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Full text of "History, gazetteer and directory of the County of Devon including the City of Exeter, and comprising a general survey of the County and separate historical, statistical and topographical descriptions of all the hundreds, unions, parishes, townships, chapelries, towns, ports, villages - hamlets"

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OF    THE    COUNTY    OF 



THE     CITY     OF     EXETER,  , 


d^eneral  ^urtjep  of  t\^t  Count? 












HAMFfcHiRF,  Leicestershire,  Rutland,  Lincolnshire,  Norfolk,  Suffolk,  Essex,  and  other  counties. 

PFdCE— CLOTH,    065.;    HALF-BOUND,   405. 

WILLIAM     WHITE,     18     &     20     BANK     STREET. 







P  K  E  F  A  C  E. 

The  Editor,  in  issuing  the  Second  Edition  of  *  White's  History,  Gazetteer  and  Directory 
OF  THE  County  of  Devon,'  has  to  acknowledge  the  kindness  shown  by  the  Nobility,  Clergy  and 
Gentry  of  the  County,  In  revising  the  articles  on  the  places  of  their  residence,  in  sending  replies 
to  the  Schedules  of  Queries  submitted  to  them,  and  in  correcting  Authors'  Proofs.  His  thanks 
are  specially  due  to  the  writers  of  the  County  Scientific  Essays,  some  of  whom  have  written  similar 
papers  in  White's  Histories  and  Gazetteers  of  other  Counties,  viz. :  Townshend  M.  Hall,  Esq., 
F.G.S.,  of  Pilton,  on  *  Geology ',,  (page  58),  and  'Mines  and  Mining'  (page  75);  James  Britten, 
Esq.,  F.L.S.,  of  the  British  Museum,  on  'Botany'  (page  54);  and  N.  A.  Humphreys,  Esq.,  of 
Somerset  House,  London,  on  'Vital  Statistics'  (page  78).  He  is  also  indebted  to  Chas.  Worthy, 
Esq.,  late  H.M.  82nd  Regiment,  Author  of '  Devonshire  Parishes  *  and  other  works,  for  his  assistance 
in  revising  the  general  History  and  Description  of  the  County  and  of  the  City  of  Exeter. 

The  Editor  has  also  to  express  his  obligations  to  his  numerous  patrons,  who,  from  their 
knowledge  of  the  value  of  the  First  Edition  of  'White's  Devonshire,'  have  had  sufficient  faith 
to  believe  that  the  present  one  would,  at  any  rate,  be  equal  to  its  predecessor.  He  believes  that 
the  increase  of  the  size  of  the  work  (a  greater  increase  than  he  had  anticipated),  the  valuable 
articles  upon  scientific  subjects  already  referred  to,  the  improved  classification  and  arrangement  of 
the  Hundreds,  Parishes,  &c.,  the  carefully  compiled  Indexes,  the  Streets  Directory  of  Exeter  (a 
new  feature),  and  the  Trades  Directory  at  the  close  of  the  book  (another  new  feature),  will  more 
than  answer  their  expectations. 

As  he  hopes  at  some  future  time  to  publish  a  Third  Edition,  he  will  be  happy  to  receive  any 
suggestions  which  may  occur  to  those  who  peruse  the  present  work ;  and  as  every  possible  care  baa 
been  taken  to  avoid  errors  (even  at  the  expense  of  delay),  he  trusts  that  the  volume  will  be  found 
as  free  from  inaccuracies  as  is  compatible  with  the  vast  amount  of  information  and  the  great  variety 
of  subjects  comprised  within  its  pages* 

U)^  U>^aXAI. 

December  1878. 




N.B.    The  post  town  is  appended  to  each  place. 

Abbey,  Axmlnster,  116 

Abbots  Bickington,  Braudis  Corner,  99 

Abbotsham,  Bideford  and  "Westward 

Ho!  99 
Abbot's  Hill,  Beaford,  143 
Abbotskerswell,  Newton  Abbot,  100 
Addiscott,  Okehampton,  727 
Aish,  Ivy  bridge,  717 
Alfardisworthy,  Holsworthy,  172 
Allaleigh,  Totnes,  240 
AUer,  Newton  Abbot,  100 
AUer  (North),  South  Molton,  720 
Allington  (East),  Totnes,  308 
Allington  (South),  Kings  bridge,  214 
Alphington,  Exeter,  100 
Alphington,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  585 
Alscott,  Barnstaple  and  Bideford,  101 
Alston  (Beer),  Roborough,  144 
Alswere  (or  Alswear),  S.  Molton,  538 
Alverdiscott,  Barnstaple  and  Bideford, 

Alvington  (West),  Kingsbridge,  840 
Aldington,  Bideford,  102 
Annemouth,  Kingsbridge,  778 
Annery  Kiln,  Torrington,  550 
Anstey  (East),  Dulverton,  309 
Anstey  (West),  Tiverton,  841 
Anstey's  Cove,  Torquay,  686 
Appledore,  Wellington,  204 
Appledore,  East  and  West,  102 
Aptor,  Newton  Abbot,  502 
Aptor,  Totnes,  539 
Arlington,  Barnstaple,  104 

Ash,  Axminster,  555 

Ash,  Tiverton,  462 
Ash,  Totnes,  734 

Ash,  Bideford,  595 

Ash,  Dartmouth,  733 

Ash  (King's),  Chulmleigh,  1 1 2 

Ash  burton,  104 

Ashbury,  Exbourne,  110 

Ashcombe,  Dawlish,  110 

Ashculm,  Wellington  (Somerset),  471 

Ashford,  Barnstaple,.  Ill 

Ashford,  Kingsbridge  &Ivybridge,l  14 

Ashford  (West),  Barnstaple,  471 

Ashill,  CuUompton,  829 

Ashley,  Tiverton,  779 

Ash  Mill,  South  Molton,  160 

Ashprington,  Totnes,  111 

Ashreigny,  Chulmleigh,  112 

Ashton  (Higher  and  Lower),  Newton 
Abbot,  112 

Ashwater,  Lifton,  113 

Ashwell,  Teignmoath  and  Chudleigh, 
162,  531 

Atherington,  Barnstaple,  114 

Aveton  Grifford,  Kingsbridge  and  Ivy 

bridge,  114 
Avon  Wick,  Ugborough,  572,  831 
Awliscombe   (or  Awlescombe),  Hon- 

iton,  115 
Axminster,  116 
Axminster  Hundred,  87 
Axminster  Town,  Axminster,  116 
Axmouth,  Axminster,  121 
Aylesbeare,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  122 
Ayshford,  Wellington,  204 
Babbicombe,  Torquay,  686,  689 
Bagtor,  Newton  Abbot,  500 
Bampton,  Tiverton,  123 
Bampton  Hundred,  87 
Banbury,  Exeter,  174 
Bantham,  Kingsbridge,  778 
Barbrook,  Barnstaple,  534 
Barnstaple,  125 

Barrowhill,  Wellington  (Somerset)  471 
Barton,  Torquay,  686 
Batson,  Kingsbridge,  536 
Bawcombe,  Kingsbridge,  840 
Beacon,  Honiton,  529 
Beacon  Hill,  South  Molton,  682 
Beaford,  143 

Beam,  Great  Torrington,  456 
Beara,  Lifton,  524 
Bearscombe,  Mounts,  R.S.O.  201 
Beaworthy,  Exbourne,  143 
Beccott,  Barnsbxple,  104 
Becky  Falls,  Moretonhampstead,  537 
Bedford,  Tavistock,  763 
Beer,  Axminster,  700 
Beer,  Exeter,  189 
Beer  Alston,  Eoborough,  144 
Beerferris    (or     Bereferrers),     Robo- 
rough, 144 
Beerhall,  Axminster,  116 
Beertown,  Roborough,  144 
Beesands,  Kingsbridge,  736 
Beesou,  Kingsbridge,  736 
Bellamarsh,  Chudleigh   517 
Belston  (or  Belstone),Okehampton,145 
Ben-Twitchen,  South  Molton,  574 
Berrynarbor,  Ilfracombe,  146 
Berry  Pomeroy,  Totnes,  147 
Bicaton,  Totnes,  191 
Bickerton,  Kingsbridge,  736 
Bickham,  Exeter,  605 
Bickington,  Fremington,  451 
Bickington,  Newton  Abbot,  148 
Bickington  (Abbots),  Brandis  Cornerj 

Bickington  (High),  Chulmleigh,  473 
Bickleigh  Plymouth,  149 
Bickleigh,  Tiverton,  148 

j  Bicton,  Budleigh  Salterton,  149 
Biddacott,  South  Molton,  213 
Bideford,  150 
Bidlake,  Bridestowe,  179 
Bigbury,  Aveton  Gilford,  158 
Billacott,  Launceston,  576 
Bilsford,  Bideford,  197 
Bish  Mill,  South  Molton,  160 
Bishop's  Clist,  Exeter,  728 
Bishop's  Mill,  South  Molton,  160 
Bishop's  Morchard,  159 
Bishop's  Nympton,  South  Molton,  160 
Bishop's  Tawton,  Barnstaple,  161 
Bishop's  Teignton,  Teignmouih,  162 
Bittadon,  Barnstaple,  163 
Bittaford,  Ivy  bridge,  831 
Blackawton  (or  Blackauton),  Totnes, 

Blackborough,  CuUompton,  165 
Blackbury,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  229 
Black  Dog,  Exeter,  189 
Black  Dog  (Higher  and  Lower),  Pud- 

dingtoa,  837 
Blackdown,  Ashburton,  849 
Blackdown  Hill,  Kingsbridge,  527 
Blackpool,  Dartmouth,  733 
Blackslade,  Ashburton,  849 
Black  Torrington,  Highampton,  165 
Black  Torrington  Hundred,  87 
Blagdon,  Paignton,  590 
Bodley,  Barnstaple,  595 
Bolbury,  Kingsbridge,  536 
Bolesbridge,  Launceston,  576 
Bolham,  Tiverton,  779 
Bondleigh,  North  Tawton,  166 
Boode,  Barnstaple,  176 
Boohay,  Brixham,  181 
Bolestone,  Totnes,  163 
Borough  Farm,  Barnstaple,  102 
Borough  Island,  Aveton  Gilford,  158 
Bosom  Zeal,  Totnes,  301 
Bovey  (Little),  Newton  Abbot,  166 
Bovey  (North),  Moretonhampstead,571 
Bovey  Tracey  (or  South  Bovev),  New- 
ton Abbot,  166 
Bovi  Sand,  Plymouth,  670 
Bow,  Exeter,  168 
Bowood  (or  Bowd),  Ottery  St.  Mary, 

Boyton  (part  of),  Launceston,  572 
Bradfield,  CuUompton,  829 
Bradford    (or    Bradford    Dabernon), 

Brandis  Corner,  169 
Bradiford,  Barnst.aple,  598 
Bradninch,  CuUompton,  170 
Bradstone,  Tavistock,  172 
Brad  well  Mill,  Ilfracombe,  843 

Index  of"  Places. 

Brad  worthy,  Hols  worthy,  172 
Brampford  Speke,  Exoter,  173 
Brandis  Corner,  170 
Hranscumbe,  Sidmouth,  174 
Bratton  Clovi^lly,  h^xoter,  174 
Bratton  Fleming,  Barnstaple,  175 
Braunton,  Barnstaple,  176 
Braunton  Hundred,  88 
Bray  (High),  South  Molton,  474 
Bray  (High),  South  Molton,  720 
Brayford,  South  Molton,  209,  474 
Bremridgo,  South  Molton,  720 
Brendon,  Barnstaple  &  Lynton,  178 
Brent  Mill,  Ivy  bridge,  717 
Brent  (South),  Ivybridge,  717 
Brent  Tor  (or  Brentor),  Lew  Down 

and  Bridestowo,  179 
Brentor  (North),  Bridestow,  520 
BridestoAve  (or  Bridestow),  179 
Bridford,  Exeter,  180 
Bridgend,  Ivybridge,  567,  679 
Bridgerule  (E.  &  W.),  Holsvvorthy,  181 
Bridgetown,  Launceston,  840 
Bridgetown,  Totnes,  147,  819 
Brightley,  Okehampton,  580 
Brightley,  South  Molton,  213 
Brimley  (Higher),  Newton  Abbot,  499 
Brimley  (Lower),  Newton  Abbot,  166 
Brisworthy,  Horrabridge,  542 
Brithembottom,  Tiverton,  462 
Brixliam  (Upper  &  Lower),  181 
Brixton,  Plympton,  188 
Broadclyst  (or  Clist),  Exeter,  189 
Broadhembury,  Honiton,  191 
Broadhempston,  Totnes,  191 
Broad  Nymet,  Bow,  192 
Broadwood-Kelly,  "Winkleigb,  192 
Broadwood  Widger  (or  Wiger),  Lif- 

ton,  193 
Brockscombe,  Exeter,  174 
Brooking,  Totnes,  254 
Brownston,  Modbury,  546 
Brushford,  Wemb worthy,  194 
Buekerel  3,Honiton,  194 
Buckfast,  Buckfastleigh,  194 
Buckfastleigh,  194 
Buckland,  Kingsbridge,  778 
Buckland-Brewer,  Bideford,  197 
Buckland  (East),  South  Molton,  309 
Buckland  (Egg),  Plymouth,  313 
Bu.ckland  Filleigh,  Highampton,  198 
Buckland-in-the-  Moor,  Ashburton,  200 
Buckland  Monachorum,  Horrabridge, 

Buckland  (North),  Barnstaple,  453 
Buckland-Tout-Saints  (or  All  Saints'), 

Mounts,  E.S.O.,  201 
Buckland  (West),  South  Molton,  842 
Bucknoll,  Honiton,  573 
Bucks  Cross,  Bideford,  858 
Bucks  Mill,  Bideford,  595 
Budeaux  (St.),  Plymouth,  683 
Budlake,  Exeter,  189 
Budleigh  (E.),  Budleigh  Salterton,310 
Bndleigh  (East)  Hundred,  90 
Budleigh  Salterton,  Exmouth,  201 
Budleigh  (W.-st)  Hundred,  97 
Bigford,  Dartmouth,  733 
Bulkworthy,  Brandis  Corner,  203 
Bullen  (High),  Torrington,  685 
Bullworthy,  Barnstaple,  101 
Bundleigh,  North  Tawton,  166 
Burlescombe,  "Wellington  (Somerset), 


Burraton  (Higher  and  Lower),  Exeter, 

Burr  Island,  Aveton  Gifford,  158 

Burrington,  Chulmleigh,  205 

Burrow,  Exeter,  174 

Burrow,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  466 

Burrows,  "Winkleigh,  551 

Burstone,  Bow,  862 

Butterloigh,  Cullompton,  205 

Butterleigh  (East),  Cullompton,  250 

Bystoek,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  229 

Cadbury,  Tiverton,  206 

Cadeleigh,  Tiverton,  206 

Cadhay,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  585 

Calverleigh,  Tiverton,  207 

Campscott,  Ilfracombe,  492 

Cannon  Fee,  Crediton,  242 

Canon  Teign,  Dunsford,  215 

Capton,  Totnes,  301 

Carswell,  Honiton,  191 

Carswell  (Abbots),  Newton  Abbot,  100 

Carswell  (King's),  Newton  Abbot,  515 

Castleford,  Newton  Abbot,  502 

Castle  Hill,  South  Molton,  450 

Caton,  Modbury,  546 

Cator,  Ashburton,  849 

Chaddlehanger,  Tavistock,  520 

Chagford,  Exeter,  207 

Challaborough,  Aveton  Gifford,  680 

Challaeombe,  Barnstaple,  209 

Chapeltown,  Barnstaple,  764 

Chappie,  Chagford,  454 

Charford,  Ivybridge,  717 

Charles,  Plymouth,  608,  611 

Charles,  South  Molton,  209 

Charleton  (East  and  West),  Kings- 
bridge,  210 

Chasty,  Holsworthy,  479 

Chawleigh,  Chulmleigh,  210 

Chederleigh,  Tiverton,  148 

Cheglinch,  Ilfracombe,  843 

Cheldon,  Chulmleigh,  211 

Chelson  Meadow,  Plymouth,  666,  670 

Chelston,  Torquay,  228 

Chelsworthy,  Holsworthy,  479 

Cheristow,  Bideford,  467 

Cheriton,  Barnstaple  &  Lynton,  178 

Cheriton,  Exeter,  596 

Cheritcn  Bishop  (or  South  Cheriton), 
Dunsford,  211 

Cheriton  Cross,  Dunsford,  211 

Cheriton  Fitzpaine,  Crediton,  212 

Cherryford,  Barnstaple,  540 

Cheston,  Ivybridge,  831 

Chettiscombe,  Tiverton,  779 

Cheverstone,  Exeter,  508 

Chevithorne,  Tiverton,  779 

Chicecott,  Okehampton,  580 

Chieflowman,  Tiverton,  462 

Chilla  (East&  West),  Highampton,  1 65 

Chillaton,  Tavistock,  545 

Chillington,  Kingsbridge,  736,  737 

Chilsworthy,  Holsworthy,  479 

Chittleham  Holt,  South  Molton,  213 

-Chittlehampton,  South  Molton,  213 

Chivelstone,  Kingsbridge,  214 

Chivenor,  Barnstaple,  471 

Cholwell,  Levi'  Down,  541 

Christow,  Dunsford,  215 

Chudleigh,  Newton  Abbot,  216 

Chudleigh  Knighton,  Newton  Abbot, 

Chulmleigh,  218 

Church  Hill,  Exeter,  189 

Churchill,  Barnstaple,  311 

Churchinford,  Honiton,  221 

Church  Stanton  (or  Staunton),  Honi- 
ton, 220 

Churchstow,  Kingsbridge,  221 

Churscombe,  Totnes,  539 

Churston  Ferrers,  Brixham,  222 

Clanaborough     (or    Clannaborough), 
Bow,  223 

Clapworthy  Mill,  South  Molton,  720 

Clare  Quarter,  Tiverton,  779 

Clawton,  Holsworthy,  223 

Clayhanger  (or  Cley hanger),  Bampton, 

Clayhidon  (or  Clayhedon),  Welling- 
ton (Somerset),  224 

Clifft,  Bideford,  838 

Clifton,  Barnstaple,  311 

Clist  (Bishop's),  Exeter,  728 

Clist  (Broad),  Exeter,  189 

Clist  Champernowne,  Topsham,  226 

Clist  Fomison,  Exeter,  728 

Clist  Honiton,  Exeter,  225 

Clist  Hydon  (or  Clysthydon),  Exeter, 

Clist  St.  George,  Topsham,  226 

Clist  St.  Lawrence,  Whimple,  227 

Clist  St.  Mary,  Exeter,  227 

Clist  Satchfield  (or  Satchville), Exeter," 
448,  728 

Cliston  Hundred,  88 

Clovelly  (or  Clovelleigh),  Bidefrd.  227 

Clyst  (see  Clist) 

Cobbaton,  Barnstaple,  750 

Cobdon,  Exeter,  846 

Cockington,  Torquay,  228 

Cockwood,  Dawlish,  229,  264 

Coffinswell,  Newton  Abbot,  229 

Cofford,  Exeter,  508 

Cofton,  Dawlish,  229,  265 

Colaton  Haleigh,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  229 

Colcombe,  Axminster,  232 

Cold  East,  Newton  Abbot,  499 

Coldridge,  Wemb  worthy,  231 

Colebrook,  Plympton  St.  Mary,  665 

Colebrooke,  Cullompton,  250 

Colebrooke,  Exeter,  230 

Coleford,  Exeter,  230 

Coleridge,  Wembworthy,  231 

Coleridge  Hundred,  89 

Colestocks,  Honiton,  449 

Collaton,  Honiton,  191 

Collaton,  Kingsbridge,  536 

Collaton,  Torquay,  688 

Collaton-Kirkham,  Paignton,  590 

Collaven,  Bridestowe,  716 

Collumpton,  250 

Colscot,  Brandis  Corner,  844 

Colyford,  Axminster,  231 

Colyton,  Axminster,  231 

Colyton  Hundred,  89 

Colyton  Kaleigh,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  229 

Comb  Eawleigh,  Honiton,  236 

Combe  Ball,  Bridestowe,  179 

Combe,  Kingsbridge,  536 

Combe  (East),  Barnstaple,  764 

Combe  Fishacre,  Newton  Abbot,  502 

Combe-in-Teign-Head,     Teignmouth, 

Combe  Martin,  Barnstaple,  234 

Combe  (Owl's)  Honiton,  115 

Combe  (or  Coombe)  Pafford,  Torquay, 

Combe  Pyne,  Axminster,  235 

Index  of  3?laces. 

Combe  Kaleigh,  Iloniton,  236 

Combe  (West),  Barnstaple,  764 

Combmartin,  Barnstaple,  234 

Comelake,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  585 

Compton,  Totnes,  539 

Compton  Gifford,  Plymouth,  236 

Compton  Pool,  Totnes,  539 

Cookbury,  Brandis  Corner,  238 

Cookworthy  (High),  Lifton,  524 

Coomb  Pyne  (or  Coompyne),  Axmin- 
ster,  235 

Coombe,  Kingsbridge,  536 

Coombe,  Plympton,  188 

Coombe,  Teignmouth,  162 

Coombe  Fishacre,  Nowton  Abbot,  502 

Coplestone,  Exeter  and  Crediton,  230, 

Cornborough,  Kingsbridge,  736 

Cornwood,  Ivybridge,  239 

Comworthy,  Totnes,  240 

Corscombe,  Honiton,  449 

Coryton,  Lew  Down,  240 

Cotleigh,  Honiton,  241 

Cotley,  Exeter,  307 

Cott,  Highampton,  702 

Cotton,  Tiverton,  250 

Coiintesbiiry  (or  Countisbury)  Barn- 
staple &  Lynton,  241 
•Countess  Weir    (or  Wear),   Exeter, 
242,  792 

Cove,  Tiverton,  779 

Cowick,  Exeter,  320,  335 

Cowley,  Exeter,  173 

Craddock,  Cullompton,  829 

Craze-Loman,  Tiverton,  779 

Creacombe,  Ermington,  476 

Creacombe,  Witheridge,  242 

Crediton,  242 

Crediton  Hundred,  89 

Crockerntor,  39 

Crockernwell,  Dunsford  &  Chagford, 
211,  305 

Croscombe,  Sampford  Courtenay,  695 

Cross,  Ivybridge,  239 

Croyde,  Barnstaple,  453 

Cruwys-Morchard,  Tiverton,  249 

Cudlipptown,  Tavistock,  753 

Cullompton  (or  Cullumpton),  250 

Culmdavey, Wellington  (Somerset), 47 1 

Culmstock,  Wellington  (Somerset),  253 

Daccombe,  Newton  Abbot,  229 

Daignton,  Newton  Abbot,  502 

Dalwood,  Honiton,  254 

Damage,  Ilfracombe,  492 

Darracott,  Barnstaple,  453 

Dartington,  Totnes,  254 

Dartmoor  Forest,  49 

Dartmoor  Forest  Quarter,  531 

Dartmouth,  255 

David's  (St.),  Exeter,  320 

Dawlish,  264 

Dawlish  Water,  Dawlish,  265 

Dean,  Ilfracombe,  843 

Dean  Church  Town,Buckfastleigii,  268 

Dean  Prior,  Buckfastleigh,  268 

Dean  Town,  Buckfastleigh,  268 

Denbury,  Newton  Abbot,  269 

Denworthy,  Holsworthy,  172 

Derriton,  Holsworthy,  677 

Devonport  History,  269,  600;  Direc- 
tory, 278 

Dexbeer,  Holsworthy,  594 

Dinaton,  Ivybridge,  239 

Dipperton,  Lew  Down,  541 

Diptford,  Ugborough,  301 
Dishcombe,  Okehampton,  727 
Dittisham,  Totnes,  301 
Doccombe,  Moretonhampstead,  552 
Dodbrooke,  Totnes,  302,  512 
Doddiscombsleigh,  Exeter,  303 
Dodscott,  Torrington,  685 
Dolton,  Eggesford  Station,  303 
Dotton  (or  Doniton),  Ottery  St.  Mary, 

Dowland,  Dolton,  304 
Dowlton,  Eggesford  Station,  303 
Down  (East),  Barnstaple,  311 
Down  (East),  Totnes,  163 
Down  St.  Mary,  Bow,  304 
Downthomas,  Plymouth,  838 
Down  (West),  Ilfracombe,  843 
Drewsteignton,  Chagford,  305 
Dritton,  Totnes,  163 
Dulford,  Honiton,  191 
Dunchideock,  Exeter,  306 
Dunkeswell,  Honiton,  306 
Dunkeswell  Abbey,  Honiton,  307 
Dunsford,  Exeter,  307 
Dunstone,  Kingsbridge,  736 
Dunstone,  Ashburton,  849 
Dunstone,  Plympton,  860 
Dunterton,  Tavistock,  308 
East  Allington,  Totnes,  308 
East  Anstey,  Dulverton,  309 
East  Appledore,  Appledore,  103 
East  Bridgerule,  Holsworthy,  181 
East  Buckland,  South  Molton,  309 
East  Budleigh,  Budleigh  Salterton,  310 
East  Budleigh  Hundred,  90 
East  Butterleigh,  Cullompton,  250 
East  Charleton,  Kingsbridge,  210 
East  Chilla,  Highampton,  1 65 
East  Combe,  Barnstaple,  764 
East  Comworthy,  Totnes,  240 
East  Down,  Barnstaple,  311 
East  Down,  Totnes,  1 63 
East  Goldsworthy,  Bideford,  595 
EastKnowstone,Morchard  Bishop,  519 
East  Leigh,  Bideford,  844 
East  Leigh-Betsford,  Totnes,  464 
East  Mere,  Tiverton,  779 
East  Ogwell,  Newton  Abbot,  312 
East  Portlemouth,  Kingsbridge,  673 
East  Prawle,  Kingsbridge,  214 
East  Putford,  Brandis  Corner,  312 
East  Sandford,  Exeter,  697 
East  Stonehouse,  600,  738 
East  Teignmouth,  767 
East  Town,  Dawlish,  264 
East  Town,  Exeter,  508 
East  Wonford,  Brandis  Corner,  545 
East  Wonford,  Exeter,  319 
EastWorlington,Morchard  Bishop,  312 
Eastacombe,  Barnstaple,  114 
Eastacott,  Tavistock,  308 
Eastdon,  Dawlish,  229 
Eastington,  Morchard  Bishop,  523 
Easton,  Kingsbridge,  840 
Ebberley,  Torrington,  680 
Ebford,  Exeter,  855 
Eccombe,  Honiton,  221 
Eddystone,  Bideford,  467 
Eddystone  Lighthouse,  605 
Edgcumbe,  Tavistock,  545 
Edgin swell,  Torquay,  686 
Egg  Buckland,  Plymouth,  313 
Eggesford,  Wembworthy,  314 
Eke  worthy,  Bideford,  197 

Elburton,  Plymouth,  670 

Elmscott,  Bideford,  467 

Elston,  Chulmleigh,  218 

Embridge,  Dartmouth,  733 

Englebourne  (Gt.  &  Lit.),  Totnes,  464 

Ermington,  Ivybridge,  315 

Ermington  Hundred,  90 

Escot,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  751 

Estacott,  Ilfracombe,  554 

Exbourne,  316 

Exbridge,  Tiverton,  551 

Exe  (Nether),  Exeter,  556 

Exe  Island,  Exeter,  324 

Exe  (Up),  Exeter,  679 

Exeter  History,  316 ;  Street  Directory, 

368  ;  Alphabetical  Directory,  399 
Exminster,  Exeter,  439 
Exminster  Hundred,  91 
Exmouth,  440 
Exton,  Exeter,  855 
Exwick,  Exeter,  345,  376 
Fairmile,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  751 
Fairway,  Honiton,  449 
Fairy  Cross,  Bideford,  102 
Fardell,  Ivybridge,  239 
Faringdon   (or   Farringdon),  Exeter, 

Farway,  Honiton,  449 
Farwood,  Axminster,  231 
Fatherford  (Lower),  Okehampton,  580 
Feniton  (or  Fenyton),  Honiton,  449 
Fen  Ottery,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  835 
Fernhill,  Ashburton,  849 
Fern  worthy,  Bridestowe,  179 
Filham  (North  &  South),  Ivybdge,  831 
Filleigh,  South  Molton,  450 
Five  Lanes,  Totnes,  539 
Flitton,  South  Molton,  574 
Fluxton,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  585 
Foghanger,  Tavistock,  645 
Ford,  Bideford,  102 
Ford,  Dartmouth,  255 
Ford,  Devonport,  600 ;  Directory,  294 
Ford,  Ermington,  476 
Ford,  Exeter,  568 
Ford,  Kingsbridge,  214 
Ford  Beaston,  Totnes.  191 
Fordsr,  Chagford,  454 
Freeland,  Moreton  Hampstead,  537 
Fremington,  451 
Fremington  Hundred,  91 
Freynstone,  South  Molton,  720 
Frithelstock,  Torrington,  452 
Frith elstock  Stone,  Torrington,  452 
Frogmoor  (or  Frogmore),  Kingsbridge, 

210,  704,  705 
Frost,  Bishop's  Morchard,  159 
Fulford,  Okehampton,  727 
Fulford  (Little),  Crediton,  706 
Furley,  Chard,  543 
Gabber,  Plymouth,  839 
Gabwell,  Teignmouth,  735 
Galmpton,  Brixham,  222 
Galmpton,  Kingsbridge,  718 
Galsworthy,  Bideford,  197 
Gappah,  Chudleigh,  516 
Georgeham,  Barnstaple,  453 
George  Nympton,  South  Molton,  578 
Germansweek,  Bratton  Clovelly,  454 
Gidleigh  (or  Gidley),  Chagford,  454 
Giles  (St.)-on-the-Heath,  Laimceston, 

Giles  (St.)-in-the-WQod,  Torrington, 


Index  or  Places. 

Gittisham,  Honiton,  455 
(loldsworthy  (East),  Bideford,  595 
Goodloigh,  Barnstaple,  45G 
Goodringtoii,  Paignton,  590 
Goosoford,  Okehampton,  727 
Gosford,  Ottory  St.  Mary,  585 
Goveton,  Kingsbridgo,  210 
Great  Englebonrne,  Totnos,  46 1 
Great  Grindle,  Ottory  St.  Mary,  229 
Great  Hayes,  Clmlmloigb,  ]  12 
Great  Knowle,  Exmoutli,  201,  203 
Great  Potheridge,  Boaford,  5i'6 
Great  Torrington,  ioG 
Great  Wooke,  Chagford,  208 
Grindle,  Exeter,  855 
Grindle  (Great),  Ottery  St.  Mary,  229 
Guineaford,  IJarnstaple,  540 
Gulliford,  Exeter,  855 
Gunn,  Barnstaple,  750 

Hacche,  South  Molton,  720 
Hacconibe,  Newton  Abbot,  461 

Halberton,  Tiverton,  402 

Halberton  Hundred,  91 

Halford,  Newton  Abbot,  500 

Halfordswood,  Exeter,  848 

Hallsands,  Kingsbridge,  736 

Halsinger,  Barnstaple,  176 

Hals  well,  Totnes,  191 

Halwell,  Lifton,  464 

Halwell,  Totnes,  463 

Hampton  (High),  474 

Hankford,  Brandis  Corner,  204 

Harberton,  Totnes,  464 

Harbertonford,  Totnes,  465 

Harbournford,  Ivy  bridge,  717 

Hareombe,  Newton  Abbot,  216 

Harcombe,  Sidmouth,  708 

Hareston,  Plympton,  188 

Harford,  Ivybridge,  466 

Harford,  Newton  Abbot,  499 

Harpford,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  466 

Harracott,  Barnstaple,  764 

Harraton,  Kingsbridge  «Sc  Ivybridge, 

Hartland,  Bideford,  467 

Hartland  Hundred,  92 

Hartleigh,  Highampton,  198 

Hatherleigh,  468 

Hawkerland,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  229 

Hayes  (Great),  Chulnileigh,  112 

Hayridge  Hundred,  92 

Hay  tor  Hundred,  92 

Haytor  V^ale,  Newton  Abbot,  499 

Haytown,  Brandis  Corner,  204 

Heal,  Barnstaple,  595 

Healand,  Torrington,  685 

Heanton  (King's),  Barnstaple,  540 

Heantcn     Punchardon,      Barnstaple, 

Heanton  Satchville,  Beaford,  488 

Heasley,  South  Molton,  574 

Heavitree,  Exeter,  319. 

Heddon's  Mouth,  Barnstaple,  540 

Hele,  Cullompton,  171 

Hele,  Ilfracombe,  494 

Hele  (North  &   South),   Chulmloigh, 

Helscott,  Launceston,  576 

Hembow,  South  Molton,  213 

Hembury  (Broad),  Honiton,  191 

Hembury  Fort,  Exeter,  596 
Hemerdon,  Plympton  St.  Mary,  665 
Hempston  (Broad),  Totnes,  191 
Hempston  (Little),  Totnes,  526 

Hemyock  (or   Hemiojk),  Wellington 

(Somerset),  471 
Homyoek  Hundred,  93 
Hondham,  Mounts,  857 
Hennock,  Bovey  Tracey,  472 
Hoy  worthy,  Bratton  Clovelly,  454 
High  Bickington,  Chulmleigh,  473 
Higli  Bray,  South  Molton,  474 
High  Bray,  South  Molton,  720 
Higli  Bullcn,  Torrington,  685 
Iligli  Cookworthy,  Lifton,  524 
High  Hampton  (or  Iligliampton),  474 
Higher  Ashton,  Newton  Abbot,  112 
Higher  Black  Dog,  Puddington,  837 
Higher  Brimley,  Newton  Abbot,  499 
Higher  Burraton,  Exeter,  189 
Higher  Hamlet,  Exeter,  toi> 
Higher  Eocombo,  Teignmouth,  735 
Higher  Stoke,  Dev-onport,  269 
Higher  Town,  Buckfastleigh,  194 
Higher  Town,  Tiverton,  462 
Highley   St.   Mary    (or  Hightleigh), 

Tiverton,  474 
Highweek,  Newton  Abbot,  556 
Hilltown,  Tavistock,  520 
Hiscott,  Barnstaple,  764 
Hittisleigh,  Okehampton,  475 
Hockworthy,  Wellington   (Somerset), 

Hoggadon,  Launceston,  681 
Holbeton,  Ermington,  475 
Holcombe,  Dawlish,  264 
Holcombe  Buraell,  Exeter,  476 
Holcombe  Kogus,  Wellington  (Somer- 
set), 477 
Hollacombe,  Holsworthy,  478 
Holne,  Ashburton,  478 
Holset,  Kingsbridge,  673 
Holsworthy,  479 
Holwell,  Aveton  GifFord,  158 
Honicknowle,  Plymouth,  683 
Honiton,  482 

Honiton  Barton,  South  Molton,  720 
Honiton's  Clist,  Exeter,  225 
Hooe,  Plymouth,  670 
Hookway,  Crediton,  242 
Hoops,  Bideford,  595 
Hope  Cove.  Kingsbridge,  718 
Horndon,  Tavistock,  763 
Horns  Cross,  Bideford,  595 
Horrabridge,  199,  697,  836 
Ilorseborough,  Ilfracombe,  554 
Ilorsebridge,  Tavistock,  751 
Ilorsemills,  Newton  Abbot,  516 
Ilorwood,  Bideford,  4S8 
Houghton,  Moretonhampstead,  552 
Houndle,  Ivybridge,  239 
Huckworthy  Bridge,  Horrabridge,  697 
Huish,  Beaford,  488 
Huish  (North),  Ugborough,  572 
Huish  (South),  Kingsbridge,  718 
Hunston,  South  Molton,  574 
ITuntsham,  Bampton,  489 
Huntshaw  (or  Hunshaw),  Bideford,490 
Hutcherley,  Totnes,  163 
Huxham,  Exeter,  490 
Ide,  Exeter,  491 
Ideford,  Chudleigh,  491 
Ilfracombe,  491 
Ilkerton,  Barnstaple,  534 
Ilsham,  Torquay,  686 
Ilsington,  Newton  Abbot,  499 

Ilton,  Kingsbridge,  536 

In  stow,  500 

Inwardlcigh,  Exbourno,  501 

Ipplepon.  Newton  Abbot,  502 

Irishcombe,  Morchard  Bishop,  523 

Itton,  Okehampton,  727 

Ivybridge,  503,  831 

Jacobstowe,  Exeter,  504 

Jordan,  Ashburton,  8t9 

Kallacott,  Lifton,  193 

Kellaton     (or     Kellington),     Kings- 
bridge,  736 

Kelly,  Lifton,  505 

Kemp  Town,  South  Molton,  538 

Kenn  (or  Kenne),  Exeter,  505 

Kennerleigh,  Crediton,  506 

Kennford,  Exeter,  505 

Kentisbeare  (or  Kentisbeor),  Cullomp- 
ton, 506 

Kentisbury,  Barnstaple,  507 

Kentisbury  Ford,  Birnstaplo,  507 

Kenton,  Exeter,  508 

Kent's  Hole,  72 

Kenwith  Castle,  Appledoro,  103 

Kex'swell,  Honiton,  191 

Kerswell  (Abbot's),  Newton  Abbot,  100 

Kerswell  (King's),  Newton  Abbot,  515 

Kigbear,  Okehampton,  580 

Killatree,  Holsworthy,  677 

Kilmmgton,  Axminster,  509 

Kimmacott,  Barnstaple,  540 

Kimworthy,  Holsworthy,  172 

Kingford,  Holsworthy,  594 

King's  Ash,  Chulmleigh,  112 

Kingsbridge,  509 

Kingscott,  Torrington,  685 

Kingsett,  Tavistock,  763 

King's  Heanton,  Barnstaple,  540 

Kingskerswell   (or   King's  Carswell), 
Newton  Abbot,  515 

King's  Nympton,  Chulmleigh,  516 

King's  Tamerton,  Plymouth,  683 

King's  Teignton,  Newton  Abbot,  516 

Kingston,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  229 

Kingston,  Aveton  Gifford,  518 

Kings  wear,  Dartmouth,  518 

Kinterbury,  Plymouth,  683 

Knacker's   Knowle   (or  Knoll),  Ply- 
mouth, 313,  683 

Knightstone,  Bishop's  Morchard,  159 

Knighton,  Newton  Abbot,  472 

Knighton,  Plymouth,  838 


Knowle  (or  Knoll),  Barnstaple,  176 

Knowle,  Crediton,  242 

Knowle  (Great  and  Little),  Exmouth, 
201,  203 

Knowstone,  Morchard  Bishop,  519 

Knowstone  (East),  Morchard  Bishp.519 

Laira  Green,  Plymouth,  313 

Lake,  Barnstaple,  764 

Lake,  Bridestowe,  716 

Lamerton,  Tavistock,  520 

Landcross  (or  Lancrass),  Bideford,  521 

Landkey,  Barnstaple,  521 

Landscove,  Ashburton,  731 

Lanehead,  Tavistock,  763 

Langdon,  Launceston,  840 

Langford,  Cullompton,  250 

Langridge,  Barnstaple,  114 

Laugridge  Ford,  Barnstaple,  860 

Langtree,  Torrington,  522 
Lapford,  Morchard  Bishop,  522 
Larcombe,  Totnes,  464 

Index  of*  Placet^ . 

Larkbeare,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  751 

jLea,  Wellington  (Somerset),  475 

Lee,  Ilfracombe,  49 -t 

Lee  Mill,  Plymptou  St.  Mary,  665 

Leigh,  Bishop's  Morchard,  159 

Leigh,  Modbury,  516 

Leigh,  Wembwortliy,  231 

Leigh  (East  and  AVest),  liideford,  844 

Leigh  (North),  Honiton,  573 

Leigh  (South),  Honiton,  719 

Leigh-Betsford     (East    and     West), 
Totnes,  464 

Leonard's  (St.),  Exeter,  316 

Lettaford,  Moretonhampstead,  571 

Leusdon,  Ashburton,  849 

Leverton,  Newton  Abbot,  499 

Lew  Down,  523,  541 

Lew  (North),  Exbourne,  573 

Lewtrenchard,  Lew  Down,  523 

Leyford,  Barnstaple  and  Lynton,  178 

Liddaton,  Lew  Down,  1 79 

Lidford,  Bridestow,  531 

Lidstone,  Kingsbridge,  210 

Lid  well,  Dawlish,  264 

Lifton,  524 

Lifton  Down,  Lifton,  521 

Lifton  Hundred,  93 

Linchaford,  Ashburton,  819 

Lincombe,  Ilfracombe,  492 

Lincombe,  Kingsbridgo,  536 

Lindridge,  Teignmouth,  162 

Linton,  Barnstaple,  534 

Listleigh,  Bovey  Tracey,  530 

Little  Bovey,  Newton  Abbot,  166 

Little  Engleboxirne,  Totnes,  464 

Littlehani,  Bideford,  525 

Littleham,  Exmouth,  525 

Little  Hempston,  Totnes,  526 
Little  Knowle,  Exmoutli,  201,  203 
Little  Potheridge,  Beaford,  543 
Little  Silver,  Exeter,  439 
Little  Silver,  South  Molton,  538 
Little  Silver,  Tiverton,  206 
Little  Torrington,  Gt.  Torrington,  526 
Lixton,  Kingsbridge  &  Ivybridge,  114 
Lobb,  Barnstaple,  176 
Loddiswell,  Kingsbridge,  527 
Longbridge,  Chard,  543 
Longdown,  Exeter,  476 
Loosebeare,  Bow,  862 
Loveacott,  Fremington,  451 
Loveton,  Horrabridge,  542 
Lovistone,  Beaford,  488 
Lower  Ashton,  Newton  Abbot,  112 
Lower  Black  Dog,  Puddington,  837 
Lower  Brimley,  Newton  Abbot,  166 
Lower  Brixham,  Brixham,  181 
Lower  Burraton,  Exeter,  189 
Lower  Eatherford,  Okehampton,  580 
Lower  Eocombe,  Teignmouth,  735 
Lower  Shillingford,  Exeter,  439 
Lower  Stoke,  Devonport,  269 
Lower  Tor,  Ashburton,  849 
Lower  Town,  Bishop's  Morchard,  159 
Lower  Town,  Buckfastleigh,  194 
Lower  Town,  Tiverton,  462 
Lowley  Cross,  Exeter,  303 
Loxbeare,  Bow,  862 
Loxbeare  (or  Loxbeer),  Tiverton,  528 
Loxhore,  Barnstaple,  528 
Ludbrook,   Ivybridge  and  Modbury, 

315,  546 
Luffincott,  Launceston,  529 
Lundy  Island,  529 

Luppitt,  Honiton,  529 

Lupridge,  Ugborough,  572 

Lustleigh,  Bovey  Tracey,  530 

Luton,  Chudleigh,  531 

Luton,  Honiton,  191 

Lutton,  Ivybridge,  239 

Lutton,  Ivybridge,  717 

Lydford,  Bridestowe,  531 

Lympstone,  Exeter,  533 

Lynbridge,  Barnstaple,  53  i 

Lyneham,  Plj?mpton,  860 

Lynmouth,  Barnstaple,  534,  536 

Lynton,  Barnstaple,  53  4 

Lyston,  Exeter,  508 

Madford,  Wellington  (Somerset),  471 

Maidencombe,  Teignmouth,  735 

Maidenhayno,  Axminster,  555 

'Maker  {Cor nwall),  536 

Malborough,  Kingsbridge,  536,  810 

Malmsmead,  Barnstaple  &  Lynton,  1 78 

Majahead,  Kenton,  537) 

Manaton,  Moretonhampstead,  537 

Manley,  Tiverton,  779 

Mannamead,  Plymouth,  236 

Mariansleigh,  South  Molton,  538 

Maristow,  Lew  Down,  541 

Marlandpeters,  Great  Torrington,  538 

Marldon,  Totnes,  539 
Marsh  Green,  Exeter,  681 
Martinhoe,  Barnstaple,  510 
Marwood,  Barnstaple,  510 
Marwood  (Middle),  Barnstaple,  510 
Mary  Ansleigh,  South  Molton,  538 
Mary  Church  (St,),  Torquay,  686 
Marystowe,  Lew  Down,  511 
Mary  Tavy,  Tavistock,  763 
Matford,  Exeter,  439 
Meadwell,  Lifton,  505 
Meavy,  Horrabridge,  542 
Meddon,  Bideford,  467 
Meeth,  Merton,  542 
Meldon,  Okehampton,  580 
Membury,  Chard,  543 
Mere  (East  &  West),  Tiverton,  779 
Merrifield,  Kingsbridge,  221 
Merton,  Beaford,  543 
Meshaw,  South  Molton,  544 
Metcombe,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  585 
Michelcombe,  Ashburton,  478 
Middlecott,  Bishop's  Morchard,  159 
Middlecott,  Highampton,  165 
Middle  Marwood,  Barnstaple,  510 
Middlemoor,  Tavistock,  847 
Middle  Eocombe,  Teignmouth,  234 
Middlewood,  Dawlish,  229,  264 
Milburgh,  Aveton  Gilford,  158 
Milford,  Torrington,  452 
Millbay,  Plymouth,  605 
Millcombe,  Totnes,  163 
Millford,  Bideford,  467 
Milltown,  Barnstaple,  540 
Milton,  Horrabridge,  199 
Milton  Abbot,  Tavistock,  514 
Milton  Damerel,  Brandis  Corner,  545 
Milton  (South),  Kingsbridge,  719 
Minchin  Court,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  122 
Modbury,  546 

Molland,  South  Molton,  549 
Molton  (North),  South  Molton,  574 
Molton  (South),  719 
Molton  (South)  Hundred,  95 
Monkleigh,  Torrington,  550 
Monk  Okehampton,  Wiiakleigh,  551 
Monkton,  Honiton,  551 

Moortown,  Great  Torrington,  456 

Morchard  Bishop,  159 

Morchard  (Cruwys),  Tiverton,  249 

Morebath,  Tiverton,  551 

Moreleigh,  554 

Moretonhampstead,  552 

Morice   Town,  Devonport,  269,  600  ; 
Directory,  289 

Morley  (or  Morleigh),  551 

Morte  Point,  554 

Morthoe  (or  Morte),  Ilfracombe,  554 

Mothecombe,  Ermington,  476 

Mount  Batten,  670 

Mount  Edgcumbe,  536 

Muddiford,  Barnstaple,  540 

Musbury,  Axminster,  555 

Mutley,  Plymouth,  236 

Mutterton,  CuUompton,  250 

Muxbere,  Tiverton,  462 

Nadder,  Exeter,  848 

Natsworthy,  Ashburton,  849 

Nethercott,  Barnstaple,  176 

Nether  Exe,  Exeter,  556 

Netherton,  Honiton,  449 

Netherton,  Teignmouth,  234 

Newbridge,  Ashburton,  849 

Newbridge,  Beaford,  488 
New  Buildings,  Exeter,  697 

Newhaven,  Bideford,  595 
Newland,  Barnstaple,  750 
Newport,  Barnstaple,  132,  161 
Newton,  South  Moltoo,  3  60,  213 
Newton  Abbot,  556 
Newton  Bushel,  Newton  Abbot,  556 
Newton  Ferrers,  Ivybridge,  567 
Newton  Poppleford,  Otterv  Sc.  Mary, 

122,  568 
Newton  St.  Cyres,  Exeter,  568 
Newton  St.  Petrock,  Torrington,  569 
Newton  Tracey,  Barnstaple,  569 
Nicholas  (St.),  Teignmouth,  690 
Nicholshayne,  Wellington  (Somerset), 

Nimet  (see  Nymet) 
North  AUer,  South  Molton,  720 
Northam,  Bideford,  570 
Northam  Eidge,  Bideford,  570 
North  Bovey,  Moreton  Hampstoad,  571 
North  Brentor,  Bridestow,  520 
North  Buckland,  Barnstaple,  453 
Northcott,  Launceston,  572 
Northend,  Wellington  (Somerset),  253 
North  Filham,  Ivybridge,  831 
North  Hele,  Chulmleigh,  473 
North  Huish,  Ugborough,  572 
Northleigh,  Barnstaple,  45S 
North  Leigh,  Honiton,  573 
North  Lew,  Exbourne,  573 
North  Molton,  South  Molton,  574 
Northmost  Tn.  Budleigh  Salterton,  584 
North  Petherwin,  Launceston,  576 
North  Pool,  Kingsbridge,  726 
North  Tawton,  577 
North  Tawton  Hundred,  94 
North  Whilborough,  Newtn  Abbot,  515 
Norton,  Dartmouth,  255 
Norton,  Exeter,  568 
Norwood,  Great  Torrington,  456 
Noss  Mayo,  Ivybridge,  679 
Nutwell,  Exeter,  855 
Nymet  (Broad),  Bow,  192 
Nymet  Eowland,  Lapford,  578 
Nymet  St.  George,  South  Molton,  578 


Index  ol"  Places. 

Nymet  Tracey,  Exeter,  168 

Nympton  (Bishop's),  Sth.  Molton,  160 

Nympton  (King's),  Chulmloigh,  r)16 

Nympton  St.  George,  Sth.  Molton,  578 

Oakford,  Tiverton,  579 

Oakhampton,  580 

Oftwell,  Honiton,  579 

Ogwell  (East),  Nowton  Abbot,  312 

Ogwell  (West),  Newton  Abbot,  844 

Okeford,  Tiverton,  579 

Okehampton,  580 

Okohampton  (Monk),  Winkleigh,  551 

Oltlborough,  IBishop's  Morehard,  159 

Oldmill,  Daitmouth,  255 

Onemouth,  Kingsbridge,  778 

Oreston,  Plymouth,  670 

Otterton,  Budleigh  Salterton,  584 

Ottery,  Tavistock,  520 

Ottery  St.  Mary,  585 

Ottery  St.  Mary  Hundred,  94 

Ottery  (Up),  Honiton,  833 

Ottery  (Venn,  or  Een),  Ottery  St. 
Mary,  835 

Owl's  Combe,  Honiton,  115 

Oxenham,  Okehampton,  727 

Paignton,  590 

Palmer's,  Tiverton,  779 

Pancrasweek  (or  Pancraswyke),  Hols- 
worthy,  594 

Pansom,  Launceston,  684 

Parkham,  Bideford,  595 

Parracombe,  Barnstaple,  595 

Parracombe  Mill,  Barnstaple,  595 

Parsonage,  Ivy  bridge,  831 

Passford,  JBudleigh  Salterton,  584 

Patchole,  Barnstaple,  507 

Payhembury,  Exeter,  596 

Pennycross,  Plymouth  and  D'port,  597 

Pennyeross,  Wellington  (Somerst),  471 

Penquit,  Modbury,  546 

Penruse,  Launceston,  576 

Penstone,  Exeter,  230 

Perreton,  Exe'ter,  846 

Petermarland,  Great  Torrington,  538 

Peter  Tavy,  Tavistock,  764 

Petheridge  (Great  and  Little),  Bea- 
ford,  543 

Petherwin  (or  Petherwin,  North), 
Launceston,  576 

Petherwingate,  Launceston,  676 

Petrock  Stow,  Beaford,  598 

Petton,  Tiverton,  123 

Peyhembury,  Exeter,  596 

Philham,  Bideford,  467 

Pilton,  Barnstaple,  125,  598 

Pinchaford,  Newton  Abbot,  500 

Pinhoe,  Exeter,  599 

Pinn,  Budleigh  Salterton,  584 

Pippacott,  Barnstaple,  176 

Pirzwell,  Cullompton,  506 

Pitson,  Budleigh  Salterton,  584 

Pitt  Quarter,  Tiverton,  779 

Plymouth  History,  600 ;  Directory,  620 

Plympton,  Kingsbridge,  536 

Plympton  Hundred,  94 

Plympton  Maurice  (or  Earl's),  Plymp- 
ton St.  Mary,  669 

Plympton  St.  Mary,  665 

Plymstock,  Plymouth,  670 

Plymtree,  Cullompton,  672 

Podington,  Crediton,  677 

Polsham,  Paignton,  590 

Poltimore,  Exeter,  672 

Pomphlet,  Plymouth,  670 

Ponsford,  Cullompton,  250 
Ponsworthy,  Ashburton,  849 
Pool  (North),  Kingsbridge,  726 
Pool  (South),  Kingsbridge,.  726 
Portbridge,  Totnes,  734 
Portlemouth,  Kingsbridge,  673 
Postbridge,  Horrabridge,  531 
Potheridge  (Great  and  Little),  Bea- 
ford, 543 
Poughill,  Crediton,  674 
Poundsgate,  Ashburton,  849 
Powderham,  Exeter,  674 
Prawle,  Kingsbridge,  214 
Prawle  (East),  Kingsbridge,  214 
Prawle  Point,  Kingsbridge,  673 
Prescot,  Wellington  (Somerset),  253 
Prestacott,  Okehampton,  146 
Preston,  Mounts,  857 
Preston,  Newton  Abbot,  516 
Preston,  Paignton,  590 
Princetown,  Horrabridge,  531,  675 
Prixford,  Barnstaple,  540 
Pryor's  Quarter,  Tiverton,  779 
Puddington,  Crediton,  677 
Puddlebridge,  Honiton,  573 
Purlbridge,  Axminster,  231 
Putford  (East),  Brandis  Corner,  312 
Putford  (West),  Brandis  Corner,  844 
Puttsborough,  Barnstaple,  453 
Pyworthy,  Holsworthy,  677 
Quither,  Tavistock,  545 
Quoditch,  Lifton,  113 
Kackenford,  Morehard  Bishop,  678 
Eaddon,  Cullompton,  777 
Ealeigh,  Barnstaple,  598 
Eamsley,  Okehampton,  727 
Eatsloe,  Exeter,  672 
Eattery  (or  Eattrey),  Buckfastleigh, 

Eawridge,  Honiton,  833 
Eedhill,  Bishop's  Morehard,  159 
Eevelstoke,  Ivybridge,  679 
Eew,  Kingsbridge,  536 
Eewe,  Exeter,  679 
Eexton,  Lifton,  193 
Eickham,  Kingsbridge,  673 
Eiddlecombe,  Chulmleigh,  112 
Eidgway,  Plympton  St.  Mary,  665, 669 
Eill,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  585 
Eingmoor  Down,  Horrabridge,  542 
Eingmore,  Aveton  Gilford,  680 
Eingmore,  Teignmouth,  690,  692,  735 
Eoborough,  Plymouth,  149 
Eoborough,  Torrington,  680 
Eoborough  Hundred,  94 
Eochill,  Morehard  Bishop,  519 
Eockbeare,  Exeter,  681 
Eocombe,  Teignmouth,  234 
Eocombe  (Higher  and  Lower),  Teign- 
mouth, 736 
Eomanfeleigh,  South  Molton,  682 
Eose  Ash,  South  Molton,  682 
Eousdon  (or  Eoosdown),  Lyme  Eegis, 

Eowland's  Leigh,  Lapford,  578 
Eudge,  Crediton,  242 
Eumonsleigh   (or  Eumsleigh),  South 

Molton,  682 
Eunnaford    Coombe,    Buckfastleigh, 

Eushford,  Chagford,  208 
St.  Budeaux,  Plymouth,  683 
St.  David's,  Exeter,  320 
St.  George  Clist,  Topsham,  226 

St.    Giles-ou-the-Heath,   Launceston 


St.  Giles-in-the-Wood, Torrington,  685 
St.  John's  Chapel,  Barnstsiplo,  764 
St.  Leonard's,  Exeter,  316 
St.  Mary  Church,  Torquay,  686 
St.  Nicholas,  Teignmouth.  090 
St.  Thomas  the  Apostle,  Exeter,  320 
Sainthill,  Cullompton,  506 
Salcombe,  Kingsbridge,  692 
Salcombe  Eegis,  Sidmouth,  694 
Sallicombe,  Honiton,  449 
Saltash  Passage,  Plymouth,  683 
Salterton  (Budleigh),  Exmouth,  201 
Salterton  (Woodbury),  Exeter,  855 
Saltram,  Plympton  St.  Mary,  666 
Saltren's  Cottages,  Torrington,  550 
Sampford  Courtenay,  695 
Sampford  Peverell,  Tiverton,  696 
Sampford  Spiney,  Horrabridge,  697 
Sandford  (East  &  West),  Crediton,  697 
Sandygate,  Newton  Abbot,  517 
Satterleigh,  South  Molton,  699 
Saunton,  Barnstaple,  176 
Scoriton,  Buckfastleigh,  194 
Seaton,  Axminster,  699 
Seed,  Sidmouth,  695 
Sessaeott,  Brandis  Corner,  844 
Shadycombe,  Kingsbridge,  536 
Shaldon,  Teignmouth,  691 
Shallowford,  South  Molton,  720 
Shapcombe,  Honiton,  529 
Shapwick,  Axminster,  116 
Shattern,  Dawlish,  264 
Shaugh,  Honiton,  529 
Shaugh  Prior,  Eoborough,  701 
Shebbear,  Highampton,  702 
Shebbear  Hundred,  95 
Sheepham,  Modbury,  546 
Sheepstor,  Horrabridge,  703 
Sheepwash,  Highampton,  703 
Sheldon,  Honiton,  704 
Sheplegh-Bow,  Totnes,  163 
Sherford,  Frogmoor,  704 
Sherwell  (or  Sherwill),  Barnstaple, 70$ 
Sherwell   Cross    and  Village,    Barn- 
staple, 705 
Sherwill  Hundred,  95 
Sherwood  (or  Sherwood  Villa),  Exeter, 

Shesborough,  Ilfracombe,  554 
Shillingford,  Tiverton,  123 
Shillingford  (Lower),  Exeter,  439 
Shillingford  St.  George,  Exeter,  705 
Shiphay,  Torquay,  686 
Shipstor,  Horrabridge,  703 
Shipwash,  Highampton,  703 
Shobrooke,  Crediton,  706 
Shute,  Axminster,  706 
Sid,  Sidmouth,  695 
Sidbury,  Sidmouth,  707 
Sidford,  Sidmouth,  707,  708 
Sidmouth,  708 

Sigford,  Newton  Abbot.  499 
Silverhill,  Kingsbridge,  718 
Silver  (Little),  Exeter,  439 
Silver  (Little),  South  Molton,  538 
Silver  (Little),  Tiverton,  206 
Silverton,  Cullompton,  714 
Sitcott,  Launceston,  684 
Slade,  South  Molton,  842 
Slade,  Hfracombe,  492 

^Slapton,  Kingsbridge,  715 

'  Slewton,  Exeter,  846 

Index  of  Palaces. 

I  j^loncombe,  Moretonhampstead,  552 
i  Sraallacombe,  Newton  Abbot,  500 
j  •jmallbrooke.  Exeter,  568 
:^mallridge,  Axminstor,  116 
Smithincott,  Cullorapton,  829 
Sorley,  Kingsbridge,  840 
•^oui-ron,  Bridestowe,  716 
j-^outh  Allington,  Kingsbridge,  214 
South  Bovey,  Newton  Abbot,  166 
'South  Brent,  Ivybridge,  717 
! South  Cheriton,  Dunsford,  211 
iSouthcott.  Bideford,  844 
I  Southerleigh,  Bridestowe,  716 
iSoutherton,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  466 
j  South  Filham,  Ivybridge,  831 
^  South  Hams,  51 
South  Hele,  Chulmleigh,  473 
Southill,  Cullompton,  506 
South  Huish,  Kingsbridge,  718 
LSouth  Leigh,  Honiton,  719 
[South  Milton,  Kingsbridge,  719 
j  South  Molton,  719 
I  South  Molton  Hundred,  95 
{South  Pool,  Kingsbridge,  726 
South  Sydenham,  Tavistock,  751 
I  South  Tawton,  Okehampton,  727 
[  South  Town,  Exeter,  508 
South  Whilborough,Ne  wton  Abbot,5 1 5 
South  Won  ford,  Exeter,  319 
South  Zeal,  Okehampton,  727 
Sowden,  Exeter,  533 
Sowton,  Exeter,  728 
Sparkwell,  Totnes,  730 
SparkAvell,  Plympton  St.  Mary,  665 
Splatz,  Winkleigh,  192 
Spreyton,  Bow,  729 
Spriddlestone,  Plympton,  188 
Sprytown,  Lew  Down,  748 
Staddiscombe,  Plymouth,  670 
Staddon,  Hols  worthy,  479 
Stag's  Head,  South  Molton,  720 
Stanborough  Hundred,  96 
Stanton  (Church),  Honiton,  220 
Staplake,  Exeter,  508 
Staple,  Totnes,  254 

Staplecross,Wellington  (Somerset),  475 
Staple  Vale,  Great  Torrington,  456 
Stapley,  Honiton,  221 
Starcross,  Exeter,  729 
Staunton  (Church),  Honiton,  220 
Staverton,  Totnes,  730 
Stenhall.  Cullompton,  829 
Stibb  Cross,  Torrington,  522 
Sticklepath,  Okehampton,  695 
Stockland,  Honiton,  731 
Stockleigh  English,  Crediton,  732 
Stockleigh  Ponieroy,  Crediton,  732 
Stoke,  Bideford,  467 
Stoke,  Ashburton,  478 
Stoke  Canon,  Exeter,  732 
Stoke  Damerel,  Devonport,  269,  600  ; 

Directory,  294 
Stokefleming,  Dartmouth,  733 
Stoke  Gabriel,  Totnes,  734 
Stoke  Eivers,  Barnstaple,  737 
Stokeinteignhead,  Teignmputh,  735 
Stokeleigh  Pomeroy,  Creditbn,  732 
Stokenham  (or  Stockingham),  Kings- 
bridge,  736 
Stonecombe,  Barnstaple,  311 
Stonecross,  Barnstaple,  101 
Stonehouse  (East),  600,  738 
Stonyford,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  229 
Stoodleigh,  South  Molton,  842 

Stoodleigh,  Tiverton,  748 
Stowe  St.  Mary,  Lew  Down,  541 
Stowford,  Chulmleigh,  47o 
Stowford,  Lew  Down,  748 
Stowford,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  229  " 
Stowford  (West),  Barnstaple,  750 
Stowford,  Torrington,  522 
Stow  St.  Giles,  Torrington,  685 
Stow  St.  Petrock,  Beaford,  598 
Strechford,  Totnes,  730 
Street,  Dartmouth,  163,  165 
Strete  Raleigh,  Exeter,  846 
Studley,  Tiverton,  748 
Summerstown,  Lifton,  464 
Sutcombe,  Holsworthy,  749 
Sutton,  Kingsbridge,  719 
Swimbridge  (or  Swymbridge),  B,  750 
Sydenham     Damarel      (or      South), 

Tavistock,  751 
Taddiport,  Great  Torrington,  526 
Talaton     (or    Tallaton),    Ottery    St. 

Mary,  751 
Tale,  Exeter,  596 
Taleford,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  585 
Talewater,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  751 
Tamerton   Foliot    (or   Foliott),  Ply- 
mouth, 752 
Tamerton  (King's),  Plymouth,  683 
Tavistock,  753 
Tavistock  Hundred,  96 
Tavy  (St.  Mary),  Tavistock,  763 
Tavy  (St.  Peter),  Tavistock,  764 
Taw  Green,  Okehampton,  727 
Tawstock,  Barnstaple,  764 
Tawton  (Bishop's),  Barnstaple,  161 
Tawton  (North),  577 
Tawton  (North)  Hundred,  94 
Tawton  (South),  Okehampton,  727 
Tedburn  St.  Mary,  Exeter,  765 
Teignbridge  Hundred,  97 
Teign  (Canon),  Dunsford,  215 
Teigncombe,  Chagford,  208 
Teigngrace,  Newton  Abbot,  766 
Teignholt,  Chagford,  305 
Teignmouth  (East  &  West),  767    " 
Teignton  (Bishop's),  Teignmouth,  162 
Teignton  (King's  or  Regis),  Newton 

Abbot,  516 
Templeton,  Tiverton,  775 
Tetcott,  Holsworthy,  775 
Thelbridge,  Morchard  Bishop,  776 
Thomas  the  Apostle  (St.),  Exeter,  320 
Thornbury,  Brandis  Corner,  776 
Thornhill  Head,  Bideford,  197 
Thorverton,  Cullompton,  776 
Thriverden,  Brandis  Corner,  844 
Throwleigh  (or  Throwley),  Okehamp- 
ton, 777 
Thrushelton   (or    Thurshelton),   Lew- 
Down,  779 
Thurlestone,  Kingsbridge,  778 
Tidcombe,  Tiverton,  779 
Tideford,  Totnes,  240 
Tinney,  Lifton,  524 
Tipton,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  585 
Tithacot,  Bideford,  197 
Tiverton,  779 
Tiverton  Hundred,  97 
Topsham.  Exeter,  792 
Torbay,  182 
Torbrian  (or  Torbryan),  Newton  Abbot, 

Torcross,  Kingsbridge,  736 
Tor  (Lower),  Ashburton,  849 

Tormoham  (or  Tormohun),  T,  796 

Torquay,  796 

Torr,  Ivybridge,  239 

Torr,  Ivybridge,  567 

Torrington  (Black),  Highampton,  165 

Torrington  (Black)  Hundred,  87 

Torrington  (Great),  456 

Torrington  (Little),  Gt.  Torringtn,  526 

Totleigh,  Highampton,  165 

Totnes,  819 

Townbridge,  Chulmleigh,  205 

Townstall,  Dartmouth,  255 

Trentishoe,  Barnstaple,  828 

Triccombe,  Honiton,  573 

Trill,  Axminster,  116 

Trusham,  Bovey  Tracey,  828 

Tuckenhay,  Totnes,  111,  240 

Tuckingmill,  Bow,  862 

Turnchapel,  Plymouth,  670 

Twitchen,  Bideford,  197 

Twitchen,  South  Molton,  828 

Two  Bridges,  Horrabridge,  675 

Uffculme,  Cullompton,  829 

Ugborough,  Ivybridge,  831 

Underwood,  Plympton  St.  Mary,  665 

Upcott,  Beaford,  143 

Upcott,  Dolton,  304 

Upcott,  Exeter,  765 

Upcott,  South  Molton,  574 

Upcott,  Wellington  (Somerset),  253 

Up  Exe,  Exeter,  679 

Uphay,  Axminster,  116 

Uplowman  (or  Uploman),Tiverton,  832 

Uplyme,  Lyme  Regis,  833 

Upottery  (or  Up  Ottery),  Honiton,  833 

Upper  Brixham,  Brixham,  181 

Upton,  Exeter,  596 

Upton,  Kingsbridge,  719 

Upton,  Torquay,  796 

Upton  Helions  (or  Hellions),  Crediton, 

Upton  Pyne,  Exeter,  835 

Uton,  Crediton,  242 

Vaultersholme  (now  in  Cornwall),  536 

Venbridge,  Exeter,  508 

Venn,  Barnstaple,  521 

Venn,  Kingsbridge,  221 

Venn  Ottery,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  835 

Venton,  Plympton  St.  Mary,  665 

Venton,  Totnes,  254 

Virginstowe  (or  Virginstow),'  Laun- 
ceston,  835 

Waddon,  Newton  Abbot,  216 

Walkhampton,  Horrabridge,  836 

Walscott,  South  Molton,  574 

Warcombe,  Ilfracombe,  492 

Warfleet,  Dartmouth,  255 

Warkleigh  (or  Warkley),  S.Molton,  836 

Warmhill,  Bovey  Tracey,  472 

Washbourne,  Totnes,  111,  463 

Washfield,  Tiverton,  837 

Washford  Pyne,  Puddington,  837 

Watchcombe,  Axminster,  231 

Watcombe,  Torquay,  686 

Water,  Moretonhampstead,  537 

Watergate,  Bridestowe,  179 

Waterhead,  Kingsbridge,  and  Ivy- 
bridge, 114 

Waterleet,  Ivybridge,  239 

Watermouth  Cove,  146 

Watton,  Totnes,  734 

Way,  Tiverton,  250 

Waytown,  Totnes,  191 

Wear  Giflford,  Bideford,  838 

Indox:  of  Places. 

Weaver,  CuUompton,  250 

Wedfield,  Brandis  Corner,  844 

Week,  Axminster,  116 

Week,  Chulmleigh,  205 

Week,  Okohampton,  727 

Week,  Torrington,  522 

Week  St.  German's,  Bratton  Clovelly, 

Week  St.  Pancras.  Ilolsworthy,  694 
Week  (West),  Lifton,  524 
Weeke  (Great),  Chagford,  208 
Welcom])e,  Stratton,  838 
Welltown,  Tiverton,  200 
Werabury,  Plymouth,  838 
Wemb worthy,  839 
Werrington,  Launeeston,  839 
West  Alvington,  Kingsbridgo,  840 
West  Anstey,  Tiverton,  841 
West  Appledore,  Appledore,  103 
West  Ashford,  Barnstaple,  471 
West  Buckland,  South  Molton,  842 
West  Budleigh  Hundred,  97 
West  Charleton,  Kingsbridge,  210 
West  Chilla,  Highampton,  165 
West  Combe,  Barnstaple,  764 
West  Down,  Ilfracombe,  843 
West  Hole,  Torrington,  569 
West  Hooe,  Plymouth,  670 
West  Leigh-Betsford,  Totnes,  464 
West  Leigh,  Bideford,  844 
Westleigh,  Wellington,  204 
West  Mere,  Tiverton,  779 
West  Ogwell,  Newton  Abbot,  844 
West  Putford,  Brandis  Corner,  844 
West  Sanford,  Exeter,  697 
West  Stowford,  Barnstaple,  750 
West  Teignmouth,  767 
West  Town,  Exeter,  508 
West  Water,  Axminster,  116 
West  Week,  Lifton,  524 
West  Wonford,  Brandis  Corner,  545 
West  Worlington,   Morchard  Bishop, 

Westcott,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  751 
Westerland,  Totnes,  539 
Western  Quarters,  Tiverton,  462 
Weston,  Honiton,  115 
Weston,  Plympton,  860 
Weston,  Sidmouth,  174 
Weston  Mill,  Plymouth  &  D'port,  597 

Weston  Poverell,  Plymouth  &  Devon- 
port,  597 

Westward  Ho  !  Bideford,  845 

Wcstwood,  Exeter,  189 

Westwood,  Dawli.-jh,  229,  26 i 

Weycroft,  Axminster,  116 

Whiddon  Down,  Okehampton,  727 

Whilborough  (North  &  South),  New- 
ton Abbot,  515 

Whimple,  Exeter,  846 

Whipton,  Exeter,  320 

Whitbeare,  Brandis  Corner,  545 

Whitchurch,  Tavistock,  847 

Whitestone,  Exeter,  848 

Whitford,  Axminster,  706 

Whitnage,  Tiverton,  832 

Whitston,  Exbourne,  573 

Whitstone,  Exeter,  848 

Whittley,  Plymouth,  683 

Wick,  Totnes,  254 

Widecombe  (or  Widdecombe)  in-thc- 
Moor,  Ashburton,  849 

Widworthy,  Honiton,  850 

Wiggaton,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  585 

Willand,  CuUompton,  850 

Willey,  Sampford  Courtenay,  695 

Willincott,  Hfracombe,  843 

AVilliswell,  Great  Torrington,  538 

Willsworthy,  Tavistock,  764 

Wilmington,  Honiton,  579 

Wilsworthy,  Exeter,  508 

Winkleigh,  851 

Winkleigh  Hundred,  97 

Winscott,  Exeter,  568 

Winsham,  Barnstaple,  176 

Winstone,  Plympton,  188 

Wistman  (or  AViseman's)  Wood,  49 

Witheridge,  852 

Witheridge  Hundred,  97 

Withleigh,  Tiverton,  779 

Withycombe  Eawleigh  (or  Withe- 
combe  Eawleigh),  Exmouth,  854 

Wolborough,  Newton  Abbot,  556 

Wolston  Green,  Totnes,  730 

Wolverston,  Honiton,  115 

Wonford  (East  &  West),  Brandis 
Corner,  545 

Wonford  (East  &  South),  Exeter,  319 

Wonford  Hundred,  98 

Wonton,  Ivy  bridge,  717 

Woodbridge,  Honiton,  449 
Woodbury,  l-'^xeter,  855 
AVoodbury  Saltcrton,  Exeter,  855 
Woodford,  Totnes,  163 
Woodgate,  Bishop's  Morchard,  150 
Woodhuitih,  Brixham,  181 
Woodland,  Ashburton,  857 
Woodland,  Newton  Abbot,  502 
Woodhmd  Head,  Crediton,  242 
Woodlane,  Bishop's  Morchard,  159 
Woodleigh,  Mounts,  857 
Woodmanton,  Exeter,  855 
Woodsdown,  Hols  worthy,  594 
Wood  town,  Bideford,  102 
"Woolfardisworthy      (or      Woolsery), 

Bideford,  858 
Woolfardisworthy      (or      Woolsery), 

Crediton,  859 
Woolleigh,  Beaford,  143 
Woolston,  I^jngsbridge,  840 
Worlington  (East),  Morchard  Bishop, 

Worlington  (West),  Morchard  Bishop, 

Wormhill,  Morotonhampstead,  571 
Wrafton,  Barnstaple,  471 
Wrangaton,  Ivybridge,  831 
Wyke,  Axminster,  116 
Wyke  St.  Maiy,  Chagford,  208 
Yalberton,  Paignton,  590 
Yarcombe,  Chard,  859 
Yard,  South  Molton,  682 
Yardbury,  Axminster,  232 
Yarnscombe,  Barnstaple,  860 
Yartcombe,  Chard,  859 
Yarty,  Chard,  543 
Yealm  Bridge,  Plympton,  860 
Yealmpton,  Plympton,  860 
Yeatson,  Totnes,  111 
Yedbury,  Tiverton,  250 
Yellowford,  CuUompton,  777 
Yeo,  Plympton,  860 
Yeoford,  Crediton,  242 
Yeolmbridge,  Launeeston,  840 
Yettingham,  Budleigh  Salterton,  149 
Yoldford,  CuUompton,  777 
Youlston,  Holsworthy,  172 
Zeal  Monachorum,  Bow,  862 
Zeal  (South),  Okehampton,  727 


{See  also  the  following  Indexes  for  Exeter  and  Plyitiouth,  ^-c.) 

Abbeys,  117,  195,  199,  306, 
467,  534,  581,  611,  754, 
Acland  Family,  521 
Acland,  Sir  T.D.,  Bart.  189 
Acreage,  21,  22,  24,  27,  78 
Adams,  William,  592 
Ages  of  the  Population,  83 
Agricultural  Returns,  53 
Agricultural  Societies,  189, 

484,  659,  685,  823,  853 
Agriculture,  50 
Alcock,  Rev.  Thomas,  684 

Ancient  British  Roads,  41 
Ancient  Britons,  39,  537,  573 
Ancient  History,  39 
Ancient  Houses,  256,337,582 
Annuitant  Society,  722 
Aquarium,  801 
Archdeaconries,  31,339 
Archery  Clubs,  590,  616 
Area,  21,  22,  24,  27,  78 
Artillery,  357,  494,  693,  769 
Ashburton,  Barons,  107 
Aspect,  50 
Assessments,  25 

Asylums,  356,  440,  669,  730 
Athelstane,  114,117,125,322 
Awful  Visitation,  849 
Babington,  Bishop,  586 
Badcock,  Rev.  Saml.  129, 723 
Baker,  Rev.  Thomas,  160 
Bampfield,  Grace,  599 
Bampfylde,  Sir  John,  673 
Bampton,  John  de,  123 
Band  of  Hope,  592 
Bankruptcy  Courts,  30,  333, 

Baring,  Alexander,  107 

Baronets,  48 
Baronies,  43 
Barracks,  273,  302,  326,  547, 

603,  738-9 
Barrows,  313,  505 
Bartlett,  Revds.  Walter  and 

John,  152 
Bassett  Family,  146 
Bastard,  B.  J.  P,,  Esq.  861 
Bathing  Places,  17,  201,  266, 

264,  440,  453,  491,  534, 

590,  691,  699    708,  736, 

767,  796 

Greiieral  Index  oF  Sulyects. 

Battles,  117,  123,599 

Bayley,  W.  R.,  Esq.  707 

Beacons,  253,  605,  748 

Beare,  Justice,  201 

Becky  Falls,  537 

Bedford,  Duke  of,  545,  754 

Beer  Stone,  699 

Benefit  Societies,  469,  484, 

Benevolent  Institutions,  130, 
132,  229,  265,  355,  362, 
616,  710,  722,  757,  802 

I   Berry,  Sir  John,  519 
Bible  Christian  College,  702 

Bidder,  George,  553 

Birds,  718 

Births,  84 

Bishops,  244,  338,  720,  752 

Bishop's 'Palaces,  161,  216, 
243,  343,  590 

Blachford,  Lord,  239 

Blundell,  Peter,  787 

Bogan,  Zachary,  526 

Boroughs,  21,  22,  27,  78, 
125,  144,  150,  170,  218, 
231,  243,  256,  269,  270, 
317,  456,  483,  492,  531, 
546,  581.  601,  606,  G69, 
709,  720,  727,  754,  821, 
853,  861 

Botany,  54 

Boundaries,  17 

Bowen,  Captain  Richard,  493 

Bowerman's  Nose,  537 

Bracton,  Henry  de,  174 

Bray,  Mrs,  757 

Breakwaters,  182,  604 

Bridges.  50,  115,  150,  167, 
321,  503,  531,  568,  569, 
605,  683,  691,  720,  738, 
768,  786,  819,  829 

British  Entrenchments,  206, 
552,  707,  855 

British  Pottery,  125 

British  Seamen's  Orphan 
Home,  183 

Britons,  39 

Browne,  William,  757 

Buck,  L.  AV.,  Esq.  150 

Buckland,  Dean,  118 

Building  Societies,  132,  357, 
459,  741 

Buller,  Judge,  723 

Bulteel,  Lady,  476 

Burgess,  Captain,  R.N.  794 

Burial  Boards,  118, 130,459, 
511,  693,  710,  769,  793 

Byng,  Baron,  456 

Cabbages  (Paignton),  590 

Canals,  20,  216,  329-30,  479, 
516,  557,  753,  779,  792 

Can n,  Abraham,  230 

Cantelupe,  Thomas  de,  191 

Capern,  Edward,  787 

Carboniferous  System,  63 

Carew,  Bampfylde  Moore, 

Carew  Family,  461 

Carew,  Lady,  678 

Carew,  Sir  W.  P.  461 

Carpenter,  Nathaniel,  833 

Carpet  Manufacture,  36,  116 

Cary,R.S.S.,  Esq.798 

Cagtles,  47,  123,  125,  147, 

175,  195,  206,  218,  256, 
322,  323,  327,  328,  333, 
4n,  455,  456,  472,  518, 
529,  531,  539,  552,  580, 
78U,  819,  820,  851,  855 

Cathedrals,  243,  325,  339, 

Cattle,  549,  574 

Caverns,  72,  216,  567,  686, 
730,  798,  861 

Chalybeate  Springs,  77,  123 

Champernowne,  A., Esq.  254 

Champernowne,  Sir  Richard, 

Chappie,  William,  853 

Charities,  30 

Charles  L  171,  557,  602 

Charters,  116,125.150,  167, 

170,  204,  256,  331,  456, 
483.  552,  557,  558,  581, 
585,  601,  602.  720,  721, 
756,  767,  781^  821,  851 

Cherry  Orchards,  456 

Cholera,  21,  603,  679 

Chudlcigh,  Sir  George,  113 

Chudleigh  Rock,  216 

Chulmleigh,  Seven  Prebends 
of,  219 

Churchill,  John,  boo 

Churston,  Lord,  222 

Cider,  53,  144,  195,  240, 
590,  718,  730 

Civil  Condition  of  the  Po- 
pulation, 83 

Civil   Wars,   42,    125,    167, 

171,  189,  207,  215,  227, 
580,  585,  602,  669,  670, 
675,  683,  692,  728,  756, 
780,  793 

Clarence,  Duke  of,  182 
Clevland,   Archibald,    Esq., 

CliiFord  Family,  216 
Climate,  20,  441,  797 
Clinton,  Lord,  488 
Clothing  Clubs,  303,  802 
Coal,  213 
Coast  Guard  Stations,  174, 

183,  201,  214,  264,  442. 

590,   673,  680,  691,  692, 

709,  718,  739,  768 
Coffin  Family,  102 
Coham  Family,  165 
Coleridge,  Rt.  Hon.  Sir  J, 

T.  787 
Coleridge,  Samuel  T.  585 
Commerce,  36 
Conduits,  105,  334,  336,  546 
Convalescent    Homes,    553, 

Copleston,  Bishop,  579 
Copper  Mines,  75 
Corporations.  126,  150,  170, 


669,  720,  781,  821 
Cottage    Garden    Societies, 

494,  560,  793 
Cottage  Hospitals,  107,  167, 

219,  265,  560 
County  Asylum,  440 
Coimty  Courts,  30,  1 17, 127, 
,  152,  243,  332,  457,  480, 

484,   510,   558,  581,  610, 
,   721,  740,   755,  782,  822, 

County  Divisions,  21 
County  Proper,  24,  82 
Courtenay  Family,  48,  675 
Court  Leets  and  13aron,  105, 

114,  123,    160,   170,  242, 

467,   479,  483,  508,  510, 

546,  552,  558,  575,  585, 

678,  720,  754,  767,  853 
Cowell,  Dr.  750 
Creeks,  20 

Cretaceous  Series,  69. 
Cricket  Clubs,  442,  560,  710 
Cricket  Grounds,  201,  797 
Cromlechs,  40,  305,  552,  555 
Curious  Custom,  517 
Danes,  42 
Danish  Encampments,  176, 

Dartmoor  Forest,  49 
Dartmoor  Prison,  676 
Dartmouth,  P^arl  o*",  257 
Davie,  Sir  H.  R.  F., Bart,  697 
Davis,  Captain  John,  735 
Deaneries,  31 
Deaths,  84 

Devon,  Earls  of,  47,  675 
Devonian  Period,  60 
Dispensaries,  131,  153,  217, 

265,   276,  355,  442,  616, 

617,  710,  757,  769,  801 
Distribution  of  Population, 

Divett,  Edward,  Esq.  229 
Divisions,   21,    26,   28,    30, 

31,  35 
Dolde,  John,  172 
Docks,     272,    442,    605-6, 

666,  739 
Doddridge,  Sir  John,  130 
Domesday  Book,  43 
Down,  Abraham  &  Benj.  154 
Dowrich  Family,  697-8 
Drainage,  493,  740,  799 
Drake,  Sir  Francis,  199,  601, 

757,  859 
Drake,  Sir  F.  G.  A.  F.  E., 

Bart.  855,  859 
Druidical  Remains,  40,  146, 

175,  305,  630,  637,  552, 

555,  572 
Druids,  40,  49 
Duckworth,  Sir    J.   T.   B., 

Bart.  793 
Dukes,  47 

Dunning,  John,  Esq.  107 
Duntze,  Sir  J.  L.,  Bart.  729 
Earls,  47 
Earthenware   Manufacture, 

167,  451,  610 
Ecclesiastical  Divisions,  31 
Echo,  227 
Education,  37,  85 
Egremont,  Earl  of,  714 
Electors,  21 
Elton,  Sir  E.  M.  850 
Emigration,  753 
Encroachments  of  the  Sea, 

Entrenchments,    228,    240, 

463,  527,  552,  596,   673, 

699,  707,  737,  855 

Exmouth,  Viscount,  215, 441 
Expenditure,  25,  29 
Extra-Parochial  Places,  23 
Fair  Water,  517 
Fairfiix,  General,  105,  125 
Fairs  (List  of),  13 
Farmers'  Clubs,  130 
Farrington,  Sir  H.  A.  585 
Fires,  36, 171,  189,195,216, 

219,  244,  250.  272,  469, 

482,  585,  703,  714,  733, 

Fisheries,  37,  114,  116,  125, 

158,  182,   201,  228,  533, 

534,  567,  568,  609,  679, 

692,  700,  709,  736,  767, 

778,  792,  820 
Fitzralph,  Richard,  849 
Flavel,  Rev.  John,  257 
Flax  Manufacture,  36,  116  ' 

Flint  Quarry,  831 
Floating  Bridges,  256,  273 
Floods,  100,  321 
FoUett,  Sir  W.  W.  794 
Ford,  John,  500 
Foresters,  190 
Forests,  49 

Forster,  Dr.  Nathaniel,  670 
Fortescue,  Earl,  450 
Fortescue,  Sir  Henry,  308 
Forts,    &c.    150,   182,  194, 

270,  313,  441,  518,  547, 

596,  601,  603,  604,  670, 

738,  740 
Fox  Covers,  475,  846 
Freemasons,  130,  184,  244, 

265,  442,  494,  511,  560, 

592,  617,  711,  722,  740, 

French  Invasions,  256,  529, 

601,  738,  767,  855 
Friendly  Societies,  130.  184, 

190,  229,  244,  484,559, 

617,  680,  710,  780,  794, 

Fulford  Family,  307 
Furneaux,  Dr.*^  Philip,  823 
Gaols,   127,  150,  274,  333, 

608,  676,  721,  736,  782 
Gates,  Sir  Thomas,  231 
Gay  (poet),  130,  132 
Geology,  58 

Gifford,  AVilliam,  Esq.  107 
Gilbert,  Sir  Humphfey,  539 
Glanville,     Judge     &     Sir 

John,  757 
Gold  Mines,  574 
Golf  Club.  570 
Gorham,  Rev.  G.  C,  173 
Granite,  65,  500,  557 
Graves,  Admiral  S.  596 
Grenville,  Sir  Richard,  153, 

Hammer,  Rev.  Jonathn.  129 
Hankford,  Sir  Wm.  204,  550 
Harbours,   257,    271,    492, 

529,  534,  605,  692,  709, 

767,  797 
Harding,  Dr.  Thos.  130,  235 
Harris  Family.  453 
Harris,  Rev.  William,  482 
Haytor  Granite  Works,  500 
Heie,  Sir  John,  839 
Ifervey,  Rev.  James,  152 


Greiiei*al  Index  of"  ^ulttjects. 

Highway  Boards,   18,    105, 

117,  469,610,  524 
Highway  Districts,  29 
History,  39 
Holno  Chaso,  478 
Hopkins,  Bishop,  697 
Horticultural  Societies,  244, 

364,  451,  560,  617,  793 
Hospitals,  587, 616,  739, 801 
Hounds,  315,  780 
Hountor,  537 
House  of  Mercy,  167 
Houses,18,  21,22,  24,27,82 
Hubba  Stone,  103 
Hundred  Court,  469,  736 
Hundreds,  22,  23,  87 
Industrial  Schools,  440, 508 
Infirmaries,  131,   153,  276, 

355,  739,  769,  801 
Ireland,  Dr.  John,  107 
Iron  Ore,  76,  182,  472 
Jeffries,  Judge,  631 
Jewel,  Bishop,  130, 132, 147 
Judge's  Seat,  39 
Judicial  Statistics,  29 
Kelly's  College,  757 
Kempthorn  Sir  John,  831 
Kennaway,  Sir  John,  Bart. 

Kennicott,  Dr.  823 
Kent's  Hole,  or  Cavern,  72, 

686,  798 
King,  Mr.  Eichard,  547 
Kingsley,     Eev.     Charles, 

478,  845 
Kinsale,  Lord,  536 
Kitt's  Hole,  531 
Knight-Bruce,  Kt.  Hon.  Sir 

J.  177 
Labyrinth,  479 
Lace  Manufacture,  36,  174, 

329,  442,  482,  568,  584, 

700,  709,  780,  855 
Landholders,  54 
Land  Slips,  74,  121,  700 
Land  Societies,  132,  493 
Lawrence,  Gen.  Stringer,306 
Leach,  Sir  S.  206 
Lear,  Sir  Peter,  162 
Ley,  Eev.  Edward,  823 
Lias,  69 
Libraries,    106,    115,    130, 

144,  153,  201,  217,  244, 


501,  547,  615,  667,  685, 

710,  711,722,754,756-7, 

783,  785,  793,  801,  822, 

Lieutenancy  Sub-Divisions, 

Lighthouses,  176,  494,  529, 

555,  736,  768 
Lifeboats,    265,    442,    555, 

567,  670,  692,  709,  768 
Lime   Eock   Quarries,  305, 

475,  567,  580,  749 
Limestone,  64,  305 
Limestone  Caverns,  72,567, 

686,  730,  798,  861 
Literary   Institutions,    130, 

201,  244,  469,  484,  524, 

547,  553,  559,  582,  615, 

710,  769,  785 
Local  Board  Districts,  31,  80 

Logan  Stone,  305,  630,  552 
Longevity,    100,  172,    240, 

484,  552,  768 
Loosemore  John,  160 
Lopes,  Sir  L.  M.,  M.P.  752 
Lunatic  Asylums,  356,  440, 

669,  730 
Lundy  Island,  529 
Lyte,  Eev.  John  0.  184 
Mackerel,  37,  609 
Magistrates  (List  of),  6 
Manton,  Thomas,  232 
Manufactures,  36 
Marbl  e  Manufacture  ,686 
Market  Towns,    103,    104, 
116,  123,  125,  144,  150, 
168,  181,  207,  218,  231, 
242,  250,  255,  273,  330, 
440,  456,  468,  479,  482, 
491,  509,  546,  552,  556, 
577,  581,  585,  610,  692, 
708,  719,  753,  779,  792, 
796,  819,  829 
Marlborough,  Duke  of,  555 
Marriages,  83 
Mayne,  Eev.  Jasper,  D.D. 

Means  of  Communication,  18 
Measures  of  Land,  43 
Mechanics'    Institutes,  &c. 
276,  452,  659,  615,  710, 
722,  757,  769 
Members  of  Parliament,  6, 

21,  126,  332,  754,  782 
Metamorphic  Eocks,  60 
Meteoric  Stone,  315 
Mineral  Springs,  77 
Mines  and  Mining,  75,  144, 
182,  215,  234,  268,  303, 
472,  500,  523,  627,  537, 
649,  668,  671,  574,  720, 
753,  763,  847 
Miocene  Deposits,  70 
'Miracles,'  192 
Mission  to  Seamen,  183 
Monasteries,  598,  611,  665 
Monk,  General,  456, 521 ,  543 
Morley,  Earl  of,  666 
Morris,  Lieut.-Col.,  C.B.469 
Mount  Edgcumbe,  Earl  of, 

Muden,  Dr.  Peter,  205 
Municipal  Boroughs,  22,  78, 
125,  150,  170,  256,  269, 
270,  317,  456,  483,  581, 
606,  720,  781,  821 
Municipal  Eeform  Act,  22 
Musical  Societies,  354,  484, 

Mutual    Improvement    So- 
cieties, 586,  793 
Napoleon,  603 
Naval  Station,  125 
Navigable  Elvers,  20 
Nelson,  Lord,  525 
Newcomeu,  Thomas,  256 
Newman,      Sir      Lydstone, 

Bart.  537 
News  Eooms,  153,  276,  569, 

567,  615 
Nobility,  48 
Norman  Conquest,  42 
Northcote,  Et.  Hon.  Sir  S. 
H.,  Bart.,  C.B,  835 

Obelisk,  537 

Occupations,  26 

Odd  Fellows,  469,  494,  740. 

758,  786 
Ore,  75,  234,  500,  596 
Owl's  Combe,  115 
Oxenham  Family,  727 
Oyster  Beds,  37,  567 
Palk,  SirLawronce,Bart.505 
Paper  Manufacture,  189 
Parishes,  23 
Parks,  130,  244 
Parliamentary  Boroughs,  21, 
78,    125,    144,  160,   170, 
256,  269,  317,  456,  483, 

546,  581,  601,  606,  669, 
720,  754,  781,  821 

Parliamentary  Divisions,  21 

Parliamentary  Eepresenta- 
tives,  21, 126,332,754,782 

Pauperism,  25,  86 

Peat,  49,  180 

Pellew,  Sir  Edward,  441 

Penrose,  John,  452 

Perring,  Sir  John  &  Eev.  Sir 
Philip,  476 

Peters,  Hugh,  457 

Petitor,  686 

Petty  Sessional  Divisions,  26 

Petty  Sessions,  117,127,170, 
183,  211,  219,  222,  232, 
243,  251,  264,  334,  457, 
469,  480,  484,  610,  524, 

547,  552,  558,  577,  685, 
690,  666,  709,  721,  740, 
756,  768,  782,  799,  822, 
855,  861 

Piers,   121,   182,  467,  492, 

590,  605,  670,  699,  709, 

710,  768,  845 
Pinder,  Peter,  302 
Plague,  152,  327,  457, 602-3 
Philanthropic  Society,  758 
Pole,  Sir  William,  706 
Police  Divisions,  28 
Police  Force,  28 
Polling  Places,  21 
Polo,  690 

Poltimore,  Lord,  673 
Pomeroy  Family,  147 
Poor  Law,  23 
Population,  18,  21,  22,  24, 

Ports,  128,   151,  329,  609, 

767,  792,  796 
Portsmouth,  Earl  of,  839 
Post  Offices,  &c.  36 
Post-Tertiary  Deposits,  71 
Potters'  Clay,  616,  701 
Pottery,  560 

Prideaux,  Sir  Edmund,  449 
Prince  of  Orange,  182,  326, 

Prince,  Eev.  John,  118 
Printing  Press,  754 
Priories,  125,  191,  240,  335, 

336,  452,  502,  546,  559, 

584.  698,  665,  687 
Prisons,  127,  150,  274,  333, 

608,  676,  721,  736,  782 
Proportion  of  the  Sexes,  78 
Proprietary  College,  659 
Provident  Institutions,  184, 

356,  659,  722 

Public  Officers  (List  of),  6 
Eaces,  603,  606,  666,  673, 

768,  780,  820 
Eailways,  18,  105, 125,  143, 

165,  170,  182,  201,  216, 

242,  366,  451,  478,  479, 

492,  509,  531,  567,  574, 

600,  676,  709,  754,  764, 

776,  779,  829 
Eain  Gauge,  718 
Eaised  Beaches,  73 
Ealeigh,    Sir  Walter,    239, 

310,  585 
Eateable  Value,  24,  25,  30 
Eates,  29 
Eats,  Isle  of,  529 
Eattenbury,  Jack,  700 
Eeading   Eooms,   116,   130, 

146,  171,  189,   195,  201, 

217,  228,  244,  310,  493, 

528,  534,  653,  667,  687, 

615,  686,  710,  711,  722, 

793,  801,  842 
Eebellions,227,244, 695,780 
Eecreation    Grounds,    1 30, 

682,  710,  797 
Eeformatories,  173,  356 
Eegattas,  256,  264,  270,  606, 

729,  736,  768,  801 
Eegistration     County    and 

Districts,  23,  82 
Eelative  Ages,  26 
Eental,  25 

Eeynell,  Eev.  Edward,  312 
Eeynolds,  John  &  Thos.  599 
Eeynolds,  Sir  Joshua,  669 
Eeynolds,  Eev.  Eichard,  733 
Eidgway  Family,  163 
Eifle  Volunteers,  132,  357, 

560,  617 
Eisdon,  Tristram,  685 
Eivers,  19,  580,  696,  753 
Eoads,  18 
Eocking  Stone,  305 
Eogers,  Sir  F.  L.  239 
Eolle,  Dennis,  Esq.  150 
Eolle,  Lord  &  Lady,  149-50 
Eomau  Coins,  &c.  41,  241, 

322,  501,  505,  615 
Eoman  Encampments  and 

Fortifications,    116,    172, 

240,  241 
Eoman  Eoads,  41,  146,  321, 

322,  554,  820 
Eomans,  41 
Eoman    Stations,   41,    321, 

596,  699 
Eoyal  Albert  Bridge,  683 
Eural  Deaneries,  31 
Sailors'  Home,  268 
St.  Boniface,  244 
St.  Brannock,  176 
St.  Simon,  769 
Salkeld,  John,  221 
Sanatorium,  846 
Sanitary  Organisation,  85 
Savings  Banks,  251, 276,367, 

591,  617,  722,  767,  794 
Saxons,  42 

School  Boards,  37,  86 
Scott,  Sir  Walter,  175 
Seale,  Sir  H.  P.  256 
Sea  Walls,  709,  797 
Serge  Manufacture,  36,  105, 

Greneral  Index  of  Sult^ects. 


160,  195,  207,  244,  482, 

677,  581,  720 
Seven  Prebends  of  Chiilm- 

leigh,  219 
Shebbeare,  Dr  John,  153 
Ship-building,  128, 151,  302, 

670,  610,  792 
Shipping  Afjsociation,  692 
Shipwrecked  Fishermen's  & 

Mariners'  Societies,  442, 

693,  802 
Sidmoutb,  Viscount,  709,  833 
Silk  Manufacture,  36,  221, 

Silke,  Eev.  James,  199 
Skating  Kinks,  616, 797, 801 
Slate  Quarries,  201,240,730 
Smith,  Mr.  Eobert,  494 
Smuggling,  494,  700,  718 
Soil,  50 

Somerset,  Duke  of,  147,  766 
Springs,  77,  100,  182,  494, 

517,  678 
Stannary  Parliaments,    39, 

207,  531 
Stapledon,  Bishop,  550 
Statues,  131,  321,  333,  336, 

05,  603,  609,  754 

Stedman,    Major    John    G. 

Stone  Cross,  174 
Strange,  John,  152 
Strode,  Sir  Kiclmrd,  40 
Submarine  Forests,  73 
Surface,  50 

Temperance  Society,  452 
Temperature,  20 
Tesselated  Pavements,  322, 

Thurlestone  Rock,  778 
Torbay,  182,  796 
Torrington,  Viscount,  456 
Tougood,  Micuiah,  349,  553 
Towns,  23,  82 
Townships,  23 
Tracey,  Sir  William,  555 
Trades  Directory,  863 
Tradition  of  the  Oxenham 

Family,  727 
Training  Ships,  255 
Tramways,  18,  204, 289, 500, 

574.  664,  820 
Trees,  Eemarkable,  144, 542, 

553,  597,  729,  841 
Trelawny,  Sir  Harry,  683 
Tremayne,  Thomas,  Esq.  520 

Triassic  Series,  67 
Tucker,  Mrs.  Mary,  173 
Tumuli,  313,  505,  840 
Turnpike  Trusts,  18,  29 
Tything,  23 
Union  County,  24 
Unions,  23,  24 
Urban   Sanitary    Districts, 

Vaccination,  25 
Valley  of  Rocks,  534 
Vital  Statistics,  78 
Volunteers,    132,   327,   357, 

494,  560,  602,  617,  693, 

756,  769,  793 
Voters,  21,  331.  483,606-7, 

754,  781,  821 
Walrond,  Sir  J.  W.,  Bart.  829 
War  Prison,  676 
Waterfalls,   308,   505,   531, 

Wellington  Monument,  224 
Wells,   100,  158,  469,  494, 

Wesley,  John,  784 
Westcote,  Thomas,  706 
White  Ale,  257,  302,  509 
Wichehalse  Family,  534 

Wilkins,  John,  232 

William  III.  182 

William  the  Conqueror,  43 

Williams  Family,  228 
j  Williams,  Sir  F.  M.,  Bait. 

Wilson,  Rev.  Henry,  198 
I  Wistman     (or    AViseman's^ 
I      Wood,  49 
j  Woods,  268,  466 
I  Woollen    Manufacture,    36, 
I       105,  123,  128,  160,  171, 
195,  216,  232,  244,  250, 
328,  457,  464,  469,  509, 
546,  552,  577,  581.  585, 
598,  696,  720,  753,  780, 
I       820,  829 

j  Working   Men's   Institutes, 
i      258,  265,  785,  793,  847 

Worsted  Manufacture,  829 

Wrey,  Sir  B.  P.,  Bart.  764 

AVyait,  Sir  John,  843 

Wyot,  Philip,  132 

Yacht  Clubs.  518,  616,  801 

Yeomanry  Cavalry,  132,  357 

Yonge  Family,  232 

Y^oung  (poet),  154 


Acreage,  317,  319 
Additional  Curates  Soc.  349 
Albert  Memorial  Museum, 

Alfred  the  Great,  322 
Almshouses,  336,  338,  358 
Ancient  History,  321 
Ancient  Houses,  337 
Annuity  Society,  357 
Archdeaconries,  31,339 
Architectural  Society,  349 
Area,  317,  319 
Artillery,  357 
Assembly  Rooms,  354 
Assize  Hall,  333 
Assizes,  &e.  334 
Asylum,  356 
Athelstane,  322 
Athenaeum,  354 
Bankruptcy  Court,  333 
Barracks,  326 
Basin,  330 
Bedford  House,  335 
Benefices,  339 

Bishops,  338 
Bishop's  Palace,  343 
Blind  Institution,  353 
Blue  School,  349 
Bodley,  Sir  Thomas,  365 
Botanical  and  Horticultural 

Society,  354 
Bridges,  321 
British  Schools,  352 
Britons,  321 
Building  Society,  357 
Bury  Meadows,  321 

Canal,  329-30 

Canons,  344 

Carriers,  439 

Castles,  322,  323,  327,  328, 

Castle  Yard,  317 

Cathedral,  325,  339 

Cathedral  Library,  354 

Catholic  Chapel,  349 
I  Cattle  Market,  331 
I  Cemetery,  349 
I  Chamber  of  Agriculture,  334 
{  Chamber  of  Commerce,  334 
I  Chapels,  349 
j  Charities,  358 
I  Charity  Schools,  351 
i  Charity  Trustees,  358,  360 
I  Charters,  331 
I  Cholera,  327 

!  Church  Building  Assoc.  349 
j  Church  Endowment  Fund, 
i      349 

Churches,  344 

City,  320 

City  Council,  332 

City  Magistrates,  332 

City  Prison,  333 

Civil  Wars,  323,  324,  325 

Close,  343 

Commerce,  329 

Conduits,  334,  386 

Corn  Exchange,  331 

Corporation,  331 

Corporation  of  the  Poor,  318 

County  of  the  City,  331 

County  Court,  332 

County  Prison,  333 

Courts,  331,  333 

Custom  House,  334 

Customs,  330 

Danes,  322 

Danes'  Castle,  328 

Deaf  and  Dumb  Institution, 

Dean  and  Chapter,  339 

Deaneries,  31 

Devon  and  Exeter  Hospital, 

Devon  and  Exeter  Institu- 
tion, 354 

Dignitaries  of  the  Diocese, 

Diocese,  337 

Directory,  399 

Dispensary,  355 

Dorcas  Societies,  362 

Drainage,  327 

East  Wonford,  319 

Ecclesiastical  History,  335 

Education,  Board  of,  352 

Elementary  Schools,  351 

Eminent  Men,  318,  320, 
349,  365 

Episcopal  Schools,  351 

Exe  Bridge,  321 

Exe  Island,  324 

Exeter,  Farl  and  Marquis 
of,  328 

Eye  Infirmary,  355 

Fairs,  330 

Female  Reformatories,  356 

Fishing,  321 

Flood,  321 

Foster  Dr.  John,  366 

Free  Church,  348 

Free  Cottages,  362 

Free  Library,  353 

Freemen,  331 

Friars'  Walk,  321 

Friary  (Black  &  Grey),  335 

Gas  Works,  335 

Gates,  320 

Grammar  School,  350 

Guardians,  318,  319 

Guild    of    Deyonshire 

Ringers,  349 
Guildhall,  333 
Heavitree,  319 
Hele's  School,  351 
High  School,  351 
History,  321,  335 
Homoeopathic     Dispensary, 

Hospitals,  354 
Hounds,  321 
Houses,  317,  319 
Humane  Society,  355 
Inland  Revenue  Office,  334 
Insurance  Co.  356 
Iron  Bridge,  321 
Lace  Manufacture,  329 
Langton,  Stephen,  365 
Law  Library,  354 
Lepers'  Hospital,  336 
Libraries,  353,  354 
Literary  Societies,  354 
Lunatic  Asylum,  356 
Lying-in  Charity.  355 
Magdalen  Hospital,  359 
Magistrates,  332 
Manors,  320 


Exeter  Inclex:  of*  Sixl::^  <5cts. 

Manufactures,  328 
Markets,  320,  330 
Marquis  of  Exeter,  328 
Martyn,  William,  305 
Martyrs,  324 
Medical  Library,  354 
Medico-Chirurgical  Soc.  354 
Members  of  Parliament,  332 
Militia,  327,  357 
Militia  Camp,  320 
Mints,  322,  328 
Monastic  Institutions,  335 
Municipal  J^orough,  317 
Museum,  353 
Musical  Association,  35  4 
National  Schools,  352 
Navigation,  316,  329 
Newspapers,  354 
Northernhay,  320 
Nurseries,  354 
Nurses'  Training  Instn.  356 
Oratorio  Society,  354 
Orphanage,  356 
Parishes,  317,  319 
Parliamentary  Borough,  317 
Parliamentary    Kepresenta- 

tives,  332 
Penitentiary,  356 
Petty  Sessions,  334 
Pilots,  330 
Plague,  327 

riainworkers'  Society,  357 
Police,  332 
Population,  317,  319 
Port  of  Exeter,  329 
Post  Office,  366 
Prebendaries,  344 
Prince  of  Orange,  326 
Priories,  335  6 
Prisons,  333 
Probate  Court,  333 
Provident  Institutions,  356 
Public  Officers,  332 
Public  Walks,  320 
Eagged  Schools,  352 
Railways,  316,  366,  439 
Rateable  Value,  317,  319 
Reform  Acts,  331 
Reformation,  324 
Reformatories,  356 
Registrars,  318 
Religious  Institutions,  349 
Revenue  Officers,  334 
Revolution,  326 
Rifle  Volunteers,  357 
Riots,  327 
Rivers,  329 

Roman  Catholic  School,  352 
Roman  Coins  &   Remains, 

Roman   Roads  &   Stations, 

321.  322 

Romans,  321 
Rougemont  Castle,  327 
Royal  Visits,  327 
Rural  Deaneries,  31 
St.  John's  Hospital,  349 
St.    Thomas   the   Apostle's, 

St.  Thomas'  Union,  318 
Sanitary  Improvements,  327 
Savings  Bank,  357 
Scholarships,  352 
School  Boards,  352 
Schools,  349 
Schools   of  Art  &  Science, 

Servants'  Homes,  352 
Session^  House,  333 
Sieges,  324 
Situation,  316,  320 
South  Wonford,  319 
Southcott,  Joanna,  365 
Sporting,  321 
Stamp  Office,  334 
Statues,  321,  333,  336 
Steam  Packets,  330 
Street  Directory,  368 
Subscription  Rooms,  354 
Suburbs,  320 
Tailors'  Company,  331 
Tea  Gardens,  321 

Tessclated  Pavements,  322 

Theatre,  354 

Town  Council,  331 

Trade,  329 

Training  Institution,  352 

Unions,  318 

Victoria  Hall,  354 

Volunteers,  327,  357 

Voters,  331 

Walls  and  Gates,  320 

Wards,  332 

Waterworks,  334 

Wesleyan  School,  352 

West  of  England  Insurance 
Company,  356 

Western  Provident  Associa- 
tion, 356 

Whipton,  320 

William  the  Conqueror,  322 

Witchcraft,  325 

Witenagemote,  322 

Wonford  (East  and  South), 

Wonford  House,  356 

Woollen  Manufacture,  328 

Workhouses,  318,  319 

Worthies,  318,  320,  349,  365 

Wynard's  Hospital,  361 

Yeomanry  Cavalry,  357 


Abbey,  611 

Acreage,  738 

Acts  for  Paving,  &c.  270 

Admiral's  House,  273 

Albert  Hall,  616 

Almhouses,  617 

Ancient  History,  601 

Area,  738 

Archery  Association,  616 

Assembly  Room,  274 

Athenseum,  615 

Bankruptcy  Court,  740 

Banks,  273,  610,  738 

Barbican,  605 

Barracks,  273,  603,  738,  739 

Beacon,  605 

Bell  Turret,  616 

Benevolent  Institutions,  616 

Bishop  (Rom.  Cath.),  613 

Blind  Association,  277 

Blind  Institution,  617 

Blockhouse,  739 

Board  Schools,  276,  614,740 

Bonding  Warehouses,  273 

Borough   Magistrates,    271, 

'BovoMghs :— Devo)iport,  269, 

270;  Plymouth,  601,  606 
Breakwater,  604 
Bridges,  605,  738 
Building  Society,  741 
Bunker's  Hill,  272 
Cabp,  661 

Carriers,  289,  664 

Cathedral  (Rom.  Cath.),  613 

Catwater,  605 

Cemetery,  613 

Chapels,  275,  613,  740 

Charities,  277,  617 

Charity  School,  614 

Charles  I.  602 

Charters,  601,  602 

Cholera,  603 

Churches,  274,  610,  740 

Citadel,  603 

Civil  Wars,  602 

Clock  Tower,  616 

Club,  615 

Coastguard  Station,  739 

Column,  270 

Commerce,  273 

Convent,  615 

Conveyance,  289,  294,  300, 

Cook  worthy,  Mr.  William, 

Corporation  of  the  Poor,  607 
Corporations,  270,  606-7 
Cotton,  William,  Esq.  615 
Cottonian  Library,  615 
County  Court,  610,  740 
Creeks,  600 
Cromwell,  Oliver,  602 
Custom  House,  273,  609 
Debating  Society,  616 
Devil's  Point,  739  | 

Devonport,  269 
Devonport  Column,  270 
Directories  :  —  Devowport, 

278  ;  Morice  Town,  289  ; 

Plymouth,     620 ;     StoJce, 

294;  8tonehousc,  741 
Dispensaries,  276,  616,  617 
Docks,  272,  605-6,  739 
Dockyard,  272 
Drainage,  740 
Drake,  Sir  Erancis,  601 
Drake's  Island,  601,  604 
Drill  Hall,  617 
Earthenware   Manufacture, 

East  Stonehouse,  738 
Eddystone  Lighthouse,  605 
Elocution  Society,  615 
Eminent    Men,    611,     615, 

Endowed  School,  614 
Exchange,  610 
Excise  Officers,  609 
Exports,  609 
Eye  Infirmary,  616 
Fairs,  273,  610 
Female  Home,  617 
Female     Orphan    Asylum, 

276,  616 
Fire  Brigade,  740 
Fisheries,  609 
Floating  Bridge,  273 
Ford,  294 

Fortifications,  270,  601,  603, 

604,  738,  740 
Free  Library,  615 
Freemasons,  617,  740 
Free  Schools,  276,  614 
French  Invasions,  601,  738 
Friaries,  611 
Friendly  Societies,  617 
Gaols,  274,  608 
Garrison,  604 
Gas  Works,  274,  610 
George  IIL  272 
Government  House,  273 
Government  Prison,  608 
GovernmentSteam  Yard, 273 
Grammar  School,  613 
Great  Western  Docks,  605-6 
Grey  School,  614 
Guardians,  607 
Guildhall,  608 
Gun  Wharf,  273 
Halls,  616,  740 
Hamoaze,  271 
Harbours,  271,  600,  605 
Hele's  and  Lanyon's  School, 

High  Schools,  276,614 
Higher  Stoke,  269,  270 
History,  270,  601 
Hoe  (The),  604 
Home  for  Aged  and  Infirm, 

Horticultural  Society,  617 

Plynioiitli,  Devonpoirt,  a,iid  Stoneliouse  Index  of  Snt^ects. 

Hospitals,  276,616,  739 
Hotels,  273,  616 
House  of  Mercy,  617 
Household  of  Faith,  614 
Houses,  606,  738 
Imports,  609 
Infirmaries,  616,  739 
Inland  Eevenue  Office,  273, 

King's  Hill,  272 
Laira,  605 
Libraries,  276,  615 
Lighthouses,  605 
Literary  Institutions,  615 
Little  Sisters  of  the  Poor,  741 
Lower  Stoke,  269,  270 
Lying-in  Charity,  616 
Magistrates,  271,  607 
Manors,  270,  738 
Manufactures,  610 
Marketplace,  610 
Markets,  273,  601,  610 
Mechanics'  Institution,  276, 

Members    of     Parliament, 

271,  607 
Mendicity  Society,  617 
Mercantile  Association,  276 
Military  Hospital,  739 
Millbay,  605 
Monasteries,  611 
Morice  Town,  269,  270 
Mount  Batten,  604 
Mount  Wise,  273 

Municipal    Boroughs,    269, 

270,  606 
Municipal  Buildings,  608 
Museums,  615 
Napoleon,  603 
National  Schools,  615,  740 
Natural  History  Soei ety,  615 
Naval  Hospital,  739 
Newspapers,  615 
NcwsKooms,  276,  615 
Oddfellows,  740 
Oil  Gas  Works,  610 
Omnibuses,  289,  294,  300, 

Orphans'  Aid  Hospital,  616 
Parliamentary       Boroughs, 

269,  601,  606 
Parliamentary    Kepresenta- 

tives,  271,  607 
Penitentiaries,  617 
Petty  Sessions,  740 
Piers,  605 
Plague,  602,  603 
Plymouth,  600 
Plymouth  Institution,  615 
Police  Courts,  609,  740 
Population,  600,  606,  738 
Porcelain  Manufacture,  610 
Port,  609 
Post  Offices,  274,  277,  289, 

294,  619,  741 
Priories,  611 
Prisons,  274,  608 
Provident  Institutions,  617 

Public  Library,  615 
Public  Officers,  271,  607 
Races,  603,  606 
Railways,  278,  294,  600,  663 
Rateable  Value,  608,  738 
Reading  Room,  615 
Regattas,  270,  606 
Rifle  Volunteers,  617 
Royal  Albert  Hospital,  276 
Royal  Hotel,  616 
Royal  Marine  Barracks,  739 
Royal     Naval,     &c.     Free 

Schools,  276 
Royal  Visits,  603 
Royal  William  Victualling 

Yard,  738 
St.  Andrew's  Hall,  616 
St.  G-eorge's  Hall,  740 
St.  James's  Hall,  616 
St.  Nicholas  Island,  604 
Savings  Banks,  276,  617 
School    Boards,    275,    614, 

School  of  Cookery,  615 
Schools,  275,  615,  739 
Semaphore,  273 
Ship-building,  610 
Shipping,  272,  609 
Siege,  602 

Sisters  of  Notre  Dame,  613 
Situation,  270,  600,  738 
Skating  Rink,  616 
Skelton  Family,  618 
Soup  Kitchen,  616 

Spanish  Armada,  602 
Statues,  603,  609 
Steamers,  289,  606,  664 
Steam  Yard,  273 
Stoke  (Higher  and  Lower), 

269,  270,  294 
Stonehouse  (East),  738 
Suburbs,  270 
Sunday  School  Choir,  617 
Sutton  Pool,  605 
Temperance  Hall,  276 
Theatre,  616 
Three  Towns,  600 
Town  Council,  271,  607     • 
Town  Halls,  274 
Trade,  273,  609 
Tramways,  289,  664 
Union,  740 
Urban  Sanitary  Authority, 

Volunteers,  602,  617 
Voters,  606-7 
Wash  Houses,  616 
Water  Conveyance,  664 
Water    Works,    274,    601, 

610,  740 
Western  College,  613 
Wharves,  273 
Workhouses,  271,  607,  740 
Worthies,  611,  615,  618 
Yacht  Club,  616 
Young     Men's      Christian 

Association,  615 


Acton  &  Borman,  emery  &  black  lead  mfrs.  London,  32 
Ascott  Jas.  buildr.  contractr.  whlwright.  &c.  Halberton,  12 
Avery  &  Hayman,  proprietors  of  North  Devon  Journal, 

Barnstaple,  18 
Aviolet,  watchmaker,  jeweller,  goldsmith,  &c.  Exeter,  21 
Bastow  Thos.  W.  railway  carrier  &  whsman.  Plymouth,  10 
Beer  &  Driffield,  artists  in  stained  glass,  &c.  Exeter,  5 
Bright  Hy.  C.  head  mstr.  Heavitree  Collegiate  Schl.  Exeter,  8 
Brockington  T.  seed,  corn,  &c.  mert.  Whimple  &  Exeter,  10 
Butcher  A.  H.  brewer,  Anchor  brewery,  Stonehouse,  16 
Castle  College  (C.  J.  Harland,  principal),  Torquay,  25 
Catford  J.  S.  portrait  and  landscape  photographer,  Ilfra- 

combe  and  Barnstaple,  22 
Colebrooke  A.  A,  manufixcturing  hosier,  Exeter,  21 
Cook  Alfred,  ship  and  boat  builder,  Appledore,  26 
Cranford   R.   printer   and   proprietor  of  Dartmouth   and 

Brixham  Chronicle,  Dartmouth,  9 
Dadds  Jno.  fern  grower  &  florist,  Langleigh,  Ilfracombe,  22 
Daily  Western  Times  (Latimer  &  Glanville,  pi*oprietors), 

Exeter,  29 
Dartmouth  and  Brixham  Chronicle  (R,  Cranford,  proprie- 
tor), Dartmouth,  9 
Deering  John  &  Sons,  joiners,  builders,  &e.  Tiverton,  28 
Donisthorpe  &  Brodie,  proprietors  of  Exeter  and.  Plymouth 

Gazette  and  Gazette  Daily  Telegram,  Exeter,  30 
Esplanade  Hotel,  Paignton,  17 

Exeter  and  Plymouth  Gazette  (Donisthorpe  &  Brodie,  pro- 
prietors), Exeter,  30 
Fry  Thomas,  cab  proprietor  &  apartments,  Ilfracombe,  22 

Gazette  Daily  Telegram  (Donisthorpe  &  Brodie,  proprie- 
tors), Exeter,  30 
Gerston  Family  &  Commercial  Hotel,  Paignton  station,  17 
Gillott  Joseph  &  Sons,  steel  pen  manufacturers,  Birming- 
ham, opposite  first  cover 
Godfrey's  Railway  Hotel,  Tiverton  junctn.  nr.  Cullomptn.  17 
Harlaud  C.  J.  principal.  Castle  College,  Torquay,  25 
Heath  J.  P.,  M.R.C.V.S.  manufacturer  of  Heath's  Lamb 

Mixture,  Exeter,  18 
Heavitree  Collegiate  School,  Exeter  (H.  C.  Bright,  head 

master),  8 
Henson  H.  tailor  and  draper,  Tiverton,  22 
Hepburn  &  Gale,  tanners,  &c.  London,  opposite  Mill  Band 

Manufacturers  in  Trades  Directory 
Holloway  &  Son,  cabinet  mkrs.  upholstrs.  &c.  Barnstaple,  26 
Latimer  &  Glanville,  proprietors  of  Daily  Western  Times, 

Exeter,  29 
Lawrence  Robert  A.  printer  and  publisher  of  North  Devon 

Hercdd,  Barnstaple,  13 
Lidstone  Fredk.  B.  auctioneer,  appraiser,  &c.  Exeter,  11 
Martin  W.  W.  proprietor  Palmerston  Hotel,  Tiverton,  27 
Matthews  H.  baker,  cook  and  confectioner,  Plymouth,  24 
Merrifield  R.  H.  engineer,  millwright,  &c.  Plymouth,  28 
Millbay   Soap,  Alkali   and   Soda   Company   (lira.),   soap 

manufacturers,  Plymouth,  6 
Monk  J.  E.  wholsl.  waterproof  clothing  mfr.  Plymouth,  20 
NichoUs,  Mathews  &  Co.  engineers,  brass  and  iron  foun- 
ders, &c.  Tavistock  Iron  Works,  19 
North  Devon  Herald  (Robt.  A.  Lawrence,  publr.)  Brnstple.  1 3 


Index  to  A-clvei-tisers. 

Iforth  Dcvo)i  Journal  (A^xerySi  Hayman,  proprs.)  Ernstple.  1 8 
Oakey  John  &  Sous,  ornery  &  black  lead  mfrs.  London,  26 
Pearse  Saml.  furnishing  &  general  ironmonger,  Exeter,  7 
Pearse   S.   proprietor  Koyal   Hotel,   Plymouth,    02>posite 

Hotels  in  IVades  Directory 
Eeed  William  Cann,  Angel  Hotel,  Tiverton,  11 
Saxon  N.,  Royal  and  Fortescue  Hotel,  Barnstaple,  22 
Searle  William,  l)ookscllcr,  stationer,  &c.  Torquay,  28 
Smith  Bros,  wholesale  bookbinders,  London,  2 
Stanley  Charles  &  Son,  wool  manure  merchants,  Wath, 

near  Rotherham,  4 
Stoyel  W.  H.  boot  and  shoe  manufacturer,  Tiverton,  28 
Stubbs  &  Co.  mercantile  ofl&ces,  London,  14  &  15 
Symons  John  &  Co.  cider  merchants,  Totnes,  20 
Teed,  mfr.  of  blue-black  correspondence  ink,  Exmouth,  23 
Timewell  S.  W.  uiort.&  dlr.  in  coal,  grain,  &c.  Ki  ngsbridge,25 

Torquay  Directory  and   South   Devon  Journal  (William 

Winget,  publisher),  Torquay,  31 
Trehane  Walter,  wine  merchant,  Exeter  and  Exmouth,  3 
Vickary  &  Co.  ironmongers,  gasfitters,  &c.  Exeter,  8 
Wadge  Edwin  H.  statuary,  wood  carver,  &c.  Ashburton 

and  Buckfastleigh,  23 
Wallingford  (owner  of),  Budleigh  Salterton,  to  be  let,  21 
Walter's  Earley  Hotel,  Plymouth,  19 
Ward  James,  London  Commercial  Hotel,  Okehampton,  27 
Westlako  Thomas  &  Co.  manufacturers  of  brass  and  copper 

goods,  &c.  Plymouth,  23 
White  William,  directory  publisher,  Sheffield,  32 
Wilkinson  &  Co.  wine  and  brandy  merchants,  Torquay,  12 
Wilkinson  R.  Came,  wine  and  brandy  importer,  Exeter,  9 
Winget   William,   publisher   of    Torquay  Directory  and 

South  Devon  Journal,  Torquay,  31 



Ascott  James,  Halberton,  12 

Wilkinson  &  Co.  Torquay,  12 

Wadge    Edwin    H.,   Ashburton    and 
Buckfastleigh,  23 

Beer  &  Driffield,  Exeter,  5 

Lidstone  Frederick  B.,  Exeter,  1 1 

Matthews  H.,  Plymouth,  24 

Westlake  Thos.  &  Co.  Plymouth,  23 

Acton  &  Borman,  London,  32 
Oakey  John  &  Sons,  London,  26 

Merrifield  R.  H.,  Plymouth,  28 
Nicbolls,  Mathews  &  Co.  Tavistock,  19 

Smith  Brothers,  London,  2 

Searle  William,  Torquay,  28 

Stoyel  W.  H.,  Tiverton,  28 

Merrifield  B.  H.,  Plymouth,  28 
NichoUs,  Mathews  &  Co.  Tavistock,  19 


Vickary  &  Co.  Exeter,  8 

Westlake  Thos.  &  Co.  Plymouth,  23 

Butcher  A.  H.,  Stonehouse,  16 

Ascott  James,  Halberton,  1 2 
Deering  John  &  Sons,  Tiverton,  28 

Fry  Thomas,  Ilfracombe,  22 

Holloway  &  Son,  Barnstaple,  26 

Timewell  S.  W.,  Kingsbridge,  25 

Wadge    Edwin    H.,   Ashburton  and 
Buckfastleigh,  23 

Beer  &  Driffield,  Exeter,  5 

Symons  John  &  Co.  Totnes,  20 
Wilkinson  &  Co.  Torquay,  12 

Timewell  S.  W.,  Kingsbridge,  25 

Westlake  Thos.  &  Co.  Plymouth,  23 

Brockington  T.,  Whimple  &  Exeter,  10 


White  William,  Sheffield,  32 

Acton  &  Borman,  London,  32 
Oakey  John  &  Sons,  London,  26 

Merrifield  R.  H.,  Plymouth,  28 
Nicholls,  Mathews  &  Co.  Tavistock,  1 9 

Searle  William,  Torquay,  28 

Dadds  John,  Langleigh,  Ilfracombe,  22 

Royal :  F.  B.  Lidstone,  Exeter,  11 

Bastow  Thomas  W.,  Plymouth,  10 

Vickary  &  Co.,  Exeter,  8 

Westlake  Thos.  &  Co.  Plymouth,  23 

Timewell  S.  W.,  Kingsbridge,  25 


Searle  William,  Torquay,  28 


Hepburn  &  Gale,  IjoniiiOn,  opposite  Mill 

Band  Mamifctrs.  in  Trades  Directory 

Colebrooke  A.  A.,  Exeter,  21 

Angel  Hotel,  William  C.  Reed,  Tiver- 
ton, 11 
Esplanade  Hotel,  Paignton,  17 
Gerston  Hotel,  Paignton  station,  17 
Godfrey's    Railway   Hotel,    Tiverton 

junction,  near  CuUompton,  17 
London  Hotel,  Jas.Ward,Okehmptn. 27 
Palmerston    Hotel,   W.   W.    Martin, 

Tiverton,  27 
Royal   Hotel,   S.    Pearse,   Plymouth, 
opposite  Hotels  in  Trades  Directory 
Royal  &  Fortescue  Hotel,  N.  Saxon, 

Barnstaple,  22 
Walter's  Farley  Hotel,  Plymouth,  19 

Trades  Index  to  A.clvei'tiser«. 

Lidstone  Frederick  B.,  Exeter,  1 1 

Holloway  &  Son,  Barnstaple,  26 

Teed  — ,  Exmouth,  23 


Merrifield  R.  H.,  Plymouth,  28 
Nicholls,  Mathews  &  Co.  Tavistock,  19 


Pea'rse  Samuel,  Exeter,  7 
Vickary  &  Co.  Exeter,  8 


Vickary  &  Co.  Exeter,  8 

Deering  John  &  Sons,  Tiverton,  28 



cton  &  Borman,  London,  32 
Oakey  John  &  Sons,  London,  26 

Heath  J.  P.,  M.R.C.V.S.,  Exeter,  18 

Stoyel  W.  H.,  Tiverton,  28 


Hepburn  &  Gale,  London,  opposite  Mill 
Band  Majwfctrs.  in  Trades  Directory 

Fry  Thomas,  Ilfracombe..  22 


Brockington  T.,  Whimple  &  Exeter,  10 
Stanley  Charles  &  Son,  Wath,  near 

Rotherhara,  4 
Timewell  S.  W.,  Kingsbridge,  25 


Stubbs'  Mercantile   Offices,    London, 
H&  lo 


Brockington  T.,  Whimple  &  Exeter,  10 
Timewell  S.  W.,  Kingsbridge,  25 


Hepburn  &  Gale,  London,  opposite  Mill 
Band  Manufctrs.  in  Trades  Directory 


Ascott  James,  Halberton,  12 
Merrifield  R.  H.,  Plymouth,  28 


Daily  Western  Times  (Latimer  & 
Glanville,  proprietors),  Exeter,  29 

Dartonouth  and  Brixham  Chronicle 
(R.  Cranford,  propr.),  Dartmouth,  9 

Exeter  and  Plymouth  Gazette  (Donis- 
tliorpe  &  Brodie,  proprs.),  Exeter,  30 

Gazette  Daily  Telegram  (Donisthorpe 
&  Brodie,  proprietors),  Exeter,  30 

North  Devon  Herald  (R.  A.  Lawrence, 
publisher),  Barnstaple,  13 

North  Devon  Journal  (Avery  &  Hay- 
man,  proprietors),  Barnstaple,  18 

Torquay  Directory  and  South  Devon 
Journal  (Wm.  Winget,  publisher), 
Torquay,  31 


Stanley  Charles  &  Son,  Wath,  near 
Rotherham,  4 


Catford  J.  S.,  Ilfracombe  and  Barn- 
staple, 22 


Cranford  R.,  Dartmouth,  9 
Donisthorpe  &  Brodie,  Exeter,  30 
Latimer  &  Glanville,  Exeter,  29 
Lawrence  Robert  A.,  Barnstaple,  13 


White  William,  Sheffield,  32 


Bastow  Thomas  W.,  Plymouth,  10 


Matthews  H.,  Plymouth,  24 
Ward  James,  Okehampton,  27 


Castle  College  (C.  J.  Hailand,  princi- 
pal), Torquay,  25 

Heavitree  Collegiate  School  (H.  C, 
Bright,  head  master),  Exeter,  8 


Brockington  T.,  Whimple  &  Exeter,  10 
Timewell  S.  W.,  Kingsbridge,  25 


Cook  Alfred,  Appledore,  20 


Merrifield  R.  H.,  Plymouth,  28 
Nicholls,  Mathews  &  Co.  Tavistock,  19 
Vickary  &  Co.  Exeter,  8 


Millbay  Soap,   Alkali    &    Soda   Co. 
(limited),  Plymouth,  6 


Wadge  Edwin  H., Ashburton  &  Buck- 
fastleigh,  23 


Gillott  Joseph  &  Sons,  Birmingham, 
opposite  first  cover 

Henson  H.,  Tiverton,  22 


Hepburn  &  Gale,  London,  opposite  Mill 
Band  Trades  Directory 

Brockington  T.,  Whimple  &  Exeter,  10 

Vickary  &  Co.  Exeter,  8 


Stubbs'  Mercantile   Offices,    London, 
14  &  15 


Deering  John  &  Sons,  Tiverton,  28 
Holloway  &  Son,  Barnstaple,  26 

Heath  J.  P.,  M.R.C.V.S.  Exeter,  18 


Aviolet,  Exeter,  21 

Monk  J.  E.,  Plymouth,  20' 


Ascott  James,  Halberton,  12 

Trehane  Walter,  Exeter  &  Exmouth,  3 
Wilkinson  &  Co.  Torquay,  12 
Wilkinson  R.  C,  Exeter  &  Torquay,  9 

Wadge    Edwin  H.,  Ashburton    and 
Buckfastleigh,  23 

Trade  MiarliS  Index.— County  Oflicers,  ete. 


I'ox  Charles,  printer,  stationer,  bookseller, 
bookbinder,  proprietor  and  publisher  of 
Kmgshridgc  Gazette  and  SotUli  Devon 
Advertiser,  and  agent  for  Accident  In- 
surance Co.  37  Fore  street,  Kingsbridge, 
pages  513,  1043,  and  1053 

Madocks  John,  brewer,  maltster,  cooper, 
consulting  brewer,  brewers'  engineer, 
and  lime  burner,  Warfleet  Brewery, 
Dartmouth,  pages  261,  895,  921,  and 

Millbay  Soap,  Alkali  &  Soda  Co.  (li- 
mited), soap,  &c.  manufacturers, 
Millbay  road,  Plymouth  ;  Philip  K. 
Truscott,  secretary  ;  John  Eice, 
manager,  pages  645  and  1076  {See 
Advertiscjnent,  page  6) 



Timewell  Stephen  Wreford,  merchant,  dealer 
in  coal,  grain,  seed,  cake,  manure,  meal, 
bran,  flour,  &c.,  and  agent  for  Burnard, 
Lack  &  Alger's  manures,  Duke  street, 
Kingsbridge ;  stores,  Dodbrooke,  Frogmore, 
and  South  Pool,  pages  514,  922,  and  1000 
(See  Advcrtisemmt,  page  25) 

Torbay  &  Dart  Paint  Co.  (Limited),  sole  pro- 
prietors of  Wolston's  celebrated  Torbay 
iron  paints,  Clarence  street,  Dartmouth;' 
and  Furzeham  hill,  Brixham;  London 
office,  23  Great  George  street,  AVestminster, 
S.W.,  pages  187,  263,  919,  and  1046 

White  William,  publisher  of  county  and  town 
directories,  &c.,  18  and  20  Bank  street, 
Sheffield    {See  Advertisement,  page  32) 




North  Devon — Sir  S.  H.  Northcote,  &  Sir  T.  D.  Acland 
East  Devon — Sir  L.  V.  Palk,  and  Sir  J.  H.  Kennaway 
South  Devon — Sir  M.  Lopes,  and  J.  T.  Carpenter-Gar- 

nier,  Esq. 
Barnstaple — T.  Cave  and  S.  D.  Waddy,  Esqrs. 
Dbvonport — J.  S.  Puleston,   Esq.  and  Capt.  George  E. 

Price,  Esq. 
Exeter — Arthur  Mills  and  J.  G.  Johnson,  Esqrs. 
Plymouth — E.  Bates  and  Sampson  Lloyd,  Esqrs. 
Tavistock— Lord  A.  J.E.  Russell 
Tiverton — Sir  J.  H.  Amory,  and  the  Right  lion.  W.  N. 


Lord  Lieutenant  and   Gustos  Rotulorum — The  Duke 

of  Somerset 
High  Sheriff  (1878)— S.  C.  Hamlyn,  E^q.  Colebrooke, 

Under  Sheriff — Brutton  J.  Ford,  Esq.  Exeter 

Clerk  or  the  Peace — Henry  Ford,  Esq.  Exeter 
County  Clerk— E.  H.  H.  Houlditch,  Esq.  Exeter 
Clerk  of  the  Lieutenancy  General  Meetings — Messrs. 

Pearce  &  Cross,  South  Molton 
Chief  Constable — Gerald  de  Courcy  Hamilton, Esq.Exeter 
County  Treasurer — H.  M.  James,  Esq.  Exeter 
County  Solicitor — T.  E.  Drake,  Esq.  Exeter 
Coroners — H.  Michelmore,  Esq.  Newton  Abbot  (Totnes 
district) ;  R.  R.  Rodd,  Esq.  Stonehouse  (Stoke  Damerel 
district) ;  John  H.  Toller,  Esq.  Barnstaple  (Barnstaple 
district) ;  Robert  Fulford,  North  Tawton  (Okehampton 
district) ;    R.   R.    Crosse,   Esq.    Cullompton   (Crediton 
County  Analyst — A.  W.  Blyth,  Esq.  Barnstaple 
Surveyor  of  County  Bridges  and  of  County  Buildings 

— H.  W.  Farley,  Esq.  Exeter 
Governor  of  High    Gaol  and   Keeper   of  House  of 
Correction — Major    Kirkpatrick.     Matron— Miss   S. 
A.  Hughes.     Surgeon— Mr.  T.  W.  Caird 


{For  Contractions  see  ;page  863.) 

Acland  Sir  Thomas  Dyke,  M.P.  Killerton  park,  Broadclyst, 

Exeter;  and  Minehead,  Somerset 
Adairs  Colonel  A.  W.,  Bovey  Tracey 
Addington  Hon.  G.  A.  B.  B. 

Allen  John,  Esq.  Coleridge  house,  Stokenham,  Kingsbridge 
Anson  Car twright Henry,  Esq.  9  Monk-]e-Grande,Heavitree 
Arnold  Lieut.-Col.  Wm.,  Nethercott,  Iddesleigh,  Winkleigh 
Arthur  Rev.  James,  BA.,  Atherington,  Barnstaple 
Atkinson  Wm.,  Esq.  Abbotsbury,  Higliweek,  Newton  Abbot 
Bailey  Charles  Fredk.  Esq.  Lee  Abbey,  Lynton,  Barnstaple 
Bassett  Rev.  Arthur  Charles,  Watermouth,  Berrynarbor,  I 
Bastard  Baldwin  John  P.  Esq.  Kitley,  Yealmpton 
Bawden  Rev.  Joshua,  South  Molton 
Bayley  AYra.  Rooker,  Esq.  Cotford  house,  Sidbury,  Sidm'th 

Treverven,  Esq.  Teignmouth 
Esq.   Rhyll  house,  East  Anstey, 

Beavan  John  Griffiths, 
Bellew   John   Froude, 


Bentinck  Charles  Aldenbury,  Esq.  Bovey  Tracey 
Berc  Montague,  Esq.  Q.C.  1  Eliot  terrace,  Plymouth 
Bewes  Cecil  Edward,  Esq.  Hill  Side,  Plympton  St.  Mary 
Binford  William,  Esq.  6  Broad  street.  South  Molton 
Bird  wood  General  William  Ilbert,    Wcodcot,   Salcombe, 

Blachford  Lord,  Blachford  bouse,  Cornwood,  Ivybridge 
Boles  Rev.  James  Thomas 

Bowring  Lewis  Bentham,  Esq.  Lavrochbere,  Torquay 
Bradshaw  F. 
Bradsha^V  Octavius,  Esq.  Torquay 

A-cting"  Mlag-istrates  for  the  Oounty. 

Bridges  William  Thomas,  Esq.  D.C.L.,  Torwood,  Torquay 
Brown  Michael  Lewis,  Esq.  Keittos,  Bishopsteignton 
Buckingham  Eev.  Jas.,  D.C.L.,  Doddiscorabsleigh,  Exeter 
i  Budd  Christian,  Esq.  M.D.,  North  Tawton 
'  BuUer  C.  R.  Esq. 
Buller  Major  Eedvers  Henry,  O.B.,  Downes,  Crediton 
Buller  Wentworth  William,  Esq,  Chappie,  Bovey  Tracey, 

Newton  Abbot 
Inilteel  J.  Esq.  Pamphlete 
L'almady    Vincent    Pollixfen,    Esq.    The   Hut,    Tetcott, 

Carow  Thomas,  Esq.  Collipriest,  Tiverton 
Carpenter-Garnier  John,  Esq.  M.P.,Mount  Tavy,  Tavistock 
Cary  Stanley  Edward,  Esq.  Tollaton,  Totnes 
Cary  g.  E.  G.  Esq. 

Champernowne  Arthur,  Esq.  Partington,  Totnes 
Charlewood  Admiral  Edwd.  P.,  Porthill,  Northam,  Bidefrd 
Chaster  John  Webber,  Esq.  West  hill,  Totnes 
Chichester  Arthur  Chamberlyne,  Rose  Mount,  Alphington.E 
Chichester  Lieut.-Col.  Arthur  Charles,  Kerswell,  Exeter 
Chichester  Sir  Arthur,  Bart.  Toulston  park,  Sherwell,  B 
Chichester  Sir  Alexander  Palmer  Bruce,  Arlington  court,  B 
Chichester  Charles,  Esq.  D.L.,  Hall,  Bishop's  Tawton,  B 
Chichester  Robt.,Esq.  B.xi.,  D.L.,  Hall,  Bishop's Ta\yton,  B 
Chichester  William  Henry,  Esq.  Grenofen  house,  Whit- 
church, Tavistock 
Churston  Lord,  Lupton  house,  Brixham 
Clarke  Edward  S.  Esq.  Fulford  house,  Dunsford,  Exeter 
Clarke  Rfchard  Hall,  Esq.  Bridwell,  Halberton,  Tiverton 
Clarke  T.  E.  Esq. 

Clifford  Eight  Hon.  Lord,  D.L.  Ugbrook  house,  Chudleigh 
Clifford-Butler  Hon.  Jas.  .Fitzwalter,  Sanctuary,  Shobrooke 
Clinton   Eight   Hon.   Lord,   Heanton  Satchville,  Huish, 

Beaford ;  and  London 
Coffin  Jno.  Eichd.  Pine,  Esq.  Portledge,  Alwington,  Bidefrd 
Coham  William  Holland  Bickford,  Esq.  Black  Torrington, 

Coleridge  Wm.  Eennell,  Esq.  Salston  hs.  Ottery  St.  Mary 
Collier  William  Fredk.  Esq.  Woodtown,  Sampford  Spiney 
Collins  Chas.  Eobert,  Esq.  Strathculm  house,  Bradninch 
Collins  John,  Esq.  Wonham  house,  Bampton,  Tiverton 
Collins-Splatt  Henry,  Esq.  Brixton  hs.  Brixton,  Plympton 
Conran  Capt.  Wm.  Blackland  house,  Plympton  St.  Mary 
Coode  Edwd.  Esq,  Polapit  Tamar,  Werrington,  Launceston 
Cornish  Charles  John,  Esq.  Salcombe  Eegis,  Sidmouth 
Cornish-Bowdeu  F. 
Cornish-Bowden  Eear-Admiral  William,  E.N.  Oak  la"wn, 

Newton  Abbot 
Cory  William,  Esq.  Halsdon,  Dolton,  Eggesford 
Courtenay  Lord,  Powderham,  Exeter 
Cruwys  George  James,  Esq.  Cruwys  Morchard,  Tiverton 
Cubitt  William,  Esq.  Fallapitt,  East  AUington,  Totnes 
Curry  WilUam,  Esq.  F.E.O.S.  Boutport  street,  Barnstaple 
Daniel  Thomas  Carew,  Esq.  Stoodleigh,  Tiverton 
Davie  Geo.  Christr.,  Esq.  The  Elms,  Bishop's  Tawton,  B 
Davie   Sir  Henry  Eobert  Ferguson,  Bart.  M.P.    Greedy 

park,  Sandford,  Exeter 
Davie  Colonel  J.  D. 

Davy  John  Tanner,  Esq.  Ashtown,  Eose  Ash,  Sth.  Molton 
Davy  Eobert  Manning,  E&q.  Grove  hill,  Topsham ;   and 

Oxenhay  lodge,  Membury,  Axminster 
Dawson  Ealph,  Esq.  Wembiiry  house,  Wembury,  P 
Deacon  James  Pryse,  Esq.  Hoo-Meavy,  Horrabridgo 
Deakin  Colonel  James  Henry,  Werrington,  Launceston 
Deane  Wm.  Anthony,  Esq.  Webbery,  Alverdiscott,  Bidefrd 
Dennis  Thomas  John,  Esq.  Bradiford  house,  Pilton,  B 
Devon  Earl  of,  Powderham,  Exeter 
Devon  Henry  Charles,  Esq.  Cruwyshaye,  Eackenford 
Divett  John,  Esq.  Bovey  Tracey,  Newton  Abbot 
Dixon  Joshua,  Esq.  Winslade  house,  Clist  St.  Mary,  E 
Dowell  Capt.  Wm.  Montague,  E.N.,  C.B.  Torr  hs.  Bideford 
Drew  Colonel  Francis  Edward 

Drewe  Edward,  Esq.  Eatcliffe  house,  Clisthydon,  Exeter 
Drewe  Lieutenant-Colonel  F.  The  Grange 

Drinkwater  Peter  Bourne,  Esq.  Lincombe,  Torquay 
Duckworth  Sir  John  Thomas  Buller,  Bart.  Wear  house, 

Countess  Wear,  Exeter 
Duntze  Sir  John  Lewis,  Bart.,  Starcross,  Exeter 
Durant  Eichard,  Esq.  Sharpham,  Ashprington,  Totnes 
Eales  Charles 
Ebrington  Viscount 

Edwards  Commander  Frederick,  E.N.,  Ivybridge 
Edwards  Eev.  Hy.,  B.A.,  Eectory,  Churchstanton,  Honiton 
EUicombe  George  Bradford,  Esq.  Eocklands,  Chudleigh 
Elliott  John  James,  Esq.  Leigham,  Egg  Buckland,  P 
Elton  Sir  Edward  Marwood,  Bart.  Widworthy  court,  Wid- 

worthy,  Honiton ;  and  London 
English  J.  T.  Esq.  Stamford  hill,  Stratton 
Farringdon  Sir  Henry  Anthony,  Bart.    Gosford  house, 

Ottery  St.  Mary 
Firth  Frederick  Henry,  Esq.,  Cator  court,  Widdicombe-in- 

the-Moor,  Ashburton 
Fisher  Thomas,  Esq.  Buckland  Filleigh,  Highampton 
Fleming  John,  Esq.  Bigadon,  Buckfastleigh  ;  &  London 
Fletcher  C.  E.  Esq.  Dawlish  _ 
Fortescue  Earl,  Castle  hill,  Filleigh,  South  Molton 
Fortescue  John  Faithful,  Athenaeum  street,  Plymouth 
Fortescue  Mathew,  Esq.,  Q.C.  Weston  house,  Berry  Pome- 

roy,  Totnes 
Fortescue  William  B.  Esq.  Octon,  Torquay 
Froude  William,  Esq.  C.E,,  F.E.S.  Chelston  cross,  Cock- 

ington,  Torquay 
Fulford  Francis  Drummond,  Esq.  3  Carlton  hill,  Exmouth 
Fursdon  C.  Esq.  Tiverton 
Garratt  Lieutenant-Colonel  A. 

Garratt  John,  Esq.  Bishop's  court,  Farringdon,  Exeter 
Gill  Eeginald  Butler  Edgcumbe,  Esq.  Ward  house,  Beer 

Alston,  Eoborough 
Gill  Eev.  William,  Venn  house,  Lamerton,  Tavistock 
GiffDrd  Hon.  «Sc  Eev.  Eobert  George,  M.A.,  Eackenford, 

Morchard  Bishop 
Germon  Colonel  Eichard  Charles,  Gortlee,  Dawlish 
Graham  J. 
Gregory  J.  B.  Esq. 
Grigg  John   William,  Esq.  Heathfield  house,  Tamerton 

Foliott,  Plymouth 
Hale-Monro  C.  J.  Esq.  Ingsdon,  Newton 
Hallett  William  Trelawny,  Stedcombe  house,  Axraouth 
Halliday  William  Halliday,  Esq.  Glenthorne,Countesbury; 

and  West  view,  Torquay 
Hamilton  Alexander  Henry  A.  Esq.  Fairfield 
Hamlyn  Shilston  Calmady,  Esq.  Leawood,  Bridestowe 
Harding  Lieut.-Col.  William,  Upcott,  Pilton,  Barnstaple 
Harris  John  Crighton,  Esq.  6  Bloomfield,  Pennsylvania,  E 
Harris  Captain  William,  Yealmptou,  Plympton 
Hatherly  Narcissus  Collins,  M.D.  123  East  st.  S.  Molton 
Hawkins  C.  S.  Esq.  Kingsbridge 
Hawkins  Stuart,  Esq.  Alston,  Plympton  St.  Mary 
Hayter-Hames  Eev.  Hayter  George,  M.A.,  Chagford 
Hayne  Major  Charles  Seale,  Kingswear,  Dartmouth 
Hibbert  Col.  Hugh  Thomas,  Broadgate  house,  Pilton,  B 
Heathcoat-Amory  Sir  John  Heathcoat,  Bart.M.P.  Knights- 

hayes  court,  Tiverton 
Hill  John,  Esq.  Pitt  house,  Moretonhampstead 
Hippisley  John  Henry,  Esq.  Shobrooke  park,  Crediton 
Hoare  Peter  Merrick,  Esq.  Luscombe,  Dawlish 
Hodge  J.  Gage,  Esq.  Willesleigh,  Barnstaple 
Holds  worth  Arthur  Frederick,   Esq.  Widdecombe  house, 

Stokenham,  Kingsbridge 
Hole  Alfred  Eobert,  Esq.  Beam  house,  Great  Torrington 
Hole  Eev.  Eobert,  B.A.,  North  Tawton 
Hole  Wm.  Eobt.  Esq.  Park,  Bovey  Tracey,  Newton  Abbot 
Holley  James  Hunt,  Esq.  Oaklands,  Okehampton 
Holley  Windham  Hunt,  Esq.  Oaklands,  Okehampton 
Hughes  Major-General  William  Templer,  C.B.,   Egland, 

Awliscombe,  Honiton 
Huyshe  Eev.  John,  Clisthydon,  Exeter 
Johnson  Edward,  Esq.  Farringdon  house,  Farringdon,  E 

-A.ctiiig'  Miajyistirates  for*  the  Oouiity. 

Johnson  John  G-eorgo,  Esq.,  M.P,, Cross,  Little  Torrington, 

Groat  Torrington 
Ivoatos  William,  Esq.  Primley  hill,  Paignton 
Kekewich  Trehawke,  Esq.  Peamore  house,  Exminster 
Kolly  lieginald,  Esq.  Kelly,  Lifton 
Konliaway  Sir  John  II.,  Bart.,  M.P.,  Escot,  Ottery 
King  Thomas,  Esq.  Manor  hs.  North  Iluish,  Ugborough 
Kitson  Rev.  Thos.,  M.A.  Shiphay  hs.  St.  Mary  Church,  T 
Knight  Jamos  Alexander  11.  Esq.  The  Lawn,  Axminster 
Laity  Richard  John,  Esq.  35  Ker  street,  Devon  port 
Law  Thomas  Shephard,  Esq.,  F.R.C.S.,  Riversdale,  B 
Lewellyn  Lew6llyn,  Esq.  Nethway,  Brixhara 
Lewis  J.  J). 

Ley  John  Ilenry,  Esq.  Trehlll,  Kenn,  Exeter 
Lindsay  Honourable  Colin,  Deer  park,  Biickerell,  Honiton 
Locke  J.  A.  Esq.  Dulverton 
Lopes  Sir  M.,  Maristowe,  Roborough 
Lousada  John  B.  Esq. 

Lowe  Vice-Admiral  Arthur,  Stoke,  Devonport 
Lucas  S.  L.  L.  Esq.  Thuborough  house,  Sutcombe 
Luxmoore  J.  C,  Esq.  London 
Lyne  De  Castro  F. 

Madden  Lieut.- Col.  Lewis  Powell,  Totnes 
Mallock  Richard,  Esq.  Cockington  court,  Cockington,  T 
Manning  Thomas  Ellis,  Esq.  Eversfield,  Bratton  Clovelly 
Marker  Greorge  Marker,  Esq.  Yondercott,  UfFculme 
Marker  Richard,  Esq.  Coombe,  Gittisham,  Honiton 
Marsh-Dunn  Richard  M.  Esq.  Carlton  lodge,  Teignmouth 
Matthews  Wm.  Edwin,  Esq.  15  The  Crescent,  Plymouth 
Maule  George  Norman,  Esq.  Ilfracombo 
May   Rear-Admiral   Charles    Henry,   Leeford,    Budleigh 

Salterton,  Exmouth 
Melhuish  Walter  AVilliam,  Esq.  Court  Barton,  Clawton, 

Mellor  Alfred,  Esq.  Oiterhead,  Churchstanton,  Honiton 
Miles  William,  Esq.  Dixfield  house,  Exeter 
Milford  Frederick,  Esq.  Matford  house,  Exeter 
Milford  John,  Esq.  Coavec,  Topsham  road,  Exeter 
Mitchell  William  Prjce,  Esq.,  D.L.,  Holwell,  Whitchurch, 

Monro  C.  J.  H. 
Moles  worth   George    Mill    Frederick,    Esq.    Northdown 

house,  Bideford 
Moore-Stevens   John   Curson,  Winscott  house,  Marland 

Peters,  Great  Torrington 
Morley  Earl,  Saltram,  Plympton  St.  Mary 
Morshead  Rev.  Henry  John,  M.A.,  Kelly,  Lifton 
Mudge  Arthur,  Esq.  Sydney,  Plympton 
Nagle  Joseph  Chichester,  Esq.  Calvcrleigh,  Tiverton 
Neuman  George,  Esq.  Tracey  house,  Awliscombe,  Honiton 
New  John  Cave,  Esq.  Caddock  house,  Uifcnlme 
Newman  Thomas  Holsworth,  Esq.  Coryton,  Lew  Down 
Nightingale  Col,  Manners,  8  Barn  Park  ter.  Teignmouth 
Northcote  Right  Honourable  Sir  Stafford  Henry,  C.B.,  M.P. 

Pynes,  Upton  Pyne,  Exeter 
Oldham  Joseph,  Esq.  Strawbridge,  Hatherleigh 
Oldham  Ernest,  Esq.  Strawbridge,  Hatherleigh 
Palk  Sir  Lawrence,  M.P.  Haldon  house,  Kenn,  Exeter 
Palk  Rev.  AVilmot  Henry,  M.A.  Ashcombe,  Dawlish 
Parker  Admiral  George,  Delami  >re,  Cornwood,  Ivybridge 
Parker  Rev.  Franke,  M.A.  Luffincott,  Launceston 
ParlbyRev.  John  Hall,  M.A.  Manadon,Pennycross,  Plymth 
Peek  Sir  H.  W.,  M.P.  Rousdon,  Lyme  Regis ;  and  Wimble- 
don house,  Surrey 
Peters  William  Henry,  Esq.  Harefield,  Lympstone,  Exeter 
Phillipps-Treby     Colonel     Paul     Winslow,    Goodamoor, 

Plympton  St.  Mary 
Phillips  Captain,  Sorrents,  Torquay 
Phillips  Henry  Cramer  March,  Esq.  Wellswood,  Torquay 
Phillpotts  Captain  Henry,  St.  Clare,  Torquay 
Pino-Coffin  Jno.  Rchd.Esq.  Portledge,  Alwington,  Bideford 
Pode  John  Duke,  Esq.  Slade  hall,  Cornwood,  Ivybridge 
Poltimore  Lord,    Court  hall,  North  Molton;  Poltimore, 
Exoter :  and  London 

Ponsford  John,  Esq.  Ford  house,  Drewstoignton 
Porter  Henry  Aylmer,  Esq.  41  Southernhay,  Exeter 
Porter  William,  Esq.  Hembury  Fort,  BuckorcU,  Honiton 
Portsmouth  Earl  of,  Eggesford  house,  Wembworthy ;  and 

Hurstbourne  park,  Hampshire 
Quicke  John,  P^sq.  Newton  hs.  Newton  St.  Gyres,  Exeter 
Rayer  William  Carew,  Esq.  Holcombe  co\irt,  Wellington 
Ridgway  Lieutenant-Colonel  Alexander,  Sheplegh  court, 

Blackawton,  Totnes 
Robinson  Randolph 

Rogers  Thomas,  Orleigh  court,  Buckland  Brewer,  Bideford 
Rolle  Honourable    Mark  George  Kerr,   Stevenstone,    St. 

Giles-in-thc-Wood,  Torrington 
Rowo  William  North,  Esq.  Cove,  Tiverton 
Russell  Richard  Bury,  Esq.  Dennington  house,  Swimbridge 
St.  Aubyn  Edward,  Manor  lodge,  Stoke,  Devonport 
Samborne     Rev.    Richard    Lane    Palmer,     Ashreigney, 

Sanders  E.  A.  Esq.  Stoke  house 
Saunders  C.  M. 

Saville  Lieutenant-Colonel,  Langdon  house,  Dawlish 
Scales  E.  Esq.  Holcomb  villas,  Dawlish 
Scarborough  John  L.  Esq.  Coly  house,  Colyford,  Colyton 
Scobell  Edwin,  Esq.  Goodameavy  hs.  Meavy,  Horrabridge 
Scratton  Daniel  Robert,  Esq.  West  Ogwell,  Newton  Abbot 
Seale  Sir  Henry  Paul,  Bart.  Norton  house,  Dartmouth 
Seale  John  H.  Esq.  Norton  house,  Dartmouth 
Shelley  Sir  John,  Bart.  Shobrooke  park,  Crediton 
Short  Francis  Baring,  Esq.  Bickham,  Kenn,  Exeter 
Sidmouth  Right  Honourable  Viscount,  M.P.  Manor  house, 

Upottery,  Honiton 
Sillifant  Arthur  Onslow,  Esq.  Coombe  house,  Colebrooke 
Sim  Wm.  Clulow,  Esq.  Knowle,  Clist  St.  George,  Topsham 
Simcoe  Captain  John  Kennaway,  Wolford  lodge,  Dunkes- 

well,  Honiton 
Simpson  Chas.,  Esq.  51  Durnford  street.  East  Stonehouse 
Smyth  William  Gould,  Fort  house.  South  Molton 
SoltauGeo.  Wm.  Esq.  Little  Efford,  Egg  Buckland,  Plymth 
Soltau  John  T.  Esq.  Somerset  lodge.  Newton  Abbot 
Soltau-Symons  Geo.  Chaddlewood  hs.  Plympton  St.  Mary 
Spied  J.  B.  Esq.  Oifwell  house,  Offwell,  Honiton 
Splatt  AY.  F. 

Spragge  Francis  Hoare,  Esq.  The  Quarry,  Paignton 
Stewart-Sa vile  Rev.  Fredk.  Alexr.,M.A.,  Ardmore,  Torquay 
Still  John  Thomas,  Esq.  Mountfield  house,  Musbury 
Stuart  Lieutenant-General  Sir  Charles  Shepherd,  G.C.B. 

Southlands,  Withycombe  Rawleigh,  Exmouth 
Stucley  Colonel  William  Lewis,  Hartland  Abbey,  Bideford 
Stucley-Stucley  Sir  G.  Bart. 

Studd  Edward  Fairfax,  High  house,  Kenton,  Exeter 
Studdy  Hy.  Esq.  Waddoton  court.  Stoke  Gabriel,  Totnes 
Talbot  John  Reginald  Francis  George,  Esq.  Rhode  Hill 

house,  Uplyme 
Tanner    Rev.    John    Vowler,   The    Rectory,   Eggesford, 

Templer  James  George  John,  Lindridge,  Bishop's  Teign- 

ton,  Teignmouth 
ThoroldRev.  Wm.,  M.A.  The  Rectory,  Warkleigh,S.  Molton 
Toll  Henry  Limbrey,  Esq.  Manor  house.  Street,  Totnes 
Toms  Captain  Henry  Riversea,  Kingswear,  Dartmouth 
Toms  Rev.  Humphrey  Wm.,  M.A.  Combmartin,  Barnstaple 
Tonge  Charles,  Esq.  Oaklands,  Dawlish 
Torrens  Sir  R.  R.,  K.G.M.G.  Ashburton 
Tremayne  John,  Esq.,  M.P.  Sydenham  house,  Marystowe, 

Lew  Down 
Trist  Major  John  Fincher,  18  The  Crescent,  Plymouth 
Troyte   Charles  Acland  Williams,  Esq.  Huntsham  court, 

Huntsham,  Bampton 
Tucker  Charles,  Esq.  Marlands,  Magdalen  road,  Exeter 
Turner  Charles  Henry,  High  Cliff  house,  Dawlish 
Turner  Thomas,  Esq.,  CuUompton 
Twysden  Captain  J.  S.,  Charlston,  Kingsbridge 
Uniacke  Captain  Henry  Turner,  Lay  well,  Brixham 
Vicary  John,  Esq.  The  Knowlos,  Highweek,  Newton  Abbot 

A-cting"  IWtag-i^trates  fbi-  tlie  CJoniity. 

Vicary  John  Fulford,  Esq.  North  Tawton 
Vidal  Edwd.  Urch,  Esq.  Corn  borough,  Abbotsham,  Bidefrd 
Vivian  Edward,  Esq.  Woodfield,  Torquay 
Vye  Nathaniel,  Esq.,  D.L.,  Tlosemount,  Ilfracombe 
Wade  Charles  Joseph,  Esq.  Dawlisli 
"Waldy  Captain  "William  Thomas,  Howden,  Tiverton 
"Walkey  Joseph  Elliot  0.  Esq.  Pole  house,  Ide,  Exeter 
Walrond  Sir  John,  Bradfield  house,  Uffculme,  Cullompton 
"Walrond  Lieut.  Col.  William  Hood,  New  court,  Topsham 
Watson  Richard  Iluxham,  Esq.  Northgate  house,  Totnes 
Watts  William  John,  Esq.  Ford  house,  Newton  Abbot 
Webber  Charles  Henry,  Esq.  St.  Brannock,  Braunton 
Were  Joseph,  Esq.  Hay,  Broadclyst,  Exeter 
Were  Thomas  Kennet 

White  Thomson  Robert  Thomas,  Esq.  Broomford  manor. 
Jacobstowe,  Exeter 

Wilcocks  Jas.  Blackmore,  Esq.  Stoke  cottage,  Stoke,  D'port 

William  Charles  Henry,  Esq.  Pilton  house 

Wilson  Captain 

Wise  Col.  Uacres  W.  Aileron  house,  Loddiswell,  Kingsbdge 

Wood   John,   Esq.  The  Grrange,   Withycombe  Rawleigh, 

Woodley  James,  Esq.  Halshanger  house,  Ashburton 
Woolcorabe  Henry,  Esq.  Ashbury,  Exbourne 
Wreford  John,  Esq.  Clannaborough,  Bow 
Wren  Adderley  Barton,   Esq.,  B.A.,  Lenwood,  Northara, 

Wrey  Sir  Bouchier  Palk,  Quayfield  house,  Ilfracombe 
Wrey  Rev.  Henry  Bouchier,  M.A.  Corffo  house,  Tawstock 
Wrey  Henry  Bouchier  Toke,  Esq.  8  Powderham  terrace, 

AVyatt-Edgell  A.  Esq.  Cowley  house,  Exeter 


Villas,  ^'c,  in  Towns  and  Bathing  Places  are  not  included. 

Abbey  House,  Buckfastleigh,  195 

~   botsham  Court, James  Taylor,  Esq.  99 

eton  Castle,  West   Worlington,    Sir   George    Stucley, 
'  Bart.  846 
A-la-Ronde,  Withycombe  RaAvlcigh,   Miss  Anna  Sophia 

Hurlock,  854 
Aileron  House,  Loddiswell,  Colonel  Dacres  "Wise,  527 
Altamera,  Topsham,  Mrs  Ellen  Ord,  793 
Amery  House,  Monkleigh,  Mrs  Maria  Somes,  550 
Arlington  Court,  Sir  Alexander  Palmer  Bruce  Chichester, 

Bart.  J.P.  104 
Ashbury  House,  Venerable  Archdeacon  WooUcombc,  and 

Henry  Woollcombe,  Esq.  J.P.  110 
Ashfield,  Awliscombe,  Dowager  Lady  Graves  Sawle,  116 
Ash  House,  Stokefleming,  Mrs  Mary  Weymouth  Netherton 

Chilcote,  734 
Ashley  Court,  Tiverton,  William  Henry  Dunsford,  Esq, 

J.P.  779 
Ashley  House,  Tiverton,  Thomas  Harold  Tronson,  Esq.  779 
Ash  Town,  Rose  Ash,  John  Tanner  Davy,  Esq.  J.P.  683 
Barcombe,  Paignton,  —  Keates,  Esq.  590 
Barton  Hall,  Kingskerswell,  Hercules  Edwin  Brown,Es  1.515 
Barton  House,  Bishop's  Morchard,Henry  Churchill,  Esq  159 
Bayview,  Northam,  Col.  John  Ross  Wheeler,  571 
Beam  House,  Great  Torrington,  Alfred  Robert  Hole,  Esq. 

J.P.  456 
Beechwood  House,  Plympton  St.  Mary,  Right  Hon.  Lord 

Seaton,  666 
Bickham,  Buckland  Monachorum,  Reginald  Gill,  Esq.  199 
Bickham,  Kenn,  Francis  Baring  Short,  Esq.  J.P.  505 
Bickington  Lodge,  Fremington,  Lieutenant  John  Beaufin 

Irving,  451 
Bicton  House,  Right  Hon.  Lady  Louisa  Rolle,  149 
Bigadon  House,  Buckfastleigh,  John  Fleming,  Esq.  J.P.  195 
Bishop's  Court,  Faringdon,  John  Garratt,  Esq.  J.P.  448,728 
Bishop's  Palace,  Paignton,  Colonel  Bridgman,  590 
Bishop's  Tawton  Hall,  Robert  Chichester,  Esq.  B.A.,  J.P., 

and  Charles  Chichester,  Esq.  J.P.,  D.L.  162 
Bishopstowe,  St.  Mary  Church,  Sampson  Hanbury,  Esq.  686 
Bitton,  Teignmouth,  Mrs  Catherine  Ann  Parsons,  768 
Blachford  House,  Cornwood,  Lord  Frederick  Rogers  Blacli- 

ford,  239 
Black  Hall,  North  Huish,  Frederick  James  Cornish-Bowden, 

Esq.  J.P.  572 
Blackland  House,  Plympton  St.  Mary,  Captain  William 

Conran,  J.P.  666 
Blackpool  Cottage,   Stokefleming,   Thomas  H.  Newman, 

Esq.  J.P.  733 

Blackslade,  Widecombe-in-the-Moor,   Robert    Dy- 

mond,  Esq.  J.P.  849 
Bovacott,    Bradford,   Clervaux    Leslie    Morley   Saunders, 

Esq.  169 
Bowden  House,  Stokefleming,  Lewis  Richard  Netherton, 

Esq.  J.P.  734 
Bowden  House,  Totnes,  W.  D.  Adams,  Esq.  820 
Bowringsleigh,    West   Alvington,  William  Roope  Ilbert, 

Esq.  840 
Bradfield,  Uffculme,  Sir  John  W.  Walrond,  Bart.  J.P.  829 
Bradiford  House,  Pilton,  Thomas  John  Dennis.Esq.  J.P.135 
Bradley  House,  Newton  Abbot,  Miss  Mary  Ann  Wall,  557 
Bradley  Manor  House,  Newton  Abbot,  Major  Christopher 

Hellyer  Beddek,  561 
Bradninch  House,   —  Roll,  Esq.  171 
Bramford    House,    Brampford   Speke,   William   Gamlen, 

Esq.  J.P.  174 
Bndwell,  Uffculme,  Richard  Hall  Clarke,  Esq.  J.P.  830 
Bridwell  House,  Ilalberfon,  Richard  Hall  Clarke,  Esq.  462 
Brixton  House,  Henry  Collins-Splatt,  Esq.,  J.P.  188 
Broadgate   House,   Pilton,   Col.  Hugh   Thomas   Hibbert, 

J.P.  137 
Broadhembury  Grange,  Mrs.  Drewe,  191 
Brcokfield,  Fremington,  Major  Robert  Hayes  Lovell,  452 
Brook  House,  Buckfastleigh,  J.  Michelmorc,  Esq.  195 
Broomborough,  Totnes,  Mrs.  Mary  Phillips,  820 
Broomford  Manor,  Jacobstowe,  Lieut.  Col.  White  Thomson, 

J.P.  505 
Buckerell  Lodge,  Rev.  G.  Barons  Northcote,  194 
Buckland  Abbey,  Buckland  Monachorum,  Alexander  Fre- 
derick Bundock,  Esq.  199 
Buckland  Court,  Buckland-in-the-Moor,  B.  J.  P.  Bastard, 

Esq.  200 
Buckland  House,  Buckland-Tout-Saints,  Mrs  Annie  Bruns- 

kill,  201 
Buckland  Filleigh  House,  Thomas  Fisher,  Esq.  J.P.  198 
Burrow  Park,  Abbotskerswell,  William  Creed,  Esq.  100 
Butterford,  North  Huish,  Samuel  Cockrem,  Esq.  572 
Bvdown  House,  Swinibridge,  John  Nott  Pyke-Nott,  Esq.  751 
Bystock,  Colaton  Raleigh,  John  Paul  Bryce,  Esq.  229 
Cadhay,  Ottery  St.  Marj ,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Collins,  585 
Calverleigh  House,  Joseph  Chichester  Nagle,  Esq.  J.P.  207 
Cann  Hs.  Tamerton  Foliott,  Mark  Stevens  Grigg,  Esq.  753 
Canon-Teign  House,  Christow,  Right  Hon.  Viscount  Ex- 
mouth,  215 
Castle  (The),  Tiverton,  Mrs.  Ellen  Carew,  780 
Castle  Hill,  Filleigh,  Right  Hon.  Earl  Fortescue,  and  Rt. 

Hon.  Viscount  Ebrington,  450 


Seattsi  ol*  ]Vol>ility9   Olerg^y  audi  Grentry  in  Devonsliire. 

Chaddlewood,  Plympton  St.  Mary,  George  Soltau-Symons, 

Esq.  666 
Chantry.  Aveton  Gilford,  John  Alfred  Pcarco,  Esq.  115 
Chattuu,  Axniinster,  George  Andrew  Spottiswoode,  Esq. 
Chelston  Cross,  Cockington,  William  Eroude,  Esq.,  CM, 

E.R.S.,  J.P.  228 
Chelston  Manor^  Cockington,  —  Blackwood,  Esq.  228 
Chircombe,  Northam,  General  AVilliam  Crichton,  571 
Chittlehana  Ilolt  Manor  House,  Chittlehampton,  Thomas 

Eater,  Esq.  213 
Clannaborougli  House,  John  Wreford,  Esq.,  J.P.  223 
Cleavelands,  Northam,  Lady  Mary  Bishop,  571 
Clevelands,  Axmouth,  Edward  Levi  Ames,  Esq.  121 
Cloakham  House,  Axniinster,  Henry  Knight,  Esq.  116 
Clovelly  Court,  Neville  Fane,  Esq.  228 
Cockington  Court,  Eichard  Mallock,  Esq.  J.P.  228 
Coham  House,  Black  Torrington,  William  Holland  Bick- 

ford  Coham,  Esq.  J.P.  165 
Cole  House  (or  Colhays),  Bovey  Tracey,  Theophilus  Levett, 

Esq.  167 
Coleridge,  Stokenham,  John  Allen,  Esq.  J.P.  736 
Collaton  Kirkbam,  Paignton,  Mrs.  Hogg,  590 
Colleton  Barton,  Chulmleigh,  Sir  F.  Williams,  218 
Collipriest  House,  Tiverton,  Thomas  Carew,  Esq.  J.P  779 
Coly  House,  Colyton,  John  Scarborough,  Esq.  233 
Combe  House,  Gittisham,  Richard  Marker,  Esq.  455 
Combhead,  Bamptou,  Captain  William  Levi,  J.P.  123 
Coombe  Hall,  Drewsteignton,  James  Strong,  Esq.  305-6 
Coombe   House,    Colebrooke,    Arthur    Onslow    Sillifant, 

Esq.  J.P.  230 
Coombe  Royal,  AVest  Alvington,  John  Luscombe,  Esq.  840 
Cornborough,  Abbotsham,Edward  Urch  Vidal,  Esq.  J.P.  99 
Cory  ton  Park,  Kilmington,  Frederick  Swabey,  Esq.  509 
Cotford  House,  Sidbury,  Wm.  Rooker  Bayley,  Esq.  J.P.  707 
Cottage  (The),  Netherexe,  Christopher  Hill,  Esq.  556 
Court  Barn,  Clawton,  Walter  Wm.  Melhuish,  Esq.  J.P.  223 
Court  Barton,  Dittisham,  Edward  Owen,  Esq.  301 
Court  Grange,  Abbotskerswell,  Mrs.  Marcus  Hare,  100 
Court  Hall,  Monkton,  Mrs.  N.  E.  Gard,  551 
Court  Hall,  Nth.  Molton,  Rt.  Hon.  Lord  Poltimore,  J.P.  574 
Court  Hall,  Sidbury,  Right  Hon.  Stephen  Cave,  M.P.  707 
Courtis  Knowle,  Diptford,  Mrs  Catherine  Hare,  301 
Courtlands,  Withycombe  Rawleigh,  Mrs.  O.  Browne,  854 
Court  Place,  Parracombe,  Chas.  Blackmore,  jun.  Esq.  596 
Coventry  Lodge,   Seaton,  Sir  Weaker  Coventry  Trevelyan, 

Bart.  701 
Cowley  House.  Brampford  Speke,  Arthur  Wyatt-Edgell, 

Esq.  J.P.,  B.A.,  F.G.S.  174 
Craddock,  UfFeulme,  John  Cave  New,  Esq.  J.P.  830 
Creedy   Park,    Sandford,    Sir    Henry    Robert    Furguson 

Davie,  Bart.  M.P.,  J.P.  697 
Cross,  Little  Torrington,  John  George  Johnson,  Esq.  M.P., 

J.P.  526 
Cross  House,  Northam,  Major  Jas.  Hy.  Prendergast,  571 
Cruwyshaye,  Rackenford,  Hy.  Chas.  Devon,  Esq.  J.P.  678 
Cruwys-Morchard  Court,  Geo.  Jas.  Cruwys,  Esq.  J.P.  250 
Culver  House,  Chudleigh, Rev.  Thos.  Jno.  Yarde,M.A,  216 
Culver  House,  Holcombe  Burnell,  Edwd.  Byrom,  Esq.  476 
Daison  (The),  St.  Mary  Church, William  John  Potts  Cliatto, 

Esq.  686 
Darley  House,  Okehampton,  Wm.  Ponsford,  Esq.  J.P.  683 
Dartington  Hall,  Arthur  Champernowne,  Esq.  J.P.  254 
Dean  Court,  Dean  Prior,  Wm.  Richard  Coulton,  Esq.  268 
Deer  Park,  Buckerell,  Hon.  Colin  Lindsay,  194 
Delamore,  Cornwood,  Admiral  George  Parker,  J.P,  239 
Denbury  House,  Misses  Gardiner,  269 
Derriford  House,  Egg  Buckland,  Copplestone  Lopes  Rad- 

clifFe,  Esq.  313 
Diptford  Court,  Thomas  Rutland,  Esq.  301 
Downes,  Crediton,  Major  Redvers  Hy.  Buller,  C.B.,  J.P.  242 
Drascombe  Farm,  Drewsteignton,  Arthur  Knapman,  Esq. 

Dulford  House,  Broadhembury,  Henry  Walrond,  Esq.  191 
Dunchideock  House,  Walter  John  Llewellyn,  Esq.  306 

Dunmore  House,  Bradninch,  Thomas  Chalmers,  Esq.  171 
Dundridge,  Harberton,  R.  Orlibart,  Esq,  464 
Dunsland,  Bradford,  Harry  Moulton-Barrett,  Esq.  169 
Dunsland  Court,    Jacobstowe,    Rev.   Charles  St.  Denys 

Moxon,  B.C.L.  505 
Eardley   Villa,    Berry   Pomeroy,   Admiral  Arthur  Parry 

Eardley-Wilmot,  C.B.  148 
Ebford  Barton,  Woodbury,  Miss  Ann  Greir  Lee,  856 
Eiford  Manor,  Egg  Buckland,  Mrs.  Anne  Laetitia  Clark,  313 
Eggesford   House,    Wembworthy,    Right    Hon.    Earl  of 

Portsmouth,  839 
Endsleigh  Cottage,  Milton  Abbot,  His  Grace  the  Duke  of 

Bedford,  545,  754 
Englebourne,   Harberton,    John   Browne   Paige-Browne, 

Esq.  464 
Escot  House,  Talaton,  Sir  John  Henry  Kennaway,  Bart. 

M.P.  751 
Eversfield,  Bratton  Clovelly,  Thomas  Ellis  Manning,  Esq. 

J.P.  175 
Exeleigh  House,  Starcross,  Sir  John  Lewes  Duntze,  Bart. 

J.P.  729 
Fallapit  House,  East  Allington,  Wm.  Cubitt,  Esq.  J.P.  308 
Fanfield,  Countess  Wear,  Alexander  Harry  A.  Hamilton, 

Esq.  J.P.  242 
Faringdon  House,  Edward  Johnson,  Esq.  J.P.  448 
Feniton  Court,  Rev.  William  Francis  Gore,  B.A.  450 
Flcte,  Holbeton,  Henry  Bingham  Mildmay,  Esq.  476 
Follaton  House,  Totnes,  Stanley  Edwd.  Cary,  Esq.  J.P.  820 
Ford  House,  Drewsteignton,  John  Ponsford,  Esq.  J.P.  305-6 
Ford  House,  Newton  Abbot,  Wm.  John  Watts,  Esq.  J.P.  557 
Fort  Hill   House,   Barnstaple,   John    Roberts    Chanter, 

Esq.  J.P.  134 
Fremington  House,  W.  A.  Yeo,  Esq.  451 
Fuidge  House,  Spreyton,  Samuel  Norris,  Esq.  729 
Fulford  House,  Dunsford,  Edward  Clark,  Esq.  J.P.  307 
Fullaford,  Buekfastleigh,  Exors.  of  .John  Hamlyn,  Esq.  195 
Fursdon  Cadbury,  Rev.  Edward  Fursdon,  M.A.  206 
Gaddon  House,  UfFeulme,  William  Ayshford  Wood,  Esq.  830 
Gatcombo  House,  Little  Hempston,  Commander  Robert 

George  Baker,  R.A.  526 
Glenthorne,  Countisbury,  William  Halliday  Halliday,  Esq. 

J.P.  241 
Gnaton  Hall,  Newton  Ferrers,  Charles  Freeman,  Esq.  567 
Good-a-Meavy  House,  Meavy,  Edwin  Scobell,  Esq.  J.P.  542 
Goodamoor,  Plympton  St.  Mary,  Colonel  Paul  Winslow 

Phillipps-Treby,  J.P.  666 
Goodrington,  Paignton,  James  Brown,  Esq.  590 
Gosford  House,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  Sir  Henry  Anthony  Far- 

rington,  Bart.  585 
Graystone,  Drewsteignton,  Richard  Strong,  Esq.  305-6 
Greenway,  Churston  Ferrers,  Mrs  Susannah  Harvey,  223 
Grimstone  House,Whitchurch,MontagueBere,Esq.  Q.C.847 
Grenofen,  Whitchurch,   William  Henry  Chichester,  Esq. 

J.P.  847 
Grove  Hill,  Topsham,  Robert  Manning  Davy,  Esq.  J.P.  793 
Haccombe  House,  Misses  Carew,  461 
Haine,  Stowford,  Edward  Blackburn,  Esq.  749 
Halberton  Court,  Thomas  Webber,  Esq.  462 
Haldon  House,  Kenn,    Sir  Lawrence  Palk,  Bart.  M.P., 

J.P.  505 
Halsdon  House,  Dolton,  William  Cory,  Esq.  J.P.  303 
Halshanger  House,  Ashburton,  Jas.  Woodley,  Esq.  J.P.  110 
Halwell  House,  South  Pool,  Albert  PraedHallifax,Esq.727 
Halwell  Manor  House  (near  Lifton),  William  Jas.  Harris, 

Esq.  464 
Harefield,  Lympstone,  William  Henry  Peters,  Esq.  J.P.  533 
Harewood,    Plympton   St.   Mary,    Captain    Henry   John 

Tolcher,  666 
Hartland  Abbey,  Colonel  William  Lewis  Stucley,  467 
Hayne  House,  Plymtree,  Frederick  Alexander  Manfield, 

Esq.  672 
Hazlewood,  Loddiswell,  William  Peek,  Esq.  J.P.  527 
Heale  House,  Littleham  (near  Bideford),  Richard  Sanders, 
Esq.  525 

Seats  of  IVol3ility,   Clerg-y  and   Oentry  in  IDevonsliire. 


Heanton    House,    Heanton  Punchardon,   Exors.    of   Sir 

Frederick  Martin  Williams,  Bart.  M.P.,  J.P.  471 
Heauton  Satchville,  Huish,  Eight   Hon.   Lord  Clinton, 

488,  698 
Heathlield    House,    Tamerton    Foliott,    John    AVilliams 

Grigg,  Esq.  J.P.  753 
Heaths  Court,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  Lord  Coleridge,  58u 
Hembury  Fort,  Buckerell,  William.  Porter,  Esq.  J.P.  194 
Hemerdon  House,  Plympton  St.  Mary,Mrs.Woollcombe,666 
High  House,  Kenton,  Edward  Fairfax  Studd,  Esq.  J.P.  o09 
Hillersdon  House,  CuUompton,  Mrs.  Maria  Grant,  251 
Hillside,  Plympton  St.  Mary,  Cecil  Edward  Bewes,  Esq. 

J.P.  667 
Holcombe  Court,  Holcombe  Eogus,  William  Carew  Payer, 

Esq.  J.P.  477 
Holne  Chase  House,  Holne,  Sir  B.P.  AVrey,  Bart.  478 
Holwell  House,  Whitchurch,  William  Pryce  Michell,  Esq. 

J.P.,  D.L,  847 
Hoo-MeaA^y,  Meavy,  James  Pryse  Deacon,  Esq.,  J.P.  542 
Horswell  House,   South    Milton,    Eev.   James   Edward 

Newell,  M.A.  719 
Horwell,  Colebrooke,  Samuel  Norrish,  Esq.  230 
Horwood  House,  Eev.  John  Dene,  B.A.  488 
Hudscott,  Chittlehampton,  John  Baring  Short,  Esq.  213 
Huntsham  Court,  Charles  Arthur  Williams  Troyte,  Esq. 

J.P.  489 
Hut  (The),  Tetcott, Vincent  Pollixfen  Calmady,Esq.J.P.775 
Indio,  Bovey  Tracey,  Charles  Aldenbury  Bentinck,  Esq. 

J.P.  167 
Ingsdon,  Ilsington,  Charles  Hale  Monro,  Esq.  J.P.  500 
Jacobstowe  Manor  House,  Charles  J.  Moxon,  Esq.  505 
Kelly  House,  Eeginald  Kelly,  Esq.  J.P.  505 
Kenbury   House,  Exminster,    Augustus   W.   B.   Daniell, 

Esq.  439 
Killerton  House,  Broad  Clyst,  Sir  Thomas  Dj  ke  Acland, 

Bait.  M.A.,  D.C.L.,  M.P.  189 
Kingshurst,  Paignton,  Eev.  Thos.  Grainger  Hall,  M.A.  590 
King's  Nympton  Park,  Newell  Connop,  Esq.  516 
Kingswear  Castle,  Major  C.  Seale-Hayne,  518 
Kingswear  Castle,  Brixham,   Charles  Seale-Hayne,  Esq. 

J.P.  187 
Kitley,   Yealmpton,  Baldwin    John   Pollexfen    Bastard, 

Esq.  J.P.  861 
Knightshayes     Court,    Tiverton,    Sir     John    Heathcoat 

Heathcoat-Amory,  Bart.  M.P.,  J.P.  780 
Knowle,  Clist  St.  George,  Wm.  ClulowSim,Esq.  J.P.  226 
Knowle,    Sidmouth,   Eev.   Eichard    Thornton  Thornton, 

B.A.  709 
Knowle  House,   Salcombe   Eegis,  Eight  Honourable  S. 

Cave,  M.P.  695 
Langdon  Hall,  Wembury,  Eichard  Cory,  Esq.  839 
Leawood,    Bridestowe,   Shilston    Calmady  Hamlyn,  Esq. 

J.P.  179 
Lee  Abbey,  Lynton,  Chas.  Fredk.  Bailey,  Esq.  J.P.  534 
Leigh  House,  Chulmleigh,  Miss  Mary  Preston,  218 
Leigham  House,  Egg  Buckland,  James  John  Elliot,  Esq. 

J.P.  314 
Lenwood,  Northam,  Adderley  Barton  Wren,  Esq.  B.A. 

J.P.  571 
Lew  House,  Lewtrenchard,  Colonel  Eichard  Cooper,  523 
Leywell  House,  Brixham,  Captain  Henry  Turner  Uuiacke, 

J.P.  182 
Lifton  Park,  Frank  Bradshaw,  Esq.  524 
Lindridge,  Bishop's  Teignton,  J.  G.  J.  Tern  pier,  Esq.  J.P.  1 62 
Little  Bray,  Charles   (near  South  Moltou),  Sir  Thomas 

Dyke  Acland,  Bart.  209 
Little  Efford,  Egg  Buckland,  Geo.AVm.  Soltau,  Esq.J.P.314 
Livonia,  Sidford,  Colonel  Eobert  Murray  Curry,  708 
Longstone,  Pilton,  John  Thomas  Fisher,  Esq.  J.P.  135 
Lukesland,  Harford,  James  Johnston  Mac  Andrew,  Esq.  466 
Lundy  Island,  William  Heaven,  Esq.  529 
Lupton  House,  Brixham,  Lord  Churston,  182 
Lupton  House,  Churston  Ferrers,  Eight  Honourable  Lord 

Churston,  J.P,  222 

Lydford  Bridge,  Lydford,  Daniel  Eadford,  Esq.  531 
I^ynmouth  Manor  House,  Mrs  Mary  Teresa  Lock  Eoe,  534 
Maisonette,  Stoke  Gabriel,  Capt.  Eiehd.  Dawkins,  E.N.  734 
Mamhead  Park,  Sir  Lydstone  Newman,  Bart.  537 
Manadon,   Penny  Cross,  Eev.  John  Hall  Parlby,  M.A., 

J.P.  597 
Manor    (The),   Sidmouth,   children   of    the  lato   George 

Edmund  Balfour,  Esq.  709  .        . 

Manor  Cottage,  Bradford,  Jsph.Thos.  English,  Esq.  J.P.  169 
Manor  Cottage,  Coryton,  Thomas  Holdsworth  Newman, 

Esq.  J.P.  241 
Maristow,  Tamerton  Foliott,  Sir  Lopes  Massey  Lopes, 

Bart.  M.P.,  J.P.  752 
Marley  House,  Eattery,  Misses  Carew,  678 
Marley  Lodge,  Withycombe  Eawleigh,  Mrs.  Long,  854 
Marpool  Hall,  Withycombe  Eawleigh,  Exors.  of  H.  Percy, 

Esq.  854 
Membland  Hall,  Holbeton,  Edward  Chas.  Baring,  Esq.  476 
Millaton,  Bridestowe,  John  Gubbins  Newton,  Esq.  179 
Monkaton  Manor,  Pinhoe,  George  Edwin  Elliott,  Esq.  600 
Moreton  House,  Bideford,  Mrs  Ann  Buck,  150 
Mothecombe  House,  Holbeton,  Henry  Bingham  Mildmay, 

Esq.  476 
Moult  (The),  Malborough,  Viscount  Courtenay,  636 
Mount  (The),  Salcombe,  Earl  of  Devon,  693 
Mount  I3oone,  Dartmouth,  256 

Mountfield,  Musbury,  Captain  Thomas  Still,  J.P.  556 
Mount  Stephen,  Halberton,  George  Coombe,  Esq.  462 
Mount  Tavy,   Tavistock,   John   Carpenter-Garnier,   Esq. 

M.P.  754 
Natsworthy  Manor,  Widecombe-in-the-Moor,  William  John 

Owen  Tucker,  Esq.  850 
Ness  House,  Shaldon,  Eight  Hon.  Lord  Clifford,  691 
Nethercott.  Iddesleigh,  Lieut.-Col.  Wm.  Arnold,  J.P.  490 
Netherton  Hall,  Farway,  Lady  Louisa  Prideaux,  449 
Nethway   House,   Brixham,   Llewellyn    Llewellyn,    Esq. 

J.P,  182 
Newcombes,  Crediton,  Benjamin  Wood  Cleave,  Esq.  247 
Newcourt  House,  Topsham,  William  Hood  Walrond,  Esq. 

J.P.  793 
NewnhaTU_.Eaji,  Plympton  St.  Mary,  Misses  Dorothy  and 

TTeorgina  Strode,  666 
Newton  House,   Newton   St.   Cyres,   John  Quicke,   Esq. 

J.P.  568 
Newton  House,  Newton  Tracey,  Major  Thomas  Howard 

Effingham  Hogg  Dimond  Hogg,  570 
Northcote  Manor  House,  Burrington,WilIiam  Buckingham, 

Esq.  205 
North  Huish  Manor  House,  Thomas  King,  Esq.  J.P.  572 
Norton  Parks,  Dartmouth,  Sir  Henry  Paul  Seale,  Bart.  256 
Nutwell  Court,  Woodbury,  Sir  Francis  George  Augustus 

Fuller- Eliott  Drake,  Bart.  855 
Nutwell  House,  Woodbury,  Miss  Seliua  Northcote,  855 
Oakey,  Stoke  Canon,  Charles  G-.  Ford,  Esq.  733 
Oakfield  Lodge,  Buckerell,  Miss  Margaret  Eadcliffe,  194 
Oakford  Manor  House,  William  Spurway,  Esq.  579 
Oaklands,     Chudleigh,     Major-General     Charles    James 

Buchanan  Eiddell,  C.B.,  E.A.  218 
Oaklands,  Okehampton,  James  Hunt  Hollev,  Esq.  J.P. ;  & 

Windham  Hunt  Holley,  Esq.  J.P.  583 
Offwell  House,  Major  J.  B.  Speid,  579 
Ogwell  House,  West   Ogwell,   Daniel   Eobert  Scratton, 

Esq.  J.P.  844 
Oldway,  Paignton,  Mrs.  Isabella  Eugenie  Singer,  590 
Orchard  Hill,  Northam,  Exors.  of  Thos.  Evans,  Esq.  J.P.  57 1 
Orleigh  Court,Buckland  Brewer,  Thos.  Eogers,  Esq.  J.P.  1 98 
Otterhead,  Church  Stanton,  Alfred  Mellor.  Esq.  J.P.  221 
Ottery  St.  Mary  Manor  House,  Miss  Mary  Frances  Keble, 

Coleridge,  585 
Oxenham  Manor  House,  South  Tawton,  Captain  William 

John  Luxmore,  728 
Oxenway,  Membury,  Eobt.  Manning  Davy,  Esq.  J.P.  543 
Oxton  House,  Kenton,  Gen.  Edward  Studd,  J.P.,  D.L.  608 
Painsford,  Ashprington,  Eichard  Coaker,  Esq.  1 1 1 



@eat^  of  IVobility,   Olei-g^y  and  Grentr^^  in  I>evoiiNli.ire. 

P.imflete,  Holbeton,  John  lUilteol,  Esq.  476 
riirk(Tlio),Bovey  Tracoy,  Win.  Ilo])t.  Hole,  Esq.  J.P.  167 
L*iii'kti')lLl,  Paignton,  Arthur  Hydo  Dondy,  Esq.  590 
P.irford,  ijrewsteignton,  Wni.  Ilichanl  Bishop,  Esq.  305-6 
Park  House,  Sandford,  Elias  Tremlott,  Esq.  698 
Parnacott,  Pyworthy,  Miss  Vowlor,  678 
Paschoe,  Colebrooko,  John  Bastin,  Esq.  230 
].*oamore  House,   Esminster,   Trehawke  Kekewich,  Esq. 

J.P.  439 
Perridgo,  Holcombe  Burnell,  Capt.  St.  John  Daubeny,  477 
Petticombo,  Monkleigh,  John  Saltren  Willett,  Esq.  550 
Pickwell,  Goorgeliam,  453 

Pilton  House,  Charles  Henry  Williamf?,  Esq.  J.P.  598 
Polapit  Taniar,  Werrington,  Edward  Coode,  Esq.  J.P.  840 
Pole  House,  Ide,  Joseph  Elliott  C.  Walkey,  Esq.  J.P.  491 
Poltimore  House,  Lord  Poltimore,  673 
Pomeroy,  Grittisham,  Captain  R.  Hody  Cox,  455 
Port  Hill,  Northam,  Admiral  Edward  P.  Charlwood,  571 
Portledge,  Alwington.Jno.  Kichd.  Pine  Coffin,  Esq.  J.P.  102 
Pound,  Buck'and  Monachoruni,  Rev.  Anthony  Bailer,  199 
Powderhani  Castle,  Right  Honourable  the  Earl  of  Devon, 

and  Lord  Courtenay,  674 
Primley,  Paignton,  J.  E.  Belfield,  Esi.  590 
Primley  Hill,  Paignton,  William  Keates,  Esq.  J.P.  593 
Primley  Hill,  Sidbury,  Richard  Taylor,  Esq.  708 
Puddington  Lodge,  John  Leete  Eland,  Esq.  677 
Puslinch  House,  Newton  Ferrers,  Rev.  DukeYonge,M. A.  567 
Pyne's  House,  Upton  Pyne,  Right  Honourable  SirStaflford 

Henry  Northcote,  Bart.  C.B.,  M.P.  835 
Quarry  (The),  Paignton,  Eras.  Hoare  Spragge,  Esq.  J.P.  590 
Quayheld  House,  Ilfracombe,  Sir  Bouchier  Palk  Wrey, 

J.P.  499 
Radford  Mansion  House,  Plynistock,  Miss    Edith  Agnes 

Surgison,  672 
RatclylFe,  Clyst  Hydon,  AValter  Matthew,  Esq.  225 
Ratclyffe  House,  Clyst  Hydon,  Edwd.  Drew,  Esq.  J.P.  226 
Ravensbury,  Dartmouth,  Geo.  Parker  Bidder,  Esq.  C.E.259 
RedclifFe,  Paignton,  Robert  Clodd  Smith,  Esq.  590 
Retreat  (The),  Northam,  Col.  Chas.  Cambrian  Henehy,  571 
Retreat  (The),  Topsham,  A.  M.  Hamilton,  Esq.  793 
Rode  Hill  House,  Uplyme,  John  Reginald  Erancis  George 

Talbot,  Esq.  J.P.  833 
Rhydda     Bank,     Trentishoe,     Miss     Amelia    Catherine 

Griffiths,  828 
Rhyll  House,  East  Anstey,  John  Froude  Belle  w,Esq.  J.P.  309 
Ringrone,  Malborough,  Lord  Kinsale,  536 
Riverside,  Northam,  Major-General  Maxtone  Murray,  571 
Riversmeet,  Topsham,  Erancis  Davy,  Esq.  793 
Rockbeare  Court,  Gilbert  Walsh,  Esq.  681 
Rockbeare  House,  Colonel  Thomas  Richard  Crosse,  681 
Rockhill,    Stoketieraing,    Richard    Brown    Cleland,    Esq. 

J.P.  734 
Roeklands,  Chudleigh,  George  Bradford  Ellicombe,  Esq. 

J.P.  217 
Rosemont,  Alphington,  Arthur  Chamherlayne  Chichester, 

Esq.  J.P.  101 
Rosemount,  Ilfracombe,  Nathaniel  Vye,  Esq.  J.P.,  D.L.  499 
Rougemont,  Exeter.  Mrs.  Mary  Eliza  Gard,  412 
Rousdon  Hall,  iSir  Henry  W.  Peek,  Bart.  M.P.,  J.P.  683 
Rydon  House,  Talaton,  Jonah  Pynsent  Mathew,  Esq.  751 
St.  Brannock,  Braunton,  Chas.  Hy.  Webber,  Esq.  J.P.  178 
St.  John's  Cottage,  Withycombe  Rawleigh,  854 
St.  Loyes,  Exeter,  Major  General  Guy  Rotton,  320 
Salcombe  House,  Salcombe  Regis,  Charles  John  Cornish, 

Esq.  695 
Salston  House,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  William  Rennell  Coleridge, 

Esq.  J.P.  585 
Saltram,  Plympton  St. Mary,  RightHon.Earl  of  Morley,666 
Sanctuary  (The),  Shobrooke,  Honourable  James  Eitzwalter 

Butler,  J.P.  706 
Sandridge,  Stoke  Gabriel,  Baroness  de  Virte,  734 
Sandwell,  Harberton,  J.  Tayleur,  Esq.  464 
Seaforth  Lodge,  Seaton,  Lady  Louisa  Ashburton,  700 
Shambles  House,  Dartmouth,  Lieut.-Col.  Ridgway,  J.P.  263 

Sharpham,  Ashprington,  Richard  Durant,  Esq.  J.P.  Ill 
Sheaf hayno     House,     Yarcombo,     Sir     Erancis    George 

Augustus  Fuller-Eliott  Drake,  Birt.  859 
Shoplcgh  Court,  ]]lackawton,  Lieut.-Col.  Alexander  Ridg- 
way, J.P.  163 
Shiphay  House,  St.  Mary  Church,  Rev.  Thomas   Kitson, 

M.A.,  J.P.  686 
Shobrooke  Park,  John  Henry  Hippislt^y,  Esq.  J.P.  706  ; 

Shuto  House,  Sir  William  Edmund  Pole,  Bart.  706 
Sidbury  Manor  House,  Thorn:  is  Sneyd,  Esq.  708 
Silverton  Park,  714 

Slade,  Cornwood,  John  Duke  Pode,  Esq.  239 
Slade  House,  Charleton,  Edward  Arthur,  Esq.  210 
Slewton  House,  Whimple,  George  Brooke,  Esq.  846  ^_| 

Smytham,  Little  Torrington,  Capt.  Osmund  Scott,  527     jH| 
South  Allington  House,  Chivelstone,  Capt.  Thomas  HarruH 

Pitts,  214 
Southlands,   Withycombe    Rawleigh,    Licut.-General    Sir 

Charles  Shepherd  Stuart,  G.C.B.,  J.P.  855  ^ 

Springfield,  Northam,  Major  William  Douglas  Scott,  57l^| 
Stanley  Villa,  Northam,  Col.  J.  T.  Clarke,  571  ^ 

Staple  Court,  Hockworthy,  William  Dester,  Esq.  475 
Stodcombe  House,  Axmouth,  William  Trelawny  Hallett, 

Esq.  J.P.  121 
Stevenstone    .House,   St.  Giles-in-the-Wood,    Hon.  Mark 

George  Kerr  Rolle,  J.P.  685 
Stoke  Cliff  Hous9,  Dartmouth,  Capt.  Augustus  Peter  Ark- 

wright,  R.N.,  M.P.  259 
Stoke  House,  Stokefieming,  Geo.  Parker  Bidder,  Esq.  733 
Stokely  House,  Stokenham,  Sir  Lydston  Newman,  Bart.  736 
Stoodleigh  Court,  Thomas  Carew  Daniel,  Esq.  J.P.  748 
Stover  Hs.,  Teigngrace,  His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Somerset,  766 
Stowford,  Harford,  Miss  Rivers,  466 
Strathculm   House,  Bradninch,    Charles   Robert   Collins, 

Esq.  J.P.  171 
Strawberry  Hill,  Lympstone,  Edwd.Michell  Pierce,  Esq.  633 
Strawbridge,  Hatherleigh,  Joseph  Oldham,  Esq.  J.P.  469 
Street  Manor  House,  Blackawton,   Henry  Limbrey  Toll, 

Esq.  J.P.  163 
Strete  Raleigh  House,  Whimple,  Mrs  Ann  BuUer,  847 
Strode  House,  Modbury,  Mrs.  Caroline  Mitchell,  548 
Sydenham  House,  Marystowe,  John  Tremavne,  Esq.  M.P., 

J.P.  541 
Tadaport,  West  Buckland,  Murray  George,  Esq.  842 
Tapeley  (or   Tapleigh),  West  Leigh,  William   Langhara 

Christie,  Esq.  M.P.  844 
Tawstock  Court,  George  Henry  Pinckney,  Esq.  764 
Torquay  Manor  House,  Sir  Lawrence  Palk,  Bart.  M.P.  797 
Torr  House,  Newton  Eerrers,  Chas.  Cornthwaite,  Esq.  567. 
Torr  Villa,   Newton    Eerrers,    Misses   Mary  &   Frances 

Yonge,  567 
Torre  Abbey,  Torquay,  Robert  Shcdden   Sulyard  Gary, 

Esq.  798 
Townstall   House,  Dartmouth,   Ralph   Richardson,   Esq. 

M.D.,  J.P.  263 
Tracey  House,  Awliscombe,  George  Neumann,  Esq.  J.P.  1 1 5 
Trehill,  Kenn,  John  Henr}'  Ley,  Esq.  505 
Tristford,  Harberton,  Major  John  Fincher  Trist,  J.P.  464 
Ugbrooke  Park,  Chudleigh,  Right  Hon.  Lord  Clifford,  J.P.. 

D.L.  216 
Upcott,  Pilton,  Liout.-Col.  William  Harding,  J.P.  598 
Upcott  Avenel,  Sheepwash,  W.  H.  B.  Coham,  Esq.  J.P., 

D.L.  703 
Upcott  Barton,  Beaford,  Thomas  Webber  Snell,  Esq.  143 
Upottery  Manor  House,  Right  Hon.  Viscount  Sidmouth, 

M.P.  833 
Upton  Lodge,  Brixham,  Rev.  Geo.  Hy.  Gervaise Cutler,  1 82 
Venn,  Churchstow,  Misses  Savery,  222 
Venn  House,  Lamerton,  Rev.  William  Gill,  J^P.  520 
Venn  Ottery  Barton,  Thomas  Yelverton,  Esq.  835 
Venton,  Dartington,  James  Dimond  Moysey,  Esq.  255 
Waddeton  Court,  Stoke  Gabriel,  Hy.  Studdy,  Esq.  J.P.  734 
Walreddon    House,   Whitchurch,   Sir   T,    L.    Seccombe, 
K.C.S.L,  C.B.  848 

Seats  of*  IVotoility,   Clei-g-y   and  Grentry  in  Devonsliire, 


WarUigh,    Tamertjn    Foliott,    Mrs.    Charlotte   Hannah 

Eadcliife,  752 
W'atennouth    Castle,    Berrynarbor,    Frederick   Williams, 

Esq.  R.N.  146 
Way  J3artoii,  Chagfurd,  Thos.  Taylor  Coniam,  Esq.  207 
Wear  Hall,  Wear  Gitford,  Col.  Arthur  Hill  Millett,  838 
Wear   House,    Countess  W^eir,   Sir  John  Thomas  Euller 

Duckworth,  Bart.  J.P.  793 
Webbery,  Alverdiscott,  Wm.  Anthony  Deane,  Esq.  J.P.  102 
Weir  House,  Topsham,  Sir  John  Thomas  Buller  Duck- 
worth, Bart.  J.P,  793 
Wellesbourne,Northam,  Genl.Wm.  Nelson  Hutchinson, 571 
Wembury  House,  Kalph  Dawson,  Esq.  J.P.  839 
Werrington  Park,  Col.  James  Henry  Deakin,  J.P.  840 
Westcott  House,  Rockbeare,  John  Elliott,  Esq.  681 
Weston  House,  Berry  Pomeroy,  Matthew  Fortescue,  Esq 

J.P.  148 
West  Rockham,  Cruwys  Morchard,  "Wm.  Tidbald,  Esq.  250 
Whetcombe,  North  Huish,  Henry  Thos.  Kingwell,  Esq.  572 
White  Hall,  Churchstow,  Jno.Weston  Peters  Gale,  Esq.  221 
Whiteway    House,     Chudleigh,    Dowager     Countess     of 

Morley,  216 
Whitleigh  Hall,  St.  Budeaux,  John  Croad  Henn-Gennys, 

Esq.  684 
Whyddon  Park,  Chagford,  Rev.  Alfred  Gresley  Barker, 

M.A.  207 
Widey  Court  House,  Egg  Buckland,  Rev.  J.  Morshead,  3 1 3 
Widworthy  Court,  Sir  Edward  Marwood  Elton,  Bart.  850 
Widdecombe,  Stokenham,  Arthur  Frederick  Holdsworth, 

Esq.  J.P.  736 
Willesleigh,  Landkey,  Gage  John  Hodge,  Esq.  J.P.  522 

Willestrew  Park,  Lamerton,  John  Hy.  Gubbin,  Esq.  520 
Winscott,  Peter's  Marland,  John  Curzon  Moore-Stevens, 

Esq.  J.P.  638 
Winslade  House,  Clist  St.Mary,Joshiia  Dixon, Esq.  J.P.  227 
Winterbourn  House,  Teignmouth,  Miss  Richards,  768 
Wiscombe  Park,  South  Leigh,  Exors.  of  Charles  Gordon, 

Esq.  719 
Withecombc  House,  Witliycombe  Rawleigh,  Otho  Cooke, 

Esq.  854 
Witliycombe  Rawleigh  Grange,  John  Wood,  Esq.  J.P.  855 
Wolford   Lodge,    Dunkoswell,   Captain   John    Kennaway 

Simcoe^  R  N.  306 
W^onham  House,  Bampton,  John  Collins,  Esq,  J.P.  124 
Wonston,  Throwleigh,  James  Dunning,  Esq.  778 
Woodlands,  Kenn,  505 
WoodtowD,  Sampford  Spiney,  W^illiam  Frederick  Collier, 

Esq.  J.P.  697 
Woodtown  House,  Alverdiscott,  Capt.  Algernon  Capel,  102 
Woodville  House,  Northam,  John  How,  Esq.  J.P.  571 
"Woody  Bay,  Martinhoe,  AVm.  Aysford  Sanford,  Esq.  J.P.  540 
Woolston  House,  Loddiswell.  Thomas  Wyse  Weymouth, 

Esq.  527 
Worth  House,  Washfield,  Rev.  Reginald  Worth,  837 
Wray  Barton,  Moretonhampstead,  Robert  William  Crump. 

Esq.  552 
Yannons  (The),  Teignmouth,  Robert  Moir,  Esq.  768 
Yco  Vale,  Alwington,  Captain  Audley  Archdale,  102 
Yondercott,    Uffculme,    George   Marker    Marker,    Esq. 

J.P.  830 
Youlston  Park,  Sherwell,  Sir  Arthur  Chichester,  Bart. 

J.P.  705 


Market  days  are  shown  in  j^aren 

Ashburton  (Saturday),  (cattle,  third  Saturday  in  month), 
first  Thursday  in  March  and  June,  and  August  10  and 
November  11 

Ashreigny,  Wednesday  after  January  30 

Ashwater,  first  Tuesday  in  May,  and  first  Monday  in  Aug. 

Axminster  (Tuesday,  Thursday,  and  Saturday,  and  great 
market  on  alternate  Thursday),  Tuesday  after  April  25, 
Tuesday  after  June  24,  and  Wednesday  after  Oct.  10 

Axmouth,  Shrove  Tuesday 

Bampton  (Wednesday  and  Saturday),  Wednesday  before 
Lady-day,  Whit  Tuesday,  last  Thursday  in  October,  and 
last  Wednesday  in  November 

Barnstaple  (Friday),  Fridays  before  March  21  and  April  21, 
last  Friday  in  July,  AYednesday  before  September  19, 
and  second  Friday  in  December  (wool,  January  17, 
July  25,  and  September  18) 

Beer  {Seaton),  Monday  after  October  14 

Bideford  (Tuesday  and  Saturday),  February  14  and  15, 
second  Tuesday  in  March,  last  Tuesday  in  April,  July  18, 
third  Tuesday  in  September,  and  November  1 3 

Bishop's  Morchard,  Monday  after  September  9 

Bishop's  Nympton,  Wednesday  before  October  25 

Bovey  Tracey,  Easter  Monday 

Bow  (cattle  market),  first  Monday  in  every  other  month 

Bradninch,  first  Wednesday  in  April,  and  third  Wednesday 
in  September 

Bradworthy,  September  9 

Bratton  Fleming,  August  19 

Bridestowe,  first  Wednesday  in  June,  and  July  29 

Broad  Clyst,  first  Mondays  in  April  and  September 

Broadhembury,  second  Monday  in  December 

Buclcfastleigh,  third  Thursday  in  June,  and  second  Thurs- 
day in  September 

Buckland  Monachorum,  Trinity  Monday,  Tuesday,  and 

Budleigh  Salterton,  Wliit  Tuesday 

Burrington,  June  17 

Chagford  (Saturday),  first  Thursday  in  May,  and  last 
Thursday  in  March,  September  and  October 

Chawleigh,  May  6,  and  Tuesday  before  last  Thursday  in 

Cheriton  Bishop,  Monday  in  Whitsun  w'eek 

Chudleigh,  Easter  Tuesday 

Chulmleigh  (Friday),  Easter  AVednesday  and  last  Wednes- 
day in  July 

Churchinford,  January  25  and  26,  and  last  Friday  in  April 

Clayhidon,  June  18 

Colyton  (Thursday  and  Saturday),  third  Tuesday  in  April, 
second  Tuesday  in  October,  &  Wednesday  after  March  1 1 

Cornwood,  first  Monday  in  May,  and  last  Monday  in  Sept. 

Crediton  (Saturday),  May  11,  August  21,  and  September  21 

Cullompton  (Saturday),  first  Wednesdays  in  May  &  Nov. 

Culmstock,  May  21 

Dalwood,  Wednesday  before  August  21 

Dartmouth  (Friday),  March  and  October 

Dawlish,  Easter  Monday 

Denbury,  September  19 

Devonport  (Tuesday,  Thursday,  &  Saturday), Whit  IMonday 

Dodbrooke,  Wednesday  before  Palm  Sunday 

Dolton,  dates  not  yet  fixed 

Drewsteignton,  Thursday  after  Candlemas-day,  and  Thurs- 
day after  Trinity  Sunday 


IL<ist  of  Faii*s  in    Devon  sliire. 

Dunsford,  Monday  after  September  8 

East  Budleigh,  Easter  Tuesday 

r^xpter  (Tuesday,  Friday,  and  Saturday),  third  Wodnos- 

days  in  February,  May,  and  July,  and  second  Wednesday 

in  December 
Great  Torriagton  (Saturday),  March  16,  May  4,  July  5, 

and  October  10 
Ilartland,  Wednesday  in  Easter  Week,  and  September  25 
Hatherloigh  (Tuesday),  May  21,  June  22,  September  4, 

and  November  8 
Jligh  ]3ickington,  Monday  after  May  14 
Holsworthy    (AVednesday     and    Saturday),     March    14, 

April  27,  July  9,  10,  and  11,  and  October  2 
Honiton  (Saturday),  Wednesday  &  Thursday  after  July  19 
Ilfracombe   (Wednesday   and   Saturday),   April    14,    and 

Saturday  after  August  23 
Kilmington,  first  Wednesday  in  September 
Kingsbridge  (Saturday),  July  25,  26,  and  27 
Levvtrenchard,  Tuesday  before  last  Wednesday  in  November 
Lifton,  February  13 
Lydford,  Tuesday  after  July  20 
Mem  bury,  August  10 
Modbury  (Thursday),  May  4 
Moretonhampstead,  third  Tuesday  in  each  month 
Musbury,  first  Monday  after  Michaelmas 
Newton  Abbot  (Wednesday),  February  27,  June  24,  and 

Wednesdays  after  September  1 1  and  November  6 
Newton  Poppleford,  Holy  Thursday,  and  Wednesday  after 

October  18 
North    Molton,    Wednesday    after    May    12,    and    last 

Wednesday  in  October 
North  Tawton  (Thursday),  third  Tuesdays  in  April  and 

December,  and  second  Tuesday  in  October 
Okehampton  (Saturday),  second  Tuesday  after  March  11, 

second  Thursday  in  May,  Thursdays  after  July  5  and 

August  5,  Tuesday  after  September  1 1 ,  Wednesday  after 

October  1 1 ,  and  Saturday  after  Christmas-day 
Otterton,  Wednesday  in  Easter  Week,  and  Wednesday 

after  October  10 
Ottery  St.  Mary  (Thursday),  last  Thursdays  in  March  and 

September,  August  1  and  December  5 
Paignton,  Whitsun  week 
Parracombe,  August  18 

Plymouth  (Tuesday,  Thursday,  and  Saturday),  first  Mon- 
days in  April  and  November 

Plympton  St.  Mary  (  Underwood),  July  5 

Princetown,  August  23 

Kackenford,  July  8,  and  Wednesday  before  September  19 

Salcombo  (Friday),  Wliit  Tuesday 

Sampford   Peverell,   Monday  before   last  Wednesday   in 

Sand'brd,  third  Monday  in  March,  and  last  Monday  in 

Seaton,  Whit  Tuesday 
Shecpwash,  second  Thursday  in  March,  and  Thursday 

before  October  10 
Shute  ( Whitford),  Monday  before  Michaelmas-day 
Sidbury,  Tuesday  before  Holy  Thursday,  and  Wednesday 

before  September  20 
Sidmouth  (Saturday),  Easter  Monday  and  third  Monday 

in  September 
Silverton,  first  Thursdays  in  February  and  July 
South  Brent,  last  Tuesdays  and  Wednesdays  in  April  an^ 

South  Molton  (Saturday),  Wednesday  before  June  22,  ar 

Wednesday  after  August  26 
South  Zeal  {South  lawton),  Tuesday  in  week  after  festiv^ 

of  St.  Thomas-a-Becket  (July  7) 
Starcross,  Whit  Wednesday 
Stockland,  Wednesday  after  June  11 
Tavistock  (Friday),  second  Wednesday  in  each  month 
Teigumouth,  third  Tuesday  in  January,  last  Tuesday  in 

February,  and  last  Tuesday  in  September 
Thorverton,  last  Monday  in  February,  and  Mondav  after 

July  18 
Tiverton  (Tuesday),  June  6,  October  3 ;  and  market  second 

Tuesday  in  each  month 
Topsham,  Thursday  after  July  18 
Totnes  (Saturday),  May  12  and  October  28 ;  market  first 

Tuesday  in  each  month 
Two  Bridges  {Trincetown),  Thursday  after  August  2 
Uffculme,  first  Monday  in  March,  June,  September,  and 

Qpottery,  Wednesday  before  Lady-day 
Whimple,  Monday  after  Michaelmas-day 
Winkleigh,  first  Wednesday    in   October,   and    Monday 

after  July  8 
Witheridge,  April  18,  Midsummer-day,  September  26,  and 

November  7 
Woodbury,  May  3 


AsHBiTRTGN,  page  106,  insert  '  The  Ashburton  Institute 
in  St.  Lawrence  Street,  established  chiefly  for  the  working 
classes,  was  opened  in  October  1878.  There  are  reading, 
smoking,  recreation  and  refreshment  rooms,  and  there  is  a 
good  supply  of  newspapers  and  magazines.  Working 
men  pay  1^.  weekly,  others  2d.,  and  the  excess  in  the 
expenditure  is  met  by  voluntary  subscription.  Mrs 
AVhiddon  is  housekeeper,  J.  Mortimer,  Esq.,  secretary,  and 
J.  Bickford,  Esq.,  treasurer';  page  107,  insert  *  A  School 
Board  was  formed  on  July  11,  1878,  and  consists  of 
Robert  Tucker,  Esq.  (chairman),  Rev.  J.  W.  Lay,  M.A., 
and  Messrs.  E.  J.  Sawdye,  P.  F.  S.  Amery,  J,  Tozer,  AV. 
R.  Whiteway,  and  H.  Steele.  Henry  M.  Firth,  Esq.,  is 
their  clerk.' 

AsHPRiNGTON,  page  111,  line  3,  for  '  Westbourn,'  read 
'  Washbourne.' 

Aylesbbaee,  page  122,  to  list  of  members  of  the  School 
Board,  add  '  the  Rev.  Charles  E.  Littledale.' 

Babnstaple,  page  142,  in  Directory,  to  Toller  John 
Henry,  for  'deputy  coroner,'  read  *  coroner ' ;  page  129, 
to  Holy  Trinity  Church,  line  9,  for  '  The  church  contains 
a  good  organ  by  Holditch,  London,'  read  *  A  new  organ 

has  been  built  by  Mr  W.  G.  Vowles,  of  Bristol,  at  a 
cost  of  £500  ' ;  page  126,  Town  Council,  for  Mayor—'  C. 
S.  Willshire,  Esq.,'  read  '  W.  Avery,  Esq. ; '  in  North  Ward, 
to  W.  Avery,  G.  Brown,  and  J.  E.  Baylis,  for  '  1878,'  read 
'  1881  ' ;  in  South  Ward,  to  W.  Fletcher,  for  '  1878,'  read 
'  1881,'  and  for  'J.  L  Knill  and  J.  D.  Young,  1878,'  insert 
'J.  G.  Hiern  and  J.  Martin,  1881:' 

BiDEFORD,  page  151,  to  Town  Council,  for  Mayor — 
'James  Joce,  Esq.,'  read  '  Thomas  Pollard,  Esq.' 

Bishop's  Teignton,  page  163,  in  Director)/,  insert 
*  Carpenter  C.  F.  proprietor  of  Health  Resort.' 

Brixham,  page  181,  insert  'The  Local  Board  District 
was  formed  on  December  9,  1862.  Mr  C.  Clarke,  sur- 
veyor, sanitary  inspector,  collector,  and  water  bailiff;  G. 
C.  Searle,  Esq.,  medical  officer  of  health,  and  C.  T.  Adams, 
Esq  ,  treasurer'  ;  page  182,  to  the  Markets,  omit  '  are  well 
supplied  with  provisions';  page  182,  insert  'On  the 
night  of  January  10,  1866,  a  fleet  of  64  British  and 
foreign  merchant  vessels  was  anchored  in  Torbay,  and  on 
the  11th  upwards  of  40  vessels  were  driven  from  their 
anchors,  and  wrecked  or  stranded.  More  than  a  hundred 
lives  are  believed  to  have  been  lost,  and  in  the  churchyard 

AddeiKla  et  Oorrig-enda, 


is  a  monument  to  29  men  who  were  buried  there.  It  was 
erected  by  the  Brixham  Sailors'  Eelief  Committees,  who 
applied  to  the  purpose  the  surplusof  a  sum  of  £3211  9s,  bd., 
which  had  been  subscribed  for  the  widows  and  orphans.' 
In -OiVec^ry,  pages  184  to  188,  omit  '  Wilson  Thomas ' ; 
insert  'Nanscawen  Richard  Hawkins,  chief  officer  of 
Coastguard;  h  14  Fore  street';  omit  'Turner  &  Co.'; 
insert  '  Tanner  Bros,  clothiers,  68  Bolton  street,'  and 
•  Tanner  Joseph  (Bros.) ;  h  68  Bolton  street';  omit  '  Price 
Kev  Recs  Charles ' ;  insert  '  Pool  Rev  John,  curate ;  h 
King  s  quay.' 

BucKFASTLEiGH,  iu  Directory,  page  196,  insert  'Hole 
Captain  William  Henry.' 

CoLEBiDGE,  page  231,  to  School  Board,  to  'Richard 
Densham,'  add  'jun.';  for  'Killand,'  read  'Kelland';  and 
for  'F.  J.  Isaac,'  read  'William  Leach.' 

CoivrpTON  GiFFORD,  in  Directory,  page  237,  to  'Holmes 
Rev  Peter,'  add  '(Exors.  of).' 

Dartingtox,  page  255,  insert,  '  The  old  church,  being 
Very  much  dilapidated,  is  now  being  taken  down,  and  a 
new  church  is  now  being  erected  in  a  more  central  posi- 
tion, near  the  Parsonage  House.  The  foundation  stone 
was  laid  on  July  2,  1878,  and  it  is  expected  that  the 
edifice  will  be  completed  in  the  spring  of  1879.  Mr. 
Pearson,  of  London,  is  the  architect.  The  tower  of  the  old 
church  will  be  allowed  to  stand.' 

Dartmouth,  page  258,  to  Post  Office  information,  add 
'There  is  now  an  additional  day  mail  to  London  at  10.10 
a.m. ;'  page  255,  insert,  '  On  July  23,  1878,  the  Prince  and 
Princess  of  Wales  visited  Dartmouth  and  the  "Britannia" 
training  ship;'  page  257,  insert  'On  September  14,  1878, 
a  destructive  fire  broke  out  on  the  premises  of  Messrs. 
Redway  &  Son,  Sand  Quay.' 

Devonport,  page  273,  for  Deputy-Commissary-General 
*W.  H.  H.  Scott,'  read  '  Charles  Mills  Molony;'  page  272, 
line  47,  after  'water,'  insert  'In  October,  1878,  a  serious 
landslip  occurred,  the  ridge  of  rock  which  separates  the 
new  dock  and  the  No.  4  or  North  Dock  having  given  way;' 
page  271,  Town  Council,  to  W.  H.  Ching,  J.  H.  Filmer, 
£.  G.  L.  Street,  Wm.  Mogg,  J.  Beer  and  R.  Williams,  for 
'1878,'  read  '  1881 ' ;  f or  '  Wm.  Crossing,  1878,'  read  '  John 
Perry,  1881';  for  'John  McKay,  1878,'  read  'William 
Whitby,  1881.' 

Devonshire  History,  page  38,  to  List  of  School  Boards, 
add  'East  Down,  five  members,  elected  October,  1878; 
Ashburton,  seven  members,  elected  July  11,  1878.' 

Devonshire  Trades  Directory,  in  Corn  Millers,  page 
922,  for  Blatchford  '  Geo.,'  read  '  Geo.  W. ; '  for  '  Carthen' 
John,  read  '  Carthew ;'  for  Chaffe  Nicholas  *  F,'  read  '  S  ;' 
page  923,  insert  'Harris  Russell,  Parkwood  road,  Tavi- 
stock ; '  and  '  Johns  William,  Taviton  mills,  Tavistock ; ' 
page  924,  for  Norman  '  John,'  read  '  John  J. ; '  for  Rice 
'  Henry,'  read  '  Thomas  Henry ; '  insert  '  Tarr  Peter, 
Heanton  Punchardon,  Barnstaple;'  to  Uglow  John,  for 
'  North  Rewe,  Exeter,'  read  '  Culm  John,  Rewe,  Exeter  ; ' 
in  Appraisers,  page  865,  insert  '  North  Edward,  Hemyock, 
Wellington  (Somerset) ;' in  Auctioneers,  page  867,  insert 
'Parsons  Samson,  Lower  square,  Holsworthy;' in  J5feCi^- 
s?/w<A5,  page  881,  for  Jackson  'J.'cSc  Son,  read  'G. ;'  in 
Booksellers,  page  885,  insert  'Searle  William,  7  Fleet 
street,  Torquay  (^See  Advertisement)';  in  Etigr aver s, -pagQ 
935,  to  Searle  W.  for  '  Higher  ter.'  read  '  7  Fleet  street'; 
in  Estate  Agents,  page  936,  to  Lidstone  F.  B.  for  '  25  South 
street,'  read  '  16  Queen  street';  in  Fire,  ^r.  Offices,  page 
990,  in  Royal,  to  F.  B.  Lidstone,  for  '  25  South  street,'  read 
*  16  Queen  street.' 

East  Down,  page  311,  insert  '  A  School  Board  has  been 
formed,  and  consists  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  F.  Arthur  (chair- 
man) and  Messrs.  Gerrard  Gammon  Granville  (vice),  John 
Burnell,  Ebenezer  Jones,  and  James  Mayne.' 

Egg  Bucklanb,  in  Directory,  page  314,  for  Elliot 
'John  James,'  read  'James  John.' 

Exeter  Directory,  page  418,  for  'Kelly'  Augustus, 
read  'Keily ' ;  pages  380  and  425,  for  *  Pasmore,  Savery  & 

Bladon,|  read  'Pasmore,  Savery  &  Pasmore' ;  page  423,  to 
Mousell  Brothers,  for  '  17  Sidwell  street,'  read  'London 
Inn  square';  page  410,  for  '  Ellis  Brothers,' read  ' Ellis, 
Depree  &  Tucker.' 

Exeter  History,  page  336,  insert '  The  "  Deer  Stalker," 
a  group  in  bronze  by  Mr.  E.  B.  Stephens,  which  has  been 
exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy,  has  been  presented  to 
the  city,  and  erected  on  a  granite  pedestal  in  front  of 
the  green  in  Bedford  Circus' ;  page  331,  insert  '  The  cor- 
poration is  considering  a  proposal  to  form  a  large  drainage 
area  down  the  whole  valley  of  the  Exe,  and  to  construct  a 
sewer  to  receive  the  drainage  of  Tiverton,  CuUompton, 
Crediton,  Exeter,  Topsham,  Lympstone,  and  Exmouth, 
and  finally  discharge  the  whole  in  the  sea  at  Straight  Point, 
Exmouth.  The  estimated  cost  is  £200  000 ' ;  page  346,  to 
St.  James'  Church,  insert  '  A  new  chancel  with  north  and 
south  aisles  and  choir,  and  priests'  vestry,  was  completed 
in  November,  1878.  The  East  window  is  filled  with  painted 
glass  in  memory  of  the  late  rector  (Rev.  A.  Buckeridge) ' ; 
page  332,  to  City  Council,  for  Mayor  '  H.  D.  Thomas,  Esq.' 
read  '  W.  H.  Ellis,  Esq.' ;  and  for  Sheriff '  W.  Cotton,  Esq.' 
read  '  Samuel  Ward,  Esq.' 

Exmouth,  page  441,  line  10  from  bottom,  for  'Alexan- 
der,' read  '  Alexandra.'  In  Directory,  pages  443-8,  to 
Assembly  Rooms,  for  '  Henry  H.  Cooper,'  read  '  W.  Tre- 
hane ' ;  for  Benmore  Mr.  George  '  Philip,'  read  '  Phillips  ' ; 
to  Bickford  J.  T.  omit  '  stamp  distributor'  ;  forBIackmore 
'Mr,'  read  'Mrs';  for  Bremridge  'Mr,' read  'Mrs';  to 
Burridge  Folliott,  for  '  8  High  street,'  read  '  and  victualler, 
North  Country  Inn,  High  street; '  omit  '  Colmer  G.  R.' 
and  '  Cooper  H.  H.' ;  for  'Dipstall'  Mr.  E,  read  'Dips- 
tale';  omit  '  Halse  John';  for  'Humphryes'  Wm.  read 
'Humphries'  ;  for  'Lancabeer'  John,  read  'Langabeer'; 
to  '  Lipscomb  R.  H.  '  add  '  (on  Thursdays) ' ;  insert 
'  Percell  Rev.  W.  H.  D'Olier,  vicar  of  Littleham-cum-Ex- 
mouth,  Trefusis  terrace';  to  Perriam  Frederick,  painter 
&c.,  for  '15  Parade,'  read  'The  Cross';  omit  *  Rocke 
Rev.  T.  J.' ;  to  Rolle  Estate  Office,  add  '(on  Thursdays) ' ; 
for  '  Slowman  '  Mr.  read  '  Sloman ' ;  for  '  Webber  — ,'  read 
'  Webber  Mrs  Charlotte.' 

Frithelstock,  page  452,  line  8,  after  '  John  How,  Esq.,' 
insert  '  Mrs.  Pulman ' ;  line  10,  after  '  tower,'  insert '  and 
has  four  good- toned  bells';  line  11, for  'Martin,'  read  'Mar- 
tyn  ' ;  line  12,  omit  '  who  has  a  good  parsonage  house ' ; 
line  15,  for  '£220,'  read  '£420';  and  for  'sixty,' read 
'eighty';  in  Post  Office  information,  for  '  Farringdon,' 
read  '  Torrington' ;  and  after  'Wall  Letter  Box,'  insert 
'  at  Stone.'  In  Directory,  omit  *  Abbott  Miss  Mary ' ;  page 
453,  omit '  Friendship  Joshua ' ;  insert  'Walters — ,  car- 
penter, Frithelstock  Stone.' 

Great  Torrington,  page  457,  to  Town  Council,  for 
Mayor,  '  James  Baldwin,  Esq.'  read  '  Henry  Leverton 
Mallett,  Esq.' 

Halberton,  page  462,  to  list  of  members  of  School 
Board,  add  '  Mr.  W.  T.  Twose,'  who  was  elected  on  Sep- 
tember 19,  1878,  vice  Mr.  James  Gonham. 

Harberton,  page  465,  insert  '  A  new  Wesleyan  Chapel 
to  accommodate  110  persons,  has  been  erected  at  a  cost  of 
£320,  and  was  opened  on  August  29,  1878.' 

Heanton  Punchardon,  page  471,  to  Sir  F.  M.Williams, 
Bart.,  add  '  Exors.  of,'  he  having  died  on  September  3,  1878. 

HoNiTON,  page  484,  to  Town  Council,  for  Mayor,  'John 
Knight,  Esq.'  read  '  F.  C.  Glanvill,  Esq.' 

Huntsham,  page  489,  line  1,  for  '  5  miles  from  Dulver- 
ton,'  read  '  4  miles  from  Morebath  ' ;  line  7,  omit  '  ivy- 
mantled';  line  13,  after  'screen,'  insert  'now  placed 
against  the  east  wall  of  the  chancel';  line  14,  for  'and 
bear  the  date  1534,'  read  'and  the  pulpit  bears  the  date 
1534' ;  line  16,  after  'built,'  insert  '  partly  out  of  money 
left,'  and  for  '  Rev.  D.'  read  '  Rev.  Dr.  Troyte  ' ;  to  Post 
Office,  for  '  5.50  p.m.'  read  '  6.'  In  Directory,  for  Troyte 
Chas.  ' Acland,'  read  'Arthur';  to  White  Wm.  for  'High 
road,'  read  '  High  wood.' 

Ipplepen,   page   502,  to  School  Board,  for    'Messrs. 


A.<l<leiida  et  Corrig-enda, 

Eowden,  Ilillyer,  and  Smith,'  read  *  Messrs,  John  Bowden, 
John  Smith,  jun.  and  William  Sowton.' 

Jacoustowk,  page  504,  line  13,  for '£210,'  road  *  £220 ' ; 
line  lo,  for  '  £174,'  r^ad  '  £160.' 

Kenn,  page  506,  lino  8,  for  *  Carswell,'  read  '  Kerswell.' 
In  Diredori/,  omit  *  to  ISirmiugham  Wm. ;  for  'Coombos,' 
road  '  Coombs';  for  '  Ilallott '  I'Vodk.  read  'Ilollett';  for 
'  Jobb,'  road  'Job';  to  Lee  Richard,  for  'Yews,'  read 
'  Yeos  ' ;  for  '  Ley  Mr  J.  IL'  read  '  Ley  John  Henry,  Esq. 
J.P.' ;  for 'Mann'  John,  road  'Mayne';  to  Pago  John, 
omit  'builder';  to  Paul  P.  Z.  for  '  Zacharia,'  read 
'  Zachariah' ;  to  Sanford  Joseph,  omit .'  steward  to  J.  II. 
Ley,  Esq.'  and  omit  'Little  Woodlands';  omit  *  to 
Sleaman  Eichard ;  to  Strong  J.,  for  '  Pinnicombe,'  read 
'Ponnycombe' ;  to  Tapper  George,  for  '  Budley,'  road 
'Budleigh' ;  for  'Woodland'  John,  road  '  Woolland' ;  insert 
'^Majne  William,  builder' ;  'Woolland  Moses,  farmer, 
Kerswell';   'Whidborne,  Gr.  F.  farmer,  The  Hill.' 

KiNGSBRiDGE,  pago  510,  in  list  of  magistrates,  line  16 
from  the  bottom,  for  '  Todd,'  road  'Toll.' 

Little  Tobrington,  page  526,  line  1,  omit  'nearly'; 
line  6,  after  '  belong  to,'  insert  '  Mrs  Guille  and  Mrs 
Hawortli';  page  527,  line  7,  omit  'other';  line  8,  after 
'family,'  insert  'the  Rolle  family,  to  the  Rev.  P.Fisher,  a 
former  incumbent,  and  to  the  Rev,  P.  Glubb,  tlie  late  in- 
cumbent for  50  years ' ;  line  14,  for  '  £4,' read  '£4  65.'; 
line  20,  for  '  E.'  read  '  A.  E.'  Dayman ;  to  Post  Office 
information  add  '  Letters  are  received  at  8.30  a.m.  and 
despatched  at  5.30  p.m.,  Sundays  excepted.'  In  Directory, 
to  Oawsey  H.,  for  '  Woodland,'  read  '  Woodlands  ' ;  omit 
'  Coach  C ;  for  '  Coates  '  E.  A.  read  '  Gates ' ;  to  Fairchild 
J.,  for  '  Hempshaw,'  read  '  Hunshaw' ;  to  Guard  E.,  for 
'  Horer,'  read  '  Omer ' ;  to  Heale  John,  add  '  Cleeve ' ;  for 
'Hole'  Henry,  read  'Heale';  for  'Johnson  G.  J.  The 
Cross,'  read  'Johnson  J.  G.,  Cross ';  to  Judd  William,  for 
Higher  '  Halham,'  read  'Holham';  for  'Rockley,'  read 
'  Rockey ' ;  to  Routcliff  Samuel,  for  '  Bradridge,'  read 
'  Broadridge ' ;  to  Snow  A.,  for  'The  Firs,'  read  'Frizen- 
ham  ' ;  for  Weeks  '  William,'  read  '  John  ' ;  insert  'Blake 
Mrs,  infant  schoolmistress,'  and  '  Banbery  Mr,  farmer, 

LoDDiswELL,  page  527,  line  10,  for  '  James '  Peek,  Esq., 
read  'William.' 

MusBURY,  page  550,  line  4,  for  Capt.  J.  T.  '  Hill,'  read 
'  Still.' 

Newton  Abbot,  in  Directory,  page  565,  for  '  Saltau,' 
John,  Esq.  read  '  Soltau.' 

Parracombe,  p.  596,  line  19,  insert  '  The  new  church 
was  consecrated  on  October  19,  1878.' 

Plymouth,  page  611,  to  Parish  Church  of  Charles,  add 
'  Steps  are  being  taken  to  provide  a  vicarage  house  for  this 
parish  ; '  page  607,  to  list  of  Public  Officers,  add  '  Borough 
Surveyor — Mr  Henry  Alty ;'  pago  609,  insert  '  The  statue 
of  the  late  Alderman  Alfred  Rooker,  which  has  been 
erected  facing  the  Guildhall,  was  unveiled  and  presented, 
by  the  subscribers,  to  the  town,  in  September  1878; '  page 
617,  insert  'The  Plymouth  Coffee  and  Cocoa  House  Com- 
pany have  opened  an  establishment  in  Bedford  Street, 
which  is  to  be  called  the  Borough  Arms  ; '  page  608,  to 
Guildhall,  line  3  from  the  bottom,  insert  '  A  fine  organ, 
built  by  Mr.  Henry  Willis  of  London,  at  a  cost  of  £2100, 
has  been  placed  in  the  hall,  and  was  opened  by  Dr.  Stainer 
on  October  22,  1878';  page  607,  to  Town  Council,  for 
Mayor,  '  Joseph  Wills,  Esq.'  read  '  Edward  James,  Esq.' ; 
Sutton  Ward,  for  '  T.  B.  Harvey,  1878,'  read  '  G.  L. 
Tucker,  1881 ' ;  and  to  E.  H.  James,  for  '  1878,'  read  '  1881.' 

Plympton  St.  Mary,  Directory,  in  page  663,  to  '  Phil- 
lipps-Treby,  Col.  P.  W.'  add  '  J.P.' 

Plymstock,  page  671,  insert  'Old  Trinity  Chapel  at 
Oreston,  has  been  converted  into  a  Workmen's  Hall,  and 
was  opened  in  November  1878.' 

RoBOROUGH,  page  681,  to  'Gurney  Rev.  W.  W.'  add 
'  (Exors  of).' 

Sampfobd  Coxjetenay,  in  Directory,  page  696,  to  Day- 

mont  John  and  Page  Richard,  for  'Cliston,'  read  'Clisson;' 
for  Finch  Mrs  '  J<]mlon,'  road  '  Emily.' 

South  Pool,  page  726,  line  13,  for  'A.  P.  Hallifax, 
Esq.'  read  'Admiral  Parker  ;'  in  Directory,  for  '  Gumming' 
Edward  and  Richard,  road  'Cuming;'  page  727,  omit 
'  Langlor  John  ; '  for  '  Mitcheimore,'  read  '  Michelraore  ;' 
to  Pcitoy  Ambrose,  for  '  Westerncombe,'  read  '  Wester- 
combe;'  omit  'Stidworthy  Richard;'  to  Carriers,  add 
'  Ann  Mitcheimore,  to  Kingsbridgo,  Monday,  Wednesday, 
Friday,  and  Saturday 

South  Tawton,  in  Directory,  page  728,  to  Knapman 
John,  for  '  farmer,'  read  '  yeoman.' 

Stoke  Fleming,  page  733,  add  'A  new  clock,  the  gift 
of  Mrs.  Clark,  has  been  added  to  the  church.' 

Stonehousb  (East),  page  738,  line  24,  after  '  leases,' 
insert  'determinable  on  the  death  of  three  lives,  but'; 
after  '  fines,'  insert  '  on  the  death  of  each  life  ' ;  line  25, 
omit  '  by  every  succeeding  tenant'  ;  line  31,  for  '  1783,' 
read  '1856';  page  739,  line  22  from  the  bottom,  omit 
'from  which  the  Royal  Marines  practise  artillery  firing' ; 
page  740,  line  31,  for  'Furstone,'  read  'Firestone';  page 
741,  to  list  of  Pillar  Letter  Boxes,  add  '  and  one  at  St. 
George's  Hall.'  In  Directory,  page  747,  insert  '  Sweet 
William,  tailor  and  outfitter,  6  Union  street.' 

Sutcombe,  page  749,  line  1,  for  '  Waldon,'  read  '  Wal- 
dron ' ;  to  School  Board,  omit  '  William  Carter  &  Daniel 
Allin';  and  insert  'Henry  Copp.'  In  Directory,  page  750, 
for  '  Ogden  Walter,'  read  '  Winfield.  J.' 

Tavistock,  page  757,  insert  'A  Musical  Society  was 
formed  in  October,  1878,  of  which  the  Rev.  T.  Gibbons  is 
president,  and  Mr  Vincent,  conductor.' 

Teignmouth,  page  769,  to  West  Teignmouth  Church, 
add  '  The  organ  is  being  repaired  and  improved  by  Mr. 
Dicker,  of  Exeter,  and  will  be  placed  in  the  chancel.  The 
cost  will  be  about  £220.  It  is  also  intended  to  renovate 
the  church,  and  it  is  contemplated  to  have  a  peal  of  bells, 
towards  which  £200  has  been  promised.' 

Tiverton,  pago  784,  to  Blundeli's  School,  insert  '  The 
School  is  about  to  be  built  at  Horsdon';  page  782,  to 
Councillors,  Lowman  Ward,  omit  '  Coleby  E.  1878,  and 
Cosway  W.  1878,'  and  insert  '  Cosway  W.  1881,  and 
John  Chanin,  1881  ' ;  to  West  Exo  Ward,  for  'Davey  G. 
G.  1878,' read  'George  Goss,  1881';  and  to  Pinkston  S. 
for  '  1878,'  read  '  1881 ; '  for  Mayor,  '  F.  Snell,  Esq.'  read 
E.  M,  Winton,  Esq. 

Torquay,  page  802,  insert  'The  Torquay  and  South 
Devon  Coffee  Tavern  Co.  (lim.),  have  opened  a  coff«e 
tavern  (the  "  Compton  Castle")  at  105  Lower  Union  street. 
The  cost  of  fitting-up,  &c.,  was  nearly  £500.  Mr.  Poor, 
of  Devonport,  is  the  manager.' 

ToTNES,  page  821,  to  Town  Council,  for  Mayor  'Mr 
Alderman  J.  Roe,'  read  '  J.  P.  F.  W.  Hains,  Esq.' 

Wibecombe  -  IN  -  the  -  Moor,  pago  849,  line  7,  for 
'Jourdan,'  read  'Jordan';  line  12,  for  ' Nolsworthy,' 
read  'Notsworthy' ;  lino  22,  for  'M.A.'  read  '  B.A.' ;  line 
26,  for  'Leusden,'  read  'Leusdon';  line  28,  for  'Mrs  C. 
R.  Larpent,'  read  'the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Exeter' ;  line 
29,  for  'Percival  Jackson,'  read  '  F.  J.  Bryant';  line  31, 
for  'two,'  read  'four'  cottages;  line  32,  for  '13^.'  read 
'  10.S.' ;  and  insert  'A  neiv  scheme  has  recently  been 
issued ' ;  to  School  Board,  add  '  Mallaby  Firth,  Esq.,  of 
Ashburton,  is  their  clerk' ;  line  38,  for  'where  remains 
of  the  old  family  residence  are  still  to  be  seen,'  read  '  in 
a  mansion  called  North  Hall,  of  which  no  traces  exist  at 
present.'  In  Directory,  omit  '  Andrews  Eli ' ;  to  Blackall 
Dr,  for  'Joseph,'  read  'Thomas';  page  850,  to  Hext 
John,  for  '  Corundonford,'  read  '  Corndonford ' ;  for  '  Jack- 
son Rev  Percival,'  read  '  Bryant  Rev  F.  J.' ;  omit  '  Ken- 
naway  Mr  W.' ;  insert  '  Balsam  Mr,  Pitts  park,  and 
Torquay';  to  Leaman  John,  for  ' Bavenly,' read  'Baveney'; 
for  '  Norsworthy  '  Richard,  read  '  Nosworthy  '  ;  for 
'Waldrom'  Richard,  read  '  Waldron,'  and  for  'Bonhill,' 
read  '  Bunhill ' ;  to  Warren  Charles,  for  '  Pondswortby,' 
read  '  Ponsworth^.'  . 




DEVONSHIRE,  the  largest  county  in  England  save  Yorkshire  and  Lincolnshire,  and  the  most 
western  except  Cornwall,  ranks  among  the  first  in  agricultural  importance,  and  is  the  ninth  in  amount 
of  population.  It  has  mines  of  copper,  tin,  lead,  and  iron  ores ;  inexhaustible  quarries  of  durable 
granite,  slate,  lime,  building  stone,  marble,  &c. ;  and  is  one  of  the  oldest  seats  of  the  lace  and  coarse 
woollen  manufactures,  of  which  it  still  retains  a  considerable  share,  though  greatly  reduced  since 
last  century  by  the  machinery  and  factories  of  the  midland  and  northern  counties.  Occupying  the 
whole  breadth  of  the  central  portion  of  that  great  south-western  peninsula  of  the  British  Island 
which  juts  out  between  the  Bristol  and  English  Channels,  and  having  more  than  150  miles  of  sea 
coast,  and  some  fine  navigable  rivers  and  broad  estuaries,  Devonshire  is  one  of  the  naost  important 
maritime  counties  in  the  kingdom.  It  has  many  seaports,  spacious  harbours,  and  noble  bays,  and  the 
great  naval  station,  Plymouth  and  Devonport,  is  at  its  south-western  angle,  adjoining  Cornwall.  On 
its  coast  are  many  handsome  and  delightful  bathing  places,  the  principal  of  which  are  Torquay. 
Teignmouth,  Exmouth,  Sidmouth,  Dawlish,  and  Budleigh  Salterton,  on  the  south-east  coast,  cele- 
brated for  their  mild  and  genial  climates ;  and  Ilfracombe,  and  Westward  Ho,  on  the  north  coast. 
Devonshire  contains  30  market  towns,  including  five  parliamentary  boroughs,  and  its  large  and 
handsome  capital — the  city  of  Exeter — which  is  a  county  of  itself.  In  picturesque  beauties,  embracing 
all  the  associations  of  hill  and  dale,  wood  and  water,  fertile  valleys,  elegant  mansions  with  sylvan 
parks  and  pleasure  grounds,  lofty  moorland  hills  and  dells,  and  extensive  land  and  marine 
views,  it  yields  to  no  county  in  England.  In  its  greatest  length  and  breadth  it  extends  about  70 
miles  east  and  west,  and  north  and  south ;  and  though  of  an  irregular  figure,  it  may  be  said  to  occupy 
(if  we  include  its  large  bays)  nearly  all  the  area  of  a  circle  70  miles  in  diameter,  lying  between  the 
parallels  of  50  deg.  12  min.  and  51  deg.  14  min.  north  latitude  ;  and  3  deg.  and  4  deg.  30  min.  west 
longitude.  The  boundaries  of  Devon  are  Somersetshire  and  part  of  Dorsetshire  on  the  north-east ; 
the  Bristol  Channel  on  the  north,  the  river  Tamar,  which  divides  it  from  Cornwall,  on  the  west ;  and 
the  English  Channel  on  the  south  and  south-east,  where  its  coast  line  is  more  than  100  miles  in  extent, 
and  is  beautifully  diversified  and  broken  by  numerous  bays,  estuaries,  creeks,  promontories,  and 
headlands ;  presenting  in  many  places  high  rocky  cliffs,  fine  sandy  shores,  pretty  towns,  villages,  and 
villas,  and  busy  ports  and  fishing  stations.  The  north  coast,  including  the  large  semicircular  sweep 
of  Barnstaple  Bay,  is  more  than  50  miles  in  extent.  By  7  &  8  Vict.  c.  61  (1844)  every  detached 
part  of  a  county  became,  on  October  20,  1844,  for  all  jnirposes,  part  of  the  county  to  which  it  had 
been  annexed  by  the  Boundary  Act  (2 '&  3  Will.  IV.  c.  64  s.  26).  This  Act  had  enacted  (1834) 
that  every  detached  part  of  a  county  in  England  and  Wales  should  be  for  election  purposes  part  of 
the  county  or  division  by  which  it  was  surrounded,  or  if  bounded  by  more  than  one  part  of  that 
county  with  Avhich  it  had  the  longest  common  boundary.  On  October  20,  1844,  by  the  Act  which 
received  the  Royal  Assent  on  August  6  of  that  year,  Stockland  and  Dalwood  parishes  were  severed 
from  Dorset,  and  part  of  Bridgerule  parish  from  Cornwall,  and  added  to  Devon ;  these  places  had  an 
aggregate  area  of  8568  acres  and  population  of  1941  in  1851  ;  on  the  other  hand  Thorncombe  parish, 
Beerhall  tithing,  and  Vaultershome  tithing  Avere  severed  from  Devon,  and  the  two  former  added  lo 
Dorset,  and  the  last  to  Cornwall ;  the  area  of  Thorncombe  is  4896  (that  of  the  two  others  is  not 
known),  and  the  aggregate  population  of  the  three  places  in  1851  was  2546  :  thus  there  was  a  net  gain 
to  the  county  of  3672  acres,  but  a  loss  in  population  of  605.  The  County  is  in  the  Province  of  Can- 
terbury and  Western  Circuit,  and  had  601,374  inhabitants  in  1871.  The  area  is  1,655,161  acres,  or 
2589  square  miles.     The  Diocese  of  Exeter  now  comprises  nearly  all  the  county  of  Devon. 


History  of  l>evoiisliire. 

The  following  table  shows  the  houses  and  population  of  the  County  (proper)  of  Devon  at  each 
of  the  Censuses  of  1801-71 :— 

♦       Houses       \ 


Increase  of  Population 
between  the  Censuses 







No.  6f  Persons 

Rate  per 















Increase  in  70 



3,146              ? 






Means  of  Communication — Eoads. — The  highway  returns  show  an  extent  of  roads  in  Devon  far 
greater  than  any  of  any  other  county  in  England,  except  Yorkshire.     In  the  three  years  ending 
October,  1814,  the  turnpike  roads  and  paved  streets  were  estimated  at  776  miles;  and  all  other 
highways,  for  wheeled  carriages,  at  5936  miles ;  the  total  expenditure  on  which  was  £44,658.     In 
1836,  there  were  in  the  county  29  turnpike  trusts,  the  total  income  of  which  was  £62,024  6s.  Id.,  of 
which  £11,187  4s.  Acl  was  expended  on  improvements.     In   1839,  the  expenditure  on  6898  miles  of 
highway  was  £37,356.     The  great  roads  which   cross  the  county  from   Somerset  and  Dorset,  to 
Cornwall,  meet  at  Exeter.     The  roads  which  radiate  from  that  city  and  the  principal  towns  in  the 
county,  and  the  cross  roads  interlacing    them,  are  very  numerous.     From   the   high   fences   and 
narrowness  of  many  of  the  roads,  together  with  the  perpetual  recurrence   of  hills  and  valleys,  all 
extensive  prospects  are  often  shutout ;  but  on  the  tops  of  the  hills,  and  where  there  are  no  enclosures, 
there  are  many  delightful  views  over  the  beautiful  vales  and  coasts  in  their  vicinity.     Devonshire 
abounds  in  all  parts  with  the  best  materials  for  the  formation  of  good  roads,  and  for  keeping  them  in 
good  repair-     The  principal  roads  are  generally  in  excellent  condition ;  but  many  of  the  others  are 
narrow,  with  high  banks  and  hedges,  and  have  the  disadvantage  of  frequent  steep  ascents,  even  where 
they  might  have  been  easily  carried  along  the  sides  of  the  hills,  or  through  the  valleys,  with  but  little 
loss  in  distance,  and  a  great  saving  in  labour,  and  the  wear  and  tear  of  carriages.     The  turnpike 
trusts  are  being  gradually  abohshed,  as  Devonshire  comes  under  the  Highway  Amendment  Act 
of  July  29,   1864.     In   1869,  a  committee   appointed   by  the   Devonshire    Chamber   of   Agricul- 
ture reported  upon  the  working  and  efficiency  of  the  Highway  Boards  throughout  the  county,  and 
gave  it  as  their  opinion  that  the  cost  per  mile  under  the  present  system  considerably  exceeds  that 
under  the  old.     They  found  that  the  25  districts  into  which  the  county  is  now  divided  contain  5831 
miles  of  road,  that  the  average  number  of  miles  in  each  district  is  242,  and  that,  generally  speaking, 
the  amount  paid  for  salaries'  and  common  charges  does  not  vary  in  any  very  important  degree,  and 
amounts  to  about  13s.  3^d.  per  mile.     The  roads  are  now  thoroughly  macadamised,  principally  wdth 
broken  limestone,  of  which  there  is  a  plentiful  supply.     ( See  also  page  29.) 

Railways. — There  are  in  the  county  two  old  railways,  or  tram  roads,  on  which  waggons  are 
drawn  by  horses.  One  of  these  is  the  Dartm.oor  and  Plymouth  Tramway,  which  extends  about  18 
miles  southward  from  the  extensive  granite  quarries,  near  Prince  Town,  in  Dartmoor.  It  was  made 
under  an  Act  passed  in  1819,  and  amended  by  two  other  Acts,  passed  in  1820  and  1821.  It  has  a 
short  branch  to  the  lime  works  at  Catdown,  and  to  Sutton  Pool,  at  Plymouth.  The  other  mineral 
line  is  on  the  other  side  of  Dartmoor,  and  extends  about  six  miles,  from  Haytor  Granite  Works  to  the 
Stover  Canal.  By  means  of  this  tram  road  and  canal  immense  quantities  of  granite  were  formerly 
carried  down  to  Teignmouth  for  exportation,  and  coal,  manure,  &c.,  taken  up  for  the  use  of  the 
neighbourhood ;  but  it  has  now  for  some  years  been  disused. 

Devonshire  is  intersected  with  railways ;  the  South  Devon  line,  which  is  now  worked  by 
the  Great  Western,  runs  along  the  coast  to  Plymouth,  and  has  branches  south  to  Torquay  and  Dart- 
mouth, and  north  to  Moreton-Hampstead.  From  Totnes,  the  Totnes  and  Ashburton  Eailway  passes 
by  the  banks  of  the  river  Dart,  and  has  stations  at  Staverton  and  Buckfastleigh.  From  Devonport 
there  is  direct  communication  with  Torrington,-by  means  of  a  railway  skirting  nearly  the  whole  of  the 
western  side  of  the  Forest  of  Dartmoor,  and  joining  the  North  Devon  line  at  Yeoford.  The  rail  from 
Exeter  to  Exmouth  connects  those  places,  and  the  London  and  South  Western  reaches  Exeter  from 
Waterloo  Bridge,  and  has  a  branch  to  Seaton,  and  another  through  Ottery  St.  Mary  to  Sidmouth. 
The  Teign  Valley  line  from  Jews  Bridge  (near  Chudleigh)  is  in  course  of  construction,  and  railways 

History  of  Devonsliire.  .         19 

are  also  contemplated  from  Exeter  to  Chagford,  and  from  Prince  Town  to  Horrabridge,  in  order  to 
connect  Plymouth  with  the  Capital  of  the  Moor.  The  Devonshire  lines  are  now  all  virtually  worked 
either  by  the  Great  Western,  or  the  London  and  South  "Western  Company. 

The  lines  of  communication  in  Mid  Devon  are  fast  returning  to  the  ancient  trunk  routes,  via 
Bristol  to  Launceston  and  Falmouth ;  and  via  Exeter  and  Okehampton  to  all  the  mining  districts. 
In  a  year  or  two  the  South  Devon  route  will  be  left  to  invalids  and  pleasure  seekers.  Ashbury 
station,  on  the  Mid  Devon  line,  is  about  to  be  opened ;  also  Halwell  and  Holsworthy — and  so  all  the 
ancient  history  of  sixteen  centuries  will  be  revived.  At  Ashbury  is  the  junction  of  the  North  Devon 
and  the  Mid  Cornwall  lines,  and  thus  direct  communication  is  afforded  to  London  and  the  Midlands. 
While  for  centuries  Broadbury  Castle  was  held  by  the  Keltic  power  against  the  Romans,  Okehampton 
by  the  Saxons  against  the  British,  and  Exeter  by  the  Normans  against  the  Saxons,  in  all  this  long 
period  the  stream  of  intercourse  through  Mid  Devon  equalled  that  through  North  and  South  Devon 
put  together. 

Rivers. — The  principal  rivers  of  this  Coimty  are  the  Axe,   Otter,  Exe,  Teign,  Dart,  Erme, 
Yealme,  Plym,  Tamar,  Tavy,  and  Torridge — all  of  which  are  more  or  less  navigable.      The  chief 
of  the  smaller  ones  are  the  Bovey,  Bray,   Coney,  Coly,  Creedy,  Culm,  Little  Dart,  Dawl,  Kenn, 
Lemmon,  Lyd,  Lynn,  Mole,  Oke,  East  and  West  Okement,  Sid,  Tindal,  Tynhay,  Tale,  Walden,  Wray, 
and  the  Yeo.      In  Dartmoor,  the  great  tableland  of  Devon,  some  of  its  principal  and  many  of  its 
smaller  rivers  have  their  sources ;  all  radiating  from  within  the  circuit  of  a  few  miles,  on  this  central 
fountain  head,  and  flowing  down  the  slopes  of  its  high  summits  to  almost  every  point  in  the  compass. 
Of  the  most  important  of  these,  the  Dart — the  '  Durius '  of  Richard  of  Cirencester,  in  old  writings 
called  the  '  Darant ' — (and  hence  the  name  Dartmoor),  runs  south-east  from  Okement  Hill ;  about 
three  miles  below  Two-Bridges  it  receives  the  waters  of  a  large  tributary  known  as  the  *  East  Dart,' 
and  thence  under  the  name  of  the  '  Double  Dart '  flows  in  a  winding  course  to  Totnes,  and  at  the 
end  of  about  35  miles  gradually  widens  into  a  deep  navigable  estuary,  and  falls  into  the  English 
Channel  at  Dartmouth  Haven.     Its  course  is  tidal  for  10|  miles.     The  East  and  West  Okement, 
though  they  rise  near  the  same  hill  as  the  Dart,  take  an  opposite  course,  and  unite  at  Okehampton, 
whence  the  stream  runs  northward  to  the  Torridge,  a  large  river  which  rises  in  the  north-west  angle 
•  of  the  county,  and  after  taking  a  very  tortuous  course,  flows  past  Torrington  to  Bidef ord,  where  it 
becomes  navigable  for  large  vessels,  and,  after  a  course  of  45  miles,  issues  into  an  estuary  at  Barn- 
staple Bay,  common  to  it  and  the  Taw.      Its  course  is  tidal  for  about  15  miles.     The  Taw  rises  in 
Dartmoor,  and  flows  northward  past  Chulmleigh,  where  it  meets  the  Little  Dart,  and  then,  pursuing 
a  north-west  course,  receives  various  tributary  streams,  among  which  is  the  Mole,  from  Exmoor  and 
South  Molton  ;  and  after  a  course  of  about  45  miles,  flows,  by  Barnstaple,  into  the  Bristol  Channel, 
through  the  same  estuary  as  the  Torridge.     It  is  tidal  in  its  course  for  11-|  miles,  and  large  vessels 
come  up  to  Barnstaple.     The  Tavy  rises  in  the  centre  of  Dartmoor,  and  flows  past  Tavistock  to  the 
Tamar,  a  large  river  which  rises  near  the  north-western  extremity  of  the  county,  and  flows  south- 
ward to  Plymouth  Sound,  forming,  with  a  few  slight  exceptions,    the  boundary   of   Devon  and 
Cornwall,  in  its  course  of  nearly  50  miles,  in  which  it  is  navigable  to  Launceston,  whence  a  canal 
extends  northward  in  the  valley  to  Bude  Haven,  with  a  branch  to  Holsworthy,  &c.      There  is  also  a 
canal  from  the  Tamar  to  Tavistock.      The  Teign  originates  from  two  branches,  called  the  East  and 
West  Teign,  both  rising  in  the  most  elevated  district  of  Dartmoor.     The  former  is  the  main  branch, 
and  flows  eastward  between  the  Dart  and  the  Exe,  from  Chagford  to  Dunsford,  and  thence  southward 
to  Chudleigh,  below  which  it  receives  the  West  Teign,  or  the  Wray.     Passing  southward  to  Newton 
Bushell,  the  Teign  turns  eastward,  and  runs  in  a  fine  estuary  to  Teignmouth,  about  five  miles  below, 
where  its  waters  are  lost  in  the  English  Channel.       The  Plym  rises  in  Dartmoor,  and  runs  southward 
to  Plymouth,  in  a  course  of  about  15  miles.     It  mingles  its  waters  with  those  of  the  Tamar,  in 
Plymouth  Sound.     The  Erme  and  the  Avon,  between  the  Plym  and  the  Dart,  are  also  considerable 
rivers,  rising  in  Dartmoor,  and  flowing  southward  to  the  English  Channel.     The  Exe,  the  ancient 
Isca,  the  most  important  river  of  Devonshire,  as  noticed  with  Exeter,  has  its  sources  in  the  forest 
of  Exmoor,  in  Somersetshire,    within  a  few   miles   of  the   Bristol    Channel,    and   about   36   miles 
north   by   west   of  Exeter,  to  which   it   flows   in  a  sinuous  course,  by  Dulverton,    Tiverton,  and 
Exeter  to  Topsham,  where  it  expands  into  a  noble  estuary,  extending  nearly  six  miles,  to  Exmouth, 
where  it  falls  into  the  English  Channel.      It  is  navigable  for  ships  to  Topsham,  and  from  thence  there 
is  a  broad  and  deep  canal  to  Exeter.     The  whole  course  of  the  Exe,  including  all  its  windings,  is 
about  70  miles.     Archdeacon  Hale  observes,  '  that  some  few  miles  from  where  the  Exe  rises,  towards 
the  west,  is  a  large  standing  lake,  always  full,  the  depth  of  the  bottom  of  which  is  unknown.'     It 
opens  a  subterranean  passage,  and  breaks  out  again  a  few  miles  distant.     Mr.  Polwhele  conjectures 
that  this  lake  is  the  crater  of  an  extinct  volc^mo.      The  principal  tributaries  of  the  Exe  are  the 
Batiiam,  Loman,  Creedy,  Clist,  Culme,  and  Kenn.     The  Batham,  rising  near  Clayhanger,  falls  into 
the  Exe  about  a  mile  below  Bampton.       The  Loman,  rising  in  Somersetshire,  passes  by  Up  Lowman 
and  Craze  Lowman,  and  falls  into  the  Exe  at  Tiverton.     The  Creedy,  which  rises  near  Cruwys- 


^20  History  ol"  Devonshire. 

Morchard,  passes  near  Crediton,  Newton  St.  Cyres,  &c.,  and  falls  into  ihe  Exe,  near  Cowley  Bridge. 
The  Clist,  after  passing  through  the  six  parishes  to  which  it  gives  name,  falls  into  the  Exe,  at 
Topsham.  The  Culme,  rising  in  Somersetshire,  passes  Church  Stanton  and  liemiock,  through 
Culmstock  and  UiFculme,  near  Cullompton  and  Stoke  Canon,  and  falls  into  the  Exe,  near  Cowley 
Bridge.  The  Kenn  rises  near  Dunchidiock,  and,  running  by  Kenford  and  Kenn,  falls  into  the  Exe, 
between  Kenton  and  Powderham.  The  little  river  Yeo  falls  into  the  Creedy,  near  Crediton. 
Another  Yeo  (a  tributary  of  the  Dart)  was  anciently  called  the  'Ashburn'  (hence  Ash  burton)  ;  it 
rises  under  Rippon  Tor,  flows  through  Ashburton,  and  meets  the  Dart  after  a  course  of  about  six 
miles,  at  Buckfastleigh.  The  Axe  rises  in  Dorsetshire,  and  near  Ford  Abbey  becomes  for  a  while 
the  boundary  of  the  two  counties ;  thence  it  runs  to  Axminster,  and,  after  passing  between  Colyton 
and  Musbury,  falls  into  the  sea  between  Seaton  and  Axmouth.  The  smaller  rivers  Yarty  and  Colv 
fall  into  the  Axe.  The  Otter  rises  in  Somersetshire,  near  Otterford,  and  flows  thence  to  Up  Ottery, 
Honiton,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  and  Otterton,  below  which  it  opens  into  a  short  but  broad  estuary,  which 
terminates  in  the  English  Channel,  near  Budleigh- Salterton.  The  small  river  Sid  rises  near  Sidbury, 
and,  passing  through  Sidford,  falls  into  the  sea  at  Sidmouth.  The  IIarburn,  rising  on  the  edge  of 
Dartmoor,  runs  near  Harberton,  and  falls  into  the  Dart,  near  Ashprington.  The  small  rivers  which 
fall  into  the  Tamar  are  the  Wick,  Derle,  Deer,  Cary,  Claw,  Lyd,  and  Tavy,  on  the  western  side  of 
the  county.  The  little  river  Waldron,  which  rises  near  Brad  worthy,  runs  near  Sutcombe  and 
Milton  Damerel,  and  falls  into  the  Torridge,  near  Bradford.  The  Little  Dart  rises  near  Eackenford, 
and  passing  near  Witheridge,  Worlington,  and  Chulmleigh,  falls  into  the  Taw  below  the  latter  place. 
The  small  river  Bray  rises  near  Parracombe,  and  passing  East  Buckland,  King's  Nympton,  &c.,  falls 
into  the  Taw,  near  Newnham  Bridge.  The  Lyn  rises  on  Exmoor,  and,  after  a  course  of  ten  miles, 
tails  into  the  Bristol  Channel,  near  Linton. 

Navigable  Kivers,  Creeks,  and  Canals. — The  Exe  is  navigable  for  large  vessels  up  to  Topshara, 
whence  there  is  a  canal  for  sloops  and  barges  up  to  Exeter.  The  Teign  is  navigable  to  Newton 
Bushell,  between  which  and  King's  Teignton  it  is  joined  by  the  Teigngrace  Canal.  The  Dart  is 
navigable  from  Dartmouth  to  Totnes.  A  fine  estuary  runs  inland  about  five  miles,  from  Salcombe  to 
Kingsbridge,  and  is  navigable  for  sloops  and  barges.  This  estuary  has  several  navigable  creeks, 
branching  from  each  side,  and  affording  the  adjacent  parishes  the  means  of  importing  lime,  sand, 
and  other  manures,  and  of  exporting  their  produce.  The  Yealm  is  navigable  for  sloops  and  small 
brigs,  to  Kitley  Quay.  The  Tamar  is  navigable  to  New  Quay,  twenty-four  miles  from  Plymouth,  for 
vessels  of  130  to  140  tons,  and  up  to  Morwellham  Quay,  for  vessels  of  200  tons.  The  Plym  is 
navigable  at  Catwater,  near  its  mouth,  for  men  of  war  ;  and  vessels  of  forty  or  fifty  tons  go  up  as  far 
as  Crabtree.  The  Torridge  becomes  navigable  for  boats  at  Wear  GifFord,  and  for  ships  of  large  bur- 
then at  Bideford.  The  Taw  is  navigable  to  Barnstaple,  for  vessels  of  140  tons,  and  up  to  New 
Bridge  for  small  craft ;  but  large  vessels  can  anchor  within  three  or  four  miles  of  Barnstaple.  Exeter 
Canal  is  noticed  with  Exeter ;  and  the  Grand  Western  Canal  with  Tiverton.  The  latter  was  in- 
tended to  pass  through  a  great  part  of  Devon,  but  only  extends  to  Tiverton.  In  1792  an  Act  of 
Parliament  was  passed  for  making  the  Stover  Canal,  from  the  Railway  of  Haytor  Granite  Works, 
near  Bovey  Tracey,  to  the  Teign,  near  Newton  Abbot ;  with  a  collateral  cut  to  Chudleigh.  The 
former  was  finished  in  1794,  but  the  latter  not  till  1843.  (See  Chudleigh  and  Newton  Abbot,)  The 
Tavistock  Canal,  to  Morwellham  Quay,  on  the  Tamar,  was  constructed  under  the  powers  of  an  Act 
passed  in  1803,  but  was  not  completed  till  J  817,  as  noticed  with  Tavistock.  In  1819  an  Act  of 
Parliament  was  obtained  for  making  the  Bude  Canal,  from  Bude  Haven,  on  the  Cornish  coast,  to  the 
Tamar  Valley,  and  thence  eastward  to  Thornbury,  &c.,  in  Devon;  and  southward,  doAvn  the  valley, 
to  Launceston.  At  Burmsdon,  a  branch  of  this  canal  proceeds  to  Moreton  Mill,  and  to  a  large 
reservoir  on  Longford  Moor  ;  and  from  Veale  a  branch  extends  to  Vorworthy.  There  are  inclined 
planes,  and  a  tunnel  of  considerable  length,  in  its  route  to  Thornbury.  One  of  its  chief  objects  is  to 
facilitate  the  introduction  of  Welsh  coal  into  Devon. 

The  Climate  of  Devonshire  is  so  mild  on  the  southern  coast  that,  in  flourishing  gardens,  orange 
and  lemon  trees,  myrtles,  &c.,  grow  in  the  open  air,  with  little  shelter  during  the  winter.  The 
laurels  and  bays  of  Devon  are  held  to  be  the  most  beautiful  evergreens  in  the  world.  Broad-leaved 
myrtle  trees  have  grown  here  to  the  height  of  thirty  feet,  with  branches  spreading  nearly  from  the 
roots,  where  the  stalk  or  trunk  was  from  1-^  to  2  feet  in  circumference.  Swallows  have  been  seen 
feeding  their  young  in  the  latter  part  of  September ;  and  martins  flying,  during  mild  weather,  at 
Christmas.  The  mean  annual  temperature,  from  eleven  years'  observation,  was  found  to  be  52  deg. 
5  rnin. ;  but  from  its  advanced  position  in  the  ocean,  the  climate  of  Devon  is  unquestionably  a  moist 
one,  especially  in  the  vicinity  of  the  mountainous  districts,  where  the  air  is  often  cold  and  damp. 
Even  the  mild  south-eastern  parts  of  the  county  are  often  pervaded  by  the  '  Devonshire  drizzle,'  which 
is  a  rain  so  light  as  to  deposit  itself  in  a  thick  dew,  attended  by  a  grey  cloudy  sky ;  but  these  drizzles 
seldom  continue  for  an  entire  day,  and  the  accompanying  warm  temperature  takes  from  them  the 
usual  injurious  effects  of  damp  weather  in  colder  climates.     Indeed,  the  climate  of  Devon  is  con- 

History  of*  I>evoiisliijfe. 


sidered  by  medical  men  to  be  so  healthy  and  auspicious  to  invalids,  that  a  residence  within  its 
bounds  is  generally  advised,  in  preference  even  to  Lisbon  or  the  South  of  France.  Epidemics  occa- 
sionally prevail,  and  in  1849  the  cholera  was  very  fatal  at  Plymouth,  Devonport,  and  some  other 

County  Divisions. — The  division  of  the  country  into  counties  is  of  very  ancient  date,  these 
divisions  being  mentioned  in  the  laws  of  Ina,  King  of  Wessex,  in  the  seventh  century.  In  the  later 
Anglo-Saxon  times  we  find  a  shire  mote  (or  county  court)  held  twice  a  year,  and  presided  over  by  the 
alderman,  or  earl,  and  the  bishop,  its  functions  being  judicial.  The  sheriff  was  the  officer  appointed 
by  the  king  to  cany  out  the  decrees  of  the  court,  to  levy  distresses,  take  charge  of  prisoners,  &c. 
The  sheriff  was  at  first  only  an  assessor,  but  he  afterwards  became  joint  president,  and,  finally,  sole 
president.  This  court  survived  the  Norman  Conquest,  and  Mr.  Hallam  thinks  ('  Middle  Ages,'  vol.  ii. 
p.  277)  it  greatly  contributed  to  fix  the  liberties  of  England  by  curbing  the  feudal  aristocracy.  The 
lord  lieutenant  of  the  county  formerly  had  tlie  management  of  the  militia,  yeomanry,  and  the  volun- 
teers, and  he  '  still  recommends  persons  for  commissions  or  first  appointments  to  the  rank  of  cornet, 
-  ensign,  or  lieutenant  in  those  Ibrces ;  and  he  is  still  charged  with  the  duty  of  raising  the  militia  by 
means  of  the  ballot,  whenever  such  a  course  may  become  necessary.  He  also  recommends  those  of  the 
gentry  whom  he  deems  fit  to  hold  the  appointments  of  deputy  lieutenants  or  county  magistrates.  But 
his  other  powers  and  duties  have  been  considerably  diminished  by  the  Regulation  of  the  Forces  Act, 
1871,  as  many  have  by  that  Act  reverted  to  the  Crown,  and  are  now  exercised  by  the  Secretary  for 
the  War  Department.'  The  Lord  Warden  of  the  Stannaries  of  this  county  and  Cornwall  has  many  of 
the  powers  of  a  lord  lieutenant. 

Parliamentary  Divisions,  &c. — The  county,  by  the  Representation  of  the  People  Act,  1867,  is 
now  divided  into  North,  South,  and  East  Devon,  and  each  division  returns  two  members.  Barn- 
staple is  the  capital  of  the  Northern  Division,  and  the  other  polling-places  are  Bideford,  Crediton, 
Cullompton,  Great  Torrington,  Ilfracombe,  South  Molton,  and  Tiverton  ;  Exeter  of  the  Eastern 
Division,  and  the  other  polling-places  are  Ashburton,  Honiton,  and  Newton  Abbot ;  and  Plymouth 
of  the  Southern  Division,  and  the  other  polling-places  are  Kingsbridge,  Okehampton,  and  Tavistock. 
(The  hundreds  in  each  division  are  shown  in  the  table  on  page  22.)  The  following  table  shows 
the  territorial  extent  of  each  division,  the  number  of  houses,  population,  and  electors  in  1871  (ex- 
cluding represented  city  and  boroughs)  : — 











East  Devon    . 
North  Devon  . 
South  Devon  . 












Exeter  is  a  represented  city  and  returns  two  members.  Plymouth,  Devonport,  Barnstaple,  Tiverton, 
and  Tavistock  are  Parliamentary  boroughs,  and  the  four  first  return  each  two  members.  The 
boroughs  of  Plympton,  Okehampton,  and  Beeralston,  together  sending  four  members,  were  disfranchised 
by  the  Reform  of  1832,  previous  to  which  the  county  sent  twenty-six  representatives.  Tavistock, 
by  the  Act  of  1867,  lost  one  of  its  members,  and  by  that  of  1868  (the  Scottish  Reform  Act),  Ash- 
burton, Dartmouth,  and  Honiton  were  disfranchised.  The  Borough  of  Totnes  has  also  ceased  to 
return  any  members,  and  the  total  number  of  representatives  from  this  county  to  the  House  of 
Commons  is  now  15. 

County  Voters. — In  the  North  Division  there  are  now  9613  electors,  in  the  South  8115,  and 
in  the  East  10,376.  Total,  28,104.  The  present  members  of  Parliament  are,  for  the  Northern 
Division,  Sir  Stafford  Northcote  (Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer)  and  Sir  Thomas  Dyke  Acland;  for 
the  Eastern  District,  Sir  Lawrence  Palk  and  Sir  J.  H.  Kennaway;  and  for  the  South  Sir  Massey 
Lopes  and  Mr.  J.  Carpenter  Garnier. 

Borough  Voters. — The  City  and  County  of  the  City  of  Exeter  is  at  present  representeJ  by 
I\Ir.  Arthur  Mills  and  Mr.  J.  G.  Johnson.     There  are  6645  electors. 

Plymouth  has  a  constituency  of  4750,  and  the  members  are  Messrs.  E.  Bates  and  Sampson  S. 
Lloyd.  Devonport,  represented  by  Messrs.  John  H.  Puleston  and  George  Edward  Price,  has  3560 
voters.  Tiverton,  with  Sir  J.  H.  Amery  and  the  Right  Honble.  Wm.  M.  Massey  for  its  members, 
contains  1378  electors.  Barnstaple  is  represented  by  Messrs.  T.  Cave  and  S.  D.  Waddy,  and  their 
constituents  number  1606.  Finally,  Tavistock  last  returned  Lord  Arthur  Russell,  and  the  borough 
contains  838  electors.  The  total  number  of  borough  voters,  inclusive  of  the  Shire  of  the  City  of 
Exeter,  is  18,777. 

The  following  enumeration  of  the  33  hundreds  and  the  11  municipal  boroughs  which  the  county 


Hifeitory  oi'  I>evoiisliire. 

comprises  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  their  inhabited  and  uninhabited  houses,  houses  building, 
and  pojDulation  (males  and  females)  in  1871.  In  this  table  the  municipal  cities  and  boroughs,  whether 
recognised  by  the  Municipal  Corporations  Keform  Act  of  1835,  or  incorporated  since  1835,  are  ex- 
cluded irom  the  hundreds  in  which  they  are  locally  situated,  and  given  separately ;  but  the  municipal 
incorporations  of  Bradninch,  Okehampton,  and  Plympton  Earl's,  not  being  under  the  Municipal 
Corporations  Act  (5  &  6  Will.  IV.  c.  76),  are  returned  in  the  hundreds  in  which  they  are  respec- 
tively situated: — 

Hnndrrrls  &lc                            Area  in 


Population                          | 

J-LlliiU.lCLii:3>    UvVa 








*Axminster     .... 
















§Black  Torrington 







































4,326     i 








5,562     1 

*East  Budleigh 







13,046     i 

§Ermington     . 







5,152     1 

*Exminster     . 







11,753     i 

Eremington  . 








Halberton      . 
















Hayridge       . 
































North  Tawton 








*Ottery  St.  IVIaiy 








































South  Molton 
















§Tavistock      . 








^Teignbridge  . 
















West  Budleigh 








Winkleigh     . 
















*AVonford        . 








*ExETEii  City 









Barnstaple     .... 

















(a)  1,847 































South  Molton 
























*Totnes  (part  of)  (b) 



. . 




§Totnes  (part  of)  (^>) 








Total   . 








Notes  akd  References. — (a)  The  areas  of  the  parishes  which  are  c7iUrely  within  the  borough  of  Dartmouth 
amount,  according  to  the  computation  of  the  Tithe  Commission,  to  1918  acres  (including  150  acres  of  water).  A  part 
of  the  parish  of  Stokefleming,  the  area  of  which  is  not  known,  is  also  within  the  borough.  According  to  the  compu- 
tation of  the  Ordnance  Survey  Department,  however,  the  aggregate  area  of  the  borough,  excluding  water,  is  1847 
acres,  as  stated  above. 

{h)  The  area  of  that  part  of  Totncs  borough  in  East  Devon  is  not  known  ;  it  is  included  in  that  of  the  hundred 
of  Haytor. 

Marked  *  are  in  the  Eastern  Parliamentary  Division  of  the  County,  §  in  the  Southern,  and  the  rest  in  the 
Northern  Division. 

History  of  I>evoiisliire. 

Hundreds. — The  Teutonic  races  very  early  divided  their  territory  into  Hundreds  (see  Tacitus, 
Germ.  6  and  12) ;  but  we  cannot  tell  what  constituted  a  Hundred,  though  some  writers  have 
conjectured  that  it  consisted  of  100  families.  The  Court  of  the  Hundred  (hundred  mote),  which 
was  held  by  its  own  hundred  men  under  the  writ  of  the  sheriff,  was  a  court  of  justice  for  all  suitors 
in  the  hundred.  But  all  important  cases  were  tried  by  the  county  court  (shire  mote),  and  in 
course  of  time  the  jurisdiction  of  the  court  of  the  hundred  was  restricted  to  the  trial  of  petty 
offences  and  the  maintenance  of  a  local  police,  until  it  was  finally  superseded  by  the  petty  sessional 
divisions.  Every  man  whose  rank  and  property  did  not  afford  an  ostensible  guarantee  for  his  good 
conduct  was  obliged,  after  the  reign  of  Athelstane,  to  find  a  surety.  This  surety  was  afforded  by  the 
TEOTHING  or  TYTiiiNG,  which  smaller  division  we  find  in  the  later  Anglo-Saxon  times,  and  in  the  south 
of  England.  The  members  of  the  tything  formed  as  it  were  a  perpetual  bail  for  one  another's 
appearance  in  case  of  crime,  with  apparently  an  ultimate  responsibility  if  the  criminal  escaped  or  if 
he  was  not  able  to  pay  the  penalty  incurred. 

The  towns  not  under  the  Municipal  and  Corporation  Act  are  Bradninch,  which  has  a  corporation 
with  a  jurisdiction  co-extensive  with  the  borough ;  Okehampton,  which  has  also  a  mayor  and 
corporation ;  and  Plympton  Earls,  which,  although  it  possesses  an  ancient  charter,  has  of  late  years 
refrained  from  electing  a  mayor  or  other  officers.  Tavistock  (which  is  still),  and  Ashburton  (which 
has  been  until  recently  a  parliamentary  borough),  are  governed  by  port-reeves,  elected  annually  by 
the  freeholders  sworn  for  that  purpose  at  the  court  leets  of  the  lords  of  the  respective  manors.  The 
boroughs  mentioned  in  Domesday  were  Exeter,  Barnstaple,  Okehampton,  Totnes  and  Lydford. 
Apart  from  those  already  mentioned,  the  towns  of  next  importance  in  Devonshire  are  Torquay, 
with  a  population  of  21,657;  Brixham,  4941;  Exmouth,  5614;  Teignmouth,  6751;  Crediton, 
4222  ;  Cullompton,  2205  ;  Dawlish,  3622  ;  Ilfracombe,  4721 ;  Newton  Abbot,  6082  ;  Topsham, 
2514;  Ottery  St.  Mary,  4110 ;  Sidmouth,  3360;  Lynton,  1170;  Northam,  4330;  Paignton,  3590 ; 
St.  Mary  Church,  4472,  and  many  smaller  towns. 

Civil  Parishes  and  Townships,  and  Extra-Parochial  Places. — By  a  civil  parish  or  town- 
ship is  meant  a  place  (by  whatever  designation  it  may  be  called)  Avhich  has  its  own  overseers,  and  in 
which  a  poor  rate  is  separately  levied.  In  Devon,  with  a  very  few  exceptions,  they  are  identical 
with  the  ancient  ecclesiastical  parishes.  Extra-parochial  places  are  those  which  are  not  included  in 
any  parish  or  township,  either  for  ecclesiastical  or  poor  law  purposes.  These  places  are  found  usually 
have  been  the  sites  of  religious  houses  or  of  ancient  castles,  the  owners  of  which  were  able  in  former 
mes  to  prevent  any  interference  on  the  part  of  the  civil  authorities  within  their  limits  :  the  royal 
rests,  and  some  tracts  of  land  acquired  in  recent  times,  either  by  reclamation  from  the  sea,  or  by 
e  drainage  of  fens,  also  had  like  exemptions.  Most  of  these  places  have,  under  20  Vict.  c.  19  and 
1  &  32  Vict.  c.  122,  been  formed  into  new  parishes  or  annexed  to  adjacent  parishes  for  poor  law 
poses ;  a  few,  however,  still  remain.  Many  of  the  ancient  ecclesiastical  parishes  into  which  the 
county  Avas  divided  at  an  early  period  have  been  divided  for  ecclesiastical  purposes  ;  some  of  these 
new  ecclesiastical  districts  comprise  parts  of  two  or  more  ancient  parishes. 

The  Poor  Law. — In  feudal  times  the  poor  were  supported  by  their  lords,  and  later  they  were 
allowed  to  beg,  and  were  chiefly  supported  by  the  monastic  and  other  religious  institutions.  The 
dissolution  of  the  religious  houses  by  Henry  VlII.  deprived  the  poor  of  this  means  of  support,  and 
greatly  increased  their  numbers.  Voluntary  collections  were  first  ordered  in  their  behalf  under  27 
Henry  VIII.  c.  25  (1536),  and  the  first  compulsory  assessment  was  made  by  43  Elizabeth  c.  2  (1601). 
This  law  was,  until  recent  times  (1834),  the  text  book  of  the  English  poor  law.  The  overseers  of 
each  parish  were  directed  to  provide  work  for  indigent  poor,  and  workhouses  were  first  established  by 
9  Geo.  I.  c,  7.  These  Avorkhouses,  which  were  a  kind  of  manufactory,  at  length  pauperised  the  indepen- 
dent workman,  encouraged  improvident  marriages,  and  set  a  premium  on  immorality.  Labourers' 
wages  were  frequently  paid  in  part  from  the  relief  fund,  and  thus  a  portion  of  the  work  of  the 
farmers  was  done  at  the  expense  of  the  parish.  In  1832  the  Poor  Law  Commissioners  were  appointed, 
and  in  1834  they  made  their  report.  Since  this  time  the  poor  rates,  which  had  risen  rapidly,  have 
again  fallen,  as  shown  in  a  subsequent  page. 

Unions,  Registration  Districts  and  Eegistration  County. — By  the  Act  for  the  Amendment 
and  better  Administration  of  the  Laws  relating  to  the  Poor  (4  &  5  Will.  IV.  c.  74  s.  26  (1834),  the 
Legislature  in  1834  entrusted  to  the  Poor  Law  Commissioners  the  power  of  forming  new  districts 
called  UNIONS  without  any  such  reference  to  coimty  limits  as  was  observed  in  the  constitution  of  the 
analogous  hundreds,  sessional  divisions  and  sub-lieutenancy  sub- divisions.  These  unions  having 
staffs  of  ofiicers  and  rating  powers  were  in  1836,  by  6  &  7  Will.  IV.  c.  86,  made  the  basis  of  the  regis- 
tration districts  in  which  the  births,  deaths,  and  marriages  have  been  since  registered.  These  districts 
are  identical  in  Devon  with  the  poor  law  unions  or  incorporations,  except  that  Lundy  Island,  which 
is  in  the  Bideford  district,  is  not  in  any  union.  And  as  the  districts  consist  of  sub-districts,  the  sub- 
districts  of  parishes  or  townships,  so  the  districts  were  grouped  together  to  form  the  union  or  registra- 
tion counties,  which  differ  somewhat  from  the  coimty  proper. 


History  of  r>evoiisliiire. 

The  area  of  the  county  proper  Avithin  the  limits  as  left  by  Acts  2  &  3  Will.  IV.  c.  G4  (1832), 
and  7  &  8  Vict.  c.  61  (1844),  is  1,055,101  acres,  that  of  the  union  or  registration  county  1,643,343 
acres;  the  area  of  places  annexed  to  the  county  to  form  the  registration  county  is  49,169  acres,  and 
of  places  severed  60,987  ;  thus  showing  a  loss  to  the  county  of  11,818.  Of  the  acres  of  the  county 
proper  in  other  registration  counties,  27,057  are  in  that  of  Cornwall,  and  33,930  in  Somerset ;  of  the 
acres  of  other  counties  proper  included  in  the  registration  county  of  Devon,  17,284  are  in  Dorset, 
11,394  in  Cornwall,  and  20,491  in  Somerset.  The  population  of  the  county  proper  in  1871  was 
601,374,  and  of  the  union  county  606,102  ;  the  population  of  the  places  annexed  to  the  county 
proper  to  form  the  union  county  was  14,022,  and  of  places  severed  9294,  showing  a  gain  of  4728  to 
the  union  county.  Of  the  population  of  the  county  proper  in  other  registration  counties  30G9  were 
in  Cornwall,  and  6225  in  Somerset ;  of  the  population  of  parts  of  other  counties  proper  in  Devon 
union  county,  6627  were  in  Dorset,  7056  in  Cornwall,  and  339  in  Somerset.  The  parishes  annexed 
or  severed  will  be  specified  in  the  notes  to  the  following  table : — 

Area  in 





in  1871 











§  Axminster 




















Eidftford  . 










Crediton  . 










East  Stonehotiso 










Exoter  (/)        .         . 










1  Holsworthy 










Iloniton  . 










Kingsbridge     . 









1 15,367 

Newton  A.bbot 










Okehampton    . 










^  Plymouth 










Plympton  St.  Mary . 










f  South  Molton  . 










Stoke  Damerel  (g)   . 










St.  Thomas  (/) 










I   TaA'istock 










Tiverton  . 




















Totnes     . 

Union  County  . 



















t  Chard  (a) 










t  Dulverton  (b)  . 









I  Launceston  (c). 










t  Taunton  (d)     . 










t  Wellington  (e) . 

Parishes  in  other  "1 
union  counties/ 



















§  Axminster 



















I   Holsworthy      . 









2  664 

t  South  Molton  . 









1   Tavistock 









t  Tiverton  . 

Parts  of  other  counties "( 
in  union  county      .  / 

County  Peoper    . 



























Notes  and  Eeferences. — Marked  *  is  »n  incorporation ;  t  arc  partly  in  Somerset,  §  Dorset,  and  J  Cornwall. 
For  the  parishes  of  these  counties  proper  in  Devon  union  county  in  1871  and  now,  see  the  detailed  account  of  each 
union;  tormerly  Tirerton  registration  district  or  union  comprised  Dulverton,  which  is  now  a  separate  district  in 
Somerset  The  parishes,  &c..  in  other  union  counties  in  1871  were  («)  Yarcombe ;  (b)  Morebath;  (c)  North  Petherwin, 
Virginstow,  Broad woodwidger,  St.  Giles  in  the  Heath,  Werrington,  and  Northcott;  (d)  Church  Stanton ;  and  (e)  Burks- 
combe,  Clayhidon,  Culmstock,  Hemyock,  and  Holcombe  Rogus;  {/)  most  of  H.  Leonarls  parish,  formerly  in  St. 

History  of  Uevoiissiliii'e.  25 

Assessments,  Kental,  &c. — The  annual  rental  of  the  land  in  Devon  assessed  to  the  property  tax 
in  1811,  was  £1,217,547,  but  the  annual  value  of  real  property  (land,  buildings,  &c.),  was  assessed 
to  the  same  tax  in  1815,  at  £1,897,915.  The  parochial  assessments  of  the  county  in  1823  amounted 
to  £227,425,  of  which  £175,412  was  levied  on  land,  £47,401  on  dwelling-houses,  £2624  on  mills 
and  factories,  and  £1927  on  manorial  profits.  In  1803  the  parochial  assessments  amounted  to 
^179,359,  of  which  £148,565  was  expended  on  the  poor.  In  1821,  these  assessments  amounted  to 
£272,939,  of  which  £234,097  was  expended  on  the  poor.  In  1839,  after  the  formation  of  the  large 
unions,  and  the  erection  of  extensive  workhouses,  the  sums  collected  in  poor  rates  in  the  county 
amounted  to  £214,500.  The  poor  rates  levied  amounted  to  £318,175  for  the  year  ended  Lady  Day, 
1874 ;  and  £320,203  in  1875.  The  gross  estimated  rental  of  the  union  county  on  Lady  Day,  1875, 
was  £3,110,173,  and  its  rateable  value,  £2,616,112.  The  receipts  for  the  year  ended  Lady  Day, 
1876,  were,  £317,720  from  poor  rates;  and  £21,948  Treasury  subventions, and  £7133  other  receipts 
in  aid  of  poor  rates ;  total,  £346,801.  The  expenditure  for  the  same  period  was :  expended  in  relief 
to  the  poor,  and  purposes  connected  therewith — in  maintenance,  £26,662  ;  out-relief,  £118,644  ; 
maintenance  of  lunatics  in  asylums  or  licensed  houses,  £21,727;  workhouse  or  other  loans  repaid, 
and  interest  thereon,  £1185  ;  salaries  and  rations  of  officers  (including  the  sums  repaid  by  Her 
Majesty's  Treasury)  and  superannuations,  £22,969 ;  other  expenses  of,  or  immediately  connected 
with  relief,  £10,499;  total  relief  to  the  poor,  £201,686;  cost  of  proceedings  at  law  or  in  equity 
(parochial  and  union),  £698.  Expended  for  purposes  unconnected  with  relief  to  the  poor  :  payments 
for  or  towards  the  county,  borough,  or  poll  :e  rate,  £55,602 ;  payments  by  overseers  to  Highway 
Boards,  under  27  &  28  Vict.  c.  101,  s.  33,  £48,457;  contributions  by  the  overseers  to  the  Rural 
Sanitary  Authority,  £2175  ;  contributions  by  the  overseers  to  the  School  Board,  £12,380  ;  payments 
•on  account  of  the  Kegistration  Act,  namely,  fees  to  clergj^men  and  registrars,  outlay  for  register 
offices,  books,  and  forms,  £2240 ;  vaccination  fees,  £1840  ;  expenses  allowed  in  respect  of  parlia- 
mentary or  municipal  registration,  and  cost  of  jury  lists,  £1287.  Expended  for  purposes  partly 
connected  with,  and  partly  unconnected  with  relief  to  the  poor:  payments  under  Parochial  Assess- 
ment Act  and  Union  Assessment  Committee  Acts,  £671  ;  money  expended  for  all  other  purposes, 
£12,616  ;  grand  total  expenditure,  £339,652.  The  guardians  disbursed  £8510  in  medical  relief  to 
the  poor  (included  in  items  given  above),  consisting  of  salaries  to  ihe  medical  officers,  extra  medical 
fees  paid  to  them  under  the  General  Consolidated  Order,  and  the  cost  (if  any)  of  medical  and  surgical 
appliances  and  drugs.  The  balance  of  loans  contracted  under  orders  of  the  Local  Government  Board 
on  March  25,  1876,  was  £6586.  The  expenditure  in  relief  to  the  poor  for  the  year  ended  Lady  Day, 
1875,  was  £206,663,  thus  showing  a  decrease  of  £4977,  or  2*4  per  cent.  The  cost  of  in-maintenance 
for  the  half  year  ended  Michaelmas,  1876,  was  £14,477,  and  of  outdoor  relief,  £58,152;  total, 
£72,629 ;  while  the  cost  of  in-maintenance  for  the  corresponding  half  year  of  1875  was  £13,334,  and 
of  outdoor  relief,  £60,709 ;  thus  showing  a  decrease  of  £1414,  or  1'9  per  cent. 

Return  of  Paupeks. — The  number  of  paupers  in  the  union  county  in  1871  was  29,131.  The 
proportion  of  paupers  in  England  and  Wales  on  July  1,  1876,  on  the  population  of  1871  (22,706,031), 
was  as  1  in  32,  or  3*1  per  cent.,  the  number  of  persons  relieved  being  707,375.  In  the  registration 
county  of  Devon  there  were  on  that  date :  Indoor  paupers — able-bodred,  males,  44  ;  females,  241 ; 
children  under  16,  350  :  not  able-bodied,  males,  728  ;  females,  630  ;  children  under  16,  671  :  lunatics^ 
insane  persons,  and  idiots,  males,  126  ;  females,  179  ;  children  under  16,  14;  vagrants  relieved  in  the 
workhouse,  8;  total  in  workhouses,  2991.  Outdoor  paupers — able-bodied,  males,  374;  females, 
1947;  children  luider  16,4552,  not  able-bodied,  males,  4277;  females,  9753;  children  under  16, 
1496  :  lunatics,  insane  2)Sj'sons  and  idiots,  males,  414  ;  females,  684;  children  under  16,  14  ;  total  out 
of  workhouses,  23,511 ;  deduct  53  persons,  who  received  both  indoor  and  outdoor  relief,  and  the  net 
total  of  persons  relieved  is  26,449.  This  is  a  decrease  of  1390,  or  5*0  per  cent,  on  the  number 
relieved  on  July  1,  1875.  In  the  above  return  children  relieved  with  'able  bodied'  parents  are 
classed  as  '  able  bodied,'  and  children  relieved  without  their  parents,  or  relieved  with  parents  who  are 
'not  able  bodied,'  are  classed  as  'not  able  bodied.'  The  number  of  adult  [i.e.  paupers  aged  16  and 
upwards]  able  bodied  paupers  relieved  on  July  1,  1876,  was,  indoor,  285;  outdoor,  2321;  total, 
2606 ;  while  on  the  corresponding  day  of  the  previous  year  there  were  345  indoor  paupers,  and  2646 
outdoor ;  total,  2991,  showing  a  decrease  of  385,  or  12*9  per  cent. 

Vaccination. — There  are  167  public  vaccinators  in  the  union  county.  In  the  year  ended  Sep- 
tember 29,  1876,  there  were  11,974  successful  primary  vaccinations  of  persons  under  one  year  of 
age,  and  703  aged  one  year  and  upwards;  total,  12,677.  The  number  of  successful  re-vaccinations 
was  60;  the  number  of  births  registered  during  the  year,  17,939.  Of  the  17,898  births  registered  in 
1874,  there  were  on  January  31,  1876,  15,736  persons  successfully  vaccinated;  19  insusceptible  of  vac- 
cination ;  1493  dead  unvaccinated ;  189  vaccination  postponed;  leaving  461  persons  unaccounted  for. 

Thomas's  union,  was  added  to  Exeter  incorporatic'ii  on  Lady-day,  1878 ;  the  returns,  however,  are  those  of  the  old 
limits  ;  {g)  Stoke  Damerel  is  a  separate  parish,  maintaining  its  poor  under  a  local  Act. 

26  History  of  Devonsliire. 

Principal  Occupations. — The  following  are  the  principal  occupations  of  the  union  county,  and 
the  number  of  inhabitants  engaged  in  each  as  returned  in  1871.  Males. — Civil  service  718,  police 
729,  army  officers  (effective)  318,  army  retired  and  half-pay  officers  264,  navy  officers  (effective)  788, 
navy  retired  and  half-pay  officers  183,  clergymen  877,  Protestant  ministers  330,  Roman  Catholic 
priests  30,  barristers  62,  solicitors  381,  law  clerks  328,  physicians  and  surgeons  518,  dentists  76, 
chemists  and  druggists  519,  authors,  editors,  journalists  36,  painters,  artists  94,  sculptors,  8,  engravers 
59,  photographers  138,  musicians,  music  masters  252,  schoolmasters  550,  teachers,  professors,  lecturers 
412,  civil  engineers  108,  innkeepers,  hotelkeepers,  publicans  1679,  beersellers  1,14,  domestic  servants 
4655;  merchants  272,  bankers  58,  brokers,  agents,  factors  283,  auctioneers,  valuers,  house  agents  117, 
accountants  488,  pa^vnbrokers  78,  coach,  t^c.  proprietors  222,  shipowners  85,  pilots  102,  farmers, 
graziers  10,313,  farmers' sons,  brothers,  grandsons,  nephews  4491,  farm  bailiffs  230,  land  surveyors, 
estate  agents  131,  nurserymen,  seedsmen,  florists  147,  gardeners  3066,  horse  proprietors,  dealers  19, 
farriers,  veterinary  surgeons  150,  cattle,  &c.  salesmen  115,  fishermen  1634;  booksellers,  publishers 
163,  bookbinders  94,  printers  737,  musical  instrument  agents,  dealers  46,  lithographers,  lithographic 
printers  37,  "watchmakers,  clockmakers  433,  philosophical  instrument  makers,  opticians  27,  engine 
and  machine  makers  887,  agricultural  implement  machine  makers  42,  millwrights  168,  coachmakers 
478,  wheelwrights  921,  saddlers,  harness,  whip  makers  503,  shipbuilders,  shipwrights,  boat  builders 
2032,  sail  makers  194,  architects  108,  surveyors  61,  builders  802,  carpenters,  joiners  6998,  brick- 
layers 279,  marble  masons  134,  masons,  paviours  5979,  plasterers  630,  paperhangers  22,  plumbers, 
painters,  glaziers  2325,  cabinet  makers,  upholsterers  1071,  carvers  and  gilders  115,  manufacturing' 
chemists,  &c.,  42,  dyers,  scourers,  calenderers  75,  v/oolstaplers  25,  Avoollen  cloth  manufacture  259, 
worsted  manufacture  197,  silk,  satin  manufacture  73,  llax,  linen  manufacture  39,  lace  manufacture 
316,  drapers,  linen  drapers,  mercers  1470,  hairdressers,  wig  makers  251,  hatters,  hat  manufacture  126, 
tailors  3302,  shoemakers,  bootmakers  5782,  rope,  cord  makers  473  ;  cowkeepers,  milk  sellers  913, 
butchers,  meat  salesmen  1761,  fishmongers  223,  corn,  flour,  seed  merchants,  dealers  174,  millers  1151, 
bakers  2021,  confectioners,  pastry  cooks  179,  greengrocers,  fruit,  vegetable  dealers  202,  maltsters  252, 
brewers  381,  wine  and  spirit  merchants  257,  grocers,  tea  dealers  1607 ;  tallow  chandlers  111,  tanners 
504,  curriers  273,  brush,  broom  makers  178,  timber,  wood  merchants  and  dealers  158,  sawyers  1077, 
coopers,  hoop  makers,  benders  369,  basket  makers  341,  thatchers  711,  paper  manufacture  415;  coal 
miners  24,  copper  miners  623,  tin  miners,  215,  lead  miners  126,  iron  miners  32,  coal  merchants, 
dealers  282,  stone  quarriers  458,  earthenware  manufacture  256,  tin  plate  workers,  tinmen  332,  brass 
manufacture,  braziers  108,  iron  manufacture  425,  whitesmiths  148,  blacksmiths  3485,  ironmongers, 
hardware  dealers  465. 

Female  Occupations. — Schoolmistresses  1411,  teachers,  governesses  1597;  innkeepers,  hotel 
keepers,  publicans  459,  beersellers  32,  lodging-house,  boarding-house  keepers  888,  domestic  servants 
38,523;  capitalists,  shareholders  541,  farmers,  graziers  608,  farmers' daughters,  granddaughters,  sisters, 
nieces  4393,  cabinet  makers,  upholsterers  254  ;  w^oollen  cloth  manufacture  742,  Avorsted  manufacture 
79,  silk,  satin  manufacture  313,  flax,  linen  manufacture  30,  lace  manufacture  4342,  draper,  linen 
drapers,  mercers  1378,  fancy  goods  manufacture,  dealers  173,  tailoresses  1294,  milliners,  dressmakers 
11,436,  shirt  makers,  seamstresses  2275,  ladies'  outfitters  266,  glovers  2428,  bootmakers,  shoemakers 
578,  laundry  keepers  5724,  cowkeepers,  milk  sellers  128,  butchers  112,  fishmongers  187,  bakers  301, 
confectioners,  pastry  cooks  95,  greengrocers,  fruit,  vegetable  dealers  264,  grocers,  tea  dealers  821  ; 
paper  manufacture  334. 

Relative  Ages  of  Husbands  and  Wives. — In  1871  there  were  101,406  husbands  and  wives 
enumerated  in  the  union  county  as  resident  together.  The  ages  generally  are  nearly  equal,  69,971 
husbands  and  75,460  wives  being  between  the  ages  of  25  and  55  ;  but  there  a,re  the  following  remark- 
able exceptions  : — 4  husbands  Avere  aged  17,  and  one  of  them  had  a  wife  aged  17  ;  15  husbands  were 
aged  18,  5  of  whom  had  wdves  aged  18 ;  60  husbands  were  aged  19,  4  of  whom  had  wives  aged  19, 
18  aged  19,  and  1  aged  30  ;  233  husbands  were  aged  20,  2  of  Avhom  had  wives  aged  17,  and  3  had 
wives  aged  35  ;  one  husband  of  the  age  25-30  had  a  wife  of  the  age  65-70  ;  2  husbands  of  the  age 
35-40  had  Avives  of  the  age  70-75;  1  husband  of  the  age  95-100,  had  a  Avife  of  the  same  age 
period ;   1  husband  of  the  age  50-55  had  a  Avife  aged  17. 

Petty  Sessional  Divisions. — These  divisions  for  holding  special  and  petty  sessions  are  in 
general  based  upon  the  hundreds  and  other  old  county  sub-divisions.  By  the  authority  of  various 
Acts  of  Parliament  (9  Geo.  IV.  c.  43,  10  Geo.  IV.  c.  46,  6  Will.  IV.  c.  12)  the  justices  at  quarter 
sessions  may  alter  and  re-arrange  these  sessional  divisions.  The  county  justices  are  appointed  by 
the  croAvn  on  the  recommendation  of  the  lord-lieutenant.  The  mayor  and  ex  mayor  of  every 
municipal  borough  are  justices  of  the  peace  of  and  for  such  municipal  borough.  The  boroughs  of 
Barnstaple,  Bideford,  Dartmouth,  Devonport,  Exeter  City  (a  county  of  itself),  Plymouth,  South 
Molton  and  Tiverton,  have  commissions  of  the  peace  and  a  separate  court  of  quarter  sessions ;  but 
Totnes  borough  has  a  commission  of  the  peace  only.  The  folloAving  is  an  enumeration  of  the 
divisions  shoAving  their  territorial  extent,  and  their  inhabited  houses  and  population  in  1871 ; — 

Histoi*:^  ol'  Devoiisliire. 



Barnstaple  . 
Dartmouth  . 
Devonport  . 
Exeter  City  . 
Plymouth  . 
South  Molten 



Axminster    . 





Cullompton  . 

^<=^«^  Houses    population 



































Ermington  and  Plympton 

Great  Torrington 

Hatherleigh    . 

Holsworthy    . 


Lifton    . 

Midland  Kohorough 




South  Molton 

Stanborough    and    Cole 

ridge  . 
Teignbridge    . 

Total  . 



























*  The  area  of  the  entire  borough  of   Totnes  is  not  known 
Stanborough  and  Coleridge  Petty  Sessional  Division. 

it  has  been  included   in  the  area  given  for  the 


The  following  is  an  enumeration  of  the  parishes,  tithings,  and  places  in  each  division  : — 
Axminster. — Axminster,  Axmouth,  Colyton,  Combpyne,  Dalwood,  Kilmington,  Membmy,  Mus- 

Kousdown,  Seaton  and  Beer,  Shute,  Stockland,  Uplyme. 
Bideford. — Abbotsham,  Alwington,   Buckland  Brewer,   Bulkworthy,  Clovelly,    East    Putford, 
Hartland,  Landcross,  Littleham,  Monkleigh,  Newton  St.  Petrock,  Northam,  Parkham,  Welcombe, 
Woolfardis worthy,  Westleigh. 

Braunton. — Arlington,  Ashford,  Atherington,  Berrynarbor,  Bishop's  Tawton,  Bittadon,  Bratton 
Fleming,  Braunton,  Brendon,  Challacombe,  Combmartin,  Countisbury,  East  Down,  Fremington, 
Georgeham,  Goodleigh,  Heanton  Punchardon,  Highbray,  Horwood,  Ilfracombe,  Inston,  Kentisbury, 
Landkey,  Loxhore,  Lynton,  Martinhoe,  Marwood,  Morthoe,  Newton  Tracy,  Parracombe,  Pilton,  Sher- 
will,  Stoke  Rivers,  Swimbridge,  Tawstock,  Trentishoe,  West  Down. 

Crediton. — Bow,  Cheriton  Fitzpaine,  Clannaborough,  Colebrooke,  Crediton,  'Down  St.  Mary, 
Kennerleigh,  Morchard  Bishop,  Newton  St.  Gyres,  Poughill,  Puddington,  Sandford,  Sherwood,  Sho- 
brooke,  Stockleigh  English,  Stockleigh  Pomeroy,  Upton  Helions,  Washford  Pyne,  Woolfardisworthy, 
Zeal  Monachorum. 

Crockernavell.— Bridford,  Chagford,  Cheriton  Bishop,  Drewsteignton,  Dunsford,  Gidleigh, 
Hittisleigh,  Lustleigh,  Moreton,  North  Bovey,  Spreyton,  South  Tawton,  Tedburn  St.  Mary,  Throwleigh. 

Cullompton. — Bampton,  Bickleigh,  Broadhembury,  Bradninch,Burlescombe,  Biitterleigh,  Cadbury, 
Cadeleigh,  Calverleigh,  Clayhanger,  Clayhidon,  Cruwys  Morchard,  Cullompton,  Culmstock,  Halberton, 
Hemlock,  Hockworthy,  Holcombe  Rogus,  Pluntsham,  Kentisbear,  Loxbeer,  Morebath,  Okeford,  Pay- 
hembury,  Plymtree,  Sampford  Peverell,  Silverton,  Stoodleigh,  Templeton,  Thorverton,  Tiverton, 
UiFculme,  Uplowman,  Washfield,  Willand. 

Ekmington  and  Plimpton. — Aveton  GifFord,  Bigbury,  Brixton,  Cornwood,  Ermington,  Harford, 
Holbeton,  Kingston,  Modbury,  Newton  Ferrers,  Plympton  Maurice,  Plympton  St.  Mary,  Plymstock, 
Revelstoke,  Ringmore,  Ugborough,  Wembury,  Yealmpton. 

Great  Torrington. — Alverdiscott,  Beaford,  Buckland  Filleigh,  Dolton,  Dowland,  Frithelstock, 
Great  Torrington,  High  Bickington,  Huish,  Huntshaw,  Langtree,  Little  Torrington,  Merton,  Peters 
Marland,  Petrockstow,  Roborough,  Shebbear,  St  Giles  in  the  Wood,  Wear  GifFord,  Yarnscombe. 

Hatherleigh. — Ashbury,  Beaworthy,  Belstone,  Broadwood  Kelly,  Exbourne,  Hatherleigh, 
Highampton,  Honeychurch,  Iddesleigh,  Inwardleigh,  Jacobstow,  Kigbeare  Hamlet,  Meeth,  Monk 
Okehampton,  North  Lew,  Okehampton,  Sampford  Courtenay,  Sheepwash. 

Holsworthy. — Abbot's  Bickington,  Ashwater,  Black  Torrington,  Bradford,  Bradworthy, 
Bridgerule  East,  Bridgerule  West,  Clawton,  Cookbury,  Halwell,  Hollacombe,  Holsworthy,  Luffincott, 
Milton  Damerell,  Northcot  Hamlet,  Hamilton,  Pancrasweek,  Pyworthy,  Sutcombe,  Tetcott,  Thorn- 
bury,  West  Putford. 

Honiton. — Awliscombe,  Branscombe,  Buckerell,  Church stanton,  Combe  Raleigh,  Cotleigh,  Dun- 
keswell,  Farway,  Feniton,  Gittisham,  Honiton,  Lupitt,  Monkton,  Northleigh,  Offwell,  Shapcombe, 
Sheldon,  Southleigh,  Upottery,  Wid worthy,  Yarcombe. 

Lifton. — Bradstone,   Bratton  Clovelly,   Bridestowe,  Broadwood  Widger,   Coryton,  Dunterton, 

28  HiHtory  of  I>evoii»liire. 

Germansweek,  Kelly,  Lewtrenchard,  Lifton,  Maristow,  North  Petherwin,  St.  Giles  in  the  Heath, 
Sourton,  Stowford,  Thrushelton,  Virginstowe,  Werrington. 

Midland  Kodorougii. — Bickleigh,  Buckland  Monachorum,  Compton  Gifford,  Egg  Buckland, 
Laira  Green,  JNIeavy,  St.  Budeaiix,  Shaugh,  Sheepstor,  Tamerton  Foliott,  Walkhampton,  Weston 

South  JNIolton.- — Anstey  (East),  Anstey  (West),  Ashreigney,  Bishop's  Nympton,  Bondleigli, 
Brushford,  Buckland  (East),  Buckland  (West),  Burrington,  Charles,  Chawleigh,  Cheldon,  Chittle- 
hampton,  Chulmleigh,  Coleridge,  Creacombe,  East  Worlington,  Eggesford,  Filleigh,  Georgenympton, 
Kingsnyrnpton,  Kuowstone,  Lapibrd,  Loosebear  tithing,  Mariansleigh,  IVIeshaw,  Holland,  North 
Molton,  North  Tawton,  Nymet  Kowland,  Rackenford,  llomansleigh,  Eose  Ash,  Satterleigh,  Soutli 
Molton,  Thelbridge,  Twitchen,  Warkleigh,  Wemb worthy.  West  Worlington,  Winkleigh,  Witheridge. 

Ottekv. — iVylesbeare,  Dotton,  Harpford,  Newton  Poppleford  tithing,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  Kock- 
beare,  Salconibe  Kegis,  Sidbury,  Sidmouth,  Strete  Raleigh  tithing,  Talaton,  Venn  Ottery,  Whimple. 

Paignton. — Babbacombe,  Brixham,  Churston  Ferrers,  Cockington,  Kingsweare,  Marldon,  Paign- 
ton, St.  Mary  Church,  Stoke  Gabriel,  Tormoham. 

RoBOROUGii. — Stoke  Damerel,  East  Stonehouse,  Vaultershome  {Cornwall). 

Stanbohough  and  CoLEiuDGE. — Ashprington,  Berry  Pomeroy,  Buckland-tout- Saints,  Blackawton, 
Buckfastleigh,  Charleton,  Chivelstone,  Churchstow,  Cornworthy,  Dartington,  Dittisham,  Dodbrookc, 
Dean  Prior,  Diptfbrd,  East  Allington,  East  Portlemouth,  Halwell,  Ilarberton,  Kingsbridge,  Little- 
hempstone,  Loddiswell,  Malborough,  Morley,  North  Huish,  Rattery,  Sherford,  Slapton,  Stokenhaui, 
Stoke  Fleming,  South  Brent,  South  Pool,  South  Milton,  South  Huish,  Thurlestone,  Townstall,  AVest 
Alvington,  Woodleigh. 

Tavistock. — Beer  Ferris,  Brentor,  Lamerton,  Lidford,  Lidford  Forest  Quarter  ol  Dartmoor, 
Mary  Tavy,  Milton  Abbot,  Peter  Tavy,  Sampford  Spiny,  Sydenham,  South  Tavistock,  Whitchurch. 

Teignbridge. — Abbotskerswell,  Ashburton,  Bickington,  Bishopsteignton,  Bovey  Tracey,  Broad- 
hempstone,  Buckland-in-the-Moor,  Chudleigh,  Coffinswell,  Combe-in-Teignhead,  Dawlish,  Denbury, 
Haccombe,  Hennock,  Highweek,  Holne,  Ideford,  Ilsington,  Ipplepen,  Kingskerswell,  Kingsteignton, 
Manaton,  Ogwell  (East),  Ogwell  (West),  St.  Nicholas,  Staverton,  Stokeinteignhead,  Teigngrace, 
Teignmouth  (East  and  West),  Torbryan,  Trushard,  Widdicombe  in  the  Moor,  Wolborough,  Woodland. 

WoNFOKD. — Alphington,  Ashcombe,  Ashton,  Bramford  Speke,  Broadclyst,  Christow,  Clyst  St. 
Lawrence,  Clyst  Hydon,  Doddiscombsleigh,  Dunchideock,  Exminster,  Heavitree,  Holcombe  Burnell, 
Huxham,  Ide,  Kenn,  Kenton,  Mamhead,  Netherexe,  Pinhoe,  Poltimore,  Powderham,  Rewe,  *St. 
Leonard,  St.  Thomas-the-Apostle,  Shillingford  St.  George,  Stoke  Canon,  Topsham,  Upexe,  Upton 
Pyne,  Whitstone. 

Woodbury.— Bicton,  Clyst  St.  George,  Clyst  Satchfield,  Clyst  Honiton,  Clyst  St.  Mary,  Colaton 
Raleigh,  East  Budleigh,  Farringdon,  Littlehani  and  Exmouth,  Lympstone,  Otterton,  Sowton,  Withy- 
combe  Raleigh,  Woodbury. 

The  Police  Divisions  were  formed  in  pursuance  of  Acts  3  &  4  Vict.  c.  b8,  and  19  &  20  Vict.  c. 
69,  the  latter  of  which  rendered  it  compulsory  to  establish  a  police  force  in  every  county  of  England 
and  Wales ;  and  the  police  established  under  the  first  Act  were  required  to  be  consolidated  into  one 
county  force.  There  are  13  of  these  divisions  in  Devonshire,  each  consisting  of  one  or  more  petty 
sessional  divisions ;  but  the  following  7  boroughs  have  their  own  police — Barnstaple,  Bideibrd, 
Devonport,  Exeter,  Plymouth,  Tiverton,  and  Totnes.  The  Town  Council  o£  South  Molton  agreed  to 
place  themselves  under  the  county  police  by  a  majority  of  one  in  December,  1877.  The  boroughs  of 
Bradninch,  Dartmouth,  Great  Torrington,  Honiton,  Okehampton,  Plympton  Earl,  and  Plympton  St. 
Mary  are  attached  to  the  county  police  force.  The  head-quarters  are  in  Exeter,  and  Captain  G.  de 
Courcy  Hamilton,  is  chief  constable ;  William  G.  Cunningham,  Esq.,  deputy  chief  constable ;  and 
superintendent  William  Mitchell,  chief  clerk.  The  divisions  with  their  superintendents,  number  of 
stations  and  sergeants  are  : — 

(A)  Barnstaple,  John  Baird,  superintendent;   19  stations;  8  sergeants. 

(B)  South  Molton,         John  Wood,  „  14         „  2         „ 

(C)  CuUompton,  R.  G.  Collins,  „  20         „  2        „ 

(D)  Honiton,  Charles  Dore,  .,  24         ,,  3        „ 
(Exe)  Exeter,                   W.  G.  Cunningham,                  „                2G         „           3        „ 

(E)  Chudleigh,  J.  C.  Moore,  „  19         „  3        „ 

(F)  Torquay,  H.  Stoddard,  „  17         ,,  3         ,, 

(G)  Kingsbridge,  Hugh  Vaughan,  .,  24  „  3  ,, 
(H)  Stonehouse,  Capt.  E.  Frutton,  ,,  17  ,,  3  „ 
(K)  Tavistock,  Wm.  Pickford,  „  14  „  2  „ 
(L)  Ilolsworthy,  D.  Barbor,  „  12  „  2  „ 
(M)  Great  Torrington,  P.  Ronsham,  „  12  ,,  '"^  » 
(N)  Bow                          John  Sargent,  „  IG  „  1  >j 

laistory  ot'  Devoiisliii'c. 


County  Expp:nditure  and  Judicial  Statistics. — The  County  Rates  are  levied  in  Devon  on  a 
valuation  made  under  a  special  Act  of  Parliament  passed  some  years  ago.  The  valuation  for  county 
assessment  in  1874  was  £2,266,764,  and  for  police  £2,248,000.  The  county  rates  amounted  in  1800 
to  £7031,  in  1810  to  £23,159,  in  1830  to  £12,783,  in  1838  to  £18,459,  and  in  1849  to  upwards  of 
£24,000,  exclusive  o£  Exeter,  and  the  boroughs  having  separate  quarter  sessions,  viz.  Barnstaple, 
Bideford,  Dartmouth,  Plymouth,  Devonport,  Tiverton,  and  South  j\Iolton.  For  the  year  ended 
Michelmas,  1874  the  county  rate  was  l^d.,  and  the  police  rate  2^-tZ.  in  the  pound.  The  receipts  from 
county  rate  Avere  £11,563 ;  by  police  rate  £22,325  ;  Government  subvention  in  aid  of  police,  prose- 
cutions, &c.  £8361 ;  on  account  of  prisons,  lunatics,  &c.  £1374  ;  fines,  fees,  and  other  receipts, 
£4049 ;  loans  on  security  of  rates,  £15,200 — total  receipts,  £62,872.  The  expenditure  for  police, 
prisons,  prisoners,  prosecutions,  and  reformatories,  was  £38,553  ;  for  lunatics  and  lunatic  asylums, 
£7117  ;  shirehalls  and  judges'  lodgings,  £248  ;  militia  storehouses,  £129  ;  county  bridges,  £1065  ; 
registration  of  voters,  £221;  salaries  of  county  officers,  £2605  ;  interest  of  debt  and  principal  paid 
off,  £1840  ;  all  other  charges,  £1680 — total,  £53,458.  The  number  of  persons  committed  or  bailed 
for  trial  in  1875,  in  Devon,  was  217  (159  males,  58  females)  :  of  these  77  were  acquitted,  1  was 
detained  as  insane,  1  was  sentenced  to  penal  servitude  for  15  years,  15  for  7  years,  2  for  5  and  6 
years,  2  were  sentenced  to  imprisonment  for  2  years  and  above  1  year,  25  for  1  year  and  above  6 
months,  43  for  6  months  and  above  3  months,  34  for  3  months  and  above  1  month,  10  for  1  month 
and  under,  4  detained  in  reformatories  or  industrial  schools,  and  3  were  fined  or  discharged  on 
sureties.  The  number  of  each  sex  committed  or  bailed  for  trial  was  159  males  and  58  iemales  in 
1875,  156  males  57  females  in  1874,  206  males  60  females  in  1873,  208  males  75  females  in  1872, 
241  males  86  females  in  1871,  236  males  74  females  in  1870,  305  males  84  females  in  1869,  308 
males  72  females  in  1868,  321  males  89  females  in  1867,  263  males  89  females  in  1866— total  for 
the  five  years  1871-5,  970  males  and  336  females,  and  for  the  five  years  1866-71,  1433  males  408 

There  are  24  Turnpike  Trusts  in  the  county,  of  which  the  following  enumeration  shows  their 
receipts,  expenditure,  debts  and  assets  for  the  year  ended  December  31,  1874  : — 

Turnpike  Trusts 





































































Braunton,  and  Braunton  and  Ilfra-  \ 
combe       ....         J 













Combmartiu  ..... 













Combmartin  and  Ilfracombe  . 













Countess  Weir  Bridge  (c) 





















Great  Torrington    .... 


























Honiton  and  Ilminster  . 













Honiton  and  Sidraontli    . 













Kiugsbridge  and  Dartmouth  . 


























Moreton  Harapstead 













Plymouth  and  Exeter  Koad    . 













Plymouth  and  Tavistock 













Sidmouth  and  Cullompton 













South  Molton         .... 







































Torquay  {e) 









Totnes  and  Bridgetown  Pomeroy\ 
and  Totnes  Bridge     .         .        J 

Total      .... 

























(e)  Local  Act  expired  November  1,  1874. 

HiGnwAY  Districts. — The  Highway  Act  has  only  been  partially  adopted  in  this  county.  At 
the  time  of  the  census  of  1871  there  were  25  districts,  15  of  which  were  identical  with  the  petty 
sessional  divisions,  the  remaining  ten  being  comprised  within  five  of  such  divisions      (See  also  p.  18.) 

The  following  enumeration  of  the  districts  shows  their  rateable  value  in  1874,  their  mileage, 
and  their  receipts  and  expenditure  for  the  year  ended  December  31,  1874  : — 


history  oi'  Devontsliire. 



■■ '■'" ■/'  '•  '  '  ■""■■ 





Roads  (late 


M        F 

M      V 





.<;.      d. 



239     0 

2     0 





14       3 

Axminstor  . 


213     5 






1       6 

Barnstaple  . 


238     6 






16       4 

Bideford      . 


228     6 





6       7 

Chiilmleigh . 


264     1 

0     6 





4       9 



213     4 






6       3 



276     4 

16     3 





8       4 



291     5 






2       1 

Ermingtou  and  Plymp 

ton    . 


303     0 

12     0 





8       7 

Great  Torrington 


226     4 





17       9 



188     2 

17    7 





13       3 



272     1 






3       8 



224     6 





13       8 

Ilfracombe  . 


210     5 

18     1 





9     11 



283     2 






19       1 



184     2 

16     4 





5       8 

Midland  Eoboragh 


171    4 

2     0 





4       3 

Newton  Abbot     . 


271     7 

32     5 





2       5 



97     6 






3       6 

South  Molten 


293     0 

8     6 





7      7 

Tavistock    . 


262     0 

48     0 





6     11 



226     4 

11     5 





2       6 



221     0 






14       7 

Wonford      . 


262     1 

2     6 





5       7 

Woodbury  . 

,       , 


169     0 






3       4 

Total  . 


5833     3 

189     3 





2       4 

Lieutenancy  Si 


ONS  h 

ave  been  co 

nstituted  f( 

)r  the  purp 

ose  of 


no:  the  Militia  quotas. 

At  present  the  Militia  consists  solely  of  persons  who  voluntarily  enlist.  But  the  18th  section  of  the 
Act  15  &  16  Vict.  c.  50  provides  that  this  quota  may  be  raised  by  means  of  the  ballot,  whenever  the 
voluntary  enlistments  fall  short  of  the  required  number.  The  application  of  the  ballot  is,  however, 
annually  suspended  by  Parliament.  The  lieutenancy  of  a  county  is  empowered  by  23  &  24  Vict.  c.  120 
to  alter  existing  or  constitute  new  sub-divisions  as  may  appear  convenient.  The  general  law  respect- 
ing the  Militia  does  not  apply  to  the  miners  of  Devon  and  Cornwall,  but  the  Militia  of  the  Stannaries 
of  these  counties  are  regulated  by  42  Geo.  III.  c.  72,  in  which  Act  lieutenancy  sub-divisions  are 
mentioned.  The  city  of  Exeter  forms  a  sub-division  of  itself.  The  Bideford  sub-division  includes 
the  borough  of  Bideford,  and  Bideford  petty  sessional  division,  exclusive  of  Lundy  Isle.  The 
Braunton  sub-division  includes  Barnstaple  borough,  and  Braunton  petty  sessional  division. 
The  Cullompton  sub-division  includes  Cullompton  petty  sessional  division  and  Tiverton  borough. 
The  Midland  Eoborough  sub-division  includes  Midland  Roborough  petty  sessional  division  and 
Plymouth  borough.  The  Paignton  sub-division  includes  the  Paignton  petty  sessional  division  and  the 
parishes  of  Berry  Pomeroy  and  Littlehempston.  The  Roborough  sub-division  includes  Roborough 
petty  sessional  division  and  Devonport  borough.  The  South  Molton  sub-division  includes  the 
borough  of  South  Molton,  the  South  Molton  petty  sessional  division,  and  the  parishes  of  High 
Bickington,  and  Puddington,  and  Washford  Pyne.  The  Stanborough  and  Coleridge  includes  the 
boroughs  of  Dartmouth  and  Totnes,  and  the  Stanborough  and  Coleridge  petty  sessional  division  ex- 
cept the  parishes  of  Berry  Pomeroy  and  Littlehempston.  The  Crediton  sub-division  includes  Lundy 
Island  and  the  Crediton  petty  sessional '^division,  except  the  parishes  of  Puddington  and  "Washford 
Pyne.  The  Great  Torrington  sub-division.  Great  Torrington  petty  sessional  division  except  High 
Bickington  parish,  the  remaining  twelve  sub -divisions,  Axminster,  Crockernwell,  Ermington,  and 
Plympton,  Hatherleigh,  Holsworthy,  Honiton,  Lifton,  Ottery,  Tavistock,  Teignbridge,  Wonford,  and 
Woodbury,  are  identical  with  the  petty  sessional  divisions  bearing  the  same  names. 

County  Courts  are  held  at  Exeter,  East  Stonehouse,  Crediton,  Okehampton,  Newton  Abbot, 
Torquay,  Tavistock,  Totnes,  Chui'ston,  and  Kingsbridge,  of  which  Matthew  Fortescue,  Esq.,  is  the 
judge ;  at  Tiverton,  Wellington,  South  Molton,  Chard,  Honiton,  Taunton,  Torrington,  Barnstaple, 
Bideford,  and  Axminster,  of  which  Mr.  Serjeant  PetersdorfE  is  the  judge ;  and  at  Launceston  and 
Plolsworthy,  of  which  Montague  Bere,  Esq.,  Q.C.,  is  the  judge.  The  parishes  in  each  district,  with 
the  registrar  and  high  bailiff,  will  be  noticed  in  the  histories  and  alphabet  of  the  towns  in  which  they 
are  held.     For  the  purposes  of  the  Bankruptcy  Act,  1869,  Axminster,  Crediton,  Honiton.  and  Newton 

History  of  I>evoiisliii*e* 


Abbot  and  Torquay  County  Courts  are  attached  to  Exeter  ;  Tavistock,  Totnes,  Kingsbridge,  and  Oke- 
j  hampton  to  East  Stonehouse  (including  Plymouth  and  Devonport) ;  and  Bideford,  South  Molton,  and 

STorrington  to  Barnstaple.     East  Stonehouse,  Exeter,  and  Barnstaple  have  jurisdiction  in  Admiralty, 
and  at  each  of  these  places  is  established  a  District  Registry  of  the  High  Court  of  Justice. 

Local  Board  Districts,  &c. — In  April,  1871,  Local  Boards  under  either  the  Public  Health  Act 
of  1848,  or  the  Local  Government  Act  of  1858,  had  been  established  in  six  municipal  boroughs  and 
sixteen  towns,  namely,  Bampton,  Bideford,  Brixham,  Lower  Dartmouth,  Dawlish,  Devonport,  Exeter 
(city),  Exmouth,  Ilfracombe,  Lynton,  Northam,  Okehampton,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  Paignton,  Plymouth, 
St.  Mary  Church,  St.  Thomas  the  Apostle,  Sidmouth,  South  Molton,  Teign mouth,  Torquay,  Wool- 
borough.  Three  municipal  boroughs  (Barnstaple,  Honiton,  Tiverton),  and  one  town  (Crediton),  have 
Improvement  Commissions ;  and  three  towns  (Ashburton,  Cullompton,  and  Topsham)  have  neither 
municipal  authorities,  local  boards,  nor  improvement  commissioners.  By  the  Public  Health  Act, 
1872,  '  Boroughs,  Improvement  Act  districts,  and  Local  Government  districts,  whether  incorporated 
or  constituted  before  or  after  the  passing  of  this  Act,  are,  under  certain  provisions,  and  with  a  few 
exceptions,  specified  in  the  Act,  styled  "Urban  Sanitary  districts." ' 

Ecclesiastical  Divisions. — The  Sees  of  Credition  and  Cornwall,  united  in  the  year  1042,  were 
separated  in  1877,  after  a  union  of  835  years.  This  separation,  which  had  long  been  felt  necessary, 
is  in  a  great  measure  due  to  the  exertions  of  the  present  Bishop  of  Exeter,  who  cheerfully  resigned  a 
portion  of  his  income  to  provide  funds  for  the  proper  maintenance  of  the  new  bishopric.  The  Bishop 
also,  about  two  years  since,  altered  the  Ecclesiastical  Divisions  of  the  county,  with  the  view  of 
making  the  rural  deaneries  more  uniform  in  size,  with  a  convenient  and  easily  accessible  centre  as  a 
place  of  meeting  ;  the  re-arrangement  is  based  on  the  Poor  Law  unions.  To  carry  out  this  plan,  the 
names  of  several  ancient  deaneries  have  been  altogether  lost,  as  they  have  become  annexed  to  others  ; 
thus,  in  the  archdeaconry  of  Exeter,  Dunkeswell  has  become  united  to  Honiton,  the  deanery  of 
Plymtree  has  been  suppressed,  and  the  new  one  of  Ottery  created.  In  the  archdeaconry  of  Barnstaple 
no  deaneries  have  been  suppressed,  but  some  of  the  parishes  have  been  changed  from  one  to  another 
{e.g.,  Winkleigh,  from  the  deanery  of  Torrington  to  that  of  Chulmleigh).  In  the  archdeaconry  of 
Totnes,  besides  similar  changes,  the  deanery  of  Three  Towns  (comprehending  the  churches  of 
Plymouth,  Devonport  and  Stonehouse)  has  been  created,  and  the  ancient  deanery  of  Lamerton  has 
been  altogether  suppressed.     The  following  are  the  new  divisions  for  this  county :  — 



Archdeacon. — Ven.  Henry  Sanders,  M.A.,  Sowton,  near  Exeter. 

1. — Deanery  of  Aylesheare. 
Tlural  Dean — Rev.  Prebendary  Acland,  M.A.,  Broadclyst,  Exeter. 

Aylesbeare  V. 

Bicton  R. 

Broadclyst  V.    with    St.    Paul's 

Budleigh,  East  V. 
Clyst  St.  George  R. 
Clyst  Honiton  V. 
Clyst  Hydon  R. 
Clyst  St.  Mary  R. 
Clyst  St.  Lawrence  R. 

Exeter — 

AllhallowS)    Goldsmith-street, 

AUhallows  on  the  Walls  R. 
Bedford  Chapel 
Exwith  V. 
Holy   Trmity   R.    with  Wy- 

nard's  Church 
St.    John's    Hospital    School 

St.  David  V.  with  St.  Michael 
and  All  Angela  C. 

Colaton  Raleigh  V. 

Countess  Wear  V. 

Farringdon  R. 

Littleham  V.,  with  Exmouth  C. 

Lympstone  R. 

Newton  Poppleford  V. 

Otterton  V. 

Pinhoe  V. 

Poltimore  and  Huxham  U.R. 

2. — Deanery  of  Christianity. 

Rural  Dean — (vacant). 

Exeter — 

St.  Edmund  R. 

St.  James  R. 

St.  John  with  St.  George  U.R. 

St.  Lawrence  R. 

St.  Martin  R. 

St.  Mary  Arches  R. 

St.  Mary  Major  R.  with   St. 

Mary  Magdalene  C. 
St.  Mary  Steps  R. 
St.  Olave  R. 
St.  Pancras  R. 

Rockbeare  V. 
Re  we  R. 
Sowton  R. 
Stoke  Canon  V. 
Topsham  V. 
Whimple  R. 
Withecombe  Raleigh  V. 
Woodbury  V. 
Woodbury  Salterton  V. 

Exeter — 

St.  Paul  R. 

St.  Petrock  with   St.  Kerrian, 

St.  Sidwell  R. 

St.  Stephen  R. 
Heavitree    V.     with     Whipton 

Chapel   &  Liverydoie  ,  Chapel 
St.  Leonard  R. 
St.  Thomas  the  Apostle  V.  with 

Oldridge  P.C. 


History  of  Devonsliire. 

3. — Deanery  of  Cadhury. 

Rural  Dean— 

-Rev.  F.  J.  Coleridge,  M.A.,  Cadbury,  Tiverton. 

liow  with  Broad  Nymet  U.K. 

Cheriton  Fitzpaine  R. 

Sandford  V. 

Brampford  Speke  V.  with  Cow- 

Down St.  Mary  R. 

Shobrooke  R. 

ley  C. 

Hittisleigh  R. 

Stockleigh  English  R. 

Cadbury  V. 

Kennerleigh  R. 

Stockleigh  Pomeroy  R. 

Colebrooke  V. 

Morchard  Bishop  R. 

Thorverton  V 

Crediton  V.  with  the  Chaplaincy 

Netherexe  V. 

Upton  Hellions  R               ^^m 

thereof  and  Posbury  Chapel 

Newton  St.  Cyres  V. 

Upton  Pyne  R.                    ^H 

Clannaborough  II 

Poughill  R. 

Woolfardisworthy  R.          3^H 


-  Deanery  of  Dunheswell  and  Jlomton.                                       ^^| 

Rural  Dean- 

-Rev.  J.  G.  Copleston,  B.A.,  OfFwell,  Honiton.                           ^^| 

Axminster,  V.  with  Kilmington 

Dunkeswell  V. 

Rousdon  R.                          ^^| 

C.  and  Membury  C. 

Dunkeswell  Abbev,  Holy  Trinity 

Seaton  V.  and  Beer  C.        ^^M 

Axmouth  V. 


Sheldon  V.                            ^^ 

Awliscombe  V. 

Honiton    R.    with     St.    Paul's 

Shute  V.                                      I 

Church  Stanton  R. 


Stockland  V.  with  Dalwood  C. 

Clayliidon  R. 

Luppit  V. 

Uplyme  R. 

Colyton  V. 

Monkton  V. 

Upottery  V. 

Combpyne  R. 

Musbury  ]l. 

Wid worthy  R. 

Combe  Raleigh  R. 

Northleigh  R. 

Yarcombe  V. 

Cotleigh  R. 

OfFwell  R. 

Bradscombe  V. 
Broadhembury  V. 
Buckerell  V. 
Escot  V. 
Farway  R 
Fen  i  ton  R 
Gittisham  R. 

5. — Deanery  of  Ottery. 
Rural  Dean — Rev.  T.  Mozley,  M.A.,  Plymtree,  Cullompton. 

Harpford  V.  with  Fen-Ottery  C. 
Ottery  St.  Mary  V. 
Peyhembury  V. 
Plymtree  R. 
Salcombe  Regis  V. 
Sidbury  V. 

Sidmouth  V. 

All  Saints  Chapel 
Southleigh  R. 
Talaton  R. 
Tipton  V. 
Westhill  V. 

G. — Deanery  of  Kenn. 
Rural  Dean — Hon.  &  Rev.  Prebendary  Courtena}^,  M.A.,Powderham,  Exeter. 

Alphington  R. 

Ash  ton  R. 

Ash  combe  R. 

Bishopsteiguton  V. 

Bridford  R. 

Cofton  V. 

Cheriton  Bishop  R. 

Cristow  V. 

Dawlish  V.  with  St.  Mark  C. 

Doddiscombsleigh  1 
Dunchideock    with 

Dunsford  V. 
Exminster  V. 
Holcombe  Burnell  V 
Ide  V. 
Kenn  R. 
Kenton  V. 


!  Luton  V. 
Mamhead  R. 
Powderham  R. 
Starcross  V. 
Tedburn  St.  Mary  R. 
Teignmouth  East  Y. 
Teignmouth  West  V. 
Whitstone  R. 

7. — Deanery  of  Tiverton  Wes,t. 
Rural  Dean — Rev.  S.  H.  Berkeley,  M.A.,  Morebath,  Tiverton. 

Bampton  V.  with  Petton  Chapel 

Cadeleigh  R. 

Calverleigh  R. 

Cruwys  Morchard  R. 

Loxbeare  R. 

Morebath  V. 

Oakford  R. 

Puddington  R. 

Stoodleigh  R. 

Templeton  R. 

Tiverton— St.    Peter    with    St. 

George's  Church 

Clare  Portion  R. 

Pitt  Portion  R.  with  Cove  C. 

Prior's  Portion  R. 

Tidcombe    Portion    R.    with 
Chevythorne  C. 

West  Exe 
Washfield  R. 
Washford  Pyne  R. 

liistory  of*  Devonsliire. 


8. — Deanery  of  Tiverton  East. 
Eural  Dean — Rev.  H.  Bramley,  UfFculme,  CuUompton. 

Bickleigh  E. 
Blackborough  R. 
Burlescombe  V. 
Bradninch  V. 
Butterleigh  R. 
Clay  hanger  R. 
CuUompton  V. 

Culmstock  V. 

Halberton  Y'. 

Hockworthy  V. 

Hemyock  R.  with  Culm  Davey 

Holcomhe  Rogus  V. 
Huntsham  R. 

Kentisbeare  R. 
Sampford  Peverell  R. 
Silverton  R. 
UfFculme  V. 
Uploman  R. 
Willand  R. 


Archdeacon. — Ven.  Henry  Woolcombe,  M.A.,  The  Close,  Exeter. 

1. — Deanery  of  Barnstaple. 
Rural  Dean — Rev.  J.  T.  Pigot,  M.A.,  The  Vicarage,  Fremington. 

Ashford  V. 
Atherington  R. 
Barnstaple  V. 

Holy  Trinity  V. 

St.  Mary  Magdalen  V. 
Bishopstawton  V. 
Bittadon  R. 
Braunton  V. 

Down  "West  V. 
Fremington  V. 
Georgeham  R. 
Heanton  Punchard  R. 
Horwood  R. 
Ilfracombe  V. 

St.  Philip  and  St.  James  V. 
St.  Matthew  Lee  P.C. 

Instow  R. 

Marwood  R. 

Morthoe  V. 

Newport  V. 

Newton  Tracey  R. 

Pilton  Y. 

Tawstock  R.  with  Harracott  C. 

Westleigh  V. 

2. — Deanery  of  Chuhnleigh. 
Rural  Dean — Rev.  J.  T.  Hyde,  M.A.,  Wemb worthy. 

Aishreigney  R. 
iBundleigh  R. 
jBurrington  Y. 
IChawleigh  R. 
Cheldon  R. 

Chulmleigh  R. 

Coleridge  Y.  with  Nymet  Row- 
land R. 
Eggesford  R. 
Lapford  R. 
Thelbridge  R. 

Wembworthy  R. 
Winkleigh  Y. 
Worlington,  East  R. 
Worlington,  West  R. 
Zeal  Monachorum  R. 

3. — Deanery  of  Hartland. 
Rural  Dean— Rev.  C.  W.  Sillifant,  M.A.,  Wear  GifFord,  Bideford. 

IJAbbotsham  Y. 
Alwington  R. 
Appledore  Y. 
Bideford  R. 
Buckland  Brewer  Y. 
^Buck's  Mills  Y. 

Clovelly  R. 
Hartland  Y. 
Landcross  R. 
Littleham  R. 
Lundy  Island  R. 
Monkleigh  Y. 

Northam  Y. 
Parkham  R. 
Wear  GifFord  R. 
Welcombe  Y. 
Woolfardisworthy  Y. 

Rural  Dean- 

4.  — Deanery  of  Holswortliy. 
-Rev.  G.  W.  Thornton,  M.A.,  The  Rectory,  Holswortliy. 

[Abbotsbickington  Y.  with  Bulk- 

!     worthy  C. 

Ashwater  R. 

Black  Torrington  R. 

Bradford  R. 

Bradworthy  Y.w.Pancraswyke  C. 

Bridgerule  Y. 

Clawton  Y. 
Halwell  R. 
Holswortliy  R. 
Hollacombe  R. 
Luffincott  R. 
Milton  Damerel 
bury,  C. 

R.  with  Cook- 

Putford     West 

Putford  C. 
Pyworthy  R. 
Sutcombe  R. 
Tetcott  R. 
Thornbury  R. 

R.    with    East 

Arlington  R. 
Berry narbor  R. 
Bratton  Fleming  R. 
Brendon  R. 
Challacombe  R. 
Combe  Martin  R. 
Countisbury  Y. 

5. — Deanery  of  Slierw ell. 
Rural  Dean — Rev.  R.  Martin,  M.A.,  Challacombe,  Barnstaple. 

Martinhoe  R. 

Down,  East  R. 
Goodleigh  R. 
Highbray  R. 
Kentisbury  R. 
Landkey  Y. 
Loxhbre  R. 
Lynton  Y. 

Parracombe  R. 

Sherwell  R. 

Stoke  Rivers  R. 

Swymbridge  Y.  with  Travellers' 

Rest  Chapel 
Trentishoe  R. 


History  of"  DevoiisKire. 

6. — Deanery  of  Southmolton. 

Kev.  Prebendary  Karslake,  B.A.,  Meshaw,  Southmolton 

Chittlehampton  V.  Northmolton  V.  w.  Twitchen  C 

Creacombe  R. 

Georgenympton  R. 

Kingsnynipton  R. 

Knowstone  with  MoUand  V. 

Mariansleigh  V. 

Meshaw  R. 

Rural  Dean 

Anstey,  East  R. 

Anstey,  West  V. 

Bishops  Nyrapton  V. 

Buckland  East,  w.  Filleigh  U;R. 

Buckland  West  R. 

Charles  R. 

Chittlehamholt  V. 

Romansleigh  R. 

Rose  Ash  R. 

Southmolton  V. 

Warkleigh  with  Satterleigh  U.R, 

Witheridge  V, 

7. — Deanery  of  Torrington. 
Rural  Dean — Rev.  11.  Barnes,  M.A.,  Langtree,  Torrington. 

Alverdiscott  R. 
Beaford  R. 
Bickington,  High,  R. 
Buckland  Filleigh  R. 
Dolton  R. 
Dowland  V. 
Frithelstock  V. 
Giles,  St.,  in-the-Wood  V 

Huntshaw  R. 
Huish  R. 
Iddisleigh  R. 
Langtree  R. 
Meeth  R.  ♦ 
Merton  R. 

Newton  St.  Petrock  R. 
Peters  Marland  V. 

Petrockstow  R. 

Roborough  R. 

Shebbear  V.  with  Sheepwash  C 

Torrington,  Great,  V. 

Torrington,  Little,  V. 

Yarnscombe  V. 


Archdeacon. — Ven.  Alfred  Earle,  M.A.,  West  Alvington,  Kingsbridge. 

1. — Deanery  of  Tpplepen, 

Rural  Dean — Rev.  John  Hewett,  M.A.,  Babbacombe. 

Babbacombe  V. 

Brixham  V.  with  Churston  Fer- 
rers C. 
Brixham,  Lower,  V. 
Collaton  St.  Mary  V. 
Ipplepen  V. 
Kingskerswell  V. 
Kingswear  V. 

Mary  Church,  St.,  V.  with  Cof- 

finswell  C. 
Nicholas,  St.,  V. 
Paignton  V.  with  Marldon  C. 
Petrox,   St.,  V.  with  Chapel  of 

Stokeinteignhead  R. 
Stoke  Flemino^  R. 

Townstal  V.  with  St.  Saviour's  C 
Torquay — 

Tor  Mohun,  w.  Cockington  V 

Ellacombe  V. 

St.  John  V. 

St.  Luke  V. 

Torwood  R.  w.  St.  Matthias  C 

Upton  R. 

Rural  Dean — 

Abbotsker swell  V. 

Ashburton  V.  with  Buckland  C. 

Bickington  V 

Bovey,  North,  R. 

Bovey  Tracey  V.  with  St.  John's 

Chagford  R. 
Chudleigh  V. 
Combeinteignhead  R. 
Denbury  R. 

2. — Deanery  ofMoreton. 
Rev.  W.  Thornton,  M.A.,  North  Bovey,  Moreton. 

Haccombe  R. 

Hennock  V.  with  Knighton  C. 

Highw^eek  R.   with   St.    Mary's 

Ideford  R. 
Ilsington  V. 
Kingsteignton  V. 
Leusden  V. 
Lustleigh  R. 
Manaton  R. 

Moreton  Hampstead  R. 

Ogwell  East  with  West  U.R. 

Teigngrace  R. 

Torbrian  R. 

Trusham  R. 

Widdecombe  in  the  Moor  V. 

Wolborough  R.  with  St.  Leonard 

Newton    Abbot 
Paul's  C. 
Woodland  V. 

C.    and    Si 

Rural  Dean — Rev. 

Ashbury  and  Northlew  U.R. 
Beaworthy  R. 
Belstone  R. 
Bratton  Clovelly  R. 
Bridestowe  R.  with  Sourton  C, 
Broadwoodkelly  R. 
Drewsteignton  E. 
Exbourne  R. 
Gidley  R. 

[3. — Deanery  of  Okehampton, 
George  Woollcombe,  M.A.,  The  Rectory,  Highampton. 


Hatherleigh  V. 
Highampton  R. 
Honeychurch  R. 
Inwardleigh  R. 
Jacobstow  R. 
Monk  Okehampton  R. 
Okehampton  V,  with  St.  James's 

Sampford     Courtnay     R.     wit] 

Sticklepath  C. 
Spreyton  V. 
Tawton,  North,  R. 
Tawton,  South,  V.  with 

Zeal  Chapel 
Throwleigh  R. 
Week,  St.  German's,  V. 


Hisstory  o±"  I>e>^oiisli.tre. 


4. — Deanery  of  Plympton. 
Rural  Dean — Rev.  C.  C.  Bartholomew,  M.A.,  Cornwood,  Ivybridge. 

jBickleigh  V. 

[Brixton  V. 

Corn  wood  V. 

Egg  Buckland  V. 

Erminojton  V.  with  Kingston  C. 

Harford  R. 

liolbeton  V. 

Hooe,  V. 

Ivybridge  V. 

Modbury  V.  with  Brownstone  C. 

Newton  Ferrers  R. 

Plympton  St.  Mary  V. 

Plympton  St.  Maurice  V. 

Plymstock  V. 

Revelstoke  R. 
Shaugh  V. 
Sheepstor  V. 
Tamerton  Foliot  V. 
Ugborough  Y. 
Wembury  V. 
Yealmpton  V. 

Rural  Dean- 

5. — Deanery  of  Tavistock. 
-Rev.  W.  H.  D.  Purcell,  M.A.,  Sydenham  Damerel,  Tavistock. 

Bere     Ferrers     R.    with    Bere 

Alston  C. 
Buckland  Monachorum  V. 
Bradstone  R. 
Brent  Tor  V. 
Cory  ton  R. 
Dunterton  R. 
Horrabridge  V. 
Kelly  R. 

Lamerton  V.  with  North  Brentor 

Lewtrenchard  R. 
Lifton  R. 

Lydford  R.  with  Princetown  C. 
Maristow  V.  with  Thrushelton  C. 
Meavy  R. 
Milton  Abbot  V. 
Sampford  Spiney  R. 

Stowford  R. 
Sydenham  Damerel  R. 
Tavistock  V. 
St.  Paul  V. 
Tavy  St.  Mary  R. 
Tavy  St.  Peter  R. 
Walkhampton  V. 
Whitchurch  V. 

Rural  Dean- 

\  Budeaux,  St.,  V. 
Stoke  Damerel,  R. 
Devonport — 

~  ockyard  Chapel 
t.  Aubyn  P.C. 
t.  James  V. 
t.  John  C. 
t.  Mary  V, 
St.  Paul  V. 
St.  Stephen  V. 

Rural  Dean- 

6. — Deanery  of  Three  Towns. 
-Rev.  C.  T.  Wilkinson,  M.A.,  St.  Andrew,  Plymouth. 

St.  Michael  P.C. 
Plymouth — 
All  Saints  V. 
Charles  V. 
Christ  Church  Y. 
Compton   GifFord,  Emmanuel 

Holy    Trinity    Y.    with    St. 

Saviour's  Churcli 
St.  Andrew's  Ch. 

St.  Andrew  Y.  with  Penny- 
cross  C. 

St.  James  Y. 

St.  Luke  P.C. 

St.  Peter  Y. 
Sutton  on  Plym  Y. 
Stonehouse,  East,  Y. 

St.  Matthew  P.C. 

St.  Paul's  Chapel 

7. — Deanery  ofTotnes. 
-Rev.  R.  Bartholomew,  M.A.,  The  Yicarage,  Harberton. 

Ashprington  R. 
Berry  Pomeroy  Y. 
Brent,  South,  Y. 
Buckfastleigh  Y. 
Broadhempston  Y. 
Corn  worthy  Y. 

Dartington  R.  with  St.  Barnabas 

Dean  Prior  Y. 
Diptford  R. 
Dittisham  R. 
Halwell  Y. 
Harberton  Y. 
Harbertonford  Y. 
Holne  Y. 
Landscove  Y, 

Little  Hempston  R. 
Morleigh  R. 
North  Huish  R. 
Rattery  Y. 
Staverton  Y. 
Stoke  Gabriel  R. 
Totnes  Y. 

8. — Deanery  of  Woodleigh. 
Rural  Dean — Rev.  J.  Power,  M.A.,  Dodbrooke,  Kingsbridge. 

Allington,  East,  R. 

Allington,  West,  Y.  with  South 

Milton  C. 
Aveton  GifFord  R. 
Blackawton  Y.  with  Street  C. 
Bigbury  R. 
Charleton  R. 

Churchstow  Y.  w.  Kingsbridge  C. 

Dodbrooke  R. 

Loddiswell   Y.    with    Buckland 

Tout  Saints  C. 
Malborough  &  South  Huish  P.C. 
Pool,  South,  R. 
Portlemouth  R. 

Ringmore  R. 

Salcombe  Y. 

Slapton  Y. 

Stokenham  Y.  with  Chivelstone 

C.  and  Sherford  C. 
Thurlestone  R. 
Woodleigh  R. 

Miscellaneous  Divisions. — There  are  484  civil  parishes  or  townships  (in  which  a  poor  rate  is 
levied  separately)  and  extra-parochial  places;  one  such  civil  parish  (Axminster)  extends  into  Dorset- 
shire.    Devon  is  the  Western  division  for  the  localisation  of  the  forces,  and  has  34  sub- districts.     At 

36  History  of*  I>evotisliii*^. 

the  time  of  the  census  there  were  26  head  post  offices,  273  sub-post  offices  (including  town  receiving 
offices),  247  pillar  letter  boxes,  131  telegraph  offices,  3  collectors  of  Inland  Revenue  districts,  10 
supervisors'  districts,  55  divisions  and  rides,  5  surveyors  of  taxes'  districts,  and  G  ports  or  dis- 
tricts into  which  the  coast  had  been  divided  by  Her  Majesty's  Customs  Department  (Barnstaple,  Bido- 
ford,  Dartmouth,  Exeter,  Plymouth,  and  Teignmouth.) 

Manufactures. — The  manufacture  of  woollen  cloths  in  Devon  appears  to  have  been  derived  from! 
Flanders  and  the  Low  Countries.     No  mention  is  made  of  fulling  mills  in  this  county  in  Domesday] 
Survey,  but  they'  are  referred  to  in   the  charters  of  Edward  I.     A  manufactory  of  either  lace  ori 
woollen  was  formerly  to  be  found  in  most  parts  of  the  county,  but  both  have  greatly  declined  herej 
during  the  present  century,  owing  to  the  amazing  extension  of  machinery  and  the  factory  system,  in; 
the  Midland  and  Northern  Counties,  which  have  nearly  annihilated  these  branches  of  industry  in  their 
primitive  seats,  where  the  old  domestic  system  was  adhered  to.     There  are  still  a  few  large  woollen 
mills  and  several  thousand  looms  in  different  parts  of  the  county  employed  in  making  serges,  blankets, 
and  other  coarse  woollen  cloths.     Cloth  was  woven  at  Exeter  and  Chudleigh  in  the  reign  of  Edward 
I.     Dartmoor  wool,  however,  was  at  that  time  exported  ;  but  Edward  III.  prohibited  the  exportation 
of  wool,  and  encouraged  the  immigration  of  foreign  weavers,  many  of  whom  settled  in  this  county. 
In  the  15th.  century,  friezes,  Tavistocks,  or  western  dozens,  and  other  sorts  of  coarse  cloths,  were  ex- 
ported by  the  Devonshire  merchants  to  Brittany.     In  the  reign  of  Edward  IV.   an  Italian  taught  the 
English  the  art  of  weaving  kerseys  ;  and  in  the  early  part  of  the  16th  century  'Devonshire  kerseys' 
were  an  important  article  of  commerce  to  the  Levant.     The  woollen  manufacture  was  greatly  ex- 
tended here  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth,  as  noticed  with  Exeter,  and  continued  to  flourish,  till  the  close  of 
last  century.     The  market  for  wool  and  cloths,  which  had  been  long  at  Crediton,  was  removed  to 
Exeter  in   1538.     Totnes  produced  a  sort  of  coarse  cloth,  called  Pynn- whites,  not  made  elsewhere. 
Crediton  was  famous  for  fine  spinning.      Barnstaple  and  Torrington  furnished  bayes,  fryzadoes,  &c., 
and  Pilton,  cottons  and  lining,  '  so  coarse  a  stuiFe,  that  there  was  a  voe  (a  woe)  pronounced  against 
them  in  these  words : — Woe  unto  you,  ye  Piltonians,  that  make  cloth  without  wool.'     Many,  other 
places  contributed  to  the  great  Exeter  mart,  which  ranked  next  Leeds  in  1759,  and  exported  no  fewer 
than  330,414  pieces  of  cloth  in  1768,  but  its  trade  suffered  considerably  during  the  American  war. 
In   1789,  the  East  India  Company  bought  here  121,000  pieces  of  serges,  &c. ;  of  which  600  pieces 
of  broads  were  made  at  Crediton,  and  the  rest  chiefly  at  Ashburton,  Tavistock,  Modbury,  North 
Tawton,  and  Newton  Bushell.     While  they  had  the  monopoly  of  the  tea  trade,  they  were  enabled  to 
force  their  serges  or  long  ells  on  the  Chinese  in  exchange,  and  they  were  induced  to  do  this  on  several 
occasions,  at  the  request  of  Government,  in  order  to  relieve  the  weavers  and  manufacturers  of  this 
country  in  times  of  distress.     From   1795   to   1805,  this  company  annually  purchased  here  from 
250,000  to  300,000  pieces.      In  1838,  there  were  still  in  the  county  39  woollen  mills,  and  more  than 
3,000  looms  employed  in  weaving  serges.     Of  the  latter  there  were  in  and  around  Ashburton,  660  ; 
Okehampton,  530;   Cullompton,  500;   Buckfastleigh,  700;  Exeter,  300;  Totnes,  230;   South  and 
North   Molton,  200;   Crediton  and  North  Tawton,  150;  and  Tavistock,  100.     The  manufacture  of 
blankets  has  been  introduced  into  Devonshire  since  the  expiration  of  the  East  India  Company's  trading 
monopoly,  and  many  of  the  women  of  Devon,  previously  employed  in  weaving  serges,  have  since  been 
employed  in  glove  making,  &c.     Since  the  repeal  of  the  prohibition  to  export  English  wool,  great 
quantities  have  been  exported  from  Devonshire,  chiefly  to  France,  for  the  manufacture  of  finer  articles 
than  serges.     In  1838,  there  were  in  Devon  three  flax  mills  and  three  silk  mills.     The  latter  are  at 
Church  Stanton,  Aylesbeare,  and  Ottery  St.  Mary,  and  employ  upwards  of  400  hands.     From  1755  till 
1835,  there  was  a  celebrated  carpet  manufactory  at  Axminster.     Bone  or  thread  lace,  commonly 
called  Honiton  lace,  is  extensively  made  in  the  town  and  neighbourhood  of  Honiton,  and  in  many 
other  parts  of  the  county,  and  gives  employment  to  many  thousand  women  and  children,  as  noticed 
with  Honiton.     At  Tiverton  and  Barnstaple  are  two  extensive  lace  factories,  employed  in  making 
bobbin-net,  &c.     (See    Tiverton.)     The   former  was   established  in  1815,  and  the  latter  in  1822. 
Blond  lace  is  also  made  here,  and  there  are  in  the  county  several  potteries,  many  large  malting  and 
tanning  establishments,  several  large  foundries  and  machine  works,  &c.,  &c.     Although  the  woollen 
trade  has  very  much  declined  in  this  county,  yet  there  are  still  extensive  mills,  amongst  the  principal 
of  which  are  those  situated  at  Buckfastleigh,  North  Tawton,  and  Chagford.     At  Ashburton  Messrs. 
Berry  alone  represent  the  once  numerous  body  of  clothiers,  and  it  is  due  to  their  perseverance,  and 
to  that  of  Messrs.  Ilamlyn,  of  Buckfastleigh,  that  the  branch   still   exists  in  the  valley  of  the  Dart. 
Although  they  have  extensive  sorting  shops,  &c.,  within  the  Borough  of  Ashburton,  yet  the  Messrs. 
Berry  do  not  actually  carry  on  their  manufacture  within  the  ancient  borough,  and  a  calamitous  fire 
which  occurred  on  the  19th  of  November  1877,  the  same  day  which  witnessed  the  similar  destruction 
of  Lamerton  Church,  burnt  to  the  ground  their  largest  mill,  which  was  situated  at  iBuckfast,  and 
which  was  a  very  extensive  erection  of  five  storeys,  and  filled  with  the  newest  and  best  machinery. 
There  is  a  strong  probability  (although  there  is  no  absolute  proof)  that  the  woollen  manufacture  was 
very  greatly  encouraged,  if  not  actually  introduced,  in  the  Dart  valley  by  the  Cistercian  Monks,  who 

History  of  Devonshire. 


jiDlonised  the  neighbouring  Abbey  of  Buckfast.  Paint  works,  for  the  manufacture  of  paint  without 
'hite  lead,  have  been  recently  established  on  the  banks  of  the  Yeo  (tributary  of  the  Dart),  within 
le  parish  of  Ashburton.     (For  number  of  persons  engaged  in  the  chief  occupations,  see  page  26.) 

Fisheries. — Great  quantities  of  salmon  and  salmon-trout  are  taken  in  the  principal  rivers  of 
)evon ;  but  those  taken  in  the  Exe  and  Dart  are  the  most  esteemed.  Salmon-peal  are  found  in  the 
'avy,  Tamar,  Erme,  Dart,  Mole,  and  Otter,  and  lamprey  in  the  Exe  and  Mole.  The  Salmon-Weir 
1  the  Tavy,  near  Buckland  Abbey,  is  a  work  of  considerable  magnitude,  thrown  across  the  river  in  a 
art  where  two  projecting  rocks  serve  as  buttresses  to  the  masonry,  which  is  built  somewhat  arch- 
aise, to  resist  the  pressure  of  the  waters  in  times  of  flood,  when  they  collect  from  the  slopes  of 
>artmoor,  and  rush  down  with  great  impetuosity.  Turbot,  plaice,  soles,  whiting,  mullet,  mackerel, 
ilchards,  gurnet,  flounders,  herrings,  sprats,  crabs,  lobsters,  and  other  fish  abound  in  the  Channels 
pposite  both  coasts.  Brixham,  in  Torbay,  is  the  largest  fishing  port  in  Devon,  an^  after  it  rank 
'Jy mouth,  Teignmouth,  Lympstone,  Topsham,  Dartmouth,  Salcombe,  and  Ilfraeombe.  There  are 
xtensive  oyster  beds  at  Starcross,  Newton-Ferrers,  Lympstone,  and  Topsham:  The  torpedo,  or 
lectric  ray,  has  occasionally  been  taken  in  Torbay  and  the  river  Dart.  The  opah,  or  king-fish,  is 
ery  rare,  but  one  was  taken  at  Brixham,  in  1772,  weighing  140  lbs.,  and  its  flesh  '  looked  and  tasted 
ke  beef.'  The  sepia,  or  cuttle-fish,  is  frequently  taken  in  nets  by  fishermen  off  Teignmouth  and 
lapton  Sands.  Dartmouth,  Teignmouth,  Torquay,  Bideford,  Topsham,  and  Plymouth,  formerly 
2nt  many  vessels  to  the  Newfoundland  fishery,  but  that  trade  has  considerably  declined,  and  only  the 
iree  first-named  places  are  now  partially  engaged  in  it.  The  principal  rivers  are  now  under  the 
apervision  of  boards  of  conservators,  and  licenses  for  salmon  fishing  (and  in  many  instances  for 
out  fishing  also)  are  issued  by  them,  at  various  rates,  according  to  the  abundance  of  the  fish. 
I  almon  passes  have  been  constructed  on  many  of  the  weirs,  but  much  improvement  is  still  necessary 
1  those  provisions  on  many  streams,  particularly  at  Totnes.  .  The  small  streams  on  Dartmoor  abound 
^ith  trout,  and  the  writer  killed  1137  with  his  own  rod  there  in  about  six  weeks  o£  1877,  the  largest 
f  which  weighed  2  lb.  1-J  oz. 

Education,  &c. — The  schools  of  Devonshire  are  very  numerous,  and  they  have  been  greatly 
icreased  of  late  years,  and  Science  and  Art  classes  under  the  Department  at  South  Kensington  have 
een  recently  freely  established.  Since  the  Elementary  Education  Act  was  passed  in  1870,  School 
loards  have  been  formed  in  many  of  the  towns  and  villages,  and  new  schools  have  been  erected  by 
lem.  There  are  still  in  the  county  many  endowed  grammar  and  charity  schools  and  a  great 
umber  of  elementary  schools,  supported  by  subscriptions  and  the  weekly  payments  of  the 
cholars.  According  to  the  24th  Eeport  of  the  Science  and  Art  Department,  52  Science  Schools 
7ere  examined  in  May  1876,  and  there  were  54  Science  Schools  in  existence  in  January  1877. 
)rawing  was  taught  in  70  Elementary  Schools,  of  which  27  were  National  and  Church  of  England, 
9  Board,  3  Wesleyan,  and  21  Charity  and  other  Schools;  29  Art  classes  were  aided  by  the  Depart- 
fient,  and  there  were  3  unaided.  There  were  6  Schools  of  Art  in  the  county  and  1  Training  College 
xamined  in  drawing  in  May  1877.  '  The  Elementary  Education  Act,  1876,'  39-40  Vict.  c.  79 
August  15,  1876],  which  came  into  operation  on  January  1,  1877,  provides  for  the  appointment  of 
School  Attendance  Committee  for  every  borough  and  parish  for  which  a  School  Board  has  not  been 

The  following  list  of  the  School  Boards  formed  in  the  county  to  March  31,  1877,  gives  the 
:umber  of  members,  and  the  date  of  formation.  (For  further  particulars  see  the  parish  or  parishes 
br  which  they  have  been  constituted.) 


No.  of 

When  formed 


No.  of 

When  formed 

(c)  Abbottskerswell   . 


March  27,  1875 



April  1,  1874 

Alphington  . 


March  31,  1875 

(c)  Broadhempstone      with 


April  3,  1875 

(c)  Ashwater 


May  1,  1875 

"Woodland    (contrib.) 


*  Axminster    . 


March  16,  1874 



July  6,  1874 

(c)  Aylesbeare,    Harpford, 



March  29,  1871 



June  14,  1875 

(c)  Buckland  Brewer . 


May  31,  1875 

(c)  Bampton 


March  31,  1875 

(c)  Cadeleigh     . 


April  5,  1875 

Barn&taple    . 


Feb.  25,  1871 

*  Cliarles  (or  S.  Molton)  . 


June  17,  1872 

Bideford       .       -  . 


Jan.  16,  1871 

(c)  Chawleigh  (U.D.) 


Feb.  19,  1873 

(c)  Bishops  Nymptom 


Nov.  26,  1874 

(c)  Cheriton  Bishop   . 


Jan.  13,  1875 

(c)  Blackawton  . 


Aug.  21,  1874 

(c)  Cheriton  Fitzpaine  and 

(c)  Bow  (or  Nymet  Tracey) 

•    5 

Jan.  12,  1875 

Stoekleigh       English 

(c)  Bratton  Clovelley 


July  31,  1874 

(U.D.)      .         .         . 


April  26,  1875 



Aug.  19,  1871 

(c)  Chivelstone  . 


Nov.  26,  1874 



Aug.  11,  1875 



March  17,  1875 


History  or  T>cvoiiHliire. 


No.  of 
11  embers 

When  formed 

Board    . 

No.  of 

When  formed 

Chulnilcigh  . 


March  20,  1871 



Sept.  29,  1875 

(c)  ChurcluStanton     . 


May  7,  1875 



Aug.  22,  1874 

Clawton,    Tetcott,    and 

(c)  Morthoo 


Feb.  17,  1875 

Luffingeot  (U.D.) 


Aug.  31,  1874 

(c)  Musbury 


Nov.  12,  1875 

(e)  Clayhidon     . 


March  23,  1875 

(c)  Newton  St.  Cyras 


Jan.  12,  1875 



Feb.  12,  1873 

North  Molton 


May  26,  1874 

(c)  Coffinswcll&Haccombe 


Nov.  14,  1874 

North  Petherwin 


Feb.  20,  1873 

Cok'brooko   . 


Nov.  13,  1873 

North  Tawton 


Feb.  21,  1872 

*    Coloridge 


Sept.  16,  1872 



Jan.  9,  1872 



May  23,  1874 

(c)  Ottery  St.  Mary 


Nov.  23,  1873 

(c)  Crediton 


Aug.  20,  1874 



Jan.  29,  1874 

(c)  Culmstock     . 


June  26,  1874 



April  12,  1873 

Dartmouth    . 


Jan.  25,  1871 

Plymouth      . 


Jan.  31,  1871 



Oct.  26,  1874 

Plymstock     . 


June  21,  1871 

(c)  Denbury  (U.D.)     . 


March  29,  1875 

(c)  Romansleigh  and  Mari- 

Devonport    . 


Jan.  24,  1871 

ansleigh  (U.D.) 


April  19,  1875 

(c)  Doddiscombsleigli 


May  17,  1876 

(c)  Pose  Ash 


Jan.  13,  1875 



July  1,  1871 

(c)  St.  Giles  in  the  Heath 




May  24,  1871 

(U.D.)       .         .         . 


March  25,  1875    ! 

(c)  East  and  West  Putford 

St.  Leonard  . 


July  22,  1874 

(U.D.)       .        .        . 


Nov.  21,  1874 

St.  Nicholas  . 


Oct.  24,  1874 

(c)  Ea,st  and  "West  Teign- 

St.  Thomas  the  Apostle 


Feb.  28,  1871 

mouth  (U.D.)    . 


Jan.  16,  1875 

(c)  Sampford         Courteney 


Aug.  21,  1874 

(c)East    and   West   Wor- 

&  Honeychurch  with 

lington  (U.D.)  . 


April  1,  1874 

Belstone  (contrib.)    . 


(c)  East  Anstey . 


Feb.  8,  1875 

(c)  Shaugh  Prior 


Dec.  28,  1874 

East  Stonehouso    . 


June  16,  1874 

(c)  Shebbear  (U.D.)   . 


Oct.  1,  1874 

(c)  Erm    and  Avon  (U.D. 

(c)  Shorford 


April  7,  1875 

[see  Bigbury  descrip.] 


April  29,  1873 

(c)Shute    .         .         .         . 


Jan.  4,  1875 

Ermington    . 


Feb.  28,  1872 



July  8,  1874 



Jan.  31,  1871 

South  Brent . 


Aug.  20,  1874 



March  22,  1875 

(c)  South  Leigh . 


Jan.  12,  1875 



March  30,  1874 

South  Tawton 


Aug.  1,  1872 

Great  Torrington  . 


Feb.  16,  1871 



April  3,  1876 

Halberton     . 


April  20,  1871 

*    Stoke    Fleming    (extra 

(c)  Halwell  and  Beaworthy 



March  2,  1874 

(U.D.)       .        .        . 


April  23,  1875 

Stoke  Gabriel 


Aug.  27,  1873 

(c)  Halwell    and  Morleigh 

(c)  Stokeinteignhead  . 


April  10,  1875 

(U.D.)       .         .         . 


April  29,  1875 

(c)  Stokenham    . 


Aug.  22,  1874 

Hartland       . 


Aug.  26,  1874 

Stoke  Rivers 


Feb.  3,  1875 

Hatherleigh  . 


April  29,  1874 

(c)  Sutcombe 


Nov.  26,  1874 

(c)  Heanton      Punchardon, 

Tavistock     . 


March  14,  1874 

Ashford  (U.D.) 


Nov.  24,  1874 

!  (c)  Tedburn  St.  Mary 


Nov.  18,  1874 

(c)  Hemioek 


March  16,  1875 

!  (c)  Throwleigh     and    Gid- 

(e)  Hennock 


March  13,  1875 

leigh  (U.D.)       . 


Jan.  11,  1875 

Hitti sleigh,  with    . 


Sept.  30,  1874 



July  2,  1874 

Bow  or  Nymet  Traccy 


*    Topsham 


April  17,  1872 

Crediton    . 


Totnes  .... 


Jan.  31,  1871 

Drewsteignton  (conts.) 


Uffculme       . 


June  26,  1872 



Nov.  7,  1871 

Ugborough   . 


July  16,  1874 

(c)  Horwood   and    Newton 



April  8.  1872 

Tracey(U.D.)    . 


Feb.  4,  1875 

(c)  Wcmbury     . 


July  18,  1874 

(c)  Instow  .... 


Nov.  23,  1874 

*    West  Leigh  . 


Oct.  10,  1872 

(c)  Inwardleigh  . 


Feb.  20,  1877 

Whitchurch  . 


Feb.  2,  1874 



Sept.  16,  1872 

W  i  d  d  ec  0  m  be-i  n-th  e- 



Feb.  9,  1873 



May  1,  1875 

(c)  Lapford     and     Nymet 



July  17,  1872 

Eowland  (U.D.) 


Nov.  24,  1873 

(c)Winkleigh     . 


March  31,  1874 

(c)  Littleham     and    Land- 

j  (c)  Woolfardsworthy,   near 

cross  (U.D.)      . 


Jan.  9,  1875 

;             Bideford    . 


Dec.  19,  1874 

(c)  Lustleigli    with    . 


Nov.  13,  1875 

(c)  Woolfardsworthy . 


May  3,  1876 

Bovoy  Tracey  (cont.). 


AVashford   Pyne   and 

(c)  Lydford 


Jan.  12,  1875 

Kenncrleigh     (U.D.) 

5      . 

(c)  Marwood 


Dec.  8,  1874 

with  Thelbridge  (con- 

(c) Membury 


Jan.   18,  1875 



Milton  Damerel     . 


Nov.  24,  1874 

Zeal  Monachorura. 


Feb.  3,  1875 

*  Notes. — U.D.  signifies  United  District.  An  asterisk*  is  prefixed  to  the  name  of  each  Board  formed  under 
sec.  12  (v.),  and  (c)  to  that  of  each  Board  formed  compulsorily  under  sec.  10  or  40  of  the  Elementary  Education 
Act,  1870. 

History  of  Devoiisliire.  39 

Charities,  &C. — The  Parliamentary  Commissioners  commenced  to  issue  their  reports  of  the 
;harities  in  1815  :  the  Keports  occupy  four  octavo  volumes,  and  those  pertaining  to  the  City  of  Exeter 
I,  fifth  ;  and  their  substance  will  be  found  to  be  incorporated  at  subsequent  pages  in  the  accounts  of 
,he  charities  of  each  town  or  parish.  Many  of  the  abuses  noticed  by  the  Commissioners  have  since 
)een  rectified.  In  Exeter,  Plymouth,  Totnes,  Ashburton,  and  many  other  towns,  are  valuable  public 
ibraries,  and  in  the  two  first  are  important  literary  institutions,  and  throughout  the  county  there  are 
Hany  and  various  friendly  societies  for  the  benefit  of  the  working  classes.  In  the  parvise  of  Totnes 
jhurch  there  is  a  very  curious  and  interesting  library,  a  catalogue  of  which  has  been  lately  published 
n  a  work  entitled  *  Asliburton  and  its  Neighbourhood,'  by  Mr.  C.  Worthy  of  Ashburton ;  it  is  supposed 
;o  have  originated  in  the  gift  of  one  Gabriel  Barber  in  1619,  and  a  very  large  proportion  of  the  334 
trolumes  of  which  the  collection  consists  were  printed  at  a  date  anterior  to  this.  Some  of  the  books 
ire  in  a  tolerable  state  of  preservation,  but  others  are  in  a  "very  dilapidated  condition,  which  is  the 
aaore  to  be  regretted  since  they  include  several  rare  and  very  valuable  works. 

Amongst  the  charitable  institutions  of  the  county  may  be  particularly  noticed — the  County 
Lunatic  Asylum  at  Exminster ;  the  Institution  for  Idiots  at  Starcross ;  the  North  Devon  Infirmary  at 
Barnstaple;  the  Devon  and  Exeter  Hospital  founded  1741,  and  containing  over  200  beds  and  a  good 
medical  library ;  the  South  Devon  and  East  Cornwall  Hospital  at  Plymouth :  the  Asylums  for  the 
Blind  and  those  also  for  the  Deaf  and  Dumb  ;  the  British  Seaman's  Orphan  Home,  established  in 
1860  at  Brixham ;  and  the  Royal  British  Female  Orphan  Asylum,  established  at  Devonport  in  1839 
for  the  support  of  the  orphan  daughters  of  sailors  and  soldiers.  At  Bovey  Tracey  there  is  a  fine 
building,  with  a  very  beautiful  chapel,  for  the  reception  of  Fallen  Women  within  the  county,  in  order 
that  they  may  be  established  in  some  respectable  calling  to  enable  them  to  earn  their  livelihood. 
This  establishment  is  supported  by  voluntary  contributions,  and  is  in  the  care  of  members  of  the 
Clewer  Sisterhood  ;  it  was  commenced  in  1861,  and  formally  opened  in  1863,  but  the  foundatioji  stone 
of  the  permanent  building  was  laid  by  the  Earl  of  Devon  in  1865  ;  it  receives  72  inmates.  The  Lord 
Bishop  of  the  Diocese  is  the  visitor,  and  the  business  is  managed  by  a  large  and  influential  local 
committee,  consisting  of  sundry  gentry  and  beneficed  clergy  of  the  diocese. 

Ancient  History. — Devon  was  called  Dunan  by  the  Cornish  Britons ;  Deuffneynt  by  the  Welsh ; 
and  Devnascyre  by  the  Anglo-Saxons.  It  is  supposed  that  it  was  inhabited  at  a  very  remote  period, 
and  that  its  inhabitants  had  commercial  transactions  in  tin,  &c.,  with  the  Phoenicians  and  Greeks. 
Polwhele  says  that  its  aborigines  were  the  Danmonii ;  but  Whitaker  supposes  the  latter  were  the 
Belgic  invaders,  and  that  the  first  inhabitants  were  the  Cimbri,  some  of  whom,  after  the  invasion  of 
the  Belgge  from  Gaul,  emigrated  to  Ireland,  and  others  continued  in  the  north-  west  parts  of  Devon- 
shire. Ca3sar  tells  us  that  when  he  landed  in  Britain,  he  found  the  Belgas  occupying  the  sea-coast ; 
but  Richard  of  Cirencester  says  the  Cimbri  were  on  the  north,  and  the  Danmonii  on  the  south  coast 
of  Devon.  The  county  was  included  with  Cornwall,  under  the  name  of  Danmonium,  which  is  sup- 
posed to  be  derived  from  the  Phoenician  words  dan  or  dun,  a  hill,  and  moina,  mines ;  or  from  Welsh 
words  signifying  deep  valleys.  Westcote  thus  accounts  for  the  name  of  Devonshire  : — '  I  would  call  it 
^^  Avonshire,^'  De-avonshire,  and  so  by  contraction  ''  Denshire."  Avon  in  the  old  British  language  is  the 
name  for  fleet  waters  :  as  wells,  mills,  brooks,  streams,  and  rivers ;  and  this  province  abounds  more 
with  waters  and  rivers  than  any  other  that  I  have  read  of.  I  am  induced  to  believe  it  may,  with  as 
good  reason,  take  name  from  them  as  from  mines,  valleys,  or  Danes.  De-avon  also,  or  Devon,  the 
county  of  rivers,  requires  less  alteration  of  letters  than  any  other.'  Westcote  also  objects  to  the 
derivation  of  Devon  from  Deuffneynt,  &c.,  because  the  Welsh  have  another  and  more  ordinary  and 
more  significant  name-word  for  valleys,  viz.,  *  Lhan.^  This  conjecture,  however,  is  not  substantiated 
by  the  name  given  to  Devonshire  in  ancient  Welsh  MSS.  Under  the  Roman  domination,  Devon  was 
included  in  that  large  and  important  division  of  the  island  called  Britannia  Prima ;  and  by  the  Saxons 
it  was  made  part  of  the  kingdom  of  Wessex,  and  so  continued  till  the  incorporation  of  the  Saxon 
kingdoms  into  one  monarchy,  in  the  time  of  Egbert ;  as  will  be  noticed  with  Exeter,  as  most  of  the 
momentous  events  relating  to  the  general  history  of  Devon  are  necessarily  incorporated  with  the  histoiy 
of  that  city.  There  has  been  nothing  peculiar  in  the  government  of  Devonshire,  except  that  of  the 
Stannary  haws,  which  have  been  in  force  from  a  very  early  period  in  the  mining  districts. 

The  Stannary  Parliaments  were  anciently  held  in  the  open  air,  on  an  elevated  spot  called 
Crockerntor,  in  Dartmoor.  Polwhele,  who  wrote  about  1795,  says  that  the  president's  chair,  the 
jurors'  seats,  &c.,  cut  in  the  rude  stone,  remained  entire  nearly  till  that  period,  though  it  had  been 
customary  for  a  very  long  time  only  to  open  the  commission  and  swear  in  the  jury  on  the  site  of  the 
ancient  court,  and  then  to  adjourn  to  the  court  house  of  one  of  the  stannary  towns,  viz.,  Ashburton, 
Chagford,  Plympton,  and  Tavistock.  The  stannary  prison  was  a  miserable  dungeon  at  Lidford 
Castle.  The  custom  of  opening  the  court  at  Crockerntor  has  been  many  years  disused.  The  table 
and  seats  of  Moorstone  were  destroyed  by  the  workmen  of  the  late  Sir  Francis  BuUer,  unknown 
to  him,  and  the  fragments  used  for  some  buildings  then  in  process  of  erection.  The  Judge's  Seat, 
however,  may  still  be  seen  inside  a  gate  opposite  the  entrance  to  a  farm  called  Brownberry,  on  the 

40  History  of*  r>evoiisliir»e. 

road  between  Ashburton  and  Prince-Town.     It  is  not  known  when  the  last  Parh'ament  was  held  i 
at  Crockerntor.     They  were  not  convened  at  regular  periods,  but  only  when  the  Lord  Warden  of  the  i 
Stannaries  saw  fit.     Prince,  who  wrote  in  1697,  mentions  Crockern  as  the  place  where  the  Stannary  i 
parliament   was   wont   to   be   held.     Probably  the  latest  (which  may  have  been  adjourned  from  ', 
Crockerntor)  was  that  convened  in  1703,  when  Lord  Granville  was  Warden,  and  the  Hon.  Samuel  I 
Ivolle,  Vice- Warden,  and  on  this  occasion  the  *  Parliament  of  Tinners'  was  summoned  to  meet  at  i 
eight  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  September  23.    The  courts  of  the  Stannaries,  however,  remained  (and  ;; 
in  a  modified  form  continue  to  do  so  in  Cornwall)  ;  one  of  the  latter  was  held  at  Ashburton  in  1757    ' 
(when  John  Hill,  of  Ashburton,  proclaimed  one  pair  of  tin  bounds  called  Broomshill),   and  ther(; 
were  many  subsequent  courts  held  here  even  after  most  of  the  tinners  had  left  the  district.     In  the 
Stowe  library,  there  was  a  black-letter  tract  with  a  woodcut,  dated   1618.     This  book  is  entitled 
*  True  relation  of  the  Accident  at  Chagford,  in  Devonshire,'   and  contains  the  following  memo- 
randum : — *  These  five  persons  next  in  order  following  were  slayne  by  the  iiiU  of  part  of  the  market- 
house  of  Chagford,  upon  tin   court  daie  sitting  of  the  court,  presently  after  dinner,  on   Friday,  the 
sixth  daie  of  March,  1617  :  John  Cann,  John  Lillycrop  of  Crediton  ;   Gregorie  Hele,  of  Colebrooke  ; 
William  Adams,  of  Gidleigh  ;  and  Timothy  Mole  of  Ashburton.'     Sir  Richard  Strode,  of  Newnham, 
M.P.  for  the  borough  of  Plympton  in  1512,  endeavoured  to  procure  an  Act  for  the  protection  of  the 
western  harbours  from  the  injuries  caused  by  the  stream  works.     He  himself  had  an  interest  in 
the  tin  mines  of  the  country,  and  he  thus  rendered  himself  peculiarly  obnoxious  to  the  Stannators, 
who  prosecuted  him  for  imputed  crimes  against  the  Stannary  laws  in  the  court  at  Crockerntor,  and 
fined  him  in  heavy  penalties,  which  he  refused  to  pay.     He  was  therefore  thrown  into  the  prison 
of  Lidford  Castle,  which  was  described  in  the  order  of  Parliament,  by  which  he  obtained  redress  for 
his  ill-treatment  as  '  one  of  the  most  hainous,  contagious,  and  detestable  places  in  the  realm ' ;  he 
was  kept  in  this  dungeon  for  more  than  three  weeks,  and  fed  only  on  bread  and  water.     But,  as 
Lysons  remarks,  '  this  case  of  daring  outrage  gave  occasion  to  the  establishment  and  maintenance 
of  some  of  the  most  important  privileges  of  Parliament.' 

It  may  be  as  well,  in  the  first  place,  to  refer  to  the  fabled  colonisation  of  this  country  by  Brutus, 
the  Trojan  (since  that  hero  is  stated  to  have  first  landed  in  Devon),  albeit  the  credit  of  the  story  is 
chiefly  supported  by  Geoffrey  of  Monmouth,  a  writer  who  has  always  been  regarded  as  simply  a 
^  manufiicturer  of  history,'  and  who  was  regarded,  even  by  his  contemporaries,  as  utterly  unreliable. 
His  history  of  Britain  was  published  in  the  reign  of  Henry  II.  (1154-1189),  and  in  it  he  relates  that 
Brutus,  son  of  Silvius,  and  grandson  of  ^neas,  having,  whilst  hunting,  accidentally  killed  his  father, 
fled  his  country,  and  made  his  way  to  Greece.  Having  collected  a  number  of  followers,  he  freed 
from  captivity  the  descendants  of  Hellenus,  the  son  of  Priam,  defeated  an  unknown  king  of  Greece  (sic), 
called  Pandarus,  whose  daughter  he  married,  and  then  set  sail  with  all  his  forces  in  324  ships,  and 
landed  on  a  deserted  island  named  Leogetia,  where  he  discovered  a  temple  dedicated  to  Diana,  whose 
oracle  desired  him  to  proceed  *  to  a  western  island  beyond  Gaul,  where  he  would  found  another 
Troy  and  give  rise  to  a  race  of  kings  by  whom  the  world  would  be  subdued.'  He  first  over-ran 
Gaul,  and  then  proceeded  to  this  island,  where  his  subsequent  history,  as  related  in  early  chronicles, 
is  too  well  known  to  need  repetition  here ;  sufficient,  that  he  is  said  to  have  landed  at  Totnes  in  this 
county  A.M.  2855,  B.C.  1108,  and  334  years  before  the  first  Olympiad,  and  to  have  lefl;  his  name  to 
Britain.  This  preposterous  fable  is  related  at  large  by  Holinshed,  and  occupies  five  chapters  in 
his  second  book ! 

In  accounting  for  the  name  of  the  country,  one  possible  origin  appears  to  have  been  over- 
looked. Why  may  not  the  first  settlers  in  this  country  have  been  emigrant  '  Brutii '  ? — a  people 
who  resided  in  the  remotest  parts  of  Italy,  and  who  were  at  one  time  shepherds  to  the  Lucanians, 
and  who  received  the  name  by  which  they  were  afterwards  known  for  their  stupidity  and  cowardice 
in  submitting  without  opposition  to  Annibal  in  the  second  Punic  War,  B.C.  218.  Nothing  trust- 
worthy is  known  of  the  history  of  this  country  until  its  invasion  by  Julius  Csesar,  in  the  year  B.C.  55. 
The  Phoenicians  of  Cadiz  are  supposed  to  have  traded  Avith  Devon  and  Cornwall  for  tin,  &c., 
some  centuries  before  the  Christian  era.  The  Ancient  Britons  in  the  south  of  England  had  made 
some  little  progress  towards  civilisation  when  Csesar  invaded  the  island.  They  were  divided  into 
various  tribes  and  nations,  and  the  commonly-received  opinion  is  that  their  religion,  which  formed 
part  of  their  free  monarchial  government,  was  Druidical.  The  British  Druids  exercised  their 
utmost  authority  in  opposing  thei  invasion  of  the  Romans,  who,  fired  with  equal  resentment,  deter- 
mined to  secure  themselves  by  exterminating  the  Druidic  Order.  In  ancient  times,  Devonshire  pro- 
duced greater  quantities  of  tin  than  Cornwall,  and  the  m.ethod  of  mining  was  then  of  the  simplest 
description,  by  '  shoding  and  streaming.'  There  are  numerous  stream  works  on  Dartmoor  and  its 
vicinity,  which  have  been  forsaken  for  ages.  In  the  parishes  of  Manaton,  Kingsteignton,  and  Teign- 
grace,  are  many  old  tin  works  of  this  kind.  It  has  been  considered  that  the  Druids  were  nu- 
merous in  Devonshire,  and  that  they  were  conversant  with  Dartmoor  Forest  and  the  neighbourhood, 
and  that  this  is  made  evident  from  the  cromlechs,  logan-stones,  rock  basins,  stone  pillars,  circles, 

History  of  IDcvonsliirc  41 

cairns,  rocking  stones,  rude  bridges,  &c.,  still  to  be  seen  in  the  wild  solitudes  of  the  forest,  and  in  the 
surrounding  parishes  of  Drewsteignton,  Manaton,  Okehampton,  &c.  These  will  be  described  under 
the  heads  of  the  parishes  in  which  they  occur,  but  it  is  right  to  mention  that  many  who  have  carefnlly 
investigated  these  subjects  are  of  opinion  that  there  are  no  satisfactory  indications  of  Druidism  in  the 
county,  and  are  disposed  altogether  to  doubt  its  existence  there.  For  instance,  Dr.  McCulloch  and 
others  consider  that  the  rock  basins  have  been  formed  by  the  action  of  water,  air,  and  frost.  Many 
look  upon  the  cromlechs  as  merely  sepulchral  monuments,  and  that  the  logan-stones  (which  are  clearly 
inartificial)  were  applied  to  Druidical  purposes,  is  purely  a  matter  of  conjecture.  History,  however, 
tells  us  that  the  religious  and  civil  jurisdiction  of  the  Druids  prevailed  all  over  Britain,  and  that  they 
dispensed  justice,  not  imder  any  written  code  of  laws,  but  on  what  they  professed  to  be  equitable 
principles — all  their  verdicts  being  determined  by  such  sense  as  the  assembled  delegates  entertained  of 
impartial  justice,  and  on  discordance  of  opinion  in  the  congress,  appeal  was  made  to  the  Arch-Druid, 
whose  sentence  was  decisive.  They  worshipped  in  temples  and  in  deep  groves  ;  and  were  not  much 
addicted  to  idolatry  as  some  authors  have  asserted,  but  adored  the  God  of  nature,  and  rendered  Him 
praise  on  the  yearly  succession  of  the  seasons,  which  they  kept  as  solemn  festivals.  Though  they 
dealt  largely  in  allegory  and  symbolical  representations,  they  practised  but  little  priestcraft,  and  held 
not  the  ignorance  of  their  votaries  in  the  bonds  of  superstition ;  but  they  clearly  explained  the  mys- 
teries and  symbols  used  in  their  ceremonies  to  the  initiated.  To  remove  from  the  people  all 
possibility  of  sophistry  and  innovation,  their  maxims  of  justice  were  taught  orally;  and  the  sons  of 
chief  personages  were  disciples  in  their  ethic  schools,  where  the  rules  of  moral  life  were  inculcated  as 
the  foundation  of  human  wisdom.  They  studied  medicine  and  the  virtue  of  plants,  of  which  the 
mistletoe  was  their  chief  specific ;  and  they  held  nothing  so  sacred  as  the  mistletoe  of  the  oak,  which 
they  gathered  with  great  pomp  and  ceremony  on  a  certain  day,  appointed  for  their  greatest  festival. 
In  their  civil  government,  capital  offenders  were  sentenced  to  death,  and  publicly  sacrificed  on  the 
altars  of  their  temples ;  while  those  convicted  of  minor  crimes  were  excluded  from  public  worship, 
and  excommunicated  from  all  civil  and  religious  benefits,  till  they  had  washed  out,  with  the  tears  of 
repentance,  the  stains  with  which  their  guilt  had  branded  them.  Julius  C^sar  said  the  Druids  incul- 
cated the  immortality  and  transmigration  of  the  soul,  and  discoursed  Avith  youth  much  about  the 
heavenly  bodies.  Much  information  is  obtained  respecting  the  Druids  from  ancient  and  authentic 
writers,  who  had  the  best  means  of  inquiry  ;  and  although  many  of  their  descriptions  relate  to  the 
Continent,  they  are  not  less  applicable  to  Britain,  for  it  appears  certain  that  the  religious  principles 
and  the  practice  of  both  were  similar.  This  we  learn  from  Caesar,  who  affirms,  moreover,  that  such 
of  the  Gauls  as  were  desirous  of  becoming  thoroughly  conversant  with  the  principles  of  their 
religion  were  accustomed  to  travel  for  that  purpose  into  this  country,  so  that  it  might  seem  that 
Druidism  in  Britain  was  the  parent  stock,  '  Disciplina  in  Britannia  reperta  atque  in  Galliam  translata 
esse  existimatur.'  Great  numbers  of  the  Druids  were  massacred  by  the  Eomans  in  the  unsuccessful 
revolt  of  the  Britons  under  Queen  Boadicea,  and  from  that  period  their  power  and  splendour  rapidly 
disappeared.  It  is  a  commonly  received  opinion  that  the  wild  solitudes  of  Dartmoor  are  the 
great  store-houses  of  Druidical  and  other  British  remains  in  Devon,  and  it  is  even  conjectured  that 
the  ancient  oaks  of  Wistman's  or  Wiseman's  Wood,  near  Bairdown,  or  the  Hill  of  Bards,  amidst  the 
gigantic  tors  and  the  rude  British  remains  of  Dartmoor  Forest,  are  the  '  posterity '  of  a  Druidical 
grove.  This  extensive  forest  is  popularly  believed  to  have  been  one  of  the  last  retreats  of  the  Druids 
of  Danmonia,  and  their  favourite  place  of  resort. 

Ancient  British  roads  ran  from  Exmouth  to  Woodbury,  and  thence  to  Taunton  in  Somersetshire  ; 
from  Exeter  to  Molland,  from  Crediton  to  Haldon,  from  Exeter  to  Okehampton,  and  from  Beaton  to 
Molland.  In  the  ancient  tin  streams  in  and  near  Dartmoor  various  celts  and  Roman  coins,  rings, 
brooches,  &c.,  have  been  found.  In  the  museum  of  the  Torquay  Natural  History  Society  there  is  a 
celt  or  chisel,  probably  of  bronze,  Avhich  was  ploughed  up  about  the  year  1873  on  a  portion  of  Bovey 
Heathfield;  it  is  4  ft.  8  in.  long,  and  its  transverse  sections  are  rectangular  parallelograms,  having  the 
angles  slightly  rounded  off.  Very  interesting  remains  have  been  frequently  discovered  in  Kent's 
Cavern,  near  Torquay,  which  of  late  years  has  undergone  a  careful  and  elaborate  exploration.  Antique 
bronze  wristlets  were  found  some  years  ago  on  the  wrists  of  a  skeleton  dug  up  in  the  earthwork  near 
Lower  St.  Columb ;  and  near  the  remains  of  the  Phoenician  smelting  houses  was  found  a  block  of 
'  Jew's  tin,'  much  corroded,  and  betraying  marks  of  such  great  antiquity,  that  it  is  supposed  to  be  the 
most  ancient  in  existence. 

As  noticed  with  Exeter,  the  Eomans  had  their  chief  station  in  this  county  at  Exeter,  from  which 
they  had  roads  diverging  mostly  in  the  lines  of  the  British  track  ways.  The  principal  of  these  passed 
through  the  whole  length  of  Devonshire  from  north-east  to  south-west,  and  was  called  Ikeneld  Street. 
It  entered  this  county  from  Dorsetshire,  a  little  east  of  Axminster,  whence  it  proceeded  by  Shute  Hill, 
Dalwood-down,  Honiton,  &c.,  to  the  large  entrenchment  at  Hembury  Fort.  (See  Payhembury.)  From 
the  latter  it  passed  by  Colestock,  Talewater,  Tallaton  Common,  and  Larkbeare  to  Streetway-head,  where 
it  is  still  known  by  the  name  of  the  Old  Taunton  Road.     It  crossed  the  river  at  Exeter,  a  little  belolv 

42  History  of  Devoiisliire. 

Exe  Bridge,  and  went  over  Ilaldon  Hill,  near  Ugbrooke,  where  there  is  a  strong  British  camp.  Below 
Newton  Abbot  it  crossed  the  Teign  by  a  foi-d  still  called  Hacknieldway.  Aiter  leaving  another 
]^ritish  camp  on  its  left,  it  passed  over  Ford  Common  to  Totnes,  which  was  a  station  of  the  ancient 
]5ritonR.  This  ancient  road  was  joined  at  Streetway-head  by  that  from  Exmouth,  which  passed 
through  the  great  camp  at  Woodbury.  An  undoubted  Roman  road  came  from  the  central  parts  of 
Somersetshire  towards  Exeter,  under  the  name  of  the  Port-way  :  its  high  crest  is  particularly  visible 
at  Uifculme  Common  ;  it  is  still  the  turnpike  road  from  Taunton  to  Exeter.  These  roads  and  many 
others,  the  traces  of  some  of  which  have  altogether  perished,  were  probably  in  existence  long  before 
the  Roman  invasion,  and  the  conquerors  adopted  such  of  them  as  were  mo^^t  convenient  for  their  own 
purposes,  raising  their  crest  always,  and  altering  their  line  in  some  instances,  according  to  their  usual 
practice ;  but,  owing  to  local  circumstances,  antiquarians  have  found  much  difficulty  in  identifying 
them,  and  in  fixing  the  sites  of  the  stations  in  this  county ;  and  their  opinions  are  so  much  at  variance, 
that  we  shall  dismiss  the  subject  by  referring  the  reader  to  the  histories  of  those  towns  and  parishes 
where  there  are  remains  or  appearances  of  them.  J 

Though  vestiges  of  numerous  fortifications  and  encampments  show  that  Devon  was  a  seat  oil 
warfare  at  a  very  early  period,  the  earliest  military  transaction  on  record  (if  we  except  the  untrust- 
worthy statement  made  by  Geoffrey  of  Monmouth,  relative  to  the  leaguer  of  Exeter  by  the  forces  of 
Vespasian,  a.d.  43)  is  the  defeat  of  the  Britons,  in  G14,  by  Cynegilsus,  King  of  the  West  Saxons. 
Matthew  of  Westminster  tells  us  that  in  the  year  633  Exeter  was  garrisoned  by  Brien,  the  nephew  of 
Cadwallo,  the  last  British  king,  and  that  it  was  besieged  in  that  year  by  Penda,  King  of  Mercia. 
Cadwallo  is  stated  to  have  returned  to  his  kingdom,  from  which  he  had  been  driven  by  the  successes 
of  the  Saxons,  to  have  collected  an  army,  and  to  have  conquered  Penda  in  a  battle  near  Exeter,  and 
as  the  result  of  this  victory,  to  have  relieved  the  town.  The  Danes  appear  to  have  been  in  Devon- 
shire during  portions  of  the  years  876,  877,  and  878  ;  we  learn  both  from  the  Saxon  Chronicle,  and 
from  Matthew  of  Westminster,  that  they  wintered  at  Exeter  in  the  two  latter  years,  and  in  the  last 
they  were  besieged  there  by  Alfred  the  Great,  and  compelled  to  a  truce.  In  the  ensuing  year  they 
landed  on  the  northern  coast,  and  were  defeated,  with  the  loss  of  their  favourite  standard — the  raven. 
In  894  they  attempted  to  besiege  Exeter,  but  withdrew  on  the  approach  of  Alfred.  In  1001  they 
were  equally  unsuccessful  in  their  attack  upon  that  city,  but  pillaged  the  surrounding  country,  and 
retired  with  the  spoil.  Subsequently,  however,  they  gained  possession,  and  nearly  destroyed  it. 
The  Domesday  Survey  states  (according  to  Lysons,  '  Mag.  Brit.'  vol.  vi.  p.  7),that  not  long  before  that 
survey  was  taken,  several  manors  on  the  southern  coast  were  laid  waste  by  the  Irish.  In  1067  Exeter 
stood  a  regular  siege  before  it  surrendered  to  William  the  Conqueror.  On  the  accession  of  William 
Rufus  it  was  laid  waste  by  the  partizans  of  Robert,  Duke  of  Normandy.  In  the  fifteenth  century 
the  French  made  several  attacks  upon  the  maritime  towns,  burning  and  plundering  Teignmouth, 
Plymouth,  and  others ;  in  1404  they  were  repulsed  by  the  country  people  near  Dartmouth.  The 
Lord  of  Pomiers  burnt  several  towns  here  in  1457.  During  the  civil  wars  between  the  houses  of 
York  and  Lancaster  Devonshire  was  much  disturbed,  though  no  battle  Avas  fought  within  its  limits. 
In  1497  Perkin  Warbeck  besieged  Exeter,  but  the  siege  being  raised  by  the  Earl  of  Devon,  Warbeck 
proceeded  to  Taunton.  In  1549  serious  disturbances  arose  in  this  county  in  consequence  of  the 
change  of  religion.  They  first  originated  at  Sampford  Courtenay,  and  ere  long  the  rioters  were  joined 
by  Sir  Thomas  Pomeroy,  Mr.  Coffifi,  of  Portledge,  and  others,  and  the  rising  took  the  form  of  a 
regular  rebellion,  and  on  July  2  the  rebels  laid  siege  to  Exeter,  which  was  at  length  relieved  by  Lord 
Russell  on  August  6.  When  the  civil  wars  between  Charles  I.  and  the  Parliament  commenced,  this 
county  was  controlled  by  committees,  and  the  majority  of  the  inhabitants  were  attached  to  the  Par- 
liament. Plymouth  was  fortified  by  the  townsmen  against  the  royalists.  Exeter  was  garrisoned  by 
the  parliamentarians,  and  a  cavalry  body,  raised  in  the  county,  was  stationed  at  Fitzford,  near 
Tavistock.  After  the  defeat  of  the  parliamentarians,  a  cessation  of  hostilities  was  agreed  on  ;  but  the 
treaty  was  soon  broken  off,  and  the  county  again  disturbed  by  internal  broils.  In  1644  the  Earl  of 
Essex  fixed  his  head-quarters  at  Tiverton,  and  having  secured  Barnstaple  for  the  Parliament,  marched 
into  Cornwall,  and  v/as  followed  by  the  King.  In  October  Ilfi-acombe  and  Barnstaple  surrendered  to 
the  royal  forces.  In  1645  the  clubmen  of  Devon  declared  for  the  Parliament,  and  from  this  time  the 
royalists  experienced  great  reverses.  In  the  midst  of  their  disasters.  Sir  Thomas  Fairfax,  commander- 
in-cliief  of  the  parliamentarian  army,  entered  the  county,  and  soon  reduced  every  town  and  fortress. 
lie  took  Exeter,  after  a  long  siege,  in  April,  1646.  Pursuing  his  victorious  career,  he  stormed  the 
church  and  castle  of  Tiverton,  and  attacked  and  defeated  Lord  Hopeton's  army  at  Torrington.  This 
victory  appears  to  have  given  the  death-blow  to  the  royalists'  power  in  the  West,  and  the  last  garrison 
which  held  out  for  the  King  was  Charles-fort,  at  Salcombe-Regis.  The  latest  event  of  great  national 
importance,  which  took  place  in  Devonshire,  was  the  landing  of  William,  Prince  of  Orange,  at  Torbay, 
in  1688,  preparatory  to  the  *  glorious  revolution'  which  placed  him  upon  the  throne.     (See  Exeter.) 

Norman  Conquest. — The  circumstances  which  led  up  to  the  Battle  of  Hastings  are  too  well 
known  to  need  repetition  here.     The  result  of  that  combat,  which  was  fought  on  October  14,  1066, 

Hi«toi'y  oF  I>evoiisliii'e.  43 

was  to  place  the  illegitimate  son  of  Duke  Robert  of  Normandy,  by  Arlotta,  the  skinner's  daughter  of 
Falaise,  upon  the  throne  of  England,  and  he  was  no  sooner  seated  upon  it  than  he  showed  that  his 
policy  was  to  root  out  the  Anglo-Saxon  nobility,  and  to  degrade  the  native  inhabitants  of  the  humbler 
classes  to  the  rank  of  miserable  slaves;  though  in  this  work  he  was  obstinately  opposed  in  some  parts 
of  the  kingdom,  especially  in  the  North.  Conscious  of  the  detestation  in  which  he  was  held,  he 
entertained  perpetual  jealousy  of  the  English.  He  built  and  garrisoned  strong  castles  to  keep  them 
in  awe ;  and,  '  in  the  wantonness  of  his  power,  obliged  them  to  extinguish  their  fires  and  candles  every 
evening  at  the  ringing  of  a  bell  called  the  curfew.'  He  also  caused  a  survey  to  be  made  of  all  the 
lands  in  the  kingdom,  the  register  of  which  is  called  Domesday  Book,  and  was  finished  in  1081,  after 
a  labour  of  six  years,  on  the  model  of  the  Book  of  Winchester,  compiled  by  order  of  Alfred  the 
Great.  For  the  execution  of  the  Conqueror's  survey  there  were  appointed  commissioners  called 
King's  Justiciaries,  or  '  Legali  Regis,'  and  these  inquisitors  (according  to  Sir  Plenry  Ellis),  upon  the 
'■  oaths  of  the  sheriffs,  the  lords  of  each  manor,  the  presbyters  of  every  church,  the  reves  of  every 
hundred,  the  bailiffs  and  six  villans'  of  every  village,  were  to  inquire  into  the  name  of  the  place, 
who  held  it  in  the  time  of  the  king's  uncle  (Edward  the  Confessor),  who  was  the  present  possessor, 
how  many  hides  in  the  manor,  and  every  particular  connected  with  it.  All  these  particulars  were  to 
be  triply  estimated ;  first,  as  the  estate  was  held  in  the  time  of  the  Confessor,  then  as  it  was  bestowed 
by  King  William,  and  thirdly,  as  its  value  stood  at  the  foundation  of  the  survey.  There  is  a  more 
detailed  description  of  this  county  contained  in  the  Exeter  Domesday,  preserved  in  the  Chapter 
Library  at  Exeter,  which  is  of  the  same  date,  atid  which  was  copied  from  the  returns  furnished  for 
the  great  survey  itself.  We  find  mention  there  of  at  least  38  hundreds,  into  which  Devonshire  was 
then  divided.  Haytor,  Stanborough,  and  Shebbeare  are  not  in  this  list,  but  they  probably  occupy 
the  situations  of  Carswelle,  Dippeforde,  and  Mertone,  therein  mentioned.  (The  names  of  the  33 
modern  hundreds  have  been  given  at  page  22.)  Throughout  ail  time  this  book  will  be  held  in  esti- 
mation, as  it  specifies  the  extent  of  the  land  in  each  district;  the  state  it  was  in,  whether  meadow, 
pasture,  wood,  or  arable :  the  name  of  the  proprietor  ;  the  tenure  by  which  it  was  held ;  and  the 
value  at  which  it  was  estimated.  It  afforded  the  Conqueror  an  exact  knowledge  of  his  own  land  and 
revenue,  while  the  rights  of  his  subjects,  in  disputed  cases,  were  settled  by  it ;  and  to  this  day  it 
serves  to  show  what  manor  is  ancient  demesne,  and  what  is  not.  This  valuable  manuscript  is  still 
preserved  in  the  Chapter  House,  at  Westminster  Abbey ;  and  copies  of  it  were  printed  in  the  40th  of 
George  III.,  for  the  use  of  the  members  of  both  Houses  of  Parliament  and  the  public  libraries  in  the 
kingdom.  In  1862  an  admirable  fac-siraile  copy  of  the  Devonshire  portion  of  this  invaluable  record 
was  made  by  the  process  known  as  '  Photo-zincography,'  under  the  direction  of  Colonel  Sir  Henry 
James,  R.E.  In  Devon,  as  in  other  parts  of  the  kingdom,  the  Conqueror  dispossessed  the  Saxons, 
and  after  appropriating  part  of  their  manors  and  estates  to  himself  and  family,  he  gave  the  rest  to  his 
Norman  friends  and  followers,  especially  such  as  had  distinguished  themselves  in  clearing  with  their 
swords  his  way  to  the  throne. 

Measures  of  Land  in  Domesday. — A  Hide,  a  Yardland,  a  Knight's  Fee,  &c.,  contained  no 
certain  number  of  acres,  but  varied  in  different  places,  but  it  has  been  described  to  be  ^  as  much  as 
was  sufficient  to  the  cultivation  of  one  plough,'  whence  our  term  ploughland.  The  Currucuta,  which 
also  means  ploughland,  was  as  much  arable  as  could  be  managed  with  one  plough,  and  the  cattle 
belonging  thereto  in  a  year,  having  meadow  pasture  and  houses  for  the  householders  and  cattle 
belonging  to  it.  It  appears  that  the  hide  was  the  measure  of  land  in  the  Confessor's  reign,  the 
currucuta  that  to  which  it  was  reduced  by  the  Conqueror's  new  standard.  The  Hide  is  generally 
estimated  as  equal  to  120  acres.  Money  is  assumed  to  have  been  thirty  times  its  present  value. 
Thus  (similarly  to  other  counties),  the  greatest  portion  of  the  land  here  had  during  the  Conqueror's 
reign  become  '  spolia  opima'  for  his  Norman  followers,  A  very  large  proportion  of  them  were  held 
by  sub-tenants  by  tenure  of  service,  and  one  of  the  latter,  William  Paganel,  held  several  manors  also 
in  chief  from  the  king.  Soon  after  the  Conquest  the  chief  landed  property  was  divided  into  several 
great  baronies ;  the  principal  of  these  was  Okehampton,  given  to  Baldwin,  the  sheriff,  and  which 
contained  92  knights'  fees.  [A  knight's  fee  has  been  explained  as  '  so  much  inheritance  as  is  sufficient 
yearly  to  maintain  a  knight.'  In  the  11th  century  they  were  considered  to  include  5  hides  of  land  ; 
in  the  13th  a  knight's  fee  was  £15,  or  two  hundred  acres.] 

Brayns,  now  Bradnincii,  contained  16  fees,  and  pertained  to  the  Earl  of  Cornwall. 

Bampton,  descended  from  Walter  de  Doway  to  the  Bourchiers,  Earls  of  Bath,  to  whom  it 
belonged  in  the  17th  century. 

The  Bishop  oe  Exeter's  Barony,  to  which  30  fees  belonged,  had  been  the  property  of  Eadulf, 
first  Bishop  of  Crediton,  a.d.  909  ;  the  head  of  this  Honour  was  St.  Stephen's  Church  at  Exeter. 

Totnes.— 28^  fees  belonged  to  Juhel  or  Judhel. 

Barnstaple  belonged  to  the  Tracys  (of  which  family  was  the  knight  connected  with  the  murder 
of  Thomas  a  Becket) ;  it  contained  28  fees. 

44  History  of"  I>evoiisliire. 

ToRRiNGTON,  with  29  fees,  belonged  to  William  Fitz-Robert  in  the  12th  century,  and  had 
descended  to  him  from  his  Norman  ancestor. 

Berry  contained  31  and  gV  ^'^es.  It  was  held  by  Ralph  de  Pomeroy  and  his  descendants  until 
the  reign  of  Edward  VI.  when  its  last  owner  became  implicated  in  the  rebellion  of  1549. 

The  Devonshire  Domesday  commences  with  a  notice  of  the  houses  (to  the  number  of  300) 
owned  by  the  king  in  the  City  of  Exeter  (see  Exeter).  Then  ibllows  a  list  of  those  holding 
lands  in  the  county,  commencing  with  the  king's  name,  and  followed  by  the  bishops,  ecclesiastical 
bodies,  and  landed  proprietors,  according  to  their  rank,  that  held  irom  the  king  in  chief  The  body 
of  the  record  contains  a  list  and  description  of  the  manors  of  the  royal  demesne,  and  of  possessions 
of  each  owner  throughout  the  county,  with  the  names  of  the  sub-tenants.  The  following  is  the  list 
of  the  principal  landowners  in  Devonshire  in  1087,  with  some  additional  notes  and  explanations. 
It  is  a  peculiarity  of  Domesday  that  a  red  line  is  drawn  through  the  names  of  places,  and  also 
frequently  through  the  names  of  persons  and  paragraphs  demanding  special  attention ;  this  is 
equivalent  to  our  modern  method  of  underlining  with  the  same  object.  The  figures  after  the  names 
denote  the  number  of  manors  granted  wholly  or  partially  to  each — 

King  William,  78. — 23  of  the  king's  manors  had  been  ancient  demesne  of  the  Crown  '  ad 
regnum  pertinentes.'  18  had  belonged  to  Brlctric,  son  of  Algar,  a  Saxon  noble,  and  had  passed  to 
the  Crown  on  the  death,  in  1083,  of  queen  Matilda,  by  whom  they  had  been  assumed.  19  had 
belonged  to  Earl  Harold ;  8  to  Ghida,  mother  of  the  Earl ;  4  to  Edith,  queen  of  Edward  the 
Confessor  ;   1  to  Ausgar  the  Thane  ;  and  6  to  Lewin,  one  of  the  sons  of  Earl  Godwin. 

The  Bishop  of  Exeter,  24. — At  this  time  the  Bishop  of  Exeter  was  Osbern,  a  brother  of  William 
Fitz-Osbern,  Earl  of  Hereford,  one  of  the  principal  commanders  at  the  battle  of  Hastings,  con- 
sidered by  Sir  Henry  Spelman  to  have  been  the  first  Chief  Justice  of  England.  Bishop  Osbern 
had  left  Normandy  to  reside  at  the  court  of  Edward  the  Confessor,  to  ■whom  he  was  related,  and  as 
chaplain  to  that  monarch  he  had  witnessed  the  dedication  of  the  church  of  the  Abbey  of  West- 
minster. He  was  consecrated  bishop  of  Exeter  at  St.  Paul's,  London,  March  28,  1073,  as 
successor  to  Leofric,  by  Lanfranc,  the  Primate.  Domesday  Book,  commenced  and  finished  in  his 
time,  shows  that,  in  addition  to  the  possessions  of  the  See  in  Devon  and  Cornwall,  he  had  landed 
property  besides  in  Surrey,  Hants,  Berks,  Gloucester,  Norfolk,  and  Oxfordshire. 

'Episcopus  Constantiensis,'  91. — Geoffrey,  Bishop  of  Coutances,  in  Normandy,  was  chief 
justiciary  of  Ireland,  and  had  been  lieutenant-general  for  the  Conqueror  at  the  period  of  his  invasion  of 
this  country  ;  in  all  he  was  rewarded  with  280  lordships  as  his  share  of  the  spoil. 

The  Church  of  Glastonbury,  1. — The  abbot  and  convent  of  Glastonbury  still  held  the  manor  of 
LiM,  and  had  done  so  in  the  time  of  the  Confessor. 

The  Church  of  Tavistock,  14. — The  Abbey  of  Tavistock  had  been  also  richly  endowed  by  the 
Saxon  kings. 

The  Church  of  Buckfastleigh,  12. — The  Abbey  of  Buckfast  was  held  prior  to  the  Conquest  by 
monks  professing  the  rule  of  St.  Benedict.  Alwin  was  abbot  there  in  ths  Confessor's  reign.  About 
the  year  1137  it  became  a  Cistercian  monastery. 

Ecclesia  de  Hortone,  4. — The  Abbey  of  Horton  in  Dorsetshire  possessed  these  manors  many 
years  before  the  Conquest  in  1122.  This  abbey,  with  all  its  property,  was  given  to  the  Abbey  of 
Sherbourn  in  the  same  county. 

Ecclesia  Crenburnensis,  1. — The  Priory  of  Cranbourne  in  Dorsetshire  had  similar  ancient 
poFsessions  of  the  Manor  of  Losbeare  or  Loxbeare  in  the  parish  of  Zeal  Monachorum,  which  parish 
pertained  to  the  Abbot  of  Buckfastleigh.  Cranbourne  Priory  was  afterwards  annexed  to  the  rich 
Abbey  of  Tewkesbury  in  Gloucestershire. 

Ecclesia  de  la  Batailge,  2  Churches. — The  Conqueror  founded  an  abbey  near  Hastings  as  a 
thank-offering  for  his  victory,  and  hence  it  has  been  called  the  Church  of  the  Battle,  or  Battle  Abbey. 
The  abbot  of  Battle  had  two  churches  in  this  diocese,  viz.,  Colitone,  with  one  hide  of  land  annexed  ; 
and  the  Church  of  St.  Olave  in  Exeter. 

The  Land  of  St.  Mary  of  Rotomago,  2. — One  manor,  the  Church  of  St.  Mary  of  Rouen  in 
Normandy,  held  in  Devonshire  in  the  Confessor's  reign ;  King  William  further  endowed  it  with 
Rowerige  or  Rorige,  which  had  been  the  property  of  a  Saxon,  by  name  Olieva. 

Terra  Sci.  Michjslis  de  Monte,  3. — King  Edward  the  Confessor  by  his  charter,  dated  in  1047, 
settled  a  colony  of  Benedictine  monks  upon  Mount  St.  Michael  in  Cornwall.  After  the  Conquest  the 
*  Gilbertines '  superseded  the  Benedictines,  and  Robert,  first  Earl  of  Cornwall,  and  the  half-brother  of 
William  of  Normandy,  attached  their  cell  to  the  Abbey  of  St.  Michael  of  the  Mount  off  the  Coast  of 
Normandy.  The  possessions  of  the  latter  community  referred  to  in  Domesday  were  originally  the 
property  of  Earl  Harold  and  of  the  Countess  Ghida,  the  Earl's  mother. 

Terra  St.  Stefani  de  Cadon,  1. —     1  ^,         ^  •     .i     ^i.  i.      r  -d  •  i.  • 

Terra  Sce.TrinitatisdeCadon,1.-}T^^^^  *^^  ^^^^^•«'  anciently  the  property  of  Brictnc, 
the   son  of  Algar,  Lord  of  the  Honour  of  Gloucester,  were  respectively  given  by  King  William 

History  o^  I>evoii^li.ii"e.  4;5 

(probably  after  the  death  of  Queen  Matilda)  to  the  Abbeys  of  St.  Stephen  and  of  the  Holy  Trinity, 
established  at  Caen  in  Normandy. 

Tenentes  Clerici  de  Kege,  2. — Under  this  head  '  three  priests  '  are  mentioned  who  held  one 
virgate  of  land  in  '  Sudmoltone  (South  Molton),  from  the  king  '  in  elemosina.'  *  Sawin,'  the  priest, 
is  mentioned  as  the  owner  of  '  Birige,'  which  had  belonged  to  his  uncle,  '  Brisfort,'  to  whom  this 
manor  had  been  given  by  Queen  Matilda.  Algar,  the  priest,  also  held  one  hide  of  eleemosynary  land 
within  the  royal  manor  of  '  Brantono '  or  Braunton. 

Terra  Hugonis  CoxMitis,  4. — Hugh,  Earl  of  Chester. 

Terra  Comitis  Moritoniensis,  82. — Robert,  Earl  of  Mortain  in  Normandy,  and  half-brother  to  the 
Conqueror.  This  powerful  nobleman  had  become  possessed  of  797  manors  and  lordships  in  different 
parts  of  England,  including  246  manors  and  two  castles  in  Cornwall,  of  which  county  he  was  the  first 
earl.  In  Devonshire  77  of  his  estates  were  held  under  him  by  sub-tenants.  Seven  of  these  had 
belonged  to  '  Ordulph,'  Duke  of  Devon,  and  seventeen  to  *  Etmar  Atre.' 

Terra  Baldwin:  Vice-comitis,  181. — He  was  one  of  the  sons  of  Gilbert,  Earl  of  Brion  (who 
was  murdered  in  Normandy).  He  was  made  by  his  royal  master  hereditary  sheriff  of  Devon,  and 
baron  of  Okehampton  (which  was  his  chief  seat).  164  of  his  manors  were  held  under  him  by  sub- 
tenants.    (See  Exeter.) 

Terra  Judhel  de  Totenais,  107.— Judhel  of  Totnes,  so  called  from  his  residence  at  the  Castle  of 
Totnes,  was  a  Norman,  and  high  in  his  master's  favour.  He  had  assigned  to  him  the  two  important 
baronies  of  Totnes  and  Barnstaple,  and  he  founded  priories  at  both  these  places,  and  proof  is  in 
existence  that  he  at  one  time  contemplated  retiring  from  the  world,  and  embracing  a  religious  life. 
He  fell  into  disfavour  with  William  Rufus,  by  whom  he  was  banished.     (See  Totnes,  &c.) 

Terra  Willelmi  de  Moion,  1. — Ancestor  of  the  Mohuns,  his  chief  estates  were  in  Somerset- 
shire, but  by  marriage  the  family  afterwards  became  intimately  connected  with  this  county. 

Terra  Willelmi  Chievre,  44. — William  Chievre,  sometimes  called  Capra,  owed  most  of  his 
)roperty  to  the  favour  of  the  Conqueror  ;  but  it  is  noteworthy  that  he  had  possessed  two  houses  in 
Jxeter  in  the  Confessor's  time,  for  which  he  paid  a  customary  rent  of  sixteen  pence  a  year. 

Terra  Willelmi  de  Faleise,  18. — William  de  Falesia.  Lysons  in  his  digest  of  the  Exeter 
)omesday  notices  *  Herberneford',  which  he  supposes  to  be  Wobernford,  and  appropriates  it  to  the 
larl  of  Mortain.  This  is  manifestly  an  error.  The  Exchequer  Domesday  shows  that  William  du 
falesia  held  '  Erberneforde,'  and  that  Alric  the  Saxon  was  its  original  owner. 

Terra  Willelmi  de  Poillei,  21. — He  held  thirteen  manors  in  demesne,  and  the  remainder  were 
jcupied  by  sub- tenants. 

Terra  Willelmi  de  Ow,  2. — This  important  personage  did  not  obtain  a  large  reward  for  his 
services  in  the  land  of  this  county.  In  the  Exeter  Domesday  his  holdings  are  mentioned  as  those  of 
a  '  free  knight.'     He  was  a  son  of  Robert,  Earl  of  Ewe,  in  Normandy. 

Terra  Walterii  de  Dowai,  28. — Walter  de  Doway  was  Baron  of  Bampton,  where  he 

Terra  Walterii  de  Clavile,  31. — Walter  Claville  was  the  ancestor  of  a  family  so  called,  and 
his  male  descendants  continued  to  possess  lands  in  Dorsetshire  until  the  latter  portion  of  the  eighteenth 
century.     The  last  heir  male  died  in  1774. 

Terra  Goscelmi,  28. — *  Goscelm  '  is  mentioned  in  Lysons'  account  of  Exeter  Domesday  as  the 
owner  of  twenty-seven  manors ;  and  '  Goscelm  de  Exeter'  of  one.  The  Exchequer  record  proves  clearly, 
however,  that  there  was  but  one  person  of  this  name,  and  in  the  last  paragraph  he  is  called  '  Goscelm 
de  Excestre,'  and  under  this  description  he  held  in  capite  the  manor  of '  Herstanhaia.'  In  the  twenty- 
seven  previous  paragraphs  relating  to  him  he  is  simply  styled  '  Goscelm.' 

Terra  Ricardi  filii  Gilberti  Comitis,  1. — Richard,  son  of  Gilbert,  Earl  of  Brion,  and  brother 
to  Baldwin  the  Sheriff. 

Terra  Rogerii  de  Busli,  1. — Roger  de  Busli  was  a  Norman  baron,  whose  chief  estates  were  in 
the  north  ;    his  principal  residence  was  at  Tickhill,  in  Yorkshire. 

Terra  Roberti  de  Albemarle,  17. — Robert  Albemarle  was  the  ancestor  of  the  Damarells,  who 
gave  name  to  Milton  Damarell,  and  Stoke  Damarell.  This  name  still  occurs  in  Devonshire,  but  not 
amongst  the  county  families. 

Terra  Roberti  Bastardi,  9. — Robert  le  Bastard,  as  he  was  usually  styled,  became  the  ancestor 
of  a  Devonshire  family,  which  still  flourishes,  and  its  present  representative  is  Mr.  B.  J.  P.  Bastard, 
of  Kitley,  and  Buckland  Court,  who  is  a  deputy-lieutenant  for  the  county.  Mr.  William  Bastard,  of 
Kitley,  was  created  a  baronet  in  1779,  and  the  patent  passed  the  Privy  Seal,  and  was  gazetted  before 
notice  of  this  well-deserved  recognition  of  his  public  services  was  notified  to  him ;  but,  although  he 
thought  fit  to  decline  the  honour,  his  name  has  been  mentioned  in  the  list  of  Devonshire  Baronets 
given  in  '  Magna  Britannia,'  vol.  I.  p.  cxxi.  Sir  W.  Pole  reckons  Bastard  among  the  old  families 
whose  original  estates  had  been  sold.  For  many  generations  they  resided  at  Efford,  in  the  parish  of 
Egg-Buckland,  a  manor  mentioned  in  Domesday  as  their  property.     The  immediate  ancestor  of  the 


4,6  Higitoi'y  or  OevoiiHliire. 

present  representative  removed  from  Garston,  in  the  parish  of  Weat  Allington,  to  Kitley,  which  latter 
place  he  acquired  by  marriage  with  the  heiress  of  Pollexfen. 

Terra  Eicardi  filii  Turoldi,  3. — liichard,  the  son  of  Turold,  had  three  manors  and  a  house 
in  Exeter. 

Terra  Kadulfi  de  Limesi,  4. — Ralph  de  Limesi  was  a  nephew  of  the  Conqueror,  being  his 
sister's  son.     His  lands  are  described  in  Exeter  Domesday  as  those  of  a  free  knight. 

Tejika  Hadulfi  1'agenel,  10. — Ralph  Paganel  was  sheriff  of  Yorkshire.  Exeter  Domesday 
also  shows  that  his  lands  were  those  of  a  free  knight.  His  descendant,  William  Paganel,  married  the 
granddaughter  of  Walter  de  Douay  already  referred  to. 

Terra  Radulfi  de  Felgeres,  2. — Ralph  of  Fulgeres,  in  Britanny.  His  residence  was  at 
Ipplepen,  and  his  lands  those  of  a  free  knight.  One  of  his  immediate  descendants  founded  a  priory 
at  Ipplepen,  which  was  made  dependent  upon  the  Abbey  of  Fulgeres. 

Terra  Radulfi  de  Pomerei.  54. — Ralph  de  Pomeroy  was  Baron  of  Berry,  and  the  ancestor  o^ 
one  of  the  most  distinguished  families  in  this  county,  who  were  seated  at  Berry  until  the  reign 
Edward  VI. 

Terra  Rualdi  Adored,  30. — Ruald  Adobed  held,  amongst  others,  the  two  ancient  manors 
Chempebere  (Chalomer)  and  Radeclive,  Avithin  the  parish  of  Buckland  in  the  Moor,  which  have  long 
since  lost  all  manorial  rights.     The  latter  has  from  time  immemorial  been  appropriated   to  the  use  of 
Buckland  Church.     (See  Buckland  in  the  Moor.) 

Terra  Tetbaldi  filii  Bernerii,  28. — Tetbald  Fitz-Berners,  the  ancestor  of  the  Fitz-Bemers, 
or  Fitz-Bernards.  One  of  his  manors  was  that  of  Holecome,  anciently  the  property  of  the  Saxon 
'  Ailmer.'  (Lysons,  in  his  digest  of  Exeter  Domesday,  assigns  this  property  to  Ralph  de  Pomeroy, 
which  must  be  an  error.)  His  name,  although  somewhat  corrupted,  is  still  preserved  in  the  name 
of  the  parish.     (See  Holcombe  Burnell.) 

Terra  Turstini  filii  Rolf,  1. — Turstin  Fitz-Ralph.  He  may  have  been  the  ancestor  of  the 
Fitz-Ralphs  who  afterwards  assumed  the  name  of  Shillingford. 

Terra  Aluredi  de  Ispania,  3. — In  addition  to  these  manors  which  Alured  de  Ispania  held  in 
capite,  he  appears  to  have  been  the  sub-tenant  of  eleven  under  the  Earl  of  Mortain. 

Terra  Aluredi  Britonis,  22. — There  was  a  Devonshire  family  known  by  the  name  of  Brit, 
Britie  or  Britiza,  and  its  members  may  have  been  his  descendants. 

Terra  Ansgerii,  6. — The  first  paragraph  in  Domesday  in  connection  with  Ansger  proves  that 
he  was  Ansger  de  Montagud,  and  therefore  the  ancestor  of  the  baronial  house  of  Montague. 

Terra  Aiulfi,  2. — Aiulf  also  held  lands  in  Dorsetshire.  In  the  Exeter  Domesday  he  is  called 
the  King's  Chamberlain. 

Terra  Odonis  filii  Gamelin,  24. — Odo  Fitz-Gamelin.  Was  he  the  ancestor  of  the  Gamlyns 
of  Spalding,  county  Lincoln  ? 

Terra  Osberni  de  Salceid,  5.— Osberni  de  Salcied  had  a  house  in  Exeter ;  he  may  have 
been  the  father  of  Osberne,  Bishop  of  Exeter,  and  of  the  Earl  of  Hereford,  who  was  called  William 

Terra  Hervei  de  Helion,  2. — Although  the  land  is  entered  under  this  head,  the  first  paragraph 
proves  that  the  manors  were  given  to  the  wife  of  Hervei  de  Hellion  '  Uxor  Hervei  de  Helion  tenet  de 
rege,  &c.' 

Terra  Giroldi  Capellani,  3. — Amongst  the  manors  belonging  to  Girold  the  Chaplain  was  one 
written  '  Nistenestoch,'  which  was  probably  that  now  corrupted  into  Nethercott  within  the  parish  of 
Braunton.  This  manor  was  held  under  him  by  certain  canons.  Lysons  mentions  the  existence  of 
the  ruins  of  five  ancient  chapels  at  Braunton. 

Terra  Girardi,  2. — The  manors  held  by  Girard  had  both  belonged  to  ^  Alestan '  in  the  Con- 
fessor's reign. 

Terra  Godeboldi,  14. — Godbold  is  called  *  Balistarius '  in  Exeter  Domesday.  It  is  possible 
that  he  may  have  been  so  styled  from  holding  his  lands  by  the  render  of  a  cross-bow. 

Terra  Nicolai  Balistarii,  11. — Nicholas  is  called  *  Archibalistarius '  in  Exeter  Domesday  (hence 
the  name  Alabaster)  ;  he  may  have  been  Chief  Bow-bearer. 

Terra  Fulcherii,  5. — Exeter  Domesday  describes  Fulk  also  as  '  Balistarius.' 

Terra  Haimerici,  5. — Haimer  is  called  in  Exeter  Domesday  'Hairaer  de  Arcis'  (Haimer  of 
the  Castle).  There  was  a  very  ancient  family  in  Devonshire,  who  called  themselves  de  Arches,  and 
may  have  been  descended  from  him ;  the  heiress  married  Dinham. 

Terr^-:  Servientium  Regis,  16. — The  king's  servants  were  five  in  number,  exclusive  of  the 
priests  of  Bomine,  who  were  probably  the  secular  priests  of  Bodmin  (see  Leland).  The  land  appro- 
priated to  them  was  distributed  as  follows: — William  Portitor,  or  the  door-keeper  (hence  the 
patronymic  *  porter '),  1  manor;  William  Hostiarius,  or  the  usher,  10;  Fulk,  Ansger,  and  Morin, 
had  1  each,  and  the  priests  of  Bodmin,  2.     (See  White's  *  Leicester  and  Rutland,'  p.  32.) 

Teiuia  Tainorum  Regis,  47.— The  higher  thanes  were  of  nearly  the  same  degree  as  barons,  and 

His^toi*y  of  I>evoiisliire.  47 

are  called  in  Exeter  Domesday  English  Thanes.  They  were  seventeen  in  number,  and  they  held  from 
1  to  3  manors  each,  with  the  exception  o£  'Colvin  and  Godwin,'  who  possessed  8  and  11 
respectively.  To  this  list  is  added  the  names  of  three  Saxon  ladies  :  Alveva,  mother  o£  Earl  Morcar, 
who  had  1  manor ;  Alfliilla,  who  held  another ;  and  Godeva,  widow  of  Brictric,  Lord  of  Gloucester, 
who  retained  2  in  dower. 

Darlington  was  given  by  the  Conqueror  to  Martin  de  Turon,  and  descended  to  his  heirs,  who 
were  afterwards  called  Marty n. 

Plympton  Barony  was  given  to  Richard  Redvers  by  King  Henry  I.,  who  also  created  him  first 
Earl  of  Devon.     Eighty-nine  fees  were  included  in  this  honour. 

Hartland  became  the  Barony  of  De  Dynant  of  Brittany.  Oliver  de  Dynant  held  it  in  King 
Henry  XL's  reign.     The  Dynants  were  ancestors  of  the  Dynhams. 

Harberton,  with  32^  fees,  was  probably  given  to  William  de  Falesia  in  the  twelfth  century.  It 
belonged  to  the  Valletorts,  whose  ancestor  was  a  sub-tenant  at  the  period  of  the  survey. 

Hardwick  was  the  chief  seat  of  the  Barony  of  Tavistock,  and  was  held  by  the  abbot  of  the 
monastery  seated  there  by  Ordulph,  son  of  Ordgar,  Duke  of  Devon,  in  961.     It  contained  16|-  fees. 

In  addition  to  these  Devonshire  Baronies,  many  others  in  different  parts  of  the  county  had  lands 
held  of  them  here,  namely  : — The  honours  of  Gloucester,  Tremeton,  Launceston,  Marshwood,  Dunster, 
Odicomb,  Doendon,  Montacute,  Worle,  Stokecursy,  and  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster,  which  pertains  to 
the  Crown.  To  this  last  were  attached  the  thirty  fees  in  Devonshire  which  had  belonged  to  the 
baronial  family  of  Brewer,  by  King  Henry  II.,  first  Duke  of  Lancaster.  There  were  nearly  100 
fees  held  in  this  county  of  the  Honour  of  Gloucester,  and  Winkleigh  was  the  chief  seat  of  the  barony. 
There  does  not  exist  any  document  to  prove  that  any  estates  in  the  county  remain  in  possession  of 
descendants  of  the  persons  who  held  them  at  Domesday  Survey ;  but  it  is  not  improbable  that  some 
of  the  ancient  families,  who,  according  to  the  custom  of  that  period,  took  their  names  from  the  places 
of  their  residence,  in  the  reign  of  King  John,  or  that  of  Henry  HI.,  may  have  inherited  their  estates 
in  direct  descent  from  the  Ralphs,  Rogers,  Walters,  Williams,  &c.,  who  were  sub-tenants  in  the  reign 
of  William  the  Conqueror,  under  Baldwin  the  Sheriff,  and  other  great  loi-ds  paramount.  In  order  to 
secure  their  newly  acquired  possessions,  the  Norman  barons  and  chiefs  built  on  their  respective 
estates  *  strong  and  magnificent  castles,  which  might  at  once  secure  themselves,  and  keep  tlie 
conquered  English  in  awe.'  The  largest  of  these  castles  were  in  the  great  baronies  named  above. 
Of  some  of  these,  as  well  as  of  several  smaller  fortresses  in  various  parts  of  the  county,  there  are  still 
interesting  remains. 

Lidford  Castle,  which  was  formerly  the  prison  of  the  Stannaries,  is  about  48  feet  square,  and 
has  an  outwork  to  the  north,  which  projects  to  the  edge  of  a  precipice.  The  ruins  of  Berry  Pomeroy 
are  exceedingly  picturesque,  and  will  amply  repay  a  visit.  There  were  also  ancient  castles  at  Dart- 
mouth, Afton,  Compton,  Gidleigh,  and  Winkleigh.  Powderham  Castle  is  still  the  principal  residence 
of  the  Earl  of  Devon.  There  are  also  ancient  houses  at  Uffculme,  Buckland  Abbey  House  (a  portion 
of  the  ancient  Abbey  Church),  Bradley,  Newton-Bushell,  Collacombe  in  Lamerton  parish,  Colyton 
Vicarage  (1529),  Dartlington  Hall  (the  seat  of  the  Champernownes),  Exeter  Palace,  Ford  House, 
Great  Fulford,  Sydenham  (the  seat  of  the  Tremaynes),  and  several  others  of  less  importance ;  and 
amongst  the  latter  may  be  mentioned  Bremridge  in  Sandford,  the  residence  of  the  Bremridges  in  the 
reign  of  King  John,  and  which  iiltimately  descended  with  their  heiress  to  the  family  of  its  present 
owner,  the  Rev.  Bremridge  Melhuish. 

Dukes  of  Devon  and  Cornwall. — Asclepiedatus,  a.d.  232  ;  Salomon,  a.d.  360 ;  Conon-Merido, 
A.D.  382  ;  Dionethus,  a.d.  383  ;   Gorolus,  a.d.  492  ;   Cador,  a.d.  542  ;  Blederick,  a.d.  592. 

Dukes  of  Devon. — Vortiger,  Alpsius  (brother  of  Eadulf,  first  Bishop  of  Crediton),  Ordgar. 

Earls  of  Devon. — Richard  de  Redvers,  or  Rivers,  who  obtained  the  great  barony  of  Okehampton 
from  William  II.,  was  created  Earl  of  Devon  by  Henry  I.,  and  the  title  was  held  by  his  descendants 
till  the  death  of  Baldwin,  the  eighth  earl,  in  1262,  when  his  sister  and  heiress,  Isabel  de  Redvers, 
succeeded  as  Countess  of  Devon.  She  married  Wm.  de  Fortibus,  Earl  of  Albemarle,  and  left  only  a 
daughter,  who  died  without  issue,  in  1273.  Hugh  Courtenay,  the  sixth  Baron  and  first  Viscount 
Courtenay,  of  Powderham  Castle,  being  descended  from  the  sister  of  Baldwin  de  Redvers,  was  created 
Earl  of  Devon  in  1335,  and  died  in  1340.  Thomas,  the  sixth  earl  of  the  Courtenay  family,  was 
attainted  and  beheaded  in  1461,  when  all  his  honours  were  forfeited.  Humphrey  Stafford,  Baron 
Stafford  of  Suthwicke,  was  created  Earl  of  Devon,  in  May  1169,  but  was  beheaded  in  the  August 
following,  when  the  title  again  became  extinct ;  but  it  was  restored  to  the  Courtenays  in  1485,  when 
Edward  Courtenay,  grandson  of  Hugh,  the  third  earl,  was  created  Earl  of  Devon.  He  died  in  1509, 
and  was  succeeded  by  his  grandson,  Henry,  who  was  created  Marquis  of  Exeter  in  1525,  but  being 
attainted  and  beheaded  in  1530,  all  his  honours  became  forfeited.  His  son,  Edward,  restored  in 
blood  and  honours,  after  a  long  imprisonment  in  the  Tower,  was  created  Earl  of  Devon  in  1553 ;  but 
dying  without  issue,  in  1556,  the  title  again  became,  as  was  supposed,  extinct.  In  1603,  Charles  Blount, 
eighth  Baron  Mountjoy,  was  created  Earl  of  Devon  ;  but,  dying  without  lawful  issue,  the  earldom  for 

4'8  tllstoi'y  of"  I>evoiasliirfc. 

the  sixth  time  became  e;xtinct.  It  was  not  revived  till  1831,  when  William  Courtenay,  Viscount 
Courtenay,  established  his  claim  to  the  earldom,  by  the  decision  of  the  House  of  Lords,  as  male  heir 
of  Edward,  who  was  created  Earl  of  Devon  in  155i3.  lie  succeeded  as  Viscount  Courtenay  in  1788 
and  died  in  1835,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  his  cousin,  Wm.  Courtenay,  who  Avas  born  in  1777, 
and  was  eldest  son  of  the  late  Eight  Kev.  Henry  Keginald  Courtenay,  D.D.,  who  was  Bishop  of 
Exeter  in  the  early  part  of  the  present  century.  He  died  on  March  19,  1859,  and  was  succeeded 
by  his  son,  Wm.  Reginald  Courtenay,  eleventh  earl  (born  1807).  lie  resides  at  Powderham  Castle, 
the  ancient  seat  of  that  branch  of  the  family  from  which  he  is  descended.  His  only  surviving  son, 
Edward  Baldwin  Lord  Courtenay,  is  his  heir.     (See  Powderham.) 

The  family  of  Courtenay  took  their  name  from  the  town  of  Courtenay,  in  France,  and  are  de- 
scended from  Atho,  a  French  knight,  who  flourished  in  the  reign  of  Eobert  '  the  Wise,'  son  of  Hugh 
Capel,  A.D.  996.  Eeginald,  the  immediate  ancestor  of  the  English  branch,  came  to  England  with  the 
queen  of  Henry  H.,  about  1151,  and  married  the  heiress  of  Robert  de  Abrincis,  hereditary  sheriiF  of 
Devon,  Baron  of  Okehampton,  and  governor  of  Exeter  Castle.  His  eldest  son  Robert  succeeded 
to  those  honours,  and  married  a  daughter  (and  eventually  heiress)  of  Wm.  de  Redvers,  Earl  of 
Devon.  His  father  is  supposed  to  have  been  a  widower  at  the  time  of  his  emigration,  and  to  have 
been  identical  with  Reginald  de  Courtenay,  grandson  of  Atho,  who  married  his  only  daughter,  Eliza- 
beth, in  the  year  1150,  to  Peter,  seventh  son  of  Louis  VI.,  surnamed  the  Fat,  and  imposed  the  name 
and  arms  of  Courtenay  on  a  younger  son  of  the  Royal  House  of  France.  He  is  also  believed  to  have 
resigned  his  French  estates  to  his  daughter  upon  her  marriage,  and  to  have  sought  a  new  home  and 
fresh  lands  in  this  country.  The  French  and  Venetians,  having  conquered  Constantinople  in  1204, 
agreed  to  the  election  as  Emperor  of  Baldwin,  Count  of  Flanders,  who  was  afterwards  succeeded  by 
his  brother  Henry  in  1206.  Upon  the  death  of  Henry  his  property  descended  to  his  sister,  the 
Princess  Yolande,  who  had  married  Peter  Courtenay,  son  and  heir  of  Prince  Peter  of  France  and 
Elizabeth  Courtenay,  his  wife ;  and  Peter  Courtenay  (as  husband  to  the  Princess)  succeeded  to  the 
throne  of  Constantinople  in  1216.  He  was  followed  by  his  son  Robert  three  years  later,  and  the 
latter  was  in  his  turn  succeeded  by  his  youngest  brother,  under  the  title  of  Baldwin  II.  in  1228. 
Thus  three  members  of  the  house  of  Courtenay  have  worn  the  imperial  purple.  Reginald,  ancestor 
of  these  emperors,  was  Baron  Courtenay,  by  tenure,  in  the  reign  of  Richard  I.,  and  one  of  his 
descendants  was  created  Viscount  Courtenay  in  1762.  Though  they  have  suffered  many  reverses  of 
fortune,  the  Courtenays  have  for  many  ages  been  a  numerous,  wealthy,  and  highly  distinguished 
family  in  Devon.  William  Courtenay,  a  distinguished  prelate  of  the  14th  century,  was  Archbishop 
of  Canterbury  from  1381  till  his  death,  in  1396.  Richard  Courtenay  was  Bishop  of  Norwich 
from  1413  till  1415,  and  like  his  uncle,  the  archbishop,  was  a  violent  opponent  of  Wicklilfe's 
followers.  Peter  Courtenay  became  Bishop  of  Winchester  in  1478,  and  died  in  1492.  He  and 
the  principal  members  of  his  family  were  zealous  partisans  of  the  Lancastrians,  and  are  said  to 
have  been  present  with  the  Earl  of  Richmond,  at  the  Battle  of  Bosworth  Field.  The  title  of  Duke 
of  Devonshire  has  been  held  by  the  Cavendish  family  since  1694,  and  that  of  Earl  of  Devonshire 
since  1618,  though  the}^  have  no  other  connection  with  the  county.  His  Grace  the  present  Duke  of 
Devonshire  resides  at  Chatsworth  House,  the  splendid  '  Palace  of  the  Peak,'  in  Derbyshire. 

The  Nobility  resident  in  or  connected  with  Devonshire  are,  the  Earl  of  Devon,  as  already 
noticed  ;  the  Duke  of  Somerset,  owner  of  Berry  Pomeroy  Castle,  now  Lord-Lieutenant  of  the  County, 
who  resides  at  Stover ;  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  who  has  large  estates  in  the  county,  and  an  occasional 
seat  at  Endsleigh,  near  Tavistock ;  the  Earl  of  Mount  Edgcumbe,  of  Mount  Edgcumbe,  near  Ply- 
mouth ;  the  Earl  of  Macclesfield,  who  has  estates  at  Buckfastleigh,  &c. ;  Earl  Fortescue,  of  Castle 
Hill,  near  South  Molton ;  the  Earl  of  Morley,  of  Saltram,  near  Plymouth  ;  the  Right  Hon.  and  Rev. 
the  Earl  of  Buckinghamshire,  who  resides  at  Sidmouth ;  Viscount  Sidmouth,  of  Upottery  Manor 
House ;  Viscount  Exinouth,  of  Canon-Teign  House ;  Baron  Clinton,  who  resides  at  Heanton  Satch- 
ville,  Huish ;  Baron  Clifford,  of  Ugbrook  Park  (see  Chudleigh)  ;  Baron  Poltimore,  of  Poltimore  and 
North  Molton;  Baron  Blachford,  of  Blachford,  in  the  parish  of  Cornwood;  Baron  Coleridge,  of 
Heaths  Court,  Ottery  St.  Mary ;  Baron  Churston,  of  Churston ;  Baron  Ashburton,  who  takes  his 
title  from  the  town  of  Ashburton  ;  Baron  Teignmouth,  an  Irish  peer,  whose  title  was  taken  from 
Teignmouth,  in  Devon,  in  1797 ;  Lord  Kinsale,  of  Ringrone,  near  Salcombe ;  and  Viscount  Torring- 
ton,  who  takes  his  title  from  Torrington,  in  Devon,  as  the  Marquis  of  Exeter  does  from  the  capital 
of  the  county.  The  late  Lord  Rolle,  of  Bicton  House,  died  in  1842,  without  issue,  and  this  title, 
like  many  others  which  formerly  existed  in  the  county,  is  now  extinct. 

The  23  Baronets  of  Devonshire  are,  Prideaux,  of  Netherton  Hall ;  Wrey,  of  Tawstock  House ; 
Pole,  of  Shute ;  Northcote,  of  Pynes ;  Chichester,  of  Youlston  ;  Davie,  of  Creedy  Park  ;  Acland,  of 
Killerton  House ;  Carew,  of  Haccomb ;  Duntze,  of  Exleigh,  Starcross,  and  formerly  of  Rockbeare ; 
Baker,  of  Loventor,  in  the  parish  of  Berry  Pomeroy ;  Palk,  of  Haldon  House ;  Kennaway,  of  Escot 
House  ;  Milman,  of  Woodland  ;  Lopes,  of  Maristow  House ;  Duckworth,  of  Weir  House,  Topsham  ; 
Drake,  of  Nutwell  Court ;  Newman,  of  Mamhead ;  Chichester,  of  Arhngton ;  Elton,  of  Widworthy 

History  of"  iOevonsliire.  49 

Court ;  Seale,  of  Mount  Boone ;  Farrington,  of  Gosford,  Ottery  St.  Mary  ;  Peek,  of  Roosdown ;  and 
St.  Aubyn,  of  Stoke  Damarell.  These  and  the  extinct  baronetcies  of  the  county  are  noticed  in  the 
parishes  where  their  present  or  former  seats  are  situated. 

Dartmoor  Forest,  the  wildest  and  bleakest  part  of  Devon,  is  an  extensive  and  elevated  tract  of 
heath,  morass,  rocky  tors  and  crags,  and  lofty  moorland  hills  and  dells, — stretching  about  30  miles 
in  length  from  north  to  south,  and  14  from  east  to  west.  The  towns  of  Okehampton,  Tavistock,  and 
Moreton-Hampstead  are  near  its  borders,  and  it  extends  southwards  to  within  a  few  miles  of 
Plymouth.  It  comprises  about  200,000  acres,  of  which  53,000  acres,  in  the  central  and  most 
dreary  part,  are  in  Lidford  pariah.  It  belongs  mostly  to  the  Prince  of  Wales,  as  part  of  the  Duchy 
of  Cornwall,  but  the  outskirts  and  part  of  the  hills  are  appendant  to  the  surrounding  manors,  many 
of  which  have  likewise  the  prescriptive  right  of  common  on  the  Forest,  on  paying  an  inconsiderable 
sum  annually  to  the  Duchy,  under  the  name  of  Venville  (fen  field)  money.  The  Duchy,  however, 
possesses  the  right  of  stocking  the  forest  by  agistment,  and  for  this  purpose  much  of  it  is  leased  in 
districts  to  various  persons,  who  pasture  the  stock  of  the  neighbouring  parishes  at  low  rates.  The 
land  of  Dartmoor  itself  can  never  be  materially  changed  for  cultivation,  can  never  ascend  the  sides 
of  the  tors,  or  penetrate  the  deep  black  peat  soil  of  many  of  the  heaths  and  valleys.  During  the 
last  fifty  years,  however,  many  thousand  acres  of  its  outskirts,  belonging  to  adjacent  parishes,  have 
been  enclosed  and  cultivated,  and  other  extensive  tracts  have  been  planted  ;  but  the  central  part, 
comprising  more  than  60,000  acres,  is  still  nearly  in  a  state  of  nature,  and  many  of  its  eminences  rise 
to  the  altitude  of  from  1500  to  1800  feet.  On  approaching  this  mountainous  tract,  the  eye  is 
bewildered  by  an  extensive  waste,  exhibiting  gigantic  tors,  large  surfaces  covered  with  vast  masses  of 
[scattered  granite,  and  immense  rocks,  which  seem  to  have  been  precipitated  from  the  steep  declivities 
into  the  valleys.  These  huge  and  craggy  fragments  are  spread  confusedly  over  the  ground,  and  have 
been  compared  to  the  ponderous  masses  ejected  by  volcanoes  ;  to  the  enormous  ruins  of  formidable 
castles ;  and  to  the  wrecks  of  mountains  torn  piecemeal  by  the  raging  elements.  Until  the  last  ten 
years  few  places  have  been  really  less  known,  and  few  are  more  deserving  of  attention,  than  Dart- 
moor ;  and  though  a  large  portion  of  the  high  road  which  crosses  it  presents  an  unvaried  scene  of 
solitariness  and  desolation,  yet  to  those  who  pursue  their  investigations  beyond  the  ordinary  beaten 
track,  much  has  been,  and  will  be  found  to  delight  the  artist,  the  poet,  and  the  antiquary.  The 
peculiar  characteristics  of  Dartmoor  are  derived  from  the  granite  tors,  which  are  found  piled  mass 
upon  mass,  mostly  upon  the  summits  of  its  numerous  heights,  and  the  wild  impetuosity  of  its 
numerous  streams,  which  dash  through  narrow  channels,  between  craggy  hills  and  cliffs,  and 
give  rise  to  many  of  the  larger  and  smaller  rivers  of  the  county.  The  numerous  remains  of 
rude  stone  altars,  circles,  obelisks,  logans,  cromlechs,  and  kistvaens  scattered  over  the  moor,  and 
the  names  still  attached  to  many  of  the  tors,  such  as  Bel- tor,  Mis- tor,  Ham-tor,  &c.,  appear  to 
show  that  it  was  one  of  the  most  favoured  haunts  of  the  Druids.  From  its  lofty  elevation,  it  is 
peculiarly  the  region  of  mists,  storms,  and  tempests.  The  peaks  of  its  mighty  tors  stand  up  many 
hundred  feet  above  its  lofty  hills,  and,  intercepting  the  moisture  of  the  clouds,  cause  great  quantities 
of  rain  to  fall  in  and  around  the  moor.  The  mist  comes  on  at  times  so  sudden  and  dense,  that 
those  who  are  overtaken  in  it,  out  of  the  beaten  track,  are  sometimes  lost,  and  even  the  moor  men 
have  great  difficulty  in  regaining  their  habitations.  But  the  climate  is  considered  healthy,  and  it  is 
said  that  persons  iDorn  and  bred  here  seldom  or  never  die  of  pulmonary  consumption.  There  are 
now  but  few  trees  on  Dartmoor,  except  the  lonely  Wood  of  Wistman,  but  immense  trunks  of  oak 
and  other  trees  have  often  been  dug  up  in  the  peaty  bogs  and  marshes  in  many  of  the  romantic 
dells,  as  Avell  as  on  some  of  the  higher  table  lands.  The  peat  is  got  extensively  for  fuel,  and  the 
heaths  and  commons  afford  good  pasturage  for  sheep  and  cattle  during  summer.  The  delicacy 
and  flavour  imparted  to  the  fiesh  of  the  sheep  by  the  sweet  herbage  of  the  moor  is  so  highly 
prized,  that  Dartmoor  mutton  is  sent  to  London  and  other  distant  markets. 

The  hut  circles  on  Dartmoor  are  sometimes  gathered  into  villages ;  sometimes  enclosed  within  a 
[Bmrounding  wall,  and  then  called  pounds,  and  frequently  accompanied  by  numerous  lines  of  stones, 
forming  small  enclosures  and  divisions  of  land.  The  stone  rows,  or  avenues,  are  of  considerable  extent, 
and  in  great  numbers ;  and  single,  upright  shafts  of  granite,  the  *  maenhirion,'  of  Brittany,  are. 
invariably  of  greater  size  and  height  on  Dartmoor  than  any  stones  in  the  circles  or  avenues.  It  is  to 
be  remarked  that  although  there  are  many  hill  fortresses  on  the  immediate  border,  none  exist  on  the 
moor  itself. 

I  Wistman,  or  Wiseman's  Wood,  is  about  a  mile  north  of  Two  Bridges,  on  a  lofty  and  steep 
lacclivity  rising  from  the  western  bank  of  the  river  Dart,  opposite  Bairdown.  It  is  supposed  to 
;liave  been  one  of  the  sacred  groves  of  the  Druids.  The  ascent  to  it  is  strewn  all  over  with 
immense  masses  of  granite,  partly  covered  by  a  grove  of  dwarf  oaks,  so  stunted  in  their  growth  by 
sweeping  winds,  that  few  are  more  than  ten  or  twelve  feet  high,  though  their  branches  spread  far 
and  wide,  and  are  twisted  in  the  most  fantastic  manner,  and  in  some  places  festooned  with  ivy  and 
other  creeping  plants.     Their  trunks  and  arms  are  embedded  in  a  thick  covering  of  velvet  moss,  and 


50  Hijstoi-y  of  I>evoiisliire. 

the  view  down  the  valley  from  some  of  the  bare  rocks  is  truly  sublime.  Crockerntor,  celebrated  as 
the  place  where  the  ancient  Stannary  parliaments  were  held,  is  about  a  mile  from  Two  Bridges.  On 
the  summit  of  this  tor,  the  chief  miners  of  Devon  were  formerly  obliged  to  meet,  and  hold  the 
Stannary  Court,  as  noticed  at  page  39.  On  the  road  from  Moreton-Hampstead  to  Plymouth,  Post 
Bridge  crosses  the  East  Dart,  and  adjoining  it  stands  a  venerable  relic  of  aboriginal  times,  a  granite 
bridge  of  primitive  Cyclopean  architecture,  which  must  have  withstood,  as  liowe  says,  '  the  fury  of 
the  vehement  Dart  in  his  most  turbulent  moods  for  twenty  or  thirty  centuries.'  The  piers,  three  in 
number,  consist  of  six  layers  of  granite  slabs  above  the  foundation  ;  the  imposts  are  in  general  about 
15  feet  long  and  6  wide.  The  bridge  can  still  be  used,  though  one  of  the  superincumbent  stones, 
either  by  accident,  or  design,  has  become  displaced,  and  now  lies  in  the  bed  of  the  river.  Another 
of  these  bridges  of  similar  character  also  exists  about  a  mile  farther  down  the  river,  at  '  Believer,' 
but,  in  the  latter  instance,  both  the  central  imposts  have  been  removed,  and  the  bridge  is  there- 
fore impracticable.  On  entering  the  moor  from  Newton  Abbot,  is  Haytor,  and  the  once  extensive 
granite  works  noticed  with  Ilsington.  In  ancient  times  it  was  called  Solar-tor,  being  dedicated 
by  the  Druids  to  the  worship  of  the  sun.  On  the  top  of  the  loftiest  peak  is  one  of  the  rock 
basins  found  in  many  of  the  granite-crowned  tors  of  Dartmoor.  Looking  hence  into  the  wild 
solitude  of  the  forest,  are  seen  dark  masses  of  granite  piled  on  either  side ;  huge  blocks  of  the 
same,  scattered  on  the  brows  of  the  hills ;  and  in  the  distance  are  seen  tor  upon  tor,  each  capped  with 
irregular  masses  of  granite,  assuming  the  most  grotesque  forms.  But  turning  his  back  to  the  moor, 
the  spectator  sees  a  panorama  of  one  of  the  loveliest  and  most  fertile  parts  of  Devon ;  — the  Teign 
flowing  at  his  feet  through  a  beautiful  valley,  the  Exe  opening  out  its  wide  estuary  towards  the  ocean ; 
and,  in  the  extreme  distance,  the  waters  of  the  channel,  with  the  noble  outline  of  shore  from  Berry 
Head  to  the  coast  of  Dorsetshire.  The  secluded  and  romantic  vale  of  Lustleigh,  the  Cleave,  Becky 
Falls,  Hountor,  &c.,  are  noticed  with  Lustleigh  and  Manaton,  and  the  cromlechs,  rocking-stone,  and 
the  other  Druidical  remains,  near  Drewsteignton,  with  that  place.  Until  comparatively  recent 
times  some  of  the  streams  in  the  heart  of  the  forest  were  crossed  by  ancient  British  bridges,  of 
the  most  primitive  construction,  each  consisting  of  several  piers,  composed  of  massive  pieces  of 
granite  rock,  placed  one  above  another,  and  each  pier  connected  with  the  neighbouring  one  by  an 
enormous  slab  of  moorstone ;  thus  forming  a  solid  footway,  which  bore  for  ages  the  rush  of  winter 
torrents,  and  the  wear  of  time.  On  the  road  to  Tavistock,  the  neighbourhood  of  Merrivale 
Bridge  affords  a  rich  field  for  the  exploration  of  the  antiquary,  being  literally  strewed  with  Celtic 
remains,  cromlechs,  track-ways,  circles,  and  other  vestiges  of  Druidism.  Vixen  Tor  is  a  most 
picturesque  object,  and  the  tall  granite  crags  which  crown  its  lofty  summit  resemble  a  castellated 
tower,  frowning  over  the  valleys  beneath.  Dartmoor  was  fixed  on  as  the  subject  of  the  first  prize 
poem  by  the  Royal  Literary  Society,  established  in  1821 ;  and  the  prize  was  adjudged  to  Mrs.  Hemans. 
It  is  supposed  to  have  been  a  royal  forest,  attached  to  the  manor  of  Lidford,  in  the  time  of  William 
the  Conqueror.  In  1238,  the  castle  of  Lidford  and  Dartmoor  Chase,  or  Forest,  were  granted  by 
Henry  III.  to  his  brother  Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall,  and  they  were  afterwards  permanently  united 
to  the  Duchy  of  Cornwall.  The  Dartmoor  Military  Manoeuvres  were  held  here  in  the  autumn  of 
1873.  A  company  has  recently  been  formed  to  work  the  peat  beds,  and  to  convert  the  peat  into 
fuel.     (See  Bridestowe.) 

Dartmoor  Convict  Establishment  is  noticed  with  Princetown. 



The  surface  of  Devonshire  is  mostly  of  a  very  unequal  and  undulating  character,  the  land 
opening  up  into  a  succession  of  small  valleys,  clothed  Avith  verdure,  and  within  the  sheltered  recesses 
of  which  ample  opportunities  are  afforded  for  careful  and  successful  farming.  Yet  the  rich  luxuriance 
of  the  soil,  and  the  soft  and  pleasing  varieties  of  the  general  scenery,  are  not  always  maintained,  nor,  even 
in  Devonshire,  is  the  climate  everywhere  mild.  In  many  places  the  land  is  of  a  less  kindly  nature, 
especially  as  we  leave  the  green  valleys  and  approach  the  great  moorland  wastes  of  Dartmoor,  &c., 
which  rise  in  lofty  elevations,  and  are  swept  by  cold  and  cheerless  winds.  Owing  to  the  great  variety 
of  climate  and  soil,  a  system  of  farming  has  arisen  in  the  county  which  combines  nearly  every  branch 
of  practical  agriculture.  Dairy  and  tillage  farming  form  the  principal  feature  of  this  system,  but  the 
cultivation  of  orchards,  the  irrigation  of  meadows,  and  the  breeding  and  feeding  of  stock,  are  also 
extensively  pursued.  These  do  not  form  separate  occupations,  but  are  generally  combined  in  each 
farm,  and  carried  out  as  the  convenience  of  the  farmer  and  the  resources  of  the  land  suggest.  Perhaps 
a  mixed  system  of  agriculture  like  this  may  appear  little  calculated  to  attain  that  degree  of  successful 
development  which  is  generally  supposed  to  follow  the  concentration  of  industry  within  those 
boundaries  which  the  division  of  labour  suggests,  but  such  does  not  appear  to  be  the  practical  result. 

The  soils  of  Devon  are  extremely  various,  and  may  generally  be  characterised  according  to  the 
rock,  or  stratified  substances  which  they  cover,  as  granitic,  slatey,  calcareous,  arenaceous,  argillaceous, 

History  o±"  Devonsliire.  ^1 

gravelly,  and  loamy.  The  poorest  is  the  soil  covering  the  granite  of  Dartmoor,  which  has  also  the 
disadvantage  of  a  cold,  wet  climate.  That  which  lies  on  the  slate  district  is  more  or  less  fertile,  and 
fit  for  all  purposes  of  agriculture.  The  most  uniformly  fertile  soils  are  in  the  red  sandstone  district ; 
but  the  richest  are  those  occurring  in  contiguity  with  limestone  or  greenstone  rocks,  in  many  parts  of 
the  slate  district,  especially  in  that  beautiful  southern  district,  commonly  called  the  South  Hams  and 
sometimes  the  '  Garden  of  Devon,'  and  having  for  its  natural  boundaries  Dartmoor  and  the  heights  of 
Chudleigh  on  the  north,  the  river  Plym  on  the  .west,  Torbay  and  Start  Bay  on  the  east,  and 
Bigbury  Bay  and  other  parts  of  the  coast  of  the  English  Channel  on  the  south.  The  red  colour 
which  characterises  the  best  soils,  both  in  the  South  Hams  and  the  eastern  division  of  the  county, 
and  which  seems  to  be  closely  connected  with  the  principle  of  fertility,  proceeds  from  an  abundant 
mixture  of  iron,  in  a  highly  oxidated  state.  The  soil  of  that  part  of  the  South  Hams  which  is 
bounded  by  the  Erme  and  Dart  rivers  is  generally  a  rich  friable  loam,  of  a  hazel-nut  brown  colour, 
mostly  on  a  substratum  of  slate  ;  but  that  east  of  the  Dart  as  far  as  Torbay  is  richer  and  redder,  and 
generally  on  a  substratum  of  marble  rock.  There  are  extensive  tracts  of  rich  meadow  and  arable 
lands  in  the  valleys  of  the  Exe,  Taw,  Teign,  Otter,  and  other  rivers.  The  Vale  of  the  Exe,  com- 
monly called  the  Vale  of  Exeter,  has  in  its  northern  parts  an  irregular  billowy  surface,  presenting 
eminences  of  considerable  magnitude ;  but  its  central  and  more  southern  parts  preserve  the  vale 
character.  Its  northern  boundaries  are  the  hills  that  range  from  Clanaborough,  by  Halberton  and 
UlFculme,  to  Blackdown,  a  dreary  mountainous  ridge,  which,  with  its  contiguous  branches,  skirts  the 
eastern  side  of  the  vale.  On  the  south-east  it  is  bounded  by  the  heights  of  Sidmouth,  East  Down, 
and  Woodbury ;  and  on  the  west  by  the  mountainous  ridge  of  Haldon,  and  the  undulating  eminences 
that  stretch  towards  Nymet  or  Bow  Tracey.  This  vale  is  one  of  the  most  fertile  parts  of  the  county, 
and  its  most  prevalent  soils  are  strong  red  loam,  shillet,  or  foliated  clay,  intersected  with  veins  of 
ironstone,  and  a  mixture  of  sand  and  gravel.  North  of  Hatherleigh  and  Holsworthy,  and  eastward  to 
Chulmleigh,  Bradninch,  &c.,  the  soil  is  chiefly  clay ;  but  north  of  this  is  a  gravelly  district  adjoining 
both  sides  of  Dartmoor.  Towards  Hartland  Point,  there  is  much  clay  and  moorland  ;  a  vein  of  black 
soil  runs  through  Filleigh  and  Swimbridge ;  and  a  narrow  vein  of  red  soil  from  North  Molton  to 
Challacombe.  The  rich  red  soil  of  the  South  Hams,  which  is  of  great  depth,  is  sometimes  worked  as 
marl  pits,  and  used  most  beneficially  as  manure  for  the  poorer  lands.  The  chief  manures  are  lime 
and  sea  sand.  Limestone  is  got  in  various  parts  of  the  county,  and  extensively  burnt  in  kilns  on  the 
banks  of  the  navigable  canals  and  rivers.  Of  late  years  artificial  manures  have  been  much  employed, 
and  there  is  an  increasing  demand  for  them. 

Devon  cattle,  cream  and  cider  are  all  equally  famous,  and  of  late  years  the  practice  of  agriculture 
in  all  its  branches  has  made  great  progress  in  the  county,  with  considerable  assistance  from  the  great 
landowners,  who  in  very  many  instances  have  permanently  improved  their  estates ;  and  the  rents  of  the 
land  have  of  course  proportionally  increased,  though  many  of  the  farmers  complain  that  their  crops 
are  robbed  by  the  great  abundance  of  large  trees  growing  in  the  hedgerows,  and  the  question  of  the 
preservation  of  game  and  rabbits  causes  many  dissensions  between  them  and  their  landlords.  The 
farmers  of  Devon  are  divided  into  two  classes,  one  consisting  of  men  with  small  holdings,  and  the  other 
of  men  holding  large  farms,  and  who  being  educated  as  well  as  practical  agriculturists  have  gradually 
introduced  improved  methods  of  developing  the  resources  of  the  soil.  Draining  with  tiles  has  been  of 
late  years  extensively  effected  on  the  clays  and  other  tenacious  soils  with  great  advantage  to  the  crops, 
in  some  cases  by  the  aid  of  borrowed  money,  the  occupier  paying  interest  at  the  rate  of  7  per  cent.,  2  per 
cent,  being  carried  to  the  capital  account,  which  is  repayable  during  30  years.  The  levelling  of  the 
hedgerows,  has  of  late  years  made  great  progress ;  an  increased  breadth  of  meadow  irrigation  has  been 
secured.  The  value  of  artificial  manures  is  now  generally  recognised  and  they  are  most  extensively 
employed,  and  the  breeding  of  Devon  cattle — one  of  the  most  graceful  and  shapely  kind  of  the  species 
in  this  island — has  been  brought  to  a  high  state  of  perfection,  and  the  further  development  of  the '  South 
Hams.' — also  a  provincial  breed — by  judicious  crossing  with  short-horns,  has  been  successively 
carried  on.     A  large  quantity  of  land  is  now  laid  out  for  the  growth  of  grasses,  and  in  the  north  of 

evon  and  on  the  outskirts  of  the  moor  there  are  now  many  hundred  acres  of  green  crop  raised 

'  ere  there  were  under  a  hundred  35  years  ago. 

Formerly  leases  for  life  were  very  common  here,  having  been  granted  generally  by  necessitous 
landlords  for  nominal  rents,  and  the  value  of  the  land  at  about  18  years'  purchase.  Of  late,  leases 
for  lives  have  been  discountenanced,  and  in  their  stead  have  been  generally  substituted  leases  for 
years.  For  large  farms,  these  are  usually  from  seven  to  ten  years  in  duration;  and  for  smaJl  farms, 
six  years,  with  a  break  at  the  end  of  three  years,  which,  if  not  taken  advantage  of,  extends  the  term 
three  years  more.  Long  terms  and  liberal  leases  still  form  quite  the  exception,  but  in  a  few  instances 
terms  of  21  years  are  granted  with  tenant  right  and  compensation  for  unexhausted  improvements,  and 
freedom  in  the  growth  and  sale  of  crops  is  permitted  consistent  with  the  spirit  of  the  age.  The  im- 
provements in  agriculture  throughout  the  county  are  contemporaneous  wdth  the  change  from  the  old 
relations  between  landlord  and  tenant  to  the  new ;  and,  though  the  terms  of  the  leasee  for  years  are 




52  Klistoi*y  ol'  13evoiiHliire.' 

generally  complained  of  as  much  too  short,  they  are  infinitely  preferable  to  the  tenancies  from  year  to 
year,  which  are  so  prevalent  in  other  parts  of  England.  The  rent  of  land  in  Devon  appears  high, 
compared  with  that  of  many  other  counties,  but  perhaps  the  increase  is  due  to  the  greater  productive- 
ness of  the  soil,  and  to  small  farms  and  great  competition  as  well  as  to  the  mildness  and  salubrity  of  the 
climate.  Over  so  large  a  tract  of  country,  with  such  varieties  of  soil,  situation  and  other  influences, 
farms  let  at  very  different  rents ;  but  Ave  find  that  within  a  circle  of  three  miles  round  Exeter,  where 
there  is  a  fine  deep  soil,  well  adapted  for  the  growth  of  corn  and  green  crops,  rents  range  from  505.  to 
£5  per  acre ;  and  the  local  burdens,  or  '  out-goings,'  as  they  are  called,  amount  to  about  one-third  more. 
The  poor  rates  vary  exceedingly  in  some  of  the  parishes,  and  tithes  form  a  subject  of  much  com- 
plaint among  farmers,  on  the  ground  that  tlie  averages  which  regulate  them  are  taken  from  the  prices 
of  seven  years,  instead  of  a  more  limited  period. 

The  Devonshire  tenant  is  at  once  a  dairy  farmer,  a  breeder  or  feeder  of  horses,  cattle,  sheep, 
pigs,  and  poultry,  and  a  grower  of  corn  and  apples ;  and  this  variety  of  occupation,  arising  naturally 
from  the  character  of  the  climate  and.  soil  of  the  county,  has  given  him  a  tone  of  intelligence  and 
activity  which  is  looked  for  in  vain  in  other  parts  of  the  kingdom,  where  a  monotonous  routine  narrows 
tlie  intellect  of  the  dairyman.     Farms  here  are  generally  of  moderate  size  ;  for  although  some  farmers 
hold  700  or  800  acres  in  several  separate  farms,  the  great  majority  run  from  50  or  60  to  200  or  250 
acres.     The  Ecclesiastical  Commissioners  have  recently  erected  substantial  stone  buildings  on  an  uni- 
form plan  upon  the  different  estates  belonging  to  the  Dean  and  Chapter ;  but  farm-buildings  are  often 
found  collected  in  a  village,  the  housing  of  four  adjoining  farms  being  sometimes  inconveniently 
placed  at  their  point  of  junction.     The  buildings  are  of  every  variety  of  character,  from  the  antique 
and  dilapidated,  to  the  more  modern  and  convenient.      On  badly-managed  estates,  the  farmer  is 
sometimes  bound  to  uphold  in  repair  the  most  ricketty  old  mud  and  wooden  thatched  houses,  at  a 
cost  to  himself  of  10  per  cent,  on  the  rental  of  a  small  farm.     The  better  class  of  farm-buildings  are 
generally  in  the  form  of  a  square,  close  all  round,  and  entered  on  the  south  side  through  a  large  arched 
door,  under  the  granary.     Immediately  opposite  is  the  barn,  cider  cellar,  &c.,  which  usually  occupy 
one  side  of  the  square,  having  the  corn-rick  yard  behind.     Two  sides  are  for  the  accommodation  of 
cattle,  the  back  walls  being  built  close  up  to  the  eaves;  but  the  front  is  in  two  stories,  supported  on 
strong  posts,  and  open  from  the  ground  to  the  eaves ;  the  loAver  story  occupied  by  cattle,  the  upper 
kept  as  a  store  for  their  provender.     Covered  sheds  for  better  making  and  protecting  the  manure 
from  the  weather  are  also  generally  adopted  on  all  new  farm-buildings.     The  cows  are  usually  kept 
in  loose  boxes ;  the  fattening  cattle  generally  tied  by  the  neck.     The  fourth  side  of  the  scjuare  em- 
braces the  farm  stable  and  waggon  shed.     The  houses  are  generally  conveniently  situated  outside  the 
square  ;  and  many  of  them  on  the  estates  of  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  and  other  wealthy  and  liberal  land- 
owners, have  lately  been  rebuilt,  or  enlarged  and  improved.     Steam  and  Avater  poAver  machinery  are 
rapidly  being  brought  into  requisition,  greatly  economising  labour  and  facilitating  the  general  Avork 
of  the  farm.     The  improvement  in  agricultural  implements  has  been  remarkable  during  the  paf't  ten 
years.     The  larger  farm-houses,  many  of  which  are  fine  old  mansions,  formerly  occupied  by  the  lords 
of  the  manors,  are  provincially  called  Bartons.    The  soil  is  of  various  character  ;  good  turnip  and  barley 
land,  of  deep  friable  texture,  are  met  Avith  in  continuous  succession,  and  from  these  the  cultivator 
reaps  the  best  returns.     The  system  of  husbandry  folloAved  is  the  alternate  one,  varied  by  alloAving 
the  land  to  rest  one  or  more  years  m  grass,  as  may  be  thought  best  by  the  farmer.     There  is  nothing 
particular  in  the  management  of  the  arable  land  of  this  large  county,  but  it  is  generally  Avell  and 
deeply  tilled,  not  very  heavily  manured,  but  managed,  on  the  Avhole,  where  the  tenants  have  sutficient 
capital,  with  much  skill  and  sagacity.     TAVo-horse  ploughs  are  universal,  and  light  carts  and  Avaggons. 
TAVo-furroAv  ploughs,  draAvn  by  tAvo  or  three  horses,  have  of  late  years  also  come  into  general  use — the 
undulated  surface   of  the  land  not  being  generally  favourable  to  the  adoption  of  the  steam  plough. 
Sixteen  to  twenty-four  bushels  of  Avheat  per  acre  may  be  reckoned  an  average  produce  for   South 
Devon,  and  thirty-two  bushels  of  barley.     Stubble  turnips  are  occasionally  taken  ;  but  the  general 
practice  is,  a  bare  Avinter  falloAV  in  preparation  for  a  root  crop.     In  many  districts  of  South  Devon 
the  soil  and  climate  are  admirably  adapted  for  crops  of   early  potatoes,  to  be  folloAved  by  turnips  ;  or 
for  producing  crops  of  rye,  Avinter  vetches,  &c.,  for  spring  feed.     The  dairy  management  in  Devon- 
shire is  justly  celebrated,  the  perfect  cleanliness  and  freshness  of  the  dairies  forming  a  marked  con- 
trast Avith  those  of  many  other  counties. 

Fresh  butter,  clouted  cream,  cheese,  and  junkets  are  the  products  of  the  dairies,  and  great 
([uantities  of  these  delicious  luxuries  are  sent  to  all  the  towns  and  bathing  places  of  the  county,  and 
to  London  and  other  distant  markets.  The  value  of  Avatered  meadoAvs  is  highly  appreciated  by  the 
Devonshire  farmers,  advantage  being  taken  of  CA'ery  little  stream  to  increase  the  produce  of  the  land. 
The  Avarmth  of  the  numerous  valleys  is  highly  favourable  to  rapid  groAvth,  and  their  declivities  afford 
a  cheap  and  convenient  means  of  laying  on  the  water.  The  expense  of  cutting  the  gutters  is  about 
£2  per  acre,  and  the  annual  cost  of  keeping  open  the  Avatercourses  and  laying  on  the  w^ater  is  about 
5s.  i  er  acre.     The  incrcaseLl  produce  is  fully  100  per  cent. ;  but  this  depends  chif^fly  on  the  quality  of 

History  oF  I>evoiiHliii»eJ  53 

the  water  applied,  which  is  found  to  vary  extremely.  The  cider  orchard  is  another  source  of  income 
to  the  Devonshire  farmer,  the  value  of  which  has  decreased  nearly  a  half  within  the  last  twenty  years. 
An  orchard  produces  10  to  15  hogsheads  an  acre,  the  selling  price  of  which  at  present  is  255.  to  30-?. 
a  hogshead,  and  the  cost  of  preparing  it  55.  to  85.  As  much  as  150  hogsheads  are  produced  on  some 
farms,  half  of  which  is  consumed  by  the  farm  labourers.  Lysons,  in  the  '  Magna  Britannia,'  remarks  : 
'  I  find  no  mention  when  Devonshire  first  became  noted  as  a  cider  country.  Orchards  are  not 
mentioned  in  Domesday,  and  I  have  not  met  with  any  incidental  mention  of  them  in  records  of  the 
two  or  three  centuries  succeeding  to  throw  any  light  on  the  subject.'  It  is  now  generally  considered 
that  orchards  and  the  manufacture  of  cider  were  first  introduced  into  Devonshire  by  the  monks, 
probably  during  the  thirteenth  century,  and  it  appears  to  have  been  clearly  proved  that  cider  was  the 
ordinary  drink  of  the  labourers  on  the  manor  of  Axmouth  as  early  as  the  year  1286,  and  that  the 
orchards  were  first  planted  there  by  one  of  the  abbots  of  '  Montburg,'  in  Normandy,  to  M^hom  the 
property  then  belonged.  The  parish  of  Buckland  Monachorum  was  early  celebrated  for  this  drink, 
and  the  orchards  there  doubtless  originated  with  the  Cistercians,  who  colonised  Buckland  Abbey  from 
Quarr,  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  (one  of  the  first  houses  of  this  order  founded  in  England),  in  the  year 
1278.  The  wages  of  labourers  vary  from  125.  to  I85.  per  week,  with  three  pints  or  two  quarts  of 
cider  daily,  the  men  bringing  in  every  morning  their  wooden  bottle  to  receive  their  day's  allowance. 
Task  work  is  now  much  encouraged,  and  affords  better  wages  to  the  industrious.  The  cottages  of 
the  labourers  are  many  of  them  constructed  of  red  earth,  mixed  with  straw,  commonly  called  cohh, 
and  covered  with  reeds  or  straw  thatch.  When  rough  cast  and  kept  dry,  this  kind  of  dwelling  is 
very  durable,  the  walls  being  generally  from  fourteen  inches  to  two  feet  in  thickness.  The  chief  corn 
markets  in  the  county  are  Exeter,  Tavistock,  Totnes,  Kingsbridge,  Plymouth,  and  'Barnstaple.  The 
Devonshire  Agricultural  Society  was  instituted  in  1791,  for  the  improvement  of  the  soils  and  the 
vegetable  and  animal  produce  of  the  county ;  and  there  are  now  in  various  parts  of  the  county  about 
twenty  other  agricultural  societies,  and  nearly  as  many  farmers'  clubs,  having  for  their  objects, 
improvements  in  the  cultivation  of  the  soil  and  the  breeding  of  stock,  and  the  encouragement  of  skill, 
industry,  and  economy  among  the  labouring  poor.  In  some  parts  of  the  county  considerable  attention 
is  paid  to  the  breeding  of  sheep.  Great  improvements  have  taken  place  by  the  infusion  of  new  blood 
and  better  feeding — the  owners  frequently  taking  their  flocks  long  distances  to  feed  off  roots  and 
grass,  often  obtained  at  great  cost.  The  uses  of  oilcake,  and  corn,  and  artificial  feeding  are  not 
unknown  to  Devonshire  farmers.  The  established  breed,  reared  chiefly  on  Dartmoor  and  Exmoor,  is 
the  middle  wooled  class,  bearing  a  strong  resemblanee  to  the  Dorsets.  But  the  extensive  pasture 
lands  are  most  generally  appropriated  to  the  purposes  of  the  dairy  and  the  fattening  of  the  North 
Devon  cattle,  a  very  fine  breed,  with  wide  spreading  horns,  and  of  an  uniformly  light  brown  colour. 
This  breed,  for  working  and  for  fattening,  is  allowed  to  be  one  of  the  most  perfect  in  the  kingdom ; 
but  it  is  not  much  esteemed  for  the  dairy.  The  native  breed  of  horses  is  very  small,  and  resembles 
the  Welsh  and  Highland  breeds  of  cattle ;  but  all  the  improved  breeds  of  cattle,  sheep,  and  horses, 
from  various  parts  of  the  country,  are  to  be  found  here.  Among  the  natural  vegetable  productions  of 
this  county  is  the  beautiful  scarlet  lichen  of  Dartmoor,  formerly  extensively  used  as  a  dye  for  cloth, 
and  in  the  manufacture  of  orchal. 

Agricultural  Returns. — According  to  the  Agricultural  Returns  of  the  Board  of  Trade  for  1872, 
it  appears  that  in  the  county  of  Devon  there  were  808,195  acres  under  corn  crops;  156,709  acres 
under  green  crops;  116  acres  under  flax  and  hops;  32,145  acres  of  bare  fallow  or  uncropped  arable 
land;  172,771  acres  under  clover,  sanfoin,  and  grasses  under  rotation;  400,202  acres  permanent 
pasture,  or  grass  not  broken  up  in  rotation  (exclusive  of  heath  or  mountain  land);  66,191  acres 
of  woods,  coppices,  or  plantations,  excepting  gorse  land  and  garden  shrubberies ;  25,765  acres  of 
orchards,  &c.,  arable  or  grass  lands  included  in  other  items,  but  also  used  for  fruit-trees  of  any  kind; 
"1  acres  market  gardens  for  growth  of  vegetables,  &c.,  including  acreage  under  separate  crops;  467 
res  nursery  gardens  for  growing  trees,  shrubs,  &c. ;  making  a  total  of  1,136,329  acres  under  all 
nds  of  crops,  besides  which  there  are  518,832  acres  generally  uncultivated.  The  total  number  of 
live  stock,  as  returned  by  occupiers  of  land  and  by  owners  of  live  stock,  comprised  46,149  horses 
solely  used  for  agriculture,  &c.,  195,541  cattle,  861,751  sheep,  109,485  pigs.  The  Returns  for  1876 
show  that  on  June  25  of  that  year  there  were  1,093,748  acres  under  all  kinds  of  crops,  bare  fallow, 
and  grass.  The  following  were  the  acres  under  each  description  of  corn  crop: — wheat,  112,652; 
barley  or  bere,  77,799;  oats,  90,571;  rye,  361;  beans,  931;  peas,  1018;  total,  283,332.  The  acres 
under  green  crops  were — potatoes,  15,360;  turnips  and  swedes,  84,866  ;  mangold,  28,630 ;  carrots, 
238  ;  cabbage,  kohl-rabi  and  rape,  17,007  ;  vetches,  lucerne,  and  any  other  green  crop  (except  clover 
or  grass),  6269;  total,  152,370.  27  acres  were  under  flax;  2  imder  hops;  25,850  were  bare  fallow 
or  uncropped  arable  land.  75,460  acres  were  under  clover,  sanfoin  grasses  under  rotation  (for  hay) ; 
and  114,301  (not  for  hay);  total,  189.761.  89,478  acres  were  under  permanent  pasture,  meadow  or 
grass,  not  broken  up  in  rotation  (exclusive  of  heath  or  mountain  land),  for  hay ;  and  352,928  not  for 
hay ;  total,  442,406.     There  were  51,753  horses,  including  ponies,  returned  by  occupiers  of  land,  of 


History  of  Uevoiishire. 

which  85,551  were  used  solely  for  purposes  of  agriculture,  &c.,  and  1G,202  were  unbroken  horses  of 
any  age,  and  mares  kept  solely  for  the  purpose  of  breeding.  Tliere  were  76,610  cows  and  heifers  in 
milk  or  in  calf;  and  63,115  other  cattle  of  two  years  of  age  and  upwards;  and  77,380  under  two 
years  of  age;  total,  217,111.  943,542  sheep  were  returned,  of  which  600,281  were  aged  one  year 
and  upwards,  and  343,261  under  one  year ;  and  there  were  90,773  pigs. 

The  Great  Landiioldeks  of  Devonshire. — The  Financial  Reformer  publishes  a  list  of  the 
great  landowners  of  the  United  Kingdom,  their  acreage,  rental,  and  apparent  rates  of  letting  land. 
The  information  is  derived  from  the  Blue  Books.  The  compiler  summarised  the  holdings  and  calcu- 
lated the  average  per  acre  at  which  each  landholder  lets  his  lands.  With  respect  to  our  own  county 
this  summary  shows  the  following  results : — 











per  acre 



ix!r  acre 


s.        d. 


s.      d. 

Acland,  Sir  T.  D.     . 




20     5f 

Fortescue,  Earl 




18     6| 

Asliburton,  Lord      . 




25     4^ 

Lopes,  Sir  Massey  . 




15     6| 

Bedford,  Duke  of    . 




32     4A 

Mount     Edgcumbe, 

Carew,  Sir  Walter  . 




27     9| 

Earl  of        . 




26     6i 

Carnarvon,  Earl  of . 




26     1 

Palk,  Sir  L.     . 




216     2\ 

Churston,  Lord 




20  II4 

Poltimore,  Lord 




18  11 

Cleveland,  Duke  of 




17  IO4 

Portsmoutli,  Earl  of 




15     9 

Clinton,  Lord 




18  11:^ 

Eolle,  Hon.  Mark    . 




30     6 

Devon,  Earl  of 




16     3i 

Somerset,  Duke  of  . 




29     9f 

Egremont,  Earl  of  . 




33     Ah 

Stucley,  Sir  G. 




13     U 

The  abolition  of  apprenticeship,  by  which  the  young  labourer  had  a  practical  training  and 
became  a  skilled  workman  in  husbandry,  and  the  girls  in  cookery  and  domestic  work,  has  been  the 
means  of  doing  away  with  a  system  happy  in  its  results.  The  abandonment  of  this  custom  that  had 
much  to  recommend  it,  without  a  suitable  substitute,  is  much  to  be  deplored.  The  pernicious  eiFects 
of  this  system  are  the  growing  up  of  a  race  of  boys  and  girls  in  a  state  of  rebellion  to  their 
employers,  ignorant  and  incapable  of  conducting  the  commonest  work  of  the  farm  and  household ; 
while  all  farm  products  requiring  manipulation  have  become  scarce  and  dear ;  some  have  advanced 
three  and  four  hundred  per  cent,  in  consequence.  Both  sexes  may  be  seen  idling  their  time,  and 
falling  into  habits  of  vice  and  immorality — a  burthen  on  society ;  while  the  work  of  the  farm  (not  ex- 
cepting '  harvest-time ')  is  with  much  difficulty  carried  on,  and  has  been  growing  gradually  worse  for 
some  years. 


The  botany  of  Devonshire  is,  as  might  be  expected  from  its  physical  conformation,  both  varied 
and  interesting,  and  a  large  number  of  the  rarer  British  plants  are  included  in  its  flora,  as  the  sub- 
joined list  will  show.  Three  species  of  flowering  plants  are  peculiar  to  the  county — the  handsome 
blue  Lobelia,  L.  urens^  found  upon  Kilmington  Common,  near  Axminster,  and  locally  known  as  '  the 
flower  of  the  Axe';  the  pretty  little  Triclionema  Columnar,  a  diminutive,  crocus-like  plant,  found 
abundantly  in  spring,  in  the  sandy  soil  of  Dawlish  Warren  ;  and  the  sea  knot-grass  {Polygonum 
maritiinum),  which  was  formerly  found  on  the  coast  of  Hampshire,  but  had  been  lost  to  the  British 
flora  for  some  years  until  it  was  discovered  by  the  Eev.  W.  Moyle  Rogers  upon  Braunton  BurrowSj,^ 
in  1877.  9 

The  following  list  is  mainly  taken  from  Mr.  Watson's  invaluable  '  Topographical  Botany,'  ii^l 
which  work  the  county  of  Devon  is  divided  into  north  and  south.  '  South  and  North  Devon  are 
separated  by  an  imaginary  line,  adapted  to  the  watershed,  commencing  at  the  Tamar,  about  midway 
between  Tavistock  and  Launceston  ;  passing  over  the  ridge  of  Dartmoor,  and  joining  the  western 
canal  at  Tiverton.'  Some  fewrfi^itions  which  have  been  published  since  the  issue  of  '  Topographi- 
cal Botany  '  are  incorporated  in  their  places  ;  critical*  forms  and  subspecies  are  usually  omitted,  as  in 
the  case  of  the  brambles  and  roses.  Plants  which  are  peculiar  to  either  the  northern  or  southern 
division  of  the  county  are  respectively  indicated  by  the  letter  N.  or  S.  following  the  name,  and  where 
a  (?)  is  added  it  implies  some  doubt  as  to  the  accuracy  of  the  record ;  where  no  such  letter  appear^ 
the  species  has  been  recorded  for  both  divisions.  Plants  in  square  brackets  are  those  which  rest  upon 
doubtful  authority  for  their  occurrence  in  the  county ;  the  italicised  species  are  certainly  introductions. 

The  literature  of  Devonshire  botany  is  very  considerable ;  many  of  the  isolated  papers  bearing 
on  the  subject  are  enumerated  in  the  '  Journal  of  Botany '  for  1874,  and  additional  matter  will  be 
found  in  the  subsequent  volumes  of  that  work.  The  most  important  work  upon  Devonshire  plants 
is  the  '  Flora  of  Devon  and  Cornwall,'  by  Mr.  I.  W.  N.  Keys,  of  Plymouth,  published  (1866-70) 
in  the  '  Transactions  of  the  Devon  and  Cornwall  Natural  History  Society ; '  the  mosses  and  lichens 
were  added  by  Mr.  E.  M.  Holmes.     The  Rev.  T.  F.  Ravenshaw  has  issued  a  '  List  of  the  Flowering 

Botany  of  iOevonsliire.  Z  55 

Plants  and  Ferns  of  Devon '  (1860),  with  a  supplement ;  while  Messrs.  J.  P.  Jones  and  J.  P.  Kingston 
published  a  '  Flora  Devoniensis '  in  1829.  A  thoroughly  satisfactory  Devonshire  flora  is,  however, 
still  a  desideratum. 

RANUNCULACEiE.  Clematis  Vitalba.  Thalictrum  minus  (S.).  Anemone  nemorosa.  Myosurus 
minimus  (S.  ?).  Ranunculus  fluitans  (S.),  Drouetii,  Lenormandi,  hederaceus,  sceleratus,  Flammula, 
Lingua  (N.  ?  S.),  auricomus  (N.  ?  S.),  acris,  repens,  bulbosus,  hirsutus  (S.),  parviflorus,  arvensis  (S.), 
Ficaria.  Caltha  palustris.  Helleborus  viridis  (S.),  foetidus  (S.).  Aquilegia  vulgaris.  Aconitum 

BERBERACEiE.     Bcrberis  vulgaris. 
NymphvEace^.     Nuphar  lutea  (S.). 

Papaverace^:.  Papaver  Rhoeas,  dubium,  Argemone,  hybridum.  Meconopsis  cambrica, 
Glaucium  luteum.  Chelidonium  majus.  Corydalis  clavicidata.  Fumaria  pallidiflora,  confusa, 
muralis  (S.),  officinalis. 

Cruciferye.  Cakile  maritima.  Crambe  maritima.  Raphanus  Raphanistrum,  maritimus  (S.). 
Sinapis  arvensis,  alba,  nigra.  Brassica  oleracea  (S.).  Diplotaxis  tenuifolia  (S.),  muralis.  Sisym- 
brium officinale,  Sophia  (S.  ?),  Alliaria.  Erysimum  cheiranthoides  (S.).  Matthiola  sinuata  (N.). 
Cardamine  pratensis,  hirsuta,  sylvatica,  impatiens  (N.  ?  S.).  Arabis  thaliana,  hirsuta  (S.).  Barbarea 
vulgaris.  Nasturtium  officinale,  sylvestre  (S.),  palustre  (S.).  Cochlearia  officinalis,  danica,  anglica. 
Draba  verna,  brachycarpa  (S.).  Thlaspi  arvense.  Teesdalia  nudicaulis  (S.).  Capsella  Bursa-pastoris. 
Lepidium  ruderale  (8.),  campestre,  Smithii.  Senebiera  didyma,  Coronopus. 
Resedace^.  Reseda  lutea,  Luteola. 
CiSTACE^..     Helianthemum  vulgare,  (N.),  polifolium  (S.). 

ViOLACE^.  Viola  palustris,  odorata,  hirta,  Riviniana,  Reichenbachiana,  flavicornis,  lactea  (S.), 
tricolor,  Curtisii  (N.),  lutea  (S.  ?). 

Droseracej:.     Drosera  rotundifolia,  anglica  (8.),  intermedia. 
PoLYGALACE^.     Polygala  vulgaris,  oxyptera  (8.),  depressa  (S.). 

Caryophyllace^.  Dianthus  Armeria,  deltoides  (8.).  Saponaria  officinalis.  Silene  inflata, 
maritima,  anglica,  nutans  (8.).  Lychnis  vespertina,  diurna,  Flos-cuculi,  Githago.  Moenchia  erecta 
(S.).  Cerastium  semidecandrum  (S.),  tetrandrum,  pumilum  (S.),  glomeratum,  triviale.  Stellaria 
aquatica  (8.),  media,  Holostea,  glauca  (8.  ?),  graminea,  uliginosa.  Arenaria  trinervis,  serpyllifolia. 
Honkeneya  peploides.  Alsine  verna.  Sagina  maritima,  apetala,  ciliata,  procumbens,  subulata, 
nodosa  (N.8.  ?).  Spergula  arvensis.  Spergularia  rubra,  neglecta,  marginata  (8.),  rupestris.  Poly- 
carpon  tetraphyllum  (S.). 

iLLECEBRACEiE.    Corrigiola  littoralis  (8.).    Illecebrum  verticillatum  (N.  ?  8.  ?).    Scleranthus  annuus. 
PoRTULACACEiE.     Montia  fontana. 

Hypericace.e.  Hypericum  Androsaemum,  perforatum,  dubium,  tetrapterum,  baeticum  (S.), 
humifusum,  linariifolium  (8.),  pulchrum,  hirsutum,  montanum  (8.),  Elodes. 

Malvaceae.  Althaea  officinalis  (S.).  Lavatera  arborea  (N.  ?  S.).  Malva  moschata,  sylvestris, 

Linages.     Radiola  millegrana.     Linum  catharticum,  angustifolium. 

Geraniace^e.  Geranium  sanguineum  (8),  pratense,  pyrenaicum  (8.),  moUe,  pusillum  (S.), 
rotundifolium  (8.),  dissectum,  columbinum,  lucidum,  Robertianum.  Erodium  cicutarium,  moschatum^ 
maritimum.     Oxalis  Acetosella. 

ILICACE.E.     Ilex  Aquifolium.  , 

CELASTRACEiE.     Euonymus  europ^us. 
Rhamnace^e.     Rhamnus  [catharticus  S.  ?],  Frangula. 
Sapindace^e.     Acer  campestre. 

Leguminos^.  Ulex  europ^us,  Gallii.  Genista  anglica,  tinctoria  (N.  ?  S.  ?).  Sarothamnus  sco- 
parius.  Ononis  spinosa,  arvensis.  Anthyllis  vulneraria,  Dillenii.  Medicago  lupulina,  denticulata 
(8.),  maculata.  Melilotus  officinalis,  alba  (8.).  Trigonella  ornithopodioides  (8.).  Trifolium 
subteiTaneum,  pratense,  maritimum  (8.  ?),  arvense,  striatum  (N.  ?  8.),  scabrum,  glomeratum  (S.}, 
suffocatum  (8.),  repens,  fragiferum,  procumbens,  minus,  filiforme.  Lotus  corniculatus,  tenuis,  major, 
angustissimus  (8.),  hispidus.  Ornithopus  perpusillus.  Onobrychis  sativa  (S.).  Vicia  hirsuta, 
tetrasperma,  Cracca,  sylvatica,  sepium,  lutea  (8.),  angustifolia,  lathyroides  (S.  ?),  bithynica  (8.). 
Lathyrus  Aphaca  (S.),  Nissolia  (N.  ?  S.),  pratensis,  sylvestris  (8.).     Orobus  tuberosus. 

Rosacea.  Prunus  spinosa.  Avium,  Cerasus.  Spiraea  Ulmaria,  Filipendula  (8.).  Agrimonia 
Eupatoria,  odorata  (8.).  Sanguisorba  officinalis.  Poterium  Sanguisorba.  Alchemilla  arvensis, 
vulgaris.  Potentilla  Fragariastrum,  Tormentilla,  procumbens,  reptans,  anserina.  Comarum  palustre 
(8.).  Fragaria  vesca.  Rubus  Idaus,  fruticosus,  caesius,  saxatilis  (S.).  Geum  urbanum,  inter- 
medium (N.  ?S.  ?),  rivale  (N.  ?8.).  Rosa  spinosissima,  Sabini,  tomentosa  (8.),  rubiginosa  (8.), 
micrantha,  canina,  systyla  (8.),  arvensis.      Crataegus  Oxyacantha.      Pyrus  Aria,  scandica,  Aucuparia, 

56  '  JBotaiiy  ol"  I>ovoiiKliii*<' 

LYTHRACEiE.     Lythruiii  Salicaria.     Peplis  Portula. 

ONAGRACEiE.     Epilobiiim  angusti folium  (N.  ?  S.),  hirsutum,  parviflorum,  montanum,  lauceolatum 
(S.),  roseum  (S.),  tetragonum,  obsciirum,  palustre.     Circa^a  lutetiana. 

IIalokagiace/E.      Myriophyllum   spicatum    (S.).     Ilippuris   vulgaris    (S.).     Callitriche  verna, 
platycarpa,  haniulata,  autumnalis  (S.). 

GROSsuLARiACEiE.     lUbes  Grossularia. 

Crassulack.e.      Tillaia   muscosa    (S.).      Sedum    Tclephiuni,   anglicum,    acre,    rupestre    (N.). 
Cotyledon  Umbilicus. 

SAXiFRAGACEyE.  Saxifraga  tridactylites.  Chrysosplenium  oppositifolium,  alternifolium  (N.). 
llMBELLiFERiE.  Hydrocotyle  vulgaris.  Sanicula  europa}a.  Eryngium  maritimum,  campestre 
(8.).  Apium  graveolens.  Ilelosciadium  nodiflorum,  inundatum.  Petroselinum  segetum  (N.  ?  S.). 
Sison  Amomum.  Trinia  vulgaris  (S.).  ^gopodium  Podagraria.  Carum  verticillatum  (S.  ?). 
Bunium  flexuosum.  Pimpinella  Saxifraga,  magna  (S.)  Slum  latifolium  (S.),  angustifolium  (S.  ?). 
Bupleurum  aristatum  (S.),  tenuissimum  (S.).  CEnantlie,  pimpinelloides  (S.),  Lachenalii, 
crocata,  Phellandrium  (S.  ?).  iEtliusa  Cynapium.  Foeniculum  vulgare.  Silaus  pratensis  (S.). 
Crithmum  maritimum.  Angelica  sylvestris.  Pastinaca  sativa.  Ileracleum  Sphondylium.  Daucus 
Carota,  gummifer.  Torilis  infesta  (S.),  Anthriscus,  nodosa.  Ch  atrophy  Hum  Antbriscus,  sylvestre, 
temulum.  Scandix  Pecten- Veneris.  Conium  maculatura.  Physospermum  cornubiense  (S.), 
Smyrnium  Olusatrum. 

ARALTACEiE.     Hedera  Helix. 
CoRNACEiE.     Corn  US  sanguinea. 
LoRANTHACE^.     Viscum  album. 

Caprifoliace^.     Adoxa  Moschatellina.      Sambucus  nigra,  Ebulus   (S.).     Viburnum  Opulus, 
Lantana  (S.)     Lonicera  Periclymenum. 

EuBiACE^E.     Eubia  peregrina.     Galium  cruciatum,  verum,  Mollugo,  saxatile,  palustre,  uliginosum 
(S.),  Aparine,  tricorne.     Asperula  odorata,  cynanchica  (S.).     Slierardia  arvensis. 

Valerianace^.    Valeriana  dioica  (S.),  officinalis.    Valerianella  Olitoria,  Auricula  (S.),  dentata, 
carinata  (S.). 

DiPSACE^.  Dipsacus  sylvestris,  pilosus  (S.)  Scabiosa  succisa,  Columbaria,  arvensis. 
ComposiTjE.  Onopordum  Acanthium  (N.  ?  S.).  Carduus  tenuiflorus,  nutans,  crispus  (S.), 
lanceolatus,  palustris,  pratensis  (N.  ?  S.),  acaulis  (S.  ?)  arvensis.  Carlina  vulgaris.  Arctium  majus 
(S.),  minus  (S.).  Serratula  tinctoria.  Centaurea  nigra,  Scabiosa,  Cyanus,  Calcitrapa  (S.). 
Chrysanthemum  segetum,  Leucanthemum.  Matricaria  Parthenium,  inodora,  Chamomilla.  Tana- 
cetum  vulgare.  Anthemis  Cotula,  arvensis  (S.),  nobilis.  Diotis  maritima  (S.).  Achillea  Millefolium, 
Ptarmica.  Artemisia  Absinthium,  vulgaris,  maritima.  Filago  germanica,  minima.  Gnaphalium 
uliginosum,  sylvaticum  (S.),  dioicum  (S.).  Senecio  vulgaris,  sylvaticus,  erucifolius,  Jacobaea,  aqua- 
tions. Bidens  cernua,  tripartita.  Inula  Conyza,  crithmoides  (S.),  dysenterica.  Bellis  perennis. 
Erigeron  acris  (N.).  Chrysocoma  Linosyris  (S.).  Solidago  Virga-aurea.  Tussilago  Farfara. 
Petasites  vulgaris.  Eupatorium  cannabinum.  Cichorium  Intybus.  Lapsana  communis.  Hypo- 
choeris  glabra,  radicata.  Leontodon  hirtus,  hispidus,  autumnalis.  Picris  hieracioides  (N.  ?  S.). 
Helminthia  echioides.  Tragopogon  pratensis.  Taraxacum  officinale,  palustre  (S.).  Lactuca  virosa 
(S.),  muralis.  Sonchus  oleraceus,  asper,  arvensis.  Crepis  taraxacifolia  (S.).  Hieracium  Pilosella, 
pallidum  (S.),  murorum,  tridentatum  (N.),  sylvaticum,  umbellatum,  boreale. 

Campanulace^e.     Lobelia  urens  (S.).     Jasione  montana.     Campanula  Trachelium,  rotundifolia. 
Specularia  hybrida  (S.).     Wahlenbergia  hederacea. 

ERiCACEiE.     Vaccinium  Vitis-idsea  (S.),  Myrtillus.     Erica  Tetralix,  cinerea.     Calluna  vulgaris. 
Pyrola  minor  (S  ?).  ^_l 

jASMiNACEiE.     Fraxinus  excelsior.     Ligustrum  vulgare.  fH 

Apocynace^.     Vinca  minor.  ^■j 

Gentianace^e.     Erythraea  Centaurium,  pulchella.     Cicendia  filiformis  (S  ?).     Chlora  perfoliata. 
Gentiana  Amarella,  campestris  (S.).     Menyanthes  trifoliata. 

Convolvulace.e.     Convolvulus  arvensis,   sepium,   Soldanella.     Cuscuta  europjea  (S.),  Epithy- 
mum,  Trifolii. 

SoLANACEvE.  Solauum  Dulcamara,  nigrum.  [Atropa  Belladonna.]  Hyoscyamus  niger. 
ScROPHULARiACE^.  Verbascum  Thapsus,  [Lychnitis],  nigrum.  Scrophularia  Balbisii,  nodosa, 
Scorodonia.  Digitalis  purpurea.  Antirrhinum  Orontium.  Linaria  Elatine,  spuria,  repens  (S.), 
vulgaris,  supina  (S.),  minor  (S.).  Sibthorpia  europaea  (S.).  Veronica  hederifolia,  polita,  agrestis, 
Buxbaumii,  arvensis,  serpyllifolia,  officinalis,  Chamasdrys,  montana,  scutellata,  Anagallis,  Beccabunga. 
Euphrasia  officinalis.  Bartsia  Odontites.  Pedicularis  palustris,  sylvatica.  Khinanthus  Crista-galli. 
Melampyrum  pratense. 

OROBANCHACEyE.      Lathrsca   squamaria.      Orobanche   major,  [caryophyllacea],   Hedera?,  minor, 
Eryngii  (S.). 

Uotany  ol*  I^evonsliire.  57 

Verbenace^e.     Verbena  officinalis. 

Labiat.e.  Lycopus  europa^us.  Mentha  sylvestris  (N,  S  ?),  piperita  (S.),  sativa,  gentilis  (S.), 
arvensis,  aquatica,  Pulegium  (S.).  Thymus  Serpyllum.  Origanum  vulgare.  Calamintha  Clino- 
podium,  Acinos,  menthifolia,  sylvatica  (S.).  Nepeta  Cataria,  Glechoma.  Salvia  Verbenaca. 
Prunella  vulgaris.  Scutellaria  galericulata,  minor.  Melittis  Melissophyllum.  Marrubium  vulgare. 
Ballota  nigra.  Stachys  Betonica,  [germanica],  palustris,  ambigua  (S.),  sylvatica,  arvensis.  Galeopsig 
Ladanuni  (S.),  versicolor  (S.),  Tetrahit.  Lamium  amplexicaule,  incisum  (S.),  purpureum,  album, 
GaleobdoJon.     Ajuga  reptans.     Teucrium  Scordium  (N.),  Scorodonia. 

BoiiAGiNACE.E.  Echium  vulgare.  Lithospermuni  purpureo-ca^ruleum  (S.),  officinale,  arvense. 
Myosotis  ccespitosa,  palustris,  repens,  arvensis,  collina,  versicolor.  Anchusa  arvensis.  Symphytum 
officinale.     Cynoglossum  officinale. 

PiNGUicuLACE.E.     Pinguicula  vulgaris,  lusitanica.     Utricularia  vulgaris. 

PplIMULACe.e.  Primula  vulgaris,  officinalis.  Lysimacliia  vulgaris  (S.),  Nunimularia,  nemorum. 
Centunculus  minimus  (S.).     Glaux  maritima.     Samolus  Yalerandi. 

Plu.mbagixacej:.     Armeria  maritima.     Statice  Limonium,  binervosa. 

Plantaginace^:.     Plantago  major,  media,  lanceolata,  maritima,  Coronopus.     Littorella  lacustris. 
Chenopodiace.e.     Suaida  maritima.     Salsola  Kali.     Salicornia  herbacea,   radicans  (S.).      Beta 
maritima.     Chenopodium  polyspermum  (S.),  olidum,   album,   murale    (S.),  urbicum  (8.),  rubrum, 
Bonus-Henricus.      Atriplex  angustifolia,  erecta  (S.),    deltoidea  (8.),  Babingtonii,  arenaria,  portu- 
lacoides,  hastata. 

PoLYGONACE.E.     Rumcx  conglomcratus,  nemorosus,    pulcher  (S.),   obtusifolius,   pratensis   (S.), 
crispus,    Hydrolaj^athum    (S.),   Acetosa,    Acetosella.      Polygonum    Convolvulus,    dumetorum    (S)., 
aviculare,  Eaii,  maritimum  (N.),  Ilydropiper,  mite  (S.),  lapathifolium,  ampliibium. 
[EltEAGNAce^.     Hippophae  rliamnoides]. 
Thymeleace^.     Daphne  [Mezereum  S.],  Laureola. 
SANTALACE.E.     Thcsium  humifusum  (S.). 
[AsAKACE^E,     Asarum  europa^um  (S).] 
EMPETRACEiE.     Empetrum  nigrum  (S.). 

EupnoRBiACE^.     Euphorbia  Peplis,  Helioscopia,  hiberna  (N.),  amygdaloides,   Paralias,   port- 
landica,  Peplus,  exigua.     Mercurialis  perennis,  annua. 
CERATOPiiYLLACEJi:.     Ceratopliyllum  aquaticum  (S.). 

IjRTiCACEiE.     Parietaria  diit'usa.     Urtica  dioica,  urens.     llumulus  Lupulus. 
TJLMACEiE.     Ulmus  suberosa,  montana. 

Amentifek.e.  Que  reus  pedunculata,  sessiliflora.  Fagus  sylvatica.  Cory  his  Avellana.  Carpinua 
Betulus  (S.).  Alnus  glutinosa.  Betula  alba,  verrucosa,  glutinosa  (S,).  Myrica  Gale  (S.).  Populus 
alba,  canescens  (S.),  tremula.  Salix  fragilis  (S.),  alba  (S.),  triandra  (S.),  purpurea  (S.),  viminalis 
(S.),   Smithiana  (S.),  cinerea,  aurita,  caprea,  ambigua  (S.),  repens. 

TYPiiACEiE.     Typlia  latifolia  (S.),  angustifolia  (S.).     Sparganium  raniosum,  simplex. 
ArxVCE^e.     Arum  maculatum. 

Lemnace^e.     Lemna  trisulca  (S.),  minor,  gibba  (S.),  polj'rhiza  (S.). 

Naiadace.e.  Potamogeton  natans,  polygonifolius  (8.),  rufescens  (8.),  heterophyllus  (N.),  lucena 
(S.),  perfoliatus  (8.),  crispus  (8.),  densus  (8.  ?),  pusillus,  pectinatus  (8.).  Zannichellia  palustris. 
Ruppia  maritima.     Zostera  marina  (8.). 

Alismace.e.  Triglochin  palustre,  maritimum.  Sagittaria  sagittifolia  (8.).  Alisma  Plantago, 
ranunculoides  (8.).     Butomus  umbellatus  (N.  ?  8.). 

Hydrocharidace^e.     Hydrocharis  Morsus-rana3  (8.). 

Orchidace^e.  Orchis  pyramidalis  (8.),  Morio,  mascula,  latifolia,  masculata.  Gymnadenia 
conopsea  (8.).  Habenaria  viridis  (8.  ?),  bifolia  (8.),  chlorantha.  Ophrys  apifera.  Spiranthes 
autumnalis.  Listera  cordata  (N.),  ovata.  Neottia  Nidus-avis.  Epipactis  latifoliaj  violacea  (8.  ?), 
palustris.     Malaxis  paludosa  (N.). 

Iridace.e.     Trichonema  Columna;  (8.).     Iris  foetidissima,  Pseudacorus. 
AMARYLLiDACEiE.     Narcissus  Pseudo-uarcissus. 
DioscoREACEiE.     Tamus  communis. 

LiLiACE^.  Polygonatum  multiflorum  (8.).  Ruscus  aculeatus.  Scilla  autumnalis,  verna  (8.), 
nutans.     Allium  vineale,  oleraceum  (8.),  ursinum.     Narthecium  ossifragum. 

JuNCACEJS.  Luzula  Forsteri,  pilosa,  sylvatica,  multiflora.  Juncus  acutus,  maritimus,  con- 
glomeratus,  efFusus,  glaucus,  obtusiflorus  (8.),  acutiflorus,  lamprocarpus,  supinus,  bufonius,  Gerardi, 

CYPERACEiE.  Schcenus  nigricans.  Rhynchospora  alba  (8.).  Scirpus  acicularis  (8.),  palustris  (S.), 
multicaulis  (8.),  pauciflorus  (8.),  casspitosus  (8.),  fluitans  (8.),  Savii,  setaceus,  Holoschoenus  (N.), 
lacustris,  Tabernaamontani  (8  ),  maritimus,  sylvaticus  (8.).  Eriophorum  vaginatum,  angustifolium, 
latifoHum  (N.  ?  8.).     Carex  pulicaris,   divisa,   arenaria,  teretiuscula  (8.),  paniculata  (8.),  vulpiua, 

58  Botanv  ol'  I>evoiiSi<liii*e. 


muricata  (8.),  divulsa,  stellulata  (8.),  remota,  axillaris,  ovalis  (S.),  acuta  (N.  ?  8.),  vulgaris,  glauca, 
digitata  (8.),  montana  (8.),  pilulifera,  prajcox  (8.),  pallescens  (8.),  panicea,  pendula  (8.),  sylvatica, 
la3vigata  (8.),  binervis,  distans,  fulva  (8.),  extensa,  flava,  filiformis  (8.),  hirta,  Pseudo-cyperus  (8.), 
paludosa  (8.),  riparia  (8.),  ampullacea,  vesicaria  (8.) 

GiiAMiNA.  8partina  stricta  (8.).  Cynodon  Dactylon  (8.).  8etaria  viridis  (8.).  Anthoxanthum 
odoratum.  Digraphis  arundinacea.  Alopecurus  agrestis  (8.),  fulvus  (8.),  bulbosus  (8.),  pratensis. 
Phleum  pratense,  arenarium.  Gastridium  lendigerum  (N.  ?  8.).  Agrostis  setacea  (8.),  canina  (8.), 
iilba,  vulgaris.  Psamma  arenaria.  Calamagrostis  Epigeios  (8.),  lanceolata  (8.).  Phragmitea  com- 
munis. Milium  efFusum.  Aira  caespitosa,  flexuosa,  caryophylea,  praecox  (8.).  Avena  flavescens 
(8.),  pubescens  (8.),  pratensis  (N.S.  ?),  fatua,  elatior.  IIolcus  mollis,  lanatus.  Triodia  decumbens. 
Koeleria  cristata.  Molinia  cserulea.  Melica  uniflora.  Catabrosa  aquatica  (8.).  Glyceria  fluitans, 
plicata  (8.),  aquatica  (8.).  8clerocliloa  maritima,  distans,  Borreri  (8.),  procumbens  (8.),  rigida, 
loliacea.  Poa  annua,  bulbosa  (8.  ?),  nemoralis,  compressa,  pratensis,  trivialis.  Briza  media,  minor 
(8.).  Cynosurus  cristatus.  Dactylis  glomerata.  Festuca  uniglumis,  Pseudo-myurus  (8.),  sciuroides, 
ovina,  duriuscula,  arenaria  (N.  ?  8.),  elatior,  pratensis.  Bromus  giganteus,  asper,  madritensia  (8.), 
sterilis,  secalinus,  commutatus,  mollis.  Brachypodium  sylvaticum,  pinnatum  (8.  ?).  Triticum 
caninum  (8.),  junceum,  repens,  pungens,  acutum  (8.),  Lolium  perenne,  temulentum.  Lepturus 
filiformis.     [Elymus  arenarius,  8.].     Hordeum  pratense,  murinum,  maritimum.     Nardus  stricta. 

FiLiCES. — Hymenophyllum  tunbridgense,  unilaterale  (N.  ?  8.),  Adiantum  Capillus- Veneris. 
Pteris  aquilina.  Cryptogramme  crispa  (N.  ?).  Asplenium  Ruta-muraria,  septentrionale  (N.), 
Trichomanes,  marinum,  lanceolatum  (N.  ?  8.),  Adiantum-nigrum.  Athyrium  Filix-foemina. 
Ceterach  officinarum.  Scolopendrium  vulgare.  Cystopteris  fragilis  (N.  ?  8.).  Aspidium  aculeatum, 
angulare.  Nephrodium  Filix-mas,  spinulosum,  dilatatum,  a^mulum,  Thelypteris,  Oreopteris.  Poly- 
podium  vulgare,  Phegopteris,  Dryopteris  (N.  ?  8.).  Osmunda  regalis.  Ophioglossum  vulgatum. 
Botrychium  Lunaria. 

Lycopodiace^..     Lycopodium  clavatum,  inundatum  (8.),  8elago. 

MARSiLEACEiE.     Pilularia  globulifera  (8.). 

Eqoisetace^.  Equisetum  arvense,  maximum  (N.  ?  8.),  sylvaticum  (N.  ?  S.),  palustre,  limosum 
(S.),  variegatum  (8.). 


The  various  formations  in  this  county  will  be  noticed  separately  in  the  order  of  their  geological 
sequence,  beginning  with  the  oldest  known  rocks,  and  ending  with  the  most  recent  deposits.  The 
systems  or  series  represented  in  Devonshire  are  as  follows,  the  extent  occupied  by  each  being 
approximately  estimated  in  proportional  parts  of  the  whole  superficial  area  of  the  county : — 

1.  8ilurian  system  (?)  The  metamorphic  rocks  of  8tart  Point  and  Bolt  Head  may  possibly 
belong  to  this  period.     Area  occupied,  0*7  per  cent. 

2.  Devonian  system,  including  the  slates,  grits,  and  limestones  of  North  and  South  Devon ;  and 
subdivided  into  lower,  middle,  and  upper  groups.     25*7  per  cent. 

3.  Carboniferous  system,  consisting  of  carboniferous  shales,  mountain  limestone,  and  millstone 
grit.     41  "9  per  cent. 

4.  The  granite  of  Dartmoor  and  Lundy  Island.     9*9  per  cent. 

5.  The  Triassic  series  of  new  red  sandstones,  marls,  conglomerates,  and  clays.     14-4  per  cent. 

6.  Lias.     0*4  per  cent. 

7.  Cretaceous  system,  including  gault,  greensand,  and  chalk.     4*5  per  cent. 

8.  The  miocene,  or  lignite  beds  of  Bove}'.     0'5  per  cent. 

9.  The  post-tertiary  or  quarternary  period,  comprising  gravels,  boulders,  and  boulder  clay, 
evidences  of  glacial  action,  caves,  raised  beaches,  submerged  forests,  &c.  The  alluvial  deposits 
occupy  2  per  cent. 

10.  Modern  sea  action,  landslips,  pebble  beaches,  &c. 

The  north  and  south  portions  of  Devonshire  consist  almost  entirely  of  Devonian  slates  and  lime- 
stones. The  central  district  includes  the  carboniferous  series  and  granite,  whilst  the  east  of  the 
county  is  occupied  by  triassic  and  cretaceous  deposits. 

History  and  Literature. — To  the  observations  of  miners  and  agriculturists  we  are  indebted,  as 
is  usually  the  case,  for  the  earliest  contributions  towards  a  knowledge  of  the  various  rocks  and  soils 
existing  in  each  particular  district.  The  tin  of  Dartmoor,  the  silver  of  Combmartin,  and  the  anthracite  of 
Bideford,  were  known  in  very  remote  ages,  and  the  contrast  between  materials  so  different  in  their 
appearance  as  granite  and  slate,  could  no  more  fail  to  attract  the  attention  of  the  miners,  than  the 
relative  fertility  of  the  barren  clays  overlying  the  millstone  grit,  and  the  fertile  soil  of  the  adjoining 
new  red  sandstone  would  be  noticed  by  the  farmer.  Risdon,  the  author  of  a  '  Chorographical  Survey 
of  the  County  of  Devon,'  in  the  reigns  of  James  I.  and  Charles  I.,  mentions  that  of  late  a  new  inven- 
tion had  sprung  up  and  been  practised,  by  burning  '  lyme,'  incorporating  it  for  a  season  with  earth, 

I         Greolog-y  ol*  Devonsliii'e.  59 

and  then  spread  upon  the  arable  land,  producing  a  plentiful  increase  of  all  sorts  of  grain,  where 
formerly  such  never  grew  in  any  living  man's  memory.  From  this  time  the  occurrence  of  veins  or 
beds  of  limestone  soon  became  noticed  in  various  localities,  and  was  included  by  almost  all  subsequent 
writers  amongst  the  economic  products  of  the  county.  An  agricultural  report  on  Devon  by  K. 
Fraser,  with  a  map  of  the  soils,  was  published  in  1794,  followed  in  1808  by  Vancouver's  general 
report  on  agriculture.  In  the  map  which  accompanies  this  work,  are  traced  the  beds  of  middle 
Devonian  limestone  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Ilfracombe,  and  those  south  of  Barnstaple,  belonging  to 
the  carboniferous  series.  The  close  of  the  last  and  the  commencement  of  the  present  century  was 
marked  by  the  publication  of  numerous  works  relative  to  the  geology  of  Devonshire  ;  these,  however, 
for  the  most  part  dealt  with  isolated  facts  and  phenomena,  such  as  the  Bovey  coal,  organic  remains  in 
the  limestone,  caverns,  &c.  ;  whilst  no  writer  attempted  more  than  the  very  rudimentary  subdivision 
of  the  rocks  into  granite,  slate  or  killas,  red  sandstone,  and  greensand.  The  granite  was  regarded  as 
the  primitive  or  oldest  known  stratum,  and  the  slates  and  grits,  comprising  so  large  a  portion  of  the 
district,  were  comprehended  under  the  various  designations  of  transition  slates,  greywacke,  or 
grauwake — this  latter  being  a  term  adopted  from  the  mining  phraseology  of  Germany. 

From  the  year  1814  the  list  of  those  who  directed  their  attention  to  the  subject  includes  such 
historical  names  as  Conybeare,  Sedgwick,  Buckland,  and  De  la  Beche.  The  Rev.  li.  Hennah  also 
contributed  to  the  Geological  Society  of  London  numerous  papers  on  the  geology  of  Plymouth.  Dr. 
Buckland's  papers  related  to  the  excavation  of  valleys  by  diluvial  action,  and  to  the  organic  remains 
of  the  caves ;  those  by  Sedgwick  to  the  formations  associated  with  the  primitive  ridge  of  Devonshire 
and  Cornwall.  The  geology  of  Okehampton,  Memoranda  relative  to  Clovelly,  and  a  notice  of  the 
red  rock  marl  or  newer  red  sandstone,  were  the  subjects  chosen  by  Conybeare ;  whilst  among  the 
numerous  contributions  of  De  la  Beche  may  be  noticed  his  remarks  on  the  geology  of  the  south 
coast  of  England  from  Bridport  to  Babbacombe  Bay,  the  anthracite  of  Bideford,  and  the  trappean 
rocks  associated  with  the  red  sandstone. 

In  1836  the  Rev.  Professor  Sedgwick  and  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir)  Roderick  Murchison  read  a  paper 
at  the  Bristol  meeting  of  the  British  Association,  which  was  the  means  of  directing  the  attention  of 
geologists  more  specially  to  the  rocks  of  the  northern  portion  of  the  county,  included  up  to  this  time 
under  the  old  names  of  transition  slate  and  grauwacke.  These  authors,  in  their  '  Classitication  of  the 
old  Slate  Rocks  of  the  North  of  Devonshire,  and  on  the  true  Position  of  the  Culm  Deposits  in  the  Central 
Portion  of  the  County,'  divided  the  series  into  five  groups,  separating  the  carboniferous  deposits, 
which  had  previously  been  classed  with  the  lowest  portion  of  the  grauwacke  ;  but  mistaking  what  is 
now  known  as  the  Upper  Devonian  or  Pilton  beds,  for  silurian  slates.  This  error  was  corrected 
three  years  later  in  a  further  communication  by  the  same  authors.  In  the  meantime  the  Rev.  David 
Williams  in  1837,  and  Mr.  T.  Weaver  in  1838,  proposed  a  still  more  minute  subdivision  of  the 
North  Devon  rocks,  based  to  a  considerable  extent  upon  the  petrological  character  of  the  beds. 
These  subdivisions,  it  may  be  remarked,  do  not  differ  in  any  material  degree  from  those  at  present 

We  now  come  for  the  first  time  to  the  introduction  of  the  term  '  Devonian,'  as  applied  to  the 
older  deposits  of  North  and  South  Devon.  Mr.  Lonsdale,  then  assistaiit  secretary  to  the  Geological 
Society  of  London,  had  remarked  that  the  fossils  of  the  ^grauwacke  group'  of  the  west  of  England 
had  characters  intermediate  between  those  of  the  silurian  rocks,  lately  reduced  to  order  by  the  labours 
of  Sir  R.  Murchison,  and  those  of  the  carboniferous  limestone.  The  existence  of  some  carboniferous 
species  in  that  so-called  'grauwacke  group'  was  apparently  recognised  by  Mr.  Lonsdale,  together 
with  other  species  believed  to  be  silurian,  while  other  peculiar  species  and  genera  had  characters 
which  seemed  to  give  them  an  intermediate  place  between  those  found  in  the  silurian  rocks,  and 
those  of  the  carboniferous  limestone.  Mr.  Lonsdale  therefore  suggested  to  Sir  R.  Murchison  and 
Professor  Sedgwick,  who  were  then  working  together  on  these  older  rocks  in  the  west  of  England  and 
elsewhere,  that  the  Devon  and  Cornish  rocks  were  of  an  age  intermediate  between  the  upper  silurian 
and  the  carboniferous  limestone.  This  shrewd  suggestion  was  adopted  by  Professor  Sedgwick  and 
Sir  R.  Murchison,  and  the  age  of  the  Devonian  slates  was  approximately  determined  by  it.  (Jukes.) 
In  1839  a  report  by  Sir  Henry  T.  de  la  Beche  on  the  geology  of  Cornwall,  Devon,  and  West  Somerset 
was  published  by  order  of  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  Her  Majesty's  Treasury.  This  work  contains 
an  index  to  the  sheets  of  the  Ordnance  Survey  maps,*  which  were  coloured  geologically  during  the 
preparation  of  the  report.  All  the  various  formations  as  they  were  then  known  are  fully  described, 
and  such  cognate  subjects  as  the  physical  structure  and  economic  products  of  the  district  are  also 
included.  The  indefinite  name  of  grauwacke  is,  however,  still  applied  to  the  older  slates ;  and  to 
remove  any  remaining  doubt  as  to  the  true  position  and  nature  of  these  deposits,  Professor  Phillips 

*  Although  the  insertion  of  the  lines  of  railway  gives  them  a  modern  appearance,  the  maps  of  the  Ordnance 
Survey  for  this  county,  on  the  one-inch  scale,  were  published  in  1809.  Since  this  date  most  of  the  principal  turnpike 
roads  have  been  made,  and  many  of  those  indicated  on  the  map  have  been  closed  or  diverted  for  more  than  half  a 

60  Grcoloft-y  ol'  I>cvoiiHliii'e. 

received  instructions  from  the  Treasury  to  examine  and  describe,  for  the  purpose  of  publication,  the  1 

organic  remains.     This  resulted  in  1841  in  the  issue  of  his  'Palaiozoic  Fossils  of  Cornwall,  Devon,ij 

and  West  Somerset,'  a  work  of  the  greatest  possible  value,  containing  CO  plates,  with  descriptions  <j 

and  figures  of  277  species  of  Devonian  and  carboniferous  fossils,  and  tables  showing  their  relativcfi 

distribution  in  North  and  South  Devon.     From  this  time  the  nomenclature  and  sequence  of  the  rocksii 

may  be  said  to  be  clearly  established,  and  the  many  subsequent  geological  papers  relating  to  thisi| 

county  will  therefore  be  noticed,  where  necessary,  in  our  sketch  of  each  of  the  several  formations.!' 

This  general  history  of  the  subject  would  be  incomplete,  without  the  mention  of  the  establishment  iuij 

18G2  of  the  Devonshire  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  Literature,  and  Art,  which  up  to' 

the  present  time  has  distributed  amongst  its  members  nine  volumes  of  Transactions,  containing  manyi! 

important  contril)utions  to  local  geology.     In  1865  the  age  of  the  older  slates  again  became  a  matter 

of  dispute.     The  late  Mr.  Jukes,  whose  position  as  Director  of  the  Irish  branch  of  the  Geological 

Survey,  and  whose  intimate  knowledge  of  the  carboniferous  slates  of  the  west  of  Ireland,  entitled  him 

to  the  respect  of  even  those  who  differed  most  from  him,  entered  into  an  argument  to  prove  that  the, 

Devonian  rocks  do  not  form  an  independent  system  of  themselves,  but  are  in  truth  the  equivalents  oi' 

the  carboniferous  slates  of  Ireland.     These  views  have  been  vigorously  opposed,  chiefly  on  palseonto- 

logical  evidence,  by  Mr.  Etheridge,  in  a  very  elaborate  paper  on  the  Physical  Structure  of  West 

Somerset  and  North  Devon  ('  Quarterly  Journal,  Geol.  Soc.,'  vol.  xxiii.  p.  568),  also  by  Professor 

J.  Phillips,  Townshend  M.  Hall,  and  others. 

Metamorphic  Rocks. — The  extreme  southern  termination  of  Devonshire,  including  the  district 

round  Bolt  Head,  Prawle,  and  Start  Points,  is  composed  of  metamorphic  rocks,  mica  schists,  and 

chlorite  slate.    The  possibility  of  these  being  the  oldest  known  formations  in  the  county,  and  belonging 

to  the  Silurian  age,  gives  them  some  claim  to  be  described  first  in  this  sketch.     Sir  H.  De  la  Beche 

regards  mica  slate  as  the  predominant  substance,  occurring  in  various  parts  of  the  area,  but  most 

abundant  in  the  south,  where  indeed  it  sometimes  passes  into  a  gneiss,  by  the  addition  of  felspar  to  its 

ordinary  constituent  minerals,  mica  and  quartz.     The  gneiss  is  chiefly  observable  near  the  Prawle 

Point,  and  the  mica  slate  best  seen  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Bolt  Head.     True  chlorite  slate  is  not  veiy 

abundant ;  but  a  compound  of  quartz  and  an  ambiguous  mineral  much  resembling  chlorite  occurs, 

intermingled  with  a  chloritic  and  thick-bedded  rock  very  frequently  towards  the  northern  part  of  this 

area.     Supposing  the  metamorphic  rocks  of  the  Lizard  Point,  in  Cornwall,  to  be  of  the  same  geological 

age,  the  gneiss  rock  on  which  the  Eddystone  Lighthouse  is  built  is  regarded  by  Sir  H.  De  la  Beche 

as  forming  a  connecting  link  between  one  district  and  another.     The  cause  of  the  alteration  effected 

in  these  rocks  is  attributed  by  Mr.  Jukes  and  Dr.  Holl  to  a  deeply-seated  granite  mass  existing  either 

beneath  them,  or  in  some  adjacent  part  of  the  sea  bed.     A  fact  corroborating  the  latter  theory  has 

been  recorded  by  Mr.  W.  Pengelly,  who  observes  that  not  only  do  boulders  of  granite  occur  between 

the  Start  and  Prawle  Points,  but  that  in  the  entire  coast,  between  the  mouths  of  the  rivers  Avon  and 

Erme,  he  finds  no  beach  without  granitoid  fragments,  and  in  a  small  pebble  beach,  near  the  mouth  of 

the  latter  river,  all  the  pebbles  are  fragments  of  schorl-rock  and  porphyry. 

The  geological  age  of  the  metamorphosed  rocks  is  a  problem  less  easy  to  solve.     Both  Mr.  Jukes 

and  Dr.  Holl  consider  them  to  belong  to  the  Devonian  period ;   but  if,  on  the  other  hand,  they  can  be 

connected  with  the  metamorphic  rocks  of  South  Cornwall,  which  are  in  the  same  line  of  strike,  it  is 

quite  possible  that  they  may  be  Lower  Silurian ;  the  fossiliferous  quartzites  of  Gorran  Haven  and  the 

Dodman  being  known  to  belong  to  that  period.     The  great  difficulty,  as  recently  shoAvn  by  Mr.  W. 

Pengelly,  is  in  assigning  '  a  Lower  Silurian  age  to  the  Start  and  Bolt  rocks,  simply  because  they  were 

probably  metamorphosed  by  the  same  agency,  and  at  the  same  time,  as  the  undoubted  Lower  Silurian 

beds  of  Gorran  and  the  Dodman ;  whereas  the  truth  may  be,  and  probably  is,  that  the  two  sets  of 

rocks  were  coeval,  not  in  their  origin,  but  in  their  metamorphosis  only.'  ('  Trans.  Devon.  Assoc.,' 

vol.  ix.  p.  411.) 

Devonian  Period. — Geographically,  the  Devonian  beds  may  be  divided  into  two  principal  ar^aas, 

those  of  North  and  South  Devon ;  whilst  chronologically,  they  may  be  classed  as  Lower,  Middle,  and 

Upper.      In  the  northern  area  will  be  found  a  more   complete  succession  of  the  beds,  and  in  the 

southern  a  better  development  of  the  lower  and  middle  divisions.     The  North  Devon  series  extends 

from  the  Bristol  Channel  southward  to  a  line  draAvn  from  Barnstaple  to  East  Anstey,  near  Dulverton ; 

the  unfossiliferous  sandstones  of  the  North  Foreland,  near  Lynton,  forming  the  base.     A  section  from 

this  point  to  the  uppermost  beds  of  Pilton,  will  give  the  following  sequence  of  beds  in  ascending  order : — 

T  1^         •        f  Foreland  sandstones. 

Lower  Devonian.  <  ^      .       ,     , 
I  Lynton  beds. 

r  Martinhoe  or  Hangman  beds. 

Middle  Devonian.  <J  Ilfracombe  slates  and  limestones. 

^Morthoe  slates. 

fPickwell  Down  sandstones.. 

Upper  Devonian.  <  CucuUa^a,  or  Marwood  zone. 

L  PJltpn  beds. 

Oeolog'y  of  Devonsliire.  (Jl 

)ne  of  the  earliest  attempts  to  subdivide  the  North  Devon  rocks  Avas  made  in  1837,  by  the  Rev. 
3.  Williams,  who  arranged  the  series  in  six  groups.  A  somewhat  similar  classification  was  adopted 
a  1841  by  Professor  Phillips  in  his  '  Paleozoic  Fossils.'  In  this  work  the  organic  remains  are 
abulated  according  to  their  occurrence  in  the  three  fossiliferous  beds  of  Lynton,  llfracombe  and 
^ilton,  equivalent  to  the  Lower,  Middle  and  Upper  Devonian,  and  compared  with  the  corresponding 
eries  in  8outli  Devon.  The  same  analytical  method  was  adopted  for  the  Devonian  Brachiopoda 
)V  Mr.  T.  Davidson,  in  his  splendid  monograph,  issued  in  18G5  by  the  Palasontographical  Society  ; 
tud  in  the  copious  tables  prepared  by  Mr.  Etheridge  to  illustrate  his  paper,  already  referred  to,  in 
1867,  will  be  found  lists  of  all  the  known  species  in  the  animal  kingdom,  whicli  are  either 
characteristic  oE  each  division,  or  which  pass  from  one  into  another.  In  the  '  Quarterly  Journal  of  the 
geological  Society  '  for  the  same  year,  the  relative  distribution  of  fossils  throughout  the  North  Devon 
ieries  was  shown  by  the  author  in  greater  local  detail,  by  comparing  the  results  ol)tained  in  various 
ocalities  situated  in  the  same  bed. 

The  Forehmd  rising  to  an  elevation  of  G89  feet,  forms  the  most  northerly  point  of  the  county, 
md  part  of  the  same  range  of  sandstones  and  grits  as  North  Hill,  Grabbist  and  Porlock  hills,  along 
he  adjoining  West  Somerset  coast.  These  rocks  are  of  a  red  or  brown  colour,  and  are  tlirown  up 
n  a  great  anticlinal  curve ;  one  side  of  which  dips  into  the  sea,  and  the  other  supports  the  grey 
Lynton  beds.  The  latter,  forming  the  lowest  known  fossiliferous  strata  of  the  district,  consist  of  hard 
rrits,  shales,  and  sandstones,  intersected  with  occasional  bands  of  calcareous  and  ferruginous  matter. 
Ihe  fossils  are  few  in  number  and  imperfectly  preserved,  being  either  crushed  and  distorted,  or 
Dccurring  as  impressions  or  casts  only.  In  the  Valley  of  Hocks,  at  Watersmeet,  Woodabay,  and 
Barbrick  Mill,  all  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Lynton,  the  most  characteristic  fossils  are  : — Favosites 
■jervicornis,  Fenestella  antiqua,  Chonetes  Hardreiisis,  Orthis  arcuata,  Spirifcra  hysterica^  Spin/era 
IcBvicosta.  At  Lynmouth  there  is  a  bed  in  which  some  remains  of  fish  have  been  found.  Owing  to 
the  great  depth  of  the  valleys  and  ravines  by  which  the  Lynton  district  is  intersected,  the  succession 
of  the  beds  is  at  first  sight  by  no  means  easy  to  determine.  Overlying  the  fossiliferous  bed  will  be 
foimd  a  second  great  series  of  red  sandstones  and  grits,  forming  the  high  table  land  above  Lynton, 
and  the  coast  line  as  far  as  the  Little  Hangman,  near  Combmartin.  At  Combmartin  the  llfracombe 
group  commences,  and  the  red  sandstones  give  place  to  the  grey  silvery  slates,  with  their  limestone 
bands,  belonging  to  the  Middle  Devonian.  In  and  near  the  town  of  llfracombe  the  slates  predominate, 
and  excellent  sections  are  afforded  by  the  tunnels  leading  to  the  bathing  cove,  the  terrace  of  the 
llfracombe  Hotel,  and  the  walks  round  Capstone  Hill.  Proceeding  along  the  new  coast  road  towards 
Combmartin,  the  limestones  are  seen  near  the  village  of  Hole,-  and  at  Haggington  ;  whilst  at  Comb- 
martin they  attain  their  greatest  thickness,  and  are  extensively  quarried.  The  limestones  are 
fossiliferous,  containing  lai-ge  quantities  of  corals,  and  imperfect  casts  of  brachiopods  and  other  shells, 
but  owing  to  the  crystalline  structure  and  extreme  hardness  of  the  stone  they  can  only  be  obtained 
with  difficulty  in  the  quarries ;  good  specimens  of  corals  and  encrinites  may  however  frequently  be 
found  on  the  surface  of  the  rocks  which  have  become  'weathered'  or  partially  decomposed  by  exposure 
to  the  atmosphere.  The  follovv'ing  are  the  fossils  most  commonly  met  with  in  these  beds : — Cfjatho- 
phyllum  ccespitosum,  Cyathophyllum  obtortum,  Favosites  cervicornis,  Stroniatopora  concentrica, 
Mtrista  plebeia,  lienseUoeria  stringiceps,  Stringocephahis  Burtim,  Spirifera,  several  species ;  Stro- 
phomena  analoga,  Loxoneina,  Tentaculites  scalaris^  Phacops!  Iccvh;  and  fish  remains.  The  slates, 
especially  in  Ilele  and  Watermouth  Bays,  contain  obscure  markings  which  may  possibly  belong  either 
to  corals  or  the  remains  of  plants. 

The   succeeding  Morthoe  beds  consist  also  of  slates,  which  have  hitherto  proved  destitute  of 

fossils.      They  form  Morte  and  Bull  Points,  and  extend  inland  to  Span  Head  on  Exmoor.       (In  the 

absence  of  a  geological  map  it  may  be  remarked  that  all  the  North  Devon  beds  run  in  a  direction 

froui  W.N.W.  to  E.S.E.,  with  a  general  dip  to  the  south.      None  of  the  subdivisions  of  the  Devonian 

series  either  here  or  in  South  Devon  are  marked  in  the  maps  of  the  Geological   Survey.)     The 

distinguishing  feature  of  the  Morthoe  slates  is  the  absence  of  limestone,  and  the  abundance  of  white 

quartz,  both  in  veins  and  reefs,  which  intersects  them  in  every  possible  direction.     The  lowest  portion 

i  of  the  Upper  Devonian  is  formed  by  the  Pickwell  Down  sandstones,  a  thick  series  of  red  unfossilif erous 

beds,  containing  a  good  deal  of  manganese  and  iron  oi-e.     Resting  on  these  is  a  narrow  zone  of  hard 

ferruginous  sandstone,  with  olive-coloured  shales,  known  as  the  Marwood  or  CucuUaja  bed,  this  latter 

name  having  reference  to  the  vast  assemblage  of  bivalve   shells  belonging  to  the  genus  cuculkca, 

which  are  found  throughout  its  entire  length  from  Baggy  Point  to  Dulverton.     Besides  these  fossils, 

plant  remains  of  several  genera,    such  as  Stigmaria,   Jihodea,    and  Knorria^   are   not   uncommon, 

■  indicating  a  deposition  in  shallow  water.      At  the  quarry  of  Sloly,  on  the  turnpike  road  from  Barn- 

;  staple  to  llfracombe,  the  shales  contain  numerous  Unguloe. 

The  Pilton  beds  form  the  last  remaining  member  of  the  Upper  Devonian.     They  consist  chiefly 

'  of  slates  and  shales  of  a  purplish  or  greyish  colour,  with  occasional  thin  veins  of  limestone,  composed 

frequently  of  little  else  than  the  remains  of  shells  and  crinoids.     The  slates  also  are  abundantly 

62  Greolog;y  ol'  I>evoiisliire. 

fossiliferous,  having  yielded  more  species  (many  of  them  new  and  undescribed  forms)  than  the  whole 
of  the  other  groups  put  together.  Excellent  sections  of  the  beds  may  be  seen  along  the  coast  line 
from  Croyde  Bay  to  Saunton ;  and  inland  the  quarries  of  Braunton,  Pilton,  Goodleigh  and  Brushford, 
are  also  deserving  of  notice.  Amongst  the  fossils  most  generally  distributed  throughout  the  Pilton 
beds  are  the  following : —  Petraia  celtica,  Fenestella  antiqua,  Glauconome  hipinnata^  Athyris 
concentn'ca,  Chonetes  Ilardrensis,  Orthis  interlineata,  Productus  prelongus,  Rhynchonella  pleurodon, 
Spirt/era  disjuncta^  Spirifera  Urii,  Streptorhynchus  crenistria,  Strophalosia  productoides,  Strophomena 
analoga,  Cui'tonotus,  Sanguinolites,  Euomphalus  serpens,  Cyathocrinus  2'>innatus,  Cya'hocrinus 
variabilis,  Phacops  latifrons,  starfish,  plant  remains,  &c. 

Proceeding  to  the  Devonian  series  in  South  Devon,  we  find  the  slates  and  limestones  occupy  the 
whole  district,  with  the  exception  of  the  intervening  granite  of  Dartmoor,  from  Newton  Abbott  to 
Tavistock,  and  southwards  to  the  metamorphic  rocks  of  the  Bolt  and  Start.  The  same  series  extends 
westward  throughout  Cornwall.  The  subdivision  of  this  area  presents  considerable  difficulty,  not 
only  from  the  probable  absence  in  it  of  several  of  the  beds  which  are  found  in  the  North  Devon 
section,  but  also  from  the  intervention  of  masses  of  igneous  rock.  The  line  of  separation  between  the 
Devonian  and  carboniferous  beds  is  frequently  rendered  most  obscure  from  this  cause.  In  1841, 
Professor  Phillips  divided  the  beds  into  the  Upper  or  Petherwin,  and  the  Lower  or  Plymouth  groups. 
Dr.  Harvey  Holl,  in  the  sketch  map  which  accompanies  a  paper  to  the  Geological  Society  ('  On  the 
older  Rocks  of  South  Devon  and  East  Cornwall,'  1868),  refers  the  deposits  to  an  Upper  South  Devon 
and  Lower  South  Devon  group  respectively,  these  terms  in  each  case  being  used  in  a  local  signi- 
fication. As  ah  isolated  patch  of  slate,  corresponding  to  the  Upper  Devonian  of  North  Devon,  occurs 
near  Launceston,  just  within  the  borders  of  this  county,  and  as  recent  discoveries  of  fossils  have 
suggested  the  existence  of  Upper  Devonian  beds  in  South  Devon,  the  same  triple  division  adopted 
in  the  case  of  the  northern  area  may  probably  also  be  applied  with  advantage  to  this. 

The  fossiliferous  beds  of  the  Lower  Devonian  occur  at  Mudstone  Bay,  near  Brixham,  Glampton, 
and  at  Meadfoot,  near  Torquay,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Plymouth,  and  probably  also  at  Black  Hall, 
south  of  Totnes.  Amongst  the  fossils  occurring  in  the  gritty  slates  of  Meadfoot  may  be  named 
Homalonotus  elongatus,  ,a  large  trilobite,  with  a  tail  measuring  nearly  three  inches  in  length, 
Pleiirodlctyum  prohlematicum,  Platycrinus  prisons,  several  brachiopods  and  two  instances  of  fish 
remains  ;  a  scale  of  Holoptychus  having  been  figured  by  Professor  Phillips,  and  a  scale  of  Phyllolepis 
concentricus,  found  by  Mr.  Pengelly.  At  Black  Hall  the  slates  have  yielded  Phacops  latifrons, 
.Strophomena  rhomboidalis,  Streptorhynchus  crenistria,  Leptcena  inter strialis,  Chonetes  Hardrensis,  and 
numerous  crinoidal  stems  ('  Trans.  Devon.  Assoc.,'  vol.  vi.  p.  649).  ,* 

The  limestones  belonging  to  the  Middle  Devonian  form  a  striking  feature  in  the  scenery  of  the 
county,  and  a  well-defined  landmark  in  its  geological  history.  These  are  first  seen  in  the  vicinity  of 
Newton  Abbot,  and  thence  continue  in  great  irregular  masses,  associated  with  the  slates  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Totnes  and  the  two  extremities  of  Tor  Bay.  In  addition  there  are  numerous  smaller 
outliers,  especially  one  at  Yealmpton,  intervening  between  them  and  another  extensive  series  of 
limestone  deposits  at  Plymouth.  According  to  Mr.  Worth,  the  boring,  300  feet  in  depth,  for  the 
Victoria  Spa  at  Plymouth,  proved  the  existence  of  two  distinct  beds  of  limestone,  one  50  and  the 
other  150  feet  in  thickness,  intercalated  with  sandstone  and  slate  ;  and  a  careful  examination  of  the 
stratigraphical  positions  of  the  limestones  in  other  parts  of  South  Devon  show  that  some  must  belong 
to  a  lower  horizon  than  others,  though  the  faults  and  contortions  by  which  they  have  been  disturbed 
render  it  almost  impossible  to  arrive  at  any  satisfactory  conclusions  as  to  their  relation  to  each  other. 
At  Yealmpton  the  limestone  is  highly  crystalline,  and  partially  converted  into  dolomite.  At 
Plymouth  some  of  the  beds  are  of  a  slatey  and  others  of  an  arenaceous  nature,  a  quarter  of  the  bulk 
consisting  of  a  red  siliceous  sand.  Other  beds,  again,  are  formed  of  little  else  than  the  remains  of 
corals,  and  very  fine  specimens  may  be  observed  on  a  Avet  day  in  some  of  the  stones  used  as  flagging 
in  the  streets  of  Plymouth.  The  limestones  of  Bradley  Wood,  near  Newton,  are  full  of  the  beautiful 
feather  madrepore,  Favosites  cervicornis,  and  are  in  much  demand  for  brooches  and  other  articles  of 
ornament,  inkstands,  &c.  The  other  limestone  masses,  such  as  those  near  Torquay,  are  also  more  or 
less  abundantly  fossiliferous,  afEord  a  large  series  of  shells,  and  numerous  very  beautiful  corals.  The 
fauna  of  the  whole  district  is  larger  than  that  of  the  corresponding  Middle  Devonian  of  Combmartin 
and  Ilfracombe,  but  inferior  to  that  of  the  Eifel. 

Amongst  the  fossils  of  this  group  may  be  noticed — Stromatop)ora  concentrica,  Cyathophyllum 
coespitostim,  Heliolites  jjorosa,  Acervularia,  Favosites  cervicornis,  Bronteus  flahellifer,  Phacops 
latifrons,  P.  granulatus,  Cheirurus  articulatus,  Merista  plehia,  Spirifera  nuda,  Spirifera  cui^vata, 
Cyrtina  heteroclita,  Atrypa  reticularis,  Atrypa  aspera,  Rhynchonella  cuhoides,  R.  primipilaris,  R. 
implexa,  Pentamerus  hreviostris,  Strepterhynchus  umhracidum,  Orthis  striatula,  String ocephalus 
JBurtini,  Murchisonia,  Cyrtoceras,  Orthoceras,  &c. 

The  Upper  Devonian  group  will  include  the  fossiliferous  beds  at  Landlake  or  South  Petherwin, 
near  Launceston.     Two  miles  north  of  this  town,  and  on  the  Devonshire  side  of  the  stream  which 

Greolo^y  of  I>evoiisliire.  63 

forms  the  boundary  of  the  county,  a  small  outlying  patch  of  slate  occurs  at  the  bottom  of  the  valley, 
and  a  short  distance  from  the  Duke  of  Bedford's  mansion  at  Werrington.  In  these  slates,  and  in  the 
adjoining  beds,  are  found  Petraia  celtica,  Sanguinolitas,  Orthis,  Orthoceras^  Phacops^  &c.  The  ques- 
tion of  the  occurrence  of  Upper  Devonian  beds  in  South  Devon  rests  chiefly  upon  palaeontological 
evidence,  and  till  recently  there  was  a  general  opinion  that  no  beds  of  this  age  were  to  be  found  in 
the  district.  In  1873,  Mr.  Champernowne  recorded  the  discovery  in  slate,  near  Harberton,  of  a  new 
starfish,  Helianthastei^  jiliciformis,  which  presents  a  great  analogy  to  those  from  the  Pilton  beds 
(Upper  Devonian)  of  North  Devon,  and  in  the  '  Geological  Magazine  '  for  March,  1877,  Mr.  J.  E.  Lee 
described  and  figured  several  species  of  Goniatites,  an  Orthoceras^  and  a  minute  bivalve,  Cardium 
pabnatum,  which  he  had  found  at  Saltern  Cave,  Torbay.  These  species  occur  plentifully  at 
Budesheim  in  the  Eifel,  in  beds  of  shale,  which  are  classed  by  the  German  geologists  as  Upper 
Devonian,  and  although  they  have  not  hitherto  been  recognised  in  the  north  of  Devon,  the  identity  of 
the  species  from  areas  so  far  distant  as  Torbay  and  the  Eifel,  is  an  interesting  and  important  fact, 
which  will  doubtless  lead  to  further  results. 

The  trappean  rocks,  greenstones  and  ash  beds  found  so  frequently  in  the  southern  districts,  indi- 
cate a  long-continued  and^  widespread  igneous  action  during  the  Devonian  and  succeeding  car- 
boniferous period,  and  may  be  divided  into  contemporary  and  intrusive  rocks.  Most  of  the  latter 
probably  belong  to  the  great  volcanic  outburst  which  took  place  during,  or  at  the  close  of  the  car- 
boniferous period,  and  will  therefore  be  noticed  under  that  head  ;  but  the  interstratified  greenstone 
and  ash  beds  were  clearly  formed  during  the  deposition  of  the  slates,  with  which  they  are  associated, 
and  into  which,  indeed,  they  often  imperceptibly  graduate. 

The  traps  occur  in  numerous  parallel  bands  at  Saltash,  near  Plymouth,  and  in  irregular  beds  or 
patches  scattered  over  most  of  the  area.  In  appearance  they  vary  from  a  hard  compact  rock,  which, 
however,  frequently  decomposes  near  the  surface,  to  a  schistose  and  almost  slatey  substance.  Ash  beds 
and  vesicular  traps  are  also  occasionally  found ;  some  of  the  latter  having  the  cavities  partially  filled 
with  carbonate  of  lime.  In  North  Devon,  during  the  same  period,  the  traces  of  igneous  action  are 
seen  to  a  very  considerably  less  extent.  A  narrow  band  of  porphyritic  felstone  runs  from  Morte  Bay 
to  Exmoor,  at  the  base  of  the  Upper  Devonian  beds.  Another,  though  much  thicker,  bed  of  compact 
felstone  occurs  near  Kentisbury,  in  the  middle  of  the  Ilfracombe  slates,  whilst  several  others  are 
found  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Parracombe.  In  all  cases  they  appear  to  be  contemporaneous  with 
the  slates  in  which  they  occur,  and  in  some  localities  seem  to  be  little  else  than  reconstructed  beds  of 
volcanic  ash. 

The  economic  products  of  the  Devonian  series,  exclusive  of  minerals  (which  will  be  noticed  in 
a  separate  article),  consist  principally  of  slate  and  limestone.  The  latter  is  burnt  at  Combmartin, 
Ilfracombe,  and  throughout  South  Devon,  for  purposes  of  agriculture,  building,  &c. ;  whilst  the  finer 
qualities,  known  under  the  name  of  South  Devon  marbles,  occur  at  Plymouth,  St.  Mary  Church,  near 
Torquay,  Ipplepen,  Chudleigh,  and  several  other  localities.  They  receive  a  high  polish,  and  present 
a  great  variety,  both  of  marking  and  colouring.  They  are  extensively  employed  in  church  archi- 
tecture, as  well  as  for  monuments,  chimney-pieces,  vases,  and  small  ornaments  of  all  descriptions. 
Their  unequal  mineralisation  and  the  presence  of  soft  veins,  unfits  them  for  external  work,  as  they 
rapidly  disintegrate  on  exposure,  when  the  polished  surface  becomes  dull  and  full  of  fissures 
or  cracks. 

The  Devonian  slates  are  used  as  flag-stones,  billiard  tables,  chimney-pieces,  and  roofing-slates , 
though  for  the  latter  purpose  they  are  generally  found  to  be  inferior  to  those  of  Delabole  in  Cornwall, 
and  have,  therefore,  at  the  present  time,  little  more  than  a  local  demand.  At  Yeolm  Bridge,  near 
Launceston,  the  slates  exhibit,  when  cut,  waves  or  stripes  of  different  colours,  rendering  them  well 
adapted  for  chimney-pieces.  East  of  Dartmoor  roofing  slates  are  obtained  at  Ashburton  ;  on  the 
south  at  Ivy  Bridge,  Buckland-tout-saints,  and  Kingsbridge;  and  on  the  vest  at  Cann  quarry,  near 
Bickley,  Mill  Hill  quarry  near  Tavistock,  &c.  In  North  Devon  some  of  the  Morthoe  slates  have 
locally  been  used  for  roofing,  but  are  of  a  very  indifferent  quality. 

Carboniferous  System. — This  system,  as  exhibited  in  Devonshire,  consists  of  carboniferous 
shales,  mountain  limestone,  and  millstone  grit,  this  last  largely  predominating.  The  whole  series 
occupies  a  trough-shaped  depression,  bounded  both  on  the  north  and  south  by  Devonian  slates,  and 
measuring  at  right  angles  to  tlie  general  line  of  strike,  thirty-six  miles  in  Avidth  at  the  broadest  part 
and  twenty-two  at  the  narrowest.  The  northern  limit  passes  very  nearly  along  the  line  of  the  Devon 
and  Somerset  Railway  from  Barnstaple  to  Dulverton,  whilst  that  on  the  south  is  broken  and  inter- 
rupted by  the  granite  of  Dartmoor,  which  it  surrounds  on  three  sides.  On  the  east  it  is  cut  off  by 
the  overlying  triassic  deposits,  and  on  the  west  by  Barnstaple  Bay  and  the  Atlantic.  The  centre  of 
this  great  district  is  composed  of  millstone  grit,  bordered  both  north  and  south  by  the  carboniferous 
limestone  and  shales.  The  transition  from  the  Upper  Devonian  slates  to  the  lower  carboniferous 
shales  is  hidden  almost  everywhere  along  the  northern  boundary  by  detritus  and  superficial  deposits  ; 
and  apart  from  this,  the  petrological  difference  between  the  two  rocks  is  so  imperceptible  near  the  line 

64  Creoloft-y  oi*  Jt>cvoii}-»liire. 

of  boundary,  that  it  is  only  by  a  careful  examination  of  the  fossils  tliat  the  passage  from  one  system  to 
another  can  be  observed.  Thus,  immediately  north  of  Barnstaple  the  slates  are  full  of  the  numerous 
and  well-defined  Upper  Devonian  fossils,  which  have  already  been  noticed ;  and  south  of  the  town,  in 
the  railway  cutting  at  the  Junction  station,  the  slates  are  to  all  appearance  precisely  similar,  but  the 
total  absence  of  all  the  typical  Pilton  fossils  and  the  jiresence  of  a  few  well-known  carboniferous 
species  is  sufficient  to  indicate  a  transition  into  another  system  of  rocks.  On  the  south  also  the  exact 
junction  with  the  Devonian  is  rendered  most  obscure,  though  from  a  different  cause.  Many  inter- 
bedded  trappean  ]-ocks  and  ash  beds  exist  in  both  formations,  and  have  effected  an  alteration  to  some 
extent  in  ejich,  rendering  their  separation  very  difficult.  The  fossils  of  the  carboniferous  shales  are 
few  in  number,  and  usually  in  a  bad  state  of  preservation.  Intermixed  with  these  shales  occur  the 
bands  of  limestone,  which  appear  as  the  representatives  of  the  great  series  of  mountain  limestone  of 
Derbyshire,  Yorkshire,  and  the  north  of  England.  They  extend  in  a  narrow  band  from  Bampton  to 
Fremington,  near  Barnstaple ;  and  are  Avorked  at  several  intermediate  localities,  such  as  South  Mol- 
ton,  Swimbridge,  and  Venn  quarry,  near  Landkey.  Throiigliout  their  course  the  beds  are  violently 
and  variously  contorted,  and  the  list  of  fossils  occurring  in  them  is  limited  in  number  to  some  eleven 
or  twelve  species.  At  Venn  and  Swimbridge  the  characteristic  fossils  are  : — Posidonomya  JJecheri, 
Posidonomya  lateralis,  Cdymenia,  Goniatites  spiralis,  and  Belleroplion  striatus. 

The  limestones  on  the  south  are  worked  near  Launceston,  Lew  Trenchard,  Bridestow,  South 
Tawton,  Drewsteignton,  and  several  other  places.  Here  also  Posidonomija  is  the  characteristic  shell. 
In  close  proximity  to  the  limestone  are  beds  of  a  whitish  shale,  passing  occasionally  into  a  substance 
resembling  porcelainite,  with  beds  and  veins  of  a  hard  white  or  grey  chert.  These  are  well  seen  at 
St.  Stephen's  Hill  near  Launceston,  and  at  Coddon  Hill  near  Barnstaple,  Avhere  the  remains  of  crinoidal 
stems  and  goniatites  have  been  found.  From  Coddon  Hill,  628  feet  in  height,  as  a  centre,  a  small  range 
of  hills  stretches  on  either  side  to  Castle  Hill  on  the  east,  and  Fremington  on  the  west,  which,  by  their 
peculiar,  rounded  contours,  as  well  as  by  the  contortions  to  which  the  adjoining  rocks  have  been 
subjected,  suggest  that  some  deep-seated  but  imseen  igneous  action  has  taken  place  since  the  depo- 
sition of  the  strata.  The  succeeding  millstone  grits  occupy  the  remainder  of  the  district.  They  are 
composed  of  beds  of  hard  grits,  altei-nating  with  slates  and  shales,  forming  a  series  of  anticlinals  and 
synclinals,  with  contortions  in  every  possible  direction.  The  coast  line  in  general  presents  a  splendid 
series  of  cliff*,  those  near  Clovelly  and  Hartland  being  especially  remarkable,  not  only  for  their  height, 
but  also  for  the  manner  in  which  the  beds  have  been  dislocated,  crumpled  up,  overturned,  and  contorted. 
On  the  exposed  surflices  of  the  beds  are  frequently  found  ripple  marks,  similar  in  appearance  to 
those  left  at  the  present  day  by  the  receding  tide  on  a  sandy  beach.  The  grits  of  the  series  form  good 
building  and  road  material.  They  are  too  hard  to  yield  to  the  chisel,  but  as  they  occur  in  thin  beds 
intersected  by  numerous  joints  and  planes  of  cleavage,  the  stone  readily  comes  out  of  the  quarry  in 
blocks  of  a  convenient  size  and  shape  for  the  mason's  use.  The  natural  faces  of  the  stone  are  nearly 
always  covered  with  a  superficial  metallic  coating  which,  without  affecting  its  durability,  produces  a 
variety  in  its  colouring,  and,  as  may  be  seen  at  the  various  stations  along  the  North  Devon  Eailway, 
gives  a  good  effect  to  the  building,  Avhen  relieved  with  dressings  of  freestone  or  white  brick. 

The  soil  of  the  district  is  usually  poor,  and  tracts  of  moorland  with  sterile  clays  are  not  uncommon. 
The  ferruginous  matter  in  the  soil  coming  in  contact  with  the  roots  of  the  oak  ]:)roduces,  as  was  first 
observed  by  Sedgwick  and  Murchison,  small  streamlets  of  a  natural  ink,  which  discolour  the  deep 
cuttings  by  the  sides  of  the  roads.  Several  intermittent  beds  of  anthracite,  or  culm  as  it  is  locally 
called,  traverse  the  millstone  grit  from  Greenacliff,  near  Bideford,  to  Umberleigh  Station,  and  sufficient 
fuel  was  formerly  raised  in  this  locality  to  burn  the  limestone  brought  from  South  Wales.  The 
adjoining  slates  are  in  many  places  almost  vertical ;  but  there  are  also  several  anticlinals.  A  hard 
quartziferous  sandstone  almost  approaching  a  quartzite  occurs  near  an  outcrop  of  a  vein  containing 
iron  ore  and  manganese  at  Greenacliff,  and  on  the  south  of  it  the  nests  or  bunches  of  anthracite 
afford  good  specimens  of  Pecopteris,  Calamitcs  and  Lepidodendron.  At  Pitt  quarry,  in  the  parish  wi 
of  Abbotshani,  a  great  varletj'^  of  characteristic  plants,  including  the  rare  Bowmanites  or  fruit  of  theH 
calamite,  have  been  found  in  the  grits  adjoining  the  culm  bands.  Still  proceeding  eastward,  at  Bide- 
ford may  be  seen,  a  few  yards  north  of  the  new  railway  station,  some  black  shales  forming  the  outcrop 
of  the  veins  which,  until  a  very  recent  period,  were  worked  to  a  considerable  extent.  The  ruins  of 
the  old  engine  house  still  remain,  and  about  a  mile  to  the  east  the  present  works  are  carried  on  for 
the  purpose  of  obtaining  the  softer  varieties  of  anthracite,  which,  ground  to  a  powder,  are  sold  as  a 
pigment  under  the  name  of  '  Bideford  black,' 

From  this  to  Alverdiscott  and  Hiscott  the  direction  of  the  beds  may  be  traced  by  the  bands  of 
black  soil,  and  by  the  numerous  old  workings  which  were  probably  used  about  the  end  of  the  last, 
and  the  beginning  of  the  present,  century.  At  Hiscott,  near  Tawstock,  almost  in  the  middle  of  the 
beds,  there  are  two  veins,  nine  feet  in  thickness ;  the  produce  formerly  amounted  to  upwards  of  900 
bushels  per  week,  but  the  workings  Avere  discontinued  about  the  year  1800,  on  account  of  the; 
difficulty  of  keeping  out  the  water.     The  termination  of  the  beds  is  seen  associated  with  grits  in  a| 


<3reolog,*y  of  I>evoiisliii:*e.  Go 

roadside  cutting  at  the  top  of  Hawkridge  Wood,  near  Umberleigh  Station.  Here  there  are  sand- 
stones and  shales  containing  plant  remains,  but  in  a  bad  state  of  preservation.  In  the  wood  between 
the  road  and  the  river  Taw,  the  bed  has  also  been  extensively  worked.  The  whole  length  of  the 
series,  as  measured  on  the  Ordnance  Map,  is  twelve  miles  and  a-half.  A  list  of  the  fossils  found  in  the 
j  North  Devon  culm  beds  includes  one  single  shell  of  the  genus  Anthracosia,  and  twenty-six  species  of 
plants,  belonging  principally  to  Asterophyllites,  Calamites,  Lepidodendron,  Neuropteris,  PecopteriSj 
Sigillaria,  Sphenopteris,  Sphenophyllum,  Sternbergia,  and  Stigmaria.  With  the  exception  of  these 
vegetable  remains,  peculiar  to  the  anthracite  beds,  fossils  are  exceedingly  rare  in  the  millstone  grit 
series.  Calamites  and  fems  have  been  found  at  Drewsteignton,  and  Goniatites  Listeri  at  Instow, 
where  the  remains  of  two  species  o£  fish  have  also  quite  recently  been  discovered.  One  of  these 
measures  six  inches  from  the  nose  to  the  extremit}^  of  the  tail,  and  appears  to  be  a  new  species  of 
Ccelacanthus.  The  other  has  been  referred  by  Dr.  Traquair  to  the  genus  Elonichthys^  and  is  also  as 
yet  undescribed.  It  may  be  added  that  up  to  the  present  time  the  carboniferous  shales,  mountain 
limestone,  and  millstone  grit  of  Devonshire  have  yielded  collectively,  probably  not  more  than  fifty 
species  of  fossils  ;  whilst,  according  to  a  census  made  by  Mr.  Etheridge,  the  carboniferous  system  in 
Great  Britain  possesses  a  flora  and  fauna  amounting  to  a  total  of  1741  species. 

Having  already  noticed  the  contortions  by  which  the  carboniferous  rocks  have  been  disturbed, 
we  must  now  briefly  mention  the  great  outburst  of  igneous  matter  which  took  place  during  this 
period,  and  which  probably  continued  to  exert  its  influence  long  after  its  close.  Beds  of  trappean  rocks 
occur  near  the  junction  of  the  carboniferous  and  Devonian  series  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Launceston, 
and  similar  bands  are  found  skirting  each  side  of  Dartmoor,  extending  also  amongst  the  Devonian 
I  rocks  of  South  Devon,  in  a  very  large  number  of  places.  Some  of  these  igneous  rocks  have  been 
shown  to  be  contemporary  with  the  formation  of  the  beds  in  which  they  occur,  but  many  others,  and 
especially  those  in  proximity  to  some  of  the  limestones,  are  clearly  intrusive,  and  must  have  been 
thrust  into  joints  and  fissures  after  the  Devonian  rocks  had  become  consolidated.  Many  of  the.  small 
conical  hills  in  South  Devon  will  be  found  to  contain  a  nucleus  of  trap,  and  derive  their  form  to  a 
great  extent  to  this  cause. 

The  principal  centre  of  volcanic  action  during  the  carboniferous  period  appears  to  have  been  at 
Brent  Tor,  four  miles  north  of  Tavistock.  This  singular  hill,  1]  14  feet  above  sea-level,  rises  up  fi-om  a 
plane,  and  stands  apart  from  any  other  elevated  ground,  resembling  in  many  respects  some  of  the  ex- 
tinct volcanoes  of  the  Ehine  and  Eifel.  It  is  almost  circular  in  shape  and  is  surmounted  by  the 
small  church  dedicated  to  Saint  Michael,  which  forms  a  well-known  landmark  to  the  sailor,  and  a 
most  conspicuous  object  to  the  traveller  on  Dartmoor,  or  the  Cornish  moors  for  many  miles  round. 
The  origin  of  its  name  has  been  ascribed  by  the  Saxon  brennan,  to  burn,  from  the  fact  of  its  being 
anciently  used  as  a  beacon  light,  although  it  seems  more  probable  to  suppose  that  the  title  of  the 
*  burnt'  tor  or  hill  was  conferred  on  it  on  account  of  the  masses  of  cinders  and  lava  with  which  it  is 
covered.  The  whole  of  the  summit  is  occupied  by  the  little  church  and  churchyard  (which  doth 
hardly  afford  depth  of  earth  to  bury  the  dead,  as  Risdon  observed  before  1630),  and  no  trace  of  a 
crater  is  visible.  Immediately  west  of  the  church  the  rock  is  hard  and  compact,  but  on  the  sides  it 
is  highly  vesicular,  approaching  almost  to  pumice  ;  the  scoriaceous  lava  also  passes  into  an  amygdaloid, 
the  cavities  being  either  partially  or  entirely  filled  with  carbonate  of  lime. 

In  North  Devon  there  is  a  general  absence  of  dykes  and  ash  beds  in  the  millstone  grit,  and  no 
clear  evidence  of  igneous  action  during  this  period.  Near  the  junction  of  the  Devonian  and  carboni- 
ferous slates,  near  Fremington  Station,  there  is  a  small  dyke  two  feet  in  width,  but  the  age  both  of  this 
and  the  line  of  disturbance  along  the  Coddon  Hill  range  may  possibly  belong  to  some  later  upheaval 
in  connection  with  the  granite  of  Dartmoor  and  Lundy. 

Granite. — The  granite  of  Dartmoor  forms  the  largest  and  most  easterly  of  the  six  great  pro- 
trusions of  this  rock  in  the  West  of  England.  Between  Dartmoor  and  the  Scilly  Islands  there  are 
four  principal  masses  of  granite,  situated  at  Brown  Willy  near  Camelford,  Hensbarrow  near  St. 
Austell,  Carn  Minelez  near  Penryn,  and  the  Land's  End,  which  together  with  several  small  outlying 
patches  form  a  sort  of  backbone  or  ridge  running  through  the  centre  of  Devon  and  Cornwall.  Another 
outlier  is  seen  at  Lundy  Island,  37  miles  from  the  nearest  portion  of  Brown  Willy.  The  granite  of 
Dartmoor  occupies  an  area  measuring  22  miles  from  north  to  south,  and  18  miles  from  east  to 
west  in  its  widest  part.  Most  of  the  district  consists  of  high  moorland,  rising  to  an  elevation  of  1802 
feet  at  Cawsand  Beacon,  2050  feet  at  Yes  Tor,  2000  at  Amicombe  Hill,  1925  at  Newlake  Hill,  1760 
at  Great  Miss  Tor,  and  1563  at  Rippon  Tor.  Amongst  this  range  of  hills  the  following  rivers  take 
their  source  :— Taw,  East  and  West  Okement,  Yealm,  Plym,  North  and  South  Teign,  Erme,  Dart, 
Avon  or  Atme,  and  Tavy.  Large  tracts  of  bog  and  peat  are  freqtient,  even  at  the  highest  parts  of 
the  range,  such  as  the  top  of  Cawsand.  The  granite  is  usually  coarse-grained  with  well  defined 
crystals  of  felspar,  sometimes  attaining  a  length  of  as  much  as  three  inches.  Tourmaline  or  schorl 
is  abundant,  especially  on  the  outskirts  of  the  moor,  where  it  either  forms  veins,  or  enters  into  the 
composition  of  the  rock,  replacing  the  mica.     Red  granite  occurs  near  Bovey  Tracey,  and  Trowle- 


66  Greolo^y  of  I>evoii»liire; 

worthy  Tor,  about  3  miles  from  Bickley  Station,  whilst  some  of  a  white  colour,  almost  resembling 
statuary  marble  in  appearance,  is  found  in  the  valley  o£  the  West  Okement,  near  Okehampton.  The 
ordinary  porphyritic  granite  disintegrates  readily  on  the  surface,  forming  a  small  gravelly  detritus, 
and  sometimes  as  at  Lustleigh  leaving  the  more  solid  portions  in  spheroidal  masses,  which  when  dis- 
connected from  the  parent  rock  may  readily  be  mistaken  for  boulders.  The  tendency  to  decay  along 
certain  lines  of  joints  is  a  characteristic  common  alike  to  Dartmoor,  Lundy,  and  the  Cornish  granites, 
giving  it  the  appearance  of  a  stratified  rock  when  these  joints  are  horizontal.  This  structure  is  fre- 
quently seen  on  the  exposed  summits  of  the  hills,  and  is  the  origin  of  the  singular  shape  of  many  of 
the  *  Tors,'  and  called  cheese  wrings. 

The  Dartmoor  granite  has  been  largely  employed  for  building  purposes  from  the  earliest  times, 
and  in  most  of  the  churches  in  the  vicinity  the  pillars,  arches,  and  windows  are  entirely  composed  of 
it.  The  extensive  works  at  Hay  Tor  supplied  the  stone  used  in  the  construction  of  London  Bridge, 
and  were  connected  with  the  Stover  Canal  by  the  first  tramway  made  in  the  county.  It  consisted  of 
flat  blocks  of  granite,  worked  with  grooves  to  receive  tlie  wheels  of  the  trucks,  and  was  opened  in 
1820.  The  granitoid  rock  known  as  '  elvan  '  is  also  much  used  for  building,  and  the  stone  from  the 
quarries  on  Eoborough  Down,  near  Plymouth,  has  been  in  great  request  for  several  centuries.  This 
substance  is  found  in  veins  or  dykes,  traversing  the  granite  and  slates,  extending  often  for  a  consider- 
able distance,  and  forming  to  some  extent  connecting  links  between  the  various  granitic  districts. 
That  these  dykes  belong  to  a  later  period  than  the  granite  is  shown  by  the  manner  in  which  they 
intersect  it,  and  that  they  derive  their  origin  from  a  common  source  is  equally  manifest  from  the 
similarity  of  their  chemical  composition.  The  geological  age  of  the  elvans  and  granite  of  Dartmoor 
occupies  a  place  in  the  long  interval  between  the  close  of  the  carboniferous  period  and  the  deposition 
of  the  red  conglomerates  of  the  triassic  series ;  the  evidence  of  the  antiquity  of  the  granite  being 
found  in  the  first  place  in  the  fact  that  the  triassic  conglomerates  overlying  the  carboniferous  series 
have  been  ascertained  to  contain,  in  certain  localities,  pebbles  and  fragments  of  each  of  the  threa 
varieties  of  gvanite  occurring  in  Dartmoor.  On  the  other  hand,  the  modern  limit  is  shown  by  the 
veins  which  the  great  mass  of  granite  has  thrust  forth  in  many  places  along  its  borders  into  the  ad- 
joining carboniferous  slates,  causing  them  to  become  partially  metamorphosed  or  altered  by  heat,  for 
some  little  distance.  These  veins  are  perhaps  best  seen  at  Whiddon  Park,  and  Hunt's  Tor  intheTeign 
valley,  not  far  from  Chagford,  where  they  range  in  width  from  a  quarter  of  an  inch  to  twenty  feet. 
Whether  the  porphyritic  varieties  can  be  proved  to  be  less  ancient  than  the  schorlaceous  may  be  a 
matter  of  doubt,  but  the  fact  still  remains  that  the  granite  was  in  a  sufiicient  state  of  fusion  to  pour 
forth  its  veins  into  the  already  consolidated  slates  of  the  carboniferous  period,  and  after  its  upheaval, 
and  after  a  long  lapse  of  time,  during  which  its  surface  was  denuded  of  overlying  rocks,  it  at  length 
became  exposed  to  view,  and  in  its  turn  helped  to  supply  some  of  the  materials  to  form  the  con- 
glomerates of  the  triassic  series. 

With  the  exception  of  the  Scilly  Isles,  Lundy  is  the  only  island  of  any  size  belonging  to  the' 
shores  of  the  West  of  England.  It  forms  the  most  distant  outlier  of  the  granite  of  Devon  and  Corn- 
wall, and  is  also  of  special  interest  as  showing  the  manner  in  which  the  adjoining  slates  have  been 
abruptly  cut  off,  almost  at  a  right  angle  to  their  line  of  strike.  The  following  particulars  relating  to 
it  were  obtained  during  a  survey  made  by  the  author  in  1870.  ('  Tran-s.  Devon.  Assoc. '  vol.  iv.  pp. 
612,624.)  'From  north  to  south  the  island  measures  three  miles  in  length,  and  its  width  in  the 
greatest  part  is  one  mile.  The  Trinity  Lighthouse  occupies  the  loftiest  point  on  the  island,  with  a 
height  of  567  feet  above  the  sea,  the  level  of  the  upper  revolving  light  being  540  feet,  and  the  lower 
lantern  at  the  basement  470  feet.  The  whole  surface  is  elevated  table  land,  and  very  precipitous  on 
the  western  or  Atlantic  side.  On  the  east  is  a  succession  of  dells  and  fern-covered  slopes  termi- 
nating in  a  lower  range  of  cliffs  along  the  water's  edge.  Tibbet  Hill,  in  the  north-west,  is  only 
about  ten  feet  less  in  height  than  the  one  on  which  the  lighthouse  is  built.  The  south-east  corner  of 
the  island,  to  which  the  slate  formation  is  confined,  is  the  same  elevation  as  the  adjoining  granite 
along  the  line  of  junction,  near  the  remains  of  Marisco  Castle  ;  but  as  it  extends  eastward,  it  suddenly 
becomes  less  lofty,  and  continues  to  diminish  in  a  series  of  gradations,  until  it  terminates  in  Rat 
Island,  which  is  separated  from  the  mainland  at  high  water.  This  south-east  prolongation  of  the 
slates  afifords  a  certain  amount  of  shelter  from  the  prevalent  south-west  drift  of  the  Atlantic,  and  at 
this  point  is  a  small  beach,  forming  the  only  available  landing  place.  The  beach  is  principally  com- 
posed of  the  debris  of  the  adjoining  slates,  intermixed  with  occasional  pebbles  of  granite,  blue  grit, 
quartz,  and  elvans  or  porphyries  of  several  varieties. 

'  The  soundings  around  the  island,  as  laid  down  on  the  Admiralty  chart,  show  great  irregularities 
in  the  form  of  the  sea  bed,  and  no  apparent  indication  of  the  probable  distance  to  which  the  granite 
extends  beneath  the  sea.  With  the  exception  of  two  banks,  one  called  the  east,  and  the  other  the 
north-west  bank  (covered  by  a  minimum  depth  of  six  fathoms  of  water),  the  various  soundings  within 
the  distance  of  one  mile  around  the  island  range  from  an  average  of  10  to  15  fathoms  along  the 
shore,  deepening  in  some  places  to  28  fathoms. 

Greolog'y  of  DevoMLsHire.  67 

*  Notwithstanding  the  height  of  the  land,  there  are  springs  issuing  out  of  the  granite  in  almost 
every  part  of  the  island,  and  one  of  the  most  elevated  portions  is  covered  with  a  small  tract  of  bog. 
The  soil  principally  consists  of  the  detritus  of  the  granite,  together  with  black  vegetable  mould,  formed 
by  the  decay  of  successive  growths  of  heather  and  fern.' 

Along  the  western  cliffs  is  a  remarkable  slip  or  dislocation  o£  the  rocks,  traditionally  said  to 
have  occurred  simultaneously  with  the  earthquake  of  Lisbon,  November  1,  1755,  but  which  no  doubt 
is  originally  due  to  some  still  greater  disturbance  in  prehistoric  times,  the  earthquake  of  1755  pro- 
bably causing  a  further  displacement  of  the  granite  masses  already  loosened  and  ready  to  fall,  and  thus 
affording  a  not  unreasonable  ground  on  which  to  establish  the  tradition  of  the  place.  The  dislocation 
of  the  strata  extends  for  nearly  three  miles,  in  one  instance  dividing  into  two  distinct  lines  of  deep 
fissures  parallel  to  each  other,  and  about  70  or  80  feet  apart,  the  intervening  mass  of  rock 
being  also  split  up,  and  depressed  to  the  extent  of  from  15  to  20  feet.  In  connection  with  this 
fissure  and  apparently  due  to  the  same  cause,  aided  by  the  decomposition  of  two  small  trap  dykes,  is  a 
singular  quadrangular  opening  370  feet  in  depth,  locally  known  as  the  Devil's  Limekiln. 

In  its  structure  the  granite  of  Lundy  does  not  materially  differ  from  the  other  isolated  masses  in 
Devon  and  Cornwall,  except  that  the  large  felspar  crystals,  so  common  on  Dartmoor,  are  usually 
absent.  Schorl  is  far  fi*om  abundant  as  a  component,  but  there  are  occasionally  thin  veins  of  a  fine- 
grained granitic  substance  (eurite)  traversing  the  rock.  The  quarries  formerly  worked  by  the 
Lundy  Granite  Company  yielded  a  large  portion  of  the  stone  used  in  the  earlier  works  of  the  Thames 
Embankment,  and  from  its  excellent  quality  it  was, also  in  considerable  demand  for  kerb-stones. 
Numerous  dykes  of  greenstone  penetrate  both  the  granite  and  slate,  but  especially  along  the  eastern 
shore ;  a  very  conspicuous  one  traverses  the  slates  near  the  landing  place,  standing  up  in  the  form  of  a 
perpendicular  wall,  about  eight  feet  in  thickness,  whilst  in  close  proximity  are  several  beautiful 
porphyries  of  various  kinds.  Some  of  the  dykes  intersecting  the  granite  decompose  freely  on  the 
surface,  weathering  occasionally  into  nodular  masses  with  a  concentric  structure,  resembling  the  onion 
stones  found  in  the  basaltic  districts  of  the  North  of  Ireland. 

Triassic  Series. — In  the  probable  absence  of  any  representative  of  the  Permian  beds  in  this 
county,  the  marls,  sandstones,  and  conglomerates  of  the  Triassic  period  claim  our  next  attention.  The 
district  occupied  by  these  and  the  overlying  cretaceous  deposits  includes  the  south-eastern  portion  of 
the  county,  extending  from  a  little  north-east  of  Tiverton  to  Torbay.  From  this  line  a  long  projecting 
strip  or  tongue  runs  westward  by  Crediton  and  North  Tawton,  to  Jacobstow,  and  immediately  beyond 
is  a  small  outlying  patch  at  Hatherleigh.  The  best  section  of  the  triassic  series  is  presented  by  the 
cliffs  along  the  coast  line  from  the  mouth  of  the  river  Axe  to  the  middle  of  Torbay,  the  regular 
succession  of  beds  being  interrupted  only  by  the  chalk  of  Beer  Head,  and  the  insulated  mass  of 
Devonian  slate  and  limestone  between  Torquay  and  St.  Mary  Church.  Besides  this  main  body, 
several  small  outliers  are  found  at  various  places  along  other  portions  of  the  coast,  indicating  the 
large  area  once  covered  by  this  series.  Thus,  the  outliers  at  Portledge  and  Peppercombe  in  Barnstaple 
Bay  may  be  regarded  as  a  continuation  of  that  at  Hatherleigh,  from  which  they  are  more  than  fifteen 
miles  distant,  and  beyond  the  abrupt  termination  of  the  trias  cliffs  in  Torbay  several  small  patches 
are  left  to  show  its  former  prolongation  southward.  Along  the  south  coast  of  Devon  there  are  also 
three  very  distant  outliers  of  the  same  rock,  situated  respectively  at  Slapton  in  Start  Bay,  Thurlestone 
in  Bigbury  Bay,  and  at  Cawsand,  near  Plymouth.  The  whole  series  is  made  up  of  marls,  sandstones, 
conglomerates  and  breccias,  the  pebbles  and  angular  fragments  in  the  two  latter  being  usually  derived 
from  the  adjacent  older  beds,  and  thus  amongst  their  contents  are  included  fragments  of  limestone, 
sandstone,  Devonian  and  carboniferous  rocks,  together  with  granite,  and  a  red  or  flesh-coloured 
variety  of  felspar  called  Murchisonite,  which  is  probably  Dartmoor  felspar,  coloured  by  the  infiltra- 
tion of  iron  from  the  red  rocks. 

^  The  Triassic  series  on  the  Continent  consists,  as  is  well  known,  and  as  its  name  implies,  of  three 
distinct  formations :  the  Keuper,  Muschelkalk,  and  Bunter ;  but  of  these  the  Muschelkalk  is  generally 
supposed  to  be  unrepresented  in  England,  and  in  the  midland  counties  the  Keuper  reposes  uncon- 
formably  upon  the  Bunter.  In  Devonshire  the  almost  total  absence  of  organic  remains  has  long 
rendered  any  attempt  at  subdivision  a  matter  of  extreme  difficulty,  and  it  has  even  been  a  question 
whether  some  of  the  lower  breccias  may  not  belong  to  a  Permian  age.  The  only  certain  limit  is  to  be 
found  amongst  the  highest  members  of  the  series  which  are  seen  to  pass  conformably  upwards  into  the 
lias.  A  little  lower  in  the  scale  are  also  beds  which  have  been  identified  as  corresponding  with  the  water- 
stones  of  Cheshire,  also  belonging  to  the  Keuper.  Associated  with  these  beds,  Mr.  W.  Whitaker,  of 
the  Geological  Survey,  discovered  in  1868  the  jaw  of  a  small  reptile  {Hyperodapedon) ,  and  in  1875 
Mr.  H.  Lavis  obtained  some  remains  at  Picket  rocks,  west  of  Sidmouth,  described  by  Professor 
Seeley  as  belonging  to  the  Lahrintlwdon.  In  the  following  year  Mr.  Ussher,  of  the  Geological 
Survey,  who  had  been  for  some  time  engaged  in  re-surveying  this  part  of  the  coimty,  read  an  important 
paper  to  the  Geological  Society  {Qiiarterli/  Journal^  vol.  xxxii.  p.  367),  in  which  he  proposed  the 
division  of  the  triassic  rocks  into  five  groups,  taking  as  his  basis  four  typical  localities,  one  being  the 

68  GJ-eology  of"  Devonsliire. 

coast  section  already  referred  to,  another  across  the  valley  of  Burlescombe,  about  twenty  miles  inland, 
and  the  remaining  two  in  Somersetshire. 

The  beds  along  the  coast  section  are  thus  described: — 

1 .  (Upper)  red  variegated  marls,  veins  of  gypsum,  calcareous  in  upper  and  middle  beds,  loamy 
and  sometimes  passing  into  rock-sand  in  bottom  beds. 

2.  (Upper)  red  sandstones  and  rock-sand,  in  places  with  calcareous  nodules,  mottled  greyish,  and 
containing  bands  and  pockets  of  red  clay,  slightly  conglomeratic  at  about  sixty  feet  from  bottom. 

o.  Pebble  beds  of  Budleigli  Salterton,  large  ellipsoidal  pebbles,  mostly  quartzite  (foreign  deriva- 
tion) in  red  sand  matrix,  with  impersistent  beds  and  bands  of  rock-sand. 

4.  Red  variegated  marls,  slightly  calcareous  above,  loamy  below,  and  containing  beds  of  sand- 
stone often  impersistent.     Brickpits  in  soil  at  Exmouth. 

5.  Faulted  against  No.  4.  Breccias  of  angular  stones  in  red  rock-sand  as  at  Exmouth  and 
Dawlish ;  with  intercalated  rock-sands  near  the  latter,  and  underlying  rock- sands  at  Dawlish.  Hard 
thick  bedded  breccias  of  Teignmouth,  breccias,  breccio-conglomerates  and  variegated  sands  of  Tor- 
quay and  Paignton  (at  Exeter  brecciated  loamy  clay,  with  beds  of  sandstone). 

Summing   up   the   thickness   of    these    several   beds,    Mr.  Ussher    gives   the   following   as 
maximum  : — 

Upper  marls  ......  1350  feet. 

Upper  sandstone     .         .         .          .         .  530     „ 

Conglomerates         .         .         .         .         .  100     „ 

Lower  marls  ......  600     „ 

Lower  sandstone  and  breccia  .         .         .  1000     „ 

Of  this  estimate  of  3580  feet  it  will  be  seen  that  the  upper  marls  and  sandstones,  which  are  evidently 
of  Keuper  age,  constitute  1880  feet.      In  a  later  communication  ('  Trans.  Devon.  Assoc.  1877  ')  the 
same  author  proposes  to  divide  the  remaining  or  infra-Keuper  beds  into  two  groups,  as — 
Middle  Trias : — Marls  and  passage  marls  and  sandstones. 

Lower  Trias: — Sandstones  (locally  clays)  and  breccia,  and  breccio-conglomerate ;  an  inter- 
changeable series. 

Of  these  he  considers  the  upper  part  as  of  Muschelkalk  age,  without  implying  that  it  is  the  strati- 
graphical  equivalent  to  that  formation  alone,  for  part  of  the  Lower  Trias  might  have  been  contem- 
porary with  its  earlier  stages.  The  latter  group  he  has  very  little  hesitation  in  regarding  as  in  part  or 
altogether  representative  of  the  Bunter. 

The  pebbles  found  in  the  conglomerate  bed  No.  3  are  deserving  of    special  remark,  as  they 
aftbrd  an  exception  to  the  general  rule  that  the  materials  forming  the  triassic  conglomerates  were 
obtained  from  the  destruction  of  adjacent  rocks.     These  pebbles  consist  of  an  extremely  hard  quartzi- 
ferous  sandstone  or  quartzite,  and  at  Budleigh  Salterton  form  a  bed  upwards  of  a  hundred  feet  in 
thickness.     The  locality  from  which'  they  have  been  transported  is,  and  probably  long  wiU  be,  a 
matter  for  speculation,  since  they  contain  a  mixture  of  Silurian  and  Devonian  fossils,  many  belonging 
to  species  unknown  elsewhere,  either  in  England  or  the  Continent.     In  some  parts  of  the  Devon  and 
Cornish  coasts,  such  as  the  vicinity  of  Torbay  and  Gorran  Haven,  near  Mevagissy,  quartziferous  rooks 
have  been  found,  presenting  much  lithological  resemblance  to  the  Budleigh  pebbles,  and  several  of  the 
characteristic  fossils  of  the  latter  have  recently  been  discovered  in  them.     In  1863  the  late  Mr.  Salter 
first  described  and  figured  many  of  the  species  which  had  been  obtained  by  the  exertions  of  Mr. 
W.  Vicary,   of  Exeter,   and  considered  them  as  identical  with  the  deposits  of  May,  near  Caen,  in 
Normandy,  and  equivalent  in  age  to  our  Caradoc  or  Lower  Silurian.     A  few  years  later  Mr.  David- 
son was  able  to  show  that  the  Brachiopods,  thirty-seven  in  number,  included  also  a  large  proportion 
of  Devonian  species  occurring  in  a  similar  quartzite,  though  not  in  the  same  pebbles.    As  a  coincidence, 
it  may  be  mentioned  that  in  Normandy  and  Brittany  there  is  an  intimate  resemblance  between  the 
quartzites  of  the  Silurian  and  Devonian  series,   and  that  one  of  the  most  abundant  fossils,    Orthis 
redux,  is  also  equally  abundant  at  Budleigh.    Taking  into  account  the  presence  of  quartzites  in  Devon 
and  Cornwall,  and  the  possibility  of  the  metamorphic  locks  of  the  Start  district  belonging  to  Silurian 
age,  the  presence  of  the  Budleigh  pebbles  may  be  accounted  for  without  the  necessity  of  the  conclu- 
sion that  they  must  have  travelled  from  Normandy,  on  the  supposition  that  in  pre-triassic  times 
reefs  of  Silurian  and  Devonian  rocks  extended  southwards  toAvards  the  coast  of  France,  over  an  area 
now  occupied  by  the  Channel ;  and  that  the  destruction  of  these  afforded  for  a  limited  time  the 
material  from  which  the  pebble  bed  has  been  derived.    Amongst  the  many  fossils  found  in  the  pebbles 
may  be  mentioned  Tr  achy  derma  serrata,  Homalonotus  Bronr/niarti,   Calymene   Tristani,   Phacops 
incertus,  Linr/ula  Lesueuri,  Ortlds  redux,  Orthis  Valpi/ana,  Spirifera  Veniemiii,  llliyiichonella  inaurita, 
Froductus  Vicaryi  Modiolopsis  armorici^  Pte7'inea,  Aviculop)ecien^  &c. 

•The  soil  overlying  the  red  sandstone  and  marls  is  usually  deep,  rich,  and  fertile.     Some  of  the 
conglomerates  afford  fair  road  materials;  but,  except  in  the  vicinity  of  the  trappcan  rocks,  building 

Greology  of"  I>evoiisliire.  69 

stone  is  scarce,  and  not  remarkable  for  durability.  The  clays  afford  abundant  supplies  for  brick- 
making,  and  a  deposit  o£  very  fine  quality  at  Watcombe,  near  Torquay,  is  in  great  demand  for  terra- 
cotta and  ornamental  pottery,  having  produced,  according  to  Mr.  E.  Appleton,  upwards  of  £10,000 
value  of  art  manufactures  in  one  year. 

The  igneous  rocks  of  the  triassic  series  consist  generally  of  felstones,  felspathic  traps  and  basalts, 
thus  presenting  a  marked  difference  when  compared  with  the  diorites  and  hornblendic  greenstones  of 
the  older  periods.  They  occur  as  beds  and  in  large  irregular  masses,  associated  with  the  .triassic 
rocks  at  or  near  their  base,  especially  in  localities  situated  along  the  line  of  junction  with  the  carbo- 
niferous slates.  At  \Yaslifield,  near  Tiverton,  the  first  principal  mass  is  seen,  extending  about  two  and 
a  half  miles  to  Loxbere.  The  remains  of  the  Castle  of  Exeter,  originally  known  as  Kougemont,  or 
the  Ked  Mount,  stand  upon  a  porphyritic  rock  of  the  same  age,  and  the  material  from  which  the 
ancient  walls  were  constructed  was  probably  obtained  on  the  spot.  It  occupies  an  almost  central 
position  between  the  three  largest  volcanic  outbursts.  The  first  of  these  at  Killerton  Park  is  itself 
surrounded  by  several  smaller  beds  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Silverton,  Thorverton,  and  Raddon. 
The  two  other  principal  seats  of  igneous  action  appear  to  have  been  at  Dunchidiock,  near  Haldon, 
and  Posbury  Hill,  near  Crediton.  From  this  latter  point  several  beds  extend  at  intervals  along  the 
borders  of  the  narrow  strip  of  trias  to  Jacobstow.  A  similar  felspathic  trap  is  also  associated  with  the 
small  outlier  of  triassic  conglomerate  already  noticed  as  occurring  in  Cawsand  Bay,  near  Plymouth. 
These  rocks  are  usually  of  a  dark  brown  or  red  colour,  and  vary  in  structure  from  a  compact  basalt  to 
porphyritic  trap,  sometimes  vesicular  or  amygdaloidal,  and  occasionally  passing  into  ash  beds  and 
volcanic  sand,  the  same  quarry  frequently  affording  examples  of  the  transition  from  one  variety  to 
another,  the  interior  of  the  mass  being  compact,  and  the  external  portions  vesicular  or  amygda- 
loidal. At  Pocombe,  near  Exeter,  small  white  veins  traverse  the  rock,  forming  a  network  of  calcareous 
matter ;   and  both  here,  and  in  most  of  the  localities,  it  is  extensively  employed  for  building  stone. 

Lias. — Beds  of  this  series  extend  along  the  cliffs  from  Culverhole  Point,  near  Axmouth,  for  some 
three  or  four  miles  to  the  boundary  of  Dorset,  and  thence  eastward  by  Lyme  Regis  to  Bridport.  The 
passage  beds  between  the  Upper  Keuper  and  the  Lias  consist  of  the  Rha^tic  or  Penarth  beds,  and  the 
bone  bed,  the  latter  containing  numerous  remains  of  fish.  Teeth  of  Hyhodus  pltcatilis,  Saurichthys 
apicalis,  with  a  scale  of  Gyrolepis  tenuistriatus  from  Axmouth,  are  figured  in  Sir  C.  Lyell's  '  Elements 
of  Geology ; '  but  most  of  the  well-known  gigantic  reptiles  belonging  to  the  Liassic  series,  such  as 
Ichthyosaurus  and  Plesiosaumis,  occur  at  Lyme  Regis,  in  Dorsetshire. 

Cretaceous.- — The  cretaceous  series,  as  seen  in  Devonshire,  consist  of  gault,  greensand,  and  chalk, 
resting  unconformably  upon  the  denuded  surfaces  of  the  older  rocks — the  whole  of  the  intermediate 
formations,  comprising  the  Lower,  Middle,  and  Upper  Oolites,  with  the  Wealden,  having  no  repre- 
sentatives in  the  county.  The  district  occupied  by  greensand  may  be  referred  to  two  principal  areas. 
The  first  commences  at  the  Black  Down  Hills,  which  divide  Devonshire  and  Somersetshire,  and  thence 
extends  southward  to  Sidmoutli  and  its  neighbourhood.  The  second  area  is  formed  of  several  detached 
patches,  commencing  at  Great  and  Little  Haldon,  and  terminating  at  Milber  Down,  near  Newton 
Abbott.  Greensand  is  also  marked  on  the  Survey  maps  as  found  on  both  sides  of  the  Bovey  basin, 
although  the  gravels  in  this  instance  appear  to  belong  to  a  more  recent  period.  An  outlying  patch  at 
Black  Hill,  near  Exmouth.  may  be  regarded  as  an  intermediate  link  connecting  the  two  areas,  whilst 
the  probable  extension  of  the  same  deposits  westward  is  marked  by  far  distant  outliers  of  cretaceous 
gravel,  with  flints  and  chert,  resting  on  the  millstone  grit,  in  the  parish  of  Langtree,  near  Torrington, 
thirty  miles  from  the  nearest  point  of  Haldon ;  and  again  six  miles  further  at  Orleigh  Court,  near 
Bideford.  In  the  northern  part  of  the  district  chalk  is  found  in  several  small  isolated  masses,  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Black  Down ;  whilst  along  the  coast  it  extends  from  Penliay  to  Axmouth,  again 
appearing  at  Beer  Head,  Branscombe,  and  Salcombe,  this  last  being  its  most  westerly  known  limit  in 
England.  From  a  thickness  of  some  200  feet  in  Hampshire,  the  LoAver  Chalk  thins  gradually  away 
as  it  extends  westward,  until  it  finally  dies  out  beyond  Beer  Head,  and  beds  of  Upper  Chalk  are 
consequently  found  directly  superimposed  upon  the  Upper  Greensand,  an  occurrence  which  Mr. 
Whitaker  believes  has  not  been  before  noticed  in  this  country.  At  Beer  Head  the  cretaceous  series 
occupies  a  depression  in  the  triassic  rocks,  and  affords  probably  the  best  typical  section  cf  the  various 
deposits.  Mr.  C.  J.  A.  Meyer  ('  Quarterly  Journal  Geological  Society,'  vol.  xxx.  pp.  370,  393) 
divides  the  series  into  the  following  principal  subdivisions : — 

Upper  Chalk  (in  part). 

Middle  Chalk.  ^ 

Lower  Chalk. 

Chalk  Marl. 

Chloritic  Marl. 

Upper  Greensand.  >, 

Gault  (the  equivalent  also  in  part  of  the  Black  Down  beds).    . 

70  Greolo^y  of  Devonsliire. 

These  are  in  turn  subdivided  into  twenty  beds,  each  marked  by  its  own  characteristic  fossils.  Copious 
lists  of  these  are  given  by  Mr.  Meyer,  and  to  his  pajier,  as  well  as  to  one  by  Mr.  W.  Whitaker  in  the 
8anie  journal  (vol.  xxvii.  pp.  97-100),  we  must  refer  the  reader  for  further  information  on  the 
subject,  as  our  limited  space  must  necessarily  be  devoted  to  those  formations  more  especially  dis- 
tinctive of  the  county,  and  which  therefore  possess  a  more  local  interest. 

The  principal  economic  products  of  the  cretaceous  series  consist  of  the  scythe  stones  of  the 
greensand,  and  the  freestone  of  the  chalk  beds  of  Beer.  The  former  are  found  along  the  weL*,ern 
escarpment  of  the  Black  Down  Hills,  and  at  the  time  of  Sir  H.  Be  la  Beche's  report  afforded  occupation 
to  many  persons  in  the  parishes  of  Kentisbeare,  Broadhembury,  and  Payhembury.  The  hard,  irregular 
concretions  occur  in  layers  in  a  loose  sand,  and  are  worked  by  means  of  levels  or  horizontal  galleries, 
the  refuse  heaps  of  which  form  a  striking  object  along  the  sides  of  the  hills. 

The  Beer  stone  is  found  above  the  Chalk  Marl,  and  at  the  base  of  the  Lower  Chalk.  It  is  also 
worked  by  means  of  subterranean  galleries,  and  for  a  long  period,  dating  probably  from  Norman 
times,  has  been  extensively  used  as  freestone  in  churches  and  other  buildings.  It  is  of  a  yellowish- 
white  colour,  rapidly  becoming  hard  on  exposure  to  the  air,  and  can  scarcely  be  distinguished  in 
many  churches  from  Caen  stone. 

Miocene. — Leaving  the  cretaceous  series,  and  passing  the  whole  of  the  eocene  deposits,  unrepre- 
sented in  Devonshire,  we  come  to  the  lignite  beds  of  Bovey,  which,  next  to  the  rocks  of  the  Devonian 
series,  may  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  chief  geological  specialities  of  the  county.  This  deposit  is 
lacustrine  and  fresh- water  in  its  origin,  and  occupies  a  valley  or  basin  measuring  about  eight  fiiiles 
in  length,  and  three  and  a  half  miles  in  breadth  in  its  greatest  width.  The  lignite  appears  to  have 
been  employed  as  fuel  in  the  early  part  of  the  eighteenth  century,  though  from  its  offensive  smell  it 
Avas  used  for  little  else  than  baking  the  clay  at  the  neighbouring  potteries.  From  the  year  1761, 
when  Dr.  J.  Miller  contributed  a  paper  to  the  '  Philosophical  Transactions,*  entitled,  "  Eemarks  on 
Bovey  Coal,'  it  is  frequently  mentioned  as  one  of  the  economic  products  of  Devonshire ;  and  just  a 
hundred  years  later,  by  the  munificence  of  the  Baroness  Burdett  Coutts,  a  systematic  investigation  of 
the  lignite  deposit  was  conducted  by  Mr.  W.  Pengelly.  The  various  plant  remains  were  afterwards 
submitted  to  the  Rev.  Professor  Heer,  of  Zurich,  a  well-known  authority  on  the  miocene  flora  of  his 
native  country;  and  the  results  appeared  in  the  'Phil.  Trans.  Royal  Society  for  1862,'  Mr.  Pengelly 
contributing  the  geological  and  Professor  Heer  the  botanical  portions  of  the  memoir  respectively. 

A  section  made  in  the  south  w^all  of  the  coal  pit  near  Bovey,  a  large  open  working  about  1000 
feet  in  length,  showed  a  series  of  72  beds,  consisting  of  sand,  clay  and  lignite,  with  a  total  thickness  of 
125  feet.  The  head  or  uppermost  bed  was  composed  of  sandy  clay,  with  a  large  number  of  angular 
stones,  and  from  its  contents  was  shown  to  belong  to  a  very  different  period,  which  will  be  noticed 
presently.  The  underlying  series,  for  a  thickness  of  53  feet,  is  made  up  of  nine  different  beds  of 
lignite,  Avith  three  beds  of  sand,  and  thirteen  of  clay.  Forming  the  base  of  this  upper  division  is  a 
bed  of  sand  11  feet  in  thickness.  Beneath  this  no  sand  is  found,  but  twenty-two  beds  of  lignite, 
alternating  in  regular  order  with  twenty-three  clay  beds.  Five  of  the  beds  in  the  first  division  yield 
plant  remains  more  or  less  abundantly,  one  of  them  being  a  clay  bed  and  the  rest  lignite.  In  the 
lower  division  one  clay  bed  and  nine  of  the  lignite  beds  afford  similar  fossils.  In  addition  to  the 
measurement  obtained  in  this  section,  the  lignite  beds  have  been  traced  to  a  considerably  greater 
depth ;  and  by  estimating  the  displacement  caused  by  a  fault  a  short  distance  east  of  the  pit,  it  is 
probable  that  the  aggregate  thickness  of  the  true  Bovey  deposit  may  be  taken  as  not  less  than  309  feet. 
With  the  exception  of  a  fragment  of  a  beetle,  no  animal  remains  have  been  discovered  ;  but  of 
the  fifty  species  of  fossil  plants  determined  by  Professor  Heer,  tAventy-six  proved  to  be  new  to 
science,  nineteen  were  recognised  as  well-known  in  the  Miocene  of  the  Continent,  and  five  Avere  of 
doubtful  determination,  but  probably  also  of  Miocene  age.  Amongst  the  neAv  species  are  the  abun- 
dant remains  of  a  large  coniferous  tree  Sequoia  Couttsiw,  closely  allied  to  the  Wellingtoma  gigantea  of 
California.  It  is  found  in  the  loAvest  as  Avell  as  the  highest  fossiliferous  beds,  and  in  one  instance  its 
fragments  form  a  mat,  together  Avith  those  of  a  fern,  Pecopteris  lignitwn.  Other  remarkable  plants 
include  two  species  of  cinnamon,  three  of  fig,  seeds  of  the  vine  and  Avater  lilly,  Anona  or  custard 
apple,  a  climbing  palm,  similar  to  the  Rottang  of  the  East  Indies,  Palmacitis  Dcemonorops^  dryandras, 
eucalyptus,  oak  and  laurel,  together  Avith  several  species  of  fern,  especially  TMstrcea  stiriaca  and 
Pecopteris  lignitum^  the  Avhole  flora  indicating  a  luxuriant  vegetable  growth  in  a  warm  though  not 
necessarily  tropical  climate.  By  regarding  the  Bovey  basin  as  the  site  in  Miocene  times  of  a  fresh- 
Avater  lake,  fed  by  streams  which  drained  the  north-eastern  portions  of  Dartmoor,  the  source  of  so 
large  a  quantity  of  vegetable  matter  must  have  been  derived  from  forests  of  Sequoia  and  other  trees, 
Avith  an  undergroAvth  of  ferns,  which  then  clothed  the  hills  and  valleys  along  the  present  Teign  and 
Bovey  rivers,  with  their  numerous  small  tributaries.  That  the  sands  and  clays  are  also  mainly 
derived  from  the  granitic  district  of  Dartmoor  is  shown  not  only  by  the  quartzose  nature  of  the  sand, 
and  by  the  presence  of  angular  fragments  of  felspar,  but  also  by  the  thinning  out  of  the  sand  and 
clay  beds  as  they  extend  eastward.      The  greater  purity  of  the  clays  towards  King's  Teignton  led  Sir 

Oeolouj-y  of  Devonshire.  71 

H.  Dela  Beche  to  infer  that  the  quartzose  parts  of  the  decomposed  granite  were  sooner  brought  to  rest 
than  the  decomposed  felspar,  which  was  borne  onwards  until  it  could  quietly  settle  in  the  same  manner 
that  similar  china  clay  is  artificially  prepared  in  the  south  parts  of  Dartmoor  and  in  Cornwall — by 
turning  streams  of  water  upon  decomposed  granite. 

Post  Tertiary. — At  the  close  of  the  Miocene  we  find  another  of  the  great  gaps  so  frequent  in 
the  chronology  of  the  Devonshire  rocks.  In  this  instance  the  whole  of  the  Pliocene  deposits  are 
wanting,  and  the  next  in  order  indicates  a  great  change  in  the  climate  and  conditions  of  the  county. 
The  lied  of  sands  and  clays,  with  angular  fragments  of  stone,  already  noticed  as  overlying  the  Bovey 
beds,  is  distinguished  fi^-om  them  by  the  fact  that  it  rests  unconformably  upon  a  denuded  surface  of  the 
Miocene  series,  and  was  deposited  subsequent  to  the  movement  by  which  they  were  faulted ;  the  dis- 
placement of  the  latter  having  been  covered  over  by  the  deposition  of  the  former.  The  absence  in 
the  upper  bed  of  all  the  luxuriant  miocene  flora,  and  the  presence  of  species  which  are  only  kno^\Ti 
to  be  Alpine  or  almost  Arctic  in  their  nature,  proves  the  gradual  refrigeration  which  had  taken  place 
in  the  intervening  period.  The  plants  found  at  depths  varying  from  one  to  ten  feet,  and  identified  by 
Professor  Heer,  included  two  or  three  species  of  willow,  and  the  dwarf  birch,  Betula  nana,  the 
geographical  distribution  of  which  is  at  the  present  time  limited  to  Scotland  and  other  northern 
districts.  Some  of  the  drift  and  gravels  of  the  surrounding  hills  and  of  other  parts  of  south-east 
Devonshire,  may  probably  belong  also  to  this  period,  although  it  appears  at  present  almost  impossible 
to  obtain  any  satisfactory  classification  of  them  in  the  order  of  their  succession.  They  are  formed  for 
the  most  part  of  the  rounded  fragments  of  adjacent  rocks,  and  occur  at  levels  varying  from  the  sum- 
mits of  the  hills  down  to  the  valleys  of  the  Dart,  Teign,  Exe,  Tavy,  Taw,  and  other  rivers.  It  is 
probable  that  some  of  the  cretaceous  gravels  near  Newton  Abbott,  and  in  proximity  to  the  Bovey 
basin,  hitherto  marked  in  the  maps  of  the  geological  survey  as  greensand,  may  also  be  reconstructed 
deposits  belonging  to  this  age. 

The  great  ice-sheets  which  in  the  glacial  period  covered  the  northern  part  of  England  and 
Wales,  are  not  generally  supposed  to  have  extended  south  of  the  Bristol  Channel,  and  the  character- 
istic furrows  and  scratches  made  by  the  friction  of  glaciers  against  the  sides  of  valleys,  so  commonly 
met  with  in  the  north  of  England  and  Wales,  have  not  yet  been  positively  identified  in  Devonshire. 
If  such  markings  ever  were  formed,  they  may  have  been  rapidly  efiaced,  owing  to  the  soft  nature  of 
the  slate  and  the  tendency  of  granite  to  become  disintegrated  on  the  surface;  but  an  intimate 
acquaintance  with  the  effects  of  ice-action  in  Alpine  regions  enables  me  to  say  that  in  various 
parts  of  both  Dartmoor  and  Exmoor  there  are  collections  of  stones  and  debris,  similar  in  every 
respect  to  those  composing  the  moraines  of  modern  glaciers,  and  valleys  which  have  evidently  been 
shaped  by  glacial  agency.  In  the  report  of  the  committee  appointed  by  the  British  Association 
for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  the  existence  in  diiFerent  parts  of  the  United  Kingdom  of  any  erratic 
blocks  or  boulders,  will  be  found  notices  of  several  instances  of  transported  stones  in  this  county. 
At  Waddeton  Court,  near  Dartmouth,  a  group  of  new  red  sandstone  boulders  are  found  reposing  on 
the  slate  at  elevations  varying  from  18  to  nearly  200  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  At  Harberton, 
near  Totnes,  also  on  a  slate  subsoil,  boulders  of  a  fine-grained  trap  occur  at  a  height  of  about  100 
feet,  and  are  especially  noticeable  as  being  in  some  cases  marked  with  parallel  grooves  or  scratches. 
Another  group,  also  composed  of  trap,  is  situated  at  Druid,  near  Ashburton ;  and  boulders  of  various 
sizes  have  been  recorded  as  occurring  in  the  parish  of  Bishop's  Teignton,  near  Teignmouth,  some  300 
feet  above  the  sea.  In  North  Devon  similar  boulders,  including  one  of  felstone,  estimated  to  weigh 
between  13  and  14  tons,  are  found  at  an  elevation  of  about  500  feet  at  Langtree,  near  Torrington  ;  and 
at  the  Saunton  cliff's  near  Braunton,  a  mass  of  red  granite,  estimated  to  weigh  from  10  to  12  tons,  is 
seen  lying  on  the  Upper  Devonian  slate,  and  covered  by  a  great  thickness  of  more  recent  deposits, 
forming  the  raised  beach.  Three  other  smaller  boulders  of  similar  granite  have  also  been  found  in 
the  same  vicinity.  The  larger  mass  was  described  by  the  Rev.  David  Williams,  in  1837,  as  like 
much  of  the  Grampian  granite  ;  and  he  gave  as  his  opinion  that  it  came  neither  from  Lundy,  Dart- 
moor, nor  Cornwall.  Its  origin  still  remains  a  question,  for  the  main  body  of  rock  at  Lundy  differs 
in  every  respect  from  it,  and  it  is  very  doubtful  whether  there  is  any  vein  of  a  similar  colour  and 
texture  on  the  island,  capable  of  producing  a  block  of  such  magnitude.  The  nearest  point  of  the 
Dartmoor  granite  is  exactly  thirty  miles  from  Saunton,  but  any  of  a  red  colour  can  only  be  obtained 
in  very  few  localities,  and  at  a  much  longer  distance. 

Another  instance  of  transported  boulders  occurs  in  the  parish  of  Fremington,  near  Barnstaple, 
where  boulders  of  trap  are  frequently  found  on  or  near  the  surface  of  a  thick  bed  of  brown  clay, 
much  used  for  pottery.  In  each  of  these  cases  we  have  examples  of  masses  of  stone,  often  of  great 
size,  formed  of  materials  differing  from  the  subsoil  on  which  they  rest,  and  which  must  have  been 
transported  by  some  powerful  agency,  sometimes  from  a  long  distance,  to  the  positions  they  now 
occupy.  In  certain  instances  they  may  have  been  brought  down  from  higher  elevations  in  the  same 
manner  that  large  fragments  of  rock  are  seen  on  the  glaciers  of  Switzerland,  slowly  moving  forward 
with  the  onward  motion  of  the  ice ;  whilst  others,  during  a  temporary  submergence  of  the  lower  por- 

72'  Greolog:y  of  I>evoiiHliii*e. 

tions  of  the  present  land  surface,  may  have  been  carried  from  still  further  points  by  sheets  of  floating 
ice,  the  melting  of  which  landed  them  on  the  spots  where  they  are  now  found.  Besides  the  evidences 
of  ancient  glaciers  in  Wales,  it  must  be  remembered,  in  connection  with  this  subject,  that  the  latitude 
of  51  dep-.,  which  passes  within  a  mile  of  Ilartland  Point,  runs  also  south  of  Labrador,  and  to  the  north 
of  Newfoundland  and  the  province  of  Canada.  A  deflection  of  the  Gulf  Stream,  which  at  present 
conveys  an  enormous  amount  of  heat  across  the  Atlantic  from  the  tropic  of  Cancer,  would  reduce 
the  north-west  of  Europe  to  very  much  the  some  climatal  conditions  as  exist  along  the  same  parallel 
in  the  North  American  continent,  and,  it  is  computed  by  Mr.  Croll,  would  loAver  the  mean  temperature 
of  London  to  the  extent  of  forty  degrees. 

Caves  and  their  Deposits. — Numerous  caves  are  found  in  South  Devon  in  the  form  of  tunnels 
and  fissures  traversing  the  Middle  Devonian  limestone  near  Torquay,  Brixham,  Plymouth,  Yealmpton, 
Chudleigh,  and  Buckfastleigh,  and  though  in  point  of  size  they  may  appear  insignificant  when  con- 
trasted with  those  of  Derbyshire,  the  results  'aftbrded  by  them  are  highly  important :  including  as 
they  do  evidences  of  the  antiquity  of  man,  and  the  succession  of  various  animals  now  either  extinct, 
or  no  longer  inhabitants  of  the  British  Isles.  The  history  alone  of  the  explorations  would  occupy  many 
pages,  and  we  can  therefore  only  direct  the  reader  where  to  obtain  further  information  relating  to  them. 
The  literature  of  the  various  caves  has  been  collected  by  Mr.  W.  Pengelly,  and  will  be  found  in  the 
*  Transactions  of  the  Devonshire  Association'  from  18G8  to  the  present  time;  and  the  yearly  results  of 
the  exploration  of  Kent's  Hole,  which  has  been  conducted  under  the  direction  of  a  committee  of  the 
British  Association  at  an  expense  of  over  £1600,  are  recorded  in  the  twelve  annual  reports  of  that 
body  since  the  year  1865.  An  able  resume  of  the  whole  subject  was  given  by  Mr.  W.  Pengelly  in 
his  address  as  President  of  the  Geological  Section  at  the  meeting  of  the  British  Association  at 
Plymouth  in  1877  ;  and  to  this  Ave  are  indebted  for  most  of  the  following  particulars.  The  first  of  the 
several  bone  caves  at  Oreston,  near  Plymouth,  was  discovered  in  1816  by  Mr.  Whidbey,  who  was  engaged 
in  superintending  the  construction  of  the  breakwater,  and  in  1858  another  fissure  containing  a  large 
number  of  bones  was  broken  into ;  it  extended  for  a  length  of  about  90  feet,  with  a  height  of  52  feet, 
and  widened  from  2  feet  at  the  top  to  10  feet  at  the  bottom.  The  animal  remains  found  prior  to 
1858  included  Ursus  prisons,  U.  spelceus,  weasel  (?),  wolf,  fox,  cave  hyaena  cave  lion.  Rhinoceros 
leptorhinus,  Equus  fossilis,  E.  plicidens,  Asinns  fossilis,  Bison  minor,  and  Bos  longifrons. 

In  1858  remains  of  the  mammoth  were  found,  and  probably  also  Rhinoceros  tichorhinus. 

Kent's  Hole  is  situated  about  a  mile  east  of  Torquay  Harbour,  and  at  the  side  of  a  small  lime- 
stone hill  are  two  openings  leading  into  the  cave.     It  was  explored  by  the  Eev.  J.  MacEnery  from 
the  year  1825  to  1829 ;  but,  at  his  death  in  1841,  the  results  of  his  labours  still  remained  unpub- 
lished.    The  MS.  relating  to  the  Avork  noAv  belongs  to  the  Torquay  Natural  History  Society,  and  Avas 
printed  in  extensoby  Mr.  Pengelly,  in  the  'Trans.  Devon.  Assoc,  for  1869,'  occupying  280  8vo.  pages. 
The  discovery  in  1858  of  the  Brixham  Cavern,  Avhere  flint  implements  were  associated  with  the  re- 
mains of  the  mammoth   and  other  extinct  mammalia,  brought  about  a  sudden  change  of  opinion 
regarding  the  antiquity  of  man  in  this  country ;  and,  with  a  knoAvledge  that  extensive  portions  of 
Kent's  Hole  still  remained  intact,  a  committee  was  appointed  by  the  British  Association  in  1864  for  the 
purpose  of  exploring   it :  a  Avork  which  has  been  going  on  continuously  for  thirteen  years.     The  suc- 
cessive deposits  found  in  the  cavern  Avere  as  follows: — 1st.  Fragments  and  blocks  of  limestone  Avhich 
had  fallen  from  the  roof.     2nd.  A  layer  of  dark-coloured  mud,  or  mould,  yielding  '  teeth  and  bones  of 
man,  dog,  fox,  badger,  brown  bear,  Bos  longifrons,  roe  deer,  sheep,  goat,  pig,  hare,  rabbit,  and  seal; ' 
also  flint  flakes,  amber  beads,  bone  tools,  articles  of  bronze,  and  potsherds,  including  fragments  of 
Samian  ware.     3rd.  A  stalagmitic  floor  of  granular  texture,  from  less  than  an  inch  to  five  feet  in 
thickness.      4th.  A  layer,  about  four  inches  thick,  Avith    small   fragments   of    charred  wood,  dis- 
tinguished as  the  '  black  band,'  occupying  an  area  of  about  one  hundred  square  feet,  not  far  from 
one  of  the  entrances.     5th.  Light  red  clay,  knoAvn  as  the  '  cave-earth,'  containing  small  angular  frag- 
ments of  limestone.     *  The  granular  stalagmite,  black  band,  and  cave-earth  taken  together  as  belong- 
ing to  one  and  the  same  biological  period,  may  be  termed  the  Hya^nine  beds,  the  cave  hysena  being 
their  most  prevalent  species,  and  found  in  them  alone.     So  far  as  they  have  been  identified  the 
remains  belong  to  the  cave  hya?na,  Equus  cahallus,  Rhinoceros  tichorhinus,  gigantic  Irish  deer.  Bos 
prhiiigenius,  Bison  prisons,  red  deer,  mammoth,  badger,  cave  bear,  grizzly  bear,  brown  bear,  cave  lion, 
wolf,  fox,  reindeer,  beaver,  glutton,  Machairodus  latide7is,  and  man — the  last  being  part  of  a  jaAV 
with  teeth  in  the  granular  stalagmite.     In  the  same  beds  were  found  unpolished  ovate  and  lanceolate 
implements  made  from  flakes,  not  nodules,  of  flint  and  chert ;  flint  flakes,  chips  and  cores,  whetstones, 
a  hammer  stone,  dead  shells  of  Pecten,  bits  of  charcoal,  and  bone  tools,  including  a  needle  or  bodkin 
having  a  well-formed  eye,  a  pin,  an  aAvl,  three  harpoons,  and  a  perforated  tooth  of  badger.'     6th. 
Beneath  the  cave-earth  there  was  usually  found  a  floor  of  crystalline  stalagmite.     7th.  The  breccia, 
or  oldest  known  cavern  deposit,  composed  of  fragments  of  red  grit  and  occasionally  limestone  imbedded 
in  a  sandy  paste.     *  The  relics  found  in  the  crystalline  stalagmite  and  the  breccia,  in  some  place ' 
extremely  abundant,  were  almost  exclusively  those  of  bear,  the  only  exceptions  being  a  very  fe 


Greolog'y  of  Devoiisliire.  7.3 

remains  of  cave  lion  and  fox.'  The  breccia  '  also  yielded  evidences  of  human  existence ;  but  they 
were  exclusively  tools  made  from  nodules,  not  flakes,  of  flint  and  chert.'  Less  than  half  a  mile 
from  Kent's  Hole  is  the  small  cavern  of  Anstis  Cove.  It  was  also  explored  by  Mr.  MacEnery,  who 
described  it  as  63  feet  in  length,  and  affording  remains  of  the  bear,  deer,  fox,  and  horse. 

The  patch  of  limestone  forming  the  southern  boundary  of  Torbay  contains  the  several  caves 
known  as  the  Ash  Hole,  Brixham,  or  Windmill  Hill  Cavern,  and  the  Bench  Cavern.  The  first  of 
these  was  partially  explored  about  forty  years  ago  by  the  Rev.  H.  F.  Lyte,  and  contained  remains  of 
the  elephant,  badger,  polecat,  stoat,  water  vole,  rabbit,  and  reindeer.  The  cavern  at  Bench  quarry  ia 
also  a  fissure,  and  was  discovered  in  1861.  It  has  yielded  the  bones  of  hyaena  in  abundance, 
together  with  remains  of  bear,  reindeer,  ox,  hare,  Arvicola  rattice]is,  A,  agrestis^  wolf,  fox,  and 
rhinoceros.  The  Windmill  Hill  or  Brixham  Cavern  was  broken  into  by  quarrymen  in  the  year  1858, 
at  a  i^oint  100  feet  above  mean-tide;  and,  'on  being  found  to  contain  bones,  a  lease  in  it  Avas 
secured  for  the  Geological  Society  of  London,  who  appointed  a  committee  of  their  members  to 
undertake  its  exploration  ;  funds  were  voted  by  the  Koyal  Society,  and  supplemented  by  private 
subscriptions.'  The  investigation  was  entrusted  to  Mr.  Prestwich  and  Mr.  Pengelly,  and  the 
work,  under  the  superintendence  of  the  latter,  was  begun  in  1858,  and  completed  in  tlie  following 
year.  'The  cavern  comprised  within  a  space  of  135  feet  from  north  to  south,  and  100 
feet  from  east  to  west,  consisted  of  a  series  of  tunnel  galleries,  from  6  to  8  feet  in  greatest  width, 
and  10  to  14  feet  in  height,  with  two  small  chambers,  and  five  external  entrances.'  The 
uppermost  deposit  consisted  of  a  floor  of  stalagmite,  with  remains  of  bear,  reindeer.  Rhinoceros 
tichorhinns,  mammoth,  and  cave  lion.  A  concrete  of  limestone  fragments  commenced  at  the 
principal  entrance,  and  yielded  only  remains  of  bear  and  fox.  This  was  termed  the  first  bed. 
Immediately  beneath  was  the  second  bed,  formed  of  a  thin  layer  of  blackish  matter ;  the  third  bed 
was  composed  of  red  tenacious  clayey  loam,  inclosing  fragments  of  limestone  in  large  numbers, 
together  with  bones  of  'mammoth,  lihinoceros  tichorhinns^  horse.  Bos  immigeiiius.  Bos  longifrons,  red 
deer,  reindeer,  roebuck,  cave  lion,  cave  hyaena,  cave  bear,  grizzly  bear,  brown  bear,  fox,  hare,  rabbit, 
Lagom.)jS  sjjelceus,  water  vole,  shrew,  polecat,  and  weasel.'  The  fourth,  or  gravel  bed,  was  an  accu- 
mulation of  pebbles,  mixed  with  small  fragments  of  shale,  and  contained  remains  of  '  the  bear,  horse, 
ox,  and  mammoth.  The  human  industrial  remains  exhumed  in  the  cavern  were  flint  implements 
and  a  hammer  stone,  and  occurred  in  the  third  and  fourth  beds  only.' 

The  cavern  at  Yealm  Bridge  is  situated  about  eight  miles  from  Plymouth,  and  was  discovered  in 
Avorking  a  quarry  about  the  year  ]  832.  Colonel  Mudge,  writing  shortly  af terAvards,  mentions  the 
occurrence  of  elephant,  rhinoceros,  horse,  ox,  sheep,  hya;na,  dog,  wolf,  fox,  bear,  hare,  and  water  vole; 
and  Mr.  J.  C.  Bellamy  added  to  the  list  deer,  pig,  glutton,  weasel,  and  mouse.  In  this  instance  the 
remains  of  the  hyaena  appear  to  have  been  exceedingly  abundant.  Other  caverns  are  found  in  the 
limestones  of  Buckfastleigh,  Pridhamsleigh,  and  Chudleigh  ;  but  they  do  not  ceem  hitherto  to  have 
yielded  anything  of  importance.  Indeed,  of  all  the  Devonshire  caverns  that  at  Windmill  Hill, 
Brixham,  and  Kent's  Hole,  'have  alone  been  satisfactorily  explored,  and  beside  them  none  have 
yielded  evidence  of  the  contemporaneity  of  man  Avith  the  extinct  cave  mammals.' 

Kaised  Beaches  and  Submauine  Forests. — At  various  places  along  the  coast  are  found 
ancient  sea  beaches,  at  elevations  far  above  the  highest  limits  of  the  present  tides,  as  Avell  as  the  re- 
mains of  peat  and  forest  beds  Avhich  have  long  since  become  submerged,  and  are  now  only  visible  at 
loAV  Avater.  Although  belonging  to  different  ages,  with  probably  an  immense  interval  of  time  separa- 
ting them,  they  are  both  due  to  the  widespread  movement  of  the  land  surface  by  Avhich  this  country 
was  elevated  and  depressed.  The  softer  cliffs  of  the  cretaceous  and  triassic  series  have  suffered  so  much 
from  the  destructive  force  of  the  AA'aves,  that  no  raised  beaches  seem  to  haA'-e  been  left  along  any  part  of 
the  south-eastern  coast  line,  the  first  appearing  at  Hope's  Nose  and  the  Thatcher  Kock,  near  Torquay. 
These  were  described  by  Mr.  Godwin  Austen  in  1835.  Similar  beaches  occur  resting  on  elevated 
terraces  or  shelves,  generally  about  30  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea,  at  Berry  Head,  Sharkham 
Point,  Dartmouth,  Start  Point,  and  the  Hoe  at  Plymouth;  this  last  Avas  described  in  1839  as  being 
20  feet  in  thickness,  and  50  above  high  Avater.  On  the  northern  coast  the  clifl^s  are  generally  too 
precipitous  in  their  character  to  retain  any  traces  of  these  deposits ;  but  on  both  sides  of  the  more 
sheltered  position  of  Barnstaple  Bay  may  be  seen  the  ver}'  fine  examples  of  raised  beaches,  noticed  by 
Prof.  Sedgwick  and  Sir  R.  Murchison  in  1836.  That  at  Northam  on  the  south  side  between  the  neAV 
pier  at  Westward  Ho  and  Rocks  Nose,  is  composed  principally  of  pebbles,  and  extends  AvestAvard  for 
some  distance.  Its  thickness  is  variable,  ranging  from  3  to  12  feet,  Avhilst  the  height  of  its 
base  above  high-Avater  mark  is  from  10  to  17  feet.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  bay  at  Saunton 
and  Croyde,  the  beach  attains  a  much  greater  thickness,  and  is  more  sandy  :  shells  of  the  mussel, 
limpet,  and  cockle  being  frequently  imbedded  in  it. 

Beds  of  vegetable  remains  or  peat,  frequently  inclosing  portions  of  the  trunks  of  trees  with  their 
roots,  showing  that  they  grcAV  in  the  positions  in  Avhich  they  are  now  found,  are  not  uncommon  along  the 
souths  and  east  coast,  at  or  near  the  present  loAv-Avater  mark.   .  Beds  of  this  nature  Avere  formerly 

74-  Grdalasy  or  I>evoiislilre. 

seen  at  Bovey  Sand,  and  other  places  near  Plymouth,  and  in  1866  one  was  uncovered  at  Thurleston, 
in  Bigbury  Bay.  At  Blackpool,  near  Dartmouth,  a  submerged  forest  appeared  in  1802,  and  again 
about  the  year  1855,  also  for  a  few  weeks  in  1869. 

Similar  deposits  exist  over  considerable  portions  of  Torbay,  the  principal  exposure  being  at  Tor 
Abbey  Sands,  where  six  portions  of  antlers  of  the  red  deer,  Cervus  ela2')hus,  were  found  twelve  months 
since  near  the  low-water  line.  This  bed  has  also  yielded  remains  of  the  horse,  wild  hog,  and  Bos 
longifrons,  whilst  a  tooth  of  the  mammoth  was  dredged  up  by  some  fishermen  in  the  southern  side  of 
the  bay.  At  Sidmouth  portions  of  a  forest  were  discovered  in  1873,  and  in  this  instance  numerous 
teeth  of  the  mammoth  were  obtained.  In  North  Devon,  a  large  tract  of  submerged  forest  extending  beyond 
the  delta  of  the  rivers  Taw  and  Torridge,  at  Northara  burrows,  was  uncovered  during  a  storm  in  the 
winter  of  1864,  when  the  stems  of  between  seventy  and  eighty  large  trees  were  seen,  broken  off  at 
a  height  of  about  2  feet  above  the  peat  bed,  but  standing  in  the  upright  position  in  which  they 
grew.  The  wood  consisted  principally  of  ash,  dwarf  birch,  and  hazel,  nuts  of  the  latter  being  found 
in  great  quantities  in  the  peat,  amongst  the  stems  and  roots  of  the  trees,  together  with  antlers  of  red 
deer,  and  bones  of  wild  boar,  wolf,  goat,  roebuck,  reindeer  (?),  ox,  and  other  animals.  This  forest  bed 
is  now  almost  destroyed  ;  but  from  the  time  of  its  discovery  to  within  a  very  recent  period  it  afforded 
undoubted  evidences  of  its  former  human  occupation.  Flint  flakes  and  flint  cores  were  especially 
abundant,  associated  with  fragments  of  charcoal  and  calcined  flint,  pointed  stakes  of  wood,  and  accumu- 
lations of  oyster  shells,  and  split  bones. 

In  estimating  the  amount  of  elevation  and  depression  of  the  land  required  to  produce  the  raised 
beaches  and  submarine  forests,  it  is  clear  that  all  measurements  must  depend  upon  the  tidal  range  of 
each  locality.  In  the  case  of  raised  beaches,  the  amount  of  waste  which  the  coast  line  has  subsequently 
undergone  must  also  be  taken  into  account,  in  order  to  ascertain  the  original  base  of  the  deposits,  or, 
in  other  words,  the  former  low-water  mark.  A  comparison  of  the  levels  of  various  raised  beaches 
proves  that  during  their  formation  the  land  must  have  been  from  25  to  45  feet  lower  than  it  is  noAv, 
supposing  the  tidal  range  to  have  been  the  same ;  whilst  the  submerged  forests,  on  the  other  hand, 
indicate  a  considerable  elevation  of  the  coast,  the  peat  beds  both  at  Torbay  and  Northam  burrows 
extending  down  to  extreme  low-water  mark,  and  probably  far  beyond  it.  In  Barnstaple  Bay  the 
tidal  range  is  between  28  and  30  feet ;  and  if,  therefore,  the  lowest  part  of  the  forest  is  covered  at 
high  tide  with  30  feet  of  water,  it  follows  that  at  the  time  the  trees  were  growing  the  land  must 
have  been  30  feet  higher  than  at  present ;  an  additional  5  or  10  feet  would  also  be  required  in 
order  to  raise  the  roots  above  water,  and  so  allow  of  the  growth  of  the  trees.  Following  the  question 
still  further,  it  is  clear  that  the  raised  beaches  and  submerged  forests  cannot  possibly  be  contempora- 
neous, since  one  has  been  caused  by  a  depression  of  the  land,  and  the  other  indicates  a  long  period  of 
elevation.  A  series  of  measurements  at  Westward  Ho,  where  the  two  deposits  are  found  in  close 
proximity  to  each  other,  has  afforded  the  following  results : — first,  when  the  raised  beaches  were  in 
course  of  formation  the  land  surface  must  have  been  from  25  to  45  leet  below  its  present  level  ; 
secondly,  a  gradual  upheaval  took  place  to  the  extent  of  from  70  to  85  feet  (probably  more)  when 
the  clay  beds  and  alluvial  soil  in  the  bays  and  at  the  river  estuaries  became  covered  with  vegetation  ; 
the  land  must  have  remained  at  this  level  a  sufficient  time  to  admit  of  the  formation  of  the  peat  beds, 
and  the  growth  of  large  trees ;  and  thirdly,  a  subsidence  of  at  least  30  to  40  feet,  causins^  the  destruction 
of  the  forests.  This  final  change  occurred  at  a  period  so  remote  as  to  be  j^rehistoric,  but  yet  must  be 
included  within  the  human  period,  as  man  inhabited,  or  at  all  events,  frequented  the  forests. 

MoDEKN  Action. — The  coast  in  the  vicinity  of  Axmouth  is  broken  up  by  a  succession  of  land- 
slips, the  best  known  of  which  occurred  on  the  farms  of  Dowlands  and  Bindon  on  Christmas  Day 
1839.  This  attracted  considerable  attention  at  the  time,  and  an  account  of  it  by  Mr.  G.  Koberts 
passed  through  five  editions  in  the  same  year.  Other  examples  of  changes  effected  by  modern  action 
are  seen  in  the  caves  and  tunnels  hollowed  out  by  the  waves  in  the  softer  rocks,  such  as  those  in  the 
new  red  sandstone  cliffs  of  South  Devon,  and  in  the  slates  from  Ilfracombe  to  Combmartin ;  whilst 
the  formation  and  transportation  of  pebbles  is  continually  in  progress  along  the  coast,  but  especially 
along  the  southern  shore  of  Barnstaple  Bay,  the  lofty  cliffs  of  Hartland  and  Clovelly  affording  the 
rough  material  which  is  carried  along  in  an  easterly  direction,  until  it  arrives  smoothed  and  rounded 
on  the  Northam  pebble  ridge.  This  ridge  is  a  natural  breakwater,  extending  for  nearly  two  miles  in 
length,  and  protecting  the  southern  portion  of  the  delta  of  the  rivers  Taw  and  Torridge.  It  is  formed 
of  pebbles  of  all  sizes,  usually  from  two  to  eight  inches  in  diameter,  but  in  some  rare  instances 
attaining  a  length  of  thirty-nine  inches,  and  has  an  average  width  of  160  feet. 

From  the  foregoing  necessarily  brief  sketch  of  the  various  formations,  it  may  be  seen  that  the 
study  of  Devonshire  geology  is  attended  with  unusual  difficulty.  The  older  series  have  been  dis- 
turbed by  the  upheaval  of  granite  and  the  outburst  of  volcanic  rocks ;  whilst  the  secondary  and 
tertiary  deposits  show  in  only  one  instance  an  uninterrupted  sequence.  Great  gaps,  marking  an 
immense  interval  of  time,  occur  between  almost  every  group.  The  upper  portion  of  the  beds  have  in 
most  cases  been  removed  by  denudation,  and  in  the  succeeding  deposit  there  is  seldom  any  certain 

Greologfy  of  I>evoiisliii:'e.  75 

base  from  which  to  start.  For  these  and  other  reasons  Devonshire  has  long  proved  a  fertile  source  of 
interest  to  the  geologist,  and  with  many  facts  still  to  be  accounted  for,  many  difficulties  to  be  cleared 
up,  and  with  some  problems  yet  remaining  to  be  solved,  this  interest  is  not  likely  soon  to  pass  away. 

Mines  and  Mining. — The  metalliferous  deposits  of  Devon  consist  of  veins  or  lodes,  running 
chiefly  in  an  east  and  west  direction,  with  occasional  north  and  south  veins  or  cross  courses.  The 
lodes  occur  in  the  slates  of  the  Devonian  and  carboniferous  j)eriods,  included  by  the  miners  under  the 
general  name  of  clay  slate  or  killas,  as  well  as  in  the  granite.  On  Dartmoor  tin  has  also  been 
obtained  from  the  earliest  times  by  means  of  stream  works,  in  the  superficial  detritus  formed  by  the 
decay  of  the  granite.  The  chief  supplies  of  metal  are,  however,  found  along  the  borders  of  the  moor, 
and  the  neighbourhood  of  Tavistock  is  especially  remarkable  for  the  value  and  variety  of  its  products. 
In  proximity  to  the  granite  are  numerous  tin  mines.  On  the  south-west  are  the  rich  Beer  Alston 
lodes  of  silver-lead,  extending  into  Cornwall,  whilst  occupying  an  intermediate  position  is  a  group  of 
very  valuable  copper  mines,  the  principal  being  the  Devon  Great  Consols.  This  mine,  begun  in  1844, 
now  contains  excavations  in  shafts  and  winzes,  upwards  of  nine  miles  in  length,  more  than  thirty  miles 
of  galleries  or  levels,  and  up  to  April,  1877,  its  produce  has  amounted  to  a  total  of  ^3,226,426,  with 
a  clear  profit  to  the  shareholders  of  £1,195,520.  The  arsenic  works  in  connection  with  it  are  also  the 
most  extensive  in  the  world.  North  of  Tavistock  are  the  argentiferous  lead  lodes  of  Huel  Betsy,  and 
the  Lydford  mines;  and  beyond  these  the  lead  and  copper  mines  of  Okehampton  and  Belstone. 
North-east  of  Dartmoor  lead  has  been  extensively  worked  at  Christow,  in  the  Teign  Valley,  and 
manganese  at  Doddiscombeleigh  on  the  east ;  magnetic  iron  ore  at  Haytor ;  umber  at  Ashburton, 
'  copper  at  Buckfastleigh ;  and  on  the  south-west  tin,  at  Bottle  Hill,  near  Plympton. 

Beyond  the  more  immediate  vicinity  of  Dartmoor,  both  on  the  west  and  east  sides,  manganese  is 
abundant,  especially  in  those  portions  of  the  slates  which  are  associated  with  the  greenstones  or 
trappean  rocks.  In  the  north  the  mining  district  of  Combmartin  affords  silver,  lead,  and  iron ;  that  of 
North  Molton,  copper  and  iron;  manganese  occurs  in  several  lodes  at  Newton  St.  Cyres,  and  Upton  Pyne, 
near  Exeter ;  and  in  South  Devon  considerable  quantities  of  iron  ore  have  been  raised  at  Brixham. 

In  the  early  history  of  mining  the  two  counties  of  Devon  and  Cornwall  are  inseparably  connected. 
Both  yielded  tin  abundantly,  and  in  order  to  obtain  this  metal  there  is  no  doubt  the  Phoenicians  traded 
with  these  parts  of  Britain  considerably  before  the  Christian  era.  Many  of  the  ancient  stream  works 
and  remains  of  smelting-houses  found  on  Dartmoor,  and  known  as  Jews'  Houses,  probably  date  from  this 
period.  One  of  the  first  documents  relating  to  the  Devonshire  mines  is  a  letter  in  the  Exchequer 
,  Books,  regarding  a  court  of  inquiry  held  in  Exeter  on  January  19,  1198,  for  the  purpose  of  ascertain- 
ing the  just  weights  of  tin  in  Devonshire.  In  the  reign  of  King  John  the  mines  were  farmed  to  the 
Jews  by  the  King,  as  Earl  of  Cornwall;  and  in  October,  1201,  he  granted  a  charter  to  the  tinners  of 
the  two  counties,  securing  to  them  very  extensive  rights  and  privileges. 

The  relative  produce  at  this  period  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  in  1213  the  Cornish  dues  were 
farmed  for  200  marks  (£133  6s.  8d.) ;  and  those  of  Devon  for  £200.  On  the  banishment  of  the 
Jews  from  England  in  1290,  the  mines  appear  to  have  fallen  for  a  time  into  disuse,  and  early  in  1305 
the  Cornish  tinners  petitioned  for  a  charter  of  liberties  for  themselves,  not  joined  with  the  tinners  of 
Devon.  This  request  was  granted  by  Edward  I.,  and  on  April  10  of  the  same  year  two  separate 
charters  were  given,  one  for  each  county ;  that  for  Devonshire  providing  that  all  tin  should  be  weighed 
for  the  purpose  of  the  tax,  at  either  '  Tavystok,  Asperton,  or  Chaggeford,'  and  appointing  Lydford  as 
the  stannary  prison.  The  duty  on  the  stamped  or  coined  tin  was  405.  per  1000  lbs.  weight  for 
Cornwall,  and  15s.  Qd.  for  Devon.  Previous  to  these  charters  the  tinners  of  the  two  counties  were 
accustomed  to  meet  every  seventh  or  eighth  year  on  Kingston  Down,  near  Callington,  for  the  trans- 
action of  business,  and  to  enact  laws ;  but  after  their  separation  the  jurors  or  representatives,  elected 
by  the  Devonshire  stannaries,  transferred  their  parliament  to  Crockern  Tor,  on  Dartmoor.  In  1328 
Plympton  was  added  to  the  number  of  stannary  towns,  and  in  1337,  when  Edward  the  Black  Prince 
was  created  Duke  of  Cornwall,  the  coinage  revenues  from  Devonshire  were  returned  at  £273  195.  6d. 
In  1471  the  fortune  of  the  county  seems  to  have  changed,  its  tin  produce  amounting  to  only 
242,624  lbs.,  against  851,116  lbs.  raised  in  Cornwall,  and  all  subsequent  returns  show  it  failed  to 
recover  its  lost  supremacy.  In  August,  1838,  the  stannary  dues  were  commuted  for  a  certain 
payment,  based  upon  the  average  yield  of  the  ten  previous  years. 

Next  to  tin,  the  earliest  recorded  mining  operations  were  those  conducted  in  search  of  silver  and 
lead.  In  1293,  William  de  Wymundham  accounted  at  the  Treasury  for  270  lbs.  of  silver  raised  in 
r)evon,  and  in  the  two  following  years  the  amount  was  £1225  1 3s.  Id.  in  weight.  According  to  Risdon, 
the  Combmartin  mines  were  first  found  in  the  22nd  year  of  Edward  I.  (1294),  at  which  time  337 
men  were  brought  from  the  Peak  of  Derbyshire  to  work  them.  Afterwards,  in  the  reign  of  King 
Edward  III.,  they  yielded  great  profit  towards  the  maintenance  of  the  French  wars,  and  Henry  V. 
also  made  good  use  of  them.  These  mines  were  reopened  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  under 
the  direction  of  Sir  Bevis  Bulmer,  who  in   1593  gave  a  rich  and  fair  silver  cup  to  the  Earl  of  Bath, 


!I^liiiCH  of  Devoiisliii'e. 

another  weighing  137  ounces,  with  a  '  kiver,'  to  the  Lord  Mayor  of  London,  to  continue  to  the  said 
City  for  ever.  An  autograph  letter  was  written  by  Charles  I.  three  months  before  his  death,  on  the 
subject  of  the  Combmartin  mines;  and  the  working  of  them  was  strongly  recommended  to  the  Long 
Parliament  in  1059.  With  the  North  Devon  mines  were  usually  associated  those  of  Beer  Alston, 
the  ore  of  which  frequently  contained  from  80  to  120  ounces  of  silver  to  the  ton  of  lead.  In  1784- 
85,  the  latter  mines  produced  6500  ounces  of  silver,  and  the  returns  from  Huel  Betsy  near  Tavistock, 
about  the  year  1824,  amounted  to  4000  or  5000  ounces  annually. 

The  ores  of  copper  and  iron,  although  they  were  long  known  to  exist,  do  not  appear  to  have 
been  worked  to  any  extent  until  the  eighteenth  century,  and  a  patent  of  Henry  VIII.  mentions  that 
these  metals,  both  in  Cornwall  and  Devon,  had  not  been  '  serched,  laborid  and  wroughte  as  other 
mynnes  of  tynne.'  One  of  the  oldest  copper  mines  in  Devonshire  is  that  formerly  worked  at  North 
Molton,  where  the  ore  is  said  to  have  been  plentiful  in  1729.  The  total  produce  for  the  county 
amounted  to  only  1078  tons  in  1801 ;  3390  tons  in  1817  ;  and  6328  tons  in  1837.  Twenty  years  later 
the  yield  had  increased  to  39,069  tons,  and  in  1862  the  maximum  of  41,513  tons  was  attained;  but 
since  this  date  the  annual  returns  show  a  steady  decrease. 

Iron  was  not  obtained  in  any  quantity,  owing  probably  to  its  less  comparative  value,  and  the 
great  cost  of  carriage,  imtil  a  very  recent  period.  The  principal  entry  dating  in  the  last  century  is 
the  shipment  of  9293  tons  of  ore  from  Combmartin  to  the  opposite  coast  of  Wales,  between  the  years 
1796  and  1802.  Manganese,  now  so  largely  in  demand  for  manufacturing  purposes,  was  first  raised 
at  Upton  Pyne,  about  the  year  1770,  and  from  1804  to  1810  some  3000  tons  were  yearly  taken  to 
the  port  of  Exeter.  The  productive  deposits  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Tavistock  were  discovered  in 
1815.  Gold  has  been  recorded  as  occurring  in  grains  at  the  stream  works  at  Sheeps  Tor,  on  Dartmoor, 
and  in  the  North  Molton  copper  mines.  Antimony,  bismuth,  cobalt,  nickel,  titanium,  and  uranium 
have  also  been  found  in  the  county,  though  in  too  small  quantities  to  be  of  any  commercial  value. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  Devonshire  mines  at  present  in  Avork,  or  which  sold  ore  in  1876. 
The  returns  relative  to  the  amount  and  estimated  value  of  the  produce  are  taken,  with  few  exceptions, 
from  Mr.  Robert  Hunt's  '  Mineral  Statistics  of  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,' 
published  September  1877,  by  order  of  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  Her  Majesty's  Treasury  : — 




Amount  of  ore 

Estimated  value 

Tons  cwts.  qrs. 

£        s.     d. 

Aller  Mine     . 

Christow,  Exeter    . 



Ashburton  Mines    . 


Umber  .... 

1,000     0     0 

900     0     0 

Bampfylde  Mine     . 

North  Molton 

Copper  .... 

18     0     2 

108     2  10 

Bedford  Consols     . 

New  Quay,  Tavistock      . 

Iron  pyrites  . 

100     0     0 

122  16     6 

Bedford  United      . 


Copper  .... 

639     1     0 

2,331     3     0 

)>                             5»                        •                    • 

,.               ... 

Arsenical  iron  pyrites     . 

221   19     1 

220  11   10 

Bel  stone  Mine 

Okehampton  . 

Copper  .... 

122     9     0 

854     0     0 

Betsy,  Huel  . 

Mary  Tavy     . 

Lead      .... 

Silver     .... 

57     1     21 
250  ozs./ 

702  10     0 

Bircli  Tor  Mine      . 

North  Bovey . 

Tin         ...         . 



Bottle  Hill,  Old      . 


Tin         .         .         .         , 

3   10     1 

157  12     6 

jj         >»         j>       • 

,,               ... 

Copper  .... 

4     8     0 

32     0     0 

,,               ... 

Arsenical  iron  pyrites     . 

16  10     0 

15     0     0 

Bowden  Common    . 

Brentor,  Tavistock 

Manganese     . 

76     0     0 

304     0     0 

Brixhara  Mine 


Brown  hematite 

1,603     0     0 

801   10     0 

Brookwood  Mine    . 


Copper  .... 

1,149  17     0 

4,556     I     5 

»»            .,        .         . 


Arsenical  iron  pyrites     . 

104  13     0 

170     0  11 

Chillaton  and  Hogstor    . 

Milton  Abbot 

Manganese     . 

2,430  17     0 

8,200     0     0 

Comfort,  H  uel,  Fullabrook 


,,              .         .         . 



Courtney,  Huel 

Tavistock       .         .      '   . 

Copper  .... 



Crebor,  Huel. 

,,               .         .         . 


827     6     0 

3,176  15     4 

„       .         .         . 

,,               .         .'        . 

Arsenical  iron  pyrites     . 

187     0     0 

184     5     0 

Dean  Prior     . 


Copper  .         .         .         . 



Devon  and  Cornwall 


Umber  .         .         .         . 



Devon  Great  Consols 


Copper  .         .         .         . 

9,974     4     0 

33,839  19  U 

5>                        >'                        " 

,,               .         .         . 

Iron  pyrites    . 

110  15     0 

84     7     7 

Arsenic  (refined)    . 

1,621  11     0 

14,705     8  10 

Doddiseombeleigh  . 

Exeter  .         .         .         . 

Manganese     . 



Edgecumbe  Mine    . 

Milton  Abbot 

»>              .         .         . 

10     0     0 

45     0     0 

Eleanor  (Great),  Huel    . 

Moreton  Hampstead 

Tin         ...         . 

3     0     0 

129     0     0 

Emily,  Huel  (late  Furs- 

South  Tawton,  Okehamp- 

don) .         .         ,         . 

ton     .         .         .         . 

Copper  .... 

84  17     3 

233     6     5 

Emma,  Huel  . 



230     0     0 

690     0     0 

jt          " .    *        *         * 

j>                    •         • 

Iron  pyrites   . 

24     0     0 

14     4     0 

Florence  Mine 

North  Molton 

Brown  hematite     . 

5,712     0     0 

2,856     0     0 

Miiiies  or  Devonsiiir^. 





Amount  of  ore 

Estimated  value 

Tons  cwts.  qrs.    | 

£       s.      d. 

Frank  Mills  . 

Christow,  Exeter    . 

Lead      .... 

376     6 


»                      >5                 • 

>>              j>         •         • 

Silver     .         . 

5,640  ozs.  /  1 

4,070  16     5 

>J                      J»                  •                      • 

Spathose  iron          .         .  1 




»              >i         •         • 

Barytes.         .         .         .  1 

6  10 


5     6     5 

Friendship,  Huel    . 

Mary  Tavy     . 

Copper  .         .         .         .  j 

92  10 


627     7     6 

M                                )»                 •                    • 

M                    >>                 • 

Arsenical  iron  pyrites     .  ; 

4,000     0 


3,600     0     0 

Furze  Hill     . 

Horrabridge  . 

Tin         ...         . 

7   13 


339     0     1 

Grawton  Mine 

Gawton  Quay,  Tavistock 

Copper  .         .         .         .  1 

1,069  17 


4,810  14     0 

j         »»          j>              *         • 

ft                    it                        u 

Arsenical  iron  pyrites     . 

357  14 


328     8     0 

HaytorValo  . 


Magnetic  iron         .         .  ' 

1,781     8 


890  19     0 

I  Holne  Chase  Mine . 


Tin         ...         . 



j  Marcia  Mine  . 

North  Molton 

Hematite  iron 

200     0 


120     0     0 

1  Maria  (West)  and  For- 

tescue  Consols    . 

Lamerton,  Tavistock 

Copper  .... 

909     9 


4,090  10     0 

»          '>          >>         »» 

tj                >>              • 

Arsenic  .... 

142     2 


710  11     3 

Mary  Hutchings,  Huel  . 


Tin         ...         . 

4     1 


182  19     9 

S>                           M                             !J              • 

!)                              ... 

Arsenical  iron  pyrites     . 

92  16 


73  10     0 

Arsenic .... 

7     0 


14     7     6 

Newton  St.  Cyres  Mine  . 

Newton  St.  Cyres  . 

Manganese     . 

129     0 


600     0     0 


Shaugh,  Roborough 

Brown  hematite      . 

222     0 


111     0     0 

Roborough  Mine     . 


Umber  .... 



Russell,  Huel 


Copper  .... 

1,149     9 


2,868     9     5 

Shirwell  and  Bratton 

Barnstaple      . 

Manganese  and  iron 



South  Molton  Consols    . 

South  Molton 

Lead      .... 



Southward  . 

Beer  Ferris    . 

1     9 


Spreacombe  Mine  . 

Georgeham,  Barnstaple  . 

Hematite  iron 

118     2 


70  16     0 

Steeperton  Tor 

1  Belstone,  Okehampton    . 

Tin        ...         . 



Taniar  Valley  Mine 

j  Beer  Alston   . 

Lead      .... 

2  15 


61  17  10 

>J                       J>                       51 

j        n            „            . 

Iron  pyrites   . 

19     0 


15     5     0 

„                       ,,                       ,, 

„.         „            .             .             . 

Fluor  spar 

337  10 


230     0     0 

Tavy  Consols 


Copper  .... 

5     0 


22  10     0 

M                     >•                                •                  • 

,,              ... 

Iron  pyrites   . 

756     0 


763  16     0 

Teign  "Valley  Mine 

Bridford,  Exeter     . 

Barytes .... 

682     0 


558     7     9 

Ugborough  Mine    . 

Ugborough,  Ivy  bridge    . 

Brown  hematite 

300     0 


225  10     0 

n                   It          •             • 

»                  )• 

Ochre     .... 

100     0 


75     0     0 

Vitifer,  East  . 

North  Bovey .         ,         . 

Tin         ...         . 

13     9 


607  15     0 

West  Down    . 

Ilfracombe     . 

Iron  and  manganese 



White  Works,  New 

Princetown     . 

Tin         ...         . 

16     1 


691   10     0 

Summary  of  the  mineral  produce  of  Devonshire,  with  its  computed  value,  for  the  years  186C, 
1871,  and  1876:— 











Tons  cwts. 


£        s. 


Tons  cwts.  qrs. 

£       s. 


Tons  cwts.  qrs. 

£        s.    d. 





2,220     3     3 

11,862  19 


1,670  13     3 

15,430     7     7 






688  10     0 

563  17     3 

Clay  (China) 

12,000     0 


9,600     0 


19,000     0     0 

20,900     0 


25,000     0     0 

25.000     0     0 

„     (Potters')      . 

45,203     0 


20,341     0 


47,639     0     0 

ll.,909  15 


61,525     0     0 

18,457  10     0 

Copper  ore    . 

34,471     0 


151,481   11 


25,600  11     0 

84,372     6 


16,276  10     2 

58,240  19  10 

Fluor  spar     . 





337  10     0 

230     0     0 

Iron  ore 

40,671     1 


12,504     9 


14,124  14     0 

6,095  16 


9,936  10     0 

5,075  15     0 

Iron  pyrites  . 

915     4 


729     7 


2,662  10     3 

1,916     8 


5,990     7     1 

5.592     4  10 

Lead  ore 

723  10 


9,227  12 


940  13     0 

11,669  19 


437  13     3 

6,740  11     5 

Manganese    . 



5.548     1     2 

22,958  10 


2,645  17     0 

9,149     0     0 

Ochre  and  Umber  . 

97     0 


48  10 


.       485  17     2 

964     0 


1,100     0     0 

975     0     0 

Silver    . 

1        13,017 


3,579  13 


i          13,805  oz. 

3,451     5 


5,890  oz. 

1,293  15     6 

Tin  ore . 

184  10 


9,313     1 


139     8     0 

10,557  16 


47  16     0 

2,107  17     4 

Zinc  ore 

j       135     0 


236     5 


570  11     3 

1,562  10 




Mineral  Waters  are  very  numerous  in  Devon,  and  are  chiefly  of  the  clialybeate  kind,  but  none 
of  them  are  now  in  medicinal  repute.  The  strongest  springs  o£  this  description  rise  at  Bella-Marsh, 
between  Chudleigh  and  King's  Teignton ;  and  at  Hampton.  That  at  the  latter  place  is  said  to  be 
more  strongly  impregnated  with  iron  than  any  other  in  the  county.  Springs  at  Ayshford,  near  Tiver- 
ton, at  Sharpham,  near  Totnes,  at  Brook,  near  Tavistock,  and  at  St.   Sidwell's,  near  Exeter,  were 

78  Vital  Statistics  of  r>evoiisliirc. 

formerly  much  resorted  to  for  their  medicinal  virtues.  At  Ashburton,  and  near  the  Dart,  are  springs 
saturated  with  ochre.  A  pool  in  one  of  the  Bovey  coal  pits  is  warm,  and  covered  ^with  ochreous 
incrustation.  Ley  Well,  at  Brixham,  formerly  ebbed  and  flowed  from  nine  to  eleven  times  in  an 
hour,  but  has  been  cut  through  and  destroyed  ;  and  there  was  a  pond  of  the  same  nature  at  Tidwell, 
near  Otterton.  Springs  at  Ashburton,  and  at  Anchor  Wood  near  Barnstaple,  arc  still  in  repute  for 
complaints  of  the  eye,  whilst  the  Holy  Well  at  North  Molton  was  formerly  much  frequented  on 
Ascension-day,  the  water  being  then  supposed  to  possess  unusual  virtues.  The  mineral  spring  at 
Plymouth,  known  as  the  Victoria  Spa,  was  obtained  from  a  boring  3G0  feet  deep,  in  Bath  Street ;  and 
the  following  analysis,  given  by  De  la  Beche  in  1839,  indicates  the  weight  in  grains  of  dry  salts  in. 
an  imperial  pint  of  water: — Chloride  of  sodium,  96'64;  muriate  of  magnesia,  18*68 ;  muriate  of 
lime,  15*10;  sulphate  of  soda,  9*55;  sulphate  of  lime,  8*94;  carbonate  of  lime,  2*06;  carbonate  of 
iron,  0*69 — total  grains,  151*66.     Carbonic  acid  gas,  8*1  cubic  inches.  — | 


Area. — According  to  the  Census  Report,  1871,  the  area  of  the  county  of  Devonshire  is 
1,655,161  acres,  equal  to  2586  square  miles;  this  area  includes  16,386  acres  of  inland  water. 
Devonshire  takes  the  third  place  among  the  English  counties,  ranged  in  the  order  of  their  size  from 
the  largest ;  Yorkshire  and  Lincolnshire  being  the  only  counties  larger  than  Devonshire.  Devonshire 
is  divided  into  three  Parliamentary  Divisions,  the  Eastern,  Northern,  and  Southern.  The  Eastern 
Division  of  Devonshire  has  an  area  of  424,289  acres,  and  had  in  1871  a  population  of  160,788  per- 
sons, exclusive  of  44,226  living  within  the  represented  city  of  Exeter.  The  Northern  Division  of 
the  county  has  an  area  of  671,824  acres;  and  the  population  in  1871  was  130,775,  exclusive  of 
21,837  living  within  the  represented  boroughs  of  Barnstaple  and  Tiverton.  The  Southern  Division 
has  an  area  of  559,048  acres,  and  the  population  in  1871  was  101,898,  exclusive  of  141,850  persons 
residing  within  the  three  Parliamentary  Boroughs  of  Plymouth,  Devonport,  and  Tavistock. 

Population. — At  the  last  census  enumeration  in  April  1871,  the  population  of  the  county  con- 
sisted of  601,374  persons,  showing  a  proportion  of  rather  more  than  one  inhabitant  to  each  three 
acres ;  in  other  words,  there  were  2*75  acres  to  each  person  enumerated  in  1871.  At  the  first  com- 
plete national  census  in  1801  the  population  of  the  county  of  Devonshire  was  returned  at  340,308 
persons.  During  the  seventy  years,  1801-71,  the  increase  in  the  population  of  the  county  was 
261,066  persons,  equal  to  77  per  cent.  At  each  decennial  census  enumeration  since  1801  the  popula- 
tion of  the  county  has  shown  an  increase;  but,  since  1821,  the  rate  of  increase  has  considerably 
declined.  Between  1801  and  1811  the  rate  of  increase  was  equal  to  12  per  cent.,  and  in  the  follow- 
ing ten  years,  1811-21,  to  15  per  cent.;  the  increase  in  the  three  following  decades  declined  to 
13,  8,  and  6  per  cent,  respectively,  while  it  did  not  exceed  3  per  cent,  in  either  of  the  last  two 
decades,  1851-61,  and  1861-71.  During  the  ten  years,  1861-71,  the  increase  of  the  urban  popula- 
tion of  the  county  was  equal  to  7  per  cent.,  whereas  the  rural  population  showed  a  decrease  of 
1-^  per  cent.  The  increasing  tendency  of  English  populations  to  aggregation  in  town  districts  causes 
an  actual  decrease  of  population  in  most  rural  districts. 

Proportion  of  the  Sexes. — The  enumerated  population  of  the  county  in  1871  included  285,248 
males,  and  316,126  females;  thus,  in  a  hundred  of  the  population  the  average  proportion  was  47 
males  and  53  females,  or,  in  other  words,  there  were  110*8  females  to  each  100  males.  In  England 
and  Wales  the  average  proportion  of  females  to  100  males,  enumerated  in  1871 ,  was  105*4 ;  in  London 
it  was  equal  to  113*6.  There  is  a  large  excess  of  females  in  the  population  of  nearly  all  the  English 
counties,  except  those  in  which  a  considerable  proportion  of  the  inhabitants  is  engaged  in  mining ; 
in  Durham,  Northumberland,  Monmouth,  Staffordshire,  and  the  North  Riding  of  Yorkshire,  the  num- 
bers of  males  considerably  exceed  those  of  females.  In  1801  the  number  of  females  in  the  population 
of  Devonshire  was  in  the  proportion  of  118*0  to  100  males;  the  proportion  of  females  at  subsequent 
census  enumerations  showed  a  steady  decline  until  1831,  when  it  was  as  109*6  to  100  males.  Since 
1831  the  sex  proportion  of  the  population  of  Devonshire  has  not  materially  varied,  and  in  1871  it 
was,  as  before  stated,  110*8  females  to  100  males.  The  excess  of  females  is  always  proportionally 
largest  in  urban  populations,  in  consequence  of  the  large  number  of  domestic  servants,  shop  assistants, 
and  others  employed  in  towns ;  this  more  than  counterbalances  the  effect  of  the  higher  wages  paid  in 
towns,  which  attract  male  adults  from  rural  districts,  and  also  of  the  drain  upon  male  agricultural 
populations  due  to  emigration.  In  thirty-two  town  districts  of  Devonshire  there  were,  in  1871,  117*9 
females  to  each  100  males;  whereas,  in  the  remaining  or  rural  parts  of  the  county  there  were  but 
103*3  females  to  each  100  males. 

Distribution  of  Population. — The  county  of  Devonshire  contains  six  parliamentary  and  eleven 
municipal  boroughs.  Plymouth,  Devonport,  Exeter,  Barnstaple,  and  Tiverton  are  both  parliamentary 
and  municipal  boroughs.  The  parliamentary  and  municipal  boundaries  of  Tiverton  are  coextensive, 
whereas  the  parliamentary  limits  of  Plymouth,  Devonport,  Exeter,  and  Barnstaple  exceed  the  municipal 
boundaries  of  those  boroughs.     Tavistock  is  a  parliamentary  borough  only ;  while  Bideford,  Dart- 

Vital  statistics  of  r>evoiisliif^.  79 

:  mouth,  Totnes,  South  Molton,  Torrington,  and  Honiton  are  municipal,  and  not  parliamentary 
i  boroughs.  The  municipal  borough  and  urban  sanitary  district  o£  Plymouth  consist  of  parts  of  the 
i  parishes  of  Charles  and  St.  Andrew,  and  has  an  area  of  1395  acres.  The  boundaries  of  the  borough 
!  were  coextensive  during  the  seventy  years,  1801-71.  The  population,  which  in  1801  was  16,040, 
I  increased  steadily  to  36,520  in  1841,  and  further  rose  to  52,221  and  62,599  at  the  census  enumera- 
i  tions  in  1851  and  1861 ;  in  1871  the  enumerated  population  was  68,758.  Between  1851  and  1861 
J  the  population  of  the  borough  showed  an  increase  of  19*9  per  cent.;  in  the  more  recent  decade,  1861- 
j  71  the  percentage  of  increase  declined  to  9*8.  Assuming  that  the  rate  of  increase  which  prevailed 
between  the  last  two  census  enumerations  has  since  been  maintained,  the  Registrar-General  estimates 
the  population  of  the  borough  of  Plymouth  in  the  middle  of  the  year  1878  to  be  73,599  persons. 
Plymouth  is  the  smallest  of  the  twenty  large  English  towns  for  which  weekly  mortality  statistics  are 
published  by  the  Registrar-General.  In  1871  the  inhabited  houses  within  the  borough  averaged  but 
5*2  per  acre,  proving  that  a  considerable  portion  of  the  area  of  the  borough  was  not  then  occupied  by 
buildings.  The  number  of  persons  to  each  inhabited  house  in  1871  was  so  high  as  9*4,  but  showed 
a  decline  from  the  proportion  that  prevailed  in  1861,  when  103  persons  were  enumerated  to  each 
inhabited  house.  By  the  Act  31  &  32  Vict.  c.  46,  the  parliamentary  borough  of  Plymouth  was 
extended  by  the  addition  of  a  portion  of  the  ty thing  of  Compton-GiiFord,  which  contained  223 
inhabited  houses  and  1333  persons  at  the  census  in  1871 ;  this  portion  of.  Compton-Gifford,  which  is 
part  of  Charles  parish,  is  not  included  within  the  municipal  borough  of  Plymouth.  The  municipal 
borough  and  urban  sanitary  district  of  Devonport  is  coextensive  with  the  parish  of  Stoke  Damerel, 
and  has  an  area  of  1760  acres.  The  parliamentary  borough  of  Devonport  includes  also  the  parish  of 
East  Stonehouse,  having  an  area  of  1950  acres,  within  which  1340  inhabited  houses  and  14,585 
persons  were  enumerated  in  1871.  The  population  of  the  municipal  borough  of  Devonport,  which  in 
1851  was  equal  to  38,180  persons,  increased  to  50,440  in  1861 ;  this  increase  was  equal  to  32*1  per 
cent.  In  1871  the  enumerated  population  of  the  borough  was  49,449,  and  showed  a  decrease  of  2*0 
per  cent  from  the  enumerated  number  in  1861.  The  decline  of  population  between  1861  and  1871 
was  partially  attributed  to  reduction  in  the  number  of  men  employed  in  the  dockyard.  In  1871  the 
inhabited  houses  within  the  municipal  borough  averaged  but  2'4  per  acre.  The  number  of  inhabited 
houses,  notwithstanding  the  decrease  of  population,  increased  from  4189  in  1861,  to  4269  in  1871 ; 
thus  the  number  of  persons  to  each  inhabited  house,  which  was  so  high  as  12*0  in  1861,  declined  to 
11'6  in  1871.  The  city,  municipal  borough,  and  urban  sanitary  district  of  Exeter,  which  is  coex- 
tensive with  the  poor  law  imion  and  registration  district  of  the  same  name,  has  an  area  of  1664 
acres.  The  limits  of  the  municipal  borough  were  coextensive  during  the  seventy  years,  1801-71. 
The  population,  which  in  1801  was  but  17,412,  increased  somewhat  rapidly  to  31,305  in  1841 ;  since 
then  the  rate  of  increase  has  been  much  smaller.  In  1851  the  enumerated  population  was  32,818; 
in  1861,  33,738,  and  in  1871,  34,650;  between  1851  and  1861  the  increase  was  equal  to  2*8 
per  cent.,  and  in  the  more  recent  decade  to  2*7  per  cent.  If  the  increase  since  1871  has  been 
maintained  at  the  same  rate  that  prevailed  between  1861  and  1871,  the  population  at  the  middle  of 
1878  may  be  estimated  at  35,327  persons.  In  1871  the  inhabited  houses  within  the  borough 
averaged  but  3*5  per  acre,  showing  that  a  large  proportion  of  the  area  of  the  city  had  not  then  been 
built  upon.  The  inhabited  houses  within  the  city  increased  from  5381  in  1861,  to  5868  in  1871; 
and  the  number  of  persons  to  each  inhabited  house  declined  from  6'3  in  1861,  to  5'9  in  1871.  The 
boundaries  of  the  parliamentary  borough  of  Exeter  were  extended  by  the  Act  31  &  32  Vict.  c.  46, 
so  as  to  include  the  whole  or  part  of  five  parishes,  which  are  not  included  in  the  municipal  borough. 
The  parliamentary  borough  contained  7490  inhabited  houses,  and  44,226  inhabitants  in  1871.  The 
municipal  borough  and  urban  sanitary  district  of  Barnstaple  consists  of  the  parish  of  the  same  name 
and  parts  of  the  parishes  of  Bishop's  Tawton  and  of  Pilton,  and  has  an  area  of  1750  acres.  The 
enumerated  population,  which  declined  from  11,371  in  1851,  to  ]  0,743  in  1861,  had  increased  again 
to  11,659  in  1871.  Thus  the  population  of  the  borough  showed  a  decrease  of  5*5  per  cent,  between 
1851  and  1861,  whereas  in  the  following  decade  there  was  an  increase  equal  to  8'5  per  cent.  In 
1571  there  were  but  1*3  inhabited  houses  to  each  acre  within  the  borough,  and  the  number  of  persons 
to  an  inhabited  house  was  5*0,  against  4*9  in  1861.  The  parliamentary  borough  of  Barnstaple  includes 
a  further  portion  of  the  parish  of  Pilton  (not  included  within  the  municipal  borough),  which  had  in 
1871  31  inhabited  houses,  and  a  population  of  154  persons.  The  municipal  and  parliamentary 
borough,  and  the  urban  sanitary  district  of  Tiverton  is  coextensive  with  the  parish  and  registration 
district  of  the  same  name,  and  has  an  area  of  17,491  acres.  The  enumerated  population  of  the 
borough,  which  in  1851  was  equal  to  11,144  persons,  declined  to  10,447  in  1861,  and  further 
decreased  to  10,024  in  1871 ;  this  decrease  of  population  is  partly  attributed  to  the  decline  of  lace 
manufacture.  Between  1851  and  1861  the  decrease  was  equal  to  6*3  per  cent.,  and  in  the  following 
decade  to  4*0  per  cent.  In  1871  there  were  8*1  acres  to  each  inhabited  house,  and  the  proportion  of 
persons  to  each  inhabited  house  declined  from  4*7  in  1861,  to  4-6  in  1871.  The  parliamentary 
.boirough  of  Tavistock  consists  of  a  portion  of  the  parish  of  the  same  name,  and  has  an  estimated  area 

80  Vital  Statistics  of"  r>evoiiskii*e. 

of  38G3  acres.  The  enumerated  population,  which  increased  irom  8086  in  1851,  to  8857  in  1861, 
equal  to  9*5  per  cent.,  had  in  1871  decreased,  owing  to  the  depression  in  mining,  to  7725  persons, 
which  was  equal  to  12'8  per  cent.  The  number  of  inhabited  houses  was,  however,  the  same  in  1871 
as  in  1861.  The  municijial  borough  and  urban  sanitary  district  of  Bidefohd  is  coextensive  with  the 
parish  of  the  same  name,  the  area  of  which  is  3196  acres.  The  population  of  the  borough  was  almost 
stationary  (577o  and  5742)  between  1851  and  1861,  but  increased  to  6969  in  1871,  showing  an  in- 
crease in  the  more  recent  decade  equal  to  21*4  per  cent.;  this  increase  was  partially  attributed  to  the 
number  of  labourers  temporarily  employed  on  railway  and  water  works.  In  1871  there  was  within 
the  borough  but  one  inhabited  house  to  every  2*4  acres ;  the  number  of  persons  to  an  inhabited 
house,  which  had  been  4*8  in  1861,  had  increased  to  5-1  in  1871.  The  municipal  borough  and 
urban  sjinitar}^  district  of  Dartmouth  has  an  area  of  1847  acres,  and  the  population,  which  had 
declined  from  4508  in  1851  to  4444  in  1861,  had  increaned  in  1871  to  5338;  the  increase  during 
the  last  decade  was  equal  to  20*1  per  cent.,  and  was  partly  due  to  tho  opening  of  the  railway.  In 
1871  there  were  2*2  acres  to  each  inhabited  house  within  the  borough,  and  the  number  of  persons  to 
each  inhabited  house  increased  from  5*4  in  1861,  to  6'4  in  1871.  The  parliamentary  borough  of 
Dartmouth  was  disfranchised  by  the  Act  31  &  32  Vict.  c.  48.  The  municipal  borough  and  urban 
sanitary  district  of  Totnes  consists  of  tlie  parish  of  that  name  and  part  of  the  parish  of  Berry 
Pomeroy,  and  has  an  estimated  area  of  2036  acres  :  the  population,  which  declined  from  4419  in 
1851  to  4001  in  1861,  was  4073  in  1871.  Between  1851  and  1861  the  population  decreased  9-5  per 
cent.,  whereas  in  the  more  recent  decade  the  increase  was  equal  to  1*8  per  cent.  The  number  of 
persons  to  an  inhabited  house  averaged  5*0  and  5*5  respectively  in  1861  and  1871.  The  municipal 
borough  and  urban  sanitary  district  of  South  Molton  is  coextensive  with  the  parish  of  the  game 
name,  and  has  an  area  of  6264  acres.  Between  1851  and  1861  the  population  declined  from  4482 
to  3830,  equal  to  14*5  per  cent.;  while  in  1871,  3978  persons  Avere  enumerated,  equal  to  an  increase 
of  3*9  per  cent.  The  increase  in  1871  was  partially  attributed  to  the  construction  of  a  railway.  In 
1871  there  were  within  the  borough  7 '3  acres  to  each  inhabited  house  ;  and  the  number  of  persons 
to  an  inhabited  house  averaged  4*7  against  4*4  in  1861.  The  municipal  borough  and  urban  sanitary 
district  of  Toriungton  is  coextensive  with  the  parish  of  Great  Torrington,  and  has  an  area  of  3456 
acres.  In  1851  and  in  1861,  3308  and  3298  persons  respectively  were  enumerated,  while  in  1871 
the  number  increased  7"0  per  cent.,  to  3529.  The  increase  in  the  last  decade  was  partly  attributed 
to  railway  works.  In  1871  there  were  4'8  acres  to  each  inhabited  house,  and  the  number  of  persons 
to  an  inhabited  house  averaged  4-9  against  4*7  in  1861.  The  municipal  borough  and  urban 
sanitary  district  of  Honiton  is  coextensive  with  the  parish  of  the  same  name,  and  has  an  area  of  3066 
acres.  Between  1851  and  1861  the  population  decreased  3*7  per  cent.,  from  3427  to  3301,  whereas 
in  the  following  decade  it  increased  4*9  per  cent.,  to  3464.  In  1871  there  were  4*5  acres  to  each 
inhabited  house,  and  the  nimiber  of  persons  to  an  inhabited  house  averaged  5*1  against  4*6  in  1861. 

In  addition  to  the  twelve  before  mentioned  towns  of  Devonshire  which  are  either  parliamentary 
or  municii^al  boroughs,  or  both  parliamentary  and  municipal  boroughs,  the  county  contains  seventeen 
other  towns  and  urban  sanitary  districts,  as  well  as  Topsham,  Ashburton,  and  Cullompton,  three 
towns  having  no  recognised  boundaries.  Sixteen  of  these  towns  are  local  board  districts: — viz.  Tor- 
quay, Teignmouth,  AVolborough,  Exmouth,  St.  Thomas  the  Apostle,  Lower  Brixham,  Ilfracombe, 
St.  Mary  Church,  Northam,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  Dawlish,  Paignton,  Sidmouth,  Okehampton,  Lynton, 
and  Bampton.  Crediton  is  an  improvement  commissioner's  district.  The  local  board  district  of 
Torquay,  which  is  coextensive  with  the  parish  of  Tormoham  with  Torquay,  has  an  area  of  1465 
acres.  The  enumerated  population  of  Torquay,  w^hich  increased  from  7903  in  1851  to  16,419  in 
1861,  had  further  increased  to  21,657  in  1871 ;  thus  the  population  more  than  doubled  between  1851 
and  1861,  and  showed  an  increase  of  32  per  cent,  between  1861  and  1871.  The  number  of  inhabited 
houses  rose  from  2183  in  1861  to  3071  in  1871,  when  they  averaged  2*1  per  acre;  the  number  of 
persons  to  an  inhabited  house,  which  was  7*5  in  1861,  had  declined  to  7*1  in  1871.  In  1871,  1700 
visitors  were  enumerated  with  the  population  of  Torquay.  The  local  beard  district  of  Teignmouth 
is  coextensive  with  the  parishes  of  East  and  West  Teignmouth,  and  has  an  area  of  1074  acres,  ex- 
clusive of  164  acres  of  water.  The  population,  which  was  5013  in  1851,  and  6022  in  1861,  further 
rose  to  6751  in  1871  ;  the  increase  between  1851  and  1861  was  equal  to  20*1  per  cent.,  whereas  in 
the  following  decade  it  did  not  exceed  12*1  per  cent.  The  number  of  inhabited  houses  rose  from 
1134  in  1861  to  1232  in  1871,  when  they  averaged  1*1  per  acre.  The  number  of  persons  to  an 
inhabited  house  was  equal  to  5*3  in  1861,  and  5*5  in  1871.  The  local  board  district  of  Wolborough 
is  coextensive  with  the  parish  of  Wolborough  with  Newton  Abbot,  and  has  an  area  of  1231  acres. 
The  population  increased  from  3227  in  1851  to  4427  in  1861,  and  further  rose  to  6082  in  1871 ;  an 
increase  equal  to  37  per  cent,  was  shown  in  each  of  the  two  decades.  The  number  of  inhabited 
houses  rose  from  853  in  1861  to  1155  in  1871,  when  there  were  1*1  acre  to  each  inhabited  house. 
The  number  of  persons  to  an  inhabited  house  in  1861  and  1871  was  equal  to  5*2  and  5*3  respectively. 
The  local  board  district  of  Exmouth  consists  of  parts  of  the  parislies  of  Littleham  and  Withycombe- 

"Vital  Statistics  of  Devonshire.  81 

Kawleigh,  and  has  an  estimated  area  of  460  acres.     The  enumerated  population  was  5123  in  1851, 
and  5228  in  1861,  while  in   1871  it  had  further  increased  to  5614;    between   1851   and  1861  the 
increase  was  equal  to  2  per  cent.,  whereas  in  the  more  recent  decade  it  was  7  per  cent.     The  number 
of  inhabited  houses  was  1106  in  1861,  and  1182  in  1871,  and  the  number  of  persons  to  an  inhabited 
house  averaged  4'7  at  each  enumeration.     The  local  board  district  of  St.  Thomas  the  Apostle  is 
coextensive  with  the  parish  of  the  same  name,  which  has  an  area  of  3700  acres.     The  population, 
which  was  4577  and  4533  respectively  in  1851  and  1861,  had  increased  to  5156  in  1871 ;  it  showed 
a  decrease  of  1  per  cent,  between  1851  and  1861,  while  in  the  more  recent  decade  the  increase  was 
equal  to  14  per  cent.     The  number  of  inhabited  houses  increased  from  786  to  934  between  1861  and 
1871,  but  in  the  latter  year  there  were  4    acres  to  each  inhabited  house.     The  number  of  persons 
to  an  inhabited  house  declined  from  5*8  in  1861  to  5*5  in  1871.     The  local  board  district  of  Lower 
Brixham  consists  of  part  of  the  parish  of  Brixham,  and  has  an  estimated  area  of  400  acres.     The 
population  increased  from  4390  in  1861,  to  4941  in  1871  ;  this  increase  was  equal  to  13  per  cent. 
The  number  of  inhabited  houses  was  equal  to  928  and  1018  in   1861  and   1871,  and  the  number  of 
persons  to  an  inhabited  house  to  4-7  and  4*9  respectively.     The  local  board  district  of  Ilfracombe  is 
coextensive  with  the  parish  of  the  same  name,  and  has  an  area  of  5583  acres.     The  population,  which 
was  3677  in  1851  and  3851  in  1861,  rose  to  4721  in  1871 ;  while  the  increase  was  but  5  per  cent, 
between  1851  and  1861,  it  rose  to  23  per  cent,  in  the  more  recent  decade,  in  consequence  of  the  in- 
creasing popularity  of  the  town  as  a  watering  place.     The  number  of  inhabited  houses  increased  from 
787  in  1861  to  954  in  1871,  but  in  the  latter  year  there  were  nearly  6  acres  to  each  inhabited  house. 
The  number  of  persons  to  each  inhabited  house  averaged  4*9  at  each  of  the  last  two  census  enumera- 
tions.    The  local  board  district  of  St.  Mary  Church  consists  of  part  of  the  parish  of  the  same  name. 
The  entire  parish  has  an  area  of  2589  acres,  and  the  population,  which  was  2293  and  3231  at  the 
census  enumerations  in  1851  and  1861,  further  increased  to  4626  in  1871  ;  the  increase  was  equal  to 
41  and  43  per  cent,  respectively  in  the  two  decades  1851-61  and  1861-71.     This  large  increase  was 
doubtlessly  due  to  the  increasing  favour  of  Torquay  and  St.  Mary  Church  as  watering  places.     The 
local  board  district  of  Northam  is  coextensive  with  the  parish  of  the  same  name,  which  includes  the 
new  watering  place  called  Westward  Ho,  and  has  an  area  of  4190  acres,  of  which  1690  are  water. 
The  population,  which  was  3680  and  3687  in  1851  and  1861,  rose  to  4330  in  1871 ;  it  was  therefore 
stationary  between  1851  and  1861,  whereas  in  the  following  decade  the  increase  was  18  per  cent.    The 
number  of  inhabited  houses  rose  from  798  in  1861  to  924  in  1871,  when,  however,  there  were  4*5  acres 
to  each  inhabited  house.     The  number  of  persons  to  an  inhabited  house  was  4'7  in  1871,  against  4*6 
in  1861.     The  local  board  district  of  Ottery  St.  Mary  is  coextensive  with  the  parish  of  the  same  name, 
and  has  an  area  of  9942  acres.     The  population  declined  from  4421  in  1851  to  4340  in  1861,  and  in  1871 
had  further  decreased  to  4110  ;  the  decrease  in  these  two  decades  was  equal  to  2  and  5  per  cent,  respec- 
tively.   The  inhabited  houses,  which  were  925  in  1861,  declined  to  904  in  1871,  when  there  were  11 
icresto  each  inhabited  house.     The  number  of  persons  to  an  inhabited  house  was  4*5  in  1871,  against 
i4-7  in  1861.     The  local  board  district  of  Dawlish,  which  consists  of  part  of  the  parish  of  the  same  name, 
;has  an  estimated  area  of  1360  acres.     The  population,  which  increased  from  2671  in  1851  to  3505  in 
il861,  was  3622  in  1871 ;   thus,  whereas  the  increase  in  the  earlier  decade  was  equal  to  31  per  cent, 
lit  did  not  exceed  3  per  cent,  during  the  ten  years   1861-71.     There  were   701  inhabited  houses  in 
jl871,  or  nearly  one  to  each  two  acres ;  and  the  number  of  persons  to  each  inhabited  house  was  5'2, 
jjorresponding  with  the  proportion  that  prevailed  in  1881.     The  local  board  district  of  Paignton  is 
jjoextensive  with   the  parish  of  the  same  name,  and  has  an  area  of  5092  acres.     The  population, 
jvhich  was  2746  in  1851,  had  increased  successively  to   3090  and  3590  at  the  enumerations  in  1861 
ind  1871  ;  the  increase  was  equal  to  13  and  16  per  cent,  respectively  at  the  two  decades.     The 
lumber  of  inhabited  houses  rose  from  613  in  1861  to  728  in  1871,  when  there  were  7  acres  and  4*9 
Dersons  to  each  inhabited  house.     The  increase  of  population  appears  to  be  due  in  great  measure  to 
ts  proximity  to  Torquay,  and  to  its  favour  as  a  Avatering  place.     The  local  board  district  of  Sidmouth 
s  coextensive  with  the  parish  of  the  same  name,  and  has  an  area  of   1600  acres,  including  60  of 
vater.     The  population  which  was  3441  in   1851,  declined  to  3354  in  1861,  and  was  but  3360  in 
i871.     The  inhabited  houses  increased  from  692  in  1861  to  697  in  1871,  when,  however,  there  were 
V3  acres  within  the  district  to   each  inhabited  house.     The  number  of  persons  to  each  inhabited 
louse  averaged  4*8  both  in  1861  and  in  1871.     The  local  board  district  of  Okehampton  includes  part 
:>f  the  parish  of  that  name,  and  has  an  estimated  area  of  503  acres;  the  population  in  1871  was  1900 
!)ersons,  living  in  339  houses.     The  population  of  the  entire  parish,  having  an  area  of  9552  acres, 
•vhich  was  2165  in  1851,  declined  to  1929  in  1861,  while  in  1871,  when  railway  works  were  in  pro- 
ijress,  it  had  increased  to  2470.     The  number  of  persons  to  an  inhabited  house  increased  from  4*9 
n  1861,  to  5'6  in  1871.     The  local  board  district  of  Lynton  is  coextensive  with  the  parish  of  the 
ame  name,  and  has  an  area  of  7193  acres.     The  population,  which  was  1059  and  1043  in   1851  and 
861,  rose  to  1170  in  1871 ;  the  increase  during  the  most  recent  decade  was  equal  to   12  per  cent., 
nd  was  due  to  the  increasing  popularity  of  this  watering-place.     The  number  of  inhabited  houses 


82  Vital  Statii^tiefa;  ol"  r>evoiisliire. 

increased  from  231  in  18G1  to  240  in  1871,  when  there  were  30  acres  to  each  inhabited  house.  The 
persons  to  each  inhabited  house  averaged  4'5  in  18G1,  and  4*9  in  1871.  The  local  board  district  of 
Bampton  consists  of  a  ])art  of  the  parish  of  that  name,  and  has  an  estimated  area  of  128  acres,  on 
which  258  inhabited  houses,  and  1111  persons  were  enumerated  in  1871.  The  entire  parish  has 
an  area  of  7785  acres,  and  it  declined  steadily  from  2102  in  1851,  to  1928  in  1871 ;  and  the  number 
of  persons  to  each  inhabited  house,  which  was  5*0  in  18G1,  declined  to  4*6  in  1871.  By  an  order  of 
the  Local  Government  Board,  dated  February  14,  1878,  a  portion  of  the  parish  of  Seaton  and  Beer  was 
constituted  a  local  government  district  for  the  purposes  of  the  Public  Health  Act  of  1875,  under  the 
name  of  the  Seaton  Local  Government  District.  No  information,  however,  is  available  as  to  the 
area  or  population  of  this  new  urban  sanitary  district.  The  entire  parish  of  Seaton,  including 
Seaton  and  Beer,  has  an  area  of  2821  acres,  of  which  55  were  of  water;  the  enumerated  popu- 
lation increased  from  1966  in  1861,  to  2155  in  1871.  The  Improvement  Commissioners'  district 
of  Crediton  includes  a  part  of  the  parish  of  that  name,  and  has  an  estimated  area  of  2400  acres. 
The  population,  Avhich  was  3934  in  1851,  and  4048  in  1861,  further  increased  to  4222  in  1571  ; 
between  1851  and  1861  the  increase  was  equal  to  3  per  cent,  and  in  the  following  decade  to  4  per 
cent.  The  number  of  inhabited  houses  increased  from  923  in  1861  to  953  in  1871,  when  there 
were  2^  acres  to  each  inhabited  house  ;  the  number  of  persons  to  an  inhabited  house  averaged  4*4 
both  in  1861  and  1871. 

In  addition  to  the  foregoing  boroughs  and  local  board  districts,  which  under  the  provisions  of  the 
Public  Health  Act,  1875,  are  urban  sanitary  districts,  there  are  three  Devonshire  towns,  separately 
shown  in  the  Census  Report  for  1871,  which,  having  no  defined  boundaries,  are  included  within  the 
rural  sanitary  districts  of  their  respective  poor  law  unions :  these  are  Topsham,  Ashburton,  and 
Cullompton.  Topsham  has  an  estimated  area  of  1257  acres,  and  the  population  in  1871  was  returned 
at  2514  persons,  showing  a  decline  from  the  number  within  the  same  area  at  the  preceding  census. 
Ashburton  stands  upon  about  1168  acres  of  the  parish  of  that  name,  and  the  population  in  1871  was 
returned  at  2335  persons.  Ashburton  was  formerly  a  parliamentary  borough,  but  was  disfranchised 
by  the  Act  31  &  32  Vict.  c.  48.  The  population  of  Ashburton  has  declined  steadily  since  1861,  in 
consequence  of  the  decrease  of  mining  operations.  The  town  of  Cullompton  stands  upon  a  part  ol 
the  parish  of  that  name,  and  has  an  estimated  area  of  1102  acres.  The  population  was  enumerated  at 
2205  persons  both  in  1861  and  1871,  while  the  population  of  the  entire  parish  showed  a  decrease. 

The  thirty- two  toAvns  of  Devonshire,  excluding  Seaton  recently  constituted  a  local  board  district, 
had  a  population  of  318,064  persons  in  1871,  enumerated  Avithin  an  area  of  about  93,246  acres,  and 
forming  52*9  per  cent,  of  the  total  population  of  the  county.  In  1861  the  population  of  these  towns 
was  only  equal  to  50'8  per  cent,  of  the  county  population.  The  average  density  of  population  of  these 
thirty-two  Devonshire  towns  was  equal  to  3*4  persons  to  an  acre  in  1871 ;  in  the  remaining  or  rural 
part  of  the  county  there  were  5 '5  acres  to  each  person  enumerated  in  the  same  year. 

Housing  of  the  Population. — At  the  census  in  1871,  the  houses  enumerated  within  the  county 
of  Devonshire  were  112,234,  of  which  6387  were  uninhabited,  and  647  in  the  course  of  erectioni 
The  number  of  completed  houses  was  111,587  in  1871,  showing  an  increase  of  4774  upon  the  number 
in  1861 :  this  number,  however,  takes  no  account  of  the  houses  that  had  been  rebuilt  during  the 
decade.  In  1871  there  were  6*1  uninhabited  houses  to  each  100  inhabited  houses  within  the  county;  j 
in  1861  the  proportion  did  not  exceed  5*5  per  cent.  In  the  eleven  municipal  boroughs  of  Devonshire 
5*5  per  cent  of  the  completed  houses  were  uninhabited,  while  in  the  remainder  of  the  county  the 
proportion  was  equal  to  5  "8  per  cent.  The  population  of  the  entire  county  of  Devonshire  showed  an 
increase  of  2-9  per  cent,  during  the  ten  years  1861-71,  whereas  the  increase  of  inhabited  houses  was 
equal  to  3*9  per  cent. ;  the  average  number  of  persons  to  each  inhabited  house,  which  was  5"77  at  the 
census  in  1861,  declined  in  1871  to  5*72.  It  is  evident  therefore  that  in  Devonshire  building  has 
fully  kept  pace  with  the  increase  of  population.  The  ruimber  of  houses,  however,  scarcely  affords  an 
altogether  satisfactory  standard  for  the  measurement  of  true  density  of  population,  as  the  capacity  ol 
houses  is  such  a  variable  quantity.  The  best  test  of  the  housing  of  the  population  would  be  afforded 
by  the  cubic  space  of  its  bed-room  accommodation. 

County  Proper  and  Registration  County. — As  much  statistical  information  is  only  available] 
for  registration  or  union  counties,  it  is  necessary  that  the  difference  between  the  constitution  and 
boundaries  of  the  county  proper  and  of  the  union  or  registration  county  of  Devonshire  should  be 
explained.  The  union  or  registration  county  of  Devonshire  includes  an  area  of  49,169  acres  (having 
a  population  of  14,022  persons  in  1871),  which  does  not  belong  to  the  county  proper;  of  this  17,284 
acres,  with  a  population  of  6627  persons,  form  part  of  the  county  of  Dorset;  11,394  acres,  with  a 
population  of  7056  persons,  form  part  of  the  county  of  Cornwall;  and  20,491  acres  (part  of  Exmoor), 
with  a  population  of  but  339  persons,  belong  to  Somersetshire.  On  the  other  hand,  60,987  acres,  on 
which  9294  persons  were  enumerated  in  1871,  belonging  to  the  county  proper  of  Devonshire,  are 
locally  situated  in  other  registration  counties  ;  thus  27,057  acres,  with  a  population  of  3069  persons, 
are  situated  within  the  registration  county  of  Cornwall,  and  33,930  acres,  with  6225  inhabitants,  in 

Vital  Statistics  of"  I>evoiisliire.  83 

the  registration  county  of  Somersetshire.  On  striking  a  balance  between  those  portions  of  Devon- 
shire county  proper  which  are  excluded  from  the  union  or  registration  county  of  Devonshire,  and 
those  parts  of  other  counties  proper  which  are  situated  within  the  Devonshire  registration  county, 
it  appears  that  the  registration  county  is  smaller  than  the  county  proper  by  11,818  acres,  whereas 
the  population  in  1871  showed  an  excess  of  4728  persons.  The  boundaries  of  the  county  proper 
are  defined  by  Acts  2  &  3  William  IV.  c.  64  (1832),  and  7  &  8  Vict.  c.  61  (1844).  The  differences 
between  the  areas  and  populations  of  the  union  or  registration  county  of  Devonshire  and  the  county 
proper  are,  however,  proportionally  too  small  to  prevent  the  figures  relating  to  the  registration  county 
being  taken  as  fairly  applicable  to  the  county  proper  in  the  consideration  of  the  following  additional 
vital  statistics  of  the  county. 

Ages  of  the  Population. — The  606,102  persons  enumerated  within  the  registration  county  of 
Devonshire  included  75,843  or  12*5  per  cent,  children  under  5  years  of  age;  195,017  children  and 
young  persons  aged  between  5  and  20  years,  equal  to  32*2  per  cent. ;  274,454  persons  aged  between 
20  and  60  years,  or  45'3  per  cent. ;  and  60,788,  or  lO'O  per  cent.,  persons  aged  upwards  of  60  years. 
The  proportions  of  persons  living  at  these  four  groups  of  ages  differed  but  slightly  from  those  that 
prevailed  at  the  previous  census  enumeration  in  1861.  The  remarkably  similar  age  distribution  of 
the  enumerated  population  of  Devonshire  in  1861  and  1871  gives  assurance  that  the  number  of 
persons  living  at  the  present  time  within  the  county,  at  any  group  of  ages,  may  be  estimated  with 
approximate  accuracy  by  assuming  that  the  proportion  of  persons  living  at  such  ages,  to  the  total 
estimated  population  at  all  ages,  is  the  same  as  it  was  in  1871.  The  proportion  of  infants  under  one 
year  of  age  enumerated  in  1871  averaged  2*7  per  cent,  of  the  entire  population  of  the  county,  and 
was  identical  with  the  proportion  that  prevailed  in  1861.  The  number  of  persons  aged  upwards  of 
80  years  returned  in  1871  was  5652,  and  equal  to  0*93  per  cent,  of  the  total  population,  against  0*80 
in  1861.  In  1871  the  ages  of  63  persons  were  returned  as  95  years  and  upwards,  including  2  males 
and  3  females  who  were  stated  to  be  centenarians ;  in  1861  66  persons  were  stated  to  be  upwards  of 
95  years,  including  3  males  and  5  females  reported  to  be  centenarians.  The  age  distribution  of  a 
population  has  an  appreciable  influence  upon  the  birth  and  death  rates  which  prevail  therein.  In 
considering  the  vital  statistics  of  a  population,  it  is  important,  therefore,  that  its  proportional  age 
distribution  should  be  borne  in  mind.  In  urban  populations  the  proportion  of  younger  adults  as  well 
as  of  children  almost  invariably  shows  a  considerable  excess,  whereas  that  of  elderly  persons  is  far 
below  that  which  prevails  in  rural  populations.  In  Exeter,  Plymouth,  and  Devonport,  however,  the 
J  age  distribution  of  the  population  does  not  materially  differ  from  that  which  prevails  in  the  entire 
county  of  Devonshire ;  the  proportion  of  children  and  young  persons  aged  under  20  was  somewhat 
lower  in  these  three  towns,  whereas  the  proportion  of  persons  aged  between  20  and  60  years  showed 
an  excess.  In  Exeter,  Plymouth,  and  Devonport,  however,  only  8-3  per  cent,  of  the  population  in 
1871  were  aged  upwards  of  60  years,  while  in  the  entire  county  the  proportion  averaged  10*0  per  cent. 

Civil  Condition  of  the  Population. — Of  the  606,102  residents  of  the  registration  county  of 
Devonshire  in  1871,  361,261  were  unmarried,  including  children  and  young  persons  of  an  unmar- 
riageable  age ;  206,975  were  returned  as  married,  and  37,866  as  widowed.  Thus  of  the  entire 
population,  5  J-7  per  cent,  were  immarried,  34*1  per  cent,  married,  and  5*6  per  cent,  widowed.  The 
population  ^  Devonshire  in  1871  included  335,242  persons  aged  upwards  of  20  years,  of  whom 
91,104,  or  27*2  per  cent.,  were  unmarried  ;  206,279,  or  61*5  per  cent.,  were  married;  and  37,859,  or 
11*3  per  cent.,  widowed.  The  proportions  of  married  and  widowed  showed  a  slight  increase  upon 
those  which  prevailed  in  1861,  but  the  variations  were  so  slight  that  the  numbers  of  unmarried, 
married,  and  widowed  in  the  present  population  of  the  county  may  be  estimated  with  approximate 
accuracy,  by  assuming  that  the  several  proportions  are  the  same  now  as  they  were  in  1871. 

Marriages,  Births,  and  Deaths  in  the  ten  years  1861-70,  and  in  more  recent  years. — 
During  the  ten  years  1861-70  there  were  registered  within  the  registration  county  of  Devonshire, 
17,690  marriages,  equal  to  an  annual  rate  of  16  0  per  1000  persons  living;  in  the  preceding  ten  years 
:he  marriage-rate  had  been  equal  to  16-1  per  1000.  In  the  whole  of  England  and  Wales  the  annual 
oiarriage-rate  during  the  more  recent  decade  averaged  16*6  per  1000,  and  exceeded  the  rate  during 
"he  same  period  in  Devonshire  by  0*6  per  1000;  the  Devonshire  rate,  however,  considerably  exceeds 
■:hat  which  prevails  in  many  other  of  the  agricultural  counties.  Since  1870  the  marriage-rate  in 
Devonshire  has  further  declined ;  during  the  six  years  1871-6  it  averaged  only  15'3  per  1000,  and 
ranged  from  15-5  in  1871  and  1872,  to  15*1  in  1875.  The  47,690  marriages  in  Devonshire  during 
ihe  decade  1861-70  included  30,600,  or  64-2  per  cent.,  which  were  solemnised  according  to  the  rites 
>f  the  Established  Church;  the  remaining  17,090,  or  35*8  per  cent.,  were  either  solemnised  in  chapels 
ised  by  various  Dissenting  communities,  or  were  purely  civil  marriages  contracted  at  the  offices  of  the 
ocal  superintendent  registrars.  The  proportion  of  Church  of  England  marriages  in  England  and 
Wales  during  the  ten  years  1861-70  to  total  marriages  was  77*8  per  cent.,  and  13*6  per  cent,  above 
-he  proportion  that  prevailed  in  Devonshire.  The  proportion  of  Dissenting  and  civil  marriages  in 
jOevonshire,  which  was  equal  to  23-3  per  cent,  in  the  ten  years  1851-60,  increased  to  35*8  per  cent, 
i  f2 

84.  Vital  StatlRtics  of  DevotiNhire^ 

in  the  more  recent  decade,  whilst  it  exceeded  by  13 -G  per  cent,  the  average  proportion  in  England 
and  Wales  for  the  same  period.  During  the  thirty-six  years  1841-76  the  proportion  of  marriages 
solemnised  in  England  and  Wales  according  to  the  rites  of  the  Established  Church  has  steadily 
declined ;  in  1841  the  proportion  was  equal  to  93'4  per  cent.,  whereas  it  declined  in  each  subsequent 
year,  and  in  187G  it  did  not  exceed  73*8  per  cent.  The  proportion  of  civil  marriages  registered  at 
superintendent  registrars'  offices  has  steadily  increased  since  the  passing  of  the  Civil  liegistration  Act 
in  1837  ;  in  1841  the  proportion  of  civil  marriages  was  but  1*7  per  cent.,  whereas  in  1875  and  187G 
it  Avas  equal  to  10*4  and  10-8  per  cent,  respectively.  In  Devonshire  civil  marriages  appear  to  be 
esi)ecially  popular,  as,  in  187G,  of  4704  marriages  recorded  in  Devonshire,  no  less  than  1178,  or  25 
per  cent.,  were  registered  in  superintendent  registrars'  offices.  It  has  been  stated  that  the  average 
proportion  of  civil  marriages  in  England  and  Wales  during  that  year  did  not  exceed  lO'S  per  cent. 

The  Births  registered  in  Devonshire  during  the  ten  years  1861-70  were  187,087,  including 
95,636  of  boys,  and  91,451  of  girls ;  there  were  104'6  births  of  boys  to  each  100  of  girls.  These 
births  were  equal  to  an  annual  rate  of  31*3  per  1000  of  the  mean  population  of  the  county,  while  the 
average  birth-rate  during  the  same  period  in  England  and  Wales  was  35*2.  The  average  annual 
birth-rate  during  these  ten  years  ranged  in  the  different  English  counties  from  30-2  and  30*4  in 
Westmoreland  and  Hereford,  to  41*1  and  42*0  in  Stafford  and  Durham.  During  the  first  six  years  of 
the  current  decade  the  birth-rate  in  Devonshire  averaged  297  per  1000,  and  showed  a  decrease  of 
1*6  from  the  average  rate  in  the  ten  preceding  years,  a  result  partly  due  to  the  decline  in  the  marriage- 
rate.  In  England  and  Wales  the  number  of  children  to  a  marriage  averages  nearly  four,  and  the 
birth-rate  in  a  population  depends  to  a  considerable  extent  upon  the  marriage-rate,  and  upon  the  mean 
age  at  marriage.  During  the  twenty  years  1851-70  the  number  of  births  registered  in  England  and 
Wales  was  in  the  proportion  of  4' 14  to  each  marriage  recorded  during  the  same  period,  while  in 
Devonshire  the  number  was  but  3-80 ;  the  number  of  children  born  to  a  marriage  in  Devonshire  is 
therefore  slightly  below  the  average  proportion  in  England  and  Wales,  which  is  probably  due  to  the 
fact  that  in  Devonshire,  as  in  most  other  counties  of  a  mainly  agricultural  character,  the  mean  age  at 
marriage  is  higher  than  it  is  in  those  counties  in  which  a  considerable  proportion  of  the  population  is 
engaged  in  manufacturing  or  mining. 

The  Deaths  registered  in  Devonshire  during  the  ten  years  1861-70  were  121,091,  and  equal  to 
an  average  annual  death-rate  of  20'3  per  1000  persons  living,  which  was  almost  identical  with  the 
rate  that  prevailed  in  each,  of  the  two  preceding  decades.  The  annual  death-rate  in  Devonshire  during 
the  thirty  years  1841-70  averaged  20  per  1000,  and  was  2  per  1000  below  the  average  annual 
death-rate  in  England  and  Wales  during  the  same  period.  During  the  most  recent  decade,  1861-70, 
the  average  annual  death-rate  in  the  different  English  counties  ranged  from  18"0  in  Westmorland,  to 
27 '2  in  Lancashire.  Agricultural  counties  almost  invariably  show  considerably  lower  death-rates 
than  do  those  counties  in  which  a  large  proportion  of  the  population  resides  in  towns ;  it  should  be 
remembered  moreover  that,  sanitary  conditions  being  equal,  the  age  distribution  of  all  rural 
populations  would  cause  a  higher  death-rate  than  the  age  distribution  which  is  invariably  found 
to  prevail  in  urban  populations.  The  excessive  proportion  of  young  adults  in  urban  popula- 
tions, while  it  causes  a  high  birth-rate  and  also  an  undue  proportion  of  young  children,  reduces 
the  proportion  of  elderly  peoi^le,  and  should  therefore  cause  a  lower  death-rate  than  that  pre- 
vailing in  rural  populations,  Avhere  contrary  proportions  prevail.  Since  1870  the  death-rate  in 
Devonshire  has  slightly  declined,  and  averaged  19-5  per  1000  during  the  six  years  1871-76,  in 
which  the  annual  rate  ranged  from  20*9  in  1871,  to  18'4  in  1873.  Plymouth,  Devonport,  East 
Stonehouse,  and  Exeter,  are  the  only  towns  in  Devonshire  that  are  included  in  the  list  of  seventy 
large  towns  in  England  and  Wales,  for  which  special  mortality  statistics  are  published  by  the 
Eegistrar- General.  The  death-rate  in  the  borough  of  Plymouth  (the  population  of  which  is  estimated 
at  73,599  persons  in  the  middle  of  1878)  was  equal  to  24-0  in  1871,  22-3  in  1872,  19-2  in  1873, 
22-4  in  1874,  20-9  in  1875,  22-1  in  1876,  and  21*7  in  1877  ;  thus  the  death-rate  in  the  seven 
years  averaged  21*8  per  1000,  and  exceeded  by  nearly  2  per  1000  the  average  annual  rate  in  the 
entire  county,  while  it  was  however  considerably  below  the  rate  prevailing  in  most  other  large 
English  towns.  The  mortality  in  Plymouth  due  to  the  seven  principal  zymotic  diseases  was  however 
excessive,  and  was  equal  to  an  annual  rate  of  37  per  1000  ;  zymotic  fatality  thus  caused  17  per 
cent,  of  the  mortality  from  all  causes.  In  the  borough  of  Devonport  the  annual  death-rate  from  all, 
causes  during  the  five  years  1871-75  averaged  20*0  per  1000,  and  in  1876  was  equal  to  20-9  ;  the  rate 
from  the  seven  zymotic  diseases  averaged  3*9  per  1000  in  the  five  years,  and  was  4*1  in  1876.  Thus 
the  zymotic  death-rate  was  higher  in  Devonport  than  in  Plymouth,  and  showed  a  still  larger  propor- 
tion of  the  death-rate  from  all  causes.  In  East  Stonehouse  the  death-rate  from  all  causes  averaged 
24-4  per  1000  in  the  five  years  1871-75,  while  the  death-rate  from  the  seven  zymotic  diseases  was 
so  high  as  47  per  1000.  It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  Plymouth,  Devonport,  and  East  Stonehouse 
do  not  form  a  combined  sanitary  district  in  order  that  they  might  have  the  advantage  of  one  medical 
officer  of  he?ilth,  who,  not  engaged  in  private  practice,  should  devote  his  whole  time  to  the  public 

Vital  StatistioH  of  Devonshire.  85 

health  of  the  district ;  at  present  Plymouth,  Devonport,  and  East  Stonehouse  have  each  a  separate 
medical  officer  of  health,  with  a  comparatively  nominal  salary,  and  each  engaged  in  private  practice. 
In  the  city  of  Exeter  the  annual  death-rate  during  the  five  years  1871-75  averaged  no  less  than 
25-1  per  1000,  ranging  from  26-8  in  1872  to  21-6  in  1874;  in  1876  the  rate  was  21-9.  The 
zymotic  death-rate  averaged  3  2  in  the  five  years  1871-75,  and  dechned  to  2*1  in  1876.  Exeter  in 
recent  years  has  continuously  shown  an  excessive  death-rate,  and  an  especially  high  rate  of  infant 
mortality  ;  and  yet  the  city  may  be  said  to  be  practically  without  the  services  of  a  medical  officer  of 
health,  inasmuch  as  the  town  council  as  the  urban  sanitary  authority  have  appointed  the  poor-law 
medical  officers  the  nominal  medical  officers  of  health,  and  vote  annually  the  sum  of  twenty-five 
guineas  to  be  shared  between  them  in  lieu  of  salary. 

The  natural  increase  to  the  population  of  the  registration  county  of  Devonshire,  by  excess  of 
births  over  deaths  during  the  ten  years  1861-70,  was  65,996,  while  the  increase  in  the  enumerated 
population  of  the  county  between  the  two  censuses  of  1861  and  1871  was  16,824.  Assuming  that 
all  the  births  and  deaths  during  the  ten  years  were  registered,  it  appears  that  the  emigration  from  the 
county  exceeded  the  immigration  during  the  decade  by  49,172  persons;  it  may  be  estimated  that  to 
this  extent  Devonshire  contributed  during  the  ten  years  to  the  increase  of  population  in  other  parts 
of  England  and  Wales,  in  our  colonies,  and  in  other  parts  of  the  world. 

8ANITARY  Okganisation. — By  the  Public  Health  Acts  of  1872  and  1875  the  control  of  the 
public  health  of  England  and  Wales  was  vested  in  various  urban  and  rural  sanitary  authoritiep.  Town 
councils,  local  boards,  and  improvement  commissioners  were  all  constituted  urban  sanitary  authorities. 
Boards  of  guardians  were  by  the  same  Acts  created  rural  sanitary  authorities,  and  invested  with  public 
health  responsibilities  extending  over  the  whole  of  the  union  or  registration  districts  not  included 
within  an  urban  sanitary  district.  Although  no  official  list  of  the  various  sanitary  authorities  and 
their  officers  has  yet  been  published,  the  following  facts  relating  to  the  sanitary  organisation  of  the 
county  of  Devonshire  may  be  taken  as  approximately  correct.  The  county  contains  30  urban  and 
16  rural  sanitary  authorities.  Although  there  are  three  combined  sanitary  districts  within  the  county, 
as  many  of  the  rural  sanitary  authorities  as  well  as  the  town  council  of  Exeter  have  appointed  more 
than  one  medical  officer  of  health,  the  number  of  medical  officers  of  health  considerably  exceeds  that 
of  the  sanitary  authorities  ;  there  are  29  medical  officers  of  health  in  the  16  rural  sanitary  districts, 
all  but  one  of  whom  are  engaged  in  private  practice,  while  in  the  30  urban  districts  there  are  31 
medical  officers  of  health,  who  are  also,  with  scarcely  an  exception,  in  private  practice.  The  rural 
sanitary  districts  of  Bideford,  Okehampton,  South  Molton,  Torrington,  and  Dulverton  (in  Somerset- 
shire) together  form  a  combined  sanitary  district,  to  which  Mr.  A.  Wynter  Blyth  has  been  appointed 
medical  officer  of  health,  at  a  salary  of  £550  per  annum,  and  devotes  himself  entirely  to  public 
hygiene.  The  rural  sanitary  district  of  Newton  Abbot,  together  with  the  urban  districts  of  Dawlish 
and  Wolborough,  form  a  combined  sanitary  district,  of  which  Mr.  Leonard  Armstrong  is  medical 
officer  of  health,  at  a  salary  of  £4*00  per  annum.  Mr.  Samuel  Rhind  is  medical  officer  of  health  of 
the  third  combined  sanitary  district  in  Devonshire,  consisting  of  the  two  urban  sanitary  districts  of 
Torquay  and  St.  Mary  Church,  at  a  salary  of  £400  per  annum.  The  town  council  of  Plymouth,  with 
a  population  estimated  at  73,599,  have  fixed  the  salary  of  their  medical  officer  of  health,  who  is  in 
private  practice,  at  £100  per  annum,  or  just  a  quarter  of  the  salary  paid  to  their  medical  officer  of 
health  by  the  urban  sanitary  authorities  of  Torquay  and  St.  Mary  Church,  which  have  a  population 
probably  not  exceeding  30,000  persons.  Of  the  remaining  56  medical  officers  of  health  in  Devon- 
shire, not  one  receives  a  salary  exceeding  £50  a  year,  while  in  the  large  majority  of  cases  the 
remuneration  for  their  public  health  services  is  merely  nominal,  and  in  many  instances  these  officers 
are  said  to  be  paid  by  fees  when  their  services  are  required.  In  the  aggregate,  however,  these  60 
medical  officers  of  health  holding  office  within  the  county  of  Devonshire,  receive  in  the  form  of 
salary  about  £2500  per  annum.  Efficiency  in  the  administration  of  public  health  in  Devonshire 
would  undoubtedly  be  promoted  by  an  extension  of  the  system  of  combination  among  the  numerous 
sanitary  districts ;  the  number  of  medical  officers  of  health  would  thus  be  reduced,  but  with  scarcely 
any  increase  in  the  cost ;  the  services  of  specially  qualified  professors  of  public  hygiene  might  thus  be 
secured,  who,  being  debarred  from  private  practice,  would  be  able  to  devote  themselves  entirely  to 
the  promotion  of  sanitation. 

Education. — It  will  be  useful  now  briefly  to  consider  the  educational  condition  of  the  county  of 
Devonshire.  The  Eegistrar-General's  annual  reports  since  1837,  when  civil  registration  commenced, 
afford  the  means  for  tracing  the  progress  of  elementary  education  in  different  parts  of  England  and 
Wales  during  nearly  forty  years.  These  reports  contain  tables  showing  the  proportions  of  those 
married  in  each  year  who  signed  the  marriage  register  in  writing  or  by  mark.  In  1841  no  less  than 
40*8  per  cent,  of  the  persons  married  signed  the  register  by  mark ;  the  percentage  of  illiterate  males 
was  32-7,  and  of  females,  48-8.  Thirty-five  years  afterwards,  in  1876,  the  proportion  of  persons 
married  who  signed  the  register  by  mark  had  declined  from  40*8  to  19*2  ;  the  proportion  of  males 
who  signed  by  mark  had  fallen  in  1876  to  16-3j  and  that  of  females  to  22-1.    The  decline  of  ignorance 

86  Vital  Statistics  of  r>evoiisliire» 

among  persons  married  in  England  and  Wales  during  the  period  1841-76,  estimated  in  this  manner, 
was  equal  to  52-9  per  cent. ;  among  males  it  was  50*2,  and  among  females  54*7  per  cent.  Not- 
withstanding the  decrease  of  ignorance  in  these  thirty-five  years,  one  in  every  six  males,  and  more  than 
one  in  every  five  females,  married  in  England  and  Wales  in  187G,  confessed  their  inability  to  write  by 
signing  the  register  with  a  mark.  The  proportion  of  ignorance,  estimated  by  that  of  persons  unable 
to  write  their  names  at  marriage,  is  greater  in  towns  and  manufacturing  districts  than  among  rural 
populations.  The  rate  of  decline  in  the  proportion  of  persons  signing  the  marriage  register  with  a 
mark  has  shown  a  marked  increase  in  recent  years,  and  it  is  possible  that  the  returns  are  already 
beginning  to  be  affected  by  the  Education  Act  of  1870. 

The  proportion  of  persons  signing  the  marriage  register  by  mark  was  first  shown  in  counties  in 
the  Registrar-General's  report  for  1850.  During  that  year  31-4  per  cent,  of  the  persons  married  in 
Devonshire  signed  the  register  with  a  mark  ;  the  proportion  of  males  was  26*0,  and  of  females  36*8 
per  cent.  In  1876  the  proportion  of  persons  in  the  county  who  at  marriage  could  not  write  their 
names  had  fallen  to  13*7  per  cent.,  among  males  to  12*6,  and  among  females  to  14*7  per  cent.  Since 
1850  the  proportion  of  persons  who  could  not  write  showed  a  decline  of  56*4  per  cent.,  the  decline  in 
the  ignorance  of  bridegrooms  was  equal  to  51*5,  and  of  brides  to  60*1  per  cent.  In  England  and 
Wales  in  1850,  to  each  100  males  who  could  not  write  their  names  at  marriage  there  Avere  149 
females  who  confessed  to  the  same  disability  ;  in  1876  the  proportion  of  females  to  each  100  males 
who  did  not  write  their  names  had  declined  to  136.  In  towns  and  manufacturing  districts  males  are 
usually  better  educated  than  females,  whereas  the  reverse  is  almost  invariably  the  case  in  agricultural 
districts.  In  Devonshire,  in  1850,  the  number  of  married  women  who  signed  the  marriage  register 
with  a  mark  was  142  to  100  males,  who  exhibited  this  degree  of  ignorance;  in  1876  the  proportion 
of  women  who  did  not  sign  their  names  was  as  117  to  100  men.  The  decline  of  ignorance  in 
Devonshire  in  recent  years  has  therefore  been  relatively  much  greater  among  women  than  among 

In  sixty-seven  of  the  largest  English  towns  the  proportion  of  persons  signing  the  marriage  register 
with  a  mark  in  1870  ranged  from  10*1  and  10*6  in  Cheltenham  and  Brighton,  to  55*4  and  61*7  per 
cent,  respectively  in  Merthyr  Tydfil  and  Dudley.  In  Plymouth,  East  Stonehouse,  and  Devonport, 
18*2  per  cent,  of  the  persons  married  in  1870  signed  the  marriage  register  with  a  mark  ;  in  1876  the 
proportion  had  declined  to  11 '1  per  cent.  In  Exeter,  however,  the  proportion  of  persons  married 
who  signed  the  register  by  mark  increased  from  ll'O  in  1870,  to  12*1  per  cent,  in  1876.  In  Plymouth, 
as  in  the  whole  county,  education  appears  recently  to  have  made  more  progress  among  females  than 
among  males ;  in  Exeter,  however,  the  increase  of  ignorance  among  males  was  larger  than  among 

According  to  the  most  recently  published  Eeport  of  the  Committee  of  Council  on  Education 
there  were  on  March  31,  1877,  within  the  county  of  Devonshire  131  school  boards  then  in  existence. 
These  school  board  districts  had  in  1871  a  population  of  371,046  persons,  and  therefore  it  may  be 
estimated  that  the  education  of  about  62  per  cent,  of  the  present  population  of  the  county  is  under 
the  control  of  school  boards.  The  total  expenditure  of  these  131  school  boards  for  the  year  ending 
September  29,  1876,  was  returned  as  slightly  less  than  £80,000,  and  the  total  liability  incurred  to 
the  same  date  was  about  £140,000.  Estimated  by  the  proportion  that  prevailed  in  1871,  the  number 
of  children  living  in  Devonshire  at  the  school  board  ages,  in  the  middle  of  the  year  1876,  was 
145,042  ;  according  to  the  education  report,  before  referred  to,  the  average  attendance  of  children  at 
elementary  schools  in  Devonshire  in  1876  did  not,  however,  exceed  45,102,  or  less  than  a  third  of  the 
number  of  children  living  at  the  school  ages. 

Pauperism. — The  proportion  of  pauperism  in  England  and  Wales  has  shown  a  marked  and 
steady  decline  in  recent  years ;  notwithstanding  the  increase  of  population,  the  average  weekly  num- 
ber of  paupers  (in-door  and  out-door)  returned  in  1876  showed  a  decline  of  32  per  cent,  from  the 
average  weekly  number  in  1870.  On  tlanuary  1,  1876,  the  number  of  in-door  and  out-door  paupers 
relieved  in  England  and  Wales  was  752,887,  equal  to  31  per  1000  of  the  estimated  population,  of 
whom  twenty-five  were  receiving  out-door,  and  six  in-door  relief.  The  proportion  of  paupers  in 
Devonshire  at  the  same  date  was  45  per  1000  .persons  living,  of  whom  forty  received  out-door,  and 
five  in-door  relief.  The  proportion  of  out-door  to  in-door  paupers,  which  at  the  beginning  of  1876 
was  four  to  one  in  England  and  Wales,  Avas  7*5  to  one  in  Devonshire.  On  January  1,  1876,  the  pro- 
portion of  pauper  lunatics  to  total  paupers  averaged  7*3  per  cent,  in  England  and  Wales,  whereas  in 
Devonshire  the  proportion  was  but  5*1  per  cent.  The  rateable  value  of  the  county  of  Devonshire 
for  poor  law  purposes,  according  to  most  recent  returns,  is  £2,616,112;  and  the  amount  raised  as 
poor-rates,  and  expended  for  the  relief  of  the  poor,  within  the  county  during  the  year  ending  Lady- 
day  1876,  was  £317,720,  and  equal  to  about  2s.  5d.  in  the  pound,  whereas  in  the  whole  of  England 
and  Wales  the  rate  did  not  average  more  than  Is.  Sd.  in  the  pound.  The  expenditure  for  the  relief 
of  the  poor  in  England  and  Wales  in  the  year  ending  Lady-day,  1876,  showed  a  decline  of  two  per 
cent,  from  that  in  the  preceding  year ;  in  Devonshire  the  expenditure  for  this  purpose   showed  a 

"Vital  Statistics  of  Devonshire. 


•decline  of  2'4  per  cent.  During  the  year  1876,  in  England  and  Wales,  5-7  per  cent,  of  the  deaths 
registered  were  recorded  in  workhouses,  showing  a  slight  increase  upon  the  proportion  which  pre- 
vailed in  preceding  years.  In  Devonshire  the  deaths  occurring  in  workhouses  did  not  exceed  4*0  per 
cent.,  owing  in  great  measure  to  the  larger  proportion  of  out-door  relief  which  is  dispensed  in  the 


In  the  following  enumerations  the  boroughs  are  included  in  the  hundreds  in  which  they  are 

locally  situated. 

Axminster  Hundred  is  in  the  Eastern  division  of  the  county,  and  forms  the  north-eastern  ex- 
txemity  of  the  county.  It  is  bounded  on  the  east  by  Dorsetshire  and  Somersetshire,  and  on  the  south 
by  about  six  miles  of  the  coast  of  the  English  Channel,  extending  eastward  from  Axmouth  to  the 
vicinity  of  Lyme  Regis.  It  includes  the  towns  of  Honiton  and  Axminster,  and  extends  14  miles 
northward  to  the  lofty  hills  where  the  three  counties  join,  and  where  the  rivers  Otter  and  Yarty 
have  their  sources,  the  former  running  to  Honiton,  Ottery,  &c.,  and  the  latter  to  the  river  Axe, 
which  runs  from  Axminster  to  Axmouth.  These  small  rivers  receive  here  many  tributary  streams 
from  the  bold  hills  and  deep  valley  which  occupy  three-fourths  of  this  hundred.  By  7  &  8  Vict.  c.  61, 
Stockland  parish  (including  Dalwood),  formerly  detached  members  of  Dorsetshire,  were,  in  October 
1844,  added  to  this  hundred;  and  Beerhall,  a  tithing  of  Axminster  parish,  and  Thorncombe  were 
added  to  Dorsetshire. 

^         The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  number  of 
inhabited  houses  and  population,  in  1871 : — 

1                   Parishes 

1        Acres 








1  Axminster  (a) 

1  Axmouth  (part  of)  . 
§  2  Coombe  Eawleigh    . 

1  Coombepyne    . 

1  Dalwood  (a)     . 
§  2  Honiton  Borough    . 

1  Kilmington     . 
§  2  Luppitt . 

1  Membury 

1       1709 






2852     ! 
268     i 


568     I 
649     1 


1  Musbury 

1  Stockland  (a)  . 

1  Uplyme  . 
§2  Upottery 
t  2  Yarcombe 








NoTKS. — Marked  §  are  in  Honiton  union,  f  Card  union,  and  the  rest  in  Axminster  union ;  1  are  in  Axminster 
and  2  in  Honiton  division ;  (a)  see  preceding  remarks. 

Bampton  Hundred,  in  the  Northern  division  of  the  county,  is  picturesquely  undulated,  and  has  a 
bold  range  of  hills  on  its  northern  boundary,  adjoining  Somersetshire.  It  is  bounded  on  the  south 
by  Tiverton  hundred  and  borough,  and  has  a  variable  soil,  chiefly  a  heavy  clay,  with  a  gravelly  sub- 
soil. It  is  noted  for  its  fine  breed  of  sheep,  and  for  its  extensive  quarries  of  limestone,  great  quan- 
tities of  which  are  sent  for  building  and  agricultural  purposes  along  the  Grand  Western  Canal,  which 
crosses  the  east  end  of  the  hundred.     (See  Tiverton.) 

The  following  enumeration  of  the  parishes,  &c.,  in  the  hundred,  shows  their  territorial  extent, 
and  the  number  of  inhabited  houses  and  population,  in  1871  : — 





I                   Parishes 




*  Burlescombe  (a) 
K    Clayhanger     i 
■•   Hockworthy    . 





•     *  Holcombe  Kogus     . 
t  Morebath 











Notes. — Marked  *  are  in  Wellington  union,  and  f  in  Dulverton  union,  both  of  wliicli  unions  are  mostly  in 
lersetshire ;  the  rest  are  in  Tiverton  union ;  all  are  in  Cullompton  division. 
***  (a)  Burlescombe  extends  into  Halberton  hundred,  but  the  whole  of  the  parish  rs  here  returned. 

Black  Torrington  Hundred  is  a  large  and  picturesque  district  in  the  Southern  parliamentary 
division  of  the  county,  and  averages  about  20  miles  in  length  and  15   in  breadth.      It  is  bounded  on 

'  the  north  by  the  river  Torridge ;  on  the  east  by  the  small  river  Okement;  on  the  south  by  Dartmoor 
and  Lifton  hundred ;  and  on  the  west  by  Cornwall,  from  which  it  is  divided  by  the  river  Tamar. 

'j3]his  river  rises  near  the  sources  of  the  Torridge,  at  the  north-western  extremity  of  the  hundred, 
within  five  miles  of  the  sea. 


History  of"  I>evoiisliire, 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  their  inhabited 
houses  and  population,  in  1871  : — 










1  *  Abbot's  Bickington 




2  §  Jacobstowe   . 




2  §  Ashbury 




1  *  Luffincott      . 




1  *  Ashwater      . 




1  *  Milton  Damerell  . 




2  §  Beauworthy  . 




2  §  Monk     Okehamp- 

2  §  Belstone 








1  *  Black  Torrington  . 




2  §  Northlew      . 




Boyton  (part  of)  (a) 

3  t  North  Petherwin  . 




1  \  Northcott 




Okeharapton  (pt.  of) 

1  »  Bradford       . 




2  §  Kigbeare  (a)  . 




2  §  Bradwood  Kelly    . 




1  ^  Pancraswick 




1  *  Bradworthy  . 




1  *  Py worthy      . 




1  *  Bridgerule    . 




2  §  Sampford       Cour- 

1  *  Clawton 




teriay  . 




1  *  Cookbury      . 




1  *  Sutcombe 




2  §  Exbourne 




1  *  Tetcott 




1  *  Halwell 




1  *  Thornbury    . 




2  §  Hatherleigh . 




3  *  St.    Giles    in    the 

2  §  Highampton. 








1  *  Hollacombe  . 




3  J  Werrington  . 




1  *  Holsworthy  . 




1  t  West  Putford 




2  §  Honeychurch 
2  §  Inwardleigh . 










Notes. — Marked  *  are  in  Holsworthy  union  ;  §  in  Okehampton  union  ;  |  in  Launceiton  union  (Cornwall)  ;  and 
t  in  Bideford  union ;  1  are  in  Holsworthy  ;  2,  Hatherleigh,  and  3,  Lifton  division. 

\*  (a)  Boyton  parish  is  mostly  in  Cornwall;  Kigbeare  is  returned  with  Okehampton  parish,  which  is  mostly 
in  Lifton  hundred. 

Braunton  Hundred  is  a  picturesque  and  irregularly  formed  district,  bounded  on  the  west  and 
north  by  the  Bristol  Channel,  and  on  the  south-west  by  the  estuary  of  the  river  Taw,  from  Barnstaple 
to  the  Bay.  Its  coast  presents  to  the  sea  a  bold  and  circuitous  line  of  cliffs  and  rocky  promontories, 
extending  from  Barnstaple  or  Bideford  Bay  to  Trentishoe,  a  distance  of  24  miles.  It  includes  Barn- 
staple, Ilfracombe,  Combmartin,  &c.,  and  its  northern  and  western  parishes  form  a  hilly  district, 
extending  to  the  borders  o£  Somersetshire  and  Exmoor  Forest.  The  whole  hundred  is  in  the  Northern 
parliamentary  division  of  Devon. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes,  &c.,  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  number  o£ 
inhabited  houses  and  population,  in  1871 : — 







Inhabited  j 


1     Ashford 




Goodleigh      . 




Barnstaple  par.  {a) 




Heanton   Punchar- 

1     Berrynarbor . 




dou    . 




Bishop's  Tawton  (a) 

Ilfracombe     . 




(part  of) 




Kentisbury    . 




1     Bittadon 









1     Bratton  Fleming    . 




i      1 





1     Braunton 




Pilton  (a)      . 




1     Combmartin 




Trentishoe     . 




2  *  East  Buckland       . 





*  West  Buckland      . 




1     East  Down    . 





West  Down  . 




2  *  Filleigh 




1     Georgeham    . 








Notes. — Marked  *  are  in  South  Molton  union,  the  others  in  Barnstaple  union  ;  1  are  in  Braunton  and  2  South 
Molton  division. 

*^*  (a)  Barnstaple  municipal  borough  comprises  Barnstaple  parishes  and  parts  of  those  of  Pilton  and  Bishop's 
Tawton,  the  latter  of  which  is  partly  in  South  Molton  hundred. 

Cliston  Hundred,  which  is  in  the  Eastern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county,  is  only  about 
six  miles  in  length  and  breadth,  and  extends  from  live  to  eleven  miles  north-east  of  Exeter,  It  is  a 
fertile  district,  watered  by  the  small  rivers  Culm  and  Clist,  and  traversed  by  the  Bristol  and  Exeter 

History  of*  Devonsliire. 


The  following  enumeration  of  the  parishes,  &c.,  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  number 
of  inhabited  houses  and  population  of  each  parish,  in  1871 : — 



Inhabited  Houses 


2  Broad  Clist 

3  *  Butterleigh 

2     Clist  Hydon 

2     Clist  St.  Lawrence 

1     Whimple 









Notes. — Marked  *  is  in  Tiverton  union;  the  rest  are  in  St.  Thomas  union;  1  is  in  Ottery,  2,  Wonford,  and  3, 
CuUompton  division. 

Coleridge  Hundred  extends  southward  from  Totnes  along  the  navigable  river  Dart  to  Dart- 
mouth, and  thence  along  the  coast  of  Start  Bay  to  Salcombe  Haven,  and  is  in  the  Southern  parlia- 
mentary division  of  the  county.  Its  greatest  length  from  Totnes  to  Start  and  Prawle  Points  is 
sixteen  miles,  and  the  breadth  varies  from  seven  to  four  miles.  It  is  encompassed  on  three  sides  by 
tidal  waters,  and  is  generally  a  fertile  district,  rich  in  picturesque  scenery  and  splendid  marine  views. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes,  &c.,  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  number  of 
inhabited  houses  and  population  of  each  parish,  in  1871  ; — 









*  Ashprington 




Sherford  . 








*  St.  Petrox  (a)    . 




Buckland  Tout  Saints 




*  St.  Saviour  (a) . 








Slapton     . 








South  Poole 




*  Cornworthy 




Stoke  Fleming  (a) 




*  Dittisham 












*  Totnes  parish  (b) 




East  Portlemouth      . 




*  Townstal  (a)     . 




*  Halwell     . 




*  Harberton 








Notes. — Marked  *  are  in  Totnes  union,  the  remainder  in  Kingsbridge  union ;  all  except  the  boroughs  are  in 
Stanborough  and  Coleridge  division. 

***  (a)  St.  Petrox,  St.  Saviour,  Townstal,  and  part  of  Stoke  Fleming  form  Dartmouth  municipal  borough;  and 
(b)  Totnes  parish,  with  part  of  Berry  Pomeroy  (in  Haytor  hundred),  that  of  Totnes. 

Colyton  Hundred  is  an  irregularly  formed  dif^trict,  averaging  about  six  miles  in  breadth,  and 
eight  in  length,  and  bounded  on  the  south  by  the  English  Channel,  on  the  west  by  East  Budlcigh 
hundred,  Ottery  St.  Mary,  and  the  borough  of  Honiton,  and  on  the  north  and  east  by  Axminster 
Hundred.     It  is  in  the  Eastern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  the  territorial  extent,  and  the  number  of 
inhabited  houses  and  population  of  each  parish,  in  1871  : — 





Parishes                   j        Acres          "^^ousef 


2    Branscombe 

1  *  Colyton 

2  Cotleigh 
2     Farway 
2    Monkton 

2     North  Leigh 
2     Oifwell. 




1  Seaton  (incl.  Beer) 

2  *  South  Leigh  . 
l*Shute    . 

2     Widworthy   . 








2155     i 






-Marked  *  are  in  Axminster  union;  the  others  in  Honiton  union;  1   are  in  Axminster  and  2  Honiton 

Crediton  Hundred,  in  the  Northern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county,  is  in  the  centre  of 
Devonshire,  extends  from  two  to  twelve  miles  north-west  of  Exeter,  and  varies  from  six  to  four  miles 
in  breadth.  It  is  bounded  on  the  east  by  the  ^mall  river  Greedy,  and  traversed  by  the  London  and 
South- Western  and  North  Devon  Eailway. 


Himtotry  of  l>evonwliii»e. 

The  following  onumeration  of  the  parishes  in  the  hundred  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the 
number  of  inhabited  houses  and  population  of  each  parish,  in  1871 : — 



Inhabited  Houses 









6778            ! 





Morchard  Bishop 



1473             1 

Newton  St.  Cjres 


•  224- 

960              ' 





Sherwood  Villa 

Total         .         .         .         .         . 






Note. — All  are  in  Crediton  union  and  division. 

East  Budleigh  Hundred,  in  the  Eastern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county,  is  about  seven 
miles  in  breadth,  and  extends  more  than  ten  miles  in  length  along  the  sea-coast  from  Exmouth  to 
Salcombe  Eegis,  but  Ottery  St.  Mary,  which  lies  within  its  limits,  is  a  separate  liberty.  It  is  gene- 
rally a  fertile  and  picturesque  district,  and  includes  the  bathing  places  of  Exmouth,  Sidmouth,  and 
Budleigh  Salterton.  It  is  intersected  by  the  rivers  Otter  and  Sid,  and  bounded  on  the  west  by  the 
broad  estuary  of  the  Exe. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shoAvs  the  territorial  extent,  and  the  number  of 
inhabited  houses  and  population,  of  each  parish  in  1871 : — 









Aylesbeare — 

2     Harpford 




2  Aylesbeare 

1          r 



3    Lympstone     . 




2  Newton  Popple- 

I  2948  i 

3     Otterton 




ford      .         . 

J          L 



2     Eockbeare      . 




3    Bicton  . 




2  *  Salcombe  Rej 

;xs     . 




3     Clist  St.  George    . 




2  *  Sidbury. 




3     CHst  Honiton 




2  *  Sidmouth 




3     Clist  St.  Mary 




2  *  Ven  Ottery 




3     Colyton  Raleigh    . 






2     Dotton  . 





3     East  Budleigh 




3  Withycombe  Eaw- 

3     Farringdon    . 





}  .an  { 



1  *  Gittisham 




3  Exmouth  (pt.  of) 



Littleham  parish — 

3     "Woodbury      . 




3  Exmouth  (pt.  ot; 
3  Littleham 

\   3651    1 







Notes. — Marked  *  are  in  Honiton  union,  and  the  remainder  in  St.  Thomas  union ;   1  is  in  Honiton  division,  2 
are  in  Ottery,  and  3  in  Woodbury  division. 

Ermington  Hundred,  which  is  in  the  Southern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county,  extends 
fourteen  miles  northward  from  Bigbury  Bay,  and  averages  about  six  miles  in  breadth.  The  northern 
part  of  it  comprises  a  portion  of  the  hilly  region  of  Dartmoor  Forest,  whence  the  river  Erme  flows 
southward  to  the  ocean  at  Bigbury  Bay,  where  the  Avon  also  empties  itself  through  an  estuary 
which  forms  the  south-east  boundary  of  this  hundred. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its-  parishes  shows  their  tei-ritorial  extent,  and  the  number  of 
inhabited  houses  and  population,  in  1871  : — 


\  Aveton  GifFord 
X  Bigbury 

*  Cornwood 

*  Ermington 

*  Harford 

*  Holbeton 
t  Kinsrston 








Newton  Ferrers 



I     50288 


338  I  1751 

153  i  732 

51  i  237 

292  I  1523 



Notes. — Marked  *  are  in  Plympton  St.  Mary  union  ;  |  in  Kingsbridge  union  ;  and  §  in  Totnes  union.     All  are 
in  Ermington  and  Plympton  division. 

Histoid  or  I>evoiisliire. 


Exminster  Hundred  is  of  an  irregular  oval  figure,  extending  about  ten  miles  southward  from 
the  boundary  of  the  county  of  the  city  of  Exeter,  and  averaging  about  seven  miles  in  breadth.  It 
is  in  the  Eastern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county,  and  is  bounded  on  the  east  by  the  broad 
estuary  of  the  river  Exe,  and  on  the  south  by  the  estuary  of  the  Teign  and  the  English  Channel.  It 
is  a  fertile  and  picturesque  district,  rising  boldly  to  the  west,  and  comprising  the  pleasant  bathing 
places  of  Teignmouth  and  Dawlish,  and  the  small  market  town  of  Chudleigh.  Its  eastern  side,  near 
the  Exe,  is  traversed  by  the  South  Devon  Kailway. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  number  of 
inhabited  houses  and  population,  in  1871  : — 









2    Ashcombe     . 
2     Ashton. 
1  *  Bishopsteignton     . 
1  *  Chudleigh      . 

1  *  Dawlish 

2  Doddiscorabeleigh . 
2     Dunchideock. 

1  *  East  Teignmouth  . 

2  Exminster    . 
2     Ide        . 






















2    Kenn    . 
2     Kenton. 
2     Marahead 
2     Powderham   . 
2     Shillingford      St. 

1  *  Trusham 
1  *  "West  Teignmouth . 






















Notes. — Marked  *  are  in  Newton  Abbot,  the  others  in  St.  Thomas's  union ;  1  are  in  Teignbridge,  and  2  Wonford 

Fremington  Hundred  is  in  the  Northern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county,  and  extends 
about  eleven  miles  southward  from  Barnstaple  to  Great  Torrington  and  the  vale  of  the  river  Torridge. 
It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  estuaiy  of  the  Taw,  and  on  the  north-west  by  the  estuary  of  the 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  number  of 
inhabited  houses  and  the  population,  in  1871 : — 



2  Alverdiscott . 

3  *  Fremington   . 

2  Great  Torrington 

3  *  Horwood 

2  Huntshaw 

3  *  Instow  . 

3  *  Newton  Tracey 





















2    Koborough     . 

2  St.   Giles  in    the 

Wood  . 

3  *  Tawstock 

1  *  West  Leigh  . 
















Notes. — Marked  *  are  in  Barnstaple  union,  and  the  rest  in  Torrington  union  ;  1,  Bideford,  2,  Great  Torrington, 
and  3,  Braunton  division. 

Halberton  Hundred  is  a  small  district  in  the  Northern  division  of  the  county.  The  following 
enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  number  of  inhabited  houses  and 
population,  in  1871 : — 

Parishes                                                               Acres                   Inhabited  Houses    |          Population 

*Burlescombe  (part  of)  (a) J              —                             — -                             — 

Halberton       .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .     1             5755                           326                         1544 

Sampford  Peverell 2000                            159             i               784 

Uplowman  (part  of)  («)....,         .                    —                              —                              — 
Willand 989                             83             ;              370 

Total 8744 

568                         2698 

Notes. — Marked  *  is  in  Wellington  union  (Somerset);  the  rest  in  Tiverton  union.  All  are  in  CuUompton 

*^e*  (a)  Burlescombe  parish  is  mostly  in  Bampton  hundred,  and  Uplowman  parish  in  Tiverton  hundred ;  the 
complete  returns  are  given  with  those  hundreds. 


Iliwtoi:*3^  of*  Uevoiisliii^fii 

Hartland  Hundued  is  a  small  district  on  the  north  coast  of  Devon,  about  eight  miles  in  length 
and  five  in  breadtli,  bounded  on  the  north  and  west  by  the  Bristol  Channel,  and  on  the  south  by  a 
small  part  of  Cera,  all  and  the  river  Torridge,  which,  though  it  rises  within  a  few  miles  of  the  ocean, 
runs  inland  in  a  very  Avinding  course  of  more  than  thirty  miles  to  the  mouth  of  the  Taw.  Hartland  is 
the  bold  lieadhind  which  stretches  out  into  the  sea  between  Barnstaple  or  Bideford  Bay,  and  Bude 
liay.  The  surliijc  rises  in  bold  cliffs  from  the  beach,  and  in  lofty  hills  from  the  picturesque  valleys 
of  several  rivuleiia  and  the  river  Torridge. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited  houses 
and  population,  in  1871. 


Clovelly  . 
Lundy  Isle  (a) 
Woolfardisworchy    , 
*Yarnscombe    . 





Inhabited  Houses 










Notes, — Marked  *  is  in  Torrington  union  and  Great  Torrington  division,  being  a  widely  detached  member 
this  hundred ;  the  rest  are  in  Bideford  union  and  division. 

*^*  (a)  Lundy  Isle  is  stiil  stated  to  be  extra-parochial  and  not  in  any  union. 

Hayridge  Hundred,  in  the  Northern  parliamentary  division  o£  the  county,  is  of  an  irregular 
figure,  extending  about  sixteen  miles  from  east  to  west,  and  varying  from  nine  to  six  in  breadth.  Its 
soil  is  various,  but  generally  fertile,  and  its  surface  is  picturesquely  diversified  with  hill  and  valley, 
and  wood  and  water.  It  includes  the  market  town  of  Cullompton  ;  and  those  of  Exeter,  Tiverton, 
Honiton,  and  Ottery  St.  Mary  are  within  a  few  miles  of  its  boundaries.  It  is  crossed  by  the  Bristol. 
and  Exeter  Railway,  and  the  branch  to  Tiverton  ;  and  watered  by  the  rivers  Exe  and  Culm,  and 
several  of  their  tributary  streams. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited  houses 
and  population,  m  1871 : — 









1  Bickleigh 
Blackborough . 

1  Bradninch 
*1  Broadhembury 

1  Cadbury. 

1  Cadeleigh 

1  Cullompton      . 
*2  Feniton  . 

1  Kentisbeare     . 
§4  Nether  Exe      . 













*1  Payhembury   . 
*1  Plymtree 

§  Re  we  (part  of)—     . 
4  Up  Exe 
n  Sheldon  . 

1  SilvertOQ 
*3  Talaton  . 

1  Thorveton 













1288  1 

1082  , 




Notes. — Marked  *  are  in  Honiton  union,  §  in  St.  Thomas  union,  and  the  others  in  Tiverton  union 
Cullumpton,  2,  Honiton,  3,  Ottery,  4,  Wonford  division. 

1  are  i| 

Haytor  Hundred,  which  is  in  the  Eastern  parliamentary  division  of  the  coimty,  includes  tn( 
towns  of  Torquay,  Brixton,  Paignton,  and  Newton  Abbot,  and  is  mostly  of  an  irregular  triangulai 
figure,  extending  south-east  from  the  vicinity  of  Ashburton  to  Dartmouth  ;  northward  from  the  lattei 
to  Tor  Bay,  Babbacombe  Bay,  and  Stoke-in-Teignhead ;  and  westward  from  the  latter  to  Newton  lau 
Ashburton.  It  has  a  detached  member  from  four  to  six  miles  further  to  the  north-west,  com* 
prising  the  parishes  of  AVidecombe  and  Buckland,  in  the  mountainous  and  rugged  district  of  Darl 
moor,  near  the  Ilaytor  rock  granite  quarries,  from  which  the  hundred  has  its  name.  The  navigabli 
river  Dart  bounds  it  on  the  south-west,  and  the  sea  on  the  east ;  and  it  is  crossed  by  the  South  Devoi 
Railway,  which  has  a  branch  to  the  beautiful  watering-place  of  Torquay. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited  houscj 
and  population,  in  1871 ; —  , 

History  of  Devonshire. 










3  Abbots  Kerswell     . 




*1  Marldon. 




*2  33erry  Pomeroy  (a) . 




*1  Paignton. 




*1  Brixham 




1  St.  Mary  Church     . 




3  Broadhempston 




*3  Staverton 




3  Bucklandin  theMoor 




^^1  Stoke  Gabriel  . 




l  Churston  Ferrers     . 




3  Torbrian. 




1  Coekington 




1  Tormahon          -with 

3  Coffinswell 








3  Denbury 




3  "Widecombe   in    the 

3  Ipplepen 




Moor  . 




3  Kiugskerswell 




3  Wolborough       with 

*2  Kingsweare     . 




Newton  Abbot     . 




*2  Little  Hempston     . 




Total  . 




Notes. — Marked  *  are  in  Totnes  union,  and  the  rest  in  Newton  Abbot  union  ;  1  form  Paignton  division,  2  are  in 
Stanborough,  and  3,  Teignbridge  division. 

*^*  Part  of  Berry  Pomeroy  parish  is  included  in  the  borough  of  Totnes.  Ipplepen  includes  Woodland  civil 

Hemyock  Hundred  is  a  small  liilly  district,  of  a  very  irregular  form,  comprising  part  o£  the 
Black  Down  Hills,  where  the  river  Culm  has  its  sources,  on  the  borders  of  Somersetshire.  It  is  in 
the  Northern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county. 

The  folio win<j:  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited  houses 
and  population,  in  1871  : — 



Inhabited  Houses 

Population  ^ 

2  Awliscombe 




2  Buckerell 




*1   Clayhidon 




*1  Culmstock 




t2  Church  Stanton 




2  Duiikeswell 




»*1  Ilemyock 

K                               Total 







Notes. — Marked  *  are  in  AVellington  union  (Somerset),  f  in  Taunton  union  (Somerset),  and  the  others  in  Honiton 
union;   1  are  in  Cullompton,  and  2,  Honiton  division. 

LiFTON  Hundred,  on  the  western  side  of  Devon,  extends  over  133,300  acres  of  land,  more  than 
a  third  of  which  is  in  the  Avild  and  hilly  district  of  Dartmoor  Forest.  (See  page  49.)  The  forest 
portion  extends  abovit  sixteen  miles  from  north  to  south,  and  from  four  to  six  in  breadth,  and  the  rest 
of  the  hundred  is  generally  a  fertile  district,  about  twelve  miles  in  length  and  'breadth,  extending 
westward  to  the  river  Tamar,  on  the  borders  of  Cornwall ;  northward  to  Okehampton,  and  southward 
to  the  vicinity  of  Tavistock.  lb  gives  rise  to  many  rivers  and  brooks,  and  is  in  the  Southern  parlia- 
mentary division  of  the  county. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited 
houses  and  population,  in  1871  :  — 










2  Bradstone 




3  Lidford   . 




*2  Bratton  Clovelly      . 



717  ! 

*2  Mary  stow 




*2  Bridestow 



762  i 

*1  Okehampton    . 




§2  Broadwoodwidger    . 




*2  Sourton  . 




2  Coryton  . 




2  Stowford 




2  Dunterton 




Sydenham  Damerel. 




*2  Germansweek 




3  Tavy  St.  Mary 




2  Kelly      . 




2  Thrushelton    . 




3  Lamerton 




§2  Virginstow 




2  Lewtrenchard 




2  Lifton      . 



Total   . 




Notes. — Marked  *  are  in  Okehampton  union,  and  §  in  Launceston  union  (Cornwall) ;  1  is  in  Hatherleigh,  2  are 
in  Lifton,  and  3  in  Tavistock  division. 


History  of  r>evonsliiire. 

North  Tawton  Hundred  is  a  fertile  and  long  narrow  district,  in  the  Northern  parliamentary 
division  of  the  county,  stretching  about  eighteen  miles  from  north  to  south,  and  varying  from  seven 
to  less  than  four  in  breadth.  The  river  Taw  ilows  through  a  picturesque  valley  on  its  eastern  side, 
and  receives  here  several  tributary  streams. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited  houses 
and  population,  in  1871  : — 





§4  Ashreigny 




II 1  Atherington    . 




*2  Bow  Tracey    . 




*4  Brushford 




t4  Bondleigh 




J4  Burrington 




*4  Chawleigh 




*2  Clanaborough. 




*4  Coleridge 




§3  Dolton    . 





§3  Dowland. 

*2  Down  St.  Mary 

*4  Eggesford 

§3  High  Bickington 

*4  Lapford  . 

*4  Nymet  Rowland 

H  North  Tawton 

*4  Wembworthy  . 

*2  Zeal  Monachorum 















Notes. — Marked  *  are  in  Crediton,  t  in  Okehampton,  §  in  Torrington,  I  in  South  Molton,  and 
union  ;  1  is  in  Braunton,  2,  Crediton,  3,  Great  Torrington,  and  4,  South  Molton  division. 

in  Barnstaple 

Ottery  St.  Mary  Hundred  comprises  only  the  parish  of  Ottery  St.  Mary,  and  is  in  the  Eastern 
parliamentary  division  of  the  county  and  Honiton  union  and  division.  It  had  4110  inhabitants  in 
1871,  living  in  904  houses  on  9942  acres  of  land. 

Plympton  Hundred  extends  more  than  sixteen  miles  southward  from  the  hilly  region  of  Dartmoor 
Forest  to  the  English  Channel,  between  Plymouth  Sound  and  Bigbury  Bay,  but  it  is  only  from  six  to 
four  miles  in  breadth.  It  is  bounded  on  the  west  by  the  river  Plym,  which  falls  into  Plymouth  Sound ; 
and  on  its  south-eastern  side  it  has  the  estuary  of  the  Yealm.  It  is  crossed  by  the  South  Devon 
Eailway,  and  is  in  the  Southern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited  houses 
and  population,  in  1871 : — 



Plympton  Earl's  or  Maurice 

Plympton  St.  Mary 

Plym  stock     . 

Pevelstoke     . 

Shaugh  Prior 


Yealmpton    . 



Inhabited  Houses 





























Notes. — All  are  in  Plympton  St.  Mary  union, 
and  Plympton  division. 

Marked  *  is  in  Midland  Koborough,  the  others  in  Ermington 

Roborough  Hundred  adjoins  the  boroughs  of  Plymouth  and  Devonport,  and  forms  the  south- 
western extremity  of  Devon,  bounded  on  the  west  by  the  broad  estuary  of  the  river  Tamar,  and  is  in 
the  Southern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county.  It  extends  about  fourteen  miles  northward  from 
Plymouth,  to  the  wild  and  hilly  district  of  Dartmoor  Forest,  where  there  are  several  lead  and  tin 
mines.  It  is  skirted  on  the  east  by  the  river  Plym,  and  traversed  by  the  navigable  river  Tavy,  and 
the  railway  from  Dartmoor  granite  quarries. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited 
houses  and  population,  in  1871 : — 

History  of"  I^evoiislilre. 










3  Beer  Ferris  . 




§  1  St.  Budeaux  . 




§  1  Bickleigh       . 




3  Sampford  Spiney  . 




1  Buckland      Mona- 

1  Sheepstor 








2  Stoke  Damerel  (a)" 




2  East  Stonehouse    . 




§  1  Tamerton  Foliott  . 




§  1  Egg  Buckland       . 




3  Tavy  St.  Peter      . 




I  1  Compton  Gilford   . 




1  Walkhampton 




§  1  Laira  Green 




3  Whitchurch  . 




1  Meavy 
§  1  Pennycross   . 







Total  . 




Notes  and  Keferences.— Marked  §  are  in  Plympton  St.  Mary  union,  and  the  others  in  Tavistock  union ; 
are  in  Midland  Eoborough  ;  2,  Koborough ;  and  3,  Tavistock  division. 

Shebbear  Hundred,  in  the  Northern  parliamentary  division  of  Devon,  and  in  the  north-western 
part  of  the  county,  is  skirted  on  three  sides  by  the  winding  stream  of  the  river  Torridge,  and  bounded 
on  the  north-west  by  Bideford  Bay  and  Hartland  hundred.  It  averages  about  twelve  miles  in  length 
and  eight  in  breadth,  and  is  a  picturesque  district,  having  the  borough  and  port  of  Bideford  within  its 
northern  limits,  and  the  towns  of  Torrington  and  Hatherleigh  near  its  borders. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited  houses 
and  population,  in  1871 : — 









*  1  Abbotsham   . 




§  2  Little  Torrington  . 




*  1  Alwington     . 




!  I  2  Marland  Peters     . 




§  2  Beaford 




i  t  3  Meeth  . 




*  Bideford  . 




§  2  Merton 




*  1  Buckland  Brewer  . 




*  1  Monkleigh    . 




§  2  Buckland  Filleigh. 




*  1  Newton  St.  Petrock 




*  1  Bulkworthy  . 




*  1  Northam 




*  1  East  Putford 




*  1  Parkham 




§  2  Frethelstock 




§  2  Petrockstow  . 




§  2  Huish  . 




§  2  Shebbear       . 




t  3  Iddesleigh     . 




§  3  Sheepwash    . 




*  1  Landcross 




§  2  Wear  Gilford 




§  2  Langtree 

*  1  Littleham     . 



813     ! 



304     j 





Keferences, — Marked  *  are  in  Bideford  union  ;  §  in  Torrington  union  ;  and  J  in  Okehampton  union.    1  are  in 
Bideford  ;  2,  Great  Torrington  ;  and  3,  Hatherleigh  division. 

Sherwill  Hundred  is  a  highly  picturesque  district  of  hill  and  dale  at  the  northern  extremity  of 
Devon,  adjoining  Exmoor,  and  in  the  Northern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county.  It  is  bounded 
on  the  east  by  Somersetshire,  on  the  north  by  the  Bristol  Channel,  on  the  west  by  Braunton  hundred, 
and  on  the  south  by  the  latter  and  South  Molton  hundred. 

The  following  enumeration  of  the  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  number  of 
inhabited  houses  and  population,  in  1871 : — 









Arlington    . 
Count!  sbury 
High  Bray. 




Martinhoe    . 
Parracombe . 
Sherwill        . 
Stoke  Rivers 

Total  . 









Kefekexck. — Marked 

^   is  in  So 

uth  Moltc 

)n  union 

and  division;   all  the  rest 

are   in   Ba 

rnstaple  i 

mion    and 

Braunton  division 

South  Molton  Hundred,  in  the  Northern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county,  is  generally  a 
fertile  and  hilly  district,  bounded  on  the  west  by  the  river  Taw,  on  the  south  by  the  river  Mole,  and 
on  the  east  by  Somersetshire.  It  is  intersected  by  the  river  Bray  and  many  smaller  streams,  and  is 
of  an  irregular  figure,  averaging  about  thirteen  miles  in  length  and  ten  in  breadth,  and  extending 


History  of  I>ovoiisliire. 

north-west  from  the  borough  of  South  Molton  to  that  of  Barnstaple.  It  abounds  in  limestone,  and 
has  several  lead  and  copper  mines,  especially  on  its  eastern  side,  where  it  has  a  lofty  ridge  of  hills, 
adjoining  the  mountainous  region  of  Exmoor  Forest,  in  which  Span  Head  rises  to  the  altitude  of  1668 
feet,  and  some  other  hills,  on  the  borders  of  the  two  counties,  to  the  height  of  from  1000  to  1500  feet 
above  tlie  level  of  the  sea.  This  forest  contains  many  Druidicai  remains,  and  gives  rise  to  the  Exe, 
Barle,  Mole,  and  other  rivers. 

The  ibllowing  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited  houses 
and  population,  in  1871 : — 









*Bi  shop's  Tawton 

Chittlehamptou  . 

East  Anstey 



North  Molton     . 

Nympton  St.  George 











Satterleigh . 
South  Molton      . 
Twitch  en    . 
Warkleigh . 
West  Anstcy 

Total  . 












Eefbrences. — Marked  *  are  in  Barnstaple  union  and  Braunton  division,  and  all  the  others  are  in  South  Molton 
union  and  division.     Part  of  Bishop's  Tawton  is  in  Barnstaple  borough. 

Stanborough  Hundred  is  a  long  narrow  district,  in  the  Southern  parliamentary  division  of  the 
county,  extending  more  than  twenty -two  miles  southward  from  the  river  Dart  in  Dartmoor  Forest,  to 
the  English  Channel,  between  Bolt  Head  and  Tail,  and  the  mouths  of  Salcombe  creek  and  the  river 
Avon ;  but  averaging  only  about  five  miles  in  breadth.  It  stretches  into  the  hilly  region  of  Dartmoor 
on  the  north-west,  and  is  bounded  by  the  river  Dart  as  low  as  Totnes,  where  it  is  crossed  by  the 
South  Devon  Railway.  It  is  traversed  southward  by  the  Avon,  which  receives  several  smaller 
streams ;  and  the  haven  and  creeks  from  Kingsbridge  to  the  sea  form  its  south-western  boundary. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited  houses 
and  population,  in  1871 : — 










^Buckfastleigh      . 

^Darlington  . 
*Dean  Prior 
*Diptford     . 

East  Allington    . 
*1   Holne     . 


Loddiswell . 
















*Morleigh     . 

*North  Huish 

^Battery       . 

*South  Brent 
South  Huish 
South  Milton 
West  Alvington 
Woodleigh  . 






Total  . 




Eeferences. — Marked  *  are  in  Totnes  union,  the  rest  in  Kingsbridge  union, 
others  are  in  Stanborough  and  Coleridge  division. 

1  is  in  Teignbridge  division,  the 

Tavistock  Hundred  is  a  small  liberty  on  the  south-western  side  of  Devonshire,  and  in  the 
Southern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county.  It  is  bounded  on  the  south-west  by  the  river  Tamar, 
which  separates  it  from  Cornwall,  and  here  receives  the  small  river  Tavy,  and  has  a  canal  to  Tavistock, 
passing  through  a  long  tunnel.  It  has  mines  of  copper,  tin,  and  lead,  and  is  generally  a  fertile  and 
jncturesque  district,  bounded  on  the  east  by  the  mountainous  region  of  Dartmoor  Forest. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  the  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited  houses 
and  population,  in  1871  : — 



Inhabited  Houses 


Brent  Tor      . 
Milton  Abbot 
Tavistock      . 













Note. — All  are  in  Tavistock  union  and  division. 

HiHtor.y  of    Oevonsliir'e. 


Teignbridge  Hundred,  which  is  in  the  Eastern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county,  averages 
about  ten  miles  in  length  and  seven  in  breadth,  and  includes  the  towns  of  Ashburton  and  Newton 
Bushel,  on  its  southern  border,  and  Moreton  Hampstead,  near  its  northern  boundary.  Its  western 
side  forms  part  of  the  eastern  hills  of  Dartmoor  Foi-est,  including  the  Haytor  granite  rock  quarries, 
which  have  a  railway  and  canal  to  the  Teign  ;  but  the  rest  of  the  hundred  is  a  fertile  district  of  hil's 
and  valleys,  watered  by  the  East  and  West  Teign,  which  receive  here  several  tributaries,  and  unite 
near  Teigngrace,  below  which  the  stream  becomes  navigable. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited  houses 
ftnd  jDopulation,  in  1871  :  — 


Bovey  Tracey 
Hennock     . 
Highweek  . 
Ilsiufftou    . 























Kingsteignton     . 
*Lustleigh    . 

Manaton     . 
*  North  Bovey 






Inhabited  t,„     ,  ,. 
Houses     Population 











Brferences. — All  are  in  Newton  Abbot  union.     Those  marked  *  are  in  Crockernwell  division,  the  others  in 
Teignbridge  division. 

Tiverton  Hundred,  in  the  Northern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county,  is  picturesquely 
undulated  and  traversed  by  the  Exe  and  several  of  its  tributary  streams. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited  houses 
and  population,  in  1871  : — 




Loxbear    .... 

Tiverton  (borough  and  parish) 




Inhabited  Houses 




















Keference. — All  are  in  Tiverton  union  and  Cullompton  division. 

West  Budleigh  Hundred  is  in  the  Northern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county,  and  lies 
north  and  north-east  of  Crediton,  and  is  only  about  eight  miles  long  and  four  broad.  It  is  watered 
by  the  river  Greedy  and  one  of  its  tributaries. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited  houses 
and  population,  in  1871  : — 


Cheriton  Fitzpaine 
Poughill    . 
Stockleigli  English 
Stockleigh  Pomeroy 
Upton  Helions  . 



Inhabited  Houses 










G26             ! 
















.  ^     Unions. — Washfield,  marked  *,  which  is  a  detached  member  of  the  hundred,  is  in  Tiverton  union,  and  Cullompton 
iivisiou;  the  rest  are  in  Crediton  union  and  division. 

WiNKLEiGH  Hundred  comprises  only  the  parish  of  Winkleigh,  and  is  in 
tnentary    division    of  the   county,    South  Molton    division    and    Torringion    union 
inhabitants  in  1871,  living  in  229  houses  on  9118  acres  of  land. 

the  Northern  parlia- 
It   had    1402 

WiTHtRiDGE  Hundred  is  a  fertile  district  of  hill  and  valley,  of  an  irregular  figure,  averaging  about 
ifleen  miles  in  length  and  nine  in  breadth,  in  the  Northern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county.     It 



History  oi*  Devonsliire, 

extends  from  three  to  about  eighteen  miles  westward  from  Tiverton,  and  to  the  vicinity  of  South  Molt 
and  to  within  about  four  miles  of  the  boundary  of  Somerset.     It  is  watered  by  the  small  rivers  Mox^, 
Little  Dart,  Sturcombe,  and  Taw,  and  many  tributary  streams;  and  rises  into  a  bold  range  of  hills  on 
the  east  and  north,  but  has  extensive  tracts  of  rich  corn  lands  and  pastures  in  the  valleys. 

The    following    enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,   and  the  inhabited 
houses  and  population,  ia  1871 : — 









2  Bishop's  Nympton  . 



1155     1 

2  Rackenford      . 

1       3938 



2  Cheldon. 



82     ! 

2  Romansleigh  . 

1       2491 



2  Cliulmleigh     . 



1560     1 

2  Rose  Ash 

'       5082 



2  Creacombe 



62     1 

*1   Stoodleigh 

1       4336 



*1  Cruwys  Morchiird   . 



645     1 

*1  Templeton 

j        1895 



2  East  Worlington     . 




§2  Thelhridgo      . 




*1  Highley  St.  Mary    . 




§3  Washford  Pync 




2  King's  Nympton 




2  Witheridge      . 




2  Mariansleigh  . 




§3  Woolfardisworthy   . 




2  Meshaw  . 




2  West  Worlington     . 




^1  Oakford. 

§3  Puddington     . 





Total  . 




Notes. — Marked  *  are  in  Tiverton  union ;  §  in  Crediton  union ;  and  the  others  in  South  Molton  union.     1  are 
in  Cullompton,  2,  South  Molton,  and  3,  Crediton  division. 

WoNFORD  Hundred  is  in  the  Eastern  parliamentary  division  of  the  county,  and  extends  about  nine- 
teen miles  westward  and  four  miles  eastward  from  Exeter,  completely  encompassing  that  city,  and 
adding  a  considerable  population  to  its  suburbs.  (See  Exeter.)  Exclusive  of  two  distant  detached 
members  near  Newton  Abbot,  it  is  about  twenty-three  miles  in  length  from  east  to  west,  and  varies 
from  eight  to  four  miles  in  breadth.  It  is  bounded  on  the  east  by  East  Budleigh  and  Cliston 
hundreds,  on  the  south  by  Exminster  and  Teignbridge  hundreds,  and  on  the  west  by  the  extensive 
mountainous  moorland  district  of  Dartmoor  Forest ;  large  portions  of  which,  near  Chagford,  Gidleigh, 
Throwley  and  South  Tawton,  are  within  its  limits.  (See  Lidford.)  It  is  generally  a  fertile  and 
picturesque  district,  traversed  by  the  Exeter  and  Okehampton  turnpike  and  other  good  roads,  and 
extending  down  the  river  Exe  to  Topsham — the  shipping  port  of  Exeter. 

The  following  enumeration  of  its  parishes  shows  their  territorial  extent,  and  the  inhabited 
houses  and  population,  in  1871 : — 










3  Alphington      . 




3  Rewe  (part  of)  \ 
Rewe  (a)      J     ' 




3  Brampford  Speke    . 




1  Bridford 




§  Sherwood  villa  (b)  . 




*1  Chagford 




4  Sowton    . 




§1  Cheriton  Bishop 




*1  Spreyton 




3  Christow 




3  Stoke  Canon    . 




t2  Combeinteignhead  (c) 




t2  Stokeinteignhead  (c) 




*1  Drewsteignton 




3  St.  Leonard     . 




2  Dunsford 




t2  St.  Nicholas  (c)       . 




t2  East  Ogwell  (c)       . 




3  St.Thomas  the  Apostle 




*1  Gidleigh. 




*1  South  Tawton 




t2  Haccombe  (c) . 




1  Tedburn  St.  Mary  . 




3  Heavitree 




*1  Throwleigh     . 




§1  Hitt]  sleigh      . 




3  Topsham 




3  Holcombe  Burnell  . 




3  Upton-Pyne    . 




3  Huxham 




t2  West  Ogwell  . 




3  Pinhoe    . 




3  Whitestone     . 




3  Pol ti more 




Total  . 




References. — Marked  *  are  in  Okehampton  union ;  f  in  Newton  Abbot  union ;  §  in  Crediton  union ;  and  the 
rest  are  in  St.  Thomas  union.     1  are  in  Crockernwell,  2,  Teignbridge,  3,  Wonford,  and  4,  Woodbury  division. 

Notes. — (a)  Rewe  parish  is  partly  in  Haybridge  hundred,  (b)  This  parish  is  also  returned  with  Crediton 
hundred,  it  formerly  being  included  in  Whitestone  parish,  but  even  then  its  rates  were  claimed  by  Newton  St,  Cyres. 
(c)  East  and  West  Ogwell,  Haccombe,  Combeinteignhead,  Stokeinteignhead,  and  St.  Nicholas  are  detached  members. 




N.B. — To  avoid  inciclmts  distinctions  ive  have  in  the  Directories  appended  ^  Esq,^  to  Members  of  Parliament  and 

Justices  of  the  Peace  only. 

ABBOTS  BICKINGTON  is  a  parish  nine  miles  south-west  of  Torrington,  in  Holsworthy  union,  county 
court  district,  petty  sessional  division  and  rural  deanery,  Barnstaple  archdeaconry,  and  Black  Torrington 
hundred,  and  Southern  division  of  the  county.  It  had  50  inhabitants  (21  males,  29  females)  in  1871,  living 
in  8  houses,  on  1078  acres  of  land.  The  parish  formerly  belonged  to  Hartland  Abbey.  The  Hon.  Mark 
Rolle  is  now  lord  of  the  manor  and  owner  of  most  of  the  soil.  The  Chuech  (St.  James)  consists  of  chancel, 
nave,  south  transept,  and  tower  containing  three  bells,  and  in  1868  was  newly  roofed  and  reseated,  the 
south  wall  rebuilt  and  three  windows  inserted,  and  a  new  pulpit  and  reading  desk  furnished,  at  a  total  cost 
of  £300,  defrayed  by  the  Hon.  Mark  IloUe.  In  the  chancel  are  sedilia  and  two  monuments  to  the  Pollard 
famil3^  The  Eegister  dates  from  1567.  The  living,  a  vicarage,  in  the  patronage  of  the  Hon.  Mark  Rolle,  has 
lately  been  united  to  Bulkworthy,  together  worth  £'140  a  year.  There  is  no  vicar,  but  the  Rev.  W.  Edgcombe 
is  curate.  There  is  no  vicarage  house  at  present,  but  great  efforts  are  bemg  made  to  remedy  this  defect,  and 
probably  a  residence  will  be  erected  this  summer.     The  Hon.  Mark  Rolle  is  impropriator  of  the  great 

I  tithes,  which  are  commuted  for  £25  a  year ;  the  vicarial  tithes  are  commuted  for  £45  a  year. 
I      Letters  via  Brandis  Corner,  but  Holsworthy  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office  and  Railway  Station. 

leverdou  Charles,  farmer,  East  Cliol- 
)le  William,  farmer,  Youlden 

Edgcombe  Rev  William,   curate;   h 

Hern  William,  parish  clerk 

Skinner  Mrs  Jane,  farmer,  South  pi. 
Yeo  William,  farmer.  Court  Barton 

ABBOTSHAM,  a  parish  and  village  nearly  two  miles  west  of  Bideford,  is  in  Bideford  union,  county 
court  district,  and  petty  sessional  division,  Northern  division  of  the  county,  Barnstaple  archdeaconry,  Hartland 
rural  deanery,  and  Shebbear  hundred.  It  had  421  inhabitants  (198  males,  223  females)  in  1871,  living  in 
62  houses  on  1758  acres  of  land,  extending  westward  to  the  shore  of  Bideford  or  Barnstaple  Bay.  E.  U. 
Vidal,  Esq.,  is  lord  of  the  manor,  but  Dr.  Heywood  Smith,  Mr.  Richard  Turner,  Mr.  Taylor,  and  a  few 
smaller  owners  have  estates  here.  The  OnrRCH  (St.  Helen)  is  a  small  antique  structure,  consisting  of  nave, 
chancel,  and  a  low  tower  containing  four  bells.  The  church  was  thoroughly  restored  in  1870  at  a  cost  of 
£1300.  A  window  has  been  filled  with  stained  glass  in  memory  of  Mr.  Richard  Turner,  inserted  by  his  sons ; 
and  there  are  two  others  erected  by  Dr.  Heywood  and  E.  U.  Vidal,  Esq.,  respectively.  The  living  is  a 
vicarage,  valued  in  K.B.  at  £16  4s.  7d.,  in  the  patronage  of  E.  U.  Vidal,  Esq.,  and  incumbencj'-  of  the  Rev. 
Philip  Richard  Pipon  Braithwaite,  who  has  about  37  acres  of  glebe  and  a  good  house.  He  is  impropriator 
of  nearly  all  the  great  tithes  which  were  commuted  in  1840  with  the  small  tithes  for  £123  12s.  a  year ; 
besides  this  there  is  £70  lOs.  added  under  the  Lord  Chancellor's  Augmentation  Act.  The  Baptists  erected  a 
chapel  in  the  village  in  1852.  The  National  School  is  near  the  church,  and  was  rebuilt  by  W.  C.  Hey- 
wood, Esq.,  M.D.,  in  1851. 

Post  Office  at  Mr.  Thomas  Henry  Glover's.  Letters  are  received  at  7.30  a.m.  from,  and  despatched  at 
6.10  p.m.  (weekdays  ;  5.10  p.m.  Sundays)  to  Bideford,  which  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office. 

Those  marTced  *  are  in  the  Westward  Ho  postal  district. 

*  Alley  Miss,  Buckleigh 
Bird  Joseph,  shopkeeper 
Braithwaite  Rev.  Philip  Riclid.  Pipon, 

vicar,  The  Vicarage 
Brown  James,  farmer,  East  Pusehill 
Cook  George,  farmer,  West  Pusehill 

*  De  Vetrie  Major  John,  Buckleigh 
Pernie  Mr  Thomas,  Middle  Bowwood 

*  Gayer  Edward,  M.D.,  Highfield 
Glover  Thos.  Hy.  mason  &  postmaster 
Grant  Robert,  blacksmith 

*  Hamilton  Mrs  Marian,  Highfield 

*  Hamilton  Captain   Thomas  Brice, 

Heywood  Joseph,  farmer,  Lake  farm 

*  Hodges  Lieut.  Edward,  Leigh  villa 

*  Jacquot  Fran9ois,  belles-lettres, 
master  of  modern  languages  U.S. 
College,  Westward  Ho 

Moase  Edwd.  farmer  and  carpenter 
Pettle  John,  farmer,  Westacott 
Pickard  Charles  Henry,  farmer,  Bow- 
wood  ;  h  Parkham 
Pickard  Miss  Elizabeth,  farmer.  Pit 
Pickard    William,    farmer.    Chatter- 
borough  ;  h  Northam 
Pridham  Thomas,  victualler.  New  Inn 
Shenner  Miss  M.  C.  schoolmistress 

Silk  William,  carpenter 

Taylor  James,  railway  contractor,  Ab- 
botsham  court 

Tickle  Mr  Samuel,  Kenen 

Turner  Charles,  farmer.  The  Barton 

Turner  George,  farmer,  Rixlade ;  h 

Turner  John,  farmer.  Combe  Barton 

Turner  William,  farmer,  Greenacleeve ; 
h  Bideford 

Venningjs  Henry,  farmer,  Com 

Vidal  Edward  Urch,  Esq.  J.P.  Corn- 

Walters  John,  farmer,  Bowwoocl 


A.lh>t>ot  is»kei*««i>vell , 

AliBOTSKERSWELL,  or  Abbufa  Carsiuell,  is  a  paiisli  and  pleasant  village,  13  miles  S.W.  of  Newton 
Abbot,  in  Newton  Abbot  union  and  county  court  district,  Teignbridye  petty  sessional  division,  Newton 
Abbot  polling  district  of  East  ])(!Von,  Ilaytor  hundred,  Totnos  archdeaconry,  and  Moreton  rural  deanery. 
The  parish,  which  includes  the  hamlet  of  Aller,\md  45^}  inhabitants  (2.'>1 'males,  222  females)  in  1871, 
living  in  1)9  houses,  on  1401  acres  of  land.  It  had  formerly  within  it  two  numors,  namely,  that  of  Abbots- 
kerswell  proper,  belonging  to  the  Abbey  of  Sherborne,  in  liorsetshire,  and  tliat  of  Aller;  parts  of  the  ancient 
manor-houses  still  remain.  William  Creed,  Esq.,  is  lord  of  the  manor,  nnd  the  principal  owners  of  the  soil 
are  the  heirs  of  the  late  Captain  Marcus  Hare,  R.N.,  Messrs.  John  and  William  Creed,  llichard  Ford,  John 
Vicary  and  —  Nickels.  Some  of  the  smaller  holdings  have  been  in  the  families  of  their  present  proprietcnvs 
for  many  generations.  Kerswell  is  a  corruption  of  Carsewell,  the  more  ancient  way  of  writing  the  name, 
Carse  being  Saxon  for  cress,  for  which  the  stream  running  through  the  village  was  formerly  noted.  It  was 
called  Abbot's  Carsewell  to  distinguish  it  from  the  neighbouring  parish  of  King's- Carsewell,  the  manor  of 
which  belonged  to  the  king.  There  are  many  springs  and  wells  in  the  village,  one  of  the  latter  on  the 
Court  Estate,  belonging  to  the  late  Captain  Hare,  being  called  Ladewell,  evidently  a  corruption  of  Our  Lady's 
Well :  its  water  was  formerly  supposed  to  be  efficacious  in  the  cure  of  eye  diseases,  and  it  is  still  occasionally 
resorted  to  by  the  inhabitants  for  that  purpose.  The  Church  (Virgin  Mary)  is  a  very  ancient  structure, 
exhibiting  specimens  of  Norman,  Decorated  and  Perpendicular  work.  It  is  divided  into  two  aisles,  the 
pillars  supporting  the  arches  being  of  granite.  It  has  a  handsome  screen  in  a  tolerable  state  of  preservation. 
The  church  is  seated  with  unsightly  pews.  The  tower  contains  three  bells,  but  they  are  in  a  very  imperfect 
condition.  The  Register  dates  from  1C08,  but  there  is  notice  of  the  parish  accounts  as  early  as  1573  ;  both 
of  these  are,  however,  imperfect.  The  living  is  a  vicarge,  valued  in  K.E.  at  £1  lis.  3d.,  in  the  patronage 
of  the  Lord  Chancellor,  and  incumbency  of  the  Rev.  Yesey  G.  Hine,  who  has  a  vicarage-house,  built  in 
1837,  with  money  borrowed  from  Q.A.B.  The  vicarial  tithes  are  commuted  at  £204  a  year,  and  there 
are  60  acres  of  glebe ;  the  impropriate  rent-charge,  amounting  to  £116  a  year,  is  payable  to  the  vicar  of 
Cornworthy.  In  the  churchyard  is  a  dilapidated  old  sarcophagus  tomb,  and  near  it  is  a  plain  marble  cross 
enclosed  by  iron  railings,  in  memory  of  the  Hon.  Mrs.  Marcus  Hare,  as  stated  in  '  Memorials  of  a  Quiet 
Life.'  The  Baptists  and  Wesletans  have  chapels  here.  The  School  Board  was  formed  in  March  27, 
1875,  and  consists  of  Messrs.  John  Creed  (chairman  and  clerk),  William  Creed  (vice),  Richard  Ford,  William 
Venning,  Thomas  Maddicott.  The  Board  School  was  erected  in  1876,  at  a  cost  of  £600  (including  £100  paid 
for  the  site),  and  has  accommodation  for  75  children.  The  Abbot  of  Sherborne  in  1524  gave  a  certain  house 
in  the  parish,  the  rent  of  which  is  applied  to  church  expenses. 

Post  Office  at  Mr.  George  Jeffery's.     Letters  are  received  at  6.40  a.m.  from,  and  despatched  at  6.50 
to  Newton  Abbot,  which  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office  and  Railway  Station. 

Cornish  Miss  Emma,  Board  school- 

Creed  Mr  John,  Whiddon 

Creed  William,  solicitor  at  Newton;  h 
Burrow  park 

Dyer  William,  cowkeeper  &  victualler, 
Tradesman's  Arms 

Elliott  Samuel,  farmer 

Ferries  William,  veterinary  surgeon, 
Myrtle  cottage 

Ford  Mr  Ki  chard,  Abbotsford 

Hannaford  Mrs 

Hare  Mrs  Marcus,  Court  Grange 

Henley  AVilliam   Codner,  cider  mer- 
chant, Mallands 
Hine    Rev    Vesey     Germain,     B.A. 

vicar,  The  Vicarage 
Jeifery  George,  postmaster 
Lake  Mr  William 
Maye  Richard,  farmer.  Court  farm 
Mudge  Thomas,  farmer,  Manor  farm 
Norton  John,  beerhouse 
Paddon  William,  poulterer,  &c. 
Palk  Edward,  butcher  and  farmer 
Partridge  John,  whlwrght.  &  blcksnith 
Phillips  John  &  Co.  architectural  pot- 

tery, sanitary  pipe  and  terra-cotta 
manufacturers ;    h  Moor  park 

Pickard  Job,  farmer,  Whiddon  farm 

Prowse  Frederick,  blacksmith 

Roworth  Mr  Job 

Skinner  John,  farmer,  Cross  farm 

Smith  Thomas,  shoemaker 

Stockman  George,  jun.  fellmonger, 
artificial  manure  manufacturer,  and 
agent  for  Northern  Insurance  Co., 
Aller  Bone  and  Manure  AVorks 

Taylor  William,  (j)  stonemason 

White  George,  farmer,  Aller  farm 

ALLINGTON  (EAST).     (See  East  Allington.) 

ALPHINGTON.     (See  Ottery  St.  Mary.) 

ALPHINGTON,  a  parish  and  pleasant  village  on  the  western  side  of  the  river  Exe,  1^  mile  S.  of 
Exeter,  is  traversed  by  the  South  Devon  Railway  and  Exeter  Ship  Canal.  It  is  in  St.  Thomas's  union,  Exeter 
county  court  district,  Wonford  petty  sessional  division  and  hundred,  Exeter  polling  district  of  East  Devon, 
Exeter  archdeaconry  and  Kenn  rural  deanery.  It  had  1166  inhabitants  (561  males,  605  females)  in  1871, 
living  in  251  houses,  on  2471  acres  of  land.  The  Earl  of  Devon  owns  most  of  the  soil,  and  is  lord  of  the 
manor  of  Alphington,  which  was  obtained  by  his  family  in  the  reign  of  Richard  II.,  in  exchange,  from  the 
Seagraves.  Matford,  formerly  the  seat  of  the  Smith  and  other  families,  belongs  to  Sir  L.  V.  Palk ;  and 
the  Gibbs  family  and  others  have  estates  here.  Alphington  had  cattle  fairs  on  the  first  Wednesday  after  the 
20th  of  June,  and  on  the  Wednesday  after  Michaelmas- day,  but  they  were  abolished  in  1870.  The  village 
was  one  of  the  principal  quarters  of  Sir  Thomas  Fairfox's  army  in  1646,  when  he  was  blockading  Exeter. 
Risdon  says,  a  man  named  Stone  died  here,  at  the  age  of  120  years,  in  the  time  of  Queen  Elizabeth.  On 
July  2,  1760,  by  the  sudden  overflowing  of  the  rivulet  running  through  the  village  to  the  Exe,  upwards 
of  twenty  houses  are  said  to  have  been  thrown  down,  and  the  damage  was  computed  at  more  than  £1000.  A 
flood  on  October  20, 1875,  washed  several  houses  away ;  and  by  another  which  occurred  in  April,  1877,  about 
100  sheep  belonging  to  Mr.  William  Hawkin,  and  35  sheep,  the  property  of  Mr.  Robert  White,  were 
drowned.  The  Church  (St.  Michael)  is  a  large  antique  structure,  consisting  of  chancel,  nave,  north  and 
south  aisles,  and  tower,  rising  to  a  height  of  70  feet,  and  containing  eight  fine-toned  bells.  The  chancel  is 
separated  from  the  pave  and  aisles  by  a  rood-screen.    The  church  was  newly-roofed,  re-seated,  and  other 




improvements  effected  in  1878,  at  a  cost  of  about  £3000.  The  living,  a  rectory,  valued  in  at  £34  Os.  Scl., 
is  in  the  patronage  of  E.  Brown,  Esq.,  and  W.  J.  Battishill,  Esq.,  and  incumbency  of  the  Rev.  W.  Butter- 
field,  M.A.,  who  has  a  good  rectory  house,  on  an  eminence  near  the  church.  The  glebe  is  24a.  3r.,  and 
the  tithes  are  commuted  for  £794  a  year.  The  School- Board  was  formed  on  March  31,  1875,  and  consists 
of  Thomas  Woodman,  Esq.  (chairman),  Mr.  Frederick  Loram  (vice),  the  Rev.  Dr.  Dennett,  Messrs.  Robert 
White  and  John  Way,  and  for  the  contributory  parish  of  Exminster,  Mr.  John  Wills.  Mr.  John  Hutchings 
is  clerk.  Shillingford  St.  George  is  also  a  contributory  parish.  New  schools,  with  teacher's  residence,  were 
built  in  1877,  at  a  total  cost  of  £2300,  and  will  accommodate  190  children.  Mr.  J.  W.  Rowell,  of  Newton 
Abbot  and  Torquay,  was  the  architect,  and  Mr.  H.  Phillips,  of  Exeter,  the  builder.  The  Church  House, 
worth  £20  a  year,  was  built  by  the  parish  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth,  on  land  given  by  William  Courtenay,  Esq. 
The  Poor's  Land  comprises  about  22a.  2r.  36p.  and  a  farm-house  at  Ilolcombe  Burnell,  purchased  in  1756  with 
money  left  by  John  Bliss  and  other  donors.  The  land  was  sold  in*1876  for  £800,  and  the  money  was 
invested,  the  dividends  being  distributed  in  bread.  The  poor  parishioners  have  also  30s.  a  year  out  of 
Matford  estate,  left  by  Francis  and  Daniel  Vinnicombe,  in  1675;  and  the  dividends  of  £230  Three  per  Cent. 
Consols,  purchased  in  1784,  with  £110,  left  by  Edward  Leach  and  another  donor.  They  have  likewise  the 
interest  of  £5  left  by  James  Pitman.  The  Poor  Houses,  comprising  four  small  cottages,  were  purchased  in 
1675,  with  £45  given  by  various  donors,  and  are  occupied  by  poor  families,  who  pay  a  weekly  rental  of  3c?. 

Post  Office  at  Mr.  John  Hele's.  Letters,  via  Exeter,  are  delivered  at  7  a.m.  and  6  p.m.,  and  despatched 
at  6  and  8.20  p.m.  St.  Thomas's  Exeter  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  and  Telegraph  Office,  and  the  nearest 
Railway  Station. 

Addems  Mrs  Mary,  board  schlmstrss 
Bale    John   Adney,    trade   protection 

secretary,  Exeter 
Bassett  John  Davie,  M.D.,  The  Laurels 
Bastin  James  Richard.manufacturer  of 
thrashing  andagricultm*al  machines 
Bell  John,  board  schoolmaster 
Bidgood  Henry,  market  gardener 
Bray  Jas.  surveyor,  Mandrake  house 
Brownlow  Mr  Edward  M.  Exe  view 
Butterfield  Rev  Wm.,M.A.The  Rectory 
Chichester      Arthur      Chamberlyne, 

Esq.,  J.P.,  Rosemont 
Clark  Jno.  cattle  dIr.Alphington  cross 
Coles  James,  builder  and  undertaker, 

Gidley  house 
Collicott  John,  market  gardener.  Rai- 
ling house 
Colljns  Rev  John  Edwd.  Mile  End  cot 
Cotton  Mr  William,  The  Elms 
Dennett  Rev  Richard,  D.C.L.  curate 
Dudley  Mr  Alfred,  Home  Bush  house 
Eales   Richard,    solicitor,    Exeter ;  h 

Elliott  Mr  William  Browne 
Gray  Mr  Robert  John,  Newlands 
Griffin  Mr  William  Royle  Mortimer, 

Rock  house 
Harding  Mrs  Elizabeth 
Hart  Mrs  Maria,  Alphington  villa 
Hartnell  Mr  Alfred  S,,  Swiss  cottage 
Hawkins  Mrs  Ellen,  ftirmer,  Cuttridge 
Hawkins  William,  farmer,  Westwood 
Head  Robert  Thomas,  solicitor,Exeter ; 

h  The  Briars 
Head  Robert  William,  M.A.,  solicitor, 

Exeter ;  h  The  Briars 
Heard  Mrs  Ann,  shopkeeper  &  china 

and  earthenware  dealer 
Hele  John,  postmaster 
Hews  Mrs  Eliza,  Osborne  house 
Hurley  Robert,  sliopkeeper 
Hussey    John   Richards,    auctioneer,  i 
Exeter;  h  Brooklands  i 

Hutchings  George,  butcher  and  cattle 

dealer,  Flint  cottage 
Hutchings  John,  cattle  dealer 
Hutchings  Saml.  cattle  dlr.  Flint  cot 
Jarman  William,  market  gardener 
Joint  John,  farmer,  Marks  farm 
Jones  Wm.  Luxmore,  Home  Bush  3ot 
King  Henry,  baker  and  confectioner 
Kingdom  Mr  Charles,  Delmont  house 
Knott  John,  bricklayer  and  mason 
Knott  Mr  Samuel  Dyer,  Bartletts 
Lendon  Joseph,  shoemaker 
Letheren    Charles    Radcliff,    farmer, 

Ball  and  Andrew's  farm 
Loram  Frederick,  frmr.  Alden's  farm 
Loram  William,  farmer  and  vict.  Bell 
Mallett  Mrs  Ann,  Caroline  house 
Mallett  William  Millford,  miller,  Al- 
phington mill 
Mayne  Frederick,  mason 
Milton     Thomas     Matthew,    farmer, 

Rose  bridge 
Mitchell  William,  markft  gardener 
Newberry  RichHrd,  market  gardener, 

Marsh  Barton 
Norrish  Mr  Thomas,  The  Lodge 
Palmer   William   Godfrey,  coal  mer- 
chant, Exeter  ;  h  Myrtle  cottage 
Pearce  William,  vict.  Duuble  Locks 
Perkins  Richd.  blcksmth.  &  whlwrght 
Pet hy bridge     John,     farmer.    Marsh 

Phjsick  Henry,  nurseryman  and  mar- 
ket gardener,  Hatherleigh  house 
Physick  Mr  William 
Pike  James,  market  givlnr.  &  thatcher 
Pike  John,  thatcher 
Pitts  Frederick,    farmer   and   miller, 

Matford  farm 
Pocock  James,  market  gardener 
Pope  Robert,  blacksmith.  Wheatley 
Ramey  Maj.-Gcn.  Hy.,  C.B.  Lie  lodge 
Rew  John  Comer,  tanner  (Wippell  & 
R.)  ;  h  Bridge  cottage 

Sage  John,  cowkeeper.  Marsh  Barton 
Sanders  Henry,  milk  dealer,  Flint  cot 
Seare  William,  beerhouse  and  market 

Seaward  James,  farmer,  Eastwood 
Shaw  (Exors.  of)  Mr  Benj.  Horatio, 

Bel  voir  house 
Shaw    Mrs   Blanche  Amelia,   ladies' 

boarding  and  day  school,  Belvoir  hs 
Short  Richd.  joiner  &  bldr.  Willow  cot 
Smale   Miss   Christiana,   dressmaker, 

Rose  cottage 
Smale  Mr  George,  Moss  cottage 
Snell    Mrs    Mary,    shopkeeper    and 

market  gardener 
Stockham  Misses  Martha  &  Caroline, 

Laurel  cottage 
Stone  (Exors.  of)  Miss  Fanny,  shpkpr 
Symes  Cornelius,  cowkeeper 
Symons  (Exors.  of)  Thomas,  shoemkr 
Toman  William,  market  gardener 
Toms  Mrs  Fanny 
Tozer  Henry,  basket  maker 
Tozer  Samuel,  vict.  King  William 
Waters   Thomas   and  Matthew,   far 
mers,  Pokeham  bridge  ;  h  Pinhoe 
Way  Henry  Trimble  (John  &  Son)  ; 

h  Sobey's  farm 
Way  John  (John  &  Son) ;  h  Sobey's 

Way  John  &  Son,  frnirs,  Sobey's  farm 
Way  Miss  Mary,  Pixie  cottage 
Wheeler  James,  baker 
White  Eobert,  frmr.  Wheatley  Barton 
White  William  George  Leigh,  former, 

Wheatley  Barton 
Willis  Thomas,  bank  clerk 
Wippell  &  Eew.  tanners 
Wippell   Thomas    (W.   &    Rew);    h 

Bridge  house 
Wolland   John    Born,    vict.    Salmon 
Pool  Inn,  &  pleasure  garden  propr 
Wood  Mrs  Ann,  milliner  &  dressmaker 
Woodman  Mr  Thomas,  Cross  house 

ALVERDISCOTT,  or  Alscott,  parish  includes  the  liamlets  of  Bulhvorthy  hndi  Stoneci'oss,  and  gives  name 
to  a  pleasant,  scattered  village,  5  miles  E.  by  S.  of  Bideford  Railway  Station,  on  the  South  Western  line. 
The  parish,  which  extends  from  3  to  6  miles  E.  by  S.  of  Bideford,  is  in  Torrington  union,  coimty  court 
district,  Great  Torrington  petty  sessional  division,  Torrington  polling  district  of  North  Devon,  Barnstaple 
archdeaconry,  Torrington  rural  deanery,  and  Fremington  hundred.  It  had  324  inhabitants  (147  males,  177 
females)  in  1871,  living  on  2273  acres  of  land.      Miss  Mary  Preston  is  lady  of  the  manor,  formerly  held  by 

J  02 

Alver  disc  ott , 

the  Fleming,  Bellew,  and  other  families ;  but  W.  A.  Deane,  Esq.  and  several  smaller  owners  have  estates  in 
the  parish.  AVebbeuy  was  anciently  the  seat  of  a  family  of  its  own  name,  and  was  successively  held  by 
the  Lippincotts  and  Cutclift'es,  the  latter  of  whom  rebuilt  the  house  about  1820:  it  stands  in  pleasant 
jjrounds,  and  is  now  the  residence  of  W.  A.  Deane.  Esq.  Borough  Fakm  has  been  in  the  occupation  of  the 
Bridge  family  for  more  than  200  years.  There  was  anciently  a  chapel  at  Borough,  and  on  enlarging  the 
house  some  years  ago  the  remains  were  pulled  down.  The  CnuRcn  (All  Saints),  which  consists  of  nave, 
chancel,  north  aisle,  south  porch,  and  tower  containing  three  bells,  was  rebuilt  in  18G6  at  a  cost  of  about 
J.'1000.  The  living  is  a  rectory,  valued  in  K.B.  at  £1'3  3s.  ll^d.,  in  the  patronage  of  J.  C.  Newbery  and  J. 
V.  Newbery,  Esqrs.,  and  incumbency  of  the  Rev.  John  Warren,  M.A.,  who  has  a  good  residence  and 
39a.  2r.  IOp.  of  glebe.  The  tithes  were  commuted  in  1844  for  £156  a  year.  There  is  a  small  Wesleyan 
Chapel  at  Stonecross.  The  School,  with  residence  for  the  teacher,  was  erected  in  1876  at  an  expense  of  < 
£450 :  it  is  under  the  management  of  six  parishioners,  who  are  elected  yearly  at  the  vestry  meeting.  The] 
School  has  an  attendance  of  45  children.  Three  tenements  and  an  acre  of  land,  which  have  been  invested 
from  an  early  period  for  the  reparation  of  the  church,  now  produce  £9  a  year. 

Post,  via,  Bideford  and  Barnstaple.   There  is  a  Wall  Letter  Box,  cleared  at  5.50  p.m.  weekdays  only,^. 
Those  mar/ccd^  are  in  the  Barnstaple  postal  district,  and  the  rest  are  in  Bideford  district.  i^B 

Deane  William  Anthony,  Esq.,  J.P., 

*  Denford  John,  toll  collector 
^  Faircliild  G-eo.  fcirmer,  Bullworthy 
^  Harding  John,  tailor.  Stone  cross 
Hookway  Edward,  farmer,  Woodtown 

*  Hoyle  William,  farmer,  Stone  cross 
^  Pethebridge  Geo.  farmer,  Borough 


*  Barker  Mr  William,  Ham  pit 

*  Bright  Simon,  bootmkr.  Stone  cross 
Capel  Capt.  Algernon,  Woodtown  lis 
^  Cawsey  Kobert,  farmer,  The  Barton 

*  Chipman  Jas.  carpenter,  Stone  cross 
•"  ClementsMrs  Mary,  fmr.  Liippincott 
Copp  William,  frmr.  Webbery  Barton 
Davis  Col.  Frederick  John,  The  Firs 

*  Pethebridge  Richd.  fmr.  Nethercott 
^  Pitwood  Henry,  farmer,  Garnacott 
Symons  Ambrose,  frmr.  Clogg's  hilli 

John,    M.A.  rector] 

*  Warren   Pev 
The  Rectory 

Webster  Mr  William,  The  Downs 

*  Wolstenholme  Miss  Elizabeth  Mary, 

ALVINGTON  (WEST).     (See  West  Alvington.) 

ALWINGTON  parish  includes  the  hamlets  of  Fairy  Cross,  Ford,  and  Woodtoivn ;  and  its  pleasant 
village  is  on  the  Clovelly  and  Hartland  road,  4  miles  S.W.  by  S.  of  Bideford.  The  parish,  which  extends 
over  2655  acres  of  land,  is  in  Bideford  union,  county  court  district  and  petty  sessional  division,  Northern 
division  of  the  county,  Shebbear  hundred,  Barnstaple  archdeaconry,  and  Hartland  deanery :  it  had  353 
inhabitants  (173  males,  180  females)  in  1871,  living  in  76  houses.  J.  R.  P.  Coffin,  Esq.,  is  lord  of  the  manor 
of  Alwingtcn,  and  has  a  handsome  seat  here  called  Portledge,  which  has  been  the  seat  and  property  of  the 
Coffins  nearly  from  the  time  of  William  1.  Captain  A.  Archdale  is  lord  of  the  manor  of  South  Yeo  and 
owner  of  the  pleasant  seat  called  Yeo  Vale  and  of  the  barton  of  Wimscott.  The  remains  of  an  ancient 
chapel  formerly  stood  near  this  mansion,  but  they  have  been  removed  to  a  more  distant  part  of  the  grounds. 
A  few  smaller  owners  have  CvStates  here.  The  rivulet  Yeo  runs  through  the  parish.  The  Church  (St. 
Andrew)  is  a  small  antique  structure,  consisting  of  nave,  chancel,  south  aisle,  north  transept,  and  tower, 
surmounted  by  a  spire,  and  containing  four  bells.  It  has  memorials  of  the  Coffin,  Pine,  and  other 
families.  In  1877  the  porch  was  restored,  and  the  south  aisle  re-roofed  at  a  cost  of  £70.  The  living 
is  a  rectory,  valued  in  K.B.  at  £17  4s.  2hd.,  in  the  patronage  of  J.  R.  P.  Coffin,  Esq.,  and  incum- 
bency of  the  Rev.  F.  H.  Mules,  who  has  74  acres  of  glebe  and  a  handsome  residence.  The  tithes  are  com- 
muted for  £252  a  year.  The  Parish  School  was  built  by  the  Morrison  family  in  1836,  and  is  under 
government  inspection.  The  Wesleyaks  have  a  chapel  at  Ford,  which  was  reseated  in  1875  at  a  cost  of 
£40.  An  Almshouse  for  three  poor  people  was  founded  in  1667  by  Richard  Coffin,  who  endowed  it  with  10 
acres  of  land  vested  with  the  successive  heirs  of  his  famil)^  The  poor  have  2|-  acres  purchased  with  bene- 
faction money,  and  the  interest  of  £25  left  by  Richard  Coffin  in  1795. 

Post  Office  at  Mr.  T.  N.  Kievill's.  Letters  are  received  at  7'55  a.m.  from,  and  are  despatched  at  6  p.m. 
(Sundays,  5  p.m.),  to  Bideford,  which  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office 

Andrews  Isaac  Jno.  farmer,  Winscott         births    and   deaths 

Archdale  Captain  Audley,  Yeo  vale 
Bailey  Mr  Francis,  Ford 
Bailey  Miss  Margaret,  Ford 
Batty  Thomas,  farmer,  Didon 
Becklick  Wm.  corn  dealer  &  dairyman, 

Beer  Augustus  Ley,  farmer,  Chiddle- 

Beer  Stephen,  blacksmith.  Ford 
Coffin  John  Richard  Pine,  Esq.  J.P., 

Dayman     Humphrey,    parish    clerk, 

assistant  overseer,  and  registrar  of 

for    Parkham 

district,  Fairy  cross 
Ford  John,  farmer.  Ford 
Ford  Michael,  farmer,  Parisonago 
Fulford  William,  farmer,  Dothridge 
Grigg  Seth,frmr.  Ivyhouse ;  h  Parkham 
Holman     Richard,    machine    maker, 

Horns  cross 
Kidwill  Richard,  farmer  &  victualler, 

Swan,  Fairy  cross 
Kievill  Thomas  Nance,  blacksmith  and 

postmaster.  Ford 
Lott  Richd.  farmer  &  carpenter,  Ford 
Mathews  William,  carpenter 
Mules    Rev  Francis  Howard,  rector, 

The  Rectory 

Pennington  William,  carpenter 
Pennington  William,  corn  miller,  Y 

Serjeant  Mr  Joseph  Veal.  Rollstone 
Kquance  John,  farmer,  Moor  pnrk 
Squance  John,  jun.  thatcher  &  farmer, 

Tregaskis  Miss  Rosina  Blamcy,  school- 
Wakeley  Wm.  farmer,  Town  farm 
Walters  John,  farmer,  Cockington 
Webber  Thomas,  farmer,  Gillscott 

Carriers — Thomas  Colwill  &  James 
Jeffrey,  to  Bideford,  Tuesday, 
Thursday,  and  Saturday. 


ANSTEY  (EAST  and  WEST).     (See  East  Anstey  and  West  Anstey.) 

APPLEDORE,  a  small  seaport  town  and  an  ecclesiastical  district  formed,  in  1844,  out  of  the  ancle 


I>e  von  shire. 


parish  of  Northam,  contained  2364  inhabitants  (1019  males  and  1345  females)  in  1871,  living  in  533  houses, 
on  130  acres  of  land.  The  town,  which  is  in  two  divisions,  called  East  and  West  Appledore,  is  delightfully 
seated  on  the  coast  of  Barnstaple  Bay,  at  the  mouths  of  the  rivers  Torridge  and  Taw,  3  miles  N.  of  Bideford. 
The  town  stands  on  and  around  the  slope  of  a  hill,  commands  extensive  views  of  the  Estuary,  and  of  the 
rivers  Taw  and  Torridge,  and  is  provided  with  small  hotels,  and  with  lodgings  for  visitors.  It  is  the  first 
harbour  of  importance  within  the  bar  of  the  broad  estuary  of  the  two  rivers,  and  is  subordinate  to  the  port  of 
Bideford.  The  principal  trade  is  coasting  and  fishing,  while  a  large  and  small  dry  dock,  and  several  ship- 
building yards,  a  rope  manufactory,  together  with  its  landing  quays  for  the  discharge  of  vessels,  give  employ- 
ment to  many  of  its  inhabitants,  and  promote  its  general  prosperity.  Appledore  has  two  provision  markets, 
on  Wednesday  and  Saturday,  mostly  held  in  a  small  building,  erected  in  1828.  Hubba,  the  Pane,  landed 
here  in  the  reign  of  Alfred  the  Great,  and  was  discomfited  and  slain,  with  about  2000  men,  before  Kenwith 
Castle,  which  stood  near  Kenwith  Lodge,  in  the  adjoining  parish  of  Abbotsham.  Tradition  says  he  was 
buried  at  the  southern  end  of  East  Appledore,  under  a  large  stone,  called  Hubba  stone.  The  Gas  Works,  at 
Appledore,  were  established  in  1875,  by  a  limited  liability  company,  with  a  capital  of  £3800,  of  which  £3000 
was  raised  in  £5  shares,  and  £800  on  debentures.  The  construction  of  the  works  cost  £3500.  There  are  65 
public  lamps.  Gas  is  supplied  to  private  consumers  at  (js.  per  1000  cubic  feet,  and  for  public  lamps  at  4s.  (jcl 
Alfred  Evans,  Esq.,  is  secretary  to  the  company,  and  Mr.  W.  H.  Slocombe  manager  of  the  works.  The 
Chuech  (St.  Mary  the  Virgin),  prettily  embowered,  is  built  on  the  site  of  an  ancient  Roman  Catholic  chapel, 
between  East  and  West  Appledore,  and  consists  of  chancel,  nave  and  aisles.  A  tower  to  contain  eight  bells 
is  about  to  be  erected.  In  the  church  are  some  fine  stained  glass  windows.  The  living  is  a  vicarage, 
valued  at  £200,  in  the  gift  of  the  vicar  of  Northam  and  incumbency  of  the  Rev.  Edward  Reynolds,  B.A. 
The  Baptist  Chapel  was  erected  in  1859,  and  contains  350  sittings.  The  Presbyterians  had  a  meeting-house 
here  as  early  as  1715,  but  the  congregation  is  now  Independent,  and  built  their  present  chapel  in  1816. 
Wesleyan  Methodism  was  introduced  into  Appledore  in  1818,  and  a  small  chapel  erected  on  the  Quay  in 
1821 ;  this  was  superseded  in  1851  by  the  present  chapel,  built  at  an  expense  of  £402,  on  a  site  given  by 
Mr.  Thomas  Green.  The  National  School  was  built  in  1844,  at  a  cost  of  £450,  raised  by  subscription. 
The  Wesleyan  Day  School,  built  in  1862,  at  a  cost  of  £300,  on  a  site  given  by  Mr.  Thomas  Green,  will 
accommodate  170  children. 

Post,  Money  Oeder,  and  Telegeaph  Ofeices  and  Savings  Bank,  Mrs.  Mary  Prance,  postmistress, 
Market  Street.  Letters  are  delivered  at  7  a.m.  and  12  noon,  and  despatched  at  1.30  p.m.  (for  North)  and  7 
p.m.     On  Sundays  they  are  delivered  at  7  a.m.,  and  despatched  at  5.40  p.m. 

Andrews  Mrs  Ann,  day  school,  Myrtle  street 

Appledore  Gas  Works  Co.,  AVest  App. ;  Alfred  Evans,  sec. 

Baker  George,  grocer,  auctioneer,    accountant,   surveyor, 

valuer,  ship  and  insurance  broker,  and  vice-consul  for 

Norway  and  Sweden,  Bude  street 
Barrow  Kobert,  victualler,  Swan  Inn,  Market  street 
Beara  Alexander,  outfitter,  Buds  street 
Beara  Jerome,  draper,  Market  street 
Beara  John,  plumber  and  shipchandler,  Quay 
Beare  John,  ship  carpenter,  Myrtle  street 
Beer  John,  baker  and  confectioner,  Bude  street 
Benson  Miss  Louisa,  Eock  cottage 
Berry  Mrs  Mary  Ann,  dressmaker.  West  Appledore 
Bligh  Miss  Elizabeth,  Copner,  Quay 
Bolt  John  Emanuel,  master  mariner,  Odum  row 
Bouncly  Lewis,  victualler,  Royal  hotel,  Market  street 
Bowden  George,  grocer  ;  and  (h)  Barnstaple 
Bowden  James,  national  schoolmaster 
Burnicle  William,  ironmonger  and  ship  chandler,  Quay 
Carter  George,  plumber  and  painter,  Bude  street 
Clare  Rev  Robert  Bone  (Baptist),  Alpha  place 
Cubbledick  Christopher,  vict.  King's  Head,  West  Appledore 
Channon  Mr  Joseph,  Bude  street 
Chapell  Miss  Ann,  West  Appledore 
Cock  Mrs  Charlotte,  maltster  and  victualler.  The  Tavern, 

Meeting  street 
Cock  Mrs  Ellen,  shopkeeper.  West  Appledore 
Cock  Robert,  shipbuilder;  h  Assells 
Cole  Mrs  Ann,  dressmaker,  West  Appledore 
Cole  William  Edward,  bootmaker,  Meeting  street 
Cook  Alfred,  shipbuilder  ;  h  Rock  house     {See  Advert.) 
Cook  Arthur,  block  maker  and  boat  builder.  Quay 
Cutland  William,  boot  maker.  Myrtle  street 
Larracott  Mr  George,  A¥est  Appledore 
Darracott  Mr  John,  Odum  row 
Day  Mrs  Esther,  braid  maker,  Market  street 
Day  John,  victualler.  Champion  of  Wales,  Meeting  street 
Day  Mrs  Susan,  Bude  street 
Dennis  Mrs  Emily,  beerhouse.  West  Appledore 
Dennis  Mrs  Mary,  shopkeeper,  New  street 

Drew  Mrs  Elizabeth,  Bidna 

Dunsford  John,  master  mariner,  Bude  street 

Ellis  Rev  Joseph  (Independent,  retired),  Quay 

England  Mr  John,  Myrtle  street 

Evans  Alf,  sec.  to  Appledore  Gas  Works  Co. ;  h  Myrtle  ler 

Evans  Alfred,  clerk.  Market  street 

Evans  George,  master  mariner.  Quay 

Evans  John,  master  mariner.  Quay 

Evans  Josiah,  shopkeeper,  Market  street 

Ezra  William,  shipwright.  Alpha  place 

Earleigh  &  Co.  grocers.  Market  street 

Farleigh  Richard  (F.  &  Co.) ;  h  Barnstaple 

Fishwick  John,  master  mariner,  Bude  street 

Fishwick  Thomas  Haynes,  ship  chandler,  Quay 

Fursey  Samuel,  bootmaker.  Market  street 

Furscy  Samuel,  jun.  bootmaker  and  grocer,  Market  street, 

and  bootmaker,  Instow 
Gibson  Thomas,  master  mariner,  Bude  street 
Gordon  Mr  James,  Richmond  house 
Gordon  Capt.  Thomas,  Richmond  house 
Guard  Mrs  Agnes,  dressmaker,  Market  street 
Guard  Samuel,  master  mariner,  West  Appledore 
Hamlyn  Robert,  mason.  Meeting  street 
Hamlyn  Thomas,  grocer,  Market  street 
Hane  Stephen,  master  mariner.  Meeting  street 
Harris  Mrs  Hannah,  shopkeeper.  New  street 
Harris  Richard,  master  mariner.  Alpha  place 
Harvey  Thomas,  grocer  and  vict.  Dock  house,  Myrtle  st 
Hayne  John  Vernam,  block  maker,  Green  Lane  cottage 
Hayne  Mr  William  Gunn,  Bude  street 
Heal  Miss  Ann,  shopkeeper.  West  Appledore 
Hewer  John  Webber,  grocer  &  boot  factor,  Market  street 
Heywood  Oliver, -farmer.  West  Appledore 
Hocking  Robert,  master  mariner,  West  Appledore 
Hookaway  Richard,  sailor.  Myrtle  street 
Howe  Mrs  Emily,  draper.  Market  street 
Howes  Mrs  Ann,  Bude  street 
Hucklebridge  Mr  William,  Myrtle  street 
Jewell  Joseph,  master  mariner,  Quay 
Kelly  Richard,  master  mariner,  Bude  street 



Kelly  Stephen,  master  mariner,  AVest  Appledore 

Kelly  Thomas,  grocer,  IJude  street 

Kelly  William,  master  mariner,  Alpha  place 

]vinsman  John,  bootmaker,  Ureenhill  cottage 

Landay  liCwis,  grocer  and  general  dealer,  Quay 

Lemay  William,  master  mariner,  Now  street 

Lemon  Edward,  blacksmith,  Meeting  street 

Lemon  James,  cooper.  New  Quay 

Lemon  Mrs  Mary,  Meeting  street 

Lemon  William,  master  mariner,  J^ude  street 

Lerwiil  Thomas,  shipwright,  Meeting  street 

Leslie  Rev  Thomas  James  (Independent).  Meeting  street 

McCallam  Mrs  Mary,  victualler,  Globe,  Market,  (street 

Marshall  Thomas,  master  mariner.  Quay 

Martin  Henry,  master  mariner,  Bude  street 

Mathews  Mrs  Mary,  milliner,  Market  street 

Mathews  Samuel,  sail  maker,  Bude  street 

Mayne  Mrs  Susan,  shopkeeper.  New  Quay 

Mayne  William,  bootmaker.  Market  street 

Mead  James,  grocer  and  earthenware  dealer,  Market  st 

Mules  Henry,  shipwright.  Alpha  place 

Nichol  William,  officer  of  Customs,  West  Appledore 

Owen  George,  cabinet  maker.  Meeting  street 

Parkhouse  George,  master  mariner.  Chapel  row 

Parkhouse  John,  farm  bailiff 

Parkhouse  John,  dairyman,  Bude  street 

Parkhouse  William,  watchmaker,  Bude  street 

Parkin  George  Edward,  boat  builder,  West  Appledore 

Penny  Mrs  Harriet,  Bude  street 

Phillips  Mark,  victualler.  Ship  Inn,  East  Appledore 

Pickard  AYilliam,  ship  builder,  Quay 

Pile  Mrs  Margaret,  shopkeeper,  West  Appledore 

Popham  John,  sail  maker,  Bude  street 

Prance  Mrs  Mary,  postmistress,  Market  street 

Pratt  Charles,  M.D.,  medical  officer  for  northern  district 

of  Bideford  union  and  for  Northam,  Bude  house 
Pratt  Frederick  Thomas,  M.R.C.S.,  L.S.A.,  surgeon.  Quay 
Rew  Miss  Jane,  shopkeeper  and  baker,  West  Appledore 

Reynolds  Rev  Edward,  vicar,  Tlio  Vicarage 

Reynolds  Miss  Sarah  Elizabeth,  Odum  row 

Richards  Miss  Elizabeth  Pickard,  milliner.  Meeting  street 

Richards  Herman,  master  mariner.  Meeting  street 

Richardson  Mrs  Agnes,vict.Princeof  Wales,  West  Appledore 

Riorden  Mrs  Ellen,  West  Appledore 

Riorden  Lewis  Smith,  master  mariner,  West  Appledore 

Rooke  Mrs  Ann,  victualler,  Bell  Inn,  East  Appledore 

Scobling  John,  victualler,  Rising  Sun,  West  Appledore 

Scott  James,  master  mariner,  Bude  street 

Scott  William,  master  mariner,  Meeting  street 

Sellick  Mrs  Elizabeth,  grocer.  West  Appledore 

Serjeant  James,  painter  and  paperhanger.  Meeting  street 

Short  Mrs  Hannah,  vict.  Coach  and  Horses,  Market  street 

Short  Samuel,  master  mariner,  Bude  street 

Smith  Mrs  Elizabeth,  tailoress,  Meeting  street 

Shutt  William  Thomas,  manager,  East  Appledore 

Stambury  John,  marine  store  dealer,  New  street 

Stapledon  John,  master  mariner,  Odum  row 

Stapledon  William  Henry,  master  mariner.  Quay 

Stapleton  Jno.  Combe, bootmaker.  Market  st ;  &  (h)  Bideford 

Swift  Mrs  Jane,  shopkeeper.  West  Appledore 

Tatern  James,  master  mariner,  Quay 

Tucker  William,  master  mariner.  Alpha  place 

Turner  Mrs  Jane,  grocer.  New  Quay 

Vaggers  Mrs  Caroline,  shopkeeper,  West  Appledore 

Vaggers  Mrs  Selina,  shopkeeper,  New  sireet 

Vanstone  James,  coal  dealer,  Quay 

Vanstone  James,  victualler.  The  Beavei',  West  Appledore 

Vinson  James,  stationer.  Meeting  street 

Warren  Miss  Sarah,  shopkeeper.  Market  street 

Webb  John,  master  mariner,  Bude  street 

Wilkinson  Robert,  master  mariner.  West  Appledore 

Williams  Mr  Edward,  Bude  street 

Williams  Thomas,  boat  builder,  West  Appledore 

Williams  William,  master  mariner,  Odum  row 

Woodley  Mrs  Elizabeth,  infant  schoolmistress 

Youatt  James,  Wesleyan  schoolmaster.  Chapel  row 

ARLINGTON,  6  miles  N.E.  of  Barnstaple,  is  a  parish  and  village  in  Barnstaple  union  and  county  court 
district,  and  archdeaconry,  Brauntou  petty  sessional  division,  Sherwill  hundred,  and  deanery.  The 
parish  contained  240  inhabitants  (123  males  and  117  females)  in  1871,  living  in  41  houses,  on  253o  acres  of 
land,  and  includes  the  hamlet  of  Beccott,  nearly  two  miles  N.  of  the  church.  Sir  Alexander  Palmer  Bruce 
Chichester,  whose  father  was  created  a  baronet  in  1840,  is  lord  of  the  manor  and  owner  of  most  of  the  soil, 
and  has  a  handsome  seat  here,  called  Arlington  Court.  The  manor  was  settled  on  his  family  in  the  reign  of 
Plenry  VII.  The  Cuukch  (St.  James)  is  an  ancient  structure,  consisting  of  nave,  chancel,  and  tower  con- 
taining six  bells.  In  the  church  are  many  memorials  of  the  Chichesters.  'J'be  living  is  a  rectory,  valued  in 
K.B.  at  £13  18a\  Ihd.,  in  the  patronage  of  Sir  A.  P.  B.  Chichester,  and  incumbency  of  the  JRev.  James 
Hamilton  John  Chichester,  M.A.,  who  has  a  rectory  house  and  84  acres  of  glebe.  The  tithes  are  commuted 
for  £270  a  year.  The  National  School  was  erected  in  1876,  at  a  cost  of  £620,  raised  by  voluntary  rate. 
The  Rev.  William  Bampfield,  who  held  the  rectory  fifty  years,  died  in  I7I9,  and  left  a  farm  of  54  acres  at 
Goodleigh,  and  a  house  and  16a.  3r.  2p.  at  Barnstaple,  in  trust  for  the  education  of  a  boy  at  school  till  he  is 
nineteen  years  of  age,  and  at  one  of  the  Universities  till  he  is  twenty-six,  or  has  taken  the  degree  of  M.A. 
The  donor  directed  that  one  of  his  name  and  kindred  should  have  the  preference.  The  property  is  now  let 
for  about  £85  a  year,  and  the  rectors  of  Eastdown,  Bratton-Fleming,  and  Goodleigh  are  the  trustees,  and  are 
also  patrons  of  the  rectory  of  Bradford,  which  is  always  presented  to  a  clergyman  who  has  been  a  scholar 
under  this  trust.  The  poor  of  Arlington  have  about  58^.  a  year  from  the  gifts  of  Rebecca  Crocombe, 
Rebecca  Hayes,  and  a  Mr.  Burgoyne.  In  1669  the  Rev.  G.  Cauham  left  the  interest  of  £40  for  apprenticing 
poor  children. 

Post  Oitice  at  Mr.  Thomas  Bowen's.  Letters,  viti  Barnstaple,  are  despatched  at  5.30  p.m.  (weekdays 

Best  Thomas,  farm  bailiff  to  Sir  A.  P. 
B.  Chichester,  Bart.  Home  farm 

Blackmore  Richard,  farmer,  Beccott 

Bowen  Thomas,  postmaster 

Brooks  James,  farmer,  Beshill 

Bushen  Frederick,  carpenter  and 

Carter  George,  head  gardener,  Arling- 
ton court 

Chichester    Sir     Alexander     Palmer 
Bruce,  Bart.  J.P,  Arlington  court 

Chichester     Rev     James     Hamilton 
John,  M.A.  rector.  The  Rectory 

Dinnicombe  John,  farmer,  Beccott 

Fry  Mrs  Mary,  Beccott 

Garrett   Miss   Jessie   Jane,  National 
i  Iluxtable  Anthony,  corn  miller  &  fmr. 

Pile  William,  bootmaker  Beccott 
Richards  John,  butcher,  Beccott 
Southcombe  Chas.  frmr.  Barton  coui't 
Tucker  Mrs  Elizabeth,  fmr.  Twitchen 
Tucker  George,  farmer,  Tidycombe 
Tucker  Henry,  farmer,  Beccott 
Tucker  James,  farmer,  Beccott 
Vickery  William,  farmer,  Comlesherd 
Yeo  Henry,  farmer,  Brinscott 

ASHBURTON,  a  parish,  market  town,  and  disfranchised  borough,  is  19  miles  S.W.  by  W.  of  Exeter,  24 

Devonsliire.  105 

miles  N.E.  by  E.  of  Plymouth,  20  miles  E.  by  S.  of  Tavistock,  7  miles  N.W.  of  Totnes,  193  miles  W.S.W. 
of  London,  and  about  7  miles  W.  by  S.  of  the  South  Devon  Railway  station  at  Newton  Abbot.  The  parish 
is  in  Newton  Abbot  union  and  county  court  district,  Teignbridge  petty  sessional  division  and  hundred, 
Ashburton  polling  district  of  East  Devon,  Totnes  archdeaconry,  and  Moreton  rural  deanery.  It  had  2952 
inhabitants  (1375  males  and  1577  females)  in  1871,  living  in  581  houses,  on  6906  acres  of  land.  The  surface 
of  the  parisli  is  picturesquely  diversified  with  hills  and  valleys,  and  the  soil  is  generally  fertile,  though  it  is 
skirted  on  the  east  by  the  lofty  hills  and  barren  summits  ot  Dartmoor  Forest.  The  town  is  pleasantly  seated 
in  a  fertile  valley,  opening  to  the  southward,  and  watered  by  the  Yeo  rivulet,  which  runs  through  and  partly 
under  the  town,  and  falls  into  the  Dart,  about  a  mile  below.  Ashburton  is  the  terminus  of  the  Ashburton 
and  Buckfastleigh  branch  of  the  South  Devon  Railway.  This  branch,  which  is  now  worked  by  the  Great 
Western  Company,  was  opened  on  May  1,  1871.  The  town  consists  of  two  long  streets,  traversing  it  from, 
east  to  west,  and  two  others  leading  north  and  south.  The  serge  and  blanket  manufacture  was  formerly 
extensively  carried  on  here,  about  £100,000  worth  being  made  annually,  but  the  mills  have  been  removed  to 
the  adjoining  parish  of  Buckfastleigh.  In  the  adjacent  part  of  Dartmoor  are  several  tin  and  copper  mines; 
and  in  1285  JElward  I.  made  Ashburton  a  stannary  town.  Ashburton  has  been  variously  wvittan  Ay shehertorif 
Aishberton,  and  Asperton  (as  in  Domesday).  "William  the  Conqueror  granted  the  manor  to  his  Royal  Con- 
sort, from  whom  Judhel  de  Tolenais  held  it  in  demesne.  The  manor,  being  escheated  on  the  banishment  of 
Judhel,  was  granted  by  William  Rufus  to  the  Bishops  of  Exeter,  who  held  it  until  the  reign  of  James  I., 
when  it  again  reverted  to  the  Crown.  It  was  afterwards  sold  in  moieties  to  Sir  Robert  Parkhurst  and  the 
Earl  of  Feversham.  The  former  conveyed  his  half  to  Sir  John  Stawell,  from  whom  it  passed  through  the 
families  of  Tuckfield  and  Rolle  to  the  family  of  its  present  owner.  Lord  Clinton.  Earl  Feversliam's  moiety 
has  passed  the  Duke,  Palk,  Mathieson,  and  other  families,  but  is  now  held  by  Lord  Clinton.  The  manor  of 
llolwell,  anciently  called  Hayawile,  or  Ilntjawell,  now  belongs  to  James  Woodley,  Esq.  Lord  Clinton  and 
Robert  Jardine,  Esq.,  are  joint  lords  of  the  borough  lordship,  and  are  principal  owners  of  the  soil.  Lord 
Clinton's  farms  are  cliietiy  held  on  leases  for  lives,  but  there  are  many  small  freeholds  in  the  parish.  Ash- 
burton is  an  ancient  borough  by  prescription,  and  first  sent  two  members  to  Parliament  in  the  twenty-sixth 
of  Edward  I.  (1298),  and  again  in  the  eighth  of  Henry  IV.  (1407),  after  which  it  ceased  to  do  so  until 
1640.  From  the  latter  year  it  regularly  sent  two  members  until  1832,  when  its  number  of  representatives 
was  reduced  to  one  ;  and  by  the  last  Refonn  Act  it  was  disfranchised.  The  port-reeve  is  elected  annually  at 
the  court  leet  and  baron,  together  with  a  bailifi"  and  other  ofiicers.  In  the  reign  of  Edward  IL,  Bishop 
Stapledon  obtained  a  charter  for  a  market  and  fairs  here ;  and  a  charter  for  two  other  fairs  was  obtained  by 
John  Quicke,  Esq.,  one  of  the  borough  members,  about  1712.  The  market  for  corn  and  provisions  is  held 
on  Saturday  ;  and  here  are  now  four  fairs,  for  cattle,  &c.,  held  on  the  first  Thursdays  in  March  and  June, 
and  on  August  10  and  November  11,  provided  these  dates  fall  on  Tuesday  or  Thursday,  and  if  not,  on  the 
Tuesday  or  Thursday  after.  The  March  fair  has  a  large  supply  of  cattle,  and  the  November  is  a  great  sheep 
mart.  The  old  market-house,  which  stood  in  the  middle  of  Nortli  street,  was  taken  down,  and  a  handsome 
new  Maeket  House  and  large  Public  Room:  were  built  on  the  opposite  side  ot  the  street,  in  1849-50,  at 
the  cost  of  about  £3000,  in  the  Italian  style.  The  Public  Room,  for  assemblies,  concerts,  public  meetings, 
&c.,  is  over  the  market ;  and  the  latter  has  ranges  of  stalls  for  fiesh,  fish,  &c.,  and  is  supplied  with  excellent 
spring  water.  A  turret,  containing  a  bell  and  public  clock,  rises  at  the  southern  angle  of  the  building.  Gas 
Works  w^ere  erected  in  1840,  at  the  cost  of  £1500,  raised  in  £5  shares.  These  works  are  now  leased  to  Mr. 
I.  Brown,  and  Mr.  S.  Starr  is  the  manager.  The  total  improvement  expenses  in  connection  with  these 
works  has  been  about  £150  during  the  last  twelve  years,  and  during  the  last  seven  years  £22  have  been 
expended  on  the  actual  buildings,  which  are  situated  in  St.  Lawrence  Street,  behind  the  railway  station. 
There  are  thirty-six  public  lamps,  and  the  gas  is  supplied  to  all  the  shops,  and  to  many  of  the  private  houses 
at  the  cost  of  7*'.  Qxl.  per  1000  feet.  The  consumption  of  coal  is  about  180  to  190  tons  per  annum.  Mr.  R. 
G.  Abraham,  solicitor,  East  Street,  is  secretary  to  the  company,  and  Mr.  Samuel  Ilannaford,  East  Street,  is 
the  treasurer.  Ashburton  possesses  two  ancient' conduits,  the  repairs  of  which  from  a  very  early  date  have  been 
I  charged  on  the  parish  lands,  and  the  supply  from  these  sources  is  perfectly  free.  About  twelve  years  ago 
I  Robert  Jardine,  Esq.,  the  last  member  for  the  borough,  brought  a  copious  supply  of  water  from  a  never- 
j  iailing  spring  on  his  estate  called  Chuleigh  (where  he  has  built  a  large  reservoir)  to  a  large  granite  conduit 
(which  he  also  caused  to  be  constructed)"in  the  centre  of  the  town,  and  from  the  latter  the  pipes  branch  oft' 
for  the  supply  of  the  difierent  houses.  A  small  charge  only  is  made  to  keep  these  pipes  in  repair,  and  the 
works  are  under  the  management  of  Mr.  Distin. 

The  Ashburton  Highway  Board  meets  on  the  third  Saturday  in  each  month.  The  expenditure  for 
the  year  ended  Lady-day,  1878,  was  £1060  19s.  2d.,  and  the  receipts  £1659  13s.  William  lohn  Watts,  Esq., 
is  treasurer;  Robert  Tucker,  Esq.,  chairman  ;  Mr.  Francis  Oliver,  surveyor;  and  Mr.  II.  Mallaby  Firth,  clerk. 
Ashburton  was  taken  by  General  Fairfax,  in  his  march  westward,  in  1646.  (See  Exeter.)  The 
general  had  his  head-quarters 'here  on  January  10,  and  on  his  departure  he  left  a  regiment  of  soldiers  in 
possession  of  the  town,  lla  lodged  at  the  Mermaid  Inn,  now  a  house  and  sliop,  retaining  much  of  its  ancient 
appearance.  I'he  residence  of  Mr.  Edward  Cruse,  in  West  Street,  was  held  by  the  Piideauxe?,  the  Dolbeares 
and  Parkhams,  more  than  300  years,  and  is  said,  without  the  slightest  foundation,  to  have  been  a  private  resi- 
dence of  tlie  abbots  of  Buckfastleigh.  It  contains  a  room  about  fourteen  feet  square,  wainscotted  from  fioor  to 
ceiling  with  carved  oak,  and  having  on  its  westward  side  a  crocketted  canopy,  with  finials  of  fieur-de-lis, 
representations  of  the  Four  Evangelists,  and  busts  of  Queen  Mary  and  her  consort,  Philip  of  Spain.  This 
canopy  was  removed  from  the  church  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  when  the  churchwardens  sold  it  for 
one  shilling. 

The  Parish  Church  (St.  Andrew),  supposed  to  have  been  rebuilt  about  1137,  is  a  spacious  cruciform 
structure,   with    a  western  tower  rising  to  the  height  of    90  feet,  and   crowned    by   pinnacles    at    the 

106  -A.Hlil>iirtoii, 

corners,  and  by  a  semi-octaf^onal  turret  on  its  southern  face.  The  north  aisle  was  built  in  I.jLO,  and  the 
south  aisle  in  the  middle  of  the  15th  century.  The  handsome  stone  pulpit,  which  was  elaborately  carved, 
and  the  brass  eagle,  were  sold  to  the  neighbouring  parish  of  Bigbury  in  1777,  for  .L'll  11."?.,  and  the  present 
unsightly  pulpit  and  reading  desk  were  substituted.  The  beautiful  screen,  of  the  date  of  1/525,  which  sepa- 
rated the  nave  and  chancel,  was  removed  about  1718,  and  partly  used  in  the  construction  of  the  west 
gallery.  Originally  there  was  a  parvis  over  the  porch  in  which  was  kept  the  armour  of  the  two  soldiei-s 
that  the  lords  of  the  manor  had  in  feudal  times  to  find  for  the  king.  The  arch  of  this  porch  is  of 
Transition  Norman  date.  The  chancel  underwent  a  complete  restoration  in  1840,  when  several  ancient 
earthen  vases  were  discovered  in  the  walls,  and  a  handsome  new  east  window,  enriched  with  stained 
glass,  was  inserted.  These  vases  are  thought  to  have  been  used  for  acoustic  purposes.  The  reredos, 
of  Bath  stone,  is  divided  into  live  compartments.  Several  of  the  windows  are  modern  insertions, 
and  on  taking  down  part  of  the  ceiling  in  the  south  aisle  in  1849,  various  emblematical  paintings 
were  discovered  on  the  old  paneled  ceiling.  In  this  aisle  is  a  mural  tablet  in  memory  of  the  first 
Lord  Ashburton,  with  an  inscription  written  by  Dr.  Johnson.  The  north  porch  remains,  but  that  on  the 
south  side  was  removed  in  the  early  part  of  last  century.  A  handsome  stained  glass  window  was  inserted 
in  1877  over  its  site,  as  a  memorial  to  Thomas  and  Bartholomew  Michelmore,  by  their  brothers  and  sisters. 
The  lights  are  filled  with  figures  of  SS.  Andrew,  Thomas,  Bartholomew,  and  Lawrence.  Another  beautiful 
window  has  just  been  placed  in  the  north  aisle  by  parochial  subscription,  and  contains  figures  of  the  four 
Evangelists.  The  parishioners  have  also  subscribed  for  two  additional  bells,  to  augment  the  present  peal  of 
six,  and  this  addition  will  make  the  Ashburton  peal  one  of  the  finest  in  the  county.  There  were  anciently 
four  chapels  in  the  church.  The  Registers  commence  in  1G03.  The  living,  a  vicarage,  valued  in  K.B.  at 
i%38  8s.  11^^/.,  with  Buckland-in-the-Moor  annexed,  is  in  the  patronage  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Exeter, 
who  are  also  appropriators  of  the  great  tithes.  The  Kev.  Charles  Worthy,  B.A.,  is  incumbent,  and  has  a 
good  residence  and  85a.  1e.  of  glebe.  The  rectorial  tithes  were  commuted  in  1840  for  £390,  and  the  vica- 
rial for  £528  a  year;  but  of  this  latter  £110  a  year  is  paid  to  the  vicar  of  Bickington.  The  vicarage  stands 
in  a  large  lawn,  shaded  by  magnificent  walnut,  lime,  chestnut,  beech,  and  sycamore  trees,  and  has  a  kitchen 
garden  of  over  half  an  acre. 

Near  the  church  stood  the  Chantry  Chapel  of  St.  Lawrexce,  of  which  the  ancient  tower  and  spire  are 
still  standing,  but  the  body  was  rebuilt  about  a  century  ago,  and  is  now  the  Grammar  School,  as  afterwards 
noticed.  This  chapel  was  founded  in  1314  by  Bishop  Stapledon,  and  given  by  him  to  the  Guild  of  St.  Lawrence, 
consisting  of  the  port  reeve  and  burgesses,  on  certain  conditions,  one  of  which  was  that  they  should  keep  a 
free  school,  and  pay  the  master  £4  13s.  The  total  value  of  the  possessions  of  the  Guild  was  £10  15s.  a  year, 
and  the  balance  was  directed  to  be  spent  in  the  conveyance  of  water  to  the  town,  and  in  relief  to  persons 
struck  with  the  plague.     The  Chantry  was  suppressed  in  1535,  and  its  revenues  seized  by  the  Crown. 

The  Wesleyans,  Baptists,  and  Independents  have  chapels  in  the  town.  The  Independent  Chapel  was 
built  in  1737,  but  was  enlarged  some  years  ago,  and  a  schoolroom  has  recently  been  added  to  it.  It  will  seat 
about  800  hearers,  and  has  a  small  endowment.  The  present  Wesleyan  Chapel  was  built  in  1835,  at  the 
cost  of  about  £1500,  and  has  room  for  600  hearers.  Sunday  Schools  are  attached  to  the  church  and 
chapels.  An  Infant  School  is  supported  by  the  vicar  and  other  subscribers,  and  the  parish  has  two  en- 
dowed schools,  and  various  charities  for  the  poor.  Here  is  also  a  Subscription  Library,  containing  about 
2000  volumes,  and  a  Parish  Library. 

The  Grammar  School  was  founded  as  just  noticed  by  Bishop  Stapledon  in  1314,  and  was  held  in  the 
chapel  of  St.  Lawrence.  This  chapel  was  purchased  of  the  Crown,  and  afterwards  (in  1594)  vested  in  trustees 
to  be  used  as  a  school  house,  and  as  a  place  for  holding  the  manor  courts.  The  ancient  tower  and  spire 
remain,  but  the  body  has  been  rebuilt.  In  the  2nd  of  Charles  L,  £418,  derived  from  the  bequest  of  William 
Wareing,  was  laid  out  in  the  purchase  of  16a.  19p.  of  land  at  North  Huish  and  Loddiswell,  and  22a.  3r.  7p. 
at  Aveton  Gifibrd,  for  the  support  of  the  schoolmaster.  These  lands  are  now  let  for  about  £45  a  year.  He 
lias  also  the  rent  of  13a.  3p.  at  Staverton,  let  for  £15,  and  purchased  with  £200  left  by  Edward  Gould  in 
1735.  A  yearly  rent-charge  of  £4,  left  to  the  schoolmaster  by  Lawrence  Blundell  in  1637,  is  paid  out  of  a 
house,  formerly  the  Mermaid  Inn;  and  he  has  yearly  20s.  from  the  churchwardens  and  30s.  from  the  over- 
seers, as  the  gifts  of  Mr.  Wareing  and  another  donor.  Of  the  £2000  left  by  Dr.  Ireland  in  1842,  £1000  was 
laid  out  in  purchasing  a  house  for  the  master  ;  £500  was  lost  by  the  failure  of  the  Totnes  Bank,  and  the 
master  has  the  interest  of  the  other  £500.  The  above-named  Lawrence  Blundell  also  left  two  yearly  rent- 
charges  of  £6  and  £4,  to  be  paid  towards  the  support  of  two  boys  at  this  school  preparing  for  either  of  the 
Universities,  and  until  they  should  attain  the  degree  of  Master  of  Arts.  The  donor  charged  these  annuities, 
(and  20s.  a  year  for  five  poor  widows),  on  land  belonging  to  Sir  L.  V.  Palk,  Bart.  A  new  scheme  for  the 
management  of  the  Grammar  School  and  Bourne's  Elementary  School  was  approved  by  the  Charity  Com- 
missioners on  February  17,  1876,  by  which  the  above  Foundations  are  to  be  administered  as  one  Founda- 
tion. The  governing  body  consists  of  two  ex-otiicio,  six  representative,  and  four  co-optative  members. 
Boys  are  admitted  to  the  school  between  the  ages  of  7  and  16.  The  curriculum  embraces  religious  instruc- 
tion, reading,  writing,  and  arithmetic,  geography,  history,  English  grammar,  composition,  and  literature  ; 
mathematics,  Latin,  at  least  one  European  language,  natural  science,  drawing,  and  vocal  music;  and  Greek 
as  an  extra  subject.  Scholarships,  called  Foundation  Scholarships,  have  been  established,  by  which  the 
governors  grant  total  or  partial  exemption  from  payment  of  tuition  fees.  There  are  two  other  scholarships, 
respectively  of  the  value  of  £6  or  £8,  called  Blundell  Scholarships,  which  are  competed  for ;  and  as  long  as 
Dean  Ireland's  gift  is  applied  for  the  purposes  of  the  School,  the  governors  provide  two  other  scholarships  of 
£6  each.  As  soon  as  the  income  of  the  Foundation  is  sufficient,  the  governors  are  to  apply  £32  yearly  i 
providing  other  scholarships,  tenable  at  the  school  for  two  years,  and  of  the  yearly  value  of  £8.  Thei 
scholarships  are  open  to  boys  who  have  been  educated  for  at  least  one  year  at  some  public  elementary  sch 


I>  e  vonsliir  e  * 


in  the  school  district  of  Ashburton.     Mr.  James  Mortimer,  B.A.,  is  head  master,  and  the  Rev.  J.  B.  Mattock, 
B.A.,  second  master ;  R.  Tucker,  Esq.  is  secretary  to  the  governors. 

Free  School. — In  1754,  £500  was  given  by  Lord  Middleton,  and  £140  by  the  Hon.  John  Harris  (two 
representatives  of  the  borough),  were  laid  out  in  the  purchase  of  an  estate  for  the  support  of  a  schoolmaster 
3r  schoolmasters  for  instructing  the  children  of  this  parish  in  reading,  writing,  and  arithmetic.  The 
estate  purchased  is  called  Bourne  Farm,  and  comprises  81a.  17p.,  let  for  about  £110  per  annum.  Out  of 
the  rent  about  £70  per  annum  was  paid  to  the  master  and  mistress  for  teaching  about  50  free  scholars  on  Dr. 
Bell's  system.  The  rest  of  the  clear  income  is  expended  in  buying  books,  &c.  for  the  children.  The  school 
was  rebuilt  about  14  years  ago,  at  the  cost  of  £640,  and  is  commonly  called  Bourne  School.  A  yearly  rent- 
charge  of  £6,  left  by  Mary  Dunning  in  1805,  out  of  three  fields  at  Halsworthy  Hills,  in  Staverton,  is  paid  to 
the  schoolmistress  for  teaching  ten  poor  girls.     Mr.  S.  Husson  is  the  master. 

A  School  Board  is  about  to  be  established  for  this  parish.    (See  Addenda.) 

The  AsHBTJRTON  AND  Btjckfastleigh  Cottage  Hospital  was  established  in  1875,  and  contains  six  beds. 
R,  C.  Tucker,  Esq.  is  treasurer ;  Messrs.  Fabyan  Amery  and  H.  Mallerby  Firth,  hon.  sees. ;  and  Mr.  H. 
Ubsdell,  and  Dr.  Adams,  medical  officers. 

Benefactions  to  the  Poor. — In  1676  Robert  Phipps  left  £80  to  be  laid  out  in  land,  and  the  yearly 
rents  to  be  distributed  in  linen  among  the  aged  poor  parishioners.  The  money  was  laid  out  in  the  purchase 
of  3a.  1r.  20p.  of  land,  now  let  for  £12.  An  old  almshouse,  left  to  the  poor  by  Thomas  Gaunter  in  the 
34th  of  Elizabeth,  fell  down  in  1801,  and  the  site  was  leased  on  lives  in  1807  for  £2  a  year.  A  legacy 
of  £100,  left  by  Edward  Bovey  in  1709,  was  laid  out  in  the  purchase  of  2a.  1e.  26p.  of  land,  now  let  for 
about  £10  a  year,  which  is  distributed  among  the  poor  not  receiving  parochial  relief.  For  weekly  distri- 
butions of  bread,  the  poor  have  £5  4s.  per  annum,  left  by  Thomas  Prideaux  and  Sir  John  Acland  in  the  7th 
and  13th  of  James  I.  For  distribution  in  clothing,  they  have  two  annuities  of  20s.,  left  by  George  Knowling 
and  John  Bounde  in  1625  and  1642.  An  annuity  of  £8  for  schooling  poor  children,  was  left  by  John  Ford  in 
1667,  out  of  the  profits  of  the  market  for  wool  and  yarn,  which  was  held  here  every  Tuesday  till  1800,  when 
it  was  discontinued.  In  1702  William  Stawell  left  a  yearly  rent-charge  of  £10,  out  of  the  town  mills,  for 
distribution  in  linen  among  the  poor.  To  provide  a  blue  coat  for  a  poor  man  yearly,  Edward  Gould  left  an 
annuity  of  20s.  out  of  the  Bottom  Park.  For  a  weekly  distribution  of  bread  among  the  poor  parishioners, 
John  Bickham  left  £370,  which  was  laid  out  in  1783  in  the  purchase  of  Park  Field  (7a.),  now  let  for  about 
£25  a  year.  In  1778  Richard  Harris  left  a  yearly  rent-charge  of  £11  7s.  Qd.  to  this  parish,  out  of  land  at 
Woodland,  to  be  applied  as  follows  : — £10  for  the  use  of  50  poor  people  ;  21s.  for  the  vicar ;  2s.  6d.  for  the 
clerk ;  and  4s.  for  the  two  sextons.  The  dividends  of  £200  Navy  5  per  cent.  Stock,  purchased  with  the  gifts 
of  Eleanor  and  Sally  Adams,  in  l&OO,  are  distributed  in  linen  cloth  among  the  poor.  Five  poor  widows  have 
the  interest  of  £2S  16s.  left  by  Alicia  Donkin  in  1812,  secured  on  the  Newton  and  Ashburton  turnpike. 

The  Church  Lands,  &c.,  most  of  which  are  supposed  to  have  formed  the  endowment  of  St.  Lawrence 
Chapel,  have  been  vested  since  the  Reformation  for  the  use  of  the  church.  They  comprise  about  36  acres  of 
land  and  11  houses,  let  in  1821  for  only  £86  7s.  11(7.  per  annum,  in  consideration  of  large  fines  paid  by  the 
lessees.  Some  years  ago,  this  estate  was  saddled  with  a  mortgage  debt  of  £1480,  the  interest  of  which 
absorbed  most  of  the  income.  About  £3  per  annum  out  of  the  rents  ought  to  be  distributed  among  the  poor, 
in  consideration  of  property  derived  from  the  gifts  of  Robert  Hayman,  Robert  Page,  and  William  Feymouth, 
in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth. 

Eminent  Natives. — John  Dunning,  Esq.,  a  native  of  this  town,  having  distinguished  himself  by 
great  professional  abilities,  was  made  Solicitor-General  in  1767,  and  created  Baron  Ashburton  in  1782.  He 
was  born  in  1731,  and  died  in  1783,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Richard  Barre  Dunning,  who  died 
without  issue  in  1823,  when  the  title  became  extinct ;  but  it  was  revived  in  1835,  when  that  distinguished 
statesman,  Alexander  Baring,  was  created  Lord  Ashburton.  The  late  William  Gifford,  Esq.  was  born 
here  in  1755,  of  poor  parents,  and  having  displayed  considerable  poetical  and  mathematical  tcilent,  he  was 
taken  from  his  apprenticeship  as  a  shoemaker  by  some  friends,  and  sent  to  the  Grammar  School.  He  after- 
wards rose  to  eminence  and  wealth,  and  was  editor  of  the  Quarterly  Review.  He  published  several  valuable 
works  and  translations,  and  died  in  1826,  leaving  £2000  Stock  for  the  foundation  of  two  scholarships  at 
Exeter  College,  Oxford,  for  youths  from  Ashburton  Grammar  School.  Another  worthy  native  of  this  town 
was  Dr.  John  Ireland,  Dean  of  Westminster,  who  died  in  1842,  and  left  £2000  to  the  Grammar  School,  and 
£1000  3  per  Cent.  Consols,  in  trust  for  the  yearly  payment  of  £5  each,  to  six  reduced  housekeepers  of  this 
parish,  attending  the  church,  and  of  the  age  of  60  years  or  upwards.  The  dean's  house  is  now  occupied  by 
Mr.  Varder,  and  is  the  property  of  Mr.  E.  Foot. 

Post,  Money  Order,  Telegraph,  and  Government  Insurance  Office  and  Sayings  Bank  is  at  Mr. 
"William  H.  Edgecombe's,  East  Street.  Letters  are  received  from  London  and  {ill  parts  at  6  a.m.  daily,  and 
from  the  North  at  10.55  a.m.  (weekdays  only),  and  are  despatched  to  London  and  all  parts  at  7  p.m.  week- 
days, and  2.40  p.m.  Sundays,  and  to  the  North  at  2.15  p.m.  weekdays  only.  Money  order,  insurance  and 
savings  bank  business  is  transacted  from  8  a.m.  to  6  p.m.,  and  on  Saturday  to  8  p.m.  The  telegraph  office  is 
open  from  8  a.m.  to  8  p.m.  weekdays,  and  from  8  to  10  a.m.  Sundays.  There  is  a  Wall  Letter  Box  in 
North  Street  cleared  at  6  p.m.  weekdays  only.  There  are  two  deliveries  on  weekdays  at  7  a.m  and  11  a.m., 
and  one  on  Sundays  at  7  a.m.  Letters  are  delivered  at  the  counter  from  8  to  10  a.m.  on  Sundays. 
Railway,  Great  Western.  —  John  Harris,  station  master. 

Abbott  "William  Henry,  farmer,  Lower  Bowdley 
Abraham  Robert  George,  solicitor,  clerk  to  turnpike  trus- 
tees, sec.  to  Gas  Co.  &  agent  for  Atlas  Ass.  Co.  East  st 
Abraham  William,  baker  and  confectioner,  North  street 

Adams  James,  M.D.  M.R.CS.  assistant  surgeon  to  9th 
Devon  Eifle  Volunteers  and  surgeon  to  Cottage  hospital, 
East  street 

Amery  Mr  John,  Druid 



Amery  Mrs  — ,  Druid 

Amery  Mr  Peter  Fabyan  Sparke,  Druid 

Andrews  William,   letter  carrier,  and  Mrs  Mary  Jane, 

dressmaker,  Station  road 
Ashhurtwi  ^-  Buckfastleigh  Cottage  Hospital,  Mrs  Christian 

Daw,  matron,  Church  lane 
Ashburton  Gas  Co.  Kobert  George  Abraham,  secretary 
Ashburtoii   Subscription  Library,  John  P.  Poot,  secretary 

and  librarian.  East  street 
Badcock  George,  (j)  mason  and  shopkeeper.  North  street 
Baker  Miss  Elizabeth,  shopkeeper.  East  street 
Baker  John,  general  smith,  East  street 
Baker  Miss  Mary,  Pree  schoolmistross,  Bowling  green 
Ball  Mrs  Dinah,  shopkeeper,  Station  road 
Ball  Miss  Louisa,  Woodville  house,  East  street 
Barnes  Mrs  Susannah,  West  street 
Baskwill  Samuel,  captain  of  Gurrington  Slate  Quarry  Co 

Woodland  ;  h  Eiist  street 
Bate  Mrs  Harriet,  Chuleigh 
Batten  Joseph,  house  decorator  and  registrar  of  births, 

deaths  and  marriages.  East  street 
Battershill  Joseph,  Sexton,  Bovvden  hill 
Battershill  Wm.  Hy.  baker  &  confectioner,  West  street 
Bearne  Kobert,  victualler,  Victoria  Inn,  North  street 
Beck  George,  chemist  and  grocer,  East  street 
Beck  Miss  Susan,  agent  for  Devon  and  Exeter  Savings' 

Bank,  East  street 
Bennett  Miss  Elizabeth,  Station  road 
Berry  John  (John  &  Sons) ;  h  East  street 
Berry  John  &  Sons,  woollen  manufacturers,  Kingsbridge 

lane  and  Buckfast,  Buckfastleigh 
Berry  Joshua,  farmer,  Halshanger 
Berry  Simeon  (John  &  Sors) ;  h  East  street 
Berry  Misses  Susan  and  Mary,  East  street 
Bickford  John,  bank  manager,  West  street 
Bickham  Mrs  Mary  Ann,  shopkeeper,  West  street 
Bickley  Amos,  mason,  Heavyhead  lane 
Bovey  William  Henry,  clerk,  Kingsbridge  lane 
Bowaen  Henry,  master  mariner.  East  street 
Bowden  John,  tailor.  East  street 
Bradridge  Mrs  — ,  West  street 
Browning   James,   captain  of  East    Vitifer    Tin  Mining 

Co.  Limited,  North  Bovey  ;  h  Western  road 
Browning  John,  Berlin  wool  and  fancy  goods  repository. 

West  street ;  h  Bowling  green 
Burston  John,  -watch  &  clock  maker  &  jeweller.  North  st 
Butcher  Eev.  John    Henry,  B.A.  curate  of  Buckland-in- 

tbe-Moor ;  h  East  street 
Butchers  Mrs  Harriet,  West  street 
Oampion  George,  blacksmith,  Lemonford 
Caunter  Miss  Elizabeth  Jane,  shopkeeper,  East  street 
Caunter  Mrs  George,  East  street 
ChafFe  Roger,  farmer,  Higher  Barn 
Chafte  William,  dairyman,  Heavj'head  lane 
Chalk  Joseph,  marine  store  dealer  and  shopkeeper.  North  st 
Chalk  Samuel  Henry,  boot  and  shoe  maker,  North  street 
Chalker  Mrs  Sarah,  Haremount  house,  East  street 
Chappie  James,  organist,  West  street 
Chappie  William  Waycott,  printer,  bookbinder,  and  sta- 
tioner, North  street 
Chudleigh  Richard,  shopkeeper,  Caton 
Clarke  Elon,  (j )  carpenter  and  vict.  Rose  &  Crown,  West  st 
Clarke  Thomas,  baker  and  confectioner,  East  street 
Clymo  James,  draper.  North  street 
Cock  Jonathan,  captain  of  Devon   and  Cornwall  Umber 

Co ;  h  Dolbear 
Cockey  Misses  Rachel  Sarah,  Charlotte  Ellen,  and  Susan 

Lewis  ;  h  East  street 
Cocld  Jolm,  boot  and  shoe  maker.  West  street 
Collins  Miss  Jane  Alatilda,  fancy  repository.  East  street 
Coney  bear  Mrs  Susannah,  Station  road 
Conneybear  Miss  Mary,  cider  retailer,  West  street 
Cousins  Mrs  Betsy,  East  street 
Craddoek  Mr  Prederick,  Hazlewood  house,  East  street 

Cruse  Mr  Edward,  West  street 
Cumming  William,  carpenter  and  farmer,  Hooks 
Daniel  Philip,  tailor.  Station  road 
Davies  Mr  Prederick,  The  Rosery,  Buckfastleigh  road 
Daw  Mrs  Christiana,  matron.  Cottage  hospital 
Daw  Henry  James,  grocer,  West  street 
Daw  Mrs  Mary  Ann,  grocer  &  eartlienware  dealer,  North  st 
Daw  William,  miller  and  baker,  Lemonford 
Devon  and  Cornwall  Umber  Co.  Jonathan  Cock,  captain 
Devon  and  Exeter  Savings    Bank,  East  street ;  open   on 
Tuesday,  12  to  2  p.m.;  Saturday,  2  to  5  p.m.;  Miss 
Susan  Beck,  agent 
Dicker  William,  market  gardener,  Church  lane 
Distin   William,     ironmonger,    plumber,   gasfitter,    bell- 
hanger,  and  tinplate  worker,  North  street 
Dobell  Henry,  cooper.  North  street 
Down  John,  grocer  &  agent  for  Travers'  wines.  West  st. 
Dunn  Mrs  Elizabeth,  East  street 
Eales  George,  mason.  East  street 
Eales  John,  bootmaker  and  letter  carrier,  Station  road 
Easterbrook  Mrs  Elizabeth,  East  street 
Easterbrook  Richard,  brewer.  Griffin  brewery ;  h  Bowl- 
ing green 
Easterbrook  Thomas,  farmer,  Higher  Headborough 
Eddy  Henry,  architect  and  surveyor.  North  street 
Eddy  John,  painter,  &c.  St.  Lawrence  street 
Edgecombe  Mrs  Melina,  saddler  &^ harness  maker,  North  st. 
Edgecombe  Richard,  tailor,  East-street 
Edgecombe  Samuel,  cartman.  Back  lane 
Edgecombe  William  Henry,  solicitor's  clerk,  postmaster, 

and  agent  for  the  Guardian  Assurance  Co.  East  street 
Eggbeer  John,  potato  and  wood  dealer.  West  street 
Eggbeer  Thomas,  jobbing  gardenei*.  West  street 
Elliott  Mrs  Ann,  cider  retailer,  Bowden  hill 
Elliott  Miss  Mary  Ann,  dressmaker,  Station  road 
Elliott  Miss  Philippa,  boarding  &  day  school.  East  street 
Ellis  Robert,  shopkeeper,  p]ast  street 
Endacott  John,  carpenter  &  greengrocer,  Station  road 
Ferris  Miss  Susan,  Hope  villa.  Western  road 
Ferris  Thomas,  tailor.  West  End  cottage.  Western  road 
Firth  Henry  Mallaby,  solicitor,  clerk  to  county  magis- 
trates, to  commissioners  of   taxes   (Teignbridge  divi- 
sion), and  to  highway  board,  and  agent  for  West  of 
England,  Alliance,  Guardian,  and  Economic  Insurance 
Companies,  East  street  ^ 

Fisher  Rev  J.  T.,  W^elstor ;  and  Herringford,  Cornwall 
Poaden  John,  stamp  distributor,  and  agent  for  Clerical, 
Medical,  and  General  Insurance  Company,  West  street 
Poaden  Jolm  Hannibal,  builder,   contractor,  lime  burner, 
and  merchant;  agent  for  Lancashire  Insurance  Company; 
and  victualler.  Globe  hotel.  North  street 
Foot  Henry,  tailor,  AV'est  street 
Foot  John,  carpenter,  Heavyhead  lane 
Foot  John  Peter,  boot  and  shoe  maker,  and  librarian  and 

secretary  to  subscription  library.  East  street 
Foot  Robert,  baker,  North  street 
Foot  William,  land  agent  (Whiteway  and  P.),  and  coal 

and  building  materiril  dealer.  Station  road 
Ford  Edward  Steel,  cashier.  Station  road 
Ford  Mrs  Elizabeth,  laundress,  East  street 
Franklyn  Mi's  Elizabeth,  dressmaker.  West  street 
French  Mrs  Elizabeth,  shopkeeper,  East  street 
French  George,  blacksmith.  North  street 
Gervis   Walter   Soper,    M.D.,  M.R.C.S.,   L.S.A.,    F.G.S., 
medical    officer    1st    district    Newton    Abbot    Union, 
surgeon  to  4th  Bat.  D.R.V,,  West  street 
Gidley  Mrs  Ann,  shopkeeper,  North  street 
Gidley  Mr  George,  West  End  terrace 
Gidley  Richard,  coal  merchant,  Station  road 
Giles  Henry,  boot  and  shoo  maker.  East  street 
Gill  Mr  William,  Station  road 

Gribble  Misses  Josepha  Wynne,  Caroline,  &  Emma,  West  st 
Grose  John,  boot  and  shoe  dealer.  North  street 
Hamlyn  Thomas,  farmer,  Welstor 


J  09 

Hannaford  Miss  Mary  Ann,  milliner  and   dressmaker, 

West  street 
Hannaford  Mr  Samuel,  East  street 
Harris  John,  Great  Western  Kailway  station  master,   6 

West  End  terrace 
Harrogan  William,  chimney-sweeper,  Back  lane 
Harvey  Alfred  Merchant,  draper,  ^orth  street 
Hays  Adrian,  watchmaker  and  jeweller,  North  street 
Hern   John,   farmer,    Scobetor   farm,  Widecombe-in-the- 

Moor ;  h  Staverton  place 
Hext  John,  coal  and  firewood  dealer,  Kingsbridge  lane 
Hext  Richard,  farmer,  Yolland  hill 
Hext  Thomas,  builder,  furniture  broker,  baker,  and  beer 

house,  North  street 
Hext  Thomas,  jun.,  draper.  North  street 
Hill  Abraham,  druggist  and  grocer,  North  street 
iill  Josiah,  clerk,  5  West  End  terrace 
3ill  Thomas,  foreman  tailor,  West  street 
lill  William,  posting  house  &vict.  London  Hotel,  Westst. 
lines  John,  victualler.  Swan  Inn,  Nortli  street 
lonywill  John  Hannaford,  maltster  and  brewer,  Old  Mill 

brewery,    wine    and    spirit   merchant    and    victualler, 

Commercial  Hotel,  Nortli  street, 
louywill  Miss  Margaret  Bessie,  draper.  East  street 
looper  Mrs  Susannah  Sophia,  East  street 
lorton  Henry,  blacksmith,  West  street 
lorton  John,  general  smith  and  agricultural  implement 

maker,  West  street 
iouston  Miss  — ,  Peartree 

lusson  Samuel,  Free  School  master,  Bowling  green 
iuxham  Miss  Agnes,  baker  and  grocer,  North  street 
reland  Mrs  Mary  Ann,  refreshment  house,  Station  road 
rish  Henry,  farmer.  Higher  and  Lower  Rushlade 
rish  Mr  William,  Buckland  view 
I'ish  William,  farmer,  Pitt 
fackman  William,  beerhouse.  North  street 
Fewell  Samuel,  blacksmith,  Station  road 
Tohns  Edwin,  grocer,  letter  carrier,  town  crier,  and  bill 

poster,  East  street 
'oint,  William,  mason.  East  street 
{^ingwell  Mrs  Jane,  shopkeeper.  North  street 
iingwell  Mrs  Mary,  West  street 
vingwell  Mrs  Mary,  farmer,  Westabrook 
{^ingwell  Mr  Richard,  East  street 

inapman  Mrs  Elizabeth,  baker  and  confectioner.  East  st. 
I  Cnapman  Joseph,  miller,  Lurgecombe  mills 
knight  John,  mason,  East  street 

Knowling  Edwin  James,  baker  and  grocer,  North  street 
inowling  William,  wheelwright,  North  street 
jamason  Mrs  Maria,  baker,  brush,  mat,  and  rope  dealer, 

North  street 
^angler  George,  saddler  and  harness  maker,  North  street 
^ay  Rev  John  Ward,  M.A.,  Hele 

jee  John  Ball,  hairdresser  and  parish  clerk,  West  street 
jee  Philip,  shopkeeper,  East  street 
joye  Albert,  joiner,  and  china,  glass,  and  earthenware 

dealer,  Station  road 
j  laddock  John,  cabinet  maker,  Heavyhead  lane 
:iann  Mrs  Louisa,  East  street 
lann  Miss  Mary,  day  school,  East  street 
iann  Peter,  farmer,  Sigford 
lann  Richard,  farmer,  Higher  Goodstone 
lann  &  Son,  auctioneers  and  surveyors.  East  street 
lanu  Thomas  William,  stonemason,  East  street 
lann  William  (M.  &  Son) ;  h  West  street 
lann  William,  jun.  (M.  &  Son),  and  butcher,  East  street 
'lann  William,    farmer.   Lower    Goodstone   and  Lower 

Waye ;  h  Lower  Goodstone 
lathews  Richard,  mason  and  baker,  Heavyhead  lane 
latterface  William  Henry,  butcher,  East  street 
lattock  Rev  John  Best,  B.A.  curate  and  second  master  of 

Grammar  school  ;  h  School  house,  East  street 
launder  Thomas  &  James,  butchers.  West  st. ;  h  East  st 
launder  Mr  AVilliam,  West  street 

May  James,  grocer.  North  street 

Mead  Mrs  Mary,  day  school.  East  street 

Merryfield  Richard,  victualler,  Exeter  inn,  West  street 

Metherell  Mr  John,  Violet  cottage 

Mole  Rev  Joseph  (Wesleyan),  Stone  park 

Moorman  Rev  Andrew  Cook  (Independent),  Eatt  street 

Mortimer  James,  B.A.  headmaster  of  Grammar  school ;  h 
School  house.  East  street 

Mortimore  Mr  Edward,  West  street 

Mugridge  Henry  Gard,  baker.  North  street 

Mugridge  Richard,  dairyman.  Ivy  cottage,  Western  road 

Nichol  Robert,  miller,  Eurzeleigh  mill;  and  Town  mill, 

Norris  Henry  Albert,  baker  and  confectioner,  East  street 

Northcott  Robert,  farmer.  Lower  Whiddon 

Northway  Richard,  shopkeeper.  East  street 

Osbaldeston  Ernest  William,  brewery  manager,  2  West 
End  terrace 

Palk  Richard,  farmer,  Alston 

Palk  William,  jobbing  gardener.  Old  Totnes  road 

Pascoe  Nicholas,  captain  of  Roborough  Umber  Co.  ;  h 
Balland  cottnge 

Passmore  Mrs  Charlotte,  West  street 

Pearse  Mr  Thomas,  East  street 

Perkins  Mrs  Elizabeth,  baker,  brewer,  and  victualler, 
Golden  Fleece,  Station  road 

Pidsley  Thomas,  farmer,  Rew 

Pitts  William,  farmer.  Lower  Lemonford 

Pope  Charles,  tailor,  outfitter,  hatter  and  shirt  maker, 
West  street ;  h  Newton  Abbot 

Pope  Mr  William,  North  street 

Popplestone  Daniel,  nursery  and  seedsman.  East  street 

Port  Sergeant  James,  drill  instructor  to  9th  Devon  Volun- 
teers, Church  lane 

Preston  John  James,  wheelwright,  North  street 

Preston  Richard,  Great  Western  Railway  Co.'s  goods  and 
parcels  agent,  and  victualler.  Red  Lion,  East  street 

Pugsley  James,  grocer,  Avheelwright,  millwright,  and  ma- 
chinist, North  street 

Richards  William,  mining  captain.  West  street 

Roborough  Umber  Co. ;  Nicholas  Pascoe^  captain 

Rogers  Mrs  T.  E.,  Waye  house 

Rowland  John,  farmer.  Lower  Headborough 

Rowland  William,  farmer,  Higher  and  Lower  Aswell 

Sanders  Thomas,  miller,  and  agent  for  Golding's  manures, 
Town  mills 

Saunders  John,  house  decorator.  East  street 

Sawdye  Edward  (S.  &  Son),  and  agent  for  Royal  Farmers', 
and  Edinburgh  Life  Ins.  Cos.,  Laburnum  house,  AVest  st 

Sawdye  Edward  John  (S.  &  Son) ;  h  Sparnham  hs.  Westst 

Sawdye  &  Son,  land  surveyors,  auctioneers,  general,  com- 
mission &  estate  agents.  Laburnum  house.  West  street 

Sexton  Mrs  Maria,  posting  house  and  victualler,  Golden 
Lion,  East  street 

Shilston  Henry,  farmer.  Higher  Waj'^e 

Skinner  Charles,  linen  and  woollen  draper,  East  street 

Skinner  George  Wills  (J.  &  G.)  ;  h  Caton 

Skinner  John,  farmer.  Higher  Lemonford 

Skinner  Joseph,  farmer  (J.  &  G.) ;  h  Caton 

Skinner  Joseph,  grocer  and  farmer.  North  street 

Skinner  Joseph,  jun.  saddler  and  harness  maker,  North  st 

Smerdon  Charles,  butcher.  North  street 

Smerdon  Mrs  Charlotte,  1  West  End  terrace 

Smerdon  Elijah,  farmer,  Summerhill 

Smerdon  Elisha,  farmer.  Higher  mead 

Smerdon  Elisha,  shopkeeper,  West  street 

Smerdon  John,  farmer.  Lower  mead 

Smerdon  John,  farmer.  Higher  Brownswell 

Smerdon  John,  pork  butcher.  North  street 

Smerdon  Richard,  butcher  and  farmer.  East  street 

Smerdon  Mr  Thomas,  Bowdley  cottage 

Smerdon  Mr  Thomas,  Lower  Brownswell 

Smerdon  William  Henry  Soudon,  farmer,  Higher  Bowdley 

Soper  Frederick,  carpenter.  East  street 


^  «!i]il>iii*  t  o  n , 

Sprague  Mrs  .Sarali  Cosens,  boarding  &  day  school,  P^ast  at 

Stamp  Office,  West  street  (open  from  0  a.m.  to  7  p.m.) ; 
John  Foaden,  distributor 

Stanbury  John,  farmer,  Iliglier  AVhiddon 

Stanconibe  James,  farmer,  Furzeleigh 

Stear  George,  veterinary  surgeon,  East  street 

Steele  Mr  Henry,  Wood  place 

Steer  William,  dairyman,  cartman  and  coal  dealer.  East  st 

Stephens  James,  victualler,  Town  Arms,  North  street 

Stephens  Henry,  builder  and  contractor,  Ilazeldeno 

Syms  John,  sawyer.  Spring  gardens 

Tanner  Mr  Edmund  Eearnley,  High  prove 

Taylor  Mrs  Agnes,  basket  maker.  Mill  lane 

Taylor  Mrs  Charlotte,  shopkeeper  and  lodgings,  Station  rd 

Thorn  Samuel,  greengrocer.  West  street 

Tippett  J.  Collins,  surgeon  dentist.  East  street  (attends  at 
Mr  Saunders',  first  Monday  in  month)  ;  and  Torquay 

Tozer  Henry,  solicitor,  agent  for  Liverpool  and  London 
and  Globe  I  us.  Co.  East  street 

Tozer  Mr  John,  Abbey  view 

Tozer  Mr  Solomon,  Abbey  view 

Truman  Mrs  Jemima,  victualler.  Royal  Oak,  East  street 

Truran  Thomas,  shopkeeper.  East  street 

Tucker  Edwin,  maltster,  and  seed,  grain  and  manure  mer- 
chant, Kingsbridge  lane 

Tucker  Robert  (T.  &  Son),  h  The  Hall 

Tucker  Robert  Coard  (T.  &  Son),  h  The  Hall 

Tucker  &  Son,  solicitors.  The  Hall 

Turner  Mr.  Robert,  Leat  Park 

Varder  John  Lavington,  chemist,  druggist,  Italian  ware- 
houseman, &  agent  for  Gilbey's  wines  &  spirits.  West  st 

Varder  Lavington  Broom,  printer,  bookseller  and  stationer. 
East  street 

Wadge  Edwin  Harvey,  statuary,  Tudor  buildings.  North 
street ;  and  coal  merchant,  Eowler's  square,  Buckfast 
leigh     {See  Advertisement) 

Walker  John,  chimney  sweeper,  North  street 

Ward  Daniel,  farmer,  Prestaford 

Warren  John  Francis,  thatcher,  Dolbear 

Warren  Richard,  thatcher,  Dolbear 

Watts,  Whidborne  &  Co.  bankers  (draw  on  Williams, 
Deacon  &  Co.),  West  st.  (open  Mon.  Tues.  Wed.  Thurs. 
Fri.  and  3rd  Sat.  in  month,  10  a.m.  to  3  p.m.,  on  other 
Saturdays  10a.m.  to  1  p.m.),  John  Bickford,  manager; 
and  Teignmouth,  Newton  Abbot,  and  Dawlish 

Watts  Wm.  John  (W.,  Whidborne  &  Co.) ;  h  Ford  house, 
Newton  Abbot 

Weatherden  Mr  Thomas,  Gages,  Buckfastleigh  road  ► 

Weeks  Robert,  boot  and  shoe  maker.  East  street 
Weeks  Samuel,  boot  and  shoe  maker.  North  street  ; 

Weeks  Thomas,  tailor.  West  street  '■ 

Westaway  James,  victualler.  Duke's  Head,  East  street       ; 
Westaway  John,  greengrocer.  West  street 
Westington  Richard,  farmer,  Lower  Brownswell 
Whidborne  John,  banker  (Watts,  W.  &  Co.);  h  Gorway,  ; 

Whiddon  John,  marine  store  dealer,  town  crier  and  bill  : 

poster.  North  street 
Whiddon  Mrs  Susannah,  marine  store  dealer,  North  street  j 
Whiddon  Thomas,  fish  dealer.  North  street  \ 

Whiddon  William,  wheelwright.  Browses  buildings  ! 

White  Frederick,  china,  glass  &  earthenware  dlr.  West  st" 
White  Mr  Matthew,  Rose  cottage  i 

Whitewiiy  &  Foot,  land  agents,  East  street  1 

Whiteway  William  Rolstone  (W.  &  Foot),  and  agent  for  j 

Sun  Assurance  Company ;  h  East  street 
Widger  Mr  William,  Goodstone 
AVill cocks  Thomas,  dairyman,  East  street 
Wills  Mrs  Amelia,  sho]pkeeper,  North  street 
Wills  James,  beerhouse,  and  lamp  and  oil  dealer.  North  st 
Wills  John,  agricultural  seed,  manure,  corn  &  coal  mcht.  & 

agt.  for  C.  Norrington's  manure,  East  st.  ;  h  North  st 
Winsor  Joseph,  victualler,  Culloden  Inn,  North  street 
Winsor  Samuel,  farmer,  Horsehill 
Woodley  James,  Esq.  J.P.  Halshanger  house 
Woolaway  William,  baker  and  grocer.  North  street 
Worthy  Rev  Charles,  B.A.  vicar.  The  Vicarage 
Worthy  Lieutenant  Charles,  The  Vicarage 
AVotton  John  Endacott,  painter,  glazier  &  plumber,  West  st 
Yates  Mrs  W.  W.,  East  street 

Yeldham  Brothers,  brewers  and  maltsters.  East  street 
Yeldham  Mrs  Martha  (Bros.) ;  h  Station  road 
Yolland  Charles,  butcher,  East  street 
Yolland  Mrs  Elizabeth,  farmer,  Pitleigh 
Yolland  Mr  George  Wills,  West  street 
Yolland  James,  tailor  and  draper.  North  street 
Young  Mrs  Colonel,  Sinclairs,  Western  road 

Railway  Carriee,  &c. — Richard  Preston,  Great  Westerii 
Railway,  agent  for  goods  and  parcels,  East  street 


Conveyance — Omnibuses  from  Golden  Lion  Hotel 
Red  Lion  Inn  meet  all  trains 


ASHBURY  is  a  parish  5  miles  S.W.  of  Hatherleigh,  in  Okehampton  union,  county  court  district,  and 
rural  deanery,  Totnes  archdeaconry.  Black  Torrington  hundred,  Hatherleigh  petty  sessional  division,  and 
Okehampton  polling  district  of  South  Devon.  The  parish  had  50  inhabitants  (26  males  and  24  females)  in 
1871,  living  in  8  houses,  on  1700  acres  of  land.  Nearly  all  the  parish  is  the  manor  and  property  of  the  Ven. 
Henry  Woollcombe,  Archdeacon  of  Barnstaple,  who  lives  at  AsHBtTRY  House,  a  fine  old  mansion  with 
tasteful  grounds,  where  his  family  has  been  seated  since  1685.  The  Church  (St.  Mary  the  Virgin)  is  very 
ancient,  and  consists  of  chancel,  nave,  and  west  tower  containing  three  bells.  The  church  is  beautifully 
situated  in  the  picturesque  park  of  the  Woollcombe  family.  It  was  rebuilt  on  the  old  foundations,  and  on 
the  original  plan,  by  the  Ven.  Archdeacon  Woollcombe,  in  1871.  The  Register  dates  from  1612.  The  living, 
a  discharged  rectory,  valued  in  K.B.  at  £5  13s.  Ad.,  is  in  the  patronage  of  the  Crown ;  the  tithes  amount  to 
£73,  and  there  is  a  glebe  of  139  acres.  In  1876,  the  benefice  was  united  to  the  adjoining  parish  of  Northlew, 
and  the  united  living  is  held  by  the  Rev.  Thomas  England. 

Post  from  Exbourne,  but  Hatherleigh  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office.  Okehampton  is  the  nearest 
Railway  Station,  but  it  is  expected  that  the  station  on  the  Holsworthy  extension  will  soon  be  opened. 

Copp  Caleb,  farmer,  Wadland 
Hutchings  James,  parish  clerk 
Vallance  Daniel,  farmer,  Stoney 

Voaden  William,  farmer.  Pinnacle 
Wood  John,  farmer,  Scobchester 

Woollcombe  Henry,   Esq.   J.P.  Ash- 
bury  house 

ASHCOMBE  is  a  parish  and  scattered  village  near  the  source  of  a  rivulet,  3  miles  E,  of  Chudleigh,  5 
miles  N.W.  of  Teignmouth,  in  St.  Thomas's  union,  Exeter  county  court  district  and  archdeaconry,  Wonford 
petty  sessional  division,  Eastern  division  of  the  county,  Kenn  rural  deanery,  and  Exminster  hundred.  It  had 
213  inhabitants  (117  males,  96, females)  in  1871,  living  in  37  houses,  on  1932  acres  of  land,  including  about 
500  acres  of  waste  and  plantation.  Sir  Lydstone  Newman,  Bart.,  is  lord  of  the  manor  and  owner  of  most 
of  the  soil.     The  Church  (St.  Nipap^us)  consists  of  chancel,  nave,  nortlj  aisle  and  transepts,  and  was 



repaired  and  partly  rebuilt  in  1825,  at  a  cost  of  about  £1000.  The  living  is  a  rectory,  valued  in  K.B.  at  £18 
and  now  at  £300  (gross),  in  tlie  patronage  of  the  Lord  Chancellor,  and  incumbency  of  the  Rev.  W.  H.  Palk, 
M.A,,  J.P.,  who  has  31  acres  of  glebe,  and  a  good  slated  residence,  with  tasteful  grounds.  The  tithes  are 
commuted  at  £247  a  year.  The  National  School  for  this  parish  has  a  house  for  the  teachers,  and  was 
built  by  the  lord  of  the  manor.  In  1802,  Eobert  Moalle  left  £3  a  year  for  schooling  poor  children. 
Foot  Post  from  Dawlish,  which  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office  and  Railway  Station. 

Adams  Charles,  farmer,  Newhouse 
Adams   William  Carrol  (Exors.    of), 

farmei',  Langdon  Barton 
Cornelius  John,  farmer,  Woodhouse 

Coysh  Eichard,  blacksmith 
Downing  Miss  Fanny,  Natl,  schlmstrss 
Endacott  Jas.  farmer,  Westleigh  farm 
French  William,  farmer 

Palk  Eev  Wilmot  Hy.  M.A.  J.P.  vicar 
of  Chudleigh,  &  rector,  The  Rectory 
Pudner  John,  carpenter 
White  John,  farmer,  A shcombe  Barton 

ASHFORD,  a  parish  and  small  village  on  an  acclivity  on  the  north  side  of  the  estuary  of  the  Taw, 
■Jh  miles  W.N.W.  of  Barnstaple,  in  Barnstaple  union,  county  court  district,  archdeaconry  and  rural  deanery, 
Bmunton  petty  sessional  division  and  hundred,  and  Braunton  polling  district  of  JMorth  Devon.  Its  parish 
liad  152  inhabitants  ((38  males,  84  females)  in  1871,  living  in  33  houses,  on  359  acres  of  land.  The  manor 
was  successively  held  by  the  Beaumont,  Bassett,  Moore  and  Bampfylde  families,  and  was  sold  in  lots,  about 
1815,  by  Sir  C.  W.  Bampfylde.  It  now  belongs  to  the  executors  of  the  late  George  Langdon,  Esq.,  Sir  W.  R. 
Brake,  Messrs.  J.  M.  Fisher  Lewis,  and  Wm.  and  Thos.  Badcock,  and  a  few  others.  The  church  (St.  John)  is 
an  ancient  structure,  consisting  of  nave,  chancel,  north  aisle,  and  tower,  surmounted  by  a  spire  and  containing 
two  bells.  The  chancel  was  rebuilt  in  1861-2  by  the  present  rector  at  a  cost  of  £300  ;  the  other  portions  of 
the  church  were  rebuilt  in  1854.  The  east  window  is  filled  with  stained  glass  in  memory  of  the  Rev.  Jno. 
Blackraore,  M.A.,  a  former  curate.  The  seats  are  of  ancient  oak,  having  finely  carved  ends,  and  the  church 
contains  a  good  organ.  There  are  several  handsome  monuments  to  the  Drake  and  other  families.  The 
Register  dates  from  1700.  The  living  is  a  rectory,  valued  in  K.B.  at  £8  135.  9d.,  and  now  at  £110,  in  the 
patronage  of  the  Lord  Chancellor  and  incumbency  of  the  Rev.  Charles  Whittington  Landon,  T.A.K.C.  The 
glebe  is  (3  acres,  and  there  is  an  old-fashioned  rectory  house,  from  the  grounds  of  which  a  good  view  of  the 
Taw  estuary  can  be  obtained.  The  tithes  are  commuted  at  £85  a  year.  The  Baptists  have  a  small  chapel 
here.  A  INatio^'^al  School  was  erected  in  1859,  but  the  parish  forms,  with  that  of  Heanton  Punchardon,  a 
united  district  for  school  board  purposes.     (See  Heanton  Punchardon). 

Post  through  Barnstaple,  which  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office  and  Railway  Station. 

Eudeock  Lewis,  farmer,  Furseroft 
Badcock  Thomas,  farmer,  Upcott 
Badcock  William,  farmer,  Topshill 
Braily  Mr,  Edgecombe  cottage 
Brooks  William,  bootmaker 

Clarke  John,  victualler,  Ashford  Inn 
CutclifFe  George,  bootmaker 
Giddy  Richard,  tailor 
Graddon  Mr  James,  W^oolstones 
Hammond  Mrs  Mary  Ann,  Cliff  cot 

Hodge  William,  farmer 

Landon    Rev,    Charles  Whittington, 

T.A,K.C.  rector,  The  Rectory 
Langdon  George,  yeoman 
Reardon  Roger  Jackson,  postmaster 

ASHPRINGTON,  a  parish  and  village  picturesquely  seated  on  a  gentle  slope  near  the  confluence  of  the 
river  Harbourn  with  the  estuary  of  the  Dart,  2^  miles  S.E.  of  Totnes  railway  station,  eight  miles  N.W. 
of  Dartmouth,  and  twelve  miles  S.  by  W,  of  Torquay.  Its  parish,  which  includes  the  hamlets  of  IVesfhourn 
and  Yeatson  and  part  of  that  of  Tuckenhay,  is  in  Totnes  union,  and  county  court  district,  Stanborough  and 
Coleridge  petty  sessional  division.  Brent  polling  district  of  South  Devon,  Totnes  archdeaconry  and  rural 
deanery,  and  Coleridge  hundred.  It  had  565  inhabitants  (265  males,  300  females)  in  1871,  living  in  128 
houses  on  2790  acres ;  the  parish  includes  145  acres  of  water.  At  Tuckenhay  are  a  corn  mill  and  large 
quarries  of  hard  stone,  of  which  great  quantities  are  exported  to  London,  &c.  for  macadamising  roads. 
Richard  Durant,  Esq.,  J.P,,  owns  a  great  part  of  the  parish,  and  is  owner  of  the  manor  of  Sharpham,  which 
has  been  successively  held  by  the  Winard,  French,  Prideaux,  Drewe,  Cliles,  Yarde,  Cockey,  Pownall,  and 
Bastard  families.  The  Rev.  G.  T.  Carwithen,  Mr.  W.  D.  Adams,  Mr.  Edmonds,  Mrs.  Chilcote,  Mr.  Jeffry 
Edwards,  Mr.  Freer,  and  Mrs.  Adams,  have  estates  here.  Painsford,  an  ancient  mansion  on  the  banks  of 
the  river  Harbourn,  and  the  residence  of  Mr.  Richard  Coaker,  is  the  property  of  Mr.  Philip  Michelmore,  and 
has  been  successively  held  by  the  Piperell,  Halwill,  Somaster,  Kellond,  Courtenay,  and  other  families.  It 
was  formerly  much  larger  than  at  present,  and  its  chapel,  disused  since  the  middle  of  the  last  century,  had  a 
suite  of  armour  hanging  over  the  communion  rails;  but  the  chapel  has  been  removed.  The  left  wing  of  the 
house  has  a  fine  row  of  arches.  Mr.  Durant  occupies  a  large  and  handsome  Portland  stone  mansion,  with 
extensive  and  well-wooded  grounds,  descending  to  the  western  bank  of  the  river  Dart,  amidst  some  of  the 
most  beautiful  scenery  of  the  valley.  The  Church  (St.  David)  is  a  liaudsome  structure  in  the  Perpendicular 
style,  consisting  of  chancel,  nave,  and  two  side  aisles.  It  was  restored  in  1845,  and  new  windows  with 
muUions  and  tracery  of  Bath  stone  inserted,  chiefly  at  the  expense  of  Richard  Durant,  Esq.  The  clustered 
columns  of  the  nave  have  foliated  capitals.  The  church  is  seated  with  square  pews,  ex-cept  the  chancel, 
which  has  solid  oak  open  benches.  The  chancel  is  divided  from  the  nave  by  a  dwarf  screen  of  Portland 
stone,  surmounted  with  ironwork  and  brass,  marble  columns  inserted  in  the  pillars,  and  is  laid  with  encaustic 
tiles ;  those  within  the  communion  rails  are  in  memory  of  the  Ley  and  Carwithen  families,  and  were  laid  at 
the  expense  of  the  Rev.  Jacob  Ley,  and  the  rest  at  the  cost  of  the  present  rector.  The  improvements  in  the 
chancel  were  carried  out  in  1865  at  the  cost  of  £300,  under  the  supervision  of  Mr.  Thomas  Lidstone,  of 
Dartmouth,  The  east  window  has  been  filled  with  stained  glass,  executed  by  Beer,  of  Exeter,  at  the 
expense  of  R.  Durant,  Esq.,  and  beneath  it  is  a  tine  Caen  stone  reredos,  in  seven  compartments.  In  the 
church  are  several  mural  marble  tablets,  in  memory  of  members  of  the  Somaster,  Kellond,  Bastard,  and 
other  families.  The  living  is  a  ]-ectory;  valued  in  K.B.  at  £29  Is.  8d.,  in  the  patronage  and  incumbency  of 
the  Rev.  G.  W.  T.  Carwithen,  who  resides  in  his  own  house,  the  rectory  house  being  occupied  by  Geiy'  "^ 



Yeo,  Esq.  The  glebe  is  28a.  3r.  ]7r.,  and  the  tithes  were  commuted  in  1844  for  £5.37  a  year.  The  Parish 
School  is  held  in  a  buildiui^  erected  by  the  present  rector,  and  supported  by  a  voluntary  rate ;  it  has  an 
average  attendance  of  45.  A  plot  of  ground,  the  site  of  the  old  aluitshouses,  is  let  lor  10s.  a  year,  which  is 
given  to  the  poor  at  Christmas. 

Post  Office  is  at  Mr.  Samuel  Janes's,  Tuckenhay.  Letters  are  received  at  7.55  a.m.,  and  despatched  at 
5.10  p.m.  weekdays,  and  8.55  a.m.  Sundays,  •  via  Totnes,  which  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Ollice  and 
llailway  Station. 

Adams  Mi's  Mary,  Spring  bank,  Tuck- 
Bowden  John  Hy.  boot  &  shoe  maker 
j>uckingh{im  Henry  (Ileury  and  Son) 
Buckingham  Ily.jun.  (Henry  and  Son) 
Buckingham  Henry  &  Son,  builders 
Burgoyne  John  Baker,  mason 
CHrwithen  Eev.  Geo.  W.  Terry,  rector 
Child  ley  John,  miller,  Washboiirne 
Coaker  Richard,  farmer,  Painsford 
Cornelius  Mr  John.  Steps  cottage 
De  Schmid   Mr    Charles,   Springfield 

house,  Tuckenhay 
De  Schmid  Madame  Eliza,  Myrtle  cot 
Durant  Richard,  Esq.  J.P.  Sharpham 
Earle  John,  farmer,  Brooking 
Elliott  John,  baker  and  grocer 
Foale  AVilliam,  butcher,  Bow  bridge, 

and  Totnes  market  (on  Sat.) 
Fowler  William,  miller,  Tuckenhay 

Goss  George,  farmer,  Newhouse  ;  Palk  Harry  Frank,  farmer,  Sharpham 

Hannaford  John,  carpenter  and   vie-  j      Barton 

tuallor,  MaUsters'Arms,  Tuckenhay  !  Palk  James,  miller&farmer,Bow  mills 

Harris  John,  farmer,  Washbourno 

Harvey  John,  dairyman 

Janes  Samuel,  (j)  mason,  shopkeeper, 
and  poi-tmaster,  Tuckenhay 

Landon  Mr  Henry,  Whittington  Lid- 
diard,  Yeatson 

Loder  John,  storekeeper  for  T.  Pitts 
and  Sons,  and  blacksmith,  brcAver 
and  victualler,  Waterman's  Arms, 
Bow  bridge 

Mann  TJios.  farmer.  Higher  Yeatson 

Manning  Charles,  maltster,  coal  mer- 
chant, and  agent  for  Barnard,  Lack 
and  Alger's  manures,  Tuckenhay 

Newland  Mrs  Elizabeth,  shopkeeper 

Paige  William,  farmer,  Higher  Wash- 

Pedrick  John,  farmer,  Coombe 
Peters  John,  thatcher 
Pinhey  Wm.  farmer.  Lower  Yeatson 
1  i  ts  T.   &    Sons,  manure  merchants, 
&C.  Tuckenliiiy,John  Loder,storekpr 
Roper  Thomas,  blacksmith 
Seccombe  Frdk.  paper  mfr.Cornworthy 
Shinner  Jas.  farmer,Ashprington  court 
Short  Samuel,   dairyman  and   victu- 
aller, Ashprington  Inn 
Thuell  Henry,  sexton 
Tope  Henry,  miller,  Painsford 
Wind  borne  James,  farmer,  Frogmoro 
Williams  Mrs  Elizabeth 
Wyatt  Samuel,  tailor  &  parish  clerk   . 
Yeo  Mr  Gerald,  The  Rectory 

ASHREIGNY  or  King's  Ash  parish  includes  the  hamlets  of  Riddleeomhe  and  Great  Hayes,  and  is  in 
Torrington  union,  county  court  district,  Southmolton  petty  sessional  division,  Northern  division  of  the 
county,  Barnstaple  archdeaconry,  Chulmleigh  rural  deanery,  and  North  TaAvton  hundred.  Ashreigny 
village  is  4  miles  VV.  by  S.  of  Chulmleigh.  The  parish  had  786  inhabitants  (403  males,  383  females)  in 
1871,  living  in  165  houses,  on  5663  acres  of  land.  J.  G.  Johnson,  E>q.,  M.P.,  is  lord  of  the  manor  formerly 
belonging  to  the  Keigny  and  other  lamilies,  but  part  of  the  soil  is  held  by  Earl  Portsmouth  and  a  few 
smaller  owners.  Here  is  an  annual  fair  on  the  Wednesday  after  January  30lh.  The  Church  (St.  James) 
is  an  ancient  structure  with  a  tower  containing  six  bells.  The  living  is  a  rectory,  valued  in  K.B.  at  £24,  in 
the  patronage  of  the  Kev.  J.  F.  Johnson,  and  incumbency  cf  the  liev.  R.  L.  P.  Samborne,  M.A.,  J.P.,  who 
has  a  good  residence  and  78  acres  of  glebe.  The  tithes  are  commuted  at  £460  a  year.  The  Wesletans  have 
a  chapel  here,  and  at  Bridgereeve  is  an  Independent  Chapel.  The  National  School  was  built  in  1860 
at  a  cost  of  £600,  raised  by  voluntary  contribution,  aided  by  Government  grant. 

Letters  by  foot  post,  via  Chulmleigh,  which  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office.  There  is  a  Wall 
Letter  Box  in  the  village,  cleared  at  5.40  p.m.  weekdays  only. 

Ashplant  John,  boot  and  shoe  maker 
Ashplant  Richd.  boot  and  shoe  mnker 
Babbage  James,  farmer,  AVoodrow 
Bird  John,  farmer,  Pitt 
Boundy  Andrew,  victualler.  New  Inn 
Boundy  James,  tailor  &  shopkeeper, 

Bouudy  John,  draper  and  grocer 
Boundy  Richd.  farmer,  Riddlecombe 
Boundy  Saml.  house  agent  and  parish 

Boundy  Samuel,  farmer,  West  yard 
Callard  William,  blacksmith 
Carter  John,  wheelwright   and  shop- 
keeper, Riddlecombe 
Carter  Samuel,  farmer,  Riddlecombe 
Cole  Mrs  Joan,  farmer,  Denshanr 
Cole  John,  farmer  and  manure   mer- 
chant, South 
Cole  John  Budd,  farmer,  Isaacs 
Cole  Joseph,  farmer.  Ham 
Cole  Saml.  yeoman.  Church  water 
Cole  Thomas,  farmer,  Beera 

Cook  John,  rope  maker  &  shopkeeper, 

Cook  John,  jun.  rope  maker,  Bridge- 
Cook  John,  farmer.  Coal  House 
Dunn  Saml,  Chappie,  farmer,  Horridge 
Ellis  James,  blacksmith,  Bridgereeve 
Ford  John,  farmer  and  road  surveyor 

for  Chulmleigh  district 
Gay  William,  miller,  Marsh  mill 
Greenslade  John,  blacksmith,  Riddle- 
Hancock  John,  farmer  and  maltster, 

Harris  Mrs  Hannah,  farmer,  Riddle- 
Harris  Jeremiah,  farmer  and  assessor 

of  taxes,  Riddlecombe 
Harris  .John,  farmer.  Cold  Harbour 
Harris  Robert,  farmer,  Riddlecombe 
Harris  Robert,  farmer.  Hole 
Harris  Thomas,  carpenter 
Harris  William,  farmer,  Hook 

Ilea  don  Isaac,  farmer,  Westaeott 
Josling  Mrs  Mary  Cowman,  National 

school  mistress 
Josling   William    Richard,    National 

school  master  and  orgnist 
Lane  Wm.  saddler  &  harness  maker 
Mitchell  Mrs  Jane,  South  cottage 
Mitchell  John,  farmer,  Eagledown 
Reed  Edward,  yeoman,  Arson 
Samborne  Rev  Richd.  Lane  Palmer, 

M.A.,  J.P.  rector.  The  Rectory 
Short  Bernard  &  Son,  farmers.  Bridge 
Short  John  (B.  &  Son);  h  Bridge 
Short     Richard,     farmer,     Northcott 

Simmons  Thomas,  carpenter 
Skinner  Thos.  farmer,  Hansford 
Skinner  William,  farmer,  Redland 
Squire  John,  yeoman,  Furze  Barton 
Squire  John,  farmer,  West  Arson 
Thorne  John,  farmer,  Crabdown 
i  Turner  Christopher,  farmer,  Heale 
I  Wedlake  John,  farmer,  Bourne  Barton 

ASHTON,  a  parish,  on  an  acclivity,  rising  from  a  small  rivulet,  4  miles  N.  by  W.  of  Chudleigh, 
includes  two  villages  called  Higher  and  Loivcr  Ashion,  and  has  a  station  on  the  Teign  Valley  Hailway.  It 
is  in  St.  Thomas's  miion,  Exeter  county  court  district  and  archdeaconry,  Wonford  petty  sessional  division, 
Exeter  polling  district  of  East  Devon,  Kenn  rural  deanery,  and  Exminster  hundred.  Its  parish  had  255 
inhabitants  (127  males,  128  females)  in  1871,  living  in  48  houses  on  1709  acres  of  land.     John  Treeby, 



Esq.,  is  lord  of  the  manor  and  principal  owner  of  the  soil.  The  Chiidleighs  were  lords  of  the  manor,  and 
were  seated  here  from  1320  till  about  1750,  and  the  remains  of  their  mansion  may  be  seen  in  a  farm  house. 
Sir  Georg-e  Chudleigh  was  created  a  baronet  in  1620,  but  the  title  became  extinct  on  the  death  of  Sir  James, 
who  was  killed  at  Ostend,  in  1745.  Their  house,  which  had  been  garrisoned  for  the  King,  was  taken  by  the 
Parliamentarians,  December  29,  1G45.  Tlie  CnuRcn  (St.  John),  is  an  ancient  fabric,  with  a  tower  and  six 
bells.  In  the  interior  is  an  old  painted  screen.  The  Register  dates  from  1517.  The  church  contains  a 
wooden  monument  to  Sir  George  Chudleigh.  first  a  Parliamentarian,  and  afterwards  a  lloyalist  commander 
in  the  Civil  War  of  1G57,  and  liis  wife  who  had  'nine  sons  and  nine  daughters.'  The  living  is  a  rectory, 
valued  in  K.lJ.  at  £11  10;?.  2^d.,  in  the  patronage  and  incumbency  of  the  llev.  Henry  Roberts,  M.A,, 
who  has  58  acres  of  glebe,  and  a  large  residence  with  pleasant  grounds.  The  tithes  are  commuted  for 
£250  10s.  a  year.  The  National  ScnooL  was  built  in  1830.  Two  small  Almshotjses,  built  in  1054, 
by  Sir  George  Chudleigh  and  other  contributors,  are  endowed  with  £5. a  year,  left  in  1G75,  by  John  Stooke, 
who  also  left  20s.  a  year  for  the  poor  parishioners. 

Post  from  Newton  Abbot,  through  Bovey  Tracey,  but  Chudleigh  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office. 

Barber  Francis,  farmr,  Blachforcl  farm 
Bartlett    William,    farmer   and  vict. 

Fisherman  Inn 
Bradrich  Henry,  farmer,  Greorge.Teign 
Bradrich    William,    farmer,    Higher 

Cleave  Walter,  farmer.  Bramble 

Coble}'-  Mrs  Mary,  National  school- 
Kelland  Mrs,  farmer,  Rydon 
Knowles     John,     wheelwright     and 

victualler,  New  Inn 
Mortimer  — ,  farmer,  Goombe 
Nosworthy  — ,  farmer,  Cowley 

Rich  John,  shopkeeper  and  tailor 
Roberts  Rev  Henry,  M.A.  rector,  The 

ToAvnsend  Richard,  shopkefeper 
Vooght  Henry,  f^irmer,  Bridgelands 
White  John,  farmer,  Place  Barton 

ASIIWATER,  7  miles  S.E.  by  S.  of  Ilolsworthy,  is  a  large  village  and  parish  in  Ilolsworthy  union, 
county  court  district  and  deanery,  Ilolsworthy  petty  sessional  division,  South  division  of  the  county,  Black 
Torrington  hundred,  and  Barnstaple  archdeaconry.  Its  parish  had  849  inhabitants  (451  males,  398  females), 
in  1871,  living  in  1G8  houses,  on  8587  acres  of  land,  and  includes  the  hamlet  of  Quoditch,  2  miles  east  of 
the  village.  It  has  fairs  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  May,  and  the  first  Monday  in  August.  Miss  Mary  Preston 
is  lady  of  the  manor  of  Ash  water ;  Lady  Molesworth,  lady  of  Ilunscott  manor,  and  owner  of  Henford 
Barton  ;  and  W.  B.  Coham,  Esq.,  owns  the  manor  of  Greenworthy.  The  Church  (St.  Peter),  has  a  tower 
and  five  bells,  and  contains  a  rich  monument  of  the  last  of  the  Carminow  family;  one  to  John  Short,  J]sq., 
and  another  to  Peter  Spoure,  Esq.  The  Register  dates  from  1558.  The  rectory,  valued  in  K.B.  at 
£2G  (Ss.  Sd.,  is  in  the  patronage  of  W.  W.  Melhuish,  Esq.,  and  incumbency  of  the  Rev.  J.  ]M.  Feild,  B.A., 
who  has  a  good  residence  and  94  acres  of  glebe.  The  tithes  are  commuted  at  £5G9  a  year.  The  Baptists 
and  the  Bible  Christiaij^s  have  small  chapels  here. 

Post  Ofpice  at  Mr.  John  Wadland's.  Letters  are  received  at  11  a.m.,  and  despatched  at  3.15  p.m. 
via  Lifton,  which  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office. 

Baker  Thomas,  blacksmith,  Long  lane  ' 
Beale  Richard,  farmer,  East  down 
Beare  John,  farmer,  Statford 
Beare  John,  miller.  Ash  mill 
Beare  Samuel,  yeoman,  Pristacott 
15otterell     Joseph    Dennis,     farmer, 

South  Quoditch 
Braund  John,  farmer,  Ilegadon 
Bray  Richard  Veysey,  tailor,  grocer, 
draper,   ironmonger  and   agent  for 
Briton,  Medical  and  General  Life 
and  Norwich  and  London  Accident 
Insurance  Companies 
Bray  Thomas  Martin,  farmer 
Ching  Richd.  farmr.  Little  Claw  moor 
Clifton    Henry,      plumber,      glazier, 

painter  and  paperhanger 
Clifton  Richard,  carpenter,  Henford 
Clifton  Robert,  Mason 
difton  Thomas,  tailor 
jClifton  William,  carpenter..  Henford 
^ole  John,  carpenter,  Cross  lanes 
Cole    William,   farmer  and  butcher, 
■    Pristacott 

pCory  John,  day  school  and  registrar  of 
:    births  and  deaths   for  Broadwood 

Widger  district 
I  Crocker  John,  farmer.  North  end 
jCurtiee  Greorge,  farmer,  Larkworthy 
I.Dinnis  Samuel,  farmer,  Barton 
Docket  James,  tailor  and  draper 
Docket  John,  jobbing  gardener,  Long- 
Docket  John,  jun.  blacksmith 

Ellacott  George,  farmer,  Larkworthy 
Facy     Alexander,     yeoman,     Langa- 

Facy  Samuel  Pearce,  yeoman,  Langa- 

Facey  Thomas  Martin,  yeoman,  Muck- 
Feild  Eev  James  Meyrick,  B.A.  rector, 

The  Rectory 
Friend  John,  ffirmer,  West  Venn 
Fry   Thomas,  M.R.C.V.S.  'veterinary 

surgeon,  Cross  lanes 
Furse  William,  farmer.  West  down 
Gerry  John,  tailor,  Cross  lanes 
Gerry  William,  farmer,  Pristacott 
Gilbert  Henry,  farmer,  Muckworthy 
Gimblett  John,  farmer,  Hunscott 
Hamly  John,  carpenter,  Pristacott 
Harris  James,  farmer,  Pristacott 
Hatch  Emanuel,  farmer.  Burrow 
Beard  Arscott,  farmer  Langaford 
Heard  Marwood,  farmer,  Hunscott 
Hicks  John,  farmer,  Widdon 
Hill  John  &  Co.  ironmongers,  grocers, 
drapers,  farmers,  manure  merchants 
and  agents  for   West  of  England 
Ins.    Co.   and   agricultural    imple- 
ment agents,  Blagaton 
Hill  Richard,  farmer,  Hunscott 
James  Jeremiah,  farmer,  Clawford 
Jenkin  William,  farmer  &  victualler. 

Manor  Inn 
Jones  Hy.  higgler  &  f^irmer,  Henford 
Jordan  John,  farmer,  Braddon 

Jordan    Richard,   farmer   and    shop- 
keeker.  Beach  cottage 
Jordan  Richard,  jun.  farmer,  Statfonl 
Lunn  Abraham,  farmer,  Forda 
Maynard  James,  farmer,  Barriton 
Medland  William,  farmer,  Swingdou 
Metherell  John,  yeoman,  Buckhorii 
Murley  Richard,  farmer,  NewEnglaii  1 
Nancekivell  Thomas,  farmer  and  cattle 

dealer,  Reuson 
Nancekivell    William     Beale,    catile 

dealer,  Renson 
Northcott  James,  carpenter,  Ash  mill 
Northcott  Thomas,  carpenter 
Oliver  John,  yeoman,  Pristacott 
Oliver   Thomas,    yeoman,    land    sur- 
veyor   and  collector  of   Land   and 
Income  taxes,  Henford 
Palmer  Richard,  farmer,  Langaford 
Parsons  James,  farmer.  Hay 
Parsons  John,  farmer,  Viza 
Petheriek  Arthur,  higgler  and  carrier, 

Thorney  cross 
Priscott  William,  builder 
ReddiclifFo  Richard,  farmer.  Quo  liteh 
Rogers  Mrs  Mary  Ann,  farmer,  Saiui- 

bury  moor 
Rogers  Richard,  farmer,  Clawmoor 
Scoins  William,  farmer,  Quoditch 
Smale  Robert,  carpenter  &  machinist, 

Sobey  Benjamin,  farmer,  Blagaton 
Sobey  Emanuel,  boot  and  shoe  maker, 
Lipson  cottage 



Spry  Jno.  blacksmith,  Sandlmry  moor  j  Tom  John,  vict.  Union  Inn,  Ash  mill 
Spry  Philip,  fanner  aiul   l.lacksniii li.  i  TrcliLle  William,  tailor,  Ash  mill 

Spry  Philip,  jun.  J'annui- .•uid  luilcln'i 

Spry  AVilliam,  farinur,  Luckcron 
Steulako  John,  boot  and  shoo  inakur 
Symons  William,  farmer,  Laiigalbrd 

ble  William,  tailor.  Ash 
\r:\\o  Miss  Ann,  Ilegadon 
\  ealo  liobert,  yoomaii,  Ho! 
Veysoy  Charles,  boys'  I  >'  .;i  V' 

llainpden  hoiuse 
Vcysey  Mrs  Cluu'Irs.  1,-dieh 

school,  Hampdeu  In  disc; 


i!j,  school, 

Wadland   John,    draper,    grocer   and 

AVatkins  Thou  I.I.-,  lunn  !■,  Arscott 
Watkins  Thomah,  jun.  iarmer,  Grcnds- 

Yelland  Samuel,  farmei-,  Middlecroft 
CAituiEii — Arthur  Petherick,  to  P///- 

moiith,  Tliurs, 

ATIIElllNGTON  is  a  pleasant  village  and  parish  on  an  eminence,  7  miles  S.S.E.  from  Barnstaple, 
8  miles  W.  by  S,  of  South  jNLolton,  and  E.N.E,  of  Torrington.  Its  parish  is  in  Ijarnstaple  union,  arch- 
deaconry, rural  deanery,  and  county  court  district,  Braunton  petty  sessional  divi.sion,  Northern  division  of  the 
county,  and  North  TaWton  hundred.  It  had  o78  inhabitants  (285  males,  29'i  females)  in  1873,  living  in  110 
houses,  on  3320  acres  of  land,  and  includes  tlie  hamlets  of  Lcmc/ridye  and  Eastacomhe.  The  Rev.  A.  C. 
Bassett  is  lord  of  the  manor  of  IJmberleigh,  which  extends  over  this  and  High  Bickington  parish,  and  had  an 
ancient  chantry  chapel,  which  was  pulled  down  in  1800.  Buriate  is  an  estate  belonging  to  Gonville  and 
Cains  College,  Cambridge ;  and  Woottmi  belongs  to  the  representatives  of  the  Melhuish  family.  The  manor 
of  Umberleigh  was  formerly  held  by  the  Beaumonts,  whose  heiress  (Jane  Beaumont)  carried  it  in  marriage 
to  Sir  John  Bassett,  ancestor  of  the  present  owner,  llisdon  says  that  Athelstanc  had  a  palace  at  Umber- 
leigh, and  that  he  founded  a  church  at  Atherington,  which  he  endowed  with  two  hides  of  land.  The 
Church  (St.  Mary),  a  fine  old  structure,  consisting  of  nave,  chancel,  north  aisle,  and  tower  containing  seven 
very  good  bells,  was  improved  in  1870  by  lamps  being  added,  and  the  church  re-decorated  at  the  cost  of  .£'oO. 
Many  of  the  seats  in  the  nave  have  handsome  carved  ends.  On  the  south  side  of  the  chancel  are  two 
windows  filled  with  stained  glass — one  in  memory  of  members  of  the  rector's  family,  and  the  other  of  Amy 
Chichester,  who  died  in  1803;  and  two  others  on  the  north  side  are  also  enriched  with  stained  glass.  On  a 
tombstone  in  the  chancel  are  brasses  in  memory  of  Sir  John  Basset  (who  lived  in  the  reign  of  Henr}'-  VII,) 
and  his  two  wives  and  twelve  children ;  in  this  part  of  the  church  are  also  two  recumbent  effigies  (male  and 
female).  There  is  a  very  fine  oak  screen  which  was  brought  from  Umberleigh  chapel.  The  rectory,  valued 
in  K.B.  at  £20  '2s.  Ic?.,  has  a  manor  attached,  and  is  in  the  patronage  and  incumbency  of  the  Bev.  James 
xVrthur,  B.A.,  who  has  205a.  3r.  21p.  of  glebe  and  a  good  residence,  erected  in  1837,  at  the  cost  of  £1000. 
The  tithes  are  commuted  at  £410  a  year.  In  the  village  is  a  small  chapel  belonging  to  the  Baptists.  The 
Chuech  ScnooL,  erected  in  1864,  to  hold  60  children,  at  a  cost  of  £300,  is  attended  by  30  pupils  ;  a  house 
for  the  teacher  was  built  in  1876  at  an  outlay  of  £150.  The  British  School,  in  connection  with  the 
Baptist  Chapel,  is  attended  by  about  60  children.  The  poor  have  £2  10^.  yearly  as  the  interest  of  Lady 
Chichester's  charity. 

Post  Ofpice  at  Mr.  Thomas  Loosemore's.  Letters  are  despatched  at  3.45  p.m.,  via  Barnstaple,  which  is 
the  nearest  Monev  Order  Office. 

Andrew   John,    farmer,    Umberleigh 

Arthur  George,  farmer,  Eastacombe 
Arthur  Rev  James,  B.A.  rector,  The 

Bedford  Richard,  fanner,  Wootton 
Beer  John,  bootmaker 
Beer  John,  carpeuter 
Beer  William,  carpenter 
Bowden  Wm.  fruit  dealer,  Chantry 
Brown  Mr  Edwd.  Umberleigh  House 
Brown  Mrs  Jane,  shopkeeper 
Brownscombe  John,  vict.,  Ci^rpenters' 

Inn,  and  assistant  overseer 
Burgess  Wm.   vict.,  Rising  Sun,  and 

farmer,  Umberleigh 
Champion  Walter,  iarmer,  Little  Wore 

Clarke  William,  blacksmitli 
Delbridge  John,  farmer,  Buriate 
Delbridgc  Wm.  farmer,  Fishley  Rock 
Down  John,  farmer,  Little  halt 
Down  John,  farmer,  Overv/ore 
Bown  Thomas,  farmer,  Langridge 
Down  William,  farmer.  Partridge 
Downing  Richd.  Baptist  shcoolmaster 
Guard  By.  corn  miller,  Umberleigh 
(.ios.'<  Philip,  farmer,  Higher  house 
Harris  John,  farmer,  Bremridge 
Jones  Richd.  farmer.  Little  Knowles 
Joslin  Willia.m,  farmer,  Langridge 
Lake  William,  bootmaker  and  shop- 
keeper, Langridge  ford 
Lemon  Mr  John,  Rose  cottage 
Lemon  William,  farmer,  Wixland 

Loosemore   Thomas,    blacksmith  and 

Mayne  Frederick,  bootmaker 
Reed  William,  farmer 
Russell  Mr  Robert,  Eastacombe 
Scoyne  John  Milton,  victualler,  White 

Hart,  and  bootmaker 
Slee  Richard,  bootmaker 
Smyth  John,  Church  schoolmaster 
Tucker  Mrs  Grace,  frmr.  Gt.  Knowl 
Warren  Thomas,  farmer 
Webber  Joseph,  carpenter 
White  Samuel,  farmer,  Langridge 
Whitehead  Rev  Geo.,  B.A.,  curate 
Woanacott  William,  shopkeeper 

CAuraER  -'Bi\did,\.QBarnstai)le,  Eridi 


AVETON  GIFFOIIB  parish,  which  includes  the  small  hamlets  of  AsJiford,  Lixton,  JFaterhead,  and 
Ilarraton,  in  Kingsbridge  union,  and  county  court  district,  Ermington  and  Plympton  petty  sessional  division, 
Kingsbridge  polling  district  of  South  Devon,  Ermington  hundred,  Totnes  archdeaconry,  and  Woodleigh  rural 
deanery.  It  had  839  inhabitants  (425  males,  414  females)  in  1871,  living  in  191  houses,  on  3182  acres,  in- 
cluding 130  acres  of  water.  The  village  is  pleasantly  situated  in  the  picturesque  valley  of  the  river  Avon, 
3^  miles  N.W.  of  Kingsbridge,  and  S.E.  of  Modbury.  The  river,  which  is  crossed  by  a  good  bridge,  is  navi-, 
gable  for  barges,  and  has  a  salmon  fishery.  The  manor  was  anciently  held  by  the  Gilfords  or  Giffards, 
and  afterwards  passed  to  the  Bynkam,  Prous,  Mules,  Bamarell,  and  Berry  families.  It  now  belongs  to 
Baldwin  John  P.  Bastard,  Esq.,  wdio  holds  a  court-leet  here  every  two  3^ears ;  but  there  is  a  small 
manor  called  Heathiield,  belonging  to  the  trustees  of  P.  Hyne,  Esq.  The  principal  owners  of  the  soil  are 
John  Alfred  Pearce,  Esq.,  William  Eroude,  Esq.,  Archdeacon  Woollcombe,  Admiral  George  Parker,  Messrs. 
llobert  and  James  Parsons,  Thomas  Elliott,  James  Adams,  and  Samuel  Wroth.  A  market  and  two  fairs  were 
granted  to  the  lord  of  the  manor  in  1289,  but  they  have  been  obsolete  some  centuries.  The  Church  (St. 
Andrew),  one  of  the  finest  and  oldest  churches  in  South  Devon,  is  a  large  cruciform  structure  in  the  early 
English  Pointed  style,  and  has  a  fine  peal  of  eight  bells.    The  church  was  restored  in  1868-9  at  a  cost  o*f  . 



£2441  Ss.  Id.,  of  which  £500  was  borrowed  on  rate,  £500  derived  from  legacy  left  by  Miss  Fronde,  and  the 
residue  from  subscription.  The  east  window  is  filled  with  beautiful  stained  glass,  executed  by  Clayton  and 
Bell,  in  memory  of  the  late  rector.  An  organ  was  erected  in  1875  at  the  cost  ot  £435,  the  parishioners  sub- 
scribing £50,  the  remainder  being  given  by  the  late  rector  and  friends  and  John  Alfred  Pearce, 
Esq.  The  living  is  a  rectory,  valued  in  K.B.  at  £38  Is.  8cZ.,  in  the  patronage  and  incumbency  of  the  llev. 
W.  D.  Pitman,  M.A.,  who  has  97  acres  of  glebe  and  a  good  house,  erected  in  1849  by  the  late  rector.  The 
tithes  are  commuted  at  £667.  The  Baptists,  Wesleyans,  and  Bible  Christians  have  small  chapels  here. 
Here  is  a  Reading  Room,  supplied  with  daily  newspapers,  periodicals,  and  having  a  library  of  600  volumes ; 
there  are  about  40  members.  The  National  School  was  built  in  1857,  at  a  cost  of  £800,  raised  by  sub- 
scription and  government  grant :  it  has  an  average  attendance  of  172.  There  are  2  acres  of  land  and  several 
tenements  and  rent-charges  given  by  Peter  Bateman  and  others  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth,  for  the  repairs  of 
the  church,  and  now  producing  £17  17s.  Od.  The  poor  have  3s.  4d.  yearly,  left  by  Mary  Modlin.  Mrs.  Lucy 
Wilcox,  in  1875,  left  £500  for  the  benefit  of  the  poor  of  this  parish,  not  being  inmates  of  the  Union  Work- 
house, the  interest  to  be  distributed  in  provisions  by  the  churchwardens  and  overseers  yearly  on  Christmas 
eve.  The  money  is  invested  in  the  Three  per  cent  Annuities.  A  tablet  recording  this  charity  has  been 
erected  in  the  church.  The  poor  of  this  parish  also  received  for  a  great  number  of  years  iOs.  a  year  from 
Horscombe  estate,  in  the  parish  of  Marlborough. 

Post  Office  at  Mr.  Thomas  G.  Holman's.  Letters  are  received  at  8  15  a.m.  from  Kingsbridge,  and  at 
4.45  p.m.  viji  Ivybridge ;  and  despatched  at  8.10  a.m.  via  Ivybridge;  for  Kingsbridge  and  all  partt^  at  4.45  p.m.  on 
weekdays ;  and  at  8.30  a.m.  to  Ringmore ;  Bigbury  and  Kingston  at  8.30  a.m.  On  Sundays  letters  are  re- 
ceived at  8.15  a.m.,  and  despatched  at  12  noon,  via  Kingsbridge,  which  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office. 
Kingsbridge  Road  is  the  nearest  Railway  Station. 

Adams  Jas.  farmer,  Higher  Stadbury 
Anthony  Richard,  farmer,  Lixton  and 

Wakeliam ;  h  Lixton 
Baker  Jno.  mllr.  &  frmr.  Ashfordmill 
Beer  Elias,  butcher 
Best  Trevosso  Carbis,  farmer,  South 

Brown  John,  farmer,  Hellyers 
Burner  William,  coal  dealer 
Chubb  Edward,  tailor 
Cowles  William,  farmer,  Grrove  park 
Crocker  John  Lavers,  farmer,  Titwell 
CrockerRichd.  farmr,  Coltons  Borough, 

and  (h)  Chance  Combe,  Kingston 
Damarell  Henry,  blacksmith 
Darey  Robert,  baker 
Drew  John,  farmer,  agent  for  Hunt's 

manures,  &  tax  collector,  Chilliton 
Edgcombe  Greorge,  mason 
Elliott  Thos.  Lakeman,  frmr.  Babland 
Ellis  John,  miller,  Marsh  mills 
Farley  Henry,  vict.  Commercial  Inn 
Friend  Charles,  farmer.  Heath 
Fronde  Miss  Emma,  shopkeeper 
Garland  Edward,   farmer,   Stockadon 

and  Lower  Wizaller ;  h  Stockadon 
Garland  Mr  Richard  Lewis,  Fishleigh 
Hannaford  John,  mason 
Harding  Geo.  frmr.  Higher  Wizaller 
Harris  i3ros.  wheelwrights 
Harris  Frederick  (Bros.) 
Harris  George  (Bros.) 
Harris  William,  timber  dealer 

Hodder  John,  farmer,  Harraton 
Holman  Thomas  Gill,  draper,  grocer, 

and  postmaster 
Horn  William,  shopkeeper 
Hosking  William,  shoemaker 
Kerswell  Wm.  farmer.  North  Efford 
Lakeman  Samuel,  carpenter 
Luckraft     Joseph,     builder,     timber 

dealer,  and  farmer 
Luscombe  John,  baker 
Moore  Thomas,  pork  butcher  &  carrier 
Moore  William,  farmer,  Waterhead 
Morgan  John  Hingston,  draper 
Morgan  Peter,  blacksmith 
Pearce  James,  farmer,  Court  Barton 
Pearce  Mr  John  Alfred,  Chantry 
Pengelly  Thomas,  letter  carrier 
Phillips  Thomas,  shoemaker 
Pitman  Rev    William  Daniel,  M.A., 

rector,  The  Rectory 
Prowse  Mr  George,  AValnut  cottage 
Rogers  Christopher,  mason 
Rogers  John,  mason 
Rogers  William,  farmer,  Idston 
Roll  Wm,  vict.  Harraton  Inn,  Harraton 
Ruth  Benjamin,  mason  and  sexton 
Sandovor  John  (R,  J.  &  J.) 
Sandover  Richd.  John  (R.  J.  &  J.) 
Sandover  R.  J.  &  J.,  wheelwrights  and 

smiths,  Chilliton 
Saunders  Roger,  thatcher 
Saunderson   P.    H.    and    Mrs   E.  J. 

National  school  teachers 

Sibley  Isaac,  shopkeeper 

Steer  Fredk.  vict.  King's  Arms  Hotel 

Steer  John,  mason 

Steer  William  Henry,  farrier 

Steere  Thos.  frmr.  J^dwards  Borough 

Tarring  James,  farmer,  Ashford 

Terry  Mrs  Annie,  dressmaker 

Tolcher  John,  baker  &  horse  clipper 

Toms  Joseph,  baker,  grocer,  &  parish 

Toms  William,  tailor 
Tuckerman  Jno.  vict.  Bridge  Inn 
AValk  Mrs  Ann 
Widdicombe  Samuel,  miller  &  farmer, 

Town  mill 
W^iddi combe  William,  shoemaker 
Willcocks  George,  jun.,  farmer 
Willcocks  John,  wheelwright  &  tim- 
ber dealer 
Wills  George,  farmer,  Lov/er  Stadbury 
Winzer  Edwin,  butcher 
Wood  William,  fcirmer,  Chilliton 
Wroth  Saml.  farmer.  Ley;  and  Stover 

Lake,  Kingston  ;  h  Ley 
Wroth  Samuel,  farmer,  Heathfield 
Yabsley  Josias,  fai'mer,  Ashford 
Yabsley  Richard,  farmer,  Binnick 
Carrieb  —  Thomas    Moore,   to   PIt/- 

mouth,  Saturday 
Conveyance. — All  conveyances  from 
Kingshriclgs  to  Modlmry  and  Fly- 
moioih    pass    through.     Mail    cart 
daily  to  Ivyhridge 

AWLISCOMBE,  AzvIesco7nhe,  or  Oivrs  Combe,  is  a  parish  and  village,  2  miles  W.  by  N.  of  Ilouiton 
Kailway  Station,  9  miles  S.E.  from  Cullompton  Railway  Station,  and  16  miles  N.E.  from  Exeter;  its  parish, 
which  includes  the  hamlets  of  Weston  and  Wolverston,  is  in  Tloniton  union,  county  court  district,  petty 
sessional  division,  Payhembury  polling  district  of  North  Devon,  Exeter  archdeaconry,  Dunkeswell  runil  deanery, 
and  Hemyock  hundred.  It  liad  581  inhabitants  (270  males,  311  females)  in  1871,  living  in  133  houses,  on 
2569  acres  of  land,  whicli  rises  in  bold  hills  on  the  north.  The  parish  is  said  to  be  called  OiuPs  Combe,  from 
the  number  of  owls  which  breed  here  and  are  heard  by  night.  A  handsome  bridge  over  the  Otter,  connecting 
this  and  Iloniton  parishes,  was  built  in  1817.  x\wliscorabe  iiad  a  grant  for  a  market  and  fair  in  1291,  but 
both  have  long  been  obsolete.  An  estate  of  about  207  acres,  called  the  manor  of  Awliseombe,  was  given,  in 
1491,  by  Thomas  Calwodeley,  Esq.,  to  the  Corporation  of  Exeter  for  the  relief  of  poor  citizens.  The  rest  of 
the  soil  belongs  to  Colonel  Drewe,  Mrs.  Notley,  George  Neumann,  Esq.,  F.  Pearse,  Esq.,  Lady  G.  Sawley, 
Mrs.  Elliott,  the  Pring  family,  and  a  few  smaller  freeholders.  Mr.  Neumann  occupies  Tracey  House. 
The  CnuKCH  (St.  Michael)  is  in  the  Perpendicular  style,  and  was  restored  in  1837  at  a  cost  of  £500. 
It  consists  of  chancel,  nave,  porch  with  fine  groined  stone  roof,  and  tower  containing  five  bells  and  a  ciocl:. 
The  clock  was  presented  to  the  parish  by  G.  Neumann,  Esq.,  and  in  1877  the  bells  were  rehung  at  an  outlay 

H  2 



of  £80.  The  church  contains  a  very  beinitifiil  stone  screen,  three  windows  enriched  with  stained  glass,  and  an 
organ,  built  in  18(50,  at  an  outlay  of  £120.  The  liegister  dates  from  l/ioO.  The  living  is  a  vicarage,  valued 
in  K.P).  at  £'12  10s.  JOd.,  in  the  patronage  of  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  and  incumbency  of  the  llev.  F.  T,  B. 
AVillesford,  B.A.,  who  lias  a  small  but  neat  thatched  house,  and  40  acres  of  glebe.  The  vicarial  tithes  have  been 
commuted  for  £220,  and  the  rectorial  for  i'lTO.  The  latter  are  invested  in  trust  for  the  augmentation  of 
small  livings  and  education,  and  out  of  them  a  payment  of  £10  is  made  yearly  to  the  schools  of  Awliscombe 
suul  Broadhembury.  The  National  School,  which  Avill  accommodate  00  children,  was  erected  in  1875. 
through  the  exertions  of  the  vicar,  at  a  cost  of  £550,  on  a  site  given  by  Mrs.  Notley,  of  Combe  Sydenham. 
The  poor  have  £10  a  year  from  Pring's  charity  for  distribution  in  linen,  as  noticed  with  East  Budleigh.  Agri- 
cultural It^bourers  who  have  brought  up  their  families  Avithout  parish  aid,  have,  in  common  with  those  of 
Budleigh  Salterton,  the  rent  of  a  field  in  Iloniton  parish,  called  Shipley  Close,  distributed  among  them  on 
Easter  Sunday.      At  Ilembury  Fort  are  the  remains  of  a  lloman  fortification. 

Post  Oitice  at  Mr.  Aaron  Webber's.      Letters  are  received  at  7  a.m.  and  despatched  at  5.30  p.m.  via, 
Iloniton,  which  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office, 

I'Jailoy  John,  -wheelwright 

Bishop  Emanuel,  yeoman,  Westondon 

Bolt  Ellis,  farmer,  IRmthaycs 

Carnell  Goo.  farmer,  Godford  Barton 

Channon  John,  farmer,  Cotters  Ilayne 

Clapp  .Tolm,  miller,  LoAver  mills 

Colo  William,  farmer,  Godfordland 

Darc^  EdAvin,  miller,  Godford  mills 

Dyer  Albin,  carpenter 

Dyer  William,  carpenter 

Harris    James,    farm    bailiff  to    W. 

Porter,  Esq.  HidgeAvay 
Hughes  Major-Gen ei'al  William  Tem- 

pler,  C.B.  Egland 
Jarman   Frederick,  Voluntary  school 

master  and  parish  clerk 

Jarman  Mrs  Martha,  National  school- 
Mugford  .John,  farmer.  Losses 
Mullens  John,  farmer,  Wad  hay 
Neumann  George,  Esq.  J. P.,  Tracey 
Pady  .John,  farmer,  Kents  park 
Pearcey  Tom,   farmer,  Waring  Stone 

Pring  Francis,  farmer.  Birds 
Pring  Francis,  farmer,  Heathfield 
Pring  James,  farmer,  Culverhayes 
Pring  Thomas,  frmr.  ToAvn  Tenement 
Pabjohn  William,  shopkeeper 
Padford  Thomas,  mason 
Richards  Emanuel,  blacksmith 
Hosier  James,  farmer,  Bennetshayes 

Posier    Mrs    Sarah     Pring,    farme: 

Rounsevoll  John,  dairyman 
Sanders  W^illiam,  farmer,  Hayne 
Sansom  Robert,  farmer,  Ibedon 
Saw'le  DoAA^'iger  Lady  Graves,  Ashfie] 
Sparkcs  Mrs  Mary,farmer,Colleyhay 
Staple  Robert,  blacksmith,  Weston 
Starke  Richard,  A'ict.  Iloniton  Inn 
Studley  William,  farmer,  Alter 
Toogood  Ileni'y, farmer  Bishop's  Ilayne 
Webber  Aaron,  thatcher  and  postmstr 
Willesford  Rev  Francis  Thomas  Bed- 
ford, B.A.  vicar,  Ivedon  Penn 
Wilmington  Francis,  farmer,  Marls 

AXMINSTER  is  a  parish  and  small  market  toAvn,  upon  a  pleasant  acclivity  on  the  south-eastern  side  of 
the  river  Axe,  near  the  borders  of  Dorsetshire,  5  miles  N.W.  of  Ijvme  Regis,  0  miles  1*1  by  S.  of  Honiton, 
25  miles  E.  by  N.  of  Exeter,  and  147  miles  W.S.W.  of  London.  The  ancient  parisii  includes  the  tithings  of 
Abhei/,  BeerhaU,  Shapunck,  Smallridge,  Axminster  Town.  Trill,  Uphmj,  West  Water,  Weycroft,  and  Wyke,  or 
Week.  It  gives  name  to  a  poor  law  union,  a  county  court  district,  a  hundred,  a  petty  sessional  division,  a 
polling  district  of  East  Eevon,  and  is  in  Exeter  archdeaconry  and  Dunkeswell  rural  deanery.  Axminster  has 
a  station  on  the  London  and  South  Western  Ilailway.  The  ancient  parish  comprises  the  Axminster  civil 
parish  in  this  county,  and  Bcerhall  tithing  in  Dorsetshire;  the  former  had  2852  inhabitants  (1.394  males  and 
1458  females)  in  1871,  liA^ing  in  535  houses,  on  6617  acres  of  land  ;  and  the  latter  at  the  same  time  had  0 
inhabitants  (4  males  and  5  females),  living  in  2  houses,  on  441  acres  of  land.  Beerliall  Avas  annexed  to  Dorset 
in  1844  (see  page  17).  In  recent  times  the  tithings  Avere  kept  distinct  for  highAvay  purposes  only,  but  this 
has  been  rendered  unnecessary  by  the  adoption  of  the  Highway  Act  (see  page  29).  Axminster  ancient 
parish  had  2154  inhabitants  in  1801 ;  2387  in  1811 ;  2742  in  1821  ;  2719  in  1831 ;  2860  in  1841 ;  2769  in 
1851;  2918  in  1861,  and  2861  in  1871.  The  parish  is  generally  fertile,  and  is  watered  by  the  river  Axe, 
Avhich  abounds  in  salmon  and  other  fish,  and  falls  into  the  sea  about  six  miles  south  of  the  town.  The 
manor  Avas  in  dispute  for  many  years  prior  to  1871,  and  was  administered  under  the  Court  of  Chancery,  but 
in  that  year  the  suits  were  Avound  up,  and  Henry  Knight,  Esq.,  of  Cloaldiam  House,  Axminster,  became  the 
sole  proprietor  of  what  were  called  the  Axminster  manor  and  estate.  Smallridge  estate  was  held  in  the 
reign  of  William  the  Conqueror  by  Ralph  de  l\:)meroy,  and  afterwards  passed  to  the  Mohun,  Raleigh. 
Mallock,  and  Campion  families,  the  latter  of  whom  sold  it  to  several  tenants.  Wycroft,  or  Weycroft,  long 
held  by  the  W^igot,  Gobodisleigh,  and  Dennis  families,  is  now  held  by  EdA\'ard  Liddon,  Esq.,  of  Taunton  ; 
and  Lodge,  a  neighbouring  portion  of  the  ancient  demesne  to  John  Liddon,  Esq.,  of  London.  Humphrey, 
Duke  of  Gloucester,  and  others,  as  trustees  of  the  family  of  Sir  Thomas  Brooke,  had  license  in  1426  to 
castellate  Wycroft  House,  and  enclose  a  park  of  800  acres.  It  was  sold,  in  1611,  to  Thomas  Bennett,  Esq., 
sheriff  of  London,  Avho  destroyed  the  park,  and  suffered  the  house  to  fail  to  ruins,  of  Avhich  there  are  still  a 
few  remains.  The  estate  AA^as  afterwards  sold  to  various  freeholders.  Messrs.  Sparkes,  Sir  G.  Baker,  Lady 
Tallock,  and  many  others  have  estates  liere. 

Axminster  bad  formerly  a  share  of  the  clothing  trade,  and  in  175j  the  late  Mr.  Thomas  Whitty 
established  here  a  manufactory  of  carpets,  which  was  discontinued  in  1835,  after  having  for  many  years  a 
high  celebrity  for  the  beauty  and  elegance  of  its  productions:  its  founder  received,  in  1750,  a  premium  of  £30 
from  the  Society  of  Arts,  for  having  made  the  largest  and  handsomest  Turkey  carpet  that  had  ever  been 
manufactured  in  this  couutry,  being  26|-  feet  by  17^  feet.  Another  carpet  made  liere  for  the  Grand  Sultan, 
cost  more  than  £1000.  The  machinery  Avas  removed  to  Wilton,  and  part  of  the  factory  has  since  been  con- 
verted into  a  dwelling  house,  and  pare  into  the  County  Court  House  and  offices.  At  the  foot  of  Castle  Hill 
is  a  flax  factory,  which  was  formerly  used  as  a  cloth  factory.  Markets  for  provisions  are  held  on  Tuesdays, 
Tliursdays,  and  Saturdays,  and  the  great  market  on  every  alternate  Thursday  for  cattle,  sheep,  and  horses; 
fairs  for  cattle  are  held  on  the  Tuesday  after  April  25,  on  Tuesday  after  June  24,  and  on  the  Wednes' 
after  October  10.     In  the  cartulary  of  Newenham  Abbey  are  transcripts  of  two  charters  of  King  John,  c 




lirming  the  Sunday  market,  and  granting  that  Axminster  should  be  a  free  borough,  and  have  a  fair  for  eio-ht 

King  Atlielstan  gave  Axminster  church  to  seven  priests,  who  were  to  pray  for  the  souls  of  seven  knio-hts 
;ii^id  many  Saxon  soldiers,  who  were  slain  near  the  town  in  a  great  battle  with  the  Danes.  This  battle  is 
supposed  to  be  that  of  Brunenburg.  In  October,  1644,  Sir  Eichard  Cholmondely  was  stationed  here  with  a  party 
of  the  King's  horse,  and  received  his  death  wound  in  a  battle  with  the  Parliamentarians,  fought  near  the  town. 
The  manor  of  Axminster  was  part  of  the  royal  demesne  until  King  John  gave  it  to  Lord  Briwer  or  Brewer. 
Sir  lieginald  de  Mohun,  in  1246,  gave  it  to  Newham,  or  Newenham  Abbey,  which  he  and  his  brother 
founded  in  this  parish  for  monks  of  the  Cistercian  order.  A  ffirni  house,  about  a  mile  from  the  town, 
occupies  part  of  ttie  site  of  this  once  splendid  and  richly  endowed  abbey  ;  but  all  that  now  remains  of  the 
monastic  buildings  are  a  few  mouldering  walls.  At  the  dissolution  the  yearly  revenue  of  the  abbey  was 
£227  7fi.  8d.,  and  the  site  and  the  manor  were  granted  to  t^e  Duke  of  Norfolk,  by  whose  family  they  were 
sold  to  Lord  Petre,  in  the  17th  century. 

Petty  Sessions  for  Axminster  division  (see  page  27)  are  held  here  every  fortnight,  and  the  magistral es 
usually  sitting  here  are  J.  T.  Still,  W.  T.  Hallett,  J.  R.  F.  G.  Talbot,  J.  A.  Knight,  and  11,  M.  Davy,  Esqrs. 
W.  Forward,  Esq.,  is  their  clerk. 

AxMixsTER  lliGHWAY  BoARD. — Herbert  Williams,  Esq.,  is  treasurer;  W.  Forward,  Esq.,  clerk ;  and 
Mr.  J.  (x.  Pinney,  surveyor. 

The  County  Court  is  held  at  the  Court  House,  Axminster,  periodically,  for  a  district  comprising  (in 
Devon)  Axminster,  Axmouth,  Colyton,  Combpyne,  Dalwood,  Kilmiugton,  Membur}^,  Musbury,  Koosdown, 
Seaton-cum-Beer,  Shute,  Stocklaud,  and  Uplyme  ;  (in  Dorset)  Catherstone  Lewestou,  Charmouth,  Chard- 
stock,  llawkchurch,  Lyme  Eegis,  Thorncombe,  and  Wootton  Fitzpaine.  Serjeant  Petersdorff  is  judge;  W. 
Forward,  Esq.,  registrar ;  and  J.  S.  Hellier,  high  bailiff.  The  district  is  within  Exeter  Banla-uptcy 

Axminster  Union  is  partly  in  Dorset,  and  had  20,0o9  inhabitants  (9538  males  and  10,521  females)  in 
1871,  living  in  4120  houses,  on  61,159  acres  of  land  and  water  :  the  parishes  whose  areas  include  water  are 
shown  in  the  subjoined  table.  When  the  census  was  taken  there  were  212  uninhabited  houses  and  14 
building.  The  total  average  yearly  expenditure  of  the  parishes  for  the  support  of  their  poor  during  the 
three  years  preceding  the  formation  of  the  union  was  £10,218;  and  during  the  three  years  ending  1840, 
£9058.  For  the  year  ended  Lady-day  1870,  it  was  £13,223.  The  average  weekly  cost  per  head  of  indoor 
paupers  for  food  during  the  year  ended  Michaelmas  1877,  was  2s.  10-hd.,  and  for  clothing  Qd.  The  Work- 
house at  Axminster  was  built  in  1836,  at  the  cost  of  £7000,  but  it  has  been  altered  and  enlarged  at  the 
expense  of  £2500.  There  were  139  paupers  (80  males  and  59  females)  in  April  1871.  The  Board  of  Guardians 
consists  of  thirty  elected  members.  W.  Forward,  Esq.,  is  union  clerk ;  the  Rev.  Jno.  AVm.  Hanson,  chaplain  ; 
T.  Pickering,  master,  and  Mrs.  M.  J.  Hutchings,  matron  of  the  workhouse;  Miss  M.  A.  Ilockett,  nurse ; 
Messrs.  S.  Griffin,  and  W.  K.  Halse,  relieving  officers.  The  medical  officers  are  Messrs.  Charles  Hallett, 
George  Evans,  F.  A.  O'Meara,  B.  Hodges,  H.  E.  Norris,  and  R.  G.  Wollaston.  Wm.  Forward,  Esq.,  is  superin- 
tendent registrar,  and  Mr.  John  Overmass  is  his  deputy;  the  registrars  are  E.  Thornton,  W.  T.  Lock, 
B.  Hodges,  and  G.  Evans. 

The  following  enumeration  of  the  parishes,  &c.  in  the  union,  shows  their  territorial  extent,  their  popu- 
lation and  inhabited  houses,  in  1871,  and  their  present  rateable  value  : — • 

Parishes,  &c. 

Axminster — 

Axminster  . 

Colyton  . 

Chardstock  {Dorset) 
Charmouth  (Dorset) 

set)     . 













1 15782 

J      1 





































Parishes,  &c. 

4  Musbury 

1  Lyme  Regis (-Dors^/^) 

Seaton — 


Beer  . 
Shute     . 
Uplyme . 

























\   7827 













61 159 w 







Notes  and  References.- 

-Marked  1  are  in  Lyme  sub-registration  district ;  2,  Axminster 
The  areas  of  those  marked  (w)  include  water. 

3,  Chardstock ;  4,  Colyton. 

The  CHUEcn  (St.  Mary)  is  a  large  and  venerable  structure,  displaying  several  kinds  of  architecture, 
th  a  massive  tower  rising  from  the  centre.  Leland  says,  this  church,  once  dignified  with  the  name  of 
inster,'  was  famous  for  the  sepultures  of  many  noble  Saxons  and  Danes,  slain  at  Branesdown  and  Colecroft. 
bme  parts  of  the  edifice  have  the  appearance  of  great  antiquity,  particularly  a  Saxon  doorway,  that  has 
been  removed  from  the  south  side  to  the  eastern  end  of  the  south  aisle.  The  oast  window  is  enriched  witli 
litained  glass.  The  advowson  of  the  vicarage,  the  appropriation  of  the  rectory,  to  which  is  attached  the 
manor  of  Prestaller,  were  given  by  Edward  I.  as  part  of  the  endowment  of  the  Prebendaries  of  Warthill  and 


1 1 8  -A-xiiiinstei", 

Grindal,  in  York  Cathedral,  as  they  still  remain.  The  church  was  repaired  in  1871,  and  contains  three 
sedilia  and  a  piscina.  In  the  chancel  are  two  recumbent  effigies,  one  supposed  to  represent  Gervase  de 
Prestaller,  first  vicar  of  Axminster  in  the  12th  century,  and  the  other  Alice,  wife  of  Reginald  de  Mohun, 
Earl  of  Somerset,  lord  of  Axminster  manor  in  the  l.'ith  century.  The  living  is  a  vicarage,  with  the  chapelries 
of  Kilmington  and  Membury  annexed,  valued  in  K.l).  at  £44  Gs.  Sd.,  in  the  alternate  patronage  of  the  two 
Prebendaries,  and  in  the  incumbency  of  the  Rev.  William  Bulmer  Bailey.  The  living  is  now  under  seques- 
tration, the  curate  in  charge  being  the  Rev.  John  William  Hanson.  The  tithes  of  Axminster  are  commuted — 
the  rectorial  of  Axminster  at  £070  JOs.,  ofKilmington  for£100,  and  of  Membury  for  £204  lO*.,  making  a  total 
of  £'1035  Os. ;  the  vicarial  tithes  of  Axminster  are  commuted  at  £008  13.-?.  M.  (out  of  which  All  Saints'  in 
Chardstock  in  Dorset  has  an  endowment  of  £30  2s.  Or/.),  Kilmington  for  £240,  and  Membury  £330,  making 
a  total  of  £1184  135.  4d.  The  representatives  of  the  Very  Rev.  W.  D.  Conybeare,  late  Dean  of  Llandalf, 
are  lessees  of  the  latter.     The  vicarage  house  is  a^modern  building. 

The  Independent  Chapel  was  built  in  1828,  in  lieu  of  the  old  Presbyterian  meeting  house,  founded  in 
1698.  The  Wesleyan  Chapel  was  built  in  1790,  and  the  Roman  Catholic  Chapel  (St.  Mary)  was 
erected  in  1830  and  rebuilt  in  1802.  The  cost  of  the  erection  of  the  latter,  including  residence  for  the 
priest,  was  about  £3000,  chiefly  contributed  by  the  Knight  family.  Three  windows  are  filled  with  stained 
glass,  and  the  chapel  contains  a  fine-toned  organ, 

The  Cemetehy,  on  the  Chard  Road,  is  about  half  a  mile  from  the  churchyard,  and  comprises  1|  acre 
of  land,  nearly  an  acre  of  which  is  consecrated.  The  cost  of  the  formation  of  the  cemetery  was  about  £1100. 
William  Forward,  Esq.  is  clerk  to  the  Board. 

The  School  Boaed  was  formed  in  March  1874,  and  the  present  Board  consists  of  Capt.  E.  C.  Forward 
(chairman),  Mr.  William  Pulman  (vice),  and  Messrs.  C.  H.  Ewens,  C.  II.  Parrett,  and  Reuben  Swain. 
William  Forward,  Esq.  is  clerk.  A  School  for  boys,  girls,  and  infants  was  built  in  1870  at  a  cost  of  about 
£3000,  to  accommodate  425  children.  The  South  Axminster  National  School  was  built  in  1875,  and 
opened  in  January  1870,  the  cost  of  its  erection  being  defrayed  b^  subscription,  aided  by  a  grant  from  the 
National  Society.  Accommodation  is  provided  for  70  mixed  scholars,  who  are  under  Government  inspection. 
A  Sunday  School  is  held  here  in  the  afternoon,  except  on  the  second  Sunday  in  the  month  when  divine 
service  is  held.     The  Roman  Catholics  have  a  day  school  here. 

Axminster  was  the  birthplace  of  John  Prince,  author  of  '  The  Worthies,'  who  was  born  in  1043  at  the 
farm-house  occupying  a  part  of  the  site  of  Newenham  Abbey,  and  now  called  '  Prince's  Abbey.'  He  was 
educated  at  Brazenose  College,  Oxford,  and  his  first  curacy  was  that  of  Bideford.  He  was  afterwards  elected 
minister  of  St.  Martin's  Church,  Exeter;  about  1075  he  became  vicar  of  Totnes;  and  in  1081  vicar  of 
Berry  Pomeroy,  where  he  remained  until  his  death  in  1723.  Dean  Buckland,  a  noted  geologist  in  his  day, 
was  born  here  in  1784. 

Puhnan's  Weeldy  News  and  Advertiser  newspaper  was  established  in  1857,  and  is  issued  on  Tuesdays  at 
Axminster  and  Crewkerne.  The  *Book  of  the  Axe,'  by  G.  P.  R.  Pulman,  contains  a  history  of  all  the 
parishes  and  noteworthy  objects  along  the  banks  of  the  river  that  meanders  through  this  charming  valley. 

AxminstePv  Parish  Charities. — Some  of  these  are  vested  in  feoffees  for  the  use  of  the  poor,  by  deeds 
dated  the  19th  James  I.,  and  February  10,  1079,  and  comprise  by  modern  admeasurement  19a.  1r.  1p.,  of 
which  2a.  Or.  8p.  have  lately  been  sold  to  Mr.  Spottiswoode,  under  the  sanction  of  the  Charity  Commis- 
sioners; the  purchase  money  being  invested  in  £514  lis.  Sd.  Consols.     The  remainder  of  these  lands  is  now 
let  for  £34  per  annum.     There  are  further  under  the  feoffee  management  two  principal  sums  invested  in  the 
purchase  of  £489  and  £240  Stock,  realised,  it  is  believed,  from  the  sale  of  some  of  the  feoffee  charity  property, 
situated  at  Honiton  and  at  Axminster,  and  producing  dividends  of  £21  17s.  Ad.  per  annum ;  a  building  in 
Chard  Street,  Axminster,  let  for  £5  a  year ;  and  two  tenements,  also  in  Chard  Street,  occupied  by  poor  per- 
sons, from  whom  no  rent  is  obtained ;  the  realised  income  of  all  which  is  now  distributed  to  the  poor  in 
clothing,  about  Christmas  annually,  by  the  feoffees,  now  ten  in  number.     The  house,  formerly  used  as  the 
parish  workhouse,  was  given  by  Walter  Younge  in  1012.    The  churchwardens  administer  the  other  charities, 
namel}',  a  yearly  rent-charge  of  £5  out  of  Ilamclose,  left  by  John  Younge  in  1012,  distributed  in  shirts  and  shifts 
among  poor  old  men  and  women.     For  a  similar  distribution  annually  among  20  poor  parishioners,  Leonard 
Peream  left  £100  in  1711.     Of  this  legacy  £00  was  laid  out  in  the  purchase  of  \^  acre,  called  the  Brickfield, 
or  Stagmoor,  and  now  let  for  £10  a  year.     The  remaining  £40,  with  £5  left  by  Ann  Scriven,  is  secured 
at  interest  on  the  tolls  of  the  Bridport  Turnpike,  and  4,9.  of  the  interest  is  laid  out  in  bread,  and  distributed 
to  8  widows  annually  on  St.  Luke's  Day,  the  remainder  in  clothing  for  general  distribution.     The  poor  have 
also  the  interest  of  £100  left  by  John  EUard  in  1815,  and  a  rent-charge  of  20s.  a  year,  left  by  Thomas  Whitty^ 
in  1713.     Ann  Palmer's  Charity,  which  was  a  rent-charge  of  £5  a  year,  out  of  12a.  of  land  at  W^eek,  has  nol 
been  realised  for  some  years,  nor  has  20s.  a  ye^ir  given  by  John  Sampson  in  1018  out  of  lands  in  MemburyJ 
called  Bathcote.   Till  the  formation  of  the  Board  Schools  in  1874,  and  the  erection  of  the  extensive  elementary ' 
school  buildings,  the  free  school  for  12  poor  boys  and  girls  of  Axminster,  and  2  of  Kilmington,  which  w£ 
endowed  with  al30ut  7^-  acres  of  land  (then  estimated  Oa.)  at  Kilmington,  (purchased  in  1740  with  £1( 
given  by  Penelope  Safhn  and  other  donors),  and  with  2  acres  given  by  the  parishioners  of  Kilmington,  hi 
been  closed,  and,  under  the  direction  of  the  Charity  Commissioners,  the  income  of  the  charity  is  now  appliec 
as  follows : — the  rent  of  2  acres  in  payment  of  school  fees  of  deserving  poor  children  of  Kilmington  at  an] 
public  elementary  scbool  there  ;  £15,  being  the  present  rent  of  the  residue  of  the  real  estate  of  the  charitj 
containing  about  7a.  2r.  30p.  in  the  payment  of  the  school  fees  of  like  children  of  Axminster  at  any  publi< 
elementary  school  there ;  and  the  surplus  rent,  if  any,  of  the  last-mentioned  property,  towards  the  support 
the  Church  of  England  Sunday  School  at  Axminster. 

Post,  Money  Order,  and  Telegraph,  and  Government  Annuity  and  Insurance  Oepice,  and  Savings 
Bank  at  Mrs.  Mary  E.  Tapscott's,  Victoria  place.    Letters  from  London  are  delivered  at  7  a.m.  and  2.6  p.m.i 



and  despatched  to  London  and  the  North  at  10.55  j  to  London,  2.30;  London  and  all  parts,  6.25  p.m. ; 
to  Exeter  at  2.-30  p.m.,  and  Lyme  Regis  and  Bridport  at  12.55  a.m.  and  10  p.m.  Sunday  delivery  at  7  a.m. 
"^[oney  orders  are  granted  and  paid  from  9.30  a.m.  to  5.30  p.m.,  and  on  Saturdays  also  from  7  to  8  p.m. 
Tflegrapli  business  from  8  a.m.  to  8  p.m.  week  days  and  Sundays  from  8  to  10  a.m.  There  is  a  Wall  Lettee 
i'.ox  in  Lyme  road,  cleared  at  G  p.m.  weekdays  only. 
Railway  (L.  &  S.  W.) Stevens,  stationmaster. 

pletou  Thomas,  M.D.  West  Louse 
xlcoek  Henry,  baker  and  confectioner,  Trinity  square 
leer  William,  seedsman  and  nurseryman,  Soutli  street 
iiiuird  Rear- Admiral  Fredk.  Lamport,  R.N.,  lnir'<:ebrook 
rues  George,  M.D.  surgeon.  Castle  Hill  house 
irtley  Mr  Edgar,  Prospect  house 
r stone  Charles,  wheelwright,  Abbey  gate 
i'.itstone  Robert,  boot  and  shoe  maker,  .Silver  street 
r.r.ivis  Miss  Alice,  laundress,  Mnsbury  road 
i'l'avis  Mrs  Jane,  laundress,  Musbui-y  road 
liter  William,  shopkeeper,  Castle  hill 
I'.crry  Edwin,  blacksmith.  Abbey  gate 
Ucrry  Mrs  AVilliam,  Court  house 
r.ishop  Mrs  Emma  Louisa,  shopkeeper,  Routh  street 
r.oalch  Henry,  beerhouse.  Trinity  buildings,  Castle  sireet 
I'.oml  Mrs  Sarah,  Trinity  house 
lloiid  William  Henry,  Trinity  house 
YUrni  James,  woolstapler,  miller  and  farmer,  Town  mills, 
&  Uplyme  &  Axminster  factories ;  h  Cedar hs.  Musbury rd 
r.Dwdige  Mr  John,  Western  road 
Ih'udford  James,  farmer,  The  Mount 
liradford  &  Sons,  corn,  coal,  salt,  timber  and  slate  mer- 
chants and  agents  for  West  of  England  Sack  Hiring  Co. 
Railway  station  (Saml.  G.  Loveless,  agent) ;  and  Yeovil 
Bridle  George,  cooper  and  shopkeeper,  Chai'd  street 
Bucknole  John   Smith,  cabinet  makei-,   upholsterer,    and 
agent  for  Liverpool  &  London  &  Globe  Ins.  Co.  West  st 
CaistorMr  William  Yates,  Furzeley  house 
Catford  William  Henry  Baker,  master,  Board  school 
Cawdey  George,  shoemaker,  South  street 
Cawley  Thomas  Kibby,  victualler.  New  Commercial  Inn, 
and  posting  house,  and  goods  agent  for  L.  &  S.W.  Rly. 
Co.  Trinity  square 
Cemetery,  Chard  road 
Chappie  Edwin,  bank  manager  and  agent  for  Alliance  & 

West  of  England  Ins.  Cos.  The  Shrubbery 
Clark  Aaron,  farmer,  Churchill 
€larke  George,  carpenter,  Purzebrook 
Clarke  Miss  Mary  Ann,  Castle  hill 
Clarke  Walter,  farmer,  Park 

Coglan  Miss  Julia,  Roman  Catholic  schoolmistress,  Lymerd 
Cooke  Mr  Thomas  Owen  Preston,  Loup  house 
Coombs  Mrs  Joan,  plumber  and  glazier,  Chard  street 
Copp  John,  manager.  Gas  Works,  Castle  street 
Cossins  Francis,  farmer.  New  park 
Cotterell  Miss  Jane,  dairy  proprietor,  Shools 
Couch  Mrs  Ann,  Chard  street 
Couch  Miss  Jxiliet,  Jessamine  cottage 
County  Court;  Mr.  Serjeant  Peter.-sdorfF.  judge;  William 

Forward,  registrar;  John  Samuel  Hellier,  high  bailiff 
Cox  William  Robert  &  John  Francis,  day  and  boarding 

school,  Oak  House  school 
Crabb  Charles,  cooper.  South  street 
Daniels  James,  whitesmith,  Castle  hill 
Davidson  Misses  Anna  &  Mary  Elizabeth,  Secktor  house 
Davidson  James  Bridge,  barrister,  becktor  house  ;  &  London 
Deane  Mr  Joseph,  Lyme  street 
Devon  and  Exeter  Savings'  Bank,  Lyme  street ;  William 

Pulman,  manager 
Dorsetshire  Dank  (R.  R.  &  H.    Williams,  Thornton   & 
Sykes),  (open  from  10  till  3  daily  and  Thursdays  10  till 
4)   (draw  on  Williams,  Deacon  &  Co.) ;  Edwin  Chappie, 
Down  Charles,  beer  retailer,  Smallridge 
Edwards  Mr  Thomas  Baylis,  Lyme  street 
Emmens  Miss  Mary  Annie,  yict.  "Western  Hotel,  West  bt 
England  Mr  Robert,  Adrian  house  I 

j  Enticott  Mrs  Ann,  marine  store  dealer,  North  street 
i  Enticott  Benjamin,  marine  store  dealer,  Castle  hill 
!  Enticott  John,  shopkeeper,  Lyme  road 
Ewens  Charles  Henry,  butter  and  cheese  factor,  Lyme  rd 
Ewens  Mr  George  Davey,  Furzebrook 
Forward  Captain  Edward  Charles,  The  Coombes 
Forw^ard  William,   solicitor,    registrar   of    county  court, 
clerk  to  magistrates,  guardians,  highway  board,  burial 
board,  and  school  board,  commissioner  for   taking  affi- 
davits in  all  courts  and  acknowledgements  of  married 
women,  and  superintendent  registrar  of  births,  deaths, 
and  marriages  ;  h  The  Elms,  Lyme  road 
Fowler  Mrs  Eliza,  saddler,  harness  maker  and  milliner, 

Victoria  place  ^ 

Foxwell  Mark,  farmer,  Easthay  Beerhall 
Frampton  Richard,  farmer,,  Prestaller 
Frost  Alfred,  victualler,  Lamb,  Lyme  road 
Fry  George,  jobbing  gardener,  Lyme  street 
Gage   Benjamin,   auctioneer   and   A'aluer,  Trinity  square, 

and  farmei%  Sisterhood  farm 
Gapper  James,  wheelwright,  Secktor 
Gapper  William,  wheelwright  &  coach  builder,  South  st 
Gas  Works,  Castle  hill;  John  Copp,  manager 
Gerrish  John,  bank  manager  and  agent  for  London  Assu- 
rance Corporation,  Victoria  place 
Gibbs  Misses  Ellen  and  Sarah,  teachers.  Board  school 
Gill  William  James,  confectioner    and    agent   for    Uff- 

cxilme  Ales,  Chard  street 
Gillingham  Robert,  coach  and  house  painter.  Chard  street 
G-oddard  George,  tailor,  South  street 
Gosling  Charles,  manager  of   goods  department,  Lonion 

and  South  Western  station,  South  street 
Gribble  Abraham,  farmer,  Wyke 
Grilhn  John,  timber  dealer,  Willhayes  lane 
Grifhn  Samuel,  relieving  officer  and  vaccination  officer  for 

Northern  district.  South  street 
Gunn  Frederick  John,  chemist  and  druggist.  Chard  street 
Hackett  James,  chimney  sweeper,  Castle  street 
Hallett  Chas.  surgeon  &  surgeon  to  union.  Poplar  mount 
HansonRev  John  William,  curate  in  charge,  The  Vicarage 
I  Harris  Gaius,  baker,  Churchill 
i  Harris  Thomas,  farmer,  Frogwell 
I  Harvey  Edward,  farmer.  Castle  hill 
j  Hayes  James,  shoemaker,  South  street 
I  Hayman  Mrs  Eliz.  milliner  &  mantle  maker.  Trinity  sq 
j  Hayman  George,  leather  cutter  and  bootmaker.  Trinity  sq 
I  Hayman  Geerge  Wm.  tailor  and  outfitter,  Trinity  square 
I  Hayman  William,  grocer  and  draper.  Trinity  square 
j  Head  T.  H.  lime  and  cement  merchant,  Chard  street 
Heal  George,  victualler.  Green   Dragon,   Castle  hill,  and 

engineer.  Castle  hill  works 
Heal  John,  English  &  foreign  timber  dealer,  Castle  hill 
Hellier  John  Samuel,  high  bailiff  of  county  court,  assistant 
to  clerk  of  land  and  income  tax  commissioners,  and 
registrar  of  marriages,  West  street 
Henley  John,  shoemaker.  South  street 
Henley  Robert,  statuary,  Lyme  road 
Hoare  John,  farmer,  Wyke 
Hockey  Mrs  Amt,  milliner,  Musbury  road 
Holt  David,  victualler.  Trout  Inn,  Millbrook 
Hooper  AVilliam,  farmer,  Old  Park  farm 
Hutchings  Mrs  Mary  Jane,  matron,  Workhouse 
Hntchings  Thomas,  fancy  repository.  Trinity  squar3 
Inland  Eevcnue    Office,   George    Hotel,    Victoria   place ; 

Alfred  William  Stroud,  officer 
Jeans  Charles,  greengrocer  and  fruiterer,  Lvme  street 
Keech  Mr.  William,  Chard  street 


^x:itiiii{!>  tei*. 

Kloer  Mrs  Ellen,  mistress,  South  Axminster  school 
Knight  Mr  Henry,  Cloakham  house  and  Terrace  lodge 
Knight  James  Alexander,  Esq.,  J.P.  The  Lawn 
Knight  Miss  Julia  Frances,  Loretta  cottage 
Literary  cf  Musical  Society,  Board  school,  Paradise 
Loring  Charles,  carpenter,  Trinity  buildings,  Castle  street 
Loud  John  Aplin,  butcher,  Victoria  place 
Loud  Saml.  Hencher,  cheese  mer.  &  shopkpr.  Castle  hill 
Love  James,  refreshment  house  keeper  &  mason,  West  st 
Loveless  Samuel  George,  coal  agent,  and  agent  for  Railway 

Passengers'  Accident  Insurance  Co.  Chard  street 
Loveridge  Isaac  Drayton,  furnishing  ironmonger,  plumber 

and  tinplate  worker,  Lyme  street 
Loveridge  Jas.  vict.  Eed  Lion,  &  ass.  overseer,  Lyme  st 
Loveridge  Jas.  Gill,  farmer  &  sanitary  in  speetorjWyke  farm 
Loveridge  Mrs  Jane,  shopkeeper  and  draper,  South  street 
Loveridge  John  Stamp,  farmer.  Balls  &  Slymlake's  farms 
McNaught  Jno.  Wm.  &  Alex,  travelling  drapers,  Market  pi 
Mallock  Mrs  John,  South  street 
Manfield  James,  farmer,  Undercleave 
Market  Hall,  William  Phillips,  collector 
Marley  Edwin,  blacksmith,  Smallridge 
Marley  George,  carpenter,  Smallridge 
Masters  Philip  Daniel  Frank,  jeweller  and  watchmaker, 

Lyme  street 
Membury  John,  farmer,  Brick  kiln 
Morgan  Albert,  painter  &  paperhanger,  Lyme  street 
Morgan  John  James,  parish  clerk  &  apartments,  West  st 
Morgan  Thomas,  cabinet  maker.  Silver  street 
Morrish  Henry,  miller,  Wey croft  mills 
Moulding  Mrs  Margaret,  laundress,  Musbury  road 
Moulding  William,  shopkeeper,  Musbury  road 
Neale  Christopher,  wheelwright,  Millbrook 
Newberry  James  Moore,  photographer,  South  street 
Newberry  Mrs  Susan,  dressmaker,  South  street 
Newbery  Abraham  Skinner,  dairyman,  South  street 
Newbery  George  Henry,  baker,  Lyme  street 
New  bery  Miss  Mary,  shopkeeper,  Chard  street 
Newbery  William,  artist.  South  street 
Newbery  William,  beerhouse,  Axminster  Inn,  and  builder, 

Silver  street 
Nicholls  Elias,  hairdresser  and  perfumer,  Trinity  square 
Overmass  J.  &  Son,  tailors  &  woollen  drapers.  Trinity  sq 
Overmass  John,  jun.,  deputy  registrar  of  births,  deaths  and 

marriages,  Lyme  road 
Overmass  Walter  (J.   &  Son),  and  agent  for  the  Ocean, 

Railway  and  General  Accident  Ass.  Co.  Trinity  square 
Parrett  Charles  Henry,  linen  and  woollen  draper,  clothier 

and  milliner,  Victoria  house,  Victoria  place 
Parsons  Mrs  Ann,  hiundress,  Castle  hill 
Parsons  Mrs  Ann,  dressmaker,  Lyme  street 
Parsons  John,  coach  builder,  Chard  st;  &  h  Kilmington 
Parsons  William  B.  builder,  Willhayes 
Patterson  John,  butcher.  Castle  hill 
Patterson  Robert,  farmer  and  cattle  dealer,  Willhay 
Paul  Robert,  painter,  glazier  &  paperhanger.  Chard  street 
Penny  Charles  Balfour,  silk  mercer,  draper  and  under- 
taker, Chard  street 
Perkins  Rev  Ephraim  Henry  (Independent),  Chard  street 
Pcrryman  Francis,  builder.  South  street 
Phillips  James  Aplin,  baker,  South  street 
Phillips  William,  collector.  Market  hall 
Phillips  William,  farmer,  Bagley  hill 
Phippen  Mr  James,  West  street 
Phippen  Thomas,  boot  and  shoe  maker,  Castle  hill 
Pickering  Mrs  Mary,  Lyme  road 
Pickering    Thomas,  master  union  workhouse  and  agent 

for  Church  of  England  Ass.  Co.  Musbury  road 
Pidgeon  James,  shoeing  and  jobbing  smith,  Musbury  road 
Pidgeon  John,  farmer.  Hakes,  Musbury  road 
Pike  John,  sergeant,  Police  station 
File  George,  saddler  and  harness  makei*,  Lyme  street 
Pinney  John  George  (J.  G.  &  Son),  and  agent  for  Alliance 

and  Plateglass  Ins,  Cos.  Mount  house,  Lyme  road 

Pinney  J.  G.  &  Son,  architects,  surveyors  and  land  agents 

South  street 
Plummer  Mrs  Ann,  victualler,  White  Hart,  Lyme  street 
Plummer  James,  cabinet  maker,  Lyme  street 
Police  Station  ;  John  Pike,  sergeant 
Poole  Misses  Mary  &  Agnes,  The  Coombes 
Potter  Henry,  dairyman.  Lodge  farm 
Pryer  Wm.  pharmaceutical  chemist,  bookseller,  stationer, 

depot  for  Christian  Knowledge  Society  and  agent  foi- 

Imperial  and  London  Guarantee  and  Accident  Ins.  Cos. 

West  street 
Pulman  William,    printer,  stationer,    stamp   distributor, 

Weekly  News  office  and  agent  for  Devon  and  Extter 

Savings'  Bank,  Lyme  street 
Reece  Mrs  Mary  &  Misses,  ladies'  boarding  school,  Heyop 

house.  Silver  street 
Rendle  John,  farmer,  Uphay 

Restorick  George,  cattle  dealer  and  greengrocer.  West 
Retter  William,  farmer,  Smallridge 
Roberts  William,  farmer,  Westwator 
Roberts  William,  farmer,  Jack-leigh  house 
Robins  William,  leather  cutter,  Lyme  street 
Rockett  Thos.  porter,  &  Mrs  Mai-y  Ann,  nurse,  AA^orkhoi 
Rundle  Richard,  provision  dealer,  Lyme  street 
Ryall  John,  victualler,  George  family  &  commercial  hotel 

and  posting  house,  and  agent  for  the  London  &  Soutli- 

Western  Railway  Co.  (passengers  and  parcels) 
Ryall  Robert  Butt,  baker.  Market  place 
Salter  John,  farmer.  Great  Trill 
Sellwood  Mr  Thomas,  Bellevue 
Seward  William,  farmer,  Woodhouse 
Shore  Mrs  Emma,  Millbrook  cottage 
Silk  Frank,  boot  and  shoe  maker.  Castle  street 
Slyfield    AVilliam,    stationer    and    tea    dealer,    Victoria 

Smith  John  Edward,  commercial  traveller,  Lyme  street 
Smyth  James,  grocer  and  butter  factor  and  agent  for  Sun 

Ins.  Co.  Lyme  street 
South  Axminster  School,  Woodbury  lane;  Mrs  Ellen  Kloer, 

Spiller  John,  farmer,  Chubbs 

Spottiswoode  George  Andrew,  -printer,  London ;  h  Chattan 
Stamp  Office,  Lyme  street ;  William  Pulman,  distributor 
Stephens  Miss  Sarah,  milliner  &  dressmaker.  West  street 
Stevens  — -,  L.  and  S.W.  station  master,  Railway  station 
Stone  George,  cabinet  maker,  iipholsterer,  appraiser,  house 

agent  and  agent  for  Atlas  Ass.  Co.  Trinity  square 
Stroud  Alfred  William,  Inland  Revenue  officer,  West  street 
Sutton  John,  victualler,  Old  Bell  family  and  commercial 

hotel  and  posting  house,  Trinity  square 
Swain  George  &  Thornhill,  farmers,  Wellands  ^ 

Swain  Henry  &  Tom,  farmers,  Higher  Abbey  farm         |H 
Swain  Reuben,  farmer,  Yetlands  ^ 

Swain  Reuben  &  James,  farmers,  Lower  Abbey  farm 
Symes  Mr  James  Finmore,  Castle  hill 
Tapscott   Mrs  Mary   Elizabeth,   berlin   wool  and   fancy 

repository  and  postmistress,  Victoria  place 
Taylor  Charles,  glass  and  china  dealer.  South  street 
Toohey  Rev  John  (Roman  Catholic),  Lyme  road 
Trott  Walter,  builder.  South  street 
Tucker  Edwin,  farmer.  Higher  Bever 
Tucker  George,  farmer,  Westwater 
Tucker  William,  dairyman,  Woodbury  lane 
TuUoch  Lady  Emma,  Old  park 
Turner  James,  wine  and  spirit  merchant.  Castle  hill 
Tytherleigh  William  Charles,  furnishing  ironmonger  ai 

grocer,  Victoria  place 
Union    WorMouse ;  Thomas   Pickering   and   Mrs   M. 

Hutchings,  master  and  matron 
Vivian  William  Joseph,  veterinary  surgeon,  Lynch  villa 
Wakely  Misses  Elizabeth  &  Charlotte,  Rose  Mount 
Wakley  John,  victualler.  Black  Lion,  Castle  hill 
Wareham  William,  farmer.  Old  Barn 
Warry  Mrs  Sarah,  laundress,  Musbury  road 



AVebber  Mrs  Catherine,  ladies'  boarding  school,  Buckland 
house.  South  street 

Webber  Thomas  Nichols,  professor  of  music,  Buckland 
bouse,  South  street 

Welch  Samuel,  mason,  Silver  street 

Western  Mrs  Maria,  shopkeeper,  Musbury  road 

White  Henry,  grocer,  earthenware  dealer  and  agent  for 
Gilbey's  wines,  Victoria  place 

W^hite  John,  farmer,  Cathayes 

White  William,  draper.  Chard  street;  h  Exeter 

Willey  Mrs  Ann,  shopkeeper,  South  street 

Williams  E.  R.  &  H.  Thornton  and  Sykes  (see  Dorset- 
shire Bank) 

Willis  John,  blacksmith  and  clothes  dealer,  Lyme  street 

Willmott   George,  clock  &  watch  maker,  and  glass  and 

china  dealer,  Victoria  place 
Willmott  Miss  M.  A,  &  Co.  drapers,  Victoria  place 
Willmott  Miss  Mary  Ann  (Miss  M.  A.&  Co.) ;  h  Victoria  pi 
Willmott   Miss  Mary  Bowdige  (Miss  M,  A.  &  Co.)  ;    h 

Victoria  place 
Wilts   and  Dorset  BanJc  (open  from    10  till  3  daily,  on 

Thursday  10  till  4).  (draw  on  London  and  Westminster 

Bank)  ;  John  Gerrish,  manager 
Wootton  Mrs  Rebecca,  laundress,  Musbury  road 
Worthy  Mrs  Mary,  South  street 
Wrey  Captain  Charles,  R.N.  Hilary  house 
Zealley  Andrew,  farmer,  Beerhall 

AXMOUTH  is  a  parish  and  a  pleasant  villanre,  on  the  English  Chanuel,  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  Axe, 
.3  miles  S.  by  E.  of  Colyton,  and  G  miles  W.  by  S.  of  Lyme  Kegis,  and  S.S.W.  of  Axminster.  Its  parish  is 
in  Axminster  miion,  county  court  district,  petty  sessional  division,  polling  district  and  hundred,  Exeter  arch- 
deaconry, and  Dunkeswell  rural  deanery.  It  had  702  inhabitants  (360  males,  842  females)  in  1871,  living  in 
134  houses,  on  4723  acres,  including  100  acres  of  water.  The  parish  is  bounded  on  the  sea  coast  by  lofty 
and  rugged  clifFs,  which  are  crowned  by  chalky  crags,  in  some  places  assuming  the  appearance  of  shattered 
turrets,  pinnacles,  &c. ;  and  in  others  overtopped  by  luxuriant  plantations.  The  manor  of  Axmouth  was 
given  by  the  Earl  of  Devon,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  11.  to  Montebourg  Abbey,  in  Normandy  ;  but  Llenry  V. 
gave  it  to  Sion  Abbey.  Edward  VI.  granted  it  to  Walter  Erie,  Esq.  In  1079,  it  was  sold  to  Sir  Walter 
Yonge,  who  sold  it  in  1G91  to  Richard  Hallett.  William  Trelawny  Hallett,  Esq.,  is  now  lord  of  the  manor, 
and  owner  of  a  great  part  of  the  parish,  and  of  the  mansion  called  Stedcombb  House,  but  E.  L.  Ames,  Esq. 
has  an  estate  here.     There  is  a  pleasure  fair  on  Shrove  Tuesday  in  each  year. 

The  range  of  cliffs  extending  from  Axmouth  to  Lyme  llegis  is  noted  for  several  remarkable  Landslips. 
By  one  of  these  convulsions,  which  commenced  on  Christmas-day,  1839,  45  acres  of  arable  land  were  lost  to 
cultivation  at  Bindon  and  Dowsland ;  tv>^o  cottages  situated  in  the  lower  region  of  the  cliff  were  destroyed  ; 
and  a  great  chasm  was  formed,  more  than  300  feet  broad,  150  feet  deep,  and  three-quarters  of  a  mile  long. 
Two  of  the  coast-guard,  standing  on  Culverhole  beach,  on  the  night  when  this  great  landslip  occurred, 
'  observed  the  sea  to  be  in  an  extraordinary  state  of  agitation  ;  the  beach  on  which  they  stood  rose  and  fell ; 
amidst  the  breakers  near  the  shore  something  dark  appeared  to  be  rising  from  the  bottom  of  the  sea,  amidst 
the  deafening  noise  of  crashing  rocks.'  On  Eebruary  3,  1840  there  was  another  landslip  at  Whitlands,  much 
smaller  than  the  former.  By  taking  a  central  position  on  the  imderclift"  between  Pinhay  and  Whitlands,  and 
looking  inland,  the  visitor  sees  the  precipitous  yet  wooded  summit  of  the  mainland,  and  the  castellated  crags 
of  the  ivy-clad  rocks  on  the  terraces  immediately  below,  and  the  deep  dingle  at  the  bottom  ;  and  by  turning 
towards  the  sea,  he  beholds  the  whole  range  of  the  great  bay  of  Dorset  and  Devon,  skirted  by  coast  scenery 
of  the  finest  character. 

In  the  early  part  of  the  17th  centurj^,  large  sums  were  expended  by  tlie  Erie  family  in  an  unsuccessful 
attempt  to  construct  a  new  haven  at  Axminster.  During  the  present  century,  piers  have  been  constructed  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Axe,  where  vessels  of  100  tons  burden  can  now  discharge  their  cargoes  in  safety. 

The  CHUEcn  (St.  Michael)  is  an  ancient  structure,  consisting  of  short  chancel,  aisle,  nave,  porch  (now 
used  as  a  vestry),  and  western  tower  containing  three  bells.  There  is  a  tine  Anglo-Norman  doorwa}',  and  the 
chief  alterations  made  to  the  original  late  Norman  structure  are  a  rebuilt  chancel  and  the  Perpendicular  west 
window.  In  the  interior  are  several  monuments  of  the  Erles  and  the  Halletts,  and  in  a  recess  on  the  north 
side  is  an  antique  recumbent  figure  of  a  man  with  a  dog  at  his  feet.  The  living  is  a  vicarage,  valued  in  K.B. 
at  £22  19s.  2t7.,  in  the  patronage  of  W.  T.  Hallett,  Esq.,  the  impropriator  of  most  of  the  great  tithes-  these 
were  commuted  in  1846  for  £309,  and  the  vicarial  for  £175.  The  Rev,  Samuel  Clement  JDavis,  M.A.  is  the 
incumbent.  The  vicarage  house  was  built  in  1815-6,  The  Independent  Chapel  was  built  in  1861. 
National  ScnooLS,  with  teachers'  residence,  for  the  parishes  of  Combe  Pyne,  Rousdon,  and  part  of  this 
parish,  have  been  recently  erected  by  Sir  Henry  Peeke,  who  principally  supports  them,  and  provides  the 
children  with  a  substantial  hot  dinner  daily.  In  1726  William  Searle  left  a  yearly  rent-charge  of  32s.  for 
schooling  poor  children  of  Axmouth. 

Post  Office  at  Mr,  Timothy  Beer's,  Letters  vifi  Axminster  are  received  at  9.30  a.m.  and  despatched 
at  4.5  p.m.  Seaton  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office.  Seaton  and  Colyton,  on  the  London  and  South 
Western  Railway,  are  the  nearest  Railway  Stations. 

Ames  Mr  Edward  Levi,  Clevelands 
Bagwell  John,  tailor 
Bartlett  Wm. carpenter  &  vict.ShipInn 
Beer  Mrs  Mary  Ann,  vict.Harbour  Inn 
Beer  Tim.  boot  &  shoe  mkr.  &  postmtr 
Bole  Robert,  blacksmith 
Bond  Francis,  blksmith.  &  gen.  smith 
Buck  Miss  Louisa,  Nat,  schoolmistress 
Burgess  Wm.  National  schoolmaster 
Butt  Mr  William,  Borough  house 
Chappell  Miss  Alice,  Bindon 
Chappell  Mr  James,  Bindon 

Chappell  Thos.  Dare,  yeoman,  Bindon 

Coles  Joseph,  farmer 

Coles  William,  farmer,  Glebe 

Crichard  James,  wheelwright 

Dampier  William,  butcher 

Davis   Rev.   Samuel    Clement,   M.A, 

vicar.  The  Vicarage 
Froom  William,  farmer,  Bosshill 
Gage    Miss    Mary,    National    infant 

Game  Thomas,  farmer 
Gratton  George,  farmer,  Charlton 


Hallett    Colonel    Clement   Trelai 

Haven  cliife 
Hallett  William  Trelawny,  Esq. 

Stedcombe  house 
Harris  Robert,  farmer,  Whitlands 
Jefford   John,   boot  and  shoe   maker 

and  parish  clerk 
Kibbey  John,  farmer,  Crabhayne 
Knight  Mr  James,  Southcott  villa 
Leigh  Misses,  Brook  house 
Love  Bryan,  farmer,  Hawksdown 
Lumbbard  William,  farmer,  Bnllmoor 

Mr  I. 


]\liiiiri)   il('iii'\',   fanu   hailitl' 

Norimui  William,  farmer,  Haven  farm 
Pudy  Jiobcrt  Baker,  limo  mtu'chant 
Quick  iMattliOA^-,  jxroccr 
Vu-n\  .laiiu's,  liou;   ana  slnu-  maker 


l\oal  John,  Ijoot  and  .shoo  maker 
Kual  John,  jun.  grocer 
Kcst rick  Jjcvy,  shopkeeper 
Ilichards    Joim,     farmer,    Stodcombe 

Kichards  Simtjii,  farmer,  Coombe 

8ehvay     William,     farmer,     Higher 

SI  cm  an  John,  farmer,  Dowlands 
Smith  John,  farmer,  Low.  Brooklain 
Spiller  Charles,  fanner,  Jlay 
Templeiiiaii  li'i/lu  rt,  farmer,  Coombe 

AYIjESBEAUE  is  a  jiailsli  and  small  l)ut  picturosqiK!  villago,  pk a.'-antly  .situated  on  the  western 
declivity  of  the  bold  rang<^  i>i'  hills  between  the  vales  of  the  Exo  and  the  Otter,  8  miles  east  of  Exeter. 
Tlie  parish,  which  includes  the  tything  oi  Newton  Vopplcford  (noticed  at  a  su])sequent  page),  i,s  in  8t.  Thomas 
union,  E.xeler  county  court  district,  Ottery  petty  sessional  division,  Ottery  St.  Mary  polling  district  of  East 
Devon,  J'Lxetev  arcluleiieonry.  Aylesbeare  rural  deanery,  and  East  ]^»udleigh  hundred.  It  had  KM30  inhabitants 
(503  males,  .■)S7  reiuales)  in  1S71,  living  in  231  houses,  on  2048  acres  of  land;  of  these  C7G  persons  (300 
males,  270  feniales)  living  in  147  houses,  are  in  Newton  Poppleford  tithing.  Tlie  parish  contains  541  acres  of 
common  land  and  unenclosed,  known  as  Aylesbeare  hill,  and  dividing  the  western  from  the  eastern  portion  of 
the  parish.  All  freeholders  of  Aylesbeare  and  their  tenants  Inive  a  customary  and  long-established  right  of 
cutting  turf  and  furze,  as  well  as  of  pasturage  for  their  cattle,  on  this  common.  The  manor  of  Aylesbeare 
was  long  held  by  the  Courtenays  as  part  of  the  barony  of  Oakhampton.  After  the  attainder  of  Sir  Francis 
Englefield,  one  moiety  was  granted  to  the  Earl  of  Essex,  who  sold  it  to  the  tenants.  The  other  moiety  was 
sold  to  an  ancestor  of  the  late  Lord  llolle,  and  is  now  vested  in  the  trustees  of  thellolle  estate,  who  own 
the  greater  part  of  the  parish.  The  vicar  of  Aylesbeare  has  a  portion  of  a  small  manor,  '  Woods,'  now  Glebe 
farm.  MiNcni:^  Couht,  adjoining  the  vicarage,  is  an  ancient  edifice,  Avith  some  interesting  remains,  notably 
the  arms  of  Yarty  and  of  Hurst,  carved  on  the  exterior  of  an  old  chimney.  ""Minchin  Court,  with  its  estate 
of  about  70  acres,  formerly  belonged  to  the  prioress  and  convent  of  St.  Catharine  at  Polslo.  It  is  now,  with 
freehold  land  adjoining,  "the  property  of  the  Rev.  William  H.  Carwithen.  John  Elliott,  Esq.,  W.  C. 
Walker,  Esq.,  Edward  Johnson,  Esq.,  with  a  few  others,  have  also  freehold  estates   here. 

The  parish  (mother)  church  (Blessed  Virgin  Mary)  is  an  ancient  structure  with  an  embattled  tower  and 
three  bells,  surrounded  by  a  turret  at  the  north-eastern  angle,  overtopping  the  fine  old  lime  trees  in  the 
churchyard.  There  is  a  handsome  lich-gate  at  the  eastern  entrance,  erected  in  1873.  The  living  is  a  dis- 
charged vicarage,  valued  in  K.B.  at  £1(3  2s.  4d..  and  in  1831  at  £155.  The  Rev.  W.  H,  Carwithen,  M.A.,  is 
the  patron,  and  the  present  vicar,  and  has  a  good  thatched  residence  with  60  acres  of  glebe.  The  tithes  were 
commuted  in  1841  for  £143  los.  2d.  to  the  vicar,  £81  7s.  3d.  to  the  rector  of  Huxhani,  and  £74  17s.  7d.  to 
Rev.  H.  W.  Marker.  The  School  Boaed  for  the  united  district  of  Aylesbeare,  Harpford,  and  Venn  Ottery 
was  formed  on  14th  June,  1875,  and  consists  of  (vacant)  (chairman),  R.  H.  Lipscomb,  Esq.  (vice),  tlie 
Rev.  W.  H.  Carwithen  (hon.  clerk),  and  Messrs.  Thomas  Yelverton.  Jonathan  Taylor,  and  Abraham  Smith. 
The  principal  Board  school  of  the  district  is  here.  In  1606  Richard  White,  by  his  will,  left  QOs.  a  year  out 
of  Porch  House  (now  the  Cannon  Inn)  '  for  the  schooling  of  six  poor  children,  to  learn  to  read  English,  in 
trust  to  the  churchwardens  of  Aylesbeare  and  to  their  successors  for  ever.' 

Post  Oefice  at  Miss  Mary  Tilke's,  Newton  Poppleford.  Letters  are  received  at  8,20  a.m.,  and  despatched 
at  4.50  p.m.  via  Ottery  St.  Mary,  which  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office,  There  is  a  Wall  Lettek  Box 
at  Aylesbeare  cleared  at  4.35  p.m.  week  days  only.  Broadclyst  is  the  nearest  Money  Order  Office  and  Rail- 
way Station.     This  Directoey  includes  Newton  Poppleford.  ^ 

Ashford  Charles,  blacksmith,  Newton  Poppleford 

Ashford  James,  grocer,  Newton  Poppleford 

Bastine  Samuel,  boot  and  shoe  maker,  Newton  Poppleford 

Bastyan  Thos.  grocer  and  provision  dlr.  Newton  Poppleford 

Batstone  Clement,  farmer,  Beaiitiporte 

Bayley  James,  factory  manager,  Newton  Poppleford 

Beer    Mrs    Henrietta,    farmer,    Upton   Barton,    Newton 

Berry  Ellis,  thatclier,  Newton  Poppleford 
Bolt  John,  farmer  and  road  contractor.  Browns 
Broom  Edward,  Ijlacksmith,  Newton  Poppleford 
Carwithen  Rev.  William  H.  M.A.  vicar,  The  Vicarage 
Clarke  George,  dairyman.  Homer 
Clarke  Mrs  Jane,  farmer,  Rill  William,  farmer,  Huntisbeare 
Coles  Henry,  fiirmer.  Halls  and  Eveleighs 
Cooper  John,  mason,  Newton  Poppleford 
Ebdon  Samuel,  baker,  Newton  Poppleford 
Eveleigh  George,  carpenter  and  wheelwright 
Eveleigh  Richard,  farmer 

Payter  John,  boot  and  shoe  maker,  Newton  Poppleford 
Giliard  Robert,  farmer  and  victualler.  Halfway  Hotel 
Ilallett  William,  baker  and  grocer,  Newton  Poppleford 
Ham  Arthur,  grocer  and  baker,  Newton  Poppleford 
Ham  John,  mason,  Newton  Poppleford 
Knowles  Mrs  Piiscilla,  grocer,  Newton  Poppleford 
Newbery  Giles,  farmer  and  landowner,  Manor  farm 
Newton  Walter,  baker  and  victualler,  Blue  Anchor 
Ocock  John,  beer  retailer,  Newton  Poppleford 

Parsons  James,  victualler,  Exeter  Inn,  Newton  PoppleforP 

Parsons  William,  Board  school  master,  Newton  Poppleford 

Peek  George,  i'armer 

Phillips  John,  farmer.  Glebe  farm 

Pile  William,  boot  and  shoo  maker 

Plimsoll  James,  butcher 

Plimsoll  Thomas,  farmer  and  butcher.  Lower  Withen 

Podbury  Thomas,  cabinet  maker,  Newton  Poppleford 

Pomeroy  John,  f;irmer,  Topshayes 

Pratt  William,  dairyman 

Pring  Francis,  blacksmith 

Pring  Richard,  farmer 

Pring  William,  farmer,  Parsons,  Newton  Poppleford 

Pyle  James,  carpenter  and  wheelwright 

Quaintanc9  William^  sexton 
j  Quick  Samuel,  farmer,  Minchen  court 
j  Retter  David,  farmer,  Perkins 
I  Eickard  James,  Board  school  master 
j  Roberts  Charles,  butcher.  New-ton  Poppleford 
I  Roberts  James,  china  dler.  &  shopkpr.  Newton  Poppleford  " 

Roberts  William,  grocer,  New^ton  Poppleford 

Roberts  William,  Inttcher,  Newton  Poppleford 

Sage  William,  tinplato  worker,  Newton  Poppleford 

Salter  Charles,  farmer,  Mount  Rogers 

Sellek  Echvard,  farmer,  Lansford,  Newton  Poppleford 

Small  George,  butcher,  Newton  Poppleford 

Small  John,  victualler.  Cannon,  Newton  Poppleford 

Smeath  Joseph,  farmer,  Aylesbeare  Barton 

Smith  Mr  Abraham,  Rosamondford 

Devoiisliire.  123 

Tremlett  Mrs  Mary 

Webber  Robert,  dairyman 

Wheaton  Jonathan,  carpenter,  XeAvton  Poppleford 

Wood  William,  thrown,  silk  manufacturer,  Victoria  Silk 
mills,  Newton  Poppleford  ;  h  Lorver  Clapham,  London 

Carriers  to  Exeter — John  Mitchell  passes  through  Ncav- 
ton  Poppleford  Monday,  AYednesday,  and  Saturday, 
returning  same  days  ;  and  Jolin  White  passes  through 
Wednesday  and  Friday,  returning  same  days. 

Si)urway  Oliver,  baker  and  grocer,  Newton  Poppleford 

Squire  John,  tailor,  Newton  Poppleford 

Stile  James,  farmer,  Nutwalls 

Street  Robert,  boot  and  shoe  maker,  Newton  Poppleford 

Taylor  George,  boot  and  shoe  maker 

Taylor  Jonathan,  farmer,  Seniors,  Newton  Poppleford 

Taylor  Jonathan,  draper  and  grocer,  Newton  Poppleford 

Tilke  Miss  Mary,  postmistress,  Newton  Poppleford 

Tozer  John,  shopkeeper  and  tailor 

BABBACOMBE.     (See  St.  Marychurch.) 

BAMPTON,  a  parish  and  small  market  town,  chiefly  built  of  stone,  is  situated  in  the  deep  valley  of 
the  small  river  Batherm,  about  a  mile  above  its  confluence  witli  the  Exe,  7  miles  N.  of  Tiverton,  and  0 
miles  S.W.  of  Wivelscombe.  It  gives  name  to  a  hundred,  and  is  in  Tiverton  union  and  county  court 
district,  Cullompton  petty  sessional  division,  Bampton  polling  district  of  North  Devon,  Exeter  archdeaconry, 
and  Tiverton  West  ruraf  deanery.  The  parish  extends  4  miles  N.  of  the  town,  to  the  bold  hills  on  the 
borders  of  Somerset,  and  nearly  two-thirds  of  it  arc  in  pasturage.  It  contained  1928  inhabitants  (990 
males,  988  females)  in  1871,  living  in  423  houses,  on  778o  acres  of  land.  (See  also  ^  Vital  Statistics,' 
page  82).  The  parish  is  divided  into  the  Eastern,  Western,  Petton,  and  Town  Quarters,  and  comprises  the 
hamlets  of  Petton  and  Shillingford,  and  several  extensive  limestone  quarries.  Bampton  is  supposed  to 
have  been  the  Beamdune  of  the  ancient  historians,  where  the  Britons  were  defeated  by  Cyneg-ilous,  King  of 
the  West  Saxons,  in  (314,  when  the  former  are  said  to  have  lost  204(3  men.  The  town  is  irregularly  built, 
and  has  a  chalybeate  spring.  Its  weekly  markets  on  Wednesday  and  Saturday  are  of  trivial  consequence ; 
but  it  lias  two  great  markets  for  sheep  and  cattle,  on  the  Wednesday  before  Lady-day,  and  the  last 
Wednesday  in  November;  and  also  two  fairs  on  AVhit-Tuesday,  and  the  last  Thursday  in  October.  The 
latter  is  a  great  horse  fair,  and  one  of  the  largest  _  sheep  fairs  in  the  West  of  England,  as  many  as 
14,000  being  often  brought  to  it.  The  sheep  bred  in  this  neighbourhood  are  remarkable  for  their  size, 
and  great  numbers  of  tliem  are  sold  at  Bampton  fairs.  The  woollen  trade  was  formerly  carried  on  here, 
but  it  began  to  decline  in  1772,  and  was  given  up  many  years  ago.  The  honour  or  barony  of  Bampton,  or 
Bathermton,  was  given  by  William  the  (Conqueror  to  Walter  Douay,  and  afterwards  passed  to  the  Paganell 
and  Cogan  families.  In  1330,  Richard  Cogan  had  a  license  from  the  Crown  to  castellate  his  mansion  here, 
and  to  enclose  his  wood  of  Uti'culme  and  300  acres  of  land  for  a  park.  A  mound  near  the  town  denotes  the 
site  of  the  Castle,  but  all  traces  of  the  building  disappeared  some  centuries  ago.  Captain  W.  Leir,  who 
has  a  mansion  at  Combhead,  is  lord  of  the  manor ;  and  at  the  court  leet,  a  portreeve,  bailifi",  &c.,  are 
appointed ;  but  the  parish  is  all  freehold  and  belongs  to  many  proprietors,  the  largest  of  whom  is  C.  A.  W. 
Troyte,  Esq.,  of  Huntsham  Court;  but  S.  Lucas,  Esq..  trustees  of  the  late  C.  E.  Rowliffe,  Esq.,  and  M. 
Bere,  W.  Rowlifl'e,  T.  C.  Daniel,  B.  Loosemore,  and  J.  Collins,  Esqrs.,  Sir  Henry  Ferguson  Davie,  Bart., 
Captain  W.  Lear,  W.  N.  Row,  J.  Trude,  J.  Badcock,  J.  Harris,  and  the  Hon.  M.  Rolle  have  estates  here. 
The  Chuech  (St.  Michael)  is  a  large  ancient  structure,  with  a  tower  and  six  bells.  The  interior  has  a 
finely  ornamented  arched  coiling,  and  a  carved  oak  screen.  The  churcli  was  repaired  in  1872  at  a  cost  of 
£300,  given  principally  by  Mr.  Philips.  Among  its  monuments  is  one  to  John  Tristram,  who  died  at 
Duvale  in  1722.  It  had  three  small  endowed  chantries,  and  was  appropriated  to  Buckland  Abbey.  The 
vicarage,  valued  in  K.B.  at  £21  II*-.  Sd.,  and  now  at  £150,  is  in  the  patronage  of  J.  Chichester  Nagle,  Esq., 
the  impropriator  of  the  great  tithes  which  were  commuted  in  1843.  The  Rev.  Edward  Rendell,  B.A.,  is 
the  incumbent,  and  has  3a.  2r.  17p.  of  glebe.  Pettoi^"  Chapel,  about  4  miles  N.E.  of  the  town,  is  a  small 
chapel  of  ease,  which  was  rebuilt  in  1847  ;  but  that  at  Shillingford  has  been  dilapidated  many  years.  In 
the  town  is  a  neat  Baptist  Chapel,  in  the  lancet-Gothic  style,  and  also  a  Biele  Christian  Chapel. 
The  School  BoaFvD  was  formed  on  March  31,  1875,  and  now  consists  of  Mr.  Richard  Densham  (chairman), 
Mr.  Francis  Davys  (vice),  the  Revs.  Edward  Rendell,  B.A.,  and  Edward  Scott,  and  Mr.  John  T.  Periam. 
Mr.  Thomas  Rowe  Densham  is  clerk.  In  1870  the  parochial  Infant  School,  built  by  subscription  in  1858, 
was  transferred  to  the  Board,  who  are  now  erecting  a  new  school,  at  Shillingford,  to  accommodate  sixty 
scholars,  at  a  cost,  including  furniture  and  building  a  teachers'  residence,  of  £1000 ;  and  a  School  wa's 
founded  in  1821  by  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Penton,  who  endowed  it  with  £2200  Five  per  cent.  Stock,  for  the  educa- 
tion of  100  children.  It  was  further  endowed  by  Mrs.  Susanna  Webbe  witli  £1000  like  Stock.  The  poor 
parishioners  have  26s.  a  year,  distributed  in  bread  weekly,  left  by  Sir  John  Acland  in  1619,  and  paid  by 
Exeter  Corporation.  Out  of  a  farm  at  Bishop's  Hull,  the  poor  have  £4,  and  the  cburchwardens  IQs.  3^early, 
left  by  Robert  Mogridge,  in  1645.  The  poor  have  also  the  following  yearly  sums,  viz.  : — 36s.  left  by  John 
Tristram,  in  1628,  out  of  Little  Pilemore ;  and  £2  As.  left  by  Elizabeth  Lucas,  in  1808,  out  of  an  estate  now 
now  belonging  to  S.  Lucas,  Esq.  Bampton  Bridge  was  rebuilt,  in  1827,  at  the  cost  of  £654.  John  de 
Bampton,  a  Carmelite  friar,  who  first  read  lectures  in  Cambridge  on  the  works  of  Aristotle,  was  a  native  of 
this  parish,  and  died  in  1391. 

Post  and  Moxey  OpvDEr  Office,  Satixgs  Bank,  Government  Anntjity  and  Insurance  Office, 
at  Mrs.  Harriet  Catford's,  Fore  Street.  Letters  are  received  at  6  a.m.  and  3  p.m.,  and  despatched  at  7.25 
p.m.  via  Tiverton.     Morebath  is  the  nearest  railway  station. 

Bowden  Alfred,  farmer,  Gumbland 
Bowden  Mr  Francis,  Brook  street 

Anstey  John  Dufty,  miller,  Shillingford  mills 
Attwater  Alexander  Henly,  surgeon.  Mill  head 
Beamer  Lewis,  victualler,  Castle  Inn,  Castle  street 
Besley  Samuel,  relieving  officer  and  registrar  of  births  and 
deaths,  Brook  street 

Bowden  Thomas,  vict.  White  Horse  Tap,  Fore  street 
Bray  John  Wright,  victualler,Tiverton  Hotel,  Britain  street 
Bray  William,  tailor,  Castle  street 



Eryan  Mrs  Ann,  grocer,  Brook  street 

33ryant  John,  draper  and  tailor,  Erook  street 

Bryant  John,  tailor,  Brook  street 

Burge  Mr  John  Kopor,  Britain  street 

Burrow  William,  miller.  Town  mills 

Cann  Kobcrt,  cooper.  Brook  street 

Capron  John,  collector  of  rates,  Shillingford 

Catford  JMrs  Harriet,  postmistress.  Fore  street 

Chard  Mr  Thomas  Digglo,  Barnhay  cottage 

Chilcott  John,  baker,  Luke  street 

Collins  John,  Esq.  J.P.,  Wonham  house 

Cook  George,  miller.  Tucking  mills 

Cottrell  Alfred,  common  carrier.  Brook  street 

Cottrell  Janios,  farmer.  Ganders 

Cottrell  William,  victnaller.  Angel  Inn  and  carrier,  Fore  st 

Crudge  John,  grocer  and  ironmonger.  Brook  street 

Crudge  Mr  William,  Southmolton  road 

Crudge  William,  builder,  Brook  street 

Dart  Ei chard  Henry,  grocer  and  draper.  Castle  street 

Davey  Charles  (D.  &  Hooper) ;  h  Silver  street 

Davey  &  Hooper,  agricultural  implement  makers,  iSilver  st 

Davey  John,  mason,  Brook  street 

Davey  Thomas,  farmer,  Quartly 

Davey  William,  miller.  Ford  mill 

Densham  Mr  Richard,  solicitor,  Luke  street 

Densham  Thomas  Row,  solicitor  &  clerk  to  the  Tiverton 

Highways  District  Board  to  Local  Board  and  Bampton 

School  Board,  and  agent  for  West  of  England  Insurance 

Company,  Luke  street 
Down   Robert,  veterinary  surgeon  and  agent  for  Royal 

Insurance  Company,  Fore  street 
Elsworthy  Mrs  Ann,  Daddiscombe 
Elsworthy  James,  blacksmith,  Shillingford 
Endicott  Joseph,  grocer  and  draper.  Fore  street 
F]scott  James,  blacksmith.  Brook  street 
F^scott  James,  bootmaker,  Brook  street 
F]scott  Walter,  bootmaker,  Brook  street 
Escott  William,  confectioner.  Brook  street 
F^arrant  Mrs  Maria,  South  view  cottage 
Finch  Henry,  butcher,  Brook  street 
Gale  Walter,  carpenter,  Brook  street 
Gare  William,  grocer  and  druggist,  Newton  square 
Gibbings  Mrs  Eliza,  butcher  and  lessee  of  market  tolls, 

Newton  square 
Gillard  Wm.  Bird,  victualler,  Foxford  Hotel 
Goddard  Edward  William,  farmer,  Dipford  Down 
Gooding  Edward,  farmer.  Grants 
Greenslade  William,  wheelwright,  Petton 
Greenslade  Robert,  grocer,  Shillingford 
Hawkins  George,  carpenter  and  farmer,  Daleys 
Henson  James  &  Francis,  farmers,  Dowhill  farm 
Hill  Mr  Charles,  Prospect  cottage 
Hill  Charles,  thatcher.  High  street 
Hill  Martin,  victualler,  Exeter  Inn,  Bampton  road 
Hill  William,  farmer,  Hayne 
Hobbs  Ellas,  watchmaker,  Fore  street 
Hobbs  Mrs  Jane,  fancy  repository.  Fore  street 
Hookway  John,  mason,  Brook  street 
Holcombe  Nicholas,  farmer,  Sparkhayne 
Hooper  Francis,  agricultural  implement  maker  (Davey  & 

H.) ;  h  Silver  street 
Inland  Bevenue  Office,  Fore  street 
Irish  William,  farmer,  Wonham  Barton 
Kemp  Frank,  farmer,  Cudmoor 
Kemp  John,  farmer,  Waterhouse 
Kerslake  James,  bootmaker.  Brook  street 
Langdon   Henry,   chemist,   grocer,  and  agent  for   Briton 

Medical  Life  Insurance  Company,  Fore  street 
Lazarus  William,  carrier.  Brook  street 
Legg  Daniel,  farmer,  Duval  Barton 
Levi  Captain  William,  J.P. 

Local  Board,  Luke  street ;  Thomas  R.  Densham,  clerk 
Lock  Miss  Eliza,  Churchyard 
Lock  Samuel,  farmer,  Bowbcirhill 



Luxton  Thomas  Greenslade,  builder,  Petton 

Mantle  Thomas,  farmer,  Rhyll 

May  Miss  Mary,  milliner  and  dressmaker.  Brook  street 

MellhuiHh  James,  tailor,  Shillingford 

Miles  Thomas,  beerhouse.  Brook  street 

Millman  Abraham,  victualler,  Red  Lion,  Back  street 

Moody  H.  L.  outfitter.  Brook  street 

Moore  Mark,  bootmaker.  Fore  street 

]\Iurch  John,  farmer.  Zeal 

Nason  PklM'ard,  surgeon.  Castle  street 

Needs  Thomas,  baker,  Newton  square 

Needs  William,  baker,  W>stgate  street 

Nott  Henry,  ironmonger.  Brook  street 

Oxenham  Henry,  carpenter  and  joiner,  Westgatc  street. 

Palfrey  Thomas,  farmer,  Holcombe 

Paul  John,  carpenter,  Shillingford 

Pearse  Henry,  farmer,  Birchdown 

Pearse  Richard,  painter.  High  street 

Periam  John  Trowey,  brewer,  wine  and  spirit  merchant," 

stamp   distributor,  and   agent   for   Stuckey's   Banki 

Company,  Britain  street 
Phillips  John,  builder.  Silver  street 
Phillips  Mr  John  Gooding,  Home  cottage 
Police  Station,  Britain  street ;  —  Chappie,  sergeant 
Rendell  Rev  Edward,  B.A.  vicar.  The  Vicarage 
Restarick  William,  draper  and  grocer.  Brook  street 
Rockett  John,  farmer,  Pipshayne 
Row  Mrs  &  Miss  Farrant,  ladies'  boarding  and  day  school, 

Brook  street 
Row  Thomas,  solicitor.  Brook  street 
Salisbury  Edward,  farmer,  Vennmans 
Salter  Edwin,  farmer,  Ben  shays 
Sampson  John  Robert,  baker,  Westage  street 
Scott  Rev  Edward  (Baptist),  Fore  street 
Serle  Samuel,  beerhouse  keeper  &  wheelwright,  Newton  sq 
Short  Jacob,  Mill  head 

Short  John,  saddler  and  harness  maker.  Fore  street 
Sloman  John,  farmer,  Brimridge 
Slocombe  George,  farmer.  North  Hriyne 
Snell  Henry  John,  boarding  and  day  school,  and  agent  for 

the  Sun  Insurance  Company,  Rose  house 
Staddon  Richard  Lewis,  cabinet  maker  and  parish  clerk, 

F'ore  street 
Staddon   Robert,   auctioneer,    and   agent   for   the  Royal 

Farmers'  Insurance  Company,  Fore  street 
Stam]}  Office ;  John  T.  Periam,  distributor 
Stokes  George,  victualler.  White  Horse  Hotel 
Stuckey's  Banking  Co.  Britain  street ;  J.  T.  Periam,  agci 
Surridge  Wilham,  Mill  head 

Sweet  Thomas,  sen.  farmer,  Luttrell  ^^h 

Sweet  Thomas,  jun.  farmer,  Langs  w^H 

Thorn  William,  carpenter  and  joiner.  High  street  ^i 

Townsend  Frederick,  national  schoolmaster.  High  street 
Toze  John,  jun.  harness  maker.  Brook  street 
Trapnell  Richard,  farmer.  Barton 

Trickey  Mrs  Hannah,  victualler,  Swan  Inn,  Luke  street      ^ 
Trickey  Robert,  tailor,  Westgate  street 
Trude  John,  farmer,  Westbrook 
Turner  Mr  Robert,  Churchyard 
Vicary  Richard  &  James,  butchers,  Castle  street       ^ 
W^arren  James,  dairyman.  Lower  Rhyll 
Watkins  Rev  William,  B.A.  curate,  South  view  house 
Webber  James,  grocer.  Brook  street 
Webber  William,  builder  and  ironmonger.  Brook  street 
Wensley  Mrs  Jane,  day  school.  Brook  street 
Whitfield  William,  bootmaker.  Castle  street 
Williams  James,  tailor,  Luke  street 
Winsborow  William,  farmer.  Blights 
Winter  Robert,  farmer,  Coldharbour 
Wood  Sidney  Smith,  Back  street 

Young  Miss  Sarah,  Infant  Board  school  mistress.  Fore  st 
Cakrieks — Alfred  Cottrell  to  Morehath  for  Bampioa  Slu- 

tion  daily.    William  Cottrell  to  Tiverton,  Tues.  and  Sat, ; 

AVilliam  Lnzarus,  to  Tiverton  Tues.  and  Exeter  Fri. 


II>evoiiHliire.  125 

BARNSTAPLE,  the  principal  port,  market  town,  and  borough  in  North  Devon,  gives  name  to  a  parish, 
a  large  poor  law  union,  a  county  court  and  polling  district,  an  archdeaconry  and  a  deanery,  is  in  Braun- 
ton  hundred,  and  the  borough  has  a  commission  of  the  peace,  and  a  separate  court  of  qunrter  sessions. 
Barnstaple,  which  is  a  very  ancient  borough,  is  distant  40  miles  N.W.  of  Exeter,  9  miles  N.E.  of  Bideford, 
11  miles  W.N.W.  of  South  Molton,  and'  192  miles  W.  by  S.  of  London.  Barnstaple  parish  had  3748 
inhabitants  in  1801 ;  4019  in  1811 ;  5079  in  1821 ;  6840  in  1831 ;  7902  in  1841  ;  8GG7  in  18ol ;  8127  in  1801 ; 
and  8918  (4041  males  and  4877  females)  in  1871,  living  in  1717  houses,  on  1102  acres  of  land.  Barnstaple 
municipal  borough,  which  comprises  Barnstaple  parish  and  parts  of  those  of  Bishop'.;^  Tawton  and  Pilton, 
had  11059  persons  (5211  males  and  0448  females)  at  the  last  census,  living  in  2318  houses;  there  .were  then 
02  houses  uninliabited  and  18  building.  The  boundaries  of  the  parliamentary  borough  werer  extended  by 
31  &  32  Vict.  c.  46,  so  as  to  include  a  further  part  of  Pilton  parish  ;  this  part  had  in  1871  154  inhabi- 
tants (83  males  and  71  females),  living  in  31  houses,  thus  making  the  population  of  the  parliamentary 
borough  11,813,  and  the  number  of  its  inhabited  houses  2349.      The  return  for  the  parish  includes  247 

a  handsome  bridge.  Below  the  bridge  the  stream  expands  into  a  broad  tidal  estuary,  abounding  in  salmon 
and  other  fish,  and  flowing  seven  miles  westward,  where  it  empties  itself  into  the  Torridge  estuary.  The 
North  Devon  Railway  from  Exeter  to  Barnstaple,  opened  in  1854,  is  now  extended  to  Bideford  and  Torring- 
ton ;  and  in  1874  the  line  to  Ilfracombe  was  completed.  The  Railway  Station  is  on  the  Tawstock  side  of 
the  river,  which  is  here  crossed  by  an  iron  bridge  of  seventeen  arches  ;  and  on  the  Barnstaple  side  of  the  river 
is  the  Quay  Station.  The  Taunton  and  Barnstaple  Branch  of  the  Great  Western  Railway  was  opened  in 
1873,  and  has  a  station  in  Victoria  Road.  The  town  has  been  much  improved  and  enlarged  during  the  last 
twenty  years,  and  extends  about  a  mile  in  length,  including  its  suburbs  of  Pilton  and  Newport.  Many  new" 
buildings  have  been  erected  on  all  sides  of  the  town,  and  several  new  streets  and  roads  made. 

Barnstaple  (or  Barum)  was  called  in  British  Abertmve,  and  has  been  suggested  as  the  Celtic  town  Artavia. 
3Sritish  pottery,  as  well  as  flint  arrow  heads,  knives  and  celts  have  been  found  in  the  neighbourhood  ;  the  latter 
have  led  some  to  think  that  there  was  a  manufactory  of  Celtic  weapons  here.  Only  a  few  Roman  antiquities 
have  been  found.  Barnstaple  Castle  was  the  supposed  work  of  the  Danes,  but  nothing  remains  of  it  save 
the  artificial  mound  on  which  it  stood.  Tradition  tells  us  that  Athelstane  repaired  the  castle  and  the  fortifi- 
cations of  the  town  after  he  had  driven  the  allied  Danes  and  Britons  beyond  the  Tamar.  It  is  said  that  ho 
granted  the  town  a  charter,  and  bestowed  upon  the  inhabitants  *  divers  liberties,  freedoms  and  immunities.' 
The  town  has  even  claimed  to  have  sent  representatives  to  the  Witena-gemote,  but  there  is  good  reason  to 
believe  that  no  representatives  wliatever  were  admitted  into  that  assembly.  Athelstane  also  founded  Pilton 
Priory,  as  noticed  at  a  subsequent  page.  At  the  Norman  Conquest,  Barnstaple  was  divided  into  the  three 
manors  of  the  Castle  Manor,  or  the  ancient  town  within  the  walls;  the  Fee  of  Magdalene,  or  Priory  of  St. 
Mary  Magdalene  ;  and  the  manor  of  llog's  Fee.  The  two  former,  if  not  the  latter,  exercised  separate  juris- 
dictions down  to  the  beginninir  of  the  17th  century.  William  I.  granted  the  former  manor  to  Judael  de 
Totness,  who  repaired  the  town  walls  and  strengthened  the  castle.  At  Domesday  Survey  there  w^ere  forty 
burgesses  within  the  borough,  and  nine  without,  and  the  inhabitants  were  exempted  from  serving  on  any 
expedition,  or  paying  taxes,  except  at  the  same  time  as  Exeter  and  Totnes.  The  Barony  and  Castle  of  Barn- 
staple was  escheated  at  the  banishment  of  Judael  de  Totness  in  the  reign  of  William  II.,  and  was  kept  as  a 
royal  demesne  until  Stephen  granted  it  to  Henry  de  Tracy.  It  passed  through  various  hands  until  Quee}i 
Mary  gave  it  to  Thomas  Marrow,  whose  son  sold  it  to  Sir  John  Chichester,  Knight.  The  latter,  in  1560, 
conveyed  the  manor,  with  the  exception  of  the  site  of  the  castle,  to  the  Corpoi:ation,  who  still  hold  it.  The 
condition  on  which  the  Corporation  held  the  manor  was  to  give  two  fish  dinners  yearly  to  Sir  John  Chichester 
or  his  representatives,  but  these  were  compounded  at  the  beginning  of  the  present  century  for  £1  paid  yearly 
to  the  local  charities.  One  of  the  former  holders,  James  Lord  Audleigh,  greatly  distinguished  himself  at  tlu; 
battle  of  Poictiers  (1356),  and  was  rewarded  by  Edward  III.  with  gifts  of  land.  The  Corporation  also  owns 
the  manor  of  Hog's  Fee.  Barnstaple  Priory,  dedicated  to  St.  Mary  Magdalene,  was  founded  b}'-  Judael  de 
Totness,  the  first  Norman  lord,  and  made  dependent  on  St.  Martin's-in-the-Field,  near  Paris,  but  was  made- 
denizen  in  the  15th  century,  and  so  continued  until  the  Dissolution,  when  it  was  valued  at  £123  Gs.  7cl  It 
was  afterwards  granted  to  William,  Lord  Howard  of  Effingham. 

In  1228  the  slierilf  of  Devon  w^as  directed  to  reduce  the  walls  of  Barnstaple  Castle,  so  as  not  to  exceed  10ft. 
in  height.  But  when  Leland  visited  Barnstaple,  the  wall  was  almost  'clene  faullen,'  and  the  castle  in  ruins. 
Barnstaple  was  a  naval  station  in  1344,  as  is  proved  by  its  being  one  of  the  places  which  sent  representatives 
to  a  naval  parliament  Edward  III.  called  together.  Besides  equipping  five  ships  for  the  fleet  which  destro3'ed 
the  Spanish  Armada^  it  sent  out  several  privateers,  one  of  which  returned  %vith  a  prize  taken  on  the  coast  of 
Guinea,  '  having  in  her  four  chests  of  gold,  worth  £16,000,'  and  other  articles  of  great  value.  In  consequence 
of  the  plague  being  at  Exeter,  the  spring  assizes  were  held  at  Barnstaple,  in  1590,  when  eighteen  prisoners 
were  hanged  on  the  Castle-green.  During  the  civil  wars,  Barnstaple  was  strongly  attached  to  the  interests 
of  the  Parliament.  It  was  taken  for  the  King  by  Prince  Maurice,  in  September,  1643.  In  July  following, 
the  inhabitants  rose  and  took  possession  of  the  town,  and  the  Earl  of  Es«ex  sent  Lord  Roberts  and  Sir  P. 
Stapleton,  with  about  500  horse,  who  repulsed  Digby  and  others  sent  to  the  relief  of  the  royalists.  The  Earl 
of  Essex  then  garrisoned  the  town,  but  it  surrendered  on  honourable  terms  to  General  Goring,  in  September. 
;  In  October  1645,  the  clubmen  of  Devon  declared  for  the  Parliament,  and  killed  several  of  the  royalists  at 
Barnstaple,  where  Sir  A.  Apsley  was  then  governor.  The  Prince  of  Wales  resided  here  during  this  time  for  two 
months,  indulging  in  those  pleasures  which  afterwards  earned  for  him  the  unenviable  surname  of  the  '  Merry 
Monarch.'     In  March,  1640,  Sir  Thomas  Fairfax  blockaded  the  town,  which  surrendered  to  him  on  April  10, 


B  111*11  «tai>le , 

after  the  fall  of  Exeter.  The  ancient  chapel  of  St.  Nicholas,  on  the  (^uay,  formerly  belon«i;ing  to  a  fraternity 
and  abolished  at  the  Dissolution,  was  used  as  the  Quay  Hall  until  about  thirty  years  ago,  when  it  was  pulled 
down.  The  chapel  of  St.  Anne,  in  the  churchyard,  which  has  ever  since  its  desecration  been  used  as  the 
Grammar  School,  has  been  recently  restored,  and  is  a  noteworthy  building-,  the  only  one  remaining  of  the 
many  chapels  Barnstaple  once  possessed. 

CoiiPOiiATioN,  &c. — llisdon  says  Henry  I.  incorporated  the  borough,  and  that  King  John  enlarged  its 
privileges.  This  last  charter  is  recited  and  conhrmed  by  Edward  IV.  in  the  seventeenth  year  of  his  reign. 
The  charter  of  James  I.  adds  a  high  steward,  recorder,  &c.  Previous  to  the  Municipal  lleform  Act  of  18'3o,  the 
government  of  the  borough  was  vested  in  the  mayor,  high  steward,  recorder,  two  aldermen,  and  twenty-two 
common  councilmen.  Since  the  'JSvd  of  Edward  I.  the  borough  has  always  sent  two  members  to  Parliament,  and 
until  1832  the  right  of  election  was  vested  in  the  corporate  body  and  burgesses.  Among  the  records  in  tl 
Tower  are  some  inquisitions  taken  in  the  reign  of  Edward  VI.,  in  consequence  of  a  dispute  between  the  lo: 
of  the  manor  and  the  burgesses,  the  latter  claiming  various  privileges  and  the  right  of  choosing  a  mayor,  s; 
to  have  been  granted  by  a  lost  charter  of  Athelstane.  The  municipal  borough  is  divided  into  two  wards 
namely,  the  north  ward,  containing  (5517  inhabitants  in  1871,  and  the  south  ward,  containing  5142.  Th^ 
borough  is  governed  by  a  mayor,  recorder,  six  aldermen,  and  eighteen  councillors.     An  Act  for  improving  the 




town  and  regulating  the  markets  was  obtained  in  1818,  and  another  for  enlarging  the  market  place  in  1851 
but  the  Improvement  Commissioners  are  no  longer  in  existence,  their  powers  being  transferred,  through  tl' 
adoption  of  the  Local  Government  Act,  to  the  Corporation.  The  receipts  of  the  Corporation,  including  ren 
of  municipal  property,  customary  rents  and  quay  rents,  averaging  about  £800,  with  borough  rate  and  miscel- 
laneous receipts,  making  a  total  of  about  £0000  a  year.  The  payments  and  expenditure  of  this  income  are 
arranged  under  the  diflerent  heads  of  salaries,  police,  justice,  lighting,  sewerage,  streets  and  highways,  public 
works,  &c.  Several  thousand  pounds  have  also  been  borrowed  of  late  years  for  permanent  works  and  im- 
provements, in  addition  to  the  ordinary  income.  The  markets,  tolls,  and  dues  form  a  separate  account.  The 
receipts,  amounting  to  about  £1200,  are  usually  applied  in  maintaining  the  markets ;  taxes  and  interest  on 
the  debt,  and  the  surplus  in  providing  a  sinking  fund  for  paying  off  the  same.  The  remaining  debt  last  year 
was  £d-j7o. 


Thomas  Cave,  Esq.,  and  Samuel  Danks  Waddy,  Esq.,  Q.G. 

LoKD  High  Steward  oy  the  Borough — The  Hon.  Mark  llolle. 


MAYOR— C.  S.  Willshire,  Esq. 
EECORDEPv— Charles  J.  Murch,  Esq. 


C-  S.  Willshire,  R.  Budd,  and  T.  W.  M.  W.  Guppy,  who  retire  in  1880 ;  J.  R.  Chanter,  C.  E.  Palmer,  and 

J.  M.  Miller,  who  retire  in  1883. 





TH  Ward. 


W.  Avery       . 

.     1878 

AV.  Fletcher   . 

.    1878 

G.  Brown 

.     1878 

J.  I.  Ivnill       . 

.     1878 

J.  E,  Bavlis     . 

.     1878 

J.  D.  Young    . 

.     1878 

J.  D.  Thomas . 

.     1879 

C.  H.  Gamble 

.     1879 

J.  Harper 

.     1879 

J.  Pulsford      . 

.     1879 

A.  Lauder 

.     1879 

J.  Channon 

.     1879 

J.  Harris 


.     1880 

W.  Westacott. 

.     1880 

John  List 

.    1880 

J.  Brady 

.     1880 

C.  E.  Northcote 

.     1880 

W.  J.  Sleath  . 

.     1880 

Town  Clerk,  Lionel  Thomas  Bencraft,  Esq. 

Clerk  of  the  Peace,  John  Hy.  Toller,  Esq.      |      Coroxer,  Richard  Incledon  Bencraft,  Esq. 

Clerk  to  Magistrates,  Richard  Incledon  Bencraft,  Esq. 

Borough  Treasurer,  Henry  Xing  Thorne,  Esq. 

Inspector  of  Weights  and  Measures,  Mr.  J.  Chappie. 

Superintendent  of  Police,  Mr.  George  Longhurst. 

Sergeants-at-Mace,  Messrs.  John  Hopkins  and  William  Chanter. 

Inspector  of  Nuisances,  Mr.  George  Yeo.  |  Town  Crier,  Mr.  H.  J,  Hancock. 

Beadles,  Messrs.  II.  J.  Hancock  and  William  Gabriel. 

Barnstaple  Union,  which  comprises  .39  parishes,  had  37,400  inhabitants  (17,513  males  and  19,89 
females)  in  1871,  living  in  7710  houses,  on  140,914  acres  of  land ;  the  area  of  the  union  includes  also  281o 
acres  of  water.     In  April,  1871,  there  were  371  houses  uninhabited,  and  07  building.     At  the  census  of  18' 
the  population  was  30,293  (10,877  males  and  19,410  females)  ;  the  number  of  inhabited  houses  7550;  un 
habited  422  ;  and  those  building  37.     In  the  union  there  were  three  persons  who  were  blind  from  birth, 
39  others ;  10  deaf  and  dumb ;  44  idiots  or  imbeciles ;  nine  lunatics ;  05  inmates  ot  hospitals ;  247  in 





workhouse,  and  six  in  prison.  The  Union  Workhouse  is  a  large  stone  building,  which  was  erected  in  1837 
at  a  cost  of  £4000,  including  £900  paid  for  the  land.  The  House  has  been  since  enlarged,  at  a  further  outlay 
of  £1500,  and  has  room  lor  320  paupers.  It  had  247  in  April  1871.  The  Board  of  Guardians  meets  at 
the  Union  House  every  Friday  morning,  at  11.30  a.m.  The  expenditure  of  the  union  in  1849  was 
£13,974,  and  for  the  year  ended  Lady-day  1870,  £24,384.  William  Henry  Toller,  Esq.,  is  union  clerk  and 
superintendent  registrar;  the  llev.  A.  E.  Seymour,  chaplain  ;  Mr.  Wm.  and  Mrs.  Ann  Muxworthy,  master  and 
matron  of  the  wol'khouse  ;  Mr.  W.  H.  Rice,  porter ;  Messrs.  Fernie,  Jackson,  and  Hartley  are  union  medical 
officers  and  officers  of  health  for  the  Rural  Sanitary  Authority  ;  Messrs.  Henry  Hooper  (Barnstaple),  Philip 
Taylor  (Lynton),  James  Richards  (Kentisbury),  James  Stephens  (Ilfracombe),  Richard  Vicary  (Piltou),  and 
John  Clement  (Newport),  are  the  relieving  officers ;  the  registrars  of  births  and  deaths  are  Messrs.  Henr}^ 
Hortop  (Barnstaple),  John  Clements  (Newport),  and  Richard  Vicary  (Pilton). 

Tlie  following  is  an  enumeration  of  the  parishes  in  the  union,  showing  their  territorial  extent,  number 
of  inhabited  houses  and  population,  in  1871,  and  their  present  rateable  value  : — 

Paiislies,  &c. 


Atherington   . 
Berrynarbor  . 
Bishop's  Tawton     . 
Bittadon    • 
Bratton  Fleming    . 
Challacombe  . 
Combmartin  . 
Countisbury    . 
East  Down     . 
Georgeham     . 
Heaton  Punchardon 
Horwood        , 

















740  1 









j  4958 




,  4263 




1  1018 



885  1 

1  5845 



5771  i 




10436  ' 

1  6733 







2864  i 




4517  ii 




1465  :; 




3644  II 

i  6810 



7439  ! 

i  4229 



4607  1 

1  1167 




1  3020 



3678  11 




3178  |! 




842  , 


Parishes,  &c. 

In  stow  . 
Kentisbury     . 
Land key 
Lynton  . 

5  Mortliue 

6  Newton  Tracey 

2  Paracombe 

5  Pilton    . 

3  Sherwill 

3  Stoke  Fivers  . 

1  Swimbridge    . 

6  Tawstock 

2  Trentishoe 

4  West  Down    . 
6  Westlcigh 

Total  . 

















435   2033 






















Notes. — Marked  1  are  in  Barnstaple  sub-registration  district ;  2  in  Paracombe  ;  3,  Combmartin ;  4,  Ilfracombe ; 
6,  Braunton,  and  6,  Bishop's  Tawton. 

Petty  Sessions  for  the  borough  are  held  at  the  Guildhall  every  alternate  Thursday  at  12  o'clock. 
The  Magistrates  are  The  Mayor  (C.  S.  Willshire,  Esq.),  The  Recorder  (C.  J.  Murch,  Esq.),  W.  Avery, 
G.  Brown,  R.  Budd,  M.I3.,  J.  R.  Chanter,  C.  Crasweller,  John  M.  Fisher,  C.  H.  Gamble,  T.  W.  M.  W. 
Guppy,  J.  Harper,  J.  M.  Miller,  and  W.  H.  Toller.     IncledonBencraft,  Esq.,  is  their  clerk. 

The  County  Court  for  all  the  parishes  in  Barnstaple  union,  except  Horwood,  Instow  and  A^'estleigh,  is 
held  at  the  Guildhall  monthly ;  Mr.  Serjt.  Petersdorff  is  judge ;  L.  T.  Bencraft,  Esq.,  registrar;  and  Mr.  II. 
K.  Thorne,  high  bailiff. 

Petty  Sessions  for  Braunton  petty  sessional  division  (for  places,  see  page  27),  are  held  every 
alternate  Wednesday  at  the  Bridge  Hall,  and  the  magistrates  for  the  division,  are  the  Rev.  J.  Arthur, 
Sir  B.  P.  Wrey,  Sir  A.  Chichester,  Sir  A.  B.  P.  Chichester,  C.  F.  Bailey,  Esq.,  the  Rev.  A.  C. 
Bassett,  W.  Currey,  Esq.,  R.  Chichester,  Esq.,  T.  J.  Dennis,  Esq.,  George  C.  Davie,  Esq.,  Lieut.-Col.  W. 
Harding,  Col.  Hibbert,  W.  H.  Hallidav,  Esq.,  (Jage  J.  Hedge,  Esq.,  T.  S.  Law,  Esq.,  G.  N.  Maule,  Esq., 
the  Rev.  II.  W.  Toms,  N.  Vye,  Esq.,  the  Rev.  H.  B.  Wrey,  C.H.  Webber,  Esq.,  C.  H.  Williams,  Esq.,  and 
Colonel  R.  B.  Russell.     T.  H.  Law,  Esq.,  of  Barnstaple,  is  their  clerk. 

The  Guildhall,  in  High  Street,  is  a  handsome  and  spacious  edifice  in  the  Grecian  style.  In  the  public 
room  are  the  portraits  of  the  thirty-one  corporators  and  other  worthies  of  Barnstaple,  given  to  the  town  in 
1738  by  Sir  John  Chichester  and  Theophilus  Fortescue,  Esq.,  then  representatives  of  the  borough.  The 
portraits  were  painted  by  Hudson,  and  his  pupil,  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  is  said  to  have  assisted  in  painting  the 

The  Borough  Gaol,  in  Castle  Street,  a  substantial  structure  of  stone  and  flint,  was  built  in  1875,  at  a 
cost  of  £oOOO;  in  lieu  of  the  old  Borough  Prison  and  Bridewell  in  the  Square,  which  has  been  converted 
into  cottages.  There  are  twenty  cells  certified  for  male  criminals  and  ten  for  female,  as  well  as  one  punish- 
ment cell  for  each  sex,  making  a  total  of  thirty-two  certified  cells.  On  September  29,  187C,  there  were 
:  eight  prisoners  (four  male  and  four  female),  being  three  less  than  on  September  29,  187o.  The  average  daily 
number  of  persons  in  custody  for  the  year  ended  September  29,  1876,  was  ll-2o.  The  number  of  persons 
sentenced  to  different  terms  of  imprisonment  during  the  year  was  seventy-six,  and  the  average  number  in 
custody  for  the  preceding  five  years  9*75.     The  greatest  number  at  any  one  time  during  the  year  was  nine- 

1^8  UiAl'iistiiplo 

teen  ;  the  average  greatest  number,  taken  from  the  average  greatest  number  at  any  one  time  during  each  of 
the  preceding  live  years,  sixteen  ;  the  number  of  re-committals  during  ihe  year  of  criminals  known  to  have 
been  previously  imprisoned  at  any  time  or  in  any  prison,  twenty-six.  The  estimated  value  of  work  done  for 
the  prison,  and  the  net  profit  on  work  done  during  tlie  year  by  the  prisoners,  was  £00  Is.  Ad.  The  total 
ordinary  expenditure  of  the  prison,  including  the  salaries  of  all  the  officers  for  tiie  year  ended  September  29, 
187G,  was  £'.'>59  '2s. ;  the  average  weekly  cost  of  food  per  prisoner,  2s,  'o\il.  This  prison  has  to  be  discon- 
tinued forthwith  by  the  '  Prisons  Act,'  and  the  prisoners  hitherto  sent  there  are  to  be  sent  to  I'^xeter  County 
Gaol.  Mr.  llichard  Webber  is  governor  ;  Mrs.  Annie  Webber,  matron ;  tlie  llev.  Joseph  Gilford,  M.A., 
chaplain ;  and  J.  W.  Cooke,  Esq.,  surgeon. 

Trade,  Commerce,  &c. — The  Market  and  Fairs  of  Barnstaple  have  for  a  long  period  been  in  high 
repute,  and  much  resorted  to.  In  the  reign  of  Edward  III.  it  cl.aimed  two  weekly  markets,  on  Wednesday 
and  Friday,  and  they  continued  to  be  held  till  1700.  The  market  is  now  held  on  Friday  only,  and  is  an 
extensive  mart  for  corn,  and  all  sorts  of  provisions.  Four  great  cattle  markets  or  fairs  are  held  on  thi; 
Fridays  before  March  21  and  April  21,  on  the  last  Friday  in  July,  and  on  the  second  Friday  in  December  ; 
but  the  great  'Barnstaple  Fair  commences  on  the  Wednesday  before  September  19,  and  continues  several 
days,  the  first  day  for  cattle,  &c.,  the  second  for  horses,  &c.,  and  succeeding  days  for  amusement.  This  fair 
is  one  of  the  largest  in  the  county,  both  for  business  and  pleasure ;  and  on  the  second  day  a  stag  hunt  take^^Bj 
place,  starting  on  the  borders  of  Exmoor.  The  money  expended  at  this  fair*  in  the  purchase  of  cattl^B 
often  amounts  to  £20,000.  A  new  Market  House  was  erected  in  1854,  and  comprises  a  grand  ball  for  the 
pale  of  vegetable  and  general  produce,  capable  of  containing  many  thousand  persons,  being  350  feet  long  by 
70  feet  wide,  and  very  lofty  ;  thirty-live  butcher  and  other  shops  ;  a  large  corn  market ;  and  over  the  Market 
Hall  is  a  Music  Hall.  A  Fisli  Market  has  more  recently  been  erected  adjoining  the  above  ;  the  expense 
altogether  amounting  to  more  than  £10,000.  The  staple  trade  of  the  towm,  from  a  very  early  period  till  the 
latter  part  of  the  last  centur}^,  was  the  manufacture  of  woollen  goods,  termed  duroys,  tammies,  serges, 
shalloons,  baizes,  flannels,  plushes,  &c.,  but  this  trade  is  now  obsolete  in  the  town.  Here  are,  however, 
several  woolstaplers,  a  large  lace  factory,  many  malting  establishments,  four  tanneries,  two  potteries,  an 
extensive  shipbuilding-yard,  and  several  brush  makers,  ropers,  &c.  Since  1822,  when  bonded  warehouses 
were  established  here,  the  port  has  had  a  foreign  trade,  and  goods  are  now  imported  from  the  Baltic,  France, 
Spain,  Portugal,  North  America,  &c.  An  extensive  coasting  trade  is  also  done,  importing  coals,  timber, 
iron,  groceries,  spirits,  porter,  freestone,  &c.,  and  exporting  grain,  wool,  bark,  leather,  &c.  The  Port  of 
Barnstaple  includes  Ilfracombe,  Combemartin,  Linton,  and  all  that  part  of  the  coast  of  Devon  extending 
north-east  from  the  mouth  of  the  Taw.  The  total  value  of  the  exports  of  foreign  and  colonial  merchandise 
at  Barnstaple  was  £29,032  in  1872,  £27,879  in  1873,  £24,084  in  1874,  £10,100  in  1875,  and  £17,934  in 
187G.  Tlie  gross  amount  of  Customs'  revenue  received  during  the  same  years  was  respectively  £8848, 
£8039,  £8908,  £9580,  and  £10,158.  The  value  of  the  total  exports  was  nil  in  1872,  1873,  and  1875,  £510 
in  1874,  and  £8  in  1870.  The  number  and  tonnage  of  steam  and  sailing  vessels,  including  their  repeated 
voyages,  that  entered  and  cleared  with  cargo,  From  and  to  Foreign  Countries  in  1870  was — entered, 
7  sailers,  2045  tons  ;  cleared,  nil ;  From  and  to  British  Possessions — entered,  2  sailers,  490  tons ; 
cleared,  nil;  there  were  none  of  either  class  in  ballast.  Coastwise  (with  cargoes),  employed  in  the 
general  coasting  trade — entered,  1370  sailers,  00,055  tons;  150  steamers,  11,554  tons;  total,  1520  vessels, 
78,209  tons:  cleared,  122  sailers,  5031  tons;  102  steamers,  8007  tons;  total,  224  vessels,  13,098  tons. 
Employed  in  the  intercourse  between  Great  Britain  and  Ireland — entered,  11  sailers,  704  tons;  cleared, 
1  sailer,  44  tons;  steamers,  nil.  In  ballast:  Emploved  in  the  general  coasting  trade — e^itered,^  sailers, 
108  tons,  278  steamers,  21,043  tons;  total,  281  vessels,  21,811  tons;  cleared,  1283  sailers,  00,800  tons; 
317  steamers,  24.140  tons ;  total,  1000  vessels,  84,940  tons :  Employed  in  the  intercourse  between  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland,  nil.  Thus  the  grand  total  is — entered,  1393  sailers,  70,122  tons ;  428  steamers, 
33,197  tons;  total,  1821  vessels,  103,319  tons;  cleared,  1400  sailers,  05,875  tons;  419  steamers,  32,213 
tons ;  total,  1825  vessels,  98,088  tons.  Three  vessels  were  Norwegian,  1  Turkish,  2  United  States,  1 
Central  and  Southern  America,  and  2  British  North  America.  The  total  number  of  vessels  belonging 
Barnstaple,  with  their  tonnage,  registered  under  the  Merchant  Shipping  Acts  on  December  31,  1870,  wj 
03  sailers,  2724  tons ;  1  steamer,  15  tons.  The  number  of  boats  registered  under  the  Sea  Fisheries  Ac 
1808,  was  109,  and  their  aggregate  tonnage  254 ;  84  boats  had  their  certificates  endorsed  in  1870,  and  2i 
men  and  boys  are  required  to  work  them  ;  50  men  and  boys,  constantly  employed  in  fishing,  are  residei 
within  the  limits  of  the  port ;  and  there  are  100  persons,  other  than  regular  fishermen,  that  are  occasional' 
emploved  in  fishing.  During  1870,  four  vessels  of  wood  were  built  at  Barnstaple,  and  these  had  a  tonnj 
of  781  tons. 

The  Custom  House  is  a  plain  building,  and  Richard  White,  Esq.,  is  the  collector;   and  Mr.  J. 
Gale,  examining  officer.     The  Inland  Revenue  Ofpice  is  in  Bridge  Hall  Chambers ;  W.  G.  Reed,  Esc 
is  the  collector ;  Mr.  W.  Ley,  supervisor ;  Mr.  Stephen  Baker,  supervisor  of  taxes ;  and  Mr.  John  Parke 
chief  clerk.     The  present  commodious  Quay  was  constructed  by  the  Town  Council  in  lieu  of  the  smalle 
ones  which  were  required  for  the  railway  to  Ilfracombe.     Mr.  G.  B.  Pearse  is  the  harbour  master. 

The  town  has  three  Banks,  besides  a  branch  of  the  Exeter  Savings  Bank  ;  a  handsome  TheatrI 
in  Boutport  Street,  built  in  1834,  at  the  cost  of  about  £1000,  and    a   commodious  Assembly  Room, 
Boutport  Street,  erected  in  1800,  at  an  outlay  of  £1100,  raised  in  £30  shares. 

Barnstaple  Parish  Church  (St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul),  a  large  ancient  structure,  consisting  of  nave, 
aisles,  chancel,  and  a  low  tower  on  the  south  side,  containing  six  bells,'  and  crowned  by  a  spire,  is  said  to 
have  been  rebuilt  about  1318,  and  enlarged  and  altered  at  subsequent  periods.  A  work  of  thorough 
restoration  was  commenced  in  1807,  under  the  auspices  of  the  late  vicar,  the  Rev.  G.  I.  Wallas,  and  up  to 
tlie  present  time  upwards  of  £5000,  raised  solely  by  subscription,  has  been  spent  upon  the  works.     The 

I>evoiisliiire.  129 

south  aisle  and  the  steeple  were  completed  in  1867,  and  half  the  nave  reseated  with  oak ;  the  chancel  and 
chancel  aisles  were  restored  in  1872,  an  organ  chamber  built,  and  the  grand  old  organ,  given  by  Sir  George 
Amyand,  one  of  the  borough  members  in  1764,  restored  and  removed  from  the  gallery.  The  restoration  of 
the  north  aisle  and  the  remainder  of  the  nave  still  remains  to  be  done,  at  an  estimated  outlay  of  £2000.  The 
pulpit  is  of  ancient  carved  oak.  The  east  window  was  filled  with  stained  glass  in  1854.  The  west  window 
is  enriched  with  splendid  stained  glass,  executed  by  Mr.  W.  F.  Dixon,  of  London,  and  illustrative  of 
the  miracles  of  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul ;  it  was  inserted  by  the  parishioners  in  1872,  at  a  cost  of  £256, 
in  commemoration  of  tlie  recovery  of  the  Prince  cf  Wales  from  his  illness  in  1871-2.  The  Communion  plate, 
consisting  of  two  chalice.'^,  two  flagons,  and  two  patens  of  massive  silver,  was  presented  to  the  church  in 
1684  by  the  parishioners.  The  living  is  a  vicarage,  valued  in  K.B.  at  £15  8s.  9cl,  and  now  at  £324,  in  the 
patronage  of  Earl  WharnclifFe,  and  incumbency  of  the  Rev.  Albert  Eden  Seymour,  M.A.  The  Rev.  F.  H. 
Balby  is  curate.  There  is  a  vicarage  house.  The  tithes  were  commuted  in  1841,  the  vicarial  for  £245  and 
the  rectorial  for  £36.  The  great  tithes  were  appropriated  to  Malmesbury  Priory,  and  afterwards  passed  with 
the  Priory  estate  to  the  Incledon  family. 

Holy  Trinity  Church,  in  the  Barbican,  was  originally  built  in  the  year  1843,  by  the  Rev.  John 
James  Scott,  M.A.,  the  first  patron  and  incumbent;  but  so  badly  was  it  constructed  that  in  1868  it 
became  necessary  to  take  the  edifice,  with  the  exception  of  the  tower,  down,  and  to  rebuild  it  on  a  some- 
what different  plan,  from  the  designs  of  Mr.  W.  White,  of  London.  The  cost  of  the  work  was  £2300, 
raised  by  subscription ;  and  the  church,  which  consists  of  nave,  north  and  south  aisles,  apsidal  chancel,  and 
tower,  will  seat  450  persons.  The  tower  which  was  built  in  1847,  is  very  handsome,  rises  to  a  height  of 
133  feet,  contains  two  bells,  and  is  surmounted  by  eight  pinnacles.  The  church  was  opened  in  1870.  The 
^eats  are  open  and  of  oak  ;  the  pulpit  and  lectern  of  Caen  stone ;  and  the  font,  which  is  the  same  as  was  in 
che  old  church,  was  presented  by  Dr.  Budd.  The  church  contains  a  good  organ  by  Holditch,  London.  The 
ive  windows,  of  two  lights  each,  are  filled  with  stained  glass ;  and  in  the  south  aisle  is  a  brass  in  memory  of 
;he  Rev.  A.  M.  Loring,  a  former  vicar,  who  died  in  1874.  A  new  organ  was  added  in  April,  1878,  at  a  cost 
)f  £500.  A  district  was  assigned  the  church  in  1846,  and  had  2068  inhabitants,  in  1871,  living  on  47  acres 
)f  land.  The  living,  a  vicarage  endowed  with  £lOOO  by  the  founder,  and  a  like  sum  by  the  Rev.  A.  M. 
Loring  in  1874,  is  in  the  patronage  of  the  Bishop  of  the  diocese  and  incumbency  of  the  Rev.  Henry  W. 
Majendie,  M.A.,  who  resides  in  a  handsome  house,  standing  in  pleasant  grounds,  near  the  church. 

The  Church  of  St.  Mary  Magdali^ne,  standing  at  the  head  of  13ear  Street,  was  erected  in  1846,  and 
3  a  handsome  building  consisting  of  nave,  north  and  south  aisles,  chancel  and  tower  crowned  by  a  spire, 
md  rising  to  a  height  of  115  feet.  The  nave  and  aisles  are  neatly  fitted  up  with  upwards  of  800  free  sittings. 
The  burial  ground  comprises  an  acre,  and  the  cost  of  the  church  was  about  £4500,  raised  chiefly  by  grants 
ind  partly  by  subscription.  The  living,  a  vicarage,  endowed  by  the  Ecclesiastical  Commissioners  with  £150 
I  year,  is  in  the  alternate  patronage  of  the  Crown  and  the  Bishop  of  Exeter,  and  incumbency  of  the 
Jlev.  Henry  John  Bull,  M.A.  The  district  was  assigned  the  church  in  1844,  and  it  had  2835  inhabitants 
a  1871. 

The  Rev.  Jonathan  Hammer,  the  author  of  many  works,  and  the  grandfather  of  the  poet  Gay,  was  ejected 
rom  the  vicarage  of  Bishop's  Tawton  in  1662,  and  was  the  first  minister  of  the  Independent  Church 
yhich  assembled  in  a  building  in  Castle  Street.  He  died  in  1687.  One  of  his  successors,  the  Rev.  Samuel 
3adcock,  was  minister  here  from  1770-78,  but  he  afterwards  joined  the  Established  Church,  and  became 
]  3ishop  of  Ross.  The  Independent  and  Presbyterian  congregations  were  united  here  about  the  middle  of 
ast  century.  The  first  chapel  on  the  present  site  was  erected  in  1705,  and  rebuilt  in  1839  at  a  cost  of 
U600,  but  was  again  rebuilt  in  1870  at  an  outlay  of  £3000.  The  chapel  contains  a  good  organ,  and  will 
eat  700  persons.  The  Rev.  John  Rutty  is  the  pastor.  The  Jubilee  Sunday  Schools,  at  the  corner  of  Cross 
street,  were  erected  in  1859  at  an  expense  of  £1000,  in  commemoration  of  the  50th  anniversary  of  the  first 
penin^  of  the  schools.  The  Baptist  Church  was  formed  in  1814,  but  it  was  not  until  1824  that  the 
bapel  in  Vicarage  Lane  was  built.  The  chapel  in  Boutport  Street,  which  was  erected  in  1860  in  lieu  of  one 
•uilt  in  1833,  has  sittings  for  810  persons.  The  school  and  minister's  house  were  erected  in  1870  at  a  cost 
if  £503.  The  Wesleyan  Chapel  in  Boutport  Street  was  built  in  1868,  at  an  outlay  of  £1860,  in  the  style 
'f  the  14th  century,  on  the  site  of  one  erected  in  1814,  and  has  accommodation  for  900  hearers.  An 
a'gan  was  added  in  1875,  at  a  cost  of  £400.  The  Wesleyan  Schools,  in  Gay  don  Street,  were  built  in  1852, 
.nd  the  Iniimt  School  and  minister's  house  added  in  1858  at  a  cost  of  £320.  The  Brethren  have  a  chapel 
n  Grosvenor  Street,  which  was  erected  in  1848,  and  which  will  seat  800  persons.  The  school  was  built  in 
856  for  a  Sunday  school,  but  in  1872  a  day  school  was  formed,  and  is  under  the  management  of  Mr.  Muller, 
if  Bristol.  The  Bible  Christian  Chapel,  in  Bear  Street,  was  erected  in  memory  of  the  late  Mr.  James 
?horne,  one  of  the  founders  of  this  sect,  in  1876,  at  a  cost  of  £2500,  raised  by  subscription.  There  is  a 
:allery  on  the  south-west  side,  and  all  the  fittings  are  of  pitch  pine.  The  Roman  Catholic  Church  (St. 
vlary  of  the  Immaculate  Conception)  in  Church  Street  was  erected  in  1855  in  the  Norman  style,  and  will 
lold  250  persons.  A  presbytery  was  built  at  the  same  time ;  the  school  was  erected  in  1853.  The 
ntire  cost  was  about  £5000.     The  Rev.  Mgr.  Brindle  is  provost,  and  resides  at  the  presbytery. 

Barnstaple  School  Board  was  formed  on  Feb.  25,  1871,  and  now  consists  of  Alexander  Lauder,  Esq. 
chairman),  Charles  S.  Willshire  (vice),  the  Rev.  PI.  J.  Bull,  J.  E.  Baylis,  Esq.,  J.  P.  Ffinch,  Esq.,  W. 
^letcher,  Esq.,  and  T.  M.  Hall,  Esq.     W.  Law,  Esq.  is  their  clerk. 

The  Grammar  School  is  held  in  an  ancient  building  in  the  churchyard,  and  is  repaired  by  the  corpo- 
ation.  In  consideration  of  the  undermentioned  endowments,  the  head  master  is  required  to  teacli  one  free 
cholar,  who  receives  a  classical  education  in  common  with  about  thirty  other  boys,  mostly  day  pupils.  Mr. 
^homas  Wainwright,  the  head  master,  takes  in  ten  or  twelve  boarders.  The  endowments  consist  of  an 
nnuity  of  £10,  left  by  Richard  Ferris  in  1646,  and  £3  a  year  as  the  interest  of  £100  left  by  the  Rev.  John 


130  Barnstaple, 

Wright  in  1700.  At  this  school  were  educated  John  Jewel,  Bishop  of  Salisbury,  and  his  great  polemicul 
opponent,  Thomas  Harding,  the  Jesuit  professor  at  Louvain  j  also  Gay,  the  poet,  the  learned  antiquarian  Dr. 
Musgrave,  and  very  probably  Sir  John  Doddridge. 

The  Blue  Coat  Endowed  Schools,  in  the  North  Walk,  were  erected  in  1844,  the  boys'  and  girls' 
schools  having  been  previously  held  in  separate  buildings.  They  form  a  handsome  stone  building  with  resi- 
dences for  the  head  teachers,  and  were  originally  intended  for  the  accommodation  of  50  boys  and  30  girls, 
who  were  clothed  from  the  proceeds  of  the  endowment.  Within  the  last  few  years  the  girls  have,  however, 
been  transferred  to  the  Girls'  National  School,  and  their  clothing  has  been  discontinued ;  whilst  the  number  of 
pupils  in  the  boys'  school  average  about  110,  all  of  whom  pay  a  quarterly  fee,  dependent  on  the  means  of 
their  parents,  and  40  still  receive  clothing  from  the  general  fund.  The  boys'  school  was  established  by 
subscription,  a.d.  1710,  and  various  donations  of  money  and  rent-charges  have  been  made  to  it  from  time  to 
time.  An  estate  called  Francis  and  Bowden,  at  Ilfracombe,  was  purchased  in  1746,  at  a  cost  of  £1150,  which, 
however,  included  £100  belonging  to  the  Penrose's  Almhouse,  to  which  the  estate  pays  £4  per  annum.  This 
estate  consists  of  a  farm  of  160  acres,  let  on  lease  at  £160  a  year.  The  total  yearly  income  of  the  school 
from  the  above-named  sources,  together  with  an  investment  of  £115  4s.  6d.  in  Consols,  amounts  to  about  £212 
per  annum,  which  is  supplemented  by  the  proceeds  of  an  annual  collection  at  the  church.  The  salary  of  the 
present  master,  who  is  a  graduate  of  the  University  of  London,  is  £150  per  annum,  with  house.  The  girls' 
school  was  founded  by  Alice  Horwood  a.d.  1652,  for  the  instruction  of  30  poor  girls.  The  endowment 
consists  of  a  house  and  3a.  30p.  of  land,  situated  at  Newport,  the  rent  of  the  old  school  house  in  Church 
Lane,  and  the  dividends  payable  on  £574  5s.  4d.  Consols,  amounting  altogether  to  about  £45  per  annum. 
Other  large  and  important  elementary  schools  are  the  Girls'  National  School  in  the  North  Walk,  the  Wesleyan 
and  St.  Mary  Magdalene  Schools  in  the  district  called  Derby,  the  Holy  Trinity  boys'  and  girls'  schools,  and 
the  National  Schools  at  Pilton  and  Newport, 

Holt  Trinity  Schools,  built  about  1844  by  the  founder  of  the  church,  at  a  cost  of  £300,  are  attended 
by  about  130  children.  St.  Mary  Magdalene  Schools,  in  Lower  Maudlin  Street,  erected  in  1860,  and 
since  enlarged  at  a  total  cost  of  £500,  have  an  attendance  of  275  children. 

Barnstaple  and  Sherwill  Plain  Needlework  Association  was  formed  in  1876,  to  promote  excellence 
in  plain  needlework  among  the  female  children  attending  the  elementary  schools  in  the  two  deaneries  of 
Barnstaple  and  Sherwill.  Prizes  are  distributed  annually  to  children,  and  certificates  recording  that  fact  to 
their  mistresses.     Lady  Acland  is  president  and  Miss  R.' Martin,  secretary. 

The  Cemetery,  situated  in  Lynton  road,  was  formed  m  1856,  at  a  cost  of  £2820  (borrowed  from  the 
Public  Works  Loan  Commissioners,  but  now  all  paid  off),  comprises  5  acres  of  ground,  half  of  which  is 
consecrated,  and  has  two  mortuary  chapels.  Mr.  William  Knill  is  clerk  to  the  Burial  Board,  and  Messrs. 
Robert  Jones  and  James  Youngs,  sextons. 

Waterworks. — In  1858  a  company  formed  under  an  Act  of  Parliament,  with  a  capital  of  £12,000  in 
£10  shares,  purchased  the  old  works,  which  they  enlarged  and  improved.  The  reservoir,  100  feet  long,  50 
broad,  and  14  deep,  is  in  Rawleigh  Park  in  Pilton  parish.  Mr.  Robert  Heard  is  secretary  to  the  company, 
whose  offices  are  on  the  Quay. 

Gasworks  were  first  established  in  1833,  at  the  cost  of  £2000,  raised  in  £10  shares,  but  were  recon- 
structed and  enlarged  in  1869-73,  under  the  powers  of  an  Act  of  Parliament,  at  a  further  outlay  of  £1800, 
of  which  £1400  was  raised  in  £10  shares  and  £4000  borrowed.  The  gas  is  supplied  for  45.  M.  per  1000 
cubic  feet ;  there  are  160  public  lamps,  for  which  3s.  lOd.  per  1000  cubic  feet  is  charged.  Mr.  Richard 
Ashton  is  the  secretary,  and  Mr.  W.  C.  Rafarel  manager  of  the  works. 

Three  Newspapers  are  published  here.  The  oldest,  the  N'orth  Devon  Journal,  was  established  in  1824, 
and  is  published  every  Thursday  by  Messrs.  Avery  and  Hayman.  The  JSorth  Devon  Advertiser  was  com- 
menced in  1854,  and  is  published  on  Fridays  by  .Jno.  Jones  and  Co.  The  JVorth  Devon  Herald  was 
established  in  1870,  and  is  issued  every  Thursday  by  Mr.  R.  A.  Lawrence. 

The  Literary  Institution,  which  occupies  a  large  house  in  High  Street,  was  established  in  1845,  chiefly 
by  the  munificence  of  W.  F.  Rock,  Esq.,  of  London,  a  native  of  the  town  and  a  subscriber  of  £100  a  year 
for  the  admission  of  100  free  members.  It  has  a  valuable  library  of  7000  volumes,  a  school  of  art,  two 
reading  rooms,  and  a  large  lecture  room,  in  which  lectures  are  occasionally  delivered  during  the  winter.  Thei 
library  contains  a  copy  of  the  Bible  in  each  of  the  140  languages  in  which  it  has  been  printed,  presented  byi 
W.  F.  Rock,  Esq.  Science  and  art  classes,  in  connection  with  Kensington,  are  held  during  the  season.  Thej 
institution  also  contains  a  meteorological  observatory,  where  observations  are  taken  twice  a  day.  The| 
Farmers'  Club  was  amalgamated  with  the  institution  in  1876.  Earl  Fortescue  is  president,  Mr.  Thomas 
Wainwright^hon.  secretary,  and  Mr.  William  Knill,  librarian.  A  Parochial  Library  was  founded  by  John 
Doddridge,  Esq.  in  1665,  but  it  is  now  an  Ecclesiastical  Library  of  271  volumes,  to  which  the  clergy  pay 
£1  Is.  a  year,  and  it  is  held  in  a  room  over  the  principal  entrance  to  the  church. 

A  Lodge  of  Freemasons  meets  on  the  first  Monday  of  every  month  at  the  Masonic  Hall,  in  Queen 
Anne's  Walk;  and  in  the  town  are  several  friendly  societies  and  other  benevolent  institutions. 

Chanter's  Green  and  South  Walk,  between  the  new  road  to  Newport  and  the  river  Taw,  were  formed 
in  1861  by  J.  R.  Chanter,  Esq.,  at  a  cost  of  £1500.  The  former  is  a  small  but  well  laid-out  ornamental! 
recreation  ground ;  the  latter,  a  fine  promenade  on  the  bank  of  the  river  Taw.  The  adjoining  grounc^ 
between  the  Green  and  Trafalgar  Lawn,  which  has  been  purchased  by  W.  F.  Rock,  Esq.,  of  London, isabouti 
to  be  formed  into  a  small  park  of  about  7  or  8  acres.  The  Square,  about  three  roods  in  extent,  is  beinji 
converted  into  ornamental  grounds,  at  a  cost  of  about  £200,  raised  by  subscription.  It  will  be  enclosed  b^ 
handsome  iron  railings,  presented  by  the  mayor,  C.  S.  Willshire,  Esq.  In  the  square  is  the  Albert  Memorial; 
which  consists  of  a  lotty  and  well-proportioned  tower,  surmounted  by  an  illuminated  clock,  with  a  drinkind 
fountain  at  the  base,  and  was  erected  by  subscription  in  1862.     The  Bridge  Hall  and  Bridge  Hall  Chamber."; 

I>evoiisliiire.  131 

a  handsome  range  of  buildings,  were  recently  erected  by  the  Bridge  Trustees,  near  the  ancient  bridge  which 
was  constructed  in  the  thirteenth  century.  Queen  Anne's  Walk,  on  the  Quay,  near  the  London  and  South- 
western Railway  Station,  is  a  piazza  or  corridor,  which  formerly  served  as  an  exchange  for  the  merchants. 
It  is  67  feet  long  and  12  broad,  and  has  a  series  of  stone  columns  supporting  the  roof,  and  a  parapet,  on  which 
is  a  fine  full-length  statue  of  Queen  Anne,  in  whose  reign  it  was  rebuilt.  The  statue  is  dated  1708,  and  was 
the  gift  of  Robert  Rolle,  Esq.,  and  has  been  recently  restored  by  the  Corporation. 

The  North  Devon  Infirmary,  at  the  entrance  to  the  town  from  Newport,  is  a  neat  building,  of  which 
tlie  centre  was  erected  in  1824,  when  the  first  stone  was  laid  by  the  late  Earl  Fortescue,  the  projector  and 
principal  contributor.  The  wings  of  the  building  were  afterwards  added,  aud  the  interior  is  now  spacious 
and  admirably  adapted  for  the  purposes  to  which  it  is  appropriated.  The  annual  income  and  expenditure  of 
tlie  institution  amount  to  about  £2200 ;  the  former  is  derived  from  investments  in  stocks,  &c.,  and  from 
subscriptions  and  donations.  The  Earl  of  Fortescue  is  patron  ;  R.  Budd,  Esq.,  M.D,,  F.R.C.P.,  physician  ; 
Messrs.  W.  Curiy  and  T.  S.  Law,  consulting  surgeons  ;  Messrs.  C.  H.  Gamble,  and  .1.  Harper,  surgeons  ;  Mr. 
Charles  E.  Prouger,  house  surgeon  and  apothecary;  Mr.  A.  Pitowsky,  surgeon-dentist;  the  Rev.  J.  GifFord, 
chaplain ;  Miss  S.  Williams,  matron ;  Mr.  John  Bridgman,  secretary. 

The  Dispensary,  in  Boutport  Street,  was  established  in  18-32,  and  in  connection  with  it  is  a  branch  of 
the  Royal  Humane  Society.  From  1835  to  1875  £1765  14s.  was  bequeathed  to  this  institution.  Sir 
Bouchier  P.  Wrey,  Bart.,  is  patron  ;  Mr.  Joseph  Harper,  consulting  surgeon ;  Messrs.  Fernie  and  Jackson, 
surgeons;  Mr.  C.  E.  Palmer,  hon.  secretary  ;  Mr.  J.  C.  Turner,  acting  secretary  and  dispenser. 

Salem  Almshouses,  in  Salem  Street,  for  the  residence  of  24  poor  men  and  women,  were  built  in  1834, 
at  the  sole  expense  of  Charles  Roberts,  Esq.,  of  Bickington.  They  are  neatly  built  of  stone,  and  com- 
prise 12  cottages,  forming  three  sides  of  a  square,  with  a  grass  plot  and  palisades  in  front.  The  founder 
and  other  donors  gave  about  £1000  for  the  endowment,  and  the  money  was  invested  in  the  funds,  and  yields 
about  30s.  per  annum  for  each  inmate.   .1.  R.  Chanter,  Esq.,  a  descendant  of  the  founder,  is  sole  acting  trustee. 

Penrose's  Almshouse  is  a  large  building  in  Litchdon  Street,  consisting  of  20  dwellings,  each  con- 
taining 2  almspeople,  who  have  eacli  a  portion  of  a  large  garden.  They  are  appointed  from  the  poor 
parishioners,  a  preference  being  given  to  natives,  and  usually  to  women.  Each  of  the  40  almspeople  receives 
85.  per  lunar  month  from  the  funds  of  the  charity.  The  almshouse  was  founded  in  1624  by  John  Penrose. 
His  gifts  now  consist  of  £2999  6s.  Consols,  producing  £89  19s.  6d.  a  year;  two  rent-charges  on Foxe's Field, 
amounting  to  £3  5s. ;  and  various  lands  and  tenements  let  at  £48  5.s.  In  addition  to  this,  there  is  £76  a 
year  derived  from  Richard  Beaple's  gift ;  £34  2s.  from  Palmer's  gift ;  £3  19s.  Qd.  from  Denys  RoUe's  gift ; 
and  £9  14s,  8d.  dividend  of  £324  12s.  lOd.  Consols,  purchased  with  money  left  by  Stanbury,  Barford,  and 

Horwood's  Almshouse  in  Church  Lane,  consists  of  8  dwellings  of  2  rooms  each,  occupied  by  16  poor 
people,  with  a  small  garden  plot  allotted  to  each  dwelling.  It  was  built  by  Thomas  Horwood  and  his 
widow,  who  vested  it  in  trust  with  the  mayor  and  capital  burgesses,  and  endowed  it,  in  1674,  with  7a.  3p.  of 
land,  and  a  house,  barn,  &c.  at  Newport.  The  16  almspeople  have  each  7s.  per  lunar  month.  The  income  is 
now  derived  from  £129  9s.  2d.  Consolidated  Annuities,  producing  £3  17s.  6d.  a  year ;  £29  9s.  from  various 
persons ;  and  £56  as  the  rent  of  certain  tenements,  &c. 

Paige's  Almshouse,  in  Church  Lane,  has  rooms  for  8  poor  persons,  and  occupies  the  site  of  an  ancient 
almshouse.  It  was  built  on  the  site  of  the  old  one  by  Elizabeth  Paige,  who,  in  1656,  endowed  it  with  £50, 
vested  with  the  Corporation,  and  now  producing  £2  10s.  a  year.  It  is  also  endowed  with  a  rent-charge  of 
6s.  Hd.  left  by  William  Crawford  in  1553,  and  with  £20  a  year  from  Congerham's  Estate,  left  by  Robert 
Appley  in  1594.  John  Phillips,  who  was  a  benefactor  to  the  Charity  School  and  Penrose's  Almshouse  in 
1734,  also  left  £40  to  the  inmates  of  Paige's  Almshouse.  This  £40,  with  £24  accumulated  by  unapplied  interest, 
was  vested  in  the  purchase  of  a  yearly  rent-charge  of  £2  10s.  out  of  land  at  Maidenford.  Sir  John  Chichester's 
gift  is  £1.  Besides  the  above  there  is  a  draft  of  £15  from  Poor  Account.  The  inmates  have  6s.  each  lunar 
month.  Harris's  Almshouse  forms  part  of  a  group  of  cottages  in  Alms  Lane,  and  was  given  by  Thomas  Harris 
in  1646. 

Poor  Account. — The  poor  have  a  rent-charge  of  £20  on  the  barton  and  demesne  of  Hedd,  left  by 
Richard  Beaple  in  1642 ;  £40  as  the  rent  of  two  houses,  left  by  Robert  Appley  in  1594 ;  £45  as  the  rent  of 
three  fields,  purchased  with  money  given  by  Ephraim  Skinner  in  1677 ;  £14  12s.  6d.  as  the  rent  of  a  field 
left  by  Richard  Cornish  in  1709 ;  £25  2s.  as  the  rent  of  land  purchased  with  a  legacy  left  by  Adam  Lugg  in 
1622 ;  £1  a  year  as  the  interest  of  £20  left  by  Hugh  Horsham  in  1653,  and  lent  to  the  Corporation ;  an 
annuity  of  £1  10s.  bequeathed  by  Roger  Jeffrey  ;  one  of  £2  left  by  Richard  Ferris  in  1622  ;  and  another  of 
£2  12s.  from  Sir  John  Acland's  Charity  (see  Exeter) ;  they  have  also  Ss.  4d.  from  Cordwainers'  Land.  Of 
the  above  £98  Is.  2d.  was  bread,  coal,  and  money  ;  £3  lis.  Qd.  (Acland's  and  Horsham's  gift)  in  bread;  30s. 
(Jeftry's)  to  6  decayed  housekeepers,  in  sums  of  5s.  eacli;  £15,  a  draft  to  Paige's  and  Harris's  account. 
Richard  Ferris  in  1646  left  two  rent-charges  to  be  applied  in  aid  of  the  Grammar  School,  and  in  apprenticing 
poor  children ;  the  yearly  income  is  now  about  £29  15s.,  of  which  £10  is  paid  to  the  master  of  the  Grammar 
School,  and  £10  as  the  first  instalment  with  5  apprentices. 

Municipal  Charity  Trustees. — The  following  are  the  Municipal  Charity  Trustees,  who  manage  the 
above  charities :— J.  R.  Chanter,  Esq.  (chairman),  and  :Messrs.  J.  P.  S.  Marshall,  T.  S.  Law,  J.  G.  King, 
T.  Mackrell,  W.  Hunt,  W.  Fletcher,  W.  Gould,  J.  N.  Harding,  J.  Harper,  A.  Lauder,  J.  M.  Miller, 
W.  H.  Tollei",  and  the  Rev.  G.  I.  Wallis, 

In  1636  Katherine  Westlake  left  £300  to  be  invested  for  the  relief  of  poor  artificers,  and  £100  to  be 
invested  and  the  yearly  profits  applied  towards  setting  up  young  men  newly  come  out  of  their  apprenticeship. 
These  sums  were  laid  out  in  the  purchase  of  £439  8s.  dd.  Old  South  Sea  Annuities,  now  standing  in  the  name 
of  five  trustees.     Of  the  dividends  £3  is  given  to  apprentices,  and  the  remainder  distributed  in  coal  and 


132  Bai-nKtaple, 

bread  to  the  poor.  A  yearly  rent-charge  of  £G,  left  by  George  Baron  in  1081,  out  of  an  estate  at  Brensworthy , 
in  Fremington,  is  distributed  among  poor  weavers  or  their  widows.  The  trustees  of  these  two  charities  arc 
Messrs.  T.  H.  Law,  John  R.  Chanter,  J.  P.  S.  Marshall,  J.  M.  Miller,  0.  E.  R.  Chanter. 

In  1810  Margaret  Newcomnien  left  two  annual  sums  of  £4  each  to  two  dissenting  schoolmistresses  of 
Barnstaple  for  teaching  poor  children  to  read  (see  Bideford).  An  annuity  of  £5,  left  by  Mrs.  Martin,  out  of 
Great  Fisherton  Farm,  in  Bishop's  Tawton,  is  paid  to  the  vicar  in  consideration  of  his  catechising  the  children 
of  the  parish.  He  has  also  the  dividends  of  £*2G4  G^.  Old  South  Sea  Annuities,  purchased  with  £oOO  left  iu 
1772,  by  Joan  Stanbury,  for  the  better  support  of  a  minister  who  should  read  daily  morning  prayers  at  the 

In  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth  there  was  in  Barnstaple  a  company  of  cordwainers  or  shoemakers, 
governed  by  a  master  and  wardens,  but  it  ceased  many  years  ago  to  exist.  The  property  belonging  to  it  was 
conveyed  to  new  trustees  in  1787,  and  consists  of  3  tenements,  let  for  about  £'80  a  year.  The  clear  income  is 
distributed  in  small  sums  among  poor  shoemakers  or  their  widows. 

The  3rd  Administrative  Battalion  oe  Rifle  Volunteers  (6th,  18th,  21st,  and  28th  corps)  has  ii 
headquarters  at  Barnstaple.  Lewis  V.  Madden,  Esq.  is  lieut.-colonel ;  George  Pearse,  Esq.,  major;  Brevet- 
Major  Julius  J.  Hockley,  adjutant;  Mr.  John  Gould,  surgeon;  Mr.  Joseph  Harper,  assistant-surgeon;  tho 
Rev.  W.  II.  Majendie,  M.A.,  acting  chaplain.  The  6th  Corps,  whose  armoury  is  in  the  Market  Chambers, 
was  formed  in  1869,  and  has  a  strength  of  200  men.  Mr.  Sydney  N.  Marsh  is  captain-commandant ;  Mr. 
Charles  S.  Willshire,  sub-lieutenant.  ^^—. 

The  Royal  North  Devon  Yeomanry  Cavalry  (Hussars)  has  its  headquarters  at  Barnstaple,  ^jfl 
Arthur  Chichester,  Bart,  is  lieut.-col.  commandant ;  Charles  Henry  R.  Lord  Clinton,  lieut.-col. ;  Alfred  !nHI 
Hole,  Esq.,  major;  Adderly  B.  Wren,  Esq.,  William  A.  Deane,  Esq.,  John  George  Johnson,  Esq.,  Lawrence  Des- 
borough,  Esq.,  Sir  A.  P.  B.  Chichester,  Bart.,  Hon.  Walter  R.  Trefusis,  and  W.  H.  Holley,  Esq.  are  captains ; 
Charles  E.  Radclyffe,  Ernest  J.  Oldham,  Be  Burgho  E.  Hodge,  George  L.  Lopes,  Charles  Chichester,  George 
Marker  Marker,  James  M.  Kirkwood,  George  E.  Davie,  Esqrs.  and  IIughF.  Viscount  Ebrington,  lieutenants ; 
William  E.  Arthur,  Esq.,  sub-lieutenant;  Newton  Charles  Chichester,  adjutant;  Charles  II.  Gamble,  Esq., 
surgeon ;  F.  D.  Gregory,  Esq.,  veterinary  surgeon. 

Eminent  Men. — John  Jewel,  afterwards  Bishop  of  Salisbury,  and  Thomas  Harding,  Hebrew  Professor 
at  Oxford,  were  educated  at  the  Grammar  School.  Gay,  the  author  of  the  '  Beggar's  Opera,'  born  here 
in  1688,  was  secretary  to  the  Duchess  of  Monmouth,  and  travelled  with  Lord  Clarendon  to  Hanover  in  1714. 
Philip  Wyot  was  town  clerk  of  Barnstaple  from  1558  to  1608,  and  left  a  very  curious  diary,  referring  to  local 
and  public  matters  of  great  interest.  This  diary,  which  is  frequently  referred  to  by  Lysons  and  other  his- 
torians, was  edited  and  published  by  Mr.  .1.  R.  Chanter,  in  1866. 

The  North  Devon  Building  Society  was  established  in  1869,  and  has  over  200  members.  Mr.  John 
Bridgman  is  secretary.  The  Barnstaple  Freehold  Land  Society  was  commenced  in  1851 ;  it  has  1407  mem- 
bers.    Mr.  Richard  Farleigh  is  secretary. 

Newport  is  in  the  ancient  parish  of  Bishop's  Tawton,  and  was  constituted  an  ecclesiastical  district  in 
1847.  It  forms  part  of  the  municipal  borough  of  Barnstaple,  and  had  1031  inhabitants  (390  males,  641  females) 
in  1871,  living  in  223  houses,  on  355  acres  of  land.  Newport  is  said  to  have  been  anciently  a  borough  town. 
It  had  formerly  a  market  on  Monday,  and  a  fair  on  the  festival  of  the  Nativity  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  granted  in 
1294.  Newport  Church  is  a  modern  building,  near  the  site  of  an  ancient  chapel,  the  ruins  of  which  were  taken 
down  about  the  middle  of  last  century.  The  living  is  a  vicarage,  endowed  by  the  Ecclesiastical  Commis- 
sioners with  £203  a  year,  in  the  patronage  of  the  vicar  of  Bishop's  Tawton,  and  incumbency  of  the  Rev. 
Joseph  GifFord,  M.A.  A  vicarage  house  was  built  in  1864,  at  the  cost  of  upwards  of  £1000,  defrayed  by  the 
parishioners.  The  National  School  has  been  recently  improved  at  the  cost  of  £220.  Newport  borough 
lands,  dating  from  1691,  and  consisting  of  several  tenements  in  the  parish,  are  now  vested  in  a  new  trust,  and 
the  income  thence  arising  will  be  henceforth  applied  to  the  maintenance  of  the  National  School.  There  are 
many  good  clubs  here  for  the  benefit  of  the  poor. 

Post,  Money  Order,  Telegraph  Ofeice,  and  Savings  Bank  in  Cross  Street.  Mr.  John  Parker  is 
postmaster.  Letters  are  despatched  to  London,  7.25  a.m.,  9.50  a.m.,  3  p.m.  7.15  p.m., ;  North,  3  p.m. ;  South 
West,  Southampton,  &c.,  2.15  p.m. ;  Exeter,  7.25  a.m.,  2.15  p.m. ;  Ilfracombe,  9  p.m.,  10.20  a.m.,  3  p.m. ; 
Bideford,  Fremington,  Instow,  and  Appledore,  9  p.m. ;  Bideford  and  Torrington,  10.20  a.m.,  3  p.m. ;  Braun- 
ton,  5.45  a.m.,  3  p.m. ;  Lynton,  Lynmouth,  Parracombe,  Arlington,  Sherwill,  and  Combe  Martin,  5,45  a.m. ; 
Local  Posts,  5.45  a.m.  Tliere  are  four  town  letter  carriers.  There  are  receiving  boxes  at  Mr.  John 
Shaddick's,  Newport,  and  Mr.  J.  D.  Thomas's,  Pilton. 

Railway. — (London  Sj-  South  Wester^i),  The  Quay;  Charles  Heather,  station  master.  (Great  Western), 
Victoria  Road;  Ephraim  J.  Tucker,  station  master. 

Those  marked  *  are  in  Filton  jjarish,  hut  not  in  the  borough  of  Barnstaple.     All  others  are  in  the  borough. 
Abbott  Felix,  dairyman,  Pilton  j  Alford  Mrs  Ann,  Pilton 

Abbott  John  Jas.  ins.  broker,  Eradiford,  Pilton ;  &  London  \  Allen  John,  clothier,  83  Boutport  street 
Abbott  Mrs  Mary,  grocer,  Tuly  street  I  Allen  William,  painter,  paperhanger  &  glazier,  16  High  st 

Abraham  Miss  Mavy  Jane,  dressmaker,  Newport 
Ackland  Mrs  Mary  Ann,butcher,  Butchers'  row  &  Church  gt 
Ackland  Mrs  Prudence,  vict.  Barley  Mow,  Boutport  street 
A.ckland  William,  cooper  and  churn  maker,  Joy  street 
A-dams  George  (S.  &  Gr.) ;  h  Taw  Vale  parade 
Adams  S.  &  G.  tanners  and  curriers.  Bear  street 
Adams  Samuel  (S.  &  G.) ;  h  Bear  street 
Alexander  Miss  Rhoda,  The  Square 

Allin  Samuel,  draper  and  milliner,  104  High  street 
Amier  Miss  Hester,  Newport 
Arnold  Edwd.  Stribring,  cabintmkr.  &  upliolstr.  50  Highsb 
Arnold  Henry  &  Sons  (Henry  &  George),  frencli  polishc 

and  undertakers,  Ayes  lane ;  and  Bideford 
Arnold  Miss  Kate,  lodgings,  50  High  street 
Arthur  Mr  William,  8  Taw  Vale  parade 
Arthurs  Mr  William  Ernest,  Castle  house,  North  walk 



Arundell  Mr  George,  Newport 

Ashton  John,  farrier,  Bear  street 

Ashton  Richard,  secretary  to  Gas  Co.  The  Square 

Assembly  Booim,  Boutport  street ;  John  Lapthorn,  hallkpr 

Avery  Mrs  Alice,  Castle  street 

Avery  &  Hayman,   publishers  and  proprietors  of  Korth 

Devon  Journal,  96  High  street     {See  Advertisejnent) 
Avery  William  (A.  &  Hayman) ;  h  9  Boutport  street 
Ayre  Isaac,  railway  foreman,  Abyssinia  terrace,  Newport 
Bailey  Miss  Ann,  Union  terrace 
Baker    George,    auctioneer,   house,  manure  and  shipping 

agent,  and  agent  for  Sovereign  Ins.  Co.  12  Joy  street 
Baker  Henry,  corn  miller  and  baker,  1  Boutport  street 
Baker  Henry,  grocer  and  bootmaker,  Queen  street 
Baker  James,  confectioner,  90  Boutport  street 
Baker  John,  vict.  Mermaid,  &  maltster,  Boutport  street 
Baker  Mrs  Mary,  51  High  street 
Baker  Mrs  Mary,  shopkeeper.  Green  lane 
Baker  Eichard,  Wesleyan  chapel  keeper,  Boutport  street 
Baker  Stephen,  surveyor  of  taxes,  Strand ;  h  Newport 
Baker  Mr  Thomas,  6  Ebberly  terrace 
Bale  George,  painter  and  paperhanger,  Cooney  bridge 
Bale  Jno.  butcher,  10  &  11  Butchers'  row;  h  Bickington 
Bale  Mrs  Mary,  lodgings,  Newport  terrace,  Newport 
Bale  Nicholas,  cabinet  mkr.  North  Walk  pi.  Gammons  In 
Bale  Samuel,   nursery  and  seedsman.  Market  chambers, 

Boutport  street;  and  (h)  Landkey 
Bale  Mrs  Sarah  Ann,  4  Ebberly  terrace 
Bale  William,  carpenter,  Cooney  bridge 
Bale  Mr  William,  Holland  street 

Ballinger  Henry,  baker  and  confectioner,  97  High  street 
Balsdon  Mrs  Annie,  9  Barbican  terrace 
Bament  Eichard,  master  mariner.  Quay 
Banfield  Jno.  Thomas,  vict.  Eoyal  Exchange,  Joy  street 
Bankes  Mrs  Annie,  Ebberly  lawn 
Banks  Mrs  Mary  Ann,  South  street,  Newport 
Barnstaple  Brewery  Co.  ale  and  porter  brewers.  Taw  Vale 

parade  ;  Jno.  Eichards,  manager 
Barnstaple  ^  North  Devon  Dispensary,  Boutport  street ; 

John  C.  Turner,  secretary  and  dispenser 
Barnstaple  Old  Ba?i7c  (dvnw  on  Dimsdale,  Eowler  and  Co.), 

83  High  street ;  Marshall  and  Harding,  proprietors 
Barnstaple  Times  and  Devon  Post,  Boutport  street ;  John  B. 

Jones,  publisher  and  proprietor 
Barrow  George,  brush  maker  and  cart  owner.  Trinity  st 
Barrow  Miss  Mary,  grocer,  Pilton 
Bartlett  Jno.  coal  mer.  &  hay  &  straw  dealer.  Castle  st 
Bartlett  Stephen,  corn  mer.  &  hay  &  straw  dlr,  Boutport  st 
Barry  Mr  Joseph,  Ebberly  terrace 

Bater  Alfred,  grocer,  tobacconist  &  smallware  dlr.  Strand 
Batey  John,  foreman  engineer.  Barbican 
BathChas.  Jno.  master.  Holy  Trinity  school ;  h  The  Square 
Batt  Mr  Mark,  Prospect  cottage,  Newport 
Baugh  Mr,  New  villas,  Victoria  road 
Baylis  Joseph  Edwin,  glove  manufacturer,  Bellaire,  Pilton 
Bayly  Eobert,  dairyman,  Gaydon  street 
Bear  Mrs  Sophia,  Albert  villas 

Beer  George,  dairyman  and  cattle  dealer,  Queen  street 
Beer  James,  market  gardener,  Eumsom,  Newport 
Beer  Samuel,  post  office  clerk,  Gammons  lane 
Beer  Mrs  Susan  Fosse,  National  school  mistress,  Newport 
Bencraft  Lionel  Thomas,  solicitor,  town  clerk,  registrar 

of  county  court,  and  agent  for    Eoyal   Exchange  In- 
surance Co.,  Quay  ;  h  Highfield  house,  Victoria  road 
;'  Bencraft  Mrs  Lucy,  Nelson  terrace 
:  Bencraft  Eichard  Incledon,  solicitor,  borough  coroner,  clerk 

to  borough  justices,  and  commissioner   in   all   courts, 

Strand  ;  h  Boutport  street 
'  Bennett  Mrs  Elizabeth,  Alexandra  place 
,  Bennett  Mr  George,  Clarence  place,  Newport 
Bennett  Isaac,  grocer,.  Lower  Maudlin  street 
Bennett  William,  shopkeeper,  Hardaway  Head 
Bentley  Mrs  Elizabeth,  coal  merchant.  Castle  street 
Berry  John,  tailor,  16  Boutport  street 

Berry  Miss  Lydia,  milliner  and  dressmaker,  16  Boutport  st 

Berry  Eobert,  bootmaker,  Hardaway  Head 

Berry  Sampson,  victualler,  Town  Arms,  Anchor  lane 

Berry  Samuel,  manure  merchant,  Pilton 

Berryman  Wm.  agent  for  Prudential  Ass,  Co.Eichmond  st 

Besley  Henry  Thomas,  bank  manager,  51  High  street 

Besley  Samuel,  commercial  traveller,  Newport 

Bevan  &  Son,  masons  and  builders,  Grosvenor  street 

Bevan  Thomas  (B.  &  Son) ;  h  Grosvenor  street 

Bevan  Thomas  jun.  (B.  &  Son) ;  h  Eichmond  street 

Bilham  James,  draper,  77  High  street 

Bilney  Mr  James,  Union  terrace 

Bird  John  Samuel,  wine  and  spirit  merchant,  38  Boutport 

street,  and  96  Boutport  street 
Bird  Mrs  Susannah,  Newport  terrace,  Newport 
Blackmore  Charles,  bootmaker.  Vicarage  street 
Blackmore  Eichard,  seedsman  and  corn  dealer,  Newport 
Blackmore  William,  tarm  bailiff,  Westaway,  Pilton 
Blackwell  Mr  Frederick,  Newport  terrace,  Newport 
Blackwell  Thomas,  basket  maker.  Castle  street 
Blackwell  Mr  Thomas,  Gammons  lane 
Blake  Mrs  Henrietta,  Victoria  road 
Blake  William,  wheelwright.  Queen  street 
Blight  Mrs  Charity,  vict.  Golden  Lion  Tap,  The  Square 
Blue  Coat  School,  North  walk,  Chas.  Hy.  Satterley,  master 
Blyth  Alexander  Wynter,  M.D.,  F.C.S.,  F.E.H.S.,  county 
analyst  and  medical   officer  for  South  Molton  union, 
Bideford,  Torrington,  Okehampton,  and  Dulverton  sani- 
tary districts,  3  Trafalgar  lawn 
Boatfield  Eobert,  manure,  corn,  seed,  and  oil  merchant, 

Tuly  street;  h  The  Quay 
Boden  Henry,  dispenser  at  Infirmary ;    h  Abyssinia  ter- 
race, Newport 
Bolt  Mrs  Mary  Jane,  Newport 
Bond  Mrs  Grace,  grocer.  Vicarage  street 
Bond  Mrs  Mary,  butcher,  2  Butchers'  row ;  h  Swimbridge 
Borough  Prison,  Castle   street ;  Eichard  and  Mrs  Annie 

Webber,  governer  and  matron 
Bosson  James,  clerk.  Barbican  terrace 
Bowdell  George,  shopkeeper  and  milk  dealer.  Silver  street 
Bowden  Mrs  Elizabeth,  dairy  proprietor,  Eeform  street 
Bowden  Francis,  bootmaker.  Green  lane 
Bowden  George,  grocer,  78  High  street,  and  Market  street 
Bowden  Miss  Lily,  dressmaker.  Barbican  terrace 
Bowden  Mrs  Mary,  Newport 

Bowden  William,  mason  and  builder.  Queen  street 
Bowden  William,  gardener,  2  Pulchrass  street 
Bowden  William  Henry,  bootmaker,  2  Pulchrass  street 
Boyle  John,  commercial  traveller,  Summerland  place 
Boyle  Patrick,  travelling  draper,  Salem  terrace 
]3oyle  William,  butcher,  34  Boiitport  street 
Boyles  John,  farm  bailiff.  Gammons  lane 
Bradford  Arthur  George,  grocer,  Boutport  street ;  h  Vic- 
toria terrace,  Victoria  road 
Bradford  Joseph,  victualler,  Eising  Sun,  Newport 
Brady  James,  railway  contractor,  timber  merchant,  wood 

turner  and  japanner.  Station  yard;  h  Barbican  terrace 
Brady  John,  Avood  turner,  &c.  (Jas.) ;  h  The  Square 
Brailey  Miss  Annette  Clare,  Newport  terrace,  Newport 
Brailey  Jno.  (Thos.  &  Son) ;  h  Boutport  street 
*  Brailey  Thos.  (Thos.  &Son)  farmer,  Billand  farm,  Pilton 
Brailey  Thomas  &  Son,  manure  merchants,  Pilton 
Brannam  Charles  (B.  &  Son) ;  h  Litchdon  street 
Brannam  &  Son,  earthenware,   sanitary  pipe,  and  Devon- 
shire oven  manufacturers.  Litchdon  st  and  North  walk 
Brannam  Thomas  (B.  &  Son)  ;  h  Litchdon  street 
Brannan  John,  grocer,  51  Boutport  street 
Bray  Eev  Wm.  (Bible  Christian),  10  Alexandra  place 
^  Brayley  John,  farmer,  Tutshill,  Pilton 
Brayley  William,  greengrocer,  Newport 
Brealey  Henry,  shopkeeper.  Higher  Maudlin  street 
Brend  William,  fishmonger,  40  High  street 
Brewer  Mr  Daniel  Tremlett  (Exors.  of),  1 0  Taw  Vale  parade 
Brewer  Mrs  Elizabeth,  2  Park  villas 



Brewer  Jas.  Noifchoote,  tailor  aud  outfitter,  7  Cross  street ; 

and  (h)  Taunton 
Bridgman  Jolin,  accountant,  secretary  to  Kortli  Devon 

Infirmary,  North  Devon  Benefit  Building  Society,  and 

Barnstaple  2nd  Annuitant  Society,  131  Boutport  street 
Bright  Miss  Mary,  3  Albert  villas 

Brindle  Kev  Kalph,  provost  (Eoman  Catholic),  Church  st 
Britton  Miss  Elizabeth,  9  Orchard  terrace,  Newport 
Britton  George,  mason  and  clothes  dealer,  Anchor  lane 
Britton  John  Charles,  victualler,  Union  Inn,  Princes'  street 
Britton  William,  photographer  &  optician,  23  High  street 
Britton  William  Boucher,  landscape  painter,  47  Boutport  st 
Bromham  James  Fraser,  solicitor,  40  High  street ;  h  6 

Trafalgar  lawn 
Brown  Gfeorge,   Esq.   J.P.  land  agent,   The   Square ;    h 

lioborough  house,  Pilton 
Brown  Henry,  blacksmith.  South  street,  Newport 
Brown    Henry    Edward,   land    agent,    Lansdown   villas, 

Lynton  road 
Brown  Humphry,  victualler,  Brauuton  Inn,  High  street 
Brown  Thomas,  mason  and  builder.  Vicarage  street 
Bryan  Miss  Ellen,  Pilton 

Bryant  Miss  Ellen,  dressmaker,  Grosvcnor  street 
Bryant   John,    mason,    builder   and    monumental  mason, 

Grosvenor  street 
Buckingham  Miss  Ann,  shopkeeper,  Litchdon  street 
Buckingham  John,  wine,  spirit,  ale  and  porter  mert.  Quay 
Budd  George,  M.D,,  F.K.S.,  Ashleigh  house,  Victoria  road 
Budd  Kichard,  Esq.  J.P.,  M.D.,  E.R.C.P.,  physician,  and  to 

North  Devon  Infirmary,  Boutport  street 
Bull  Rev  Henry  John,  M.A.  vicar  St.  Mary  Magdalene ; 

h  Ebberly  terrace 
Burgess  Edv/in,  Aactualler,  Eolle  Arms,  Bear  street 
Burnett  William,  plumber  and  gasfitter,  64  Boutport  street 
Bushell  Arthur  John,  draper,   109  Boutport  street ;  h  14 

Joy  street 
Bushen  Mrs  Catherine  Mary,  Castle  street 
Bushen  Thomas,  victualler,  New  Inn,  Pilton 
Butcher  Miss  Laura,  3  Union  terrace 
Cann  Thomas,  eating  house,  84  Boutport  street 
Capel  Alfred,  L.  &  S.  AV.  booking  clerk,  Railway  station 
Carlyon  Henry,  travelling  draper,  114  Boutport  street 
Carpenter  Mr  William,  Littabourne,  Pilton 
Carter  Miss  Ann,  grocer,  3  Joy  street 
Carter  Giles  Webber,  plumber,  brassfounder,  blacksmith 

and  tinplate  worker,  22  .Joy  street 
Carter  Mrs  Sarah,  5  Barbican  terrace 
Carter  William,  grocer,  QAieen  street 
Catford  Henry,  butcher,  45  High  street 
Catford  James  Stoyle,  photographer,  79  High  street;  and 

Ilfracombe     (See  Advertisement) 
Cawsey  John,  clothes  dealer,  Queen  street 
Chalk  Michael,  hatter,  52  Boutport  street 
Channings  Mrs  Ann,  3  Victoria  terrace,  Victoria  road 
Channon  Mr  John,  The  Square 

Channon  Samuel,  grocer  and  chandler,  6  High  street 
Chanter  Arthur  Henry  (C,  Efinch  &  C),  The  Strand 
Chanter  Charles  Edward  Roberts  (C.,Ffinch&  C),  Fort  hi 
Chanter,  Ffinch  &  Chanter,  solicitors  and  agents  for  West 

of  .England  Insurance  Co.  The  Strand  ;  and  Ilfracombe 
Chanter  John  Roberts,  Esq.  J.P. ;  h  Fort  hill  house 
Chapman  Mr  Robert  Cleaver,  6  New  buildings 
Chappie  John,  ironmonger  and  tinplate  worker,  4  Joy  st 
Chappie  Robert  AVakriel,  baker,  Litchdon  street 
Chappie  Thomas,  bootmaker,  Silver  street 
Charley  Mrs  Ann,  Bradiford,  Pilton 
Cliarley  George,  gardener.  Trinity  street 
China  William,  bootmaker.  Union  street 
Ching  Samuel,  shopkeeper,  Castle  street 
Chorley  George,  gardener,  1  Barbican  terrace 
Chugg  Miss  Mary,  Pilton 

Clarke  Chas.  Snow,  painter  &  paperhanger,  27  Boutport  st 
Clarke  Mrs  Lavinia  Carford,  6  Newport  terrace,  Newport 
Clatworthy  Mr  Richard,  Trinity  street 

Clement  John,  registrar  of  births  and  deaths  for  Bishop's 

Tawton  district,  relieving  officer  for  Barnstaple  district, 

rural  sanitary  inspector,  and  vaccination  officer  for  1 

and  2  districts  of  Barnstaple  union,  Newport 
Clement  Wm.  butcher,  1  Butchers'  row;  h  1  Albert  vill 
Clement  William,  dairyman,  Newport 
Clifford  Thomas,  butcher,  27-8  Butchers'  row  ;  h  Brick  yd 
Cobley  Andrew,  grocer,  110  Boutport  street  •  ' . 

Cock  Misses  Mary  Ann  &  Caroline,  Newport 
Cockram  Mrs  Mary  Ann,  clothier.  Queen  street 
Cockrell  John  William,  agent  for  W.  H.  Smith  &  Sons, 

The  Quay  .:.    - 

Codd  Rev  Henry  Frederick,  M.A.,H.M.  inspector  of  schools. 

Pill  house,  Newport 
Cole  Elijah,  victualler,  Albert  Inn,  Diamond  street 
Collander  Mrs  Mary,  Newport 

Collander  Misses  Mary  &  Alice,  day  school,  Newport 
Colman  Mrs  Harriet,  toll  collector,  Newport 
Combes  Misses  Rhoda  &  Phcebe,  Pilton 
Comer  James,  painter,  Queen  street 
Conibear  Miss  Elizabeth,  milliner,  125  Boutport  strept 
Connebear  Geo.  &  Son,  cab  proprietors  &  grocers,  Newport 
Cook  Robert  James,  grocer,  71  High  street;  aud  Bideford 
Cooke  Mrs  Grace,  Park  villas 
Cooke   James  Wood,  M.R.C.S.,  L.S.A.  surgeon,  medical 

officer  for  No.   1  district  of  Barnstaple  union,  and  for 

workhouse  and  gaol.  Square  terrace.  The  Square 
Cooke  John,  bootmaker,  78  Boutport  street 
Cooke  William,  carpenter,  Pilton 
Co-operative   Society    (lim.),    grocers,   bakers   and   boot 

factors,    11   Joy  street  (William  Huxtable,  secretary ; 

Frederick  Hennings,  manager) ;  aud  butchers,  92  Bout- 
port street ;  James  Isaac,  manager 
Copp  Alfred   Henry,  butcher,  13  Butchers'  row;    h-  98 

Boutport  street 
Copp  Henry,  butcher,  13  Butchers' row  ;  h  98  Boutport  st 
Copp  John,  mason,  Bradiford,  Pilton 
Copp  William  John,  painter,  paperhanger  &  glazier.  Bearst 
Cornish  Mrs  Maria  Ann,  printer,  stationer  and  bookseller, 

27  High  street 
Cottey  James,  carpenter.  Bear  street 

Cotton  &  Co.  wine  and  spirit  merchants,  2  Cross  street   ^. 
Courteny  Samuel,  foreman,  Gaydon  street  .^m 

Courtney  John,  victualler.  Rose  &  Crown,  Newport        ^| 
Cowell  Lewis,  mason  and  builder,  Trinity  street 
Cowell  Robert  Burt,  accountant  and  agent  for  Prudential 

Assurance  Company,  Trinity  street 
Cox  Henry  John,  hairdresser,  Newport 
Cox  Mr  John  Russell,  Newport 
Crabb  Mrs  Elizabeth,  boot  factor,  74a  High  street;    h 

Boutport  street 
Crang  Misses  Alice  &  Mary  Ann,  49  Boutport  street 
Crang  George  Henry,  victualler,  Chichester  Arms,  Pilton 
Crang  Mrs  Harriet,  vict.  White  Horse,  29  Boutport  street 
Crang  John,  dairyman.  Bear  street 
Crang  Richard,  saddler.  Bear  street 
Crang  Mr  William,  Lynton  road 
Crassweller  Charles,  Esq.  J.P.  glass,  china  and  hardware 

dealer,  29-31  High  street 
Cridge  John  Richard,  maltster  and  brewer,  Boutport  street 
Crook  Mrs  Mary,  grocer,  Pilton 
Crook  Thomas  Henry,  accountant,  5  Nelson  terrace 
Croot  Walter  George,  painter,  paperhanger  and  glazier, 

98  High  street 
Cummings  John,  agent  for  Exeter  and  Plymouth  Gazette, 

53  Boutport  street 
Curry  William,  Esq.  .J.P.,   F.R.C.S.,  consulting  surgeon 

North  Devon  Infirmary,  Boutport  street 
Curtis  Edwin  Darch,  plumber,  tinplate  worker,  and  lamp 

and  oil  dealer,  Trinity  street 
Curtis  Mr  John,  15  Ebberly  town 
Curtis  Mr  Thomas,  Cross  street 

Curtis  William,  M.R.P.S.  &  chemist.  Bridge  hs.  The  Strand 
Curtis  William,  mason  and  builder,  Wells  street 

I>evoii.sliir  e . 


Custom  House,  The  Quay;  Kichard  White,  collector;  John 

R.  Gi-ale,  examining  officer 

iitcliffe  Miss  Bridget,  126  Boutport  street 

itcliflfe  George,  grocer  and  baker,  Pilton 
1  utcliffe  John,  corn  miller,  Hall  mills,  Pilton 
L-utcliiFe  John,  eating  house,  60  High  street 
1  );ilby  Rev  F.  H.  curate  of  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul's 
Dale  Charles,  joiner  and  bellhanger,  Diamond  street 
Daley  Mrs  Jane  Mary,  lace  dealer,  Boutport  street 
Dalling  Mrs  Ellen,  10  New  buildings 
Dalling  Mrs  Henrietta,  hairdi-esser,  2  High  street 
Dalling  John,  lodgings,  4  G-rosvenor  terrace 
Dalling  Thos.  master  mariner,  High  street  &  North  gate 
Dalling  William,  dairyman.  Higher  Maudlin  street 
Dalling  William,  coal  merchant,  Rolle's  quay 
Dalton  Charles,  day  &  boarding  school,  North  Walk  place 
Daniel  George,  market  gardener,  Newport 
\  )ark  Edwin,  victualler.  White  Lion,  Silver  street 
Dart  Mrs  Elizabeth,  grocer,  12  Pulchrass  street 
Dart  Mrs  Mary,  shopkeeper,  Litchdon  street 
Davey  Mrs  Elizabeth,  shopkeeper,  Litchdon  street 
Davey  George  (George  &  Son),  and  commission  agent, 

Lion  house,  Bradiford,  Pilton 
I'avey  Geo.  (George  &  Son);  h  Lion  hs.  Bradiford,  Pilton 
Davey  George  &  Son,  corn  &  flour  merchants,  Lion  mills, 

Bradiford,  Pilton  ;  &  Market  chambers,  Boutport  street 
Davey  James,  billposter,  Silver  street 
Davey  Mr,  Pilton 

Davie  James  Headon,  saddler,  5  High  street 
Davie  Mr  Thomas,  Victoria  road 
Davie  William,  marine  store  dealer.  Queen  street 
Davies  Mrs  Elizabeth,  Pilton 

Davis  Wm.  grocer,  30  High  street;  h  Alexandra  villa 
Davoll  Mr  William,  Vicarage  street 
Davolls  Frederick,  provision  dealer,  33  Boutport  street 
Davolls  George,  saddler,  Pilton 
Davolls  George,  jun.  saddler,  30  Boutport  street 
Dawe  Saml.  outfittr.  13  Highst.  &  Bideford  ;  h  6  Nelson  pi 
Dawton  William,  paper  manufacturer.  Rose  hill,  Pilton 
Day  William  Dennis,  foreman,  Pilton 
Deane  Miss  Anna  Maria,  14  Alexandra  place 
Delve  James,  wheelwright.  Green  lane ;  h  Pilton 
Delve  John,  carpenter,  Green  lane 

Dendle  John,  joiner,  bxiilder,  contractor  and  timber  mer- 
chant, Union  terrace 
Dennis  Miss  Amelia  Calmady,  day  school,  10  Barbican  ter 
Dennis  Mrs  Elizabeth,  eating  house,  61a  High  street 
Dennis  James  Avery,  tailor,  5  Richmond  street 
Dennis  Thomas  John,  Esq.  J.P.  Bradiford  house,  Pilton 
Dennis  William,  butcher,  20-1  Butchers'  row ;  h  Landkey 
Desborough  Mr,  Littabourne,  Pilton 
Dibble  Mr  Daniel,  Sowden,  Victoria  road 
Dicker  Mrs  Ann,  Cooney  bridge 
Dillon  Captain  WilliamR.N.  (Exors.  of),  NewListon  house, 

Victoria  road 
Doble  Stephen,  commission  agent,  South  view,  Barbican 
Dockings  Mrs  Mary  Ann,  dressmaker,  Bear  street 
Domipick  Mrs  Henrietta,  confectioner  and  fruiterer,  79 

Boutport  street 
Dominick  John,  chimney-SAveeper,  Green  lane 
Dornat  Charles  Caraille,  mineral  water  mnfr.  Tuly  street 
Down  Mrs  Elizabeth,  grocer,  Newport 
Down  William,  machinist  &  blacksmith  &  grocer,  Bear  st 
Down  William,  timber  dealer,  Azes  lane 
Downes  Thos.  mason,  contractor  &  chimney-swp.  Newport 
Draper  Mr  Edward,  Holland  street 
Drew  William,  tailor.  Trinity  street 
Drury  Mrs  Julia,  7  Barbican  terrace 
Drury  Misses  Mary  and  Edith,  day  school,  7  Barbican  ter 
Dungey  Mr  William,  3  Ebberly  terrace 
Dunstone  Mr  Joseph  John,  3  Vicarage  ter.  Vicarage  st 
Dyer  Mrs  Eleanor,  shopkeeper.  Bear  street 
Dyer  John,  butcher,  Butchers'  row  ;  h  Bishop's  Tawton 
Dymond  John,  greengrocer,  2  Boutport  street 

Dymond  William,  bootmaker,  Bradiford,  Pilton 

Easton  James,  carpenter  and  trunk  maker,  Holland  street 

Easton  John,  vict.  Three  Tuns,  &  tobacconist,  80  High  st 

Ebsworthy  William,  carpenter,  Union  street 

Eddy  Nicholas,  bootmaker,  Bear  street 

Eddy  Richard,  police  sergeant,  Vicarage  street 

Edger  &  Co.  grocers,  26  High  street 

Edger  Edward  (E.  &  Co.) ;  h  26  High  street 

Edger  Mrs  Gratiana,  Pilton 

Edmonds  Re