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A  HANDBOOK 

of  ORNAMENT 


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ARCHITECTURAL  BOOK 
PUBLISHING  COMPANY 


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A  HANDBOOK 
OF  ORNAMENT 


WITH  THREE  HUNDRED   PLATES,   CONTAINING 

ABOUT  THREE   THOUSAND    ILLUSTRATIONS    OF 

THE  ELEMENTS,  AND  THE   APPLICATION   OF 

DECORATION  TO  OBJECTS 


By  Franz  Sales  ^Ieyer 

Professor  at  the  School  op"  Applied  Art 
Karlsruhe 


First  American  Edition 


The  Architectural  Book  Publishing  Company 

Paul      Wenzel      an-d      Maurice      Krako^v 
Thirty-one     East    Twelfth     Street,    New    York 


THE  KE'.V  YORK 

PUBLIC  LIBRARY 

872mi 

ASTOR,  LENOX  AND 

TlLDEti  FOUNQATICMNS 

R                1920                 L 

iNTRODUCTIOiN. 


[The  term  "ORNA^fENT",  in  its  limited  sense,  includes  sncTi  of 
the  Elements  of  Decoratiou  as  are  adapted,  or  developed,  from  Natural 
Foliage.  These  differ  from  the  Geometrical  elements,  inasmuch  as 
they  are  organic  i.  e.  possessing  stems,  leaves,  flowers,  &c.,  while  the 
latter  are  inorganic. 

\Vhen  merely  drawn  on  paper,  &c.,  and  unapplied  —  a  foliated 
element  is  considered  in  the  abstract  as  "Ornament".  When  applied 
to  beautify  an  object  —  it  becomes  an  "Element  of  Decoration". 

The  term  "DECORATION"  signifies  the  art  or  process  of  applying 
the  various  Elements  to  beautify  Objects.  It  is  also  used  to  denote 
the  completed  result.  Thus  the  artist,  who  is  occupied  in  the  "deco- 
ration" of  a  vase,  may  represent  ornament  upon  it;  and  the  ornament 
is  then  the  "Decoration"  of  the  vase. 

The  "Elements"  of  Decoration  are:  Geometrical-lines,  Ornament, 
Natural-foliage,  Artificial  Objects,  Animals,  and  the  Human  Figure. 
These  may  be  considered  as  the  "ingredients";  and  they  are  mixed, 
and  applied,  on  various  arrangements  or  "Features",  according  to  certain 
acknowledged  "recipes"  which  are  termed  "Principles". 

The  "Principles"  of  Decoration  are  not  included  in  this  Hand- 
book, as  the  limits  of  it  allow  only  a  brief  notice  of  such  Elements 
as  have  been  in  general  use  during  the  successive  Historic-epochs.] 

Wherever  the  hand  of  man  has  produced  any  Decoration,    be   it 


II  INTRODUCTION. 

original  Invention,   or   only   the   arbitrary  Variation    of  some  familiar 
fundamental  idea,  the  following  will  invariably  be  the  case: 

(a)  The  decoration  is  produced  by  arranging  and  joining  Dots 
and  Lines,  or  by  combining  and  dividing  Geometrical  Figures,  in 
accordance  with  the  laws  of  rhythm,  regularity,  symmetry,  &c.; 

(b)  It  arises  from  the  attempt  of  the  decorator  to  represent  the 
Objects  of  the  external  world.  Nearest  at  hand  for  imitation,  is  or- 
ganic Nature  with  the  Plants,  Animals,  and  Human  form.  But  in- 
organic Nature  also  offers  models:  e.  g.  the  forms  of  Crystallisation 
(snow-flakes),  and  the  Phenomena  of  nature  (clouds,  waves,  &c.).  Rich 
sources  are  also  opened-up  by  the  Artificial  Objects  which  are  fashioned 
by  man  himself. 

It  is  obvious  that  all  kinds  of  Elements  may  De  used  in  com- 
bination: Geometrical  may  be  united  with  Natural  forms;  and  so  on. 
Moreover  it  was  easy  for  human  imagination  to  combine  details  taken 
from  nature  into  monstrous  forms  not  found  in  nature,  e.  g.  the 
Sphinx,  Centaur,  Mermaid,  &c.;  and  Animal  and  Human  bodies 
with  plant-like  terminations. 

If  we  collect,  into  groups,  the  bases  or  motives  of  decoration 
omitting  what  is  non-essential  and  detached,  we  arrive  at  the  classi- 
fication given  in  the  following  pages. 

Decoration  is  applied  to  countless  objects;  and  the  style  may  be 
very  varied  without  being  arbitrary;  being  determined,  firstly,  by  the 
aim  and  the  material  of  the  object  to  be  decorated,  and,  secondly,  by 
the  ideas  ruling  at  different  periods  and  among  different  nations.  It 
is  therefore  obvious  that  it  has  a  comprehensive  and  important  domain. 
A  knowledge  of  it  is  indispensable  to  artists;  and  it  is  an  instructive  and 
sociologically  interesting  factor  of  general  culture. 

The  peculiarities  which  arise  from  the  reciprocal  relation  of 
material,  form,  and  aim,  more  or  less  modified  by  the  ideas  of  the 
Age  and  the  natural  characteristics  of  the  Nation,  are  termed  the 
"Style"  of  that  Period  and  Nation.  The  mention,  of  the  Century  and 
the  Nation,  gives  a  convenient  method  of  labelling  works  of  Art, 
which   is  now  well   understood;  e.  g.  —  "17th  century,  Italian". 

The  majority  of  works  on  ornament,  arrange  their  material 
according  to  Periods  and  Nations;  but  the  present  Handbook,  follow- 
ing the  principles  laid  down  by  Semfjer,  Botticher  and  Jacobsthal,  is 
based  on  a  system  which  is  synthetic  rather  than  analytic;  and  in- 
tended more  to  construct  and  develope  from  the  Elements  than  to 
dissect  and  deduce.     It  contains  three  main  divisions: 

Division  I  treats  of  the  "Elements  of  Decoration",  or  motives  of 
which  it  is  formed.  Geometrical  motives  formed  by  the  rhythmital 
arrangement  of  dots  and  lines,  by  the  regular  section  of  angles,  by 
the  formation  and  division  Of  closed  figures,  are  followed  by  the 
forms  of  Nature    which   are    offered   for   ornamental   imitation   by  the 


INTRODUCTION.  Ill 

vegetable  and  animal  kingdoms,  and  by  the  human  frame.  These  in 
their  turn  are  followed  by  Artificial  Objects,  or  forms  borrowed  from 
Art,  Technology,  and  Science,  and  usually  met- with  in  the  class  of 
trophies,  symbols,  &c. 

Division  II,  "Ornament  applied  to  Features",  arranges  them 
according  to  their  functions,  and  the  reciprocal  relation  between  the 
construction  of  the  object  and  the  application  of  the  ornament.  The 
division  falls  into  five  sub-divisions:  A.  Bands  (bordering,  framing 
and  connecting  forms);  B.  Free  Ornaments  (forms  whose  construction 
expresses  a  termination  or  cessation);  C.  Supports  (types  of  ornament 
which  express  the  principle  of  weight- bearing);  D.  Enclosed  Ornament 
suitable  for  the  enlivenment  of  a  defined  bordered  field,  (panels); 
•  E.  Repeating  Ornament  (the  decoration  of  surfaces  which,  disregarding 
the  limits  of  space,  are  developed,  on  a  geometrical  or  organic  basis, 
into  "patterns"). 

Division  III,  shows  the  application  of  decoration  to  vase- form, 
metal  objects,  furniture,  frames,  jewelry,  heraldry  and  writing, 
printing,  &c. 

Further  details,  as  to  the  groups  and  divisions,  will  be  found  in 
the  "Table  of  the  Arrangement  of  the  Handbook"  which  follows  this 
introduction. 

The  illustrations,  numbering  almost  3,000,  and  comprised  on  300 
full-page  plates,  represent  the  styles  of  the  most  various  periods  and 
nations.  A  comparatively  large  share  of  attention  has  been  devoted 
to  the  Antique,  because  it  is  in  that  Period  that  form  usually  finds 
its  clearest  and  most  beautiful  expression.  Next  to  that  in  impor- 
tance is  the  Renascence  with  its  wealth  and  freedom  of  form.  The 
space,  devoted  to  the  creations  of  the  Middle  Ages,  is  more  limited. 
From  the  styles  of  the  Decadence,  only  a  few  examples  have  been 
admitted,  for  the  sake  of  comparison  and  characterisation.  Modem 
times,  as  a  rule,  have  only  been  taken  into  account,  where  forms  arose 
which  do  not  occur  in  the  historic  styles. 

The  illustrations  have  been  partly  taken  direct  from  the  originals; 
and  partly  —  as  was  almost  unavoidable  —  reproduced  from  other  Books; 
for  the  leading  idea  of  the  present  work  is  not  to  ofi"er  anything  "fiew, 
but  to  arrange  what  is  already  known,  in  a  manner  suitable  both  to 
the  subject  and  to  the  aim  of  a  Handbook.  Where  the  author  was 
acquainted  with  the  source,  which  he  regrets  was  not  always  the 
case,  the  authority  has  been  mentioned  in  the  text. 

Each  division  and  sub-division  is  prefixed  by  a"  few  remarks  on 
style  and  history,  characteristics,  motives,  symbolism,  aim,  and  appli- 
cation. These  are  followed,  so  far  as  is  necessary  and  practicable, 
by  notes  on  the  places  where  the  objects  illustrated  were  discovered, 
where  they  are  now  preserved,  and  on  their  material  and  size.     Hints 


IV 


UNTROOUCTION. 


as   to   construction,    are  given   only  where   the  construction  cannot  at 
once  be  inferred  from  the  figure. 

Readers  who  use  this  book  for  purposes  of  tuition,  will  find  in 
the  Author's  " Ornamentale  Formenlehre"*  the  Plates  on  a  scale  of 
2^/2  times  the  size  of  this  Handbook,  together  with  the  requisite  hints 
for  the  use  of  the  work  in  schools. 


•  Franz  Sales  Meyer: 
plates,  in  a  portfolio. 


Ornamentale  Formenlehre;    Three  hundred  folio 


TABLE 

SHOWING  THE  ARRANGEMENT  OF  THE  CHAPTERS  AND  PLATES. 


DIVISION    I. 
Thk  Elements  of  Decoratiox. 


A.  Geometrical  Elements. 

1.  Network. 
2-4.  Band  Motives. 
5-7.  Diaper  Patterns. 
8.  The  Sector,  Polygon,  and  Star. 
9-10.  The  Square,  and  its  Subdivision. 

11.  The    Octagon,    and    its    Sub- 
division. 

12.  The   Triangle,   Hexagon,   &c., 
and  their  Subdivision. 

13-16.  The    Oblong,     and    its    Sub- 
division. 

17.  The  Rhombus,  and  Trapezium, 
and  their  Subdivision. 

18.  The  Circle,  its  Subivision,  and 
Intersections. 

19.  Gothic  Tracery. 

20.  The  Ellipse,  and  its  Subdivision. 

B.   Natural  Forms. 

a.    The   Organisms   of  Plants    (The 
Flora  of  Ornament). 

21.  The  Akanthos  Leaf. 
22-23.  The  Artificial  Leaf. 
24-26.  Artificial  Foliage. 
27-28.  The  Laurel,  and  Olive. 
29-30.  The  Vine. 

31.  The  Lotus,  Papyrus,  and  Palm. 

32.  The  Ivy. 

33.  The   Com,    and  Convolvulus. 

34.  The  Hop,  and  Bryony. 


35.  Various  Leaves. 
36-37.  Various  Flowers. 
38-39.  The  Fruit  Festoon. 

40.  The  Leaf,  and  Flower  Festoon. 

b.  Animal  Organisms  (The  Fauna  of 
Ornament). 

41-44.  The  Lion. 
45-46.  The  Griffin,  &c. 
47-48.  The  Lion  Head. 
49-50.  The  Panther  Head,  ka. 

51    The  Horse  Head.  &c. 
52-54.  The  Eagle. 

55.  The  Wing. 
56-58.  The  Dolphin. 

59.  The  Shell. 

60.  The  Serpent,  &c. 

c.  Human  Organism. 

61.  The  Mask. 

62-64.  The  Grottesquo  Mask. 

65.  The  Medusa  Head. 

66.  The  Grottesque. 
67-68.  The  Half-Figure. 

69.  The  Sphinx,  and  Centaur. 

70.  The  Cherub-Head,  &c. 

C.  Artificial  Objects. 

71-72.  The  Trophy. 
73-77.  The  SymboL 
78-79.  The  Ribbon. 

80.  Miscellaneous  Objects. 


VI 


TABLE. 


DIVISION    II. 
Ornaaient  applied  to  Features. 


A.  Bayids. 

81-84.  The  Fret  Band. 

85.  The  Chain  Band. 
86-90.  The  Interlacement  Band. 

91.  The  Rosette  Band. 

92.  The  Palmette  Band. 

93.  The  Vertebrate  Band. 
94-96.  The  Undulate  Band. 

97.  The  Evolute-Spiral  Band. 

98.  The     Enrichment     of    the 
Astragal. 

99.  TheEnrichmentoftheTorus. 
100.  The  Enrichment  of  the  Cynia. 

and  the  Ovolo. 

B.  Free  Ommnents. 

101-103.  The  Link  Border. 

104.  The  Cresting  Border. 
105-106.  The  Akeroter,  and  Antefix. 

107.  The  Stele  Crest. 

108.  The  Perforated  Cresting. 
109-110.  The  Cross. 

111-112.  The  Finial. 

113.  The  Finial-Knob,  and  Vase. 

114.  The  Pendant-Knob. 

115.  The  Rosette. 

116.  The  Crocket,  and  Gargoyle. 

117.  The  Hinge,  &c. 

118.  The  Tassel. 

119.  The  Fringe,  and  Valence. 

120.  The  Lace  Border. 

C.    Supports. 

121.  The  Foliated  Shaft. 

122.  The  Fluted  Shaft. 
123-124.  The  Base. 


125.  The  Decorated  Shaft 

126.  The  Profiled  Shaft. 
127-130.  The  Capital. 

131.  The  Pilaster  Panel. 
132-134.  The  Pilaster  Capital. 

135.  The  Candelabrum  Base. 

136.  The  Candelabrum  Shaft. 

137.  The  Candelabrum    Capital. 

138.  The  Balauster. 

139.  The  Terminus. 

140.  The  Parapet. 

141.  The  Railing  Post. 

142.  The  Furniture  Leg. 
143-144.  The  Trapezophoron. 
145-147.  The  Console. 

148.  The  Bracket. 
149-150.  The  Caryatid,   Atlante,  &c. 

D.  Enclosed  Ornaments,   or   Panels. 

151-155.  The  Square  Panel. 

156.  The  Star-shape  Panel. 
157-160.  The  Circular  Panel. 
161-164.  The  Oblong  Panel. 

165.  The  Elliptic  Panel, 
166-167,  The  Lunette,  and  Spr.nrail 
Panel. 

168.  The  Lozenge  Panel. 
169-170.  Various  Panels. 

E.  Repeating  Ornaments,  or  Diapers. 

171.  The  Square  Diaper,  &c. 

172.  The  Circle  Diaper,  &c. 

173.  The  Scale  Diaper,  &c. 
174-175.  The  Circle  Diaper,  &c. 
176-179.  Various  Diapers. 

180.  Various  Grill  Diapers. 


DIVISION    III. 
Decorated  Objects. 


A.  Vases,  &c. 

181.  Fundamental  Vase-Forms, 
a.  Holders. 

182.  The  Amphora 

183.  The  Urn. 

184.  The  Krater. 

185.  The  Basin,  and  Dish. 


186.  The  Ampulla,  A  labastron,&c. 

187.  The  Flower- Vase,  &c. 

188.  Vase     forms     for    varions 
purposes. 

189.  The  Jar,  and  Cist. 

190.  The  Font,  and  Holy-Water 
Stoup. 


TABLK. 


Vll 


b.  Dippers. 

lyi.  The  Hvdiia. 

192.  The  Bucket,  &c. 

193.  The  Spoon,  and  Ladle. 

c.  Pourers. 

19-i.  The    Prochous,     Oinochoe, 
Olpe,  &€. 

195.  The  Lekythus. 
196-197.  The  Lip-spout  Pitcher. 

198.  The  Pipe-spout  Pot. 
109-200.  The  Bottle. 

d.  Drinking  Vessels. 

201.  The  Kylix,  Kantharos,   &c. 

202.  The  Rhvton. 

203.  The  Cup.  and  Beaker. 

204.  The  Chalice,  and  Goblet. 

205.  The  Hanap. 

206.  The  Rummer  or  Romer. 

207.  Various  Drinking  Vessels. 

208.  The  Mug. 

209.  The  Tankard. 

210.  Modern  Drinkitig  Glasses. 

B.  Metal  Objects. 

a.  Utensils  for  Illumination. 
211-212.  The  Candelabrum. 

213.  The  Antique  Lamp. 
214-215.  The  Candlestick. 

216.  The  Hand-Candlestick 

217.  The  Candle-Bracket. 
21S.  The  Pendant-Lamp. 

219.  The  Chandelier. 

220.  Modern  Lamps. 

b.  Religious  Utensils. 

221.  The  Altar. 

222.  The  Tripod. 

223.  The  Censer. 

224.  The  CruciGx. 

225.  The     Crozier.     and     Mon- 
strance. 

C.    Utensils    of  War    and    Hunting; 
Weapons. 

226.  The  Shield. 

227.  The  Helmet. 

228.  TheSword.  and  its  Scabbard. 

229.  The  Dagger    and  its  Scab- 
bard. 

230.  The  Halberd,  &c. 

d.  Table  Utensils. 

231.  The  Spoon. 


2.32.  The  Knife,  and  Fork, 

233.  The  Paper-Knife. 

234.  The  Scissors. 

235.  The  Hand-Bell. 

e.    Various  Domestic  Utensils,  &c, 

23G.  The  Door-Knocker. 

237.  The  Kev. 

238.  The  Hand-Mirror. 

239.  The  Fan. 

240.  Various  Tools. 

C.    Furniture. 

a.  Seats. 
241-243.  The  Chair. 

244-245.  The  Throne,  and  Arm-chair. 
24G.  The  SfaU. 

247.  The  Stool. 

248.  The  FoIding-Chair 

249.  The  Bench. 

250.  The  Sofa,  and  Couch. 

b.  Tables. 

251.  The  Table 

252.  The  Writing-Table. 

c.  Cabinets. 

253.  The  Cabinet. 

254.  The  Sideboard. 

255.  The  Hanging-Cabinet. 

256.  The  Chest. 

d.  Miscellaneous. 

257.  The  Desk,  and  Easel. 

258.  The  Clock- Case,  and  Toilet 
Cabinet. 

259-260.  The   Bedstead,  and  Cradle. 

D.  Frames,  &c. 

261-262.  The  Architectural  Frame. 
263-264.  The  Mirror-Frame.  &c. 
265-266.  The  Strap-work  Frame. 
267-268.  The  Typographical    Frame. 

269.  The  Strap-work  Tablet. 

270.  The  Strap-work  Border,  and 
Margin. 

E.  Jewelry. 

271.  The  Pin. 

272.  The  Button. 

273.  The  Ring. 

274.  The  Chain. 

275.  The  Necklace. 

276.  The  Bracelet. 


VIII 


TABLE. 


277.  The    Girdle,    Buckle,    and 
Clasp. 

278.  The  Pendant. 

279.  The  Ear-ring. 

280.  Miscellaneous  Jewelry. 

J^.  Heraldry. 

281.  Tinctures,  and  Divisions,  of 
the  Shield. 

282.  Shapes  of  the  Shield. 

283.  Ordinaries. 
2S4-285.  Charges. 

286.  Forms  of  the  Helmet. 
2S7-288.  Helmet  Trappings. 


289.  Crowns.  Coronets,  &c. 
290   Heraldic  Accessories. 

G.   Writing,  Printing,  <Sx. 

291.  Romanesque  Letters. 
292-293.  Gothic  Uncial  Letters. 

294.  Old  English  Letters,  &c. 

295.  Old  German  Letters. 

296.  Modem  Texts. 

297.  Renaissance  Letters. 

298.  Roman  Initials. 

299.  Roman  Letters. 

300.  ConstructionB,       Numerals, 
Monograms. 


A. 


GEOMETRICAL  ELEMENTS  AND  MOTIVES. 


Geometrical  Ornament  is  the  primordial  or  oldest  of  the  Elements 
of  Decoration.  The  implements  of  savages,  and  the  tattooing  of  the 
Indians,  prove  this.  The  seam,  with  the  thread  running  slant-wise 
from  one  piece  to  the  other,  may  have  been  the  original  for  the 
Zigzag  line;  and  woven-work,  of  ■vyarp  and  woof  of  every  kind,  the 
original  for  Reticulated  patterns;  and  the  plaited  hair  that  of  the 
Plaited  band.  The  revolutions  of  a  fork-like  instrument  led  to  the  dis- 
covery of  the  Circle;  the  combination  of  dots,  at  regular  intervals,  to 
the  Polygon  or  Pointed -star.  The  gradual  developement  of  these 
original  geometrical  forms,  rising  from  stage  to  stage  with  the  growth 
of  culture  and  knowledge,  led  finally  to  geometrical  artistic  forms 
such  as  we  see  in  Moorish  panelled  ceilings,  in  Gothic  tracery,  in 
guilloche-work,  and  the  like.  The  developement  of  geometry  into  a 
science,  with  its  theorems  and  proofs,  also  came  to  the  assistance 
of  art.  As  evidence  of  this,  we  need  only  refer  to  the  construction 
of  the  ellipse  from  given  lengths  of  axes. 

The  majority  of  all  geometrical  ornaments  may  be  divided  into 
three  groups.  They  are  either  continuous  and  ribbon-like  (bands),  or 
in  enclosed  spaces  (panels),  or  in  unlimited  flat  patterns.  In  every 
case  the  foundation  of  the  geometrical  ornament  will  be.  a  certain 
division,  a  subsidiary  construction,  or  a  network.  We  will  begin 
with  the  last;  and  pass  in  turn  to  the  ribbon  motives,  the  flat  patterns, 
and  the  figure  motives. 

1* 


4  Network.  —  Band  Motives. 

Network.    (Plate  1.) 

The  systems  of  subsidiary  lines  required  in  geometrical  patterns, 
e.  g.:  parquets,  mosaics,  window-glazing,  &c.,  are  termed  Nets.  The 
name  explains  itself.  They  may  be  of  very  various  kinds.  The  most 
frequent  are  quadrangular  and  triangular  reticulations,  combined  of 
single  squares  or  equilateral  triangles.  A  special  network,  resembling 
the  plait  of  a  cane  chair,  is  required  for  some  Moorish  patterns. 

Plate  1.    Network. 

1.  Ordinary  quadrangular.  Equal  divisions  are  set  off  in  one  direc- 
tion, parallels  are  drawn  through  the  points  of  division,  and 
the  former  cut  by  a  line  at  an  angle  of  45".  The  points, 
where  these  diagonals  cut  the  parallels,  mark  the  divisions  in 
the  Qpposite  direction. 

2.  Oblique  quadrangular.  The  divisions  are  set-off  on  a  vertical 
line  and  the  parallels  are  then  drawn  at  an  angle  of  45"  on 
each  side  of  the  points  of  division. 

3.  Straight,  with  alternate  divisions.    Construction  similar  to  No.  1. 

4.  Oblique  quadrangular,  with  alternate  divisions.  Construction 
similar  to  No.  2. 

5.  Moorish  Diapers. 

6.  Enlarged  detail  to  No.  5. 

7.  Triangular  net.  It  is  based  on  the  construction  of  the  equi- 
lateral triangle;  and  may  be  arranged  in  two  attitudes,  as  shown 
in  figs.  8  and  9. 

8  and  9.     Enlarged  details  to  fig.  7. 


Band  Motives.    (Plates  2 — 4.) 

Plates  2,  3  and  4  contain  a  number  of  band  motives.  These 
are  made  by  the  joining  of  regularly-placed  points:  those  in  Plate  2 
are  joine'd  by  straight  lines;  those  in  Plate  3  by  arcs;  and  those  in 
Plate  4  by  a  combination  of  both. 

Each  of  the  plates  contains,  beneath  the  motives,  specimens  of 
their  application,  taken  from  different  styles. 

Plate  2.    Band  Motives,  in  Straight  lines. 

1,  7,  8  and  14.     Greek. 

2.  Zigzag  lines. 

15.  Moorish  plaited  band. 
6  and  16.     These  examples   may   be  illustrated   by  folded  strips  of 
paper. 


GEOMETRICAL  ELEMENTS. 


Network. 


Plate  1. 


GEOMETRICAL  ELEMENTS. 


^^^^ 


M  M  ly 


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Plato  2. 


Band  Motives. 


GEOMETRICAL  ELEMENTS 


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Band  Motiyea. 


Plate  3 


GEOMETRICAL  ELEMENTS. 


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Plate  4. 


Band  Motives. 


Baud  Motives.  —  Diaper  Patterns.  9 

71  and  19.     Carvings  in   basrelief   from  the  implements  of  savages. 

18.  Greek  vase  painting,  Motive:  the  seam. 

20.  Waves  with  lotus,  Egyptian  wall-painting,  (Qwen  Jones). 

E*LATE  3.    Band  Motives,  m  Arcs. 

5  and  13.     Undulate  lines. 
10.  Motive   of  the  "strung  coin"  pattern  (coins  threaded  on  a  cord). 

17.  Romanesque  ornament  from  an  evangeliarium  written  for  Charle- 

magne, 8th  cebtury,  Library  of  the  Louvre,  Paris. 

18.  Romanesque  mural  painting,  Swedish  church. 

19.  Chinese  damaskeened  ornament  from  a  vase,  (Racinet). 

Plate  4.    Band  Moti\'es,  Mixed. 

13.  Romanesque  glass  painting,  church  of  S.  Urban,  Troyes. 

15.  Frieze,  house,  Beaune,   17th  century,  (Racinet). 

N.  B.  Where  two  area  are  joined:  it  is  necessary,  in  order  to  avoid  a 
break,  that  the  two  centres  and  the  point  of  junction  should  be  in  the 
same  straight  line. 


Diaper  Patterns.    (Plates  5 — 7.) 

Plates  5,  6  and  7  give  a  selection  for  flat  patterns.  Almost  all 
the  constructions  may  be  referred  to  the  quadrangular  or  the  trian- 
gular Net.  The  examples  in  Plate  5  show  junctions  in  a  straight 
line;  those  in  Plate  6  are  composed  of  arcs;  and  in  Plate  7  the 
regularly-placed  points  are  joined  by  mixed  lines. 

The  designs  may  be  used  as  patterns  for  parquet  flooring,  window 
glazing,  and  similar  work,  without  further  enrichment.  They  are  at 
the  same  time  available  as  construction-lines  for  the  further  develope- 
ment  of  richer  patterns  for  mural  and  glass  painting,  caijiets,  tapestry, 
ceilings,  &c.,  as  shown  by  the  examples  of  application  appended  to 
the  simple  motives. 

Plate  5.    Diaper  Patterns,  ac,  avitii  Straight  li.ves. 

4  and  6.  Roof-covering  may  be  considered  as  the  motive. 
10.  The  natural  motive  is  the  cell  of  the  honey  bee. 

13 — 15.     Designs  for  cofi'er  ceiling,  by  Sebastian  Serlio.  IGth  century, 
fPormenschatz). 

Plate  6.    Diaper  Patterns,  with  Arcs. 

1,  4   and  7.     Scale  motives. 
10.   Romanesque  glass  painting,  Cathedml,   Bonrges,  (Racinet). 


10 


GEOMETRICAL  ELEMENTS. 


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Plate  5. 


Diaper  Platterns, 


GEOMETRICAL  ELEMENTS. 


11 


Diaper  Platterns. 


Plate  6. 


12 


GEOMETRICAL  ELEMENTS. 


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Plate 


Diaper  Platterns. 


N 


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Diaper  ratterns.  —  The  Sector,  Polygon,  and  Star.  13 

11.  Mural    painting,    Assisi,    (Vorbilder    fiir   Fabrikanten   und   Hand- 
werker). 

12.  Old  Italian  mural  painting,  San  Francesco,  Assisi,  (Hessemer). 

Plate  7.    Diaper  Patterns,  with  Mixed  lin-es. 

10.  Old  Italian  mural  painting  San  Francesco,  Assisi,  (Hessemer). 

The  Sector,  The  Polygon,  and  the  Star. 

Polygons  and  Stars  are  of  frequent  occurrence  in  ornamental 
design.  The  Sector  is  the  foundation  of  Rosettes.  The  Polygon  and 
the  Star  are  often  used  as  Frames  to  Ornaments.  They  also  servo 
as  compartments  in  coffer  Ceilings  and  composite  ornamental  designs. 
In  this  case,  they  are  frequently  divided  into  smaller  figures,  as  will 
be  seen  in  the  following  plates. 

Plate  8  gives  the  shape,  and  construction  of  those  which  most 
frequently  occur;  followed  by  some  examples  of  their  application. 

Plate  8.    Radiating  Figures,  &c. 
1 — 4.     The  Sector,  produced  by  the  regular  division  of  circles. 

5.  The  Square,  described  obliquely  in  a  circle, 

6.  The  Square  formed  by  the  juxtaposition  of  right  angles  and 
cutting-off  the  lengths  for  the  sides. 

7.  The  regular  Octagon,  described  obliquely  in  a  circle. 

8.  The  regular  Octagon,  described  in  the  square  by  measuring 
half  diagonals  from  its  angles. 

9.  The  regular  Triangle  and  Hexagon,  formed  by  measuring  the 
radius,  as  chords,  six  times  round  the  circumference. 

10.  The    regular    Duodecagon,    formed    by   applying    the    radius 

to  the  circle  from  the  ends  of  two  diameters  at  right  angles 
to  each  other. 

11 — 12.  The  regular  Pentagon  and  Decagon,  formed  by  a  construc- 
tion based  on  tho  theorem  of  the  "Golden  Mean",  as  shown 
in  the  figures. 

13.  The  regular  five-pointed  Star,  formed  by  joining  the  alter- 
nate points  of  five  points  placed  at  equal  distances  in  the 
circumference  of  a  circle.  Known  in  the  history  of  magic 
and  witchcraft  as  the  Peiitagram  or  'Tentacle ". 

14.  The  regular  six-pointed  Star,  formed  by  joining  alternate 
points  placed  at  equal  distances  in  the  circumference  of  a 
circle. 


14     The  Sector,  Polygon,  and  Star.  —  The  Square,  and  its  Subdivisions. 

15 — 16.  Eegular  eight-pointed  Star,  formed  by  combining  every 
second  or  third  of  eight  points  placed  at  equal  distances  in 
the  circumference  of  a  circle. 

17 — 18.  Regular  ten-pointed  Stars,  formed  by  joining  every  second 
or  third  of  ten  points  placed  at  equal  distances  in  the 
circumference  of  a  circle. 

The  pointed  Stars  may  also  be  formed  by  producing  to 
a  sufficient  distance  the  sides  of  ordinary  regular  polygons; 
and,  conversely,  each  star  contains  a  simpler  star,  as  well 
as  the  regular  polygon  of  the  same  number  of  sides. 

19.  Star,  formed  by  a  suitable  combination  of  corresponding 
i:>oints  regularly  placed  on  the  circumferences  of  two  con- 
centric circles. 

20.  Uraniscus,  the  star-like  decoration  .of  a  Greek  coffer  ceiling. 
From  the  Propylaea  in  Athens.     Gold  on  a  blue  ground. 

21.  Back  of  a  modem  chair,  carved  in  basrelief. 

22.  Ornamentation  of  a  semi -regular  pointed  star.  Arabic, 
16th  century,  (Prisse  d' Avenues). 


The  Square,   and  its  Subdivisions.    (Plates  9  and  10.) 

The  regular  four-sided  figure  or  Square,  with  its  equal  sides 
and  angles,  is  a  fundamental  form  of  frequent  occurence.  It  may  be 
divided  into  compartments  in  various  ways;  the  principal  auxiliary 
lines  for  this  purpose  being  the  Diagonals  (or  oblique  lines  con- 
necting the  angles),  and  the  Diameters  (or  lines  connecting  the  centre 
of  each  side).  Where  the  square  is  divided  for  a  ceiling,  floor  or 
similar  object:  a  border  is  made  round  the  enclosed  space.  In  most 
cases,  a  large  central  compartment  is  retained;  and  this  may  be  a 
square,  either  parallel  or  oblique  to  the  other;  or  may  be  a  circle, 
an  octagon,  &c. 

The  Subdivisions  of  Plate  9  follow  the  richer  divisions  of 
Plate  10. 

Plate  9.    The  Square. 

1 — 15.  The  simple  Subdivisions. 

Plate  10.    The  Square. 

1—8.  Richer  and  more  complicated  Subdivisions. 
6.  Panelling  of  Ceiling,  inn,  Nuremberg,  Modern. 

8.  Panelling    of    ceiling,    Massimi    Palace,    Rome,    by    Baldassare 

Peruzzi,  Italian  Renascence,   (Letarouilly). 


GEOMETRICAL  MOTIVES. 


The  Sector,  the  Polygon,  and  the  Star.  Plate  8. 


16 


GEOMETRICAf.  MOTIVES. 


Plate  9.  The  Square,  and  its  Subdivisiou. 


GEOMETRICAL  MOTIVES. 


17 


The  Square,  and  its  Subdivieion. 

Heyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament. 


Plate  10. 
2 


1 8    The  Subdivisious  of  the  Octagou,  Triangle,  aud  Hexagon.  —  The  Oblong,  &c. 

The  Suddivision  of  the  Octagon,  Triangle,  and 
Hexagon.    (Plates  11  and  12.) 

Next  to  tbe  square:  the  regular  polygons  most  frequently  occur- 
ring in  ornamentation  are  the  Octagon  and  the  Hexagon.  The  Triangle, 
Pentagon,  Decagon  and  Duodccagon  are,  for  obvious  reasons,  less 
common;  ^vhile  the  other  regular  polygons  are  scarcely  used  at  all. 
Sometimes  the  semi-regular  polygons  also  appear.  These  are  formed 
by  cutting-off  equal  triangles  from  the  angles  of  a  regular  polygon 
in  such  a  manner  that  the  resulting  figare  has  long  and  short  sides 
alternately,  and  the  angles  all  lie  on  the  circumference  of  a  circle. 

Diagonals  and  Diameters  wth  series  of  lines  in  the  manner  of 
pointed  stars,  are  the  readiest  auxiliaries  for  dividing  regular  and 
semi-regular  Polygons. 

Plate  11.    The  Octagon. 

1 — 8.  Tbe  best-known  Subdivisions. 

Plate  12.    The  Tkiangle,  the  Hexagon,  &c. 

1 —  5.  Simple  Subdivisions  of  the  Equilateral  triangle. 

6 — 13.  The  best-known  Subdivisions  of  the  regular  Hexagon. 

14.  Subdivisions  of  a  regular  Pentagon. 

The  Oblong,  and  its  Subdivision.    (Plates  13 — IG) 

The  right-angled  plane  figure  with  unequal  pairs  of  sides, 
known  as  an  Oblong,  is  the  most  usual  of  all  fundamental  forms. 
Ceilings,  floors,  walls,  doors,  wainscoting,  panels  of  furnitme,  table- 
tops,  book-covers,  and  numbers  of  other  objects,  have  an  oblong 
shape.  The  difference  in  the  lengths  of  the  sides  adapts  itself  to  all 
possible  conditions:  the  Oblong  approaching  the  square  on  the  one 
hand  and  the  Band  or  Border  on  the  other;  so  that  the  divisions  are 
very  various;  as  will  be  seen  by  a  glance  at  the  examples.  As  a 
rule,  the  diagonal  is  not  used  as  an  auxiliaiy  line,  but  is  replaced 
by  the  mitral-line  of  the  angle,  as  this  latter  alone  gives  equal 
breadths  of  the  Border.  When  the  Oblong  appVoaches  the  Square,  a 
distorted  square  subdivision  is  sometimes  resorted-to,  (Compare  PL  16, 
lig.  2). 

Plate  13.    The  Oblong. 

1 — 6.  The  usual  subdivisions. 

Mosaic,  flooring,  Italian,  16th  century,  (Stored). 


GEOMETRICAL  MOTIVES. 


19 


F ~/^ 

,  /\ 

%^rm^ 

y  \ 

The  Octagon,  and  its  Subdivision. 


Plate  11. 
2" 


GEOMETRICAL  MOTIVES 


Plate  12.      The  Triangle,  HexagoD,  &c.,  and  their  Subdivision. 


The  Oblong,  and  its  Subdivision.  —  The  Subdivision  of  the  Rhombus,  ic.     2i 

Plate  14.    The  Oblong. 

1.  Subdivision  for  Door  panels,  Sofits  of  arches,  Ac. 

2.  „  „    tablets,  &c. 

3.  „  „    Borders  for  ceilings. 
4  and  5.  Modern  Album -covers,  (Gewerbehalle). 

Plate  15.    The  Oblong. 

1.  Ceiling,  Quedlinburg,  German,   1560,  (Gewerbehalle). 

2.  Ceiling,  Massimi  Palace,  Rome,  by  Baldassare  Peruzzi,    (Leta- 
rouilly). 

3.  CofFer  ceiling,  Famese  Palace,  Rome,  by  Barozzi  da  Vignola. 
(Letarouilly). 

Plate  16.    The  Oblong. 

1.  Ceiling,  modern,  (Gewerbehalle). 

2.  Vaulted   ceiling,   S.  Peter's,    Rome,    beginning   of  the    17th 
century,  (Italienisches  Skizzenbuch). 


^    The  Subdivision  of  the  Rhombus,  and  the  Trapezium 

(Plate  17.) 

Rhombus  or  "Lozenge"  is  the  name  usually  given  to  the  equi- 
lateral foursided  figure  with  pairs  of  unequal  angles.  The  principal 
auxiliary  lines  of  these  figures  are  the  diagonals.  The  subdivision 
generally  leaves  an  oblong  or  hexagonal  panel  in  the  centre. 

The  Trapezium  is  a  four-sided  figure  with  unequal  sides.  The 
Parallel  Trapezium  has  two  parallel  sides  which  are  unequal  and  two 
equal  sides  which  are  not  parallel  (PI.  17,  figs.  5  to  8).  The  Sym- 
metrical Trapezium  has  two  pairs  of  adjacent  equal  sides  (PI.  17, 
figs.  9  and  10).  Any  other  irregular  four-sided  rectilinear  figure  is 
a  Trapezoid.  Some  suitable  subdivisions  are  given  on  Plate  17. 
Definite  directions  for  the  Trapezoid  can  scarcely  be  given;  its  sub- 
division is  seldom  easy,  and  varies  with  each  particular  case.  The 
general  principle  is:  — Endeavour  to  cut-off  projecting  angles  by  means 
of  triangles  in  such  a  way  as  to  leave  a  portion  of  the  entire  figure 
regular  or  symmetrical.  This  is,  however,  a  matter  of  artistic  taste: 
and  more  easily  learnt  than  taught. 

Among  other  applications  of  the  symmetrical  or  parallel  Tra- 
pezium is  that  to  Cupolas  of  Domes:  the  lines  are  indeed  curves 
on  a  bent  surface;  but  this  causes  very  little  alteration  in  the  sub- 
division. 


22 


GEOMETRICAL  MOTIVES. 


, — J 

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Plate  13. 


The  Oblong,  and  its  Subdivision. 


GEOMETRICAL  MOTIVES. 


23 


V%i 


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The  Obloug,  and  its  Subdivision. 


Plate  14. 


24 


GEOMETRICAL  MOTIVES. 


Plate  15. 


The  Oblong,  and  its  Subdivision. 


GEOMETRICAL  MOTIVES. 


25 


The  Oblong,  and  its  Subdivision. 


Plate  16. 


26 


GEOMETRICAL  MOTIVES. 


Plate  17.      The  Rhombus,  the  Trapezium,  and  their  Subdivision. 


o 


Tliff'Subdivisions  of  the  Uhombvis,  &c.  —  TlioCirclc,  SiC.  —  GotliicTracciy.  21 

Pi^TE  17.    TiiE  RnoMcus,  and  the  TuvPEZiuii. 
1  —  4.  Subdivision  of  the  Kborabus. 

—   8.         "  „  „      „     Parallel   Trapezium. 

9 — 10.  „  „     ,,     Syruiuetrical  Trapezium. 


The  Circle,  its  Subdivision,  and  Intersections. 

(Plate  18.) 

The  Circle  is  often  used  in  ornamentation  as  a  fundamental  form. 
No  good  result  is  produced  (as  a  rule)  by  dividing  it  merely  by 
radii  or  other  straight  lines;  and  it  is  therefore  usually  divided  by 
means  of  cui-ved  lines  or  of  a  combination  of  arcs  and  straight  lines. 
By  describing  circles  to  cut  each  otlier:  motives  may  be  obtained,  as 
shown  by  figures  3  and  7,  the  latter  of  which  is  the  basis  of  a 
Roman   mosaic  pavement  found   in   Pompeii  (Figure  17). 

That  circles  which  cut  each -other  form  of  themselves  an  efifec- 
tive  pattern — is  shown  by  the  engine-tm-ned  ornament,  which  is  pro- 
duced by  machinery  and  applied  to  the  decoration  of  Watch-cases, 
and  to  the  plates  from  which  Bank  notes,  Share  certificates,  &c.  arc 
printed. 

Ornamentation  by  means  of  arcs  plays  a  conspicuous  part  in 
Gothic  tracery,  which  will  be  treated-of  in  the  following  chapter. 

Plate  18.    The  Circle. 

1 — 12.     Different  divisions  and  intersections. 

13  —  IG.  Tracery  in  the  Gothic  style. 

17.  Centre  of  a  mosaic  pavament,  Pompeii,  (Kunsthandwork). 


Gothic  TracEry.    (Plato  19.) 

In  the  forms  of  Tracery,  the  Gothic  style  evolved  and  brought 
to  perfection  a  characteristic  decoration  by  means  of  arcs  of  circles. 
And  although  the  results  have  something  stiff  and  mechanical,  when 
compared  -with  the  ornaments  taken  direct  from  nature  in  other  styles, 
it  cannot  be  denied  that  they  possess  a  great  originality,  and  richness 
of  form. 

Tracery  was  chiefly  applied  to  stone,  and  wood;  in  architecture, 
and  furniture;  for  galleries,  windows,  and  panels,  &c. 

Well-known  forms  are  the  circles  (figs.  13 — 16  of  Plate  18 
showing  2,  3,  4  and  6  foliations),  the  trefoil  (Plate  19,  figs.  3  and  4), 


GEOxMETRICAL  MOTIVES 


Plate  18. 


The  Circle,  and  its  Sufadivisiou. 


GEOMETRICAL  MOTIVES. 


Gothic  Tracery. 


I'late  19. 


30  Gothic  Tracery.  —  The  Ellipse. 

the  quatrefoil   (in    the  centre  of  fig.  2),  the  cinquefoil,  &c.     The  pro 
jecting    points   are   termed   cusps,    the  voids    between    the    cusps    aro 
termed  foils. 

Plate  19.    Tracery. 

1 — 11.  Gothic  tracery,  for  panels  and  windows.  The  figures  give 
partly  the  fundamental  construction,  partly  the  fmiher  deve- 
lopement.  Thus  figures  1  and  2,  3  and  4,  6  and  7,  8  and 
9,   10  and  11,  belong  together. 


The  Ellipse.    (Plate  20.) 

The  Ellipse  is  a  figure,  whose  radius  of  curvation  is  continually 
changing.  It  has  the  peculiar  quality  that,  if  any  point  on  the 
circumference  be  joined  with  the  two  foci,  the  sum  of  the  two  con- 
necting lines  is  invariable,  and  always  equal  to  the  longitudinal  axis. 

The  three-centred  arch  is  an  approximate  construction  to  an 
elliptic  curve.  It  is  composed  of  a  number  of  arcs,  which  is  not 
possible  in  the  case  of  the  ellipse.  As  regards  beauty  of  line  it  can 
never  be  a  substitute  for  the  Ellipse;  but  its  easier  construction  has, 
notwithstanding,  caused  it  to  be  used  for  many  purposes. 

The  expression  "Oval"  for  the  ellipse,  is  erroneous.  Oval  is 
derived  from  "ovum"  (egg),  and  therefore  means  an   egg-shape. 

The  Ellipse  is  of  comparatively  late  appearance  in  art,  the  con- 
struction presupposing  a  certain  knowledge  of  Geometry,  which  was 
not  possessed  by  primitive  peoples.  Afterwards  it  became  of  common 
application,  as  will  be  seen  from  many  passages  of  this  Handbook. 
The  Ellipse  is  a  very  popular  shape  for  ceilings,  panels,  boxes,  and 
dishes.     Figui-e  15    affords    hints  as  to  the   manner   of   subdividing  it. 

PiJVTE  20.     The  Ellip.se,  <fcc. 

1  —  2.         Construction  by  means  of  8  points. 

When  the  square  with  its  diagonals  and  transversals  is  projec- 
ted as  an  Oblong,  the  circle  described  in  it  becomes  an  Ellipse. 

3.  Construction  from  the  Foci. 

From  the  ends  of  the  conjugate  axis,  doficribe  circles  with  a 
radius  of  one  half  the  transverse  axis;  the  points  where  these 
circles  cut  each  other  will  be  the  foci.  Now  divide  the  trans- 
verse axis  into  two  unequal  parts,  and  from  the  foci  as  centres 
describe  circles  having  these  unequal  parts  for  their  radii;  the 
points  of  intersection  will  be  four  points  of  the  Ellipse.  Another 
division  will  give  another  four  points,  and  so  on. 

4,  Co'istruction  by  means  of  Tangents. 

Construct  an  Oblong  with  sides  of  the  lengths  of  the  transverse 
and   conjugate  axes  respectively;    draw  the  transversals,    tjiat  is, 


GEOMETRICAL  MOTIVES. 


31 


The  Ellipse,  and  its  Subdivisiou. 


Plate  20, 


32  The  ElliDse. 

the  transverse  and  conjugate  axes;  join  tlie  ends*  of  the  axes  in 
one  of  the  quarters  by  a  diagonal;  and  set-off  a  number  of  points 
on  this  diagonal.  Through  these  points  draw  straight  lines  from 
the  opposite  angle,  and  also  parallels  to  the  longitudinal  axis. 
Now  join  the  points  thus  obtained  on  the  outside  of  the  quarters 
in  the  way  shown  in  the  figure;  and  transfer  these  lines  to  the 
remaining  three  quarters;  and  a  series  of  tangents  will  be  obtained, 
within  which  the  ellipse  can  be  drawn  by  band. 

5.  Constructions  by  means  of  two  Circles. 

With  the  centre  of  the  Ellipse  as  a  centre  describe  two  circles 
passing  through  the  ends  of  the  transverse  and  conjugate  axes 
respectively;  draw  a  number  of  diameters  through  two  opposite 
quadrants;  where  these  diameters  cut  the  smaller  circle,  draw 
parallels  to  the  longitudinal  axis;  and  where  they  cut  the  greater 
circle,  parallels  to  the  transverse  axis  (or  vice  versa);  the  points 
of  the  parallels  will  then  be  points  on  the  ellipse.  The  other 
points  required  may  be  obtained  by  producing  the  parallels  into 
the  remaining  quadi-ants.  This  construction  may  be  specially  re- 
commended for  practical  use. 

6.  Practical  construction  on  a  larger  scale  (centres,  garden-beds,  &c.). 

Mark  the  two  foci  by  nails,  posts,  &c.;  place  round  them  a 
cord  equal  in  length  to  the  transverse  axis  plus  the  distance 
between  the  foci,  and  tied  at  both  ends;  stretch  the  cord  tense, 
by  means  of  a  pencil,  and  let  the  latter  run  round  the  foci:  the 
resulting  figure  will  be  an  Ellipse. 
7—12         Several  constructions  for  Ellipsoids. 

In  constructions  7—9  the  length  of  the  transverse  axis  has  a 
definite,  invariable  proportion  to  that  of  the  conjugate  axis,  so 
that  when  the  one  is  given  the  other  immediately  follows.  In 
constructions  10—12  the  length  of  each  axis  is  variable.  The 
point  of  junction  of  two  circles  of  different  diameter  must  lie  on 
Ihe  same  strai*;ht  line  as  the  centres  of  the  two  circles. 

7.  Describe  two  circles  each  of  which  passes  through  the  centre  of 
the  other.  Join  the  centres  with  the  points  of  intersection  of  the 
circles:  the  straight  lines  so  formed  will  mark-off  the  four  arcs 
of  which,  as  the  figure  shows,  the  Ellipsoid  is  composed.  The  centre 
points  are  marked  by  small  dots. 

8.  Describe  two  circles  touching  each  other,  and  with  the  point  of 
contact  as  centre,  describe  a  third  circle  of  the  same  diameter. 
These  three  circles  cut  each  other  in  four  points.  Join  these  to 
the  external  centres  as  shown  on  the  figure;  and  the  resulting 
four  straight  lines  will  again  mark-off  the  four  arcs  which  are 
then  to  be  described  from  the  points  indicated  by  the  small  dots. 

9.  Construct  two  squares,  having  one  side  in  common,  and  in  them 
describe  the  four  diagonals;  these  will  then  mark-off  the  four  arcs 
which  must  then  be  drawn  from  the  points  denoted  by  small 
dots. 

10.  Construct   a   rectangle  with   sides    equal   to   the   transverse   and 

longitudinal  axes  respectively;  draw  the  two  transversals  (the 
transverse  and  longitudinal  axes)  and  join  their  ends  in  one  of 
the  quarters.  Cut-off  fi-om  this  line,  beginning  from  the  point  of 
junction  with  the  conjugate  axis,  the  difference  of  half  the  trans- 
verse and  half  the  conjugate  axis;  on  the  centre  point  of  the  re- 
maining piece  draw  a  perpendicular  and  the  three  more  similar 
lines;  these  four  lines  will  then  show  the  limits  of  the  arcs  which 
are  then  to  be  drawn  from  the  points  marked  by  small  dots. 


The  Ellipse,  &ic.  —  The  three-centred  Arch.  33 

It.  Construct   an    Oblong    with    sides    equal    to    the    transverse  and 

longitudinal  axes  respectively,  and  draw  the  two  transversals. 
Measure  the  half  of  the  transverse  axis  upon  half  the  longitudinal 
axis,  and  ascertain  the  difference;  halve  this  difference.  This  half 
difference  must  now  be  taken  four  times  along  the  transverse 
axis  trom  the  centre  point  of  the  Ellipsoid,  and  three  times  along 
the  longitudinal  axis.  The  four  required  points  will  thus  be  ob- 
tained. The  straight  lines  connecting  them  will  give  the  oointa 
of  junction  of  the  arcs. 

12.  Construction  from  eight  centres. 

Construct  an  Oblong  whose  sides  are  eqtial  to  the  major  and 
minor  axes  respectively;  draw  the  transversals,  and  join  their  ends 
in  one  of  the  quarters.  From  the  nearest  angle,  diaw  a  perpen- 
dicular to  this  diagonal;  the  points  where  this  perpendicular  cuts 
the  two  axes  will  be  two  of  the  required  centres.  Two  more  are 
obtained  by  symmetrical  transference.  From  these  four  points 
describe  circles  with  a  radius  =  '/j  (CB-DA);  the  points  where 
they  cut  each  other  internally  will  give  four  more  centres.  If  the 
centres  thus  found  be  joined  by  means  of  straight  lines,  as  shown 
on  the  figure,  the  latter  will  mark  the  points  where  the  eight 
arcs  will  meet. 
13 — 14.  Construction  of  Ovals  or  egg-shaped  figures.  The  construction  of 
such  figures  usually  consists  in  combining  a  semi-circle  with  a 
semi-eUipse. 

13.  Draw  in  a  circle  two  diameters  at  right  angles  to  each  other, 
and  two  intersecting  chords  of  a  quadrant;  these  when  produced 
wiU  determine  the  points  where  the  various  arcs  meet.  The 
centres  of  these  latter  lie  on  the  ends  of  the  diameters. 

14.  The  construction  of  the  lower  half  is  the  same  as  in  fig.  7.  The 
centre  of  the  upper  lies  in  the  intersection  of  tangents  to  the 
lower  and  upper  circles. 

15.  Example  of  the  subdivision  and  decoration  of  an  ellipse,  (Storck'a 

Zeichenvorlagen). 


The  Three -CENTRED  Arch. 

Tlie  Three-centred  arch,  which  was  often  used  ia  the  Transition 
period  between  the  Gothic  and  the  Renascence,  may  be  considered  as  a 
semi-ellipsoid;  and  it  may  be  described  by  one  of  the  methods  shown 
on  Plate  20  (see  also  the  Head-piece  to  this  Section,  on  page  3). 


s^-.^ 


mm 


Meyer,  Handbook  of  OraameDt. 


84 


B. 


NATURAL  FORMS. 

a.     The  Organisms  of  Plants  (Flora  of  Ornament). 

In  nearly  every  style  the  plant-world  has  been  used  in  patterns. 
Leaves,  sprays,  flowers,  and  fruits,  either  singly  or  combined,  have 
been  adapted  in  ornament.  The  direct  imitation  of  nature,  retaining 
form  and  color  as  much  as  possible,  leads  to  the  naturalistic  con- 
ception; the  construction  of  an  ornament  according  to  the  rules  of 
rhythm  and  symmetry,  with  a  stricter  observance  of  regularity  —  is 
known  as  the  artificial  method. 

The  selection  of  the  comparatively  few  plants  from  the  luxuriant 
field  of  the  plant-world  was  partly  determined  by  beauty  of  form  (the 
outline  of  the  leaf,  the  delicacy  of  the  spray,  &c.)  and  partly  by  the 
fact  that  they  possess  (or  did  at  some  time  possess)  a  symbolic 
meaning. 

The  plates  which  illustrate  this  section  will  first  exhibit  the 
Akanthos;  and  then  such  plant-forms  as  are  less  used  or  only  found 
in  certain  styles.  They  will  first  be  presented  as  they  exist  in  Nature; 
and  then  as  they  were  modified  in  the  various  styles. 


The  Akanthos  Leaf.    (Plates  21—23.) 


Of  all  the  ornamental  designs  which  have  been  borrowed  from 
plants;  the  Akanthos  is  the  most  popular.  Since  its  introduction  by 
the  Greeks,  it  recurs  again  and  again  in  every  Western  style.  A 
symbolical  significance  has  never  attached  to  the  Akanthos;  its  frequent 


The  Akitnthos  Leaf,  ici.  35 

and  varied  application  is  due  to  the  ornamental  possibilities  and 
beautiful  serration  of  its  leaves.  It  grows  vald  in  the  South  of 
Europe,  but  in  more  northern  latitudes  is  only  found  in  our  botanical 
gardens.  There  are  many  varieties  of  the  plant,  of  which  we  may 
mention  the  following:  Akanthos  mollis,  with  broad,  blunt  tips  to 
the  leaves;  Akanthos  spinosus,  with  pointed  lobes  terminating  in 
spines,  and  comparatively  narrow  leaves.  The  conception  and  treat- 
ment of  the  margin  and  shape  of  the  leaf,  is  the  principal  characteristio 
of  the  different  styles.  The  Greek  foliage  has  pointed  leaf-edges;  in 
the  Roman  style,  the  tips  of  the  leaves  become  rounder,  broader,  to 
some  extent  with  more  vigorous  curves;  the  Byzantine  and  Roma- 
nesque styles,  again,  return  to  stiffer,  less  delicate  forms.  The  Gothio 
style,  which  used  the  foreign  Akanthos  in  addition  to  a  number  of  native 
plants,  adopted  in  the  early  period,  round,  bulbous  forms;  later  Gothic, 
0"  the  contrary,  prefen-ed  bizarre,  long-extended,  thistle-like  foliage: 
in  both  cases  the  general  conception  is  more  or  less  naturalistic,  but 
the  details  are  usually  idealised  beyond  recognition.  The  Renascence, 
which  revived  Antique  ornament,  developed  the  Akanthos,  and  parti- 
cularly the  Tendril,  to  the  highest  degree  of  perfection;  in  the  follow- 
ing styles  formalism  degenerates  in  this  direction.  Modem  ornamental 
art  seeks  its  models  in  almost  every  style;  and  its  creations  have 
generally  no  pronounced,  specifically  Modem  character. 

Plate  21.    The  Akanthos,  and  Artificial  Leaf. 

1.  Leaf  of  Akanthos  Mollis,  (Jacobsthal). 

2.  Akanthos  calyx,  the  leaves  and  flower  of  Akanthos  Mollis,  natura- 
listically  treated,  (Jacobsthal). 

3.  Leaf  of  Akanthos  Mollis,  (Raguenet). 

4.  Leaf  of  Akanthos  Spinosus,  (Gewerbehalle). 

5.  Cup,  corona  of  a  Greek  Stele,  (Raguenet). 

6.  Overlap  of  leaf,  Roman  candelabrum,  Vatican. 

7.  Greek  leaf,  displayed,  (Jacobsthal). 

8.  Roman  leaf.  Capital  of  a  column,  Pantheon,  Rome,  the  spoon- 
like roundings  of  the  points  of  the  leaves,  as  well  as  the  deep 
incisions,  are  characteristic;  and  designed  to  look  well  at  a  distance, 

Plate  22.    The  Artificial  Leaf. 

1.  Leaf,  Roman  capital,  (Raguenet). 

2.  Leaf  displayed,  as  it  is  often  used  on  Roman  reliefs,  e.  g.:  so- 
mewhat more  richly  developed,  on  the  so  called  Florentine  Pilaster, 
Uffizi,  Florence,  (Jacobsthal). 

3.  Byzantine  leaf,  Sta.  Sofia,  Constantinople,  (Raguenet). 

4.  Romanesque  leaf,  St.  Denis,  (Li6vre). 


36 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  21.  The  Akanthos  Leaf,  and  the  Artificial  Leaf. 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


37 


The  Artificial  Leaf. 


Plate  22. 


38 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  23. 


The  Artificial  Leaf. 


The  Artificial  Leaf.  —  Artificial  Foliage.  39 

5.  Romanesque  leaf,  monastery  of  St.  Trophimus,  Aries,  XIL  centiiry 
(Raguenet). 

6.  Gothic  leaf,  (Lifevre). 

Plate  23.    The  Aetificial  Leaf. 

1.  Leaf,  French  Renascence,  St.  Eustache,  Paris. 

2.  Leaf,  style  of  Louis  XYI,  (Raguenet). 

3.  Leaf,  French  Renascence,  church,  Epornay,  (Lifevre). 

4.  Leaf,  French  Renascence,  (Gropius). 

5.  Modern  Leaf,  Louvre,  Paris,  (P.  A.  M.  Cours  d'omement). 

6.  Modern  Leaf,  Theatre,  Monte  Carlo,  Monaco,  (Raguenet). 


Artificial  Foliage.    (Plates  24 — 26.) 

The  Scroll  is  a  purely  artistic  invention,  the  natural  plant  having 
no  tendrils.  Flowers  and  calices,  such  as  frequently  occur  in  artificial 
foliage,  are  usually  developed  with  serrated  edges,  composed  to  recall 
natural  models,  (Comp.  Plate  25,  figs.  2  und  3).  Artificial  foliage  is 
often  combined  with  forms  from  plants,  e.  g.:  laurel,  oak,  ivy,  ears 
of  wheat,  &c.,  (Comp.  Plate  26,  figs.  2  and  4).  What  was  said  above 
of  the  Aianthos  leaf,  holds  good  here  too,  for'  the  differences  of  exe- 
cution in  the  various  styles.  The  greatest  luxuriance  and  the  highest 
elegance  were  attained  by  the  Italian  Renascence,  (Comp.  Plate  25, 
fig.  5).  It  is  characteristic  of  the  Louis  XVI.  epoch  that  the  lines 
which  form  the  scroU  are  somestimes  flattened,  and,  so  to  speak,  make 
elliptic  spirals,  (Comp.  Plate  26,  fig.  4). 

Plate  24.    Artificl^l  Foliage. 

1.  Ornament,  summit  of  the  monument  of  Lysikrates,  Athens. 

2.  Cup,  Roman. 

8.  Roman  ornament,  the  so  called  "Medicean  Pilaster",  (Artificial  fo- 
liage of  a  large  size). 
4.  Fragment  of  a  Greek  relief,  (F.  A.  M.,  Cours  d'omement). 

Plate  25.     Artificial  Foliage. 

1.  Roman   ornament,    marble   Biga,    from   the  'style    of  the  ornament 
it  must  have  been  an  imitation  of  an  original  in  bronze. 

2.  Roman  ornament,  from  the  so  called  "Florentine  Pilaster",  a  richly 
decorated  marble  relief  in  the  Uffizi,  Florence,  (Jacobsthal). 

8.  Romanesque  frieze,  St.  Denis,  (Lifevre). 
4.  Early  Gothic,  Notre  Dame,  Paris,  (Li^vre). 

6.  Renascence  ornament,  relief  on  the  tomb  of  Hieronimo  Basso,  Sta. 
Maria  del  Popolo,  Rome,  by  Sansovino,  (Gropius). 


40 


NATUEAL  FORMS. 


Plate  24. 


Aftificiul  Foliage. 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


41 


t 


Artificial  Foliage. 


Plate  25. 


42 


N ATI! HAL  FORMS. 


Plate  2o, 


Artificial  Foliage. 


Artificial  Foliage.  —  The  Laurel,  the  Olive,  and  the  Vine.  43 

Pi^TE  26.     AimnciAL  Foliage. 

1  — 3.   Details  from  a  relief  on  the  lectern,  catheclral,  Limoges,  (Lifevre). 

4.  Oraameut,  Louis  XVT.  style,  (F.  A.  M.,  Cours  d'oruement). 

5.  Moderu  Fronoh  ornament,  (F,  A.  M.). 


TfiE  Laurel,  and  the  Olive:     (Plates  27,  28.) 

The  Laurel  and  the  Olive  owe  their  introduction  into  ornamen- 
tation to  their  symbolical  significance.  Both  played  a  conspicuous 
part  in  the  tree  worship  of  the  ancient  Greeks.  The  Laurel  was 
sacred  to  Apollo.  It  was  the  symbol  of  atonement;  singers  and  con- 
quering heroes  were  crowned  with  it;  and  in  a  similar  sense  it  is 
still  used  as  a  symbol  of  glory. 

The  Olive  was  sacred  to  Athene;  Olive  branches  were  the  prize 
of  victory  et  the  Olympian  games.  La  Rome  the  victorious,  Laurel- 
crowned,  heroes  were  met  on  their  return  home  by  slaves  bearing 
wreaths  of  Olive  boughs.     The  Olive   branch   is  the  symbol  of  peace. 

Plate  27.    The  Laurel,  &c.  from  Nature. 

1    Laurel    (Laurus    nohilis).      Evergreen;    blossoms    yellowish    white; 

fruit  ball  or  egg  shaped,  blue  black. 
2.  Olive  (Olea  europea).    Evergreen;  blossoms  small,  white;  fruit  oval, 

greenish,  or  black. 

Plate  28.    The  Laurel,  &c. 

1 — 2.  Branches,  Greek  vase,  conventional  painting,  (Owen  Jones). 

8.  Branches,  beaker,   in   the  silver  treasure,  Hildesheim,  Roman, 
Original  of  chased  silver,  museum,  Berlin. 

4.  Fragment,  Roman  marble  relief. 

5.  Branch,  inlarsia  panel,  Palazzo  Ducale,  Mantua,  (Meurer). 

6.  Branch,  spaurail,  Louis  XVL  style,  (Li^vre) 

7.  Hand,  French  Renascence. 


The  Vine.    (Plates  29,  30.) 

Although  the  Vine  does  not  occui  frequently,  it  is  not  an  un- 
popular element  of  artistic  decoration.  The  Antique  and  MedievaJ 
styles,  in   particular,  show  a  certain  preference  for  the  vine. 

Li  Antiquity  the  Vine  (Vitis  vinifera)  is  the  attribute  of  Bac- 
chus. Vine  leaves  and  lyy,  sometimes  in  connection  with  Laurel, 
encircle  the  brows  of  Bacchantes,  and  adorn  their  drinking  vessels 
and   utensils,  the  thyrsus,  kantharos,  &c. 


44 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  27. 


The  Laurel,  and  the  Olive. 


NATURAL  FOKMS. 


45 


The  Laurel,  the  Bay,  and  the  Olive. 


Plate  28. 


43 


NATURAL  FOilJiS. 


Plate  29. 


The  Vine:  Natural. 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


47 


The  Vine:  Artificial. 


Plate  30. 


48  The  Vine,  the  Lotus,  the  Papyrus,  and  the  Palm. 

The  ecclesiastical  art  of  the  Middle  Ages  adopted  the  Vine,  toge- 
ther with  ears  of  Corn,  as  the  symbol  of  Christ. 

Later  styles,  and  Modern  art,  have  adopted  the  Vine  in  both  the 
antique  and  medieval  senses. 

Plate  29.    The  Vine. 
1.  Natural  branch. 

Plate  30.     The  Vlve. 

1.  Scroll  ornament,  Roman  rplief. 

2.  Eoman  ornament,  vertical  Border. 

3.  Early  Gothic  ornament,  Notre  Dame,  Paris,  (Lifevre). 

4.  Renascence  ornament,  Italian   pilaster. 

5.  Renascence  ornament,  frieze,  Venice,   IGth  century,  (Griiner). 


The  Lotus,  the  Papyrus,  and  the  Palm.     (Plate  31.) 

The  Lotus  and  the  Papyrus  are  plants  of  ancient  oriental  civi- 
lisation; and  play  an  important  part  in  the  social  life,  of  the  Egyptians, 
Hindoos,  Assyrians,  and  other  nations.  The  dried  stalks  of  these  vpater 
plants  were  used  as  fuel,  or  made  into  mats  and  other  plaited  a*i-ti- 
cles;  their  roots  served  as  food;  the  pith  as  wicks  for  lamps.  The 
paper  of  the  ancients  was  made  of  Papjrrus.  ITiis  explain  sits  appear- 
ance in  the  ornamental  art  of  these  nations,  and  its  special  luxuriance, 
in  Egyptian  style.  Spoons  and  other  utensils  were  decorated  with  Lotus 
flowers  and  calices;  the  capitals  of  Columns  imitate  the  flowers  or 
buds  of  the  Lotus:  the,  shaft  resemples  a  bound  group  of  stalks;  the 
base  reminds-  us  of  the  root  leaves  of  these  water  plants;  their  mural 
Painting  shows  Lotus  and  Papyrus  motives  in  the  most  comprehensive 
manner.  The  Lotus  was  sacred  to  Osiris  and  Isis,  and  was  the  sym- 
bol of  the  recurring  fertilisation  of  the  land  by  the  Nile,  and,  in  a 
higher  sense,  of  immortality. 

The  Palm,  of  which  a  few  varieties  exist  in  'the  East  and  South 
N  'of  Europe,  is  also  used  in  ornamental  art.  Palm  leaves  or  branches  were 
used  at  the  entry  of  kings  into  Jerusalem,  at  the  feasts  of  Osiris  in 
Egypt,  at  the"  Olympian  games  in  Greece,  and  in  the  triumphal  pro- 
cessions of  anciont  Rome.  They  were  the  symbol  of  victory,  and  of 
peace.  In  this  latter  sense  they  have  been  received  into  the  ritual 
of  the  Christian  church.  The  late  Renascence  and  following  styles 
down  to  the  present  day  have  made  a  decorative  use  of  palm  leaves. 
The  symbolic  significance  in  a  higher  sense,  as  the  token  of  eternal 
peace,  has  secured  for  the  Palm  leaf  a  place  in  Modern  art  on  tombs 
and  .similar  monoments.     The  decorative  effect,  of  dried   palm    fronds 


NATUEAL  FORMS. 


49 


The  Lotus,  the  Papyrus,  and  the  Palm. 

Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament. 


Plate  31. 
4 


50 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  32. 


The  Ivy:  Natural,  and  Artificial. 


The  Lotus,  the  Papyrus,  and  the  Palm.  —  Tho  Ivy.  51 

along  with  lulls  of  grasses  and  the  like,  has  brought  them  into  fashion 
as  a   finish  to  the  artistic  adornment  of  rooms. 

Pl.\te  31.     The  Lotus,  &c.,  from  Nature. 

1.  Lotus    flower   (Nijmphaea    Nelmnho    —    Indian    water  lily). 

2   and   3.   Lower  end  and  half-opened  bud  of  the  Papyrus  plant  (Cy- 

perns  Papyrus  L.  —  Papyrus  antiquorum  Willd). 

4.  Idealised  Lotus  and  Papyrus,  Egyptian  mural  painting, 
(Owen  Jones). 

5.  Frond  of  an  Areca  Palm  (Areca  rubra  —  in  Asia  as  a 
tree,  the  so  called  Pinang).  The  species  Chamaedorea  and 
Phoenix  have  similar  fronds. 

C.  Leaf   of   a    Fan   "Palm    (Corypha    australis).       The    species 

Latania,   Chaniaerojis,  Borassus,  &c.,  have  a  leaf  of  similar 
shape. 

The  Ivy.    (Plate  32.) 

The  Ivy  (Iiedera  helix)  is  indigenous  to  the  East,  North  Africa, 
South  and  Central  Europe,  and  England.  It  is  an  evergreen  climbing 
shrub  which  develops  into  a  tree  under  favourable  circumstances.  In 
ancient  times  it  was  sacred  to  Bacchus.  Beakers  for  filtering  wine 
were  made  of  ivy  wood.  As  an  attribute  of  Bacchus  it  is  found 
twined  round  the  thyrsus  which  the  bacchantes  flourished  in  their 
hands  in  processions  and  dances.  The  Ivy  is  a  common  decorative 
ornament  on  ancient  vases.  It  was  also  the  symbol  of  friendship, 
especially  of  the  weaker  with  the  stronger.  Ivy  leaves  are  of  very 
various  shapes.  Usually  broad  and  five-lobed,  they  appear  at  the  ends 
■of  young  shoots  in  long  pointed,  lance-like  forms.  Flowering  twigs 
have  leaves  jvithout  indentations,  heart-shaped,  with  elliptic  or  oval 
tapering.     The  latter  forms  in  particular  were  adopted  by  Antique  arL 

Plate  32.    The  Ivy. 

1.  Spray   with  bl-oad-lobed  leaves,  from  Nature. 

2.  Spray  with  elliptic  tapering  leaves,  after  blooming,  from  Nature. 
8.  Spray  with  lanceolate  leaves,  from  Nature. 

4.  Decoration   of  the   neck   of  a   Greek   Hydria,    Campana   collection 
(L'art  pour  tous). 

5.  Upper  part  of  a  pilaster  like-panel.  Antique. 

6.  Fragment  of  decoration,  Roman  column,  Vatican,  Rome. 


52  The  Corn,  <S:c.  —  Various  Leaves. 

The  Corn,  the  Hop,  the  Convolvulus,  and  the  Bryony. 

(Plates  33,  34.) 

Seeing  how  important  agriculture  has  heen  in  all  ages,  it  was 
^  impossible  that  decorative  art  should  neglect  the  ears  of  ^Vheat, 
although  their  comparatively  scanty  ornamental  possibilities  prevented 
any  very  extensive  application.  Combined  with  other  motives,  ears 
of  Corn  have  been  made  use  of  in  various  styles.  In  ecclesiastical 
art  they  have  a  symbolical  significance  (See  what  was  said  of  the  Vine). 

The  Hop  (Humulus  lupulus)  is  a  well  known  indigenous  plant 
of  civilisation,  and  also  occurs  wild  in  marshy  woods.  Its  picturesque 
qualities  indicate  it  as  well  adapted  for  ornamental  use.  In  combina- 
tion with  ears  of  Barley,  it  is  applied  in  Modern  art  to  the  decoration 
of  Beer-mugs,  the  walls  of  Inns,  &c. 

The  Convolvulus  (Convolvulus),  an  indigenous  climbing  plant  of 
ornamental  appearance,  is  frequently  used  in  Modern  art. 

The  Bryony  (Bryonia)  has  delicate  tendrils  and  beautifully  in- 
dented leaves,  which  afford  a  fertile  motive,  so  that  it  is  astonishing 
that  this,  and  other  allied  plants  have  hitherto  found  comparatively 
little  favor  in  decorative  art. 

Plate  33.    The  Corn,  &c. 

1.  Ears  of  Oats  (Arena  saliva). 

2.  Ears  of  Rye  (Secale  cereale). 

3.  Ears  of  "\Vheat  (Trilicum  vulgare). 

4.  Ears  of  Spelt  (Trilicum  spdla). 

5.  Ears  of  the  common  Barley  (Hordcum  dislichum). 

6.  Ears  of  the  battledore  Barley  (Hordeum  zeokrilon). 

7.  Field  Convonvulus  (Convolvulus  arvensis)  with  red  flowers.  The 
hedge  Convolvulus  (Convolvulus  sepium)  has  a  similar  habit  and 
white  flowers.  (The  group  has  been  sketched  freely  from  a  cast 
from  nature,  by  Bofinger  of  Stuttgart.) 

Plate  34.    The  Hop,  &c. 

Hops  and  Bryony  (drawn  from  pressed  plants). 


Various  Leaves.    (Plate  35.) 

Plate  85  pres-ents  a  series  of  various  leaves,  whose  general  orna- 
mental possibilities  have  either  secured  or  deserve  to  secure  for  them 
a  place  in  art. 

The  Oak,  the  king  of  our  indigenous  trees,  the  symbol  of  power 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


53 


The  Corji,  and  the  Convolvulus. 


Plate  33. 


64 


NATUJRAL  FORMS. 


Plate  34. 


The  Hop,  and  the  Bryony. 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Various  Lesives. 


Plate  35. 


56  Various  Leaves,  and  Flowers. 

and  strength,  in  antiquity  the  tree  of  Jupiter,  has  from  time  to  time 
been  used  in  every  western  style.  Oak  foliage,  and  perhaps  almost 
as  frequently  the  leaves  of  the  Maple,  are  often  used  in  early  Gothic, 
where  v^e  meet  them  on  friezes,  cornices,  and  columns.  The  fre- 
quent recurrence  of  oak  leaves,  in  certain  works  of  the  Italian  Rena- 
scence, is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  Oak  was  the  crest  of  the  family  of 
della  Rovere  {Rovere  =  winter  oak;  two  members  of  which  family 
ascended  the  papal  chair,  as  Sixtus  lY.  and  Julius  E.).  Oak,  someti- 
mes alternating  with  laurel,  is  *  usual  ornament  of  medals  and  coins. 

Plate  85.    Oak  Leaves,  &c. 

1.  Leaf  of  the  winter  Oak  (Quercvs  scssiliflora). 

2.  Spray  of  the  bitter  Oak  (Quercus  cerris). 
8.  Leaf  0f  the  Maple  (Acer  campestre). 

4.  Spray  of  the  sugar  Maple  (Acer  plantanoides), 

5.  Leaf  of  a  species  of  Ranunculus. 

6.  Leaf  of  the  oriental  Amber  tree  (lAquidamher  oricntah). 

7.  Leaf  of  the  American  Amber  tree  (Liquidaynber  Styraciflna), 
(This  tree  furnishes  the  Storax  or  Styrax,  a  kind  of  rcsiu.) 

8.  Leaf  of  the  Tulip  tree  (Liriodendron  tulipifera). 

9.  Leaf  of  the  climbing  Mikania  (Mikania  scandens). 
10.  Leaf  of  the  Liverwort  (Hepatica  triloba). 


Various  Flowers.    (Plates  3G,  37.) 

It  need  scarcely  be  said  that  flowers,  these  most  beautiful  pro- 
ducts of  the  plant  world,  have  in  all  ages  been  exceedingly  popular 
in  ornamental  art.  In  flat  as  well  as  in  relief  ornament  they  are 
used  in  the  most  manifold  forms,  as  bouquets,  garlands,  wreaths,  &c. 
Flower-painting  for  decorative  purposes  (fans,  tapestry,  &c.)  has  de- 
veloped into  a  distinct  branch  of  art.  Flowers,  with  their  natural 
developement  from  a  centre,  are  the  most  obvious  models  for  the  for- 
mation of  Rosettes  (rosette  = /ittle  rose).  The  Rosettes  on  the  well- 
kuown  sarcophagus  of  Scipio,  the  rosette  Bosses  on  the  doors  of  the 
Antique  and  the  Italian  Renascence,  are  striking  examples  of  this. 

The  realm  of  Flowers  is' so  extensive  that  we  must  confine  our- 
eelves  to  a  few  examples. 

Plate  36  gives  a  variety  of  single  flowers  (drawn  from  casts 
from  nature  by  J.  G.  Bofinger  of  Stuttgart):  Plate  37  shows  a  bou- 
quet of  flowers. 

Plate  36.    Various  Flo  wees. 
1.  Alpine  Rose  (Rhododendron). 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


57 


Various  Flowers. 


Plate  36. 


58 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  37. 


Various  Flowers. 


Vai-ious  Flowers.  —  The  Festoon.  59 

2.  Chrysanthemum. 

3.  White  Lily  (Lilium  candiihnn). 

4.  Hellebore  (Helleborus). 

5.  Wild  Rose  (Rosa  canina). 

6.  Blue-bell   (Campanula). 

7.  Wild  Rose,  seen  from  the  back. 

Plate  37.    Various  Flowers. 

Bouquet,  carving,  Louis  XVI.  style,  (F.  A.  M.,  Cours  d'ornement). 


TiiE  Fruit  Festoon.    (Plates  38—40.) 

Fruit,  tied  in  a  bunch  w-ith  leaves  and  floweis,  was  a  popular 
decorative  motive  of  the  Roman,  Renascence,  and  later  styles.  We 
may  mention  the  hanging  clusters  as  a  decoration  of  pilaster  and 
similar  panels;  and  the  clusters  hanging  in  a  curve  and  known  as 
Festoons.  Li  these  cases:  flowing  ribbons  fill  up  the  empty  spaces. 
,  The  plates  give  examples  of  both  kinds. 

Festoons  of  fruits  hanging  in  deep  curves  between  rosettes,  can- 
delabra, skulls  of  animals,  &c.,  are  common  in  the  Roman  style.  The 
origin  of  this  style  of  decoration  is  to  be  sought  in  the  circumstance 
that  Festoons  of  real  fnxit  were  hung  as  a  decoration  on  the  friezes 
of  the  temples,  alternating  with  the  real  Skulls  of  slaughtered  sacri- 
ficial animals,  in  connection  with  the  Candelabra,  Tripods,  and  other 
sacrificial  Instruments.  This  style  of  decoration  was  then  transferred 
from  sacred  to  secular  architecture,  revived  by  the  Renascence  in  more 
or  less  altered  forms,  and  has  remained  in  use  to  the  present  time. 
In  the  Roman  style  the  empty  space  above  the  centre  of  the  curve 
is  often  filled  by  Rosettes,  Masks,  and  Figures.  These  features  weie 
usually  replaced  by  heads  of  Angels  on  the  ecclesiatical  buildings 
and  tombs  of  the  Italian  Renascence. 

Plate  38.    The  Fruit  Festoon. 

1.  Cluster,  Libreria,  Cathedral,  Siena,  Italian  Renascence. 

2.  Cluster,  tomb  of  Louis  XII.  St.  Denis,  French  Renascence. 

3.  Cluster,  Modern. 

4.  Festoon,    tomb    of  Cardinal    della   Rovere,    St.  Maria    del    Popolo, 
Rome,  Italian  Renascence. 

Plate  39.     The  Fruit  Festoox 

1.  Festoon,  between  skulls,  Roman. 

2.  Festoon,   Roman   mortuary   tablet,  Vatican 


60 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  38. 


The  Fruit  Festoon. 


NATURAL  FORMS 


The  Fruit  Festoon. 


Plate  39, 


62 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  40. 


The  Leaf,  and  Flower  Festoon. 


The  Fcstoou.  —  Animal  Orgaiilsma.  63 

Plate  40.     The  Leaf  Festoox,  &c. 

1  Festoon  between  skulls,  Roman. 

2  Festoon,    tomb  of  Beatrice  and  La\'inia   Ponzetti,   Sta.  Maria  della 
Pace,  Rome,  Renascence,  by  Baldassare  Peruzzi. 

3.  Festoon,  Louis  XVI.  style. 

4.  Festoon,  Modern,  Paris,  (Ragucnet). 


h.    Animal   Organisms  (The  Fauna  of  Ornament), 

Sy  the  side  of  the  Flora,  stand  the  Fauna  of  ornament.  The 
use  of  Animals,  in  natural  or  idealised  forms,  is  considerable, 
but,  compared  with  that  of  Plant-forms,  it  is  less  extensive.  The 
reason  of  this  is  obvious:  that  greater  difficulties  stood  in  the  way 
of  the  adaptation  of  animal  forms  than  in  the  use  of  plant  motives. 
The  absence  of  Animals  in  the  Mahometan  styles  is  due  to  religious 
maxims  which  forbade  or  limited  the  use  of  representations"  of  living 
Beings. 

Following  the  same  direction  as  was  taken  in  the  Flora,  we  shall 
find  that  the  principal  representations  from  the  Fauna  are  not,  as 
might  be  supposed,  those  of  domestic  animals  such  as  the  horse,  the 
dog  and  the  like,  but  that  the  selection  was  guided  first  by  the  sym- 
bolic character,  and  next  by  the  ornamental  possibilities  of  each. 

If  we  disregard  the  more  accidental  naturalistic  use  of  animals, 
Buch  as  enliven  scroll  ornaments  in  the  shape  of  butterflies,  birds, 
reiitiles,  and  other  animals,  and  confine  our  attention  to  those  inde- 
pendent forms  of  animal  ornament  which  have  become  typical;  they 
will  be  found  to  diminish  to  a  comparatively  small  number,  the  most 
important  of  which  will  here  be  treated  in  detail.  Of  the  mammalia 
we  have  first  to  mention  the  Lion,  Tiger  and  Panther,  the  Ox,  the 
Horse,  and  the  Goat;  the  Delphin  also  finds  a  place.  The  Eagle 
is  the  only  bird  which  has  been  generally  used.  Then  come  the 
fantastic  forms  of  fabulous  animals:  the  Griffin ,  the  double  headed 
Eagle,  &c. 

The  Lion.     (Plates  41  —  44.) 

The  Lion  (Felis  leo)  holds  the  first  rank  in  oiaamental  fauna, 
[lis  strength,  bis  courage,  and  his  nobility,  have  assured  him  from  the 
earliest  times  the  Title  of  "King  of  Beasts".  His  majestic  stature,  his 
compact,  proportionate  build,  his  striking  muscles,  offer  grateful  pro- 
blems to  art.  Lying,  walking*,  sitting,  fighting,  conquering  or  con- 
quered, he  is  an  often-used  motive. 

Lion  scenes  and  lion  hunts  are  common  subjects  on  the  palaces 
of    the    Assyrian    kings.       Characteristic,    natural     movements,    and    a 


64  Tlie  Lion. 

distinctive  rendering  of  the  muscles,  give  these  idealised  representations 
a  peculiar  charm  and  a  certain  grandeur. 

The  Lion  was  used  in  the  Egyptian  religion.  The  fact  that  the 
annual  overflov?  pf  the  Nile,  so  fertilising  and  of  such  immense  im- 
portance for  the  land,  occurred  at  the  time  when  the  sun  entered  the 
sign  of  the  Lion,  brought  the  animal  into  relation  with  water;  and  led 
to  representations  on  pails  and  other  vessels  for  water,  &c.  Egyptian 
art  usually  idealises  the  Lion  till  he  is  unrecognisable;  it  represents 
him  at  rest;  and  the  simple,  severe  treatment  of  the  mane  (not  unlike 
a  stiff  ruff)  gives  him  somewhat  of  the  appearance  of  the  Lioness, 
which  does  not  posses  one. 

Among  the  Greeks  and  Romans  the  Lion  was  considered  as  the 
guardian  of  springs,  of  gates,  and  temples-  hence  his  appearance  at 
fountains,  on  flights  of  steps,  over  gates,  and  on  monuments.  The 
sleeping  Lion  is  the  symbol  of  the  fallen  hero.  (The  lion  of  the 
Piraeus,  the  tomb  of  Leonidas,  and  the  tombs  of  Halicamassus ,  may 
be  quoted  as  evidence.) 

In  Christian  art:  the  symbolism  of  the  Lion  is  various:  as  the 
emblem  of  the  Redeemer  (the  Lion  of  the  Tribe  of  Judah),  as  the 
emblem  of  the  evil  principle  and  of  the  enemies  of  the  church  as 
well  as  of  the  Devil  Jbimself  (the  enemy  who  goeth  about  as  a  roaring 
lion,  seeking  whom  he  may  devour),  as  the  attribute  of  the  evange- 
list St.  Mark,  and  of  other  saints.  Hence  his  frequent  appearance  on 
the  vessels,  and  other  articles  of  religious  use,  &c. 

In  consequence  of  the  crusades  in  the  12th  century,  he  was  in- 
troduced into  Heraldry,  in  which  he  became  the  most  popular  animal 
figure.  As  a  heraldic  creature  he  was  severely  idealised,  (see 
Division  III,  under  Heraldry). 

In  the  Renascence  period,  the  Lion  is  represented  in  all  of  the 
foregoing  uses. 

In  the  Rococo  period,  there  was  little  skiU,  and  little  understan- 
ding, for  the  figure  of  the  Lion. 

Modern  art  follows  the  example  of  the  Antique  and  the  Renas- 
cence; and  thus  it  comes  that  in  the  present  day  the  Lion  enjoys  the 
lion's  share  in  decoration. 

It  is  remarkable  that  in  all  ages,  when  representing  the  Lion,  Ar- 
tists have  given  to  his  countenance  something  of  a  human  type,  by  using 
the  oval  eye  of » man,  instead  of  the  rovmd  Cat-like  eye,  (Compare, 
Plate  47,  fig.  1).* 

Plates  41 — 43  show  the  Lion  in  naturalistic  treatment,  and  also 
the  conventional  treatments  of  the  various  epochs;  Plate  44  is  devo- 
ted to  heraldic  treatments. 


*  An  exhaustive  article,   entitled  "Der  L6we  in  der  Kunst,"  bj  Const. 
TJhde,  will  be  found  in  the  "Gewerbehalle,"  1872.  pp.  81  et  seqq. 


NATURAL    FORMS. 


65 


The  Lion. 


Meyer,   HaDdbook  of  Ornament. 


Plate  41. 
5 


C6 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  42. 


The  LioQ. 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


67 


The  Lion. 


Plate  43. 


68 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


riate  44. 


The  Liou. 


The  Lion.  69 

Plate  41.    The  Lion. 

1.  Walking  Lion,  from  Nature,  (Miinchener  Bilderbogen). 

2.  Egyptian  Lion,    relief  with  sunken  outlines,   temple,   Dachel,   (Ra- 
guenet). 

3.  Egyptian  Lion,  Capitol,  Rome,  (Raguenet). 

4.  Assyrian  Lion,  glazed  clay  slabs,  royal  palace,  Khorsabad,  6th  cen- 
tury B.  C. 

6.  Heads  of  slaughtered  lions,  Assyrian  bas-relief,  British  Museum. 

Plate  42.    The  Lion. 

1.  Lion  supporting  a  shield  (called  "il  Marzocco"),  by  Donatello,  Na- 
tional Museum,  Florence,  Italian,  15th  century. 

2.  Lion,'  front  of  the  Louvre,   Paris,  Modern,  by  Barye,   (Baldus,  Ra- 
guenet). 

3.  Lion,  Tuileries,  Paris,  Modern,  (Baldus,  Raguenpt). 

4  and   5.     Lion,    in  front  of   the   palace    of  the  Cortes,  Madrid,  Mo- 
dern, (Raguenet). 
6.  Lion  supporting  a  shield,  Modern,  (Raguenet). 

Plate  43.    The  Lion. 

1.  Sleeping  Lion,  monument  to  Pope  Clement  XIIL,  St.  Peter's,  Rome, 
by  Canova. 

2.  Wounded  Lion,  Kriegerdenkmal,   Hannover,   by  Professor  Volz,  of 
Carlsruhe. 

3.  Head  of  the  Companion  of  the  above. 

4.  Walking  Lion,  Modern,  French. 

Plate  44.    The  Lion. 

1.  Lioa,  in  pavement,  town  hall,  Liineburg. 

2.  Lion,  shield  of  Johann  of  Heringen,  register  of  the  university  of 
Erfurt,  1487,  (Heraldische  Meisterwerke). 

3.  Lion,  coat  of  arms.    Inlaid  marble  work,  Sta.  Croce,    Florence. 
Italian  Renascence,  (Teirich,  Eingelegte  Marmorornamente) 

4.  Lion,  coat  of  arms,  Intarsia  panel,  Sta.  Maria  Novella,  Florence, 
Italian  Renascence,  (Meurer,   Flachornamente). 

6.  Lion,  tomb  in  Wertheim,  German,   IGth  century,  by  Johann  of 

Trarbach. 

6.  Lion    supporting   a  shield,    mural  decoration,    Modern,    (Heral- 

dische Meisterwerke). 

7 — 8.  Heraldic  Lions,  Albrccht  Diirer. 


70  The  Griffin,  &c.  —  The  Lion  Head. 

TuE  Griffin,  and   the  Chimaera.     (Plates  45  and  46.) 

In  addition  to  the  imitations  of  natural  animals  there  have  been, 
from  the  earlist  times,  various  fabulous  Monsters,  which  were  composed 
of  parts  of  several  different  animals. 

Centaurs,  Sphinxes,  the  Assyrian  human  Lions,  Lion  and  Eagle 
men,  combine  the  human  and  the  animal  body.  The  combination,  of 
different  animal-forms  vnth  one  another,  leads  to  Monsters,  the  chief 
representatives  of  which  are  the  Griffin,  and  the  Chimaera.  The  Griffin 
is  the  union  of  a  Lion's  body  with  the  head  and  wings  of  an  Eagle. 
The  fore  extremities  may  belong  either  to  the  Lion  or  the  Eagle.  As 
the  Lion  with  water,  so  the  Griffin  is  associated  in  Antiquity  with 
fire;  hence  his  frequent  appearance  with  Candelabra  on  friezes,  &c.  In 
Heraldry  the  Griffin  is  the  symbol  of  wisdom,  and  watchfulness. 

There  are  other  combinations;  e.  g.  the  Chimaera,  the  Hippo- 
grifl",  the  Ichthyogriff,  &c.,  which  may  be  seen  in  Pompejan  decoration. 

Plate  45.    The  Griffin. 

1.  Greek  Griffin,  Fragment,  Museum,  Naples. 

2.  Eoman  Griffin,  Fragment. 

3.  Griffin,  Renascence. 

Pl.\te  46.    TuE  Griffin,  &c. 

1.  Head  of  an  Assyrian  eagle-headed  Personage,    |  g^j^jgjj  Museum. 

2.  Head  of  an  Assyrian  lion-headed  Personage,      J 
o.   Koman  Chimaera,  Vatican. 

4.  Sitting  Griffin,  support  of  a  seat,  Castle  of  Gaillon,  French  Renas- 
cence, (F.  A.  M.,  Cours  d'ornement). 

5.  Winged  Lion,  tomb  of  Loys  de  Bresz6,   Rouen  cathedral,  1535  — 
1544. 

6.  Winged  Lioness,  as  supporter.  Louvre,  Paris,  Modei-n,  (Baldus). 

7.  Sitting  winged  Lioness,    Casa  S.  Isidora,    Santiago,    Chili,  Modern, 
French,  (Raguenet). 


The  Lion  Head.     (Plates  47,-  48.) 

The  Lion  head  has  been  still  more  extensively  applied  than  the 
entire  figure  of  the  Lion.  It  is  found  in  countless  examples: — as  a 
Gargoyle  on  the  temples  of  the  Antique,  as  a  Spout  on  vessels,  with 
a  ring  «in  the  jaw  as  a  Handle  and  Knocker  on  the  doors  of  the  por- 
tals of  the  Middle  Ages  and  the  Renascence;  and  as  a  purely  deco- 
rative   element    like    Bosses    and    Rosettes.      The    Antique    created    a 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


71 


The  Griftio, 


Plate  45. 


72 


NATURAL  FORMS 


Plate  46 


The  Griffin,  &c 


The  Lion  Head,  &c.  —  The  Goat  Head,  &c.  73 

remaikable  form  by  the  direct  tinion  of  the  Lion  head  with  one 
leg,  to  form  the  support  of  a  Table,  (See  Division  U,  Supports, 
Plates  143  and  144). 

Plate  47.    TnE  Lion  Head 
,1.  Head,  prospectus  of  Dr.  Schubert's  Naturgeschichto. 

2.  Head,  painting  by  Paul  Meyerheim. 

3.  Gargoyle,  Metapontum,  Greek,  (Gropius,  Ai'chiv.). 

4.  Gargoyle,  terracotta,  Athens,  (Gropius). 

5.  Gargoyle,  Parthenon,  Athens. 

6  and  7.  Front  and  side  view  of  an  antique  head,  Vatican. 

Plate  48.    The  Lion  Head. 
1.  Door  knocker,  Cathedral,  Mainz,  Romanesque. 

2 — 3.  Heads,  in  basrelief,  by  Ghiberti,  Medallions  inside  the  bronze 
doors.  Baptistry,  Florence,  Italian  Renascence,  (Gropius). 

4.  Head,    fountain   of  the   sacristy,  San  Lorenzo,   Florence,    Ita- 
lian Renascence. 

5.  Head,  in  medallion,  Italian  Renascence. 

6.  Head,  Heidelberg  castle,  German  Renascence. 

7.  Gargoyle,    Opera    House,    Paris,    Modern,    French,    Aicliitect 
Garnier,  (Raguenet). 

8.  Head,  Modern,  French,  Architect  Garnier,  (Raguenet). 

9.  Head,    in    profile.    Modern,    French,    by  the  sculptor  Cain   ot 
Paris,  (Raguenet). 

10.  Head,  by  Lienard,  Modern,  French. 

11.  Head,  by  Prof.  Volz,  of  Carlsruhe. 


The  Lion  Head,  Goat  Head,  &c.     (Plates  49,  50.) 

The  Tiger  (Fdis  tigris)  and  the  Panther  (Fells  pardus)  are 
sometimes  found  in  antique  works.  Amorini,  Bacchantes,  and  Maenuds, 
gambol  about  on  them  or  drive  in  carriages  drawn  by  these  crea- 
tures; and  decorate  themselves  and  their  utensils  with   their  skins. 

Panther  and  Tiger  heads,  as  well  as  the  head  of  the  Lynx  (Fdls 
lynx),  find  from  time  to  time  similar  application  to  the  Lion  bead. 
Ram  heads  are  a  favourite  form  of  corner  ornament  for  the  cornices 
of  altars,  and  tripods;  or  serve,  like  the  skulls  of  Oxen,  as  objects 
from  which  to  hang  festoons.  The  decorative  use  in  both  cases  is 
connected  with  the  use  of  the  Ram  as  a  sacrificial  animal,  (Cora- 
pare  p.  71). 

Instead  of  real  animal  heads  we  sometimes  meet  with  fantastic 
forms  which  may  be  described  as  Chimaera  heads. 


74 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  47 


The  Lion   Ht-ad 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


75 


Tlic  Lioii  Head 


Plate  48. 


76  Heads  of  Various  Animals. 

Plate  49.    The  Panther  Head,  &c. 

1  and  2     Front  and  side  view  of  Panther  head.  Modern,  FrPDch. 
8  and  4.    Front  and  side  view  of  Tiger  head,  from  Nature 
b  and  6.    Front    and    side    view    of    Lynx    head,    Antique    Gargoyle, 
Vatican. 

Plate  50.    The  Ram  Head,  &c. 

1  and  2.    Front  and  side  view  of  Chimaera    head,    Coi'ner  of  antique 
three -sided  altar. 

3.  ]Jara  head,  Roman  altar. 

4.  Ditto. 

5.  Ditto. 

€  and  7.    Front  and  side  view  of  Ram  head,  Late  Renascence.  ♦ 


Heads  of  Various  Animals.     (Plate  51.) 

The  Horse  (Equus)  offers  certain  difficulties  in  the  way  of 
artistic  imitation.  The  legs,  for  example,  are  too  thin  for  rendering 
in  Statues,  except  in  Metal.  This  circumstance  presents  less  hin- 
drance to  representations  in  bas-relief.  As  an  isolated  figure  the 
Horse  seldom  occurs;  he  is  more  frequent  in  groups  forming  teams 
of  two,  three,  and  more  (higa,  triga,  quadriga),  intended  to  be 
the  crowning  feature  of  monumental  edifices  (San  Marco,  Venice; 
Brandenburger  Thor,  Altes  Museum,  Berlin,  Propylaea,  Munich)  mostly 
along  with  the  figure  of  the  man  who  leads  him  (Horse-tamers  on 
the  Monte  Cavallo,  Rome)  or  rides  him  (Statue  of  the  Condottiere 
Bartolommeo  Colleoni  1476,  Venice,  the  colossal  statues  in  the  Burg- 
hof  at  Vienna;  the  Grosser  Kurfiirst,  the  Alter  Fritz,  the  battle  scenes 
by  Kiss  and  Wolff  on  the  staircases  of  the  Museum  at  Berlin).  In 
bas-relief:  the  horse  is,  almost  without  exception,  represented  only  in 
profile  (hunting  scenes  from  the  ancient  Assyrian  royal  palaces,  the 
frieze  of  the  Parthenon).  In  grottesque  Painting-  he  furnishes  the 
fore  parts  of  various  monsters,  the  hinder  parts  being  formed  by 
fish  tails,  or  in  some  other  way  The  use  of  the  horse  head  as  a 
medallion,  on  Stables,  Riding  schools.  Prize-cups,  and  numerous  objects 
connected  with  sport,  is  common  in  Modern  art.  In  Heraldry  the 
Horse  occurs  in  a  few  cases  (Shield  of  Stuttgart).  In  Japan;  the 
Horse  is  symbolical,  and   is  connected  with  the  hours. 

Still  less  adapted  to  ornamental  purposes  is  the  Ox;  and  repre- 
sentations are  therefore  exceedingly  rare  The  same  is  true  of  the 
Dog,  the  Pig,  the  Fox,  the  Stag,  the  Hare,  &c.,  whose  forms,  either 
entire  or  as  heads,  are  only  used  symbolically,  on  such  objects  a-S 
have  some  connection  with  Hunting  (hunting  weapons,  powder  boras, 
targets). 


NATURAL  FORMS 


The  Panther  Head,  &c. 


Plate  49. 


78 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


i^ 

\ 

-^ 

y_^^  /    ~^ 

.                    \ 

§ 

^y'^^'^i. 

\ 

S^^ 

|3l 

V 

^^^^ 

r  \ 

"^^^ 

3. 

xlwflfiifcL  ^\^ 

Plate  50. 


The  Ram  Head,  &c. 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


79 


The  Horse  Head.  ike. 


Plate  51. 


80  Heads  of  Various  Animals.  —  The  Ragle, 

Plate  51.    The  Horse  Head,  &c. 

1  Horse  head,  Parthenon,  Athens. 

2  Horse  head,  Assyrian  basrelief,  British  Muse  am. 
3—4.  Antique  Horse  head. 

5.  Horse  head,  .Modern,  German. 

6.  Head   of  a   hunting  Dog, 

7  Head  of  a  Fox,        ,  ,   _  ,    ,  ,    ^  ., 

8  Head  of  a  Boar,        \    ^^  HabenschadPn,  of  Mfinch^n. 

9.  Head  of  an  Ox, 


The  Eagle.     (Plates  52—54.) 

Like  the  lion  among  quadrupeds,  the  Engle  (Aquila,  Falco 
fulvus)  is  the  most  important  representative  of  the  feathered  tribes. 
His  size  and  strength,  his  majestic  flight,  his  keen  vision,  distinguish 
him  above  all  other  birds.  He  has  been  used  in  decorative  art  since 
the  earliest  times,  e.  g.  in  the  Persian,  Assyrian,  and  Egyptian  styles 

With  the  Greeks:  he  was  the  companion  of  Zeus,  whose  thunder- 
bolts he  keeps  and  guards;  he  carried  off  Ganymede  on  his  wings 
The  Romans  used  him  in  the  apotheoses  of  their  emperors;  and 
chose  him  for-  the  standards  of  their  legions.  Napoleon  I.,  imitnfing 
Roman  caesarism,  granted  his  armies  the  French  Eagle  in  1804. 
Hence  the  frequent  appearance  of  the  Eagle  on  trophies,  and  emblems 
of  war 

In  ecclesiastical  art:  the  Eagle  is  the  symbol  of  the  evangelist 
S.  John,  whom  he  either  accompanies,  or  symbolises  independently 

The  Eagle  appears  in  Heraldry  at  a  very  early  period,  about 
the  time  of  Charlemagne.  Next  to  the  Lion  he  is  the  most- used 
heraldic  creature  (e.  g.  the  United  Sbxtes,  Germany,  Austria,  Prussia,  and 
France  under  the  second  empire,  all  possess  the  Eagle).  His  heraldic 
forms  vary  considerably  from  the  natural  one.  Blue  excepted,  he 
appears  in  all  the  tinctures.  The  double-headed  Eagle  is  a  Byzantine 
invention.  The  heraldic  eagle  is  a  highly  ornamental  figure,  so  that, 
from  the  middle  ages  up  to  the  present  time,  he  has  been  employed 
not  only  for  heraldic,  but  also  for  purely  decorative  purposes:  he  is 
seen  in  manifold  forms  in  intarsia,  cut  or  etched  in  metal,  cut  in 
leather,  embroidered,  woven,  and  painted;  on  weapons  and  tools,  furni- 
ture, ceilings,  and  walls,  (See  the  Heraldic  treatment  in  Division  III, 
Heraldry). 

Our  figures  show  him,  natural  ns  well  as  idealised,  in  various 
positions  and  conceptions;  plate  53  shows  bis  heraldic  forms,  (Comp, 
plate  284). 


The  Eagle.  —  The  Wing.  81 

Plate  52.    The  Eagle. 

1.  YouBg  Eagle,  in  a  scutella  (dish),  Roman. 

U.  Roman  Eagle,  pedestal  of  Trajan's  column,  Romo,  (Raguenet), 

3.  Roman  Eagle,  Vatican,  Rome,  (Raguenet). 

4.  Roman  Eagle   in   an  oak  garland,   Bas-relief  originally  in  Trajan'3 
Forura,  now  in  SS.  Apostoli,  Rome,   (De  Vico,  Trenta  tavolo,  &c.). 

5.  Sitting  Eagle,  modern,  (Gerlach,  Das  Gewerbemonogramm). 

Plate  53.    The  Heraldic  Eagle. 

1.  Romanesque  Eagle,  Germanisches  Museum,  Nuremberg. 

2.  Eagle,    Gothic    style,   Viollet-le-Duc,    (Dictionnaire    de   I'arcbitec- 
ture). 

3.  Eagle,  Gothic  style,   oil  painting,    Germanisches   Museum,    Narom- 
berg. 

4.  Eagle,  Gothic  style,  by  Albrecht  Diirer,  (Hirth,  Formenschatz). 

5.  Eagle,  Renascence,   by  Albrecht  Diirer,  (Hirth). 

6.  Eagle,  Renascence,  (Hirth). 

7.  Eagle,  Renascence,  by  Wenderlin  Dietterlin,  (Hirth). 

8.  Eagle,  Modem,  German,  (Heraldische  Meisterwerke). 

Plate  54.    The  Eagle. 

1.  Eagle,    as    Akroter,    Flora    pavillion,    Louvre,    Paris,     Architect 
Lefuel,  (Baldus). 

2.  Eagle,  in  a  laurel  garland,  Modem,  German,  by  Ranch. 

3.  Eagle,  with  oli^e  branch,  in  medallion,  Louvre,  Paris,  (Baldus). 

4.  Eagle,  high  relief,  by  Rauch,  on  monument,  Berlin. 

5.  French  Eagle,  Modern,  new  Opera  House,  Paris,  Architect  Garnicr, 
(Raguenet). 

6.  Flying  Engle,  from  Nature,  (Raguenet). 

7.  Eagle,  from  nature. 

TuE  Wing.    (Plate  55.). 

As  the  small  scale  of  the  preceding  plates  does  not  admit  of 
the  details  of  the  Wing  being  fully  shown;  and  as  draughtsmen,  aa 
well  as  modellers,  are  often  called-upon  to  design  winged  shapes  (be- 
sidos  the  Eagle,  Angels,  Amorini,  Genii,  Grottesques,  the  Caduceus  of 
Mercury,  the  symbolic  Wheel  of  the  railroad,  &c,:  we  have  thought  it 
advisable  to  add  a  plate  showing  the  details  of  the  Wings  on  a 
somewhat  larger  scale.  They  are  taken  from  nature;  but  will  be 
found  helpful  for  idealised  renderings. 

Plate  55.    The  Wing. 

i.  Wing  of  a  duck. 

2.  Wing  of  a  wild  goose. 

Meyer,  Handbook  of  OrnameDt.  D 


82 


NAT[IKA1.  FORMS 


Plate  52. 


The  Eagle. 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


83 


The  Eagle. 


Plate  53. 
6* 


84 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  5t. 


The  Eagle. 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


85 


The  Wing. 


Plate  55. 


86  The  Dolphin- 

The  Dolphin.     (Plates  56—58.) 

The  Dolphin  (Dclpliinus  delphis,  French,  dauphin)  has  enjoyed 
an  unnsnal  share  of  attention.  This  sea  maromal,  which  has  some- 
times been  erroneously  classed  among  the  fishes,  lives  in  the  seas  of 
the  northern  hemisphere,  swarms  round  ships,  swnms  in  shoals,  and 
is  fond  of  sport.  In  ancient  times  the  Dolphin  enjoyed,  and  enjoys 
even  now  in  some  parts,  a  kind  of  -feneration  which  protects  hini 
from  persecution.  We  meet  him  occasionally  on  Antique  coins,  on 
Graeco-italic  terracottas,  on  Pompeian  mural  pajntiugs,  on  furniture 
and  utensils,  and  in  the  architecture  of  the  Greeks  and  Romans. 

Guigo  rv.  of  Viennois  (1140)  took  to  himself  the  title  of 
"Dauphin",  and  the  Dolphin  as  crest.  One  of  his  successors,  Humbert  II., 
sirrrendered  the  Dauphiny  in  1349  to  Charles  of  Valois,  in  exchange 
for  a  legacy  and  on  the  condition  that  the  heir  to  the  throne  should 
always  bear  the  title  "Dauphin";  which  condition  was  faithfully  kept. 
This  is  the  explanation  of,  the  frequent  appearance  of  the  Dolphin  in 
French  decoration;  but  its  frequent  appearance  in  Italian  decoration, 
is  due  to  its  artistic  capabilities.  The  Dolphin  is  often  used  in 
pilasters,  panels,  in  intarsias,  in  ceilings  and  mural  paintings, 
in  enamel,  in  niello  work,  and  in  typographical  ornaments.  In 
modern  styles  the  Dolphin  often  masks  the  spouts  of  fountains.  In 
symbolic  representations  he  is  the  companion  of  Nymphs,  Nereids, 
and  Tritons,  and  of  Arion,  Aphrodite,  and  Neptune,  with  whose 
trident  he  is  often  combined  in  ornament. 

Plate  56.    The  Dolphin. 

1.  Portion  of  frieze,  Graeco  Italic,  Campana  collection,  Paris. 

2.  Shield  of  the  French  kings,  15th  century,  (Raguenet). 

3.  Castle  at  Blois,  French  Renascence,  (Raguenet). 

4.  Italian  Renascence,  Louvre,  Paris,  (Raguenet). 

5.  Head,  from  a  relief,  French,  by  Clodion  (1738—1814). 

6.  Pair  of  Dolphins,  by  Schinkel,  (Vorbilder  fiir  Fabrikanten  utid 
Handwerker). 

7.  Head,  as  spout,  by  Barbezat,  Paris,  (Raguenet). 

8 — 9.  Heads,  as  spouts,  face  and  profile,  (Hauptmann,  Modeme  Orna-: 
mentale  Werke  im  Stile  der  Italienischen  Renascence). 

Plate  57.    The  Doij'hin. 

1.  Frieze,  Sta.  Maria  dell'  Anima,  Rome  (1500  to  1514),   Italian, 
(Raguenet"). 

2.  Panel  ornament,  French  Renascence. 

3.  Choir  seats,   Certosa   near  Pavia,   Italian   Renascence,    (Teirich, 
Meurer), 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


87 


The  Dolphin. 


Plate  56. 


88 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  57. 


The  Dolphin. 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


SO 


The  Dolphin. 


Plate  58. 


90  The  Dolphin.  —  The  Shell.  —  The  Serpent 

4.  Part  of  Frieze,  Rome,  Arco  della  chiesa  nuova,  Italian  Re- 
nascence, (Weissbach  und  Lottermoser,  Architektonische  Motive). 

5 — 6.  Heads. 

7 — 8.  Parts  of  Address  by  German  artists,  to  king  Humbert  of  Italy, 
by  Director  Gotz. 

Plate  58.    The  Dolphin. 

1.  Panel,  Venetian  Renascence. 

2.  Lower  part  of  panel.    Ducal  Palace,  Venice,  Italian  Renascence. 

3.  Part  of  frieze,    Sta.  Maria  della  Pac^,   Rome,    by  Braraante,  1504, 
Italian. 

4.  Part  of  Majolica  Tile,.  Sta.  Caterina,  Siena,  Italian  Renascence. 

5.  Head,  cathedral,  ■  Limoges,  French  Renascence. 

6.  Handle  of  a  vessel,   pilaster,   by  Benedetto  da  Majano,  Italian  Re- 
nascence. 

7.  Pen  drawing,  by  Lucas  von-  Leyden  (1527). 


The  Shell.     (Plate  59.) 

Among  molluscs:  the  Nautilus  (Nautilus  Pompilius)  and  various 
shells,  principally  of  the  family  of  the  Trochoidae,  are  placed  on  feet; 
and,  elegantly  mounted  in  metal,  serve  as  Drinking-vessels. 

The  Scallop  shell  is  used  as  the  top  of  cylindrical  niches,  as  a 
waterbasin  in  the  form  of  a  shallow  dish,  and  as  a  decorative  back- 
ground for  vases  and  busts.  It  was  extensively  employed  for  these 
purposes  in  the  later  Renascence. 

Plate  59.    The  Sheix. 

1.  Nautilus,  from  nature. 

2.  Snail  (Turbo  marmoralus) ,  from  a  Renascence  driuking-veFsel. 

B.  Exterior   of  the    Scallop    (Ostrea  Jacobaea    —    Peden  Jacobaeus), 
from  nature. 

4.  Interior  of  the  Scallop,  after  Jost  Amman,  (Hirth,  Formenschatz). 

5.  Scallop  design,  Louis  XVI.  style,  lower  end  of  a  panel. 

6.  Scallop  design,  by  the  sculptor  Lehr,  of  Berlin. 

7.  Scallop  design,  for  the  decoration  of  a  niche. 


The  SEiirENT.    (Plate  60.) 

The  Serpent  is  occasionally  used  for  symbolic  and  decorative 
purposes.  It  is  developed  ints  an  antique  Bracelet,  and  to  a  Handle 
for  vessels,  a  pair  twine  round  the  Staff  of  Mercury  (the   Caduceus, 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


91 


The  Shell. 


Plate  59. 


92 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  60. 


The  Serpent,  &c. 


The  Serpent.  —  Humaji  Orgauism.  93 

comp.  plate  76),  and  a  single  one  round  the  staflF  of  Esculapius. 
Coiled  in  a  circle  with  tail  in  mouth  it  is  the  symbol  of  Eternity  oa 
tombs,  it  is  used  in  mythology,  and  is  an  indispensable  accompani- 
ment of  the  symbols  of  Envy  and  Dissension;  and  the  hair  of  Medusa 
is  represented  as  composed  of  Serpents  (Plate  65). 

In  ecclesiastical  art:  the  Serpent  is  the  symbol  of  Wi-ckedness, 
Sin,  and  Temptation  (the  scene  in  Paradise);  it  appears  under  the  feet 
of  the  Virgin  Mary  with  an  appl^  in  its  mouth.  In  Heraldry:  it  is 
represented  devouring  a  child,  on  the  shield  of  the  Visconti,  of  Milano. 

Plate  60.    The  Serpent. 

1.  Cast  from  life  of  a  Viper  (Vipera  herus  —  Pelias  berus)  with 
a  Lizard  (Lacerta  viridis  —  Lacerta  agilis),  by  J.  EberhavJ 
of  Heilbronn. 

2.  Cast  from  life  of  a  Viper,  by  J.  Eberhard  of  Heilbronn. 

3.  Antique  bracelet  in  the  form  of  a  Viper,  Pompeii. 

4.  The  Snake  as  the  symbol  of  Eternity,  (Gerlach,  Allegorien  und 
Embleme). 


c.  Human  Organism. 

The  human  form  has  been,  and  is  destined  to  be  a  favoured 
object  of  representation  in  art.  The  desire,  to  depict  for  contemporaries 
and  to  transmit  to  posterity,  the  great  Deeds  of  individuals  and  the 
epoch-making  Achievements  and  fate  of  whole  races  and  nations,  is 
universal  among  mankind;  as  also  the  attempt  to  reproduce  the 
Portraits  of  celebrated  Persons.  Even  the  supernatural  powers,  his 
Gods,  man  represents  in  the  form  of  men.  The  "Lord  of  creation" 
can  give  to  the  beings  he  venerates  no  more  ideal  form  than  his 
own,  which  he  holds  to  be  the  most  developed*.  The  Christian 
conception  has  arrived  at  the  same  result  by  the  reverse  process: 
"God  created  man  in  his  own  image."  Virtues,  Vices,  Passions,  Sci- 
ences and  Arts,  Ages,  Seasons  and  Hours,  Elements,  Rivers,  Countries, 
Hemispheres,  and  many  other  things  receive  symbolic  expression; 
and  are  pictorially  rendered  by  human  figures.  And  the  human  body 
is  often  represented,    without  any  meaning,    and    solely   (decoratively) 


*  Mortals,  however,  opine  that  the  Gods  had  an  origin  man-like; 
Feel  and  have  voices  like  men,  like  men  have  a  bodily  fashion 
Oxen  and  lions,  no  doubt,  if  they  bad  but  hands  and  a  chisel, 
Pencils  as  well,  to  depict  the  figure  divine,  would  do  likewise: 
God  for  the  horse  were  a  horse,  and  God  for  the  oxen  were  ox-like, 
Each  would  think  God   like   himself  and  give  to   his  God  his  owo 

image. 
Xenophanes  of  Colophon.     6U0  B.  C 


94  The  Human  Figure.  —  The  Mask. 

on  account  of  its  beauty  of  form.  All  these  delineations,  which  fall 
Mrithin  the  domain  of  high  art,  lie  beyond  the  scope  of  this  work. 
We  have  only  to  deal  with  the  human  figure  so  far  as  it  has  been 
received  into  decoration:  we  have  only  to  occupy  ourselves  with 
"conventionalised"  man.  This  includes  the  applications  of  the  human 
face,  more  or  less  true  to  nature  or  with  arbitrary  accessions;  masks 
and  caricatures;  grottesques,  those  strange  combinations  of  human 
with  animal  or  plant  elements;  and  also  the  applications  of  the  upper 
half  of  the  human  body  as  the  starting-point  of  ornament;  half-lengths 
as  commencements  of  ornaments;  those  mixtures  of  human  and  animal 
shapes  in  which  the  upper  half  falls  to  the  share  of  man,  e.  g.:  — 
fphinxes,  centaurs,  &c. 


The  Mask.    (Plate  61.) 

The  Mask,  strictly  so-called,  is  an  artificial,  hollow  face,  intended 
to  be  placed  in  front  of,  and  to  conceal  the  human  countenance  so 
as  to  make  the  wearer  unrecognisable,  or  to  characterize  him  in  some 
special  way.  The  use  of  the  Mask  dates  back  to  the  popular  Harvest 
games  of  the  earliest  Greek  period.  From  these  games  the  mask  is 
believed  to  have  been  transferred  to  the  ancient  Theatre,  in  which  the 
actors  all  apjieared  masked.  Different  classes  of  Masks  were  recognised: 
tragic,  comic,  &c.  Definite  types  of  Masks  were  connected  with  .de- 
finite characters  and  "persons".  The  mouth-openings  of  these  Masks 
were  unnaturally  large  and  sbaped  like  a  bell-mouth,  so  as  to  reinforce 
the  voice  of  the  speaker;  in  Latin  the  mask  is  termed  "persona"  (from 
personare  =  to  sound  through).  From  theatrical,  the  Masks  passed 
to  artistic  use,  e.  g.  in  the  mural  paintings  of  theatres  and  secular 
edifices  (Pompeian  decorations),  on  Bacchic  vessels  and  other  utensils 
(various  beakers  in  the  silver  treasure  of  Hildesheim).  The  Renascence 
and  the  following  styles  have  at  times  used  Masks  in  decoration, 
altering  and  exaggerating  the  forms.  In  particular  the  Mask  is  often 
used  for  the  decoration  of  the  keystones  of  door  and  window  arches. 
We  may  also  mention  the  beautiful,  freely-treated  Heads  of  dying 
frarriors  by  Schliiter  on  the  arsenal  at  Berlin;  and  the  Masks  in 
Antique  style  on  the  new  Opera  House  in  Paris,  by  Gamier. 

Plate  61.    The  Mask. 

1.  Bacchus,  Graeco  Italio,  fragment  of  a  vessel  or  utensil. 

2  —  3.  Heads,  goblet  (Hildesheim  treasure),   Roman,   Berlin  Museum. 

4.  Keystone,  Graeco  Italic,  terracotta,  Campana  collection. 

5.  Part  of  Frier.e,  Graeco  Italic,  Campana  collection. 

6.  Silenus,  handle  of  Etruscan  vessel. 
7 — 8.  Decoration,  Pompeii. 


The  Mask.  —  The  Grottesque  Mask.  95 

9.         Satyr,   Italian  Renascence,   by   Sansovino,   over  a  Festoon  in 
Sta.  Maria  del  Popolo,  Rome. 
10.         Dying  warrior,  by  Schluter,  Berlin  arsenal,  1697. 


The  Grottesque  Mask.   (Plates  62—64.") 

Masks  and  Caricatures  pass  into  each  other,  so  that  it  is  diffi- 
cult to  draw  a  strict  line  between  them.  The  French  language  ex- 
presses tViia  connection,  clearly,  by  using  the  related  words  "masque" 
and  "mascaron." 

Under  Masks  are  usually  classed  the  delineations  of  beautiful 
countenances,  either  true  tp  nature  or  idealising  it.  Caricatures  are 
faces  gi inning,  deformed,  distorted  by  accessories,  or  terminating  in 
foliage. 

The  Antique,  which  had  no  love  whatever  for  the  depicting  of 
the  ugly  and  bizarre,  only  used  Caricatures  in  its  oldest  periods,  in 
the  so-called  Archaic  style. 

The  Middle  Ages  frequently  employed  Caricatures. 

The  Renascence  and  Barocco  styles,  as  well  as  our  most  Modem, 
art,  often  apply  Caricatures  to  keystones,  to  consoles,  as  spouts  and 
handles,  on  shields  and  cartouches,  in  capitals  and  panels,  on  the 
backs  of  chairs,  and  in  general  on  carved  furniture,  on  stove-tiles,  &c. 
We  possess  a  number  of  excellent  Caricatures  from  the  hand  of  the 
youthful  Michelangelo,  who  treated  this  form  with  predilection,  and 
with  the  breadth  characteristic  of  his  genius. 

Plate  62.    The  Grottesque  Mask. 

1.  Etruscan,    terracotta,    Campana    collection,    (P.  A.  M.,    Cours 
d'omement). 

2.  Grottesque,  Italian  Renascence,  Venice. 

3.  Grottesque,  tomb  of  the  cardinal  Sforza,  Sta.  Maria  del  Popolo, 
Rome,  Italian  Renascence,  by  Sansovino. 

4.  Single  Grottesque,  from  frieze,  Italian  Renascence,   by  Michel- 
angelo, San  Lorenzo,  Florence. 

6.         Part  of  capital  of  pilaster,  French  Renascence,  tomb  of  Louis  XII, 

St.  Denis. 
6—7.  Modern  French  Grottesques. 

Plate  63.    The  Grottesque  Mask. 

1.         Carved  bench,  Italian  Renascence,  Bargello,  Florence. 
2 — 3.  Female,  metal  shields,  German  Renascence. 
4.         Akroter,  Tribunal  de  Commerce,  Paris. 
$.         Grottesque,  Louvre,  Paris,  (Bald  us). 


96 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  61. 


The  Mask,  &c. 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


97         • 


Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament 


The  Grottesque  Mask. 


Plate  62. 

7 


9S 


NATURAL  FORMS 


Plate  63. 


The  Grottesque  Mask. 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


99 


The  Croltcaque  Mask. 


i'late  G4. 

7* 


ft72;i04 


100    The  Grottesque  Mask.  —  The  Medusa  Head.  —  The  Grottesque. 

6.  Modern  French,  Theatre  de  Bellecour,  Lyons,  Architect  Chatron, 
(Raguenet). 

7.  Modern  French,    Ministry   of  War,    Paris,    Architect  Bouchot, 
(Raguenet). 

Plate  64.    The  Grottesque  Mask. 

1.  Grottesque,  by  Michelangelo,  Italian  Renascence,  (Raguenet). 

2.  Grottesque,  castle  of  Ecouen,  French,  1638,   (Raguenet). 

3.  German,  16th  century,  (Lessing). 

4.  Grottesque,  German  Renascence,  Gemanisches  Museum,  Nuremberg. 

5.  Grottesque,    pedestal    of  a  column,    tomb    in  Pforzheim,    German 
Renascence,  by  Hans  von  Trarbach. 

6.  From  the  spout  of  a  can,  German  Renascence. 

7.  Grottesque,  escutcheon  of  a  lock,  German  Renascence. 

8.  Grottesque,  modem  panel.  Sculptor  Hauptmann. 

The  Medusa  Head.    (Plate  65.) 

Unique  among  the  masks  is  the  head  of  Medusa.  Medusa,  in 
mythological  tradition  one  of  the  three  Gorgons,  whose  Head  Perseus 
cut-off,  to  present  it  to  Athene  as  an  ornament  for  her  shield.  It  is 
employed  in  ancient  art  as  a  decoration  for  breastplates  and  shields, 
on  and  above  doors  and  gates,  and  on  the  ground  of  paterae  and 
dishes.  The  expression  is  that  of  the  rigidity  of  death;  its  look  is 
meant  to  petrify;  the  hair  is  interlaced  with  serpents;  serpents  wind 
themselves  in  knots  beneath  her  chin;  and  small  wings  are  often  added. 

The  Archaic  art  represented  the  Gorgon  as  ugly,  terrible,  and 
disgusting;  the  later  Greek  conception,  under  Praxiteles,  was  of  stern, 
grand,  beauty,  (the  so  called  Rondanine  Medusa  in  the  Glyptothek 
at  Munich). 

In  the  Modem  and  Renascence  styles,  the  head  oi  Medusa  is  only 
decorative;  and  it  is  seldom  employed. 

Plate  65.    The  Medusa  Head. 

1.  The  Famese  dish  (Onyx  Patera),  Museum,  Naples,  Roman. 

2.  Centre  of  antique  Patera,  Roman. 

3.  Medallion,  probably  modem,  French. 

4.  Tympanum,  Tuileries,  Paris,  (Baldus). 

The  Grottesque.   (Plate  66.) 

Grottesques  (from  grotto)  are  fantastic,  often  really  ugly  monsters, 
produced  by  the  combination  of  human,  animal,  and  plant  organisms 


The  Grottesque.  —  The  Half-Figure.  101 

in  the  freest  and  most  arbitrary  manner.  Squatting,  winged  female 
figures  without  arms;  human  bodies  with  fishtails,  with  endlessly  long, 
winding  necks,  with  extremities  terminating  in  foliage,  are  types  of 
this  style  of  ornamentation.  The  origin  of  the  Grottesque  must  be 
sought  in  the  decorative  painting  of  the  Romans.  Pompeii  offers 
copious  matorial.  Various  painters  of  the  Italian  Renascence,  among 
them  Rafael,  revived  and  used  the  antique  Grottesque  painting 
(Rafael's  loggie),  after  the  discovery  of  the  grottesque  painting  in  the 
thermae  of  Titus  at  Rome,  (from  these'  vaults  or  Grottoes  is  derived 
the  name  grottesque). 

The  Grottesques  are  a  striking  example  of  the  playful  and  artistic 
feeling  of  the  Ancients;  and  stand  in  great  contrast  to  the  coarse 
attempts  at  the  comic  to  be  found  in  Medieval  art.  From  decorative 
painting  the  grottesques  passed  to  the  plastic  art  of  the  Renascence. 
The  revival  of  Italian  decorative  painting  in  modem  art  has  led  to 
the  retention  of  these  forms  also. 

Plate  66.    The  Grottesque. 

1.  Part  of  pilaster,  Italian  Renascence,  by  Benedetto  da  Majano. 

2.  Part   of  pilaster,  tomb  of  Louis   XII.,   St.   Denis,    French  Re- 
nascence. 

3.  Part  of  pilaster,  Palazzo  magnifico,   Siena,    Italian  Renascence, 
by  Barile. 

4 — 5.  Parts    of    ornamental    columns,    Palazzo    Guadagni,    Florence, 
(Schiitz). 

6.  Italian  majolica  pavement,    Siena,    Italian    Renascence,    (L'art 
pour  tous). 

7.  Stall  in   San   Severino,   Naples,   Italian   Renascence,   by  Barto- 
lommeo   Chiarini   and   Bernadino   Torelli    da   Brescia,    (Schiitz). 

8.  Stall,  San  Agostino,  Perugia,  Italian  Renascence. 

The  Half -Figure.    (Plates  67—68.) 

From  Antique  times  up  to  the  present  day.  Half- figures  have 
been  popular  as  startings  for  ornaments.  The  upper  part  of  the 
human  body  undergoes  little  variation  from  its  natural  forms. 
Below  the  breast  or  the  stomach,  often  defined  by  a  girdle,  there  is 
developed  a  sort  of  inverted  foliage -cup,  from  which  the  scroll  orna- 
ment grows.  Half-figures  are  found  not  only  in  the  flat  and  in  bas- 
relief,  but  also  in  round  plastic  art,  in  this  latter  case  as  brackets  for 
lamps,  torchholders,  doorknockers,  &c. 

Plate  67.    The  Half-Figure. 
1 — 2.  Panels,  Roman  Altar. 
3.  Part  of  a  Roman  relief. 


102 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  65. 


The  Medusa  Head. 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


103 


The  Grottesque 


Plate  66. 


104 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  67. 


The  Half-Figure. 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


105 


The  Half-Figure. 


riate  68. 


106  The  Half-Figure.  —  The  Sphinx,  and  the  Centaur. 

4.  Socle  of  Altar,   cathedral  of  Orvieto,   Italian  Renascence,   (Go- 
werbehalle). 

5.  Part  of  relief,  Italian  Renascence. 

Plate  68.    The  Half-Figure. 

1.  Bracket,  1750,  Italian,  South  Kensington  Museum,  London,  (Arundel 
Society,  Objects  of  art). 

2.  Decoration  on    ceiling.    Castle    of  S.  Angelo,    Rome,    Italian    Re- 
nascence. 

3.  Sketch,  by  Polidore  da  Caravaggio,  16th  century,  Italian,  Louvre, 
Paris. 

4.  Centre  of  a  relief,  lectern,  cathedral,  Limoges,  French  Renascence. 

6.  From  basrelief,  by  J.  Verchfere,  Modem,  French. 


The  Sphinx,  and  the  Centaur.    (Plate  69.) 

The  Sphinx  is  an  imaginary  combination  of  the  Human  bust 
■with  the  body  of  the  Lion.  It  was  originally  an  Egyptian  invention. 
The  colossal  Sphinx  of  Memphis  was  begun  under  Cheops;  it  is  hewn 
from  the  living  rock,  partly  supplemented  by  masonry,  and  is  more 
than  150  feet  long.  The  bust  is  generally  a  Woman's;  but  in  some 
cases  it  is  a  Ram  head.  The  Sphinx  is  the  guardian  of  temples  and 
tombs,  in  front  of.  which  it  is  frequently  ranged  in  avenues.  In  the 
Roman  period:  wings  are  added,  probably  through  Assyrian  influence; 
and  the  crouching  position  is  sometimes  exchanged  for  the  half-erect. 
The  Renascence  uses  Sphinxes  in  painting  (as  double  sphinx  also,  with 
a  single  head  and  double  body),  and  in  free  shapes  as  fire  dogs,  &c. 
The  Barocco  period  adorns  gardens  and  portals  with  crouching  Sphinxes, 
(the  castle   garden  at  Schwetzingen   contains   a  considerable   number). 

Centaurs  are  imaginary  wild  monsters,  with  the  fore  part  of  a  Man 
and  the  hinder  part  of  a  Horse.  Among  the  Greeks,  the  Centaur  ori- 
ginally symbolised  the  Thessalian  race  of  equestrian  renown.  Mytho- 
logy recounts  their  struggles  with  the  Lapithae.  Later  delineations, 
such  as  the  mural  paintings  of  Pompeii,  depict  the  Centaurs  less 
vdli,  tamed  to  the  service  of  Dionysos,  and  sporting  with  Amorini  and 
Bacchantes.  The  decorative  capabilities  of  these  fantastic  figures  has 
ensured  them  renewed  application  in  later  styles;  and  they  are  some- 
times used  in  modem  decoration. 

Plate  69.    The  Sphinx,  and  the  Centaue. 

1.  Crouching  Sphinx,  Egyptian,  Louvre,  Paris,  (Raguenet). 

2.  Crouching  Sphinx  with  ram  head,  Egyptian,  (Raguenet). 
3»  Lower  comer  of  an  antique  candelabrum,  Roman- 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


107 


The  Sphinx,  aud  the  Centaur. 


Plate  69. 


108 


NATURAL  FORMS. 


Plate  70. 


The  Cherub  Head,  &c. 


Miscellaneous  Heads.  109 

4.  Sitting    Sphinx,    Modern,    French,    Andiron,    by   the    sculptor 
Piat,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

5.  Crouching  Sphinx,  modem. 

6 — 7.  Centaurs    and    Bacchante?,    Mural    paintings,    Pompeii,    (Chofa 
d'oeuvre  de  l'art  antique). 


Miscellaneous  Heads.    (Plate  70.) 

Angel-faces,  winged,  youthful  heads,  ,with  a  circular  or  disc-like 
halo,  are  first  met-"with  in  the  Byzantine  style,  as  a  result  of  the 
activity  of  ecclesiastical  artists.  In  the  early  Italian  Renascence,  the 
rendering  is  charmingly  naive  (Lucca  della  Robbia  may  be  specially 
mentioned)',  they  adorn  friezes  and  arches,  fill  medallions,  and  are 
found  in  borders.  They  occur  often  on  Tombs;  and  they  are  also 
much  used  in  Modem  ecclesiastical  decoration. 

The  profiles  of  Minerva,  Mars,  Apollo,  frequently  occur  in  me- 
dallions. 

The  Skull  or  Death's  head,  the  gruesome  grinning  relic  of  de- 
parted life,  and  emblem  of  Decay  and  Death,  finds  its  place  in  the 
Dances  of  Death,  at  one  time  so  popular;  also  on  the  shield  of  Death 
(Albrecht  Diirer),  on  Monuments,  Tombs,  &c.  It  is  generally  represented 
in  front  view,  and  often  over  two  crossed  bones. 

Plate  70.    The  Cherub  Head,  &c. 

1.  Cherub,  Early  ItaL'an  Renascence. 

2.  Cherub,  candelabrum,  Certosa  near  Pavia,  Italian  Renascence. 

3.  Frame,  Germanisches  Museum,  Nuremberg. 

4.  Column  of  the  Plague,  Vienna,  Barocco. 

5.  Modem,  medallion,  by  Prof.  Heer,  Carlsruhe. 

6.  Minerva,  Berlin  Museiim,  Modem. 

7.  Minerva,  Modem. 

8.  "Warrior,  Louvre,  Paris,  (Baldiis). 

9.  Mars,  from  Li^vre,  Les  Arts  Decoratifs. 
10.  Skull,  from  nature. 


no 


ARTIFICIAL  OBJECTS. 

Besides  Geometrical  elements,  and  those  copied  from  organic 
Nature:  ornamental  art  avails  itself  of  Artificial  objects,  either  alone 
or  in  combination  with  the  two  first-named  classes.  But  this  does 
not  include  the  accidental  use  of  all  kinds  of  articles  in  symbolic 
work,  and  the  still-life  painting,  but  only  the  vessels,  tools  weapons, 
instruments,  shields,  knots,  ribbons,  &c.,  which  are  used  as  decora- 
tion,  or  blended  with  it. 

It  is  easy  to  understand  how  the  vessels  of  religious  rites  passed 
into  the  decoration  of  religious  edifices,  temples,  and  churches.  In 
the  Antique  style:  the  altars,  tripods,  candelabra,  sacrificial  axes, 
sprinklers.  &c.;  in  the  Christian  styles:  the  symbol  of  the  cross,  marks 
of  piiestly  dignity,  the  instruments  of  the  Passion,  &c.,  decorate 
fiiezos,  walls,  and  panels,  (Comp.  Plate  75,  figs.  2  and  6). 

Decorative  groups  of  hunting  and  warlike  implements  and  of 
tools,  &c.,  are  termed  Trophies:  the  devices  of  guilds  and  companies 
are  Symbols. 

The  following  chapters  will  treat  of  these  things  in  detail,  along 
with  other  designs,  of  somewhat  rarer  occurrence,  which  also  belong 
to  this  section. 

The  Trophy.     (Plates  71  and  72.) 

It  was  the  custom  of  the  Greeks  to  hang  on  the  trunks  of 
trees,    the  weapons  which  the   flying   enemy  had   left  behind   on  the 


The  Trophy.  —  The  Symbol.  Ill 

field  of  battle.  These  tokens  of  victory,  or  Trophies,  have  also  found 
a  place  in  decoration.  The  Romans  erected  artificial,  symbolical 
Trophies  of  stone  or  bronze  in  the  form  of  columns,  pyramids,  and 
similar  architectural  structures.  Since  their  time  Trophies  have  been 
used  not  only  to  decorate  all  monuments  connected  with  war  and 
victory,  e.  g.  arsenals,  the  offices  of  the  ministry  of  war,  guard-houses, 
barracks,  and  weapons,  especially  shields;  but  they  have  been  used 
up  to  the  present  time  for  purely  decorative  purposes,  as  elegantly- 
arranged  and  prettily-grouped  weapons  of  war,  in  the  architecture  of 
the  pilasters  of  castles,  town-halls  and  tombs,  in  the  intarsias  of  the 
Renascence,  on  woven  fabrics  and  tapestries,  as  vignettes;  and,  above 
all,  in  plastic  ornament. 

It  was  also  natural  that  Trophies  should  also  be  formed  of  hunt- 
ing-weapons, which  have  much  similarity  with  weapons  of  war,  and 
also  of  objects  connected  with  the  navy.  The  original  meaning  of 
the  word  (rgoTtaiov  =  token  of  victory,  from  rgoutj,  turning,  flight) 
has,  it  must  be  admitted,  been  lost  sight  of  in  these  applications. 

Plate  71.    The  Teophy. 

1 —  6.  Decoration  of  chased  metal  dish.  Renascence. 

7 —  8.  Decoration  of  clock  panel,  French  Renascence,  Louis  XTTI 
style,  (Lifevre). 

9 — 10.  Panels  of  door,  Otto-Heinrich  portion  of  the  Castle,  Heidel- 
berg, German  Renascence,  (Pfnor). 

Plate  72.    The  Teophy. 

1.  Panel,    tomb   of   Galeazzo   Pandono,    San   Domenico    maggiore, 
Naples,  Italian  Renascence,  (Schiitz). 

2.  Part  of  Panel,  Italian  Renascence. 

3.  Part  of  Panel  of  a  stall,  Dordtrecht,  Dutch  Renascence. 

4.  Pedestal    of  monument   to    a    Margrave,    Pforzheim,    by  Hans 
von  Trarbach,  German  Renascence. 

5 — 6.  Panels,  Quay  front,  Tuileries,  Paris,  (Baldus). 

7,         Part  of  design  for  a  monument,  by  J.  Ch.  Delafosse. 


The  Symbol.    (Plates  73—77.) 

The  grouping  of  tools  and  instruments,  to  symbolise  some  special 
idea,  leads  to  the  design  of  Symbols.  Thus  we  find,  disregarding- 
those  of  war  and  hunting,  which  we  have  treated  of  as  trophies, 
Symbols  of  art,  both  of  Art  in  general  and  of  the  special  arts; 
Music,    Painting,    Sculpture,   Architecture,    &c.;   Symbols   of  Science, 


11? 


ARTIFICIAL  OBJECTS. 


Plate  71 


The  Trophy. 


ARTIFICIAL  OBJECTS. 


113 


Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament. 


The  Trophy. 


Plate  72. 
8 


114  The  Symbol. 

either  as  a  whole  or  for  individual  sciences:  Mathematics,  Astronomy, 
Chemistry,  &c.;  of  Commerce,  of  Technical  Science,  and  finally  of 
Handicrafts  and  Trades. 

Singing,  for  example,  is  symbolised  by  a  lyre  with  or  without 
sheets  of  music:  Music  by  violins,  flutes,  horns,  Pan's  pipes,  &c.; 
Dancing  by  the  tambourine  and  castagnettes;  Acting  by  masks;  Paint- 
ing by  brush  and  palette;  Sculpture  by  the  hammer,  chisel,  and 
works  of  sculptxxre,  busts,  torsi;  Architecture  by  square,  straight-edge 
and  compasses,  usually  in  combination  with  capitals.  The  Railroad 
and  Steam  are  symbolised  by  a  vdnged  wheel,  the  Telegraph  by  coils  of 
wire,  which  radiate  lightning.  Trade  is  represented  by  casks  and  bales 
of  goods  on  which  the  caduceus  (a  staff  round  which  winged  serpents 
are  twining  —  the  attribute  of  Mercury)  is  resting;  Agriculture  has 
the  plough,  the  sickle,   the   scythe,  &c..  Vine  culture  the  vine  press. 

The  different  Trades  have  chosen  their  Symbols  partly  from  their 
tools,  partly  from  their  finished  products.  The  Guilds  and  Companies 
of  past  centuries  introduced  a  certain  system  into  these  outward  and 
visible  signs;  a  large  number  of  guild  pictures,  some  of  them  very 
beautiful  and  ingenious,  are  preserved  in  the  industrial  art  museums 
of  modern  times. 

A  far  more  detailed  and  extensive  treatment  of  Symbols  than  can 
be  given  in  the  present  work  vnW  be  found  in  Gerlach's  Allegorien 
und  Emhleme,  to  which  we  are  indebted  for  a  number  of  illustrations. 

Plate  73.    The  Symbol. 

1.  Angle  ornament,  hall  of  the  Ministry  ol  State,  Louvre,  Paris, 
(Baldus). 

2.  Louvre,  Paris,  (Baldus). 

8.  Symbol  of  the  violin  makers*  guild,  Klingenthal,  1716,   (Gerlach, 

Allegorien  und  Embleme). 
4 — 5.  Pilaster  panels,   by  the  sculptor  Fomilini  of  Florence,  Modern. 
6 — 9.  Medallions,  by  the  sculptor  Lehr  of  Berlin,  Modem. 

Plate  74.    The  Sytnibol. 

1.         Carved  wood  Door-head,  French,  18th  century,  (L'art  pour  tons). 
2 — 3.  Symbols  of  sculpture  and  painting,  by  the  sculptor  Hauptraann, 
Dresden,  Modern. 

4.  Part  of  Exhibition-programme,  Miinchen,  1876,  by  R.  Seitz. 

5.  Address-card  of  an  ink  factory,  by  Prof.  Hammer  of  Carlsruhe. 

6.  Title  to  an  edition  of  Goethe's  works,  by  Dir.  Gotz  of  Carlsruhe. 

Plate  75.    The  Symbol. 

1.  Part  of  Panel,   court  of  Ducal  palace,  Venice,  Italian  Renascence, 
(Schutz). 


AETIFICIAL  OBJECTS. 


115 


The  Symbol. 


Plate  73. 

8* 


116 


AKTIFICIAL  OBJECTS. 


Plate  74. 


The  Symbol. 


ARTIFICIAL  OBJECTS. 


117 


The  Symbol. 


Plate  75. 


118 


ARTIFICIAL  OBJECTS. 


Plate  76. 


The  Symbol. 


ARTIFICIAL  OBJECTS. 


119 


u^^^kmkMtir  -T  T 


4.    Af 


The  Symbol, 


Plate  77. 


120  The  Symbol 


2.  Ecclesiastical  art, 

3.  Architecture  and  Sculpture, 

4.  Painting, 

5.  Antique  art, 

6.  Christian  art, 

7.  Art, 

8.  Sculpture, 


In  Pilasters,  by  the  sculptoi 
Hauptmann,  Modern,  staircase  of 
Museum,  Dresden. 


Plate  76.    The  Symbol. 

1.  Banner,  of  the  architectural  school  of  the  Polytechnicum,  Carla- 
ruhe. 

2.  Chemistry. 

3.  Mathematics. 

4.  ^Mechanical  Engineering. 

5.  Civil  Engineering. 
6!  Forestry. 

7.  Post   and  Commerce,    Polytechnicum  at  Carlsruho,    Designed  by 
G.  Kachel. 

8.  Mechanical  Engineering, 

9.  The  Mechanic,  >    (Gerlach,  Allegorien  und  Embleme). 

10.  Smithery, 

11.  Navigation  and  Commerce,  Tuileries,  Paris,  (Baldus). 

Plate  77.    The  Symbol. 

1.  Navigation, 

2.  Agriculture, 

3.  Music, 

4.  Farming, 
5 — 6.  War,     Border    of   a    copper    plate    engraving,    by    Heinrich 

Goltzius  (1558—1617). 

7.  Hunting  and  Fishing,  by  Stuck  of  Munich,    (Gerlach,  Alle- 
gorien und  Embleme). 

8.  Forestry, 

9.  Sword-making, 

10.  Musketry,  >   (Gerlach) 

11.  Farriery,  I 

12.  Smithery.  J 

The  Ribbon.     (Plates  78—79.) 

Ribbons  are  not  used  alone,  but  are  frequently  employed  as  a 
decoration  of  garlands  and  festoons  (comp.  plates  88,  39,  40),  of  sym- 
bols (comp.  plates  71 — 77),  or  they  are  Labels  to  bear  some  motto 
(comp.  plate  78).  The  Piibbons  of  the  Antique  are  simple,  often  ter- 
minatiDg  in  a  ball  or  acorn  like  knob;  the  Middle  Ages,  particularly 


'  Court  front  of  the  Tuileries,  Paris,  (Baldus). 


ARTIFICIAL  OBJECTS. 


121 


The  Kibbon,  and  the  Liibel 


Plate  78. 


122 


ARTIFICIAL  OBJECTS. 


Piate  79. 


Tlie  Elbbon, 


AETIFICIAL  OBJECTS. 


123 


Miscellaneous  objects. 


Plate  80. 


124  The  Ribbon.  —  Miscellaneous  objects. 

tbe  Gothic,  make  them  curled  and  quaint;  in  the  Renascence  they  axe 
developed  in  various  free  and  elegant  styles,  often  divided  at  the  ends 
like  a  pennon.  In  the  Louis  XVI.  style  they  ar6  often  peculiarly 
crinkled,  but  in  spite  of  this  mannerism  they  are  not  vrithout  a  cer- 
tain decorative  charm,  (Comp.  plates  78  and  79). 

Plate  78.    The  Eibbon,  akd  the  Label. 

1.  Label  for  motto,   on  the   seal   of  the   town   of  Schiltach,   Gothic, 
Inscription  on  the  ECroU:  "S.  opidi  schilttach". 

2.  Ribbon,    from  Jost  Amman's  Wappen-   und   Stammbuch,    German 
Renascence. 

3.  Ribbon,  painting  by  B.  Zeitblom,  Carlsruhe  gallery,  Gothic. 

4.  Label  for  motto,  old  Germain  painting,  School  of  Cologne,  Carls- 
ruhe gallery. 

5.  Label  for  motto,  triumphal  car,  by  Hans  Burgkmair,  1473 — 1530, 
German,  (Hirth). 

6.  Label  for  motto,   Albreeht  Diirer's   "Der  Eiilen   seyndt  alle  Vogel 
neydig  und  gram,"  German  Renascence,  (Hirth). 

Plate  79.    The  Kibbon. 

1.  Ribbon  and  knot,  After  Daniel  Mignot,  German  Renascence. 

2.  Ribbon  and  knot,  the  Louis  XVI.  style,  (Lifevre). 

8.  Ribbon  and  knot  for  a  bunch  of  fruit,  after  Prof.  Sturm  of  Vienna, 

(Storck's  Zeichenvorlagen). 
4.  Drapery  Festoon,  (Raguenet). 

Miscellaneous  objects.  (Plate  80). 

Finally,  among  the  artificial  objects  v/hich  are  used  in  decora- 
tion, especially  of  pilasters,  we  may  mention  those  forms  like  cande- 
labra and  vases,  from  which  ornaments,  like  growing  plants,  usually 
rise,  (Comp.  plates  80  and  131). 

Cornucopias,  Torches,^  small  inscription  Tablets,  and  many  other 
objects,  are  introduced. 

Plate  80.    Miscellaneous  objects. 

1.  Vase,  window  pilaster  of "  the  Cancelleria,  Rome,  by  Bramante.  Ita- 
lian Renascence,  (De  Vico). 

2.  Vase,  pilaster  of  a  door,  San  Angostino,  Rome,  (De  VicoV 

3.  Vase,  lower  part  of  a  panel,  Italian  Renascence. 

4.  Vase,  tomb  of  Louis  XIL,  St.  Denis,  French  Renascence. 

5.  Vase,  Louis  XVL  style,  (F.  A.  M.,  Cours  d'ornement). 

6.  Crossed  Torches,   upper  part  of  pilaster,  by  Benedetto  da  Majano, 
Italian  Renascence. 

7.  Crossed  Torches,  Renascence. 


ORNAMENT 


APPLIED   TO    FEATURES. 


A.  Bands. 

B.  Free  Ornaments. 

C.  Supports. 

D.  Enclosed  Ornaments,  or  Panels. 

E.  Repeating  Ornaments,  or  Diapers. 


126 


Introduction. 

The  second  division  of  the  Handbook  deals  with  ornament  as 
applied  in  decorative  Features.  They  will  be  arranged  according  to 
their  function,  and  treated  in  accordance  with  the  mutual  relations  of 
the  decorative  form  and  its  application. 

Every  one  acquainted  with  Decoration,  must  have  been  struck 
by  the  fact  that  on  certain  Objects  and  on  certain  parts  of  them  the 
decoration  invariably  appears  to  have  been  modelled  on  the  same 
principle,  no  matter  how  much  the  selected  motives  may  vary  from 
each  other  or  belong  to  special  styles.  In  decoration,  as  elsewhere, 
there  is  a  right  and  a  wrong  use  for  everything;  each  object,  even 
the  very  smallest,  requires  its  own  proper  Form  and  Decoration,  and 
the  artist  who  understands  style  vrill  give  these,  though  in  many  cases 
unconsciously;  artistic  instinct  guiding  one  man  where  another  must 
study  laboriously. 

Be  this  as  it  may,  the  relations  are  there.  A  socle  ornament 
.  cannot  be  reversed  and  used  as  a  frieze  without  modification;  a 
column,  which  looks  beautiful  and  even  delicate  on  monumental  archi- 
tecture, may  produce  a  clumsy  effect  if  reduced  and  applied  to  furni- 
ture; no  one  finds  fault  with  the  20  or  24  flutings  of  it  in  archi- 
tecture, but  half  of  them  would  more  than  suffice  for  the  smaller 
Cabinet.  And  so  on.  The  achievements  of  those  periods,  in  which 
the  intimate  connection  between  form,  aim  and  material  was  either 
unknown  or  forgotten,  are  what  might  be  expected.  The  Empire 
Style,  which  copied  the  Antique  at  the  instance  of  an  august  per- 
sonage; and,  in  so  doing,  produced  work  which  is  classical  in  respect 
of  its  mannerisms;  is  an  example.  A  Greek  temple  and  an  arm  chair 
are  two  different  things;  each  has  its  own  peculiarities;  and  must  be 
fashioned  and  decorated  in  accordance  therewith. 

It  were  an  insoluble  problem  to  give  a  formula  for  each  case; 
and  to  attempt  to  do  so  lies  beyond  the  scope  of  this  Handbook. 
But  we  v/ill  attempt  to  bnng  together  some  important  groups  from 
the  entire  field;  and  by  means  of  them  to  illustrate  the  principles 
of  design. 


127 


A. 
BANDS. 


The  group  of  Bands  includes  all  those  ornamental  forms  which 
are  used  to  give  expression  to  the  ideas  of  bordering,  framing,  and 
connecting. 

The  motives  are  partly  geometrical,  partly  organic,  chiefly  plant- 
forms;  artificial  forms  being  more  rarely  used. 

The  Band  has  no  "up"  or  "down";  but  only  an  onward  or  an 
outward  tendency.  It  has  no  limitation  in  regard  to  length;  but  is 
generally  a  narrow,  ribbon-like  ornament. 

The  proper  application  of  Bands  is  to  the  enclosing  of  ceilings, 
walls,  floors,  panels,  on  certain  architectural  constructions,  on  the 
abacus  and  the  plinth  of  columns,  and  as  a  running  ornament  round 
the  shaft  of  the  latter.  They  are  further  used  as  the  hem  or  border 
of  garments,  carpets  and  other  textiles;  as  borders  in  typography,  on 
the  rims  of  plates  or  dishes,  or  to  separate  the  ground  from  the 
rim,  &c. 

The  principal  ornaments  in  this  group  are:  the  Fret;  Chain  and 
Interlaced  patterns  (Guilloche);  Foliated  bands  in  the  various  forms 
of  Rosette,  Palmette,  Flower,  Leaf,  and  Scroll  bands,  &c. 

The  Evolute  Spiral  band  (Plate  97)  stands  to  a  certain  extent 
on  the  borderline  between  Bands  and  Free  ornaments. 

Leaf  patterns,  and  the  Egg-and-tongue  which  has  been  devel- 
oped from  them,  are  not  Bands  at  all,  in  the  strict  sense  of  the  word. 
They  express  the  mediation  between  the  support  and  the  weight,  for 
which  reason  they  are  used  as  the  enrichment  of  Mouldings.  They 
are  here  included  among  bands  in  order  to  avoid  an  independent 
group  for  the  sake  of  the  one  plate.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  they  do 
often  appear  as  bands  (the  Egg-and-tongue  as  a  decoration  of  plate 
medallions,  &c). 


128  The  Fret  Band. 


The  Fret  Band.    (Plates  81—84.) 

The  Greek  Fret  (or  Meander  border)  is,  as  it  name  indicates,  a 
specifically  Greek  ornament,  and  no  doubt  of  textile  origin.  Its 
accomodation  to  the  rectangular  network  suggests  this. 

The  name  "meander"  is  said  to  be  derived  from  a  river  of  Asia 
Minor,  the  Maeandros,  now  the  Menderes,  which  flows  in  sinuous 
curves.  Although  the  forerunners  of  the  Greek  border  are  to  be 
found  in  the  Assyrian  and  Egyptian  styles,  it  was  Greek  vase-painting 
and  architecture  which  gave  rise  to  the  variations  of  the  pattern; 
architecture  also  employed  it  plastically.  Among  other  applications 
in  the  Koman  style  it  was  used  for  mosaics  on  floors  and  often  — 
contrary  to  the  principles  of  style  of  flat  ornaments  —  in  those 
parallel  perspective  representations  in  which  it  seems  as  if  it  were  a 
plastic  ornament,  (Plate  83.  8). 

The  Middle  Ages  seldom  used  the  Fret  (one  example  will  be 
found  on  Plate  83.  9);  but  similar  forms  are  common  in  the  Chinese 
and  Japanese  styles  (Plate  84.  7). 

The  Renascence  revived  the  Fret  in  its  ancient  application;  made 
new  combinations;  and  sometimes  interlaced  it  with  plant  motives 
(Plate  83.  10).  AJthough  very  commonplace,  the  fret  still  has  a  good 
effect  when  it  is  applied  in  the  proper  manner. 

Its  construction  is  very  simple.  In  general  —  although  not  always  — 
the  breadth  of  the  broad  lines  or  ornament  is  equal  to  the  distance 
between  them;  we  therefore  draw  a  square  network  as  shown  on 
Plate  1,  fig.  1,  then  draw  all  the  horizontal  lines  (the  measure- 
ment of  the  lengths  and  the  observance  of  the  rhythmic  regularity 
peculiar  to  each  Greek  pattern  are  the  only  difficulties),  and  then  join 
their  ends  by  means  of  perpendiculars,  (Plates  81  and  82). 

Centres  are  formed  by  arranging  the  axis  at  a  suitable  place,  and 
reversing  the  pattern,  (Plate  84.  6  and  10). 

Angle  junctions  may  be  similarly  arranged  by  cutting  the  pattern 
diagonally  to  the  square  net  at  a  suitable  place,  and  reversing  as 
before,  (Plate  84.  3,  4  and  6).  The  angle-treatment  of  Current  Frets 
is  more  difficult  (Plate  84:  figs-  1,  2,  and  5). 

The  end  of  a  Fret  with  only  one  row  may  be  formed  by  cutting 
the  pattern  short  at  a  suitable  spot;  where  two  or  more  rows  run 
parallel  to  or  cross  each  other,  they  may  be  combined  so  as  to  form 
proper  endings  (Plate  84.  11). 

The  pattern  is  sometimes  carried  round  a  circle;  but  this  ia  an 
arrangement  which  is  quite  out  of  accordance  with  its  character. 

The  square  network  is  not  always  applicable  to  cases  in  which  the 
Fret  has  to  be  repeated  within  a  given  length.  In  this  case  the  divi- 
sions of  length  are  either  elongated  or  compressed  by  drawing  the 
auxiliary  lines  at  a  greater  or  less  angle  than  450  (tj^g  jg  shown  on 
Plates  81  and  82). 


The  Fret  Band.  —  The  Chain  Band.  129 

Plate  81.  Unsymmetrical  ob  Current  frets:  Greek  vase 

paintings. 
1 — 4.     Ordinary,  simple  patterns. 

5.  Elongated  pattern. 

6.  Raking  pattern. 

9 — 10.  Patterns  which  are  interrupted  hj  rosettes,  stars,  &c. 
8 — 9.     Abnormal  pattern,  formed  by  fragments,   instead   of  a  contin- 
nous  line. 

Plate  82.    Reciprocating  Frets. 
1 — 4.       Ordinary,  simple  patterns. 

5.  Double  pattern,  Greek. 

6.  Intersecting  pattern,  Louvre,  Paris. 

7  and  10.  Fragmentary  pattern,  Greek,  and  modern. 
7  and  9.     Symmetrical  double  pattern,  Greek. 
7 — 10.     Ornamented  patterns. 

Plate  83.    Intersecting  Frets,  &c. 

1 — 6.  Ordinary  patterns,  Greek  vase  paintings.  • 

7..         Abnormal  pattern,  Japanese  metal  vessel. 

8.  Pattern  in  parallel  perspective,  Roman  mosaic  pavement. 

9.  Mediaeval  folded-tape  pattern,  resembling  the  Fret,  (Racinet). 

10.  Pattern  ornamented  with  laurel.  Louvre,  Paris. 

Plate  84.    Ends,  Angles,  and  Centres,  of  Frets. 

1,  2  and  5.  Free,  unsymmetrical  angle  treatment. 

3,  4,  6,  7  and  8.  Symmetrical  angles. 

9  and  10.  Centre  treatments. 

11 — 14.  Ends  of  patterns. 

Antique  motives,  except  No.  7  (Chinese),  and  No.  8  (Modem). 


The  Chain  Band.     (Plate  85.) 

The  basis  of  the  design  is  the  Chain.  The  Chain  Band  is  there- 
fore cemposed  of  circular,  elliptical,  square,  or  lozenge  shaped  links, 
which  are  either  represented  all  in  front  view  (as  in  1,  2,  4  and  8), 
or^^  alternately  in  profile  (as  in  3,  5,  6,  and  7). 

The  Chain    pattern   probably   occurs   sporadically   in  every  style. 

That  Chain-bands  have  not  been  more  frequently  used,  although 
they  are  a  simple  and  efi'ective  mode  of  decoration,  may  be  due  to 
the  fact  that  the  chain  appeared  to  a  certain  degree  to  be  too  force- 
ful, too  vigorous  in  its  effect.  At  any  rate,  delicacies  of  artistic  feel- 
Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament.  9 


180                                               J 

BANDS. 

(Vl    1   1   1    1    1    1   1    1    1    1    f    1    1    1    1    1 

3-:::i:i::::::::: 

1 ':r 

J           ^ 1            ^           ^ 

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1                 1                 1 

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7 

f— '                       f— ' 

3.                                 ,/ 

y- 

r^             r~^ 

::::::z:::  ::        : 

___  /-^ 

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~  -7 

zE::::::z:i::;::i: 

_s 

::^s-::::::::i:::: 

::::^s::i::::i:::: 

— 

::i:::::^s:::i:  i: 

— 

-i., 

4-— 

^    . 

6. 

^M.M!M.[=  W 

''IMMSMj   h  M  fflM  ' 

"•MPSi     1 

^  C3    illt^'°- 

9.                                                                            /fv. 

Plate  81. 


The  Fret  Band. 


BANDS. 

131 

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t 

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L  J        1     J        L 

2 

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7 

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3.      _ 

/ 

/ 

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/ 

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4.        7           : 

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s                 : 

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s 

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aK_ 

The  Fret  Band 


Plate  82. 
9* 


132 


BANDS. 


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Q^ 


0 

1  #  ^1 

^# 

PP 

El] 


rO 


TT 

o: 


Co: 


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l] 


rr 

Co:] 


r-r 
HO 


TT 

O] 
J_l 


TT 

O 


D^ 


D:^ 


TT 

;o: 


TT 

o: 
1 1 


Q^ 


n] 


Q^ 


Gr 


^ 


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n] 


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0^ 


ai 


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Ii] 


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C 


9.: 


IL 


Plate  83. 


The  Fret  Band. 


BANDS. 


1S3 


0 


0 


m^ 


» 


0 


^1 

ill 


m  m 


N 

p\ 

H 

pi 

pi 

N 

p\ 

N 

12 


m 
m 


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m 


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13 


SI 


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# 

1 — 1 

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0 


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p 

If 


nc=i) 


igia^g'^^^B 


[1^ 


0 


'n 


The  Fret  Band. 


Plate  84. 


134 


BANDS. 


1 

J 
1 

U 
1 

u 
1 

u 

u 
1 

n 

n 

n 

n 

p 

n 

' 

r"Xi_z 


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^^^^^^-^^^^T—IP^^^V^^^"^ 


'^i^'''^^^^ 
^^^4^ 


^ 


Plate  85. 


The  Chain  Band. 


The  Chain  13and.  —  The  Interlacement  Band.  135 

jcg,  which  have  found  expression  elsewhere,  and  often  unconsciously, 
seem  to  point  to  this  conclusion. 

The  construction   of  such    bands   is   simple;   and   in   the   case   of 
those  illustrated  may  be  understood  from  the  plate  itself. 

Plate  85.  'The  Chain  Band. 

1 — -5.  Modern  decorative  painting. 

C — 8.  Carved  wooden  ceiling,   Townhall,  Jever,  German,  Renascence. 


Tee  Interlacement  Band.    (Plates  86—90.) 

The  Interlacement  Band  includes  all  those  bands  which  are  for- 
med of  a  number  of"  lines  interlaced  or  plaited  together.  They  are 
usually  symmetrical  to  the  longitudinal  axis;  and  may  be  produced 
indefinitely.  The  principle  is  that  the  interlacing  broad  lines  shall 
pass  over  and  under  one-another  alternately. 

Rope  patterns  are  used  as  borders  in  painting,  in  textiles,  in 
pottery,  intarsia,  and  the  ornamentation  of  manuscripts;  in  architect- 
ure on  the  under  sides  of  stays  and  beams,  on  archivolts  (the  arches 
of  doors  and  windows),  in  the  soffits  of  arches,  'sometimes  in  a  frieze, 
I  and  often  as  the  enrichment  of  the  torus  moulding. 

Interlacement  patterns  are  used  in  all  styles,  though  in  some  they 
are  more  popular  than  in  others.  And  in  this  ornament  the  indivi- 
duality of  each  style  is  very  strongly  marked. 

In  the  Antique:  the  ornament  consist  of  wavy  interlacing  bands 
round  regularly- placed  knobs  or  eyes.  The  wavy  lines  are  composed 
of  arcs  or  of  arcs  and  straight  lines,  in  which  latter  case  the  arcs 
make  tangential  junctions  with  the  straight  lines  (Plate  86).  In  flat 
ornament  the  interlacing  lines  are  distinguished  from  each-other  by 
shading  or  by  colour;  in  plastic  ornamentation  they  are  fluted  or 
channelled. 

The  Interlacement  patterns  of  the  Middle  Ages  —  chiefly  of  the 
Byzantiue  and  Romanesque  periods  —  make  use  of  Ajitique  forms; 
adding  to  them  the  angiilar  bend  (Plate   87.  1 — 3). 

In  the  so  called  Northern  styles  —  Celtic,  Anglo-saxon,  Norman, 
Scandinavian,  and  Old  Prankish:  it  is  the  most  conspicuous  ornament. 
Here  we  meet  extremely  complicated  and  richly  combined  interlacings, 
mostly  freely  drawn,  without  the  aid  of  the  compasses.  It  is  cha- 
racteristic, and  remarkable  in  regard  to  these  styles,  that  the  same 
band  appears  in  sections  of  difi'erent  colours  in  theii*  ornament.  The 
works  of  Owen  Jones  and  Racinet  contain  numerous  examples,  mostly 
from  old  illuminated  manuscripts:  our  Plate  87  (4 — 8)  reproduces 
some  of  the  simplest  (reconstructed  with  the  compasses). 


136  The  Interlacement  Band. 

The  Moorish  style  favours  a  peculiar  interlacement.  It  is  cha- 
racteristic that  the  bands,  which  are  always  straight,  make  angles  of 
90**  or  1350,  and  are  adapted  to  a  network  as  shown  on  Plate  1, 
6g.  5.  Here,  too,  we  find  the  alternate  colouring  of  the  single  bands. 
Numerous  examples  will  be  found  in  Owen  Jones,  Racinet,  and  Prisse 
d'Avennes,  "L'Art  Arabe",  a  selection  from  these  being  given  in 
Plate  88,  figs.  1—6. 

The  other  Oriental  styles  exhibit  greater  variety  in  this  respect; 
and  also  employ  round  forms,  (Plate  88.  7  und  8). 

The  Renascence  developed  great  variety.  Besides  the  traditional 
forms  of  the  Antique,  peculiar  constructions  appear,  chiefly  to  be 
met-with  in  the  arts  of  inlaying,  on  book-cover  decoration,  in  pewter 
chasing,  and  typographical  borders,  (Plate  89). 

Modem  art  borrows  from  all  styles;  and,  as  was  also  the  case 
in  the  Middle  Ages  and  the  Renascence,  intersperses  its  patterns  with 
foliage,  (Plate  90). 

Plate  86.    The  Interlacement  Band. 

1 — 3.  Ordinary  antique  patterns,  single,  double,  and  triple. 

4 — 6.  Elongated  antique  patterns,  single,  double,  and  triple. 

7.  Antique  pattern,  doubly  interlaced,  with  unequal  waves. 

8.  Antique  pattern  with  two  rows,  terracotta  painting.  . 

Construction:  First  mark  the  centres  of  the  eyes:  in  2  and  3  these  lie 
on  the  points  of  intersection  of  a  triangular  net;  in  5  and  6  on  those 
of  a  diagonal  square  net.  The  rest  will  be  understood  from  the 
figure. 

Plate  87.    The  Interlacement  Band. 

1.         Romanesque  patterns,  decoration  of  archivolt,  Segovia. 

3.  Byzantine  pattern,  Sta.  Sofia,  Constantinople. 

4 — 7.  Northern   patterns.  Manuscript   ornaments   of  the    8th  and  9th 
century,  (Racinet.) 

Plate  88.    The  Interlacement  Band. 

1 — 6.  Simple  Moorish  patterns,  Alhambra,  Granada. 

7.  Persian  pattern,  metal  vessel,  (Racinet). 

8.  Russian  Oriental  pattern,  (Viollet  le  Due,  "L'Art  Russo"), 

Plate  89.    The  Interlacement, Band. 

1 — 3.  Patterns,  wood  and  ivory  inlaid  work,  Italian  Renascence. 

4.  Pattern,    by  Domenico    de    Fossi,    of  Florence,    16th  century, 
(Raguenet). 

5.  Intarsia  pattern,  Sta.  Maria  in  Organo,  Verona;  in  the  original 
the  interstices  are  enriched  by  plant  sprays. 


BANDS. 


137? 


The  Interlacement  Band. 


Plate  86. 


138 


BANDS 


Plate  87. 


The  Interlacement  Band. 


BANDS. 


139 


^fp>m4-l-H4-l-i->M-M- 


x^  k K  >{  )rwi\ 


The  Interlacement  Band. 


Plate  88. 


140 


BAl^DS. 


Plate  89. 


The  Interlacement  Band. 


BANDS. 


141 


The  Interlacement  Band. 


Plate  90. 


142  The  Interlacement  Band.  —  The  Rosette  Band. 

6.  Title  border  of  a  mathematical  work,  printed  in  Paris,  Oronce 
Fine,  1544,  (Hirth). 

7.  Soffit  ornament,  entrance  of  the  Otto  Heinrich   building,   Hei- 
delberg, 1556  to  1559,  (Musteromamente). 

Plate  90.    The  Interi.acement  Band. 

1 — 6.  Angles  of  Border,  Modern  French,  (Raguenet). 

7.  Edge  of  a  modem  Damask  border,  (Gewerbehalle). 

8 — 9.  Modem  borders,  (Botticher,  "Ornamentenbuch"). 

10.       Modern  wood  intarsia,  (Gewerbehalle). 

The  Rosette  Band.    (Plate  91.) 

The  term  "Rosette  Band"  is  a  general  name  for  rosette,  spray 
and  other  bands,  when  the  rosette  is  the  leading  characteristic.  The 
single  rosettes,  which  are  similar  to  conventional  roses  seen  in  front- 
view,  are  either  in  immediate  juxtaposition  (Plate  91.  1  and  3),  or 
divided  by  channels  (Plate  91.  2),  by  calices  (Plate  91.  5,  7,  12), 
or  by  stalks  and  sprays  (Plate  91.  4,  6,  10,  11).  The  Rosette  bands 
are  either  current,  that  is,  they  have  a  definitive  direction  sideways; 
or  they  are  entirely  without  direction,  that  is,  they  are  symmetrical, 
not  only  from  top  to  bottom  but  also  from  right  to  left.  By  allow- 
ing the  rosettes  to  overlap  we  get  a  band  more  or  less  identical 
with  the  so  called  Strung-coin,  or  "money-moulding",  (Plate  91. 
13  and  14). 

Rosette  bands  are  especially  common  in  the  Assyrian  style,  in 
Antique  vase  painting,  in  the  Medieval  enamels  (Cologne  enamel), 
in  the  Indian  style,  in  the  Renascence,  and  in  the  Modern  styles. 

Plate  91.    The  Kosette  Band. 

1.  Antique  vase  painting. 

2.  Modern  decorative  pattern. 

3  Antique  bronze  shield. 

4  and  6.  Antique  patterns,  after  Jacobstbal. 
5.  Neck  of  a  Greek  hydria. 

7.  Latin  Evangeliarum,  written  by  Godescald  for  Charlemagne, 
8th  century,  (Racinet). 

8.  Enamel   ornament,   the  great  reliquary,  Aachen.  (Racinet). 

9.  Indian  enamel  border,  (Prisse  d'Avennes). 

10.  Indian  carving,  (Owen  Jones). 

11.  Intarsia  border,  Sta.  Maria  in  Organo,  Verona,  1499,  (Muster- 
omamente). 

12.  Popular  Renascence  pattern. 

13.  Pattern,  Persepolis. 

14.  Plastic  border,  Louis  XVI.  style,  (Raguenef). 


BANDS. 


143 


^ 


i 


Syll 


UJ 


The  Rosette  Band. 


Plate  91. 


144 


BANDS. 


3. 


kmmMMmMi 


'«  %JS  &fe  &>b4« 


WWW^ 


Plate  92. 


The  Palmette  Baud. 


The  Palmette  Band.  —  The  Vertebrate  Band  Ho 

'    The  Pal^iette  Band.     (Plate  92.) 

The  Palmette  is  a  specifically  Greek  kind  of  ornament.  Like  the  fin- 
gers of  an  outspread  hand  (palma,  the  palm  of  the  hand)  a  group, 
odd  in  number,  of  narroW;  entire  leaves  is  combined  into  a  symmet- 
rical ornament.  The  centre  leaf  is  the  largest;  and  the  leaves  diminish 
gradually  as  they  approach  the  sides.  The  tips  of  the  leaves  lie  on 
a  regular  curve.  The  lower  ends  of  the  leaves  are  disconnected,  divi- 
ded from  each  other  by  slight  intervals,  and  usually  spring  from  a 
tongue-shaped  leaf.  The  delicate  sensitiveness  -of  Greek  artistic  fueling 
finds  a  striking  expression  in  this  ornament.  It  is  applied  in  mani- 
fold ways,  e.  g:  as  Antefises  and  Akroters,.  as  Cornice-decoration 
(comp.  the  group  of  Free  ornaments),  and  as  Palmette  borders.  In  rare 
cases  the  Palmette  ornaments  are  in  juxtaposition  without  an}i;hing 
between  them  —  this  is  usually  the  case  on  the  Lekythos  (a  Greek 
vessel  for  Oil,  &c.)  Plate  92.  3  —  in  the  majority  of  cases  the  pakn- 
ettes  are  connected  or  bordered  by  spiral  bands   (Plate  92.  1.  2  &c.). 

Palmette  ornaments  are  of  frequent  occurrence  on  Greek  vessels, 
and  on  the  friezes  of  their  architecture.  Where  they  occur  in  later 
styles:  it  is  only  sporadically;  and  the  severe  classical  beauty  is  not 
retained. 

Plate  92.  The  Palmette  Band. 

1.  2,  3  and  5.  Paintings,  Greek,  terracotta  vessels. 

4.  6  and  7.        Greek,  friezes. 

8.  Intarsia,  Italian  Renascence. 

9.  Modem,  wrought  iron  trellis. 


The  Vertebrate  Band,  &c.    (Plates  93 — 96.) 

Leaf  bands  are  generally  numerous  in  all  styles;  and  as  varied 
as  are  the  modes  of  their  application.  The  leaved  stalk,  with  or 
without  flowers,  fruits,  &c.,  is  the  simplest  natural  motive.  The 
various  plants  are  used  as  a  basis,'  partly  with,  partly  without, 
symbolical  reference.  The  Antique  chiefly  availed  itself  of  the  laurel, 
olive,  and  ivy;  the  Middle  Ages  used  the  vine,  clover,  thistle,  and  maple; 
the  Renascence  shows  the  Artificial  leaf.  To  these  traditional  patterns: 
Modern  art  has  added  some  others  which  are  specially  adapted  for 
naturalistic  representation,  such  as  the  convolvulus,  the  passion-flower, 
the  hop,  &c. 

Thus  we  find  in  the  Antique:  a  succession  of  buds  (Plate  93.  1); 
straight  stalks  viath  leaves,  either  attached  or  free  (Plate  93.  2,  3); 
or  undulating  stalks,  with  leaves,  fruit,  or  flowers   (Plate  93.  4,  5,  6). 

Meyer,  Handbook  of  OrnameDt.  lU 


146  The  Vertebrate  Band,  &  the  Undulate  Band. 

The  latter  mode  -was  retained  in  the  Medieval  style;  in  the  nornan- 
esque  style  the  stalks  are  more  compressed,  and  the  lobes  of  the 
leaves  fully  rounded  (Plate  93.  7,  8);  in  the  Gothic  style  the  former 
are  tliin  and  extended,  the  latter  slit  and  pointed.  Extremely  common 
are  the  two  forms  depicted  on  Plate  94.  7  and  8.  Characteristic  of 
the  late  Gothic  is  the  example  13,  Plate  94;  this  kind  of  ornament- 
ation is  excellently  adapted  for  simple  wood -carving  and  stamped 
leather-work. 

The  Oriental  conception,  in  textile  fabrics  and  by  the  engraved 
and  inlaid  metal-work,  is  shown  (Plate  94.  1 — 4). 

Intarsiat  technique,  leather-stamping,  weaving,  and  the  ornamenta- 
tion of  manuscripts  offered  the  Renascence  opportunity  to  make  vise 
of,  and  to  vary  the  floral  border  with"  advantage  (Plate  95).  Inter- 
lacement and  floral  patterns  are  frequently  combined  in  the  same 
example  (Plate  95.  5  and  6). 

As  examples  of  Modern  art,  the  naturalistic  borders  figured  on 
Plate  96.  9 — 11.  are   given. 

When  the  main-stem  runs  longitudinally  along  the  centre  of  the 
Band"  like  the  vertebral-  column  in  the  skeletons  of  animals,  then  the 
arrangement  is  termed  Vertebrate.  When  the  jnain-stem  oscillates 
from  side  to  side  (as  in  Plate  93.  4,  5,  &  8),  then  the  arrangement 
is  termed  Undulate. 

Plate  93.    The  Vertebrate  Band,  &c. 

1 — 6.  Paintings,  Greek,  terracotta  vessels. 

7 — 8.  French,  mural  paintings,  13th  century,  (Eacinet). 

9.  Glass  window,  Cathedral,  Bourges,  14th  century,  (Eacinet). 

10.  Medieval. 

11.  Intarsia,  Sta.  Maria  in  Organo,  Verona,  1499. 

12.  Modem,  plate-border. 


Plate  94.  The  Undulate  Band. 

1 — 3.  Persian,  metal  vessels,  (Racinet). 

4.  Indian. 

5.  Byzantine,  glass  mosaic,  San  Marco,  Venice,  (Musterornaraecfe). 

6.  Portion  of  Romanesque  initial,   13th  century,  Berlin  Museum, 

7.  Romanesque,    portal    of   cathedral,    Lucca,    (Musterornamente). 
-  8.  Gothic  flat  carving,  end  of  15th  century,  (Musterornamente), 

9.  Medieval,  mural  painting,  Swedish  church. 

*10.  French,  mural  painting,  13th  century,  (Racinet). 

11.  Early  Gothic,  French. 

12.  Gothic,  manuscript  ornamentation. 

13.  Late  Gothic,  flat  carving,  15th  century,  (Musterornamente). 


BANDS. 


147 


The  Vertebrate  Band,  &o. 


10' 


Plate  93. 


148 


BANDS. 


Plate  94. 


The  Undulate  Band. 


BANDS. 


149 


5.- 


1 

^^g 

^^^ 

r^K^ 

c. 


The  Undulate  Band,  &c. 


Plate  95 


BANDS. 


Plate  96. 


The  Undulate  Band,  &c. 


The  Undulate  Band.  —  The  Evolute-Spiral  Band.  151 

Plate  95.    The  Undulate  Band,  &c. 
1 — 2.  Leather  stamping,    16th   century,   Schwabisch   Hall,   (Muster- 

omamente). 
8.         Terracotta  frieze,  castle  of  Schalaburg,  Lower  Austria,  (Wiener 

Bauhiitte). 
4.  Intarsia  frieze,  from  the  same  castle. 

5 — G.  Borders  of  robes,  tombs  in  Niederstetten  and  Lensiedel,   16th 

century,  (Musteromamente). 
7.  Renascence,  manuscript  ornament. 

8 — 9.  German  Renascence,  (Hirth,  Formenschatz). 

10.  Archivolt   of  door,    Otto-Heinrich   building   Heidelberg   castle, 
German  Renascence. 

11.  French,  Renascence. 

Plate  96.  The  Undulate  Band,  &c. 

1.  Border,  picture  by  Domenico  Zampieri,  16th  century,  (Muster- 
omamente). 

2.  Border,   half -columns,    Sta.   Trinita,    Florence,    Italian    Ro 
nascence. 

3.  Intarsia  frieze,   stalls,   San   Domenico,  Bologna,   Italian   Re- 
nascence. 

4.  Wrought  -  iron  trellis  of  balcony,  Milan,  (Gewerbehalle). 

5.  Frieze,  Italian  Renascence. 

6.  Modern,  (Cesar  Daly). 

7.  Modern. 

8 — 9.     Laurel  and  oak  borders,  (Gewerbehalle). 
10 — 11.  Modern  Borders,  (Gewerbehalle). 


The  Evolute-Spiral  Band.    (Plate  97.) 

The  wave  of  the  sea  has  been  suggested  as  the  motive  of  this 
"wave"  pattern;  but  its  origin  is  purely  geomotrical.  Tbo  line  of  the 
Evolute- spiral  pattern  divides  the  surface  of  the  border  .into  two 
parts,  which  in  Hat  ornament  are  coloiu-ed  diflercntly.  In  plastic  work, 
lor  which  the  pattern  is  also  suitable,  the  lower  part  projects.  In 
wrought- iron -work:  the  curved  line  runs  freely  between  two  bars. 
Tliis  pattern  is  adapted  for  borders  of  robes,  shields,  and  plates;  for 
nso  on  vessels,  friezes,  cornices,  and  tablets  in  architecture;  and  also 
as  borders,  for  t;ipestrics,  and  nuiral-paintiugs. 

A  rosette  is  often  placed  at  the  volute-centres  (Date  97. 
2  and  4);  the  interstices  between  the  lines  are  sometimes  decorated 
with  leaves  and  flower- buds  (Plato  97.  9 — 12).  This  occurs  chiefly 
in    the  Renascence  period,  when  (ho  Antique  seemed  loo  simple.    How 


152    The  Evolute-Spiral  Band.  —  The  Enrichment  of  the  Bead  Moulding. 

far  this  may  be  carried,  in  some  cases,  in  shown  by  fig.  14,  in  which 
the  evolute-spiral  line  is  nothing  more  than  the  skeleton  of  the  orna- 
ment.    The  Middle  Ages  did  not  use  this  form  at  all.. 

Angles,  and  centres  are  arranged  as  shown  on  figs.  4 — 7.     This 
band  is  excellently  adapted  for  the  framing  round  circular  panels. 

Plate  97.    TnE  Evolute  -  Spikal. 

1 — 4    Paintings,  antique  vessels. 
5 — 6.  Angles. 

7.  Central  junction. 

8.  Pattern  roimd  a  circular  panel. 

9.  PaintiCg  of  a  stove   tile,    German   Renascence,    Germanischos 
Museum,  Nuremberg. 

10.  Modem  borders. 

11  Border,  by  Sebastian  Serlio,  16th  century. 

12  Frieze,  'Otto-Heinrich  building  of  Heidelberg  castle. 

13  Wrought-iron  trellis,   temple   of  Apollo   in  the  garden  ol  the 
castle  at  Schwetzingen. 

14.         Painting,  Palazzo  ducale,  Mantua,  Italian  Renascence. 


The  Enrichment  of  the  Bead  Moulding.   (Plate  98.) 

Bead,  or  Astragal,  is  the  name  given  to  those  small  half-round 
Mouldings,  which  are  often  enriched  by  ornaments  like  Pearls,  strung 
together,  &c.,  or  as  turned  bands  a'/id  cords.  Generally  they  are 
only  used  in  plastic  art,  and  as  a  rule  not  alone;  but  below  the  Egg- 
and-leaf  ornaments,  and  similar  cornice  profiles  (Plate  100).  They 
also  occur  as  intermediate  members  between  the  shaft  and  the  capital 
of  columns. 

Beads  are  enriched  with  balls,  discs,  or  ovals,  in  rather  more 
than  half  relief.  The  simplest  bead-enrichment  is  formed  of  round 
pearls,  either  close  together  or  permitting  the  representation  of  the 
thread  to  show  between  them.  Disc  and  oval  enrichments  are  seldom 
used  alone,  but  arranged  alternately,  as  shown  in  figs.  1  to  7 

In  addition  to  the  simple  examples  of  the  Antique,  the  Renas- 
cence uses  richer  forms,  the  single  members  being  again  ornamented, 
profiled  and  more  arbitrarily  fashioned  (Plate  98.  8  and  12),  or 
finished-ofi"  with  small  leaf  calices  (Plate  98.  9  and  10).  Wood 
carving  avails  itself  of  strung  discs  seen  in  perpectlve  (Plato  98.  11). 

The  enricbraents  may  also  suggest  torsion.  After  the  moulding 
is  made,  it  is  set-out  like  a  screw,  as  indicated  by  the  auxiliary 
constructions  in  figs.  13 — 17.  Leaves  or  pearls  sometimes  lie  in  the 
hollows  and  follow  the  thread  of  the  screw  (Plate  98.   17). 


BANDS 


153 


13 


The  Evolute-Spiral  Band. 


Plate  97. 


154 


MOULDINCiS. 


Plate  98. 


The  Enrichment  of  the  Bead  Moulding. 


The  Enrichment  of  the  Astragal,  the  Toms,  and  other  Mouldings.     155 

'  Here  also  must  be  grouped  those  ribbons  rolled  spirally  round 
rods,  such  as  we  find  in  the  art  of  the  Middle  Ages  and  the  Re- 
nascence (fig.  18).     Corners   are   generally   covered  with  a  small  leaf. 

Plate  98.    The  Enrichment  of  the  Bead  ^Moulding. 

1  —  7.     Simple  enrichments,  Antique. 

8 — 12.  Richer  enrichments,  Renascence. 
13 — 17.  Beads  enriched  like  twisted  ropes. 
18.  Spiral-ribbon  enrichment.  Louvre,  Paris. 

The  Enrichment  of  the  Torus  Moulding.   (Plate  99.) 

Torus  is  the  name  given  to  those  larger  mouldings  of  semi- 
circular or  semi -elliptic  section,  such  as  are  specially  used  in  Archi- 
tecture on  the  bases  of  coluttins  and  pilasters,  on  socles,  on  Mediaeval 
door  and  window  arches,  and  on  the  ceiling  mouldings  of  the  Renascence 
and  Modern  times.  While  the  smaller  beads  are  ornamented  with 
pearls  and  twisted  cords,  these  more  important  mouldings  are  dec- 
orated by  enrichments  which  resemble  a  bundle  of  rods  round  which 
ribbons  are  twisted  at  suitable  places  (figs.  1  and  2);  by  surrounding 
them  with  plaited  or  net  work  (figs.  8,  4,  7);  by  clothing  them  with 
foliage  (figs.  6,  9,  10);  or  by  combining  the  various  systems  (figs.  8 
and  11).  In  modern  times  the  Torus  is  enriched  by  bound  clusters 
of  fruit.  "Water -leaves,  artificial  leaves  with  serrated  margins,  laurel, 
oak,  ivy,  &c.  are  most  in  use  for  the  leaf  ornaments.  As  in  the  case 
of  fruit  clusters:  ribbons  are  twined  spirally  at  suitable  placed  round 
the  fruit  or  foliage  (figs.  5,  6  and  12). 

AH  these  examples  are  drawn  by  first  marking-off  the  divisions  on  the 
profile,  as  indicated  on  the  figures. 

Plate  99.    The  Enrichment  of  the  Torus  Moulding. 

1 — 2.  Modem. 

3 — 4.  Antique. 

5 — 6.  Antique,  decorated  with  laurel  and  oak, 

7.  Mediaeval. 

8.  Mediaeval,  decoration  of  an  archivolt,  Gelnhausen,  13th  cencmy. 

9.  Temple  of  Jupiter,  Rome. 

10 — 12.  Louvre,  Paris,  French  Renascence,  (Baldus). 

The  Enrichment  of  other  Mouldings.    (Plate  100.) 

The  Egg-and-tongue  enriches,  in  architecture,  the  ovolo  mouiding 
of  capitals,  and  the  lower  members  of  cornices,  &c. 


156 


MOULDINGS. 


Plate  99. 


The  Enrichment  of  the  Torus  Moulding. 


MOULDINGS. 


157 


The  Enricbment  of  the  Cymn,  nnd  Ovolo  Mouldings. 


Plate  100. 


158  The  Enrichment  of  Mouldings. 

In  these  cases  it  harmonises  the  support  aud  the  weight;  and 
has  also  a  decorative  purpose  as  a  bordering  member. 

The  Leaf  enrichment  may  be  explained  in  the  following  way:  a 
row  of  leaves,  growing  upwards,  supports  the*  weight,  and  is  bent 
outwards  by  its  pressure  (fig.  1).  If  this  only  occurs  partially,  we 
have  the  Doric  form  (fig.  2).  If  the  leaves  are  bent -down  tow- 
ards their  lower  ends  (fig.  3),  we  obtain  forms  like  the  so-called 
"Lesbian  cymatium." 

A  false  conception,  which  regarded  the  leaf-shape  merely  as  a 
geometrical  element,  afterwards  gave  rise  to  the  corrupt  forms  of  the 
late  Greek  and  Roman  styles  (figs.  5  a,  6  a,  and  6  b). 

If  the  simple  waterleaf  be  replaced  by  more  richly  serrated 
ones  like  the  Artificial  leaf,  we  obtain  examples  'like  fig.  7. 

Figure  8  shows  the  egg  pattern,  from  which  aU  the  more  or 
less  misunderstood  varieties  have,  in  course  of  time,  been  derived. 
The  dart-shaped  intermediate  leaves  have  often  been  developed  into 
actual  darts;  and  the  eggs  or  curved  surfaces  of  the  leaves  have  also 
been  covered  with  independent  ornamentation,  in  complete  defiance  of 
their  origin  (figs.  10  and  14). 

The  comer  is  treated,  either  by  freely  carrying  the  pattern  over 
into  a  pahnette  anthemion  (figs.  15  and  16),  or  by  covering  it  with 
independent  leaves. 

Further  details  on  the  subject  of  this  chapter  will  be  found  in 
Botticher's  Tektonik  der  Hellenen. 

Plate   100.     The    Enrichment    of   the    C-i-MA    and    Ovolo 
Mouldings. 

1  and  3.  Drawings  to  illustrate  the  origin  of  the  pattern. 

2.  Graeco-Doric,  painted. 

4.  Leaf,  Erechthemn,  Athens. 

5  and  6.  Corrupt  leaf,  (Botticher). 

7.  Roman  leaf,  (Jacobsthal). 

8.  Greek  egg-and-tonguQ,  Erechtheum,  Athens. 

9.  Campana  egg- and -tongue,  Graeco-Italic,  Campana  collection. 

10.  Colossal  egg-and-leaf,  temple  of  Jupiter  Tonans,  Rome. 

11.  Roman  egg-and-dart,  Aries  cathedral,  (Raguenet). 
12 — 13.      Renascence  egg-and-dart,  (Raguenet). 

14.  Modem  egg-and-dart,  (Raguenet), 


159 


B. 

FREE   ORNAMENTS. 

Those  ornaments,  which  are  applied  to  suggest  the  end  or  finish 
of  an  object,  may  be  classed  in  a  group  which,  following  an  ex- 
pression already  introduced,  are  termed  "free  ornaments",  the  word 
"free"  implying  not  a  severely-enclosed  Baud  or  Panel,  but  a  freely- 
treated  Edge-omament. 

The  Edging  may  be  arranged  to  grow  .in  an  upward,  downward, 
or  lateral  direction;  the  character  of  the  ornamentation  will  be  depen- 
dent on  these  conditions.  Endings  with  an  upward  direction  are  most 
numerous;  and  as  plants,  with  their  natural,  upward  g^o^vth,  are 
adapted  for  this  purpose,  foliated  ornament  is  the  usual  decoration  of 
Akroters,  Antetixes,  Steles,  Ridges,  and  Finials. 

Crosses,  Knobs,  Rosettes,  and  Pendants,  are  independant  Free- 
ornaments,  which  are  generally  geometrical  in  their  treatment. 

In  Tassels  and  Fringes,  which  form  endings  in  a  downward 
direction,  the  organic  plant  motive  is,  of  course,  excluded;  while  Lace 
(woven,  pillow,  itc.)  avails  itself  of  both  motives,  either  singly  or 
combined. 

Crockets  are  foliated  excrescences  which  are  popular  in  the 
Gothic  style  as  an  ornament  of  the  edges,  and  ribs  of  buildings 

Gargoyles  (as  are  termed  the  Rain  spouts  which  occur  so  fre- 
quently in  the  architecture  of  the  Middle  Ages  and  the  Renascence) 
are  also  Free  ornaments  with  a  lateral  direction;  they  have  often  the 
form  of  figures,  less  often  those  of  decorated  channels. 


lUO  The  Link  BordLT. 


The  Link  Border.     (Plates-  101—102.) 

Link  Borders  are  so  termed  because  the  transversely  -  growing 
foliage  is  connected  together  by  Scrolls  which  serve  this  purpose, 
like  the  "Links"  of  a  chain.  Of  this  class  are  much  decoration  of 
cornices,  crestings  in  architecture,  and  fringes  in  textile  art.  Besides 
these,  Link  borders,  which  may  be  enlarged  at  will,  and  have  a  de- 
6nite  direction  upwards  or  downwards,  are  used  in  a  similiar  manner 
as  Borders  as  edgings  for  carpets,  plates,  and  panels;  as  borders  for 
walls,  floors,  and  ceilings  (in  which  case  the  edging  almost  invariably 
grows  outwards);  on  the  neck,  body,  and  feet  of  vessels;  and  fre- 
quently in  architectural  friezes. 

Palmette  leaves,  connected  by  circles  or  by  links,  are  adapted 
for  edgings.  The  tyi)ical  form  is  found  on  Antique  vessels  and 
friezes;  its  forerunner  is  seen  in  the  connected  lily  and  pomegranate 
of  the  Assyrian  style. 

The  Link -border  is  found  in  every  subsequent  style,  both  flat, 
and  in  relief. 

It  is  generally  composed  of  identical  details,  symmetrically  re- 
peated.   Unsymmetrical  and  naturalistic  forms  are  rarer,  (Plate  101, 10). 

I 

Plate  101.    The  Link  Border. 

1.  Assyrian,  painted  bas-relief,  Khorsabud. 

2.  External  margin,  Greek  kylix,  (Lau). 

3.  Greek  hydria,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

4.  Greek,  cyma. 

5.  Mosaic    ornament,    San  ^larco,    Venice,    Byzantine,    (Musteroma- 
mente). 

6.  Medieval,  mural  painting,  Swedish  church,  (Racinet) 

7.  Old  embroidery,  Eisloben,  (Vorbildor   fiir  Fabrikanten  und  Hand- 
werker). 

8.  Painted,  Cathedral,  Brandenburg,  (Vorbilder  fiir  Fabrikanten  und 
Handwerker). 

9.  Illumination  of  a  Koran,  tomb  of  the  Sultan  El-Ghury,  16th  cen- 
tury, (Prisse  d'Avennes). 

10.  Majolica  dish,  Germanisches  Museum,  Nui-emborg. 

11.  Majolica  dish,   16th  century,  (Kunsthandwerk). 

12.  Modern,  (Gewerbehalle). 

Plate  102.    The  Link  Border. 

1.  Greek,  carved  frieze,  Erechtheura,  Athens. 

2.  Roman,  frieze,  (Fragments  de  rarchitocture  antique). 

3.  Romanesque,  frieze,   13th  century,  (Musterornamente). 


The  Link  Border.  —  on  Mouldings.  —  The  Cresting  161 

4.  Arabic,  mosque  of  the  Sultan  Hassan,  Cairo,   14th  century. 

5.  Italian    Eenascence,    Marble    frieze,    tomb    of   the    Conte    Ugone, 
Badia,  Florence,  (Weissbach  und  Lottermoser). 

6.  Italian  Eenascence,  Intarsia  frieze,  (Meurer). 

7.  Modem    decoration,    (Kolb    und   Hogg,   Vorbilder   fiir   das   Oma- 
mentenzeichnen). 


The  Link  Border  on  Mouldings.    (Plate  103.)- 

The  cyma  in  architecture  is  the  topmost  or  concluding  member 
of  a  cornice.  It  is  frequently  used  as  a  gutter.  The  section  is  some- 
times a  concave  or  convex  quadrant,  but  in  most  cases  consists  of 
two  arcs  curving  inwards  and  outwards  respectively,  (fig.  3). 

The  ornamentation  was  merely  painted  in  the  earlier  periods; 
but  afterwards  received  a  plastic  form.  It  is  ctiefly  composed  of 
palmette  leaves,  either  unconnected  (fig.  1  and  2)  or  connected  (figs.  S, 
5  and  6),  with  Lily  cups  between.  Artificial  leaves,  pointing  up- 
wards and  lying  close  on  the  profile  with  calices  or  water-leaves  peep- 
ing out  between  them  (fig.  4)  are  also  used. 

The  Middle  Ages  used  both  systems,  especially  the  latter,  with  the 
latter,  with  the  modifications  required  by  the  changed  forms  of  the 
leaves,  (figg.  7  and  8). 

Both  the  Renascence  and  Modem  art  follow  the  tradition  of 
the  Antique;  but  give  the  Palmette  ornament  a  richer  form,  (figs. 
8—12). 

Plate  103.    The  Link-border  Enrichment  of  ]\IouLDmQ3. 

1 — 4.     Antique,  (Botticher). 

5.  Roman  altar. 

6.  Graeco-Italic  terracotta  ornament,  (Li6vre). 

7.  Romanesque  cornice,   house,  Metz,    12th  century,  (Raguenet). 

8.  Cornice,  Notre  Dame,  Paris,   13th  century,  (Musterornamente). 
9 — 10.  Cornice,  Louvre,  Paris,  French  Remscence. 

11.  Marble  frieze,  tomb  in  Sta.  Maria  sopra  Minerva,  Rome,  Italian 
Renascence. 

12.  Modern,  (Arch.  Skizzenbuch). 


The  Cresting  Border.   (Plate  104.) 

Crcstings  are  intended  to  ornament  the  ridge  or  fop  of  the  roof. 
Such    ornaments  have  been  especially  popular   in  France  from  Gothic 

Meyer,  Handbook  of  OrDamint.  11 


162 


FREE  OENAMENTS. 


Plate  101. 


The  Link  Border. 


FREE  ORNAMENTS. 


163 


The  Link  Border. 


riate  102. 
11* 


164 


FREE  ORNAMENTS. 


7 


Plate  103. 


The  Link-border  EDrichment  of  Mouldings. 


FREE  ORNAMENTS. 


165 


The  Cresting  Border. 


Plate  104. 


166  The  Cresting.  —  The  Akroter,  &c, 

times  to  the  present  day.  They  are  mostly  of  perforated  work,  and 
the  top  has  usually  a  varied  mass-shape.  The  materials  used  arc  stone, 
lead,  -WTOUght-iron,  and,  in  modern  times,  zinc.  Similar  ornaments 
are  also  found  as  Finals  of  entablatures  and  attics,  as  well  as  on  the 
Balaustrades  of  galleries. 

Cresting  ornaments  appear  on  Gothic  Altars,  Shrines,  Chim- 
neypieces,  &c.,   and   in  cast-iron  on  our  modern  Stoves,  Railings,  &c. 

The  Antique  made  no  use  of  this  form,  although  similar  forms 
occur,  as,  for  example,  on  the  entablature  of  the  well-known  monu- 
ment of  Lysikrates.  On  the  other  hand,  we  must  mention  those 
Valence-like  borders  which  are  seen  on  the  terracotta  reliefs  of  the 
Campana  collection,  represented  on  figs.  6  and  7.  In  most  cases, 
these  latter  ornaments,  if  reversed,  may  be  used  as  crestings. 

Plate  104.    The  Crestdjg  Border 

1.  Gothic,  (Jacobsthal). 

2.  Modern  Gothic,   cast-iron. 

3.  Modern  French,    castle   of  Pierrefonds,   restored   by  VioUet-le  ' 
Due,  (Raguenet). 

4.  Modern  French,  Cour  de  Cassation,  Paris,  (Raguenet). 

5.  Modern  German,  by  Gropius  of  Berlin,  (Arch.  Skizzenbuch). 
6 — 7.  Graeco-Italic  borders,  downward  growth. 

The  Akroter,  &c.    (Plates  105 — 106.) 

The  Akroter  is  the  feature  which  serves  as  on  ornamental  finish 
to  the  apex  of  a  gable.  Antique  temples  bear  this  decoration  in  a 
great  variety  of  materials:  stone,  terracotta,  painted,  plastic,  and 
cast  in  metal.  Groups  of  figures,  griffins,  &c.,  were  sometimes  used 
for  this  purpose;  but  the  usual  features  were  slabs  of  Marble,  bearing 
a  palmette  ornament,  the  central  decoration  of  which  is  sometimes  a 
mask,  (Plate  105.  5).  Smaller  ornaments  of  a  similar  kind  are  found 
ranged  along  the  lower  roof  line,  in  front  of  the  Imbrices;  and  these 
are  termed  Antefixes. 

The  Middle  Ages  and  the  Renascence  make  no  general  use  of 
the  Antefix,  but  it  occurs  on  Modern  monumental  buildings  in  the 
Antique  style. 

The  corner  Akroter  which  isusually  found  at  the  lower  ends 
of  the  gable  lines,  consists  of  half  the  motive  of  the  central  one, 
(Plate  105.  6). 

Pl.\te  105.    The  Akroter,  and  the  Antefex. 

1.  Greek  Akroter,  painted,  temple  of  Wingless  Victory,  Athens. 

2.  Greek  Akroter,  painted,  Acropolis,  Athens. 


The  Akroter.  —  The  Stele  Crest.  167 

3.  Greek  Antefix,  Parthenon,  Athens. 

4.  Greek  sepulchral  Stele-crest,  in  the  form  of  an  Akroter. 

5.  Graeco-Italic  Akroter,  terracotta.  Museum,  Perugia. 

6 — 7.  Front  and  side  view  of  a  comer  Akroter,  (Botticher). 

Plate  106.     The  Akroter,  &c. 

1.  Greek  Antefix,  Propylaea,  Athens,  (Raguenet). 

2.  Eoman  Antefix,  temple  of  Jupiter  Stator,  Rome. 

3.  Modern  French  Antefix,   Theatre  des  Celestines,  Lyons,   Archi- 
tect Renaud,  (Raguenet). 

4.  Modern    French    Akroter,    house  in   Pans,    Architect    Renaud, 
(Raguenet). 

5.  Modern  French  Akroter,  Orleans  railway  station,  Paris,  Ai-chi- 
tect  Renaud,  (Raguenet). 

6 — 7.  Akroter  and  Corner-akroter,  fountain  in  the  Certosa  near  Flo- 
rence, Italian  Renascence. 


The  Stele  Crest.    (Plate  107.) 

The  Stele  is  the  Greek  tomb-stone.  It  usually  takes  the  form 
of  an  upright  tablet,  sometimes  tapering  towards  the  top;  and  bears 
an  inscription.  It  is  sometimes  decorated  with  rosettes,  garlands  and 
figures.  At  the  top  is  a  plain  cornice,  on  which  an  ornament,  similar 
to  the  Akroter,  forms  the  crowning  finish.  Although  the  Akroter  and 
the  Stele-crest  often  have  a  perfectly  identical  form  (Plate  105.  4 
shows  a  crest  which  might  just  as  well  have  been  an  Antefix),  still 
the  style  of  the  crest  is  as  a  rule  more  severe;  and  it  is  characteristic 
of  a  great  number  of  Steles  that  they  have  not  the  striking  palm- 
etto Centre,  which  the  Akroter  always  possesses,  (figs.  2  and  3). 
Very  often,  too,  the  crest  is  so  designed  that  the  sides  are  extended, 
to  make  a  larger  feature,  (figs.   1  and  4). 

These  Monuments,  dedicated  to  the  memory  of  the  dead,  show 
better  than  almost  anything  else  the  special  individuality  and  beauty 
of  Greek  ornament. 

Plate  107.    The  Stele-crest. 

1.  Stele-crest,  (Stuart  and  Revett,  Vulliamy,  Jacobsthal). 

2.  „       „       (Jacobsthal). 

3.  „       „       C'L'art  pour  tous"). 

4.  „        „        (Li^vre). 


168 


FREE  ORNAMENTS. 


Plate  105. 


The  Akroter,  and  the  Autefix. 


FREE  OR>fAMEN'TS. 


169 


The  Akroter,  &c. 


Plate  106. 


170 


FREE  ORNAMENTS. 


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Plate  107. 


The  Stele  Crest. 


FREE  ORNAMENTS. 


171 


The  Perforated  Cresting. 


Plate.  108. 


172  The  Perforated  Cresting.  —  The  Cross. 

The  Perforated  Cresting.    (Plate  108.) 

In  modern  wood  buldin^s,  the  dressings,  intended  to  form  an 
ornamental  finish  to  the  construction,  are  often  perforated. 

The  Gable  is  decorated  by  a  Finial,;  smaller  corner- ornaments 
are  attached  to  the  lower  ends  of  the  lines  of  the  gable;  the  pro- 
jecting ends  of  the  gable  -  rafters  are  also  provided  with  Barge-boards, 
both  for  decorative  effect,  and  also,  no  doubt,  to  serve  as  a  protection 
against  the  weather.  The  Finials  are  fashioned  as  Knobs  of  varied 
profile,  with  a  direction  downwards.  The  oblique  lines  of  the  Gable 
and  the  horizontal  lines  of  the  Roof  are  also  covered  with  Barge- 
boards. 

The  material  requires  a  special  treatment;  as  the  ornamentation 
must  be  large  and  broad ^  and  have  as  many  points  of  connection  in 
itself  as  possible. 

Wooden  ornaments  of  this  kind  are  found  on  Pavilions,  watchmen's 
Huts,  Farm-houses  of  richer  construction;  country  Villas  in  the  Swiss 
cottage  style,  &c. 

Among  architectural  works  which  deal  with  wood  buildings  and 
especially  with  the  decoration  of  them:  we  may  mention  the  works  of 
H.  Bethke  (Details  fiir  dekorativen  Holzbau),  from  which  the  majority 
of  the  figures  on  Plate  108  have  been  taken. 


-■o"- 


Plate  108.    The  Peeforated  Cresting. 

1.         Top  ornament  of  a  gable,  by  the  architect  Eisenlohr,  of  Carls - 

ruhe. 
2 — 7.  Various  Barge-boards,  (Bethke). 


The  Cross.    (Plate  109.) 

The  Cross  (Latin  crux,  French  croix)  is  the  most  important 
symbol  of  Christian  art.  It  symbolises  the  person  of  Christ,  Christ- 
ianity and  Sacrifice.  Its  decorative  applications  are  innumerable,  and 
of  great  variety. 

Various  fundamental  forms  of  the  cross  have  been  distinguished 
and  are  known  by  different  names.  The  Greek  (or  St.  George's)  cross 
consists  of  two  arms  of  equal  length,  bisecting  each -other  at  right 
angles.  In  the  Latin  cross  the  lower  limb  is  lengthened.  These  two 
forms  are  those  most  often  used.  In  the  St.  Andrew's  cross  the 
arms  cross  each -other  diagonally.  St.  Anthony's  (the  Egyptian  or 
Old  Testament  Cross)  is  a  Latin  Cross  without  the  upper  limb. 

Omitting  from  consideration  the  Crucifix,  which  represents  the 
crucifixion  of  Christ,    we   shall    find   the  Cross   in   the   utmost  variety 


FKEE  ORNAMENTS. 


173 


The  Cross. 


Plate  109. 


174 


FREE  ORNAMENTS. 


Plate  110. 


The  Cruss. 


The  Cross.  —  The  Finial.  175 

of  form  on  Utensils  and  Vessels,  on  Robes  and  Garments,  on  Carpets 
and  Banners  dedicated  to  religious  uses;  in  Heraldry,  and  as  a  Free 
ornament  to  form  the  upper  ornamental  finial  of  Architecture.  In 
Christian  architecture:  the  Cross  is  used  as  a  finial  on  Steeples  and 
Gables,  on  Tombs,  Pulpits,  &c.  Often  it  is  employed  alone,  as  a 
monument,  (Tomb,  wayside  and  votive  crosses). 

Plate  109.    The  Cross:  in  Stone. 

1.  Modern  French,  Charterhouse  Glandier,  (Raguenet). 

2.  Modern. 

3.  Modern  French,   with  the  Monogram  of  Christ,   Genouilleux,   (Ra- 
guenet). 

4.  Gable  of  a  church,  St.  Urban's,  Unterliraburg,  Schwiibisch-Hall. 

5.  Tomb,  churchyard,  Baret,   11th  century. 

6.  Modem  French,  P^re-Lachaise,  Paris,  (Raguenet). 

7.  Steeple,  St.  Pierre,  Montrouge,  Paris,  (Raguenet). 

8.  Tomb,  St.  Lazare,  Montpellier,  (Raguenet). 

9.  Granite,  Tomb,  Becon,  (Raguenet). 

The  Cross  in  Metal.   (Plate  110.) 

Wrought-iron,  and,  in  late  years,  cast-iron  and  zinc,  are  sometimes 
used  as  a  material  for  steeple  and  gable  Crosses,  as  well  as  for  monu- 
mental Crosses.  The  ductile  nature  of  wrought-iron  admits  of  a  rich, 
delicate  execution  of  these  objects.  The  German  Renascence,  in  parti- 
ticular,  offers  a  wealth  of  forms  in  this  respect. 

The  framework  usually  consists  of  strong  bar-iron;  the  orna- 
mental decoration  is  in  flat  or  round  iron,  fastened  to  the  frame  by 
clamps  or  rivets.  Hammered  foliage  is  sometimes  added.  In  many 
cases  the  point  of  the  steeple  Cross  is  decorated  with  a  Cock  as 
weather-vane. 

The  centre  of  monumental  Crosses  is  often  occupied  by  a  plate 
of  metal,  to  contain  the  Inscription. 

Plate  110.    The  Cross:  in  Metal. 

1 — 3.  Mediaeval  steeple  Crosses,  Franconia,  (Gewerbehalle). 

4.  Modern  steeple  Cross,  (Bad.  Gewerbezeitung). 

5.  Steeple  Cross,  St.  Ambroise,  Paris,  Architect  Ballu,  (Raguenet). 
6 — 7.  Wrought-iron  tomb  Crosses,  Thiengen,  18th  century. 

The  Finial.    (Plate  111.) 

While  the  ordinary  Cross  rises  as  a  Free -ornament  in  a  vertical 
plane,  the  final  makes  a  Cross,  in  plan.    It  extends  its  arms  not  only 


'ilo  The  Fiiiial  iu  Stone,  and  in  Metal. 

sideways,  but  also  regularly  to  the  front  and  back.  Crocket-like  ad- 
ditions (comp.  plate  116)  clothe  the  stem,  which  usually  takes  the 
form  of  an  elongated  four  or  eight-sided  shaft.  There  may  be  one 
or  more  tiers  of  crockets. 

The  Finial  serves  to  decorate  Spires,  Pinnacles,  Baldachins, 
Tombs,  &c.,  and  is  a  specifically  Gothic  ornament.  The  most  beautiful 
forms  are  furnished  by  French  Gothic,  from  which  most  of  the  il- 
lustrations of  our  plate  are  taken. 

Plate  111.    The  Finial:  in  Stone. 

1.  Modern  Gothic. 

2.  Early  Gothic,  (Jacobsthal). 

3.  French  Gothic,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

4.  Early  Gothic,   cathedral,   Chartres,    13th  century,   (Musterorna- 
mente). 

S-— 6.  Modern,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 
7.         Modern,  (Bosc). 

The  Finial  in  Metal.    (Plate  112.) 

In  the  artistic  wrought-iron  work  of  the  Middle  Ages,  the  Re- 
nascence, and  Modern  times,  we  find  charming  Finials  in  the  shape 
of  idealised  flowers.  Thesfe  decorations  are  found  on  the  tops  of 
Balaustrades,  on  the  Gables  over  Doors,  on  Brackets  and  Chandeliers, 
on  the  supports  of  Rain-spouts,  on  Wall -anchors,  &c. 

Leaves,  volute-like  spirals,  bell-flowers,  and  ears,  are  arranged 
round  a  central  axis  of  iron;  in  many  cases  the  centre  is  iormed  by 
spindle-shaped  spirals  of  wire. 

Plate  112.    The  Finial:  in  Metal. 

1.  Corner  of  a  Mediaeval  Grill,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

2.  Part  of  a  Grill,  Toulouse  cathedral,  15th  century,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

3.  Termination  of  a  Fountain,  Cluny  museum,  Paris,    15th  century, 
(L'art  pour  tous). 

4.  Part  of  a  Spanish  Trellis  Gate,    14th  century,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

5.  Part  of  a  Chancel  Screen,  minster,  Freiburg,  16th  century,  (Schau- 
insland). 

6.  Wrought-iron,  16th  century,  (Guichard). 

7.  Terminal,    Bruges,    17th   century,  (Ysendyck,    Documents   classes 
de  l'art). 

8.  Modern,  wrought-iron,  Ihne  &  Stegmiiller,  Berlin. 

9.  Modern,  Post,  by  Ende  &  Boeckmann,  Berlin,  (Gewei'behalle). 

10.  Wrought-iron    Coronal,    Limburg    on    the    Lahn,     17th    century, 
(Kachel,  Kunstgewerbliche  Vorbilder). 

11.  Coronal,  modern  Gate,  C.  Zaar,  Berlin. 


FREE  ORNAMENTS. 


177 


The  Finial. 


Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament. 


12 


Plate  111. 


178 


FREE  ORNAMENTS. 


Plate  112. 


The  Fiuial,  &c. 


The  Finial  Knob,  and  Vase.  —  The  Pendant  Knob.  179 

The  Finial  Knob,  and  Yase.    (Plate  113.) 

Knob  is  the  term  applied  to  ornamental  terminations  in  the 
foiTu  of  profiled  bodies  of  revolution,  naturalistic  buds,  fir-cones,  &c. 

Knobs  are  small  features  used  as  the  tenninations  in  architecture 
and  furniture.  They  are  also  used  on  Flag-staffs,  Bosses  of  Shields, 
Centre-pieces  of  rosettes,  &c.  The  material,  whether  stone,  wood, 
stucco,  metal,  &c.,  depends  on  the  use  to  which  they  are  to  be  applied. 

Vases  form  another  class  of  Finials.  They  are  preferentially 
used  on  Tombs,  Doorposts,  in  the  centre  of  divided  Pediments,  on  the 
Attics  of  ornamental  Architecture,  and  instead  of  Antefixes. 

Plate  113.    The  Finial.  Knob,  and  Vase. 

1 — 2.  Stone,  Milan  Cathedral,  Italian  Gothic,  (Kaguenet). 

3.  Modern. 

4.  Modern  Fir-cone. 

5.  Modern  Vase,  (Bosc). 

6.  Modern  French,  Ministry  of  "War,  Paris,  (Raguenet). 

7 — 8.  Modern  French,  house  in  the  Park  Monceau,  Architect  Tronquois, 

(Raguenet). 
9.         Lower  end  of  a  Flag-staff  or  Lightning-rod,  (Li^nard) 


The  Pendant  Knob.    (Plate  114.) 

Pendants  are  hanging  terminations;  reversed  Knobs,  so  to  speak. 
In  some  cases,  but  not  in  all,  the  former  may  replace  the  latter. 
These  Pendants  are  more  or  less  elongated  bodies  of  revolution.  The 
decoration  is  produced  by  the  addition  of  leaves,  scales,  headings, 
nulls,  &c.  These  being  specially  suitable  to  convex  profiles,  while 
the  channelled  treatment  is  better  adapted  to  concave  profiles. 

Pendants,  in  stone,  wood,  stucco,  or  metal,  are  used  as  Brackets 
for  lamps  (hence  their  French  name:  cul- de-lamp e);  and  as  the  lower 
terminations  of  Oriel -windows.  Pulpits,  &c.  In  the  latter  case  the 
Pendants  are  generally  only  in  half  or  three-quarter  relief  from 
the  wall. 

Plate  114.    The  Pendant  Knob. 
1—2.  Part  of  Tripod,  (Jacobsthal). 

3.  Part  of  Lantern,  Dijon,  French  Renarcpnce,  (L'art  pour  tous) 

4.  Lower  end   of  a  Chandelier,   17th   century,   (L'art  pour  tous). 
6.         Bracket  under  a  Piscina,  French,  16th  century.  Church,  Moret, 

(L'art  pour  tous). 

6.  Modern,  stucco-work. 

7.  Modern,  wood. 

12» 


180 


FREE  ORNAMENTS. 


Plate  113. 


The  Finial  Knob,  and  Vase. 


FPvEE  OKNAJIENTS. 


181 


^■,V"':"'a, 


The  Pendant  Knob. 


Plate  114. 


182  The  Kosette. 

The  Rosette.    (Plate  115.) 

The  Rosette,  strictly  so  called,  is  an  artificial  Rose.  In  a  wider 
sense  any  ornament  of  a  circular  shape,  which  radiates  from  a  centre, 
may  be  termed  a  Rosette.  According  to  its  execution  and  use:  tlio 
Rosette  may  be  considered  either  as  a  Free-ornament,  or  a  Panel- 
ornament.  In  the  first  case,  it  must  always  be  plastic,  project  pro- 
minently and  have  some  resemblance  to  the  Knob  or  Pendant.  In 
the  latter  case,  it  may  be  in  low  relief  or  be  a  flat  ornament.  Here 
we  have  only  to  deal  with  the  Rosette  as  a  Free-ornament. 

Considering  the  Rosette  from  this  point  of  view:  its  most  im- 
portant application  is  as  the  Boss  in  the  centre  of  Romanesque  and 
Gothic  ribbed  Vaultings;  and  as  the  centre-piece  of  Ceilings,  of  which 
we  find  numerous  examples  in  the  temples  of  the  Antique,  the  palaces 
of  the  Italian  Renascence,  and  the  vaulted  Cupolas  of  ecclesiastical 
and  secular  architecture.  "Besides  this,  Rosettes  are  found  on  Fur- 
niture, Gates  and  Doors  (the  Italian  Renascence  makes  the  most  lavish 
use  of  them  in  this  capacity),  and  as  the  centre-pieces  of  modern 
Ceilings,  &c.  In  these  cases,  however,  their  quality  as  Free -ornaments 
is  less  prominent. 

As  regards  the  formal  plan  of  Rosettes:  tl  e  Flower  motive  is  the 
commonest;  geometrical  motives  are  rarer,  and  motives  from  figures 
rarer  still.  The  arrangement  is  usually  in  a  series  of  zones;  the 
growth  is  from  the  centre,  outwards;  and  in  the  majority  of  cases  is 
radial,  that  is  at  right  angles  to  the  bordering  circle;  but  sometimes 
the  leaves  are  curved. 

The  Rosette  may  have  any  number  of  divisions;  but  3,  4,  5,  6, 
8,  10,  12,  or  16  divisions  are  the  rule;  divisions  into  7,  9,  11,  &c., 
are  as  rare  as  divisions  exceeding  the  number  16. 

The   Divisions    may    vary    in    the  _  separate    zones;    but   generally 
only  so  that  the   same  divisons  interlock,   that  is  to  say,   the  points 
of  the   leaves   of  one   zone    fall   on  tl^e   intervals   between   the  leaves 
of  the  next. 
Plate  115.    The  Rosette. 

1.  Antique,  of  four  divisions. 

2.  Roman,  of  five  divisions. 

3.  Naturalistic,  of  six  divisions. 

4.  Romanesque  Boss,    of  four  divisions,  chapter-hall  of  the  monastery 
of  Heiligenkreuz  near  Vienna,   13th   century,  (Mustorornamento). 

5.  Early  Gothic  Boss,  of  three  divisions,  S;iiute-Cbapelle,   Paris,   1240 

6.  French,    of  four   divisions,    Louis   XIII,    (1010—1643),    (Muster- 
oi'namente). 

7.  Italian,   of  five  divisions,   the   door  of  the  baptistery,   Parma,   Re 
nascence,  (Musterornameuto). 

8.  Modern  French,  ceiling-flower,  stucco.     ■ 


FREE  ORNAMENTS. 


183 


The  Rosette. 


Plate  115. 


184 


FEEE  ORNAMENTS. 


Plate  116. 


The  Crocket,  and  the  Gargoyle. 


The  Crocket,  aud  the  Gargoyle.  185 

The  Crocket,  and  the  Gargoyle.    (Plate  IIG). 

Crocket  is  the  designation  applied  to  those  excrescences  which 
appear  on  the  edges  of  Spires,  and  Pinnacles,  and  on  the  raking  lines  of- 
Gables,  in  the  richer  Gothic  styles.  Occurring  at  regular  intervals, 
they  form  an  ornamental   interruption  to  the  bald  architectonic  lines. 

At  first  of  a  rather  naturalistic  character  (figs.  3  and  4),  they 
evolved  during  the  decay  of  the  style  a  more  artificial  character,  as- 
suming bulbous  forms  (fig.  5),  which  have  their  own  special  peculiar- 
ities in  Eugland,  France,  and  Germany. 

Crocket  -  ornamentation  has  more  or  less  been  copied  from 
stone  Architecture  in  Fui-nlture,  Choir-stalls,  &c.  The  arms  of  the 
latter  (figs.  G — 10),  and  the  mIserere-seats,  are  often  foliated  like  a 
Crocket. 

!Metal,  aud  i)artlcularly  wrought-iron  work,  frequently  makes 
use  of  Crockets,  in  forms  suited  to  the  nature  of  the  material, 
(figs.  11-12). 

Contrary  to  the  modern  method,  by  which  the  water  that  collects 
on  the  roofs  of  buildings  is  conveyed  to  earth  through  Pipes,  the 
builders  of  the  Middle  Ages  and  the  Renascence  discharged  the  rain, 
clear  of  the  wall,  by  means  of  long  projecting  Spouts.  The  spout 
was  used  in  the  Antique  style  in  the  form  of  lion  heads,  &c.  In  the 
ecclesiastical  and  monumental  architecture  of  the  Middle  Ages  they 
are  termed  Gargoyles;  and  are  mostly  of  stone.  In  dwelliug  houses 
they  are  of  sheet-metal;  and  they  are  either  architectonically  decorated 
(fig.  14),  or  human,  animal,  or  fantastic  figures,  treated  in  a  comic 
manner,  the  water  flowing  through  the  mouth  or  other  orifices  of 
the  body. 

Copious  material  on  ihs  subject  of  crockets  and  gargoyles  will  be 
found  in  Eaguenet's  "Materiaux  et  Documents  de  I'Architecture". 


o^ 


Plate  IIG.    Tue  CnocitET,  and  the  Gargoyle. 
1 — 2.     Front    and    side    view    of   a    plain    Gothic    Crocket,    Amiens 
cathedral,  restored   by  Viollet-le-Duc,  (Raguenet). 

3.  Gothic  Crocket,   14  th  century. 

4.  Modem  Gothic  Crocket,  Paris,  (Raguenet). 

5.  Gothic  Crocket  Milan  cathedral,  (Raguenet). 

6.  Arm  of  a  Stall,  Salisbury  cathedral,  (Raguenet). 
7 — 10.  Arms  of  Stalls,  monastery,  Maulbronn. 

11 — 12.  Wrought-iron,  Gothic,  Augsburg. 

13.  Gargoyle,  Viollet-le-Duc,  Egllse  d'Eu,  (Raguenet). 

14.  Gargoyle,  bell-tower,  St.  Sernin,  Toulouse,  restored  by  Viollet- 
le-Duc,  (Raguenet). 

15.  Gargoyle,  Meaux  cathedral,  (Raguenet). 
16 — 17.  Gargoyle,  St.  Eustache,  Paris,  (Raguenet). 


186  TliO  Decorated  Hinge,  &c. 


TuE  Decorated  Hinge,  &c.    (Plate  117.) 

The  Middle  Ages,  and  after  them  the  Eenascence,  brought  the 
dovelopemcnt  of  wrought  ruetal-work  to  the  highest  state  of  perfection. 
Here  we  have  to  consider  the  diflcrent  kinds  of  bands,  technically 
known,  according  to  their  shape,  as  Hinge,  Strap,  &c. 

Although  these  bands  were  originally  intended  only  to  bind-to- 
gether the  underlying  wood  construction  of  gates,  doors,  caskets, 
chests,  &c.,  the  bald,  practical  form  was  soon  made  decorative;  and 
this  the  more  readily  that  the  Gothic  principle  of  wood  construction, 
with  its  narrow  stave-like  or  matched  strips  of  wood,  offered  only 
scanty  opportunities  of  artistic  decoration. 

Delicate  series  of  lines,  designed  as  Free-ornaments,  start  fiom 
the  Hinge  and  terminate  as  leaves  and  flowers.  The  heads  of  the 
necessary  rivets  and  screws,  themselves  shaped  as  rosettes  in  the 
richer  examples,  give  a  pleasing  relief.  Gothic  usually  applies  the 
extended  Strap-hinge  (figs.  7 — 8);  while  the  Renascence,  in  accord- 
ance with  its  principle  of  bordering  in  wood  constructions,  prefers  the 
shorter  Butt-hinge  (figs.  11 — 12).  In  the  latter  epoch  the  surface 
of  the  meial  received  further  decoration  trough  the  arts  of  etching, 
engraving,  niello-work,  &c.  Book-mounts,  in  particular,  offered  a 
wide  field  for  the  application  of  these  arts. 

Modern  times  have  with  justice  devoted  increased  attention  to 
these  objects;  and  have  restored  them  to  the  domain  of  art  from  which 
various  causes  had  excluded  them  for  almost  a  century. 

The  plate  gives  a- small  selection  from  the  copious  material  to 
bo  found  in  museums  and  publications. 

Plate  117.    The  Decorated  Hinge,  &c. 

1.  Gothic  hinge,  church-door,  Viersen  near  Cologne,  15th  century. 

2 — 3.  Plain    terminations    of    hinges,     Hefner -Alteneck     collection, 

16th  century. 
4 — 5.  Terminations  of  binges.  Town-hall,  Miinster. 

6.  Termination   of  hinge,   Prie-dieu,    Gelnhausen,    15th  century, 
(Musterornamente). 

7.  Gothic  hinge.  Door  of  a  cabinet,  Town-hall,  Zwolle. 

8.  Gothic  hinge. 

9.  Renascence  hinge,  old  Kaufhaus,  on  the  Limmat,  Zurich,  1618. 
1-0.          Renascence  hinge,  Town-hall,  Augsburg,  17th  century,  (Muster- 
ornamente). 

11.  Renascence  hinge.  Door  in  Ettlingen,  United  collections,  Carls- 
ruhe. 

12.  Door-hinge,  German,    1580,    Free   imitation    by    Prof.  Storck, 
(Zeichenvorlagen). 


FREE  ORNAMENTS. 


18Y 


■     ^ 


The  Decorated  Hinge,  &c. 


Plate  117. 


188  The  Tassel.  —  The  Fringe,  and  the  Valence. 

The  Tassel.     (Plate  118.) 

The  chief  contributions  of  textile  art  to  the  group  of  Free-orna- 
ments are  Tassels,  Fringes,  and  Laces.  The  two  latter  are  current 
edgings,  the  first,  on  the  contrary,  are  the  termination  of  the  lower 
end  of  cords  or  of  shaped  draperies.  Thus  we  find  Tassels  used  on 
Girdles,  Bell-pulls,  and  Curtain -holders;  as  pendants  from  Flags, 
Standards,  Valences,  Cushions,  Table-covers,  Palls,  and  Tent-covers; 
also  on  Pouches,  Hoods,  Caps,  Harness,  &c. 

The  Tassel  consists  of  a  tuft  of  threads  or  cords,  hanging  straight 
down  from  a  core  of  wood,  turned  in  various  profiles,  and  decorated 
with  twisted  threads.  The  original  may  be  assumed  to  have  been 
the  cord  with  a  simple  knot,  the  knot  being  intended  to  keep 
the  cord  from  ravelling-out.  The  Tassel  is  undoubtedly  of  great 
antiquity.  The  reliefs  found  in  Khorsabad,  Niniveh,  and  elsewhere, 
show  that  the  Assyrians  were  great  admirers  of  such  kinds  of  trimming. 
And,  althoiigh  such  a  lavish  use  does  not  occur  again;  there  would 
probably  be  little  difficulty  in  finding  examples  of  tassels  from  all 
periods  of  Art. 

Not  only  form  but  also  colour -contributes  to  the  effect  of  Tassels, 
so  that  the  examples  in  our  plate  really  only  give  half  the  effect. 
An  exhaustive  study  of  Trimmings,  by  Jacob  Falke,  will  be  found  in 
Teirich's  "Blatter  fiir  Kunstgewerbe"   1875. 


o 


Plate  118.    The  Tassel. 
1.  French  lady's  girdle,  12th  century,  (Viollet-le-Duc) 

2—3.     Tassels,  Holbein,  (Teirich). 

4.  Tassels,   Turkish   harness,    17th  century,    United   collections, 
Carlsruhe. 

5.  Tassel,  old  standard.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

6.  Tassel,  Tunisian  pistol.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

7.  Leather  tassel,  lady's  bag,  German  Renascence. 
8 — 10.  Modern  tassels,  by  Aug.  Topfer,  (Gewerbehalle). 

11.  Modern  tassel,  by  A.  Seder^  Munich. 

The  Fringe,  and  the  Valence.    (Plate  119.) 

If,  at  the  end  of  a- piece  of  material,  the  weft-threads  (parallel 
to  the  end)  be  drawn-out,  the  remaining  warp-threads  will  form  a 
simple  Fringe.  If  we  give  the  end  greater  security,  by  knotting  or 
tieing  the  threads  together  in  tufts,  we  get  the  ordinary  Fringe.  The 
Fringe,  however,  is  not  always  made  of  the  material;  it  is  often 
manufactured  independently,  and  sewed-on  to  the  edge  of  the  material. 
In  this  case  the  Fringe  is  combined  with  a  woven  heading-band  (gimp). 


FEEE  OENAMENTS. 


189 


The  Tassel. 


Plate  118. 


190  The  Fringe,  the  Valence,  and  the  Lace  Border. 

Riclior  types  of  Fringes  may  be  produced  either  by  variety  of 
the  edge,  so  that  tufts  of  unequal  lengths  form  rhythmically  alternating 
groups  (fig.  2),  or  by  using  several  thicknesses  of  Fringe,  lying  one 
behind  the  other,  (fig.  4). 

The  Fringe  is  always  applied  long,  when  a  pendant  termination 
is  required.  In  other  cases  as,  for  example,  where  the  fringed- ma- 
terial is  to  lie  horizontally,  like  small  Table-covers,  Napkins,  &c.,  it  is 
advisable  to  keep  the  fringe  short. 

Fringes  have  been  in  use  from  the  very  earliest  periods;  but  it 
is  again  the  Orientals,  and  especially  the  Assyrians,  who  show  a  pre- 
ference for  this  form.  Fringes  occur  perpetually  in  various  national 
costumes,  and  in  the  toilet  of  our  modem  ladies. 

The  Renascence  adopted  the  Fringe  as  a  trimming  for  furniture, 
and  specially  for  chairs;  although  not  always  with  true  artistic  feeling. 

The  Valence  is  a  hanging  textile  termination;  the  lower  edge  is 
ornamentally  cut,  and  is  often  ornamented  with  cords,  tassels,  em- 
broidery, &c.  The  upper  edge  of  the  Valence  is  generally  fixed  to 
a  moulding. 

Valences  occur  as  the  'interior  furnishing  of  Windows,  on 
four-post  Beds,  Baldachins.  Canopies,  Tents,  Marquees,  &c.;  of  late 
years,  they  have  been  used  on  Awnings,  and  Outside-blinds. 

Plate  119-     The  Valence. 

1.  Tomb  of  the  Incas,  Ancon,  Peru,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

2.  Indian -Mexican  pouch.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

3.  Egyptian,  (Ebers). 

4.  Renascence,  (Storck). 

5.  Mediaeval  maniple,  (Teirich). 

6.  Turkish  saddle-cloth,  1690,  United  colkctions,  Carlsruhe. 

7.  Renascence,  silver. 

8 — 9.  Modern  designs,  by  Prignot. 

The  Lace  Border.    (Plate  120.) 

Of  all  products  of  the  textile  art,  Lace  is  the  most  interesting. 
There  is  something  poetical  about  it,  like  flowers.  The  combination 
of  the  conventional  treatment  with  those  accidental  features  which 
hand-work  confers  upon  the  delicate,  light  material,  gives  them  a 
peculiar  charm.  Who  invented  lace  manufacture,  and  in  what  year, 
cannot  now  be  determined.  Lace  is  one  of  those  things  which  the 
Renascence  has  handed  down  to  us  without  having  inherited  it  from 
the  Antique.  The  stimulus,  to  the  invention  of  lace  and  the  basis  of 
its  manufacture,  is  probably  to  be  found  in  the  textile  hand-work  of 
the  Middle  Ages,  such  as  was  practised,  particularly  in  convents,  for 
ecclesiastical  purposes. 


FREE  ORNAMENTS. 


191 


«^.' 


<) 


9. 


?:i1^ 


The  Fringe,  and  the  Valence. 


Plate  119. 


192 


FREE  ORNAMENTS. 


Plate  120. 


The  Lace  Border. 


The  Lace  Border.  193 

Lace  belongs  in  most  cases  to  the  Free -ornaments.  More  rarely 
it  is  manufactvired  as  an  Insertion,  with  the  character  of  a  ribbon,  or 
for  independent  use  as  a  Shawl  or  Wrap.  Compared  with  Fringe,  the 
applications  of  Lace  are  freer  and  more  varied,  and  by  no  means  con 
fined  to  the  character  of  a  pendant  termination.  The  reader  may  be 
assumed  to  be  acquainted  with  the  various  uses  of  lace. 

If  we  exclude  the  allied  Crochet-work  as  not  strictly  belonging 
to  this  section,  we  shall  find  that  the  manufacture  of  Lace  may  be 
divided  into  two  groups:  (1)  sewed  or  Point  lace;  and  (2)  bobbin  or 
Pillow  lace.  The  former  method  has  chiefly  been  practised  in  Italy, 
Spain,  Ireland,  and  France;  the  latter  in  England,  France,  the  Nether- 
lands, Schleswig,  Switzerland, -and  Saxony.  The  chief  centres  of  the 
lace  industry  were  and  to  some  extent  still  are:  Venice,  Genoa,  Milan, 
Ragusa,  Devonshire,  Buckinghamshire,  Ireland,  Alengon,  Valenciennes, 
Brussels,  Mechlin,  Binche,  Tondern,  Annaberg,  &c. 

As  in  other  branches,  the  cheap  Machine-made  article  has  nowa- 
days reduc^  the  manufacture  of  the  dearer  but  far  more  valuable 
Hand-made  lace  to  very  modest  limits.  See  Eeports  on  Lace,  by 
Alan  S.  Cole  (Department  of  Science  and  Art). 

Among  the  numerous  kinds  of  Lace  for  which  no  generally  re- 
cognised terminology  as  yet  exists,  we  have  selected  some,  principally 
of  older  date,  among  which  the  best  patterns  are  to  be  found: 

Point  coup6  (punto  tagliato).     The   linen  ground  is  cut-out  and 

the  edges  worked  with  the  needle. 
Point  tir6   (punto  a  maglia  quadra).     Single   compartments  of  a 

quadrangular  knotted  or  woven  net  are  filled-up. 
Point  tir6   (punto  tirato).     The   threads   of  the  linen   fabric   are 
partially  pulled-out,  the  others  connected  together  and  sewed 
round. 
Point    coup6.  (punto  a  reticeUa).     Groups    of   threads    sb'etched 
lengthwise    and   crosswise   like    a   net,    are    spun   round   and 
connected. 
Point  nou6  (punto  a  groppo).     Produced  by  plaiting  and  knotting 

the  threads. 
Point  lace.    The  threads  are  sewed  together,  following  the  pattern, 
and  joined  together  by  "brides".    This  is  almost  the  only  kind 
of  lace  which  can  now  be  found  on  ladies*  work-tables. 

Plate  120.    The  Lace  Bordee. 

1.  Venetian  guipure,  old  pattern-book. 

2.  Point  none,  end  of  the  15th  century. 
3 — 4,  Old,  point. 

5 — 8.  Modern,  pillow,  old  patterns. 

9.         Modern,  knotted,  with  fringe,  (Macrame  lace). 


Meyar^   Eaodbook  of  Ornament.  13 


194 


4:--t^^  %*z-= 


a 


SUPPORTS. 


All  those  elements  of  ornamental  art  which  express  the  idea  of 
supporting  or  bearing,  are  here  gathered  into  a  special  group  to 
which  is  given  the  name  "Supports". 

Supports,  in  the  strict  sense  of  the  word,  are  piers  or  columns. 
But  it  does  not  fall  within  the  scope  of  this  work  to  treat  these 
forms  from  the  architectural  point  of  view,  or  to  enter  into  the  details 
and  proportions  of  the  so-called  "Orders  of  Architecture".  All  that  is 
required  on  this  point  may  be  gained  from  the  works  of  architectural 
specialists:  BOtticher,  Tektonik  der  Hellenen;  Mauch  and  Lohde,  Die 
Architektonischen  Ordnungen;  R.  Phene  Spiers,  Tlie  Orders  of  Archi- 
tecture; Vignola;  Durm  and  others.  We  will  therefore  disregard  the 
undecorated  forms,  and  discuss  only  the  decorative  details  of  these 
supports. 

Like  a  tree  which  consists  of  root,  trunk,  and  crown.  Piers  and 
Columns  necessarily  have  a  base,  a  shaft,  and  a  capital.  (The  Doric 
Column  is  an  exception  as  it  has  no  base.)  The  natural  model 
for  the  Pier  and  the  Column  is  the  trunk  of  a  tree  hewn  into  a 
cylindrical  or  prismatic  form.  The  motive  of  the  channellings  and 
flutings  of  the  shaft  of  a  support  is  to  be  found  in  the  channels  and 
flutings  of  Endogeneous  Plants. 

Supports  which,  like  piers  and  columns,  are  intended  to  bear 
a  considerable  weight,  usually  have  a  strong  cylindrical  or  prismatic 
structure,  generally  tapering  towards  the  top;  the  fundamental  forms 
of  tlie  Candelabrum,  which  is  meant  to  bear  only  an  inconside-rablp 
weight,  like  Lamps,  &c.,  are  freer,  have  more  variety,  and  offer  a 
wider  field  for  decoration  than  the  forms  of  the  former  group.  The 
Candelabrum  is  also  divided  into  foot,    shaft,  and  crown.     The  shaft, 


Supports.  —  The  Foliated  Shaft.  195 

again,  ls  frequently  composed  of  several  distinct  parts.  The  cande- 
labrum as  a  whole  will  receive  a  more  detailed  consideration  iu 
Division  III,  (Utensils). 

Small  Pillars,  shaped  like  a  pier,  column,  or  candelabrum,  are 
also  used  for  the  construction  of  balaustrades ;  in  which  case  they 
have  to  support  only  a  Rail. 

The  small  Pillars  have  thick,  compact  forms;  Balausters,  on  the 
contrary,  are  slender  bodies  of  revolution,  with  great  variety  in  the  profile. 

Very  peculiar  forms  of  support  are  the  antique  Trapezophors  or 
table-legs;  the  Legs  of  modem  furniture  bear  more  resemblance  to 
balauster  pillars. 

Terminus  is  the  name  given  to  supports  which  widen  out  in  an 
upward  direction  like  an  inverted  Obelisk,  and  terminate  in  a  bust 
or  capital. 

Beside  the  geometrical  and  plant  elements,  the  human  form  is 
also  used  as  a  motive  of  supports.  Male  forms  thus  used  are  termed 
Atlantes;  and  female  forms  Caryatids. 

The  various  forms  of  Consoles  are  included  in  the  group  of  Supports. 


The  Foliated  Shaft.    (Plate  121.) 

We  have  already  mentioned  that  the  Plant-world  furnishes  the 
motive  for  the  forms  of  Supports.  Reeds,  Canes,  Tree-trunks  with 
knots,  &c.,  were  copied  in  the  Antique. 

The  mural  paintings  of  Pompeii  show  lofty  airy  constructions 
with  extremely  slender,  foliated  supports.  The  bronze  Candelabra 
and  Lampadaria,  intended  to  hold  lamps,  are  often  direct  imitations 
of  plant  stems,  while  the  Roman  State-Candelabra  are  often  decorated- 
with  Artificial  foliage.  Later  epochs  have  made  little  change  in  this 
respect;  it  may  be  said  in  general  that,  as  regards  delicacy  of 
feeling,  and  moderation  in  the  application  of  natural  forms,  they 
have  seldom  reached  and  still  more  seldom  surpassed  the  Antique 
models. 

Plate  121.    The  Foliated  Shaft. 

1.  Finial  of  the  choragic  monument  of  Lysikrates,    Athens,    (in- 
tended for  the  reception  of  a  bronze  tripod),  Greek. 

2.  Part    of   the    shaft    of   a    Roman    State -candelabrum,    marble, 
Vatican  museum,  Rome. 

3 — 4.  Supports,  mural  paintings,  Pompeii,  (Jacobsthal). 

5.  Graeco-Italic,  Lamp-stand,  bronze. 

6.  Upper  part  of  shaft,  Graeco-Italic  candelabrum,  Brondsted  collec- 
tion, (Vulliamy). 


196 


SUPFOETS. 


^^^ 
(^         §) 


Plate  121. 


The  P^oliated  Shaft. 


The  Fluted  Shaft.  —  The  Base.  197 


The  Fluted  Suaft.    (Plato  122.) 

Columns,  Piors,  Candelabra,  and  similar  Supports  frequently  have 
channellings  or  flutings.  The  object  of  these  is  to  give  animation  to 
the  smooth  shaft,  and  to  emphasize  the  expression  of  the  principle  of 
weight-bearing.     This  latter  is  specially  true  of  the  channellings. 

In  the  Doric  style  the  Flutings  are  shallow  without  any  interval,  only 
divided  from  each  other  by  a  sharp  edge,  (figs.  1  and  2).  The  Ionic 
and  Corinthian  shafts,  have  deeper  flutings  (figs.  3  and  4),  separated 
from  each  other  by  fillets  formed  of  the  untouched  surface  of  the 
shaft.  The  channellings  terminate  upwards  like  small  niches,  with 
semicircular  or  elliptical  heads,  (fig.  5).  Leaf-like  terminations,  like 
that  on  fig.  13  are  rarer-  The  termination  downwards  is  similar  to 
those  shown  on  figs.  6 — 8. 

The  number  of  channellings  on  a  shaft  varies  from  18  to  24 
On  smaller  constructions,  such  as  Furniture,  Balausters,  &c.,  the 
number  is  reduced;  but  seldom  less  than  8.  The  Channellings  taper 
proportionately  with  the  shaft.  Pilasters  are  also  channelled  to  match 
the  Columns.  In  strict  Architecture,  rich  and  composite  channellings 
and  flutings  are  rather  injurious  -  than  otherwise  (figs.  7 — 11);  but 
on  Candelabra,  and  Mouldings  they  often  produce  a  good  effect.  When 
applied  to  the  Torus  and  the  Cavetto:  the  former  (convex)  should 
be  decorated   by  Nurls;    and   the   latter   (concave)  should  have  Flutes. 

Plate  122.    The  Fluted  Shaft. 

1  —  2.   Sections  of  Doric  Fluting. 

3  —  4.   Sections  of  Ionic  and  Corinthian  Fluting. 

5  —  6.    Construction   of  the   terminations   of  Fluting   on    cylindrical 

shafts. 
7 — 11.  Composite  Fluting,  with  sections,  and  terminations. 

12.  Part  of  an  Antique  Candelabrum,  with  tapered  Fluting. 

13.  Termination  of  the  Fluting,  monument  of  Lysikrates,  Athens. 
(The  construction  is  clearly  indicated  on  the  drawings.) 


The  Base.    (Plate  123—124.) 

It  is  unquestionably  more  beautiful  when  something  in  the 
shape  of  a  Base  is  interposed  between  the  shaft  of  a  column  and 
the  substructure  on  which  it  rests,  than  when,  as  in  the  Doric  style, 
the  column  rises  without  any  such  base.  Bases  suggested  by  the 
radical  leaves  of  plants,  are  common  in  Oriental  styles.  Plate  124, 
fig.  1  gives  an  Egyptian  example  of  this  kind.  Decorations  of  this 
Eort  are,  however,  oftener  applied  to  the  lower  end  of  the  shaft  than 


198 


SUPPOETS. 


W^lrTr¥rr?T9f^f¥Tpf? 


— vm. ! Tm — 


Plate  122. 


The  Fluted  Shaft. 


The  Base.  199 

to  the  Base  itself.  This  natural  method  of  decoration  is  also  met- 
with  on  richly  decorated  examples  of  Roman  style,  where  a  row  of 
Artificial  leaves  encircle  the  shaft,  (Plate  123.  3).  Antique  Bases  are 
composed  of  a  square  foundation  slab  (the  plinth);  and  some  mouldings 
which  follow  the  circular  plan  of  the  shaft.  The  well-known  and 
oft-used  Attic  Base,  consists,  beginning  from  below,  of  a  plinth,  a 
great  torus,  fillet,  scotia,  fillet,  upper  torus,  fillet  and  apophyge.  The 
last,  as  a  quarter- hollow  forms  the  transition  between  fillet  and  shaft. 
When  the  plinth  is  decorated,  which  is  the  case  only  in  very  rich 
examples,  the  motive  is  either  a  band  or  a  scroll.  The  tori  are  de- 
corated with  braided  work,  as  shown  on  Plate  99,  the  hollow  or 
"scotia"  is  sometimes  decorated  with  leaves,  the  smaller  tori  may  be 
treated  as  astragals;  and  so  on.  Plate  123  shows  three  rich  Roman 
examples.     Others  will  be  found  in  Botticher's  Tektonik  der  Hellenen. 

The  Byzantine  and  Romanesque  periods  follow  the  Antique  in 
the  treatment  of  Bases.  The  spaces  which  remain  on  the  upper  sur- 
face of  the  square  plinth  are,  however,  filled  up  with  ornament  (Plate 
124.  3,  7,  8,  10),  or  with  small  animal  figures,  (Plate  124.  9).  la 
the  later  Gothic  style  the  torus  overlaps  the  sides  of  the  plinth, 
which  reduces  these  spaces;  the  comers  of  the  plinth  are  also  some- 
times finished  as  shown  on  Plate  124.  6. 

The  Gothic  period  prefers  geometrical  to  organic  form;  and  se- 
cures good  effects  by  a  variety  of  profiles  placed  high  up  on  com- 
posite clustered  columns,  (plate  124.  11)  gives  an  example  of  this. 
Remark  the  similarity  with  the  Chinese  example,  fig.  2,  which  would 
seem  to  have  been  suggested  by  a  cluster  of  juxtaposed  shafts. 

The  Renascence  and  modem  styles  resort  to  direct  copying  from 
the  Antique;  but,  as  a  rule,  do  not  use  ornamented  mouldings. 

The  treatment  of  the  Bases  of  piers  and  pilasters  is  usually 
identical  with  that  of  columns;  so  that  there  is  no  necessity  for 
dealing  with  these  separately. 

Plate  123.    The  Base:  Roman. 

1.  Capitoline  Museum,  Rome,  (De  Vico). 

2.  Temple  of  Concord,  Rome,  (De  Vico). 

8.  Baptistery  of  Constantine,   Rome,   (Vorbilder  fiir   Fabrikanten    uod 
Handworker). 

Piu\.TE  124.    The  Base:  Romanesque,  &c. 

1.  Egyptian,  Temple  of  Tutmes  III,  Karnak,  (Raguenct). 

2.  Chinese,  (Raguenet). 

3.  Romanesque,  coupled,  Schwarzach. 
4 — 6.  Mediaeval. 

7.         Romanesque. 


200 


SUPPORTS. 


^ 


Plate  123. 


The  Base. 


SUPrORTS. 


201 


The  Base. 


Plate  124. 


202  The  Base.  —  The  Ornamented  Shaft. 

8.  Romanesque,  St.  Remy,  Reims,  (Raguenet). 

9.  Romanesque,  Cistercian  monastery,  Maulbronn. 

10.  Romanesque,  Abbey  "des  Dames",  Caen,  (Raguenet). 

11.  Gothic,  church,  Brou-Asn,  (Raguenet). 


The  Ornamented  Shaft.    (Plates  125 — 126.) 

The  simplest,  most  natural  and  perhaps  the  most  'beautiful  de- 
coration of  a  Shaft  is  fluting,  beyond  which  the  Antique  very  seldom 
goes.  Where  it  does:  it  clothes  the  stem  in  naturalistic  fashion  with 
plant-forms,  (Plate  125.  4). 

In  the  Byzantine,  Romanesque,  and  Scandinavian  styles:  we  often 
find  the  shaft  covered  with  a  geometrical  network,  and  ornamented  in 
a  corresponding  style,  (Plate  125.  2 — 3).  The  Gothic  style  prefers 
to  leave  the  slender  shafts  smooth. 

The  Renascence  is  not  satisfied  with  the  simple  flute  especially 
on  small  architectural  work  like  Altars,  Monuments,  &c.  The  craving 
to  give  the  Column  a  decoration  comnaensurate  with  that  of  the  other 
parts  of  the  architecture  became  irresistible.  It  is  raised  on  a  pedestal; 
the  shaft  is  banded,  being  divided  into  parts  by  projecting  Cinctures, 
generally  two,  the'  lower  at  about  one-third,  the  upper  at  about  two- 
thirds  of  the  height.  On  the  lower  part  are  suspended  festoons, 
weapons,  trophies,  cartouches,  &c.,  the  upper  part  is  channelled  or 
decorated  with  Artificial  foliage  (Plate  125.  1);  finally,  festoons  of  fruit 
or  drapery  are  suspended  from  the  capital. 

Where  the  Columns  are  not  large,  especially  in  Furniture,  the 
cylindrical  shaft  is  replaced  by  the  richer  profiling  of  a  more  candelabrum- 
like form,  (Plate  126.  5).  Flat  ornamentation  is  also  used,  as  well 
as  plastic  decoration,  by  means  of  painting,  incrustation,  or  inlaying, 
(Plate  125.  5). 

All  these  methods  of  application  are  more  or  less  in  agreement 
with  the  object  and  principle  of  construction  of  the  Column,  but  the 
same  cannot  be  said  of  the  Renascence  and  the  following  styles  of  the 
Decadence,  which  build  up  their  Columns  of  large  and  small  drums, 
alternately  ornamented  and  plain,  or  even  give  the  Shaft  a  spiral 
twist  and  decorate  it  with  spiral  flutings. 

Plate  125.    The  Decorated  Shaft. 

1.  Italian    Renascence,    Tomb    in    Sta.   Maria  del  Popolo,    Rome,    by 
Sansovino. 

2.  Romanesque. 

3.  Shaft,  church,  Tournus,  (Raguenet). 

4.  Roman,  marble. 

5.  Column,  with  intarsia  decoration,  German  Renascence,  (Hirth). 


SUPPORTS. 


203 


The  Decorated  Shalt. 


Plate  12" 


204 


SUPPORTS. 


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Plate  126. 


The  Profiled  Shaft. 


The  Ornamented  Shaft.  —  The  Capital.  205 

Plate  126.    The  Profiled  Shaft. 

'l.  Candelabnim-like  column,  tester-bed,  French  Renascence. 

2.  Lower  part  of  a  column,  Mayence  cathedral. 

3.  Lower  part  of  column,  Palais  du  Commerce,  Lyons,  (Raguenet). 

4.  Column,  diploma.  Modern. 

5.  Column,  Modem,  (Gerlach). 

The  Capital.    (Plates  127—130.) 

The  upper  termination  of  the  column  is  the  Capital.  The  Capital 
forms  the  transition  from  the  supporting  Shaft  to  the  superincumbent 
Weight.  This  transition  may  assume  either  geometrical  or  organio 
forms.  Very  frequently  both  systems  are  combined;  so  that,  strictly 
speaking,  we  can  only  say  that  one  system  or  the  other  predominates. 

The  Egyptian  -capital  is  suggested  by  the  cinctured  bundle  of 
Papyrus  stems  with  buds  (Plate  127.  4,  5),  or  with  opened  Papyrus 
or  Lotus  flowers,  (Plate  127.  2,  3). 

Abnormal  capitals  are  found  in  the  Old  Persian  style.  Plate 
127.  1,  gives  an  example  from  Persepolis,  composed  of  the  fore-parts 
of  Bulls. 

As  examples  of  Oriental  forms:  two  Moorish  capitals  from  the 
Alhambra  in  Granada  are   given   on  figs.  6  and  7  of  the  same  plate. 

Antique  art  adopts  three  general  types  of  Capitals:  Doric,  Ionic 
and  Corinthian. 

The  Doric  Capital  consists  of  the  abacus,  which  is  square  in  plan, 
and  the  echinos,  which  is  circular.  The  transition  to  the  shaft  is  effec- 
ted by  hollow  mouldings  and  astragals.  The  Graeco-Doric  Capital  was 
painted.  Where  the  sides  of  the  abacus  are  decorated:  a  Fret  pattern 
is  employed  (Plate  127.  8).  The  echinos  is  a  member  of  conflict, 
and  is  ornamented  accordingly.  In  the  Roman  and  Renascence  styles 
plastic  ornamentation  takes  the  place  of  painting.  The  band  of  leaves 
becomes  an  egg-and-dart  ornament  (Plate  127.  10).  Leaves  pointing 
upward  are  sometimes  used  (Plate  127.  9).  At  the  top  of  the  abacus 
a  small  moulding  is  used.  A  necking,  generally  decorated  with 
rosettes,  is  interposed  between  Capital  and  Shaft.  Similar  rosettes 
decorate  the  spaces  on  the  under  side  of  the  abacus  (Plate  127. 
9-10).. 

The  lonrc  Capital  replaces  the  square  abacus  by  a  sqroll  rolled- 
in  on  both  sides,  in  great  volutes.  The  intervals,  between  the  egg 
band  and  the  scroll,  are  marked  by  palmettes.  A  neck  may  bo  added 
as  in  the  Doric  Capital,  and  it  is  frequently  decorated  with  a  pal- 
metto ornament  (Plate  128.  4—5).  The  side  view  of  the  scroll 
shows  plain  profilings  as  on  Plate  128.  1,  decorated  with  leaves  or 
scales  Ir  the  richer  exarriples.     Thu  Ionic  Ccpital  has  two  faces,   and 


206  The  Capital. 

two    si3es.     For   this   reason    it   is   of   only  limited    application,    as, 
when   the    capital  is  applied  to  the  corner  column  of  two  adjacent^ 
sides  of  a  building,   it  is  impossible  to   avoid  a  bad  effect  from  the 
two  reentering  volutes  on  the  inner  faces. 

The  fundamental  form  of  the  Corinthian  Capital  is  the  calix. 
The  decoration  may  be  designed  on  two  methods.  Firstly  a  row  of 
leaves,  or  two  rows  arranged  alternately  one  above  the  other,  clothe 
the  lower  cylindrical  part  of  the  capital,  and  plain  broad  waterleaves 
form  the  transition  to  the  square  abacus.  To  this  class  belongs  the 
capital  of  the  Tower  of  the  Winds  in  Athens,  and  a  capital  found 
■on  the  island  of  Melos,  which  is  shown  on  Plate  128.  7.  Or,  secondly: 
volutes  rise  from  the  rows  of  leaves  and  unite  in  pairs  under  the 
comers  of  the  abacus,  which  are  then  extended,  so  that  the  sides  are 
rendered  concave  in  plan.  The  centre  of  each  sides  of  the  abacus  is 
decorated  with  a  palmette  or  rosette  (Plate  128.  8 — 9). 

The  fusion  of  the  Ionic  and  Corinthian  capitals  produced  the 
Composite  capitaj;  whose  appearance  is  more  interesting  than  beautiful 
(Plate  128.  10). 

Early  Christian,  and,  to  a  certain  extent,  Byzantine  and  Roma- 
nesque art,  models  the  forms  of  capital  on  those  of  the  Antique. 
The  Corinthian  Capital  is  the  one  mostly  followed.  The  details  are 
made  correspondingly  simpler  and  ruder  (Plate  129.  6 — 11).  But 
along  side  of  these  reminiscences  of  the  Antique,  new  and  independent 
forms  appear.  The  antagonism  between  the  cylindrical  under  part 
and  the  square  upper  termination  is  adjusted  by  geometrical  construc- 
tions. Thus  originated  the  Cushion  and  the  Trapeziform  Capital. 
The  Cushion  capital  is  specifically  Romanesque.  A  half  sphere  is  cut 
by  planes  below  and  on  the  four  sides.  Its  simplest  form  is  given 
on  Plate  129.  1.  The  decoration  is  sometimes  geometrical  (Plate  129. 
2  and  12),  and  sometimes  contains  foliage  and  figures  (Plate  129.  5). 
Th'e  Double-cushion  Capital  is  a  variant  of  the  Cushion  capital  (Plate 
129.  4).  The  Trapeziform  capital  is  specifically  Byzantine.  In  this 
style:  the  cylindrical  shaft  is  continued  to  the  square  abacus,  which 
causes  each  side  of  the  Capital  to  assume  a  Trapeziform  shape  (Plate 
129.  3).    Very  often  these  Capitals  are  richly  decorated  vath  figures. 

The  arrangement  of  clustered-shafts,  so  popular  in  the  Middle 
Ages,  led  to  the  Coupled-capital,  which  appears,  sometimes  as  con- 
joined capitals  (Plate  129.  10),  and  sometimes  as  the  juxtaposition  of 
two  ordinary  capitals  with  a  conjoined  abacus. 

In  the  Gothic  style,  particularly  in  its  later  period,  the  abacus 
becomes  octagonal.  Crocket-like  knots  of  leaves  are  loosely  attached 
to  the  calis-formed  core.  The  vigourous  projections  of  these  leaf 
ornaments  give  the  Capital  the  appearance  of  an  inverted  bell  (bell 
capitals,  Plate  129.  13—14). 

The  Renascence   adopts  the  Doric   and  Ionic  Capitals,   and   more 


The  Capital.  207 

usually  the  Corinthian  Capital  directly  borrowed  from  the  Antique; 
but  the  forms  become  freer  and  more  varied;  and,  compared  with 
the  overcharged  Roman  examples,  simpler.  The  volutes  at  the  corners 
develope  into  independent  forms,  and  are  often  replaced  by  dolphins, 
cornucopias,  and  other  fantastic  forms,  scattered  instances  of  which 
may,  however,  be  found  even  in  the  Antique.  Modern  architecture, 
like  the  Renascence,  also  follows  these  traditions. 

Plate  127.    The  Capital. 

1.  Ancient  Persian,  Persepolis. 

2.  Egyptian,  Kom-Ombo. 

3.  ,  Philae. 

4.  ,  Memnonium  Thebes. 

5.  n  Luxor,  (Owen  Jones). 

6 — 7.  Moorish  capitals,  Aihambra,  Hall  of  the  two  sisters,  (Raguenet). 

8.  Graeco-Doric. 

9.  Roman-Doric,  thermae  of  Diocletian,  (Mauch  and  Lohde). 
10.  Doric,  Italian  Renascence,  by  Barozzi  da  Vignola. 

Plate  128.    The  Capital. 

1.  Graeco-Ionic,  (Jacobsthal). 

2.  Tonic,  Bassae,  (Cockerell). 

3.  Ionic,  Pompeii. 

4.  Roman-Ionic,  (Musterornamente). 

5.  Graeco-Ionic,  Erechtheum,  Athens. 

6.  Ionic,  Louvre,  Paris. 

7.  Antique  Corinthian,    found   in  Melos,   (^''orbilder   fiir  Fabrikanten 
und  Handwerker). 

8.  Greek -Corinthian,  monument  of  Lysikrates,  Athens. 

9.  Roman-Corinthian,  palaces  of  the  emperors  Rome. 
10.  Roman  Composite,  Louvre,  Paris. 

Plate  129.    The  Capital. 

1.  Romanesque  Cushion-capital,  St.  Gereon,  Cologne,  (Otte). 

2.  ,  ,  »        the  abbey  church,  Laach,  (Otte). 

3.  Byzantine,  Sta.  Sofia,  Constantinople. 

4.  Romanesque  Double-cushion-capital,  Rosheim  church,  XL  cen- 
tury. 

5.  Romanesque  Double -cushion -capital. 

6.  Romanesque  Cushion-capital,  Freiburg. 

7 — 9.    Romanesque,  former  cloisters  of  the  church,  Schwarzacb. 

10.  Romanesque  Coupled -capital. 

11.  Romanesque. 


•208 


SUPPORTS. 


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Plate  127. 


The  Capital. 


SUPPORTS. 


209 


The  Capital. 


Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornairipnt. 


Plate  128. 
14 


210 


SUPPOHTS. 


Plate  129. 


The  Capital. 


surroRTS. 


211 


The  Capital. 


Plate  130. 


212 


SUPPORTS. 


Plate  131. 


The  Pilaster  Panel. 


The  Capital.  —  The  Pilaster  Panel.  213 

12.  Romanesque  Cushion-capital,  monastery,  Lippoldsberg. 

13 — 14.  Late  Gothic,  triforium  of  the  choir,  minster  Freiburg, 

Plate  130.    The  CAPiTAii. 

1.         Renascence,  drawing  by  Holbein,  (Guicbard). 

2 — 3.  Renascence,  designs  by  Heinrich  Voigtherr,  (Hirth). 

4.  Composite,  Italian. 

5.  Renascence,  Palazzo  Scrofa,  Ferrara,  Italian. 

6.  Renascence,    Tomb   in  Sta.  Maria  del  Popolo,    Rome,    by  San- 
sovino. 

7.  Renascence,  Italian,  Palazzo  Zorzi,  Venice. 

8.  Modem,    municipal  baths,  Carlsrubo,  Architect  Durra. 

9.  Modern  French,  Vaudeville  theatre,  Paris,  Architect  Magne. 


The  Pilaster  Panel.    (Plate  131.) 

In  many  cases  the  Pilaster  or  wall-pier  sbaft  is  devoid  of  orna- 
ment. Unlike  the  column,  the  Pilaster  does  not,  as  a  rule,  taper  uji- 
vards;  and  if  the  Pilaster  is  ornamented  with  fluting  the  tapering 
is  never  permissible.  The  Pilaster  frequently  has  cinctures,  generally 
two,  the  lower  at  ^/j,  the  upper  at  -^/s  of  its  height.  The  ornamental 
decoration,  when  present,  takes  the  form  of  an  elongated,  sunk  panel 
bordered  by  a  moulding.  The  ornamentation  may  be  of  three  kinds: 
firstly:  an  ascending  plant  motive  may  be  used,  rising  symmetrically 
or  in  the  form  of  a  wavy  line  from  calices,  vases,  &c.,  animal  and 
human  figures  being  not  infrequent  accessories;  secondly,  the  decora- 
tion may  consist  of  festoons  of  flowers,  fruits,  trophies,  shields,  &c., 
varied  by  knots  and  ribbons,  the  points  of  suspension  being  rosettes, 
rings,  lion  heads,  &c.;  thirdly,  the  panel  may  be  decorated  with  flat 
strapwork,  as  in  the  Elizabethan  manner. 

Of  these  three  kinds  of  decoration  the  first  is  the  most  used; 
and  the  most  suitable.  Few  Antique  examples  have  come  down  to 
us;  the  Middle  Ages  make  scarcely  any  use  of  the  Pilaster;  but 
the  Renascence  is  much  richer  in  such  examphs.  Stalls,  Altars, 
Sepulchral -monuments  are  scarcely  to  be  found  without  Pilasters. 
Plate  131  offers  a  small  selection  from  the  copious  material;  all  the 
panels  show  the  first  of  the  three  kind3  of  decoration. 

Plate  131.    The  Pilaster  Panel 

1.  Italian  Renascence. 

2 — 5.  Italian  Renascence,  Sta.  Maria  del  Miracoli,  Venice. 

6 — 7.  Italian  Renascence,  by  Benedetto  da  Majano. 

8 — 9.  Modem  Panels,  in  the  style  of  the  Italian  Renascence. 


214  The  Pilaster  Capital. 

The  Pilaster  Capital.    (Plates  132—134.) 

Generally  speaking,  the  structure  of  the  Capital  of  the  pilaster 
follows  that  of  the  Colvmm;  and,  to  a  certain  extent,  translates  the 
forms  of  the  latter  from  the  round  to  the  flat.  This  observation  is 
true  in  the  Renascence  period;  but  not  in  the  Antique. 

In  Pilaster-capitals  in  the  Doric  style  one  or  more  leaf  or  egg- 
and-dart  mouldings  run  under  the  abacus,  and  are  covered  at  the 
corners  ■with  palmettes  or  leaves.  Beneath  this  proper  part  of  the 
Capital  a  neck  more  or  less  high  is  usually  found,  decorated  with 
rosettes  or  with  other  ornaments  (Plate  132.  1).  On  modem  Capitals 
of  this  class  the  neck  may  even  be  fluted  (Plate  134.  7);  not  infre- 
quently the  centre  of  the  Capital  is  still  further  decorated  by  the 
addition  of  masks,  symbols,  &c.     (Plate  134.  7  and  8). 

While  the  Renascence  adopted  the  form  of  the  Ionic  Capital 
with  scarcely  any  change  for  its  pilasters  (Plate  134.  4),  the  Antique 
possessed  a  special  form  of  pilaster  Capital  of  this  order  (Plate  132.  2). 

The  most  numerous,  varied  and  beautiful  Capitals  of  pilasters 
are  in  the  Corinthian  order.  The  profile  and  general  arrangement  are 
the  same  as  with  the  columns;  generally,  however,  the  pilaster  is 
broader  in  proportion  to  its  height.  The  lower  part  is  encircled  by 
Artificial  leaves  which  sometimes  dwindle  to  the  two  corner  leaves 
supporting  the  volutes.  The  volutes  are  of  the  most  varied  descrip- 
tions, sometimes  replaced  by  cornucopias,  dolphins,  chimeras,  and 
other  figures  (Plates  132.  8  and  133.  5).  Leaf-ornaments,  vases, 
garlands,  calices  of  flowers,  &c.,  are  arranged  at  the  centres  (Plate  132. 
4 — 8),  also  masks  (Plate  133,  4,  5  and  8).  Neckings  are  rare  on 
Corinthian  capitals  (Plate  133.  7).  The  egg -and -dart  mouldings, 
which  run  alo;ig  the  bottom  of  Antique  examples  (Plate  132.  4 — 5), 
are  reminiscences  of  the  Doric  style,  so  that  these  forms  may  also 
be  regarded  as  a  kind  of  transition  Capital. 

Plate  182.    The  Pilaster  Capital. 

1.  Greek-Doric  anta,  Erechtheiim,  Athens. 

2.  Greek-Ionic  anta. 

3.  Greek-Corinthian. 

4 — 6.  Roman -Corinthian,  (Botticher). 

7.  Roman-Corinthian,  Pantheon,  Rome. 

8.  Roman- Corinthian,  Temple  of  Mars  Ultor,  Rome,  (De  Vico). 

Plate  133.    The  Pilaster  Capital. 

1.  Corinthian,  Italian  Renascence,  Court  of  the  Scala\dei  Giganti, 

Venice,  (Wiener  Bauhiitte). 


SUPPORTS. 


215 


^ 


The  Pilaster  Capital. 


Plate  132. 


216 


SUPPORTS. 


Plate  133. 


The  Pilaster  Capital. 


SUPPORTS. 


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Plate  134. 


218  The  Pilaster  Capital  —  The  Candelabra  Base. 

2.  Corinthian,  Italian  Renascence,  Sta.  Maria  dei  Miracoli,  Venice. 

3.  Corinthian,  Italian  Renascence,  Certosa,  Florence. 

4.  Corinthian,    Italian  Renascence,    Scuola  di  San  Marco,  Venice, 
by  Pietro  Lombardo; 

5 — 6.  Corinthian,  Italian  Renascence,   Chapel  of  the  Palazzo  Vecchio^ 

Florence,  (Musteromamente), 
7  Corinthian,  Italian  Renascence. 

8.         Corinthian,  French  Renascence',  Tomb  of  Louis  XII,  St.  Denis. 

Plate  134.    The  Pilaster  Capital. 

1.  Corinthian,  Italian  Renascence,  Portal  of  San  Michele,  Venice. 
2 — 3.  Corinthian,   Italian  Renascence,   Palace   of  the  Doges,  Venice. 

4.  Ionic,  French  Renascence,  (Lifevre). 

5.  Wrought-iron,  castle  at  Athis-Mons,  French,  17th  century. 

6.  Wrought-iron,  by  Jean  Berain,  French,  17th  century,  (Raguenet). 

7.  Modem  Doric,  Architects  Kayser  and  v.  Grossheim. 

8.  Modem  Doric,  new  Opera  House,  Paris,  Architect  Gamier. 

9.  Modem  Ionic,  Rue  Dieu,  Paris,  Architect  Sedille. 

10.         Modem  Corinthian,  atelier  of  a  painter,  Paris,  Sculptor  Bloche. 


The  Candelabrum  Foot.     (Plate  135.) 

For  lighting,  the  Candelabrum  played  an  important  part  in  the 
domestic  and  religious  life  of  the  Ancients.  In  the  House,  they 
mostly  employed  slender,  delicate  bronze  Candelebra;  and  for  Religion, 
the  great  State-candelabra  of  marble.  The  Candelabnim,  like  the 
column,   consists   of  three  parts:   the  base,  the  shaft,  and  the  capital. 

To  afford  the  necessary  steadiness,  the  base  of  the  Candelabrum 
is  planned  on  a  comparatively  large  scale,  and  divided  into  three  legs, 
which  stretch-out,  towards  the  points  of  an  equilateral  triangle.  For 
the  foot,  the  claw  of  an  animal,  and  in  particular  the  claw  of  the 
Lion,  is  used.  Not  infrequently  the  claws  rest  on  balls  or  discs 
(Plate  135.  6).  The  transition  to  the  shaft  is  designed  with  a  double 
calix,  the  upper  leaves  of  which  rise  and  encircle  the  shaft,  and  the 
lower  leaves  descend  and  mask  the  junction  of  the  three  legs 
(Plate  135.  1  and  5).  A  delicate  anthemion  may  be  perceived 
between  each  pair  of  feet  on  richer  examples  (Plate  135.  2  and  3). 
In  exceptional  cases  the  leg  appears  to  grow  from  the  mouth  of  an 
animal  (Plate  135.  6).  Occasionally  a  circular,  profiled  and  decorated 
disc  is  used  instead  of  the  double  calyx  and  anthemion.  Sometimes, 
too,  the  shaft  is  prolonged  downwards  beneath  the  disc  in  the  form 
of  a  kuob,  but  does  not  touch  the  ground. 


The  Candelabrum  Base,  &  Shaft.  219 

It  is  obvious  that  the  delicate  forms  and  the  division  into  legs, 
whicQ  was  so  suitable  for  a  material  like  bronze,  could  not  be  trans- 
ferred directly  to  the  construction  in  marble;  but  reminiscences  of  it 
may  be  seen  in  the  retention  of  the  triangular  ground-plan,  the  re- 
duced claws,  the  double  calyx,  &c.     (Plate  135.  8). 

Plate  135.    The  Candelabrum  Base. 

1.  Antique,  bronze,  Museum,  Naples,  (Botticher). 

2.  „  „        (Botticher). 

3.  „  „       Studj  publici,  Florence,  (Weissbach  and  Letter* 
moser). 

4 — 5.  Antique,  bronze.  Museum,  Naples. 

6 — 7.  Legs  from  antique  candelabra:  the   former   found  in  the   ruins 
of  Paestum;  the  other  in  the  Museum,  Naples. 

8.  Roman,  State-candelabrum. 

9.  Renascence  candelabrum,  Collection  of  drawings,  Uffizi,  Florence. 


The  Candelabrum  Shaft.    (Plate  136.) 

The  decoration  of  the  Shaft  of  the  antique  bronze  domestic 
Candelabrum  is  simple;  and  consists  of  flutings  or  channellings,  some- 
times of  naturalistic  buds  and  leaves. 

Far  richer  is  the  ornamentation  of  the  Antique  State-candelab- 
rum. It  is  divided  into  zones  (Plate  136.  2),  or  the  shaft  swells 
and  diminishes  alternately,  giving  a  richer  profile  (Plate  136.  1). 
Smooth  "and  fluted  parts  vnth  contrast  with  foliage  and  figure;  and 
the  ascending  decoration  is  varied  by  trophies  and  festoons.  The 
effect  depends  on  the  propriety  of  the  division.  The  repetition  of 
similar  masses  or  similar  forms  becomes  tedious. 

The  Antique  and  also  the  Renascence,  particularly  in  Italy,  has 
transmitted  to  us  a  number  of  standard  forms  of  Candelabra;  of 
which  a  few  examples  are  reproduced  Plate  186. 

Plate  136.  The  Candelabrum  Shaft. 

1.  Roman,  marble. 

2.  Roman,  marble. 

3.  Antique,  (Botticher). 

4.  Mast -socket,    Piazza   of  S.   Mark,    Venice,    bronze,    Italian   Renas- 
cence. 

5.  Candelabrum- like  foot  of  a  holy  water-stoup,  Pisa  cathedral,  Italian 
Renascence. 

6.  Italian  Renascence,  Badia  near  Florence. 


220 


SUPPORTS. 


Plate  135. 


The  Candelabrum  Base. 


SUPPORTS. 


221 


The  Candelabrum  Shaft. 


Plate  136. 


222  The  Candelabrum  Capital.  —  The  Balauster. 


The  Candelabrum  Capital.    (Plate  137.) 

The  Capital  of  a  Candelabrum  has  a  plate  or  cup -like  form, 
according  as  it  is  destined  to  receive  a  lamp,  or  a  candle.  The  tops 
of  the  Antique  bronze  Candelabra,  as  a  rule,  are  profiled  like  the 
so-called  Krater  (figs.  1 — 5). 

The  profiles,  and  ornamentation  already  given,  may  be  re- 
garded as  standards.  The  insertion  of  real  capitals,  or  of  figures,  as 
bearers  (fig.  6)  is  rarer.  The  marble  Candelabra  of  the  Antique 
usually  terminate  in  a  plate  or  table  (fig.  7);  and  this  is  also  the 
case  with  the  Renascence  Candelabra  intended  to  receive  candles. 
These  were  not  placed  in  a  cylindrical  socket  but  stuck  on  a  co- 
nical pricket. 

On  the  decoration  of  Candelabra  the  reader  may  compare  the 
plates   dealing  with   this  subject  in  Division  III,   (Group  of  Utensils). 

Plate  187.    The  Candelabrum  Capital. 
1 — 6.  Antique,  Museum,  Naples. 

7.  Roman. 

8.  Renascence,  drawing  in  the  Uffizi,  Florence. 


The  Balauster.    (Plate  138.) 

Balausters  are  small  squat  columns  of  circular  or  square  plan- 
Sometimes  they  are  only  symmetrical  around  their  axis,  sometimes 
however  they  are  also  symmetrical  in  an  upward  and  downward  direc- 
tion. In  most  cases  their  construction  is  that  of  the  candelabrum. 
They  may  be  divided  into  base,  shaft,  and  capital. 

Ranged  side -by -side  in  a  row,  balausters  are  employed  by  the 
Renascence  and  modem  art  in  Parapets,  Balconies,  Attics,  and  Stair- 
cases. When  the  Balausters  are  placed  on  a  Stair-case:  the  bases 
and  capitals  are  either  slanting,  or  the •  horizontals  of  the  Balausters 
follow  the  slanting  lines  of  the  stair-case.  The  latter  method  was 
adopted  in  the  Decadence  of  the  Renascence,  but  is  unjustifiable;  and 
can,  in  any  case,  only  be  adopted  with  Balausters  of  a  square  or 
oblong  plan.  A  rich  variety  may  be  obtained  by  the  use  of  square 
and  cylindrical  forms  in  the  same  Balauster  (fig.  5).  The  Balauster 
is  occasionally  used  as  a  support  for  Stalls,  and  on  Furniture.  Ra- 
guenet's  "Documents  et  Materiaux"  contains  a  large  number  of  Ba- 
lausters; from  which  we  have  selected  some  examples. 


SUPPORTS. 


223 


The  Candelabium  Capital. 


Plate  131 


224 


SUPPORTS. 


it 


w 


2. 


Plate  138. 


The  Balauster. 


The  B.ilaiistor.  —  The  Tmniinus.  225 

Plait:  138.    The  Balauster. 

1.  Square     plan,     Italian     Retiascencb,     Sta.    Maria     della     Salute, 
Venice.         ^ 

2.  A  system  of  square  Balaustcrs,  Palazzo  Pesaro,  Venice. 
8.  Circular  plan,   Modern   Italian. 

4.  Wood,    Italian   Renascence,    stalls   in   Sta.  Maria  Novella,   Flo- 
rence. ' 

5.  Modem  French,  Architect  Roux,   Paris. 

6 — 7.  Square  vvooden,  (Bethke:    "Der  decorative  Holzbauer"). 
8 — 9.  Modern,  teiTacotta. 


The  Terminus.     (Plate  139.) 

The  Terminus  is  a  pilaster -like  support,  the  fundamental  form 
of  which  is  characterized  by  tapering  downwards  in  a  manner  re- 
calling an  inverted  Ohelisk.  The  name  is  derived  from  the  fact  that 
similiar  constructions  were  used  in  the  Antique  as  milestones  and  to 
mark  the  Terminations  of  fields,  &.c.  The  Terminus  consists  of  the 
profiled  base,  not  infrequently  supported  on  a  special  pedestal  (figs.  3 
and  7);  the  shaft  tapering  downwards  and  usually  ornamented  with 
festoons  (figs.  3,  4,  5,  10);  and  the  capital,  which  is  often  re- 
placed by  a  bust  or  half- figure  (figs.  4,  5,  9).  In  this  latter 
case,  it  assumes  the  appearance  of  a  caryatid;  and,  as  the  bust  i3 
that  of  Hermes  (the  God  of  letters),  this  application  is  often  termed 
a  "Hermes".  Standing  isolated,  it  serves  as  a  Pedestal  for  busts  and 
lamps,  as  a  Post  for  railings,  and  in  gardens  and  terraces.  The  last 
was  exceedingly  popular  in  the  Rococo  period.  Joined  to  the  wall, 
the  Terminus  often  takes  the  place  of  the  pilaster.  This  is  especially 
true  of  the  furniture  and  small  architectural  constructions  of  the 
Renascence  period.  It  is  also  not  uncommon  on  Utensils,  e.  g.  tri 
pods,  handles  of  pokers,  seals,  &c, 

Plate  139.    The  Terminus. 

1.  Upper    part,    antique,    silver  treasure   of    Hildesheim,    Berlin 
Museum,  (obviously  from  a  Roman   tripod). 

2.  Stone  Terminus  bust,  Italian  Renascence,  Villa  Massimi,  Rome, 
(Raguenet). 

3.  Stone  Terminus  bust,  German  Renascence,  mantel-piece,  town- 
hall,  Liibeck. 

4.  Stone  Terminus  bust,  German  Renascence,  Otto  Heinrich  build- 
ing, Heidelberg  Castle. 

5.  Stone  Terminus  bust,  German  Renascence,  monument,  church, 
of  the  castle,  Pforzheim. 

Meyer.  Hanribook  of  Ornament  'w 


226 


SUrPORTS. 


Plate  139. 


The  TermiuDs. 


The  Terminus.  —  The  Parapet  —  The  Railing  Post.  227 

6 — 8.  Wooden  Terminus,  Renascence. 

9.         Small  Terminus  figure,  German  Renascence,  National  Museum, 
Munich. 
10.         Terminus  with  mask,    modem  chimney-piece,    (Gewerbehalle). 


The  Parapet.    (Plate  140.) 

Besides  the  Parapets  which  are  formed  by  rows  of  balausters, 
there  are  others  which  are  arrangements  of  pierced  or  perforated 
tsone  or  wood,  and  cast  or  wrought  iron.  The  Gothic  style  prefers 
Tracery,  the  Renascence  prefers  Scrolls  for  stone  parapets  (figs.  1 
and  S).  Parapets  of  perforated  wood,  which  are  typical  of  Swiss 
architecture,  are  composed  of  strips  of  boards,  with  shapes  more  or 
less  rich,  care  being  taken  that  the  intervening  spaces  also  form 
pleasing  shapes. 

To  construct  Parapets  in  the  form  of  bi-axial  trellises,  was  &  popular 
custom  of  the  Renaseence;  and  it  has  continued  so  to  the  present 
day.  But  the  function  of  the  supports  is  only  fully  shown  when 
the  pattern  has  an  upward  direction.  This,  however,  does  not  ex- 
clude the  use  of  other  treatments,  e.  g.  panels.  Raguenet  has  nume- 
rous examples. 

Plate  140.    The  Parapet. 

1.  Modern  Gothic,  stone,  Viollet-le-Duc,  (Raguenet). 

2.  Modern   Gothic,    stone,    Viollet-le-Duc,    Castle    of   Pien-efonds, 
(Raguenet). 

3.  Stone,  German  Renascence,  -  Dagobert  tower,  new  Castle,  Baden- 
Baden. 

4—5,  Trellis,  Schinkel,  (Vorb.  f.  Fabr.  u.  Handw). 

6.  Modern    French,     Hotel    Mirabeau,    Paris,    Architect    Magne, 
(Raguenet). 

7.  Trellis,  Barocco,  wi-ought-iron,  French. 


Railing  Post.    (Plate  141.) 

V  staircase   railings,   are   formed  of  rows  of  upright  Posts.     These 

are    of   slender,    delicate    form;    and    take   the    place   of   the  stouter 
balauster. 

The  usual  materials  for  balausters  are  stone,  terracotta,  and 
wood;  the  Railings,  on  the  other  hand,  are  of  metal,  or,  in  their 
simpler   forms,  of  wood.      In  the  last  decades,   cast-iron  was  the  ma- 

15* 


228 


SUPPORTS. 


^V  -JW^-V;' 


^ 


Plate  140. 


The  Parapet. 


SUPPORTS. 


229 


^tl. 


The  Railing  Post. 


Plate  141. 


230  The  Hailing  Post,  —  The  Furniture  Leg. 

terial  most  often  used;  but  lately  a  return  has  been  made  to 
the  more  plastic  wrought  -  iron.  The  ornamentation  depends  on 
the  material  selected.  Wrought  -  i/on  Posts  are  decorated  with 
scrolls  and  tendrils,  while  cast-iron  uprights  are  decorated  in 
bas  -  relief. 

If  the  Eailing-post  has  to  stand  on  a  horizontal  plane,  it  is  ad- 
visable to  construct  the  foot  in  the  manner  -shown  in  figs.  8,  4, 
and  5;  if  it  is  to  be  affixed  to  the  sides  of  the  treads  of  a  staircase, 
arrangements  similar  to  those  in  figs.  2,  7,  and  8,  are  necessary.  Where 
the  upper  end  has  to  support  the  hand-rail,  independent  terminations, 
like  figs.  2  and  5,  may  be  adopted.  Spherical  heads  may  be  applied 
to  all  angles  (fig.  4). 

Plate  141.    The  Railinq  Post. 

1.  Modern  Post,   cast-metal,   Architect  v.  Leins,    Stuttgart,   (Ge- 
werbehalle). 

2.  Modem  Post,  cast-metal,   Architect  v.  Hoven,   Frankfurt,  (Ge- 
werbehalle). 

3.  Modern  Post,  wrought-iron,  (Gewerbehalle). 

4.  „  „      cast-metal. 

5.  „  „      architects  Gropius  and  Schmieden. 

6.  Plain  wooden  Post. 

7  —  8.  Modern  Posts,  cast-metal.  Architect  v.  Hoven,  Frankfurt. 


The  Furniture  Leg.    (Plate  142.) 

The  Legs  of  wood  furniture  may  be  divided  into  two  classes 
according  to  their  height.  Tables  and  chairs  have  high  Legs;  low 
Legs  or  Feet  serve  as  supports  for  all  kinds  of  cabinet  and  box-like 
articles. 

The  general  plan  is  that  of  a  balauster-like  body  of  revolution 
as  turned  on  the  lathe.     Angular  forms,  however,  are  also  used. 

High  Legs  are  frequently  decorated  vnth  carved  ornaments;  low 
Legs  are  usually  left  plain;  and  this  would  seem  to  be  in  accordance 
yfiih  their  character. 

Metal  Feet  are  sometimes  used  for  small  pieces  of  furniture  like 
caskets. 

Where  the  Legs  have  to  stand  on  the  floor:  it  is  advisable  to 
taper  them  downwards  (figs.  5 — 10);  where  they  have  to  stand  on 
raised  platforms  and  seldom  require  to  be  moved:  it  is  better  to 
furnish  them  with  a  pedestal  (fig.  1).  It  has  lately  become  fashion- 
able to  apply  metal  casters  to  pianos,  heavy  chairs,  couches,  &c. 


The  Furniture  Leg.  —  Tlie  Trapezoiihorou.  ~\ 

Plate  142.    Tire  FuiiNncniE  Leo. 

1.  Motlom. 

2.  Moilorn. 

3.  Moilern. 

4.  Modern. 

5  — 10.  Various  old  designs. 

The  TRAPEZopnoRON.     (Plates  143 — 144.) 

"Trapezophoron"  is  tho  name  given  to  the  support  of  the  Antique 
table.  Tlioy  were  usually  of  marble,  the  top  itself  was  of  wood  or 
stone,  sometimes  ornamented   mth   mosaic. 

We  may  distin;^uish  two  principal  classes  of  Antique  tables:  the 
circular  table  with  three  legs  (compare  Plate  143.  1);  and  the  oblong 
table,  resting  on  two  end -supports  (compare  143.  2  and  144.  6). 
The  lower  part,  of  the  support  of  the  round  table,  consists  of  a  great 
leg  which  generally  passes  into  a  foliated  calyx  with  a  small  head  of 
a  lion,  lynx,  panther,  or  other  animal  growing  out  of  it  (143.  5 — 10). 
The  heads  are  sometimes  human  (144.  5)  or  human  half-figures,  such 
as  the  genius  bearing  a  bowl  on  Plate  144.  2 — 3.  In  the  early 
period  of  Antique  art  we  find  forms  of  more  architectonic  character 
like  Plate  144,  fig  1.  The  end-support  for  the  oblong  table  is  a 
symmetrical  duplication  of  the  motive  of  the  single  leg  already  men- 
tioned, with  the  addition  of  wings,  and  with  the  space  between  the 
animal  forms  filled  either  by  figures  or  ornaments  (Plate  143.  2 — 4 
and  144.  6).  Very  striking  in  both  classes  of  support  is  the  differ- 
ence in  scale  of  the  various  elements  (a  phenomenon  which  also 
appears  elsewhere  in  Roman  art). 

On  Antique  table-legs  the  reader  may  also  consult  Division  III, 
(Furniture). 

Plate  143.    The  Trapezophoron. 

1.  Three-legged    table,    Roman,    Legs    of   marble,    table -top   of 

mosaic. 

2 — 3.  Front  and  side  view  of  the  Support  of  a  Roman  table,  found 
in  the  atrium  of  the  house  of  Cornelius  Rufus  in  Pompeii, 
(Fragments  de  I'architecture). 

4.  Support  of  antique  table. 

5 — 6.  Marble  support  of  Roman  table,  Lynx  head  and  claw,  Museum, 
Naples. 

7 — 8.  Marble  support  of  Roman  table,  Panther  head  and  claw,  Bri- 
tish Museum. 

9 — 10.  Marble  support  of  Roman  table,  Lion  head  and  elaw,  Vatican, 
Rome. 


232 


SUPPOETS. 


Plate  142 


The  Furniture  Leg 


SUPPORTS. 


233 


The  Trapezophoron. 


Plate  143. 


234 


SUPPORTS. 


Plftto  144. 


The  Trapezophoron. 


The  Trapezophoron.  —  The  Console.  235 

Pi^TE  144.    The  Trapezophoron, 

1.  Marble  support  of  antique  table,  Museum,  Naples  (judging  Irom 

the  symbolism  of  the  ornamentation,  the  leg  is  probably  from 

a  table  sacred  to  Zeus),  (L'art  pour  tous). 
2 — 3.  Front  and   side  view  of  a   small  Roman  table-support,  marble, 

Naples  Museum,   Panther  claw,  Eros  garbed  with  the  nebris. 

4.  Roman  table-support,  marble,  British  Museum. 

5.  „  „  „     ,    Head  of  Hercules  and  lion  claw, 
Vatican. 

6.  Antique  Support,  marble,  (Vulliamy). 


The  Console.     (Plates  145—147.) 

The  form  of  the  Console  is  extremely  varied;  as  are  its  uses 
and  applications.  It  is  determined  by  the  function,  and  the  material 
of  which  it  is  made,  as  well  as  by  the  style  of  the  period. 

Architectural  members  of  the  character  of  Consoles  are  early 
found  in  the  Chinese  and  Indian,  as  also  in  the  Assyrian  stylo;  but 
in  the  Egyptian  style  they  are  wanting. 

Volute  Consoles,  very  beautifully  developed,  ^re  found  sporadi- 
cally in  the  Greek  style;  but  the  Roman  style  was  the  first  to  make 
an  extensive  use  of  these  forms. 

The  decorated  ends  of  Beams  are  probably  to  be  regarded  as 
the  original  model  for  Consoles.  The  S-shaped  double  volute,  with  » 
large  and  a  small  spiral,  is  the  standard  form.  In  this  Console,  the 
line  of  construction  and  the  space  for  the  actual  decoration  are  given 
in  the  side-view,  while  the  front,  which  is  subordinate,  is  ornamented 
by  scale  motives,  and  leaves,  which  adapt  themselves  in  graceful  curves 
to  the  standard  forms. 

When  the  Console  is  used  in  the  Console-band  of  a  Cornice,  or 
as  the  bracket  of- a  Balcony,  its  attitude  is  recumbent.  When  it  sup- 
ports the  Cornices  of  doors  and  windows,  its  attitude  is  erect.  Mo 
other  application  is  known  in  the  Antique.  A  beautiful  example 
occurs  on  the  North  door  of  the  Erechtbeum  at  Athens  (Plate  145. 
1 — 2).  Some  examples  of  recumbent  Consoles,  of  Roman  style,  are 
given  in  figs.  3 — 8,  of  the  same  plate.  The  example  3 — 4,  of  the 
Late  Roman  epoch,  shows  decorative  accessories  of  Swans.  The  bend 
of  the  curve  of  the  volute  here  departs  from  the  normal  example, 
and  approaches  a  more  convex  curve,  which  is  demanded  by  the  static 
calculation  for  these  supports. 

The  Early'  Christian  and  Romanesque  art  adopted  coarse  copies 
of  the  Antique,  and  also  created  new  ones  suited  to  the  new  require- 
ments. Thus  early,  we  find  those  modillion  forms  which  become 
ty])ica1    for  the  wooden  architecture  of  the   Middle   ages,   being  chiefly 


236  The  Console. 

used  beneath  mouldings,  and  in  corners  of  doors  between  the  jambs 
and  the  lintel.  The  example  on  Plate  146.  11  may  be  taken  as 
representative  of  this  kind  of  support.  Another  class  of  Supports 
exhibits  a  central  core',  tapered  downwards,  like  Pendants  with  a 
polygonal  or  round  plan  (Plate  147.  1  and  2).  This  latter  form  is 
also  used  in  Gothic  art  as  a  Bracket  for  the  Statues  of  the  saints, 
which  were  applied  to  piers  and  the  arches  of  portals. 

The  Renascense  remodels  the  last-named  console  in  its  own  way, 
but  recurs  by  preference  to  the  Antique  form  (Plate  146.  3),  some- 
times reversing  the  volutes  (Plate  146.  1 — 2),  and  giving  the  front 
a  richer  and  more  independent  ornamentation  (Plate  146.  6).  The 
combination  of  several  smaller  consoles  to  form  a  Composite  -  con- 
sole, is  shown  on  Plate  146.  fig.  5.  Just  as  the  Pendant-consoles 
of  the  Gothic  style  imitate  the  calyx  capital,  so  too  does  the  Rena- 
scense remodel  the  Doric,  Ionic,  and  Corinthian  capitals  for  Consoles 
(Plate  147.  4 — 6).  In  wood  architecture,  we  meet  with  Consoles 
which  have  the  form  of  richly-decorated  struts  (Plate  146.  4). 

The  Barocco  style,  which  followed  the  Renascence,  also  made 
essential  additions  to  the  richness  of  the  forms.  The  strict  line  of 
the  volute  is  abandoned  and  frequently  broken  by  straight  lines 
(Plate  146.  7 — 10).  The  Console  is  shaped  in  front- view  like  a  pen- 
dant Triangle,  or  typographical  Tail-piece  (Plate  147.  3  and  8).  An- 
other invention  of  this  period  is  the  Triglyph-console  (Plate  147.  7). 

The  Rococo  period  abandons  the  traditional  standards,  and  sacri- 
fices construction  to  picturesque  license.  Shell-work,  and  unsymme- 
trical  scrolls,  serve  as  supports. 

Modem  art  recasts  the  elements  of  former  styles,  without  adding 
anything  essentially  new,  imless  we  regard  as  a  novelty  the  custom 
of  placing  busts,  clocks,  and  knicknacks,  on  independent  Consoles 
which  are  used  as  Brackets. 

Finally:  we  may  mention  that  in  almost  every  style.  Consoles  in 
the  various  forms  have  been  used  as  the  Keystones  of  door  and 
window  lintels,  in  which  case  they  are,  generally  speaking,  not 
Supports,  as  they  have  nothing  to  support. 

It  should  be  considered  inadmissible  to  apply  distorted  Consoles  i.  e. 
those  which  have  vertical  sides  though  they  are  on  the  raking  sofits 
of  pediments,  as  was  done  in  the  Late  Roman  period,  and  in  imitation 
thereof  by  the  Renascence  in  some  examples. 

Examples,  of  all  periods,  will  be  found  in  Raguenet's  work;  and 
an  exhaustive  essay  on  the  Console  by  Dr.  P.  F.  Ejrell  in  the  Ge- 
werbehalle,  1870,  No.  10. 

PiATE  145.    The  Coksole. 
1 — 2.  Front  and  side  view,  Greek,  North  door,  Erechtheum,  Athens. 
8 — 4.  Front  and  side  view,  Roman,  Vatican. 


SUPPORTS. 


237 


KWI^jTi      xaii'SSS^Z)g 


"^IMiJALLLLL 


Tt'.-?  CoDsole. 


Plate  145. 


238 


SUPPORTS. 


10 


Plate   146. 


The  Console. 


SUPPORTS. 


2:^9 


The  Console. 


Plate  147. 


240 


SUPPOKlS. 


Plate  J48. 


The  Bracket. 


The  Console.  —  The  Bracket.  241 

5 — 6.  Roman,  Front  and  side  view,  temple  of  Jupiter  Stator,  Borne 

Vatican. 
7 — 8.  Roman,  Front  and  side  view,  Vatican. 

Pjlate  146.    The  Console. 

1 — 2.-    Renascence,  Side  views,  Vatican. 

3.  Renascence,  Hotel  d  Assezat,  Toulouse,  (Raguenet). 

4.  Renascence,  Wooden,  French,  Hotel  d'Assezet,  Toulouse,  (Ra- 
guenet). 

5.  Renascence,  Istrian  limestone,  Venetian,  Hamburg,  Museum. 

6.  Renascence,  Marble,   Italian,  Sta.  Maria  de'  Miracoli,   Venice, 
(Gropius). 

7 — 8.     Modem,  French,  Architect  Roux,  Paris. 

9 — !"•  ))  ))  ?»  1)  n 

11.         Mediaeval,  church,  Athis,  France. 

Plate  147     The  Console. 

1.  Romanesque,  Noyon  catliodral,  12th  century,  (Raguenet). 

2.  Gothic,  St.  Pierre  sous  Vez^lay,  (Gewerbehalle). 

3.  Renascence,  French,  castle,  Blois. 

4. — 5.  Renascence,  German,  new  Castle,  Baden-Baden,  (Gmelin). 

6.  Renascence,  German,  Heidelberg  castle. 

7.  Renascence,  Triglyph-console,  Late  French. 

8.  Modem,  French,  library,  Louvre,  Architect  Lefuol,  (Raguenet), 

9.  Modem,  French,  (Raguenet). 

10.  Modern,  French,  New  casino,  Lyons,  Architect  Porte,  (Raguenet). 


The  Bracket.     (Plate  148.) 

A 'special  class  of  Supports  is  formed  by  those  wrought-iron 
bearers  which  the  Middle  Ages,  the  Renascence,  and  Modern  times, 
have  produced  in  the  shape  of  Brackets.  The  uses  of  Brackets  are 
very  various,  e.  g.  in  supportmg  Shop-signs,  Conduit-pipes,  Gargoyles, 
Candles,  Lamps,  Hats,  Coats,  &c. 

In    form,    they    vary  with    the  style  and  richness    of  the    work 
manship.     Square,  flat  and  round   iron,   enriched  by  chasing  and  other 
methods  of  decoration,  are  used.     They  are  frequently  fastened  to  the 
wall  by  the  aid  of  nbbon  bko  strips  of  metal,  which  may  themselves 
be  decorated  with  scrolls  and  curls. 

The  plato  shows  a  number  of  such  supports,  of  ancient  and  mo- 
dem date,  destined  for  a.  variety  of  purposes. 

Mpyar,   TTcndbooV  of  Ornament  '" 


242  The  Bracket.  —  The  Caryatid,  and  the  Atlanta. 

Plate  148.    The  Bracket. 

1 — 2.  Part  of  Reading-desk,   S.  Benedetto,   near  Mantua,  Italian  Ee- 
nascence,  (Gewerbehalle). 

8.         Wrought-iron,  Sign,  Eegensbuig,  German  Renascence,  (Music r- 
omamente). 

4.         Wrought-iron  bearer  of  conduit-pipe,  Kloster  Lichtenthal  near 
Baden,  German  Renascence,  (Gmelin). 

6.         Wrought-iron  bearer  of  water-stoup,  sepulchral  cross  in  ceme- 
tery, Kirchzarten,  German  Renascence,  (Schauinsland). 

g — 7.  Wrought-iron  supports,  for  Gargoyles,  German  Renascence. 

8.  Wrought-iron,  Sign,  Modern,  Architect  Crecelius,  Mainz. 

9.  Modern  wrought-iron  bracket,  (Badische  Gewerbezeitung). 

The  Caryatid,  and  the  Atlante.    (Plates  149  and  150.) 

The  freest  and  tbe  richest  motive  for  supports,  is  the  Human 
figure.  As  early  as  Egyptian  and  Persian  architecture,  we  find  human 
ficrures  as  bearers  of  beams  and  roofs. 

The  Greek  and  Roman  styles  also  make  use  of  this  motive.  The 
modem  names  for  such  supports  are  derived  from  the  Antique.  Accord- 
in  o-  to  Greek  mythology.  Atlas  supports  the  vault  of  heaven  at  the 
ends  of  the  earth.  Hence  is  derived  the  name  "Atlantes"  for  these 
male  supporters.  They  are  also  sometimes  termed  "Telamons".  The 
name  "Caryatids",  for  female  supporting  figures,  is  derived  from  the 
town  of  CarysB  in  the  Peloponnesus.  According  to  another  version  the 
Caryatids  are  imitations  of  the  virgins  who  danced  in  the  temple  at 
Caryae  at  the  feast  of  Diana.  According  to  Vitruvius,  their  intro- 
duction into  architecture  is  owing  to  the  fact  that  ladies  of  Caryae, 
as  a  punishment  for  the  support  they  rendered  to  the  Persians,  were 
carried  into  captivity  and  compelled  to  serve  as  carriers  of  burdens. 
The  Caryatids  are  termed  "Canephorse"  (basket  bearers),  when  capitnls 
in  shape  like  a  basket  are  interposed  between  their  heads  and  the 
superincumbent  burden.  Among  well-known  examples  in  the  Antique 
are  the  Atlantes  in  the  temple  of  Jupiter  at  Agrigentum,  and  the 
Caryatids  of  the  Erechtheum  at  Athens. 

The  Middle  Ages  made  little  use  of  Atlantes  and  Caryatids;  the 
Renascence  and  the  following  stylos,  en  the  contrary,  used  them  freely. 

Atlantes  and  Caryatids  occur  isolated,  and  connected  with  walls; 
and  in  both  high  and  bas-relief  Sometimes  the  whole  length  of  the 
figure  is  employed,  sometimes  only  the  upper  half  in  conjunction  with 
a  Console  (Plate  149.  4 — 7),  or  with  terminus-like  bases  (Plate  150. 
4 — 5).  Composite  bearers  in  the  form  of  double  Caryatids  are  also 
a  popular  motive,  as  shown  by  the  example  on  Plate  150,  from  the 
Louvre  at  Paris. 


SUPPORTS. 


243 


The  Caryatid,  the  Atlante,  &c. 


Plate  149. 
16* 


244 


SUPPORTS. 


Plate  150. 


The  Caryatid,  &c. 


The  Caryatid,  the  Atlante,  &c. 


245 


Plate  149.    The  Caryattd,  the  Atlakte,  &c. 

1.  Greek  Caryatid,  Erechthemn,  Athens,  (\^orbilder  fur  Pabrikanten 
und  Handwerker). 

2.  Antique  Caryatid,   Villa  Mattei,    after  Piranesi,    (Vorbilder  fiir 
Pabrikanten  und  Handwerker). 

8  Modem  Prench  Atlante,    house   in  Paris,  Sculptor  Caille,  (Ea- 

guenet). 
4 — 7    Modem,  Pront  and  side  views  of  Half- figure  Consoles,   Ziegler 

and  Weber,  Carlsruhe. 

Plate  150.    The  Cabyattd,  &c. 

1.  Modem,  Double  Caryatid,  Louvre,  Paris,  (Baldus). 

2 — 3    Modem,    Caryatids,    Conservatoire    des    arts    et   metiers,    Paris. 

Sculptor  E.  Eobert,  (Raguenet). 
4  —  5.  Modem,  Caryatids,  Director  C.  Hammer,  Nuremberg. 
6 — 7.  Modem,  Caryatids,  Director  C.  Hammer,  Nuremberg. 


1?^^ 


D. 

ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 

(PANELS.) 

That  Method  of  treatment,  which  has  for  its  object  to  decorate 
a  plane  surface,  and  to  cover  it  with  ornament,  &c.,  by  means  of 
painting,  inlaying,  engraving,  etching,  &c.,  we  term  flat  decoration. 

This  falls  into  two  classes.  Firstly  the  ornament  may  be  de- 
signed for  a  definite,  bounded  space,  such  as  an  oblong,  according  to 
artistic  rules,  so  that  it  fits  exactly  intp  this  space  alone:  in  which 
case  it  is  a  discontinuous  or  "Panel"  ornament  Or,  secondly,  the 
ornament  may  extend  itself  in  every  direction,  repeating  its  details 
without  regard  to  any  definite  boundary:  in  which  case  it  is  a  con- 
tinuoTis  or  "Diaper"  ornament,  such  as  a  wall-paper. 

Turning  our  attention  first  to  discontinuous  or  ranel-omament: 
we  shall  find,  in  addition  to  objects  whose  boundaries  are  arbitrary 
and  to  be  fixed  at  will,  that  we  have  principally  to  consider  the 
following  shapes:  the  Square,  the  other  regular  polygons,  the  Circle, 
the  Oblong,  the  Ellipse,  the  Lunette,  the  various  forms  of  the  Span- 
rail,  the  Lozenge  and  the  Triangle. 

Geometrical,  natural,  and  artificial  elements,  either  singly  or 
combined,  are  used.  The  character  of  the  ornament  may  be  Natura 
listJc,  or  it  may  be  Artificial,  and  adapted  to  some  pre-arranged 
leading-lines  of  the  Shape.  This  booli  does  not  treat  of  examples  of 
the  former  character.  TTjoso  of  the  latter  character,  i.  e.  Artificial 
oinaroent,  will  doi^end  on  the  attitude  of  the  Panel  with  regard  to 
the  Horizon. 


Enclosed  Ornament.  —  The  Square  Panel.  247 

WEen  the  panel  is  inon-axial,  i.  e,  it  is  symmetrical  on  both 
sides  of  one  axis:  then  the  panel-ornament  is  suitable  to  a  vertical 
surface.  When  it  is  developed  regularly  in  all  directions  from 
the  centre  of  the  figure,  and  is  symmetrical  to  two  or  more 
axes:  then  the  panel-ornament  is  suitable  to  a  horizontal  surface.  The 
central  feature  of  a  horizontal  panel  is  not  infrequently  emphasized 
by  a  rosette  ornament,  while  the  decoration  of  the  remaining  surface 
is  kept  in  low-relief.  Trifling  variations,  from  absolute  symmetry 
and  regularity,  are  often  met-with;  but  they  are  confined  to  the 
details,  the  impression  of  symmetry  and  regularity  being  preserved 
in  the  general  efi"ect. 

These  remarks,  as  well  as  some  further  relations  arising  out  of 
the  nature  of  the  subject,  we  now  proceed  to  illustrate  in  detail  in 
the  following  chapters  and  plates.  For  the  most  part  we  shall  con- 
fine ourselves  to  the  best  known  and  most  frequent  figures;  and 
shall  only  offer  some  few  examples  of  abnormal  panels. 


The  Square  Panel.    (Plates  151 — 155.) 

The  lines,  on  which  the  decoration  of  the  Square  may  naturally 
be  based,  are  the  two  Diagonals,  and  the  two  Diameters  which  join 
the  centre  of  the  opposite  sides.  These  lines  cut  each -other  in  a 
common  point,  the  centre  of  the  shape;  and  form  an  eight-rayed  star 
with  rays  of  alternately  unequal  lengths.  They  divide  the  figure 
into  8  equal  spaces,  which  are  usually  decorated  with  repeated  orna- 
ment, and  are  therefore  suitable  to  the  horizontal  attitude,  (compare 
Plate  151,  figs.  2 — 6  and  others).  Nvunerically  this  mode  of  deco- 
ration is  predominant.  Earer  are  the  cases  in  which  the  angle  is 
once  more  bisected  and  the  square  consequently  divided  into  16  tri- 
angles, (compare  Plate  154,  fig.  7).  The  simplest  decoration  is  the 
many-rayed  star,  which  is  termed  the  Uraniscus,  in  the  coffers  oi 
Greek  ceilings  (comp.  Plate  151,  fig.  1).  The  centre  of  the  figure  is 
generally  accentuated  by  the  addition  of  a  rosette,  and  the  direction 
of  growth,  like  plant-motives,  is  from  the  centre  outwards  (Plate  151, 
fig.  2,  8,  5,  6  and  others);  or  alternately  from  the  centre  outwards 
and  inwards  (comp.  Plate  151.  4).  Slight  variations  from  strict 
symmetry  and  regularity  are  partly  caused  by  the  use  of  the  geo- 
metrical interlaced  band  (Plate  153.  3  and  4),  and  are  partly  the 
deliberate  result  of  artistic  freedom  of  conception  (Plate  152.  2.  and 
151.  7).  The  latter  example  is  highly  remarkable  in  this  respect; 
and  its  originality  may  serve  as  a  model.  The  example  is  also  one 
of  the  rare  cases  in  .which  the  ornamentation  is  symmetrical  to  the 
Diagonals,  and  not  to  the  Diameters. 


248  The  Square  Panel. 

Another  kind  of  Square  decoration  is  that  in  which  it  is  sub- 
divided into  separate  spaces,  each  of  which  receives  an  independent 
ornamentation.  Plates  9  and  10  of  the  Handbook  give  a  number  of 
such  divisions  of  Squares;  a  similar  mode  of  decoration  will  be 
found  on  Plate  151,  fig.  8,  Plate  153,  figs.  6  and  7,  and  elsewhere. 
The  decoration  of  the  Square  in  an  upright  attitude,  with  symmetry 
to  one  axis,  belongs  to  the  same  category  as  the  Oblong;  and  we 
may  therefore  refer  to  what  will  be  said  below  with  reference  to 
this  latter  figure. 

Square  panel  are  to  be  found  in  all  styles;  we  have  taken  some 
striking  examples  from  the  coffer  -  ceilings  of  the  Antique  and  the 
Renascence,  from  the  pavement-tiles  of  the  Middle  Ages,  and  from 
the  metal-work  of  the  Eenascence  and  Modern  times. 

Plate  151.    The  Square  Panel. 

1.  Greek,  Uraniscus,   coffer  of  ceiling,  Propylaea,  Athens. 

2.  Roman,  bas-relief,  found  during  the  rectification   of   the   Tiber 
near  the  Farnesiua,  Rome,  in  1879,  Museo  Tiberino. 

3.  Assyrian  pavement,  Kouyunjik,  (Owen  Jones). 
4' — 5.  Greek,  Coffers  of  ceilings,  Propylaea,  Athens. 

6.  „  „        „        „       ,  Athens. 

7.  „  „        „        „       ,  Parthenon. 

3.  Roman,  mosaic  pavement,  Pompeii,  (Owen  Jones). 

9.  Byzantine,  bas-relief,  San  Marco,  Venice,  (Owen  Jones). 

Plate  152.    The  Square  Panel 

1.  Decoration,  of  a  book,  10th  century,  Library  of  the  Duke  of 
Devonshire,  (Racinet). 

2.  Scandinavian  bas-relief,  Celtic  stone  cross,  churchyard,  Meigle, 
Angus,  (Owen  Jones). 

3.  Bas-relief,    tomb    of   "Pierre    Is   Venerable",    Cluny    museum, 
r2th  century,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

4 — 7  Mediaeval,  tiles,  (Owen  Jones,  Racinet  &c.). 

8.  Tiles,  Cistercian  monastery,  Bebenhausen. 

9.  Moorish  Tiles. 

10.  Gothic,  tiles,  Bloxham  church,  England,  15th  century. 

Plate  153.    The  Square  Panel. 

lands.  Inlaid    work,    14th    or    15th    century,     Sauvageot    collection, 

(Racinet). 
2.  Arabian  mosaic,  (Prisse  d' Avenues). 

4.  Moorish,  Alhambra,  14  th  century. 

6.  Arabian,   wood    door,    16th   century,    (L'art    pour  tous). 


The  Square  Panel.  —  The  Star-shape  Panel.  249 

6.  Eenascence,  Intarsia,  German  (Hirth,  Formenschatz). 

7.  Modern. 

8  —  9.    Renascence,    Intarsia,    Sta.   Maria    gloriosa   ai  Frari,    Venice, 
15th  century,  (Musterornamente). 

Plate  154.    The  Square  Panel. 

1.  Renascence,  Motive  from  a  Robe  in  the   Sacristy,   Sta.  Croce, 
Florence,  Italian. 

2.  Renascence,  Tiles,   Collection  of  the  Count  d'Yvon,   (Racinet). 

3.  Renascence,  Motive  after  Peter  Flotner,  German. 

4.  Renascence,   Mosaic    flooring,    cathedral,    Spoleto,  (Jacobsthal; 
the  centre  altered). 

5.  Renascence,  Intarsia,  stalls,  Certosa  near  Pavia,  Italian. 

6.  Renascence,  Majolica  Tiles,  Sta.  Caterina,  Siena,  Italian. 

7.  Renascence,  Intarsia,  door  of  the  Cambio,  Perugia,  by  Antonio 
MercateUo,  1500,  Italian. 

8 — 10.  Renascence,  Door  of  the  Madonna  di  Galliera,  Bologna,  Italian, 
(Musteromamente). 

Plate  155.    The  Squaee  Panel, 

1  and  3.  Wrought-iron,  French,  17th  century,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

2  and  4.  Wrought-iron,  German  Renascence,  (Hirth,  Formenschatz). 
5.  Wrought-iron,  Oxford,  1713,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

6 — 7        Wrought-iron,  Modem. 

8  and  iO.  Wrought-iron,  Modern,  cemetery,  Carlsruhe. 

9.  Wrought-iron,  by  Georg  Klain,  Salzburg,  17th  century. 


The  Star -Shape  Panel.    (Plate  156.) 

The  decoration  of  polygonal  Stars  is  generally  based  on  radiat- 
ing axes.  Exceptions,  in  favor  of  symmetry  to  one  or  two  axes,  are 
comparatively  scarce  (fig.  3). 

Where  there  is  no  Sub-division  into  independent  panels,  accord- 
ing to  Plates  11  and  12  of  the  Handbook  (fig.  7):  the  ornament 
follows  the  natural  lines  of  division  furnished  by  the  diagonals,  in 
this  case  the  number  of  the  single,  similar  triangles  of  division 
depends  on  the  number  of  sides  (fig.  6). 

Decorated  Star-shaped  panels  are  extremely  common  in  the  Arabian 
and  Moorish  styles,  where  the  ornament  is  often  of  such  a  character 
that  it  would  very  well  suit  a  simple  polygon,  and  only  fills  out 
accidentally  (so  to  speak)  the  star  angles  (figs.  4,  and  5). 


250 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


Plate  151. 


The  Square  Panel. 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


251 


The  Square  Panel. 


Plate  152. 


252 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


pi 

.^ 

1 

X 

-e- 


i 


/ 


V 


X 


Plate  153- 


The  Square  Panel. 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


253 


The  Square  Panel. 


Plate  154. 


254 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


^&% 

^^©1 

^^^J 

X3^ 

Wm. 

S 

i 

3. 


s 

A 

«» 

f^^^M 

^IAJ^^^w^ 

!^^^M 

^^^y" 

(^^^^^  ] 

^^^^^ 

^^ 

^x 

r 

\ 

/ 

N 

5. 


^ 

3    /\^ 

^ 

^\ 

Plate  155. 


The  Square  Panel. 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


255 


The  Star-shape  Panel. 


Plate  156. 


256  The  Star-shape  Panel.  —  The  Circular  Panel 

Plate  156.    The  Stae-shape  Panel. 

1.  Mural  painting,  S.  Francesco,  Assisi,  (Hessemer). 

2.  Decoration   of  Arabic  koran,    17th  centory,   (Prisse  d'Avennes). 
8.         Arabian  architecture,  (Prisse  d'Avennes). 

4. — 5.  Arabian  ceiling  paintings,  (Prisse  d'Avennes). 
6.         Etched  ornament,  armour,  National  Museum,  Munich,  16th  cen- 
tury, (Gewerbehalle). 
7 — 8.  Arabian  ceiling  paintings,  18th  century,  (Prisse  d'Avennes). 


The  Circular  Panel.    (Plates  157—160.) 

The  Circle  may  be  regarded  as  a  polygon  of  an  infinite  number 
of  sides.  As  it  is  impossible  to  take  this  infinite  number  into  account, 
it  is  usual,  when  working  on  radial  axes  to  divide  the  Circle  into 
3,  4,  5,  6,  8,  10,  12,  or  16,  similar  parts,  as  indicated  in  the 
figures. 

Another  principle  of  frequent  application  is  that  of  division  into 
Zones;  each  ring-like  band  hieing  ornamented  independently.  This 
principle  predominates  in  the  so-called  archaic  styles,  e.  g.  on  Etruscan 
and  Assyrian  shields  (Plate  157.  2,  4,  and  5).  This  principle  is  ex- 
cellently adapted  to  the  decoration  of  dishes  and  plates,  the  profiling 
of  which  naturally  points  to  a  zonal  division-  The  centre  of  the 
Circle,  which  is  sometimes  decorated  by  a  rosette,  may  also  be  filled 
by  some  feature  which  is  symmetrical  to  one  axis  or  is  unsym- 
metrical  (Plate  157.  4).  The  latter  mode  of  decoration  has  also  been 
adopted,  although  in  comparatively  rarer  cases,  for  the  decoration  of 
the  Circle  as  a  whole. 

Geometrical  sub-division  of  the  circle,  by  the  insertion  of  poly- 
gons, or  arcs,  is  common,  not  only  in  Gothic  tracery,  which  is  specially 
dependent  on  these  processes,  but  in  every  other  style  (comp.  the 
tracery  panels  7  and  8  on  Plate  158,  and  the  niello  ornaments  7 
and  8  on  Plate  159).  In  many  cases,  the  circular  panel  is  decorated 
by  an  ornament  which  is  merely  an  enlarged  Rosette  or  Cieling- 
flower,  so  that  no  clear  line  can  be  drawn  between  the  two  classes, 
(compare  what  ias  been  said  of  the  Rosette  on  p.  191). 

Plate  157.    The  Cieculaii  Panel. 

1.  Assyrian,  pavement,  Nimrud,  (Owen  Jones). 

2.  Assyrian  shield,  Khorsabad,  (Owen  Jones). 

8.  Old  Prankish  panel,  Sacramentarium,  Rheims. 

4 — 5.  Greek,  paintings  on  Vases,  (Lau). 


The  Circular  Panel.  257 

(5.  Celtic    stone    cross,     Churchyaid ,    St.   Vigeans,    Angus,    (Owen 

Jones). 
7^8.   Paintings  on  Greek,  Vases,  (Lau). 

Plate  158     The  Cfrcul/VK  Pa^-ei,. 

1.  Romanesque,   manuscript,   12th  century,  (Kacinet). 

2.  Modern,     Early    Gothic,    (Ungewitter,     Stadt-    und    Land 
kirchen). 

3.  Byzantine,  Sta.  Sofia,  Constantinople,  6th  centuiy. 

4.  Mediaeval  stone  slab,  1 4th  century,  Museum,  Rouen,  (Racinec). 

5.  Ditto,  Laon  cathedral,  (Racinet). 

6.  Ditto,  WTOught-iron  key-handle. 

7  Gothic  Boss,   16th  century,  St.  Benoit,  Paris,  (Racinet). 

8  Gothic,  old  cabinet.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

9  ami  1 1     Gothic,  Chip-carving,  old  cabinet,  (Gewerbehalle). 

10.  Mediaeval  glass -painting,  Soissons  cathedral,  (Racinet), 

Plate  159     The  Circular  Panel. 

1.  Arabian     flat     ornament.      Mosque     Kaonam-ed-din,      (Prisse 

d'Avennes). 
;  2.  Romanesque,  minster,  Basel 

3  Arabian  bas  relief,  door,  Cairo,  14th  century,  (Prisse  d'Avennes). 

4.  As  No    1 

5.  Arabian  bas-relief,   16th  century,  (L'art  pour  tous) 

G.  Arabian,  Sunk  decoration,  metal   plaque,  (Prisse  d'Avennes). 

7  —  8  Niello,   Baltasar  Silvius,   16th   century,  (Ysendyck). 

9  Marble  mosaic,  floor,  S.  Vitale,  Ravenna,  (Hessemer). 

10  Romanesque,  portal,  S.  Laurence,  Segovia,   12th  century. 

11.  Arabian,  Decoration  of  koran,  16th  century,  (Prisse  d'Avennes). 

Plate  IGO     Toe  Circular  Panel. 

1  Renascence,    Bas    relief,    Vendramini    tomb,    SS.    Giovanni    e 
Paolo,  Venice,  Italian,  (Meurer). 

2  and  4     Renascence,  Majolica  Tiles,  Sta.  Caterina,  Siena,  Italian. 

3.  Renascence,  Wrought  iron  panel,  San  Salvator,  Prague,  German, 

(Gewerbehalle). 

5.  Renascence,  Church,  Kamenz,  German,  (Gewerbehalle). 

6.  Renascence,  Peter  Flotner,  German. 

7.  Modern,   Centre    of  a  Silver  plaqtie,  by  Ihne  and  Stegmiiller 
of  Berlin,  (Gewerbehalle). 

8.  Modern,    ceiling    of   staircase,    villa   Croissy,    Seine    et    Oise, 
French,  (Cesar  Daly). 

Meyer,  Handbook  of  OrDameDt.  .  '^ 


258 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


Plate  157. 


The  Circular  Panel. 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


259 


The  Circular  Panel. 


Plate  158. 
17*. 


2G0 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


riate  159. 


The  Circul  Panel. 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


261 


The  Circular  Panel. 


Plate  160. 


262  The  Oblong  Panel. 

The  Oblong  Panel.     (Plates  161  —  164.) 

The  sliape  of  the  Oblong  is  particnlarljr  adapted  to  receive  both 
a  bi-axial  and  a  mon-axial  treatment;  and  as  it  is  by  far  the  most  fre- 
laently-used  shape:  numerous  examples  of  the  two  treatments  are  to 
be  found  in  all  styles. 

"When  the  Oblong  is  not  sub-divided  (as  shown  on  Plates  13  to 
IC),  the  natural  axes,  around  .which  the  ornament  is  grouped  are, 
for  the  bi-axial  treatment,  the  two  diameters,  which  join  the  centres 
of  the  opposite  sides.  These  lines  divide  the  figure  into  4  smaller 
oblongs,  each  of  which  receives  an  identical  decoration  (com p. 
Plate  161,  figs.  1—3,  and  Plate  162,  figs.  1—5).  To  use  the 
diagonals  as  lines  of  symmetry,  as  is  the  rule  with  the  square,  pro- 
duces an  unfavourable  effect;  because  the  8  triangles  thus  formed, 
although  similar  to  each  other,  do  not  present  the  same  angle  to  the 
centre  (corap.  Plate  161.  4).  This  panel  differs  from  the  usual  rule, 
as  the  orgfiaic  growth  of  the  ornament  is  not  from  the  centre  out- 
wards, but  from  the  4  angles  inwards. 

The  strict  Greek  palmette  ornamentation,  which  has  such  nn 
excellent  effect  in  the  Square,  is  less  suitable  for  the  Oblong  (Plate 
161,  figs.  1  and  2)  than  the  fi'eer  decorations  of  the  Roman  period 
(Plate  161.  3)  and  the  Renascence  (Plate  162.   1—5). 

On  vertical  surfaces:  the  attitude  of  the  Oblong  panel  may  be 
either  "figure-wise",  or  "landscape-wise".  Examples  of  the  former 
attitude  are  figs.  2  and  3;  and  of  the  latter  are,  figs.  1  and  5  on 
Plate  164.  The  vertical  line  through  the  centre  is  the  axis  of  these. 
The  ornnment  is  seldom  geometrical;  organic  or  artificial  motives  are 
mostly  used.  The  mon-axial  treatment  is  most  properly  employed 
where  it  is  applied  in  a  really  vertical  plane,  e.  g.  on  Pilasters-  (comp. 
p.  225,  shafts  of  pilasters),  on  Walls,  Doors,  itc.  The  poly-axial  treat- 
ment is  best  adapted  for  the  decoration  of  horizontal  planes,  such  as 
Floors,  Ceilings,  &c. 

Copious  material  is  furnished  by  the  inlaid-work,  bas-reliefs,  and 
metal -work,  of  the  Renascence. 

Plate  161.    Tile  Obloxg  Panel. 

1 — 2.  Greek,    Painted   coffers   of  ceilings,  Propylaea,   Athens,   (Owen 
Jones). 

3.  Roman. 

4.  Roman,  under-side  of  the  architrave.  Temple  of  Vesparian,  Rome. 

5.  Renascence,  Church,  Kamenz,  German,  (Gewerbehalle). 

Plate  162.    The  Obloxo  Panel. 

1.  Renascence,  Intarsia,  Cabinet,  Perugia,  Italian,  (Jacobsthal). 

2.  Renascence,  Palazzo  vecchio,  Mantua,  Italian,  (Jacobstlial). 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


263 


The  Oblong  Panel. 


Plate  161. 


264 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


Plate  162. 


The  Oblong  PaneL 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


265 


The  Oblopg  Panel. 


Plate  163. 


266 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


Plate  164. 


The  Oblong  Panel. 


The  Oblong  Panel.  —  The  Elliptic  Panel.  267 

8.    Renascence,  Marznppini  tomb,  Sta.  Croce,  Florence,  (Jacobsthal). 

4.  li^nascence,  Tomb,  Stiftskirche,  Stuttgart,  German,  (Musteiornamente). 

5.  Renascence,   S.  Michael's,   Schwabisch-Hall,   German,   (Musterorna- 
mente). 

Plate  163.    The  Oblong  Pantil. 

1.  Kenascence,  Wrought-iron  Grill,  Italian,  (Gewerbehalle). 

2.  Wrought-iron  Grill,  Choir  of  S.  Blasius,  Miihlhausen,  Thuringia, 
17  th  century,  (Musterornamente). 

3 — 4.  Ivory    inlays,    by  Hans   Schieferstein,    16th  century.    Museum, 
Dresden. 

5.  Wrought-iron,    house,    Freiburg,    S\vitzerland ,     17th    century, 
(L'art  pour  tous). 

6.  Ornament,  over  picture  of  saint,  by  Barthel  Beham,  Carlsrube, 
German  Renascence. 

7 — 8.  Stalls  of  the  Laurentian  Library,  Florence,  Italian  Eenascence. 

Plate  164.    The  Oblong  Panel. 

1,         Grill,  Schlettstadt,  1649,  (Gewerbehalle). 

2 — 3.  Intarsia,  S.  Petronio,  Bologna,   1495,  (Musterornamente). 

4.  Wrought-iron  balaustrade,    18th-  century. 

5.  Wrought-iron,  French,  18th  century. 

6.  Wrought-iron,  Stift  Strahov,  Prague,  German,  Eenascence. 


The  Elliptic  Panel.    (Plate  165.) 

As  regards  the  principle  of  decoration,  the  Ellipse  bears  the  samo 
relation  to  the  Circle  that  the  Oblong  does  to  the  Square.  When  not 
sub-divided  (see  Plate  20,  fig.  15),  it  is  treated  either  mon-axially, 
with  the  ornament  symmetrical  to  one  of  the  axes  (fig.  1);  or  it  is 
treated  bi-axially,  with  the  ornament  symmetrical  to  both  (figs.  2 
to  8). 

The  Elliptic  panel  was  not  often  used  in  decoration  during  the 
best  periods.  In  the  17th  and  18th  centuries,  it  was  used  as  the  form 
for  snuff-boxes,  sweet-boxes,  &c.,  the  decoration  being  carried-out  in 
niello,  and  similar  metal  work.  It  was  also  in  use  during  the  same 
period  in  centre-ornaments  for  the  covers  of  books.  From  such  examples, 
most  of  the  figures  on  the  Plate  have  been  taken. 

Plate  165.    The  Elliptic  Panel. 
1 — 2.  Renascence,  German,  (Formenschatz). 

3.         Centre    of    a    book-cover,    gold    blocking    on    vellum,    German 
16th  century,  (Storck). 


268      The  Elliptic  Panel.  —  The  Lunette,  and  the  Spanrail  Panels. 

4—7.  Renascence,   Book  cover  blocks.   Germanischcs  Museum,  Nurem 
berg.    German,  .(Mirsterornameute) 

8  Renascence,    Pavement,    tomb    of    Princess    Johanna    Elisabeth, 

Stiftskircbe,  Stuttgart. 


Tee  Lunette,  and  the    Spanrail  Panels. 
(Plates  166  —  167.) 

The  Semicircle  scarcely  admits  of  any  entirely  satisfactory  sub- 
division. The  best  method  is  to  describe  a  circle  in  the  semicircle 
so  that  the  circle  touches  the  centre  of  the  semicircle  above  and  the 
centre  of  its  chord  below;  this  arrangement  is  especially  useful  when 
a  medallion  or  a  clock  is  to  be  placed  in  it.  There  are  two  methods 
of  decorating  the  Lunette:  either  an  upright  panel  -  ornament  is  de- 
signed symmetrical  to  one  axis,  an  arrangement  which  is  the  best,  as 
the  semicircle,  in  the  majority  of  cases,  is  used  on  vertical  planes 
(Plate  167.  1  and  3);  or  the  Semicircle  is  divided,  like  a  fan,  into  a 
number  of  sectors,  which  receive  an  identical  decoration,  an  arrange- 
ment which  is  chiefly  adopted  for  Door-heads  (Plate  166.  2).  In 
such  cases  a  central  semicircle  is  usually  inserted;  and  the  small 
panel,  thus  formed,  is  decorated  independently.  The  object  of  this 
is  to  obviate  the  inelegant  and  difficult  accumulation  of  radii  at  the 
centre. 

In  consequence  of  an  optical  illusion,  the  semicircle  gives  the 
impression  of  being  really  less  than  the  half  of  the  whole  circle;  and 
for  this  reason  it  is  sometimes  "stilted",  that  is  the  centre  of  the  arc 
does  not  lie  on  the  springing-line,  but  is  shifted  a  little  higher. 

The  name  "spanrail"  is  given  to  the  spaces  of  various  shape 
which  remain  after  circular  shapes  are  taken-away  from  quadrangular 
ones.  The  commonest  figure  of  this  kind  is  the  Trianguloid,  which 
is  formed  on  either  side  of  a  semicircle  when  this  latter  is  described 
in  an  oblong  Frame.  The  same  shape  results  when  a  circle  is  inscribed 
in  a  square,  which  frequently  occurs  in  the  decoration  of  ceilings.  Some- 
times the  decoration  of  the  Trianguloid  consists  of  a  rosette  in  its 
centre;  or  laurel,  palm,  and  oak  sprays,  circular  wreaths,  and  waving 
ribbons,  trophies,  figures  in  relief,  and  similar  motives,  in  a  more  or  less 
naturalistic  style,  are  employed.  In  severer  decoration,  the  axis  of 
symmetry  is  the  line  of  bisection  of  the  right  angle.  The  motives  are 
sometimes  geometrical  (Plate  166.  5  —  6);  but  more  frequently  organic 
(Plate  167.  4 — 5);  and,  among  artificial  forms,  varieties  of  strapwork 
are  used  (Plate  167.  6—9). 

When  a  series  of  arcs  has  a  common  bounding  straight  line,  the 
epanrail  is  shaped  as  shown  by  fig.  4,  Plate  166.     This  figure  is  the 


ENCLOSED  OENAMENT. 


269 


The  Elliptic  Penel. 


Plate  165. 


270 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


Plate  166 


The  Lunette,  and  the  Spanrail  Panels. 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMEXT 


271 


The  Lunette,  and  the  Spanrail  Panels. 


Plate  167, 


272         The  Lunette,  and  the  Spanrail  Panels.   —  Various  Panels. 

same  as  two  conjoined  Trianguloids.  It  lias  a  vertical  central  axi=; 
Another  well-known  shape  results  when  two  smaller  semicircles 
are  taken-away  from  a  larger,  as  when,  for  instance,  two  round-headed 
\viiidown  lights  are  enclosed  by  a  common  arch.  Finally  we  may 
mention  the  Quadrant,  which  is  not  infrequently  used  in  the  angles 
of  ceilings  (figures  7  and  8  of  Plate  166). 

Plate  166.  The  Lunette,  and  the  Spanrail  Panels. 

1.  Roman,  (VuUiamy). 

2.  Italian  Renascence,  (Gewerbehalle). 

3.  Arabian,  (Prisse  d' Avenues). 

4.  Early  Gothic  Spanrail,  Stone  Church,  England. 
5  —  6.  Arabian,  mosaic  Spanrail,  (Prisse  d'Avennes). 

7 — 8.  Modern. 

Plate  167.  The  Lunette,  and  the  Spanrah.  Panel. 

1.  Renascence,  intarsia,  Sta.  Maria  in  Organo,  Verona,  Italian. 

2.  Wrought-iron  Grill. 

3.  Renascence,  Wrougth-iron  Grill,  German. 

4.  Renascence,   plinth  of  a  column,   St.  Antonio,  Padua,  (Meurer) 

5.  Modern,  Vaudeville  theatre,  Paris,  (Raguenet). 
C — 9.  Renascence,  by  Vredeman  de  Vries. 

The  Lozenge  Panel.    (Plate  168.) 

The  Lozenge  in  decorative  art  includes  the  Rhombus,  and  the 
Square  when  one  of  its  diagonals  is  vertical.  The  Lozenge  is  treated 
either  as  an  upright  panel,  symmetrical  to  one  axis  (figs.  2,  4,  and 
5)r  or  the  two  diagonals  are  the  axes  of  symmetry  for  a  bi- axial 
pattern  (figs.  1,  and  3).  In  the  former  case,  the  ornament  consists  of 
two;  and  in  the  latter  case  of  four,  similar  parts.  The  Lozenge  is 
not  often  employed.  Occasionally  it  finds  a  place  as  a  panel  in 
Lattices,  Doors,  Dadoes,  Ceilings,  &c. 

Plate  168.    The  Lozenge  Panel. 

1.         Door,  Nordlingen  church,  17th  century. 

2 — 3.  Grill,  Townhall,  Wiirzburg,  German  Renascence. 

4 — 5.  Modem  decorative  painting. 


Various  Panels.     (Plates  169 — 170.) 

Plate  169    and  170    give  a  number    of   incidents  Panel-shapes. 
of  which  there  is  a  great  variety.     The  principle  of  decoration  must 


ENCLOSED  ORNAMENT. 


273 


The  Lozengp  Panel. 


Jieyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament. 


Plate  168. 
18 


274 


ENCLOSED  OENAMENT. 


Plate  169. 


Various  Panels. 


ENCLOSED  OENAMENT. 


275 


Various  Panels. 


Plate  170. 
18* 


276  Various  Panels. 

be  adapted  to  each  case;   and  should  follow  the  analogy  of  the  prin 
ciples  enunciated  above.     Thus,   for   example,    regular  polygons   with 
convex  or  concave   sides  (Plate   170.   1   and  2);    are   treated   similarly 
to  polygons  with  straight  sides. 

Figures  like  those  on  Plate  169.  7  and  8,  are  decorated  in  the 
manner  of  an  Oblong  or  an  Elhpse.  The  ornament  of  Plate  169.  1, 
recalls  the  decoration  of  the  Lunette. 

The  Trapezoid  is  treated  either  as  an  upright  panel,  the  central 
axis  being  perpendicular  to  the  two  parallels;  or  the  ornamentation 
approaches  that  of  a  bi-axial  Oblong  panel;  but  it  will  be  somewhat 
modified,  to  fit  the  angles  (Plate  170.  4  and  5).  This  latter  cir- 
cumstance has  also  to  be  taken  into  consideration  in  the  case  of  a 
right-angled  Triangle  of  unequal  sides,  when  the  line  of  bisection  of 
the  right-angle  is  used  as  the  axis  of  symmetry  (Plate  170.  6);  an 
unsymmetrical  arrangement  is  best  in  this  case,  see  figures  7  to  9  on 
the  same  plate.  This  latter  free  style  of  design,  which  is  not  bound 
by  axial  lines-,  may  also  be  recommended  for  the  Raking  Parallelo- 
grams which  occur  on  staircases. 

Plate  169.    Various  Panels. 

1.  "Wrought-iron  Grill,  Townhall,  Villingen,  late  German  Re- 
nascence. 

2 — 3.  Balaustrade  of  staircase,  Frankfort  on  the  Main,  German  16th 
century,  (Gewerbehalle). 

4 — 5.  Grill,  Pulpit-steps,  Thann,  German  16th  century,  (Gewerbe- 
halle). 

6.         Grill,  Padua,  Italian  Renascence. 

7."         Detail  of  Lattice,  late  German  Renascence. 

8.         Grill,  late  German  Renascence. 

Plate  170.    Various  Panels. 

1.  Trefoil  tracery,  Gothic,  (Jacobsthal). 

2.  Mural  painting,  Swedish,  Romanesque,  (Racinet). 

3.  Louvre,  Paris. 

4 — 5.  Marble  inlaid-work.  Pulpit,  Cathedral,  Savona,  Italian  Renascence, 

(Meurer). 
6  —  9.  Triangular  panels.   Stalls  of  the  Laurentian  Library,   Florence, 

ascribed  to  Michel  Angelo. 


277 


E. 
REPEATING   ORNAMENT. 

PIAPERS.) 

It  is  the  essence,  of  repeated  ornament^  that  it  may  be  ex- 
tended on  all  sides  at  discretion,  the  component  parts  of  the  design 
(i.  e.  the  pattern)  admitting  of  tminterrupted  repetition.  The  ele- 
ments are  either  geometrical,  organic,  or,  as  in  the  majority  of  cases, 
geometrical  are  combined  with  organic  elements,  sometimes  with  the 
addition  of  figures  and  artificial  accessories.  Diaper  ornament  has 
either  a  poly-axial  or  a  bi-axial  character.  In  the  former  case,  the 
decoration  expands  regularly  on  all  sides;  the  basis  is  a  system  of  inter- 
secting axes  of  symmetry,  as  shown  in  the  square  or  triangular  Nets  on 
Plate  1.  In  the  second  case,  the  decoration  consists  of  growth  in  an  up- 
ward direction,  the  repetition  on  each  side  being  secured  by  "turning 
the  pattern  over"  symmetrically,  or  by  juxtaposition  (in  the  usual  sense 
of  the  word).  Here,  also,  combination  frequently  occurs  to  this 
extent  that  many  patterns  have  a  poly-axial  basis  while  single  panels 
and  medallions  have  upright  decoration. 

Growth  in  a  downward  direction,  or  in  an  oblique  upward  di- 
rection, &c.,  must  be  classed  as  exceptions  to  the  rule. 

When  Diaper  patterns  are  applied  to  circumscribed  surfaces,  e. 
g.  on  Walls:  they  are  either  cut-off  abruptly,  as  in  Wall-papers,  or 
are  stopped- short  of  the  limits,  and  a  Border  is  applied.  There  is 
seldom  much  difficulty  in  the  case  of  geometrical  patterns;  but  with 
organic  designs  the  sides  of  the  upright  patterns  usually  terminate 
at  the  axis  of  symmetry. 

Diaper  ornament  is  applied  to  many  purposes.  Mosaic,  Parquetry, 
Marquetry,    using  geometrical   patterns;    the  Textile,   Wall-paper,  and 


278  The  Square  Diaper,  Circle  Diaper,  &c. 

Wall -painting  crafts  using  the  organic  elements;  and  Floor -cover- 
ings, Glass-painting,  Inlaying,  and  similar  Metal -decorations,  using 
both.  The  treatment  of  large  Grills  sometimes  demands  a  repeated 
pattern,  that  may  be  expanded  at  will,  so  that  we  may  add  this 
branch  to  the  others. 


The  Squake  Diaper.    (Parquetry.)    (Plate  171.) 

Parquetry  is  the  term  applied  to  the  overlaying  of  flooring  with 
mosaic  of  hard  woods.  The  patterns  are  almost  exclusively  geo- 
metrical; the  basis  is  the  quadrangular  or  triangular  Net.  The  single 
parts  are  first  put  together  to  form  square  or  regular  hexagonal 
figures,  which  are  then  tongued  and  grooved,  and  fixed  to  the  boards. 
The  Plate  shows  a  number  of  modern  Parquet- patterns:  figures  2,  8, 
9  and  10  being  based  on  the  triangular;  and  the  others  on  the  qua 
drangular  Net.  Parquet-patterns  which  are  so  designed  that  the  floor 
has  the  effect  of  projections  and  hollows,  are  inadmissible  because 
they  are  unsuited  to  a  Floor,  which  is  intended  to  be  walked  on, 
and  should,  therefore,  be  flat  in  design  as  well  as  in  reality. 

Plate  171.    The  Squaee  Diaper,  &c. 
1 — 10.  Modem  Parquet-patterns. 


The  Circle  Diaper.    (]\Iosaic.)    (Plate  172.) 

Mosaic  (opus  musivum)  is,  in  its  wider  sense,  the  designing  and 
inlaying  of  pieces  of  stone,  wood,  glass,  leather,  straw,  <fcc.,  to  make 
a  picture  or  pattern.  More  strictly:  Mosaic  means  pictures  and 
patterns  composed  of  pieces  of  stone,  pottery,  pearl,  and  glass,  the 
last  being  coloured  or  underlaid  with  metal-foil. 

There  are  two  principal  classes  of  such  Mosaic.  The  opiis  tesse- 
latum  is  composed  of  small  pieces,  mostly  cubes,  held  together  by 
being  inlaid  in  a  kind  of  cement.  The  opus  sectile  is  composed  of 
little  slabs,  varying  in  shape  according  to  the  object  to  be  repre- 
sented. Mosaic  work  is  very  ancient;  and  is  mentioned  as  early  as 
the  Book  of  Esther.  A  large  number  of  Roman  mosaic  pavements,  in 
opus  tesselatum,  have  been  preserved  to  us.  Early  Christian  art  also 
decorated  walls  and  piers  with  geometrical  mosaic  (optis  Orecanicum), 
numerous  examples  of  which  are  to  be  found  in  Ravenna,  Palermo, 
Venice,  and  elsewhere.  All  kinds  of  mosaic  have  been  practised  in 
Italy  down  to  the  present  day,  less,  it  is  true,  for  the  decoration  of 
walls   and   pavements   than   for  Ornaments,    Pictures,    Table-tops,   &c. 


REPEATING  ORNAMENT 


279 


The  Square  Diaper,  &c. 


riate  171. 


280 


REPEATING  ORNAMENT 


Plate  172. 


The  Circle  Diaper,  &c. 


The  Circle  Diaper,  Scale  Diaper,  &c-  281 

In  the  Arabian  and  the  Moorish  styles,  incrustations  of  Mosaics  in 
stone  and  glazed  terracotta  were  a  popular  method  of  wall-decoration. 
The  art  of  mosaic  has  never  acquired  a  firm  footing  in  northern 
countries. 

Plate  172.    The  Circle  Dl^er,  &c. 

1.  Mosaic,  cathedral,  Monreale,  Sicily 

2.  Arabian  mosaic,  stucco  on  stone,  (Prisse  d'Avennes). 

3.  Roman  mosaic. 

4.  Marble  mosaic,  windows,  cathedral,  Florence,  (Hessemer). 

5.  Geometrical  pattern,  Sta.  Croce,  Florence. 

6.  Marble  mosaic,  San  Vitale,  Ravenna,  (Hessemer). 

7.  Modem  tesselated  mosaic,  Sorrento. 

8  and  10.  Moorish    mosaic,    Ambassadors'    Hall,    Alhambra,    Granada, 

(Owen  Jones). 
9.  Ai-abian  mosaic,  stucco  on  stone,  (Prisse  d'Avennes). 


The  Scale  Diaper.  &c.    (Enamel.)   (Plate  173.) 

AVhere  the  surfaces  of  metal  utensils  and  vessels  are  to  receive 
a  flat  decoration  this  is  usually  effected  by  engraving,  etching,  dam- 
askeening, enamel,  or  niello  work.  In  the  process  of  Engraving,  the 
decoration  is  engraved  by  means  of  the  graving-tool,  and  the  hollows 
in  some  cases  filled  up  with  coloui-ed  lacquer,  &c.  In  Etching,  the 
metallic  surface  is  protected  against  the  action  of  the  etching-fluid 
by  being  coated  with  a  film,  so  that  the  design  is  sunk  where  the 
protecting  film  is  removed  by  the  Artist.  In  Damaskeening,  the  pre- 
cious metals  are  fastened  on  iron  and  steel,  by  being  hammered  into 
engraved  hollows  which  have  been  undercut  with  a  roughened  ground. 
The  processes  of  Enamelling  are  very  various.  In  the  cloison  process: 
bent  bands  or  fillets  of  metal  (cloisons)  are  soldered-on  to  the  metal 
ground,  and  the  hollows  or  cells  thus  formed  are  filled  with  pulve- 
rised glass  paste  (glass  coloured  with  metallic  oxides)  which  are  then 
vitrified  by  heat.  In  the  sunk  or  "cbamp-lev6"  process:  the  hollows 
in  the  metallii  ground  are  produced  by  the  graver,  or  by  casting 
and  subsequent  chasing,  and  are  then  filled  with  enamel.  Niello 
resembles  black  enamel:  the  enamel  paste  being  replaced  by  a  com' 
position  of  metal  and  sulphur. 

Enamel  work  (sunk -work)  was  known  in  Antique  times.  The 
Cologne  enamel  was  celebrated  in  the  Middle  Ages.  Cloison  en.amel 
Las  been  practised  in  the  East,  in  China,  and  in  Japan,  from  the 
earliest  times.  The  so-called  Limoges  "enamel"  is  painted  on  a  plain 
metal   ground,    without   any    previous  cloispns   or   any  sunk -fields   for 


282 


REPEATING  ORNAMENl. 


Plate  173. 


The  Scale  Diaper,  &c. 


The  Scale  Diaper,  Circle  Diaper,  &c.  283 

the  pigments.  Damaskeened  objects  are  found  in  German  and  Old 
Prankish  tombs.  This  art,  however,  disappeared  in  the  West  only  to 
be  pursued  more  energetically  in  the  East,  where  it  still  flourishes, 
e.  g  in  Persia,  and  India  Niello,  Engraved,  and  Etched  work  were 
most  fashionable  at  the  time  of  the  Renascence. 

Plate  173     The  Scale  Dlsjer,  <tc. 

1 — 3  Chinese  and  Japanese. 

4,   5  and  9  Indian  and   Persian 

6  and   7  Renascence 

8  and   10  Mediaeval,  (Cologne  enamel). 


The  Circle  Diaper,  &c     (Tiles.)    (Plate  174) 

The  decoration    of  walls  and  pavements,    with  glazed  clay  Tiles, 
dates  back  as  early  as  Assyrian  times 

The  Middle  Ages  made  a  most  extensive  use  of  pavement  tiles 
The  individual  tiles  are  mostly  of  a  square  shape,  and  vary  in  size 
from  3  ins.  to  6  ins  The  pattern  is  generally  in  intaglio;  and  fre- 
quently filled  in  with  clay  of  another  color  The  designs  of  these  tiles 
are  usually  excellent.  The  tile  contains  either  the  whole  of  the 
repeating  ornament;  or  only  a  part  of  it  so  that  4  tiles  form  the  unit 
of  design.  Th^e  tiles  are  common  in  England,  France,  and  Ger 
many 

Majolica   tiles   are   used    in    Italy;    and    are  generally  adopted  for 
the  Wall-decoration  so  popular  in  England. 

Plate  174.     The  Circle  Dlajer,  &c. 

1 — 10  Various  mediaeval  tiles,  after  Owen  Jones,  Racinet,  and  others. 

1.  Fontenay,  C6te  d'Or, 

4  and  7  Rouen  Museum. 

5.  Cathedral,  St.  Omer. 

6.  Troyes,  Archives  de  I'Aube. 


The  Circle  Diaper,  &c.     (Stained  Glass.)    (Plate  175.) 

Window  glazing  is  an  introduction  of  the  Middle  Ages,  and  was 
unknown  to  the  Antique.  Coloured  windows  were  first  used  for 
Churches.  The  oldest  process  consisted  in  fitting-together  pieces  of 
coloured  glass  in  the  mosaic  style.  About  the  year  1000,  the  prin- 
cipal place  of  manufacture  was  Kloster  Tegemsee.     In   the  11th  and 


284 


BEPEATENG  ORNAMENT. 


Plate  174. 


The  Circle  Diaper,  &c. 


REPEATING  ORNAMENT. 


285 


'SSC 


The  Circle  Diaper,  &c. 


Plate  175. 


286  The  Circle  Diaper,  &c    —  Various  Diapers. 

12th  centimes,  painting  begins,  followed  by  Glass-painting  strictly 
so-called,  the  design  being  outlined  in  brown  paint;  flashed  glass,  &c. 
followed  later. 

After  passing  through  a  period  of  decadence;  and  almost  vanishing 
during  the  last  two  centuries;  Glass-painting  has,  of  late  years,  again 
become  the  object  of  great  attention,  and  especially  that  branch  which, 
leaving  strict  painting  on  one  side,  produces  its  most  striking  effects 
with  coloured  glass  and  leaden  cames.  The  vigorous  outlines, 
produced  by  the  lead-setting,  enhance  the  brilliancy  of  the  colours, 
and  prevent  the  unpleasant  optical  effect  produced  by  the  blending  of 
contiguous  tints. 

We  have  here  to  deal  only  with  the  ornamental  decoration  of 
surfaces  by  painting  or  mosaic.  The  best  examples  are  to  be  found 
in  the  transition  period  from  the  Komanesque  to  the  Gothic  style  in 
the  churches  of  Germany,  France,  and  England,  the  three  countries 
which  may  be  regarded  as  the  true  home  of  stained  glass. 

Plate  175.    The  Circle  Diaper,  &c. 

1 — 10.    Various  patterns,  Romanesque  and  Early  Gothic  (Owen  Jones, 
Eacinet,  and  others). 

1  and  9.  Chartres  cathedral. 

2  and  3.  Bourges  cathedral. 
6.  Soissons  cathedral. 


Various  Diapers.  (Mural  Painting.)  (Plates  176 — 177.) 

The  models  and  precursors  of  Mural-decoration  are  to  be  looked- 
for  in  hangings  of  carpets  and  textiles.  The  Egyptian  style  offers 
the  earlist  known  examples  of  the  decoration  of  surfaces  by  means  of 
wall-painting.  The  scheme  is  generally  a  Meander  or  similar  pattern, 
varied  by  rosettes,  &c.  (Plate  177.  1  and  2).  The  Pompejan  artists 
used  figures  and  architectural  representations  in  perspective  instead 
of  Diaper  patterns.  Early  Christian  art  used  mosaics,  which  were 
gradually  driven-out  by  wall-painting  during  the  Romanesque,  and 
Gothic  periods.  Churches  and  public  buildings  are  again  the  first 
edifices  whose 'interiors  were  decorated  by  "tapestry  paintings",  as  we 
may  term  this  style  of  decoration  in  view  of  the  mutual  relation 
between  it  and  textile  art.  With  respect  of  the  principles  of  design: 
we  may  refer  the  reader  to  the  general  introduction,  page  277,  and 
to  the  plates  176 — 177.  The  use  of  Wall-papers  in  Modern  times  has 
greatly  narrowed  the  sphere  of  Mural  painting:  its  principal  task 
being  now  confined  to  the  decoration  of  Public  Buildings. 


REPEATING  ORNAMENT. 


287 


>^ 

fm 

i 

.^J\^    ^y, 


Various  Diapers. 


Plate  176. 


288 


KEPEATING  ORNAMENT. 


Plate  177. 


Various  Diapers. 


Various  Diauera.  289 

Plate  176.    Various  Diapers. 

1 — 2.       Painting,   old  cabinet,   Brandenburg,    beginning  of  the  15th 

century,  (^lusterornamente). 
3.  Painting,  Sta.  Croce,  Florence,  Italian  Renascence. 

4 — 5.       Painting,  consistory  church,-  Assisi,  13th  century,  (Hessemer). 
6  and  10.  Modern  French,  church  painting. 
7.  Painting,  castle  of  Trausnitz,  Landshut,  end  of  16th  century, 

(Gewerbehalle). 
9.  Painting,  Palazzo  del  Podesti,  Florence,  14th  century,  (Muster- 

ornamente). 

Plate  177.    Various  Diapers. 

1.  Ancient  Egyptian,  meander. 

2.  Ancient  Egytian,  ceiling  painting,  (Racinet), 

3 — 5.  Arabian  paintings,  Kaitbey  mosque,  (Prisse  d'Avennes). 

6.         Arabian  mural  painting,  mosque  of  Ibrahim  Aga,  Cairo,  (Hessemer). 


Various  Diapers.    (Weaving.)    (Plates  178—179.) 

The  artistic  decoration  of  Textile  fabrics  goes  back  to  the  very 
earliest  times;  and  is  of  a  most  varied  character.  After  the  decoration 
of  animal  Skins,  by  sewing  and  embroidering,  came  the  creation  of 
patterns  in  plaited  Mats  by  the  use  of  material  of  various  colours; 
and  this  again  was  followed  by  the  different  products  of  Weaving, 
variegated  by  the  use  of  coloured  yarns,  by  Embroidery,  by  Print- 
ing, &c.  It  is  due  to  the  perishability  of  the  material  that  scarcely 
any  products  of  the  loom  of  the  older  epochs  are  to  be  found  in  our 
museums;  and  that  we  can  only  infer  their  patterns  from  descriptions 
and  pictures.  All  the  richer,  on  the  other  hand,  is  the  choice  offered 
by  the  Renascence,  the  Middle  Ages,  and  the  East. 

It  would  go  beyond  the  scope  of  this  book  to  give  a  detailed 
historical  and  technical  description  of  Textile  industry;  and  we  refer 
the  reader  to  the  special  works  and  monographs  on  this  subject*. 
Usually  the  mode  of  decoration  depends  on  the  object,  and  varies  with 
the  artistic  conceptions  of  the  different  styles.  By  the  side  of  purely 
geometrical  patterns  (Plate  179. 1  and  3),  we  find  organic  elements  in  a 
geometrical  framing  (Plate  178.  1  and  2,  Plate  179,  4).  By  the  side  of 
poly-axial  arrangements  (Plate  179.  1,  2  and  3),  there  are  others  with 
mon-axial  features  (Plate  178.  1  and  2).  By  the  side  of  symmetrical 
"turn-over"  patterns  (Plate  178.  3),  we  have  others  uiisymmetrical 
(Plate  178.  4).     By  the  side  of  Artificial  flowers  and  rosettes,  powdered 


*  Otto  V.  Schorn,  "Die  Textilkunst".     Leipzig. 

Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament.  19 


290  Various  Diapera. 

over  the  ground  (Plate  179.  9),  there  occur  natural  elements  like 
the  curious  Japanese  design  on  Plate  179,  fig.  7;  and  so  on.  The 
great  principle  of  style,  in  the  standard  examples  of  all  periods,  is  the 
avoidance  of  representations  of  relief,  or  of  perspective  views  of  archi- 
tecture, which  contradict  the  nature  of  the  flat  surface.  Important 
is  also  the  proper  distribution  of  the  masses,  so  that  distracting  lines 
or  empty  spaces  may  be  avoided.  Of  equal  importance  with  the  design 
is  the  Colour,  but  ihe  plan  of  this  work  compels  us  to  leave  it  out 
of  consideration. 

Next  to  the  fabrication  of  Textiles  for  ecclesiastical  vestments 
and  secular  garments:  the  most  important  manufacture  is  that  of  Car- 
pets, and  of  Tapestries  for  use  on  walls,  as  curtains,  portieres,  &c. 
Of  the  introduction  of  the  latter  into  painting,  we  have  already 
spoken,  on  Plate  176.  .  Here  we  will  only  refer  to  the  tapestried 
backgrounds,  common  in  pictures  of  the  14th  to  the  16th  century, 
examples  of  which  are  to  be  seen  in  figs.  3  and  4  of  Plate  178. 
Woollen  and  silk  tapestry  were  followed  by  sheets  of  Stamped-leather, 
an  Arabian  invention,  which  in  its  turn  was  followed  by  the  modern 
Wall-paper,  at  first  in  painted  single  Sheets,  and  afterwards  in  the 
printed  Rolls  now  so  common.  That  we  do  not  devote  a  special 
chapter  of  our  work  to  this  important  product  of  modern  art,  is  due 
to  the  fact  that  a  difference  between  Mural  painting  and  Textile  pat- 
terns really  only  exists  in  the  mode  of  manufacture,  there  being  no 
essential  distinction  in  respect  of  Design.  Modern  Wall-papers  have, 
on  the  average,  a  breadth  of  21  ins.,  on  which  tbe  pattern  is  arranged 
once  or  oftener,  according  to  the  size  of  the  design.  The  repeating 
of  the  pattern  in  an  upward  direction  is  partly  due  to  technical  con- 
siderations. In  printing  by  hand  from  a  wooden  block,  the  length  of 
the  repeating  pattern  varies  from  21   ins.  to  30  ins. 

PLvVTE    178.      V.VEIOUS   DlAPEUS. 
lands.  Mediaeval  textile,  (Gewerbohallo). 

2.  Textile,  12th  century,  original   in   silk  and  gold;    found  in  a 
tomb  in  the  Abbey  of  St.  Gennaiu  dos  Pr6s,  Paris,  (Racinet). 

3.  Patterned    gold    ground    of    altar  shrine,    monastery  of   Heil- 
bronn,  end  of  15th  century,  (Gewcrbehalle). 

4.  Patterned  gold  ground  of  altar  shrine,  church  of  St.  Egidius, 
Barthfeld,  (Gewcrbehalle). 

5.  French  silk  tapestry,  15th  century,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

Plate  179.    Various  Diapers. 

1.  Bishop's  robe.  Sacristy,  Sta.  Croco,  Florence. 

2.  Pillow  pattern,  tomb,  St.  George's,  Tiibiugon,  German  Renascence, 
(Gcworbehalle). 


EEPEATING  ORNAMENT. 


291 


Various  Diapers. 


Plate  178. 
19* 


292 


REPEATING  ORNAMENT. 


Plate  179. 


Various  Diapers. 


REPEATING  ORNAMENT. 


291: 


Various  Grill  Diapers. 


Plate  180. 


294  Various  Diapers. 

3.  Lace,  16th  century,  German,  by  Hans  Siebmacher. 

4.  Stamped  leather,  book-cover,  17th  century,  (Gewerbohalle). 
5    Textile,  German  Kenascenco,  (Mnsteromamonte). 

6.  Carpet,  Rottweil,  German  Renascence,  (Gewerbehalle), 

7.  Modem  Japanese  silk,  (L'art  pour  tons). 

8.  Painted   gold   ground,    St.  Lorenzo,    Rottweil,  end  of  the    15th 
century,  (Musteromamente). 

9.  Carpet,   Stiftskirche,    Comburg,    beginning    of  the    17th  century, 
(Musteromamente). 

10.  Textile,  Venetian  picture,  1560,  Berlin  Museum,  (Gewerbohalle), 


Various  Grill  Dl&pers.    (Plate  180.) 

V7rought-iron  Grills  may  also  be  treated  as  Diapers;  and  Railings 
and  Gratings  are  often  treated  as  shown  by  the  figures  in  the  Plate. 
The  skeleton  is  formed  by  bars  interlaced  on  the  basis  of  the  quadran- 
gular or  lozenge  Net;  the  compartments  being  filled,  either  con- 
tinuously, or  at  regular  intervals,  with  recurring  ornamental  accessories 
(figs.  1,  2,  5  and  6). 

Another  system  places  a  repeating  scroll-like  ornament  between 
parallel  bars  (fig.  3).  The  straight  lines  of  the  skeleton  may  also  be 
replaced  by  curved  bars  (fig.  4). 

The  material  is  square,  round,  and  flat  iron  bars;  either  singly, 
or  in  combination.  Both  the  Middle  Ages  and  the  Renascence  have 
transmitted  numerous  examples  in  this  branch;  a  selection  is  given 
in  the  Plate. 

Plate  180.    Vaeious  Grill  DiApees. 

1.  Late  Gothic,  choir-screen,  minister,  Constance,  15th  century. 

2.  German  Renascence. 

3.  Italian  Renascence. 

4.  Modem,  by  Ende  and  BQckmann,  Berlin,  (Gewerbehalle). 

5.  German,  17th  century. 

6.  German  Renascence.  • 


296 


PREFATORY   REMARKS. 

The  third  division  of  the  Handbook  is  entitled  "Decorated 
Objects".  It  is  intended,  firstly,  to  show  in  what  manner  and  on 
•what  principles  Decoration  is  applied  to  objects,  (thus  complement- 
ing the  work  of  the  second  division);  and  secondly,  it  will  pass  a 
little  beyond  the  strict  limits  of  Aisthetics,  and  enter  on  the  sphere 
of  Tectonics,  in  order  to  present  a  view  of  the  construction,  profiling 
and  general  plan  of  objects  of  art,  e.  g.  Vases,  Utensils,  Furniture,  &c. 

These  considerations,  and  the  wish  to  be  as  comprehensive  as 
possible,  have  necessitated  the  inclusion  of  some  objects  which  are 
not  decorated.  This  inclusion  will  increase  the  bulk  of  the  Book; 
but  the  selection  of  objects  will  be  restricted,  as  much  as  possible, 
to  those  which  illustrate  the  Principles  of  Decoration. 


A. 

VASES. 


Vases,  with  which  this  division  opens,  are  one  of  the  most  interest- 
ing and  important  of  its  groups.  Gottfried  Semper,  who  has  treated 
Keramics  brilliantly  in  his  epoch-making  work  "Der  Stil",  says  in 
the  introduction  to  the  chapter  on  this  subject:  "The  products  'of 
Keramic  art  were  held  in  unusually  high  esteem  by  all  peoples  and 
in  all  periods.  They  had  attained  a  religious  symbolical  significance 
long  before  the  times  of  monumental  edifices,  which  latter,  indeed, 
were  greatly  influenced  by  the  former;  directly,  in  that  Keramic 
works  served  for  the  construction  and  ornamentation  of  the  monu- 
ments; indirectly,  because  architecture  took  up  principles  of  beauty 
and  style  and  even  finished  forms  which  had  already  been  developed  in 
Keramic  work,  and  had  first  been  fixed  by  the  art  potters  of  pre- 
architectural  times" "They  are  the  oldest  and  most  eloquent  docu- 
ments of  history.  Show  us  the  pottery  which  a  nation  has  produced, 
and_  we  can  in  general  tell  what  manner  of  nation  it  was  and  what 
height  of  culture  it  had  attained!"  Professor  Gmelin,  who,  in  his 
essay:  "Die  Urformen  und  Gestaltungsprinzipien  der  Topferei"  and  in 
his  work:  "Die  Elemente  der  Gefassbildnerei",  has  attempted  with 
much  success  to  popularise  Semper's  theories,  says:  "A  bit  of  Dar- 
winism is  here  unfolded  in  the  sphere  of  industry:  the  way  in  which 
the  development  of  man  has  been  influenced  by  climate,  the  character 
of  the  soil,  food,  &c.,  finds  its  parallel  in  Keramics  in  the  formation 
of  vessels  as  conditioned  by  the  joint  causes  of  aim,  material,  and 
technique". 


298  Vases. 

How  far  Pottery  goes  back  to  prehistoric  times,  is  proved  by 
the  calculations  made  from  the  alluvial  deposits  of  the  Nile  valley, 
and  the  geological  conditions  on  the  coasts  of  Scandinavia,  which  give 
us  the  respectable  age  of  10  000  to  12  000  years  for  the  pottery 
discovered  in  those  spots.  The  circumstance  that,  besides  satisfying 
the  needs  of  daily  life.  Pottery  was  used  in  religious  and  funeral 
rites,  more  especially  the  custom  of  placing  vessels  in  the  grave  of 
the  departed,  of  enclosing  the  ashes  of  the  dead  in  urns  before  com- 
mitting them  to  the  earth,  has  at  any  rate  preserved  to  us  certain 
kinds  of  pottery,  of  which,  otherwise,  only  sherds  and  fragments  had 
remained. 

By  Keramics  we  understand  not  only  earthen-ware,  but  the  design 
and  making  of  vessels  in  general.  Next  to  the  various  clays,  glass,  and 
metals,  which  have  the  first  claim  on  our  attention,  stone,  wood,  and 
ivory,  along  with  other  less  common  materials,  are  the  substances 
generally  used.  Each  of  these  Materials  imparts  its  own  character 
to  the  vessels  made  of  it;  the  corresponding  technique  will  limit  or 
modify  the  Form.  A  metal  vessel  requires  form  and  decoration  diffe- 
rent from  one  of  glass  or  porcelain;  the  profile  of  a  clay  vase  cannot 
be  made  in  marble  without  much  modification.  On  the  other  hand  the 
Purpose,  for  which  the  vessel  is  intended,  wiU  influence  the  choice  of 
the  Material;  so  that  a  reciprocal  interaction  arises,  which  stimulates 
to  the  study  of  Keramics,  and  makes  it  charming  and  instructive. 

That  the  majority  of  the  examples  in  this  group  of  pottery  have 
been  taken  from  the  Antique,  is  due  to  the  fact  that  this  epoch  offers 
a  general  picture  complete  in  itself;  and  that  it  is  chiefly  in  the 
Greek  style  that  the  above-mentioned  reciprocal  interaction,  regularity 
of  form,  and  tectonic  principle  are,  on  the  average,  most  clearly  ex- 
pressed. That,  on  the  other  hand,  we  have  brought  the  constructions 
of  other  countries  and  periods  into  suitable  connexion  with  the  Antique, 
arises  from  our  wish  to  meet  the  wants  and  requirements  of  our  time 
in  a  greater  degree  than  can  be  done  by  monographs  of  Greek  Keramics 
alone,  such  as  we   possess  in  a  large  number  of  special  wocks*. 

In  view,  of  the  immense  importance  of  Antique  Keramics  and  of 
Clay  as  a  material  in  general:  it  may  be  well  to  offer  here  a  few 
general  remarks  on  this  subject,  reserving  ovir  observations  on  other 
materials  and  styles  till  the  elucidation  of  the  plates  in  question. 
Pottery  is  generally  made  on  the  potter's  wheel.     In  Egypt,  India,  and 


*  Among  Buch  works  whose  size,  get-up,  and  text  render  them  suitable 
for  school  and  educational  purposes,  we  may  mention: 

Th.  Lau:  die  griechischen  Vasen,  ihr  Fonnen-  und  Decorationssystem. 
44  Tafeln  mit  einer  historischen  Einleitung  und  erlilutemdem  Text 
von  Dr.  Brunn  und  Dr.  Krell.    Leipzig:  E.  A.  Seemann. 

A.  Genick:  gricchische  Keramik.  40  Tafeln  mit  Einleitung  und  Be- 
schreibung  von  Adolf  Furtwangler.     Berlin :  Ernst  Wasmuth. 


Vases.  299 

Mesopotamia,  the  use  of  this  important  implement  of  civilisation  goes 
back  to  the  very  earliest  times.  The  mural  paintings  of  Beni  Hassan, 
which  have  been  refen-ed  to  the  19th  century  B.  C,  show  that  pottery 
was  then  already  known;  while  Germany  did  not  use  pottery  before 
the  Roman  peiiod;  and  America,  previous  to  the  anival  of  Europeans, 
was  only  acquainted  with  the  formation  of  pots  by  hand,  in  spite  of 
the  great  achievements  of  the  Peruvians.  The  formation  of  pottery 
by  hand,  is  still  in  use  in  many  countries.  To  this  class  belongs  the 
building-up  with  zonal  or  spiral  strips,  and  the  moulding  over  plaited 
moulds  or  gourds  which  are  then  destroyed  in  the  firing.  Wooden 
and  stone  moulds  were  used  in  early  times;  and  also  in  modern 
times  in  connection  wdth  the  wheel.  At  the  outset,  people  con- 
tented themselves  with  drying  the  clay;  afterwards  drying  was 
followed  by  firing.  An  intermediate  stage  is  to  fire  beneath  a 
covering  of  cow- dung,  the  air  being  excluded;  when  the  smoke 
penetrates  into  the  clay,  and  colours  it  gray  or  black.  Originally 
only  smoothed  and  polished,  the  vessels  were  afterwards  rendered 
more  impervious  to  liquids  by  being  painted  with  a  Varnish,  such  as 
IS  seen  on  Greek  vases;  and  by  the  discovery  of  the  tin  and  lead 
Glazes,  such  as  are  found  on  the  so-called  "majolica  ware".  The 
porosity,  of  many  oriental  vessels,  is  intentional,  in  order  that  the 
contents  may  be  kept  cool  by  the  process  of  evaporation  on  the  sur- 
face of  the  vessel.  Of  the  chemical  composition  of  these  ancient 
Varnishes,  we  are  not  so  well  informed  as  we  could  wish. 

Antique  pottery  is  found  in  all  places  where  ancient  civilisation 
penetrated;  but  the  principal  sources  are:  Greece,  Sicily,  and  Italy, 
particularly  Campania  and  Etruna.  To  this  latter  circumstance  is 
ascribed  the  erroneous  use  of  the  name  "Etruscan",  in  the  last  century, 
as  a  collective  name  for  antique  pottery  in  general.  Athens,  Corinth, 
and  Chalcis,  were  the  chief  factories  of  pottery  in  Greece;  and  Ta- 
rentum  and  Cumae  in  Italy,  where  pottery  established  itself  after  the 
decay  of  Greek  art.  Apart  from  prehistoric  products,  it  can  be  pro- 
ved that  Greek  vase-painting  begins  historically  in  the  7th  century 
B.  C;  attained  its  golden  age  about  400  B.  C;  and  decayed  with  the 
invasion  by  the  Romans  about  200  B.  C.  According  to  peculia- 
rities of  form  and  finish,  we  distinguish  different  periods,  the  leading 
characteristics  of  which  are  as  follows:  — 

1.  The  geometrical  style:  clay  natural  colour,  yeUowish-grey,  rough; 
decoration  brown,  in  bands,  rings,  zigzag  lines,  checks  and 
other  simple  patterns,  borrowed  from  the  technique  of  weaving 
and  wood  carving,  sometimes  in  connection  with  represen- 
tations of  domestic  animals,  teams,  &c.,  in  rhythmic  sequence, 
(compare  Plate  194.  2  and  3). 

2.  The  Asiatic  style:  clay  natural  color,  yellowish,  impregnated 
and  smoothed;    decoration   dark  brovra,   dark  red,  and  white, 


300  Vase.  —  Fundamental  Vase-Forms. 

with  fantastic  winged  creatures,  lions,  panthers,  geese,  sphinxes, 
mostly  arranged  in  zones.  The  intervening  spaces,  between  the 
animals,  are  filled  with  rosettes,  flowers,  &c.  The  Zonal  deco- 
ration is  often  replaced  by  Scales,  (compare  Plate  194.  4). 

8.  Tlie  Black  Figure  style:  clay  reddish-yellow,  coloured  with 
oxide  of  iron;  decoration  black,  pure  white  being  used  for  the 
carnations  of  female  figures,  horses,  &c.  The  conception  of 
the  figures  is  frequently  archaic,  drawn  in  uncoloured  com- 
partments bordered  by  ornamental  bands.  The  lines  of 
drapery,  &c.  are  scratched  through  the  black  colour,  to 
the  clay. 

4.  Tlie  Red  Figure  style:  clay  red,  very  smooth:  the  entire  vessel, 
with  the  exception  of  the  ornaments  and  figures,  coated  black; 
the  black  sometimes  having  a  greenish  shimmer.  White  only 
occasionally  found,  for  grey  hair  and  the  like.  The  tendency 
to  simplification  is  predominant  in  respect  of  both  ornament 
and  figures;  usually  with  only  one  figure  or  with  simple 
groups  of   figures;    outlines  are  painted- in  with  the  pencil. 

5.  Tlie  Painted  style:  clay  as  in  No.  4;  the  vessels  frequently 
of  colossal  size  (they  are  then  not  intended  for  practical  use, 
as  may  be  inferred  from  their  having  no  bottom);  the  nume- 
rous red  figures  on  the  black  ground  are  placed  one  over  the 
other,  with  the  addition  of  architectural  decoration:  technically 
the  decoration  is  executed  in  a  careless  manner;  dark  red, 
white,  yellow,  and  gold  are  also  used;  luxuriant  brushwork 
ornament,  patterns  in  perspective,  and  painted  reliefs,  are 
common. 

The  succession  of  these  styles,  in  time,  is  generally  that  of  the 
above  order;  but  they  often  blend  with  each  other  without  any  de- 
finite demarcation,  forming  composite  styles  and  varieties.  We  find, 
for  instance,  certain  drug-pots  which  have  polychrome  painting  on  a 
white  background,  and  so  on. 


Fundamental  Vase-Forms.    (Plate  181.) 

Vases,  as  a  rule,  are  composed  of  a  number  of  simple  forms  or 
parts.  These  are  usually  the  foot,  the  body,  and  the  neck;  to  which 
a  handle,  a  lid,  and  a  spout,  may  also  be  added.  The  most  impor- 
tant part  is  the  Body.  In  the  majority  of  cases  it  determines  the 
fundamental  form  of  the  vessel  The  natural  models  for  vessels  are 
the  hollow  hand,  the  egg,  the  husks  of  fruits  (gourds,  nuts),  the 
horns  of  animals,  the  skins  of  animals,  and  gimilar  objects.  These 
have,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  been  used  in  all  ages  as  models,  for  more 


The  FunJiimcntal  Vate-Forins.  301 

or  less  direct  imitation;  .and  were  undoubtedly  used  by  mankind  in 
the  lowest  stages  of  civilisation,  instead  of  artificial  vessels.  Certain 
stereotyped  forms  recur  again  and  again:  first  among  tbem  (due  to  the 
use  of  the  potter's  wheel)  the  form  of  the  so-called  body  of  revolution. 
An  attempt  is  made,  on  Plate  181,  to  give  a  general  view  of  the  com- 
monest fundamental  forms,  with  their  names.  The  Sphere,  the  Cylinder, 
and  the  Hyperboloid,  are  the  simplest  of  these.  The  Sphere  is  altered, 
by  equally  flattening  or  extending,  to  the  Spheroid,  or  the  Ellipsoid. 
If  these  bodies  bo  cut-away  at  both  ends:  we  have  the  erect,  and  the 
recumbent  vessel.  Unequal  flattening  and  extending  produce  forms 
which  wo  may  term  Echinus,  Cake,  Egg,  and  Top  forms;  or,  if  the 
length  much  exceeds  the  breadth:  Wedge,  Spindle,  and  Drop  forms. 
If  only  the  top  be  cut-into:  we  have  either  the  Dish,  or  the  Cup 
form.  Conical,  Bag,  and  Canopus  forms  may  be  derived  from  the 
Cylinder.  In  a  similar  way  the  Hyperboloid  also  leads  to  new  forms. 
If  the  height  of  the  vessel  be  a  high  multiple  of  the  diameter,  we 
get  slender,  tapering  forms:  in  the  reverse  case,  we  have  dishes  and 
plates. 

The  Egg  is  the  commonest  form  in  Pottery.  Cylindrical  and 
Conical  forms,  i.  e.  such  bodies  as  have  a  developible  surface,  are 
best  adapted  for  Sheet- metal  work. 

Mathematical  curves,  e.  g.  arcs  of  circles,  are  not  strictly  ad- 
hered-to  in 'the  profiles.  Vessels,  which  are  not  made  on  the  wheel, 
often  exhibit  arbitrary  forms  which  cannot  be  grouped  in  the  scheme' 
of  the  Plate.  In  the  Chinese  and  Japanese  styles,  for  example,  pris- 
matic forms  are  very  common  (compare  Plate  187.  1);  human  and 
animal  shapes  are  found  in  the  Antique,  as  forms  of  vessels,  (com- 
pare Plate  194.  12). 

The  Various  junctions,  of  the  Body  with  the  Neck,  or  the  Foot, 
will  produce  a  series  of  new  forms.  The  use  of  Double -curvature  in 
the  profile  will  also  produce  new  forms,  the  simplest  of  which  are  the 
Bell,  and  the  Pear.  The  so-called  "Gourd-pots",  the  Pilgrim- bottles,  &c., 
also  form  special  and  rarer  groups  of  forms.  Here  too,  may  be 
mentioned  duplex  vessels  formed  by  the  juxtaposition  of  two  vessels  on 
a  common  foot,  or  by  uniting  them  with  a  common  handle.  These 
forms  are  found  sporadically  in  Prehistoric  and  all  subsequent  periods. 


As  regards  the  Feet  of  vessels:  we  have  first  to  remark  that  in 
the  earliest  times  footless  and  three-footed  vessels  are  by  no  means 
rare.  The  former  were  sunk  in  the  earth,  the  latter  would  stand  on 
an  uneven  surface.  The  usual  form  of  foot  presupposes  a  level  stand- 
ing surface  and  therefore  some  degree  of  civilisation.  Intermediate, 
between  the  absence  of  a  foot  and  the  high  foot,  is  the  Ring-foot,  a 


302  Fundamental  Vase-Forms. 

torus  or  profiled  circular  ring,  forming  the  lower  end  of  the  vessel. 
It  evidently  arose  from  the  early  custom  of  placing  footless  vessels 
in  hyperboloid  Rings,  which  were  afterwards  i'ncorporated  with  the 
vessel  itself.  The  decoration  of  the  foot  is  generally  subordinate  to 
that  of  the  body;  and  consists  of  simple  motives,  channellings,  &c. 

The  Neck  receives  a  cylindrical,  conical,  or  hyperboloid  form, 
according  to  the  object  of  the  vessel.  As  experience  showed  that 
pouring-out  is  best  done  through  a  narrow  opening,  and  filling  through 
a  wide  one:  funnel-shaped  necks,  intended  to  meet  both  requirements, 
arose.  A  good  decoration  of  the  neck  is  to  surround  it  at  its  narro- 
west part  with  a  neutral  band,  from  which  the  motive  of  decoration 
may  be  developed  upwards  and  downwards. 

The  upper  margin  or  Mouth  is  either  bent  outwards  or"  inwards, 
or  is  straight;  the  latter  especially  when  the  vessel  was  intended  to 
be  closed  by  a  Stopper.  Pouring- out  is  facilitated  if  the  vessel  be 
provided  with  a  Spout,  or  curved  Lip,  as  is  the  case  with  some 
mugs  and  cans."  The  decoration  of  the  Mouth,  when  round,  is  usually 
a  beading  or  row  of  leaves  curving  downwards  and  outwards.  The 
curved  Lip  depends  for  its  effect  on  the  line  of  its  curve,  or,  like 
the  Spout,  is  decorated  by  masks,  scallops,  &c. 

The  Lid  generally  fits  into,  on-to,  or  over,  the  upper  margin. 
It  may  be  raised  by  means  of  a  knob,  hoop,  or  ring;  and  if  it  does 
not  lie  loose  on  the  mouth,  is  fastened  by  a  hinge,  or  by  cords  and 
chains  (Censer).  Antique  lids  have  sometimes  the  form  of  little  vessels, 
or  dishes. 

The  Handle  varies  in  size,  position,  and  number,  according  to 
the  use  and  size  of  the  vessel.  The  points  of  attachment  of  the 
vertical  handle  lie  in  a  vertical  plane;  those  of  the  horizontal  handle 
are  in  a  horizontal  plane  side  by  side;  and  those  of  the  hoop  handle  are 
opposite  each  other  in  a  vertical  plane.  The  vertical  handle  is  most 
used.  The  horizontal  handle  is  specially  intended  for  lifting;  the  ver- 
tical for  tilting  the  vessel  when  pouring-out.  Vertical  handles  are 
most  suitable  for  tall  vessels;  and  horizontal  handles  for  flat  ones.' 
Other  forms  are  produced  by  combination,  as  when  a  vertical  handle 
is  added  to  the  centre  of  a  horizontal  one.  As  a  rope  was  originally 
used  instead  of  a  handle,  the  latter  frequently  takes  that  form,  (com- 
pare Plate  182.  4).  If  the  vessel  be  intended  for  pouring-out.  ihe 
handle  should  be  so  attached  that  the  pouring-out  may  be  done  with 
equal  ease  whether  the  vessel  be  full  or  nearly  empty. 


Attempts  have  often  been  made  to  classify  vessels  according  to  theJx 
uses;  but  definite  divisions  cannot  be  made,  as  many  vessels  may  serve 
for  a  number  of  purposes,  which  gives  rise  to  combinations  and  inter- 


Fundamental  Vase-Forms.  —  The  Amphora.  303 

mediate  groups.     We   mainly   follow  Samper's   classification   when   wa 
divide  vessels  into  the  following  groups- 

1.  Holders;  their  chief  object  being  storage  and  preservation. 

To  this  group  belong:  the  Amphora,  Urn,  Krater,  dish 
and  salver,  the  Ampulla,  the  Alabastron,  and  similar  small 
vessels,  flower-vase,  salt-cellar,  ink-pot,  snuff-box,  holy-water 
stoup,  &c. 

2.  Dippers;  chiefly  used  for  drawing  and  filling  into  other  vessels. 

To  this  group  belong:  the  Hydria,  bucket,  spoon,  and 
Patera. 

3.  Pouters;  for  pounng-out. 

To  these  belong:  tbe  Prochoiis,  Olpe,  OinochS,  Lekythos, 
mug,  can,  and  bottle. 

4.  Drinking  vessels. 

The  principal  representatives  of  this  class  are:   the  antique 
drinking  vessels  of  the   forms  Kylix,  Kantharos,  Kyathos,  <fec.; 
the  drinking  horn  or  Rhyton,   beaker,   bowl,   goblet.   Rum- 
mer,  Tumbler,    and    all    the    various   forms    of    our   modem 
drinking-glasses. 
The  various  vessels  will  be  treated  in   this  order. 
In  many  cases:  one  half  of  the  cut  shows   the  geometrical  view; 
and  the  other  shows  the  vertical  section.     Decorative  figures  are  fre- 
quently  omitted,    partict^laiiy    on  Antique    vases;    the   decoration   has 
sometimes  been  omitted,   when   that -was    required  by  the  minuteness 
of  the  scale;  and  sometimes  it  has  been  only   partially   drawn  or  in- 
dicated, in  order  to  avoid  unneccessary  work. 


a.    Holders. 

The  Amphora.    (Plate  182.) 

The  Amphora  is  of  frequent  occurrence  in  the  Antique.  It  was 
intended  to  receive  water,  oil,  and  wine.  Originally  serving  for  practi- 
cal purposes,  it  was  afterwards  employed  merely  as  a  show,' or  state 
vessel.  The  form  was  often  revived  in  later  styles;  and  has  the  follow- 
ing characteristics,  erect,  extended  body,  like  an  inverted  egg  (Plate 
182.  9),  a  spindle  (Plate  182.  7),  a  bag  (Plate  182.  6),  more  rarely 
conical  (Plate  182.  11),  hyperboloid  (Plate  182.  10),  or  cylindrical 
(Plate  182.  14).  The  neck  is  narrow,  more  or  less'  extended,  with 
shoulder  (Plate  182.  6),  or  without  (Plate  182.  5),  thickened  at  the 
,the  rim.  Two  vertical  handles,  diametrically  opposite  each  other.  At 
first  without  a   foot  (Plate   182.  3  — 7),, afterwards   with   a   round   or 


304 


VASES. 


The  most  usual  fundamental  forms  of  vessels 
and  their  names. 


-t- 

*V 

V 

.^^j 

"T- 

.-^J 

plate -shaped 


bag -shaped 
T 


dish -shaped 

Q 

recumbent 


pear-shaped 


I 


conical 


echinus  spheroid  cake -shaped 

T 


cylindrical 

1 


spherical 

I 


hyperboloid 
I 


Inverted  cone  top-shaped  Inverted  egg  elllosold  egg-shaped 


erect  cask 


canopus 


w 


bell -shaped 


cup  -  shaped 


^ 


wedge-shaped  spindle-shaped  drop-shaped 


^. 


Plate  181.  Chart  of  Fundamental  Vase  Forma. 


VASES. 


305 


The  Amphora. 


Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament. 


Plate  182. 
20 


306  The  Amphora.  —  The  Urn. 

high  foot.     With  or  without  cover.     Material:  clay,  more  rarely  glass, 
or  other  materials.     Size:  very  variable,  according  to  use. 

Plate  182.    The  Ajsiphora. 

1  Egyptian,  witli  cover,  Thebes,  Thutraes  III. 

2.  Egyptian,  with  cover,  Thebes,  XX  dynasty. 

3.  ^mall    four-sided,    with    Latin    inscription,    found   in  Egypt, 
unpainted  clay.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

4.  Assyrian,  with  rope  handle,  clay. 

5.  Roman,  unpainted  red  clay.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

6.  Roman,  lunpainted  yellow  clay,  found  near  Aquileia  in  1877, 
United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

7.  Roman,  glass,  with  stopper,  Rouen,  Museum,  (Deville). 

8.  Roman,  iridescent  glass,  found  at  Pompeii. 

9.  Ancient,  Attic,  painted  clay  (so-called  Dicta),  Munich,  (Lau). 
10 — 11.  Clay,  painted   in  polychrome,  with  band-shaped  handles,  so- 
called  Alexandrian  style,  (Lau  and  Jacobsthal). 

12.  Antique,  black  painted  clay,  (Gropius). 

13.  Antique    state    amphora,    white  marble,    with    swan  handles, 
"Vase  of  the  Athenian  Sosibios",  Louvre,  Paris. 

14.  Modern  French,  state  amphora,  by  Lienard. 

15.  Faun  with   amphora,   from   the  painted  neck  ol    an  Antique 
Drinking-horn,  (compare  Plate  202.  5 — 6). 


The  Urn.    (Plate  183.) 

The  Urn  is  met-with,  not  only  in  the  Antique  and  all  subsequent 
styles,  but  in  early  times  everywhere  and  specially  in  Prehistoric 
styles.  Apart  from  other  purposes,  the  Urn  was  frequently  used  in 
funeral  rites,  as  a  repository  for  the  ashes  of  the  dead,  as  a  coffin, 
and  so  on.  It  has  an  erect  body,  profiled  like  an  inverted  egg  or 
spindle.  The  neck  is  comparatively  wide  and  low,  the  mouth  straight 
or  cui'ved  outwards,  usually  closed  by  a  cover.  Either  without  feet, 
or  with  a  low  round  foot.  Without  handles,  or  with  two  smaU  hori- 
zontal' handles,  attached  to  the  greatest  prominence  of  the  body. 
Material:  clay.     Generally  of  considerable  size. 

Plate  183.    The  Urn. 

1.  Egyptian,  rubbing  an  Urn,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

2.  Prehistoric,  Gallic,  (Bosc). 

3.  Grey  clay,  ornamentation  in  relief,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 
4 — 5.  Greek,  painted  clay,  Munich. 

6.  Majolica,   15th  century,  Italian. 


VASES, 


307 


The  Urn. 


Plate  183, 
20* 


308  The  Urn.  —  The  Krater.  —  The  Basin,  and  Dish. 

7 — 8.  Slavic,  found  in  the  district  of  the  Elbe  and  Oder. 
9.         Modern  Faience,  Bombay,  (Gewerbehalle). 

10.  Majolica,   16th  century,  Italian,  (Storck). 

11.  German,  cut  crystal,  small  with  high  foot,  16th  century,  Na 
tional  Museum,  Munich,  (Kunsthandwerk). 


The  Krater     (Plate  184.) 

The  Krater  is  an  Antique  vase,  chiefly  used  for  mixing  ^vater 
and  wine  (wine  was  not  drunk  unmixed);  and  perhaps  also  for  ablu- 
tions. Although  we  meet  with  it  as  early  as  Egyptian  times,  it  is 
not  found  in  Antique  Keramic  art  until  its  later  periods.  As  a  state 
vessel,  the  Krater  has  probably  been  more  highly  developed  than  any 
other  form.  Modern  art  employs  the  Krater  preferentially  as  a  garden 
vase  for  plants.  A  characteristic  of  the  Krater  is  its  great  width 
at  the  top.  The  body  is  either  a  hemispherical  dish  (fig.  9), 
or  has  a  wide,  cup  -  shaped  neck,  (figs.  7  and  8).  Where  the 
junction  is  formed  without  a  shoulder:  we  have  the  bell-shaped  Krater 
(figs.  3  and  4).  The  Foot  is  frequently  small;  and  so  arranged  that  it 
stands  on  an  independent  base  (fig.  10).  Two,  sometimes  four,  or 
more,  horizontal  or  vertical  handles,  or  hints  of  them.  The  principal 
materials  were  clay,  marble,  and  metal.  Kraters  are  usually  of  con- 
siderable size. 

Plate  184.    The  Krater. 

1.  Egyptian,  with  lotus  cups. 

2.  Egyptian,  Thebes,  XVIII  dynasty. 
3 — 4.     Greek,  Munich,  (Lau). 

5.  Greek,  with  columnar  handles,  Munich,  (Lau). 

6.  Greek,  with  volute  handles,  (Lau). 

7.  Antique,  Uffizi,  Florence,  (Gropius). 

8.  Antique,    marble,    with   four    handles,    found    at   Ostia,   evi- 
dently copied  from  a  metal  original. 

9.  Ditto,  found  at  Tivoli,  England. 

10.  Antique,  state  Vase,  marble,  the  decoration  of  the  neck,  con- 
sisting of  figures  or  rich  scroll  ornament,  is  omitted. 

11.  Assyrian. 

}.2 — 13.  Antique,  for  ladies'  toilet,  Greek  vase-paintings. 

The  Basin,  and  Dish.    (Plate  185.) 

Basins,  and  Dishes,  are  vessels  of  such   common   use,    that   they 
are  found  everywhere,    and    in  all  periods   in  which  tlie  Keramic  art 


VASES. 


309 


The  Krater. 


Plate  184. 


310  The  Basin,  and  Dish. 

has  been  practised.  Their  uses  are  manifold;  their  form  is  indicated 
by  their  names:  Dishes  are  the  deeper,  Plates  the  shallower  vessels. 
They  occur  without  foot,  and  with  a  round  or  high  foot.  The  last 
was  specially  adopted  for  the  Greek  Kylix.  Handles  are  wanting,  or 
occur  singly,  or  in  pairs,  horizontal,  vertical,  as  hoop  handles,  and  so 
on.  Material,  and  size:  various.  The  decoration  of  Dishes  is  generally 
on  the  exterior;  and  of  Plates  is  generally  on  the  inner  or  upper 
face.  In  the  latter  case:  the  border  and  the  centre  are  ornamented 
separately,  being  divided  from  each  other  by  a  neutral,  undecorated 
zone,  (figs.  13 — 16).  To  paint  the  entire  surface  with  figures,  dis- 
regarding the  division  of  border  and  centre,  would  be  contrary  to 
correct  Style. 

PiiATE  185.    The  Basin,  and  the  Dish. 

1 .  Egyptian  Dish,  with  hoop  handles.  Metal,  (Menard  et  Sauvagcot). 

2.  Egyptian  Dish,  with  erect  handles,  Metal,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

3.  Greek  Dish,  yellow  clay,  painted  brown  and  red,  Geo- 
metrical style,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

4.  View  from  above,  of  the  handles  of  the  above. 

5.  Greek  Dish,  yellow  clay,  ornamented  with  horn  -  like  ex- 
crescences, painted  red.  Geometrical  style.  United  collections, 
Carlsruhe. 

6.  Greek  Dish,-  with  high  foot  (Kylix),  yellow  clay,  decoration 
brown,  Geometrical  style,  Munich,  the  interior  is  decorated 
with  the  ornament  shown  on  Plate  157.  4. 

7.  Ditto. 

8.  Greek,  -flat  Dish,  with  ring  foot,  Munich,  (Lau). 

9.  Antique  footless  Dish,  (Jacobsthal). 

10.  Antique,  small  Dish,    with  low  foot,  silver  treasm-e,  Hildes- 
heim. 

11.  Antique,  metal  Dish,   with   high  volute  handles,   (Menard  et 
Sauvageot). 

12.  Roman,  glass  Dish,  with  pierced  handle  ring.  Found  in  Nor- 
mandy, (Deville). 

13 — 14.  Majolica  Dish,  view  and  section,  Italian  Renascence. 
15 — IG.  Modern  glass  Plates,  with  scalloped  border. 

17.  Modern  Soup-tureen,  with  cover. 

18.  jModern  French  metal  Dish,    with   vertical  handle   and    three 
feet,  (Julienne). 

19.  ]\[odern    Spanish,    small    Dish,     of    variegated    glnzed    clay, 
Malaga,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

20.  Modern  Cofl'ee-bowl,  with  horizontal  bandies. 

21.  Handle  of  No.  20,  viewed  from  above. 


VASES." 


311 


The  Basin,  and  the  Dish. 


Plate  185. 


312  The  Ampulla,   Alabastron,  &c.  —  The  Flower-Vase,  <S:c. 

The  Ampulla,  Alabastron,  «S:c.     (Plate  18G.) 

The  Ampulla  is  a  diminutive  Amphora,  often  in  black  painted 
clay,  adorned  with  impressed  ornament  (figs.  4 — 6).  The  Pliiale 
is  a  slender  vessel,  without  handles,  with  elongated  body,  and 
long  narrow  neck,  of  clay  or  glass  (figs.  1 — 3).  The  Alabastron 
has  a  bag-like  or  cylindrical  body,  no  foot,  a  very  narrow  neck  with 
a  shoulder,  a  large  plate-like  mouth,  and  little  ear-shaped  handles 
(figs.  13 — 14).  This  vessel  was  intended  for  the  reception  of  oils 
and  unguents;  it  was  made  of  alabaster  or  striped  glass,  whence 
its  name.  The  Lachiymatory,  so-called  from  its  tear -like  profile, 
or  from  its  purpose,  is  a  glass  vessel,  of  the  forms  shown  in  figs. 
11  and  12.  Not  less  frequent  are  little  bag  forms  like  the 
handleless  vessels  given  in  figs.  6,  9,  and  10.  Like  those  already 
named,  they  were  intended  for  toilet. or  religious  purposes. 

Plate  18G.    The  Ampulla,  Alabastron,  &.c. 

1.  Egyptian  Phiale,  with  cover,  Thutmes  III. 

2.  Antique  Phiale,  painted  clay,  Munich,  (Lau). 

3.  Antique  glass  Phiale,  (Stackelberg). 

4.  Antique  glass  Ampulla,  striped  bright  blue  and  yellow. 

^  Antique    Ampulla,    black   painted   clay  with   impressed    orn 

aments,  Athens,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 
6.  Ditto,  Athens. 

7 — 10.  Antique,  Small  Vessels,  painted  clay,  United  collections,  Carls- 
ruhe. 
11 — 12.  Antique    glass    Lachrymatories,    Museum,    Nuremberg,    and 

United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 
11.  Antique    Alabastron,    veined    glass,    imitating    oriental    ala- 

baster. 

14.  Antique  Alabastron,    milk-white    glass,    with    brown    stripes, 
Campana  collection,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

15.  Vase,    white    iridescent    glass,    Campana    collection,    (L'art 
pour  tous). 

16.  Modern  Japanese,  Small  Vase,   vnih   mask   handles,   Landes- 
gewerbehalle,  Carlsruhe. 

17.  Old  German,  Small  stoneware  Vase. 


The  Flower -Vase,  &c.    (Plate  187.) 

Flower-vase  is  the  name  given  to  vessels  intended  to  receive  and 
support  bouquets  of  living  or  dried  flowers.  Various  as  the  forms  of 
these  vessels  may  be  in  other  respects,  their  purpose  requires  that  they 


VASES. 


313 


The  Ampulla,  the  Alabastron,  &c. 


Plate  186. 


814 


VASE3. 


,'5-    K 


Plate  187. 


The  Flower- Vase,  &c. 


The  Flower- Vase,  &c  —  Vase-forms  for  Various  Purposes.         315 

should  have  a  funnel-shaped  mouth.  Japan  and  China,  which  have 
been  especially  prolific  in  this  group,  use  cylindrical  and  prismatic  foi-ms. 
Such  vessels  do  not  possess  a  cover;  handles,  which  are  equally  super- 
tluous,  are  also  generally  wanting;  the  decoration  should  avoid  any 
attempt  to  imitate  natural  plant  motives.  Glass,  clay,  and  porcelain  are 
the  predominant  materials.  A  special  example  of  these  vessels  is  the 
so-called  "Hyacinth-glass"  intended  for  forcing  bulbs  in  water.  As  it 
is  desirable  that  the  root  should  be  visible,  recourse  must  be  had  to 
some  transparent  material.  Decoration  is  excluded  in  the  case  of  the 
ordinary  Flower-pot,  which  must  admit  air  and  moisture.  This  has 
led  to  the  use  of  the  Decorated  Flower-pot,  an  example  of  which  is  given 
in  fig.  12.  The  suspended  Flower -vase,  like  suspended  vases  in 
general,  must  be  famished  with  three  or  more  handles  to  which 
the  cords  and  chains  may  be  attached;  but  it  need  not  have  a  foot 
unless  it  intended  to  stand  also. 

Plate  187.    The  Flo\ver-Vase,  &c. 

1.  Chinese,  with  cloison  enamel,  (Li^vre). 

2.  Modem  English,    in    oriental  style,    blue    glazed   clay,    with 
black  ornament,  Landesgewerbehalle,  Carlsruhe. 

3.  Modem,  glazed  clay,  with  decoration  in  colours. 

4.  Modern  Italian  majolica,  Landesgewerbehalle,  Carlsruhe. 

5.  Modern,  coloured  stoneware,  (Gewerbehalle). 

6.  Glass,  17th  century. 
7 — 9.     Modem,  glass. 

10 — 11.  Modem,  Hyacinth-glasses,  (No.  10  is  patented:  the  upper 
part  is  made  to  lift  out  for  greater  convenience  of  pouring-' 
in  water). 

12.  Modern,  decorated  Flower-pot,  green  glazed  clay. 

13.  Arabian  suspended  Lamp,  enamelled  glass,  conventional  form, 
(part  of  the  ornamentation  is  omitted). 

14 — 15.  Modem  suspended  Flower- vases,  of  glazed  clay. 


Vase-forms  for  Various  Purposes.    (Plate  1S8.) 

This  plate  exhibits  a  number  of  receptacles  for  salt  and  other 
spices,  vinegar,  oil,  ink,  &c.  The  name  "cellar"  and  "stand"  have 
little  connection  with  the  form  of  these  vessels,  which  may  be  very 
various.  ■  Receptacles  for  oil  and  vinegar  are  often  called  "Cruets". 
Vessels  belonging  to  this  group  have  not  been  preserved  to  us  from 
the  Antique;  but  we  may  not  conclude,  from  this,  that  salt,  oil,  &c., 
were  not  preserved  in  vessels  in  those  days:  on  the  contrary,  some 
small  vessels  in  the  silver  treasure  at  Hildesheim,  have  been  supposed 


316  Vase-forms  for  Various  Purposes. 

to  be  Salt-cellars,  though  we  have  no  definite  evidence  that  this 
was  so. 

The  Salt-cellar  visually  takes  the  form  of  a  dish  or  bowl,  some- 
times of  a  little  trough  or  tub.  The  material  is  glazed  clay,  glass, 
porcelain,  metal,  &c.  The  Kenascence  period  created  Salt-cellars  of 
rich  design:  the  most  celebrated  is  the  famous  one  by  Cellini. 

With  the  increased  use  of  writing,  the  Inkstand  has  undergone 
an  immense  number  of  changes  of  form.  The  wooden  Inkstand,  with 
glass  lining,  was  in  use,  for  a  long  time,  till  it  was  rendered  obsolete 
by  vessels  of  clay  and  glass.  What  is  required  of  a  good  Inkstand 
is:  —  it  should  not  faU-over  easily,  and  if  it  does  should  not  spill; 
the  evaporation  must  be  reduced  to  a  minimum;  the  height  of  the 
contents  must  be  easy  to  regulate.  To  fulfil  all  these  requirements 
numerous  inventions  have  been  made,  some  of  which  we  will  notice 
here.  In  fig.  10  the  centre  of  gravity  lies  in  the  foot,  and  this,  with 
the  form  of  the  glass,  prevents  falling-over,  or  spilling.  In  fig.  12  the 
level  of  the  ink  can  be  regulated  by  an  India-rubber  stopper.  The  funnel- 
shaped  tube  in  which  the  ink  rises  is  convenient  for  dipping  the  pen; 
and  it  reduces  the  evaporation.  Fig.  13  shows  an  Inkstand  with 
sloping  bottom,  and  revolving  cover,  which  may  be  adjusted  to  the 
varying  level  of  the  ink.  The  form  of  fig.  14  is  intended  to  prevent 
falling-over,  to  reduce  evaporation,  and  to  maintain  the  level  uniform 
for  a  long  time;  a  result  which  is  attained,  notwithstanding  the  sim- 
plicity. 

Oil  and  Vinegar  Cruets  are  usually  small  bottles  with  a  shoulder. 
They  are  generally  placed  in  pairs,  in  a  frame  (fig.  7);  a  direct  union 
of  the  two,  as  in  fig.  6,  is  rare. 

The  Pepper-box  has  of  late  years  taken  the  form  of  the  pepper 
mill  or  grinder  (fig.  8),  otherwise  it  is  associated  with  the  Salt-cellar, 
and  receives  the  same  form.  The  Inkstand  and  the  Sand-box  were 
also  often  associated  together;  but  Blotting-paper  renders  the  latter 
unnecessary. 

Plate  188.    Vase-forms  for  Various  Purposes. 

1.  Salt-cellar,  Renascence,  (Formenschatz). 

2.  Salt-cellar,  German,   16th  century. 

3.  Majolica  Salt-cellar,  Italian  Renascence,  (Teirich). 

4.  Spice-frame,  glass,   18th  century. 

5.  Modern  Cruet- frame. 

6.  Modern  Cruets,  coloui-ed  glass,  Antique  model. 

7.  Modern  Cruet-frame. 

8.  Modern  Peppermill. 

9.  Old  Inkstand,  wood. 

10.  Modern  Inkstand. 

11.  Inkstand,  Glazed  clay. 


VASES. 


317 


Vase-forms  for  Various  Purposes. 


Plate  188. 


318       ,  Vase-forms  for  Various  Purposes. 

12.  Modem  Inkstand,  with  adjustible  stopper. 

13.  Modern  glass  Inkstand,  with  sloping  bottom  and  revolving  cover. 

14.  Modern  glass  Inkstand. 

15.  Old    horn   Inkstand,    for  the   pocket;    after  unscrewing  the  foot- 
piece,  the  metal  pin'  may  be  forced  into  the  Table-top. 

16.  Modem  Inkstand. 

17.  Modern  Inkstand. 

The  Jar,  the  Cist,  &c.    (Plate  189.) 

J.irs  and  Pots  are  small  receptacles  of  spheroid  or  cylindrical 
form,  for  solid,  granular,  or  pasty  substances.  The  lid  is  either 
loose,  or  affixed  by  hinges;  and  is  an  essential  part  of  the  vessel. 
The  materials  are  clay,  porcelain,  glass,  wood,  metal,  ivory,  &c. 

Besides  the  small  clay  Pots  and  Boxes  which  are  conjmon  in  the 
Antique:  we  must  also  mention  the  Cist.  This  is  a  metal  vessel  of 
cylindrical  form,  and  considerable  size,  which  was  used  for  religious 
rites,  and  for  the  reception  of  jewelry,  rolls,  &c.  The  style  is  con- 
ventional: there  were  three  claws  for  the  feet;  and  the  exterior  of 
the  cylinder  was  decorated  with  incised  figures,  and  furnished  with 
rings  to  which  chains  were  attached,  for  the  transportation  of  the 
vessel.  The  lid  is  slightly  domed;  and  the  handle  usually  consists  of 
two   wrestlers   grasping   each    other   by   the    shoulders   (fig.   6). 

Plate  189.    The  Jar,  the  Cist,  «S;c. 

1.  Antique,  yellow  clay,  painted  brown  and  red,  this  is  the  so-called 
"Dodwell  vase"  celebrated  as  the  first-discovered  of  the  vases  in 
imitation  of  the  Asiatic  style,  dug-up.  near  Corinth. 

2.  Antique,  yellow  clay,  painted  red  and  brown,  United  collections, 
Carlsruhe. 

3.  Antique,  with  small  Kylix  as  lid,  yellow  clay,  painted  brown  and 
red,  imitating  the  Asiatic  style,  Munich,  (Lau). 

4.  Antique,  black  clay. 

5.  Antique,  painted  clay,  belongs  to  the  later  period  of  the  red 
figure  style,  metal  ring,  Berlin,  Museum. 

G.  Antique  bronze  Cist,  Louvre,  Paris,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

7.  Modern  Japanese,  lacquered  gold  and  black,  the  lid  forms  a  disli, 

Landescjewerbehalle,  Carlsruhe. 
S.  Old  Persiau,   repousse   copper,   the   decoration  is  too  small  to  be 

given,  (Kunsthandwerk). 
9.  Modern  Snuff-box,  birch  bark. 

10.  Modern  Tobacco-jar,  Norwegian,  carved  in  wood,  Landesgewerbe- 
halle,  Carlsruhe. 

11.  Metal  boXj^  with  collapsible  Drinking-cup,  Modern. 


VASES. 


319 


The  Jar,  the  Cist,  &c. 


Plate  189. 


320  The  Foi\t,  and  the  Holy-Water  Stoup.  —  The  Hydria. 


The  Font,  and  the  Holy- Water  Stoup.    (Plate  190.) 

Holy-water  plays  an  important  part  in  many  rites  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church,  It  is  kept  in  Holy-water  Stoups.  These  are  bowls, 
either  free,  or  attached  to  walls.  In  the  former  case,  the  form  generally 
approaches  that  of  the  Krater;  in  the  latter  case,  the  edge  projects  as 
a  half  or  three-quarter  circle  from  the  surface  of  the  wall;  and  the 
stoup  is  supported  on  a  pilaster,  column,  or  console.  For  use  in 
houses:  the  Stoup  takes  the  form  of  a  suspended  dish,  as  shown  by 
fig.  11.  The  decoration  is  mostly  symbolic,  e.  g.  crosses,  monograms, 
cherub-heads,  &c.  Most  of  the  examples  are  taken  from  the  work  by 
Raguenet,  which  contains  a  large  selection  of  these  objects. 

Plate  190. 

1.  Romanesque,  minster,  Weissenburg,  (Raguenet). 

2.  Romanesque,  Church  of  the  Crucifix,  Compi^gue,  (Raguenet). 

3.  Romanesque,  church,  Picardy,  (Raguenet). 

4.  Romanesque,  church,  Charleville,  (Raguenet). 

5.  12th  century,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

6.  16th  century.  Church,  Mas  d'Azil,  Ari^ge,  (Raguenet). 

7.  17th  century,  Church,  Cormontreuil,  (Raguenet). 

8.  Church,  Picardy,  (Raguenet). 

9.  Modem,  church,  Couthuin,  Belgium,  Architect  Halkin,  (Raguenet). 

10.  16th  century.  Chapel  of  the  castle,  Mello,  France,  (Raguenet). 

11.  17th  century,    beaten   silver,    Royal   Museum,    Stuttgart,    (Kunst- 
handwerk). 


b.  Dippers. 

The  Hydria.     (Plate  191.) 

The  Hydria,  as  its  name  implies,  is  the  water-pot.  It  is  the 
vessel  which  the  maidens  took  to  the  spring;  filled  with  water;  and 
then  bore  home  on  their  heads.  It  was  carried,  when  empty  in  a 
horizontal;  and  when  full,  in  a  vertical  attitude.  Of  all  vases:  it  is 
the  most  perfect  in  form;  its  aim  being  so  well  expressed  in  its  con- 
struction. It  must  be  easy  to  carry,  convenient  to  fill  and  empty, 
and  to  hold  as  much  fluid  as  possible;  it  therefore  has  a  vertical 
body  of  the  shape  of  an  inverted  egg  (this  form  places  the  centie 
of  gravity  at  the  top,  which  facilitates  transportation  in  a  vertical 
attitude);  on  which  a  funnel-shaped  neck  is  placed.  It  has  three 
handles:    two   are   horizontal,    diametrically  opposite   to  each  other  at 


VASES. 


321 


The  Font,  and  the  Holy- Water  Stonp. 

Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament. 


Plate  190. 
21 


322  The  Hydria.  —  The  Bucket,  &c. 

the  greatest  protuberance  of  the  body,  which  served  to  raise  the  vessel 
when  full;  the  third  is  vertical,  placed  on  one  side  of  the  neck, 
which  served  to  carry  the  vessel  when  empty,  to  steady  it  when  full 
and  when  pouring- out.  The  foot  is  always  small.  The  neck  has  a 
shoulder,  or  blends  in  a  curve  with  the  body.  A  special  Idnd  of  the 
latter  treatment  is  the  Kalpis  (fig.  2).  The  smaller,  slenderer  Hydrias, 
which  were  not  intended  to  be  cai-ried  on  the  head,  are  termed 
Hand -hydrias.     The  material  is  clay. 

1'late  191.    The  Hydria. 

1.  Greek,  (Jacobsthal). 

2.  Greek,  of  the  Kalpis  form,  body  smooth,  black,  painted  with 
red  figures  on  the  shoulder. 

3.  Greek,  painted  black,  reddish  brown  and  white  on  the  clay 
ground,  Campana  collection,'  Louvre,  Paris,  (L'art  pour  tous), 
the  decoration  is  of  the  highest  class,  the  shoulder  is  decorated 
by  an  ivy  band,  which  is  omitted  in  this  figure,  but  given 
on  Plate  32.  4. 

4 — 5.  GraecQ  -  Italic  Hand-hydrias,  unpaintcd  clay.   United  collections, 

Carlsruhe. 
6 — 8.  Greek  Vase-paintings,  showing  the  mode  of  carrying  and  usin^ 

the  Hydria. 


The  Bucket,  &c.     (Plate  192.) 

We  have  seen  that  the  Hydria  gives  beautiful  expression  to  the 
idea  of  pouring-out;  the  Bucket,  on  the  other  hand,  is  distincly  a 
dipper,  and  the  Funnel  a  filler. 

The  Bucket  is  of  specifically  Egyptian  origin;  with  it  water  was 
dravni  from  the  Nile;  and  hence  the  drop-like  form,  vdth  the  centre 
of  gravity  low  down.  Two  such  Buckets  were  carried  on  a  yoke. 
The  form  serving  to  prevent  spilling,  (figs.  1 — 4).  The  Assyrian 
Bucket  generally  terminates  below  in  a  lion  mask,  from  which  the 
bag-shaped  neck  rises,  (fig.  6).  In  the  Graeco-Italic  style,  we  find 
footless  Buckets  resembling  an  inverted  egg  (fig.  10);  others  with  a 
ring  foot  are,  however,  not  uncommon,  (figs.  7,  8,  9  and  11).  Instead 
of  one  hoop  handle  there  were  sometimes  two  (figs.  7  and  9). 

The  ecclesiastical  art  of  the  Middle  ages  gave  its  portable  Holy- 
water  Stoups  the  form  of  buckets,  modifying  the  shape  of  the  latter 
to  fit  them  for  this  purpose  (figs.  13,  14).  Sometimes  _  the  Bucket 
is  furnished  with  a  spout,  or  a  nozzle  (fig.  15). 

The  Funnel,  as  a  rule,  takes  the  shape  of  an  inverted  cone,  with 
or  without  a  tubular  continuation;    the  handle  is  vertical  (figs.  20,  21), 


VASES. 


323 


The  Hydria. 


Plate  191. 
21* 


324  The  Bucket,  &c.  —  The  Spoon,  &c. 

hoop-shaped  (fig.  19),  or  two  horizontal  double  (fig.  18).  A  Water- 
ing i^ot  is  shown  in  fig.  19:  the  hole  at  the  top  is  intended  to  let 
the  water  flow  when  opened,  or  to  stop  the  flow  by  atmospheric  pres- 
sure when  closed  by  the  finger. 

Metal,  as  the  more  durable  material,  is  generally  used  for  Buckets 
and  Funnels:  clay,  glass,  &c.,  are  less  common. 

Plate  192.    The  Bucket,  &c. 

1.  Egyptian,  Thebes,  Tutmes  III. 

2 — 4.  Egyptian,  bronze. 

5.  Egyptian  Bucket-like  Vessel,  without  handle. 

6.  Assyrian,  with  cord  handle. 

7 — 11.  Graeco-Italic,  bronze,  of  various  forms. 

12.  Antique,  with  hoop  handle,  red  clay,  painted  black.  United 

collections  in  Carlsruhe,  the  eye  in  the  uppermost  zone, 
which  is  found  in  Greek  Keramics,  has  been  explained  as  a 
protective  against  the  "evil  eye". 

13 — 14.  Mediaeval,  beaten  copper,  15th  century,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

15.  Modern  Italian,  clay,  with  hoop-handle  and  nozzle,  (Gropiusj. 

16 — 17.  Modern  Coal-vases,  sheet-metal,  square  and  round. 

18.  Antique  clay  Funnel. 

19.  Mediaeval  Vessel,  for  watering  the  ground,  clay,  (Viollet-le- 
Duc). 

20.  Modern  Funnel,  for  watering  the  ground,  sheet-metal. 

21.  General  form  of  the  modern  sheet-metal  Funnel. 


The  Spoon,  and  the  Ladle.   (Plate  193.) 

Spoons  and  Paterae  form  a  special  class  of  dippers.  As  the 
Table-spoon,  strictly  so-called,  will  come  up  for  discussion  among  the 
utensils,  we  have  here  to  consider  only  the  larger  spoon -shaped 
vessels  and  the  Paterae  (handled  dishes)  used  for  religious  and  other 
purposes.  The  natural  model  of  the  Spoon  is  the  hollow  hand, 
whence  the  spherical,  elliptical,  or  oval  dish-shape,  with  an  attached 
handle.  The  latter  usually  lies  in  the  plane  of  the  rim,  but  it  may 
also  form  an  obtuse  angle  with  it,  or,  as  in  the  case  of  the  antique 
Simpulum  (fig.  11),  a  right- angle.  Egyptian  Spoons,  which  are 
richly  decorated,  often  possess  a  cover  rotating  round  a  pin  (compare 
the  projections  on  the  dish,  fig.  2),  the  spoon  then  becomes  a  kind 
of  pot  or  receptacle.  A  foot  is  of  course  superfluous  on  the  ordinary 
Spoon;  but  the  Patera)  with  handles  not  infrequently  have  a  ring- 
foot  to  enable  them  to  stand  (figs.  7 — 8).  The  Spoon  and  the 
PatertE   may   also    be    furnished    with    a   special    spout   or   lip  (fig.   6). 


VASES. 


325 


The  Bucket,  &c. 


Plate  192. 


326  The  Spoon,  &c  —  The  Prochous,  &c. 

As  a  rule:  the  Dish  is  plain,  or  is  slightly  decorated  by 
engraving  the  interior,  (fig.  6).  The  decoration  is  generally  confined 
to  the  rim  and  the  handle,  or  its  points  of  junction.  The  material 
is  usually  wood,  bone,  or  metal.     The  size  varies  with  the  use. 

Plate  193.    Tiie  Spoon,  and  the  Ladle. 

1 — 4.     Egyptian  Spoons,    plainly  or  richly  finished,    partly  painted. 

5..  Assyrian  spoon-like  Vessel. 

6.  Antique  bronze  Patera,  with  lip. 

7, 9, 10.  Antique   bronze  Paterae,     seen    from    the    side,    from  above, 

and  below. 
8.  Antique  terracotta  Patera. 

11 — 12.  Antique  Simpula. 

13.  Antique     spoon  -  like    Vessel,     bronze.     United     collections, 
Carlsruhe. 

14.  Antique    cooking   Vessel,    like    a    handled   dish,    (Menard   et 
Sauvageot).     • 


c.   Pourers. 

t 

The  ProchoUs,  the  OinqchoK,  the  Olfe,  &c.  (Plate  194.) 

We  commence  the  series  of  pourers  with  the  antique  forms  of 
the  Prochous,  Oinochoo,  Olpe,  &c.  As  the  definition  of  these  appella- 
tions is  not  yet  finally  settled:  it  will  be  best  to  leave  the  various 
intermediate  forms  entirely  unnamed.  The  vessels  were  used  partly 
for  secular,  partly  for  religious  purposes.  Thus  the  Prochous  is  the 
sacrificial  vessel  from  which  the  libations  of  wine  were  poured- out, 
into  the  Patera.  The  OinochoS  is  believed  to  have  been  a  secular 
wine  jug;  and  the  Olpe  to  have  been  a  receptacle  for  oil,  &c. 

All  these  vessels  have  this  in  common:  that  the  mouth  is  wavy, 
elongated  to  a  channel  on  one  side,  or  pinched -in  at  the  sides,  to 
form  a  large  spout  and  facilitate  the  pouring-out.  The  older  vessels, 
in  particular,  show  great  boldness  in  thus  making  the  form  of  the 
mouth  difi"erent  to  the  circular  plan  which  is  a  result  of  the  use  of 
the  Potter's-wheel;  but  in  the  later  times  there  was  a  return  to  the 
simpler  and  more  beautiful  shape.  The  Prochous  and  the  Oiuochng 
generally  have  an  upright  body,  in  shape  like  an  egg.  The  Olpe 
invariably  has  a  cake  or  bag -shaped  body,  a  form  which  is  occa- 
sionally found  in  the  Prochous.  The  veiiical  handle  is  raised  above 
the  vessel  and  is  attached  in  a  bold  sweep  to  the  side  opposite  the 
lip.    The  foot  is  usually  ring-shaped.     Bronze   and   clay  are  employed 


VASES. 


327 


The  Spoon,  and  the  Ladle. 


Plate  193. 


328  The  Prochou3,  &c.  —  The  Lekythos,  &c 

as   materials.      The    Prochoiis   and  OinochoS  are,   generally,    vessels  of 
considerable  size,  while  the  Olpe  is  smaller. 

Plate  194.    The  Prochous,  the  Oinochoe,  the  Oipe,  <£.c. 

1.  Greek    Prochoiis,    archaic   form    and   ornamentation,    painted 
clay. 

2.  Greek  Prochoiis,   geometrical  style,    red  clay,   painted  black. 

3.  Greek  Cyprian  Vessel,  geometrical  style,  yellow  clay,  painted 
brown,  Munich,  (Lau). 

4.  Greek  OinochoS,  Asiatic  style,  yellow,  painted  clay,  (Semper). 

5.  Antique   small    Vessel,    yellow    clay,    painted   black,    United 
collections,  Carlsruhe. 

6.  Antique   small  Vessel,    clay,    painted   black,    engraved  orna- 
ment. United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

7 — 9.  Greek  Vessels,  painted  clay. 

10.  Greek  bronze  Vessel,    collection    of  Herr  von  Pulsky,  Pesth. 

11.  Graeco-Itilic  bronze  Vessel. 

12.  Prochoiis  in  the  form  of  a  female  head.  Museum,  Rome. 
13 — 14.  Antique  Olpe,  painted  clay. 

15.  Antique  bronze  Olpe,  Museum  Rome. 


The  Lekythos,  &c.    (Plate  195.) 

The  Lekythos  is  a  small  antique  pourer,  employed  sometimes  in 
the  toilet  as  a  receptacle  for  oils  and  unguents,  and  sometimes  in 
funeral  rites,  to  be  placed  with  the  deceased  in  the  grave.  The 
form  is  generally  elongated,  cylindrical  or  spindle-shaped,  more  rarely 
bag-like  or  spherical.  The  foot  is  a  plain  ring  foot,  the  neck  long 
and  narrow  with  a  shoulder.  The  handle  rises  from  the  body  up  to 
the  upper  end  of  the  neck.  As  regards  form  and  decoration,  these 
pretty  vessels  form  special  groups.  The  slender  forms  are  the  older, 
the  spherical  and  depressed  the  later.  Upright  palmettes,  as  shown 
in  fig.  1,  are  a  characteinstic  decoration.     The  material  is  clay. 

PL.4TE  195.    Tue  Lekythos,  &c. 

1 — 3.  Greek,  red  clay,  painted  black.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

4 — 6.  Greek,  red  clay,  painted  black. 

7.  Greek,  painted  black  and  white,  later  period. 

8.  Greek,  Attic  style. 

9.  Ditto. 

10 — 12.  Greek,  red  clay,  painted  black.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 
13.  Greek,  red  clay,  painted  black  and  white,  Munich,   (Lau). 


VASES. 


329 


The  Prochous,  the  Oinochoe,  the  Olpe,  &c.  Plate  194. 


330  The  Lekythos.  —  The  Lip-spout  Pitcher. 

14.  Greek   Arj'ballos    (perfume  vaso),    United   collections,    Carls - 
ruhe. 

15.  Greek  Aryballos,  painted  black,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

16.  Greek,     Perfume  -  vase ,    with    hoop    handle,    painted    black, 
United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

17.  Greek  Lekythos,  later  period,  United  collections,    Carlsruhe. 


The  Lip-spout  Pitcher.    (Plates  196—197) 

The  want  of  some  uniform  nomenclature  makes  itself  felt  not 
only  in  the  case  of  antique  vessels,  but  also  with  such  colloquial 
expressions  as  "pitcher",  "jug",  "pot",  "can",  "bottle",  &c.,  which 
include  a  great  variety  of  forms,  so  that  what  one  calls  pitchers  and 
pots  another  calls  jugs  and  cans.  To  maintain  at  least  some  kind 
of  system  in  this  handbook,  we  class  all  vessels  with  vertical  handles, 
(unless  they  belong  to  some  special  category),  as  "Pitchers"  if  they 
have  the  usual  mouth  with  a  lip;  and  as  "Pots"  if  they  have  a  pipe- 
like spout. 

The  material  and  size,  of  the  Pitcher  vary  greatly,  according  to 
its  pui-pose  and  period.  The  principal  representatives  are  the  ewers, 
and  jugs,  of  glass,  clay,  stoneware,  and  met-vl. 

Plate  196.    The  Lip- spout  Pitcher. 

1.  Egyptian,    "with    saucer,    recalling   our   modem    ewers   and   basins. 

2.  Antique  iridescent  glass,  Germanisches  Museum,  Nuremberg. 

3.  Antique  glass,  found  in  Trouville-la-Rivi^re,  Norm;mdy,  (Deville). 

4.  Antique  glass,  found  near  Mainz,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

6.  Roman,  glass,  from  a  grave    at  Bingerbriick,   Wiesbaden  Museum. 

6.  Antique,  blue  glass,  Louvre,  (Deville). 

7.  Like  No.  5. 

8.  Antique,  yellowish  green  glass,  Germanisches  Museum,  Nuremberg. 

9.  Like  No.  4. 

10.  Antique,  glass,  found  in  Rouen,  3d  century  A.  D.,  Rouen  Museum, 
(Deville). 

11.  Antique  ring-shape,  unpainted  clay.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

12.  Roman  -  Alemannic ,  red  clay,  found  in  Kaferthal  near  Mannheim, 
United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

13.  Antique  (?)  bronze,  with  cover,  found,  at  Saumur,  (Menard  et 
Sauvageot). 

14.  Ancient  American,  grey  clay,  time  of  the  Incas,  excavated  at 
Trujillo  in  Peru,  (the  round  compartment  of  the  body  is  fan- 
tastically adorned  with  figures).  United  collections,    Carlsnihe, 


VASES. 


331 


The  Lekythos,  &c. 


Plate  195. 


332 


VASES. 


Plate  196. 


The  Lip-spout  Pitcher. 


VASES. 


333 


The  Lip-spout  Pitcher. 


Plate  197. 


334  The  Lip-spout  Pitcher.  —  The  Pipe-spout  Pot 

15.  Old  German,  Bohemian  glass. 

16.  Modem  Hungarian,  glazed  clay,  Landesgewerbehalle,  Carlsruhe. 

Plate  197.    The  Lip -spout  Pitcher. 

1.  Italian  Faience,  glazed  in  colours,  16th  century,  the  blue 
lilies  on  a  gold  ground  are  the  coat  of  Julius  III.,  Cluiiy 
Museum,  Paris,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

2.  German,  by  Hans  Holbein,  16th  century,  (Hirth,  Formea- 
schatz). 

3.  Old  German,  stoneware,  with  disc-shaped  body. 

4.  German  Renascence,  pewter,  (Hirth,  Formenschatz). 
5 — 6.     Old  German,  stoneware,  the  decoration  is  omitted. 

7.  Modern  stoneware,  with  tin  cover,  by  Dir.  Kachel. 

8.  [Modem  majolica,  Carlsruhe. 
9 — 10.  Modem,  stoneware. 

11 — 12.  Modem,  green  and  blue  glass. 


The  Pipe-spout  Pot.    (Plate  198.) 

As  already  remarked,  we  group  here  all  those  one-handled  pourers 
■which  possess  a  separate  spout  or  mouth.  Hei-e  too,  material,  size,  and 
form  are  very  various.  Distinct  categories  are  formed  by  the  State - 
jugs  of  metal,  such  as  were  in  use  at  the»  period  of  the  Italian 
Renascence  (fig.  1),  the  Oriental  metal  Jugs,  the  Venetian  small  glass 
Jugs,  milk,  coffee,  tea  and  watering  Pots,  &c.  Where  a'  spout  occurs: 
it  is  generally  attached  at  the  lower  part  or  middle  of  the  body,  more 
rarely  towards  the  top;  and  usually  reaches  to  the  level  of  the  mouth. 
The  Spout  generally  tapers  in  an  upward  direction;  its  orifice  is  some- 
times a  mask  or  a  widened  mouth-piece;  in  the  case  of  the  Watering- 
pot  it  is  furnished  with  a  rose.  The  handle  is  vertical,  or  a  hoop. 
Noteworthy  is  the  long  stump-handle  of  some  modern  Coffee-pots  (fig.  9). 
The  vessels  of  this  group  fi-equcutly  have  a  lid. 

PiATE  198.    TuE  Pipe -SPOUT  Pot. 

1.  Italian    Renascence,    State -jug,    metal,    design    by    Polidoro 
Caravaggio,    Uffizi,  Florence. 

2.  Japanese,  enamelled  metal.  Louvre,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

3.  Arabian,  metal,    16lh    century,  Cluuy  Museum,  Paris,  (L'art^ 
pour  tous). 

4 — 5.      Venetian   glass,    IGth  century,   (Hirlh,   and   L'art  pour  tous). 
6.  Modern    Oriental,    uuglazed    clay,    from    Jerusalem,     United 

collections,  Carlsrulie. 


VASES. 


335 


-t — I — I — I — 1 — I — I — 1 — 1 — \ 


The  Pipe-spout  Pot. 


I'late  198, 


336  The  Pipe-spout  Pot.  —  The  Bottle. 

7.  Oriental  Tea-pot,  painted  china. 

8.  Milk- ewer,  painted  faience,   18th  century,    United  collections, 
Carlsrulie. 

9.  Modern  Coffee-pot. 

10.  Modern  Tea-kettle,  metal,  hoop  handle,  with  wooden  guard. 

11 — 13.  Modern  Watering-pots,  sheet  metal. 


The  Bottle.    (Plates  199—200.) 

The  Bottle  has  a  spherical,  elongated,  or  bag  body;  and  an 
elongated,  narrow  neck,  which  usually  expands  like  a  funnel  towards 
its  upper  extremity,  and  is  sometimes  closed  by  a  stopper.  Bottles 
have  either  a  ring  foot  or  no  foot  at  all,  high  feet  are  exceptional. 
Handles  are  seldom  attached;  where  this  is  done,  they  appear  in  pairs. 
In  the  case  of  Pocket -flasks,  which  are  usually  of  a  disc  or  watch 
shape,  the  handle  serves  to  attach  the  flasks  to  a  cord  or  belt.  The 
material  is  chiefly  glass;  but  clay  and  metal  are  also  used.  The 
Bottle  form  has  been  specially  cultivated  in  the  East,  in  Persia,  China, 
Japan,  &c.  A  natural  model  is  frequently  found  in  the  Calabash, 
which  is  itself  often  used  as  a  Vessel. 

Plate  199.    The  Bottue. 

1 — 2.     Egyptian,  front  and  side  view. 

3;  Antique,  small  watch-shaped  Perfume- bottle,  blue  and   white 

glass,  vnth  handles  for  suspension,  like  a  hunting-flask,  Cam 

pana  collection,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

4.  Antique,  glass,  with  handles  for  suspension,  (Deville). 

5.  Antique,  Perfume-bottle,  transparent  emerald  green  glass. 

6.  •      Antique,  Campana  collection,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

7.  Antique,   two-handled,   iridescent  glass,   Campana   collection, 
(L'art  pour  tous). 

8.  Antique,  iridescent  glass,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

9.  Antique,  iridescent  glass.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

10.  Old   German,   glass,   from  the  Spessart,   (Friedrich,   Die  Alt-; 
deutschen  Glaser). 

11.  Modern,  cut  glass,  Dresden,  (Gewerbehalle). 

12.  Modern,  green  glass,  with  ring  stopper. 

13.  Modern,  yellowish  green  glass. 

14.  Modern,  "Florentine  flask",  covered  with  bast. 

Plate  200.    The  Bottle. 

1.  Egyptian,  without  foot,  two  rope  handles  for  suspension. 

2.  Antique,   red,   unpainted    clay,  United  collections,    Carlsruhe.. 


V^ASES 


337 


The  Bottle. 


Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament. 


Plate  199. 
22 


VASES 


Plate  200. 


The  Bottle. 


The  Bottle.  —  Drinking  Vessels.  339 

3.  Antique,  hammered  bronze,   with  cover  and  ring,   Castellani 
collection. 

4.  Ditto,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 
5 — 7.     Japanese,  bronze. 

8.  Persian,  clay. 

9 — 11.  Modem,    Egyptian,    tmglazed   gray    clay,    United    collections, 
Carlsruhe. 

12.  Chinese,  blue  porcelain,  (Lifevre). 

13.  Persian,  damaskeened  metal,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

14.  Wrought- iron  military  Flask,  holding  44  pints,   15th  century, 
Cluny  Museum,  Paris. 

15.  Modem  Hungarian  military  Flask,  colored  glazed  clay,  Landes- 
gewerbehalle,  Carlsruhe. 

16.  Majolica,    colored    plastic    ornamentation,    Modern    English, 
Landesgewerbehalle,  Carlsruhe. 

17.  Modem,  French,  green  glazed  clay. 


i.   Drinking   Vessels. 

Plates  201 — 210  show  drinking  vessels.  Drinkinsr  vessels  are 
as  ancient  as  drinking  itself;  and  they  are  consequently  found  in  every 
style.  Their  forms  and  kinds  are  infinitely  various;  especially  in  the 
Antique,  the  Middle  Ages,  and  the  Renascence.  Semper  says  on  tliis 
point:  "Athenaeus  gives  us  the  names  and  descriptions  of  more  than 
a  hundred  drinking  vessels,  although  he  confines  himself  to  those  of 
the  precious  metals,  which,  long  before  his  time,  had  replaced  earthen- 
ware drinking  vessels  among  the  Greeks.  The  same  variety  rules  in 
the  drinking  vessels  of  the  Middle  Ages;  and  although,  in  this  branch 
too,  our  poverty  of  invention  is  obvious,  compared  with  the  earlier 
fecundity;  still,  an  enumeration  of  the  difi"erent  forms  and  kinds  of 
drinking  vessels  now  in  common  use  would  be  fairly  extensive;  and 
would  be  all  the  more  difficult  inasmuch  as  our  modern  time  does 
not  adhere  to  typical  forms;  or,  more  correctly  speaking,  has  lost  all 
idea  of  what  a  type  is.  Nowhere  is  the  influence  of  caprice,  and 
heedless  confusion  of  forms  more  conspicuous  than  in  this  class  of 
vessels;  so  that  any  attempt  to  classify  drinking  vessels,  and  to 
enumerate  the  subdivisions  which  have  existed  and  still  exist,  can  meet 
with  little  success.  But  if  we  disregard  "freaks"  and  those  anomalous 
forms  of  drinking  vessels,  which  have  been  evolved  more  by  the 
influence  of  fashion,  and  caprice  than  by  the  intended  use,  we 
shall    find    that    the   distinctions   which   we   found  to  be   true  for  the 

22* 


340  Drinking  Vessels.  —  The  KjIls,  the  K;intbavos,  &c. 

forms    of    vessels    in    general,    are   applicable    to    drinking    vessels   iu 
particular". 

Notwithstanding  this,  we  will  attempt  to  clasiifj  the  forms  of 
drinking  vessels.  This  will  be  done,  partly  according  to  style,  placing 
the  commonest  antique  forms  on  one  Plate,  specifically  Old  German 
forms  on  another,  and  the  drinking  vessels  of  our  own  time  on  a  third. 
Partly,  too,  we  will  place,  on  other  Plates,  definite  groups  which  have 
either  an  identical  fundamental  form  or  a  common  object,  regardless 
of  their  belonging  to  the  same  or  to  different  styles,  e.  g.  Drinking 
horns  and  Rhytons,  Cups  and  Beakers,  Chalices  and  Goblets,  State-Cups, 
Rummers,  Mugs,  and  Tankards. 


Tee  Kylix,  the  Kantharos, '&c.    (Plate  201.) 

Drinking  vessels  of  clay  and  the  precious  metals,  played  the  chief, 
part  in  Antique  times,  while  glass,  which  was  employed  for  other 
purposes,  was  only  occasionally  used. 

A  very  common  form  is  the  two-handled  dish  or  Kylix,  with  a 
low  or  high  foot.  Both  the  form  and  the  name  of  the  later  Calj-x 
and  our  Chalice  are  derived  from  Kylix.  When  formed  of  clay,  the 
Kylix  is  a  plain  shallow  dish,  ornamented  on  the  under  side,  some- 
times with  figures  on  the  inner  side,  and  with  two  horizontal  handles 
(figs.  1 — 2).  In  metal,  the  form  becomes  richer,  the  handles  are 
elongated  and  bolder  in  curvature  (figs.  3 — i). 

The  fundamental  form  of  the  Kantharos  is  that  of  the  deep  dish 
or  Krater,  with  two  vertical  handles.  The  decoration  is  only  external; 
the  simplicity  in  clay  (fig.  5),  passes  mto  richness  when  metal  is  em- 
ployed (figs.  6 — 7).  Bacchic  attributes,  the  vine,  ivy,  the  thyrsos, 
masks,  &c.,  from  the  decoration. 

The  Kyathos,  a  dipper  and  drinking  veseel  at  once,  is  a  dish 
with  the  handle  elongated  vertically  and  sometimes  replaced  by  a 
straight  handle,  which  gives  the  vessel  somewhat  of  the  appearence  of 
a  spoon  (figs.  8,  9,  10). 

The  Skyphos  is  a  dish  with  two  horizontal  handles  (figs.  11); 
the  Kothon  (fig.  12),  is  the  military  drinking  vessel,  "a  vessel  with 
a  broad  rim  bent  inwards,  out  of  which  one  could  only  drink 
by  bending  the  neck  right  back;  but  it  was  convenient  for  dipping 
water  from  brooks,  and  the  in -curved  rim  caught  the  impurities  of 
the  water  so  that  they  remained  behind  both  in  dipping  and  drinking", 
(Semper). 

We  might  further  adduce  the  Deinos,  the  drinking  vessel  of 
Hercules,  the  amphikypellon,  a  double  beaker  mentioned  by  Homer, 
the  Kalathos,  and  others.  But  the  examples  selected  above  may 
suffice. 


VASES. 


341 


The  Kylix,  the  Kantharos,  &c. 


Plate  201. 


342  The  Kylk,  the  Eantharos,  &c.  —  The  Rhyton. 

Plate  201.    The  Kyux,  the  Kantharos,  &c, 

1.  Ajotique  Kylix,  painted  clay,  Museum,  Naples. 

2.  The  same  vessel,  viewed  from  below. 

8.    Greek  Kylix,  bronze,  found  in  sarcophagus  at  Cepbalonia,  (Stackel- 
berg). 

4.  Greek  Kylix,  bronze,  found  in  Ithaca. 

5.  ^lutique  Kantharos,  black  painted  clay.  United  collections,  Carls- 
ruhe. 

6.  Antique  Kylix,  beaten  silver,  Hildesheim  treasure,  Museum,  Berlin. 

7.  Antique    Kantharos,    beaten    silver,    found    at    Berthouville    near 
Bernay,  Bibliothfeque  Nationale,  Paris. 

8.  Antique  Kyathos,  black  painted  clay.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

9.  Antique  Kyathos,  painted  clay.  United  collections,  Garlsruhe. 

10.  Antique  Skyphos,  metal,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

11.  Antique  Skyphos,  painted  clay. 

12.  Antique  Kothon,  painted  clay.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 


The  Ehtton.     (Plate  202.) 

The  primaeval  custom,  of  using  the  Horns  of  animals  as  drinking 
vessels,  led  to  the  Drinking-Horn.  The  Antique  is  not  alone  in 
creating,  in  the  Khyton,  a  special  kind  of  these  vessels:  in  the  Middle 
ages  and  in  Modern  times,  in  England  and  Germany,  Drinking-horns 
are  well  known.  In  view  of  the  varied  and  often  complicated  forms 
of  these  latter,  we  shall  confine  ourselves  to  presenting  some  Antique 
examples. 

The  form  of  the  Khyton  was  that  of  an  animal's  head,  with 
the  addition  of  a  handle.  As  a  rule,  it  has  no  foot;  and  cannot  be 
set  down.  When  pierced  at  the  lower  end,  it  could  be  drunk-from 
in  the  manner  shown  in  fig.  11.  Stags,  asses,  swine,  vultures,  &c. 
were  utilised  as  models,  whence  the  special  names  Elaphos,  Onos, 
Kapros,  Gryps,  &c. 

Sometimes    the    himian    head  was  used,    (fig.  2).      The  vessel 
modelled    naturalistically;    and   receives   a  painted    decoration   on   the 
neck  alone.     The  material  is  clay. 

Plate  202. 

1.  Antique,  (Tragelaphos)  with  a  ram  head. 

2.  Antique,  willi  a  human  head. 

3.  Antique,  (Kapros)  with  a  swine  head. 

4.  Antique,  (Elaphos)  with  n.  stag  head,  (Semper). 

5 — 6.  Antique,  (Hippotragelaphos)  on  one  side  a  ram,  on  the  other 
an  ass  liead. 


VASES. 


The  Khyton. 


Plate  202. 


844 


VASES. 


-j — I — I — I — I — I — p — I- 


-i 1 1 1 1—1 ^ 1- 


Plate  203. 


Tlic  Cup,  and  the  Beaker. 


The  Rhyton.  —  The  Cup,  and  Uie  Beaker.  —  The  Chalice,  and  the  Goblet.  345 

7.         Antique,  (Gryps)  with  vulture  head. 

8 — 9.  Antique  drinking-horn,  with  lion  mask  as  spout. 

10.  Antique  State  Rhyton,   marble,  Vatican  Museum,  Eome. 

11.  Picture  from  an  Antique  Vase,  showing  the  manner  of  drink- 
ing from  the  Rhyton. 


The  Cup,  and  the  Beaker.    (Plate  203.) 

Drinking  vessels  of  these  forms  are  of  veiy  general  occuiTence. 
They  may  be  hemi- spherical,  cylindrical,  like  an  inverted  cone,  or  of 
a  piixed  shape;  without  foot,  with  a  ring  foot,  or  supported  on 
balls;  without  a  handle,  or  with  one,  two,  or  more  handles.  The 
use  of  the  Cup  restricts  it  to  a  certain  size;  the  material  is  metal, 
glass,  clay,  stoneware,  &c.  Richly-decorated  Cups  have  come  down 
to  us  from  the  Antique,  and  the  Renascence. 

Plate  203,    The  Cup,  and  the  Beaioju. 

1.  Assyrian,  from  a  relief. 

2.  Assyrian,  painted  clay. 

3.  Antique,  silver,  parcel  gilt,  found  on  Ithaca. 

4.  Antique  Kalathos,  found  in  Athens. 

5.  Antique,  clay,  painted  black.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

6.  Antique,  red  clay,   painted  black.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

7.  Antique,  beaten  silver,  found  in  Pompeii,  now  in  Naples. 

8.  Antique,  originally  decorated  in  sunk  enamel,  Hildesheim  treasure, 
Berlin,  Museum. 

9.  Antique,  beaten  silver,  Hildesheim  treasure,  Berlin,  Museum. 

10.  Antique,  green  glass,  found  in  Normandy,  (Devillo). 

11.  Antique,  glass,  (Deville). 

12.  Old  German,  glass. 

13.  Venetian,  glass,  British  Museum. 

14.  Old  German,  stoneware. 

15.  Old  German,  stoneware. 

16.  German  Renascence,  Metal,  with  bosses  and  ball  foot. 


The  Chalice,  and  the  Goblet.     (Plate  204.) 

These  are  deep  vessels  of  the  form  of  half  an  egg,  without 
handle,  and  with  a  high  foot.  The  form  was  chiefly  used  in  the  Middle 
Ages,  and  Renascence;  for  both  secular  and  religious  purposes.  For 
the  former  purpose,    the   material   is  glass  or  metal,    and  the  size  is 


•.\AC> 


VARES. 


IMiUo  'J04. 


Tbc  Chivlic-c,  and  the  CJoblet. 


The  Chalice,  &c.  —  The  Hanap.  347 

various;  for  the  latter  purpose,  the  chalice  is  invariably  of  metal, 
mostly  of  silver  chased  and  gijt,  enamelled,  set  with  jewels,  &c.  In 
the  Romanesque  style,  the  cup  is  hemispherical  and  shallow;  in  the 
Gothic  style  and  the  Renascence,  it  becomes  deeper. 

Plate  204.    The  Chalice,  and  the  Goblet. 

1.  Egyptian,  Thebes. 

2.  Antique,  red  clay,  United  collections,  Carlsrube. 

3.  Antique,  clay,  painted  black. 

4.  Romanesque  Chalice,  chased  silver  set  with  jewels,  Villingen 
church. 

5.  Gothic  Chalice,  chased  silver,  Wertheim  church. 

6.  Silver  State-Goblet,  German,  16th  century;  this  goblet,  along 
with  two  others,  is  said  to  have  been  the  model  for  the  master- 
pieces of  the  goldsmiths;  and  is  usually  attributed  to  the  Nurem- 
berg goldsmith  Jamniizer,  although  this  has  lately  been  doubted; 
the  bossed  outline  is  copied  from  the  flower  of  the  columbine 
(Aquilegia  vulgaris),  Municipal   collection,  Nuremberg. 

7.  Crystal  Goblet,  with  cut  ornaments,  17  th  century,  National 
Museum,  Munich, 

8.  Venetian  glass  Goblet,  17th  century,  British  Museum,  (L'art 
pour  tous). 

9.  Modern  Champagne-glass,  Landesgewerbehalle,  Carlsruhe. 

10.  Old  German  glass  Goblet,   17th  century. 

11.  Old  German  glass  Goblet,  17th  century. 


The  Hanap.    (Plate  205.) 

The  same  blending  of  forms  which  the  reader  will  have  ob- 
served in  the  treatment  of  cups  and  goblets  occurs  in  the  case  of 
Hanaps.  Ordinary  colloquial  language  makes  no  definite  distinction 
between  them.  A  State-cup  presupposes  a  considerable  richness  of 
decoration,  it  is  usually  a  cup  or  goblet-shaped  product  of  the  gold- 
smith's art,  provided  with  a  cover,  or  it  may  even  be  a  richly 
finished  glass  of  similar  form. 

Plate  205.    The.  Haitap. 

1.  Design,    by  Hans  Holbein,    German,    16th   century,    (Fomien- 
schatz). 

2.  Design,  German,   16th  century,  (Fdrmenschatz). 

3.  Design,  2nd  half  of  the  16th  century,  the  cover  makes  an  in- 
dependent Cup,  (Musterornamente). 


S48 


VASES. 


7^ 


Plate  205. 


The  Hanap. 


The  Hanap.  —  The  Romer  or  Rummer.  349 

4 — 5,  German,    16th   and  17th  centuries,   chased   silver,   treasure  of 

Regensburg,  (Musteromamente). 
6 — 8.  Old  German,  glass,  17  th  century. 


The  ROmer  or  Rummer.     (Plate  206.) 

The  Rummer,  the  glass  par  excellence  for  Rhenish  wine,  is  the 
most  important  representative  of  the  Old  German  drinking  glasses, 
and  is  altogether  one  of  tte  handsomest  forms  of  vessels.  C.  Friedrich 
in  his  work  "Die  Altdeutschen  Gldser",  the  study  of  which  we  warmly 
recommend,  states  that  the  fragments  of  antique  glass  were  worked-up 
again  into  fine  glass-ware;  and  that  this  ware  was  called  "Romanum 
vitrum"  or  "Romarium  vitrum"  That  led  to  the  designation  "Romarii" 
which  then  became  "Romer"  and  "Rummer".  The  original  form  of 
the  Rummer  is  somewhat  cylindrical  (fig.  1);  instead  of  a  foot  it 
has  a  ring  at  the  bottom.  At  a  later  period  a  low  foot  was  added, 
upon  which  the  body  began  to  be  divided  into  members  (figs.  2,  and 
3).  The  high  foot  eventually  led  to  the  goblet  form  (figs.  10, 
and  11).  Rummers,  in  which  the  contents  reach  to  the  bottom,  belong 
to  the  2nd  half  of  the  16th  century;  Rummers  with  spun  foot,  the 
wine  reaching  to  the  middle-piece,  are  to  be  ascribed  to  the  17th 
century;  while  Rummers  with  an  independent  middle-piece  are  the 
product  of  the  18th  century.  All  three  forms  have  been  revived  in 
late  years.  The  colour  of  the  Rummer  is  green  or  yellowish-brown; 
for  aesthetic  reasons,  and  not  because  it  was  impossible  to  manufacture 
clear  glass.  The  middle-piece  is  often  divided  from  the  cup  by  a  ribbed 
band  and  ornamented  «?-ith  bosses.  In  later  times  the  cup  was  decorated 
with  cut  or  painted  ornament  (figs.  5,  and  6).  Such  modem 
examples,  as  Rummers  with  white  feet  and  pink  cups,  are  aberrations 
of  taste.  The  Rummer  is  generally  of  moderate  size;  but  examples  of 
large  size  are  sometimes  met-with. 

Plate  206.    The  Rummek. 

1 — 4.     Older  forms,  (Friedrich). 

5 — 6.     White    and    light-green,    engraved  ornaments,    Bavaxian  Ge- 

werbemuseum,  Nuremberg,  (Friedrich). 
7 — :8.     Modem  copies. 
9.  Old  form,  without  foot,  (Friedrich). 

10 — 11.  Modem  forms. 

12.  Wooden  vessel  resembling  a  Rummer,  lacquered  black,  from 

Borneo,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 


350 


VASES. 


Plate  206. 


The  Eomer  or  Rummer. 


VASES. 


351 


-i 1 1 1 ^ 


Various  Drinking  Vessels. 


Plate  207. 


852  Various  Glasse» 


Various  Glasses.    (Plate  207.) 

The  Plate  contains  a  selection  of  other  Old  German  drinkiufr 
vessels.  What  manifold  varieties  of  drinking  glasses  existed,  in  the 
16th  century,  for  instance,  may  be  seen  in  Fischart's  romance  "Gar- 
gantoa  and  Pantagruel",  which  is  sociologically  so  interesting.  In  the 
eight  chapter,  entitled  "a  conversation  on  drinking",  he  says:  "Da 
stachen  sie  eynander  die  Pocal  auff  die  Prust,  da  flogen  die  muhele, 
da  stibeten  die  Romercken,  da  raumt  man  die  dickelbdcher,  da  soffen 
je  zween  und  zween  aus  dopplcten,  die  man  von  eynander  hricht,  ja 
sofjf  aus  gestifleten  Eriigen,  da  stiirzt  man  die  Pott,  da  schwang  man 
den  Cfutruff",  da  trdhet  man  den  Angster,  da  riss  und  schdlt  man  den 
Wein  aus  Poiten,  aus  Kelchen,  Napffen,  Gonen;  Hoffbech'ern:  Tassen: 
Trinkschalen:  Pfaffenmasen:  Stauffen  von  hohen  stauffen:  Kitten: 
Kdlten:  Kanuten:  Kopffen:  Knartgen:'  Schlauchen:  Pipen:  Ntissen: 
Fiolen:  Lampeten:  Kufen:  NUsseln:  Seydeln:  Kiilkesseln,  Mdlterlin: 
Melkgelten,  Spitzmasen,  Zolcken,  Kannen,  Schndulzenmas ,  Schoppen- 
kdnnlein,  Stotzen:  Da  klangen  die  Gldser,  da  funckelten  die  Krausen." 
We  here  offer  a  few  forms,  some  of  them  named  in  the  above  descrip- 
tion of  Fischart's. 

The  name  Angster  is  applied  to  a  high  narrow-necked  drinking 
bottle  (from  the  Latin  angustv^,  narrow).  The  neck,  which  rises  out 
of  a  spherical,  bulbous  body,  often  consisted  of  2,  3,  or  more  tubes 
wound  round  one  another,  frequently  bent  to  one  side  and  broadening 
at  the  top  into  a  cup -like  mouth  (fig.  8).  These  glasses  belong 
to  the  category  of  Puzzle-glasses,  to  extract  the  wine  from  which  was 
a  matter  of  "anguish".  Semper's  observation  is  very  true  for  such 
puzzle-glasses:  "it  -would  really  seem  as  if  fashion  and  the  toper's 
humor  of  the  competitors,  in  drinking-bouts  with  obstacles,  had  spe- 
cially invented  forms  of  vessels  which  demanded  a  most  uncomfortable 
and  ingenious  mode  of  drinking." 

The  Gutrolf  (gutterer,  kutrof,  perhaps  from  the  Latin  gutturnium), 
seems  to  have  been  a  similar  glass  with  a  straight  neck  (figs.  6 
and  9). 

The  Spechter  (presumably  from  Spessart)  is  a  tall,  narrow,  cy- 
lindrical glass  with  a  low  foot,  decorated  with  bosses,  scrolls,  &c. 
(figs.  4,  5). 

The  Passglas  (peg-tankard)  resembles  the  spechter,  but  is  divided 
by  rings  into  equal  divisions  which  served  as  a  scale  in  drinking  bouts. 
It  often  bears  painted  figures,  inscriptions  &c.,  (figs.  2,  3). 

The  form  of  the  cabbage-stalk  glass  in  sufficiently  indicated  by 
the  name  (fig.  1). 

The  Tummler  and  Handtummler  (tumbler)  are  glasses  without 
feet,   which  totter  when  set  down;    and  if  laid  on  their  side  at  once 


Various  Glasses.  —  The  Mug.  353 


&• 


resume  a  vertical  position  (figs.  14,  15);  as  also  glasses  like  that 
shown  in  fig.  13,  which  must  first  be  drunk  empty  before  they  can 
be  set  down. 

To  those  times  also  belonged:  Puzzle-glasses  from  which  the 
liquor  had  to  be  sucked  -  out  at  the  end  of  the  handle  (fig.  10); 
vessels  in  the  shape  of  ladies  (figs.  11  — 12),  and  of  fantastic 
animals. 

It  would  carry  us  too  far  to  enter  upon  the  details  of  manu- 
facture: we  therefore  refer  the  reader  once  more  to  C.  Friedrich's 
''Altdeutsche  Gldser". 

Plate  207.    Various  Drinking  Vessels. 
1.  Green  cabbage -stalk  Glass,  Germanisches  Museum,  Nuremberg. 

2 — 3.     Old  German  Peg-tankards,  painted. 
4 — 5.     Old  German  Spechters. 
6.  Kutrolf  (Angster),    16th  century.   Bavarian    Gewerbemuseum, 

Nurembercr. 
7  —  8.     Old    German    Angsters,    No.   8     in    the    Bavarian    Gewerbe- 
museum, Nuremberg. 
9.  Kutrolf  (Angster)  with  winding  neck. 

10.  Puzzle -mug,  (Friedrich). 

11  — 12.  Old  German  Glasses,  in  the  form  of  ladies,  No.  12  in  the 
Bavarian  Gewerbemuseum,  Nuremberg. 

13.  Large  Tumbler,  18th  century,  with  metal  handle;  in  the 
original  a  figure  of  Mercury  stands  on  the  ball,  Bavarian 
Gewerbemuseum,  Nuremberg. 

1 4.  Painted  glass  Tumbler,  (Friedrich). 
14.  Hungarian  coronation  Glass,  painted. 


The  Mug.     (Plate  208.) 

In  accordance  with  its  purpose,  the  form  of  the  Mug  is  essen- 
tially different  from  that  of  other  drinking  vessels.  The  body  usually 
has  a  cylindrical  form,  and  is  without  a  foot,  or  with  only  a  ring 
foot.  A  movable  lid  of  metal,  mostly  tin,  is  attached  by  a  hinge 
to  the  vertical  handle,  in  order  to  keep  the  liquid  as  fresh  as  possible, 
in  view  of  the  great  surface  of  evapora,tion.  For  the  same  reason 
the  material  is  preferably  stoneware.  That  glass  has  of  late  years 
been  preferred  to  stoneware,  is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  liquid  is 
visible  and  more  easily  investigated  in  glass  vessels;  and  that  these 
are  more  easily  cleaned.  Compared  with  the  wine-glass,  the  Mug 
will  always  have  a  greater  circumference,  and  show  a  more  robust 
treatment.  The  hin^e  must  be  so  attached  that  when  the  lid  is  wide 
open,  it  forms  an  obtuse  angle  with  the  rim. 

Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament.  "^"^ 


354 


VASES. 


Plate  208. 


The  Mug. 


The  Mug.  —  The  Tankard-  —  Modern  Drinking  Glasses.  355 

Plate  208.    The  Mug. 

1.  Renascence  Mug  (schnelle),  stoneware,  German. 

2.  Renascence  Mug,    chased  silver,    Regensburg  treasure,   (Ge- 
werbehalle). 

3.  Old  German  Beermug,    brown  glass,    painted,   Bavarian  Ge- 
werbemuseum,  Nuremberg. 

4.  6,  7.  Old  German  stoneware  Beermugs. 

5.  Old  German  glass  beermug. 

8.  Renascence  Mug,    amber,   mounted  with   silver,   Grunes  Ge- 

wolbe,  Dresden. 
9 — 10.  Modern  stoneware  Beermugs,  from  old  patterns. 
11.  Modern  Beermug,  brown  glass,  with  green  bosses. 


The  Tankard.     (Plate  209.) 

The  Tankard  is  a  drinking  vessel,  more  or  less  coarse  in  shape 
like  a  cylinder  or  an  inverted  cone;  and  made  of  glass,  stone- 
ware, &c.  The  name  is  also  given  to  vessels  of  more  architectural 
pretensions,  like  that  in  fig.  9.  The  Tankard  is  less  for  individual 
than  for  social  use;  and  is  intended  chiefly  for  beer,  hence  its  size 
and  robust  form.  Of  special  importance  are  the  eagle,  imperial, 
electoral,  and  guild  Tankards  of  the  Renascence  period. 

Plate  209.    The  Tankard. 

1.  Roman  Glass,  of  tankard  form,  found  in  Pompeii,  (Deville). 

2.  Ditto,  (Ditto). 

3.  Old   German    green    glass   Tankard,    (compare    this    form   with 
that  of  the  Rummer  on  Plate  206). 

4.  Ditto. 

5 — 6.  Old  German  glass  Tankards. 

7.  Old  German  armorial  Tankard,  (Friedrich). 

8.  Modern  brown  glass  Tankard. 

9.  Modern  brown  glass  Tankaid,  painted,  (ICeller-Leuzinger). 


Modern  Drinking  Glasses.    (Plate  210.) 

Great  laxity  is  apparent  in  the  forms  of  modem  drinking 
vessels.  Alongside  coarse  forms  in  transparent  blown  and  cast  glass: 
delicate  glasses,  cut  and  etched,  appear  in  the  market.  Of  late  years 
old   examples    of   coloured    glass    have    been    frequently   copied,   with 


856 


VASES. 


Plate  209. 


The  Tankard. 


VASES. 


357 


Modern  Drinking  Glasses. 


Plate  210. 


358  Modem  Driiilring  Glasses. 

more  or  less  skill  and  intelligence.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  the 
general  revival  of  Applied  Art  will  lead  to  the  attainment  of  high- 
class  results  in  this  branch  also. 

Plate  210,    Modern  Drinking  Glasses. 

1 — 11.  Various   modern  Glasses  for  water,   wine,  and  beer,  of  white 
and  coloured  glass. 


Plates  191 — 210  present  some  50  different  classes  of  vessels  in  nearly 
600  specimens.  But  even  this  copious  material  was  far  from  permitting,' 
every  form  to  be  taken  into  consideration.  The  first  place  was  accorded 
to  definite  groups  and  to  conventional,  ever-recurring  shajjes;  while  the 
arbitrary,  sporadic,  accidental,  and  barocco,  were  excluded.  Still,  it  is 
possible  that  we  have  not  succeeded  in  giving  a  general  view  of  the  group 
of  pottery  and  vessels.  Readers  who  desire  to  pursue  their  studies  further 
are  referred  to  the  special  works  and  periodicals  dealing  with  this  subject. 


859 


B. 

METAL    OBJECTS. 

(UTENSILS.) 


Utensils  are  very  various;  and  an  exhaustive  treatment  of  them 
is  quite  impossible  within  the  scope  of  this  Handbook.  Beside  this, 
decoration  is  quite  excluded  in  many  cases.  Still,  definite  divisions 
of  this  group  have  been  created  by  the  fact,  that  their  representatives 
in  certain  periods  have  received  artistic  treatment;  and  hence  they 
may  be  reduced  to  a  system. 

Although,  on  the  one  hand,  a  number  of  utensils  have  found  no 
place  on  the  Plates  devoted  to  this  group:  \?e  have,  on  the  other 
hand,  been  able  to  form  a  number  of  subsidiary  divisions,  each  com- 
plete in  itself.  Thus,  for  example:  chapterc  211 — 220  will  deal 
with  the  interesting  subject  of  utensils  for  Illumination,  chapters 
221—225  with  the  utensils  of  Ritual,  chapters  226—230  with  the 
utensils  of  War  and  Hunting,  chapters  231 — 235  with  those  of  the 
Table,  and  chapters  236 — 240  with  a  variety  of  Household  and 
Toilet  utensils.  Tools,  kc. 


a.    Utensils  for  Illumination. 

Utensils  of  illumination,  both  for  religious  and  household  use, 
are  extremely  numerous.  Great  attention  and  artistic  finish  have 
been  lavished  upon  them  in  all  styles;  and  especially  in  the  Antique. 
We  need  only  mention  the  Candelabra  of  the  Antique  and  the  Renas- 
cence, Greek  Lamps,  the  Chandeliers  of  the  Middle  Ages,  &c. 


360  The  Candelabrum. 

The  forms  and  the  finish  of  the  different  utensils  have  changed 
along  with  the  radical  changes  which  the  mode  of  illumination  has 
undergone  in  the  course  of  time.  Oil,  lamp-light,  candle,  torch-light, 
gas-light,  and  our  latest  achievement,  the  electric  light,  all  demand 
special,  different  forms  of  bearers,  and  apparatus. 

The  predominant  material  would  seem  to  be  metal;  and,  next 
to  this,  clay,  and  glass;  while  imflammable  materials  like  wood  are, 
by  their  very  nature,  almost  excluded. 

Here,  too,  it  is  proper  to  call  attention  to  a  difference  which 
must  be  borne  in  mind  between  Antique  and  Modern  illuminating 
utensils.  The  difference  is  this:  that  whereas  the  Antique  with  all 
its  artistic  perfection,  is  very  defective  from  a  practical  point  of  \'iew; 
Modem  apparatus,  while  surpassing  the  Antique  in  the  matter  of 
technical  adaptation  to  its  purpose,  scarcely  ever  reaches  the  Antique 
beauty,  and  generally  falls  below  it.  • 

We  will  consider  the  Candelabrum,  the  Antique  Lamp,  the 
different  kinds  of  Standard,  Hand,  and  Bracket  Candlesticks,  Hanging 
Lamps,  Lanterns,  Chandeliers,  and  Modern  Lamps;  taking  them  in 
this  order. 


The  Candelabrum.    (Plates  211—212.) 

The  Candelabrum  (from  candela  =  candle)  was,  as  its  name  in- 
dicates, originally  intended  to  carry  a  candle.  But  as  candle-light, 
like  the  illumination  by  means  of  torches  and  pitch-pans,  gradually 
receded  before  the  use  of  Lamps  in  Antique  times,  and  was  more 
and  more  reserved  for  the  purposes  of  ritual;  the  Antique  Cande- 
labrum came  to  be  employed  as  a  Lampstand  or  Lampadurium. 
Hence  it  comes  that  the  upper  end  of  a  Candelabram  is  furnished 
sometimes  with  a  bowl,  sometimes  with  a  pricket  or  socket  to  receive 
the  candle,  sometimes  with  a  flat  disc,  and,  sometimes  with  project- 
ing clips  and  hooks  to  hold  the  lamp  or  to  suspend  it  from.  The 
last  is  the  most  frequent  form.  The  great  State  -  candelabra,  for 
religious  observances,  have  bowls;  and  are  made  of  marble.  The  shaft 
of  such  a  Roman  Candelabrum  of  conventional  form  is  given  on 
Plate  121,  fig.  2.  Candelabra  for  household  use  were  made  of 
bronze.  Li  height:  they  are  of  two  different  dimensions,  according 
as  they  were  meant  to  stand  on  the  ground,  or  on  a  table.  The 
former  are  of  an  extremely  slender  construction  (Plate  211.  1),  of  an 
average  height  of  3  feet  tof  4  ft.  6  ins.  The  form  of  the  latter  class 
(candelabrum  humile)  is  less  slender-  (Plate  211.  5  and  6),  .  and  the 
extreme  height  is  ■  about  1  ft.  8  ins.  The  design  of  the  Antique 
Candelabrum  is  either  of  architectonic  character,  or  free  and  natura- 


The  Candelabrum.  361 

listic.  We  have  already  mentioned,  in  chapters  135 — 137,  that  in 
the  former  case:  the  base,  shaft  and  bowl,  are  generally  decorated. 
The  second  class  includes  standing  and  sitting  figures,  behind  which 
the  shaft  of  the  candelabrum  rises,  or  by  which  it  is  borne  (Plate  211. 
2  and  3);  or  of  bearers  in  the  form  of  trees,  beneath  which  figures 
or  groups  are  seated  (Plate  211.  4).  Occasionally  examples  are  found 
so  arranged  that  they  can  be  taken  apart  and  adjusted  to  different 
heights  (Plate  211.  7).  The  majority  of  the  Antique  bronze  Cande- 
labra which  have  been  preserved  to  us  are  of  Etruscan  origin. 
Plate  211  shows  seven  different  examples  selected  from  the  copious 
material. 

Plate  211.    The  Antique  Candelabrum. 

1.  Antique,    bronze    stand    from  'which   to   suspend   lamps   (lychnucus, 
lampadarium),  found  in  Pompeii,  Berlin,  Museum. 

2.  Etruscan,  bronze,  Biblioth^que  National,  Paris. 

3.  Antique,  bronze,  found  in  Chiusi,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

4.  Antique,  bronze,  found  in  Herculaneum. 

5.  Antique,  bronze,  to  hold  a  candle  or  torch,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

6.  Antique,  (Candelabrum  humile),  bronze,  Museum,  Naples. 

7.  Antique,    bronze,    adjustable    to    different   heights,    found   in   Her- 
culaneum. 

The  Candelabrum  was  revived  at  the  time  of  the  Renascence 
along  with  the  tradition  of  Antique  art.  It  accepted  the  form;  but 
remodelled  it  in  its  own  fashion.  Since  that  time  the  Candelabrum 
occurs  in  countless  modifications,  both  for  state  and  use,  in  religious 
and  secular  buildings.  It  is  no  more  a  Lampstand,  but  bears  a 
candle  in  a  pricket  of,  more  rarely,  in  a  socket.  The  Roman  Catholic 
ritual,  in  particular,  the  services  of  which  require  lighted  candles, 
has  given  an  impetus  to  the  new  forms  of  Candelabra  in  metal,  and 
carved  wood  set-off  by  painting  and  gilding.  The  finest  examples  of 
tliis  kind  are  to  be  found  in  the  churches  and  palaces  of  Italy. 

Plate  212.  The  Renascence  CANDELABRmi.^ 

1.  Altar    candlestick,    church   of   the    Benedictines,    Villingen,    wood, 
gilt  and  silvered,  Late  German  Renascence,  3  ft.  9  ins.  high. 

2.  Bronze,  end  of  the    16th  century,  Italian. 

3..  Altar    candlestick,     Certosa     near    Pavia,     17th    century,     Italian,' 
(Musterornamente). 

4.  Medicean.  chapel,  San  Lorenzo,  Florence,  Italian,  Renascence, 

5.  Bronze,  Italian,  Renascence,  Bargello,  Florence, 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


Plate  211. 


The  Antique  Candelabrum. 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


363 


The  Kenascence  Candelabrum, 


Plate  212. 


.364      '  The  Antique  Lamp. 


The  Antique  Lamp.    (Plate  213.) 

The  Antique  Lamp  {lychnus,  lucerna)  is,  strictly  speaking,  a 
combination  of  holder  and  pourer;  and  might  with  equal  propriety 
have  been  included  in  the  group  of  Vases.  The  fundamental  form, 
which  was  retained  down  to  the  latest  times,  is  found  in  early 
Egyptian  household  utensils;  and  is  created  by  adding  a  handle,  a 
funnel  for  filling,  and  a  spout  with  an  opening  for  the  wick,  to  a 
spheroid  body,  figures  1   and  2. 

In  Greek  and  Roman  Lamps:  the  body  becomes  flattened,  the 
funnel  contracts  to  a  simple  orifice,  and  the  round  handle  is  either 
replaced  by  a  straight  one  or  combined  with  it,  (figs.  4  and  9j. 
Very  frequently  the  lamp  has  several  wick-openings  (dimyxos,  tri- 
myxos  &c.)  instead  of  only  one,  (figs.  5,  10  and  11). 

Clay  and  bronze  are  the  materials  almost  exclusively  employed. 
The  clay  Lamps  are  mostly  plastically  decorated,  more  rarely  painted. 
The  decoration  is  most  conspicuous  on  the  handle  and  the  spout;  the 
upper  part  of  the  body  is  often  treated  with  figures  in  bas-relief, 
(fig.  4).  Bronze  Lamps  are  decorated  with  figures,  with  covers  fastened 
by  hinges,  wick -trimmers,  &c.,  (fig.  10).  And  it  was  the  bronze 
Jjamps  which  were  especially  arranged  to  be  suspended  from  Lampa- 
darii.  Small  Lampstands,  in  the  form  of  low  tripods,  are  also  not 
scarce  (figs.  8  and  9);  occasionally  Tripod  and  Lamp  are  combined, 
as  in  the  example  shown  in  fig.  7.  By  the  side  of  examples  tectoni- 
cally  constructed,  we  find  freer  forms,  imitating  human  figures,  animal 
shapes,  human  feet,  &c.  In  some  cases  these  may  be  considered  as 
"happy  thoughts";  in  others  they  are  simply  an  aberration  of  style 
(figs.   12  and  13). 

The  early  days  of  Christendom  show  reminiscences  of  the  An- 
tique, e.  g.  the  Lamp  in  fig.  13,  which  also  bears  the  monogram 
of  Christ. 

In  later  periods:  the  decoration  degenerates,  although  the  fun- 
damental form  has  been  retained  till  the  present  time,  in  the  East, 
for  household  lamps;  the  design  of  the  modern  lamp  from  Jerusalem 
(fig.  14)  is  of  the  simplest  possible  desciiption.  In  the  West:  the  old 
form  is  gradually  dying-out,  since  the  introduction  of  the  glass  cylinder, 
which  enables  the  illuminating  gases  to  be  more  thoroughly  consumed. 

Plate  213.    The  Antique  Lajiip. 

1 — 2.  Egyptian,  clay. 

3.  Antique,  painted  clay,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

4.  Antique,  red  clay.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

5.  Antique,  red  clay,  with  two  spouts  and  vertical  ring  handle, 
United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


365 


The  Antique  Lamp. 


Plate  213 


366  The  Antique  Lamp.  —  The  Candlestick. 

6.  Antique,     with    cover'    and    ring     handle,     red    clay,    United 
collections,  Carlsiiihe. 

7.  Antique,    bronze,    with    high,  stand,    the  •  missing    cover    was 
evidently  a  human  mask.  Louvre,  Paris. 

8 — 9.  Antique,*  bronze,  on  small  tripods  (candelabrum  humile). 

10.  Antique,  bronze,  with  three  spouts,  the  figure' serves  as  a 
handle  for  the  cover,  a  wick-trimmer  is  attached  to  it  by  a 
chain,  found  in  Herculaneum. 

11.  Antique,  bronze,  with  two  spouts,  found  in  Herculaneum, 
Museum,  Naples,    '/c   of  original  size. 

12.  Antique,  bronze,  for  suspension,  (Formenschatz). 

13.  Eaily  Christian,  bronze,  with  the  monogram  of  Christ,  for 
suspension,  from  the  catacombs,  Rome. 

14.  Modern,  Oriental,  clay,  from  Jenisalem,  United  collections, 
Carlsruhe. 


The  Candlestick.    (Plates  214 — 215.) 

The  Candlestick  is  the  candle-bearer  of  the  Middle  Ages,  the 
Renascence,  and  Modern -times.  It  is  distinguished  from  the  Cando- 
labi-um,"'  if  a  distinction  can  be  made  at  all  where  the  forms  thus 
blend  with  each  other,  by  its  smaller  dimensions  and  simpler  forms- 
and  it  is  chiefly  used  for  secular  purposes. 

The  principal  materials  beside  brass,  iron,  copper,  tin,  &c.,  are 
clay,  porcelain,  and  glass. 

In  the  Middle  Ages;  it  was  usual  to  stick  the  candle  on  a  conical 
pricket;  our  Modern  times  prefer  the  cylindrical  socket.  The  design 
includes  base  (often  tripartite),  shaft,  and  socket,  as  in  the  case  of 
the  Candelabrum.  The  upper  end  is  furnished  with  a  saucer  or  bowl, 
to  catch  the  droppings.  The  saucer  is  sometimes  loose,  so  that  it 
may  easely  be  taken-off  and  cleansed,   in   which  case   it  is   termed  a 

"save-all". 

Often  the  upper  part  is  furnished  wth  a  number  of  arms  to 
receive  several  candles.-  As  regards  decorations:  the  principles  laid 
down  for  the  Candelabrum,  in  the  chapter  on  Supports,  hold  good. 
The  Seven-branched-candlestick,  of  the  Temple  at  Jerusalem,  is  histo- 
rically celebrated;  fig.  1  of  Plate  215  reproduces  this  from  the  repre- 
sentation of  it  on  the  triumphal  arch  of  Titus.  The  fundamental 
form  of  it  has  been  retained,  iff  this  day,  in  Jewish  ritual. 

High  Candlesticks,  of  simple  form,  m^de  of  wrought-iron,  are  not 
rare  in  the  Middle  Ages  (Plate  215.  2).  Richly  -  finished  examples, 
in  -vvrought-iron  and  bronze,  were  created  in  the  Renascence,  (Plate 
214.  5,°and  21-5.  3).     The  Japanese  and  Chinese   bronze  candlesticks 


The  Candlestick.  —  The  Hand-Candleatick.  367 

have  a  certain  similarity  to  the  Romanesque  ecclesiastical  candlesticks 
of  the  same  material,  (Plate  214.  1 — 4). 

Modern  productions  in  clay,  glass  and  porcelain  have  scarcely 
any  artistic  importance;  all  the  more  must  we  praise  modem  aH  for 
recurring  to  the  old  models  in  metal  work;  and  thus  producing  very 
gratitying  results,  (Plate  214.  6,  7,  8,  and  Plate  215.  4  and  5). 

f*LATE  214.    The  Candlestick. 

1.  Romanesque,   bronze,    11th  century,   Dugu6  collection,   (Viollet-le' 
Due). 

2.  Romanesque,  bronze.  Cathedral,  Hildesheim. 

3.  Romanesque,  bronze. 

4.  Ancient  Chinese,  bronze. 

5.  Brass,   17th  century. 

6.  Modem,  bronze,  (Gewerbehalle). 

7.  Modern,  bronze,  Gewerbehalle,  Carlsruhe. 

8.  Modern,   bronze,   by    Prof.  Schick,  Carlsruhe,  (Gewerbehalle). 

Plate  215.    The  Candlestick. 

1.  The  Seveu-branched-candlestick  of  the  Temple  at  Jerusalem,   Arch 
of  Titus,  Rome. 

2.  Wrought-iron,    S.    Peter's,    Tarrosa,    Spain,    14th    century,    (L'ait 
pour  tous). 

3.  Wrought-iron,  for  3  candles,  17th  century. 

4.  Wrought-iron,  Modern. 

5.  Wrought-iron,  with  several  arms,  by  C.  Zaar,  (Gewerbehalle). 


The  Hand-Can]>lestick.     (Plate  216.) 

The  term  Hand -candlestick  includes  any  kind  of  portable  can- 
dlestick; and  it  assximes  the  existence  of  some  kind  of  handle  to  hold 
and  carry  it.  The  Hand-candlestick  is  always  of  modest  dimensions; 
and  it  is  generally  low  in  height,  as  in  our  flat  candlesticks. 

It  may  be  constructed  on  an  immense  variety  of  plans,  so  that 
a  number  of  different  forms  occur.  Candlesticks  frequently  recur  of 
the  form  shown  in  fig.  2,  in  which  a  screw  thread  enables  the  height 
of  the  socket  to  be  adjusted.  The  Middle  Ages  and  the  Renascence 
exhibited    great    ingenuity    in    the    invention    of    such    arrangements 

(fig-   1). 

As    the  Hand-candlestick    is  liable  to    gutter:    the   "save-all"  has 

here  undergone  a  special  developement,    so   that  in  a  certain  class  of 


368 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


Plate  214. 


The  Candlestick. 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


369 


The  Candlestick. 


Ueyeri  Baodbook  of  OniameDt. 


Plate  215. 
24 


370  The  Hand-Candlestick.  —  The  Candle-Bracket 

candlestick  it  consists  of  a  broad  dish  out  of"  '♦Fhich  rises  a  shaft 
with  a  socket-bowl  at  the  end  (figs.  216.  6,  7,  8). 

Often  an  Extinguisher  is  combinet  with  the  Candlestick,  especially 
when  the  latter  is  of  wrought-iron;  as  shown  by  the  original  example, 
fig.  4;  of  late  years  Match-holders  have  also  been  included. 

The  material  is  the  same  as  for  other  candlesticks.'  There  is 
nothing  special  to  say  as  regards  the  decoration. 

Pate  216.    The  HAND-CA>rDLESTiCK. 

1 — 3.  Wrought-iron,  17th  century. 
4 — 5.  Modern,  wrought  iron. 

6.  Modern,  ^by  P.  Faure  of  Paris,  (GewerbehaU^). 

7.  Modern,  brass. 

8.  Modern,  brass. 


The  Candle-Bracket.    (Plate  217.) 

Candle-Brackets  are  fixed  or  movable  bearers  attached  to  vertical 
surfaces,  e.  g.  columns,  pilasters,  &c.  In  the  Middle  Ages  and  the 
Renascence  they  were  chiefly  used  for  Torches  and  Candles;  at  the 
present  time  they  are  employed  for  Candles  and  Gas.  Their  form 
naturally  differs  from  that  of  the  upright  Candlestick.  Curved 
scroll-work  and  consoles  of  metal  (for  this  material  is  the  one  almost 
exclusively  used)  bear  on  their  free  end  the  prickets,  or  the  sockets,  or 
the  burners  and  globes,  which  last  ar6  employed  to  diffuse  the  glaring 
light  and  soften  the  sharp  shadows.  A  primitive  method  of,  connecting 
the  bracket  with  the  wall  is  by  hook  and  eye  (fig.  1);  in  articles  ot' 
better  finish  this  is  done  by  means  of  rosettes  or  wall-plates  and  car- 
touches (figs.  6,  7,  8,  9).  The  Bracket  may  be  used  for  one  or  more 
lights.  In  the  latter  case:  several  prickets  or  sockets  are  placed  on  a 
common  disc  (fig.  2);  or,  which  is  artistically  better,  the  main  branch 
divides  into  a  number  of  subsidiary  arms  (fig.  3).  The  Bracket 
on  a  large  scale,  is  used  for  Street-lighting,  for  Churches,  Theatres, 
Halls,  Mansions,  Palaces,  Restaurants,  &c.;  and  on  a  smaller  scale,  for 
Pianofortes,  &c.  In  designing  Brackets  for  gas:  care  must  be  taken 
to  provide  for  the  (Jas-pipe,  The  modern  adjustible  Brackets,  being 
mostly  without  decoration,  need  not  be  considered. 

Plate  217.    The  Candle-bracket. 

1 — 2.  German,  Renascence,  wrought-iron.    National  Museum,  Munich. 

3.  Rococo,  for  3  candles,  bronze  gilt,  Milan  Museum,    (Raguenet). 

4 — 5.  Modem,  by  M.  Weinholdt,  Munich,  (Gewerbehalle). 

6—7.  Wall-plates,  to  4,  and  5. 


METAL-  OBJECTS. 


371 


The  Hand-Candlestick. 


Plate  216. 
2i* 


372 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


Plate  217. 


The  Candle-Bracket. 


The  Candle-Bracket.  —  The  Pendant-Lamp.  —  The  Chandelier.     373 

8.  Modern,  (Gewerbehalle). 

9.  Modern,  wrought- iron. 

The  Pendant-Lamp.    (Plate  218.) 

Both  aesthetic  reasons,  and  the  danger  of  being  knocked- over  to 
which  upright  candlesticks  are  subject,  led  in  early  times  to  the  con- 
struction of  Pendant-lamps.  In  addition  to  the  small  bronze  lampg,  which 
could  be  used  both  standing  or  hanging,  the  Antique  offers  us  Lamps 
which  could  be  used  only  for  suspension.  The  latter  form  is  still  com- 
mon in  the  East  (compare  Plate  187.  13),  and  in  the  West  in  Christian 
and  Jewish  ritual.  ,  The  introduction,  of  Paraffin,  Gas,  and  the  Electric 
light,  has  afforded  plentiful  opportunities  of  giving  an  artistic  form 
to  Hanging-lamps.  The  spherical  globes  of  ground  glass  lend  them- 
selves especially  to  such  treatment,  (figs.  4,  5,  6).  Box-shaped  hold- 
ers, either  open  or  closed  by  panes  of  glass,  are  termed  Lanterns. 
Modern  lanterns,  for  illumination  in  the  open  air,  are  generally  devoid 
of  any  really  artistic  decoration;  but  the  Middle  Ages  and  the  Re- 
nascence created  many  objects  of  perfect  form  in  this  branch.  The 
most  suitable  material  for  Lanterns  is  wrought-iron  (figs.  2  and  3).  It 
is  self-evident  that  Lanterns  must  be  so  arranged  that  they  c;in  be 
opened  for  cleaning,  &c. 

Plate  218.    The  Pendant-lajip. 

1.  Old  Moorish,  iron.  United  collections,  Carlsnihe. 

2.  Mediaeval,  wrought-iron,  for  several  candles,  German,  (Formen- 
schatz). 

3.  French,  Hotel  Vogu6,  Dijon,   17th  century,  (L'art  pour   tous). 

4.  Modern,    for  Electric  glow-light,    by  Peter^    of  Esslingen,  (Ge- 
werbehalle). 

5 — G.  Modern,  (Gewerbehalle). 


The  Chandelier.     (Plate  219.) 

The  arrangement,  of  a  considerable  number  of  lights  in  circular 
form  on  a  framework  intended  for  suspension,  led  to  the  construction 
of  the  Chandelier.  In  the  Middle  Ages:  the  lights  were  all  placed 
in  the  same  plane  so  that  they  formed  a  ring  (fig.  2);  the  Re- 
nascence secured  greater  richness  and  variety  of  design  by  a  number 
of  rings,  an  arrangement  which  has  usually  been  retained  in  our 
modern  Cliaiuleliers  (fig.  3  and  4).  Further  variety  is  attained  by 
the   alternation   of  the    lights    in   the   different    rings.     Wrought-iron 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


Plate  218. 


The  Pendant-Lamp. 


The  Chandelier.  — The  Modem  Lamp.  375 

and  bronze,  along  with  glass  (Venetian  chandeliers),  and  of  late  years 
cheap  cast-iron,  and  zinc,  are  the  chief  materials.  Original  and  uni- 
que in  design  is  the  mermaid  chandelier  consisting  of  female  half- 
figures  terminating  in  fish-tails,  and  furnished  with  antlers  to  carry 
the  candles  (fig.  1).  The  slender  chains  by  which  these  mer- 
maids, and  other  lamps  and  lanterns,  were  suspended,  are  replaced  in 
modern  chandeliers  by  a  tube  which  also  serves  as  a  gas-pipe.  In 
the  former  case  the  chain  was  carried  over  pulleys  so  that  the  light 
could  be  shifted  higher  or  lower;  in  modern  chandeliers  the  adjust- 
ment is  effected  by  means  of  a  stuffing-box  with  balance  weights 
(fig.  7).  Very  frequently  the  lower  end  of  the  Chandelier  terminates 
in  a  ring,  to  facilitate  the  change  in  height.  In  addition  to  the  globes 
round  the  flames,  guards  are  often  placed  over  them,  to  protect  the 
ceiling  from  heat  and  soot.  Each  burner  must  be  connected  with  the 
main  gas-pipe  by  means  of  a  separate  pipe.  Where  the  Chandelier 
is  intended  for  Electric  lights;  the  latter  may  be  bent  downwards 
instead  of  upwards,  so  that  the  frames  for  the  globes  will  cast  no 
shadow.  The  Plate  gives  a  number  of  ancient  and  modern  Chande- 
liers, partly  in  half  profile,  the  foreshortened  arms,  which  interfere 
\vith  the  drawing,  having  been  omitted.  A  regular  arrangement,  of 
4,  5  or  6  arms,  is  the  rule:  more  or  fewer  arms  occur  more  rarely.  In 
the  case  of  Chandeliers  with  a  great  number  of  lights:  each  arm  is 
arranged  after  the  fashion  of  a  bracket  with  several  candles. 

Plate  219.    The  Chandelier. 

1.  Modern,  style  of  the  German  Renascence. 

2.  German,  Renascence,  Hemispherical,  for  8  candles. 
3 — 6.  Modern,  bronze  and  wrought-iron. 

7.  Modern,  French,  by  the  sculptor  Villeminot,  (L'art  pour  tous)^ 


The  Modern  Lamp.     (Plate  220.) 

The  principal  value,  of  the  modem  Lamp,  lies  in  the  technical 
completeness,  and  adaptation  to  its  purpose.  There  is,  it  is  true, 
no  such  wealth  of  artistic  fancy  as  is  shown  by  Antique  Lamps;  but 
still  some  good  examples  may  be  found  among  the  two  or  three 
fundamental  forms  of  the  Paraffin-lamp,  with  which  we  have  mostly 
to  do.  Metal,  glass,  porcelain,  and  majolica,  again  appear  as  materials. 
As  a  general  rule  we  have  a  profiled  foot,  on  which  the  oil-receiver 
rests,  from  which  latter  the  burner,  chimney,  and  globe  rise,  (figs.  1 
and  2). 

More  richly  finished  examples  have  a  masked  receiver,  the  latter 
being  enclosed  by  a  vase  (figs.  3,  and  4).     Attempts  have  lately   been 


876 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


Plate  219. 


The  Candelier. 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


377 


The  Modern  Lamp. 


Plate  220. 


378  The  Modem  Lamp.  —  The  Altar. 

made  to  replace  these  conventional  forms  by  more  original  designs. 
An  example  of  this  is  the  "vestal  lamp"  (fig.  5),  which  must  be  admitted 
to  be  successful.  This  form  admits  of  adjustment  of  height;  can  be 
easily  filled  and  cleaned;  and  allows  of  a  combination  of  several  burn- 
ers (fig.  6). 

Plate  220.    The  Modern  Lamp. 

1 — 2.  Paraffin  lamps,  with  visible  oil  receiver. 

3.  Oil  Lamp,    with   concealed    receiver,    by    the    sculptor  Piat  of 
Paris,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

4.  Paraffin  Lamp,  with  concealed  receiver,  by  Paul  Stotz,  of  Stutt- 
gart, Bronze,  (GewerbehaUe). 

5.  Paraffin  Lamp,  "Vestal  lamp",  Berlin 

6.  Paraffin  Lamp,    with  3  burners,  by  the  architect  Bohringer,   of 
Stuttgart,  (Gewerbehalle). 


b.    Religious   Utensils. 

Notv/ithstanding  the  varied  character  of  Religious  Utensils:  wei^ 
devote  only  five  Plates  to  them,  principally  because  many  have  been 
already  dealt-with  in  other  groups.  We  cannot  attempt  to  give  a 
complete  view  of  the  apparatus  of  ritual;  but  must  confine  our 
selection  to  objects  taken,  partly  from  Heathen,  and  partly  from 
Christian  examples. 


The  Altar.     (Plate  221.) 

The  original  form  of  the  Altar  (from  alta  ara)  was  no  doubt 
extremely  simple.  Blocks  of  rock  and  stones,  piled -up  beneath  the 
blue  sky  or  under  trees,  were  probably  the  earliest.  With  the  evolu- 
tion of  art,  and  especially  of  architecture,  the  Altar  entered  into  the 
service  of  the  Temple;  and  received  a  more  artistic  finish.  The  plan 
of  the  Antique  Altar  is  usually  triangular,  quadrangular,  or  circular. 
Tbe  material  is  generally  marble.  Its  top  is  a  table-like  Slab,  gene- 
rally with  a  hollow  to  contain  tbe  sacrificial  .fire.  The  decoration 
was  of  symbolic  character.  Skulls  of  animals.  Festoons  of  fruit,  votive 
Wreaths,  Figures  of  the  Gods,  Genii,  and  similar  creations,  were  used 
almost  always.  The  triangular  Altar  was  often  used  as  the  base  of 
the  Antique  State-candelabrum;  e.  g.  the  altar  represented  on  fig.  5, 
which  is  the  base  of  a  Candelabrum. 

The  so-called  "Altars"  of  the  Christian  religion   have  nothing  in 


The  Altar.  —  The  Tripod.  379 

common  with  those  of  the  Antique;  and  they  do  not  fidl  within  the 
scope  of  our  work. 

Plate  221.    The  Axtar. 

1.  Assyrian,  triangular  sacrificial  stone. 

2.  Assyrian,  round  sacrificial  stone. 

3.  Assyrian,  sacrificial  slab,   from  a  relief  in  the  British  Museum. 

4.  Roman,  three-sided  Altar,   like  a  number  of  examples,  differing 
little  from  one-another,  in  the  museums  in  London,    Paris,  &c 

5.  Roman,  three -sided  Altar,   used  as  the  base  of  a  Candelabrum. 
6 — 9.  Roman,-  various  altars,  fig.  9  with  the  masks  of  12  Deities,  and 

the  signs  ■  of  the  Zodiac,  (M6nard  et  Sauvageot). 

The  Tripod.    (Plate  222.) 

The  name  Tripod  is  applied  to  any  three-legged  support,  what- 
ever the  use  to  which  it  may  be  j)ut.  More  accurately,  the  Tripod  is 
a  construction  in  three  parts:  the  top  part  being  a  bowl,  dish,  or 
slab.  The  Antique  Tripod  played  an  important  part  both  in  religious 
rites  and  in  daily  life.  Originally  an  article  of  practical  use,  for 
cooking,  &c.,  its  form  is  simple;  when  it  was  elevated  to  an  utensil 
of  Religion,  to  bear  the  sacrificial  pans  and  the  consecrated  offerings 
for  the  Deities,  or  to  be  the  Prize  of  Victory  in  tL?  games:  it  assu- 
med conventional  forms,  and  received  an  artistic  finish.  The  material 
was  generally  bronze,  except  for  the  great,  monumental  State-tripods, 
which  were  of  marble.  ■•  The  Greek,  Roman,  and  Etruscan  Tripods  differ 
characteristically  from  each-,other,  in  their  detail;  but  have  this  in  com- 
mon, that  they  are  supported  by  three  smooth,  rod-like  legs,  which  are 
terminated  at  their  lower  end  in  animals'  claws;  and  are  connected 
together  by  rings  (fig.  3),  or  struts  (figs.  1  and  2);  and  at  the  top  are 
either  connected  directly  with  the  dish  (figs.  1  and  2),  or  with  a  ring 
intended  for"  the  reception  of  a  loose  dish  (fig.  3).  For  the  sake  of 
greater  convenience,  handles  are  sometimes  attached  to  the  dish  (fig.  1); 
the  legs  may  be  adjusted  to  different  heights  (figs.  1  and  2);  or  the 
Tripod  may  be  so  arranged  that  it  can  be  taken  to  pieces.  These 
antique  Tripods,  of  which  some  of  the  simpler  examples  are  given  on 
the  Plate,  afford  us,  better  than  anything  else,  an  insight  into  the 
Antique  art  of  bronze-working. 

The  Middle  Ages  and  the  Renascenoe  have  also  transmitted  to  U3 
numerous  Tripods.  Their  principal,  use  is  in  households  as  stands  for 
washing-basins,  &c.;  and  they  are  geaerally  of  wrought- iron  (figs.  4, 
5,  6).  After  the  art  of  working  in  wrought-iron  had  been  revived 
in  modern  times,  we  find  them  as  Stands  for  washing-apparatus.  Trays 
for  \nsiting-cards,  Stands  for  wiae-coolers,  (fig.   7),  &e. 


380 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


Plate  221. 


The  Altar. 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


381 


The  Tripod. 


Plate  222. 


382  The  Tripod.  —  The  Censer. 

Plate  222.    The  Tripod. 

1.  Antique,    bronze,    found   in  Pompeii,    about    Museum,    Naples. 
28  ins.  high. 

2.  Romanesque,  bronze,  (M6nard  et  Sauvageot). 

3.  Etruscan,  bronze,  Berlin  Museum. 

4.  Mediaeval,  bronze,  Pierrefonds  castle,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

5 — 6.  Italian,    17th  century,    wrought-iron ,    about  4  ft.  high,  (L'art 

pour  tous). 
7.  Modern,   wrought-iron,   for^-wine-cooler,   by  the  architect  Zaar, 

(Gewerbehalle), 


The  Censer.    (Plate  223.) 

One  of  the  oldest  ecclesiastical  utensils  is  the  Censer  or  Thu 
rible,  in  the  use  of  which  the  rising  clouds  of  incense  are  a  sym- 
bolical representation  of  prayer  ascending  to  heaven.  The  material  is 
silver,  bronze,  iron,  copper,  or  brass.  The  lower  part  consists  of  a 
dish  with  foot,  containing  the  fire-pan.  The  pierced  cover  is  kept 
in  its  place  by  means  of  the  three  chains  which  pass  through  the 
three  holes  made  for  the  purpose.  These  three  chains  hang  from  a 
small  plate  with  a  ring.  The  cover  is  fastened  to  a  fourth  chain, 
which  also  terminates  in  a  chain  and  may  be  drawn  up  through  a  hole 
in  the  plate  (fig.  7).  The  decoration  is  frequently  symbolic,  and  In- 
scriptions are  also  used.  The  Romanesque  and  Gothic  Censers  often 
exhibit  an  architectonic  design  of  domes  and  towers  (figs.  2,  4,  6). 
The  Renascence  prefers  the  strict  form  of  a  vessel  (figs.  8,  and  9). 
Modem  art  avails  itself  of  Ancient  models,  without  having  anything 
independent  to  show.  An  appendage  of  the  Censer,  in  a  certain  sense, 
is  the  Censer-boat,  or  incense-holder,  usually  an  elliptical  dish  with 
a  partition  and  two  hinged  covers.  The  incense  is  conveyed  from 
the  Incense-boat  to  the  Censer  by  means  of  a  Spoon. 

Plate  223.     The  Censer. 

1 — 2.  Romanesque,    bronze,    6th    and   I2th  centuries,    each    7 '/o   ins. 

high,   Collection  of  antiquities,  Grand-ducal  Court,  Mannheim. 
3.  Romanesque,   bronze,    French,   beginning  of  the   13th  century, 

5^/4  ins.  high,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 
4 — 5.  Gothic,  from  stone  statues,  Cathedral,  Chartres,   13th  century, 

(L'art  pour  tous). 
6.         Gothic,  with  tower  shaped  cover. 
7 — 8.  Renascence. 
9.  Renascence,  South  Kensington  Museum,  London. 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


383 


The  Censer. 


Plate  223. 


384  The  Censer.  —  The  Crucifix. 


The  Crucifix.     (Plate  224.) 

The  Crucifix  (from  crucifixus  =  nailed  to  the  cross)  does  not  appear 
in  Christian  ritual  until  after  the  abolition  of  the  shameful  punish- 
ment of  Crucifixion.  The  oldest  Crucifixes  may  be  dated  about  the 
6th  century.  In  the  course  of  the  following  styles:  it  underwent  a 
variety  of  transformations.  The  older  examples  often  represent  the 
crucified  Christ  as  clothed  (fig.  3),  while  in  later  times  the  body  is 
more  frequently  nude,  with  the  clothing  restricted  to  the  cloth  round 
the  loins.  The  older  renderings  of  Christ  show  a  straight  stiff  atti- 
tude, and  a  calm  expression;  while  later  periods  exhibit  a  more  life- 
like conception,  and  the  expression  of  pain.  At  first:  each  foot  is 
pierced  by  a  separate  nail,  later  the  two  feet  by  one  nail  only;  so 
that  the  four  nails  are  reduced  to  three.  A  nimbus  appears  above 
or  behind  the  head;  and  over  this  a  roll  with  the  letters  I.  N.  R.  I. 
(lesus  Nazarenus  Rex  ludaeorum).  The  arms  of  the  Latin  Cross  are 
often  terminated  in  four  quatrefoils  containing  symbols  of  the  four 
Evangelists  (figs.  2,  3).  Purely  ornamental  terminations  of  the  arms 
and  decorations  at  their  intersections  are  also  not  uncommon  (fig.  1). 
When  the  Crucifix  is  intended  to  stand  upright  on  the  Communion- 
table: it  is  furnished  with  a  candelabrum-like  base  (figs.  1,  2,  8). 
The  bases  are  generally  of  similar  style  to  the  accompanying  Candle- 
sticks. The  materials  are  chiefly  metals,  wood,  and  ivory,  the  body 
of  Christ  and  the  Cross  being  often  of  different  materials. 

Plate  224.    The  Ceucifix. 

1.  Italian,    1511,   silver  gilt,   the   inlaid   plates  of  the  cross  are  roct 
crystal,  Poldi  Pezzoli  collection,  Milan,  (Kunsthandwerk). 

2.  Italian,  bronze,    Certosa   near  Pavia,  4  ft.  4  ins.  high,    Renascence, 
(Musterornamente). 

3.  Italian,  Bronze,  Renascence,  evidently  of  earlier. date  than  the  base. 

4.  Modem,  Carved  wood. 


The  Crozier,  and  the  Monstrance.    (Plate  225.) 

The  Crozier  or  Pastoral-staff  has  been  the  badge  of  episcopal 
dignity  since  the  earliest  period  of  the  Middle  Ages.  In  the  West:  it 
had  the  shape  of  a  crutcli  up  to  the  12th  century;  and  it  has  re- 
tained this  form  in  the  East  up  the  present  day  (fig.  1).  Afterwards 
the  upper  end  was  curved  spirally.  The  curved  end  and  the  staff 
itself  are  separated  by  a  knob.  In  the  Middle  Ages:  the  curve  is 
decorated  with  crockets  and  inscriptions;  and  its  centre  bears  figures. 
In  many  cases  the  war  of  the  Church   against  the  Evil  One  is  sym- 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


385 


The  Cracifix 


lleycr,   Uaodbook  of  OraaoieDt. 


Plate  224. 
25 


38G  The  Crozier,  and  the  Monstrance. 

bolically  represented  by  the  fight  with  the  dragon  (fig.  4).  In  the 
Gothic  period  the  knob  below  the  curve  is  developed  into  an  archi- 
tectonic lantern.  The  length  of  the  Crozier  is  5  to  6  ft.  The 
material  is  wood,  ivory,  and  metal,  usually  contrasting  in  the  different 
parts.  The  Plate  only  reproduces  the  upper  ends;  as  these  alone  are 
of  importance  by  their  decoration. 

The  Monstrance  is  a  utensil  allied  to  the  Ciborium  and  Reli- 
quary. It  is  an  expository  vessel  in  which,  since  the  institution  of 
the  feast  of  Corpus  Christi  by  Urban  IV  in  1264,  the  consecrated 
wafer  is  shown  and  carried  in  processions  in  Roman  Catholic  churches. 
It  possesses  great  varieties  both  of  style  and  size,  the  height  varying 
from  1  ft.  to  5  ft.  It  usually  has  a  slender  hexagonal  or  octagonal 
foot,  and  a  knob.  From  the  foot  rises  a  tower-like  receptacle  (turri- 
cula),  or  a  "Glory"  with  a  disc-shaped  glass  box  in  whicb  the  wafer 
rests  on  the  so-called  eye.  The  material  is  gold,  silver,  or  brass. 
The  Plate  gives  one  of  the  numerous  examples  which  have  been 
preserved. 

Plate  225.    The  Crozier,  and  the  Monstrance. 

1.  Romanesque,  Bishop  Gerard  of  Limoges,  t   1022. 

2 — 3.  Romanesque. 

4.  Transition   period  from  Romanesque   to  Gothic,   French,   (L'art 
pour  tous). 

5.  Gothic,  Martin  Schongauer,  end  of  15th  century,  (Wessely). 

6.  Rococo,  ivory. 

7.  Monstrance,  gilt  brass,  23  ins.  high,  Hotzendorf. 


c.   Utensils  of  War  and  Hunting;   Wenpons. 

Utensils  of  war  and  hunting,  in  their  most  primitive  forms  at 
least,  are  as  old  as  mankind  itself.  Savages  of  the  earliest  as  well 
as  of  modern  times,  show  great  skill,  and  a  certain  originality  in 
the  decollation  of  these  utensils,  as  we  may  see  in  our  ethnological 
collections.  So  long  as  these  utensils  continued  to  be  made  of  horn, 
bone,  and  such  materials:  and  also  so  long  as  they  belong  to  the  so- 
called  "Stone  age",  they  are  comparatively  simple.  They  do  not 
assume  a  richer  form  and  finish  till  the  introduction  of  bronze  and 
iron.  The  great  revolution  which  ensued  on  the  transition  from 
the  "Stone"  to  the  "Bronze  age"  finds  a  not  less  imposing  parallel 
in  the  revolution  wrought  by  the  invention  of  Gunpowder. 

Utensils  of  War  and  Hunting  may  be  divided  into  two  great 
sections:  weapons  of  Defense  and  weapons  of  Offense.  To  the  former 
belong    Shields,    Helmets    and   Armour.      The    kinds    and    number   of 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


387 


The  Crozier,  and  the  Monstrance. 


Plate  225, 
25* 


388  The  Shield. 

weapons  of  offense  are  far  more  manifold.  Swords,  Daggers,  Spears, 
Pikes,  Lances,  Axes,  Maces,  Arrows,  Kifles,  and"  Pistols,  are  the 
principal.  It  is  unfortunately  impossible,  in  this  work,  to  give  due 
consideration  to  every  single  form;  still  the  chief  representatives  have 
been  included,  with  the  exception  of  Firearms  and  Armour,  in  which 
only  the  engraved  or  chased  details  are  of  decorative  importance. 

The  most  striking  examples,  in  our  Armouries  and  Museums, 
have  lately  been  published,  in  numerous  works;  so  that  it  is  not 
difficult  to  obtain  a  general  view  of  this  section;  monographs  on  Wea- 
pons have  also  been  published,  among  which  we  may  specially  men- 
tion Boeheim's    Waffenkunde  (E.  A.  Seemann,  Leipzig). 


The  Shield.     (Plate  22G.) 

The  Shield,  which  from  the  earliest  times  has  been  the  usual 
weapon  of  defense  against  blows  and  thrusts,  is  generally  a  domed 
disc,  the  form  of  which  has  varied  considerably.  Circular,  elliptical, 
semi-circular,  and  kite-shapes,  are  found  alongside  others  of  richer  out- 
line. The  materials  are  wood,  plaited  osiers,  leather,  metal,  and 
combinations  of  these. '  The  Shield  is  held  in  the  left  hand  by  a 
handle,  or  slung  on  the  arm  by  a  strap.  The  size  varies  from 
20  ins.  to  5  ft.  The  Antique  Shield  was  circular;  and  frequently 
ornamented  with  a  boss  in  the  centre.  Among  the  ancient  Teutons, 
the  form  was  large  and  square;  in  the  Middle  Ages,  it  was  triangular. 
The  Standing -shields  or  Pavises,  of  the  14th  and  15th  centuries, 
were  very  large,  and  provided  with  feet,  so  that  they  would  stand 
upon  the  ground,  without  being  held.  The  Tilting-shield  had  a  hole  cut- 
away in  which  the  lance  was  laid.  With  the  introductions  of  fire-arms 
the  Shield  became  worthless,  and  disappears  as  an  article  of  practical 
use;  but  it  has  continued  to  be  employed  for  State  -  purposes  down 
to  the  present  time;  and,  from  a  decorative  standpoint,  these  State- 
shields  are"  of  high  interest.  They  offer  to  metal-workers  an  except- 
ionally favourable  field  for  the  display  of  their  art.  The  simple 
zonal  divisions  of  the  Antique  Shield  have  given  place  to  freer 
divisions  and  a  richer  decoration  with  figures  and   ornaments. 

Plate  226.    The  Suield. 

1.  Roman,  with  boss,  bronze  partly-silvered,  found  near  Mainz,  Wies- 
baden, Museum. 

2.  Etruscan,   bronze,  Campana  collection,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

3.  Mediaeval,  time  of  the   Crusades,   (Viollet-le-Duc). 

4-.   Renascence,  time  of  Henry  II   of  France,   hammered   metal. 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


389 


The  Shield. 


Plate  226. 


390  Tbe  Shield.  —  The  Helmet. 

5.  Renascence,    decorated    in    the   centre   with   a  rosette  and   pointed 
knob,  Turin, 

6.  Renascence,  with  rich  decoration  of  figures,  in  hammered  metal. 

7.  Renascence,  hammered  silver,  by  P.  van  Vianen. 


The  Helmet.    (Plate  227.) 

The  armour  for  the  defense  of  the  head  is  the  Helmet.  It  was 
probably  originally  made  of  leather;  at  a  later  date  it  was  of  metal; 
and,  in  Modem  times  it  again  consists  of  leather  with  metal  accessories. 
Its  form  has  suffered  many  transformations  in  the  course  of  the  cent- 
lu-ies,  arising  sometimes  from  practical,  sometimes  from  aesthetic 
reasons. 

The  greatest  perfection  of  form  is  found  in  the  Greek  helmet, 
which,  like  Antique  armour  in  general,  fits  very  closely  to  the  human 
body.  We  need  only  remind  the  reader  of  the  plain  but  beautiful 
Helmets  in  which  Pallas  Athene  is  shown  on  Antique  gems.  The 
Medusa  head  and  Sphinxes  are  popular  motives  of  decoration.  The 
decoration  is  most  prominent  on  the  front,  and  on  the  moveable 
cheek-pieces.  Pig.  1  shows  a  Greek  Helmet  with  a  crest  which  is 
similar  to  the  form  of  the  Phrygian  cap.  The  Etruscan  Helmet 
(fig.  2)  is  similar  to  the  Greek.  The  Roman  Helmet  is  simpler. 
Helmets  were  often  decorated  with  plumes  of  feathers  or  horse-hair; 
and  were  provided  with  sockets  for  fixing  these  accessories.  The 
Roman  gladiators'  helmets,  with  their  rich,  florid,  often  overdone  de- 
coration, and  their  large  face-guard  and  heavy  crest,  have  something 
awkward,  without  becoming  ugly. 

Very  manifold,  although  of  no  great  importance  decoratively, 
are  the  Helmets  of  the  Middle  Ages.  Leaving  out  of  account  the 
less  important  transitional  forms,  we  will  here  give  the  names  of  the 
principal  classes  in  order  of  historical  succession.  They  are  the 
Heaume  (fig.  8),  the  Salade  or  sallet  (fig.  7),  the  Tilting- helmet 
(fig.  9),  the  Armet  (fig.  10),  and  the  Helmet  with  barred  Vizor  (fig.  11). 
The  section  on  Heraldry  may  also  be  consulted. 

The  Helmets  of  the  Renascence,  especially  the  State -helmets, 
are  richly,  sometimes  too  richly,  decorated.  To  the  forms  received, 
from  the  Middle  ages,  were  added  the  Burganet  (fig.  13),  and  the 
ilorion  (fig.  12).  Some  of  these  State-helmets  are  also  copied  from 
the  Antique,  as  may  be  seen  in  fig.  14.  Tbe  Modern  creations  in  this 
section  are  of  no  artistic  importance. 

Tlate  227.    The  Helmet. 

1.  Greek,  bronze,  Campana  collection,  (L'art  pour  tons). 

2.  Etruscan,  bronze,  Campana  collection,  (L'art  pour  tous). 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


391 


The  Helmet. 


Plate  227 


392  The  Helmet.  —  The  Sword.  —  The  Dagger. 

3.  Roman,  bronze,  Louvre,  Paris,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

4 — 6.  Roman,    bronze,    for    gladiators,    different    views,    (Menard    et 
Sauvageot). 

7.  Mediaeval  Salade,  iron. 

8.  Mediaeval  Heaume,  iron,  the  chain  was  hooked  into  the  cross- 
shaped  slit. 

9.  Mediaeval  Tilting-helmet,  iron. 

10.  Mediaeval  Armet,  iron. 

11.  Mediaeval,  iron,  with  barred  vizor. 

12.  Renascence,  Morion,  etched  iron, 

13.  Renascence  Burganet,  German. 

14.  State-helmet,  16th  century,  (L'art  pour  tous). 


The  Sword.   (Plate  228.) 

The  Sword  is  the  most  universally  used  of  the  offensive  weapons. 
Much  as  these  weapons  for  cutting  and  thrusting  differ  from  each 
other  in  size  and  finish;  they  generally  consist  of  three  principal 
parts:  the  Blade,  single  or  double-edged,  tapering  more  or  less 
towards  the  point,  generally  straight,  but  sometimes  curved  or  waved, 
also  sometimes  fluted  to  save  weight,  only  decorated  by  means  of 
engraving,  etching,  damaskeening,  &c.;  the  Handle,  with  or  without 
pommel,  cup,  or  basket;  and  the  Scabbard  or  sheath,  with  or  without 
a  hanger.  The  two  latter,  the  handle  and  scabbard,  offer  the  most 
scope  for  decoration.  The  material  of  these  is,  in  addition  to  iron, 
the  other  metals  and  alloys,  wood,  bone,  leather,  coloured  stones,  &c. 
Here,  also,  from  an  artistic  point  of  view,^  we  have  to  consider  less 
the  practical  than  the  State-swords,  on  which  the  Renascence,  the 
following  styles,  and  Modern  art,  have  found  ample  opportunity  to 
exercise  their  artistic  skill.  Plate  228  offers  a  small  selection  from 
the  copious  material  in  our  armouries  and  collections  of  weapons. 

Plate  228.    The  Sword,  and  its  Scabbard.     . 

1 — 3.      Assyrian,  from  reliefs. 

4  and  6.  Egyptian. 

5.  Prehistoric,  bronze,  found  in  Switzerland. 

7 — 9.      Mediaeval,  and  Renascence, 

10 — 12.    Renascence. 

13 — 15.    Renascence,  Pommel,  guard,  and  chape,  by  Hans  Holbein  the 
Younger,  (Fornaenschatz). 


The  Sword,  and  its  Scabbard. 


Plate  228. 


394  The  Dagger.  —  The  Halberd. 


The  Dagger.     (Plate  229.) 

The  Dagger  is  a  Sword  in  miniature,  'in  which  the  gnard  is 
either  omitted  or  reduced  in  size.  What  has  been  said  of  the  Sword 
will  apply  to  the  Dagger.  The  greatest  artists  of  the  Renascence:  Holbein, 
Diirer,  Cellini,  and  others,  did  not  disdain,  as  the  plate  shows,  to  devote 
their  artistic  genius  to  this  weapon,  which  was  often  worn  more  for 
fashion  than  for  practical  purposes.  The  "Dance  of  Death"  (fig.  5) 
is  a  very  popular  motive  in  the  decoration  of  the  scabbards  of  Daggers. 
Considering  the  object  of  the  weapon,  a  more  pregnant  and  appra- 
priate  decoration  can  scarcely  be  imagined. 

Plate  229.    The  Dagger,  and  its  Scabbakd. 

1.  Egyptian,  blade  of  white  bronze,  handle  of  cedar  wood, 
plated  with  gold  and  silver,  tomb  of  Queen  Aah-Hotep, 
Qurnah  ,near  Thebes  (1800  B.  C),  Bulak,  Museum. 

2.  Egyptian,  blade  of  gold,  handle  of  cedar  wood  plated  with 
gold  and  incrusted  with  red  and  blue  enamel,  (as  No.  1). 

3.  Renascence,  handle,  end  of  15th  century,  Basel,  (Kunst  im 
Hause). 

4.  Renascence,  handle,  end  of  15th  century,  Basel,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

5.  Renascence,  German,  Basel,  (Kunst  im  Hause). 

6—8.  Designs,     by    Hans    Holbein    the    Younger,    (1497—1543), 

(Formenschatz). 
9.  Designs,  by  Albrecht  Diirer,  (Formenschatz). 

10.  Renascence,  German,  blackened  iron  parcel-gilt,  Collection  of 
Napoleon  III,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

11.  Creese,    from    Sumatra,    wooden    handle    and    sheath,    United 
collections,  Carlsruhe. 


The  Halberd.    (Plate  230.) 

Among  the  multifarious  utensils  of  war  of  the  Mid^dle  Ages  and 
the  Renascence:  we  may  specially  mention  the  following:   — 

The  Lance  and  the  Pike,  wooden  shafts  with  a  leaf  or  awl- 
shaped  iron  spike.  (Fig.  11  shows  a  Pike-head  of  complicate  shape). 
A   small   flag    was   often   attached   to   the   Lance  just  below  the  head. 

The  Partizan  is  a  Pike  with  a  flat  blade  and  symmetrical  lateral 
points  (figs.  1,  4,  and  5). 

War -scythes  and  War-forks:  the  shapes  of  which  are  indicated 
by  their  names  (figs.  3,  and  7). 

The  Battle-axe,  and  Martel,  are  axe  and  hammer-shaped  weapons, 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


395 


The  Dagger,  and  its  Scabbard. 


Plate  229. 


396  The  Halberd.  —  The  Spoon. 

with  one  side  terminating  in  an  axe  or  a  hammer,  and  the  other  in 
a  point  (fig.  9). 

The  Halberd  is  a  combination  of  the  Pike  or  Partizan  with  the 
Battle-axe  (figs.  2  and  8). 

The  Mace  is  a  handle  with  a  knob  of  various  forms;  when  it 
is  set  with  spikes,  it  is  called  a  "Morning-star",  and  when  set  with 
radiating  blades,  it  is  termed  a  Quadrelle  (fig.  10). 

The  War-flail  is  distinguished  from  the  Mace  by  the  knob  being 
fastened  to  the  handle  by  a  chain. 

And  so  on,  in  endless  variety. 

So  far  as  decoration  is  concerned:  the  first  place  is  due  to 
Halberds  and  Partizans;  not  only  because  the  shape  of  the  blade  is 
frequently  very  varied  and  handsome,  but  also  because  the  union 
with  the  shaft,  by  means  of  bands,  nails,  tassels,  &c.,  gives  an  oppor- 
tunity for  rich  colour.  The  blades,  slso,  are  often  decorated  by 
damaskeening,  engraving,  gilding,  etc. 

Plate  230.    The  Halberd,  &c. 

1.  Partizan,   richly  -  etched ,   German,    16th  century,    Historical 
Museum,  Dresden,  (Kunsthandwerk). 

2.  Halberd,   richly-etched,   German,   1613,   Artillery  Museum, 
Paris,  (L'art  pour  tons). 

8.  Fauchard,  richly-etched,  German,  1580,  Artillery  Museum, 
Paris,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

4.  Partizan,    richly-etched,    German,    17th    century,    Artillery 
Museum,  Paris,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

5.  Partizan,    richly- etched ,    German,    1712,    Royal   Armoury, 
Berlin,  (Kunsthandwerk). 

6  and  8.  Halberds. 

7.  Combination  of  War-scythe  and  War-fork. 

9.  Battle-axe,  Hindu,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 
10.  Mace,  so-called  quadrelle,  (VioUet-le-Duc). 

11  Pike. 

(The  shafts  have  been  omitted,  or  only  partially  indicated). 


c.  Table   Utensils. 

The  Spoon.    (Plate  231.) 

The  Spoon  is,  strictly  speaking,  a  dipper;  and  has  already  been 
alluded-to  in  the  discussion  of  the  group  of  Vessels  (comp.  Plate  193). 
It   is   here  treated   in    the  group  of  Utensils.     As  a  table  utensil  the 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


397 


The  Halberd,  &c. 


Plate  230. 


398  The  Spoon. 

Spoon  has  been  in  use  from  the  earliest  times;  its  fundamental 
form  has  undergone  very  little  alteration;  although  its  style  and  size 
have  varied  in  different  periods. 

The  form  of  the  Bowl  is  spherical,  elliptic,  or  oval  (in  the  last 
case  the  handle  is  usually  attached  to  the  broad  end,  more  rarely  to 
the  narrow  one).  The  Handle  has  a  cylindrical,  prismatic  or  conical 
tapering  form,  or  is  spatulate.  Spatulate  handles  broaden  out  at  the 
free  end;  and  are  decorated  with  cartouches  or  pierced  work 
(figs.  26,  28 — 30).  Prismatic,  cylindrical,  and  conical,  handles  usually 
terminate  in  knobs,  busts,  or  little  whole-length  figures  (figs.  13 — 17, 
-and  19—23). 

The  "handles  of  small  Antique  spoons  for  eating  shellfish,  Ac, 
often  taper  to  a  point  to  serve  as  openers.  Double-spoons,  as  shown 
in  fig.  24,  are  rare.  Folding  Pocket-spoons,  as  in  figs.  18,  19,  21 
and  22,  are  not  infrequent  in  the  Middle  Ages,  and  the  Renascence. 
Bowl  and  handle  either  lie  in  the  same  plane  (figs.  3  and  16),  or 
they  form  an  angle  at  the  point  of  junction  (figs.  8,  10  and  11). 

As  a  rule:  the  decoration  is  confined  to  the  handle;  where  the 
bowl  is  decorated,  it  is  with  some  kind  of  flat  work  (engraving,  or 
enamelling).  The  materials  are  the  precious  metals,  alloys,  tin,  bone, 
horn,*  wood,  &c.;  very  often,  the  handle  and  the  bowl  are  of  different 
materials. 

Plate  231.    The  Spoon. 

1.  Egyptian. 

2 — 12.  Antique,  bronze,  (ligulae),  Pompeii. 
13 — 14.  Mediaeval,   hammered  copper,    13th  century,    6V4  ins.   long, 

Pierrefonds  castle. 
15 — 16.  Mediaeval,  tin,   12th  century,  6^/4   ins.  long. 
17  Mediaeval,     chased     and     hammered     brass,     SVs    i^s.    long, 

Pierrefonds  castle. 

18.  Folding  Pocket-spoon,    I5th   century,    4^8   i°s.  long,    Cluny 
Museum,  Paris,  (Viollet-le-Duc).^ 

19.  Renascence,  South  Kensington  Museum,  London. 

20.  Renascence,  silver,  terminating  in  a  Madonna,   6^/^   ins.  long, 
Cluny  Museum,  Paris. 

21.  German,    folding    Pocket -spoon,    16th  century,    7   ins.  long, 
Dziatinska  collection. 

22.  Renascence,  folding  Pocket-spoon  silver,  S'/g  ins.  long,  Cluny 
Museum,  Paris. 

23.  Renascence,    bowl  of  agate,  handle    of  copper  gilt,   5'/8  ii>s., 
Cluny  Museum,  Paris.     (L'art  pom*  tous). 

24.  Double-spoon,  bronze,  Germanisches   Museum,  Nurembeig. 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


399 


The  Spoon. 


Plate  231. 


400  The  Spoon.  —  The  Knife,  and  the  Fork. 

25.  Persian,    from    an    inkstand,    17th  century,    4'/^  ins.    long, 
Duhousset  collection,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

26.  Persian,    17th  century,    4'/4  ins.  long,   Duhousset  collection,. 
(L'art  pour  tous). 

27.  German,   tin,   inscription:    "Trink  und   is,   Gott  nit  vergis". 
United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

28.  Modern,  French,  (Gewerbehalle). 

29.  Modern,    silver    gilt  and   enamelled,    by  the   architect  P.  O 
Schulze,  (Gewerbehalle).  ' 

30.  Modern,  silver,  by  F.  Seitz. 


The  Knife  and  the  Fork.    (Plate  232.) 

Knives  and  Forks,  unlike  Spoons,  are  of  comparatively  late 
introduction  as  table  utensils.  Although  it  is  probable  that  they 
were  in  use  at  a  very  early  period  as  kitchen  utensils  for  carving 
food,  still  they  did  not  attain  the  rank  of  a  recognised  dinner  set 
until  the  art  of  eating  had  reached  a  certain  refinement.  It  has. been 
maintained  that  Knives  and  Forks  appeared  on  dinner  tables  towards 
the  close  of  the  Roman  Empire.  In  our  own  country  it  can  be 
proved  that  they  did  not  come  into  general  use  until- the  15th  or 
16th  century.  This  may  be  explained  by  the  circumstance  that  in  the 
earlier  period  of  the  Middle  ages,  as  at  the  present  time  in  the  East, 
food  was  carried  to  the  mouth  with  the  fingers  or  with  a  spoon, 
after  having  undergone  the  necessaiy  division  into  small  portions  in 
the  kitchen.  Cleanliness  was  ensured  by  frequently  washing  the 
hands  daring  dinner. 

As  regards  form  and  material:  what  has  been  said  of  Spoons,  is 
also  true  for  Knives  and  Forks.  The  handles  are  similarly  shaped, 
to  secure  uniformity  in  the  whole  set;  the  bowl  of  the  Spoon  is 
replaced  by  the 'two,  or  more  prongs  of  the  Fork,  or  by  the  blade 
of  the  Knife.  The  Handle  is  made  of  wood,  ivory,  &c.,  and  it  is 
comparatively  stronger  as  it  must  possess  a  greater  power  of  re- 
sistance, because  the  tang  or  prolongation  of  the  blade,  which  is 
always  made  of  steel,  must  be  let-into  it.  As  the  Plate  shows,  the 
shape  of  the  blade  has  passed  through  many  changes  in  the  course 
of  time.  To  cut  the  "t;onsecrated  bread"  the  Middle  Ages  employed 
peculiar  knives,  the  blades  of  which  were  engraved  with  mcttoes  and 
musical  scales. 

Plate  232.    The  Knife,  and  the  Fork. 

1 — 2.     Mediaeval,  (13th — 15th  century),  wooden  handle  inlaid  with 
silver. 


IHETAL  OBJECTS. 


401 


Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament. 


The  Knife,  and  the  Fork. 


Plate  232. 
26 


402     The  Knife,  and  the  Fork.  —  The  Paper-Knife.  —  The  Scissors. 

3 — 4.  Gothic,    14th  century,    the  prongs  of   alloy,    the  handle  of 
ivory  mounted  with  silver,   7  '/a  i^is.  long,  Garneray  collection. 

5.  Mediaeval,    copper  gilt,  4^/4  ins.  long,    Garneray   collection. 

6.  Renascence,   ivory,    Leon  Bach  collection,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

7.  Renascence,    South  Kensington  Museum,  London. 

8.  Renascence,  Bach  collection,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

9.  Renascence,  Bach  collection,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

10.  Barocco  period,  South  Kensington  Museum,  London. 

11  — 12.  Renascence,  Dresden,  (Musterornamente). 

13—14.  Ditto. 

16 — 16.  Modern,    silver  gilt  and  enamelled,    by  F.    0.  Schulze,    (Ge- 

werbehalle). 
17.  Modern,    silver  gilt   and  enamelled;    by  F.  0,  Schulze,  (Ge- 

werbehalle). 


The  Paper-Knife.     (Plate  233.) 

Paper-knives  are  an  invention  of  Modern  times.  As  the  name 
implies,  they  are  used  for  cutting  paper,  the  edges  of  books,  news- 
papers, and  letters;  and  they  find  a  place  on  every  desk. 

The  form  is  usually  that  of  a  one  or  two-edged  Knife.  As  the 
blade  does  not  require  to  be  very  sharp,  it  is  generally  made  of  the 
same  material  as  the  handle,  and  in  most  cases  of  ivory,  wood, 
or  brass. 

The  decoration  is  generally  confined  to  the  handle;  the  blade  is 
at  most  decorated  with  flat  enrichment. 

Plate  233.    The  Paper- Knife. 

1.  Modern,  brass. 

2—3.  Modern,  ivory  or  wood,  by  Dir.  G.  Kachel,  (Gewerbehalle). 

4 — 6.  Modern,  wood  carving,  by  J.  Eberhardt,  Heilbronn. 

7.  Modern,  pierced  metal. 


The  Scissors.     (Plate  234.) 

Scissors,  intended  pnraarily  for  use  in  ladies'  work,  and  after- 
wards applied  to  a  variety  of  other  purposes,  are  mostly  met-with  in 
two  different  fundamental  forms.  .  The  earlier  form  (French:  forces), 
which  held  its  ground  up  to  the  end  of  the  Middle  Ages,  has  a 
spring  hoop  which  unites  the  two  blades  (fig.  1).  The  later  form 
(French:  ciseanx),  which  begins  to  appear  sporadically  as  early  as 
the   10th  century,   has   two  separate  blades  moveable  round  a  central 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


403 


The  Paper  Knife 


Plate  233. 
26* 


404  The  Scissors.  —  The  Hand-Bell. 

pivot,  and  terminating  at  one  end  in  the  blades  and  at  the  other  in 
handles  with  ring-shaped  eyelets  to  receive  the  fingers  (figs.  2,  3, 
5.  6).  The  shape  is  usually  symmetrical.  Variations,  like  fig.  4,  are 
rare.  Not  infrequently,  the  scissors  are  provided  with  a  chain  by 
means  of  which  they  may  be  suspended,  either  alone  or  with  other 
articles,  from  a  Chatelaine.  The  points  are  sometimes  protected  by  a 
guard  (fig.  10).  The  decoration  is  generally  confined  to  the  handles, 
and  frequently  consists  of  pierced  work;  the  blades  are  plain,  or 
decorated  by  inlaying,  &c.  Where  handle  and  blades  are  not  of  the 
same  metal,  which  in  this  case  can  only  be  steel,  the  handles  are 
often  of  brass  or  silver.  Between  these  two  extremes  are  gilt,  silvered, 
and  nickel  led  handles.  The  Renascence  gratified  its  luxurious  taste 
to  the  full,  in  the  matter  of  Scissors;  in  Modern  times,  the  plainer 
and  simpler  forms  are  preferred.  The  length  of  the  blades  varies, 
according  to  the  purpose;  but  the  size  of  the  handles  remains  the 
same,  being  governed  by  that  of  the  human  hand;  hence  the  pro- 
portions between  the  two  are  very  various.  Among  Scissors  which 
are  intended  for  special  purposes,  and  depai^  from  the  usual  form: 
may  be  mentioned  Snuffers,  and  "Lazy-tongs"  (fig.  9). 

Plate  234.    The  Scissors. 

1.  Renascence,     Sonth  Kensington  Museum,  London. 

2.  Renascence,   blades   etched,    handles   gilt,   August  I  of  Saxony, 
Royal  Historical  Museum,  Dresden,  (Kunsthandwerk). 

3 — 4.  Persian,    17th  century,   T'/g   ins.  and  6'/4  ins.  long,  Duhousset 
collection,  (L'art  po^  tous). 

5.  Renascence,  South  Kensington  Museum,  London. 

6.  Renascence,   German,  Dresden,  (Musterornamente). 

7.  Renascence,  handles  silver  gilt,  German  (Kunsthandwerk). 

8.  ■    Snufi"ers,  in  bird  form. 

9.  Lazy-tongs,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 


The  Hand-Bell.     (Plate  235.) 

In  those  utensils  of  which  it  may  be  said  that  as  a  rule  they 
are  artistically  decorated  beyond  what  is  wanted  for  practical  purposes, 
we  may  reckon  the  Hand- bell.  During  the  Middle  Ages  and  the 
Renascence:  the  Hand-bell  seems  to  have  been  chiefly  used  in  an 
official  capacity  in  Council- chambers  and  for  ecclesiastical  pui^poses; 
and  its  introduction  into  ordinary  households,  to  summon  the  atten- 
dants did  not  take  place  till  later.  In  our  own  times,  so  prolific  of 
Parliamentary  and  other  Meetings:  the  Hand-bell  is  indispensable.  The 
necessary  parts   are:  the  resonant  Cup*  the  Clapper  suspended  in  the 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


405 


The  Scissors. 


Plate  234. 


406  The  Hand-BelL 

interior  of  the  cnp,  and  the  Handle.  The  two  former  are  always  of 
metal;  the  cup  of  an  alloy,  or  sometimes  of  silver;  and  the  clapper 
of  iron.  The  handle  may  be  of  the  same  material  as  the  cup,  or  it 
may  be  made  of  wood,  ivory,  &c.  The  form  of  the  cup  is  general]}' 
the  same  as  that  of  the  large  Church-bells,  which  is  based  on  practical 
experience  (figs.  2,  3).  Forms  like  figs.  1,  5  and  6,  are  rarer. 
Hand -bells  for  domestic  u^e  are  small  (about  4  ins.  high);  those  for 
official  purposes  are  larger  (up  to  12  ins).  The  latter  class  often 
have  a  non-essential  adjunct  in  the  shape  of  a  Pedestal  (figs.  7  and  8). 
1'he  handle  takes  the  form  of  a  long  extended  knob  (figs.  2,  3,  7,  8), 
or  of  a  hoop  (figs.  1  and  6).  The  decoration  extends  to  the  handle 
and  the  cup  of  the  bell,  which  is  frequently  adorned  with  heraldic 
bearings,  and  zones  of  inscriptions.  Sometimes  we  find  Hand-bells  in 
the  form  of  ladies,  in  which  case  the  wide  skirt  of  the  dress  is  the 
cup  (fig.  4).  Cups  of  open-work  are  also  occasionaUy  met-with.  Of 
late  years  the  traditional  Hand-bell  has  yielded  place  to  another  form 
in  which  the  sound  is  caused  by  pressure  on  a  knob  by  means  of  a 
spring  (figs.  9  and  10). 

Plate  235.    The  Hand-Bell. 

1.  Modem,  brass,  from  an  old  model. 

2 — 3.     Renascence,  bronze,  4:^|^  ins.  high,  Wiesbaden  Museum. 

4.  Modem,  brass,  after  an  old  model. 

5.  Modem,  brass. 

6.  Modern,  French,   by  D.  Renard,    4^4    ins.  high,   (L'art  pour 
tous). 

7.  Modem,  silver,  mth  ivory  liandle,  by  the  architect  P.  Schulz, 
with  foot  7  ^g  ins.  (Gewerbehalle). 

8.  Modern  President's   bell,   Tovra-Hall,  Milan,    by   the  architect 
Angelo  CoUa,  (Gewerbehalle). 

0 — 10.  Modem,  of  the  latest  systems. 


e.   Various  Domestic  and  Toilet  Utensils, 

The  promise,  which  was  made  in  the  introduction  to  the -group 
of  utensils,  to  devote  some  plates  to  Domestic  and  Toilet  utensils  must 
not  be  construed  as  an  undertaking  to  exhaust  the  whole  field.  Very 
much  has  already  come  under  discussion:  the  utensils  of  Illumination, 
for  instance,  are  also  for  the  most  part,  domestic  utensils.  The  following 
five  plates  will  therefore,  to  a  certain  extent,  bring-together  from  the 
remaining  domestic  utensils  those  which  in  the  first  place  deserve 
consideration  from  the  point  of  view  of  decoration,  including  Door- 
knockers, Keys,   Min-ors,  Fans,   Tools,  and  Instruments.     As  regards 


METAL  OBJECTB. 


407 


The  Hand-Bell. 


Plate  236. 


408  The  Door-Knocker. 

these  latter  objects  in  particular,  a  much  more  extensive  collection 
might  have  been  made  if  the  allotted  space  had  permitted.  There  is 
scarcely  a  Tool  or  Instrument  which  did  not  occasionally  receive  an 
artistic  finish  during  the  Renascence.  The  introduction  of  the  so- 
called  "master-pieces"  into  the  Guilds,  naturally  led  to  the  result  that 
unnecessary  labour  was  sometimes  expended  on  the  most  ordinary 
things.  But  still  we  shall  offer  sufficient  to  give  the  reader  the 
necessary  view  of  the  entire  section. 


The  Door-Knoceer.     (Plate  236.) 

Although  the  Door-knocker  was  in  use  in  Antiquity,  as  proved 
by  an  example  (the  head  of  Medusa  with  ring)  found  in  Capua: 
still  the  strict  period  of  the  Door-knocker  is  in  the  Romanesque, 
Gothic,  and  Renascence  epochs.  In  Modern  times:  it  has  already 
become  a  historical  object,  having  been  ousted  by  Bellpulls,  &c. 
It  is  made  almost  exclusively  of  bronze,  and  cast  or  vrrought  iron. 
Its  dimensions  are  variable,  like  those  of  the  doors  and  gates  them- 
selves, to  which  it  must  bear  some  proportion.  We  may  d'istinguish 
three  principal  classes.  The  first  has  the  form  of  a  Ring,  usually 
suspended  from  a  lion's  jaws;  in  which  case  it  is  at  the  same  time  a 
Door-handle  (figs.  1 — 7).  The  second  has  the  form  of  a  Hammer 
moveable  on  a  primitive  hinge.  The  third  class,  which  arose  in  Italy 
in  the  best  days  of  the  Renascence,  shows  Figures,  Animals,  &c. 
(figs.  9  and  11).  In  all  three  classes  the  requisite  noise  is  produced 
by  the  moveable  part  falling  on  a  metal  stud.  In  the  third  class  the 
plate  by  which  the  knocker  is  affixed  to  the  door  is  of  subsidiary 
importance,  while  in  the  two  former  classes  it  is  often  the  principal 
feature  of  the  design.  The  Gothic  period  devised  richly  -  decorated 
plates  of  pierced  -  work.  This  motive  was  often  retained  by  the  Re- 
nascence (fig.  4),  or  replaced  by  double-headed  eagles  and  the  like 
(fig.  5).  The  Plate  gives  11  different  examples,  selected  from  the 
copious  material. 

Plate  236.    The  Door-Ivnocker. 

1.  Romanesque,  bronze,  North  portal  of  the  cathedral  of  Puy-en-Velay, 
11th  century. 

2.  Mediaeval,  7^8  ins.  square,  Soyter  collection,  Augsburg. 

3.  Renascence,  2**/^  ins.  square.  Museum,  Berlin. 

4.  Transition  from  Gothic  to  Renascence,  5^/^  ins.  square,  S.  Peter's, 
'  Strassburg. 

5.  Renascence,  wrought-iron,  German,  National  Museum,  Munich. 
G.  Renascence,  (Guichard). 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


409 


The  Door-Knocker, 


Plate  236. 


410  '^  The  Dooi-Knockor.  —  The  Key. 

7.  Mediaeval,  bronze,  15th  century,  S'/j  ins.  high,  East  portal  of 
the  cathedral  of  Noyon. 

8.  Renascence,  vn:ought-iron,  Dutch,  14^/$  ins.  high,  Vermerch  col- 
lection. 

9.  Renascence,  bronze,  Italian,  .1372  ^^^*  ^^S^i  David  with  the 
head  of  Goliath,  house  in  Ferrara,  (Yorbilder  fiir  Fabrikanten 
und  Handworker). 

10.  Renascence,    bronze,  Italian,   1560,    South    Kensington    Museum, 
London. 

11.  Renascence,  bronze,  Italian,  Austrian  Museum,  Vienna,  (Gewerbe- 
halle). 

The  Key.     (Plate  237.) 

It  is  not  the  task  of  this  Handbook  to  follow  the  developement 
of  the  Lock  through  its  various  stages  from  the  Antique  up  to  the 
present  day.  It  would  also  carry  us  too  far  if  we  were  to  attempt 
to  go  into  the  decorative  details  of  the  case  of  the  lock;  one  plate, 
however  shall  be  devoted  to  the  Key;  while  the  escutcheon  will  find 
its  place  in  the  group  of  Frames.  Apart  from  such  special  designs 
as  that  shown  by  fig,  2,  the  Key  usually  consists  of' three  parts:  the 
Bow,  the  Stem,  and  the  Bit.  Keys  may  be  divided  into  two  classes, 
according  as  the  stem  is  tubular,  or  is  solid.  The  stem  is  generally 
cylindrical,  or  profiled;  more  rarely  angular,  or  prismatic.  The  bit, 
which  projects  as  a  rectangular  plate  at  the  end  of  the  key,  is 
divided  by  notches  into  wards.  The  decoration  is  applied  to  the 
bow.  The  Pompeian  key,  shown  in  fig.  1,  is  an  exception,  the  bow 
being  smooth  and  the  bit  and  stem  prettily  ornamented.  Keys  are 
made  of  iron  and  bronze,  the  stem  being  frequently  of  iron,  and  the 
bow  of  some  other  metal;  the  bow,  and  indeed  the  whole  key,  is  often 
gilt.  The  palmy  days  of  Keys  were  the  Middle  Ages  and  the  Re- 
nascence; compared  with  these,  our  Modem  keys  are  on  the  whole 
smaller,  simpler,  and,  if  less  beautiful,  are  certainly  more  practical. 
Finally  we  may  mention  those  colossal  examples  which  were  formerly 
made  to  serve  as  Signs;  and  are  even  now  met- with. 

Plate  237.    The  Key. 

1.  Antique,  Pompeii,  (Bliimner:  Das  Kunstgewerbe  im  Alterthum). 

2.  Roman,  bronze,  found  on  the  Hohenkrahen,  United  collections, 
Carlsruhe. 

3.  Romanesque,  bronze.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 
4 — 5.     Renascence,  (Kunst  und  Gewerbe). 

t) — 8.     Renascence,   Museo   Medio  Evo  e   Rinascimento,    Rome,   (Ge- 
werbehalle). 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


411 


The  Kev. 


Plate  237. 


412  The  Hand-Mirror.  —  The  Fan. 

9.  Renascence,  (Guichard). 

10.  Renascence,  South  Kensington  Museum,  London. 

11 — 12.  Renascence,  German. 

13 — 14.  Bows,  18  th  century,  (Wessely). 

15 — 19.  Modern,  by  the  architect  Otto  Girard,  Berlin,  (Geweibehalle). 


The  Hand-Mirror.    (Plate  238.) 

The  first  place  in  the  series  of  ladies'  toilet  requisites  belongs 
to  the  Hand-mirror.  Its  history  falls  into  two  periods.  In  Antiquity 
and  in  the  earlier  years  of  the  Middle  Ages:  mirrors  were  made  of 
polished  metal,  either  bronze  or  silver.  About  the  13  th  century,  glass 
begins  to  be  used,  the  reflecting  surface  being  backed  with  metal  foil. 
The  Antique,  and  .particulary  the  Etruscan  mirrors,  of  which  a  large 
number  have  been  preserved  to  ms,  show  engraved  ornaments  and 
figures  from  mythology  and  daily  life,  mostly  of  primitive,  but 
sometimes  of  excellent,  workmanship.  Glass  mirrors  are,  generally, 
■fiat.  The  fundamental*  shape  of  the  Antique  mirror  is  circular  or 
spatulate  (figs.  1 — 6);  and  that  of  the  glass  mirror  is  circular  or 
elliptical  (figs.  8  and  9).  The  plastic  decoration  of  Antique  mirrors 
is  confined  to  the  handle,  and  the  frame.  The  handle  and  frame  may 
be  of  a  great  variety  of  materials,  wood,  ivory,  or  metal.  Here,  too, 
it  is  the  Renascence  which  shows  the  richest  decoration.  Where  the 
decoration  consists  of  figures,  these  are  in  keeping  with  the  object; 
and  show  Amorini  and  Aphroditic  personages.  With  the  increasing  use 
of  wall  or  plate-glass  mirrors,  the  Hand-mirror  jas  lost  much  of  its 
former  importance;  so  that  modern  art  no  longer  devotes  much  atten 
tioil  to  it. 

Plate  238.    The  Hand-Mieror. 

1.  Egyptian,  bronze.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

2.  Egyptian,    bronze,    handle   of   carved    wood,    British    Museum, 
London. 

3 — 4.  Greek,  bronze. 

5.  Pompeian. 

6 — 7.  Etruscan,  engraved  figures,  handles  lost. 

8.  Renascence,  (Kunst  und  Gewerbe). 

9.  Renascence,  by   Etienne  de  Laulne  (1549  to   1583),  (Wessely). 

The  Fan.    (Plate  239.) 

The  Fan  is  undoubtedly  the  most  interesting  of  all  toilet  requisites. 
Its  history  can  be  traced  back  uninterruptedly  for  3000  years,  although 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


418 


The  Hand-Mirror. 


Plate  238. 


414  The  Fan. 

it  did  not  enjoy  the  same  measure  of  popularity  in  every  period.  It 
alone  would  almost  suffice  to  furnish  a  historical  picture  of  the  artistic 
and  technical  developement  of  industrial  art  through  all  periods.  The 
object  of  the  Fan  is  twofold.  Firstly,  it  is  used  to  direct  a  current 
of  cool  air  to  the  face;  and  secondly,  to  keep  off  f}ies  and  other 
insects.  From  its  first  use  it  derives  its  Latin  name  of  "fiuhcllum" 
(from  flare  =  to  blow,  French  "eventail");  from  its  second  use  its 
Latin  name  "miiscarium"  (from  musca  =  a  fly,  French  "esmoudioir"). 
Fans  of  this  latter  class  are  usually  called  "Fly-flappers".  Occasion- 
ally, the  fan  is  used  to  blow  the  fire  (as  in  ancient  Persia,  where 
the  blowing  of  the  fire  with  the  lips  was  forbidden  for  religious 
reasons);  and  as  a  Symbol  of  dignity  in  ecclesiastical  and  court  cere- 
monies. A  consideration  of  its  purpose  renders  it  obvious  that  it  is 
chiefly  employed  in  the  hotter  countries  of  the  globe. 

The  manifold  forms  of  the  fan  may  be  reduced  to  5  diS'erent 
piincipal  types: 

1.  The  Fixed  Fan:  a  leaf  immovably  attached  to  a  handle  (figs. 
6—9). 

2.  The  Pennon  Fan:  attached  to  the  side  of  the  handle,  and 
movable  round  it  in  a  horizontal  direction  (figs.  10  and  11). 
The  forms  and  materials  of  the  fixed  and  the  pennon  fan  are 
of  the  utmost  variety. 

3.  The  Radial  Fan:  a  rectangle  of  paper,  silk  or  some  other 
material,  fastened  to  a  handle  in  such  a  manner  that  it  may 
be  folded  together  and  spread  out  in  the  form  of  a  circle 
(fig.  12). 

4.  The  Lamellar  fan:  pieces  of  stiff  material  e.  g.  slips  of  ivory, 
are  connected  together  at  one  end  by  a  pin,  which  serves  as 
the  axis.  They  are  collapsible  into  a  narrow  shape,  and 
may  be  opened-out  to  a  semi-circle.  They  are  held-together 
by  a  ribbon  drawn  through  them  (fig.   13). 

5.  The  Folding  fan:  distinguished  from  the  preceding  by  the 
lamellae  being  covered  by  a  sheet  of  paper,  silk,  &c.,  which 
is  folded  -  together  or  spread-out  by  the  opening  of  the  sticks 
which  compose  the  frame  (fig.   14). 

It  appears  from  this  that  the  Fixed,  the  Pennon,  and  the  Radial 
fans  have  handles,  while  the  Lamellar  and  the  Folding  fans  have  not. 
The  Radial  fan,  being  a  folding  fan  with  a  handle,  is  a  kind  of  inter- 
mediate form.  The  size  of  the  fan  varies  according  to  fashion  and 
the  purpose  for  which  it  is  intended,  regard  being  usually  paid  to 
convenience  of  handling;  as  a  general  rule,  it  may  be  said  that  the 
firmer,  stiffer  and  more  imper\aous  to  air  the  fan  is:  the  smaller  it 
may  be.  Fans  for  cooling  should  have  a  short,  broad  form,  Fly- 
flappers  require  a  longer,   narrower  shape. 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


415 


The  Fan. 


Plate  239. 


416  The  Fan. 

On  the  subject  of  history  and  style,  the  following  may  be  said: 
The  Fixed  fan  is  the  oldest  and  most  primitive.  Its  natural  model  is 
a  leaf  on  a  stalk,  just  as  savages  at  the  present  time  make  their  fans 
of  dried  palm-leaves  or  of  plaited  work  in  the  form  of  leaves  (fig.  4). 
The  feather  may  also  be  regarded  as  a  natural  model,  and  hence  its 
frequent  application  to  fans  of  every  kind.  The  Pennon  fan  is  the 
least  practical,  its  domain  is  the  Middle  Ages  and  the  early  Renascence, 
together  with  certain  parts  of  the  East  (India,  Turkey,  Morocco, 
Tunis,  &c.).  The  Radial  fan  was  also  in  use  in  the  Middle  ages  (with 
a  long  handle),  and  down  to  the  present  time  in  certain  parts  of  Italy, 
Persia,  China,  and  Japan.  The  Lamellar  and  the  Folding  fan  are  of 
later  date.  Their  introduction  is  contemporaneous  with  the  general 
use  of  the  fan  in  Europe  (15  th  century).  After  the  period  of  the 
lamellar  fan  in  the  17  th  century,  follows  the  golden  age  of  the  folding 
fan  in  the  Rococo  period.  The  Folding  fan  is  also  the  predominant 
form  in  Modern  times. 

Egyptian  mural  paintings  and  Assyrian  reliefs  frequently  show 
Fan  -  bearers,  with  larger  or  smaller  Fly -flappers,  in  the  retinue  of, 
the  kings.  The  most  common  Egyptian  forms  are  given  in  figs.  1 
and  2,  the  Assyrian  in  fig.  3.  Scarcely  any  vestige  has  been  pre- 
served of  Antique  Fans.  Judging  by  the  pictures  on  vases,  &c.,  the 
Greek  Fan  consisted  of  a  leaf,  cut  to  a  palmette  -  shape,  on  a  long 
handle.  The  Roman  ladies  were  somewhat  luxurious  in  the  matter 
of  fans,  which  they  either  managed  themselves  or  had  carried  by 
slaves;  and  under  the  Emperors  the  men  were  also.  In  the  Middle 
Ages,  the  fan  entered  into  the  service  of  the  church;  deacons  and 
ministrans  kept- off  flies  from  the  consecrated  host  by  means  of  the 
flabella,  which  often  took  the  form  of  six-winged  seraphs.  When  the 
fan  became  popular  for  secular  purposes,  its  use  was  given  up  in 
churches.  As  already  observed,  the  Renascence  passed  from  the  Fixed, 
to  the  Lamellar  and  Folding  fan.  The  Lamellar  fan  offered  numerous 
opportunities  for  carved  and  pierced  work  in  ivory,  horn,  tortoiseshell, 
filigree,  and  enamel  work.  The  Folding  fan  offered  an  unlimited 
field  for  decoration  by  painting;  and  painters,  like  Boucher,  Watteau, 
and  others,  devoted  themselves  to  fan -painting  (pastoral  scenes  &c.). 
During  this  period  the  "Puzzle-fan"  was  invented,  which  shows  differ- 
ent pictures  according  to  the  way  it  is  folded.  Lace  fans,  fans  with 
mirrors,  monograms,  and  autographs,  and  the  bespangled  Empire-fans, 
complete  the  category.  The  Modern  ball-room  fan  is  a  large  Folding 
fan  generally  decorated  with  naturalistic  paintings  of  flowers.  But 
all  possible  forms  ara  occasionally  used.  France,  China,  and  Japan 
supply  the  fan  market.  Heinrich  Frauberger,  who  has  written  a  most 
valuable  monograph  on  the  Fan*,   maintains  that  the  latter  countries 


*  H.  Frauberger :  "Die  GeschichtG  des  Fachers."    Leipzig:  K.  Scholtze- 


The  Fan.  —  Various  Tools.  417 

alone  manufacture  between   them  about    8/4    of  the  400   million  fans 
which  are  annually  made  on  the  globe. 

Finally  we  may  briefly  enumerate  the  materials  which  are  prin- 
cipally used  in  the  manufacture  of  fans.  They  are:  bamboo,  palm- 
leaves,  wood,  bone,  horn,  ivory,  tortoise-shell,  mother-of-pearl,  metal, 
paper,  straw  and  other  plaited  material,  silk,  lace,  gelatine,  mica, 
leather,  feathers,  &c. 

Plate  239.    The  Fan. 

1.  Egyptian,  Fly-flapper,  feathers,  handle  omitted. 

2.  Egyptian,  feather-fan. 

.3.  Assyrian,  Fly-flapper,  from  a  relief,  British  Museum. 

4.  Modem,   Fly-flapper,   plaited  palm-leaves.   South  Caroline  Is- 
lands, (Frauberger). 

5.  Modern,    Fly-flapper,   plaited   palm-leaves.   United   collections,' 
Carlsruhe. 

6.  Modem,  palm-leaf,  cut  and  bound  at  the  edge. 
7 — 8.  Modem,  Japanese,  bamboo  and  paper. 

9.  Modern,    printed    paper    with    silk    fringe    and    gilt    wooden 

handle. 

10.  Modern,  Siamese,  handle  of  whipped  wood,  centre  of  paste- 
board, decorated  with  rosettes  and  bordered  with  peacock 
feathers.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

1 1.  Modem,  Hindu,  handle  of  wood,  centre  of  pasteboard  covered 
with  silk,  braid,  and  butterfly  wings,  bordered  with  peacock 
feathers,  (Frauberger). 

12.  Mediaeval,  Radial-fan,  French,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

13.  Modem,  Folding-fan,  wood  and  grouse  feathers. 

14.  Modern,  Folding-fan,  wood,  painted  silk,  and  gold. 


Various  Tools.     (Plate  240.) 

Among  the  Tools  and  Instruments  which  only  occasionally  or 
accidentally  receive  an  artistic  finish  we  may  mention:  Hammers, 
Tongs,  Compasses,  Cocks,  Pestles,  Hour-glasses,  and  Clocks,  along 
with  many  other  things.  No  attempt  can  be  made  here  to  treat 
these  articles  in  detail.  But  it  may  be  said  that,  in  general,  the 
highly-decorated  examples  have  been  specially  made  for  State-occasions, 
6.  g.  the  Ifamraer  (fig.  1),  with  which  Pope  Julius  III  inaugurated  the 
Jubilee  year  (1550)  by  knocking  three  times  on  the  walled-up  main- 
portal  of  S.  Peter's,  as  a  sign  that  it  should  be  opened. 

Plate  240  exhibits  a  number  of  such  objects. 

Meyer,  Uandboolc  of  Ornament.  -  • 


418 


METAL  OBJECTS. 


Plate  240. 


Various  Tools. 


Vaxious  Tools. 


419 


Plate  240.    Various  Tools. 

1.  Ceremonial -Hammer,  silver  gilt,  Italian,  16th  century,  pre- 
sented by  Gregory  XIII  to  Duke  Ernest  of  Bavaria,  beneath 
the  enamelled  armorial  bearings  is  the  inscription:  "Julius  III 
Pont.  Max.  Jubilaeum  VIII  condidit  feliciter  MCCCCCL.;  the 
relief  on  the  reverse  shows  Moses  striking  water  from  the 
rock,  with  the  words:  Percussit  petram  et  fluxerunt  aquae", 
National  Museum,    Munich;  (Kunsthandwork). 

2.  Tongs,  iron,  German,  Germanisehes  Museum,  Nuremberg. 

3.  Snulfers,  brass,  German,  Renascence,  Germanisehes  Museum, 
Nuremberg. 

4 — 5.  Compasses,  bronze,  chased,  engraved,  and  gilt,  German,  16th 
century,  half  the  size  of  the  original. 

6.  Cock,  brass,  cast  and  chased,  German,  16th  century,  ll■^j^inc. 
long,  (Vorbilder  fiir  die  Kleinkunst  in  Bronze). 

7.  Match-holder,  bronze,  Modern. 


27* 


420 


c. 


FURNITURE. 


Furniture,  in  its  bioader  sense,  is  a  collective  name  for  all  kinds 
of  household  goods  and  chattels.  It  is  more  strictly  confined  to  such 
objects  as  Chairs,  Tables,  Wardrobes,  &c.  But  even  in  this  narrower 
sense  the  examples  of  Furniture  are  so  numerous  that  it  is  not 
possible  to  give  a  detailed  description  and  discussion  of  each  indivi- 
dual article  on  the  20  Plates  which  are  devoted  to  this  group. 
And  it  .is  the  less  necessary  to  do  this  as  our  object  is  only  to  give 
a  view  of  the  application  of  decoration  to  furniture  in  general. 
We  show  a  series  of  the  more  important  articles,  while  others,  such 
as  Pianos,  and  Wardrobes,  have  been  omitted.  They  have  been  so 
grouped  that  Plates  241  to  250  contain  the  different  varieties  of  Chairs, 
while  the  follomng  10  Plates  are  devoted  to  Tables,  Cabinets,  Bed- 
steads, Cradles,  &c. 

The  examples  have  been  chiefly  taken  from  the  Antique,  the 
Renascence,  and  Modern  times;  while  the  Middle  Ages,  the  Barocca 
and  Rococo  periods  have  only  occasionally  been  taken  into  account. 
That  particular  attention  has  been  paid  to  the  German  Renascence,  is 
based  on  the  fact,  that  this  period  is  specially  distinguished  for  its 
achievements  in  the  field  of  richly-decorated  furniture. 

This  chapter  might  seem  to  offer  an  inducement  to  give  a  historical 
account  of  the  development  of  tectonic  form  in  the  different  periods 
of  art.  But  to  do  this,  with  any  thoroughness,  would  also  require 
VIS    to    abandon    the    conciseness    we    have    hitherto    maintained;    and 


Furniture.  421 

we  will  therefore  only  refer  the  reader  to  the  details  in  Semper:  "Der 
Stil'\  and  to  the  highly  -  interesting  work  by  Georg  Hirth:  '^'^Das 
Deutsche  Zimmer  der  Gothik  und  Renaissance,  des  Barock-,  Rokoko-, 
und  Zopfstils"  (G.  Hirth,  "Munich  and  Leipzig).  The  necessary  in- 
formation about  the  furniture  of  the  Egyptians,  Assyrians,  Greeks, 
and  Eomans  will  be  found  in  Menard  et  Sauvacreot:  "La  Tie  Prive'e 
des  Andens" ;  and  about  the  Middle  ages  in  VioUet-le-Duc:  "Die- 
tionnaire  Baisonn^  du  Mobilier  Frangais";  from  both  of  which 
works  we  have  taken  numerous  examples  for  our  Plates.  Besides 
these,  there  is  such  a  number  of  cyclopaedic  works  on  this  subject 
that  it  is  impossible  even  to  name  them  all  here. 


(I.   Seats. 

As  regards  Seats:  the  fundamental  form  has  generally  been  depen- 
dent on  the  special  purpose,  and  on  the  ever- varying  mode  of  life; 
while  the  details  have  been  inflrenced  by  the  artistic  taste  of  the 
time,  and  by  the  material  used.  Definite  fundamental  types  often 
recur  by  the  side  of  new  and  arbitrary  special  forms;  and  we  have 
attempted  a  classifieation  according  to  these  fundamental  forms. 

The  simplest  and  most  primitive  form,  although  for  many  pur- 
poses the  least  comfortable,  is  that  of  the  Taboret  or  Ottoman,  which 
is  without  a  back.  The  Chair  is  more  comfortable  because  of  the 
addition  of  the  back;  and  it  becomes  still  more  so,  when  arms  are 
added.  To  this  group  belongs  the  Throne,  which  in  view  of  its  pur- 
pose is  more  monumental  in  form,  and  richer  in  material.  Eevolving, 
folding,  and  rocking  Chairs  meet  the  demand  for  special  purposes.  The 
Stall,  and  the  "Prie-dieu"  also  have  peculiar  accessories,  due  to  their 
being  used  for  other  purposes  than  sitting.  The  Bench  and  the 
Couch  oflFer  a  seat  or  repose  for  several  persons  simultaneously. 

In  spite  of  the  variety  of  forms,  one  feature  is  common  to  nearly 
all,  namely,  the  height  of  the  seat.  In  order  to  sit  comfortably,  the 
feet  should  just  reach  the  ground,  and  the  height  of  the  seat  is  there- 
fore from  15  ins.  to  18  ins.  The  depth  of  the  seat  shows  greater  va- 
riations, from  12  ins.  to  24  ins.  The  height  of  the  back  varies  from 
30  ins.  and  more;  the  fact  having  to  be  taken  into  consideration  tliat 
the.  head,  when  it  is  leant  back,  should  have  a  proper  support  The 
upper  surface  of  the  arms  should  be  about  12  ins.  above  that  of  the 
seat.  Straight,  upright  backs  are  less  comfortable  than  curved  lines 
adapted  to  the  vertebral  curve.  Similarly:  flat,  horizontal  seats  are 
not  so  suitable  as  those  which  slope  downwards  towards  the  back. 

The  principal  materials  are  wood,  cane,  and  metal;  stone,  terra- 
cotta,   &c.,    are    rarer.      As  it  is   unpleasant  to   rest   against  a    hard 


422  The  Chair. 

material  for  any  length  of  time,  recourse  is  had  to  cane,  or  flexible 
seats,  skins,  cushions,  and  upholstering.  In  course  of  time,  chairs 
have  become  more  comfortable  with  the  progress  of  comfort  in  general. 
It  may  be  specially  emphasized  that  the  handsomest  and  most  richly- 
decorated  seats  are  not  usually  the  most  practical;  further  remarks 
are  reserved  for   the  discussion  of  the  diiferent  forms. 


The  Chair.     (Plates  241—243.) 

The  Chair  is  a  stool  with  a  back  to  it.  The  most  usual  form 
has  four  legs.  Sometimes  the  legs  are  connected-together  by  braces 
or  ties,  which  are  called  Foot-rails.  The  seat  generally  has  the  shape 
of  an  oblong,  a  square,  or  a  trapezium.  Circular  and  polygonal  seats 
are  less  common.  Hexagonal  and  octagonal  Seats,  with  a  corresponding 
number  of  legs,  begin  to  appear  in  the  13th  century;  and  certain 
wooden  chairs  of  the  Renascence  have  seats  in  the  form  of  regular 
or  semi -regular  polygons  (Plate  242.  3,  5,  6).  The  legs  are  prismatic 
or  turned,  frequently  with  claw  feet,  while  the  top  of  the  back 
terminates  in  knobs,  animal-heads,  or  masks  (Plates  241.  1;  242.  1; 
243.  4,  5,  6).  Instead  of  legs,  the  seats  of  the  wooden  chairs  of  the 
Renascence  are  sometimes  supported  by  perforated  and  carved  boards, 
either  at  the  two  sides  or  in  front  and  behind  (Plate  242.  3,  5,  6). 
Where  the  back  is  carved  out  of  a  single  piece,  as  is  the  case  with 
many  Renascence  and  Modern  chairs,  the  two  hinder  legs  have  the 
same  form  and  height  as  the  front  legs  (Plates  242.  7,  8;  243.  1). 
Very  often  the  back  is  treated  as  a  frame  (Plate  241.  5,  8,  10), 
or  is  bent  into  a  cylindrical  plan,  as  in  the  Greek  "klismos"  (Plate  241. 
6,  7),  and  its  imitation,  the  Empire  chair  (Plate  241.11).  Openings 
for  the  hand  are  made  in  carved  wooden  backs  for  convenience  in 
moving  (Plate  242.  1 .  8,  9).  Where  the  top  of  the  back  is  hori- 
zontal, it  is  often  crowned  with  a  cornice  or  an  ornament  (Plates  242.  6; 
243.  9).  Where  the  seat,  alone  or  in  conjunction  with  the  back,  is 
of  woven  cane -work  or  padded,  the  Chair  is  termed  a  "cane"  or  an 
"upholstered"  chair.  Sometimes  not  only  the  padding  but  also  the 
entire  structure  of  the  chair  is  upholstered  in  some  material,  just  as, 
on  the  other  hand,  chairs  may  be  made  entirely  of  cane  or  rushes. 
The  seats  and  backs  of  upholstered  chairs  are  covered  with  leather,  or 
textiles  (Plate  243.  6).  The* overlaying  of  wood  with  metal  occurs  in 
the  Assyrian  style,  and  occasionally  in  later  periods;  the  State- 
chairs  of  the  Middle  Ages,  especially  the  Byzantine,  are  not  infre- 
quently decorated  with  coloured  stones;  a  similar  treatment  may  be 
observed  in  the  Renascence  example  (Plate  242  figs.  5,  and  6).  In 
addition  to  the  decoration  by  carving  (which  will  always  be  the  chief 


FURNITURE. 


-12:^ 


The  Chair. 


Plate  241. 


424 


FURNITURE. 


Plate  242. 


The  Chair. 


The  Chair.  —  The  Tliione,  and  the  Arm-chair.  425 

material  of  common  frame.s),  we  find  inlays  of  bone,  (the  socalJed 
"Certosina  work"  of  the   15  th  century),  metal,- &c. 

Plate  241.    The  Chair. 

1  —  2.  Egyptian,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

3-  Egyptian,  mural  painting,  tomb  of  Kamses  III,  Thebes,  (M6nard 
et  Sauvageot). 

4-  Egyptian,  upholstered  with  patterned  material,  British  Museum. 
5.  Egyptian,  British  Museum. 

G — 7.  Greek,  draped  with  skin,  "Klismos"  form,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

8.  Antique,  with  cushions  and  foot-stool,  Pompeian,   (Menard    et 
Sauvageot). 

9.  Greek,   vase,  painting. 

10.  Antique,  with  statue  of  Jupiter,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

11.  French  Empire  period,  (Gallien). 

Plate  242.     The  Chair. 

1.  German,  Renascence,  wood,  Moreau  collection,  '(L'art  pour  tous). 

2.  Flemish,  wood,   17th  century,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

3.  Italian,  wood,   16th  century,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

4.  Dutch,  upholstered  in  leather,  (Crispin  van  den  Passe,  1642). 
5 — 6.  German,  decorated  with  stones,  Renascence,  Museum,  Dresden. 
7 — 8.  German,   17th  century,  (Gewerbehalle). 

9.  German,   17  th  century,  Germanisches  Museum,  Nuremberg. 

Plate  243.     The  Chair. 

1.  Modern,  "Inn-chair",  by  Dir.  Kachel,  (Gewerbehalle). 

2 — -I.  Modern,   cane,  (Gewerbehalle). 
4 — 7.  Modern,  (Gewerbehalle). 

8.  Renascence,  (Raguenet). 

9.  Modern,  (Gewerbehalle).       , 


The  Throne,  and  the  Arm-chair.    (Plates  244 — 245.") 

Thrones  and  Arm-chairs  have  been  grouped-together,  because  the 
former  almost  always  have  the  same  form  as  the  latter,  and  there  i? 
no  essential  difference  since  the  time  of  the  Renascence.  The  Throne 
being  the  Seat- of- honour,  has  naturally,  from  the  earliest  periods,' 
received  more  attention  and  decoration.  It  is  planned  on  a  larger 
and  more  monumental  scale  than  the  ordinary  Chair.  For  this  reason, 
and  also  because  it  does  not  require  to  be  so  often  moved  as  common 


426 


FURNITUEE. 


Plate  243. 


The  Chair. 


The  Throne,  and  the  Arm-chair.  427 

Chairs,  it  is  often  made  of  marble,  metal,  &c.  Very  often  it  is  raised 
on  a  Dais,  with  steps,  or  a  Foot- stool  is  placed  in  front  of  it;  not 
infrequently  it  is  covered  by  a  Baldacchino  or  canopy,  with  Hangings, 
or  a  Cornice.  This  is  especially  the  case  with  those  for  royal  per- 
sonages and  bishops  in  the  Middle  Ages.  As  regards  the  decoration: 
figTires  and  symbols  may  be  added  to  the^  other  decorations  of  the 
frame. 

The  Arm-chair,  in  its  simplest  form,  is  distinguished  from  the 
ordinary  Chair  by  the  addition  of  arms,  which  are  generally  supported 
from  the  fore-legs,  and  connected  with  the  back,  whereas  in  the  case 
of  the  throne,  when  the  material  is  stone,  the  arms  are  made  in  one 
solid  piece  with  the  whole.  Compared  with  the  ordinary  Chair,  the 
Arm-chair  is  larger,  and  more  conducive  to  repose.  Where  it  is  in- 
tended to  serve  as  the  Seat-of-honour  for  the  head  of  the  family,  or 
a  chairman,  it  corresponds  in  style  to  other  Chairs  of  the  set,  and 
only  differs  from  them  in  its  size  and  its  richer  finish.  The  furni- 
ture of  our  modern  drawing-rooms  generally  consists  of  4  or  6  chairs, 
with   2  easy-chairs,  &c. 

In  addition  to  the  Egyptian  and  Assyrian  thrones,  and  the  Roman 
State-chair,  the  "Sella  Curulis":  we  may  mention  as  belonging  to  this 
group,  tbe  Norwegian  stall  of  the  12th  century  (Plate  245,  1),  and 
the  polygonal  chair  enclosed  by  a  lattice,  as  shown  by  fig.  5  of  the 
same  Plate. 


Plate  244.    The  Throne,  and  the  Arm-chair. 

1.  EoTptian  Throne,  vdth  lotus  ornament,  the  arms  formed  by  the 
wings  of  the  sacred  hawk,  (Teirich). 

2.  Ancient  Persian  Throne,  bas-relief,  Persepolis,  the  decoration 
represents  a  king  sitting  on  his  throne  borne-up  by  slaves, 
(Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

3.  Assyrian  Throne,  relief,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

4.  Greek  Priest's -chair,  marble,  by  the  door  of  the  temple  of  The- 
mis, Athens,  (Raguenet). 

5.  Greek  Judge's-chair  (proedra),  marble,  found  on  the  site  of  th6 
Prytaneum,  Athens. 

6.  Antique  Bath -chair,  (sella  balnearis),  the  openings  served  to 
admit  the  vapour,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

7.  Greek  Arm-chair,  relief  of  a  tomb,  representing  the  deceased  on 
the  thronos. 

8.  Greek  Throne,  Harpy  Monument,  from  Xanthos  in  Lycia,  British 
Museum. 

9.  Roman  Arm-chair,  with  decoration  symbolic  of  Ceres,  (Menard  et 
Sauvageot). 


428  The  Throne,  and  the  Arm-chair.  —  The  Stall. 

10.  Roman  Arm-chair,    found    in  Herculaneum,    Museum    at  Portici, 
(Raguenet). 

11.  Antique  terracotta,  representing  an  Arm-chair  in  the  form  of  the 
hollowed -out  body  of  a  sphinx,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

12.  Chair   of  S.  Peter,    wood  with  ivory  reliefs  iilustrating  the  story 
of  Hercules,    S.  Peter's   at  Rome,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

Plate  245.    The  Throne,  and  the  Aem-chaik. 

1.  Norwegian  Stall,  12th  century,  from  Bo,  Telemark. 

2.  Mediaeval  Arm-chair,    with   foot -stool  and  draped  back,  (Viollet- 
le-Duc). 

3.  King   David's    Arm-chair,    13th    century,    from    relief,    portal    of 
cathedral,  Auxerre,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

4.  Frame  of  Mediaeval  arm-chair,  iron,  the  drapery  omitted,  (Viollet- 
le-Duc). 

5.  Mediaeval  polygonal  chair,  painting,  chapel  in  Toulouse,  (Viollet- 
le-Duc). 

6.  Mediaeval   Arm-chair,    metal,  the   drapery  omitted,    13th  century, 
(Viollet-le-Duc). 

7.  Mediaeval  Arm-chair,  decorated  with  fringe,  end  of  the   15th  cen- 
tury, bas-relief,  stalls,  Amiens,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

8.  English  Ai-m-chair,  16th  century,  wood,  upholstered. 

9.  Arm-chair,  Louis  XVI  style,  wood  carved  and  gilded,  (Williamson). 

10.  Modern  Arm-chair. 

11.  Modern  Arm-chair.     (Raguenet). 


The  Stall.    (Plate  24  G.) 

The  rows  of  seats  along  the  north,  west,  and  south  sides  oi  the 
Choir  in  chapels,  &c.,  are  termed  Stalls.  They  have  a  peculiar  con- 
struction corresponding  to  their  special  use.  In  the  earliest  period 
of  the  Middle  Ages  the  single  seats  to  the  right  and  left  of  the  bishop's 
chair  were  built  into  the  wall  of  the  chancel,  at  a  later  period  they 
were  replaced  by  moveable  seats;  and  these  again,  from  about  the 
13th  century  onwards,  were  replaced  by  Stalls,  strictly  so-called;  the 
seats  being  united  in  a  continuous  row,  with  an  architectonic  character 
and  construction.  There  are  generally  two  rows,  one  behind  the. 
other,  and  the  hinder  row  is  a  little  elevated.  Partitions  divide  the 
seats  from  one  another;  and  serve  as  arms.  Between  the  partitions 
are  the  seats.  These  are  either  fi.xed  or  arranged  to  fold  back.  In  the 
latter  case  a  console-like  projection  is  attached  to  the  underside  of 
the  seat,  to  serve  as  a  kind  of  rest  when  the  seat  is  folded -back; 
thus,   out  of  pity  for  the  aged  monks,  rendering   it  possible   to    rest 


FURNITURE. 


429 


The  Throne,  and  the  Arm-chair. 


Plate  244. 


430 


FURNITURE. 


Plate  245. 


The  Throne,  and  the  Arm-chair. 


The  Stall    -  Tho  Stool.  431 

while  appearing  to  stand;  hence  the  significant  name  of  these  sup- 
ports, "miserere"  The  backs  of  the  hinder  row  of  seats  form  a 
Screen;  and  are  usually  decorated  with  carving,  intarsia,  &c.;  and 
are  furnished  with  a  canopy.  In  front  of  the  seat,  there  is  generally 
a  kneeling-stool.  Where  there  are  several  rows  of  seats,  the  prayer- 
desks  of  the  one  row  serve  at  the  same  time  as  the  backs  of  the 
next  lower  row.  When  the  front  rows  are  interrupted  by  passages 
leading  to  the   hinder  rows,  the  Stall- ends  are  richly  decorated. 

A  large  number  of  magnificent  Stalls  of  the  Gothic,  and  still  more 
of  the  Renascence  period,  have  been  preserved  in  England,  Germany, 
France,  Italy,  and  elsewhere,  To  enumerate  them  all  would  take  too 
long.  Enormous  pains  have  frequently  been  lavished  on  these  works. 
Rich  ornamental  and  architectural  motives  alternate  with  represen- 
tations from  Bible  history  and  the  legends  of  the  saints;  secular  and 
satirical  compositions  are  also  no  rarity;  so  that  Stalls  are  altogether 
of  high  importance  for  the  history  of  art  as  well  as  of  civilisation. 
To  exemplify  what  has  been  said,  the  Plate  gives  a  few  examples, 
which  are  far  from  being  among  the  most  sumptuous. 

Plate  246.    The  Stall. 

1.  Sta.  Maria  Novella,   Florence,   decorated  with  intarsias,    by  Baccio 
d'Agnolo,  end  of  the  15th  century,  (Teirich). 

2.  Side-view,  and  section  of  above. 

3.  Laurentian  Library,  Florence,  beginning  of  the   16th  century,  said 
to  be  by  Michelangelo,  (Gewerbehalle). 

4.  Side-view,  and  section  of  the   central  row,  great  church,  Dortrecht, 
Dutch  Renascence. 

5.  Modern  French,  Convent  of  Elisabeth,  Fourvieres  near  Lyons,  Ar- 
tect  Leo,  (Raguenet). 


The  Stool.    (Plate  247.) 

The  simplest  seat  is  the  Taboret  or  Stool ,  which  is  the  chair 
without  a  back.  As  our  Plate  shows,  it  has  been  in  use  from  the 
earliest  times.  The  most  primitive,  and  at  the  same  time  the  most 
stable,  is  probably  the  round  seat  with  three  legs;  the  Egyptian 
example,  (fig.  2),  may  be  regarded  as  the  prototype  of  the  modern 
Cobbler's- stool.  The  Plasterer's-stool,  which  has  only  one  leg,  is  in- 
deed still  simpler;  and  bears  some  resemblance  to  our  modern  Walking- 
stick  Camp-stools.  The  four-legged  Taboret  is  generally  square,  and 
possesses  the  same  features  as  the  lower  part  of  a  Chair.  It  is  made 
with  or  without  upholstery,    and    w-ith    or   without   foot-rails.      Here, 


432 


FURNITURE. 


Plate  246. 


The  Stall. 


FURNITURE. 


433 


Meyer,  Handbook  of  OrDament. 


The  Stool. 


Plate  247 

28 


434  The  StooL  —  The  Folding-Chair. 

too,  we  may  group,  the  "Bisellium",  or  Roman  double-stool,  which  was 
granted  as  a  distinction,  and  was  mostly  made  of  metal  (fig.  7).  Box- 
stools,  supported  on  boards  instead  of  legs,  are  furnished  with  an 
opening  in  the  seat  to  enable  them  to  be  moved.  ThQ  Garden-seats  of 
burned  and  glazed  clay,  introduced  from  China  (fig.  11)  are  made  without 
backs;  and,  from  their  round  or  polygonal  fundamental  plan,  are 
classed  with  the  Taborets;  also  the  upholstered  and  draped  treatment 
(fig.  12),  which  is  sometimes  applied  to  a  commode. 

The  Revolving-stool,  which  is  chiefly  employed  in  an  office  or 
for  performers  of  music,  permits  of  lateral  movement,  and  adjustment 
to  diS"erent  heights  as  required  (figs.  18  and  15).  This  is  effected 
by  means  of  a  screw. 

Plate  247.    The  Stool. 

1.  Egyptian,  British  Museum. 

2.  Egyptian,  (Menard  et  Sauvagpot). 
8.  Etruscan,  (M6nard  et  Sauvageot). 

4.  Assyrian. 

5.  Greek,  vase-painting. 

6.  Greek,  vase-painting. 

7.  Roman    Bisellium,    bronze,    covering    of    the    seat  omitted, 
Pompeii. 

8.  Bisellium    of    L.    M.    Faustus,    tomb    of    Naevoleia    Tyche, 
Pompeii. 

9-— 10.  Modem. 

11.  Chinese  Grarden-seat. 

12.  Modem,  (Gewerbehalle). 

13.  Modem  Music-stool. 

14.  Modern. 

15.  Modem  Revolving-stool. 


o 


The  Folding-Chair.    (Plate  248.) 

The  idea  of  a  Chair  which  could  be  folded-together  so  as  to 
take  up  less  room,  and  be  more  conveniently  transported,  is  an  old 
one.  The  principle  is  found  as  early  as  the  time  of  Ramses  m  in 
the  Egyptian  chair  shown  on  Plate  241.  3.  The  Folding-chair  is 
common  in  the  Antique,  either  with  four  legs  combined  and  joined- 
together  like  a  saw-horse  (figs.  1,  2,  and  4),  or  with  crossing  struts 
combined  to  form  a  ribbed  chair.  Antique  Folding-chairs  of  the  for- 
mer kind  (Diphros  okladias)  are  remarkable  for  invariably  having 
claw  feet,  sometimes  turned  outwards,  but  usually  inwards.  The 
ribbed  chair,  which  recurs  in  the  Middle  Ages  and  the  Renascence, 
scarcely  admits  of  decoration,  and  is,  therefore,  mostly  plain. 


FURNITURE. 


435 


The  Folding-Chair. 


Plate  248, 
.28* 


436  The  Folding-Chair.  —  The  Bench. 

The' Folding-chair  may  be  a  Stool,  a  Chair,  or  an  Arm-chair. 
Sometimes  it  can  be  folded-up  as  it  stands,  like  our  iron  Folding- 
chairs for  use  in  the  open  air;  sometimes  it  must  be  taken  to  pieces 
before  it  can  be  folded-up,  like  the  chair  shown  on  fig.  8.  The  most 
suitable  material  is  metal  (bronze  or  iron).  Folding-chairs  of  wood 
are  very  often  so  constructed  as  not  to  fold  at  all,  but  are  merely 
imitations  with  the  purpose  overlooked  (fig.  10).  The  seat  is  fre- 
quently of  bands,  either  textile  or  leather.  Where  the  seat  is  not 
flexible,  it  must  be  arranged  to  be  moveable  by  means  of  hinges. 

Thrones  have  been  sometimes  made  like  Folding-chairs.  We  may 
also  mention:  the  Camp-stools  for  tourists,  sportsmen,  painters,  &c. 
The  principles  of  decoration  are  sufficiently  elucidated  by  the  figures 
of  the  Plate. 

Plate  248.    Tiee  Folding-chair. 

1.  Egyptian,  tomb  of  Chambali,   18th  dj nasty. 

2.  Antique,  (Diphros  okladias). 

3.  Greek,  tomb  of  an  agonothetes,  found  in  Krissa,  (Delphi). 

4.  Antique. 

5.  Mediaeval,  Nonncnberg,  (Mothes). 

6.  Mediaeval,  miniature  painting,  representing  King  Nabuchodonosor, 
0th  or  10th  century,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

7.  Mediaeval,  bronze  gilt.  Throne  of  Dagobert,  restored. 

8.  Mediaeval,  bronze,  12th  century,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

9.  Renascence. 

10.  French  Renascence,  Sens  cathedral,  (Raguenet). 


The  Bench.     (Plate  249.) 

The  Bench  is  an  elongated  seat,  usually  intended  for  several  per- 
sons. In  its  simplest  form,  as  a  board  with  four  legs,  it  was  already 
known, in  Antiquity.  In  the  Middle  Ages  and  the  Renascence,  it  was 
in  general  use;  and  was  employed  not  only  as  a  seat,  but  as  a  table, 
as  is  shown  by  such  terms  as  "work-bench",  &c.  The  Bench-seat 
was  afterwards  furnished  with  a  back  and  arms,  the  back  being  fre- 
quently formed  like  the  canopy  over  stalls  (fig.  7).  It  was  uphol- 
stered with  cushions  and  draped  with  textiles.  The  material  is  gene- 
rally wood;  but  in  public  buildings  there  are  also  Benches  made  of  stone. 
This  latter  material  and  iron,  frequently  combined  with  wood,  are 
the- most  suitable  for  benches  in  the  open  air.  A  further  variety  is 
formed  by  the  Double-bench,  with  a  back  in  the  middle;  this  back  is 
moveable,  as  shown  in  the  example  (fig.  3). 

As  the  Bench,  in  most  cases,  is  intended  for  every-day  use,  it  is 
generally    undecorated.      Those    of    the    Middle    Ages    are    more    the 


FURNITURE. 


437 


f-"^ 


The  Bench. 


Plate  249. 


438  The  Bench.  —  The  Sofa,  and  the  Couch. 

work  of  the  carpenter  than   that    of  the  cabinet-maker,   but  the  Re- 
nascence, especially  in  Italy,  has  created  some  finely-decorated  examples. 

Plate  249.    The  Bench. 

1,2,4  and  5.  Middle  ages,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

8.  Mediaeval,  double  with  moveable  back,   for  use  in  front 

of  the  fireplace,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

6.  Eenascence,  with  arms,  (Ducerceau). 

7.  Renascence,    with    canopied    back,    church   at    Flavigny, 
French,  (Viollot-le-Duc). 

8 —  9.  Renascence,  with  podium,  Italian,  (Teirich). 


The  Sofa,  and  the  Couch.    (Plate  250.) 

The  Sofa  and  the  Couch  are  among  upholstered  furniture  what 
the  bench  is  among  wooden  furniture.  By  the  side  of  forms  which 
are  nothing  more  than  elongated  Chairs,  occur  others  which  have  more 
the  character  of  the  Bed.  The  intention  of  these  pieces  of  furniture 
is  therefore  to  be  found  in  their  availability  for  both  lying  and 
sitting.  According  as  the  one  or  the  other  object  becomes  predo- 
minant, the  symmetrical  form  (figs.  4 — 7),  or  the  unsymmetrical  form 
with  strongly  marked  head  (figs.  1  and  8),  is  employed.  In  accordance 
with  the  double  object,  the  arms  are  frequently  treated  as  cylindrical 
cushions  (fig.  7),  or  upholstered  with  cushions  (fig.  6). 

Although  furniture  of  this  nature  was  not  unknown  to  the  An- 
tique, as  shown  by  the  Roman  examples  (figs.  1  and  2),  these  articles 
cannot  be  said  to  have  come  into  common  use  before  the  last  three 
centuries;  and  now-a-days  the  sofa  is  found  in  every  middle -class 
household.  What  enormities  our  Modern  times  have  perpetrated  in 
this  direction  is  evidenced  by-the  S-shaped  Ottomans  for  two  persons, 
which  are  sometimes  to  be  found  in  our  Saloons. 

We  may  here  briefly  mention  the  transitional  form  which  is 
found  in  Waiting-rooms,  and  Public  vehicles;  and  the  circular  Otto- 
man with  centre-piece  for  flowers,  which  occupies  the  centre  of  the 
floor  in  Galleries. 

Plate  250.    The  Sofa,  and  the  Couch. 

1.  Roman    bedstead    (lectus    cubicularis)    in    the    form   of  a  sofa, 
(Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

2.  Ditto. 

3.  Mediaeval  bench,  with  cushions  and  drapery,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 
4—7.  Modem  forms  of  the  Sofa,  (Gewerbehalle,  &c.)- 

8.         Modern  Couch. 


FDRNITURE. 


439 


The  Sofa,  and  the  Couch. 


Plate  250. 


440  The  Table. 

b.  Tables. 

Toe  Table.    (Plate  251.) 

Next  to  the  seat,  the  Table  is  probably  the  oldest  and  most  im- 
portant piece  of  furniture.  Its  chief  uses  are  as  a  Dining  -  table, 
Work-table,  and  Fancy -table  on  which  to  place  vases,  utensils,  &c. 
Its  principal  parts  are  the  flat  Top,  and  the  Frame.  The  top  may 
be  square,  rectangular,  circular,  elliptical,  semicircular,  &c.  The  frame 
may  be  very  variously  constructed.  There  are  tables  with  one  leg, 
with  three,  four,  and  more  legs,  and  sometimes  tables  with  two  legs, 
in  which  case  the  Top  rests  upon  two  side  -  supports.  Where  only 
one  leg  is  used  as  a  support,  it  is  either  fastened  to  the  floor 
or  the  lower  end  is  spread -out  so  that  the  table  may  stand  firmly 
(fig.  4).  The  top,  in  such  cases,  is  usually  square  or  round,  and  is 
frequently  united  to  the  leg  by  means  of  a  screw,  so  that  it  may  be 
taken -off.  Where  three,  four,  or  more  legs  are  used  as  supports, 
they  are  often  connected  by  means  of  a  framework,  on  which  the 
table -top  then  rests  (fig.  8).  The  legs  may  further  be  rendered  rigid 
by  means  of  connecting  rails  (fig.  9).  The  legs  are  prismatic,  turned, 
or  sometimes  curved.  They  either  stand  upright,  or  slope  outwards 
as  in  fig.  9.  Where  the  top  rests  upon  two  side-supports  (fig.  5), 
their  lower  part  is  hollowed-out  in  such  a  way  that  they  touch  the 
ground  at  only  four  points.  They  are  connected  with  each  other  by  a 
longitudinal  bar,  held  in  position  by  wedges  (fig.  5).  Sometimes  they 
are  replaced  by  pillars  or  balausters  (figs.  6  and  10),  or  other  legs 
are  employed  in  addition  (fig.  11).  They  may  also  be  replaced  by 
crossed  struts  forming  a  S.  Andrew's  cross,  which  is  called  the  "Saw- 
horse  table".  Drawers  may  be  accommodated  in  the  framework  of 
the  table;  and  a  series  of  shelves  may  be  added  beneath  the  real 
table-top  (Whatnot).  Special  forms  of  the  table  are:  the  Console-table, 
which  is  fixed  to  the  wall,  and  has  .console  -  like  supports  instead  of 
legs;  the  Telescope  or  expanding  table,  which  may  be  enlarged  by 
difi"erent  kinds  of  mechanism;  the  Folding-table  which  may  be  made 
larger  or  smaller  by  means  of  flaps  (chiefly  used  for  card  tables); 
the  Occasional  -  table  for  a  variety  of  purposes;  the  Writing-table,  to 
which  a  special  Plate  will  be  devoted,  and  many  more. 

The  material  is,  first  of  all,  wood;  metal,  stone,  &c.,  are  rarer. 
The  decoration  is  specially  confined  to  the  under -frame,  which  is 
ornamented  by  carving  and  turning  in  the  style  suitable  to  supports. 
The  top  is  frequently  left  undecorated,  as  it  is  often  covered  with 
a  table-cloth;  and  the   objects  placed   upon  it  would  not  permit  the 


The  Table.  441 

decoration  to  be  properly  seen.  Where  the  top  is  decorated,  the  orna- 
mentation is  flat,  consisting  of  intarsia-work,  incising,  painting,  &c. 

The  size  of  the  table  varies  according  to  the  purpose  for  which 
it  is  intended;  its  height,  on  the  contrary,  is  subject  to  little  varia- 
tion, and  is  about  2  ft.  4^2  ins.  for  ordinary  tables.  Tables,  with 
legs  which  could  be  adjusted  to  varying  heights,  were  in  use  in  the 
Antique  period,  being  required  by  the  social  life  of  that  time;  a 
similar  arrangement  may  also  be  seen  on  some  modern  artists'  tables, 
which  can  not  only  be  adjusted  to  different  heights,  but  also  allow 
the  top  to  be  slanted. 

The  following  remarks  are  from  the  point  of  view  of  'history 
and  style.  The  Egyptian,  Assyrian,  and  Persian  tables,  chiefly  known 
to  us  from  the  representations  of  altars,  have  legs  terminating  in 
claws.  This  motive  was  also  popular  among  the  Greeks  and  Romans, 
with  the  difference  that  the  latter  nations  permit  the  claws  to  rest 
directly  on  the  ground,  while  the  former  support  the  claws  upon  small 
circular  plinths.  The  legs  of  Antique  Tables  are  frequently  of  bronze ; 
they  have  a  similar  form  with  those  of  the  Tripod;  and  like  them 
are  adjustible,  as  already  observed"  (fig.  1).  The  table-tops  are  often 
of  stone  or  wood.  Large  rectangular  tables  with  stone  supports  of 
rich  workmanship,  and  round  tables  with  three  legs  of  marble,  a 
considerable  number  of  which  are  given  on  Plates  143  and  144,  are 
well  known  to  us  from  the  excavations  at  Pompeii.  They  were  not 
Dining-tables  but  State-tables  which  stood  in  the  tablinum  and  atrium 
of  Roman  houses.  Dining-tables  of  the  modern  form  were  imknown 
to  the  Antique;  even  in  the  Early  Greek  period,  while  it  was  still 
the  custom  to  sit  at  dinner,  each  diner  had  his  own  separate  table; 
and  the  same  custom  continued  in  the  later  period  when  meals 
were  taken  in  a  recumbent  posture.  These  little  tables  were  lower 
than  ours.  We  also  find  them  in  similar  forms  among  the  Romans 
(fig.  3),  along   with  larger   Banqueting -tables,    around   three  sides  of 

which  the  Sofas  were   ranged  as  shown  | |.     The  Late  Roman  period 

was  one  of  lavish  luxury;  we  are  told,  for  example,  of  tables  with 
legs  of  silver  and  ivory,  and  with  Table-tops  of  rare  woods,  &c.  In- 
credible prices,  up  to  £  14,000,   were  paid  for  a  single   choice  top. 

The  Tables  of  the  Middle  Ages  were  generally  rectangular  or 
semicircular,  rested  on  posts  or  trestles,  were  plain,  and  rather 
cumbrous.  It  is  said  of  Charlemagne,  however,  that  he  possessed 
three  of  silver,  and  one  golden  (?)  table.  Beautiful  and  richly-designed 
Tables  of  very  different  kinds  have  been  preserved  from  the  time  of 
the  Renascence.  Of  particularly  frequent  occurrence,  are  richly-carved 
side -trusses  (fig.  7),  simpler  forms  of  which  were  already  in  use  in 
the  Gothic  period  (fig.  5).  In  the  Barocco  and  Rococo  periods,  the 
legs  are  curved,  and  the  tops  are  of  bold,  arbitrary  design  (fig.  8). 
The  Console-table   is  an  invention  of  this  period.     It  was  also  at  this 


442 


FURNITURE. 


Plate  251. 


The  Table. 


The  Table.  —  The  Writing-Table.  443 

time  that  the  Dumb-Waiter,  came  into  general  use.     As  far  as  art  i3 
concerned,  our  modern  Tables  are  mostly  copies  of  old  models. 
Plate  251  gives  a  small  selection  from  the  copious  material. 

Plate  251.    The  Table. 

1.  Antique,  bronze,  Museum,  Naples,  (Eaguenet). 

2.  Antique,  bronze,  (M6nard  et  Sauvageot). 

3.  Roman,  (Kantharos  of  Ptolemy). 

4.  Mediaeval,  Chronicle  of  Louis  XI,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

5.  Late  Gothic,  Municipal  Collection  of  Antiquities,  Freiburg,  (Schau- 
insland). 

6.  Renascence,   with  turned  legs,   French,  Castle   of  Bussy  -  Eabutin, 
(C6te  d'or). 

7.  Renascence,  with  carved  side-trusses,  FrencTi,  (Ducerceau). 

8.  French,  18  th  century,  Crarde-meuble,  Paris,  (Raguenet), 

9.  Modern,  Renascence  style. 

10.  Modern. 

11.  Modern,  French,  Paris,  (Raguenet). 


The  Writing-Table.    (Plate  252.) 

The  peculiar  construction  of  the  Writing-table  removes  it  from 
the  category  of  ordinary  Tables.  In  a  certain  sense  it  .forms  the 
transition  to  the  Cabinets,  in  the  form  in  which  it  is  now  manu- 
factured. The  Writing-table  is  a  product  of  modem  civilisation.  In 
earlier  times,  when  writing  was  the  privilege  of  the  select  few,  the 
common  table  evidently  served  the  purpose.  It  is  also  true  that  the 
old  caligraphers,  used  special  writing  apparatus,  either  desks  which 
could  be  rested  on  the  knees  (fig.  1),  or  small  tables,  an  example  of 
which  is  given  in  fig.  2.  But  it  was  reserved  for  our  much-writing 
Modern  time  to  invent  special  furniture  for  business  and  private  use. 
The  Writing-table  must  not  only  serve  for  writing,  but  also  as  a 
receptacle  for  stationery,  correspondence,  writing-materials,  &c.  Hence 
it  is  furnished  with  cupboards,  drawers,  pigeon-holes,  and  shelves. 
It  is  often  furnished  with  side -cupboards  below  the  table-top  having 
a  space  between  them  for  the  legs  of  the  writer.  Where  the  table 
has  an  upper  part,  which  admits  of  a  variety  of  constructions,  as 
may  be  seen  from  the  few  examples  of  the  Plate,  it  is  usually  of 
lesser  depth  than  the  surface  of  the  table  so  as  to  leave  the  ne- 
cessary room  for  writing.  The  same  end  is  attained  by  leaving  a 
space  equal  to  the  whole  depth  free  between  it  'and  the  table -top, 
as  shown  by  fig.  6.  The  table-top  is  often  covered  with  some  textile 
material  or  with   leather,    to   afford   a  soft  surface   for   writing -upon 


444 


FURNITURE. 


Plate  252. 


The  Writing-Table. 


The  Writing-Table.  —  The  Cabinet.  445 


^o 


Special  varieties  are  foi'med  by  the  Double -writing -table  for  office 
use,  the  Cylinder-desk,  which  can  be  closed  after  use  by  letting  down 
a  cylindrical  flap,  the  Secretaire,  in  which  the  table-top  may  be  lifted 
up  or  locked,  the  Lady's-wi-iting-table,  &c. 

Plate  252.    The  Writing-table. 

1.  Mediaeval,  (scriptionale)  with  inkhorn,  intended  to  be  placed  on 
the  knee,  11th  centui-y,  portal  of  the  church,  Vezelay,  (Viollet- 
le-Duc). 

2.  Mediaeval,  with  double  top,  for  raising,  15th  century,  Abbey  of 
Saint-Michel-en-Mer,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

3.  Modern,  with  eight  legs  and  side  drawers,  (Max  Schulz). 

4.  Modern. 

5.  Modern. 

6.  Modern,  by  W.  Hanau,  (Gewerbehalle). 


c.    Cabinets. 

The  Cabinet.    (Plate  203.) 

Cabinets  were  evidently  a  rare  phenomenon  in  Antiquity.  The 
Egyptians  and  the  Greeks  were  probably  not  acquainted  with  them 
at  all;  the  Romans  seem  to  have  possessed  simple  Cabinets  with  two 
doors,  if  we  may  judge  from  occasional  paintings;  in  any  case, 
however,  they  were  of  no  artistic  importance.  Chests,  of  which  we 
stall  speak  later  on,  were  no  doubt  more  frequent,  and  took  the  place 
of  cabinets.  It  was  the  same  in  the  early  Middle  Ages,  in  which  wo 
certainly  find  Cabinets  in  churches  and  monasteries,  but  seldom  in 
private  houses.  Where  they  do  occur,  they  show  the  hand  of  the 
carpenter  rather  than  that  of  the  skilled  cabinet-maker.  "The  car- 
dinal feature  of  Romanesque  furniture  is  practicability;  that  the  slow 
moving,  serious  spirit  of  that  time  paid  but  little  regard  to  elegance 
was  only  natural:  men  had  their  virtues  and  their  vices,  but  they 
were  free  from  affections  of  the  nerves"  (Georg  Hirth).  Cabinets  be- 
came more  common  in  the  Gothic  period;  and  although  the  matched- 
board -work  and  the  simple  carving  generally  give  the  products  of 
this  time  a  certain  rude  appearance;  still  the  architectural  disposition 
of  the  members,  and  the  bands  and  mounts,  are  effective.  Later  Gothic 
led  to  all  kinds  of  extravagances,  one  of  which  is  the  lavish  use  of 
geometrical  tracery,  called  "flamboyant"  from  its  flame-like  character. 
The  revolutionary  process,  which  marks  the  transition  from  Gothic  to 
Renascence,  finds  striking  expression  in  the  group  of  Cabinets.     Georg 


446 


FURNITURE. 


Plate  253. 


The  Cabinet. 


The  Cabinet.  447 

Hirth,  whom  we  quoted  above,  describes  the  revival  of  decoration 
in  the  transition  period,  in  the  following  words:  "In  their  (wood 
carvers',  cabinet-makers',  and  others')  hands  the  prismatic  bead  was 
transformed  into  the  living  vine,  the  stone  leaf- work  of  the  minster 
was  metamorphosed  into  lifelike  flowers  and  rich  sweeping  branches, 
wrested  with  astounding  skill  from  an  immense  variety  of  materials. 
In  contrast  to  the  lofty  and  imaginative  but  severe  creations  of  the 
Gothic  masons  this  developement  of  art  in  the  sphere  of  ornament 
seems  to  me  like  a  picturesque  revolution,  like  the  song  of  the 
German  lark  in  the  rosy  dawn  of  a  new  day  of  humanity.  The 
chimes  of  spring  rang  from  the  Lower  Rhine  to  our  snow  -  capped 
giant  peaks,  a  loud  cry  for  the  All -mother  Nature,  for  freedom  of 
heart  and  imagination.  And  then  what  childlike  naivete,  what  devout, 
blissful  hopefulness  in  these  modest  menl  In  truth,  the  more  we 
strive  in  vain  to  imitate  them,  the  more  we  ought  to  love  them,  to 
draw  inspiration  from  their  works  and  to  bless  their  memory." 

Astounding  and  of  high  importance,  are  the  achievements  of  the 
Renascence  in  Cabinets  and  Shrines.  They  are  of  all  imaginable  sizes, 
from  small  Caskets  to  large  Cabinets  occupying  a  whole  wall.  They 
are  devoted  to  the  most  different  objects:  linen,  clothes,  books,  jewels,  &c. 
A  rich  wealth  of  form  is  evolved;  architectural  systems  of  columns 
and  pilasters  mark  the  divisions  of  the  ever- alternating  doors,  drawers, 
and  opens  spaces.  Add  to  this  the  charming  play  of  the  coloured 
woods,  grainings,  wood-mosaics,  and  intarsia-work,  set-off  by  the  use 
of  all  kinds  of  mounts.  The  place  of  the  prismatic  and  bevelled 
posts  is  taken  by  richly -profiled  and  twisted  columns  and  terminal- 
figures;  instead  of  matchboard -work  we  find  mortised  frame -work, 
and  panels  decorated  with  figures  and  ornaments.  The  revolution 
produced  a  happy  and  lasting  effect.  We  do  well  when  we  build 
further  on  this  tradition,  and  construct  our  modem  Cabinets  on  the 
good  models  of  this  epoch.  Unhappily  the  few  examples  of  our 
Plates  can  only  give  a  faint  idea  of  this  group. 

Plate  253.    The  Cabinet. 

1.  Late  Gothic,  end  of  the  15  th  century,  oak,  with  tinned  iron  mounts, 
Germanisches  Museum,  Nuremberg,  (Kunsthandwerk). 

2.  Renascence,     variegated    woods.      South     German      16  th    century 
(Formenschatz). 

3.  Renascence,  side-view,  German,  (Formenschatz). 

4.  Modem,  by  Prof.  Schick,  Carlsruhe. 

'5.  Modem,  black  wood  with  copper  intarsia,  by  A.  Balcke, 
6.   Modem,  in  two  woods. 


448 


FURNITURE. 


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Plate  254. 


The  Sideboard. 


The  Sideboard   —  Tho  Hanging-Cabinet.  449 


The  Sideboard.    (Plate  254.) 

Sideboards  are  a  separate  division.  They  are  intended  for  the 
reception  of  articles  used  in  the  service  of  the  table.  Vases  and 
ornaments  may  also  be  placed  upon  them;  and  in  many  cases  they 
are  themselves  decorative  objects.  In  the  Middle  Ages  they  are  com- 
paratively plain,  and  of  invariable  form;  the  ground -plan  being  an 
oblong  or  semi-octagon;  they  stand  on  legs,  and  have  of  an  open 
space  beneath,  over  which  are  the  cupboards,  with  a  flat  top,  (figs.  1 
and  8).  During  the  Renascence,  this  traditional  plan  gave  way  to 
richer  and  more  complicated  constructions;  the  lower  recess  was  fre- 
quently retained;  instead  of  it  or  along  with  it,  further  recesses 
were  added  at  the  middle  height  or  still  higher;  the  top  is  con- 
structed as  an  independent  member,  often  of  smaller  dimensions  and 
recessed;  and  terraces  of  shelves  with  balaustered  galleries  for  glasses 
and  plates,  form  the  conclusion  of  the  whole. 

Here,  too,  our  Modern  times  follow  the  old  models.  Special 
requirements  have  given  birth  to  special  forms,  such  as  the  Buffets 
in  hotels,  and  waiting-rooms,  which  frequently  form  an  integral  part 
of  the  wainscot  or  architecture  of  the  wall. 

Plate  254.    The  Sideboard. 

1.  Eenascence,  German,  with  reminiscences  of  Gothic,  Bavarian  Na- 
tional Museum,  Munich. 

2.  Renascence,  side-view,    St.  Lo,   Normandy,    1580,    South  Ken- 
sington Museum,  (Musterornameute). 

3 — 4.  Modern,    front   and   side-view,    designed   in   the  School  of  In- 
dustrial Art,  Carlsruhe. 
5 — 6.  Ditto. 

7.  Modern,  by  Ph.  Niederhofer,  Frankfort. 

8.  Mediaeval,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 


The  Hanging-Cabinet.    (Plate  255.) 

Hanging- cabinets  also  form  a  special  subdivision.  They  differ 
from  other  Cabinets  in  being  of  more  modest  dimensions,  by  being, 
for  practical  purposes,  of  less  depth,  and,  as  they  are  intended  for 
suspension,  by  terminating  in  a  consule  instead  of  in  legs  and  base. 
For  the  rest,  what  has  already  been  said  of  Cabinets  in  general,  will 
hold  good  of  Hanging -cabinets  also. 

These  are  adapted  to  hoM  books,  tobacco,'  &c.,  medicine,  keys, 
correspondence,  &c. 

iieyer.  Handbook  of  Omanient.  ^"^ 


450 


FURNITURE. 


Plate  255. 


The  Hanging-Cabinet. 


The  Hanging-Cabinet.  —  The  Chest.  —  The  Desk,  &c.  451 

Plate  255.    Tfte  Hanging-cabinet. 

1.  Renascence,  German,  (Formenschatz). 

2.  Modern,  with  intarsia  panels,  by  Dir.  Hammer,  Nuremberg. 

3.  Modern,,  arcliitect  Crecelius,  Mainz. 

4.  ilodern,  by  Dir.  Gotz,  Carlsruhe 

5.  Modern,  by  Prof.  Haas,  Lucerne. 

The  Chest.     (Plate  256.) 

Chests  are  of  'older  date  than  Cabinets.  We  meet  with  thea 
on  Antique  vase-paintings,  and  among  the  objects  found  in  Pompeii. 
They  have  the  form  of  boxes,  prismatic  or  widening  towards  the 
top,  with  short  legs  and  with  rich  mountings,  of  nailheads,  &c.  (fig.  1). 

In  the  Middle  Ages,  the  Chest  was  a  very  popular  piece  of  fur- 
niture. Its  form  was  mostly  that  of  a  prismatic  box  without  feet,  with 
delicate  iron  mounts,  and  all  kinds  of  carving  (figs.  2 — 5).  Very 
often  Chests  were  at  the  same  time  used  as  benches.  The  same  form 
was  retained  by  the  Renascence  but  differently  decorated  in  accord- 
ance with  the  style  of  the  time.  Besides  this,  we  have  numerous 
examples  of  smaller  Chests  with  feet  and  lids  of  pyramid  form,  richly 
decorated  with  carving,  intarsia,  ivory,  and  metal  reliefs.  These  small 
Caskets  were  chiefly  used  for  jewelry,  and  as  work-boxes,  etc.,  for 
which  purposes  similar  caskets  are  still  manufactured. 

Plate  256.    The  Chest. 

1.  Antique,  Pompeii,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

2.  Mediaeval  reliquary,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

3.  Mediaeval  bench-chest,   13th  century  MS.     (Viollet-le-Duc). 

4.  Gothic,  carved  chestnut  wood  with  iron  mounts  and  handles,  15  th 
century,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

5.  Mediaeval,  Brampton  church,  England,  (VioUet-le-Duc). 

6.  Renascence,  Dutch,  (L'art  pour  toua). 

7.  Renascence,  Italian. 

8.  Renascence,  Flemish,  17th  century,  (L'art  pour  tons). 

d.    Miscellaneous. 

The  Desk,  &c.     (Plate  257.) 

The  Desk  is  a  stand  with  a  sloping  top,  on  which  books  and 
other  things  may  be  placed.  Passing  over  Reading-desks,  Music-desks, 
and  other  desks  for  secular  use,  which  as  a  rule  are  left  undecorated; 
we  have  the  desks  used  in  churches,  e.  g.  the  "Prie-dieu",  the  Lectern, 
&c.,  which  are  to  some  extent  found  of  rich  workmanship  as  early  as 

29* 


452 


FURNITURE. 


Plate  256. 


The  Cheat. 


The  Desk,  &c.  —  The  Clock-Case,  &c  453 

the  beginning  of  the  Middle  Ages.  They  are  made  of  wood,  or  metal, 
or  of  both  combined.  We  distinguish  between  single  and  double 
desks.  The  Lectern  is  frequently  supported  on  the  back  of  an  Eagle 
with  outspread  wings,  a  design  which  is  supposed  to  contain  a 
reference  to  the  Evangelist  S.  John,  whose  symbol  in  the  eagle. 
Ecclesiastical  desks  eiter  have  a  fixed  position  in  the  choir  or  chancel, 
or  they  are  moveable.  These  latter  were  sometimes  like  a  Saw-horse 
and  could  be  folded -up;  in  which  case  the  slope  was  replaced  by 
bands  (fig.  6).  The  upper  part  of  fixed  desks  frequently  revolves, 
and  is  furnished  with   sconces  for  lights. 

The  Easel  is  a  sloping  frame  with  three  or  four  legs.  The 
front  and  rear  are  often  connected  by  hinges  to  enable  the  angle  of 
the  slope  to  be  altered  at  will.  The  front  is  provided  with  a  small  board, 
which  can  be  adjusted  to  difi'erent  heights  by  pins  or  other  mechanism. 
It  is  an  invention  of  modern  times;  and  in  its  usual  undecorated, 
form  is  employed  by  painters,  sculptors,  &c.  But  it  is  often  made 
as  a  decorative  piece  of  furniture  of  superior  finish,  to  hold  pictures, 
portfolios,  &c.  The  decoration  in  this  case  may  consist  of  the  sym- 
bols of  art,  as  shown  in   fig.   7. 

Plate  257.    The  Desk,  <fcc. 

1.  Gothic,  15th  century,  base  of  wood,  slope  of  wrought-iron,  eagle 
and  ball  gilt,  dragon  painted  groen,  S.  Siraphorien,  Nuits,  (VioUet- 
le-Duc). 

2.  Mediaeval,  San  Stefano,  Venice,  (Mothes). 

3.  Renascence,  marble,  Pisa  Cathedral,  Italian,  (Kunsthandwerk). 

4.  Mediaeval,  Double-desk  with  revolving  shaft,  end  of  13th  century 
(Yiollet-le-Duc). 

5.  Mediaeval,  Upper  part  of  Double-desk,  (Viollet-le-Duc).    * 

6.  Renascence,  Folding  stand,  cathedral,  S.  Gimignano,  Italian,  (Kunst- 
handwerk). 

7.  Modern  decorative  Easel,  architect  Durm,  (Gewerbehalle). 


The    Clock-Case,  &c.    (Plate  258.) 

The  Clock-case,  as  a  piece  of  furniture,  is  of  comparatively  recent 
date,  for  the  invention  of  the  clock  with  a  train  of  wheels  is  itself 
not  old;  and  for  some  time  after  their  introduction  clocks  were  manu- 
factured without  cases  or,  at  any  rate,  without  o&ses  of  artistic 
importance.  In  the  17  th  century,  cases  for  protecting  the  works 
against  dust  and  for  giving  the  clock  a  more  pleasing  aspect,  begin 
to  appear.  The  forms  at  first  manufactured  were  chiefly  two.  The 
first  is  that  of  the  old-fashioned  tall  Hall -clock,  something  like  the 
toilet-stands  (figs.  5  and  6),  the  upper  part  accommodating  the  clock 


454 


FURNITUEE. 


Plate  257. 


The  Desk,  &c. 


The  Clock-Case,  &c.  455 

and  tho  lower  part  being  destined  for  the  weights.  The  other  form 
is  that  of  the  dwarf  drawing-room  clock,  the  weights  being  replaced 
by  springs,  so  that  the  case  does  not  need  to  be  so  tall,  and  is  only 
dependent  on  the  length  of  the  pendulum.  These  clocks  are  placed 
on  chimney-pieces,  cabinets,  &c.,  or  on  pedestals  (fig.  1).  A  third 
form,  which  was  added  at  a  later  date,  is  the  hanging- case,  intended 
for  both  weight  and  pendulum  clocks.  With  more  or  less  alteration 
these  forms,  together  with  a  number  of  innovations,  are  in  use  at  the 
present  time.  Pendules  and  similar  constructions  are  not  taken  into 
account  here.  Clock-cases  are  mostly  of  wood,  frequently  decorated 
with  gilding,  and  metal  mounts.  A  special  division,  in  respect  of 
material,  is  formed  by  the  clocks  in  Buhl  -  work.  The  dials,  of 
lacquered  wood,  porcelain,  metal,  enamelled,  in  niello-work,  &c.,  are 
often  bordered  by  a  metal  ring  and  closed  by  glass  doors.  Pendulum 
and  weight-cases  may  be  either  open  or  closed;  sometimes  they  have 
only  a  slit  for  the  bob.  The  sides  of  the  case  are  often  of  fret-work, 
in  order  that  the  sound  of  the  striking  -  work  may  be  better  heard. 
Dome  -  shaped  clocks  are  sometimes  crowned  by  a  small  bell -turret 
(fig.  3).  Calendar-clocks,  Cuckoo-clocks,  Trumpeter-clocks,  and  similar 
fancy  forms,  also  require  special  constructions.  In  general,  we  may 
assume  that  the  get-up  of  our  modern  regulator  and  other  clocks  is 
perfectly  familiar  to  the  reader.  The  starting-points  in  designing  a 
clock  case  are  the  diameter  of  the  dial,  the  depth  of  the  works,  the 
distance  from  the  centre  of  the  dial  to  the  centre  of  the  bob  and  the 
extent  of  swing  of  the  pendulum,  and  (in  the  case  of  Weight-clocks) 
the  length  to  which  the  weights  run. 

'It  is  possible  that  Toilet-stands  may  have  been  met-with  in  the 
Middle  Ages;  but  they  were  not  treated  as  decorative  furniture  till 
the  Renascence.  A  number  of  really  magnificent  examples  from  this 
period  have  been  preserved  (fig.  5).  The  usual  form  is  that  of  a 
slender,  tall  Cabinet,  the  upper  and  lower  parts  of  which  are  provided 
with  doors,  and  serve  to  hold  various  necessary  objects,  while  the 
centre  takes  the  form  of  a  niche.  In  this  niche  han^rs  a  metal  water- 
reservoir  with  a  lid  and  a  cock;  at  the  lower  end  of  the  niche  is  a 
basin  to  receive  the  waste  water.  Elegant  "wrought-iron  towel-holders 
are  attached.  The  two  figures  (5  and  6)  wU  give  an  idea  of  the 
arrangement  of  these  pretty  ]jieces  of  furniture,  which  are  now  be- 
coming popular  again,  after  they  had  been  supplanted  and  fallen  into 
disuse. 

Plate  258.    The  Clock-case,  &c. 

1 .  Barocco,  with   pedestal,  by  Daniel  Marot. 

2.  Modern,  with  roof,  by  Hans  Steinier,  Furtwangen. 

3.  Modern,   with  metal  ornaments,  architect  Lauter,  Carlsruhe. 

4.  Modern    by  Fr.   Miltenberger,  Nuremberg. 


456 


FURNITURE. 


Plate  258. 


The  Clock-Case,  &c. 


The  Clock-Case,  &c.  —  The  Bedstead,  and  the  Cradle.  457 

5.  Toilet  -  stand ,    German  Renascence,    1597,    Town-hall,    Ueberlingen, 
(Gewerbehalle). 

6.  Toilet-stand,  various  coloured  woods,  Gern^an  Renascence,  (Formen- 
schatz). 


The  bedstead,  and  the  Cradle.    (Plates  259 — 2G0.) 

From  the  earliest  to  the  present  time,  the  Bedstead  has  passed 
through  many  changes.  In  the  Egyptian  and  Assyrian  styles:  we  find 
metal  Bedsteads  imitating  the  forms  of  animals  (Plate  259.  1,  2);  and 
sometimes  arranged  to  fold  up  like  a  Camp-bed  (Plate  259.  2).  Those  of 
the  Greeks  and  Romans,  which  served  partly  as  Beds,  and  partly  as 
Couches,  are  of  manifold  forms.  In  addition  to  the  four-legged  bench 
(Plate  259.  3),  we  have  benches  with  a  head -board  (Plate  259.  1),  with 
head  and  foot  board  (Plate  259.  4),  the  latter  being  usually  lower 
than  the  former,  and  others  with  head,  foot,  and  back  boards,  like 
our  modem  Sofas  (Plate  260.  2).  The  materials  are  wood  and  metal, 
sometimes  more  precious  materials,  ivory,  &c.,  as  we  learn  from  the 
examples  found  in  Pompeii. 

The  same  fundamental  idea  may  be  seen  in  the  Bedsteads  of 
the  earlier  Middle  Ages,  which  show  traces  of  Byzantine  influence, 
and  have  richly  -  decorated,  turned  posts,  and  carved  sides.  The  front 
was  often  furnished  with  an  opening  to  allow  of  getting  into  the 
bed  (Plate  259.  5,  6).  At  a  later  period  the  Bedstead  was  furnished 
with  canopied  hangings  suspended  from  special  rods  fixed  to  the 
wall.  The  Renascence  considerably  enlarged  the  size;  placed  it  on  a 
podium;  raised  the  head-board;  and  carried  the  legs  higher  to  receive 
the  tester  or  canopy -frame,  which  was  then  adorned  with  drapery 
and  hangings.  Examples  of  this  period  have  been  preserved  (Plate  260. 
1  and  2).  In  the  Barocco  and  Rococo  periods:  textile  materials  pre- 
dominate, and  the  wooden  frame  is  neglected.  Then  the  so-called 
'Tarade-beds'  (Plate  260,  3)  became  fashionable. 

Modem  times  again  have  generally  simplified  the  form.  The 
commonest  is  that  with  high  foot  and  head -boards  (the  latter  often 
to  excess),  and  low  sides.  Tester-bedsteads  have  passed  out  of 
fashion. 

The  Cradle  seems  to  have  been  an  invention  of  the  Middle 
Ages.  By  means  of  pins  the  little  box  or  trough  •  shaped  Bedsteads 
were  fixed  in  a  frame  in  which  they  were  moveable;  or  the  legs  of 
the  Bedstead  were  replaced  by  curved  battens  which  admitted  of  rock- 
ing (Plate  259.  8  and  9).  The  Cradles  of  the  Renascence  are  of 
similar  form,  often  with  raised  end-boards,  and  rich  carving.  Owing 
to   sanitary  objections,  Cradles   have  almost  gone  out   of  use.     Some- 


458 


FURNITURE. 


Plate  259. 


The  Bedstead,  .&c. 


FURNITURE. 


459 


The  Bedstead,  &c. 


Plate  260. 


460 


The  Bedstead,  and  the  Cradle. 


times  Cradles   are  made  of  metal   rods,    like  a  basket,   with  the  head 
of  the  frame  raised  to  support  a  canopy. 

Plate  259.    The  Bedstead,  &c. 

1.  Egyptian,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

2.  Egyptian  collapsible  Camp-bedstead. 

3.  Greek,  vase-painting,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

4.  Roman,  'Porapeian  vase-painting,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

5.  Mediaeval,  MS.  of  the   13th  century,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

6.  Mediaeval,    MS.   of   the    12th  century,    (Hortus    deliciarum    of 
Herrad  of  Landsberg),  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

7.  Chinese,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

8 — 9.  Mediaeval  Cradles,  (Viollet-le-Duc). 

Plate  260.    The  Bedsteajd,  &c. 

1.  Renascence,  Plantin  Museum,  Antwerp,  (Gewerbehalle). 

2.  Renascence,  French,  Cluny  Museum,  Paris,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

3.  Barocco,  Parade-bedstead,  by  Daniel  Marot. 

4    Renascence, -Head -board    of    Cradle,    French,    gilt    ornaments    on 
red  ground  (L'art  pour  tous). 


461 


D. 

FRAMES,  &c. 


The  term  "Framework"  is  a  very  inclusive  one.  Every  edging, 
border,  and  every  rim  of  a  plate,  belongs  to  this  group;  but  the  follow- 
ing ten  plates  will  contain  only  those  features  in  which  the  Frame 
is,  to  a  certain  extent,  an  end  in  itself,  and  a  definite,  characteristic 
whole.  Framework  is  useful  in  every  branch  of  applied  art;  it  is 
used  in  an  immense  variety  of  materials,  and  is  treated  in  many  different 
ways.  Plates  261 — 270  contain  some  important  subdivisions  selected 
from  the  entire  group:  these  are  frames  of  Architectural  character; 
frames  (strictly  so-called)  for  Pictures,  Mirrors,  Ac,  Tablets,  lypo- 
graphical  borders,  and  the  borders  of  Dials,  Plates,  &c. 

■It  is  highly  interesting  to  pursue  the  rise  of  Framework  on  an 
architectural  basis,  its  gradual  transformation  and  its  adaptation  to 
the  products  of  art  industry.  For  this,  however,  we  refer  the  reader 
to  the  remarks  of  Semper  (Der  Stil,  §§  130  et  seqq.).  We  will  only 
make  the  following  observations  from  the  point  of  view  of  style: 
Framework,  in  the  sense  in  which  it  is  here  understood,  only  occurs 
rarely  and  sporadically  in  the  older  styles,  the  Antique  and  the 
Middle  Ages.  It  was  reserved  for  the  Kenascence  to  cultivate  this 
field,  and  to  attain  the  highest  possible  results.  It  cannot,  however, 
be  denied  that  occasionally  it  was  exaggerated  and  illogical.  A  Frame 
must,  above  all  things,  have  some  relation  and  proportion  to  the  object 
to  be  framed.  To  make  a  frame,  and  put  it  where  there  is  nothing 
to  be  framed,  is  illogical.  And  yet  we  find  in  the  late  Renascence, 
and  in  the  Barocco  and  Ro'coco  periods,  countless  examples  which, 
so  far  as  their  application  goes,  have  no  other  object  than  the  de- 
coration of  empty  spaces. 


462  The  Architectural  Frame. 


The  Architectural  Frame.    (Plate  261 — 262.) 

By  Axchitectural  Frames  we  mean  those  which  are  used  in 
Architecture,  and  those  which,  although  applied  in  other  branches, 
such  as  furniture,  show  an  architectural  derivation.  These  are:  the 
framings  of  doors,  windows,  panels,  tablets,  medallions,  niches,  soffits, 
&o.  In  Furniture  they  are  the  border-like  ornaments  which  serve  as 
a  framing  to  panel-ornaments;  but  which  are  also  very  often  used 
merely  as  decoration,  without  having  any  object  to  frame.  There 
are  two  classes  of  Frames:  one  which  is  mon-axial,  with  external  or- 
naments at  the  top  and  bottom,  to  emphasize  the  vertical  attitude; 
and  one  which  is  bi-axial,  for  application  on  horizontal  surfaces. 
In  the  former  class:  the  lower  ornament  has  the  general  shape  of  a 
suspended  triangle.  This  expresses  the  idea  of  supporting  like  a  Console; 
and  is  a  free-ending  down-wards.  The  other  of  these  has  the  general  shape 
of  the  erect  triangle;  making  a  cresting  feature,  and  is  the  free-ending 
upwards.  Frames  of  this  class  are  shown  on  Plate  261,  figs.  2,  8,  9,  10 
and  11.  In  the  second  class  of  Frames:  the  space  to  be  enclosed, 
be  it  a  circle,  square,  or  oblong,  is  surrounded  by  an  ornament 
which  is  symmetrical  on  all  sides  without  regard  to  top  and  bottom. 
Frames  of  this  class  are  shown  on  figs.  4 — 7  of  Plate  261,  and 
figs.  5,  8  and  9  of  Plate  262.  These  two  principles  are  not  always 
so  strongly  marked  as  in  the  examples  given;  and  sometimes  they 
are  combined;  but  as  a  rule  the  one  or  the  other  will  always  pro- 
dominate. 

Plate  261.    The  Architectural  FRAsm. 

1.  Gable-opening  of  a  Dormer-window,  Rouen,  French,   17th  cen- 

tury, (L'art  pour  tous). 
.2.         Tablet,  modem,  in  the  style  of  the  Italian  Renascence. 

3.  Pedestal,  Italian  Renascence,  Genoa,  (Owen  Jones). 

4.  Door-panel,  (Architektonisches  Skizzenbuch). 

5.  Stove -tile,  Castle   of   Wiilfingen    near  Winterthux,    17th  cen- 
tury, (Kunsthandwerk). 

6.  Desk  in  S.  Giorgio  maggiore,  Venice,  Italian,  Renascence. 

7.  Coflfer,  cupola  of  the  Dagobert  Tower,  Baden-Baden,  German, 
Renascence. 

8 — 9.  Pulpit,  Magdeburg  cathedral,  German,  1595 — 1597,  (Gewerbe- 
halle). 

10.  Door    of   cabinet,    in    the    style    of   the   German    Renascence, 
(Formenschatz). 

11.  Door  of  a  sideboard.  Louvre,  Paris,  Renascence. 


FRAMES. 


463 


The  Architectural  Frame. 


Plate  261. 


464 


FRAMES. 


Plate  262. 


The  Architectural  Frame. 


Tlie  Architectural  Frame,  Mirror-Frame,  &c.  465 

Plate  262.    The  Archttecturai.  Frame. 

1.  German,  17th  century,  Stalls,  Stiftskirche,  Aschaflfenburg,  (Ge- 
werbehalb). 

2.  Italian,  Renascence,  (Formenschatz). 

3.  French,    1529,    Lozenge  panel,    choir  of  Chartres    cathedral, 
(Raguenet). 

4.  RenascencQ,  by  Enea  Vico,  (Formenschatz). 

5.  Italian,  Renascence,  Panel  of  the  stalls,   S.  Giorgio  maggidre, 
Venice. 

6.  German  Renascence,   Frame  of  small  niche,   Dagobert  Tower, 
Baden-Baden, 

7 — 8.  Modem,    French,    Hotel    Mirabaud,    Paris,    Architect    Magne, 

(Raguenet). 
9.        'Modern,  in  the  style  of  the  German  Renascence. 
10,         Modem,  French,  Paris,  (Raguenet). 


The  Mirrdr-Frame,  &c.    (Plates  263—264). 

The  moveable  Mirror -frames,  which  are  designed  and  made  to 
be  hxmg-up,  might  have  been  classed  among  the  Furniture;  but  they 
are  more  conveniently  treated  here.  The  Middle  Ages  framed  Altar- 
pieces  and  the  Pictures  of  the  saints;  but  the  universal  use  of  frames 
begins  with  the  Renascence;  and  it  is  particularly  Italy  which  has 
preserved  the  most  numerous  examples  of  this  period.  At  first  we 
meet  with  Architectural-frames;  but  simultaneously  with  the  transition 
from  the  Mural-picture  of  the  Middle  Ages  (which  had  been  a  part 
of  the  wall),  to  the  Table-picture  (which  was  portable),  the  treatment 
becomes  freer  and  less  constrained.  And  when  the  architectural 
members  were  afterwards  blended-together  in  scroll-work,  the  funda- 
mental architectural  idea  generally  remained  visible,  as  may  be  seen 
from  the  Barocco  and  Louis  XVI  frames  in  Plates  263.  1,  2,  6,  and  10; 
and  264.  3  and  4.  It  was  reserved  for  Modem  times  to  cut -up 
factory-made  mouldings  into  lengths,  to  produce  frames  of  any  required 
size,  without  regard  to  the  proportion  which  should  exist  between  the 
frame  and  the  enclosed  space.  Cheap  and  practical!  but  Art  has  gained 
nothing  by  it.  Still,  we"  would  not  be  understood  to  say  that  our 
time  does  not  occasionally  produce  frames  which  completely  satisfy 
the  demands  of  both  technique  and  taste. 

The  chief  material  is  wood;  but  bronze  is  used  for  fr-ames  of 
small  size.  The  old  custom  of  painting  and  gilding  the  carved-wood 
frames,  led  to  the  manufacture  of  the  so-called  "gilt  frame",  which  is 
made  of  stamped  brass.  Opinions  may  differ  as  to  the  justification 
of  these  frames  from  an  aesthetic  point  of  view;    but  there    is    little 

Merer,  Handbook  of  Ornament.  30 


466 


FEAMES. 


Plate  263. 


The  Mirror-Frame,  &c. 


FRAMES. 


467 


The  Mirror-Frame,  &c. 


Plate  264. 
30* 


468  The  Mirror-Frame,  &c.  —  The  Strap-work  Frame. 

doubt  that  the  metallic  frame  tends  to  enhance  the  effect  of  coloured 
pictures.  Porcelain  and  glass  have  also  been  used  as  materials  for 
frames;  but  their  propriety  will  always  be  questionable. 

In  addition  to  outline  and  style  of  decoration:  an  important  part 
is  played  by  the  amount  of  projection  of  the  Frame.  The  effect  of 
a  picture,  which  appears  to  be  recessed  behind  a  Bevel-frame,  is  very 
different  from  that  of  one  which  seems  to  be  brought  into  relief  by 
a  Torus  -  moulding.  The  fundamental  form  of  the  frame  is  usually 
oblong,  either  figure-wise  or  landscape- wise;  circular,  elliptic,  or  square 
frames,  are  rarer.  Sometimes  the  outer  shape  of  the  Frame  differs 
from  tiie  inner  shape  (Plate  263.  9,  10).  In  the  Barocco  period, 
frames  received  a  number  of  arbitrary  curved  forms;  as  shown  in 
on  Plate  263,  fig.  5. 

Plate  263.    The  Mirror -frame,  &c. 
1 — 2.     German,  18th  century,  Berlin,  (Kunsthandwerk). 
3 — 4.     French,   angle  -  ornaments  of  wall -panels,    old  castle  of  Bercy, 
near  Paris,  18  th  century,  (Raguenet). 

5.  Barocco,  witn  bracket,  by  Paul  Decker,  (Formenschatz). 

6.  Rococo,  (Formenschatz). 

7 — 8.     French,  Louis  XVI.,  by  La  Londe,  (Wessely). 
9 — 10.  French,  Louis  XVI.,  by  Delafosse,  (Raguenet). 

PiATE  264.    The  Mirror- frame,  &c. 

1 — 2.  Renascence,  (Raguenet). 

3 — 4.  Italian  Renascence,  Florence,  (Gewerbehalle). 

5.  Modem,  (Gewerbehalle). 

6.  Modem,  by  Prof.  Schick,  Carlsruhe.  , 

7.  Modern,  by  the  architect  Huber,  Frankfort. 


The  Strap-work  Frame.    (Plates  265 — 266.) 

When  the  Frame  iS  cut  into  fantastic  shapes  and  bands,  which 
interlace  and  curl,-  like  leathern  Straps;  then  it  is  termed  the  Strap- 
work  Frame.  It  is  much  used,  in  the  later  Renascence,  for  Shields, 
Tablets,  &c.;  and  is  a  characteristic  of  the  Elizabethan  style.  Foliage, 
palinettes,  festoons  and  garlands  of  fruit,  fluttering,  ribbons,  cherab- 
heads,  &c.  are  frequently  added.  Strap- work  was  an  iavention  of  the 
Ren;vscence;  and  it  is  extremely  common,  especially  in  the  later  years 
of  that  period.  This  kind  of  Frame -work  iS  frequently  used,  not  as 
a  Frame,  but  for  mere  decorative  purposes,  so  that  the  fields  to  be 
framed  are  left  as  empty  spaces.  Strap-work  appears  in  architecture, 
sepulchral  monuraents,  and  epitaphs;  on   medals  and  coins;  in  cabinet- 


FRAMES. 


469 


The  Strap-work  Frame. 


Plate  265. 


470 


FEAMES. 


Plate  266. 


The  Strap-work  Frame.' 


The  Strap-work  Frame.  —  The  Typographical  Frame.  471 

work,  heruldry,  jewelry,  the  decoration  of  books,  &c.,  and  the  minor 
arts  in  general.  The  arrangement  is  usually  symmetrical;  but  this 
was  abandoned  in  the  Eococo  period  in  favour  of  unsymmetrical  and 
picturesque  arrangements,  as  shown  in  Plate  266,  fig.  5. 

Plate  265.    The  Strap-work  Frame. 
1 — 4.     Eenascence,  bronze  tablets,  cemetery  of  S.  John,  Nuremberg, 

(Gewerbehalle). 
5 — 6.     Eenascence,  17  th  century,  French,  (L'art  pour  tous), 
7 — 10.  Eenascence,  new  castle,  Baden-Baden,  1576 — 1577. 

11.  Eenascence,  National  Library,  Paris,  (Eaguenet). 

12.  Modem,  French,  book  ornament. 

Plate  266.    The  Str^p-work  Frame. 

1.  Eenascence,  French. 

2.  Eenascence,    from    "Civitates    orbis    terrarum",    published    by 
P.  von  Brackel,  Cologne,  1573,  (Ysendyck). 

3.  Eococo,  Louvre,  Paris,  (Eaguenet). 

4.  Eococo,  French,  comer  of  a  wall,  (Eaguenet). 

5.  Eococo,  French. 

6 — 7.  Modern,  by  Dir.  Kachel,  Carlsruhe. 

8.  Modern,  French,  -(Lienard). 

9.  Modern, 


The  Typographical  Frame.    (Plates  267—268.) 

We  find  numerous  Framework  -  motives  in  the  decoration  of 
books  and  documents;  and  though  they  have  become  more  general 
since  the  invention  of  printing,  we  find  them  in  the  Manuscripts  of 
the  Middle  Ages.  The  Title-pages  were  framed  or  bol"dered;  it  was 
also  a  favourite  practice  to  border  the  headings;  Initials  are  some- 
times treated  in  this  way;  and  Printers'-marks,  and  Head  and  Tail- 
pieces are  often  designed  with  Strap  -  work.  Old  books  are  often 
richly  decorated  with  such  things;  and  artists  of  the  highest  rank 
often  lent  their  aid  to  this  style  of  decoration.  After  the  sobriety 
which  ruled  in  the  first  half  of  this  century,  our  modem  times  have 
devoted  increased  attention  to  this  branch.  Breaches  of  taste  are 
still  committed  in  this  direction,  principally  because  factory -made 
Blocks,  Borders,  and  Eules,  are  combined  without  judgment  in 
Typography.  Not  only  books,  but  also  diplomas,  addresses,  ball-pro- 
grammes, dinner  and  business  -  cards,  labels,  book-plates,  and  similar 
things  are  furnished  with  artistic  borders.  The  principles  of  decoration, 
and  the  motives  employed,  are  very  varied;  and  great  freedom  is  al- 


472 


FRAMES. 


Plate  267. 


The  Typographical  Frame. 


FRAMES. 


473 


The  Typographical  Frame. 


Plate  268. 


474  The  Tj'pographical  Frame.  —  The  Strap-work  Tablet. 

lowed.  When  architectural  forms  appear,  they  are  treated  lightly 
and  playfully;  and  are  often  resolved  into  all  manner  of  strap -work 
(Plate  267.  1,  2). 

Plate  267.    The  Typographical  Frame. 

1.  Border,    by    Johann    Sadler,     1550 — 1560,    Flemish,    Renascence, 
(Guichard). 

2.  Border,  by  Hans  Holbein,  (Guichard). 

8.  Border,   by  J.  Wiericx,    16th  century,  Flemish,  Renascence,  (L'art 
pour  tous). 

4.  Printer's-mark,  (Giacaujo  Cornetti  of  Venice),   Italian,   Renascence, 
1586,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

5.  Ditto,  (Giovanni  Guarisco,  Venice,  1575). 

6.  Ditto,  (Ex  typographia  Jacobi  Staer,   1585). 

7.  Ditto,  (A.  Quantin,  Paris,   1882). 

Plate  268.    The  Typographical  Frame. 

1.  German,   Tablet  from   the  triumphal   entry   of    the   Emporor  Maxi- 
milian by  Hans  Burkmair,  (1473 — 1531). 

2.  French,  Renascence,   16th  century,  Lyons,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

3.  Modern,  by  Max  Lauger,  Carlsruhe. 

4.  Modern,  by  Rudolf  Seitz,  Munich. 


The  Strap-work  Tablet.     (Plate  269.) 

Examples  of  Strap -work,  designed  for  use  in  some  of  the 
Minor  Arts,  which  serves  not  as  a  frame  but  as  the  actual  Tablet, 
are  shown  in  the  Plate.  Figures  1  and  2  are  clock-cases;  3  and .  4 
are  for  goldsmiths'  work;  5  and  6  are  wrought- iron  signs;  7  and  8 
are  suitable  ornaments  for  stamped-leather,  and  inlaying;  fig.  10  is 
an  escutcheon;  and  Nos.  9  and  11  are  book-mounts.  The  series 
might  easily  be  increased;  but  these  examples  will  suffice,  as  it  would 
lead  us  too  far  to  treat  each  of  these  classes  in  detail. 

Plate  269.    The  Strap-work  Tablet. 

1.  Clock-case,  hammered  metal,  French,  Renascence. 

2.  Clock-case,  stamped  metal.  Modern. 

3 — 4.  Decoration    of   escutcheons,    snuff-box   lids,    &c.,    by  Wilhelm 

Visscher,  17th  century. 
5 — 6.  Wrought-iron  signs.  Modem. 

7.  Book-cover,  16th  century,  French  Renascence,  (L'art  pour  toas). 

8.  Modern,  (Gewerbehalle). 


FRAMES. 


475 


The  Strap-work' Tablet. 


Plate  269. 


476 


FRAMES. 


Plate  270. 


The  Strap-work  Border,  and  Margin. 


The  Strap-work  Tablet,  Border,  and  Margin. 


477 


9.         Metal  mounts  for  the  cover  of  an  album,  Modern. 

10.  Wrouglit-iron    escutcheon,    German,    16th    century,    National 
Museum,  Munich. 

11.  Centre-piece  of  bookbinding,  by  Dir.  C.  Graff,  Dresden. 


The  Strap-work  Border,  and  Margin.    (Plate  270.) 

To  those  products  of  art,  which  frequently  receive  an  additional 
exterior  border  or  Margin,  must  further  be  reckoned  plates  and  dishes. 
So  far  as  they  are  included  under  pottery,  the  border  usually  has  a 
smooth  unbroken  edge;  the  material  scarcely  admitting  of  a  freer 
treatment  of  the  rim.  It  is  different  when  the  object  is  of  metal;  in 
this  case,  the  rim  may  be  decorated  with  pierced- work;  and  the  outlines 
may  imdergo  a  richer  and  more  vigorous  treatment  (figs.  4  and  5),  in 
which  the  framework  forms  a  free-ending  outwards. 

Plate  270.    The  Strap-work  Border,  and  Margin. 

1.  Renascence,  Majolica,  Gewerbemuseum,  Berlin,  (Gewerbehalle). 

2.  Renascence,  Majolica,  Italian,  (Racinet). 

3.  Renascence,  Limoges,  by  Pierre  Raymond,  16th  century,  (Racinet) 
4 — 5.  Modern,  by  Placido  Zuloaga,  Eibar,  Spain,  (Gewerbehalle). 


478 


K 


JEWELRY. 


The  love  of  personal  adornment  is  as  old  as  mankind  itself;  as 
is  proved  by  the  relics  which  have  been  preserved  from  the  earliest 
times.  Personal  adornment,  broadly  taken,  is  a  somewhat  extensive 
domain;  it  includes  the  Painting  and  Tattooing  of  the  body,  Clothing, 
as  soon  as  this  exceeds  what  is  required  to  meet  practical  needs, 
Armour,  &c.;  but  this  section  will  be  confined  to  adornment  by  Jewelry. 

The  following  10  plates  will  deal  with  this  group  so  far  as 
their  chief  representatives  are  concerned.  These  are:  Pins,  Buttons, 
Finger-rings,  Chains,  Necklets,  Bracelets,  Belts,  Clasps,  and  Buckles, 
the  various  kinds  of  Chatelaines,  and  Ear-rings. 

The  plan  of  this  book  requires  that  we  should  chiefly  direct 
our  attention  to  the  decorative  aspect  of  these  objects;  but  we  will 
here  offer  a  few  general  observations  on  the  subject. 

Trinkets,  which  are  not  indispensable,  but  rather  an  object  of 
luxuiy,  are  closely  connected  with  dress  and  costume;  and  like  them, 
subject  to  fashion.  This  explains  the  different  transformations  which 
trinkets  have  undergone  in  the  coui'se  of  centuries.  On  the  other 
hand,  technical  considerations  have  also  played  a  part:  the  art  of 
working  the  materials  has  passed  through  various  stages  of  deve- 
loj^ement  in^  the  different  periods;  so  that  the  form  and  finish  were 
governed  not  only  by  the  fashion,  and  taste  of  each  period,  but  also 
by  the  technic;jl  skill  of  the  workman. 

The  jirincipal  materials  of  trinkets  are  the  precious  metals.  From 
the  state  iu  which  the  metals  are  found  in  Nature,  it  is  easy  to  see 
(linf    the   lirsl   metal   to  come   into   general    use   would    be  Gold,    whicli 


■  Jewelry.  479 

is  found  in  a  pure  state  almost  all  over  the  world;  and  is  easy  to 
work.  It  can  easily  be  beaten  into  plates,  and  drawn  out  into  wire; 
and  the  earliest  style  is  consequently  that  of  plate-gold  and  filigree 
work.  This  is  abundantly  proved  by  the  objects  belonging  to  prim- 
itive times  whether  they  are  found  on  Greek,  Oriental,  Scandinavian, 
or  American  ground.  The  common  metals,  and  bronze,  are  also  oc- 
casionally used  as  well  as  gold  and  silver.  Among  non-metallic  ma- 
terials, we  have:  gems,  and  other  valuable  stones,  pearls,  enamels, 
amber,  shells,  mother-of-pearl,  &c. 

In  addition  to  the  arts  of  punching  and  hammering  metal  pla- 
tes, and  filigree  work,  the  latter  consisting  chiefly  of  soldering-toge- 
ther  wire  and  beads,  there  arose,  in  process  of  time,  the  further  arts 
of:  casting,  chiselling,  niello,  enamel,  damaskeening,  inlaying,  gilding, 
silvering,  oxidising,  and  die-sinking.  For  other  than  metallic  ma- 
terials, the  principal  processes  are:  cutting,  facetting,  setting,  the  pro- 
duction of  tints,  and  foils,  and  the  engraving  of  gems,  and  cameos. 
As  it  is  impossible  here  to  go  into  details  of  the  history  or  technique 
of  these  processes,  we  will  refer  the  reader  to  the  special  works  on 
this  subject,  among  them:  Semper,  Der  Stil,  Hauptstiick  XI.  Metallo- 
technik;  Luthmer,  Der  Goldschnmck  der  Renaissance  (from  wliich 
excellent  work  we  have  taken  a  number  of  our  figures);  Bucher, 
Geschichte  der  technischen  Kiinste;  Mathias,  Der  menschliche  Schmuck. 

Taken  on  the  whole,  trinkets  are  an  article  of  Womans'  toilet, 
although  certain  objects  have  also  been  worn  by  Men,  either  at  all 
times,  like  the  Finger-ring,  or  only  at  certain  periods* and  among 
certain  nations,  like  the  Bracelet.  On  the  other  hand,  there  are  cer- 
tain objects  of  personal  adornment,  like  Orders,  Badges,  and  Medals, 
which  are  a  speciality  of  the  male  sex.  Trinkets  which  presuppose 
an  injury  of  some  part  of  the  body,  such  as  Ear  and  Nose-rings,  are 
a  relic  of  barbaric  manners.  An  excessive  indulgence  in  adornment 
is  usually  characteristic  of  the  primitive  stage,  and  of  the  decay  of 
the  civilisation  of  a  nation;  while  the  golden  ages  of  civilisation  and 
style  are  marked  by  restraint  in  the  quantity  of  trinkets,  and  by  a 
chaste  moderation  in  the  use  of  the  effects  of  bright  gold  and  cut 
gems  —  "The  later  empire  (Roman),  Byzantium,  the  entire  early  period 
of  the  Middle  Ages,  swim  in  gold"  —  says  Semper.  The  best  periods 
of  personal  adornment  are  the  Antique  and  the  Renascence:  but  it  is 
impossible  to  praise  too  highly  the  attempts  which  are  being  made, 
at  the  present  time,  to  improve  the  style  of  Goldsmith's-work  and 
Jewelry,  by  a  recurrence  to  the  models  of  those  times.  For  the  rest, 
certain  traditional  and  standard  forms  of  trinkets  have  been  preserved 
for  centuries,  in  some  national  costumes,  such  as  those  of  Switzer- 
land, Italy,  Sweden,  and  elsewhere. 


480  The  Pin. 


The  Pin.    (Plate  271.) 

The  Pin  is  a  toilet  article  of  very  general  use,  particularly  in 
primitive  times.  According  to  its  application,  it  is  either  a  Hair-pin 
or  a  Dress-pin.  Its  form  may  be  referred  to  three  fundamental  types. 
The  first  has  a  cylindrical  or  slightly  conical  stem,  pointed  like  a 
thorn  at  one  end,  and  terminated  at  the  other  by  a  knob  or  some 
other  finial  (figs.  1 — 16);  it  is  used  principally  as  a  hair  or  breast 
pin,  the  stem  in  the  former  case  being  sometimes  split  like  a  fork 
(figs.  23 — 24).  The  materials  are  chiefly  metals,  bone,  and  horn;  the 
head  and  the  stem  may  be  of  different  materials,  as  in  the  modern 
glass- headed  pin.  The  handsomest  examples  of  this  class  are  to  be 
found  in  the  Antique,  which  gave  this  simple  object  a  great  variety 
of  form.  The  East  also  furnishes  us  with  original  forms,  as  shown 
by  the  Japanese  examples  (figs.  22 — 26). 

The  second  class  is  that  of  the  Fibula,  the  Brooch  or  Safety-pin. 
These  pins  consist  of  two  parts,  a  disc  or  hoop  -  shaped  upper -part 
connected  with  the  actual  pin  by  elastic  spirals  or  by  a  hinge,  the 
point  of  the  pin  being  held  and  secured  by  a  catch  like  a  hook  or 
sheath.  Brooches  are  always  used  for  garments;  and,  in  the  antique, 
supplied  the  want  of  Buttons.  They  were  in  common  use  up  to  the 
Middle  Ages,  as  shown  by  the  numerous  finds  in  Greece,  Italy,  and 
Scandinavia.  The  hoop  is  commoner  than  the  disc;  and  more  practical, 
as  it  afforded  room  for  the  gathered -up  folds  of  the  garment.  The 
decoration  is  of  the  utmost  variety;  certain  forms,  such  as  the  spiral 
(fig.  86),  are  conventional.  The  material  is  always  metal,  mostly 
bronze,  more  rarely  a  precious  metal.  Modern  times  make  use  of  these 
pins  only  in  the  form  of  the  plain  wire  Safety-pin,  and  the  Brooch, 
in  which  latter  the  disc  replaces  the  hoop  (fig.  37).  Double-pins  form 
a  third  class.  Two  or  three  (and  occasionally  more)  pins  of  the  first 
class  are  connected  by  means  of  chains  or  spangles,  usually  to  serve 
as  an  ornament  for  the  bosom  (fig.  17).  This  form,  was  popular  in 
ancient  Scandinavian  art;  and  is  in  use  up  to  the  present  day  in 
some  national  costumes. 

Plate  271.    The  Pin. 

1 — 10.  Roman,  and  Etruscan,  Campana  collection,  (L'art  pour  tous). 
11 — 16.  Eoman,  found  in  Pompeii. 

17.  Anglo-Saxon  triple  breastpin,  found  in  Lincolnshire,  Archaeolo- 
gical Institute. 

18.  Alemannic,  bronze.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 
19—21.  17  th  century,  (Guichard). 

22 — 26.  Modern,  Japanese,  metal,  bone,  &c.    United  collections,  Cai'ls- 
ruhe. 


JEWELRY. 


481 


Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament. 


The  Pin. 


Plate  271. 
31     • 


482  The  Pin.  —  The  Button. 

27.  Modern,    French,    Filigree    work    with  pearls  and  brilliants, 

•  (Gewerbehalle). 

28 — 33.  Antique,  bronze,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

34 — 35.  Etruscan,  Gold. 

36.  Elxuscan,  spiral -brooch,  bronze,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

37.  Modern,  (Gewerbehalle). 


The  Button.    (Plate  272.) 

The  objects,  which  we  have  here  classed  as  Buttons,  serve  va- 
rious purposes.  They  appear  as  Pendants  to  necklets  and  similar  things, 
as  BullsB  (an  antique  pendant  like  an  amulet  with  symbolic  signifi- 
cance), as  Ornaments  of  Belts,  Garments,  Harness,  &c.,  and  as  Buttons, 
in  the  strict  sense  of  the  term,  for  fastening  garments.  According  to 
its  uses,  the  Button  takes  the  form  of  the  sphere,  the  hemisphere,  or 
the  disc.  As  a  Pendant  it  resembles  a  drop  with  the  character  of  a 
free-ending  (fig.  26).  One  end  is  then  furnis,hed  with  a  ring  by 
which  it  may  be  suspended  or  sewed-on.  The  double-buttons  or  Links, 
shown  in  figs.  1,  14  and  27  form  a  special  subdivision.  The  principal 
materials  are  again  the  metals,  enamelled,  damaskeened,  set  with  gems, 
or  as  filigree-work.  Buttons  are  also  manufactured  in  ivory,  mother- 
of-pearl,  amber,  glass,  and  similar  materials;  discs  of  wood  are  covered 
with  silk,  and  metal  threads,  adorned  with  gold -foil,  &c.  Standard 
examples  are  furnished  by  the  Antique,  the  Renascence,  and  many 
Modern  national  costumes,  while  the  modern  wholesale  factory -made 
Button  has  scarcely  any  artistic  value.  Our  examples  have  been  taken 
from  the  periods  named  above;  and  are  mostly  the  same  size  as  the 
originals. 

PiATE  272.    The  Button. 
1.  Antique,  double-button,  gold.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

2 — 3.  Etruscan,  gold  with  gems  and  pearls. 

4,  5,  6,  7,   11,   12,  14,   15,   16,  17,  19,  27,  28  and   29.      Buttons 
and  double  -  buttons  of  various  origin,  of  metal,  %vith  fiUgree- 
work,    enamelled,    &c.      In   the    possession   of  Prof.  Marc 
Rosenberg,  Carlsruhe. 
8 — 9.  Renascence,  gold,  enamelled  and  set  with  pearls,    Regalia, 

Berlin,  (Luthmer). 
10.  Renascence,  from  a  belt. 

13.  Modem,  filigree. 

18.  Renascence,  enamelled.  National  Museum,  Munich 

20  and  23.  Buttons  by  a  Frankfort  maker  of  the  18th  century,  in 
the  collection  of  Mr.  J.  Werneck,  Frankfort,  silk,  gold- 
thread and   foil,   (Kunsthandwerk). 


JEWELRY. 


483 


20.  »■ 


The  Button. 


Plate  272. 
31* 


484  The  Button.  —  The  Ring. 

21.  Renascence,  the  gallery    Schleissheim,  (Luthmer). 

22  and  24.  Renascence,  from  pictures  in  Worlitz  and  Gotha,  (Luthmer). 

25.  Indian,  silver  filigree,    from    Sumatra,   United   collections, 
Carlsruhe. 

26.  Modern,  pendant  of  a  necklet,  (Gewerbehalle). 


The  Ring.     (Plate  273.) 

The  Finger-ring  is  universally  employed  as  an  article  of  personal 
adornment;  and  it  is  one  which  has  been  worn  by  both  sexes  at  al- 
most all  times,  and  in  almost  all  countries.  The  manner  of  wearing 
it  was  determined  partly  by  fashion,  partly  by  edicts.  Sometimes  it 
was  considered  good  taste  to  wear  only  a  single  ring,  at  other  times 
both  hands  were  covered  with  rings;  it  is  worn  sometimes  under,  and 
sometimes  over  the  glove;  plain,  comfortable  forms  give  way  to 
monstrous  shapes;  sometimes  it  is  purely  ornamental,  sometimes  it 
has  a  symbolic  significance,  as  in  the  wedding  ring  (a  legacy  of 
heathendom  to  Christianity);  sometimes  it  is  a  token  of  dignity,  as  in 
the  fisherman's  ring  of  the  Pope,  and  of  Emperors,  Kings,  &c. 

The  form  is  manifold.  The  Signet -ring,  formed  partly  of  a 
single  piece  (fig.  4),  partly  of  a  hoop  in  which  a  cut  gem  revolves 
(fig.  1),  occurs  in  the  Egyptian  style.  Spiral  rings  with  the  serpent 
motive  (figs.  7  and  8),  and  rings  opening  on  one  side  (fig.  12),  are 
not  rare  in  the  Antique.  Besides  these:  other  forms  appear,  which 
are  still  popular.  Sometimes  the  upper  side  was  broadened  to  receive 
some  ornament  or  a  gem  (figs.  5,  9,  10,  13),  a  method  which  was 
used  in  the  Renascence  (figs.  20^29),  while  the  Middle  Ages  preferred 
cylindrical,  ribbon  -  like  bands  (figs.  14  and  16),  and  architectural 
motives  (fig.  17).  It  was  reserved  for  Modern  times  to  give  the  Wedding- 
ring  its  smooth,  convenient,  but  artistically  unimportant  form.  The 
predominant  material  is  gold.  Niello,  enamel,  pearls,  and  gems,  are 
used  for  its  further  decoration.  The  ring  has  frequently  given  rise 
to  artistic  freaks,  e.  g.  where  two  or  three  separate  rings  are  so 
constructed  that  they  may  be  interlocked. 

Plate  273.    The  Ring. 

1 — 3.  Egyptian,  signet,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

4.  Roman,  signet,*  found  in  the  Crimea. 

5.  Egyptian,  with  enamel  and  two  horses  in  free  relief. 

6.  Egyptian,  with  pierced  work,  (Racinet^. 
7—8.  Greek. 

9 — 10.        Roman,  found  in  the   Crimea. 
1 1  Etruscan,  gold,  Vulci,  (Bliimner). 


JEWELRY. 


4S5 


The  Ring. 


Plate  273. 


486  The  Ring.  —  The  Chain. 

12.  Pompeian. 

13.  Ancient  Italic. 

14  and  16.  So-called  "Jewish  wedding- rings",  15th  and  16th  cen- 
turies, collection  of  the  late  architect  Oppler,  Hanover 
(Luthmer). 

15.  Renascence,  with  cut  onyxes,  Collection  in  Cassel, (Luthmer). 

17.  Gothic,   13th  century,  (Mothes). 

18.  Renascence,  enamelled,  representing  the  Fall  of  Man. 

19.  Renascence,  with  clasped  hands. 

20.  Renascence,  from  a  picture,  dated  1572,  Museum,  Cologne. 

21.  Renascence,  Museum,  Sigmaringen,  (Luthmer). 

22 — 23.  Renascence,  from  pictures  at  Gotha  and  Darmstadt,  (Luth- 
mer). 

24.  Renascence,  from  a  picture,  Germanisches  Museum,  (Luth- 

mer). 

25  and  27.  Renascence,  private  collection,  Mainz,  (Luthmer). 

26.  Renascence,  Hildeshcim,  with  niello -work,  (Luthmer). 

28,  29,  31,  and  32.     Renascence,  (Hefner- Alteneck). 

30  and  32.  Renascence,  after  Hans  Mielich,  Middle  of  the  16th  century. 


The  Chain.     (Plate  274.) 

Chains  are  an  interesting  chapter  in  ornament.  The  task  of  art 
here  is  to  treat  the  stubborn  metal  in  such  a  way  that  it  will  pro- 
duce flexible,  easily  -  moving  forms,  which  shall  still  be  absolutely 
unyielding  to  tension.  This  is  done  by  the  system  of  links.  Rings, 
perforated  discs,  balls  with  an  eye,  <fec.,  are  linked  together  in  appro- 
priate ways  to  form  a  whole.  In  the  common  Chains  of  everyday 
use,  nothing  but  strength  and  flexibility  are  expected;  in  ornamental 
chains,  attention  must  be  paid  to  the  artistic  effect.  This  is  sought 
to  be  attained,  less  by  lavishing  care  on  the  single  link,  than  by  an 
elegant  rhythmic  sequence  of  links  of  different  kinds,  by  effective 
alternations  of  form,  size,  and  treatment- (comp.  Semper  II,  p.  497). 
Chains  used  for  personal  adornment,  at  least  as  far  so  they  are  of 
artistic  consequence,  are  almost  always  like  a  Band.  All  the  figures 
of  the  Plate  belong  to  this  class,  with  the  exception  of  figs.  6,  8» 
11,  and  16.  The  arrangement  may  be  such  that  the  chain,  held 
horizontally,  is  neutral,  that  is,  of  the  same  design  upwards  and 
downwards,  right  and  left  (figs.  1,  4,  1*5,  17,  18);  or  it  m.ay  have 
an  *up  and  down"  (figs.  9  and  13);  it  may  also  have  a  lateral  direction, 
in  which  case  it  is  chiefly  used  to  suspend  objects  (figs.  3,  10,. 
and  12).  Chains  are  sometimes  made  tapering  towards  the  end,  which 
is  done  by  making  each  successive,  link  smaller  than  the  preceding. 
The  ends  of  chains  terminate  in  Hooks,  Eyes,  Rings,    &c.,   according 


JEWELRY. 


487 


The  Chain. 


Plate  274. 


^ 


488  The  Chain.  —  The  Necklace. 

to  their  use,  as  Necklets  and  Belts,  or  to  suspend  Watches,  Bags, 
SuioUing-bottles,  and  similar  articles.  Heraldic  and  symbolic  elements 
are  often  found  on  Chains  of  Orders  and  Office,  something  like  tig.  12. 
The  size  and  material  vary  with  the  purpose.  The  materials  arc  the 
precious  and  ordinary  metals,  sometimes  with  gems  and  pearls,  enamel, 
niello,  and  filigree-work.  This  last  seems  to  be  especially  suited  for 
chains,  as  it  readily  conveys  the  idea  of  being  light  and  flexible. 

Plate  274.    The  Chain. 

1.  Egyptian,  (Racinet). 

2.  Etruscan,  LouvrOj  Paris,  (Racinet). 

3.  Greek,  filigree,  found  in  the  Crimea,  Hermitage,  St.  Peters- 
burg, (Kunsthandwerk). 

4.  Etruscan,  bronze  spirals.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

5.  Antique,  bronze.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

6.  Gallic,  bronze. 

7.  Indian,  silver  filigree,  from  Sumatra,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

8.  Small  prismatic,  from  Sumatra,  United  collections,   Carlsruhe. 

9.  French,  Chain-belt,  16th  century,  Sauvageot  collection,  (L'art 
tous). 

10.  Renascence,  from  a  Chatelaine,  with  enamel  and  pearls. 

11 — 12.  Renascence,  gold,  Griines  Gewolbe,  Dresden. 
13 — 15.  Renascence,  H.  Holbein. 

16.  Pierced  ellipsoid  links,  Griines  Gewolbe. 

17.  Renascence,  exhibition,  Carlsruhe,  1881. 

18.  Modern. 

The  Necklace,  or  Necklet.    (Plate  275.) 

The  Necklace  has  always  been  a  favourite  article  of  feminine  ad- 
ornment. It  is  worn  either  alone  or  with  a  pendant.  Three  classes 
may  be  distinguished.  The  first  is  a  ring,  consisting  of  a  clasping 
hoop  with  or  without  a  pendant  (figs.  7  and  8),  and  mostly  used  by 
savage  peoples.  The  second  is  formed  of  links  in  a  similar  manner 
to  the  chain^belt  (fig.  10).  The  third,  and  at  the  same  time  the  most 
perfect  form,  is  that  in  which  a  row  of  pendants  hangs  from  a  cord 
or  a  slender  chain,  and  encircles  the  neck,  thus  giving  expression  to 
the  idea  of  a  free  pendant  ending  as  well  as  to  that  of  an  encircling 
band.  Striking  artistic  effects  may  be  obtained  by  the  rhythmic  alter- 
nation of  the  links,  and  by  a  tapering  from  the  middle  towards  the 
ends.  Egyptian  and  Antique  necklets  are  frequently  constructed  on 
this  principle;  as  are  also  the  neck  ornaments  of  primitive  peoples, 
who  replace  the  pendant  by  shells,  shining  insects,  corals,  or  the  teeth 
of  animals.     Sometimes  the  three  classes  are  combined;  it  is  not  rare 


JEWELRY. 


489 


The  Necklace. 


Plate  275. 


490  The  Necklace.  —  The  Bracelet. 

to  find  several  necklets  of  different  circumferences  worn  one  above 
the  other;  and  producing  a  good  effect.  Metal,  precious  stones, 
pearls,  &c.,  play  the  chief  part  in  Necklaces. 

Plate  275.    The  Necklace. 

1.  Egyptian,  with  enamelled  pendant,  (Menard  et  Sauvagcot). 

2.  Egyptian,  with  golden  flies  (symbolic),  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

3.  Antique,  with  stamped   sheet-metal    ornaments,   found   in  Rhodes, 
(Menard  et  Sauvageot.) 

4.  Egyptian,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

5.  Etruscan,  gold,  Campana  collection,  Paris,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

6.  Oriental,  gilt  silver  filigree,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

7.  Old  Italic,  Neck-ring,  bronze.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

8.  Barbaric,  Neck-ring,  iron,  from  the  White  Nile,  United  collections, 
Carlsruhe. 

9.  From  portrait,  Henry  VI,  of  England. 

10.  From  portrait,  1572,  municipal  museum,  Cologne,  (Luthmer). 

11.  Filigree. 

12.  Modern,  (Gewerbehalle). 


The  Bracelet.    (Plate  276.) 

The  Bracelet,  which  is  now  exclusively  an  articlr  of  feminine 
adornment,  was  formerly  worn  by  men  also,  not  merely  on  the  wrist 
as  at  the  present  day,  but  on  the  arm  too.  But  even  the  Antique 
considered  this  custom,  and  that  of  wearing  bangles  on  the  ankles, 
to  be  a  relic  of  barbaric  times.  Bracelets  are  either  closed  rings  or 
bands  (figs.  9  and  11);  or  they  are  open  on  one  side  (figs.  2,  6,  8, 
13  and  14);  or  rolled  spirally  (figs.  3  and  7);  or,  finally,  the  bracelet 
may  be  a  closed  chain  with  a  greater  or  lesser  number  of  links 
(figs.  10  and  16).  Another  division  is  formed  by  the  twisted  example 
(fig.  5).  As  the  Bracelet  is  an  object  of  some  size,  it  is,  more  fre- 
quently than  other  ornaments,  made  of  silver  rather  than  of  gold;  the 
Antique  shows  a  preference  for  bronze. 

Plate  276.    The  Bracelet. 

1.  Egyptian,  pierced  -  work,  (Menard  et  Sauvageot). 

2.  Assyrian,  bronze.  Louvre,  Paris,  (Bliimner). 
3 — 4.     Roman,  found  in  Pompeii. 

5.,  Antique,  (M6nard  et  Sauvageot). 

6.  Bronze,  found  near  Ladenburg,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe 

7.  Spiral  wire,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

8.  Bronze,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 


JEWELRY. 


491 


The  Bracelet. 


Plate  276. 


492  The  Bracelet.  —  The  Girdle,  the  Buckle,  and  Clasp. 

9.  Bronze,  found  near  Ladenburg,  United  collections,  Carlsrulie. 

10.  From  portrait,   16  th  century,  Gotha,  (Luthmer). 

11.  Venetian,  16  th  century,  (Mothes). 

12.  Javanese,  black  wood,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

13 — 15.  Modern  Egyptian,    silver.    Grand   Ducal   Landesgewerbeballe, 
Carlsruhe. 

16.  Modern,  (Gewerbehalle). 

17.  Modern,  by  Dir.  A.  Ortwein,  Granz,  (Gewerbehalle). 


The  Girdle,  the  Buckle,  and  Clasp.    (Plate  277.) 

The  Girdle  was  originally  used  by  men  to  suspend  weapons 
from;  and  by  women  to  confine  the  clothing  at  the  waist;  later -on, 
it  was  worn  merely  as  an  ornament,  or  to  carry  pouches,  fans,  scissors, 
&c.  Its  form  is  either  that  of  the  Chain-girdle  (comp.  Plate  274), 
or  Bands  of  leather  or  textile  material  are  decorated  by  ornaments 
of  metal  sewed  or  threaded  -  on.  Particular  attention  is  usually  given 
to  the  fastening,  which  is  generally  a  Clasp  or  Buckle  (figs.  1,  7,  8 
and  15).  The  Agraffe  (Lat.  agrappa)  or  Hook,  and  the  Buckle  are 
applied  to  other  purposes  besides  fastening  Girdles;  the  former  are 
used  as  fastenings  for  garments;  the  latter  on  the  straps  of  weapons, 
harness,  &c.  The  Buckle  is  complete  in  itself,  consisting  of  a  ring 
or  hoop  with  a  movable  pin;  and  the  fastening  is  done  by  pushing 
the  pin  through  a  hole  in  the  leather  or  textile  band  (figs.  2,  4  and  5). 
The  Clasp  consists  of  two  parts,  generally  symmetrical,  one  of  which 
can  be  hooked  into  the  other  (figs.  9 — 13).  Clasps  and  Buckles  are 
both  old  inventions;  and  are  found  in  very  early  times.  As  they  are 
objects  of  practical  use  rather  than  ornament,  they  are  more  often 
made  of  the  common  than  of  the  precious  metals.  The  terminations 
of  clasps  are  mostly  designed  as  free  •  endings ,  which  gives  them  a 
certain  similarity  with  decorated  hinges. 

Plate  277.    The  Girdle,  the  Buckle,  and  Clasp. 

1.  Greek  Girdle,  gold  and  hyacinths,  tomb  in  Ithaca. 

2.  Ancient  Italic   or  Roman  Buckle,  bronze,  United  collections. 
Carlsruhe. 

8.  Roman  Clasp,  silver,  (M6nard  et  Sauvageot). 

4.  Alemannic,  Buckle,  bronze,  found  near  Mosbach,  United  col- 
lections, Carlsruhe. 

5.  Mediaeval'  Buckle,  Scandinavian,  (Weiss,  Kostiimkunde). 

6.  Gallic  Girdle,  St.  Germain  Museum,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

7.  Gothic  Buckle,  15th  century,  from  a  picture,  municipal    mu- 
seum, Cologne,  (Luthmer). 


JEWELRY. 


493 


8. 


The  Girdle,  the  Buckle,  and  Cliisp. 


Plate  277. 


494  The  Girdle,  &c.  —  The  Pendant. 

8.  Renascence  Girdle,   17  th  century,  National  Museum,  Munich, 

9.  Renascence  Clasp. 

10.  Renascence  Clasp,  National  Museum,  Munich. 

11.  Renascence  Clasp,  Kunstgewerbemuseum,    Berlin,    (Gewerbe- 
halle). 

12 — 13.  Barocco    and    Rococo     Clasps,     National    Museum,    Munich. 

14  Modern  Norwegian  Girdle,  brass  and  leather.   United  collec- 
tions, Carlsruhe. 

15  Sumatran  Girdle  -  fastening,    silver,  United  collections,  Carls- 
ruhe. 


The  Pendant.     (Plate  278.) 

Pendants  are  among  the  most  beautiful  of  articles  of  adornment. 
Their  forms  and  uses,  are  manifold.  We  find  them  as  Lockets,  with 
and  without  symbolic  meaning;  as  Ornaments  for  the  hat  and  the 
biretta;  as  "Charms"  on  watch-chains,  and,  less  richly  finished,  on 
Harness.  The  Pendant  is  naturally  designed  on  the  principle  of  the 
fiee-ending.  Sometimes  it.  assumes  the  form  of  the  Cross,  the  Me- 
dallion, the  Votive -tablet,  or  the  Monogram.  It  serves  as  a  setting 
for  gems,  miniatures,  coins,  &c.  It  offers  the  proper  field  for  all 
kinds  of  little  banging  ornaments;  and  for  the  full  display  of  the  gold- 
smith's versatile  skill.  Examples  of  exceptional  beauty  have  been 
transmitted  to  us  by  the  Antique,  and  still  more  so  by  the  Renascence. 
Not  only  did  the  first  artists  of  this  period  occupy  themselves  practi- 
cally with  such  things;  but  they  designed  numerous  patterns  for  them, 
e.  g.  Hans  Holbein,  in  his  sketchbook  for  Henry  VIH,  of  England. 

We  can  only  offer  a  small  selection   from   the  copious  material. 

Plate  278.    The  Pendant. 

1.  Egyptian,  gold  and  enamel,  (Racinet). 

2.  Gold,  found  in  Rhodes,  Louvre,  Paris,  (M6nard  et  Sauvageot). 

3.  Greek,    gold   filigree,    found    near    Kertsch,    Hermitage,    St. 
Petersburg,  (Kunsthandwerk). 

4.  Etruscan,  gold,  Campana  collection,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

5.  Ancient  Italic,  bronze.  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

6.  Turkish,   harness  in  the  Booty  of  Prince  Ludwig  of  Baden, 
United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 

7 — 9.     Renascence,  (Hefner-Alteneck). 

10.  Renascence,  1637,  Exhibition,  Carlsruhe,  1881. 

11.  Empire  period,  gold  filigree,  collection  of  Prof.  Marc  Rosen- 
berg, Carlsruhe. 

12.  Renascence,  Antique  cameo  set  in  enamelled  gold  and  jewels, 
Paris,  (L'art  pour  tous). 


JEWELRY. 


495 


The  Pendant. 


Plate  278. 


iBB  The  Pendant    —  The  Ear-ring. 

13.  Renascence,  by  Hans  Brosamer,  (Formonschatz). 

14.  Renascence,  by  Hans  Holbein. 

15 — 16.  Renascence,  by  Hans  Holbein,  (Formenscbatz). 

17.  Renascence,  (Luthmer). 

18.  .        Renascence,  17  th  century,  Silver  coin,  set. 

19.  Renascence,  by  Julius  Bernic,  (Luthmer). 

20.  Modem,  (Blatter  fiir  Kunstgewerbe). 

21 — 23.  Modern,  (Zeitschrift  des  Kunstgewerbevereins). 

24.  Modern,  (Gewerbeballe). 

25.  Modern,  French. 

The  Ear-ring.    (Plate  279.) 

The  custom  of  wearing  Ear-rings  as  articles  of  adornment  seems 
to  be  of  ancient  oriental  origin;  and  to  have  penetrated  tlirough  Asia 
Minor  to  the  civilised  countries  of  the  West.  It  has  been  practised 
from  the  earliest  times  by  the  Arabs,  in  Spain,  and  in  Sicily.  Both 
sexes,  among  the  ancient .  Germans  and  Gauls,  decked  themselves  with 
Ear-rings.  As  the  wearing  of  them  implies  either  that  the  ear  must 
be  pierced  or  the  ornament  hung  on  to  the  ear,  .neither  of  which 
processes .  are  particularly  aesthetic;  the  custom  has  fallen  out  of 
fashion,  and  become  obsolete.  The  forms  in  general,  are  two:  the 
Ring  and  the  Drop.  The  Rings  are  either  not  quite  closed  (figs.  1, 
3,  9,  and  10);  or  they  are  fastened  by  a  catch  of  one  kind  or  ano- 
ther (figs.  7,  14,  20,  21,  and  31).  Drops,  usually  terminate  in  a 
wire  loop  by  which  they  may  be  suspended  (figs.  6,  16,  16,  26,  27, 
29,  and  30).  As  these  objects  must  be  light,  they  are  generally  o 
delicate  form,  and  modest  dimensions,  manufactured  of  the  precious 
metals,  in  sheet  or  wire-filigree.  As  Pendants  they  have  the  character 
of  free -endings,  frequently  consisting  of  different  moveable  members. 
The  standard  examples  are  furnished  by  the  Antique  and  the  East. 

Plate  279.    The  Ear-ring. 

1 — 3.     Egyptian,  (Racinet). 

4 — 12.  Etruscan,  Louvre,  Paris,  (Racinet). 
13.  Greek,  in  the  form  of  a  siren,  gold,  found  in  Itbaca. 

14 — 21.  Roman,  National  Library,  Paris,  (L'art  poirr  tons). 
22.  Bronze,  found  near  Niedereggenen,  Baden,  United  collections 

Carlsruhe. 
as.  Old  Prankish. 

24.  Renascence,  from  portrait,  castle  at  Gotha,  (Luthmer). 

25.  Louis  XVT,  gold  of  various  colours,  (Racinet). 

26 — 27.  Modern,  by  Dir.  A.  Ortwein,  Graz,  (Gewerbeballe). 
28 — 29.   Modern,  Tunis,  United  collections,  Carlsruhe. 


JEWELRY. 


497 


Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament. 


The  Ear-ring. 


Plate  279. 
32 


498 


JEWELRY. 


Plate  280. 


Miscellaneous  Jewelry. 


Miscellaneous  Jewelry.  499 


Miscellaneous  Jewelry.    (Plate  280.) 

Final! J,  we  may  mention  a  number  of  articles  of  adornment 
which,  from  their  nature,  are  less  generally  used;  either  because  they 
are  worn  only  by  certain  persons,  or  that,  as  objects  for  daily 
use  they  only  fall  within  the  category  of  decorative  objects 
when  they  are  richly  finished.  Among  them  are  decorations  for  the 
head,  for  example,  the  Diadem,  Bridal  and  other  Chaplets,  Insignia  of 
Orders  of  Knighthood,  Combs,  Scent -bottles.  Seals,  Needle-cases,  &c. 
The  so-called  "Chatelaine",  was  in  common  use  in  the  Middle  Ages; 
and  has  been  revived  lately.  It  is  suspended  from  the  belt  or  some 
other  part  of  the  dress;  and  is  furnished  with  hooks,  from  which 
Bags,  Keys,  Fans,  Scissors,  Watches,  Scent  -  bottles,  &c.  may  be  hung 
(figs.  7,  8,  13  and  14).  We  may  also  add  Spangles,  which  were 
sewed  as  a  decoration  on  garments  in  the  Aoitique;  and  sometimes  in 
later  periods  (fig.  3). 

We  give  a  few  examples  of  these  objects,  without  any  pretension 
to  system  or  exhaustiveness. 

Plate  280.    Miscellaxeous  Jewelry. 

1.  Egyptian  Diadem,  gold  incrusted  with  gems  and  enamel,  with 
the  badge  of  King  Amesis. 

2.  Greek  Head-dress,  gold-plate,  found  in  Mykenae,  (Bliimner). 

3.  Greek  Spangle,  ornament  of  a  dress  from  Mykenae,  (Bliimner). 
■4.           Greek  Diadem,  gold,  found  near  Kertsch,  Hermitage,  St.  Peters- 
burg, (Kunsthandwerk). 

5.  Renascence,  Smelling-bottle,  as  Pendant. 

6.  Barocco,  Smelling-bottle. 

7 — 8.     French  Chatelaines,  18  th  century,  (Racinet). 
9 — 10.  Barooco,  Seals,  Exhibition,  Carlsruhe,  1881. 

11.  Modem,  Needle-case,    in    anchor-form    as  a  Pendant,    private 
collection,  Carlsruhe. 

12.  Modem,  Comb,  (Gewerbehalle). 

13.  Modem,  French,  Chatelaine,  (Gewerbehalle). 

14.  Modem,  Chatelaine,  by  Dir.  A.  Ortwein,  Graz,  (Gewerbehalle). 


32 « 


p. 


HERALDRY. 


Heraldry  has  so  many  points  of  contact  with  Ornament  that  it 
cannot  be  omitted  from  a  work  that  deals  with  the  whole  art  of 
Decoration.  Heraldry  includes  both  the  science  and  the  art  of  armorial 
bearings.  The  former  contains  the  rules  of  framing  and  bearing  coats 
of  arms;  the  latter  is  the  practical  art  of  "blazoning"  or  designing 
and  depicting  such  coats.  Armorial  bearings  are  distinct  Badges, 
fixed  according  to  certain  principles,  which  individuals,  families  and 
corporations  are  entitled  to  bear  in  perpetuity.  Armorial  bearings 
arose  during  the  crusades,  towards  the  end  of  the  11th  century. 
The  elevation  of  the  nobles  into  a  corporation,  the  addition  of  the 
family  or  surname  to  the  baptismal  name,  the  peculiar  usages  of 
Chivalry,  the  custom  of  military  games  and  tournaments,  are  all  closely 
connected  with  the  introduction  of  armorial  bearings.  Heraldry  as 
a  science  did  not  arise  till  a  later  time  (about  the  18  th  century). 
Armorial  bearings,  whose  origin  is  contemporary  with  the  custom  of 
wearing  such  Badges,  and  whose  right  to  be  borne  was  afterwards 
tacitly  recognised,  are  distinguished  from  the  later  bearings,  the  right 
to  bear  which  was  granted  by  Letters  -  patent  from  princes  or  their 
plenipotentiaries.  Besides  the  nobles,  the  right  of  armorial  bearings 
was  possessed  by  other  patrician,  though  not  noble,  families.  Their 
bearings  have  frequently  arisen  from  monograms,  family  tokens,  and 
trade  -  mai-ks.  The  inscription  on  a  coat  of  arms  of  the  Fuggers  of 
the  year  1382  runs:  "Dises  zaichen,  wirt  Vlrich  Fugger,  vorbemelten 
Hansen  Fuggers  Bruder,  gepraucht  haben,  Welchs  hernach  Jacob 
Fugger,    des    namens   der   erst,    angenommen,    und    das   sambt  seinen 


Heraldry.  501 

Siinen,  bis  auf  aufpringung  Aes  Wappens,  gefiert  hat"  (This  token 
was  no  doubt  used  by  Ulrich  Fugger  the  brother  of  the  above-named 
Hans  Fugger:  it  was  afterwards  adopted  by  Jacob  Fugger,  the  first 
of  the  name,  and  borne  by  him  and  his  sons  until  the  assumption 
of  the  coat  of  arms).  The  marshalling  of  armorial  bearings  was  the 
duty  of  the  Heralds,  whose  official  badge  was  the  tabard  and  the  staff. 
The  Heralds'  Colleges  still  exercise  control  over  armorial  bearings  on 
behalf  of  the  State,  i  Including  the  coats  of  families,  towns,  corporations, 
and  offices,  there  are  probably  about  200,000  coats  of  arms  in 
existence.  Goats  are  called  allusive  or  punning  when  they  suggest, 
(in  whole  or  in  part),  the  name  of  the  bearer.  The  pikes  on  the  coat 
of  the  Lucy  family,  the  hirondelles  of  the  Anlndells  of  "Wardour,  are 
familiar  instances  in  English  heraldry. 

We  may  distinguish  three  principal  epochs  of  armorial  bearings: 
(1)  The  period  from  the  11th  to  the  13th  century,  in  which  the 
shield  alone  with  its  badge  formed  the  Arms,  which  is  the  period  of 
the  evolution  of  Heraldry;  (2)  The  period  from  the  13th  to  the  15th 
century,  in  which  shield,  helmet,  and  crest  formed  the  Arms,  in  which 
painted  shields  and  helmets  were  really  worn,  which  was  the  golden 
age  of  heraldiy;  (3)  The  period  from  thQ  16th  century  to  the  present 
time,  in  which  the  wearing  of  shields  and  helmets  with  badges  was 
discontinued;  and  Heraldry  creased  to  be  a  living  art,  which  is  the 
period  of  decay,  in  which  arbitrariness,  ignorance,  and  a  pedantic  ad- 
herence to  antiquated  principles  have  taken  the  place  of  the  living 
art.  From  the  point  of  view  of  style  we  may  distinguish:  —  Early 
Gothic,  Late  Gothic  and  Renascence  Arms;  as  also  those  of  the  Ba- 
rocco  and  Rococo  periods,  and  Modem  times.  The  general  direction 
of  style  has  always  had  an  influence  on  Heraldry;  but  the  developement 
of  architecture  is  on  the  whole  always  some  twenty  years  in  advance. 
The  developement  of  heraldry  was  different  in  difi"erent  countries;  and 
even  the  modem  English,  French,  German,  and  other  systems,  differ 
from  one-another  in  several  essential  points. 

Here,  of  course,  we  cannot  go  minutely  into  the  details  of  the 
subject.  We  shall  only  give,  in  all  brevity,  what  is  absolutely 
necessary.  The  Plates  will  deal  with  the  colours  or  Tinctures,  the 
Shapes  and  Divisions  of  the  Shield,  the  Charges,  the  Helmet  and  its 
accessories;  the  badges  of  Rank  and  Dignity 7  and  Pageantry.  Those 
who  wish  to  study  Heraldry  more  deeply,  will  find  an  ample  lite- 
rature at  their  disposal;  since  Bartolus  de  Saxoferrato  took  up  the 
subject  in  the  middle  of  the  14th  century,  more  than  enough  has 
been  written  about  heraldry.  As  accompaniments  and  supplements 
to  study  and  teaching  we  may  rocommend  the  excellent  work  of 
F.  Warnecke:  Heraldisches  Handbuch,  illustraded  by  Doepler  the 
younger;  the  Anleitung  zur  praktischen  Darstellung  und  Ausfuhrung 
hernldischer    Ornamente   fur    das    gesamte   Kunstgewerbef    by    Detlav 


502  Heraldry.  —  Tinctures,  and  Divisions  of  the  Shield. 

Freih.  yon  Biedermann,  with  illustrations,  in  the  Zeitschrift  des 
MUnchener  Kunstgetverhevereijis,  1885;  and  the  Katechismus  der  Heral- 
dik  by  Dr.  Ed.  Freih.  von  Sacken.  These  works  have  been  followed 
in  this  chapter,  and  oiir  illustrations  are  taken  from  them.  Heralds 
have  invented  a  special  language  of  their  own,  that  is  always  used 
in  Blazoning,  which  is  the  technical  description  of  a  coat  of  Arms; 
and  it  should  always  be  as  correct  and  concise  as  possible,  so  that  the 
coat  may  be  drawn  from  it.  This  language  will  be  used,  as  far  as 
possible,  in  the  explanations  of  the  following  plates. 

Finally,  we  may  observe  that  anyone,  who  has  to  deal  practically 
with  Heraldry,  will  scarcely  ever  succeed  in  satisfying  all  those  who 
have  laid -down  and  still  lay -down  rules  on  the  subject.  Although, 
on  the  one  hand,  it  seems  advisable  that  on  the  whole  a  certain  order 
should  be  maintained  and  arbitrariness  excluded,  still,  on  the  other 
hand,  a  good  deal  of  antiquated  rubbish  might  be  eliminated  from 
the  rules  without  doing  any  harm.  On  this  point  real  heralds  like 
Wamecke  are  all  agreed.  The  safe  path  is  in  the  middle;  that  ar- 
tistic freedom  is  quite  consistent  with  observance  of  heraldic  rules  is 
shown  by  the  masters  of  the  Renascence:  Diirer,  Burckmair,  and  others. 
For  our  present  purpose:  the  most  suitable  sources  for  the  study  are 
the  drawings  of  these  Masters;  and  next  to  them:  old  Seals,  Windows, 
and  Monuments.  Heraldic  ojnaments  may  be  applied  to  thousands  of 
things;  in  Architecture,  in  Mural  painting,  on  Furnitui'e,  in  Textiles, 
in  Documents,  on  Harness,  &c.  But  they  should  only  be  applied 
where  they  have  a  representative  character;  and  then  only  with  mo- 
deration and  purpose,  and  in  due  proportion  to  the  object. 


Tinctures,  and  Divisions  of  the  Shield.    (Plate  281.) 

In  the  good  old  days  of  Heraldry  there  were  six  Tinctures,  which 
were  almost  exclusively  used,  two  metals  and  four  colours.  The 
metals  are  gold  (or),  and  silver  (argent);  which  for  practical  reasons 
were  often  replaced  .by  yellow,  and  white.  The  original  colours  are 
red  (gules),  blue  (azure),  black,  (sable),  and  green  (vert).  Full,  strong 
sbades  were^  employed:  vermilion  or  minium  for  red,  cobalt  or  ultra- 
marine for  blue,  Paris  green,  emerald  green,  or  some  other  striking 
shade  for  green.  The  original  scale  of  colours  was  afterwards  enlar- 
ged by  the  addition  of  the  so-called  "Proper"  or  natural  colour  of 
the  object,  purple  (purpure),  ash-gray  (which  is  not  used  in  English 
Heraldry),  blood-colour  (murrey),  and  tawny  (tenne).  Natural  objects, 
men,  animals  &c.  were  represented  "proper",  that  is,  in  their  natural 
tints;  whereas  the  older  heraldry  depicted  these  objects  in  one  of 
the  nearest  original  tinctures:  e.  g.  the  lion  was  golden  or  red,  the 
eagle  was  black  or  red,  and  so  on.     Purple  is  not  used  on  the  Shields, 


Tinctiires,  and  Divisions  of  the  Shield.  503 

but  only  on  Crowns,  Caps  of  estate,  and  Mantlings.  Murrey  and  Tenne 
are  tinctures  that  might  well  have  been  dispensed-with;  as  they  con- 
flict with  the  original  principle,  which  was  to  make  the  shield  clear 
and  distinct  at  a  distance. 

Where  coats  of  Arms  are  depicted  uucoloured,  as  is  frequently 
the  case  in  books:  the  tinctures  in  the  oldest  period  were  indicated 
by  their  initial  letters.  Afterwards  they  were  indicated  by  dots  and 
hatchings.  Silver  was  left  plain,  gold  was  indicated  by  dots,  red  by 
perpendicular  lines,  blue  by  horizontal  lines,  black  by  crossed  hori- 
zontal and  perpendicular  lines,  and  the  other  tinctures  were  also 
marked  as  shown  on  the  Plate. 

The  Furs  are  also  generally  reckoned  among  the  tinctures.  Er- 
mine has  black  tails  or  tips  on  a  white  or  silver  ground;  Erminois 
has  the  same  tints  reversed.  On  robes,  mantlings,  and  coronets:  er- 
mine is  depicted  in  its  natural  form.  The  fur  known  in  German 
heraldry  as  kUrsch  is  denoted  by  strokes  arranged  like  scales.  Vair, 
with  its  varieties  "vair  per  pale"  and  "countervair",  is  of  silver  and 
blue  in  the  shapes  shown  on  the  Plate.  Vair  has  obviously  "arisen 
from  an  arbitrary  division  of  the  field,  like  the  check  and  fusil,  of 
which  we  shall  have  to  speak  later  on. 

Damaskeening  (see  also  p.  281.)  is  the  name  given  to  minute 
decoration  intended  to  enliven  the  various  tinctures  without  inter- 
fering with  the  effect  of  the  colours  or  altering  the  coat.  The  design 
is  arbitrary:  originally  geometrical  patterns  were  preferred,  afterwards 
scrolls  and  curves  were  added. 

In  the  case  of  relief- work,  when  it  is  not  painted:  the  damas- 
keening and  the  dots  and  hatchings  of  the  tinctures,  may  also 
be  plastic,  but  the  height  of  the  relief  must  be  moderate  if  the  effect 
is  not  to  be  spoilt.  On  seals  and  similar  objects:  the  effect  is  pro- 
duced by  engraving.  Where  the  coat,  instead  of  standing  upright,  is 
in  a  slanting  position,  the  lines  of  the  hatchings  follow  the  axis  of 
the  shield,  as  otherwise  confusion  would  be  inevitable. 

According  to  good  heraldic  rules,  colour  should  not  be  laid  upon 
colour,  nor  metal  on  metal.  Coats  which  transgress  this  rule  are  said 
to  be  false.  The  principle  cannot,  however,  be  always  maintained 
in  the  case  of  composite  coats  (comp.  Plate  283). 

In  the  divisions  of  the  shield:  the  expressions  "dexter",  and  "sinis- 
ter" (right,  and  left)  refer  to  the  bearer  of  the  shield;  they  are  to  be 
understood  as  if  one  were  standing  behind  the  shield  and  holding  it  in 
front  of  the  breast;  hence  it  follows  that  the  expressions  mean  just 
the  reverse  of  what  they  do  in  ordinary  life.  If  we  divide  the  shield 
by  lines:  we  have  Fields,  which  are  termed  "quarters"  when  they 
are  rectangular.  The  example  in  the  Plate  divides  the  shield  into 
nine  quarters.  The  names  of  the  different  quarters  are  given,  so  that 
it  is  unnecessary  to  repeat  them  here. 


504 


HERALDRY. 


The  Heraldic  Colours  or  Tinctures. 

Original  Tinctures.    (2  metals  —  4  Colors.) 


Or.  Argent.         Gules.  Azure. 

Later  Tinctures. 


Sable. 


Vert. 


•Tir 

hiwiH 

■ 

.7-r 

;|-7}Ij-r|.ilT;i 

-1 ->-  1  r'r'  r> 

Proper.       Purpure.     Ash-grey.     Murrey.       Tawny. 
Furs. 


..y'"''' yV 

Ermine.      Erminois.      Kiirsch.        Vair.  Vair  per  pale.  Countervair. 
Damaskeenings. 


Older.  Later. 

Divisions  of  the  Shield 

into  9  quarters  or  fields. 


A. 


B. 


AB.  Upper  margin. 
CD.  Lower  margin. 
AC  Dexter  margin. 
BD.  Sinister  margin, 
1.2.3.  Chief. 

4.5.6.  Fesse. 
7.8.9.  Base. 

1.4.7.  Dexter  tierce  ^ 

2.5.8.  Pale. 

3.6.9.  Sinister  tierce. 


1.  Dexter  chief 

canton. 

1. 

2. 

3. 

2.  Chief  point. 

10 

3.  Sinister  chief 

canton. 

4.  Dexter  flank. 

4. 

5. 

G. 

5.  Centre  point. 

11 

6.  Sinister  flank. 

7.  Dexter  canton 

of  base. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

8.  Base  point. 

_^ — ^n     9.  Sinister  canton 

^V,^^-'— "^^                          of  base. 

10.  Honour  point. 

11.  Nombril  point. 

Plate  281. 


Tinctufes,  and  Divisions  of  the  Shield. 


Tinctures,  and  Divisions  of  th'e  Shield.  —  Shapes  of  the  Shield.    505 

The  shield  sometimes  bears  a  smaller  shield.  The  large  shieW 
which  bears  the  smaller  is  called  the  Escutcheon.  The  smaller  shield 
in  the  centre  is  termed  the  Inescutcheon.  The  Inescutcheon  some- 
times bears  a  third  shield  which  is  then  said  to  be  "sur  le  tout  du 
tout".     The  smaller  shields  have   the   same  shape  as  th'e  large  shield. 

The  chief  and  the  dexter  side  of  the  shield  are  the  most 
honourable  parts;  and  preference  is  given  to  the  angle  of  the  dexter 
chief  or  canton.  In  blazoning  a  coat:  the  description  always  starts 
from  this  point. 


Shapes  of  the  Shield.    (Plate  282.) 

The  shape  of  the  shield  is  very  varied;  and  is  chiefly  deter 
mined  by  the  period  in  which  it  originated.  The  oldest  shape  is  the 
triangular  or  "heater -shaped"  shield  (fig.  1).  It  was  in  use  in  the 
12th,  13th  and  14th  centuries.  On  seals,  it  is  first  one-half  and  at 
a  later  time  one-third  the  height  of  a  man;  the  ratio  of  its  height 
to  its  breadth  is  about  10  :  7.  In  the  14th  century  shields  straight 
at  the  top  and  rounded  at  the  bottom  (we  may  term  them  half- 
round)  began  to  appear;  and  after  them  shields  pointed  at  the  bottom 
(fig.  2).  This  shape,  and  the  16th  century  shapes  which  were  deve- 
loped from  it  (figs.  4 — 6),  were  probably  never  actually  borne;  but 
are  merely  heraldic.  At  the  end  of  the  14th  century  the  Tilting- 
shields  begin  to  make  their  appearance,  their  shape  being  based  on 
that  of  the  shields  used  in  tournaments  (figs.  7 — 10).  The  indenta- 
tions in  the  sides  of  these  are  suggested  by  the  "bouche"  or  place 
for  the  lance  on  shields  intended  for  actual  use.  The  Tilting- 
shield  is  considerably  smaller  than  the  Triangular-shield;  it  is  about 
one -fifth  the  height  of  a  man.  At  the  end  of  the  15th  century 
the  old  shapes  disappear,  and  make  way  for  the  German  or  strap- 
work  shields.  These  latter  were  never  in  actual  use,  but  are  orna- 
mental inventions  mostly  based  on  the  Tilting  shield.  Figs.  19 — 26 
give  a  number  of  such  shields  belonging  to  different  periods  of  the 
Renascence  epoch.  Shapes  like  figs.  11  and  12  are  very  common  in 
Italy  at  that  time.  Elliptic,  circular,  and  almond-shaped  shields 
are  not  rare,  especially  in  the  Barocco  period,  a  time  in  which 
Heraldry  was  treated  in  a  somewhat  arbitrary  fashion.  Of  shapes 
that  are  specifical^  modem,  we  may  mention:  figs.  16  and  17,  the 
former  of  which  was  used  for  the  Arms  of  Gi'eat  Britain  &  Ireland; 
and  of  France;  while  the  latter  is  the  best  adapted  for  the  blazoning 
of  complicated  coats.  The  Lozenge -shape  (fig.  18)  is  especially  the 
shield  of  ladies;  in  France,  where  it  has  been  common  since  the 
13th  century,  it  is  frequently  surrounded  with  a  knotted  twisted 
girdle. 


506  Shapes  of  the  Shield.  —  Ordinaries. 

Plate  282.    The  Shape  op  the  Shield. 

1 — 3.  Triangular,  pointed,  and  half-round. 

4 — 6.  Simple  shapes,  Eenascence. 

7 — 10.  Siaiple  shapes,  Tilting-shields. 

11 — 12.  Italian  Renascence. 

13 — 15.  Elliptical,  almond,  and  circular. 

16—17.  Modem. 

18.  Lozenge-shaped. 

19.  German,  Michel  Miiller,   15G4. 

20.  German,  unknown  master  of  the  16th  century. 

21.  German,  Daniel  Lindtmair,   1595. 

22.  German,  Jost  Amman,  end  of  16th  century. 

23.  German,  school  of  Holbein,  16th  century. 

24.  German,  Hans  Wagraann,   1565,  (Warnecke). 

25.  German,   16th  century. 

26.  German,   16th  century,   (Formenschatz). 


Ordinaries.    (Plate  283.) 

Heraldic    representations    may    be    divided    into    Ordinaries,    and 
Charges. 

The  Ordinaries  are  the  geometrical  figures  which  are  formed 
when  the  shield  is  divided  into  different  fields  by  straight  or  curved 
lines  which  extend  to  the  margin  of  the  shield.  The  number  of 
such  figures  is  infinite.  Plate  283  contains  a  collection  of  the  ordi- 
naries which  most  commonly  occur.  We  shall  not  discuss  each  figure 
in  detail.  The  following  blazoning  or  description  of  the  figures  on 
the  Plate  will,  no  doubt,  give  the  reader  all  he  requires  to  know 
The  blazoning  begins  from  the  upper  dexter  angle  of  each  shield. 


Plate  283.    The  Ordinaries. 

1.  Per  pale,  sable  and  or. 

2.  Paly  of  four,  argent  and  sable. 

3.  Argent,  the  dexter  tierce  gules. 

4.  Gules,  a  pale  or. 

5.  Argent,  a  pallet  (narrower  than  a  pale)  sal)le. 

6.  Per  fesse,  or  and  gules. 

7.  Barry  of  five,  azure  and  argent. 

8.  Or,  a  chief  azure. 

9.  Argent,  a  base  gules. 
10.  Argent,  a  base  vert. 


HERALDEY. 


507 


[Shapes  of  the  Shield. 


Plate  282 


508  Ordinaries. 

11.  Or,  a  fesse  gules. 

12.  Argent,  a  barrulet  sable. 

13.  Per  pale;  the  dexter  half  argent,  the  sinister  half  per  fesse  azure 
and  or. 

14.  Per    fesse;    the   upper  half   per   pale   sable  and  gules,    the  lower 
argent. 

15.  Quarterly,  or  and  azure. 

16.  Cheeky  of  nine,  vert  and  argent. 

17.  Cheeky  of  twenty,  or  and  gules. 

18.  Quarterly:     the    1st    and    4th   per    pale,    argent    and    gules;     the 
2nd  and  3rd  or. 

19.  Per  fesse,  gules  and  argent,  a  pale  counterchanged. 

20.  Per  pale,   barry  of  five,  or  and  azure,  counterchanged. 

21.  Paly  of  six,  argent  and  sable,  a  fesse  counterchanged. 

22.  Or,  a  cross  gules. 

23.  Argent,  a  dexter  canton  sable. 

24.  Azure,  a  chief  point  vair. 

25.  Per  bend,  or  and  vert. 

26.  Per  bend  sinister,  argent  and  azure.' 

27.  Or,  in  the  dexter  chief  a  triangle  sable. 

28.  Argent,  in  the  sinister  base  a  triangle  gules. 

29.  Or,  a  bend  gules. 

30.  Bendy  sinister  of  six,  azure  and  argent. 

31.  Per  sal  tire,  vert  and  argent. 

32.  Per  hend,   the   dexter  half  argent,   the  sinister  per  bend  sinister, 
vert  and  or. 

33.  Per    bend    sinister,    bendy    of    six,    sable    and    argent,    counter- 
changed. 

34.  Lozengy,  argent  and. azure. 

35.  Fusilly,  argent  and  azure. 

36.  Or,  a  pile  azure. 

37.  Azure,  a  pile  argent,  issuing  from  the  sinister  side. 

38.  Gyronny  of  four,  argent  and  gules,  issuing  from  the  dexter  chief 
point.  '  ■ 

39.  Or,  a  chevron  vert. 

40.  Chevronny  of  six,  azure  and  argent. 

41.  Party  per  pale  and  saltire,  gules  and  argent. 

42.  Gyronny  of  eight,  or  and  azure. 

43.  Argent,  a  gyron  azure,  moving  from  the  dexter  side. 

44.  Per  pall,  sable,  argent  and  gules. 

45.  Per  pall  reversed,  or,  argent  and  azure. 

46.  Argent,  a  pall  gules. 

47.  Pily  barwise,  argent  and  azure. 

48.  Per  fesse  angled,  argent  and  gules. 

49.  Per  fesse  escartely,  azure  and  or. 


HERALDRY. 


509 


11!,  li  ii i;:ir 


\S^^ 


ilJiMlii 


19. 


ill 

■-■II-' ••II 


m 


li 


1?. 


Ik 


at: 


-13. 


vV 


Ordinaries. 


Plate  283. 


510  Ordinaries.  —  Charges. 

50.  Or,  a  pile  indented  sable,  also  Per  chevron  indented,  or  and  sable. 

51.  Per  bend  indented,  azure  and  argent. 

52.  Per  pale  potented,  argent  and  azure. 

53.  Per  fesse  potented,  or  and  gules. 

54.  Per  fesse  dentilly,  gules  and  aregnt. 

55.  Per  fesse  nebuly,  azure  and  argent. 

56.  Sable,  a  chief  engrailed  or,  also  Per  fesse  engrailed,  or  and  sable. 

57.  Argent,  a  pale  raguly. 

58.  Or,  a  bend  indented. 

59.  Argent,  a  bend  sinister  wavy  azure. 

60.  Azure,  a  cross  engraUed  or. 

61.  Gules,  four  wolfs  teeth  argent,  moving  from  the  sinister  side. 

62.  Azure,  a  gurge  issuing  from  the  sinister  base. 

63.  Argent. 


Charges.    (Plates  284—285.) 

The  second  class  of  heraldic  representations  are  Charges.  We 
distinguish  natural,  imaginative,  and  artificial  charges,  according  as 
they  belong  to  the  kingdoms  of  nature,  the  heavenly  bodies,  phe- 
nomena of  nature,  or  to  fantastic  forms;  or  again  to  art,  trade, 
mechanics,  &c.  Contrary  to  the  Ordinaries,  whose  outlines  usually 
touch  the  edge  of  the  shield,  the  charges  usually  stand  free  in  the 
field,  at  any  rate,  on  two  or  tliree  sides,  and  fill  the  field  as  much 
as  possible.  The  charges  are  all  more  or  less  conventionalised;  and 
show  conventional  forms  agreeing  with  the  style  of  the  times.  Atten- 
tion must  be  paid  to  this  point,  so  that  the  unity  of  style  may  be 
preserved  between  shield  and  charges  They  are  mostly  sb.ovm  in  profile, 
and  vigorously  dravra  and  outlined.  The  tinctures,  at  least  in  older 
heraldry,  are  not  those  of  nature,  but  one  of  the  nearest  heraldic 
tinctures,  so  that  the  idealisation  extends  not  only  to  the  form  but 
also  to  the  colour.  Complicated  objects  are  often  comparatively  sim- 
plified; trees,  for  example,  appear  with  few  leaves  and  fruits,  &c. 

Some  charges,  such  as  the  lion  and  eagle,  are  of  extremely  fre- 
quent occurrence;  others  the  following  are  rarer. 

Among  animals  the  following  are  represented:   — 

Plate  284. 

1.  The  Lion  (rampant)  with   open   jaws   and    protruding   tongue; 

the  body  lean,  especially  towards  the  hinder  quarters;  the  tail 
curled  upwards,  natural  or  split,  but  not  arbitrarily;  the  teeth, 
claws,  &c.  are  gules  on  metal,  or  and  argent  on  colors;  the 
entire  figure  is  generally  or  or  gules,  more  rarely  sable,  and 
still  more  rarely  azure. 


HERALDRY. 


511 


Charges. 


Plate  284. 


512  Charges. 

2.  The  Leopard,  a  lion  walking  (passant),  the  head  frequently 
turned  to  the  spectator  (guardant);  the  tail  curled  over,  the 
back,  (see  also  Plate  44). 

3.  The  Ibex  jumping  (salient),  the  horns  large,  and  (like  the 
claws)  of  a  different  colour  to  the  body,  which  is  usually  sable. 

4.'  The  Horse  (rampant),  mostly  without  saddle  and  harness; 
mane  and  tail  flying;  generally  sable,  argent  or  gules. 

5.  The  Boar  (rampant),  bristles  erect,  and  (like  the  tusks  and 
claws)  of  a  different  tincture  to  the  body. 

6.  The  Dog  (rampant),  generally  with  a  collar,  with   ears   erect. 

7 — 8.  The  Eagle  (displayed),  the  talon  spread;  the  head  usually  tur- 
ned to  the  dexter  side,  the  beak  open;  the  tongue  protruding; 
frequently  barbed;  the  tail  is  sometimes  ornamentally  treated; 
generally  sable,  gules,  or  or,  (see  also  Plate  53). 

9.  The  Goose  (like  the  swan)  with  reverted  neck,  generally  arr 
gent,  or  sable. 

10.  Tho  Martlet  (w^iich  is  a  Swallow  without  beak  and  feet,)  the 
two  upper  are  passant,  the  lower  one  is  displayed. 

11.  The  Dolphin  (rising),  often  with  dorsal  crest  and  ornamental  tail. 
12.'        Two  Dolphins  (rising   and  respecting  each  other),    with    open 

mouths. 

13.  The  Serpent  (nowed),  generally  argenf,  azure,  or  vert. 

Other  animals  of  frequent  occurrence  are  the  Stag,  Bear,  Wolf, 
Fox,  Bull,  Cock,  Raven,  Dove,  Stork,  Crane,  Pelican,  Crab,  Whelk,  &c. 
Parts  of  animals  are  also  not  infrequent,  such  as  the  wings,  head, 
and  claws. 

Both  the  entire  human  body  and  its  several  members  are  used 
in  heraldry;  we  may  mention  as  examples: 

14.  The  Triquetra,  3  legs  with  bent  knee,  conjoined,  and  regu- 
laj-ly  disposed  round  a  point;  a  badge  on  antique  shields  in 
Greek  vase-paintings,  and  the  Arms  of  Isle  of  Man. 

15.  The  Moor's -head,  with  ear -rings  and  crown. 

16.  The  Monk  with  extended  arms,   the  Arms  of  Miinchen. 

In  addition  to  the  above: .  arms,  hands,  legs,  trunks,  clasped 
hands,  &c.;  also  angels,  saints,  deities,  fools,  maidens^  knights,  kings, 
savages,  &c. 

Among  plants  are: 

17.  The  Lime,  uprooted,  with  few  leaves,  (also  fruit-trees,  the  oak, 
fir,  &c.). 

18.  The  Oak -branch,  gnarled,  with  few  fruits  and  leaves,  (alsc 
withered  branches,  or  logs,  &c.). 


Charges.  513 

19.  The  Eose,  idealised  as  a  rosette,  single  or  double,  in  five  to 
eight  parts. 

20.  The  Lily  or  Fleur-de-lis,  conventional,  consisting  of  three  petals, 
with  or  without  stamens;  used  in  art  long  before  the  birth 
of  heraldry;  common  in  French  coats. 

In  addition  to  the  above:  Clover,  Nettle,  Water-lilies,  Grapes,  Pome-, 
granates,  Fir-cones  &c. 

Plate  285.    Charges. 

The  most  frequent  imaginary  figures  and  monsters  are: 

1.  The  Griffin  (rampant),  with  eagle's  head  and  wings,  lion's  body, 
tail  curved  upward  or  downward,  the  upper  and  lower  halves 
often  of  different  colors. 

2.  The  Panther,  similar  to  the  griffin,  but  without  wings,  usually 
spitting  flame  (turned  towards  the  sinister  side). 

3.  The  Dragon,  a  winged  reptile  with  two  lion's  paws  or  eagle's 
claws.     (The  wivem  is  similar,  but  with  hinder  feet.) 

4.  The  Dragon  with  wolfs  jaws,  serpent's  body  and  fish-tail. 

5.  The  two-headed  Eagle  (an  ordinary  eagle  with  two  heads  turned 
away  from  each  other,  each  with  nimbus),  the  coat  of  the  Holy 
Eoman  Empire. 

6.  The  Seiren  (an  eagle  with  the  bust  of  a  virgin),  the  arms  of 
Nuremberg. 

7.  The  Mermaid  (a  naked  female  figure,  terminating  below  the  breast 
in  a  fish-tail),  the  figure  is  also  found  without  arms  and  also 
symmetrical,  with  two  tails  curved  upwards. 

8.  The  Sea-lion,  with  the  fore-part  of  a  lion  terminating  in  a  fish- 
tail. 

Of  the  heavenly  bodies  there  occur: 

9.  The  Sun,  with  face  and  sixteen  rays,  straight  and  wavy  alternately; 
always  gold. 

10.  The  Moon,   waxing  or  waning,   with  or  without  face  (in  the  first 
case  the  crescent  is  argent  and  the  face  or). 

11.  The  Star,  with  rays  of  five  to  eight  points;  or. 

Less  common  arej  Comets,  and  the  Earth,  with  the  lines  of  latitude 
and  longitude. 

Among  the  phenomena  of  nature  we  have: 

11.  The  Cloud,  very  conventional,  argent  or  azure. 

12.  The  Rainbow,   gules,    or,  and  azure  (shown  in   the  Plate  above  a 
triple  hill). 

Merer,  Handbook  of  Ornament.  33 


514 


HERALDRY. 


Plate  285. 


Charges. 


Chargesr  515 

In  addition:  Storm  and  Wind,  depicted  by  heads  blowing;  Lightning, 
depicted  by  a  bundle  of  flames. 

To  the  artificial  objects  which  are  employed  belong:  Architectural 
constructions  (towers,  gates,  castles,  churches,  bridges,  fountains, 
ships);  Utensils  (tools,  instruments,  weapons,  anchors,  keys,  .banners); 
Vessels  (kettles,  goblets,  mugs);  articles  of  attire  (hats,  caps,  belts, 
crowns,  mantles,  shoes);  family  and  trade  Tokens,  Monograms  and 
Crosses  of  all  kinds.     Some  examples  are: 

13.  The  Wheel,  with  eight  spokes  projecting  beyond  the  felloe. 

14.  The  Wheel  of  Cleves,  a  rosette  terminating  in  eight  lUies. 

15.  The  Maltese  Cross,    and   the    cross  ancr6e    (the   Plate   shows   one 
half  of  each). 

16.  The  Cross  crampon^e. 

17.  Two  crossed  Swords. 

18.  The  Crancelin,  a  wreath  of  rue,  resembling  the  hoop  of  a  crown. 

19.  The  Axe,  and  the  two-headed  Axe. 

20.  The  Hat,  and  the  Cap  of  naaintenance. 

Several  charges  may  be  combined  in  the  same  coat,  or  one  charge 
may  be  placed  over  another.  The  same  charge  may  also  be  repeated 
in  a  coat.  The  blazoning  of  the  charges  is  not  so  simple  as  that  of 
the  ordinaries;  and,  when  the  technical  language  of  heraldry  fails,  we 
must  have  recourse  to  the  language  of  every-day  life.  We  will  here 
give  a  few  of  the  commonest  of  these  technical  expressions  with  brief 
explanations: 

accompanied:   the   main   figure  is   surrounded  by  smaller  figures. 

accosted:  a  figure  has  other  figures  by  its  side. 

armed,  beaked,  membered:  an  animal  is  furnished  with  claws, 
beak,  members,  &c.,  of  a  different  colour  from  the  animal  itself. 

charged:  when  one  figure  bears  another. 

counterchanged:  when  the  different  tinctures  alternate  with  one 
another. 

couped:  when  a  part  of  a  figure  appears  to  have  been  cut- 
off clean. 

erased:  when  a  part  of  a  figure  appears  to   have   been  torn -off. 

issuant:  when  a  figure  rises  out  of  the  bottom  of  an  ordinary 
or  shield. 

flauked:   when  one  figure  stands  by  the  side  of  another. 

naissant:  when  part  of  a  figure  rises  from  the  centre  of  an 
ordinary. 

passant:  when  an  animal  is  represented  as  walking  with  one 
foot  raised. 

rampant:  when  an  animal  rises  on  its  hind  feet;  the  usual  posi- 
tion for  wild  animals. 

3.^» 


516  Charges.  —  Forma  of  the  Helmet. 

statant:  when  all  four  feet  of  an  animal  touch  the  ground. 

sem6  or  powdered:  when  an  arbitrary  number  of  one  figure  is 
scattered  over  the  shield. 

2  and  1:   three   figures,    placed  thus 

2,  2  and   1:  five  figures,   placed  thus      •   • 

1,  3  and  1:  five  figures,  placed  thus    •   .  . 

2,  1   and  2:  five  figures,  placed  thus 

•       •      • 

and  so  on. 

Forms  of  the  Helmet.    (Plate  286.) 

In  the  earliest  days  of  Heraldry  the  shield  by  itself  formed  tho 
coat;  and  it  is,  down  to  the  present  time,  sufficient  for  the  presentment 
of  the  bearings.  To  a  complete  coat,  however,  belong  fui'ther  the 
Helmet,  and  the  Crest.  Sometimes,  particulary  on  seals,  the  Helmet 
and  Crest  are  used  alone  as  a  badge.  But  just  as  we  saw  that  all 
shields  are  not  suitable  for  heraldic  purposes,  so  here,  too,  there  are 
only  a  few  helmets  which  have  found  acceptance  in  heraldry;  such 
as  the  Tilting-helmets.  We  have  to  consider  four  forms.  The  oldest 
is  the  Salade,  (fig.  1).  The  Heaume,  the  lower  half  of  which  is 
cylindrical  and  the  upper  half  a  truncated  cone,  rests  on  the  shoulders, 
(figs.  2 — 4).  The  Tilting  -  helmet  (figs.  6 — 9),  is  more  elegant  than 
the  heaume;  it  fits  better  to  the  form  of  the  head,  and  has  a  slit  for 
the  purpose  of  vision,  (fig.  5  shows  an  intennediate  form  between  the 
Heaume  and  the  Tilting  -  helmet).  The  latest  form  is  that  with  the 
barred  Visor  (figs.  10 — 11).  This  'fits  closer  to  the  head  than  the 
Tilting-helmet;  the  slit  has  been  enlarge'd  to  a  broad  opening,  guarded 
either  by  vertical  bars  or  by  a  grating.  The  Armet  (fig.  12),  and 
other  helmets,  like  the  Burgonet,  are  unheraldic;  and  are  seldom  seen 
in  Arms. 

Speaking  generally:  the  Salade  belongs  to  the  13th;  the  Heaume 
to  the  14th;  the  Tilting-helmet  to  the  15th  and  16th  centuries;  the 
Vizor  also  belongs  to  the  two  latter  centuries.  The  first  three  helmets 
are  known  as. "closed",  the  Vizor-helmet  as  "open". 

Plate  286.    The  Helmet. 

1.  Salade,  first  half  of  14  th  century.  Armory,  Berlin,  ll^/i  ins. 

hi^h. 
2 — 8.     Heaume,  front  and  side  view,  14  th  century. 


HERALDRY. 


517 


Forms  of  the  Helmet. 


plate  286. 


518  Forms  of  the  Helmet    —  Helmet  Trappings. 

4.  Heaume,  second  half 'of  the  14  th   century,   from  the  collec- 
tion ofGustav  von  Decker,  Berlin,  14 '/2  i^is.  high,  (Warnecke), 

5.  Heaume,   approximating   to   the   form  of  the  Tilting -helmet, 
14  th  century. 

6 — 9.     Tilting  helmets. 
10 — 11.  Helmets  with  barred  Vizors. 
12.  Armet. 


^  Helmet  Trappings.    (Plates  287—288.) 

Plates  287  and  288  show  the  Helmet  in  conjunction  with  the 
coat  of  Arms.  As  the  Helmet  was  only  worn  by  knights,  it  belongs, 
strictly  speaking,  only  to  the  coats  of -knightly  families;  towns  and 
corporations,  the  clergy,  and  ladies,  do  not  bear  the  helmet,  although 
there  are  exceptions. 

As  regards  style,  the  Helmet  should  match  the  form  of  the  Shield. 
The  Salade  and  the  Heaume  belong  to  the  Triangular  -  shield:  the 
Tilting  -  helmet  also  belongs  to  these  and  still  more  to  the  Tilting- 
shield.  Helmets  with  barred  Vizors  are  most  suitable  to  Half-round- 
shields.  The  size  should-  also  be  in  proportion  to  that  of  the  Shield. 
The  height  varies  between  ^/j  and  ^/g  the  height  of  the  Shield. 
The  usual  position  is  over  the  centre  of  the  upper  margin  of  the 
shield,  and  resting  upon  it  (not  free),  so  that  it  covers  a  little  of 
the  field  (Plate  287,  5).  If  the  shield  is  represented  in  a  slanting 
attitude;  the  helmet  rests  on  the  highest  angle  (Plate  287.  6,  7,  8). 
When  the  coat  is  composite,  several  Helmets  may  be  placed  upon  the 
Shield  J  they  are  then  proportionately  smaller  in  size.  Wlien  the 
number  of  Helmets  is  2,  4,  or  6:  they  turn  their  profile  to  each 
other;  when  the  number  is  uneven,  the  central  one  is  shown  in  full 
face.  Only  one  helmet  can  be  placed  on  a  slanting  shield.  Helmets 
may  also  be  placed  at  the  side  of  the  shield,  or  borne  by  the  sup- 
porters. The  helmet  is  coloured  as  if  made  of  p'olished  iron,  frequently 
with  decorations  of  silver  or  gold;  or  the  entire  helmet  may  be  gilt 
cr  silvered.  If  the  bearer  was  entitled  to  wear  any  Collar,  he  might 
show  it  on  the  Helmet  (Plate  287.  5);  but  these  appendages  are  non- 
essential; and  are  not  met -with  before  the  15  th  century.  The  Helmet 
4s  usually  depicted  as  lined  with  red  cloth. 

The  essential  trappings  in  a  complete  coat  of  Arms  are:  1.  the 
Crest,  2.  the  Mantling. 

The  Crest  probably  originated  from  the  custom  of  painting 
heraldic  figures  on  the  helmet.  At  a  later  date,  plastic  ornaments 
were  added  to  the  helmet;  they  have  some  figurative  connection  with 
the,  coat.  If  the  coat  is  blazoned  with  heraldic  figures:  these  are 
repeated    either   wholly,    or    partly,    in   a  simple   manner,   as   a   crest 


Helmet  Trappings.  519 

Plate  288,  figs.  1 — 4);  if  the  blazoning  is  with  ordinaries:  these 
are  repeated  on  certain  objects  selected  as  Crests,  The  principal  of 
these  objects  are: 

Horns,  in  pairs,  curved  as  a  crescent  or  a  lyre,  in  later  times 
broadened  out  at  the.  ends  like  a  mouthpiece,  painted  with 
the  tinctures  or  ordinaries  of  the  coat,  surmounted  with 
branches,  &c.     (Plates  287.  4,  288.  4  and  5). 

Wings,  natural  or  artificial,  singly  or  in  pairs,  displayed,  or  in 
profile;  painted  with  the  tinctures  or  ordinaries  of  the  coat 
(Plates  287.  1   and  7;  288.  6). 

Cushions  and  screens,  round  or  square  discs,  painted  with  the 
blazoning  of  the  coat,  hung  and  surmounted  with  tassels,  bells, 
and  peacock's  feathers  (Plate  287.  6). 

Caps,  pointed  and  turned  up,  showing  the  colours  and  blazon- 
ing of  the  shield,  the  tips  decorated  with  coronets,  plumes,  &c, 
(Plate  287.  5). 

Quivers,  cylindrical  or  conical  'tubes,  painted  with  the  colours 
of  the  shield,  crowned  with  coloured  feathers  (Plate  287.  8). 

Human  beings,  animals,  and  all  Linds  of  artificial  objects;  the 
former  often  depicted  as  half-figures.  We  must  refrain  from 
entering  into  detail  into  the  various  relations,  often  full  of 
meaning,  between  the  crest  and  the  shield;  as  an  example  we 
may  refer  to  Plate  287,  2,  where  the  blazon  of  crossed 
arrows  and  pitcher  on  the  shield  are  repeated  as  a  quiver  and 
a  goblet  in  the  hands  of  the  maiden  who  forms  the  crest. 

The  Mantling  is  the  connecting-link  between  the  Helmet  and 
the  Shield.  In  the  oldest  times  it  was  formed  of  cloth:  at  a  later 
date  covers  of  stiffened  material,  leather,  metal-plate,  &c.,  were  used, 
the  edges  being  cut-out  into  ornamental  shapes.  The  same  materials 
were  also  employed  for  the  Crest.  During  the  Renascence  period: 
the  Mantling  was  cut  into  ribbon-like  strips,  each  strip  being  treated 
independently  like  an  Artificial  -  leaf.  The  Wreath  is  interposed 
between  the  Crest  and  the  Helmet,  (Plate  288.  1,  3,  6).  It  rarely  has 
more  or  less  than  two  tinctures.  Where  the  Crest  is  directly  connected 
with  the  Helmet:  the  tinctures  of  the  Shield  are  correspondingly 
continued  on  the  Wreath.  The  Mantling  shows  the  tinctures  of  the 
coat  counterchanged  in  such  a  way  that  the  colour  is  usually  visible 
outside,  the  metal  inside.  If  it  have  four  colours:  the  chief  ones 
are  on  the  dexter,  the  others  on  the  sinister  side.  It  should  corre- 
spond in  style  with  the  rest  of  the  Arms:  Salades  and  heauraes 
require  simple  edges  (Plate  287.  7);  while  Tilting  and  Vizored  helmets 
require  jagged  or  scalloped  edges. 


620  Helmet  Trappings.   —  Crowns,  &c. 

Plate  287.    The  Helmet  Trappings. 

1.  Tilting -helmet,    with   rich  Mantling,    and   Crest  of  double   wings, 
AJbrecht  Durer,  coat  of  arms  of  Death,  1503. 

2.  Coat,   with  Tilting-helmet,   rich   Mantling,   and  Crest  of  a   virgin, 
German  Renascence,  (Pormenschatz). 

8.  Half-round-shield,  with  Vizored-helmet,  Mantling  like  ribbons,  and 
Crest  two  swans'  necks. 

4.  Tilting-shield,  inclined  to  the  sinister  side,  Vizored-helmet,  Mantl- 
ling  like  ribbons,  and  Crest  two  horns  decorated. 

5.  German    shield,    with  Vizored-helmet,    and   Crest  a  Cap-of-main- 
tenanse. 

6.  Shield,  inclined  to  the  dexter  side,  with  Vizored-helmet,  Mantling, 
and  Crest  a  cushion. 

7.  Triangular-shield,   inclined  to  the  dexter  side,  withiSalade,   Mant- 
ling, and  Crest  double  wings. 

8.  Half-round-shield,  inclined  to  the  sinister  side,  with  Vizored-helmet, 
and    high   Crest    and  Mantling,   (Dietz). 

(Figs.  8  to  8  are  from  Siebmacher's  Wappenbuch.) 

Plate  288.    The  Helmet  Trappings. 

1.  Tilting-shield,    with   Vizored-helmet,    Mantling,    and    Crest    an 
eagle. 

2.  Tilting-shield,    with  Vizored-helmet,  Mantling,   and    Crest   of  a 
naissant  figure,  German  Renascence,  (Pormenschatz). 

3.  Tilting-shield,  inclined   to   the   dexter  side,  with  Tilting-helmet 
and  naissant  bull  as  Crest,  Italian  Renascence,  palace  in  Florence. 

4.  Tilting-shield,    inclined    to    the    dexter   side,    with  Tilting-hel- 
met, Mantling,  alid  crest  of  horns. 

5 — 6.  Coats,  by  Hans  Sebald  Beham,   1544. 
7.         Modem  coat,  on  seal,  by  A,  von  Werner, 


Crowns,  &c.     (Plate  289.) 

The  principal  heraldic  badges  of  rank  and  dignity  are:  the  Crown, 
Hat,  Cap -of- maintenance,  Wand,  Sword,  Key,  &c.,  and  the  insignia  of 
the   various  Orders  of  Knighthood. 

The  Crown -of- rank,  which  is  not  to  be  confounded  with  the 
crown  of  the  shield,  is  placed  above  the  shield  in  the  place  of  the 
Helmet;  the  same  holds  good  of  the  Coronets,  and  Caps  (figs.  11 — 14). 
These  latter  have  partly  a  conventional  form,  appertaining  to  the 
dignity;  and  they  have  special  forms  for  special  cases. 


HERALDRY. 


521 


Helmet  Trappings, 


Plate  287. 


522 


HERALDRY. 


Plate  288. 


Helmet  Trappings. 


Crowns,  &c.  —  Heraldic  Accessories.  523 

Plate  289.     Crowns,  Coronets,  &c.  [according  to  German  Heraldry]. 

1.  The  German  Imperial-crown:  a  circle  of  gold,  set  with 
brilliants  and  formed  of  eight  shields,  with  four  gold  arches, 
surmounted  by  the  imperial  mound  and  cross,  lined  with 
gold  brocade,  with  two  decorated  waving  ribbons  of  gold. 

2.  The  Austrian  Iraperial-crown:  a  jewelled  circle  with  eight 
leaves,  three  arches  curving  from  front  to  back;  closed  at 
the  sides,  lined  red;  crowned  with  a  cross. 

3.  The  Regal-crown:  a  jewelled  circle  with  eight  leaves;  eight 
arches  set  with  jewels  or  pearls;  mound  an  cross. 

4.  The  Grand-ducal-coronet:  a  royal  crown,  Uned  red. 

5.  The  Ducal-coronet;  faced  with  ermine,  eight  leaves,  red 
lining,  with  mound  and  cross. 

6.  The  Princely-coronet:  faced  with  ermine,  four  leaves,  red 
lining,  mound  and  cross. 

7.  The  Coronet  of  a  Serene  Highness:  circle  with  eight  leaves, 
red  cap,  with  ermine  tippet. 

8.  The  Count's   Coronet:    gold   circle  with  sixteen   pearls   (nine 

are  visible). 

9.  The  Baron's  Coronet:  twelve  pearls  (seven  are  visible). 

10.  The  Nobleman's  Coronet:  eight  pearls  (five  are  visible). 

11.  Arms  with  Crown,  by  Albrecht  Diirer. 

12.  Papal  coat  of  Arms,  with  tiara  and  keys. 

13.  Arms,  by  Hans  Burckmair,  with  mitre  and  crozier. 

14  Archbishop's  Hat:  green  with  ten  tassels  (on  each  side).    Car- 

dinal's   hat:    red    with    fifteen    tassels.     Bishop's    hat:    green 
with  six  tassels. 

Orders  and  Decorations  are  either  the  badges  of  certain  brother- 
hoods (the  Knights  of  Malta,  the  Temple,  S.  John,  the  Teutonic  Order, 
Ac);  or  they  are  distinctions  conferred  by  sovereigns.  The  former 
are  blazoned  on  the  shield,  quarterly  with  the  personal  bearings 
(fig.  16),  or  they  are  placed  beside  or  behind  the  shield  so  that  the 
ends  of  the  cross  project  beyond  the  edge  of  the  shield.  The  latter  are 
almost  without  exception  suspended  from  collars  or  borne  below  the 
shield  (Plate  290.  4.  7). 

15.  The  Order  of  the  Golden  Fleece  (founded  by  Philip  of  Bur- 
gundy in  1429). 

16.  Shield,  with  the  Maltese  order  quarterly. 

17 — 18.  Pennons,  or  Standards:  they  are  either  placed  as  a  back- 
ground to  the  shield,  or  borne  by  the  supporters;  they  are 
therefore  a  part  of  Heraldic  pageantry. 


524 


HERALDRY. 


Plate  289. 


Crowns,  Coronets,  &c. 


HERALDRY. 


525 


Heraldic  Accessories. 


Plate  290i 


626  Heraldic  Accessories. 

Heraldic  Accessories.    (Plate  290.) 

Under  this  title,  we  group  such  decor.itions  as  form  do  not  an  essen- 
tial part  of  the  Cuat,  but  rather  give  an  artistic  finish  to  it.  The  prin- 
cipal   are:    Supporters,   Tents,    Mottoes,  &c. 

Supporters  are  figures  of  human  beings,  or"  animals:  angels, 
knights,  ladies,  savages,  lions,  griffins,  &c.  On  old  tombstones  and 
the  seals  of  knights,  the  possessor  of  the  coat  appears  as  the  bearer 
of  it.  Supporting  angels  are  usually  placed  behind  the  shield  (figs.  1 
and  2).  Ladies,  knights,  savages,  &c.,  stand  at  the  side  of  the 
shield,  either  singly,  or  in  pairs;  and  the  same  rule  applies  to  ani- 
mals (figs.  3  and  4). 

Tents  are  draperies  in  the  form  of  a  Baldacchino,  serving  as  a 
background  for  the  Shield.  The  outside  is  generally  purple,  the  in- 
side of  ermine,  and  they  are  hung  with  golden  tassels  and  fringes. 
Such  accessories  are  only  suited  to  the  coats  of  Sovereigns,  and  Sta- 
tes; and  are  of  comparatively  Modern  introduction. 

Mottoes,  War-cries,  &c.  are  written  on  fillets  or  bands  beneath  or 
round  the  shield  (fig.  5).  Examples  of  such  mottoes  are  {he  English 
"Honi  soit  qui  mal  y-  pense",  the  American  "E  pluribus  unum",  or 
the  Wurttemberg  "Furchtlos  und  treu". 

There  are  also  definite  rules  for  the  heraldic  composition  of  a 
number  of  coats  in  one  (for  example,  in  a  double  coat  the  figures 
must  be  affronted,  &c.);  but  we  need  not  enter  into,  the  details  of 
these.     The  artistic  execution   is  very   various   and    arbitrary   (fig.  6). 

Plate  290.    Heraldic  Accessories. 

1.  Angel,  as  Supporter,  by  H.  J.  Grantinn,  1628,  (Wamecke). 

2.  Angel,  as  Supporter,  Italian,  16  th  century,  (Formenschatz). 

3.  Lady,  as  Supporter,  H.  Burckmair,  Triumphal  Procession  of  the 
Emperor  Maximilian,  (Observe  the  repetition  of  the  tinctures  on 
the  lady's  dress,  the  crest,  and  the  banner). 

4.  Griffins,  as  Supporters,  by  Hans  Burckmair,  (Formenschatz). 

5.  Coat,  with  Mottoes,  1529. 

6.  Composite  coat,  within  a  quatrefoil,  Diirer's  school,  (Formenschatz). 

7.  Modern  Tent. 

8.  Coat  of  Arms  of  the  Artists,  designed  by  L.  Lesker.  In  conse- 
quence of  an  affront  offered  by  the  lords  of  Rappoltstein  to  the 
artists  employed  in  the  building  of  Strassburg  minster,  it  is  said 
that  the  Emperor  Sigismund  granted  the  artists,  called  the  "Yunkers 
of  Prague",  permission  to  bear  the  same  coat  of  arms  —  or,  three 
escutcheons  azure  —  (Martin  Crusii,  Schwiibische  Chronik). 


527 


WRITING,  PRINTING,  &c. 

(ORNAMENTAL  LETTERS.) 


The  invention  of  Writing  dates  back  thousands  of  years  before 
our  era.  To  which  nation  it  is  to  be  assigned,  cannot  at  present  be 
fixed  with  any  certainty.  Greek  writing  was  developed  from  the 
Phenician;  and  served,  in  its  turn,  as  a  basis  for  Roman  writing. 
From  the  Roman  writing,  arose  the  Occidental  and  Scandinavian 
writings,  as  well  as  the  Runic.  The  Latin  script  was  introduced  into 
Germany  contemporaneously  with  Christianity.  The  early  Middle  Ages 
treated  the  shapes  of  letters  in  a  some  what  arbitrary  manner.  By 
the  side  of  the  Majuscles  (or  capital  letters)  appear  the  Minuscles  (or- 
small  letters,  produced  by  the  contraction  and  simplification  of  the 
former),  (compare  the  letters  E  and  M  in  alphabet  1  on  Plate  291). 
By  the  side  of  the  upright  and  angular  Capital  letters,  appear  the 
Uncial  letters  with  their  Tound  and  freer  shapes  (compare  E,  M  and 
U  in  alphabet  2  on  Plate  291).  Alongside  of  the  perpendicular  letters, 
the  more  convenient  slanting  or  Cursive  letters  begin  to  be  employed. 
Beside  the  Uncial  writing,  the  Gothic  period  brought  Text-hands  into 
use  (Plates  294,  295,  and  296).  By  this  time  the  gradual  trans- 
formation was  so  far  advanced  that  at  the  first  glance  it  is  often  im- 
possible to  recognise  the  original  connection.  The  more  complicated 
the  Text-hands  became,  the  more  difficult  they  were  to  read;  so  that 
it  must  be  considered  a  happy  circumstance  that  the  Renascence 
period  strove  in  many  ways  to  simplify  the  texts,  and  to  revive 
the  old  Latin  alphabet,  (1  on  Plate  297).  The  invention  of  printing 
in  the  year  1440  had  an  important  influence  on  the  developement  of 
the  shapes  of  letters.     The  period  of  the  decadence  of  the  Renascence 


'528  Writing,  Printing,  &c. 

brought  with  it  the  decadence  in  the  forms  of  letters,  which  is  most 
clearly  seen  in  the  middle  of  the  18th  century.  Since  then,  and 
especially  in  recent  days,  a  gratifying  progress  has  been  made  to  some- 
thing better,  although  it  cannot  be  said  that  every  attempt  at  im- 
provement has  been  successful.  It  must  not  be  forgotten  that  prac- 
tical needs  should  be  considered,  quite  as  much  as  aesthetic  aspirations, 
especially  in  a  domain  of  such  great  and  general  importance  as  letters. 
It  should  alv/ays  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  first  requirement  is  easy 
reading;  and  that"  this  is  dependent  on  simplicity  and  characteristic 
shape  in  the  letters. 

As  regards  the  decorative  effect,  for  in  this  work  we  have  chiefly 
to  deal  with  decoration,  it  has  first  to  be  observed  that  the  Antique 
did  not  recognise  the  principle  of  ornamental  writing,  either  because 
no  one  thought  of  the  possibility  of  ornamenting  writing,  or  because 
they  intentionally  preferred  the  greater  legibility,  or  for  some  other 
now  unknown  reason.  At  a  later  date  almost  all  civilised  nations 
and  periods  have  occupied  themselves  more  or  less  with  the  decorative 
effect  of  writing.  This  may  take  two  different  directions:  either  the 
letter  may  be  decorated  in  its  component  parts,  which  eventually 
leads  to  the  extravagance  that  fishes,  birds,  human  forms,  &c., 
in  all  imaginable  contortions,  form  the  outline  of  the  letters;  or 
the  letter  in  its  ordinary  form  may  receive  a  decorative  finish  by 
means  of  decorative  accessories,  by  being  set  in  a  frame  which  theen 
appears  as  a  free  ending,  or  as  a  picture.  The  second  treatment  is 
especially  suitable  for  Initials;  and  has  led  to  very  ingenious  com- 
binations; 6.  g.  the  background  will  frequently  be  an  illustration  of 
the  subject  of  the  chapter  which  the  initial  begins,  (Fig.  2,  Plate  29S). 
Both  kinds  of  decoration  may  be  combined.  The  first  mode  of 
decoration  frequently  leads  to  the  loss  of  the  real  character  of  the 
letter;  in  the  second  -mode  it  not  infrequently  happens  that  the  letter 
cuts  the  picture,  or  vice  versa,  in  an  unpleasant  manner.  Colour  is 
an  important  factor  in  the  decoration  of  writing.  Gold,  silver,  and 
a  great  variety  of  colours,  but  above  all,  gold  and  red,  along  with 
black,  play  an  important  part  in  writing  in  the  miniature  painting  of 
the  Calligraphists,  as  well  as  in  Typography.  In  the  present  work 
we  are  unhappily  compelled  to  leave  this  aspect  out  of  consideration. 

In  the  Middle  Ages:  it  was  principally  monks  and  nuns  who 
devoted  themselves  to  the  art  of  Writing;  from  the  13th  century 
onwards,  it  was  also  practised  by  laymen.  A  long  series  of  celebrated 
Calligraphists  might  be  named.  Calligrapliy  retrograded  gradually 
with  the  introduction  of  Printing;  but  on  the  other  hand  the  beit 
artists  of  the  Renascence,  such  as  Holbein  and  others,  did  not  disdain 
to  design  Initials  and  other  letters  for  printers,  as  may  be  proved 
from  a  countless  number  of  old  books.  ^  As  Christianity  was  intro- 
duced   into  Germany    by  the  Irish,    northern    influences   may  also  be 


Writing,  Printing,  &c.  529 

traced  in  writing.  Up  to  the  10th  century  the  decorations  of 
Writing  have  almost  exclusively  the  character  of  interlaced-work  and 
fantastically  -  interlaced  figures  of  animals;  but  from  this  period  a 
vigorous  plant  decoration  begins  to  be  developed,  eventually  ter- 
minating, in  later  Gothic,  in  the  endless  interlacing  of  confused  lines. 
The  Renascence  period  prefers  to  set  its  initials  in  square  frames; 
and  these  creations  are  among  the  most  beautiful  that  writing  has 
ever  produced.  The  interlaced  and  artificial  ornaments  which  after- 
wards became  so  common  in  Typography,  especially  in  the  17th  and 
18th  centuries  (Plate  294.  2,  3  and  5),  are  either  the  invention  of 
the  Calligraphists  of  this  period,  or  are  the  transfer  of  their  archieve- 
ments  to  Typography.  Here,  too,  as  in  so  many  other  things, 
Modern  times  revert  to  the  models  of  the  most  different  older  periods; 
rightly  when  good  is  selected,  and  wrongly  when  the  objectionable  is 
revived.  Over  those  sins  of  Modern  Writing,  which  culminate  in 
deforming  our  houses  and  the  titles  of  our  books  with  rows  of  shaded 
letters  in  all  manner  of  possible  and  impassible  places  and  positions, 
it  is  best  to  draw  the  charitable  veil  of  silence.  Compared  with  these 
sins  of  style,  those  sentimental  garlands  of  roses  and  forget-me-nots, 
into  which  the  last  century  formed  its  lines,  are  tolerable. 

As  regards  the  technical  names  of  the  kinds  of  letters  now  in 
general  use:  we  can  only  say  that  they  ate  so  arbitrary  that  we  shall 
do  best  to  refrain  altogether  from  attempting  to  enumerate  them. 
Whoever  wishes  for  information  on  this  point  may  be  recommended 
to  consult  the  Specimen-book  of  some  good  Type-foundry. 

Attempts  were  early  made  to  construct  Alphabets  on  a  definite 
system;  to  base  them  on  network,  to  determine  the  height  and  breadth 
of  the  entire  letter,  tbe  dimensions  of  its  component  parts,  &c.;  among 
others  Diirer  devoted  himself  to  this  task.  Space  has  not  permitted 
us  to  reproduce  all  these  constructions;  but  as  a  specimen  we  have 
given  on  Plate  300  the  constructions  of  a  few. 

The  notation  of  Numbers  was  introduced  at  the. end  of  the  Middle 
Ages.  Our  Numerals  are  an  Arabian  invention,  whence  their  name. 
Plate  300  shows  two  collection  of  numerals  of  old  times  which  are 
not  sensibly  different  from  those  now  in  use.  It  is  well  known  that, 
before  Numerals  were  generally  employed,  recourse  was  had  to  the 
Latin  letters  (Roman  numerals)  for  the  indication  of  numbers.  It  is 
really  remarkable  that  this  latter  apparatus,  in  spite  of  its  unpractical 
character,  has  remained  in  use  dovim  to  the  present  day. 

Finally  we  may  say  a  word  or  two  about  the  Monogram.  This 
name  is  given  to  letters  and  interfacings  of  letters  intended  to  replace 
or  to  indicate  a  name.  It  may  be  formed  either  by  single  ornamented 
letters,  usually  the  initials  of  the  first  and  family  name  (Plate  300. 
5  —  7),  or  by  all  the  letters  contained  in  the  word  (Plate  300.  10). 
It  is  not  imperative  that  all  the  letters  should  be  of  the   same  size 

Meyer,  Handbook  of  Ornament.  34 


630  Romanesque  Letters.  —  Gothic  Uncial  Lettres. 

or  style;  and  if  necessary  some  of  them  may  "he  reversed.  A  Mono- 
gram should  be  well  arranged,  and  clear,  so  that  it  need  not  require 
to  be  guessed-at  like  a  riddle.  A  good  effect  is  produced  by  adding 
attributes  and  badges  of  dignity  to  monograms.  Artistic  sense  and 
feeling  must  here  supply  the  place  of  mles.  Numerous  and  excellently 
ornamented  monograms  wiU  be  found  in  Gerlach:  Das  Gewerhemono- 
gramm. 

There  are  various  books  on  "Writing,  as  well  as  numerous  col- 
lections of  Initials  and  Alphabets.  Prof.  Hrachowina's  Initialen, 
Alphabete_  und  Randleisten-  (Yienna.:  Graeser)  will  be  found  very  useful 
in  teaching.  Dr.  Lamprecht's  Initial- Ornamentik  des  8 — 13.  Jahrhun- 
derts  (Leipzig:  A.  Durr)  is  an  exhaustive  study  of  the  older  styles 
of  writing. 

Plate  291.    Romanesque  Letters. 

1.  Alphabet,  beginning  of  the   8th  century,   S.  Cuthbert's   evan- 
geliarium,  British  Museum,  (Shaw). 

2.  Alphabet,  10th  century,  MS.  British  Museum,  (Shaw). 
8.  Initial,   12th  century,  Berlin  Museum. 

4.  Initial,  12th  century,  Breviarium  Cassinense,  Bibliothfeque  Ma- 
zarine, Paris,  (L'art  pour  tous). 

5.  Initial,  9th  or  10th  century. 

6.  Initial,  12th  century,  Berlin,  Museum. 

7.  Initial,  12th  century,  (Arnold  &  Knoll). 

8.  Initial,  12th  century. 

9 — 10.  Initials,  990,  Echternach  evangeliarum,  Gotha,  (Lamprechl). 


Plate  292.    Gothic  Uncial  Letters. 

1.  Alphabet,  1349,  S.  Margaret's,  King's  Lynn,  England,  (Shaw). 

2 — 5.     Initials,  1480,  Rouen. 

6 — 7.     Letters,   stalls  of  S.  George's  chapel,  Windsor,   end  of  15th 
century,  (Shaw). 

8.  Gothic  initial. 

9.  Gothic  initial,  1494. 

10 — 17.  Initials,    1480,    Pontificale    of   Johann  II.,    Archbishop    of 
Trier,  (Shaw). 

Pate  293.    Gothic  Uncial  Letters. 

1.  Alphabet,  14th  century,  (John  Weale). 

2 — 3.  Initials,  15th  century,  (Btachowina). 

4—7.  Initials,  14th  century,  1330. 

8 — 9.  Initials,  end  of  15th  century,  (Pormenschatz). 


ORNAMENTAL  LETTERS. 


531 


ri 


Tl 


fflmnynoiBQ 


<i 


Tr^  fr^ 


B 


L 


□ 


NPOP 


(==3 


Romanesque  Letters. 


Plate  291. 
34* 


532 


ORNAMENTAL  LETTERS. 


Plate  292. 


Gothic  Uncial  Letters. 


ORNAMENTAL  LETTERS. 


533 


Gothic  Uncial  Letters. 


Plate.  293. 


534  Old  English  Letters.  —  Old  German  Letters,  &c. 

Plate  294.    Old  English  Letters,  &c. 

1.         Old   English    text,    tomb   of  Richard   11,   "Westminster   Abbey, 

about  1400,  (Shaw). 
2 — 4.  Initials,  16th  centiiry,  Plantin  Museum,  Antwerp,  (Ysendyck). 
5 — 8.  Initials,  16th  and  17th  centuries,  (Raguenet). 
^;         Modem  initial,  Dir.  GOtz,  Carlsruhe. 

Plate  295.    Old  German  Letters. 

1.  German  text,  1467,  (Hrachowina). 

2.  German  text  alphabet,  composed  frdm  several  documents. 

Plate  296.    Modern  Text. 

1.  Schwabach  type. 

2.  Gutenberg  Gothic. 

3.  Fr.  Thiersch,  (Malerjournal). 

4.  Ribbon  ornament,  as  Typographical  Tail-piece. 

Plate  297.    Renascence  Letters. 

1.  Roman  Renascence   alphabet,    1547,    specimen-book    of   John    of 
Yciar,  Durango,  Biscaya. 

2.  Renascence  alphabet,  lower-case  Roman  le'tters,  specimen-book  of 
Wolfgang  Fugger,  Nuremberg,  1553,  (Hrachowina). 

3.  Renascence  initial,  1531. 

4.  Renascence  initial,  1500,  (Pormenschatz). 

5.  Initial,  1534,  Lucas  Cranach  the  elder,  (Pormenschatz). 

6.  Renascence  initial,  "Gedruckt  Zu  Augspurg  Durch  Jost  De  Necker" 
(Wessely).' 

7.  Renascence  initial,  Italian,  (Pormenschatz). 

8.  Initial,  17  th  century,  Elzevir,  printing  office,  (Ysendyck) 

9.  Initial,  17th  century,  specimen-book  of  Paul  Piirst  of  Nuremberg, 
(L'art  pour  tous). 

10.  Initial,  Barocco  period,  French,  (Hrachowina). 

11.  Modem  initial,  by  P.  Koch. 

12:  Modern  initial,  by  Dir.  0.  Hammer. 

Plate  298.    Roman  Inttiai^. 

1.  Renascence,  1537,  (Hrachowuia). 

2.  Renascence,   17th   century,  Plantin  printing   office,   Antwerp, 
(Ysendyck). 

3.  Modem,  French. 
4 — 13.  Modern,  Paris. 


ORNAMENTAL  LETTEES. 


535 


r^ 


Old  English  Letters,  &c. 


Plate  294. 


536 


ORNAMENTAL  LETTERS. 


<#- 


^L^ 


V 


V 


^^     cJ 


I 


A^ 


^ 


Plate  295. 


Old  German  Letters. 


ORNAMENTAL  LETTERS. 


537 


Modern  Text. 


Plate  296. 


538 


ORNAMENTAL  LETTERS. 


Plat?  297. 


Renascence  Letters. 


OENAMENTAL  LETTERS. 


Yid 


Eoman  Initials. 


Plate  298. 


540 


ORNAMENTAL  LETTERS- 


A  e  0  0  E  F 


TO 


KL 


^  o 


a^c 


ID)  im  w 

]L.  ME  I^  O 
TT  TLJ  ^^ 


rfi  I 


min-o 


p  q'.rj^tm  'v  iir-x 


r  1- 


-fjnU 


Plate  299. 


Roman  Letters. 


ORNAMENTAL  LETTERS. 


541 


ConstnictioDS,  Kumerals,  and  Monograms. 


Plate  300. 


542       Roman  Letters.  —  Constructions,  Numerals,  and  Monogram9. 

Plate  299.    Roman  Letters. 

1.  Modern. 

2.  Modern. 

8.  Renascence  italic,  Gottlieb  Miinch,  Ordnung  der  Schrift,  1744. 
4.  Renascence    lower-case    italic,    Michael    Bauernfeind,    Nuremberor 
1737,  (Hrachowina). 


Plate  300.    Constructions,  Numerals,  and  Monograms. 

1.  Roman  capitals. 

2.  German  text,  and  large  Gothic   uncial  letters. 
3 — 4.  Arabic  numerals,  15th  and  16th  centuries. 
5,  6,  7  and  9.  Modern  monograms  of  two  and  three  letters,  (Raguenet). 


8. 
10. 
11. 


Modern  monogram,  Dir.  Gotz. 
Monogram  of  a  name:  "Laugier",  (Raguenet). 
Monogram  of  Christ;  formed  of  the  Greek  initials  of 
the  name  of  Christ,  found  in  the  Catacombs.  It  is 
frequently  combined  with  the  letters  ^4.  i2,  in  allusion 
to  Rev.  XXIL  13:  "I  am  Alpha  and  Omega"  (compare 
Plate  213.  13),  Of  later  date  is  the  monogram  IHS, 
the  first  three  letters  of  the  name  Jesus,  IH-0Y2, 
when  written  with  Greek  letters,  which  was  afterwards 
selected  by  the  Jesuits  as  the  badge  of  their  order.  It 
has  been  variously  explained  as  meaning:  "Jesus 
hominum  salvator"  (Jesus  the  saviour  of  men);  "In  Hoc 
Salus"  (in  Him  is  salvation);  "Jesus  Habemus  Socium" 
(we  have  Jesus  for  our  companion);  or:  "In  Hoc  Signo 
vinces"   (in   this   sign   thou   shalt  conquer). 


Index. 


The  numerals  refer  to  tJie  Pages  in  all  eases.  ^VJlere  they  are  enclosed  in  Brackets: 
the  page  is  a  Plate;  and  the  small  numerals  refer  to  the  Figures  in  the  Plate. 


Akanthos,  leaf:  34,  (163.  7). 
_  Akroter:  166. 

Alabaatron:  312. 

Alphabet:  see  Letters. 
-  Altar:  378. 

Amber-tree  leaf:  (55.  8,7). 

Amphora:  303. 

Ampulla:  312. 

Animals:  63. 

Antefix:  166. 

Arm-chair:  425. 

Armet:  390. 

Armorial  Bearings:  500. 

Artificial  Objects:  110, 

Artificial  Foliage:  39. 
,        Leaf:  35. 

ArybaUos:  (331.  u). 

Astragal,  Enrichment  of:  152. 

Atlanta:  242. 

Badge:  see  Heraldry. 

Balauster:  222. 

BAjn)s:127. 

Band-motive:  4. 

Base,  (column):  197. 
„    ,  (candelabrum):  218. 

Basin:  308. 

Battle-axe:  394. 

Beaker:  345. 

Bedstead:  457. 

Bell:  404. 

Bench:  436. 


Biaellium:  434. 
Boar,  head:  (79.  9),  (343.  10). 
Book  Decoration:  (23,  4,5), 
Borders:  see  Bands,  477. 

„      ,  (Typographical):  seeFRASUis. 
Boss:  182. 
Bottle:  336. 

Box:  see  Cist,  Chest,  &c. 
Bracelet:  490. 
Bracket:  241,  (372.  1-9). 
Breast-pin:  480, 
Brooch:  480. 
Bryony:  52. 
Bucket:  322. 
Buckle:  492. 
Burganet:  390. 
Button:  482. 

Cabbage-stalk  Glass:  352, 
Cabinet:  445, 

„  ,  Hanging:  449. 
Calathus:  see  Kalathos. 
Candelabrum:  360. 

„  ,  (capital):  222. 

„  ,  (foot  and  base):  218. 

„  ,  (shaft):  219. 

Candle  Bracket:  370. 
Candlestick:  361,  366. 
Canephora:  see  Kanephoros. 
Cantharus:  see  Kantharos. 
Capital,  (candelabrum):  222. 
,  (column):  205. 


544 


Index. 


Cafjital,  (pil.i-ter,  anJ  antaj:  214. 
Caryatid:  242. 
Censer:  382. 
Centanr:  106. 
Chain  Band:  129. 

„     ,  (JewelkyJ:  486. 
Chair:  422. 
Chalice:  345. 
Chandelier:  373. 
Charge,  (Heraldic):  510. 
Chatelaine:  499,  404. 
Cherub-head:  109, 
Chest:  451. 
Chimaera:  70. 

„  •    ,  (head):  (78.  i). 
Circle,  Diaper:  278,  283. 

„     ,  Panel:  256,  (115.  c-9). 

„     ,  Subdivision:  27. 
Cist:  318. 
Clasp:  492. 
Claw-foot:  (220.  1-9). 
Clock-case:  453,  (475.  1,2). 
Cluster,  of  Fruit:  59. 
Coat  of  Arms:  (525.  1— s). 
Cock,  (tap):  417. 
Collar,  (Heraldic;:  518. 
Column:  see  Supports. 
Comb:  499. 
Compassefl:  417. 
Console:  235. 

Construction  of  Letters:  542. 
Convolvulus:  52. 
Com:  52. 
Cornucopia:  124. 
Coronets;  520. 
Cothon:  see  Kothon. 
Couch:  438. 
Cradle:  457. 
Crater:  see  Krater. 
CVefit,  (Heraldic):  518. 
CrcHting  JiordBr:  161,  172. 
Crocket:  185. 
Cross:  172. 

„    ,  (Heraldic):  515. 

„     ,  Panel:  (275.  s). 


Crown,  Coronet,  &c. :  520. 

Crozler:  384. 

Crucifix:  384. 

Cruet:  316. 

Cup:  345. 

Cyathus:  see  Kyathos. 

Cylix:  see  KylLx. 

Cyma,    Enrichment    of:    155,    (1C4 

3,4,11,12). 
Dagger:  394. 

Damaskeening,  (Heraldic^:  503. 
DECORATED  OBJECTS:  295. 
Desk:  451. 
Diadem:  499. 
DiAi'EP.s:  277. 

„       ,  patterns:  9. 
Diphros  Okladias:  434. 
DiHh:  308,  see  476. 
Dog,  head:  (79.     ). 
Dolphin:  86. 

„      ,  (Heraldic):  (511.  11). 
Door-Knocker:  408. 
Dormer:  (463.   1). 
Dress-pin :  480. 
Eagle,  (Natural):  80,  (454.  i-b). 

„     ,  (Heraldic):  W.  512. 

„     ,  (head:  (343.   i). 
Ear-ring:  496. 
Eas(?l:  453. 

Egg-and-tongue,  &c. :  155. 
Elaphos:  342. 

ELEMENTS  OF  DECORATION:  8. 
Ellipse,     Construction,     and    Subdi* 
vision:  30. 
„      ,  Panel:  267. 
Enamels:  281. 
P]nclo8ed  Ornaments:  246. 
Evolute-spiral  Band:  151. 
Fan:  412. 
Fauchard:  396. 
FEATUItES  of  Objects:  125. 
Festoon:  59,  (221.. e). 
Fibula:  480. 
Finkil:  175. 
Flowers,  Natural:  58. 


Index. 


Mb 


Flower-pot:  315. 

,.     -vase:  312. 
Fly -flapper:  414. 
Fol'linjj-chair:  4.38. 
Foliage,  Artificial:  .39. 

„      ,  Natural :  34. 
Font:  820. 
Foot:  (220.  i-o), 
Fork:  4fK). 
Fox,  hou.l:  (7!).   7). 
Fhamkh:  if'il. 

„     ,  (architccturalj:  4G2 

„     ,  (mirror):  465. 

„     ,  (filrap-work):  408. 

»i     I  (typoffraphicalj:  471. 
FrEK   OnNAMKNTB:    169. 

Fret  Bar.'];  128. 

Frieze:  (02),  (104.   t,),  (162)— {UA). 

Fringe:  188. 

Fruit,  in  P'catoon:  69. 

Funnel:  324. 

Fuunitobb:  420. 

„        .  Leg:  230. 
Gable-ornament:  166. 
Gargoyle:  186. 
Garland:  «ee  in  (82.   i). 
Gate:  see  Grill. 

GeOMKTRICAI.    Kl.KMKHTH:    8. 

Qerman  Drink iiig-gl;wHr;H:  .362. 
Girdle:  492,  188,  (487.    h-js). 
Gladiator'H  Helrnet:  3IW, 
GlaHB,  Drinking:  3.0.6. 

„    ,  Bee  Staine'J-GIa:)*. 
Goblet:  346. 
Gothic  Tracery:  30. 
Griffin:  70,  (614.   i;. 
Grill :  294. 
Grotteeque  Anirnal:  KK). 

Figure:  101. 

Ma:ik:  96. 
Gryps:  346. 

Guillocbe:  Bee  Interlacement  Hand. 
Hair-pin:  480. 
Ualf-figijre:  101. 
Halberd:  394. 

Meyer,  Uau>JI>'iok  «>f  Omsmvnt. 


n 


Hammer:   417. 

niinaj):  347. 

Handbell:  404. 

Hand-mirror:  412. 

Hanging  cabinet:  449. 

Hat.  (Canlinal'H,  &>'..,  H<Taldic):  623. 

Heiul-droHH  (.Ikwkmiy):  'I',)9. 

Heads  of  AnimalH:  70. 

Heanme:  3;J0,  616. 

Helmet:  390,  610,  (108),  (113^. 

„      ,  Triij)i)irigH:  618. 
HKRALniiY:  600. 
HermcK :  Hoe  TcrrniniiH. 
Hexagon,  HubdiviHJon:  18. 
Hinge:  180. 

HippotnigelaphoB:  342. 
Holy  wat/jr  Htoap:  320. 
Hop,  leaf:  62. 
Horn,  Drinking:  342, 
Home,  bead:  (79.  i    6). 
Human,  body:  93. 
Hydria:  320. 
Hyaciqth-glaHB:  316, 
Imj)l<'rfientH:  nee  Trofiby,  .Symbol. 
Initial:  nee  LettcrH. 
Ink  Htand:  316. 
Inn  chair:  (426.   j). 
JitninniK'iiiH:  nee  Tropliy,  Sy/nbol. 
Inf/<;rlacem';nt  Hand:   1.56. 
Ivy,  leaf:  61,  (203.   t). 
Jar:  318. 
jKWKLRy;  478. 
Jug:  see  Pitcher,  Pot. 
Kalathos:  (344.  t). 
KalpiH:  (323.  2). 
Kancphorof):  242. 
KantbaroB:  340. 
KaproH:  3^12. 
Koy:  410. 
Kettle:  (336.  lo). 
KliBmos:  422. 
Knife:  4W. 
Knob,  (finial).  179. 
Knocker:  408. 
Knot:  nee  Ilibbon. 

86 


646 


Index. 


Kotlion:  S40. 

Krater:  308. 

Zyatlios:  340. 

Kylix:  340,  (311.  e). 

Label:  120. 

Lace:  1^0. 

Lachrimatory :  312. 

Ladle:  324. 

Lamp:  364.  ^ 

„     ,  Pendant:  373,  (314.  isl 

„     ,  Table:  375. 
Lance:  394. 
Lantern:  373. 
Laurel:  43,  (344.  o). 
Lazy-tongs:  404. 
Leaf  Band:  145. 

„  ,  (Natural):  52. 
Lectern:  453. 
Lectus  Cubicularis:  438. 
Leg,  (Furniture):  230. 
Lekythos:  328. 
Letters:  527. 
Link  Border:  160. 
Lion,  (Heraldic):  510. 

„  ,  (Natural):  63. 

„  ,  head:  70,  (233.  9,10). 
Lizard:  (92.  1). 
Lock-escutcheon:  (475.  10). 
Lotus:    48,     (162.     1),     (208.    2-5), 
.         (288.  2),  (327.  2,4). 

Lozenge,  Panel:  272,  (88.  2,3),  (464.  3). 

„       ,  Subdivision:  21. 
Lunette,  Panel:  268. 
Lynx,  head:  (77.  5). 
.    Mace:  3^6. 
Maeander:  see  Fret. 
MantUng,  (Heraldic):  519. 
Maple,  leaf:  (55.  8.4). 
Margin:  see  477. 
Mars'  head:  (108.  9). 
M artel-axe:  394. 
Mask:  94. 
Match-holder:  417. 
Medallion:  109,  (495.  12,  18,25). 
Medusa,  head:  100. 


Mermaid:  (514.  7). 

Metal  Objects:  359. 

Minerva,  head:  (108.  6,7). 

Mirror-frame:  465. 

Mirror,  Hand:  412. 

Miserere-seat:  431. 

Mitre:  (524.  11-13). 

Monogram:  542. 

Monstrance:  384. 

Morion:  390. 

Mosaic:  278.' 

Motto:  526. 

Mouldings,  Enrichments  of:  152,  161. 

Mug:  353. 

Mural  Painting:  286. 

Natural  Fobms:  34. 

Nautilus-shell:  (91.  1) 

Necklace:  488. 

Neck-ring:  (489.  7,8). 

Needle-case:  499. 

Network:  4. 

Numerals:  542. 

Oak,  leaf:  (55.  1,2),  (150.  9),  (156  e). 

OBJECTS,  DECORATED:  295. 

Oblong,  Panel:  262. 

„     ,  Subdivision:  18. 
Octagon,  Subdivision:  18.' 
Oinochoe:  326. 
Olive:  43. 
Olpe:  326. 

Order,  (Heraldic):  523. 
Ordinary,  (Heraldic):  506. 
ORNAMENT    APPLIED    TO    FEA- 
TURES: 125. 
Oval,  Construction:  33, 
Ovolo,  Enrichment  of:  155. 
Ox,  head:  (79.  9). 
Painting:  see  Mural  painting.] 
Palmette  Band:  145. 
Palm,  leaf:  48. 
Panels:  246. 
Panther,  (Heraldic):  (514.  2). 

„      ,  head:  73. 
Paper-knife:  402, 
Papyrus:  48, 


Index. 


547 


Parapet:  227, 

Parquetry:  278. 

Partizan:  394. 

Patera:  324. 

Pendant,  (Architectural):  179. 

.  „.      ,  (Jewelby):  494. 
Pennon:  523. 

Pentagon,  Subdivision:  18. 
Pepper-mill:  316. 
Perforation:  172. 
Perfume-vase:  328.  i 

Pliiale:.312. 
Picture-frame:  465. 
Pike:  394. 
Pilaster,  (capital):  214. 

„     ,    (panel):'   213,    (113.    b,6), 

(117.  1-8). 

Pin:  480. 

Pitcher  (lip-spout):  330, 

Plate:  310. 

„     ,  Border:  476, 
Polygon:  13, 
Post:  227. 

Pot  (pipe-spout):  334. 
Printer's-mark:  471, 
Printing:  527. 
Prochoiis:  326. 
Proedra:  (244.  5). 
Puzzle-glass:  353. 
Quadrelle:  (397.  10). 
Bailing:  227,  see  also  Parapet,  Bal- 

auster. 
Rain-water    Spout:    185,    (74,    8—5), 

(87.  7-9). 
Raking  Panel:  276. 
Ram,  head:  (78.  3-7),  (343.  1-5). 
Ranunculus,  leaf:  (55.  5). 
.Rectangle:  see  Oblong, 
Repeating  Ornaments:  277, 
Revolving  Stool:  434. 
Rhombus,  Panel:  see  Lozenge,  Panel, 

„        ,  Subdivision:  21. 
Rhyton:  342. 
Ribbon:  120, 
Ring:  484. 


Rope-pattern :  see  InterlacementBand. 
Rosette:  182,  see  also  Square,  Panel, 

Circle,  Panel. 
Rosette  Band:  142. 
Rummer :  349. 
Salade:  390,  516. 
Salt-cellar:  316. 
Scabbard:  392,  391 
Scale  Diaper:  281. 
Scallop  Shell:  (91,  3,4). 
Sccint-bottle:  499, 
Scissors:  402. 
Scriptionale :  (252.  1). 
Scyphus:  see  Skyphos. 
Seal:  499, 
Seat:  421. 
Sector:  13. 
Sella  Balnearis:  427. 

„      Curulis:  427. 
Semicircle:  see  Lunette, 
Serpent,  (Heraldic):  (511.  13), 

„      ,  (Natural):  90. 
Shaft,  (candelabrum):  219, 

„    ,  (column):  197,  202. 

„    ,  (pilaster):  213, 
Sheath:  see  Scabbard. 
SheU:  90. 
Shield:  388,  505. 

„     ,  (Heraldic):  502. 
Sideboard:  449. 
Signet-ring:  484. 
Simpulum:  (327.   u.12). 
Situla:  (325.  7-11). 
Skull,  Human:  109. 

„    ,  Ox:  (61,  I),  (62.  1). 
Skyphos : 

Smelling-bottle:  see  Scent-bottle. 
Snuffers:  404.  (413    3). 
Sofa:  438. 

Spanrail  Panel:  268. 
Spangle:  499. 
Spoon:  324,  396. 
Sphinx:  106,  (223.  e),  (429.  9). 
Square,  Diaper:  278. 

„     ,  Panel:  247,  (15.  20). 
36* 


548 


Index. 


Square,  Subdivision:  14,  (252.  1—9). 
Stained  Glass:  283. 
StaU:  428. 
Standard:  523. 
Star,  Panel:  249. 

„  ,  Subdivision:  13. 
Stele-crest:  167. 
Stool:  431. 
Stoup:  320. 
Strap  Hinge:  186. 
Strap-work,  Border:  477. 

„        ,  Frame:  468.  (47B),  (476). 
,Panel(260. 7,8),  (264.4,5), 
(271.  fr-9). 

„        ,  Tablet:  474. 

„         ,  Margin:  477. 
Subdivision  of  Shapes:  see  14 — 33. 
Supports:  194. 
Supporter,  (Heraldic):  526. 
Sword:  392. 
Symbol:  111. 
Table:  440,  231. 
Tablet:  see  FnAiiEa. 
Taboret:  431. 
Tankard:  355. 
Tap:  see  Cock. 
Tassel:  188. 
Telamon:  242. 
Tent,  (Heraldic):  526. 
Terminus:  225. 
Text:  see  Letters. 
Textile:  see  Weaving. 
Three-centred  Arch,  Construction:  33. 
Throne:  425. 
Thyrsos:  (107.  6,7). 
Tiara:  (524.  12). 
Tiger,  head:  (77.  s). 
Tiles:  283. 

Tilting  Helmet:  390,  516. 
Tinctures,  (Heraldic):  502. 
Toilet-stand,  or  cabinet:  455, 


Tongs:  417. 

Tool:  417,  see  also  Trophy,  Symbol. 

Torch:  124. 

Torus,  Enrichment  of:  155. 

Tracery:    (28.    is-ie),     (29.  i-n). 

(259.  7,8),  (275.  1). 
Tragelaphos:  342. 
Trapezium,  Panel:  276. 

„       ,  Subdivision:  21,  26. 
Trapezoid,  Panel;  276. 
Trapezophoron :  231. 
Triangle,  Subdivision:  18. 

„      ,  Panel:  276. 
Tripod:  379. 
Trophy:  110. 
Tulip-tree,  leaf:  (55.  s). 
Tumbler:  352. 
Typographical  Frame:  471. 
Uncials:  see  Letters. 
Undulate  Band:  146. 
Uraniscus:  14. 
Urn:  306. 
Utensils:  359. 
Valence:  188. 
Vase-forms,  Chart  of:  304. 
Vases:  297,  (123.  1,4),  (180.  v-^). 
Vertebrate  Band:  145. 
Vine:  43. 

Viper:  see  Serpent. 
Vizor-helmet:  390,  516. 
Wall-papers:  286. 
War-scythes,  &c.:  394. 
Water-pot:  334. 

Wave-scroll:  see  Evolute-spiral  Band 
Weapons:  386. 
Weaving:  289. 
Wings:  81. 

■V\Jreath,  (Heraldic):  519. 
Writing:  527. 
Writing-table:  443. 
Wrought-iron:  175. 


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