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UMm, Temperinji, flniiealiDg 

AND 

FORGING OF STEEL 



A TREATISE ON THE PRACTICAL TREATMENT AND 
WORKING OF HIGH AND LOW GRADE STEEL 



COMPRISING 

THE SELECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STEEL, THE MOST 
MODERN AND APPROVED HEATING, HARDENING, TEMPER- 
ING, ANNEALING AND FORGING PROCESSES, THE USE 
OF GAS BLAST FORGES, HEATING MACHINES AND 
FURNACES, THE ANNEALING AND MANUFACTURING 
OF MALLEABLE IRON, THE TREATMENT AND USE 
OF SELF-HARDENING STEEL, WITH SPECIAL 
REFERENCE TO CASEHARDENING PROCESSES, 
THE HARDENING AND TEMPERING OF MILL- 
ING CUTTERS AND PRESS TOOLS, THE USE 
OF MACHINERY STEEL FOR CUTTING 
TOOLS, FORGING AND WELDING, HIGH 
GRADE STEEL FORCINGS IN AMERICA, 
FORGING OF HOLLOW SHAFTS, 
DROP-FORGING, AND GRIND- 
ING PROCESSES FOR TOOLS 
AND MACHINE PARTS 



BY 



JOSEPH Wt WOODWORTH 

Author of '*Die8, Their Construction and CTsc" 



Illustrated by aoi Ensravin8:s 



NORMAN W. HENLEY & CO. 

132 NaSvSAU Strrkt 

New York 

19c -^ 






» • 






*. . 



■i'- 



Macoowan & Slipper 

printers 

30 Beekman Street 

New York 

U. S. A. 



* 
• * 



i • - • 



« • « ■ 



1 :: .•* 






THE ::f:\v york 

r < r ! . : • .'^ i\ I 

257621 

AIT... ^S - X AND 
TILDLN ; ,'-,.^ATIJNS. 



19Q. 



COPYRIGHTED, I902, 
BY 

Norman W. Heni^ey & Co. 



TO 

GEORGK WOODWORTH 

MY KATHKR, FRIEND AND FEI.I.OW WORKER, TO WHOSE LOVE, 

AFFECTION AND ENCOURAGEMENT I OWE MORE THAN 

CAN EVER BP: REPAID, THIS BOOK IS 

AFFECTIONATEI.Y DEDICATED 



PREFACE. 



29 



In preparing this treatise the author has had as an incitement 
the knowledge that there was very little information to be had on 
the treatment and working of steel of practical value to the gen- 
eral mechanic. For this reason he is convinced that a practical 
book on the treatment and working of the metal as modern de- 
mands necessitate, that is, in regard to heating, annealing, forg- 
ing, hardening and tempering processes, cannot fail to prove of 
interest and value to all mechanics who use tools or who are in 
any way engaged in the working of metals. 

When the fact is considered that tools made from the best 
grades of steel will not perform the work required unless they 
have been treated properly during the various heating processes, 
the value of a knowledge of the most satisfactory and approved 
arrangements and methods to the mechanic is at once apparent. 

With the object in view of giving to practical men a book 
treating and presenting this paramount subject in a clear, con- 
cise and practical manner, the author has drawn upon a personal 
experience of many years, gathered all the information obtain- 
able, eliminating all unnecessary and obsolete matter, and added 
all that is approved, up-to-date and authentic. 

In regard to originality we lay claim to very little, for, al- 
though the facts contained in a large number of the items have 
been gained through years of experience at the forge, bench and 
machine, we are indebted to others for a greater portion, and 
merely claim to have, as a great poet has said, ''gathered the 
fruits of other men's labors and botmd them zi'ith our ozvn string:' 
To the technical journals, notably the American Machinist, Ma- 
chinery, the Iron Age, the Scientific American, the Age of Steel, 
Modern Machinery, and Shop Talk; to master mechanics of 
well-known shops, to many American machine-tool and tool and 
die making concerns, and to individual . fellow craftsmen, the 
author takes pleasure in herein acknowledging his indebtedness, 
with thanks for a laree number of facts contained in this volume. 

The chapters on Miscellaneous Methods, Tables, and on Emery 



6 PREFACE. 

Wheel Grinding of tools, have been thought so near akin to the 
general subject of this work, that they have been given a place and 
will be found valuable to the tool maker and general machinist. 

Much valuable information was furnished, and many of the 
engravings which were used to illustrate the work were kindly 
loaned to the author by the following named firms: Cincinnati 
Milling Machine Company, Cincinnati, Ohio; American Gas Fur- 
nace Company, New York, N. Y. ; Faneuil Watch Tool Com- 
pany, Brighton, Boston, Mass.; Standard Tool Company, Cleve- 
land, Ohio; J. H. Williams Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; the 
Rogers & Hubbard Company, Middletown, Conn.; Pratt & 
Whitney, Hartford, Conn. ; Garvin Machine Company, New 
York, N. Y. ; Armstrong Brothers Tool Company, Chicago, 111. ; 
Chicago Flexible Shaft Company, Chicago, 111.: Nicholson File 
Company, Providence, R. I.: E. W. Bliss Company, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

Although the writer is aware that his efforts will meet with 
criticism from those who may feel that it is not technical enough, 
or that some particular process or special method has been ig- 
nored, he is pleased to assure the reader that all that it does con- 
tain has been authenticated, and he is convinced that the 
majority will find in its pages information which will assist them 
in overcoming trials and difficulties met with in the working of 
this ''truly zi'oiidrous metal." 

Brooklyn, N. Y., December, 1902. 

Joseph V. Woodworth. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

STEEL — ITS SELECTION AND IDENTIFICATION — STEEL FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES— 

THE TREATMENT OF WELL-KNOWN BRANDS OF STEEL 

— ^THE EFFECTS OF HEAT. 

Selection and Identification of Steel — Steel for Different Purposes 
— Die Steel — Steel Die Forgings — The Treatment of High-Car- 
bon Steels — Experimental Treatment — The Treatment and 
Working of Well-known Brands of Tool SteeWHeating for 
Forging — Heating for Hardening — Treatment of High-speed 
Self-hardening Steels — Annealed Die and Tool Steel — Treat- 
ment of Annealed Die and Tool Steel — Treatment of Air-hard- 
ening Steel — The Best Steel for Tools — Testing Tool Steel — 
The Grain of Steel — Testing for Toughness — Economy in Test- 
ing Steel Before Using — Decarbonized Steel Surfaces — How to 
Know Tool Steel from Mild Steel — Tool Holders and Tools — 
Self-hardening Steel Cutting Tools — Speeds for Cutting Tools 
— Cutting and Durability Qualities of Steel — Judgment, Experi- 
ence, and Perception in the Working of Steel — The First Effects 
of Heat — Unequal Expansion — Heat Effects on Clay — 
The Amount of Force Exerted in Expansion or Contraction — 
The Second Effect of Heat — Table of Expansion from 32 Deg. 
F. to 212 Deg. F. — Kinds of Steel Produced in America by 
the Crucible and Open-hcartl Procc-pcs 13 to 35 

CHAPTER n. 

ANNEALING PROCESSES — THE TERMS ANNEALING, HARDENING, AND TEMPER- 
ING DEFINED — THE ANNEALING OF MALLEABLE CASTINGS. 

The Terms Defined — How to Thoroughly Anneal High-grade Tool 
Steel Parts — The Proper Heat for Annealing — Annealing in 
the Charcoal Fire — Good Steel for Good Tools — Annealing — 
An Annealing Box for Small Parts — Water Annealing — The 
Effect of the Water Anneal — The Annealing of Tap Steel — 
Reannealing Tap Blanks — How to Heat for Annealing — An- 
nealing a Small Quantity of Steel — Annealing Steel in the 
Open Fire — Quick Methods for Softening Steel — To Anneal 
Doubtful Steel — Annealing Chilled Cast-iron Dies for Drilling 
— Annealing White or Silver Iron — The Annealing of Malle- 



8 CONTENTS. 



able Castings and the Manufacture of Malleable-iron Machine 
Parts — The Foundry, and Preparation of the Castings — An- 
nealing Furnaces — Packing the Castnigs — Different Methods 
of Packing Castings in Pots — Annealing. Straightening and 
Finishing Malleable Castings — Heating the Annealing Ovens — 
General Matter Relative to Malleable-iron Manufacturing. .. .36 to 49 



CHAPTER HI. 

THE HEATING AND COOLING OF STEEL — LOCATION OF HEATING ARRANGE- 
MENTS — THE USE OF GAS BLAST FCRNACES AND HEATING MACHINES 
— TOUGH STEEL AND HARD STEEL — THE DIFFERENCE. 

The Heating and Cooling of Steel — Proper Equipment for Harden- 
ing and Tempering — Ponits to be Remembered — The Loca- 
tion of the Heating Furnace — The Use of Gas-blast • Furnaces 
and Heating Machines — Gas-blast Forges — Their Use — Combi- 
nation Gas Furnace for General Machine-shop Work — Gas 
Forge for Small Work — Gas Forge for Heating Drop Forgings 
— Air-tempering Furnace — Gas Forge for Knife and Shear 
Blades — Bench Forge — Oven Furnaces for Annealing and 
Hardening — Case-hardening Furnaces — Heating-machine for 
Hardening the Edges of Mower Blades — Heating-machine for 
Hardening Cones and Shells — Heating-machine with Revolving 
Trays — Heating-machine for Small Parts — Barrel Heating-ma- 
chine for Hardening and Tempering Balls, Saw Teeth, Screws, 
etc — Construction and Operation of Barrel Heating-machine — 
Heating-machine for Tempering and Coloring Steel — Circular 
Annealing and Hardening Furnace — Oil Tempering Furnaces 
— Automatic Heating-machine for Hardening Chain — Cylindri- 
cal Case-hardening Furnaces — Lead Hardening Furnace — 
Melting Pots — Cyanide Hardening Furnaces — Regular Sizes of 
Muffles — Muffle Furnaces — Tough Steel and Hard Steel — the 
Difference 50 to 94 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE HARDENING OF STEEL — HARDENING IN WATER, BRINE, OIL. AND SOLU- 
TIONS — SPECIAL TROCESSES FOR SPECIAL STEEL. 

Judgment and Carefulness in Hardening — Successful Hardening — 
Different Quenching Baths — Their Effect on Steel — General 
Directions and Rules for the Hardening of Steel — Distortion 
Through Uneven Heating — The Hardening Fire and the Heat — 
Quenching for Hardening — The Hardening of Long Slender 
Tools — Hardening Small Parts and Long Thin Parts — Harden- 
ing in Solutions — Heating in Hot Lead for Hardening — Hard- 
ening Metal Saws — Mixture to Prevent Lead from Sticking 



CONTENTS. 9 

when Heating for Hardening — Hardening Long Taper Ream- 
ers — The Use of Clay in Hardening — Special Instructions for 
Hardening and Tempering — Hardening and Tempering Round- 
thread Dies — Hardening Bushings, Shell Reamers, Hobs, etc. — 
Hardening and Tempering Collet Spring Chucks — The Taylor- 
White Process for Treating Steel 95'to ii^ 

CHAPTER V. 

TEMPERING BY COLORS — IN OIL — ON HOT PLATES — BY THERMOMETER — IN HOT 

WATER — IN THE SAND BATH — BY SPECIAL METIlODii. 

Tempering — Tempering in the Sand Bath — The Effects of Slow 
Heating and Tempering — Tempering in Oil — Hardening and 
Tempering Springs — Blazing off Springs — Tempering Rock 
Drills in Crude Oil — Hardening and Tempering Mill 
Picks — Straightening Hardened Pieces that .have Warped 
— Tempering Thin Articles — Tempering in the Charcoal 
Flame — Tempering Wood-planer Knives — Tempering Swords 
and Cutlasses — Drawing Polished Steel Articles to a 
Straw Color or Blue — Tempering Solutions — Table of Melt- 
ing Points of Solids — Table of Tempers to Which Tools 
should be Drawn — Table of Suitable Temperatures for An- 
nealing, Working and Hardening — Table of Suitable Tem- 
peratures for Case-hardening, Core Ovens, Drying Kilns, Bak- 
ing Enamels and Vulcanizing Rubber — Table of Temper Colors 
of Steel 1 17 to 128 

CHAPTER VI. 

CASE-HARDENING PROCESSES — THE USE OF MACHINERY STEEL FOR CUTTING 

TOOLS AND THE TREATMENT OF IT. 

The Use of Machine Steel for Press Tools — Outfit for Fine- 
Grain Case-hardening — Packing and Heating the Work — Case- 
hardening Cutting Tools — How to Case-harden, Color and An- 
neal with Granulated Raw Bone — To Case-harden Without 
Colors — Hardening Extra-heavy Work — Hardening Drawbridge 
Disc and Similar Work — Hardening Five-inch Thrust Bearing 
Rings — How to Harden Rolls, Leaving Tenons Soft for Rivet- 
ing — How to Case-harden Malleable Iron — How to Use Old 
Bone — Bone and Charcoal — Using the Tell-tale — Obtaining Col- 
ors with Granulated Raw Bone — Preparation of the Work — 
Charring the Bone — Packing the Work — Heating — The Bath — 
How to Dump the Work — Cleaning the Work — Colors from a 
Light Straw to a Deep Blue — Directions for Annealing with 
Granulated Raw Bone — Cooling — Annealing Low-carbon Steel 
Bars — Annealing Iron Castings — Case-hardening with Cyanide 
of Potassium — Accurate Sectional Case-hardening — To Produce 



lO CONTENTS. 

Fine-grained Hardened Machine-steel Parts — Case-hardening 
the Ends of Steel Rails — Very Deep Case-hardening — To Case- 
harden Small Iron Parts — To Case-harden with Charcoal — 
Moxon's Method of Case-hardening — A Case-hardening Mixture 
for Iron — A Case-hardening Paste — Case-hardening Polished 
Parts — Case-hardening as it should be Understood 129 to 142 

CHAPTER Vn. 

HARDENING AND TEMPERING MILLING CUTTERS AND SIMILAR TOOLS. 

Hardening Milling Cutters in the Open Fire — Hardening Large 
Milling Cutters — Hardening and Tempering Milling Cutters in 
Water and Oil — Advantages of the Method — Hardening V- 
shaped Milling Cutters — Hardening Hollow Mills — Milling 
Cutters 143 to 155 

CHAPTER Vni. 

HARDENING, TEMPERING AND STRAIGHTENING ALL KINDS OF SMALL TOOLS. 

Hardening Ring Gages — Dipping Small Tools when Hardening — 
Dipping Half-round Reamers or "Gun" Reamers when Hard- 
ening — Dipping Fluted Reamers when Hardening — Straighten- 
ing Long Tools which have Warped in Hardening — Hardening 
Very Thin Tools so as to Prevent Warping — Warping of 
Long Tools in Hardening — Temperature Tell-tales for Use 
in Heating Steel — Working Steel for Tools — Hardening Small 
Saws — Hardening Cutter-bits — Hardening Mixture for General 
Smith Work — Tempering Flat Drills for Hard Stock — To Tem- 
per Gravers — To Temper Old Files — Hardening and Tempering 
Small Taps, Knives. Springs, etc. — Tempering Small Spiral 
Springs — ^To Draw Small Steel Parts to a Blue 156 to 161 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE HARDENING AND TEMPERING OF DIES AND ALL KINDS OF PRESS TOOLS FOR 

THE WORKING OF SHEET METAL. 

The Hardening and Tempering of Press Tools— Hard or Soft 
Punches and Dies— Hardening and Tempering Drop Dies- 
How to Harden Large Ring Dies— How to Harden a Long 
Punch so as to Prevent Warping— Steel for Small Punches 
—Hardening a Bianking Die— Cracks in Dies— Their Cause 
— Hardening the Walls of a Round Die— Reannealing a 
Punch, or a Die Blank — Warping of Long Punches in 
Hardening— Hardening Very Small Punches— l\Mnpering 
Small Punches— Hardening Fluids for Dies— Hardening Thick 



CONTENTS. II 

Round Dies — Hardening Poor Die Steel — Tempering a Combi- 
nation Cutting and Drawing Punch — Hardening and Tempering 
a Split Gang Punch — Hardening and Tempering Large "Cut- 
ting" or "Blanking" Dies 162 to 174 

CHAPTER X. 

FORGING AND WELDING — HOW TO ACCOMPLISH SATISFACTORY RESULTS IN 
7._E FORGING AND WELDING OF STEEL AND IRON — DROP- FCRJiNG. 

Welding Heats — A Good Welding Flux for Steel — Heating Steel 
for Forging — Steel for Tools which Require to be Forged — 
High-grade Steel Forgings in America — How Hollow Shafts 
are Forged — Difficulties Encountered in Introducing High- 
grade Forgings — Cold Crystallization does not Occur — Tests 
of Steel under Repeated Stresses — Charcoal — Welding Powder 
for Iron and Steel — To Make Edged Tools from Cast Steel and 
Iron — To Weld Cast Iron — Welding Composition for Cast Steel — 
How to Restore Overheated Steel — Composition to Toughen 
Steel — Pointer — To Weld Buggy Springs — A French Welding 
Flux — Compound for Welding Steel — Fluxes for Soldering and 
Welding — Substitute for Borax in Welding — Drop-forging — 
Directions for Setting up Forging Drop-Hammers — Government 
Use of Nickel Steel for Forgings 175 to 194 

CHAPTER XI. 

MISCELLANEOUS METHODS, PROCESSES, KINKS, POINTERS AND TABLES FOR 

USE IN METAL WORKING. 

Increasing the Size of a Reamer when Worn — To Case-harden 
Cast Iron — Improved Soldering and Tinning Acid — Rules for 
Calculating Speed — Lubricant for Water Cuts — Babbitting — Lay- 
ing out Work — Lubricant for Working Aluminum — To Prevent 
Rust — Lubricant for Drilling Hard Steel — Coppering Polished 
Steel Surfaces — To Blue Steel Without Heating — To Remove 
Scale from Steel — To Distinguish Wrought Iron and Cast 
Iron from Steel — Anti-friction Alloy for Journal Boxes — Solder 
for Aluminum — Case-hardening with Kerosene — Case-harden- 
ing Cups and Cones — Drills — Reamer Practice — Reamers and 
Reaming — Number of Teeth Generally Milled in Reamers — 
Grinding Twist Drills — Circular Forming Tools — Plain Form- 
ing Tools — Facing — Counterboring — Soldering — Lacquer for 
Brass Articles — Removing Rust from Polished Steel and Iron — 
Miscellaneous Information — Useful Information — Table of 
Decimal Equivalents of Millimeters and Fractions of Milli- 
meters — Table of Decimal Equivalents of Parts of an Inch — 
Table of Constants for Finding Diameter at Bottom of Thread — 



12 CONTENTS. 

—Table of English or American (U. S.) Equivalent Meas- 
ures—Table of Weights and Areas of Round, Square and 
Hexagon Steel— Table of Weights of Iron and Steel Sheets 
— Table of Weights of Square and Round Bars of Wrought 
Iron in Pounds per Lineal Foot— United States Weights and 
Measures— Table of Tap Drills for Machine Screw Taps — 
Table of Size of Drills for Standard Pipe Taps— Table of 
Different Standards for Wire Gage used in U. S.— Table of 
United States Standard Screw Threads — Formulas for Sharp 
V Thread, United States Standard Thread, Whitworth 
Standard Thread— The Acme Standard Thread— Table of 
Thread Parts — Table of Average Cutting Speeds for Drills — 
Table of Cutting Speeds — Horse Power of Belts — Cutting 
Lubricant I95 to 225 

CHAPTER XII. 

GRINDING — THE ACCURATE AND RAPID GRINDING OF TOOLS AND SMALL 
■ MACHINE PARTS — EMERY WHEELS — THEIR USE. 

Cutter and Tool Grinding — Prominent Features — Grinding a Spiral 
Mill — Grinding Angular Cutters — Grinding Side-milling Cut- 
ters — Grinding Milling Cutters or Metal Slitting Saws from 8 
to 12 Inches in Diameter — Gear Cutter Grinding — Grinding 
Formed Cutters — How to Grind a Worm-wheel Hob — Grinding 
a Hand Reamer — Grinding a Taper Reamer — How to Grind a 
Hardened Drilling Jig Bushing — How to Grind a Taper Spindle 
— How to Grind a Slitting Knife with Beveled Edges — Internal 
Grinding — Grinding a Straight Edge — Grinding a Shear Plate 
— How to Grind a Die Blank" to the Required Angle — Grinding 
a Formed Tool on its Face — The Emery Wheel Used as a 
Metal Slitting Saw — Grinding a Gage to a Given Dimension — 
Attachment for Surface Grinding — How to Grind Milling Cut- 
ters and Metal Slitting Saws Straight or Concave — General 
Directions — Diamond Tool Holder — A Small Cutter Grinder — 
Illustration Showing Various Work Performed on a Different 
Type of Universal Cutter and Tool Grinder — Attachments 
which are Used on the Machine — Emery Wheels — Their Use — 
Approximate Speeds for Emery and Polishing Wheels — Table 
of Articles Made from Crucible Steel, Giving About Percent- 
age of Carbon they should Contain 226 to 275 



CHAPTER I. 

STEEL^ ITS SELECTION AND IDENTIFICATION STEEL FOR VARIOUS 

PURPOSES THE TREATMENT AND WORKING OF WELL-KNOWN 

BRANDS OF TOOL STEEL THE EFFECTS OF HEAT. 

Selection and Identification of Steel. 

It would be a fine thing if we could start with giving the 
name of a brand of tool steel which would answer for all kinds 
of tools ; would harden without trouble, and temper evenly in the 
"good old-fashioned way." But as we cannot do this, we can 
only hope that some day a steel which will answer for all purposes 
will be produced; until then we must rest content with what 
we have got and through experience learn of the best brand of 
steel to use for a given purpose. 

There is absolutely no economy in purchasing tool steel be- 
cause it is cheap. In fact, economy in steel can only be obtained 
by purchasing a grade of steel which is uniformly of the best 
quality, as its superior lasting quality, and its ability to retain a 
cutting edge for long periods make it the cheapest and most 
satisfactory in the end. Such steel costs more in the beginning, 
but then cheap steel has often cost almost "its weight in gold" 
before it was thrown out. Almost every machinist, who has 
worked in any number of shops, has had experience with the 
different grades and brands of steel for tools, and he knows that 
cheap steel is expensive. 

As the first thing necessary to allow of successful metal work- 
ing, in any branch of the machinist's art is good steel, too much 
attention cannot be given to the selection of a steel of uniform 
quality. This can only be brought about through experience in 
working and using the different brands for purposes required, 
and when a grade has been procured which can be handled suc- 
cessfully and gives satisfaction in use, stick to it and never 
change until you are convinced that you have struck a better one. 

After having selected the brands and grades of steel that are 
suited for the classes of work required, adopt some method of 
marking each separate brand so the workmen will be able to 
recognize them without the fire and water test. The best way 
to insure against difficulty arising from the mistakes in using 
the wrong brand of steel is to have each brand or grade striped 



14 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

• 

\vith a different color paint. Have some one stripe the steels 
along their entire length, as soon as received, and either place each 
brand in a separate rack with the name of the steel on it, or have 
a board hanging near the steel rack with short stripes of paint of 
the colors used and the name of each brand next the stripe de- 
noting it. In this manner the brand of steel desired can be found 
in a moment with the certainty that it will be the right brand. 

Steel for Different Purposes. 

For small reamers, taps, small round punches, which are to 
cut at slow speeds, and other tools of a like nature, use drill rod, 
not necessarily Stubs — any good American drill rod will answer 
as well. Never use a very high carbon steel for taps and dies or 
other threading tools. 

Die Steel. 

In no branch of the machinist's art should more attention be 
given to the importance of the proper selection of steel than in 
die-making, as the working qualities of the tools when finished 
and their efficiency depend upon this more than anything else. 

When ordering steel which is to be used for dies be sure to 
specify that annealed steel is wanted, as the saving of time and 
laJ)or in the working of it, and the certainty of the results in the 
hardening and tem])ering of it after the re-annealing, will be a 
source of gratification to the mechanic. When these results 
are considered the slight extra cost of annealed steel is insig- 
nificant. 

As to the grade of steel to use for dies, be sure to get a good 
grade, and as there are several brands of steel on the market 
v.'hich are used ])rincipally for dies and punches no difficulty 
should l)c cxi)cricnccd in procuring a grade or brand which will 
prove suital)le for any special class of sheet-metal work. 

Steel Die For gin gs. 

When steel forgings are required, from which dies are to 
l)e made, the job should be given to a smith who understands 
this l:)ranch of his art, as in order for the forgings to machine 
well and allow of l)eing hardened and tempered as desired, so 
that the finished tools will accomplish the required results, the 
smith must understand such work. As too hij^^-h a welding lieat, 
a raw weld joint, ra])id cooling of the forging and other effects 



STEEL^ ITS SELECTION AND IDENTIFICATION 15 

of carelessness are often responsible for the spoiling of an ex- 
pensive tool in hardening, a good smith is necessary for such 
work. 

The Treatment of High-Carbon Steel. 

The treatment of high-grade tool steel is a subject which has 
been discussed often and to great length, but it is one of the 
greatest importance to steel users and too much cannot be written 
on it. How often has a piece of steel been condemned as being 
of inferior quality when the fault lay, not in the steel, but in 
those who had selected and used it. The causes of failure in 
using a high-grade steel are numerous. Often the proportion of 
carbon is not right for the purpose required ; then again, the steel 
is overheated when forging, annealing, hardening or tempering, 
most frequently in the tempering process, which in high-grade 
steel is a delicate operation requiring knowledge, skill and ex- 
perience. 

It is impossible for a machinist to determine the correct har- 
dening process for high-carbon steels unless he is familiar with 
the characteristic appearance of fractures of a specimen which 
has been treated properly. Any operator who has worked steel 
of good quality and is familiar with the 'appearance of the differ- 
ent fractures has no difficulty in avoiding injurious treatment 
during the hardening process. It is, however, impossible to 
describe the appearance of fractures of high-grade steel of various 
hardness in a manner to allow of their being understood by 
mechanics in general, or in fact to be practically useful to any 
great extent, this knowledge only being communicated to the 
operator through experience. 

Experimental Treatment. 

Some idea may be gained of the great and varied alterations 
produced in high-carbon steel through the different methods of 
hardening by a description of a test experiment. If a forged or 
rolled bar of high-grade steel is nicked at a number of places 
equidistant apart along its entire length a, suitable specimen will 
be obtained for experimental purposes. Place one end of the bar 
in the fire far enough to allow of heating the first section up to 
the nick to a white heat. Thus the rest of the bar, being out of 
the fire, will be heated to a decreasing temperature toward the 
other end. As soon as the first section is at a white heat, thus 
burning the steel, through its being of a high carbon percentage, 



i6 



IIARDKNING, TEMPKRINC; AND ANN KALI NC. 



and the heat of the remainder of the har becomes a dull red, take 
the bar from the fire and quench it instantly into a cold water bath. 
Leave the metal in the bath until cold and then remove and drv 
it. By testing with a file the first section will, of course, prove 






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C 

CO 

C 

HI 

u 

T 



c 



the liardesl, and the intermediate sections o{ dcf^-rees of hardness 
])assinj^ from the softest to the hardest. 'I'hus the conditions of 
tlie different sections, when l)niken ai)art at the fracture i)oints. 
will show tlie operator {he results in the steel when liardened at a 
/T^ivcn temi)erature. On lireakinci^ tlie ])ieces at eacli neck it will be 




the end. Thus the selected piece or section, which has heen 
suhjected to the proper degree of heat in accordance with the 
carbon percentage of the steel, will be found to possess that per- 
fectly even grain and velvety appearance which is looked upon 
f ail experienced tool steel users as a condition to be prized in 




iS HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

hardened steel. The first pieces will probably show cracks from 
being quenched at too high a temperature, while those at the other 
end will be hardened throughout as desired. Thus, through an 
experiment of this kind, we learn that in order to make a piece of 
steel hard and tough the temperature must be sufficiently high 
to allow of hardening it through, but not high enough to open 
the grain. 

Tine Treatment and Working of Well-Knonm Brands of Toot 

Steel, 

The brands of tool steel in general use throughout the United 
States and the ones which are best known and understood among 
steel users are Jessop's, Hobson's, Crescent, Styrain, Howe- 
Brown, Sanderson's, Capital and a number of self-hardening 
brands.* In the following we give descriptions for the working 
of the different brands of which we have been able to obtain 
data. For all high-grade steels the directions will prove satis- 
factory. Figs. I and 2 show sections of shapes and sizes of file 
steel. 

Heating for Forging. 

For Jessop's steels heating for forging is, in its way, quite 
as important as heating for hardening; care and uniformity in 
the application of the heat in the first instance is very essential. 
Should the steel be overheated in this process no amount of care 
afterward will restore the steel to its former state or remedy the 
evil ; therefore, when forging, watch the blast and see that the thin 
edges or exposed parts do not heat too fast. 

In tools carrying a cutting edge, finishing cold and hammer- 
ing hard is beneficial, such as forgings for cutting dies, for in- 
stance. 

Heating for Hardening. 

Then comes the vital process of hardening, and no fixed gen- 
eral rules will answer, as skill and experience are the only reliable 
standbys. However, a few points will help in the attainment of 
satisfactory results. Heat slowly and evenly in a charcoal or a 
coal fire or in a gas muffle. Most mistakes and accidents are due 
to the steel not being heated to the same temperature throughout : 
particularly is this so in larpfe articles such as dies. 

If possible, dip on a rising heat, that is, do not take a tool from 
the fire and wait until it becomes air cool ; see that you get it the 



40 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

slowly to a red heat, then allow it to lie in the ashes a few min- 
utes until almost black, then drop it into soapsuds and allow it 
to cool. 

V^ery often a piece of steel annealed in this manner will turn 
out much softer than if annealed in the regular manner by packing 
in powdered charcoal and allowing it to cool over night. A good 
way to make sure as to the time to drop the steel into the bath, 
is to allow it to cool until almost black, then touch it with a file, 
if the steel does not brighten for an instant and then turn blue, 
wait a few seconds and repeat the experiment. If, upon the 
second trial, the blue appears and then a spark right afterward, 
drop the steel instantly into the bath, and when cool it will be 
found to be as "soft as butter." 

Sometimes a piece of steel which is to be used as a punch or 
die blank, upon starting to machine it, proves hard, although it 
has been annealed. When this is the case, never trv to finish it 
before reannealing it ; instead, rough it down, clean out the cen- 
ters and anneal it over again. The time required to reanneal a 
piece of steel will be more than made up in the machining of it. 

The Effects of the Water Anneal 

Although it may seem strange to some, it is a fact that results 
possible to attain in steel which has been water annealed cannot 
be obtained by any other methods. Water annealing seems to 
give a certain texture to the grain of the steel, which is not ex- 
actly softness, but is different from that obtained by charcoal ash 
annealing. When a piece of steel has been properly water annealed 
and is turned in the lathe using a lubricant, it will present a 
strange dead-white appearance and the turnings will be short 
and come off like little bristles. 

In steel annealed in the usual manner the turnings will gen- 
erally come off in long close-curled lengths, and the surface 
of the work will present a more or less torn texture, even when 
the tool used is very keen. This tearing is caused by the steel 
being so soft as to give way and crowd up into little lumps just 
slightly ahead of the cutting edges of the tool. Thus in cutting 
screw threads in ordinary annealed steel it is almost impossible to 
get a smooth, clean thread. 

• The water annealing, however, seems to overcome this un- 
pleasant feature, in that it seems to give the rccjuisite stiffness 
of texture to prevent this tearing. Considering the results, the 



ANNEALING PROCESSES. 4I 

water anneal will contribute to the best results being attained in 
a large variety of lathe work. 

We are unable to state just what chemical or molecular action 
the water anneal has on steel. It is not a softening action, as 
compared with the effects of ordinary annealing, but instead a 
stiffness and tightness of the particles which allows the cutting 
edge of the tool to creep beneath the shell and peel it off. 

The Annealing of Tap Steel. 

Most of the large establishments in which taps, reamers, etc., 
are manufactured hav^ most of their steel annealed at the places 
where it is made. This has been done for some years wnth the 
possible exception of the steel from which long stay-bolt taps 
are made, they having been found to require more care in anneal- 
ing than the steel manufacturers give them. 

During an interview a few years ago, Mr. F. A. Pratt, of the 
famous American firm of Pratt & Whitney, spoke as follows in 
regard to the working of tap steel : 

"We have most of our tap steel annealed at the place where 
it is made. We have had it done in this way for some years, with 
the exception of our long stay-bolt taps, which we have found 
to require more care in annealing than the steelmakers give them. 

"More steel is injured, and sometimes spoiled, by over-anneal- 
ing than in any othet way. Steel heated too hot in annealing will 
shrink badly when being hardened; besides, it takes the life out 
of it. It should never be heated above a low cherry red, and it 
should be a slower heat than it is when being hardened. It should 
be heated slowly and given a uniform heat all over and through 
the piece. 

"This is difficult to do in long bars and in an ordinary furnace. 
The best way to heat a piece of steel, either for annealing or 
hardening, is in red hot, pure lead. By this method it is done 
uniformly and ore can see the color all the time. We do some 
heating for annealing in this way, and simply cover up the piece 
in saw-dust, and let it cool there, and we get good results. All 
steelmakers know the injurious effects of over-heating steel and of 
over-annealing, but their customers are continually calling for 
softer steel and more thorough annealing. Until users are edu- 
cated up to the idea of less annealing and to working harder steel, 
both will suffer, for the user will continually complain of poor 
steel. 



42 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

"Several years since we caught on to the fact that steel was 
injured by over-annealing, and that good screw threads could not 
be cut in steel that was too soft ; our men would rather take the 
steel bar direct from the rolls without any annealing than take the 
risk of annealing. At present we get it from the makers in passa- 
ble condition, but not as it should be, and unless the steelmakers 
find some way to heat the bars to a uniform heat, and at a low 
cherry red, we must either use it raw from the bar or anneal 
it ourselves. We find, also, that this soft annealing makes a much 
greater shrinkage and spoils the lead of the thread, and that from 
the bar without any annealing there is very little" trouble in this 
respect. 

"When O. H. and Bessemer machine steel was first introduced 
it was poorly made and hard to work. Users constantly urged 
the makers to make it softer, until when a maker could say his 
steel was as soft as iron, and not more than o.io to 0.15 of i per 
cent, carbon, he had the market. This company found out early 
that this soft machine steel was almost worthless. A shaft would 
bend easily in working, and if a lead screw was to cut it was not 
possible to get a smooth thread and a good finish. 

"Now we either make shafts and spindles of cast steel of a 
high carbon or of machine steel of about 50 per cent carbon, with- 
out annealing. Our men kicked at first, but now they complain 
if it is soft, because they cannot cut a good thread and cannot keep 
it as true.'* 

Re-Annealing Tap Blanks, 

Often, from impropef annealing, a tap blank proves too hard 
for thread cutting, this coming about in the annealing processes, 
from not heating properly or not knowing the nature of the steel. 
When this is the case always re-anneal the blank, and the loss 
of temper and wearing out of good tools in trying to cut a thread 
on too hard stock will be obviated. Before re-annealing take a 
rough cut-off and clean out the centers. 

Hozv to Heat for Annealing. 

When annealing steel, heat very slowly to a red — never heat 
it hot enough to raise scale — and allow lots of time for cooling. 
A i)iecc of steel heated hot enough to scale will never work well 
unless rc-annealcd by some method which will restore it from its 
ahiiost burnt state. 



ANNEALING PROCESSES. 43 

Annealing a Sfnall Quantity of Steel. 

When only a small quantity of steel is required heat to a 
cherry red in a charcoal fire and pack in sawdust in an iron box. 
Keep the steel in the pack until cold. For a large quantity, which 
is required to be very soft, pack with granulated charcoal in an 
iron box as follows: Having at least % or ^ inch in depth of 
charcoal in the bottom of the box, add a layer of granulated char- 
coal to fill spaces between the steel, and also J/2 or ^ inch space 
between the side of the box and the steel, then more steel, and 
finally i inch in depth of charcoal well packed on top of the steel. 
Heat to a red and hold for from two to three hours and do npt 
remove the steel from the box until cold. 

Annealing Steel in the Open Fire. 

Although the annealing of steel can be best accomplished by 
some of the regular packing materials, there are cases, such as an 
emergency job, when this cannot be resorted to, because of the 
time necessitated. When a piece of annealed steel is wanted in a 
hurry, try heating in an open fire and water annealing — heating 
in a charcoal fire to a dull red, then letting the steel cool natur- 
ally in the day light until the red disappears, and then quenching 
in cold water. 

Quick Methods for Softening Steel. 

In the following we give a few methods for the quick anneal- 
ing of steel, gathered from various sources : 

Cover over with tallow, heat to a cherry red in a charcoal fire 
and allow it to cool itself. 

Heat the steel to a low cherry red and allow to cool in a dark 
place until black. Then quench in the juice or water of common 
beans. 

Cover with clay, heat it to a cherry red in a charcoal fire and 
allow to cool slowly. 

. To Anneal Doubtful Steel. 

There are some kinds of steel which will not anneal satisfac- 
torily even when packed in air-tight boxes in powdered charcoal. 
To anneal steel of this kind, cover it with fine clay and heat to 
a red heat and allow it to cool over night in the furnace. 

Annealing Chilled Cast-Iron Dies for Drilling. 
As drawing and forming dies are often made of chilled cast 



44 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

iron, and as not' infrequently holes are required to be drilled in 
them, it is well to know how to soften it to allow of drilling the 
holes. To do this, heat the die to a cherry red and let it lie on 
the coals. Then place a piece of brimstone, circular in shape and 
a little larger in diameter than the hole to be drilled, on the spot 
where the hole is to be. Let the die lie in the fire until it has died 
out and the metal has cooled, and the brimstone will have softened 
the iron entirely through within the radius of its diameter when 
solid. 

Annealing White or Silver Iron. 

To anneal white or silver iron so that it may be drilled or 
chipped, put it into a steel furnace or other converting furnace 
together with a suitable quantity of ironstone, iron ore, some of 
the metallic oxides, lime, or any other combination of these sub- 
stances reduced to a powder, or any other substance capable of 
combining with or absorbing the carbon of the crude iron. The 
more or the longer the heat is applied, the more nearly malleable 
the iron will become. 

The Annealing of Malleable Castings and the Manufacturing of 

Malleable Iron Machine Parts. 

One of the largest establishments in this country devoted to 
the manufacture of malleable iron machine parts, is situated in 
Hoosick Falls, N. Y., and is controlled by the Walter A. Wood 
j\ lowing and Reaper Machine Company. A description of their 
plant, methods, etc., will tend to an intelligent understanding of 
how malleable iron machine parts are produced. 

The Foundry and Preparation of the Castings, 

The malleable department, exclusive of its sheds, has a floor 
space of over 163,000 square feet, the foundry alone measuring 
485 X 125 feet. In this department, in which 350 men are em- 
ployed, of whom 13s are molders, there are three furnaces with a 
capacity of three heats each in a twelve-hour day. The largest 
furnace, almost at the entrance of the foundry, will melt fourteen 
tons of metal at each heat, while the other two in the center of 
the foundry and at the extreme end, respectively, will each melt 
ten tons. 

The castings produced are. mostly of small size and are made 
from gated patterns. After they have been removed from the 
molds they are broken from the gates and arc sent to the preparing 



ANNEALING TROCESSES. 



45 



Ent, where they are sorted, and all lumps, fins and gate 
■ removed. The castings as they come from the molds are 
almost as brittle as glass and it is possible to split or break them 
with a light blow of a hammer. It is very interesting to watch 
;ii in this operation. They can take a casting, set the 
(edge or lump to be removed on an iron block and break it off 
^t the joint with one blow, leaving the portion where the joint 
yvas as smooth as the rest of the casting. 

Annealing Furnaces^PackiiLg the Castings. 

After the castings have been sorted and prepared they go to 

bnother department to be packed into the annealing pots. These 

»ots are cast, and are about 24 inches long, 12 inches deep and 

jJ2 inches wide, and an inch thick. A mixture consisting of 

a^mmon sand, fine stee! tumings and steel scale from the rolling 

s then wet with sal-ammoniac (which prevents the steel 

Murnmgs and scale from -adhering to the castings during the an- 

tttealkig process) and packed around the castings in the annealing 

ftpots. The pots are now taken to the annealing room. In this 

T'toom there are eight ovens, the walls of which are three feet 

thick and the tops and bottoms four feet thick. To build each of 

these ovens 4,500 red brick and 1.500 white or firebrick were re- 

. .quired. In each oven there are flues three feet square, running 

iie full length of the oven and out into the stack at one end. . 

There is also one intermediate flue, and a flue at each side into 

J-which the crude oil blast is fed. 

Different Methods of Packing Castings in Pots. 

There are various methods for packing castings for annealing. 

The term "packing" is a shop one applied to the class of materials 

V^vhich are used for the above purpose, and in addition, supply 

(xygen or have the latter in their composition. A number of 

filifferent materials are used for the former purpose which are 

Bused principally on lighter castings. Almost anything that will 

■Stand up well while hot is suitable, like ground burned fire brick, 

■ Iron borings, and sand. As they of themselves do not supply 

jDxygen, it is necessary in using them that oxygen be obtained 

jliy means of a coating of rust or oxide upon the castings either 

lefore or after charging the pots. In rusting them before, much 

[of the oxide becomes rubbed off in packing. Packing the cast- 

B-jngs wet will do, provided there is some certainty of their being 




The only way to heat steel properly and thoroughly is I 
expose it to the action of air when hot, as the air will decarl 
the surfaces considerably. Thus, when steel is heated in a muffle 
furnace an even degree of heat is assured and all air is excluded. 

Proper Equipment for Hardening and Tempering, 
The proper equipment for annealing, hardening and temper-S 
ing tools of different types can be decided by noting the variousl 
■descriptions for obtaining the best results given in this and other B 
<:liapters of the book. A number of types of furnaces, mufflersj 
and other arrangements are shown in this chapter and their use I 
and adaptation for different classes of work explained. 

Points- to be Remembered. 

To heat and cool steel properly, remember the following: 1 
Never heat a piece of steel which is to be annealed above a bright 
red. Never heat a piece to be hardened above the lowest heat at 
which it will harden, and the larger the piece the more time re- 
quired to heat it is required, which will have to be higher than a 
smaller piece of the same steel, because of the fact that a large 
piece takes longer to cool than a smaller piece, as when a large 
piece of steel is plunged into the bath a large volume of steam j 
arises and blows the water away from it, thus necessitating more I 
time in the cooling. Thus, when the tool or die is very la 
tank should be used to harden it in, into which a stream of cold 1 
water is kept constantly running, as otherwise the red hot steel J 
will heat the water to such a degree that the steel will remain ,f 
soft. 

The Location of the Heating Furnace. 

Although in a great many shops very little importance is I 
attached to the proper placing and locating of the furnace which 
is to be used during the hardening processes, it will be found that 
if the location chosen is in a darkened corner where the sun's 
rays will not come near it, the best restdts will be attained. No 
matter what kind of hardening is to he done, the heating arrange- 
ments should never be located where there is too strong a light, 
or where the sun shines in at any time of the day. If the light 
is uniform it will not be difficult to attain uniform residts, while, 
on the contrary, if the light is too bright, there is a chance of 
heating the steel too hot and, when it becomes darker, not hot 



HEATING STEEL — GAS BLAST FURNACES. 

lugh. When a uniform light is maintained during the day the 
men become accustomed to it and no trouble is experienced in get- 
ting the best of results. 

The Use of Gas Blast Furnaces oiid Heating Machines. 
The use of gas blast furnaces and heating machines has i 
become so extensive as to have almost completely superseded the 
old methods, and the furnaces and machines are now used in 
curing the highest possible efficiency in the use of heat for me- 
chanical purposes as well as in the processes of metallurgy and 
chemistry. 

Gas blast furnaces are designed for the economical use of gas 
as fuel in forges, crucible furnaces, annealing, enameling, case- 
hardening ovens, assaying, cupeling and other muffle furnaces, 
japanning ovens, and drying and baking kilns, in all of which 
the heat is generated by a properly proportioned mixture of gas 
and air. injected under positive pressure, through burners espe- 
cially adapted to each of the different kinds of gas in common 
use. 

Heating machines may he called "modem machine tools." 
"made for special heating processes, as they are combinations of 
gas furnaces and moving machinery for the automatic feeding 
I and discharging of work which is to be annealed, hardened, tem- 
pered or forged in quantities. 

The chief advantages derived from the use of gas as a fuel are 
the perfect adjustment of temperatures to suit exact require- 
ments, which is impossible with either solid or liquid fuel ; the , 
ease with which any desired degree of heat can be obtained by 
[ simple adjustments of two valves, the uniformity of its distri- 
I bvtion within given space, the partial or complete absence of oxida- 
. tion, and. generally, the perfectly uniform condition under which 
any heating process can be performed irrespective of the quanti- 
, ties of work to be heated. 

The gas consumption, cost of gas as compared with other 
fuel, while an important factor in determining the adoption of 
gas furnaces for the cruder operation of melting or forging, 
scarcely deserves consideration with reference to furnaces or 
heating machines for hardening, tempering or annealing large 
quantities of work, because no approximately equal amount of 
perfect work can be produced by the use of any other fuel than 
gas. 



1 
I 




54 



AND ANNE-VLIXG. 



I 



Gas Blast Forces — Their Use. 

Gas blast forges heat the work quickly, uniformly, and withfl 
little or no scale. They are always ready for use and develop'l 
the required amount of heat in a few minutes. They are used in -I 
machine shops for tool dressing and forging; in the production of .J 
quantities of small forgings, such as cutlery, and for drop forg-i 
ings generally. 

While offering decided advantages, no siiigle gas forge or I 
furnace can replace the ordinary coal forge in everything, because j 
I be thoroughly effective, as well as economical in gas con- I 
sumption, the gas forge must be made for a definite range of | 
work, and its healing space limited so as to conform to its s 
and shape, with only fair allowance for clearance space. 

In order to determine the applicability of any of the various I 
styles of gas forges now on the market, the dimensions of the 
entrance, height, width, depth, and length of the heating chamber 
must be considered, and a fair allowance made for clearance. 
When samples of work to be done are furnished to the manu- 
facturers of such machines, together with a statement of thei 
quantities to be heated in any given time, they will design special'^ 
forges. 

When gas blast forges are used in forging the overheating of 1 
the metal is entirely prevented, a non-oxidizing atmosphere re- 
ducing the scale to a minimum, thus supplying properly heated 1 
slock as fast as it can be handled. 

For welding, special forges should always be designed for any i 
particular kind of work, so that the blast will be confined closely j 
tn the joint to be made. In welding tires, the diameter, width | 
and thickness will determine the shape of the entrance to the forge 
and conform to it. 

Combination Gas Fttrnace for General Machine Shop Work. 

In Fig, 26 we illustrate a combination gas furnace ready to 
operate. 

This furnace combines on one base three most useful furnaces 
for general machine shop and tool work. It will heat quickly 
and uniformly any piece or pieces that will go into its various 
openings. The muffle can be heated to a good heat for hardening 
in from ten to twelve minutes and kept at the desired temperature 
indefinitely. The forge will heat a piece i inch round to a good 



HEATING STEEL — GAS BLAST FURNACES, 55 

lardening heat in one minute, starting with the furnace cold. 
(The crucible full of lead can be heated to cherry red in about 

hirty-five minutes. 

A furnace of this type occupies very little room ; does not 
I require to be connected to chimney; can be placed right in the 
■ tool room or anywhere it is most convenient; can be started in- 
Istantly, and covers a range of uses that makes it practically indis- 
ipensable. All sorts of sma!! tools, such as dies, milling cutters, 




rs, punches, taps, drills, springs, cutlery, marking rolls, 
an be heated in the muffle under the best possible condi- 
ptions. 

A section of this combination furnace, showing the muffle 
rwith walls cut away to illustrate arrangements of combustion 
iiamber and muffle, is shown in Fig. 27. 

The flame is projected from the double burners downward into 
I'-the chamber encircling the muffle : the lining is of such shape that 
I'ia rotary' motion is imparted to the flame, causing same to distii- 




PEHINO AND AXNEALING. 

bute itself tvenly all over the inclosed space: the products of 
combustion are drawn off by the two small openings at the top of 
the chamber. The muffle is 
heated rapidly and evenly 
throughout; the degree of heat 
is under perfect control ; the 
work is absolutely secluded from 
the products of combustion, a ■ 
feature of the greatest import-B 
ance in heating dies, milling cut-^fl 
ters and other expensive tools. ' 
Absolute uniformity can be 
mamtained ; overheating can be 
entirely avoided, difficult pieces , 
can be hardened without danger 
of cracking by reason of an even.^ 
heat throughout. 

Every manufacturer whose,! 
product involves the machining'! 



HEATING STEEL GAS BLAST FURNACES. 57 

f metals realizes the necessity of having modern apparatus for 
lystematically applying heat, the output of his entire plant depend- 
fcg quite as much on the temper of his tools as on any other one 
Xindition. To get good results from tools use good steel and 
larden and temper it properly and the result will invariably be 
jatisfactory. 

The forge section of this furnace is shown in Fig. 28. 

The combustion chamber is circular in form and is heated 




. 29.- 



ilCTION" OK I'lTRNACE. 



trners which project the flame downward, the form of 

le lining giving the flame a rotary motion, evenly distributing 

all over the chamber. The heat is under perfect control. This 

Horge is very convenient for dressing and hardening tools and 

Ismail forgings and for a variety of work where seclusion from the 

■oducts of combustion is not required. 

In Fig. 29 is shown the crucible section of the furnace. The 



6o 



. TEMPERING AND AN: 




quired. Two burners project into the heating chamber from the 
liislributing pipe, D, W, so adjusted that direct contact of Uie 
flames with the work is avoided. Perfect combustion is steadily 
maintained, the work is quickly and evenly heated and oxidization 
red'iced to a minimum. 

The furnace is connected with air by a tin pipe at B, and the 




cock A controls the air supply. Gas connects with union from 
the nearest supply pipe by ^-inch pipe at P. and globe valve G 
controls the gas supply. The small cock C feeds a "pilot light" 
in the mouth of the furnace, which is left burning so as to 
instantly light the forge when the main supply is turned on. The 
bottom of the furnace can he cleaned of scaling by removing a 
plug which is held in place by the set screw I. which passes 



I 



■ough the hanger, K. The air relief valve R is a test valve to 
low the air pressure at the furnace, and when this has hcen found 

icient it can be weighted down tight. 

Gas Forge for Heating Drop-Forgiiigs. 

Tlie style of forge shown in Fig. 32 is extensively used for 
drop forgings, to heat blanks continuously and keep them at the 
proper heat. The heating space is 10 inches deep, 8 inches wide 
and 3 inches high. The burners, B, penetrate the chamber from 
opposite sides and the flames do not strike the work direct. The 
blanks rest upon a fire brick bottom, which is removable from the 
rear for cleaning out tlie chamber. This forge is extensively used 
in connection with oil gas, but can be adapted to every other 
kind. 

Air Tempering Furnace. 
Ar tempering furnaces of the type shown in Fig. 33 arc used 
for drawing the temper of steel work of all kinds, but more espe- 
cially for small light work in quantities. While cutters, punches, 
dies and knife blades are perfectly tempered in heated oil, in oil 
tempering furnaces, the air tempering furnace is used when the 
oil stain is objectionable, or when it is desired to show a bright, 
clear, temper color of any desired shade, from a light straw to a 
blue or gray. 

The furnace contains' an iron muffle with a horizontal partition 
in the bottom which forms an air-heating chamber below the 
level of the entrance into which the air is forced from the blower 
which operates the furnace, the injection of which is controlled by 
the valve H. From this air heating chamber the heated air is 
distributed through numerous fine holes so as to keep the muffle 
filled with heated air under a slight pressure, which is exerted 
around a thermometer stem when the door is closed. 

The burner is controlled by the air valve A, and the gas valve. 
The connection with blower is to the drum, D, and gas is 

pught to the gas valve, G. The burner distributes the heat 
ider the muffle and around it, so that the atmospheric 

perature within the working space of the muffle is perfectly 
throughout. 

The work is placed upon a wire tray and evenly distributed 
its surface, and is constantly subjected to the action of fresh 

heated to the proper degree. 

The tray containing the work rests upon the open grating 




to the 600 (leg. required for a blue temper. This temperatiH 
being indicated by the thermometer, the work is inserted and th? 
door closed. The thermometer will then show a decided decrease 
in temperature due to the absorption of the heat by the work. 
After lapse nf a certain time, determined by the weight of the 




. 36- — OVEN FURNACE FOR HARDENING AND 



and the sirlc walls of even width throughout. The htirners, C. 
holted to the distributing channel, B, are transposed with refer- 
ence to the opposite series of burners, and arranged so that the 
injected flames pass one another in opposite directions alter- 
nately. The injection of the fuel under pressure forces the heat 



HEATIKn STEEL — GAS BLAST FURNACES. 6/ 

through the slots on each side of the slab, S, into the healing; 
chamber above it, in even volume, and when the combustion cham- 
ber under the slab, S, has been heated up, the heat rapidly accumu- 
^^ lates in the heating chamber. The products of combustion are 
released by the vent-holes, V, which being in tlie center, draw 
the heat upward from both sides, thus thoroughly heating thi; 
Toof of the oven, from which the heat is reflected downward. 

By the proportionate arrangement of all parts of the constriic- 
•tion the heated chamber is evenly heated, and a block of steel 
placed as shown in the cut, will be heated up with perfect even- 
ness simultaneously from all sides. The vestibuled entrance 
taaterially lessens the cooling-off effect produced by the opening 

loor, E. 

The gas supply and burners can be readily adjusted so that no 
fiame whatever will be visible in the heating chamber, but as this 
would conduce to oxidation, the proportion of gas is indicated 

vhen a very small flame issues from the vent, V, after tlie furnace 

las become thoroughly heated. For all metal work the at- 
mosphere in the heating chamber should be just visible by a 
"flimmering" effect, which indicates a non-oxidizing atmosphere. 
The advantages of an oven furnace over a "muffle" consist 
in the more immediate and direct action of the heat upon the 
work, the lessened running expense by dispensing with costly and 

srishabte muffles, and the adaptability of this furnace to very 

luch larger work. 

Case-Hardening Furnaces. 
Case-hardening furnaces of the type shown in Figs. 37 and 3S 
"e oven furnaces in construction, but being intended for work 
|uiring the continuous application of higher heat, the linings 
re much heavier, and the entrance is closed by sohd firebrick 
plugs, P, which are inserted and withdrawn by the cast iron car- 
lers, D. As their name indicates they are mainly used for the 
process of case-hardening in cast-iron boxes, but also for anneal- 
ing heavy steel dies, hubs, tool steel, etc. The slab which divides 
the combustion chamber from the heating chamber is heavier than 
oven furnaces, properly supported by brickwork to hear hea^'v 
'eights, and cast-iron rails are placed over the slab on which the 
ixes are removed in and out. 
The burners, B, cover the whole length of the heating space; 
opposite burners are connected to one gas and one air valve. 



I 





L-RNACE. 



the boxes inserted — and all parts of each box — are heated sim- 
ultaneously and alike, and that the heat can be kept constant at the 
maximum degree which the cast-iron boxes will stand. These 
advantages shorten the process materially, and when once the 
time required for a given amount and kind of work has been as- 
certained, the same result can be produced thereafter, in the same 
time. 




. ^>f. — CASli-HARDENIN'G FV 



I protected by the shape of the jaws as they close upon the blade 
I before entering the heating chamber. 

The speed of delivery is regulated by a countershaft with 
I friction cone, placed above the machine and connected with the 
L driving pull, H. The burners, B, emit a short focus flame from 
I both sides and are under ttie perfect control of the gas valve, G, 
|:and the air valve, A. The jaws of the link belt open as they pass 
•■over the center of the sprocket at I, where the blades are inserted, 
I dosing just as they enter the furnace, and the blades pass through 
[■ the heating space at the proper speed, first ascertained by a few 




pensed with. Where the blades differ in thickness or size, a fric- 
tion cone is indispensable. 

Heating Machine for Hardening Cones and Shells. 

In Fig. 40 is shown a furnace that is used for hardening 

cones, shells, pinions and similar small work, which can be stuck 

on the pins, which are inserted in the links of the endless chain. 

The work passes through the evenly heated furnace at a properly 



M k. 




FIG. 40. — HE ATTN I 




AND SHELLS. 



Sordingly, When used for a variety of work countershaft with 
friction cone pulleys is needed. 

Heating Machine with Revolving Trays. 

The furnace shown in Fig. 41 is used for tempering needles, 

mali blades, springs and screws. Its action depends upon heated 

, with temperature so regulated that articles of irregular shape 

1 be exposed to it long enough to inipart the correct color or 




FIG. 41,— HEATING MACHIN: 



i k. 



HEATING STEEL — GAS BLAST PUBNACES. 



73 



P 



at e 

W 



iper to the heavier section, without overheating the thinnest 
id lightest part of the same piece. This is acconiphshed by 
lation of the burner, which is usually divided into three sec- 
ins, each under separate control. By these means the injection 
the heat evenly throughout the furnace is easily secured, and 
le overheating of either end or the center is prevented. The ' 
heat an air chamber connected with the air drum by the 
[lipe and valve A3, and heated air is distributed in the heating 
chamber through perforations in the top of the air chamber under 
light pressure, relieved through the vent cock at K. The work is 
placed in tJie pans, DD, which rotate at a speed of twice or thrice 
per minute, hanging loosely from rods connected with spokes 
around the driving shaft in the center, which receives motion from 
fthe worm gear, IH, connected with power. The door, E, is closed 
■hen furnace is charged with work, and opened for its observation. 
pVhen open, the door forms a shelf or rest for the pans. The 
Ihermometer indicates a degree of temperature somewhat different 
from the actual heat in the furnace. Once tried for a certain 
temper of color, it is a perfect guide for repeating the same rc- 

mh. 

Heating Machine for Small Paris. 
The style of heating machine shown in Fig. 42 is used for 
heating large quantities of small steel work of uniform size and 
weight, evenly and uniformly, to any required degree for hard- 
ening, or for annealing the same, automatically. The work is 
placed on the cast-iron link belt, Ci, which revolves entirely 
within the heating chamber, N, except where momentarily exposed 
at entrance, M. to receive the work. The burners, B, penetrate 
:om each side of the furnace above the link belt, and are perfectly 
itrolled by the gas valve. G, and the air valve, A. 
The belt is supported by sprockets in the heating chamber, 
whose shafts revolve on the rolls, D. The belt is moved at re- 
quired speed by means of a friction cone which is placed above the 
machine and connects with the driving sprockets, F, by the chains, 
H. 
The weight and size of the work, and the degree of heat which 
requires, determine the speed at which the belt is moved, 
consequently the output. The temperature of the heating 
imber and the speed of the belt being under perfect control, 
output is only limited by the time it takes to heat the work to 
le exact degree required. 




Is, but which has since been used for hardening: detachable 
V teeth, pens, uuts, bolls, screws, and other work not exceed- 
j two and one-half inches in any dimension, is shown in Figs. 
3 and 44. 
Steel work of any shape is evenly and thoroughly heated to 




also depend upon the temperature of the water lo he used, ann 
will vary under different circumstances. 

Different methods are employed to cool oil baths. One is to 
draw the hot oi! from the top, running it through pipes immersuil 
in cold water, and pumping it back to the bottom of the tank 
cooled. Another is as illustrated. The tank holding the oil is 
shallow and water jacketed, the water being circulated at the rate 
rtquired to keep the bath at proper temperature, determined by 
reference lo a thermometer. 

Where the water supply itself is not sufficiently cool, the bath 



»\ 



tRttNG STEEL — ('.AS I 



77 



lay require cooling by ice, or the operation of tlie furnace may 
iiave to be limited to the capacity of the balh. 

In several instances a machine of the type has heated work 
ijaster than it could be cooled, and the possible output therefore 
greatly depends upon the bath. 

Coitstruction and Operation. 
The cylindrical bodv of the machine heavily lined with fire- 
brick incloses a solid cast-iron cyhnder with a spiral way, 2^ 
faiches to 3 inches wide. The shaft of this "spiral way cylinder" 
a heavy wrought-iron pipe containing the wrought-iroii spiral. 
This hollow shaft and the cast-iron spiral cylinder revolve 
;ether. The heat is generated over the drum and is evenly dis- 
ributed from both sides of the burners, R. The products of com- 
ustion are allowed to enter the spiral drum, thus excluding 
mospheric air from it to prevent oxidation, and find their veni 
irough the bottom of the furnace by being forced through the 
large, I. 

The work being placed in the hopper, B. which is kept filled to 
le level of the entrance, the scoop, C, revolving with the cylinder, 
lis itself with work as it is rotated downward, and empties its 
onlents into the stationary funnel, D, when it rotates to a position 
Siove it. From this feeding funnel, D, the work drops into the 
ifpiral way, E, and is propelled to the opposite end of the inner 
^iral, where it drops into the outer cast-iron spiral way, H. in 
iphich it is propelled in the opposite direction and drops from the 
ylinder, I, to the chute, K, into the cooling; bath, L. 

The stationary feeding funnel, D, with the scoop, C. the in- 
rior spiral. E, and the cast-iron spiral drum, IH, revolve to- 
:ther by action of the worm gear, P O. The number of revolu- 
kins required to discharge the work at the proper heat are experi- 
mentally ascertained, and the rate of discharge being once estab- 
lished, the machine will turn out a perfectly uniform product. 

The speed is regulated by a "friction cone" countershaft placed 
•overhead, from which the power is transmitted to the pulleys. Q. 
The furnace is lighted by withdrawing the ping, N, and turn- 
on the air full, inserting a torch, and then turning on just 
icient gas, so that the burners emit a perfectly blue flame, 
and air supply valves, A and G, permit the heat to be 
lated to exact requirements. The temreratnre of the drum 
be observed by the removal of the lighting plug, N, and by 



I 



HARDeHtKG, TSUPERIHG AND ANNEALING. 

means of the friction cone the time required for heating and dt 
livvry can be regulated with precision. 

It will usually require from 45 minutes to one hour to heat the 
•ipiral ways for hardening. At the expiration of that time the 
machinv will_mm out the work at a regular rate. Where thin 
and thick work are put through the machine together, the time of 
<klivi.'ry will bo determined by the heaviest article put through 
but ihe lightest or thinnest will not be overheated unless the tern- 
(H rature is allowed to increase beyond the highest degree requirt 
by hardoniug. 

The main body of the machine is a solid fireclay cylinder in- 
cluNcd by a heavy sheet-iron casing. All bearings are ball or 
roller ln-arings. needing hut little lubrication. Both heads of the 
litachine can be removed for the inserting of a new cylinder when 
required, the body of the furnace resting independently upon the 
ubU'i llnis remaining in position if heads are detached. 

Hi,\itin^ Machine for Tempering and Coloring Steel. I 

,\ itiiichl,uc for tempering and coloring steel work in quantities 
with (»crf«.'l uniformity is shown in Fig. 45. The cut represents 
iiit improved type of machine which has been in satisfactory opera- 
tion tor several years, for tempering and coloring pens, bicycle 
vbAin link blocks, penholders, saw teeth, screws, buttons, and 
uthi'V similar work not over two inches in any dimension. 

'I'hv operation is performed by subjecting the work to the 
■t^tion iif sand or ground flint heated to the proper degree re- 
ipiiivd ftT any grade of temper, and a bright, clean and perfectly 
uniiorui lemiwr color is obtained when the work has been properly 
ine^iiired for coloring by thorough cleansing. 

Thv vai>ai'ity of the machine depends upon the size and weight 
o( thv articles, but as a criterion for its efficiency we can say that 
«v Iwvv witnessed bicycle chain blocks and insertable saw teelh 
liamj put through at the rate of 150 pounds per hour. 

I'hc- wifk is placed in the hopper, X, containing a small scoop. 
Whiv'h M cvvry revolution deposits a measured quantity into a fun- 
\i/;\ l^dutfi ittlo the heating drum. This drum, contained in the 
^U^Hi iM'y t>( itif machine, is provided with a spiral way which 
uv4^li,^k\,V iH\ipels the work to discharge Z. 

^'^^e Vfxx%\ partitions are inclosed by a perforated cylinder, 
W\^\*V*ih vyhWh sand or flint heated to the proper temperature to 







above the work, so as to secure its even distribution into all the 
spiral divisions of the drum, thus eifecting its uniform action upon 
the work. 

The outer casing of the drum is subjected to an evenly distri- 





FIG. 46.— CIRCULAR 



(t 



[Sting steel — gas blast furnaces. Si 

1 by a given rate of delivery, the exact conditions of heat 
*and speed under which a variation of color or temper is obtained 
can be readily observed and the perfect liniformity of the ontput 
assured. 

Circular Annealing and Hardening Furnace. 

The furnace shown in Fig. 46 is used for heating large rims, 
*iiigs, discs, dies and other circular steel blocks which do not ex- 
ceed 30 inches in diameter and 10 inches in thickness. 

The illustration shows a circular block, K, resting upon the fire- 
trick supports, H, so placed that they do not in any way obstruct 
the flames emitted from the four burners, B, The direction of 
the flame is tangential at the proper angle, to secure a rotary or 
whirling motion of the flame, and the even distribution of the heat, 
effecting the perfectly even heating of the work. This should be 
placed centrally, i. e., equidistant from the inner walls of the 
cylindrical casing. 

The cover, D, is attached to the cover lift, and held by the 
adjustable chains, EE. It is lifted by a toggle joint by pulling the 
lever handle inserted in the socket, L, forward, and easily swings 
to either side. To replace the firebrick cover, the clasp, M, on 
the sheet iron belt which tightly incloses it is unscrewed, and a 
new brick lining inserted. The valve. G. admits gas and connects 
with the gas supply. A connects with air supply. 

Oil Tempering Furnaces. 
Furnaces of the type shown in Figs. 47 and 48 are used for 
tempering steel work in oil or tallow, and have the advantage 
over similar apparatus heated by coal that the heat is evenly dis- 
tributee! and penetrates the bath from all sides, that the temperature 
is under perfect control, that no flame can escape from the com- 
bustion chamber to ignite the oil or fumes arising from it, and 
that the temperature of the od can be raised to an exceptionally 
high degree without risk of flashing. They are made in shapes 
r and sizes to suit, round, square or oblong. 

Furnace. Fig. 47, has the bunie"-s, B, arranged in two separate 
ctions of four, two on each side, each section being under 
^arate control of the gas and air valves below the distributing 
1. D and E, respectively. 
To heat up the bath, both sots of burners are turned on, and 
1 the desired temperature is reached, as indicated by the ther- 





RING FURNACE. 



^gteli-iS^- 



temperature, and the work remains in the bath until the ther- 
mometer shows that the heat of the bath is restored in the proper 
degree. The best oil to be used is "Black Tempering Oil," gen- 
erallv supplied by the agencies of the Standard Oil Company, 




fcthat of a soft metal furnace. The pot is loj^ inches in diam- 
, lo inches deep, and the temperature is regulated by reference 
to the thermometer, T. held in place by the clamp, K. The bulb 
of the thermometer extends below the middle of the bath, and the 
burners are arranged to distribute the heat with perfect evenness 
jround the pot. 

For small work a wire basket is used to contain the articles to 
e treated, while larger work is suspended in the bath in any con- 
tnient way. The temperature being under the perfect control 
f the gas and air valves. G and A, the bath is heated until the 
Piermometer shows the proper heat. When work is submerged 
1 the bath it cools down, and the work remains there until the 



HEATING STEEL — GAS BLAST FURNACES. 85 

tnperature rises again to the original degree, when the work 
J removed. 

Healing Machine for Hardening Chain. 
This machine shown in Fig. 49 is one of many heating devices 
iuiit for special purposes. 

The idea successfully accomplished in this machine is to harden 
; made from sheet steel, which passes from reel Ri first 
through the heating space into the cooling bath and is received on 
reel R2 perfectly and uniformly hardened. 

By the accurate adjustment of burners and speed of travel a 
ierfect uniformity in hardness of all the links is secured, the 
loling hath is kept at a uniform temperature by proper circula- 
*tion of the water or oil, which is drawn off the top, and after cooi- 
ng is pumped back into the bath at the bottom. After the chain 
? hardened and wound upon the reel the whole reel is inserted 
-In an oil tempering furnace to be drawn to the exact temper 
quired. 

Cylindrical Case-Hardening Furnace. 
Furnaces of the type shown in Fig. 50 are used for case-hard* 
oing car axles of about 6 inches in diaiheter and not exceeding S 
1 length. 

The axle is inserted in the wrought-iron tube, R, having an 
Interior diameter of 10 inches. The axle is placed in the exact 
alter of the retort and the carbon packed tightly around it, after 
covering such parts as are not to be case-hardened with fire-clay 
or some other non-carbonaceous material. The retort being 
packed it is let down into the furnace from a suitable crane over- 
fthead, and the cover, K. put in position as shown, when the furnace 
s ready for operation. 

The distribution of the heat evenly from the bottom to the top 

F the retort is effected by two independently controlled sets of 

FUmers ; the lower set by the valves G2 and A2, and the upper set 

tey the valves G3 and A3, while the common supply valves are 

I and Ai. G stands in each case for gas and A for air. 

The proper adjustment having been made on the lower and 

[tipper sets of the burners so as to secure an approximately correct 

distribution of the heat, the main gas and air valves are alone 

uutilized to control the temperature, and the distribution of the 

lieat properly over the whole length is then effected by the two 

rents, one in the bottom indicated by M2, and one on top in the 




^^ mt WCeMb VntNACB FOR LEAD HAKDENING. 

>\t« Lvttr ^*ks at the proper angle to secure 

. .iTv-und the retort without impinging 

.(^•v contains three observation holes 

■ AiiJ L3, The lighting hole is not 

• NnSftl «» the rear of the furnace by N2 and 



• iiW I^IMkwV Furnace. 
»tefc 'tott v^ tuWO^ rffc^wtl in Kig. 52 is usee! for heating lead 




M ^ 



i 



m HEATING STEEL — GAS BLAST FURNACES. tJ3 

poisonous fumes from the pot or caldron into the room must be 
prevented. It contains a cast-iron or steel pot suspended by a 
flange with raised edge in the center of the heating chamber. 
The two opposite burners, BB, inject the flames into the space 
between the pot and surrounding iirebrick lining, and lieat the 
pot evenly without coming in direct contact with it. The two 
lighting holes in front are closed after the furnace is put in op- 
eration, and the products of combustion find their outlet in the pipe, 
E, which extends upward in the rear and enters the elbow on the 
sheet-iron pipe, S, passing the draft hole near the top of the hood, 
H. The heat from the combustion chamber is thus injected into 
the draft pipe, S, and a positive draft is created which carries off 
the fumes as they rise from the pot. Thus the poisonous fumes 
are carried off into the chimney, and with ordinary care none 
escapes into the room. Gas and air are indicated at G and A. 

Regular Sices of Muffles. 

The annexed chart, Fig. 56, shows the regular sizes of muffles 
which are on the market. The number of the muffle corresponds 
to the number of the furnace, so that orders for the muffles can 
be given bv the furnace number, or a furnace ordered by the num- 
ber of the muffle. 

The dimensions of muffles are their interior measurement. 

Muffle Furnace. 

The muffle furnace shown in Fig. 57 ie typical of large sizes 
for heavy kinds of work requiring high heat. It is entirely en- 
cased in cast-iron framework firmly bolted together, with heavy 
linings and carefully trimmed and fitted fireclay sections. The 
casing is filled in above and around the arch with non-conducting 
materia! to lessen radiation, and the muffle bottom is protected 
by extra supports, as in oven furnaces, to prevent sagging under 
weight. 

Tough Steel and Hard Slccl — The Difference. 

Although few mechanics seem to be aware of it, there is con- 
siderable difference between steel which is hard and steel which is 
both hard and tough, i. e., when a tool has been hardened and 
tempered to the degree thought best for the work which it is to 
perform and the edge does not stand up, hut, instead, crumbles 
away, tlie steel is hard but is not tough and was heated wrongly in 




CHAPTER IV. 



. HARDENING OF STEEL — HARDENING IN WATER, BRINE, OIL, 
AND SOLUTIONS SPECIAL PROCESSES FOR SPECIAL STEEL. 

Judgment and Carefulness in Hardening. 

As a great deal depends on the judgment and carefulness of 
the man who docs the hardening in a shop, in all large manufac- 
tiiriiig establishments the job of doing all the hardening should 
he given to one man. On this man's efficiency and judgment will 
depend the increasing or the reducing of the cost account, as one 
piece of steel which has been hardened properly will accomplish 
many times as much as a piece which has been hardened imper- 
fectly. The manner in which the operator puts the steel into the 
quenching liquid will be responsible more than anything else, fur 
having the pieces come out hard and free from cracks or deformi- 
ties. Work with deep recesses will often have to go into the water 
with the recessed part first, or vise versa, according to the shape 
and location of the same. 

When hardening large pieces which are worked out in the 
center, a stream of water striking against them is often abso- 
lutely necessary. There are some grades of steel which will give 
the best results if they are removed from the water as soon as the 
vibration has ceased and laid aside until cold. Experience, skill, 
and gijod sound judgment are necessary to do good hardening. 

Successful Hardening. 

In almost every establishment where any large amount of steel 
is hardened, some one mim will be found who is considered an 
expert in the art. When such men really possess the required 
judgment and skill they are careful in the heating and quenching, 
and good results are attained. Very often, however, the man who 
is considered an authority on the subject, possesses very little real 
knowledge, but instead, through pure "gall" and "nerve." takes 
chances and either comes out on top or manages to cover up his 
mistakes. Beware of such men; they are responsible for more 
bad work in the shop than any others. 

First and foremost, the effect of annealing on steel which is 




g6 HARDENING TEMI'ERING AND ANNEALING. 

desired 1o be afterward hardened must be understood and appre- 
eiaied. First, the annealing process softens and allows the steel 
to be worked into shape with ease. Second, it removes all strains 
sustained in the manufacture, such as rolling, hammering and 
forging. Thus experience teaches that it is necessary to anneal 
any odd shaped piece after all the surface scale has been removt 
and the piece roughed down. 

Different Quenching Baths — Their Effect on Steel. 

As, next to proper heating, more depends upon the quenching 

than anything else, it follows that the effects of the use of the 

various kinds of baths are required to be understood. The most 

generally used bath is usually cold water, though not infrequently 



eal 




10. sS,- 



1 SPRING TRRE.\DIN(; DIES. 



salt is addwl or a strong brine is used. The following will be 
finuxl to answer well for the work mentioned : For very thin and 
delicate psrts, an oil bath should be used for quenching. For 
dinall i»arts which are reiiuired to be very- hard, a solution composed 
I itf about a pound of citric acid crystals dissolved in a gallon of 
1 water will d*\ For hardening springs, sperm oil ; and for cutting 
liuils, raw liiisceii oil will prove excellent. 

Hoiled water has often proved the only bath to give good 
rt?»nlls ill a large vsriety of work, the parts requiring hardening 
Itciug heated in a closed box or tube to a low red heat and then 
(jiiencbtHl. Svinietimes the water should be boiling, at others quite 
hul. ami ihcH again liikewann. Experience will teach the operator 



A k. 



THE HARDENING OP STEBL. 



<J7 



K 



which is the best for special work. If a cutting tool such as a 
Tiollow mill, a spring threading die or a similar tool is to be hard- 
ened in a bath of this sort dip it with the hole up or the steam will 
prevent the liquid from entering the hole and leave the walls 
soft. A tendency to crack will also prevail if this is not done. 
The generation of steam must be considered when hardening 
work with holes or depressions in it, and attention must be paid 
to the dipping of the part so as to prevent the steam from crowd- 
ing the water away. Clean water steams rapidly, while brine 
-and the different acid solutions do not. 

General Rules and Directions for the Hardening of Steel. 

The effect of heat on steel is to expand it, even or uneven 
«xpansion depending upon the care and throughness of the heat- 
ing operation. Thus if one part of a piece is heated quicker or 
higher than another the expansion is uneven, and the shape of the 
part changes to accommodate the local expansion. The conse- 
quence is tliat distortion takes place and remains permanent. 
In machine parts which have been finished and fitted or in any 
part which it is not practicable to grind afterward, the distor- 
tion often prevents the use of the piece, especially is this so in 
tools. 

Distorlion Through Uncirn Healing. 

We will suppose, for instance, that a part with a thin side or 
such as the cutter blade of the thread tool shown in Fig. 
59, is to be hardened. To do this successfully the thin parts 
'must be handled or manipulated in the fire so that the frail side 




gS HARDENING, TEMFERtNQ AttO ANNEALING. 

will not reach the hardening heat before the rest of the body of 
the piece, or it will become warped or distorted, this coming 
about, not through the difference of temperature of the various 
parts as some imagine, but, instead, through the more solid parts 
being too strong to permit expansion, and when expansion is at 
last accommodated it has been at the expense of the frailer part 
of the metal. From this it must not be inferred that the part 
having the smallest sectional area is the weaker while being 
heated, but instead that it is as strong as the rest except when 
at the same temperature. The following extracts from an article 
by the late Joshua Rose, M.E., in an early number of the 
ScicittHic American SupplemenI, explains this in a manner which 
leaves nothing to be desired : 

"For example, suppose wo have an eccentric ring, say '^2 inch 




thicker on one side than the other, and heat it midway between 
the thick and thin sides to a cherrj' red; while those sides are' 
barely red-hot, the part heated to cherry red will be the weakest, 
and will give way most to accommodate the expansion, because the 
strength due to its sectional area has been more than compen- 
sated for by the reduction of strength due to its increased tem- 
perature. The necessity of heating an article according to its 
shape then becomes apparent, and it follows that the aim should 
be to heat the article evenly all over, taking care specially that 
the thin parts shall not get hot first. ... If the article is 
large enough, the thin part may be covered, or partially so, dur- 
ing the first of the heating by wet ashes. If. however, the article 
is of equal sectional area all over, it is necessary to so turn it in 
the fire as to heat it uniformly all over: and in either case care 



Riouid be taken not to iicat the steel too quickly, unless, indeed, 
> desirable to leave tlie middle somewhat softer than the out- 
side, so as to have the outside fully hardened and the inside some- 
what soft, which will leave the steel stronger than if hardened 
equally all through. Sometimes the outside of an article is heated 
more than the inside, so as to modify the tendency to crack from 
the contraction during the quenching, for to what degree the 
^Buticle expands during the heating, it must contract during' the 




FIG. 6l.— TURKET 1 



H?oo''n&- Whether the heating be done in the open fire or in a 
heating mixture, it must he done uniformly, so that it may be 
often necessary to hold the article for a time with the thick part 
only in the melted lead or other heating inaterial ; but in this 
case it must not be held quite still, but raised and lowered gradu- 
ally and continuously to insure even heating. 

The Hardening Fire and the Heat. 
"The size of an article will often' be an important element 
tor consideration in heating it, because, by heating steel in the 
open fire, it becomes decarbonized ; and it follows that the smaller 
the article in sectional area the more rapidly this decarbonization 
takes place. In large bodies of metal, the decarbonization due 
t'j a single heating is not sufficient to have much practical sig- 
nificance; but if the tool requires frequent renewal by forging, 
the constant reheating will seriously impair its value; and in 
any, event it is an advantage to maintain the quality of the steel 
at its maximum. To prevent decarbonization for ordinary work 
charcoal instead of coal is sometimes used; and where hardening 
is not done continuously it is a good practice, because a few pieces 



257621 



I 



■ Ac fac ^id br ready for use 6 

I he vsed for tbe heating" 
for tfae irw TciMC as mtM at ior ^oa iv the iarArmog. Green 
coal AoaM aero- W wd M- hotiaE iW Oeri nr die banlening, 
ev«> if k is lor iStt ioisHc ynoes: W c at. wl^ the steel is 
kng wcfl k>E«I. ib ^bIit » noiKaae^ tnl afterward the 
dcunondm dae to hc a i i ^e b Hack atac npid. A ooke suitable 
for har d mi ag iIbmIiI be made aad alman kept en hand. To 
otCMB sadi a cokrnalac a fai;ec fiRof siaaB «)Ac«nl well wetted 
and baidEcd ^ iqxn ibc fire; and wiA a imnd bar make holes for 
tbe blast to cooie Arm^L WIhu Ac gas is oat of the interioT 
coal, and the ootsidc is well okcd, it may be broken op with a 
bar. so tfaai the gas may be bcnm am of tfae outside, and then 
the blast may be stofiped and the coke placed ready for use at a 
momeDt's notice. Good Uackaniihs always keep a store of this 
coke for use in makii^ wetdii^ beats as wdl as for hardening 
processes. ... If an artide has a veiy weak pan, it is neces- 
sary to avoid resting that part upon the cool or charcoal of the 
fire ; olber«-tse the weight may bend it, and in beating long slen- 
der pieces they shonld bed evenly in the fire or furnace, or, when 
red hot, the unsnpponed parts will sag. In taking such pieces 
from the fire, the object is to lift the edges verricaHy so that the 
lifting shall not hend them; and this requires condderable skill, 
because it must be done qniclclv. or parts will become cooled 
and will warp, as well as not harden so much as the hotter 
parts. 

Quenching for Hardening. 
"We now come to the cooling or quenching, which requires 




THE HARDENING OF STEEL. lOI 

l;as much skill as the heating to prevent warping and cracking, 
land to straighten the article as much as possible during the cool- 
licg process. The cooling should be performed with the view to 

lirevent the contraction of the metal from warping the weaker 
■ts ; and to aid this, in cutters of the type shown in Fig. 
tooth parts are sometiines made a little hotter than the 

piore solid parts of the article, the extra heat required 
Bto he extracted compensating in some degree for the di- 
Bminution of the sectional area from which the heat must be 

extracted. Water for cooling must be kept clean, and in that 



^ 



KIG. 6j.- 



■ BOLT TAP. 



case becomes better from use. It may be kept heated to about 
loo deg. F,, which will diminish the risk of having the article 
crack ; any corners should be made as rounded as possible. I f 
the water is very cold, and the heat hence extracted very rapidly 
from the outside, the liability to crack is increased; and in many 

I cases the water is heated to nearly the boiling point, so as to 
tctard the extraction of the heat. Since, however, the hardening 
of the steel is due to the rapid extraction of its heat, increasing 
ibe temperature of the water diminishes the hardness of the 

. 6+. — SPIRAL LIP 



Jjteel, and it is necessary to counteract this effect as far as possi- 
ble, which is done by adding salt to the water. . . . All arti- 
KiCles diat are straight or of the proj>er form while leaving the 
v£re should be dipped vertically and lowered steadily into the 
I'water ; and if of weak section or liable to crack or warp, they 
Ishould be held, quite still, low down in the water until cooled 
Iquite through to the temperature of the water. If the article j. 
Its taken from the water too soon, it will crack, and this is a [ 
fcomnion occurrence, the cracking often being accompanied by a' 



HARDENING, TEMPI 



jld be dipp^^H 
tally and th^H 



sharp, audible "click." Pieces of blade form sTiould t 
edgeways, the length of the article lying horizontally : 
article lowered vertically and held quite still, because, by mov- 
ing it laterally, the advancing side becomes cooled the quickest, 
and warping and cracking may ensue. Straight cylindrical pieces 




re. 65.— HOBS OR MASTER TAPS. 



t 



THE HARDENING OF STEEL. IO3 

^e dipped endwise and vertically. When, however, the dipping 
Vprocess is performed with a view to leave a sufficient heat in the 
body of the article to draw to a lower temper the pan dipped, 
the method of proceeding is slightly varied." 

The Hardening of Long Slender Tools. 
In order to harden long slender tools, such as stay-bolt taps, 
"hob" taps and long, taper die taps, for instance, so as to not 
require subsequent straightening or grinding, care is necessary in 
the machining as well as the hardening operations. It is not de- 
sirable to use the highest carbon steel when a large tool is to be 
lade if the hardening method given below is to be used. 

Have the stock for the tool about J^ inch larger than the 
nish diameter and rough down to within 1-16 inch of size. Then 
ack in an iron box in powdered cliarcoal and reheat, heating 
I a red and being sure to heat evenly and slowly. This will re- 
all strains which may have taken place in the steel during 
le manufacture. The slower the steel cools the better will be 
le results in the hardening, as it may be heated to a lower boat 
'hich will have a tendency to refine it. 

Sometimes when the rough-down blanks for long tools have 
een annealed by the method described above, upon taking them 
rom the annealing box some will be foimd to have sprung. When 
bis occurs do not attempt to straighten while cool, but instead, 
f possible, turn the bulge out. If this cannot be done, heat to a 
herry red and straighten while hot and re-anneal. After finish- 
ig. test the tool for trueness, anil then harden as follows : 

Have a box large enough to allow the tools to stand upright 
nd to leave lots of space for packing at the top, bottom and sides. 
Sck the packing material around tightly, put the lid on the box 
nd heat thoroughly through, testing for heat with test rods, and 
'hen the proper heat is obtained hold it for a few hours, then 
snove the box and draw the tools carefully from the pack with 
pair of tongs and quench in a bath of raw Unseed oil which 
lay be kept at a sufficient low temperature by some simple cool- 
arrangement. 

When dipping the heated tools quench straight down into the 
enter of the oil and move vertically until a black appears, when 
bey may be moved to the cdee of the bath tank. In an oil bath 
he contents should he a<Htatetl so that the oil will circulate and 
bw toward the center, thus keeping the vapor generated by con- 



4- HARDENING, 

tact of the heated steel and oil away from the work. By doii^ 
this there will be no soft spots in the work when hardened. 

Hardening Small Paris and Long Thin Paris. 
When a large number of very small parts, such as cutter I 
blades of the type shown in Fi^. 66, are to be hardened they I 



\ 




FIG. 66.— PAT^N" 



,SQLA 



should be packed in closed iron boxes, and the l)ox heated. 
When all the parts have reached the proper heat, they should be 
dumped into the quenching bath, of either oil or water, as the 
nature of the work may require. Another way by which small 
parts tiiLiy lie iK'aicd unifurin is by means of a lead bath. Keep 




the lead at the proper heat and cover the top with powdered char^ 
coal and Loke 

\crj small tools such as small piercing punches, etc., should 
be hardened m an od bath or in luke warm water, as if cold 
water is used the\ will cool too quiukh and come out of the bath 
cracked or so brittle as to be useless Never heat a piece of steel 
for hardening hot enough to raise scale on it; even when it is 



I 




e half-round side at an angle of about twenty degrees with the 
irface of the water and it will come out either almost straight, 
r straight. 



HARDENING, TEHPEHING AND ANNEALING. 

Hardening in Sohilions. 

In order to harden a large number of steel tools or pieces s 
that uniform hardness and temper will be attained, and so that 
the steel will come out of the process white and clean, as is often 
required, the following process may be adopted: First, in the 
healing of the steel, a solution which will project it from the 
fire and another to chill it quickly are necessary. This last 
solution will also give the desired clean white appearance to the 
steel. The receipt for this first solution is, equal quantities of sal- 
soda and borax in water containing one ounce of cyanide of 
potassium to the gallon. For the second solution, a strong brine 
made of salt and water, and about the same amount of cyanide 
as salt, will do. Have the water hot and add about two ounces 
of sulphuric acid to each gallon of water used; when mixed, put 
away in a cool place and keep well covered. 

To use the solutions proceed as follows : Fill all holes near 
the edge of the steel with fireclay, then dip into the first solution 
and place the steel immediately on the fire while wet. Heat 
slowly and carefully and be sure not to heat any one portion of 
the work faster than another, as the slower (he heat the more 
uniform its distribution in the piece. When the proper tempera- 
ture has been reached, which should be a clear bright red, dip 
the work straight down into the hardening solution ; when it 
has cooled, remove from the bath, and work of silvery whiteness 
and uniform hardness will be the result. When heating long 
slender pieces in this solution, dip them endwise, and do not shake 
about, but instead, revolve, if possible, rapidly. I 

Healing in Hot Lead for Hardening. 

There is a large class of work which can be best heated for 
hardening in red-liot lead. It is a very rapid and satisfactory 
method for such tools as small counter-bores, reamers, shank, 
mills, knurls and parts such as bicycle cones, balls, cups, and sew- 
ing machine and typewriter parts. What makes the lead par- 
ticularly valuable for heating such parts is that a uniform heat 
can be applied without danger of burning or scaling the inside be- 
fore the center is heated. 

When heating in lead a graphite crucible placed so that a 
imiform heat will be maintained beneath and around the pot will 
prove the best. As to the lead to tise, care must be taken to get 
a brand with as little sulphur in it as possible. Never use scrap 



I 




^_poui 



Itad, as it will ruin the steel. Chemically pure lead should always 
be used. 

There are a great many compounds in use to prevent the lead 
from sticking to the work. One of the best is the following: One 
lund of powdered cyanide dissolved in one gallon of boding 




water : allow to cool, and th*^ dip the articles to be heated in the 
solution; remove and allow to dry thoroughly before putting 
them into the lead. Moisture will make the lead fly. 

k Small articles of an even size and thick-ness throughout can 
put into the lead cold, while irregular pieces must be heated 



I 




arly red before putting into the lead in order to prevent tm- 
1 expansion. 

By keeping the surface of the lead covered with broken char- 
coal, drops wdl be prevented from forming. After the heating 
WS been concluded empty the crucible. 




HABDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

To get good results when hardening hy heating in lead, st& 
the liquid occasionally so as to equalize the heat, as the bottom 
will always be hotter than the top. When tools or parts willi 
fine projections or teeth are heated, take a stiff brush and clean 
off any particles of lead which may stick in them before quench- 
ing. This is necessary as steel will not harden when lead has 
stuck to it, as the spots do not come in contact with the bath. 

Hardening Metal Saws. 
To harden metal saws or articles of a similar nature, provide 
a pair of flat cast-iron plates and oil the faces well with a heavy 
oil. Heat the saws in a box or some other arrangement which 
will prevent the fire from coming in contact with them (a flat 
plate will do) and prevent the article from warping during the 




Tieating process. When heated to a bright red remove the article 
and place it on the lower oiled plate and drop the other plate on 
it quickly, and hold it down until the article is cold. If a pair 
of hinged plates are used one man can do the job ; if not, two 
will be required. 

Mixture to Prevent Lead from Slicking. 
The formula here given is taken from the report of the Chief 
of Ordnance of the United States War Department, and is used 
when hardening files, and has also given good results when hard- 
ening small taps, milling cutters, reamers, broaches, rotary files 
and similar tools having fine teeth. The following is a copy of 
the report : 



THE HARDENING OF STEEL. IO9 

"Before hardening, the files are treated with a mixture of salt 
md carbonaceous materials to protect the leeth from decarboniza- 
tion and oxidation. The kinds and proportions of the ingredients 
are given in the following table : 

II "Pulverized and charred leather i pound. 
"Fine family flour ij^ pounds, 
I "Fine table salt 2 pounds, 
I "The charcoal made from charred leather should be triturated 
until fine enough to pass through a No. 45 sieve. 

"The three ingredients are thoroughly mixed and incorporated 
while in a dry state and water is then added slowly to prevent 
lumps, until paste formed has the consistency of ordinary varnish. 
When ready the paste is applied to the file with a brush, care 
being taken to have the teeth well filled with the mixture. The 
surplus paste is then wiped off the file by the brush and the file 
is placed on end Ijefore a slow fire to dr\-. If dried too quickly, 
the paste will crack or blister; if not dried enough, the remain- 
ing moisture will be transformed into steam when dipped into 
the heated lead bath and cause an ebullition or sputtering of the 
lead, throwing out minute globules of the latter which may en- 
danger the eyes of the operator. The fusing of the paste upon 
the surface of the file indicates the proper heat at which the file 
should be hardened," 

t Hardening Long Taper Reamers. 

H The hardening of long taper reamers of small diameter, so 
■ as to prevent them from coming through curved or twisted, is one 
of the most difficult operations for the hardener, and we can only 
advise the necessary precautions used by those who succeed with 
such work. The steel should be annealed a second time before 
the finishing cut is taken, by heating slowly in a low fire by pack- 
ing it in an iron box or tube with powdered charcoal, fine sand, 
or clean ashes: then finished. The heating for hardening should 
be done in the same manner as the re-annealing. When the box 
and reamer have been heated thoroughly to a bright cherry red the 
reamers shotdd be carefully drawn out endwise, so as to prevent 
the possibility of bending while hot ; and immediately quenched 
vertically in an oil bath. Any variation from a vertical position 
while dipping is liable to warp the work, through one side cool- 



I 




HARDENING, TliMfliKlM^ AND A.N.NEALI 

iiig faster than tlie other. In (Irawing temper, care should be 
iJikfti to heat evenly on all sides, so as to bring them to the same 
siraw color, brown or light blue, according to whatever use the 
tool is to be put. Long delicate reamers should always be ground 
to size after the hardening and tempering operations. _ 

Tlic I'sc of Clay in Hardening. H 

Verj- often in die and tool work it is desired that a piece with 
a hole in the center should be hard around the outside and soft 
around the hole, or a punch is required to be hard at both ends 
and soft in the center. To accomplish these results with ease 
n*t' cl.i\ m the following manner: When the slock around the 
hole IS lo be left soft and the outer edges of the piece hardened, 
till the hole with cla^- and pad it at both sides, then heat the piece 
«nd pliui^c tl into the water. When cool, remove the clay and 
the itwk amund tlic hole will be found to be soft while the edges 
will tie as hurtl as retiuiretl. To harden both ends of the punch 
aiul leave (he tmier soft, put a bandage of clay around the center, 
or desiretl soft portion, about -yi of an inch thick and bind it 
with u piece of thin sheet metal. Heat and quench, and the de- 
siivd restill will be accomplished. 

When hanteiiinK dies or other press tools in which there are 
lu'lec iU'«r X\w eilges of the work, fill the holes with clay before . 
heuttn^ jinO the lendency to crack will be overcome. When thfr J 
hoU'Jt are not fiUe*l with ch\\- (when the steel is quenched) steam 1 
KvtK^rAtVN iu the holes and cracks start, or excessive warping oc- J 
0»r«. \\\W lo Ihc f»« ihut the steam does not escape fast enough.] 
«iul \\w vWltracting of the metal is unequal. 



Iholec iU'«r X\w eilges of the work, fill the holes with clay before J3 
heuttn^ jinO the tendency to crack will be overcome. When thfr ^| 
hoU'jt are not fiUi-*! with cla\- (when the steel is quenched) steam ^H 

I 

'M 

re- ^" 



.Vfiiiii/ InslructioHS for Hardening and Tempering. 
Oflvu when tool steel is brought, special instructions will be 
tllvrH «* lo the method of hardening and tempering it. Some-, 
\i\\w* »hr»c instructions are followed out and oftener they ari 
Ui>l, Now ill all cases when such instructions are given, don' 
(inifd lo RAi by them, otherwise do not buy that brand of steel,! 
Imt iiutiNtd secure a brand which you can harden as you thujei 
lit M. There arc various brands of steel on the market which are 
lin'il for a number of special purposes and which possess qualities 
which other brands do not fin regard to cutting at high speeds, 
iiiiii'vini; large amounts of stock, etc.) which require hardening 




: HAKDENING OF STKEL. Ill 

ai. ciifferent temperatures and tempering at special colors. If you 
require this sort of steel for any special purpose^ don't try to find 
out wliv the special instructions are given, but do as directed, and 
if the results are what the makers claim for it, it does not make 
any difference if you have to harden it in a cake of soap — the 
result is the thing. 



FIG. 74 — THREAD DIE. 



^ Hardening and Tempering Round Thread Dies. 

A good way to harden and temper round thread dies of the 
'pe shown in Fig. 74 is to proceed as follows: The die after 
aving been drilled, worked, filed, etc., 
should be split at D, leaving about 1-32 inch 
of wa!l as shown. Heat carefully and 
quench in water bath, after which polish the 
sides. To temper use the lead bath. Enter 
the die into the bath edgeways up to about 
the dotted line shown in Fig. 74. After 
holding it in the bath for about a minute r 
move and examine. If the heating has been 
done correctly the part A will have turned blue while the point 
F, will not be drawn at all. Treat B likewise, and in turn C and D. 
When this is done properly there will be sufficient heat contained 
in the outer portion to gradually draw and temper the point E, 
which may be anything from a light yellow to a dark yellow, as 
the case may require. In the tempering, a few drops of lard oil 
on the teeth at intervals when required will check the temper 
and prevent it from running out further at one point than an- 
olher, A little practice will teach the operator how much heat 
to subject the outside portion of the die to so as to allow of all the 
point E coming to the same temper. 

After the tempering process the die may he repolished and 
then the wall left at D removed by grinding with a thin emery 
wheel, or by entering a small narrow face set and hitting it a 
sharp blow, when the wall will break out. The reason for leaving 
tlie thin wall at D is to hold the ends firm while hardening, 
thus preventing excessive shrinking and warping. Split bush- 
ings may be hardened in the same manner. 

Harden'!!!; Bushings. Shell Reamers, Hobs. Ele. 
Ipvirp useful in the hardening of bushings, shell 





^m 



Xi:, -IKMI'SRIXi; AND AXXKALlNti. 

hobs, etc., IS shown in Fig. 75, and c 
of a piece of drill rod, R, threaded about ac 
inch longer than the length of the article to 
be hardened, and nut and washer located as 
shown. The dotted lines show the work to 
be hardened, AAAA, asbestos washers, BU, 
common iron washers, the whole being held 
together between the two nuts. Heat the 
entire arrangement to the proper tempera- 
ture and quench in water in the usual man- 
ner. By using a device of this sort an up- 
ward flow of water through the article is 
prevented, as is the consequent sudden chill, 
thus eliminating to a certain extent rfie tend- 
ency to warp or crack. In such tools in 
which the outside only is desired to be hard- 
ened, the method is an excellent one, as the 
inside will remain comparatively soft, unless 
very thin, when it will harden clear through. 

Hardening and Tempering Collet Spring Chucks. 
The following kink we have found very handy when making 
collet spring chucks of the shape shown in Fig. 76. After finish- 
ing them in the lathe, leaving, of 
enough stock to lap and 
grind to a finish, face them on an 
arbor and saw the spring slots as 
shown : that is, at the end of each 
slot, as shown at T and V. In- 
stead of cutting completely through 
at this point, leave a very thin wall 
about ^ inch long at the end of 
the cuts. Then harden and temper the chucks as desired, and 
after lapping the inside to size, place on an arbor and grind the 
tapers as required; then take a small, narrow broach and by 
entering it into the slots and hitting it a sharp blow with a ham- 
mer the thin wall will break through. This kink I have used 
to the best advantage in shops which had no grinding facilities. 
When proceeding as aforesaid it was possible to finish the outside 
and taper to size before hardening without the possibility of the 
chucks running out to any noticeable extent. Of course for | 




FJG. 76. — SMALL COLLBTj 
SPRING CUUCK. 



J 




work of the utmost accuracy this method would not do. But 
then again work of the utmost accuracy is not accomplished in 
shops where the tool facilities are not up to dale. 

The Taylor-White Process for Treal'mg Steel. 
In the September, 1901, number of the Journal of the Frankliu 
bstitute was published a paper by Charles Day upon the Taylor- 

' White process for treating tool steel, and the results obtained 
with steel so treated, at tlie works of the Link Belt Engineering; 
Company. Philadelphia, Pa. When this process was first an- 
nounced facts were given and quoted reports of tests made at the 
works of the Bethlehem Steel Company, Bethlehem, Pa., where 
the process was developed by Messrs. Taylor and White. The 
paper by Mr. Day gives information upon air hardening steels in 
g'eneral before reverting to the subject of steel treated by the 
Taylor-W"hite process. 

Mr. Day says that air-hardening; steels have unquestionably 
replaced the carbon variety for roughing work, the efficiency of 
the former ranging from one and one-half to twice that of the 
latter. This gain is because air-hardening steels hold their cut- 
ting edge at much higher temperatures than carbon steels and 
consequently can be worked at proportionately greater cutting 
speeds. The usual method of hardening air-hardening steels is 
well known, manufacturers usually placing a great stress on the 
fact that the tool must be heated over a cherry red, otherwise it 
will be burned and so ruined. The object of Messrs. Taylor and 
White was to obtain some exact knowledge on this matter, and 
extensive experiments were conducted in the belief that a tool 
steel could be produced to give still better results than those 
already obtained. 

The new process depends upon the fact that although both 
carbon and air-hardening steels deteriorate rapidly when the tem- 
perature rises above a cherry red, there are some chemical com- 
positions that jnay be used for air-hardening steels which are 
much improved as cutting tools if they are raised to a higher 
temperature in the hardening process. Their maximum efficiency 
is reached when the steel is heated to a point where it crumbles 
when tapped with a rod. The point to which air-hardening steel 
was formerly heated in the process of hardening is between 1,500 
and 1,600 deg. F., and is called the breaking-down point. Steel 

I/haviiig the new treatment is heated to 2,000 deg. F, The com- 



I 




n 



1 !_' 

' -■- of an air-liarden- 
Si- - :::::ini and 4 per cent 

. ; ' a> tlie chilled scale 

.::■: f> or more per cent 

...-■^••n seems to matter 

■■> i::ivin^ equally ^oi\d 

■.:igh heat" (2,000 de- 

.-: temperature, in a lead 

r. j:c., as the case may be. 

• xrature should rise, as in 

■ .:?!y impaired. After the 

:r. 1 to be further increased 

•j "low heat" for about ten 

^ —.m 700 de^. to 1,240 dei:^. 

-..::* the tool is ready for use. 

vhen reforgin^ and the tools 

.XT. 

'-White process apparatus is 

■ ^ruriire can be controlled within 

■> for the uniformity of results 

' :!v!s process. 

. .-m! worked upon at the shops of 

— \i::v is cast-iron. Jn order to 

"L :^x^l was obtained from P)ethle- 

. : 'vrinjT^ niill turning the inside 

-.■■•.lired to do this work with their 

;. TMTTy times in setting piece rates, 

^ With the Taylor-White tool the 

, :'.e-half hours, and a gain of 75 

^.. --vV. heretofore was ncn the best ob- 

• -: worked to its highest efficiency, 

-"c SviviiiiT due to the new steel. 

%.is vi!>o obtained froih an order of 

v-i v"'^ similar work having been tabu- 

^ "'c average time reciuired to machine 

- \J. ti^xMs was nine and one-half hours: 

^ ■ .r sheaves, the roughing being done by 

^ -\c hours and five minutes, or a savin<r 



k 



te ti'.^io tor setting up, forming, boring 



THE HARDENING OF STEEL. 1 15 

and polishing the same when the sheaves were finished with old 
tools as with the treated tools, since the latter are not suitable for 
cutting iinishing cuts, the time for roughing would have been 
7.85 hours and a saving of 56.3 per cent was made in operations 
where it was possible to use treated tools. 

In order to obtain some data with regard to pressure on the 
points of tools for given depth of cuts, feed, etc., and at the 
same time to show the effect of the treatment, a cast-iron ring 
six and one-half feet in diameter was bolted to the table of a 
seven-foot mill. The first tool used was one treated for hard 
material. It cut 106 pounds of metal in 10 minutes, and when 
removed was in perfect condition. A "Mushet" tool under the 
same condition lasted but one minute, and removed 5^ pounds 
of metal. The actual pressure against the tool in each case ex- 
ceeded y/4 tons, while the pressure per square inch with another 
self-hardening tool was 143,000 pounds. 

Eighteen months ago a 50 horse power engine supplied the 
power for about 40 machine tools in the Link Belt Engineering 
Company's works, and also run the pattern shop and grinding 
room. The actual horse power developed had been found to 
average 45. Of this 2y horse power was consumed by the shaft- 
ing, leaving but 18 horse power for actual work. After the new 
tools were in general use and the machine pushed to obtain the de- 
sired results, it became apparent that the power was absolutely in- 
adequate; indicator cards from the engine frequently showed 
an overload of 60 per cent, and at this point it was found essen- 
tial to put motors on some of the larger tools. 

The following particulars about the process have been fur- 
nished by the Bethlehem Steel Company: 

"The practical speeds at which these tools will run has been 
found to be from two to four times that of any steels which we 
have experimented with, and we have endeavored to obtain the 
best in the market. 

"The process, which is applied after the tool has been dressed 
or machined to shape, penetrates to the center of the steel, even 
in the largest tools we have ever treated, i. e., 4 inches square. All 
of the standard brands of self-hardening steel which have been 
experimented with are improved to a more or less extent by the 
treatment ; it is preferred, however, to use a steel of special com- 
position in order to get the greatest uniformity and maximum re- 
sults. This special steel forges so much more readily than the 



Il6 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

general run of self-hardening steels that tools of different shapes 
may be easily made up. 

"We have also discovered a simple and comparatively rapid 
method of annealing of special steel, by which tools may be easily 
machined to shape, making it applicable to twist drills, chasers, 
inserted cutters, etc., which have theretofore not been made from 
self -hardening steel. 

"A great advantage in the use of these tools is that when cut- 
ting dry at the rate of maximum efficiency the chips should come 
off blue. These blue chips enable a foreman at a glance to tell 
whether the work is being done at the proper speed when running 
under water at the proper cutting and allowing the tool to cut 
dry for a few moments. 

"The apparatus used in the Taylor- White process offers also 
a simple and effective means of heating any other tools at uniform- 
ity and higher qualities in this class of steel, as well as self-hard- 
ening steel. 

"As is well known, tempering steels of different makes and 
different qualities require different temperatures for hardening 
to obtain the best results ; therefore, by means of our apparatus, 
which is capable of closely controlling temperature, these points 
may be accurately determined for each class of steel, and made 
use of in daily practice. The operation of the process is ex- 
tremely simple, as it is controlled by apparatus which regulates 
the different steps, and does not require skill or expert labor.'* 



CHAPTER V. 



f 



^1 
■I 



UPERING — BY COLORS — IN OIL — ON HOT PLATES — BY THERMOM- 
ETER IN UOT WATER IN THE SAND BATH BY 

SPECIAL METHODS. 

Ti-inpcrhij". 

In the term "tempering" we include all processes which tend to 

luce the hardness of steel to a degree recognized inside the 
test by color, and also all processes by which the degree of 
lardness is lowered, modified, tempered, or lessened. It is wrong 
to apply the term "temper" to processes which at one operation 
leave the steel harder than any degree of the color test ; a process 
which does not reduce the hardness of steel to a degree denoted 
by some color in the color test should be termed hardening. 

If instead of the color, in tempering, the degree of temperature 
required were given, the process would be very much simplified. 
Thus 430 degrees would denote the same degree of hardness as a 
faint yellow and all degrees of hardness above that would have 

be specified in less temperature, while all degrees of softness 
iwn to a blue tinged with green would be included in degrees 

temperature up to 630. The degrees of softness below that 
'denoted by color test or thermometer are: bright red in the dark. 
720 degrees; red hot in twilight, 884 degrees, and red visible by 
day. 1,077 degrees. The degrees of softness below them are indis- 
tinguishable by the test; they remain unknown quantities of de- 
grees, and are only indicated by the ease with which the metal 
can be machined. 

The universal adoption of thermometer test for tempering will 

love the technical objection to the color test. i. e., that the 
ilor obtained on the piece of steel through heat is no indication 
'that the steel possesses any above its natural degree of hardness ; 
as steel, wrought iron and cast iron will assume, when polished 
and heated to the necessary degree of temperature, all the colors 
o^ the test Thus the color on a piece of steel is simply an indi- 
cation that it has been heated to a certain degree, not that it is 
tempered, or in fact that the heating process has in any way 

nged tlie degree of hardness or softness. 




• ■ . '::: '-:3i:. : \n:» anxealing. 

"c ■■ I ^^jo^nd operation modifies the 

•:r --■;:•:: ?> :i'.e rirst one and depends for its 

T ■ :: — :::* _f :he first process. For instance, 

. :> -irrr. E uniform grade are heated to the 

:'::!.-cru:v.r-. jnd quenched in water until cold, 

.'• '.err*. :•_ :he same color, they will of course 

■..i^ .ci:"fe CI hardness; but if other pieces 

. :::r-x?! iHjrcentage are subjected to exactly 

:> ietoils. leaving upon them the same 

. '.'.: -vss^ss the same degree of hardness 

»;in this we learn that temper colors 

..,.. .* :! :>.e degree of temper in pieces of the 

-xi.'x > :ioc indicative of any uniform degree 

i^ - ■!!t\;^nsive cutting tools the above facts 

■ . t ■rc-::. as for such tools special brands of steel 

\ y. liardcn sufficiently to give accuracy to 

;^. A hen heated to any degree of heat from 

V ■. w rt.\' : the difference in hardness in the 

1.1. :i v't'tcr degrees of heat being too small 

• i>iv.c«a:icn in tools which are inexpensive to 



.S. '.v. ■ 

- . « ■ »' » V 



• Vi 









t^ i <^vcial tools the exact degree of temper 

. .1 ^vt> icuTtnined must be given. A tool user 

:v >i\i«.x .'C >eUow in the color test alone enter over 

.11 kI chat within these 70 degrees lies a wide 

! > ■iiuch l>etter to adopt a tempering process 

V ^^i'^ .iccuracy the first heating temperature, 

\ Kai'ii^ of a tool in melted lead, melted salt, 

.KM quenching it into a cooling bath the tem- 

V itwintained by suitable means, and then 

V s - i V i« .1 \t"h ot oil heated to and maintained at the 

. ,v .»..., v wji^irxxl. When such methods are used, 

V V I >iH?Kl wltich experience in using has taught 

\, ^. viiv>t obtainable accurate degree of temper 

^ . yx ■• S\> V o^vrations, and the tools will be hard- 

^ ^ ..s»v v^'"»J^^Jc than could be obtained under the 

^. s- v>.,.v^\x whcrv* large numbers of hardened tools 

vV -"^^ ^^' v.wihods described are in use; but 

^^ X X s V \ Vt VV >'*' ^'"l^* ^ ^^^v small parts at intervals 



; required, it would not of course pay to keep the lieating ar- 
' rangements constantly ready. It is then that the open fire and the 
color test must be adopted. It is under the latter conditions that 
the skill, experience, and judgment of the hardener are called 

I into use. as from the time the steel is put in the fire until it is 
quenched and tempered, upon him depends absolutely the entire 
Success of the operations. 
: 



I 



Tempering in the Sand Bath. 
When a number of pieces of the same size or of slightly dif- 
ferent sizes have been hardened and it is desired to draw them 
■all to the same temper, the sand bath will be found to give the 
most uniform results. This consists of an iron box filled with 
id heated over the fire or in a muffle to the temperature re- 
quired. When the sand has been heated to the required degree, 
the tools to be tempered are lowered into it and removed when 
the color denoting the temper required appears. 

Tke Effects of Slow Heating and Tempering. 

Always remember that the slower the temper is drawn, the 
icngher the steel will be. When steel is slowly heated in temper- 
ing and the heat is distributed equally over the entire piece, the 
molecules assume the most stable position with regard to each 
other, and when the tool is in use, all are alike affected by any 
shock sustained. The effects of heat on copper and bronze are |, 
exactly opposite to those manifested by steel, as when such metals I 
are cooled slowly they become brittle and hard, but when cooled 
rapidly soft and malleable. 

Tempering in Oil. 

Almost all large shops in which any amount of hardening and 
■tempering are done have discarded the method of tempering by 
colors and have adopted the more reliable methods of doing it in 
oil, gaging the beat by thermomenter. A kettle containing the oil 
i= placed on the fire and heated to the right temperature; the 
hardened parts are thrown in and left in the liquid until drawn. 
By this method there is no possibility of overdrawing, as it is im- 
possible for the parts to become hotter than the oil. When tem- 
pering in this manner it is not necessary to brighten the work 
tefore the operation, and when a lot of such work is done it will 
be acconipHshed much cheaper than if the old method were used; 
besides, the most satisfactory results will be attained. 



I 



EAHDENINS, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

Hardening ttnd Tempering Springs. 
As very often springs are included in the constructions of" 
fixtures, appliances, and machines, it is well to understand how to 
harden and temper them successfully. For small and medium- 
sized springs use a solution composed of one-haif sperm oil, one- 
half neat's foot oil with an ounce of rosin, and the springs \ 
come out of the hath tempered as desired. For heavy springSj* 
which have to exert a great deal of pressure, use hot water. Havel 
the water boiling and plunge the springs, when at the proper heat, \ 
into it. By adopting this method no burning off will be necessary,J 
as the springs will be the proper temper. What is more, they > 
not break or "crawl up" when in use. 

Biasing Off Springs. 

To temper springs by "blazing off" use cottonseed oil. Foffl 
some work, however, a mixture of this and fish oil will work bet-fl 
ter than either of the two oils alone. In doing this work experi-j 
ments will determine just what oil or what proportion of af 
mixture of the two will contribute to attaining the best r 
suits. 

Tempering Rock Drills in Crude Oil. 

For the tempering of rock drills crude oil will give the best r 
suits, and by using it as a quenching bath even the amateur may 
temper stee! to stand like an expert. This is so because when 
using oil a slight variation in temperature does not produce the 
effect on steel that water does. The experience with crude oiL 




FIG. 77. — ROCK DHILI. 8TKEI,. 



for the tempering of rock drills by one who understands tb* 
requirements of such work is of value and may cause its mors^ 
extensive use. B. Hastings, in the Mining and Scientific Press,! 
states : 

"It is a very rare thing for an oil-tempered drill to break, and I 
it wears much better tlian a water-tempered one. The mostj 



TEMPERING. I2T 

Serviceable slack tub I founri to be common five-gallon oil can, 
tt^tith the top left as a flap or cover to throw down and smother 
flame in case the oil ignites from the hot steel. If the vessel is 
left open the ignition, if it does occur, is of little consequence, 
hke that of coa! tar; hut with a partially closed tuh or tank car, 
the accumulated gases are liable to produce 'fireworks,' as the 
writer can testify. There is really no necessity for such incon- 
venience, however, as the proper heat for plunging the steel^a 
bright red — is a little below the point necessary to flash the oil, 
I do not use more than five inches of oil in the bottom of the 
can. The hotter the oil becomes, the better are the results. The 
consumption of oil is small, principally due to that portion 
sticking to the drills on withdrawal. Plunging them in loose dirt 

(afterward will clean them." 
Hardening and Tempering Mill Picks. 
Bath for Hardening, — Take 2 gallons rain-water, I ounce cor- 
fosive sublimate, 2 of sal-ammoniac, i of saltpeter, i^ pints of 
rock salt. The picks should be heated to a cherry red, and cooled 
in the bath. The salt gives hardness, and the other ingredients 
toughness to the steel; and they will not break, if they are left 
without drawing the temper. 

Composition for Tempering Cast -Steel Mill Picks. — To ^ 
gallons of water add 3 ounces each nitric acid, spirits of hartshorn, 
sulphate of zinc, ^al-ammoniac, and alum ; 6 ounces salt, with a 
double handful of hoof parings ; the stee! to be heated a dark 
cherry red. It must be kept corked tight to prevent evapora- 
tion. 

To Temper Picks. — After working the steel carefully, prepare 
a bath of lead heated to the boiling point, which will be indicated 
by a slight agitation of the surface. In it place the end of the 
pick to the depth of i^ inches, until heated to the temperature 
required. The principal requisites in making mill picks are : First, 
get good steel. Second, work it at a low heat ; most blacksmiths 
injure steel by overheating. Third, heat for tempering with- 
out direct exposure to the fire. The lead hath acts merely as 
a superheater. 

Straightening Hardened Pieces iVhich Have Warped. 
When a piece of steel has been carefully heated and just as 
■fully quenched, there is little chance of its warping. But 



\ 



I 

1 



122 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

when a piece does warp, before it can be used for the purpose 
required, it must be straightened. To do this proceed as follows : 
Take two "V" blocks and place them on the bed of an arbor press 
or a straightening press — either one will do — and place the piece 
or tool on the *'V'* blocks with the concave side down. Then take 
a Bunsen burner, with a hose attached to it for the gas supply, 
and heat the concave side; do this slowly, and do not heat hot 
enough to draw the temper. While the steel is hot apply sufficient 
pressure to spring the piece or tool back into shape. A large 
number of hardened pieces, which would otherwise prove useless, 
may be saved by straightening them in this manner. 

Tempering Thin Articles, 

Articles of thin material, like springs, which require a spring 
temper, are frequently treated by dipping in oil and then burning 
off the oil over the fire. Blacksmiths adopted this method in- 
stead of trying to temper by watching the color, as it is found 
that it subjects the piece to just about enough heat to produce 
the desired results. In the case of thicker pieces, however, like 
tools, it is much better to use the hot iron and watch the color. 
The temper can thus be drawn to just the point desired, and the 
steel will be tempered more uniformly both on the outside and in- 
side than when the other method is used. 

Tempering in the Charcoal Flame. 
A great many mechanics prefer to temper in a charcoal flame. 
To do this properly the thickest portion, or the part not requiring 
any temper, should be held in the flame ; and as it becomes heated, 
the tool should be wiped at intervals with an oily piece of 
waste. The oil will keep the temper even and prevent drawing 
more in one place than in another. In drawing the temper of any 
tool it should always be done slowly, as if it is done rapidly the 
temper is apt to run out before one is aware of it. 

Tempering Wood Planer Knives, 

The following extract from an article contributed to the 
*' Woodworker" gives a practical method for tempering wood 
planer knives : 

"We have one batch of knives that will not hold an edge in 
oaK unless drawn to a temperature of about 400 degrees, and as 
this shows a very indistinct color it is not easy to get without a 



TEMPERINfi. 123 

I thermometer. As these are 6, 8. and lo-imrh knives, they cannot 
--. hardened in water without a reasonaljle certainty of cracking 
I back ihe length of the beve! in one or more places ; and as oil will 
I not carry off the heat fast enough lo keep the body of the knives 
I from drawing the edge, it promised a serious problem to solve. 
■ was managed in the following manner, and after a few 
1 trials I was able, to obtain the proper degree of hardness without 
I drawing for temper at all. 

"Take a vessel of proper width to receive the length of knife, 

[ put some water in the bottom and pour an inch of oil on top. 

I Heat the edge of your knife an even cherry red back as far as 

I you wish to harden it, and holding it level thrust the edge into 

I the oil for a moment unti! the color leaves, then slowly let it down 

1 into the water. The oil cools without cracking, and the water 

prevents the heat in the body from drawing the edge. It is not 

, necessary to harden all long knives in this manner, as the oi! 

I alone will produce a sufficient hardness in ordinary cases if a large 

mgh body of oil is used and the edge of the knife is immersed 

I with a stirring motion. It can then be tempered to about 500 

degrees by the heat nf the body of the knife and suddenly cooled 

\ in water at about 80 degrees. These long knives are pretty sure 

warp some when tempering or hardening in this way, the back 

soft steel side contracting more than the face. To straighten, 

lay face down on an anvil and with a round-nosed machinist's 

, hammer give a quick, sharp blow, distributed evenly between the 

edge bevel and the line of front end of slots. Be careful 

I to hammer directly over the spot resting on anvil or the knife 

1 vibrate in the hand and the force of the blow will be diffused 

and lost. This gentle hammering stretches the back of the knife, 

and when its length equals the face it will be straight." 

Tempering Swords and Cutlasses. 

The tempering of swords so that they will stand the United 

States government test may be accomplished by heating in a char- 

l coal fire to a bright red and quenching in pure water, afterward 

1 drawing the temper in a charcoal flame. 

Drawing Polished Steel Articles to a Strait' Color ar Blue. 
The surface of polished steel articles wilt acquire a pale straw 
I color at 46a degrees F., and a uniform deep blue at 580 degrees F. 
1 The other shades between these may be had at intermittent tera- 
I jieratures. 



1 



124 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

Tempering Solutions, 

1. Saltpeter, sal-ammoniac and alum, of each 2 ounces; salt, 
I J4 pounds ; soft water, 3 gallons. Never heat over cherry red ; 
draw no temper. Sal-ammoniac and iron turnings or filings 
make good rust joints. 

2. To 6 quarts of soft water add i ounce of corrosive sublim- 
ate and two handfuls of common salt. When dissolved the mix- 
ture is ready for use. The first gives toughness, the latter hard- 
ness to the steel. Remember this is deadly poison. 

3. Water, 3 gallons; salt, 2 quarts; sal-ammoniac and salt- 
peter, of each 2 ounces ; ashes from white ash bark, i shovelful. 
The ashes cause the steel to scale white and smooth as silver. 
Do not hammer too cold. To avoid flaws do not heat too high, 
which opens the pores of the steel. If heated carefully you will 
get hardness, toughness and the finest quality. 

4. Salt, 4 ounces; saltpeter, y^ ounce; pulverized alum, i 
ounce to i gallon of soft water. Heat the articles to a cherry 
red, and quench, but do not draw temper. 

5. Saltpeter and alum, each 2 ounces ; sal-ammoniac, y^ ounce ; 
salt, iy2 ounces to 2 gallons of soft water. Heat parts to be 
'tempered to a cherry red and quench. 

Tables of Colors, Melting Points and Suitable Tempers for 

Given Tools, 

The following tables have been carefully arranged and will 
be found to be approximately correct : 

Melting Points of Solids. 

Deg. F. 

Aluminum i>i57 

Antimony from 81 1 to 1,150 

Bismuth from 476 to 512 

Copper from 1,929 to 1,996 

Lead from 608 to 6x8 

Mercury — 39 

Tin from 442 to 451 

Zinc from 680 to 779 

WrV 

Cast iron 2,477 

Gold 2,587 

Silver 1,250 

Steel 2,501 

Glass 2,377 

Brass 1,897 



TEMPERING. I25 

Melting Points of Solids— Continued, 

Wr't" 
Platinum 3,077 

Cadmium 602 

Saltpetre 600 

Sulphur 225 

Potassium 135 

Table of Tempers to Which Tools Should be Drawn, Arranged 

Alphabetically. 

Tool. Color. Deg. of Tern. F. 

A 

Augers Light purple 530 

Axes Dark purple 550 

All cutting tools for soft material Very light yellow 420 

All hand taps and dies Straw yellow 460 

All kinds of hand reamers Straw yellow 460 

All percussion tools for metal. Blue 549 

B 

Bone-cutting tools Very pale yellow 430 

Boring cutters Straw yellow 460 

Butt mills for brass Very light yellow 420 

Burnishers Very light yellow 420 

Bending and forming dies Dark yellow 490 

C 

Chasers Straw yellow 460 

Coppersmiths' tools Light purple 530 

Cold chisels for steel Light purple 530 

Cold chisels for cast iron Dark purple 550 

Cold chisels for wrought iron Light purple 530 

Circular saws for metal Light purple 539 

Cutting tools for iron Light yellow 440 

Collets Dark yellow 490 

Chuck jaws Dark yellow 490 

Chisel for wood Spotted red-brown 510 

Clutch bolts Very dark blue 601 

Cams with sharp corners Very dark blue 601 

Clutch springs Blue 549 

D 

Drifts Brown yellow 500 

Dental and surgical instruments Light purple 530 

Drawing mandrels Very light yellow 420 

Drills for brass Straw yellow 460 

E 

Edging cutters Light purple 530 

Embossing dies Light yellow 440 



126 H.\RDEX1NG, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

Table of Tempers to Which Tools Should be Drawn, Arranged 

A lphabetically--Con tinned. 

Tool. Color. Deg. of Tern. -Fl 

F 

Flat drills for brass Brown yellow 500 

Flat drills for steel and iron Straw yellow 460 

Firmer chisels Dark purple 550 

Framing chisels Dark purple 550 



Ciimlets Dark purple 550 

Gauges Brown yellow 500 

H 

Hammer faces Very pale yellow 430 

\ land plane irons Brown yellow 500 

Half-round bits Straw yellow 460 

I lack saws Dark purple 550 

I land tiH^ls Light yellow 440 

Hand springs Purple blue 529 to 531 

I lanunors and drop dies Spotted red-brown 510 

r 

Ivory A^Uting tix>ls Very pale yellow 430 

luM^rtcd saw teeth Straw yellow 460 



Juw pieces Purple blue 529 to 531 

L 

I eulhcr *'vUting dies Straw yellow 460 

liUhe tools fv^r brass Very light yellow 420 

liuuv cutting dies Straw yellow 460 

I «u ue iorging dies for press Dark yellow 490 

M 

Mouldnm und planing tix^ls Dark purple 550 

MilhuM enttevji Straw yellow 460 

Milhuki cnttetJ* for brass Very light yellow 420 

N 

Nvedle^. .Dark purple 550 

P 

Vw^^ dU"» t\»v brasj* Light purple 530 

I'u..^ slU"» Hot evdd-rolled stock Brown yellow 500 

I'u.i die's toi nluvt steel Straw yellow 460 

I'ji^. vlis-1 t\>i leather Straw yellow 460 

I'm .. du>i t\M paper Dark blue 570 

l'iiikmN*> Straw yellow 460 



TEMPERING. 12/ 

Table of Tempers to Which Tools Should be Drawn, Arranged 

A Iphabetically — Continued. 

Tool. Color. Deg. of Tern. F. 

Planer tools for iron Straw yellow 460 

Planer tools for steel Very pale yellow 430 

Parts subject to shock Very dark blue 601 

Paper cutters Very pale yellow 43a 

R 

Rock drills Straw yellow 46a 

Reamers . . f ...t.j .l. .j. * Straw yellow 46a 

S 

Shell reamers Brown yellow 50a 

Screw-cutting dies Straw yellow 460 

Scrapers for brass Very pale yellow 43a 

Steel-engraving tools Very pale yellow 430 

Scrapers Very light yellow 42a 

Slight turning tools Very pale yellow 430 

Screw drivers Dark purple 55a 

Springs Dark purple 550 

Saws for wood Dark blue 57a 

Saws for bone and ivory Dark purple 550 

Stone-cutting tools Brown yellow 50a 

Small milling cutters Straw yellow 460 

Shear blades Dark yellow 49a 

Springs Very dark blue 601 

T 

Twist drills Brown yellow 50a 

Taps Straw yellow 460 

Threading dies for brass Light yellow 440 

1 ruing blocks Straw yellow 460 

Tools for wood, to be filed Purple blue 529 to 531 

lools for wood, not to be filed Spotted red-brown 510 

W. 

Wood-engraving tools Very pale yellow 430 

\Vood-boring cutters Brown yellow 500 

Wire-drawing dies Straw yellow 46a 

Table of Suitable Temperatures for — Deg. F. 

Annealing steel 900 to 1,300 

Annealing malleable iron (furnace iron) 1,100 to 1,400 

Annealing malleable iron (cupola iron) 1,500 to 1,700 

Annealing glass (initial temperature) 950 

Working glass 1,200 to 1,475 

Melting glass (into fluid) 2,200 

Hardening tool steel 1,200 to 1,400 



128 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

Tabic of Suitable Temperatures for — Deg. F. 

Cssehardening iron and soft steel 1,300 to 1,500 

Core ovens in foundries 350 

Drying kilns for wood 300 

Baking white enamel 150 

Baking red and green enamel ". 250 

Baking black enamel 300 

Vulcanizing rubber 295 

Table of Temper Colors of Steel. Deg. F. 

Faint yellow 430 

Straw color 460 

Dark straw 470 

Brown yellow 500 

Purple 530 

Blue 550 

Full blue 560 

Polish blue 580 

Dark blue 600 

Pale blue 610 

Blue tingad with green 630 

Bright red in dark 725 

Red hot in twilight 884 

Red visible by day 1,077 



CASE HARDEN I NG PROCESSEI 
CLTTING TOOLS . 




^ina< 



The Use of Machine Steel for Press Tools. 
For a large number of purposes, particularly in the line of 
siieet metal working, machinery steel tools, if properly hardened, 
will answer as well and sometimes better than tool steel ones, and 
if the following process is used to harden such tools they will be 
found to give the best of results and may be used with success for 
cutting the different metals. In order that the parts or tools may 
do their work and last long, they must be hardened very deep and 
,'ith a fine compact grain. For dies which arc to be 
used for punching regular shaped blanks from light soft stock, 
machine steel casehardened tools will give excellent satisfaction, 
they are far cheaper to make and wiU last as long as though 
ide of tool steel. 



Outfit for Fine Grain Coschardcning. 
To do this work properly the following outfit is necessary : 
A good hardening oven, a number of hardening boxes, a good 
supply of raw bone, granulated, the same amount of granulated 
charcoal, some hydro-carbonated bone and the same amount 
of charred leather. A tank large enough to bold a good supply 
of water, a small tank so arranged as to allow of heating to any 
desired temperature, and a bath of raw linseed oil, and the outfit 
will be complete. 

■ Packing and Heating the Work. 

Pack and heat the work as you would for regular caseharden- 
g, and leave it in the oven to cool. When perfectly cool heat 
e pieces in hot lead and quench the same as tool steel. If the 
pieces are small they should be re-packed in the hardening box 
with granulated charcoal and heated. When packing in charcoal 
do not mix with any kind of bone or any other carbonizing mat- 
ter; such substances open the grain, and the object of the second 
heat is to close the grain. The hardening heat should be as low 
; possible, and the hardened pieces will come out close in grain, 



I 



HARDENING, TBUPEBINU AND ANNEAUKC. 

witli a hard, tough surface all over, while the center remains soft 
and the piece will be stronger than if made of tool Steel. 
Caschardcnittg Cutting Tools. 

When rnachine steel tools are to be used for cutting thev 
should be packed for the first heat in a mixture composed of equal 
pans of charcoal and charred leather, finely granulated. The use 
of charred leather gives a much tougher effect to the steel than 
bone, as the leather is almost free from phosphorus, while bone is 
not, and as phosphorus makes steel brittle the substance which 
contains the least amount of it should be used. Tools which are 
tc be used for bending and forming may be packed in bone, which 
will carbonize them as required. When using either bone or 
leather an equal amount of granulated charcoal mixed with it \«11 
prevent the kernels of bone and leather from adhering and form- 
ing a solid mass when hot, and as charcoal is an excellent con- 
ductor the pieces packed within the hardening box will be heated 
quicker than if no charcoal were used. 

Horv to Caseharden. Color and Anneal iviili Granulated Raw 
Bone. 

In order to attain good and satisfactory results in caseharden- 
iug by the use of granulated raw bone, as well as to color and 
anneal properly with it, the treatment of the steel must be in ac- 
cordance with the use to which it is subsequently to he put. In 
the following we give special directions for case hardening, color- 
ing and annealing machine steel by the use of Hubbard's granu- 
lated raw bone. The matter was kindly furnished to the author 
by the manufacturers of the bone, Rogers & Hubbard Company, 
Middletown, Conn., who have gone to much trouble and expense 
in order to discover the best methods for casehardening, colorine 
and annealing under different conditions, and for parts used for- 
special purposes. 

To Caseharden Witboul Colors. 

Pack the work to be hardened in a cast-iron box. The box' 
should he of suitable size ; use a box about 4 inches deep. 4 inches 
wide and 8 inches long. Put a layer of granulated raw bone in 
the bottom, then a layer of work to be hardened, and so on until 
the box is full within ij^ inches of the top. This space may be 
t'liled with old bone that has been used. Put on the cover and 
lid and luif with clay. In packing, be sure to keep the work at 



ir. 

1 



L'ASEK.ARUENlNi; I'KUCKSdES. I^I 

|leasl one-half an inch from the sides and ends of the bos. Heat 

I good cherry red from three to four hours, according' to the 

fcdepth of hardening desired. Dump the whole contents in clear, 

I cool, soft water. Delicate pieces should be dumped in oil. For 

larger work use a larger box and keep in longer. 

Hardening Extra Heavy Work. 
To harden pieces 4 inches and upward in diameter the work 
should be packed in clear raw bone. No. i or No. 2, surrounded 
1 by at least ij^ to 2 inches of the "one," and heated to an orange, ,t- 
: almost white heat, for 18 hours, and then plunged into cold 
running water, salt water preferred. If the piece does not harden ^ 
I hard enough at one operation, it should be repacked and heated 
again, the same as the first time, and plunged into cold water as 
before. Great care should be taken in heating these pieces, .\fter 
I the heat is up to the required temperature, it should be kept so 
until the piece is ready to he plunged into the water. 

Hardening Draxvbridge Disc and Similar Work. 

Large fiat pieces require especial care and treatment. For 

L h&rtlening pieces or discs 2 feet in diameter and 4 inches thick, put 

T four or five inches Xo. i granulated raw bone in bottom of pack- 

I ing box. On this bed lay work to be hardened flat side down. 

I pack at least four inches of granulated raw bone around the 

V diameter and on top. If you have any charred leather, a thin 

I kyer added next to the work may prevent scaling, hut it is not 

la necessity. After packing, cover the box with an iron cover and 

^■late with clay. Heat to a bright cherry red and hold at this heat 

for eight or ten hours. These large flat pieces have a tendency 

to warp a little, but this can lie reduced to a minimum by being 

careful not to heat above a good cherry, and by dipping the pieces 

edgewise into a large body of cold water, which has a steady 

stream running into it, or some other way of keeping the water 

I agitated. 

In hardening large flat pieces, there are four essential points 
—plenty of bone: even, steady, bright cherry heat; dip edgewise; 
[ large body of water that is kept agitated. 

Hardening Five-inch Thrust Bearing Rings. 
If made from ordinary soft machinery steel with about .10 per 
cent or .15 per cent of carbon, it would he necessary to pack them 




the furnace at the expiration of the time and quench the cutter in 
a liath of raw linseed oil, twirling it around rapidly in the oil so as 



I 

I 





to cause the oil to come in contact with the teeth. Aliow the 
cutter to remain in the oil until cold. A formed mill with heavy 
teeth does not need to have the temper drawn. Mills with 




STRAIGHT -PACED MILLING CUTTERS. 



teelh cui in ihe ordinary 
may be drawn for ordinary 



should he run quite as long, and 
k to a light straw color, or if drawn 





D a proper uniform temperature, quenched into a cold-water bath 
md left there long enough to harden the outside only, but not 
Inough to cool the steel clear through. It is then taken from the 
rater as quickly as possible and plunged into lard oil and held 




OF CUTTERS. 



plunge the tool for an instant into the oil and again heat, doing 
tiiis several times until the smoke rises evenly from ali over the 
tool. This second plunge into the oil tends to cool off any fine 
points that might become overheated, while the tool is not left i 
the oil long enough to cool off the thicker parts, thus insuring a 
more uniform and evener heat than would be the case if the tool 
were heated all at once. 

Advantages of the Mclhoii. 
The above- described method may seem to some to he a m 



FIG. 88. — SPECIAL MILLING CUTTER. 



tedious one than that ordinarily used, but as the time saved is con- 
siderable, and the results, particularly in experienced hands, are 
much more reliable, it should be adopted where good milling cut- 
ters are required. 

The ordinary method of tempering tool-steel milling cutters is 



HAHDi;.\lNG MILLING CLTTEHS. 14'J 

■ to heal the cutter to the proper temperature and then cool it "dead 
I cold" in water, brine, or solution. When cold it is removed from 

■ the hath and the teeth are polished. Then the cutter is "drawn" 
Wtd the proper color by heating from some external means, such as 
■.over a red-hot piece of iron or a low fire, or in oi! or sand bath. 

The polishing; for tempering takes considerable time, as it must 
Itbe pretty well done in order to allow the temper colors to show up 



J. — SPECIAI. EXD MILI,. FIG. 90. — TAPER MILL. 

roperly. Then, again, the steel is "dead cold" and will require 
I considerable heat to raise it to the proper temperature to give the 
I desired temper. All the heat that goes into the steel must go 
I through the cutting edges, leaving them as soft as, if not softer, 
ithan the body of the tool, when they should be the hardest part of 
Jie tool. By the other methods the results are different, as the 




Seeth, or cutting edges, which are, of course, the parts that are 
I wanted hard, are hard ; while the central part or core of the tool 
tAs comparatively soft, which is in all cases a desirable condition. 
When milling cutters are hardened in water they often crack, 
cracking taking place not, as might be imagined, when the. hot 
hsteel is first pHuiged into the water, but about that time the central 
Ipart is becoming real cold, as the outside cutting edges are t^rayerl-j 




ing. For this reason hardening in oil is not as liable to crack 
tools, but for the same reason the tools are not as bard. 

By the oil and water method the outside is hardened in water 
and the inside in oil, thus giving the cutting edges the required 
hardness and at the same time lessening the tendency of crackii^ J 
or warping by more slowly cooling the inside. ' 




A good way to decide upon the proper instant at which to draw 
the tool from the water, when hardening the outside, is to put the 
hand in the water near the tool, and as soon as the water ceases tcl 
boil on the surface of the steel, the tool should be removed from J 
the water and plunged into the oil bath. 




HARDENING UILX,ING CUTTERS. I5I 

The object of this cooling first in water and then in oil is this: 

e outside of the tool is wanted very hard ; the inside somewhat 

lofter. The faster the heat is abstracted from the heated tool, the 

harder it becomes ; so by first plunging it into the water the cutting 

^es are given the desired degree of hardness, and as soon as 

fiiey are hardened, the tool, with the central part still hot, is 



;. g6. — SPECIAL i 



I lunged into oil ; and as the oil does not abstract the heat as fast 
s the water, the steel has more time to adjust itself to molecular 
motion and there is less tendency to crack. Again, the oil left 
on the outside of the too! serves as an indicator for determining 
the temperature at which to reheat the steel to give the proper 

Iemper. As the tool is not completely cooled in the oil, very little 
3rt. 



FIG, 98,— SPECIAI, MH-t,. 



:emal heat is required to draw it. In fact, the drawing of the 
temper really begins immediately upon removing the tool from 
the water bath. 

Lard oil is the best to use in tempering in this way, and it has 

found that the oil commences to show a very faint smoke at 

lut the same temperature as a light straw ; the proper temper 

ly be considered as reached when the smoke is seen coming 

■om all parts of the tool. 





I 



in this way, as weJl as taps of various kinds anJ sizes ; 
and otiier like tools so tempered liave always been very satis- 
factory. 

Hardening I'-Shcipcd Milliug Cullers. 
The following directions for hardening V-shapci i ilhu^' lit 



FIG. lOI. ^DOUBLE SLOTTING END MILL. 





ters for milling tool steel if followed out will be the means of 
curing satisfactory results. 




HARDEMNG MILLING CUTTERS. 153 

Heat the cutters in a gas furnace, open fire or in a liot lead 
Not so much depends on the tneans used for heating as 
Jupon how hot and whetlier uniformly heated ; and as to lead stick- 
ling to the work, if it is used, there should be little trouble if pure 

I is used with plenty of broken charcoal on top to prevent 
f-oxidation; but if there is still trouble it can be avoided by coating 
l-the article with salt before putting into the lead-heating bath. 
■ This is easily done by warming the work up to a blue and dipping 
[.'in a strong solution of salt and water. 

In hardening, the cutters may be cooled in cold water or brine, 
Biemperature depending on the character of cutter, whether very 



FIG. 104. — tiOULOW MILLS. 

■delicate or not. With some heavy cutters it might be ice cold, 
while in the case of verj- thin, delicate cutters it would he better 
_4o have the bath up to blood heat or even higher; it is simply a 
[liestion of preventing cracking. 

Remove the cutters from the cooling bath as soon as the teeth 
lave cooled sufficiently to harden, and instantly immerse them in 
Ebil to remain there, if convenient, until cold. 



Hoii' to Harden HolJozi.' Mills. 

When hollow mills are to he hardened, care should be taken 

when heating not to heat very much above the teeth, as it is not 

jiecessary for tlie back to be 'hard. When the proper heat has 

Kn attained, the mill should he inverted and hardened in the 



154 



HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 



bath with the teeth up, and it should be worked up and doi 
rapidly in the bath in order to force the contents into the hole. 
Belter results are always attained if this method of dipping is 
adopted with pieces having holes running part way through them, 
as then the steam can escape and the water can enter the hole; 
whereas, if dipped with the opening down, steam which generates 
rises in the hole, and as there is more steam than the hole can con- 
tain, it escapes from the bottom and blows the water from the 
teeth, not allowing them to liarden properly. Vapors generated 
in the bath are a source of annoyance often overlooked by inex- 
perienced hardeners, and often cause a great deal of trouble, 

Mil!m_i; Cutlers. 

Milling cutters may be classified in four distinct types. The 

first and probably the most common form is known as the axial. 

Fig. 105. in which the surface cut is parallel to the axis of the 

cutter. This cutter has teeth on its periphery only ; these may be 



i 





FIG. 106. — RADIAL TYPE C 
MILLING COTTER. 

Straight or spiral teeth. jCutters of this character, made in ap- 
propriate widths, are used very much for milling broad, flat sur- 
faces and for cutting keyways in shafts. For deep cuts, or for ■ 
slitting metal, they are made of large diameter and thin. These 
are called metal-slitting saws, and are ground hollow on the sides 
for clearance. 

The second class of cutters is known as the radial, Fig. 106, m 
which the surface cut is perpendicular to the axis of the cutter. 
These cutters are called radial because their teeth are used in a 
plane parallel to the radii of the cutter. End mills, face mills, 
butt cutters, etc., are all tools in this class. 

The third class of cutters is the angular. Fig. 107, in which the 
surface cut is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the axis of the 




Fig. io8. The cutting edge of this class is of an irregular outline. 
When properly backed off, these cutters can be ground and retain 
their original form. Gear cutters, tools for grooving taps, etc., 
are all classed as form cutters. 

S: the numerous engravings in this book will be found 
CUTTER 

40° 

illustrations of a large number of cutters which are used on mill- 
ing machines. In most cases it is advisable to use a cutter of 
small diameter rather than of large diameter. Cutters from !}■■: 
to 2 inches in diameter are the most economical for genera! 
inilling. 





TTER PIPE TAP. 



if care is taken. If, in hardening, one can so manage as to retain 
a soft center in the article there will be, or need be, but Uttle 
difficulty in overcoming the warp. This will at least be found 
true in large tools which have a larger proportion of soft core than 
those of smaller cross -sect ion. With these last, and in fact, in 
all, care must be taken to lower the tool perfectly square into the 
quenching bath, so that the heat will be absorbed equally from all 
sides. This desirable tendency will be increased if the too! is 
lowered in the center of the bath. 

If the above is true about the hardeiiini?: bath, it is equally 



HARDENj TEUPER AND STRAIGHTEN SMAI 

of the heating bath, where melted lead or other liquids are used 
or heating. One thing must be remembered, and that is tliat 
here will be no use in taking the trouble to cool a tool equally if 
it has been heated unequally. For this reason, tools should be 
imersed squarely and centrally into the heating-bath, and turned 
iround. The turning process will also contribute to good results 
in quenching. 

Temperature "TelUTales" for Use in Healing Steel. 
In order to show just how hot steel is that is being annealed 
I muffle or'box, supply some one-fourth inch rods, which may be 
mlled out from time to time to test the temperature. 

Working Steel for Tools. 

tn forging steel for tools great care must be taken to hammer 

all sides alike. The careless and unequal hammering of steel 

when forging is responsible for a great deal of bad work in hard- 

ning. Another thing, steel, when being forged, should be heated 

& hot as it will stand untU finishing, and should then be ham- 

nered until almost black-hot. This treatment wdl set the grain 

if the stee! finer, and give a tool a better edge when finished. The 

reason for he?.ting the steel to a bright red heat while forging is 

imply because it makes the steel tougher when hardened and 

softer when annealed ; while, on the contrary, when steel is worked 

a low red beat, the continued shocks of the hammer will so 

harden it as to make it almost impossible to anneal it, and at the 

,me time render it too brittle, when hardened, for general use. 

Hardening Small Sazi's. 
To harden small saws such as are used for screw head slotting, 
etc., beat on a flat surface and clamp between two thick ca.st-iron 
liates, which sliould be perfectly level and coated with a heavy 

Hardening Cutter-Bits. 

Cutter-bits such as are used in lathe tool holders should be 
iardened regularly when soft at the lower ends. When too soft 
use they should be laid aside until a suiScient number of them 
ire at hand to be hardened. They can then be heated by putting 
ifcem into a box and heating them to a dull red, and the end of 
Bach stuck into a perforated iron pan, the bottom of which should 



i6o 



INC., TEMI'EHING AND ANNE< 



be covered witli just a sufficient depth of water to harden ther 
up as far as desired. The tools may then be ground aud put witiB 
the new cutters. Do not let high-grade steel such as should I 
used for cutter-bits get into the smith's fire. 

Hardening Mixture for General Siniih JVork. 

Salt. 2 ounces; copperas, i'/2 oiniccs; sal-ammoniac, 
ounces; saltpeter, ij4 ounces; sal-soda, 1)4 ounces, and black I 
oxide magnesia, 8 ounces. The last two ingredients should he 
added after the others are mixed together. Before mixing the 
ingredients, pulverize them separately, and then mix well and dry- 
l)efore using. Use like yellow prussiate of potash and plunge in 
water, ■ 

Temf-cring Plat Drills for Hard Stock. * 

PrciCTire good high degree steel and heat to a cherry red, and 
hammer until nearly cold, forming the end into the requisite 
flattened shape, then heat it again to a cherry red, and plunge it 
into a limip of resin or into quicksilver. A solution of cyanide 
of potassium in rain water is sometimes used for the tempering 
lihT]igc-bath, but it will not give the result that quicksilver or resin^ 

To Temper hravers. 

Gravers may he tempered ..in the same way as drills; or the 

red-hot tool may be presj'ed into a piece of lead in which a hole 

about half an inch deqi'has been cot to receive the graver; t' 

kad melting around the article wilJ give it an excellent temper. 

'' 7ii Temper Old Files. 
Grind out the cwtings on one side of the file until a bright 
surface is o^ai^^d ; vthcft moisten the surface with a little oil. 
and place, tl\e file .on a piece of red-hot plate with the bright side 
upward. In- about a minute the bright surface will begin to turn 
vellow, 3nil when the yellow has deepened to about the color of 
.stPai^, plunge in cold water. 

t fiifrdciung and Tempering Small Taps, Knives, Springs, Etc, 

'.' /^ '/ -Secure a piece of pipe of sufficient diameter and length to ac- 

^'' ^^ .compodate the piece, and heat one end, flatten together on the 

.,,;anvi!, and weld so it will not leak. Fill the pipe with lead and 

s^ it up in the fire. When the lead has melted, immerse the tool 



1 
1 



[ AND STRAIGHTEN SMALL TOOLS. 



^V HAKDEN, 

^pmd let it remain until the lead is red-hot. Then quench in a 

n^salt water bath and when cool remove it. To temper the tool, heat 
a large piece of iron in the forge to a red heat. Grease the tool 
all over with tallow. Remove the iron from the forge and lay on 
the anvil. Hold the tool over hot iron by means of tongs or 
pliers, turning it all the lime until the desired color is obtaineil 
and then drop it into linseed oil. A good and uniform temper 

^-should result. 

^b Tempering Small Spiral Springs. 

^f To temper small spiral springs heat to a cherry red in a char- 
coal fire, and harden in oil. To temper, blaze off the oil three 
times : the same as for small fiat springs. 



^ 



To Draw Small Steel Parts lo ci Blue. 



Fill a cast-iron box with sand and heat it red hot. Then put 

article, which has been first highly polished, into the sand and 
when the right color appears remove and quench in oil. 

Small steel parts of guns, typewriters, sewing machines, etc., 
may be blued clieaply and well in a solution of ten parts saltpeter 
and black oxide of manganese, heated in an iron pot to the point 
wliere sawdust thrown on it will flash. 

Small pieces may be strung on wires in considerable quanti- 
ties and dipped in solution, a minute or two being sidKcient time 
ordinarily, although of course this will vary with the thickness of 
the pieces. The blue produced by this process is what is called 
Government Blue and is not quite equal to the English Blue, which 
is secured with hot charcoal and whiting, as all gunraakers will 
understand, but it will answer very well and is very much cheaper. 

If springs are to be blued, they may be hardened and polished 
and the bluing process will draw them to the proper temper at 
the same time, and the temper will be very uniform. 

It will be well to bore some holes in the solution before plac- 
ing on the fire to heat, for if a vent is not provided there will be 
commotion. 



I 
I 




ing liath (when heated properly) set it in an inclined positi< 
and direct a strong stream of cold water onto the face of the 
By having the stream strong the whole die face will be coven 
and the contraction of the metal at the surface will be equ: 
Allow the water to strike the die until the bath ceases to hoJl;'' 
and then gradually diminish the stream and allow the die to cool 
slowly. By placing the die in the inclined position when hard- 
ening, the water will run off the face and thereby the bottom will 
remain soft and hot while the die portion proper will be hard, 
which is always a desirable condition in dies of this kind. At 
the same time the temper can he drawn by the heat remaining 
the base of the die. When the colors appear turn the water oa 
until cool 

When a muffle is used to heat steel parts for hardening, pro- 
vide a number of 3-16-inch rods. Put them in with the steel 




I 



BLANK HOLnER. 



and remove one from time to time during the heating proct 
to test the temperature. 

To anneal white or hard iron die parts so that they may 
machined with ease, put the parts into an iron box and paciC' 
around them a mixture composed of equal parts of common 
sand, fine steel turnings and steel scale from the rolhng mills. 
Wet the mixture with the solution of sal-ammoniac, after whicli 
place the box in a furnace and heat to a white heat. Keep the 
heat for five or six hours, and then allow the box to cool slowly. 
When cool remove the castings and they will be found to be 
malleable enough to allow of cutting them. The packing of the 
mixture mentioned above and the wetting of it with the solution 
contributes to the annealing, and allows of the castings or parts 
coming through the process free from scale and lumps. 

Hozv to Harden Large Ring Dies. 
To harden large ring dies, which are to be ground after hard- 



1 



THE HARDENING AND TEMPERING OF DIES. I65 

Uiing. and which are required to be very hard about the center 

Ebf the hole and the walls, they should be heated in large iron 

joxes as follows : Put a layer of fine powdered charcoal about 

■ 2 inches deep in the bottom of the box and place the die on it. 

Fill the die and then cover it to a depth of about )^ inch with a 

mixture of 4 parts powdered charcoal to i part of charred leather, 

-then put a loose cover on the box and place in the furnace. 

After heating about three hours or more, according to the si^e of 

3ie die, the metal will be at a red heat. It should then be allowed 

3 remain at a low heat for about an hour, which will insure its 

Bleating uniformly throughout. The heat should then be in- 

(^eased until the die comes to a full red heat ; it is then ready to 

E quenched. 

Remove the box from the furnace, and with two pair of tongs, 

f and a man at opposite sides, if the die is too large for one man 

^o handle, draw the die from the box, clean, and quench squarely 





■ into the water, working up and down until the red has entirely 

■disappeared, then let it lie still until cool. When cool remove 

ftie die from the water and heat, to remove the strain and chill 

: hardening, until drops of water sprinkled on it will steam. 

Then lay it aside in an even temperature where it will cool off 

lowly. 

When large ring dies are hardened in the manner described 
e there need be no fear that they will warp, crack or shrink 
Sxcessively or unevenly. 

Hardening a Long Punch so as to Prevent Warping. 
Often, after carefully hardening a long punch, it will be 



1 




I 



HMk, *jr 19 inyinif m a ilnv f tx A . go. Ac fc^ c 
*Mr Ufc«n; ArK in tftr hating «i ibe sbccL and i 




t|ll*(irl)lni[, In nil uliop* where dies or other tools which reqairc ' 
liiili|*<illiit{ ^^tv Ki iwiT wXei\, a ««» furnace or "muffle" should be 
ilM'il iiir Iti-filiirKi hilt wlifii a "tnufllc" is not handy charcoal 
»ltiiii|(| litt iiiu'd. AfUT 11 K"od clean fire has been buih, all screw i 
mill ilnwi'l liiiN'o In llu- die slitmld lit iikiffged with fire clay 0P< 
iinlicilii*, Mv liiMiiit llu'xc iirccjuilidtis the tendency of the steet# 
In (nil I. .ihiiiinl ilir Iml.'s is. a^ far as mssible, eliminated. Wei 



THE HAKDENIKG AND TEHPERINC OF DIES. l6^ 

F-now heat the die to an even cherry red, so that the entire plate 
will be the same temperature; tlien remove it from the fire and 
dip it endwise into the water (which should first be warmed 
slightly to take the chill out), being careful to dip down straight, 
and not to move it or shake it arotmd as that would increase the 
possibility of the die warping, or shrinking excessively. After 
removing the die from the water it should he immediately 
warmed. Now grind the face of the die ; heat a thick piece of 
cast-iron red hot, and place the die upon it ; it can then he drawn 
evenly to any temper desired. By taking a piece of oil waste 
and wiping the face of the die as it is heating, the different colors 
will show up clear. When the color denoting the temper re- 
quired appears, remove the die and allow it to cool off slowly. ' 

Cracks in Dies — Their Cause. 

When a piece of tool steel in itself of no great commercial 
value is worked out and finished into an intricate die the labor 
cost amomiting to a large sum, the steel is, of course, very valu- 
able; and if cracks show after the hardening process, or the die 
is spoiled, it means a great loss to the establishment. 

Now in the first place, although we are apt to usually con- 
found cracks with hardening, very often the trouble can be 
traced to the preceding operations of annealing, forging and 
finishing. Of course there is a large number of dies spoiled 
through carelessness or inexperience in hardening, but still we 
believe there is as great an amount spoiled through imperfect 
preceding operations or through the operator not being familiar 
with the nature of 'the steel. 

A die may be carefully heated to give the proper temperature 
throughout, and may be quenched in the bath in the most ap- 
proved manner, but if it is not "slightly warmed" after removing 
it from the hardening bath, it is liable to crack. This reheating 
may be done in a number of ways. The best way is to hold the 
die over the fire until it is heated to a temperature sufficient to 
cause a few drops of water to steam when sprinkled on it. The 
heat will not be sufficient to make any of the temper colors 
appear. 

The author has been connected with one establishment where 
thousands of dies were made every year, and every die was re- 
heated after hardening, in the following manner: A large tank 
provided with a perforated tray with means for raising and lower- 



l68 HARDEWING. TEMPERIWfi AND ANNEALING. 

ing it was used. The tank was filled with water to withir 
inches of the top and a steam pipe was connected with it. Then 
the water was kept at the boihng point, and the die directly after 
hardening was placed upon the tray which was then lowered 
into the bath. 

We have known dies to crack while being in the forge when 
the blaze touched the die portion proper. This being brought 
about by a sudden heat and then a cold blast of air causing the 
steel to expand and then suddenly contract again, at a certain 
point, and as the consequent expansion and contraction in the 
die does not extend over the entire surface, the charge was local 
and cracks residted. 

A die made from a blank cut from a bar and machined and 
worked out without annealing is liable to crack when subjected 
to the hardening process, particularly if the blank is for a blank- 
ing die of odd shape, as shown in Fig. 120. If annealed bar steel 
is used the necessity of reannealing is also imperative as the first 
annealing does not eliminate the liability of cracking. 

When it is not possible to anneal the die blank before finish- 
ing to size, the next best thing to do is to heat the die uniformly 
throughout to a red heat, then remove it from the fire and allow 
it to cool until black. It may then be reheated to the proper 
temperature and hardened. In a foijning die the bulky portion 
has a tendency lo contract away froni the small portions, which 
being frail, harden first and do not alter their shape, while the 
bulky portion continues to contract unevenly, after the thin por- 
tion becomes ridged, and cracks are apt to appear when the tool 
is removed from the quenching. By heating the die to a high 
or red heat and then allowing it to cool to a black before the 
hardening heat this uneven contraction is to a certain extent pro- 
vided for. 

In hardening a die the quenching of it so that the frailest por- 
tion enters the bath first and hardens before the thickest por- 
tion, will most invariably cause cracks to appear, as unequal con- 
traction takes place and the heavy portion contracting the most, 
changes shape in attempting to draw with h the frailer portions. 
Another cause of cracks in dies is the use of improper means 
for grinding. When a die is ground on a machine on which 
no provision is made for water cooling, or where a fine wheel is 
used, cracks often result, coming about through the steel being 
■unevenly heated during the grinding. Thus, by using a coarse 








t^ ^ 




K 








Ji- ■> 
















1 










1 


H 









~*ii Hi Ml 



^-11 1 


1 




hollow punch, should be hard and the remaining portion of the 
piece soft. This may be accomplished by proceeding as follows : 
Clamp the die or punch, as the case may be, between flanges on 



THE HARDENINC. AND TEMPEBING 01* DIES. 



171 



i 



, upon starting to machine it, proves hard, although it has 
been annealed. When this is the case, never try to finish it before 
reannealing it; instead, rciugb it down, clean out the centers, if 
there are to be any, and anneal it over again. The time re- 
quired to reanneal the piece of steel will be more than made up 
in the machining of it. 

klVarping of Long Punches in Hardening. 
Often after carefully hardening a long punch it will be found 
'to have warped during the process, often to such a degree as to 
make it useless. There is a way to avoid this altogether, or a: 
least the warp wilt be so slight as to not afifcct the efficiency of 
the tool. To insure against warping, plunge the steel, when at 
the proper heat, squarely into the bath, lowering as far as pos- 
sible into the center of the Uquid. When this is done the heat 
will be absorbed equally from al! sides and the tendency to warp 
excessively will have been eliminated. 

Hardening Very Small Punches. 
When a large number of very small piercing punches are to 
be hardened they should be packed in closed iron boxes and the 
box heated. When all the parts have reached the proper heat 
ihey should be entered into a hath of either oil or water, as the 
nature of the work may require, through a funnel. This will in- 
-sure the entering of the parts vertically and prevent warping. 
.Another way by which small punches may be heated uniform \a 
by means of the lead bath. Keep the lead at the proper beat and 
cover the top with powdered charcoal and coke. 

Tempering Small Punches. 
Almost all large die shops in which any amount of hardening 
and tempering are done have discarded the method of tempering 
hy colors, and have adopted the more reliable method of doing it 
in oil, gaging the heat by thermometer. A kettle containing 
the oil is placed on the fire and heated to the right temperature 
for the degree of temper desired in the work. The hardened 
parts are then thrown into the liquid until drawn. By this 
method there is no possibility of overdrawing, as it is impossible 
for the parts to become hotter than the oil. When tempering 
punches in this manner it is not necessary to brighten them be- 
fore the operation, and where a lot of such work is done, it will 



172 HAROENIXG. TEMPERING AND ANNEL^LING. 

Ite accomplished much cheaper than if the old method were used; 
l>csidi-s the most satisfactory resuhs will be attained. ^1 

Hardening Fluids for Dies. ^^ 

We have heard a great deal about liardening fluids, for which 
it is claimed dies can l>e hardened better than in water or in brine. 
Such fluids are composed chiefly of acids and will rot the steel. 
and we should advise keeping away from them, as where it is 
m>t pcwsible to harden die steel in clear water or strong brine, 
the steel is useless and should be dispensed with. When quench- 
ing the heated steel chp down straight and don't shake it about, 
liiit after keeping it stationary for a few seconds, move it around 
sU'wly, keeping it vertical all the time. When the die or punch 
U of an intricate sliape, about three inches of oil on the top of 
the water will toughen it and contribute to helping the steel 
retain its idiapc while hardening, and prevent it from warping or 
crackiiij; during the process. Lastly, immediately after harden- 
iug ftud before grinding, the steel should be placed on the fire 
Hud slightly wamK'd, to take the chill and contraction strain out 
Hiul m»l l*i'l as.ide for a while, as we have seen dies that were laid 
i4»lde after hanlening (that were intact) after a few hours, show 

tlitrdcHing Thick Round Dies. 
OiWn r^'Uud dies, which are very thick in proportion to 
ihvil (hauK-t'T. wntract excessively in the center during the 
)\ArAteuiHt! prvcess, often to such a degree as to make them unfit 
(*H' WW. To overcome this tendency have an arrangement by 
which a stream of water may be forced through the hole without 
Wi'Uh>t> the outside; allowing the water to only come in contact 
with ihp iiiMde of the die. By doing this the walls of the die will 
In' hnrd while the outside will remain soft, as when the temper 
it dT«wtt the hole will remain straight and true. In shops where 
Ijrilkduiti' facilities are not at hand this method will work ex- 
Vv>lMuty, If possible use strong brine for the hardening fluid, 

flardeuing Poor Die Steel. 
^^luitv frctiuently in making dies we run across a piece of steel 
which after working will not respond satisfactorily to the usual 
httVtU'uing process. When this occurs prepare a solution com- 
(iiwd of two handfuls of common salt and one ounce of corrosive 
■uhliuialc to about six quarts of water and when the steel has 



r 



THE HARDENING AND TEMPERING UF DIES. 



^Ol 



^73 

reached a good red heat plunge into the bath. The corrosive 
subiimate gives lougliness to the steel and the salt hardens. This 
rlution is deadly poison ; exercise care in using it. 



Tempering a Combination Cutting and Draining Punch. 

After the face of the punch has been sHghtly sheared, and 
the edges of the drawing die slightly rounded and highly pol- 
ished, the punch is hardened and then drawn by laying it alter- 
nately on each of its four sides on a hot plate, tempering the 
cutting edges to a dark blue and leaving the inside or drawing 
die portion as hard as possible. When finishing the blanking 
portion of the punch, care has to be taken to do it so that the 
drawing portion will be perfectly central. 

L Hardening and Tempering a Split Gang Punch. 

I The best way to harden and temper a split gang punch is b/ 
the following method: It should first be heated and hardened in 
clear oil, dipping it from the back, and thus preventing— as far 
as possible — the legs from crawling in toward each other because 
of the channel between them. By dipping from the back this 
will be overcome, as by the time the cutting face is immersed 
the back will be hard and set. It should then be polished and 
tempered by drawing from the back to a dark blue to within ^ 
inch of the cutting faces and quenched when those portions are a 
dark straw color. 

Hardening and Tempering Large "Blanking" or "Cutting" Dies. 

Large "blanking" or "cutting" dies of the type shown in 
Figs. 122 to 127 require considerable skill and experience to 
harden and temper correctly. They should be carefully heated 
and then quenched into a large tank of water and when cold 
warmed on the fire to take the chill and strain out. 

Cutting dies consist of an upper "male" die or "punch," and 
the lower, or "female" die. They may be made in almost any 
size and shape for cutting out flat blanks in tin, iron, steel, alumi 
nium, brass, copper, zinc, silver, paper, leather, cloth, etc. Ordi 
narily, the lower die is hardened and tempered to a degree best 
suited for the work, while the punch is left comparatively soft, 
so that it can be "hammered" up when worn. Sometimes, as in 
the case of playing-card dies, it is preferable to reverse this and 
make the punch hard, leaving the die soft. Circumstan~es de- 



I 
I 




174 H.\RDENING, TEMPERING AXD ANNEALING. 

termine whether any or how much "shear" should be given to the 
culling edge. For ordinary work in tin. brass, etc., a moderate 
amount of shear is desirable. These dies require to be made with 
the utmost care, of materials specially adapted for the purpose, 
and Ijy experienced and skillful workmen. Ordinarily, the steel 
cutting rings are welded to wrought-iron plates, after which they 




I'lG. 125. 



are hardened, carefully tempered and ground on special machin- 
ery. In some cases it is preferable to fasten the steel dies in 
cast-iron chucks or die-beds by means of keys or screws. This 
applies more particularly to small dies. For cutting tliick iron, 
steel, brass, and other heavy metals both the die and ptmcb should 
be hard and provided with strippers. 



CHAPTER X. 

'' rOHGING AND WELDING TU ACCUMl'LiSir SATISFACTORV RESULTS 

IN THE FOHGISG OF STEEL AND IRON OaOP FORGING. 

Welding Heats. 
In the welding of steel to steel or steel to iron without injur- 

, ing the quality of the material, the process involved is one in 
which great care, judgTnent and skill are necessary, particularly 

I in dealing with the degrees of heat. Because of its greater flexi- 
bility the welding heat of steel should be lower than that of iron 
and thus the more flexible the steel the harder it is to weld. 
Mild steel can be welded much more easily than high carbon or 
tool steel. Ordinary cast steel such as double shear steel, con- 
taining as it does a smaller proportion of carbon than "tool 
steel," may be easily welded, as its texture, which is very fibrons, 
is partly restored through hammering or rolling. Thus for all 
edge tools for wood this steel will give good results as it will 
carry a very keen cutting edge. 

A Good IVelding Flux for Steel. 

A good flux for welding steel is sal-ammoniac and borax. 

I The borax of commerce as sold by chemists is composed of a 

I very large proportion of water, and in order to use this, it should 

I be put into an iron or other suitable vessel and boiled over the 

■ fire until all the water is expelled, after which it should be ground 

Kto a powder before it is used. When it is desired to mix sal- 

immoniac with borax the proportions are about i6 parts borax lo 

: of sal-ammoniac. In heating a piece of steel for forging it 

f should be placed in the center of a close hollow fire and the wind 

put on very sparingly, so as to allow the mass to heat equally 

through and through. If. on the other hand, it is put into the fire 

and the blast turned on full the outside of the metal will become 

red hot before the center ; therefore the expansion of the outside 

away from the center will cause internal strains, which wil! not 

' "be visible until the tool is hardened, and then the hardener will be 

blamed. 




178 HARDENIXU, TEHPEHlNt; AND ANNEALING. 

at Old Point Comfort, in 1899, Captain (now Admiral) RoM 
D. Evans delivered an address in which he said : 

"In 18&2 I had the good fortune to be a member of what is 
known as the first advisory board for rebuilding the navy. It 
was an awfully hot summer, and fifteen of us, rather impatient in 
spirit, got together in Washington, presided over by Admiral 
John Rodgcrs. When we looked the field over, we fount! that 
we had no navy at all ; we were hopelessly behind the age, and it 
seemed hardly worth while to rebuild our navy. I shal! never 
forget as long as I live the trouble I caused in that small conven- 
tion by proposing that we should build steel ships. I was the 
original steel man, and when I proposed that all ships in future 
should be built of steel, Admiral Rodgers adjourned the boani 
for three weeks to prevent a fight." 

Now the animus referred to by Admiral Evans was induced 
by the fact that forgings which were being supplied at this time 
were of just such a type as might be expected to be produced by 
men who had not acquainted themselves with the requirements of 
the new material. While some were excellent in everj- way, others 
were different in strength, or contained concealed cavities anil 
were unreliable in general. The supplies of material running so ir- 
regular in quality reflected unfavorably upon the steel industry at 
large and developed a prejudice against steel generally, from 
which it has scarcely recovered in the minds of many users 
of forgings, even at the present day. It was fortunate for the 
country that the advisory board referred to contained as stalwart 
a champion of steel as Admiral Evans, for after they had visited 
the various ordnance works abroad and had seen steel worked 
properly, they returned home and recommended to the Secri^tary 
of the Navy Mr. Trac\', that by all means the new navv should 
be built of this metal, and as there were no properly equippe-i 
steel forges in this country, one would have to be huiJt to furnish 
the necessary armor, guns and engine forgings required in the 
construction of modern naval war vessels. Meanwhile, this board 
had overcome, through the good offices of its secretary, the 
personal objections heretofore existing on the part of Sir Joseph 
Whitworth to the use of his special steel casting and forging 
processes elsewhere than in his own works, which were con- | 
sidered foremost in the manufacturing of ordnance. Without^ 
entering into the details which accompanied- the immediate estab-*! 
hshment in this country of the great ordnance works of theT 




FORGING AND WKunxn. 179 

Bethlehem Steel Company, it is sufficient to say that in their 
"eijuipmeiit not only were special appliances in use in this English 
works duplicated, but their size was doubled. A contract was 
also entered into at die same time hy which the great works of 
Schneider & Co., of Le Creusot, France, which stood first among 
the makers of armor plate, were also duplicated at the Uethlc- • 
hem plant. Thus there arose in this country a forging plant at 
once larger and superior to any in the world. 

During the years this plant was being erected there were 
many engineers who, appreciating the superior advantages of sted 
forgings when properly produced over those made of wrought 
iron, systematically sent abroad fur their steel forgings. It was not 
until 1889 that the country obtained its first high-grade steel 
commercial forgings from the Bethlehem works. These had 
been gladly specified by the engineers above mentioned who were 
impatiently waiting to get their steel forgings nearer home than 
in Europe. Machine and tool builders of this country were thus 
made acquainted for the first time with steel forgings intelli- 
gently produced. There are to this day many users of steel forg- 
ings who, not having carefully investigated the methods con- 
sidered necessary to produce them, think that a steel forginij 
is made by merely hammering a rolled steel billet to the form 
required : and such as order their forgings without specifying 
more definitely the grade called for hy the special service to 
which the forging is to be submitted may get a forging of that 
type. The forging industry has grown from the blacksmith 
shop, a once famihar adjunct to an engine works, and has become 
a specialty ; and a modern steel forge is not now thought com- 
plete imless it melts its own raw material and converts it into 
the finished product under the supervision of chemists, metallurg- 
ists, physicists and micro scopists. 

I Hon.- Hollow Shafts Are Forged. 

There are two ways of making a forging hollovv. The ordi- 
nary way of getting rid of the center of a forging is simply to 
bore it out. After boring, it is tempered and thus the strength is 
restored which was taken away with the material which was 
in the center. 

Another way of getting rid of the center of large forgings 
is to forge them hollow. A person who has not considered the 
Bibject carefully would naturally think that the first thing to do ia 



I 




l80 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALTNC. 

making a hollow forging would be to cast a hollow ingot. 
been mentioned that there were various defects which occur 
ingots, the most serious of which are "segregation" and "pipii^' 
and that it is in the centur and upper portion where those defect*' 
occur. If an ingot were to be cast hollow, a solid core of fire^J 
brick or similar material would replace the center metal, and'l 
instead of one on the outside there would be two cooling surfaces, 
one on the outside and one around the core, and the position of^ 
the last cooling would he transferred to an annular ring, midway 
between these surfaces, where the "piping" and "segregation" 
would collect. This would not be .satisfactory, because the metal 
there is what must be depended upon for the strength of the 
hollow forging. It is necessary, therefore, to collect the "piping' 
and "segregation" in the center and the top, where the metal has 
been added to the original ingot for the purpose. 

Then having cut off the top and bored out the center, tlw 
"piping" and "segregation" are entirely eliminated and what 
left is as sound and homogeneous a piece of steel as can 
obtained. 

After the hole has been bored in the ingot, the next process is 
to re-heat it, and, as before explained, this process is not as de- 
licate a one as if the ingot were solid. The heat affects the center 
equally with the interior and they expand together and the 
danger of .cracking is not incurred. When the ingot is re- 
heated a steel mandrel is put through its hollow center, and sub- 
jecting the two to hydraulic pressure the metal is forced down 
and out over the mandrel. Thus an internal anvil is practically 
inserted into the forging and there is, therefore, really much less 
than one-half the amount of metal to work on than if the piece 
were solid. 

When the work of shaping is completed the forging is re- 
heated to the proper temperature and then either annealed in the 
usual manner or plunged into a tempering bath of oil or brine, to 
set the line grain permanent!)- that has been established by the re- 
heating. A mild annealing follows to relieve any surface or other 
strains that may have been occasioned by the rapid cooling. 

Hollow forpings oil-tempered and annealed are considered the 
best grade of forgings made, and any forgings made otherwise, 
although they may be suitable for the service to which they may 
be applied, cannot be looked upon in any other manner than as 
of an inferior grade. 



g" 
ias_V 

1 



FORGING AND WELDING. l8r 

Tliat Steel forgings of such high grade were being maimfac- 
I tured for commercia! purposes in this conntry was first brought 
I to the attention of manufacturers generally at the World's ['"air 
L in Chicago. Here were exhibited stationary engine forgings 
I which compared favorably with those sent over by European 
I forges. The Ferris wheel shaft, 45 feet long and 32 inches out- 
I side diameter, with a 16-inch hole through it, represented the 
I largest made up to that time. The soliciting of orders for .such 
I forgings, however, at once aroused the latent prejudice still ex- 
[ isling against steel forgings. and the prices demanded being some- 
I what in excess of those which wrought iron or ordinary steel 
f forgings could be obtained for, prevented at tirst the very rapid 
I introduction of this product into the commercial field. 

DifUcuItics Encou)itfred in Introducing High-Grade Forgings. 

It hardly seemed necessary to explain to an engineer or anj' 

[■ one authorized to purchase, and therefore presumably competent, 

r "that if he wanted material to sustain severe usage in the nature of 

\ alternating stresses, to which all forgings are subjected, he should 

f select a material possessing a very high elastic limit. And yet it 

i not unusual to find that those very people preferred to use 

I wrought iron for their engine crosshead and crank pins and 

I shafts in preference to steel, because, as they said, "steel being 

I crystalline is brittle and snaps off suddenly under such services 

; that under consideration, while iron having fiber, is tougher 

I and yields before breaking." Most of these men know better. 

but had not given the subject sufficient thought, or they would 

have perceived that their statements were not consistent. They 

said that the steel connecting rods they had tried had broken off 

short without any warning, while rods made of wrought iron had 

I simply bent up. and after having been straightened out were re- 

[ placed as good as new. 

These people did not stop to think that a steel rod that broke 
I off had done so at its ultimate strength, or under a stress of from 
o.ooo to 90,000 pounds per square inch, whereas the iron rod 
V which had doubled up had done so at its yielding point of 25,000 
k to 30,000 pounds per square inch. In other words, their engines 
1 with wrought iron rods were failing all over the country under 
(loads about one-third what they were standing up to when sup- 
I plied with steel rods, yet the men were blaming the steel for help- 
ing them out of their troubles. 



I 



I82 



HARDENING, TEMPERINi; AND AtWfEAT.tN' 



I 
I 



Tlien again they complained that steel shafts and crank pinq 
hL-ated up, while wrought iron ran cool. When it was proved to 
them that laboratory experiments showed the coefficient of friction 
of these metals to be the same, and that any difference in heating _ 
was caused by local circumstances, such as poor lubrication, 
cessive pressure, etc., they said they did not care for laboratofj 
experiments. They had an engine in one place with a steel shaff 
that never would run cool, while another with a wrought-irc 
shaft had never given any trouble, and they were passing judg^ 
nient on their own experience. Persistent exposure of these 
lacies gradually brought about a change in sentiment. 

"Cold CrystiiUipalion" Does Not Occur. 
it took a long time to persuade people who had seen brokeij 
fcrghigs which showed a coarse crystalline section that thfll 
metal had not crystallized from shock or vibration in service;* 
but had been forged in such a manner that the crystallized ■ 
condition of the ingot from which the forging had beenj 
made had not been changed by the forging process o 
subsequent heat treatment. .And these are the people even 
who consider thernselves conservative, who would rather have ] 
their forgings made of a mild steel which is weak, than of a high- 
carbon steel which is strong, simply because the old ideas are niA 
\'et eradicated from their minds. Tests were made at the gov-] 
ernment testing bureau at Watertown by rapidly bending barsJ 
forward and backward within their elastic limit, with the follow-.l 
ing results, and these have given engineers an idea of the coi 
parative endurance of wrought iron, steel and nickel .steel, 
such service as that to which crank pins, shafts, etc.. are subject. I 

Tests of Steel Under Repealed Stresses. 
Under a Fiber Slre.ss of 40,000 Pounds per Square Inch. 





Wrougln iroi 


n breaks afte 


r =0,000 


alternations of 


-IS p. c 


. carbon steel 


" 




170.000 




■25 P- c 


.. 




" 


2^9,000 




-.15 P- c 








317-000 


.. 


■45 p. e 






" 


976.000 




3'/^ P- 


c, nickel steel. 


carbon 


.25 ic 


. .,10 p. c. 


. 1,850,000 allerni 


4'A P-< 




" 


.25 tc 


> ..^o p. c, 


. 2,360,000 


5'A P-< 






.25 to 


■ .30 p. c„ 


, 4-370.OO0 



The best qii; 



Charcoal. 
s of charcoal are made from oak, maple, beec 



FORGING AND WELDING. 



183 



and chestnut. Between 5 and 17 per cent of coal will be ob- 
tained when the wood has been properly burned. A bushel of 
coal from hardwood weighs from 29 to 31 pounds and from 
pine 28 to 30 pounds. 

Welding Powder for Iron and Steel.— For welding iron and 
■steel a composition has lately been patented in Belgium, consisting 
of u-on filings, 40 parts ; borax, 20 parts ; balsam of copaiba or 
some other resinous oil, 2 parts, and sal-ammoniac, 3 parts. They 
are mixed, heated and pulverized. The process of welding is 
much the same as usual. The surfaces to be welded are powdered 
with the composition and then brought to a cherry red heat, at 
which the powder melts, when the portions to be united are taken 
from the fire and joined. If the pieces to be welded are too 
large to be introduced at the same time into the forge, one can 
he first heated with the welding' powder to a cherry red heat and 
then others afterward to a white heat, after which the welding 
may be effected. 

To Make Edge-Tools from Cast-Steel and Iron. — This method 
consists in fixing a clean piece of wrought iron, brought to a 
welding heat, in the center of the mould, then pouring in melted 
steel, so as to entirely envelop the iron, and then forging the 
mass into the shape required. 

To Weld Cast-Iran. 

Take 3 parts of good class white sand, refined solution fost- 
ering and rock salt of each i part ; heat the pieces to be welded 
in a charcoal fire, occasionally taking out and dipping into the 
composition, until they are of a proper heat to weld. Then 
take immediately to the anvil and weld together. If done care- 
fully by one who understands welding iron, there will be a good 
strong weld. 

Welding Composition for Cast-Steel. — Take borax, 10 parts; 
sal-ammoniac, i part : grind or ]Dound them roughly together, then 
fuse them in a metal pot over a clear fire, taking care to con- 
tinue the heat until the spume has disappeared from the surface. 
When the liquid appears clear, the composition is ready to 
he poured out to cool and concrete; afterward, being ground 
-to a fine powder, it is ready for use. To use this composition, 
the steel to be welded is first raised to a bright yellow heat, 
it is then dipped into the welding powder, and again placed in 



184 HARDEMNG, TE1*I>EBING AKtl ANJJHALING, 

the fire until it attains the same degree of heat as before 
then ready to be placed under the hammer. 

Ho'A.1 to Restore Oz-erliculcd Slccl, 
A number of receipts for compositions which will restore ovel 
heated steel are given in the following : 

To Restore Overheated Cast-Steel. — Take ii/g pounds borax, 
% pound sal-ammoniac, y^ pound prussiate potash, i ounce 1 
rosin. Poimd the above fine, add a gill each of water and alcohol. , 
Put in an iron kettle, and boil until it becomes paste. Do not boil I 
too long or it will become hard on cooling. 

To Restore Overheated Steel.— Borax 3 pounds ; sal-ammon- I 
iac, I pound; prussiate potash, y^ pound; alcohol, i gill; 
water, i pint. Put into an iron pan and hold over a slow fire untU''J 
it comes to a slow boil and until the liquid matter evaporates; be* 
- careful to stir it well from the bottom and let it boil slow. This 1 
receipt is very valuable ; no matter how badly the steel is over- 1 
heated it will restore and make it as durable as ever. 

To Restore Overheated Steel and Improve Poor Steel. 

Borax, 3 ounces : sal-ammoniac, 8 ounces ; prussiate of potash,J 
3 ounces; blue clay, 2 ounces; rosin, i^ pounds; water, i giii;9 
alcohol, I gill. Put all over a slow fire; let it simmer until it driesl 
to a powder. Heat the steel not above a cherry red ; dip into thUJ 
powder and afterwards hammer. 

Composition to Toughen Steel. — Rosin 2Y> pounds ; tallow 2^ J 
pounds; pitch it/g pounds. Melt together and apply to the steel J 
while hot. 

Pointer. 

Rosin on the blacksmith's forge improves and toughens steel- J 
When the tool is hot, dip it into the rosin, theii hammer. 

To Weld Buggy Springs. 
To weld buggy springs first scarf one piece of spring, and J 
then weld onto it a piece of spring cut off about three-quarters 1 
of an inch longer than the first; heat and upset until one-quarter J 
thicker at end than spring scarf. Now upset the other piece 1 
until as near thickness of first piece as possible: scarf and weld. • 
Leave a trifle heavier at weld, and if the work has been done 1 
properly the weld can be warranted not to break. Use a 4'/^ J 
pound hammer in making this wi'ld. and keep at it until finishei. . 



FORGINC. AND AVF-LDIKG. I87 

together. It is rolled out in thin sheets and divided into squares 
which are easily broken apart for use. Tests of steel specimens 
welded in the French government works show a remarkably 
high efficiency of the welds. This is due to the high protectivi! 
power of the flux which prevents the formation of oxide on the 
surface of the welds. 

Compound for Welding Steel.— The following composition 
has in a number of cases proved superior to borax for welding 
steel: Mix coarsely powdered borax with a thin paste of prussi- 
ate blue; then let it dry. 

Fluxes far Soldering and Welding. 

For iron or steel, borax or sal-ammoniac : tinned iron, rosin or 
chloride of zinc : copper and brass, sal-ammoniac or chloride zinc ; 
zinc, chloride of zinc; lead, tallow or rosin; lead and tin pipes, 
rosin and sweet oil. 

Subsfilute for Borax in Welding. 

Copperas, 2 ounces ; saltpeter, i ounce : common salt, 6 ounces : 
black oxide of manganese, i ounce; prussiate of potash, 1 ounce. 

A!! pulverized and mixed with 3 pounds good welding sand. 

High carbon steel can he welded with this at a lower heat 
than is required with borax. 

Drop-Forgings. 

Drop forging is the art of forging with drop hammers and 
may be designated as "machine black smithing." The inception of 
the art dates back to about 1853 when Colonel Samuel Colt 
adopted drop-hammers to make parts for firearms. The ma- 
■chines. processes and tools used in the art have since been greatly 
improved and the products of the drop forging industry are nov^ 
used in a majority of the mechanical arts. Figs. 130 to 140 
illustrate parts produced by drop forging. 

The dies used for making drop-forgings are made in two 
parts. One part (the upper) is fastened in the ram or hammer 
-of the drop, which moves vertically between two uprights or guides 
and is raised by means of friction rolls controlled by the operator. 
The other part of the die (the lower) is fixed in the anvil o"- 
■base of the hammer. The ram raises until released, when it falls 
instantly, striking with the upper die the heated bar of metal 
on the bottom die and forcing it into impressions in Ixitb 
By a .series of such blows the complete article is formed. 





of fifjuring the c 
I drawing. 
Ill making drop-forging dies the die sinker must know whether 
tile drawing and model show finished or forging size; he needs 
also to know the allowance desired in machining. It is usinl 
to add 1-32 inch on eacli surface to be machined unless the piece 
is to be finished by grinding or polishing only, in which case i-ioo 
inch is allowed ; surfaces not to be machined or ground are madi? 
close to size. Forgings vary slightly in thickness— say from 
i-ioo inch to 1-32 inch — depending on their shape and the ma- 
terial used. They can, however, be made to gage by a re-striking 
operation ; this operation requires separate dies and entails addi- 
tional expense. 




sary to remove the surplus metal thrown out between the foil- 
ing dies ill working. 

Before using the finished set of dies for forging, a lead proof 
is struck up which is submitted to the customer. The proof often 




roSGING AND WEUJIKG. 

s from the model or drawing by what is called draft. This 

i taper necessary on tlie forcings to allow of drawing tliein 

from the dies while working, and it averages about seven degrees. 

It can he obtained by adding to or taking from thu forging; 

HttSUally the draft metal is- added. 

^H Establishments devoted exclusively to the manufacture of drop 
Bforgings carry a large and assorted stock of material from which 
^^o make the forgings. But in new dies, where the size of metal 
required cannot be determined until they are tried in the hammer, 
delays in obtaining the right sizes sometimes occur. As poor ma- 
terial cannot he used, drop-forgings arc. therefore, not only 
superior to hand-forgings because the metal is improved by the 




lorging operation. Iiut also because the nature of the process 

" requires a good quality of material. 

Forgings from steel of high carbon usually require annealing 
before they can be machined. While making drop-forgings they 
are carefully brushed with steel wire brushes to remove the scale, 
but if they are to be maciiined they are pickled in diluted sul- 

■ phuric acid to insure the complete removal of the hard outer skin. 
Often small drop-forgings are tumbled instead of pickled. 

Those who require drop-forgings will be saved undue expense 
if they inform manufacturers of the use for which the forgings 
are intended. The price is largely affected by the quantities made 
with one setting of the tools. It costs as much to set dies for lOO 
as for i.ooo pieces, and the forging work is also more costly m 
small lots. Prices for special drop-forging arc made per piece, 



192 

not per pound, and vary with the nature nf the work, the materfl 
used and the quantity takei 

The cheapest drop-forgings in the long run are those most imi- 
fnrm in size and guahty and close to finish dimensions, thus sav- 
ing labor, time, tools and money. 

Directions for Setting up Forging Drop-I! a miners. 
It is very important to have a good foundation, and we recom- 
mend as the cheapest and best, when it can be obtained, a log 
large enough in diameter at the butt end for the drop to stand 
on, and long enough to entor the ground six or eight fei^t. 





First dig a hole one foot deeper than is necessary to receive the 
log, and large enough to leave a space of about one foot all 
around it. Before the log is put into the hole, fill the bottom with 
grout one foot deep ; then, after placing the log in the hole so that 
it will stand jicrijondicular, ^jrout it nearl;- to the top of the 
ground. 

For light drops, it will do very well to put a large_ flat stone 
under the bottom of the log and fill it with earth, well stamped 
down. Now ailze the tap of the log level; then make a depres- 
sion in the center nf the surface, about six inches square and two 
inches deep, with a groove about one inch wide leading to the 



i . ^ 



AND WKI-DIN 



■93 



^nige of the block, to allow the scales and dirt to pass off, and 
^Kot lo get under the drop to make it rock or it will be unsteady. 
When, because of the size of the drop, or for otber reasons, a log 
cannot be obtained large enough to put it on, take numbers, say 
one fool square, and bolt enough of them together to make it of 
suitable size, when set up on end to receive the drop. Grout, and 
fill in, in the same manner as for the log. Chestnut and oak are 
the best. 

For forging drops with hammers weighing i.ooo to 2,000 
poimds, some manufacturers build a masonry foundation 8 to !2 
Eeet square at the base, tapering to the size of anvil shape at the 
, and 10 to 14 feel deep, with about 4 feet in height of oak 





. FIG. 140. — DROP-FORGED 



138. — DBOP-PORGI'-R 
HOOK. 



timbers at the top bolted together oti end. The hole around this 
foundation is thetr filled with grouting. If only a rock or stone 
foundation can be had, place about one-half inch of sheet rubber 
or rubber belting under the bottom of the drop. There is dang>;r 
of getting a foundation too solid for a drop. There should be 
some elasticity, and when set on a log or timber the desired 
effect is obtained ; and when placed upon stone the rubber belting 
is sufficient. A suitable foundation having now been obtained, 
and the drop fastened to the same on a line with a shaft that is 
to drive it. brace the drop at the top by rods, one end of which 
can be secured to the building, and the other to the lifter, in 
holes provided for that purpose. The belts nuist run back away 
■ irom the operator. 




I 



194 IIAKDENINU, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

Government Use of Nickel Steel far Forgings. 

With a view to their utilization in the various mechanical de- 
partments of Ilie government of the United States, the Bureau of 
Steam Engineering has undertaken extensive experiments with 
various metals. One resultalready isthe adoption of nickel steelfo,- 
forgings and other parts of steam engines. It is contended that 
the principal advantage of nickel steel over ordinary carbon steel 
for forgings lies in the relation which the elastic limit bears lo 
the tensile strength, the former being in a sense the true strength 
of the metal. The elastic limit of nickel slee! is much higher 
than that of carbon steel of the same tensile strength and elonga- 
tion, very often 30 per cent higher and in some cases as much 
as 50 per cent higher. The principal drawback to the commer- 
cial use of nickel steel has been the first cost of producing it. 
which in many cases is higher than the cost of ordinary finished 
forgings. 

A decided virtue of nickel steel, according to governmer.t 
report, is the facility with which a low carbon steel will harden, 
it being the practice after a forging is forged and rough ma- 
chined, to heat it and quench it in oil, which hardens it very 
much : afterward the forging is submitted to an annealing pr.j- 
cess which removes any strains set up in the metal by the sudden 
cooling which it receives. Nickel steel, after the first co.st of 
production, is not much more expensive to forge than any carbon 
steel that nms overdo per cent carbon, and about the same care 
is necessary in heating and forging as is required by a high car-- 
bon steel. 




rease a reamer to size when wtirn, burnish t 
each tooth with a hardened burnisher, which can be made from a 
three-cornered file nicely polished on the corners. This will in- 
s the size from 2 to 10 thousandths in diameter. Then hone 
back to the required s 

To make a tap or reamer cut larger than itself, put ; 
of waste in one flute, enough to crowd it over and cut out ou one 
side only. In larger sizes (114 inch or over) put a strip of tin 
on one side and let it follow the tap through. 

To Casc-Harden Cast-iron. 
Heat to a red heat, roll in a composition consistinf; of equal 
■ parts of prussate of potash, sal-ammoniac and saltpeter, pulver- 
ized and thoroughly mixed. F'lunge while yet hot into a bath con- 
taining 2 ounces of prussate of potash and 2 ounces of sal-am- 
Iraoniac to each gallon of cold water. 
I Rule. — Multiply the diameter of the driver by its numlicr of 
revolutions and divide the product by the diameter of the driven. 
The quotient will be the number of revolutions of the driven. 

The diameter and revolutions of the driver being; given to find 
the diameter of the driven that shall make any number of revolu- 
tions : 

Rule.— Multiply the diameter of the driver by its number of 
jj-evolutions and divide the oroduct by the number of required rev- 
olutions of the driven. The nuotient will he its diameter. 
To ascertain the size of nullevs for given soeeds: 
Rule. — Multiply all the diameters of the drivers toijether and 
Shi the diameters of driven together: divide the driver?, Isv \.W. 



Rules for Calculating Speed. 
The diameter of driven given to find its number of revoUi- 





» 



unalic a 
and I ounce of sal-ammoniac, then it is ready for use. 

Lubricant far Water Cuts. 

Strong sal soda water or soap water is much hetter than clear 
water to use where water cuts are being taken, either on lathe or 
planer. 

Babbit ling. 

Put a piece of rosin the size of a walnut into your Babbitt; 
stir thoroughly, then skim. It makes poor Babbitt rim better, 
and improves it. Babbitt heated just hot enough to light a pine 
stick wiil nm in places with the rosin in. where, without it, it 
would not. It is also claimed that rosin will prevent hlowiiig 
when pouring in damp boxes. 

Laying On! Work. 
In laving out work on planed or smooth surfaces of steel or 
iron, use blue vitriol and water on the surface. This will copper- 
over the surface nicely, so that all lines will show plainly. If oi 
oily surfaces, add a little oil of vitriol : this will eat the oil off 
and leave a nicely coppered surface. 

Lubricant for Working Ahimiiiniii. 
Use kerosene oil (coal oil) for driUing or turning aluminum, 

To Prevent Riisi. 
To prevent rust on tools, use vaseline, to which a small 
amount of powdered gum camphor has been added; heat together 
over a slow fire. 

Lubricant for Prilling Hard Sice!. 
Use turpentine instead of oil when driUing hard steel, saw 
plates, etc, Tt will drill readily when vou could not touch it with 
oil. 

Coppering Polis/ied Steel Surfaces. 
To copper the surface of iron or steel wire, have the wire per- 
fectly clean, then wa.'ih with the following solution, when it wll 



MISCELIJVNEOUS METHODS, TABLES. ETC. 



resent at once a coppered surface : Rain water, 3 pounds ; sul- 
pale of copper, i pound. 

To Blue Sled Without Healing. 
To blue steel witliout heating, apply nitric acid ; then wipe otf 
Pie acid, clean, oil and burnisli. 

To Remove Scale from Steel. 
Scale may be removed from steel articles by pickling in water 
with a little sulphuric add in it, and When the scale is loosened, 
^^rushing it with sand and stiff brush. 

^H Ta Distmguisk Wrought and Cast-Iron from Steel. 

^B Eisiner produces a bright surface by polishing or filing', and 
applies a drop of nitric acid, which is allowed to remain there 
for one or two minutes, and then washed off with water. TIic 
spot will look a pale ashy gray on wrought-iron, a brownish black 
on steel, a deep black on cast-iron. It is the carbon present in var- 
ious proportions which produces the difference in appearance. 

Anti-Friclion Alloy for Journal Boxes. 
Zinc, 17 parts; copper, i part; antimony, M; part. 
This possesses unsurpassable anti-friction qualities and does 
not require the protection of outer ait ngi of the harder metal. 

Solder for Al 
A great drawback to the use of al n for many purposes 
is the difficulty of soldering it. A ber f solders are known 

that are fairly successful when n ai p lated b ■ skillful hands. 
The following one was recommended b Prof E. Wilson in a 
paper read before the Society of ^rt*; The coistituencs are 2S 
pounds block-tin. 3.5 pounds lead 7 po m Is spelter, and 14 
pounds phosphor-tin. The phosphor-tin should contain 10 per 
cent phosphor. The following instructions should be followed 
when soldering aluminum : Clean off all dirt and grease from the 
.■iurface of the metal with benzine, apply the solder with a copper 
bit, and when the molten solder covers the surface of the metal, 
scratch through the solder with a wire brush, by which m-^ans the 
oxide is broken and taken up. Quick manipulation is neces- 
sary. 

Ciise-Hardntiitg -ivith Kerosene. 
is a process of hardening steel by petroleum which is 



I 




IC)8 HARDENING, TliMPERINC. AND ANNEALING. 

not generally known. The article to be treated is first thorougl 
rubbed with, ordinary washing soap, and then placed in a char- 
coal fire and heated to a cherry red. Then it is plunged into 
petroleum. There is no fear of the oil igniting, but it is wise 
not to have a naked hght too near. I'arts hardened by this 
method are said to have no cracks nor do they warp, and after 
hardening, owing to being white, can be finished without any 
cleaning or grinding. 

Case-Hard I'tihig Cones and Cii^s. 
For case-hardening small pieces, such as the cups and cones 
used in bicycle bearings, the following method has been found to 
work well in practice. It is somewhat different from the usual 
plan followed by case-hardeners in bicycle factories ; First, sur- 
round the article with yellow prussate of potash, then with leather 
(old boots will do), then with clay, and pack in an iron box oi 
some sort, usually a piece of gas pipe. Plug up the ends with 
clay ; place the whole in the fire and keep at a red heat for four 
or five hours, then quench in water. The usual difficulty with, 
workers in a small way is to keep tiie articles at a uniform ti 
perature for such a long time. 

Drills. 

As a rule, the cutting edges of twist drills arc formed with 
a cutter of correct form to produce a radial line of cutting edge ; 
thus a different form of cutter is required for milling the flutes 
of straight flute drills. 

Drills are generally made of .002-inch or .003-inch taper per 
foot for clearance and have the major part of land on the peripli- 
, ery ground away for the same purpose, about .003 inch on a side. 

Drills for brass should be made with straight flutes ; those 
for cast-iron and tool-stee! should in most cases have spiral flutes, 
at an angle of about 16 deg. ; soft steel, 22 deg. 

Chucking drills, for use on cored holes, or as followers of 
solid twist drills, are quite often provided with from three to 
eight flutes; the latter, on large work, are very efficient. Care 
should be taken in grinding, to insure all teeth cutting simultan- 
eously. These tools are made of solid, she!!, and inserted type. 

The inserted type are preferable for straight flutes over 2% 
inches, and for angular flutes over 4 inches, on account of co-^t. 

For drilling a large hole in a spindle the latter should be sup- 



4 



with,^^ 
lem^H 




EOUS METHODS, TABLES, ETC. 



199 



ffied in a back rest, and the drill entered through a drill bush- 
ing to start perfectly true. Then, by using a drill with one cut- 
ting edge and ground on the outside, a long, straight hole may 
bf readily produced. An ordinary twist drill will do practically 
Jie same if the center is made female, the only objection being 
iat this form is much more difficult to grind. 

Reamer Praclicc. 
The following particulars in regard to the experience of the 
■rell known American firm, the Lodge & Shipley Machine Com- 
, in making and using reamers, were given by their Mr. 
Villiam Lodge: 

The only reamer we use that is out of the ordinary is a taper 

reamer made with only three blades. These are cut as deep as the 

strength of the slock will permit and have very little clearance, 

which is obtained bv grinding the blades convex — not Hat or hoi- 

^Uow — as shown in Fig. 141. The reamer is used where a consider- 




FIG. 141.— TAPER REAMER WITH THREK BLADES. 



able amount of metal is to be removed. For instance. 

bore a hole of the right size for the small end of the 

then move it up so that it would cut a length anywhere from three 

to six inches, feeding very rapidly. We have bored thousands of 

holes with this style of reamer, getting the best results we ever 

obtained with the least trouble and in the quickest time. 

Many reamers are in use that are known as "' home-made," 
that is, made by the parties themselves. We have found a great 
mistake in such reamers. It often occurs that the flutes are cut 
too shallow and the spacing is entirely too close; that they are 
evenly spaced instead of staggered, and very often have an even 
number of teeth, all of which is likely to cause chattering and 
breaking of taper reamers. An evenly spaced reamer will begin to 
chatter the moment the cutting edge refuses to cut, especially 



200 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

when cutting steel and when evenly spaced, one blade wiil jump 
into the space or chatter mark made by the blade in advance of a. 
Another serious fault with any reamer, either straight or taper, 
is too much clearance. This will invariably cause a reamer to 
chatter. I 

As to reamers for brass, we never make them oversize, an^B 
we always make Che blade of the reamer for brass the same a^ 
we wotdd grind a tool for cutting brass, namely, instead of using 
a radial line on the center as in other cutting tools, we throw the 
cutting edge of the blade off from the center at an angle of at 
least 20 degrees out of the radial line, as shown in Fig. 142. Thus, 
in turning brass, if you had a tool that was ground straight and 
mounted it in the tool post exactly at the center of the work you 
would find that the tool would chatter. Take the same tool and. 





grind it on the top to an angle as above described and toward tlie 1 
underside of the blade, and it would cut quite freely and without 
any chattering. At all times, however, it is necessary to keep the 
cutting edge of the reamer for brass extremely sharp, because 
the very moment the cutting edge is dull it will begin to bind and 
scream sufficiently loud to drive you out of the shop. Reamers 
for reaming brass require twice or three times the attention in 
keeping to a sharp edge that other reamers require. 

For hand reaming we never have to exceed 3-1000 in any 
material, and all our machine reaming is clone by a reamer with 
very much coarser blades than the ordinary commercial reamer. 
They are made so that they may be ground on the points, are fed 
rapidly, and the tool used in advance of them leaves in no case less- 
than 1-32 and often as much as 1-16. 

Reamers and Reaming. 
In order to ream uniform holes (as regards diameter) in a 



MISCELLANEOUS METHODS, TABLES, ETC. 20I 

icrew machine, it is nccL-asary to always have an equal amount of 

itock for the reamer to remove. This can be best accomplished 

using two reamers, one for roughing, and one for finishing. 

The roughing reamer should be preceded by a single irainted 

iring tool (or its equivalent), to insure a true hole. On thin 

work a finishing reamer should be of "rose form," so as to be • 

:lf -supporting and prevent enlargement of the hole by its weight. 

For steel, reamers are ground straight, while for cast-iron, 

■asa and copper it often becomes necessary to grind same slight- 

iy back tapering to prevent roughing up. 

The teeth on reamers for steel and cast-iron should be on 
:enter, while for brass they should be slightly ahead of the cen- 

On machine reaming, when possible to do so, the reamers are 
hung loose and allowed to follow the true or concentric hole made 
by a single-pointed boring tool. This can be done by having a 
'floating" reamer with a pin entered through the holder and the 
er at the back end, the hole in the reamer being larger than 
the pin so as to allow it to find its own center. 

Square reamers (scrapers) are often used for fine finishing, 
"especially on brass. Expansion reamers possess many desir- 
able features; but there are few, if any, that can be adjusted and 
■used for sizing, without grinding the cutting edges each time 
they are expanded, as unless perfectly fitted in as regards tapers, 
etc.. the separate teeth do not expand equally. 

As a matter of cost, however, this additional grinding amounts 
ito but little in comparison with that of a new solid or shell 
Teamer of large diameter, two and a fourth inches or more. 

Number of Teeth Gcncrnlly Milled in Reamers. 
3-16 to 5^ inch diameter, 6 teeth. 
% to l>4 inches diameter, 8 teeth. 
iK to 13^ inches diameter, 10 teeth. 
ij^ to 2^ inches diameter, 12 teeth, 
2^ to 3 inches diameter, 14 teeth. 

3 to 4 inches diameter, if) teeth. 

4 to 5 inches diameter, 18 teeth. 
A long hole can be reamed straight by puUing back slightly 

after the reamer has commenced to cut. 

On Babbitt, reamers of the usual form are used, with the ex- 
ception that the point is ground tapering about J^-inch long, to 



» 

I 



202 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEAUNG. 

a diameter equal to size generated by boring tool. This gives ] 
smooth hole, free from lines, also prevents rings. Left-han< 
spiral flutes are recommended. 

On taper reamers for screw machine, use 2'4 inches per foC 
and upward. They will cut much easier if made with left-hai 
spiral flutes or angle, hut on account of difficulty in grinding tha 
is not often done. 

For forming or curving reamers for projectile work, the above 
holds good. Reamers 1J/2 to 2I/4 inches taper per foot should 
have flute straight for finishers, the roughers either of the deep 
form or with a left-hand spiral thread nicked around. The ream- 
ers to lyi inches taper per foot are fluted left-hand to preventJ 
drawing in when cutting. 

Roughing, taper and forming reamers are sometimes made I 
from steel with an undercut, and also with right-hand spiral, antlf 
they remove the stock very rapidly. 

Speeds for reaming should range from 20 to 30 per cent less 1 
than turning and drilling speed.s, (See tables, pages 123 antll 
124.) 

On large taper reamers, with slight taper, it has been found I 
good practice to make each tooth a different left-hand spiral and ] 
also to "stagger" the teeth as regards spacing. 

Rose reamers are quite often ground tapering, that is, small I 
at back, .003 to foot, and then are less liable to rough up the hole I 
they are reaming, and give a straight hole very nearly correct in | 
diameter. 

Grinding Tavist Drills. 

Grinding twist drills accurately is generally admitted to be 
difficult. To know the number of revolutions a drill should run ] 
is of great importance in order to obtain the most economical re- ' 
suits. The illustration. Fig. 143, shows opposite sides of the \ 
Standard Twist Drill Grinding G^e, made of steel i-i6-inch ' 
thick. The angle of the gage is ground to exactly 59 degrees. ■ 
The scale on the gage is graduated so that the cutting edges of 
the drill can he measured and ground exactly the same length. 
The straight edge of the gage is a 2-inch scale graduated by 
eighths of an inch ; opposite each eighth mark is a number, which 
is the best speed to run a drill of corresponding size of diameter. 

Tn using the gage, hold it with the left hand and place the 
drill in the gage with the cutting edges of the drill facing you. 
The rest of the lip of the drill must be lower than the cutting 
edge, which will give the driW clearance and allow the edges to 



I 



204 UASDENING, TEUPESING AND ANNEALING. 

Rake: Machinery steel 8 to 13 degrees. 

Rake : Toot steel, medium, 6 to y degrees. 

Rake: Brass, none. 

The clearance on tools for brass is quite often stoned off itsJ 
cutting; edge to prevent "biting in" (due to ease of cutting) and'l 
then chattering, due to great thickness of chip and conscquentj 
difficulty in severing. The "stoning off" also tends to act as i 
support for the cutter. 

Facing. 

For steel and cast-iron, cutters with from 6 to 12 degrees rake 1 
cut very freely. The clearance should be from y/2 to 10 degrees;. J 
when there is any tendency to chatter, the ciJtting edge should h&m 
stoned on clearance face sufficiently to prevent "biting in." OnM 
very broad work it often becomes necessary to make cutters w 
out any rake or angle, but allow scraping, to prevent chatter. 

In practice it is found advantageous to place cutter ahead o{M 
center, .exposing a larger cutting edge to work, giving thinner I 
chip. 

In multiple or inserted cutter heads, it is well to unevenly J 
space the cutters : as a precaution against chattering, have the cut- I 
ters "staggered." 

Use niachines with large bearings, and with chucks close to-l 
same, for good results. 

Lubricant in Milling Steel or Wrought Iron. 

In milling stee! or wrought iron, keep cutter thoroughly wet I 
with lubricant. Sal soda dissolved in water is often used, 
better lubricant for milling cutter, drill, etc., is : Lard oil, j4 I 
gallon ; whale oil soap, 2 pounds ; sal soda, 3 pounds ; water. 10 I 
gallons. Have the soap so it will dissolve readily. Boil the whole- I 
until dissolved. 

Counterboring. 

For cast-iron and steel, counterbores are generally made with ^ 
ten to sixteen degrees angle, 1. e., spiral ; for brass they are cut 
straight. Clearance is from five to ten degrees. On brass. 
"stone" the clearance edge to prevent chattering. 

Counterbores internally lubricated are recommended for steel 
for use to depth of one-)ialf of the diameter or more. 

Angle clearance on all tools must be more than spiral gen- 
erated by feed, at smallest diameter of cutting point plus suffi- 
cient to be really forced in work (about 3 decrees). 



Solder'mg. 
There are many kinds of solders, from that which will melt 
, in boiling water to hard brass solder that melts only at white 
t. As a rule, the harder the solder the stronger the joint. Of 
the while solders silver is the hardest. For all solders that require 
a red heat, borax is used as a flux, and the solder will run anywhere 
the borax goes. Rubbing the joint with a pointed piece of iron will 
help the solder to run into the joint. The parts to be soldered 
should, of course, be cleaned. The solder will not stick to the 
work until the surface of the work is heated to the melting point 
of the solder. Don't try to solder with a cold iron, and, with 




large pieces, heat them to the melting point of the solder or use 
a verj' hot iron. Always use a solder with a much lower melting 
point than that of the metal to be soldered. 

Useful Information. 

Doubling the diameter of a pipe increases its capacity four 
times. 

A cubic foot of water weighs 623-^ pounds, and contains 1,728 
cubic inches, or y'/2 gallons. 

A gallon of fresh water weighs 8 j-t, pomids, and contains 231 
cubic inches. 

To find the capacity of a cylinder in gallons: Multiply the 
area in inches by the height of stroke in inches. Divide this prod- 
uct \>y 231 fbeing; the cubical contents of a gallon in inches); 
the quotient is the capacity in gallons. 



IING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 



CONSTANTS FOR FINDINI 



ThMds 
per Inch. 


U S. 
standard 


V Thread 


Threads "■ ^- V Thrtad 


60 


.03030 

.03166 


.03706 

.02887 


16 

14 


08118 
00278 


10825 
13357 


56 


.0231S 


.03093 


13 


09992 


13333 


50 


.oms 


.03464 


12 


10825 


14433 


*8 


.02708 


.03608 


11 


11809 


15745 


44 


.02962 


.03036 


10 


13990 


17330 


40 
36 


.03347 
.03608 


04330 
.04811 


9 

8 


14433 

16337 


19244 
31650 


33 


04059 


05412 


7 


18555 


34743 


30 


,04330 


.06778 


6 


31650 


88866 


28 


.04639 


.06185 


5« 


33618 


31490 


26 
24 


04996 
05412 


06601 
072 f 6 


5 

4>i 


26080 


84650 
38488 


20 


.05904 
06495 


.07873 
.08660 


4 
8f4 


32475 
87114 


43300 
40485 


[8 


07316 


09622 


3 


43333 


5773S 



C^ Constant for number of threads per inch. 

D = Outside diameter. 

0"= Diameter at bottom of thread. 
D' = D — C. 

Example. — Given outside diameter of U. S. S. screw 
thread, 2 inches, 4^ threads per inch; find diameter at 
bottom of thread. D = 2 inches; for 4!^ threads U. S. 
S. constant, €=^.2886; ihen diameter at bottom of thread 
D'=^2 — .2886^1.7114 inches. 



^^P MISCELLANEOUS METHODS, TABLES, ETC. 211 ^H 


WETHIC AND ENGLISH OR AMERICAN (u. S.) EQUIVALENT ^^M 


Meuum of Lmgtb. ^H 


1 fpjn InchH. 
1 Rielcr - i S.'^MDSS Icet. 






} LOftJtlyd.. 


I Fool = .3048 meler. ^^H 


l«nlinieWr..S037iiH:h. 








""iA'nch nearly. 


^H 


1 klknnelcr = 0.02137 toOe. 




McasuRi of Aorface. ^H 


ItnaarrmMfT J 10^^ ■q'ure reel. |1 oquare yard >< .«SS iquBre jieker. ^^H 
i>H icmcLcr j 1. 19B square yda. 1 square lool = .0928 square meter. ^^H 


lBquare»nHnieter= lMs].io. i„u,„i,, i 8.152sq. cenllmeltr* ^^M 


l«ju.reniillimeter -.OOlSSsqiQ. 1' «li""i"= j 845.3 ,^, mllinielera. ^H 


Meuures <rf Votume and Capadly ^H 


1 S5 314 cubic feet. 




1 cubic meter = { l.308cubic yards. 




J 264.2 SBllons (S31 




cubic Inchi, 


1 cubic yard ^ .TWcubic meler. ^^M 


lcubicdeciraeler = 5^"'^ cubic in. 


^^ , f ,03832cubiemeler. ^H 




1 cubic centimeter - .081 cubic inch. 


1 28.317 liters. ^H 


1 cubic decitneter. 






gallon iBHlishj ^ 4 543 lilrti ^^H 


,,.,„ 035.1 cubic fool.**" 


gallon (U.S.|>3.T85lllers. ^H 


"""- l.UMTquarUin.S.) 


^H 


aS42eal1ooa(U. S,l 
I a.'JOa rbs. ofwateratS2°F, 


■ 


Meaiurea of Weight. ^H 


I srani ^ 15.433 vralns. 1 grain ^ .0848 gram. ^^M 

I Cilogram = 2.-Sm i»unda. 1 Lnce avdrduW. ~ 28.36 pama. ^M 

l.B84Ztonof2M0ibs. 1 pound - ,4536kilQErama. ^H 


■ .„*,„-jj..,„,.. „...m«,„, = Si,-",;Jj;™. H 


»»«..»... ■ 


1 kiiostam per meter =■ .ffWI poundaper foot. ^^^^^M 


■ 1 gram per square millimeter ^ Lfl-i pounds per square inch. ^^^^^H 
L llilDgrrmpfr square meter ^ 0.2064 " " foot. ^^^^^M 


■ I kilogram per cubic meter - .0624 '- cubic ^^^^^^H 


■ 1 degree ceuiigrade ^ l.B degrees Pahretilieil. ^^^^^H 


■ 1 pound per foot = 1.488 IcUograiris per meter. ^^^^^H 

■ i panad per iquore foot = 4.^ kilograms per square meter. ^^^^^H 


■ I pound pet cubic foot - 1S.02 kilogramB per cubic meter, ^^^^^M 

■ 1 degiee>abreuhell ^ .S^^deRreesceulfgrade, ^H 


■ 1 Calorie IFreuch Thermal UnitI ^ 3.9fl8 B. T. U. (British Thermal Uoiil, ^^M 


1 , tto™ Power = j -«^„'- P-""- P" »i--. H 


■ 1 W.H (U.it of Electrical Powcti - l^^'^* fj^™ P™"^,^ „,„^^ H 


■ tOOO Walts. "^ ^m 


■ lKllo»Bll^^ 1.31 Horse Power ^M 


H 144240 loot pouad> pet minute. ^M 



212 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. ^^H 






....„..„..._..„„.. ■ 






■ 


Wdg 


It of 


one cubic inch = .2836 lbs. ^^M 


Weight of 


one cubic foot = 490 lbs. ^^M 




Area. 


Diam.l 1 .7854. 


Am - Side! X I. 


Ar«<-Diam.>x.ses ^H 


P ~ 


ftonnil. 


Sqaira. 


■ 


r " 


Ighl 


Area 


Clreunl. 


Weight 


Area 


Weight 


Area ^H 


Per 


Square 


fetence 




Square 


Per 


Square 


neb. 




Inches. 






Inch. 


Inchet 


, 


0002 


.0008 


.0981 


.0008 


.0010 


.OD03 


.ODDS 






.0081 


,1868 


.0011 




.0010 


I«e4 








.ma 






.0023 


.0078 




OOBS 


:oia8 


.8827 




:0168 


.0083 


.0136 


A 


K6< 


.0IB2 


.4808 


.OOflB 


.0244 


.0060 


.0711 


\ 






.B800 


.0101 






.0301 


X 




iOS7S 








ions 


.0411 


5 


0138 


.0481 


17854 


:oi77 


:08!S 


.0154 


.0510 


A 




.0821 


.8835 


.0221 




.0194 


.0681 


f, 




joiei 




.0277 




.0240 




it 




ssas 


l!07W 


.0885 


!ll82 


.am 


il023 


u 


0318 


.uw 


1.1781 


.0406 


.1406 


.0345 


.1218 


li 




jasfi 


.2782 


.0463 


.1351 


,0t05 


.1423 


X 




.1903 






.1914 


.0470 


.1353 


n 




jTsa 


!4T2S 


:082S 


.2107 


.0540 


.19<B 


K 




,1968 


.S7CB 


.0708 






.2161 


il 


«I2B 


.8317 


1.6680 


.oeoo 


SS23 


.0393 


.2444 


X 


mob 


.2485 




.0807 


.8164 


.0777 




tl 


W85 


sifa 


i:8853 


.lOM 


.3538 


.0868 




K 


mo 


sm 






.8903 


.0850 




It 


0)3) 


.SS83 


3.oai8 


.1221 


.4807 


.1008 


.3730 


II 


1068 


J712 


3.1688 


.1340 




.1161 


.4008 


H 


llfil 


.4D57 


2.2680 




!6l6e 


.1270 




K 


isra 


.4418 


2.8582 


11622 


.8925 


.1382 


'.mi 


' It 


isss 


.4794 


2.4513 


.1732 




.1499 


.5388 


H 


1470 


.SIS5 


2.6526 




iatHU 






K 


IGHS 




3.8507 


!2D18 


.7119 


J749 


.8165 


« 


1T05 


:eoi8 


3.7488 


.2171 




.ISSO 


.6631 


II 


B 


xm 


3.8470 








.7113 


\\ 


.ms 


2.9452 


:2493 


.87M 


:2!58 


.7612 


11 




.7371 


S.0I34 


.2061 


.9384 


.23C6 


.8127 


1 


2837 


.7854 


8.1413 








.8843 


iS 


asi5 




a.337e 


.8201 


■-3 


.3773 


.W78 


•am 


:eB40 


8.6843 


.8663 


.3109 


1.0973 


5 


3111 


1.1075 




.4142 


.4102 


.3434 




uso 


1.2272 




.4481 


.5825 


.3833 


1:3531 


ift 




1.3530 


4.1233 




1.7237 


.4231 




»iill 


1.4»0 






1.8903 


.4848 




i^ 


IMS 


1.6280 

i,7en 


4.5160 
4.7124 


's 


a.0664 
3.2500 


.6076 
.5526 


L9^ 


1ft 


£438 




4.9087 


.8030 


3.4414 


.6898 


a.<149 


6882 


2!o7S0 


6.I0&1 


.T4B9 


2.8400 


.6480 


3..284» 


i 


ea43 


J1.236S 


5.8014 


.sova 




.3984 


3.4683 


fla2i 


tiaw 


6,4978 


.saia 


8:0025 


.7521 


9.6ea3 



MISCELLANEOUS J 


METHODS. TABLE 


S, ETC. 213 ^1 


WEIGHTS 


AND AREAS Or 


OUND, SQUARE A 


ND HEXAGON j 




STEEU 


^1 




Continued. 


■ 




Round. 


Squin. 


■ 


Inch. 


Area 
Square 
Inches. 


Cdcum- 
ference 


Weight 
luch. 


Square 
Inches. 


Weight 

Inch. 


S5 


i 




2.5802 

siiEs 


E,694t 
6.8805 
0.0808 


1.1342 


3.2853 
4.0000 


.8ooe 

:S 

.9825 


2.8450 
3.0448 

3.4573 


1 


.M7S 

1:S 

1.1378 


8.8410 

37583 
8.9781 


ss 

6.ff722 
7.0686 


.2064 

:S570 
.485] 


4.2539 

4:7852 
6.0826 


1.0448 

1:1753 
1.2434 


JS 

4 141D 

4,3891 






4jW0a 
t.430t 

IS 




S 


6:6406 

8;S 


L31S5 

i:45tt3 
1.6351 


4.6S13 

6.1464 
6-4126 


1 


.634S 
,0845 

:004B 


6.4U9 
7.0688 


8.2)67 

ss 

8.1248 




6.8906 
B-0000 


1.6924 
1.B574 


6-BffI4 
6.5493 
7.1599 
7.79U 


i 


2.1758 

3.5371 
2.T288 


S.B462 
9.0211 


9,8173 
10.2102 
10.0029 
10.9958 


2.7719 

3!a03 
8.4140 


9 7858 
12.3500 


IS 

2.7977 
3.00S3 


8.4571 
9,1387 

,!.S 


i 




lis 


!!:SIS 

12.1737 
12.5604 


S 


lis 

15.0156 
16.0000 


8.2Z75 

i:S 

3.9298 


11.3798 
12.1785 
13.0035 
1382S2 


i 

i 

t 


Is^ 


13.3640 

1510332 
15.9043 


12.9591 
18,3518 


ts 

IS 


i!:S 

as 


4.17B2 
4.4364 
4.7011 
4.9736 


14.7359 

16 5761 
17,5569 


1 


4.761S 


6,8002 
7.7305 


4,5289 

Is 


0.0662 

ojwe 

710897 


21.3906 
22.5825 

35:0000 


55^ 

g:f^ 


19,5397 


i 


6,8504 

ftlSSl 
B,7379 


20,0290 

22:690S 
23.7583 


6,1007 
a. 4934 
6,8M61 
7,2788 


7.4496 

s.im 

8.5786 


26.2656 
30:2500 


6,4511 
0,7697 

7:4298 


22.74.58 
26,1971 


1 


IS 


IS 

27.1085 


J.3 


F 


31,6106 

B4:51.'» 
SOjODOO 


7,7713 

s:4T74 
8-8130 




1 


8,7007 

e.ii07 


30.S79B 
S3.1831 


ie,S350 
20.4204 

2l!8»13 


1.0S77 
1.9K17 

IS 


422500 
4,^.5025 


11.1908 


33,8291 1 

36.5547 1 

42:4354 

48,7143 1, * 

56.B1M 


'? 


^^ 


44,1780 
W.2S5B 


23,6620 
25.1328 


ll:i497 


66.2500 
64 0000 


13.8158 
15.7193 


Multiply 


above weights ' 


y .993 for wroug 


ht iron, .918 '. 


for cast ir 


on, 1.OJ31 for cas 


t brass, 1,1209 fo 


copper, and ' 


1. 1748 for 


phos, bronze. 


A 


^ ■ 



214 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND AXNEALING. ^^H 


WEIGHT OF IRON AND STEEL SHEETS. ^^^H 


Wi^ights per Square h'ool.—KcHl. ^H 


ThlckncH by 


ThlckneBebyAmerion ^M 


BU..™h„0.^. 


( Brown and Shorpe'') OangB. ^H 


No. o( 


TtliGkn«l 


Iron. 


Sleet. 


No. ol 


Thickneu 


Iron. 


s^ ■ 


G.uge. 


iD Inche.. 






O.Ug«. 


in iDchM. 




■ 


0000 


.454 


18.16 


18..52 


0000 


.46 


18.40 


18.77 ^M 


000 


.425 


17.00 


17.34 


000 


.4096 


16.38 


16:71 ■ 


00 


.38 


15.20 


15..M 


00 


.3648 


14.59 


14.88 ^H 





.34 


13.60 


13.87 





.3249 


13.00 


13.2fi ^H 


1 


.3 


12.00 


12.24 


1 




11.57 


11.80 V 


2 


.284 


11.36 


11.59 


2 


:2576 


10.30 


10.51 


3 


.259 


10.36 


10.57 


3 


.22M 


9.18 


9.36 


4 


.238 


9.52 


9.71 


4 


.2043 


8.17 


8.34 


S 


.22 


8.80 


8.98 


6 


.1819 




7.42 


B 


.203 


8.13 


8.28 


6 


.1620 


6!48 


6.61 ^ 


7 


.18 


7.20 


7.34 


7 


.1443 


5.77 


6.89 ■ 


8 


.165 


6.60 


6.73 


8 


.1285 


S.14 


6.24 M 


9 


.148 


6.92 


6.04 


9 


.1144 


4.68 


■ 


10 


.134 


6.36 


6.47 


10 


.1019 


4.08 


■ 


11 


.12 


4.80 


4.90 


11 


.0907 


3.63 


■ 


13 


.109 


4.36 


4.45 


13 


.0808 


3.23 


3.30 ■ 


IS 


.095 


3.80 


3.88 


13 


.0720 




|.94 ■ 


U 


.083 


3.32 


3.39 


14 


.0641 


2156 




15 


.072 




2.94 


15 


.0571 


2.2s 


2.'^ m 


18 


.0fi5 


2.60 


2.65 


16 


.0608 


2.03 


2.((7 


17 


.058 


2.32 


2.37 


17 


.0453 


1.81 


1.85 


18 


.049 


1.96 


2.00 


18 


.0403 


1.61 


1.64 


19 


.042 


1.68 


1.71 


19 


.0369 


1.44 


1.46 


20 


.035 


1.40 


1.43 


20 


.0320 


1.28 


1.^1 ^ 


21 


.032 


1.28 


1.31 


21 


.0285 


1.14 


M 


22 


.028 


1.12 


1.14 


22 


.0253 


1.01 


1.03 ■ 


23 


.026 


1.00 


1.02 


23 




.904 


.922 ■ 


21 


.022 


.88 




24 


;0201 


.§04 


.820 ^1 


25 


.03 


.80 


!816 


25 


.0179 


.716 


.730 


26 


.018 


.72 


.734 


26 


.0159 


.636 


.649 


37 


.016 


.64 


.663 


27 


.0142 


.568 


.579 


28 


.014 


.56 


.671 


28 


.0126 


.504 


.514 


29 


.013 


.62 


.530 


29 


.0113 


.462 


.461 


30 


.012 


.48 


.490 


30 


.0100 


.400 


.408 


31 


.01 


.40 


.408 


31 


.0089 


.356 


.363 




.009 


.36 


.367 


32 


.0080 




.326 


33 


.008 


.32 


.326 


33 


,0071 


.384 


.290 


34 


.007 


.28 


.286 


34 


.0063 


.253 


.257 ^ 


35 


.005 


.20 


.204 


35 


.0066 


.234 


.ae ■ 


stcd H 


Specific gravity 7.7 7.854 ^M 


Weight per cubic foot 48b. 489.6 ^1 


Weight per cubic incli 2778 .2833 ^H 


As there are many gauges in use differing from each ^M 


other, and even the thicknesses of a certain specified ^H 


gauge, aa the Birmingham, are not assumed the same by ^M 


all manufacturers, orders for sheets and wires should al- ^| 


ways state the weights per square foot, or the thickness ^| 


in thousandths of an inch. ^H 


. jm 



^^^^^ MISCELLANEOUS METHODS, TABLES, ETC 


m 


WEIGHTS OF SQUARE ANP HOCNO BARS OF WROUGHT F 


RON IN 


vovms FEB LINEAL fom.—Kent. 




Iron weighing 480 lbs. per cubic foot. 




For steel add 2 per cent. 




, ThlckoeM 


Weight of ^ 


Weight 01 


Thicknera 


Wtfghtof 


Weight (* 




XWoot' 


Round Bu 




X."iS 


Bound 8V 




One Foot 




OnoFttvt 


Inihe* 


u>"e- 


I^ng. 


Inches. 


Long. 


La-fe. 









2 11-16 


24.08 


18.91 ' 


1 16 


.OIB 


.010 


3-4 


25.21 


19.811 


1-8 


.0fi2 


.011 


1316 


26.37 


30.71 


3 1& 


.117 


.093 


7-8 


27.55 


-21.64 


1-4 


.208 


.164 


15-16 


28.76 


^ZM 


5 Iti 


.826 


.206 


8 


30.00 


23J» 


3 8 


.468 


J68 


1.16 


81.26 


24.S) 


7 16 


,638 


JiOl 


W 


82 OS 


23.S7 


1-2 


.833 


M* 


8-16 


83.87 


26.60 


9-16 


1.0S6 




lA 


35.21 


37.66 


6-8 


1.303 


1*023 


B-16 


86.58 


38.78 


11.16 


1.076 


1.237 


a-fi 


87.97 


20.82 


3-4 


1.870 


1.473 


7-16 


89.39 


30.9t 


13-18 


a 


1.728 


1-9 


40.83 


82.0T 


7-8 


».0O4 


S-IS 


43.3U 


33.23 


1916 


a.B3o 


2.301 


^8 


43.80 


34 40 


1 


3.333 


B.618 


11-16 


40.33 


35.60 


1-16 


3.763 


3.900 


a-4 


46.88 


36.8ft 


1-8 


4.219 


8.313 


13-16 


48.46 


88.06 


316 


4.701 




7.8 


60.06 


89.31 


1-4 


B.208 


4!091 


10-16 


61.68 


40.59 


S.I6 


5.743 


4.510 


4 


53.33 


41.89 


3-8 


6.803 


4.950 


1-16 


es.oi 


43,21 


716 


6.888 


6.410 


1-8 


56.73 


44.6a 


1.2 


7.B00 


639§ 


3-16 


08.40 


40.91 


y-16 


6.138 


n. 


60.31 


47.39 


S-8 


8.803 


elsis 


61.99 


48.69 


11-16 


9.492 


7.455 


a-8 


63.80 


60.11 


8.4 


10.21 


8.018 


7-16 


60.64 


61.05 


1316 


10.95 


8.601 


1-3 


67.60 
69.39 


63.01 


7-8 


11.73 


9.204 


9-16 


64.60 


15-16 


12.01 




ft-8 


71JW 


66.00 


2 


13.33 


10.47 


U-16 


T3.24 


D7.69 


1 16 


14.18 


11.14 


S^ 


78.21 


69.07 


1-8 


0.06 


11.83 


iB-ie 


77.20 


60.68 


31s 


5.96 


13.08 


7-8 


79.2a 


62.33 


14 


6.88 


18.S0 


u-u 


81.26 


63.83 


C.16 


7.83 


14.00 


s 


88.33 


66.40 


3-e 


8.80 


14.77 


1-16 


60.43 


67.10 


^ 7-16 


19.80 


1S.66 


VS 


87.55 


68.76 


1-2 


90.83 


16.36 


8-16 


89.70 


70.45 


:)-i6 


21. S9 


17.19 


14 


91.88 


72.16 


5^ 


22.97 


18.04 


6-16 


94.08 


73.89 


L _ ' 



HASDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 



Iron weighing 480 lbs. per cubic foot. 
For steel add 2 per cent. 



ThitkneM 
ffi Diameter 
In Inchet 


W<.ightof 

Sqiinre Ba. 

One Fool 

-Loog- 


0.ie Fool 
L....E- 


in Inches 


Weight ot 
Long. 


Weight o» 


f, 3-8 


96.30 


75.64 


7 12 


187.5 


1473 


7-16 


9a.S5 


77.40 


5-8 


193.8 


152.3 


1-2 


100.8 


79.19 


3-4 


200.2 


157.2 


g-16 


103.1 


81.00 


7-8 


206.7 


162.4 


6-8 


11)5.B 


82.83 


8 


213.3 


167.6 


11-16 


1C7.8 


84.69 


1-4 


236.9 


178.2 


3-4 


110.2 


86.66 


12 


240.8 


189.2 


13-16 


112.6 


88.45 


3-4 


255,3 


200.4 


7-8 


115.1 


90.36 


S 


270.0 


212.1 


15-16 


117.5 


93.29 


1-4 


385.2 


224.0 


6 


120.0 


94.35 


1-2 


300.8 


236.3 


1-8 


25.1 


98.22 


3-4 


316.9 


248.9 


1-4 


30.2 


102.3 


10 


333.3 


261.8 


3.8 


35.5 


106.4 


1-4 


350.3 


275.1 


1-3 


40.8 


110.6 


1-3 


367.5 




B-8 


46.3 


114.9 


3-4 


385.2 


302.5 


3-4 


51.9 


119.3 


n 


403.3 


316.8 


7-8 


157.6 


m.7 


1-4 


421.9 


331.3 


7 


163.3 


i8.a 


1-a 


440.8 


346.3 


t-8 


169.3 


32.9 


3-4 


460.2 


361.4 


1-4 


175.2 


37.6 


12 


480. 


877. 


3-8 


181.3 


42.4 









To cotnpute the Weight of Sheet Steel ; 
Divide the thickness, expressed in thousandths, by 25 ; 
the result is the weight, in pounds, per square foot. 



ai8 HARDENING^ TEMPKBINO AMD ANNEALING. ^^H 


TAr DRILLS FOB MACHINE SCBEW TAPS. ^^ 


These drills will give a thread full enough for all prac- ^^H 


tical purposes, but not a full thread. ^^M 




No. ol 


^. 


Sniel 


Ka.c>r 


S!«.ot' 


"^p.°' 


l-hrndi 


Drill. 


- 


Tlpl 


IlHWdl 


Drilli 


^ 


4S 48 


,j 


24 


>9 




56 1 46 


'3 




'7 


! 


% . 11 


'3 


24 


'S 


3 
3 


48 47 


,4 


12 


'3 


3 


56 i 45 


!* 


24 

iS 


I2 


4 


^6 


43 


15 




to 


5 


40 
30 
3- 


*° 


'A 

1 '6 


24 

16 
18 


7 


5 


36 


38 


.6 




5 


1 


40 


36 


■ 6 






3*> 


39 


17 


16 


7 


6 


32 


37 


"7 


18 




6 


36 


3S 








6 


40 


33 


18 


16 




J 


28 


3" 


18 


iS 




7 
7 


30 
3* 


3' 

3° 


t8 
'9 


16 


B 
C 


8 


Z4 


3' 


'9 


iS 


D 


S 


30 


30 


'9 




E 


8 


3' 


zg 




16 


E 


9 




29 




18 


E 


9 
9 


iS 


27 






F 


30 


16 


22 


t6 


H 


9 


32 
24 


24 
26 


24 


14 


K 




28 




»4 


16 


L 


IQ 


30 


23 


24 
i6 


'4 


M 










a6 


16 


P 




28 


>9 


IS 


'4 


R 


1' 


30 


iS 


28 
30 


16 


S 
T 


IZ 


33 


■9 


30 


\t V H 


1 




TlireadB 


Dlain 


Num-I 


Thrc*]a 


Blam 




Dliun. ^1 


DtiTO. 


l^rinch 


.-tltl^ill 


DlQin. 


perineh 


or Drill 


tiiZi. perTnnh 


°™ I 


1^ 


» 


U 


1 


1 H 


i 


3 H 


S 1 


S 


18 


1 


P 


13 


3W 1 


i ■ 


a 


" 


1! 


^ 


.S! 


2*1 


4M » 


1 I 


fl^J 



p 


MISCELLANEOUS ^ 


I 


S, T.\BLES. ETC. 


^^3I9^H 


™™™„....™w 


„„c 


,»„ 


.,»„„» 


- 1 


Dimensioiia of Sizes in 


Decimal Parts of an Inch ^^| 


1 


1^^ 
1^- 




m 


i! 


£ 

1 


1.1 


SI 

=5 


^ 


"^s" 


£■ i 


Hi 


~& 




a" 


^ 


000000 








.464 




■s 


OOOOM 


00000 








.432 




00000 


DOOO 


.46" 


.454 




.400 




.*0«2B 


0000 


000 


.40964 


.425 


!36as 


.372 




'.876 


000 


00 


.8648 


.38 


.3310 


.343 




.84875 


00 




.33486 


,34 


.3066 


.324 




.3125 







.a8»3 


,3 


.2830 


,300 


.'an 


.38126 


1 




.SeT63 


.284 


.2626 


.276 


.219 


.265635 


2 




.32042 


.259 


.3437 


.252 


.312 


.26 


S 




.20431 


.238 


.2253 


.232 


.207 


.234376 


4 




.18194 


.32 


.2070 


.212 


.204 


.21876 


6 




,1BMI2 


.203 


.1920 


.192 


.301 


.30313S 


6 




.14*28 


.18 


.1770 


.176 


.199 


.1876 






.12849 


.165 


.1620 


.160 


.197 


.171875 


e 




.11443 


.148 


.1483 


.144 


.194 


.16625 


9 


10 


.10189 


.134 


.1350 


.128 


.191 


.140625 


10 




090712 


.12 


.1205 


.116 


.188 


.136 


11 


12 


'080»08 


.109 


.1055 


104 


.185 


,109876 


12 


18 


071961 


.095 


.0916 


,092 


.182 


.09375 


18 




.064084 


.083 


.0800 


.080 


.180 


.078125 


14 




.057068 


.1)12 


,0720 


.073 


.178 


.0708135 


16 




0CVS2 


.065 


.0626 


.064 


.175 


.0626 


16 




.045267 


.058 


.0540 


.056 


.172 


.06625 


17 




.040903 


.049 


.0476 


.048 


.168 


.05 


18 




.03589 


.042 


.0410 


.010 


.164 


.04375 


19 




031961 


.035 


'0348 


.036 


.161 


.0375 


30 




03846^ 




.03176 


.032 


.15T 


.031375 


31 


22 


025347 


!o2e 


.0286 


.028 


.156 


.03125 


83 


33 


022571 


.025 


.0258 


.024 


.153 


028125 


88 


S4 


oaoi 


.032 


.0230 




.161 


.026 


24 


2S 


,0179 


.02 


.0204 


:080 


.148 


.021876 


26 


36 


.01594 


.018 


.0181 


,018 


.146 


.011*75 


36 


2T 


.014195 


.016 


.0173 


,0161 


.143 


.0171875 


OT 


SB 


.013641 


.014 


.0162 


.0149 


.139 


.015626 


28 


29 


011267 


.013 


.0150 


.0136 


.134 


.0140625 


39 


30 


010026 


.012 


.0140 


.0124 


.m 


.0125 


30 


31 


00892S 


.01 


.0132 


.0116 


.120 


.0109376 


31 


3S 


00T96 


.009 


.0128 


.0108 


.115 


.01016625 


33 


33 


00708 


.008 


.0118 


.0100 


.112 


.009376 


33 


U 


.006304 


.007 


.0104 


.0093 


.110 


.00869376 


34 


35 


.005614 


.006 


.0086 


.0081 


.108 


.0078125 


35 


36 


.005 


.004 


.0090 


.0076 


.106 


.00703126 


36 


87 








.0068 


.103 


.006640625 


3T 


33 


:003065 






.0060 


.101 


.0062G 


38 


39 


.003631 






.0063 


.099 




30 


40 


.003144 






.0'»48 


.097 




40 


^ \ 



220 HAR^mNG^EMPESIN^ANDAJmEALrNG 


1 


Dlnmeter 


Threads 10 


DiBmeler Ht Root 


Width of 


Df^W. 


Inch. 


of Thread. 


FlHt 


X 


20 


.185 


.0063 


ft 


18 


.3403 


.0060 


H 


16 


.29Se 


.0078 


A 


14 


.3447 


.0089 


'A 


18 


.4001 


.0096 


fV 


12 


.4543 


.0104 


H 


11 


.5069 


.0114 


H 


10 


.6301 


.0136 


}i 


9 


.7307 


.0139 


1 


8 


.8376 


.0166 


VA 


7 


.9394 


.0179 


IX 


7 


1.0644 


.0179 


m 


6 


1.1585 


.0208 


i>i 


6 


1.3835 


.0308 


IH 


5}4 


1-3888 


.0327 


ly 


5 


1.4903 


.0350 


l?i 


5 


1.6153 


.0360 


3 


i'A 


1.7113 


.0378 


ax 


m 


1.9613 


.0378 


a>4 


4 


3.1763 


08IS 


a^ 


4 


2.4253 


.0313 


3 


3>^ 


8.6388 


,0357 


S'4 


3^ 


3.8788 


.0357 


3>i 


3X 


3.1003 


.0386 


■ 3K 


3 


3.3170 


.M17 


' 4 


3 


3.5870 


.0417 


4X 


3JS 


8.7983 


.0436 


4^4 


33^ 


4.0276 


.0455 


4K 


3J^ 


4-2551 


.0476 


5 


3f^ 


4.4804 


.0500 


sx 


aji 


4.7304 


.0600 


6!^ 


3H 


4.9580 


.0536 


BK 


3H 


5.2030 


.0686 1 


6 


3!i 


5.4236 


.0666 






DiamefT H ,% % ^ H -f, % H h \i 

Ho. Threacis per inch . 20 18 16 H 12 13 11 11 10 10 

Diameter Ji {| 1 ly^ IH m^i^ ^H ^h m 

Mo. Threads per inch . 998776655 4>£ 

... 3 ai-i 2)i ^% m ^% 2^ 3^ 8 ^H 

I No.ThreadBrerinch. iH *}i i i 4 4 3% 3% Z% %% 

\ Diameter 3J^ Z% 3iJ 8^ %% &Ji 4 

3. Threads per inch. SH 3}i' 3ii 3^ 3 S 3 




The Acme Standard Thread is an adaptation of the most 
commonly used style of Worm Thread and is intended 
to lake the place of the square tliread. 

It is a Utile shallower than the Worm Thread, hut the 
same depth as the square thread and much stronger than 
the latter. 

The various parts of the Acme Standard Thread are 
obtained as follows: 

Width of Point of tool for Screw or Tap Thread 
.3707 

— .0052 

No. of Thds, per in. 

Widlh of Screw or Nut Thread = 

No. of Thds. per in. 
Diameter of Tap :^ Diameter of Screw + .ozo. 
Diameter of Tap or Screw at Root ^ 

Diameter of Screw — j + ,020 | 

yNo. of Linear Thds. per in. / 



-3707 



Depth of thread =^ - 



■: No, of Thds. per 











•Ksr 














per Inoh- 


Thread. 


Ihtead. 


Thread. 






1 


.6100 


.3707 


.3665 


,6203 


.634S 








.2728 


.4720 


.4772 


a 


.3600 


.iai3 


.1801 


.3147 


.3190 


3 


.1767 


.1985 


.11S3 


.2008 


.2150 






.0087 


.0875 


.1573 


.1626 


5 


.1100 


.0741 


.1)689 


.1359 


.1311 


6 


.ooss 


.0818 


.0666 


.1049 


.1101 


7 


.0814 


.0S29 


.0478 


.0899 


.0S61 




.0735 


.0463 




.0787 


.0839 


9 


.065S 


.0418 


.0361 


.0690 


.07B1 


in 


.OKO 


.n371 


.0819 


.0629 


.0681 



p 


mSCELLANEOUS METHODS, TABLES, ETC. 22^ ^^H 


to 


1 




tice in 


rate of cutting speed for drills ranging from i-ifi ^H 


inch U 


3 inches in diameter. ^^H 


Diani. of 


Speed ..n 


Speed OD 


Dlam. of 


Hpeed un 


Speed ..n 


Drills 


Clron 


Bttsl 


DrlllB 


Clron 


Steel 


A 


2,289 


1,704 


lA 


~^I 


46 


% 


1,134 


810 


1?^ 


67 


43 


A 


743 


S5» 


lU 


64 


41 


X 


cea 


409 


m 


61 


39 


A 


441 


322 


m 


58 


37 


K 


8fl8 


383 


m 


66 


35 




SOB 


324 


i!f 


63 


33 


Jf 


267 


iBa 


3 


61 


31 


A 


235 


160 


2A 


49 


29 


% 


210 


ISO 


2^ 


47 


38 


H 


ISB 


134 


8A 


45 


26 


K 


171 


121 


3k 


43 


36 


ii 


IBB 


!10 


3ft 


41 


24 


S 


144 


100 


2?4 


89 


23 


« 


13S 


93 


af. 


38 


21 


1 


1S3 


m 


a^ 


36 


30 


V, 


114 


79 


3iV 


35 


19 




107 


78 


3f^ 


34 


18 


1,'. 


100 


fB 


3tl 


33 


17 


l)i 


94 


63 


2''4 


31 


16 


V. 


8B 


no 


S5S 


30 


15 




83 


56 


2's 


EB 


15 


IjV 


78 


52 


21S 


28 


14 


1« 


7a 


49 


3 


27 


13 


L i 



TABLE OP CUTTING SPEEDS. ^H 


TwV 


5' 1 10' 1 15' 1 20' 1 25' 1 30' 1 35' 1 40' 1 45' 1 5°^ 1 


Diam. 


REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE. ^| 


il 

I'A 
% 

I 
9 

ii 

Vz 

"3 

? 

"9 
30 


17.0 

'5-3 

.3.9 

1 

6.4 

3-8 
3-5 

3' 7 
1.9 

;■' 

la 

.8 
.8 

■7 
■7 

■7 


76 
5° 

34 
30 


s 

6 
6 

1 

3 

I 


li 

51,0 
Is, 2 

3SO 
3^-7 
3P.6 
»S.7 

aola 

i6!4 
'4 3 

10.4 
9.6 
B.I 

2:: 

5-7 
4-8 

3'8 
3-6 

a-9 
S.6 

2.3 
1.9 


1 

61. a 
55.6 

so. 8 
47.0 
4 J. 6 
40.7 
38.2 

^06 

;^ 

15-3 
13.9 

6.4 

S" 
4.8 
4-5 
4.2 

H 

3-S 
3-3 

3-2 

3' 

t.l 
1:1 

3-5 


191 

■S3 
127 
log 

63 
S8 
54 
50 
47 

li 

2; 

"9 
17 

1 

8 

S 

6 
6 

; 

; 
3 
3 
3 


3 


til:? 

IS'' 5 
9i!8 

57.3 

'? 
38-2 
32.7 
28.7 

25.4 

i; 

12.7 

l;t 

e.i 

6,4 
6.0 

5-7 
5-5 

H 

4-4 
4-' 


267 

152 
133 

97 

8q 
8:1 
76 

S< 
4i 

y 

33 

'i 

It 

7 
7 

I 

a 

6 

5 
S 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
4 


3 

5 

3 
9 

6 
6 

6 

7 
3 

3 

7 
9 

i 

9 

7 

4 

3 

6 

3 

I 

5 


305- 7 
244.9 
203.4 
1 74. 5 
'S'-9 
136.0 
lai.s 

93-9 

i:i 

76.4 
68.0 
61,2 

55-6 

s;:2 

382 
340 

fi 

19 1 
17.0 

■5 3 

139 

\u 

ID. 9 
'9:6 

II 

7.6 

li 

6.4 
6.1 

5-9 
S-7 
S'5 
5-3 
5.' 


344 

III 
196 
■7= 
153 
■37 

125 

i«; 

98 

1^ 

^^ 
6s 
57 
49 

3 

34 

1; 

34 

>9 
17 

■; 

9 

S 
7 

J 

6 
6 
6 

5 

5 




191.1 
17010 

;s; 

.27.1 

117.4 

If.} 
P 

Si 
S;:i 
SJ 
lt:S 

=7-3 
23-9 

19. 1 

15.9 
■4-7 
.3.6 
13.7 
11.9 

lole 

9.'6 

i 

7.6 

7-3 

6.8 
6.6 

6.4 


1 




The preceding table is a convenient one for finding the 
number of revolutions per minute required to give a peri- 
phery speed from 5 to so feet per minute of dia 
from ]/i inch to 30 inches. 

Examples — A mill 2 inches diam. to have a periphery 
speed of 33 feet per minute, should make about 67 r 
lutions, while a i^-inch mill should make 120 revolu- 
) have the same periphery speed. If a J^-inch 
mill makes 250 revolutions per minute, the periphery speed 
is about so feet. 

Horse Power of Belts. — A good melhod of finding the 
power of a beU, assuming 800 feet travel per minute of 
1 inch single belt per horse power. 

FofiMirijv — .00033 D. R. B^ Horse power. 
D^ Diameter of pulley in inches, 
R= Revolutions of pulley per n 
B — Width of belt in inches. 

Example— ; 8- inch pulley. 3-iiich belt, 150 revolut 
, .00033 X 18 K ISO K 3 = 2.67 H. P. 
eet is assumed instead of 8 
.gooj6 in place of ,00033. 



A good lubricant for cutters milling steel c 
I lb. tallow or i lb. hard or soft soap. 
;r until about the consistency of c 




CHAPTER XII. 



ENDING — THE ACCUBATli 
SMALL MACHIN 



\ND RAPID GRINDING OF TOOLS AND 
PARTS — EMERY WHEELS. 



Cutter and Tool Grinding. 

A subject germain to the treatment of steel is that of griniHiig, 
as in most Unes of steel working it occupies an important posi- 
tion. In the following are shown illustrations of approved ma- 
chines for the grinding of fine tool work and accurate sinal! ma- 
chine parts. Descriptions are also given of the correct methods 
of grinding the different tools and parts. 

The machine illustrated in Fig. 146 is of a type used ex^m 
tensively for general toolroom work and is one of a class of uni- 
versal culler and tool grinders which has been greatly improved 
and developed during the last fewi years. It may he used to grind 
accurately and rapidly work of the following kinds and sizes : 

Milling machine cutters 12 inches in diameter when not more 
than I inch wide. 

Work 14 inches long held between centers when the diameter 
of rotation is not more than 8 inches. These dimensions are given 
as the limit for irregular pieces and not for heavy, solid cylin- 
ders. 

Work 14 inches long can be ground by using an emery " 
on each side of the head. 

Reamers and shell counterbores of large or small sizes. 

Gear cutters and formed cutters of every description. 

Flat surfaces, such as shear plates, dies and gages. 

Hardened bushing and other pieces to be ground internallfl 

Conical surfaces, such as taper hearings and mandrels, 
small cylindrical machine parts wliich are to be finished with ex^ 
treme accuracy. 

The foregoing list does not give the limit of the capacity of 
machine, but rather indicates in a general way what is possible in 
its use. 

For a more particular presentation of the kinds of work which 
can be and are actually ground on such machines, reference is 
made to the following pages. 





I 



. 146.— CINCINNATI L'NIVEBSAL 



AND TOOL GRINDEK. 



this adjustment of the tooth rest for this grinding is complicated. 
The difficulty, however, is overcome in this machine, as no atten- 
tion is required to adjust the tooth rest, since it is centrally fixed 
for all diameters of cutters. The tooth rest travels with the cut- 
ter, except in the grinding of spiral mills and large saws. 





''''f IT':. 



l-oH 



nr 



147. — SHAPES AND SIZES OP EMERY WHEELS 



1 

4 



1 TO USE FOR TOq^^l 







FIG. 148. — SAMPI.ES OP GRODWD WORK DONE IN ONIVERSAT, CUTTER 
) TOOI. GKINDER, PIC, 145. 




The side teetli of angular and side milling cutters are groum 
off with practically a straight line clearance. This is done with | 
cup-shape emery wheel 3 inches in diameter on the left side ( 
the machine. The advantages of grinding side teeth with a faid 
size emery wheel, and at the same time grinding a straight 1 
clearance with an accompanying strong cutting edge, are know 
to those who have heretofore been compelled to use a small whet 
grinding a hollow clearance and weak-cutting edge. (See Fig 
I49-) 

To prevent the drawing of the temper from cutting edges 
side mills and the side teeth of anjjular cutters, etc., which have ftV 



PIG. 149- — GRINDING SIDE TEETH. 

broad surface, it is important that the heel of the tooth be stocked | 
out first at a sharp angle, and only a small portion left to be I 
ground at a different angle. The change from stocking out lo I 
the grinding of the cutting edge is quickly made by moving the J 
knee a few degrees around the column. 

This feature of revolving the knee around the column has alsoS 
the following advantages : 

Work can be brought in contact with the emery wheels an% 
cither side of the wheel without rechucking. Also the article to 
be ground can be brought in contact with the emery wheel in the 
most favorable position to either wheel for rapid grinding. For 
an example, a side milling cutter may have the outer teeth ground 
off on the straight face emery wheel on the right side of the ma- 



1 the cup-shape wheel at the left side 
r the cutter off the arbor or disturh- 



le, and the side teeth t 
' of the machine, without taktii 
ing the tooth guide. 

Cutters of small diameters and sharp angles can he ground 

without the cutter, mandrel or centers striking the belt or emery 

wheel head. Also in grinding the shoulders, on work revolved 

between centers, the periphery instead of the side of a flat wheel 

n be used. 

Grinding a Spiral Mill. 
Fig. 150 shows the long slide at the rear of the column and 
I nearly parallel to the emery wheel spindle, the two swivels set at 




Lface 



PIG. 150. ^GRINDING A SPIRAL MILL. 



L zero, a flat wheel on the right of the emery wheel head and the 
I mill on the mandrel held between centers. 

Fig. 151 shows a side elevation of the wheel, the centering 
L gage, the tooth rest No, 2 and the end of the mill. 

Fig. 152 is an elevation showing the rim of the wheel, the 
E of the mill and the tooth rest in the position required when 
'the mill is turned for grinding the next tooth. 

Directions: Adjust the plane of centers below the plane of 

• the spindle the distance required for clearance. If the mill is 

Icylindrical, set the table at zero ; and if not, set it for the required 

taper. Set the stops on the long slide so that, the mill having 

ed, the cutter will still be held by the flexible part of the 

1 rest, which will then act as a spring pawl when turning the 

nil! to bring the next tooth into position for grinding. In setting 



-...V -BALING. 



TO ' 



Hrectly opposite tc 



- -r 



. "^0. 



:l:c cut'cT is left-hand. 



!:i 



u: 



o 



> < 






to 



C 
»— t 



A 



"0 



w 

W 



6 

T 



LO 

d 



X -^^iTJr-hand end of spindle, the long 
>;^.^;~haiKi. the cutter is held on work 
\.\ 4 :> on the horizontal swivel. 
^*fcr>t of colters, below plane of spindle 




' the distance required for clearance. Set the long slide at a con- 
venient angle, and then adjust the horizontal swivel to the angle 
required for the cutter. 

Fig. 154 illustrates the grinding when the cutter is right-hand. 




53 are sufficient for 



Grinding Side Millmg Cullers. 
Fig. 155 shows the situation of the long slide at the back of 
the column, the cutter held by work spindle alone, the flat whe.?l 
on the right of the emery wheel head, and the tooth rest No. 3 
fastened to the horizontal swivel. 





PIG. l6t. — ELEVATION OP 

The table shoukl be set right angular to the slide and the slides 
at a right angle to the axis of the emery wheel spindle (see dotted I 
lines}, as this position brings only the edge of the emery wheel in 
contact with the work, permitting a heavy cut to be taken without J 
danger of heating. 

In adjusting the cutter for grinding, the centering gage be- ' 
longing to the attachment is set over against the face of the tooth. 
Then the pawl holder is clamped so as to bring the pawl tooth rest 
against the heel of the tooth. After swinging the centering gage 
out of the way, as shown in cut, the grinding may proceed. Thus, 
with this arrangement, gear and formed cutters can be ground 
correctly and in less time than by hand. Bushings for the various 
sizes of holes in standard gear cutters and emery wheel No. 3 
are required with this attachment. 




of centers so that it will intersect the vertical diameter at t 
side of the wheel. This adjustment can be readily made by bring-* 
ing the point of the tail stock center nearly in line with the side ot 
a straight edge held vertically against the flat side of the wheel. 
Pnt the cutler on a mandrel between centers and set the face of a 
tooth against the side of the wheel, making an allowance for 
amount to he ground off. To hold the face in this position, ad- 
just tooth rest No. 5 to the heel of the tooth. Determine the 
depth of cut by short slide. 





or. the left-hand end of spindle and the tooth rest No. i fastened 
to the top of the table. 

Directions: Set the tooth rest below plane of centers a sufli- 
cient distance for clearance when grinding straight rcamerh. Set 
the table to grind straight. To grind bevel on end of reamer set 
, table to angle required, or as shown in I^'ig. i66. 

Grinding a Taper Reamer. 

Fig. 167 shows the long slide at the rear right of emery wheel 
F'head. the table set obliquely to the side, the swivels at zero, the 
I reamer between dead centers, a flat wheel at the right-hand end 
l«f the spindle and the tooth rest No. 3 fastened to the swivel. 

Directions : Set the tooth rest in the plane of centers. Set 





PIG, 156. — GRINDING BEVEL ON END OF REAMER. 




Emery wheel shape Xo. 3 is used for taking rfeep cuts: shape 
No. 5 for finishing the surface. 

The centers in work that has to be ground must be very care- 
fully made and held to proper shape. Hardened pieces must have 
centers lapped as nearly round as possible in order to obtain good 
results. 



URlNUlXti. 245 

Hozi) to Grind a Slitting Knife with Beveled Edges. 
Fig. 170 shows the wheel on the right of the emery wheel 
lliead, the long slide and table at the hack of the column, the hon- 
I zonlal swivel set at the angle reiiuired by the face of the knife. 





the grooved pulley locked to the work spindle which holds the 
knife by bushing and long screw. 

Internal Grinding. 
Fig. 171 shows the long slide and table at the rear of the 
column and parallel to the spindle of the emery wheel ; the piece 
to he ground is fastened to the work spindle, the intenial grindini^ 




table, the straight edge clamped to its place, and a cup-shape 
wheel on the left of the spindle. 

Grinding a Shear Plate. 
Fig- 173 is 371 elevation showing on the left parallel to the 
table, the cup-shape wheel on the left and the shear plate clamped 
to the table. 




250 HAMUKNlNt;, TEMPRHINi; AND AN MKALING. 

The Emery Wheel i'sed as a Metal Saiv. 
The engraving, Fig. 176, shows the vise on the table in the 
place of the universal head, the long slide at the right of the ccH- 
iinin, the table across the slide, and a wheel on the right of the 
spindle 1-16 inch thick and 8 inches in diameter. Brass :ubing 
and small steel bars can he readily and smoothly cut into pieces 
by means described. 

Grinding a Cage to a Given Dimension. 
Fig. 177 is a plan view showing the long slide on the left. 



I 




the table across the slide, the vise in place of the universal hca.i. 
the gage wilh one of its faces against tlie cup-shaped emery 
wheel on the left. 

Atlachmenl for Surface Grinding. 
The attachment shown in Fig. 178 inchicies the vise shown, 
with angle and emery wheel No, 4. 



l 



H The vise may be clamped to the table at any point in its 
■ length. 

Work held in its jaws can be presented at any angle whatever 
in regard to the axis of the emery- wheel head, by making suitable 
adjustment of the swivel vise, the table and the long slide. 

It has a graduaied arc to measure the angle of elevation or 
depression at which the work is presented to the side of the 
emery wheel. 



t3 



173. — SURF.\CE GRINDING ATTACHMENT. 



§ emer; 



252 



HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 



Hozi* to Grind Milling Cutters and Metal-Slitting SatVis Straight 

or Concave. 

Fig. 179 shows the emen- wheel head with a wheel on the 
right, the long slide and table parallel to the emery wheel spindle, 



c 




A^aff 



ttr 



J 



n 



n / 



-r\ 



^ 




U 



.4 
< 

o 

tn 

ai 
W 

O 
55 



o < 



O 



O 

< R 
3 CO 



S 

CO 

!2; 






O 

fl4 



the horizontal swivel set at 90, and the saw fastened to work- 
spindle. 

The round belt should be as loose as possible. 

General Directions. 
Hold the cutter to the tooth rest by hand. 
In all cases when it is possible, limit the movement of the 



mg slide by the stops furnislied for the purpose, for the foUow- 
■"ing reasons : 

It prevents the wheel from striking the head stock or cutter 
in concave grinding. 

It prevents the wheel from runnhig too deep into formed 
cutters and side milling cutters when grinding radial teeth. 

It prevents the cutter from passing off the tooth rest, besides 
being convenient in quite a number of other instances occurring 
in the use of the grinder. 

It is convenient and sometimes necessary in grinding cutters 
for clearance on the right-hand end of the emery wheel spindle, 
to swing the knee on the column to the right at an ang;le of from 
5 to 15. This applies especially in angle cutlers and small 
cylindrical cutters, when the belt is liable to strike the cutter or 
center. 

After cutters have been reground once or twice the land be- 
comes thick: it is very convenient under these conditions to 
swing the knee slightly around the column :j or 3 degrees, and 
grind with a heavy broad cut between the teeth so as to reduce 
the amount of the land. 

After the land is reduced to the proper width a slight move- 
ment of the knee back about i degree will alter the angle of the 
cut in such a way as to produce a narrow land with a keen cutting 
edge without danger of drawing temper. 

The hfe of a cutter by this means is very much prolonged. 

In using the lever or screw feed handles, adjust them by 
means of the clamp screws at bottom of long slide holder to the 
most convenient position. 

Use the centering gage for determining the relative height 
of center of emery wheel spindle and tail stock center. 

Diamond Tool Holder. 
In order to obtain a good cutting edge and make a smooth 
ib on work, the emery wheel on a universal cutter and tool 
grinder must run true and have its cutting surface parallel with 
the movement on the slide of the machine. The cut. Fig, iSo, 
shows a diamond tool and holder for truing emery wheels. This 
too! is made to be used either by hand or clamped to the table 
of rhe machine so that the diamond can be passed across the wheel 
in line with the slide in any position. It is absolutely necessary 
.to have the wheel perfectly true on work ground between centers. 



^nni 




2$4 U.KKDENISC, TEMl'ERJNG AND ANNEALING. 

The proper use of this device will greatly increase the effi- 
ciency of any universal culler and tool grinder, both as to (lui 
tity and quality of work produced. 

A Small Cutfcr Grinder. 
The small "Garvin" cutter grinder shown in Figs. i8i to i 



lan^H 




has ample capacity for all the ordinary sizes and varieties of mill- 
ing cutters, while its compactness and small cost render it 
practicable to have several distributed around in the ' 




HOLLOW MILL- 



each group of milling machines, where they will prove a valuable 
addition to the plant and soon pay for themselves in time saved. 

The machine is well made throughout, and will grind straight 
or spiral mills and shell reamers from five inches diameter and 
four inches face clown to the smallest side or face mills: bevel or 
angle-cutters from eight inches down ; hand, machine, ro.se and 




pped collar, for boldiu 



Fig. s. One-hHlf inch Cutlcr^eeve , with adjustable atEpprf collar, tor cutters d( 
Bve^bliu three-quarter and Beven-elgblh Inch bore, and up to three and one-l:alf 
iBChMlons- Fig.B, Oot-half inch Cutler Arbor. ■■--- - "— i-'ii— i. .Ji.._.-i,i_ 



end mills. FiRs, ii and 13. Special 



■c and ^Ider, for general me '] 



lacbalf inch AdjUEli . 

! used on grinding table. 

Siockel, for grinding bjubU 
■ iTng «.J ffiilla. 



Fi^I3. UnivSTSI. ,. .. _..._ _. .. . _ .„ _ 

end oTsSJidle. 'piE?i8. Doivefsal^iITler Head, Tor useoo Iheijrinding t"- 
la. Arbor Socket. Thl* socVLet i» lilted with the Gnivin and B. I 
■niB only wrench used on the machine. Fig, j- ■ 



1 and B. &S, taper. Fig. w! 
Ic Wrench, foe the grinding 



GF!XDI>fG. 257 

t^lluslralions Shozvin^ Various Work Performed on Different 
Type of Universal Cutler and Tool Grinder. 

In the following pages will be found a series of illustrations 
Jshowing some of the many kinds of work for which a Garvin 
v.niversal cutter and tool grinder is adapted, also showing how to 
set the machine for doing this work. As a decided advantage 
over some machines, one can grind all work (except small-end 
mills) with the universal finger holder attached to and adjustable 
with the extended spindle-bearing, thus avoiding the accurate 
adjusting of the cutter-tooth with the line of feed, which is 
essential where the finger, or tooth-rest, moves with the work. 
This construction also permits of a very tine adjustment of the 
finger, which is obtained by slightly loosening the clamp and 
gradually swinging the entire finger-holder away from, or in 
toward the wheel, thus obtaining a greater or \e=,s amount of 
liacking-ofF to the teeth, as may be required. 

In all cases the face of the finger should be placed parallel 
with the tooth of the cutter and point against the direction of 
the wheel, as the spindle is run in one direction only. 

When using the finger the stops on the grinding-table should 
be set so as not to allow the tooth to pass out of engagement with 
the finger. At the beginning of the stroke the tooth should only 
engage with the spring-pawl of the finger, which will allow the 
cutter to be turned around. 

Fig. 185. Grinding the sides of face or straddle mills. The 



I 
I 





no change in adjustment has been maJc, only the sHdmg plat 
form has been moved on the knee. 

Fig. 187. Grinding the face of a straddle mill, carried on a 
stud in the universal cutter head (Figs. 9 and r8) ; the grinding 
table being locked. 




UAKUENINC, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 




1 99. -^-Grinding a dib 




Kages, punches, calipers, test blocks, etc., may be easily and quickly 
ground in this fixture. 

Emery Wheels — Their Use. 
The emery wheel consists of grains of emery and ; 
position called the texture which binds these grains together. 

In regard to the size of the grains the wheel is said to be 
fine or coarse in grade. In regard to its texture it is called hard 
or soft. 

To distinguish the grades, they are numbered from the di- 
mension of the meshes through which the grains pass. 

Thus grade lo means that the distance between the wires of 
the mesh is ro to the inch. 

Some of the substances used to bold the grains of emery 
together are hard rubber, shellac, ordinary glue and a mixture of 
linseed oil and litharge. 

The relative hardness of the texture is indicated by letters. 
, Thus. A indicates a soft wheel: B. a harder wheel: M. medium 
wheel, and so on. 

The vitrified emery wheel is made with a cement which con- 
Ktracts slightly while cooling, leaving small pores or cells through 
f which water introduced at the center is thrown to the surface by 




270 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

Carbon. 

Centers, lathe 0.80 to 0.90 

Chisels for cutting files 1.20 

Chisels, chipping * i.io 

Chisels, clay 0.80 to 0.90 

Chisels for hot work 0.60 to 0.70 

Chisels, railroad track 0.85 

Chisels, blacksmiths' cold 0.85 

Chisels, stone cutters' 0.80 to 0.85 

Chisels, wood working 1.20 to 1.22 

Chisels, brick • 0.60 to 070 

Claw bars (pulling spikes) 0.65 to 0.75 

Cone, bicycle .0.70 to 0.80 

Creaser 1.20 to 1.25 

Cruciform, drill 0.95 to i.io 

Cups, boiler makers' •. 0.60 to 0.70 

Cutters, flue • • 1.20 to 1.25 

Cutters, glass 1.20 to 1.25 

Cutters, milling • 1.20 to 1.25 

Cutters, nail 1.20 to 1.25 

Cutters, corn stalk • 0.80 to i.oo 

Cutters, pipe 1.20 to 1.20 

Cutters, tong 1.20 to 1.22 



D. 



Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 
Dies 



bolt 0.60 to 0.70 

blanking (bottom dies) 0.85 to 0.90 

cartridge shell 1.20 to 1.22 

lever link 0.85 to 0.90 

cold heating 1.15 

cutlery 0.80 to 0.85 

envelope 1.15 

drop forging 0.85 to 0.90 

drop forging, for making table knives 0.68 to 0.78 

hammer 0.67 to 0.78 

horseshoe (cold punching) 1.20 to 1.22 

glove 0.85 to 0.90 

nail .... . 1. 15 

paper cutting 1. 15 

pipe 1. 15 to 1.22 

rivet 0.60 to 0.70 

shoe * 0.70 to 0.80 

silver spoon O.85 to 0.90 

silversmiths' • 1.15 

tong I.IO to 1. 18 

wire drawing . 1.20 to 1.22 

Dies for pointing machine 1. 15 

Dies for manufacture of files- • 0.67 to 0.78 



TABLE OF ARTICLES MADE FROM CRUCIBLE STEEL. 2/1 

Carbon. 

Digging bars 0.85 to 0.90 

Dog, cant 0.90 to i.oo 

Drills for drilling tool steel shear knives 1.15 to i.JO 

Drills for boring out shotgun barrels • i.io 

Drills, star i.io 

Drills, quarry i.io to 1.18 

Drills, twist 1.20 to 1.22 

Driver, screw 0.60 to 0.70 



E. 

« 

Edge, straight 1.05 to 1.12 

Expander sections 1.20 to 1.22 

F. 

Facing, anvil 0.85 to 0.90 

Feather ^ 0.60 to 0.70 

File, cabinet 1.20 to 1.25 

File, cant saw 1.25 to 1.30 

File, Great American cross cut 1.25 to 1.30 

File, pillow 1.25 to 1.30 

File, slim taper 1.25 to 1.30 

Fork 0.90 to I.IO 

Fork, carver 0.58 to 0.62 

Furnace bars 0.60 to 0.70 

Flatters 0.60 to 0.70 

G. 

Glut 0.60 to 0.70 

Grab 0.70 to o.go 

Grips in tube works 0.85 to 0.90 

H. 

Hammer, bush 1.25 to 1.30 

Hammer, blacksmiths' 0.67 to 0.78 

Hammer, bush for granite 1.15 

Hammer, machinists' 0.90 to i.oo 

Hammer, nail machine 1.05 to i.io 

Hammer, peen 1.15 

Hammer, pneumatic • • 0.60 to 0.70 

Hammer, ball peen 0.80 to 0.85 

Hardies .- 0.60 to 0.70 

Hatchet 1.15 to 1.22 

Hoe 0.85 to 0.90 



2^2 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

Carbon. 

Holders, tool :..... .0.85 to 0.90 

Hook, cant .0.85 to 0.90 

Hook, cant, for hammer dies 0.68 to 0.78 

Hook, grass 0.60 to 070 

Hobs, for dies 0.85 to 0.90 

J. 

Jar 0.73 to 0.78 

Jaw, chuck 0.85 to 0.50 

Jaw, gripping .0.85 to 0.90 

Jaw, vise : . . .0.85 to 0.90 

Jaw for pipe machine 1.15 

Jaw, wire puller. i.io to 1.18 

K. 

Key for hammer 0.75 to 0.80 

Knife, belt : 0.80 to 0.85 

Knife, blade i.oo 

Knife, scarfing 0.90 to 0.95 

Knife, corn 0.80 to i.uo 

Knife, draw 1.20 to 1.22 

Knife, envelope 1.20 to 1.22 

Knife, hog 1.15 

Knife, machine 1.20 to 1.22 

Knife, paper 1.15 

Knife, pug mill 1.05 to 1. 10 

Knife, shear 0.85 to 0.90 

Knife, whittler 1. 15 

Knife, wood working 1.15 to 1.20 

Knife, carver i.oo 

Knife, putty • 0.90 to i.oo 

Knife, straw cutter 0.80 to 0.90 

L. 

Lining for brick dies 1.20 to 1.25 

Links, valve 0.60 to 0.70 



M. 



Magnet for telephones i.io to 1.17 

Magnet 1.23 to 1.25 

Mandrel 1.05 to 1. 10 

Mauls 0.65 to 0.75 

Mauls, wood choppers" 0.70 to 0.75 

Molds, carbon • • 0.87 to 0.95 



TABLE OF ARTICLES MADE FROM CRUCIBLE STEEL. 273 

Carbon. 

Molds, brick 0.80 to 0.90 

Machinery, crucible 0.55 to 0.65 

Mattock 0.60 to 0.80 

Mower, lawn i.oo 



N. 
Nut cracker and pick 070 to 0.73 



Pick 0.70 to 0.80 

Pick, mill 1.20 to 1.22 

Piercers for nail machine 1.10 

Pinch bars 0.75 to 0.85 

Pin, crank 0.55 to 0.65 

Pin, eye 0.75 to o.»So 

Pin, drift .0.60 to 0.70 

Pin, expander i.oo to i.io 

Pin, lever 1.05 to 1. 10 

Pitching tool 0.80 to 0.85 

Pivot 1.05 to I.IO 

Planer, stone 0.70 to 0.80 

Planer, wood 1.15 

Plates, guard 0.90 to i.oo 

Plates for brick dies • 0.85 to 0.90 

Plate, throat, for hog 0.85 to 0.90 

Plate, tool 0.90 to 0.95 

Plow, crucible, for bicycle road scraper 0.85 to 0.90 

Plow, ice 0.80 to 0.85 

Plug 0.60 to 0.70 

Plungers for bolt machine .0.60 to 0.70 

Plungers 0.85 to 0.90 

Pliers 0.85 to 0.95 

Point 0.85 to 0.90 

Point, clay pick 0.85 to 0.90 

Point, piercing 1.40 to 1.50 

Puller, nail • 1.20 to 1.22 

Punch, cartridge shell 1.20 to 1.22 

Punch, hot work 0.85 to 0.90 

Punch, file blank 1.20 to i .22 

Punch, skate blade 0.85 to o.^x^ 

Punch, washer 0.80 to 0.8X 

Punch, oil cloth • 0.85 to o.f jo 

Punch, blacksmith 0.80 to 0.85 

Punch, railroad track 0.85 



274 HARDENING, TEMPERING AND ANNEALING. 

R. 

Carbon. 

Racer, ball 0.90 to 0.95 

Rake 1.15 to 1.25 

Reins, tong 0.60 to 0.70 

Ring 0.85 to 0.90 

Rods, bench 0.66 to 0.76 

Rods, piston 0.70 to 0.80 

Rolls, expander 1.05 to i.io 

Rolls for hitting and missing device on gas engine 0.85" to 0.90 

Rolls, loom mill 0.55 to 0.65 

Rolls for holding steel scrap on wooden shovel handles 0.85 to 0.90 



S. 

Saws, circular 0.80 to 0.90 

Saws for sawing steel 1.60 

Saws, cross cut • • 0.85 to i.oo 

Saws, band 0.68 to 0.75 

Saws, drag 0.95 

Saws, pit 0.85 to I.oo 

Saws, mill 1.25 to 1.30 

Saws, gang • • 0.90 to i.oo 

Scarf 1.20 to 1.25 

Scrapers, road 0.60 to 0.70 

Scrapers, tube • • 1.20 to 1.22 

Screws on elevators 0.85 to 0.90 

Screws, set 0.65 to 0.75 

Sets, rivet 0.65 to 0.75 

Sets, button 0.65 tr 0.75 

Scythe edge 1.20 to 1.22 

Shafts for skull cracker crane 0.60 to 0.70 

Shafts, quick running motor 0.55 to 0.65 

Shear, pruning 0.85 to 0.93 

Shear, sheep • 0.96 

Shim 0.60 to 0.70 

Skate 1. 15 

Sledge 0.65 to 0.75 

Slides 1.20 to 1.22 

Snaps 0.60 to 0.70 

Spindle 0.55 to 0.65 

Spring, common locking 1.20 to 1.25 

Spring, knotter 1.20 to 1.25 

Spring, railroad 0.90 to i.io 

Spring, locomotive .0.90 to i.io 

Steel, carver 1.40 

Stretching bars 1.27 

Swages, saw 0.85 to 0.90 



TABLE OF ARTICLES MADE FROM CRUCIBLE STEEL. 275 

T. 

Carbon. 

Taps 1.20 to 1.22 

Taps, nut 1.15 

Taps, spindle 1.20 to 1.22 

Teeth, car wheel 0.85 to 0.90 

Teeth, dredge bucket 0.75 to 0.83 

Teeth, shovel 0.60 to 070 

Teeth, saw 0.85 to 0.90 

Tip 070 

Tongs 0.90 to 0.95 

Tongs, ingot 0.85 to 0.95 

Tongs, skidding 0.85 to 0.90 

Tool for turning hard rubber 1.05 

Tool for reaming inside of guns 1.05 to 1.12 

Tools, bricklayers' 0.90 to 0.95 

Tools, blacksmiths' 0.60 to 070 

Tools, moulders' 1.25 to 1.30 

Trowel • 0.40 to 0.45 

V. 
Vises 0.90 to 0.95 



W. 

Wedge, crucible 0.66 to 07^^ 

Wedge, stone 0.65 to 070 

Wedge for breaking frozen ore 0.60 to 070 

Wreath, crucible 0.66 to 07^ 

Wrenches • o «o to 0.90 

Wrenches, track 0.80 to o. u 



INDEX. 



, • • • • • 



Accommodate expansion 

Accomplisblng fim* it: suits with self- 

hardeniui? khh>1 

Accurate seccional casehardenlng. . . 

Acid, Improved soldtirlng 

Acme standard thread 

Actual pressure against tool 

Adoption of nickel steel for forg- 

Ings 

Advantage derived from the use of 

gas as a fuel 

Advantage in the use* of the tools . . 

Advantage of the method 

Advantage of nickel steel for forg- 

Ings 

Advise the use of cutters of small 

diameters 

Agitating contents of the bath .... 

A r hardening process 

A r tempering furnace 

Allowance desired In machining. . . . 

A lowing die to cool to a black 

Aluminium, lubricant for working. . 

Aluminium, solder for 

America, Crucible Steel Company of 
America, high-grade steel forglngs 

In 

America, steel produced In by the 

crucible method 

American drill rod 

Augular cutters, grinding 

\ngular type of milling cutter. . . . 
Animus referred to by Admiral 

Evans 

Annealed die and tool steel 

Annealing 

Annealing a small Quality of steel. 

Annealing box for small parts 

Annealing chilled cast Iron dies for 

drilling 

Annealing, furnace-packing the cast- 
ings 

Annealing, 

Annealing 

Annealing 

Annealing 

Annealing 

Annealing 

Annealing, 



for 



how to heat 

Iron castings 

In the charcoal fire 

low carbon steel bars. . . . 

ovens, heating the 

steel In the open fire. . . . 
stralghtcnlne: and finish- 
ing malleable castings 

Annealing, the effects of water .... 

Annealing, the proper heat for 

Annealing, water 

Annealing white or sliver iron.... 
Antifriction alloy for journal boxes 
Api)aratus used in the Taylor- 
White process *. . . . 

Appearance of fractures of high- 
grade steel of various hardness 
Appreciate the advantages of steel 

forcings 

Approximate cutting speeds 

Approximate speeds for emery and 

polishinir wheels 

Area of a hexlgon 

Articles made from crucible cast 
steel 



98 

27 
139 
196 
222 
115 

194 

53 

ne 

148 

194 

115 

103 

22 

61 

188 

168 

196 

197 

34 

176 

34 

14 

232 

154 

178 
21 
38 
43 
39 

43 

45 
37 

137 
38 

136 
47 
43 

46 
40 
37 
39 
. 44 
197 



116 

15 

179 
27 

267 
207 

34 



Articles, hatdeillnR long thin 

Articles, tempering thin 

Alt of forging with drop hammers. 

Art of steel treatment, how to In- 
struct In the • • 

Arts, Society of ........•••••• ; 

Arranged alphabetically, table of 
tempers 

Asbestos washers ••••••••,:••••-•• 

Ascertaining the size of pulleys for 
given speeds • • • 

Assorted stock of metal for drop 
forglngs • . • 

Attachment for surface grinding.. 

Attainment of satisfactory results. 

Attention to the proper selection of 
steel In dlemaking 

At bottom of thread, decimal con- 
stants for finding diameter .... 

Authority on the subject . • • • 

Average time required to machine 
fourteen sheaves •,,*•' 

Average speeds for cutting drills. 

Axial type of milling cutter 



122 
122 
187 

31 
107 

125 
112 

195 

191 

251 

18 

14 

210 
95 

114 
223 
154 



Babbiting • • 

Baking enamels and vulcanizing rub- 
ber, table of suitable tempera- 
tures for casehardenlng, core 
ovens, drying kilns 127, 

Barrel heating machine for harden- 
ing and tempering balls, saw 
teeth, screws, etc 

Bath, the , A"\"^ 

Bearing rings, hardening five-Inch 
thrust 

Belts, horse power of 

Bench forge 

Bessemer steel, casehardening 

Bethlehem Steel Company 

Bevel edges, how to grind a slit- 
ting knife with 

Binds the grains together 

"Biting in" 

Blanking die. hardening a 

Blanking or cutting dies, harden- 
ing large 

Blazing off springs 

Blind to the temper colors of steel. 

Blistering, preventing it while heat- 
ing 

Blows water from the teeth 

Blue, to draw small stef! parts 
to a 

Board with stripes of paint and 
names of steels 

Boiled water 

Bone, charring the 

Bone, to char the 

Borax of commerce 

Both die and nunch should be 
hard *. 

Brands of steel In general use. . . . 

Brands suitable for special classes 
of sbe*»t-mptal working 

Brass articles, lacquer for 

Break like glass 



196 



7. 128 



75 
135 

131 
225 
65 
133 
113 

245 
265 
204 
166 

173 
161 
176 

142 
154 

161 

14 

96 

134 

134 

175 

174 
18 

14 
206 
l.*57 



iNoex. 



2/7 



Breaking down point 113 

Bringing slowly to the required 

heat 143 

Buggy springs, to weld 194 

Bulky portion contracts away from 

the frailer portions 168 

Bunsen burner 122 

Bureau of Steam Engineering. . . . 194 

Burning off not necessary 120 

Bushing, how to grind a hardened 

drilling jig 243 



Cake of soap, hardening in Ill 

Calculations for determining speeds, 

27, 195 
Capable of withstanding wear .... 142 

Capacity of steel to cut 30 

Capital steel 18 

Carbon and air-hardening steels 

deteriorate, when. 113 

Careful in heating and quenching. . 95 
Careless and unequal hammering. . 159 

Carnegie Steel Company 140 

Casehardening as it should be under- 
stood 142 

Casehardening, accurate sectional. 139 

Casehardening tools 129 

Casehardening cups aud cones 198 

Casehardening furnaces 85 

Casehardening mixture for iron... 141 
Casehardening, Moxon*s method for. 141 
Casehardening, outfit for fine grain. 129 

Casehardening polished parts 142 

Casehardening paste 141 

Casehardening the ends of steel 

rails 140 

Casehardening, very deep 140 

Casehardening with kerosene 197 

Casehardening with cyanide of po- 
tassium 137 

Casting chain links 48 

Castings, annealing furnaces, pack- 
ing the 45 

Castings, annealing iron 137 

Castings, annealing, straightening 

and finishing 46 

Cast iron, to harden 141 

Cast iron, to weld 183 

Cast steel, composition for welding. 183 

Cause of cracks in dies 167 

Causes of failure in using high- 
grade steel 15 

Causes the oil to come in contact 

with the teeth 146 

Chain, automatic heating machine 

for hardening 85 

Changes in the grain of the metal. 17 
Changes of length produced by heat. 32 
Characteristic appearance of frac- 
tures .-. 15 

Charcoal 182 

Charcoal, annealing In 38 

Charcoal and bone 133 

Charcoal, bone and 133 

Charcoal, casehardening cups and 

cone's In 198 

Charcoal, flame, tempering in 122 

Charcoal for heating 100 

Charcoal made from charred 

leather 109 

Charcoal on the top of the lead ... 1 53 

Charcoal, the best 1 82 

Charcoal, to caseharden with 140 

Charring the bone 1 .^4 

Cheapest drop for^Erings 192 

Cheanly made cyanide hardening 

not 138 

Checklne the temper Ill 

Chemical changes In clay 132 



Chemical compounds, receipts for. 124 

Chief of Ordnance, report of 108 

Chucking drills 198 

Circular annealing and hardening 

furnace . 81 

Circular forming tools 203 

Circulation of a stream of water 

upward 162 

Circumstances determine the amount 

of shear to give 174 

Citric acid crystals 96 

Classified, milling cutters 154 

Clay, heat effects on 32 

Cleaning the work 135 

Clearance on tools for brass 204 

Closely controlling temperature... 116 

Coaly animal matter 142 

Coarse appearance of grain 23 

Coarse crystalline section 182 

Coating with tallow 43 

Coke suitable for hardening 100 

Collection of plain milling cutters. 144 
Collecting the segregation and pip- 
ing in the center 180 

Collet spring chucks, hardening. . . 112 
Colors from a light straw to a deep 

blue 136 

Colors of steel, table of tempers 

for tools 125 

Color on steel simply an indication 

of heat 117 

Colors, table of temper 128 

Colors, tempering by 117 

Colt, Colonel Samuel 187 

Combination gas furnace for gen- 
eral machine shop work 54 

Combined oil and water method. . 146 

Composition called the texture. . . . 265 

Compositiop for cast steel, welding. 183 

Composition to toughen steel 184 

Compounds for welding steel 183 

Consumption of oil small 121 

Concave or straight, how to grind 
milling cutters and metal slit- 
ting saws 252 

Condition to be prized in steel. ... 17 
Conditions of the different sections. 16 
Confounding cracks with hardening. 167 
Consequent contraction and expan- 
sion 168 

Consequent sudden chill 112 

Construction and operation of barrel 

heating machine 77 

Constant reheating 99 

Contraction during quenching .... 99 

Contraction during cooling 180 

Contracting excessively in the cen- 
ter 1 72 

Cooling '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.['. 1 36 

Cooling or quenching 100 

Coppering polished steel surfaces. 196 

Cooper-over surface nicely 196 

Core of tool left comparatively 

soft 149 

Corliss, George H 177 

Cost and endurance of forging 

dies 190 

Cost of good steel 13 

Cost of gas as compared with other 

fuel 5.? 

Costly accidents ?4 

CouDterbores, heating in lead 106 

Conn terbo res. clearance for f^04 

Connterbores. internally lubricated 204 

Connterbores for cast Iron and steel 904 

Counterborlnsr 204 

Covering with clav 43 

Coyan, M. E 140 

Cracks in dies, their cause 167 

Crescent steel 18 

Crucible Steel Comnanv of America. 34 



278 






I, glvlns perci 
they abould coi 



Inches of B bar 

-2 

Iter, weliht apd 



Cutter tor mllllDg I 

mlllH 

Cuttvr lulirlca 



t tot meel ur Iron, 
. to remain In .>IL until cold. 
. milling, tbelr une 



Cutting Bt high Bpeedit . . . 

Cutting BpeedH. tatile at . 

(.'uttiog BiieedB (or vast Ir 

(.'utting ajicedB for malleB 

Cutting s|>eedH for sleel. . 



Dies from (orglngB of wrongbl Iron 

a4id Bteel 1' 

I DleB hBrdenlDg dulda for 1 

I Dies bardenlDg and tempering large 

CUttlM 1 

I Dies Buolled tbrougb careleBsoesa 

DIeH used lor special drop torglngH. 1 

! Dlex lor regular abaped blanke. . . . 1 

Difference Between £ard steel and 

tough Bteel 

Different methods uf packing cast- 

aioK baths, tbelr et- 

t cutting face, ; 

• \ Dipping a1 an angle ol about 20 de- 

I Dipping Outed reamers when huil- 

enlng 1 

I Dipping liB] 



feoti 



P4|D 



lag lau DlBCHrdlnR the • 



Cyanide hardening furnaces. 

Cyanide snap 

Cylindrical casehardenlng furnace. 



efllons for onn^allng with greu- 



DeoarbonlMd ntei 
Decimal equlva 



Deep blue, colors from 

Deep i-aRehardenlng. verjr. 
Deep recpsBea. work wl!h 
Defectd running through c 



Degrpe to which the article e»- 

nands 

Degreefl of softness down to a blue 

tinged with Kreen 1 

Degrecfl of softneBs below that de- 
noted hr thpnnometer 1 

Delicate pieces, dipping 1 

DeslrnWe condition In drop dies 1 

Desirable tendency 1 

nptermlnlng the correct hardening 



ilckel e 






1 the commercial i 

sleel 

o the 



c and Bliollar work, 

naraenlng 1 

Drawing and forming dies, chilled 

Drawing to a temper of 4(K> de- 

a'apl'ndle!! 1 



DrI 



baling . 






LllB for 



riiamonrt tt 



Drop dies, hardening ani 
Drop forged bracket . . . 
Drop forged crank sha 
Drop forged wrenches 

. Drop forged gear blank 
Drop forging plant . . . 

. Drop hammers, forging 
Drop hammers. " — 



. Each brand In 
: Recentrlc ring. 
I Economical une 



plpp taps, sizes 
2 




J In Rtee], liow . 

T in tentine steel before db- 

iDcy aaa Judgmi^nt 

— .a of the Boverruneat to obtain 
steel suitable fur lai'se guns.. 

_.iLBi1c limit of nickel steel 

Eilmlnatliig tendency to wsrp..., 
KlImlnatlDE tbe poHBlblllt; of warp- 

Emery wheela, their use 

English blue . 

BngllBh worka dnpllcated 

BnterlDB the die edgwwayl 

Entirety eliminated, segr^atlon and 

piping - 

B>inal sectional area 

tlianlvalent mCBBures. table uf Elng- 
HttablUhmentH devoted eicliislVeiy 
f to the maniifactuFlnx of drop 
' f orgingB 
Bhtabilahment where tbouaaods ot 
dies are made every year 

Evans, Admiral Hobley U 

Even Btaln and velvety appei 

Even spacing Instead of Bfaggered 

Expansion of dlirerent metals, 
EIiBCt knowledee In Ihe mattei 
BiBCt dearee of 

Expansion of wrouiiht Iran for eaeli 
degree Fahrenheit 

Expansion nnequal 

Expansion reamers ,--..-.--.-,, 

Expert In the art 

Experience In worblne and using 
tbe different brands 

Experience, Bfclll and sound Jndg- 

Experlence with different grades of 

Experience with crnde oil 

Sxperlmenlal treatment 

Exposing heated steel to a current 

■^ Of air 

^^pbtenalTe experiments with various 

^Kl metals 

^■Bxtenstve nse to which drop forg- 
^HT g]wts bave been put 

^^^btra heavy work, hardening 

^^CTBce milling largo cast lugs, steel 

B^tncBB, prominent 

Ferris wheel shaft 

B'teuring cost of tools 

figuring the surface speeds of emery 
wheels and milling euttera. . . 

Files, to temper old. 

Binding alaaieter of driven 

FlndlOK number of revolutions of 

Finding the' area' ' of ' cyl'inder .' '.'.'.'. 
Finding the <-apnc1ty of a cylinder 

Fine grain, casfihardening for!.!! 

Fine grain, compact 

Finest metal pattern work 

Finishing cold, hammering hard 

Finishing without grinding or clean - 



, Forging, _._, 

Forging, drop hammi 
for setting op . . 
Forglngs from steel of high i-ai 

■ Forglngs (or cutting dies 

ForglogB, government nse of niclti 

I steel tor - . - 

' Forglngs In America, blgb-grade. 

Forglngs. steel die 

■'--glug. beating steel for 18. 1 

ging plant, larger and superior 
to any In the world 1 

KI.'S,r..-r;.= ,i«.t:::::::: ■ 

. Formed face mill 1 

• Formed cotters with steps S 

Formulas fni sharp v thread, 
rnited States standard thread. 
Whltworth standard thread . , . S 

I Frequent renewal by forging 

"-Dm cast Iron and steel, to make 






scale. 
12 de; 

annealing and 



lead hardening . 



Furuac 

Furnarea oil tempering . 



and 
Dang nf atrslght face milling cut 

ng of cut tern tor machining i 

wide formed surface 

Gang punch hardening and temper 

• liM a split 

I Gas blast forges, their use 

8 consumption 

R flame tempering in 

E forge for knife and shea: 
blades 



Gear 

I General dlie 



■ grinding. 



» and rules for the 



Genera] matter relative to malleable 

Iron macblne iiartB it 

Ueneral iiiultli work. hardeDlng mlz- 

UenerallOD uf ateam wlieii* bardui- 

Ing 91 

Uettlog rid uf tbe i^eater of a hol- 
low locglnK i7( 

Olue to resUl mulslure 20< 

Good and uniform teuii)er 16] 

Good weld betveeu parts, neces- 

Good welding flui (or Hteei ! !!! ! ITf 

Guod Bteel fui guod tools y^ 

Good tools, Kood Bleel (or 3j 

(iovernmenl blue i(j] 

Government uiie ot nickel steel for 

forglDgH 185 

Grade and texture of tbe wbeel ^6; 

Gradt! of steel 10 usa for dlea u 

Grain ivndercd iimrse ab'd "bVlttle! lOf 

Grounlated iharmai 131 

Ucanolaled raw l>une, dlret'tlima tor 

Granulated raw bone' ' obialnias 

.'olurs with 13( 

harden. ™lor and anneal wltb. 13( 

Graiihlte crucible 101 

Great flexibility of steel IT: 

Great hardness, testing for -Ji 

Great onlnaiKe works ul tbe Bethle- 
hem Steel Companr 171 

Greatest uniformity and maximum 

results ;... lU 

Green i>oBl 10( 

Qrlnder, a small I'UCler 254 

Grinder, nuilrimitl unltTrBal cutter 

and ti.i.l .... 221 

Grinding .i.i^iLliir cutters 23; 

Uriodlng, jiiiiii linieut tor surface.. 251 

Grinding n l.-vi-l culter 261 

Grinding a die blank to tbe re- 
quired angle 24( 

Grinding a dir- In Its bolster 20'! 

Grinding a furmcd tool on Its face. 24t 

Grinding a gang at mills 2ei 

Grinding a gage (0 a given dlmen- 

Grlndlng a ' hardened' d'riilinj" 'j'lg " 

bushing 24J 

Grinding a hand reamer 241 

Grinding a lihpnr u1hI<> 241 

Grinding a xtrniglit edge 24f 

Grinding a ertral mill 231 

Grladlng a t<j>lrnl tooth cutter 25<; 

OrindInK a sllttluE knife with bev- 
eled edges 24? 

Grinding a snap gage yer 

Grladlng a taper spindle '2H 

Grladlng a taper reamer 241 

Grinding a tap held In reamer cen- 
ters sec 

Grinding a taper reamer with 

straight hscked off edges 26( 

Grinding a taprr reamer wltb shear 

putting edges 2*1] 

Grinding a worm wheel hob 241 

Grindlag a twentr-fanr Inch cold 

saw 231 

Grinding nn Irixericd louth mill.. 26t 
Grinding hinnd surfaces, wheels 

Bnltable for 28( 

Grinding cutlers nf bt 

and sharp angles 

Grinding, cutter and tool 

Grinding formed cutters 

Grinding, general dlrectlona foi 

Grinding gear cutlers 

Grinding. Internal 



rinding lathe tools, nbeels suit- 
able for 2 

Grinding mming cuiteii! Bod metal 

slitting sawB. large 2 

nding mil 'lag (! utters 01 aans 

straight or concave 2 

ndlng mlllliia machine cnttera, 

Grinmng' soft" metala." wheels ' suit- " 

able for 2 

Grladlng shell couaterborea :: 

"-■□ding side mllllpg cuttera with 

Grinding, shapes and sizes of emerj 

wbeels for tool 2 

Grladlng aide milling cutters 2 

Grinding twist drills 2 

Grinding reamer blades convex.... 1 
Grinding the bevel comer on a 

double end butt mill 2 

jrlndlag the face of a double end 

butt mill 2 

Grinding the face of a small end 

mill 2 

Grinding tbe sides of an end mill. 2 
Grinding the fai^ of a straddle mill. 2 
Grindlag the reverse side of a face 

mill 2 

ndlug the Bides of a face or 

nrllng. the wheels suitable tor 

udlug, tlK' wheels suitable for 

rough 2 

und In special machines t 

und work, samples of 2 

Hammer all sides alike I 

"""imer directly over spot rest- 
ing on anvil 1 

Hammering and rolling Hteel billets 1 
Hard or soft punches and dies... 1 

Hard or soft whet'ls 2 

■ lard steel, lubricant fur drilling.. 1' 
Hard steel, tempering flat dillls 

for drilling 1 

.rd stock, tempering Bat drills 

for 1 

rden Id balh ttllh teetb UD 1 

rdcned machine steel iiarts, to 

produce fine srain 1. 

Hardener will he blamed 1 

Hardening and tempering spring 

I'ollet sprlDg chuchs 1 

Hardening nnd tempering drop dies. 1< 
"irdening cnrl tcraperlng large "cut- 
ting" ot •■hlanklng" dies 1 

Hardearng ami tempering mill picks. 1: 
Hanlealag btuI tempering milling 

cutters ill water and ofl 1. 

Hardening una tempering, proper 

eijiilproenl for 

Tardenlng and tempering small 

taps, knives, springs, etc 1 

Flardenlng and tempering split 

gang punches 1 

nardenlng and tempering springs. 1' 
Harden lag and tempering round 

Hardening and tempering, special 

Instructions for 1 

Hardening around a hnle II 

Hardening at different tempera- 

lenlng a lilanklnit die li 

Hardening cutting l.its 1| 

Hardening drawbridge iIIm- and sim- 
ilar work 11 

Hardening eitra heavy work II 



Hardening equally all through 

Hardening flies 108 to 

Hardening flve-lneh thrust bearing 

tlartlenU^ Hulda for dies 

Hardening, beating (or 

Harden lug. beating In hot lead 

Hardening ' hollow ' mlils' '.'.'.*.'.'.'.'.'.' 

liardetilDg In clear oil 

Hardening In solllCiObS 

Hardening, judgment and careful- 
Hardening large milling cuttera... 

Hardening large pieces 

Hardenlag large dlea 

Hardening long taper reamers. 

IlardenlDg metal saws 

IlardenlDg milling cutters In the 

Hardening mlstures tot general 

smith work 

Hardening <if Inexpensive rutting 

Hardening p^ior die steel 

Hardening. qui'Dchlng for 

Hardening riag gagea 

Hardening small parte and long 

thin parts 

Hardening small saws 

IlardenlDg successful 

Hardening [be walls of a iMiund 

die 

Hardening steel hy petroleum 

Hardening thick round dies 

Hardening very small punches.... 
Hardening very tbin tools bo as to 

prevent warping 

Hardening V shaped milling cut- 
Hardening abell i-eamere, bushings. 

Hardening, warping of punches In. . 

Hardening, warping of tools In 

Haatlngs. B 

Heat distributed enuftlly 

Heat affects center equally with 

outside 

Heat effects on copper and bronze. 

Heat effects on clay 

Heat, flrst effect of 

Heat, second effect of 

Heat, the 

Heati tbe hardening Sre and the. ■ 

Heating 

Heating accnrdlns io shape 

Heating and tempering, effects of 

Heating, distortion through uneven. 

Heating for forg-lng 

Heating for hardening 

Heating fnrnare. the location of the 

Heating In the open Are 

Heating In hot lead for hardening. 
Heating machine for hardening the 

edges of miiver blades 

Heating machine for bardenlDg 

n«Btlng machine r<ir email parts.. 
HeaflnK machine for tempering and 

coloring steel 

Heating machine with revolving 

Heating stee'r ifor' forging.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.". 
Heating slowly to a spring tem- 

HeatV^g steei "temperature" tell -tajes 

Heating the annealing ovena 

Heating the steel ton quickly 



Heavy oil . 

Heavy sprkiBs. iiaiueuuiB. - 

Highest carbon steel, not ( 

High-carbon ' steels,' ' the ' t'l 

of 

High-grade steel forglngs li 

Ill);ii-grade steel in t'tie s. 



forglngs 
(orglnga 
Hob, how to grind 



high -grade ateel 
■mwheel 



ollow mriiB. buw to temper . 

oilow mlllH. hardening 

ot water, hardening In 

ot water, lemperlne siirlngs 1: 
ursp power of bells 

ow'" to caacharden," "i-olor "And" 



required angle 

iw to grind milling cutters and 
melar slitting saws straight or 

<w to grind a hardened drilling 

Jig bushing 

n- to grind a slitting knife with 



How to heat for annealing 

How to restore overheated steel... . 
Hdw to thoroughly anneal high- 
grade — ' ~— ' — — 



1 steel p 



e forged 179 



Illustrations showing various woi 
performed on D different tyi 
of universal cutter and ta< 






Imperfect preceding operations 1 

Importance of having a goad foun- 
dation for drop 1 

Impossible for tbe operator to be- 
come skilled In tbe art 1 

Improper means for grinding 1 

Improved soldering and tinning 



Improvemen 
ing an 


■,Sn,Sl 


"""crucmfe 


Improving p< 
Inception of 
Increasing t 


the 
He si 

sting 


'rt. 






the reamer 


Individual t 


by 


tbe toolmak- 



282 



INDEX. 



Information upon air-hardening 

steels 113 

Information of value to practical 

men 31 

Injurious effects of overtieating. ... 18 
Injuring the quality of the metal.. 175 
Inserted type of milling cutters. ... 198 

Insure against warping 158 

Interesting data 114 

Internal anvil 18o 

Internal grinding 24(> 

Internal strains, their cause 175 

In America, high-grade steel forg- 

ings 176, 

In crude oil. tempering rock drills. 120 
In exT>ansion and contraction, 

amount of force exerted 33 

In hardening, straightening long 

tools which have warped 157 

In hardening, the use of clay 110 

In hardening steel, temperature 

tell-tales for use 134, 159 

In i;. S. table of different stan- 
dards for wire gage used 219 

In welding, substitute for borax. . 187 
Iron, a casehardening mixture for. . 141 
Iron and steel sheets, table of 

weights of 214 

Iron and steel, welding power for. . 183 

Iron castings, to anneal 13V 

Iron, silver or white, annealing. . . 44 
Irregular pieces, heating 107 

J 

Jessop's steel 18 

Joshua Rose, M.B 98 

Journal of the Franklin Institute. 113 
Journal of the United States Ar- 
tillery 206 

Judgment and carefulness in hard- 
ening 95 

Judgment, experience and percep- 
tion in the working of steel . . 31 

K 

Kerosene, casehardening wlui 197 

Kinds of steel produced in Amer- 
ica by the crucible and open 

hearth process 34 

Knives, tempering wood-planer.... 122 
Knowledge and skill employed in 

working steel 95 

I. 

Labitte. M. 7 1'8B 

Laboratory experiments 182 

Lacquer for brass articles 206 

Lacquer for silver 206 

Large milling cutter, hardening... 143 
Large power units used in electric 

generating i^tatlons 1 76 

Large ring dies, how to harden ... 1 64 

Large spiral fluted "hob" tap 19 

Large tank indispensable 162 

Large tank provided with perfor- 
ated tray 1 67 

Latent prejudice against hollow 

f orgings 181 

Laving out work 196 

Lead hardening furnace 88 

Leaving one of the dies soft ""^3 

Length, measure of 211 

Liability to crack 101 

Liability to fracture 15 

Lime, to clean tank with 20 

Lineal foot, table of pounds per... 215 

Link Belt Eneineering Tompanv. . T13 

Lodge, Mr. William 199 



Long delicate reamers 110 

Long, flat or round objects, harden- 
ing 105 

Long knives sure to warp 123 

Long taper die-taps 103 

I^oose dirt, to clean in 121 

I^ow carbon steel bars, to anneal . . 136 
liowered, modified, tempered, less- 
ened 117 

Lubricant for cutting 225 

Lubricant for cutting steel or iron. 225 

Lubricant for drilling hard steel.. 196 

Lubricant for water cuts 196 

I^ubricant for working aluminum. . 196 

M 

Machine, attacliIhBnts which are 

used on the 256 

Machine blacksmithing 189 

Machine, construction and operation 

of barrel heating 77 

Machine parts, general matter rela- 
tive to malleable iron 48 

Machine parts, the annealing of 
malleable castings and the man- 
ufacture of malleable iron. 44 

Machine reaming 201 

Machine screw taps, table of tap 

drills for 218 

Machine steel casehardened tools. . 129 
Machines, processes and tools used 

in the art 187 

Machinery steel cutting tools 129 

Making a tap or reamer cut larger 

than itself 195 

Making welding heats, coke for .... 100 

Malleable department 46 

Malleable iron, how to caseharden. . 133 

Manipulated in the fire 97 

Marking each separate brand 14 

Master Mechanics' and Master Car 

Builders' Association 177 

Material possessing a very high 

elastic limit 181 

Maximum efllciency 113, 116 

Measure of length , . . . . 211 

.Measure of surface 211 

Measure of volume and capacity. . . 211 

Measure of weight 211 

Measuring expansion and contrac- 
tion 32 

Medimum cuts and feeds and coarse 

thread cutting 27 

Melting points, table of 124 

Melting pots 90 

Metal is improving by forging 191 

Metal pattern shop of malleable de- 
partment 49 

Metal saws, to harden 108 

Metal slitting saws 1,54 

Metal to expand in cooling 206 

Method, advantages of the 147 

Metric and IT. S. measures 21 1 

^^«»ss^s. Taylor and White 113 

>nddle softer than the outside.... 99 

Mild steel chins and borax 163 

>T«il picks, bath for hardening 121 

>fni picks, hardening and tempering 121 
>fill picks, tempering of cast steel. 121 

'^^ni picks, to temper 121 

>nn should be inverted * 153 

Millimeters and fractions of milli- 
meters, decimal eouivalents 208 

Millimeters of, table 208 

ilUll'^^ cutters hardening V shawd 152 
Milling wrought iron or steel, lubri- 
cant for 204 

Mining and Scientific Press ! .* 120 

."Vfiatakes and accidents 24 

Miscellaneous 211 



283 



Molecules asBame tlie i 



ou'u niettuHl of I'aBi^liardeuli 
C'liarlea Day 

. Wllliain Lodge!!!!!;'!!!! 



Mr. Robtrt Leltb,. 
Jlurh -deiianilH an erei 

Multiple or Insertcd't 
Uume regular siieB a 



Uuseam of . 



I produi« special 



Necessary precau 



brighten after the 



Xot LndlcatlTe of a 



Of parte of an In 

eiiulvaleuiB ,. 

Of sofldB, tBble of 

0. [( and Beasen 



Open and I'lyHtHllisiPd rractur 
Open fire. nimfHlIn^- st«| m t 

Open Are and color test 

Open are, hBrdcnIng mllllnB ci 

Operation of' the prmiss ! ! ! ! ! 
Operator not fanilMnr with r 



Ordinary twist drill With (emale 

i-enl,r I 

Ordinary way of getting rid of the 



Pack in good animal carbon 

I'aoking and lieailng ihe Hack.... _ 
I'acklng In Iron bui In powdered 



■■acfcluff tbe work 

I'ameacha raw bone 

'urts produiei] hy drop forging. . 

'aits Bulijpu't to pressure, wear 



eniioaute uf fallaeieB. . . . 

hoBphurna niafees steel brittle 

riecea coming out free from craiks. 
PleL-es with holes running pan nay 

tbrougli tliem 

Piercing ptiiii^Iii'H. hardening 

PiBi-lns itie die In an Inclined dobI- 

tlon 

Plain or formed mililoe cutters 

Plain water 

Planer knife, tempering wood 

Playing card dieB 

Plunging o' 



trheated steel 
petroleum 



Plunging Int 

Pointer 

Points to be remembered 

Polished parts, tasehardening. . 
Polished steel surfaces coppei 

Polishing for tempering 

Poor material cannot be used.. 

Portei', Mr. n. F. 3 

i'otasslum. casehardening i 



methods of packing 



Powdered charcoa 

Power of burnt b 
Practical Bpeeds a 

be run 

Practice of the b( 
Practice, reamer . . 
Pratt & Whitney.. 



I Hteel generally. . 1 

"ooK 'li'se'of machinery's 

tool J. the use of machine 

f blowing when pouring in 

t carhonliatl'o'n '(if Btock! 

t .TBc'king 

t wnrplng, hardening bo 

t warping, hardening' a I 

ting (tneuoHl eipanslnn.. 



284 



INDEX. 



Processes, kind of steel produced in 
America by tlie crucible and 

open heartu 34 

I'rocesses wliich tend to reduce tlie 

iiarduess of steel 117 

I'roducts of tlic drop forging indus- 
try 187 

Prof. E. Wilson ll>7 

Prominent features '2'J7 

Proper equipment for steel work- 
ing 52 

Proper equipment for tiardening 

and tempering 52 

Proper facilities for steel treat- 
ment 50 

Proper heat for plunging the steel. 121 

Proportion of carbon 1 1 

l*roportion of soft core 158 

l*rotecting exposed parts 1)8 

I*rotecting teeth from decarboniza- 

tion 109 

Prussiate about to decompose and 

dissipate 142 

I'ulverized charcoal 18.S 

Pumping oil to annealing ovens. ... 4< 
Tunch or die blank, re-annoaling a. 170 
I*unch, tempering a combination 

cutting and drawing 17:^ 

l*unches and dies, soft or hard. ... 103 
I'unches for perforating heavy stock 170 

I*imches, tempering small 171 

Punching or sliearing heavy metals 163 
Putting the steel in the bath, man- 
ner of 95 



Quenching bath 96 

Quenching for hardening 100 

Quenching in salt water 161 

Quenching in a large tank of water 173 

Quick methods for softening steel . . 43 

Quoted reports of tests 113 



R 

Radial type of milling cutter 154 

"Railway Review" ; • • ; -^ 

Rails, casehardening the ends of 

gteel 1^^ 

Rake of forming tools 204 

Rapid cooling of the forging 14 

Rapid extraction heat • • 1"^^ 

Rapid method of annealing special 

steel 1^" 

Rare for an oil-tempered drill to 

break ^^^ 

Raw linseed oil • • • • • . ;?2 

Raw potato, sticking in a !•>» 

Raw weld joint I7 

Real knowledge '^'^ 

Reamer, babbitt 201 

Reamer, evenly spaced will chatter. 199 

Reamer, exnanslon 201 

Reamer, "floating" 201 

Reamer for Iron ^JJJ]^ 

Reamer for screw machine jj'» 

Reamer for brass 200 

Reamer for steel ^\r 

Reamer, formed or curving ^'' 

R«»«mer. hand ^*J^ 

ppamer. "home made" 1 ••'♦ 

T?eamer, large taper ►<»- 

Reamer, Rose ^J''. 

Reamer, speed for ^JJ- 

Reamer, square • . • -J.'^ 

Reamer, taper, with three blades.. 199 

■Reamer, too much clearance on. . . . 200 
Reamer, when worn, to increase 

the size of 1^'^ 



Reamers and reaming 200 

lieaming a long straight hole 201 

Reamers, hardening taper 109 

lieamers, hardening long taper.... 109 

Reaming, reamers and 200 

Reannealing a punch, or a die 

blank 170 

Reannealing tap blanks 42 

Regular sizes of muffle 93 

Relation which the elastic limit 

bears to the tensile strength.. 194 

Red hot lead, heating in 106 

Reduction of strength 98 

Removing large amounts of stock . . 117 
Removing technical objections to 

the color test 117 

Removing rust from polished steel 

or iron 206 

Responsibility for bad work in 

hardening 159 

Responsible for bad work 95 

Results in steel when hardened at 

a given temperature 18 

Required angle, how to grind a die 

b'ank to the 248 

Return to its elastic state 157 

lUng gages, hardening 156 

Riveting, how to caseharden, rolls 

leaving tenons soft for 132 

Robert Leith. Mr 48 

Rock drills, tempering 120 

Rogers, Admiral John 178 

Rogers & Hubbard Company 130 

Rough-down blanks for long tools. . 103 

Rough test on cast iron 114 

Round dies, hardening thick 172 

Round dies, hardening the walls of. 169 
Round thread dies, hardening and 

tempering Ill 

Rose. M. E., Joshua 98 

Rosin on the blacksmith's forge. . . 1S4 
Rules for calculating speed. .. .27, 195 

Rust joints, cement 20(> 



S 

Salt, heating in melted 96 

Sal-soda and borax in water 106 

Sanderson's steel 18 

Sand bath, tempering in the 117 

Saving of 46 per cent 114 

Schneider & Co., of Le Creusot, 

France 179 

Scientific American Supplement ... 98 
Screw and dowel holes plugged 

with fire clay 166 

Screw head slotting saws 159 

Screw threads, V. S. S 220 

Securing the best results from steel 23 

Secretary of the Navy 178 

Sectional casehardening. accurate.. 139 
Sections and shapes of file steel. 16. IT 

Segregation and pining 180 

Selection and identification of steel 13 
Selection of brands and grades of 

gteel l" 

Selection of steel of uniform qual- 

ity '3 

Self-hardening brands . • • 18 

Self-hardening steel cutting tools.. 27 
Self -hardening steels, treatment of 

high-speed *J 

Servicable slack tub 121 

Set of hardened and tempered turn- 
ing tools • • • 2Z 

Set of self-hardening steel cutting 

tools 25 

Setting the grain of steel finer.... 159 
Setting the fine grain permanently 180 
Severe usage in the nature of alter- 
nating stresses 181 



L the 



Shear blades, gai forge for knife 

sheirw mills' "":::: !!!:!::;: i 

ijhella. heating machine tor temper- 
ing sill] culoriua 

Ijtaells. beating mat'^lnes for hard- 
ening, irones and 

StiriDliage In soft steel 

skill, piperlence and Ju^ment In 

Soliciting orders tor lioiio<r torg- 

SlowJy coDlliig ibe Inside.. 

touglier the ateei 

Small articles of even thickness.. 
Small and medium size springs.. 

Small fagots of wrought iron 

Small flal aprlngs 

Small Iron parts, to caseharden , . . 

Small Iron parts 

Small partK. anueallng box for... 

Small puDcbesfor thin stock 

Small puDcbes, tempering 

Small sans, bardenlng 

Small spiral sprlags 

Small taps, hobs, etc.. bow to ten 

Smafl woiir. gsn forge for 






n all parts of the 



SofI spola In dies aftpr hardening. . 
Rnrienlne aree). qulcli methods for. . 

Solder (or aluminum 

Soldering 

Solid core of Are bilfk 

Soltris. melting points of 



Source of annoyance often 

ooked 

Spac ng entirely loo close 

Spec al brands of steel are 

duclble 

'rop forglngs 



Spec al forming I'u 
Spec al InstrticllonH 
Spec al Instructions 

and tPmperluB 
Spec a< methods, tei 
Spec al milling cutt 
%eedB for cutting 



Spring tbreafllnB die 

. BprlngB. blBBlnK ntr 

Sprluga. hhilng . 

Special hardenine nud temnpring 

Square and hPnognn stepl. table 

welghtB and arens of round a 
Stalvart champion of nteel 

Square reamer 

Standard hrnnd^ of spir.bnrdenl 

Bteel, eiperlments with 



Standard pipe taps, table of siies 

I Standards [or wliv gage In the 
United Stales 2 

) standard screw threads, table of 

I'nited Slates 2 

) Standard thread formulas for aliaru 

i V thread. United States stand- 
ard \VhUworth thread 2 

i Standard twist drill grinding gage. 2 
Stay-bolt taps !■ 

) Bleel, annealing a small quantity of 

Steel annealed die and tool 

i Sleel bars, snnealibg low carbon., t 

r Steel, a good welding Bux tor 1 

) Sleel, cutting and durability qual- 

I iHteel, companltlon to toughen 1 

I wroitebt Iron plate 1 

I Steel, different uuenching batbs, 

i their elTect on 

1 Kleel die for-rflngB , 

i Steel forglngs Intelllgentlj pro- 

1 diiced 1 

Steel tor small reamers, laps, small 

t piinrheH. ^Ir 

) Steel for dllferent purposes 

. Steel for tools which i-equlre to be 

I forged 1 

> Steel, general directions, and rules 

r for ihe hardening of 

'■ Steel' in"ita so(tlnrf"cond1tfon. . '. ! ! 

1 Steel. Judgment, experience and per- 

2 oeptlon In the working of .... 

1 Steel of special compoaltfon 1 

r Steel of A brand wblch eiperieDce 

; has taught to be uniform 1 

' Steel of dlfferpnt carbon percentage 1 
; Steel parts, how to thoroughly nn- 

' nesl high-grade tool 

. Steel rails. caBchardenlnE ends of.. J 
I Steel, selection and lilentlQcstlon of 

} Steel, the grain of 

f Steel, the hea+lng and cooling of. . , 
' Steel, trealmenl of Blr-bsrdpnlne. 
, Steel, treatment of annealed die and 
' tool 

Steel uneveniT heated 1 

, Steel worked Bt a l"w r«l h»a( 1 

; Steel, to dIstlnEUlsh wrought Iron 

; and cant Iron tri-m 1 

i Steel, to hlop without heating T 

Steel, to remnyp scale from, » 

' Sticking, mixture to preyent lead 

from 1 

StrslEht cYllndrlpHl pleres 1' 

StrnlehfenluE Vlween lathp cenlorB 1 
' Stralehtenlne baTdPnPd Jlleces that 

' have wariwrt r 

J StratEhtenlug nne tools that have 

' warped In hardening 1 

1 Straiebtenlng on snv!) with ham- 

I StralEbtenine otis'hlock'of'wood!! 1 

f RtralEhtenlng while rolil H 

StralHhtenlng while hot H 

{ Strsln oceisloneil h» rBKld cooling.. 1: 

' Sfrenm of wsler strlfelnir the work ' 

■ Strength of hollow forelnga 11 

Stretching the cholns . , ' 

■ Strlolng with different rolnr nalnt. 
Rtmrg brine for the hardening 

, otrone b-iiieV oupii'ciiinE'in!;!!!:! ! 
• Rtrons close. grained backing 1; 



286 



INDEX. 



Strong Jet of water in quenching. . 20 

Stubs steel 106 

Styrian steel 18 

Substances used to hold the grains. 266 

Substances which open the grain. 129 

Substitute for borax in welding. . . 187 

Successful hardening 38 

Successful metal working 20 

Sudden heat and a cold blast of air 168 
Suitable specimen for experimental 

purposes 15 

Suitable tempers for, table of 127 

Sulphur, little as possible 106 

Supervision of chemists, metal- 
lurgists, physicists, and micro- 

scopists 179 

Surface, measure of 211 

Surface of lead covered with 

broken charcoal 107 

Surface scale 96 

Surfaces, coppering polished steel. . 196 

Surfaces, decarbonized steel 24 

Surplus metal thrown out between 

the dies while working 190 

Sword blades^ straightening 157 

T 

Table of articles made from crucible 
steel, giving about percentage 
of carbon they should contain. 269 

Table of average cutting speeds for 

drills 223 

Table of cutting speeds 224 

Table of decimal equivalents of 
millimeters and fractions of 
millimeters 208 

Table of decimal constants for find- 
ing diameter at bottom of 
thread 210 

Table of different standard for wire 

gage used in the U. S 219 

Table of decimal equivalents of 

parts of an inch 209 

Table of expansion from 32 degrees 

F. to 212 degrees F 35 

Table of English or America (U. S.) 

equivalent measures 211 

Table of melting points of solids. . 211 

Table of suitable temperatures of 
annealing, working and harden- 
ing 127 

Table of suitable temperatures for 
casohardening core, ovens, dry- 
ing kilns, bakiivtr channels and 
vulcanizing rubber 128 

Table of sizes of drills for stand- 
ard pipe taps 218 

Table of thread parts 122 

Table of tempers to which tools 

should be drawn 125 

Table of temper colors of steel .... 128 

Table of tap drills for machine 

screw tans 218 

Table of Fnited States standard 

screw threads 220 

Table of weights and areas of 

round, square and hexisron steel 212 

Table of weights of iron and steel 

sheets 214 

Table of weights of square and 
round bars of wrought iron in 
pounds per lineal foot 215 

Taking from the water too soon. . . 101 

Tap blanks, reannealing 42 

Tap drills for machine screw 

threads 218 

Tap steel, the annealing of 41 

Taper mill 147 

Taper of twist drills for clearance. 198 

Taper reamer with three blades .... 199 



Taylor-White process for treatins 

steel ....: 113 

Tell-tale, using the 134 

Temper colors proof of equality In 

degree of heat only 118 

Temper drawn at leisure 143 

Temper when due to a second opera- 
tion 118 

Tempers to which steel should be 

drawn, table of 125 

Tempering 117 

Tempering at special colors Ill 

Tempering a combination cutting 

and drawing punch 173 

Tempering flat drills for hard 

stock 160 

Tempering in the charcoal Are .... 122 

Tempering in oil 119 

Tempering in the sand bath 119 

Tempering process which will de- 
termine accurately first heat . . 118 
Tempering rock drills in crude oil . . 120 

Tempering small punches 171 

Tempering small spiral springs. . . . 120 
Tempering swords and cutlasses . . . 123 

Tempering special tools 118 

Tempering solutions 124 

Tempering thin articles 122 

Tempering wood planer knives 122 

Temperatures at which solids melt 124 
Temperatures tell-tales for use in 

hardening steel 159 

Tendency to crack 97 

Tendency to refine 103 

Tendency of steel to crack around 

the holes 166 

Tenons soft for riveting to harden 

rods leaving 132 

Test made at the Government test- 
ing bureau 182 

Testing the chain to insure proper 

length 49 

Testing for hardness with a file... 24 

Testing for hardness 24 

Testing for heat 103 

Testing for toughness 24 

Testing for trueness 103 

Testing steel, economy in before 

using 25 

Testing tool steel 23 

Tests of steel ttnder repeated 

stresses 182 

Texture restored by hammering or 

rolling 175 

That have warped, straightened 

hardened pieces 157 

The annealing of tap steel 41 

The annealing of malleable cast- 
ings and the manufacture of 
malleable iron machine parts. 44 

The acme standard thread 222 

The amount of force exerted In ex- 
pansion and contraction 33 

The best steel for tools 23 

The bath 96 to 135 

The castings, the foundry and prep- 
aration of 44 

The difference, tough steel and hard 

steel 93 

The eflPect of slow heating and tem- 
pering 119 

The effect of water annealing 40 

The emery wheel used as a metal 

slitting saw 249 

The first effect of heat 31 

The foundry and preparation of the 

castings 44 

The grain of steel 23 

The hardeninor and tempering of 

Eress tools 162 
ardening fire and the heat ... 99 



INDEX. 



2^7 



The hardening of long slender 

tools 103 

The heating and cooling of steel ... 50 

The location of the heating furnace 52 

The proper heat for annealing.... 37 

The slender tools, hardening long. . 103 

The second effect of heat 34 

The terms defined 3B 

The treatment and working of well 

known brands of tool steel ... 18 
The treatment of hign-carbon steels 15 
The Taylor- White process for treat- 
ing steel 113 

The use of clay in hardening 110 

The use of gas blast furnaces and 

heating machine 53 

The use of machine steel for press 

tools 129 

The work, how to dump 135 

Their cause, crack in dies 167 

Their use of emery wheels 266 

Their use, gas blast forges 54 

Thick cast iron plates 159 

Thick round dies, hardening 172 

Thick scale results from high tem- 
perature 22 

Thin and delicate parts, hardening. 104 
Thin edges and exposed parts, heat- 
ing the 18 

Thin parts, hardening small parts 

and long 104 

Thread dies, hardening and temper- 
ing round Ill 

Thread parts, table of 222 

Thrust bearing rings, hardening 

five-inch 131 

Time required to machine a given 

surface 30 

Time saved 24 

Tinning acid, improved soldering 

and 1»6 

Tires, fastening to wheels 33 

To anneal doubtful steel 43 

To a blue, to draw small steel parts 161 

To blue steel without heating 179 

To caseharden without colors 130 

To caseharden small iron parts. . . . 141 

To caseharden with charcoal 141 

To caseharden cast iron 195 

To distinguish wrought iron and 

cast iron from steel 197 

To draw small steel parts to a blue 161 

To distinguish the grades 23 

To heat and cool steel properly .... 50 
To make edge tools from cast steel 

and iron 1 83 

To produce fine grain casehardened 

machine steel parts 139 

To prevent rust 1^6 

To remove scale from steel 206 

To temper gravers 1^0 

To temoer old flies 160 

To weld cast iron 183 

To weld buggy springs 184 

Too high welding hoat 14 

Tool facilities not up-to-date 11 ;5 

Tool holders and tools, their use. 28, 29 

Tool holders and tools 25 

Tool steel, testing • • 23 

Tool steel, the treatment and work- 
ing of well-known brands of.. 18 

Tools carrying a cutting edge 18 

Tools circular forming 203 

Tools, or parts with fine projections 108 
Tools used for bending and form- 
ing 130 

Tools, the best steel for 23 

Tools, working steel for 159 

Tools, tool holders and 25 

Tough steel and hard steel, the dif- 
ference ®3 



Tougher effect to steel than bone . . 130 

Toughness, testing for 24 

Tracy, Mr. B. F 178 

Trays, heating machine with revolv- 
ing 71 

Treatment, air-hardening steel 21 

Treatment, annealed die and tool 

steel 21 

Treatment of high-speed self-hard- 
ening steels 20 

Treating steel, Taylor-White pro- 
cess for 113 

Tremendous strains 177 

Trimming dies 190 

Tumbling Instead of pickling drop 

forglngs 191 

Turn the bulge out 103 

Twirling around rapidly 146 

Twist drills, grinding 202 

Twisting of long tools In harden- 
ing 158 

Two cooling surfaces 180 

Two ways of making a forging hoi- 
low 179 

Types of milling centers 145 



U 

Understood, casehardening as it 
should be 

Unequal expansion 

Uneven contraction provided for. . . 

Uneven heating, distortion through 

Uniform hardness and temper 

Uniformity of results attained .... 

United States Government 

United States War Department. . . . 

United States weights and measures 

United States measures of lengths. 

United States measures of surface. 

United States measures of volume. 

United States measures of weights. 

Universal adoption of the ther- 
mometer test 

Unnecessary expense in testing 
steel 

Upward flow of water through 
article 

Use for which forging are intended 

Use of milling cutters 

TTse of various kinds of baths 

losing a punch and die which are 
both hard 

T'sing a small narrow broach 

losing a soft punch and a hard die 

Using, economy in testing steel be- 
fore 

Using scrap steel for malleable iron 

Using the tell-tale 

Usual methods of hardening air- 
hardening steel 



Vapors generated in the bath 

Variation from a vertical position . . 

Variation of carbon, effects of .... 

Various defects in ingots 

Very deep casehardening 

Very little external heat required 
to draw it 

Vessels of proper wiath 

Very small piercing punches, hard- 
ening 

Very small punches, hardening.... 

Vitrified emery wheel 

W 

Walter A. Wood Mowing and Reap- 
ing Machine Company 



142 

168 
95 
106 
114 
23 
108 
217 
217 
217 
217 
217 

117 

24 

112 

191 

154 

96 

163 
112 
163 

24 

48 

134 

113 



154 
109 
114 
180 
140 

151 
123 

171 
171 
265 



44 



288 



INDEX. 



Warming the work up to a blue. . . 1T>3 
Warped, straightening pieces which 

have 121 

Warping, hardening a long punch 

so as to prevent 165 

Warping, hardening very thin tools 

so as to prevent 158 

Warping of long punches in harden- 
ing 171 

Warping, of long tools in harden- 
ing 171 

Warping, the weaker parts 101 

Washington 178 

Water and oil, hardening and tem- 
pering milling cutters in 147 

Water, annealing 39 

Water, cuts, lubricant for 196 

Water for cooling 101 

Water, kept at a boiling point.... 168 
Weights and areas of round, square 

and hexagon steel 212, 213 

Weights, measure of 211 

Weight of cast iron, wrought iron, 

steel, copper and bronze 207 

Weights of iron and steel sheets. . . 214 
Weights of square and round bars 

of wrought iron 215 

Weights and measures, United 

States 217 

Weld which will not buckle or sepa- 
rate in hardening 163 

Welding composition for cast steel. . 183 

Welding cast iron 183 

Welding, flux for soldering and... 187 

Welding heats 175 

Welding heat for steel should be 

higher than that for iron.... 175 
Welding powder for iron and steel. 183 
Welding steel to steel or steel to 

iron 175 

Wetting the fracture 23 

Wheels, approximate speeds for 

emery and polishing 267 

When a muffle is used 164 

When hardening, dipping fluted 

reamers 157 



When hardening, dipping half 

round or "gun" reamers 105 

When hardening, dipping small 

tools 156 

When the proper heat has been 

reached 1 53 

When worn, increasing the size of 

the reamer 195 

Whitworth, Sir Joseph 178 

Why special instructions are given. Ill 

Williams & Co., J. H 180 

Wilson, Prof. E 197 

Without colors, to caseharden 130 

Without heating, to blue steel 197 

"Woodworker" 122 

Work, cleaning the 135 

Work, combination gas furnace for 

general machine shop 54 

Work, hardening draw-bridge disc 

and similar 131 

Work, laying out " 196 

Work, packing and heating the.... 129 

Work, preparation of the 134 

Work, packing the 45 

Work, to dump the 135 

Work, to pack the 134 

Work with deep recesses 93 

Working and hardening, suitable 

temperature of annealing, 

table of 127 

Working Capital steel 21 

Working up and down rapidly .... 154 

Working steel for tools 150 

World's Fair, Chicago 181 

Worry, vexation and poor work. . . . 17(J 

Wrencnes, drop forged 180 

Wrong, to apply the term "temper," 

when it is 117 

Wrought iron for crossheads, and 

crank pins 181 

Z 

Zinc, solder for 187 

Zinc, to color or coat 206 




HardeDiiig and Annealing Oven. 



Oil Tempering Fnmace, 



TtlE STANDARD HEATING TOOLS 

OF THE WORLn ARK THE 

GAS BLAST FURNACES" 




"HEATING MACHINES" 



Hardening, Tempering, Annealing, and all other 
Mechanical Heating Processes. 



I 



MADE By 

ANER.ICAN GAS FVRNACE CO, 

25 John Street. New York 



SEND FOR CATALOnu 



I 



If You're a Good Guesser 



I 



aud liaven'l aaything else to do yon may be able 
to get right resolts from the old coke or coal 
furnace. Even then, you could malte a lot more 
money giieesuig about Boinettaing else. Every 
wrong gnesB cats into tbe profita on the right ones, 
and there will he wrong ones —yon can't help i t. 



GAe Stewart Ga-s FurivaLce 




Bobatitntes certainty for guesB work. A certain 
manipulation of ita Talves will give yon a certain 
resTilt every time. Yoo can depend npon it. It 
puts a short atop to the wasting of good steel, 
throagh overhenting, and the further waste of 
time in doing the work over again. Try a No, 1 
Stewart Furnace for thirty days, then send as 
tlie Furnace or a Check for $85.00, whichever 
yon'd rather. 



Don't Forget we Make Various Sizes 
and Styles, and wl I send you 
a CaUlog for the asking 



I 



e«^ 9^ 



ChicaLgo Flexible Shaft Co. 

120 La. Salle Avenue, Chicago. 111. 



-^. 



^^f^