOR ECONOMY^ 



command the corps may be placed ; on the other hand, the 
Commanding Officer, when absent from his corps, is not 
justified in issuing regimental orders. 

MAJORS. 

Nothing more essentially tends to the maintenance of 
regularity and good order than that system or chain of 
responsibility which should extend from the highest to the 
lowest grade. With this view a Battalion is formed into 
half Battalions, and the companies composing them respec- 
tively placed under the immediate superintendence of a 
Major, who should report to the Commanding Officer as to 
their state and condition. 

It is of importance that the Majors should at all times 
make themselves thoroughly acquainted with the profes- 
sional abilities of the whole of the Officers placed under 
their charge, so as to assist the Commanding Officer in the 
appreciation of the military requirements of those under 
his command. 

They should also take under their special guidance and 
instruction all young Officers who may belong to their 
portion of the Battalion, and extend to them such advice 
and encouragement as they may seem to require. 

The special duties of the Majors are as follows ; 

1. To maintain a general superintendence of their Half 
Battalions. 

2. To check immediately any deviation from or neglect 
of orders. 

3. To superintend all drills and enforce a rigid adherence 
on the part of every one thereto. 

4. To observe whether Officers adhere to regulation in 
their dress and appointments. 



OFFICERS. 



29 



5. To visit the barracks or lines constantly, seeing 
whether the rules as to the order and cleanliness of the 
rooms or tents, passages, barrack-yard, etc., are being 
observed. 

6. To visit the Hospital at least once a week. 

ADJUTANT. 

The Adjutant should generally assist the Commanding 
Officer in his duties. He is to be considered as the 
‘ ‘ mouthpiece ’’ of the Commanding Officer, and orders 
given by him to any Officer of whatever regimental rank, 
or seniority, under the Commanding Officer’s authority, 
are to be obeyed with the same alertness as though 
delivered by that Officer in person. 

He should be answerable for all the orderly room work, 
books, returns and orders, and have under his especial 
direction the Sergeant Major, the Orderly Room Sergeant, 
Sergeant Drummer, Fifer, etc., and Provost Sergeant. 
Regulate duty rosters ; that of the Officers being under 
his especial care. 

He should be responsible for the discipline of the band, 
buglers, etc. , and take charge of all the regimental drills, 
but at which only Officers who are his juniors in the 
Battalion need fall in. Should it be necessary for an 
Officer senior to the Adjutant to fall in at his drills for 
instruction, another Officer senior to all should be present. 

The drill of all recruits and young Officers should be 
under his special direction. 

The Adjutant should pay particular attention to the 
instruction of the Non-commissioned Officers ; he should 
also inspect them, together with the band and buglers, 
before every Commanding Officer’s parade. 



30 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



He should enter into the characters and dispositions of 
the Non-commissioned Officers and men of the Battalion, 
so as to be able to assist them with advice and information, 
when he perceives defects ; and that he may be qualified 
to recommend the most deserving to the notice which they 
appear to merit. 

He should be the first to set an example to Officers and 
men in dress, obedience to orders, punctual attendance at 
parades, alacrity, alertness, and unceasing attention to all 
the duties of a soldier. 

The Adjutant should be constantly vigilant and careful 
that the orders are attended to and obeyed with the most 
scrupulous exactness. He should be active and persever- 
ing, never taking for granted that anything is right, but 
constantly seeing that it is so ; informing the Commanding 
Officer, when he finds neglect or irregularities which it is 
not in his power to correct. 

The dress, appearance, and carriage of the men, both on 
and off duty, should be particularly attended to by him. 

He should parade and inspect guards, and armed parties 
proceeding on duty, which will then be handed over to the 
charge of the proper officer. 

He should be present during the sitting of Courts 
Martial, and be prepared, if necessary, to answer to 
the character of the prisoner, or any other particulars 
which may be required, taking care that the prisoners and 
evidence have been previously warned, and that every- 
thing is in order, so as to prevent an unnecessary delay. 
He should also be present at all Courts of Inquiry and 
regimental investigations of that nature. 

Although the Adjutant should not interfere in the 
interior arrangement of companies, he should take notice 



OFFICERS. 



31 



of all deviations from the orders, and any other irregu- 
larities he may observe on the part of the Officers, Non- 
commissioned Officers or men. 

There is no circumstance in which the discipline of 
the Battalion can in any way be concerned which the 
Adjutant should think foreign to his department, and its 
general appearance will best evince his zeal and ability. 

When the adjutant is on leave, another Officer should 
be put in regimental orders to take his duty, but when he 
is only temporarily absent, his duty may be performed by 
the Orderly Officer. 

In corps not having an adjutant, the Orderly Officer of 
the day (or week) should be detailed in orders to perform 
the duties. 

PAYMASTER. 

Paymasters are strictly prohibited from applying public 
money to any purpose not authorized by the regulations of 
the service. They are not on any pretext or in any shape 
whatever, to advance, lend or exchange any sum for which 
they are accountable, nor are they directly or indirectly 
to derive any benefit from their position, beyond their 
regular pay and allowance. 

It is a Paymaster’s duty to bring to the notice of his 
Commanding Officer any improper or unnecessary issue of 
pay or allowance. 

When drill is performed at headquarters, very little is 
demanded of him, except calling the roll at muster parades, 
and checking and certifying to the correctness of the pay 
rolls as made up by the Officers commanding companies, 
before they are forwarded to the Commanding Officer. 

Paymasters on appointment are given the relative rank 
of Captain, and after 10 years’ service that of Major. 



32 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



QUARTER-MASTER. 

The appointment of Quarter-Master is one of at least as 
great importance to the comfort and health of the soldier 
as that of Surgeon. The services of the latter are only 
required in exceptional cases, to repair health which has 
been injured. The labours of the former concern every 
man in his Battalion, and his duties require a dear head 
and untiring assiduity. Commanding Officers should 
therefore be most careful in the selection they make for 
the post. 

The Quarter-Master should receive and take charge of. 
all stores of every description belonging to or for the corps, 
and issue them on requisition, as may be authorized or 
required. 

He should not deal with the quality of supplies, but 
solely with the gross quantity to be received, and subse- 
quent regimental distribution, after they have been duly 
passed. 

He should be present at the fitting of clothing, and is 
responsible that it is according to regulation. 

The workshops, wash-house and fire department are 
under his charge ; the latter is to be exercised monthly. 

He should be responsible for the cleanliness of the 
Camp or Barracks, also for all repairs and deficiencies, 
to ascertain which he must make constant inspection of 
the same, and when necessary assess the damages. 

He has the superintendence of the conveyance of the 
baggage of his corps, when on the march, and will attend 
to the loading of it. One fatigue man per company, with 
the Quarter-Master Sergeant and a Corporal should, if 
necessary, be placed under his orders to enable him to 
execute his charge. Upon the receipt of a route for the 



OFFICERS. 



33 



march of the Battalion, or a detachment, he is immediately 
to give notice to the proper authorities and procure 
waggons, or other conveyance for the baggage ; the 
regulating of which, both previous to, and during the 
march, demands his particular attention. 

He should superintend the issue of all provisions, forage 
supplies, etc. ; and during the period of annual training in 
camp afford the Commanding Officer every assistance in 
the procuring of rations and supplies. He should give 
timely intimation to the Commanding Officer when a 
supply of necessaries is required, in order that the 
regimental committee (a Field Officer and the Officers 
commanding companies) may be assembled to estimate the 
probable quantity of each description of articles required. 

He should keep in a guard book, copies of all circulars, 
etc., connected with his department, which may be 
received from time to time, a letter book containing an 
impression of all letters written by him, also a stores book 
showing an account of clothing, arms, accoutrements 
and equipment, and the manner in which they are dis- 
tributed. The latter account book should be divided 
into three parts, viz. , an account with the Militia Depart- 
ment, another with the Battalion in general, and the third 
with the several Companies. All articles issued should be 
by requisition, signed by Officers commanding companies, 
countersigned by the Commanding Officer, and for stores 
returned a receipt should be given or taken, as the case 
may be. 

Quarter-Masters on appointment are given the relative 
rank of Captain, and after ten years’ service that of Major. 

SURGEON. 

The general charge and management of the Hospital 

and sick of a Battalion is under the direction of the 
3 



34 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



Surgeon. He should visit the barracks and married men’s 
quarters frequently, and the prisoners in the regimental 
cells daily ; communicating personally with the Command- 
ing Officer on all points connected with the general health 
of the Non-commissioned Officers and men. 

The Surgeon should send a daily report of the sick to 
the orderly room ; also inspect every man once a week, 
and in the event of any man dying, or accident happening, 
should make an immediate written report of such. 

A Surgeon should attend all parades for target practice, 
and field-days with blank cartridge. 

Whenever a soldier is reported too ill to be taken or 
sent to Hospital, he should be visited by the Surgeon. 

The Surgeon should attend with the Quarter-Master at 
the monthly inspection of the Hospital, and be prepared 
to attest by his signature the list of damages or losses pro- 
posed to be assessed in it, and in the outhouses attached 
to it. 

Upon the receipt of a route for the march of a Battalion, 
the Surgeon should immediately send to the orderly room 
the names of such men as it will be necessary to leave 
behind on account of illness. 

The Surgeon should examine all recruits on their joining 
the corps, and report to the Commanding Officer his 
opinion of them. 

The Surgeon is exempted from serving on Courts of 
Inquiry or Boards, except Medical, and from sitting as 
president or vice-president of the regimental mess. 

CAPTAINS. 

Every Officer commanding a company is charged with 
the arms, accoutrements, ammunition, clothing, and other 



OFFICERS. 



35 



public stores, belonging or appertaining to the unit under 
his command, and for which he is accountable in case 
of their being lost, spoilt, or damaged, not by unavoidable 
accident, or actual service. 

He is in like manner responsible for the drill and train- 
ing, and payment of his company, also that the men’s 
messes^ and necessaries are properly provided, as well as 
for their conduct and appearance. 

He should receive all moneys on account of the pay and 
subsistence of his company, taking special care that such 
moneys are expended in strict conformity to regulations, 
and with due regard to the interests of the soldier. 

The payment of the men should be so regulated that 
they will neither run unnecessarily into debt or be 
deprived of a fair proportion of weekly pay. 

The utmost attention is required from the Officers com- 
manding companies to the cleanliness of the men as to 
their clothing, arms and accoutrements, and also to the 
state of their barracks or quarters. Strict adherence to 
this essential point of discipline will tend to the health and 
comfort of the soldier and at the same time promote the 
credit of the service. 

They should daily visit their companies’ quarters or 
depute a Subaltern to do so, and particularly attend to 
their messing, as they cannot too often make themselves 
acquainted with the situation of their men or their possible 
comfort. 

Captains should personally inspect the whole of the 
men’s kits once a week and superintend the fitting of all 
clothing. 

Every Captain present with the Battalion should pay his 
own company. 



36 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



They should attend rifle practice with their companies, 
and. make themselves equally acquainted with the instruc- 
tion of musketry as with drill. 

Recommendations for promotion and indulgence of every 
kind should come through Officers commanding companies 
to the Commanding Officer, 

Officers commanding companies should never award a 
soldier punishment merely on the recommendation of a 
Non-commissioned Officer. They should personally enquire 
into the case and dispose of it in the presence of the man. 

Officers commanding companies are enjoined to instruct 
young Officers appointed to their companies in all the 
details for the interior management of the company ; they 
are expected to be acquainted with the name, character 
and all particulars respecting every man of the company. 

When an Officer takes over the command of a company 
he should satisfy himself that the arms, stores, etc. , are 
correct, and a certificate is to be sent in to the orderly 
room stating that the company has been correctly delivered 
over. 

The books to be in the possession of every Captain are 
specified in Part V., sec. 2. They should be produced in 
the orderly room at every inspection, tied together, with 
the Officer’s name attached to them. 

All books provided for Officers at Government expense 
should be returned to the Commanding Officer by an 
Officer on retirement from the service, exchanging his 
corps, or on promotion. 

Defaulter books should always be in the possession of 
Officers commanding companies. 

All returns or states required from companies should be 
signed by the Officer commanding the company, who is 
responsible for the accuracy of the same. 



REGIMENTAL ORGANIZATION. 



37 



In the absence of the Captain all these duties devolve on 
the Subaltern Officer appointed in temporary command. 

SUBALTERNS. 

In order to establish that chain of responsibility so much 
enjoined in the Queen’s Regulations, and to assign to each 
Officer an object to which his attention is more particularly 
to be directed, each company should be divided into four 
sections, forming two half companies, under the Subaltern 
Officers, the senior having charge of the right, the junior 
of the left ; if a company is very strong and there are 
more than two Subalterns it should be divided into as 
many parts as there are Subalterns ; or if there only be 
one Subaltern with a company he must take charge of the 
whole company, under the direction of the Captain. 

The Officers to whom half companies are entrusted are 
responsible for the cleanliness of the men as regards their 
persons, clothing, arms, accoutrements, and quarters. 

Subalterns in charge of half companies should be in 
possession of a roll of the same, containing the names of 
the men, their respective employments, addresses when on 
home service ; also the number of each man’s arms, 
accoutrements, great coat, etc. 

A Subaltern appointed to the command of a company 
becomes charged immediately with the whole of the respon- 
sibility which devolved upon the Captain. 



SECTION IV. 

REGIMENTAL ORGANIZATION. 

A Battalion should be divided into Half Battalions, each 
under the charge of a Major, who superintends the Com- 



38 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



panies of their respective Half Battalions, reporting to the 
Commanding Officer. 

The Staff Officers, viz., Adjutant, Quarter-Master, and 
Surgeon, report to the Commanding Officer alone. 

The Sergeant Major, Band Master (for discipline only). 
Sergeant Drummer, Sergeant Bugler, etc.. Orderly Hoorn 
Sergeant and Provost Sergeant are under the immediate 
orders of the* Adjutant. 

The Sergeant Instructor of Musketry is under the orders 
of the Officer Instructor. The Quarter-Master Sergeant 
and the Pioneer Sergeant are under the orders of the 
Quarter-Master ; the Hospital Sergeant, those of the 
Surgeon. 

Officers commanding companies should first report to 
the Major commanding their Half Battalions upon any 
subject of importance connected with their companies. 

Every officer, upon taking charge of a company, should 
send to the Commanding Officer a report that he has had 
the arms, accoutrements, company’s stores, m^’s accounts, 
etc., given over to him in a regular and satisfactory manner. 
The Officer who gives over the company should report, in 
writing, his having done so, and in the event of any defi- 
ciency or irregularity mention the circumstance and explain 
the cause. 

The statement of arms, accoutrements, and all public 
property should be sent to the Quarter-Master for com- 
parison with his books, and signed by him as to their 
correctness or otherwise. All arms on transfer should be 
minutely inspected by an armourer. 

The foregoing system of transfer is only applicable, 
however, to permanent and city corps ; in rural corps the 



REGIMENTAL ORGANIZATION. 



39 . 



captains are responsible to the Officer commanding the 
District for arms, equipment and clothing. 

All applications or reports from companies should be 
made through the Captain or the Officer commanding in 
his absence ; no Non-commissioned Officer or soldier is 
ever to be sent to make his application in person to the 
Commanding Officer. 

The several companies of a Battalion should (for the 
purposes of interior economy) be known and designated by 
letters. During drill in Battalion they should be called by 
their numbers, as told off. 

The companies should form on parade according to the 
seniority of their captains, from flanks to centre, the senior 
captain on the right, the next senior on the left, and so on, 
but for the purpose of drill and exercise their position 
may be varied at the discretion of the Commanding 
Officer. 

Each company should be divided into two half com- 
panies, under the charge of the Subalterns, who are 
responsible to the Captain for the condition of their 
respective half companies, each half company is again 
divided into two sections, and in very strong companies 
these may again be divided into sub-sections. 

A Sergeant should be told off to each section, who is 
again responsible for its condition to the Subaltern ; and 
Corporals allotted in proportion to assist the Sergeants in 
the execution of their duty. 

In Barracks, Camp, or at Head-Quarters, the Sergeants 
of sections should be answerable (together with the Colour 
Sergeant) for the discipline, arrangement, cleanliness, 
and regularity of the tents or barrack rooms, regular 
and punctual attendance at drill, the condition of the 



40 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



arms, accoutrements, the general state of the clothing, 
and appointments, and their proper adjustment. 

Non-commissioned Officers in charge of sections are to 
be in possession of a roll of such, containing the names of 
the men, their respective employments, residences, etc., 
(when at home) also the number of each man^s arms, 
great coat, etc. In the absence of any Non-commissioned 
Officer his place will be taken by the one next in seniority. 

Nothing in this system, it should be understood, is to 
prevent a senior Officer or Non-commissioned Officer inter- 
fering with or giving orders to any person not belonging to 
his half company or section, it being an established axiom 
of military service that the senior present is at all times 
in general charge. 

Subalterns should, if possible, be equally divided among 
the companies, and if it be necessary for a Subaltern to do 
duty temporarily with another company, he should always 
be returned to his own at the earliest opportunity. 

Colour Sergeants should report to the Officer command- 
ing their companies. Sergeants, to the Colour Sergeants 
of their companies as well as to the Subalterns, and Cor- 
porals to the Sergeants of their several sections. Thus 
the general chain of responsibility beginning at the 
highest is extended to the junior ranks. 

ENROLMENT. 

By the Militia Act, those under the age of eighteen are 
not eligible for enrolment, and great care should be taken 
that none but well conducted and healthy men are 
accepted ; the period of service in time of peace is three 
years. 

Where the several companies are all at Head-Quarters, 
the following will be found a good plan for enrolling : — 



ENROLMENT AND DISCHARGE. 



41 



A Board of Officers, consisting of a Field Officer, the 
Surgeon, and the Adjutant, should be appointed, before 
whom all recruits should be presented for examination as 
to their qualification, by the Officer commanding the com- 
pany they desire to join. On being passed by the Board 
the recruit is brought before the Commanding Officer, who 
will attest him and witness his signature to the service 
roll of the Battalion, at the head of which should be set 
out plainly the usual conditions of service. In order to 
obtain full particulars of the recruit an attestation paper 
(Form I) will be found convenient ; this should be filled 
up and sent to the orderly room. 

The recruit should then be put in orders as having been 
taken on the strength of the Battalion from the date of his 
attestation, and posted to a company. He is then sent to 
the recruits’ class, and not dismissed therefrom, until the 
Adjutant reports him fit for duty, when he can be served 
with uniform. 

In rural corps, it may not be possible to carry out this 
system, but it can be modified to suit circumstances. 

In city corps, the oath should be administered by the 
Commanding Officer of the Battalion ; in rural corps, by 
the Officer commanding the company in which a man is 
enrolled to serve. 

On re-engagement for a further term, the service roll 
should again be signed, and the oath again administered. 

Officers, on being gazetted, should take the oath of 
allegiance and sign the Standing Orders of the Battalion, 
agreeing to be bound by the same. 

DISCHARGE OR TRANSFER. 

On completing his term of service in time of peace, a 
Non-commissioned Officer or man is entitled to a discharge 



42 



INTEEIOR ECONOMY. 



(Form 2) without giving notice, but there is no provision 
in the Militia Act whereby a man can claim it as a right 
until he has fulfilled the terms of his service. Nor can a 
Non-commissioned Officer or man be dismissed from a 
corps for irregular conduct until after due investigation 
and approval from Head-Quarters. 

In time of war no Non-commissioned Officer or man can 
be required to serve in the field continuously for a longer 
period than one year, unless he volunteers to serve for the 
war, or unavoidable necessity arises, when he may be called 
upon to continue his service for any period beyond the 
year, not exceeding six months. 

In the case of a transfer to another corps, a certificate 
of service, stating length of -same, should be given, and 
whenever a man leaves his corps, either through, death, 
disability, discharge or transfer, his name should be put in 
orders as being struck off its strength. 

PAY. 

The pay of Non-commissioned Officers and men should 
be personally issued by Officers commanding companies. 
On continuous or permanent service, payments are made 
weekly in arrear, the money necessary being drawn from 
the District Paymaster by requisition. 

The usual sys^m adopted is to pay each man an even 
sum, say $1 to $.3 according to rank, at each weekly pay- 
ment, and on the last day of the month the balance in 
full, after deducting forfeitures, fines and stoppages. 

The last of the month is called ‘‘settlement day,’’ and 
each Non-commissioned Officer and man as he is tendered 
the balance due him is shown the state of his account in 
the Pay sheet (Form 3) and if satisfied as to its correctness 
must then, on receiving his money, sign the same ; if he is 



PAY. 



43 



not satisfied with the charges against him, he can object to 
sign the pay sheet and ask to be brought before the Com- 
manding OflScer. The Captain signs the abstract ” when 
all accounts are settled. 

The Colour Sergeant should be present at all payments, 
with his accounts fully prepared, to give every information 
to those present. 

In addition to the pay sheet, a Cash account book ( B"orm 
4) should be kept by the Colour Sergeant, in which all 
sums received by him from whatever source are entered, 
as well as all payments made. An acknowledgment 
of these receipts and payments must be recorded in this 
book against the various items. 

The Captain also, should keep a Cash Book and Ledger 
(Form 5), in which is recorded all receipts and payments 
in connection with his company. 

Ofiicers on continuous or permanent service should be 
paid monthly in arrear, by cheque from the District 
Paymaster, their receipts for same being recorded upon 
a regimental pay list. 

For the ordinary annual drill of the Militia Force, a 
simple pay list, showing the number of days drill and 
amount to which each officer and man is entitled, with 
signature receipt for same is all that is required. 

A soldier forfeits his pay 

For every day of absence without leave above five days, 
under that time it is at the discretion of his Commanding 
Officer. 

For every day of imprisonment awarded by Civil or 
Military Court, or by his Commanding Officer, or under 
detention for an oiffence of which he is afterwards convicted 
by any of the above. 



44 



INTERIOR ECONOIirY. 



For every day on which he is in the hospital on account 
of sickness caused by an offence committed by him. 

Forfeited pay is returned to the Government through 
the pay sheet. 

A soldier is fined for drunkenness only. 

Fines which cannot be recovered from a soldier’s pay 
are not to be recovered from any other source while he 
remains in the service, and no deduction should be made 
from a soldier’s pay on account of a fine while other 
legitimate charges remain unsatisfied. 

Fines are not refunded to the Government, but ai’e 
credited to the Reading Room and Library Fund. 

A soldier is placed under stoppages 

For extra messing, washing, hair cutting, barrack 
damages, necessaries, hospital diet (except for wounds 
received in action, or from illness contracted in service 
with an army in the field), and for replacing articles of 
uniform or equipment lost, spoiled or damaged by care- 
lessness. 

Stoppages are credited to the different accounts above 
enumerated, and in the case of necessaries, replacing 
articles of uniform or equipment, the amounts are re- 
turned to the Government through the pay sheet. 

BAND AND BUGLERS. 

Bandsmen should be regularly enrolled, and thus placed 
under the regulations of the Militia force and control of 
its officers. 

The band, etc. , should be taught squad drill ; they are 
under the immediate orders of the Adjutant with respect 
to their drill and discipline, and the direction of the Band 
Committee and Bandmaster as musicians. 



BAND AND BUGLERS. 



45 



Bands must be dressed in clothing of the same colour as 
that worn by their Battalions, with the additions noted 
under “ Dress,’’ see Part lY. 

Whenever the Band is directed to play at the Mess or 
any public assembly, it should be properly dressed. 

No bandsman should engage himself to play in uniform 
without the consent of the President of the Band Com- 
mittee, and the Band should not play anywhere in public 
without the sanction of the Commanding Officer. 

Bands are up:.^ no account to take part in any political, 
religious or party procession. 

Any bandsman habitually misbehaving should be sent 
to his duty in the ranks, as the Band should always be 
composed of the best conducted men. 

Each man should be held responsible for the instrument 
entrusted to him, which should never be taken from the 
band or practice room, unless required for duty, or by 
special permission. 

It is essential that the Band, bugles, drums and fifes, 
when playing or beating for military purposes, particularly 
marches, should adhere strictly to the time, which will 
allow, within the minute, the exact number of steps 
prescribed in the “Infantry Drill.” -For this purpose 
the music of the different cadences should be practised 
under the direction of the Bandmaster, with the plummet, 
until the prescribed cadence has been acquired. The Band 
and the drums should be frequently practised together, 
in order that, when relieving each other in the quick 
march, the cadence may be preserved uniformly and unin- 
terruptedly. 

The following books of instruction, published by author- 
ity, for the Imperial Service will be found very useful in 
Bugle or Fife and Drum Bands: — The “Infantry Bugle 



46 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



Sounds,” “Instructions for the Fife,” and “The Art of 
Beating the Drum. ” 

PIONEERS. 

The Pioneers are a small corps of regimental artificers, 
competent to repair barracks, furniture utensils, etc., or 
do other mechanical work in a battalion or garrison, and 
if need be, instruct others in the same. They should be 
selected mainly on account of proficiency in their trades, 
and good character ; they may also be employed in the 
Quarter-Master’s store or other duty pertaining to that 
department. 

Each company should have one pioneer, and the distri- 
bution of trades in a Battalion of ten companies be as 
follows : three Carpenters ; two Bricklayers (one able to 
plaster, the other to slate) one Smith (able to shoe horses) ; 
one stonemason ; one Painter and Glazier ; two Plumbers 
and Gas Fitters. 

A proper outfit of tools, such as picks, spades, shovels, 
axes, augers, a saw, chisel, crowbar, etc., should be in 
their possession. 

A Sergeant (a carpenter if possible) should have imme- 
diate charge, the whole corps being under the direction of 
the Quarter-Master. 

BARRACK REGULATIONS. 

Commanding Officers should prohibit the indiscriminate 
admission of strangers into barracks or camp, and take 
measures to prevent any but persons of respectable charac- 
ter from gaining access thereto. 

During the first week of each month the Quarter-Master 
should make an inspection of each room to see that the 
articles in charge are accounted for, such as cots, bedding, 



BARRACK REGULATIONS. 



47 



brooms, stoves, etc., etc. ; the number must agree with the 
Inventory and Quarter-Master’s books. The Captain of 
each company should be present at this inspection. 

On the men rising, the beds should be turned up, the 
rooms swept and made thoroughly clean in half an hour ; 
and as every man should be sent to the regimental hospital, 
who from sickness is obliged to keep his bed^ no bed should 
be made down before Retreat is sounded. Each man 
should be answerable for the cleanliness of his own berth ; 
the orderly men responsible for the cleanliness of the tables, 
plates, dishes and the room generally ; also the berths of 
such men as may be on duty. The windows should be 
kept frequently open. In camp, the curtains of tents 
should be rolled up if the weather be fine, and in any case 
the leeward side raised. 

The men should not use the barrack sheets, blankets, 
or utensils, for any other purpose than for which they are 
intended. 

No washing of persons or clothes in the barrack rooms 
should be permitted. * 

No clothing, arms, or anything whatever, should be 
allowed to lie about, but everything should be in its 
proper place, and regular. 

Every barrack room or tent should have posted in a 
conspicuous place a small and neat label (Form 6), and on 
the inside a nominal roll of the men occupying it. 

When a passage or flight of stairs leads to more rooms 
than one, the men of each room should take their turns 
weekly to keep it clean. 

No water, dirt or filth should be thrown opposite the 
barrack doors, in the passage or stairs, or out of the 
windows, but should be carried to the proper sinks for 
water, and the receptacles for dirt. 



48 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



Any man found after Tattoo in the barrack room or tent, 
to which he does not belong, should be confined by the 
Non-commissioned Officer in charge. 

All lights should be put out immediately on the bugle 
sounding for that purpose after Tattoo, 

In quartering the Non-commissioned Officers and men in 
a barrack room or tent, great care should be taken that 
the arrangement is by sections. Should it be necessary to 
break up any portion of the sections, as many sections 
must be kept as complete as possible, instead of detaching 
a portion from each. Comrades or relatives should be 
separated as little as possible in quarters. 

The men should sit down regularly to meals, cleanly 
dressed, with tunics or serges buttoned up. K o man should 
be allowed to take his dinner away from the table. The 
corporals dining at the tables should be responsible for the 
proper behaviour of every man of their several messes. 

Saturday should be appropriated to a thorough cleaning 
of rooms, windows, passages, etc. , by all hands, when the 
tables, forms and utensils of every description should be 
scrubbed as white as they can possibly be made. The 
bedding should be placed outside to air at Reveille on 
Saturday, and be taken in again at twelve, noon. While 
this thorough cleaning is going on no men should leave 
the barracks or lines. 

On every intermediate day the rooms should be dry 
scrubbed only. 

The following rules respecting the men’s rooms should 
be strictly attended to, in order to ensure uniformity 
throughout a Battalion. 

Basins and plates (when not in use) laid in rows on open 
shelves at one end of the room, each basin bottom up on a 



BARRACK REGULATIONS. 



49 



plate. Tin water pail (filled with clean drinking Avater) at 
one end of the table, the washing pail on the fioor at same 
end of the table, brooms, brushes, etc. , in brackets under 
the shelves for plates. 

The cots should be turned up (if of iron), every morning 
immediately after Reveille sounding, and removed about 
one foot from the wall, which will bring them in a line. 

The palliasses should then be folded in three, the outer 
fold to the front, with nothing but the pillow inside, and 
placed on the bedstead two inches from the head ; if 
attention has been paid to fill all the beds with the same 
quantity of straw, placed crossways in the palliasses, the 
requisite uniformity will be obtained. The blankets folded 
in three, and the sheets folded in like manner to be placed 
in the centre of the blankets, the ends of the blankets will 
then be placed over the sheets, and the whole placed on top 
of the palliasses, with joining in the centre and downwards, 
the whole to be bound around the centre by a strap with 
the forage cap, badge uppermost, lying on it ; the rug 
(folded in four) placed on the extreme end of the cots, so as 
to admit of soldiers sitting thereon during the day, or 
folded round the blankets of such beds as may not be in 
use. Articles of clothing, necessaries, etc., are on no 
account to be placed in the folds of the bed or bedding. 

The knapsack or valise should be placed on the shelf, 
bottom side to the front, over the centre of each man’s 
cot, greatcoat hanging on the right, rifie and bayonet on 
the left. In tents, the knapsacks or valises should be 
arranged in a circle, six inches from the curtain pegs, with 
the greatcoat and blanket folded on top, the head dress 
over all. 

The clothing should be placed as follows : The trousers 
folded in two, and placed on the top of the knapsack 
4 



50 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



or valise, red seams to the front, the tunic and serge 
jacket, neatly folded, will be laid on the top of the trou- 
sers, waistband of trousers and collar of tunic to the 
right, jacket collar to the left, helmet or busby over all, 
the mess tin on the right. 

The towel should be placed ^ver the back of cot ready 
for use. 

The boots, well polished, should be arranged under the 
fore part of the bed-cot, toes to the front. 

The shoe brushes, closed together, should be placed 
between the boots, with the blacking on the top. 

The men’s necessaries should always be kept in their 
knapsacks or valises. By necessaries is meant shirts, 
drawers, socks, etc., etc. 

Each man’s name and company should be written on a 
card and hung from the shelf over his cot. — (Form 7.) 

Every man (when there are racks for arms) should keep 
his rifle in one particular place, either to the right or left 
of his cot ; the arms should never be taken from the rack, 
except when the men are using or cleaning them ; when 
there are no racks, the rifles are to be slung on a peg at 
each man’s berth, or in camp round the tent pole, confined 
at the muzzle in the hoop. 

For the Captain’s weekly barrack kit inspection, the 
several articles should be arranged as follows : 

The cot will be unfolded to its full length, the valise or 
knapsack laid on it flat, th^ upper edge touching the pal- 
liasse with the cap, trousers, tunic and forage cap, neatly 
folded, placed in the order named ; on either side a legging, 
adjoining the valise is laid the greatcoat folded with the 
holdall complete and open lying on it, next is laid the 



ORDERS. 



51 



towel folded in four with the socks on either side, then the 
shirt folded lengthways, then the mess tin, a low boot on 
either side and at the bottom end of the cot, the cloth and 
blacking brushes, sponge and oil bottle, blacking tin with 
lid half off, and soap. Each man stands by the side of his 
cot in clean fatigue dress. 

A field kit inspection is held in the open air on parade 
and is described in Field Kit Inspection Parade. 

ORDERS. 

Regimental Orders, when issued by the Commanding 
Officer of a Battalion, should be promulgated on the even- 
ing of the day before that to which they refer. The 
Adjutant prepares the orders under the direction of the 
Commanding Officer, and signs them ‘ ‘ by order ” before 
their issue. 

The orders should contain — first, detail of duties called 
for by superior authority ; second, of Officers for regimen- 
tal duties, names of men taken on or struck off the strength, 
leave of absence to Officers and their return from leave, 
such punishments as affect a soldier’s pay or service, that 
is, sentences of courts-martial, fines, deprivation of pay, 
stoppages for barrack damages, then parades, or anything 
that has to be generally notified, and, last of all, appoint- 
ments and promotions. 

All general, divisional or brigade orders should be repub- 
lished, so far as they affect the corps, with the^ Regimental 
Orders, for the information of all concerned. 

At the hour named for issue the Sergeant-Major should 
cause “Orders” to be sounded, when the Regimental 
and Company Orderly Sergeants attend with companies’ 
order books, in which they write the orders from the 
Sergeant-Major’s dictation. 



52 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



All orders, general as well as Regimental, should be read 
and explained at evening roll call by the Company Orderly 
Sergeant, and those of an important nature by an Officer 
of each company on three successive parades after they are 
issued, the Orderly Sergeant being responsible that every 
man upon duty or otherwise absent is made acquainted 
with them as soon as circumstances admit. 

Any orders concerning Officers only, such as it might be 
inexpedient to publish to Non-commissioned Officers and 
men, should be sent round by the Adjutant to the different 
Officers to be returned initialed as evidence that they have 
received them. 

LETTERS. 

Under regulations of the Post Office Department, letters 
for or from Non-commissioned Officers and men of the 
Active Militia, when on active service, can be forwarded 
between Post Offices in Canada on prepayment of two cents 
for each letter under half an ounce in weight ; such letters 
must refer solely to private affairs, certified to by the 
Commanding Officer, and in accordance with Form 8. 

♦ 

CRYING DOWN CREDIT. 

The Commanding Officer of a corps should, upon coming 
to any place where it is to remain in quarters, cause public 
proclamation to be made that, if the landlords or other 
inhabitants suffer the soldiers to contract debts, he will 
not be responsible for their payment. 

The usual mode of crying down credit is by means of 
two Sergeants, accompanied by a drummer and fifer, or 
bugler, who halt in conspicuous places and proclaim the 
following : — 

“This is to give notice that the Officer commanding the 
Battalion will not hold himself responsible for any 



HOSPITAL AND SICK REGULATIONS. 



53 



debts contracted by the Non-commissioned Officers or men 
of the corps under his command. God save the Queen. ” 

THE HOSPITAL AND SICK REGULATIONS. 

The Hospital is in every respect under the entire direc- 
tion of the Surgeon, who issues such orders as may be 
necessary for its government. 

When a man reports himself sick, the Orderly Sergeant 
of the company should acquaint the Colour Sergeant, 
who should inspect the man’s kit, and furnish the Orderly 
Corporal with a list of the necessaries, etc. , in the man’s 
possession, which, in the event of his being admitted into 
Hospital, should be handed over to the Hospital Sergeant. 

The Regimental Orderly Corporal or a Non-commissioned 
Officer detailed for the duty should receive a company Sick 
Report from the Orderly Sergeants of companies (Form 9), 
which he delivers to the Surgeon. In the column headed 
. “ Surgeon’s remarks,” should the Surgeon insert the words 
“ medicine and duty,” it will be understood that the man 
is immediately available for any duty that may be required 
of him. Should ‘‘detained” be inserted, he is not avail- 
able for duty on that day, but should remain in Hospital 
until Retreat, be confined to barracks, and not allowed 
to enter the Canteen. Should “Hospital” be entered 
against a man’s name he remains until discharged. The 
company Sick Report is returned to the Orderly Sergeant 
with the Surgeon’s remarks. 

Men discharged from Hospital as convalescent are 
handed over to the Non-Commissioned Officer detailed for 
the sick at Retreat, and by him returned to the respective 
Orderly Sergeants of companies. 

The utmost neatness should be observed throughout the 
Hospital ; all Non-commissioned Officers, when in Hospi- 



54 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



tal, and not prevented by extreme illness, should be held 
responsible for the maintenance of discipline in their 
respective wards. 

The Hospital Sergeant should cause all men under medi- 
cal treatment to be made aware of the regulations to which 
they become subject when in Hospital, and he should visit 
the wards frequently during the day to see that these regu- 
lations are in no respect infringed, and that all the direc- 
tions given by the Surgeon are duly complied with. 

The Hospital Sergeant, under the direction of the Sur- 
geon, should be responsible for the property of such men 
as are in Hospital ; the moment a man is admitted he 
should take an account of his necessaries, clothing, etc. ; if 
he has money he will also take possession of it, returning 
it when the man is discharged from the Hospital. 

Gambling of every description should be strictly pro- 
hibited. 

Any patient who is guilty of disorderly conduct, swear- 
ing, insolence to the attendants, or any other impropriety, 
should be most severely punished. 

Should the patients have any-complaints to make of their 
treatment, accommodation, etc. , they should state them to 
the Captain or Subaltern of the day, when those officers 
visit the Hospital. 

The patients who are not confined to their beds should 
be attentive to the cleanliness of their persons ; any re- 
ported for irregularity in this respect by the Orderly Offi- 
cers should be punished. 

No man is to take any liquor or tobacco into the Hospital, 
or to give anything of the kind to a patient without the 
permission of the Hospital Sergeant. 

No soldier or soldier’s wife should be permitted to have 



HOSPITAL AND SICK REGULATIONS. 



55 



any communication with a man in Hospital, except by the 
special permission of the Surgeon, and in presence of the 
Hospital Sergeant. 

Convalescents, on coming out of the Hospital should not 
be put on duty the same day, nor are they to leave bar- 
racks ; they should attend all parades and roll calls, how- 
ever, falling in on the reverse flank of their companies in 
fatigue dress. On a march, when circumstances will 
permit, the packs of such convalescents as have not yet 
received certificates of being fit for duty should be carried 
for them. 

. The Surgeon should send a return (Form 10) of the sick 
to the orderly . room every morning for the Commanding 
Officer’s information, and a nominal list (Form 11) of sick 
is likewise to be transmitted to the orderly room every 
Saturday morning. He should also keep a record of each 
individual admitted, and discharged from the Hospital 
(see Books). 

The Surgeon should make a minute inspection of the 
whole of the Hon-commissioned Officers and men of the 
Battalion once a week, on such day and at such hours as 
may be appointed by the Commanding Officer, for the 
purpose of ascertaining whether any latent disease exists ; 
if so, he should personally report to the Commanding 
Officer. On these occasions the parade should be in bare 
feet, trousers turned up to the knee, chests and arms 
bared. 

The Surgeon should frequently visit the barracks and 
messes of the men. He should report as soon as possible 
to the Commanding Officer any accident or circumstance 
which may occur connected with his department, and 
whatever appears to him as being either detrimental to 
the general health of the men or likely to be beneficial to 



5G 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



it. He should examine the cells and other places of con- 
finement, to see that they are kept in a healthy state for 
prisoners. 

All prisoners for trial by court-martial should be medi- 
cally inspected by the Surgeon. When a prisoner is 
admitted into or discharged from Hospital, the word 
‘ ‘ Prisoner should be inserted opposite his name. 

A guard should be constantly furnished to the Hospital, 
and the Surgeon should signify to the Commanding Officer 
the particular orders which he wishes to be given such. 

Officers when ill should immediately send an intimation 
to the Adjutant and Surgeon, who will report to the Com- 
manding Officer. During the continuance of illness an 
officer should confine himself strictly to the precincts of 
barracks or quarters, unless permitted to go out for exercise 
by the Surgeon. 

Officers on the sick list cannot resume duty without the 
permission of the Surgeon. 

DIVINE SERVICE. 

The strictest attention should be given by all ranks to 
the attendance at Divine Service on Sundays, and the 
greatest respect paid during the performance of this 
important duty. 

Commanding Officers should afford every facility for the 
wives and families of the men to attend public worship. 

All Officers should attend Church parade, those only 
excepted who are on duty or have the special leave of the 
Commanding Officer. 

On entering any Church or Chapel, all should be rever- 
ential and orderly in their behavior, the Officers command- 
ing companies being responsible that their men proceed at 



DIVINE SERVICE. 



57 



once to the places allotted them with regularity and with- 
out noise. Each company should be seated as nearly 
together as possible, with their Non-commissioned Officers 
amongst them, to check and report any irregularity. 

After Divine Service no one should move out of his place 
or make the slightest noise until the Commanding Officer 
rises, nor attempt to put on his head-dress until outside of 
the first door of the Church. 

Soldiers of the different denominations should be regu- 
larly marched to and from their own places of public wor- 
ship, under the command of an Officer, if their number 
exceed thirty^ and in charge of a Sergeant if not exceeding 
that number ; and the Officer or Sergeant should remain 
with them during the service. 

If there are not Officers of the different deilominations 
to march parties requiring an Officer, one should be 
detailed for the purpose. 

In the case where there is no clergyman, the senior Officer 
should read prayers to the men. 

Church parade should invariably be considered a ‘‘ gene- 
ral parade ” ; Staff-Sergeants and all regimentally employed 
men should be present. 

officers’ mess. 

The establishment of a Regimental Mess upon a well 
regulated system is an object of the utmost importance and 
requires the unremitting attention of the Commanding 
Officer, who is responsible that all the accounts are pro- 
perly kept and checked, and that each member pays his 
mess and wine bills regularly. 

Every Officer must be a member of the Mess, and every 
unmarried Officer a dining member. To direct the Mess 



58 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



establishment a committee should be selected, consisting 
of three Officers, the President being a Field Officer or 
Captain. 

The Committee should arrange such a system of econo- 
mical Messing as will enable every Officer to belong to the 
Mess without inconvenience, extravagant or unnecessary 
entertainments being at all times discouraged by the Com- 
manding Officer. 

A Mess meeting should be held every three months to 
receive a duly audited statement of the funds,, and for the 
purpose of discussing any proposition that may be brought 
forward concerning the general management and comfort 
of the Mess. 

Although Officers meet at Mess on a footing of social 
equality, it nevertheless ought to be distinctly understood 
that Mess is a parade, and that Officers attending thereat 
are under the same military discipline and as much under 
the orders of their seniors, as though they were on a parade 
under arms. 

The senior combatant Officer present is always in charge, 
being responsible for all that takes place at table and in 
the ante-room both before aod after dinner ; and should any 
individual persist in disobeying orders after proper warn- 
ing, he should at once order the person so offending into 
arrest. 

Two Officers should be detailed weekly to act as Presi- 
dent and Vice-President. Medical Officers are not, owing 
to the calls which may be made on them, available for this 
duty. 

The President should be responsible for the correct carry- 
ing out of every detail connected with service of the table, 
and has power to order any Officer, irrespective of rank, to 



officers’ mess. 



59 



desist from doing anything contrary to rule. He should 
if necessary, report any Officer violating rules. 

The Vice-President should in every way assist the Presi- 
dent in the execution of his duty, and sit at that end of the 
table which is nearest the point of entrance for servants, 
etc. 

All servants attending Mess should be under the imme- 
diate orders of the President and Vice-President. 

No Officer (unless on the Mess Committee) should on any 
account enter the Mess room before dinner is announced. 

No smoking should be permitted in the ante-room for a 
space of one hour before dinner. 

On the first bugle sounding (half an hour before dinner) 
any Officers who may happen to be in the ante-room in 
plain clothes should at once leave. 

After the sounding of the first bugle, or after dinner, no 
Officer in plain clothes should on any pretext whatsoever 
enter the ante-room without special leave from the senior 
Officer present. 

No Officer entering the ante-room before dinner (ie., after 
the sounding of the first bugle) nor after dinner, should 
wear his head-dress. 

Both on entering and on leaving the ante-room for the 
night all Officers bow to the senior Officer. 

On dinner being announced, the Officers enter the Mess- 
room without regard to precedence, except that the senior 
combatant Officer enters first. 

The senior Officer present should sit at the centre of the 
table, right hand side. On a guest night (z.e., on a night 
when guests are entertained at the Mess) the senior guest 
usually sits at the right hand of the senior Officer, this 
place being considered the seat of honour. 



60 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



Except as above specified, no places are reserved for any 
Officers at the table, neither do they sit according to rank. 

No letters should be opened or notes written at table 
without the leave of the senior Officer present, the Presi- 
dent or the Vice-President. 

The practice of Officers taking wine with one another has 
become obsolete at Mess. 

When, at the conclusion of the dinner, the table shall 
have been cleared and the wine placed before the President 
and Vice-President (also before the senior Officer and the 
Officer sitting opposite to him, if the table be long), on a 
signal from the President the wine should be passed from 
right to left until each set of decanters reach the point 
from which the other set started. 

As soon as the wine, as above detailed, shall have made 
the tour of the table, the President should say, ‘‘Mr. Vice, 
‘The Queen r’’ the Vice-President saying, “Gentlemen, 
‘ The Queen ! ’ ” when, and not before. Officers should rise 
and take their wine, saying aloud, “ The Queen.’’ 

As Her Majesty’s health is proposed, the Mess butler 
should give a signal for the band (when present) to play the 
first six bars of “God Save the Queen.” 

The wine will be passed round the table as often as the 
President sees fit ; time for passing the decanters to be 
taken by the senior Officer, the Officer opposite to him, and 
the Vice-President from him. 

No Officer should be at liberty to leave the table before 
the wine has been passed round twice, without asking leave 
from the President. 

After dinner, smoking at table may be permitted with the 
consent of the senior Officer present, but this should never 
occur until the wine has been round at least twice. 



SEKGEANTS’ MESS. 



61 



When the Officer commanding the forces dines at a Mess, 
all Officers should rise when he leaves the table after din- 
ner, but it is not necessary for them to follow him there- 
from. The Vice-President should not leave his place before 
the President. 

The band should play once a week at Mess (generally 
guest night) a programme of five or six pieces, with three 
‘ * extra ” pieces, from which latter the senior Officer may, if 
he pleases, select one or two to be played after the regular 
programme. The band should begin as the Officers enter 
the Mess-room, playing the ‘ ‘ Roast Beef of Old England, ’’ 
or may begin as the joints are served ; in the latter case 
the air above named is not played. 

One Sergeant, three rank and file, with an occasional 
assistant (when applied for by the President of the Com- 
mittee), may be allowed to be taken off the duty roster for 
the purpose of attending the Officers’ Mess, and every 
other facility should be given by the Commanding Officer 
to support the respectability of an establishment in which 
the general comfort of the Officers is so materially con- 
cerned. 

sergeants’ mess. 

Whenever possible, a Sergeants’ Mess should be formed 
under the regulations below named, and the supervision of 
the Adjutant. 

The Sergeant-Major should be held responsible for the 
general regularity and respectability of the Mess ; if not a 
bachelor, he should frequently visit the Mess. Any irregu- 
larity he may observe he should at once report to the 
Adjutant for the Commanding Officer’s information. 

A Committee, consisting of one Colour Sergeant and two 
Sergeants, should be appointed quarterly, who should be 



62 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



responsible for all funds and general management of the 
Mess, and should produce, for the inspection of the Com- 
manding Officer each month, the Mess accounts closed up 
to end of previous month. A caterer, who should be a 
Sergeant (but not one of the Committee), is to be selected 
by the Committee and placed in charge of all stores of 
eatables and liquors. 

A Sergeant should be appointed by roster to act as 
Treasurer for the quarter. 

The rate of subscription on promotion or appointment, 
as also monthly subscriptions, should be fixed from time to 
time by the Commanding Officer ; a limit, however, is 
named in the Queen’s Eegulations. 

Mess meetings should be held monthly, the Sergeant- 
Major to preside, or, in his absence, the next senior on- 
commissioned Officer. A statement of accounts, signed by 
the President, should be submitted to this meeting for 
audit and approval ; minutes of the proceedings to be 
recorded and submitted for approval of the Commanding 
Officer, 

All liquors should be paid for to the caterer when sup- 
plied ; he should hand over the amount received daily to 
the Treasurer of the Committee. 

All stores, liquors, etc., purchased for the Mess, should 
be approved by the Committee and paid for on purchase ; 
the Treasurer should receive all subscriptions and messing 
bills, and, with his monthly accounts, produce vouchers for 
all payments ; he should pay over to the caterer the 
messing money required for the ensuing week. 

The messing bills should be paid weekly ; any neglect of 
this order should be at once reported to the Adjutant for 
the Commanding Officer’s information. 



COMPANY MESSES. 



G3 



The Sergeants’ Mess should be closed one hour after 
Tattoo, and the key of the Mess-room and liquor store 
handed over by the caterer to the Sergeant-Major. 

The Sergeants should be most particular as to what 
civilians they introduce to their Mess. 

COMPANY MESSES. 

The regularity of the men’s Messes is an object of 
primary importance, and it should be the duty of the Com- 
manding Officer to see that the soldiers’ meals are properly 
cooked and sufficiently provided. 

The rations for each room or tent squad should be drawn 
separately by the Orderly men, and, after being marked 
with the number of the squad, given in charge of the Com- 
pany Cook, who then becomes responsible for their proper 
care. 

As milk, butter and vegetables (other than potatoes) are 
not issued as a part of the ration, these necessary articles 
must be purchased by the soldiers, and for that purpose a 
deduction of from two to five cents a day is usually made 
from each man’s pay to form a Messing Fund, and placed 
under the control of the Non-commissioned Officer in charge 
of the room or tent, who buys from the canteen, or persons 
outside, the quantities required ; all accounts should be 
settled at least monthly. 

The room or tent Orderlies attend the cook-house fifteen 
minutes before the meal hours, and there receive the regu- 
lar rations for their respective squads, which are taken to 
the rooms and a fair division made, those for men on Guard, 
Hospital and prisoners in the guard-room being first sent. 

The rations of men going to Hospital are supplied from 
their rooms on the day of entry. Men in imprisonment 
(cells) are supplied by the Provost Sergeant. 



64 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



Men discharged from Hospital receive their meals in that 
institution on the day of discharge. 

When a sufficiently large room is available it will be 
found more comfortable and economical to establish a 
general Mess for the company ; in such a case the control 
of the Messing should be placed in the hands of a 
Committee appointed by the Captain. 

REGIMENTAL INSTITUTE. 

In every corps there should be established a Regimental 
Institute for the exclusive benefit and convenience of the 
troops, and with the following objects : — To supply them 
with good articles at reasonable prices without in any way 
interfering with their right to resort to any other available 
shops or markets, and to organize and maintain the means 
available for their recreation and amusement. 

The profits of the Regimental Institute may be appro- 
priated, under the authority of the Commanding Officer, 
towards providing newspapers, etc. , for recreation room, 
apparatus for games, prizes for athletic sports, extra 
messing, etc. 

The Regimental Institute will be divided into two 
branches : — (1) The Refreshment Department, which will 
include all that relates to the canteen, the grocery shop, 
and the coffee room. (2) The Recreation Department, 
which will embrace all that relates to recreation rooms and 
library, with any branch coffee bar that may be established 
in connection therewith ; skittle alleys, shooting gallery 
and theatres, where such exist or can be created. 

The Canteen should be maintained on the footing of a 
well-conducted tavern, for the sale of wines, malt liquors, 
aerated waters, bread, biscuits, cheese, tobacco, etc. No 
intoxicating or malt liquors of any description should be 



REGIM^ENTAL INSTITUTE. 



65 



sold before 12 o’clock noon, nor after Tattoo, nor during 
the hours of Divine Service on Sundays ; nor should such 
liquors be sold at any time to any person appearing to be 
intoxicated, or on the verge of intoxication. The Canteen 
should be closed at Tattoo, 

The Grocery Shop should not be connected or associated 
in any way with the Canteen (except as relating to its 
management, either by the Regimental Committee or the 
tenant, as the case may be), and, whenever practicable^ 
should be in an entirely separate building. No intoxicat- 
ing liquors of any description should be sold therein. The 
Grocery Shop should be opened at such hour as the Com- 
manding Officer may determine, and closed hah an hour 
after Tattoo, 

The Coffee-room should be associated with the Grocery 
Shop, but whenever practicable a separate room allotted 
to it, and in any case a partition should be made to divide 
the two. It should, whenever possible, form an adjunct 
to the soldiers’ recreation-room, and be maintained for the 
supply of refreshments of the following nature : — tea, 
coffee, cocoa, non-alcoholic drinks, soup, fish, eggs, bacon, 
cooked and preserved meats, etc. It should be opened at 
such an hour as will enable men to have refreshments 
before the morning parade, and closed half an hour after 
Tattoo, 

Regimental Institutes should be managed by a Standing 
Committee of three Officers, of whom the President shall 
not be under the rank of Captain, who should be selected 
by and be under the direction and control of the Com- 
manding Officer. Officers of the Regimental Staff should 
not be appointed members of the committee. 

The duties of this committee are to -superintend the 
whole business of the Institute, to take charge of and dis- 



66 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



burse its funds ; it must take stock and examine the books 
monthly, inspect the quality of articles sold, authorize all 
purchases, and regulate the prices at which articles will be 
sold. 

A subordinate committee of three Non-commissioned 
Officers may be appointed by the Commanding Officer, to 
act under the superintendence of the first named commit- 
tee for the more immediate internal management of the 
Institute ; this committee has no concern in any money 
payments or contracts, but it may submit its views to the 
Officers’ committee for consideration. 

The selection of a Non-commissioned Officer for the 
charge of the Refreshment Department, called Canteen- 
Sergeant, and for which any Sergeant is eligible, rests with 
the Commanding Officer of the corps. He should be under 
the orders of the Committee of Officers. His position 
should be that of steward or salesman, not of contractor, 
and he should not be permitted to have any interest 
whatever in the profits of the department. 

A Non-commissioned Officer should be selected to act as 
Accountant to the Canteen, under the supervision of the 
committee. Both he and the Canteen- Sergeant should 
receive pay for their services from the funds of the Insti- 
tute. 

In the elVent of any complaint being preferred against 
the Canteen-Sergeant, which upon investigation should 
prove to be well founded, he is liable to removal from his 
appointment. 

The Canteen-Sergeant should be responsible that only 
such articles as are approved by the committee, the Com- 
manding Officer or his representative, are sold, and of the 
quality and at the prices fixed by the Officers aforesaid. 



REGIMENTAL INSTITUTE. 



67 



Schedules of the articles sold and of their prices should 
be affixed in conspicuous places in and about the canteen, 
grocery store and coffee room ; these schedules should be 
revised from time to time by one of the committee, and 
visits should also be made periodically to see the schedules 
are such as have been approved, and that the articles sold 
are of good quality. 

The proceeds for the sale of articles should be handed 
over daily by the Canteen-Sergeant to the Committee of 
Officers, which amount should be lodged in a bank or other 
place of security as the committee, with the concurrence 
of the Commanding Officer, may arrange. 

The Canteen- Sergeant should at all times prevent, as far 
as lies in his power, rioting or disorderly behaviour in the 
canteen, and not suffer any gambling, cards or gambling 
tables to be introduced ; and, further, he should not give 
credit or trust to, or receive any pledges or pawns from, 
any Non-commissioned Officer or man, or member of his 
family. 

Defaulters may be permitted to enter the Canteen during 
fixed hours, say from 7 to 8 p.m. 

No civilians or others should be permitted to frequent 
or in any way make use of the canteen without the know- 
ledge, permission or sanction of the Commanding Officer, 
and under no circumstances should they be permitted to 
do so during the hours prohibited by the License Act in 
force for the time being. 

Should it be necessary that licenses be taken out by the 
Canteen-Sergeants, the cost of such should be charged 
against the Institute. 

The Canteen, Grocery Shop, etc., are to be visited fre- 
quently by a member of the committee and the Cbmmand- 
ing Officer, and^aily by one of the Orderly Officers. 



68 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



Non-commissioned Officers and soldiers may, at the dis- 
cretion of the Commanding Officer, be permitted to intro- 
duce their male friends into the coffee room on condition 
that they leave the barracks on the sounding of the first 
post of -Tattoo, The person who thus introduces a friend 
should be considered responsible for his good behaviour. 
The Commanding Officer is empowered to exclude any 
individual at any time. 

Everything purchased at any of the establishments of 
the Institute should be paid for at once in ready money, 
except that pass-book accounts, to be paid weekly, may be 
alloXved for Officers’ and Sergeants’ Messes, and for the 
families of Officers and such others entitled to deal thereat, 
as may be specially sanctioned by the Commanding Officer. 

Eecreation room, Beading room and Libr^y should form 
part of the Begimental Institute of the unit to which they 
are appropriated. Their object is, in conjunction with 
libraries, to afford to the Non-commissioned Officers and 
men the means, within the barracks, of employing their 
leisure hours in rational amusement and the acquisition of 
useful knowledge, and thus to encourage habits of morality 
and sobriety. 

Becreation rooms should be maintained partly by volun- 
tary subscriptions from the troops using them and partly 
by a grant from Government. 

The management and superintendence of recreation 
rooms, and the regulation of the expenditure of their funds, 
form part of the duties of the committee of the Begimen- 
tal Institute to which they belong. The sub-committee 
already referred to should recommend to the committee 
the books to be purchased for the library, and the periodi- 
cals, newspapers and games for the recreation rooms ; in 



()FFICERS* QUARTERS. 



69 



these and all other recommendations they will endeavour 
to carry out the wishes of the subscribers. 

The recreation rooms should be open to all Non-commis- 
sioned Officers and men of the corps who are subscribers. 

OrnCERS’ QUARTERS. 

It being an acknowledged principle of the military ser- 
vice that seniority of rank gives priority of selection of 
quarters, an Officer put into possession of quarters by 
proper authority should not be dispossessed by an Officer 
of corresponding rank, viz. : 

A Commanding Officer by a Commanding Officer. 

A Major by a Major. 

A Captain by a Captain, or 

A Lieutenant by a Lieutenant. 

But in all cases a Captain may claim a priority of choice 
over a Lieutenant, notwithstanding such Lieutenant shall 
have been in previous possession of the better quarters. 

Officers should be quartered as near as possible to the 
men, and in as large a proportion as circumstances admit. 

No Officer should under any circumstance be permitted 
to establish a right to a military quarter he does not 
occupy, nor should he at any time transfer his quarters, 
or any part thereof, to any other Officer, except with the 
special permission of the Commanding Officer. 

When Officers are detached on duty, or when they 
receive leave of absence for a period not exceeding one 
month, they are to retain their rooms in barracks ; but 
when the Officer shall be absent from his rooms, on duty 
or otheicwise, for any period extending beyond that time, 
the rooms should be given over to the charge of the 
Quarter or Barrack Master. 



70 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



The kitchens attached to unmarried Officers’ quarters 
should not be used as sleeping apartments by soldier 
servants, nor should servants be permitted to keep their 
arms and accoutrements in these kitchens. 

LEAVE OF ABSENCE. 

The Adjutant being responsible for the correct keeping 
of the duty roster and all orderly-room returns, it is 
imperative that he should be acquainted with an Officer’s 
obtaining leave, even from parade. 

Subalterns applying for leave of absence should do so 
(in writing) to their respective Captains, for submission 
through the Adjutant, for the Commanding Officer’s 
approval. 

Officers above the rank of Subaltern and Regimental 
Staff, wishing for leave of absence, should apply in writing 
to the Commanding Officer (through the Adjutant) on the 
day previous to their requiring it. In cases of emergency, 
only, personal application may be made to the Command- 
ing Officer. 

Application for a prolongation of leave should be made 
in a similar manner. 

In all applications for leave, officers should state the 
reasons for which solicited, their address while absent, 
and the name of the Officer taking their duties. 

Officers going on leave of absence should settle every 
regimental account previous to their departure. 

So long as Officers remain in barracks they should attend 
all parades and perform all duties, notwithstanding their 
leave of absence may have commenced. 

Officers who receive leave of absence should be present 
with the Battalion on the day on which their leave ter- 
minates. They should report themselves personally on 



PASSES; 



71 



their arrival to the Commanding Officer before appearing 
in public, and give notice in person or in writing to the 
Adjutant. 

They should also make themselves acquainted with all 
orders issued during their absence. 

Officers on temporary leave should make good all duties 
missed during their absence. It is only when on general 
leave they are exempt from this. 

Leave from parade, or leave for a day, should come 
through the same channel, but verbally or by application 
made in a Leave book, which in some corps is kept in the 
orderly room for that purpose. 

PASSES. 

Passes are granted, under the following regulations, 
to well-conducted soldiers, to enable them to visit their 
friends or to remain out after hours ; but, except as herein 
regulated, no soldier should be out of his quarters between 
Tattoo and Reveille without a pass. 

Non-commissioned officers, not below the rank of ser- 
geant, may remain out of barracks up to midnight without 
special permission. If they wish to remain out after that 
hour, they should obtain passes on the proper form, from 
their Commanding Officer ; but they should not be 
required to have passes within the limits of the garrison in 
which they are quartered. 

(а) Passes should not be granted for periods of absence 
exceeding six days. For longer periods a furlough 
is necessary. 

(б) Permanent passes (Form 12) up to midnight should 
be granted — 

(1) To non-commissioned officers below the rank 
of sergeant. 



7.2 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



(2) To men with one or more good- conduct badges,, 
or who have had no entry in the Company 
Defaulter 4Dook during the past 12 months. 

(3) To men who, though not qualified under (2), 
may, in the opinion of their Commanding 

“ Ofiicer, be deserving of the privilege. 

(c) Well-conducted recruits should be granted passes to 
visit their friends once a month, or oftener, if 
possible, from after the last drill on Friday until 
Tattoo on Sunday. If there are no Sunday trains, 
their passes may extend till after the arrival of the 
first train on Monday. 

No soldier should be recommended for this indulgence 
unless he has been clear of a Regimental entry one month ; 
or a Company, two weeks ; and care should be taken that 
men are not allowed to make a habit of applying for passes 
too frequently. 

Men obtaining a pass should have it recommended by 
the Officer commanding the company. The passes of men 
employed should be recommended by their respective 
superiors. Bandsmen and Buglers by the Adjutant ; 
Servants’ passes by their masters ; and those of Mess 
servants by the President, as well as by the Officer com- 
manding the Company to which they belong, previous to 
obtaining the signature of the Commanding Officer. 

Permanent passes should be signed by the Commanding 
Officer. All other passes should be granted and signed 
by Officers commanding companies. 

Non-commissioned Officers should not apply for passes 
until they have ascertained from the Sergeant Majfir if 
they are for duty. 

All ordinary passes (Form 13) should be on printed 



SERVANTS AND BATMEN. 



73 



forms, which should be kept in the Colour Sergeant’s 
possession and filled in by him from time to time, as 
required. Should the Commanding Officer or Captain 
refuse a pass, it is to be destroyed and not given to the 
soldier. 

Soldiers on pass are entitled to pay, but no rations, if 
absent more than one day. 

On returning to quarters, the ordinary passes should be 
left with the Sergeant of the Guard, who enters on the face 
of them the precise time at which they return, and initials 
the same, and these passes are sent to the orderly room 
with the guard reports daily. Permanent passes should 
always be carried by the holder, and shown when required. 

Any soldier who commits himself when on pass should 
forfeit the like indulgence for double the above qualifying 
periods. 

Men absent on pass for less than seven days should make 
up their duties. 

In case of a man being prevented from rejoining his 
Battalion before the expiration of his pass, through unavoid- 
able delay of trains or steamboats, he should bring with 
him a written statement from the station-master or cap- 
tain of the boat of the cause of the delay, or, in case of 
illness, a medical certificate, or be punished as an absentee. 

Unless an hour is specified a pass expires at Tattoo of 
the last day named in it. 

Leave from tea roll-call may be granted by Officers com- 
manding Companies to ten per cent, of the strength of 
their companies, except on Sundays, when double that 
number of leaves may be granted. 

SERVANTS AND BATMEN. 

The employment of soldiers as servants is an indulgence. 



74 



INTERIOR ECONOMY. 



Each Regimental Officer is allowed to have one soldier to 
attend him, and Field Officers, the Surgeon and Adjutant 
permitted to have two each, that is, one for himself and a 
man to groom his horse. 

All servants (those of Field and Staff Officers excepted) 
should be men of the same Company as the Officer whom 
they attend. They should be of established good charac- 
ter, perfect in drill, and have acquired a complete know- 
ledge of the duties of a soldier. 

No man should be taken as a servant without the sanc- 
tion of the Commanding Officer, application in the first 
instance having been made to the Officer commanding the 
Company to which he belongs. Soldiers who are likely to 
make eligible Non-commissioned Officers should not be 
taken. 

Whenever an Officer dismisses his servant he should 
inform the Adjutant in writing his reason for so doing for 
the Commanding Officer’s information. 

A Register should be kept in the orderly room of all 
men who have been dismissed for misconduct to prevent 
their being employed as servants afterwards. 

When a servant is once turned away by his master on 
account of misconduct he should not be employed again 
unless he has conducted himself, for a period of not less 
than six months after his return to duty, to the entire 
satisfaction of the Officer in command of the Company to 
which he belongs. 

No soldier should ever be permitted to work in any part 
of his regimental clothing, neither should he ever appear 
partly dressed in uniform and partly in livery. 

Officers’ servants should answer their names at Tattoo. 
Officers having occasion to send their servants out of bar- 



SERVANTS AND BATMEN. 



75 



racks after Tattoo should always furnish them with a pass. 
Unmarried servants should sleep in the barrack rooms and 
mess with their Companies, and all servants should return 
to their duty when their masters are on leave of absence 
for more than three days. 

All servants, with the exception of those of mounted 
Officers, should attend all general parades ; they should 
mount guard with the Officer they attend and perform 
their share of that duty ; there should be special drill for 
them at least one day in the week. 

If an Officer is ill his servant should be excused from all 
parades as long as he is on the sick list. 

Officers’ servants should keep their arms, appointments, 
and clothing in good order, and be ready to turn out, like 
other soldiers, at any moment. 

In connection with soldier servants the term “ batman” 
is frequently used. Formerly these were men hired in time 
of war to take charge of Bat or baggage horses, but 
latterly the word has in the service been applied to soldiers 
who performed odd chores for Sergeants in their own time, 
without being relieved from duty, as is customary with 
officers’ servants. 



PART II. 



DUTIES. 

SECTION I. 

ROSTER OF DUTIES. 

Duties, or the proper performance of them, are the most 
important part of a soldier’s training, be he Officer, Non- 
commissioned Officer, or Private. 

In all duties, whether with or without arms, and 
whether performed by corps or by individuals, the roster 
should commence with the senior. 

Duties are thus classified : 

1. Guards, 1st of the Sovereign ; 2nd, of Members of 

the Royal Family ; 3rd, of Viceroys ; 4th, of the 
Captain General, or Governor of a colony ; 5th, of 
the Commander in Chief at home or abroad. 

2. Divisional duties under arms. 

3. Brigade or garrison duties under arms. 

4. Regimental duties under arms. 

5. Courts Martial, 1st, General ; 2nd, District ; 3rd, 

Regimental. 

6. Boards, or Courts of Enquiry, 1st, Divisional ; 2nd, 

Brigade ; 3rd, Regimental. 

7. Working parties. 

8. Fatigue duties. 

These are divided Regimentally into duties for Officers, 
and for Non-commissioned Officers and men. 

- [76] 



ROSTER OP DUTIES. 



77 



OFFICERS. 

а. 1st, Guards ; 2nd, Escorts ; 3rd, Picquets. 

б. Courts Martial, 1st, Divisional ; 2nd, Brigade ; 3rd, 

Regimental. 

c. Boards and Courts of Enquiry, 1st, Divisional ; 

2nd, Brigade ; 3rd, Regimental. 

d. Working parties. 

e. Orderly duties. 

/. Fatigue duties. 

The Officers’ duty roster (Form 14) is kept by the Adju- 
tant, who should have one for Garrison and another for 
Regimental duties, the former taking precedence of the 
latter. 

Officers on duty of all descriptions should attend all 
parades and perform all other incidental duties, so far as 
they do not interfere with the special duties for which they 
have been detailed. 

When an Officer’s tour for more than one duty comes on 
the same date he should be detailed for that duty only 
which has the precedence in the classification already 
given. When an Officer is actually in the performance of 
one duty and his tour for another duty occurs, he should 
not make good that other duty, but his tour is to pass 
him, ie., he receives an “overslaugh.” An Officer 
detailed as in “waiting” is not entitled to count a tour of 
duty. 

No “overslaugh” should be allowed for one of two 
duties which come round on the same date when such 
occur through an Officer having exchanged duties or when 
he is making up duties at the end of the roster. 



78 



DUTIES. 



An Officer detailed for one duty can also be detailed for 
such other duties as his Commanding Officer may think he 
can consistently perform with the proper discharge of the 
first mentioned duty. 

Attendance at a Court Martial the members of which 
shall have been assembled and sworn, should be reckoned 
a duty, though the Court should be dissolved without try- 
ing any person. On any day on which a Court Martial is 
not actually sitting its members should, without further 
orders, be considered available for parades or other duties ; 
they should not, however, quit the station without the 
authority of the General or other Officer commanding, 
until the Court shall have been dissolved. This is also 
applicable to Courts of Inquiry and Boards. 

A Guard, escort, picquet or fatigue party is only entitled 
to count a tour of duty when it has marched off the ground 
where it may have been ordered to parade. 

A “Brevet’’ Officer should perform all Begimental duties 
according to his Begimental rank — Garrison duties accord- 
ing to his Militia rank. 

Guards of Honour should be furnished regimentally. 

When an Officer returns from short leave of absence and 
has to make up duties, he should makeup one at the end 
of each roster. When an Officer has to make up duties he 
should only make up as many duties of each kind as any 
individual Officer has done of that kind during the period 
of his leave. 

The Officers for duty, and those in waiting as next for 
duty, should always be mentioned in the orders of the day. 

Officers should not be allowed to exchange duties without 
the permission or the authority of those by .whom they are 
detailed ; the application to be made in writing to the 



ROSTER OF DUTIES. 



79 



Adjutant, signed by both Officers, and before the name of 
either party has appeared in orders. 

No armed party, consisting of more than thirty men, 
should be allowed to proceed oh any duty unaccompanied 
by an Officer. 

KON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND MEN. 

a. Guards. 

&. Escorts. 

c. Picquets. 

h. Working parties. 

e. Orderly. 

/. Regimental fatigues detailed from orderly room. 

g. Company fatigues, orderly men of rooms, stairs and 
passage orderly, ration carriers, etc. 

The Sergeant-Major should keep the duty roster of the 
Non-commissioned Officers and men (Forms 15 and 16), 
detailing the former by name, and the latter by the 
number required from each company for the duty. The 
proportion that each company is able to find for duty, he 
learns from the duty state (Form 17) which is furnished 
to the orderly room weekly. 

The Orderly Sergeants keep their companies’ rosters 
(Form 18), and should have their Orderly Corporals 
present as witnesses, when they warn the men individu- 
ally for their several duties, which should be done at the 
evening parade, or at the tea hour. 

In detailing fatigue parties, the Sergeant-Major should 
name those first which are liable to be first wanted. 

When more than one description of duty or fatigue is 
detailed from the orderly room, the men should be taken 
off the company roster in the same order as the fatigues ; 



80 



DUTIES. 



i.e., the first men for duty will be for that fatigue first 
named by the Sergeant-Major. 

If, after the issue of the usual detail for the day follow- 
ing, a 'fatigue party should be unexpectedly called for, the 
men first on the roster for regimental fatigue should be 
taken, even though they should have been previously 
warned for another fatigue. 

Except in cases of necessity, men should not be taken 
for duty within a shorter interval than two hours after 
guard, or one hour after meals. 

As a general rule Non-commissioned Officers and men on 
escort, or giving evidence before a Court Martial, should 
not make good any guards, picquets, or fatigues, when it 
has passed their turn in the roster. Cooks, servants, and 
employed men should be exempt from duties. 

Non-commissioned Ofiicers and men on duty or “in 
waiting ’’ should not be permitted to leave their quarters. 



In all garrisons and camps the hours for the “ Reveille, 

“ Retreat , and ‘‘ Tattoo,’^ throughout the year are regu- 
lated as follows : — 



SECTION II. 



DAILY ROUTINE OF DUTIES. 



REVEILLE. 



RETREAT. 



TATTOO (last POST). 




r 



At 

10 P.M. 



At 



except where 



7 A.M. 
in Winter. 



Sunset. 



otherwise specially 



ordered. 



The time for sounding these calls is to be taken from the 



DAILY ROUTINE OF DUTIES. 



81 



main or other guard — to be named in garrison orders — or 
from the firing of the station gun, wh^re there is one. 

Daily duties commence at Reveille; weekly duties at 
same time on Mondays. 

All daily and w;eekly states, reports and r^urns, should 
be sent into the orderly room by 11 a.m. 

On Reveille being sounded, the Non-commissioned Officers 
and men rise and dress, and the roll is called by the Orderly 
Sergeant of the Company, who notes men absent or reported 
sick. An hour after Reveille sounding every man should 
have his bed made up ; the rooms or tents should be swept 
and cleaned, windows opened, or tent curtains rolled up, 
unless in rainy weather, and the urine tubs emptied and 
placed at the appointed spot with clean water in them. 
The Subaltern of the day, with the Regimental Orderly 
Sergeant, should visit the rooms to see that this order has 
been obeyed. 

At 6.45 all men off duty should parade and drill for one 
hour ; men attending instruction drill and recruits should 
also parade for drill at this hour. Orderly Sergeants should 
attend at the falling in. 

At 7 the rations of bread and meat should be issued, 
when the Regimental Orderly Sergeant should see that the 
Orderly Corporals and Orderly men of Companies are 
paraded, properly dressed in fatigue clothing, and report 
to the Orderly Officers of the day who attend, together 
with the Quarter- Master, and remain until the issue is 
completed ; any complaints respecting the rations should 
be made at their issue through the Orderly Corporals of 
Companies to the Orderly Officers (see Rations Parade). 
Vegetables and groceries may be drawn at the same time, 
or, if more convenient, at a later hour. 

6 



82 



DUTIES. 



The Non-commissioned Officer drawing meat for the 
Company should be held responsible that it is at once taken 
to the cook-houses from the meat store, and not the barrack 
rooms. 

At 7 .45 the warning or quarter bugle sounds for break- 
fast, when the Orderly Officers, Orderly Corporals with 
Orderly men, attend at the cook-houses to receive the 
messes, which are taken to the rooms and there divided, 
the breakfast for the men on guard, etc., being at once 
sent off. 

At 8 the breakfast bugle should sotlnd when the men sit 
down to breakfast. During breakfast they should be 
visited by the Orderly Officers, viz. , the Captain and Sub- 
altern of the day, who inquire from each Mess if there 
are ‘ ‘ any complaints, ” noting the same. These Officers 
should be accompanied by the Regimental Orderly Sergeant 
and Corporal respectively, who precede them a few paces 
and command ‘‘attention.” 

Immediately after breakfast the rooms or tents should 
be arranged, the Mess things removed, washed and put in 
their places by the Orderly men. 

At 9 the Regimental and other Guards should be inspected 
and marched off by the Adjutant or one of the Orderly 
Officers (see Guard Parade). 

The Defaulters should also parade at 9 o’clock, and be 
inspected by the Regimental Orderly Sergeant and also by 
the Non-commissioned Officers on Gate and Canteen duty, 
that they may be identified by them, and then drill or work 
for an hour. 

At 9.15 o’clock, the Company Orderly Corporals, with 
the men who have reported themselves sick, should parade 
with their kits and be marched to the Hospital by the 



DAILY ROUTINE OP DUTIES. 



83 



Regimental Orderly Corporal, or Non-commissioned Officer 
detailed for that duty, who should take with him the sick 
reports and march back those men who may not be 
admitted. Prisoners are also marched to the Hospital 
when they report sick. 

Fatigue men or prisoners should parade at this hour, and 
thoroughly clean the barrack yard or camp, drains, urinals, 
latrines, etc. 

At 9.30 the Commanding Officer should attend the 
orderly room for the disposal of prisoners and other 
business (see Orderly room parade). 

At 9.40 the ‘‘Dress” for parade should sound, and at 
9.50 the Staff parade should be formed and inspected by 
the Adjutant, to be immediately followed by the Regi- 
mental parade at 10 (see Regimental parade) 

At 11.45 the recruits, defaulters and men attending 
instruction drill, should parade and drill until 12.45, at 
which time the warning bugle for dinner should sound, 
the Orderly Officers, Orderly Corporals and men attending 
at the cook house, as at breakfast. The hour for dinner 
should be 1 o’clock, the Orderly Officers again visiting 
the messes as at breakfast, accompanied by the Regimental 
Orderly Sergeant and Corporal. 

At 1 . 30 the Defaulters parade for drill or fatigue. 

At 2 the rooms should be visited by the Regimental 
Orderly Sergeant, to see that everything is again in order, 
mess utensils washed, and set in their proper places, rooms 
swept, etc. 

At 2. 30 afternoon parade ; first-class men may be 
exempted from this parade. 

At 4 the Defaulters should again parade, and drill or 
work for an hour. 



84 



DUTIES. 



The tea bugle should sound at 5.30, after which the 
Regimental Orderly Sergeant inspects the cook-houses to 
see that they have been properly cleaned, and the fires 
extinguished, and after locking them, should hand over 
the keys and those of the wash-houses or ablution room 
to the Sergeant of the Guard. 

The Guard, guard-room, prisoners’ room, cells, hospital, 
canteen, shops, wash-houses, cook-houses, should be visited 
daily by one of the Orderly Officers. 

Retreat should be sounded at sundown, the Picquet 
being then inspected by the Subaltern of the day. 

First Post should be sounded at 9.30 p.m. Last Post at 
10 p.m., when the Subaltern of the day should attend at 
the collection of the Tattoo reports from the Orderly 
Sergeants, and again inspects the Picquet ; the Regimental 
Orderly Sergeant and Corporal, and Non-commissioned 
Officers on Gate and Canteen duty attend this parade 
(see Tattoo parade). The Subaltern should then remain 
and see lights out, attended by the Regimental Orderly 
Sergeant, fifteen minutes after Last Post sounding. 

Between Tattoo and Reveille no bugle should be sounded, 
or drum beaten, with the exception of the call, ‘‘lights 
out,” the “fire alarm,” or other signal in case of a turn- 
out of the troops. 

In case of any serious disturbance taking place at any 
time in the vicinity of their quarters by day or night, and 
the “ assemble ” sounding, a Battalion should fall in with 
arms and accoutrements. 

In the event of fire, the “fire alarm ” should be sounded 
(see Bugle calls). On the call. Officers and men should 
turn out as quickly as possible, in fatigue dress and proceed 
as detailed below. 



GUARDS. 



85 



The Guard should turn out and remain under arms ; the 
Picquet fall in and proceed under the Subaltern of the day 
to the fire, to keep a clear space, and preserve order and 
silence. The Fire picquet proceed at once to the engine 
house for the engine ; if there is none in barracks, then 
they will act in accordance with the fire orders. The 
remainder of the Battalion should remain quietly on the 
parade ground and await instructions. 

When a fire engine is in barracks the Quarter- Master 
should have charge of it. It should be exercised by the 
Fire picquet every Saturday at noon, under the Subaltern 
of the day. 



SECTION III. 

GUAEDS, SENTEIES, ESCOETS, AND PICQUETS. 

There is no situation in which soldiers are so conspicu- 
ously placed, as when upon guard ; they are then exposed 
to constant observation, and the honour and character of 
the corps become, in consequence, more than ever in the 
keeping of every individual, be his rank ever so humble. 
Every man is aware of the impression made upon his mind 
when he sees reliefs marching irregularly, sentries lounging 
lazily upon their posts, the men of a guard lying about 
upon their benches, their tunics but half buttoned, their 
accoutrements disarranged, and their caps carelessly put 
on ; he never expects to find that such slovens and 
unsoldier-like characters belong to a Battalion in a good 
state of discipline. The method of mounting and relieving 
guard is laid down in the “ Infantry Drill,” 1896. 

Guards should turn out at Reveille, Retreat and (First 
Post) Tattoo, and be inspected by the Officers or Non- 
commissioned Officers commanding them. 



86 



DUTIES. 



Officers, Non-commissioned Officers or soldiers should 
not on any account take off their clothes or accoutrements 
while on guard. 

No man of the guard should ever be seen smoking out- 
side the guard room, or appear with a forage cap on, unless 
the guard is mounted in that order of dress, or permitted 
to change to it. 

No soldier should be employed in holding a horse, or in 
any other way unconnected with the orders of his guard. 

The meals of all on guard should be brought to them, or 
if at too great a distance, should be taken and cooked in 
the guard room. 

Should a man be taken ill on guard, a report is immedi- 
ately to be sent to the Orderly Officer, who should see that 
one of the waiting men is sent to relieve him at once. 

In case of fire or other alarm, it should be reported at 
once to the Orderly Officer, and the Guard turn out and 
remain under arms. 

When an Officer visits sentries, he should be accom- 
panied by a Non-commissioned Officer of the guard, and 
when a Non-commissioned Officer visits his sentries, he 
should take a man or file of men. 

Guards, on being relieved, should march to their regi- 
mental parades and be dismissed, the Commander, if an 
Officer, first obtaining leave to dismiss if a senior is on the 
parade ; if a Non-commissioned Officer, reporting his 
guard to the Adjutant or Orderly Officer. 

A Bugler should always be warned, and mount with the 
regimental quarter-guard. 

DUTIES OF THE COMMANDER OF A GUARD. 

Commanders of guards should make themselves acquaint- 
ed with the orders of the guard, as also with those of each 



COMMANDER OF A GUARD. 



87 



post. They should inspect all reliefs, both on going out 
to their posts and returning from them, and should par- 
ticularly ascertain that the Corporals themselves are well 
informed with respect to the orders they are to deliver to 
the several sentries, whom they should frequently visit, 
to be assured that they know their duty and have received 
the proper instruction, specifying in their guard report 
the particular hour in which they performed these duties. 
In the reports of all guards should likewise be mentioned 
the hours when visited by Officers on duty. They should 
maintain a proper authority, and be responsible that no 
drinking, swearing or gambling is allowed in the guard 
room, taking care that all are exact in the performance of 
their duty, and that no species of irregularity is permitted 
among the men. 

Commanders of guards should remain constantly with 
their guards, except while visiting their sentries or patrol- 
ling the barracks or camp, and they should not enter any 
public house or place of entertainment : when obliged to 
leave the guard, they should inform the second in com- 
mand of the reason of their absence and the probable time 
of return. In the absence of Non-commissioned Officers 
— as for instance on a Corporal’s guard or party — if any- 
thing should happen to the Corporal, the oldest soldier, 
whether bugler or private, becomes answerable, for the 
guard or party until a Non-commissioned Officer joins it. 
The roll should be called at uncertain hours to see that no 
man is absent without permission. 

Commanders of guards should patrol round the quarters 
at uncertain hours during the night, taking a man if 
possible with them, to see that all is correct, and that no 
lights but those authorized are burning. 

They should receive all ordinary passes from men coming 



'88 



DUTIES. 



into quarters after hours, and enter on the same the time 
that each individual came in and initial them ; these passes 
should be sent with the guard report to the Orderly room; 
Permanent passes should be examined, and if correct 
returned to the bearers. 

They should report all Non-commissioned Officers and 
men coming into quarters after Tattoo^ who are not on 
duty or pass ; if they are drunk they should be detained 
as prisoners. 

They should be responsible that no one but the guard 
and the prisoners are permitted to remain in the guard 
house, and should give orders to the sentrj’^ on the door 
not to admit any one except the Officer of the day, or 
those with rations or clothing, which latter should be 
examined previous to its being handed to the men. 

Commanders of guards receive such prisoners as are 
made over to them by an Officer or Non-commissioned 
Officer, and should on no account release a prisoner com- 
mitted to their charge, without proper authority. A 
written charge or crime should in all cases be required 
with each; but the Commander of a guard should not 
refuse to receive a prisoner on the ground that a written 
charge or crime is not given him with the prisoner. It is 
sufficient for him to know that the prisoner is amenable to 
military law, and that the person confining him is known 
and responsible. 

If no charge is received against a prisoner by the Com- 
mander of a guard within twenty-four hours of his com- 
mittal, he should take proper steps for procuring it, or 
report the circumstances to the officer to whom his guard 
report is furnished, who, if the crime or other evidence 
sufficient to justify the detention is not forthcoming, will 
at the expiration of forty-eight hours order the release of 
the prisoner. 



COMMANDER OP A GUARD. 



89 



Commanders of guards should minutely inspect prisoners 
before they are placed in confinement, and take from them 
any implements with which they can injure themselves or 
others, or that can be used in any way to facilitate their 
escape, also all money, jewellery, etc. If drunk, their 
boots should be removed, except in very cold weather. A 
Non-commissioned Ofiicer should visit prisoners who are 
drunk every two hours. 

The Commander of a guard should see that the prisoners 
under his charge, before being brought before the Com- 
manding Officer, are clean and properly dressed, or, if they 
report sick, are seen by the Surgeon. 

The Commander of the new guard, before receiving over 
the prisoners, should call over their names from the dupli- 
cate guard report. 

If a prisoner or a soldier of the guard is found to be in 
liquor, the Commander of the guard should be held 
accountable for it, as no such occurrence can take place if 
he does his duty. 

The Commander of a guard should direct the Orderly 
Bugler to sound Reveille^ Retreat, etc. , at the proper hours ; 
also for defaulters a;t uncertain times, at least once an 
hour, between Reveille and Tattoo. The first call for 
defaulters should not be earlier than half an hour after 
Reveille, and the last at First Post ; but they should not 
be called at a time when they are supposed to be in their 
quarters at meals, etc. He should have a list of defaulters 
and men on pass furnished him by the Kegimental Orderly 
Sergeant. 

Commanders of guards should make out a report (Form 
20), stating the hours at which they visited their sentries, 
the hours they were visited by the Orderly Officers, the 
name of every prisoner confined during the period on duty. 



90 



DUTIES. 



and mention made of authority on which any prisonermay 
have been released, also a list of articles in the guard house 
received from the last guard ; each man’s name, the num- 
ber of the post on which he does sentry, and the hours 
during which he is posted, should be entered in the report ; 
men should not be changed on the several posts, except 
for special purposes. Anything unusual occurring during 
the tour of duty should instantly be reported to the Officer 
of the day. 

A Commander of a guard should be held responsible for 
the furniture, etc., that he takes over, and should be par- 
ticular to inspect the several articles when taking them 
over, and to notify damages in his report. 

The Corporal should assist the Commander in the per- 
formance of his duties, and to check all irregularities that 
may come under his notice ; he should post the sentries 
,properly and see that all is correct about and near their 
posts, and read and explain the orders to those who cannot 
read. 

GUARDS PAVING COMPLIMENTS. 

Guards should be under arms at all times wffien armed 
parties approach their posts, and stand with shouldered 
arms, and if armed corps (by “armed corps” is meant a 
Regiment of Cavalry, a Battery of Artillery with its guns, 
a Battalion of Infantry with or without colours, two Com- 
panies of Garrison Artillery, or four Companies of En- 
gineers), they present arms and the Bugler sounds a flourish. 
Officers saluting ; but they should not pay compliments 
between the sounding of the Retreat and the Reveille, 
Guards need not turn out to unarmed parties. The manner 
in which guards turn out and pay compliments is laid 
down in sec. 195 “ Infantry Drill, 1896.” 



GUARDS PAYING COMPLIMENTS. 



91 



To the Governor-General all guards should turn out, 
present arms and sound a flourish. Guards mounted over 
the person of the Sovereign, members of the Royal Family, 
Viceroys, or Governors, do not present arms to those of 
inferior rank. 

Guards should turn out and pay the compliment with 
the “flourish’’ to General Officers in uniform. General 
Officers meeting guards on the march are also entitled to 
the usual salute in passing. 

No Officer under the rank of a General Officer is entitled 
to the compliment of the bugle sounding a flourish. 

When Officers or persons entitled to a salute pass in rear 
of a guard, the Commander is to cause his men to fall in 
and stand with shouldered arms turned to the proper front, 
but no drum is to beat or bugle sound, nor will the guard 
present arms. 

When such Officers pass guards while in the act of 
relieving, both guards should salute, receiving the word 
of command from the senior Officer or Non-commissioned 
Officer present with them. 

The colours of a Battalion passing a guard should be 
saluted with the utmost respect, bugles sounding. 

To Commanding Officers the guards of their own Bat- 
talions should turn out and “present arms” once a day. 

When the command of a Battalion devolves on a Major 
or Captain, his own guards should pay him the same com- 
pliment as is ordered for the Lieutenant-Colonel. 

When garrison or other guards, proceeding to or from 
their posts, meet the Field Officer of the day, they should 
salute him in passing by shouldering arms. 

No Officer who is not dressed in uniform is entitled to 
the compliment of the guard turning out. The several 



92 



DUTIES. 



members of tbe Royal Family and His Excellency the 
Governor-General are excepted from this rule. 

Whenever the turning out of a guard is dispensed with 
by the person entitled to the compliment, the Commander 
of the guard should remain outside until he has passed. 

RELIEFS. 

The manner of marching reliefs and posting sentries is 
laid in sec. 198 ‘‘Infantry Drill,” 1896. 

With a relief in single rank the numbers should run from 
right to left, and as each new sentry steps out the others 
should close to the right, leaving a place on the left for the 
last relieved sentry to occupy. 

A relief, if in two ranks, should stand as follows : — No. 
1, right-hand man, front rank, covered by No. 2; No. 3, 
next to No. 1, covered by No. 4, and so on— f J 

As each man in succession moves out to go on sentry, 
the remainder of the men of the relief should move so as 
to bring the man for the next post on the right of the front 
rank, and also so as to make a vacant place for the relieved 
sentry to occupy on the left of the rear rank. 

A relieved sentry, when joining a relief, should move 
into his place round the left flank. 

The following is a detailed description of the manner in 
which men in a relief move, as alternate men move out to 
go on sentry : — 

At No. 1 Post. — No. 1 steps out to relieve old sentry, 
his rear rank man. No. 2, steps up into the front rank and 
occupies his place, the remainder of the rear rank covering 
off 27 inches to the right ; by these movements No. 2 is 
ready on the right of the front rank to step out at the next 
post, and a vacant space is left on the left of the rear rank 
for the relieved sentry to occupy. 



RELIEFS AND SENTRIES. 



93 



At No. 2 Post. — No. 2 (right-hand front-rank man) steps 
out, and the remainder of the front rank takes a pace of 
24 inches to the right, and the first man relieved steps into 
the front rank, at the next post No. 3 moves out, and No. 
4 moves up to the front rank, the rear rank moving only 
to the right, thus leaving the required vacant space on the 
left of the rear rank for the relieved sentry, and so on. 

SENTRIES. 

For instructions in paying compliments and challenging, 
see secs. 195 and 199 ‘^Infantry Drill,” 1896. 

A sentry is a soldier placed in such a position as to be 
able to watch the approach of the enemy or unauthorized 
persons, to prevent surprises, to protect property. Sentries 
should be placed before the arms of all guards, at the 
quarters of General and Commanding officers, or over any 
person or property to be guarded. They should be vigilant 
at their posts, and at all times be provided, if possible, 
with written or printed orders, detailing the special duty 
they are to discharge. 

Sentries are generally posted with their knapsacks on 
for the first and last reliefs. 

Sentries should be relieved every two hours ; in very 
severe weather they may be relieved every hour ; but a 
sentry should not on any account leave his post until regularly 
relieved. In case of illness he should pass the word to the 
Commander of the guard, whose duty it will be to have 
him relieved. 

If a fire breaks out, or other alarm occurs, he should 
immediately pass the intelligence to the Commander of 
the guard. 

Sentries posted near barrack cells should not be per- 
mitted to communicate with prisoners, or have anything 



94 



DUTIES. 



to do with, their discipline. They should call the attention 
of the Commander of the guard to any irregularity, and 
apprise him if a prisoner desires to see him. 

A sentry should never stand to speak to any one while 
on his post ; but, if spoken to, will answer civilly and 
walk on. If a person is doing anything contrary to the 
orders of his post, he should tell them to desist in a quiet 
and respectful tone, and if this has no effect he should call 
for the Commander of the guard. 

Hospital sentries should not admit any person except 
the Surgeon, Chaplain, Officers of the corps, persons em- 
ployed in the Hospital, and visitors at the fixed visiting 
hours ; the latter should be provided with passes from the 
Surgeon. They should prevent liquor or any other article 
being carried into the Hospital without the Surgeon’s per- 
mission, and not allow any patient to go beyond the pre- 
scribed boundaries without a leave ticket. They should 
also stop persons carrying bundles from the Hospital with- 
out a pass. 

Sentries mounted over the quarters of a General Officer 
should be instructed to pay the compliment of “presenting 
arms ” to General Officers only ; to officers below that 
rank sentries should stand with shouldered arms ; in all 
cases, however, they should pay the prescribed* compli- 
ment to armed parties passing their posts. 

The sentry at the guard room door should take charge 
of the prisoners confined in the Prisoners’ room and the 
arms of the guard. He should turn out the guard on the 
approach of armed parties or the Commanding Officer; 
also to Officers of the day. 

A sentry should walk his beat in a smart and soldier-like 
manner, he may stand at ease, opposite the sentry box, 



SENTHIES AND ESCORTS. 



95 



ten minutes in each hour, or in very bad weather enter 
the sentry box, but not sit down there ; he must not on 
any account give up his arms or allow them to be taken 
from him, neither is he to whistle, sing, or smoke. 

All orders to sentries should be given through an Officer 
or Non-commissioned Officer of the guard, and a sentry 
should never give over his orders to any one, unless in the 
presence of an Officer or Non-commissioned Officer of his 
guard. 

ESCORTS. 

Officers, or Non-commissioned Officers, commanding 
Escorts, should be held strictly responsible for their 
conduct and appearance, the safe custody of their 
prisoners, and the security of the stores entrusted to 
their charge, and should invariably demand a receipt 
from the person to whom they deliver the same. 

The Escort of a prisoner should, as a general rule, 
consist of one corporal and one private, and parade in 
tunics and undress caps, with side arms only. Great 
coats 6r cloaks may be worn when necessary, and if the 
escort does not return the same day, the valise should be 
carried. When parties of two of more prisoners are to be 
removed from one station to another by railway or other 
conveyance, the number of privates to form the escort 
need not in ordinary cases exceed half the number of 
prisoners. 

Prisoners should not be marched handcuffed through 
the streets, unless absolutely unavoidable, and no covered , 
conveyance can be had. 

The subsistence of men proceeding on detached duties 
should be given to the Officer, or Non-commissioned 
Officer, commanding the party, by whom it should be 



96 



• DUTIES. 



issued daily to the men, care being taken that no claim 
of landlords or other inhabitants is left unsettled. 

Escorts under charge of Non-commissioned Officers 
should, immediately upon arrival at a military station, 
be marched to the parade ground for the purpose of being 
inspected by the Orderly Officer at the station. 

On the return of an escort, or detachment, to Head- 
Quarters, the commander should report in person if an 
Officer, to the Commanding Officer, and if a Non-com- 
missioned Officer, to the Adjutant, before dismissing his 
party, in order that the same may be inspected without 
delay. 

The commanders of escorts should march immediately 
in rear of their party, which will enable them to have U 
full view of each individual. 

A “conducting” escort used for conducting men from 
prison, whose sentence has expired, to their corps, con- 
sists of a Non-commissioned Officer only. 

PICQUETS. 

A Picquet in barracks is a small body of men detailed 
for the purpose of quelling any disturbance that may 
occur among soldiers, either within or without the bar- 
racks, for the apprehension of absentees or disorderly 
soldiers, and maintaining order generally ; the tour of 
duty is twenty-four hours. The men of a picquet are 
usually allowed to sleep in their own rooms, but if 
necessary they may be kept together during the night, 
available at a moment’s notice. 

• 

The Picquet should parade daily at guard mounting, 
remaining in quarters during the day, ready to turn out 
when required. It again parades at Retreat, and Tattoo 
(Last Post), and receives from the Orderly Officer the 
necessary instructions relative to sending out patrols. 



PICQUETS AND POLICE. 



97 



When Picqueta parade for patrolling, they should wear 
side arms only. ^ 

Patrols may consist of only a Non-commissioned Officer 
and one private, and it is their duty to make prisoners of 
all soldiers found drunk or disorderly in the streets or 
public houses, or men out of barracks or camp after hours 
without a pass. 

A Picquet or Patrol may enter a public house, but 
should on no account examine any part of the house other 
than the bar room, unless accompanied by a constable, or 
with the consent of the proprietor. 

It should not on any account interfere with civilians, 
nor take other than soldiers into custody. 

A Picquet should render every assistance to the civil 
police in the execution of their duty, where soldiers are 
concerned. 

When the “assemble” or “fire alarm” sounds, the 
Picquet should immediately get under arms. The Orderly 
Officers should join the Picquet. 

No man of the picquet should be allowed to enter the 
canteen from the time he mounts until he is relieved. 

The Fire picquet is detailed to take charge of the fire 
engine, or if such does not exist, then its duty is to render 
an organized assistance in case of fire. It will parade in 
fatigue dress. The Non-commissioned Officers and men 
detailed for this Picquet should be changed every six 
months, in order to practise as many as possible in the 
duties. 

POLICE. 

With a view to maintain order and regularity within 
the lines of a Battalion, every corps should detail a few 
steady soldiers to act as regimental Police, under the 
7 



98 



DUTIES. 



charge of the Provost-sergeant, and the immediate orders 
of the Adjutant. The number of men for this special 
service should vary according to circumstances, but in 
ordinary cases three men in an enclosed barrack ought to 
suffice. The number should never exceed six. 

They should patrol the barracks, especially the stables 
and outhouses, as well as outside the boundaries of the 
barracks at uncertain hours after dark, observing all 
irregularities and reporting everything of importance, 
which comes under their observation. 

They should be vigilant to prevent unauthorized persons 
loitering about the barracks, and report the names of all 
soldiers seen walking about with disreputable characters. 



SECTION IV. 

ORDERLY DUTIES. 

In each Battalion there should be detailed a Captain, 
Subaltern, Sergeant, and Corporal of the day, besides 
Non-commissioned Officers for Canteen, and Gate duty, 
daily, and a N. C. O. to drill defaulters weekly. In each 
Company an Orderly Sergeant and Orderly Corporal 
weekly, and Orderly men of rooms and passages daily. 

CAPTAIN oir THE DAY. 

The duties of the Captain of the day commence at 
Reveille, and last for twenty-four hours, or until he is 
relieved. 

He should be held strictly responsible for the cleanli- 
ness and regularity of the barracks or camp, and answer- 



CAPTAIN OF THE DAY. 



99 



able for the manner in which all parts of the daily duties 
and interior economy are executed by every individual ; 
he must ascertain that the duties reported have been 
actually performed, and this he can only do properly by 
attending in person, and seeing that those concerned are 
really engaged in the execution of the duty required of 
them. He should be assisted in the performance of his 
duties by the Subaltern of the day, who will be under his 
orders. 

He should be present at the issue of the rations to the 
Battalion, and see that the bread, meat and groceries are 
of the proper weight and quality, and in all respects ac- 
cording to contract. If the rations are found inferior 
immediate report should be made to the Commanding 
Officer, in order that a Board may be convened if neces- 
sary. He visits such portions of the quarters as he may 
think fit (directing the Subaltern of the day to take the 
remainder) at the meal hours, and ascertains that the men 
are all present, the quarters are clean, and if there are 
any C9mplaints. 

He should visit and turn out the Guard by day, see the 
prisoners, enquire if they have any complaints to make, 
ascertain that the guard room is clean and everything 
regular, and the sentries acquainted with their orders ; 
also visit the Hospital, observe the state of the wards, the 
regularity of the messing, and the cleanliness of the men. 

He should make a report (Form 21) to the Commanding 
Officer the following morning, stating that he has per- 
formed his several duties, with any remarks he may think 
necessary, and enclose the report of the Subaltern of the 
day with it. 

Should anything extraordinary have occurred during the 
period of the Captain’s duty, he should personally report 



100 



DUTIES. 



the same to the Commanding Officer at the time, besides 
making allusion to it in his written report. He should 
not leave barracks or camp during his tour of duty. 

Should there not be sufficient officers present with a 
corps to furnish both a Captain and a Subaltern of the 
day, one Officer may be detailed for both duties. 

SUBALTERN OF THE DAY. 

The Subaltern of the day comes on duty at Eeveilte, for 
twenty-four hours, and assists the Captain of the day in 
his various duties, reporting himself in person to receive 
his orders. 

Within an hour after Reveille he should visit the men’s 
rooms to see that the quarters are clean, and the beds 
neatly folded ; that the clothing, necessaries, arms, and 
accoutrements are arranged according to order ; that 
plenty of fresh air is admitted, and" the men properly 
dressed, and all reported present. 

He should be present at the issue of the rations to the 
Battalion and ascertain that they are in all respects equal 
to the requirements of the contract, and that they are of 
proper quality and weight. He should then attend at the 
issue of the rations to the messes by the Quarter- Master, 
to see that each mess receives its proper quantity, and 
that fairness is shown in the distribution (see Ration 
parade). 

He should visit the barracks or such portions of them 
as may be directed by the Captain of the day, at meal 
hours, ascertain that the men are all present, that the 
messes are regular, and that the men have no complaints 
to make concerning them ; if any complaint is made he 
will, after making every enquiry himself, report the 
matter to the Captain of the day, with as little delay as 
possible. 



SUBALTERN OF THE DAY. 



101 



If any men should be absent, a written report contain- 
ing the names of the absentees will be given him by the 
company t)rderly Sergeant, and he will enter their names 
in his own report. 

He should be present at Guard-mounting, and in the 
absence of the Adjutant inspect the duties, unless some 
other Officer has been appointed to do so. He should 
visit the Guard, once by day and once by night, at such 
hours as may be directed by the Captain of the day. He 
should inspect the men under arms, ascertaining that all 
are present, sober, and alert ; visit the guard room and 
prisoners, and see that everything is correct and regular ; 
enquire if the prisoners have any complaints, and see that 
the sentries are acquainted with, and understand the orders 
of their posts. If a sentry should be unacquainted with, 
or misunderstand his orders, he should see that he is 
properly instructed at once, and find out whether the 
ignorance of the sentry was the result of neglect of duty 
on the part of the Corporal who posted him. While visit- 
.ing the sentries he should be accompanied by the Corporal 
of the guard. He should see that the meals for the men 
on guard are carried to the guard room by their comrades 
or the orderly men of rooms, who should be paraded with 
the mess-tins containing the meals in their hands, by the 
Regimental Orderly Sergeant for the inspection of the 
Orderly Officer, five minutes before the meal hours of the 
Battalion. He should inspect the old Guard after it is 
relieved. 

. He should visit the Hospital, Cells, Cook-houses and 
Canteen, Coffee Room, etc. ; also the Library, School-room, 
Tailor’s and Shoemaker’s shops, and see that everywhere 
there is cleanliness, order, regularity and strict observance 
of the regulations and orders^ He should ascertain if the 



102 



DUTIES. 



sick in Hospital or the prisoners in the cells have any 
complaint to make, and that the wards or cells are clean 
and the messing regular. At the Canteen he should see 
the Non-commissioned Officer on duty, ascertain if any 
complaints have been made to him, and receive his report 
as to the good order of all in his charge . At the Cook- 
houses he should inspect the coppers or kettles while the 
meals are being cooked, and afterwards see that they are 
thoroughly cleaned when the meals have been removed. 

At Retreat he should inspect the Picquet and see that 
the men are all present and sober ; at T attoo he receives 
the reports and again inspects the Picquet. 

At Lights out he should ascertain that the lights in 
every room occupied by the Non-commissioned Officers, 
privates, and married people, with the exception of the 
Sergeants’ mess, in which gas may be burnt one hour 
later, have been extinguished. 

He should send to the Captain of the day before 9 a.m. 
the following day, a written report (Form 22) of the per- 
formance of all ordinary duties. If it be necessary to 
report anything extraordinary, the report should be made 
verbally and at once, and also embodied in writing. 

If any portion of the duties be omitted, it should be 
distinctly so stated in the body of the report. When the 
omission has been unavoidable no more need be said. If 
otherwise, the report should be accompanied by a written 
explanation, to be laid before the Commanding Officer by 
the Captain of the day. 

If the Subaltern of the day should be relieved before 
the expiration of his tour of duty on account of illness or 
any other cause, he should make over his duties regularly 
to the Officer who relieves him ; and it is the duty of the 



REGIMENTAL ORDERLY SERGEANT. 



103 



relieving Officer to report that he has received over every- 
thing regularly. 

He should not leave barracks or camp unless for drill, 
during his tour of duty. He should remain in uniform 
and attend all parades and drills with his company, unless 
specially ordered otherwise. 

REGIMENTAL ORDERLY SERGEANT. 

The Regimental Orderly Sergeant is appointed daily, for 
the purpose of assisting in the superintendence of the good 
order of the barracks or camp, and his term of duty lasts 
from Reveille to Reveille. 

He should accompany the Subaltern of the day half an 
hour after Reveille to see that the rooms or tents are in 
proper order, that the men are all present, that nothing 
extraordinary has occurred, or smoking been allowed 
during the night, learn what men are going sick ; also see 
that the urine tubs are emptied, filled with water, and left 
at the place appointed. 

Parade the company Orderly Corporals and men for 
rations and march them to place of issue. 

Parade the defaulters at the hours specified, collecting 
the reports from the company Orderly Corporals, handing 
the defaulters over to the Non-commissioned Officer de- 
tailed to drill them, with a report of the same (Form 23). 

Parade the Non-commissioned Officers for Gate and 
Canteen duty ; see that the prisoners’ necessaries are sent 
to the guard room, and get a list of men reported absent. 

Parade the Orderly men with the meals for the men on 
guard and prisoners, five minutes before the second bugle 
for meals, for the inspection of the Subaltern of the day. 

Accompany and assist the Captain of the day in his 
visits to the barrack rooms and other places. 



104 . 



DUTIES. 



Parade the sick and see them marched to Hospital. 

Parade the company Orderly Sergeants and evidences, 
so as to be ready in time for the examination of prisoners 
by the Commanding Officer. 

Make out a list of defaulters (Form 24) for the Non- 
commissioned Officers on gate and canteen duty. 

Visit the cook-houses a quarter of an hour before meal 
hours, to see that the meals are being prepared, and parade 
the company Orderly Corporals and men, and march them 
to the cook-houses to receive the meals ; visit the cook- 
houses after tea, and see that they are all clean and the 
fires extinguished, then lock them up and hand the keys 
over to the Sergeant of the Guard. 

He should visit the canteen frequently, and report any 
irregularity ; also the Non-commissioned Officers on gate 
duty, and see that the names of defaulters are on the gate 
and canteen boards. 

Make out a list of passes for the Sergeant of the Guard, 
and deliver the passes to the company Orderly Sergeants. 

Attend when the orders are issued and show them to 
the field and stajff officers when the first mess bugle 
sounds. 

Act as Orderly to Courts Martial, Boards and Courts of 
Inquiry, when no other Orderly is detailed. 

Parade the Picquet at Retreat for the inspection of the 
Subaltern of the day, and see that the urine tubs are 
taken to the barrack rooms. 

He should accompany and assist the Orderly Officer to 
see the lights out at the proper time. 

He should not on any account leave the barracks during 
his tour of duty. 



REGIMENTAL ORDERLY CORPORAL, ETC. 105 



He should send a written report (Form 25) to the Ser- 
geant-Major, stating that he has performed his various 
duties. 

REGIMENTAL ORDERLY CORPORAL. 

The Regimental Orderly Corporal’s tour of duty lasts 
from Reveille to Reveille. He accompanies the Captain 
or Subaltern of the day, during their tour o{ duty, and 
assists the Regimental Orderly Sergeant. When no Non- 
commissioned Officer is detailed to march the sick to 
hospital, he should do so. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICER DETAILED FOR THE SICK. 

The Non-commissioned Officer detailed for the sick 
should also be warned daily, and take his duty from 
Reveille to Reveille. He should attend the Regimental 
Orderly Sergeant, and receive over from him all men 
reported sick, with their kits, march them to the Hospital 
and remain there until the Surgeon makes his morning 
visit. He gives the sick reports to the Surgeon who will 
mark opposite their names, how the men are disposed 
of. He should then return to barracks and hand to the 
Orderly Sergeants of companies to which the sick men 
belong, the sick reports respecting them ; these reports 
should then be given to the Colour-Sergeant. He should 
also receive from the Surgeon the general sick report, 
which he takes to the orderly room. He should again 
visit the Hospital at Retreat and march all men discharged 
from hospital into barracks, delivering them over to the 
Orderly Sergeants o^ Companies. 

He should not, on any account, leave the barracks, or 
camp, except in the performance of his duty. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS DETAILED FOR DEFAULTERS. 

The Non-commissioned Officer detailed for drilling de- 



106 



DUTIES. 



faulters should parade and drill them at the hours fixed 
for such drill, or employ them on fatigue if so ordered, 
taking his instructions from the Kegimental Orderly 
Sergeant. He should not permit defaulters to hold any 
conversation, not even when standing at ease. He should 
inspect the kits five minutes before the dismissal of each 
drill, reporting any deficiencies to the Hegimental Orderly 
Sergeant. 

He should be furnished by the Hegimental Orderly 
Sergeant with a list of the defaulters placed in his 
charge, showing the dates on which each man’s punish- 
ment commences, and on which it will terminate (see 
Defaulters). 

His tour of duty should be for one week. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS ON GATE DUTY. 

Two Non-commissioned Officers should be detailed daily 
for barrack Gate duty, who should be responsible that 
no Non-commissioned Officer or soldier pass out of the 
barrack-gate, unless dressed strictly according to regi- 
mental order, and that no one enters the barracks except 
those duly authorized. Men coming into barracks drunk, 
whether by day or night, should at once be confined. 
Men proceeding out of barracks on fatigue should be 
passed out, or marched by a Non-commissioned Officer. 
No bundles should be taken out of barracks, except 
passed by a Non-commissioned Officer. The Non-com- 
missioned Officers at the gate should attend to such 
local , orders as may be given them, and relieve each 
other every two hours, the last on duty reporting to the 
Sergeant-Major at Tattoo, 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS ON CANTEEN DUTY. 

TVo Non-commissioned Officers should be detailed daily 



N.C. OFFICERS ON CANTEEN DUTY.-ORDERLIES. 107 



for Canteen duty, relieving one another every two hours, 
the duty to commence on the opening of the canteen in 
the morning, and continue until Tattoo. They should be 
responsible that the canteen is only open at the proper 
hours, that none are allowed in but those entitled to the 
privilege, that no man having the appearance of being in 
liquor is allowed to remain there, and attend to such 
other local orders as may be given them. Should any 
riot or disturbance take place in the canteen, the Non- 
commissioned Officer in charge should send to the Guard 
and have the offenders confined. The last on duty should 
parade at Tattoo, reporting to the Sergeant-Major (Form 
26 ). 

COOK-HOUSE ORDERLY. 

Where there is no Sergeant-Cook, and the number of 
Non-commissioned Officers admits of it, a Non-commis- 
sioned Officer should be detailed daily to superintend the 
cooking of the men’s meals ; he should begin his duty at 
such an hour as may be necessary to light the fires. He 
should be held strictly responsible, that no part of the 
provisions are made away with, and that no person what- 
ever enters the cook-house, except those on duty. At the 
sound of the first bugle for breakfast or dinner, the orderly 
men should receive the rations ; and, after dinner, the 
Cook-house Orderly should see that the cook-houses, cop- 
pers, and cooking utensils are thoroughly cleaned, and 
then lock up the cook-houses, and hand the key to the 
Regimental Orderly Sergeant. 

ORDERLIES. 

When a General Officer visits a station, a Sergeant 
should be detailed as his Orderly. 

A private should be detailed as Orderly to the Com- 



108 



DUTIES. 



manding Officer, and another, if necessary, for the Orderly 
Koom. These should be selected daily from the cleanest 
men parading for guard, in which case an extra number 
must be warned for the guard, or they may be standing 
orderlies, changed at intervals. 

An Orderly should on no account stop on the way, nor 
carry any but the message or messages entrusted to him ; 
he should report at once on his return, 

ORDERLY BUGLER. 

An Orderly bugler should mount daily, with the quarter 
guard, whose duty it will be to sound the various calls ; 
he should receive instructions from the Sergeant Bugler or 
Orummer, regarding the hours, and be held responsible 
for the calls being sounded at the time ordered. 

COMPANY ORDERLY SERGEANT. 

The Company Orderly Sergeant’s term of duty should 
last for one week, beginning on Mondays. The duty 
should be taken by the Sergeants in rotation, except 
the Colour Sergeant. 

Sergeants and Corporals holding permanent situations 
should be exempt from taking the duties _of Company 
Orderly Sergeant or Corporal. 

He should call the roll at Reveille, at the quarter bugle 
for meals, at Tattoo (First Post), and at all parades. 
Should any man be absent, lie makes a report (Form 27), 
and gives it to the Orderly Officer, when he visits the 
barrack rooms. , (Whenever a man is absent without leave 
for twenty-four hours, his kit should be immediately in- 
spected by the Non-commissioned Officer in charge of his 
Section and the Colour Sergeant, and a list of deficiencies 
made out, ) 



COMPANY ORDERLY SERGEANT. 



109 



On calling the roll of his company at Reveille in the 
different rooms, he should take down the names of men 
who require passes, also of all reporting themselves sick, 
and make out a report of the latter (Form 9), and another 
for those too ill to attend hospital. He is responsible that 
men going to the Hospital take their kits with them, and 
should, therefore, make out a list of necessaries for each 
man, sign the same and deliver it, together with the 
sick reports, to the Regimental Orderly Sergeant. If 
a man going sick is too ill to carry his kit, he should 
warn another to carry it for him. He should see the 
arms and accoutrements of all men admitted to hospital 
handed over to the Colour Sergeant. Nothing should pre- 
vent a man in case of sudden illness being taken to the 
Hospital, either by day or night. In such cases the sick 
report and the man’s kit can be attended to after his 
admission into hospital. 

He should answer to the Regimental Orderly Sergeant 
half an hour after Reveille^ that the men are all present 
or otherwise. Parades the defaulters of his company, 
and attends when the Sergeant of the guard calls the roll 
for the first time in the morning, accounting for any who 
may be absent, and does the same the first time the de- 
faulters’ roll is called after guard mounting. 

Makes out the parade state (Form 28), which he should 
have signed by the Captain of his company. As many of 
the returns sent from the orderly room depend upon the 
accuracy of the parade states, it is of the utmost import- 
ance, that they should be most carefully made out. 

Reports all men confined, to the Colour Sergeant, who 
makes out the crime reports (Form 29) and takes them to 
the Captain for signature. In the event of any other per- 
son than himself confining a man of his company, he 



110 



DUTIES. 



should receive from that individual, either verbally or in 
writing, a statement of the offence, with the names of the 
evidences. On prisoners of his company being brought 
before the Captain or Commanding Officer, he should at- 
tend, whether he is evidence or not, and is responsible 
that all evidences against any man confined are warned 
that they are such, and are present. 

Parades the company and all parties for duty. 

Parades and inspects the men for guard and picquet, 
and hands them over to the Sergeant-Major. 

Sees that the meals for men on guard, etc. , are ready 
to be sent off at the proper time, which should always be 
before the second bugle sounds. A private may be sent 
with these meals unaccompanied by a Non-commissioned 
Officer, unless he happens to be a defaulter, but the man 
should invariably report his return to the Company 
Orderly Sergeant. 

Attends the orderly room at the hour appointed for 
issuing regimental orders, and the detail of his company 
for the following day, after which he should lose no time 
in personally warning all men for duty. When warning 
men for duty, it should never be done in a familiar man- 
ner, nor should any freedom either in conversation or 
behaviour be allowed. Men not in barracks at the time, 
should be warned at T attoo, or if on pass, at Reveille next 
morning. If he has any men for guard he should also be 
careful to warn a waiting man, who parades with the 
guard, and remains in barracks to be ready to take the 
place of any man on guard, who may be taken sick. 

Peads to the company all orders of a public nature re- 
ceived from the orderly room, and is responsible that the 
servants, and other casualties of his company, are made 
acquainted with such orders as concern them, and attend 



COMPANY ORDERLY SERGEANT. 



Ill 



all parades required of them. The company order book 
should be taken by him to the morning parade, so that 
the orders of the preceding day may be read out, by the 
Officer commanding the company. 

Calls upon the Colour Sergeant at an appointed hour, for 
all documents requiring the Captain’s signature. On his 
visit to the Captain for this purpose, he should report to 
him anything concerning the Company which may have 
occurred during the day. He should submit to the Colour 
Sergeant the names of all men either admitted to or dis- 
charged from hospital or confinement, also every circum- 
stance affecting the pay or rations of the men of the 
Company, and should assist the Colour Sergeant when 
exchanging or drawing barrack bedding or utensils from 
the barrack stores. 

Attends the Tattoo parade, and reports to the Sergeant- 
Major the men absent from evening roll call (Form 27), 
and any prisoners in his Company. 

Sees that lights are out and stove dampers closed at the 
proper hour. 

He should attend all parades of his Company, but not 
otherwise leave the barracks or lines during his tour of 
duty, unless by permission of the Captain of his Company. 
In such case he should make the Sergeant-Major and 
Colour Sergeant acquainted with the fact, and with the 
name of the Non-commissioned Officer, who will answer 
for him in his absence. 

He should be responsible under the Colour Sergeant for 
the correct keeping of the Company duty roster, and con- 
sequently no other should be allowed to make entries in it. 
At the close of each day he should take the duty roster to 
the Colour Sergeant, by whom it will be checked. It 
should also be frequently inspected by the Captain. There 



112 



DUTIES. 



is no necessity for an Orderly Sergeant to have a clear 
roster when he commences his duties, but, at the same 
time, it is desirable to prevent disputes, and, therefore, he 
cannot be too particular in carefully and legibly recording 
every detail in connection with the duties which fall to the 
share of his men, so that it can be seen at a glance if they 
are being properly distributed. 

On all occasions of the bugle sounding for Company 
Orderly Sergeants, he should immediately repair to the 
regimental parade ground, and the orders he may receive 
there should be immediately communicated to all con- 
cerned. 

He should be provided with a small detail book, in which 
is entered the names of all Non-commissioned Officers, and 
the number of men required for duty, and the duties 
which they are for (Form 19). 

COMPANY ORDERLY CORPORAL. 

The Company Orderly Corporal should assist the Com- 
pany Orderly Sergeant, and is to be present as a witness 
when the duties are warned or rolls called. His term of 
duty lasts one week, beginning on Monday. 

Parades the Cook and Orderly men for issue of rations. 

Attends upon the Colour Sergeant for the ration return 
(Form 30) at the hour appointed for the issuing of. the 
rations, and makes himself acquainted with the quantity 
and quality of the issue of bread and meat. Should he be 
dissatisfied with either, he should respectfully bring it to 
the notice of the Orderly Officer, but this must be done 
before removal from the place of issue. 

When no contracts for delivery have been made, he 
should receive daily from the Colour Sergeant the Mess 
money and parade the market party, consisting of the 



COMPANY ORDERLY CORPORAL. — COOKS. 113 



orderly men of rooms, with the cook to be marched off by 
the Regimental Orderly Sergeant for the purchase of gro- 
ceries, vegetables, etc. , for his Company. The mess book 
should be signed daily by the Captain of the Company 
and the Orderly Corporal. 

Parades the defaulters and orderly men with prisoners’ 
and guards’ meals, answering to the Regimental Orderly 
Sergeant, whether they are present or not, also sees that 
the prisoners’ cleaning necessaries are sent them with the 
orderly men. 

Parades the sick in the morning with their kits, neces- 
saries, etc., and hands them over to the Regimental Orderly 
Sergeant. 

Shows the orders to the OjSicers of his company. 

Receives over from the Quarter-Master the company’s 
allowance of wood on issuing days, and divides the same 
to the different rooms. He should also attend at the 
Quarter- Master’s store on the day appointed, and draw 
the weekly allowance of oil or light for his company. 

Attends all parades of his company, and does not leave 
the barracks except in the performance of his duty, being 
at all times properly dressed. 

COMPANY COOKS. 

There should be a Cook and assistant Cook for each 
company. The former should be changed only at long 
intervals, or for misconduct ; the latter weekly, or oftener, 
if necessary. 

The Cook should be held responsible that the meals are 
ready to be removed from the cook-hou^ by the first 
bugle sounding. Care should be taken by him not to 
have them ready too soon ; this is as grave a fault as the 
meals being too late. He should be particular in having 
the kettles cleaned thoroughly, both before and after the 
8 



114 



DUTIES. 



cooking of each meal. When a sufficient number of kettles 
can be had, one should be set apart for soups or stews, 
another for tea and coffee, and another for potatoes. He 
should pay the utmost attention to the cleanliness of the 
cook-house, and to his manner of cooking the rations. 

He should accompany the company Orderly Corporal at 
the issue or purchase of groceries for the company’s mess- 
ing, and is responsible, as well as the Corporal, for the 
proper expending of the mess money, and the articles 
furnished being of good quality. 

The barrack utensils, as enumerated on the board of 
inventory in the cook-house, should be under his special 
charge, and on the completion of his tour of duty, should 
there be any deficiencies or damage, a memorandum of the 
same should be given by the Company Orderly Sergeant to 
the Colour Sergeant, so that at the barrack inspection the 
charges may be made against the proper individuals. 

The refuse of meat, etc., should be sold under contract ‘ 
made by the Commanding Officer, the proceeds being 
divided among the companies, and carried to the credit of 
messing, or used for the purchase of white clothing for the 
cooks. 

The assistant Cook should assist the Cook to wash the 
potatoes, clean and cut up vegetables, carry in water, 
empty slops, and assist in cutting wood for cooking pur- 
poses. He should be in charge of the cook-house when 
the Cook may be at any time temporarily absent. 

ORDERLY MEN OF ROOMS OR TENTS. 

0 

There should be one or two (according to the number of 
men) Orderly men to each room or tent, their duties con- 
tinuing from Reveille to Reveille. 

Except for parade purposes, they should not leave the 



ORDERLIES OF ROOMS OR TENTS. 



115 



barracks or camp the day they are on duty. They should 
be held responsible for the general cleanliness of that part 
of the barrack room common to all, or of their tent, also 
the cleanliness and completeness of the furniture and uten- 
sils, reporting all deliciencies and damages to the Non- 
commissioned Officer in charge as soon as they are dis- 
covered or happen. They should carry out all slops, remove 
sweepings, and keep the quarters at all times well supplied 
with fresh water, light the fires, and remove the urine tubs 
to the place appointed for them, and partly fill with water, 
within half an hour after Reveille sounding. They should 
prepare the tables for the different meals, attend the cook- 
house at the warning bugle, and receive from the Com- 
pany’s cook the rations for the men of their rooms ; divide 
the meals into single messes, and have everything ready 
for their comrades to take their seats by the time the 
second bugle sounds. Also be responsible that the meals 
of the men on guard are ready to be handed over to those 
appointed to carry them before the second bugle sounding. 
After meals, they should wash the dishes or mess tins and 
put them away in proper order. They should attend at 
the place appointed for the issue of rations and consider it 
their duty, if they think them not of proper quality, to 
bring the same respectfully to the notice of the Orderly 
Officer, through the Company Orderly Corporal. They 
should take back the urine tubs to the barrack rooms by 
Retreat sounding, and be held responsible that the dampers 
of the stoves (in winter time) are shut at lights out^ and at 
all times during the day keep a watchful eye upon the 
stoves to prevent accidents by fire. They should attend 
upon the Orderly Corporal for the allowance of light for 
the room, and also assist in dividing the Company’s allow- 
ance of wood by rooms. Orderly men of rooms should be 
available for all general parades and drills. 



116 



DUTIES. 



PASSAGE OR STAIRS ORDERLIES. 

In barracks it is also necessary to have passage or stair 
orderlies warned daily, whose duty it should be to keep 
those parts of the barracks clean ; in camp the same super- 
vision would be required for the spaces between Company 
lines. 



SECTION V. 

DRILLS AND PARADES. 

Drill is the discipline of the body, but tends also 
materially to discipline the mind, and, as the discipline 
of the mind is a hundred-fold more important to the 
efficiency of the soldier, the constant practice of drill, in 
vjhich all ranks have to render -instantaneous and silent 
obedience to the commands of their superiors, is absolutely 
necessary. 

The efficiency of a Battalion is estimated in a great degree 
from the manner in which it drills ; if there is talking in 
the ranks it is a sure sign that its discipline is of a low 
order. Complete silence when on parade or at drill is a 
matter- to be particularly attended to ; no matter what, in 
the soldier’s opinion, may be going wrong, he should keep 
the opinion to himself ; if he expresses it some one is sure 
to answer, talking becomes general, and disorder is thus 
created, which, under fire, would certainly lead to disaster. 
In all moments of confusion remember that the first step 
towards the re-establishment of order is the hushing of all 
voices. 

A Battalion should be practised in manoeuvres by the 
senior Officer present on parade, but no deviation from 



DPwILLS AND PARADES. 



117 



the Established regulations should be permitted. Captains 
of Companies should be frequently called on for this duty, 
and the junior Subalterns to command Companies. 

Drill instruction should be under the charge of the 
Adjutant and Sergeant-Major, to assist whom Instructors 
may be appointed, who should do no other duty, when 
they can be conveniently spared from it. 

In order to prevent the thoroughly drilled soldier being 
unnecessarily harassed, a Battalion should be divided into 
three classes, viz., ‘‘ first, “second’’ and “recruits.” All 
applications for advancement, from one class to another, 
should be made by the Officer commanding the company 
through the Adjutant to the Commanding Officer. 

The greatest exactness should be required from first- 
class men ; any unsteadiness or awkwardness in the 
ranks, on sentry, or walking in the street, should sub- 
ject them to removal to a lower class. 

When a soldier is awkward at any exercise or parade 
he should be ordered to “Instruction drill,” which should 
not be held in the light of a punishment, but only as a 
matter of instruction ; he should not, however, on that 
account be exempt from guards or other duties. 

All men returning to their duty from prison, hospital, 
or leave, should attend instruction drill until they have 
picked up the lost practice. 

Servants, tailors, shoemakers, etc., should attend one 
drill, by themselves, once a week. 

When circumstances permit, the Non-commissioned 
Officers should be practised by the Adjutant in the duties 
of Commanders of Picquets (outpost), etc. 

When the weather does not allow of the Non-commis- 
sioned Officers being exercised outside, they- should be 



118 



DUTIES. 



assembled at the orderly room, for the purpose of being 
questioned by the Adjutant on different subjects con- 
nected with duties, drill and interior economy, and the 
duties they hav^e to perform on guard, picquet, etc. 

Officers and Non-commissioned Ofl&cers should take care 
that the same exactness which is insisted on in the drill 
squad as to position, smartness, silence, and steadiness, is 
maintained upon parades of all kinds. They should bear 
in mind that, if the soldier is permitted to indulge under 
their eye an idle and slovenly habit in the ranks, the 
best exertions of the Drill Sergeants will never accomplish 
the end required ; and the instruction of the men will 
never have any termination ; for, even with the oldest 
soldier, his labour must in some cases be resumed, and 
rendered almost perpetual. 

No Non-commissioned Officer or soldier should be 
allowed out of barracks before the forenoon parade is 
dismissed, or on days when there is no parade before 
11 a.m., except on duty. 

FORMING STAFF AND REGIMENTAL PARADES. 

A simple mode of forming parade is as follows : ten 
minutes to the hour named for the parade, the “Non- 
commissioned Officers’ call ” should be sounded for the 
Staff parade, which all Sergeants, Corporals, Band, 
Buglers, and Drummers attend, also Staff Sergeants, 
when for parade. 

The parade should be formed in column of companies, 
the Band and Buglers being in front, in a manner similar 
to that described below ; and after the rolls are called, 
should be “formed” into line by the Sergeant-Major, the 
ranks opened and inspected by the Adjutant or Orderly 
Officer, and dismissed. 



REGIMENTAL PARADES. 



119 



The Buglers, who immediately after the Staff parade 
should fall in at twenty paces from the centre of the 
directing flank of the parade ground, facing the column, 
will then sound for “ Orderly Sergeants.” 

The Orderly Sergeants should fall in on the directing 
flank at the “Shoulder,” under the charge of the Sergeant- 
Major, who, after dressing them, gives the command, 
“Number,” then, “Column from No. 1,” “Outwards 
Turn,” “Quick march.” The Sergeants turn outward and 
move off to their respective distances, and take up their 
covering with arms at the “Recover.” When covered, 
the Sergeant-Major gives the word, “ Steady,” when they 
“Shoulder.” Buglers should then sound the “Fall in,” 
when the men move smartly and quietly on to the parade 
ground with arms at the “Shoulder,” and fall in on 
the right of their Orderly Sergeants, with arms at the 
“Order” and intervals of two paces between sections. 
The Band should fall in ten paces from the reverse flank 
of the leading company of the rear half Battalion, in line 
with it, and, if the parade be formed in the open air, they 
should play during the inspection of companies. 

The Sergeant-Major should then give the command, 
“ Call your rolls,” when the Section Commanders move to 
the front of their companies and call their rolls, reporting 
to the senior Non-commissioned Officer, who then pre- 
pares the company for inspection, as per “ Infantry Drill,” 
1896, Part II, Sec. 60. 

The “Officers’ call” should now sound, and senior 
Non-commissioned Officers report their companies present 
or otherwise to the senior Officer of the company, who 
will then inspect their companies, as laid down in the 
“ Infantry Drill,” 1896, Part II, Sec. 60. 

The companies being inspected, the “Close” should 



120 



DUTIES. 



sound, atid sections closed on the left and proved, as in 
‘‘Infantry Drill,” 1896, Part II, Sec. 60. 

Companies should not he sized or equalized, except for 
purposes of “ Ceremonial.” 

Whilst the companies are being proved, the Adjutant 
should call out the left markers of companies, who mark 
with arms at the “Recover” where the left of their re- 
spective companies will rest “in column by the left” ; the 
marker of the leading company placing himself wherever 
he is directed ; the remainder covering on him. 

The Adjutant then gives the word “ Steady,” the mark- 
ers come to the “ Shoulder,” and are allowed to stand at 
ease if the companies are not ready to march upon them. 

The “ Advance ” should now be sounded. On which the 
Officers draw swords, and fall in with their companies, 
marching them with arms at the “Shoulder” to their 
respective markers, who come to attention, shoulder, 
and then fall' to the rear on the words “Eyes front” 
from the left guides, who should dress their companies 
from the left. 

■ Each Captain should now order his company to “order 
arms ” and “ stand-at-ease.” 

The Adjutant then reports the parade as ready to the 
Commanding Officer, who takes command, and calls the 
Battalion to attention, ordering the reports to be collected. 
The Adjutant rides down the directing flank of the 
column, and each Captain should report his company 
present or otherwise, as he passes. The Adjutant makes 
his report to Commanding Officer, and places himself in 
his proper place in column. 

The collection of parade states (Form 28) should be 
made by the Sergeant-Major from the Company Orderly 



REGIMENTAL RARADES. 



121 



Sergeants, during the inspection of companies, and by him 
sent at once to the orderly room. 

The parade state should be signed by the senior Officer 
of the company present on parade, who should never affix 
his signature to it without having previously made himself 
acquainted with the correctness of the statements, and 
thereby enabling him to answer any question the Com- 
manding Officer may put to him respecting the distribution 
of his men. On Sundays a Church parade state is required 
(Form 31). 

At inspections a Field state (Form 32) should be handed 
to the Inspecting Officer by the Commanding Officer imme- 
diately after the salute has been given. 

Another mode of forming parade is for companies to be 
inspected by their Officers on their private parades, and 
proceed to their places in battalion on the ‘‘Advance” 
sounding. 

Officers should consider exactness of time at all parades 
and posts of assembly as an essential principle of military 
duty. They should understand that the warning bugle is 
for them as much as for the men. 

Officers should not collect in groups or leave their com- 
panies on parade. It should be the particular duty of the 
Majors to see that these orders are attended to. 

For the parade of a Battalion on extraordinary occasions 
the regimental call followed by the “Assemble,” or for fire 
the “Fire Alarm” should be sounded. These imply the 
necessity of the utmost haste, and Officers and men should 
fall in by companies as rapidly as possible ; ten minutes is 
sufficient at any hour, day or night, from the first sound- 
ing of the call for a Battalion to be formed, that is when 
in barracks or camp. 



122 



DUTIES. 



GUA.RD AND PICQUET PARADES. 

Guards and Picquets should fall in on the regimental 
parade ground, for the inspection of the Adjutant previous 
to marching to their respective posts. Picquets parade in 
“Field day order,’’ unless required to join the Battalion, 
in which case they appear in the order of dress named for 
the Battalion; Guards in “Marching order,” without mess 
tins, which are left with their messes for the meals to be 
sent to them in, unless their food is taken and cooked on 
guard. 

The men should fall in by companies in column by the 
left, on their Company Orderly Sergeants, who inspect 
them and ascertain that all warned are present ; at the 
same time the Non-commissioned Officers for duty fall in 
in line on the directing flank of the column, and are 
inspected by the Sergeant-Major, who, when finished, 
gives the command, “Shoulder arms,” “Outwards turn,” 
— “Quick march,” the juniors of each “duty” taking 
up their covering in column, according to the seniority 
of the “duties” they represent; which, when done, 
the Sergeant-Major gives the command to the men, 
“Shoulder arms,” “Left turn,” “On your markers. 
Quick march,” and they fall in on the right of the 
Non-commissioned Officers, according to the “duties” 
they have been warned*, for, Picquet in rear of Guards, 
and waiting men in rear of all, senior Non-commissioned 
Officers of “duties” in rear of their respective commands, 
and Company Orderly Sergeants on the directing flank. 

The Sergeant-Major should then test the correctness of 
the detail of duties by giving the caution “Tell off the 
duties,” followed by the queries, “ Quarter Guard,” 
“Bear Guard,” “Picquet,’ etc., and the senior Non-com- 
missioned Officer of each “duty,” who of course knows 



GUARD, PICQUET AND TATTOO PARADES. 123 



its composition, replies in succession, thus: “Quarter 

Guard, Rear Guard, ” etc.; “One Sergeant, two Cor- 
porals, one Bugler, and fifteen men, present sir,” and so 
on until all have answered. 

The Sergeant-Major should then “form” the “duties” 
into line (the senior Non-commissioned Officer of each 
moving up on its right) and opens the ranks, and the 
Adjutant inspects and delivers the countersign (if there 
is one) to the Commander of each Guard, and if Officers 
have been detailed for any of the “duties ” they fall in. 

The Guards should now be marched off by the Adjutant 
— who gives the command, Guards, Form fours, Right, 
To your Guards, Quick march; or in the case of a less 
front than four files. Guards, By the right ( or left) to your 
Guaj'ds, Quick march. The Picquet, Orderly Sergeants 
and “waiting” men should then be dismissed. 

The hour for Guards to mount should be from 9 to 
10 a.m. 

The proportion of men to be furnished to each post is 
three ; thus, for a guard with five posts, fifteen privates 
would be required. 

TATTOO PARADE. 

On sounding, the Regimental Orderly Sergeant 

should parade the various Orderly Non-commissioned Offi- 
cers in “line ” as follows : 

Beginning with the Orderly Sergeants in company 
alphabetical order on the right, the Non-commissioned 
Officers on Gate and Canteen duties, the Non-commissioned 
Officer in charge of Picquet, and the Picquet itself on the 
extreme left. 

The Regimental Orderly Sergeant after dressing the 
parade falls in on the right, reporting to the Sergeant- 
Major, “All present. Sir.” 



124 



DUTIES. 



The Sergeant-Major should then call A ■Company ? On 
which the Orderly Sergeant of the named company will 
hand in his Tattoo report, saying, “ — absent,’’ “ — pris- 
oners,” or “All present. Sir,” and so on with each Orderly 
Sergeant to the left, Then, Gate? “Closed and correct, 
Sir.” Canteen? “Closed and correct, Sir.” Picquet? 
“Present and correct, Sir.” 

The Sergeant-Major then reports to the Orderly Officer 
“ — absent,” “ — prisoners,” “duties correct,” or “All 
present,” “ no prisoners, ” “ duties correct,” or otherwise, 
at the same time handing him the absentee reports. 

The Orderly Officer should then inspect the Picquet, and 
if there are many men absent, order the whole or part in 
search of the absentees, and finally instruct the Sergeant- 
Major to dismiss the parade. 

Any change or error in the detail of duties for the fol- 
lowing day should be reported to the Sergeant-Major on 
this parade, and rectified. 

RATION PARADE. 

On the “Ration” bugle sounding, the Regimental 
Orderly Sergeant should parade tlie Company Orderly 
Corporals, Orderly men and Cooks of companies, “in 
column by the left,” collect the reports “present or 
otherwise,” and march them to the place of issue, report- 
ing to the Orderly Officer present or otherwise. 

At the place of issue the Quarter-Master Sergeant 
should call the companies in turns (varying them each 
day), each Orderly Corporal bringing up his room squads 
in succession to be served ; if any objection is taken to 
either weight or quality of the ration, it must be made 
before removal. As each company is served it should be 



SICK AND MUSTER PARADES. 



125 



marched by its Orderly Corporal to the cook-house, and 
the rations handed over to the cook. 

The Orderly men of each squad should know the exact 
quantity they are entitled to. 

SICK PARADE. 

At the hour named the Orderly Corporals of companies 
should fall in on the regimental parade in ‘ ‘ column by the 
left ” with the sick of their respective companies, report- 
ing to the Regimental Orderly Sergeant, who collects the 
company sick reports and kit inventories, and then turns 
the parade over, with the reports and inventories to the 
Regimental Orderly Corporal or Non-commissioned Officer 
detailed for the duty, to be marched to Hospital for ex- 
amination by the Surgeon ; delivering to the Hospital 
Sergeant the reports and inventories. 

On receiving from the Surgeon his report upon each 
man, the Regimental Orderly Corporal should return to 
the barracks and hand the reports back to the Company 
Orderly Sergeants, together with any men that may not 
have been found sufficiently ill to be admitted to Hospital. 
Each man should parade in fatigue dress with his kit, if 
able to carry it. 

The Regimental Orderly Corporal should also attend the 
Hospital at Retreat^ and receive all men who may have 
been ‘‘detained ” for the day, handing them over to their 
Company Orderly Sergeants. 

If any prisoners are on the sick report they should (if 
necessary) be taken under escort to the Hospital. 

MUSTER PARADE. 

At the completion of the Annual Drill there should be 
a muster parade, which all officers and men, except such 



126 



DUTIES. 



as are on guard or sick, should attend and answer to their 
names. 

This parade is usually in fatigue dress, and the roll 
should be called by companies from the pay lists, in the 
presence of a District Staff Officer. 

As each Officer or man’s name is called, he should move 
out from his company, answering:. “Here, Sir,” salute 
and pass before the Staff Officer, the companies being 
re-formed on another part of the parade ground. 

Should an officer or man not be entitled to the full 
number of days’ pay for the drill, the amount that is due 
him should be called out after his name. 

In the Imperial service this parade takes place semi- 
annually. 

ORDERLY ROOM PARADE. 

Prisoners should be marched under escort to the Orderly 
Room, remaining outside until each case is called — the 
evidences should also be there, and so arranged as to be 
ready when required. 

The Sergeant-Major, who should stand at the door of 
the orderly room, marches in each prisoner with escort 
and evidence as they are wanted, taking off the prisoner’s 
headwdress as he enters ; the whole party standing in line 
opposite the Commanding Officer, the prisoner next or 
between his escort. 

The Adjutant should read the crime report and the 
Commanding Officer then calls the first evidence by rank 
and name, who says, “ Sir, I was Company Orderly Ser- 
geant of — Co’y on the — inst., I called the roll at Tattoo 
and found the prisoner absent,” or “as Hon-commissioned 
Officer on gate duty on the — inst. , the prisoner returned 
to barracks at 9 p.m. drunk, I confined him.” The other 



ORDERLY ROOM AND KIT INSPECTION PARADES. 127 



evidences are examined in a, similar manner, and then the 
Commanding Officer asks the prisoner if he ‘‘has anything 
to say,’’ if the prisoner desires to call evidence in his 
behalf he should be allowed to do so, each evidence being 
examined in the same way. The Commanding Officer 
should then make his award, writing it at the same time 
in the guard report, the Adjutant writing it in red ink on 
the crime report which he hands to the Captain df the 
prisoner’s company for entry, if necessary, in the company 
Defaulter book. 

The Sergeant-Major on the award being given marches 
the prisoner and escort, etc., out of the orderly room. 

The prisoner’s Captain should always be present with 
his Defaulter book as reference to a man’s previous char- 
acter, the Colour and Company Orderly Sergeants should 
also attend, but remain outside, and are informed by the 
Sergeant-Major of the award as the prisoner is marched 
out. 

FIELD KIT INSPECTION PARADE. 

Companies should be formed in “column by the left,” 
the rear and supernumerary ranks ordered to step back 
two paces, and then the files opened to full interval (arms 
length) from the left. Both ranks should then ground 
arms, knapsacks or valises be taken ofiF, and kits laid out 
in front of each man as he stands, in the following order : 

First, knapsack or valise with greatcoat and mess tin 
attached on the ground, trousers on the greatcoat, holdall 
open laid on the trousers, pair of socks one on each side, 
shirt, towel, soap, sponge, pipeclay, spare laces, blacking 
and brushes in front of knapsack. 

Accoutrements should remain on the men, and all Non- 
commissioned Officers below the rank of Sergeant show kit. 



128 



DUTIES. 



FUKERAL PARADE. 

In the formation of a parade for a military funeral 
everything is reversed, as for instance the arms of the 
Escort or firing party, the position of the Sergeant Drum- 
mer or Bugler, while the different ranks follow the chief 
mourners in inverse order, that is juniors preceding. 

For the strength and distribution of Escorts for the 
deceased, attention is called to the Queen’s Regulations, 
Sec. Ill, Para. 35, while other regulations are prescribed 
in Paras. 36-42 of the same authority, and in the matter of 
formation and movement reference is called to the ‘‘ Infan- 
try Drill,” 1896, Sec. 203, and Rifle Exercises,” 1898, 
Sec. 54. 

Previous to the reception of the body by the Escort, the 
troops that are to follow should be drawn up in two ranks 
at ten paces apart, turning inwards, the Privates being 
placed nearest the Escort, then Corporals, Sergeants, 
Lieutenants, Captains, Majors, Lieut. -Colonels, etc., in 
the direction which the procession is to take. This 
order of formation should not be affected by the presence 
of more than one corps ; it applies equally to regimental 
and garrison funerals, the different ranks being together 
and not corps. 

The Escort, Band, Body and Chief Mourners having 
passed the inner flank, the several ranks in succession, 
beginning with the privates, turn inwards singly or doubly, 
according to the strength of the parade, thus forming files 
or fours. 

With a half Battalion or larger force the Adjutant and 
Sergeant-Major should take general direction on the line 
of march, and move in such positions as to best regulate 
and control the procession. 



DISMISSING. DRAWING SWORDS ON PARADIJ. 129 



In returning from the place of burial the usual forma- 
tion should be resumed, the Escort leading. 

DISMISSING PARADES. 

Before being dismissed, a parade should be formed in 
‘‘column by the left^’ on the same ground upon which it 
fell in, previous to the drill. 

On the Commanding Officer calling, “Fall out, the 
Officers,” at the end of a parade, the Officers should all 
proceed towards him, saluting with their swords as they 
come, and then “ returning ” them, move to the rear of 
the Commanding Officer. After receiving his instructions, 
they should salute with the right hand and leave the 
parade. The parade, if a Commanding Officer’s, should 
be handed to the Adjutant, or, if the Adjutant’s, to the 
Sergeant-Major, who should dismiss it as a whole, the 
men leaving the parade quietly, with arms at the 
“Shoulder.” Companies may be ordered to their “pri- 
vate parades,” when Captains march them off and dismiss 
by companies in a similar rnanner. 

Officers, when called out by the Commanding Officer 
during a parade, should salute with their swords, both on 
approaching and leaving him, coming to the “ Carry ” in 
the interval. 

No Battalion, company or party should be either dis- 
missed or marched off a ground without permission being 
first obtained by the person in command thereof, of the 
senior Officer present, without respect to the branch of 
the service to which such senior Officer may belong. 

DRAWING SWORDS ON PARADE. 

Swords should not be drawn in a slovenly manner, but 
according to the instructions laid down in the ‘ ‘ Infantry 
Sword Exercise.” 

9 



130 



DUTIES. 



All Officers, except as below specified, should draw their 
swords on parade without further orders when the 
“Advance” sounds, or on the command, “March on 
your markers. ” 

The senior Officer in the command of a parade should 
not draw his sword, neither do Medical Officers, Quarter- 
Masters or Staff Sergeants, except the Sergeant-Major, 
and he only when the Colour is trooped. 

Staff-officers, or Officers acting on the divisional or bri- 
gade staff, should never draw their swords on parade ; but 
Officers acting as brigadiers do, should there be any senior 
Officer present in uniform. 

When men parade without arms (as when Royalty, etc. , 
visits a camp, or with side-arms only, as on Church 
parade), no Officer should draw his sword. 

Officers on falling out, when the sword is not drawn, 
salute with the right hand. 

BANDS ON PARADE. 

Each Battalion should have its own tunes for marching 
past, viz : — 

(1) For column. 

(2) For quarter-column. 

(3) For double time. 

• Ko Battalion, except when ordered to the contrary, as 
when the bands are brigaded, should march past to any 
other tune than its own. 

The airs fixed upon should be published in orders, and 
strictly adhered to until officially changed. 

When a Battalion is parading in the open air, the band 
should begin to play after the “Officers’ call” has 
sounded, and continue during the inspection of companies. 

When marching out, the Sergeant Drummer should be 



BANDS ON PARADE. ADDRESSING OFFICERS. 131 



attentive to keep the band at the proper distance from the 
head of the Battalion (twelve paces), and to accommodate 
the length of pace to that of the Sergeant-Major, who, 
marching at the head of the corps, regulates the length of 
pace of all. 

When there is no Advanced Guard, the Sergeant Drum- 
mer or Pioneer Sergeant should be informed of the route 
to be followed. 

No ban,d, when marching by itself and unaccompanied 
by troops, should play. 

When a brigade marches past, the bands should be 
brigaded under the senior band master, and the particular 
air belonging to each Battalion be played as it passes 
the saluting point, or the same air for all. In the former 
case, during the intervals between successive Battalions, 
the drums only beat for a short time a flourish, dividing as 
it were the tunes, except during the interval before and 
after Bifle Battalions, when the buglers usually sound a 
flourish. 

MANNER OF ADDRESSING OFFICERS. 

On any parade or duty, whether under arms or not, all 
Officers addressing their seniors, whether of like or superior 
rank, should apply to them the title of “ Sir./^ 

Officers, both on and off duty, when speaking to a Gen- 
eral (or Officer acting as such) or to the Officer command- 
ing their Battalion, should address him as “Sir.” This 
rule applies also to Staff Officers towards the superior 
Officer to whose staff they are attached. 

A Lieutenant- colonel should be addressed by Officers of 
equal or senior rank, or by those with whom he is familiar, 
as “ Colonel, ” the word “Lieutenant,” when speaking to 
or of such an Officer, being omitted. 



132 



DUTIES. 



Majors should be addressed “Sir” by the Officers of 
their own Battalion. In conversation they may, when 
spoken to or of, be called by their rank only. Thus: “Do 
you think so. Major ? ” “ Take this to the Major.” 

When addressing a Captain (if his rank is mentioned) he 
should invariably be called both by rank and name. Thus : 
“Good morning. Captain Nash,” not “Good morning, 
Captain.” In like manner, when speaking of these Officers 
to inferiors, their name and rank should be mentioned : 
“ Tell Captain Foster,” etc. 

Lieutenants should never be addressed or spoken of by 
their rank, either on parade, duty or otherwise, except 
under grave circumstances, as when an Officer is arraigned 
for trial, or is being rebuked by his Commanding Officer. 

They are to be addressed or spoken of as “ Mr.” “ Fall 
in, Mr. Close,” “Take this to Mr. Hodgins. ” 

Non-commissioned Officers and men should, in like man- 
ner, always apply the title of ‘ ‘ Mr. ” to Lieutenants. 

Officers holding brevet commissions, when addressed or 
spoken of, should be called by their senior rank, the word 
“ Brevet ” being omitted. Thus: “March off your com- 
pany, Major Miller,” etc., not “ Brevet Major Miller.” 

EXAMINATION OF ARMS. 

On the termination of a field day or target practice, the 
arms should be immediately ‘examined. Each Captain 
examines the arms of his own company. The Battalion, 
for this purpose, being formed in column. 

Each Captain should report to the Major of his half- 
battalion, that all the arms of his company are unloaded, 
and the Majors then report to the Commanding Officer. 

When arms, etc., are to be examined by the Inspecting 



SALUTES, COMPLIxMENTS, ETC. 



133 



Officer, the corps should form column and proceed as in 
Part II, Sec. 60, ‘‘Infantry Drill,” 1896. 

SALUTES, COMPLIMENTS, ETC. 

By the peculiar organization of the Militia Force, it may 
frequently occur that Officers have relatives and personal 
friends serving as Kon-commissioned Officers, privates, etc. 
Whatever may be the relations existing between Officers, 
Non-commissioned Officers and men in private life, it should 
be distinctly understood and appreciated by all concerned, 
that WHEN IN UNIFORM the relative military positions of the 
parties should — in the interests of discipline and example — 
be strictly maintained, and -the customary observances of 
the service from subordinate towards superior in all re- 
spects carried out. 

On the other hand. Officers should be most careful to 
return the salute of every soldier, not by merely a jerk of 
the finger or stick, but by carrying the hand to the head- 
dress. 

Non-commissioned Officers and men answering the Ser- 
geant-Major address him as “Sir.” 

A soldier desirous of speaking to an Officer should be 
accompanied by a Non-commissioned Officer. 

Non-commissioned Officers and men should salute all 
Officers, so long as they can fairly distinguish them, 
whether of their own corps or any other. Part I, Sec. 7, 
“ Infantry Drill, 1896.” 

In standing still when an Officer passes, they should 
turn towards him, come to attention, and salute at 
three paces distance ; when walking, they salute as 
they pass, beginning at three paces distance and finish- 
ing three paces past. When approaching to speak to 
an Officer, they salute and halt at two paces. When a 



134 



DUTIES. 



private, accompanied by a Non-commissioned Officer, 
comes up to speak to an Officer, the Non-commissioned 
Officer should halt him by word of command, the Non- 
commissioned Officer only saluting. When appearing 
before an Officer in a room, a salute should be given, but 
the head-dress should not be removed (except in the case 
of a prisoner, when no salute is required). The head- 
dress is always removed in places of worship, civil courts, 
or in the presence of a magistrate except when un duty 
under arms. A man without his head-dress, or who is 
carrying anything which prevents his saluting properly, 
should, if standing still, cOme to ‘‘attention” as an Officer 
passes ; if walking, he will turn his head slightly towards 
the Officer in passing. When individuals meet troops on 
the march, they should salute the Commanding Officer 
and colours. Men with rifles should never salute by 
raising the hand, but come to the “Shoulder,” and bring 
the left arm across the centre of the body, hand over the 
sling. 

There are a few other points about saluting which 
require a little attention on the part of Non-commissioned 
Officers and men. 

Be careful, when walking, to bring the right hand up 
as the left foot comes to the, ground ; it makes the motion 
much easier and more natural. 

When two or more men are walking together, take the 
time from the man nearest the Officer, and salute together. 
If a number of men are sitting or standing about, the Non- 
commissioned Officer or oldest soldier will call the whole 
to “attention,” and salute (if the head-dress is on) taking 
care, if smoking, to remove the pipe from the mouth. It 
is not usual for working parties or men engaged in fatigue 
duty to cease their work in order to salute an Officer who 



SALUTES, COMPLIMENTS, ETC. 



135 



happens to pass, but, if addressed by an Officer, a soldier 
so employed should cease his work and salute in the proper 
manner, and, in any case, the Non-commissioned Officer in 
charge should salute. If an Officer enters a room or a 
tent, any Non-commissioned Officer present, or the man 
who first sees the Officer, should call out ‘ ‘ attention, ” the 
whole assuming that position till the Officer leaves. The 
senior of two or more Officers only should return a salute, 
nor does an Officer with his sword drawn return a salute. 

When a salute at reviews is given, all Officers on the 
ground in uniform as spectators should turn toward the 
saluting point and salute with the right hand. 

Officers attending reviews in uniform as spectators, 
during the march past, should place themselves in rear of 
the saluting point. 

Individual Officers or men meeting or passing troops 
with the Colours uncased should be careful to salute the 
latter, also the Commanding Officer (if senior). 

In a civil court an Officer or soldier should take off his 
head-dress while the judge or magistrate is present, except 
when on duty with a party under arms inside the court. 

At all inspections or reviews a ‘‘General Salute” should 
only be given to such Officers as are by regulations entitled 
to the compliment ; other Officers will be received at the 
“Shoulder.” Commanding Officers of garrisons, camps 
or stations under the rank of a General Officer will be 
received by the troops under their command with the 
honours due to the rank one degree higher than that which 
they actually hold. 

When a corps is inspected in line the Commanding 
Officer only accompanies the Inspecting Officer down the 
ranks. 



136 



DUTraS. 



Officers should salute with the hand, unless the sword 
is drawn, all members of the Koyal Family, all General 
Officers, Governors and Commandants of places, their own 
Commanding Officers, the body at all military funerals 
and the Colours of Corps. When any Officer makes a 
report or delivers an official message to another he salutes. 

Officers in uniform meeting one another should salute as 
they pass, the juniors saluting first. 

All Officers, whether in uniform or not, salute or raise 
their hats, if in plain clothes, to all General Officers and 
their Commanding Officer. 

Officers in uniform, when bowing to an acquaintance, 
should never raise their head-dress from their heads. 

Mounted Officers in the field or otherwise when passing 
Royalty, a General (or any Officer acting as such), at a trot 
or gallop, should rein up to a walk and salute ; after pass- 
ing, the original pace may be resumed. This is not, 
however, applicable to Staff Officers when actually engaged 
in carrying an order ; at such times the salute should be 
given without checking the pace. 

A Non-commissioned Officer in charge of a party should, 
on meeting an Officer, pay him the prescribed compliment. 

When a General Officer visits the men at their meals, on 
‘‘ attention ” being called, they should stand up until 
directed to the contrary. When visited by any other 
Officer, they sit at “ attention.’’ At any other time no 
soldier is ever to be off the position of “attention,” or to 
continue sitting when met or visited in his quarters by an 
Officer ; nor should any soldier continue talking or cleaning 
his arms or accoutrements while an Officer is present until 
directed to the contrary. 



AID OF THE CIVIL POWER. 



137 



SECTION VI. 

AID OF THE CIVIL POWER. 

No more disagreeable or onerous duty can be entailed 
upon soldiers than aid to the Civil Power, nor in which 
more patience, intelligence and firmness are required from 
both Officers and men. Fortunately^ it is a duty that 
seldom occurs, but, as the necessity may arise, and there 
are particular regulations laid clown for the calling out of 
troops, pay and subsistence, and for their conduct during 
the service, it is thought advisable to embody them in this 
book. 

The Militia Act and the Regulations and Orders for the 
Militia prescribe as under :-r- 

The Active Militia, or any corps thereof, shall be liable 
to be called out for active service with their arms and 
ammunition, in aid of the Civil Power in any case in which 
a riot, disturbance of the peace, or other emergency 
requiring such service occurs, or is, in the opinion of the 
civil authorities hereinafter mentioned anticipated as likelj^ 
to occur, and, in either case, to be beyond the powers of 
the civil authorities to suppress or to prevent or deal wdth 
— whether such riot, disturbance or other emergency 
occurs or is so anticipated within or without the munici- 
pality in which such corps is raised or organized. 

The senior Officer of the Active Militia present at any 
locality shall call out the same or such portion thereof as 
he considers necessary for the purpose of preventing or 
suppressing any such actual or anticipated riot or disturb- 
ance, or for the purpose of meeting and dealing with any 
such emergency as aforesaid, when thereunto required in 
writing by the chairman or custos of the Quarter Sessions 



138 



DUTIES. 



of the Peace, or by any three Justices of the Peace, of 
whom the warden, mayor or other head of the munici- 
pality or county in which such riot, disturbance or other 
emergency occurs or is anticipated, as aforesaid, may be 
one ; and he shall obey such instructions as are lawfully 
given to him by any justice of the peace in regard to the 
suppression of any such actual riot or disturbance, or in 
regard to the anticipation of such riot, disturbance or other 
emergency, or to the suppression of the same, or to the aid 
to be given to the Civil Power in case of any such riot, 
disturbance or other emergency. 

Every such requisition in writing, as aforesaid, shall 
express on the face thereof the actual occurrence of a riot, 
disturbance or emergency, or the anticipation thereof, 
requiring such service of the Active Militia in aid of the 
Civil Power for the suppression thereof. 

Every Officer and man- of such Active Militia, or any 
portion thereof, shall, on every such occasion, obey the 
orders of his Commanding Officer, and the Officers and 
men when so called out, shall, without any further or other 
appointment, and without taking any oath of office, be 
special constables, and shall be considered to act as such 
as long as they remain so called out ; but they shall act 
only as a military body, and shall be individually liable to 
obey the orders of their military Commanding Officer only. 

When the Active Militia, or any corps thereof, is so 
called out in aid of the Civil Power, the municipality in 
which their services are required shall pay them, when so 
employed, the rates authorized to be paid for actual service 
to Officers and men, and one dollar per diem for each horse 
actually and necessarily used by them, together with an 
allowance of one dollar to each officer, fifty cents to each 
man per diem in lieu of subsistence; and fifty cents per 



AID OF THE CIVIL POWER. 



139 



diem in lieu of forage for each horse, and, in addition, shall 
provide them with proper lodging and with stabling for 
their horses ; and the said pay and allowances for subsist- 
ence and forage, as also the value of lodging and stabling, 
unless furnished in kind by the municipality, may be 
recovered from it by the Officer commanding the corps, in 
his own name, and, when so recovered, shall be paid over 
to the persons entitled thereto. 

Such pay and allowances of the force called out, to- 
gether with reasonable cost of transport may, pending 
payment by the municipality, be advanced in the first 
instance out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund of 
Canada, by authority of the Governor in Council ; but 
such advance shall not interfere with the liability of the 
municipality, and the Commanding OfiBcer shall at once, in 
his own name, proceed against the municipality for the 
recovery of such pay, allowances and cost of transport, 
and shall, on receipt thereof, pay over the amount to Her 
Majesty. 

Whenever a municipality, within the limits of which a 
railway passes whereon Her Majesty’s mails are conveyed, 
has incurred expense by reason of the Militia being so 
called out in aid of the Civil Power, for preventing or 
repressing a riot or disturbance of the peace beyond the 
power of the civil authorities to deal with, and not local 
or provincial in its origin, by which riot or disturbance of 
the peace conveyance of such mails might be obstructed, 
the Governor in Council may pay or reimburse out of any 
moneys which are provided by Parliament for the pur- 
pose, such part as seems just of the proper expenses 
incurred by any municipality, by reason of any part of 
the Active Militia being so called out in aid of the Civil 
Power. 



140 



DUTIES. 



No Officer is to go out with Militia for the purpose of 
aiding in the suppression of a riot, the maintenance of the 
public peace or the execution of the law, except upon the 
requisition in writing required under the provisions of the 
preceding paragraph. 

In cases where aid is applied for, in the manner pro- 
vided by law, the senior Officer of the Active Militia to 
whom the requisition is addressed will immediately inform 
the Officer commanding the District thereof, hy telegramy 
for transmission to Head-Quarters. 

If the requisition is addressed to the Officer commanding 
in any District as senior Officer at the place where aid is 
required, he will immediately notify the Adjutant- General 
at Head-Quarters by telegram. 

As soon as possible after a corps has been called out in 
aid of the Civil Power, a written report containing a copy 
of the requisition for aid and full particulars relating to 
the nature and cause of the required service and the action 
taken thereon, is to be sent to the Adjutant- General at 
Head-Quarters, in addition to the telegram specified in 
the previous paragraph. 

Officers of the Active Militia have no discretionary 
power as to the necessity for aid, they would therefore 
incur a grave responsibility if they failed to afford aid 
when required to do so. 

Every Officer or man of the Militia who, when his corps 
is lawfully called upon to act in aid of the Civil Power, 
refuses or neglects to go out . with such corps, or to obey 
any lawful order of his superior Officer, shall incur a 
penalty, if an Officer, not exceeding one hundred dollars, 
and if a man of the Militia, not exceeding twenty dollars 
for each offence. 



AID OF THE CIVIL POWER. 



141 



Any Militia force proceeding in aid of the Civil Power, 
must invariably have the requisite quantity of ammuni- 
tion served out to them before going on duty. The 
unused portion of this supply is to be collected imme- 
diately after the duty has been performed, and returned 
without delay into the magazine from which it was issued. 

The Officer Commanding is to move to the place to 
which he shall be directed by any one of the magistrates 
who signed the requisition ; he is to take care that the 
men under his command march in regular military order, 
with the usual precautions, and that they are not scattered, 
detached, or posted in a situation in which they may not 
be able to act in their own defence. The Magistrate is to 
accompany the force, and the Officer is to remain near him. 

When the number of the detachment is under twenty 
files, it is to be told off into four sections. If there should 
be more than twenty files, the detachment is to be told off 

into more sections than four. 

♦ 

All commands to the men are to be given by the Officer. 
They are not, on any account, to fire except by word of 
command of their Officer, who is to exercise a humane 
discretion in deciding both as to the number of rounds and 
the object to be aimed at, and is not to give the word of 
command to fire unless distinctly required to do so hy the 
magistrate. 

In order to guard against all misunderstanding. Officers 
commanding corps or detachments, are on every occasion 
on which they are employed in the suppression of riots, or 
in the enforcement of the law, to take the most effectual 
means, in conjunction with the magistrates under whose 
orders they may be placed, for notifying beforehand and 
explaining to the people opposed to them that in . the 
event of the men being ordered to fire, their fire will be 
effective. 



142 



DUTIES. 



If the Commanding Officer should be of opinion that a 
slight effort would be sufficient to attain the object, he is 
to give the word of command to one or two specified files 
to fire. If a greater effort should be required, he is to 
give the word of command to one of the sections, told off 
as above ordered, the fire of the other sections being kept 
in reserve till necessary ; and when required, the fire of 
each of them being given by the regular word of command 
of the Commanding Officer. 

If there should be more officers than one with the de- 
tachment, and it should be necessary that more sections 
than one should fire at a time, the Commanding Officer is 
to fix upon, and clearly indicate to the men, what Officer 
is to order any number of the sections to fire ; such Officer 
is to receive his directions from the Commanding Officer, 
after the latter shall have received the requisition of the 
magistrate to fire. No other individual, excepting the one 
indicated by the Commanding Officer, is to give orders to 
any file or section to fire. • 

The firing is to cease the instant it is no longer neces- 
sary, whether the magistrate may order the cessation or 
not. Care is to be taken not to fire upon persons sepa- 
rated from the crowd. It is to be observed, that to fire 
over the heads of a crowd engaged in an illegal pursuit, 
would have the effect of favouring the most daring and the 
guilty, and might have the effect of sacrificing the less 
daring and even the innocent. 

If firing should unfortunately be necessary, and should 
be ordered by the magistrate, officers and men must feel 
that they have a very serious duty to perform ; and they 
must perform it with coolness and steadiness, and in such 
manner as to be able to discontinue their fire at ‘the instant 
at which it shall be found there is no longer occasion for it. 



AID OP THE CIVIL POWER. 



143 



When the services of any force called out in aid of the 
Civil Power are no longer required for the purposes for 
which it was called out, the magistrate or magistrates who 
signed the requisition for aid, or a majority of them if 
signed by three, of whom the warden, mayor, or other 
head of the municipality or county shall be one, shall 
notify the Officer Commanding the Active Militia then 
present to that effect, who shall thereupon withdraw the 
force from such duty. 

On completion of the duty for which the force was 
called out, an immediate report thereof, in writing, is to 
be made by the Commanding Officer to the Officer Com- 
manding the District for transmission to Head-Quarters. 
The Officer commanding the troop, battery, company, or 
battalion, will also prepare a pay list specifying the several 
sums authorized by law in respect to the service, and cause 
the value thereof to be paid by the municipality. If more 
than one troop, battery, company, or battalion has been 
employed, these duties will devolve upon the Officer who 
commanded the whole force called out. 



PART III. 



DISCIPLINE. 



Discipline means obedience to orders, which is the first 
principle and duty of all soldiers. The best disciplined 
soldier is he who most implicitly obeys, not only in the 
letter, but in the spirit, all orders which he may receive. 
Without discipline there can be no real bond of confidence 
between Officers and men, or even between men themselves, 
and without it no great results can ever be attained. Life 
in a highJy disciplined corps is always more pleasant than 
in one where order and regularity are not strictly main- 
tained. 

Eespectful obedience is the only true basis upon which 
sound discipline can rest. It must not have its origin in 
fear or dread of punishment, but should be rendered from 
the conviction that the orders emanate from a superior not 
only in rank, but in knowledge. 

Officers and men of the Militia, when called out for 
active service, the annual drill, or for any parade or 
drill, or when in uniform, are subject to the ‘‘Army Act,” 
and all other laws applicable to Her Majesty’s troops 
in Canada, as are not inconsistent with the Militia Act. 

A Commanding OflS.cer cannot pay too much attention 
to the prevention of crime, but he should bear in mind that 
the positive absence of crime, and not its screened existence, 
is the criterion of a well-established discipline. In all first 
offences, not of an aggravated character, mild reproof and 
admonition should be tried, and punishment not resorted 
[ 144 ] 



DISCIPLINE. 



145 



to, until a repetition of the offence shall have shown that 
the milder treatment has not been productive of the desired 
effect. 

The methods of command and treatment should be such 
as to ensure discipline, and, at the same time, foster self- 
respect. The use of intemperate language or an offensive 
manner must be carefully avoided. 

Commanding Officers should use their utmost vigilance 
to prevent Officers, Non-commissioned Officers or men, 
publishing information relative to the numbers, movements, 
or operations pf troops, or any military details ; nor should 
they permit any letters of complaint to be published, or 
memorials or requisitions to be made without their consent. 
Any Officer or soldier should be held personally responsi- 
ble for reports of this kind which he may make without 
special permission, or for placing the information beyond 
his control, so that it finds its way into unauthorized hands. 
Officers and soldiers should be forbidden to give publicity 
to their individual opinions, in any manner tending to 
prejudge questions, that may at the time be undergoing 
official investigation by the authorities. 

No assemblage of Officers, Non-commissioned Officers 
or men, should ever take place for the purpose of deliber- 
ating on any military matter without the consent of the 
Commanding Officer. 

Neither Officers nor men as such should be permitted to 
take part in any political, religious, or party demonstration. 

Officers should avoid reproving Non-commissioned Offi- 
cers for any irregularity, neglect of duty, or awkwardness, 
in the presence or hearing of the privates, lest they should 
weaken their authority and lessen their self-respect — 
unless it be necessary for the benefit of example that the 
reproof be public. 

10 



146 



DISCIPLINE. 



MILITARY LAW. 

In order to maintain proper discipline it has been found 
necessary to confer special powers upon the military 
authorities to enable them to deal with offences which it 
would be either impossible or dangerous to leave to the 
Civil Power. 

Military Law, which governs the soldier in peace and 
war, at all times and in all places, is regular in its procedure, 
is administered according to an authorized code, and deals 
only with soldiers, and persons (such as camp followers, 
etc.,) who are from circumstances subjected to it. 

It is embodied in the Army Act of 1881 (which is part 
of the statute law in England and is recognized by all 
Civil Courts), and the Canadian Militia Act. The Army 
Act applies to the Canadian Militia in all cases where it is 
not inconsistent with the Militia Act. The administration 
of the code is simplified by means of Pules of Procedure, 
Pegulations, and Orders which lay down the manner in 
which the law is to be carried out by the military courts. 

MARTIAL LAW. 

The following definitions of Martial Law have at differ- 
ent times been given ; — “The law of the soldier applied to 
the civilian” ; “ The union of legislative, judicial and execu- 
tive power in one person” ; “ The will of the General of 
the army,” but the most comprehensive is “Sway exer- 
cised by a military commander over all persons, whether 
civil or military, within the precincts of his command in 
places where there is either no civil law or where the 
civil law has ceased to exist.” Martial Law has no written 
code, but the General who proclaims it is bound to lay down 
rules and limits as to its application. 



POWERS OF A COMMANDING OFFICER. 147 



SECTION I. 

POWERS OF A COMMANDING OFFICER. 

A Commanding Officer, in the ordinary sense of the 
word, means an Officer whose duty it is, in accordance 
with the usual custom of the service, to deal with offences 
and either dispose of them on his own authority, or refer 
the cases to superior authority. 

It also means, for the summary award of fines for 
drunkenness, the Officer commanding a Squadron, Battery 
or Company. 

In some portions of the Army Act the term Command- 
ing Officer has a wider meaning, and refers to an Officer of 
superior rank who holds a position of command. 

The Commanding Officer of a detachment has the same 
powers of punishment as the Commanding Officer of a 
corps, but such power may be restricted to any extent if 
he be under the rank of a substantive Major. 

The Commanding Officer may either deal summarily 
with the following offences or convene a Regimental 
Court Martial for the purpose : 

1. Leaving his guard or picquet, forcing a safeguard, 
striking a sentry, sleeping, or being drunk upon, or leaving 
his post (except on active service). 

2. Using threatening or insubordinate language to a 
superior officer (except on active service). 

3. Disobeying a lawful command of a superior officer 
(except on active service). 

4. Resisting lawful custody or breaking out of bar- 
racks. 



148 



DISCIPLINE. 



5. Neglecting to obey any general,' garrison or other 
order. 

6. Assisting or conniving at desertion. 

7. Absence without leave, or from parade, or being 
found out of bounds. 

8. Malingering or misconduct in hospital. 

9. Drunkenness. 

10. Permitting a prisoner to escape. 

11. Irregularity in detaining and reporting a prisoner. 

12. Escaping from lawful custody. 

13. Losing by neglect or making away with arms, 
ammunition, clothing, equipment or necessaries, or mak- 
ing away with military decorations. 

14. Wilfully injuring the property of an officer, soldier, 
regimental institution or of the public, or ill-treating a 
Government horse. 

15. Making a false statement in order to prolong a 
furlough. 

IG. Making a false statement on attestation. 

17. Infringement of the enlistment regulations. 

18. Conduct to the prejudice of good order and military 
discipline. 

First and less serious offences under the above headings 
should, as a rule, be dealt with summarily. 

A Commanding Officer, in dealing with an offence com- 
mitted by a soldier, may award the following punishments. 
The decision in each case is invariably to be written down 
by the Commanding Officer himself on the guard report 
before the prisoner leaves the room. When he awards 
punishment for an offence, he cannot afterwards increase 
it, but he may remit. 



POWERS OF A COMMANDING OFFICER. 149 



If a Commanding Officer intends to award a punishment 
other than a minor one, he must ask the prisoner if he will 
be tried summarily by him or be dealt with by a District 
Court Martial. This right to demand trial by District 
Court Martial is restricted to private soldiers. 

In the case of a Non-commissioned Officer, he can award, 
reprimand, or severe reprimand, or can order an acting 
Non-commissioned, Officer or a Non-commissioned Officer 
holding an appointment to revert to his permanent grade, 
but cannot award other punishment in addition. 

In case of a private soldier, a Commanding Officer may 
admonish, or (subject to the soldier’s right to elect, pre- 
vious to the award, to be tried by District Court Martial) 
inflict the following summary punishments : 

Imprisonment up to twenty-one (21) days (with or 
without hard labour) for the ofifence of absence without 
leave ; but the number of days imprisonment awarded, if 
it exceed seven, must not be more than the number of 
days of absence. 

Imprisonment up to fourteen (14) days (with or without 
hard labour) : — Imprisonment exceeding seven days [except 
in cases of absence without leave) cannot be awarded by an 
officer under the rank of field officer. When iniprisonment 
exceeding seven days is awarded, a minor punishment (C. 
B., etc.) must not be given in addition. Imprisonment 
should never be awarded in cases of drunkenness not 
triable by Court Martial, except when unpaid fines amount 
to $4.86 and upwards, and, if so awarded, should be in 
lieu of a fine. 

Awards of imprisonment up to seven days inclusive, 
will be, in hours, exceeding that in days. The term, when 
awarded in days, is reckoned from the first minute of the 



150 



DISCIPLINE. 



day of award ; when in hours, from the hour at which the 
prisoner is received into prison. 

When imprisonment exceeding seven days is awarded for 
absence without leave, a minor punishment must not be 
given for the offence of absence. 

Deprivation of pay for absence without leave not exceed- 
ing five days (absence over six hours either wholly in one 
day or partly in one and partly in another counts as a day), 
which may be combined with imprisonment or confinement 
to barracks. Over five days’ absence, pay is forfeited by 
Royal warrant, and therefore deprivation of pay need not 
form part of the award. 

Fines for drunkenness not exceeding $2.44, according to 
the following scale, in addition to or without confinement 
to barracks. 

First and second offence no fine. 

For the third and every subsequent instance : 

(a) If within three months of previous instance, $l.S3. 

{b) If over three and within six months, $1.22. 

(c) If over six and within nine months, 61c. 

(d) If over nine months, no fine. 

When a soldier is liable to a fine, and four preceding 
instances have been recorded against him within the pre- 
ceding twelve months, 61c. will be added to the scale 
above given. 

Imprisonment may be added to fines, but only in case 
the offence is triable by Court Martial or unless the total 
of unpaid fines amounts to $4. 86 or more. 

A Commanding Officer may also award the following 
minor punishments without a soldier having right to 
claim trial by Court Martial instead of being dealt with 
summarily. 



COURTS MARTIAL. 



151 



Confinement to barracks for a period not exceeding 
twenty-eight days, which carries with it punishment drill 
for fourteen days. Confinement to barracks may be com- 
bined with imprisonment with or without hard labor not 
exceeding 168 hours, total not to exceed twenty-eight days 
for a single award. For a fresh offence further punish- 
ment either of imprisonment or confinement to barracks 
may be awarded, the whole not to exceed fifty-six days. 

Extra guards or picquets, but only for minor offences or 
irregularities connected with these duties. 

Commanding Officers will delegate to Officers command- 
ing companies the power of awarding punishments to 
soldiers for minor offences, such as absence from Tattoo 
and other roll-calls, overstaying a pass, or slight irregular- 
ities in quarters, not exceeding seven days’ confinement to 
barracks or camp and the regulated fines for drunkenness ; 
such punishments in all instances to be brought under the 
notice of the Commanding Officer, subject to any revision 
he may think it desirable to order, but he cannot increase 
the award so given. 

In the case of Officers of less than three years’ service 
he may limit this power of award to three days confine- 
ment to barracks. 



SECTION II. 

COURTS MARTIAL, COURTS OF INQUIRY 
AND BOARDS. 

The regulations for the composition of Militia Courts 
Martial, Courts of Inquiry, and Boards, with the modes 
of procedure and powers thereof, are the same as the 
regulations which may at the time be in force for Her 



152 



DISCIPLINE. 



Majesty’s, regular army, and which are not inconsistent 
with the Militia Act. 

COURTS MARTIAL. 

When an offence is of a character too serious to be dis- 
posed of by a Commanding Officer, the prisoner should be 
tried by Court Martial. 

No person can be tried for an offence if three years have 
elapsed since its commission, except for desertion on active 
service and mutiny ; for either of which an offender can be 
tried at any time. 

Desertion (not on active service) and fraudulent enlist- 
ilient, can always be tried unless a man has served three 
years without a regimental entry since the commission of 
the offence. 

Courts Martial can punish any military offence and 
any civil offence mentioned in the Army Act, such as 
sedition, assault, etc. 

They have also the power to punish any civil offence 
punishable by civil law except treason, treason-felony, 
murder, manslaughter, rape, which cannot be tried by 
Court Martial except at a place more than 100 miles from 
a competent civil court. These restrictions do not, how- 
ever, apply to Field General Courts Martial which have 
powers under certain circumstances to try any offence. 

By the Army Act the degrees of Courts Martial are 
classed thus : 

1. Begimental, \ 

2. District, > Ordinary. 

3. General, ) 

4. Field General, Exceptional. 



COURTS MARTIAL. 



153 



1. Regimental. 

A Regimental-Court Martial may be convened by any 
Officer authorized to convene General or District Courts 
Martial, or any Commanding Officer not below the rank 
of Captain ; also any officer of a rank not below that of 
captain when in command of two or more corps or por- 
tions of two or more corps ; or on board a ship, a Com- 
manding Officer of any rank. It should consist of not 
less than three Officers, each of whom must have held a 
commission for not less than one year, the President not 
being under the rank of Captain if possible. It cannot 
try an Officer or a Non-commissioned Officer (in ordinary 
cases) above the rank of Corporal, nor award death, penal 
servitude, or discharge with ignominy, its limits being 
forty-two days’ imprisonment, with or without hard labour, 
reduction, fine for drunkenness up to $4.86, or stoppages 
to make good damage or losses, etc. 

Owing to the extensive powers of a Commanding Officer 
the assembly of a Regimental Court Martial should be 
rarely necessary. For cases not dealt with summarily a 
District Court Martial should as a rule be convened. 

2. District. 

A District Court Martial can only be convened by an 
Officer authorized to convene General Courts Martial, or 
by an Officer deriving authority to do so from him. It 
should not in Canada consist of less than three Officers, 
each of whom must have held a commission for two 
years. It has not power to try an Officer, nor award 
the punishment of death or penal servitude, its limits 
being imprisonment with or without hard labour for a 
period not exceeding two years, forfeiture of good con- 
duct, or deferred pay, discharge with ignominy, or reduc- 
tion. 



154 



DISCIPLINE. 



A District Court Martial has sufficient powers of pun- 
ishment to deal with all military offences, but neither 
D. C. M. nor R. C. M. should deal with offences punish- 
able with death or penal servitude, unless under the 
authority of an Officer who has the power to convene a 
G. 0. M. 

3. General, 

A General Court Martial can only be convened by Her 
Majesty, or by an Officer holding a warrant from Her 
Majesty, or by an Officer to whom power has been 
delegated by warrant from the Officer originally given 
authority by Her Majesty. It should not in Canada 
consist of less than five Officers. Each of the members 
must have held a commission during the three years 
jjreceding the day of assembly of the Court Martial, 
and none of the members should be below the rank of 
Captain, and all of equal, if not superior, rank to the 
prisoner, unless Officers of such rank are not available. 
It has power to sentence to death, penal servitude (not 
less than three years), dismissal, imprisonment (not exceed- 
ing two years), forfeiture of rank and medals, reprimand 
or severe reprimand, stoppages. In case of sentence of 
death, the concurrence of at least two-thirds of the 
members must be obtained. 

A General Court Martial should not be resorted to 
unless in very aggravated cases, and for the trial of an 
Officer. 

Both of the above Courts should be composed of Officers 
of different corps, and not exclusively of officers of the 
same corps, unless the Convening Officer states in the 
order convening the Court that in his opinion other Officers 
(having due regard to the public service) are not available. 



COURTS MARTIAL. 



155 



4. Field General. 

A Field General Court Martial is for the trial of offences 
against the property or person of inhabitants or residents 
of a country beyond the seas, or on active service, which 
cannot practically, be tried by an ordinary General Court 
Martial, and may be convened by the Officer in command 
of the detachment or portion of troops to which the 
offender belongs, although he may not be authorized to 
convene any other kind of Court Martial. It should con- 
sist of not less than three members, and the convening 
Officer may preside if he cannot obtain another, but he 
should not, if practicable, be under the rank of Captain. 
Its powers are those of a General Court Martial, except 
that a sentence of death requires the concurrence of all the 
members. 

The following are debarred from being members of any 
Court Martial in Canada for the trial of a militiaman ; an 
Officer of Her Majesty’s army upon full pay, the convening 
Officer, the prosecutor or witness for the prosecution, the 
prisoner’s Commanding Officer, or the Officer who investi- 
gated the charges on which a prisoner is arraigned, or was 
a member of a Court of Inquiry respecting the charges 
against him, or has a personal interest in the case, save in 
the case of Field General Court Martial, when only the 
prosecutor, Provost Marshal, witness for prosecution, or 
one who has a personal interest in the case are ineligible. 

All members of a Court Martial must be subject to 
military law. The rules of procedure are similar in all 
classes of Courts Martial, except in that of a Field General 
Court Martial, for which special rules are prescribed. 

Any person required to give evidence before a Court 
Martial, may be summoned or ordered to attend, and if 



156 



DISCIPLINE. 



such person not being enrolled in the Active Militia shall, 
after payment or tender of reasonable expenses, make de- 
fault in attending ; or if in attendance as a witness, refuses 
to take the oath or aflS.rmation legally required by a Court 
Martial ; or refuses to answer any question, or produce 
any document legally required ; or is guilty of any con- 
tempt towards the Court Martial ; may, on the certificate 
of the President of the Court Martial to a J udge of any 
court of law in the locality, be punished if found guilty, 
in the same manner as if the offence had been committed 
in a civil court. 

“The following offences are by the Militia Act made 
specially liable for trial and punishment by Court Martial. 

An Officer who shall knowingly claim pay, on account of 
drills performed with his corps, for any man belonging to 
another corps, or wh9 shall include in any parade state or 
other return, any man not duly enrolled and attested as a 
Militiaman. 

An Officer or Non-commissioned Officer who obtains 
under false pretences, or retains or keeps in his possession 
with intent to apply to his own use or benefit, any of the 
pay or moneys belonging to an Officer or man of any corps, 
or who may sign a false parade state, roll, return, or pay- 
list, or makes a false affidavit or declaration. 

Any Non-commissioned Officer or man who may claim 
or receive pay for drill performed in the ranks of any other 
than his own corps, or in more than one corps during the 
annual drill in any year. 

Any Officer, Non-commissioned Officer or man who when 
called out for active service absents himself without leave 
from his corps for a longer period than seven days, may be 
tried as a deserter. 



COURTS OF INQUIRY AND BOARDS. 



157 



N o Officer or man of the Militia can be sentenced to death 
by any Court Martial, except for mutiny, desertion to the 
enemy, or traitorously giving up to the enemy any garrison, 
fortress, post or guard, or traitorous correspondence with 
the enemy ; and no sentence of any General Court Martial 
can be carried into effect until approved by Her Majesty. 

An Officer or man charged with any offence committed, 
while serving in the Militia is liable to be tried and con- 
victed by Court Martial within six months after his resig- 
nation or discharge from the same ; or for the crime of 
desertion at any time, without reference to the period 
which may have elapsed since his desertion, unless he 
shall have served in an exemplary manner for not less 
than three years in another corps. 

COURTS OF INQUIRY AND BOARDS. 

A Court of Inquiry may be assembled by any Officer in 
command, to assist him in arriving at a correct conclusion 
on any subject on which it may be expedient for him to be 
thoroughly informed. With this object in view, such 
Court may be directed to investigate and report upon any 
matters that may be brought before it, or give an opinion 
on any point not involving the conduct of any Officer or 
soldier; but it has no power (except when convened to 
record the illegal absence of soldiers, as provided for in the 
Army Act,) to administer* an oath, nor to compel the 
attendance of witnesses not military. 

A Court of Inquiry should not be considered in any light 
as a judicial body. It may be employed, at the discretion 
of the convening Officer, to collect and record information 
only, or it may be required to give an opinion also on any 
proposed question, or as to the origin or cause of certain 
existing facts or circumstances. Specific instructions on 



158 



DISCIPLINE. 



these points are, however, always to be given to the Court. 
The proceedings are to be recorded in writing, as far as 
practicable in the form prescribed for Courts Martial, 
signed by each member, and forwarded to the convening 
authority by the President. 

A Court of Inquiry, for the purpose of determining the 
illegal absence of a soldier, (not warned for active service) 
will be held at the expiration of twenty-one days from the 
date of absence, or as soon after as possible. 

Courts of Inquiry, as a general rule, sit with closed doors, 
but they may be either open or closed according to the 
nature of the investigation, or as may be directed by the 
convening Officer. When an inquiry affects the character 
of an Officer or soldier, full opportunity should be given 
such Officer or soldier of being present throughout the in- 
quiry, and of making any statement he may wish to make, 
and of cross-examining any witness whose evidence, in his 
opinion, affects his character, and producing any witnesses 
in defence of his character. 

The rank of the Officers comprising the Court should be 
equal or superior to that of the Officer whose conduct or 
character may be implicated in the investigation. 

A Court of Inquiry or board of Officers may consist of 
any number of members, but the composition of such 
Courts or Boards should be regulated, at the discretion of 
the convening Officer, by the circumstances under which 
they are assembled. Three members, the senior acting as 
President, will in ordinary cases be found sufficient.' 

Medical Officers are exempted from serving as members 
of Courts of Inquiry or Boards, except medical boards. 
Should a medical opinion be required by a military board, 
reference is to be made to the Medical Officer detailed to 



COURTS OF INQUIRY AND BOARDS. 



159 



attend it, who will furnish his report in writing or give 
evidence in person if considered necessary. 

Relative rank does not entitle an Officer to the presi- 
dency of a Court of Inquiry or Board, but he is legally 
qualified if appointed. 

If the members cannot agree on an opinion collectively, 
any dissenting member should state in writing the nature 
and extent of the difference, or give his opinion in writing 
to the President for transmission with the proceedings. 

The regulations for the government of Courts of Inquiry 
are contained in the Rules of Procedure (Army Act). 

Boards differ only from Courts of Inquiry in as far that 
the objects for which they are assembled should not in- 
volve any point of discipline. They will follow so far as 
may be convenient the Rules for Courts of Inquiry, but 
are in no way bound by them. 

A Commanding Officer may assemble a Regimental 
Board to assist him with its opinion upon the condition of 
stores, but no Regimental Board can condemn them, a 
District or Garrison Board is the only one that can do so. 
In the case of a Regimental Board ordered upon rations 
reported by the Orderly Officer as unfit for issue, they 
may be condemned, and an equal quantity purchased else- 
where and charged to the contractor. 

SECTION III. 

OFFENCES PUNISHABLE BY CIVIL LAW. 

By the Militia Act the offences enumerated below are 
made punishable by Civil Law upon the complaint of the 
Commanding Officer or Adjutant of a Battalion, or, in the 
case of rural companies, the Captain, or the General Officer 
commanding the Militia may authorize any Officer to make 



160 



DISCIPLINE. 



the complaint in his name. Prosecutions cannot, however, 
be made later than six months after the commission of the 
offence, unless it be for unlawful buying, selling or having 
in possession arms, accoutrements or other articles issued 
to the Militia. 

FALSE INFORMATION. 

Persons refusing to give information, or giving false 
information to an Officer or Non-commissioned Officer in 
the execution of his duty, a penalty not exceeding $20. 

tr 

ENROLMENT AND RETURNS. 

An Officer or Non-commissioned Officer refusing or 
neglecting to make an enrolment or ballot, or refusing to 
make or transmit any roll or return required by regula- 
tion, a penalty, if an Officer, not exceeding |50, if a Non- 
commissioned Officer, not exceeding $25. 

An Officer or Non-commissioned Officer refusing or 
neglecting to assist his Commanding Officer in making 
any roll or return, or refusing or neglecting to obtain the 
information necessary to make or correct any roll or 
return, a penalty, if an Officer, not exceeding $50, if a 
Non-commissioned Officer, $25 for each offence. 

REFUSING TO TAKE OATH. 

A man drafted or liable to be drafted for service, refus- 
ing to take the oath or declaration prescribed, imprison- 
ment not exceeding six months. 

PERSONATION. 

An Officer or man of the Militia, or any other person 
who shall falsely personate another at parade or other 
occasion, a fine not exceeding $100. 



OFFENCES AND PENALTIES. 



161 



NEGLECTING TO ATTEND PARADE. 

An Officer, Non-commissionedr Officer or man, who, with- 
out lawful excuse, neglects or refuses to attend any parade 
or drill or training at the place and hour appointed, or who 
refuses or neglects to obey any lawful order at or concern- 
ing such parade or training, a penalty, if an Officer, of |10, 
if a Non-commissioned Officer or man, $5 for eacli offence, 
absence for each day being a separate offence. 

INTERRUPTING DRILL. 

Any person who interrupts or hinders the Militia at 
drill or trespasses upon the bounds set out by the Officer 
in command of such drill, is subject to arrest and deten- 
tion during the drill and a penalty of $5. 

DISOBEDIENCE OR INSOLENCE. 

An Officer, Non-commissioned Officer or man disobeying 
any lawful order of his superior Officer, or guilty of 
insolent or disorderly behaviour towards such Officer, a 
penalty, if an Officer, of $20, if a Non-commissioned Officer 
or man $10 for each offence. 

FAILING TO KEEP ARMS, ETC., IN ORDER. 

Any Non-commissioned Officer or man who fails to keep 
in proper order, the arms, accoutrements or clothing en- 
trusted to him, or appears at drill or parade with them 
out of proper order, deficient, or unserviceable, a penalty 
of $4 for each offence. 

DISPOSING OF ARMS, ETC. 

Any person who unlawfully disposes of, or receives 
arms, accoutrements or clothing, belonging to the Crown 
or a corps, or refuses to give up the same when required, 
or has them in his possession for unlawful use, a penalty 
of $20 for each offence, 

11 



162 



DISCIPLINE. 



REFUSAL TO AID CIVIL POWER. 

An Officer, Non-commissioned Officer or man who, when 
his corps is lawfully called upon to act in aid of the civil 
power refuses or neglects to go out with such corps, or to 
obey the lawful order of his superior officer, a penalty, if 
an Officer, not exceeding $100, if a Non-commissioned 
Officer or man not exceeding $20 for each offence. 

RESISTING DRAFT OR AIDING DESERTION. 

. Any person who resists any draft of men enrolled, or 
counsels or aids any one to resist such draft, or persuades 
any enlisted man to desert, or aids or assists him to do so, 
or assists in his concealment or rescue, imprisonment with 
or without hard labour, for a term not exceeding six 
months. 



SECTION IV. 

PRISONERS. 

Military custody in the case of a private soldier (not 
under sentence) means confinement under charge of a 
guard, picquet, patrol, sentry or of a provost marshal. 
The accommodation usually available in permanent bar- 
racks for detention of soldiers confined under charge of a 
guard is : 

1st. The Prisoners^ Room , — The room attached to a 
guard room for the temporary detention of prisoners. 

2nd. The Guard Room Cells . — Those cells which are 
attached to a guard room for the temporary detention of 
prisoners who are required to be kept apart. 

The keys of both the above should be in charge of the 
commander of the guard. 



PRISONERS. 



163 



Arrest is of two kinds, close and open arrest, if not 
described as the latter it means close arrest. 

An Officer under close arrest should not be allowed to 
leave his quarters. If he be in open arrest, he may be per- 
mitted by superior authority to take exercise within defined 
limits, viz., not beyond the barracks, or if in camp, not be- 
yond the quarter or rear guard, and then only at stated 
periods ; he should not be allowed to dine at his own or any 
other mess, nor to appear at any place of amusement or 
public resort, and on no pretext to quit his room or tent 
dressed otherwise than in uniform, without his sash, pouch- 
belt, or sword. 

The same rules apply to a Non-commissioned Officer 
under close arrest. 

In exceptional cases an offender may be placed in the 
charge of a guard, sentry or provost. 

Any Officer may, when necessity arises, be placed under 
arrest by a competent authority on the commission of any 
offence without previous investigation, but a Commanding 
Officer on receiving a complaint, or coming to the knowl- 
edge of circumstances tending to incriminate an Officer, 
will not ordinarily place him under arrest, until he has 
satisfied himself by inquiry that it will be necessary to 
proceed with the case, and report it to superior authority. 
If he prefers charges against an Officer, he will invariably 
place him under arrest. When an Officer is placed in 
arrest, the Commanding Officer will invariably report the 
case without unnecessary delay to the General or other 
Officer commanding the district or station, whether the 
Officer shall have been subsequently released from arrest 
or not. Unless an arrest has been made in error, an Officer 
should not be released without the sanction of the highest 
authority to whom the case has been referred. 



164 



DISCIPLINE. 



An arrest can only be ordered by the senior Officer or 
Non-commissioned Officer present when the offence is com- 
mitted, except in the case of a quarrel, fray or disorder, 
when a junior may order the arrest of a senior who is 
engaged in the disturbance. 

An Officer who has been placed in arrest, has no right 
to demand a Court Martial upon himself, or after he shall 
have been released by proper authority, to persist in con- 
sidering himself under the restraint of such arrest, or to 
refuse to return to the performance of his duty. An 
Officer who conceives himself to have been wrongfully put 
in arrest, or otherwise aggrieved, is not without remedy ; 
provision is made for that purpose in the Army Act, sec- 
tion 42, and he can prefer a complaint in a proper manner 
through the proper channel (see “Complaints ”). 

When it is necessary to confine a Non-commissioned 
Officer for an offence, he should be placed under arrest^ 
and not sent as a prisoner to the guard-room, except in 
the case of an offence of a very serious nature ; nor should 
a Non-commissioned Officer be allowed to escape trial by 
Court Martial by resigning, unless by the special sanction 
of the General Officer commanding. 

Private soldiers charged with a serious offence should 
be confined at the time of the commission or discovery of 
the offence, but in the case of minor offences, should not be 
lodged in the guard-room before their cases are disposed 
of, but may be allowed to proceed to their rooms, and a 
report made to the Officer commanding their company. 
They should not, however, be allowed out of their quarters 
until their cases have been disposed of, and should attend 
all parades, but not be detailed for any duty. 

Notice of a man’s being confined should at once be 
reported to the Orderly Sergeant of his company, either 



PRISONERS. 



165 



verbally or in writing, stating the nature of the crime and 
the names of the evidences in support of the charge. The 
Orderly Sergeant then notifies the Colour Sergeant, who 
makes out a crime report (Form 29), which is immediately 
sent to the commander of the guard as his authority for 
detaining the prisoner ; the absence of this crime report, 
however, does not justify commanders of guards, refusing 
to receive prisoners nor to release them without competent 
authority. 

Should the nature of the offence be such as to allow the 
Captain to deal with it, he will write the punishment 
awarded on the Minor Offence report (Form 33), which 
should be sent to the orderly room, in order that it may 
be brought under the notice of the Commanding Officer. 

When a Non-commissioned Officer has occasion to con- 
fine a soldier for any offence, he should invariably obtain 
the assistance of one or more privates to conduct the 
offender to the guard- room, and should himself avoid in 
any way coming in contact with him, except under 
unavoidable circumstances. 

The practice of sending a file of the Guard to take a 
prisoner from his quarters to the guard-room should not 
be resorted to, except when there are no other men nearer 
at hand available for the purpose. 

Except in cases of personal violence, or when on escort 
or other detached duties, Lance Corporals should not con- 
fine men, but report the offence to the Company Orderly 
Sergeant. 

There is no case in which Officers or Non-commissioned 
Officers should be more particular in their treatment of 
men than when under the influence of liquor. Men ob- 
served in a state of drunkenness should be immediately 
confined. 



166 



DISCIPLINE. 



Soldiers in a state of drunkenness should, if possible, be 
confined alone in the prisoners’ room or cells until sober — 
not in the guard-room, where they may be often provoked 
to acts of violence and insubordination ; they should be 
visited at least every two hours by a Non-commissioned 
Officer of the guard and an escort, in order that their con- 
dition may be ascertained. Should any symptoms of 
serious illness be observed, a Medical Officer is forthwith 
to be sent for. Soldiers suspected of being drunk should 
not be put through any drill exercise or otherwise tested, 
for the purpose of ascertaining their condition. 

Twenty-four hours should elapse before a soldier charged 
with drunkenness is brought before his Commanding Officer, 
in order that he may be perfectly sober. 

Guard room cells are for the temporary custody of 
prisoners, who should be kept alone. When a soldier is 
confined for being drunk or riotous, he should be conveyed 
direct to the cells, the Non-commissioned Officer of the 
guard being called to receive him in charge. The cells 
should be cleaned out by the prisoners every morning. 

When a soldier, either before the investigation of an 
offence or whilst undergoing punishment, has been de- 
prived of his arms, they should not be restored to him 
without an order from the Cap_tain of his company or 
other superior Officer. 

No Non-commissioned Officer or soldier who has been 
placed in arrest or confinement should be permitted to 
perform any military duty except as may be necessary to 
relieve him from the charge of any cash, stores, accounts, 
or office of which he may have charge or be responsible 
for, until his case is disposed of. Neither should he be 
allowed to bear arms except in cases of emergency, or on 



PRISONERS. 



167 



the line of march. If, however, by error such an offender 
has been permitted to perform any duty, he should not 
thereby be absolved from liability to punishment for his 
offence. 

When a prisoner is brought before the Commanding 
Officer, the Officer commanding his company should attend 
with the Defaulter book, being ready to speak as to char- 
acter ; the Colour Sergeant and the Sergeant in charge of 
his section should also be present whether they are evi- 
dence or not, to answer for his kit, etc. 

The punishment awarded to men who have been con- 
fined and are brought before the Commanding Officer 
should be entered on the Guard report in his own hand- 
writing. 

The Adjutant should attend the investigation of all 
crimes or complaints by the Commanding Officer. 

Whenever a soldier appears in a Civil Court, either as 
a prosecutor or prisoner, an Officer of his company should 
invariably attend during the proceedings. 

Prisoners who report themselves as sick should be taken 
to Hospital at the morning visit of the Surgeon. This re- 
port should be made by the Non-commissioned Officer in 
charge of the guard to the Company Orderly Sergeant, 
and is entered upon the company sick list. 

Prisoners should not be kept in confinement for a longer 
period than forty -eight hours without having their cases 
disposed of, unless it be preparatory to bringing them 
before a Court Martial. 

Prisoners detained under charge of a guard should have 
such exercise daily as may be necessary for the preserva- 
tion of health. 

The greatest regularity and respectful demeanor should 



168 



DISCIPLINE. 



be observed by Officers and others, whilst the Command- 
ing Officer is administering justice in the orderly room. 

When a Non-commissioned Officer is brought as a 
prisoner before the Commanding Officer, men of inferior 
rank to him should withdraw. 

Colour Sergeants should, on the return of a deserter 
or man absent without leave, immediately proceed to the 
guard room and minutely inspect the clothing-he has in 
wear, and ascertain if any portion is Eegimental ; also 
when a man is confined for being drunk, his kit should be 
inspected by the Colour Sergeant and Sergeant of his 
section, previous to his crime being made out, and in the 
event of any article being deficient, the same should form 
part of the charge against him. 

Great coats for the prisoners should be sent to the guard 
room at Retreat by the Non-commissioned Officer of the 
section to which the prisoner belongs, and removed after 
Reveille the following morning. Shaving and cleaning 
materials should also be allowed prisoners, the Regimental 
Orderly Sergeant being responsible that such are sent to 
the Non-commissioned Officer of the guard, and see that 
the articles are given to the prisoners at only such times 
as are necessary to cleanliness. 

Prisoners should not be allowed to have their new 
clothing, but only their oldest fatigue dress, and but one 
suit at a time ; they should not be allowed to have money 
or tobacco. Every care should be taken that no one holds 
communication with them, except on duty ; the men of 
the guard and the sentries should particularly be enjoined 
not to enter into conversation with them, nor should any- 
thing be given to them, not even meals, except in the 
presence of a Non-commissioned Officer of the guard. 

Prisoners in confinement for trial by Court Martial 



PROVOST REGULATIONS. 



169 



should be allowed the use of bedding, up to the time of 
the promulgation of their sentence or acquittal. Prisoners 
in confinement pending enquiry, should be allowed the 
use of bedding if their detention exceeds two days. In 
severe weather prisoners should be allowed such bedding 
as may be necessary. 



SECTION V. 

PROVOST REGULATIONS. 

Provost prisons, whether garrison or regimental, are in- 
tended for the confinement of soldiers summarily awarded 
imprisonment by authority of the Commanding Officer, 
and for carrying into effect the sentences of imprisonment 
by Courts Martial, for periods not exceeding 42 days. 
Soldiers under longer sentences of Courts Martial may also 
be committed to a provost prison pending removal to a 
public prison, civil or military, if their commitment to a 
public prison cannot be immediately carried into effect. 

The immediate control and supervision of provost 
prisons should be under the Officer commanding the 
station or corps to which the prison is appropriated, and 
in charge of a Sergeant specially selected with a view to 
his fitness for the office, who should be responsible for the 
custody and proper subsistence of the prisoners, 

Provost prisons should be inspected, and each prisoner 
visited daily by the Orderly Officer and Surgeon, reports 
of which are to be made to the Commanding Officer. 

Prisoners should be committed to, and released after the 
regular dinner hour and before dark, and. especially ex- 
amined by a Surgeon before commitment, who will furnish 



170 



DISCIPLINE. 



a certificate as to their state of health, reporting any dis- 
ability likely to prevent or interfere with the execution of 
the punishment awarded, or any part thereof. 

Every prisoner on admission should be strictly searched 
and required to give up everything in his possession, the 
hair of all those confined for more than seven days should 
be closely cut. 

Prisoners’ labour should consist of sawing wood, cleaning 
yards, latrines, etc. , repairing roads and such other modes 
of employment as the Commanding Officer may approve ; 
when deemed expedient, drill in “ Marching Order” may 
be substituted. 

The following should be the distribution of time : 

Summer. — 5.30 to 6 a.m., rise, dress, air and clean cells ; 
6 to 8 labour ; 8 to 9 breakfast and make up beds ; 9 to 
12.30 labour ; 12.30 to 2 dinner ; 2 to 5 labour ; 5 to 6.30 
tea ; 6. 30 to 8 labour. 

Winter. — Pise, at 7 a.m., and lights out at 9 p.m., after- 
noon labour ceasing at dark, otherwise the same routine as 
in summer. 

On Sundays the prisoners should attend Divine Service 
and the cleaning of cells be restricted to what is actually 
necessary. Christmas day and Good Friday should be 
observed as Sundays. 

Irregularities or minor breaches of discipline, while 
under imprisonment should be reported to the Command- 
ing Officer, who may by written direction to the Provost 
Sergeant order a prisoner to be put on “ punishment diet ” 
for any period not exceeding 72 hours. 

In case of violence or urgent and absolute necessity, the 
Commanding Officer may by an order ‘ in writing, direct a 
prisoner to be placed in handcuffs, the order will specify 



PROVOST REGULATIONS. 



171 



tlie cause that gave rise to it, and the duration of the 
restraint. 

All offences and nature of punishment awarded are to be 
recorded in the Prison Defaulters’ Book, and also in the 
Regimental Defaulters’ Book, if specially ordered by the 
Commanding Officer. 

Prisoners committed for periods not exceeding seven 
days should be provided with great coats, together with 
single blanket or rug, those for longer periods should after 
the first week be allowed their bedding, being deprived of 
it however every third night. 

The articles in each prisoner’s hold-all should be removed 
from his cell’ every night, and the use of tobacco in any 
form or of spirituous liquors denied him. 

Prisoners should be allowed a Bible and prayer book of 
the denomination to which he belongs, together with such 
other books as may be recommended by a Chaplain and 
sanctioned by the Commanding Officer. 

In the event of prison clothing not being supplied, the 
prisoners should wear their uniform, fatigue dress being 
worn on week days and tunics on Sunday, whenever pos- 
sible, part worn great coats should be issued to prisoners. 

Every prisoner should be made to wash himself at least 
once a day, shave daily, and bathe thoroughly and change 
his underclothes at least once a week. 

The rations of soldiers in imprisonment, as well as pay 
should cease from the day of his being committed, until the 
day of his release, his subsistence will, during that time, be 
obtained from the canteen or contractor by the Provost 
Sergeant, the cost of same being recovered from the 
Government each month. A mess book for these supplies 
should be kept by the Provost Sergeant to be balanced and 
certified to weekly by the Adjutant. 



172 



DISCIPLINE. 



The scale of diet for cell prisoners should be as under. 



1st. For prisoners sentenced up to seven days ; 

Breakfast, 6 oz. of bread, 1 pint oatmeal gruel, J pint 
milk. 

Dinner, 8 oz. bread, 1 lb. potatoes. 



Supper, same as breakfast. 



2nd. For prisoners over 7 days and up to 42 days : 
Breakfast, daily same as first scale. 



Monday 
Wednesday 
Friday 
^ Saturday 
Sunday 
Tuesday 
Thursday 



} 6 oz. bread. 

1 lb. potatoes. 

1 pint soup with vegetables. 
2 oz. cheese. 

} 4 oz. bread. 

1 lb. potatoes. 

9 oz. meat. 



Supper, daily same as breakfast. 



3rd. For ill conducted and idle prisoners. 



Daily 1 lb. bread with water and 1 pint oatmeal gruel. 

This diet should not be given for more than three days 
at a time, nor with a Jess interval than three days for a 
fresh offence, the ordinary diet being allowed in the 
interim, nor should labour be enforced during the duration 
of the short diet. 

Provost prisons should also be used for the detention for 
safe custody of soldiers remanded for trial by Court 
Martial, or who have been tried and are awaiting the 
promulgation of the finding and sentence of a Court 
Martial, whenever there is available accommodations, and 
arrangements can be made for their being supplied the 
ordinary rations and messing of soldiers during such deten- 
tion. Such prisoners will not wear prison clothing. They 



PROVOST SERGEANT. 



173 



should be allowed to exercise in association during a 
reasonable portion of each day, and be kept apart from 
prisoners undergoing sentence. They will not be obliged 
to labour otherwise than by being employed in drill, fatigue, 
and other duties similar in kind and amount to those they 
might be called on to perform if not under detention. As 
these men will not receive the ordinary cells diet, they will 
be shown separately in the cells provision accounts. 

PROVOST SERGEANT. 

The Provost Sergeant should exercise his authority with 
firmness, temper, and humanity ; to abstain from all irri- 
tating language, and on no account to strike, or otherwise 
ill-treat a prisoner. 

He should see the prisoners frequently and at uncertain 
times during the day ; but is not to hold, or to permit his 
assistants to hold any unnecessary communication with 
them. He should not permit any person to visit the 
prisoners, except by the special authority of the Command- 
ing Officer. 

He should report to the Surgeon at his regular visits, 
the case of any prisoner who may appear to be out of 
health, and to report immediately any case of sudden or 
serious illness. 

He should superintend the exercise and hard labour of 
the prisoners, and not permit the latter to hold any con- 
versation with each other, or with any other person. In 
case of a prisoner persisting in disobeying this or any other 
order, when employed outside his cell, he should at once be 
sent ba5k to it and the case reported for the information 
of the Commanding Officer. 

He should take care that the means by which a prisoner 
may communicate with him or his assistant are kept in 



174 



DISCIPLINE. 



proper repair, and pay due attention to the heating and 
ventilation of the cells, also that the prisoners are supplied 
with their regular meals according to the prescribed dietary. 

The underclothing of the prisoners should be washed 
with that of their companies — or as arranged for locally 
by Commanding Officer. 

It should be also a part of the duty of the Provost 
Sergeant to perform the police duties of the Barracks, or 
camp, or of that part of the garrison in or near which the 
Provost prison may be situated. He should frequently 
visit the canteens in the neighbourhood, and interfere to 
prevent drunkenness or riot ; using his authority to repress 
all irregularity ; and to clear the quarters of any loose or 
disorderly characters. In the course of these duties he 
should, at all times, be extremely careful to avoid any 
personal collision with soldiers. He should be allowed 
such assistance in making his rounds as may be deemed 
necessary by the Commanding Officer. 



SECTION VI. 

DEFAULTERS. 

A Non-commissioned Officer should, if he can be spared, 
be detailed weekly to take charge of and drill all 
Defaulters ; otherwise the Regimental Orderly Sergeant 
or Corporal should do it. He should be held strictly 
responsible that they attend such drills or fatigues as are 
ordered, that they turn out clean and regular every 
respect, and that the drill is conducted as correctly as if 
under the Adjutant or Sergeant-Major. The Non-commis- 
sioned Officer in charge of the defaulters should inspect 



DEFAULTERS. 



175 



the kits of the defaulters at every drill previous to dis- 
missal, reporting all irregularities to the Sergeant-Major. 
He shall admit no defaulter into his squad, whose name 
(as such) he has not received from the Eegimental Orderly 
Sergeant. 

Punishment clrill should be carried on in the barrack 
yard or drill ground, and when battalions or detachments 
are in billets, and have not such accommodation, their 
defaulters should not be exposed to ridicule by being 
exercised in the streets ; but be marched out on one of 
the public roads for the prescribed period. Punishment 
drill should not be carried on after Retreat^ unless the 
General Officer commanding considers it expedient to 
do so. 

Punishment drill, which consists of marching only, and 
not of instruction, should not exceed one hour at a time, 
exclusive of the inspection of kit, nor more than four 
hours in the same day. In very cold weather the double 
time may be used for short periods. 

The Sergeant of the Guard should direct the Orderly 
Bugler to sound for defaulters at uncertain times, and 
on a general average of once every half hour, between 
Reveille and Tattoo, The first call should not be earlier 
than half an hour after Reveille^ and the last at the 
warning bugle for Tattoo. Defaulters should ii6t be 
called at a time when they are supposed to be in their 
barrack rooms, such as about meal hours, etc., or when 
on parade or fatigue. 

On all occasions of defaulters answering their names 
they should be clean and properly dressed in fatigue 
dress. Orderly men of rooms and company cooks, if 
confined to barracks as a punishment should be exempt 



176 



DISCIPLINE. 



from answering their names at defaulters’ roll-call, except 
between Retreat and Tattoo, 

When not on fatigue or parade, defaulters should parade 
for punishment drill in marching order.” At the regular 
parades they should be dressed the same as the rest of the 
men. Men with disfigured faces or black eyes should be 
confined to quarters till they are perfectly recovered. 

Defaulters should not be required to undergo any portion 
of their punishment which niay have lapsed by reason of 
their being in Hospital or employed on duty. 

Defaulters should be permitted to enter the canteen for 
one hour in the day only ; as a rule this should be in the 
evening. 



SECTION VII. 

COMPLAINTS. 

One of the fundamental and most necessary rules of 
military discipline is to forbid anything bearing the ap- 
pearance of combination to obtain redress of grievances 
among individuals composing a military force. Appeals 
for redress by “round robins,” or by means of any docu- 
ment bearing the signature of more than one complainant, 
are strictly forbidden. 

If Officers, Non-commissioned Officers, or men, have any 
complaint or accusation to bring against a superior or other 
Officer, such complaint should be laid before the complain- 
ant’s Commanding Officer, wdio, if necessary, should trans- 
mit the same, with his remarks, through the proper channel 
for consideration to Head-Quarters. They should not be 
permitted to bring accusations against superior Officers or 
comrades before the tribunal of public opinion, either by 



COMPLAINTS. 



177 



speeches, or letters inserted in any newspaper ; such a 
proceeding is a glaring violation of the rules of military 
discipline and contempt of authority. If a Commanding 
Officer neglects or refuses to attend to a complaint, it may 
be brought to the notice of the Officer commanding the 
district or General commanding the forces, notice being 
given at the same time to the complainant’s Commanding 
Officer, that such has been done. 

A Non-commissioned Officer or soldier having a com- 
plaint should make it to the Officer in charge of his 
company. The proper course is for the soldier to apply 
to the Colour Sergeant, who may either accompany the 
man himself to his Officer or direct the Orderly Sergeant 
to do so. The same rule should be observed when there 
is a favour to ask. This course should not prevent a 
soldier from asking the privilege of speaking privately 
with the Officer when brought before him. 

It is the duty of all Officers, when receiving complaints 
for transmission for the consideration of superior authority, 
to point out to the parties concerned any irregularity in 
the means they employ in seeking redress, and to refuse 
to forward any representations that may be subversive of, 
or contrary to, the general rules by which all military 
bodies are governed. 

In hearing complaints or statements, etc., of Non-com- 
missioned Officers or men. Officers should invariably have 
another Officer present as a witness to all that passes. 

Complaints, etc., of Non-commissioned Officers or men 
should not, except in cases of unavoidable necessity, be 
allowed to be put in writing. Non-commissioned Officers 
and men should make their statements verbally to the 
Officer commanding their company, who, should he be 
unable to deal with the matter, will lay it before the Com- 
12 



178 



DISCIPLINE. 



manding Officer ; or should a captain decline to decide in 
the matter of complaint brought before him, or a soldier 
declare himself dissatisfied with that Officer’s judgment, 
he may then request his case to be brought before the 
Commanding Officer. If still dissatisfied, he then has 
recourse as above stated ; but his appeal should invariably 
be forwarded through the Officer commanding his com- 
pany to the Commanding Officer, for transmission to 
higher authority. 

A soldier having the slightest appearance of being under 
the influence of liquor, or seeming excited or out of 
temper, should never be taken before an Officer for any 
purpose whatever. 

A soldier who considers himself improperly warned for 
duty may respectfully remark so to the Non-commissioned 
Officer ; but if the latter still adheres to his warning, there 
can be no further altercation ; the duty should be done, 
and afterwards reported by the aggrieved party in the 
proper way. 

Non-commissioned Officers should invariably take the 
soldiers they may have to complain of before the Captain 
of the company, and never on any account make a report 
of a man behind his back ; nor should an Officer ever 
award a punishment, however trifling, without having 
inquired into the complaint ; and although every exertion 
should be used to enforce the greatest respect and obedi- 
ence to the Non-commissioned Officers, they should not be 
encouraged in making frivolous complaints against' the 
men, which will sometimes occur from private pique or 
dislike. 

No application or complaint should ever be made to the 
Civil Power in any regimental matter, except through the 
Commanding Officer, or with his sanction. 



PART IV. 



DRESS. 



‘‘The dress and appearance, as well as the demeanour 
of soldiers, should on all occasions and in all situations be 
such as to create a respect for the military service. 
Soldiers are not to go beyond the precincts of their 
barracks or lines unless properly dressed, and they are 
not to smoke in the streets until after 6 p.m. in summer 
and 5 p.m. in winter.” So reads paragraph 24, Sec. vii, 
of the ‘ ‘ Queen's Regulations, ” When in uniform, men 
cannot be too particular about their dress and appearance, 
it makes them conspicuous ; so that any defect is much 
more noticeable than in ordinary attire. There is no 
foppery in being correctly dressed ; on the contrary, neat- 
ness and smartness command respect, just as slovenliness 
receives contempt. Above all other things in this matter 
of dress, any admixture of uniform and mufti should be 
avoided. Such a combination is ridiculous, unsightly, 
and inexcusable, and when seen is sure to bring the 
wearer and his corps into disrepute. 

An attitude of soldierly smartness should always be 
assumed, whether in or out of uniform. When walking, 
the body and head should be erect, and an easy but not a 
slouching habit acquired ; if without arms, a small cane 
or “swagger stick,” about the length of the arm should 
be carried. 

A soldier’s look should denote that he is proud of his 
uniform and Battalion., He should never allow himself to 
[179] 



180 



DRESS. 



speak slightingly of the service or corps to which he 
belongs, or disrespectfully of either his superiors or com- 
rades, but endeavour by word and example to inspire his 
friends with the belief that his service is the best one, and 
that his Battalion is the crack ’’ one. He should always 
stand up’’ for his' Battalion and for his Officers, and 
never trouble himself about the sneering remarks of 
ignorant people, nor argue where argument can evidently 
do no good. If people make insulting allusions, it is best 
to treat them with silence, and show superiority by allow- 
ing their remarks to pass unheeded. 

The following directions are laid down in the ‘‘ Queen’s 
Regulations ” in regard to the growth of hair : — ‘‘ The hair 
of the head is to be neatly cut, and kept short. Mous- 
taches are to be worn, and the chin and under-lip are to 
be shaved (except by Pioneers, who will also wear beards). 
Whiskers, when worn, are to be of moderate length.” 

It is simply impossible to look smart and soldierly with 
long hair. Appearance, however, is not the only consider- 
ation, for, besides cleanliness, short hair conduces much 
to coolness and comfort. As regards the beard, the best 
plan is to adopt the fashion of the service. Shaving is not 
perhaps the most pleasant operation, yet it certainly adds 
to a man’s look of smartness ; but when the habit is 
adopted, care should be taken never to appear in uniform, 
at least without a clean chin. If, however, the beard is 
worn (and in some cases a good beard may be worn with 
advantage), it should be of moderate length and kept 
neatly trimmed. 



OFFICERS. 



181 



SECTION I. 

DRESS OF OFFICERS. 

Officers are required by the Militia regulations to pro- 
vide their own uniform, arms, and accoutrements, and in 
the case of mounted Officers, suitable saddlery for their 
horses in addition. 

Commanding Officers of corps are strictly forbidden to 
introduce or sanction any unauthorized embroidery or orna- 
ment, or other deviation from the approved patterns. 

The rank of Officers in the Militia is indicated by the 
lace and badges on their cuffs, shoulder straps, etc., as 
laid down in the “ Dress Regulations.’^ 

All Regimental badges and devices, and other peculiar 
distinctions, which may have been granted under special 
authority to different corps, should be strictly preserved. 

Officers in uniform, when in mourning or attending 
funerals, should wear a piece of black crape 3 J inches wide 
round the left arm above the elbow ; ho other sign of 
mourning should be worn at any time, unless otherwise 
specially ordered. The mourning badge should not, how- 
ever, be worn at levees or drawing rooms under ordinary 
circumstances. 

Officers assuming prominent positions at military reviews, 
and upon all occasions of State or ceremony, should appear 
in the full dress of their rank. They are not to appear 
mounted unless entitled to do so by reason of their rank or 
position. 

A few hints are here embodied as to the pattern and cut 
of uniform, which may prove useful : — 



182 



DRESS. 



Head-dress . — Helmets and busbies should be worn well 
down over the brows, and forage cap peaks should come 
down close over the eyes. 

Great Coats . — For mounted Officers should partake of 
the character of the Cavalry cloak and reach nearly to 
the ankles, with the skirt well split up for riding. The 
cape should reach the hands and be fastened by a button 
in the middle of the back to prevent it blowing over the 
head. 

Tunics . — Fair upright collar, meeting close and square, 
sleeves rather narrow*; the skirts not longer than the sleeve, 
when the latter is held straight at the side ; plenty of room 
in the chest, though not wrinkling. 

Patrol or Serge Jackets — Should fit well into the back 
and waist, but not so close as a tunic, and rather shorter ; 
they should have slits at the side of the hips, that on the 
left side being a little longer in order to give room for 
the sword when hooked up. 

Trousers — Should be made quite straight, neither too 
loose nor too tight, and with cross, not side pockets ; they 
should come down well over the boot. Whenever spurs 
are worn, straps should always be used, and the trousers 
made two inches longer than usual. 

Pantaloons for riding should be made like hunting 
breeches, with plenty of length at the knee and loose about 
the thigh and seat. 

Mess Jackets — Should be made so as to hook easily over 
the waistcoat in Rifle battalions. The Officer of the day 
wears his jacket fastened up, in Rifle battalions, with his 
pouch-belt over it, so that if an orderly comes into the 
mess or ante-room to look for him, he is easily distin- 
guished. In Infantry corps, the sash is worn over the 



OFFICERS. 



183 



waistcoat for the same purpose. Shirt collars should not 
be worn except with the Mess uniform. 

Boots , — On ordinary parades, when leggings are not used, 
Wellington boots should be worn (that is, half -high-boots) ; 
with leggings, lace-up boots ; side-spring boots or shoes 
should never be worn with leggings. In Mess uniform, 
patent leather Wellington boots or side-spring boots with 
the tops made all in one piece are the proper thing. 

High boots for riding should be perfectly stiff in the leg, 
with a rest to keep the spur in place. 

Swords and Belts. — The latest pattern of sword is 
straight, and should not be too heavy. It is a good plan 
to have the hilt and scabbard nickle-plated. Sword-knots 
should be wound tightly round the handle, so as not 
to dangle about, and in the case of white ones, kept 
clean with pipeclay. Sword-belts should always be kept 
supple ; if allowed to get hard, the enamel easily cracks. 
The top sling should be of such length that when the 
scabbard is placed alongside the leg, it rests easily on the 
ground. A sword trailing from long slings looks very 
slovenly. The top sling of a mounted Officer’s sword- 
belt should be such that when passing the sword-arm over 
the bridle-hand to draw swords, the hilt should come 
easily into the hand. 

Sabretache — Should be light and well shaped and have 
three slings. The front sling should be the shortest, and 
the middle and rear in proportion, so that the sabretache 
will hang square when the wearer is mounted. When 
mounted, the sword-scabbard should be passed through 
the sabretache loop. 

Sash — Should be tied just above the hip ; tassels not 
to hang below the skirt of the tunic. 



184 



DRESS. 



The following general rules are prescribed by the 
Queen’s Regulations as to the manner and times of 
wearing certain articles of uniform, viz.; — 

(a) Swords are to be hooked up, with the edge to the 
rea^r, during parade, and at levies and drawing-rooms, 
by all Officers who wear the waist-belt over the tunic. 
Sword-knots are to be twisted round the hilt. At public 
balls and entertainments where the sword is allowed to 
be taken off, the belt with slings will continue to be worn 
by all branches of the service that wear the sword-belt 
outside the tunic. In services that wear the sword-belt 
under the tunic, should the sword be taken off, the sword- 
belt will also be removed. 

(b) When dismounted Officers draw their swords, the 
scabbards are to be hooked up by Officers who wear the 
waist-belt over the tunic,, but will be carried in the left 
hand by all other Officers. 

(c) The sabretache is to be worn on mounted duties 
only, except by mounted Officers of Rifle Battalions, 
who wear it on all occasions when the sword is worn. 
In the field the sabretache may be worn by mounted 
Officers of Infantry on the belt, or attached to the 
saddle. 

(d) Watch-chains and trinkets are not to be worn 
outside the uniform. 

(e) The whistles of the pattern described in the Dress 
Regulations will be worn on all parades by the Officers 
therein referred to. 

(/) Brown dogskin or brown buckskin gloves will, in 
time of peace, he worn by Officers (except of Rifle corps) 
only when in undress, when the troops are route march- 
ing, on flying columns, or at field manoeuvres, and when at 
camps of exercise. 



OFFICERS. 



185 



(g) The full dress sword-belt will be worn when the 
tunic is worn, except at levees and on State occasions 
when the levee sword-belt will be worn. On other 
occasions the undress sword-bplt will be used.* 

(h) Greatcoats, cloaks, and leggings will be worn by 
Officers when parading with their men so dressed. 

Brevet Field Officers doing duty with their battalions 
as Captains are to wear the uniform and adopt the horse- 
furniture of the rank they hold in the militia. In dis- 
mounted corps such Officers will not wear spurs on parade 
unless they are required to be mounted. 

Pantaloons and knee-boots are to be worn on all mounted 
duties by mounted Officers. 

On dismounted duties generally, mounted Officers will 
wear trousers. 

The dress- sash, trousers, and sword-belt will be worn at 
levees, drawing-rooms, balls, etc. , and not at any parade, 
unless specially ordered and not then the trousers. At 
levees, etc. , the kilt will be worn by all Officers of kilted 
battalions, whether the Officers are mounted Officers 
or not. 

Officers of infantry will wear the scarlet serge patrol 
jackets on active service in the field, and in time of peace 
when the men wear frocks. 

The blue patrol jacket may be worn on all regimental 
duties and on garrison boards. 

The undress sword-knot for infantry Officers will be 
always worn, except in review order, or when the dress- 
sash is worn. 



* In our Militia there are only two sword belts used, viz., undress 
(white or brown) and levee dress 



186 



DRESS. 



An oil-skin cover is permitted to be worn in bad 
weather with the forage-cap. 

When greatcoats are carried folded they will be worn 
en banderole by dismounted Officers. 

The Militia Eegulations and Orders, 1887, prescribe that 
in addition to occasions of State or Ceremony, Officers 
attending in uniform, reviews, entertainments, etc., at 
which His Excellency the Governor- General, the General 
Officer commanding, or the Lieutenant-Governor are to be 
present, should appear in full dress unless otherwise 
ordered. The full dress, as regards Infantry, is to be 
understood to consist of helmet, tunic, crimson sash, or 
white or brown cross-belt with pouch, white enamelled 
or brown sword-belt, gold lace sword-knot, trousers with 
scarlet welt. At balls, levees, and State occasions, the 
gold lace sash, sword-belt, sword-knot and trousers may 
be worn, but not on parade unless specially ordered. 
Gold lace trousers should not be worn on parade. 

Officers attending other local evening entertainments, 
such as concerts, theatricals, etc., if required to go in 
uniform, should do so in Mess dress, which as regards 
Infantry, is understood to consist of mess jacket, mess 
waist-coat, and trousers with scarlet welt. At balls and 
dances, trousers with gold lace stripes may be worn with 
the mess dress by Officers of infantry. 

In the same Regulations it is further laid down that 
Officers of the Militia generally, when wearing uniform 
should be governed by the rules prescribed above ; but 
that when they have not got full dress they are not to 
wear uniform at all at entertainments or on occasions 
when full dress is specified, except at reviews and inspec- 
tions, when they may appear properly dressed in the 
undress of their corps, but are to avoid making themselves 



OFFICERS. 



187 



conspicuous, and not assume prominent positions. Fur- ' 
ther, it is ordered they are not to wear undress when 
Mess is specified, but must wear plain clothes if they are 
not in possession of the mess dress or the full dress, which 
of course they may wear in place of mess dress. 

Field and Staff Officers, when attending reviews, inspec- 
tions, church parades, etc., on foot in summer uniform, 
should not wear pantaloons and high boots. 

With winter dress, high boots should invariably be 
worn ; mounted Officers wearing jack spurs. 

The following orders of dress for parade should be 
observed by Officers : — 

Review Order . — To be worn when the Sovereign or her 
representative is present, for Guards of honour, at all 
State ceremonies, and otherwise when specially ordered — 
Full dress ; horse-furniture for mounted Officers complete. 

Marching Order . — To be worn on the line of march, at 
route marching, in the field for inspection by General 
Officers, and on other occasions when specially ordered — 
Same as in “review order’’; but serge patrol jackets 
(scarlet for Infantry) in place of tunics, horse-furniture 
for mounted Officers, without saddle-cloth in the Governor- 
General’s Foot Guards, or shabraque in the Rifles. 

Field-day Order . — Used generally for field-days, divi- 
sional and brigade drills, and on other occasions when 
specially ordered — Same as “marching order.” 

Drill Order . — To be used at ordinary drills — undress 
serge patrol jacket ; horse furniture — Same as “ marching 
order. ” 

Mess Order . — To be worn at mess on all ordinary occa- 
sions when not on duty (such as Guard) — Mess-jacket, 



188 



DRESS. 



waist-coat, and red-stripe trousers, white collars and black 
neckties, all mounted Officers to wear (brass or gilt) spurs. 
Divine Service Order , — Satfie as “review order.” 

Funeral Orc^er.— Same as “review order,” but with 
mourning badge on left arm. 

Officers’ horse^ furniture should include the head rope 
in all orders of dress. On active service and when 
encamped, picketing gear should be carried. 

Officers should attend General Courts Martial, in “ re- 
view order ”; District Courts Martial, in “marching 
order ” ; Regimental Courts Martial, Courts of Inquiry, 
Boards and Orderly duty, in “ drill order.” 



SECTION II. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND MEN. 

No Non-commissioned Officer or man should alter any 
part of his clothing or accoutrements without permission, 
or put any private mark upon the same, his arms, or equip- 
ment. By doing so he renders himself liable to punish- 
ment, and to make good the article so injured. 

No alteration of clothing or accoutrements should be 
permitted, except by a competent mechanic. All distinc- 
tions, whether of rank or good conduct, should be put on 
by the regimental tailor, under the supervision of the 
Quarter-Master. 

Black leather should not be cleaned with jet or any sub- 
stance with a brittle surface, but with ordinary blacking. 

The ordinary dress worn out of quarters, or what is 
called “ walking- out order,” should be tunic on Sundays, 



NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND MEN. 189 



serge frock on week days, cloth or serge trousers, accord- 
ing' to season, forage cap and waist-belt. 

Staff- Sergeants do not carry their swords when walking 
out, but wear the sword-belt, which with the serge frock 
is worn outside. 

Non -commissioned Officers who carry slung swords should 
wear the waist belt under the greatcoat. 

Sergeants only should be permitted to wear side-arms 
off duty. 

Non-commissioned Officers and men on duty should 
wear side-arms, except men on fatigue. 

Non-commissioned Officers and men should sit down to 
meals with tunics or serges buttoned. 

The carrying of bundles or baskets in the streets should 
not be allowed otherwise than in fatigue dress. 

Plain clothes should only be allowed to be worn by the 
Sergeant-Major and men employed at the Officers’ mess 
and by Officers’ servants. 

The helmets or busbies should not be worn on one side, 
but be placed evenly on the men’s heads, and brought well 
down on the forehead, with the chin strap under the chin ; 
it may be hooked up when the helmet or busby is worn 
otherwise than on duty or parade. 

The forage cap should be worn smartly cocked on the 
right side of the head, and about two fingers’ breadth 
above the right' eyebrow ; if the Glengarry, it should not 
be opened from its fold more than it is necessary to cling 
to the head. 

The water-bottle should hang over the left shoulder, 
resting on the right hip. 

The haversack should be worn slung across the right 



190 



DRESS. 



shoulder, both slings being under the waist-belt. When 
empty it should be neatly rolled up and hung under the 
waist belt and over the bayonet, resting on the left hip. 

The bayonet ^hovildi hang on the left hip, not too far to 
the front. 

The large pouch when worn should hang about four 
fingers below the right elbow ; the small pouch or hall- 
hag is worn in front, on the right side. When in ‘‘ drill 
order’’ the small pouch or ball-bag should be worn at the 
back in the centre. 

Leggings should be worn in wet weather on parade or 
duty only, but not in “ walking out.” 

Sergeants’ sashes should be doubled longitudinally, and 
passed over the right shoulder under the shoulder strap ; 
the runner to be level with the belt ; the ends of the 
tassels level, and not to hang below the tunic. 

The waist-helt should be worn as tight as it is possible 
to bear it, as it then not only acts as a support to a man, 
and keeps the pouch and bayonet in their places, but adds 
greatly to his appearance. 

Greatcoats and capes may be worn separately or both 
together, according to the state of the weather. When 
greatcoats are carried, folded, by Staff-Sergeants, they 
should be worn en banderole. 

The chevrons of Non-commissioned Officers should be 
worn on the right arm only, unless when special authority 
has been given to wear them on both. 

All four-bar chevrons on tunics or jackets should be 
worn below the elbow, with the points up ; those of less 
than four bars above the elbow, points downward. 

Chevrons on greatcoats should be worn below the elbow. 



NOX-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND MEN. 191 



four-bar with their points upward ; others with their 
points downward. 

Good conduct chevrons should be worn on the left arm 
just above the wrist, with the points upward. 

The chevrons of Infantry, below the rank of Sergeant, 
on tunics or jackets should be of white braid, on a ground 
same colour as facings, each bar being half an inch in 
width ; for Sergeants, gold lace half inch wide ; Eifles of 
black braid half inch wide, on a ground same colour as 
facings. 

On greatcoats, white for all ranks in Infantry, same as 
for tunics in Eifles. 

Pioneers should be distinguished by crossed axes worn 
on the upper right arm, the Non-commissioned Officer in 
charge wearing them above his chevrons. 

The Band should wear wings, or shells, on the shoulders, 
wdth bars or stripes ; in the Infantry the bars of half inch 
white braid on a blue ground, in the Eifles half inch 
black braid on a ground the colour of the facings, also 
a piping down the back seams of the tunic, white in 
Infantry, and the colour of the facing in Eifles, together 
with a badge (the lyre) on the right arm, three inches 
above the elbow. 

The Buglers and Drummers also should wear wings, or 
shells, similar to those of the Band, except that the bars 
upon them are for Infantry and Eifles of a special pattern 
braid peculiar to each. A special badge should be worn 
on the right arm three inches above the elbow, consisting 
of crossed bugles or a drum. 

Eegimental Police, when on duty, should wear a white 
band on the right arm just above the wrist, with the 
letters E. P. in blue worked thereon. 



192 



DRESS. 



The chevrons and distinctive badges worn by the several 
ranks and appointments are as follows : — 

Lance Corporals, — -One bar. 



Corporals. — Two bars. 



Sergeants. — Three bars. 

Colour Sergeants of Infantry. — Three bars, with badge 
of crossed colours, surmounted with a crown. 



Colour Sergeants of Rifles. — Three bars, with colour 
badge, surmounted with a crown. 



Orderly Room Sergeant^ 
Paymaster's Sergeant, 



Three bars. 



Sergeant of the Band. — Three bars with lyre above. 
Sergeant Drummer. — Three bars with drum above. 
Sergeant Bugler. — Three bars with crossed bugles above. 
Hospital Sergeant. — Three bars with Geneva cross badge 
above. 



Sergeant Instructor of Musketry.— bars with crossed 
rides and crown above. 

Quarter- Master Sergeant. — Four bars surmounted with 
a six-pointed star. 

Sergeant-Major. — Four bars surmounted with a crown. 

The following are the orders of dress for Non-commis- 
sioned Officers and men, as laid down by the Queen’s 
Regulations and amended to suit the equipment of the 
Canadian Militia, viz 

Review Order. — Tunic, helmet, or busby (cross-belt and 
pouch), ball-bag ; no valise nor knapsack unless specially 
ordered. 

Marching Order. — Tunic or serge frock, helmet or busby 
(cross-belt and pouch), ball-bag, knapsack or valise (con- 



NON-COMMJSSIONED OFFICERS AND MEN. 193 



taining field kit) and mess tin, with greatcoat folded, and 
forage cap laid outside the fold, water-bottle, haversack. 

Field Day Order, — Tunic or serge frock, helmet or busby, 
cross-belt and pouch, ball-bag ; no knapsack, valise, water- 
bottle, or haversack unless specially ordered. 

Drill Order, — Serge frock or tunic, forage cap, ball-bag. 

Divine Service Order^ — Same as ‘^review order,” with- 
out pouches. ^ 

Funeral Order. — Same as ‘‘review order” for the 
Escort and “ Divine Service Order” for remainder. 

The mourning badge is not worn by Non-commissioned 
Ofl&cers or men. 

Guard Mounting Order, — Same as “marching order,” 
but without mess tins, which are left in the rooms or tents 
for the meals to be sent in, unless the rations are cooked 
on guard. Helmets or busbies may, with permission of 
the Commanding Officer, be changed for forage caps at 
Retreat, being resumed again at Reveille, 



13 



PART Y. 



BOOKS & CORRESPONDENCE. 



SECTION I. 

REGIMENTAL BOOKS. 

The books to be kept in a Battalion, as laid down by 
the Queen’s Regulations, are only necessary when per- 
manently embodied for lengthened service. It will be seen 
in describing them that such only as will be most useful 
to the Militia, in their oi*dinary duties at home or in camp, 
are noted. The entries made in them should be carefully 
examined periodically by the Commanding Officer, and the 
books produced at every annual inspection and at such 
other times as the Commanding Officer may think proper 
to call for them. 

GENERAL ORDERS. 

These should be kept in a guard book until a year is 
complete and then bound. 

GUARD BOOK. 

All official letters, circulars and memo’s received from 
the Head- Quarters or District Officers should be posted as 
they are received, into a guard book. 

An ordinary invoice book of foolscap size will be found 
sufficient to contain the General Orders, etc., of a Militia 
Battalion for some years. 

REGIMENTATi ORDER BOOK. 

This book should consist of two parts, viz: — 

Part 1. — Of temporary orders. 

[194] 



REGIMENTAL BOOKS. 



195 



Part 2. — Of permanent orders. 

In part 1 all orders issued by the General Officer 
Commanding, the Commanding Officer of the district, 
station, brigade, etc., or by the Commanding Officer of 
the Battalion, should be entered as they are issued. At 
the commencement of each year these entries should be 
reviewed, and such of the orders (including the number 
and date) as shall appear to the Commanding Officer 
necessary to be retained, should be transcribed into part 
2. After these extracts have been made, part 1 may be 
destroyed in a few months. The permanent book should 
have an index, containing the date and purport of each 
order, the name of the Officer by whom issued, and the 
page at which it is entered. It may be considered as the 
‘‘Standing Orders’’ of the Battalion. 

RECORD OF officers’ SERVICE. 

This should contain the names of the Officers of each 
rank in the Battalion, showing the date of their appoint- 
ments, their age, country, calling, date of their commis- 
sions, their certificates of qualification, date of retirement, 
with particulars of their services (Form 34). 

The Record of Officers’ services and Digest of the ser- 
vices of a militia Battalion can easily be arranged in the 
one book, and so save two separate records. 

DIGEST OF SERVICES OF THE BATTALION. 

An historical account should be kept in every corps of 
its services, etc., stating the period and circumstances of 
the original formation, the means by which it has from 
time to time been recruited, the stations at which it has 
been employed, and the period of its arrival at and depar- 
ture from such stations. It should specify the military 
operations in which the corps has been engaged, and 



19H 



BOOKS AND CORRESPONDENCE. 



record any achievement it may have performed, and 
contain the names of any Officer, Non-commissioned 
Officer, or private, who may have specially distinguished 
himself in action, or may have been killed or wounded by 
the enemy. The badges and devices which the Battalion 
may have been permitted to bear, and the causes on 
account of which such badges and devices, or any other 
marks of distinction, were granted, should be stated, and 
the dates of such permission being granted. Any par- 
ticular alteration in the clothing, arms, accoutrements, 
colours, horse-furniture, etc., should be recorded and a 
reference made to the dates of the orders under which 
such alterations were made. The various alterations which 
may be made in the establishment, by augmentation or 
reduction, should also be stated in this book. The entries 
should be made under the immediate inspection of the 
Commanding Officer. 

This record, as already suggested, may be placed under 
the same cover with the Record of Officers’ services. 

LETTER BOOK. 

Should contain the entry of all official letters written 
by the Commanding Officer, or under his direction, to 
departments, and to individuals on regimental business, 
and contain an alphabetical index, with a separate index 
for the departments. 

It need not be preserved beyond three years after it is 
completed, care being taken to keep copies of such letters 
as may be likely to be required for reference. 

A foolscap book for press copying of 500 pages will be 
found to last years, under ordinary circumstances, in the 
Militia service. Such a book is absolutely necessary in 
every well regulated corps. 



REGIMENTAL BOOKS. 



197 



RETURJS^ BOOK. 

Is for the copy of all monthly and other returns trans- 
mitted to Departments or individuals. They are to be 
kept together in a guard book, and may be destroyed 
after the expiration of three years, with the exception of 
such as the Commanding Officer may deem it proper to 
retain. 

REGISTER OF LETTERS. 

A Register of all letters received according to the fol- 
lowing form, giving information as to date of letter, date 
of receipt, from whom, purport, and how disposed of, with 
a running number for filing. This should be of foolscap 
size, its full width when open being used. 



No. 


Date 

OF 

Letter. 


Date 

OF 

Receipt. 


From Whom. 


Purport. 


How 

Disposed 

OF. 















REGIMENTAL DEFA.ULTER BOOK. 

This contains a sheet for every Non-commissioned 
Officer and soldier, with his number and name at the 
head of each sheet (Form 35), and the following punish- 
ments should be entered therein, viz. : — 

a. Every conviction by Court Martial or by a court of 
ordinary criminal jurisdiction, or by a Magistrate involv- 



198 



BOOKS AND CORRESPONDENCE. 



ing imprisonment, or a fine in lieu thereof, the latter, 
however, if the offender has not undergone imprisonment 
in default of payment, at the option of the General Officer 
Commanding. 

h. Every case of reduction of a Non-commissioned 
Officer to a lower grade or to the ranks, for a crime by 
special order of the General Officer Commanding — not for 
inefficiency. 

c. Every award of imprisonment by the Commanding 
Officer. 

d. Every offence entailing forfeiture of pay under Royal 
Warrant, and every award of deprivation of pay. 

c. Confinement to barracks exceeding seven days. 

/. Any punishment awarded to prisoners in a military 
or provost prison. 

Every award of a fine for drunkenness of $1.83 and 
upwards. 

Crimes of drunkenness are to be entered in black ink, 
with the number of each offence in red ink. 

A half-sheet or two pages should be allotted to every 
man, the whole secured together in a guard book in alpha- 
betical order, but not bound in sheets, so that when a 
soldier becomes non-effective by death, the record of his 
misconduct, if any, may be destroyed. If the man be 
transferred or removed to another Battalion, it is to be 
transferred with him (in blank if there are no entries). 
If he be discharged or deserts, it should be forwarded with 
his dischsfrge documents to Head- Quarters. 

This book is happily not often required in a militia 
corps, and is noted now, together with the Court Martial 
Book, more with a view to instruction than requirement. 



REGIMENTAXi BOOKS. 



199 



REGIMENTAL COURT MARTIAL BOOK. 

A guard book should be kept as a confidential document 
by the Commanding Officer of every Battalion, to contain 
certified copies of all charges, which may have been prose- 
cuted before Courts Martial on any of the Officers therein 
serving, together with the finding and sentence in each 
case, and minutes of the execution or remission of all or 
any parts of such sentence. 

The Court Martial book should contain a sheet for every 
Non-commissioned Officer and soldier, with his name and 
number at the head of it. The charges, findings, and sen- 
tences, and minutes of confirmation of all Courts Martial 
should in every case be entered in full, and verified by the 
signature of the Commanding Officer. The original pro- 
ceedings of every Regimental Court Martial should be kept 
by the corps until the annual general inspection, and after- 
wards preserved with the regimental records for three 
years. This book is also to contain certified copies of all 
convictions by the civil power, which should be annexed 
to the Court Martial sheet (Form 36). 

DIARY OF PARADES. 

A record of each parade, with details of the drill 
practised, and numbers present. It is practically a copy of 
the parade state with a column for remarks. 

CASUALTY BOOK. 

A book is kept in the Regular service, at the Head- 
Quarters of every Battalion, in which all changes in the 
soldier’s service are inserted, such as promotion, reduction, 
and imprisonment. In the Militia service the particulars 
noted on his attestation form (No. 1), date of enrolment, 
discharge, or transfer, together with the changes above 



200 



BOOKS AND CORRESPONDENCE. 



noted, should be included. If the book be made in the 
shape of an alphabetical roll and kept regularly posted up, . 
it will be found a most useful and interesting reference. 

HOSPITA.L BOOK. 

The Surgeon of each Battalion should keep an Admis- 
sion and Discharge Book of all cases taken into Hospital 
(Form 37). 

STORES LEDGER. 

The Quarter-Master should keep an account with the 
Department and one with the Battalion (Form 38). This 
latter should be in two parts, one being with the Battalion 
collectively, the other with each individual Company, 
Band, Buglers, and Pioneers, etc. One book will answer 
for all purposes, see Parts 2 and 3, Form 38. 

In barracks or camp an account for rations, fuel, etc. , 
should also be kept, as well as a Letter book at all times. 

All ‘‘issues” from the Quarter-Master’s store should be 
on requisitions- from Officers commanding companies (Form 
39), countersigned by the Commanding Officer ; and for 
all “returns” a receipt should be given by the Quarter- 
Master. 

SECTION II. 

COMPANY BOOKS. 

ORDER BOOK. 

This book should contain a copy of all Begimental and 
other orders particlilarly affecting the Company, which are 
to be read to the men. 

Such a book should be in possession of every Company, 
and the orders regularly copied into it from the Begimental 
Order Book. 



COMPANY BOOKS. 



201 



ROLL BOOK 

Contains the names of the Non-commissioned Officers and 
men of the Company by sections, with columns ruled, in 
which their attendance at parades and dates thereof should 
be carefully recorded in ink. 

CASH BOOK AND LEDGER. 

The system of keeping the company accounts on con- 
tinuous or permanent service has already been described 
under “Pay,’’ and the books required are described in 
Forms 4 and 5. 

For the ordinary annual drill, however, this method 
is not necessary, and in place of it a book containing a 
list of those receiving drill or other pay, with the date, 
amount, and particulars of the service, should answer all 
the purposes. 

COMPANY DEFAULTER BOOK. 

In the Company Defaulter Book, a leaf should be 
allowed fco every Non-commissioned Officer and man, and 
all offences, of whatever description committed by Non- 
commissioned Officers and Soldiers, for which more than 
one day’s confinement to barracks had been awarded, or 
reprimand or admonition (for drunkenness only) admin- 
istered should be regularly recorded in the handwriting of 
the Officer commanding the company, and initialed by 
him ; acts of drunkenness are to be entered in black ink 
and numbered in red ink. It should be made with a 
screw back and movable leaves, and invariably be in pos- 
session of the Officer commanding the company. In the 
column for remarks should be written the station where 
the offence was committed. The Company Defaulter 
Book should be taken to the orderly room monthly, and 



202 



BOOKS AND CORRESPONDENCE. 



compared with the awards recorded in the Guard and 
Minor punishment reports, and with the entries in the 
Regimental Defaulter Book. 

When soldiers are transferred or become non-effective, 
the sheets of this book are to be dealt with as directed for 
the Regimental Defaulter Book. 

The same remarks as noted in connection with the 
Regimental Defaulter Book, apply to this record. 

STORES LEDGER. 

Each company should have a Stores Ledger, in which two 
accounts are kept, the one with the Quarter-Master store 
where all ‘^receipts’’ and ‘‘returns’’ should be entered 
at once, with the date and any particulars connected 
therewith (Form 40) ; the other with the individual men 
of the company, see Part 2 of same form. In the latter 
account a page should be given to each man, and each 
“ issue ” made to him, signed for, and the date given. 
When “returns” are made, the Officer or Non-commis- 
sioned Officer taking in the articles should sign for them 
in the presence of the man returning them. When rifles, 
swords, knapsacks, haversacks, greatcoats, etc. , are issued 
or returned, the regimental number of each should be 
marked in their respective columns. 



SECTION III. 

INDIVIDUAL BOOKS. 

% 

Every Officer and Non-commissioned Officer should have 
in his possession the latest editions of the following 
books : — 

Infantry Drill. 



INDIVIDUAL BOOKS. CORRESPONDENCE. 203 



Rifle Exercises. 

Musketry Instruction. 

Militia Regulations and Orders. 

Standing Orders of the Battalion. 

Also a pocket Memorandum book, in which should be 
recorded the names (residences and business addresses), 
age, height, date of enlistment, list of arms, clothing, 
equipment, etc., in possession of each Non-commissioned 
Officer and man of the company, half company or section 
under his charge. Such a book is published by Messrs. 
Gale & Polden, London, Eng., under the title of ‘‘Com- 
pany Squad Roll Book.” 



SECTION IV. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

OFFICIAL. 

All communications on matters in any way connected 
with duty should be official. 

Applications from regimental Officers should be made 
to the Commanding Officer, who, if necessary, forwards 
the same to higher authority. Applications, complaints, 
etc., irom Non-commissioned Officers and men, are to 
be made personally through their Captains, and not by 
letter. 

Official letters should contain full information of all 
particulars upon the subject to which they relate, which 
should be briefly indicated in the upper left hand corner, 
for example “Leave” — “Equipment”^ — “Discipline,” 
etc. Each letter should refer to one subject only, and 



204 



BOOKS AND CORBESPONDENCE. 



be written on foolscap paper, with a quarter margin, the 
margin to be left on the inner side of each page. The 
paragraphs should be numbered, and the enclosures (if 
any) described in the margin or on a separate schedule. 
As a general rule, short communications should be written 
upon a half sheet ; but when the letter extends beyond 
one page or is accompanied by enclosures, it should be 
written on a whole sheet. The transmission of unneces- 
sary enclosures should be avoided, and when additional 
papers are forwarded, all blank fly-leaves should be re- 
moved from them. 

Mere covering letters should not be used, as they add to 
the bulk of documents, without conveying any additional 
information. 

Officers, in affixing their names to official documents 
should do so in their own handwriting, and specify their 
rank after their signatures and below, the corps to which 
they belong. They should be careful to maintain the 
proper channel of communication in correspondence with 
the Officer in command of their district or with Head- 
Quarters, whether in the actual performance of duty or 
not, except under special circumstances, where a direct 
reference may be necessary. Any Officer who, on his 
own responsibility, transmits documents otherwise than 
through the proper channel, should fully explain the 
causes which induced him to do so, and at the same 
time forward copies for the information of the authority 
through whom they should have passed in regular course. 

The Christian-names of Officers, Non-commissioned Offi- 
cers or men alluded to in a letter should be inserted in 
full as well as the surname and rank ; and in the case of 
Non-commissioned Officers and men of the permanent corps 
their regimental numbers. 



CORRESPONDENCE. OFFICIAL. 



205 



Unless otherwise directed or indicated, all replies, 
remarks, or queries arising out of an original letter or 
memorandum are to be made in the form of minutes. The 
first minute is to follow on the page where the original 
letter or memorandum ends, and the person who affixes 
it will mark the original letter or subject matter No. 1, 
and his own minute thereon No. 2 (in red ink when pos- 
sible). Each succeeding minute is to follow immediately 
that which by date precedes it, and will in like manner be 
numbered in sequence. A fresh half-sheet is to be added, 
when required, for the beginning or continuation of a 
minute, and on no account is such beginning or continua- 
tion to be made on vacant spaces under previous minutes, 
or in .the margin. The following is a sample letter : — 

From Captain Allan, * * * Battalion. 

Leave. To the Officer Commanding * * Battalion. 

Toronto, * * * gg 

( 1 ) 

Sir, 

I have the honour to apply for leave of ahsence 
for three months for the purpose of visiting England 
on private affairs. 

My address will * * * * 

I have the honour to he, 

Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

D. H. ALLAN, Captain, 

Battalion. 



206 



BOOKS AND CORRESPONDENCE. 



( 2 ) 

D, A. G., M. D. No. 2. 

Recommended. 

L. BUCHAN, Lieut. -Col. 

18! IfiSl. Commanding Battalion. 

(3) 

A. C. 

Recommended. 

W. S. DURIE, Lieut.-Col. 
1914-181. Commanding M. D. No. 2. 



(4) 

0. C., M. D. No. 2. 



Approved. 



2314181 . 



By order, 

W. POWELL, Colonel, 

Adjutant General. 



( 6 ) 



O. C., Battalion. 

Returned approved. 

W. S. DURIE, Lieut.-Col. 

2514181. Commanding M. D. No. 2. 

Official correspondence should never be addressed to an 
Officer by name, but to the designation of the function he 
fulfils, therefore, all official letters, returns, and reports 
made to a District Staff Officer by Commanding Officers of 
Corps or other Officers within their respective districts, 
by whom, if necessary, they are to be transmitted to the 
Adjutant General, should not be addressed by personal 
name, but as follows : — 



CORRESPONDENCE. — OFFICIAL. 



207 



From Lieut. -Col, Arthurs, Commanding 
Discipline. * * Battalion. 

To the Officer Commanding M. D. No, 2. 

Toronto, * * * 18 

Sir, 

I have the honour to report that * 

* * * * * * 

/ have the honour to he. 

Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM ARTHURS, Lieut.-Col. 

Commanding Battalion. 

Superior Officers and other intermediate authorities are 
responsible for the correctness of what is set forth in docu- 
ments submitted by them. It is their duty to endeavour 
to adjust all matters that come within the scope of their 
authority ; and in transmitting applications or correspond- 
ence to Head-Quarters, they should invariably state their 
concurrence or otherwise, adding such additional observa- 
tions, based on local knowledge, as may be necessary to 
enable the authorities to come to a final decision on the 
question without further reference and correspondence. 

Correspondence should not be conducted direct between 
Officers commanding companies, of different units on mat- 
ters connected with the men of their companies, when it 
can be more conveniently done either through the Pay- 
master on pay questions, or through the orderly room on 
other questions. 

In direct correspondence between Commanding Officers 
and heads of departments, letters should be signed by the 



208 



BOOKS AND CORRESPONDENCE. 



superior Officers, and not by their staff or subordinate 
Officers. When an Officer employs his staff to conduct any 
correspondence with another Officer of equal rank or posi- 
tion, the staff of that Officer should be addressed. As a 
Staff Officer carries on his duties under the authority of 
the Officer to whose staff he is attached, he will, in com- 
municating with those under the command of an Officer of 
equal rank, invariably sign By Order.” 

Semi-official letters are applicable only to certain cases 
of correspondence between superior militarj^ authorities ; 
they are not considered confidential unless so marked. 

Officers holding brevet commissions should sign official 
documents as under : — 

SALTER M. JARVIS, Major and Bt. Lt.-CoL 

* . * Battalion. 

In all communications these Officers should be described 
both by their substantive and brevet rank thus : — Major 
and Bt. Lieut. -Col. Jarvis. 

The word brevet is usually abbreviated thus ; — ‘‘Bt.” 



PRIVATE. 



Private letters, etc., if addressed to Officers in their 
military capacities, should be addressed as under : — 



To Lieut. -Colonels, Brevet 
Lieut. -Colonels, and Hon- 
orary Lieut. -Colonels. . . . 

To Majors, Brevet Majors, 
and Honorary Majors .... 



As Lieut. -Col. Gillmor, 

* * — Battalion. 

As Major Lee, 

* * — Battalion. 



To Captains and Honorary 
Captains 

Lieutenants 



As Captain Hamilton, 

* * — Battalion. 

As Hy. Kersteman, Esq., 

* * ' — Battalion. 



PART YI. 

MARCHES & ENCAMPMENT. 



SECTION I. 

MARCHES. 

There is no occasion on which the discipline of a 
battalion is more conspicuous, nor on which the atten- 
tion and vigilance of every Officer in maintaining order 
and regularity are more especially requisite, than upon 
the line of march. 

Officers of all ranks should be impressed with the im- 
portance of preserving the compact order of a column of 
march by not allowing irregular intervals, straggling, or 
falling out, except during periodical halts. Men should 
not be allowed to leave the ranks for water ; when water 
is required the corps should be halted. 

It is most important that all marches should begin as 
early in the morning as practicable. As a rule, troops 
should move at day-break, and in sultry weather even 
before day-break or during the night. The march need 
not then be hurried, the proper halts may be observed, 
and the heat of the day avoided. The men should be 
given breakfast before starting, or if not possible then hot 
tea or cofifee and a biscuit. 

Troops should begin with £jhort marches, say six miles, 
and then work up to fifteen miles per day, which should 
not be exceeded unless a forced march be required; two 
and a half miles an hour can be accomplished by troops 
without distress. 

14 



[ 209 ] 



210 



MARCHES AND ENCAMPMENT. 



There should be a halt from five to ten minutes every 
hour, and one for half an hour when half way : if the men 
are to have a meal or hot tea is to be made, a longer halt 
is necessary. When men are in good condition, however, 
long halts are not advisable, as they prefer getting the 
march over as soon as possible. 

On the “Halt” sounding, the leading company should 
be halted at once, those in rear closing up ; unless the 
column is entering an alignment or making any other 
movement preparatory to a formation to a flank. 

Advanced and rear guards should always be formed ; 
the latter is to bring up any man who may have fallen 
out, and if such soldier be unable to march, he should be 
given in charge of a Corporal or steady man of the com- 
pany to which he belongs. The commander of the rear 
guard should make a report of all occurrences to the com- 
mander of the column at the end of each day's march. 

Men falling out for a short time should leave their arms 
and knapsacks to be carried by the section to which they 
belong ; straggling should be avoided, as it upsets all 
calculation as to time. 

A battalion should move with as broad a front as the 
ground will admit, as men suffer in warm weather from 
dust and want of air when in close formations, and when 
marching in fours, a column of tired men is indefinitely 
leugthened. 

On arriving at a bad piece of road. Officers should pre- 
vent men from defiling indiyidually. 

On reaching a brook or a bad piece of road, the front 
should be increased for crossing. Defiles, or narrow passes, 
should be crossed at the double, to prevent the rear being 
retarded. 



MARCHES. 



211 



Music and singing should be kept up as much as possible, 
and when the band ceases playing, the drums should beat 
the cadence. 

Next in importance to the feeding of the men is the 
condition of their feet for marching. Good boots and 
woollen socks are indispensable. -^The boots should be 
broad in the sole, low- heeled, sufficiently thick soles to 
obviate the feet feeling the inequalities of ground and 
very roomy, as the foot increases nearly one-eighth of 
its size in marching ; they should be greased, both to 
render them soft and water-proof ; the grease should be 
rubbed in while hot, and if boots have been wet, when 
half dry. Mutton-tallow is the best grease that can be 
used for this purpose. Boots should not be dried at a fire. 
Socks should be soaped for the first few days’ march. 

On the line of march an opportunity of washing the feet 
should never be lost, and, when possible, name the period 
of the halt ; if the feet are sore, bathe in tepid water with 
alum at night ; if blistered, do not tear the blisters, but 
run needles through them with worsted thread, and leave 
the thread in and cut off ends, and next day, before 
marching, apply grease or soft soap. Subaltern Officers 
should personally see that the men wash their feet con- 
stantly, as well as satisfy themselves by personal inspec- 
tion that the nails are properly cut. 

Loose the boot-laces at night when your boots eannot be 
taken off. 

Want of food and exhaustion predisposes to sunstroke ; 
in such a case, open the tunic at the throat, and keep a 
stream of water on the patient’s head till he is conscious. 

Discourage men from drinking -water largely on the 
march, though the idea that danger may result therefrom 



212 



MARCHES AND ENCAMPMENT. 



is obsolete, still the more they drink when hot, the more 
thirst will be felt. 

Take men if possible into camp cool ; if warm do not 
allow them to take off their tunics for half an hour, unless 
to bathe at once. 

Every facility consistent with safety should bp given to 
men to wash all over with cold water, and if a bath cannot 
be had, take off the clothing and shake it ; this alone will 
give refreshment. 

BIVOUAC. 

Troops encumbered with tents and baggage cannot move 
with the rapidity required in modern warfare, and in the 
case of pursuits and retreats, when no shelter can be found, 
when near the enemy, and about to engage, they should 
bivouac. 

In selecting a site for bivouac, two conditions should be 
carefully entertained, viz., the military and the sanitary. 
If on active service in the field and within striking dis- 
tance of the enemy, the latter should of necessity give 
way to the former, and a site selected by taking into con- 
sideration cover, clear field of fire and the natural forma- 
tion of the ground with regard to aggressive and passive 
defence of the position chosen. On the other hand, if in 
time of peace or at a safe distance from the enemy, the 
sanitary should take first place, and a site selected with 
due regard to water, drainage and suitable soil and subsoil 
to camp on. Short grass with gravel subsoil is very good ; 
long grass lands, beaver meadows and marshy lands should 
be avoided. 

On arriving on the ground, a battalion should be shown 
the position it is to occupy, and informed of the duties 
required of it. 



BIVOUAC AND BILLETS. 



213 



Column is then formed, arms piled and duties furnished, 
and meals and shelter prepared ; the greater the regularity 
and division of labour, the sooner the hour of rest arrives. 

Latrines should be made, as they are absolutely neces- 
sary for the cleanliness of a camp, even for one day. 

Fires are more necessary in a bivouac than in a camp, 
and when allowed should generally occupy the position of 
tents when camping. A few logs of wood, sods of grass or 
turf, or stones piled up to windward, afford* a fair shelter ; 
or if there be time and material, make a shelter by driving 
forked sticks four or six feet long into the ground ; rest a 
pole between them ; lay branches to windward, at the 
angle of 45°, end of branches upwards. 

When lying on the ground, unless in soft sand, always 
scrape out a hole for the hip-bone to rest in, and it will be 
found a good plan to club blankets, so that there may be 
one above and one below ; under any circumstances, dry 
brushes, fern, grass, etc., should be cut to lie upon. 
Always contrive something for a pillow; even a stone is 
better than nothing. 

Men should sleep in sections in rear of their arms. 

On waking in the chill dawn, take a sharp run. 

Hot tea or coffee and a biscuit at daylight should be 
served without waiting for breakfast. 

Working parties should never be left without Officers, 
for unless men see their Officers interested in their labour 
they become dispirited, and of all duties, soldiers most dis- 
like ‘ ‘ fatigue ” work. 

BILLETS OR CANTONMENTS. 

When necessary to billet or canton a Battalion, it should 
invariably be preceded by an experienced Officer, accom- 
panied by the Quarter-Master, and by a steady Non-com- 



214 



MARCHES AND ENCAMPMENT. 



missioned Officer, with one man per company, who will 
make arrangements for sheltering the men as well as for 
the necessary supplies of food. 

As a rule, the men should not be billeted upon the in- 
habitant householders, unless there are no other means 
available for securing shelter ; this is to be decided by the 
Commanding Officer. 

Care should be taken that the billets are not too widely 
scattered, and that they are as nearly as possible grouped 
within a circle of which the alarm post is the centre, which 
should be at the Town Hall, or some such prominent 
building. 

The Alarm post should be fixed upon by the Commanding 
Officer, and every man made acquainted with it, in order 
that he may take especial notice of the shortest and most 
convenient road by which he can repair to it, in case of 
alarm either by day or night. 

The billet arrangements should be completed before 
the arrival of the force, so that the men may not be kept 
waiting. The one man previously detached from each com- 
pany should show the billets allotted for his company. In 
all cases the Officer charged with the billet arrangements 
should wait first on the Chief Magistrate of the place and 
request his assistance and influence with the householders, 
which will much simplify the work. Where recourse is 
had to compulsory billeting, the Officer charged with the 
arrangement should make requisition according to a pre- 
scribed form on the Chief Magistrate or any Justice of the 
Peace, for billets for the required number of men. Every 
Captain should have a list of his company billets so that 
if suddenly moved no delay in payment should occur. 

Householders are entitled to a daily rate of ten cents for 
each soldier ; if bedding is furnished, five cents daily in 



TRANSPORT OFFICER. 



215 



addition, and twenty-five cents more daily if required to 
supply food, also twenty-five cents a day for stabling and 
feeding each horse. 

Troops should not be billeted in a convent or nunnery. 

The foregoing system of billeting is called “ordinary 
quarters,” that is when the number of men placed in a 
house or building is in accordance with its size ; another 
system is ‘ ‘ close quarters ” when it is necessary to con- 
centrate as many men as possible, in which case every 
building is crammed to its utmost capacity. 

TRAN SPOUT OFFICER. 

On the line of march a Subaltern should be placed in 
charge of the Kegimental baggage, baggage guard, and 
transport equipment, whose duty it should be to see that 
the waggons are correctly loaded under the superintend- 
ence of the Quarter- Master, that the horses are harnessed 
and hooked in, and ready for marching at the proper time, 
that the order of march is strictly carried out, that no un- 
authorized loads are placed on the waggons, and that 
stragglers do not mount them • reporting both before and 
at the end of the march to the Commanding Officer that 
everything is regular or otherwise. 

He should also see that a list of stores is in each waggon. 

Great care and judgment should be used in the selection 
of this Officer, as the duties are very difficult, requiring 
activity, perseverance, good temper and ingenuity. 

ROAD TRANSPORT. 

The transport of light baggage, camp equipment and 
ammunition for each corps on the march should be carried 
out regimentally. 



216 



MAllCHES AND ENCAMPMENT. 



Each Battalion should furnish its own baggage guard on 
the line of march, and be responsible for the safety of its 
baggage. The guard in a weak Battalion should not exceed 
one Sergeant, one Corporal and ten privates. It acts 
under the order of the Officer in charge of regimental 
transport, by whom it is distributed along the column of 
waggons, as he may consider most advisable ; he makes 
them accountable that nothing is taken off. The men of 
the guard should never put their arms on the waggons, but 
march by the sides with bayonets fixed. In the case of 
hired transport, the Officer should be responsible that the 
drivers and horses are not ill-used, and that nothing is 
required of them to which they are not bound by law or 
previous agreement. At night, when the baggage is not 
unloaded, the waggons should be “parked’’ so as to occupy 
as little space as possible, and placed under the charge of 
sentries. 

One Non-commissioned Officer should be with the lead- 
ing waggon and one with the rear waggon, the Officer 
moving along the line constantly to direct. 

For the loading and unloading of waggons, a fatigue of 
two men per company should be told off. 

In Canada, the ordinary farmer’s waggon would be most 
generally used for baggage ; a suitable load for a two-horse 
waggon is from 800 to 1,000 lbs., for a four-horse 1,800 lbs., 
and for six horses 3,000 lbs. ; a two-horse waggon occupies 
12 yards of road, including the interval between waggons, 
a four-horse 16 yards, and a six-horse 20 yards. 

In case pack animals have to be used, the ordinary load 
for a horse or mule would be 160 pounds in addition to 
weight of saddle, the load for a pony or donkey 80 pounds^ 
and the best saddle for such purposes is the Mexican pack 
saddle. 



ROAD TRANSPORT. 



217 



A Battalion of 500 strong would require the following 
waggons : — 1 Head-Quarter, 8 Company, 4 Tent, 4 Ammu- 
nition, 1 for Entrenching tools, total, 18 waggons, 36 
horses, and if more than one day’s ration per man is 
required, one additional waggon will be required for each 
day’s rations. 

The baggage waggons should be loaded as follows : — 

Head-Quarter — Staff Officers’ baggage, blankets, camp 
kettles, and rations ; regimental books and stationery ; 
Staff Sergeants’ kits ; medical panniers and one circular 
tent for hospital use. 

Company — Company Officers’ baggage, men’s blankets 
and kettles, one day’s rations for the company. 

Tent — Tents for Officers and men of two companies in 
each, and tents for Staff Officers distributed equallj^ 

Ammunition — 115 rds. per man. 

Entrenching Tools — Axes, picks, shovels, etc., extra to 
those carried by the Pioneers. 

If the men’s knapsacks (or valises) are to be carried, 
additional waggons will be required. 

In connection with waggon transport a few waggon 
poles, trace chains, strong leather straps, carriage bolts 
with nuts and a supply of small rope should be carried, 
for use in case vehicles or harness break ; there should 
also be provided a few broad Dutch collars or breast 
straps, to replace badly fitting collars. 

The pace for all transports is a walk, even with empty 
waggons. If a waggon falls behind, it should regain its 
proper position at the walk during the next halt. 

If a load falls off or a waggon breaks down, the whole of 
the baggage should draw up on the off side of the road. 



218 



MARCHES AND ENCAMPMENT. 



and the guard then repack the load or distribute it 
amongst the others. 

The impressment of waggons, etc., can only be resorted 
to — 1st. In cases of emergency, when delay would be 
caused by hiring. 2nd. When transport cannot be hired. 
3rd. When the charges made for hired transport are 
excessive. 

The articles which compose the baggage should be so 
arranged that the weight of any one package in no case 
exceeds three cwt. , that being the weight which four men 
can load and unload without risk of sustaining personal in- 
jury. The size of packages should not exceed 3 feet six 
inches in length, 2 feet in width, and 2 feet 3 inches in 
depth. 

Every chest, trunk, bale, or other article of public bag- 
gage belonging to the Regimental Store, Orderly Room, 
Band, Officers’ Mess, or the Hospital, should be distinctly 
numbered and marked with paint ; and every article of 
baggage belonging to individuals should have the rank, 
name, and corps of the owner legibly painted upon it. 

TOLLS. 

All troops on duty or on the march, with their horses 
and baggage, all recruits marching by route, all prisoners 
under military escort, and all carriages and horses belong- 
ing to Her Majesty or employed in her service, when con- 
veying any such persons as aforesaid, or their baggage, or 
returning from conveying the same, are exempted^ from 
payment of any tolls in passing along or over any turn- 
pike or other roads or bridges. 

RAILWAY TRANSPORT. 

Railways form the quickest and cheapest mode of trans- 
port for small bodies of troops, be the distance great or 
small. 



RAILWAY TRANSPORT. 



219 



Any ordinary passenger car will accommodate about 40 
men in marching order, but for a long journey this is over- 
crowding, unless it be a Canadian Pacific Railway ‘ ‘colonist 
car,’’ which is admirably suited for the conveyance of 
troops. 

For the conveyance of horses, ordinary box cars must be 
used, there being hardly any proper horse cars fitted with 
stalls to be found, unless the few in use on the above- 
named railway for the conveyance of stock to Manitoba, 
and known as “palace horse cars.” A 33-foot box car will 
carry sixteen horses if they be placed across the car, 
alternate heads and tails, without harness ; if placed longi- 
tudinally, the car will only carry eight horses, but then 
food can be taken for them in the same car, as well as 
their grooms, and they can be fed and watered without 
being taken out ; whereas with the larger number they 
should be detrained each time it is necessary to give food 
and water. 

Special platforms are necessary for the entraining and 
detraining of horses ; if there are none, or not enough, 
temporary ones should be extemporized, or ramps be made 
of planks having cleats nailed across them. 

A Battalion moving by railway should, on arriving at 
station, be halted, and the companies told off according to 
the number each car will contain, a portion of Non-com- 
missioned Officers being allotted to each party. Bayonets, 
haversacks, etc., should be shifted to the front of the 
body, and the companies then be marched into their 
respective cars, at once taking their seats, and holding 
their rifles between their knees, the Officers remaining 
with their men, the Majors looking after their respective 
half battalions, and the Adjutant the band, buglers and 
pioneers. 



220 



MARCHES AND ENCAMPMENT. 



When possible, on each car should be legibly marked 
beforehand with chalk, the Company and number of Non- 
commissioned Officers and men that is to occupy it ; this 
saves a deal of time, as on the arrival of the Battalion the 
several companies are enabled to march into the train at 
once. The Officers’ car should be placed in the centre of 
the train. 

No shouting, cheering, or playing on band instruments 
should be permitted whilst the train is leaving or arriving 
at stations. 

When away from the station, the men should be allowed 
to take off their accoutrements, etc. , and make themselves 
comfortable. As soon as all are in order, the Officers can 
be permitted to go to their own car. 

Rifles should not be placed on the floor, but securely 
fastened in an upright position. 

Orderly Officers should be detailed, whose duty it should 
be to pass continually through the train to see that the 
orders are carried out. At stations they should remain 
on the platform during the stoppage. 

Bayonet sentries should be placed at each door, with 
orders not to allow men to stand on the platform nor leave 
the train unless permitted to do so. During stoppages, 
two or more sentries should be placed outside each car to 
prevent liquor being passed into the train. 

If a long journey, the men should if possible, be occa- 
sionally allowed out of the train to stretch their limbs ; 
on returning to the train, rolls should be called and the 
companies reported as present or otherwise. 

When nearing the destination, the Officers should join 
their companies. On arrival, the markers should first be 
thrown out, but until the “ fall in ” is sounded neither 
Officers nor men should be permitted to leave the train. 



WATER TRANSPORT. 



221 



When a corps leaves its own head-quarters the Command- 
ing Officer should send a ‘‘marching out” state to the 
Officer commanding the station it is leaving, and at the 
end of its journey a “marching in ” state, (Form 41) to the 
Officer commanding the station at which it arrives. This 
form can be altered to suit both cases. 

WATER TRANSPORT. 

In selecting vessels to carry troops, care should be taken 
that they are suitable. The space required between deck 
and beam should be at least 6 feet 6 inches for men, and 
7 feet 6 inches for horses. 

In moving by water, a Battalion should, if possible, 
move on the steamer without halting (the band ceasing 
to play on reaching the wharf), and the companies at once 
directed to their several stations, where they should remain 
standing at ease until the steamer leaves the dock. 

The Majors should specially superintend the embarka- 
tion of their half battalions, the Adjutant (if not required 
by the Commanding Officer) looking after the band, etc. 

On the steamer getting well away from the dock, arms 
and accoutrements should be put carefully away, each com- 
pany’s being separate and distinct, and the men then 
allowed to move about. 

Orderl}’’ Officers and Non-commissioned Officers should 
be detailed. Regimental and Company alarm posts named, 
and all duties carried out as regularly as if on shore. 

The Officers should constantly go among the men during 
the journey, to see that everything is regular. The men 
should not be allowed to get off the steamer at intermediate 
landing places, except by special permission. 

On nearing its destination the Battalion should be 
accoutred and fall in by companies, and on arrival, after 



222 



MARCHES AND ENCAMPMENT. 



the markers are thrown out, each company marched off 
the steamer on its marker. 

The baggage should be placed under a guard and sent 
down before the Battalion, being put on the steamer in 
advance of it, but not taken off until after it has dis- 
embarked. 



SECTION II. 

Encampment. 

The same rules apply in the selection of a camp as laid 
down for a “ Bivouac,” as to its position. 

, A camp should be on dry ground, accessible from a main 
road, with a good supply of water and fuel in its vicinity, 
and within easy reach of all necessary supplies. The means 
of passing freely through the camp with a large front 
should be maintained. The camp should be as completely 
arranged as the above considerations permit. 

The tents, bivouacs, or huts should be disposed with a 
view to the greatest amount of order, cleanliness, ventila- 
tion and salubrity. 

The tents of a Battalion should not be arranged in a 
double line ; short single lines are the best.. The tents in a 
line should be separated from each other by a space at the 
very least equal to a diameter and a half of tent, and the 
farther the lines can be conveniently placed from each other 
the better. If troops are at a distance from an enemy, and 
are to remain some time in camp, and ground is available, 
the camp should be formed at double intervals. 

Whenever troops remain in camp more than three days 
tents should be struck every two days. All arms, straw, 



ENCAMPMENT. 



223 



and blankets should be removed from the ground covered 
by the tents, the ground swept clean with a broom or 
branches of trees, and left exposed to the sun and wind. 
Blankets, clothes, etc. , should be spread out to air, and the 
tents roughly pitched in the intervals of the camp with 
slack ropes, and the fly loose to allow it to be well blown 
about. 

Every morning, except when it rains, the sides of the 
tents should be rolled up, and previous to retiring for the 
night all the tent ropes should be slackened off a little, as 
the rain or dew will tighten them enough to draw the pegs 
and strain, if not tear, the canvas. 

As a rule, the doors of the tents should face the head of 
the column, but this rule should never prevent their being 
turned away from the prevailing wind. 

Trenches should be dug around the tents, just outside 
the walls, and a drain made to connect these trenches so 
that the water may not lodge in them, but run freely off. 
These trenches should be four inches deep, and a spade’s 
breadth. The first wet day after the camp is formed, 
Officers commanding companies should personally examine 
the ground on which their companies are encamped, and 
should see that the proper drains are constructed ; half 
an hour’s work on a wet day, when the natural run of 
the water can be seen, will do more to keep the camp 
healthy than a day’s labour in dry weather. Shades 
should be constructed in all standing camps, to shelter the 
sentries from rain. 

No traffic of any kind should be allowed along the front 
of a camp or through the tents. All carts, waggons, and 
horses should pass through the intervals between corps and 
along the rear. A place for a market should be selected 
and named in orders. All persons coming to the camp to 



224 



MARCHES AND ENCAMPMENT. 



sell articles of any kind should be confined to this place 
and not allowed to wander about the camp. The camp 
police should arrest all persons found wandering, and a 
picquet should remain in the market until it is cleared. 
The Commanding Ofl0.cer should arrange a tariff of prices 
at which various articles may be sold, and no departure 
from this should be allowed, all articles being paid for at 
the time by the purchaser. 

The camp police should make rounds at uncertain inter- 
vals through the camp, and summarily arrest all who may 
contravene the orders. Women of loose character should 
be carefully excluded from the camp. 

The main street through the Officers' tents should be 
used by men on duty only, Non-commissioned Officers, or 
persons having business with Officers. 

No person should be allowed amongst the Officers’ tents 
except the Sergeant-Major, the Quarter-Master Sergeant, 
Non-commissioned Officers, orderlies, or persons having 
business with Officers, all other persons being directed to 
pass by the flanks. 

The following necessaries should be sufficient for a short 
camp : — Two flannel shirts, two pair of woollen socks, a 
towel, a woollen cap^ a piece of soap, a knife and lanyard, 
fork and spoon, a spare pair of boots. 

A woollen cap is very good to sleep in ; it keeps in heat. 
Above all things, keep the hair closely cut. 

As washing clothing is not generally practicable, it is 
sufficient, for a few days’ work, to expose flannel articles 
to the air and beat them. 

On leaving a camp a mounted Officer should ride over 
the ground after the tents are struck, to see that nothing 
is left behind, that the latrines and kitchens are filled in, 
and all bones, offal and rubbish are buried. 



PITCHING TENTS. 



225 



In encamping large bodies of troops, it is very desirable 
that a sketch of the ground, no matter how rough, showing 
the place to be occupied by each corps, should be prepared 
beforehand ; by this means the Officer charged with form- 
ing the encampment can, in a few minutes, place the 
whole of the camp- colour men, so that when the bat- 
talions arrive they can proceed at once to the positions 
assigned to them. 

PITCHING TENTS. 

Whenever the nature of the ground will admit, the 
following mode should be observed in the formation of 
Battalion camp : the front to be the same as that of a 
Battalion when in line. 

When a Battalion marches on the ground allotted to it, 
the Quarter Guard immediately takes possession of the 
spot where the guard tent is to be erected, and where a 
small camp colour should have been already placed by the 
Quarter-Master, and the necessary number of sentries to 
cover the camp thrown out. The Battalion should be 
formed in column by the left, so that each company 
stands on the parade with the ground previously marked 
off for its tents on the reverse flank. The arms should be 
“ piled, ” accoutrements taken off and placed in rows on 
the ground or hung on the piles of arms. 

A Battalion on the march should have all the men 
warned for their several duties at the last halting place 
before entering the camp ground. Until the tents are 
pitched the Officers should not leave their companies, nor 
employ men for their own convenience. 

The following parties should then be told off and par- 
aded by the Adjutant ; — 

15 



226 



MARCHES AND ENCAMPMENT. 



Cooking party — Two men per company, under tke Ser- 
geant Cook. 

Latrine party — All the Pioneers who carry pick-axes 
and shovels, and one man per company. 

Water party — One Non-commissioned Officer and two 
men per company, under a Sergeant. 

Ration party — A Non-commissioned Officer and two 
men per company, or more if the company is strong, 
under the Quarter-Master Sergeant. 

Wood party — Two men, or more if requisite, and a 
Non-commissioned Officer per company. 

The Sergeant Cook should select the place for the 
kitchen within the space marked out by the camp 
colours, and make the kitchen as soon as the tools can 
be procured. As will be seen by the diagram (page 229), 
company cooking trenches should be dug between the 
Officers' and the men’s tents. 

The Sergeant of Pioneers should at once begin the 
latrines, it being essential that the ground be not fouled. 

The ration party, under the Quarter- Master Sergeant, 
will go to the depot and receive the rations. 

The wood party will, if no fuel is issued, seek for and 
bring it to the kitchens. 

Each company should then be told off in squads for 
pitching the tents, the usual number is six men and one 
Non-commissioned Officer. The squad is subdivided as 
follows : — Nos. 1 and 2, pole-men ; Nos. 3 and 4, peg-men ; 
Nos. 5 and 6, packers and unpackers. 

Each company should proceed as follows (say the com- 
pany is fifty men, and that five tents are required for it) : -- 



PITCHING TENTS. 



227 



The Captain gives the word, “Out, No. 1 pole-men.” 
The men told off as “ No. 1 pole-men” to each tent “fall 
in ” in single rank, so that the left-hand man rests on the 
alignment of the pegs driven by the Quarter-Master. 

The command is then given, “ From the left — paces 
extend,” when the pole-men extend to — paces from each 
other ; each man, except the left-hand man on completing 
the extension, turning towards the directing flank of the 
company. 

A Major should then dress the left-hand pole-men 
from the left-hand man of the pole-men of the leading 
company, so that they stand exactly on the alignment of 
the colour placed by the Quarter-Master, and give the word 
“Steady,” on which the Captain of each company will 
dress his own row of pole-men from the left-hand man 
(who has already been covered by the Major) ; and when 
correctly dressed give the word “Steady,” upon which 
the men will turn towards the head of the column and 
each line be covered correctly in column. 

Each squad should bring up a tent, etc., and drive a 
peg between the heels of the No. 1 pole-man, these pegs 
mark where the pole of each tent is to rest. 

No. 2 having in the meantime joined the two pieces of 
the pole together hands it to No. 1, who turns towards the 
rear of the column. 

Nos. 3 and 4 distribute the tent-pegs at the same time, 
where they will be at hand when required. 

Nos. 5 and 6 have in the meantime unpacked 'the tent 
and stretched it out flat on the ground, with door upper- 
most and hooked, when it will form a triangle, the base of 



228 



MARCHES AND ENCAMPMENT. 



which should be one pace away from the feet of No. 1, the 
apex pointing towards the rear of the column. 

No. 1 will then insert the pole so that one end is fitted 
into the cap. 

No. 2 drives the cap on to the pole, the other end being 
placed between the heels of No. 1. 

Nos. 3 and 4 at the same time get hold of the two front 
angle ropes. 

Nos. 5 and 6, the two rear .angle ropes (which are 

marked red to distinguish them from the others). 

« 

On the bugle sounding one ‘‘G,” or on the command 
‘‘Raise tents,’’ the poles to be at once elevated by Nos. 
1 and 2, the former getting inside the tent and keeping 
the pole upright by putting the end of it between his feet; 
the four angle ropes to be at once pegged down. No. 2 
taking care that the door is square to the front, that is, 
facing the same way that the men did when they stood in 
column, and that it is well closed ; the peg-men will then 
peg down the other ropes, working gradually round from 
their right to their left, under the superintendence of the 
Non-commissioned Officer, who will take charge of the 
tent bag and mallets, see that the pole is placed in the 
spot marked off for it, that it is upright, that the door is 
properly placed, that the cords are stretched in a line 
with the seams of the tent, that the slides are made fast 
at equal distances between the tent and the pegs, and 
enforce silence during the work. 

Officers commanding companies should now examine the 
tents to see that they are properly pitched, the arms, 
accoutrements and blankets brought in, and a trench dug 
round each tent with a proper drain to carry -off the 
water. 



PITCHING TENTS. 



229 



Infantry Camp For 8 Companies op 50 Men each. 



1 


Qr. Guard. 


1 


Latrine. 


Latrine. 




160 yards. 




1 1 Piles 


' of ' Arms ’ 
1 1 1 


1 1 
1 1 


1 20 1 20 


1 20 1 20 ■ 


20 1 20 I 



Privates’ Tents. 



*Staff Sergeants. 
Line of Kitchens. 



XX XXX 

Company Officers. 

* * * * * 

Field and Staff Officers. 



Waggons, Horses, Chargers, etc. 



Officers’ Latrine* 



Rear Guard. 



The space marked for the arms to be piled before pitch- 
ing is the regimental parade ground and alarm post. 

To the front, and in line with the centre of the camp, 
the quarter-guard tent should be pitched, and a latrine 
constructed on either side half way between it and the 
flanks of the regimental parade ground, or the latrines 
may be placed in the rear corners of the ground. 

In the rear tent of each row should be the Colour Ser- 
geant of the company. Staff- Sergeants should have tents 



230 



MARCHES AND ENCAMPMENT. 



to themselves, pitched in rear of the central rows of com- 
pany tents. 

E-ifles during the day, in fine weather, should be piled 
outside each tent ; in bad weather and at night they 
should stand round the pole, confined at the muzzles by a 
barrel hoop (wood) suspended from the pole. Bayonets 
and accoutrements should hang from crossed pegs on the 
pole above the rifles. 

Officers’ tents should be in rear, that is, on the reverse 
flank of their respective companies ; Field and Staflf 
Officers’ tents in rear of the company Officers’ ; rear guard 
tent at the limit of ground in rear of all ; Hospital tent in 
a place selected by the Surgeon ; stores, chargers, horses, 
waggons, etc. , on the most suitable ground in rear of the 
Staff Officers’ tents. 

Camp colours are placed at the four corners of the 
ground; these are each 18 x 18 inches of blue for Infantry 
and red for Rifles, with the number of the Battalion in red 
and green figures respectively on each ; the Commanding 
Officer should have a little larger colour erected in front 
of his tent, distinguished by a transverse cross of blue or 
red. 

The Colours of a corps when not in use should be with 
the quarter-guard (in their cases) under the charge of the 
No. 1 sentry of that guard. 

STRIKING TENTS. 

On the command “ Prepare to strike tents,” No. 1 will 
get inside the tent. No. 2 closes the door and keeps it 
closed until the tent is struck. 

Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6 will pull out and place in the bag 
all the pegs, except the four angle ones which they will 



STRIKING TENTS. 



231 



afterwards draw and hold on to the ropes, Nos. 3 and 4 
the front ones, Nos. 5 and 6 the rear ones. 

On the bugle sounding the one “ G,’’ or on the command 
“ Strike tents,” No. 1 will lower the tent towards the rear. 

No. 2 will separate the pole into two pieces, and tie them 
together. 

Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6 will spread out the tent neatly in 

this form : /1\ the ropes being rolled up round the 

sides, and then placed so that they do not appear w'hen 
the tent is folded up. 

The side^will then be folded to the centre, until the 
breadth required for the depth of the tent bag is arrived at. 

The head will then be folded down to the bottom about 
half way, after which Nos. 5 and 6 will both proceed to 
roll from head to bottom, placing their knees on the tent 
as they roll it. 

When rolled up tightly. No. 6 will hold the bag, No. 5 
will lift one end of the roll until it is got into the mouth of 
the bag, when it will be got into a perpendicular position, 
and both men holding the mouth of the bag will shake the 
tent into it. 

The peg bag, etc., will be put inside, and the w’hole 
secured at the top and afterwards carried to the waggons. 

A bell tent, when pitched, has an interior diameter of 13 
feet ; diameter to side ropes, 21 feet ; diameter to weather 
guys, 33 feet ; the latter are seldom provided. 

Its weight dry is about 72 lbs. ; and wet, about 89 lbs. 

It consists of one valise, one pole (in two pieces), and a 
bag containing 42 pins and two mallets. 



232 



MARCHES AND ENCAMPMENT. 



KITCHENS. 

Kitchens should be made so as to not incommode the 
occupants of the tents by their smoke, and yet be within a 
reasonable distance of the men’s tents. 

Each company should have its own kitchen in rear of, 
and in line with its own row of tents. The simplest kitchen 
consists of a trench dug in the direction that the wind is 
blowing, of such width that the kettle, when placed on it, 
should not rest above an inch and a half on each side ; its 
depth should be 12 inches at the end from which the wind 
is blowing, and continue that depth for two feet, decreasing 
then gradually to six inches at the opposite end, where a 
space must be left equal to the breadth of the trench to 
serve as a chimney. The fire is lit at the end where the 
trench is deep ; it should not extend beyond two feet up 
the trench. The kettles are placed touching one another 
along this trench ; dry sods should be used to stop up the 
chinks made by the roundness of the kettles, so that the 
space under them may form a flue. It is advisable to pile 
up sods, or with stones and earth to erect a chimney from 
three to five feet in height, at the end away from the fire. 

If a Battalion halts for more than one day, these 
kitchens are susceptible of great improvement ; the chim- 
ney can be made of mud or wattle and daub, and the 
draught may be increased by using short pieces of hoop 
iron as bars stretched across the trench to support a filling- 
in of clay round each kottle, or in other words, to make a 
regular place for each kettle, into which it will fit exactly, 
so that its position may be frequently changed to prevent 
the contents of one being cooked before the other. As the 
day following the wind may change to an exactly opposite 
direction, a similar trench must be dug in continuation 



KITCHENS AND WATER. 



233 



of the former one, the same chimney being used ; in this 
manner the same chimney will serve for trenches cut to 
suit the wind blowing from all four quarters. The open- 
ings from these trenches into the chimney should be closed 
with a sod, except the one to be used when the fire is lit. 
In some places, where bricks or stones suitable to the pur- 
pose are to be had, it is better to construct these kitchens 
on the ground, instead of below the surface. 

Two logs rolled together in the direction of the wind, 
the fire being kindled between them, make a good kitchen, 
the kettles being hung from a stick resting at each end on 
a forked upright. 

Where stones are plentiful, a temporary fireplace can be 
quickly constructed ; small poles six or eight feet long, 
one end stuck in the ground, the other end projecting over 
the stones, can be used to hang the kettle on. 

STRAW. 

When straw is issued for the use of troops it should be 
made into mats, and not left loose in the bottom of the 
tent. Mats may be best made as follows : — The straw is 
twisted into ropes ; two rows of tent pegs are driven into 
the ground parallel to one another and two feet apart, and 
the rope passed round the pegs to form the web. Other 
straw ropes are interlaced, so as to form the woof, and an 
excellent mat is made in a short time. Each man should 
have two mats, one for his head and shoulders, the other 
for his legs. Four men will make the mats for an entire 
tent in one day, two twisting the ropes and two weaving. 

WATER. 

Few things are of more importance to the well-being of 
troops when encamped than a plentiful supply of pure 



234 



MARCHES AND ENCAMPMENT. 



water ; good water should be transparent and free from 
colour, taste, smell, or deposit on standing, and should 
make a good lather with soap — bad water can be improved 
by boiling it, muddy water can be cleared by alum, six 
grains per gallon is sufficient. Tea leaves that have been 
used put into drinking water assist to remove organic 
matter. 

From whatever source the water supply is derived, it is 
absolutely requisite that it should not be polluted. The 
Officer entrusted with the duty of forming the encamp- 
ment should therefore post sentries over it, taking them 
from the first troops that arrive on the ground ; when the 
camp is completely formed, a guard should be posted over 
the water supply. If the supply is from a stream, great 
care should be taken that the watering place for the men 
should be distinct from that for the animals. The latter 
should be lownr down the stream than the former, and it 
is advisable to send patrols up the stream to prevent men 
washing or bathing in it. 

All washing in the neighbourhood of wells or watering 
places used for drinking should be strictly forbidden, as 
the foul water percolates through the soil. 

If the stream has a muddy bottom, great care should be 
taken not to stir up the mud by dipping vessels into it. 
If the stream is shallow, dams should be made on it ; these 
are easily constructed with a few pickets and sods. A 
small piece of tarpaulin may be used with great advantage 
for the purpose of making them water-tight, a barrel sunk 
in the bed of the stream affords a convenient place into 
which to collect water. 

Filters can be easily made by placing two barrels one 
within another, and ramming the place between with clean 
straw, coarse sand, and charcoal if it can be procured, or 



WATER AND LATRINES. 



235 



branches of trees with the bark taken off. The water is 
allowed to flow into the outer barrel and rises through 
holes pierced in the bottom of the inner barrel. In a stand- 
ing camp, if the water is not good, charcoal should be made, 
and the water regularly Altered. When no existing source 
of water supply is available, it may be found by sinking 
wells ; Norton’s tube well is a most valuable adjunct in 
such a case, and is easily transported. 

Each man requires for drinking 3 to 4 pints of water a 
day ; for drinking and cooking from f to 1 gallon ; for 
drinking, cooking, washing, etc., at least 4 gallons are 
desirable. Each horse from 6 to 9 gallons daily, taking 
from IJ to 2 gallons at a time. 

LATRINES. 

Latrines should be made in the most convenient situation 
by fatigue parties, as soon as troops arrive on the ground, 
the places having been previously marked out for them by 
the Quarter-Master. The trench should be as narrow as 
possible, and about four feet deep, a rail or post supported 
upon a forked post at both ends, and about eighteen inches 
from the ground, laid along the edge, will serve for the men 
to sit on, and the whole should be screened with a piece 
of canvas, bushes, trees or lumber from public view. A 
fatigue party should throw a couple of inches of earth over 
the soil every day. This, if carefully done, will prevent 
all smell. When the trench is filled up, another one should 
be dug near it. 

Too much care cannot be taken in selecting the sites of 
the latrines and placing them so that no filtration can 
reach the water supply. 

The camp police and sentries should have orders to pre- 
vent the men from committing nuisances in the vicinity 
of the camp. 



PART VII. 



FORMS- 



Owing to want of space, the accompanying Forms are 
necessarily very much contracted, but at the foot of each 
a note is attached specifying the size that it should be. 
Printed Forms are recommended in all cases. 



Attestation Form, Company. 



FORMS. 



237 




Passed. Recommended. 

Major. Captain. 

Surg'eon- Major. Commanding Company. 

(Foolscap size.) 



Battalion. 



238 



FORMS. 




(Letter paper size.)— N.B. — The character of the man should be written in red ink across the form. 



FORMS. 



239 







1 


m 


1 


O 


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P-i 


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WEEKLY 
SH PAYMEN' 












1 

1 


< 

O 






NAME. 




RANK. 




REGI- 

MENTAL 

NO. 





N.B.— The Pay Sheet should be 24x12 in dimension and contain 8 pages, stitched together, which is 
sufficient for a company of 100 men. The above is the left-hand side of a. Pay Sheet. 



FORM 3— Part {Continued). 

Company, Battalion. 



240 



FORMS. 



•I^^ox 



•pj’BMJOJ 

pauj-BO ^qaci 









•sX'Ba: JO *0K 



pU-B 

(jonpuoo pooo 



•(^pov^SBT^ipajQ 



•I'BJOx 



•pj'BMJOJ 
paijj'BO ^JipaJO 



‘Itj^uaraiSaH 



•oiiqnj 
aq:j 0!j pac^tpaaQ 



•paAiaoa^ ^s-bq 



^qaa 



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O H I 



*F!J01 



saS'Biu'Bp iio-Ba j^a 



sau-BssaDa^ *Saa | 



N.B. — The above completes the page of the Pay sheet, being the right hand side. 



FORM 3— Part 2. 

Pay Sheet of Non-Com. Officers and Men. 
Abstract of Troop, Battery or Company Account. 



FORMS. 



•241 




The above is printed on the upper half of the last page. 



FORM 3-Part 3. 

Pay Sheet fob Non-commissioned Officers and Men. 
Recapitulation to be filled in by the District Paymaster. 



242 



FORMS. 



Amount of 
Pay Sheet. 


1 

1 

1 








Total amount 
of pay. 

Less Stoppages. 


Net amount on 
Pay Sheet. 


Privates. 






Buglers. 






Corporals. 






Sergeants. 






Staff 

Non-Com. 

Officers. 








Non-com. Officers and 
Men emploj’^ed 

Died or deserted 

Under forfeiture of pay 
by sentence of Court 
Martial 


Total Number on Pay 
Sheet 



I certify that I have examined the Pay Sheet and found it correct in every particular. 

, paymaster. Date. Place. 

N.B. — The above is printed upon the lower half of the last page. 



Pay Sergeant’s Cash Account. 



FORMS. 



243 




N.B. — A stoutly bound book of about 200 pages, size 5x8 inches. 



Cash Book and Ledger. 



244 



FORMS. 






^ o 



N.B.— A stoutly bound book of 250 pages, 200 pages being devoted to the Cash Book and 50 pages to 
the Ledger (see Part 2) size 7x10 inches. This book is for the exclusive use of the Officer commanding 
the company. 



Cash Book and Ledger. 



FORMS. 



245 




N. B.— The pages of the Ledger should run from 1 to 50 with an index to them. 



246 



FOEMS. 



FORM 6. 

Door Card. 

Battalion. 

No. Section. 

Company. 

1 Sergeant. 

2 Corporals. Sergeant 

16 Privates. 



(Size, 4| X 3 inches.) 

FORM 7. 

Bed Card. 




(Size, 3x2 inches.) 



Address for Soldiers’ Letters, 



POEMS. 



247 




FORM 9-Part 1. 



248 



FORMS, 



P d f 






(See over for continuation.) (Size 8x4 inches.) 



To he Discharged from Hospital to-day. 



FORMS. 



249 



The above information is given on the back of the Company Sick Report by the Surgeon, before returning it 
to the company Orderly Sergeant. 



Battalion. 



250 



FORMS. 







N.B. — To be sent to the Orderly Room every morning. 



FORM 11. 

Battalion. 



FOEMS. 



251 



w 




d 




m 





N.B.— To be sent to the Orderly Room weekly. 



252 



FORMS. 



FORM 12. 

Permanent Pass. 



Orderly Room Stamp. 



PERMANENT PASS. 

The bearer, No Corporal or Private 

has permission to be absent from his quarters till 12 
midnight, except when on duty. 

Lieut. -Col. 

Com’g Battalion, 

18 ... 



N.B . — This form should be pasted upon stiff cotton or 
pasteboard, and folded once, so as to be carried easily in 
the pocket. 



FORMS. 



253 






o ^ 



§ 

Fm 



«3 ,W p 



'2 ^ ^ 



! -f? 



1 ’^ 




o 

s 



Battalion. 

Officers’ Duty Roster. Captains. For month of 

(Lieutenants.) 



254 



FORMS. 



Remarks. 




Fatigue. 








Orderly. 










Working 

Parties. 








_ 


Boards. 








■ 


Courts 

ilARTIAL. 










PiCQUETS. 








Guards. 








Name. 





N.B. — A foolscap memorandum book is the handiest form for an Officers’ duty roster. In the narrow 
columns the date of the duty should be inserted. Officers’ names are entered by seniority. A separate roster 
for Captains and Lieutenants is necessary. 2nd Lieutenants should be placed on the Lieutenants’ roster. 



FORMS. 



255 




Sergeant-Major’^ Detail for month of 



256 



FORMS. 



Remarks. 




Duties. 


Guard. 

Escort. 

Picquet. 

Fatigue. 

Guard. 

Escort. 

Picquet. 

Fatigue, 


Days of Month. 


31 ! 


30 1 


29 j 


28 1 


27 1 


26 1 


25 1 


24 1 


23 1 


22 1 


21 1 


20 1 


19 1 


18 1 


17 1 


16 1 


15 1 


14 1 


13 1 


1*^ 1 


11 1 


10 1 


9 1 


8 1 


7 1 


6 1 ■ 


5 1 . 


4 1 


3 1 


2 1 


1 1 


Avail- 
able for 
Duty. 


45 

50 


•A, 00 1 < W 



S - 
'§ 4 



if 

i S 



FORMS. 



257 



Duty State. 



FORM 17. 

Battalion. 

Company. 



18 



Distribution. 



Total. 



Present fit for duty 

^Attending Recruit Drill 

Pioneers 

Musicians 

Sick in Hospital 

Attending Hospital 

“ Officers’ Mess 

Regimental Employ 

3 -<; Servants 

Company Cooks 

Orderlies 

Tailors 

Shoemakers 

In Imprisonment 

Absent with Leave 

.Absent without Leave. 



-V 

o S 

cj-j r-N ^ 

o P .> 

B 

P 

525 ' 



Effective Strength . 



(Foolscap size. — See continuation.) 



Com’d’g- 



— Captain. 
-Company. 



N.B.— This state should be sent to the Orderly Room every Saturday 
morning. 



258 



FORMS. 



FORM 17. — Continued.— i^o be placed on the back.) 
Absentees and Employed Men. 



At Recruit Drill 




Pioneers 




Musicians 




Sick 




Attending Hospital 




Attending Officers’ Mess 




Regimental Employ 




Servants 




Cooks 




Orderlies 




Tailors 




Shoemakers 




In Imprisonment 




Absent with Leave 




Absent without Leave 









Colour Sergeant. 



Duty Roster. Company, Battalion. No. 1 Section. 



FORMS. 



259 




N.B. — A stoutly bound book of 200 pages, size 7x9 inches, divided into four parts, viz. : Guards, Picquets, 
Fatigues and Casual Duties. In each of these parts, the names of the men are entered according to their 
sections^ and in the columns for ‘date’ are entered the dates for which they are detailed for the respective duties. 



260 



FORMS. 



FORM 19. 

Detail Book. 

Company, ^ — Battalion. 



Reot’l. No. and Name. 


Memo. 






i 

1 

. 



N.B. — A stoutly bound book of 200 pages, size 5x9 inches, divided 
into seven parts, viz. : Parades, Drills, Guards, Ricquets, Fatigues, 
Confined to Barracks, List of Permanent Passes. 



FORM 20.-Paxt 1. 

Battalion./ 

Report of the Guard Mounted at — on the 18 Dismounted 



FORMS- 



261 





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A duplicate report should be handed to the relieving officer. 



TIME AND POST ROLL. 



262 



FORMS, 



Remarks. 




Time. 


•ox 




•moj^ 




Time. 


•OX 




•UIOJj[ 




Time. 


•ox 




•lUOJ^ 




Time. 


•ox 




•UIOJJ 




•xsoj 




•ANVXKOO 




•xonvxxva 




Rank and Name. 




nvxNawiOHH 




•'HaawoK 





Commanding Guard. 



Report op Prisoners Confined. 



FORMS, 



263 



o 

Em 




^ § 




o 

iz; 

m 




PRISONERS CONFINED IN GUARD ROOM CELLS. 



264 



FORMS. 




REPORT Of prisoners confined in hospital. 



FORMS, 



265 






* 8 ^ 13(1 



•^U'BduiOQ 






•J9qum^ 

X'Bc^uaraiSa'a; 



•aaqum^ 



266 



FORMS. 



FORM 21. 

Captain of the Day^s*^eport, 

— : 18 . 

Sir, — I have the honour to report that, as Captain of 
the day (yesterday), I inspected the rations issued to the 
Battalion, and found them of good quality and proper 
weight. 

I visited the Barracks (or Tents) of companies 

at breakfast and dinner hours, and found the rooms (or 
tents), stairs and passages clean, the arms and accoutre- 
ments properly arranged, the men all present and the 
meals good, well cooked, and punctually served (or other- 
wise). 

I visited the Hospital ; found it clean and regular ; the 
patients preferred no complaints (or otherwise). 

I visited the Cells at o’clock, and found all regular ; 

the prisoners made no complaints. 

I inspected the Guard at — — - o’clock by day, and at 

o’clock by night, which I found present and correct. 

I also visited the sentries, and found them alert and 
properly informed of their duties. 

I did not leave the camp or quarters of the Battalion 
during my tour of duty. 

The report of the Subaltern of the day I enclose here- 
with ; also the Tattoo report. 

I have the honour to be. 

Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

j Captain, 

Battalion. 

To the Officer Commanding 

Battalion. 

(To be written on foolscap, one-fourth margin.) 



FORMS. 



2G7 



FORM 22. 

Subaltern of the Day’s Eeport. 



18 

Sir, — I have the honour to report that, as Subaltern of 
the day (yesterday), I attended at the delivery of the 

bread, meat and groceries at and found them of 

good quality and proper weight. I also attended at their 

issue at and found them fairly distributed to the 

different messes. 

At I visited the rooms and passages which were 

properly cleaned, the beds turned up, the doors and win- 
dows opened, the bedding folded, and appointments, etc., 
arranged according to order. 

I visited the Cook-houses previous to the time of the 
meal at dinner hour, and found everything regular. 

I visited the companies at meal hours, and found 

everything regular, the men all present properly dressed, 
and no complaints (or otherwise). 

I saw the guards’ meals marched off at the proper hours. 

I visited the School, Tailor’s and Shoemaker’s shops, 
and found all regular. 

I visited the Canteen, Recreation and Reading Rooms, 
and found everything regular. 

I visited the Guards and Sentries at by day and at 

» — o’clock by night ; also the prisoners in the guard-room 
and cells, and found all correct and regular (or otherwise). 

I attended at the hour of Retreat and Tattoo, and in- 
spected the Picquet and found all present and regular. 

I attended at the hour of Tattoo when all the Non-com- 
missioned Officers and men were reported present (or 
otherwise), the report of which I now enclose you. 

I saw the lights and fires extinguished at the proper 
hours. 

I have the honour to be, etc. , 

, Lieut., 

Battalion. 



To the Captain of the day. 

(Foolscap, one-fourth margin.) 



Defaulters’ List. 



268 



FORMS. 






O 

Fm 




Sergeant, 

(Foolscap size.) Reg’l Orderly Sergeant. 



Gate or Canteen List. 



FORMS. 



269 




^ Sergeant, 

Regimental Orderly Sergeant. 



270 



FORMS. 



FORM 25. 

Regime^^tal Orderly Sergeant’s Report. 

18 . 

As Regimental Orderly Sergeant, yesterday I performed the follow- 
ing duties : — 

1. I paraded the Orderly Sergeants at a.m., who reported their 

men all out of bed, and that no smoking had occurred during the 
night ; and then visited the rooms, and saw they were being aired and 
ventilated; also that the urine tubs were removed to the proper places 
and partly filled with clean water. 

2. I paraded the Orderly Corporals and men for rations at a.m. 

3. I saw the prisoners’ necessaries sent to the Guard room at — — 
a.m. 

4. I went round the barrack rooms (or tents) with the Captain of 

the day at a.m. , and found everything regular (except No. 

room of No. Company). 

5. I saw the sick paraded and marched to Hospital. 

6. I paraded the Orderly Sergeants and evidences at a.m. 

7. I collected the gate and canteen reports and handed them to the 
Non-commissioned Officers on those duties. 

8. I visited the Cook-houses at , and — -, and , and found 

everything regular. 

9. I paraded the Orderly Corporals and men at — — , and , and 

, and marched them to the cook-house for the meals. I marched 

off the meals to the several Guards. 

10. I paraded the Orderly Corporals and men for drawing groceries 

at . 

11. I visited the Canteen at , and , and , and found 

everything regular. 

12. I visited the Non-commissioned Officers on gate and canteen 

duty at — , and , and I saw that the names of the defaulters 

were on the gate and canteen boards. 

13. I left list of passes with the Sergeant of the Guard, and handed 
the passes to the Orderly Sergeants of companies. 

14. I saw that the defaulters paraded, and found all present and 
sober. 

15. I showed the Orders to the Field and Staff Officers. 

16. I attended at Tattoo with the Subaltern of the day. 

17. I went round the Barracks (or tents) with the Subaltern of the 
day half an hour after Tattoo, and saw that all fires and lights were 
out, and everything quiet and regular. 

To the Sergeant-Major, 

Battalion. Sergeant, 

Battalion. 

(Sheet of foolscap, one-fifth margin. ) 



Battalion. 

Report of Non-commissioebd Officers on Canteen Duty. 18 

the undersigned Non-commissioned Officers, do hereby certify that we were on Canteen duty 



FORMS. 



271 



A g .S 

ft C 
o o 

.b o' 






^ O 

§ s 

^ o 



> 1 , u 
S HI 



Remarks. 




1 Hours on Duty. j 


To. 




From. 




To. 




s 

o 

fa 


1 


To. 




From. 




Co. 




Rank and Name. 




"Sd® 




No. 





To the Sergeant-Major, (Foolscap size.) Sergeant. 

Battalion. Corporal. 

Battalion. 



Battalion. 



272 



FORMS. 



O 



<5 



Orderly Sergeant. 



FORMS, 



•273 



FORM 28 . 

Battalion. 

Morning Parade State of Co. 

, 18 



DISTRIBUTION. 


Captain. 


Subalterns. 


Sergeants. 


o 

o 

O 


u 

<a 

Td 

W 


1 Privates. 


Total. 1 


1 On Parade j 


r Under Arms 

Recruits at Drill 

Instructors at Drill 

Pioneers . 

^Musicians 
















Total 
















Casualties. | 


rOn Guard 

Coming off Guard 

Servants 

Tailors 
















Shoemakers 

Cooks 


Orderlies 

Fatigue 

Servants 

Sick/^^ Hospital 

Quarters 

Regimental Employ 

On Command 

Absent /With Leave 

ADsent 1 Without Leave 

In Imprisonment 

^ Prisoners in Guard Room 




Total 


















Wanting to Complete 
















Establishment 
















Ati 


bached 



















Captain 

(Foolscap size. — See continuation.) Commanding Co. 

18 



274 



FORMS. 



FORM 2^,— (Continued.) 

Names of Casualties. (To he placed on the hack.) 



On Guard 




Coming off Guard 




Servants 


■ - - - _ 


Tailors 




Shoemakers 




Cooks 




Orderlies 




Fatigue 




Servants 




Sick in Hospital 




Sick in Quarters 




Attending Hospital 




Attending Officers’ Mess 




Regimental Employ 




On Command 




Absent with Leave 




Absent without Leave 




In Imprisonment 




Prisoners in Guard Room . . . 




. — Sergeant. 



Orderly Sergeant. 



FORM 2^,— {Continued.) 
Battalion. 

Early Morning or Afternoon Parade State of Co’y. 



FORMS. 



275 



Rank and 
File. 










•sioiSna 










*s:^u'B0.§aag 










•sujo^t'Bqng 










'UIR^dRO 










Distribution. 


Under Arms 

Recruits at Drill 

Instructors at Drill . . 

Total 


Under Arms 

Recruits at Drill 

Instructors at Drill . . 

Total 


<u 

eg 

hi 

Pn 

0 

C 

^0 

a 

*C 

0 






s 

ft 


c § 

1 s 

§ i 

§ 






V, 

H o 



B d5 

B S 

S o 
o 

» ^ 

M 0) 

'll 

m §, 

s 



Charge against No. 



276 



FORMS. 



§ ft 



M O 






1.15 



o 6 



J o S 

15 -u C 

9 2 < 1 ^ 

£3 H 

° 2| 

C .£2 

O >5 O >5 ® 

c S^OJ 
^ fl ee fl » 

is 03 Jm <U « 

S O 

02 2 43 ^ 

•sJoSo 

Sol's! 

be 0) 2 o) g 
C 43 C3 'P 5 

fli 03 CS P 



O 



FORMS. 



277 



FORM 30. 

Battalion. 

Company. 

Ration Return. , 18 




No. 1 Mess 
“ 2 “ 

“ 3 “ 

“ 4 “ 

“ 5 “ 

“ 6 “ 

“ 8 “ 



Sergeants’ Mess 

Married N. C. Officers, 

Married Men 

Hospital 

Officers’ Mess 

Married Officers 



Total, 



f Officers 

On Command < 

\Men 

{ rWith leave 

Officers. -! 

i^Without leave 

fWith leave 

Men..,. 4 

V. Without leave 

Total strength 



(Size, 10 X inches.) 



Colour Sergeant. 



278 FORMS. 



FORM 31. 

Battalion. 

Church Parade State op Company 18 



DISTRIBUTION. 


Captain. 


Subalterns. 


Sergeants. 


Corporals. 


Buglers. 


Privates. 


Total. 


Episcopalians 
















Presbyterians 


Wesleyans 

Roman Catholics 


On Guard 

Coming off Guard 


Q* i_ f In Hospital 


1 In Quarters •. 

Cooks 

Officers’ Mess 

Regimental Employ 

On Command 

Absent 1 Without Leave 

f In Imprisonment 


\ Prisoners in Guard Room 


Total 


















Wanting to Complete 
















Establishment 
















Attached 



















Sergeant. Captain. 

O, Sergeant. Commanding Co. 

(Foolscap size.) 

N.B. — The names of casualties should be placed on the back of this 
state, as in No. 28. 



FORMS. 



279 



FORM 32. 



Battalion. 

Field State. 18 



Distribution. 


Field Officers. 1 1 


Captains.' || 


Subalterns. || 


II 


Sergeants. 1 1 


Buglers. || 


Rank and File. 1 1 


Casualties, 


Field Officers. 1 1 


Captains. || 


Subalterns. 1 1 


1 1 


Sergeants. || 


Buglers. 1 1 


1 Rank and File. 1 1 


Under Arms . . 

Recruits 

Pioneers 

Musicians 

Orderlies 
















On Duty. ..... 

Attending 

Hospital 

Attd’g Officers’ 

Mess .> 

Grooms 

Cooks 

Regt’l Employ 
Sick in Hospital 
Sick in Quarters 
On Command. 

rwith 

g J Leave . . . 
“ 1 Without 
Leave . . . 
Prisoners 
















Total Present. 












- 


- 
















Casualties 

Wanting 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




Establishment 
















- 


t- 


T — 


- 


- 


- 


Supernumer’s. 
















Total . . 



— Lt.-Col., 

Comm’g — Battalion. 

(N.B. — On card 5x4 inches.) 



Minor Offence Report. 



280 



FORMS, 



Rfemarks. 




By 

whom 

Ordered. 




Punish- 

ment 

Awarded. 




By whom 
Reported and 
Names of 
Witnesses. 




Offence. 




Date 

of 

Offence. 




Name. 




Rank. 




Regt. 

No. 




•ifuisdmoo 





Lt.-Col. 

Comm’g Battalion. 

Note. — This report, after being completed by the entry in Orderly Room of all minor offences, disposed of by 
Officers commanding companies, will be attached to the Guard report of the day. 

(Size of two sheets of Foolscap printed across. ) 



Record of Officers’ Services. 



FORMS. 



281 



'Si 



•0.§V 



IS 

52; fl 



N.B. — This book should be of foolscap size, and extend across both pages, the column for “ Services 
occupying the right hand page entirely ; two names will be found sufficient for each sheet. 



FORM 35. Verified. 

Defaulter Sheet. 

— Battalion. 



282 



FORMS. 



Former Serv- 
ice and 
Remarks. 




Good Con- 
duct Pay. 




Promo- 

tion. 




Reli- 

gion. 




Marks : 


Trade. 




•sa^a 1 


•jmH 1 


Com- 

plexion. 




Where born. 


County. 




I Where Enlisted. 


Date. 




Parish. | 




Place. I 




Height. 


•qoui 




Period of 
Enlistment. 






Age. 






•SJi 




Regimental No. 
and Name. 




Joined 


Re-engaged 

Left 


6 

{2; 





d> 



Date of 
expira- 
tion. 




Date of 
Com- 
mence- 
ment. 




By whom. 




Date of 
award 
or order 
dispens- 
ing with 
Trial. 




Punishment 

Awarded. 




By whom 
reported 
and 

Names of 
Witnesses. 




Offence. 




Cases 

of 

Drunk- 

enness. 




Rank. 




•aoua^o 

JO Qi-Ba 





Pm 



•S 

<0 

-p » 

PM 3 






» 2 

8 “ 

fa c3 

I ^ 

pq 



Regimental and Company Defaulter books. 



COURT MARTIAL SHEET. 



FORMS. 



283 



Signature of 
Commanding 
Officer. 




Punishments. 


Remitted . 




Inflicted. 




By whom 
Confirmed. 




Finding and 
Sentence of 
the Court. 




Charges upon 
which Tried . 




JO ooiBid; 

pu^ oj'bq; 




•pOTJJ IJOtqM 
!^jno6 JO 

uoTjduosad 





'2 

eS 

S 



SO that the sheets can be removed when necessary. 



Hospital Admission and Discharge Book. Battalion. 



284 



POEMS. 



*suoi:j'BAjasqo 




When 

Discharged. 

i 


•uoij'Buijsad 




JO 9JBJS 




•uot^j'BJodo 

JO ’oS'BOSId 




Dates. 


•paj0AOO9H 
JO paiQ 




•aSj'BqosiQ 




•UOTSSIUipV 




•0S'B0ST(I 
JO iCjnCui 




*9.§y 




Rank and Name. 

(If Married or Single, put M. or S. in small 
line, opposite name.) 






•jaquin^ 

^'B^^u^raIS0d 




•as'BO JO *0^ 





N.B. — A stoutly bound book of 200 pag’es. 



FORM 38.— Part 1. 

BATTALION STORES LEDGER. 
Department Account. 



FORMS. 



285 



5^1 



.. -U o 

OJ ^ 

&||o 

C ^ o) 






<S ^ ; 



b." 



3T3.0 






u ^ 

b . 

= 11 

&l-g 



FORM 38.— Part 2. 

BATTALION STORES LEDGER. 
Issues. Regimental Account. 



286 



FORMS. 





1 




1 








1 










C 3 


•sd'BO qS-bjo^ I 


P 


•sjasnojx i 


, H 
O 


•soiunx 1 


© 


•sc^'BOQ ^^'Baao | 




•sduj;s0n;^oa;j0(^^A\ ! 




•sd^jijg (^-Boo !^'BaJO 1 


H 


•Sd'BJi^g UtX SS 0 J^ 1 


w 


•S 0 n;oa 1 


PM 

5 


*S31O'BSJ0A'BH 1 


& 

f£i 


•SUIX SS 0 PI } 




•S 5 [ 0 'BSd'BU 3 1 




•SSUTJ^g pU-B S0lStia 1 




•S 0 qono<i 1 


OQ 


•sS-Bg 1 


H 


•sSugg sio'Bsd'BU^g | 




•sSuiig 0 pig ( 


p 3 

EH 


*S.§OJ j[ 1 


P 

O 


•s;i 0 g qonog | 


u 

< 


•s;i 0 g (^sreAV 1 ' 


o 


•sd'BO d-Bug 1 .. 


◄ 


•spj'Bqq'BOg 1 


oo 

S 


•s;0uoiC'Bg | 


a 

< 


•Suiu'B0XO ‘spog 1 




•S 0 pig 1 


•^U'BdraOQ 1 ; 


•uo^i^isinba'a jo -oj^ [ 



oT- 

S b 



OJ c8 

' 3 'S 

t «'S 

g®“§ 

® <u o 
G -iJ <J 

B.g .2 

® 3 

g^2 



3 S § 

3 G 9 

O c3 

5 oQ 



3 •> © 
3 CD .G 
3 © -M 
P .H 



i 'P 

O > 



■ §a 




•p is.'P <u 
fl >- © CL 

7 rT 

I 2 &“ 

pq 

iz 22 P 



FORM 38. -Part %— {Continued.) 



POEMS, 



287 





1 




1 








1 




1 




! 


d 


*sd'B3 aS'BJo^ 1 


g 

s 


•sj9snoix 1 


O 


•soiunx 1 


1-3 

O 


•s^-Boo (j-Bajo 1 




•Sd'BJC^g 9l!»;oa J9(^13^ 1 




•sd-BJ^^g ^'Boo ^^'e9JO j 


H 


*Sd'BJ?^g UIX SS9H i 


% 


•Samoa 1 




*S5[0'BSiaA'BH 1 


& 


•SUTX es9H i 


- 


•S5[0'BSd'BU3 1 




•sSuij:^g puis saiSna 1 




•saqDnoa | 


02 


•sS^a n^a 1 


55 


•sSuqg 3[0'BSd'BU5J 1 


s 


•sSuitg agiH 1 


H 


•sSoaa 1 


t3 

o 


•scqaa qonoa ] 


<1 


•S(;[aa 1 


o 


•sd-BQ d'BUg 1 


<1 


•spj'Bqq'BOg 1 


02 

s 


•s:^aaOi^'Ba | 


<5 


•,§uiu'Baio ‘spoa 1 




•sapia 1 


•,^a'Bdraoo | 


DATB. 





FORM 38-Part 3. 

BATTALION STORES LEDGER. 

Company Account. 

Issues. No. of Co. — 



288 



FORMS. 





! 




1 








1 








1 


d 


•sdno oS'BJO^ 1 


g 

3 


•sjosnojx 1 


H 

O 


•sotunx 1 


O 


•S^^-BOO 4'BOJD i 




•sdBj^^S omoa 1 




•sdna^^g ^^00 | 


H 


•Sd-BJi^g UTX SS0PJ 1 




•Samoa aa!iBAV | 


Pm 


•SllOBSJaA'BH 1 


<y 


•suix SS 0 H 1 




*S5[0'BSd'BU5t i 




•sSuu^^g puis sai.8na 1 




•saqonoa j 


02 


•s^Ba ii^a 1 




•sSuqg JioBsdnu^i | 


S 


•s^^uiig ayia 1 


H 


•sSoaa 1 


O 

o 


•s^iaa qonoa | 


o 


•siaaa 1 


O 


•sdBO dBug 1 




•spjBqqBOg 1 


02 

s 


•s;0UoA!Ba 1 


<; 


•Suiunaio ‘spoa 1 




•sapiH 1 


DATE. 

- 





Company Stores Book at least once a year. 



FORM 38. — Part 3. — (Continued.) 
BATTALION STORES LEDGER. 
Company Account. 

No. of Co. — 



FORMS. 



289 



2 


•Sd'BQ 0S'BJO^;[ 1 


g 


•sjosnojx 1 


1 


•soiunx 1 




*s:;'BOO 1 




•sd^jc^g aiq^og I 




•Sd-BJC^g (^'BOO 1 


H 


•sdBJi^g uijt ssapf 1 


% 


•S0D;og J0^BAV 1 




•S51OBSJ0ABH 1 




•SUTX SS0H 1 




*S3lOBSdBU5I 1 




•sSuu-^g puB S0|Sna 1 




*S0qonoj 1 


02 


•s^Bg iiBg 1 




•sSuqg qoBsdBu^i 1 


K 


•sSuTig 0pig 1 


oi 

H 


•sSojj 1 


O 

u 


•s;i 0 g qonog | 


o 


•sq0g (^siBAV I 


Q 


•sdBO dBug 1 




•spjBqqBOg 1 


CO 

S 


•s:^0uo2{Bg 1 




•SuujB0io ‘spo>T 1 




'sapRi 1 



Q 



19 



290 



for:.is. 



/ - 



Requisition. 



FORM 39. 



Battalion. 



No.- 



To the Quarter-Master : 

Required for use of Company, the undernamed Stores. 



Captain 

Commanding — — Co’y. 



18 



Received the above stores this day in good order. 

Captain. 

Commanding Co’y. 

N.B. — Note paper size : the forms should be printed and bound in 
books of a hundred each, with a counterfoil to be retained by the 
Company as a memorandum for entiy into the Stores Ledger, and o:i 
being received b3’^ the Quarter-Master, should he numbered, entered, 
and then filed away by years for reference. 



Receipts. Battalion or District Account. 



FORMS. 



291 



6 


•sd'BQ aJo'BJO^ 1 


g 


•sjosnojx 1 


H 

O 


•somnx 1 


o 


's^-Boo 1 






•0ic^(^oa J0i^AV 1 






•uix SS 0 K 1 






•^■BOO I^B0JO 1 






•qOBSd'BUJJ 1 




•S0i^;oa 1 


5 

6 - 


•SUIX SSQJX. 1 




•S3tOBSJ0A'BH 1 




•sstonsdnu^i | 




•s^uu(^S pti'B S0i.§ng | 




•0giH ‘sSuiiS 1 




*S0qono<i 1 




•s.B'Ba; j 


H- 


•sSoJa 1 




•si0qooq 1 


K 


•siiag qonoa | 


s 

o 


•sq0a !^ST'BAV 1 


o 

o 


•dBus ‘sdt?o 1 


^ • 


•J§uraB0p ‘spoa 1 


z 


•spj'Bqq'BOS P-iOAVg | 


05 


'spj'Bqq'BOS louo.Cisa | 


% 


•spuOi^Bg pjOMg [ 




•spuo.tBg 0piH 1 




•S0pra iJoqg 1 




•S0pi'a Suoq 1 






N.B. — The Company Stores Book should be about 6 x 10 inches, one-tenth of it being" devoted to the 
“Company’s” Account with the Battalion, or, in rural companies with the District, the balance being “ Individual 
Accounts.” 



Battalion or District Account. Returns. 



292 



FORMS, 





1 ■ ' -'i 




1 ■: 




i ; 




1 ■: 




1 ■ ■ _ 




1 ■ ■ ■ 


d 


•sd'BO 9,§Bao^ 1 




*si9snojx 1 , 


H 

O 


•somnx 1 


o 


•S^^-BOO 1 






•^D!»oa 1 . 






•UIX SS9H 1 




05 

H 


•^BOO ^U9Jf) 1 


Y 

Pd 


xn 


'JXOBSdBUa 1 


Oh 


•S9i;(^Oa J9^^BM 1 


P 

<3 


•SUTX SS9H 1 


Pd 


•S510'BSJ9A'BIJ 1 ■ 




•S5tO'BSd'BU3[ 1 




•sJ^uu^^g pu'B S9x^ng | 




•9piH ‘S^UTIS I ' , 






•S9qonoa 






•ss^a ii'^a I 


xh 

H 


•sSOJa 1 


S 


•S'^92{OOa 1 


P 

C4 


'S^l^a qouod 1 , , 


H - 
P 


•S(^19a qsT'BA\ 1 


Q 

O 




•dBUS ‘sdBQ 


_» i-i A 


<5 


•,§UIUB9X0 ‘spoa i *i _ 


§ 

<i 


•spj'cqqTSOg pJOMg i ^ ! 


02 


•spaBqq'GOg ^9UoA:'Ba | ; : ' 




•SC^9U0iC'Ba pJLOAVg i 




•S^X9U0.^Ba 9piH 1 




•sopia i . 




•S9pia Suoq ! 






Pd' 








H 








. R 










/ 



Individual Account. 



FORMS. 



292 



m 





1 








1 




1 




i 


!i5 


•d'BQ 8^'BJO J 1 


g 


•saosnojx 1 


H 

O 


•oiuni 1 


O 


1 




•dua^S 1 




•d-BJ^^g Cl'BOO 1 


H 


•dBJ^^g UIX SS9W 1 


g 


• -0l!^;^oa; 1 


S 


•31OBSJ0ABH 1 


& 


•UIX SS0I\[ 1 




•SlOBSdBU]^ 1 




'i^uu^g puB 0xSna; 1 




•qonoj 1 


02 


••^Ba ii'^a 1 




■ilaiig qoBsdBu^ 1 


S 

pe 


•Suiig 0gia 1 


H 


*.8oja 1 


O 

O 


•!p 0 a qonoa 1 


O 


•(^i0a ^siBAv 1 


o 


•dBQ dBUg 1 




•p.iBqqB0g 1 




•^0UOyCBa 1 


<5 


•^UIUB01O ‘poa 1 




•anni 1 



o3 



N.B.— The number of each article issued to the N. C. O. and men should be recorded under the heading of 
such article. 



FORM 40.— Part 2.— (Continued.) 
COMPANY STORES BOOK. 
Individual Account. 



294 



FORMS. 



Date of Return 
and by whom 
Received. 


4 




1 




! 








1 






o 


•duo oS'BJo^ 1 




•SJ8S110JX 1 


O 


•orunx 1 


o 


•!^'B00 1 




•d-Bj^^g an^^oa 1 




•disj^g ^^Boo !lBajo 1 




•dBJ(^g uix SS0H j 


K 






•310T8SJ8ABH | 


& 

N 


•UIX SS8H 1 




•jfOBSdBU^I 1 




•iiui.^g puB ai^ng | 




•qonoj 1 


03 


•^BanBy 1 


|Zi 


'.§UI{g J^OBSdBUa 1 




•Suyg ogia I 


d 

H 


•jeoja 1 


d 

O 


•(ipa qonoa 1 


O 


•!^l0a ^iSlB^ 1 


Q 


•dB0 dBUg 1 


< 


•pjBqqBOg 1 


m 


*(^0UOifBa 1 


< 


•S(ITIIB0[O ‘poa 1 










02 






0> 






•S 






% 








O) 

'a 



.s 

d 



by the Officer or N. C. O. receiving them. 



Marching in State of the Battalion. 



FORMS, 



295 




PART VIII. 



BUGLE CALLS. 



The Bugle calls given here are only those used in 
barracks or camp, the Field and Drill calls are laid down 
in Part X, “Infantry Drill, 1896.” 

Every Battalion should have an easily distinguished 
“Begimental Call,” which when quartered with other 
corps precedes every call except Reveille^ Retreat, and 
Tattoo, 

Duty calls should be sounded from the Begimental parade 
ground ; calls applying to Officers only, in front of their 
quarters. 

The “Dress” and other calls for Commanding Officers’ 
parade should be sounded by all the Buglers ; other duty 
calls by the Orderly Bugler with the Quarter or Begimental 
Guard. 

The “ Halt” sounding annuls the last call. 

Between Lights out and Reveille no bugle should be 
sounded nor drum beaten, except for the purpose of 
a^larm. 



[ 296 ] 



KOUSE. — Is often used in place of the “ Reveille,” or sounded a quarter of an hour 

before that call. 



BUGLE CALLS. 29 ? 




LI 



iir 



u1 



rai 




REVEILLE . — CoNTiNUKD 



298 



BUGLE CALLS. 




REVEILLE. — CONCLDDED. 



BUGLE CALLS. 



299 





BEEAD, MEAT, VEGETABLES. — Concluded. 



300 



BUGLE CALLS. 



TP 



Itli. 

% 

1 

Itii. 
I I 
•Li. 



'I 

.1 



• 1 

1 

Mi|i 

I I 

ttllJ 



i.m 

I 



o 

> 



I 
I 

•Li. 

I 



'I 

1 



GMitI 

Mil 





6. MEN’S MESS — Sounds at the hour for the men to sit down to breakfast, dinner, 
tea; it should be underslood that the call is sounded at the exact time, whether 
officer on duty be present or not. 



BUGLE CALLS. 



301 



2 



(Ij 



u 



rrrr 

I ( I i 

iLM 

iLj\ 

1 1 1 

]T% 

I I I 

TTl 



AM 

Ji" 

nU. 

I , 

ill 
iii“ 
tLid 



iU\ 

‘'ilIj 

m 



itj\ 

I *ll 



I W 

I M.\ 



1. 1 

1/ 



li.l\ 

idcb 






m 

I 



am 

N!» 

I aU 



alL 



ail 

l.ai 






ail 

I 

« 

aii 

1 1 ji 
I aii 



*1 

iH 

iili 



d 1 

a 



1 1 I 1 1 

■ AJ, 



IILUj]] 

j WiLl 

\ 1 L*I 

II 



g ‘ 

O 



m 



•T3 



1-3 

-li 

o 

Q 

g 



iir 

II 

ILJ^ 

I 






fl 

*o 

Pa 

Pa 



I I 

^uri 

■ ill II 






ao 

II 
*1// 
«iilf 



Mli 

*.i: 

• I 

aW 






II 









302 



BUGLE CALLS. 




BUGLE CALLS. 



303 




ALL IN. — Sounds for the Battalion to fall in for parade. Also in conjunction with the 
uard, Picquet or Fatigue calls, -when these duties are required to fall in. 



304 



BUGLE CALLS. 




OFFICERS’ MESS ; 1st Bugle. — Sounded in front of the officers’ quarters once or 
twice, according to their extent, half an hour before dinner only, to warn the officers 
to dress. 



BUGLE CALLS. 



305 



i 5 

Hi 

' I 

TTT 

Hij 

I I 

«LU 

i!i‘ 

i. 



ifl 



] 



Ml 

III 

HLJ\ 



«LU 

l!f 

HL 



] 

1 



cltl^ 





21. KETEEAT. — Sounded at the hour named in orders. 



306 



BUGLE CALLS. 




22. FIBST POST. — Sounded by aJl the buglers at the hour appointed, after which the 
drums and fifes should play for half an hour, finishing with ‘‘ God Save the Queen.’' 



BUGLE CALLS. 



307 




FIRST POST.— Concluded. 



308 



BUGLE CALLS, 




23. LAST POST.— Sounded on the regimental parade ground by all the buglers, at the 

hour appointed. 



BUGLE CA,LLS, 



309 




LAST POST.— Concluded 



310 



BUGLE CALLS. 




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05 O 
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05 






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5 3 C5 

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o o o ^ 

tj "d rd 43 

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P J. 



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1.^11 

o o 

»— N d 4 ^ 

P g Q,cn 

O 05 p— N 

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M 



g^sg 

W ?4 C(5 rd 

05 43 ^ 

O «rd g 

^ ^ .BP > 






BUGLE CALLS. 



311 





31:2 



BUGLE CALLS 




INDEX 



A. PAGE. 

Absence, officers’ leave of 69 

non-commissioned officers’ and men’s leave of 71 

without leave, inventory of kit 108 

punishment for 149 

Accoutrements, officers’, how worn 183 

non-commissioned officers’ and men’s 189 

blacking for 188 

who responsible for 34 

Adjutant, duties of 29 

Advance, call for 312 ‘ 

Addressing officers, manner of 131 

Address of soldiers’ letters 52 

Aid of the civil power 137 

Alarm, fire, call for 311 

Appointments, definition of 12 

Applications, how made 39 

Arrest, description of 163 

of officers 163 

non-commissioned officers 164 

Armed parties, by whom commanded 79 

corps, definition of 90 

Arms, how arranged 50 

examination of 132 

in whose charge 34 

Attention, call for , 312 

B. 

Baggage, transport of 217 

guard for 216 

marking of 218 

Bandmaster, duties of 20 

Band sergeant, duties of 20 

Bandsmen, duties of 44 

Bands on parade 130 



[ 313 ] 



14 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Barracks, inspection of 46 

kit inspection 50 

regulations for 46 

Batmen, definition of 75 

Beds, how arranged ! 47 

Bicycle call 312 

Billets 213 

Bivouac 212 

Boards 157 

Books, regimental 194 

company 200 

individual 202 

officers’ 202 

non-commissioned officers’ 202 

Book, casualty 199 

circulars 194 

company defaulter 201 

ledger 43 

order 200 

roll 201 

stores 202 

court martial 199 

defaulter, regimental ’. 197 

detail, sergeant-major 256 

orderly sergeant 260 

diary of parades 199 

digest of services of a battalion 195 

general order 194 

hospital (admission and discharge) 200 

letter 1 196 

quarter-master’s 200 

record of officers’ service 195 

regimental order 194 

register of letters 197 

return 197 

Bugler sergeant, duties of 21 

Buglers, duties of 44 

Bugle calls .* 296 

advance 312 

attention • 312 



INDEX. 



315 



PAGE. 

Bugle calls, band 303 

bicycle 312 

bread 299 

corporals’ 303 

defaulters’ 299 

double : 312 

dress 302 

drummers’ 305 

fall in 304 

fatigue 301 

first post 307 

fire alarm 311 

guard parade 301 

guard salute 311 

last post 309 

lights out 310 

meat 299 

mess, men’s 801 

officers’ (1st and 2nd) 305 

sergeants’ 304 

non-commissioned officers’ 303 

officers’ 303 

orders 304 

picquefc 305 

quarter. 300 

quick time 311 

retreat 306 

reveille 297 

rouse 297 

sergeants’ 302 

signallers’ 312 

vegetables 300 

C. 

Camps, regulations for *. 222 

kitchen 232 

necessaries 224 

plan of 229 

Canteens, regulations for 67 

Canteen sergeant, duties of 22, 67 

Cantonments 213 



316 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Captains, duties of 34 

Captain of the day, duties of 98 

Cash book, company 201 

Casualty book 199 

Cells, guard room 166 

Chevrons 190 

Civil law, oCences punishable by 159 

power, aid of 137 

Clothing, how arranged in quarters 49 

at kit inspection, barrack 50 

field kit 127 

Coffee room 65 

Colour sergeants, duties of 16 

Commanding officer, duties of 25 

powers of 147 

Committee, regimental institute 65 

Commander of guard, duties of . 86 

Company books 200 

cook, duties of 113 

defaulter book 201 

designation 39 

flank 39 

ledger 43 

order book 200 

orderly corporal, duties of 112 

orderly sergeant, duties of 108 

organization 39 

roll book 201 

stores book 202 

taking over • • 36 

Complaints. 176 

Compliments, general 133 

guards, paying 90 

sentries, paying T 93 

Confinement 1^1 

Cook, company 113 

house orderly 107 

Courts martial 152 

of inquiry 157 

Court martial book 199 



INDEX. 



317 



PAGE. 

Court martial sheet, form of 283 

Corporals 13 

Correspondence, official 203 

Correspondence, private 208 

Crying down credit 52 

Crime report 276 

Custody, military, definition of 162 

D. 

Daily routine, regimental 80 

Defaulters 174 

drill of 175 

list of 268 

Defaulter hook, regimental 197 

company 201 

sheet 282 

Detail book, orderly sergeant 260 

sergeant-major 256 

Departmental store account 285 

Desertion 152 

Diet, prison 172 

Diary of parades 199 

Digest of services of a battalion 195 

Discharge 41 

Discipline 144 

Dismissing parade 129 

District court martial, powers of 153 

Divine service 56 

Double time, call for 312 

Dress, non-commissioned officers’ and men’s 188 

officers’ 182 

orders of, officers’ 187 

orders of, non-commissioned officers’ and men 192 

regulations for officers’ 184 

non-commissioned officers’ and men’s 189 

remarks on 179 

Drills, regulations for 116 

Drummer sergeant, duties of 21 

duties of 44 

Drunkenness ' 9 



318 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Drunkenness, fines for 150 

Duties of officers 22 

non-commissioned officers 9 

adjutant 29 

captains 34 

commanding, officer 25 

majors 28 

paymaster 31 

quarter-master 32 

surgeon 33 

subalterns 37 

band sergeant 20 

canteen sergeant 22 

colour sergeant 16 

hospital sergeant 19, 53 

instructor of musketry sergeant 19 

orderly room sergeant 20 

paymaster sergeant 20 

pioneer sergeant 21 

provost sergeant 22, 173 

quarter-master sergeant ^ 15 

sergeants, company 18 

sergeant bugler 21 

drummer 21 

fifer 21 

piper 21 

sergeant-major 14 

roster of, general 76 

officers’ 77 

non-commissioned officers’ and men 79 

routine of 80 

on guard 85 

on sentry 93 

on escort 95 

on picquet 96 

of captain of the day 98 

company orderly sergeant 108 

corporal 112 

cooks 113 

orderly men 114 



INDEX. 



319 



PAGR. 

Duties of passage and stairs orderlies 116 

non-commissioned officer for sick 105 

for defaulters 105 

on gate 106 

• on canteen 106 

for cook house 107 

of a section 18 

police 97 

subaltern of the day 100 

regimental orderly sergeant 103 

corporal 105 

bugler 108 

orderlies 170 

Duty roster, officers’ 254 

non-commissioned officers’ and men 79, 255 

company 79, 259 

E. 

Encampment, formation of 222 

Enrolment, mode of 40 

Equipment, how placed, non-commissioned officers and men .... 49 

worn, “ “ “ 189 

Escorts, duties of 95 

Examination of non-commissioned officers 11 

F. 

Flank companies 39 

Field kit inspection 127 

general courts martial, powers of 155 

Fifer sergeant, duties of 21 

Fire, alarm of 84 

Fines, when awarded 43 

amount of 150 

Form, absent report, company 272 

attestation 237 

address for soldiers’ letters 247 

bed card 246 

cash account 243 

cash book 244 

captain of day’s report 266 

canteen report, non-commissioned officers’ .... 271 

list 269 



320 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Form, court martial sheet 283 

crime report 276 

detail book, company 260 

discharge 238 

door card . 246 

/"officers’ /••• 254 

duty roster J non-commissioned officers’ 255 

(^company 259 

defaulter list 265 

sheet 282 

duty state 257 

field state 279 

guard report 261 

gate list 269 

hospital admission and discharge book 284 

ledger sheet 244 

stores 286 

marching in state 295 

minor offence report 280 

officers’ duty roster 254 

pay sheet . 239 

pass, permanent 252 

daily 253 

r morning 273 

parade state ■< afternoon 275 

tchurch 278 

regimental orderly sergeant’s report 270 

ration return 277 

record of officers’ services 281 

requisition 290 

{ company 248 

regimental 250 

weekly 251 

sergeant-major’s detail book 256 

subaltern of the day’s report 267 



storesledgerj^^^^.^^^^^^ 286 

291 

293 

Forfeitures, when awarded 



f company. . . 
stores book |;„(jividual . 



INDEX, 



321 



PAGE. 

Forfeitures, amount of 150 

Funeral parade, formation of 128 

G. 

Gate duty 106 

General court martial, powers of 154 

General order book 194 

Giving military information 145 

Grocery shop 65 

Guard book 194 

Guards, duties of 85 

commanders of 86 

meals for 103 

paying compliments 90 

Guard parade, formation of 122 

room cells, definition of 162 

H. 

Hospital book 200, 284 

regulations for 53 

sergeant, duties of 19, 53 

I. 

Individual books 202 

Institute, regimental 64 

Inspection, barrack room 46 

kit 50 

field kit 51,127 

medical, of a battalion 55 

ofprison,ers 56 

K. 

Kit inspection, barrack 50 

field 51, 127 

Kitchens, camp 232 

Knapsacks, how arranged 49 

L. 

Latrines . 235 

Lance sergeants 12 

corporals 12 

Law, martial 146 

military 146 

21 



322 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Leave of absence, officers’ 70 

non-commissioned officers’ and men 71 

Ledger, company 201 

stores 200 

Leggings, when worn, officers’ 185 

non-commissioned officers* and men 190 

Letters, regulations for soldiers’ 52 

Letter book, regimental i 196 

quarter-master’s 200 

Library 68 

Lights out, hour for 84 

M. 

Majors, duties of 28 

Marches, regulations for 209 

Martial law 146 

Meals, hours of 82, 83 

dress for 48 

Medical inspection of battalion 55 

prisoners 56 

Mess, officers’ 57 

sergeants’ 61 

company 63 

Military custody, definition of 162 

discussions, prohibition of 145 

law 146 

Minor offences 150 

Musketry, duties of sergeant instructor of 19 

Muster parades, formation of 125 

N. 

Necessaries for camp 224 

Non-commissioned officers, arrest of 164 

appointments. . 12 

books for 202 

classification of 79 

dress 188 

examination of 11 

"" general duties of 9 

in charge of sections, etc 18 



lisTDEX. 323 



PAGE. 

Non-commissioned officers, orders of dress 192 

precedence of 12 

promotion of 10 

punishment of 149 

ranks 11 

reversion of 12 

saluting 133 

O. 

Offences, punishable by commanding officer 147 

captain 151 

civil law 159 

Officers, general duties of 22 

arrest of 163 

books for 202 

court martial book 197 

classification of duties 77 

dress 181 

duty roster, form of 254 

leave 69 

manner of addressing 131 

mess 57 

orderly duties 98 

order of dress 187 

saluting 135 

staff, list of 37 

tour of duty 77 

Official correspondence 203 

Order book, company 200 

regimental 194 

Orders, issue of 51 

what they contain 51 

Orderly room sergeant, duties of 20 

parade, formation of . : 126 

sergeant, duties of regimental 103 

company 108 

room detail book 260 

corporal, duties of regimental 105 

company 112 

cook house, duties of 107 

men, duties of 114 



324 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Orderlies, duties of 107 

Organization, regimental 87 

company 39 

P. 

Patrols 97 

Pay, system of 42 

Paymaster, duties of 31 

Paymaster sergeant, duties of 20 

Parades, bands on 130 

dismissing 129 

drawing swords on 129 

regulations for 116 

field kit inspection 127 

funeral ! 128 

guard 122 

muster 125 

orderly room 126 

picquet 122 

ration 124 

regimental 118 

sick 125 

staff 118 

tattoo 123 

Party demonstrations, forbidden 145 

Passes, regulations for 71 

Plan of a camp 229 

Plain clothes, by whom worn, non-com. officers and men 189 

Picquet, duties of 96 

Picquet parades, formation of 122 

Pioneers, duties of 46 

composition of 46 

sergeant, duties of 21 

Piper sergeant, duties of 21 

Pitching tents, mode of 225 

Police, duties of 97 

Political demonstrations forbidden 145 

Powers of a commanding officer * — 147 

Private soldiers, duties of 7 

Prisoners, before commanding officer 167 



INDEX. 



325 



PAGE. 

Prisoners, diet 172 

medical inspection of 56 

punishment by captain 151 

room, definition of 162 

Private correspondence, how addressed 208 

Promotion, rules for non-commissioned officers’ 10 

Provost rej>fulations 169 

sergeant, duties of 22, 173 

Punishment, by commanding officer 149 

Punishment, by captain 151 

drill, description of 175 

Q. 

Quarter-master, duties of 32 

sergeant, duties of 15 

books 200 

Quarters, choice of 69 

Quick time, call for 312 

R. 

Railway transport, regulations for 218 

Ranks, definition of : 11 

Rations^ when issued . 81 

Ration parade, formation of 124 

Reading room 68 

Recreation room ' 68 

Record of officers’ services 195 

Recruits, how enrolled 40 

Regimental organization 37 

books 194 

court martial, powers of 153 

book 199 

defaulter book 197 

institute 63 

orderly sergeant, duties of 104 

corporal, duties of 105 

order book * 194 

parade, formation of 118 

Regulations for barracks 46 

camp 222 

canteen 67 



326 



INDEX, 



PAGE. 

Regulations for hospital 53 

officers’ mess 67 

provost prison 169 

sergeants* mess 61 

servants 73 

Register of letters 197 

Relieving sentries 92 

Reports, how made 38 

when made 81 

absent 272 

captain of day 266 

canteen non-commissioned officer’s 271 

company sick .- 248 

crime 276 

guard 261 

minor offence 280 

prisoners confined in prisoners’ room 263 

cells 264 

hospital 265 

regimental sick 250 

orderly sergeant 270 

subaltern of day 267 

Requisition, form of 290 

Retreat, hour of 80 

Return book 197 

ration 261 

Reveille, hour of 80 

Road transport, regulations for 215 

Roster of duties, officers* 77 

non-commissioned officers’ 79 

Routine, daily, in barracks or camp 80 

S. 

Salutes, officers’ 135 

non-commissioned officers’ and men 133 

Sections, formation of 39 

non-commissioned officers in charge of 18 

Sentries, duties of 93 

paying compliments 94 

relieving 92 



INDEX. 



327 



PAGE. 

Sergeant-major, duties of 14 

detail book 256 

Sergeant, duties of company 18 

band 20 

canteen 22 

colour 16 

company orderly 108 

hospital 19, 53 

instructor of musketry 19 

lance 12 

orderly room 20 

paymaster 20 

pioneer 21 

provost 22, 173 

quarter-master 15 

regimental orderly 103 

Sergeants’ mess, regulations for 61 

Servants, regulations for 73 

Sick, going into hospital 53 

coming out of hospital 55 

list of, for orderly room 65 

non-commissioned officers detailed for 105 

parade, formation of 125 

prisoners 167 

Signallers call 312 

States, duty 257 

field 279 

marching in or out 295 

r afternoon 275 

States parade -(church 278 

vmorning 273 

Staff sergeants, report to 38 

officers, list of ' 38 

parade, formation of 118 ^ 

Stoppages, for what deducted 44 

Stores book, company 202 

Straw, regulations for, in camp 233 

Striking tents 230 

Subalterns, duties of ; 37 

Subaltern of the day, duties of 100 

Surgeon, duties of 33 



328 



INDEX. 



T. PAGE. 

Tattoo, hour of 80 

parade, formation of 123 

Tent pitching, mode of 225 

striking, mode of 230 

Tolls, regulations for 218 

Tour of duty, officers’ 77 

non-commissioned officers’ and men 79 

Transfer of men 42 

a company 36 

Transport by railway, regulations for 218 

road, “ ** 215 

water, “ “ 221 

officer, duties of 215 

U. 

Uniform, officers’, how worn 182 

non-commissioned officers’ and men, how worn 189 

W. 

Warrant officers 12 

Water bottles, how worn 189 

in camp, regulations for 233 

transport, regulations for 221 



THE COPP, CLARK COMPANY, LIMITED, PRINTERS, TORONTO,