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SUPPLEMENT 



TO 



A HISTORY 



OF 



THE BIRDS OF EUROPE. 

INCLUDING ALL THE SPECIES INHABITING THE 

WESTERN PALiEARCTIC REGION, 

FORMING 

VOLUME IX. 

BY 

H. E. DRESSER, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c 



LONDON: 
PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR (BY SPECIAL PERMISSION).. 

AT THE OFFICE OF 

THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, 

3 HANOVER SQUARE, W., 

AND AT 

TOPCLYFFE GRANGE, FARNBOROUGH, E.S.O., KENT. 



1895-1896. 



ALERE 



FLAMHAH. 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



Q>Q0 






0o the Utymorg «j[ 

Little Phyllis, 



WHOSE TOO SHORT SOJOURN HERE WAS A RA.Y OF PUREST SUNSHINE ON 
HIS CHEQUERED PATH THROUGH LIFE, 

THIS VOLUME IS DEDICATED 

BY 

HER SORROWING FATHER 

H. E. DRESSER. 



LETTERPRESS TO VOL. IX. 

(SUPPLEMENT.) 



->— »»— < ■ 

Page 
TlTLEPAGE i 

Dedication . . ' jii 

Plates to Vol. IX ix 

Preface x i 

Introduction ..,.„....,.. xiii 

Literature ....... xv 

No. Genera and Species. Page. Part. Date of publication. 

624. Turdus swainsoni 1 I. January 1895. 

625. „ pallasi 5 „ „ 

626. „ alpestris ........... 9 „ 

627. Cinclus cashmiriensis 17 ,. 

628. Saxicola seebohmi . 23 ,, 

629. „ vittata ,25 

630. „ albinigra . 27 

631. „ picata 29 „ 

632. „ chrysopygia 31 

633. Pratincola caprata 33 ,, 

634. „ dacotiae .......... 37 

635. Ruticilla ochrura 39 

636. „ erythronota 43 „ 

637. Erithacus hyrcanus 47 „ 

638. Daulias hafizi 49 II. March 1895. 

639. Sylvia minuscula 53 „ 

640. „ althaea 57 

641. „ mystacea 59 „ 

642. „ nana . 63 „ ?) 

54. Melizophilus deserticola 69 ,, 

643. Phylloscopus proregulus 73 ,, 

644. „ neglectus . 79 „ 

645. „ nitidus 83 



VI 

No. Genera and Species. Page. 

646. Phylloscopus viridanus 87 

647. Hypolais rama 91 

648. Locustella straminea 95 

Genus Scotocerca 97 

649. Scotocerca inquieta 99 

650. ,, saharse 103 

651. Accentor fulvescens ]05 

652. „ atrigularis 109 

653. Acredula macedonica Ill 

654. ,, caucasica 113 

655. Parus cinereus 115 

656. ,, bokbarensis 119 

657. „ phaeonotus 121 

658. „ Cypriotes 123 

659. „ pleskii . . .' 125 

660. „ teneriffie 127 

661. ,, palmensis 129 

662. ,, orabriosus 131 

663. Sitta whiteheadi 133 

664. „ syriaca 137 

665. Troglodytes pallidus 141 

666. Motacilla personata 143 

667. „ xanthophrys 147 

668. Antbus similis 151 

669. Lanius grimmi 153 

670. „ funereus 157 

671. „ leucopterus 161 

672. „ fallax 163 

673. „ elegans 167 

674. „ raddii 171 

675. Muscicapa semitorquata 173 

676. Carduelis caniceps 177 

677. Coccothraustes carneipes 179 

678. Passer ammodendri 183 

679. Montifringilla alpicola 187 

680. Fringilla palmse 189 

681. Bucanetes obsoletus 193 

682. ,, mongolicus 197 

683. Pyrrhula cassini 201 

Genus Uragus 203 

684. Uragus sibiricus 205 



Part. 


Date of publicatioi 


II. 


March 1895. 


55 


55 


3? 


55 


55 


55 


5) 


55 


55 


55 



III. 



V. 



May 1895. 



55 
55 
55 
55 



55 

55 



V. 


August 1895 


55 


55 


55 


55 


55 


55 


55 


35 


5) 


55 


55 


35 



35 

53 



October 1895. 



Vll 



55 
55 



No. Genera and Species. Page. Part. 

685. Loxia rubrifasciata 209 V. 

686. Emberiza luteola 211 „ 

687. „ huttoni 215 

688. „ saharae 219 

689. „ cioides 223 

690. Alauda gulgula 229 

Notes on tbe Starlings inhabiting the Western 

Palsearctic Region 233 

Genus Podoces 237 

691. Podoces panderi 239 

692. Garrulus hyrcanus . ; 245 

693. „ minor ^ 247 

694. Picus leucopterus 249 

695. „ mauritanus 253 

696. ,, pcelzami 255 

697. „ sancti-johannis 257 

698. „ danfordi 259 

699. Gecinus flavirostris 261 

700. Scops brucii 265 

701. Bubo ascalaphus 267 

702. Athene bactriana 271 

703. Accipiter badius 273 

704. Milvus melanotis 277 

705. Falco milvipes 281 

706. Ibis sethiopica 285 

707. Mareca americana 289 „ 

708. Mergus cucullatus 295 „ 

709. Columba casiotis 299 „ 

710. ,, eversmanni 301 „ 

711. Turtus cambayensis 305 ,, 

712. Pterocles senegallus 309 ,, 

713. ,, coronatus 313 „ 

714. Phasianus persicus 317 „ 

715. „ principalis 321 ,, 

716. Francolinus bicalcaratus . 325 „ 

717. Bonasa griseiventris 329 ,, 

718. Tetrao uralensis 331 ,, 

719. Porphyrio poliocephalus 333 VIII. 

720. Grus antigone 337 

721. JEgialitis pecuaria 341 ,, 

722. „ vocifera 345 



Date of publication. 
October 1895. 



VI. December 1895. 



55 


55 


55 


55 


55 


55 


55 


55 


VII. 


March 1896 



5> 
55 



June 1896. 



55 
J5 



vm 



No. 

723. 
724. 
725. 
726. 
727. 
728. 
729. 
730. 

731. 

732. 
733. 

734. 
735. 
736. 



Genera and Species. Page. 

Genus Lobivanellus 351 

Lobivanellus indicus 353 

Haematopus moquini 359 

Tringa acuminata . . . . . ■ 363 

Totanus macularius 367 

„ solitarius ... 373 

„ flavipes 377 

Sterna maxima 383 

Larus Philadelphia 387 

Genus Oceanodroma 393 

Oceanodroma cryptoleucura 395 

Genus Pelagodroma . . 397 

Pelagodroma marina . 399 

Pufhnus obscurus 403 

., assimilis . 407 

CEstrelata mollis 411 

Colymbus adamsi 413 

Notes on Species which have been recorded as 
having occurred in Europe, but are not included 

in the present Work . . . ... . ... 417 

Index to Vol. IX 427 

General Index to Vols. I.-IX. . ... . . . 435 



Part. 

VIII. 



Date of publication. 
June 1896. 



55 
55 



IX. November 1896. 



55 
39 



55 
55 



s 



PLATES TO VOL. IX. 

(SUPPLEMENT.) 



No. 




No. 




634. 


Turdus swainsoni et Turdus pallasi. 


664. 


Motacilla xanthophrys. 


635. 


,, alpestris. 


665. 


Anthus similis. 


636. 


Saocicola seebohmi. 


666. 


Lanius grimmi. 


637. 


„ vittata. 


667. 


„ funereus. 


638. 


„ albinigra et chrysopygia. 


668. 


,, funereus et L. leucopterus. 


639. 


„ picaia. 


669. 


,, raddii. 


640. 


Pratincola dacotioe. 


670. 


Carduelis caniceps. 


641. 


„ caprata. 


671. 


Coccothraustes cameipes. 


642. 


Buticilla ochrura. 


672. 


Passer ammodendri. 


643. 


„ erythronota. 


673. 


Montifringilla alpicola et M. nivalis. 


644. 


Erithacus hyrcanus. 


674. 


Fringilla palmoe. 


645. 


Daulias liafizi. 


675. 


Bucanetes obsoletus (Erythrospiza obso 


646. 


Sylvia minuscula et S. althcea. 




leta on the Plate). 


647. 


„ mystacea. 


676. 


Bucanetes mongolicus. 


648. 


„ nana. 


677. 


Pyrrhula cassini. 


649. 


Melizopldlus deserticola. 


678. 


Uragus sibiricus. 


650. 


Phylloscopus neglectus et P. proregulus. 


679. 


Loxia rubrifasciata. 


651. 


„ viridanus et P. nitidus. 


680. 


Emberiza luteola. 


652. 


Locustella straminea. 


681. 


„ huttoni. 


653. 


Scotocerca sakarce et S. inqnieta. 


682. 


„ saharai. 


654. 


Accentor fulvescens et A. atrigularis. 


683. 


,, cioides. 


655. 


Acredula macedonica et A. caucasica. 


684. 


Alauda gulgula. 


656. 


Parus cinereus (P. atriceps on the Plate) 


685. 


Podoces panderi. 




et P. bokharensis. 


686. 


Garrulus hyrcanus. 


657. 


Parus phceonotus. 


687. 


Picus leucopterus. 


658. 


,, Cypriotes. 


688. 


„ poelzami. 


659. 


„ pleskii. 




( „ mauritanus. 


660. 


„ palmensis et P. teneriffce. 


6S9. 


} „ numidicus. 


661. 


,, ombriosus. 




( „ minor et P. danfordi. 


662. 


Sitta whiteheadi. 


690. 


Gecinus flavirostris. 


663. 


Motacilla personata. 


691. 


Scops brucii. 

b 



No. 

692. Bubo ascalaphus. 

693. Accipiter badius. 

694. Ibis cethiopica. 

695. Mareca americana. 

696. Mergus cucullatus. 

697. Columba casiotis. 

698. „ eversmanni. 

699. Pterocles senegallus. 

700. „ coronatus. 

701. Phasianus persicus. 

702. „ principalis. 

703. Francolinus bicalcaratus. 

704. Bonasa griseiventris. 

705. Tetrao uralensis. 

706. Porphyrio poliocephalus. 

707. (rrtts antigone. 



No. 

708. jEgialitis vocifera. 

709. „ pecuaria. 

710. Lobivanellus indicus. 

711. ffcematopus moquini. 

712. Tringa acuminata. 

713. Totanus macularius. 

714. „ solitarius. 

715. „ flavipes. 

716. Sterna maxima. 
111. Larus Philadelphia. 

718. Oceanodroma cryptoleucura. 

719. Pelagodroma marina. 

720. Puffinus obscurus. 

721. (Estrelata mollis. 

722. Colymbus adamsi. 



PREFACE 



Since the completion of the ' Birds of Europe,' I have several times contemplated 
the issue of a Supplement, but have deferred so doing until I had collected sufficient 
material to make a volume at least as large as any one of those forming the original 
work. It was suggested to me by more than one subscriber that I should revise 
each article in the original work, bringing the same up to date ; but I found that 
a thorough revision, adding all the material that has since accumulated, would fill 
at least three if not four volumes, and that it would really be tantamount to 
bringing out a new edition, and I have therefore preferred merely to treat of such 
species as have to be added to those in the original work, and should a new edition 
be required I shall probably issue the same in the form of a concise handbook, 
condensing the information into as small a space as possible. 

Some years ago I removed my library and collections to a house I built in 
Kent, and there the present volume has been written ; but as it was necessary to 
publish the work, as before, in London, it has, like the first eight volumes, been 
published, thanks to the courtesy of the President and Council of the Zoological 
Society, at their office, 3 Hanover Square; and I have also to express my sincere 
thanks for the great assistance I have received from them, and from Mr. Water- 
house, their Librarian, in sending down books of reference when I was unable to 
spare the time to consult them in the Society's rich library, and also for aid 
in hunting up and verifying obscure references. 

To the various friends, whose names are mentioned in the following pages, 

who have, as before, rendered me assistance during the progress of the work, 

I take this opportunity of tendering my hearty thanks. Many of those who so 

largely assisted me during the issue of the original work have unfortunately 

b2 



xu 



passed away, amongst whom I must especially name Lord Lilford, whose recent 
death has been so great a loss to ornithologists in this country ; but many are still 
with us, and, as before, I am especially indebted to Professor Newton, who has 
kindly looked over most of the proofs for me. 

All the illustrations have been executed by Mr. J. G. Keulemans, but some are 
copied from original drawings by Messrs. Joseph Wolf and A. Thorburn : thus 
those of Phasianus persicus and Phasianus principalis are copied from paintings by 
Mr. Thorburn, those of Emberiza saharce and Francolinus bicalcaratus are also 
from sketches by Mr. Thorburn of specimens in the aviaries at Lilford Hall, and 
that of Tetrao uralensis from sketches by Mr. Wolf, kindly lent to me for that 
purpose. 

The lithographs were printed by Messrs. Mintern, Bros., with the exception 
of one or two which were done by Messrs. M. & N. Hanhart, and the hand- 
colouring was executed by Mr. H. PifFaretti, who coloured the Plates in my 
' Monograph of the Coraciidse.' The printing, as before, has been executed by 
Messrs. Taylor and Francis. To all of these I beg to express my thanks for the 
care and attention they have bestowed on their portions of the work. 

For the Index, I am indebted to Mr. W. F. Kirby, of the British Museum; 
but beyond this I have had no assistance with the letterpress, and, as was the 
case with my previous works, all has been done in the early morning and in 
the evening, during the restricted time I could spare from a busy city life ; and 
so accustomed have I now become to utilizing my spare hours in the study of 
Natural History, that should my health permit I hope yet to do some (and I 
trust not useless) work before old age overtakes me and I find myself compelled 
to relinquish my work to younger and more vigorous workers. It has, however, 
been my chief solace during many lonely hours, and when the time comes I shall 
most unwillingly retire from the field. 

Topcliffe Grange, 

Farnborougli, Rent. 

9th November, 1896. 



INTRODUCTION. 



During the fifteen years which have elapsed since I wrote the last Part of the ' Birds of Europe ' 
much has been done in working up the avifauna of Europe. Not only have many species which 
were then unknown and undescribed been found to inhabit the Canary Islands, but in Eastern 
and South-eastern Europe especially new workers have come forward who have added largely 
to the number of species known to inhabit the Western Palsearctic Area. Russia especially has 
come to the front, for when I wrote the ' Birds of Europe ' the only work on the ornithology of 
Russia was Kessler's ' Russkaya Ornitologia,' which, being in Russian, was a closed book to most 
European ornithologists, whereas now, thanks to the industry of Messrs. Bogdanoif, Bianchi, 
Menzbier, Pleske, Radde, Zarudny, and others, we know almost as much of the ornithology of 
Russia as of other European countries ; and when Mr. Pleske's excellent work ' Ornithographia 
Rossica ' is completed Russia will be able to boast of a work fully equal to that on the ornithology 
of any European country. Unfortunately, owing to the weak health of Mr. Pleske, only one 
volume, containing the Sylviinse, has been issued ; but other Russian ornithologists, of whom 
there are now several excellent ones at work, will certainly continue the work so ably begun by 
Mr. Pleske, should he himself be unable to do so. 

The result of the labours of these Russian ornithologists has convinced me, however, that I 
was wrong in fixing the south-eastern limits of the Western Palgearctic Area as I then did, for 
they have shown that almost all the species found in the Persian Province occur also in South- 
eastern Russia, and I have therefore found it necessary to enlarge the area in that direction and 
to include the whole of the elevated plateau of Persia. The eastern boundary I then adopted 
consisted of the Ural range of mountains and river down to the mouth of the Ural River, taking 
an imaginary line from thence along the eastern shores of the Caspian to the frontiers of 
Persia, thence across to the Euphrates, and southward along the borders of the Arabian Desert, 
so as to include Syria and Arabia Petrsea, down to the Red Sea, but excluding the Jordan valley, 
the fauna of which is essentially Ethiopian. Now, however, I find that I must adopt as the 



XIV 

eastern boundary the Ural range and river down to Orenburg, whence I draw an imaginary 
line to the south-east so as to include the Sea of Aral, Bokhara, Afghanistan, and the whole 
of the Persian tableland, and thence westward skirting the Arabian Desert to the northern 
portion of the Ilea Sea, but, as before, excluding the valley of the Jordan. The southern 
boundary, however, is the same as I then adopted. As will be seen from the above, I now 
include the whole of the Persian Province in the Western Palsearctic Area, whereas in the 
' Birds of Europe ' I cut it in two, including only the western portion. 



LITERATURE. 



Since the publication of the ' Birds of Europe,' the literature of ornithology has been 
considerably amplified by many works on the subject published in different countries, those 
issued in Russia being of the greatest importance, as up to 1881 but little, comparatively speaking, 
was known respecting the ornithology of European Russia. I have therefore continued the 
list which I published in 1881 on, as far as possible, the same lines, including all independent 
works on the subject, but not noticing such small articles as are of little or no value, and 
merely enumerating such as are of special interest. 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

Aplin, F. C, Bev. B. B'O., and Oliver V. A List of the Birds of the Banbury District. 8vo. 
Banbury, 1882. 

Aplin, Oliver. The Birds of Oxfordshire. 8vo. Oxford, 1889. 

Babington, Churchill. Catalogue of the Birds of Suffolk. 8vo. London, 1884-86. 

Barrett-Hamilton, G. E. H. Harrow Birds. 8vo. Harrow, 1892. 

Booth, E. T. Rough Notes on the Birds observed during twenty Years' Shooting and Collecting 
in the British Islands. 3 vols. Folio. London, 1881-87. 

Borrer, Win. The Birds of Sussex. 8vo. London, 1891. 

Buckley, T. E. A few Notes on the Mammals and Birds of Rousay, one of the Orkney Islands. 
(Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow, i. (n. s.), 1885, pp. 44-76.) 

Bund, W. W. A List of the Birds of Worcestershire and the adjoining Counties, 8vo. 
Worcester, 1891. 

Christy, Miller. The Birds of Essex, &c. 8vo. Chelmsford, Buckhurst Hill, and London, 
1890. 

Bobie, W. H. Birds of West Cheshire, Denbighshire, and Flintshire, &c. (Proc. Chest. Soc. 
Nat. Sci. & Lit. no. iv. p. 282.) 1894. 

B Urban, W. S. M., and Mathew, Bev. Murray A. The Birds of Devon. 8vo. London, 1892. 

, . Supplement to the Birds of Devon. 8vo. London, 1895. 

Ghirney, J. H.,jun. Catalogue of the Birds of Norfolk. 8vo. London, 1884. 

, and Southwell, T. Fauna and Flora of Norfolk : Birds. (Trans. Norf. & Norw. Natur. 

Soc. vol. iv.) 



XVI 



Harvie Brown, J. A., and Buckley, T. E. A Vertebrate Fauna of Sutherland, Caithness, and 
West Cromarty. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1887. 

, . A Vertebi*ate Fauna of the Outer Hebrides. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1888. 

, . A Vertebrate Fauna of the Orkney Islands. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1891. 

, . A Vertebrate Fauna of Argyll and the Inner Hebrides. Roy. 8vo. Edinburgh, 

1892. 
, . A Fauna of the Moray Basin. 2 vols. Roy. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1896. 



, and Graham, H. I). The Birds of Iona and Mull. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1891. 

Hudson, W. II. British Birds. 8vo. London, 1895. 

Irby, Lieut. -Col. L. Hoioard. British Birds : Key List. 8vo. London, 1888. 

Lilford, Lord. Notes on the Birds of Northamptonshire and Neighbourhood. 2 vols. Roy. 8vo. 

London, 1895. 
. Coloured Figures of British Birds. (Still in course of publication.) 

Lumsden, James. A Guide to the Natural History of Loch Lomond and Neighbourhood : 
Mammals and Birds. 8vo. Glasgow, 1895. 

Macpherson, Bev. II. A. The Birds of Skye, &c. (Proc. R. Phys. Soc. Edinburgh, 1886, 
p. 118.) 

. A Vertebrate Fauna of Lakeland, including Cumberland and Westmoreland with 

Lancashire north of the Sands. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1892. 

, and Duckworth, W. The Birds of Cumberland, &c. 8vo. Carlisle, 1886. 

Mansel-Pleydell, J. C. The Birds of Dorsetshire, &c. 8vo. London and Dorchester. 1888. 

Mathew, Bev. Murray A. A revised List of the Birds of Somerset. (Proc. Somerset Archeeol. 
& Nat. Hist. Soc. xxxix. 1893.) 

. The Birds of Pembrokeshire and its Islands. 4to. 1894. 

Mitchell, F. S. The Birds of Lancashire. 8vo. London, 1885. 

More, A. G. A List of Irish Birds, &c. 2nd ed. 8vo. Dublin, 1890. 

Muirhead, George. The Birds of Berwickshire. 2 vols. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1889-95. 

Payne-Gallwey, Sir Balph. The Fowler in Ireland. 8vo. London, 1882. 

Poynting, Frank. Eggs of British Birds : Limicolae. 4to. London, 1895-96. 

Prentis, Walter. Notes on the Birds of Rainham. 8vo. London, 1894. 

Saunders, Hoioard. An Illustrated Manual of British Birds. 8vo. London, 1889. 

Seelohm, Henry. A History of British Birds, with Coloured Illustrations of their Eggs. 3 vols. 
Roy. 8vo, London, 1883-85. 

Sharpe, B. Bovodler. A Handbook to the Birds of Great Britain. 3 vols. 8vo. London, 
1894-96. 

Smith, Bev. A. C. The Birds of Wiltshire. Svo. London and Devizes, 1887. 



XVII 

Stevenson, H. The Birds of Norfolk. Vol. III., completed by Thos. Southwell. 8vo. London, 

1890. 
Swann, H. K. The Birds of London. 12mo. London, 1893. 
. A concise Handbook of British Birds. 12mo. London, 1896. 

Ussher, B. J. Report on the Breeding Range of Birds in Ireland. (Proc. R. Irish Acad. 

3rd ser. vol. iii. no. 3.) 
Whitlock, F. B. The Birds of Derbyshire, &c. 8vo. London, 1893. 
Wyatt, Claude W. British Birds. Folio. London, 1894. 

ICELAND AND THE F^EEOES. 
Clarke, W. E., and Backhouse, J. An Autumn Ramble in Eastern Iceland, with some notes from 
the Feeroes. (Ibis, 1885, pp. 364-380.) 

Pearson, H. J. and C. E. On Birds observed in Iceland in 1894, with a list of the species 
hitherto recorded therefrom. (Ibis, 1895, pp. 237-249.) 

Slater, H. R„ and Carter, Thos. Notes from Northern Iceland in the Summer of 1885. (Ibis, 
1886, pp. 45-52.) 

SCANDINAVIA. 

Andersen, K. Ligurinus sinicus i Danmark. (Vid. Medd. fra d. Nat. For. 1893.) 

Baagoe, Y., Fahrenholtz, E. A., Gronvold, H., Olsen, B., and Seheel, F. Nbstvedegnens Fugle. 
Viborg, 1893. 

Bahr, Henrik. 2 det Tillaeg til Stavanger Omegns Fugle. (Stavanger Skoles Program, 1887, 
pp. 1-47.) 

Barfod. Iagttagelser over Sydsjaellands Fugle, sserligt Vordingborgs. Aalborg, 1891. 

Christiansen, F. D. Viborg Omegns Fugle. Viborg, 1890. 

Collett, B. Mindre Meddelser vedrorende Norges Fuglefauna i Aaren 1877-80. (Nyt Mag. 
for Naturvidensk. 1881, pp. 254-394.) 

. Trincja temmincki und minuta, und deren Briiten in Norwegen. (Journ. fiir Orn. 1881, 

pp. 323-332.) 

. Oreocincla varia (Pall.) og JEgialites aleccandrinus (Lin.), nye for Norges Fauna. (Forh. 

Vid. Selsk. Christ. 1881, no. 10, pp. 1-6.) 

. Carpodaeus erythrinus (Pall.) og Botaurus stellaris (Lin.), nye for Norges Fauna. 

(Forh. Vid. Selsk. Christ. 1882, no. 17, pp. 1-3.) 

. Ardetta minuta (Lin.), Sterna cantiaca, Gmel., og Larus minutus (Pall.), nye for Norges 

Fauna. (Forh. Vid. Selsk. Christ, no. 15, pp. 1-6.) 1883. 

. Ueber Alca imjpennis in Norwegen. (Mittheil. ornith. Vereins Wien, 1884, nos. 5-6, 

p. 22.) Wien, 1884. 

. Om 5 for Norges Fauna nye Fugle, fundne i 1883 og 1884. (Forh. Vid. Selsk. Christ. 

no. 12, pp. 1-14.) 1884. 



XV1U 

Collett, B. On Lanhts excubitor and Lanius major. (Ibis, 1886, pp. 30-40.) 

. Further Notes on Phylloscopus borealis in Norway. (Ibis, 1886, pp. 217-223.) 

. On the Hybrid between Lagopus alius and Tetrao tetrix. (P. Z. S. 1886, pp. 224-240.) 

. Om 4 for Norges Fauna nye Fugle, fundne i 1885 og 1886. (Forh. Vid. Selsk. Christ. 

no. 8, pp. 1-11.) 1887. 

. On a Breeding Colony of Larus eburneus on Spitsbergen. (Ibis, 1888, pp. 440-443.) 

. Om 6 for Norges Fauna nye Fugle, fundne i 1887-89. (Forh. Vid. Selsk. Christ, no. 4, 

pp. 1-19.) 1890. 

. On the Immigration of Syrrhaptes paradoxus into Norway in 1888. (Ornis, Jahrg. vi. 

pp. 155-159.) Wien, 1890. 

. Bird-life in Arctic Norway. (Translated by A. Heanage Cocks.) 8vo. London, 1894. 

. Mindre Meddelelser vedrorende Norges Fuglefauna i Aarene 1881-92, med Tillag og 

Eegister. (Nyt Mag. for Naturvidensk. 35 Bd. pp. 1-387, 1893-94.) 

. On the Occurrence of Colymbus adamsi in Norway. (Ibis, 1894, pp. 269-283.) 

. A List of the Birds of Norway, arranged according to the Rules of B.O.U. (Bird-life in 



Arctic Norway, Appendix, pp. i-x.) London, 1894. 

. Om 4 for Norges Fauna nye Fugle. (Forh. Vid. Selsk. Christ, no. 2, pp. 1-12.) 1895. 

Collin, Jonas. Bidrag till Kundskaben om Danmarks Fuglefauna. Kjobenhavn, 1888. 

. Faunestiske og biologiske Meddelelser om Danske Fugle. Kjobenhavn, 1895. 

Faber, A. H. Morso's Fugle. Viborg, 1887. 

Grieg, James A. Lagopus urogallo-albus, ein neuer Moorschneehuhn-Bastard. (Bergens 
Museums Aarsberetning, v. pp. 1-13.) 1889. 

. En Zoologisk Excursion til Husoen. (Bergens Museums Aarsberetning, vi. pp. 1-8.) 

1889. 
Hagemann, Axel. Saltdalens Vertebratfauna (Birds). (Tromsce Museums Aarshefter. vi. 

pp. 52-70, 1883.) 

Hagerup, A. T. Vorkommen der Seeschwalben und Mowen in Jutland. (Orn. Monatsschr. d. 
Deutsch. Ver. z. Schutze d. Vogelwelt, 1894.) 

Heiberg, P. V. Thylands Fugle. Viborg, 1886. 

Herschend, P. Iagttagelser over Danmarks Fuglefauna med sserlig Hensyn till egnen mellem 
Horsens og Aarhus. Horsens, 1884. 

Kolthoff, G., and JagersJcibld, L. A. Nordens Faglar. (Parts 1-7.) 4to. Stockholm, 1895-96. 

Lut/cen, C. F. Jahresbericht 1883 uber die ornithologischen Beobachtungsstationen in 
Danemark. (Ornis, 1885.) 

. Jahresbericht ] 884. (Ornis, 1886.) 

Stejneger, Leonh. Andet Bidrag til Vestlandets Omithologiske Fauna. (Nyt Mag. for Naturv. 
pp. 111-124.) 1883. 



XIX 



Winge, H. Orn Steppehonen (SyrrJiaptes paradoxus) i Dantnark i 1888. (Vid. Medd. f. d. Nat. 
For. 1389.) 

Winge, 0. Report on Birds in Denmark in 1885. (Ornis, 1886.) Do. in 1886, and H. Winge 
in 1887. (Ornis, 1888.) 

EUSSIAN EMPIEE. 
liianchi, V. Biologische Notizen iiber die im Sommer 1884 bei Uschaki (Gouvernement 
Novgorod) beobachteten Vogel. 8vo. St. Petersburg, 1888. 

Bogdanow, Modest. Conspectus Avium Imperii Rossici. Fasc. I. 4to. St. Petersburg, 1884- 
(Incomplete.) 

. Otsherky prirodny Khivinskago Oazissa u poustyni Kisil-Kum. (Notes on the Khiva 

oasis and Kisil-Kum desert.) Tashkend, 1882. 

Buchner, Eug. Die Vogel des St. Petersburger Gouvernements. (Beitr. z. Kenntn. d. Russ. 
Reicbs, Folg. 3, Band ii.) 1888. 

Butleroff, M. Ornitologitsheskaya fauna mestnosti Noukoussa lejashtschey mejdou Amu-Darya i 
Kouvan-Djarmoi. (Ornithology of Noukoussa, &c.) (St. Petersb. Soc. Nat. Sci. 1879, 
pp. 140-155.) 

Chelehiikoff, V. A. Faunistitsheskia nabliudenia v Borovitcheskom ouyezde. (Fauna of the 
Borovitchesky District.) (St. Petersb. Soc. Nat. Sci. 1880, pp. 171, 172.) 

. Material k faune pozvonotchnykh Borovitcheskago ou Novgorodskoi Goub. (Material 

for a fauna of the Borovitchesky and Novgorod Governments. (St. Petersb. Soc. Nat. 
Sci. 1888, pp. 21-58.) 

. Spissok ptitz Astrakhanskoi Goub. (Supplement to above.) 

Dinnick, N. Ornitologitsheskaya Nabludenia na Kavkaze. (Ornithological observations made in 
the Caucasus.) (St. Petersb. Soc. Nat. Sci. 1886, pp. 260-378.) 

Dresser, H. E. Notes on Birds collected by Dr. G. Radde in the Transcaspian Region. (Ibis, 
1889, pp. 85-92.) 

Envald, R. Ornithologiska anteckningar gjorda i norra sidan af Finska naturhistoriska omradet. 
(Medd. Soc. pro Faun, et Flor. Fennica, xv. pp. 1-23.) 1886. 

Hollmerus, A. L. Ornithologiska iaktagelser i Sotkamo och Kuhmoniemi socknar aren 1863-85 # 
(Medd. Soc. Faun, et Flor. Fennica, xv. pp. 82-96.) 1886. 

Jastschenko, Al. Ornitologitsheskaya nabludenia na sredni Amu-Daria v. rayone Tchardjui Kalif. 
(Orn. notes from the Chardi-Kalif district in the central Amu-Darya.) (St. Petersb. Soc. 
Nat. Sci. Zool. & Phys. xxii.) 1891. 

Johansen, H. Die Vogelwelt des Gouvernements Tver. (Orn. Jahrb. v. pp. 1-13.) 1894. 

Lavroff, V. V. Resultaty svoikh faunistitsheskikh izsledovanij v Borovskom ou Kalougskoi 
Goub. (On the fauna of Borovski and Kalouga Governments.) (St. Petersb. Soc. Nat. 
Sci. 1880, pp. 186-193.) 

Lorenz, T. Beitrag zur Kenntniss der ornithologischen Fauna an der Nordseite des Kaukasus. 
Sm. fol. Moscow, 1887. c 2 



XX 



Lorenz, T. Die Vogel des Moskauer Gouvernements. (Bull. Soc. Mosc. 1892, pp. 262-321, 

1893, pp. 337-354, 1894, pp. 325-350.) 
Mela, A. J. Suomen Luurankoiset, eli luonnontieteelisen Suomen Luurankoiselaimisto. 8vo. 

Helsingfors, 1882. (The Vertebrates of Finland.) 
Menzlier, Michael. Ornitologitsheskaya geoggraphia Europaiskoi Rossii. 8vo. Moskva, 1882. 
. Revue comparative de la Faune ornithologique des Gouvernements de Moscou et de 

Toula. 8vo. Moscou, 1883. 
. On the Geographical Distribution of Birds in European Russia north of the O. icasus. 

(Ibis, 1884, pp. 278-315 ; 1885, pp. 255-263.) 
. Die Zugstrassen der Vogel im europaischen Russland. (Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou, 1886, 

pp. 291-369, with two maps.) 

Meves, W. Ornithologische Beobachtungen grosstentheils im Sommer 1869, auf einer Reise im 
nordwestlichen Russland gesammelt. (Ornis, 1886, pp. 181-288.) 

MichalovsM, Iqn. Ornitologitsheskaya nabludenia v Zakavkaze letom 1878. (Orn. observations 
in Transcaucasia.) (St. Petersb. Soc. Nat. Sci. 1880, pp. 12, 39.) 

Nazaroff, P. S. Recherches zoologiques des Steppes des Kirguiz. 8vo. Moscou, 1886. 

JSlkolsky, A. Material k poznanin pozvonotshnykh-jevotnykh Severo-Vostotshnoi Persii i 
Zakaspiskago kraya oblasti. (Materials for a fauna of N.E. Persia and Transcaspia.) 
(St. Petersb. Soc. Nat. Sci. 1886, pp. 379-399.) 

. K faune mlekopitayushtshikh i ptitz priaralskikh stepney. (On the Mammals and Birds 

of the Aral steppes. (Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1892, pp. 477-500.) 

Olsson, P. II. Nagra anmarkningsvarda fogelfynd i Kimito. (Medd. Soc. pro Faun, et Flor. 
Fennica, xx. p. 11.) 1894. 

Palmen, J. A. Bidrag till kiinnedomen om Sibiriska Ishafskustens Fogelfauna enligt Vega- 
expeditionens Iakttagelser och Samlingar. (Vega-Exp. Vetensk. Iaktt. vol. v.) Stockholm, 

1887. 

Patschoskij, J. O Faune i Flore okrestnostei g Vladimira-Volynskago. (Fauna and Flora of 
Vladimir- Vol hynia.) (Proc. Soc. Nat. Hist. Kieff, ix. Vertebrata, pp. 306-312.) 1888. 

Pearson, H. J. Notes on Birds observed in Russian Lapland, Kolguev, and Novaya Zemlya in 
1895, with Introductory Remarks by Col. H. W. Feilden. (Ibis, 1896, pp. 199-226.) 

Petrqff, A. E. Material dlia spisski ptitz Novgorodskoi Goub. Oblasty Ilmenia. (Birds of 
Ilmenia, Novgorod Government.) (St. Petersb. Soc. Nat. Sci. 1885, pp. 505-528.) 

Pleske, Th. Ornithologische Notizen aus Ost-Russland (Baschkirien). (J. f. O. 1878, 
pp. 89-94.) 

. Uebersicht der Saugethiere und Vogel der Kola-Halbinsel. Theil ii. Vogel und 

Nachtrage. 8vo. St. Petersburg, 1886. 

. Ornithographia Rossica. Band ii. Sylviinse. 4to. St. Petersburg, 1891. 

Padde, Gustav. Ornis Caucasica (und erster Nachtrag). 4to. Kassel, 1884. 



XXI 



Reticle, Gustav. Zweiter Nachtrag zur Ornis Caucasica fiir das Jahr 1884. (J. f. O. 1885, 
p. 74.) 

. Dritter Nachtrag zur Ornis Caucasica fiir das Jahr 1885. (Ornis, 1887, pp. 457-500.) 

. Vierter Nachtrag zur Ornis Caucasica. (Ornis, 1890, pp. 400-441.) 

. Die Fauna und Flora des sudwestlichen Caspi-Gebietes, &c. Svo. Leipzig, 1886. 

Badde, G.. and Walter, A. Die Vogel Transcaspiens. (Ornis, 1890.) 

Bossikoff, K. N~. Obzor zimnei fauny ptitz vostotshnoi tshasti dolin r. Malki (Kavkaz). (Winter 
birds of the E. portion of the Malki valley, Caucasus.) (Trans. Acad. Imp. Sc. St. Peters- 
burg, xlix. no. 4.) 1884. 

. Resultaty nabludenij nad ptitzami zap. tchasti S. V. Kavkaza. (Notes on birds of 

S. portion of N.E. Caucasus.) (St. Petersb. Soc. Nat. Sci. xix. pp. 36-57.) 1887. 

Buzskij. Ornitologitsheskaya nabludenia v Simbirskoi Goub. (Ornithological notes in the 
Simbirsk Government.) (Proc. Kazan University, 1893-94, no. 142.) 

Sandman, J. Alb. Fogefaunan pa Karlo och kringliggande Skar. (Medd. Soc. pro Faun, et 
Flor. Fennica, xvii. pp. 187-272.) 1892. 

Satounire, K. Aves Faun. Mosq. (in Congres Intern. d'Anthrop. etc. a Moscou). 1892. 

Schweder, J. Die Wirbelthiere der baltischen Gouvernements. (Correspond. Rig. naturf. Ver. 
xxxvii. pp. 6-26.) 1894. 

Seebohm, H. On the Birds of Archangel. (Ibis, 1882, pp. 371-386.) 

. Notes on the Birds of Astrakhan. (Ibis, 1882, pp. 204-232.) 

. On the Birds of the Caucasus. (Ibis, 1883, pp. 1-37.) 

. On a Collection of Birds from Lankoran. (Ibis, 1884, pp. 425-429.) 

Souschkin, P. Ptitzy Toulskoi Goub. (Birds of the Toula Government.) (Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. 1892, pp. 1-106.) 

Stolzmann, T. Liste des Ois. d'Askhabad. (Mem. Soc. Zool. France, iii. pp. 88-96.) 1889. 

. Contrib. a l'Orn. de la Transcasp. etc. (Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1892, pp. 382-487.) 

Taczanowski, L. Ptaki Krajowe. (Birds of Cracow.) 2 vols. 8vo. Krakau, 1882-85. 

. Spis plakow Krolestwa Polskiego obsernowanych w ciagu ostatuich lat piedziesiecin 

8vo. Warzawa, 1888. (Birds observed in Poland during the last 50 years.) 

. Liste des Oiseaux observes depuis cinquante ans dans le royaume de Pologne. (Ornis, 

1888, pp. 441-516.) 

. Contributions a la Faune ornithologique du Caucase. (Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xii. 

pp. 618-626.) 1887. 

Teplouchoff, Th. A. Beobachtungen iiber die Ankunft und den Durchzug der Vogel, angestellt 
im Fruhjahre 1873 im Thai des Obwa-Flusses in der Gegend von Iljinskoje im Permschen 
Kreise. (Bull. Soc. Ouralienne dAmateurs des Sciences Naturelles, vii. pp. 38-59.) 1883. 



XX11 



WilkousJcij, F. V. Otchet ob ornitologitsheskikh izsledovaniakh Kutchiskoi Goub. (Orn. of 
Kutcbisk Government.) (Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1893, pp. 497-504.) 

Zarudny, N. Oiseaux de la Contree Transcaspienne. 8vo. Moscou, 1885. 

. Recherches Zoologiques dans la Contree Transcaspienne. 8vo. Moscou. (Bull. Soc. Nat. 

Moscou, 1889, pp. 128-160; 1890, pp. 288-315.) 

. Ornitologitsheskaya fauna Orenburgskago Kraya pod. red. Th. Pleske. (Orn. Fauna of 

Orenburg District.) 8vo. St. Petersburg, 1888. 

. Ornitologitsheskaya fauna oblasti Amu-Darii mejdou g. g. Tcherdjuem i Kalifom. 

(Ornithology of District between Tscherdjuen and Kalif on the Amu Darya.) (Bull. Soc. 
Nat. Mosc. 1890, pp. 1-41.) 

. Dopolnitchnaya zametka k poznaniu Ornitologisheskoi Fauny Orenburgskago kraya. 

(Notes on the Ornithology of the Orenburg District.) (Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1838, 
pp. 658-681.) 

GERMANY, AUSTRIA, HUNGARY, &c. 

Deichler, Ch., und Kleinschnidt, 0. Beitrage zur Ornis des Grossherzogthums Hessen und der 
Provinz Hessen-Nassau. (J. f. O. 1896, pp. 416-483.) 

Friderich, C. G. Naturgeschichte der deutschen Vogel, &c. Roy. 8vo. Stuttgart, 1889-91. 

Frivaldsky, Janos. Aves Hungarise, &c. 8vo. Buda Pesth, 1891. 

Floericke, C. Versuch einer Avifauna der Provinz Schlesien. Marburg, 1892-93. (Incomplete.) 

Gdtke, H. Die Vogelwarte Helgoland. 8vo. Braunschweig, 1891, 

. Heligoland as an Ornithological Observatory. (Translated by Rudolph Rosenstock.) 

Roy. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1895. 

Ilartert, Ernst. Vorlaufiger Versuch einer Ornis Preussens. (Mitth. der orn. Vereins in 
Wien, 1887.) 

. Ueber die Vogel der Gegend von Wesel am Niederrhein. (J. f. O. 1877, pp. 248-270.) 

■ . On the Birds of East Prussia. (Ibis, 1892, pp. 353-372, 504-522.) 

Jdckel, A. J. Systematische Uebersicht der Vogel Bayerns, &c. Herausgegeben von Prof. 
Dr. Rudolf Blasius. 8vo. Miinchen und Leipzig, 1891.. 

Keller, F. C. Ornis Carinthas, &c. 8vo. Klagenfurt, 1890. 

Meyer, A. B., und Helm, F. Verzeichniss der bis jetzt im Konigreiche Sachsen beobachteten 
Vogel. 4to. Berlin, 1892. 

Fteichenow, A. Systematisches Verzeichniss der Vogel Deutschlands. 8vo. Berlin, 1889. 

Tschusi zu Schmidhqfen, Victor, und Homey er, Ferd. von. Verzeichniss der bisher in Oesterreich 
und Ungarn beobachteten Vogel. (Ornis, ii. pp. 149, 179.) 1886. 



XX111 

FRANCE AND BELGIUM. 

Dubois, Alphonse. Faune des Vertebres de la Belgique. Serie des Oiseaux, Tome ii. Roy. 8vo. 
Bruxelles, 1887-94. 

D'ffamonville, Baron L. Les Oiseaux de la Lorraine. (Mem. de la Societe Zool. de France, 
1895, pp. 244-336.) 

Martin, Bene. Catalogue des Oiseaux de la Brenne. (Bull Soc. Zool. de France, t. xii. 1887.) 

Olphe-Galliard, Leon. Contributions a la Faune ornithologique de l'Europe occidentale. 8vo. 
1884-92. 

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 
Arevalo y Baca, Jose. Aves de Espana. 4to. Madrid, 1887. 

Irby, Lieut. -Col. Howard L. The Ornithology of the Straits of Gibraltar. 2nd edition. 4to. 
London, 1895. 

Beyes, Ventura de los, y Prosper. Catalogo de los Aves de Espana, Portugal e Islas Baleares. 
(Anales de la Soc. Esp. de Hist. Nat. torn, xv.) Madrid, 1886. 

Tait, William C. A List of the Birds of Portugal. (Ibis, 1887, pp. 77-96, 182-201, 302-314, 
372-400.) 

. Aves de Portugal. (Ann. Scienc. Naturaes Porto, i. p. 21.) 1894. 

ITALY AND THE ISLANDS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN. 

Carazzi, Davide. Materiali per una Avifauna del Golfo di Spezia e della Val di Magra. 8vo. 
Spezia, 1887. 

Fiore, Carlo de. Materiali per una Avifauna Calabra. 8vo. Roma, 1890. 

Giglioli, H. H. Avifauna Italica. 8vo. Firenze, 1886. 

. Parte seconda, Avifaune Locali, &c. 8vo. Firenze, 1890. 

, e Manzella. Iconografia dell' Avifauna Italica. Fol. Prater, 1879. (Still in course of 

publication.) 

Guillemard, Dr. F. H. H. Ornithological Notes of a Tour in Cyprus in 1887. (Ibis, 1888, 
pp. 94-124.) 

Whitehead, John. Ornithological Notes from Corsica. (Ibis, 1885, pp. 24-48.) 

NORTH AFRICA. 

Kaiser, A. Zur Ornis der Sinai-Halbinsel. (Orn. Jahrb. iii. pp. 207-248, 1892.) 

Koenig, A. Avifauna von Tunis. (J. f. O. 1888, pp. 121-298.) 

. Zweiter Beitrag zur Avifauna von Tunis. (J. f. O. 1892, pp. 266-312, 329-416; 1893, 

pp. 13-105.) 

- — . Beitrage zur Ornis Algeriens. (J. f. O. 1895, pp. 113-457 ; 1896, pp. 101-215.) 

Beid, Capt. Savile G. Winter Notes from Morocco. (Ibis, 1885, pp. 241-255.) 



XXIV 



Wliitaker, J. I. S. Notes on some Tunisian Birds. (Ibis, 1894, pp. 78-100.) 

. Additional Notes on Tunisian Birds. (Ibis, 1895, pp. 85-105.) 

. Further Notes on Tunisian Birds. (Ibis, 1896, pp. 87-99.) 

THE ATLANTIC ISLANDS. 

Grant, W. R. Ogilvie. Notes on some Birds obtained at Madeira, Deserta Grande, and Porto 
Santo. (Ibis, 1890, pp. 438-445.) 

. On the Birds observed at the Salvage Islands, near Madeira. (Ibis, 1896, pp. 41-55.) 

Hartwig, W. Die Vogel Madeiras. (J. f. O. 1886, pp. 452-486 ; 1893, pp. 1-12.) 

Koenig, A. Ornithologische Forschungsergebnisse einer Reise nach Madeira und den canarischen 
Inseln. (J. f. O. 1890, pp. 257-488.) 

Meade-Waldo, E. G. Notes on the Birds of the Canary Islands. (Ibis, 1889, pp. 1-13, 503-520 ; 
1890, pp. 429-438 ; 1893, pp. 185-207.) 

Reid, Capt. Savile G. Notes on the Birds of Teneriffe. (Ibis, 1887, pp. 424-435; 1888, 
pp. 73-83.) 

Tristram, Canon H. B. Notes on the Island of Palma in the Canary Group. (Ibis, 1890, 
pp. 67-76.) 

As will be seen from the above, ornithologists in Great Britain have been very active, and 
we are in fact overwhelmed with woi'ks on British Ornithology, besides which other works on 
the same subject are projected. Professor Newton's edition of Yarrell's ' British Birds ' has 
been completed by Mr. Howard Saunders, who has also published a most useful ' Manual of 
British Birds ' in one volume ; Lord Lilford's ' Coloured Figures of British Birds ' contains 
the best illustrations of British birds that have yet appeared, and is nearly finished, but, 
unfortunately, the author has not lived to see it completed ; and at least two works on the nests 
and eggs of our British birds, with large photographic illustrations, are in the press, of which, 
so far as I can judge from the illustrations I have seen, the best is that by Mr. Oswin A. J. Lees, 
' Among British Birds in their Nesting Haunts,' of which the prospectus has only recently been 
issued, and the first part of which will appear very shortly. 

On European ornithology, generally, no work has been published since 1881, except 
Mr. James Backhouse's 'Handbook of European Birds' (small 8vo, London, 1891); and in 
Scandinavia the most has been done by Prof. Eobt. Collett, of Christiania, who from time to 
time issues additional notes on the ornithology of Norway. In Denmark several works have 
been issued on local avifaunas ; and though I have not deemed it advisable to include in the 
above list Mr. H. Winge's notes on birds which have been observed at the lighthouses in Denmark 
(Vidensk. Medd. fra d. Naturh. Forening i Kjobenhavn, 1890-96), these articles contain many 
interesting notes. ' Nordens Faglar,' which is being published at Stockholm, promises to be 
an important work : based on Sundevall's ' Svenska Faglar,' it covers a larger area, including 
Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland, and brings the ornithology of those countries well up 
to date. 



XXV 

In Eussia ornithologists have been especially busy during the last fifteen years, more good 
work having been done there than in almost any other European country. In the above list I have 
only included such works as treat of the ornithology of Western Russia, or that portion which is 
within the limits of the Western Palsearctic area ; but, besides these, several most important works 
have been published, of which I may name Taczanovvski's ' Faune Ornithologique de la Siberie 
Orientale ' (4to, St. Petersburg, 1893), Pleske's 'Revision der Turkestanischen Ornis' (4to, 
St. Petersburg, 1888) and ' Wissenschaftliche Resultate der von Prjevalskis nach Central Asien 
unternommenen Reisen : Vogel ' (4to, St. Petersburg), and Menzbier's ' Ornithologie du Turkestan 
et des Pays adjacents' (folio, Moscou), the last two being still in course of publication. 

In Germany, Austria, &c. several useful works and articles relating to the ornithology of 
those countries have appeared, foremost amongst which I must name Mr. Gatke's ' Vogelwarte 
Helgoland,' a work that cannot be too highly praised for the large amount of information on the 
migration of birds it contains ; Friderich's ' Naturgeschichte der Vogel Deutschlands,' though 
only a popular and not a scientific work, is very good of its kind, but merely a compilation ; and 
there are several articles which, though not included, not being strictly faunistic, are well 
worthy of notice, such as E. von Homeyer's " Wanderungen der Vogel " and " Ornithologische 
Briefe," Prazak's " Versuch einer Monographie der europaischen Sumpf-Meisen," Kleinschmidt's 
" Das Variiren des Garrulus glandarius," and the articles by Professor Baldamus and Dr. E. Rey 
on Cuculus canorus. Just as the present sheet was going to press I had an opportunity of 
seeing the first two parts of a new edition of Naumann's ' Naturgeschichte der Vogel 
Deutschlands' (folio, Gera, 1896), which has lately been commenced. So far as I can judge, 
the letterpress will be brought well up to date, but the work is unfortunately disfigured by 
plates which are infinitely inferior to those in the original work. France, who formerly stood 
in the front rank as regards ornithological literature, has produced but little during the last 
twenty years, and has fallen quite into the background : but as regards Italy, Professor Giglioli 
has kept ornithological literature well up to date. The ornithology of North Africa and 
the Atlantic Islands has also been well worked by Dr. Koenig and Messrs. Meade-Waldo, 
J. I. S. Whitaker, Ogilvie Grant, and Canon Tristram. 

In the compilation of the above list I must especially acknowledge the assistance so readily 
given by Dr. Bianchi of St. Petersburg, Professor R. Collett of Christiania, and Dr. Jonas Collin 
of Lyngby, Denmark. 



634 




i. Keulemans i«l ,«1 iith- 



"ViirL^err. Bros . imp . 



1. HERMIT THRUSH. 

TURDUS PALLAS11. 

2.SWAINS0NS THRUSH 

TURDUS SWAIN SO Nil. 



A HISTORY 



or 



THE BIRDS OF EUROPE, 

INCLUDING ALL THE SPECIES INHABITING THE WESTERN PAL^E ARCTIC REGION. 

SUPPLEMENT. 



TURDUS SWAINSONI. 

(SWAINSON'S THRUSH.) 



Broion Thrush, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. 1, p. 28 (1783). 

Little Thrush, Penn. Arct. Zool. iii. p. 338. no. 201 (1785). 

Turdus minor, Gmel. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 809. no. 32 (1788, pavtim). 

1 Turdus fuscus, Gmel. torn. cit. p. 817. no. 56 (1788). 

Turdus solitarius (nee Gmel), Wils. Am. Orn. v. pi. 43. fig. 2 (1812). 

Merula wilsoni, Swains. Faun. Bor.-Amer. ii. p. 182 (1831, partim). 

Merula oliwcea (nee Linn.), Brewer, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. i. p. 191 (1844). 

Turdus olivaceus (Brew, nee Linn.), Giraud, B. Long Isl. p. 92 (1844). 

Turdus swainsonii, Cab. in Tschudi's Fauna Peruana, ii. pp. 187, 188 (184o-46). 

Turdus minimus, Lafresn. Rev. Zool. 1848, p. 5. 

Turdus solitarius, Naumann, Vog. Deutschl. xiii. p. 273 (1853, partim). 

Turdus {Hylocichla) swainsoni (Cab.), Gray, Hand-1. of B. i. p. 254. no. 3682 (1869). 

Fujurce notabiJes. 
Wilson, ut supra; Naumann, Vog. Deutschl. Taf. 355. fig. 4. 

Ad. supra saturate fusco-olivaccus vix viridi tinctus : uropygio, supracaudalibus et Cauda concoloribus : subtus 
albus : capitis et juguli lateribus, loris et pectore rufescenti-cervino lavatis, his saturate fuseo guttatis. 

AduU Male (Hamilton, Ontario, May 19th). Differs from Turdus pallasi in having the upper parts dark 
olive-brown with a greenish tinge, the rump and tail being uniform in colour with the rest of the upper 



parts, and the sides of the head and neck, the ring round the eye, the lores, and the breast are tinged 
with warm rufous-buff. Total length 7 inches, culmen 0'65, wing 3'9, tail 2 - 9, tarsus 1*1. 

Adult Female (Hamilton, Ontario, May 26th) . Resembles the male. 

Obs. The variation in measurements is in the males — culmen 055 to - 65 inch, wing 3 - 8 to 4'1, tail 2"7 
to 30, tarsus 1-1 to 1"15 ; and in the females — culmen - 55 to - 65 inch, wing 3'55 to 3 - 85, tail 2 - 55 
to 2 - 9, tarsus l'l to 1*15. There is some variation also in tone of colour, the eastern specimens being 
browner, and the western ones clearer and darker in tinge. The Californian form, found west of the 
Rocky Mountains {Turdus ustulatus), is scarcely distinguishable from true T. swainsoni, and differs 
merely in being rather more rufous in tone of colour on the upper parts. 

This graceful little Thrush can be included only as a rare straggler to us from the American 
continent. It is recorded as having been once obtained in Greenland, for, according to Professor 
Bernhardt (J. f. O. 1854, p. 427), a specimen was shot in June 1845 at AmaragHk, in the 
Godthaab district, and presented to the Museum by Governor Holboell. 

In Europe proper it appears to have been obtained on six occasions. One was, according to 
Professor Giglioli (Ibis, 1881, p. 198), captured near Genoa in the autumn of 1843, and is now 
in the Museum at Florence. This is the specimen figured by Durazzo. A second was purchased 
in the market at Namur, Belgium, and is now in the collection of Baron de Selys-Longchamps, 
where I examined it when on a visit to Baron de Selys some years ago. The third was captured 
in Heligoland in October 1869, and is now in the Gatke collection. This specimen I have also 
examined, and agree with Mr. Seebohm that it is rather less yellow on the throat than specimens 
in my collection from North America, with which it was compared, but otherwise it agrees closely 
with them. A fourth specimen was, according to Mr. Gatke (Vogelw. Helgolands, p. 251), 
obtained in Holstein many years ago, and is now in the Hamburg Museum ; a fifth was, 
according to Giglioli (Avifauna Italica, p. 101), obtained near Rovereto, Tyrol, in 1878, and is 
now in the museum of that town; and a sixth is, according to Giglioli (Avif. Ital. 1889, p. 183) 
in the collection of Prof. Magni-Griffi, and was obtained at Sarzana, in Liguria, but Prof. Giglioli 
says that he has not seen this specimen. 

In America the range of this Thrush extends from the Slave Lake and Fort Yukon down south 
to Ecuador and Brazil, and it has also been met with in Cuba and Costa Rica. Messrs. Baird, 
Brewer, and Ridgway say (N.-Am. Birds, i. p. 14) that they have examined specimens from " the 
Great Slave Lake, Mackenzie River, and Yukon to Guatemala; from the Atlantic States to East 
Humboldt Mountains, Nevada, and from intervening localities. The extremes of variation are 
the brownish olive of the eastern and clear dark greenish olive of the remote western specimens. 
There is no observable difference between a Guatemala skin and one from Fort Bridger, Utah." 
Messrs. Berlepsch and Taczanowski, who record it from Chimbo in Western Ecuador, remark 
that a male obtained there in December appears to be more closely allied to Turdus ustulatus. 
Mr. Taczanowski also records it from Central Peru. 

As will be seen from the above, this Thrush winters far south, but it is said to breed from 
latitude 44° to the high Arctic regions. Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway state (l. c.) that the 
present species is common during the breeding-season in the neighbourhood of Calais, Maine ; 



but not far from that place, in New Brunswick, where I collected, I never obtained this Thrush, 
but only Turclus pallasi during the nesting-season. 

This species is said to be much more arboreal in its habits than the Hermit Thrusb, 
frequenting dense woods, and obtaining its food more among the branches of the trees than on 
the ground. According to Dr. Brewer, " the song of this species has a certain resemblance to 
that of T. pallasi, being yet quite distinct, and the differences easily recognized by a familiar ear. 
It is more prolonged ; the notes are more equal, and rise with more regularity and more gradually, 
are richer, and each note is more complete in itself. Its song of lamentation when robbed of its 
young is full of indescribable pathos and beauty, haunting one, who has once heard it, long after." 

Dr. Elliott Coues remarks that " as to its general habits as compared with its congeners 
there is little to be said, since they are scarcely distinctive. It is perhaps less decidedly 
terrestrial and less solicitous of concealment than the Hermit, being often observed in open 
woodland, and gleaning much of its food among the branches of the trees. I do not think that I 
have ever recognized its voice, except the short single note, which is much the same as that of 
its allies." 

Unlike the Hermit Thrush, which places its nest on the ground in swampy places, Swainson's 
Thrush builds its nest in a tree, in the dense woods, and usually from four to six feet from 
the ground, though amongst the low vegetation of the Arctic Regions its nest was found by 
Mr. Kennicott within about two feet from the ground. According to Dr. Coues (B. of Colorado 
Valley, p. 38), " the nest is more compact and more elaborately finished than those of the ground 
builders the Veery and Hermit, the outer portions of which are coarser and less consistent. 
The material is very miscellaneous, and varies, moreover, with the locality, but mosses, lichens, 
leaves, bark strips, and fibrous weedy substances are usually found, while in some the Hypnum 
mosses are said to be most conspicuous, and give a distinctive character. In size the nests are 
4 inches in diameter by half as much in depth, the walls being half an inch thick. 

" The eggs, numbering four or five, measure about seven-eighths inch in length by five-eighths 
in breadth, but much variation both in length and breadth has been observed. They are light 
greenish-blue in colour, fully speckled with reddish-brown and other shades. Any Thrushes' 
eggs like this found in a nest above the ground described by early authors were almost certainly 
those of the Olive-backed Thrush, to whatever species they may have been accredited." 

Dr. Brewer states that " the nests average about four inches in diameter and two in height, 
the cavity being three inches wide by about one and a half deep. They are more elaborately and 
neatly constructed than those of any other of our Thrushes, except perhaps of T. ustulatus. 
Conspicuous among the materials are the Hypnum mosses, which by their dark fibrous masses 
give a very distinctive character to these nests, and distinguish them from all except those of 
the T. ustulatus, which they resemble. Besides these materials are found fine sedges, leaves, 
stems of equisetaceous plants, red glossy fibres, the flowering stems of the Cladonia mosses, 
lichens, fine strips of bark, &c." The eggs, four or five in number, Dr. Brewer describes as 
having the ground-colour usually bluish green, sometimes light blue with hardly a tinge of 
green, and the spots yellowish brown or russet-brown, or a mixture of both colours, more or less 
confluent, with marked variations in this respect. In size, he remarks, they range in length from 
•83 to '84, with a mean of "88, their mean breadth being - 66, the maximum - 69, the minimum '63. 

b2 



3 



Mr. Seebohm remarks (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 201) that, " according to the rules of the 
British Association, the name given by Gmelin {Turdus fuscus) to this species should be adopted 
instead of that given by Cabanis more than half a century later ;" but I do not take that view, as 
Gmelin states that his Turdus fuscus is of the size of Turdus iliacus (iliaci magnitudine), which 
cannot possibly apply to Turdus sivainsoni. 

American ornithologists recognize three forms of Swainson's Thrush, viz.: — 1. Turdus 
swainsoni, 2. Turdus swainsoni, var. ustulatus, to which I refer above, and 3. Turdus alicice, 
which last is stated to inhabit Eastern North America to the shores of the Arctic Ocean, and 
along the northern coast from Labrador to Kodiak, breeding in immense numbers between the 
mouths of the Mackenzie and Coppermine Bivers ; west to Fort Yukon and the Missouri Biver 
States ; and wintering south to Costa Bica. It has also occurred in Siberia, in the north of 
Jakutsk, and in the Tschuktschi Feninsula, but has not been obtained in the Western Falsearctic 
Begion. 

According to Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Bidgway (N.-Am. Birds, i. p. 11) Turdus alicice 
differs from Turdus sivainsoni " in its large size, longer bill, feet, and wings especially. The 
back is of a greener olive. The breast and sides of the head are entirely destitute of the buff 
tinge, or at best this is very faintly indicated on the upper part of the breast. The most 
characteristic features are seen on the side of the head. Here and there is no indication 
whatever of the light line from nostril to eye, and scarcely any of a light ring round the eye, — 
the whole region being greyish olive, relieved slightly by whitish shaft-streaks on the ear-coverts. 
The sides of the body, axillars, and tibiae are olivaceous grey, without any of the fulvous tinge 
seen in T. sivainsoni." 

The specimens figured and described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the Salvin and 
Godman collection, and in the British Museum, the following specimens : — 

JE Mus. If. E. Dresser. 

a, b, <$ , c, d, $ . Beach, Hamilton, Canada, May 1890 (R. C. M Ilwraith). e, J. Chillanhack, B. C, May 
25th, 1888 (A. C. Brooke), f. Pennsylvania (J. Krider). g, 6 . Washington, D. C, May 13th, 1891 
(C. W. Richmond). 



TUEDUS PALLASI. 

(HERMIT THRUSH.) 



Turdus solitarius (nee Linn.), Wils. Amer. Orn. v. p. 95 (1812, partim). 

Turdus minor (nee Gmel.), Bp. Journ. Phil. Acad. iv. p. 33 (1824, nee Gmel.). 

Merula solitaria (Wils.), Swainson, Faun. Bor.-Amer. ii. p. 184 (1831). 

Turdus guttatus (nee Pall.), Cab. in Tschudi's Pauna Peruana, ii. p. 187 (1845-46). 

Turdus pallasii, Cabanis, Wiegmann's Archiv, 1847, p. 205. 

Turdus {Hylocichla) pallasi (Cab.), Gray, Hand-1. of B. i. p. 254. no. 3684 (1869). 

Figured notabiles. 

Audubon, B. of Am. iii. pi. cxlvi. ; id. Orn. Biogr. i. pi. lviii. ; Naumann, Vog. Deutschl. xiii. 
Taf. 355. figs. 1, 2; Swains. Faun. Bor.-Am. ii. pi. 35. 

Ad. supra olivaceo-fuscus vix rufescente lavatus : subtus albus, uropygio, supracaudalibus et cauda rufes- 
centibus : remigibus extus rufescenti-cervino tinctis : pectore cum subcaudalibus inconspicue cervino 
lavatis : juguli lateribus cum pectore saturate fusco guttatis ; hypochondrris pallide olivaceo-fuscis. 

Adult Male (Laurel, Maryland, Oct. 20th). Crown, nape, and upper parts generally olive-brown, faintly 
tinged with rufous; rump and upper tail-coverts rusty rufous; wings dark olive-brown, the quills 
washed with rufous on the outer web; tail rufous brown; underparts white, washed with pale buff; 
sides of the throat and breast marked with clearly defined subtriangular dark brown spots; flanks 
pale olivaceous brown; under tail-coverts washed with pale huff ; a dull white ring round the eye, 
and ear-coverts marked with dull rufous-buff streaks : bill dark brown, but pale yellowish at the base ; 
legs brown; iris hazel. Total length about 7'5 inches, culmen - 65, wing 3"8, tail 2'9, tarsus 1*15. 

Adult Female (Musquash, New Brunswick, June 4th). Resembles the male above described, but the upper 
parts are a shade paler, and there is the merest trace of buff on the breast. 

Young. Resemble the adult, but are spotted on the upper parts with rusty yellowish. 

Obs. There is a slight difference in the coloration of spring and autumn examples of this Thrush, the 
autumn plumage being darker and browner on the upper parts than in the spring. The variation in 
size of specimens I have measured is as follows : — males, culmen 065 to 0*7 inch, wing 3 - 6 to 3'85, tail 
2*85 to 2'95, tarsus 1 - 15 to 1'2; females, culmen 0"62 to 0'7 inch, wing 3'5 to 3 - 75, tail 2 P 55 to 2*7, 
tarsus l'l to T15. 

Like its congener Swainson's Thrush, the Hermit Thrush is an inhabitant of the Nearctic Region, 
only occurring in Europe as a rare straggler. The first record of its occurrence with us is that 
of Naumann (Isis, 1826, p. 520), who obtained one alive at Klein Zerbst, Anhalt, on the 



6 

22nd December, 1825. According to Degland and Gerbe (Orn. Eur. i. p. 427) one, now in the 
Strassburg Museum, was obtained in Switzerland : a third example is stated by Mr. Gatke 
(Vogelw. Helgol. p. 253), on the authority of Reymers, to have been obtained in Heligoland in 
October 1836 ; but the bird was not procured by him, and the authenticity of this occurrence 
depends on the accuracy of his recollection. According to Thienemann one is said to have been 
obtained near Vienna in 1846, but this occurrence is also very doubtful. 

In America the range of this Thrush is much more restricted than that of Turdus swainsoni, 
for though it passes the summer in high Arctic localities, it does not appear to range during the 
winter further south than the Southern United States, not even reaching Mexico, and, according 
to Gundlach, it does not visit Cuba. Florida appears to be its favourite winter-quarters, and it is 
said to be common there during the cold season. It arrives at its summer-quarters, which are in 
the northern portions of New England, and from there up into the Arctic Regions, in April and 
leaves again in September. During the two summers I passed in New Brunswick I found this 
Thrush very common, and procured many specimens. I usually found it frequenting the alder- 
swamps and damp places near the streams and lakes where there were low bushes, occasionally 
near the settlements, but never in the forest amongst high trees. It arrived late in April, and 
commenced nidification very soon after its arrival. 

Its nest was usually placed in an alder-swamp on the ground, and is constructed of old 
leaves, grasses, and twigs, and lined with finer grass, bents, and sedges ; and its eggs, four or five 
in number, ai - e uniform dark bluish green, unspotted, and measure, on an average, - 9 by - 7 inch. 

As a rule, I did not find it shy or very difficult of approach, and it is well known to the 
lumbermen under the name of Swamp-Robin. Its song is clear and sweet, with a bell-like 
sound, though not very powerful. It was certainly the sweetest songster we had in New 
Brunswick, and I have often sat for long on the edge of an alder-swamp, far away from any 
habitation, except a lumberman's camp, listening with delight to its sweet refrain. Dr. Coues 
writes (B. of Color. Valley, p. 33), "Great injustice would be done were the Hermit's musical 
powers overlooked in any sketch, however slight, of its life-history. The earlier authors were 
evidently unaware of its accomplishments, for its melody is lavished on the gloom of the swamp, 
or lost in the darkening aisles of the forest, where years passed by before the ear of the patient 
and toiling student of nature was gladdened by the sweet refrain. Wilson denies its song ; 
Audubon speaks of its ' single plaintive note,' though he adds, perhaps upon information 
received from his friend Dr. Pickering, that ' its song is sometimes agreeable.' Nuttall seems 
to have first recognized the power and sweetness of the lay of our Hermit ; he compares it to 
the famous Nightingale, that sweet princess of song, and ranks it far above the Wood-Thrush. 
Later writers agree in this high estimate of the bird's powers, though it may be questioned 
whether a comparison unfavourable to the Wood-Thrush is a perfectly just discrimination. The 
weird associations of the spot where the Hermit triumphs, the mystery inseparable from the 
voice of an unseen musician, conspire to heighten the effect of the sweet, silvery, bell-like notes, 
which, beginning soft, low, and tinkling, rise higher and higher, to end abruptly with a clear 
ringing intonation. It is the reverse of the lay of the Wood-Thrush, which swells at once into 
powerful and sustained effort, then gradually dies away, as though the bird were receding from 
us ; for the song of the Hermit first steals upon us from afar, then seems to draw nearer, as if 



the timid recluse were weary of solitude, and craved recognition of its conscious power to please. 
Yet it is but a momentary indecision ; true to a vow of seclusion, the anchorite is gone again to 
its inviolate grotto in the fastnesses of the swamp, where a world of melody is wasted in its 
pathetic song of life." 

American authors recognize three forms or subspecies of the Hermit Thrush, viz. : — 
1. Turclus pcdlasi, which inhabits Eastern North America ; 2. Turclus pallasi, var. nanus, which 
inhabits the western province of North America, eastward from Ivodiak to Cape St. Lucas and 
Arizona, and which differs from T. pallasi in being smaller, in having a more slender and 
depressed bill, in having the tail darker, richer, and more purplish rufous, and the pectoral spots 
sparser and less pure black in tinge ; 3. Turclus pallasi, var. auduboni, which inhabits the Rocky 
Mountains from Fort Bridger south into Mexico, and differs from Turclus pallasi in being 
rather larger, the upper parts with more of a gi - eenish than a brownish tinge, and the tail lighter 
and inclining to dull ochraceous rather than rufous. 

The specimens figured and described are in my own collection. 

Iu the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the large series in the 
Salvin and Godman collection and in the British Museum, the following specimens: — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, cJ . Inglewood Mauor, Musquash, N. B., May 4th, 1863 {A. R. Dresser), b, ? . Inglevvood Manor, June 

4th, 1862 {H. E. Dresser). c, S , d. East Hamilton, Canada, April 1888 (J. TV. Stainton). e, <3 . 

Calais, Maine, 1864 (G. A. Buardman). /, tf. October 20th, 1888. g, ? . May 3rd, 1889, Laurel, 
Maryland (C. W. Richmond). 



635 




J G.Ksi&canaxis deletlitX. 



ALPINE RING- OUSEL 

TURDUS ALPESTRIS. 



Mint em. Sroe . ithd . 



TURDUS ALPESTEIS. 

(ALPINE RING-OUSEL.) 



Merula alpestris, C. L. Brehm, Isis, 1828, p. 1281 (nom. nud.). 

Merula alpestris, id. Handb. Vog. Deutschl. p. 377 (desc. princeps) (1831). 

Merula vociferans, L. Brehm, Naumannia, 1855, p. 281 (nom. nud.). 

Merula maculata, id. ut supra (nom. nud.). 

Merula insignis, L. Brehm, J. f. O. 1856, p. 446 (nom. nud.). 

Turdus alpestris (Brehm), Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1886, pp. 365-373. 

Merula torquata, var. alpestris, Tschusi zu Schmidh. Schwalbe, xii. p. 70 (1888). 

Merula torquata alpestris, Seebohm, Ibis, 1888, p. 310. 

Turdus torquatus alpestris, Prazak, Schwalbe, xvii. p. 68 (1893). 

Figura? notabiles. 
Naumann, Vog. Deutschl. Taf. 361. fig. 3 (juv.) ; Dresser, B. of Eur. pi. 15 ( 6 5 )■ 

J 1 ad. ast. corpore supra fusco-nigro, plumis pallidiore anguste marginatis, remigibus in pogonio externo et 
tectricibus alarum majoribus conspicue albido marginatis : torque pectorali albo : corpore reliquo 
subtus fusco-nigro, plumis conspicue albo marginatis et centraliter albo notatis : rostro aurantiaco, ad 
basin fusco : pedibus f usco-corneis : iride fusca. 

? ad. ast. magis fusco colorata, gulae plumis magis albido marginatis et torque pectorali sordide albo, plumis 
pallide fusco anguste marginatis : rostro flavo, culmine et mandibula versus apicem corneis. 

<J ad. Mem. similis ptilosi sestiva?, sed obscurior, plumis in corpore supra magis fusco marginatis: torque 
pectorali vix fusco lavato. 

? ad. Mem. similis ptilosi sestivae, sed magis fusco colorata, dorsi plumis magis conspicue marginatis. 

Adult Male in breeding plumage (Hatszeg, Hungary, May 3rd). Upper parts generally brownish black, the 
feathers narrowly margined with lighter brown ; quills externally margined with greyish white, the 
wing-coverts similarly but more broadly margined ; chin and throat-feathers blackish, narrowly margined 
with white; pectoral gorget white; rest of the underparts blackish, the feathers broadly margined 
with white and having a large white median patch; under wing-coverts and axillaries nearly pure 
white: bill orange-yellow, brown at the base and tip of the upper mandible; feet horn-brown; iris 
dark brown. Total length about 10 inches, culmen LO, wing 5 - 4, tail 4"1, tarsus 1*3. 

Adult Female in breeding plumage (Hatszeg, Hungary, April). Differs from the male in the general tone of 
colour of the plumage, the upper parts being dark hair-brown and not brownish black, and the under- 
parts dark hrown ; the feathers on the throat are rather more broadly margined with white, and the 
gorget dull white, most of the feathers with pale brown margins : bill yellow, the base of the upper 
and the tips of both mandibles horn-brown. 

c 



10 

Adult Male in winter (Belgrade, Turkey, September 26th). Differs from the male in summer dress merely 
in having the feathers on the upper parts rather more broadly margined with brown; the gorget is dull 
white, and the bill is horn-brown, with the base of the lower mandible dull yellow. 

Adult Female in ivinter. Differs from the summer dress merely in being rather browner in tone of colour, 
and the feathers on the upper parts have the margins rather broader. 

Young Female in winter (Silesia). Upper parts warm brown, the feathers margined with dull yellowish 
olive ; quills and larger wing-coverts broadly margined with white tinged with buff; underparts warm 
brown, the feathers very broadly margined with buffy white, these margins being nearly pure white on 
the middle of the abdomen, and tinged with buffy brown on the throat and flanks ; pectoral gorget 
scarcely indicated ; nearly all the feathers below the gorget with the median white patch as well as the 
margins : legs brown, the fore part of the tarsus yellowish; bill dark horn-brown. 

In summer plumage the northern and southern forms are easily separable, as Turdus torquatus has the 
feathers almost or entirely devoid of white margins, whereas T. alpestris has broad margins to the 
feathers on the underparts below the white collar, and besides many of the feathers have white centres. 
In autumn and winter dress both forms have white margins to the feathers on the underparts, but 
whereas these margins are narrow in T. torquatus, and there are no median white patches on the 
feathers, in T. alpestris the margins are much broader, and some, if not most, of the feathers on the 
underparts, and more especially the under tail-coverts, have conspicuous white median patches. 

The difference between summer and winter plumage is much greater in T. torquatus than it is in 
T. alpestris; indeed, in the latter species the white margins to the feathers on the underparts are quite 
as broad in the summer dress, if not broader than they are in the winter plumage. Dr. Stejneger 
surmises that the young birds of the two forms differ already in nestling plumage; but this I have 
not been able to decide, as, in spite of every endeavour, I have not succeeded in obtaining the young 
of T. alpestris in nestling plumage. 

The present species is a southern and alpine form of our northern Ring-Ousel, inhabiting the 
mountain-ranges of Southern and Central Europe and Asia Minor during the summer season, 
and migrating to the lowlands or to countries further south in the winter, though in some 
localities they are said to remain throughout the year. It is said to occur in the French and 
Spanish Pyrenees, but I have not had an opportunity of examining a specimen from either of 
these countries. It is, however, certainly the species which inhabits the mountains of 
Switzerland. 

Mr. Howard Saunders writes (Ibis, 1891, p. 162) that " it was fairly plentiful in the Jura, 
where some nests were still being built on May 23rd, when a few already contained young birds, 
and I saw a brood on the wing by June 2nd. The nest is placed on the branch of a spruce — ■ 
generally one which is thickly hung with moss and lichen — and near the stem ; seldom as low 
down as 15 feet, while often 40 feet or more from the ground — very different from the lowly 
positions affected by this species in the British Islands. The adult male attracts attention by 
sitting on the top of a tall fir and uttering vigorously his scolding telt, tett, tett. The bill in 
this mountain race is decidedly yellower than in average British examples, but much paler than 
the orange colour of the Blackbird. In autumn the Ring-Ousel may be seen on the rowan-trees, 
and among the vineyards by the lakes, until the end of October." 



11 

Mr. Scott B. Wilson also states (Ibis, 1887, p. 133) that he " found several nests of this 
bird in the Jura (3070 feet) in May, some with eggs, and several with young killed by the snow. 
On the Engstlen Alp, up to the limit of tree-growth (6100 feet) we obtained some fine specimens 
in June, and we subsequently shot a young bird on the Gemmi on July 5th. The Ring-Ousel 
passes the summer in the high forests, and comes out towards evening from the forests to search 
for worms among the Alpine pastures. It arrives at the end of March and departs late in 
September." 

According to Count Salvadori (Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, May 1893) it "is found in 
Italy on the mountains during the breeding-season, and partly migrates in autumn, at which 
season it is found on the plains together with Memla torquata, which arrives then from the 
north. It is probable that to this species must be referred the specimens which during migra- 
tion occur even in Sicily, and especially on the island of Ustica (Voderlein). It appears that 
Merula alpestris breeds throughout the chain of the Alps. In Piedmont it nests most certainly 
in the Orsera Valley above Viu, whence came some young birds which I saw in Viu in 
August 1877 ; also, as I said before, I met with young birds in August at Monbarone, above the 
Serra d'lvrea. Early in September I have seen them in the Valley of Graine (Valle di 
Challand o d'Ayas), and in the Valle della Cinischia near Mont Cenis, and no doubt to this 
species must be referred the birds which Abre (fide Giglioli) says breed in the mountains of the 
province of Cuneo, and which Bazzetta, Guarinoni, Bernascone and Galli Valerio say nest 
at Ossola, the Valsesia, and the Valtellina, as also those which according to Bettoni breed in 
various localities in the Alps of Lombardy, and which are resident and breed in the Alps of 
the Tyrol, Venetia, and Friuli (Bonomi, Ninni, Pellegrini, Molari, Fissi, Delaito, Vallon). 
Moreover, the Alpine King-Ousel is resident and breeds also in the Apennines, at least in 
Tuscany. Savi says that some pairs remain to breed, and makes mention of one which he found 
in Mugello in August 1822, at which place Mr. Roster obtained a pair in June 1879 (Giglioli), 
and Fiorini states that it is resident on the mountains of Casentino (Giglioli). It appears 
that it also breeds on the mountains of Modena, as was stated to Doderlein, and it is not 
improbable that such is the case. In conclusion we have the Alpine Ring-Ousel in Italy 
breeding on the mountains and partially migratory, and we have the northern M. torquata, 
not breeding here, but wintering, arriving in the autumn and remaining till the end of March." 

Mr. Whitehead saw a Ring-Ousel in Corsica on the 12th March, which in all probability 
was the present species. 

In Silesia, Galicia, and in the mountains of Southern Germany, the Alpine Ring-Ousel is 
fairly common, and it is doubtless this form which Seidensacher found breeding in the Bacher 
Mountains in Styria. Count C. Wodzicki records it as common in the Carpathians and in 
Transylvania. Messrs. Danford and Harvie-Brown write (Ibis, 1875, p. 304) that they found it 
" common everywhere, and to some extent migratory. Herr Buda Adam says that it nests 
among the pines, and he has never found them breeding in the low country. We saw them in 
the oak-woods at Sztana, near Klausenburg, on the 10th June." In a letter written from 
Hatszeg, Hungary, just received, Mr. Danford writes : — " I have just come down from the 
mountains and the Ring-Ousels are still (16th October) there feeding among the juniper- 
bushes above the pine-woods. They come to the low country in the early spring and soon 

c2 



12 

go up the hills, where they take up their quarters among the pines at an elevation of 3000 to 
5000 feet. Where they go in winter I do not know, but I never see them at that season 
either high up or low down. They are very numerous, being quite the characteristic bird 
of our woods." 

I have examined several Ring-Ousels from Turkey, all of which belonged to the present 
species, and it is doubtless the species which has occurred in Greece. 

Mr. Danford met with the Alpine Ring-Ousel also in the Taurus Mountains in Asia Minor, 
and states (Ibis, 1878, p. 13) that "flocks of Ring-Ousels were found at Zebil during the hard 
weather of the early part of February. At the end of April a pair was met with on the 
Karanfil-dagh, among a debris of loose rocks and gnarled old junipers. The elevation was 
about 6500 feet. From their cries of alarm and general manner of conducting themselves it 
was evident that they had a nest close by, though it could not be found." 

I do not find that the Alpine Ring-Ousel ranges further east than Asia Minor, for, as 
stated below, the Caucasian Ring-Ousel is not referable to this species. Nor can I say whether 
it visits North Africa in the winter season, which it probably does, but I may mention that 
those I have seen from Morocco were true Turdus torquatus. 

In general habits, as may be surmised, the northern and southern forms of the Ring-Ousel 
do not differ to any great extent, but they appear to do so in their mode of nidification, as also in 
their song. Dr. Brehm remarks that the song of the Alpine Ring-Ousel is much louder and 
more powerful than that of its northern congener, and this is confirmed by later observers. 
Mr. Danford informs me that in Hungary it is the first bird whose note is heard in the 
morning after the Capercaillie, as it commences singing about half-past three o'clock, and 
finishes in the evening some time after sunset. The song is pleasant and has many 
variations. 

Whereas the northern Ring-Ousel builds its nest on the ground or exceptionally in a low 
bush close to the ground, the present species invariably places its nest in a tree, usually at a 
considerable altitude. Messrs. Howard Saunders and Scott Wilson found its nest in trees in 
the Jura Mountains, and Mr. Danford writes me that in Hungary the nest is built in spruce-firs 
at from 15 to 40 feet above the ground, and is generally placed close to the main stem. He has 
sent me eggs which he took on the 25th April last, and remarks that he took others rather 
earlier, and that young birds in and out of the nest were abundant in May. I may here remark 
that, according to Dr. Radde, the Ring-Ousel of the Caucasus does not nest in trees, but on the 
ground under the rhododendron bushes, therein agreeing with the northern Ring-Ousel. He 
also found one nest in the cleft of a rock. 

I am indebted to Mr. Danford for a nest and five eggs of this Ring-Ousel, taken by 
him at Hatszeg on the 25th of April, 1894. The nest resembles that of the Blackbird, and is 
externally constructed of stout bents, moss, and a few fine larch-twigs, and lined with fine grass 
and rootlets. The eggs, five in number, are pale greenish blue, somewhat sparsely spotted and 
blotched with reddish brown. Compared with my series of eggs of Turdus torquatus, they are 
rather more blue in tone of ground-colour, and the markings are fewer and less bold, and 
indeed they more closely resemble some eggs of T. merula than the general run of those of 
T. torquatus. 



lo 

When in 1872 (Birds of Eur. ii. p. 114) we remarked on a stage of plumage in the Ring- 
Ousel which, so far as we could ascertain, was not mentioned by any of the leading authorities on 
European ornithology, we failed to connect this bird with Dr. C. L. Brehm's Merula alpestris, 
which was then considered to be merely a synonym of Turdus torquatus. To Dr. Stejneger 
belongs the credit of having solved this question, and of having clearly demonstrated that 
Brehm's Merula alpestris is a good species, and that the northern and South European forms of 
Eing-Ousel should be considered as specifically separable. In his article on Turdus alpestris 
and Turdus torquatus (Proc. U.S. Nat. Museum, 1886, p. 365) he says, referring to the above- 
cited description of the young female in the ' Birds of Europe ' : — " This curious livery is not 
mentioned in any of the usual standard works on European ornithology. It is not described by 
Temminck, Nilsson, Naumann, Degland, Yarrell and Newton, Macgillivray, &c. Neither have 
authors writing later than the publication of Dresser's grand work given it even a passing notice. 
Mr. H. Seebohm, who in 1881 monographed the Thrushes (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v.), and who in 
1883 treated of the Ring-Thrush in his 'History of British Birds,' has also passed by it in 
absolute silence. Nevertheless, as I shall show later on, the ' livery ' in question has been 
mentioned repeatedly in the literature, not as a special plumage of the Ring-Thrush, but as a 
separate species. If some of the authors quoted above had consulted the references cited by 
themselves in their synonymies, they would have found it described by C. L. Brehm as Merula 
alpestris." Dr. Stejneger then proceeds to prove his assertion, and I can only add that after a 
careful examination of a large series of specimens I most fully concur in his view that Turdus 
torquatus from Northern Europe, and Turdus alpestris from Southern Europe, should be treated 
as specifically separable forms. The name Merula alpestris was first used by Brehm in 1828 
(Isis, p. 1281), without any description, but in 1831 (' Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vogel 
Deutschlands,' p. 377) he gives a detailed description, of which the following is a translation : — 
" It is smaller than all the preceding species, and the male resembles them, but the female is 
differently marked. The upper parts of the female are as in her allies, and the underparts also 
down to below the light-coloured collar, but the breast and abdomen have a varied appearance. 
Each feather has, namely, besides the light border, a large white median spot interrupted by a 
blackish shaft-stripe, which forces the black towards tne white border : " and he adds that it 
" inhabits the Alps of the Tyrol on the border of tree-growth below the eternal snow, and visits 
Central Germany rarely in October." 

The next reference to Turdus alpestris is in 1848, when Brehm (Isis, 1848, pp. 91-93) 
published some observations by Count von Gourcy Droitaumont on the song of several German 
birds, together with remarks by himself, in which he gives a parallel comparison of the male in 
spring of T. torquatus and T. alpestris, which I need not translate in extenso, but merely 
mention that he clearly points out the main distinguishing character, viz. that T. alpestris 
has white margins to all, and central white spots on most of the leathers below the white 
collar, which are most prominent in summer, and -which are never seen in T. torquatus ; aud 
he further adds that T. torquatus has the song described by Bechstein, and not at all the loud 
whistle of T. alpestris, which has the loud penetrating song described by Count von Gourcy 
Droitaumont. 

In 1856 (J. f. O. 1856, p. 376) Brehm again refers to Turdus alpestris, and (torn. cit. p. 446) 



14 

subdivides the southern Ring-Ousel into four species — Tardus alpestris, maculata, insignis, and 
vociferans — but does not give any specific characters for these subspecies, merely remarking 
generally on the broad margins to the feathers on the underparts which are never absent, and 
the white median patches, which are, he states, especially conspicuous in T. maculatus. 

The last reference to Turdus alpestris by Brehm I find is in 1860 (J. f. Orn. p. 239), 
where he states that the Ring-Ousel of Switzerland resembles that from Carinthia, and differs 
from the northern form, Istly, by the much lighter coloration of the wings ; 2ndly, by the broader 
light margins to the feathers on the underparts ; and 3rdly, by the white spots (speculum) on the 
centre of the feathers of the breast and abdomen; and he further adds that " besides this it has 
so loud a voice that the song is intolerable in a room, whereas that of the northern ones is soft 
and pleasant." 

In 1888 Mr. Seebohm, in an article on Merula iorquata and its geographical races (Ibis, 
1888, pp. 309-312), fully accepted Dr. Stejneger's views respecting the present species, and 
states that "intermediate forms occur both in Norway and Sweden. An example from the 
former locality in the British Museum, and one from the latter locality in Dresser's collection, 
have white centres to many of the flank-feathers." On this I may remark that the latter 
specimen was received through a dealer, and the locality may or may not be correct, but I 
should certainly refer it to Turdus alpestris and not to T. torquatus. I have examined three 
examples in the British Museum from Norway, all of which I should without hesitation refer to 
true T. torquatus, and none of them are intermediate between the two forms. 

Mr. Seebohm further proposes to separate, under the name of Merula torquata orientalis, 
the form from the Caucasus and Persia, and states that " in examples from the Caucasus and 
Persia the white on the axillaries and on the wing-coverts is still more pronounced, whilst on 
the underparts that on the margins of the feathers is less pronounced, and that in the centre 
altogether absent." I have examined three specimens in the British Museum from the 
Caucasus and one in my own collection from Erzeroom, all of which agree closely with Turdus 
torquatus, but have the margins to the feathers on the wing somewhat broader and whiter. In 
this respect examples from Northern Europe differ considerably inter se, and it appears to me, 
therefore, that this character is not of sufficient value to entitle them to specific distinction. 
None of the Caucasian examples have, I may add, the broad margins and median white patch on 
the feathers of the abdomen and under tail-coverts so characteristic of T. alpestris, but have the 
underparts exactly as in true T. torquatus. 

In 1893 Count Salvadori (Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, viii. May 1893) carefuUy follows 
Dr. Stejneger over the ground he previously traversed, and concurs in the opinion that Turdus 
alpestris is a fairly separable form, and brings the information up to date, especially as regards 
its range in Italy. 

I may here remark that Dr. Stejneger is quite correct in his surmise that the young female 
in winter plumage described in the ' Birds of Europe,' and figured on Plate 15, was obtained 
in Silesia (Schlesien), and not Schlesuig ; but I may add that both specimens figured on that 
plate are referable to Turdus alpestris, as I have convinced myself by a careful examination of 
the specimens, which are still in my collection ; and, indeed, I have always made a point of 
carefully preserving and marking the specimens I have figured or described, so that they may at 



15 

any time be available for examination. The second specimen figured on that plate is a male 
from Belgrade, and clearly shows the white central patch on the feathers of the abdomen and 
under tail-coverts which are characteristic of Turdus alpestris. I must here state that Count 
Salvadori referred both figures on the plate in question to T. alpestris, and I am glad to be able 
to confirm his statement. 

The specimens figured are an adult male and female in breeding plumage, for which I 
am indebted to Mr. C. G. Danford, of Hatszeg, Hungary, and which are the birds I have 
described above. The adult male and young female above described are those figured on 
Plate 15 of the ' Birds of Europe.' 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a. Prance? (Fairmaire). b,c,d, <$ . Upper Italy (Schliiter). e, <$■ Silesia, summer (Dr. Kiitter). f, % juv- 
Silesia, winter (Schliiter). g, $ . Galicia, May 1869 (Schliiter). h, J. Bukowdna, May 14th, 1893 
(Schliiter). i, £ . Hatszeg, Hungary, May 3rd, 1894. k, ?. Hatszeg, April 1893 (C. G. Danford). 
I, (J. Belgrade, Turkey, September 26th, 1869 (Robson). m, rf . Antitaurus, Asia Minor, March 9th, 
1879. n, 6. Kaisariah, Asia Minor, March 25th, 1879 (C. G. Danford). o. Sweden? (Schliiter). 

H Mus. Brit. 

a, d ■ Arva, Hungary, July 1891. b, ? . Pogara, Hungary, April 24th, 1890. c, d . Zuberacz, Hungary, 
August 1891. d, 6 . June 8th ; e, $ . April 10th ; /, $ . April 23rd, Hatszeg, Hungary (C. G. Danford). 
c/. Turkey (Gould), h, ? . Turkey, August 8th, 1877 (Pearce). i, k. Near Turin (Count Salvadori). 
I. France, 1848 (W. Lemaire). 

E Mus. H. Seebohm. 

a, d juv. Borgo S. Sepolcro, Tuscany, October 24th, 1885. b, ? . Florence, January 1857 (Prof. Giglioli). 
c, 6, d, ?. Siebenburgen (Dr. Rey). e, d. Constantinople (Robson). f g, <S . Zebil Taurus, Asia 
Minor, February 4th, 1876 (C. G. Danford). 



CINCLUS CASHMIBIENSIS. 

(WHITE-BREASTED ASIATIC DIPPER.) 



1 Cinclus aguaticus, var. albiventris, Hempr. & Ehr. Symb. Phys., Aves, fol. bb (1828). 

Cinclus aguaticus, Menetries, Cat. rais. p. 29 (1832, nee Bechst.). 

Eydrobata cinclus, Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 489. 

Cinclus cashmeriensis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 494. 

Hydrobata cashmeriensis (Gould), Jerdon, B. of Ind. i. p. 507 (1862). 

Cinclus aguaticus, var. cashmeriensis, Blanford, E. Persia, ii. p. 212 (1876). 

Cinclus kashmiriensis (Gould), Oates, Faun. Brit. India, Birds, ii. p. 162 (1890). 

Figura nulla. 

C. melanogastri similis, sed pallidior : capite, nucha et collo postico usque ad regionem interscapularem fuscis : 
abdomine sordidiore et magis fusco : hypochemdriis nee schistaceo-griseis. 

Adult Male (Schamchoi*, Transcaspia) . Resembles Cinclus melanog aster, but the upper parts are paler, the 
brown extends down well on to the interscapulary region, the dark portion of the underparts is 
duller and browner in tinge, and the flanks lack the clear slate-grey coloration. Total length about 
6*7 inches, culmen - 8, wing 3 - 62, tail 1"9, tarsus 11. 

Adult Female. Resembles the male. 

The present species I cannot but consider as a local form of Cinclus melanogaster, differing 
chiefly in having the brown on the upper parts extending much further down the back, and 
having the upper parts generally much paler in tinge of colour. 

It inhabits Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Persia, Afghanistan, and Kashmir, ranging eastward 
as far as Chinese Mongolia. When in 1873 I wrote the article on Cinclus albicollis in the ' Birds 
of Europe ' I had not had an opportunity of examining specimens from Asia Minor, which I have 
since done, and have found them to be referable to the present form, and not to C. albicollis, and 
to be identical with examples from the Caucasus and Persia. 

The present form of Dipper is, according to Mr. C. G. Danford (Ibis, 1878, p. 12), common 
on the upper waters of the Cydnus, near Zebil, in Asia Minor. He met with one nest there 
hardly completed, which was placed in an exposed situation on the face of a large boulder, and 
was as much domed as any nest of C. aguaticus. In the Caucasus, Lorenz states (Orn. Faun. 
Cauc. p. 34), "I found this Dipper breeding high up in the mountains in the Eschkakon ravine. 
It is not uncommon in the ravines near Kislovodsk, but becomes more numerous in the autumn 
and winter, and it is not rare on the Podkumok in the winter. I met with it in the Kuban steppe 
in November at the stanitzas Labinskaja and Sassovskaja on the Laba, but it was not common." 



18 

According to Dr. Radde it passes the summer at considerable altitudes in the mountains up to 
7000 feet, descending in winter to the lower and warmer districts. In the summer it frequents 
the clear rocky mountain-streams, sometimes in the wooded districts, sometimes in the bare 
treeless districts ; during the winter it inhabits the larger brooks, and remains about the 
lower portions of the mountains, and at that season it is even found near Tiflis. In the Trans- 
caspian district Dr. Eadde observed Dippers, which probably belonged to this species, on the 
Attrek on the route to North Khorassan, close to the small town of Kotschan. It is found in 
Persia; and Mr. W. T. Blanford states (E. Pers. ii. p. 213) that "Dippers abound in the 
Elburz Mountains upon all the streams. On the southern side of the range they are not found, 
so far as I am aware, far outside the base of the range, at about 5000 to 6000 feet, but they 
descend much lower towards the Caspian, and may probably be found as far down as the streams 
are sufficiently rapid to afford a suitable habitat. I regret that I have no skins from the low 
country in Ghilan or Mazandaran for comparison with those from the mountains. Dippers were 
noticed by De Filippi in the same localities as by myself, and by Menetries on the Talish Mountains. 
In Southern Persia I did not myself meet with any species oiOinclus; but one was seen by 
Major St. John at Dashtiajan, near Shiraz. As he was unable to procure a specimen the species 
remains undetermined, but it may very possibly prove identical with the Elburz form." 

I have examined specimens from Persia, Cashmere, and Sikkim, and, according to Mr. Oates 
(Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, ii. p. 16o), its range extends in the Himalayas from Gilgit to Sikkim from 
9000 to 14,000 feet altitude, or even higher according to season. Dr. Stoliczka states (2nd Yarkand 
Miss. p. 96) that he observed this species at Zingral at an altitude of about 15,-500 feet, on the 
road to the Chang-la. Col. Biddulph also obtained specimens in streams under and on both sides 
of the same pass. Dr. Henderson writes : — " Several specimens of this AVhite-breasted Dipper 
were procured and numbers seen, not in Kashmir, but in Eastern Ladak, in the stream which 
runs from Chagra into the Pangong Lake. It appears to be a permanent resident here, as it was 
noticed and shot in this locality both on going and coming. A nestling obtained on the 14th of 
July could not long have left the nest, and old birds were seen on this stream on the 8 th of 
October, at an elevation of 15,000 feet, where, except quite at its centre, it was a mass of solid 
ice." Dr. Lansdell met with this species at Tischkim on the 1st November, 1888. 

To the eastward the present species has been recorded from various localities as far as China. 
The brothers Grum-Grzimailo obtained it at Pjan-do-go in the Njan-schan ; and I have examined 
specimens collected by Col. Prjevalsky at Kan-su, which are referable to the present species, and 
this explorer states that he met with it in Ganssu and Northern Thibet; and oa his third journey 
he found it in January 1880 in the central part of the Naidshin-gol on the range dividing North 
Thibet and Zaidam, where a few were wintering. It is common in the upper part of the 
Chuanche and in Ganssu. In 1884 Prjevalsky observed it again in Ganssu in the mountains 
bordering Alaschan, and in the northern and southern Sette range. It was numerous at the 
village of Bamba, and in the southern part of the Kuku-Nor mountain-range. A few were found 
breeding on the northern slope of the Burchan-Budda mountain-range, as also in the mountains 
of the Dytschu (Blue River). Respecting its habits, &c, he writes as follows: — "On the shores 
of the clear mountain-brooks of Kan-su it is found from the lowest plains up to the alpine 



19 

regions, i. e. to an absolute height of over 11,000 feet. In their habits the Kan-su birds do not 
differ from their European congeners. Each pair has its own district, and does not allow any 
other bird of this species to entrench on it, but lives very peacefully with its neighbours, 
especially so with Chcemarrhornis leucocephala. The whole day it is busily engaged in diving 
in search of food, flying from stone to stone, or singing its simple but not unpleasant song, which 
(like our European bird) it does not omit to utter in winter ; and in December and February we 
obtained specimens in the Burchan-Budda Mountains of Northern Thibet. In Kan-su they are 
most probably resident, keeping to the ice-free mountain-brooks in the winter. In spring, about 
the 9th of May, all the females were sitting, and the males were only seen singly. The young, 
which are easily distinguished from the old birds by their white underparts, leave the nest at 
the end of July or beginning of August ; at least from that time onwards we often met with 
them. Its range does not extend further north than Kan-su." The Abbe Armand David states 
(Ois. de la Chine, p. 147) that he obtained specimens in Sechueu in spring, summer, and autumn, 
which, from his description, were evidently true C. cashmiriensis. 

How far to the north the present form extends in Asia I cannot with the present available 
material decide. As above stated, Prjevalsky did not meet with it further north than Kan-su ; 
and I cannot agree with Dr. Sharpe (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 313) that the form found in the 
Baikal district in Eastern Siberia should be referred to the present species, as it differs much 
more from true Cinclus cashmiriensis than that species does from Cinclus melanogaster. 

As I remarked in an article on the White-breasted Dippers (Ibis, 1892, pp. 380-387), the 
PalEearctic White-breasted Dippers are all so closely allied that they cannot be otherwise treated 
than as modified forms or subspecies which have diverged from one parent stock, the divergences 
having in all probability been caused by isolation, which is the more probable because the 
Dipper is essentially a non-migratory species, which does not, as a rule, wander far from its usual 
range, and then only when driven out by stress of weather. I need not here again discuss the 
question in extenso, and will only give a list of the various forms which I have been able to 
recognize, and which I consider to be forms differentiated by isolation from the one parent stock, 
which appears to me to be in all probability Cinclus melanogaster, or it may possibly be Cinclus 
cashmiriensis. 

Cinclus melanogaster, Brehm, which I take to be the parent stock, has the upper parts very 
dark brown, the back squamated up to the hind neck, the underparts below the white breast 
deep warm blackish brown, and the flanks dark slate-grey. Culmen - 9 to - 93 inch, wing 3-45 
to 3 - 7, tail 2 - 3 to 2 - 35, tarsus 1-25 to 1*3. — Hah. Scandinavia and Northern Europe eastward to 
the Ural, occasionally straggling to Great Britain, Holland, Belgium, and North Germany. 

Subsp. a. Cinclus aquaticus, Bechst., differs from C. melanogaster in having the upper parts rather paler, the 
flanks much less grey, and the underparts, immediately bordering the white, bright rufous. Culmen 
0-82 to 0'9 inch, wing 325 to 3*6, tail 2'1 to 2-45, tarsus 1-05 to 1'25. — Hub, Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Holland, and Germany. 

h. Cinclus pyrenaicus, Dresser, resembles C. melanogaster, but is paler, especially on the head and neck, the 
underparts paler and browner, and the wing shorter. Culmen 085 to 095 inch, wing 3"1 to 3"4, tail 
2*1 to 2'3, tarsus 1'05 to 1"15. — Hah. Pyrenees. 

D 2 



20 

c. Cinclus minor, Tristr., resembles C. pyrenaicus, but is rather more rufous on the underparts, and has 

a narrow dull rufous band bordering the white. Culmen 0'8o inch, wing 3'2, tail 2"0, tarsus 1*15.- — ■ 
Hab. Atlas Mountains. 

d. Cinclus albicollis (Vieill.) resembles C. aquaticus, but has the upper parts paler, and the breast much 

brighter rufous, this colour extending on to the abdomen. Culmen 0"85 to 09 inch, wing 3'2 to 3'45, 
tail 2'0 to 2 - 4, tarsus l'lo to ] .'27. — Hab. Switzerland, Savoy, and Southern Europe as far east as 
Greece and Turkey. 

e. Cinclus rufiventris, Hempr. & Ehr., resembles C. albicollis, but has the abdomen rufous brown, and the 

brown on the upper parts extends down to the interscapulary region without squamations as in 
C. cashmiriensis. Culmen 0'87 inch, wing 3 - 15, tail 2"1, tarsus 1"15. — Hab. Palestine. 

/. Cinclus cashmiriensis, Gould. Upper parts as in C. melanog aster, but rather paler, the brown extending 
over the interscapulary region, the squamations or semilunar markings commencing only below that 
part ; underparts rather paler than in C. melanogaster , and the flanks less grey. Culmen 08 to 0'9 
inch, wing 3 - 25 to 3 - 9, tail 1*8 to 2 - 5, tarsus 1*0 to 1"25. — Hab. as above. 

g. Cinclus baicalensis, Dresser, differs from C. cashmiriensis in having the upper parts of a peculiar velvety 
mouse-brown colour, the head and neck paler than the back, the entire upper parts down to the rump 
mouse-brown, unsquamated, the lower rump and upper tail-coverts only being squamated or marked 
with semilunar bars, and the dark portions of the underparts dull dark earth-brown. Culmen - 8 to 
09 inch, wing 3'2 to 3'6, tail 20 to 2T, tarsus 1*1 to 1"15. — Hab. Siberia, in the Baikal district. 

/;. Cinclus leucogaster, Bp., differs from Cinclus baicalensis in having the head and neck paler, and the 
underparts down to the vent white, excepting the flanks, which are brown. Culmen 0"8 to 0'9 inch, 
wing 3 - 25 to 3'85, tail 2 - to 24, tarsus l'l to l - 25. — Hab. Altai range, Turkestan, Mongolia, and the 
countries north of Kashmir, ranging into the Baikal district. 

Since I wrote the above-cited article I have received specimens of the Dipper which the 
Russian ornithologists call Cinclus sordidus, and have had an opportunity of comparing them 
with Gould's type, from which I find they differ considerably, and cannot possibly be referred to 
that species. These specimens, obtained near Irkutsk, and at Tunka, in the Baikal district, 
differ from C. baicalensis only in having the white throat and breast obscured with brown, 
whereas true C. sordidus has the head and neck deep chocolate-brown, the rest of .the upper 
parts dull dark blackish brown with a slaty tinge, the throat and breast dull rufous buff, and 
the rest of the underparts dull dark umber-brown. I consider this Dipper to be a form of 
C. melanogaster, and may be included as (i), Cinclus saturatus. 

In general habits and mode of nidification there appears to be no difference between Cinclus 
cashmiriensis and Cinclus aquaticus, and its nest and eggs are also stated to be indistinguishable 
from those of our western bird. 

As the differences between the present species and Cinclus melanogaster are easily perceived, 
I have not deemed it necessary to give an illustration of C. cashmiriensis. 

The specimens described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, <J ad., b, ? ad. Zebil Taurus, Asia Minor, January 10th and 21st, 1876 (C. G. Danford). c, S . 
Osmanzeeh, Asia Minor, January 23th, 1879 (C. G. Danford). d, $, e, ? juv. Kuban Caucasus, 



21 

December 11th and 27th, 1891 (Tschusi zu Schmidhofen) . f,$ ad. Schamchor, Transcaspia, November 
5th, 1879 (Br. G. Radde). 

E Mus. Brit. 

a, <S,b, ?. Zebil Taurus, January 20th, 1876 (C.G.Danford). c. Erzeroom, May 1866 (Robso?i) . d. Elburz 
Mountains (SI. John). e, <J. Karij Valley, August 10th, 1872 (Blanford). f. Persia (Damoiri). 
g. Kashmir (Adams), type, h, $ . Chagra, July 14th, 1870 ; i, ? . Chagra, October 8th, 1870 
(Dr. Henderson). k. Kislovodsk, February 25th, 1886; I. Leh, June 30th, 1873; m, <J. Ladakh, 
September 14th, 1873 (Biddidph). n, o, p. Sikhim, February; q. Sikhim, May; r, s, t. Sikhim, 
October; u. Sikhim, November; v. Darjeeling; w, x. Chola Pass, September 1872 (Mandelli). 
y. Yangtze, September 16th, 1873 (Stoliczka). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram, 
a, £ . Chagra (Henderson), b. Kan-su (Prjevalsky). 



636 



. ■ 




J. G. Keulemans 1th . 



Hanhsrfc imo. 



SEEBOHMS WHEATEAR 

SAXICOLA SEEBOHMT . 



SAXICOLA SEEBOHMI. 

(SEEBOHM'S WHEATEAR.) 



Saxicola seebohmi, Dixon, Ibis, 1882, p. 563. 

Figura unica. 
Dixon, Ibis, 1882, pi. xiv. 

Ad. suprk schistaceo-canus, pileo pallidiore : fronte et stria, supraocular! usque ad nucliam ducta albis : 
uropygio et supracaudalibus albis : alis cum tectricibus alarum nigris, secundariis iiiternis pallide 
cervino apicatis : rectricibus centralibus ad basin albis in parte § reliquo nigris, rectricibus reliquis 
albis conspicue nigro apicatis : loris, mento et gula, nigris : corpora reliquo subtus albo : tibiis nigri- 
cantibus : rostro et pedibus nigris : iride fusca. 

Adult Male (type). Upper parts clear slate-grey, paler ou the head; forehead and a stripe which extends 
over the eye to the nape white ; wings and wing-coverts black, the inner secondaries narrowly tipped 
with pale buff ; rump and upper tail-coverts white ; central rectrices white on the basal third, otherwise 
black, the remainder white broadly terminated with black, the external feather with rather more black 
on the outer web ; lores, chin, and throat black, the rest of the underparts white except the thighs, 
which are blackish; axillars and under wing-coverts black, narrowly margined with dull white on the 
terminal portion : bill, legs, and feet black ; iris dark brown. Total length about 6 - 25 inches, 
culmen - 68, wing 3'87, tail 2"45, tarsus T05. 

Adult Female (Djebel Mahmel). Resembles the female of Saxicola cenanthe, but is browner in tone of 
colour. {Dr. Koenig in epist.) 

Young Male (Djebel Mahmel, May 5th). Differs from the adult in having the upper parts obscured by 
sandy buff, the black on the throat less extended, there being a broad central white line nearly up to 
the chin, and the black is intermixed with buff on the sides of the throat ; the underparts are not so 
pure white as in the adult, and the wings are brownish black and not deep black. 

This, the latest addition to the Western Palsearctic Chats, was discovered in the Province of 
Constantine, Algeria, by Mr. C. Dixon, who was sent thither to collect by Mr. H. Seebohm, and 
who named the species after his patron and employer. 

Mr. Dixon writes respecting the discovery of this species (Ibis, 1882, p. 563) as follows: — 
" On the road from Oued Taga, when we were making the ascent of Djebel Mahmel, and about 
midway between those two places, we secured specimens of this novel and interesting Chat. On 
a small stony plain, almost devoid of vegetation, and at an altitude of 5500 feet, in a climate 
similar to early spring in England, they were fairly common. This bird must be an exceedingly 
local one, as we met it nowhere else in Algeria. They were not at all shy ; and I shot our first 
specimen from the back of my mule as we slowly picked our way over the stony tract. In its 



24 

habits it closely resembles other members of this genus, flitting from rock to rock, occasionally 
taking a more extended flight close above the ground, perching on stones or the summit of a 
stunted bush to warily watch the intruder. We did not hear it utter a note ; nor did we see any 
females. It is possible that this bird is confined to a few favourite localities in the Djebel 
Aures ; or it may be that it winters in the Great Sahara, and repairs northwards to these upland 
solitudes to rear its young. As is usual in such cases, we failed to note the value of our prize, 
and only shot two males. I have associated this fine species with the name of an ornithologist 
whose researches are intimately connected with this group of birds, and whose knowledge of 
them stands unequalled." 

Until recently the only specimens known of this Chat were the two obtained by Mr. Dixon, 
which are in the collection of Mr. H. Seebohm ; but in 1892 Dr. A. Koenig, of Bonn, on a 
collecting tour in Algeria, rediscovered this interesting Wheatear, and obtained three specimens, 
respecting which he writes me as follows: — " This interesting and very distinct species appears 
to have a very restricted range. I met with it, as did Mr. Dixon, on the desolate and arid 
heights of Djebel Mahmel, where it was not numerous, though the only species of Chat I 
observed there. I shot a pair, male and female, and also a second male, a young bird. I also 
found a nest, which contained the remains of an eggshell marked like the egg of Saxicola aurita. 
The present species appears to breed only in the Aures Mountains at an altitude of from 1600 to 
1800 metres." 

Dr. Koenig is at present engaged in writing a work on the ornithology of Algeria, and will 
figure all three specimens obtained by him. Unfortunately the plates of this species had already 
been drawn for the present work when Dr. Koenig obtained his birds, or I should have figured 
the female or young male as well as the adult male. 

The nearest ally to the present species appears to be Saxicola pliillvipsi, Shelley (Ibis, 1885, 
p. 404, pi. xii.), from Somali-land, which differs in having the black on the throat extended 
much lower on to the front of the chest, in having the wing-coverts, with the exception of the 
spurious wing, ashy white instead of black, the thighs white and not black, and the tail-feathers, 
with the exception of the two central rectrices, are tipped with white, and two thirds of the 
outer web is black. 

The specimen figured and described is the type, for the loan of which I am indebted to 
Mr. Seebohm ; and the descriptions of the adult female and young male are taken from the 
specimens obtained by Dr. Koenig, to whom I am indebted for the loan of the latter and for 
the description of the former. 



337 










= I ■■■■_ HtK. 



EHRENBERGS CHAT 

SAXICOLA VI T TATA. 



Mintern Bros . imp- 



SAXICOLA VITTATA. 

(EHKENBERG'S CHAT.) 



Saxicola vittata, Plempr. & Ehr. Symb. Phys., Aves, fol. cc (1828). 
Saxicola leucolcema, Antin. & Salvad. Atti R. Ace. Sci. Tor. viii. p. 32 (1872). 
Saxicola melanogenys, Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotn. p. 120 (1873). 
Saxicola melanotis, id. op. cit. pi. viii. figs. 5, 6 (1873). 

Figurce notabiles. 
Salvad. & Antin. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, iv. pi. ii.; Severtzoff, ut supra. 

Ad. dorso, alis, loris et vitta per oculum usque ad basin alae dueta nigris : pileo, nucha, mento, gula et corpore 
subtus albis : bypochondriis nigris : remigibus secundariis vix albido terminatis : rectricibus duabus 
mediis ad basin albis et in parte reliqua nigris, rectricibus reliquis albis nigro apicatis : rostro et 
pedibus nigris : iride fusca. 

Adult Male (type). Crown, nape, and upper parts of the back greyish white ; back and wings black; rump 
and upper tail-coverts white ; secondai'ies and larger wing-coverts slightly tipped with dirty white ; 
median rectrices white on the basal third, otherwise black, remaining rectrices white, terminated with 
black, on the outermost pair this colour extends on the outer web along the terminal half; lores and 
a broad band passing through the eye and joining the base of the wing jet-black ; chin, throat, and 
underparts generally pure white : bill and legs black ; iris brown. Total length about 6 inches, 
culmen 0"7, wing 3'9, tail 2 - 55, tarsus - 7. 

Female. I have not had an opportunity of examining a female, but, according to Dr. Severtzoff, it resembles 
the female of Saxicola morio, except that it has a white throat. 

Obs. Neither of the two specimens, both males, in my collection is so finely coloured as the type. The 
specimen from Tashkend has the crown obscured by dirty grey, and the abdomen and under tail-coverts 
are washed with buff; and the other, which I have figured, has the crown also obscured, and the black 
portions of the plumage tinged with brown. 

Fikst discovered by Hemprich and Ehrenberg in Arabia, and described by them in 1833, this 
Chat was only known by the single specimen in the Berlin Museum until, more than forty years 
later, it was rediscovered by Antinori in Bogos, Northern Abyssinia, and redescribed by him and 
Salvadori under the name of Saxicola leucolasma. So far as is at present known, it inhabits 
Transcaspia, Turkestan, and Gilgit in the summer, migrating south to Arabia and Abyssinia for 
the winter. 

Zarudny met with it twice during his journey in Transcaspia, on the 23rd June near Kizil- 
Arvad, and on the same date near the village of Bendessen. He further remarks that he 
frequently met with it in the middle of June on the rocks near Baku, but it is not included 

E 



26 

by Ur. Radde in his ' Ornis Caucasica.' He also says (Bull. Soc. Mosc. n. s. iii. p. 768) that he 
saw several of these Chats during the last days of August on the steep banks of the Attrek, near 
Jagly-Oloum and Tschat. They were probably on migration. 

Mr. S. Scully obtained two specimens, both males, in Gilgit, where he says (Ibis, 1881, 
p. 444) it " appears in very small numbers, and probably on migration only ;" and Major Biddulph 
procured an adult male at the same place on the 4th June, and remarks (Ibis, 1882, p. 277) that 
three others were seen at the same time. 

According to Severtzoff it breeds in North-western Turkestan, and possibly also in the 
south-western portion, where it is usually met with on passage. 

The adult male figured and described is the type, which the late Dr. Peters, of Berlin, kindly 
forwarded to me in order that I might describe and figure it ; and the second figure on my Plate 
is that of the male from Tschimkent in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. II. E. Dresser, 
a, 6 . Tschimkent, March 29th. b, <S . Taslikend, March 18th {Severtzoff) . 

E Mus. Berol. 
a, 6 ad. Moileh, Arabia (Hemprich §• Ehrenberg). 



638 










«j] sniaiia aU2 .c I . 



1. RED-TAILED CHAT 

SAXICOLA CHRYSOPYGIA. 

2. HUMES CHAT. 

SAXICOLA ALBIN1GRA. 



ISriter-rLSros . 



SAXIOOLA ALBINIGEA. 

(HUME'S CHAT.) 



Saxicola alboniger, Hume, Stray Feathers, i. p. 2 (1873). 

Dromolcea alboniger, id. torn. cit. p. 185 (1873). 

Saxicola albonigra (Hume), Blanf. & Dresser, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 226. 

Saxicola albinigra (Hume), Oates, Faun. Brit. India, Birds, ii. p. 70 (1890). 

Figura unica. 
Blanford, E. Persia, ii. pi. xi. 

Ad. capite, collo, gukt, dorso antico et tectricibus alarum nitenti-nigris : dorso postico supra et subcaudalibus, 
pectore et abclomine albis : remigibus sordide nigris : cauda alba nigro terminate, rostro et pedibus 
nigris : iridc fusca. 

Adult Male (Kandahar, November 28tb). Head, neck, throat, the upper part of the back, upper and under 
wing-coverts, and axillaries glossy black; lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, breast, abdomen, and 
under tail-coverts pure white ; quills dull black, paler on the under surface ; tail white, broadly termi- 
nated with black, which is again narrowly tipped with white : bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. 
Total length about 6 inches, culmen - 8, wing 3'9, tail 2'55, tarsus l - 05. 

Adult Female (Upper Sind). Undistinguishable in plumage from the male. 

Young. Similar to the adult. 

The present Chat, remarkable on account of there being no difference between the plumage of 
the adult male and the female or the nestling, has, so far as we at present know, a very limited 
range, being found in Persia, Baluchistan, Sind, and Gilgit, where it appears to be resident — 
frequenting the hills during the breeding-season, and the valleys and lowlands during the winter 
months. 

Mr. Blanford obtained this bird in Baluchistan, where he does not think it common ; and on 
the 10th May he found close to Karman, in Persia, a female and two young birds in a small 
cave under a limestone hill, and remarks that though the young were nestlings, scarcely able to 
fly, they were precisely similar in coloration to the adults. Sir O. St. John did not meet with it 
at Shiraz, but he obtained (Ibis, 1889, p. 163) an adult male and a nestling in May near 
Kandahar, where Col. Swinhoe also found it common throughout the winter, but missed it after 
the middle of February. 

Col. Biddulph says (Ibis, 1881, p. 58) that it was never very common in Gilgit, but is the 
only Chat which remains there in winter. He procured specimens both in January and June. 
Mr. Oates (Faun. Brit. Inch, Birds, ii. p. 70) gives the range of the present species as " the hills 

e2 



28 

dividing Sind from Kelat, ranging west to Sehwan and Larkana; Gilgit at 5000 feet ; extending 
west to Persia," and adds that it is no doubt resident in Sind and Gilgit, as it probably is in 
the other parts of its somewhat limited range. 

I find nothing on record respecting the habits and nidification of this Chat beyond the fact 
that Mr. Blanford found it breeding near Karman in Persia, as already stated. This Chat is 
nearest allied to Saxicola ficata, but is larger and has a conspicuously larger bill, and the black 
of S. picccta is duller. Moreover, in the present species the female and young are similar 
in coloration to the adult male, whereas in S. picata the female and young are dusky and 
not black. 

The specimen figured is the adult male aboA r e described, and is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mm. H. E. Dresser. 

a, 8 ad. Kandahar, November 28th, 1880 {Col. Swinhoe). b, g ad. Gilgit (Biddulph). c. $ ad. W. o^ 
Shikapur, Upper Sind, March 16th, 1875 {W. T. Blanford). 




- S. A£ ulemaris. del.ertlith. 



PI ED CHAT. 

SAXICOLA PI CAT A. 



Miniem-Eros ica). 



SAXICOLA PICATA. 

(PIED CHAT.) 



Saxicola picata, Blyth, J. As. Soc. Beng. xvi. p. 131 (1847). 
Dromolcea picata (Blyth), Gould, B. of Asia, pt. xvii. (1865). 

Figicra unica. 
Gould, B. of Asia, iv. pi. 26. 

c? ad. capite, eollo, dorso, alis et pectore saturate sed sordide nigris : uropygio, supracaudalibus, cum corpore 
reliquo subtus albis : subalaribus nigris : rectricibus centralibus ad basin albis, aliter nigris, rectricibus* 
reliquis albis nigro terminatis : rostro et pedibus nigris : iride fusca. 

$ ad. corpore supra fusco nee nigro, et cauda. alba et nigro-fusca nee alba et nigra, : mento griseo-fusco, gula 
nigro-fusca : corpore reliquo subtus et supracaudalibus albis. 

Adult Male (Gheregirh). Head, neck, back, throat, upper breast, and wings deep but rather dull black; 
rump and upper tail-coverts white ; underparts below the upper breast white, under wing-coverts 
black ; central tail-feathers white at the base, but otherwise black ; remaining rectrices white, broadly 
terminated with black : bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. Total length about 6 inches, culmen 065, 
wing 3"5, tail 2"7, tarsus TO. 

Adult Female (Kohistan, Sind) . Upper parts brown instead of black ; tail as in the male, but blackish 
brown where that is black ; chin greyish brown; throat blackish brown; rest of the underparts, rump, 
and upper tail- coverts white. 

Young [fide Oates). Resembles the female, but is mottled below, and the crown is always of the same 
colour as the back. 

The present species inhabits during the summer season the mountain districts of Afghanistan, 
Baluchistan, Persia, and Gilgit, wintering in the low countries and on the plains of India, and 
its range extends west to the Transcaspian Region and Muscat in Arabia. 

Mr. Zarudny found it in Transcaspia very common in stony places and in rocky mountains, 
and remarks that it does not descend into the plains nor ascend to any great altitude in the 
mountains. Early in July, during the great heat of the day, he on several occasions saw old 
males in full moult perched, singing, on a branch in the shade of a low tree, whereas otherwise 
they avoid wooded localities. 

Dr. Radde (Vog. Transcaspiens, p. 60) remarks that it chiefly frequents the mountains in 
the summer, though during passage it is naturally found also on the plains. He heard its sweet 
song everywhere in the narrow ravines both in the Kuba-dagh as also in the Balchan and Kopet- 
dagh. He met with the first near Geok-tepe on the 15th March, 1886 ; on the 26th March they 



30 

Avere migrating numerously on the plain near Kaaka, and also at Duschak from the 28th March 
to the 1st April. In 1887 they were numerous on migration in the sand district of Utsh-adshi 
from the 15th to the 28th March, and at Alt-Merv between the 17th and 30th March. On the 
5th June, 1886, he found fledged young ones at Germab. 

Mr. Blanford (E. Pers. ii. p. 154) says that he met with this bird commonly in Baluchistan 
in January and February, and that it breeds throughout the southern highlands of Persia, but he 
did not himself observe it north of Shiraz. Sir Oliver St. John, however, obtained a specimen in 
the Elburz Mountains, North Persia. 

Sir Oliver St. John also records it from S. Afghanistan and Kelat (Ibis, 1889, p. 163), where 
it arrives from India very early in the spring, and commences nidification at once. He obtained 
it at Kandahar on the 3rd of February, and Col. Swinhoe observed it at Quetta in May. 

Col. Biddulph found it common in Gilgit during the summer. During the winter season, 
according to Mr. Oates (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, ii. p. 71), it visits the plains of the Punjab, Sind, 
Guzerat, Eajputana, as far east as Deesa and Sambhar, and the North-west Provinces down to 
Allahabad. At this season it is also found in the low country of Baluchistan and Afghanistan. 

Professor Valentine Ball met with this Chat in the Suliman Hills at a considerable eleva- 
tion, and found a nest in the rocks at an elevation of 5880 feet. He remarks that they had 
very much the habits of Copsychus saularis. Towards evening, he says, they used to come about 
the bungalow, perching on the verandah, and singing with a low twittering note. Occasionallv 
they would pick up insects off the ground, and sometimes capture them while on the wing. 

I may further add that, according to Dr. Sharpe (Ibis, 1886, p. 164), this Chat was obtained 
by Col. Miles near Muscat, in Arabia. 

The present species breeds from March to June, placing its nest in rocks, in stone walls, or 
in the hollow of a tree. Lieut. H. E. Barnes (Nests and Eggs of Ind. Birds, ii. p. 53) describes a 
nest, which he found in a hole in a tree in March, as being " composed of dry grass lined with 
feathers, and containing four eggs of a very delicate greenish-blue tint, obsoletely speckled with 
rusty brown or pale brownish red at the larger end, where the markings form an irregular zone. 
A few specks of the same colour are scattered over the rest of the surface of the egg. The 
average of twelve eggs is '81 by - 56." 

The specimens figured are the adult male and female above described, and are in my own 
collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — - 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, d ad. Gheregirh, January 13th, 1866. b, $ ad. Kohistan, Sind, November 28th, 1875 [W. T. Blanford). 
c, 2 . Etawah, India (TV. E. Brooks), d, 6 . Neemuch, October 24th, 1884 (H. E. Barnes). 



SAXICOLA CHKYSOPYGIA. 

(RED-TAILED CHAT.) 



Dromolcea clirysopygia, De Filippi, Arch. Zool. Genova, ii. p. 381 (1863). 

Saxicola Jcingi, Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 29. 

Saxicola chrysopygia (De Fil.), Blanf. & Dresser, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 230. 



Figura unica. 



Blanford, E. Persia, pi. x. fig. 1. 



Ad. capite et corpore supra fuscis, loris et regione parotica, saturate fuscis : stria superciliari indistincta grisea. : 
uropygio et supracaudalibus rufescenti-cervinis : remigibus fuscis, secundariis griseo-cervino marginatis 
et apicatis : cauda castanea nigro terrninata et pallide castaneo anguste apicatS, : subtus griseo-albidus, 
pectore et hypochondriis pallide fusco lavatis, et subcaudalibus pallide castaneo tinctis : rostro et 
pedibus nigris : iride fusca. Sexus similes. 

Adult Male (W. of Sehwan, Sind). Upper parts hair-brown, lores and ear-coverts dark brown; an indistinct 
dull grey stripe over the eye; rump and upper tail-coverts wartn rufous buff; quills brown, the secon- 
daries margined and tipped with warm greyish buff; tail chestnut-red, with a broad terminal black 
band, and finally tipped with pale chestnut- red ; underparts generally greyish white, the breast and 
flanks washed with pale brown, and the under tail-coverts with dull chestnut : bill and legs black ; iris 
dark brown. Total length about 6 inches, culmen 0'75, wing 3"7, tail 2'75, tarsus TO. 

Adult Female (Gwadar, Baluchistan) . Undistinguishable in plumage from the male. Culmen 075 inch, 
wing 3"62, tail 2 - 5, tarsus T05. 

The present species, like Saxicola albinigra, is remarkable in being similar in plumage in both 
sexes, and in all probability the young does not differ from the adult, but up to the present 
time I cannot find any description of the immature dress on record. 

It is found throughout Persia in the summer, and is, according to Mr. Oates (Faun. Brit. 
Ind., Birds, ii. p. 79), apparently a winter visitor to the plains of North-west India, being found in 
the Punjab west of the Jhelum Biver, Sind, Cutch, Northern Guzerat, and Rajputana as far east 
as Jodhpur. According to Mr. Blanford (E. Persia, ii. p. 151) it occurs throughout Persia, in 
summer at all events, in Baluchistan, Sind, Kachh, and North-western India, but it has not 
been met with west of Persia nor east of the desert region of North-west India. I find it 
recorded by Dr. Sharpe (2nd Yark. Miss. p. 86) from Panjah ; and Col. Swinhoe remarks (Ibis, 
1882, p. 107) that he observed it in Southern Afghanistan, at Quetta, and in the Bolan Pass. 

Mr. A. O. Hume describes this Chat under the name of Saxicola Jcingi from a specimen 
killed at Jodhpur, and says (' Stray Feathers,' i. p. 188) that he subsequently obtained it in 
considerable numbers from the Salt Range, Murdan, and Peshawur, and also in the summer 



32 

from the ranges bounding Cashmere on the south; it is common about Sind and the Punjab 
west of the Jhelum, comparatively rare where there is any cultivation. He found it alike on 
the earthen cliffs of the Jhelum near Jung, and other similar localities of the Chenab and Indus, 
and again in precipitous places throughout the hills that divide Kelat from Sind and that 
run parallel to the Mekran coast. Occasionally, but rarely, he found it, as near Mooltan, in 
fallow fields. 

This Chat frequents rocky and barren localities, and is seldom seen where there is 
cultivation. De Filippi first obtained it in the highest and most stony parts of the hills 
which encircle Demavend ; and Mr. Blanford's specimens were shot in stony ravines. Mr. Hume 
remarks that it is strictly terrestrial, and that he never once saw it perch on a bush or tree. 
Nothing is known respecting its nidification, but Mr. Blanford surmises that it breeds amongst 
the rocks. 

The specimen figured is the adult male above described, and is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, $ , b, $. West of Sehwan, Sind, February 1875. c, $ . Gwadar, Baluchistan, December 1871 (TV. T. 
Blanford) . 



641 




J. S-KeuLenr^ans <iel-etlith.. 



PIED BUSH-CHAT 

PRATINCOLA CAPRATA. 



Mint em. Bros . imp . 



PRATINCOLA CAPEATA. 

(PIED STONE-CHAT.) 



Bubetra lucionensis, Briss. Orn. iii. p. 442. no. 30, pi. xxiv. figs. 2, 3 (1760). 
Motacilla caprata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 335. no. 33 (1766), ex Briss. 
La Traguet de Vide de Lucon, D'Aubenton, PL Enl. 235. figs. 1, 2. 
(Enanthe caprata (Linn.), Vieill. Nouv. Diet. xxi. p. 433 (1818). 
Sylvia caprata (Linn.), Vieill. Tabl. encycl. method, p. 490 (1820). 
Saxicola fruticola, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 157 (1822). 
Saxicola bicolor, Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 92. 
Saxicola erythropygia, Sykes, torn. cit. p. 92. 
Motacilla sylvatica, Tickell, J. As. Soc. Beng. ii. p. 575 (1833). 
Saxicola caprata (Linn.), Jerdon, Madras Journ. x. p. 265 (1839). 
Muscicapula melanoleuca, Hodgs. J. As. Soc. Beng. xii. p. 940 (1843). 
Saxicola meloleuca, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844). 
Muscicapa melanoleuca (Hodgs.), Gray, Gen. of B. i. p. 264 (1846). 
Pratincola caprata (Linn.), Blyth, J. As. Soc. Beng. xvi. p. 129 (1847). 

Pied Bush-Chat, White-winged Black Bobin (of Indian authors) ; Pidha, Kala-pidha, Hind. ; 
Kumpa nalanchi, Tel. (fide Oates). 

Figures notabiles. 
D'Aubenton, PL Enl. 235 ; Hodgs. Icon, ined., Passeres, pi. 98. 

<5 ad. niger, uropygio imo, supra- et subeaudalibus, abdomine imo maculaque tectricum alari albis : rostro et 
pedibus nigris : iride fusca. 

? ad. supra saturate griseo-fusca, indistincte saturatior, striata, pileo saturatiore, supracaudalibus saturate 
ferrugineis : Cauda, nigra : remigibus rufescenti-cervino marginatis : corpore subtiis fuseo, indistincte 
striate, abdomine et subcaudalibus ferrugineo-cervinis : mento et gula, magis griseo tinctis. 

Adult Male in spring (Kashmir, April) . Entire plumage deep black, excepting the lower rump, upper and 
under tail-coverts, lower abdomen, and upper wing-coverts near the body, which are white, the last 
forming a conspicuous white patch on the wings : bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. Total length 
about 5-25 inches, culmen 05, wing 2"75, tail 2"1, tarsus 0"82. 

Adidt Male in autumn (near Simla, August 12th). Differs from the spring plumage in having the black 
feathers slightly edged with reddish or greyish brown. 

Adult Female (Muddapur, November 3rd). "Upper parts dark hair-brown with a greyish tinge, and with 
indistinct darker stripes ; crown rather darker than the back ; upper tail-coverts dark rust-red ; tail 
black; wing-feathers narrowly margined with warm rufous buff; underparts wood -brown, becoming 

F 



34 

rusty buff on the abdomen and under tail-coverts ; the chin and throat greyer, and the underparts 
generally with very indistinct darker streaks. 

Nestling (Java) . Upper parts deep fulvous brown, spotted with warm buff ; upper tail-coverts rusty buff ; 
tail black ; chin, throat, aud breast greyish brown, closely spotted with warm buff; the abdomen warm 
buff, with indistinct darker markings; under tail-coverts warm buff. 

This Stone-Chat has a wide range, being found from the Transcaspian district in the west, through 
Persia, Afghanistan, and India to Java and the Philippine Islands. In Southern India and 
Ceylon it is replaced by Pratincola atrata, which differs in being larger and having a much 
larger and more massive bill. 

Professor Menzbier informs me that it has occurred in European Russia as a rare straggler, 
,as a specimen was obtained by Mr. Zarudny on the 2/14th May, 1882, in the vicinity of Sakmarsk, 
on the river Sakmara. 

Zarudny also records it (Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 766) as inhabiting Transcaspia, where he 
first met with it on the 10th of May on the banks of the Douchak, evidently on migration, and 
about the middle of May he frequently saw pairs, evidently nesting, on the Alikhanow canal. 
In the Merv oasis he found it extremely common, and it is said, he adds, to be especially 
numerous in the oases of Khiva and Tehardjoiii, and along the Amou-Darja. Except during 
passage it affects cultivated districts, and the plains covered with rich herbage and isolated 
patches of rushes. It nests in holes and fissures of walls and of ditches, and on the ground 
under the low rushes. He found nests late in May containing young. 

Eadde and Walter (Vog. Transcasp. p. 61) remark that up to Tedshen they never observed 
a single one, either in the summer or on passage, but from that river towards the east it is 
common chiefly in the reeds and tamarisk-bushes by water. It is wanting in the bare sand- 
deserts of the Afghan frontier. Northwards it was found in the reeds on the furthest part of 
the Tedshen. In 1887 the first arrived on the 4th April, between Geok-tepe in the Merv oasis 
and Tolchatan-baba. 

Mr. Seebohm records (P. Z. S. 1879, p. 764) this species from the Attrek; but Eadde and 
Walter remark that it must have come from the upper part of that river, as neither they nor 
Nikolsky ever found it on the lower portion. 

Mr. Blanford says (E. Pers. ii. p. 144) that " Pratincola. caprata was not observed near the 
coast in Mekran ; but the bird is far from rare about Dizak Bampur and Bam, keeping of course 
to those portions of the country in which trees and bushes are common, and being often seen in 
the gardens and orchards around towns and villages. It does not appear to ascend to the Persian 
highlands, and I did not meet with it after leaving Bam." 

Sir O. St. John says (Ibis, 1889, p. 163) that this Chat is common all over Southern 
Afghanistan and Kelat, and a few remain about Kandahar and Quetta to breed. Col. Swinhoe 
records it as being numerous at Kandahar in March and April, and Mr. Scully states that he 
found it at Herat and Murghab from March to May, and he obtained it once at Gilgit in 
December. According to Mr. Oates (Faun. Brit. Ind,, Birds, ii. p. 60) this Chat is a resident 
species throughout the whole of India and Burma, except the southernmost parts of the peninsula 



of India and portions of Tenasserim. This bird ascends the Himalayas up to 8000 feet, probably 
in summer only. It is found in the south as far at least as Maddur in Mysore. It is more or 
less abundant throughout the peninsula, and through Assam and the Burmese provinces to 
Pegu. In Tenasserim, Mr. Davison observed this bird in the northern and central portions, 
but not in the extreme south, and Major Wardlaw Eamsay procured it in Karennee. Mr. Oates 
further states (B. of Brit. Burmah, i. p. 281) that " it is one of the commonest birds of Burmah, 
being found in every part of the country except forest-land, and is a resident." He also says 
that it is common everywhere in Pegu in localities suited to its habits. Blyth records it from 
Arrakan. 

It has been recorded from Macassar (Wallace), the Philippines, Bohol, Zebu, Luzon (Lord 
Tweeddale), Java (Horsfield and Wallace), Lombock, Timor, and Flores (Lord Tweedclale). 

In its general habits this Stone-Chat is said to be confiding except during the breeding- 
season, when it is shy and wary, and consequently its nest is not easy to find. Its song is clear 
and good, and is said by Mr. Brooks to be considerably superior to that of Pratincola maura. 

The breeding-season is from March to June, the eggs being usually deposited in March and 
April in the plains, and in May in the hill-country. Mr. A. O. Hume, in his 'Nests and Eggs 
of Indian Birds,' gives detailed accounts of its nidification communicated by naturalists from 
various parts of India, from which it appears that the nest is placed in a hole in the ground or 
in the side of a bank, or some way down the side of a well, occasionally, but rarely, in a dense 
bush or tuft of grass on or close to the ground, and is a shallow, somewhat saucer-shaped pad, 
composed of soft grass, fine roots, &c, and lined with the same or other soft material, hair, &c. 
The complement of eggs is four, more rarely five, and occasionally only three, and they are 
not unlike those of the English Stone-Chat, being delicate pale bluish green finely speckled, 
mottled, and streaked with brownish red, these markings being always more numerous at the 
larger end, where they occasionally form a zone. They vary greatly in size, in length from 
0'6 to 0*77 inch, and in breadth from - 44 to - 64, the average size of 50 eggs being - 67 by 
0*55 inch. 

The specimens figured are the adult male in spring and the adult female in winter plumage 
above described, and are in my own collection, as is also the male in autumn also described, but 
the nestling is in the collection of Mr. H. Seebohm. 

In the preparation of the above article I have, besides the series in the British Museum, 
examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a,b, 6. Merv, June 14th, 1886 (Dr. G. Radcle). c, 6. Kandahar, March 30th, 1881 (Col. Swinhoe). 

d, 6. Near Simla, August 12th, 1868 (A. O. Hume), e, 6 . Saugor, July 29th, 1869 (A. O. Hume), 

f, d. Saugor, December 15th, 1888 (H. E. Barnes), g, 6. Valley of Grhurror, Kashmir (Whitely). 
h, ?. Muddapur, November 3rd (A. O. Hume). 

E Mus. H. Seebohm. 
a, pull. Java (Wallace). 

F2 




-J- G.Keujeiriari.-5 titb - 



CAN A Rl AN CHAT 

PHATIN COLA DACOT \M.. 



PEAT1NC0LA DACOTm 

(CAN ART AN CHAT.) 



Pratincola dacotice, Meade- Waldo, Ibis, 1889, p. -504. 

Figura unica. 
Meade- Waldo, Ibis, 1889, pi. xv. 

$ ad. supra brunneo-niger, fusco limbatus : cauda brunnea, rectricibus externis albo limbatis : loris et capitis 
lateribus nigris, linea supraoculari et postoculari alba : gula et thorace albis : pectoris cinctura pallide 
eastanea, abdomine albido : hypocbondriis et crisso albis, secundariis majoribus interioribus albis, 
reliquis albo marginatis : rostro et pedibus nigris. 

? ad. supra brunnea: gula, tborace et abdomine albidis, cinctura eastanea pectoris paesne obsoleta, aliter 
mari similis. 

Adult Male (Fuerteventura) . Crown and nape blackish brown, with indistinct lighter edges to the feathers ; 
rest of the upper parts similarly coloured, but with broader light margins to the feathers ; lores and 
sides of the head black; a white line extending from the base of the bill over and behind the eye; tail 
brown, the outer rectrices with whitish margins ; innermost secondaries white, the remainder mai'gined 
with white ; chin, throat, and underparts white, with a pale rusty red patch on the breast : bill and legs 
blackish; iris brown. Total length about 4"9 inches, culmen 0"62, wing 2 - 5, tail 2'3, tarsus 09. 

Adult Female (Fuerteventura). Differs from the male in being paler and duller in coloration, the crown 
having the light edges to the feathers broader, and the rufous patch on the breast is nearly obsolete. 

First described in 1889 from Fuerteventura (one of the Canary Islands), the present species of 
Chat is as yet not known to occur anywhere else, though, as pointed out by Canon Tristram, 
the opposite coast of Africa is still unexplored, and it is possible that further research may show 
that it is also to be met with there. 

Mr. Meade-Waldo, the discoverer of this species, obtained ten specimens on Fuerteventura, 
and writes (Ibis, 1889, p. 504) as follows : — " The day that I landed I saw two pairs of the 
Pratincola, and watched carefully for it all the time I was in the island. I came to the 
conclusion that it is thinly distributed from the mountains to the sea-beach, and that it lives 
only where there is some vegetation. Perhaps its favourite haunts are the small barrancos on 
the north slope of the mountains ; but I procured two pairs on the sea-beach, and the cock bird 
of a pair, which were feeding young ones, on a lava-stream. It is a singularly quiet little bird, 
hardly putting itself out when its young ones are being handled, flying tamely from bush-top to 
bush-top, and occasionally uttering a low chut, chut. I found two nests, each containing two 
large young. The nests were placed on the ground under stones or, rather, in one instance, 



38 

under a rock. They are exceedingly early breeders, as by the middle of February the young 
were full-grown. After I left the island I got a clutch of three eggs, evidently of this species, 
among a number of eggs sent from the island ; they are very round and glossy, with a very 
thick shell, of the colour of Blackbird's eggs, but with the spots very faint or like intensely 
bright-coloured eggs of Pratincola rubicola." 

Mr. Meade- Waldo believes that this Chat is restricted to the Island of Fuerteventura, and 
remarks, in his subsequent notes on his visit to Lanzarote, that he saw no trace of it there. 

The specimens figured and described are those that were figured in ' The Ibis,' and are now 
in my collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens: — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser, 
a, 6 ,b, ? . Pozo Negro, Fuerteventura, February 26th, 1889 {Meade-Waldo). 



642 




J. G.Keulemans litK . 



Hanhirt imp, 



GOULDS REDSTART 

RULICILLA OCHRURA . 



KUTICILLA OCHEUKA. 

(GOULD'S REDSTART.) 



Mottacilla oehruros, S. G. Gmelin, Reise Russl. iii. p. 101, pi. 19. fig. 3 (1774). 

Motacilla ochrura, J. F. Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 978 (1788, ex S. G. Gmel.). 

Sylvia tithys, Menetr. Cat. Rais. p. -35 (1832, nee Scop.). 

Sylvia tithys, Nordm. Obs. sui' la Faune pontique, p. 134 (1840, partim). 

Ruticilla erythrojjrocta, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1855, p. 78. 

Ruticilla tithys, De Fil. Viagg. Pers. p. 276 (1865, nee Scop.). 

1 Ruticilla titys, Blanf. E. Persia, ii. p. 166 (1876, nee Scop.). 

Ruticilla oehruros (Gmel.), Bogdanow, Ptitsui Kavkaza, p. 96 (1879). 

Gorichvostka gornaya, Russian. 

Figures notabiles. 
Gould, B. of Asia, part viii. pi. 16 ; Radde, Orn. Cauc. tab. xvi. 

d ad. capite, nucha et dorso imo schistaceis : fronte, capitis lateribus et linea supraoculari, gula, gutture et 
pectore, cum dorso reliquo saturate nigris : dorsi plumis vix schistaceo marginatis : remigibus nigrican- 
tibus, secundariis vix griseo albido extus marginatis : uropygio, supracaudalibus et cauda castaneis, 
rectricibus mediis fuscis : abdomine et subcaudalibus sordide castaneis, illo centraliter albido notato : 
subalaribus nigris : restro et pedibus nigris : iride fusca. 

J ad. brunnescenti-fuliginosa : remigibus nigricantibus, extiis brunnescenti-albido marginatis et apicatis : 
cauda ut in mare, sed sordidior, supracaudalibus sordide ferrugineis : abdomine pallide castaneo lavato : 
rostro et pedibus nigris : iride fusca. 

Adult Male (Euphrates Valley, February loth). Crown, nape, and lower part of the back slate-grey; fore- 
head, sides of the head, including a narrow space above the eye, neck, throat, and breast, together with 
the wing-coverts and back (excepting the lower portion) deep black, the feathers on the back slightly 
edged with slate-grey; quills blackish, the secondaries externally margined with greyish white; rump 
and upper tail-coverts chestnut-red ; median rectrices dark brown, the rest of the tail being chestnut- 
red; abdomen and under tail-coverts chestnut-red, slightly marked with white on the centre of the 
abdomen; under wing-coverts black : bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. Total length about 6 inches, 
culmen 05, wing 3'25, tail 2'5, tarsus 0'85. 

Adult Female (Erzeroom). Resembles the female of R. titys, but has the lower abdomen tinged with pale 
chestnut, and the underparts are less of a pure grey tinge. 

Described as far back as 1774, this Redstart has until quite recently been looked on, owing to 
the scarcity of specimens for comparison, as a bad species, and Gmelin's name has been usually 



40 

placed amongst the synonyms of Ruticilla titys. Gould, who procured specimens from Erzeroom, 
at once recognized it as a good species, but did not identify it with the bird obtained by Gmelin, 
and redescribed it in 1855 under the name of Ruticilla erythroprocta ; and when Mr. Seebohm 
wrote vol. v. of the British Museum Catalogue in 1881, although he included Gould's R. ery- 
throprocta as a good species, he remarked that he suspected the female to be a specimen of 
Ruticilla rufiventris, and the male a hybrid between R. rufiventris and R. titys. Two years 
later, after having seen specimens in the Museum at St. Petersburg, he wrote (Ibis, 1883, p. 17) : — 
" There can be no doubt that the Motacilla ochrura of Gmelin, from the Persian mountains, is 
Gould's Eedstart (abdomine flavo), and not the Black Redstart, to which I have erroneously 
assigned it in the ' Catalogue of Birds.' " 

This Redstart inhabits Asia Minor and the Caucasus, and recent investigations in the latter 
country have thrown much light on this hitherto so little-known species. Gould received the 
two specimens which he described from Erzeroom nearly forty years ago, and I have received 
it from the same locality through the late Mr. James Zohrab. Mr. C. G. Danford shot two 
adult males in Asia Minor — one in the Taurus Mountains in 1876, and the second in the 
Euphrates Valley in 1879, — both of which are in my collection; and as he referred them to 
R. titys it is probable that his notes as follows (Ibis, 1S78, p. 15) — " Generally common, and 
sedentary in the mountains throughout the winter. Specimens obtained in spring are extremely 
dark-coloured," — refer to the present species. 

Bogdanoff found this Redstart not uncommon in the Caucasus ; and Dr. G. Radde writes 
(Ornis Caucas. p. 255) that " it is only seen on migration in the lowlands, and I only know it as 
breeding in the mountains. From Mleti on the south side of the Great Caucasus to the Kazbek 
on the north side of the Grusinish military road it is to be met with everywhere. It nests in 
the clefts of the perpendicular cliffs at Kobi. Also in the elevated villages in the country of 
the Tuschen, Chewsuren, and Swanen, there were everywhere families of this bird to be seen 
which had their nests in the wails of the slate-built towers, to a height of 80 feet. This 
species arrives at Lenkoran about the 14th (26th) March, and at Tiflis about the 27th March 
(8th April)." 

Lorenz, who collected 32 specimens in the Northern Caucasus, writes (Orn. Faun. Kauk. 
p. 24) : — " Of all the Redstarts I met with during the breeding-season in the localities I visited, 
this was the most numerous, and was met Avith everywhere in places where there were rocks and 
precipices. In all the ravines near Kislovodsk up to the heights of the springs of the Beresovaya 
and Alikanovka, on the heights of the Dschinal and Bermamit (to about 8000 feet altitude), I 
met with and obtained it. In spite, however, of its abundance it is difficult to obtain a series, as 
it is so extremely shy and one seldom gets a chance of a shot at it." 

In habits the present species is said to resemble Ruticilla titys, but, unlike that bird, it does 
not frequent inhabited places, and is generally found, at least during the nesting-season, in rocky 
places in the mountains, and nests in the clefts of the rocks. The late Mr. James Zohrab, when 
Consul at Erzeroom, sent me specimens obtained during the breeding-season, together with a 
nest and eggs, which he assured me were most carefully identified. The nest is rather small, 
constructed of bents and fine roots, and lined with fine roots and a few hairs but no feathers; and 
the eggs, all of which, except one which is now in my collection, arrived broken, closely resembled 



41 

those of Ruticilla titys, but were not pure white, ony very faint blue, and the one specimen I 
have remaining has now faded until it is nearly white. 

This does not, however, agree with Mr. Lorenz's description of the nest and eggs of this 
bird, for he writes {op. cit. p. 27) as follows: — "On the 10th May, 1885, a nest was found in 
a cleft in the rocks in the Alikanovka ravine, containing four strongly incubated eggs, which 
in colour resemble those of R. phoenicurus but are somewhat darker. The nest is flat and 
constructed of moss, fine grass-bents, and many feathers, most of which are those of Merula 
torquata and Columha livia. The interior of the nest is well lined with feathers, sheep's wool, 
and horse-hair. The bird has a somewhat short but very agreeable song." 

Mr. Lorenz remarks that the specimens he obtained varied considerably inter se, and that of 
the twenty-two males only five were typical R. ochrura, four others are typical except that they 
have more or less white on the forehead, and the rest represent stages up to the almost typical 
R. titys ; and he further says : — " Many German naturalists would unite this species and R. titys ; 
but I do not endorse this view, as the typical R. titys does not occur in the Caucasus, and I believe 
that the grey-bellied form of R. ochrura is the original progenitor both of typical R. ochrura and 
R. titys, but is dying out." I am indebted to Mr. Seebohm for the loan of five specimens from 
the Caucasus, three males and two females, obtained through Mr. Hoist, but collected, I believe, 
by Mr. Lorenz. 

Compared with my specimens these males have the abdomen rather more rufous, nearly 
as much so as in R. rufiventris, and the black scarcely so far extended ; and in specimen b 
the axillaries and under wing-coverts are slightly marked with rufous buff, not black as in 
my examples. Dr. Radde also remarks that the specimens he examined are subject to some 
variation, and that one male from Kiis-jurdi exhibits a tendency towards Ruticilla titys. 

The present species may best be compared with Ruticilla titys, from which the male differs 
in having the black extended much further down the breast to the abdomen, which latter is 
chestnut-red and not grey. The upper and under wing-coverts and axillaries are black in the 
present species, and grey in R. titys, and the back is black, whereas in R. titys it is slate-grey, 
very seldom being tinged with black. The female most nearly resembles the female of R. titys, 
but has the lower abdomen tinged with chestnut-red. Compared with the female of R. rufi- 
ventris it is of a darker grey colour, and the upper parts are of a purer grey, for in R. rufiventris 
the grey is slightly tinged with buff. 

The specimens figured and described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, tf ad. Biridjeli, Euphrates Valley, February 15th, 1879 (C. G. Danford). b, <$ ad. Anascha Taurus, 
March 30th, 1876 (C. G. Danford). c, 6 , d, $. Erzeroom (J. Zohrab). e, <s ad. Kislovodsk, N. Cau- 
casus, Sept. (Dr. Menzbier). f, $ ad. Beresovaya, N. Caucasus, June 5th (Dr. Menzbier). 



42 

E Mus. H. Seebohm. 

a, c? ad. Beresovaya, Kislovodsk, April 16th. b, <3 ad. Dichisual, May 17th. c, 6 ad. Kitsch-Malk, N. 
Caucasus, May 16th. d, ? ad. Alikanovka, Kislovodsk, N. Caucasus, May 9th. e, 2 ad. Alikanovka, 
May 21st (Hoist). 

E Mus. Brit, 
a, <3 , b, $. Erzeroom (Dickson §■ Ross), types of R, erythroprocta, Gould. 



s m 




m^ 



J. G .Keulemaxis cfelet liCH- 



E VERS MANNS REDSTART. 

RUT I C ILL A ERYTRRONOTA. 



MtntcrrL Br-os . ixnp . 



RUTICILLA ERYTHRONOTA. 

(EVERSMANN'S REDSTART.) 



Sylvia erythronota, Eversm. Add. Pall. Zoogr. Rosso-As. fasc. ii. p. 11 (1841). 

Ruticilla erythronota (Eversm.), Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 297 (1850). 

Sylvia (Ruticilla) erythronota (Eversm.), Middendorff, Sibir. Reise, ii. p.t. 2, p. 175 (1853). 

Ruticilla rufogularis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 27, pi. lix. 

"Ruticilla rufigularis, Moore," Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 530. 

Figurce notabiles. 
Middendorff, Sib. Reise, Taf. xv. fig. 3; Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, pi. 59. 

c? ad. pileo et nucha cinereis : capitis lateribus et linea angusta, ad basin rostri cum regione parotica nigris : 
dorso, uropygio et supracaudalibus ferrugineis : alis nigricantibus, versus humerum atris : remigibus 
griseo-albis marginatis : remigibus primariorum albis nigro apicatis : tectricibus majoribus nigro-fuscis, 
albido apicatis, minoribus albis : rectricibus duabus merliis fuscis, reliquis ferrugineis, duabus externis 
in pogonio externo fusco terminatis : mento, gula et pectore cum hypochondriis ferrugineis : abdomine 
centraliter cum subcaudalibus albidis : subalaribus et axillaribus albis : rostro et pedibus nigris : 
iride fusca. 

2 ad. cauda et supracaudalibus sicut in mare coloratis : capite et corpore aliter griseo-fuscis, subtus 
pallidioribus : alis quam in mare sed sordidioribus et minus albo notatis : abdomine centraliter cum 
subcaudalibus fere albis. 

Adult Male (Kandahar, February 2nd). Crown and nape slate-grey, a viarrow line at the base of the bill, 
lores, sides of the head, and ear-coverts deep black ; back, rump, and upper tail-coverts bright chestnut ; 
scapulars black, margined with chestnut ; quills blackish brown, margined with dull white ; primary- 
coverts white tipped with blackish brown; greater wing-coverts dark brown, slightly tipped with dull 
white ,; lesser wing-coverts white ; median rectrices dark brown, the rest of the tail bright chestnut, the 
outermost feather on each side, with the terminal portion of the outer web, bi'own ;■ chin, throat, breast, 
and flanks chestnut, the feathers narrowly tipped with dull white ; centre of the abdomen and under 
tail-coverts dull white ; under wing-coverts and axillaries white : bill and legs black ; iris brown. Total 
length about 6 inches, culmen 0"5, wing 3 - 5, tail 2 - 8, tarsus 0'95. 

Adult Male in autumn (Kenderlyk, October 13th). Much duller in general coloration, the feathers on the 
crown and upper parts obscured by buffy-brown margins, those on the throat, breast, and flanks having 
also broad buffish-grey margins ; quills with broader and buffier margins than in the spring dress. 

Adult Female (Eastern Tian-Shau, January 20th). Tail and upper tail-coverts as in the male ; rest of the 
upper parts uniform greyish brown ; wings duller than in the male, with much less white on them ; 
underparts pale greyish brown, becoming almost white on the centre of the abdomen and under 
tail-coverts. 

G 2 



44 

Eveksmann's Redstart has a tolerably wide range, having been found from the Ural and Trans- 
caspia to Lake Baikal and South-western Mongolia, and south to Bushire. It has, Professor 
Menzbier informs me, been met with at least twice in the Western Ural range, on both occasions 
by Mr. Zarudny, who obtained a very old male in the vicinity of Orenburg on the 10th (22ndj 
of November, 1881, and a second on the 3rd (15th) November, 1888, near the small village 
Blagoslovenka. In Transcaspia Dr. Radde and Mr. Walter obtained a female at Keltetschinar 
on the 4th March, and a male at Kulkulau on the 17th of the same month. At the latter 
place it was, they say (Vog. Transcasp. p. 56), not rare in the gardens, as also at Germab, and 
they again observed this species at Duschak on the 30th March, probably on passage. After 
March they did not meet with it, but believe that it is, to some extent, a winter resident in 
Transcaspia. 

Col. Swinhoe records it as a winter visitant to Southern Afghanistan; and Mr. Blanford 
says the same with regard to its presence in Persia. 

Mr. Oates (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, ii. p. 94) states that it is " a winter visitor to every 
portion of Kashmir, extending on the west to Hazara and Afghanistan, and on to Asia Minor. 
The most easterly locality from which I have seen a specimen of this bird is Kotokhai in the 
Himalayas." 

Col. Biddulph (Ibis, 1881, p. 62) procured two males in Gilgit in December and January, 
and says that it appeared to be common in the upper part of the Chitral Valley in November ; 
and Mr. J. Scully writes {torn. cit. p. 445) that it is " a winter visitor to Gilgit, and is common at 
an elevation of 5000 feet from the middle of October to the first week in March." He also states 
(2nd Yark. Miss. p. 87) that he first observed this Redstart in the Karakash Valley below 
Shahidula ; again in small numbers all over the plains of Turkestan during the winter. He also 
shot one going up to Sarikol, but does not remember ever seeing it in Wakhan or in Yarkand 
during the summer. 

According to Dr. Severtzoff, the present species occurs both in the breeding-season and in 
winter in Turkestan, breeding at high elevations, and descending to the lowlands during the 
winter. Mr. Pleske, in his work on the birds obtained by Col. Prjevalsky during his journeys in 
Mongolia, states that Prjevalsky first met with it on the Lob-nor journey, early in October 1876, 
on the southern slope of the Tian-Shan, in small numbers in winter in the valleys of the Lower 
Tarim, and in September 1877 in the Dspair Mountains and on the River Dam. In 1879 he 
observed the first in Saissansk on the 9th March, and it was seen in tolerable numbers between 
Saissansk and the Ulungur, and on the central part of the Urungi River. In October 1 885 it 
was met with on the Chotan-Darja, and at the winter stations in the oases of Akssu and Utsch- 
Turfan it was also seen. It frequents the barberry thickets, feeding on the berries of this shrub in 
the autumn and winter. It was also obtained by the brothers Grum-Grzimailo at Luktschin-kyr 
and Tschiktym, in the Turfan district. 

During the summer it is found as far north as Siberia. Middendorff obtained it at Udskoj- 
Ostrog; and Dr. Dybowski says (J. f. O. 1872, p. 262) that ''it was only observed in Ivultuk on 
passage, and was somewhat rare, arriving early in April, and leaving in the autumn early in 
September. On their arrival in the spring the small flocks of this species frequent the banks of 
running streams. They can easily be recognized from afar by their peculiar call-note, which 



45 

reminds one of the grunting of a pig. They breed on the rocky mountains above the tree-growth, 
and late in July we met with fledged young. This Eedstart was not observed in the vicinity 
of Darasun." 

Godlewski states {fide Tacz. Orn. Sib. Orient, p. 332) that he " met with it only rarely in 
the Southern Baikal on passage. In spring it arrives in the first half of April, and proceeds for 
the purposes of nidification to the mountains in the upper portion of the cembra-forest zone. In 
July we met with fledged young on the Khamardaban Mountain, where they frequented the 
southern part of the abrupt precipices. In the autumn it passes through the Southern Baikal 
early in September." 

In Alashan and to the south of that district another perfectly distinct species (Ruticilla 
alaschanica, Prjev.) occurs, which has, Col. Prjevalsky says, a range quite distinct from that of 
the present species. Mr. Seebohm (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 348) included Muticilla alaschanica 
as a synonym of. Muticilla erythronota, but subsequently (Ibis, 1882, p. 421) corrected this error, 
and acknowledged the validity of Prjevalsky's species ; and, thanks to the liberality of Mr. Pleske, 
who has sent me a specimen of JR. alaschanica, I am able to confirm this correction, for Ruticilla 
alaschanica is easily distinguishable in having the lores and sides of the head blue-grey instead 
of black as in B. erythronota. 

I give above all the information I can find on record respecting the habits of the present 
species ; and as regards its nidification, though Dybowski and Godlewski found it breeding in 
Eastern Siberia, they do not appear to have obtained its eggs, of which I find no description 
on record. 

The specimens figured and described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, J 1 ad. Chimkent, February 6th, 1866; b, £ . Chimkent, January 18th, 1866 (Severtzoff). c, J 1 . Central 
Asia (Verreaux). d, J 1 . Eastern Tian-Shan, January 18th, 1875 {Severtzoff). e, g . Tashkend, 
December 14th, 1874 (Severtzoff). f, ? ad. E. Tian-Shan, January 20th, 1875 (Severtzoff). g, $ ad. 
Kandahar, December 1880; h, $ ad. Kandahar, January 2nd, 1881 (Col. Sivinhoe). i, $ , k, ?. 
Kenderlyk, Tarbagatai, October 13th and September 13th, 1878 (Pleske). I, $ . Saissansk, March 
(Prjevalsky). 









. 




J.G.KeuleTnans libti . 



Hanhart imp. 



PERSIAN ROBIN 

ERITHACUS HYRCAMJS. 



EBITHACUS HYECANUS. 

(PERSIAN REDBREAST.) 



Sylvia rubecula (nee Linn.), Menetr. Cat. Rais. Cauc. p. 35 (1832). 
Erythacus rubecula (nee Linn.), De Filippi, Viagg. Pers. p. 347 (1865). 
Erithacus hyrcanus, Blanford, Ibis, 1874, p. 79. 
Erythacus hyrcanus, id. E. Persia, ii. p. 160, pi. xv. fig. 1 (1876). 
Landalus hyrcanus (Blanf.), Lorenz, Orn. Faun. Kaukas. p. 17 (1887). 

Malinowka, Russian ; Karmurlandsh, Armenian. 

Figura unica. 
Blanford, E. Persia, ii. pi. xv. fig. 1. 

Ad. E. rubecula affinis, sed pectore rufo saturatiore, supracaudalibus ferrugineis, fronte rufa latiore et rostro 
longiore distinguendus. 

Adult (Resht, October) . Resembles E. rubecula, but the red on the breast and throat is deeper in colour, 
and the upper tail-coverts are chestnut-brown or dull ferruginous and not olivaceous. Total length 
about 5 inches, culmen 6 - 7, wing 3'8, tail 235, tarsus 1*05. 

Obs. Like our Robin Redbreast, the present species is variable in the tone of colour of the throat and upper 
breast, and the two specimens in my collection illustrate this very clearly, as the male from Kuban 
bas these parts coloured no darker than in an average British specimen, whereas the female from 
Resht has them as richly coloured as in any one I have examined from Teneriffe. 

The Persian Redbreast ranges from the Caucasus eastward to Persia. Lorenz obtained it at 
Kislovodsk in the Northern Caucasus in October ; and according to Dr. G. Radde it is tolerably 
common in the Caucasus, and breeds amongst the underwood in the deciduous forests of Borshon. 
It arrives atTiflisnot earlier than the 10th (22nd) March, and ten days later it was common about 
Borshon and collecting nesting-materials. They arrive earliest of any of the Warblers, and are 
most zealous songsters. In the lowlands of Lenkoran large numbers remain over winter. 
During bad weather, and especially when the snow is deep, they forsake the open localities and 
take to the jungle. A few breed in the gardens of the town. Dr. Radde also met with it in 
Transcaspia, where it is, he says (Vog. Transcaspiens, p. 54), very common wherever there are 
gardens or watercourses skirted by bushes or reeds. At Askabad the first arrived in 1886 
on the 12th April, and in 1887 on the 15th April, at Sary-jasy on the Murghab. According 
to Zarudny it is very common in the gardens of the Merv oasis, but rarer in those of the Pinde 
oasis, and breeds but rarely along the central course of the Murghab and Tedjend. It is, how- 
ever, common in the mountain villages and in the bushes skirting the mountain-streams, but 
somewhat rare in the Ahal-Teke plains. In the early part of July they were in full moult. 



48 

According to Mr. Blanford, the present species abounds in the forest district near the 
Caspian, and that probably the Robins obtained by De Filippi from Kend, in the neighbourhood 
of Tehran, as well as from Ghilan, belonged to this species ; and Sir O. St. John adds that it was 
found plentifully about Resht, on the shores of the Caspian. 

Radde unites this bird with E. rubecula and says that he found intermediate forms, and that 
all one can say is that the Caucasian Redbreast has a tendency to the dark form. It appears to 
me, however, after a careful examination of specimens, that the Persian Redbreast is a fairly good 
species, differing constantly in having the upper tail-coverts chestnut instead of olive-brown, the 
breast darker in tone of colour, and the bill slightly larger than in the Western form. Dr. Koenig 
has separated the Redbreast of Teneriffe from Erithacus rubecula on account of the deeper 
coloration of the breast and (J. f. O. 1890, p. 383) gave it the name of JErithacus superbus. 
Some time previously Mr. Meade- Waldo had observed that the Teneriffe birds had the breast 
very rich in tint of colour, and sent me specimens for examination and comparison ; but after 
a careful comparison with specimens from various parts of Europe, I found that several were 
quite as brightly coloured as the specimens from Teneriffe and differed in no respect from 
them, and therefore assured him that it could not be looked on as specifically separable, and still 
hold the same opinion. All that can be said is that, as a rule, the Teneriffe Redbreast has the 
breast more richly coloured than the average European bird. 

In habits, song, and nidification the Persian Redbreast is said not to differ from our Western 
bird, and the nest and eggs of the two species are similar. 

The specimen figured and described is the adult female from Resht in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, tS . Kuban, Caucasus, March 8th, 1891 (von Tschusi zu Schmidhofen) . b, ? . Resht, on the Caspian, October 
1869 (W. T. Blanford). 

E Mus. Brit. 

a. Kultais, Caucasus, January 8th, 1880 (Michalowski) . b, <J . Resht, Persia (Sir O. St. John), c, 6 . Fao, 
Persian Gulf, October 20th, 1886. d, e. Fao, November 1886 (Gumming). 



645 




\ 



J G.Keulemans del. et litH. 



Minbern. Bros. imp. 



PEP.SIAN NIGHTINGALE. 



DAULIAS HA.FIZI. 



DAULIAS HAFIZI. 

(PERSIAN NIGHTINGALE.) 



Sylvia luscinia (nee Linn.), Menetr. Cat. "Rais. p. 33 (1832). 

Lusciola luscinia (nee Linn.), De Filippi, Viagg. in Persia, p. 347 (1865). 

Luscinia major, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 18. 

Luscinia hqfizi, Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotnie, p. 120 (1873). 

Luscinia philomela (nee Bechst.), Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotnie, p. 120 (1873). 

Lusciola luscinia, (3. liajizi, Severtzoff, op. cit. p. 65 (1873). 

Lusciola luscinia, y. philomela (nee Bechst.), Severtzoff, op. cit. p. 65 (1873). 

Luscinia golzii, Cabanis, Journ. fur Orn. 1873, p. 79. 

Lusciola golzii (Cab.), Severtzoff, Journ. fur Orn. 1873, p. 346. 

Laulias liajizi (Severtz.), Blanford, E. Persia, ii. p. 169 (1876). 

Lusciola liajizi (Severtz.), Bogdanoff, Ptitsui Kavkaza, p. 99 (1879). 

Erithacus golzii (Cab.), Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 297 (1881). 

"Laulias golzi, Cab.," Badde, Orn. Cauc. p. 247 (1884). 

Soloioei, Russian ; Bulbul, Persian ; Sanduas, Tartar ; SochaJc, Armenian. 

Figuroe notabiles. 
Blanford, E. Persia, ii. pi. x. fig. 2 ; Badde, Orn. Cauc. pi. xv. 

Ad. supra rufescenti-fuscus, uropygio magis castaneo-fusco : stria indistincte supraocular! cum loris sordide 
albidis : corpore subtus cervino-albido, gula et abdomine griseo-albidis : cauda ferrugineo-fusca : rostro 
saturate fusco : mandibula pallide corneo-f usca : pedibus fuscis : iride saturate f usca. 

Adult Male (Lenkoran, Marcb 26th). Upper parts russet-brown, becoming chestnut-brown on the rump ; 
lores and an indistinct stripe over the eye dull white ; underparts white with a buff tinge, the throat 
and abdomen greyish white ; tail brownish chestnut : bill dark brown above, the lower mandible pale 
horn; legs brown; iris dark brown. Total length about 6"5 inches, culmen 0'7, wing 3"3, tail 31, 
tarsus LI. Wing with the third and fourth primaries nearly equal and longest, the first very short, 
being L7 shorter than the second, which latter is about equal to the fifth. 

Adult Female (Merv) . Does not differ from the male in plumage. Culmen 0'68 inch, wing 3*4, tail 3'05, 
tarsus LI. 

Obs. The variation in size is not very great, four males in my collection varying as follows : — Culmen 07 
inch, wing 3'3 to 3'7, tail 3T to 3'35, tarsus IT, and the one female measures as above. The specimens 
from Merv are rather paler than the others, and the upper parts have a greyish tinge. The present 
species can always be distinguished from Daulias luscinia by its longer bill and tail, and the rump, 
upper tail-coverts, and tail are not so deep red in colour, besides which the present species differs in 
having the lores and a stripe over the eye dull white, which is not the case in D. luscinia. 

H 



50 

The present species, the Bulbul of Persian writers, inhabits the Caucasus, Transcaspia. Persia, 
and Turkestan, and has also been met with in Oudh in India. 

Dr. Eadde (Orn. Cauc. p. 248) writes as follows: — "From Central Caucasus to the Caspian 
this species has been met with everywhere, and it breeds to an altitude of 5000 feet. It remains 
an open question if it is found in the Western Caucasus and on the northern slope of the 
mountains, as no observations have been made there; but I am convinced that on the Lower 
Kuban and the east coast of the Black Sea the Sprosser [Baulias philomela) occurs chiefly, if 
not alone. At Lenkoran I heard the first D. liafizi on the 16th (28th) April, and they were 
found chiefly in the town garden and in the underbrush on the outskirts of the forest ; I seldom 
met with them in the jungle. They nest in the town as below stated. It is a common species 
in the lowlands of Talysch, and from Gilan to Rescht." Dr. Eadde also says (Vog. Transcasp. 
p. 54) that this Nightingale is found throughout Transcaspia wherever there are gardens or 
water-courses bordered with bushes and reeds, and is extremely common. In 1886 the first 
arrived at Askabad on the 12th April, and in 1887 on the 15th April at Sary-jasy on the 
Murghab. Mr. Zarudny (Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 772) found this Nightingale very common in 
the gardens in the Merv oasis, but rarer in the Pinde oasis, and it breeds but very seldom in the 
forests bordering the central course of the Murghab and Tedgend. He also states that he found 
it very common in the Persian gardens, in the mountain villages, and on the banks of the 
mountain-streams. On the plain of Abal-Teke he met with it but rarely. In the first half of 
July they were in full moult. Dr. Severtzoff met with it commonly in Turkestan, where it 
breeds up to an altitude of about 6000 feet, and it appears to be numerous in Persia. 

Mr. Blanford says (E. Pers. ii. p. 170) that " this Nightingale is, of course, the true 
'Bulbul' of the East, and is as famous in Persian tales and poetry as its representative is 
throughout Europe. It abounds throughout the Persian highlands, keeping much to the 
avenues of Lombardy poplars and other trees which abound in the gardens around all towns 
and villages. At Karman it was said by the people to be comparatively scarce, and we were 
begged not to shoot any ; but around Shiraz, Isfahan, and Tehran Nightingales abound, and I 
rarely entered a well-wooded garden without hearing their notes. I never heard or saw any 
further east than Karman." 

The Persian Nightingale has, however, occurred in British India, as, according to Mi - . Oates 
(Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, ii. p. 101), "Two specimens of this rare Nightingale have been procured 
in Oudh — one in October and the other in November; they are both in the Hume collection." 

In habits, song, and mode of nidification the Persian Nightingale differs but little from its 
European ally, but its song is not so good. Dr. Eadde writes {I. c.) as follows : — " Early in June 
when travelling to Rescht I heard it singing at night everywhere ; it affects dark places in close 
thickets, and does not frequent tall trees. The song reminds one of that of the Nightingale, but 
is greatly inferior; but one finds better and worse songsters amongst them, the latter probably 
young birds. The song of these latter consists of short strophes, and they and also the old birds 
utter first the soft flute-like mournful note hil, Ml, Ml, Ml four or six times, commencing low and 
rising in tone and time. In the case of young birds this is often followed only by a quick five- 
or six-syllabled warble; but in the case of better songsters five or six strophes are continued 
without interruption, but in these the harsh note is entirely wanting ; and the song of the Hafiz 



51 

Nightingale may at once be distinguished from those of D. luscinia and D. philomela by the lack 
of that note and the strophe-poverty. Otherwise in habits the Hafiz Nightingale resembles the 
other two Nightingales, and all three agree in their movements on the ground, in their call-note, 
in the elevation of their feathers when uttering their song with the utmost fervour, and in 
every other respect." 

Mr. Blanford also states (E. Pers. ii. p. 170) that "The song of the Persian Nightingale is 
said to be considerably inferior to that of our European bird." Mr. Blyth remarks (Ibis, 1867, 
p. 18) that Persian Nightingales which were brought to Calcutta were larger than Daulias 
luscinia, and scarcely equal to that species as songsters ; and Mr. Blanford writes (I. <?.), " the 
difference in the Persian Nightingale would scarcely have attracted my notice, but for the 
distinction in the song, which is certainly shorter and less varied than that of the European bird." 

Mr. Zarudny, who found it breeding in Transcaspia, says that in May and early in June he 
found many nests, which were invariably placed on the ground in shady places in gardens. The 
number of eggs varied from three to six. On the 23rd July he first observed young birds which 
had left the nest at Merv, and late in August he saw a few on migration on the banks of the 
Tehandyr. Dr. Radde also writes (I. c.) as follows: — "I procured two nests of this species, which 
were placed low down in the densest thicket. The material at Lenkoran consists chiefly of dry 
leaves of Quercus castancefolia. The upper edge of the cup is neatly formed by a twisted 
rice-straw as shown on my plate xv. The inner wall is constructed of fine grasses and rootlets, 
and there is no regular lining, but only a few hairs in the interior. The eggs, four in number, 
are olive greyish-green, resembling those of the Common Nightingale." 

The specimens figured and described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. II. E. Dresser. 

a, $ . Derbent, May 9th, 1880 (Dr. G. Raclde). b, £. Lenkoran, March 26th (Hotel), c, J, d, $ . Merv, 
June 25th (Prof. M. Menzbier). e, g . Kenderlyk, Tarbagatai (Kolomeitzeff). 

E Mus. Brit. 

a. Pei'sia (Darwin). b,c,£. Shiraz, Persia, June 1869; d. Shiraz (Sir O. St. John), e. Terai, Oudh, 
October 1867 (Hume Collection). 

E Mus. H. Seelohm. 
a, g . Lenkoran, May 2nd (Hoist). 



H a 





. a 4k 



\-m 



~M - 




J. G Keulemari3 del et litK . 



1. LEAST WHITETHROAT. 

SYLVIA MINUSCULA. 

2. HIMALAYAN WHITETHROAT. 



SYLVIA ALTHAEA. 



MirLtern. Bros . iir^o . 



SYLVIA HINT7SCULA. 

(LEAST WHITETHROAT.) 



Sylvia minula, Hume, Stray Feath. i. p. 198 (1873). 
"Sylvia minima, Hume," Dresser, B. of Eur. i. p. 386 (1876). 
Sylvia minuscula, Hume, Stray Feath. viii. p. 103 (1879). 

Tint-Konu, Tuntu, in Yarkand. 

Figurce notabiles. 
Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. pi. i.; Pleske, Orn. Ross. pi. i. figs. 5, 6, 7. 

Ad. S. curruca similis, sed minor : nucha et corpore supra pallide fusco-isabellinis. 

Adult Male (Baluchistan, February 23rd). Crown pale bluish grey, becoming pale brownish isabelline on 
the nape; upper parts generally pale brownish isabelline, otherwise closely resembling S. curruca. 
Total length about 5 inches, culmen 0'5, wing 24, tail 2*15, tarsus 0-8; second primary intermediate 
in length between the seventh and eighth. 

Adult Female (Sehwan). Undistinguishable from the male in coloration. 

Obs. I find that the wing varies from 2'35 to 2"4 inches in length, and the tail from 2 - to 2 - 15. In some 
specimens the second primary is equal in length to the seventh, but most have it intermediate between 
the seventh and eighth. 

When in 1876 I wrote the article, in the ' Birds of Europe,' on Sylvia curruca, I deemed it 
expedient to recognize only one species of Lesser Whitethroat as inhabiting Europe and Asia, 
ranging as far east as China and Dauria. Since then, however, further research has shown that 
it may be subdivided into four fairly separable geographical forms or species, which have been 
recognized by all our present leading authorities. These species may be diagnosed as follows : — 

1. Sylvia curruca. Head bluish grey, back bluish grey tinged with brown; second primary intermediate 

between the fifth and sixth. Wing 2 - 5 to 2 - 6 inches. — Hob. Europe, North Africa, ranging east to 
Asia Minor and Syria. 

2. Sylvia affinis. Resembles Sylvia curruca, but has the second primary intermediate between the sixth 

and seventh ; upper parts browner than in S. curruca. Wing 2 - 45 to 2 - 65 inches. — Hob. Siberia in the 
summer, southward to India and Ceylon in the winter. 

3. Sylvia althcea. Upper parts greyish brown, rather darker on the head ; outer tail-feathers almost entirely 

white ; second primary intermediate between the sixth and seventh, or equal to the seventh. Wing 
2"6 to 2'8 inches. — Hab. Transcaspia and Cashmere in the summer, wintering in North-west India 
and Afghanistan. 

4. Sylvia minuscula. Crown bluish grey; back sandy brown, much paler than in S. curruca; second 



54 

primary intermediate between the seventh and eighth, or equal to the seventh. Wing 2 - 35 to 2'4 
inches. — Hub. Breeds in Transcaspia, Turkestan, and Afghanistan, and winters in Baluchistan, Sindh, 
and North-west India. 

Of these nos. 1, 3, and 4 occur within the limits of the Western Palsearctic Region ; and of 
the last of these, Sylvia minuscula, I will now treat. 

According to Mr. Pleske (Ornith. Ross. p. 104) this species has been met with as far west 
as the eastern shores of the Caspian, where Dr. Lehmann obtained it near the fortress of Novo- 
Alexandrovsk, on the peninsula of Mangyschlak. Zarudny obtained it in Transcaspia, and 
records it (Rech. Zool. Transcasp. p. 151) as being one of the commonest Warblers in the oases 
of the Tedgend and Murghab. 

The species recorded by Messrs. Radde and Walter (Vog. Transcasp. p. 52) is doubtless the 
Least Whitethroat, and not Sylvia affinis, as they state that it has the upper parts of the body 
pale dull greyish brown, the second primary always shorter than the sixth, and the wing 64 mm. 
and less in length. They obtained specimens on the Tedgend on the 2nd April, at Perevalnaja on 
the 22nd April, at Molla-kary on the 27th April, and on the 23rd March on the Amu-Darja. In 
1887 a large number passed the Amu-Darja on passage on the 25th March, and on the Murghab 
they were seen on passage up to the 6th and 7th April. In the St. Petersburg Museum there 
is a large series of specimens obtained by Eversmann and Severtzoff in the valley of the Syr- 
Darja in Turkestan ; Russoff obtained a considerable number at Tschinas (fide Pleske, Rev. Turk. 
Oin. p. 30), and, according to SevertzofF (Ibis, 1883, p. 67), it breeds numerously in the Ferghana 
Valley. 

Jt is said to breed in Afghanistan, but there does not appear to be any definite information 
on this point. Dr. Aitchison obtained it at Gulran, Badghis, in March, and Hari-rud in April ; 
Col. Swinhoe at Kandahar in April ; and Dr. Scully at Herat in March. 

According to Oates (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 398) it is found throughout Sind, Bahawalpur, 
and Rajputana, as far east as Jodhpore, as a winter visitor. Dr. Henderson states that it was 
excessively plentiful in Kashmir, but was never observed after crossing the Zoji-la. 

According to Dr. Sharpe (2nd Yarkand Miss. p. 76), Dr. Scully obtained it at Posgam in 
October, and says that it arrives in the plains of Kashgharia about April, and migrates southward?, 
towards the end of October. It breeds, he says, in May and June. 

Numerous specimens were obtained by the brothers Grum-Grzimailo on the Dshirgalty 
river in the Tian-schan, Ssy-dun, in the Bei-schan Mountains, and Chuan-che ; and Mr. Th. Pleske 
(Orn. Result. Prjev. Reis. ii. p. SO) writes that " On the Lob-nor journey the first arrivals were 
obtained by Col. Prjevalsky on the 20th March, 1877. Early in April this species appeared in 
considerable numbers in the wooded Tarim Valley, where it also breeds. On the 16th April, 
1879, the first were observed at the Urungu River. It is also common on the Bulugun River, 
and occurs sparingly in the Southern Altai. 

"In the oasis Ssa-tschen but few were met with, though it was common in the lower and 
central zones of the Nan-schan. In the spring a single example was seen in Wasch-Schari on 
the 29th March, and a pair on the following day. In the first half of April this Whitethroat 
was tolerably common on the Tschertschen-Darja, and was found also in the gorges of the 



55 

northern ranges of the Russkij Mountains. In the oasis Nija it breeds in considerable 
numbers. 

" The autumn migration began in the second half of August in the Tschira oasis, and during 
the whole of September and early in October they were not unfrequently seen in the woods on 
the Chotan-Darja. 

" The song of Sylvia minuscula is pleasant. It does not rise up in the air with quivering 
flight during its song. 

" In the river-valleys it frequents woods and the dry tamarisk-thickets. The specimen 
obtained on the Chotan-Darja on the 5th October, 1885, was in full moult." 

In habits, song, and mode of nidification this Warbler is said to agree closely with our 
Lesser Whitethroat. Dr. Stoliczka said (fide Sharpe) that on the 18th of May he found a nest 
in a rose-bush near Ighiz-Yar. On the 31st of May he writes, "This Warbler is very common 
and breeding. One nest had one, and another three fresh eggs: one had two half-incubated 
eggs. The nest is in a small bush about ten inches or a foot above the ground, composed 
entirely of grass, regularly cup-shaped, round, about 1| inch deep and If in diameter. Outside 
it consists of moderately coarse grass ; inside of finer grass with a little grass-seed film 
interwoven." Dr. Stoliczka did not describe the eggs, which are said to resemble those of 
Sylvia curruca. 

The specimens figured and described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have, besides the series in the British Museum, 
examined the following specimens : — 

JE Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, $ . N.W. of Kotri, Sind, December 17th, 1875 ; b. Upper Sind, March 15th, 1875 ; c. Sind, February 
1875; d, <$ . Umarhot, Sind, January 23rd, 1876; e, J 1 . Nanshai'o district, Sind, January 6th, 1876; 
/, $ . Balin-Kelat, Baluchistan, February 23rd, 1872 (W. T. Blanford). g, $ . Sehwan, Sind, January 
20th, 1880 {TV. E. Brooks). 



SYLVIA ALTHjEA. 

(HIMALAYAN WHITETHROAT.) 



Curruca cinerea (nee Bechst.), Jerdon, Madr. Journ. x. p. 268 (1839). 

Sylvia affinis (nee Blyth), id. B. of India, ii. p. 209 (1863). 

Sylvia affinis' 1 ., Hume, Str. Feathers, i. p. 198 (1873). 

Sylvia althaea, id. Str. Feathers, vii. p. 60 (1878). 

Sylvia althea, Hume, Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 20 (1881). 

Figura unica. 
Pleske, Orn. Ross. pi. i. figs. 1, 2. 

Ad. pileo schistaceo, a colore dorsi Jiaud distinguendo : remige prima tectricum alulfe longiore, secunda 
longitudine inter 6 m et 7 m seu 7 X fequali : ala, 2 - 6-2'8 poll. 

Adult Female (Karzil, July 9th). Upper parts dark bluish grey, the back slightly tinged with brown ; sides 
of the head like the crown, bluish grey, slightly darker round and below the eye ; wings dark brown, 
the quills with paler margins ; outer tail-feathers on each side white, except on the basal portion of the 
inner web, which is blackish brown, rest of the tail blackish brown, except the two central rectrices, 
which are lighter brown ; underparts white, the flanks washed with grey : bill dark horn, paler at the 
base ; legs plumbeous brown ; iris light brown. Total length about 4 - 75 inches, culmen 0'6, wing 2 - 65, 
tail 2*4, tarsus 085 ; second primary intermediate between the sixth and seventh. 

The sexes do not differ in plumage, but the male is generally rather larger in size than the female. The 
autumn plumage differs in being bluer in tone of colour on the upper parts, and the flanks are washed 
with a somewhat deeper tinge of grey than in the spring plumage. 

The Himalayan Whitethroat is found during the summer in Transcaspia, Turkestan, and 
Kashmir, and winters in India, ranging in all probability as far south as Ceylon. 

According to Mr. Zarudny (Rech. Zool. Transcasp. p. 151) this Whitethroat is "tolerably 
common in the eastern portion of the Kopepet-Dagh, and nests in the bush-covered defiles and 
river-valleys, where it is to be met with as far as the upper part of the juniper zone. It also 
breeds in the valleys of the Soumbar and Tchandyr. 

" It does not willingly leave the mountains for the lowlands, but I obtained one in 1886 
near the Douchak Station, and met with it in 1886 and 1889 in the gardens of Askahad. 

"As I met with one of these birds on the upper course of the Atek not far from the mouth 
of the Soumbar in 1886, its breeding-range probably embraces the bush-covered defiles of 
Derequez and Keliat in Persia, and the capture of the specimen at Douchak confirms this." 

Mr. Pleske states that it breeds in Transcaspia, Turkestan, and Bokhara; Col. Biddulph 
obtained it in Gilgit in May; and Mr. J. Scully, who met with it in the same locality, says 

I 



58 

(Ibis, 1881, p. 450) that it is a summer visitor, and common from the 25th April to the end of 
September ; it breeds at an elevation of about 9000 feet. 

Col. Biddulph further states (Ibis, 1882, p. 279) that he possesses specimens from Iskardo 
and Ladakh ; and according to Pleske (Rev. Turk. Orn. p. 30) Russoff obtained three specimens 
from Urjukle-tau near Saamin, from Kschtut, and from Iskander-kul. 

Mr. Oates says (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 397) it is "a rare winter visitor to the plains of 
India. It has been obtained at Bahawalpur, Deesa, Jhansi, Ahmednagar, and Belgaum, from 
all of which places I have examined specimens. It also occurs at Byan Kheyl, in Afghanistan." 
He also adds that in his opinion the range of S. althcea extends to the Carnatic and Ceylon. 

In habits the present species is said not to differ from its allies, and doubtless its nest and 
eggs also resemble those of Sylvia curruca, but I find nothing on record respecting its nidification. 

The specimen figured and described is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens: — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, ? . Karzil, July 9tli (Col. J. Biddulph). b, ? . Khandesh, India, September 16th, 1883 {Davidson) . 
c, $ . Artutoch, Turkestan, June 9th, 1892 (Glasunoff). 




J.G.KeuleTTLans del . sthtH. 



MENETRIES WARBLER. 

SYLVIA MYSTACEA. 



MintenrLSros . imp. 



SYLVIA MYSTACEA. 

(MEnETRLES'S WARBLER.) 



Sylvia mystacea, Menetr. Cat. Rais. p. 34 (1832). 

Sylvia ntiescens, Blanford, Ibis, 1874, p. 77. 

Pyrophthalma mystacea (Menetr.), Severtzoff, Stray Feathers, 1875, p. 428. 

Sylvia momus, Dresser, B. of Eur. i. p. 407 (1880, partim). 

Sylvia mystacea, Seebohm, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. v. p. 20 (1881, partim). 

Bjeloussyj-Kusnetschik, Russian [fide Bogdanoff). 

Figurce notabiles. 
Blanford, E. Persia, ii. pi. xii. ; Radde, Orn. Cauc. pi. xiii. fig. 1. 

$ ad. corpore suprk schistaceo-cinereo : pileo, capitis lateribus cum regione parotica sordide nigris : remigibus 
nigricantibus, cinereo marginatis : rectricibus nigricantibus, cinereo anguste marginatis, rectrice extima 
utrinque cum pogonio externo albo et albo teruiinato, secunda albo apicata. : mento et lineis duabus 
longitudinalibus e rostro ad latera descendentibus albis : gula pectoreque castaneo-vinaceis : hypo- 
chondriis pallide rufescentibus, corpore reliquo subtus rosaceo-albo : rostro fusco, mandibala ad basin 
flavida: iride castanea, niarginibus palpebrarum fiavis : pedibus pallide fusco-isabellinis. 

$ ad. supra sordide fusco-cinerea : subtiis alba, ochraceo tincta : remigibus et tectricibus alarum fusco-cinereo 
marginatis. 

Adult Male (Lenkoran, Mai'ch). Crown, sides of the head, and ear-coverts dull black, gradually merging 
into the grey of the upper parts, which are slate-grey; quills blackish brown, margined externally with 
clear slate-grey ; tail blackish, the feathers narrowly edged with grey, the outermost on each side with 
the outer web and terminal portion white, the next tipped with white ; chin and a line bordering the 
black on the sides of the head pure white ; throat and breast pale chestnut- vinous ; flanks pale reddish ; 
rest of the underparts rosy white; beak brown, the basal half of the lower mandible yellowish: legs 
pale brownish isabelline ; iris clear chestnut-red, the bare skin round the eye bright yellow. Total 
length about 4'75 inches, culmen 0'48, wing 2"35, tail 2 - l, tarsus 0"75. 

Adult Female (fide Pleske). Entire upper parts plain brownish grey, the quills and wing-coverts similarly 
margined ; underparts white, tinged with pale ochreous. 

Nestling (fide Pleske). Resembles the female, but the plumage is laxer and softer. 

The summer home of this Warbler appears to be the Transcaspian region, where it is extremely 
numerous, but it is not as yet known where it winters. Its range, so far as we know, extends 
from the Caucasus eastward through Transcaspia to Persia, Turkestan, and Northern Afghanistan, 
but it does not seem to have occurred within the limits of British India. 

I 2 



60 

According to Pleske (Orn. Ross. p. 108) the types of Menetries's Warbler obtained at 
Saljany are the specimens procured furthest west in Russia. Radde (Orn. Cauc. p. 243) 
obtained four at Lenkoran, and remarks that its range only commences in the south-west 
corner of the Caspian. Menetries, who remarks that it somewhat resembles S. subalpina, met 
with it in pairs only at Saliane and on the banks of the Kour, and says that it frequented the 
low bushes, was very restless and difficult to catch sight of, and uttered a low whistle. According 
to Zarudny (Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 774), " it is without doubt the commonest of all the Warblers 
in Transcaspia. It usually frequents the vicinity of small rivers, the banks of which are over- 
grown with bushes, the plains of the Atek, and the lower spurs of the neighbouring mountains. 
It is also numerous in the bushes of the valley of Tedgend, and the central portion of the 
Murghab, where it is scattered over a district of several versts in extent, amongst the tamarisks 
and saxauls that cover the neighbouring sand-plains. It is rare in summer in the oases of 
Merv and Pinde, but common amongst the tamarisks along the Alikhanow canal. In the latter 
part of April and early in May I observed a considerable number on migration in the plains of 
the oases of Atek and Ahal. The autumn migration begins late in July. Although it ascends 
into the mountains and breeds in the juniper zone, still its favourite summer-haunts are in the 
bushes bordering the rivers, and the brooks which run through the low hot plains, and on the 
ramifications of the mountain-ranges." Dr. Radde also writes (Vog. Transcasp. p. 53) that " this 
is the commonest of all the Warblers, and is distributed throughout the whole region. We first 
met with it at Askabad in 1886 on the 22nd March — they arrived in 1887 at the same time on 
the Amu-Darja, and on the 27th March they were numerous on passage between Merv and tbe 
Amu-Darja in the sand-district of TJtsch-Adshi, and on the 29th March they were very common 
at old Merv." 

Mr. Blanford remarks (E. Persia, ii. p. 178) that he " only obtained this bird in gardens in the 
southern and central Persian highlands, where it evidently breeds, for he found young birds both 
at Shiraz and Ispahan." It occurs in Turkestan ; and Mr. Pleske says that he knows of but two 
specimens from the valley of the Amu-Darja — one, a young bird, obtained by Dr. Severtzoff at 
Kukuss, and a second from Petro-Alexandrovsk, presented to the St. Petersburg Museum by 
Mr. Savenkoff. In Turkestan, according to Dr. Severtzoff, it inhabits the lowlands of the 
Karatau, the western Tjan-schan, the valleys of the Syr-Darja and Sarafschan rivers, as also the 
steppe between the Sarafschan, the Syr-Darja, and the desert of Kisylkum. 

According to Mr. Scully (B. of N. Afghanistan, p. 81) one was obtained at Herat, and 
another by Captain C. E. Yate at Maimanah, this being the most eastern locality from whence 
this Warbler has been recorded. There is, I may add, a specimen from Fao, in the Persian Gulf, 
in the British Museum. 

In habits this bird does not appear to differ from its allies. Mr. Blanford remarks that he 
noted nothing in its habits different from those of its allies ; but Mr. Zarudny states that it flits 
more nimbly than the other Warblers through the dense foliage, and when on the wing carries 
its tail very high in the air. It is most frequently found in the tamarisk-thickets and in bush- 
covered localities. 

Zarudny was the first to discover the nest and eggs of this Warbler. He obtained three 
nests, all containing eggs. The nests were placed on bushes close to the ground, and were 



61 

constructed externally of tamarisk-twigs, the inner portion of finer twigs, bents, and vegetable 
down, and the lining was of finer bents, vegetable filaments, and in one instance a few horsehairs. 
In form, position, and materials the nests bore resemblance to those of the Calamoherpidse rather 
than of the Sylviidge, but in construction are intermediate between the two. The eggs, he 
says, are rounded, the ground-colour is brilliant white, in one instance with a rose tinge, finely 
dotted with blackish-grey, black, or dirty-brown spots, the larger end being so closely spotted 
that the spots are confluent, and in some the black spots and dots are entirely wanting. In size 
they varied from 1 cent. 5 mill, by 1 cent. 2 mill, to 1 cent. 7 mill, by 1 cent. 3 mill. On the 
17th June fledged young were first seen near Merv, and specimens killed early in August had 
almost completed their moult. 

When I wrote the article on Sylvia momus for the ' Birds of Europe,' I had never seen a 
specimen of this Warbler, and did not believe that it was specifically separable from that species, 
and Mr. Seebohm also (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 21) united these two species ; but directly I had an 
opportunity of comparing specimens I saw that I was wrong in so doing, and in an article published 
in 1891 (Ibis, 1891, pp. 360-364) rectified the error I had made, and pointed out that the old 
male of S. momus has the crown and nape of a very deep black, the division between the black 
and the grey of the back being very sharp and clear ; the underparts are very white, with the 
faintest vinous tinge on the abdomen, whereas the old male of the present species has the crown 
and nape dull black, this colour gradually merging into the grey of the back on the nape ; the 
chin and a line bordering the black (which extends below the eye as in S. momus) are pure 
white ; the throat and breast are pale chestnut or dull vinous red, gradually fading on the 
abdomen to white, the flanks, however, being pale reddish. 

The adult male figured and described is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, b, S ad. Lenkoran, March 22nd (Dr. G. Radde). c, J. Tedgend, March 20th, 1886 (Dr. Radde). 

E Mus. Brit, 
a, $,l, ? . Shiraz, S. Persia, June 12th (IF. T. Blanford). c, $. Afghanistan (C. E. Yate). d, <$. Fao, 
Persian Gulf, e, <?. N. Africa?? 



648 




J. G.KeulemaTis del, et litK. 



DESERT WARBLE R. 



SYLVIA NATS1A. 



Mini, em. Bros, irap 



SYLVIA NANA. 

(DESERT- WARBLER.) 



Curruca nana, Hempr. & Ehr. Symb. Phys., Aves, fol. cc (1828). 

Salicaria aralensis, Evei-sm. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. xxiii. part 2, p. 565, tab. viii. fig. 1 (1850). 

Stoparola deserti, Loche, Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1858, p. 394, pi. xi. fig. 1. 

Sylvia delicatula, Hartl. Ibis, 1859, p. 340, pi. x. fig. 1. 

Sylvia dorice, Filippi, Viagg. Persia, p. 348 (1865). 

Sylvia nana (Hempr. & Ehr.), Gray, Hand-1. of B. i. p. 212. no. 3010 (1869). 

Sylvia cliysopUhalma, Heugl. Orn. N.O.-Afr. i. p. 306 (1869). 

Atraphornis aralensis (Eversm.), Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotn. pp. 65, 124 (1873). 

Sylvia aralensis (Eversm.), Prjev. in Rowley's Orn. Misc. ii. p. 170 (1877). 

Drymosylvia nana (Hempr. & Ehr.), Menzbier, Orn. Geogr. Europ. Rossii, p. 201 (1882). 

Drymosylvia nana, var. albipennis, id. ut supra. 

Bajalysclinitschek, Russ. (Bogd.). 

Figuroe notabiles. 
Eversmann, ut supra; Loche, ut supra; Hartlaub, ut supra. 

Ad. corpore supra griseo-isabellino, uropygio et supracaudalibus rufescenti - cervinis : remigibus fuscis 
isabellino marginatis, secundariis iutimis rufescenti-cervinis : rectricibus mediis rufescenti-cervinis, 
rectrice extima utrinque alba, reliquis saturate fuscis rufescetiti-isabellino marginatis et albido apicatis : 
corpore subtus albo, hypochondriis cervino lavatis : rostro pallide corneo : pedibus pallide fusco-isabel- 
linis : iride pallide flava. 

Adult Male (Tolan-chodsha, April). Upper parts greyish isabelline, becoming rufous on the lower rump 
and upper tail-coverts ; quills brownish buff, margined with isabelline, the inner secondaries washed 
with rufous buff; median rectrices rufous buff, outer rectrix on each side white, the rest dark 
brown margined with rufous buff, and some tipped with white ; underparts white, washed with buff on 
the flanks: bill pale horn ; legs brownish or yellowish isabelline ; iris pale yellow. Total length about 
45 inches, culmen - 4, wing 2'5, tail 1'95, tarsus 0"75. 

The sexes do not differ in plumage : in the autumn plumage all the colours are brighter, the median tail- 
feathers are almost rust-red, and the upper parts generally are warm, almost rufescent isabelline. The 
young bird resembles the adult iu autumnal dress, but is even more rufous in tinge, especially on the 
head, and the underparts are purer white in tiuge. 

The Desert-Warbler has a tolerably wide range, having been recorded from Algeria, North-east 
Africa, the Sinaitic Peninsula, Transcaspia, Persia, Turkestan, North-west India, and eastward 
to the Chinese province of Alaschan, and it has also occurred as a straggler in European Russia 
and Italy. In the last-named country it has, according to Professor Giglioli, been once obtained 



64 

by Mr. Odoardo Ferraqui, of Cremona, near that city, on the 7th November, 1883. The specimen 
in question was sent to Professor Giglioli as a variety of Sylvia suhalpina, but he at once 
recognized it as Sylvia nana, and it has been acquired for the Florence Museum, where it is 
now deposited. 

Professor Menzbier informs me that one was killed by Mr. Zarudny in the Government of 
Orenburg, in the Bish-Kopa district, on the 10th July, 18S3; and Mr. Nazaroff, when in 
England, told me that he believed that it had been obtained more than once near Orenburg. 
With regard to its range in Russia, Mr. Pleske says (Orn. Eoss. p. 137) that "Mr. Zarudny has 
chronicled the most western occurrence on Eussian territory. He obtained a single example in 
the Kirghis Steppes at Bisch-Kopa, and as he did not observe any other he considered it to be a 
straggler. Nazaroff also (Bull. Mosc. ii. p. 371) recorded its occurrence in the same part of the 
Kirghis Steppes, without, however, giving exact particulars regarding locality, so that it is not 
improbable that this record may refer to the bird chronicled by Zarudny. Should we, however, 
look on the above locality as an outpost merely of the range of the present species, we find that 
it is of not uncommon occurrence in the district bounded in the north-east by the affluents of the 
Syr-Darja and by the Caspian Sea in the south-west, and extends, therefore, from the Syr-Darja 
through the desert of Kisyl-Kum, the former khanate of Khiva, to Transcaspia in the south, and 
the Ust-Urt (or at least its southern portion) in the north. As we now proceed to enumerate 
single occurrences, we must especially lay stress on the fact that Dr. Severtzoff means by 
North-western Turkestan, where Sylvia nana occurs breeding, Karatau, the western Tian-schan, 
the sources of the Arys, Keles, and Tschirtschik, and their affluents, and the lower part of 
the Syr-Darja from the mouth of the Arys. Further towards the east, almost outside this 
district, two specimens were collected in Kokand, and are now in the British Museum, having 
been obtained from the Severtzoff collection. Our Museum also possesses a series of specimens 
collected by Dr. Severtzoff in 1858 and 1859 in various localities along the Syr-Darja, as, for 
instance, Bischarny, Djerentai, Kultus, on the Kara-kul, and at the springs of Iky-kui and 
Chudaili. This bird appears to occur on the banks of the Syr-Darja to about 280 versts from its 
mouth, as Dr. Severtzoff did not record it further to the west than at Karatugai. The original 
specimen of Eversmann came from Eaim. In the district between Syr- and Amu-Darja, 
Mag. Nikolski obtained two examples of Sylvia nana, one of which he procured only 150 versts 
south of Kasalinsk. This contradicts, to some extent, Dr. Severtzoff's above-quoted opinion as 
to its absence on the Syr-Darja west of Karatugai, which is very improbable, as the last 280 
versts of the Syr-Darja would scarcely differ so much from the rest of the stream as to 
form a barrier to the range of a Sylvia. Brofessor M. Bogdanoff records the present species from 
the desert of Kisyl-kum on both of his journeys to Khiva (in 1873 and 1874). In the district 
of the Amu-Darja Eiver the occurrences recorded are comparatively numerous. Our Museum 
possesses a specimen from Petro-Alexandrovsk presented by Mr. Savenkoff. According to 
Prof. M. Bogdanoff Sylvia nana occui*s in the valley of the above-named river ; and Mr. M. 
Butleroff met with it by no means uncommonly in the district of Nukus, near the mouth of the 
Amu-Darja, in the Aral Sea. That this Warbler occurs further west is, however, clear, for 
Prof. M. Bogdanoff met with it in the deserts west of the Amu-Darja; and Butleroff refers to 
specimens from Ust-Urt. As far as Transcaspia is concerned, we have only the one record by 



65 

Zarudny to the effect that it is numerous in the southern portion of the Kara-kum desert." To 
the above notes I may add that Dr. Badde brought back ten specimens from his journey in 
Transcaspia. There, he says, it avoids the mountains, and inhabits the artemisia-covered 
steppes, being less frequently found in the sand-country. Probably, he adds, stragglers remain 
over winter in the lowlands, as he procured one at Bal-kuju on the 8th March ; but most certainly 
the major portion are migrants, as in 1887 they saw a large number on migration, when in the 
sand-country, on the 27th and 28th March. On the 25th April a female was shot at Bala-ischem 
in which an egg ready for exclusion was found. 

Marquis Doria found the present species commonly amongst low bushes in the salt desert 
near Yezd ; but' Mr. Blanford only once saw it in Southern Persia, on an open plain with low 
scattered bushes near Yazdikhast, but he obtained it on two occasions in Baluchistan in rather 
thick tamarisk-bush. 

In India, according to Mr. Oates (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 396), it inhabits " the desert 
portions of Sind, Bahawalpur, Rajputana, and the southern parts of the Punjab. To the east this 
Warbler extends as far as Sirsa, Hissar, and Jodhpore. To the north I have not been able to 
trace it above Bahawalpur. It is probably a resident species in all this tract, for Doig found the 
young just able to fly in November near the Runn of Cutch." 

A young bird was obtained by the brothers Grum-Grzimailo on their journey in Mongolia ; 
and according to Mr. Pleske (op. tit:), " On his first journey Prjevalsky records this bird only 
in Alaschan and on the Lob-nor journey in the steppe portions of the Hi Valley. In the 
Dzungarei it was only once observed at Dshair, in September 1877. Furthermore, a male was 
obtained on the 4th April, 1879, on the Bulugun River in the Southern Altai. In the Chami 
desert and at the foot of the Nan-schan, Prjevalsky found it sparingly, but numerous in the 
Southern Alaschan. In 1885 it was met with early in May in the desert on the north slope of 
the Russki Mountains, and in June in the oasis of Keria." 

In Africa this Warbler is found as far west as the desert portion of Algeria, and from thence 
eastward to North-east Africa and Arabia. Dr. A. Koenig has recently met with it in Algeria ; 
and in a letter just received informs me that it " inhabits the southern portions of the Algerian 
Sahara, and even there is but locally distributed, as it affects only the desert portions amongst 
the sand-dunes, where the soil is of a deep red or isabelline colour ; and in places where the sand 
is pale in colour, and where the Limoniastrmn gugulianum plant flourishes, this bird is but 
rarely seen, nor does it occur in the stony parts of the Sahara; but where hillocks are formed of 
the reddish sand, and dune succeeds dune, places which are called by the Arabs ' blood-dunes ' 
(Area el Dem), there this Warbler is generally to be met with. These localities are also 
frequented by the Isabelline Crested Lark (Galerita isabellina, Bp.), which is here also a charac- 
teristic species. This sand- or dune-desert produces a very rich flora, and here flourish in wild 
luxuriance many genista-like plants, such as Metama retem, Linn., Caligonum comosum, L'Her., 
Ephedia alata, Dene., &c, &c. I first met with this Warbler at El Mouliah, about 50 kilometres 
south of Tuggurt. I had just taken a nest of Scotocerca Sahara;, and carefully packed the eggs, 
when I caught sight of a small isabelline bird flitting Warbler-like not far from me, and at once 
followed it ; but it was extremely cautious and shy, flitting from twig to twig as I approached, 
and it was long before I had a chance to shoot it; but I at last succeeded in so doing, and 



66 

directly I picked it up I recognized it to be Loche's Sylvia deserti, and had no trouble in 
identifying it, as it has been so well figured by Loche in the ' Revue et Mag. de Zool.' This bird 
is essentially a desert-frequenter, and is generally distributed throughout the desert-regions 
above described; but is nowhere numerous, and is not easily observed owing to its unobtrusive 
habits. Its song is pleasing, but low-toned and somewhat AVhitethroat-like. I have observed 
the male when greatly excited rise singing in the air, and drop again into the dense bushwood. 

" The nest differs considerably from that of all the true Sylvice ; I found several in the 
desert thickets, but all were empty, except one, in which I was fortunate enough to find two 
fresh eggs. The nest resembles that of the Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus streperus), and is of an 
elongate purse-shape, open, and carefully lined with woollen substances." He does not give me 
any description of the eggs, which are stated by Loche to be grey with a greenish tinge, covered 
with pale spots, which are only slightly darker than the ground-colour. 

Von Heuglin (Orn. N.O.-Afr. p. 307) met with this bird between the months of October 
and December on the Somali coast near the harbours of Berbera, Med, Lasgori, and Bender- 
Quam, where it was not rare, frequenting the lowlands overgrown with desert-grass (halfa) near 
the shore. Hemprich and Ehrenberg first discovered it near Tor in Arabia Petrsea, and 
subsequently met with it at Djeddah. Dr. Kaiser does not include it in his list of the birds of 
the peninsula of Sinai ; but the Rev. F. K. Holland obtained it at Wady Feiran. 

I give above some notes respecting the habits of the present species as observed by 
Dr. Koenig ; and Von Heuglin (I. c.) says that he found it frequenting dry and arid localities 
in dense salt-plain copses, and remarks that in its habits and note it greatly resembled Drymceca, 
and that it was very shy and restless. It flies very swiftly, but not at any great height above 
the ground, and males may often be seen singing, perched on the top of a grass-stem or on a 
low acacia-bush or a soda-plant. The song is very powerful, melodious, and rich in tone, and 
sounds doubly pleasant when heard in the sterile desert. 

Severtzoff met with it in the desert districts of Turkestan, where, he says, it inhabited the 
dry arid localities covered with bushes of Haloxylon ammodendron or Atraphaxis, where it 
runs about on the ground and picks up small insects ; and in Transcaspia Mr. Zarudny found it 
sporadically in all parts of the sandy deserts, frequenting the young tamarisk and " djousgoune " 
woods, and the saxaul bushes, but it avoids the forests composed only of saxaul. It is also 
common in the clayey plains covered with bushes in the Atek oasis. Near Dorte-Koyou he saw 
young birds, which had just left the nest, on the 19th May. 

Mr. Zarudny, who found it common in the Kara-Koum desert, in the saxaul- and tamarisk- 
groves, in sandy and argillaceous places, writes (Ois. Contr. Transcasp. p. 43) that " on the 
23rd June he found in the sandy country near Kizil-Arvad a nest containing three well-grown 
young. The nest was placed under the shade of a tamarisk amongst the branches, and in form 
resembles those of the Calamoherpidse. The principal materials of the nest are the fine green 
twigs of the tamarisk, those on the outside being finer and softer, and being green it is difficult 
to see the nest amongst the bush-verdure ; mixed with the other materials there is a good deal 
of vegetable-down, spiders' webs, silk of butterfly-cocoons, and of Microgaster, sp."?; the walls 
of the opening are covered with vegetable filaments, which fall down and form the bed." 
Col. Prjevalsky described the nest and eggs from Ala-shan ; but Mr. Fleske says that it proved 



67 

that Prjevalsky was mistaken in his description of them, as they were undoubtedly those of a 
("hat, probably Saxicola deserti. He informed Mr. Pleske that both a Chat and Sylvia nana 
were shot where the nest was taken, and hence the mistake. 

Dr. Koenig considers that the Algerian form of this Warbler differs sufficiently from the 
eastern bird to justify its being treated as a good species, and proposes to call it Sylvia deserti 
(Loche) ; but in this I do not agree with him. I have examined and compared his specimens 
with my own series and that in the British Museum, and the difference is merely one of tone of 
colour, and is so slight that it does not appear to me to be of specific value. They are a trifle 
more isabelline and rufescent in tone of colour than the average of specimens from Asia, but 
these vary quite as much inter se. 

I am indebted to Canon Tristram for the loan of a specimen from Sinai, which agrees closely 
with some of the paler specimens from Sind, and is greyer than the bird from Algeria. I have 
only seen two specimens from this latter locality, and it will be necessary to examine a larger 
series before it can be decided whether this slight difference in coloration is constant ; and in the 
meantime, at least, it appears to me to be advisable to treat this form as not specifically separable 
from the North-east African and Asiatic birds. 

The specimens figured and described are in my own collection, the two former being 
specimens b and c in the list below. Unfortunately, when the Plate was drawn no specimen 
from Algeria was obtainable, or I should have figured it for comparison. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. II. E. Dresser. 

a, (J. Eastern shores of the Ural, July 8th (Menzbier). b, $. Tolan-chodsha, E. Turkestan, April 1880 
(Pevtzoff). c, £ . Upper Sind, February 1875 {TV. T. Blanford). d, ? . N.W. of Kotri, Sind, December 
18th, 1875 {TV. T. Blanford). e. N.W. of Sehwan, Sind, February 7th {TV. T. Blanford). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram. 

a. Wady Feirau, Sinai {Rev. F. K. Holland). b, c. India {Dr. Jerdon). d. Jodpur, January 1878 
{TV. E. Brooks), e, ? . Sind, December 18th, 1875 {TV. T. Blanford). 

E Mus. Dr. A. Koenig. 

a,$. El Mouliah, Algeria, April 1st, 1893; b, ?. Djelfana, Algeria, April 18th, 1893 {Dr. Koenig). 
c, (J . Askabad, August 7th. 



K2 



649 




1 






■' - 



-i :"' 
h , f 



.G .'.';j',er.is^s de';.et IVth. 



TRISTRAMS WARBLER. 

MELIZOPH1LUS DliSERTlCOLUS. 



MiiLLeri^ Bros - 



MELIZOPHILUS DESERTICOLA. 

(TRISTRAM'S WARBLER.) 



Sylvia deserticola, Tristram, Ibis, 1859, p. 58. 

Sylvia nana, Heugl. Orn. N.O.-Afr. i. p. 307 (1869) (partim). 

Figura unica. 
Seebohm, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. v. pi. iii. 

cJ ad. ptil. eest. Pileo, capitis lateribus, collo, nucha et corpore supra plumbeo-cinereis, uropygio cerviuo- 
fusco lavato : alis nigricantibus, plumis rufescenti-cervino marginatis : rectricibus externis albis ad 
basin nigro-fuscis, reliquis nigro-fuscis, fusco-cervino marginatis : mento, gula, et corpore subtiis pallide 
ferrugineo-castaneis, abdomine medio albido, linea indistincta mystacali et parte ad basin mandibular 
albis : ciliis oculorum albis : mandibuli, superiore pallide f usca, inferiore citrina : pedibus pallide 
citrinis : iride flavissima. 

? ad. ptil. (Est. Mari similis, sed coloribus pallidioribus et sordidioribus. 

<J ad. ptil. Mem. Pileo, capitis lateribus, collo et corpore supra plumbeis, rufescenti-fusco lavatis : corpore 
subtiis cinnamomescenti-albo : mento, gula. et hypochondriis rufescenti lavatis : alis magis rufescenti- 
cervino marginatis. 

$ ad. ptil. Mem. Omnino pallidior, corpore subtiis magis albo. 

Adult Male (near Batna, May 15th) . Crown, sides of the head and neck, nape, and upper parts generally 
ashy plumbeous, the rump washed with sandy buff; wings blackish, the quills and coverts broadly 
margined with rufous buff; external tail-feathers blackish brown at the base, but otherwise white, the 
remaining tail-feathers blackish brown with brown margins to the feathers ; underparts pale chestnut, 
the middle of the abdomen whitish, and a somewhat indistinct white line crosses the chin and 
borders the plumbeous ash on the sides of the head : iris bright yellow ; upper mandible light brown, 
lower mandible bright yellow; legs pale lemon-yellow. Total length about 4'5 inches, culmen 045, 
wing 2T0, tail 2-20, tarsus 0-75. 

Adult Female (Lambessa, Algeria, April 30th). Differs from the male above described only in being paler 
in coloration, especially on the underparts. 

Adult Male in winter (Wed Nca, December loth: type). Differs from the male in summer dress in having 
the upper parts washed with sandy buff, the rufous margins on the quills and wing-coverts are broader, 
and the underparts are much paler, being cinuamon-white tinged with rufous on the chin, throat, 
and flanks. 

Adult Female in ivinter (Algeria, December 23rd) . Differs but slightly from the male, being, if anything, 
slightly paler in coloration. 

Obs. The specimen in the British Museum is the palest I have examined, and may very possibly be a bird 
of the year ; in the plate, in the British Museum ' Catalogue/ of this bird the iris is given as blackish 



70 

brown instead of bright yellowy and the legs pale brown instead of pale lemon-yellow. The variation 
in size is but slight, as will be seen from the following table of measurements of the specimens I have 
examined, viz. : — ■ 









Culmen. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Tarsus 








in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


!us. H. E. Dresser. 


Spec 


a 


. 0-45 


2-1 


22 


0-75 


,, Tristram. 


: ) 


a . 


. 0-47 


2-1 


2-25 


0-75 


>> :> 


» 


b . 


. 0-45 


2-15 


2-25 


0-75 


„ Brit. 


)> 


a . 


. 0-46 


2-1 


2-2 


0-75 


„ Seebohm. 


jj 


a 


. 0-45 


2-12 


2-2 


0-75 


„ Rothschild. 


3} 


a 


. 0-45 


2-12 


2-28 


0-72 



When, in 1880, I published the article on the present species in the 'Birds of Europe,' the 
information I had been able to procure was meagre to a degree, but since then further research 
has added considerably to our knowledge respecting its range and habits, and specimens in 
breeding-plumage have been obtained, so that I have had an opportunity of examining a fair 
number of skins, and have satisfied myself that it is much more closely allied to Melizophilus 
than to true Sylvia, and I have therefore decided to refer it to that genus. Until 1882 the 
only specimens known were the three in winter plumage obtained by Canon Tristram in 1856 ; 
in that year Messrs. Elwes and Dixon met with it in the Aures range, but mistaking it for Sylvia 
conspicillata, they only brought back a single specimen. According to Mr. Dixon (Ibis, 1882, 
p. 565), " Tristram's Warbler was in certain districts the commonest Warbler we met with. 
Wherever there was vegetation sufficient to afford it shelter it was to be seen. It is a wary 
little bird, yet far from being shy ; and its charmingly clear and musical song gives life to many 
otherwise dreary solitudes. We found it exceedingly common in the evergreen-oak scrub in the 
country round Lambessa, and between that place and Oued Taga. It was also to be seen in the 
range of hills west of Batna, amongst scrub which our S. provincialis would select for a haunt. 
This delicate little bird was much like a Dartford Warbler in habits, but much more trustful. 
It would frequently explore the bushes a few feet from where I standing, daintily hopping from 
twig, to twig, every now and then pausing to utter its sweet little song. When alarmed it would 
immediately take to the shelter of the deepest undergrowth, reappearing again a few yards away 
to hop about as unconcernedly as before. AVhen wounded, this little species will try and conceal 
itself in holes and under leaves." 

Ten years later Dr. A. Koenig again met with it in the same locality as Messrs. Elwes 
and Dixon, and to him 1 am indebted for the male bird in breeding-plumage, and also for the 
following notes : — " The range of this rare Warbler appears to be very restricted. Canon Tristram 
obtained the first three specimens in the Southern Algerian Sahara in winter on passage, but in 
spite of the most careful researches I did not find it there in the spring months, though I met 
with it at Batna in the Aures Mountains, and on its spurs, where it breeds, Dixon first met with 
it there, and published some excellent notes on it, but mistaking it for Sylvia conspicillata, only 
brought back a single specimen. It bears, however, comparatively little resemblance to that 
Warbler, but is much more closely allied to the Dartford Warbler. During the breeding-season 
it inhabits the localities where the Maquis vegetation flourishes, and it enlivens these places to a 
high degree. This vegetation is common and characteristic throughout the entire Mediterranean 



71 

region and extends far into the Atlas range ; but one cannot but remark that it is not everywhere 
similarly represented, for, though deep in the mountains it retains, on the whole, the same 
character, yet the general appearance is somewhat different, as, for instance, in the Aures range, 
where one misses the dark green closely foliaged bushes, glossed with brown, of Pistacea lentiscus, 
which is one of the predominant representatives of the Maquis growth in the Mediterranean 
subregion, and is a characteristic both as regards form and colour of the general vegetation. 
With the disappearance of this bush the general tone of the vegetation alters, and the precipices 
are so covered with evergreen-oak (Quercus ilex) that this becomes the characteristic growth, 
and thus takes the place of Pistacea lentiscus. These oaks are scarcely higher than the bushes, 
and grow at short distances from each other, and between are rank masses of rosemary, thyme, 
and lavender, which diffuse their rich aroma far and wide, white and red cistus, junipers covered 
with reddish-brown berries, various brooms with their golden-yellow flowers, Phylleria angusti- 
folia, and other plants of various sorts. Here and there stand beautiful Aleppo pines (Pinus 
halepensis), with their long yellowish spines towering above the flowering plants and bushes. 

" These localities are selected by Tristram's Warbler for its summer home, and here these 
birds may be seen almost everywhere. In the pairing-season the males, which appear to greatly 
outnumber the females, become jealous and quarrelsome to a degree, and those who desire to 
secure a mate can only succeed after many a severe struggle with his rivals. In the early 
morning one may be seen perched on the topmost twig of a bush, uttering, with distended throat, 
its sweet and pleasing song, which is made up of a series of prolonged musical strophes which 
sound clear and loud in the fresh morning air. 

" In a somewhat crouched position with puffed-out plumage and drooping wings, the tail 
being constantly jerked from side to side, it will boldly attack any rival that may approach, and 
then a battle royal ensues, which often lasts for hours until one succeeds in driving off its rival, 
and takes possession of the female. To an ornithologist it is a most interesting sight to watch 
these males, which may often be approached quite close, as they flit from bush to bush, and then 
disappear amongst the dense foliage, the victor reappearing, and, perched on the topmost branch 
of some bush, sounds its clear paean of triumph; the beaten rival may also be heard further off 
uttering its call, as if afraid to approach nearer to its more fortunate rival. I have also seen the 
victorious male rise singing in the air, and circling downwards regain its former perch. It is 
certainly one of the most striking and interesting of the southern Warblers, and appears to me 
to bear a much closer affinity to the Dartford Warbler than to any of the Whitethroats or 
their allies." 

Dr. Koenig has been fortunate enough to discover the hitherto unknown nest and eggs of 
Tristram's Warbler, and writes to me respecting its nidification as follows : — " I need scarcely 
assure you that I used every endeavour to find the hitherto unknown nest of this bird. In 1892 
an Arab boy showed me a nest which I found to be that of this Warbler, but from which the 
eggs had, unfortunately, been taken. It was placed on the ground between last year's shoots of 
an ilex, and was lined with soft plants. In the hope that the female would perhaps return and 
deposit eggs in the nest I left it, but when I returned I did not succeed in finding it again. I 
was more fortunate in 1893, as on my first expedition to the pine-woods, on the 13th of May, 
I was taken by a Bedouin lad to a nest of this Warbler, which was placed in a rosemary bush 



72 

close to the ground, and contained three eggs. Two days later we found near the same place a 
second nest with a full clutch of four eggs, and on the 22nd May I found a nest containing four 
fledglings, which, directly we approached, flew out of the nest ; but we secured three of them 
and obtained both the parent birds, which had food in their bills. This nest was also placed 
just above the ground in a dense rosemary bush. From this I may take it for granted that 
Tristram's Warbler usually places its nest in a dense rosemary bush close to the ground. The 
rosemary appears to be a growth that is especially suitable to the present species, as it affects 
such places where it is found in abundance. Besides the tangled thickets made by this plant, 
which are so suitable for the nidification of this Warbler, it produces early in the spring, 
together with the thyme and lavender, an abundance of blossom, whose perfume attracts a 
variety of insects which form a staple food to this bird, and which also serve as food for its 
young. The nest is closely and firmly constructed, although it resembles those of the White- 
throats. The materials used are soft vegetable-bents and fibres, and the average measurements 
are : circumference 32-5 cm., diameter 10 cm., height 5*3 cm., diameter of cup 5*5 cm., depth 3 cm. 
The full number of eggs appears to be four ; they are somewhat short in proportion to their 
width, without gloss, and spotted and dotted with olivaceous on a pale green ground, in character 
approaching to those of the Whitethroats, but perhaps most nearly resembling those of the 
Dartford Warbler. In size they average 16 by 13 millimetres, and in weight - 08 gr." 

The specimens figured are the adult male in breeding-plumage above described, which is in 
my own collection, and the female in winter dress in the collection of Canon Tristram, which is 
one of the types of the species. I may here remark that in the ' Birds of Europe ' I inadvertently 
entered the female above described as being in the collection of Mr. Seebohm instead of that of 
Canon Tristram, whereas the male from Oued Soudan, entered as being in the collection of 
Canon Tristram, really belonged to Mr. Seebohm, and is now in the British Museum. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser, 
a, <£ ad. Near Batna, Algeria, May 15th, 1893 (Dr. A. Koenig). 

E Mus. Brit, 
a, $ . Oued Soudan, Algeria, November 29th, 1856 (H. B. Tristram). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram. 

u, $ ad. Wed Nca, Algeria, December 15th, 1856; b, $ ad. Desert between Hadjira and Blad-el-Amar, 
Algeria, December 23rd, 1856 (H. B. T. : types of the species). 

E Mus. H. Seebohm. 
a, $ ad. Lambessa, Algeria, April 30th, 1882 (Dixon). 

E Mus. W. BothscMld. 
a, $ ad. Batna, Algeria, May 22nd, 1893 (Dr. A. Koenig). 



PHYLLOSCOPTJS PROKEGTJLUS. 

(PALLAS'S WILLOW- WARBLER.) 



Motacilla proregulus, Pallas, Zoogr. Ross. -As. i. p. 499 (1811). 

Regulus modestus, Gould, B. of Eur. ii. p. 149 (1837, partim). 

Begulus proregulus (Pall.), Keys. & Bias. Wirbelth. Eur. p. 184 (1840). 

Abrornis chloronotus, Hodgs. MS. Drawings of B. of Nepal, Passeres, pi. 57. fig. 5, no. 839. 

Abrornis chloronopus, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 82. no. 839 (1844). 

Regulus chloronotus (Hodgs.), Gray, Gen. of B. i. p. 175 (1848). 

Reguloides chloronotus (Hodgs.), Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. As. Soc. p. 184 (1849). 

Phyllobasileus proregulus (Pall.), Cab. Mus. Hein. i. p. 33 (1850). 

Phyllobasileus chloronotus (Hodgs.), Cabanis, Journ. f. Orn. 1853, p. 96. 

Sylvia (Phyllopneuste) proregulus (Pall.), Midd. Sib. Reise, Vog. p. 183 (1853, partim). 

Phylloscopus proregulus (Pall.), Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1854, p. 498. 

Reguloides proregulus (Pall.), Swinhoe, Ibis, 1860, p. 54. 

Sylvia (Phyllopneuste) superciliosa (Gmel.), Radde, Reise Slid. Ost-Sibir. ii. p. 264 (1863, 

partim). 
Sylvia proregulus (Pall.), Finsch, Journ. fur Orn. 1863, p. 30. 

Phyllopneuste (Phyllobasileus) proregulus (Pall.), Homeyer, Journ. f. Orn. 1872, p. 208. 
Phyllobasileus proregulus (Pall.), Bolau, Journ. fiir Orn. 1880, p. 116. 
Phylloscopus newtoni, Gatke, Ibis, 1889, p. 579. 

Figures notabiles. 
Gould, B. of Eur. ii. pi. 149; Fritsch, Vog. Eur. Taf. xix. fig. 3. 

Ad. corpore supra viridi-olivaeeo, capite saturatiore : fronte, stria pilei ad nucham ducta, et striis superciliari- 
bus sulphureis : loris et stria per oculos ducta, fusco-olivaceis : uropygio flavo : cauda et alis saturate 
fuscis, plumis extus viridi-flavo marginatis : alis cum duabus fasciis flavidis riotatis : corpore subtiis 
albo lateraliter vix griseo tincto : abdomine imo lateraliter et subcaudalibus pallide sulphureo tinctis. 

Adult (Kultuk, September 12th). Upper parts olive-green, the upper tail-coverts rather paler; rump 
bright yellow ; crown darker than the back ; forehead, a mediau line extending to the nape, and a 
tolerably broad superciliary stripe over each eye sulphur-yellow ; lores and a broad line bordering the 
superciliary stripe dark brown; wings and tail dark brown, the feathers externally margined with 
yellowish green ; the wings crossed by two distinct yellowish-white bars ; underparts white, tinged 
with grey on the flanks, and very faintly with pale sulphur on the lower flanks and under tail-coverts : 
bill dark brown, the base of the lower mandible yellowish ; legs greenish brown ; soles yellowish green ; 
iris dark brown. Total length about 3 - 5 inches, culmen - 4, wing 2"1, tail 15, tarsus 0"67 : first 
primary 07 shorter than the second, which is equal to or a trifle longer than the eighth ; third and fifth 
equal ; the fourth a trifle longer, this being the longest. 

The spring plumage is a trifle duller than the autumnal dress above described. In the summer the plumage 

L 



74 

becomes abraded and paler, and the alar bands are less clearly defined. The winter dress does not 
differ from that worn in the autumn. The female does not differ from the male, except that it is 
somewhat smaller in size. 
According to Pleske, in the nestling plumage the upper parts are tinged with brown, the band on the rump 
is indistinct, and the throat and breast are tinged with mouse-grey. 

Pallas's Willow-Warbler appears not only as a straggler, but regulaidy on migration within the 
Western Palsearctic Region. It is known to occur from the Ural range to Eastern Siberia, 
breeding in the latter country, and migrates south in the autumn, wintering probably in Southern 
China and India. It has been obtained as far west as Heligoland, where, Mr. Gatke says 
(Vogelw. von Helgoland, p. 304), one was killed by Aeuckens in October 1845, and another 
seen, but not obtained, in October 1875. 

Mr. Pleske writes respecting its range in Russia (Orn. Ross. p. 316) as follows: — "Mr. Zarudny 
gives the following particulars of its occurrence in the vicinity of Orenburg : ' In the autumn of 
1887 I again obtained this species (I obtained one in each of the years 1879 and 1884) near 
Orenburg, under circumstances that would lead me to surmise that a migration had taken 
place. On the 3rd October a pair were observed in the Protopopen grove, and on the 4th 
October a flock of about 15 individuals, with which were several Goldcrests ; one was also 
observed in a flock of Parus ater. To judge from the characteristic call-note, this bird was 
observed earlier, between the 28th September and 4th October, in the woods on the other side 
of the Ural. In 1888 it again appeared near Orenburg, though in smaller numbers. On the 
3rd October one was obtained in the woods on the other side of the Ural, and on the 23rd 
October again one out of a flock of five at the village of Neshenka.' 

" One of the above-cited specimens in full autumn plumage was sent to me by Mr. Zarudny, 
and is the specimen above described. In West Siberia this Warbler has not been observed ; but 
is, according to Taczanowski, not uncommon throughout East Siberia. The most westerly 
records, from the Wercholenskischen district, on the Upper and Central Eena, and on the 
Witim, are those of Poljakoff, and later of Sperk ; but these do not carry much weight, as they 
may refer, to some extent or entirely, to P. superciliosus. 

"The references to its occurrence near Lake Baikal are tolerably numerous. Schwedoff 
observed it on passage in the public gardens at Irkutsk and on the banks of the Uschakovka, 
about 40 versts from that town, and his identifications have been verified by Dr. Severtzoff. 
According to Dybowski it is not rare at Kultuk, but does not appear to breed there, as nests 
were only found at Petrovsk, beyond Lake Baikal, on the left bank of the Sselenga ; a specimen 
obtained by him is in the British Museum. Mr. Mollesson records this Warbler on passage 
from near the town of Troitzkossavsk, opposite Kjachta, late in August 1885, and Pallas's 
original specimen came from the Ingoda River in Transbaikal. Dr. Dybowski records it from 
the mineral springs of Darasun ; and Dr. Radde observed it on the Tarei-nor near the frontier 
station Kulussutajefskoje, but confused it with P. super ciliosus. Not far from here is the 
frontier station Tsuruchaitui, where Dr. Dybowski met with it. We must also refer to the 
records of von Middendorff from the Stanowoi Mountains and from the Ussuri country. As, 
however, von Middendorff did not separate these two Siberian Willow- Warblers, I must refer 



75 

only to his two undoubted specimens of P. proregulus. These came from the Stanowoi 
Mountains — one from the Ssalurnai River, and the other from Markul. With regard to the 
occurrence of this bird in the southern Ussuri country, Mr. Maximovicz obtained the most 
northerly recorded specimen at Stanitza Busse. Prjevalski records it as tolerably common in 
the vicinity of Lake Chanka, though it is not included in his account of his journey, because 
he mistook the only specimen he brought back for P. superciliosus. Dorries sent specimens 
to Europe from the station of Baranovskij, in the Ssuifun Valley ; and Mr. Poljakoff from the 
mouth of the Retschnoje River. Finally, the brothers Dorries and Mr. Jankovski record this 
species from the Island of Askold." 

Pallas's Willow- Warbler breeds also in the Himalayas at considerable altitudes ; and 
Capt. Cock took several nests with eggs at Sonamerg in Kashmir ; Col. Biddulph records it 
from Gilgit in January; and, according to Mr. Oates (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 408), "it is 
distributed throughout the Himalayas from Hazara and Kashmir to Bhutan, and also occurs, 
probably only as a winter visitor, in the Khasi and Naga Hills, in Manipur, and in the Salween 
district of Tenasserim, among the pine-forests. It occasionally descends to such low levels as 
the Dehra Doon." 

According to Abbe David (Ois. Chine, p. 275) it frequently passes the winter in Central and 
Southern China; and Mr. Styan (Ibis, 1891, p. 339), in his article on the birds of the Lower 
Yangtse Basin, says that it " begins to arrive early in March, and soon after its sweet and 
powerful song is heard throughout the day from the tops of the bamboos and firs ; its call-note 
is a loud Canary-like hweet. Most of them pass on by the middle of April; in October they 
reappear, and I have obtained one at Kiukiang as late as December." 

According to Mr. Gatke (Ibis, 1889, p. 578) there are differences between the northern form 
which breeds in Siberia, and the southern form, which breeds in the Himalayas, sufficient, in his 
opinion, to justify their being separated, at least subspecifically, and he proposed to give the latter 
the name of Phylloscopus newtoni. The differences between the two forms, as given by Mr. Gatke 
(/. c), are as follows: — "The Siberian bird differs from that of India in general colour of 
plumage, which in the former is suffused with a bright lemon-yellow, approaching and partly 
surpassing that of P. sibilatrix, whereas the colour of the latter consists entirely of a dull 

brownish olive-yellow, verging in P. humei, in many instances, towards ashy grey In the 

Siberian bird the 2nd quill is of equal length with the 8th, in the Indian bird with the 10th ; in 
the former bird the 2nd quill is only 9 millim. shorter than the point of the closed wing, in the 
latter this difference amounts to 10 millim.; and whilst in the Indian bird the 2nd quill is of 
equal length with the longest of the three posterior quills, it is in the Siberian from 6 to 7 millim. 
longer. Further, in the Siberian bird the 3rd, 4th, and 5th quills are of equal length and form 
the point of the closed wing, whereas in the Indian one such is the case with the 4th, 5th, and 
6th quills, the third being 3 millim. shorter than these." 

So far as I can judge from the specimens I have examined, the differences between the 
northern and southern forms are so slight, and the individual variations are so frequent, that I 
cannot support Mr. Gatke's views, and do not, therefore; separate the species. Specimens from 
India in my collection do not differ in general coloration from the Siberian bird, and in some of 
the former the second quill equals the eighth, in others it is intermediate between the eighth and 

l2 



76 

ninth, and in one only equal to the ninth. In several the fourth and fifth primaries are equal 
and the longest, whereas in others the third and fifth are equal, the fourth being a trifle longer ; 
whereas in my Siberian bird the third and fifth are equal, and the fourth a trifle longer. I have 
only had an opportunity of examining two Siberian specimens, which is not sufficient to decide 
the question ; but inasmuch as Mr. Pleske, who has examined both Indian and Siberian 
examples, does not separate the two forms, I think that it is tolerably safe to unite them. 

Although the present species cannot well be separated generically from the Phylloscopi, yet 
in its general habits it approaches nearer to the Kinglets than the other members of the genus. 
Dr. Taczanowski remarks that " in habits, mode of life, and nidification this bird shows affinity 
to our species of Bequlus ; whereas P. superciliosus, which has been placed by many ornithologists 
in the same genus with this species, is a true Willow- Wren." 

It frequents pine-woods and those of mixed pine and birch in hilly districts, sometimes 
ranging in the mountains as high as the border of tree-growth, and it is also to be met with in 
the bush-covered valleys. Godlevski says that its call-note, which is seldom repeated, may be 
rendered as tsii, shriller and more prolonged than the call-note of P. superciliosus, and the song 
of the male, which is continued for hours without intermission, s melodious and varied and of a 
very high order. Dr. Dybovvski also writes (J. f. O. 1872, p. 361) that " its note is melodious 
and powerful, and its song varied and sweet, and so loud that it rings through the forest, and 
is astonishing as coming from so small a bird." Mr. W. E. Brooks, who has had frequent 
opportunities of hearing the call-note of this Warbler, says (Ibis, 1869, p. 236) that "it is very- 
different from that of P. superciliosus, and is extremely shrill, feeble, and tinkling. There are 
two notes in the call, the second considerably above the first, D to F sharp ; and in uttering its 
call the bird keeps the two notes quite distinct, and not slurred into each other, like the call of 
P. superciliosus." 

Referring to the nidification of the present species in Eastern Siberia, Dr. Dybowski writes 
(J. f. O. 1872, p. 361) as follows: — "Although not uncommon, we did not find its nests in 
Kultuk, but found them in Petrovsk, beyond the Baikal, on the left bank of the Selenga River. 
The nests were placed on young pines or old moss-covered cedars on the branches near the stem, 
three to four metres high, and were neatly constructed of fine grass-bents and green moss, oven- 
shaped, the opening being towards the trunk of the tree, and lined with feathers and horse- or 
cattle-hair; the nest is also higher than it is broad. About the middle of June the female lays 
five or six eggs, and commences sitting directly the first egg is laid, so that in the same clutch 
one finds quite fresh as well as incubated eggs. The female sits close, and can easily be caught 
on the nest. While she is sitting the male perches on the top of a tree and sings incessantly. 
The eggs are white, with dots and small spots of violet, ash-grey, and red, which are chiefly 
collected so as to form a not very close wreath round the larger end, and measure from 14 by 11 
to 15 by 10 - 5 millimetres, being broadest in the middle." 

Captain Cock, who found it breeding at Sonamerg, four marches up the valley of the Sind 
River, late in May and early in June, says that its nest is placed on the outer end of the branch of 
a fir tree at from 6 to 40 feet elevation, and sometimes on a small sapling pine where the junction 
of the bough with the stem takes place. The nest is partially domed, the outer portion consisting 
of moss and lichen, so arranged as to harmonize with the bough on which it is placed, and lined 



77 

with feathers and thin birch-hark strips, never with hair ; and the eggs, five in number, are pure 
white, richly marked with dark brownish red, particularly at the larger end, forming there a fine 
zone on most of the eggs, and intermingled with these spots, and especially on the zone, are some 
spots and blotches of deep purple-grey. In size the eggs vary from "53 by "43 to "55 by - 44 inch. 

I may here observe that the eggs were figured in the 'Journal fur Ornithologie ' (1873, 
plate i. fig. 10). 

The specimen figured is the one above described, and is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a. Kultuk, Siberia, September 12th, 1870 {Dr. Dybowski). b,c,$. Darjeeling, December ; d, $ . Darjeeling, 
October 27th, 1879; e,f, <$ . Kurseong, December 10th and 11th, 1879 {TV. E. Brooks). 



650 




J. G.Keuiemans deLet litK. 



1 . P L AI N WILLOW V/ARBLE R . 

PHYLLOSCOPUS NEGLECTUS. 

2.PALLAS'S WILLOW WARBLER. 

PHYLLOSCOPUS PROREGULUS. 



Mini, errv Bros . imp - 



PHYLLOSCOPUS NEGLECTUS. 

(PLAIN WILLOW-WARBLER.) 



Pliylloscopus brevirostris (nee Strickl.), Brooks, Ibis, 1S69, p. 236. 

Phylloscopus neglectus, Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 143. 

Phyllopseuste neglectus, Hume, Stray Feathers, i. p. 105 (1873). 

Phylloscopus sindianus, Brooks, Str. Feath. viii. p. 476 (1879). 

Lusciniola neglecta (Hume), Seebohm, Ibis, 1880, p. 277. 

" Phyllopneuste neglectus, Hume," Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 131 (1881). 

" Phyllopneuste lorenzi, Severtz.," Lorenz, Beitr. Orn. Nords. Kaukasus, p. 28. no. 87 (1887). 

Herbioocula (Phylloscopus) neglecta (Hume), Eadde & Walter, Vog. Transcasp. p. 49 (1888). 

Lusciniola (Herbivocula) neglecta (Hume), Pleske, Ornithogr. Eoss. ii. p. 412 (1390). 

Herbivocula neglecta (Hume), Pleske, torn. cit. p. 414 (1890). 

Figurce notabiles. 
Pleske, Ornithogr. Ross. pi. iii. figs. 3 & 4 ; Lorenz, op. cit. Taf. ii. fig. 2. 

Ad. corpore supra brunnescenti-cinereo, subtus albido cervino lavato : stria superciliari pallide cervina et 
regione parotica sordide cervina : remigibus et rectricibus fuscis, extus pallidiore marginatis : sub- 
alaribus et axillaribus albidis, flavido cervino tinctis : rostra, pedibus et iride saturate fuscis. 

• Adult Male (Sehwan, January 27th). Upper parts earthy brown, ratber paler on the upper tail-coverts; 
underparts white, with a buff tinge ; a narrow superciliary streak pale buff; ear-coverts dull buff; 
wings and tail brown, the feathers with paler external margins ; axillaries and under wing-coverts 
white, with a buffy yellow tinge : bill, legs, and iris dark brown. Total length about 4 inches, 
culmen 0'37, wing 2'05, tail L65, tarsus 0-75 ; first primary 0"65 less than the second, which is 
intermediate between the eighth and ninth, or only just longer, than the eighth. 

Adult Female (Kopepet-dagh, Transcaspia, July 27th) . Resembles the male except that the plumage is a 
trifle paler, but is smaller in size, measuring : culmen 0'35 inch, wing 1"9, tail 1'6, tarsus 0'7. 

The average measurements of the series I have examined are : — males : wing L95 to 2T inches, first primary 
065 to - 75 less than the second ; females : wing 1'9 to 2'0 inches, first primary 0"6 to 0"7 shorter 
than the second ; and in all the second primary is either equal in length to the eighth or intermediate 
between the eighth and ninth. 

The present species is found during the summer in Transcaspia and Turkestan, and winters in 
Southern Persia, Baluchistan, Sind, and North-western India. 

Mr. Seebohm (Ibis, 1876, p. 218) stated that he met with it on the Lower Petchora; but, as 
Mr. Brooks (torn. cit. p. 503) points out, Mr. Seebohm's identification was erroneous, and the 



80 

bird he obtained was merely an under-coloured example of Phylloscopus tristis. I am indebted 
to Dr. Radde for specimens from Transcaspia, where, he says (I. c), "This Warbler is common 
amongst the elevated junipers in the mountains where it breeds. Dr. Walter often met with it 
when ascending the Ak-dagh at Domtschi, Kurtseverdeh-tschesme, and on the Guljuli Plateau." 
Mr. Zarudny also records it (Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 777) as being "common in the juniper 
region in the mountains of the Eastern Kopepet-dagh, where it frequents the bushes on the 
slopes, cavities, and defiles. Late in April I observed it, probably on passage, in the oases of 
Ahal and Atek. Specimens killed late in April had almost completed their moult." 

According to Mr. Pleske, Russoff obtained two males at the breeding-places on the 
Iskander-kul in August 1878. Mr. Grum-Grzimailo procured one in Buchara in the same 
month, and Dr. Severtzoff records it as occurring in the mountains of Turkestan. Sir Oliver 
St. John states (Ibis, 1889, p. 165) that he obtained it at Kandahar and Quetta ; and according 
to Mr. Oates (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 406) it is found in winter " throughout Upper Sind, 
along the banks of the Indus." Mr. A. O. Hume records it (Stray Feathers, 1873, p. 196) as 
being " common in the cold weather in the Punjab and in the Doab, at least as low down as 
Agra, but hitherto I have seen no specimen from Central India or the Lower Doab. This tiny 
little leaf-hunter, the smallest of the whole group, is not uncommon along the banks of the 
Indus, and throughout Upper Sind wherever thick clumps of the bubul (Acacia arabica) are 
met with. It is a very silent self-concealing bird, creeping about amongst the feathery 
leaves of the acacia, and very difficult to secure." Mr. W. E. Brooks also writes (Stray Feathers, 
1879, p. 480) : — " It is the most timid and watchful little Sylvia I ever met with. The moment 
it hears the intruder it begins to mount its bush, vigorously uttering its churring note ; as soon 
as it sees one it flies, and the only way to get it is to run in the direction of the sound and take 
a snap shot the moment you get a glimpse at it." 

Beyond the above short notes I find nothing on record respecting the habits of this Warbler. 
There is no doubt that it breeds in Transcaspia and Turkestan, but its nest and eggs are as yet 
unknown. 

There appears to be a somewhat larger form of this Warbler which also occurs in Sind, and 
was described by Mr. Brooks (I. c.) as a distinct species, under the name of P. sindianus ; while 
Mr. Oates also separates these two forms and states that the larger form " resembles P. neglectus 
so closely as to require no separate description, and only differs in being larger." The differences 
in size he gives as follows, viz. : — P. neglectus: wing 1*85 to 2T, first primary - 6, second primary 
equal to the eighth or ninth, tail T5 to 1-65, tarsus 0'7 to 0-75, bill from gape 0'4 ; and 
P. sindianus: wing 2 - 05 to 2*4, first primary 06, second equal to the ninth, tail L75 to 2 - 05, 
tarsus - 7 to - 8, bill from gape - 5. I do not, however, think it advisable to separate these 
two forms merely on account of a slight difference in size, especially as they inhabit the same 
locality. The Russian authors, however, treat Phylloscopus sindianus as being a form of 
P. tristis, and Pleske goes so far as to place neglectus in the genus Lusciniola, and sindianus in 
the genus Phylloscopus; I am indebted to him for a specimen of what he considers to be 
Phylloscopus sindianus, which is labelled " Phylloscopus tristis, var. sindianus, <$ , Aksu-Darja 
(Pevtzoff)," which measures wing 2'2, first quill 0"9 shorter than the second, which is inter- 
mediate between the seventh and eighth, and which is certainly not P. sindianus of Brooks and 



81 

the Indian authors, but only a somewhat pale variety of P. tristis. Compared with my series 
of this latter species it differs merely in being somewhat paler in colour, but clearly shows the 
sulphur-yellow on the carpus and the axillary plumes. This specimen is undoubtedly referable 
to the pale form of P. tristis mentioned by Brooks, who writes (Stray Feathers, viii. p. 477) as 
follows: — "The longer, broader, and less pointed first, or bastard, primary is a good mark by 
which to distinguish P. sindianus from a pale tristis. Sometimes tristis is pale altogether, and 
as slightly yellow and green as sindianus, and then attention to the size and shape of this small 
feather is of use." 

The specimens figured and described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. P. Dresser. 

a, ? . Kopepet-dagh, above Askabad, Transcaspia, July 27th {Dr. G. Radde). b, $ . Sukhur, Sind, January 
24th, 1880. c, g. Sehwau, Sind, January 27th, 1880 (W. E. Brooks). 

E Mus. Brit. 

a. Muru, Sind, January 14th, 1877; b. Mehar, Sind, December 20th, 1876; c. Tungwaiu, Sind, December 
17th, 1871; d. Mehawulpore, January 30th, 1868; e. Setakar, Koostan range, December 8th, 1876; 
/, 3. Musharo, Sind, January 6th, 1876; g, <3,h, 2. Sehwan, Sind, January 27th, 1880 {Hume Col- 
lection), i, d. Sehwan, Sind, January 21st, 1880 (E. W. Oates). k, 2. Sehwan, January 23rd, 1880 
{E. TV. O.). I, 6. West of Larkhana, Sind, December 5th, 1876; m, n, 3. West of Mehar, Sind, 
December 20th, 1876; o. West of Shikapur, Sind, March 14th, 1875 {W. T. Blanford). 



651 




: ii'fn.ans <ksl etlilk. 



1 . GREENISH WILLOW WARBLER. 

P HYLLO SCO PUS VI RIDAMU S . 

2. BRIGHT GREEN WILLOW WARBLER. 

PITYLL O S C O PU S NITIDIS. 



Msntern. Bros . imp . 



PHYLLOSCOPUS NITIDUS. 

(BRIGHT GREEN WILLOW-WARBLER.) 



Sylvia hippolais, Jerdon, Madras Journ. xi. p. 6 (184.0, nee Linn.). 
Phylloscopus nitidus, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xii. p. 965 (1843). 
Hippolais swainsoni, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 82 (1844). 
Begulus nitidus (Blyth), Gray, Gen. of B. i. p. 175 (1848). 
Abromis nitidus (Blyth), Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 290 (1850). 
Phyllopseuste nitida (Blyth), Gray, Hand-1. of B. i. p. 215. no. 3050 (1869). 
Acanthopneuste nitidus (Blyth), Zarudny, Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 778 (1890). 
Phylloscopus (Acanthopneuste) nitidus, Blyth, Pleske, Ornithographia Rossica, ii. p. 172 
(1891). 

Figures notabiles. 

Lorenz, Beitr. z. Kennt. d. Orn. Faun. Nords. Kauk. pi. ii. fig. 1 ; Pleske, Orn. Boss, 
pi. ii. fig. 2. 

Ad. corpore supra flavescenti-viridi, vertice concolore : subths sulphureo : alis fasciis duabus notatis : remige 
seeunda sexta breviore. 

Adidt Male (Muddapur, March 21st). Upper parts including the crown bright green, underparts sulphur- 
yellow ; a broad sulphur-yellow stripe passes from the base of the bill above and behind the eye ; median 
wing-coverts tipped with pale yellow, forming a somewhat obscure band across the wing, but the larger 
coverts are distinctly tipped with the same colour, forming a clearly denned second alar bar; quills 
dark brown, margined with grass-green; tail brown, the feathers, except the two middle rectrices, 
margined externally with grass-green : bill brown, the lower mandible flesh-coloured at the base ; legs 
plumbeous brown ; iris dark brown. Total length 4 - 65 inches, culmen 0'5, wing 2'4, tail l - 9, tarsus 
0"7; second primary shorter than the sixth. 

The female does not appear to differ from the male in plumage. The autumn plumage differs from that 
worn in the spring in being somewhat deeper in tone of colour, and the margins to the wing- and 
tail-feathers are rather more clearly defined. 

Phtlloscopus nitidus is another Asiatic species which recent research has shown to occur regularly 
within the limits of the Western Patearctic Region. 

It has occurred once on Heligoland, a single example having been shot there on the 11th 
October, 1867, by Mr. Ludwig Gatke ; and as this was the only instance of its occurrence 
within our limits when I wrote the ' Birds of Europe,' I did not deem it advisable to include it. 

Regarding the range of this Warbler in Russia, Mr. Pleske writes (Orn. Ross. p. 174) as 
follows : — " Thanks to the information kindly furnished by Prof. Menzbier, I can point to the 
possibility of Schatiloff 's specimen of Sylvia rufa or Sylvia middendoi'ffi, from the neighbourhood 

m 2 



84 

of Tamak in the Crimea, being P. nitidus. As, however, it was shot in January 1856 it 
remains a doubtful question as to whether it breeds there, which is not impossible. As to its 
occurrence in the Caucasus, it is true that only Mr. Lorenz procured it there ; but it is probable 
that some, if not the most, of the records of P. sibilatrix from the Caucasus refer to P. nitidus. 
In any case I have never seen a single P. sibilatrix from the Caucasus, and would refer all to 
P. nitidus, were it not that Mr. Michalovski and Prof. Nordmann speak of having heard the 
very characteristic song of P. sibilatrix in the Caucasus. Lorenz first observed P. nitidus early 
in May, 1884, in the Beresowaja ravine, at Kisslovodsk, and a few days later on the Grischkina- 
Balka and in the Eschkakon ravine, on the Bermamut. In 1885 the bird was found breeding 
not uncommonly in the Eschkakon ravine and on the heights of the Dschinal, and was also met 
with in the Alikanowka ravine. In May 1866 Mr. Lorenz received sevei'al specimens from 
Bermamut, one of which he kindly presented to our Museum. In the Transcaspian district it is, 
according to Zarudny, common in the gardens of Achal-teke, in Gjarman, and in the wooded 
valleys by the mountain-streams. In his collection was a male obtained at Gjarman between 
the 10th and 22nd July, and one from Askabad obtained late in July." Zarudny further states 
(Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 778) that it is " common in the woods bordering the Tedgend, but 
tolerably rare on the central part of the Murghab, and is of frequent occurrence early in 
August in the juniper region on the Kopepet-dag." He met with it in the second, third, and 
last weeks of April in the oasis of Ahal, but was uncertain if these were migrants. After the 
moult, which some complete by the middle of July, they become very fat, as they also do in 
the spring. Dr. Kadde obtained two specimens in Transcaspia — one at Tschikischljar on the 
14th May, 1887, and one at Krasnovodsk on the 2nd May, 1886. 

I find no record of its occurrence in Persia, where it is, however, probably to be met with ; 
but it winters in India, where it is, according to Mr. Oates (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 413), "a 
winter visitor to the whole of India, from the Himalayas to Ceylon, and from Sind to about the 
longitude of Calcutta." He also surmises that it breeds in Kashmir and the higher levels of 
the Himalayas. According to Col. Legge it is very numerous in Ceylon, arriving about the 
middle of September and leaving again late in March or early in April. 

With regard to its habits as observed by him in Ceylon, Col. Legge writes (B. of Ceylon, 
p. 552) as follows : — "This species frequents the upper branches of umbrageous trees, no matter 
whether they may be situated in busy thoroughfares or in the quiet of the forest. It is especially 
fond of Jack-trees, Avhich are mostly found in the gardens of the natives, and, again, is very partial 
to the monarchs of the forest which surround the many romantic tanks of the interior. In these 
spots its perpetual little chirrup invariably discloses its presence, when otherwise it would 
certainly be passed over in the lofty foliage which it frequents. It affects the leaves of trees 
more than Phylloscopus magnirostris, and darts out from its place of concealment on various 
insects, after the manner of a Flycatcher. It is very lively in its actions, and is sociably inclined, 
for one or two' of its fellows may usually be found in an adjacent tree, each answering the other 
with its cheerful little note. Its flight is swift, although its powers of locomotion are not much 
brought into play after it once locates itself in its winter-quarters ; it then merely darts from 
tree to tree, and often remains for a considerable time without moving out of its retreat." 

According to Lorenz, the call-note of this Warbler resembles the note of Budytes Jlava, but 



85 

is stronger. Although, as above stated, Lorenz found it breeding in the Caucasus, he does 
not appear to have taken its nest ; and the nest and eggs are, so far as I can ascertain, as yet 
unknown. 

The specimen figured and described is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens: — 

E Miis. H. E. Dresser. 
a,b, <$ . March; c, ? , d, £ . April 21st, Muddapur, India (TV. E. Brooks). 



PHYLLOSCOPUS VIKIDANUS. 

(GREENISH WILLOW-WARBLER.) 



Phyllopneuste rufa (nee Lath.), Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xi. p. 191 (1842). 

Phylloscopus viridamis, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xii. p. 967 (1843). 

Phyllopneuste affinis (nee Tickell), Blyth, Ann. Nat. Hist. xii. p. 98 (1843). 

Phyllopneuste viridanus (Blyth), Gray, App. Cat. Mamm. &c. Nepal, &c. p. 152 (1846). 

Pegulus viridanus (Blyth), Gray, Gen. of B. i. p. 175 (1848). 

Abrornis viridana (Blyth), Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 290 (1850). 

Phyllopneuste viridana (Blyth), Hartl. Journ. f. Orn. 1854, p. 156. 

Ficedula (Phyllopneuste) rniddendorffii, Meves, var. intermedia, Severtz. Turk. Jevotn. 

pp. 65 & 125 (1873). 
Phylloscopus middendorffi (nee Meves), Severtz. Stray Feathers, iii. p. 427 (1875). 
Phyllopseuste viridana (Blyth), Giebel, Thes. Orn. iii. p. 122 (1877). 
Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus, Swinh., Dresser, Birds of Eur. ii. p. 507 (1878, partim). 
Phylloscopus pseudo-borealis, Severtz. Ibis, 1883, p. 66 (partim). 
Acanthopneuste viridanus (Blyth), Oates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 414 (1889). 
Phylloscopus (Acanthopneuste) viridamis (Blyth), Pleske, Ornithographia Bossica, p. 176 

(1891). 

Figures notabiles. 
Henderson and Hume, Lahore to Yark. pi. xix.; Pleske, Orn. Ross. pi. ii. fig. 3. 

Ad. corpore supra sordide fusco-olivaceo : uropygio pallidiore : subtus albo-olivaceo cervino lavato : stria 
superciliari flavido-cervina : remigibus et rectricibus sordide fuscis, in pogonio externo olivaceo 
marginatis : tectricibus alarum majoribus albido apicatis fasciam singulam formantibus : rostro fusco : 
mandibula ad basin pallidiore : pedibus sordide plumbeis : iride fusca. 

Adult Male (Muddapur, April 28th) . Upper parts dull olivaceous green, lighter on the rump ; a distinct 
streak over the eye huffy yellow ; wings and tail dull dark brown ; the quills margined with olive-green 
on the outer web ; larger wing-coverts broadly tipped with dull white, forming a single distinct band 
across the wing ; tail-feathers, except the middle ones, narrowly margined with olive-green ; under- 
pays white, washed with pale greenish buff: bill brown, the lower mandible much paler at the base; 
legs brownish slate or dull slate-grey ; iris dark brown, Total length about 4"5 inches, culmen - 5, 
wing 2'35, tail L75, tarsus - 75 ; second primary intermediate between the seventh and eighth, the 
third, fourth, and fifth longest. 

The female does not differ from the male in plumage, but is, on an average, rather smaller in size. In the 
summer the plumage becomes browner on the upper parts, and rather paler on the underparts, owing 
to abrasion, and the alar bar becomes less distinct ; in the autumn the upper parts are greener, the 
underparts more yellow in tinge, and the alar bar is more distinct ; and in the winter the plumage, 



88 

judging from the specimens before me, differs but little from that above described. The young 
bird from the Ural resembles the adult, but has the upper parts rather greener and clearer in tint 
of colour. 

When, in 1878, in my article in the ' Birds of Europe ' on Pliylloscopus plumbeitarsus, I suggested 
that the young bird from Tjubuk, attributed by Meves to that species, was more probably 
Phylloscopus viridanus, I was certainly not prepared to hear that all the recorded occurrences 
of P. plumbeitarsus in the Ural, and within the limits of European Eussia, would turn out to 
be referable to P. viridanus ; but Mr. Pleske, who has recently worked this question out with the 
greatest care, has proved this to be the case, and he has also shown that Phylloscopus plumbei- 
tarsus has not been ascertained to occur further west than in Turkestan, and should therefore 
be expunged from the list of Western Palsearctic birds. He states (Orn. Eoss. ii. p. 178) that 
both Phylloscopus viridanus and Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus have been mixed up together under 
the name of P. middendorffi,, but that he has ascertained that of these two only P. viridanus 
occurs west of the Ural, and that therefore all records of the occurrence of P. middendorffi in 
European Eussia must refer to the present species. Thus Mag. J. Poljakoff met with it at the 
Ladscha Lake, in the Olonetz Government ; and Sabanaeff records it from the Government of 
Jaroslaw. There is a specimen from Kasan Avhich came with the Eversmann collection to the 
St. Petersburg Museum, and it is found in the Ural, and is said to be most numerous in the 
Perm Government. Sabanaeff has, Mr. Pleske continues (I. c), " recorded P. viridanus from the 
borders of the Orenburg Government to Bogoslovsk, and also met with it in the birch-woods of 
Bashkiria, on the eastern slope of the Ural. In the Perm Government he found it in a garden 
in the town of Perm, in the Pavdinskisch and Bogoslovskisch Ural, on the east side of the Ural 
range. Meves met with it in the Perm Government, on the banks of the Kama, opposite the 
town of Perm, and at Tjubuk, where a male and female were seen feeding their not fully 
fledged young on the 9th July. Meves, however, wrongly identified his specimens as being 
P. middendorffi. A specimen obtained by him came into the possession of Mr. E. von Homeyer, 
who corrected the former erroneous identification of Meves and Dresser, and identified the Ural 
example as P. viridanus. AVe must not omit to name a male kindly presented to our Museum 
by Mr. Teplouchoff, and to remark that Prof. Menzbier's notes on the migration-route of 
P. plumbeitarsus in European Eussia refer to P. viridanus. Thanks to the liberality of 
Mr. N. Zarudny our Museum received a splendid specimen from the vicinity of Orenburg. 
Severtzoff speaks of a specimen having been obtained at the mouth of the Ural river in May 
1861, and the two examples from the Karelin collection in our Museum probably came from 
Gurjeff. This Warbler appears to be not uncommon on the northern shores of the Caspian, as 
two specimens, now in the University Museum, were obtained by Prof. Bogdanoff on the Kulaly. 

"With regard to the occurrence of this bird in the Caucasus I can give no positive information. 
The bird described by Dr. Eadde as P. plumbeitarsus, which was shot at Tiflis on the 29th April, 
certainly does not belong to that species, but appears, to judge from the description, to be 
referable to P. viridanus, if not to P. nitidus, which has been several times recorded from 
the Caucasus. 

" To proceed to the occurrences in the Altai range, I believe that Tschichatscheff 's notes on 



89 

P. trochilus, which does not inhabit the Altai, must be referable to P. viridanus, which view is 
confirmed by Homeyer and Tancre, who received five specimens from the Altai, one of which, 
shot at Kenderlyk on the 27th April, 1885, is in our Museum. Furthermore, Mag. A. Nikolski 
brought home a specimen from the Altai which he obtained at the end of August in a willow- 
thicket on the Ilijskij Wisselok. The view expressed by Homeyer and Tancre (Mitth. d. orn. 
Ver. in Wien, 1883, p. 84), that some of the specimens of P. trochilus obtained by Dr. Finsch 
might prove to belong to the present species, does not appear to be well grounded, as all Finsch' s 
specimens were procured in the valley of the Ob, where P. trochilus undoubtedly occurs, while 
P. viridanus has not been obtained there. 

" From Turkestan we find records by Severtzoff and Russoff. Severtzoff observed P. viridanus 
in the valley of the Kora, at Kopal, in the spurs of the Alexander range, near Aulie-ata, and in 
Karatau. Later on he stated that his P. pseudo-borealis, which has been shown to refer partly 
to P. viridanus, breeds in the mountains of the northern portions of the Ferghana Valley, N.W. 
of Namanghan, and was obtained in various parts of the Tian-shan, eastward to the upper portion 
of the Hi. Russoff collected numbers of this bird at Tschinas, and confirmed the records of its 
nesting on the Iskander-kul." 

To these notes I may add that this Warbler has been met with so far west in Europe as 
Heligoland, where it has been obtained by Gatke on three occasions — on the 25th September, 
1878, on the 30th May, 1879, and on the 8th June, 1880. I may also remark that von Homeyer 
was not the first to point out that the bird obtained by Meves in the Ural, and recorded as 
P. middendorffi, was really referable to P. viridanus, as Mr. W. E. Brooks examined von Homeyer's 
specimen in 1877, and the same year (Ibis, 1877, p. 396) pointed out that it was undoubtedly 
P. viridanus, whereas von Homeyer did not record the fact until 1883. 

It does not appear to have been clearly ascertained how far east the present species is to be 
met with in Asia. Mr. Oates included it in his ' Birds of British Burmah ' ; but, as he has sub- 
sequently shown, this was an error, as neither the Hume nor the Tweeddale collections contain 
a single specimen from that country. 

Dr. Henderson found it common in Hill Yarkand, at the Arpalik River, in August; and 
Dr. Scully observed it amongst the tamarisk- and willow-bushes fringing the Sanju stream and 
along the banks of the Karakash River. 

It has been recorded from Gilgit by Dr. Scully and Col. Biddulph, and winters in India, 
where, according to Mr. Oates (Faun. Brit. Inch, Birds, i. p. 414), it is found " throughout the 
whole length of the Himalayas from the Hazara country to Sikhim, and over the whole peninsula 
of India down to Ceylon, with the exception of Sind and the western portion of Rajputana. To 
the east this species extends commonly to Calcutta, and has been found in Northern Sylhet." 

This Warbler is said to frequent mixed groves and woods ; and, according to Severtzoff, it 
is to be met with amongst bushes and the tall steppe grass. Dr. Scully noticed it amongst the 
tamarisk- and willow-bushes, and remarks that it seemed very restless, continually flitting from 
spray to spray. Both Blyth and Dr. Scully state that its voice is weak, and the former describes 
the note as tiss-yip, tiss-yip, frequently uttered. Sabanaeff, however, says that the voice of this 
bird consists of so loud and strong a trill that it can scarcely be recognized as the song of a 

N 



90 

Leaf- Warbler, and its call-note, which is a short and shrill psi, psi, closely resembles that of 
the Yellow Wagtail. 

The present species certainly breeds in the Ural and the north-eastern portions of European 
Russia, and also, according to Pleske, in the Altai, in Turkestan, and Bokhara, and it probably 
also nests in the higher parts of the Himalayas. Mr. W. E. Brooks (Str. Feath. vii. p. 510) 
found a newly made nest in Kashmir, which he describes as being domed, and placed on the 
steep bank-side of a ravine full of small birch trees, at an elevation of about 11,000 feet. 
Unfortunately it was empty. This is the only record of the nest having been found, and the 
eggs are as yet unknown. 

The specimen figured and described is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens: — 

E Mm. H. E. Dresser. 

a, $ , pull. Tjubuk, S.E. Ural, July 21st, 1872 {W. Meves). b, <J. October 1st, c. January 13th, Cawnpore; 
d. November 14th, e, $. April 29th,/, <J . April 21st, g. November 14th, Muddapur, India; h, $ . 
Jumalpur, October 16th, 1878; i, $ . Kashmir, May 9th, 1871; k. Bareilly; I, J 1 . Cawnpore, January 
20th; m, $ . March 16th, n, $ . April 21st, o, $. April 22nd, p, $ . April 28th, q, $ . October 11th, 
r. October 28th, s, 6. November 2nd, t, ? . November 21st, Muddapur, India (W. E. Brooks). 



HYPOLAIS RAMA. 

(SYKES'S WARBLER.) 



Sylvia rama, Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 89. 

Calamodyta rama (Sykes), Gray, Gen. of B. i. p. 172 (1848). 

Phyllopneuste rama (Sykes), Cat. B. in Mus. As. Soc. p. 183 (1849). 

Phylloscopms rama (Sykes), Walden, Ibis, 1869, p. 211. 

Iduna caligata (nee Licht.), Hume, Nests & Eggs of Ind. B. p. 360 (1874). 

Hypolais rama (Sykes), Dresser, B. of Europe, ii. p. 542 (1875). 

Hippolais rama (Sykes), Brooks, Str. Feath. iv. p. 275 (1876). 

Salicaria tamariceti, Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotn. p. 131 (1873). 

Salicaria modesta, id. op. cit. p. 129 (1873). 

Salicaria obsoleta, id. op. cit. p. 129 (1873). 

Hypolais obsoleta (Severtzoff), Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 86 (1881). 

Hypolais (Iduna) rama (Sykes), Pleske, Orn. Boss. ii. p. 359 (1890). 

Iduna rama (Sykes), Pleske, torn. cit. p. 360 (1890). 

Tshourlent/ci, Tekke ; Koktalgliu, Turki. 

Figura nulla. 

Ad. corpore supra sordide bruimescenti-cinereo : stria supereiliari pallide cervina : remigibus et rectricibus 
brunnescentibus, extus sordide fulvido marginatis : corpore subtus albo : abdomine vix cerviuo lavato : 
remige secunda octava breviore. 

Juv. corpore supra magis isabellino tincto : subtus albo, pectore flavido lavato. 

Adult Male (Merv, June 10th). Upper parts dull brownish grey with a fulvous tinge; lores dusky; a pale 
buff streak passing from the bill above and just behind the eye ; wings and tail brown, with dull 
fulvous-brown margins to the feathers; the outer tail-feather with the outer web dull white ; underparts 
white, faintly tinged with buff on the abdomen : bill brown, the lower mandible dull fleshy at the 
base; legs grey; iris brown. Total length about 5 inches, culmen - 55, wing 2 - 3, tail 2'15, tarsus 08; 
first primary T05 short of the tip of the wing, second intermediate in length between the eighth and 
ninth, the third, fourth, and fifth primaries equal and longest ; secondaries 035 short of the tip of 
the wing. 

The female does not differ from the male in plumage. In the autumn the plumage is brighter and redder 
in tinge on the upper parts, and the underparts are tinged with buff. The nestling plumage, which 
represents Severtzoffs Hypolais obsoleta, differs, according to Pleske, in being duller and more 
isabelline in tint on the upper parts, and the underparts are silky white tinged with yellowish on the 
breast. 

n2 



92 

The present species, which is a large-sized eastern form of Hypolais caligata, inhabits, during 
the breeding-season, Transcaspia, Turkestan, South-eastern Mongolia, South-western Persia, and 
Kashmir, spending the winter in India. 

According to Mr. Zarudny (Rech. Zool. Transcasp. p. 73) " its distribution in Transcaspia is 
widely extended ; it is very common in the basin of the Murghab and Tedgend, in the oasis of 
Atek and the'neighbouring mountains below the juniper zone. In summer it is to be seen with 
its young amongst the sand-hills a few versts distant from a valley watered by a small river. Its 
favourite haunts in summer are dry places near water, covered in some parts with tamarisk or 
other bushes, and in others with alchargis ; it is also often met with in dried-up marshes 
sparingly covered with bushes and scattered small reeds, and is, as a rule, more numerous in the 
plains than in the mountains. 

" In the oasis of Merv it has penetrated along the Alikhanow canal to the eastern sand- 
districts, almost as far as the salt-plains of Djondjoncli, where in the spring the floods submerge 
a large number of the nests of this bird. On the 16th of June I saw, near the lake Ayna-Gueul, 
young birds which were ready to leave the nest. The bird is so common in this country, and is 
so careless in hiding its nest, that between the end of April and the beginning of June I found 
at least sixty." 

According to Messrs. Radde and Walter (Vog. Transcasp. p. 51) it is extremely common in 
the tamarisk- thickets along the water-courses. The first migrants arrived in 1886 at Molla-kary 
on the 23rd April (new style), and from the 16th to the 28th of April they increased largely in 
numbers. On the Murghab the first migrants appeared in 1S87 on the 16th of April, and the 
largest number was observed passing on the 20th of April. 

Mr. W. T. Blanford obtained examples at Karman, Persia, in May, at Shiraz in June, and 
at Ispahan in July, and he also met with it in Baluchistan in March and April. In Turkestan, 
according to Severtzoff, it is common on the Syr-Darja ; and Prjevalsky met with it in 1877 on 
the return journey from Lob-nor in the Tian-shan, and obtained specimens in the Chaidu-gol 
valley on the Juldus and the Hi, in which last-named locality numbers were nesting. Early in 
September one was shot on the Zairam-nor. 

Mr. Oates writes (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 392) that the distribution of this Warbler 
extends " throughout the whole peninsula of India down to the Nilgiris in the south, and 
to the longitude of Dinapore and Lohardugga in the east. I have examined a large series of 
birds from almost every portion of this area. It is in general a winter visitor, but Doig found a 
large colony breeding from March to July on the Eastern Nara, Sind. It breeds in Quetta and 
westwards to Europe ; also in Turkestan ; and Seebohm states that it breeds in Kashmir. 
India appears to be its main winter-quarters." 

In habits the present species closely resembles Hypolais caligata, but, according to 
Mr. Zarudny, its note differs from the note of that species. Its song, he adds, is feeble but very 
agreeable ; when the male sings it erects the feathers of its crown and perches on the most 
elevated bare branch of a bush, and is therefore easy to shoot ; but in the summer it is not so 
easy to procure it, as it is then more retiring in its habits. 

The breeding-range of Sykes's Warbler extends, it appears, from Transcaspia eastward to 
the Tian-shan range, and I do not find any confirmation of the statement made by Mr. Seebohm 



93 

(Cat. B. Bvit. Mus. v. p. 85) that it breeds in the valley of the Lower Volga. According to 
Mr. Zarudny it breeds very commonly in Transcaspia ; and he gives a careful description of eight 
nests he found, all of which were placed low down on a bush, chiefly under a foot from the 
ground, and were constructed of fine bents and twigs of tamarisk intermixed with vegetable 
down and wool, and lined with vegetable down, wool, and horsehair, sometimes with a few 
feathers, and contained from four to seven eggs, one only containing as many as seven. The 
nests obtained by Messrs. Radde and Walter at Chodsha-kala were placed in tamarisk-bushes 
low down, and were, they say, somewhat remarkable as having the upper part of the cup oval in 
shape. They contained only from three to four eggs. 

The eggs resemble those of Hypolais pallida, but are smaller, and have a slight tendency to 
the eggs of Acrocephalus palustris in appearance, as I remarked (P. Z. S. 1874, p. 656) when I 
exhibited the nest and eggs of this Warbler obtained in Persia by Mr. Blanford, and figured in 
the P. Z. S. 1874, pi. lxxix. 

As the present species so closely resembles Hypolais caligata in coloration, I have not 
deemed it necessary to give a figure of it. 

The specimens described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H E. Dresser. 

a,b,S- Merv, June 5th and 10th {Dr. G. Radde). c, <$ . Ispahan, Persia, July 10th, 1872 {W. T. Blanford). 
d. Etawah, N.W. India, September 14th, 1869; e, ? . Etawah, September 25th, 1869 {W. E. Brooks). 



652 




. ■'-- ilt man lit 



EASTERN GRASSHOPPER WARBLER 

LOCUSTELLA STRA"MIHEA , 



Hanharb imp. 



LOCUSTELLA STRAMINEA. 

(EASTERN GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER.) 



Locustella certliiola (nee Pall.), Jerdon, B. of India, ii. p. 159 (1863). 
Acridiornis straminea, Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotn. p. 06 (1873). 
Locustella hendersoni (nee Cass.), Dresser, B. of Eur. ii. p. 614 (1874). 
Locustella lanceolata (nee Temm.), Dresser, Ibis, 1876, p. 90. 
Locustella straminea (Severtzoff), Seebohm, Ibis, 1880, p. 276. 

Figura nulla. 

Ad. L. navice similis, sed minor : corpore supra magis olivascente tincto, et magis fusco notato : pileo et 
uropygio magis notatis : corpore subths albo, pectore et hypochondriis cervino lavatis : remige secunda, 
longitudine inter 5 m et 6 m , tertia longissima. 

Adult (Ekaterinburg, June 20tb) . Resembles L. ncevia, but the ground- colour of the upper parts is paler 
and more olivaceous in tint, and the dark markings clearer and more pronounced, especially on the 
head and rump ; underparts white, washed with buff on the breast and flanks : bill horn-brown, 
yellowish at base; legs dull yellowish flesh; iris brown. Total length about 4"5 inches, culmen 0-55, 
wing 2'15, tail P95, tarsus 0-82; first primary about as long as the wing-coverts, second intermediate 
between the fifth and sixth, the third longest. 

Young (Orenburg, May 26th) . Differs from the adult in having the upper parts much more boldly marked, 
the margins to the feathers being narrower and paler; throat spotted with blackish brown. 

The sexes do not differ in plumage, and the winter dress scarcely differs from that worn in the spring, the 
only difference being that the upper parts are rather duller in tint. 

The present species, which is the Eastern representative of our Grasshopper- Warbler, ranges 
from the Ural Mountains through Turkestan to the Pamirs, and south into India, breeding in 
the Ural, Transcaspia, and Turkestan, and wintering in India. 

According to Zarudny {fide Pleske, Orn. Eoss. ii. p. 613) both the eastern and western 
forms are found at Orenburg, but Locustella straminea largely predominates, Locustella ncevia 
being comparatively rare. He met with it in the valleys on the central portion of the Ural 
Eiver, on the lower portion of the Ilek and Tschingurlan, as also on the Tschagan and Lower 
Sakmara, where it was not uncommon. It is rather difficult to determine to which of the two 
forms the various records from different portions of Eussia refer, but, according to Mr. Pleske, all 
the specimens obtained by Messrs. Lorenz and Bossikoff in the Caucasus belong to Locustella 
straminea. Mr. Bossikoff obtained it at the Stanitza Frochladnaja, and Mr. Lorenz collected a 
large number in the vicinity of Kislovodsk, on the Podkumok and the Dshutza, and in the 



96 

Beresowaja gorge. Dr. Lehmann obtained a Grasshopper- Warbler, which probably belonged to 
the eastern form, at Nowo-Alexandrowsk, on the peninsula of Mangyschlak ; and, according to 
SevertzofF, it breeds in the steppe and mountain districts of nearly the whole of Turkestan, from 
the delta of the Syr-Darja in the west along its entire course, on the Karatau, in the western 
Tian-shan, and in Semiretschje, and Mr. Russoff sent examples to the St. Petersburg Museum 
from Tschinas and Iskander-kul. In June, 1877, it was met with by Col. Prjevalsky in con- 
siderable numbers in the meadows in the forest-zone of the Kungas valley (Tian-shan), and it 
nests there, he adds, in the thick grass. 

Severtzoff met with it in the Pamir range, and says (Ibis, 1883, p. 65) that it was "found 
at the end of July on brook-swamps near the mountain-pass between the Chatir-kul and 
Kara-kul in the northern range, at the height of nearly 15,000 feet. It probably breeds there." 
Col. Biddulph obtained it at Gilgit ; and according to Mr. Oates (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 355) 
it is " a winter visitor to the plains of India. I have examined specimens from Delhi, Etawah, 
Cawnpore, Native Sikkim, the Bhutan Doars, Asansol, Deesa, Belgaum, and Coimbatore. All 
these were killed from April to September, except the specimen from Native Sikkim, which was 
procured in June. It is, therefore, probable that L. straminea may pass the summer and breed 
there. Cripps records this species from Furreedpore, but I have not had an opportunity of 
examining the specimen referred to by him." Mr. Oates further states that the summer- 
quarters of this bird are not known ; and the above statement that it has been met with in India 
" from April to September " is probably a misprint. 

In habits the present species does not appear to differ from its western ally, and its nest 
and eggs doubtless resemble those of that species, but I do not find any description of them on 
record. 

Mr. Pleske (I. c.) does not separate the eastern and western forms specifically, but after a 
careful examination of the series in the British Museum, and a comparison between European 
and Asiatic specimens, I think that the two forms may reasonably be kept apart. Specimens of 
Locustella straminea from the Ural, compared with examples from Germany, have the markings 
on the upper parts much more clearly defined, more especially on the head and rump, where in 
German specimens they are much less clearly defined, the rump being almost devoid of the dark 
markings ; the ground-colour is also darker in the western form, and more olivaceous and 
lighter in the eastern. The eastern form is smaller and has the second primary intermediate 
between the fifth and sixth, whereas in the German bird it is intermediate between the third 
and fourth. On the whole the differences between Locustella straminea and L. ncevia appear 
to me to be about equivalent to those between Hypolais rama and II. caligata. 

The specimen figured and described was obtained by Sabanaeff at Ekaterinburg and is in 
my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E litis. H. E. Dresser. 

a. Ekaterinburg, Ural, June 20th, 1872 (Sabanaeff). b, c, 6 . Orenburg, May 23rd and 26th (Menzbier). 
d. Etawah, N.W. India, April 13th, 1869 ; e. Etawah, September 13th, 1869 {TV. E. Brooks). 



97 



Genus SCOTOCERCA. 

Malurus apud Cretzschm. in Riipp. Atlas, p. 55 (1826). 
Curruca apud Hemp. & Ehr. Symb. Phys. fol. bb (1828). 
Prima apud Riipp. Neue Wirbelth., Vogel, p. 113 (1835-49). 
Drymoica apud Riipp. Syst. Uebers. p. 56 (1845). 
Scotocerca, Sundevall, Av. Meth. Tent. p. 7 (1872). 
Melizojihttus apud Brooks, Ibis, 1872, p. 180. 
Atraphornis, Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotn. p. 121 (1873). 

The present genus is perhaps nearest allied to Drymoeca, from which, however, it is fairly 
separable. It inhabits the southern portion of the Palasarctic Region, and contains but two 
species, full particulars respecting the range and habits of which are given in the following 
articles. 

Scotocerca inquieta, which is the type of the genus, has the bill slender, the upper mandible 
slightly decurved towards the tip, not notched, the nostrils basal, oval, gape furnished with a few 
very fine bristles; wings moderately long, first quill large, only - 4 inch shorter than the second, 
which is - 2 shorter than the third, the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth nearly equal, the third and 
fourth being the longest ; tail about equal in length to the wing, rounded, tail-feathers ten in 
number; tarsus rather long, scutellate ; feet moderate; plumage soft and rather loose, general 
colour greyish sandy, upper parts more or less striated. 



SCOTOCEBCA INQUIETA. 

(STREAKED SCKUB-WARBLER.) 



Malurus inquietus, Cretzschm. in Riipp. Atlas, p. 55, tab. 36. fig. B (1826). 

Curruca famula, Hempr. & Ehr. Symb. Phys. fol. bb (1828). 

Prinia inquieta (Cretzschm.), Rupp. Neue Wirbelth., Vogel, p. 113 (1835-49). 

Drymoica inquieta (Cretzschm.), Rupp. Syst. Uebers. p. 57 (1845). 

Drymoeca eremita, Tristram, Ibis, 1867, p. 76. 

Drymoica eremita, Tristr., Gray, Hand-1. of B. i. p. 199. no. 2783 (1869). 

Drymoeea inquieta (Cretzschm.), Heuglin, Ibis, 1869, p. 129. 

" Sylvia famula, Hempr. & Ehr.," id. Orn. N.O.-Afr. i. p. 244 (1869). 

Scotocerca {Mai. inquietus, Rupp.), Sundevall, Av. Meth. Tent. p. 7 (1872). 

Melizophilus striatus, Brooks, Ibis, 1872, p. 180. 

Atraphomis platyura, Severtz. Turk. Jevotn. p. 124 (1873). 

Scotocerca inquieta (Cretzschm.), Blanford, E. Pers. ii. p. 207 (1876). 

Figuras notabiles. 

Riipp. Atlas, pi. xxxvi. fig. B ; Wyatt, Mamm. & Avif. Sinai, pi. xvii. fig. 2 ; Blanford, 
E. Pers. ii. pi. xiii. fig. 2. 

Ad. corpore supra pallide griseo-fusco, plumis pilei conspicue dorsi obscurius fusco striatis : alis brunneis, 
remigibus pallidiore margin atis : cauda nigro-fusca, indistincte pallidiore marginata : corpore subtiis 
albo, hypochondriis griseo-cervino lavatis : gula, conspicue nigro-fusco striata: loris et stria superciliari 
cervinis, vitta, inter rostrum et oculum et stria postoculari nigricantibus : capitis lateribus griseo-cervinis : 
rostro fusco, mandibula ad basin fusco-aurantiaca : pedibus flavido-fuscis : iride f'usca. 

Adult Male (Baluchistan, March 8th). Upper parts pale greyish hair-brown, the crown with distinct, the 
back with indistinct darker streaks ; wings light brown, with paler margins to the feathers ; tail 
blackish brown, with indistinct paler margins to the feathers ; underparts white, the flanks washed with 
greyish buff, the throat clearly streaked witb blackish brown ; lores and a narrow superciliary streak 
sandy buff ; a blackish spot in front of the eye and a small blackish streak behind the eye ; sides of the 
head greyish buff: bill dark brown, the base of the lower mandible orange-brown; legs yellowish 
brown; iris brown. Total length about 4 inches, culmen - 45, wing 1-85, tail l - 65, tarsus 075. 

Specimens from Transcaspia are paler and greyer on the upper parts than the specimens above described, 
and have the underparts whiter ; but none exhibit a tendency towards the warm isabelline colour so 
characteristic of the western form, S. saharce. The sexes do not differ in plumage. 

From Arabia Petraa and Palestine through Transcaspia and Persia to the vicinity of the Indus 
river the present species is to be found in stony desert places. 

o2 



100 

Hemprich and Ehrenberg record it from Egypt; Von Heuglin says that it is a resident in 
Arabia ; and the Rev. F. W. Holland obtained it at Wady-Feiran on the Sinaitic peninsula. 

Canon Tristram (Ibis, 1867, p. 76) met with it in the desolate wadys opening on the west 
side of the Dead Sea, where it flitted restlessly from one little desert shrub to the other. He 
found one or two in each wady, but never two together, and it inhabited ravines where the 
Rock-Chats were the only other birds that could find sustenance. He remarks that it was 
extremely shy and wary. It is found in suitable localities throughout Transcaspia, and has been 
met with, Dr. Severtzoff says, on the western shores of the Caspian. According to Mr. Zarudny 
(Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 783) it is very common on the sands which surround the Merv oasis 
and on the plain of the central Murghab. On the 19th June he observed a family of this 
species amongst the bushes growing on the ruins of Bayram-Ali-Khan-Kala. This bird is, he 
adds, frequently met with on the plains of Tedgend, but he did not observe it (in 1886) on the 
low plains in the oasis of Ahal-Teke nor in the neighbouring portion of the Kara-Koum desert. 
Messrs. Radde and Walter, who also met with it in Transcaspia, write (Vog. Transcasp. p. 48) as 
follows : — " Inasmuch as we obtained the first specimens between the 15th and 18th February, at 
Krasnovodsk, when it was still in the depth of winter, we may take it for granted that some at 
least remain over the winter. On passage to Turkestan this otherwise mountain-haunting bird 
was seen in the said district, as, for instance, numerously on the 27th and 28th March, 1587, at 
Utschadshi. In 1886 we observed a few on the 8th March in the sand at Bal-kuju, and a 
specimen shot on the coast of Tschickischljar by Mr. Jasevitch, on the 22nd May, was probably 
a late straggler on migration. It breeds numerously in all the mountains both in the coast- 
chain of the Kuba-dagh and in the Balchan, and throughout the Kopet-dagh. On the 25th April 
we saw fledged young in the great Balchan." It inhabits Persia, but is, Mr. Blanford writes 
(E. Pers. ii. p. 209), " very locally distributed in Southern Persia and Baluchistan, though it 
was far from scarce where it occurred. I usually met with it amongst low scattered bushes and 
shrubs, on plains and hill-sides. Amongst the bushes it was very active, hunting amongst the 
twigs and frequently flying from bush to bush with the feeble, jerking uncertain flight of other 
Drymcecce, or hopping about on the ground at the roots of the bushes. It was familiar, trying 
to hide in the bushes when pursued, and altogether its habits reminded me much of those of 
I), gracilis, Riipp." Sir Oliver St. John (Ibis, 1889, p. 165) obtained it at Kandahar, Afghan- 
istan, and Dr. Duke in the highlands south of Kelat, and also, according to Col. Swinhoe (Ibis, 
1882, p. 108), at Iskulko, in Northern Baluchistan. In British India it is, Mr. Oates states 
(Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 433), " a resident in the bare stony hills which run, in various 
broken ranges, from the Khyber Pass to the sea, on the west of the Indus river." 

In its habits the present species is said to resemble the Drymcecce, and more especially 
Drymosca gracilis. 

Mr. Zarudny, who had ample opportunities of observing it in Transcaspia, says (I. c.) that he 
found it " very common in the stony mountains covered with low bushes on the precipices and 
amongst the clefts and cavities. It is but seldom seen in the zone of the large junipers, and 
still rarer in the stony plains of the mountains, and does not even descend into the plain of the 
Ahal-Teke, though it is to be met with in the lower portions of the Kopet-dagh. Very restless 
in its habits it is seldom quiet, and glides swiftly through the bushes, skipping from stone to 



101 

stone, now and again picking up small insects ; occasionally it perches on the top branch of a 
bush or on a stone, jerks its tail up and utters shrill notes. On the wing it performs various 
evolutions, rising somewhat in the air it suddenly drops on the ground and rebounds up, 
reminding one of an india-rubber ball. In the latter half of June I observed family parties, 
four young ones with their parents, and in July and August the young were seen singly and the 
old birds in pairs. This bird is very tame, and one can approach within a few paces of it, and 
if one is shot the report of the gun does not frighten away the survivors." 

In Arabia Von Heuglin says (I. c.) it occurs singly and in pairs, and not unfrequently is to 
be seen on the ground, hopping and running amongst the stones and rocks. It is a very active 
and lively bird, reminding one more of the Leaf- Warblers than the Malurce in its general habits. 
Its song is somewhat Tit-like, the harsh call-note being not unlike that of Parns cristatus. 
In the early hours of the morning the melodious song of the male echoes far throughout the 
desert lonely places which it frequents, but during the hotter portions of the day it is more 
silent. 

Captain Cock was the first to obtain authentic eggs of this bird, and informed Mr. A. O. 
Hume (' Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds,' 2nd ed. i. p. 276) that he " first discovered it breeding in 
February in the Khuttuck Hills. It is common throughout the range of stony hills between 
Peshawur and Attock, and I have seen it on the hills between Jhelum and Pindi, but never took 
their nest in this latter locality. At Nowshera it is very common, and towards the end of February 
a collector could take four or five nests in a day. It builds in a low thorny shrub about 1\ feet 
from the ground, makes a largish globular nest of thin dry grass-stems with an opening in the 
side, thickly lined with seed-down, and containing four or five eggs. Their nesting-operations 
are over by the end of March." Lieut. Barnes, who met with this species at Chaman, in 
Afghanistan, says that they commenced breeding there towards the end of March, and that the 
normal number of eggs is six, and describes them as being " oval in shape, white, with a pinkish 
tinge when fresh, very minutely spotted and speckled with light red, most densely at the larger 
end. The average of twelve eggs is 0'62 by - 4o inch." Mr. Barnes states that the nests he found 
were lined with feathers and fine grass. A nest sent to me by Mr. W. E. Brooks was constructed 
of dry grass-stems and lined with fine grasses ; in was oval in shape, domed, with an entrance on 
the side near the top, and the eggs were white spotted with red, the spots being rather more 
numerous round the larger end and not very minute. 

Mr. A. O. Hume writes (I. c.) : — "The eggs are moderately broad and regular ovals, usually 
somewhat compressed towards one end, but occasionally exhibiting no trace of this. The shell 
is very fine and delicate, but, as a rule, entirely devoid of gloss. The ground-colour varies from 
pure to pinky white. The markings are always minute, but in some they are comparatively 
much bolder and larger than in others, and they vary in colour from reddish pink to a com- 
paratively bright red. In many eggs the markings are much more dense towards the large end, 
where they form, or exhibit a strong tendency to form, an irregular, more or less confluent zone ; 
and wherever the markings are dense there a certain number of tiny pale purple or lilac spots 
or clouds will be found intermingled with and underlying the red markings. Some eggs show 
none of these spots and exhibit no tendency to form a zone, being pretty uniformly speckled and 
spotted all over. Some are not very unlike eggs of the Grasshopper and Dartford Warblers ; 



102 

others, again, are almost counterparts of the eggs of FranMinia buchanani. In length the eggs 
vary from 0"6 to 068 inch, and in breadth from 046 to 051. " 
The specimen figured and described is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mas. H. E. Dresser. 

a, £. Magas, Baluchistan, March 8th, 1872 {TV. T. Blanford). b, <J . Krasnovodsk, February 9th, 1886; 
c. Chistchitnyar, May 10th; d, ?. Balchan, April 13th, 1886 {Dr. G. Radde). e. Dort-Kuyou, May 
25th {Prof. Menzbier). 




G.KsuLemarLs daLetlith.. 



1.ALG-ER1AN SCPvUB VfARBLER. 

SCOTOCERCA SAHARA. 

2-. STREAKED SCRUB WARBLER. 

SCOTOCERCA 1NQUIETA. 



Iffinbsrn. Br-^s . imp . 



SCOTOCEKCA SAHAB£. 

(ALGERIAN SCRUB-WARBLER.) 



Malurus saharce, Loche, Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1858, p. 395. 
Malurus Sahara, Loche, Cat. des Produits de l'Algerie, p. 87 (1858). 
Drymoica siriaticeps, Tristram, Ibis, 1859, p. 58. 
Drymoeca striaticeps, Tristr., Heugl. Orn. N.O.-Afr. i. p. 245 (1869). 
Drymoica saharce, Loche, Expl. Sci. de l'Algerie, Oiseaux, p. 283 (1867). 
Scotocerca saharce (Loche), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vii. p. 214 (1883). 

Figurce notabiles. 
Loche, Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1858, pi. xi. fig. 2 ; Koenig, J. fur Orn. 1892, tab. iii. 

Ad. corpore supra isabellino vix rufescente tincto, pileo indistincte pallide f usco striato : remigibus fuscis, 
isabellino marginatis : rectricibus fuscis, ruf'escenti-cervino marginatis, nommllis cervino-albido apicatis : 
corpore subtus albo : gula. et gutture indistincte pallide griseo-fusco striatis. 

Adult Male (Algeria, Sabara). Upper parts warm greyish isabelline, with a slight rufous tinge, especially 
on the rump ; wings brown, the quills margined with sandy isabelline ; tail dark brown, the feathers 
margined with rufescent isabelline, several having dull whitish-isabelline tips ; underparts white, the 
throat indistinctly striated with greyish brown, these striations extending to the sides of the breast : 
bill pale brown, lighter and tinged with orange at the base ; legs yellowish flesh ; iris brown. Total 
length about 4 inches, culmen 04, wing T75, tail T7, tarsus - 75. 

The present species, the western representative of Scotocerca inquieta, is only known to occur in 
North-west Africa, and was first discovered by the late Major Loche in Algeria, where, though 
locally distributed, it is in places tolerably common. Canon Tristram writes (Ibis, 1859, p. 419) : 
" In one and only one locality did I meet with this most graceful Warbler. On the route 
between N'goussa and Temacin we had halted for a few hours by the salt-lake of Ain Bahrdahd, 
one of the most extensive of the few natural wildernesses of the desert, and which had not at that 
time been visited by any European. Wandering in the swamp in pursuit of Crateropus fulvus, I 
was struck by a clear long-drawn call of five notes, unlike any I had ever heard — whee-iohy-whe- 
whe-hee. It was long before among the tamarisks I could descry the songster, whom I at length 
observed, now running up the boughs like a Creeper, and then poising himself on a twig with his 

tail perpendicularly expanded and jerking it backwards and forwards Capt. Loche has, I 

believe, since obtained it at the same spot. It occasionally poises itself in the air and suddenly 
drops down again among the long grass." Dr. Koenig obtained several specimens at Biskra in 
Algeria, where it was, he says, by no means uncommon in the desert ; and he further adds that 
the collector Alessi sent him skins obtained in the vicinity of Gabes in Tunis. 

Mr. Whitaker (Ibis, 1895, p. 95) says that it "seems to be strictly a desert species, never 



104 

occurring far north of the Sahara. During my recent journey in Southern Tunisia I met with it 
only on the plains to the west of Gafsa, and there but sparingly. In the Algerian Sahara, 
however, and within a few miles of Biskra, I found it more plentiful, and my friends who visited 
the country south of the Chott Djerid also met with it constantly. It is a shy, timid little bird, 
and on the approach of danger hides in the middle of some scrub-bush, from which it is not 
easily dislodged. I generally found it in pairs, and, judging from the condition of specimens 
obtained in the early part of April, it was then breeding." 

Dr. A. Koenig informs me that " the nest of this bird is placed in a desert bush, usually in 
one of the thorn-bushes, and is artistically constructed, nearly round, domed, with a round 
entrance-hole in the side. The average measurements are : — outer circumference 40 cm., 
diameter 12 cm., depth of the interior 7 cm., diameter of the entrance 3 cm. In general 
appearance the nest resembles that of the Wren. The eggs are white with a dull gloss, and 
are dotted and blotched with deep red, the markings being more numerous round the larger 
end, and there are also a few pale lilac ground-markings. The eggs also somewhat resemble 
those of the Wren, more particularly those which are more richly marked, whereas those which 
are more sparsely spotted resemble those of the Titmice." 

In my collection I have a clutch of four eggs of this bird, received from Major Loche, which 
are white, boldly marked with red blotches and spots, which are larger and more numerous 
round the larger end. In size and shape they resemble the eggs of the Crested Titmouse, but 
are much more boldly and richly marked than any Titmouse egg in my collection. In size they 
vary from 0"64 by 0"48 to 0-67 by 0-52 inch. 

The specimen figured and described is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. II. E. Dresser. 



a,b, $ . Algerian Sahara (Loche) . 
a, J 1 ad. Algerian Sahara (Loche). 



E Mus. Brit. 



E Mus. W. Rothschild, 
a, J . Oued Makroun, Tunis, March 24th, 1892 ; b, $ . Oued Nakhla, Tunis, May 3rd, 1892 (W. H. Spatz). 





J. G-.Kjeuier.'- ^. r>x Asi . f-i b-fcJi. . 



1. BROWN ACCENTOR. 

ACCENTOR FULVESCENS. 

2. BLACK-THROATED ACCENTOR 

ACCENTOR ATR.J &ULARJ.S . 



M intern. Bros . iinp , 



ACCENTOR FULVESCENS. 

(BROWN ACCENTOR.) 



Accentor fulvescens, Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotnie, pp. 66, 132 (1873). 

Accentor dahuricus, Taczanowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1876, p. 144. 

Accentor montanellus (nee Pall.), Hume, Str. Feath. iii. p. 220 (1875). 

Accentor ocularis, Kaclde, Orn. Caucas: p. 244, pi. xiv. (1884). 

Tharrhaleus fulvescens (Severtzoff), Oates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, ii. p. 171 (1890). 

Figurce notabiles. 
Radde, Orn. Cauc. pi. xiv. ; Gould, B. of Asia, part xxiii. (as $ of A. montanellus). 

Ad. corpore supra pallide cinereo-fusco, plumis centraliter nigro-fuscis, pileo nigro-fulvido : stria, superciliari 
usque ad nucham ducta, loris, capitis lateribus et regione parotica nigris : remigibus et rectricibus 
fuscis, extus pallidiore marginatis : mento et gula albis : corpore reliquo subtiis cervino, hypocbondriis 
griseo-fusco lavatis : rostro nigro-fusco : pedibus carneo-fuscis : iride fusca. 

Adult Male (Verno'i, January 22nd) . Crown warm blackisb brown ; a broad superciliary streak extending 
from the base of the bill to the nape white ; lores, sides of the head, and ear-coverts black ; upper 
parts generally pale greyish brown, darker near the shaft of the feathers ; wings and tail brown, with 
paler margins to the feathers ; chin and throat white, rest of the underparts creamy buff, washed with 
dull greyish brown on the flanks : bill blackish brown ; legs fleshy ; iris dark brown. Total length 
about 5"5 inches, culmen 05, wing 3'05, tail 2 - 6, tarsus 08. 

A female from the Nobra Valley, shot on the 24th June, resembles the male, but the colours are duller and 
the superciliary stripe is smaller ; and a male from the Karakash Valley obtained in October is very pale 
in general coloration, though otherwise not differing from the other specimens. Dr. Severtzoff when he 
worked at my collection marked on the label of this specimen " A. fulvescens, var. pallidus." Autumn- 
killed specimens in the British Museum are paler and duller owing to the light margins to the feathers, 
and the underparts are warm clay-buff in tone of colour. 

The range of the Brown Accentor extends from the Caucasus to Eastern Mongolia and Thibet, 
and from Siberia to Gilgit and Sikhim. Dr. Radde obtained it only once in the Caucasus, in 
the eastern part of the Kus-jurdi, at an altitude of 8000 feet, the specimen, a male, having been 
shot in June ; and Dr. Raclde believing it to be undescribed, figured and described it (I. c.) under 
the name of Accentor ocularis. 

I do not find any record of its occurrence between the Caucasus and Turkestan, though it is 
probably to be met with in suitable localities in the intervening countries. 

In Turkestan, according to Dr. Severtzoff, it occurs both in the winter and also during the 
breeding-season. Mr. Scully met with it in Eastern Turkestan, where he observed it, he says 
(Str. Feath. iv. p. 155), pretty frequently between Toghrasu and Gulgun Shah, at elevations of 

p 



106 

from 11,000 to 13,000 feet. They were usually seen in pairs, and frequented the bushes 
growing near the banks of the Karakash River. 

According to Professor Menzbier (Ibis, 1885, p. 356) one was obtained in October near the 
Upper Uital, Upper Tarim ; a male was obtained by the brothers Grum-Grzimailo at Umkan-gol 
in the Tian-shan, and numerous specimens in the Karlyk-tagh (Ortarn and Chotun-tam) and at 
Pjan-do-go and Matisse in the Nian-shan. 

Dr. SevertzofT states (Ibis, 1883, p. 64) that it breeds in the Alai Mountains and in some 
parts of the Pamir; the young were found near Ran-kul at 12,000 feet in the middle of August, 
and they were common near the sources of the Kashgar Darya, between 11,000 and 13,000 feet, 
at the end of July. According to Sharpe (2nd Yark. Miss. p. 98) Dr. Stoliczka first identified 
this Accentor as new in his 'Diary,' on shooting one- near Shahidula on the 19th of October. 
Colonel Biddulph procured specimens at Tam on the 25th of October from 6000 to 8000 feet, 
and at Aktala on the 22nd of March, and he found it in the lower hills coming down from Sanju 
and going up to the Pamir, and it was numerous in the Knlustan Valley. Eastward it ranges 
into Mongolia. Col. Prjevalsky says that he found it throughout the portion of Mongolia he 
visited, with the exception of Ganssu. In the Gobi, Alashan, Zaidam, and Northern Thibet he 
met with it in the winter. It breeds, he adds, in the Alpine regions of Alashan. According to 
Mr. Pleske (Wissensch. Result. Przew. Reis. ii. p. 145) Accentor fulvescens appears to be very 
common in Central Asia, as Prjevalsky met with it in all parts of the countries explored by 
him, eastward to the northern portion of the province of Ganssu. Probably it is resident in 
all the mountain country of Central Asia and only avoids the desert. Even in the northern 
portion of its range, in the Tian-shan, it was met with by Prjevalsky in October and 
November, and was then probably in its winter-quarters. He states that it was not uncommon 
on the Juldus, in the Valley of Chaidu-gol, and in Dzungaria, as, for instance, between Barkul 
and Chami, and on the mountain-range of Dshair. In the mountain oases of the Central-Asiatic 
desert it also occurs in tolerable numbers. In the winter it was observed in the Churchu 
Mountains, and numerously during the breeding-season on the Nian-shan. Prjevalsky met 
with it also in the valley of the upper course of the Chuanche, and in Eastern Turkestan, 
in the Russki Mountains and in the Keria mountain-range. In Thibet it is recorded 
from the Burchan-Buda Mountains to the Blue River (Murui-ussu). In Ganssu it inhabits 
the woodless frontier mountains to Alashan, and in small numbers the southern Kuku-nor 
Mountains. 

It winters in Gilgit and Sikhim. Col. Biddulph and Mr. Scully both record it as common 
in the former country, and the latter gentleman remarks that it is only found there in winter, 
and is common from the first week in October to the third week in March. Mandelli also 
obtained it in the country north of Sikhim in the winter season. 

Dr. Sharpe (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vii. p. 655), referring to an Accentor from Irkutsk, remarks 
that it appears to belong to the present species, and not to A. montanellus ; and the late 
Dr. Taczanowski states (Sib. Orient, p. 220) that Dybowski and Godlevski met with it on the 
Argun River in Dauria in March and April in 1873, these being the only records to date of its 
occurrence in Siberia. 

So far as I am aware, nothing is known respecting the breeding-habits of the Brown 



107 

Accentor, but its nest and eggs in all probability will be found to resemble those of Accentor 
montanellus. 

The specimen figured and described is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens: — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, $ ad. Verno'i, Turkestan, January 22nd {Severtzoff). b. Karakash Valley, October 12th; c, $. Nc-bra 
Valley, June 24th (Col. S. Biddulph). d, e, <J. Ortyn-tam, January 31st, 1890; /, (J. Chotmi-tam, 
February 3rd, 1890 (Grum-Grzimailu) . 



P2 



ACCENTOE ATRIGTTLAEIS. 

(BLACK-THROATED ACCENTOR.) 



Accentor atriyularis, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersbourg, ii. p. 140 (1844). 

Accentor huttoni, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1854, p. 119. 

Tharrhaleus atrogularis (Brandt), Nazaroff, Recherch. Zool. des Steppes des Kirguiz, p. 23 

(1886). 
Tharrhaleus atrigularis (Brandt), Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, ii. p. 170 (1890). 

Figwra unica. 
Gould, B. of Asia, part x. 

Ad. pileo fusco-cinereo, lateribus nigris : dorso cum scapularibus cinereo- fuscis, pluiuis centraliter nigro-fusco 
notatis : uropygio cum supracaudalibus fere omnino fuscis : alis fuscis, remigibus extiis anguste 
pallidiore marginatis, secunclariis et tectricibus magis fulvido-fusco marginatis : rectricibus saturate 
fuscis, extiis pallide fusco marginatis : corpore subtiis cervino : gula, loris, capitis lateribus sub oculis 
et regione parotica nigris : stria superciliari usque ad nucham ducta, rufescenti-eervina : colli lateribus 
schistaceo-cinereis : hypochondriis indistincte fusco striatis : abdomine centraliter albo : rostro nigro, 
ad basin flavo-carneo : pedibus carneis : iride fusca. 

Adult Male (Tschimkent, autumn). Centre of the crown ashy brown, sides of the crown black; back and 
scapulars ashy hair-brown, with clearly denned blackish-brown centres to the feathers ; rump and 
upper tail-coverts almost uniform hair-brown, the feathers being rather darker near the shaft ; wings 
brown, with narrow pale brown margins to the primaries ; the secondaries and wing-coverts broadly 
margined with fulvous brown ; tail-feathers dark brown, with narrow external pale brown margins ; 
underparts generally warm clay-buff; throat and the lores, sides of the head below the eye, and the 
ear-coverts black ; superciliary stripe from the base of the bill, extending over the eye to the sides of 
the nape, warm clay -buff ; sides of the neck slate-grey ; flanks obscurely striated with pale brown ; 
centre of the abdomen nearly white : bill blackish brown, fleshy at the base ; legs fleshy brown ; iris 
dark brown. Total length about 5 - 6 inches, culmen OS, wing 2"95, tail 2 - 7, tarsus 0'82. 

A female obtained at Ssaissansk in October does not differ from the male above described, except that it is 
a trifle duller in tone of colour. Winter specimens have the black on the throat obscured by buffy- 
■white margins, and those in the summer dress have the black purer and deeper in tone of colour, and 
extending over a rather larger area. A male in the British Museum, obtained in Turkestan by 
Severtzoff on the 14th March, has the underparts much whiter than in the other specimens I have 
examined, and the black on the throat and sides of the head is very deep in colour and almost pure; 
the streak over the eye is pure white, not extending in front of the eye ; the forehead, lores, and all 
the space in front of the eye being pure black. 

Until quite recently this Accentor was not known to occur within the limits of the Western 
Palasarctic Region, but there is now no doubt of its having been obtained in Russia in Europe, for 



110 

Professor Menzbier, of Moscow, writes to me that a large flock, numbering fully 150 individuals, 
of this Accentor was observed in 1888 near Orenburg from the 23rd of November to the 25th of 
that month. A pair was obtained on the 27th of November, 1888, near the river Metchetka ; a 
male was shot on the 6th April, 1885, near Orenburg, and another on the 7th November, 1887. 
According to Nazaroff (Rech. Zool. des Steppes des Kirguiz, p. 33) it occurs on the Kirghis 
Steppes during migration. Seebohm records it from Samarcand ; Col. Swinhoe (Ibis, 1882, 
p. 110) obtained it at Quetta; and Dr. Severtzoff records it as found both in the breeding-season 
and in the winter in Turkestan. It was obtained by the brothers Grum-Grzimailo in the 
Karlyk-tagh (Ortam, Chotun-tam, and Bagdasch) ; Professor Menzbier states (Ibis, 1885, p. 356) 
that Messrs. Majeff and Wilkins procured a male on the 20th of October near the Upper Uital, 
Upper Tarim ; and Mr. Scully states (Str. Feath. iv. p. 155) that one was brought to him at 
Kashgar, and was said to have been captured in the neighbouring hills. According to 
Col. Biddulph (Ibis, 1881, p. 75) it is tolerably common at Gilgit in the winter, leaving about 
the 23rd of March ; and Mr. Scully writes (torn. cit. p. 569) that the present species is " a winter 
visitant only to the main valley of Gilgit, arriving about the middle of October and leaving in 
the third week of March. The birds are usually found in pairs, and are not very shy. I have 
shot specimens of this Accentor in orchards, where they were running about on the sward near 
rose-bushes ; when alarmed in such situations they occasionally seek shelter on the lower branches 
of small fruit-trees." 

Mr. Oates (Faun, of Brit. India, Birds, ii. p. 171) gives its range as "the Himalayas, from 
Afghanistan and Gilgit to Garhwal. Jerdon records this species from the Punjab Salt-Range. 
This Accentor is a winter visitor to the Himalayas, summering in Turkestan and other parts of 
Central Asia." 

According to Mr. Pleske (Wissensch. Result. Przew. Reis. ii. p. 146) this Accentor was observed 
by Prjevalsky in the first half of September 1876 and in June 1877 in the fir-woods on the 
Zanma River, where it probably nests. It was not uncommon on the Ssairam-nor in September 
1877, as also in the western mountainous portion of Dzungaria. In 1879 the first arrivals were 
observed on the 7th of March in Ssaissansk, but the main body passed about the middle of the 
month. Early in April stragglers were met with on the lower course of the Urungu River. 

We now know that its range extends from the Ural to Eastern Turkestan, and from the 
Altai Mountains down to the Punjab ; but respecting its habits I find no information on record 
beyond what I quote above, and its nest and eggs are, so far as I can ascertain, as yet unknown. 

The specimen figured and described is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

■a, tf. Tashkend, autumn (Severtzoff). b, <$ . September 16th, 1878; c, ? . September 18th, 1878, Ssaissansk 
(Kolomeitzeff). 




J.G-Keulermans del - et IttK. 



Miritern. Bros . imp 



I.MACEDONIAN LONGTAILED TITMOUSE. 

ACREDULA MACEDONICA. 

2. CAUCASIAN LONOTA1LED TITMOUSE. 

ACREDUJLA CA.UCASICA. 



ACKEDULA MACEDONICA. 

(MACEDONIAN LONG-TAILED TITMOUSE.) 



Acredula macedonica, Salvad. & Dresser, Bull. B. O. Club, vol. i. p. xv (1892). 

Figura adhuc nulla. 

<J ad. fronte et parte media pilei usque ad occiput albidis : lateribus pilei a rostri basi usque ad cervicem 
latissime nigris : dorso et corpore supra sicut in A. rosed : genis albidis fusco variis : gula albida, in 
medio plaga fusca ornata, et a pectore fascia pectorali transversa nigricante divisa : gastrseo reliquo 
albido, lateribus, abdomine imo et subcaudalibus roseo indutis : alis et Cauda sicut in A. rosed 
coloratis. 

Adult Male (Olympus, November 3rd). Upper parts as in Acredula rosea, but the black bands on the 
sides of the crown are conspicuously broader and extend to the base of the bill ; underparts white ; 
sides of the throat faintly striated with grey, and a narrow blackish-grey band passes across the breast, 
the throat being also faintly marked with dark grey ; flanks washed with rose : bill and legs black ; 
iris dark brown. Total length about 5'5 inches, culmen 03, wing 2 - 4, tail 3'5, tarsus 0"6. 

This species is as yet only little known, there being, so far as I can ascertain, but one 
specimen, the type, existing in any collection, unless there are examples in the Museum 
at Athens. I received it many years ago from Dr. Th. Kriiper, who obtained it on Mount 
Olympus, and I then regarded it as probably an individual variety; and as it was the only 
Long-tailed Titmouse I had seen from Greece, I tried, though ineffectually, to obtain more 
specimens. Some years ago I showed it to Count Salvadori, and he at once pronounced it to 
be a good species, and urged me to describe it, which, however, I was loth to do, only having 
examined the one specimen. When he again visited England in 1892 he urged me so strongly 
to lose no time in publishing a description of the bird, that I handed it over to him and proposed 
that he should describe it, which, however, he would not do, so we agreed to describe it conjointly, 
which we eventually did. 

So far as 1 can ascertain, this species is confined to Greece. Both Lindermayer and 
von der Miihle speak of a Long-tailed Titmouse as found in the winter in Greece, and breeding 
in Roumelia and Akarnania, which is probably the present species ; and Dr. Kriiper (Griech. 
Jahresz. p. 208) states that the Long-tailed Titmouse is a resident in Greece, and breeds early 
in April or late in March. Messrs. Elwes and Buckley, who wrote (Ibis, 1870, p. 199) that they 
obtained examples both in Macedonia and Bulgaria which agreed exactly with British specimens, 
must undoubtedly have procured the present species and not A, rosea. These specimens have 
unfortunately been lost or mislaid, and I have therefore been unable to confirm this by 
comparison. 

The specimen figured and described is the type, and is in my own collection. 



ACBEDULA CAUCASICA. 

(CAUCASIAN LONG-TAILED TITMOUSE.) 



Acredula caudata, Radde, Orn. Caucas. p. 143 (1884, partim). 

Mecistura irbyi, subsp. caucasica, Lorenz, Beitr. Orn. Faun. Nords. Kauk. p. 60, Nachtrag 

(1887). 
Acredula caucasica (Lorenz), Dresser, Ibis, 1893, p. 242. 

Figura nulla. 

S ad. pileo albo, fronte rufescenti-brunneo notata : stria, superciliari supra rufescenti-brunuea et subtus nigra, : 
dorso pallide schistaceo-griseo, in parte superiore saturatiore : uropygio et supracaudalibus pallide 
schistaceo-griseis, his vix rosaceo tinctis : cauda, et alis sicut in A. tephronotd coloratis : corpore subtus 
albo, pectoris lateribus griseo notatis : rostro et pedibus nigris : iride fusca. 

Adult Male (Kuban). Crown white, the forehead mai'ked with reddish brown; superciliary stripe reddish 
brown above and blackish brown below ; back pale slaty grey, darker on the upper portion ; upper 
tail-coverts grey, faintly tinged with rose; wings blackish, the secondaries narrowly margined with 
white ; tail as in A. tephronota ; underparts white, faintly marked with grey on the sides of the breast : 
bill and feet blackish; iris brown. Total length about 5"3 inches, culmen O30, wing 2'5, tail 3 - 35, 
tarsus 0"64. 

Adult Female (Tiflis). Does not appreciably differ from the male. 

So far as I can ascertain, the present species is confined to the Caucasus ; but it is most difficult 
to define its precise range, as it has been until quite recently confused with allied species. It 
was first obtained on the northern slopes of the Caucasus by Mr. Lorenz, who observed that 
it differed from the Common Long-tailed Titmouse, and described it as a form of Acredula 
tephronota, from which, however, it is very distinct, as it lacks the blackish patch on the throat, 
and has the superciliary stripes on the sides of the crown reddish brown on the upper part and 
blackish brown on the lower part, and the centre of the crown pure white. Dr. Gustav Eadde 
has obtained it at Lenkoran and at Tiflis, and it is probably to be met with throughout the 
Caucasus, possibly ranging eastward into Transcaspia. I am indebted to Dr. Gustav Radde for 
three specimens from the Caucasus, all of which agree closely with the specimen I have figured 
and described. There appears to be little doubt that Dr. Radde (Orn. Cauc. p. 143) refers to 
this species under the name of Acredula caudata, as he remarks that in his specimens the 
superciliary stripe is indistinct and blackish brown, and in two specimens it is dull greyish 
rufous-brown. He also remarks that in some of his specimens of Acredula tephronota the 
superciliary stripe, instead of being black was of a light brownish-grey colour washed with reddish 
white, so that it is possible that his remarks there also may, to some extent, refer to the present 
species, especially as he adds that the spot on the throat was very indistinct. The measurements 

Q 



114 

given by Dr. Radde of the males of his Acredulce are as follows : — Acredula caudata : culmen 02 
inch, wing 2-45 to 2 - 55, tail 3'60 to 3 - 68, tarsus - 55 to 0*60; Acredula tephronota: culmen - 2, 
wing 2-3, tail 2 - 7, tarsus 0-6 ; and Acredula tephronota, var. major : culmen 0-2, wing 2-35 to 2-40, 
tail 3"2 to 3 - 25, tarsus 0-6. The three males of Acredula caucasica in my collection measure as 
follows :— Culmen 0-25 to 0-30 inch, wing 2-40 to 2-52, tail 340 to 3-35, tarsus O60 to 0-64. 

I find nothing on record respecting the habits and nidification of the present species, but it 
doubtless does not differ therein from its near allies Acredula caudata and Acredula tephronota. 

The specimen figured and described is in my own collection. 

There is no specimen of A. caucasica in the British Museum, and the only specimens I have 
been able to examine in the preparation of the above article are the following : — 

E Mas. H. E. Dresser. 

a, J ad. Kuban [Tschusi zu Schmidhofen) . b, J 1 . Lenkoran, December 1879 {Dr. G. Radde). c, J. Tiflis, 
December 1894 {Dr. G. Radde). d, ? . Tiflis, January 22nd, 1894 {Dr. G. Radde). 



656 




Mintem Bros . imx 



I. INDIAN GREY TITMOUSE. 

PARUS ATRICEPS. 

2.B0KHARAN GREY TITMOUSE 

PARUS BOKHARENSIS. 



PARUS CINEREUS. 

(INDIAN GREY TITMOUSE.) 



Le Mesange grise ajoue blanche, Levaill. Ois. d'Afr. p. 170, pi. 139. fig. 1 (1802). 

Parus cinereus, Vieill. Tabl. Encycl. et Method, ii. p. 506 (1820, ex Levaill.). 

Parus atriceps, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 160 (1S22). 

Parus nipalensis, Hodgson, Ind. Rev. 1838, p. 31. 

Parus schistinotus, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844). 

Panes ccesius, Tickell, fide Jerdon, B. of Ind. ii. p. 278 (1863). 

Bam-gangra, Beng. ; Boorung-glatelc-batoo, Clupau, Javan. 

Figures notabiles. 
Levaillant, ut supra; Temm. PI. Col. 207. fig. 2; Gould, B. of Asia, part x. 

Ad. pilei, nucha; et colli lateribus, mento, guM et vitta pectorali usque ad abdomine producta saturate nigris : 
nucha media, regione parotica et suboculari albis : dorso et uropygio schistaceo-cinereis : dorso 
superiore vix viridi-sulphureo tincto : remigibus nigricantibus, in pogonio externo albido et cine 
marginatis : tectricibus alarum majoribus conspicue albo apicatis : rectricibus centralibus schistaceo- 
cinereis, linea nigra, media notatis, reliquis in pogonio interno nigricantibus et in pogonio extemo 
schistaceo-cinereis, extimis pogonio externo et in pogonio interno ad apieem albis: corpore subtus 
albo : rostro nigro : pedibus plumbeis : iride f usca. 

Adult Male (Germab, March 4th) . Crown, sides of the nape and lower neck, chin, throat, and a broad stripe 
on the middle of tbe breast extending to the abdomen deep glossy black ; centre of the nape, cheeks, 
and ear-coverts white ; back and rump slaty blue-grey ; the upper back faintly tinged with apple-green ; 
quills blackish, externally margined with greyish white and blue-grey ; larger wing-coverts broadly 
tipped with white ; median rectrices slaty blue, with a black line along the shaft, remaining rectrices 
blackish on the inner web and slate-blue on the outer web, the outermost with the outer web and 
terminal portion of the inner web white ; underparts, except as above stated, white : bill black ; legs 
plumbeous; iris dark brown. Total length about 5-3 inches, culmen 0"5, wing 2"9, tail 2-5, tarsus 0'8. 

The female does not differ from the male in plumage, but the young have the upper parts tinged with 
yellow and the underparts with buff. 

The range of the Indian Grey Titmouse is very extensive, as it is found from Transcaspia in the 
west to China in the east, and from the Himalayas down through the Malay Peninsula to the 
islands of the Malay Archipelago. 

It is not included in the list of Transcaspian birds by Mr. Zarudny, but it appears to me that 
his Parus bocharensis, var. intermedins, of which I have not had an opportunity of examining a 
specimen, will prove to be the present species, as he remarks that it inhabits the mountains 
exclusively; and Messrs. Radde and Walter, who met with it in Transcaspia, only observed it in 

Q2 



116 

the mountains, near the brooks, and in the gardens of the Kopepet-dagh. In Germab, they say, 
it was common, and did not differ in note or habits from P. major. I am indebted to Dr. G. 
Radde for a specimen from Transcaspia which is certainly a typical Parus cinereus. It was not 
observed in Persia by Mr. Blanford, but Major Wardlaw-Ramsay found it common and breeding 
in May and June in Afghanistan. Dr. Henderson (Lah. to Yark. p. 230) records it as common 
in Kashmir, and says that he obtained several specimens in the Sind Valley in June and also in 
October; and Col. Biddulph obtained it in Gilgit in March and June. In India, according to 
Mr. Oates (Faun, of Brit. India, Birds, i. p. 48), it is found " throughout the whole of India, 
alike in the hills and plains, but more commonly in the elevated and well-wooded parts. In the 
Himalayas this Tit is found at all altitudes up to 9000 feet or more, from Hazara and Gilgit to 
Assam. It extends through the peninsula down to Cape Comorin and into Ceylon, the only 
portion from which it appears to be absent being Sind and Cutch. From Assam its range 
extends down to Tenasserim, where, however, it is noted by Davison as being rare. On the 
eastern borders of Burma Parus minor is found ; but a bird procured near Bhamo by my collector 
was P. cinereus, and so apparently is a young bird obtained by Anderson near the same locality 
and now in the British Museum." 

In Ceylon it is, according to Col. Legge (B. of Ceylon, p. 558), " very numerous in all the 
hill-districts, frequenting the highest parts of the main range and other forests above 3000 feet 
more abundantly than those of lower altitude. It is scattered over all the forest districts of the 
low country, but is not common near the sea. I met with it in most parts of the eastern side of 
the island and in the north-central jungles; and Mr. Parker informs me that it is common about 
Uswewa, in the Puttalam district. In the neighbourhoods of Colombo and Galle I have found 
it during both monsoons, but mostly in the cool season, and I believe that it is an occasional 
visitant only to those places. In the Morowak and Kukkul Korales, and likewise in the 
Saffragam and Pasdun Korale jungles, it is common, and probably visits the coast region from 
these localities. I never observed it close to Trincomalie, although it is tolerably frequent 
further inland." 

To the eastward it ranges into Southern China, where it meets with Parus minor, with 
which species it is supposed to interbreed and to have produced an intermediate race (Parus 
commiwtus, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1868, p. 63) ; but Mr. Oates says that he does not believe this to be 
the case, as every specimen he has examined from Southern China was referable either to 
P. minor or to P. cinereus. The former, he remarks, " is found as far west as Karennee and the 
Salween district of Tenasserim in a form almost as typical as Japanese specimens, and the latter 
in Amoy as typical as Southern-Indian birds or those from Java." 

There is a specimen of Parus cinereus in the British Museum from Fokien, in China ; and 
Mr. De la Touche (Ibis, 1892, p. 418) met with it at Foochow, where it is, he remai'ks, much 
less common than Parus minor. 

It is found on the Malay Peninsula. Lord Tweeddale received it from Lampong, in 
S.E. Sumatra, and there are specimens in the British Museum from Java, Flores, and Lombock. 

In its habits the Indian Grey Titmouse is said to resemble Parus major more closely than 
any of the other Titmice. Referring to its habits as observed by him in Ceylon, Col. Legge 
writes as follows : — " This interesting little bird, like its European congeners, possesses a restless 



117 

and inquisitive disposition, and is a most diligent worker when in search of its insect food. It 
consequently frequents a variety of situations, and intrudes itself upon the notice of the most 
casual observer. In the hills it is found in pairs, or two or three together, in forest, thick 
jungle, and patna-woods; it is likewise common on estates, the well-known coffee-bushes affording 
it such a welcome shelter that it appears to live permanently amongst them ; thence it makes 
casual raids upon the neat little gardens attached to so many bungalows, and deals destruction to 
the buds and young shoots. In the low country it resides chiefly in forest ; but its wandering 
disposition brings it often into the vicinity of habitations, where it locates itself for the time 
being in the shady compounds and pleasant groves among which the villagers pass their 
existence. There it frequently resorts to the heads of the cocoanut-trees, searching among their 
flowers and at the bases of the broad fronds for the numerous insects which affect these favourite 
situations. On the Horton-Plain woods, where it is common, it delights in the moss-covered 
trunks and limbs of the rather stunted timber-trees of that elevation, and attentively scrutinizes 
every nook and cranny in quest of its morning meal. While hopping about the branches of 
trees it gives out a sharp two-note whistle, and repeats it for a considerable time, after the 
manner of its European relative. I am not aware whether it has the interesting habit of tapping 
branches in the same style which must be familiar to all who have observed our Great Tit in 
England during the autumn and winter. No little bird can possess a more thoroughly busy and 
at the same time contented air than this one, when he is deligently working away at the branch 
of some fine old apple-tree, making his well-directed blows heard at a considerable distance from 
his perch." 

According to Mr. Hume (Nests and Eggs of Ind. B. 2nd ed. i. p. 31) this Titmouse breeds 
throughout the more wooded mountains of the Indian Empire at elevations of from 4000 even 
up to 9000 feet, the breeding-season being in the Himalayas from the end of March to the end of 
June, or even a little later according to season, and in the Nilghiris from February to May, and 
probably, he adds, they breed a second time in September or October. The nests are placed in 
holes in banks, trees, or walls, and frequently the old nest-holes of Barbets and Woodpeckers are 
utilized, and occasionally the nest is built on a branch of a tree. The nest is constructed of soft 
hair, moss, and feathers, and occasionally also of dry grass ; and the eggs, usually from five to six 
in number, are white blotched with light red, the blotches frequently collected and forming a zone 
at the larger end. Mr. Hume states that " the eggs resemble in their general character those of 
many of our English Tits, and though, I think, typically slightly longer, they appear to me to be 
very close to those of Parus palustris. In shape they are a broad oval, but somewhat elongated 
and pointed towards the small end. The ground-colour is pinkish white, and round the large 
end there is a conspicuous, though irregular and imperfect, zone of red blotches, spots, and 
streaks. Spots and specks of the same colour, or occasionally of a pale purple, are scantily 
sprinkled over the rest of the surface of the egg, and are most numerous in the neighbourhood 
of the zone. The eggs have a faint gloss. Some eggs do not exhibit the zone above referred to, 
but even in these the markings are much more numerous and dense towards the large end. In 
length the eggs vary from 0*65 to 0-78, and in breadth from - 5 to 0'58 ; but the average of 
thirty-eight is 0"71 by 0-54." 

Mr. Rhodes W. Morgan, who found this species breeding in Southern India, says (Ibis, 1875, 



118 

p. 322) that it " breeds in March and April in holes of trees, laying from two to four eggs, 
which are white with a few pink spots at the larger end. The nest is composed entirely of soft 
fur. This little Tit may frequently be seen in the vicinity of stables, in the breeding-season, 
where it comes for the sake of the horse-hair which is thrown out after the horses are groomed 
in the morning. I have found many nests entirely composed of this substance, with a few 
stray bits of wild cat's dung." 

The specimen figured is the male above described, and is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — ■ 

JE Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, g ad. Germab, Transcaspia, March 4th (Dr. G. Radde). b, ? juv. Lonanmrg, July 17th (Col. J. Biddulph). 
c, ad. Bhotan Doars, February 1876; d. Dhurmsala, May 1870; e. Kumaon, 1868 (W. E. Brooks), 
f, cJ ad. Coonoor, February 10th, 1872; g. Murree (Col. J. Biddulph). 



PARUS BOKHARENSIS. 

(BOKHARAN GREY TITMOUSE.) 



Parus bokharensis, Licht. in Eversm. Reise n. Buchara, p. 131 (1823). 
Parus bochariensis, Licht., Severtzoff, J. f. Orn. 1873, p. 346. 
Parus boccharensis, Licht., Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. viii. p. 16 (1883). 
Parus bocharensis typicus, Zarudny, Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 789 (1890). 
1. Parus bocharensis, var. intermedius, Zarudny, ut supra (1890). 

Figura nulla. 

Ad. P. cinereo similis, sed major, colli lateribus albis nee nigris et dorso conspicue pallidiore, facile 
distinguendus. 

Adult Male (Dzungaria) . Upper parts pale blue-grey, much paler than in P. cinereus ; crown and sides of 
the nape glossy black; centre of the nape white; quills blackish, on the basal portion margined with 
blue-grey, and on the terminal portion with white; secondaries and larger wing-coverts broadly 
margined with greyish white ; central tail-feathers blue-grey, the outermost rectrix white, margined with 
blackish on the inner web, the next with the outer web white and the inner web blackish tipped with 
white, the remaining tail-feathers blackish ; underparts white, with a broad central black band extending 
along the breast and abdomen, and the chin and throat deep black : beak black ; legs plumbeous ; iris 
dark brown. Total length about 6"7 inches, culmen 055, wing 3, tail 3"35, tarsus O8o. 

Adult Female (Tedgend). Does not differ from the male in plumage, but is a trifle smaller in size. 

This pale large form of Parus cinereus inhabits Transcaspia, Afghanistan, and Turkestan. 
Messrs. Badde and Walter, who found it by no means uncommon in Transcaspia, remark that 
they met with it only on the lowlands, whereas P. cinereus was met with exclusively in the 
mountains. Parus bokharensis, they say, " inhabits chiefly the dense tamarisk-thickets close to 
the water, but was also met with in the high sand by the Perewalnaja station, and in the salt- 
lagoons of Molla-kary. On the 1st April we observed it building its nest at Tedgend, and we 
could see how often the nests were endangered by the floods. The nest was in a rotten poplar 
(Poptdus diver si folia), and was close to the surface of the rising water. Clearly there were not 
many suitable nesting-places here, for the birds had been busy elevating their nest by bringing 
together a mass of tamarisk twigs and leaves, and had in fact raised it eighteen inches." On the 
Murghab many nests were found in old nest-holes of Gecinus flavirostris, and on the 12th April 
they all contained young. The nest resembles that of the Coal Titmouse, and is composed 
of fine tamarisk twigs together with the wool of various animals. Zarudny remarks (Bull. Soc. 
Mosc. iii. p. 789) that in Transcaspia two forms occur, viz. — Parus bocharensis typicus, with 
the characteristics attributed by many authors to P. bocharensis, Licht., and Parus bocharensis, 
var. intermedius. The former of these, he says, is " tolerably common in the woods along the 
Tedgend, and usually in those skirting the central part of the Murghab. It is not rare in the 
gardens of the Merv oasis, and even breeds in the sands skirting the Alikhanoff canal, where 



120 

it affects the tamarisk- and saxaul-thickets." On the 15th May he saw near Kara-Bend young 
birds which had not left the nest many days. 

Parus boJcharensis, var. intermedins, which I take to be P. cinereus, is chiefly distinguishable, 
he adds, " by a white nuchal patch tinged with bright yellow. The dorsal feathers are ashy 
grey with a tinge of yellowish green, and the breast is white marked distinctly with yellow 
on the flanks. During the heat of the summer the plumage gets considerably faded, and these 
differences become so far effaced as to render the varieties most difficult to separate. 

"To this species are referable the Titmice which I obtained in 1884 in the valleys of the 
Karguy-sou, Firouse, and Gujarmaou. 

" It inhabits exclusively the mountains and forests which rise from the banks of the Soumbar 
and Tchandyr. No difference is observable in the habits and note of these two forms." 

Mr. Blanford did not meet with Parus bolcharensis in Persia; but Col. Swinhoe obtained 
specimens in Afghanistan, at Kandahar, and Khojak, and Severtzoff in Turkestan. Mr. Pleske 
also received specimens (Rev. Turk. Ornis, p. 13) from Iskander-kul, Kschtut, and Samarcand. 
Col. Prjevalsky also records this species from Dzungaria, where it was met with in the poplar- 
and willow-groves on the Urungu and Bulugan Rivers. In its habits, he remarks, it agrees closely 
with the Great Titmouse, but its note is louder. 

In habits the present species is said not to differ from Parus cinereus, and like that species 
nests in holes in trees. Mr. Zarudny remarks {I. c.) that he believes it breeds twice in the year, 
as on the 20th May he found a nest near Dort-Koyou, in Transcaspia, and shot both the birds, 
and in the female he found an egg which would have been deposited within two days. The nest 
was in a hole in a saxaul bush, in a small thicket of these bushes growing on the top of a sand 
hillock. The hole was close to the root of the bush, and the nest consisted of a lot of rotten 
wood and a few pheasant's feathers. 

Mr. Zarudny does not describe the egg, which doubtless resembles that of Parus cinereus, 
but is larger. 

The present species is always distinguishable from Parus cinereus in being larger, much 
paler in colour, and in having the white on the sides of the head and neck extending over a 
much larger area, and usually extending down the sides of the neck to the breast, separating the 
black on the throat from that on the sides of the nape. In one specimen, however, in my 
collection from Ferghana a narrow line of black extends across the sides of lower neck, thus 
connecting the black on the throat with that on the sides of the nape, but in all the rest it is 
absent. The specimens I have figured show the difference between the two species very clearly. 

The specimen figured and described is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mm. II. P. Dresser. 

a, ? ad. Tedgend, Transcaspia, March 28th [Dr. G. Radde). b, <$ . Ferghana, December 25th; c, g . Nukus 
on the Oxus, August 31st ; d, $ . Jany-Darja, October 22nd ; e, $ . Mountains on Ugani River, 
E.Turkestan, January 28th, 1875 [Severtzoff). f,g,$. Urungu River, Dzungaria, April [Prjevalsky). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram, 
a, £. Oxus River, August 16th, 1880 [Severtzoff). b, $ . Urungu Kiver, Dzungaria [Prjevalsky). 




PERSIAN COAL TITMOUSE 



PARUS PHCEONOTUS 



PARUS PH^ONOTUS. 

(PERSIAN COAL TITMOUSE.) 



Parus ater (nee Linn.), Menetries, Cat. raisonne, p. 40. no. 92 (1832). 

Parus phceonotus, Blanford, Ibis, 1873, p. 88. 

Parus michailovsJcii, Bogdanoff, Ptitsui Kavkaza, p. 87 (1879). 

JBuraja Gaitschka, KavJcaskaya GaitschJca, Russian. 

Figura unica. 
Blanford, E. Persia, pi. xvi. fig. 1. 

Ad. pileo, mento et gula, et nuckse lateribus nitente nigris : plaga nuchali alba : dorso et uropygio pallida 
olivaceo-brunneis, hoc pallidiore : alis et cauda brunneis, plumis in pogonio externo olivaceo-brunneo 
marginatis : tectricibus alarum majoribus et intermediis ad apicem albo puactatis : capitis et colli 
lateribus, pectore et abdomine mediis albis : hyponchondriis et crisso fulvo-cervinis. 

Adult Male (Tiflis, December) . Crown, sides of the nape, chin, and throat glossy black ; nuchal space pure 
white; back and rump pale olivaceous brown, the latter paler; wings and tail hair-brown, the feathers 
externally margined with olivaceous brown ; median and larger wing-coverts tipped with white spots ; 
sides of the head below the eye, and of the neck, breast, and centre of the abdomen pure white ; flanks 
and crissum warm brownish isabelline ; under wing-coverts and axillaries pure white : bill blackish ; 
legs plumbeous; iris dark brown. Total length about 4'5 inches, culmen - 53, wing 2"7, tail 2 - 05, 
tarsus 0'75. 

The female does not differ from the male in plumage, but the young bird has the white portions of the 
plumage tinged with buffy yellow, the flanks are darker, and the upper parts are duller and darker in 
tone of colour. 

First described by Mr. Blanford from specimens obtained by Sir Oliver St. John in the oak-forests 
near Shiraz, in Southern Persia, this Titmouse was supposed to be restricted to Persia, but it has 
more recently been found to inhabit Transcaspia and the Caucasus, and was described from the 
latter country by Bogdanoff under the name of Parus michailovsJcii, but there is no doubt that 
this latter is specifically identical with the Persian bird. I have carefully compared two 
specimens from Tiflis, for which I am indebted to Dr. G. Badde, and a female obtained by 
Michailovski in the Caucasus, lent to me by Mr. Seebohm, with the type of Parus phceonotus in 
the British Museum, and can find no difference either in coloration or size. Dr. Padde (Orn. 
Caucas. p. 139) very justly unites the two forms, but says that Parus michailovskii is, to some 
extent, a link between Parus phceonotus and P. ater, a view which I cannot endorse. He only 
met with this Titmouse in the plains and mountains of Central and Eastern Caucasia, and did 
not procure any examples from the west. On the 29th June, 1864, when in view of the Lapuri 
glacier, at an altitude of 7000 feet, a continuous rain caused them to halt ; he saw a few of these 



122 

Titmice climbing about. He had observed them previously where the red beech and Acer 
trautvetteri showed the boundary of the tree-growth. He also met with it at an altitude of 
6000 feet, where a few scattered firs {Abies orientalis) grew amongst the birches in the Little 
Caucasus. In the forests of Bukuriani, and higher up wherever there was tree-growth, this species 
and Parus palustris were tolerably numerous. Menetries's short note " commune au Caucase," 
and also Nordmann's (in Demidoff's Voy. iii. p. 189), must certainly, he remarks, refer to the 
present species. The latter states that it is common in Mingrelia and Abchasia. In the winter, 
Dr. Eadde adds, this Titmouse and Parus palustris frequent the lowlying forests, and he found 
them commoner in the forests of Borshom at this season than in the summer, and it is also 
numerous at this season in the Talyseh lowlands. Michailovski obtained this Titmouse on the Pass 
of Suram, the Pass of Zacarsk, and Abas-Touman ; and Bogdanotf also saw it, he says, near Veden, 
and it is also said to occur near Lenkoran. Lorenz saw a Titmouse in the Eschkakon ravine 
on the Bermamit, North Caucasus, in May 1885, which he believes was the present species. 

In Transcaspia Messrs. Eadde and Walter met with it (Vog. Transcasp. p. 22) in the elevated 
juniper-groves, especially on the Akdagh, where it is very common; and Mr. Zarudny speaks of 
it as being very common in the juniper-groves, but often descends into the valleys and gorges. 
It was observed by him on the Eiver Gjarmaou, Koulkoulaou, and especially numerous in the 
juniper-forests between Guez-Bachi and Tarharan ; and he remarks (Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 788) 
that specimens which were obtained between the 20th and 27th of August in the juniper-region 
in the Eastern Kopepet-dagh were either in moult or had almost completed their moult. 

In Persia it was obtained by Sir Oliver St. John in the oak-forests west of Shiraz. 

The nest and eggs of this Titmouse are as yet unknown, but will probably be found to 
resemble those of Parus ater, though larger in size. 

The specimen figured is the male above described, and is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser, 
a, b, S a d- Tiflis, December 1886 (Dr. G. Radde) . 

E Mus. Brit, 
a, <J. (Type.) Oak-forest near Shiraz, June 1870 (Sir Oliver St. John). 

E Mus. H. Seebohm. 
a, ? . Gorge of Zekary, Kirschawetz, Caucasus, November 9th, 1879 (Michailovski). 




J. &.Keulemans del. et HtK. 



CYPRIAN COAL TITMOUSE 



PARUS CYPRIOTES. 



Mintem. Bros . imp . 



PARUS CYPRIOTES. 

(CYPRIAN COAL TITMOUSE.) 



Parus Cypriotes, Dresser, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1887, p. 563. 

Figura unica. 
Guillemard, Ibis, 1888, pi. ii. 

£ ad. P. britannico similis, sed dorso vix sordidiore : plaga nuebali fere obsoleta, nigro in gutture magis 
extenso facile distinguendus : rostro nigro : pedibus plumbeis : iride saturate brunnea. 

^ juv. pileo brunnescenti-nigro, dorso vix sordidiore quam in adulto, gutture sordide fumoso-nigro : genis, 
colli lateribus et corpore subtus albidis, cervino-citrino limbatis -. bypochondriis paullo brunnescentibus. 

Adult Male (Cyprus, May 28tb). Most nearly resembling Parus britannicus in coloration both on the 
upper and under parts, but differs in having the nuchal patch almost obsolete, and in having the black 
on the throat extended much further down : bill black ; legs plumbeous ; iris dark brown. Total 
length about 4 - 2 inches, culmen 0'6, wing 2"3, tail V9, tarsus 0"75. 

Young (Cyprus, June 18th). Differs from the adult in having the crown brownish black, the throat dull 
sooty, the white portions of the plumage washed with yellowish buff, and the flanks browner than in 
the adult : bill brownish black ; legs dull plumbeous ; iris brown. 

The present species, which is a strongly marked insular form of Parus ater, is confined to the 
island of Cyprus, where, as pointed out by Lord Lilford (Ibis, 1889, p. 322), it was first discovered 
by the late Mr. Pearse in 1878, and sent to Lord Lilford, who, however, then considered it to be 
merely a dark race of Parus ater; hence it was not described until 1887, when more specimens 
were sent by Dr. Guillemard, and he then recognized that it was a good species, and forwarded it 
to me to compare and describe, being himself unable to come to town for that purpose. 

The only information we bave respecting this interesting Titmouse are the notes published 
by Dr. Guillemard, who writes (Ibis, 1888, p. 119) as follows : — "A short distance from the Kikko 
Monastery there was a clump of pines where it was possible to obtain some little shade from a 
sun which had by this time become unpleasantly powerful. It was while watching, gun in hand, 
beneath these, that I first obtained a Coal Titmouse, which at once struck me by the extreme 

darkness of the plumage of the under surface This little Parus was far from plentiful, 

for I only shot four during my stay at the monastery, although I waited beneath the pines for 
them the greater part of each morning. I never saw it at a lower elevation than this (4000 feet) 
or anywhere except on or among the pines. On Troodos it was not uncommon, in small parties 
of five or six, which followed each other from tree to tree, and occasionally descended to the 
ground to feed. Its note is a feeble edition of that of Parus ater." Messrs. Unger and Kotschy 

K 2 



124 

record Parus ater from Cyprus, but doubtless the bird they obtained was not our common 
European Coal Titmouse, but the present species. 

The adult bird described and figured is in my own collection, and the young bird in that of 
Lord Lilford. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 
a, $ ad. Kikko, Cyprus, November 12th, 1878 (Pearse). 

E Mus. Lilford. 

a, b, d ad. Kikko Monastery, May 26th and 28th, 1887; c,juv. Summit of Troodos, Cyprus, June 18th, 
1887 {Dr. Guillemard) . 

E Mus. Brit. 

a, ? . Cyprus, November 13th, 1878 (Pearse). b,<S , c, $ . Kikko Monastery, May 28th, 1887; d, 6 . Troodos 
Camp, April 18th, 1888 {Dr. Guillemard). 




- Kfiulemaxxs litrL 



PLESKE'S BLUE TITMOUSE 

PAFLUS PLESKEJ. 



Mirtterx*. Bros . imp . 



PARUS PLESKII. 

(PLESKE'S BLUE TITMOUSE.) 



Parus (Cyanistes) pleskii, Cab. Journ. fiir Orn. 1877, p. 213. 
Cyanistes pleskii, id. op. cit. 1878, p. 109. 

Parus pleskii, Cab., Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. viii. p. 12 (1883). 
Parus pleskei, Cab., De Selys, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 1884, p. 69. 
Cyanistes pleskei, Cab., Menzbier, torn, cit. p. 259. 

Figurce notabiles. 
Cabanis, Journ. fiir Orn. 1877, pi. iii.; Menzbier, Orn. geogr. Eur. Rossii, pi. i. 

Ad. capite et collo sicut in P. cmruleo coloratis : dorso et uropygio griseo-cseruleis : alis azureis, secuudariis et 
tectricibus alarum albiclo apicatis : cauda azurea, rectricibus extimis in pogonio externo albis, reliquis 
albo apicatis : corpore subtus albo, pectore et hypochondriis sulphureo tinctis : pectore centraliter vitta 
nigro-caeruleo notato : rostro corneo ad basin pallidiore : pedibus plumbeis : iride fusca. 

Adult Male (St. Petersburg, September 25th). Crown azure-blue ; forehead, cheeks, and a border 
surrounding the blue on the crown white ; lores dark blue and a narrow dark blue line passing through 
the eye to the sides of the nape, where it joins a broad blue collar which encircles the neck and throat 
and joins a blue patch which extends over the upper throat and chin ; back and rump dull greyish 
blue ; wings bright azure-blue, the secondaries and wing-coverts broadly tipped with white ; tail blue, 
the outer web of the external rectrices white, the rest of the tail-feathers very slightly tipped with 
white ; underparts white, the breast and flanks faintly tinged with primrose, on the centre of the breast 
a dark blue line : beak horn-blue, paler at the base ; legs plumbeous ; iris dark brown. Total length 
about 4'5 inches, culmen 0'4, wing 2 - 6, tail 2"4, tarsus 0"68. 

The female does not differ from the male, and the young bird differs from the adult in being rather duller 
in tone of colour, and in having the underparts dull white, tinged ou the breast and flanks with pale 
buffy yellow. 

The home of the present species appears to be Northern Russia, west of the Ural range, chiefly 
in the St. Petersburg and Moscow districts, but it is stated to have been met with as far west as 
Belgium, as, according to Baron de Selys-Longchamps (Consid. sur le Genre Mesange, p. 39), one 
was caught by a son of M. Oscar Lamarche, President of the Royal Horticultural Society of 
Liege, in his garden at Liege in December 1878. Dr. Menzbier says (Les Mesanges bleues, 
p. 23) that this Titmouse occurs near St. Petersburg in the spring and autumn, and is found 
throughout the year near Moscow, where it is somewhat rare, except during the two seasons of 
passage, when it is more numerous. It is probable, he adds, that it nests further north in the 
Dvina districts, but there are no data on this head. Dr. Gadow states (I. c.) that it occurs in 



126 

Western Siberia, but there is, as pointed out by Dr. Menzbier, nothing on record to show this to 
be the case. Nor has it been obtained in the Oufa Government, as stated by Baron de Selys- 
Longehamps (op. cit. p. 38). 

Nothing is known respecting the breeding-habits of this Titmouse ; but its nest and eggs 
will doubtless be found to resemble those of P. cwruleus. 

The present species bears much closer affinity to Parus cceruleus than to any of the Blue 
Titmice, and is intermediate between that species and Parus cyanus. having the square tail as in 
Parus cceruleus, and not rounded as in P. cyanus ; the head and throat as in P. cceruleus, but the 
upper and under parts generally as in P. cyanus, except that the latter are generally tinged with 
pale sulphur-yellow or yellowish buff. In the series I have examined I find some little variation, 
some specimens approaching nearer to P. cyanus than others ; thus one of the females in the 
St. Petersburg collection has the whole of the fore part of the crown, the chin, and the throat 
white, the blue on the centre of the crown paler than in the other specimens, but otherwise it 
does not differ from them. According to Dr. Menzbier the present species occasionally inter- 
breeds with Parus cyanus, and he gives detailed descriptions of four specimens which he considers 
to be hybrids between these two species. 

The specimens figured and described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

U Mus. H. P. Dresser. 

a, $ ad. St. Petersburg, September 25th, 1886 (Pleske). b, ? juv. Near Moscow, September 21st, 1886 

(Lorenz) . 

E Mus. Petrop. 

a, d ad. St. Petersburg, September 25th, 1886; b, ? ad. St. Petersburg, May 1878; c, ? . St. Petersburg, 
October 5th, 1887 {Pleske). 

E Mus. Bothschild. 

a, 6 ad. Moscow, November 27th; b, ? ad. Moscow, October 11th (Prof. M. Menzbier). 

E Mus. H. Seehohm. 
a, 3 ad. Moscow, September 25th (Pleske). 

E Mus. Brit, 
a, $ ad. Moscow, October 12th (Lorenz). 



PAEUS TENERIFFE. 

(CANARIAN BLUE TITMOUSE.) 



Paras cceruleus, var. teneriffce, Lesson, Traite d'Orn. i. p. 456 (1831). 

Parus violaceus, Bolle, J. f. Orn. 1854, p. 455. 

Parus teneriffce, Less., Hartlaub, J. f. O. 1855, p. 424. 

Parus cceruleus (nee Linn.), Bolle, J. f. O. 1857, p. 284. 

Parus teneriffce, Sharpe & Dresser, B. of Eur. iii. p. 139 (1871, partim). 

Figura nulla. 

Ad. P. ultramarino similis, sed major : remigibus secimdariis et tectricibus alarum nee albo apicatis. 

Adult Male (Teneriffe, November 10th). Resembles Parus ultramarinus, but larger, rather brighter in toue 
of colour, aud lacking the white borders to the secondaries and wing-coverts, the wing being plain blue. 
Total length about 4*7 inches, culmen 045, wing 2'5, tail 2T5, tarsus 08. 

The female does not differ from the male in plumage ; but the young bird in first plumage has, according to 
Mr. Meade- Waldo (Ibis, 1889, p. 511), "'buff tips to its wing-coverts and no white on the head, the 
cheeks and forehead being yellow, the black on the throat and neck being scarcely discernible ; the 
back, instead of being blue, is green as in P. cceruleus." 

When, in 1871, Dr. Sharpe and myself wrote the articles on the Blue Titmice for the ' Birds 
of Europe,' we held that there was only one species which inhabited the Canary Islands and 
North-west Africa, and we stated that Dr. Bolle was doubtless in error in his surmise that two 
distinct species occur in the Canaries ; but later research has proved that we were in error, and 
that not only two, but four distinct species of Blue Titmice are to be met with in those islands, 
and that the present species is specifically distinct from the Ultramarine Titmouse of North-west 
Africa, which should therefore bear the name of Parus ultramarinus and not P. teneriffce. 

The present species is confined to the Canary Islands, inhabiting Gran Canaria, Teneriffe, 
and Gomera. Mr. Meade- Waldo sent many specimens from Teneriffe ; and Canon Tristram, 
who met with it on Gran Canaria, writes (Ibis, 1889, p. 29) as follows: — "I was surprised to 
see, at the very summit of the pass, a pair of Tits (P. teneriffce) flitting, almost Creeper-like, 
among the bushes on the face of the cliff. I secured one of them, the other falling into an 
inaccessible cranny above our heads. We were here 4300 feet above the sea. This was the 
highest point where I noticed the Titmouse, but it occurs in small numbers at all the lower 
elevations clown to the coast-line. I had already obtained it among the chestnut-trees near 
San Mateo ; but it is not nearly so numerous in Canaria as in the other islands, in both of which 
I procured specimens." Dr. Bolle met with it in the islands of Teneriffe and Canaria, where, 
he says, it is found wherever there is tree-growth or even high bush-growth, but most commonly 
in the fruit-gardens. He met with it in the Huerta Grande at Chasna, in the Alameda of 



128 

the metropolis of Canaria, in the damp willow-covered gorges of Tenteniguada, and in the tall 
baloge bushes in the extreme south of the island, and in the valleys of Arguineguin and Fatalga 
down to the sea-coast. 

The Canarian Blue Titmouse, like our common British species, places its nest in the hole of 
a tree or wall, or in a convenient nook or cranny, the nest being similar to that of the latter 
species, and the eggs are white spotted and blotched with light red, the spots being larger and 
bolder than in any eggs of Parus cceruleus in my collection, and in size they run a trifle larger, if 
anything, than the eggs of that species. I have received the eggs from Teneriffe, but no nest 
was sent, so I am unable to describe it, but was informed that it is constructed, like that of our 
bird, of wool and moss and lined with feathers. 

Owing to our having united the two species in the ' Birds of Europe,' the synonymy 
requires rectification, and that of the continental species, the Ultramarine Titmouse, which 
inhabits Algeria, Tunis, and Morocco, as also the island of Fuerteventura, will now stand as 
follows : — 

Parus idtramarinus, Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1811, p. 146. 

Parus cmruleanus, Malli. op. cit. 1842, p. 76. 

Cyanistes ultramarinus, Bp. Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 229 (1850). 

Parus teneriffce, Sharpe & Dresser, B. of Eur. hi. p. 139 (1871, partim). 

The specimen figured in the 'Birds of Europe' (plate 113. fig. 3) represents the true 
Ultramarine Titmouse (Parus ultramarinus), and that now figured on the same plate with 
Parus palmensis shows the Canarian species Parus teneriffce. This specimen, which is the one 
above described, is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a. Teneriffe, April 1871 (F. D. Godman). b, 6 . Orotava, Teneriffe, November 10th, 1888 (Meade-Waldo). 

E Mus. Brit. 

a, d ■ Teneriffe, April 8th, 1871 ; b, 6 . Orotava, Teneriffe, April 9th, 1871 ; c, 6 , d, % . Orotava, April 18th, 
1871 (F. D. Godman). 



660 




■ V^ 



3 rleulemians dej »t ul.h . 



WHITE BELLIED TITMOUSE. 

PARUSPALMENS1S. 

CANARiAN BLUE TITMOUSE 



PAFLUS TENERIFF/E. 



Miniern. Bros . imp . 



PAEIJS PALMENSIS. 

(WHITE-BELLIED TITMOUSE.) 



Parus paimensis, Meade- Waldo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, iii. p. 490 (1889). 

Figura unica. 
Meade- Waldo, Ibis, 1889, pi. xvi. 

Ad. P. uttramarino similis, sed abdomine centraliter toto albo : secundariis et tectricibus alarum majoribus 
albo apicatis, sicut in P. uttramarino. 

Adult Male (Palma, April 20th). Resembles P. ul.tr amarinus, but has the entire abdomen, excepting the 
sides, pure white ; secondaries and wing-coverts tipped with white. Total length about 4 - 9 inches, 
culmen 045, wing 2"5, tail 2 - 3, tarsus 075. 

Adult Female (Palma). Does not differ from the male. 

This interesting insular form of the Ultramarine Titmouse, differing only from that species in 
having the whole centre of the abdomen pure white, is confined to the island of Palma, where 
it is resident. All the information we have on record respecting this Titmouse is contained in 
the notes published in ' The Ibis ' by its discoverer, Mr. E. G. Meade-Waldo, who writes (Ibis, 
1889, p. 511) as follows: — "The day following I went out alone, and after shooting several of 
the new Chaffinch and some Robins, which were of the pale colour of the Gomera Robin, but 
had the colour on the breast less extended, I had the luck to fall in with a beautiful Tit, quite 
different from P. teneriffce. I heard its voice first, and at once thought it something new, and 
after some trouble, for it was in exceedingly thick laurels on an almost perpendicular barranco- 
side, I shot it, and picked up a Tit like P. teneriffce, only larger and with the whole of the 
underparts white. On comparing it with P. teneriffce I find it has a considerably longer tail 
and longer tarsi, and invariably white tips to its wing-coverts, but less white on the wing-coverts 
than the Fuerteventura Tit. . . . The first and last of Palma Tits I killed were the only two 
I ever saw in the laurel-woods. I never saw any, or heard them, with these exceptions out 
of the pines, and I think there is no doubt but that the pines are their home : they are 
common enough in the pine-forests. I looked carefully about all villages, gardens, chestnut- 
woods, and in all such places as P. teneriffce haunts, but found none. They had bred very early, 
and had young on the wing on April 16th, even up at an elevation of 5000 feet. At the present 
time, June 22nd, P. teneriffce had only just laid or is laying in the pines of Teneriffe, in the 
valleys, however, the young have been on the wing some time. So, at similar elevations, the 
Palma Tit had bred two months earlier than the Teneriffe Tit — not in one instance only, for I saw 
three broods of young flying. Three or four seemed the number of young in each instance, and 
P. teneriffce is much less prolific than our little Blue Tit, as I find five to be its full clutch, and 
four eggs are as frequently laid as five, and in the high mountains three only are not uncommon." 

s 



130 

In November 1889, Mr. Meade-Waldo revisited Palma on his way to the island of Hierro, and 
writes (Ibis, 1890, p. 430) as follows : — "As the steamer was obliged to wait all day, I got a mule 
and rode up to the mountain where I had procured the first Palma Tit [Earns palmensis). Very 
nearly in the same spot where I shot my first specimen I had the luck to shoot in a few minutes 
four beautiful examples. They came to a call which I always find very effective in bringing up 
small birds, viz. imitating the cry of a rabbit that a stoat or ferret has got hold of; all the small 
birds on hearing it come up and utter their alarm-notes." 

The specimen figured is the one above described, and is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. II. E. Dresser. 

a, <J . La Galga, Palma, April 20th, 1889; b, $ , c, ? ..Barranca de los Nogales, Palma, April 7th, 1890 
{E. G. Meade-Waldo). 

E Mus. Brit. 

a, S ad. Palma, November 20th, 1889 [E. G. Meade-Waldo). 




Heiilerr-s^-s del et litK- 



HIERRAN TITMOUSE 

PAR.US OMBRIOSUS 



Mintern. Bros . imp. 



PARUS OMBKIOSIJS. 

(HIERRAN TITMOUSE.) 



Partis omlriosus, Meade-Waldo, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 6, v. p. 103 (1890). 

Figura unica. 
Meade-Waldo, Ibis, 1890, pi. xiii. 

Ad. P. teneriffce similis, sed fortior et robustior : tergo toto olivaceo-viridescente nee cseruleo : tectricibus 
alarum viridibus, majoribus angustissime albo terminatis : subtus citrinus, P. teneriffce similis. 

Adult Male (Hierro, November 23rd). Resembles P. ultramarinus, but has only a band across the fore 
part of the back slate-blue, the rest of the back and rump being green, darker in tint than in Parus 
cceruleus ; primaries narrowly bordered, and secondaries tipped with white. Total length about 4-7 
inches, culmen 04, wing 2'5, tail 2 - 25, tarsus 0"75. 

Adult Female (Hierro, November 25th). Does not differ from the male. 

The present species adds another to the discoveries made by Mr. Meade- Waldo in the Canary 
Islands, and is especially interesting as it has the lower back coloured much as in Parus 
cceruleus, whereas in the rest of its plumage it resembles Parus ultramarinus. As might be 
expected, it is an insular form, confined to the small island of Hierro. All that is on record 
respecting this Titmouse is from the pen of Mr. Meade- Waldo, who writes (Ibis, 1890, p. 433) 
as follows : — " This Tit adds a fourth to the number found in the Canary Islands, three of which 
are quite peculiar to the archipelago, and two are peculiar to their own islands. Fuerteventura 
and Lanzarote have Parus ultramarinus, almost indistinguishable from the mainland bird. 
Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and Gomera have Parus teneriffce, easily known from Parus ultra- 
marinus by its brighter colouring and in never having white-tipped wing-coverts. The island of 
Palma has Parus palmensis, distinguished by having its underparts white instead of yellow, the 
wing-coverts slightly tipped with white, and the tail and tarsi longer. It has also a differently 
pitched voice, which can be distinguished at once from the other Tits, and its more slender form 
and different style show it at once to belong to a different race. Besides, it is confined to the 
pine-forest, only occasionally coming into the laurels, and apparently frequenting villages and 
gardens as does Parus teneriffce in the three islands which it frequents. 

" Parus ombriosus resembles Parus teneriffce in all its ways, except that it lives only in the 
pine-forest, and occasionally in the tree-heaths and laurels." 

The specimens figured and described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

s2 



132 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, $ ad. El Pinal, Hierro, November 23rd, 1889; b, $ . El Golfo, Hierro, November 25th, 1889 (E. G. 
Meade-Waldo). 

E Mus. Brit. 
a, <J. El Pinal, Hierro, November 22nd, 1889 (E. G. Meade-Waldo). 




J-G.KcuIcjna.Tis litK - 



CORSICAN NUTHATCH 

SITTA WHITE HEAD I . 



Hajahart, limp 



SITTA WHITEHEAD! 

(CORSICAN NUTHATCH.) 



Sitta whiteheadi, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 233. 

FigurcB notabiles. 
Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1884, pi. xxxvi.; Whitehead, Ibis, 1885, pi. ii. 

£ ad. pileo, nucha, loris et linea per oeulos ducta nitide nigris : corpore supra pallide sehistaceo-cinereo : 
remigibus nigricantibus, in pogonio externo sehistaceo-cinereo rnarginatis : rectricibus mediis schistaceo- 
cinereis versus apicera nigro notatis, reliquis nigris albo apicatis, duabus extends magis albo terminatis : 
linea superciliari, capitis lateribus et corpore subtiis albis : rostro nigro-corneo, mandibula ad basin 
caeruleS, : pedibus plumbeis : iride fused. 

? ad. sordidior, pileo nee nigro sed saturate sehistaceo-cinereo vix nigro notato. 

Adult Male (Corsica, May 27th) . Upper parts generally pale slaty blue, crown and nape black ; lores and 
a line passing behind the eye over the ear-coverts also black ; superciliary stripe, sides of the head, and 
underparts generally white; quills blackish, externally margined with slaty blue; median rectrices 
slaty blue, marked with black near the tip, remaining tail-feathers black, the two external ones broadly 
tipped with dirty white, the remainder narrowly tipped with white : bill blackish, lighter at the base ; 
legs plumbeous ; iris dark brown. Total length about 4'8 inches, culmen 0*7, wing 2 - 8, tail T6, 
tarsus 08. 

Adult Female (Corsica, May 27th). Differs from the male in being rather duller in tone of colour, and 
lacking the black crown, that part being dark slate-grey slightly tinged with black. 

The discovery of the present species is probably one of the most interesting additions to the 
avifauna of Europe made for many years past, inasmuch as it differs from all the hitherto known 
species of Nuthatches inhabiting the Western Palsearctic Region in having the crown and nape 
black ; and its only near allies are Sitta canadensis, which inhabits North America, and Sitta 
villosa, which inhabits Northern China and Eastern Mongolia. 

The present species is found only in the island of Corsica,' where it was discovered by 
Mr. John Whitehead in 1883. It is an extremely local species, and Mr. Whitehead has very 
wisely refused to divulge the exact locality where he obtained it, fearing that if he made it 
known where it is to be met with, it would soon be exterminated by over-zealous collectors. 
Hence, though other naturalists have since visited Corsica, and have used every endeavour to 
obtain specimens, no one has hitherto succeeded in so doing, and we have no information 
respecting this interesting species beyond what was published by Mr. Whitehead (Ibis, 1885, 
p. 28), as follows: — "On the 12th June 1883, I left a small village to visit the nest of an 
Eagle which the shepherds had told me of. Starting at 4 a.m. with a mule and guide (taking 



134 

provisions for two days), it was not until 2 p.m. that we reached the summit of the mountain. As 
it was close upon 6 o'clock before the nest had been visited, I decided to pass the night in a small 
stone hut (used by the shepherds during the hotter months). The next morning, wishing to get 
a shot at some Alpine Swifts, which were nesting in a high crag near, I got up early, and when 
returning heard a curious whistle, which I thought was that of the Crested Titmouse. After I 
had waited a few minutes a Nuthatch crept out to the end of a pine-bough and was promptly 
shot. The bird being badly hit in the head, I skinned it at once, and thought no more about it 
until the month of October, when, wishing to know if I had correctly named a few small Warblers, 
1 brought the skin of the Nuthatch to Mr. Sharpe, who assured me that he did not know the bird. 
At the end of the month, on the night of my departure, he wrote to me : — ' There is no doubt 
your bird is a new species.' 

"It was not until the 9th of May, 1884, that I was able to make another trip. The first 
day I did not see a sign of the birds ; but on the second, after wandering about until past 
mid-day, without seeing any thing but a few Golden-crested Wrens and European Coal Tits, 
I heard the same curious whistle, and looking about, soon saw and shot a bird which proved to 
be a beautiful specimen of the new Nuthatch, the head being jet-black, with well-marked and 
nearly white eyebrows, the underside of the beak being of a delicate blue, which soon faded after 
death. Knowing that the mate must be near, I remained quiet, and in a few minutes it shared 
the same fate ; but great was my surprise, on picking it up, to find the black on the head entirely 
absent, the pale blue of the back running up to the base of the bill ; this bird proved to be the 
female. A few hours later I came across a small band, three of which I shot. 

" On the 12th, provisions having fallen short, I was forced to return to my head-quarters ; 
but on the 16th I returned to search for the nests and was most fortunate. The same evening I 
watched a pair, which I had noticed on my first visit, for some hours, and saw the female go twice 
to a very small and neatly-pecked hole in a very old pine-stump, some 20 feet from the ground. 
The following day I saw the male enter twice with nesting-materials. 

" It was not until the 20th of May that I found the second nest, and on the following day, 
whilst going to cut it out, found another, which I opened first. The nests proved in nearly every 
case to be most difficult of access, the trees being high, very rotten, without branches, and much 
too big to swarm ; the once mighty giants of the forest — now but whitened skeletons, being in 
the last stage of decay. 

" The first nest took nearly three hours' hard work to reach, but once arrived at, was easily 
cut out ; it contained five fresh eggs. The second nest was in a much worse position and quite 
40 feet high ; but by climbing up a neighbouring tree, with the aid of a rope I managed to 
swing to a branch, and soon cut open the nest, which contained five fresh eggs. 

" During eleven days spent in rambling about hunting for the nests of this species, I found 
no less than nine, three of which were in holes from 70 to 100 feet from the ground, the trees in 
places nearly eaten through with decay ; so that it would have been foolish to have attempted to 
reach them. 

" This species spends much of its time pecking about at the ends of the pine-branches. 
When I opened their gizzards they contained many small beetles and other insects. The call- 
note is a soft whistle, repeated quickly many times, often ending with a peculiar hissing sound, 



135 

which sounds like sch-ioer, sch-iver. They were very fearless when their nest was attacked, the 
female often entering the nest and refusing to move until the entrance was nearly reached, whilst 
the male would take up his position a few feet above, examining everything that was going on. 

"All the nests found seemed to have been pecked out by the birds themselves, and in no 
case was clay used to make a hole smaller. The old holes of the Great Spotted Woodpecker 
were in hundreds in these trees, and though tenanted by Swifts and Titmice, the Nuthatches 
never used them. The holes were seldom neatly rounded, and in one instance only the sides of 
a large crack were pecked away. The nest is composed chiefly of strips of bark from the 
Mediterranean heath (which the birds themselves pull off) and moss, a few feathers, and a small 
quantity of hair. The sides of the cavity well padded, so as to form a cup. 

"The eggs, five or six, when blown, are white thickly speckled with deep red; they are 
about the size of those of the Great Titmouse." 

Mr. Whitehead has kindly presented me with a pair of this Nuthatch, and also with two eggs, 
which latter resemble those of Sitta Jcrueperi, but are a trine smaller and much more boldly and 
profusely spotted and speckled with dark red. 

Sitta wlriteheadi differs but little from Sitta villosa, the latter species having the black on 
the crown extended to the upper part of the back, the breast and abdomen being warm buff, and 
not white, but otherwise they do not differ. Sitta canadensis differs in having a black patch on 
the side of the head which extends over the ear-coverts and part of the sides of the neck, and the 
whole of the underparts, except the chin, are rusty brown. 

The specimens figured and described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens: — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser, 
a, <?,*,?. Corsica, May 27th, 1884 (J. Whitehead). 



SITTA SYRIACA. 

(EASTERN ROCK-NUTHATCH.) 



Sitta syriaca, Ehr. in Temm. Man. d'Orn. iii. p. 286 (1835). 

Sitta tephronota, Sharpe, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1872, x. p. 450. 

Sitta neumayeri (nee Michah.), Dresser, B. of Eur. iii. p. 183 (1872, partim). 

Terlsche, Turki {fide Radde & Walter). 

Figura nulla. 

Ad. S. neumayeri similis, sed major, corpore supra pallidiore, gula et colli lateribus albis isabellino tinctis, stria 
in capitis lateribus longiore et magis extensa. 

Adult Male (Puli-Chatum, July 5th). Differs from Sitta neumayeri in being larger in size, the upper parts 
paler, the throat and sides of the neck white with a creamy tinge, and the black stripe along the sides 
of the head rather broader and extending further down the neck. Culmen T02 inch, wing 3 - 4, 
tail 2*15, tarsus l - 05. 

Six specimens I have measured vary in size as follows: — Culmen 1*0 to T55 inch, wing 3"3 to 3'7, tail 
2-05 to 2-25, tarsus TO to 1'05. 

This, the eastern form of our European Rock-Nuthatch, inhabits Transcaspia, Persia, Afghanistan, 
and Turkestan, and differs from the western form in being larger and paler. 

When I wrote the article in the ' Birds of Europe ' in 1872, I did not separate Sitta syriaca 
from S. neumayeri, but having since examined a larger series I find that the present species is 
always larger and paler than S. neumayeri, and can always be distinguished from that species. 
It does not appear to range so far west as Asia Minor, for all the specimens I have seen from 
there are referable to S. neumayeri, and, judging from the measurements given by Dr. G. Radde 
(Orn. Cauc. p. 301), Sitta neumayeri alone is found in the Caucasus. In Transcaspia, however, 
the two forms meet ; and Mr. Zarudny states that he met the present form there, and found it 
very common along the Atrek and the Jagly-Oloum to Douslou-Oloum, where it frequented the 
rocky ravines bordering these rivers. Messrs. Radde and Walter obtained five specimens in 
Transcaspia, for one of which I am indebted to Dr. Radde, and state that it was common and 
resident in the mountains, and also found on the plains, on the steep river-banks, and in the 
ravines, as, for instance, at Tschat on the Atrek, and it was also observed commonly on the outer 
spurs of the Elbirin-Kyr. They add that it is a very noisy bird. In Persia, Mr. Blanford met 
with it near Shiraz, but did not observe it in Baluchistan ; and on the rocky hill-sides of the 
valleys penetrating the Elburz Mountains, north of Tehran, from about 6000 to 8000 feet above 
the sea, he found Sitta neumayeri common, and also obtained a specimen of this, the small form, 
from Kohriid near Ispahan, and another from Shiraz. 

T 



138 

In the British Museum there are specimens of the present species from the Bolan Pass, 
Kandahar, Kojuk, and Kashgar. Dr. Aitchison (fide Sharpe, Trans. Linn. Soc. 2nd ser., Zoology, 
v. p. 77) met with it in Afghanistan, where, he says, it was " very common and characteristic of 
the sandstone rocks in the Badghis." 

SevertzofF records it from Turkestan ; and Mr. Pleske writes (Revis. Turk. Ornis, p. 42) as 
follows : — " On the Iskander-kul this species was found breeding ; specimens were sent from 
Kschtut and Margusaar, and it was observed in all parts of the Western Tian-shan where bare 
rocks occur." 

I observe that Dr. Gadow gives Palestine as a locality where this Nuthatch is found ; but 
this I doubt, as I have never seen a specimen from there, and Canon Tristram refers all those 
in his collection, which he procured in Palestine, to Sitta neumayeri. 

In habits and nidification the present species appears to assimilate closely with Sitta 
neumayeri. Mr. Blanford says (E. Pers. ii. p. 225) that it " keeps entirely to the rocky parts of 
the country, and I have myself only observed it upon the hills of nummulitic limestone which 
occupy so large an area in the neighbourhood of Shiraz. I am inclined to think that I have 
seen it on the cretaceous limestone a little further north, but I did not observe it in Baluchistan. 
.... Its presence, wherever it occurs, is soon made known by its loud voice. It is certainly 
one of the noisest of birds, its call consisting of a rapid repetition of one note. Usually it keeps 
to the rocks, but I have seen it on several occasions settle on trees, and even hunt over the stems 
like the common Nuthatch ; indeed I shot one specimen at Niriz whilst thus occupied. Its food 
also is partly vegetable, for I found plumstones in the stomach of one bird." 

As the present species differs from Sitta neumayeri chiefly in size and in the paler coloration 
of the upper parts, I have not deemed it necessary to figure it. 

Since vol. viii. of the ' Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum' (in which the Nuthatches 
were included) was published, twelve years have elapsed, during which much has been written 
on this family, and at least two good species have been discovered amongst those inhabiting the 
Paleearctic Region. It may therefore prove of interest to make a few remarks on what has been 
written on the subject during these twelve years, confining my observations to those species 
which occur within that Region. 

Sitta europwa, Linn. (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. viii. p. 342). So far as the Western Palsearctic 
Region is concerned this form alone occurs, and the eastern form, Sitta uralensis, Licht., is not 
found within our limits. I have examined a considerable series from various localities, and find 
that all are referable to true S. europcea. In my own collection I have examples from Scandinavia 
which have the underparts, excepting the flanks, pure white, and others which have the abdomen 
tinged with cream-colour. In Siberia, however, and further east to Japan, one finds specimens 
which have the underparts pure white, the flanks with the chestnut paler, and smaller in size, 
and others again which have the entire abdomen ochraceous, and these forms have been 
subspecifically separated by the different authors on Asiatic birds as follows: — • 

Sitta uralensis, Licht., Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. viii. p. 342 (Sitta baicalensis, Taczanowski, 
Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 1882, p. 383), which differs from true S. europaza in being smaller, having 
the underparts always pure silky white, the chestnut on the flanks paler. Culmen 0*8 inch, 
wing 3T5, tail T7. — Hah. Eastern Siberia to the Amoor aird the whole of Dauria. 



139 

Sitta albifrons, Tacz. (Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 1882, p. 385), is characterized by having the fore- 
head and a broad superciliary stripe pure white, and a narrow white band crosses the wings, and 
the underparts are pure silky white, with but very little chestnut on the flanks. Taczanowski gives 
the habitat of this form as Kamtschatka ; and Dr. Stejneger received a specimen from the Kurile 
Islands. In my series of Asiatic Nuthatches I have a very typical specimen of this form which 
■was obtained by Mr. H. Whitely at Hakodadi on the 22nd November, 1865. This specimen 
has a broad white band across the forehead joining the white superciliary stripe, the larger 
wing-coverts are tipped with white, forming a white band across the wing, the underparts are 
pure silky white, with but a slight trace of chestnut on the flanks, and there is a large extent of 
white on the tail. The measurements are : culmen 0'75 inch, wing 3T2, tail T75. 

Sitta amurensis, Swinhoe (P. Z. S. 1871, p. 350), Gadow, op. cit. p. 345. Differs from Sitta 
uralensis in having the abdomen rufescent buff and flanks chestnut. — Hab. The Ussuri country 
from the Amoor to the coasts of the Sea of Japan. Of this form I have two males, obtained by 
Mr. Jankovski at Sidemi, on the Ussuri, both of which have a faint superciliary line, and one 
has the chestnut on the flanks but faintly marked, whereas the other has it strongly developed. 
They measure: culmen 07 inch, wing 3T5 and 3'22, tail T65 and T7. 

Sitta clara (Sitta amurensis clara, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1886, p. 392). 
Dr. Stejgener has separated this form as having the abdomen pale rufescent or creamy buff 
as in Sitta amurensis, but the flanks also creamy buff and not chestnut. Two specimens in 
my collection, both males from Sapporo, Yesso, agree closely with Dr. Stejneger's description, 
and have only the faintest trace of a chestnut tinge on the flanks ; both have the forehead 
slightly hoary, and a slight white superciliary line. They measure : culmen 072 and 07 inch, 
wing 3T5 and 3*2, tail T52 and T55. According to Dr. Stejneger this form has only been 
found on Yesso, Japan. 

Sitta neumayeri, Michah. (Gadow, op. cit. p. 345). Inhabits Greece, Asia Minor, and 
Northern Persia, and is said to occur also in Spain. Full particulars respecting this species 
are given in the 'Birds of Europe,' iii. pp. 183-187, and I may add that Sitta rupicola, 
Blanford, is not specifically separable from it. 

Sitta cwsia, Meyer and Wolf (Gadow, op. cit. p. 347). Inhabits Great Britain, Europe south 
of the Baltic, and the southern portion of the Western Palsearctic Region generally. Specimens 
from Southern Europe and Asia Minor are much brighter and clearer coloured than others from 
Northern Europe, and especially from Great Britain. Mr. Seebohm (B. of Jap. Emp. p. 92) has 
separated as a subspecies a form which, he says, inhabits Pomerania, the Baltic Provinces, Poland, 
and the Crimea, to which he gave the name Sitta ccesia homeyeri, but did not publish any 
description. Mr. Seebohm has very courteously lent me two specimens of this form, which, 
however, so far as I can judge, differ entirely from Sitta cwsia, and are nothing else but 
ordinary Sitta europcea, being absolutely inseparable from the specimens in my own collection 
from both Sweden and Norway, above referred to, which have the abdomen tinged with cream- 
colour. Mr. Seebohm's two specimens measure as follows : — Male, near Danzig, 4th May, 1882, 
culmen 0*8 inch, wing 3'3, tail 17, tarsus 075 ; female, Moscow, 4th October, culmen 0'8 inch, 
wing 3-35, tail T75, tarsus 08. A specimen, however, from Pomerania, in the collection of 
Rev. H. H. Slater, has the underparts much darker, nearly as well coloured as in average 



140 

specimens of S. ccesia ; but it has also the chestnut on the flanks as fully developed as in 
any specimen of S. europcea. 

Sitta krueperi, von Pelz. (Gadow, op. cit. p. 350). Inhabits Asia Minor, Palestine, and Syria, 
and differs from all the preceding species in having the forehead jet-black and a patch of chestnut- 
red on the upper breast. Full particulars respecting this species are given in the ' Birds of 
Europe,' iii. pp. 189-191. 

Sitta whiteheadi, Sharpe. This and the two following species are easily distinguished from 
all other Palsearctic Nuthatches in having the crown jet-black, the present species and Sitta 
villosa being nearest allied to the Nearctic Sitta canadensis. Full particulars respecting the 
present species are given above. 

Sitta villosa, Verreaux (Gadow, op. cit. p. 355). Differs from Sitta whiteheadi merely in 
having the underparts warm creamy with a rufous tinge, whereas in S. whiteheadi these parts 
are pure white. It inhabits Northern China, and was obtained by Col. Prjevalski in the 
provinces of Alashan and Kansu, and in the Tetung Mountains in Mongolia. 

Sitta przewalskii, Beresovski and Bianclii, Pt. pyt. Potanina, p. 119(1891); Pleske,Wissensch. 
Result. Przewalski's Reis. ii. p. 174, pi. ix. fig. 4. I have not had an opportunity of examining 
a specimen of this rare Nuthatch, of which, so far as I can ascertain, only two specimens are 
known — one, a female, obtained by Col. Prjevalski on the Umu River, Chuanche, and the 
other, a male, obtained by Mr. Beresovski on the Jo-dsam-pu River in the Mindsheu district. 
Prjevalski proposed the name of Sitta ekloni for this species, but it had already been described 
by Messrs. Beresovski and Bianchi. It is stated to have the forehead, crown, nape, and hind 
neck glossy black, with a bluish tinge ; lores, sides of head and neck, ear-coverts, chin, and 
upper throat white, with a warm creamy tinge; upper parts blackish slate, with an indigo-blue 
tinge, the rump lighter than the back ; quills blackish, externally margined with dark slate-blue ; 
median two tail-feathers slate-coloured, the remainder black, with the terminal portion slate-grey, 
more especially on the outer web ; on the inner web of the fourth and fifth pair white spots, and 
on the sixth a white bar ; breast and centre of the abdomen dull creamy ; sides of the breast and 
flanks bright chestnut-red: bill black, the base of the lower mandible light coloured ; legs dark 
brown; iris very dark. Wing 6 2-85 inches, $ 2-75; tail d 1*7, 2 1*65; tarsus d 0-7, $ 0-62. 
Mr. Pleske remarks that the present species is closely allied to Sitta leucopsis, Gould, but differs 
in being smaller in size, and having the underparts more rusty red in tone of colour, and that it 
will be necessary to compare a series in order to test the validity of the species. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens of Sitta syriaca :• — 

E Alus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, g . Puli-Chatum, Transcaspia, July 5th (Dr. G. Radde), b, <$ . Osch, near Kokand, N. of Pamir, February 

7th, 1882 (Staudinger). c, $. Kokand (Dode). 



TROGLODYTES PALLIBUS. 

(PALLID WREN.) 



Troglodytes nepalensis (nee Blyth), Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotn. p. 66 (1873). 
Troglodytes europceus (nee Vieill.), Severtzoff, ut supra (1873). 
Troglodytes parvulus (nee Koch), Dresser, Ibis, 1875, p. 175. 
Troglodytes pallidus, Hume, Stray Feathers, iii. p. 219, footnote (1875). 
Troglodytes parvulus, /3. tianschanicus, Severtzoff, J. fur Orn. 1875, p. 179. 
Anorthura pallida (Hume), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 273 (1881). 
Troglodytes tianschanica (Severtzoff), Sharpe, ut supra, footnote (1881). 
Troglodytes parvulus pallidus, Dixon, Ibis, 1885, p. 81. 

Figura nulla. 

Ad. T. parvulo similis, sed pallidior : corpore supra magis cinereo et nee rui'escente tincto : corpore subtus 
cinereo-albo nee cervino tincto. 

Adult Male (Chotun-tam, February 3rd). Differs from Troglodytes parvulus in being mucb paler and 
greyer, lacking tbe warm rufous tinge on tbe upper parts, and the underparts are greyish white 
without any rufous or buff tinge : upper mandible brown, the lower one yellowish horn ; legs and feet 
brownish fleshy; claws brown. Total length about 325 inches, culmen - 5, wing 1*9, tail 135, 
tarsus 0'72. 

This, the representative in Central Asia of our European Wren, from which it differs hut little, 
though the differences being constant render it necessary to treat it as a distinct species, is 
found in Asia from Transcaspia eastward as far as Eastern Turkestan. 

Zarudny points out (Bech. Zool. Contr. Transcasp. p. 153) that the Wren which inhabits the 
Kopepet-dagh, in Transcaspia, belongs to the present species and not to Troglodytes parvulus. 
Messrs. Badde and Walter state that a specimen obtained by them at the Kiirtseverdeh- 
tschesme spring, at the upper end of the Karange-dagh gorge, agreed closely with the European 
form, to which belongs also the Wren of Persia ; but in Turkestan the present species is found, 
and is, Dr. Severtzoff says, resident in the north-eastern and north-western districts, whereas 
Troglodytes parvulus occurs in the south-western district. Bussoff (teste Pleske, Bev. Turk. 
Orn. p. 38) obtained the present species at Samarcand and Tschinas; he also found it breeding 
on the Iskander-kul, and observed it at Baissun and Karakovol. Col. Biddulph obtained it at 
Sanju, and met with it about Yarkand and Kashgar ; he observes that he often noticed it 
about the willow trees in the fields. It does not appear to have been found in Mongolia by 
Col. Prjevalski ; but numerous adult birds were obtained by the brothers Grum-Grzimailo in the 
Chami district (Chami and Dshigda) and the Karlyk-tagh (Chotun-tam) in Eastern Turkestan. 
According to Mr. Pleske (Wissensch. Besult. Przewalski's Beis. ii. p. 180), Colonel Prjevalsky 

u 



142 

only brought back two specimens of this Wren, but found it by no means rare in the Tian-shan 
range. He states that it is not unfrequently seen on the Kunge and Zanma Rivers. The 
specimens he obtained were shot at Balgantai-gol and Ssairain-nor, and it is probable that this 
was the species observed in the frontier mountains of Western Dzungaria. 

So far as I can ascertain no particulars respecting the habits and nidification of the Pallid 
Wren have hitherto been published, but it probably does not differ much, if at all, from its 
congener Troglodytes parvulus. 

As the differences between our common European Wren and the present species are only in 
colour and are easily described, the latter being merely a pale desert form of the former, I have 
not deemed it necessary to figure it. 

The specimen above described is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, ad. d . Ckotun-tam, Chami district, February 3rd, 1890 (Grum-Grzimailo). b, £ ad. Tschimkeut, 
Turkestan (Dode). 

E Mus. Brit. 

a. Turkestan (Gould coll.). b, $ . Tschimkent, October 19th, 1864 (Severtzoff). c. Kashgar, February 11th, 
1874; d, <?. Yarkand, November 11th, 1873; e, ?. Boria, November 4th, 1873 (Stoliczka). f, <f . 
Yarkand, November 17th (Col. J. Biddulph). 



663 




<J. G. Keulemans del . et litK . 



MASKED WAGTAIL 

M0TAC1LLA PHRSONATA. 



Mint, em. Bros . 



MOTACILLA PERSONATA. 

(MASKED WAGTAIL.) 



Motacilla personata, Gould, B. of Asia, iv. pi. 63 (1861). 

Motacilla maderaspatana, Horsf. & Moore, Cat. B. E. I. Co. Mus. i. p. 347 (1854, partim). 

Motacilla dukhunensis (nee Sykes), Jerdon, B. of Ind. ii. p. 218 (1863). 

Motacilla cashmeriensis, Brooks, Proc. As. Soc. Beng. 1871, p. 289. 

1 Motacilla baicalensis, Dybowski, J. f. O. 1873, p. 82, partim. 

Trjasoguska, Russian ; Kok-sunduk, Turki ; Dhobin, Hindu. 

Figurce notabiles. 
Gould, B. of Asia, pi. lxiii. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. pi. v. figs. 3, 4. 

6 ad. M. alba similis, sed capite, collo toto usque ad dorsum, gula et gutture nigris : regione oculari et 
postoculari cum fronte albis : secundariis et tectricibus alarum magis albo marginatis : rostro et 
pedibus nigris : iride fusca. 

$ ad. mari similis. 

Ptil. Mem. pilei plumis cinereo marginatis et guise plumis albo marginatis : corpore supra sordidiore et remi- 
gibus secundariis cum tectricibus alarum angustioribus albo marginatis. 

Adult Male (Turkestan, March 9th) . Differs from M. alba in having the black on the head and neck much 
further extended, and the secondaries and wing-coverts are much more broadly margined with pure 
white ; the black on the head continued to the fore part of the back, the sides of the neck, and the 
fore part of the breast, the white being restricted to a broad frontal band, the region round the eye, 
and a small patch behind the eye : bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. Total length about 7"5 inches, 
culmen - 65, wing 3" 75, tail 3"8, tarsus 1"05. 

The sexes do not differ in plumage. In the winter the black on the head and throat is obscured by grey 
edgings to the feathers on the crown, and by white edgings to those on the throat, the grey on the 
upper parts is rather duller, and the margins to the secondaries are narrower. 

The range of this Wagtail extends from Transcaspia in the west to Calcutta in the east, and 
from Siberia in the north down to India, where it winters. According to Messrs. Badde and 
Walter (Vog. Transcasp. p. 44) it also remains over the winter season in the lowlands of Trans- 
caspia, whereas Motacilla alba is a regular migrant there. They also obtained lately-fledged 
young birds at Germab, Askabad. According to Mr. Zarudny (Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 790) it is 
" not uncommon on the banks of the upper part of the Murghab, and in the Pinde oasis, in the 
latter part of June. Its absence at Merv, along the central part of the Murghab and along the 
Tedgend, may be explained by the complete absence of the sand-banks which are the necessary 

x 



144 

adjuncts to its sojourn in a locality." It is found in Persia, as there is, Mr. Blanford remarks 
(E. Pers. ii. p. 233), a specimen in the British Museum from that country which does not differ 
from Indian examples ; but all those obtained by Mr. Blanford in Persia differ slightly from 
typical M. per sonata and belong to the form designated by him M. personata, var. persica. 

Major Wardlaw Ramsay and Col. Swinhoe record M. personata as being abundant in 
Afghanistan, where it breeds ; and in Kashmir it is said to be resident, as Col. J. Biddulph states 
(Str. Feath. ix. p. 333) that it is " common in Gilgit all the year round, ascending in summer to 
about 9000 feet or more. Severe weather in winter, spring, and autumn always drives a number 
down to the low ground. They are as good as a barometer, always appearing a day before the 
bad weather, and disappearing again before it entirely clears." Severtzoff records it from 
Turkestan, and, according to Scully (Str. Feath. iv. p. 151), it is " the common Wagtail of Eastern 
Turkestan, where -it is found in great numbers throughout the plains, generally near habitations 
and streams of running water. It is most numerous from March to September, but some of 
these birds are certainly to be seen throughout the year." It breeds, he adds, in May. 

The brothers Grum-Grzimailo obtained it in the Bogdo-ola mountains, Tian-shan ; and 
Dr. Severtzoff remarks (Ibis, 1883, p. 64) that it was not observed at all either on the Alai or 
Pamir, until the end of August and the first days of September, when many specimens were 
obtained. 

Mr. Pleske states (Wissenschaft. Result. Przewalski's Keis. ii. p. 183) that " on the journey 
to the Lob-nor Motacilla personata was met with in the valleys of the Kunge and Lower Tarim 
and in the Tian-shan. The first stragglers were met with in Ssaissansk on the 12th March, 
1879, and on the Lob-nor on the 5th March, 1885. It was very common on the Urungu River 
and on the southern spurs of the Altai. On passage it was observed on the Tschertschen Darja, 
and breeding on the northern slopes of the Chotan-tagh, in the oases of Mja, Keria, and 
Ssampula." In the north it is found in Central Asia ; and in Eastern Siberia Dr. Finsch (Ibis, 
1877, p. 51) remarks that he observed this Wagtail in the streets of Lepsa, and along the whole 
road through the Tarbagatai and Altai to Kolywan ; and according to Taczanowski (Sib. Orient, 
p. 368), " Godlewski states that it only occurs on the southern Baikal on passage and is rare, 
more so in the autumn than in the spring. It arrives in the first half of May. When travelling 
through the province of Yenneseisk in August he observed parties of young birds with their 
parents, so that it evidently must breed there, and is common." Southward it ranges into India, 
where Mr. Oates says (Faun. Brit. Intl., Birds, ii. p. 291) it is a winter visitor to the whole of 
India proper, down to Belgaum on the south and to Calcutta on the east. 

In Persia and in the Caucasus a form occurs which is intermediate between M. personata 
and M. alba, and is the Motacilla personata, var. persica, of Blanford, and If. persica of the 
Brit. Mus. Catalogue of Birds. The variations inter se of this form are great, and I am very 
doubtful if it can be considered a good species or even subspecies, and have therefore not 
included it as such. According to Dr. Radde (Orn. Cauc. p. 223, pi. xii.) it would appear that 
in the Caucasus this form approaches much closer to M. alba, whereas in Persia, according to 
Blanford (E. Pers. ii. p. 232), it varies but little from typical M. personata in having a few white 
feathers at the side of the neck and in having the area of white below and behind the eye 
rather more extensive. This form breeds in the Caucasus, as does also M. alba, and some few 



145 

remain over winter in the warmer districts, and in Persia it breeds on the plateau in larger 
numbers than M. alia. 

In its breeding-habits the Masked "Wagtail is said to assimilate closely with the common 
European Pied Wagtail. 

Major Wardlaw Ramsay (Ibis, 1880, p. 60), who met with it in Afghanistan, where it was, 
he says, " abundant and breeding throughout May and June," found, on the 5th June, a nest 
in the root of a tree which was lying in the dry bed of a stream and which contained five newly- 
hatched young birds, and on returning to the nest on the 28th of the same month the young- 
had flown, and a second laying of three eggs was in the nest, and he found a fourth egg in the 
female which he shot. Another nest was placed in a recess under a large stone near the edge of 
the water. 

In the ' Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum,' vol. x., Dr. Sharpe has subdivided the 
Wagtails to a larger extent than I am inclined to do. Thus he subdivides Motacilla alba into 
Motacilla alba and M. baicalensis, in which I agree with him, as the latter may always be 
separated from M. alba in having more white on the crown and the chin (and in some specimens 
the upper part of the throat also) pure white, besides which it has considerably more white on 
the wing. On the other hand, I cannot, as above stated, agree with him in recognizing M. persica 
(op. tit. x. p. 479, pi. v. figs. 5, 6) as a good species, for, so far as I can judge, it is merely an 
intermixture of M. personata and M. alba. With this exception, however, I fully agree with 
Dr. Sharpe's views so far as the black and white Wagtails are concerned. 

The specimens figured are an adult male in spring plumage from Turkestan, and in the 
background an adult male in winter dress from Etawah, both of which, as well as the birds 
described, are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article . I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. II. E. Dresser. 

a,<$. Askabad, February 17th (Dr. G. Radde). b, $ . Turkestan, March 9th, 1886; c, $. Chimkent, 
February 11th, 1866 (Severtzoff). d, $,e, $. Nija-Darja, Eastern Turkestan, March 1890 (Pevtzoff). 
f, $. Etawah, N.W. India, January 19th, 1870; g, ? . Etawah, December 17th, 1869 (W. E. Brooks). 



x2 



f 




J. G Keulemans del- et litK- 



YELLOW BROWED WAGTAIL. 

MOTACILLA XANTHOPHRYS. 



MiTLt-em. Bros. imp. 



MOTACILLA XANTHOPHRYS. 

(YELLOW-BROWED WAGTAIL.) 



Motacilla melanocephala, var., Seebohm, Ibis, 1884, p. 428. 
Motacilla xanthophrys, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 532 (1885). 

Figura unica. 
Sbarpe, op. cit. pi. viii. fig. 6 (head only). 

c? ad. M. melanocephalce siniilis, sed stria superciliari conspicue flava. 

Adult Male (Lenkoran) . Crown, nape, and sides of the head, including the ear-coverts, deep hlack, rather 
duller in tinge on the lower part of the nape ; above the eye a distinct bright yellow stripe ; upper 
parts olive-green, rather brighter on the rump ; wings blackish, the median coverts edged with pale 
yellow, and the larger coverts and inner secondaries margined with buffy white, the primaries very 
narrowly edged with white ; tail black, the two outer feathers white, obliquely marked with black on 
the basal portion of the inner web, the central tail-feathers narrowly edged with yellow ; upper tail- 
coverts with dusky black centres ; underparts rich canary-yellow, the sides of the upper breast slightly 
marked with dull blackish: bill and legs black; iris dark brown. Total length about 5 "3 inches, 
culmen - 55, wing 3 - 15, tail 2"6, tarsus - 95. 

Obs. I have not been able to obtain a female for examination, and, in fact, have never seen but three 
specimens, two of which were marked as being males, and the third, though the sex is not stated, is 
evidently also an adult male. These three specimens vary very little inter se, the only difference being 
that in the specimens from Batoum the black on the head and neck is extended on to the fore part of the 
back, thus much further than in the bird from Lenkoran. The measurements of these three specimens 
are as follows: — Culmen 055, 0'55, and 053 inch; wing 3 - 15, 3 - 35, and 32; tail 2 - 6, 2 - 72, and 2 - 9; 
tarsus 0'95, 09, and 08. 

In the article on Motacilla melanocephala in the ' Birds of Europe ' (iii. p. 274) I remarked that 
specimens were said sometimes to occur having an indication of a yellow superciliary stripe, 
but that I had never been able to procure one. In the Brit. Mus. Cat. of Birds, published ten 
years later, Dr. Sharpe described as distinct a Wagtail from Lenkoran, in the collection of 
Mr. H. Seebohm, which had a distinct yellow superciliary stripe, but I have always been inclined 
to regard it as an individual variety, and not a distinct form. Quite recently, however, I have 
received from Professor Menzbier, of Moscow, two specimens from Batoum which agree closely 
with Mr. Seebohm's specimen, and I am therefore inclined to think that Dr. Sharpe was justified 
in describing this form as distinct, especially as Prof. Menzbier considers it to be a good species. 
Moreover, in all the specimens of Motacilla melanocephala which I have at different times 
examined, including the large series in the British Museum, I have not found any intermediate 
examples between that species and M. xanthophrys, which strengthens me in the view that this 



148 

latter form should be kept distinct. The only specimens I have been able to examine are two 
from Batoum and one from Lenkoran ; but, as I am informed by Mr. Th. Pleske, there are 
specimens in the St. Petersburg Museum from Lenkoran and from Demavend in Persia; hence, 
so far as we at present know, the range of this form extends from the Black Sea to Persia. 

So far as I can ascertain, there are no details on record respecting the habits of this 
Wagtail, in which, however, it doubtless does not differ from its near ally M. melanocephala. 

Ten years having now elapsed since the publication of vol. x. of the ' Catalogue of Birds in 
British Museum,' in which the Wagtails were included, it may not be out of place to give a 
short review of the Yellow Wagtails which, up to the present time, are known to inhabit the 
Palsearctic Region, as follows : — 

Motacilla citreola, Pall., Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 503. This and the following 
species are recognizable by the adult male having the head and neck bright yellow, and in the 
present species the back is dark ash-grey. Full particulars as to range, &c, wdl be found in the 
' Birds of Europe,' iii. p. 245. 

Motacilla citreoloides, Hodgs., Sharpe, op. cit. p. 507. Differs from the preceding species 
in having the upper parts glossy black instead of grey. It is found in Turkestan, Afghanistan, 
and eastward to the Eastern Tian-shan, Kansu, and Koko-nor, wintering in India. 

Motacilla raii (Bp.), Sharpe, op. cit. p. 510. Full particulars respecting this species will be 
found in the 'Birds of Europe,' iii. p. 277. 

Motacilla flava, Linn., Sharpe, op. cit. p. 516. Dr. Sharpe separates Motacilla beema as a 
subspecies of M.flava, but in this I cannot agree with him. All the Yellow Wagtails are 
subject to variation, and after examining the series in the British Museum and in my own 
collection I find it impossible to say how M.flava can be invariably separated from M. beema, 
and in the series in the British Museum there are numerous specimens which are quite 
intermediate and may be referred either to the one or the other. Besides the so-termed 
M. beema has no separate range, but the two are always found together. Particulars of the 
range of M.flava will be found in the 'Birds of Europe,' iii. pp. 261, 268. 

Motacilla viridis, Gmel. (B. of Eur. iii. p. 269), Sharpe, op. cit. p. 522. Dr. Sharpe here 
also divides this species into two, on account of some specimens having a white superciliary line ; 
but this I find most variable, as in some specimens there is the merest indication of the white 
line, often only a spot, and in others quite a distinct white streak. One adult male in my 
collection has a tolerably well-defined white streak over one eye, but not a trace of a streak over 
the other ; some also have the throat white, and others have it yellow. 

Motacilla melanocephala, Licht. (B. of Eur. iii. p. 273), Sharpe, op. cit. p. 527. This, like 
the preceding species, exhibits a tendency to variation, some specimens having a slight white 
superciliary stripe; and Dr. Sharpe (op. cit. p. 531) separates these under the name M. paradoxa, 
C. L. Brehm, but I disagree with him in the propriety of so doing. He gives the range of the 
form with a white superciliary line as " from Hungary and Dalmatia to South Russia and the 
Crimea as far as long. 47° E."; but in the series in the British Museum I find two specimens 
from India — one, a female, obtained at Sambhur, 28th March, 1873, by Mr. B. M. Adam, and 
the other, a male, obtained at Loyah, 10th March, 1872, by Mr. W. E. Brooks, both of which 
have the white eyebrow, though they are labelled "' Motacilla feldeggi." One of these has the 



149 

white line but faintly marked, but in the other it is more distinct, the specimen figured as 
M. paradoxa having it but slightly more developed. I may remark that I have a specimen of 
Motacilla melanocephala which differs greatly from any other I have ever seen in having the 
black extended far down the nape, the back rich dark orange with an olive-green tinge, 
indistinctly marked with blackish, and the underparts deep rich orange instead of yellow ; but I 
should be very sorry to describe it as new, and to found a new species on this single specimen. 
The bird in question was obtained by Capt. Marshall at Umritzur, India, 31st March, 1872. 

Dr. Radde (Orn. Cauc. pi. xi.) figures a peculiar albino of M. melanocephala which, he says, 
has the beak and legs nearly white, the crown and nape, instead of being black, are pure white, 
and the back rich yellow, a few feathers slightly marked with greyish black. 

Dr. Sharpe discards Lichtenstein's name of melanocephala, given in 1823 to this species, in 
favour oifeldeggi, given by Michahelles in 1830, because Gmelin (Syst. Nat. i. p. 970) described a 
bird under the name of Motacilla melanocephala ; but as Gmelin's bird was a Sylvia (S. melano- 
cephala) and not a Motacilla, I cannot see that he had any justification for so doing. 

On the other hand, it appears to me that Dr. Sharpe was justified, for the reasons above 
given, in describing the form with a yellow superciliary stripe as a distinct species, and I have 
therefore included Motacilla xanthophrys, Sharpe, op. cit. p. 532, as a good species. 

The specimen of M. xanthophrys described is in the collection of Mr. H. Seebohm, and those 
figured are in the foreground a specimen from Batoum, for the loan of which I am indebted to 
Professor Menzbier, of Moscow, and in the background the specimen in Mr. Seebohm's collection. 

Unfortunately I have been unable to obtain a specimen for my own collection, and the only 
specimens I have been able to examine are the following : — 

E Mus. H. Seebohm. 
a, d ad. Lenkoran (type of the species). 

E Mus. Muscov. 

a, 3 ad. Batoum, March 26th, 1894; b, ad. Batoum, April 8th, 1893 {Menzbier). 



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ANTHUS SIMILIS. 

(BEOWN ROCK-PIPIT.) 



Aqrodroma similis, Jerdon, Madr. Jouvn. xi. p. 3-5 (1840). 

Anthus similis (partim), Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. As. Soc. p. 135 (1849). 

Agrodroma sordida (nee Riipp.), Jerdon, B. of Ind. ii. p. 236 (1863). 

Corydalla richardi (nee Vieill.), Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 79. 

Agrodroma jerdrmi, Finsch, Trans. Zool. Soc. vii. p. 241 (1870). 

Corydalla griseorufescens, Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 286. 

Agrodroma griseorufescens (Hume), Cock & Marshall, Str. Feath. i. p. 356 (1873). 

Anthus sordidus (nee Riipp.), Blanford, E. Pers. ii. p. 237 (1876). 

Anthus jerdoni (Finsch), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 562 (1885). 

Figura unica. 
Henderson & Hume, Lahore to Yarkand, pi. xxi. 

Ad. supra fuscus, griseo tinctus, plumis medialiter saturate fusco striatis et pallide fulvido marginatis : remi- 
gibus saturate fuscis, fulvido marginatis : rectricibus nigro-fuscis, rectrice extima in pogonio externo 
rufescenti-cervino et eodem colore terminate, reliquis rufescenti-cervino marginatis : stria, superciliari 
et corpore subtus fulvido-cervinis : mento fere albido : pectore indistincte pallide fusco guttato : rostro 
fusco, mandibula ad basin pallide carnea : pedibus flavido-carneis : iride fusca. 

Adult Male (Etawah, winter) . Upper parts hair-brown with an ashy tinge, the feathers with dark brown 
shaft-stripes and margined with pale fulvous ; the wings dark brown, the feathers margined with 
warm fulvous ; tail blackish brown, the outermost rectrix with the outer web and terminal portion 
pale creamy rufous, the next feather broadly tipped with creamy rufous, and the rest of the tail- 
feathers narrowly margined with the same colour ; superciliary stripe and underparts warm fulvous 
buff, the chin nearly white, and on the breast a few pale brownish spots : bill dark brown, except at 
the base of the lower mandible, where it is pale fleshy ; legs yellowish flesh ; iris brown. Total length 
about 7'5 inches, culmen 0'78, wing 4"0, tail 3"55, tarsus P12. 

The sexes do not differ, but in the late summer the plumage becomes much worn and therefore considerably 
paler, the underparts being then pale creamy. I have therefore figured this Pipit in the foreground 
in the pale summer dress, and in the background in the winter plumage. 

The Brown Rock-Pipit inhabits the elevated plateau of Persia, ranging eastward through 
Afghanistan and Baluchistan to India. Mr. Blanford (E. Pers. ii. p. 237) obtained two females 
at Shiraz, Persia, in June, and one example about fifty miles north of Ispahan in April. 
According to Lieut. H. E. Barnes it is not uncommon in Southern Afghanistan ; and Capt. Butler 
observed it near Kurrachee and Kotri in Sind, in which country it is, Mr. Hume writes (Stray 
Feath. 1873, p. 203), " decidedly uncommon. It may occur there more plentifully, perhaps, in 
the autumn ; but during December, January, and February, when I was in Sind, I only saw it 
twice, once near Hyderabad and once near Kurrachee." 

Y 



152 

Dr. Henderson obtained a specimen on the return journey from Yarkand, at the foot of the 
hills leading into Kashmir, and says that it is equally common in the plains during the cold 
season and in the hills during part, at any rate, of the hot weather. According to Mr. Oates 
(Faun. Brit. Tnd., Birds, ii. p. 307) it is "a winter visitor to the plains of the north-west of 
India, extending to the east as far as the Sikhim terai and Mughal Sarai, and to the south as 
far as Khandesh, Jalna, and Nagpur. This Pipit retires in summer to the Himalayas, where it 
breeds from Hazara to Sikhim, up to about 6000 feet elevation. The range of this bird extends 
to Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and Persia." 

In its habits this Pipit appears to most nearly resemble Anthus richardi, and Mr. Davison 
remarks that its note also resembles that of Richard's Pipit, but is louder and clearer. He 
generally noticed it on the slope of the hills, and also met with it on grassy lands and in barley- 
fields after the grain had been reaped, and found it shy. Mr. Reid, who met with it near 
Lucknow, where it is not common, observed it occasionally in cultivated tracts, ploughed fields, 
and about mounds covered with broken brick and scrub jungle. Its flight is strong and 
undulating. 

This Pipit breeds in Afghanistan and in various parts of the Himalayas. Major Wardlaw 
Ramsay found a nest in Afghanistan on the 22nd June under a small bush at the foot of a rock. 
It contained three eggs, of which, however, he does not give a description. Col. Marshall, who 
met with it breeding at Murree, says (Stray Feath. 1873, p. 356) that it does not breed above 
6000 feet altitude, and that it nests low down on the hillside, the nest being roughly constructed 
of grass, the normal number of eggs being four. Mr. Hume describes (Nests & Eggs of Ind. 
Birds, 2nd ed. ii. p. 213) eggs sent to him by Col. Marshall as follows: — "Moderately broad, 
fairly regular, ovals, somewhat compressed or pointed towards one end ; the shells are compact 
and fine, but almost entirely devoid of gloss. The ground-colour is brownish or greyish white, 
and they are profusely speckled, spotted, and streaked, and in places blotched and clouded, with 
a sort of sienna-brown and a pale dingy half-washed-out colour, which varies from pale sepia to 
pale inky purple. The markings are everywhere thickly set, but they are much more dense 
towards the large end, where they very generally form a more or less confluent cap. Some of 
the eggs have all the markings somewhat purple, and others have them browner. In length 
these eggs vary from 0'82 to - 87, and in breadth from 0'62 to 0-65." 

The present species has by many authors been united with the African form Anthus sordidus, 
Riipp., from which, however, it is fairly separable, being much more uniform in coloration 
both on the upper and underparts, the dark markings on the upper parts so conspicuous in 
Anthus sordidus being much less developed, and on the underparts the present species has much 
fewer spots on the breast as compared with A. sordidus. 

The specimens figured are those above described, and are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a,$. Etawah, N.W. India, winter (TV. E. Brooks), b. Near Kotri, Sind (TV. T. Blanford). c. Simla 
(Thornton), d. Murree (Marshall). 




J G-.Keulema.ns del etlitK- 



BOGDANOFFS' SHRIKE 

LANIUS GRIM MI. 



J^IirvternBrOS- mp 



LANIUS GEIMMI. 

(BOGDANOFFS SHRIKE.) 



Lanius grimmi, Bogdanoff, Sorokoputui Russkoi Faunui, p. 151 (1881). 

Figura unica. 
Bogdanoff, ut supra, pi. iv. 

Ad. capite, collo et dorso pallide cinereis isabellino tinctis : uropygio et supracaudalibus laetioribus et rufescente 
tinctis : fronte, loris et superciliis sordide albidis : fascia parotica sordide nigra : scapularibus albis : 
remigibus primariis fusco-nigris, dimidio basali albis : secundariis nigris albo marginatis, et pogonio 
interne- apiceque albis : rectricibus mediis f usco-nigris albido apicatis, externis fere albis, reliquis nigro- 
fuscis conspicue albo terminatis : corpore subtus albo, rosaceo-isabelliuo tincto : rostro nigro-fusco : 
pedibus fuscescentibus. 

Adult (Atrek, July 1836). Upper parts generally dull pale isabelline grey, the rump similarly coloured but 
slightly rufescent ; lores, forehead, and a narrow stripe passing over the eye dull white ; a large post- 
ocular patch covering the ear-coverts dull black ; scapulars white ; wings generally as in L. elegans, 
but the black duller and tinged with brown, the lesser wing-coverts like the back, hut the greater coverts 
are broadly tipped with dull white, forming a broad transverse bar ; primaries white at the base, forming 
a white patch about as in L. elegans ; secondaries broadly tipped with dull white ; two central tail- 
feathers brownish black, narrowly tipped with dull white, the next two similar but more broadly tipped 
with dull white, the rest black very broadly terminated with white, except the two outermost, which 
are quite white with a brownish-black shaft ; underparts white, washed with rosy isabelline : bill light 
horn, darker along the upper part of the culmen and at the tip ; legs brownish ; iris brown. Total 
length about 8'5 inches, culmen 0'75, wing 4'45, tail 4'5, tarsus 1-2. 

Nestling [fide Bogdanoff). Plumage soft and lax ; upper parts warm sandy grey, with traces of white stripes 
on the head only ; the back uniformly coloured, the rump and upper tail-coverts darker and tinged 
with rufous isabelline ; wing-coverts coloured like the back without any white tips ; lores and ear- 
coverts brownish, the superciliary stripe dull white ; underparts white, with a rosy tinge without any 
transverse bars, and darker on the breast and flanks ; wings and tail brownish black, the white alar 
patch wanting on the first five primaries, but as well developed on the sixth to tenth quills as in the 
adult ; inner secondaries more narrowly margined than in the adult, the margins of the quills and 
coverts warm sandy isabelline, but the feathers on the carpus are white ; outer tail-feathers white, the 
rest margined and tipped with sandy isabelline : beak and legs light horn. 

The present species appears to be a desert form of Lanius elegans, as L. mollis and L. funereus 
are of L. excubitor. Its range, so far as we know at present, extends throughout the desert 
region from the Caspian eastward to Alashan, and, if Dr. Gadow's determination (of which more 
presently) can be trusted, southward to Baluchistan. 

According to Bogdanoff (Sorokoputui Russkoi Faunui, p. 158), " Karelin was the first to 

t2 



154 

procure this Shrike on the Atrek River in July, during the breeding-season. I also observed it 
at this season at Mangislak and in the northern portion of Oust-Ourta, thence along the 
southern course of the Amu-Darja to the limits of the province of Bokhara. The desert of 
Kizil-Koum affords the most favourable conditions for the nidification of this species, yet I never 
saw it there. According to Severtzoff it breeds in the Syr-Darja region within the low valley 
belt to an altitude of 300 m., and is only found in higher altitudes during passage. Russoff met 
with it on the 21st February, 1878, near Tashkend, and on the 21st March near Tschinas. 
Prjevalsky brought an adult female from Alashan, and states that it occurs in Ordos and 
Alashan and frequents bushy localities. This shows that Lanius grimmi inhabits sandy and 
clayey deserts covered with thorns and other bushes. It is not known how far to the west it 
occurs, but it neither inhabits the Caucasus nor the black-earth region. It breeds in the Aralo- 
Caspian region and is migratory, but the time when it migrates is not known." 

To this I may add that further research, since Professor BogdanofF wrote the above, tends 
to show that the present species occurs as far west as the Caucasus, for Dr. Radde obtained a 
Shrike on the 25th November, 1879, near Lenkoran, which he subsequently ascertained by 
comparison with a specimen of L. grimmi to be referable to that form, and he adds that 
Prof. BogdanofF examined it in 1886 and pronounced it to be Lanius grimmi. Zarudny (Bull. 
Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 764) writes that he found this species " tolerably rare on the desert plains of 
the Atrek, but much commoner on the sand-hills covered with saxauls and djousgounes which 
surround the Merv oasis, and it is not rare in the sandy places between this oasis and Tschardjoui, 
in the plains of Atrek and the Lower Soumbar. It is met with sporadically in the entire district 
between the Amu-Darja and the northern slopes of the Parapamise mountains." 

Dr. Radde also obtained this Shrike at the Beum-basch Lake. 

In habits the present species does not appear to differ from its near allies, and with regard 
to its nidification Prof. Bogdanoff writes (I. c.) as follows: — " Lanius grimmi builds in bushes on 
sandy, clayey, or stony steppes. The nest which I found in June 1874 at Mangishlak, in the 
valley of Aktan-Karatau, near the Djangilda, was placed on a small bush of Caragana sp., 
growing in the cleft of a huge rock, and was constructed of dry twigs lined with the wool of the 
Kirghis sheep, and contained five fresh eggs of a greenish-grey colour, with light grey spots, 
more thickly collected round the larger end. The female was absent, and the male was on the 
nest. This nest was a very late one, as in the same year a young bird was killed on the 4th of 
July at Oust-Ourta, and in 1873 young birds were seen arriving at the Amu-Darja; thus the 
eggs from which these latter were produced must have been laid early in April. This Shrike 
feeds on insects, small birds {Sylvia nana &c), and small mammals. I am not aware if they 
feed on lizards, which abound in the steppes." 

In the British Museum there is a Shrike obtained by Mr. Blanford at Baku Kelat, Persian 
Baluchistan, on the 3rd February, 1872, which was referred by Dr. Gadow to the present species; 
but I am very doubtful if he is right in so doing, as it does not agree with the type, with which 
I have compared it, and appears to be a semi-albino or very pale variety of L. lahtora, to which 
species it was referred by Mr. Blanford. 



155 



The chief differences between Lanius grimmi and L. elegans are as follows :- 



Lanius grimmi. 

Upper parts dull brownish French grey. Forehead, 
lores, and an indistinct stripe over the eye dull 
white. 

The broad patch behind the eye dull blackish. 

Larger wing-coverts dull black, broadly tipped with 
dull white. 

Tail rather imperfect, the outer feather white, the 
next blackish broadly tipped with white ; the four 
central tail-feathers dull blackish, narrowly tipped 
with dull white. 



Lanius elegans. 

Upper parts clear French grey. A narrow frontal line 
and the lores black. 

The broad patch behind the eye clear black. 
Larger wing-coverts entirely black. 

Outer tail-feather white, the next white with the 
shaft black, and a small black patch on the inner 
web, the next two black tipped with white ; the 
four central tail-feathers black, with very slight 
dull white tips. 



From which it will be seen that the chief characteristics of the present species are the white 
forehead, lores, and stripe over the eye. 

The specimen figured and described is the type of the species, which was obtained by 
Karelin in July 1836 on the Atrek, and for the loan of which I am indebted to the courtesy of 
Mr. Pleske, Director of the Zoological Museum at St. Petersburg, this being the only specimen 
I have had an opportunity of examining. 




J- G-.Keulema.ns del . et litK. 



EVE RS MAN N S SH Rl KE 

LANIUS PUNBREUS. 



M intern. Bros . in 



imp . 



LANIUS FUNEKEUS. 

(EVERSMANN'S SHRIKE.) 



Lanius mollis, Bogdanoff, Sorokoputui Russkoi Faunui, p. 97 (1881, partim). 
Lanius mollis, Seebohm, Ibis, 1882, p. 374 (nee Eversmann). 
Lanius funereus, Menzbier, Ibis, 1894, p. 379. 

Figures notahiles. 
Bogdanoff, Sorokop. Russk. Faun. pi. ii; Seebohm, Ibis, 1882, pi. xi. 

Ad. capite et corpore supra sordide schistaceo-cinereis, dorso vix fusco lavato : loris cum regione parotic^ 
nigricantibus : aliis fusco-nigris, primariis basi albo maculatis : Cauda nigr&, rectricibus externis albo 
terminatis, duabus centralibus omnino nigris : supracaudalibus longioribus conspicue nigro terminatis : 
corpore subtus vinaceo-albo, cinnamomeo tincto, fusco transversim vermiculato : rostro fusco-corneo : 
pedibus nigris. 

Juv. fusco-cinereus, dorso magis fusco : scapularibus ferrugineo tinctis : supracaudalibus ferrugineis, fusco 
transversim vermiculatis : loris et regione parotica nigro-fuscis : secundariis et tectricibus alarum 
ferrugineo marginatis : corpore subtus fusco-cinereo, fusco vermiculato. 

Adult Male (Ulugchat, Kashgaria). General colour above, including tbe crown of the head, pale slaty 
grey, passing into pale fulvous grey on the tips of the greater scapulars and on the lesser upper 
tail-coverts ; the back tinged with brownish, the longest upper tail-coverts tipped with black ; an 
indistinctly marked line of whitish grey over the eyes ; a very narrow and incomplete frontal band, 
lores, and ear-coverts black ; quills brownish black ; basal portion of the primaries pure white, 
producing a conspicuous alar patch ; secondaries narrowly tipped with white ; upper coverts black, 
the nearest to the ulnar edge greyish on the tip ; tail-feathers black, the greater part of the outer 
web and the terminal portion of the inner web of the outer pair of feathers pure white, this colour 
decreasing towards the central feathers ; the fifth pair of rectrices only tipped with white, the whole 
of the central pair black ; chin dull white, the rest of the underparts whitish, tinged with vinaceous 
and vinaceous cinnamon ; the fore neck, breast, and abdomen with narrow transverse vermiculations ; 
the sides greyish vinaceous ; the flanks and under tail-coverts pale vinaceous, deeper in tinge on the 
flanks ; under wing-coverts blackish brown, marked with whitish ; axillaries greyish brown : bill dark 
horn-brown; feet black. Culmen 1*06 inch, wing 5"1, tail 5*0, tarsus l - 0. 

Adult Female (Lepsa River). Upper parts dark brownish grey, underparts rufous buff; lores and a broad 
stripe passing below the eye and ear-coverts black; wings black, the primaries white at the base, 
forming a small alar patch ; primaries narrowly and secondaries more broadly tipped with white ; tail 
black, the outer feathers white on the terminal portion, but the white covers a much smaller area than 
in the other specimens I have examined ; upper tad-coverts lighter and greyer than the back, the 
longer ones broadly tipped with black ; underparts very distinctly barred, but the under tail-coverts 
are plain, unbarred. 



158 

Young Male (near Lake Korogol, September 5th) . Upper parts generally sandy buff, darker on the crown 
and nape, and more rufescent on the lower back and scapulars ; rump and upper tail-coverts warm 
rufescent buff, the latter paler, almost buffy white, irregularly barred with dull blackish ; wings 
blackish brown, the primaries white at the base, showing a small wing-patch when the wing is 
extended; quills margined with warm buffy white, the inner secondaries broadly tipped with that 
colour ; larger and median wing-coverts margined with warm rufous buff, lesser coverts sandy buff ; 
outer rectrix on each side white on the outer web and on the terminal half of the inner web, the next 
two with the black extending much further down, the remaining tail-feathers black tipped with warm 
buff; lores and a patch through the eye and extending on to the ear-coverts much darker than the rest 
of the head ; chin, throat, and underparts generally buffy white, transversely closely vermiculated with 
blackish brown ; under tail-coverts creamy buff or buffy white, indistinctly transversely vermiculated : 
bill dull horn-brown; legs black; iris brown. Total length about 8 - 5 inches, culmen 08, wing T65, 
tail 4 - 6, tarsus 1*15. 

Nestling (Irtisch : fide Menzbier, Ibis, 1894, p. 379). General colour above and beneath brownish grey, back 
brownish ; scapulars slightly ferruginous ; upper tail-coverts ferruginous, the under ones ochraceous ; 
all parts but the back with transverse vermiculations, less developed on the chin and crown of the head ; 
tail-feathers brownish black, with white as in the adult, but less developed and washed with very pale 
rufous ; quills dirty blackish brown ; basal portion of the primaries rufous white, producing a small 
alar speculum ; secondaries edged on the tips with pale ferruginous ; upper wing-coverts blackish brown, 
edged with ferruginous ; under wing-coverts and axillaries blackish brown, with ferruginous edges on 
the lesser ones ; a patch before the eye and ear-coverts blackish brown : bill horn-brown ; feet brown. 

The present species is, excepting perhaps Lanius grimmi, the rarest of the Grey Shrikes, and is 
as yet comparatively but little known. So far as I can ascertain, it inhabits Turkestan, and has 
occurred as far west as Archangel, and is replaced in Mongolia by a very closely allied, if separable, 
form, Lanius mollis of Eversmann ; and it is only quite recently that Professor Menzbier has 
separated the eastern from the western form, both having hitherto been united under the name 
Lanius mollis. 

Mr. Seebohm states (Ibis, 1882, p. 374) that in the Henke collection there is a very fine 
specimen which is of this western form, obtained near Archangel in the autumn ; it was obtained 
by Karelin on the Lepsa River and the Irtisch, in Turkestan by Severtzoff and Col. Pijevalski, 
and by Mr. Wilkins (Ibis, 1885, p. 356) near Ulugchat on the Upper Tarim, Kashgaria, on the 
12 th October. 

The eastern form has been obtained in the Altai by Romanoff near Khobdo, in Mongolia 
by Beresoffsky, at Nov. Ssaissan by Slovzoff, and in the Chami district by the brothers Grurn- 
Grzimailo. As above stated, Professor Menzbier (Ibis, 1894, pp. 378-382) has recently separated 
Lanius mollis into two subspecies, viz. Lanius mollis (which he says inhabits Mongolia, and 
which has in the adult plumage the upper tail-coverts greyish tipped with ochraceous buff, and 
without any transverse bars) and Lanius funereus (which inhabits the Tian-shan range, and which 
is darker, greyer, and less tinged with buff than Lanius mollis, and has the larger upper tail- 
coverts marked with a very distinct terminal black band in the adult). In the young of both 
these two forms the upper tail-coverts are vermiculated with dull black. I am indebted to 
Prof. Menzbier for the loan of his type of Lanius funereus, of which I reproduce his description 



159 

above, having carefully verified it by comparison with the specimen in question, and I have been 
able, thanks to the courtesy of Mr. Pleske, to examine three specimens of the eastern form from 
Dzungaria and Mongolia, but it will be necessary to examine a much larger series to be in a 
position to state definitely whether these two forms are really specifically separable. Judging, 
however, from a specimen in the collection of Mr. Seebohm from Ferghana (Turkestan) I am 
still doubtful on the subject. This specimen, a female, is adult or nearly adult, and has the 
upper and under tail-coverts neither vermiculated nor marked on the upper tail-coverts with the 
broad black band which appears to be the chief characteristic of Prof. Menzbier's Lanius funereus, 
which is, he says, the form which inhabits Turkestan ; and thus agrees much more closely with 
the Mongolian form — that is, true Lanius mollis. On the other hand, the three specimens of this 
Mongolian or eastern form which I have examined all agree with Prof. Menzbier's diagnosis of 
that form, and have no trace of the black band on the upper tail-coverts ; and I have therefore 
deemed it preferable to recognize the eastern and western forms as subspecifically separable, and 
have consequently adopted Prof. Menzbier's name for the western form. 

Of the specimens I have examined the darkest is the one figured on Plate 667, which is 
the one for the loan of which I am indebted to Mr. Pleske. 

Specimen a in Mr. Seebohm's collection is the young male above described and figured on 
Plate 666. It has the upper tail-coverts finely, though somewhat sparsely, vermiculated, and 
the under tail-coverts are also vermiculated, though much more sparsely. Specimen b in the 
same collection is evidently a much older, and probably a fully adult bird : it is greyer on the 
upper parts and less tinged with rufous buff than specimen a ; the ear-coverts are much blacker, 
and the secondaries are but narrowly tipped with white ; there is less white on the tail, though 
not so little as in the specimen from the Lepsa River, and the upper and under tail-coverts are 
plain, neither vermiculated nor tipped with black. 

The specimens figured are — on Plate 666 a young male, specimen a, in Mr. Seebohm's 
collection, which is also the bird above described ; and on Plate 667 the old female from the 
Lepsa River, which is also the adult female above described. The description of the adult male 
is taken from Prof. Menzbier's type of Lanius funereus. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens :— 

E Mus. H. Seebohm. 
a, (J. Mountains near Lake Korogol, September 5th ; b, ? . Ferghana, March 3rd, 1882 (Dr. Severtzoff). 

E Mus. Petrop. 
a, $ ad. Lepsa River, September 1844 (Karelin). 

E Mus. Moskov. 

a, d . Ulugchat, Kashgaria (Wilkins). 



668 



ilH 




J. G.KeuIema,n3 del.etlith. 



Miritem Bros . imp. 



1 . E VERSMAN N S SH RI KE . 

LAN I US FDNEREUS. 

2.WHITEWINGED SHRIKE 

LANIUS LEUCOPTEHUS. 



LANIITS LEUCOPTEEUS. 

(WHITE-WINGED SHRIKE.) 



Lanius leucojtterus, Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotnie, p. 67 (1873). 

Lanius przewalskii, Bogdanoff, Sorokop. Kussk. Faun. p. 147 (1881). 

Lanius excubitor, var. przewalskii, Radde & Walter, Vog. Transcasp. p. 68 (1888). 

Lanius homeyeri, Sharpe, Second Yark. Mission, p. 70 (1891, partim). 

Figura unica. 
Bogdanoff, Sorokoputui Busskoi Faunui, pi. iii. fig. 2. 

Ad. L. excubitori similis, sed corpore supra pallidiore : alis magis albo notatis, secundariis nonnullis in pogonio 
interno pure albis : seapularibus, uropygio imo et supracaudalibus albis : rectricibus duabus externis 
utrinque pure albis et corpore subtus toto albo. 

Adult Female (Lake Kaplan-kul, Nov. 25th). Upper parts pale French grey, much paler than in L. excubitor; 
forehead, lores (except a small spot in front of the eye which is black), and a broad superciliary stripe 
pure white ; primaries and secondaries white on the basal two-thirds, forming a large white alar patch ; 
the secondaries very white on the inner web, some having the inner web pure white, and all tipped 
with white ; scapulars, lower rump, and upper tail-coverts white ; basal portion of the tail white, the 
two outer rectrices on each side pure white, the third with very little black, the fourth and fifth black 
broadly tipped with white, the two middle feathers black except at the base ; ear-coverts and a small 
spot in front of the eye black ; chin, throat, and underparts pure white : upper mandible horny hlack, 
lower mandible pale at the base, becoming dark horn towards the tip ; legs black ; iris dark brown. 
Total length about 9'5 inches, culmen 09, wing 4"55, tail 4 - 5, tarsus 1-05. 

Adult Male (Lake Kaplan-kul, Nov. 5th) . Closely resembles the female, but rather larger in size, viz. : 
culmen - 9, wing 4*7, tail 4 - 75, tarsus 1*1. 

Obs. The hest character by which the present species can always be separated is the large amount of white 
on the secondaries, some of which invariably have the entire inner web white, which is never the case 
even in very pale examples of Lanius excubitor. In this respect, however, there are individual 
variations, and the specimen in the British Museum has the innermost secondaries white. 

Tills extreme form of Lanius excubitor occurs from Transcaspia to Eastern Turkestan and north 
to Krasnoyarsk. 

Mr. Zarudny observed, but did not obtain, White-winged Shrikes, doubtless the present 
species, between Kulkulais and the Soumbar in the summer of 1884, and again in September 
1886, between the Soumbar and the village of Noukhour ; and Messrs. Radde and Walter (Vog. 
Transcasp. p. 68) obtained an old female, which was, they say, a typical Lanius leucopterus, near 
Askabad on the 7th of March, 1886. Severtzoff records it as found in Turkestan during passage, 

z2 



162 

and to some extent it is also resident there. Kussoff also obtained it at Tashkend and Tschinas, 
and Col. Biddulph shot a specimen at Maral Bashi in January 1874. 

In the western portion of its range Lanius leucopterus meets Lanius excubitor, of which a 
pale form having, as a rule, more white on the wings and tail than in western specimens, and 
thus exhibiting a tendency towards L. leucopterus, appears to predominate there. This form 
has been described as specifically separable from L. excubitor, under the name of Lanius 
homeyeri, by Dr. Cabanis (J. f. O. 1873, p. 75) ; but in this I cannot agree, as it has no definite 
geographical range, and there is no character by which it is separable from L. excubitor, and all 
that one can say is that in the eastern portion of its range Lanius excubitor has more white on 
the wings and tail than, as a rule, is the case in examples from the extreme western portion of 
its range ; but the pale form, so-called L. homeyeri, occurs in the extreme west, though not so 
commonly as in the east, and typical L. excubitor is also found, together with the pale form, in 
the east. 

How far east the present species ranges it is somewhat difficult to state with any degree of 
certainty, but in China it is replaced by another form of Grey Shrike, Lanius sphenocercus, 
which differs in having a much longer tail, in having less white on the wings and tail, and being 
darker in general tone of colour, the rump being grey and not white. How far this species 
ranges in China I cannot say, but it is said to inhabit Southern China, and I have a specimen 
from Pekin in Northern China. 

According to Professor Bogdanoff, Col. Prjevalsky met with Lanius leucopterus in Mongolia 
between the post of Ssaissansk and Putchen, and near Carashar ; and Mr. Pleske states that 
Messrs. Grum-Grzimailo obtained a male at Dshimyssar in the Gutchen district, and a female at 
Tschiktym in the Turfan district. It is found in Central Siberia, and Mr. Seebohm (Ibis, 1882, 
p. 421) records two as having been obtained near Krasnoyarsk. 

In habits and mode of nidification the present species doubtless assimilates closely with 
Lanius excttbitor, but I find no details on record respecting it. 

The specimen figured is the female above described, and is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens: — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser, 
a, <J ad. Kaplan-kul, Ferghana, November 5th; b, ? ad. Kaplan-kul, November 25th (Severtzoff). 

E Mus. Brit, 
a, ? ad. Maral Bashi, January 1874 {Col. J. Biddulph). 



LANIUS FALLAX. 

(FINSCH'S GREY SHRIKE.) 



Lanius meridionalis, Tristram, Ibis, 1862, p. 279 (nee Temm.). 
Lanius excubitor, Tristram, Ibis, 1867, p. 364 (nee Linn.). 
Lanius lahtora, Heuglin, Orn. N.O.-Afr. i. p. 483 (1871, nee Sykes). 
Lanius fallax, Finsch, Trans. Zool. Soc. vii. p. 249, pi. xxv. (1872). 
Lanius lahtora, Sharpe & Dresser, B. of Eur. iii. p. 381 (1872, partim). 
Lanius uncinatus, Sclater & Hartlaub, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 168. 
Lanius algeriensis, Meade-Waldo, Ibis, 1889, p. 10 (nee Linn.). 

Abou seround, Booras, Arabic (fide Tristram). 

Figura notabiles. 

Finsch, Trans. Zool. Soc. vii. pi. xxv. ; Sharpe & Dresser, B. of Eur. iii. pi. 146 (upper 
figure). 

Ad. corpore supra saturatiore, subtiis albido-cinereo, hypochondriis cinereis : uropygic- et supracaudalibus 
saturate cinereo-canis dorso concoloribus : scapularibus vix albido apicatis : plaga alari minore : 
secundariis nigris, in pogonio interno albo marginatis et albo apicatis : tectricibus alarum minoribus 
nigris vix cinereo notatis : rectrice extima in pogonio externo alba et in pogonio interno nig^a, 
conspicue albo apicata, sequentibus minus albo apicatis et rectricibus centralibus omnino r:gjis : 
remigibus secundariis in pogonio interno fere nigricantibus : rostro, pedibus et iride sicut in L. elegante 
picturatis. 

Adult Male (Gennesareth, March 9th). Diffei's from Lanius elegans in having the upper parts of a darker 
grey, the underparts greyish white, the flanks grey ; rump and upper tail-coverts grey like the back ; 
scapulars grey, slightly tipped with white, alar patch small; secondaries black, margined with white on 
the inner web, and tipped with white ; lesser wing-coverts black, slightly intermixed with grey ; outer- 
most tail-feather with the outer web white and the inner web black broadly tipped with white, the 
following ones with less white, and the central ones entirely black ; inner webs of the secondaries 
chiefly blackish ; soft parts as in L. elegans. Total length about 9 inches, culmen - 85, wing 4*25, 
tail 4 - 3, tarsus l - 25. 

The present form is found in the Canary Islands, in N.E. Africa (so far as we at present know) 
east of the Nile, in Palestine and Mesopotamia, and eastward to Baluchistan and probably also as 
far as the Deccan, but this apparently interrupted distribution will probably be found hereafter 
to be erroneous. 

In the Canary Islands it is found commonly in Fuerteventura, and also occurs on all the 
otber islands of this group. According to Mr. Meade-Waldo (Ibis, 1890, p. 430) the distribution 
in Teneriffe is rather peculiar. It frequents the hot Euphorbia-covered slopes close to the sea 
on the south side of the island ; it is almost equally common and resident all the year on the 



164 

" Cumbre " 5000 to 7000 feet, and is seldom or never seen on the north or west side of the 
island. I have carefully compared specimens from the Canaries with the type of L. fallax in 
the British Museum, and find them agree very closely, and one specimen from Fuerteventura is 
absolutely identical in every respect, except that it has a somewhat shorter wing. 

As yet the distribution of the present form in Africa is but imperfectly known. So far as I 
can ascertain there is no certain record of its occurrence west of the Nile, but it stands to reason 
that it must in all probability occur in the countries intervening between that river and the 
Canaries. Dr. Finsch obtained his specimens in the Bogos country, Mr. Blanford obtained it at 
Ain-Habab in Abyssinia and at Annesley Bay, and von Heuglin (/. c.) records it from the coasts 
of Abyssinia, Dahlak, and Tedjura. According to Mr. Oates it has also been obtained at Muscat. 
In Palestine it is, according to Canon Tristram, the commonest Shrike, and is resident all the 
year in every part of the country; and I may here remark that all the references in the 'Birds 
of Europe ' relative to Lanius lahtora in Palestine pertain to the present form. To the 
eastward Lanius fallax occurs in Mesopotamia, Afghanistan (fide Oates), and Baluchistan, where 
Mr. Blanford obtained it at Gwadar, and Mr. Oates (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 461) states 
that a Shrike obtained by Lieut. Burgess, probably in the Deccan, must be referred to the 
present form. 

In habits Lanius fallax assimilates closely with its allies. Von Heuglin states that in 
North-east Africa he found it frequenting bare rocks and cliffs, where there was scarcely a trace 
of tree-growth, and wherever there was an isolated half-withered acacia, one of these Shrikes 
might be seen perched on its summit. Canon Tristram says that in Palestine, in the winter 
season, its favourite perch is the outermost bough of some bare prickly shrub, and that when 
approached it simply flits to the outside of the next bush. 

Its nest, according to Canon Tristram, is well defended by thorns from the attacks of hawks, 
and is placed in the middle of a jujube-tree, and the eggs are deposited in March, and I may 
remark that eggs I have received from the Canaries were also all taken in that month. Von 
Heuglin states that in N.E. Africa he often found the nest in the eyrie of the Osprey, or at least 
covered by the latter, more seldom placed on samra or balsam-bushes, and generally at an 
altitude of from four to eight feet above the ground. 

The eggs, usually four or five in number, are dull light stone-grey in ground-colour, and 
are covered with pale purplish-brown underlying shell-blotches, and dull liver-brown or nut- 
brown surface spots and blotches. 

As stated in the article on Lanius elegans, Lanius lahtora and the present bird can only be 
regarded as belonging to closely allied forms or subspecies of the same species; and Lanius 
fallax, like the other allied forms, is subject to a considerable amount of variation, both as to 
tint of colour on the upper and under parts, and also as to the amount of grey on the lesser 
wing-coverts. Some specimens from the Canaries are lighter and others darker ; some have the 
lesser wing-coverts almost entirely grey, whereas others (especially one, a female, from Guia, 
Teneriffe, in Canon Tristram's collection) have them black, with very slight grey tips. All, 
however, differ from L. algeriensis, not only in having the upper and under parts much paler, 
but also in having a narrow white superciliary stripe, and in having the chin and throat white, 
and not grey. Specimens from Abyssinia vary somewhat, though scarcely so much as those from 



165 

the Canaries, and one from Muscat in the British Museum has the lesser wing-coverts entirely 
grey. Specimens from the Canaries have a shorter wing than those from other localities, the 
length averaging only about 3 - 85 to 3 - 9 inches. Lanius uncinatus, from Socotra, is at best a 
very doubtful species, differing from typical L. fallax merely in having a somewhat stouter and 
more hooked bill ; but there are a good many intermediate specimens, and I have no hesitation 
in uniting this form with L. fallax. 

Specimens of Lanius fallax from Palestine agree closely with dark examples from the 
Canaries and with Abyssinian specimens, but as a rule they have more black and less grey on 
the lesser wing-coverts, and in that respect approach more nearly to Lanius lahtora, from which, 
however, this form is distinguishable by its darker colour, grey underparts, and darker inner 
webs to the secondaries. 

In the British Museum Catalogue, Lanius pallidirostris, Cassin (Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Philad. 1851, p. 244), Lanius aucheri, Bp. (Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1853, p. 294), and Lanius 
•pollens (Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1853, p. 433), the last given in error as Lanius pallidus, De Fil., 
are included in the synonymy of this Shrike ; but this appears to me to be erroneous. Cassin's 
description of L. pallidirostris does not in any respect agree with L. fallax, but much better 
with L. elegans, as he describes it as being paler than L. excubitor, with much white on 
the wings, and with the underparts white with a rose tinge ; Lanius pattens is mentioned in 
a footnote at the page in the Rev. et Mag. de Zool. above cited as L. pattens, Riipp., without 
any description, and I cannot find it described in any of Ruppell's works ; Lanius aucheri is 
described by Bonaparte as resembling L. lahtora, but intermediate between L. lahtora and 
L. excubitor, though duller, and without any white on the back, the tail longer, the feathers 
narrower, the tail and wings with less white on them, and the secondaries short. This descrip- 
tion may or may not refer to L. fallax, but is too vague to enable anyone to say to whicii 
species it refers, and should therefore be expunged from the synonymy of the present species. 
The upper figure on Plate 146 in the ' Birds of Europe ' is referable to the present species, 
and I have not deemed it necessary to give an illustration of it now, as the distinctions are 
more easily described than shown on a plate. 

The specimen described is in my own collection. 

Besides the series in the British Museum I have, in the preparation of the above article, 
examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. K Dresser. 

a, g. Gennesareth, March 9th, 1864; b, $. Gennesareth, March 8th, 1864 (H. B. Tristram), c. Fuerte- 
veutura, Canaries, March 1889 (Dr. Percy Kendall). 



LANITJS ELEGANS. 

(PALLID SHRIKE.) 



Lanius elegans, Swains. Faun. Bor.-Am. ii. p. 122 (1831). 

Lanius leucopygus, Hemp. & Ehr. Symb. Phys. Av. i. fol. d, sine diagn. (1828). 

Lanius pallidirostris, Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1851, p. 244. 

" % Lanius pattens, Piipp.," id. torn. cit. p. 433. 

Lanius dealhatus, De Fil. Eev. et Mag. de Zool. 1853, p. 289. 

Lanius assimilis, A. & L. Brehm, J. f. Orn. 1854, p. 147. 

Lanius leuconotus, id. torn. cit. p. 147. 

Lanius orbitalis, Licht. Nomencl. Av. p. 12 (1854). 

Lanius hemileucurus, Finsch & Hartl. Vog. Ost-Afr. p. 329 (1869). 

Collyrio pattens (Cassin), Gray, Hand-1. of B. i. p. 391. no. 5932 (1869). 

Collyrio elegans (Swainson), Gray, 1. c. no. 5936 (1869). 

Collyrio hemileucurus (Finsch & Hartl.), Gray, 1. c. no. 5941 (1869). 

Lanius lahtora (partim), Dresser, B. of Eur. iii. p. 381 (1872). 

Figurce notabiles. 
Dresser, B. of Eur. iii. pi. 146 (lower figure) ; Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. viii. pis. vi., vii. 

Ad. supra pulchre canus, scapularibus et uropygio imo albis : subtus pure albus: linea frontali, loris cum 
regione oculari et parotica nigris, albo anguste marginatis : tectricibus alarum minimis canis, majoribus 
cum ala spuria nigris : remigibus nigris, primariis ad basin albis, secundariis albo marginatis et 
apicatis : rectricibus centralibus nigris anguste albo apicatis, duabus externis omnind albis : scapis 
tantum nigris, proximo pogonio interno fere nigro : subalaribus et secundariis subtus in pogonio interno 
albis : rostro pedibusque nigricanti-corneis : iride fusca. 

Adult (Algeria). Upper parts pale French grey, underparts pure white; lower rump white; upper tail- 
coverts pale French grey ; a very narrow frontal line, lores, and a broad patch passing through and 
behind the eye deep black, narrowly margined above with white ; wings black, the primaries with the 
basal portion pure white, forming a large alar patch, and narrowly tipped with white ; secondaries with 
most of the inner web and the terminal portion white, the two innermost, however, black tipped with 
white ; scapulars white, the lesser wing-coverts grey ; central rectrices black, slightly tipped with white, 
the outermost tail-feather white, the next white with a narrow black shaft-line, and the next two black, 
broadly tipped with white ; under wing-coverts and inner webs of the secondaries white : bill and legs 
blackish horn; iris brown. Total length about 9 inches, culmen - 8, wing 4 - l, tail 4"4, tarsus 1"2. 

When in 1871 and 1872 Dr. Sharpe and myself wrote the articles in the ' Birds of Europe ' on 
the Grey Shrikes we deemed it advisable to unite under Lanius lahtora all the closely allied 
forms, which Dr. Gadow (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. viii. pp. 247-252) differentiates under the names of 
Lanius lahtora, L. fallax, L. assimilis, L. hemileucurus, L. dealhatus, and L. elegans ; and to those 

2a 



168 

ornithologssts who prefer lumping to splitting this view would even now recommend itself. It 
has, however, of later years become the usage to recognize local forms or subspecies to an extent 
that was then barely thought of, except by Brehm and his disciples ; and, taking this view of the 
question, I have, with the experience and data collected during the past twenty years, found it 
necessary to recognize four subspecies, viz. L. lahtora, L. grimmi, L.fallax, and L. elegans, the 
last being the species of which I will now treat. 

The range of Lanius elegans extends eastward into Central Asia, and westward to Algeria, 
but it does not appear to have been met with in Europe north of the Mediterranean, nor, in fact, 
in North Africa {fide Tristram, Ibis, 1884, p. 400) north of the Atlas range; but it is stated by 
the late Dr. Taczanowski to be common on the southern slopes of that range and also in the 
desert portion of Algeria. All the notes in our article in the ' Birds of Europe ' on Lanius 
lahtora referring to its occurrence in Algeria, Egypt, and Nubia are referable to the present 
species. Canon Tristram met with it on the northern borders of the desert of Algeria ; and 
Mr. J. H. Gurney, jun., records it as being extremely common in the Mzab country. Dr. Koenig 
also found it numerous in Tunis, south of El Djem, near which place it was breeding commonly 
late in April. In East Africa it occurs from Egypt southward to the White Nile, and there is 
in the British Museum a specimen from the Eyton collection, obtained at Kordofan. In 
Palestine the present form is replaced by the closely allied Lanius fallax ; but it doubtless 
occurs in Asia Minor, as Professor Bogdanoff states (Sorokoputui Russkoi Faunui, p. 160) that 
he examined two specimens from the collection of Noie, of Constantinople, which were probably 
obtained by him in Asia Minor, and not in European Turkey. Dr. Radde records (s. n. Lanius 
lahtora) a single occurrence at Lenkoran, on the Caspian ; but his description tends to show that 
the specimen in question may possibly be referable to Lanius grimmi, and this cannot be decided 
without a careful comparison, which I have not had an opportunity of making. It certainly 
occurs, however, in Transcaspia, as I have a specimen from Beum-basch, for which I am indebted 
to Dr. Radde, who states (Vog. Transcasp. p. 67) that he obtained two examples at that place, 
and one at Perewalnaja; but Mr. Zarudny does not include it in his list of the birds of 
Transcaspia. 

According to Mr. E. W. Oates (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 460) it occurs at Fao, on the 
Persian Gulf, and in Mesopotamia ; Dr. Aitchison procured it in Afghanistan, and it has been 
obtained in Sind and in the Punjab. Dr. Gadow (I. c.) states that it occurs through Turkestan 
to the Amoor ; but I find no confirmation of this statement, and have not seen any specimen from 
so far east as the Amoor. According to Bogdanoff, however, Severtzoff obtained one on the Amu- 
Darja, and Prjevalsky also procured one on the Haidongol Paver, in the Eastern Tian-shan. 

I may here remark that the Indian form, the true Lanius lahtora, Sykes, does not occur 
within the limits of the Western Palsearctic Region; and in the article on L. lahtora (B. of 
Europe, iii. pp. 381-385) all the data, excepting that referring to its presence in India, are 
referable to the present species and L.fallax, and the two birds figured belonged to the present 
and not to the Indian form, as did also the specimen described. 

In habits, note, and mode of nidification Lanius elegans does not differ from its near allies. 
Dr. Koenig remarks that in Tunis, whereas L. algeriensis inhabits the northern and mountainous 
portion of the country, the present species is only found in the desert, where it may be seen 



169 

perched on the top of a sarib bush, ov flying in easy undulating lines, or else hovering over its 
prey. Mr. J. H. Gurney, jun., says that their favourite perch is the bottom of a crest of a palm 
where the fronds are broken short, where they can easily dart off to snatch a passing beetle, or 
rise into the air after a more high-flying locust. He also adds that it is an excellent mimic. 

Dr. Koenig obtained many nests of this Shrike in Tunis, which he describes as being large 
and bulky, constructed of dry twigs, bents, and portions of plants, and lined with fine bents, wool, 
plant-cotton, and bits of rags. 

The eggs, usually six in number, but varying from five to seven, are pale greenish yellow, 
with underlying dull lilac shell-markings, and liver-brown overlying spots and blotches, and 
closely resemble those of Lanius algeriensis both in form and size. 

Lanius elegans was first described by Swainson (I. c.) as an American bird, from a specimen 
in the British Museum presented by the Hudson Bay Company, without any indication as to 
locality ; but an examination of the type, which is still in the British Museum, clearly shows 
that it must have come from North Africa or Western Asia, and not from America, though it 
was sent to the British Museum with other birds from the fur countries. I have carefully 
compared the type with my series and it agrees closely with my specimen from Transcaspia. 

The specimen above described is the bird figured in the ' Birds of Europe,' pi. 146, lower 
figure, and is specimen a in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum and in the collection of Canon Tristram, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. II. E. Dresser. 

a, ad. Algeria (Fairmaire) . b, ?. Tuggurt, Algeria, December 27th, 1861 {Canon Tristram), c, ?. Thebes, 
January 24th, 1863 (/. H. Cochrane), d, $ . N. Africa (Verreaux). e, $ . Beum-basch, Transcaspia, 
May 1st {Dr. G. Radde). f, $ . Urtun, near Tschimkent, April 25th {Prof. Menzbier). 



2a2 



669 




r';,;-.:.=i deJ-efc lltV. . 



ZE^-iLTXDIE'S SHRIKE. 

LANIUS RADDII. 



-ihr-.t-prT. Bros. imo. 



LANIUS KADDII. 

(RADDE'S SHRIKE.) 



Lanius raddei, Dresser, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 291. 

Otomela bogdanowi, Schalow, J. f. Orn. 1893, p. 116 (nee Bianchi). 

Lanius bogdanowi, Dresser, Ibis, 1893, p. 378 (nee Bianchi). 

Figura unica. 
Dresser, Ibis, 1889, pi. v. 

J 1 ad. supra canus : dorso pallide fusco-cinereo lavato : uropygii lateribus albis : fronte et superciliis albis : 
linea anguste frontali et loris cum regione parotica nigris : alis nigricantibus, tectricibus alarum cum 
secundariis fuscis cinereo marginatis, secundariis majoribus albo anguste terrain atis : speculo alari 
angustiore : rectricibus nigris, duabus extimis albis, linea centrali nigra versus apicem magis extensa 
notatis, reliquis nigro notatis : mento, gutture et corpore subtus albis : hypochondriis pallide cervino 
lavatis. 

Adult Male (Kulkulais, September 5th) . General colour above bluish grey, much lighter and clearer on 
the crown and forehead, the latter and a line over the eye white; a narrow frontal line, the lores, and 
a band passing through the eye and covering the ear-coverts black ; lower part of the mantle brownish 
buff; wings dull blackish, the secondaries narrowly margined with dull white ; alar patch very small; 
median tail-feathers black, the outermost rectrix on each side white, but with a black line along the 
shaft which broadens considerably towards the tip, the next two with much more black towards the 
tip ; chin, throat, and underparts generally, with the under wing-coverts, pure white ; flanks washed 
with pale warm buff: bill and legs black. Total length about 6"75 inches, culmen 0'6, wing 3'55, 
tail 3-2, tarsus 0'9. 

This Shrike is as yet so little known that, so far as I can ascertain, there are at present but two 
specimens in any collection — the type, which is in my own collection, and one example in the 
collection of the late Dr. Severtzoff, which is now at Moscow. The former was obtained by 
Dr. G. Radde, at Kulkulais, in Transcaspia, and the latter, I think, in Turkestan, but I have not 
yet received particulars as to where Dr. Severtzoff obtained it. 

When I described Lanius raddii I had not seen Dr. Bianchi's description of L. bogdanowi, 
and, indeed, it does not altogether agree with my bird ; but Mr. Pleske when in England 
examined my specimen, and assured me that it was undoubtedly conspecific with that bird, and 
I therefore, as he was so certain about it, decided to adopt that name instead of L. raddii. Last 
autumn Prof. Menzbier, of Moscow, wrote to me saying that he had received a large series of 
Shrikes from Central Asia, some of which approached both Lanius bogdanowi and L. raddii, and 
asked me to lend my type for examination and comparison, which I at once did, and at the same 
time asked him to compare it with the type of L. bogdanowi, and to let me know the result as 
early as possible, as I had to send my article on the present species to the printers not later 



172 

than May. He returned my type in May, but was too busy to send me the particulars I 
required, and, taking it for granted that Mr. Pleske's identification was correct, I sent my article 
to press, having waited till the last moment, and it was duly put in type. Late in July, 
fortunately before I had issued the present Part IV., I received from Mr. P. Suschkin a separate 
copy of an article he has just written, describing a new Shrike from the Emba under the name 
of Lanius elaeagni, in which he states that Professor Menzbier had lent him for comparison both 
my type of Lanius raddii and Dr. Bianchi's type of Lanius bogdanowi, and that the unification 
of these two species was undoubtedly an error. L. raddii is, he adds, " much larger than 
Lj. boqdanowi, has a longer tail, the head is pure grey, lighter in shade than the back, and the 
back is greyer," but he does not enter into any further details. As, however, his comparison of 
the two types shows that they cannot be united, my only course was to cancel my article on this 
species, in which I had adopted Mr. Pleske's and Dr. Schalow's views, and united my species 
with Lanius bogdanowi, and to replace it by the present article. Mr. Suschkin adds that in the 
late Dr. Severtzoff's collection there is a specimen of Lanius raddii which agrees closely with 
my type ; hence it would appear that the range of the present species extends from Transcaspia 
to Turkestan. 

It appears to me that this Shrike is not very distantly connected with Lanius vittatus, 
although it differs considerably in several respects, especially in the absence of the rich maroon 
on the back, the broad frontal line, and the chestnut on the flanks. Last year (Ibis, 1894, 
p. 383) Professor Menzbier described a Shrike which he considers to be a hybrid between Lanius 
dichrourus and Otomela karelini, and remarked that he believed my Lanius raddii to be a similar 
hybrid in worn plumage. This, however, is not the case, as I convinced myself by a comparison 
of the specimen in question with my bird. On the other hand, I found on comparing my type 
of L. raddii with Dr. Menzbier's type of Lanius dichrourus (described, Ibis, 1894, p. 382) that 
these two birds resemble each other so closely that I much doubt if they can be separated 
specifically. As I then remarked {t. c. p. 385), it differs from L. dichrourus merely in having the 
upper parts paler and clearer in tone of colour, and in having more white on the tail-feathers. 
The pattern of the tail is precisely the same as in the type of L. dichrourus ; but in the latter 
the outer tail-feather on each side has the terminal third black margined with white, whereas 
in my bird the black is restricted to a line along the terminal third of the shaft, broadening 
considerably towards the tip. I may best describe my bird as closely resembling a specimen of 
L. karelini sent at the same time by Prof. Menzbier, except that the tail, instead of being rufous, 
is similar to that of L. dichrourus, though it has more white on it, and it appears to me very 
possible that L. dichrourus may prove not to be a good species. Lack of material, however, 
makes it impossible to settle these questions here ; but as Professor Menzbier informs me that 
he has a large series of Shrikes from Central Asia, and that he is busy working at this group, he 
will doubtless throw much light on the subject in his ' Ornithologie du Turkestan.' 

The specimen figured and described is the type, and is in my own collection. It was 
obtained at Kulkulais, Transcaspia, on the 5th September (24th August, old style), 1886, by 
Dr. G. Kadde. 



MUSCICAPA SEMITORQUATA. 

(CAUCASIAN PIED FLYCATCHER.) 



1 Muscicapa albicollis (nee Temm.), Menetries, Cat. rais. p. 29 (1832). 

Muscicapa atricapilla (nee Linn.), Nordm. in Demid. Voy. Buss. Merid. iii. p. 198 (1842). 

Muscicapa atricapilla (nee Linn.), Blanf. E. Persia, ii. p. 143 (1876). 

Muscicapa atricapilla (partim), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 157 (1879). 

Muscicapa atricapilla (nee Linn.), Badde, Orn. Caucasica, p. 287 (1884). 

Muscicapa semitorquata, E. F. von Homeyer, Zeitschr. gesammt. Orn. 1885, p. 185. 

Figura iinica. 
Homeyer, ut supra, pi. x. 

d ad. M. atricapilla similis, sed vitta frontali majore : collo semitorquato, alis et cauda niagis albo notatis : 
rectrice extima utrinque alba, in pogonio interno vei'sus apicem nigro notata, rectrice secunda alba in 
pogonio interno et externo magis nigro notata, rectricibus reliquis nigris. 

$ ad. M. atricapillce similis, sed alis et cauda magis albo notatis. 

Adult Male (Ortakeuy, April 6th) . Resembles the very adult male of Muscicapa atricapilla, but the white 
patch on the forehead is rather larger, there is a white semicollar passing halfway round the neck on 
each side, and separated on the hind neck by a black patch about half an inch wide, which joins the 
black on the head to that on the back ; wings as in M . collaris, with the white patch much larger than 
in M. atricapilla ; outer tail-feather on each side white, with a terminal black patch on the inner web, 
the next one white, with a larger black terminal patch covering both webs, rest of the tail black; the 
black portion of the plumage of a clear deep black. Total length about 5 inches, culmen0'4, wing 3"2, 
tail 2-0, tarsus 07. 

Adult Female. Resembles the female of M. atricapilla, but has, as a rule, more white on the tail and wings ; 
but after a careful comparison of specimens I cannot find any constant character by which the females 
of the two species can always be separated. 

Nestling (Transcaucasia, June 6th). Undistinguishable from the nestling of M. atricapilla. 

Obs. The amount of white on the tail in the male appears to vary somewhat according to the age of the 
bird ; thus in the male from Lenkoran, which is evidently rather a younger bird than the other three 
specimens I have before me, the white on the tail is scarcely more developed than in a very old 
M. atricapilla. 

The following table will best describe the differences between the three species of Pied Flycatcher : — ■ 



174 



M. atricapilla. 

Forehead with a small white patch, which 
in some specimens is reduced 
to a few white feathers. 



Neck : without any trace of a white 
collar. 



Wings : secondaries with but compara- 
tively little white, the alar 
patch being but small. 

Tail : black with but little white, 
this colour being usually 
restricted to the outer web 
of the external tail-feather. 



M. collaris. 

with a large white patch, which 
in some specimens extends 
from the base of the bill to a 
line drawn over the head in 
front of the eyes. 

with a broad white collar ex- 
tending right round. 



with a broad and conspicuous 
white patch. 

black, occasionally in very old 
males with a narrow line of 
white extending over part of 
the outer web of the external 
tail-feather. 



M. semitorquata. 

with a white patch nearly as 
large as in M. collaris. 



with a white semicollar 
extending about halfway 
round, but not meeting 
behind. 

alar patch about as large as in 
M. collaris. 

external tail-feather white, 
with a large black terminal 
patch on the inner web ; the 
next feather white, with a 
rather larger terminal black 
patch on both webs ; rest of 
the tail black. 



The four males (from Ortakeuy, Lenkoran, Choula, and Batoum) vary but little in size, the measurements 
being as follows : — Culmen - 4 to 0"45 inch, wing 315 to 3"2, tail 2'0 to 2*1, tarsus 07 to 0'72. 

As above stated, there does not appear to be any constant character by which the female of M. semi- 
torquata may be always separated from that of M. atricapilla. Von Homeyer says that in the former 
the two outer tail-feathers have the outer web white, usually to within 1 cm. of the tip, the third 
having a white edge only, but I do not find this constant; and in the immature and nestling plumages 
it is impossible to separate the two species. 

In the present day the tendency amongst ornithologists is towards a subdivision of species to an 
extent that was never thought of twenty years ago ; and though I personally am far more 
disposed to " lump " than to " split," I find myself compelled, to some extent, to march with 
the times. Thus in the case of a form differing but slightly, though constantly, and having 
a distinct geographical range, I hold that it is necessary to recognize it as a distinct species, 
as, for instance, in the case of Picus leucopterus and Lanius leucopterus, which are eastern 
representatives respectively of Picus major and Lanius excubitor, and in the present case we 
have a similar instance of a closely allied form occupying a distinct range. In Europe we 
have Muscicapa atricapilla inhabiting Europe generally from Scandinavia to the extreme 
south, ranging in winter into Africa, and Muscicapa collaris, which is found from Central 
Europe to the Mediterranean and in Asia Minor. Eastward of Asia Minor, however, these 
two are replaced by the present species, and, so far as I can judge, Muscicapa atricapilla 
does not range further east than the borders of Europe, nor M. collaris further east than 
Asia Minor. 

Muscicapa semitorquata, the present species, inhabits Southern Russia, the Caucasus, 
ranging eastward into Persia, and appears occasionally to straggle as far west as Turkey, as I 



175 

have in my collection a specimen from Ortakeuy, obtained there many years ago by the late 
Mr. Bobson. Nordmann (Demidoff's Voy. dans la Euss. Merid. iii. p. 198) records a Pied 
Flycatcher, which I believe to be the present species, as being " common on the shores of the 
Black Sea"; and Menetries says (Cat. rais. p. 29) that he saw M. collaris in the ruins at Baku, a 
somewhat curious place for a Pied Flycatcher ; but if he did see a Pied Flycatcher there, I believe 
that it was the present species and not M. collaris. From Dr. Badde's remarks on M. atricapilla, 
in his ' Oruis Caucasica,' I felt sure that it was the present species about which he was writing, 
and I therefore wrote and asked him to send me a specimen ; and he at once forwarded one, 
which proved that my surmise was correct. 

Mr. E. F. von Homeyer was the first who observed that the Pied Flycatcher of the Caucasus 
differed from our European bird, and gave (I. c.) an excellent description and figure of it. He 
examined six specimens from the Caucasus, sent to him by Dr. Eadde, all of which agreed 
inter se. Dr. Eadde says (I. c.) : — " I did not meet with it at so great an altitude (7000 feet) as 
Mr. Blanford. At Achalzich, at the foot of the Schambobel, I observed it in light brush-wood 
at an altitude of about 4000 feet. It breeds in the neighbourhood of Tiflis in the lower Aragwa 
Valley, and the male is often seen perched on the Paliurus bushes. On the 23rd March we 
observed the first arrivals at Lenkoran; but the main migration was not until the 13th to the 
17th April in the coast-region, and but few Swallows, Martins, and Flycatchers survived near 
Lenkoran then. On the 16th numbers were caught by hand. The males of this species also 
migrate first, and not together with the females." Messrs. Eadde and Walter do not appear to 
have observed it in Transcaspia ; but Mr. Nazaroff states that a Pied Flycatcher nests in the 
forest-region of the Kirghis Steppes ; and Mr. Zarudny (Eech. Zool. Transcasp. p. 58) says that 
he obtained a female Pied Flycatcher near Douchak on the 9th of May, and that it nests in the 
wooded valley of Kelte-Tschinar, both of which notes I believe to refer to the present species. 

From an examination of specimens in the British Museum I am enabled to say that the 
Pied Flycatcher of Persia is referable to the present form, and not to M. atricapilla or M. collaris. 
De Filippi states that he obtained M. collaris in gardens at Tabriz ; but, as I am informed by 
Count Salvadori, there is no specimen of a Pied Flycatcher in his collection at Turin, and the 
bird referred to was doubtless the present species. Mr. Blanford obtained three specimens, all 
in immature dress, in the Karij Valley, Elburz Mountains, where, he says, it abounded in the 
valleys of the Elburz, but he never met with it in Southern Persia. 

As the characteristic differences in the present species are shown better in the above table 
than they would be in an illustration, I have not deemed it necessary to give a Plate of it. 

The adult male above described is in my own collection, and I am indebted to Professor 
Menzbier, of Moscow, for the loan of the nestling. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser, 
o, $ ad. Ortakeuy /.Turkey, April 6th, 1865 (Robson). b, $. Lenkoran, March 30th, 1879 (Dr. G. Radde). 

2B 



176 

JE If us. Ifoscov. 

a, $ ad. Wood between Choula and Anvina, Transcaucasia, 2500 feet, June 4th, 1893; b, $ ad. Alexander 
Garden, Batoum, April 1st, 1894; c, $ pull. Between Choula and Anvina, June 6th, 1893 {Prof. 

Menzbier) . 

E Ifus. Brit. 

a, g . Fao, January 1877 {W. D. Cumming). b, $ . Bushire, April 1855 [A. J. V. Palmer), c, $ , d, § . 
Persia [Warwick), e, ? juv. Karij Valley, N. Persia, 6500 feet, August 10th, 1872 {W. T. Blanford). 



670 




J &.KeuIemans dei.etlitK. 



HIMALAYAN GOLDFINCH 

CARDUELIS CANICEPS. 



MinterrLBros. imp. 



CARDUELIS CANICEPS. 

(HIMALAYAN GOLDFINCH.) 



Passer carduelis, var., Pall. Zoogr. Ross. -As. ii. p. 16 (1811). 

Carduelis caniceps, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 23. 

Fringilla orientalis, Eversmann, Add. Pall. Zoogr. Poss.-As. fasc. ii. p. 9 (1841). 

Fringilla caniceps (Vig.), Gray, Gen. of B. ii. p. 371 (1849). 

Carduelis subulatus, Cab. in Ersch & Grub. Encycl. 1st sect. vol. 50. p. 217 (1849). 

Carduelis orientalis (Eversm.), Bp. Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 518 (1850). 

Fringilla {Carduelis) orientalis (Eversm.), Gray, Hand-1. of B. ii. p. 80. no. 7172 (1870). 

Fringilla [Carduelis] caniceps (Vigors), Gray, ut supra, no. 7173 (1870). 

Carduelis major caniceps, Seebohm, Ibis, 1882, p. 424. 

" Shim, Hind. ; Saira, Kashm." (Oates). 

Figures notahiles. 

Gould, Cent. Himal. B. pi. xxxiii. fig. 1 ; Royle, 111. Bot. Himal. i. pi. viii. fig. 2 ; Gould, 
B. of Asia, v. pi. xvii. 

<J ad. capite, collo et corpore supra pallide fusco-cinereis, uropygio pallidiore : supracaudalibus albis : fronte, 
facie et mento coccineis : cauda absque nigris, remigibus basi fiavis, secundariis intimis in pogonio 
interno albo notatis : rectricibus quatuor centralibus albo apicatis, extimis in pogonio interno macula 
magna alba notatis : subtus albus, pectore sordide cinereo lavato : rostro carneo-griseo, versus apicem 
fusco : pedibus pallide carneo-fuscis : iride fusca. 

$ ad. mari similis, sed capite minus coccineo notato et alis minus flavo notatis. 

Adult Male (E. Tian-shan, January 19tb). Upper parts pale brownisb asb, becoming paler on the rump; 
upper tail-coverts white ; wings as in C. elegans, but on the innermost secondary there is a long white 
patch on the inner web, the next two with a smaller white patch on the terminal portion of the inner 
web ; tail black, the outermost feather with a long white patch on the inner web, the four central 
rectrices broadly tipped with white; forehead, chin, and a line round the base of the beak crimson; 
underparts white, washed with pale ashy brown on the throat and breast: bill fleshy grey, darker at 
the tip; legs pale brown ; iris brown. Total length about 5 - 5 inches, culmen O6o, wing 3"3, tail 2'2, 
tarsus 06. 

Adult Female (E. Tian-shan, January 26th). Resembles the male, but the crimson on the head is paler 
and less extensive, and the yellow on the wings is less developed. 

This, the eastern representative of our Common Goldfinch, has been met with as an occasional 
straggler as far west as the Ural, and ranges from Transcaspia eastward through Afghanistan to 
the Himalayas, and through Central Asia to Siberia in the north. 

2b2 



178 

Professor Menzbier informs me that it is, according to Mr. Zaruclny, an occasional visitor to 
the Orenburg district late in September and early in October. Dr. Radde found it common 
throughout the Transcaspian region wherever there were bushes or reeds, and it is also found high 
up in the mountains. Zarudny also observed it in large numbers between the 2nd and 14th May 
in the gardens in the Ahal-Teke oasis, and amongst the tamarisk-bushes on the banks of the 
Douchak ; it was also tolerably numerous in the gardens of Merv, from whence it extends to the 
tamarisks on the sandy plains bordering the Alikhanow canal. Mr. Blanford did not meet with 
it in Persia, where he only observed C. elegans; but Sir O. St. John states (Ibis, 1889, p. 172) 
that it was very common in Kandahar in winter, but less so in Quetta ; and Col. Swinhoe (Ibis, 
1882, p. 115) records it from Quetta and Chaman in Afghanistan. Col. Biddulph, who met with 
it in Gilgit, says (Ibis, 1881, p. 85) that small flocks appeared from time to time during the 
season of extreme cold, but never seemed to remain more than two or three days at a time. 
They breed at about 9000 feet, and are common in Cashmere in summer as well as in winter; 
and Mr. Scully, writing also on the ornithology of Gilgit, states that it is very common at an 
elevation of about 5000 feet from the first week in November to the first week in March, and in 
summer is only found in the district at higher elevations, where it breeds. In India, according 
to Mr. Oates (Faun, of Brit. Ind., Birds, ii. p. 226), its range extends in the Himalayas from the 
Hazara country and Gilgit to Kumaun at altitudes of from 5000 to 9000 or 10,000 feet, according 
to season. 

In Turkestan, Severtzoff found it common ; and Mr. Pleske says (Eev. Turk. Orn. p. 17) 
that Ptussoff observed it at Tschinas, and in the Western Tian-shan at Baisim and Dscham, and 
found it breeding on the Iskander-kul ; and the brothers Grum-Grzimailo obtained specimens in 
the Bogdo-ola Mountains, in the Eastern Tian-shan. In Siberia it is recorded by Mr. Seebohm 
(I. c.) as occurring at Krasnoyarsk, from whence he obtained eleven specimens, all exhibiting a 
gradation between the present species and the eastern form of our common Goldfinch (Carduelis 
major), and it has been obtained as far east in Siberia as Kultuk, on the Baikal. According to 
Taczanowski (Faun. Orn. Sib. Orient, p. 636), Godlewski states that he only once met with it in 
the Baikal district, where it is of accidental occurrence. Four specimens were seen, all of which 
he obtained. 

In habits the Himalayan Goldfinch is said to agree closely with our European bird, and, 
like it, affects open country, feeding chiefly on the seeds of the thistle. It breeds in the 
Himalayas at considerable altitudes, as also in Turkestan, but there is nothing on record 
respecting its nidification. 

When the present species and the eastern form of the European Goldfinch meet, they appear 
to interbreed freely, as pointed out by Mr. Seebohm (I. c.) and other authors. 

The specimens figured and described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, 6 ad. January 19th ; b, $ . January 26th ; c, ? . January 28th, Ugam River, E. Tian-shan ; d,6 . Tashkend, 
November 30th {Severtzoff) . e, ? . Relete, Tschinas, Transcaspia, February 21st (Dr. Radde). 



671 




J-G.Keulema.ns 1th. 



Hanhart imp. 



WHITEWINGED GROSBEAK 

COCCOTHRAUSTES CARNE1PES . 



COCCOTHKAUSTES CARNEIPES. 

(WHITE- WINGED GROSBEAK.) 



Coccothraustes carnipes, Hodgson, Asiat. Research, xix. p. 151 (1836). 
Coccothraustes speculigerus, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ix. no. 196, p. 11 (1842). 
Resperipliona speculigerus (Brandt), Bp. Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 506 (1850). 
Mycerobas carnipes (Hodgs.), Gould, B. of Asia, pl.xxi. (1851). 
"■Coccothraustes albispecularis, aliq.," G. E. Gray, Hand-1. of B. ii. p. 88 (1870). 
Pycnoramphus carnipes (Hodgs.), Hume, Stray Feath. viii. p. 108 (1879). 
Mycerobas carneipes (Hodgs.), Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1879, p. 448. 
Pycnorhamphus carneipes (Hodgs.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 47 (1888). 

Figtcra unica. 
Gould, B. of Asia, v. pi. xxi. 

£ ad. capite, collo, dorso, gula, gutture, pectore et abdomine supremo nigris, fumoso tinctis, loris intense nigris : 
alis et cauda, nigris, remigibus extus anguste albido rnarginatis, primariis (extimo excepto) ad basin in 
pogonio externo albis, plaga magna formantibus : secundariis intimis et tectricibus majoribus viridi- 
flavo terminatis : uropygio, abdomine imo, hypochondriis et subcaudalibus viridi-flavis : supracaudalibus 
nigris, viridi-flavo marginatis : tibiae plurais cinereo-fuscis : subalaribus et axillaribus cinereis : maxilla 
fusca, mandibula albido-comea, : pedibus pallide fusco-carneis : iride fusca. 

$ ad. mari similis, sed ubique sordidior et magis fusco-cinereo tincta : capitis lateribus, gula et pectore 
albido striatis. 

Adult Male (near Kokand, February 13tb). Head, neck, back, throat, breast, and upper abdomen dark 
sooty black, tbe lores deeper black ; wings and tail black, the quills externally margined, very narrowly, 
with dull white, all the primaries, but the first, white at the base on the outer web, forming a 
conspicuous white patch; inner secondaries and the innermost larger wing-coverts broadly tipped 
with greenish yellow on the outer web ; rump, lower abdomen and flanks, and under tail-coverts 
greenish yellow ; upper tail-coverts black, margined with greenish yellow ; thighs ashy brown ; under 
wing-coverts and axillaries ashy grey : upper mandible brownish, the lower mandible whitish horn- 
colour ; legs pale fleshy brown; iris hair-brown. Total length about 8'7 inches, culmen 0"7, gape 0'9, 
wing 4"8, tail 4*0, tarsus l'l. 

Adult Female (near Kokand, February 1st). Resembles the male, but is duller and greyer in colour, the 
portions of the plumage which in the male are black being ashy brown, and the cheeks, throat, and 
breast are striated with dull white. 

A male from the Kopepet-dagh, obtained on the 27th July, is in moult, and has the plumage worn and 
paler than in the male above described. 



180 

As stated by Dr. Sharpe, Col. Biddulph found males breeding which had not attained the fully adult dress, 
but were in plumage like the female, and he believes that the young plumage of the male, which 
resembles that of the female, is retained till after the first breeding-season. 

The present species of Grosbeak inhabits the more elevated mountains from Transcaspia eastward 
through the Himalayas to Szechuen. Mr. Zarudny found it common in the eastern portion of 
the Kopepet-dagh range in Transcaspia ; and Messrs. Radde and Walter write (Vog. Transcasp. 
p. 28) as follows : — " The fourteen specimens of this curious Finch which we collected were all 
obtained high up in the mountains, in the Karange-dagh gorge, where the collector Rubansky 
went to visit the Dom-tschi ponds. Dr. Walter met with it when ascending the Ak-dagh in May 
1887 at the Kiirtseverdeh-tschesme springs and on the borders of the Guljuli plateau, where it 
was extremely numerous in the junipers, especially on the steep precipices, where it certainly 
breeds. It feeds exclusively on the resinous berries of Juniperus excelsa. During the summer 
the same breeding-places are frequented by Tardus viscivorus, T. torquatus, Metoponia pusilla, 
and Fringilla ccelebs, which also, it would appear, feed on these same berries. During the 
forenoon, usually between 10 and 11 o'clock, all these birds came regularly to the small 
watering-places to drink." 

Dr. Severtzoff records it from Turkestan, and according to Pleske (Rev. Turk. Faun. p. 16) 
a large series of examples was obtained by Russoff at Wijukla-tau, near Saamin. 

Major Wardlaw Ramsay shot a pair among the deodars near the camp at Byan Kheyl, in 
Afghanistan, on the 30th April ; and Mr. Oates (Faun, of Brit. Ind., Birds, ii. p. 200) gives its 
range in British India as " the Himalayas from Gilgit to Sikhim, generally above 8000 feet, but 
occasionally descending to 5000 feet." According to Col. John Biddulph (Str. Feath. ix. p. 346) 
it is common in Gilgit at all seasons in the pine-forests above 8000 feet, seldom descending lower 
even in winter, but on one occasion during the severe winter of 1877-78 he shot a pair at 5000 feet 
elevation. Mandelli also obtained it in Sikhim. Col. Prjevalsky (B. of Mongolia, p. 296) states 
that he met with it in the Ala-shan Mountains, Kan-su, and the southern Koko-nor mountain- 
ranges, but it was not numerous in either range. In Kan-su it inhabits exclusively the juniper- 
range, up to the upper border of bush-growth. The Ala-shan range, he adds, forms there 
the northern limit of its range. Mr. Seebohm records it (Ibis, 1891, p. 374) from Western 
Szechuen. 

With regard to its habits Zarudny writes (Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 795) that in Transcaspia it 
frequents the juniper-zone, and feeds on the berries of this tree. He frequently killed specimens 
which had the beak and head so covered with juniper-resin that he preferred not to skin them. 
Its flight is strong and noisy, and consists of strongly-defined curves, but the flight is not long 
sustained. It progresses awkwardly on the ground, where it is seldom seen. The call-note, 
usually uttered when the bird is on the wing, consists of two notes, which may be rendered 
tyou-deric, uttered jerkily, especially the former note. When wounded and captured it utters 
loud harsh cries. It comes down to running water several times in the day, especially in the 
morning and evening. It rarely bathes in the morning, but often during the heat of the day and 
hot evenings. All the rest of the day it frequents the junipers, passing with ease from branch 
to branch without fatiguing itself, and feeding on the berries. It passes the night amongst the 



181 

thickest branches, and sleeps so sound that if one marks the place where it roosts it is easy to 
climb the tree and catch the bird with the hand. 

Messrs. Radde and Walter remark that, in spite of the proverbial stupidity of these birds, 
they acted most peculiarly, as when they had settled on the ground they jerked their tails sharply 
to the right and left continuously, uttering at the same time their harsh call-note. 

Col. Prjevalsky states (Rowley's Orn. Misc. ii. p. 296) that in Mongolia "juniper-berries 
form its principal food, which are easily smashed by the strong bill of the bird. In Ala-shan, 
where juniper-bushes are not very abundant, it keeps to the fir-woods, and feeds on the seeds 
of the cones. 

" This species is very lively and quick, and its flight is high and wavy. The call-note, either 
Avhen the bird is on the wing or sitting, resembles somewhat the following syllables — ' teu- 
dricJc, teu-drick ' ; but from the nest the adult birds call ' brijj, brijj,' very much resembling 
Carpodacus dubius. 

" I cannot state whether M. earnipes leaves the localities in which we found it, for the cold 
season, or not; but I am inclined to believe that the former opinion is the more likely, as early 
in May Ave observed, in Kan-su, small flocks of from five to ten individuals, which evidently 
were migrating or had just arrived, They kept principally to the juniper-bushes in the middle 
mountain-ranges. I then saw these birds for the first time running on the ground. 

"The young males which I killed in the spring still resemble the females exactly; conse- 
quently it is most likely they get their full plumage after the second moult. In the middle of 
summer we obtained examples which had just commenced to get a few black feathers on the 
breast ; these were probably a year old." 

So far as I can ascertain, nothing is known respecting the breeding-habits of this Grosbeak, 
and none of the collectors above referred to succeeded in finding its nest and eggs. 

The specimens figured are the male and female above described, and are in my own 
collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens: — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, (J ad. Kopepet-dagh, above Askabad, July 27th, 1886 (Dr. G. Radde). b, <3 , c, ? . Osch, near Kokand, 
Februaiy 1st and 13th, 1882 {Dr. Staudinger). 



672 




J S.Keulemans deLetlitH. 



SAXAUT SPARROW. 

PASSER AMMODENDRI. 



Mmtern. Bros . imp. 



PASSEE AMMODENDEI. 

(SAXAUL SPARKOW.) 



"Passer ammodendri, Severtz.," Dode, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1871, p. 481. 
Passer stoliczJcce, Hume, Stray Feathers, ii. p. 516 (1874). 
\" Passer timidus, Przewalski," Deditius, J. f. O. 1886, p. 527. 
Passer severtzowi, Pleske, Bull. Ac. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb. xiii. p. 282. 

Vordbey sacsaulney, Russian. 

Figura unica. 
Gould, B. of Asia, v. pi. xv. 

6 ad. pileo, nucha, loris et linea per oculum usque ad nucham ducta nigris : pilei et nucha? lateribus 
rufescentibus : corpore supra sordide cinereo-nigro striato : remigibus nigricantibus, albido marginatis 
et apicatis : secundariis intimis nigris, albido marginatis : tectricibus alarum minoribus nigris albo 
apicatis, reliquis sordide cinereis, centraliter nigro notatis et albido marginatis : rectricibus cinereo- 
nigris, albido marginatis : subtus albo, mento et gula nigris : rostro nigro : pedibus carneo-fuscescen- 
tibus : iride fulvo-fusea. 

? ad. ubique sordidior, capite nee rufescente et nigro notato, sed pileo cervino-cinereo vix nigro-fusco striato : 
mento et gula cinereo-albis, hac centraliter nigricanti-cinereo tincta. 

Adult Male in spring (Tedschen, April 1st). Crown, nape, lores, and a line through and behind the eye 
black, the feathers here and there with faint buff margins ; a broad patch bordering the crown above 
the eye extended to the sides of the nape clear rufous ; upper parts generally buffy grey, streaked with 
black ; quills dull blackish, externally margined and tipped with dull white ; the inner secondaries black 
with pale margins ; lesser wing-coverts black, broadly tipped with white, remaining coverts buffy grey, 
with black centres to the feathers and margined with dull white ; tail dull blackish grey, with dull 
white margins to the feathers ; underparts white, with a large black patch covering the chin and throat : 
bill black; legs fleshy brown; iris chocolate-brown. Total length about 6 inches, culmen 05, 
wing 3 - 0, tail 2"6, tarsus 0'8. 

Adult Male in autumn (Iany-Darja, October 30th). Differs from the male in spring plumage in having the 
feathers margined with greyish buff, the black in the plumage being thereby much obscured : bill 
dusky flesh-yellow, darker at the tip. 

Adult Female (Iany-Darja, October 23rd). Differs from the male in being slightly duller in tone of colour, 
less streaked with black, and lacking the rufous and black on the head, the crown being buffy grey 
faintly streaked with blackish brown, and the chin and throat greyish white tinged with blackish grey 
along the centre of the throat. 

This beautiful and very distinct Sparrow inhabits the saxaul district from Transcaspia and 
Turkestan to Alaschan and Ordos. Mr. Zarudny says (Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 801) that " it is 
evident that the Transcaspian district is the southern limit of the range of the Saxaul Sparrow, 

2c 



184 

as it has not yet been met with in Persia. In that portion of the Kara-Koum desert which is 
nearest to the Ahal-Teke oasis it is rare, owing probably to the saxaul-wood having been cut 
down, for the presence of these is essential to the residence of the Sparrow in those parts. It is 
very common in the saxaul-covered clayey plains of Tedgend, and a little rarer in the sandhills 
near Merv. I never met with it in the central course of the Murghab and in the vicinity of the 
Pinde oasis, although it would find there everything suitable to its requirements and tastes." 
According to Dr. Sharpe (2nd Yark. Miss. p. 40), Col. Biddulph obtained one or two specimens 
near Kashgar, and in January he found it tolerably plentiful along the road to Maralbashi. 

In Turkestan it appears, judging from the number of specimens obtained by Dr. Severtzoff, 
to be tolerably common, and examples were sent to the brothers Grum-Grzimailo from Chami, 
Ssa-tschinsa in the Eastern Tian-shan, and from Ssy-dun and Schaldran in Bei-schan. 

According to Col. Prjevalsky, the geographical distribution of this Sparrow depends much 
on that of the saxaul, but though the latter is common in Tsaidam, the bird does not occur 
there. The southern limit of its range appears to be the Kan-su mountains, whereas the Hurha 
range, in Gobi, forms the northern limit. Eastward it does not range beyond Ordos. Writing 
on its habits, Mr. Zarudny says (/. c.) " it avoids the saxaul thickets which are far from water, 
and is especially partial to sandy or clayey localities covered with thinly scattered saxaul-forests 
in the vicinity of a river or shallow well, where it can bathe or quench its thirst several times 
during the day, for water is a necessity as much as its food, which in summer consists chiefly of 
the seeds of the saxaul and other plants, of small beetles, and of many small orthopterous insects. 
Its flight is similar to that of the other Sparrows, but is swifter, and its call-note, though softer, 
resembles that of the Indian Sparrow. In the summer it lives in pairs and not in flocks." 

Col. Prjevalsky, who met with it in Alaschan and Ordos, writes respecting its habits as 
observed by him there (Orn. Misc. p. 295) as follows : — " Unlike its congeners the present species 
avoids human habitations, and inhabits exclusively the deserts, especially the saxaul-thickets, on 
the seeds of which it principally feeds, as we usually (and even in spring) found these seeds in 
the crops of birds killed by us. P. ammodendri is very cautious, and does not often allow one to 
get within gun-range. Its flight is quick, and sometimes very high up in the air. The note is 
similar to that of Passer domesticus, only somewhat shriller. It breeds in the saxaul-trees, and 
mostly in old nests of Kites, and seldom makes its own, which, when it does build for itself, is 
of a large cylinder shape, about two feet long and about one foot wide at the bottom ; but at 
the top it gets narrower, measuring only about half a foot. The outer structure consists of 
Agriaphyllum gobicum and saxaul-twigs, but the interior is constructed of camel's hair, and 
usually lined with the feathers of Grus virgo. 

" In the nests of Kites, even when they are occupied by the owners, these Sparrows build 
in the dry sticks which form the outer structure, and line them with camel's hair, but always 
make them cylindrical in shape. Occasionally they breed in ruined huts, or even in the walls 
of wells. 

" The number of eggs varies from three to five. They are white with a brown shade, and 
spotted with reddish brown, the latter being more intense on the thick end. In length they 
measure from 0"-81 to 0"-92, and in breadth from 0"-57 to 0"-63. 

" The young of the first brood are fledged in the first half of June. In the autumn they 
usually remain in pairs or family parties, but occasionally collect in large flocks." 



185 

Mr. Zarudny described its nest as somewhat lightly constructed of bents, lined with feathers 
and camel's hair, spherical or cylindrical in shape, with the entrance in the side or on the top 
according to the position. It is placed in the hole of a saxaul on the skirts of the woods not far 
from the ground, or in the fissures in the steep slopes of the sandhills, and he once found one 
close beside a Kite's nest. 

The eggs, he says, resemble those of Passer domesticus, and are usually five or six, some- 
times even seven, in number, and two broods are raised in the year. 

Mr. Pleske separates Passer stoliczkw specifically from Passer ammodendri, and says (Bull. 
Ac. Imp. Sci. de St. Petersbourg, tome xiii. p. 282) that P. stolizckce is duller and P. ammodendri 
greyer in tone of colour, and that P. ammodendri is distinctly striped on the rump, whereas in 
P. stoliczkos these striations are absent. 

In the series I have examined all the specimens but two from Turkestan have the striations 
absent like those sent to me by Mr. Pleske as Passer stoliczkw, and in the specimen from 
Tedgend, Transcaspia, which is in full spring plumage, the rump is not striated. The two 
specimens above referred to are males, specimens c and e in the British Museum, and were 
obtained in Turkestan by Dr. Severtzoff's collectors in April, the same month as the male from 
Tedgend above described. They have the black on the head and throat very pure, the stripes on 
the upper parts are very clearly defined, and the rump and upper tail-coverts are very distinctly 
striped. It appears to me that Passer stoliczkce cannot be recognized as a valid species. I have 
not been able to examine a specimen of Passer timidus, which, so far as I can judge from the 
description, cannot be separated from the present species ; and Dr. Sharpe also says (Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus. xii. p. 339) that he has examined a pair of specimens which appeared to him "to be 
scarcely separable from Passer ammodendri." 

Although Dr. Severtzoff did not actually publish his 'Fauna of Turkestan' until 1873, yet 
it was written and, I believe, printed in 1870, and specimens of the new species were distributed 
by him in that year labelled with the names he bad given. Hence the present species was 
exhibited at a meeting of the Zoological Society by Mr. Dode in May 1871; and Mr. Gould 
published a figure and description of it in 1872, giving Severtzoff's name, to whom, though his 
description was not published until 1873, the credit of naming it is really due. 

The specimens figured are the adult male and female above described, and are in my 
own collection. The shrub on which they are placed is the saxaul, from which the specific 
name of this Sparrow is derived. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, g . Tedgend, Transcaspia, April 1st (Dr. G. Radde). b, $ , c, ? . October 23rd; d, <$ . October 27th; 
e, $ . October 30th, Iany-Darja River (Severtzoff). f, g, h, $ , i, ? . Nija-Darja, E. Turkestan, February 
1890 (Pevtzoff). 

E Mus. Brit. 

a, <J. Bokhara; b. Turkestan, November 27th, 1866; c, $, d, ? . Hi River, Ferghana, April 18th; e, £ . 
Ferghana, April 29th (Severtzoff). f, g, h, $ , i, ? . Kashgar, January and February (Stoliezka). 
k,l,m, J. Kashgar, December 1873 (Col. Biddulph) . n, $. Maralbashi, January 1874 (Stoliezka). 
o, 6. Khoten (Dr. Lansdell). 




SNOW FINCH. 

MONT1FR1NGILLA NIVALIS. 

EASTERN SNOW FINCH. 

MON T IFRIN GI LLA ALPI C OLA. 



^Mintem Bros . i:mp. 



MONTIFRINGILLA ALPICOLA. 

(EASTERN SNOW-FINCH.) 



Passer alpicola, Pall. Zoogr. Ross.-As. ii. p. 20 (1811). 

Fringilla nivalis, Nordm. in Demidoff's Voy. Russ. Merid. p. 187 (1840, nee Linn.). 

Montifringilla leucura, Bp. Corap. Rend. xli. p. 657 (1855). 

Montifringilla nivalis, Horsf. & Moore, Cat. B. E. Ind. Co. Mus. ii. p. 491 (1856, nee Linn.). 

Fringilla {Montifringilla) alpicola (Pall.), Gray, Hand-1. of B. ii. p. 85. no. 7252 (1870). 

Fringilla nivalis, Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotnie, p. 64 (1873, nee Linn.). 

Montifringilla fringilloides, Dresser, Ibis, 1875, p. 242 (nee Boie). 

Montifringilla nivalis, Dresser, B. of Eur. iii. p. 617 (1876, partim). 

Montifringilla alpicola (Pall.), Blanf. E. Persia, ii. p. 248 (1876). 

Plectrofringilla apicola (Pall.), Bogd. Ptitsui Kavk. p. 67 (1879). 

Oreospiza alpicola (Pall.), Michailoffsky, in MS., fide Bogd. ut supra (1879). 

Gornyi Wjtirok, Russian. 

Figura unica. 
Radde, Orn. Caucas. pi. viii. 

rf ad. ptil. (est. M. nivali similis, sed rostro longiore et graeiliore, pileo et nucha fusco-cinereis nee eano-oinereis 
facile distinguendus. 

Adult Male in summer (Erzeroom). Resembles M. nivalis, but has a rather longer and more slender bill, 
and the crown and nape instead of being ashy grey are brownish grey : bill and legs black ; iris brown. 
Total length about 7 inches, culmen - 6, wing 4 - 5, tail 2 - 9, tarsus - 95. 

The female does not differ from the male in plumage. In the winter the black on the throat is obscured by 
the white edges to the feathers, and the bill instead of being black is brown, the lower mandible being 
dull yellow, darker at tbe tip, whereas in M. nivalis the whole bill is yellow with a dark tip. 

When, in 1876, I wrote the article on Montifringilla nivalis in the 'Birds of Europe' I was 
inclined, owing to lack of material, to consider the present as a doubtful species, and united it 
with M. nivalis ; but since then I have had an opportunity of examining a series of specimens, 
and have convinced myself that the eastern and western forms are specifically separable, the 
eastern form having the crown and nape dull brown instead of ashy grey, with a somewhat 
larger bill, which is stated to be black and not yellow in the winter. 

The present species, which is the eastern form, inhabits elevated mountain-ranges of the 
Caucasus, Persia, Afghanistan, and Turkestan, as far east as the Bei-schan range. Dr. Radde 
says (Orn. Cauc. p. 171) that in the Caucasus it inhabits the higher portions of the mountains, 
being seldom found at any season below the boundary of tree-growth, and never, even during the 
severest winters, descends into the valleys. In the treeless High Armenia it descends lower than 

2d 



188 

in the Great Caucasus, for at Achalkalaki and Alexandropol it winters at an altitude of 5000 feet. 
In the Great Caucasus Kadde met with it in November and December at Gudaur, on the 
Kreuzberg, and as far as the station Kasbek ; on the range southwards to Mleti and northwards 
to Lars it was much rarer in the winter and is not found there in the summer. On ascending 
the Sawalan he observed it above 10,000 feet altitude; and early in November 1879, near the 
village of Slawjanka, on the road to Kedabeg, he met with it in company with Shore-Larks at an 
altitude of about 4500 feet. 

In Persia, according to Blanford (E. Persia, ii. p. 248), it is a " permanent inhabitant of the 
Elburz. The specimens obtained were shot in the snow by a collector whom Major St. John 
sent into the mountains in February. In summer it keeps to a considerable elevation. De Filippi 
found it at the base of Demavend, and 1 saw one flock, near the crest of the Elburz, on the road 
from the Lura Valley to Anan, at an elevation of between 9000 and 10,000 feet above the sea. 
The birds were on very steep rocky ground, and I shot one, which rolled down some precipitous 
rocks, and despite a long search, and much climbing on difficult ground, I was unable to find it." 
According to Horsfield and Moore (Cat. ii. p. 491), Griffith obtained it in Afghanistan, near 
Gurdan Dewar, on the Helmund, at an elevation of 11,500 feet; and Dr. Sharpe states (2nd 
Yark. Miss. p. 31) that specimens were sent from Kaskasu, and that Dr. Stoliczka observed it on 
the Turgat Pass, north of Chakmak. 

In Turkestan it is, according to Severtzoff, resident, and appears to be common in suitable 
localities, and many were obtained by the brothers Grum-Grzimailo in the mountains of Bei-schan 
(Schin-schin-scha and Ssa-tschinsa) between the 17th and 20th of February. 

In habits and mode of nidification the present species does not appear to differ from its 
western congener Montifringilla nivalis. 

According to Dr. Radde it frequents the rocky treeless and bare portions of the mountains, 
and is never seen in the wooded districts or the valleys. It is usually found in small flocks of 
six to ten individuals, and is extremely tame and even phlegmatic. It breeds numerously in the 
clefts of the rocks near the post-station of Kobi, and consorts with Sparrows, Accentor alpinus, 
Linota cannabina, and Rock-Thrushes. All do not breed, as in passing the Kreuzberg small 
parties were seen during May and June. 

I have not been able to procure the nest and eggs of this Snow-Finch, which doubtless 
resemble those of Montifringilla nivalis. 

The specimen figured is the male in breeding-dress above described, and is in my own 
collection ; and I have likewise figured on the same Plate, for comparison, a male of Montifringilla 
nivalis, also in summer plumage. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, <J. Erzeroom (Zohrab). b, <$ . February 9th; c, 6. August; d, J. November, Turkestan (Severtzoff). 
e, ? . Tochta-chou, E. Turkestan, June 1889 (Pevtzoff). f, <5 , g, $ . Schin-schin-scha, February 18th, 
1890 (Grum-Grzimailo). h, S ■ Kobi, Caucasus, December 189 -1; i, ?. Gudaur, Caucasus, December 
1894 (Dr. G. Radde). 













; 



cT. &.2eul emails litK. 



PALMAN CHAFFINCH 

F RI N G I LJLA P.AL My£ . 



Mint em. Bros . -imp. 



FKINGILLA PALMjE. 

(PALMAN CHAFFINCH.) 



Fringilla palmce, Tristram, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, iii. p. 489 (June 1889). 
Fringilla ccerulescens, Koenig, Journ. f. Orn. 1889, p. 183. 

Figurw notabiles. 
Meade- Waldo, Ibis, 1890, pi. iii.; Koenig, J. f. O. 1890, tab. vii. 

£ ad. supra saturate plumbeo-cseruleus, nee viridi notatus, uropygio concolore : corpore subtus, alis et cauda 
sicut in Fr. tintillone picturatis, sed abdomine albo nee cervino. 

? ad. Fringilla tintilloni similis, sed supra pallidior et sordidior, et abdomine albo nee cervino-albo 
distinguenda. 

Adult Male (Palma, June 15th). Differs from Fringilla tintillon in having the upper parts uniform 
plumbeous, there being no green on the back or rump, and the abdomen is pure white, not pale 
ochreous buff. Total length about 7 inches, culmen 0*65, wing 3"55, tail 3"15, tarsus - 95. 

Adult Female (Palma, April 14th) . Resembles Fr. tintillon, but has the upper parts somewhat duller and 
lighter, and the abdomen is pure white and not buffy white. 

The present species is an insular form, being found only on the island of Palma, one of the 
Canary group, where it appears to be tolerably common. 

Both Dr. Koenig and Canon Tristram claim to have first discovered this Chaffinch, and both 
described it in the same year. It is not for me to decide to whom the credit of its discovery is 
due ; but there is no doubt that Canon Tristram's description is the one that was first published, 
and his name will therefore stand, it having the priority by several months, and that given by 
Dr. Koenig will thus sink into a synonym. 

Dr. Koenig says (J. f. O. 1890, p. 481) that this bird only inhabits the laurel-groves, and he 
never met with it in the chestnut-woods. He did not visit the pine-woods, and was therefore 
unable to say whether it occurs there. Its call-note, he says, differs considerably from that of 
the Teneriffe Chaffinch, and is best described by its Palman name chiri-chiri, chiri-chiri. Its song 
also appeared to him to vary from that of the Teneriffe bird. Mr. Meade- Waldo writes respecting 
this bird (Ibis, 1889, p. 510) as follows : — " The first day, besides solving the Pigeon question, we 
procured a very interesting form of Chaffinch. Canon Tristram shot the first two examples, and 
I soon afterwards shot two more. They differed from F. tintillon in the green on the rump being 
entirely wanting, the blue slate-colour extending over the whole of the back and being of a 
slightly lighter shade. The lower breast and abdomen, instead of being buff, is pure white, 
and the green on the wing-coverts is wanting. This bird, of which we obtained some twenty 

2b 



190 

specimens, was very common and more generally distributed than F. tintillon, being found 
from about 1500 feet right through the chestnut- woods, laurel-woods, and into the pine-forests. 
I could distinguish a difference in its call-note and also in the song of the male, but it is very 
difficult to put in writing. F. tintillon says chee-wut cliee-weet, the Palma bird che-weet che-wit. 
I wrote this down at the time, so I think it is right. The song is decidedly different, but I 
cannot attempt to put it into words. The female of this Chaffinch is much lighter coloured, 
with much less green on the back than F. tintillon." 

In general habits and mode of nidification the Palman Chaffinch, as may be supposed, does 
not differ from Fringilla tintillon. I have recently received two clutches of its eggs, together 
with one nest ; the latter closely resembles those of F. tintillon from Teneriffe, and the eggs are 
also undistinguishable from the paler varieties of the eggs of that species. 

When, in 1873, I wrote the article in the 'Birds of Europe' on Fringilla tintillon I united 
the forms of Chaffinch which inhabit the Canaries, Madeira, and the Azores, believing them to 
be specifically inseparable ; but subsequent researches and the examination of a larger series of 
specimens have shown me that, though closely allied, they can be divided, at least subspecifically, 
into three forms, not counting Fringilla palmce, which, differing more than any of these three 
forms, may well be treated as a distinct species, though future research may show that it may 
also differ only subspecifically. The first of these three forms, which I prefer to call Fringilla 
tintillon, var. canariensis, inhabits the islands of Teneriffe, Grand Canary, and Gomera. It has 
the upper parts, excepting the rump, dark slate-blue, the crown blackish blue, showing no 
distinct frontal line, the rump and upper tail-coverts apple-green, and the underparts buffy 
fawn. The second form, Fringilla tintillon, var. moreleti, which inhabits the Azores, has the 
upper parts pale slate-blue, the crown slightly darker, and has a tolerably broad blackish-blue 
frontal line ; the green instead of being confined to the rump and upper tail-coverts extends 
over the back, and the underparts are coloured as in the Teneriffe bird. There is, however, in 
the British Museum a specimen of Fringilla tintillon, var. canariensis, from Orotava, which is 
intermediate, having the back as well as the rump green, and resembles the Azorean form, 
except that the crown is somewhat darker in tinge. The third form, Fringilla tintillon, var. 
maclerensis, which inhabits Madeira, exactly resembles the Azorean form, except that the under- 
parts are not so clear fawn-coloured, but have a tinge of pink ; but in some the difference is so 
slight that it can only be detected in a very good light, and this last form appears to me to be 
the one least deserving of distinction. 

In habits and nidification all three forms agree closely, and they are at best but forms of 
the same species somewhat differentiated by isolation, Fringilla palmce being another form which 
has differentiated sufficiently to be entitled to specific rank. But Mr. Meade- Waldo states (Ibis, 
1890, p. 434) that the Chaffinch of Hierro is somewhat intermediate between Fringilla palmce 
and the Chaffinch of Teneriffe, having a trace of green on the rump, and the white on the 
underparts is not quite so pure in tinge as in F. palmce ; and I am indebted to this gentleman 
for the loan of three specimens from Hierro which clearly show the above-mentioned characters, 
and I therefore hesitate to unite the Hierran bird with Fringilla palmw, which appears to be 
confined to the island of Palma, where it was found by Messrs. Meade-Waldo and Tristram 
when they visited that island in 1889. 



191 

The specimens figured and described are the adult male and female in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. II E. Dresser, 
a, S ad. Palma, June loth, 1889 (R. Gomez), b, ? ad. Santa Cruz, Palma, April 14th, 1889 (Meade-Waldo), 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram, 
a-f, $,'J, $ • Palma, April 1889 (H. B. T.). 



Zi Ei — I 



675 



"- 



















i 




DESERT FINCH. 

ERYTHROSPIZA OBSOLETA. 



Miniern Bros. Lmc. 



BtlCANETES OBSOLETUS. 

(DESERT-FINCH.) 



Fringilla obsolete/,, Licht. in Eversm. Reis. Buchara, p. 132 (1823). 
Carjpodacus obsoleta (Licht.), Gray, Gen. of B. ii. p. 384 (1844). 
Erythrospiza obsoleta (Licht.), Bp. & Schl. Monogr. Lox. p. 28 (1850). 
Bueanetes obsoletus (Licht.), Cab. & Heine, Mus. Hein. i. p. 164, footnote (1850). 
Erytrospiza obsoleta (Licht.), De Fil. Archiv. Zool. Genova, ii. p. 384 (1863). 
Carpodacus [Erythrospiza) obsoletus (Licht.), Gray, Hand-1. of B. ii. p. 102 (1870). 
Bhodospiza obsoleta (Licht.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 282 (1888). 

Timochuk, Turki. 

Figures notabiles. 

Bonap. & Schlegel, Monogr. Lox. pi. xxxii. ; Blanford, E. Persia, ii. pi. xvii. ; Gould, B. of 
Asia, v. pi. xxix. 

$ ad. supril pallide arenaceo-fuscus, uropygio pallidiore et supracaudalibus fulvido tinctis : remigibus nigri- 
cantibus conspicue albo marginatis : secundariis ad basin et tectricibus alarum conspicue rosaceo-rubro 
marginatis : rectricibus nigrieantibus, mediis conspicue et reliquis angustiore albo marginatis : loris et 
linea ad basin rostri nigris : corpore subtus dorso concolore sed pallidiore, abdomine medio fere albo : 
rostro nigro : pedibus fusco-carneis : iride fusca. 

? ad. mari similis, sed pallidior, alis minus rosaceo tinctis : rostro nigro-fusco. 

Adult Male (Tschinar, March 4th). Upper parts uniform pale sandy brown; rump rather paler, and the 
upper tail-coverts darker and tinged with rufous ; quills black, all the feathers broadly margined with 
white, the secondaries and wing-coverts broadly margined with bright rose ; tail-feathers black, the 
middle ones broadly and the outer ones more narrowly margined with white ; lores and a narrow space 
at the base of the bill, together with a narrow frontal band, black ; underparts paler than the upper 
parts, the middle of the abdomen nearly white : bill black ; legs fleshy brown ; iris brown. Total length 
about 5"5 inches, culmen 0"5, wing 3 - 5, tail 2"45, tarsus 07. 

The female in spring plumage differs from the male merely in being paler in general tone of colour, and 
more faintly marked with rose-colour on the wings, the bill being dark blackish horn, nearly as black 
as in the male. The autumnal plumage differs but little from that above described, being a trifle greyer 
in tone of colour, the white margins to the wing and tail-feathers are tinged with buff, and the bill is 
yellowish instead of being blackish. According to Dr. Radde, the old female has the bill dark horn, 
nearly as black as in the male, and never so light in colour as is shown in Mr. Blanford's plate. 

The range of this beautiful Finch extends from Syria and Transcaspia, Persia, Afghanistan, and 
Turkestan to the northern bend of the Hoang-ho River in Chinese Mongolia, but it does not 
appear to range into China proper. 

In Transcaspia it is, according to Zarudny (Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 797), " a common species 



194 

in the summer in the numerous gardens in the eastern part of the Ahal oasis, as also along the 
course of the Douchak and in the Pinde and Merv oases. From this latter it extends commonly 
to the sand-hills bordering the Alikhanow canal. I am puzzled to state which are the favourite 
haunts of this bird, for, on the one hand, I have often found it nesting in the desert-plains which 
reminded me of those in which are the ruins of Old Merv, and, on the other hand, I met with 
it in rich fertile places, in gardens, woods, bushes, &c. Anyhow, one can say that in summer it 
affects the plains or a hillocky, sandy, dry place, clayey or stony, scantily covered with grass, with 
only here and there a few bushes or solitary low trees. The vicinity of a watercourse, lake, river, 
or ditch is a necessity. On the 17th June I saw flocks of about seventy fully-fledged young birds 
perfectly strong on the wing." Messrs. Radde and Walter also speak of it (Vog. Transcasp. 
p. 26) as being one of the commonest Finches in Transcaspia, where it is resident and breeds 
twice in the year. It frequents gardens and the bush and reed-covered banks of brooks, the 
tamarisk-patches in the desert, and was met with east of the Murghab in the desolate Ferula 
deserts on the Afghan frontier. Dr. Aitchison met with it on the Afghan Delimitation 
Commission Expedition at Khusan-Hari-rud in April; Col. Swinhoe (Ibis, 1882, p. 114) found 
it common throughout the year in the gardens near Kandahar ; and Sir Oliver St. John remarks 
(Ibis, 1889, p. 172) that it is common in winter at Kandahar, and is often netted and brought 
in for sale. He met with it during the summer in Persian localities nearly as hot as Kandahar, 
though somewhat higher in elevation, and it may breed there. 

In Persia it appears to be resident. De Filippi found it breeding in gardens at Kazvin ; 
Blanford obtained one at Niriz in June ; and Sir O. St. John found it at Shiraz from June to 
December. 

Col. Biddulph first met with it at Sanju in November, and on the march thence to Yarkand. 
During the winter it was not obtained in Kashghar, but it was very common throughout the 
plains of Yarkand and right up to the foot of the hills during May and June. Dr. Scully, 
however, speaks of it as "numerous in the plains of Kashgharia, where it is a permanent 
resident. This species was common at Kashghar in winter, where it frequented hedges, often 
in company with the Sparrow {Passer montanus). Near Yarkand in summer it was found about 
trees, in orchards, and in clumps of poplars. It has a very sweet song, and feeds entirely 
on seeds." 

According to Prof. Menzbier (Ibis, 1885, p. 353), Messrs. Majev and Wilkins found it on 
the Upper Tarim, Kashgharia, near the Taushkan-Darja, and at Ush-turfan. Severtzoff met 
with it in Turkestan, where it appears to be common and resident ; and Col. Prjevalsky says 
(Orn. Misc. ii. p. 303) that he met with this Finch " only in the northern bend of the Hoang-ho, 
the Muni-ul and Hara-narin-ul Mountains," and that the Hoang-ho or, rather, the Muni-ul 
Mountains form the northern boundary of its range, which probably does not extend eastward 
beyond Ordos, as' it has not been recorded from China proper. He does not know for certain, 
but believes it most probable that it is resident in Mongolia. 

As above stated, this Rose-Finch frequents not only the desert but also cultivated places, 
and is generally to be met with near streams and brooks. It breeds twice in the year, and 
Mr. Zarudny says (/. c.) that he has taken nests as late as the first week in July. The nest is, 
he says, placed on the top of a bush or on the side branches of an isolated shrub, always in full 



195 

view, and rarely more than about a fathom above the ground. Zarudny remarks that the nests 
he found on the plains differed from those found in the mountains during his former journey in 
Transcaspia, and he describes them as being elegant in construction, the outer part consisting of 
fine twigs of all sorts of plants, and somewhat slightly, though strongly, fastened together, and 
the inner lining is of soft cotton or wool. The eggs vary in number from three to six, and are 
pale bluish white, seldom real blue, slightly marked with black or reddish-black dots, sometimes 
larger and forming spots, and usually more numerous at the larger end of the egg ; sometimes 
they are roundish, and sometimes elongated. Both male and female incubate, and the latter sits 
so close that she maybe caught on the nest with the hand. These birds are sociable, and seldom 
nest far from others of the same species. Dr. Walter took a nest containing seven eggs on the 
16th April, which, he says, was more carefully constructed than the nests of Coccothraustes 
vulgaris and Ligurinus chloris, but not so neat as those of the Chaffinch. It was placed in an 
old mulberry-tree, in a deserted Persian garden, close to the stem of the tree, and about four feet 
from the ground. According to Mr. Scully, it breeds in May, the nest being usually placed in 
high trees, often in the poplar (Populus balsamifera). A nest obtained by him on the 13th of 
June contained, he writes (Stray Feathers, 1876, p. 168), five eggs, in which the embryo was 
found to be formed. The nest is of a broad oval shape, 5 - 75 inches in length by 4 in breadth ; 
thickness of side wall about 0'5. It is made up of twigs and fibres. The egg-cavity is oval, 
8-5 by 2'5 inches, lined with fine vegetable fibres and some horse-hair; depth of cavity T25. 
The eggs are moderate ovals, smaller at one end, and are fairly glossy. The ground-colour 
is pale bluish grey, with fine purplish-brown spots and streaks, sparingly scattered at the 
small end, but accumulating to form nearly a cap or zone at the large end. In size they vary 
from 0-76 to 078 inch in length, and from - 57 to - 58 in breadth: the average of four eggs 
is 0-770 by 0-575. 

I am indebted to Mr. Scully for the nest and eggs of this bird, which agree closely with the 
above description. 

The song of this Finch is said to be sweet and melodious, and, according to Zarudny, its 
call-note resembles the syllables fink,finJc, ox pink, pink, not unlike the call of the Bullfinch, but 
fainter and softer. Dr. Eadde says that it was in full song from the middle of February to the 
end of May. 

Both Mr. Scully and Mr. Zarudny state that it feeds exclusively on seeds, and the latter 
remarks that its staple food in Transcaspia consists of the seeds of the alchagi and saxaul. 

The specimens figured are the adult male and female above described, and are in my own 
collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — ■ 

E Mas. H. E. Dresser. 

a, £ ad. Keleh Tschinar, Transcaspia, March 4th ; b, ? . Perewallnaja, Transcaspia, April 22nd, 1886 
{Dr. G. Radde). c, $ . Kandahar, January 23i-d, 1881; d, $ . Abadeh, N. o£ Shiraz, Persia, July 1870 
(Sir O. St. John), e, £ . Rany-Darja, October 17th (Severtzoff). f,$,g, ?. Guma, E. Turkestan, 
September 1889 (Pevtzoff). 




J &Keulema.n.s del etlitK. 



Min.tern.Bros, : 



MONGOLIAN DESERT FINCH. 

BUCANETES MONGOLICUS. 



BUCANETES MONGOLICUS. 

(MONGOLIAN DESERT-FINCH.) 



Carpodacus mongolicus, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 447. 
"Pyrrhula incarnata, Severtzoff," Dode, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 480. 
Erythrospiza mongolica (Swinh.), David, Nouv. Archiv. vii., Bull. p. 10 (1871). 
Frythrospiza incarnata, Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotnie, pp. 64, 117 (1873). 
Bucanetes mongolicus (Swinh.), Menzbier, Ibis, 1885, p. 353. 

Tagh-Timochu/c, Turki ; Che-chao, Sseu-cheung, Chinese. 

Figurm notabiles. 
Gould, B. of Asia, v. pi. xxx.; David & Oustalet, Ois. de la Chine, pi. xcvii. 

c? ad. supra pallide fuscus, dorsi plumis mediis saturatiore notatis : uropygio et supracaudalibns rosaceis : 
remigibus saturate fuscis, extus albido marginatis et rosaceo lavatis, secundariis magis conspicue 
marginatis et albo apicatis, tectricibus minoribus dorso concoloribus, majoribus et medianis conspicue 
albo et rosaceo marginatis : cauda saturate fusca, rectricibus cervino-aibido marginatis : corpore subtus 
cervino-albido rosaceo lavato : rostro fusco-flavido : pedibus pallide fuscis : iride fusca. 

2 ad. coloribus sordidioribus et minus rosaceo lavato. 

Adult Male (Sartchy, May 24th). Upper parts pale hair-brown, the middle of the dorsal feathers darker; 
rump and upper tail-coverts rose-red ; quills dark brown, externally margined with white, washed with 
rose ; secondaries more broadly margined and broadly tipped with white ; larger and median wing- 
coverts broadly margined with buffy white and rose-red ; tail dark brown, the feathers margined with 
buffy white ; underparts generally buffy white, washed with rose-red : bill yellowish brown ; legs light 
brown j iris dark brown. Total length about 5"5 inches, culmen 045, wing 3'5, tail 2'25, tarsus 07. 

Adult Female (E. Turkestan, June). Differs from the male merely in being rather duller in colour and 
being less rose-tinted. 

In the autumn dress the light margins to the wing- and tail-feathers are broader, the back is rather paler 
and more uniform in colour, the dark centres to the feathers being less apparent, and the underparts 
are less tinged with rose-colour and are whiter. According to Severtzoff, in the full spring plumage 
all the rose-coloured feathers become blood-red, and the whitish has changed to a snowy-white colour, 
except on the stomach and under tail-feathers, which are protected from the sun. The rose-colour is 
brightest on the wings, paler on the throat, breast, superciliary region, flanks, and rump, where only 
the margins of the feathers are of that colour. The dark lines on the crown and back become darker 
in the spring, and the grey margins to the feathers are lost. 

The young male in the first autumn resembles the adult female, but has no white margins to the larger 
wing-coverts, which are brownish red, and the median coverts have very narrow white margins, which 
do not form a white spot when the wings are closed. 

The young female in the first autumn has scarcely any red in the plumage, this colour being replaced by 
light grey, which is faintly washed with rose on the breast. 

2F 



198 

The range of the present species extends from Transcaspia eastward through Afghanistan, 
Turkestan, and the Himalayas to North-western China. Neither Dr. Radde nor Mr. Zarudny 
include it in their lists of the birds inhabiting Transcaspia ; but Mr. Pleske writes to me that the 
latter explorer found it very common in that district in 1893, and obtained many specimens. 
Sir Oliver St. John states (Ibis, 1889, p. 171) that two specimens were sent from Chamam, in 
Afghanistan, which were obtained there in April 1880. 

In Gilgit it is, Col. Biddulph writes (Str. Feath. ix. p. 347), "a constant resident, but 
seldom comes below 6000 feet, except in severe weather. I found it at about 10,000 feet in the 
Astor Valley in June, when it was no doubt breeding. I have seldom seen it except in large 
flocks of twenty or thirty. On the 29th April I shot seven out of a flock, which all proved 
to be males." 

According to Prof. Menzbier, Mr. Majev obtained specimens at Kyzil-bulak and at Egin, on 
the confines of the desert on the Upper Tarim River, in Kashgharia. 

Mr. Scully (Stray Feath. iv. p. 169) says that it is "only a winter visitant to Eastern 
Turkestan, and is even then not common; it is said to migrate eastwards towards China in the 
spring. Near Yarkand it frequents a sort of desert-bush called Kamglialc, on the seeds of which 
it appears to feed. It is rather a favourite cage-bird with the Yarkandis on account of its 
sweet song." 

Col. Biddulph writes (2nd Yark. Miss. p. 37) that he "first obtained one or two specimens 
of this species at Tanksi (13,000 feet) in September. Again in the Karakash Valley in October 
several specimens were procured on our arrival at Sanju in the beginning of November; they 
were settling in immense flocks in short grass in the morning. A few specimens were obtained 
during the winter in Kashghar, and in Wakhan in April we found it very common. They are 
chiefly ground-birds." Dr. Stoliczka also found it common near Sanju in October. Dr. Severtzoff 
states (Turk. Jevotnie, p. 117) that in Turkestan it is " a resident, and is found after the breeding- 
season in flocks of from 50 to 100 individuals. It was killed at the end of September on the 
Issik-kul, in August and October on the Upper Narin, at an elevation of from 9000 to 10,000 
feet ; in October and in the winter, however, it is not found higher than 2000 feet ; in the 
steppes, everywhere in summer as well as in autumn and winter, we found this bird only near 
stony or clayey places. In autumn and spring it moves about very much, feeding on small 
seeds, and avoids the woods and even the bushes. It runs very fast, although it has such short 
legs ; and it flies swiftly and well." 

Prjevalsky met with this species in Halka, Ordos, and Ala-shan, and, though it was not 
observed in Kan-su, it inhabits Koko-nor and Tsaidam, in which latter place he frequently 
observed it in November on the clayey plains. In the localities he explored, the Hurka 
Mountains form, he remarks, the northern boundary of its range. 

The brothers Grum-Grzimailo obtained it in the Eastern Tian-schan (Kitschik-ulan-ussu), in 
the Njan-schan (Babo-cho), and in the mountains around Ssi-ning (Tschan-chu) ; and Pere Armand 
David records it (Ois. de la Chine, p. 350) as " common at all seasons in the bare mountains in the 
N.W. of China, especially in the districts bordering Mongolia." 

In general habits this Finch resembles its congener Bucanetes obsoletus, but inhabits the 
sterile mountains, whereas that species frequents the plains; and Mr. Scully remarks that the 



199 

Yarkandis call it Tagh-Timochuk, or the Mountain Timochuk, "Timochuk" being the Turki 
name for B. obsoletus. 

It frequents, Pere David says, in large flocks the sandy plateaux in arid, sun-dried places, 
and feeds on all sorts of small seeds which it picks up in the sand. It appears in June, and 
takes up its abode in the high rocks, where it makes its nest in bushes or even in natural 
cavities. When the female is incubating the male rises in the air, emitting its song do-mi-sol-mi, 
uttered softly, quite different from its ordinary notes, which are very pleasing. It is a very tame 
bird, and will allow itself to be approached without interrupting its song. Prjevalsky states 
that its favourite localities are high clayey hills, especially if they abound with ravines. From 
here they visit stony localities in some of the mountain plains and near saline lakes, where they 
feed on the seeds of saline plants. He remarks that its note, uttered when on the wing, consists 
of a few short syllables resembling tuck tuck tuck. The only information I find on record 
respecting its nidification is that furnished by Prjevalsky, who found in May 1872 a nest 
in the Harin-narin-ul, which he describes (Orn. Misc. ii. p. 303) as being " constructed in the 
thick branches of a young elm tree, not above a fathom from the ground. The foundation 
consisted of dry branches of a mugwort, and the lining of a thick layer of goat's hair. The 
eggs (three in number) were quite fresh ; they are of an elongated conical shape, of a whitish- 
green colour, marked on the large end with a few blackish spots and lines, and measure 0" - 82 to 
0"'86 by 0" - 54 to 0" - 58. The female was already sitting very close, so that I almost caught her 
on the nest with my hands. The male was also near at the time ; and when the female, after 
leaving the nest, joined the male, they commenced caressing each other, just like Pigeons." 

The specimens figured and described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, J ad. Sartchy, May 24th, 1866 (Abbe Armand David), b, J 1 . Between Chimkend and Tashkend, 
October 18tk, 1864 (Severtzoff). c, $ . Ortyn-dagh, October 1890; d, $. Tousckkan-Darja, June 
1889 (Pevtzoff). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram. 

a, $ . Kokand (Severtzoff) . 



2f2 



677 




.;• 




- 




. '-. . : ^jl^Tr^arLs djsl . 2t litk . 



CASS INS BULLFINCH 

PYRRHULA CASSINI. 



MinterrLBriJS.mip. 



PYEEHTTLA CASSINI. 

(CASSIN'S BULLFINCH.) 



Pyrrhula coccinea, var. cassini, Baird, Trans. Chic. Acad. i. p. 316 (1869). 

Pyrrhula cassini, Baird, Tristram, Ibis, 1871, p. 231. 

Pyrrhula cineracea, Cabanis, J. fur Orn. 1872, p. 316. 

Pyrrhula nepalensis (nee Hodgs.), Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotn. p. 64 (1873). 

Pyrrhula vulgaris (nee Temm.), Severtzoff, ut supra (1873). 

Pyrrhula cineracea pallida, Seebohm, Ibis, 1887, p. 101. 

Figurce notabiles. 
Baird, Trans. Chic. Acad. i. pi. xxix.; Dybowski, J. f. Orn. 1874, pi. i.; Baird, Brew., & 
Bidgw. Hist. N.-Am. B. i. pi. xxiii. fig. 11; Gould, B. of Asia, v. pi. xl.; Turner, Nat. 
Hist. Alaska, Birds, pi. vii. 

d ad. corpore supra caerulescenti-cinereo, uropygio albo : pileo, genis et mento nitide nigris : corpore subtus 
cserulescenti-cinereo sed conspicue pallidiore, gula, regione parotica et hypochondriis pallidioribus : alis, 
cauda et supracaudalibus nitide nigris : tectricibus alarum minoribus dorso concoloribus, majoribus 
nigris cinereo terminatis, crisso et subcaudalibus albis : rostro nigro : iride fusca : pedibus saturate 
fuscis. 

$ ad. mari similis, sed gula, gutture et corpore subtus fusco-cervino lavatis. 

Adult Male (Onon, December 4th). Upper parts clear blue-grey, underparts pale asby grey ; rump, crissum, 
and under tail-coverts pure white ; crown and nape, lores, and the whole space round the bill in front 
of the eye, together with the chin, deep glossy black ; quills black, the outer web purplish black ; lesser 
wing-coverts blue-grey, the larger coverts glossy black, with the terminal portion blue-grey ; tail black, 
the central rectrices and upper tail-coverts purplish black, the remaining tail-feathers with the outer 
web glossy black or purplish black ; cheeks and ear-coverts clearer and paler ; flanks and centre of the 
abdomen rather paler than the rest of the underparts : bill black; iris dark brown; legs dark brown. 
Total length about 6 inches, culmen 0'45, wing 3'45, tail 2'80, tarsus 0"65. 

Adult Female (Onon, January 17th). Differs from the male only in being rather less clear in tone of 
colour, and the underparts are brownish grey and not ashy grey. 

The range of this Bullfinch is very extensive, as it has been met with from the Ural Mountains 
through Siberia to Alaska, and southward to Turkestan and the Mongolian slopes of the 
Altai range. 

According to Dr. Cabanis it has strayed as far west as St. Petersburg, as a specimen was 
obtained alive in the St. Petersburg market in February 1877 (J. f. O. 1877, p. 223). 

Professor Menzbier informs me that examples of this Bullfinch are met with every winter 



202 

in the vicinity of Orenburg,- and that during the winter of 1887-1888 they were quite numerous 
in that district. It does not appear to have been met with in Transcaspia; but Severtzoff records 
it from Vernoe in Turkestan and the Mongolian slopes of the Altai range. It is found across 
Siberia to the far eastern portion of that country. 

According to Godlewski (Tacz. Faun. Orn. Sib. Orient, p. 684) this Bullfinch is " tolerably 
common in winter in the Southern Baikal, and in Dauria, where it is found chiefly in the forests, 
and feeds on the seeds of the birch and of Rhododendron dahuricum, and though often found on 
the skirts of the forests near the villages, yet it is never found, like the common Bullfinch, on the 
corn-stacks. Its presence is easily distinguishable from that of the common Bullfinch by its 
call-note, which is clear and fine, whereas that of the latter is harsh. It nests in the vicinity of 
the Southern Baikal, and is often seen in the breeding-season, when it inhabits the upper part 
of the conifer region. We never succeeded in finding the nest, in spite of all our endeavours 
to do so." 

Mr. Domes (J. f. O. 1888, p. 81) obtained one on the island of Askold, where it is found in 
flocks of five to fifteen individuals throughout the year, except during the breeding-season, as, he 
says, it appears to go north to breed, to beyond the Amoor. Dr. Dybowski also obtained it on 
the Onon and at the mouth of the Ussuri. 

As a straggler it has occurred once in the Nearctic Region, as the species was first 
described from a specimen obtained at Nulato, on the middle Yukon, on the 10th June, 18G7, 
by Mr. W. H. Dall. Dr. L. Stejneger, who compared Prof. Baird's type of P. cassini with an 
undoubted specimen of P. cineracea, has shown that the two are most certainly specifically 
identical. 

So far as I can ascertain, the nest and eggs of this Bullfinch are as yet unknown, but they 
will in all probability be found to resemble those of our European Bullfinch. 

The specimens figured are the male and female above described, and are in my own 
collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mas. H. E. Dresser, 
a, tf . Onon, Siberia, December 4th, 1872; b, $ . Onon, January 17th, 1873 (Dr. Dybowski). 

E Mus. Brit. 

a > b, £ , c, d, $ . Onon River, January 1873 (Dr. Dyboivski). e, £ ,/, $ . Kultuk, Lake Baikal, March. 



20; 



Genus URAGUS. 

Loxia apud Pallas, Reis. Russ. Reich s, ii. Anhang, p. 711 (1771). 

Pyrrhula, id. Zoogr. Ross.-As. ii. p. 10 (1811). 

Corythus apud Gould, B. of Eur. iii. pi. ccv. (1837). 

Uragus, Keyseiiing & Blasius, Wirbelth. Europa's, p. 158 (1840). 

The present group contains but three species — Uragus sibiricus, Uragus sanguinolentus, which 
inhabits Eastern Siberia, the Kurile Islands, Japan, and Manchuria, and Uragus lepidus, which 
inhabits China. They are allied to the Bullfinches and Carpodaci, and also to some extent to the 
Linnets, at least as far as their habits are concerned. They inhabit bush-covered places near 
rivers and on the mountain-slopes, and are good songsters. In their nesting-habits they appear 
to resemble the birds belonging to the genus Carpodacus, and their nests and eggs resemble 
those of Carpodacus erythrinus. 

Uragus sibiricus, the type of the genus, has the bill short, stout, bulging at the sides, as 
high as broad at the base, the upper mandible longer than, and overhanging, the lower mandible ; 
nostrils basal, hidden by stiff, curved feathers ; wings rather short, the first quill very small and 
sharp, the fourth and fifth longest ; tail long, slightly forked ; tarsus and toes rather short, the 
former anteriorly scutellate ; claws moderate, arched, acute; the plumage soft, the prevailing 
colour in the male rosy red. 




., 



; 



vt ->J^ 




■ >- \ > 

» 



J. & Keulemans del. et lifti. 



SIBERIAN PvOSE-FINCH. 

URA&US SIBIRICUS. 



Mintern. Bros . 



URAGUS SIBIBICUS. 

(SIBERIAN ROSE-FINCH.) 



Loxia sibirica, Pallas, Eeis. Euss. Eeichs, ii. Anh. p. 711 (1771). 

Siberian Grosbeak, Lath. Gen. Syn. ii. part i. p. 124 (1783). 

Pyrrhula caudata, Pall. Zoogr. Eoss.-As. ii. p. 10, tab. xxxvii. (1811). 

Pyrrhula longicauda, Temm. Man. d'Orn. i. p. 340 (1820). 

Corythus longicauda (Temm.), Gould, B. of Eur. iii. pi. ccv. (1837). 

Corythus sibiricus (Pall.), Bonap. Comp. List, p. 38 (1838). 

Pyrrhula (Uragus) sibirica (Pall.), Keys. & Bias. Wirbelth. Eur. p. xl (1840). 

Uragus sibiricus (Pall.), Gray, Gen. of B. ii. p. 387 (1844). 

Erythrothorax caudatus (Pall.), Brebm, Naumannia, 1855, p. 276. 

Pyrrhula sibirica (Pall.), Borggr. Vogelf. Norddeutschl. p. 73 (1869). 

Figuras notabiles. 

Gould, B. of Eur. pi. ccv.; Werner, Atlas, Granivores, pi. xxxv.; Bonap. & Scblegel, 
Monogr. Lox. pis. xxxiv., xxxv. ; Gould, B. of Asia, v. pi. xxvii. 

<J ad. ptil. Mem. frcmte lorisque intense rubro-roseis : capite et collo argenteis roseo tinctis : dorso roseo- 
albidoj plumis medio fuscis, uropygio et supracaudalibus rosaceis : alis nigricantibus, plumis conspicue 
albo margiuatis et tectricibus alarum conspicue albo terminatis, tectricibus minoribus roseo tinctis : 
rectricibus mediis nigricantibus albido marginatis, externis fere omnino albis : corpore subtus rosaceo, 
abdomine imo albo-roseo lavato, subcaudalibus pallide rosaceis : rostro corneo-fusco, niandibula 
pallidiore : pedibus rufescenti-cinereis : iride fusea. 

<$ ad. ptil. ast. magis rosaceo-ruber, remigibus et tectricibus alarum minus albo marginatis. 

? ad. capite et corpore supr& f usco-cinereis, nigro-fusco striatis, sed uropygio et supracaudalibus nee striatis 
et roseo lavatis : corpore subtus pallide fusco-cinereo, abdomine fere albo, gutture et pectore nigro-fusco 
striatis : hypochondriis indistincte striatis et vix roseo tinctis : alis et cauda sicut in mare coloratis, sed 
illis non roseo tinctis. 

<J juv. f ceminse similis, sed pallidior et cervino tincto, ubique magis distincte striato : uropygio non striato et 
roseo tincto, supracaudalibus pallide fuscis rosaceo tinctis : capitis lateribus indistincte argenteo notatis : 
alis et cauda sicut in adulto coloratis, sed rectricibus externis in medio fusco-nigro notatis. 

Adult Male in winter (River Manas-Darja, December). Forehead and lores rich rosy red; the rest of the 
head and neck silvery white, tinged with rose ; back rose-red, striped with dark brown, the feathers 
with silvery- white margins ; rump and upper tail-coverts rosy red ; wings blackish, all the quills broadly 
margined with white, these margins being much broader on the secondaries ; wing-coverts blackish, 
broadly terminated with white, the least coverts tinged with rosy red ; outer tail-feathers white, the 

2e 



206 

central ones blackish, margined with white ; underparts generally rosy red, the lower abdomen white, 
tinged with rose ; throat, neck, and sides of the head silvery white, tinged with rose, the feathers on 
the neck lanceolate ; under wing-coverts white ; under tail-coverts pale rosy red : bill horn-brown, the 
lower mandible paler; legs reddish grey ; iris brown. Total length 6 - 75 inches, culmen 0'38, wing 31, 
tail 3'6, tarsus 065. 

Adult Female (Tatascheff, January 3rd). Upper parts generally greyish brown, the feathers with a median 
blackish-brown stripe, except on the rump and upper tail-coverts, which are unstriped and washed with 
rose ; wings and tail as in the male, but the former without any rose-red ; underparts brownish ash ; 
the throat and breast striated with blackish brown, the abdomen nearly white ; flanks indistinctly 
striped and slightly tinged with rose. 

Young Male (Siberia) . Resembles the female, but is paler and somewhat buffy, and less grey in tone of 
colour, and is more distinctly striped on both the upper and underparts; rump more uniform and 
washed with rose ; upper tail-coverts pale brown, tinged with rose ; cheeks and ear-coverts showing a 
trace of the silvery markings of the adult male; centre of abdomen white; wings and tail as in the 
adult, but the outer feathers marked along the shaft with blackish brown. 

Adult Male in spring (Kultuk, March 2nd). Differs from the male in winter dress in being of a deeper 
rose tinge, the feathers having shed the major portion of their light margins, and the white margins to 
the quills and wing-coverts are narrower. 

This lovely Rose-Finch is more especially an inhabitant of the Siberian subregion, and is replaced 
in Japan and the Kurile Islands by Uragas sanguinolentus, a smaller and more richly coloured 
form. Its range extends from the Ural Mountains in the west to Eastern Siberia in the east, 
and in the south to Turkestan, Manchuria, and Northern China. 

Professor Menzbier informs me that late in September, 1882, a flock of about fifteen 
individuals was observed in the neighbourhood of Orenburg, out of which a female was killed. 
In Siberia it is, according to Taczanowski (Faune Orn. Sib. Orient, p. 668), " common throughout 
the whole of Eastern Siberia and a great part of Western Siberia, occurring also in Northern 
China and Turkestan. The northern and eastern limits of its range in Eastern Siberia are not 
sufficiently well defined, though it is certainly not found in Kamtschatka, but there are no data 
relative to the west coast of the Sea of Ochotsk and the district around the mouth of the Ussuri." 

Godlewski writes {fide Taczanowski) as follows : — " We found this species everywhere in the 
Irkutsk Government to the Sea of Japan, most common in the Southern Baikal and Dauria, and 
less numerous in other districts. It frequents the bushes on the river-banks and the southern 
slopes of the mountains which are covered with bushes. It is everywhere resident, though but 
few remain during the winter, the larger number migrating a little further to the south. On fine 
days during the month of March the male utters in a low tone a long and melodious song, which 
ceases when the birds are paired. When the bushes are covered with foliage, that is in June, 
they build their nests, which are placed in a bush one or two metres above the ground. The 
nest is easy to find, as the bird remains in the immediate vicinity and utters a low alarm-note, 
which may be expressed by the syllables fit, fit, fit. . . . The flight of this bird may be heard 
from afar owing to the quick strong flaps of its wings. In the middle of June they commence 



207 

incubation, and the female sits close, but if disturbed soon forsakes her eggs. The young after 
leaving the nest remain with their parents to the spring." 

To this I may add that Mr. Kibort has sent specimens from Krasnojarsk : Dr. Theel 
obtained it at Yenesaisk: von Schrenck records it from the Schilka, near the mouth of the 
Nertscha, and from the village of Mutatcha on the Argun : Dr. Radde from Lake Baikal, the 
central portion of the Ussuri, and the Bureja Mountains, and he observed flocks late in September 
at Irkutsk; it breeds, he adds, on the Bureja. Mr. Dorries says (J. f. O. 1888, p. 82) that he 
met with it in winter on the island of Askold, in the Suifun and Ussuri districts, but only singly. 
Late in February they appeared in considerable numbers in flocks of five to ten individuals. 

In the southern portion of its range it does not appear to have been met with west of 
Turkestan, where, according to Dr. Severtzoff, it is found both in the winter and during the 
breeding-season. Mr. Pleske says that three examples were sent by the brothers Gruni- 
Grzimailo, all three males in winter plumage, from Jandschi-che, Taschar (in the Chami 
district), and Dschan-tschinsa (in the Gutscbin district). Prjevalsky only met with it in 
Mongolia, on the Gutscbin Gourbou hills, where it was observed in pairs and small flocks. 
Pere David states (Ois. de la Chine, p. 358) that he met with it on several occasions, in the 
winter, near Pekin, and killed an old female there on the 11th April, which tends to show that 
they do not all leave that province when the severe frosts are over. 

I give above all that I find on record respecting the habits of this bird, which appear to 
assimilate closely with those of its congeners and with the Redpolls. 

According to Pallas it feeds on seeds, chiefly those of Artemisia integrifoHa, glauca, and 
annua, Potentilla, and of those of the family Compositae, which abound in Siberia. 

Dr. Taczanowski says that " the nest is placed in a fork close to the main stem of a bush or 
low tree, and is carefully and artistically constructed. The exterior of the nest resembles, to 
some extent, that of Hypolais icterina, and is occasionally as pale in coloration. It is constructed 
of sun-dried plant-stems, mixed and interwoven with fibres of nettles, hemp, and willows. 
Sometimes these fibres are largely used, more so than other materials. The interior is well 
lined with pine-leaves and bents, mixed with the fur of hares, roebucks, and with horse-hair &c, 
sometimes with feathers and down, with which it is, as a rule, finally lined. The eggs resemble 
those of Car_poclacus erythrinus, but are rather smaller and of a less intense blue colour ; the 
black spots are in general larger, the little dots much less numerous than the spots and are often 
totally absent; the markings are generally collected round the larger end and absent on the 
rest of the surface, or are only represented by a few tiny dots ; but there are specimens, similar 
to those of the species above named, marked with a number of small spots forming a wreath 
round the base ; the pale spots are only found in exceptional cases." 

Mr. Dorries states that he found on the 13th of May full clutches of eggs of a rich blue 
colour, streaked and spotted with black. It affects, he says, districts covered with low bushes, 
where it breeds, the nest being placed only a few feet above the ground. He never found, he 
adds, two nests close together in the same locality. 

Eggs in my collection, received from Dr. Dybowski, are dark blue, sparingly spotted, chiefly 
at the larger end, with black, and vary in size from "67 by "55 to '77 by *55 inch. 

The specimens figured are an adult male and female in winter plumage, marked c and d in 

2g2 



208 

my own collection, and are those above described. The adult male in spring plumage above 
described is in the British Museum, and the young male in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, <$ ad., b, $ juv. Siberia, September {Bode), c, ? ad. Tatascheff, January 3rd, 1881 (Kibort). d, e, $ ad. 
Manas Darja River, December 1890 (Pevtzoff). 

E Mus. H. Seehohn. 
a, 2 ad. Krasnoyarsk, October 25th, 1881 [Kibort). 

E Mus. Brit. 

a, £ ,b, ? . Amoor Land (Dr. Maack). c, g , d, $ . Eastern Siberia (Verreaux). e, J. Kultuk, March 2nd; 
f,$juv. Krasnoyarsk, December 7th, 1880 (Kibort). g, £ ad. Kobdo, Mongolia, November 1876 
(Gotanin). 




J. G.Keulema.rts del et litR. 



REDBANDED CROSSBILL 

LOXIA. RUBR1FASCIATA. 



Mint em Bros -imp. 



LOXIA EUBKIFASCIATA. 

(RED-BANDED CROSSBILL.) 



Loxia curvirostra rubrifasciata, Bp. & Schleg. Monogr. Loxiens, p. 5 (1850). 

" Loxia rubrifasciata, Brehm, in litt.," iid. ut supra. 

Crucirostra rubrifasciata, L. Brehm, Naumannia, 1853, p. 194. 

Crucirostra erythroptera, id. torn. cit. p. 199. 

Loxia bifasciata, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 442 (1888, partim). 

Rothbindige Kreuzschnabel, German. 

Figurce notabiles. 

Bp. & Schlegel, Monogr. Lox. pi. v.; L. Brehm, Naumannia, 1853, pi. iii. figs. 13, 14 
(heads only). 

Ad. simillima L. curvirostra, sed alarum fascia duplici, in <$ rubicunda et in ? cinerea. 

Adult Male (near Moscow, April 9th, 1893). Similar in plumage to red males of Loxia curvirostra, but, if 
anything, a trifle brighter in tone of colour ; median and larger wing-coverts tipped with rosy white, 
forming two distinct bands across the wing ; the two innermost secondaries also tipped with rosy 
white : beak, legs, and iris as in Loxia curvirostra. Total length about 5"5 inches, culmen 0'82, 
height of bill at base 0-45, width of lower mandible at base 04, wing 3 m 7, tail 2 , 25, tarsus - 72. 

Adult Female {fide L. Brehm) . Resembles the female of L. curvirostra, having the upper parts greyish 
green; the head greenish yellow, greenish grey on the nape, everywhere indistinctly marked with 
dark spots ; the rump pale golden yellow ; underparts grey on the breast and flanks, washed with 
yellowish green, and marked with indistinct spots ; under tail-coverts blackish grey with broad whitish 
margins ; on the blackish-grey upper surface of the wings there are two somewhat indistinct greyish 
bands. 

Young {fide L. Brehm). Upper parts blackish, the feathers with whitish and greenish-white margins; the 
dull blackish wing- and tail-feathers narrowly margined with greenish yellow; rump pale yellow with 
blackish stripes ; underparts whitish, the breast greenish, striped with dull black ; on the wings two 
distinct greyish-green bands. 

The present species is one that has puzzled me not a little, and I was for long doubtful as to 
whether it could be treated as distinct from Loxia curvirostra. 

Dr. Ludwig Brehm was the first to describe it, and states (I. c.) that " in size, form, and 
colour it resembles L. curvirostra, but has bands on the wing which are small in the female, 
but strongly developed in the male, and in the fully adult male they are rose-coloured " ; and 
he subdivides it again into two subspecies on account of size, the larger of which he calls 
Crucirostra rubrifasciata, and the smaller Crucirostra erythroptera. Dr. Sharpe (Cat. B. Brit. 



210 

Mus. xii. p. 442) gives L. rubrifasciata as a synonym of L. bifasciata, and remarks that " the 
so-called Loxia rubrifasciata of Brehm is probably only the present species in its finest plumage, 
when the white bands on the wings are tinted with red " ; but this is clearly an error, for it has 
nothing to do with L. bifasciata, as is evident from Brehm's original description as above cited. 
Mr. Pleske, when in England some time ago, assured me that the present is a good species, as 
he had convinced himself by an examination of specimens, and he has kindly lent me the bird I 
have figured for examination and comparison. I have examined a considerable number of 
specimens of the Common Crossbill and its near allies from various localities, the former chiefly 
from Scandinavia, besides the large series in the British Museum, not one of which shows the 
slightest trace of a band on the wings. Mr. Meves, however, informed me some years ago that 
a specimen with two reddish-white bands on the wings, and which must have belonged to the 
present species, had been obtained near Stockholm in November 1858. On the whole, it seems 
to me highly probable that Mr. Pleske is justified in his view that the present form should be 
specifically separated from Loxia curvirostra, and I have therefore decided to figure it. 

Brehm says that this Crossbill occurs in the forests near Renthendorf and in Thuringia, and 
at Oeftersten on the Harz, and adds that he obtained specimens at the latter locality in the 
spring of 1817, in August 1819, and in April 1847, and that Mr. Bonde, a forester, from whom 
he received a fine male, only obtained three specimens in the Thuringer Forest in twenty years. 

Mr. Pleske informs me that it is occasionally met with in Western Russia ; and, according 
to Mr. Deditius (J. f. O. 1885, p. 202), it is recorded by Mr. Eug. Biichner as being not 
uncommon, and probably breeds in the St. Petersburg Government. As yet it is difficult to 
define its range, but it probably inhabits Western Russia, and straggles from thence into 
Germany. So far as I can ascertain, nothing is known respecting its habits beyond the few 
notes on it as a cage-bird given by Brehm in 'Naumannia' (I. c), where he remarks that its 
call-note resembles that of the Common Crossbill, but is easily distinguishable, though the 
difference is not easy to describe. Its song, however, is very different, being fuller, louder, and 
richer, and is much more varied. He adds that he has kept many Crossbills as cage-birds, but 
none could compare with the Red-banded Crossbill so far as song was concerned ; and one in 
particular, a male a year old, caught near Renthendorf on the 6th March, 1847, proved an 
exceptionally good songster in confinement. He mentions that it became very tame, and knew 
him after only a few days of confinement. 

The nest of this Crossbill does not appear to have been found and described; but Brehm 
writes (I. c.) that it probably nested near Renthendorf in 1844, and certainly in 1847. He could 
not find the nest, but caught the female on the 6th April ; and as it was evidently breeding, he 
placed it in a large cage and covered the bottom with moss. The next morning he found that 
it had deposited an egg, which he describes as differing considerably from that of the Common 
Crossbill, being elongated oviform, rich bluish white, with a wreath of closely-placed light red 
and brown spots round the larger end. It was different, he remarks, from any other Crossbill 
egg he had ever seen. 

I do not possess a specimen of this rare Crossbill, nor is there one in the British Museum ; 
and the bird figured and above described is the one for the loan of which I am indebted to 
Mr. Theod. Pleske, of St. Petersburg. 




J. G_Keulenaar.e del. et Eth.. 



RED-HEADED BUNTING 

EMBERIZA LUTEOLA. 



Mii-LterrvBros . irnp . 



EMBERIZA LUTEOLA. 

(RED-HEADED BUNTING.) 



Emberiza luteola, Sparrm. Mus. Carls, fasc. iv. tab. 93 (1789). 
Luteous Bunting, Lath. Gen. Synop., Suppl. ii. p. 203 (1802). 
Emberiza icterica, Eversm. Add. Pallas. Zoogr. Ross.-As. fasc. ii. p. 10 (1841). 
Emberiza bruniceps, Brandt, Bull. Scient. Acad. St. Petersbourg, ix. no. 195, p. 11 (1842). 
Euspiza icterica (Eversm.), Gray, Gen. of B. ii. p. 370 (1844). 
" Emberiza brunniceps, Brandt," id. torn. cit. p. 377 (1844). 
Euspiza luteola (Sparrm.), Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. As. Soc. p. 128 (1849). 
Euspiza {Granativora) luteola (Sparrm.), Gray, Hancl-1. of B. ii. p. 112. no. 7677 (1870). 
Euspiza brunniceps (Brandt), Severtzoff, J. f. Orn. 1873, p. 365. 

Granativora luteola (Sparrm.), Bianchi, Bull. Acad. Imp. Scienc. St. Petersb. xii. p. 652 
(1886). 

Gandam, Hind., Dalchidi, Sind, Pacha-jinuwayi, Tel. {fide Oates) ; SariJc-kutchJcach (Yellow- 
bird), Turki {fide Scully); Bulle-Bulle-Goaya, Tekke {fide Zarudny). 

Figurce notabiles. 
Sparrman, ut supra; Gray, Gen. of B. ii. pi. xci. 

tj ad. pileo, nucha et collo postico aurantiacis, fronte castaneo-rufo tincta : dorso et uropygio saturate flavis, 
illo nigricante striato : alis fuscis, plumis in pogonio externo cervino marginatis : Cauda fusca, cervino 
rnarginata. : loris, capitis lateribus, regione parotica, gula et gutture castaneis : corpore reliquo subtus 
flavo : rostro plumbeo-cinereo, maxilla versus apicetn fusca : pedibus fusco-carneis : iride fusca. 

? ad. supra cinerea, capite et dorso nigro-fusco striatis : pileo flavido lavato : uropygio sordide flavido : alis 
et cauda, sicut in mare picturatis : capitis lateribus cinereo-albidis : regione parotica pallide fusca : 
gula, gutture et corpore subtus cervino-cinereis, flavido lavatis : abdomine magis flavo tincto : subcau- 
dalibus pallide flavis. 

Adult Male in spring (Lower Jaxartes). Crown, nape, and hind neck rich orange-yellow, tinged with 
rufous on the fore part of the crown ; back and rump deep yellow, the former striped with black ; 
wings brown, the feathers narrowly edged with creamy white; tail brown, the feathers similarly 
margined; lores, sides of the head, ear- coverts, throat, and the fore part of the neck chestnut-red; 
rest of the underparts bright yellow : bill bluish grey, dusky on the tip of the upper mandible ; feet 
fleshy brown, darker on the toes ; iris brown. Total length about 65 inches, culmen 06, wing 3'45, 
tail 2-85, tarsus 0'85. 

Adult Female in summer (Chimkent, June 5th). Above ashy grey, streaked on the head and back with 
blackish brown, the crown washed with yellow ; rump dull yellowish ; wings and tail as in the male ; 
sides of the head dull greyish white; ear-coverts pale brown; chin, throat, and underparts generally 



212 

sandy grey washed with yellow, which latter colour is more pronounced on the abdomen ; under tail- 
coverts pale yellow. Culmen 0'55 inch, wing 3 - 3, tail 2'65, tarsus 0'85. 

Obs. In the winter plumage the brighter colours worn in the summer are obscured by ashy margins to the 
feathers, and the underparts generally are washed with ashy grey. A male from Turkestan, shot in 
July, has the crown dull yellow, striped with blackish, and the chestnut on the throat is dull and 
obscured by yellow, the underparts being slightly washed with grey. According to Dr. Sharpe, the 
young in winter plumage is "brown like the adult female, but much more rufescent, and nearly 
uniform above, only a few half-concealed black streaks being visible on the back ; ear-coverts and sides 
of face pale rufous brown, as also the edgings of the wing-coverts and secondaries ; under surface of 
body pale isabelline ; the lower throat, breast, and sides of body pale sandy rufous, with a tinge of 
yellow on the flanks and under tail-coverts." 

During the summer season this Bunting inhabits Transcaspia, Turkestan, and Afghanistan, and 
winters in the plains of India. It has been met with as a straggler as far west as Heligoland, 
and has been recorded as occurring as far north as Siberia, and as far south as the Persian Gulf. 
According to Gatke, two old males have been obtained in Heligoland — one on the 20th June, 
1860, and another in September several years later. 

Professor Menzbier informs me that in the summer of 1889 this Bunting was found breeding 
and common near the Mugodjary Mountains. 

In Transcaspia, according to Mr. Zarudny (Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 803), it was " tolerably 
common in the Merv and Pinde oases, between the 27th April and 4th May, and I observed a 

considerable number on passage on the plain of Teke The favourite resorts of this bird 

are the valleys of the rivers, which are thinly covered with isolated bushes and where the grass 
is abundant. In the Merv and Pinde oases it frequents the bushes growing here and there in 
the fields between the ditches, and it also affects cultivated fields. On the 23rd June, at Bayram 
Ali Khan, I saw fully fledged young." 

According to Dr. Aitchison it is common over the Badghis, on the Afghan frontier; and 
Major Wardlaw Bamsay records it (Ibis, 1880, p. 66) as being exceedingly common in Afghanistan, 
and breeding plentifully in the Hariab Valley. Lieut. H. E. Barnes also found it extremely 
common in March and April near Chaman, S. Afghanistan. It is not included by Mr. Blanford 
in his list of the birds inhabiting Persia, but may possibly occur there, as Mr. W. D. Cumming 
procured an immature specimen at Fao, in the Persian Gulf, in September 1884, which is now 
in the British Museum. In Turkestan it is said to be common. According to Dr. Severtzoff it 
breeds there ; and Mr. Pleske says that Russoff sent examples from Kschtul and Tschinas, and 
found it numerous on the Golodnaja steppe. 

Mr. Scully, who met with it in Eastern Turkestan, says (E. Turkestan, p. 127) that "it 
is a seasonal visitor to the plains, arriving about the end of April and leaving in September. 
The birds were numerous from the end of May to July near Yarkand, where they were often 
seen, generally in pairs, perching on small trees (mulberries and willows), and chirping away 
merrily. These birds were always near cultivation, and appeared to prefer the vicinity of corn-, 
barley-, and lucerne-fields. This Bunting breeds in May and June ; a nestling was obtained on 
the 25th of the latter month ; on the 2nd July a young bird was caught (just able to fly) in 



213 

which only the lower tail-coverts showed a tinge of yellow, and a young male of the year was 
shot near Sanju on the 11th August." Col. Biddulph says (2nd Yark. Miss. p. 46) that he 
" never saw this Bunting during the winter or until May, when, on our return from the Pamir, 
we emerged from the hills. We first saw it at Ighiz Yar, and thenceforward noticed it in 
abundance everywhere in the plains and amongst cultivation. It was breeding." 

Mr. Scully (Ibis, 1881, p. 575) says that it occurs on passage at Gilgit from the third 
week in August to about the middle of September; and Col. Biddulph obtained immature 
specimens in the same months, and an adult male on the 19th of May. According to 
Dr. Bianchi, Messrs. Grum-Grzimailo obtained it in Eastern Buchara, at Tschaschma- 
Chafisdschan and Schir-abad. 

In British India, Mr. E. W. Oates writes (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, ii. p. 263), it is "a winter 
visitor to the plains of India from the foot of the Himalayas down to the Nilgiris, and from 
Sind to Chutia Nagpur." 

Dr. Taczanowski does not include this species in his recently published work on the 
avifauna of Siberia; but there is an immature specimen in the British Museum, received from 
Moscow, which is stated to have been obtained in Siberia. 

In its habits the present species appears to resemble Emberiza melanocephala. Mr. Scully 
describes the nest as being " usually placed either in small bushes (Kara-uk) about a couple of 
feet above the ground, or touching the ground at the edges of corn-fields, and sheltered over 
by a small shrub [Buyali). It is round, from 4 - 5 to 5 - 5 inches in diameter, the side-wall 
about 1 inch thick, the bottom 1*5. Externally it is made up of coarse fibres, leaves, and twigs 
loosely put together, but the egg-cavity is lined with fine fibres wound round and round, the 
egg commonly lying on a bottom lining of horse-hair. In the fresh nest the egg-cavity is 
circular, cup-shaped, about 3 inches in diameter and T5 deep. By the time the eggs are nearly 
ready to hatch off the shape of the nest is often a good deal altered ; the egg-cavity is flattened 
out, and instead of being cup-shaped, becomes saucer-like, and often quite shallow. 

"The number of eggs is from three to four, and the latter seems to be the full complement. 
Four eggs obtained on the loth of June vary in length from 082 to - 85 inch, and in breadth 
from 0'63 to 0*65 ; but the average of the four eggs is 0*835 by 0"642 inch. In shape they are 
moderate or broadish ovals, slightly compressed at one end, and have a slight gloss. The 
ground-colour is pale greenish grey, with numerous spots, streaks, and blotches of sepia-brown. 
The markings are generally more profuse at the large end ; but in some the small end and lesser 
half of the egg show the most numerous and crowded blotches." Major Wardlaw Ramsay says 
that a nest he found in Afghanistan was " built in a small bush about k l\ feet from the ground ; 
it was cup-shaped, and composed of dried grass, stalks of plants, shreds of juniper-bark, and 
lined with a few goat's hairs. It contained four eggs of a pale bluish-white colour, finely 
spotted with purplish stone-colour, the spots becoming larger at the thicker end." 

The specimens figured are the adult male and female above described, and are in my own 
collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the large series in the 
British Museum, the following specimens : — 

2h 



214 



E Mus. II. E. Dresser. 



g . Hodscha-Kala, Transcaspia, May 9th (Dr. G. Radde). b, 2 • Tschimkent, June 5th; c, £ ad. Lower 
Jaxartes (D?\ Severtzoff). d. Central Asia (R. Swinhoe). e,6. S. Kisil-Kum, April 17th, 1892 (Glasunoff). 
f, <$ jun. Jakrund, E. Turkestan. July 1889 (Pevtzoff). g, $ ad., h, $ juv. India (A. 0. Hume). 



681 







J. G.Ksulemans tbn . 



Hanha 



im.p. 



GREYNECKEE BUNTING 



EMBXR1SA HUTTO"NI 



EMBEEIZA HUTTONI. 

(GREY-NECKED BUNTING.) 



Euspiza huttoni, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xviii. p. 811 (1849). 

Emberiza buchanani, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xvi. p. 780 (1847), nee Blyth, op. cit. 

xiii. p. 957. 
Emberiza huttoni (Blyth), Horsf. & Moore, Cat. B. Mus. E. I. Co. ii. p. 485 (1856-58). 
Emberiza cerrutii, De Filippi, Archiv per la Zool. &c. Genova, ii. p. 383 (1863). 
Glycyspina huttoni (Blyth), Gould, B. of Asia, part xx. pi. xi. (1869). 
Citrinella (Glycyspina) huttoni (Blyth), Gray, Hand-1. of B. ii. p. 113. no. 7690 (1870). 
Citrinella huttoni (Blyth), Adam, Str. Feath. i. p. 388 (1873). 
Emberiza cassia (nee Cretz.), SevertzofF, Turk. Jevotnie, pp. 64 & 118 (1873). 
Glycispina buchanani (Blyth), Bianchi, Melang. Biolog. p. 654 (1886). 

Figura unica. 
Gould, B. of Asia, v. pi. xi. 

6 ad. pileo et nucha cinereis, indistincte striatis : corpore supra ciiiereo-fusco, dorso nigro-fusco striate : 
remigibus nigro-fuscis, primariis vix cinereo-cervino marginatis : secundariis et tectricibus majoribus 
castaneo-cervino conspicue marginatis, tectricibus minoribus dorso concoloribus : rectricibus mediis 
nigro-fuscis rufescenti-fusco marginatis, duabus externis valde albo oblique terminatis : loris et mento 
cinereo-albidis : capitis lateribus et regione parotica cinereis : gula, gutture et corpore subtus pallide 
castaneis, pectore saturatiore et plumis cinereo marginatis, pectoris lateribus cinereis, hypochondriis et 
subcaudalibus pallide cinereo-cervinis : rostro fusco-carneo : pedibus flavido-fuscis : iride fusca. 

? ad. sordidior et pallidior : corpore subtus pallidiore, plumis cinereo marginatis. 

Adult Male (Etawah, April 8th) . Crown and nape dull ashy grey, with indistinct darker stripes ; upper 
parts generally ashy brown, with blackish-brown stripes on the back ; quills blackish brown ; the 
primaries narrowly margined with pale ashy buff; the secondaries and larger wing-coverts broadly 
bordered with dull chestnut-buff ; lesser wing-coverts ashy brown like the back ; median tail-feathers 
blackish brown, margined with dull rufous brown, the two outer feathers with a large wedge-shaped 
patch of white extending over the terminal half of the inner web, the outer web brown, margined with 
white ; lores and chin dull ashy white ; cheeks, ear-coverts, and sides of the face ashy ; throat and 
uuderparts generally pale chestnut, brighter on the breast, and the feathers having ashy margins ; sides 
of the upper breast grey; flanks and under tail-coverts pale ashy buff: bill fleshy brown; legs and feet 
yellowish brown ; iris dark brown. Total length about 6 - 5 inches, culmen - 5, wing 3'5, tail 2 - 9, 
tarsus - 75. 

Adult Female (Ferghana, June 9th). Differs from the male in being rather paler and duller in colour, the 
chestnut on the uuderparts being much paler and obscured by ashy grey. 

2h2 



216 

Obs. Males obtained in June from Dzungaria and Ferghana, in my collection, have the head and neck of 
a much clearer grey, the latter having scarcely any darker stripes on the crown, and one has a very 
distinct malar stripe. In the winter dress, which differs but little from that worn in the summer, 
the feathers have ashy margins, which somewhat obscure the colours, especially on the wing-coverts 
and underparts. 

From the Caucasus to Kashmir this Bunting appears to be tolerably common, but I am unable 
to define the eastern limit of its range. Holdsworth, it is true, records its occurrence near 
Canton (Ibis, 1872, p. 473); but as this record was based on an unlabelled specimen (a female) 
which the collector, Mr. Samuel Bligh, believed he had obtained in China, though he had placed 
it amongst birds he had collected in Ceylon, it should be treated with caution, and as there is 
no other instance of this species having been observed in China, it appears probable that Mr. Bligh 
was mistaken. 

From the Caucasus it has only been once recorded, Dr. Radde having received one which was 
obtained at Derbent late in July ; but in Transcaspia it is stated by Mr. Zarudny (Bull. Soc. Mosc. 
iii. p. 802) to be common in the mountains in the upper part of the Tchandyr River, where it 
frequents the lower mountain zone ; and in Persia, according to Mr. Blanford (E. Pers. ii. p. 259), 
it " breeds throughout the hills of Persia at a considerable elevation. I almost always met with 
it wherever the road ascended to 8000 feet above the sea; but I never saw it in summer at lower 
elevations, and I have no doubt that the birds which are common in parts of North-western and 
Central India in the winter breed on the highlands of Afghanistan and Persia. De Filippi's 
types were from near a village called Sardarak, almost at the foot of Mount Ararat, whilst the 
specimens originally described by Blyth were collected by Hutton near Kandahar." 

Sir Oliver St. John speaks of it as being common in Southern Afghanistan in spring, where, 
according to Col. Swinhoe (Ibis, 1882, p. 113), it "arrives in the first week in April. Numbers 
were found resting on the city walls at Kandahar on the 8th April ; and great numbers were to 
be seen feeding on the road all the way to Kojuk." Both Col. Biddulph and Mr. Scully record 
it as tolerably common on passage during the month of September in the Gilgit district, and the 
former adds (Ibis, 1882, p. 282) that he received specimens from the upper part of the Yassin 
Valley, near the foot of the Shandur plateau, in August. According to Mr. Oates (Faun. Brit. 
India, Birds, ii. p. 258) it is a winter visitor to the whole of the north-western portion of the plains 
of India, extending south as far as Khandala and Chanda, and east as far as Etawah. This species 
migrates through Kashmir, and has been observed in Gilgit in September, and our Indian birds 
probably summer in Turkestan and Persia. 

It is found in Turkestan. Dr. Severtzoff, who records it in error under the name of 
Emberiza ccesia, says that it breeds there; and, according to Mr. Pleske (Rev. Turk. Orn. p. 19), 
Russoff obtained it at Abu-Petsch and Iskander-kul, in which latter locality it breeds. Mr. Pleske 
also says that several specimens were sent by the brothers Grum-Grzimailo from the Tian-schan 
(Dshirgalty, Kijtyn, and Dsjan-dsjun-gol) ; Dr. Severtzoff (Ibis, 1883, p. 61) says that it is found 
in the Pamir, where it passes in great numbers in August ; and I may add that Dr. O. Finsch 
(Reise n. West-Sib. p. 103) obtained it near Sassan, and later on, in June, met with it near 
Maitjerek, on the spur of the Altai Mountains. 

In its habits the present species appears to most nearly resemble Emberiza ccesia. It affects 



217 

rocky uneven ground, where there are bushes or low trees, and especially where Euphorbia- 
bushes are scattered about. Dr. Finsch met with it in desolate rocky gorges in the mountains, 
where it was generally seen amongst the stones and tangled vegetation. 

I find no information on record respecting its note ; but its nest was found in Persia by 
Mr. Blanford, who writes (E. Pers. ii. p. 259) as follows : — " I took the nest and eggs of 
U. huttoni on May the 22nd. The spot was a hillside covered with low bushes, which at this 
season were tolerably green, close to the caravanserai of Khan-i-surkh, about seventy miles 
south-west of Karman, at an elevation of 8000 feet above the sea. I was walking up the hill 
amongst the bushes, which grew in close round tufts, so compact that had they not been covered 
with thorns they would have formed excellent cushions, when a bird, which I at once recognized 
as Hutton's Bunting, flew out of a bush close to me. Lifting up the upper branches, I saw a 
neat nest about a foot from the ground. The nest appears to have been lost; to the best of my 
recollection it Avas of moss, very neatly and compactly made. It contained three eggs, well 
incubated, which I have preserved. They are very pale green in colour, with small distinct 
rounded surface-spots and minute dots of purplish black, and fainter purplish-grey markings, 
the latter being chiefly confined to the larger end. The eggs measure 0'9 by 0'65 inch. I should 
add that I shot and preserved the hen bird to guard against error in identification. It will be 
seen that in the locality for the nest, and the character of the eggs, this species differs consi- 
derably from the Ortolan, which lays four or five ashy-grey eggs in a nest on the ground. The 
markings, however, appear similar. The eggs of E. huttoni appear rather larger than those of 
the Ortolan." 

The specimens figured are the male and female above described, and are in my own 
collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens: — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a,8,b, ?. Mogoltau, Ferghana, June 9th (Severtzoff). c, <S . Tauschkau-Darja, Dzungaria, June 1889 
(Pevtzoff). 



682 






ikste iik 



SSSpE 



■' 








^y*R?S 









e.- 




■:& 



1x1 







,MP/r 



7 




: '5 ■ 



J. & Keulem.a.ns del.et ]itK. 



fs 

HOUSE BUNTING. 

EMBERIZA SAHARA. 



Mintern Br 



irn p- 



EMBERIZA SAHABjE. 

(HOUSE-BUNTING.) 



Emberiza saltan, Levaillant, Jun., Expl. Scient. de l'Algerie, Atlas, Ois. pi. ix. bis, fig. 2 

(1850). 
Fringillaria Sahara (Levaill., Jun.), Bp. Cat. des Ois. d'Eur. (Parzudaki) p. 18 (1856). 
Fringillaria sahari (Levaill., Jun.), Loche, Cat. des Mamm. et Ois. observes en Algerie etc. 

p." 61 (1858). 
Emberiza saharce, Tristram, Ibis, 1859, p. 34. 
"Fringillaria saharce, Bp.," id. torn. cit. p. 295. 
Fringillaria (Polymitra) saharce (Levaill., Jun.), Heuglin, Journ. f. Orn. 1870, p. 385. 

Fiseeough, Arabia. 

Figura unica. 
Levaillant, Jun., ut supra. 

J 1 ad. capite et collo griseo-albidis, nigro striatis : superciliis albis ; corpore supra cinnamomeo-castaneo, 
indistincte fusco striato : aliis nigro-fuscis, plumis conspicue cinnamomeo-castaneo marginatis : rectri- 
cibus nigro-fuscis, cinnamomeo-castaneo marginatis : abdomine saturate cinnamomeo : rostro flavido, 
versus apicem corneo : pedibus carneis : iride fusca. 

$ ad. sordidior et pallidior : capite et collo cervino-cinereis, indistincte nigro-fusco striatis. 

Adult Male (Biskra, March). Head and neck greyish white striped with black; a distinct white stripe 
over the eye ; upper parts generally bright sandy rufous or bay, the back indistinctly striped with 
dark brown ; wings and tail blackish brown, the feathers of the latter narrowly margined, and those 
of the wing broadly margined with bay or pale foxy red ; throat and upper breast greyish white, striped 
with blackish grey ; rest of the uuderparts warm sandy rufous : bill yellowish at the base, dark horn 
towards the tip; legs pale fleshy; iris dark brown. Total length about 5'5 inches, culmen 0"45, 
wing 3"0, tail 2 - 6, tarsus 065. 

Adult Female (Biskra, March). Differs from the male in having the upper parts slightly duller and paler, 
and the head and neck instead of being greyish white are sandy grey, and the stripes are less 
distinctly defined. 

Obs. According to Dr. Sharpe the young in winter plumage are " sandy rufous like the adults, but with 
dusky centres to the feathers, a little plainer than in the adults ; head and throat a little lighter and 
more ashy isabelline than the back, but not grey, and with scarcely any indications of dusky streaks." 
Compared with Emberiza striolata, the present species has the upper parts much more rufous and 
uniform in colour, the dark stripes being much less clearly defined, and the underparts also are much 
more rufous in tone of colour ; the division between the grey on the neck and the rufous on the rest 
of the underparts is also much more clearly defined. 



220 

The House-Bunting has a somewhat restricted range, being found only in North Africa from 
Tunis to Morocco. 

Mr. Alessi (J. f. O. 1892, p. 316) obtained it between Nefzeona and El Djerid, Tunis, which 
is the only record I find of its occurrence so far east in North Africa. 

In Algeria both this species and Emberiza striolata occur — the present species in the 
far south, and E. striolata in the north. Dr. Sharpe (I. c.) states that this latter species does 
not occur further west than Arabia ; but I have before me an undoubted specimen from the 
collection of Canon Tristram, obtained by that gentleman at Berrouaghina, in Algeria, on the 
2nd December, 1856. 

E. saharce appears to be common in Southern Algeria, from which locality it was first 
described by Levaillant, Jun., and Loche, and later travellers all speak of having met with it 
there. Mr. J. H. Gurney, Jun., remarks on its abundance at Gardaia and other Mzab cities; 
and Messrs. Elwes and Dixon state (Ibis, 1882, p. 573) that in the Province of Constantine they 
did not meet with it until they reached the oases of El Kantara and Biskra. In Morocco it 
appears to be common, especially in the city of Morocco, but I do not find it recorded from 
the northern portions of that country. 

In its habits the present species is extremely tame and confiding. Messrs. Elwes and Dixon 
(I. c.) say that it is was certainly one of the tamest birds they ever met with ; they repeatedly 
saw them enter the Arab houses, and were in fact so tame that Capt. Elwes endeavoured to catch 
them in his butterfly-net. Messrs. Hooker and Ball, who met with this Bunting in the city of 
Morocco, say, in their ' Journal of a Tour in Morocco' : " During our meals, which were always 
taken in the central saloon, open to the sky, these birds would boldly alight beside us, and pick up 
the crumbs that were sometimes purposely scattered for their benefit." Mr. Stutfield, also referring 
to the extreme tameness of this bird, writes ('El Maghreb: 1200 miles' ride through Marocco,' 
p. 253) : — " One very pleasing feature in Morocco is the tameness of all wild creatures. At 
Kaid Maclean's dinner-table there were always a number of little birds hopping about on the 
cloth, which at first we thought were pets of the family, till we were told that they were the 
Sparrows of the city. They picked up the crumbs under your very nose, and boldly perched 
on the bread and the edge of one's wine-glass, a familiarity which at times I found had its 
disadvantages. They are held sacred, and being thus preserved from injury are perfectly fearless 
and domesticated. This bird, which is called tabib (doctor), is quite different from the European 
Sparrow, being of a red-brown colour with pretty markings, about the same size, but of a less stout 
build. When I woke of a morning there were often two or three of these little fellows on my 
pillow, and others perched on the end of the bed." Mr. J. H. Gurney, Jun., also remarks (Ibis, 
1871, p. 292) that "they are as tame as Robins. Frequently one would hop on our carpet, to 
search for fragments of couscous, scrutinizing us within a few feet with his dark brown trustful 
eye. They are nearly omnivorous. I caught one in a trap baited with grain, and saw another 
nibbling green carrot-leaf; and once the female, at Berryan, made her appearance with a large 
fly, which was not swallowed without a great effort and after much mastication. They used to 
drink out of our goatskin, fluttering and clinging to the wall for the moisture which had oozed 
through. Half circles of accumulated droppings under the rafters showed where they roosted. 
For a few seconds before settling down for the night I used to see them hovering perpendicularly, 



221 

with quivering wings and tail brought forward ; and this was the only time at which there was 
anything characteristic about their flight." 

Referring to the habits of the present species as compared with those of Emberiza striolata, 
Mr. Dixon writes {I. c.) : — " We failed to note the great differences of habits which are said to 
occur between these two birds, E. saharcB and E. striolata. Mr. Elwes met with this pretty little 
bird amongst the rocks, away from the dwellings of men, but still tame and trustful as ever. My 
observations of the habits of this species agree very closely with the capital account of the habits 
of E. striolata as observed by Mr. Hume in Rajpootana." 

Respecting the nidification of this Bunting the only detailed account I can find is that given 
by Mr. J. H. Gurney, Jun. (Ibis, 1871, p. 291), as follows: — "I think every house in Gardaia 
is tenanted by a pair of House-Buntings. They are equally common in the other Mzab cities. 
A nest in the inner court at Berryan was upon some plaster in a large square hole. It contained 
one young one, yellow about the gape, and covered with a whitish down. It was a shallow nest, 
made of the thin twigs of firewood, and lined with hair. The hen generally flew to it from the 
edge of the opposite wall. I often watched her preening herself. She liked to sit on the edge 
of something, and let her tail hang down, which, from constant contact with the floor, was very 
dirty. She usually began by puffing out every feather until she resembled a ball divided by a 
deep line down the middle of the breast, into which she thrust her beak. When the lower 
parts were finished, she would preen the back, especially underneath the wing, between the 
scapular feathers. This is probably the attitude in which they sleep. Scratching her head with 
her foot, or scraping her bill against the mortar, concluded her toilet, which occupied from three 
to five minutes. As I afterwards found other nests, I was able to make further observations. I 
think the eggs must be deposited in March, as in most instances the young had been hatched off. 
Judging from the one at Berryan, which had flown when I returned to that place on the last day 
of the month, the young remain in the nest at least twenty-one days. On the 23rd of April I 
saw a nestling full-grown and able to feed itself, which must have been hatched about the 1st. 
The eggs are rather like Sparrows' eggs, but rounder. I only got three; Dr. Tristram did not 
get any ; and there are none in the Museum at Algiers. The nest is generally, but not always, 
placed in a hole, and is composed of twigs or little sticks, and lined with hair, with sometimes 
the addition of wool or a bit of cotton. On one occasion two were found together, which 
probably belonged to the same bird, as one of them was unfinished. The young are less noisy 
than Sparrows. The female brings them food about every ten minutes ; and they never chirp 
except when they see her. I never could detect anything in her beak, or see on what she fed 
them, although I watched the operation often ; so I do not doubt that she reproduces what she 
has eaten for the benefit of her callow offspring. Until the young leave the nest the male takes 
no share in feeding them. The female bears away the fasces. The males sing much the loudest ; 
indeed the females never do more than twitter ; but the cock pours forth a lively strain during 
the season of incubation." 

An egg of this Bunting, obtained at Mogador, for which I am indebted to Mr. J. J. Dalgleish, 
is greyish white finely spotted with brown, the spots being bolder at the larger end, and collected 
together, formiug an irregular band or wreath, and much resembles some varieties of the eggs of 
the Common House-Sparrow. In size it measures 20 by 15 millimetres. 

2i 



222 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Joseph J. S. Whitaker, of Palermo, I have received a nest and 
three eggs of this Bunting, taken by him at Biskra on the 22nd June last. This nest, which is 
neatly constructed of fine grass-bents and lined with hair, measures 2\ inches external diameter 
by 2 inches internal diameter, and the eggs are white, finely spotted and marked with greyish 
brown and dark brown. In general character they are very Sparrow-like, most nearly resembling 
some pale varieties of the Italian Sparrow in my collection, but are smaller in size. 

The Plate of this species is copied from a painting by Mr. A. Thorburn of a live bird in 
the possession of Lord Lilford, and the specimens described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a,b, $ , c, d, J. Biskra, Algeria, March 1894 (J. J. Whitaker). e. Gardaia, Algeria, April 21st, 1870 
(J. H. Gumey, Jun.). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram. 

a, g, b, $. Berryan, Mzab, December 2nd, 1856; c, d, $ . Gardaia, December 6th and 8th, 1856 
(H. B. Tristram). 




J- G.'Keutema-ns del.&t. litK. 



SIBERIAN MEADOW BUNTING. 



emberiza ClOIDES. 



Minterrv Bros 



EOEKIZA CIOIDES. 

(SIBERIAN MEADOW-BUNTING.) 



Emberiza cia, Pallas, Zoogr. Ross.-As. ii. p. 39 (1811, nee Linn.). 

Emberiza cioides, Brandt, Bull. Acad. Sc. St. Petersb. i. p. 363 (1843). 

'■'■Emberiza castaneiceps, Gould, MSS.," Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1855, p. 215. 

Buscarla cioides (Brandt), Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1857, p. 163. 

Euscarla castaneiceps (Moore), Bonap. ut supra. 

Emberiza rustica (nee Pall.), Swinhoe, Ibis, 1861, p. 255. 

Emberiza ciop>sis, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 300, nee Bp. 

Emberiza gigliolii, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1867, p. 393. 

Citrinella {Cia) cicoides (Brandt), Gray, Hand-1. of B. ii. p. 114. no. 7702 (1870). 

"Citrinella (Cia) castaneiceps (Gould)," Gray, op. cit. p. 114. no. 7703 (1870). 

Citrinella (Cia) gigliolii (Swinhoe), Gray, op. cit. p. 114. no. 7705 (1870). 

Eigura unica. 
Tristram, Ibis, 1889, pi. x. 

J ad. supra castaneo-rufus, pileo saturatiore : clorso nigro striato : remigibus nigro-f uscis, primariis anguste 
albido, et secundariis conspicue castaneo-rufo marginatis : tectricibus alarum minoribus cinereo-canis, 
reliquis nigro-f uscis, extiis castaneo-rufo conspicue marginatis : caucla nigricante, rectricibus mediis 
castaneo-rufo marginatis, binis utrinque lateralibus in magna parte al bis : loris nigris : vitta genali et 
gula albis, mystacibus malaribus nigris : regione parotica castanea : fascia pectorali castanea : hypo- 
chondriis rufescenti-castaneis : corpore reliquo subtxis albo-cinereo : colli lateribus canescenti-cinereis : 
rostro plunibeo-cinereo, mandibula pallidiore : pedibus f usco-carneis : iride fusca. 

? ad. ubique sordidior : pileo castaneo-fusco nigricante striato, fascia lorali nigra nulla, mystacibus minus 
intensis : fascia pectorali sordide rufescente nee castaneo. 

Adult Male (Krasnojarsk, July 24th). Crown deep chestnut, this colour extending on to the nape; general 
colour above warm foxy chestnut, on the interscapulary region striped with blackish brown; lesser 
wing-coverts bluish ash, remaining wing-coverts blackish brown, externally broadly margined with 
warm chestnut ; quills blackish brown, narrowly margined with dull white, the secondaries broadly 
margined with warm chestnut; median rectrices blackish, the middle feathers so broadly margined 
with warm chestnut that the black is restricted to the centre of the feather, the two external tail- 
feathers obliquely white on the terminal portion, the white on the outer feather extending over two- 
thirds of the length; lores black; a broad white stripe extending from the base of the bill above the 
eye to the nape, and a short white stripe under the eye, below which there is a black band ; ear-coverts 
dark chestnut ; throat greyish white, below which a broad band of rich chestnut crosses the breast ; 
flanks pale reddish chestnut ; rest of the underparts ashy white : bill plumbeous grey, the lower 
mandible paler; legs pale fleshy brown; iris dark brown. Total length about 64 inches, culmen 045, 
wing 3*4, tail 3-4, tarsus 072. 

2l 2 



224 

Adult Female in summer (Krasnojarsk) . Differs from the male in being much duller in colour and lacking 
the rich chestnut tints in the plumage ; the crown is dark reddish brown striped with black, there is 
less black on the sides of the head, and the lores are not black but brownish white, and the breast-band 
is dull pale foxy red and not chestnut. 

In the winter plumage the adult male has the feathers margined with ashy grey, which obscures the 
chestnut on the breast and upper parts, especially on the crown, and the sides of the neck and throat 
are bluish grey. The female in winter differs also in having the feathers margined, more broadly 
than in the male, with sandy ash, the breast-band being entirely hidden. 

Dr. Sharpe states (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 543) that this species has a tiny black spot at the base of the 
chin, and that E. castaneiceps differs in being smaller and in lacking this spot ; but I find no black spot 
in any of the specimens of E. cioides in my collection. Dr. Taczanowski separates E. castaneiceps from 
E. cioides, but does not give the absence of the black spot as a distinctive character, nor does he say 
that E. cioides has this spot, but gives the distinctive characters of E. castaneiceps as follows : — Smaller 
in size, and having the pectoral band reddish isabeliine and not chestnut, the female lacking the black 
malar stripe. Having now had an opportunity of examining six specimens from China, I am able 
to say that I do not consider the Chinese to be specifically separable from the Siberian bird. 

Generally distributed from Western Siberia and Turkestan to Eastern Siberia, Corea, Mantchuria, 
Mongolia, and China, the present species of Bunting has been met with as a straggler as far west 
as the British Isles, as recorded by Canon Tristram, who writes (Ibis, 1889, p. 293) as follows : — 
" Our member, Mr. R W. Chase, of Birmingham, has lately obtained at Flamborough a specimen 
of this species. This specimen is stated to have been taken there in October 1887, and to have 
been mounted from the flesh by Matthew Bailey, who did not know the bird, and was quite 
ignorant of the interest attaching to it. The species has considerable seasonal variation, and 
this specimen agrees exactly with one in my own collection obtained near Lake Baikal in the 
month of October. So far, therefore, the evidence of its occurrence at Flamborough seems 
satisfactory. But it is curious that the bird has never been met with before in Europe, not even 
in that resort of unwonted stragglers, Heligoland." 

Mr. Chase informs me that he found on making inquiries that the above-named date of 
capture is an error, and that the bird was caught by William Gibbon, fisherman, at Flamborough, 
south of the headland, in November 1886. These particulars were communicated to Mr. Chase 
by Matthew Bailey. The correction in date was given in the 'Yorkshire Naturalist,' 1889, 
p. 356. 

I do not find any record, beyond the above, of its occurrence west of the Ural range ; but 
Taczanowski states that it occurs in Western Siberia ; Mr. Seebohm received examples, both in 
breeding-plumage and in autumnal dress, from Krasnojarsk ; and Pallas found it in the mountains 
of the Jenesei and throughout Dauria, and says that S teller met with it from the Augara and 
Lena to Kamschatka ; but Dr. Dybowski did not find it in the last-named country. 

Middendorff obtained a single example at Udskoj-Ostrog on the 11th December; and Radde 
remarks that it remains later in the autumn that any of the other Siberian Buntings, and that a 
few remain there over winter. In Dauria it is, he says, not common ; he obtained it with 
E. rustica on the island of the Central Onon early in September, and on the Central Amoor, 
where it is not uncommon, late in March. On the 2nd May he found females breeding on the 



225 

plains on the Udir River above the Bureja Mountains. Maack obtained a female in Nertschinsk 
on the 21st April (O.S.). 

According to Taczanowski it is resident in Eastern Siberia ; and Godlewski states that it is 
tolerably common in the Southern Baikal, in Dauria, and the Ussuri country to the coasts of the 
Sea of Japan. Mr. F. Dorries says (J. f. O. 1888, p. 85) that he found it "common in spring 
on Askold, where it arrives about the middle of March, and it was also observed on the island in 
the late autumn, but it migrates southwards in the winter. In the Suiffun and Ussuri districts 
it also appears early in March in flocks of ten to twelve individuals. We observed it on the 
Bykien in summer. It would appear that it breeds in the Ussuri district." Taczanowski 
records it (P. Z. S. 1887, p. 606) from Corea, and I have received specimens from there collected 
by Mr. Campbell. 

With regard to its southern range, both Severtzoff and Pleske state that it is found in 
Turkestan ; and the former says that it is common on passage, but rare in the winter, and he 
thinks that it may possibly breed in the more elevated portions of the country. Col. Prjevalski 
speaks of it as being very common in South-eastern Mongolia, and he obtained specimens at 
Ala-shan, but did not observe it in Kan-su. It appears to be found throiighout a considerable 
portion of China; the Rev. H. H. Slater (Ibis, 1882, p. 434) recorded specimens from Szechuen ; 
Mr. Maries obtained it in the Ichang Gorge, on the Yangtze River; Styan states (Ibis, 1891, 
p. 354) that it breeds at Kiukiang ; Svvinhoe records it from Amoy ; and Mr. de la Touche speaks 
of it (Ibis, 1892, p. 428) as being " common in the Foochow district from the beginning of 
September to the late spring. I strongly suspect that it breeds in the district. Also obtained 
near Swatow." 

With regard to the Chinese and Mongolian birds which Dr. Sharpe (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. 
p. 544) separates from typical E. cioides under the name of E. castaneiceps, Mr. Seebohm also 
remarks (Ibis, 1889, p. 296) that the characters given by Dr. Sharpe will not hold good, as males in 
his collection from Jenesei vary in length of wing from 3-5 to 3T inches, and those in the Swinhoe 
collection from China from 3T to 2*9 inches, that more than half his Jenesei specimens lack the 
tiny black spot on the chin, and that some Chinese examples have more white on the outer tail- 
feathers than a selected few of the Jenesei skins; he further adds that the British-killed bird 
"lacks the black spot on the chin, that the wing and tail measure each exactly 3 inches, and 
that the white on the outer tail-feathers is so nearly intermediate between the two extremes that 
it would pass for either of them." 

I am indebted to the Rev. H. H. Slater for the loan of six specimens from China, which I 
have carefully compared with my series, and can detect no difference except in size, the Chinese 
birds being on an average somewhat smaller than those from Siberia, but in plumage they do 
not differ. The four adult males in Mr. Slater's collection measure — culmen 0-4 to 0-45 inch, 
wing 3-05 to 3-25, tail 2-9 to 30, and tarsus 0-30 to 0-85. 

In Japan the present species is replaced by a closely allied form, Emberiza ciopsis, Bp., 
which differs in having the ear-coverts black instead of chestnut. 

With regard to the habits of the present species Dr. Dybowski says that in Eastern Siberia 
it frequents the slopes of the mountains, especially those facing the south, and localities which 
are but sparsely covered with trees. Godlewski also states that it frequents the southern 



226 

mountain-slopes where there are scattered bushes, and bushes in cultivated localities, and is 
everywhere resident, but during severe winters it moves a little further south, returning in the 
spring early in April. In Mongolia, Col. Prjevalski writes (Orn. Misc. ii. p. 308), it is to be 
found " in the bushes on the mountains, avoiding large woods, and therefore we found it only 
on the slopes of the Muni-ul Mountains "; and in China, according to Styan (Ibis, 1891, p. 354), 
it affects " the hilly country, though it is found in less numbers on the plains. It is found on 
the more open parts of the wooded ranges, and is one of the few birds which frequent the 
absolutely bare (except for grass) hills so common in China." 

Godlewski, who found it breeding in Eastern Siberia, says that " early in May it commences 
to build its nest, which is placed on the ground at the foot of a bush, carefully hidden, or some- 
times on a bush, though never above half a metre from the ground. About the middle of May 
the female commences incubation, the eggs being four to six in number, and is very attentive to 
her incubatory duties ; the male keeps watch, singing, perched on a distant bush, and gives an 
alarm-signal when the least danger threatens, on which the female slips off on foot and joins the 
male without one being able to see from whence she comes, and feigns utter indifference — 
consequently the nest is difficult to find ; but when the eggs are incubated she sits close, and does 
not leave the nest until nearly trodden on. 

" The song of the male is agreeable, though short. After leaving the nest the young birds 
remain in the same vicinity with their parents." 

Dybowski states (J. f. O. 1873, p. 87) that "it commences nidification in the latter half of 
March, building its nest in a depression below a bush, generally a wild apricot. The nest is 
smaller than that of E. leucocepliala, constructed of dried grass-bents, the inside being of smaller 
and finer ones, and lined with horse- or cattle-hair, but not closely lined, and it is a strong but 
not stout structure ; outer diameter 115 millim., height 45, inner diameter 65, depth 25. The 
clutch usually consists of four, seldom five eggs, resembling those of E. cia, and they are the 
handsomest eggs we have here. The ground-colour is white with a violet tinge, on the larger 
end surrounded with a beautifully drawn wreath of fine dark brown irregular lines, the rest 
of the egg being unmarked or marked with a few indistinct lines ; some of these lines are in 
places widened so as to form a thick dark patch. Some eggs resemble those of E. hortulana in 
markings, being marked, like those, with thick spots and short streaks without having a distinct 
wreath. There are always a few ash-grey indistinct spots and streaks on these eggs. The eggs 
from different clutches measure: 22-15-5 millim., 22-16, 21-15-5, 20-15-5, 20-16, 19-16-5. 

" In the middle of June we found newly hatched young or much incubated eggs. The song 
of the male is very melodious, but interrupted as with the other Buntings, and it sings from a 
bough near the nest. When anyone approaches it warns the female by an alarm-note, and the 
latter slips off the nest, but does not take wing for some distance ; and this combined with the 
difficulty in climbing about the steep precipices makes it difficult to find the nest." 

In Mongolia Col. Prjevalski took several nests built of dry grass, on the ground, in the 
bushes. Each contained four fresh eggs, of a dull white, with a band of black zigzag marks at 
the larger end, and sometimes with some large black spots. 

Eggs in my collection, obtained from Dr. Dybowski, agree closely with his description as 
above cited. 



227 

The specimens figured are the male and female above described, and are in my own 
collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, b, £. July 24th; c, <£ . December 17th, 1878, Torgasehino, Krasnoyarsk, Siberia (Kibort). d, <J . Kras- 
nojarsk, February 29th, 1880 {Kibort). e, ?. Lake Baikal, October 21st, 1869 (Dybowski). f, ?. Lake 
Baikal, September 4th, 1869 (Dyboivski). g, <$ , Soul, Corea, January 29th; h, ? . Soul, Corea, April 
loth, 1889 {Campbell). 

E Mus. E. H. Slater. 

a,b,<$. Szechuen, 1880 (TV. G. Greig). c, <$ . Kiukiang, April 1888; d, $ . Kiukiang, June 1889; 
e, ?. Nankin, February 21st, 1888 (F.W.Styan). f, $ juv. Foochow, August 27th, 1893 [Be la 
Touche) . 



684 




x 
<5 



'- P 



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s 




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r^-n 


f-H 


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P 




<! 



ALAUDA GULGULA. 

(INDIAN SKY-LARK.) 



Alauda gulgula, Franklin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 119. 

Alauda gracilis, Blyth, J. As. Soc. Beng. xi. p. 201 (1842). 

Alauda gangetica, Blyth, J. As. Soc. Beng. xii. p. 181 (1843). 

Alauda triborhyncha, v. leiopus, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 84 (1844). 

Alauda cristata (partim), Gray, Gen. of B. ii. p. 380 (1844). 

Alauda malabarica (nee Sykes), Horsf. & Moore, Cat. B. Mus. E. I. Co. ii. p. 467 (185G). 

Alauda coelivox, Swinhoe, Zoologist, 1859, p. 6723. 

Alauda sala, Swinhoe, Ihis, 1870, p. 354. 

Alauda voattersi, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1871, p. 389. 

Alauda inconspicua, Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotnie, p. 142 (1873) (see Brooks, Ibis, 1892, 

p. 61). 
Alauda peguensis, Oates, Str. Feath. iii. p. 343 (1875). 

Alauda triborhyncha, Hodgs., Radde & Walter, Vog. Transcasp. p. 39 (1888). 
Alauda guttata (nee Brooks), Zarudny, Ois. de la Contree Transcasp. p. 53 (1885). 

" Buruta-pitta, Niala pichike,Te\.; Manam-badi, Tarn. ; Bhurut, Hind.; Bee-lone, Burm. ; 
Gomarita, Cing." (Oates). 

Figures notabiles. 
Hodgs. Icon, ined., Passeres, pi. cexciii. fig. 2 ; Henderson & Hume, Lahore to Yark. pi. xx. 

A. arvensi similis, sed minor, rostro longiore et graciliore. 

Adult Female (Baghyr, April 15th). Resembles South-European specimens of our Common Sky-Lark ; but 
is smaller in size, and has the bill longer and more slender; mouth yellowish; upper mandible dark 
horn, lower pinkish fleshy, dusky at the tip ; iris brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; legs fleshy brown ; claws 
pale horn-colour. Total length about 6'5 inches, culmen 0'65, wing 3 - 35, tail 2'0, tarsus - 95. 

Obs. The male differs from the female in being rather larger in size, the wing usually measuring about 
3"5 inches. Like our Sky-Lark the variation in colour is considerable, some specimens being much 
darker than others. A specimen from the Indus valley obtained in June is very dark, as is also a not 
fully adult bird from Ladak. So far as I can see, there is no constant difference between this species 
and Alauda arvensis except size, the present species being constantly much smaller, and the bill is, as 
a rule, much longer and more slender. 

The range of this, the Indian representative of our European Sky-Lark, extends from Trans- 
caspia, throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma, to Southern China and the Philippines. I have 
received a pair from Dr. Radde, obtained at Baghyr, Transcaspia, in March and April, which I 

2k 



230 

recorded (Ibis, 1889, p. 90) under the name of A. guttata, and Dr. Raddealso obtained specimens 
from Askabad, Tachtabasar, and Sulfigar. 

Mr. Zarudny (Rech. Zool. dans la Contree Transcasp. p. 88) records it as very rare in the 
Ahal-Teke oasis, but very common in those of Merv and Pinde, though it was scarcely met with 
along the central portion of the Murghab, and it certainly breeds in Transcaspia, as he saw the 
young just able to leave the nest on the 18th of June. Sir O. St. John and Col. Swinhoe 
obtained this Lark at Kandahar, Severtzoff in Turkestan, Russoff in Tschinas, and he found it 
breeding at Saamin, and according to Mr. Oates (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, ii. p. 326) it occurs in 
" every portion of the Indian Empire and Ceylon except Tenasserim, south of Moulmein, and the 
middle ranges of the Himalayas, where it is absent or comparatively rare." He also states 
(B. Brit. Burm. i. p. 374) that it is "very abundant in Southern Pegu, between the Pegu and the 
Sittang rivers as far north as the latitude of Shwaygheen. Dr. Armstrong states that it is spread 
over the whole Irrawaddy delta, and Mr. Davison observed it in the plains between the Sittang 
and the Salween rivers and in the immediate neighbourhood of Moulmein. It is apparently 
absent in the Irrawaddy valley from the head of the Delta up to the frontier. 

" It occurs in Siam and Cochin China, and under various names is found throughout China 
and Eastern Siberia." Abbe David records it from Szechuan in China, Mr. Swinhoe from Hainan, 
Formosa, and the Pescadores, and Lord Tweeddale from the island of Bohol in the Philippines. 

In habits and song the present species appears to assimilate closely with Alauda arvensis. 
Mr. Oates states (I. c.) that it " chiefly frequents cultivated lands, but is also found in those 
portions of the plains which are covered with wild paddy and short elephant grass. It is, I 
believe, a constant resident (in Burma). It soars very high, and sings quite as well as the 
English Sky-Lark. It is in song from October, or even earlier, up to March or April." 

Mr. Hume (Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds, 2nd ed. ii. p. 221) gives a very detailed account 
of the nest and eggs of this species, from which I gather that in its mode of nidification it much 
resembles our European Sky-Lark. He describes the nest as being always placed on the ground 
in a shallow depression, usually, he believed, scratched by the birds themselves under the shelter 
of some clod of earth, large stone, tuft of grass or other herbage, or a dense stunted bush. It 
consists merely of a deeper or shallower cup or saucer of fine grass — in many cases a mere 
lining to the hole or depression, in others a regular nest, the interior always being composed of 
the finest grass. Sometimes a few horsehairs are intermixed with the fine grass used for lining 
the nest. In some parts of India they breed twice in the year, sometimes as early as February 
and continuing till May, then again from August to October or even later. 

Three appears to be the normal number of eggs, and five the maximum. The eggs, Mr. Hume 
says, " vary from moderately elongated to moderately broad ovals, at times a good deal pointed 
towards the small end, and fairly glossy. The ground-colour in some is greyish, in others 
yellowish white, and all are densely speckled, spotted, freckled, and even blotched with pale 
yellowish and purplish brown or very pale inky purple. In length they vary from - 74 to 
0-88 inch, and in breadth from 0'56 to 0-66, but the average is 08x0-61." 

In the synonymy of the present species I have omitted Alauda australis, Brooks, Str. Feath. 
1873, p. 484 (which Dr. Sharpe includes), as Mr. Brooks states (Ibis, 1892, p. 61) that this form 



231 

cannot be united to A. gulgula ; and I have included Alauda inconspicua, Severtzoff, as 
Dr. Severtzoff informed me that he had identified his bird as being Alauda gulgula, and this 
identification is confirmed by Mr. Pleske (Rev. Turk. Ornis, p. 22). 

The specimens figured are an adult male from Transcaspia and a rather younger and 
much darker bird from Ladak ; these and the specimen above described being in my own 
collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, cJ ad. March 31st; h, $ ad. April 15th, Baghyr, Transcaspia (Dr. G. Radde). c, J 1 ad. Indus valley, 
June 29th (Col. J. Biddulph). d,juv. Ladak, August 26th (Col. J. Biddulph). 



2k 2 



NOTES ON THE STAELINGS 

INHABITING THE WESTERN PALJEARCTIC AREA. 



When in 1874 I wrote the articles on the Starlings in the ' Birds of Europe ' I included three 
species, Sturnus vulgaris, S. purpurascens, and S. unicolor, as inhabiting the Western Palsearctic 
Region ; but in vol. xiii. of the ' Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum ' Dr. Sharpe has sub- 
divided these species into seven, and on these I may make the following remarks : — 

To begin with, he subdivides Sturnus vulgaris into two species, S. vulgaris and S. menzbieri, 
and says (p. 29), " The Common Starling of Western Europe is easily distinguished by its colours 
— green head, green ear-coverts, green throat, green scapulars and wing-coverts, and steel-blue or 
greenish-blue flanks. The Siberian Starling, S. menzbieri, which visits India in the winter, and 
which has always been called S. vulgaris, differs from the English bird in having a reddisb-purple 
head, ear-coverts, and throat, and also in its violet-purple flanks." To this I may remark that I 
have in my own collection specimens from England, Norway, and Sweden, killed in April and 
May, which have the head, ear-coverts, and throat purple and not green, and the flanks steely 
purple, and indeed the predominant colour of the head, ear-coverts, throat, and flanks in a large 
series I have examined from Great Britain and Scandinavia is purple and not green. Nor am I alone 
in this view, for Macgillivray describes the Starling as having purple as the predominating colour 
on the neck and head. Sundevall (Svenska Fogl. pi. xviii. fig. 5) figures the Starling of Sweden 
with the head and neck purple, and Nilsson (Skand. Faun. i. p. 224) says, in his description of 
Sturnus vulgaris, that the head and throat are purple. Specimens from Piedmont obtained in 
May have also the head, ear-coverts, and throat purple, and the flanks violet-purple ; hence, 
taking Dr. Sharpe's characteristics of Sturnus menzbieri, it would appear that most of the 
specimens obtained in Scandinavia, Great Britain, and Piedmont should be referred to that 
species. He certainly says (I. c.) that " In the British Islands, and doubtless in other parts of 
Europe, intermediate examples occur, more frequently in winter, when a large immigration of 
foreign Starlings into England takes place. These intermediate specimens vary to any extent as 
regards the amount of purple on the head and throat, but they are never, so far as my experience 
goes, true S. menzbieri, as they have always green ear-coverts." The specimens I have compared, 
however, have all been killed in April or May, and not in the winter, and they certainly have 
the ear-coverts purple and not green. Under these circumstances,. I certainly cannot recognize 
S. menzbieri as a valid species or even subspecies. 

The next species included by Dr. Sharpe (p. 35) is Sturnus indicus, which does not occur 
within the limits of the Western Palsearctic Region. 

Sturnus poltaratslcii, Finsch, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 712 (Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 36), is described by 
Finsch (I. c.) as " easily distinguishable from our Common Starling by having the back green instead 
of purplish violet, and the underparts below the neck of a deep purplish violet instead of green 
as in the remaining species." It is, however, more nearly allied to S. purpurascens than to 
S. vulgaris, as it has the wing-coverts reddish purple and not green, which Dr. Sharpe very 



234 

correctly points out, and differs from S. purpurascens merely in having the back with a tinge of 
green and the head purple without any tinge of green, whereas S. purpurascens generally has the 
head and neck purple with a faint greenish or bronze tinge; but these differences are so slight, 
and depend much on the light in which the specimen is placed, that I hesitate to acknowledge 
this species as a good one. A specimen obtained by Mr. Michaeloffsk between Satchany and 
Mzchet, for the loan of which, together with a series of selected specimens of Starlings, I am 
indebted to Mr. Pleske, Director of the St. Petersburg Museum, has the entire head and neck 
purple, the interscapulary region green, the scapulars, wing-coverts, rump, and underparts purple, 
the abdomen violet-black, and the flanks purple. 

Sturnus caucasicus, Lorenz, Beitr. Orn. Cauc. p. 9, pi. v. fig. 1 (Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 37), is 
another subspecies very closely allied, if indeed separable from S. purpurascens. Dr. Sharpe 
certainly states that it has " the wing-coverts dark steel-green, externally glossed with purple," 
which would be a character to separate it from S. purpurascens ; but this must be a mistake, as 
in the original description Mr. Lorenz states that the wing-coverts are " violet," and one of his 
original specimens, for the loan of which I am indebted to Mr. Pleske, has the wing-coverts 
decidedly purple, exactly similar to S. purpurascens. This specimen differs only from S. polta- 
ratsMi in having the rump glossed with green, whereas in S. poltaratskii the green does not 
extend below the lower part of the back, the rump being purple. 

Sturnus purpurascens, Gould (Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 37). — Dr. Sharpe in his description says 
that this species has " the mantle and back green," but Gould in his original description (P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 219) expressly states that " the entire back is of a lovely purple," which is the distinctive 
character claimed by Dr. Sharpe for his S. porphyronotus, which he states (Ibis, 1888, p. 438) 
differs from S. purpurascens in having the back entirely reddish purple like the rump and upper 
tail-coverts. 

Sturnus porphyronotus, Sharpe (torn. cit. p. 38, pi. ii.). — As above stated, the distinctive 
character claimed by Dr. Sharpe for this species is the purple back, which is the character claimed 
by Gould in 1868 for his S. purpurascens, and it therefore appears very doubtful if Dr. Sharpe's 
will stand. After a careful comparison of a large series oi S. purpurascens and S. porphyronotus, 
I can discover no difference except that in S. purpurascens there is in the centre of the inter- 
scapulary region a slight gloss of steel-green, which is not apparent in S. porphyronotus ; but it 
requires a good light to detect this difference, and I can scarcely consider it of specific value. 

Sturnus minor, Hume (Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 39), does not occur within the Western Pake- 
arctic area. 

Sturnus unicolor, Temm. (Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 39), differs from all the other Starlings in 
being uniform in colour, the head and back uniform and not differing in coloration. Full 
particulars respecting this Starling are given in the ' Birds of Europe,' iv. p. 415. 

After a careful examination of a large series of specimens in my own collection and in the 
British Museum, as well as a selected series from the St. Petersburg Museum kindly placed at 
my disposal by Mr. Pleske, I arrive at the following conclusions : — 

Sturnus unicolor may be placed on one side, as it is quite distinct from any other species of 
Starling. The remaining Starlings may be divided into two groups, viz., those having the wing- 
coverts green or steely blue, and those having the wing-coverts purple. The first group contains 



235 



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236 

only Sturnus vulgaris and S. menzbieri (which, as above shown, cannot be separated from 
S. vulgaris), and to the latter group belong S. purpurascens, S. porphyronotus, S. poltaratskii, and 
S. caucasicus. Of these I hold that Sturnus porphyronotus cannot be separated from S.purpu- 
rascens, and that both Sturnus poltaratskii and S. caucasicus are very close to S. purpurascens — 
differing therefrom only in being more glossed with green, the former having the back glossed 
with steely green and the rump purple, whereas in Sturnus caucasicus the green gloss extends 
down to the rump. 

In the accompanying Table (page 235) I give the differences between the above-mentioned 
forms of Siurnis vulgaris and S. 'purpurascens, which will illustrate best my remarks on the 
subject. 



237 



Genus PODOCES. 

Podoces, Fischer, Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. vi. p. 251 (1823). 
Corvus apud Liechtenstein, in Eversm. Reise Buchara, p. 126 (1823). 
Pica apnd Wagler, Syst. Av., Pica, sp. 17 (1827). 
Garrulus apud Gray, Hand-1. of B. ii. p. 3 (1870). 

The present genus is essentially Palsearctic, and contains only four species — Podoces panderi, 
P. hendersoni, P. biddulphi, and P. humilis, — all of which inhabit parts of Asia. 

With regard to its systematic position, I may remark that Dr. Cabanis, in 1847 (Arch. f. 
Naturgesch. i. p. 335), and Bonaparte, in 1850 (Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 388), put it under 
Fregilince. Lichtenstein, in 1854 (Nomencl. Av. Mus. Berol. p. 10), kept it in the same neigh- 
bourhood, though separating it from Fregilus and Pyrrhocorax by the intervention of various 
other forms. G. R. Gray, when he wrote his 'Hand-list' and placed it amongst the Jays, had 
never seen a specimen of the genus. Dr. Sharpe (P. Z. S. 1870, p. 334) expressed a belief that 
these birds are Desert-Starlings, probably allied to the genus Pastor, or perhaps more strictly 
to the South-African genus Dilophus, but added that they appear also to exhibit characteristics 
pointing to the genus Certhilauda. In the Brit. Mus. Catalogue, however, he places Podoces in 
the subfamily Fregilince. In 1872, Sundevall (Tentamen, p. 42) placed Podoces in Nucifraginae, 
which he makes to follow Fregilince. Professor Menzbier and Mr. Zarudny, who have studied the 
habits of Podoces panderi, agree that it has much affinity with the Nutcracker, and, so far as I 
cau judge, I think that the genus Podoces should be placed near both Pyrrhocorax and 
Nucifraga. The birds belonging to this genus are essentially inhabitants of the desert, run 
with great swiftness, and are usually found on the ground and on low bushes. They feed on 
insects of various kinds, which they chiefly pick up from the ground ; and a noticeable character 
in these birds is the presence of the stiff feathers which cover the nostrils, and which evidently 
protect them when the bird is busily employed in grubbing about in the fine sand in search of 
insects. But little is known about the habits and nidification of any of the Ground-Choughs, 
excepting Podoces panderi, and full particulars of these are given in the article on that species. 

Podoces panderi, the type of the genus, has the bill rather long, tolerably stout, tapering to 
a point, slightly deflected towards the tip ; nostrils basal, well covered by stiff feathers directed 
forwards ; wings extending to about the middle of the tail, broad, the first quill considerably 
shorter than the secondaries, the second slightly longer than the seventh, the fifth longest ; tail 
moderately long, slightly rounded ; legs stout, long, the tarsus covered anteriorly with six large 
and three inferior scutellse ; claws moderately stout, curved, acute. 



2l 



B85 





- -f^lBBH 



^BBr*/ 



J. &. Keulennaxis del.et litK. 



PANDERS G-ROUND CHOUGH 

PODOCES PAN DERI. 



PODOCES PANDERI. 

(PANDER'S GROUND-CHOUGH.) 



Podoces pander i, Fischer, Mem. Sc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. vi. p. 251, pi. xxi. (1823). 

Cnrvus panderi (Fischer), Licht. in Eversm. Beise Buchara, p. 126 (1823). 

Pica panderi (Fischer), Wagler, Syst. Av., Pica, sp. 17 (1827). 

Garrulus [Podoces) panderi_ (Fischer), Gray, Hand-1. of B. ii. p. 3. no. 6081 (1870). ■ 

Figurce votabiles. 

Fischer, ut supra; Bogdanoff, J. f. O. 1877, pi. iii. fig. 2; Gould, B. of Asia, v. pi. lxii.; 
Keichenbach, Syst. Av. pi. lxxxv. 

Ad. capite et corpore supra casruleo-canis, uropygio imo vinaceo-isabellino : primariis nitide nigris, medialiter 
albis : secundariis ad basin nigris et albo terminatis, intimis fere omnino nigris, tectricibus alarum 
minoribus scapularibusque dorso concoloribus : tectricibus majoribus nigris, conspicue albo terminatis : 
cauda, supracaudalibusque nitide nigris : macula pone oculum et vitta inter oculum et rostrum nigris : 
mento et gula albis, macula magna pectorali nigra : corpore reliquo vinaceo-isabellino : subcaudalibus 
albidis, vinaceo-isabellino tinctis : rostro cinereo-plumbeo, versus apicem nigro : pedibus pallide 
cseruleo-albis : iride fusca. 

Adult Female (Kizil-Kum, October 24tb). Upper parts clear blue-grey, the lower rump vinous isabelline; 
primaries black on the basal and terminal portions, but otherwise white ; secondaries black at the base 
and white on the apical half, the black increasing in extent, the inner secondaries being black, slightly 
tipped with white; lesser wing-coverts and scapulars blue-grey like the back, the larger coverts black, 
broadly tipped with white; upper tail-coverts and tail glossy black; a large spot between the eye and 
the base of the bill and a small spot behind the eye black ; the stiff nasal feathers grey, with a median 
black line ; chin and throat white ; a large black patch on the lower neck ; rest of the underparts 
vinous isabelline, paler on the middle of the abdomen ; under tail-coverts white, tinged with vinous 
isabelline : bill plumbeous, grey-black towards the tip ; legs pale blue-grey ; iris dark brown. Total 
length about 9"5 inches, culmen 1-1, wing 4 - 6, tail 3'85, tarsus 1/7. 

The sexes differ but very little, and I can find no appreciable difference between the male and female in my 
own collection. According to Mr. Zarudny the male is slightly larger in size, has the black in front 
of the eye and on the fore part of the neck somewhat larger, and the metallic gloss on the black feathers 
brighter than in the female, and it has also more black on the bristly feathers covering the nostrils. 
He further says that the colour of the legs varies from pale blue-grey to pure white, most birds having 
them nearly white, and the bill is plumbeous grey with the tip black, varying considerably in tone of 
colour, some birds having it lighter coloured, others blackish. 

The range of the present species is restricted to Transcaspia aud Turkestan. According to 
Mr. Zarudny (Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 805) this bird attains the southern limit of its range in 

2l2 



240 

Transcaspia. It is very rare in the sand-plain between the Murghab and the Tedgend, where he 
only once met with it, in May, near the Dorte-Koyou wells. It is said to be not uncommon in 
the sand-hills of the desert separating the Merv oasis from the Amu-Darja. 

The Turcomans, who call this bird Tchour-Tchour, assert that it is often met with in winter 
in the sands of the Kara-Koum, near the Ahal oasis, but that it is very rare in the summer. 

Eversmann, in his 'Natural History of the Orenburg District' (in Russian), says that this 
bird "inhabits the southern steppes east of Lake Aral, and is found in sandy places covered with 
saxaul bushes (Anabasis ammodendron). It runs about amongst these bushes, and when followed 
hides and flies from one bush to another. It probably feeds on the seeds of this and other 
plants, and also on insects, especially beetles, which swarm on the sand in the spring. It leaves 
for the winter, but returns in April." 

Professor Bogdanoff met with it throughout the Kizil-Kum desert as far as the banks of the 
Amu-Darja, and between Dshany-Darja and Syr-Darja, but he adds that during three journeys 
made through the Kara-Kum desert he never saw one, and does not believe that it occurs there. 
He says that it " inhabits the barren sand desert, but seldom visiting the clay portions, and is 
never found far from the sand. I never once saw one on stony ground or on the desert mounds, 
nor near rivers, lakes, or the sea, and one can say with certainty that it requires no water and 
never drinks. In the desert it affects places which are sparsely covered with bushes placed far 
apart. In the saxaul thickets and tamarisks, which form regular forests along the dry river-bed 

of the Dshany-Darja, this bird is never met with Most of the year this bird lives 

singly, and may be found running all day about the sand near the bushes seeking food. It runs 
like the gallinaceous birds, and I never saw it hop or jump like a Magpie ; but it runs very 
swiftly, and can seldom be forced to take wing. Its flight reminds one of that of Pica, Garrulus 
and Lanius. After having flown a short distance, it alights and seeks safety by running. It 
seldom perches on a saxaul branch, and only when it wants to examine a suspicious-looking 

place In the spring and summer I found only larvae of insects, probably of different 

sorts of Blaps, which abound in the desert, in the stomachs of these birds, and in less quantity 
also full-grown insects. In the autumn, as early as August, this food disappears entirely, and 
they are dependent on the seed of the saxaul, various Colli gonum and other desert plants, and 
probably feed on these throughout the winter. Late in the autumn this bird follows the Kirghiz 
flocks, and seeks its food amongst the droppings of domestic animals. For this purpose it 
frequents the caravan-routes and the dwellings of the nomadic Kirghis, where it may be seen 
running about quite close to the kibitkas, not showing any fear of man, seeking food amongst 
the refuse. It is found in the Kizil-Kum desert throughout the year, and Mr. Eversmann's 
statement that it goes south in the winter is quite incorrect. I have but seldom heard its call- 
note, which is loud and harsh, reminding one of the cry of a Woodpecker. It moults from 
August to the middle of September." 

Zarudny says that he found this species "somewhat rare in the Buchara district, in the sandy 
desert strips bordering the cultivated land on the southern banks of the Amu-Darja, between 
Tschardjui and the locality ' Maidan,' near Kerki. I was told that here and there in the sand- 
desert, along the roads leading out of the Amu-Darja valley to Andhoi, it is common, as also in 
the country of the Afghan-Turcomans. Throughout all Transcaspia I know of no place where this 



241 

bird is so common as in the sand-desert between the northern boundary of the Merv oasis and the 
gardens of Tschardjui. Here it lives in great numbers, and here one must look for the characteristic 
signs showing a locality most suited to its habits. Should one, however, find these signs in some 
other portion of the desert it by no means follows that the bird will be found there, for I know of 
many such localities in Transcaspia where the bird is entirely wanting, as, for instance, in the 
southern Usboj, and the district between the Caspian and the western spurs of the Balchan, 
Kurianin-Dagh, and Atrek Mountains — or where it only seldom occurs, as between the central 
portions of the Murghab and Tedgend. The place where it is most numerous appears to be 
the central portion of the Karakum-Kizilkum desert, north and south of the Amu-Darja, and the 
southern boundary of its range appears to be the southern boundary of the Transcaspian and 
Afghan-Turcoman deserts." 

Severtzoff records it from Turkestan, where it is, he says (Turk. Jevotnie, p. 64), resident in 
the north-western portion in the lower parts, on the salt-plains. 

The best information 1 have found respecting the habits of this bird is that furnished (I. c.) 
by Mr. Zarudny, from which I glean that it is essentially an inhabitant of the sand-desert, 
especially where the saxaul is found in abundance. It is usually seen running about in the 
sand and amongst the saxaul bushes. Its flight, he says, " reminds one of that of the Nutcracker, 
but is somewhat swifter, and 1 have never observed it to rise higher than 40 to 50 feet or to 
cover any considerable distance. Usually it flies just above the ground, at most at an altitude of 
a few feet. When frightened or when hurrying to a feeding-place it first flies and then runs 
a short distance, alternating almost imperceptibly between the one and the other mode of 
locomotion." 

Its note, Mr. Zarudny writes (I. c), " is not loud, but can be heard at a considerable distance 
in the stillness of the desert, more especially early in the morning and in the evening, when 
sounds are always most distinctly heard, and this bird calls oftenest then. The note is peculiar, 
and though reminding one somewhat of the call of Scotocerca inquieta, yet bears no resem- 
blance to the note of any other known bird. It consists of a quick repetition of peculiarly 
modulated syllables, dschi-dschi-dschi, . . . which are uttered monotonously without any alteration 
in tone. It appears to be the call-note of both sexes, and is intoned according to circumstances. 
I have never heard it utter any other note, and do not think its voice is capable of any great 
modulation. It certainly cannot mimic like the Common Jay (Garrulus glandarius), which is 
often an excellent mimic, and we should not lose sight of the fact that in this respect it reminds 
one of the Nutcracker, which is unable to imitate other sounds, and whose call-note is a continued, 
monotonous screech." With regard to its food, he remarks, that " in summer it feeds on various 
kinds of insects and their larvae, and especially beetles and bugs. It does not touch large 
beetles, but swallows large larvae ; and I have often shot specimens which had the stomach 
crammed with bright green Acanthosomce and Pentatomce, which form also the favourite food of 
the desert Goatsucker. Podoces panderi is certainly less bloodthirsty than the true Jay, for I 
have never known it to attack small vertebrate animals, not even lizards or small mammals which 
are so common in the desert. Besides animal food, it lives on the seeds of various desert plants, 
not only in the autumn, when insects are rare, but also in the spring, according to when the seeds 
are ripe, which is the case late in May with some sorts. Where the railway runs the Ground- 



242 

Chough visits the various stations and watchhouses, especially when the young are full-grown, 
and hunts amongst the rubbish-heaps close to human habitations in search of food, and sometimes 
ventures into inhabited places. They also for the same purpose search along the railway-track 
for grain and bread-crumbs that may have fallen down. I once shot one that had been feeding 
on the rice-grains out of a pilaff that had been thrown away." 

It is generally believed that the Ground-Chough never drinks, but Zarudny's observations 
prove the contrary. He frequently saw them " drinking out of a sheep-trough near the station 
Utsch-Adschi, and about four versts from the Peski Station there is a watchhouse inhabited by 
two Persian labourers, and here these birds appeared every morning to drink out of a water-pot 
placed by the door for the poultry. One of these men said that a Ground-Chough was killed there 
by a hen, which objected to its drinking out of the pot. In early times before travellers passed 
through the desert, and there were no wells, it is very possible that the bird did not obtain 
water, and even now in more unfrequented places it is probable that it is able and does exist 
without water. The Ground-Chough has but few enemies, chiefly because in the desert 
predaceous animals are not numerous. Among these may be named, as found during the 
summer season, the Caracal {Lynx caracal), the Large Buzzard (Buteo ferox), and the Karagan 
(Vulpes, sp., nee Vulpes melanotis)." 

This bird appears to be an early breeder. Fedtchenko found nests containing eggs in the 
eastern portion of the Kizil-Kum desert in April ; Bogdanoff states that Mr. Fedurin observed 
young which had left the nest on the 23rd April; and Zarudny was informed that nests were 
found near the stations Utsch-Adschi, Peski, and Repetek, containing from two to four eggs, in 
the middle of February, and by the end of May the young were fully fledged. Zarudny himself 
found more than thirty nests, four of which were placed in holes in the ground, two being in 
old fox-holes, and all the rest in trees or bushes of the saxaul. One nest was built in a stack 
of saxaul-wood close to a house, which was the only instance he knew of this bird nesting near 
human habitations. Usually the nests were built on low trees from 1$ to 6 feet above the 
ground, and mostly on the north or east side ; and, like that of the Common Jay, the nest of 
this bird is generally small in comparison to the size of the bird, some being actually smaller 
than the nest of the Grey Shrike. Mr. Zarudny, who figures two nests (Bull. Soc. Imp. Mosc. 
1890, pi. v.), remarks that three of the nests he found had a canopy of twigs over them, as is 
the case with Magpies' nests, but this roof is slighter than in the Magpies' nests. "Each nest," 
he writes (Bull. Soc. Imp. Mosc. iii. p. 462), "is composed of two distinct portions, an outer and 
an inner. The outer one consists of a coarse structure of twigs of the saxaul, djusgun 
(Calligonum, sp.), kujau-sujuk (Ammodendron, sp.), and other desert plants. Sometimes this 
outside portion is very large and much thicker than the inner portion, but at others it is so slight 
and irregular that it seems to be only there on principle. The inner portion is close, dense, 
and firmly constructed of the finest twigs, soft dead bents, and leaves of various grasses, chiefly, 
however, of soft strips, which probably are from the bark of the saxaul or djusgun, for in the 
saxaul-thickets there are always rotten trunks with ragged bark to be found. These strips are, 
by the way, the most valued material for the construction of the nests of many other desert birds, 
as, for instance, Lanius grirnmi, L. assimilis, Iduna languida, Scotocerca inquieta, &c. For 
further material fine root-strips are used and the hair of hares and of a small fruit which is 



248 

covered with coarse long reddish hairs. There is no regular internal lining to the nest, and 
but seldom one finds a few feathers on the sides and bottom. The general colour of the nest is 
grey ; in form it is half-round or oval, and in the latter case it is not so deep as in the former, but 
in general the difference is but slight." 

Mr. Zarudny arrived in Transcaspia too late to take the eggs, and was therefore unable to 
give any account of them ; nor can I find that any description has been published, though 
they were exhibited by Dr. Cabanis at a meeting of the German Ornithological Society on the 
10th October, 1872, and figured in the Journ. fur Orn. (1873, pi. iii. figs. 37, 38). Judging 
from this plate, which is not a very good one, they somewhat resemble eggs of the Chough, but 
are much smaller, in size about equalling those of the Common Jay. 

The Russians call this bird the Saxaul Jay, but, as Zarudny points out, it is not in any 
respect a Jay, but has much more affinity with the Nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes) ; and 
Prof. Menzbier confirms this view. Mr. Hume, however, remarks that in external form it bears 
most resemblance to the Chough. 

"It is worthy of note," Mr. Zarudny says, "that in the summer and autumn — if in the 
winter I cannot say — both young and old birds have the tibia bare to a much greater extent than 
in any allied group, for the lower part of the tibia is very sparsely feathered or else (at least in the 
summer) almost bare, which shows close affinity of the legs of the Ground-Chough to those of 
the so-called pedes cursorii, which similarity is increased by the slightly curved claws, the flat 
under surface of the toes, their general flatness, and the blunt claws of the old birds, though in 
young birds they are as sharp as in adult specimens of the true Jay. The difference in the 
length of the claws of various individuals is very perceptible, as in some they are fully a third 
longer than in others." 

The specimen figured is the one above described, and is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens: — 

E Mus. E. E. Dresser. 

a, J 1 ad. Prepetek, Transcaspia, September 30th, 1887 {Zarudny). b, ? ad. Kizil-Kum, October 24th, 1874 
(Seve?izoff). c, $ ad. Peski, July 31st (Prof. Menzbier). 

E Mus. Brit, 
a, ? . Tambai Kasgan, Kizil-Kum desert, July 13th, 1874 (Severtzoff) . b. Bokhara (Tiveeddale coll.). 



--■' - : :;A ' 




•'■ 



%^ f 



. .(■: ilema 



PERSIAN JAY 

GARRUJLUS HYR.CATS1"US. 



Mrniern. Bros . imp. 



GARRULUS HYRCANUS. 

(PERSIAN JAY.) 



Garrulus hyrcanus, Blanford, Ibis, 1873, p. 225. 

Soika, Russian ; Kagno-Agraw, Armenian ; Balut-Khor, Persian. 

FigurcB notabiles. 
Blanford, E. Persia, ii. pi. xviii.; Eadde, Orn. Cauc. Taf. iv. figs. 2, 3. 

Ad. G. glandario affinis, sed minor : tarso breviore : pilei pluniis nigris, anguste rufescenti-vinaceo vel rufo- 
schistaceo marginatis, haud albidis : gula isabellina in colorem saturatiorem pectoris gradatim 
transeunte : remige secundario penultimo et plerumque ante penultimo macula ferruginea magna ad 
pogonium externum signatis. 

Adult. General colour above rufescent vinaceous, tbe feathers on the crown black, margined with rufescent 
vinaceous or rufescent grey ; nasal bristles isabelline, tipped with black; wings and tail as in Garrulus 
glandarius ; cheeks more rufous than in that species ; throat pale rufescent vinaceous ; rest of under- 
pays deep vinous red, rather darker on the flanks, the lower abdomen, vent, under tail-coverts, and 
thighs white: beak, legs, and iris as in G. glandarius. Total length about ll'O inches, culmen 1"25, 
wing 6'5, tail 5"2, tarsus l - 6. 

The Persian Jay, as its name implies, inhabits Persia, ranging into the Talysch lowlands in the 
Caucasus. Dr. Eadde (Orn. Cauc. p. 134) considers all the forms allied to Garrulus glandarius, 
the present one amongst them, to be merely varieties of that species, and it is therefore some- 
what difficult to separate his remarks so as to show which relate solely to the present form ; 
but it would appear that he only obtained G. hyrcanus from Lenkoran, and in the winter season. 
Mr. Blanford (E. Pers. ii. p. 26G) says that he found this Jay common in the hill-forests north 
of the Elburz, where specimens were obtained by himself and also by Sir O. St. John, who adds 
that his collector obtained it in the forest of Mazandaran in winter, and he himself saw it in the 
oak-forests of the same province at an altitude of 5000 to 6000 feet, and in the neighbouring 
province of Ghilan in the lower hills, but did not observe it in the low forests between the 
mountains and the sea. 

In habits and nidification the present species is stated to agree very closely with our 
Common Jay. I have received a clutch of eggs, stated to belong to this species, which closely 
resemble those of Garrulus brandti. 

The bird figured and described is one of the typical specimens, for which I am indebted 
to Mr. W. T. Blanford, and is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

2m 



246 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser, 
a, S- Elburz Mountains, February 1870 [TV. T. Blanford). 

E Mus. Brit. 

a, $ . Mazandaran (Sir 0. St. John), b, J . Anan, Elburz Mountains, Mazandaran, 6500 feet, August 12th, 
1872 (W. T. Blanford). 



GABBULUS MINOE. 

(AFRICAN JAY.) 



Garrulus minor, Verreaux, Eev. et Mag. de Zool. 1857, p. 439, pi. xiv. 
Garrulus glandarius, Sharpe & Dresser, Birds of Eur. iii. p. 481 (1873, partim). 

Djirire, Arabic ; Derraz, Moorish (fide Loche). 

Figura unica. 
Verreaux, ut supra. 

Cinereo-vinaceus : pileo albo, plurais elongatis, medio nigris nee fasciolatis : macula mystacali nigra, : gula, 
jugulo, abdomine postico tectricibusque caudalibus candidis : alis caudaque nigris : tectricibus minoribus 
cseruleo, albo nigroque obsolete fasciatis : speculo alarum longitudinali niveo. (Verreaux.) 

Adult (Algiers). Resembles Garrulus glandarius, but is smaller in size, and bas the bead and neck vinous- 
red, and the back grey, and the feathers on the crown are considerably blacker than in G. glandarius : 
beak blackish brown ; iris pale blue ; feet and legs light reddish brown. Total length about 12 inches, 
culmen IT, wing 6'8, tail 6'0, tarsus 1-65. 

When we wrote the article on Garrulus glandarius in the ' Birds of Europe ' we considered that 
this bird was not specifically separable from our European Jay, but since then I have examined 
specimens from Algeria and Morocco, and find that it is a fairly separable geographical race, and 
that Verreaux was quite justified in describing it as a distinct species. As yet but little is known 
respecting this Jay, and specimens are very rare in collections. Canon Tristram does not appear 
to have met with it in Algeria; but Loche (Expl. Scient. Alg., Ois. p. 122) says that he found it 
much rarer than G. cervicalis, and he only met with it in the southern portion of the Province of 
Algiers. Nor does Favier appear to have met with it near Tangier, but there is a specimen in 
the British Museum obtained near that town by Capt. Savile B.eid. 

So far as I can ascertain, nothing has been placed on record respecting the habits and 
nidification of the present species, but we may take it for granted that it does not appreciably 
differ in these respects from our common European Jay. 

As the differences between Garrulus minor and G. glandarius are easily perceptible from 
the description, I have not deemed it necessary to give a figure of the present species. 

I do not possess a specimen in my own collection, and the above description is taken from 
one in the British Museum. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 



E Mus. Brit, 
a. Algiers (Lefevre). b. Tangier, February 25th, 1883 {Capt. Savile Reid). 



2m 2 




J. G Ktfulerriaxis del et. litK. 



WH1TEWINGED WOODPECKER. 

PICUS LEUCOPTERUS. 



Mintem I3ros - irrrp . 



PICUS LEUCOPTERUS. 

(WHITE-WINGED WOODPECKER.) 



Picus (Dendrocopus) leucopterus, Salvadori, Atti R. Ac. Sc. Tor. vi. p. 129 (1870-71). 

Picus cahanisi (nee Malh.), Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotn. p. 68 (1873). 

Picus leptorhynchus, id. Ibis, 1875, p. 487. 

Picus leptorhynchus, var. leucoptera, id. torn. cit. p. 489. 

Picus leucopterus, Salvad., Hume, Str. Feath. iii. p. 219 (1875). 

Picus sindianus (nee Gould), Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 102. 

Picus syriacus leucopterus, Seebohm, Ibis, 1882, p. 423. 

Dendrocopus leucopterus (Salvad.), Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 215 (1890). 

SokochaJc, Turki ; Dongouse-Kouche in Transcaspia. 

Figurce notabiles. 
Sharpe, 2nd Yark. Miss. pis. xii., xiii. 



6 ad. P. majori similis, sed fronte, capitis lateribus, gula et corpore subtiis pure albis, abdomine centrali 
crissoque cum subcaudalibus sanguiueo-rubris : alis magis albo notatis. 

2 ad. mari similis, sed occipite nigro, nee sanguineo-rubro notato. 

Adult Male (Tschertschen-Darja). Differs from Picus major in having the forehead, sides of the head, throat, 
and underparts pure white ; centre of the abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts red, this colour 
extending up to the lower breast ; quills with more white than in P. major, this colour covering quite 
as much of the area of the quills as the black ; soft parts as in P. major. Total length about 9 inches, 
culmen l - 25, wing 4 - 9, tail 3-65, tarsus - 9. 

The female resembles the male, except that it lacks the red occipital band, and differs from P. major in having 
much more white in the plumage, and the young bird differs also similarly from the young of that 
species. The female is rather smaller than the male, a specimen from Tashkend measuring — culmen 
1 - 15 inch, wing 4 - 75, tail 3o, tarsus 085. 

As is the case with the Great Grey Shrike, so it is also with Picus major and its allies, 
the eastern form having much more white in the plumage than the western form. 
Mr. Hargitt, in his excellent work on the Woodpeckers (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii.), subdivides 
Picus major into three subspecies (rather four, as he makes Picus pcelzami also a subspecies 
of P. major), viz. : Dendrocopus (to use the generic name adopted by him) major, which 
inhabits Europe, the Canaries, Asia Minor, and Southern Siberia; Dendrocopus cissa, which 
inhabits Northern Siberia, north of the Altai range to 60° N. lat. ; and Dendrocopus leucopterus, 
which inhabits Turkestan and Western Mongolia. In this view I cannot, however, concur. I 



250 

have received a specimen of what is said to be typical Plcus cissa from Mr. Pleske, a male which 
was obtained at Tomsk, and I have carefully compared it with my series of Picus major, failing 
to find any character by which it can be separated. It is certainly whiter on the underparts, and 
has more white on the wings than the average run of specimens of P. major; but I have a 
specimen from France which is quite as white, and one from Tolagi, in the Archangel Govern- 
ment, which agrees closely with it. I have not had an opportunity of examining specimens 
from Ivamtschatka, so cannot say if they differ from the bird from Tomsk. On the other hand, 
it appears to me that Picus leucopterus is sufficiently differentiated to be entitled to specific rank, 
and I have therefore decided to treat it accordingly. 

This species, so far as I can ascertain, is found from the eastern part of Transcaspia through 
Turkestan to the Lob-nor in Western Mongolia. According to Mr. Zarudny (Rech. Zool. d. 1. 
Contr. Trans-Casp. p. 54), " it is common in the woods skirting the Tedgend and the Murghab. 
On the 8th of August one was observed in the saxauls near Dorte-Koyou, where it had probably 
straggled from a forest of ' torangues ' near Tchongoul-Djare." 

Messrs. Radde and Walter (Vog. Transcap. p. 78) state that they procured five specimens 
which were obtained in the district from Karybend to below Serachs, on the Tedgend, except 
one, which was shot on the Murghab. On the 1st of April they were seen frequenting the high 
tamarisk-thickets and were paired. According to Severtzoff (Ibis, 1875, p. 490) this Woodpecker 
is resident in Turkestan, being only somewhat migratory in winter, and inhabits the lower 
forests of tree-groves of -the Tian-shan, the Upper Syr and the Lower Syr, the Iany-Darja, and 
the Lower Oxus, and is particularly numerous around Tashkend. Dr. Pleske says (Rev. Turk. 
Orn. p. 43) that it was obtained by Russoff at Tschinas, Samarkand, the Dugdan Pass, and 
Iskander-kul, and breeds in the last-named locality. 

Dr. Scully (Str. Feath. iv. p. 134) only saw it near Yarkand in the winter, when it was far 
from common. He only obtained one at Beshkant. It frequents, he says, large trees growing 
near the shrines, and is said to move northwards to the forest-region in the neighbourhood of 
Aksu in the summer. 

Col. Biddulph (2nd Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 109) first saw it between Sanju and Yarkand, and it 
was common everywhere in the plains of Turkestan, especially between Kashghar and Maralbashi 
during the winter, but he did not see it on their return in May. According to Mr. Hargitt it 
ranges as far east as the Lob-nor, in Western Mongolia, but neither Prjevalski nor Messrs. Grum- 
Grzimailo appear to have met with it. 

Mr. Zarudny writes (/. c.) that " in its habits it resembles P. major, but its call is softer, 
though comparatively more frequently uttered. On perceiving an Owl reposing on a tree, or on 
discovering the den of a wolf, jackal, tiger, or wild boar, it rests on a tree and utters its call, and 
is soon joined by other Woodpeckers, who keep up the concert near the bird or animal. Usually 
it is a wild boar that causes this, hence their name of Dongouse-Kouche, which means ' wild 
boar-bird.' The young leave the nest early in June, and about the middle of August some have 
already assumed the adult dress. The old birds moult in the second half of July or the first 
half of August." 

Dr. Severtzoff says that it frequents the groves of wild apricot, walnut, ash (Fraxinus), elm 
(TJlmus), and poplar, and is to be met with as high as the poplar grows, or about 8000 feet. It 



251 

is, he adds, not a shy bird, and is very similar to P. major in its habits, flying from tree to tree 
and exploring each for food, but it is more shy and retiring in the breeding-season. 

The eggs of this Woodpecker are said not to differ from those of Picus major, but I have 
been unable to procure any. 

The specimens figured are the adult male and female above described, and are in my 
own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mns. H. E. Dresser. 

a,6,b, ?. Tashkend, November 27th {Severtzoff: types of Picus leptorhynchus) . c, ?. Tedgend Steppe, 
March 22nd (Dr. G. Radde). d, 6 ■ Tschertschen-Darja (Prjevalski). e, $ . Lob-nor {Prjevalski). 



PICUS MAUEITANUS. 

(MOORISH PIED WOODPECKER.) 



"Picus mauritanus, auct. (P. lunatus, auct.)," L. Brehm, Naumannia, 1855, p. 274. 
Picus numidicus (nee Malh.), Reichenb. Scans. Picinse, p. 366. no. 844 (1854). 
Picus numidicus (partim), Sharpe & Dresser, B. of Eur. v. p. 33 (1871). 
Dendrocopus mauritanus (Brehm), Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 216 (1890). 

JVakab, Moorish. 

Fig ura unica. 
Reichenb. op. cit. pi. dcxxxiii. figs. 4213, 4214. 

Ad. P. majori similis, sed lineis nigris in pectoris lateribus magis extensis, nee conjunctis sicut in P. numidico, 
sed centraliter plaga albida ruhro notata separatis : abdomine magis rubro notato : rectricibus lateribus 
magis conspicue nigra fasciatis quam in P. numidico. 

Adult Male (Tangier, May) . Upper parts as in Picus major ; imderparts with the broad stripes which 
border the throat and fore neck extended much further than in P. major, but not uniting as in 
P. numidicus, there being a narrow white space between on which the feathers are tipped with scarlet ; 
abdomen and under tail-coverts much more scarlet than in P. major, and even, as a rule, than in 
P. numidicus, and the lateral tail-feathers much more distinctly barred with black than in the latter 
species. Total length about 8 inches, culmen 1*15, wing 4"9, tail 3"25, tarsus 09. 

Adult Female (Tangier, May) . Differs from the male only in lacking the red occipital band. Total length 
about 7'75 inches, culmen 1*15, wing 4'9, tail 28, tarsus - 85. 

The present species inhabits Morocco, where it replaces P. major and P. numidicus, being a form 
intermediate between these two species. According to Col. Irby, Favier records it as " resident 
and common in the vicinity of Tangier, being found only in large woods, where they nest in holes 
of trees, laying from five to six eggs, similar to those of P. major "; but Col. Irby adds (Orn. Str. 
Gibr. 1875, p. 71) that he himself "did not find this bird •common' near Tangier; and as for the 
' large woods,' there are none close to that town ; about Tetuan this Woodpecker is plentiful, 
similar in habits to P. major. Favier states that they migrate across the Straits ; but I should 
say this can hardly be the case. I have seen and shot many specimens of P. major in 
Andalucia, but never met with the African form, although three or four of the Spanish birds 
had some few crimson feathers on the breast." 

Dr. C. Bolle speaks of this Woodpecker as being common in Morocco in localities where 
there are pine-trees; and Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake met with it (Ibis, 1867, p. 425) in the mountains 
of Tetuan, but beyond the above notes, I find nothing on record respecting it. 

I have received many specimens from a collector at Tangier, but he has not succeeded in 

2s 



254 

obtaining its eggs for me. In general habits, as well as in its mode of nidification, this 
Woodpecker is said not to differ from its near ally, P. major. 

The specimens described and figured are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens :— 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, b, <$ ad., c, d, ? ad. Tangier, May 1892 (Vaucher). e, $ ad. Tangier, May 8th, 1890 {Col. L' Estrange), 
f, ? . Tangier, May 10th, 1893 {Vaucher). 

E Mus. Brit. 
a > <$ , b, ? . Tangier, 1875 {Col. Irby). c, ? . Morocco {Tweeddale Coll.). 



688 






. x 



L -v :; 



■ 



i 



< 



- ■ . 




J. &. Keiilemans li€h- 



"MirLt&rrL Bros . imp , 



CAUCASIAN SPOTTED WOODPECKER. 

PICUS POEI.ZAMI. 



PICUS PCELZAML 

(CAUCASIAN SPOTTED WOODPECKER.) 



Picus pcelzami, Bogdanoff, Ptitz. Kavkaz. p. 121 (1879). 

Pious major pcelzami, Seebohm, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 409. 

Picus major (nee Linn.), Lorenz, Beitr. Orn. Nords. Kauk. p. 44 (1887). 

Bendrocopus poelzami (Bogd.), Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 214 (1890). 

Persidski-dyatell, Russian. 

Figura unica. 
Badde, Orn. Cauc. pi. xx. 

<J ad. P. majori similis,,sed minor, rostro graciliore : corpore subtus nee isabellino albo, sed fusco : alis minus 
albo notatis, facile distinguendus. 

$ ad. mari similis, sed nucha nigra, nee rubro notata. 

Adult Male (Lenkoran). Resembles P. major, but smaller in size, the bill more slender, and the underparts 
instead of being white or creamy white are dark brown ; much less white on the inner wing-coverts 
than in P. major. Total length about 8"5 inches, culinen 1*4, wing 4'85, tail 3"0, tarsus O^o. 

Adult Female (Lenkoran). Resembles the male, except that the red occipital band is wanting. Total 
length about 8 - 25 inches, culmen 1"1, wing 4 - 65, tail 2'9, tarsus 085. 

Young (Jide Hargitt). Differs from the adult of both sexes in having the crown crimson, the red occipital 
band characteristic of the adult male is wanting and replaced by black; the general colour above of a 
sooty black, without any blue gloss; forehead dusky brown; a dusky stripe behind the eye and 
including the upper half of the ear-coverts; sides of the face and neck smoky white; under surface of 
the body smoky brown, the sides of the body, flanks, and thighs having faint dusky striations ; vent 
and under tail-coverts brick-red. 

The present species appears to be confined to the Caucasus, and has therefore a somewhat 
restricted range. Dr. Badde, who says that he only knows of it as inhabiting the country 
bordering the southern shores of the Caspian, writes (I. c.) as follows: — "This Woodpecker 
certainly migrates in winter in large numbers from the mountains of Talysch to the woods on 
the plains, but a considerable number pass the summer in these, and commence nidification as 
early as the middle of March, making use for the purposes of nidification of hollow trees 
(Quercus castanecefolia, Carpinus, Fagus, Ulmus, Pterocaria, Sec). In the winter it is common 
there, and even in the town of Lenkoran, and from ten to fifteen may without trouble be secured 
in a day." He adds that it is found in the woods as high as about 6000 feet above the sea-level. 
Mr. Lorenz met with it in the Northern Caucasus, on the Bermamit in February, and the 
Muscht Mountain in March. 

2u2 



256 

Dr. Radde says that the material at his disposal, when he wrote the article on this species in 
the ' Ornis Caucasica,' consisted of fifty-five old birds and five young. All these were obtained 
in the lowlands and mountains of Talysch, whence he obtained more than one hundred in 1879 
and 1880, and he never received it from any other locality in the Caucasus. He further remarks 
that he cannot but consider it as being a very good species, as it is subject to very little variation, 
and there are no specimens at all intermediate between this species and Picus major ; in fact, 
examples of Picus major obtained in the Caucasus exhibit no tendency to brown on the under- 
parts, but are much purer in coloration and whiter on the underparts than specimens from 
Central Europe. Dr. Radde gives the measurements of this Woodpecker as follows : — Males : 
culmen 1-05 to 1-25 inch, wing 4-8 to 4-85, tail 3'20 to 3-32, tarsus 0"92 to 0-95; females: 
culmen 095, wiug 4-6 to 4-7, tail 2-80 to 2-95, tarsus 085 to 0"89. 

I do not find any description of the nest and eggs of this Woodpecker on record, but 
Dr. Radde obtained in the mountains of Talysch, on the 10th June, four young birds not quite 
full-grown. These, he says, had large dark red patches on the crown, which in one, a male, 
extended from the nape close to the base of the bill, but in the other, a female, the red covered 
a much smaller space. 

The specimens figured are those above described, and are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, S ad- Lenkoran [Dr. G. Radde). b, ? . Lenkoran, November 24th, 1879 [Dr. G. Radde). 

E Mus. Brit, 
a, $ . Lenkoran, December 10th (H. Seebohin) . 

E Mus. H. Seebohm. 
a, 3 . Lenkoran, May 1st (Hoist). 



PICUS SANCTI-JOHANNIS. 

(ST.-JOHN'S WOODPECKER.) 



Picus sancti-johannis, Blanford, Ibis, 1873, p. 226. 

Picus medius, Danford, Ibis, 1877, p. 26-1 (nee Linn.). 

Picus medius, var. sancti-johannis, Radde, Orn. Cauc. p. 313 (1884). 

Lendrocoptes sancti-johannis (Blanf.), Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 288 (1890). 

Tachdelen in Asia Minor (Danford). 

Figurce notabiles. 
Blanford, E. Pers. ii. pi. ix.; Radde, Orn. Cauc. pi. xix. fig. 3. 

Ad. affinis P. medio, sed pileo minus roseo, pectore albo hand fulvo, abdomine medio flavo, crisso subcaudali- 
busque solis coccineis, pectoris lateribus abdomineque striis nigris angustioribus signatis : rectricibus 
extimis fascia unica alba mediocri transversa, nee duabus latis notatis, penultimis extiis albo maculatis, 
haud fasciatis, reliquis omnino nigris : remigibus e contrario maculis albis majoribus signatis. 
(Blanford.) 

Adult Male (Gozna, Taurus, December 15th). Resembles Picus mediuSjhut the underparts are more richly 
tinged with yellow and red, and much more boldly striped with black, and the red on the crown is of 
a more brilliant crimson ; the two lateral tail-feathers have the white bars much narrower than in 
P. medius, the black bars being consequently much broader and more conspicuous. Total length 
8 inches, culmen l - 02, wing 4'75, tail 2'9, tarsus 078. 

Adult Female (Gozna, December 24th). Undistinguisbable in plumage from the male. Culmen 0'9 inch, 
wing 4" 7, tail 2'85, tarsus 0'78. 

Young Male (Smyrna, June 30th). Much duller in plumage than the adult, the red on the crown duller 
and paler; underparts dull white, irregularly striped and blotched with black; the lower abdomen 
tinged with pale red. 

The present species is very closely allied to Picus medius, differing chiefly in being smaller, in 
having the underparts of a richer yellow and deeper red, and the outer tail-feathers more broadly 
barred with black, and is found in South-east Europe, Asia Minor, the Caucasus, and Persia. 

In the British Museum there are specimens from Belgrade, on the Danube, and Petin-a-hore, 
in Turkey, and, according to Mr. C. G. Danford (Ibis, 1878, p. 7), it is " common everywhere in 
Asia Minor in oak- and fir-woods, but rarely seen among the cedars. Specimens of this bird and 
P. danfordi, killed near villages, always had sooty breasts, caused by the trees in such situations 
being smoke-begrimed." Canon Tristram (Ibis, 1882, p. 418) met with it in Syria amongst the 
cedars between Beshni and Nadjar. It appears to me most probable that this is the Woodpecker 
referred to by Nordmann (in Demidoff's Voy. &c. iii. p. 210) as being a rare visitant to the 



258 

Crimea. Abbott records it from Trebizond ; and Dr. G. Eadde obtained five specimens in the 
Caucasus, at Tiflis, on the Chram River, and in Betania. It occurs, he says, in the palace- 
gardens in the centre of the town of Tiflis in winter, and he obtained it twice there, but he adds 
that he never met with it in the forests of Talysch. Dr. Eadde unites Picus sancti-johannis and 
Picus medius, and says that the Middle Spotted Woodpeckers he obtained in the Caucasus were 
intermediate : I have not been able to procure a specimen of this Woodpecker from the 
Caucasus for comparison ; but, seeing that the present species inhabits Asia Minor and Persia, it 
appears to me most improbable that Dr. Padde is correct in his statement. Sir Oliver St. John 
met with this Woodpecker in the wooded hills of South-western Persia at altitudes of from 
4000 to 8000 feet, where it was particularly numerous in the oak-forests ; it does not, he says, 
extend into Central Persia. 

In habits this species is stated not to differ from Picus medius, and its nesting-habits are 
doubtless similar to those of that species. 

As the present species differs so little from P. medius, I have not deemed it necessary 
to figure it. 

The specimens described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, $ ad. Gozna, Taurus, December 15th, 1875 (C. G. Danford). b, $ ad. Gozna, December 24th, 1875 
(C. G. Danford). c, $ juv. Smyrna, June 30th, 1877 {Dr. Kriiper). 




^■*f 








3. 




J G KeulemsLns del.et litK- 



1. PICUS MINOR. 

2. „ DAN FORD I 

3 „ MAURI TANUS 

4 ,, NUMIDICUS. 



Mint em Bros imp . 



PICUS DANFOKDI. 

(TURKISH LESSER SPOTTED WOODPECKER.) 



Picus minor (nee Linn.), Danford, Ibis, 1877, p. 264. 
Picus danfordi, Hargitt, Ibis, 1883, p. 172. 
Bendrocopus danfordi, id. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 256. 

Figura nulla. 

Ad. P. minori similis, sed regione parotica in parte posteriore nigro marginal corpore subtus magis fusco 
lavato et liypochondriis magis nigro-fusco fasciatis. 

Adult Male (Gozna, Taurus, December 17th). Resembles P. minor, except that it has the branch from the 
black malar stripe passiug quite round the posterior part of the ear-coverts and joined to the occiput, 
and the underparts are somewhat darker and the flanks rather more distinctly barred. 

Adult Female (Kuban, January 10th). Differs from the male in having the crown buffy white and not red. 

The present species can at once be separated from tbe otber Lesser Spotted Woodpeckers 
by tbe black stripe wbicb passes round tbe ear-coverts, as shown on my Plate, and is, so far 
as we know at present, found in Asia Minor and in Northern Caucasus, and Mr. Hargitt says 
(I. c.) that it extends into Turkey and Greece. I may, however, mention that I have one 
specimen from Bujuk&re, in Turkey, and two from iEtolia, in Greece, all three of which are 
referable to Picus minor and not to P. danfordi, although one, a male from iEtolia, is slightly 
intermediate. 

Mr. Danford (Ibis, 1878, p. 7) says that he found P. danfordi " common on the Bulgar-dagh 
among the deciduous woods and orchards. To the northward it is much rarer, doubtless from 
the scarcity of suitable localities." 

I find nothing on record respecting the general habits or nidification of the present species, 
but in these particulars it doubtless does not differ appreciably from P. minor. 

Mr. Hargitt includes (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 2-56) the Small Woodpecker described by 
Dr. G. Kadde under the name of Picus minor, var. quadrifasciatus (Orn. Cauc. p. 315, pi. xix. 
fig. 5), as a valid subspecies under the name Dendrocopus quadrifasciatus, and told me that he ' 
could not do otherwise, as he had been unable to borrow a specimen for examination. Dr. Radde 
describes it as differing from Picus minor in being smaller (the male measuring — total length 
5 - 05 inches, culmen - 6, wing 3 - 25, tail 2T5, tarsus - 6), in having the underparts rather browner, 
and in having only four bands of white on the wings, when closed, instead of five. He obtained 
six specimens from near Lenkoran, and says that it is of rare occurrence in the Central Caucasus, 
where he only met with it on a few occasions in the mixed forests of Borshom, but more frequent 
in the forests of Talysch. Being desirous of settling this question, I wrote to my friend Dr. Radde, 



260 

who at once most courteously sent me one of his specimens to compare. Directly I received it I 
sent word to Mr. Hargitt and asked him to come to me so that we could compare it together, 
and received a reply saying that he was confined to his bed, having taken cold, and he never 
left it again, but sank rapidly, and I have to mourn the loss of one of my oldest friends, in whom 
ornithological science has lost one of its most careful and accurate workers. 

Dr. Radde's specimen is a female, not fully adult, and, as stated by him, has only four white 
transverse bands on the wing instead of five, as in P. minor ; but on one wing the fifth band is 
there, though only partially developed ; and it appears to me that it is only a variety of P. minor, 
and not entitled to specific distinction, especially as I find in my own series of Picus minor two 
specimens which have four bands on one wing and five on the other. In every other respect the 
specimen in question agrees closely with examples of P. minor from Northern Europe, but is a 
trifle less in size, measuring — eulmen - 61 inch, wing 3 - 5, tail 2 - 05, tarsus 0"6. As regards the 
underparts, they are somewhat browner in tinge, but not browner than are several specimens of 
P. minor from different parts of Europe in my collection. 

The specimen of Picus danfordi the head of which is figured (together with that of Picus 
minor for comparison) and those described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, J 1 . Kuban, Caucasus, December 10th, 1891 ; /;, ? . Kuban, January 10th, 1892 (Tschasi-Schmidhoffen). 
c, J 1 . Gozna, Taurus, December 17th, 1875 (C. G. Danford). 

E Mus. Brit. 

a, o ad. Zebil Taurus, Asia Minor, January 7th, 1876 ; b, ? ad. Anascha, Taurus, March 24th, 1876 
(C. G. Danford). 




J & Keulema.Ti3 del, et lith . 



MinterrL Bros . imp . 



YELLOWBILLED GREEN WOODPECKER. 

GZCINUS FLAVIROSTRIS. 



GECINUS FLAVIKOSTKIS. 

(YELLOW-BILLED GREEN WOODPECKER.) 



Gecinus squamatus (nee Vigors), C. Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 102. 

" Gecinus Jlavirostris, Zarudny," Menzbier, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. pt. i. p. 440 (1886). 

Gecinus gorii, Hargitt, Ibis, 1887, p. 74 ; id. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 45. 

Gecinus zarudnoi, Menzbier, Ibis, 1887, p. 301. 

Figura unica. 
Aitcbison, Trans. Linn. Soc, 2nd ser. Zool. v. pi. vi. fig. 1. 

J 1 ad. similis G. squamato, sed supra dilutius viridis : tectricibus alarum et scapularibus saturatiore viridi 
transfasciatis : plumis corporis inferioris squamosi linea. nigra, intramarginali tenui ornatis : caudse 
fasciis transversis albis latis, fasciis nigris angustioribus (his in G. squamato latissimis, illis vero 
angustioribus). {Hargitt.) 

$ ad. supra pallide viridis, plumis indistincte fusco squamatis : uropygio imo et supracaudalibus viridi-flavis : 
alis et cauda, sicut in mare picturatis : mento et gula, sordide albidis, pectore et colli lateribus albidis 
vix flavido-cervino lavatis : corpore reliquo subtus viridi-griseo nigro-fusco squamato : fronte, pileo et 
nucha nigris, plumis nonnullis albido marginatis : stria, superciliari alba, supra nigro marginata, vitta 
mystacali nigra albo notatt. 

Adult Male (Afghanistan, October 26th : type of Gecinus gorii). Above pale green, with a few dusky 
V-shaped markings, the feathers of the rump and upper tail-coverts tipped with chrome-yellow; 
scapulars and wing-coverts pale green, barred with dusky green, the former having a few dusky 
V-shaped markings; bastard- wing black, spotted with creamy white on both webs; primary-coverts 
dusky black and similarly spotted, but with a greyer shade of colour ; quills dusky black, the outer 
web of the primaries broadly barred with creamy white, and more or less washed with green on the 
inner feathers, the inner webs spotted with white on the margin ; the outer webs of the secondaries 
barred with greenish grey, the inner webs being transversely spotted with white along the whole 
margin; tail yellowish cream-colour, narrowly barred with blackish brown, the basal margin of the 
central feathers washed with yellowish olive, the lateral feathers yellow at the tip. (The head is very 
much damaged, but it has every appearance of having been similar to that of G. squamatus ; the top 
of the head is red and the malar stripe is black and white.) Throat and chest uniform-dull greenish 
yellow ; the under surface of the body and under tail-coverts yellowish white, the feathers of the 
underparts having a thread-like intermarginal line or squamate marking of blackish olive ; under 
wing-coverts yellowish white, transversely varied with black; underside of the tail washed with 
yellow. Total length 13 inches, culmen l - 8, wing 6 - 5, tail 4 - 7, tarsus 1*2; toes (without claws) — outer 
anterior 0'82, outer posterior - 82, inner anterior - 7, inner posterior - 42. {Hargitt.) 

Adult Female (A'i Macdjary, July 18th, 1886: type of Gecinus Jlavirostris). Forehead, crown, and nape 
deep black, many of the feathers with white edges ; nasal plumes and a narrow stripe extending to the 

2o 



262 

eye black ; malar stripe black, the feathers having white edges ; lores, space between the malar stripe 
and the eye, and a superciliary stripe dull white; ear-coverts greyish white, and a few blackish-grey 
markings behind the eye; upper parts pale green, the feathers on the back with an indistinct dusky 
V-shaped mark ; lower rump and upper tail-coverts yellowish green ; wings and tail as in the male ; 
chin and throat dull white, becoming yellowish buff on the chest and sides of the neck, rest of the 
underparts dull white, slightly washed with pale greenish grey, the feathers with a squamate or 
V-shaped line of dull blackish : bill wax-yellow, rather darker on the sides of the culmen in front of 
nostrils ; legs plumbeous grey, with a bluish tinge ; iris yellowish white. Total length about 13 inches, 
culmen 1*65, wing 6 - 0, tail 4"65, tarsus 1*17. 

The present species, which has been aptly described by Mr. Hargitt as being a desert form of 
Gecinus squamatus, inhabits Afghanistan, ranging westward into Transcaspia. First discovered 
by Mr. Zarudny, and described by Prof. Menzbier from MS. notes sent to him by Mr. Zarudny in 
1886, it was redescribed by Mr. Hargitt in 1887, under the name of Gecinus gorii, from a specimen 
obtained by Captain Gore in Southern Afghanistan, Mr. Hargitt, who had not seen a specimen 
of Mr. Zarudny's species, believing that this latter was not separable from Gecinus squamatus 
(Vigors). The same year Prof. Menzbier, pointing out that he considered Gecinus gorii to be 
identical with his Gecinus flavirostris, proposed a fresh name {Gecinus zarudnoi) for it, as 
Abbe Armand David had previously named a Woodpecker from Koko-nor Picus flavirostris ; but 
as Mr. Hargitt points out that Abbe David's Woodpecker was not a Gecinus, but a Hypopicus 
(H. hyperythrus), the name Gecinus flavirostris, not being preoccupied, will stand. I am indebted 
to Prof. Menzbier for the loan of the type of G. flavirostris, the female above described and 
figured, and on showing it to Mr. Hargitt he at once admitted that it was his G. gorii, and that 
this name will accordingly sink into a synonym. 

Mr. Zarudny, writing respecting the present species, says (Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 761): " I 
found this fine Woodpecker in the woods bordering the Central Murghab, where if is tolerably 
common. It probably occurs on the Tedsh en-Darya, where I did not, however, observe it." It 
is, he adds, extremely shy and wary, and the young are even more wary than the old birds. A 
Cossack officer, A. A. Newsky, found a nest on the 10th April in a poplar a couple of fathoms 
from the ground, and about ten paces from the river. The hole was large enough to admit the 
hand, and was evidently made by the bird itself, and the wood being soft the bird would have 
no difficulty in forming it. The upper part was narrow, but below the hole was widened. The 
eggs, four in number, were deposited on small chips of the wood, were much incubated, pure 
white in colour, and measured 30 millimetres by 27 - 7 millimetres. According to Mr. Hargitt 
(I. c.) the type of his Gecinus gorii was " shot by Capt. Gore on the 26th October, 1884, at 
Padda Sultan, on the Helmund. . . . The nature of the country in which the present bird 
was found appears to be totally different from that inhabited by the true G. squamatus. 
Dr. Aitchison informs me that the only indigenous trees are Populus euphratica and Tamarix 
articulata ; these grow in the bed of the river, with numerous small tamarisks and reeds — the 
high banks being arid in the extreme, and bare of anything in the way of vegetation except 
salsolaceous scrub." Dr. Sharpe states (2nd Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 108) that Col. Biddulph 
procured a female at Baramula. Sir O. St. John says (Ibis, 1889, p. 158) that he has seen it on 
the Khwaja Amran hills, and, he believes, in the juniper-forests of Ziarat, but it is, he adds, rare. 



263 

I may add that there is in the British Museum a specimen received from Col. Swinhoe which 
was shot by Dr. Duke in December 1877 at Quetta, at an altitude of 5500 feet, and recorded by 
Col. Swinhoe (Ibis, 1882, p. 102) under the name of Gecinus squamatus. 

Unfortunately I have not yet been able to secure a specimen of this rare Woodpecker for 
my collection, and am indebted to Professor Menzbier, of Moscow, for the loan of the type, 
a female, which I have figured and described. The male bird figured in the background 
is Mr. Hargitt's type of Gecinus gorii, and in describing this specimen I have transcribed 
Mr. Hargitt's description, having found it quite correct. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. Brit. 

a, J ad. Padda Sultan, Helmund River, Afghanistan, October 26th, 1884 (Dr. Aitchison). b, $ ad. Quetta, 
December 1877 (Col. Swinhoe). 

E Mus. Muscov. 
a, $ ad. Ai Macdjary, Transcaspia, July 18th, 1886 (Zarudny). 



2o2 



691 



' J - ■ 







' -A- -A 



/&%& / 










J". G Keuiemans deLetlitR. 



MinEerix Bros. imp. 



PALLID SCOPS OWL 

SCOPS BPLUCEI. 



SCOPS BETJCIL 

(PALLID SCOPS OWL.) 



Ephialtes brucei, Hume, Str. Feath. i. p. 8 (1873). 

Scops brucii (Hume), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 62 (1875). 

Ephialtes scops, j3. obsoletus, Severtzoff, J. f. O. 1875, p. 171. 

Scops obsolete, Cab. J. f. O. 1875, p. 126. 

Scops brucei (Hume), Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 47. 

Scops strauchi, Bogd. Khiva et des Kizyl-Koum (in Russ.), p. 70 (1882). 

Figures notabiles. 
Sbarpe, 2nd Yarkand Mission, Aves, pi. ii.; Menzbier, Orn. Turk. livr. iii. 

Ad. cinereo-oehracea, indistincte fusco-cinereo vermiculata : plumis stria conspicua nigro-fusco medialiter 
notatis : subtus pallidiore et striis magis couspicuis : remigibus fuscis, in pogonio externo pallide 
ochraceo et in pogonio interno pallide cinereo-fusco fasciatis : cauda ochraceo-cinerea, indistincte 
vermiculata et fasciis quinis fulvidis transfasciata : loris et mento albidis : circulo fasciali ochraceo, 
indistincte vermiculato et nigro apicato. 

Adult Female (Amu-Darja, March 10th). Upper parts generally pale ochraceous grey, each feather with a 
distinct blackish shaft-stripe and indistinctly vermiculated ; quills dark brown, finely vermiculated on 
the terminal portion, with ochraceous bands on the outer web and pale greyish-brown bands on the 
inner web; inner secondaries ochreous grey in tinge like the back; tail ochraceous grey, finely 
vermiculated and crossed by five pale somewhat indistinct fulvous bands ; lores and feathers in front 
of and above the eye whitish ; feathers of the ruff ochraceous, indistinctly vermiculated with grey and 
finely tipped with black ; hinder ear-coverts also tipped with black ; chin whitish, rest of the underparts 
generally like the back, but much more boldly streaked with black ; flanks paler and rather more 
ochraceous ; under tail-coverts much paler, and with a narrow blackish shaft-stripe ; legs closely 
feathered, pale ochraceous, streaked with dark brown : bill dusky ; toes dull slate-coloured y claws 
black; iris yellow. Total length about 8'5 inches, culmen - 95, wing 6*4, tail 3*2, tarsus 1'4. 

This very distinct species ranges from Transcaspia to India, but does not appear to have been 
obtained in Persia. Zarudny (Bull. Soc. Mosc. new ser. iii. p. 749) says that is a very rare 
species in Transcaspia, and he only obtained one specimen on the 13th (25th) May in the 
tamarisks near Dorte-Koyou, where it had evidently arrived from the oasis of Merv, but he did 
not meet with it elsewhere in that region. Dr. Walter obtained several specimens both on the 
Murghab and on the left bank of the Amu-Darja ; Bogdanoff records it from the Kizil-Kum 
desert and the woods in the valley of the Amu-Darja ; the brothers Grum-Grzimailo obtained it 
at Karchie, in Eastern Bokhara ; and Severtzoff met with it near Tashkend and in the gardens 
surrounding Petro-Alexandroffsk, on the Lower Amu-Darja. Lieut. H. E. Barnes states (Str. 
Feath. ix. p. 452) that it is not uncommon and breeds at Chaman, in Southern Afghanistan; 



266 

Sir Oliver St. John records it (Ibis, 1889, p. 155) as found near Kandahar in April; and 
Col. Biddulph states (2nd Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 13) that he shot a specimen between Sirhud 
and Panjah, in Wakhan. In India it has been recorded by Mr. Blanford (Str. Feath. v. p. 245), 
and by Mr. Doig (op. cit. vii. p. 505) from Sind, by Mr. Vidal (op. cit. ix. p. 36) from Khed, on 
the west coast of India, south of Bombay, and, according to Davidson (Str. Feath. x. p. 291), it is 
common in the Akrani and in the deep valleys running into the Satpuras (Western Khandesh). 
Eggs were brought to him early in March, and numbers of young birds in April. 

Col. Biddulph records it from Gilgit, where Mr. Scully obtained specimens in March, April, 
and September ; and in the British Museum there are examples from Sultanpur, Gurgaon, and 
Ahmednuggur. Finally, I may add that, according to Dr. Cabanis (J. f. O. 1875, p. 126), there 
is a specimen in the Berlin Museum which was obtained by Ehrenberg in Syria. 

In habits this Owl is said to resemble Scops giu, of which it appears to be a desert form, 
and, like that species, it breeds in hollow trees, its eggs also being pure white. 

According to Messrs. Radde and Walter three nests of this rare Owl were found at Sary-jasy, 
on the Murghab, which were in holes in the trunks of poplars (Populus diver si folia), which had 
been made by Gecinus Jlavirostris and taken possession of by the Owls. One of these nests 
contained two fresh eggs, and on the other two the females were captured. The eggs resembled 
those of the European Scops Owl, but were larger, measuring 31^ by 27-J millirn. 

The specimen figured and described is the one in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser, 
a, ? ad. Amu-Darja, March 10th, 1887 (Br. G. Radde). 

E Mus. Brit. 

a, £ ad. Near Gilgit, September 20th, 1876; b, $ ad. Gilgit, March 23rd, 1880 (Biddulph). c, £. Chaman, 
S. Afghanistan, April 23rd, 1880 (/. A. Murray), d, $ juv. Chaman, June 3rd, 1880 (H. E. Barnes), 
e, J . Hyderabad, Sind, December 16th, 1878 (S. Doig). f. Sultanpur, December 7th, 1877 (TV. N. Chill), 
ff, J 1 . Ahmednuggur, January 20th, 1870 (H.J. Bruce), h, £ , i, ad. Ahmednuggur (S. B. Fairbank). 



692 




J. &.Keulem.ELrLS del- et libK. 



EGYPTIAN EAGLE-OWL 

BUBO ASCALAPHUS. 



Min-tern. Bros . imp . 



BUBO ASCALAPHUS. 

(EGYPTIAN EAGLE-OWL.) 



Bubo ascalaphus, Savigny. Ois. de l'Egypte, &c. p. 50. no. 25, pi. v. (1810). 

Strix ascalaphus (Savigny), Cuvier, Begne Animal, p. 328 (1817). 

Otus ascalaphus (Savigny), Steph. in Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii. part 2, p. 56 (1826). 

Asio ascalaphus (Savigny), Lesson, Man. d'Orn. i. p. 115 (1828). 

Ascalaphia savignii, Geoff. St.-Hilaire, fide Gray, List of Gen. of B. p. 7 (1841). 

Ascalaphia, Lafresn. in d'Orbigny's Diet. Univ. d'Hist. Nat. ii. p. 203 (1844). 

Ascalaphia ascalaphus (Savigny), Gray, Hand-1. of B. i. p. 44. no. 455 (1869). 

Figurce notabiles. 
Savigny, I. c; Temm. PL Col. ii. pi. 57; Fritsch, Vog. Eur. pi. xii. fig. 3; Schlegel & 
Susemihl, Vog. Eur. pi. xl. 

Ad. supra rufescenti-cervinus, nigro-fusco et albido striatus et variegatus : nucha, minus notat& : uropygio 
et supracaudalibus rufescenti-cervinis, fusco transfasciatis : rectricibus mediis dorso concoloribus, 
reliquis fulvidis fumoso fasciatis, extimis pallidioribus et obsoletius fasciatis : mento et macula magna 
gulari albis : corpore subtus reliquo cervino, pectore nigro-fusco notato, hypocbondriis et abdominis 
plumis dimidio apicali delicate f usco vermiculatis : subcaudalibus magis fulvido lavatis : tarsis et digitis 
pallide fulvido plumatis et indistincte fusco fasciatis : rostro nigro : iride laete aurantiaca. 

Adult (Egypt). Upper parts warm rufous buff, mottled with blackish brown and white, the nape less 
mottled than the rest of the upper parts; rump and upper tail-coverts rufous buff, barred with 
blackish brown ; tail rufous buff, barred with dark brown, the middle feathers rather paler and more 
broadly barred and mottled with brown ; chin and throat white, the rest of the underparts buff, the 
breast and upper flanks with large, long, brown blotches ; the abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts 
narrowly barred with dull brown ; legs and feet covered with close, short, downy buff feathers, and 
barred with pale brown : beak black; claws dark horny blackish; iris deep yellow. Total length about 
20 inches, culmen 2-2, wing 157, tail 9'5, tarsus 2-7. 

This species, a southern representative of the Eagle-Owl, inhabits North Africa from Egypt to 
Algeria and Palestine, and though it was stated to have occurred in Sicily {fide Temminck, 
Bonaparte, and Malherbe) and in Sardinia {fide Malherbe), more recent investigation has shown 
that this statement is based on error, and there does not appear to be any record of its having 
been met with north of the Mediterranean. I may here remark that Senor Graells informed 
Lord Lilford (Ibis, 1866, p. 180) that it had been obtained in the province of Catalonii, Spain, 
but I think this highly doubtful. 

It is said to occur close to the town of Algiers, and there is a specimen in the museum of 
that town. Dr. Koenig states (Journ. f. Orn. 1888, p. 163) that he saw a specimen at Tunis 



268 

which had been brought to M. Blanc, a taxidermist, in the autumn of 1886, and later, when 
at Tripoli, a Turk brought to him a live bird of this species which he purchased and took back 
to Germany with him. 

On a subsequent journey to Algiers he again met with this Owl, and writes (J. f. Orn. 1895, 
p. 172) as follows : — "We did not find this Owl common. On an expedition we took from 
Waregla to the Djebel Khina on the 7th April I saw in a cleft in the rocks droppings of this 
Owl, and found pellets before a dark hole. "We searched carefully for the bird, but could not 
drive it out of its hiding-place. My brother-in-law had pushed forward into a deep cleft, and 
had just secured an interesting Bat (Otonycteris hemprichi, Peters). I had sent the muleteer 
Achmed up above to try and get at a Buzzard's nest we had found, and whilst waiting to see what 
came out we heard Achmed utter a cry, and the same moment saw a large Owl dash past us. 
My brother-in-law took a snap-shot and brought the Owl down with a charge of no. 14. I had 
the place out of which the Owl had been driven pointed out to me, and searched every cranny 
and crack for the eggs, for the bird was an old female and must have been sitting on ggs or 
young birds ; but though we searched everywhere we did not find the eggs. I had crept under a 
huge rock and tried everywhere to find the nest. In this uncomfortable place I could scarcely 
move, and had to get my brother-in-law to pull me out by the legs, and was glad enough to see 
daylight once more. I saw a second quite useless specimen of this Owl in the ditch surrounding 
the fortress of Khroubs." 

Audouin states (Expl. somm. etc. p. 328) that it occurs in Egypt, Asia Minor, Persia, and 
Turkey; but I cannot find any record of its occurrence outside Africa, except in Sinai and 
Palestine. 

In Egypt it is tolerably common, and is found as far south as Abyssinia. According to 
Von Heuglin (Orn. N.O.-Afr. i. p. 112), "This Eagle-Owl frequents ruins and rocky gorges in 
Egypt. We met with it, for instance, near Djizeh and in the valley of the Royal Tombs near 
Thebes. It is a resident and usually met with in pairs, and, like most of its congeners, it leaves 
its hiding-place on the approach of night and feeds on chiroptera, mice, desert-rats, and such like. 
It ranges southward to Central Nubia. It breeds in March and April, and its nest is placed in 
clefts of rocks or ancient Egyptian tombs, and contains two or three very round, oviform, pure 
white eggs, 1" 10"' to 2" long by 1" 8'" to 1" 9'" broad. I have only met with this Owl in ruins 
and rocks, never on trees ; when taken young it soon becomes very tame. The nestlings are 
covered with brownish-grey down." Captain Shelley and Mr. E. Cavendish Taylor both give 
similar information relative to its occurrence in Egypt, where, they say, it is a resident,- 
frequenting mountain-gorges and ruins, and the latter gentleman obtained its eggs in March. 

Mr. Jesse, naturalist to the Abyssinian Expedition, obtained a specimen near Senafe, and saw 
another, which, however, he did not succeed in getting. He subsequently saw a live specimen 
which had been brought down from Magdala, where, he was told, this Owl is plentiful. How 
far it is met with down the Eed Sea I cannot positively say, but here it meets with a tolerably 
closely allied form, Bubo milesi, which I have obtained from the Eed Sea, and may possibly be 
met with within the limits of the Palsearctic area. 

Mr. Wyatt remarks that he never met with or heard of Bubo ascalaphus on the peninsula of 
Sinai ; but it certainly occurs as far north as Palestine, where, according to Canon Tristram, it 



269 

takes the place of the Eagle-Owl of Northern Europe, and is, he says (Ibis, 1865, p. 262), " the 
most common Owl of Palestine next to Athene persica, and, like it, adapts itself to the ever 
varying physical geography of the country. In the rolling uplands of Beersheba it resorts to 
burrows in the ground; at Eabbath Ammon it has its home among the ruins; in the ravines of 
Galilee and the Ghor it retires in security to the most inaccessible caverns. Mr. Upcher shot 
one which dashed out of a cave as we were climbing for Griffons' nests in the Wady Hamam, 
and with the other barrel brought down a Woodcock which rose from another cave at the same 
time. We had two eggs brought to us near the Jabbok, which could only have belonged to this 
bird. In the uplands of Beersheba it is very common, and I frequently have put it up at noon- 
day. It invariably disappeared into some burrow after a short flight." 

From the above notes it will be seen that the Egyptian Eagle-Owl frequents desert and 
rocky places, and in general habits resembles its congener Bubo ignavus. In Egypt it breeds in 
March or early in April. Mr. E. Cavendish Taylor procured a nest containing two eggs, together 
with the female bird, on the third Pyramid on the 21st March. 

I have in my collection two eggs of this Owl obtained by the late Mr. S. Stafford Allen with 
the parent birds at Abooroash, Lower Egypt, on the 6th and 12th April respectively. These 
eggs are considerably smaller than those of the Eagle-Owl, and about the size of the eggs of the 
Lap Owl. The grain of the shell is much finer than in those of the Eagle-Owl, and one is 
roundish oval, whereas the other is rather pointed towards the ends. 

Gray, in his ' List of Genera of Birds ' (1841), gives the genus Ascalccphia as established by 
Geoffr. St.-Hilaire in 1830, and in his 'Genera of Birds' (1845) as in 1837; but the earliest 
reference I can find, excepting that of Gray, to this genus is that by Lafresnaye in 1844, as 
above cited. 

The specimen figured and described is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens, besides 
those in the British Museum : — 

U Mus. H. & Dresser, 
a. Egypt (/. H. Gurney). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram. 
a. Thebes, March 1858 (H. B. T.). 



2p 



ATHENE BACTRIANA. 

(EASTERN LITTLE OWL.) 



Athene nudipes, G. E. Gray, Cat. Mamm. &c. Nepal, pres. Hodgs. p. 50 (1846). 

Athene bactriana, Hutton, J. As. Soc. Beng. xvi. p. 776 (1847). 

Athene (Surnia) noctua (nee Scop.), Radde, Reis. Slid. Ost-Sib. ii. p. 123. 

Athene noctua, var., Dybowski & Parvex, J. f. Orn. 1868, p. 331. 

Athene plumipes, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 448. 

Athene persica (nee VieilL), David, Nouv. Arch. Mus. vii., Bull. p. 4 (1871). 

Athene noctua orientalis, Severtzoff, Turk. Jevot. p. 63 (1873). 

Athene orientalis, id. op. cit. p. 115 (1873). 

1 Carine glaux (nee Savign.), Dresser, Ibis, 1875, p. 110. 

Carine plumipes (Swinhoe), Sharpe, Ibis, 1875, p. 358. 

Carine bactriana (Hutton), id. Ibis, 1875, p. 358 (footnote). 

Athene plumipes meridionalis, Zarudny, Ois. de la Contree Transcasp. p. 22 (1885). 

Athene noctua plumipes, Taczanowski, Faun. Orn. Sib. Orient, p. 130 (1891). 

Ay-chay, JJay-leis, Kirghis ; Sirin mochnonogey, Russian ; Kutruz, Mahr. 

Ad. Athena glauci similis, sed pedibus cum digitis dense plumosis. 

Adult Male (Charni, January 10th). Resembles the adult of Athene glaux, but the legs and toes are 
densely feathered, whereas in A. glaux the legs are sparsely feathered and the toes are bare with only 
a few scattered hair-like feathers. Total length about 8 - 6 inches, cuhnen TO, wing 6 - 45, tail 3 - 3, 
tarsus 1*35. 

The present species resembles Athene glaux, except that it has the legs and feet densely feathered, 
and is an eastern representative of that species, ranging from Transcaspia eastward to China, and 
northward to Dauria. 

According to Mr. Zarudny (Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 749) this Owl is " common in Transcaspia, 
and found everywhere in ruins, woods, and on steep river-banks. It does not affect the high 
mountains, but prefers the hot bare plains in the vicinity of water. The plains of Tedgend, the 
Murghab and Atrek, and the lower part of the Soumbar and Tschandyr suit it best ; the fissures 
on the river-banks offer this Owl a nesting-place all ready, and a refuge during the daytime, and 
the plains furnish it with, an abundance of food." He saw the first young which had left the 
nest on the 5th June at Merv. The family remains together long after the young have left the 
nest, and near the Pinde and Murghab oases he saw family-parties early in July. 

Dr. Aitchison met with it on the Afghan frontier, Mr. Seebohm records it (Ibis, 1882, 
p. 420) from Samarcand, and Dr. Severtzoff from Turkestan. According to Col. Swinhoe (Ibis, 
1882, p. 100) it is common at Kandahar, where it commences nidification about the middle of 
March, and Dr. Duke obtained it near Quetta in October. According to Mr. Scully (Str. Feath. 

2p2 



272 

1876, p. 130) it is common near Kashghar and Yarkand during the whole winter, and he also 
observed it at Sanju in August. It is, he adds, a permanent resident in the country, and breeds 
there; it feeds on mice, lizards, and beetles. He observed it flying about freely during the 
daytime, but was told that it is chiefly nocturnal in its habits. Col. Biddulph also obtained it 
at Kashghar in March. Mr. Blanford states (Faun, of Brit. Ind., Birds, iii. p. 304) that it " occurs 
in China, Mongolia, Yarkand, and Afghanistan, is common at Kandahar, and has been obtained 
at Quetta, and also in some of the valleys near Peshawar. Two specimens in the British Museum 
are labelled Tibet." Col. Prjevalski (" B. of Mongolia &c," in Rowley's Orn. Misc. ii. p. 155) met 
with it " throughout Mongolia, but only rarely at Koko-nor and Northern Tibet. In Mongolia 
it frequents the lofty and hilly steppes, which abound with small rodents ; whilst in Ala-shan we 
often met with it in the sacsaulnics on the high but woodless mountains. In the open steppes it 
keeps to the clayey shores of brooks or rivers, and inhabits also deserted habitations of man, 
which are rather numerous in Ordos and Ala-shan." According to Mr. Pleske, the brothers 
Grum-Grzimailo obtained numerous examples at Luktschin-kyr, Chami, Dshigda, and Taschar, 
and a few at Chun-fy-tschin (in the Gantschoii district) and in the Alps near Ssaning (Tschan-chu, 
Ljandshasjana Pass). Abbe Armand David states (Ois. de la Chine, p. 37) that it is common in 
China and Mongolia, and he frequently met with it in winter from Pekin to Southern Chensi, 
but further south it is replaced by Athene whitelyi. It has only been twice recorded from 
Siberia — once by Dr. Radde on the Onon in Dauria, and subsequently by Dybowski and 
Godlewski, who obtained three specimens in Darasun, where it breeds on the banks of 
the Onon. 

In its habits this Owl closely resembles, as might be supposed, its near ally Athene glaux. 
Col. Prjevalski says that in Mongolia it frequents the open steppes, where it affects the clayey 
shores of brooks and rivers. " We could often hear, both by night and day," he says, " this 
Owl's solitary cry, which used to frighten the superstitious Mongols, who believe that these 
sounds are uttered by the murdered people who formerly dwelt there. Sometimes the Owl would 
sit during the night on the top of our tent, which usually was pitched in a plain, and would keep 
on calling so long that we had to frighten it away." 

Mr. Zarudny found it breeding in Transcaspia, and took nests in a hollow tree, in a fissure in 
a ravine, and in the deserted hole of a fox — two containing young birds, and one with eggs. The 
eggs, four in number, he describes as being spherical in shape, white in colour, and glossy in 
texture, measuring 3*2 to 3 - 5 millimetres by 2 - 6 to 2 - 9. 

As the present species differs from A. glaux only in the dense feathering of the legs, and 
especially of the toes, I have not deemed it necessary to give a figure of it. 

The specimen described is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimen : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, (J ad. Cliamij January 10th, 1890 {Grum-Grzimaild) . 



693 




J. G.Keulemans dfil.etlitK. 



ifcitern. Bros. imp. 



SH1KRA. 

AC CIPHER. BADIUS 



ACCIPITEE BADIUS. 

(SHIKRA.) 



The Brown Haiok, Brown, 111. Zool. p. 6, pi. 3 (1776). 

Falco Melius, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 280 (1788, ex Brown). 

Falco brownii, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vii. pt. 1, p. 161 (1809). 

Sparvius badius (Gm.), Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. x. p. 318 (1817). 

Falco dussumieri, Temm. in PI. Col. i. pis. 308, 336 (1824). 

Nisus dussumieri (Temm.), Less. Traite d'Orn. p. 59 (1831). 

Astur dussumieri (Temm.), Cuv. Eegne Anim. i. p. 332 (1829). 

Accipiter dussumieri (Temm.), Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 79. 

Accipiter dukhunensis, Sykes, ut supra. 

Accipiter badius (Gmel.), Strickl. Ann. Nat. Hist. xiii. p. 33 (1844). 

Accipiter scutarius, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 81 (1844). 

Accipiter fringillaroides, Hodgs. nt supra. 

Astur badius (Gm.), Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 190. 

Astur bifasciatus, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exp. p. 70, pi. 20 (1848). 

Micronisus badius (Gm.), Bp. Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 33 (1850). 

Msus badius (Gm.), Bp. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p. 538. 

Astur cenchroides {badius, GmJ, Heugl. var. major), Severtzoff, Turk. Jevotnie, p. 63 (1873). 

Micronisus poliopsis, Hume, Str. Feath. ii. p. 325 (1874). 

Astur poliopsis (Hume), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 110 (1874). 

Scelospizias badius (Gm.), Gurney, Ibis, 1875, p. 357. 

Scelospizias poliopsis (Hume), Gurney, Ibis, 1875, p. 361. 

Accipiter cenchroides (Severtz.), Dresser, Ibis, 1875, p. 104. 

Astur {Micronisus), sp., Blanford, E. Pers. ii. p. 108 (1876). 

Scelospizias badius cenchroides (Severtzoff), Bianchi, Melang. Biolog. xii. p. 667 (1886). 

Accipiter brevipes, St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 152 (nee Severtzoff). 

Micronisus cenchroides (Severtz.), Zarudny, Becherch. Zool. Transcasp. p. 44 (1890). 

Kyrgui, Tekke {fide Zarudny) ; Shikra 2 , Chipka or Chippak 6 , H.; Kathia $ , Tunna 6 , 
Nepal; Jali dega, Tel.; Chinna tvallur, Tam. ; Vkussa, Kurula goya, Cing.; Ting-Kyi, 
Lepcha; TJ-cham, Bhot.; Thane, Burm. {fide Blanford). 

Figurce notabiles. 
Brown, 111. Zool. pi. iii.; Temm. PI. Col. 308, 336; Peale, U.S. Expl. Exp. pi. xx. 

Ad. suprsi cinerascens, collo postico rufescente, torque collari indistincte formante: remigibus saturate 
cinereis versus apicem nigricantibus, in pogonio interno ad basin albidis nigro-fusco transfasciatis : 
rectricibus mediis cinereis immaculatis, reliquis nigro-fusco transfasciatis; capitis lateribus pallidi- 



274 

oribus et rufescente tinctis : gula albida : corpore subtus rufo et albo transfasciato : abdomine imo 
pallidiore, crisso et subcaudalibus albidis vix cervino tinctis : rostro fusco-plumbeo, cera flava : iride 
saturate flava. 

Adult Male (India). Upper parts ashy grey, with a somewhat irregular rufescent collar on the hind neck ; 
quills dark ashy grey, becoming blackish on the terminal portion, the inner web on the basal portion 
buffy white with broad blackish bars ; middle tail-feathers ashy grey, unbarred ; the remaining rectrices 
with five or six broad blackish bands, but the outermost ones are only obsoletely barred on the basal 
portion of the inner web ; sides of the head paler and tinged with rufous ; throat buffy white ; under- 
pays rusty red, narrowly barred with white, becoming paler on the lower abdomen ; under tail-coverts 
and vent white with a tinge of buff : bill dusky black ; cere yellow ; iris yellow. Total length about 
12 inches, gape 0"7, wing 7'2, tail 5 - 7, tarsus 2*0. 

Adult Male ( Astrabad) . Resembles the male above described, but is larger, and paler both on the upper 
and under parts, and the outer tail-feathers are distinctly barred. Total length about 14 inches, 
gape - 7, wing 7"5, tail 6 - 3, tarsus 2 - 0. 

The female is, as a rule, browner than the male on the upper parts, and deeper in tinge of colour on the 
underparts. 

Young [fide Blanford) . Brown above, the feathers at first with rufous edges, their white bars conspicuous 
on the head and nape ; all the tail-feathers are barred, the bars on the outer feathers narrower and 
rather more numerous ; the lower parts are white, with large elongate brown spots, largest on the 
breast, and there is generally a median brown spot on the throat. 

The range of the present species of Sparrow-Hawk extends from Transcaspia through Persia and 
Turkestan to India, as far east as Southern China, and in the south to Ceylon. The bird found 
in Transcaspia and Turkestan, eastward to Baluchistan, was described by Severtzoff as a distinct 
species under the name of A. cenchroicles, and is, in fact, a large, rather pale, form, but I cannot 
look on it as specifically separable from the Indian bird. I have one specimen obtained by 
Dr. G. Ptadde at Astrabad on the 24th April, and this gentleman states (Vdg. Transcasp. p. 11) 
that he found it in all parts of Transcaspia wherever there were trees or bushes, and also on the 
banks of watercourses in the gardens. He observed it at Gerrnab on the 16th March, and 
believes that a few remain over the winter there ; and, oddly enough, it was met with on the 
shores of the lagoons of the Molla-kary, where only the tamarisk grows. He found it breeding 
in Kulkulau and Sary-jasy, and saw young birds early in July at Neu-Serachs. Mr. Zarudny 
states (Recherch. Zool. Transcasp. p. 44) that it is very common in the woods near the Tedgend 
and Murghab, but rare, at least in summer, in the gardens of the oases of Merv and Pinde, and, 
as a rule, avoids the vicinity of human habitations. He did not observe it in the tamarisk- 
thickets on the Atrek, Soumbar, or Tschandyr, but it breeds in the woods on the mountains in 
the vicinity of these rivers. Dr. Severtzoff obtained it near Tashkent, and records it (I. c.) as 
met with during migration in Turkestan, at Aulje-ata and Chimkent; and, according to the 
Kirghis, it occurs in the forests near the Syr-Darja, Chu, and Talass. Sir Oliver St. John 
obtained it at Quetta: and Mr. Blanford records it as found in Baluchistan, Sind, and the 
Punjab, and states (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, iii. p. 399) that it is " resident throughout India, 
Burma, and Ceylon, ascending the hills of the Indian Peninsula to their summits, and breeding 



275 

on the Himalayas up to about 5000 feet. This Hawk ranges westwards into Southern Persia, 
north into Central Asia, and eastwards to Siam, Cambodia, and Southern China. At Gilgit, 
according to Scully, the Shikra is migratory, passing northwards in April, and southwards in 
September. 

" The Burmese Shikra is a well-marked race, and has been distinguished as A. poliopsis. It 
is slightly larger on an average, and the male is paler grey above, without any rufescent collar, 
with the sides of the head greyer, and the median gular stripe faint or wanting. The bars on 
the lower plumage of adult males, too, are deeper rufous and somewhat broader. But all these 
peculiarities are to be found in some Southern and Western Indian birds, though not often in 
the same individual." 

In Ceylon, according to Col. Legge (B. of Ceylon, p. 24), it is " distributed throughout the 
island, extending into and resident in most parts of the Kandyan Province. On the Nuwara 
Elliya plateau I have not observed it ; but it is no doubt a visitant to that elevated region during 
the dry season. It is not uncommon on the Fort MacDonald patnas, and I have procured it on 
Namooni-Kuli Mountain, near Badulla, which has an elevation of more than 6000 feet ; it is also 
met with in Dimbulla and the Knuckles district, so that it may be said generally to affect the 
mountain-zone. In the interior of the lowlands it is resident ; and during the north-east 
monsoon it is common in the cultivated districts round the sea-coast, taking up its abode in 
the vicinity of human habitations. It is fond of establishing itself on cliffs, such as those at 
Trincomalie, and is frequently seen about the i - amparts at Galle and Jaffna. In the early part 
of May it retires into the interior to breed, and is not seen about its maritime haunts until 
October. In spite of this local migration to the sea-coast, the Shikra may be found throughout 
the year, in spots suitable to its habits, in most of the inland districts. In the Eastern Province 
I found it tolerably frequent in October, but scarcely met with it at all during two trips to the 
south-eastern forest districts. In the Western Province it is an inhabitant of the cocoa-nut 
districts bordering the sea-coast, retiring for the most part into the interior, as is the case on the 
east coast, during the south-west monsoon." 

In general habits the Shikra appears to resemble our European Sparrow-Hawk very closely, 
and, like that bird, is extremely active and courageous, and will attack birds larger than itself. 
It frequents all parts of the country where it can obtain food, excepting, perhaps, the dense 
forest, and is frequently to be seen in the vicinity of human dwellings, where it frequently takes 
toll from the poultry-yards. It feeds, however, as a rule, on mice, insects, and small reptiles, 
especially on lizards, but will, according to Dr. Jerdon, attack young Peafowl and small Herons. 
According to Col. Legge (B. of Ceylon, p. 25) it is a " persistent tormentor of both the Common 
and the Carrion-Crow in Ceylon, and may often be seen pursuing them high in the air, darting at 
them from above and beneath, much to the discomforture of the ' Corbies,' who usually escape 
by a sudden swoop into the trees below. Its flight is a steady, straight-on-end movement, 
performed with quick beatings of the wings ; but it sometimes soars to a considerable height, 
making quick circles, and then suddenly swoops down, alighting in an adjacent tree. It is a very 
noisy bird, making its shrill two-note whistle or scream heard for some distance, and furnishing 
a capital sound for the clever imitative powers of the Green Bulbul (Pliyllomis jerdoni)." 

According to Mr. Hume, the Shikra breeds pretty well all over the plains of India, and in 



276 

the Himalayas up to a height of 5000 feet, or possibly more. The nest is somewhat loosely 
built of small sticks and lined with fine roots, and is usually placed high up in the fork of a 
tree, or in a parasitical shrub that is frequently found growing on mango-trees. The eggs, 
usually four in number, and occasionally even five, are oval in shape, and elongated rather than 
broad and stout, in colour of a delicate bluish white, occasionally, but seldom, marked with 
small specks of reddish brown, averaging in size T55 by T22 inch. Mr. Zarudny, who found it 
nesting on the Murghab, in Transcaspia, describes the eggs as occasionally bluish white, but 
usually whitish spotted and blotched with brown and reddish brown. I have several eggs in my 
collection received from India, all of which are uniform bluish white, without any spots or 
markings. 

The specimens figured are the two males above described, and are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. JE. Dresser, 
a, £ . Astrabad, April 24th (Dr. G. Radde). b, £ . India (A. 0. Hume), c, <?. Southern India (Whitely), 



MILVUS MELANOTIC 

(BLACK-EARED KITE.) 



Accipiter milvus, Pall. Zoogr. Ross.-As. i. p. 356 (1811, partim). 

Milvus melanotis, Temm. & Schleg. Faun. Jap., Aves, p. 14, pis. v., v. b (1850). 

Milvus niger, var. melanotis, Schrenck, Reis. Amurl., Vog. p. 234 (1860). 

Milvus niger (nee. Bp.), Radde, Eeis. im Slid. Ost-Sib. ii. p. 135, pi. i. fig. 1 (1863). 

Milvus glaucopus, Eversm. Hist. Nat. Orenb. iii. p. 39 (1868). 

Milvus major, Hume, Rough Notes, ii. p. 326 (1870). 

Milvus govinda (nee Sykes), Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 341. 

Milvus ater, /3. glaucopus, Severtzoff, J. f. Orn. 3875, p. 170. 

Korshun tschemouchey, Russ.; Achak-Koyruk-sa, Mizan-sa, Turki ; Charabsyr, Burjat; 
Pisskch, Giljak; Pitschu, on the Lower Ussuri; Chiutscha, on the Upper Ussuri; Tombi f 
Japanese. 

Figurm notabiles. 

Temm. & Schleg. Faun. Jap., Aves, pis. v., v. b; Radde, Reis. im Siid. Ost-Sib. pi. i. fig. 1. 

Ad. M. migranti similis, sed capite et collo rufescenti-fusco, nee albido, nigro-striato, regione parotiea nigri- 
cante ; corpore subtus pallidiore quam in M. govinda : remigibus ad basin in pogonio interno albis. 

Adult Male (Tunka, May 10th). Resembles Milvus migrans, but differs in having the feathers on the head 
and neck with rufous-brown and not with white margins, in having the ear-coverts blackish, and the 
underparts paler and less rufous in tinge, and it is also readily distinguished in having the inner web 
of the quills white at the base, making a conspicuous white patch on the under surface of the wing : 
bill bluish ; cere yellowish white ; iris hazel-brown ; legs dull china-white ; claws blackish. Total 
length about 25 inches, culmen l - 7, gape l - 75, wing 19 - 3, tail 13 - 0, tarsus 23. 

The present species has an extensive range, being found as far west as the Government of 
Perm in Russia, and as far east as the Pacific Ocean. It is also found in India, and has been 
met with in Siberia as far north as 64° N. lat. According to Prof. Menzbier it breeds in the 
Ural and on the Serebrianka River in the Perm Government, and is tolerably common in the 
Kirghis Steppes. According to Mr. Zarudny it is a somewhat rare migrant in Transcaspia, but 
must occasionally remain there to breed, as is evident by his having obtained a young bird in 
1884. He remarks that he frequently saw it at Ahal-Teke. Messrs. Radde and Walter do not 
appear to have met with it in Transcaspia. 

I do not find it recorded as having been met with in Persia, but it is found in Turkestan. 
Dr. Severtzoff, however, appeared to be doubtful if the birds obtained by him were true 
M. melanotis, as he informed me that they seemed to him to be varieties of M. migrans with 
somewhat broader dark ear-coverts. Mr. Scully, however, certainly met with it in Eastern 
Turkestan, and states (Orn. E. Turk. p. 87) that this species was the only Kite which he 
observed in Eastern Turkestan, where it is tolerably common, especially on the plains. It was 

2q 



278 

first noticed near Yarkand in April, and the last specimen was observed about the end of August. 
The natives say that it is a permanent resident, but he never observed any during the winter, and 
believes that they arrive about March or April. Col. Bicklulph obtained it on the Karakash in 
October at an elevation of 16,500 feet, and noticed a few in the summer in Kashghar. 

According to Mr. Blanford (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, iii. p. 378) this Kite is " a migratory 
bird in India, appearing in the Peninsula as far south as Bombay and the Godavari Valley, and 
in Burma as far as Rangoon, in the cold season. I obtained one near Badrachellam on the 
Godavari as late as April." 

Mr. Ball records it from Chutia Nagpur, and also obtained it in Denkenal (Orissa) and in 
Sonpur and Kalahandi (Sambalpur). Towards the southern parts of Sambalpur and Raipur he 
frequently saw it, and in places it occurred apparently to the total exclusion of Milvus govinda. 
Mr. Inglis (Str. Feath. ix. p. 245) found it very common during the cold weather in North- 
eastern Cachar, arriving early in September and leaving about May. 

According to Mr. Oates (B. of Brit. Burmah, ii. p. 204) it is " common in the southern parts 
of Pegu, in the large grass-plains between the Pegu and Sittang Rivers, from October to February, 
and probably till later." Severtzoff records it from the Pamirs, and, according to Prjevalski 
(Rowley's Orn. Misc. ii. p. 152), " throughout Mongolia, Kan-su, and about Koko-nor it is 
common, and in some localities even extremely numerous. We found it in the wild deserts 
of Ala-shan, as well as in the alpine regions of the Kan-su mountains, where it ascends to an 
altitude of 12,000 feet above the sea-level 

" Tn S.E. Mongolia the Kites arrive about the middle of March ; in April they commence 
repairing or building their nests, which are always situated in trees, and not on rocks. In Ala- 
shan they breed even on the low sacsaulnic bushes. It winters in great numbers about Pekin, 
but in the higher-situated Kolgan it is only a summer visitant. According to my companions' 
observations, the first Kites appeared at Kolgan on the 10th February in 1872." 

In China it appears to be common and very generally distributed. Pere Armand David 
observed it about Pekin in large numbers throughout the year. Swinhoe records it from Chefoo ; 
Mr. Seebohm from Central China; and Mr. Styan refers to it (Ibis, 1887, p. 234) as being 
" extremely abundant all over the cultivated country near Foochow. They begin to breed about 
February, and nest in clumps of pines near villages." 

Referring to the presence of this Kite on the Lower Yangtse Basin, Mr. Styan says (Ibis, 
1891, p. 490) that it is " very abundant. I am inclined to think an annual migration takes place, 
and they certainly shift their quarters. At Shanghai few or none are to be seen in summer, but 
numbers arrive in September or October and remain all the winter. In 1883 the first one I 
saw return was on October 11th; on the following day a party of twelve appeared, circled over 
the river a few minutes, and then disappeared to the S.W. At Chefoo one year throughout 
August only one or two solitary Kites were about, but on the 29th a large number appeared on 
the cliffs and shore. At Kiukiang they remain throughout the year." Throughout Japan it is, 
according to Messrs. Blakiston and Pryer, very numerous, as also at Eturop Island, one of the 
Kuriles, during the fishing-season. 

Kalenowski records it as common in the Corea at all seasons of the year ; and Mr. Campbell 
states (Ibis, 1892, p. 244) that is a constant resident at Soul. It ranges north into Siberia. 

According to Pallas this Kite had not then been met with east of the Lena River; but 



279 

Middendorff saw it near Amginskaja Sloboda in about 61° X. lat., and in the Stanowoi 
Mountains, but lost sight of it on the coast, and he did not obtain any specimens. Von Schrenck 
records it as having been met with throughout the Amoor country to the mouth of the Auioor 
River. He obtained one on the Kamr River, near the Nikolaieffsk Post, and procured eggs at 
the mouth of the Amoor on the 6th (18th) May. Maack records it as being found on the 
29th April at Jakutsk, and he obtained a specimen at Wilni in 64° N. lat. According to Radde, 
at Irkutsk it nests every year on high pines and birches in the gardens which are situated on 
the Uschakofka, and breeds in company with Crows ; he likewise found it common in the lonely 
forests bordering Lake Baikal, and equally so in the bare elevated steppes of Dauria, and he 
observes that it does not appear to occur at a higher altitude than 5000 feet. It arrived late in 
March and left again in September. He obtained its eggs near the Tarei-nor in May. 

Godlewski (Tacz. Orn. Sib. Orient, p. 48) states that he " found it throughout the Govern- 
ment of Irkutsk, in Dauria, on the Amoor, in the Ussuri country, and on the coast of the Sea of 
Japan, everywhere very common. On the spring and autumn migration parties of more than 
ten individuals may be seen perched on a tree or hedge, and one day I killed three at a shot. 
On passage it is, as a rule, less shy, but ordinarily when on the wing it will not approach within 
gunshot. It is, however, partial to the society of man, and will catch pieces of meat when 
thrown to it in the air, but when not thrown very high it will dart down and immediately return 
to a more convenient altitude. In 1867 they appeared in Darasun on the 3rd April." 

It ranges also far south, and has been recorded by Mr. A. H. Everett (Ibis, 1890, p. 465) 
from Labuan Island, Borneo ; but Mr. Whitehead does not appear to have met with it in 
Northern Borneo. 

In its habits this Kite is exceedingly fearless and tame when found in the vicinity of human 
habitations, but, according to Mr. Oates, it is shy in other localities, keeping to the jungles. In 
the towns and villages it acts, like Milvus govinda, as a scavenger and devours all sorts of refuse. 
Col. Prjevalski speaks of it as being more daring than the European species, and puts in an 
appearance wherever a tent is erected, stealing anything that it can get hold of. " On one 
occasion," he says, " in swooping down on a piece of meat, it touched with its wings the man's 
head who was sitting close by it ; and when an antelope or some other animal was killed, the 
flesh of which was usually hung up for drying in the sun, we could only save it from the Kites 
by watching with a gun. Once, on a similar occasion, I killed nine specimens in succession; but 
the remaining birds still kept flying above the meat, trying to steal a piece lying a little out of 
the way. In the case of an animal left (after being killed) on the steppes, the Kites and Ravens 
were the first birds to assemble ; and they usually thus indicated to the others where the carcass 
was lying." 

According to Mr. Godlewski, " this Kite feeds on dead fish, carrion, and different remains of 
food which have been thrown on the rubbish-heaps, and puts in an appearance regularly, almost 
taking the refuse from the hands of those who throw it out, whilst on the wing without touching 
the ground. One day during the haymaking-season I was witness to the following : a peasant 
was cutting up a sheep destined for the dinner of his companions, and had cut open the animal 
and put beside him the intestines, when a Kite unexpectedly slipped down, snapped up a 
considerable portion, and made his escape with it." 

Mr. Styan remarks (/. c.) that these Kites have certain favourite roosting-places, where they 

2q2 



280 

collect for the night. Out of a group of fine old trees at Kiukiang he put up fully thirty 
individuals. At Hankow, one night when passing in a sanpan over the flooded plain among the 
willows that border the river, he disturbed a score out of two or three adjacent trees, and a few 
nights later ten of them rose from the same place ; the trees had nothing to distinguish them 
from hundreds of others growing around. These Kites also congregate on the ledges of the 
river-cliffs, which they share with Peregrines and Cormorants. 

This Kite appears to breed in most parts of its range. Professor Menzbier informs me that 
it breeds in the Governments of Perm, Ufa, and Orenburg. According to Mr. Zarudny it nests 
occasionally in Transcaspia ; Mr. Scully found it breeding in Kashgharia ; Mr. Hume says that it 
breeds in the Himalayas; and Col. Prjevalski found it breeding in Mongolia, and it also breeds 
in China, Japan, and Siberia. 

Mr. Scully says (I. c.) that in Kashgharia, in the plains at all events, the nest seems always to 
be placed on high trees. On the 27th April he found a nest, about ten miles or so east of 
Yarkand, in a clump of poplar trees. This nest, which contained one young bird, was in the 
form of a rude sort of platform, made up of sticks and twigs, about two feet square, placed on 
three strong horizontally growing branches about thirty feet above the ground. 

Godlewski states (I. c.) that in Darasun he " found a nest on the 2nd May which contained 
two fresh eggs, and on the 5th May another in which the eggs were incubated, and on the 5th of 
June Ave found eggs about half incubated. The female sits close, but when once scared off she 
flies far away directly anyone approaches, cries without ceasing, and returns to the nest directly 
the intruder leaves. When the eggs are near hatching the female will not willingly leave the 
nest, even when the tree is struck. The nest is placed at different altitudes in a tree, usually 
about halfway up. It is lined with various rags collected from the rubbish-heaps." 

Mr. Hume says (Nests and Eggs of Ind. Birds, iii. p. 176) that in the Himalayas this Kite 
deposits its eggs from January to the beginning of May, and builds a large nest of sticks, which 
is placed on a tree. The eggs he describes as closely resembling those of Milvm yovinda, but 
considerably larger, measuring from 2'23 to 2'43 inches in length, and from T75 to T88 in 
breadth. 

The present species resembles Milvus govinda much more closely than it does II. migrans 
in coloration, and is in fact a large form of that species, differing in having a larger amount of 
white on the inner webs of the quills near the base, forming a white patch below the wing as in 
the Buzzards ; and, as pointed out by Mr. Blanford, the abdomen and under tail-coverts are, as a 
rule, much paler, but, he adds, some specimens appear almost to form a passage between the two. 
Furthermore, I may remark that in M. melanotis the head is tawny or rufous, streaked with black, 
whereas in M. migrans it is whitish, streaked with black. As the differences between the two 
species are readily discerned I have not deemed it necessary to figure the present species. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, $ ad. Tunka, Siberia, May 10th, 1856 (Dr. G. Raclde). b, S ad. E. Siberia, May 11th, 1856 (Dr. G. 
Radde). c, immature. Yokohama, Japan, April 10th, 1880 (Owston). 



FALCO MILVIPES. 

(SHANGHAE, FALCON.) 



Falco milvipes, Hodgson, in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 81 (1844, descr. nulla). 

Falco milvipes, Hodgs., Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 240. 

Falco hendersoni, Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 407. 

Hierofalco salcer, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 417 (1874, partim). 

Hierofalco hendersoni, Hume, Stray Feathers, vii. p. 327 (1878). 

Falco sacer, Dresser, B. of Eur. vi. p. 59 (1879, partim). 

Hierofalco milvipes (Hodgs.), Sharpe, 2nd Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 11 (1891). 

Gennaia hendersoni (Hume), Menzbier, Orn. d. Turkestan, part iii. p. 294 (1891). 

1 Gennaia salcer gurneyi, id. op. cit. p. 297 (1891). 

Balobau, Russian ; Chark, Persian ; Uetalgi, Persian (fide Radde) ; Aitalgu, Turki [fide 
Scully). 

Figures notabiles. 

Hume & Henders. Lahore to Yarkand, pi. i. ; Dresser. B. of Europe, vi. pi. ccclxxvii. 

Ad. supra rufescente, plumis fusco transfasciatis : cauda rufescente, distincte fusco transfasciata, nee guttata : 
corpore subtiis cervino-albido, conspicue nigro-fusco notato. 

Adult (Tarsus). Differs from Falco sacer in having the upper parts rufous, conspicuously barred with 
blackish brown, and the tail is also similarly, distinctly, barred, and not marked with spots as in 
F. sacer: bill bluish, black at the tip; cere, legs, and feet yellow. 

Obs. According to Mr. Blanford (Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, iii. p. 422), "in young birds the rufous bars are 
irregular and ill-marked, and those on the tail more or less imperfect. In this stage F. milvipes is very 
like F. cherruff, but may generally be distinguished by some of the bars going quite across the tail- 
feathers. A nestling from Tibet in the Hume collection, attributed to this species, has, however, the 
tail absolutely unbarred." 

Mr. Hodgson appears to have been the first to give this form the name of Falco milvipes, but it 
was not generally acknowledged as separable from F. sacer. In 1871 Mr. A. O. Hume again 
described it as distinct, under the name of Falco hendersoni, from a single specimen, a male, 
obtained by Dr. Henderson during the Yarkand Expedition on the 14th September, 1870, at 
Kitchik Yilak, in undulating country just north of the Sanju Pass, and forty miles from Sanju, 
where the plains of Yarkand may be said to commence. There were, Dr. Henderson remarks, 
no trees or bushes about, but the climate was comparatively moist, and there was an abundance 
of short grass, on the upper borders of which thousands of the Tibetan Snow-Pheasant (Tetrao- 
g alius tibetanus) were observed. Other Falcons, apparently of this species, were noticed in the 
immediate neighbourhood, but it was not seen elsewhere, and only the one specimen was 



282 

obtained. Mr. J. H. Gurney considered this form to be a very old stage of plumage of Falco 
sacer, and I, when I wrote the article in the ' Birds of Europe ' on that species, held the same 
opinion and figured it as such. Since then, however, having had an opportunity of examining a 
larger series, I have modified my views, and think that it should be recognized as a fairly distinct 
species; and Mr. Blanford, who has gone carefully into the question, is of the same opinion. 
This gentleman, in the recently published volume on the ' Birds of India ' (Faun. Brit. Ind., 
Birds, iii. p. 422), gives the distribution as "Tibet and part of Mongolia. A few birds have been 
obtained in the Punjab at times, and one by Sir O. St. John at Quetta." Its range, however, 
appears to me to be much more extensive than given by Mr. Blanford, as in the Norwich 
Museum there is a specimen from Athens, and another, the one figured in the ' Birds of Europe,' 
from Tarsus ; and one obtained by Dr. G. Radde near Tiflis, in the Caucasus, on the 16th March, 
1868j appears to be undoubtedly referable to this form, as Dr. Radde remarks (Orn. Cauc. p. 70) 
that it is certainly an old bird and has the tail distinctly barred and not spotted. 

Mr. Zarudny and Messrs. Radde and Walter record the occurrence of a Falcon, under the 
name of Falco sacer, as occurring in Transcaspia ; but as the latter remark that the feathers on 
the upper parts are brownish and not grey, and have broad lighter edges, it seems most probable 
that the bird obtained by them was Falco milvipes. They state (Vog. Transcasp. p. 5) that " in 
the western portion of the district visited by us it was much rarer than in the south-eastern, 
where Walter found it the most numerous species of Raptor, breeding all along the new Afghan 
frontier. Its nesting-places were the steep portions of the clay-sandy hillocks in the desert and 
the steep banks of the river, and even in the sides of ruined wells, as, for instance, at Gele- 
tschesme, east of the Murghab. On the 5th May, 1887, two young birds, nearly full-grown, but 
with much down still in the plumage, were taken out of a nest placed on a conglomerate point of 
a precipice at Kuschk, near Tschesme-i-bid. The nest was very scantily formed. These Falcous 
doubtless feed, in this district, chiefly on the numerous Meriones and Spermojahili which inhabit 
these desert places." 

Col. Prjevalski met with it in Mongolia, and remarks (Rowley's Orn. Misc. ii. p. 149) that 
he nowhere observed or obtained F. sacer in the districts visited by him, but only F. milvipes. 
" We only obtained," he writes, " four specimens (two males and two females), of which three 
(two males and one female) completely correspond with Hume's description, with only insignificant 
differences. The second female, which is rather younger than the three former specimens (being 
distinguished by having blue and not yellow legs), differs from them by the absence of a fully 
striped tail, as only incomplete reddish-yellow bands are perceptible on the inner webs of the 
tail-feathers, whilst the outer webs are marked with spots of the same colour as the bands. 
A°-ain, the yellow streaks of the female F. hendersoni are replaced in the present specimen by 
spots of the same colour. The breast has large dark brown spots, just like in true F. sacer, 
whilst in F. hendersoni, as also in our three specimens, the breast is milk-white, marked with 
narrow triangular small spots. The bill is black at the point and bluish at the base, and has 
only on the lower mandible a yellow mark, which colour is predominant on both mandibles in 
our three specimens." 

According to Professor Menzbier (Orn. Turk. p. 297), " Dr. Severtzoff obtained a very adult 
female in the Alai Mountains at the entrance of the Kizil-Arte defile, and remarks that he 



283 

observed one of these Falcons on the Pamir plateau. The stomach of the bird obtained was 
filled with field-mice. Another specimen, a young female assuming the second plumage, was 
obtained on the 9th August near the Lake Sairam-Kul, north of Kuldja, at an altitude of about 
7000 feet. Dr. Severtzoff adds that he was informed that this Falcon has been met with on the 
Youldouz plateau at an altitude of 9000 to 10,000 feet." 

It was met with by Col. Prjevalski wherever they went from Kiachta to the sources of 
the Yangtze-kiang, but was most numerous in the Zachar country and about Koko-nor. It is 
probable that the Falcon referred to by Pere Armand David under the name of Falco sacer (Ois. 
d. 1. Chine, p. 33), as having been " frequently met with by him in Mongolia, and at Pekin, Chensi, 
and in Setchuan," is referable to the present species ; and Taczanowski informed Prof. Menzbier 
that one was obtained in Corea on the 6th January, 1887. 

Mr. J. H. Gurney, who has carefully examined for me the specimens in the Norwich 
Museum, informs me that " the nearly adult female labelled Tientsin, China (B. Swinhoe), has 
the back plain and the tail not barred, there being no rufous in the plumage, and it is altogether 
much more like plate 376 in the 'Birds of Europe' than plate 377. 

" Our skin from Athens, sent by Parzudaki, of Paris, is evidently F. milvipes, and has been 
entered as such by my father. Besides this bird and the male from Tarsus, I do not think that 
we have any F. milvipes, though it is true we have two others which are rather doubtful — 
namely, a female from Western Asia with a barred tail, but without any cross-barring on the 
back or wing-coverts, which are, however, very rufous ; and a nearly adult male labelled 
' Hamedabad, Bombay (S. V. Foig),' which is very rufous on the back and wing-coverts, but 
has the tail decidedly more spotted than barred." 

I have not been able to go to Norwich to examine these birds, but it appears to me that 
both these last-named specimens are referable to F. milvipes. 

In habits the Shanghai - Falcon appears to closely resemble F. sacer, and also frequents the 
same localities. During the winter it is said to prey chiefly on Alpine hares, but also feeds on 
birds of various kinds. Col. Prjevalski says (I. c.) that it attacks Syrrhaptes paradoxus, usually 
when these birds are drinking, and on one occasion when they had started a hare one of these 
Falcons followed it, swooping and striking it with its beak ; on receiving every blow the hare 
stopped, and then resumed its flight, until out of sight, and they did not therefore see the 
termination of the pursuit. He adds that, so far as he could ascertain, the Mongols and Tanguts 
do not train these Falcons for sporting purposes. Dr. Scully says that competent authorities in 
such matters in Kashgharia positively assert that the present species is the female of the Shanghai - 
(which is the most highly prized of all the Falcons), and is not prized, being considered hardly 
worth training. 

As above stated, Messrs. Radde and Walter found it breeding on the Afghan frontier, but 
do not give any description of its nest or eggs. 

As this Falcon was figured in the 'Birds of Europe' as a very old Saker (plate 377), I have 
not deemed it necessary to figure it again. 

I do not possess a specimen of this Falcon, but those which I have examined are as 
follows : — 



284 

E Mm. Brit. 

a, ad. Quetta (Sir 0. St. John), b, $ ad. Kitchik Yilak, Yarkand, September 14th (Dr. G. Henderson). 

c, $ jun. Yarkand, February 26th, 1875 (Dr. Scully), d, ad. Ladak (Strachey). e, jun. N.W.Himalayas 

(Capt. Pinwill). f, ? ad. Umballa, February 1867 (Dr. Scott). g,ad. Nepal (B.H. Hodgson), h, i, k, 

juv. Nepal (B.H. Hodgson). I, ad. Tibet, March 1876; m,juv. Tibet, May 1875 (Mandelli). n, ? ad. 

Koko-nor (Col. Prjevalski). 



d94 




. 







J G . Kevilen-L&rLS de-A e.b \\fA\. 



SACRED IBIS 

IBIS ^THIOPICA. 



Mmtero Brcs.Jn-if? 



IBIS ^THIOPICA. 

(SACRED IBIS.) 



Mgyptian Ibis, Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, ii. p. 105, pi. 105 (bill only) (1747). 

Tantalus wthiopicus, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 706. no. 12 (1790). 

Numenius ibis (nee Linn.), Cuv. Ann. Mus. hist. nat. Paris, iv. p. 116, pi. 53 (1804). 

Ibis religiosa, Cuv. Eegne Anim. i. p. 483 (1817). 

Ibis egretta, Temm. Man. d'Orn. iv. p. 391, footnote (1840). 

ThresMornis asthiopica (Lath.), Gray, App. to List of Genera of Birds, p. 13 (1842). 

Geronticus cethiopicus (Lath.), Gray, Genera of B. iii. p. 566 (1847). 

Ibis cetliiopica (Lath.), Reichenb. Natiirl. Syst. p. xiv, tab. 142. figs. 635, 636 (1850). 

Thresciornis cethiopica (Lath.), Hartlaub, J. f. O. 1854, p. 295. 

Thresciornis egretta (Temm.), id. ut supra. 

Thereschiornis religiosa (Savigny), Brehm, Vogelfang, p. 299 (1855). 

Thereschiornis minor, id. ut supra (1855). 

Thereshiornis alba, id. ut supra (1855). 

Ibis wthiopica (Lath.), Hartlaub, J. f. O. 1855, p. 361. 

Thresciornis religiosus (Cuv.), Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1859, p. 174. 

Geronticus religiosus (Cuv.), Heine, J. f. O. 1860, p. 201. 

Ibis sacer, Bohm, J. f. O. 1886, p. 432. 

Waddje, Nedje-abrat, Abu-Mindjel, Abu-Qadum, Arabic; Alu-Hannes, Egyptian; Gagano, 
Amharisch ; Deleca, in Mossamedes ; Schoorstein-veger, Dutch in South Africa. 

Figurw notabiles. 

Edwards, I. c. ; Savigny, Hist. nat. etc. de lTbis, pis. i., ii. ; id. Descr. de l'Egypte, Oiseaux, 
tab. vii. fig. 1; Bree, B. of Eur. iv. pi. to p. 45; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 382, fig. 2; 
id. Ibis, 1878, pi. xii. (young bird and egg). 

Ad. alba : capite et collo nudis, fumoso-nigris : remigibus albis, in apicibus nigris viridi resplendentibus : 
remigibus intimis cum scapularibus in basi canescentibus, a medio ad apicem nigris purpureo nitentibus, 
pogoniis in apice diffractis, radiis perelongatis, nutantibus, caudam obtegentibus : cute subalari nuda 
incamatc-r libra : rostro et pedibus nigris : iride fuscS,. 

Juv. rostro valde breviore et robusto, vix curvato, fusco-incarnato : corpore, remigibus et rectricibus albidis, 
secundariis intimis brevioribus, in parte apicali vix diffractis et griseo-fuscis : capite et collo plumis 
albidis tectis : pileo, collo postico et capitis lateribus plumis ad basin albidis et versus apicem fumoso- 
fuscis. 

Adult Male (Transvaal, May). Head and neck bare, dull black in colour; plumage generally pure white, 
except the tips of the primaries and outer secondaries, which are black, richly glossed with metallic 
green; inner secondaries elongated, lax, on the basal portion bluish grey, and on the terminal portion 

2E 



286 

black with rich purple reflections, forming a plume which covers the tail; a bare patch under the 
wing rich fleshy red : beak and legs black ; iris dark brown. Total length about 30 inches, culmen 7"0, 
wing 15-4, tail 6S, tarsus 4'0. 

Adult Female (Khartoum, June). Resembles the male, but the plumes covering the tail are somewhat 
duller in colour. Culmen 575 inches, wing 14"0, tail 6'0, tarsus 3'5. 

Immature (Transvaal). Head and neck covered with short black and white feathers ; inner secondaries 
shorter than in the adult, and duller in colour. 

Young {fide Heuglin). " Bill short and stout, but slightly curved, fleshy brown in colour, general plumage 
dirty white ; head and neck covered with whitish feathers ; sides of the head, crown, hind neck, and 
sides of the neck smoky brown, with white bases to the feathers ; ends of the tertials dirty greyish 
brown, the feathers not lax and elongated.'" 

The Sacred Ibis inhabits the greater part of Africa as far south as the Cape of Good Hope, and 
belonging strictly to the Ethiopean Region can only be included as a straggler within the limits 
of the area of which I am treating. 

It has been stated by several authors to have occurred in Europe north of the Mediterranean. 
Pallas (Zoog. It. -A. ii. p. 165) includes, under the name of Numenius ibis, an Ibis as having been 
met with on the Black Sea and Caspian, though of rare occurrence. The description he gave is 
that of the African Wood-Ibis, which does not occur further north than Upper Egypt ; but his 
citations show that the Sacred Ibis was the species to which he refers, and both Von Nordmann 
and Dr. Radde believe that it was so, while the latter says that the Mahometans in the Talysch 
Valley know this bird and have a local name for it, from which he infers that it must at some 
time have occurred there. Temminck in 1840 (I. c.) records it as having been observed and 
killed in the Morea, and it is stated to have occurred in Turkey, but no recent observers have 
met with it in those parts. Savigny states that in August or September 1800 he saw it at 
Damietta, on Lake Menzaleh, and not far from Kafs el Saida, on the left bank of the Nile; but 
later authors on Egyptian ornithology speak of it as being very rare in Egypt. According to 
Von Heuglin one, which he himself examined, was shot at Qata, on the Delta, in December 
1864, at a shooting-party of Prince Halim-Bascha, but he remarks that it is a rare and accidental 
visitor to Egypt. Mr. E. Cavendish Taylor records (Ibis, 1878, p. 372) the fact that one was shot 
near Lake Menzaleh in November 1877, and I understand that this specimen passed into the 
possession of Capt. Shelley and is now in the British Museum. There is nothing to show that 
it was ever much more than a straggler to Egypt, occurring there towards the end of the summer, 
yearly, according to Capt. Shelley and Mr. E. Cavendish Taylor, and the thousands of mummies 
referred to by travellers were probably the remains of birds taken alive in the upper country and 
kept in the precincts of the temples. Von Heuglin says that during his sojourn in the provinces 
of Batn-el-Hadjar, Sukot, and Dongola in July and August 1851 he obtained many old birds, and 
young ones alive in down, which had been hatched there, and he thinks that it nests numerously 
northwards to Wady-Halfa. Hartmann met with it as far as Der, quite close to the borders of 
Upper Egypt, but rarely further north. " In Central and Southern Nubia, Takah, Senaar, and 
Kordofau," he writes, " the Sacred Ibis is only a migrant. Coming from the south it moves on 
by degrees as the summer rains set in ; thus it appears in Southern Senaar already in May, at 
Khartoum early in June, at Berber and Dongola rather later. It follows closely on the track of 



287 

Ciconia abdimii on its wanderings. After the breeding-season, in December and January, it 
migrates south again. In January and February I found it in large flocks on Lake Tana and 
near the mouth of the Sobat, and in August and September in pairs in Dahlak Archipelago." 
Vierthaler found it nesting on the White Nile, and it also breeds numerously on the Blue Nile. 
Fischer (J. f. O. 1885, p. 117) records it as occurring: at the Osi Tana, at Sigirari, the salt-swamp 
Ngau in East Africa, and, according to Reichenow (J. f. O. 1887, p. 48), he sent specimens from 
the Simiu River and Lake Victoria, east of Kagehi ; and Dr. R. Boehm obtained it at Likulwe 
and Marungu, near Lake Tangauika. It is met with as far south in Africa as the Cape Colony. 
Sir John Kirk states that it arrives in the Zambesi from the north in December, and is found at 
all seasons on the coast, where it feeds on the sea-shore at low-water. Mr. Ayres and Capt. Feilden 
record it from Natal and Transvaal in the autumn and winter; Symonds (Ibis, 1887, p. 335) from 
Kroonstad in the Orange Free State; Shelley (Ibis, 1894, p. 477) from the Palombi River in 
Nyassaland ; and Mr. Layard (B. of S. Africa, p. 320) says that a few specimens have come 
under his notice that were killed in the Cape Colony, and that a female was shot at Green Point, 
within three miles of Cape Town. 

The Sacred Ibis does not appear to range as far as Algeria or Morocco in West Africa, but 
Mr. Forbes met with it on the Niger in December ; it has been recorded from Senegal, Ashanti, 
and Casamanze, the Camma River, and Benguela. Sehor Anchieta recoi - ds it from Humbe, on 
the Cunene River and the Coroca River in Mossamedes. Mr. Andersson (B. of Damaraland, 
p. 297) never observed it in Damara or Great Namaqua Land; but it is not uncommon in the 
lake regions, and extremely abundant in Ondonga, especially during the rainy season, when it 
is comparatively tame, though wild at other times. 

In general habits the Sacred Ibis is said to resemble the Curlew to some extent. It is 
usually met with in small companies, sometimes as many as fifty or sixty, and they feed in swamps 
or on the sea-coasts, probing the mud with their long bills for worms, like the Curlew, in company 
with which species, as also with Egrets and Herons, they are often seen. Mr. Ayres says that he 
has sometimes seen them sunning themselves on the upper boughs of the mangroves together 
with Spoonbills, White Herons, &c, and that in their flight they usually form some figure 
similarly to the Pelicans, Swans, and Geese. Wary and cautious to a degree, it is scarcely 
possible to stalk and shoot them ; but, Dr. Vierthaler says, they show no fear of the natives, and 
may be seen in company with Ardeola coromandelica amongst the herds of cattle without taking 
any notice of the herdsmen or any other negroes who might be with them. 

According to Von Heuglin the young birds utter a piping cry, and the call-note of the old 
birds is harsh, resembling that of Ardea bubulcus. They feed on insects of various kinds, worms, 
snails, frogs, spiders, grasshoppers, lizards, and snakes, &c, but when tame will eat almost 
anything. They are easily tamed, and become as tame as domestic poultry. Dr. Vierthaler, 
who kept several about the house, says that they preferred taking their food out of the water 
like a Duck, but made no noise with the bill. They were very expert with the bill, and would 
pick up the smallest insects with ease, and capture them amongst the finest grass. Their walk 
was slow, and in their general movements they were quiet and stately, but when in a good 
humour or hurried they moved with awkward jumps, having the wings extended. They would 
sit crouched for hours on their knees and were very partial to any soft object, and if a pillow 
were left about would soon find and take possession of it, resting with the wings and feet 

2 r2 



288 

outstretched. With other birds that were kept in the same yard they were excellent friends, 
living in peace with them, and showed great affection to each other, always sleeping close 
together. They bathed but seldom, settling down on their knees in the water and making 
themselves very wet. The flesh of both the old and young birds is, he adds, very tender and 
tasty, and well cooked they form quite a dainty dish. 

The ancient Egyptians held this bird in high veneration, owing, it is said by the older 
authors, to its habit of destroying snakes ; but this is not the reason assigned by modern 
Egyptologists. Vast numbers are found embalmed, at Sakkara especially ; but there is much 
reason to believe that, though the species may in ancient times have been more plentiful than 
now in Egypt, the majority of the mummies are those of birds brought from the Upper Nile 
and kept tame in the temples. Dr. Leith Adams says (Ibis, 1864, p. 32) that " mummied Ibises 
are usually found alone, but sometimes with other sacred animals ; and although Hermopolis was 
the patron city of the bird, as Buto of the Kestrel and other Hawks, we find it also among the 

tombs of Thebes and Memphis It was the emblem of Thoth, the scribe or secretary of 

Osiris, whose duty it was to write down and recount the deeds of the deceased ; in consequence 
the bird is constantly seen on the ancient monuments under various forms. In the gizzards of 
the mummied specimens unrolled at Thebes I found large pebbles, beads, many shells of 
Paludince, but chiefly remains of coleopterous insects, especially of a small black beetle which 
is common on dung-heaps along the river's bank. All the paintings at Beni Hassan and the 
Tombs of the Kings represent the /. religiosa." He also remarks that no doubt the Sacred Ibis 
was imported into Italy, and kept about the temples of Isis. 

The nest is placed in a tree, and, according to Vierthaler, nidification commences early in 
September near Khartoum ; they usually build in a mimosa, nesting in companies, twenty 
or thirty nests being sometimes placed in one tree. The nest is very simple, about the size of 
that of a Rook, constructed of coarse twigs, and lined with grass and a few feathers, the number 
of eggs being usually three, occasionally, but seldom, four, and they breed but once in the year, 
though they are not very particular as to time, as he saw late in September and also in November 
young birds of about the same age. Dr. A. E. Brehm and Vierthaler describe the eggs as being 
about the size of those of the domestic hen, and white ; but Von Heuglin says that they are 
greenish, bluish, or yellowish white, marked with brown, chiefly at the larger end. He also 
says that the nests are placed on Sunt or Hardz trees, and are as slightly built as those of the 
Bing-Dove, and are always in tall trees which are placed on islands or other places which are 
frequently flooded. Von Heuglin gives the measurements of the eggs as from 2" 4'" to 2" of" 
by 1" 5J"' to 1" 6J-"'. 

The specimen figured is an adult male, for the loan of which, as well as those above described, 
I am indebted to Canon Tristram. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. JB. Tristram, 
a, ? . Khartoum, June 1852 {Von Heuglin). b, £ ad. Transvaal, May 1870 {T. Ayres). cjuu. Transvaal 
(T.Ayres). 



695 










[■ — I n 



tti 
hi 



MAEECA AMERICANA. 

(AMERICAN WIGEON.) 



Canard Jensen, Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. ix. p. 174 (1783). 

Anas americana, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 526 (1788). 

Anas tvigeon, Bonn. Encycl. Meth. i. p. 129 (1790). 

Mareca americana (Gmel.), Steph. in Shaw's Gen. Zool. xii. pt. 2, p. 135 (1824). 

Anas (Boschas) americana (Gmel.), Nutt. Man. ii. p. 389 (1834). 

Marica americana (Gm.), Swains. Classif. of B. ii. p. 366 (1837). 

Mareca penelope, |3. americana, Bias. List B. Eur. p. 21 (1862). 

Anas {Mareca) americana, Gm., Reichenow, Orn. Centralbl. 1882, p. 20. 

Figures notabiles. 

D'Aubent. PL Enl. 955 ; Wils. Am. Orn. viii. pi. lxix. fig. 1 ; Audubon, Orn. Biogr. iv. 
pi. cccxlv.; id. B. of Am. vi. pi. ccclxxxix. 

J 1 ad. fronte et vertice medio albis fere immaculatis : capite reliquo cum collo albido, dense nigra maculato : 
regione temporali plus aut minus viridi-Eenea : jugulo grisescenti-vinaceo : pectore cum abdomine 
medio albo, lateribus vinaceis, minime fusco undulatis : subcaudalibus velutino-nigris : corpora supra 
griseo, fusco et fulvido undulato, uropygio fere nigra : alis nigro-fuscis, speculo alari nigra, dimidio 
basali splendide viridi : cauda nigro-fusca : rostra plumbeo, versus apicem nigra : pedibus plumbeis : 
iride fusca. 

? ad. M. penelopce similis, sed capite et collo magis albidis nee rufescenti tinctis. 

Adult Male (Duenas). Crown and forehead white, unspotted; sides of the head and the neck dull white, 
closely speckled with black ; behind the eye a dark black patch, tinged with metallic green and slightly 
speckled with white ; upper parts generally grey, finely vermiculated with black, and in places tinged 
with rufous ; rump blackish ; primary quills greyish brown, paler on the inner webs ; secondaries deep 
black, slightly glossed with bottle-green, the elongated inner secondaries dark grey on the inner web 
and velvety black margined with dull white on the outer web ; upper wing-coverts white, excepting 
near the carpus, where they are dark greyish ; upper breast and flanks rufescent vinaceous, the latter 
vermiculated with black ; rest of the underparts white, except the under tail-coverts, which are velvety 
black: bill greyish plumbeous, black towards the tip ; legs light bluish plumbeous; iris brown. Total 
length about 19 inches, culmen 1*6, wing 1055, tail 5 - 0, tarsus l - 45. 

Adult Female. Not unlike the female of M. penelope, but may be distinguished by having the light parts 
on the head and neck whitish instead of reddish brown ; the wing-pattern is the same as in the male, 
but the white is interrupted with grey ; the greater coverts frequently lack the black tips, the speculum 
is faint, and the black stripes of the inner secondaries are replaced by brown. 

Young in down {fide Ridgway). Above dark olive with a sepia tinge ; a spot of pale greenish fulvous on 



290 

the posterior half of the wing, one on each side of the hack, and one on each side of the rump; lower 
parts, including head and neck, pale fulvous ; a distinct blackish-olive stripe from the bill to and back 
from the eye, with a wide and conspicuous superciliary stripe of fulvous above it. 

Up to 1889, when Mr. Howard Saunders published his 'Manual of British Birds,' there was but 
one fairly reliable record of the occurrence of this Duck in Great Britain, viz. that recorded by 
Blyth (Wood's 'Naturalist,' p. 417) of a male obtained by Mr. Bartlett in the London market in 
the winter of 1837-38, which is now in the collection of Mr. J. H. Gurney. A female was along 
with it, which, however, Mr. Bartlett did not secure. Thompson states (Ann. Nat. Hist. xv. 
p. 310) that one was obtained by a wigeon-shooter on Strangford Loch, near Belfast, in February 
1844, but was not preserved; and, as mentioned by Mr. Saunders, Thomas Edward, of Banff, records 
one as having been shot on the Burn of Boyndie in January 1841, but this also was not preserved. 
There are also two records in the ' Zoologist,' which are not worthy of further notice. Quite 
recently, however, Mr. Howard Saunders exhibited at the Zoological Society, on behalf of 
Lord Lilford, a female which he said (P. Z. S. 1895, p. 273) Sir B. Payne-Gallwey found hanging 
in the shop of Mr. Murray, game-dealer, Leeds, with a lot of M. penelope, and had every 
appearance of having been freshly killed. This specimen will be figured by Lord Lilford in his 
' Coloured Figures of the Birds of the British Islands.' 

So far as I can ascertain, it appears to have only been obtained once on the continent of 
Europe, a female, now in the collection of M. Marmottan, of Paris, having, according to 
Messrs. Marmottan and Vian, been taken at Le Crotoy, Somme, on April 13th, 1875 ; but 
Mr. Saunders states that he was informed by Mr. O. H. Howarth that there is a specimen in a 
collection at St. Michael, Azores, ostensibly obtained there. It has been once recorded from the 
Eastern Palaearctic area by Prof. Stejneger, who says (Orn. Expl. in Command. Isl. &c. p. 158) 
that " a single individual of the American Wigeon was found dead among the sand dunes near 
the village, Bering Island, on the 1st May, 1883. It was moulting, the old plumage very worn, 
and new feathers protruding all over the body. Some storm had probably carried it astray, as 
this species is not known as an inhabitant of the Asiatic side of the Pacific Ocean. So far as I 
am aware this is the first record of its having ever been obtained in Asia. It was a female, 
and very lean." 

In North America, where this Duck is common, it is found from the Arctic Ocean to 
Guatemala, and has also been obtained in several of the West-Indian Islands. 

Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway (Water B. of N.America, i. p. 520) write respecting its 
range in the United States as follows : — " Mr. Hearne states that this Duck was, a century ago, 
a very uncommon visitor to Hudson's Bay. It usually kept in pairs, being rarely seen in flocks, 
and was most frequently observed on rivers and marshes near the sea coast. Mr. Ross found 
it common on the Mackenzie ; and Capt. Blakiston also met with it in Hudson's Bay, and saw it 
in large numbers on the Saskatchewan. It occurs in the spring and fall near Calais, Maine, 
where, however, Mr. Boardman regards it as rather rare. It is an occasional, rather than a 
common, visitor to New England. According to Giraud, it is not numerous on Long Island, 
though so abundant farther south. 

"Mr. Allen found this bird quite common in the valley of the Salt Lake; Mr. R. Browne 



291 

mentions its occurrence on Vancouver Island ; and Mr. Dall found it not uncommon near Nulato, 
and on the Yukon, but rare at St. Michaels. . . . On the coast of Norton Sound, according to 
Mr. Adams, the Wigeon does not arrive until the 12th of May ; but later a considerable number 
were always to be met with about the inland marshes. . . . According to Dr. Cooper this 
species is one of the most abundant freshwater Ducks found during the winter in California, 
and, being easily shot, is one of the most common kinds in the market. ... It has been found 
during the summer among the Rocky Mountains in lat. 42° N. ; and is said by Dr. Suckley to 
breed among the inland lakes of Oregon. At that season it usually ranges from lat. 50° to 68°." 

In the Southern States it appears to be numerous in the winter. I found it abundant in 
Southern Texas and near Matamoros in Mexico ; and Col. Grayson records it as abundant on the 
coast of Western Mexico, near Mazatlan, from November until late in spring. Mr. Salvin (Ibis, 
1859, p. 231) found it "common on the Lake of Atitlan, where it was seen in May 1858, and 
also observed near the village of Laguna, about a day's journey from Guatemala"; and in 1862 
he met with it in the lagoons on the west coast of Guatemala. It also occurs on most of the 
West India Islands during the winter season, and has been recorded by Prof. A. Newton as 
observed by Mr. Ruse on the Island of St. Thomas, by Gundlach and others from Cuba, by 
Mr. Albrecht (J. f. O. 1862, p. 207) from Jamaica, and by Leotaud from Trinidad, where he 
says (Ois. Trinidad, p. 511) " it is a bird of passage, arriving in December or January, and 
leaving in April." He speaks of its flesh as being extremely dainty, and fit to grace the table of 
any epicure, especially that of young birds which have spent some time on the island. It is 
also recorded by Mr. Hurdis as having visited the Bermudas in October and November 1864. 

According to Nuttall (Orn. U. S., Water Birds, p. 390), " the Wigeon or Bald Pate is a 
frequent attendant on the Canvass-Back, and often profits by this association. The former not 
beiug commonly in the habit of diving for subsistence, or merely from caprice, watches the 
motions of its industrious neighbour, and as soon as the Canvass-Back rises with the favourite 
root on which they both greedily feed, the Bald Pate snatches the morsel, and makes off with 
his booty. They are always very alert and lively, feeding and swimming out into the ponds and 
rivers at all hours of the day, but are extremely watchful, sheltering in coves and behind the 
land, and on the slightest attempt to steal upon them, immediately row out into the stream 
beyond gunshot, and then only take to wing when much disturbed. In Carolina and the West 
Indies they frequent the rice-fields in flocks, and in Martinico are said to do considerable damage 
to the crops. When thus feeding in company they have a sort of sentinel on the watch. At 
times they keep in covert until twilight, and are then traced by their low, guttural, and peculiar 
whistle or whew, whew, as well as other calls, and their whistle is frequently imitated with success 
to entice them within gunshot. They feed much in the winter upon aquatic vegetables, cropping 
the Potamogeton or Pond Weed, as well as other kinds of freshwater plants and seeds, and some- 
times themselves dive and collect the roots and leaves of the Ruppia and Zostera or sea-wrack." 

Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway write (I. c.) that " while the Canvass-backs and the 
Black-heads dive and pull up by the roots the Vallisneria grass, the Bald-pates manage to obtain 
their full share of it, and at times succeed in robbing them of the whole. At this time the 
flavour of the Bald-pate is considered preferable to that of even the far-famed Canvass-backs. 
Of all the Ducks that are found in the Chesapeake, the Wigeon is said to be one of the most 



292 

difficult to attract to the shore by the process known as ' toling.' In wing shooting it is regarded 
by the hunters as a great nuisance. It is not only so shy that it avoids the points of land, but 
by its whistling and its confused manner of flight it alarms the other species. During its stay 
in these waters it is the constant companion of the Canvass-backs, upon whose superiority in 
diving it depends in a large degree for its food, stealing from them as they rise to the surface of 
the water the tender roots of the plant of which they are both so fond. When in good condition 
the flesh of the Bald-pate cannot easily be distinguished from that of the Canvass-back. It is also 
thought that birds killed in other waters, though excellent eating, are far inferior to those from 
the flats of the Chesapeake. The Bald-pate is said to visit the rice-fields of the south during 
the winter in considerable numbers." 

They further state that this Wigeon breeds rather abundantly throughout the whole of 
British America as far north as the Arctic Ocean, but only rarely in the extreme northern parts 
of the United States, both east and west of the Rocky Mountains. Mr. Robert Kennicott took 
a Bald-pate's nest near Fort Yukon on the 7th June, some thirty rods from the river, on high 
dry ground, among large spruces and poplars. This species always nests, he says, among 
trees or bushes, at a considerable distance from water. He invariably found the nest among 
dry leaves upon high, dry ground, either under large trees or in thick groves of small ones, 
frequently among thick spruces. The nest is rather small, simply a depression among the 
leaves, but thickly lined with down, with which, after incubation is begun, the eggs are covered 
when left by the parent. The nest is usually placed at the foot of a tree or bush, with generally 
no attempt at concealment. The female, when started from her nest, rises silently into the air, 
and usually flies to the nearest water, though sometimes she will alight on the ground a few 
rods distant. 

The eggs are described by Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway as being " of a creamy ivory- 
white colour, and vary in length from 2T5 to 2'20 inches, and from 1-45 to 1*50 in breadth." 

Mr. Howard Saunders, in his excellent ' Manual of British Birds ' (pp. 421, 422), includes 
two of the American Teal, Querquedula carolinensis and Querquedula discors ; but I have grave 
doubts as to the advisability of so doing, and have decided not to follow his example. The 
former of these has some claim to be admitted, as it does not appear to have been kept in 
confinement, but the latter has certainly been kept in confinement both in our Zoological 
Gardens and at Tours in France. 

Of the Green-winged Teal, Querquedula carolinensis (J. F. Gmelin), Mr. Saunders writes: 
"An adult male was shot on November 23rd, 1879, on an arm of the Kingsbridge Estuary, 
South Devon, and was exhibited by me on behalf of its owner, Mr. H. Nicholls, at a meeting 
of the Zoological Society on December 4th, 1888. In the 'Zoologist' for 1852 Mr. (now 
Colonel) John Evans recorded the occurrence of an adult male near Scarborough in November 
1851. Mr. Arthur Fellowes states (Zool. 1880, p. 70) that he possesses an example shot by his 
father ' more than forty years ago ' at Hurstbourne Park, Hants, and he correctly describes the 
essential feature of its plumage." I do not find any record of its occurrence in any other part of 
Europe. In size this Teal is about the same as our European bird, and the females of the two 
species are practically undistinguishable ; but the male of the Green-winged Teal is distin- 
guishable in having a broad crescentic whitish band on the side of the body before the wing, 



293 

and in having the scapulars plain, whereas our European Teal has the long scapulars black 
externally and creamy white internally, and lacks the white on the side of the body in front 
of the wing. 

The Blue-winged Teal, Querquedula discors (Linn.), has only once been obtained in Great 
Britain. Mr. Saunders states that " in the ' Naturalist,' viii. (1858) p. 168, Mr. W. C. Gibson, 
writing from Dumfries, says, without naming any month, ' a specimen of the Blue-winged Teal 
(Anas discors) was shot here a few weeks ago.' This bird, erroneously stated by the late 
Mr. R. Gray to have been killed in January 1863, afterwards passed into the collection of 
Sir William Jardine, and has recently been acquired by the Edinburgh Museum ; it is a male, 
and undoubtedly genuine." According to Mr. Olof Winge, an adult male was shot near Saby, 
in Denmark, about the middle of April 1886. 

The Blue-winged Teal is about equal in size to the Garganey, but is easily distinguishable 
from that species. The male has the head deep lead-grey with a purplish gloss, a large white 
black-edged crescent in front of the eye, the fore part of the back varied with brownish black 
and yellowish brown, the lower back and rump dark brown tinged with green ; wing-coverts and 
outer webs of some of the scapulars deep sky-blue ; speculum rich green, set between the white 
tips of the larger coverts and secondaries. The female is dark brown above, the feathers with 
pale edges, and whitish grey below, and retains the sky-blue on the wing-coverts and most of 
the wing-markings as in the male, and may thus be readily distinguished from the female 
Garganey. 

The specimen of the American Wigeon figured is the male above described, and is in my 
own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens: — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, g ad. Dueiias (O. Salvin). b, $ . British Columbia {Whitdy). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram, 
a, cf . N. America, 1847; b, J 1 . Duenas, Guatemala, 1862 (0. Salvin). 



696 



y 











f/fi 



«J 6. KeuIeirLa.-ns del.t-t 



HOODED MERGANSER. 

MERGUS CUCULLATUS. 



Mintern. Bros . imp. 



HEEGUS CUCULLATUS. 

(HOODED MERGANSER.) 



L'Harle hupe de Virginie, Briss. Orn. vi. p. 258 (1760). 

Mergns ciicullatus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 207 (1766). 

Merganser cucullatus (Linn.), Bonn. Encycl. Meth. i. p. 103 (1790). 

Lophodytes cucullatus (Linn.), Reichenb. Syst. Av. p. ix (1852). 

Mergus [Lophodytes) cucullatus (Linn.), Coues, Key N.-Am. B. 2nd ed. p. 718. no. 745 (1884). 

Figurce notabiles. 

Edwards, Gleanings, pi. 360. fig. 3; DAubent. PI. Enl. 935, 936; Wils. Am. Orn. viii. 
pi. lxix. fig. 1; Audub. Orn. Biogr. iii. pi. ccxxxiii.; id. B. of Am. vi. pi. ccccxiii.; 
Gould, B. of G. Brit. v. pi. xxxvi. 

tJ ad. fronte saturate fusca : capite valde cristato : crista medialiter alba et nigro marginata : corpore supra 
et cauda, nigro-fuscis : remigibus fuscis, secundariis in pogonio externo albis, speculum album 
formantibus, speculo fasciis duabus nigris notato : tectricibus alarum majoribus nigris albo apicatis, 
medianis griseis, minoribus nigro-fuscis : collo nigro : corpore subtus albo : regione antepectorale 
utrinque duabus fasciis lunatis notato : hypochondriis rufescenti-fuscis, nigro-fusco vermiculatis : 
subcaudalibus cinereo-albis, rufescenti-fusco et saturate fusco marmoratis : rostro nigro : pedibus 
flavo-fuscis : iride flava,. 

? ad. capite, collo et pectore fuscis, mento et gula pallidioribus: crista rufescenti-fusca, plumis versus apicem 
inconspicue pallidioribus : corpore supra saturate fusco : alis et cauda, fuscis : speculum in alis album 
fasciis duabus nigris notatum : pectore et abdomine albis, hypochondriis fuscis plumis pallidiore 
marginatis. 

Adult Male (Calais, Maine). Forehead dark brown; head furnished with a compressed semicircular crest, 
which is white in the centre, broadly margined with black, excepting on the posterior portion, where the 
margin is narrow ; scapulars deep black, the rest of the upper parts brownish black ; quills brown, the 
secondaries white on the outer web, forming a speculum, which is crossed by two black bands ; larger 
wing-coverts black, tipped with white, the median coverts grey, and lesser ones blackish brown; tail 
brown ; upper parts of the neck black, the lower neck in front and rest of the underparts white ; on 
each side of the neck two black crescentic bands; flanks reddish brown, finely vermiculated with 
blackish brown ; under tail-coverts greyish white, finely freckled and waved with reddish brown and 
dark brown : bill black; feet and legs yellowish brown ; iris yellow. Total length about 17 inches, 
culmen V7, wing 7 - 4, tail 3 - 8, tarsus 1'25. 

Adult Female (Calais, Maine). Head, neck, and breast brown, lighter on the chin and throat, the feathers 
on the breast with paler margins ; crest reddish brown, becoming much paler towards the tips of the 
feathers ; upper parts darker brown ; wings and tail brown, the former having the speculum as in the 
male ; underparts below the breast white ; the flanks brown, with pale margins to the feathers; maxilla 
black, edged with orange : mandible orange ; feet dusky ; iris hazel. 

2s2 



296 

Young in down (Calais, Maine) . Upper parts deep hair-brown, rather lighter on the head ; on each side of 
the back a small whitish spot, and a similar large one on each side of the rump; middle of the throat 
and the chin white ; sides of the head and throat below the eye warm brownish buff ; lower neck 
in front dull buffy brown; rest of the underparts dull white, except the flanks, which are dark 
hair-brown. 

It is only as a rare straggler to the British Isles that the present species can be included in the 
present work, for, so far as I can ascertain, there is no authentic instance of its occurrence in any 
other part of the Western Palsearctic area. It inhabits North America, ranging in winter as 
far south as Mexico. 

It was first recorded as a British bird by Selby, but there is much reason to think that he 
was mistaken (see Trans. Norf. & Norw. Nat. Soc. ii. p. 408, note). Eyton (Rarer Brit. B. p. 75) 
describes and figures one obtained in the Menai Straits, North Wales, in the winter of 1830-31. 
Thompson (B. of Irel. iii. p. 161) records the occurrence of one which was obtained, he states, 
by Dr. Chute at Dingle Bay, on the coast of Kerry, in winter, about the year 1840. Watters 
says that an immature bird was shot in co. Meath ; and Sir Ralph Payne-Gallwey says he has 
shot three in Ireland, two of which (' The Fowler in Ireland,' p. 121) were obtained " in the 
severe frost of December, 1878, in Cork Harbour, and the other in the yet more severe weather 
of January, 1881, on the north coast of Kerry." He also heard of a solitary bird being shot 
near Sligo the same winter, which, he believes, was not preserved. He adds that Mr. Glennon, 
the Dublin bird-stuffer, informed him that he had never received but one specimen, which was 
no. 6 recorded below. 

There are many other records of the occurrence of this Merganser in Great Britain, but not 
a few of these are open to doubt. Mr. J. J. Dalgleish, in his list of North- American birds which 
have occurred in Europe (Auk, 1880, p. 217), enumerates eleven, since which two more have 
been recorded, making thirteen as follows : — 

1. One, Yarmouth, winter of 1829 (Selby, Trans. Nat. Hist. Northumberl. i. p. 292 ; Edinb. Journ. Nat. 

& Geogr. n. s. iii. p. 238; see Trans. Norf. & Norw. Nat. Soc. ii. p. 408). 

2. One, Menai Straits, near Bangor (Eyton, Hist. Ear. Brit. B. p. 75). 

3. One, Burton Park, Petworth, Sussex (Yarrell, Brit. B. ed. 3, iii. p. 387). 

4. One, Norfolk (Blyth, Naturalist, 1838, p. 413; Stevens & Southwell, B. Norf. iii. p. 228). 

5. One, Dingle Bay, co. Kerry (Thompson, B. of Irel. iii. p. 161). 

6. One, co. Meath (Watters, B. of Irel. p. 215). 

7. Caithness (Sinclair, Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinb. ii. p. 340). 

8. A pair near Leeds (Gould, B. of Gt. Britain, vol. v.). 

9. One, Somersetshire (Baker, Somerset. Archaeolog. Proc. p. 146). 

10. Three seen, Frith of Forth (Colquhoun, Sporting Days, pp. 20, 21). 

11. Two, Sheerness, March 1870 (Mathew, Zoologist, 1870, p. 2182). 

12. Three shot by Sir R. Payne-Gallwey — two in Cork Harbour in December 1878, and one on the north 

coast of Kerry in January 1881. 

13. Two, near Barmouth, off the Welsh coast, 1864, shot by Sir William Clayton (W. Earle, Esq., in 

epist. to R. W. Chase, Esq.) . These specimens were sent to Mr. Chase, and are, I believe, still in 
his collection. 



297 

Of the above, the occurrences least open to doubt appear to be nos. 2, 4, 5, and 13, and there 
can be no question as to its having been obtained on several occasions in Great Britain, but, so 
far as I can ascertain, it has not been met with elsewhere in Europe. Temminck certainly speaks 
of it (Man. d'Orn. iv. p. 557) as having been once recorded from France, but gives no particulars, 
and I can find no other mention of it as a straggler to the French shores. 

The true home of this Merganser is North America, where it is found from Alaska to 
Mexico. Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Eidgway (Water B. of N. America, ii. p. 122) write 
respecting its range on that continent as follows : — " Mr. Dall states that it was not obtained by 
any of his party in Alaska, and believes that, if found at all in that region, it must be very rare. 
Mr. Bannister, however, thinks that he observed a large flock of this species in October 1865, 
only a short time before the harbor at St. Michael's had become frozen over. He shot one of 
the birds ; but having no boat could not secure it. He did not notice this species at any other 
time. It was seen on Vancouver Island by Mr. E. Browne ; and Dr. Cooper found it common, 
in winter, along the whole Facific coast, and thinks that it very probably breeds within the 
limits of Washington Territory, as its unfledged young were found by Dr. Suckley on Puget 
Sound. This species appears to prefer clear fresh water in the forests and along mountain- 
streams, where it can obtain plenty of young trout and insects. 

" It was found on the Mackenzie Eiver by Mr. Eoss, and on Hudson's Bay by Mr. Murray 
and by Captain Blakiston. Sir John Eichardson speaks of meeting with it in all parts of the 
Fur Countries, where he found it frequenting the lakes and rivers. Major Wedderburn states 
that a single specimen of this bird was taken alive near Ireland Island, in Bermuda, in January 
1849, by a sailor; and Mr. Hurdis adds that another was shot in 1850. 

"It was found along the Atlantic coast from the St. Lawrence to Florida. In winter it is 
especially abundant in the Carolinas ; and during the breeding-season it is common in Northern 
Maine and in the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. It is equally abundant in the 
forests of Oregon and Washington Territory, and is found without doubt throughout the interior 
in all suitable localities 

" This species is quite common in the fall in Massachusetts. It comes in flocks, and is at 
times abundant. Mr. William Brewster informs me that he has shot several of these birds in 
each season, and that he has frequently seen as many as thirty or forty in a single flock. It is a 
difficult bird to shoot, as it is very shy, and flies rapidly. It is the swiftest in flight of the whole 
Duck family. 

" On Long Island, according to Giraud, this bird is known as the ' Water Pheasant,' and 
also as the ' Hairy-head,' but it is rather rare on that coast. It is a very active diver, subsists 
by fishing, and its flesh is not held in high esteem." 

To this I may add that when living in New Brunswick I frequently saw this Merganser 
during the summer season, and believe that it nested on the Musquash Eiver, but I never 
succeeded in finding its nest. It was only a summer visitant, leaving for the south before winter 
set in. In the winter it ranges far south, but it is said to winter in Oregon, as Mr. Anthony 
(Auk, 1886, p. 163) states that a few were seen near Beaverton in December, and, according to 
Mr. Merrill (Auk, 1888, p. 141), it is resident in that State. Mr. Scott (torn. cit. p. 268) says 
that it is a rare winter resident in Florida, and Mr. Lloyd (Auk, 1887, p. 184) that it is common 



298 

in winter in Western Texas. I met with it there on the Leona, Medina, and Nueces Rivers, but 
nowhere common. 

It is a winter visitant also to the West Indies. Wedderburn and Hurdis record the 
occurrence of a female on the 10th January, 1849, and of a young bird in December 1850 in 
Bermuda, and ; according to Gundlach (J. f. O. 1875, p. 385), it is rather rare in Cuba in winter, 
but is sometimes brought to the market in Havana. It is said to have occurred in Greenland, 
but I do not find any authentic instance of its having been obtained there. 

In its general habits the Hooded Merganser reminded me much of our Red-breasted 
Merganser, but I found it more shy and wary and it appeared to fly more swiftly. It is never 
met with except on fresh water, and Nuttall also remarks that it prefers the fresh water, especially 
in wooded localities, and only approaches the sea in winter when its favourite haunts are blocked 
up with ice. Like the Smew it nests in hollow trees, and never, I believe, in other situations. 
Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway state (I. c.) that "it is found in the neighbourhood of 
Calais, Me., where it spends the summer, and where it breeds in considerable numbers. 
Mr. George A. Boardman informs me that he has repeatedly noticed it breeding in the 
neighbourhood of the St. Croix River, where it always nests in the hollows of trees, lining 
the cavity with fine dry grasses, leaves, and down ; the eggs are from five to eight in number. 

"Several years ago, Mr. Boardman's attention was called to a singular contest between a 
female Wood-Duck and a female of the Hooded Merganser for the possession of a hollow tree. 
The two birds had been observed for several days contesting for the nest, neither permitting the 
other to remain in peaceful occupancy. The nest was found to contain eighteen fresh eggs, of 
which about a third belonged to the Merganser ; and as the nest was lined with her own dark- 
coloured down, it appeared probable that this bird was the rightful owner of the premises." 

I am indebted to my old friend Mr. George A. Boardman for a clutch of six eggs, together 
with the down, taken by himself near Calais, Maine, on the 15th May, 1865, the nest being in a 
hollow tree. The down is dull dark buffy grey in colour, and the eggs are remarkable as being 
very round and having a very thick smooth shell. In colour they are creamy white, and measure 
from 2-05 by 1-78 inch to 2T7 by 1-79. 

I am indebted to Mr. K, C. MTlwraith, of Hamilton, Ontario, for a male of this species, 
which is by far the finest specimen I have ever seen. Unfortunately it was received just after 
the Plate had been drawn, or I should have figured it. 

The specimens figured are those above described, and are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mm. H. E. Dresser. 

a, (J ad., b, ? ad. Calais, Maine, U.S. (G. A. Boardman). c, d, $ ad. Hamilton, Ontario, April 15th, 
1888 {K. C. M'llwraith). e,pull. Calais, Maine (G. A. Boardman). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram. 
a, <$ > b, ? • Labrador, 1846; c, $ . N. America; d, ? . N. America [Lord Walsingham). 



697 



mnem 





» r;^- ' 




J-G-Keuiema-ns dei.etiitK. 



EASTERN RING-DOVE 

COLUMBA CASIOTIS. 



MinterrxBros . invp 



COLUMBA CASIOTIS. 

(EASTERN RING-DOVE.) 



Columba palumbus, Blyth, J. As. Soc. Beng. xiv. p. 865 (1844. partim). 
Palumhus torquatus, var., id. Cat. Mus. As. Soc. Beng. p. 233 (1849). 
Palumbus casiotis, Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. ii. p. 42 (1857). 
Columba casiotis (Bp.), G. R. Gray, List B. Brit. Mus., Columbae, p. 26 (1856). 
Columba palumbus himalayana, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Columbae, p. 66 (1873). 
Columba pulchricollis, Severtz. Turk. Jevotnie, p. 68 (1873, nee Gould). 
Palumba pulchricollis, id. J. f. O. 1875, p. 180 (nee Gould). 

Figura unica. 
Bonap. Icon. Pig. pi. lviii. 

Ad. C. palumbo similis, sed plaga utrinque in colli lateribus ochrace& nee alba. 

Adult Male (Tian-shan, May). Resembles Columba palumbus, but differs in having the patches on the 
sides of the neck ochraceous instead of white. 

The range of this eastern representative of our Ring-Dove extends from the high plateau of 
Persia eastward through Afghanistan and the Himalayas to Turkestan and Kuldja. 

I do not find that it has been met with in Transcaspia, though it is not improbable that it 
may occur in the eastern portion of that district ; but in Persia Mr. Blanford (E. Persia, ii. p. 269) 
met with it " near Shiraz and north of the Elburz in Mazandaran and Ghilan, and also in gardens 
containing large trees near the higher villages, as at Rayin, near Karman." Col. Swinhoe found 
it common in Afghanistan, at Kandahar, the Kojuk, and Quetta. Major Wardlaw-Ramsay 
(Ibis, 1880, p. 68) states that he met with it " not generally common in the Hariab district. In 
one spot, however, in the pine-forest between the main range of the Safed-Koh and the village of 
Ali Kheyl a large flock could always be found in the month of April. By the middle of the 
next month they had all paired. I found several nests, but I was not able to obtain the eggs." 
Sir O. St. John (Ibis, 1889, p. 173) found it " very numerous in suitable localities, such as the 
large gardens about Kandahar and in the wooded hills west of Quetta. It breeds in large 
numbers in the juniper-forests of Ziarat, 7000 to 9000 feet, migrating to the lower hills in 
autumn." Both Col. Biddulph and Mr. Scully met with it in Gilgit, where, according to the 
latter (Ibis, 1881, p. 583), it is "a fairly common summer visitor; it arrives about the middle 
of April, and leaves in the middle of November. It breeds in the forests above 8000 feet, and 
is found in the main valley at about 5000 feet, on arrival in April and May, and again in 
October and November on its way down south." In India, according to Dr. Jerdon, it is found 
in the N.W. Himalayas, near Simla, and in the alpine Punjab, and visits the Salt Range and the 
plains of the Punjab during winter. Mr. A. O. Hume says that they first appear about Simla, 



300 

Mussoorie, and Alraovah about the beginning of November, and remain throughout the winter, 
leaving about the middle of April. 

In Turkestan, where it was met with by Dr. Severtzoff, it appears to be tolerably common, 
and, according to Mr. Pleske (Rev. Turk. Orn. p. 45), " breeds on the Iskander-kul, and was 
observed at Baissun and Derbent in the Western Tian-shan. Russoff received eggs, taken on 
the 4th and 6th June, from the Urjukle-tau, near Saamin. They are white and resemble those 
of C. palumhus." 

Like its western ally, the Eastern Ring-Dove builds a loosely constructed nest, which 
is placed on a tree, and lays two white eggs. According to Mr. A. O. Hume (Nests and Eggs of 
Ind. B. 2nd ed. ii. p. 347), Captain Unwin took a nest containing two nearly fresh eggs in the 
Agrore Valley, at an elevation of perhaps 2500 feet. The nest was a loosely built twig platform, 
placed on a branch of a fir-tree near the trunk, about 30 feet from the ground. Col. C. H. T. 
Marshall found this Pigeon breeding in the valley of the Jhelum, at low elevation, in dense 
thorny jungles ; and Capt. Cock, who found it nesting near Murree in June, says that the nests 
were placed on bushes or small trees, never at any great height, 12 feet above the ground being 
about the average. 

The eggs, according to Mr. Hume, resemble those of Columba palunibus, but are, as a rule, 
rather smaller, varying from T53 to l - 65 inch in length and from T06 to T2 in breadth. 

The specimen figured is the one above described, and is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. U. Dresser. 

a, (J ad. Tian-shan, May 1889 {Pevtzoff). b. Koteghur, India, March 15th, 1871 [A. O. Hume). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram. 
a. Cheer Forest, May 20th, 1870; b. Cashmere (G. Henderson) . 



698 





J. G- Keulema-ns del et litk . 



INDIAN STOCK-DOVE 

COLUMBA EVERSMANNI. 



Mintei-n. Bros . imp. 



COLITMBA EVERSMANNI. 

(INDIAN STOCK-DOVE.) 



1. Columba fusca, Pall. Zoogr. Ross.-As. i. p. 567 (1811, nee Miill.). 

Columba cenas, var., Licht. in Eversm. Reise nach Buchara, p. 132 (1823). 

Columba cenas, var. tatarica, Wagl. (ubi 1 ?), fide Bp. Consp. Gen. Av. ii. p. 48 (1857). 

Columba eversmanni, Bonap. Compt. Bend, xliii. p. 838 (1856). 

Palumbasna eversmanni, id. ut supra et p. 948 (1856). 

Columba cenicapilla, Blyth, J. As. Soc. Beng. xxvi. p. 219 (1857). 

Palumboena eversmanni (Bp.), Jerdon, B. of Ind. iii. p. 467 (1863). 

Columba fusca, Pall., Severtz. Turk. Jevot. p. 68 (1873). 

Columba fusca, var. j3. brachyura, Severtz. J. f. O. 1875, p. 180. 

Columba intermedia, Dresser, Ibis, 1876, p. 321, nee Strickland. 

1. Columba cenas, Blanf. E. Persia, ii. p. 269 (1876). 

Ccelotreron eversmanni (Bp.), Heine & Reichen. Nomencl. Mus. Hein. Orn. p. 275 (1890). 

Columba fusca, Taczanowski, Faun. Orn. Sib. Orient, p. 732 (1893). 

KoeJc-Koepteri, Tekke (Zarudny) ; Kugan, Turki (Scully) ; Kummer-kulla, Hindu (Jerdon). 

Figura unica. 
Henderson and Hume, Lahore to Yarkand, pi. xxxi. 

Ad. C. cence similis, sed statura minore, coloribus pallidioribus : capite vinaceo tincto : uropygio cinereo-albo 
fere albo : cauda cum fascia cinerea indistincta : plumis in colli lateribus rufescenti-seneo tinctis : 
pedibus purpureo-carneis : rostro corneo-fusco : iride flava. 

Adult Male (Sirsa, Punjab). Resembles C. cenas, but is paler and smaller; head tinged with vinaceous; 
rump whitish grey, nearly white; tail with the grey band scarcely discernible, and the metallic 
feathers on the neck are glossed with coppery chestnut ; legs purplish fleshy : bill horny brown ; iris 
yellow. Total length about 12 inches, culmen 0"75, wing 7'75, tail 4 - 5, tarsus 1*0. 

Obs. A male from Tschinas is rather larger, the wing measuring 8 - l inches, and shows a tendency to 
C. cenas in having the rump rather more of a bluish-grey tinge. The female does not differ from the 
male in plumage. 

The present species is found from Transcaspia and Afghanistan to Turkestan and Northern India, 
ranging north as a rare straggler to Siberia. 

In Transcaspia, according to Mr. Zarudny (Ois. Transcasp. p. 61), it is common on the plain 
of Ahal-Teke, where it frequents gardens and bush-covered valleys near the rivers. He met with 
it in the gardens of the villages Gjarmaou, Firouse, and Koulkoulaou, and early in August he 

2t 



302 

saw flocks of fully 150 individuals. He also states (Rech. Zool. Transcasp. p. 102) that it is more 
frequently met with on the plains than in the mountains, and occurs along the Atrek between 
Jagly-Oloum and Douslou-Oloum, on the banks of the Douchak, the Tedgend, and the Central 
Murghab, in the Pinde and Merv oases, and is often to be seen amongst the ruins of ancient 
Merv, but more seldom along the Alikhanow canal. 

Mr. Blanford remarks (E. Persia, ii. p. 269) that he did not notice any Stock-Doves in Persia ; 
but Sir O. St. John shot them on the Persian plateau, and Mr. Blanford considers it probable 
that they belonged to the present species, which I think will prove to be the case, as Columba 
cenas probably does not occur there. Sir O. St. John obtained a female near Kandahar in April ; 
and Dr. Aitchison found it nesting in considerable numbers on trees in the bed of the Hari-rud 
River in Afghanistan. 

Dr. Severtzoff met with it in Turkestan ; Russoff (Rev. Turk. Orn. p. 45) obtained both birds 
and eggs at Tschinas early in May ; and the brothers Grum-Grzimailo procured a single specimen 
from Otun-tasy-tschan in the Bei-scham mountain-range. 

Dr. Scully records it from Eastern Turkestan, and says (Stray Feathers, iv. p. 176): "This 
Pigeon was first obtained in a large clump of poplars (Populus balsamifera) at Taskhama in 
June. There they were in great numbers, but so wild that it was difficult to get specimens ; I 
shot two young birds however, so that there can be no doubt about this species breeding in 
Eastern Turkestan. In August, again, at Yak-Shamba Bazar, I shot a couple of these birds in a 
clump of poplars and saw many about. The Yarkandis say that this species always haunts 
Toghrak (poplar) jungles, and that the nest is always placed on those trees." 

Dr. Henderson shot a male on the 8th October at Chagra, above the Pangong Lake, at an 
elevation of 16,000 feet, when on the expedition from Lahore to Yarkand, and, according to 
Mr. A. O. Hume (Lah. to Yark. p. 271), it visits the plains of Upper India in large flocks during 
the cold season, but rarely wanders more than 150 miles from the foot of the hills. They take 
up their residence, he says, in some clump of trees near some pond or tank, often in the close 
vicinity of villages, and there they roost at night, and in the early morning and at dusk are to be 
seen clustered thickly on the topmost boughs ; during the day not a bird is to be seen, the whole 
colony dispersing far and wide over the country in pairs, or in little parties of from three to 
seven. They come in November and disappear towards the end of March. 

Northward this Pigeon ranges up to Siberia; and there is a specimen in the British Museum 
obtained by Dr. O. Finsch in Western Siberia in March. According to Taczanowski (I. c.) the 
only record of its occurrence in Eastern Siberia is on the authority of the elder Gmelin, who, 
as stated by Pallas, obtained one killed late in August in the forest near Krasnoyarsk, on the 
Yennesei River. 

In general habits the present species does not appear to differ from our European Stock- 
Dove, of which it is an eastern form, and, like that species, it nests both on trees and in holes in 
the ground. 

According to Mr. Zarudny it is frequently found breeding in colonies of about fifty pairs, 
the nests being placed in holes and cracks in the steep river-banks. The nest is a slight structure 
or lining of dry grass and fine twigs, and the number of eggs is two, these latter being white and 
similar to those of Columba cenas, only rather smaller. He found fresh eggs near Kara-Bend late 



303 

in April. During heavy floods portions of the banks of the rivers frequently fall in, carrying 
with them the nests of these Doves, many of which are thus destroyed. 

The specimen figured is the one above described, and is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, $ . Odha, Sirsa, Punjab, November 29th, 1867; b, $ . Odha, November 28th, 1867 {A.O.Hume), 
c, S ■ Tschinas, Turkestan, May 7th, 1878 (Russoff). d. Kuldja, July 19th, 1888 (Dr. Lansdell). 



21 2 



TUETUE CAMBAYENSIS. 

(INDIAN TURTLE-DOVE.) 



Tourterelle grise de Surate, Sonner. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 180 (1782). 

Cambayan Turtle, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. 2, p. 652 (1783). 

Columha cambayensis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 779 (1788, ex Lath.). 

Columba cegyptiaca (nee Lath.), Licht. in Eversm. Eeise nach Buchara, p. 133 (1823). 

Peristera cambayensis (Gm.), Boie, Isis, 1828, p. 327. 

Turtur ermanni, Bp. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 942 (1856). 

Turtur cambayensis (Gm.), Bp. Consp. Gen. Av. ii. p. 62 (1857). 

Stigmatopelia cambayensis (Gm.), Sundev. Tent. p. 100 (1872). 

Streptopelia cegyptiaca (nee Lath.), Severtzoff, J. f. O. 1875, p. 180. 

Turtur senegalensis (nee Linn.), Sclater & Taylor, Ibis, 1876, p. 62 ; Dresser, B. of Eur. vii. 

p. 55 (1876, partim) ; Sharpe, 2nd Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 118 (1891). 
Peristera senegalensis (nee Linn.), Radde & Walter, Vog. Transcasp. p. 83 (1888). 

Tortru-fachta, Hindu; Chitti-bella-guwa and Sowata-guwa, Tel.; Touta-porah, Tarn, (fide 
Jerdon). 

Figura nulla. 

Ad. T. senegalensi similis, sed corpore supra cum uropygio pallide et sordide fusco, hoc nee cseruleo : capite, 
collo et pectore vinaceis, mento et gula pallidioribus : tectricibus alarum pallide cinereo-cseruleis : 
abdomine centraliter cum crisso et subcaudalibus albis. 

Adult Female (Constantinople). Upper parts, including the rump, pale, dull earth-brown; most of the 
wing-coverts pale ashy blue; head, neck, and breast vinous, the chin and throat paler; centre of the 
abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts white ; otherwise similar to Turtur senegalensis. Total length 
about 11 inches, culmen 0'75, wing 5'7, tail 5 - 0, tarsus 0'82. 

Young Female (Constantinople). Upper parts paler and duller than in the adult, the wing-coverts less blue ; 
throat dull white, rest of the underparts pale buffy earth-brown without any vinous tinge, dull white 
on the abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts ; the black collar is absent, and some of the feathers on 
the lower neck have narrow pale margins. 

When I wrote the article on Turtur senegalensis in the ' Birds of Europe ' (vii. p. 55) in 1876 I 
had not had an opportunity of examining any specimen from Europe, but since then I have 
received, in a small collection made by Mr. Pearse in Constantinople, several small Turtle- Doves 
labelled T. senegalensis, which, on comparison, I find to be, as stated by Count Salvadori (to whom 
I lent them for the British Museum Catalogue, as they had no European specimens in the National 
Collection), undistinguishable from Turtur cambayensis from India. In 1876 I united these two 
species, but subsequently, when I had an opportunity of examining a series, I found that they 



306 

must be kept apart, as they are most certainly specifically distinct. Count Salvadori does not 
include T. senegalensis, but only T. cambayensis, as found in Turkey ; but there is no doubt that 
both species occur thei - e, as I have a specimen obtained by Mr. Pearse at Turballi which, though 
not quite adult, has the rump as blue as in typical T. senegalensis. I am, however, afraid that 
I must blame myself for this omission on the part of Count Salvadori, as I am not sure that he 
saw the specimen in question. I have not been able to examine a specimen from Greece, but, 
judging from the description given by Count von der Miihle (Orn. Griechenl. p. 83), the present 
species does not occur, Turtur senegalensis being the only one found there. It is not impossible 
that both forms may occur in Asia Minor, but the present species is certainly found there, as 
there is a specimen in the British Museum obtained by Mr. C. G. Danford at Aintab. Dr. Kriiper 
records a Turtle-Dove as common and breeding at Smyrna and Axari, which is probably the 
present species, but I have not been able to procure one from there for examination. It is, 
according to Messrs. Kadde and Walter (Vog. Transcasp. p. 83), a resident in the eastern part of 
Transcaspia, and is restricted to the cultivated zone of Buchara, on the left bank of the Amu- 
Darja. They obtained a male on the 20th March, 1887, not far from Tschardshui, and I may 
add that I received a specimen from Tashkend through Mr. NazarofF. Messrs. Radde and Walter 
say that it is respected by the Bucharans, and has consequently become quite domesticated. It 
breeds in the walls below the roofs and in the galleries of the dwelling-houses, and goes about 
half-tame with the poultry in the yards. On the 20th March they found a female already 
sitting on her eggs. Dr. Sharpe records the present species from Fao, in the Persian Gulf; but 
Mr. Blanford did not meet with it in Persia, though it is probably the Turtle-Dove he refers to 
as included by Eichwald, and which, he says, inhabits the west shore of the Caspian from Persia 
to Astrachan. 

Col. Swinhoe records it (Ibis, 1882, p. 117) as common throughout the year in Afghanistan. 
It commences breeding in the latter end of February, and he took two eggs on the 22nd and 
caught a half-fledged young one on the 20th March. It is, he adds, very common in the city 
of Kandahar, and makes its nest in the holes in mud walls. Col. Biddulph and Mr. Scully each 
obtained one in Gilgit, where it appears to be uncommon. Dr. Severtzoff records it from 
Turkestan ; Russoff obtained it in Tschinas, and it was observed in the Western Tian-shan. 

According to Dr. Jerdon the present species is found throughout the greater part of India, 
not occurring in Ceylon, Malabar, or Lower Bengal, nor in the countries to the eastwards, but 
very abundant in Central, and especially in Western, India, also in Sind and the Punjab. 
Mr. Blanford found it in Baluchistan, where it appears to be common. 

In its habits the present species does not appear to differ from T. senegalensis. In India it 
is, according to Dr. Jerdon, "a very familiar bird, entering gardens and feeding on public roads, 
and close to houses and stables, without any alarm ; but it is also very abundant in all low 
bushy jungles. It breeds in Southern India at various times ; and Hutton records that it visits 
Mussooree in April, remaining to breed, and departing again in autumn. Its coo, says Blyth, is 
low, subdued, and musical, a dissyllabic sound, repeated four or five times successively, and of 
which its Hindustani and Tamil names are a sort of imitation." Like its congeners it makes a 
very scanty nest, and deposits two pure white eggs. I have in my collection eggs from different 



307 

parts of India which are white, the surface being smooth, but not glossy, and varying in size from 
0-95 by - 75 inch to 1*02 by 0'77 inch ; Dr. Rey says that specimens in his collection measure 
from 24-5 millimetres by 20-0 to 27'0 by 20-5. 

From the above it will be seen that in my article on Turtur senegalensis in the ' Birds of 
Europe ' many of the notes on its occurrence in Turkey, and probably in Asia Minor, and all 
those relating to countries east of Asia Minor refer to Turtur cambayensis and not to that 
species. 

Turtur senegalensis inhabits the whole of the African continent from Egypt down to the 
Cape of Good Hope, Socotra, the Canary Islands (according to Count Salvadori), Palestine, and 
Greece, and, as above stated, it has also occurred in Turkey. 

As the present species is readily distinguished from Turtur senegalensis in having the upper 
parts earth-brown without any trace of rufous, and the rump being similar in colour to the back 
and not bluish, I have not deemed it necessary to figure it. 

The specimens described are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, $ ad., b, $ juv. Constantinople, May 15th, 1878 (Pearse). c, ? ad. Tashkend, January 11th, 1882 
(Nazaroff). 




.J-G-Keulemans del efclitK. 



SENEGAL SAND GROUSE 

PTEROCLES SEINE GALLUS. 



PTEROCLES SENEGALLUS. 

(SENEGAL SAND-GROUSE.) 



Gelinotte de Senegal, Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. ii. p. 250 (1771). 

Tetrao senegallus, Linn. Mantissa, p. 526 (1771). 

Pin-tailed Grouse, var. A, Latham, Gen. Synop. ii. p. 749 (1783). 

Tetrao senegalus, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 642 (1790). 

Pterocles guttatus, Licht. Verz. Doubl. p. 64 (1823). 

Pterocles senegalus (Linn.), Gray, Gen. of'B. iii. p. 519 (1845). 

Pterocles senegalensis, Riipp. Syst. Uebers. p. 106. no. 384 (1845). 

Pteroelurus senegalus (Linn.), Bp. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 880 (1856). 

Pterocles senegallus (Linn.), Shelley, B. of Egypt, p. 220 (1872). 

Pteroelurus senegallus (Linn.), Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxii. p. 14 (1893). 

Fulcu, Somali ; Kittaviah, Berber ; Quata, Arabic. 

Figures notabiles. 

D'Aubenton, PI. Enl. 130; Temm. PL Col. v. pi. xxvii. ; Gould, B. of Asia, vi. pi. lxii.; 
Koenig, J. f. O. 1895, Taf. xii. 

$ ad. pileo et corpore supra lsete isabellinis, supracaudalibus ochraceo-isabellinis : pilei lateribus, loris et 
nucha postica dilute cseruleo-cinereis : primariis isabellinis, in pogonio interno fumoso adumbratis et 
fumoso-fusco terminatis : secundariis fusco-isabellinis ad basin, versus apicem fuscis et ochraceo- 
isabellino apicatis : tectricibus minoribus dorso con color ibus, reliquis in basi fulvescenti-canis, versus 
apicem fuscis et isabellino apicatis : rectricibus medianis valde elongatis, versus apicem angustatis, 
fulvescenti-isabellinis, in dimidio apicali fumoso-fuscis, reliquis in dimidio basali isabellino-fuscis, 
versus apicem nigricantibus et albo apicatis : capitis lateribus et gula ochraceis, gutture eano, corpore 
reliquo subtiis isabellino : abdomine medialiter nigro : subcaudalibus isabellino-albidis, in dimidio 
basali nigris : rostro corneo-cserulescente : digitis nigro-fuscis : iride umbrina. 

? ad. pileo, nucha et corpore supra cum tectricibus alarum et supracaudalibus isabellinis, nigro guttatis : 
rectricibus medianis paulo brevioribus et obsolete nigro fasciatis : genis, regione parotica, mento et gul& 
ltete ochraceo-aurantiacis : gutture et pectore isabellinis nigro guttatis : partibus inferioribus aliter 
sicut in mare coloratis. 

Adult Male (Sind, June). Crown, back, rump, and upper tail-coverts dark isabelline, rather yellow on the 
upper tail-coverts ; sides of the crown to below the eye, nape, and hind neck blue-grey ; primaries greyish 
isabelline, becoming brown towards the tip, and on the inner web washed with brown; secondaries 
isabelline brown on the basal portion, becoming dark brown towards the tip, and margined with warm 
isabelline; lesser wing-coverts like the back, the remaining coverts greyish at the base, then warm 
brown tipped with isabelline; central tail-feathers yellowish isabelline on the basal half, then dark 
brown, much elongated and attenuated, remaining tail-feathers isabelline brown at the base, then 
blackish, tipped with white; sides of the head below the eye and throat ochre, the lower throat bluish 
grey; rest of the underparts isabelline, rather paler than the back; centre of the abdomen black; 

2u 



310 

under tail-coverts creamy white, but black at the base : bill bluish horn ; feet blackish brown ; iris 
brown. Total length about 12 - 5 inches, culmen 065, wing 8'0, tail 5 - 75, tarsus 1*1. 

Adult Female (Sind, Juue). Crown, nape, and upper parts generally pale isabelline, spotted with black; 
sides of the head below the eye, chin, and upper throat ochreous ; lower throat and breast isabelline, 
spotted with black ; rest of the underparts as in the male. Wing 7'3 inches, tail 4"2, tarsus 1"05. 

Young Male (Kotri, Sind) . Resembles the female, but is not spotted on the upper part, but irregularly 
marked and marbled with black, the nape, back, and rump very little marked ; the ochreous on the 
throat is paler, and the lower throat and breast are unspotted; the median tail-feathers are pale 
isabelline, barred with black, and not elongated or attenuated. 

The present species, which, like P. coronatus, can only be included as a rare visitant to the 
southern portion of the Western Palsearctic area in North Africa, inhabits North Africa, ranging 
eastward through Arabia to N.W. India. 

Canon Tristram speaks of it (Ibis, 1860, p. 71) as being confined to the extreme south of 
the Sahara, where it was more plentiful than P. coronatus ; Dr. Taczanowski records it (J. f. O. 
1870, p. 51) as common in the desert region of the province of Constantine in Algeria; and 
Dr. Koenig (J. f. O. 1893, p. 74) met with it near Biskra, where, he believes, it breeds. 
Mr. J. I. S. Whitaker informs me that he found it plentiful at Sidi-Okbar, near Biskra, and met 
with large flocks in the spring coming to drink at the river near that place. He also (Ibis, 
1895, p. 105) records it from Tunis, and says that his collectors obtained specimens about the 
end of March at Tarfaoui to the N.W. of the Chott. He did not, he informs me, meet with it 
further north than Gafsa. It occurs in Egypt, but does not appear to be common, and is found 
in Nubia. Capt. Speke (Ibis, 1860, p. 247) says that it is found in large flocks in the Somali 
country ; and Von Heuglin records it as found in Arabia Petraea. In Palestine it is, according 
to Canon Tristram (Faun. & Flor. of Palestine, p. 122), the most universally distributed Sand- 
Grouse on all sides of Palestine, and the only one which actually breeds in the Jordan Valley. 
It is scattered all over the highlands of Moab, where he obtained specimens in the spring. He 
also states that it occurs in Arabia and the deserts west of the Tigris. 

In the British Museum there are specimens from Bagdad, Mesopotamia, and Persia ; and 
Mr. Blanford, who does not appear to have met with it in Persia, says that it is not so common 
in Baluchistan as in Sind. Col. Swinhoe, who (Ibis, 1882, p. 119) records it from Southern 
Afghanistan, says that he never met with it above the Bolan Pass, but it was common at 
Pirchowky and in all that part of the country below the range of mountains. 

In India, according to Mr. Hume (Stray Feathers, vii. p. 161), it occurs west of 73° E. long., 
and as far north as 33° N. lat. It is extremely abundant and resident in the semidesert portions 
of Sind, where it breeds, but elsewhere is only a cold-weather visitant. He also records it (op. cit. 
iv. p. 4) as occurring "in Northern Guzerat, along the shores of the Runn. I obtained it near 
Soeegam (about 50 miles due west of Deesa) ; and Mr. James has recently met with it near 
Patree. Throughout Sind it is very common in suitable localities ; it has been sent from Cutch 
and Northern Kattiawar, but only as yet from the neighbourhood of the Jtunn." Mr. E. A. Butler 
received it from Pokurun, about 70 miles north-east of Jodhpoor, and he subsequently (oj). cit. v. 
p. 222) shot one or two at Rajoo, about 90 miles S.W. of Deesa. 



311 

With regard to their habits, Mr. Hume says (Str. Feath. i. p. 222) that " they keep together 
in flocks of from five to fifty ; very often each flock, at any rate in winter, consists of one sex, only 
occasionally we found both sexes intermingled. They trot about on the dry soil picking up seeds 
and insects, or squat motionless, sunning themselves in the early morning sun. They fly off to 
drink, morning and evening, often to comparatively very distant localities, and in fact comport 
themselves much as the other Rock-Grouse with which I am acquainted do. It was, perhaps, 
due to the season being yet young, but it did strike me that, though I often watched them from 
distances of from 80 to 100 yards with my binoculars, I never saw that perpetual skirmishing 
going on among the males which I have so often noticed amongst those of P. arenarius (but, no 
doubt, later in the year) in the Punjab." 

Mr. J. I. S. Whitaker informs me that he found it frequenting, like other Sand-Grouse, 
open stony places and sand-hillocks, where the colour of the soil and the surroundings harmonize 
so perfectly with that of its plumage as to render detection at a distance next to impossible. It 
is, he adds, a shy, wary bird, and when in large flocks is almost unapproachable. He never 
succeeded in finding its nest. 

Dr. Newman describes the note as peculiar, sounding like Quiddle, quiddle, quiddle, some- 
what resembling the gurgling note produced by blowing through a reed, one end of which is 
immersed in water. Like its congeners it deposits its eggs on the ground, the nest being a 
mere depression. 

Mr. A. O. Hume (Nests & Eggs of Ind. B. 2nd ed. iii. p. 366) says that he received a single 
egg, extracted from the body of a female shot in the desert west of Shikapoor, Upper Sind, on 
the 20th March, 1875, which in shape and size was similar to the egg of P. ewustus, but the 
markings were much more sparse than in any egg of that species he had ever seen. It is 
cylindro-ovoidal, the ground-colour pale yellowish stone-colour, and the markings, which are 
thinly distributed over the surface of the egg, consist of olive-brown spots and tiny blotches, 
with a few crooked and hooked lines ; besides these a few pale lilac-purplish or inky-grey spots, 
streaks, and smears, having a subsurface appearance, are scattered irregularly about the surface 
of the egg. Canon Tristram (/. c.) describes the egg as having the ground-colour similar to that 
of P. alchata, but the brown spots are very faint, and it is scarcely more than half the size of the 
egg of that species. He only succeeded in finding a single nest in the Sahara. 

The specimens figured are the male and female above described, axtd are in my own 
collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. M. Dresser, 
a, <J ad., b, $ ad. Sind {Lieut. H. E. Barnes), c, g juv., d, g ad. Kotri, Sind, June 1893 (G. M c 'Mullen). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram. 

a, g. Wady-er-R'mail, Judaea, February 1st, 1864 {H. B. T.). b, £ . Ziza, Moab, February 27th, 1872 
{H. B. T.). c, ? . Kustul Belka, Moab, February 27th, 1872 {H. B. T.). d, $ . The Nile {E. Cavendish 
Taylor) . 

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'■-^v: ' V '*, ■-<* fid-: .'-5 






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PTEEOCLES COBONATUS. 

(CORONETTED SAND-GROUSE.) 



Pterocles coronatus, Licht. Verz. Doubl. p. 65 (1823). 
Quata, Arabic (v. Heuglin). 

Figurw notabiles. 
Temminck, PI. Col. nos. 339, 340 ; Gould, B. of Asia, vi. pi. lxiii. 

cJ ad. fronte et plaga supraocular! albidis : pileo cinnamomeo : stria supraoculari iu nucham confluente 
casrulescenti-cinerea : stria utrinque ad frontis latera alteraque mediana mentali nigerrimis : corpore 
supra isabellino-arenario : scapularibus et tectricibus alarum fusco notatis et maculis longitudinalibus 
isabellino-cervinis apicatis : remigibus primariis nigro-fuscis, extus vix isabellino-arenario marginatis : 
rectricibus rufescenti-isabellinis, duabus mediis vix elongatis, concoloribus, reliquis albido apicatis et 
ante apieem nigro-fasciatis : gula, collo superiore, laterali et postico, cum regione parotica, ochraceis : 
corpore reliquo subtiis isabellino-arenario, gutture et pectore cinereo lavatis : subcaudalibus albis : 
rostro et pedibus plumbeo-nigris : iride fusc&. 

? ad. coloribus pallidioribus : capitis pictura nigra et stria superciliari caerulescente nullis : fronte nigro 
striata : corpore supra nigro-fusco transfasciato et vix guttato : gutture et pectore nigro-fusco anguste 
fasciatis. 

Adult Male (Oglet, S. Tunis, March). Centre of the forehead and a small space over the eye creamy white ; 
crown cinnamon, surrounded by a blue-grey band j a black patch on each side of the forehead, chin, 
and middle of the throat jet-black ; upper parts sandy isabelline ; scapulars and wing-coverts marked 
with dark brown, the feathers tipped with a drop-shaped patch of creamy buff; primaries blackish 
brown, slightly margined with sandy isabelline ; the two middle tail-feathers pointed and slightly 
elongated, warm sandy isabelline ; remaining rectrices warm sandy isabelline, with a subterminal black 
bar, and broadly tipped with white ; throat, cheeks, ear-coverts, and upper neck yellow ; rest of the 
underparts sandy isabelline, washed with grey on the lower throat and fore part of the breast ; under 
tail-coverts white : beak and feet plumbeous black ; iris brown. Total length about 10 inches, 
culmen 0*7, wing 7'8, tail 4 - 0, tarsus 1"1. 

Adult Female (Oglet, S. Tunis, March). In general coloration paler than the male, and without any black 
on the head or throat, and lacking also the blue-grey band ; forehead narrowly striped with black ; 
upper parts generally barred and slightly spotted with blackish brown; lower throat and breast 
narrowly barred with blackish brown. 

Immature Male {fide Ogilvie Grant). Differs from the adult in having the tips of the primaries, central 
pair of tail-feathers, and some of the secondary-coverts and scapulars buff, veriniculated with black. 

The Coronetted Sand-Grouse ranges from Algeria, Tunis, and Egypt, eastward through Arabia 
and Persia to North-west India. 



314 

Major Loche includes it as found in Algeria, and Canon Tristram says (Ibis, 1860, p. 71) 
that it is " confined to the more southern portions of the Sahara, where it supplants the first 
species (P. arenarius). It is a much smaller bird. I found it only in very small companies of 
four or five ; but this may be owing to the extreme scarcity of plants in the district where 
it roams. The egg is of an ashy white, with a few almost obliterated pale brown markings." 
Mr. Spatz met with it in Southern Tunis, where it was also obtained by Mr. J. I. S. Whitaker, 
who writes (Ibis, 1894, p. 97) as follows : — " During my journey I met with it only at one place, 
viz. at Oglet-Alima, between Gafsa and Tamerza, where it was plentiful, coming in flocks of from 
ten to fifty birds to drink at the water-holes made by the Arabs in the dry river-beds. I saw it 
first on the 12th March, when the flight commenced about 7 a.m. and lasted till nearly 10 o'clock, 
after which hour the birds disappeared. During the remainder of the day I only met with an 
occasional straggler on the plains near Oglet-Alima, and think the bulk of the birds must have 
gone further south towards the desert, nor did they return to drink here in the evening. The 
following morning, however, they were at the water-holes again in full force. They are very 
strong on the wing, and fly at a considerable height, uttering a loud clucking note all the time, 
something like that of the Common Fowl. So loud is the note, and so high do the birds fly, that 
they can often be distinctly heard when scarcely visible to the naked eye. Though very shy 
and difficult to approach, they do not leave the neighbourhood when disturbed, but return 
to the water-holes, or their immediate vicinity, till the hour arrives for their departure. As in 
P. arenarius, their feathers lie very closely together, necessitating heavy shot to bring them 
down. I secured fourteen specimens in all between males and females. The flesh of this Sand- 
Grouse is excellent eating, and not at all dry or tasteless, the breast having dark and light meat, 
the same as Blackgame. 

" I was unable to ascertain whether this species breeds in the district in which I found it, 
but think it not unlikely." 

Mr. L. Alessi says (J. f. O. 1892, p. 316) that he met with it in the spring of 1892 on his 
journey to Nefzeona and Djerid, and also obtained its eggs. 

In Egypt and Nubia it is, according to Capt. Shelley, rare, and does not, so far as he knows, 
come into the Delta; and Von Heuglin states (Orn. N.O.-Afr. p. 864) that "From Southern 
Egypt, along the Nile valley, to about 16° N. lat., this Sand-Grouse is found in large flocks. It 
is generally met with in the depressions in the true desert, where steppe grass or dwarf thorn or 
palm bushes are found, on stone-heaps, amongst the rocks in dried-up places where rain-pools 
have stood, on the caravan-roads, and near the wells in the desert, even on rocky islets and 
dunes in or near the river, but never too far from their drinking-places. . . . Antinori refers to 
the occurrence of this species in Kordofan, and also at Cairo, but we did not meet with it further 
north than Kalabscheh and Korosko, but eastward as far as the oasis of El Kab." 

Dr. Leith Adams met with it at the Second Cataract; and Mr. S. Stafford Allen states (Ibis, 
1864, p. 240) that he shot a pair at El Kab. According to Mr. C. W. Wyatt (Ibis, 1870, p. 16) 
it frequents the plain of El Gaa and the marshes near Tor (Sinai), and is very shy and difficult 
to approach. Col. Miles obtained specimens at Muscat in Arabia, and it is found northward, 
according to Canon Tristram (Faun. & Flor. Palest, p. 122), in the Syrian desert, but is very 
rare there. 



315 

■ I do not find it recorded from Transcaspia, but it is found in Afghanistan and Persia. 
Mr. Blanford obtained it between Shiraz and Isfahan, on the Pei-sian plateau, and remarks 
(E. Pers. ii. p. 272) that it appeared to be more common in Baluchistan than P. senegallus, and 
has been met with in Sind, but rarely, whilst P. senegallus is common there. Sir O. St. John 
states (Ibis, 1889, p. 174) that "this is the only small Sand-Grouse of Southern Afghanistan, and 
is very generally diffused, though nowhere numerous. It is commonly seen in small parties of 
half a dozen or so, and is more active on the ground than other Sand-Grouse, running about and 
picking up seeds like a Partridge, whereas P. alchata and P. arenarius are leisurely and staid in 
their gait. It breeds in the Helmund desert, for I found it common between Kandahar and the 
river in July." Dr. Aitchison (Afgh. Delimit. Comm. p. 85) obtained it at Sang-bar, but remarks 
that he did not remember seeing it after leaving the Baluchistan Desert. It is, according to 
Mr. Hume (Stray Feathers, i. p. 224), not uncommon in the extreme north-west of Sind, about 
Jacobabad ; and Mr. Wise records it from Kurrachee. 

According to Von Heuglin the present species closely resembles P. senegallus in general 
habits and note ; but Sir William Merewether says (Str. Feath. ix. p. 200) that " the flight and 
cry are both quite different from those of all other species. They have a curious fluttering 
flight, and appear often to hover in the air, especially before settling, and their cry is a 
twittering one." 

The eggs of the present species are two or three in number, and are deposited on the 
ground. Canon Tristram describes the egg as ashy white with a few almost obliterated pale 
brown markings, and, according to Mr. A. O. Hume (Nests & Eggs of Ind. B. 2nd ed. iii. p. 366), 
Lieut. Barnes found a nest containing three eggs near Chaman, Afghanistan, which were so hard 
set as to be unfit for specimens. They measure 1-5 by 1*06 inch. 

Von Heuglin says that the breeding-season is in the months of June and July. The newly 
hatched young, which are sandy yellow, marked with olive-brown, black and white, soon run 
about with ease, and are adepts at hiding against a stone or in any slight depression in the 
ground, and it is most difficult to find them. 

I have been doubtful as to the propriety of including the Singed Sand-Grouse (Pterocles 
exustus, Temra.), and have, after due consideration, decided to omit it, though it occurs 
abundantly in Nubia and parts of Egypt, and straggles even as far as the Nile Delta, but has 
not been recorded as having occurred in any other part of the area of which I am treating. 

This species has the middle tail-feathers elongated like P. senegallus, but is readily distin- 
guishable from that species in having a black and white pectoral zone, besides which it is 
smaller, has the primaries almost entirely black, and the abdomen dark chocolate-brown, almost 
black in the centre 

The pair of Pterocles coronatus figured and above described were kindly lent to me for 
that purpose by Mr. J. I. S. Whitaker. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 



316 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser, 
a, ? . Bahu Kelat, Baluchistan, February 4th, 1872 {W. T. Blanford). 

E Mus. Rothschild. 

a, o ad. Dongola (Miiller). 

E Mus. J. I. S. Whitaker. 
a, S ad., b, 5 ad. Oglet-Alima, S. Tunis, March 1893 (J. /. S. W.). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram, 
a, $ ad. Algeria (Parzudaki). b, $ . Waregla, Algeria, December 20th, 1856 (H. B. T.) 



701 




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PL, 



PHASIANUS PEBSICUS. 

(PERSIAN PHEASANT.) 



Phasianus persicus, Severtzoff, Bull. Mosc. pt. 2, p. 208 (1874). 

Phasianus shawi, Elliot, Ibis, 1876, p. 132. 

Phasianus komarovi (nee Bogd.), Zarudny, Ois. de la Contree Transcasp. p. 63 (1885). 

Figura nulla. 

Ad. capite et collo metallico-viridibus, torque nullo, ut in P. colchico : sed albedine alarum ut in P. mongolico : 
plumis pectoris lanceolatis, toto limbo, non solo apice, tenuissime nigro marginatis : caet. fere ut in 
P. colchico, a quo alis et pectore prsesertim differt. {Severtzoff.) 

Adult Male (Soumbar, Transcaspia). Differs from P. colchicus in having the feathers on the breast and 
fore part of the back less rufous and more golden orange in colour ; the rump and upper tail-coverts 
coppery red ; the breast and the sides of the abdomen washed with purplish carmine ; the feathers on 
the flanks with broader purplish-black margins, those on the breast with narrower margins ; the black 
bars on the tail much narrower, and the lesser and median wing-coverts nearly white : bill, feet, and 
iris as in P. colchicus. Total length about 34 inches, culmen 1% wing 9*5, tail 19 - 8, tarsus 2'9. 

Adult Female. Undistinguishable from the female of P. colchicus. 

\ 
First described by Dr. Severtzoff from near Astrabad, the present species has not got a very 

extensive range, being found in the valleys of the Atrek, Soumbar, and Tchandyr Rivers, and on 

the south-east of the Caspian. 

Dr. Aitchison obtained a specimen at Bander-i-ghaz, on the Caspian, where, he remarks, it 

is said to be now rare. Prof. Bogdanoff (Consp. Av. Boss. i. p. 20) gives its range as the valley of 

the Atrek River, Achour-Ade, and the peninsula of Potemkine. Mr. Zarudny says (I. c.) that 

" the main portions of the mountains of the Kopet-dag, the Kueren-dag, and the Zar-i-kouh form 

the northern boundary of the range of our Pheasant. Within the limits of the district I 

explored large numbers were met with on the low bush-covered islets of the Tchirin-Tchai and 

Kizil-Kan Rivers, belonging to the basin of the Atrek. I also observed them near the village 

of Bendessen, on the banks of a river near this basin, which disappears on the southern slopes 

of the Kueren-dag Mountains. In spite of the conveniences which are found on the Kulkulau 

and Gjarmaou Rivers and the vicinity of the sources of the Tchirin-Tchai, I have never observed 

it in these localities." Again in 1890 (Recher. Zool. Transcasp. p. 105) he writes, "It is 

common on the banks of the Soumbar, the Tchandyr, and the Atrek, wherever the valleys on 

these rivers are covered with eyots of rushes, interspaced with tracts, some of which are bare and 

others covered with high grass. Late in August and early in September some of the adult and 

some of the young are fully moulted, whereas most of the young birds are still in moult. At this 

2x 



318 

season they frequent the fields which have been harvested, and one can scarcely walk five paces 
without driving one up. As the inhabitants of these districts seldom molest these birds, they have 
no fear of man, and are found in the vicinity of habitations." Messrs. Radde and Walter shot a 
male and two females on the 19th May on the Tchandyr, fifteen versts from Dusulum, in a high 
tamarisk-thicket, but did not then notice that they differed from P. principalis. With regard to 
the range of the two species, they remark (Vdg. Transcasp. p. 92) that " one must agree that it 
is not impossible that P. principalis, which is the species inhabiting the Turkoman plains at the 
south-west foot of the Kopet-dag, may occur in the Atrek district, for the sources of the 
Soumbar (a tributary of the Atrek) reach close to the north side of the mountain, and are only 
separated from the lowlands by a comparatively low pass (Bendessen, about 3000 feet). We 
found the vegetation in this pass closely resembling localities which the Pheasant affects. We 
know also that further east P. principalis penetrates far into the Kopet-dag at Kelat, and in 
the upper part of the Derege, and occurs at greater altitudes than Bendessen. Further east, 
again, on the Keschefrud, it is found deep in the mountains, and in 1887, according to 
General Komaroff, three were killed at Kulkulau, a locality very near to the sources of the 
Soumbar. It is certain that a Pheasant is found at the south foot of the Kopet-dag, in the 
extensive gardens of Kotchan, though it is said not to occur in Mesched. It is at present, 
however, impossible to say if this is P. principalis or P. persicus." 

As may be supposed, the Persian Pheasant does not differ in its habits from its near allies 
P. colchicus and P. principalis. 

Its nest and eggs are described by Messrs. Radde and Walter (I. c.) as follows : — " On the 
7/19 May, 1886, we found a nest of P. persicus in the valley of the Tchandyr, an affluent 
of the Soumbar. It was in a small grass-covered depression surrounded by hills, about ^ km. 
from the river-bank in high stiff grass far from bushes. It consisted of a shallow round 
depression scantily lined with grass-bents and stems of plants. The eggs, nine in number, were 
near hatching." They describe these latter as differing considerably from those of P. colchicus, 
being stouter in shape, uniform olive-grey-green in colour, verging slightly towards leather- 
yellow, resembling richly coloured eggs of the Common Partridge, and measuring 42 - 5 millim. 
by 36 - 5 millim. 

Mr. Lorenz described the Pheasant from the Talysch Valley as new, under the name of 
Phasianus colchicus, subsp. talischensis, and that from the mouth of the Kuban River to the 
Caspian under the name of P. colchicus, subsp. septentrionalis (J. f. O. 1888, pp. 571, 572). 
For an adult male of the latter I am indebted to Mr. Th. Pleske, of St. Petersburg, and after 
a careful comparison with specimens of Ph. colchicus I cannot find any valid character by which 
it can be separated from that species, and in this view Mr. Ogilvie Grant agrees with me. The 
latter gentleman, however, accords subspecific rank to Phasianus talischensis (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. 
xxii. p. 324), and says that it " differs from typical P. colchicus and resembles P. persicus in having 
the middle of the breast and sides of the belly purplish carmine, and the chest and upper parts 
narrowly margined with purple. It differs from P. persicus and resembles P. colchicus in the 
colour of the wing-coverts, which are sandy brown instead of nearly white." ^ 

I do not possess a specimen of this form, but am indebted to the Hon. Walter Rothschild 
for the loan of an adult male from Lenkoran, and have carefully examined the pair in the British 



319 

Museum from the Alazan Eiver, Transcaucasia, and cannot consider this form even subspecifically 
separable from P. colchicus, and believe that it will be found, when a larger series is available 
for examination, that these birds are a mere variety of that species, or perhaps hybrids between 
P. colchicus and P. persicus. The specimen in Mr. Rothschild's collection differs from typical 
specimens of P. colchicus merely in having the breast more tinged with purplish carmine, and 
the bars on the tail are narrower, therein resembling P. persicus more than P. colchicus. 
The specimen of P. persicus figured and above described is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser, 
a, <J ad. Soumbar, Transcaspia (Grmn-Grzimailo) . 



2x2 



702 




PHASIANUS PRINCIPALIS, 

(MURGHAB PHEASANT.) 



Phasianus principalis, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 322. 

"P/iasia?iiis komarovi, Bogd.," Zarudny, Ois. de la Contree Transcasp. p. 63 (1885). 

Phasianus komarovii, Bogd. Bull. Petersb. xxx. p. 356 (1886). 

Kargooule, Tekke (fide Zarudny). 

Figurce notabiles. 
Sclater, P. Z. S. 1885, pi. xxii.; Sharpe, Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Zool. v. pi. vii. 

<$ ad. capite et collo metallice viridibus : torque nullo : alis extiis pro maxima parte pure albis : ventris 
mediis plumis in centro flavescentibus, cuprescente rubro late circumdatis : ventris lateralis plumis 
aurescenti-rubris purpurescenti-nigro late marginatis : plaga, ventris medii nigra, nulla, : long, tota 
circa 36, alee 10, caudse 23 poll. Angl. {Sclater.) 

$ ad. P. colchico similis, sed coloribus conspicue pallidioribus, magis ocbraceo-cervino, et minus nigro- 
fusco notato. 

Adult Male (Merv, November). Crown rich bottle-green; hind neck rich green with purplish reflections ; 
fore part of neck rich purple, with bronze reflections on the chin and upper throat ; back and scapulars 
rich golden orange, margined with purplish black, and with an elongated central terminal patch ; rump 
coppery red, with narrower margins and spots ; upper tail-coverts rich coppery red ; quills greyish 
brown, the primaries barred on the inner web with warm buff, the first quill barred on both webs ; 
secondaries marbled with buff, the innermost secondaries washed with coppery red ; wing-coverts pure 
white ; tail coppery red, narrowly barred with black ; upper breast-feathers deep orange at the base, 
and broadly tipped with rich carmine-purple, the lower breast with broader margins of a lighter shade ; 
the feathers bordering the abdomen resplendent coppery red, tinged with carmine-purple ; flank-feathers 
rich golden yellow, broadly tipped with purplish black ; middle of abdomen warm brown; under tail- 
coverts brown, tinged with coppery red : bill whitish horn ; legs brown ; naked skin on the sides of 
the face and wattles vermilion-scarlet; iris brown. Total length about 35 inches, culmen 13, 
wing 9-4, tail 22-0, tarsus 2'7. 

Adult Female (Merv) . Differs from the female of P. colchicus in being much paler, the ground-colour of 
the plumage being pale clay -buff, and the dark markings are rather fewer. 

Young in down (about two days o\A,fide Walter). Crown and back light reddish and yellowish brown, with 
black stripes and elongated spots ; underparts uniform yellowish white ; a clearly defined black stripe 
passes from the base of the bill over the centre of the crown, on each side of which another similar 
stripe passes over the eye ; sides of the head rather more yellow than the underparts ; in front of the 
ear a curved black line passes down towards the lower mandible, and behind the ear are a few black 
feathers; the tail-tuft, which is about 1-5 inch long, is rather darker reddish brown than the back, 
with a median black line : beak yellowish ; legs pale yellowish white, paler than the underparts. 






9. 



22 

Obs. According to Mr. Zarudny (Rech. Zool. Contr. Transcasp. p. 108) " these Pheasants differ considerably, 
inter se, in weight and size. The largest were met with near Lake A'iaa-Gueul, in the neighbourhood 
of the village of Topasse (in the Merv oasis), and in the vicinity of Meroutchak. In some males the 
feathers on the neck have, near the end, a white band which exhibits a tendency to a white collar, but 
it is not visible, being hidden by the green ends of the neighbouring feathers. This collar rarely 
extends round the neck, and is always more developed on the hinder portion." And he further adds 
(op. cit. p. 1 57) that " the Pheasants from the banks of the Tedgend differ from those from the banks 
of the Murghab; the former have the long feathers on the sides of the abdomen, and those on the 
posterior portion of the throat, chiefly margined, not with violet-blue as is the case with those from the 
Murghab, but with deep green. In this respect the bird from the banks of the Tedgend approaches 
P. chrysomelas, in which these feathers are deep green." 

The present species, which is perhaps the most beautiful of those closely allied to our European 
Pheasant, inhabits Transcaspia and Afghanistan, ranging, according to Mr. Ogilvie Grant, into 
North-eastern Persia. 

According to Mr. Zarudny (Bull. Soc. Mosc. iii. p. 813) it " inhabits the basins of the 
Murghab, Tedgend, the Douchak Kaakh, and along the small rivers filled with rush eyots 
which flow from the Dereguez and Kelat Mountains towards the north and north-east to the 
low Aralo-Caspian plain. It is also equally numerous along the Alikhanoff canal, and 
penetrates to the oasis of Merv. In summer it frequents the plains of the Tedgend and the 
central part of the Murghab, and is found sometimes in places covered with tamarisks, and 
sometimes in open spots overgrown with alchagis and other plants. In the Merv and Pinde 
oases it affects places where there is grass and but few bushes, situated amongst the rush eyots 
near the cornfields. I cannot quite fix the time when the crow of this Pheasant is first heard, 
but I have seen them crowing with the throat puffed out between the 1st and 12th of May. On 
the banks of the Douchak the call-note may be heard from the 12th May to the 20th or 25th 
June, but after that it becomes rarer, but may be heard now and then up to the 23rd July." 
Prof. Menzbier says (Ibis, 1887, p. 301) that " it is very common throughout the country about 
the rivers Murghab, Tedgend, and Dushak, also in the district of Kaakuk, and along the rivers 
running from the mountains of Deregez and Keliat to the N. and N.E., while more to the west, 
in the country about the rivers Atrek, Chandyr, and Sumbar, the beautiful P. persicus takes 
its place." 

According to Major Yate (Ibis, 1889, p. 584) it is extremely numerous at Maruchak, on 
the Upper Murghab. It is, he says, "extraordinary what a number of pheasants there are in 
the reed-swamps of this valley, and this year they seem to be even more numerous than last. I 
know of no country in the world where one can get such good real wild-pheasant shooting as 
this. On the 21st December we brought in a bag of 72 pheasants, but, as on the first day, lost 
a good many wounded birds. The reeds are so thick, and the birds, especially the old cocks, so 
strong, that it is very hard to bag one's bird even after it is shot." 

Dr. Aitchison says (Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Zoology, v. p. 86) that " the specimens of this 
Pheasant were all got on the banks of the Bala-murghab, where it occurs in considerable 
numbers in the tamarisk and grass jungle growing in the bed of the river. More than 400 
were killed in the march of 30 miles up this river. It not only wades through the water in 



323 

trying to make from one point of vantage to another, but swims, and seems to be quite at home 
in these thickets, where there is always water to the depth of two or three feet. These swampy 
localities afford good shelter. In the mornings and evenings the Pheasants leave it for the more 
open and dry country, where they pick up their food. I believe the same species is found on 
the Hari-rud River, but I have seen no specimens from that locality." 

In its habits and mode of nidification the Murghab Pheasant does not differ appreciably 
from P. colcMcus. Mr. Zarudny writes (I. c.) that during the pairing-season " when crowing it 
prefers to perch on a bush or a mound, always near the water, for during this season of intense 
excitement it drinks and bathes even during the intervals of its crow or song. Its crow is 
accompanied by a slight characteristic sound produced by the wings like that when it takes 
wing. It calls very early in the morning and towards the evening, very seldom during the heat 
of the day, and more seldom at night. The crow, which is uttered singly, consists of two 
syllables uttered almost together. When uttering the call it looks sharply about searching for 
the females, now and then jumping up a couple of feet from the ground, and it is then very 
difficult to approach within gunshot of it. When it catches sight of a female advancing towards 
the place where she hears the crow, the male dashes impetuously after her until she allows 
herself to be caught. At times when a male approaches instead of a female a sanguinary fight 
ensues between the rivals. Once a Turcoman potter brought me two Pheasants which he had 
caught with his hands during a similar fight. The male Pheasant lives together with several 
females, which he does not leave during the time of incubation, and goes about afterwards 
surrounded by their united families. 

" In June, July, and August these birds are in full moult, and late in August I have seen 
young birds which have almost attained the adult dress, and again in the second half of July I 
have killed young birds which were not larger than a Moorhen. When the young are hatched 
the female remains alone with them until the whole brood from one and the same nest is united, 
and then they wander from place to place under guidance of the male. Between the 22nd July 
and the 1st August I saw along the Alikhanoff canal flocks of young Pheasants each consisting 
of about fifty individuals. They feed on seeds of various plants, grain not yet harvested, and 
insects. They frequently visit the water-melon plantations, on which they make great havoc. 
In the morning and evening they are fond of going on the roads and paths, where they find 
beetles and orthoptera. During the heat of the day they go to drink, and are then easily 
obtained. 

" Its nest is made under a bush, generally under a last year's alcliagi plant, bent by the 
wind, and consists of a depression scratched in the soil and lined with dry bents, down, and 
feathers. I have frequently found Pheasants' nests containing from seven to eleven strongly 
incubated eggs between the 22nd May and the 1st June." 

Mr. Walter says (Vog. Transcasp. p. 93) that he " frequently found nests of this Pheasant 
in the Murghab district in 1887. All these nests were in low tamarisk-thickets, especially where 
asparagus grew, and less frequently under last year's growth of alchagi. In construction they 
resembled the nest of P. persicus, only that when placed near the river-bank 1 found reed foliage 
made use of. Two out of three nests I found near Sary-jasi, on the 10th April, 1887, contained 
nine, and one five, fresh eggs, but, according to the officers quartered there, up to eighteen are 



324 

found in a clutch. The eggs, as I then noted down, closely resembled those from Tchandyr, 
but some were more pointed, although not more elongated than those. Frequently in clutches 
of normal eggs one is found quite small, only as large as that of Caccabis, yellowish in colour, 
with minute reddish spots. A somewhat aberrant nest I found on the 9th April, 1886, at 
Ljutfabad, close to the Persian frontier. On a dry elevation on the edge of large patches of 
close high reeds the nest was situated in a close thicket of last year's Glycirrhiza plants, and 
under a few wind-broken stems of that plant. The nest was scratched out deep in the ground, 
and was of an elongated oval shape, like the body of the bird, and the high sides were closely 
covered with dry flags and stems. The nest contained then no egg ; but as the female sat close, 
and let herself be driven off it three times in the day, it is probable that she would have laid on 
the following day." 

The specimens figured and described are the adult male and female in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides those in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, £ ad. Merv, Transcaspia, November (Pleske). b, £ , c, ? . Merv, winter 1887 (Grum-Grzimailo). 




/ 



J". GKeulema.ns del.et KtK. 



HEntern. Bros . imp . 



SENEGAL. FRANCOLIN. 

FRANC OLINUS BI CALCARATUS . 



FBANCOLINUS BICALCAKATUS. 

(SENEGAL FRANCOLIN.) 



Tetrao bicalcaratus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 277 (1766). 

Le Bis-ergot, Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. ii. p. 443 (1783). 

Senegal Partridge, Latham, Gen. Synop. ii. p. 757 (1783). 

Perdix bicalcarata, id. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 643 (1790). 

Perdix senegalensis, Bonn. Tabl. Encycl. et Method, i. p. 212 (1790). 

Perdix adansonii, Temm. Hist. Nat. Pig. et Gall. iii. p. 305 (1815). 

Francolinus senegalensis (Bonn.), Steph. in Shaw's Gen. Zool. xi. part 2, p. 330 (1819). 

Ch&topus adansonii (Temm.), Swains. B. of W. Africa, ii. p. 217 (1837). 

Francolinus bicalcaratus (Linn.), Gray, List Gall. B. iii. p. 33 (1844). 

Bidymacis senegalensis, Beichenb. Handb. Gall. fig. 1768 (1853). 

Francolinus albiscapus, id. op. cit. figs. 1753-54 (1853). 

Chcetopus bicalcaratus (Linn.), Bonap. Compt. Bend. xlii. p. 882 (1856). 

Hadjel es Sahara, Bardgh, Arabic. 

Figures notabiles. 
DAubenton, PI. Enl. 137 ; Beichenbach, ut snpra. 

<J ad. pileo brunneo, antice et lateraliter nigro marginato : superciliis albis : nucha, rufescente : dorsi plumis 
medio nigris, rufescente marginatis et albido variegatis : remigibus nigricantibus in pogonio externo 
cervino albido notatis et in pogonio interno cervino striatis vel fasciatis : cauda, nigro-fusca, rufescenti- 
cervino variegata : mento albo, corporis inferioris plumis albidis, macula scapali nigra, stria utrinque 
laterali rufescenti-cervina : tarso bicalcarato. 

$ ad. mari similis. 

Adult Male (Rabat). Fore part of the crown and a stripe on each side black; rest of the crown reddish 
brown ; hind neck and fore part of the back varied black and reddish brown, the feathers margined 
with creamy white ; rest of the upper parts brown, vermiculated with black ; the scapulars and wing- 
coverts with a submarginal creamy- white stripe on either side ; most of the quills with the outer web 
brown, barred with warm buff, and the inner web brown, irregularly barred with rufous buff; tail dark 
brown, clouded and irregularly barred with rufous buff; superciliary stripe and space in front of the 
eye white ; chin and upper throat white, clouded with greyish brown ; sides of the head white, striped 
with blackish ; chest and underparts generally buff, with a drop-shaped median spot towards the tip 
black, barred with buff, and on the basal half broadly bordered with chestnut, this latter colour 
wanting on the lower flanks and under tail-coverts, and the central black patch is larger : bill yellow, 
but dull greenish at the base ; the culmen darker; legs dull greenish yellow ; iris brown. Total length 
about 12 inches, culmen 1 - 15, wing 7-3, tail 3 - 25, tarsus 2'6. 

2y 



326 

Adult Female (Rabat). Closely resembles the male, but lacks the spurs. Wing 64 inches, tail 30, 
tarsus 2 - l. 

A resident species in West Africa, the present Francolin occurs only within the extreme south- 
western limits of the Western Palsearctic area. Its range extends from Morocco down to the 
Niger. Capt. S. G. Reid (Ibis, 1885, p. 251) says that specimens have been received from 
Mogador, where it appears to be common, and that " Olcese received a consignment of six 
live ones from near Casa Blanca this winter, and tried hard to keep them alive. They all died 
however, probably from the unusual severity of the winter, and were converted into skins, one 
of which I brought home with me." Col. Irby also remarks that this is no doubt the species 
mentioned by Mr. Drake, and occurs as far north in Morocco as Rabat. Swainson records it 
from Senegal. Governor Ussher obtained it at Accra, on the Gold Coast, where, according to 
Messrs. Shelley and Buckley (Ibis, 1872, p. 290), it is sufficiently numerous to afford fair sport; 
and Governor Ussher adds (Ibis, 1874, p. 72) that it is common all over the Gold Coast. The 
late Mr. W. A. Forbes recorded it (Ibis, 1883, p. 518) from Egga, on the Niger, and a male 
obtained by him at Shonga, on the Niger, is now in the British Museum. 

I find nothing on record respecting the habits of the present species beyond what is given 
by Governor Ussher, who says (I. c.) that " they are found (on the Gold Coast) in coveys of from 
four or five to a dozen. They frequent cassava-plantations, and do much damage to young 
plants, as also to ground-nuts and maize. 

" Towards sunset the loud cry of the male bird is heard, and he can be observed, generally 
stationed in a commanding position on the top of an ant-hill or low tree, calling together his 
family. 

" They are fine birds, and afford good sport, as well as excellent food for the table. Unless 
killed dead, they generally manage to drag themselves through the grass, and are almost 
impossible to find ; and as they are very strong on the wing, not more than fifty per cent, of 
those killed can generally be brought to bag." 

Lord Lilford has received this Francolin alive from Morocco, and has at present several in 
his aviary at Lilford Hall, where I have seen them. In 1894 a female laid five eggs, out of 
which four young were hatched and successfully reared, and he informs me that the late 
Comte de Paris turned out several of these birds, which he (Lord Lilford) procured for him from 
Morocco, in his " Coto " near Villa Manrique, where, up to the last accounts received, they were 
doing well, but had not then had time to breed. 

I find nothing on record respecting the nidification of this Francolin, but it doubtless, like 
its congeners, makes its nest on the ground amongst the grass or bushes. 

I am indebted to Lord Lilford for two eggs of this Francolin laid in the aviary at Lilford 
Hall in 1879 by birds from Rabat, presented to him by Mr. T. Reade, H.M. Consul at Cadiz. 
These eggs are uniform creamy buff in colour, rather pointed towards the smaller end, but 
otherwise shaped like those of the Pheasant, and measure L86 by L40 inch, and L92 by 1-43 
inch respectively. They are dull in texture, and entirely lack the gloss on the eggs of the 
Pheasant. 

The Plate of this species is drawn from a sketch taken by Mr. A. Thorburn of a live bird 



327 

in the aviary at Lilford Hall, and the descriptions are taken from specimens in my own collection, 
for which I am indebted to Lord Lilford. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides those in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, £ , b, ? . Rabat, Morocco, February 1888 (Olcese). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram. 

a, ? . Brit. Combo, Gambia, April 24th, 1889 (P. Rendall). 



2y2 




J. G-T^eule 



, lith . 



MENZBIERS HAZELGROUSE 

BOTSTASA GRISEIVENTRTS . 



HanliaT'L 



BONASA GRISEIVENTRIS. 

(MENZBIER'S HAZEL-GROUSE.) 



Tetrastes gryseiventris, Menzbier, Bull. Mosc. lv. pt. 1, p. 105, pi. iv. (1880). 
Tetrao griseiventris (Menzb.), Seebohm, Ibis, 1884, p. 430, pi. xi. 
Tetrastes griseiventris, Menzb., Grant, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxii. p. 93 (1893). 

Figurce notabiles. 
Menzbier, ut supra. ; Seebohm, ut supra. 

$ ad. corpore suprk saturate griseo-schistaceo, pileo saturatiore plumis nigricante fasciatis : uropygio et 
supracaudalibus saturate griseo-schistaceis, indistincte fasciatis : scapularibus et secundariis intimis 
nigro et rufescenti-fusco marmoratis : tectricibus alarum griseo-fuscis, griseo-schistaceo et sordide 
cervino marmoratis : remigibus fuscis, in pogonio exteruo rufescenti-cervino marmoratis : cauda ut in 
B. betulind, sed nee albo apicata et fascia nigra, subterminali indistincta : stria pone supraoculari et mento 
albis : gula. nigra, indistincte rufescente notata : collo et pectore griseo-scbistaceis, rufescente notatis et 
nigro transfasciatis : corpore reliquo subtus saturate griseo indistincte nigro-faseiato, hypochondriis 
rufescente tinctis : rostro nigricanti-corneo : pedibus griseo-fuscis : iride fusca. 

Adult Male (Tscberdyn, October) . Upper parts dark grey, tbe feathers on the head and back barred with 
blackish, the head rather darker; rump and upper tail-coverts dark grey, with indistinct darker bars; 
scapulars and some of the inner secondaries marbled with black and reddish brown ; wing-coverts 
brownish grey, marbled with dark grey and dull warm buff ; quills dark brown, the outer web marbled 
with warm buff; tail as in B. betulina, but without the white tip and the black subterminal band, this 
latter being barely indicated ; a streak extending backwards from above the eye and chin white; throat 
black, slightly marked with dark rufous ; neck and breast grey, barred with black and marked with 
rufous ; rest of the underparts grey, indistinctly barred with black ; the flanks tinged with rufous : bill 
blackish horn ; feet greyish brown; iris brown. Total length about 14 inches, culmen 09, wing 6'6, 
tail 4' 8, tarsus 1-35. 

Adult Female (Tscherdyn, October). Differs from the male merely in having less grey and more brown in 
the plumage, the head and neck especially being more boldly marked with black and reddish brown, 
and the tone of colour on the underparts is more of a sandy or buffy grey, and not so clear grey as in 
the male. 

Obs. In both the males in my own and the Rothschild collections the white patch on the chin is small, 
and the white streak above and behind the eye, which is very clearly denned in both the male and 
female above described and figured, is entirely wanting, and I think it probable that these are 
immature birds. 

This Hazel-Grouse, so far as we know at present, is found only in North-eastern Russia, west of 
the Ural range, chiefly in the Perm and Olonetz Governments. It was at first looked on by 



330 

many ornithologists as being an accidental variety of Bonasa betulina, but inasmuch as more 
than thirty specimens have been obtained, this cannot be the case, and it must be treated as a 
valid species. It is readily distinguishable from B. betulina not only by its dark coloration, but 
in lacking all the white markings on the sides of the neck, round the black patch on the throat, 
and on the scapulars and wing-coverts, and the markings and general colour of the underparts 
are very different. Nothing appears to have been recorded by the Russian ornithologists 
regarding its habits or nidification, but it does not, in all probability, differ from B. betulina 
in these respects. 

When the article in the ' Birds of Europe ' on Bonasa betulina was written, twenty-five 
years ago, 1 had but a meagre series of specimens available for comparison, and was unable to 
say whether the Asiatic bird differed from that found in Europe. Since then, however, I have 
examined specimens from Siberia, Manchuria, and Japan, and have added largely to the series in 
my own collection, and am able to say that the Hazel-Grouse from Siberia, Manchuria, and 
Japan does not differ in any respect from the Scandinavian bird, and I understand, also, that 
there is no difference in specimens from Kamtschatka. I have received specimens from 
Professor Menzbier, of Moscow, obtained in Russia, and labelled Tetrastes canescens, which 
are merely very fully adult examples, and do not in the least differ from old birds obtained 
in Sweden. 1 cannot find where he has described the bird under that name, and the earliest 
reference to it that I have been able to unearth is in his Orn. Geogr. of European Russia (in 
Russian), p. 180 (1882), where the name is given without any description. On the other hand, 
the Hazel-Grouse from Germany and Southern Europe is invariably distinguishable from the 
Scandinavian bird in being much more rufous and less grey in tone of colour, but I agree with 
my friend Mr. Ogilvie Grant in not according specific rank to this form. An adult male from 
near Coblentz, on the Rhine, as compared with a male from Sweden, has the upper parts 
generally rufous, barred with black, not grey as in the Swedish bird, and the feathers on the 
upper breast and flanks are bright rufous, almost light fox-red, tipped with white, and slightly 
marked with black, but otherwise the general pattern of the plumage is the same as in the 
Scandinavian bird. 

The specimens figured and described are a pair lent to me for that purpose by my friend 
the late Mr. Henry Seebohm, whose collection has been bequeathed by him to the British 
Museum. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — > 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser, 
a, 3 ad. Olonetz, N. Russia, September 1890 {Prof. Menzbier). 

E Mus. H. Seebohm. 
a ; 8 > b, 5" . Tscherdyn, Perm Gov., October {Menzbier). 

E Mus. Bothsehild. 
a, J . Olonetz, September {Lorenz). 



-.;.. 



fip*. '/ - -■ ■ - ■ 

■ -.'- . 'fat , - 




J. G.Keiilemans del.etlitK.. 



URAL CAPERCAILLIE 

IE IRAQ URALENSIS. 



Mintem Bros . rmp . 



TETRAO URALENSIS. 

(URAL CAPERCAILLIE.) 



"Tetrao urogallus, var. uralensis, Severtz. & Menzb.," Nazaroff, Bull. Mosc. lxii. part 2, 

p. 365 (1886, desc. null.). 
Tetrao urogallus, var. uralensis, Menzbier, Ibis, 1887, p. 303. 
Tetrao uralensis, Menzb., Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxii. p. 65 (1895). 

Figura nulla. 

^ ad. T. urogallo similis, sed ubique pallidior et magis cinereo, cauda conspicue albo notata, et abdomine albo 
lateraliter vix nigro notato. 

? ad. T. urogallo similis, sed conspicue pallidior, corporis plumis supra conspicue albo marginatis : abdomine 
albo vix nigro et rufescenti-aurantiaco notato. 

Adult Male (Leadenhall Market, February 3rd). Upper parts very much paler and greyer than in 
T. urogallus ; on the wings there is less reddish brown, and it is lighter in shade ; tail-coverts broadly 
tipped with white; tail-feathers conspicuously marked with white, and not altogether black as in 
T. urogallus; abdomen white, slightly marked on the sides and upper part with blackish; under tail- 
coverts black at the base, and broadly margined and tipped with pure white; feathers on the legs 
'white, but slightly marked with greyish. Total length about 35 inches, culmen 2 - 4, wing 15-5, 
tail 12'25, tarsus 3"2. 

Adult Female (Werchnevralsk, December). Differs from the female of T. urogallus in being much paler, 
the feathers on the upper parts with broad white margins, the abdomen white, with but few of the 
black and pale rufous markings, the lower abdomen nearly pure white. 

The present species inhabits, according to Professor Menzbier (Ibis, 1887, p. 302), "only the 
pine- and birch-woods in the country of the southern branches of the Ural. Its breeding-range 
is limited, probably, on the west and north by the river Belaja, and on the north by the river 
Ui." Mr. Nazaroff, who appears to have first noticed the difference between this form and 
Tetrao urogallus, gives (I. c.) the same particulars of its range as Prof. Menzbier, and adds that 
it is difficult to determine its northern limit, but that typical Tetrao urogallus is to be met with 
in the vicinity of Verchne-Ouralsk, not far from Ekaterinburg. 

Prof. Menzbier says that the present species resembles the Black Grouse more than the 
typical Capercaillie in its general habits ; and Mr. Nazaroff writes (I. c.) as follows : — " This 
Capercaillie inhabits mixed forests, preferring old forests where there is under-brush. All the 
gunners agree that the call of the "White-bellied Capercaillie differs from that of the typical 
species, and I have received the following information on the subject: — The cocks commence to 
call late in March as soon as the snow begins to melt, and at the end of April they cease to call, 



332 

and the females commence to lay. During this season they select marshy places covered with 
aspen and conifer trees. At about two o'clock in the morning the males resort on foot to the place 
where they call and fight ; the cock that has not found an adversary remains as a spectator, and 
the combatants strike each other with their wings, seize each other by the neck, uttering their 
characteristic note or cry. During the time they are calling the males are very unwary and 
may be approached with ease. As to the females, they act only as spectators of the combat, 
perched high in the trees, and afterwards rejoin the males. About fifty or more males assemble 
in the arena, and at sunrise the calls cease and the birds leave. A gunner can shoot in one 
morning more than five cocks. This description of the White-bellied Capercaillie has been 
confirmed to me by Mr. Beck, the forest superintendent of the Kanauikolsk Works, an excellent 
sportsman and worthy of all confidence. The call of this species appears to resemble that of 
the Blackcock." 

Beyond the above notes, I find nothing on record respecting this bird. In 1891 a few were 
exposed for sale in the London market, and in February and March 1892 a considerable quantity 
were sent over here for sale. I tried to find out whence they came, but without success, and all 
1 could ascertain was that they were sent over by a St.-Petersburg dealer, the same man, 1 believe, 
who last year sent a large consignment of Daurian Partridges (Perdix daurica) to Leadenhall 
Market. 

The specimen figured is the male above described, and is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides those in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mas. H. E. Dresser. 

a j 3 1 b> ? • Werchnevralskj Russia, November and December {Prof. Menzbier). c, J" ad. Purchased in the 
flesh in Leadenhall Market, February 3rd, 1892 {H. E. B.) . 




J.G.Ktulemans .liLh 



HuTiharfc imp . 



INDIAN GALL1NUKE 

PORPHYBIO- POLIO CEPHALUS . 



POEPHYRIO POLIOCEPHALUS. 

(INDIAN GALLINULE.) 



Porphyrio veterum, S. G. Gmelin, Reise Russl. iii. p. 79, footnote, pi. 12 (1774). 

Gallinula poliocephala, Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. lxviii (1801). 

Grey-headed Gallinule, Lath. Gen. Synops. Suppl. ii. p. 375 (1802). 

Fulica porphyrio, Pall. Zoogr. Ross. -As. ii. p. 156 (1811). 

Porphyrio poliocephalus (Lath.), Vieill. Nouv. Diet, xxviii. p. 30 (1819). 

Porphyrio smaragnotus (nee Temm.), Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 165. 

Porphyrio hyacinthinus (nee Temm.), Nordm. in Demidoffs Voy. Russ. Merid. iii. p. 275 

(1840). 
Porphyrio indicus (nee Horsf.), Gray, List Grallse &c. Brit. Mus. p. 120 (1844). 
Porphyrio neglectus, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Balli, p. 53 (1865). 
Porphyrio cceruleus (nee Vandelli), Seebohm, Ibis, 1882, p. 227. 
Poiyhyrio veterum, Radde, Orn. Cauc. p. 380, pi. xxi. figs. 3, 4 (eggs), pi. xxiv. s (1884). 

Sultanka, Russian ; Bojachana, Tartar [Radde) ; Keim, Kaima, Kalim, Kharim, Hindo- 
stanee ; Kern, Bengalee ; Nila Bola-kodi, Telugu (Jerdon) ; Kittala, Sinhalese [Layard) ; 
Indura-Jcukula, in Southern Province ; Sannary, Ceylonese Tamils (McVicar). 

Figura unica. 
Radde, Orn. Cauc. Taf. xxiv. 

Ad. saturate ultramarino-csruleus, alis viridi tinctis : caudi nigra, rectricibus in pogonio externo saturate 
cseruleo tinctis : pileo caerulescenti-cinereo : capitis lateribus cinerescentibus et collo cinereo lavato : 
pectore viridi-caeruleo lavato, hypochondriis magis cseruleis : subcaudalibus albis : rostro et scutello 
frontali saturate rubris : pedibus incarnato-rubris : iride rubr&. 

Adult Male (Lenkoran, January 16th). Upper parts generally rich deep blue, the wings slightly washed 
with greenish ; tail black, the feathers externally washed with blue ; crown ashy blue ; sides of the 
head ashy, and the neck tinged with ashy grey ; underparts deep blue, the breast tinged with greenish 
blue ; the flanks bright blue ; under tail-coverts white : bill and frontal shield dark red ; legs and feet 
red, the joints of the knees and toes blackish brown ; iris red. Total length about 17"5 inches, culmen 
with frontal shield 2 - 85, wing 11*0, tail 4*25, tarsus 4"0o. 

Adult female (Lenkoran, January). Does not differ from the male in plumage. Total length about 16 - 
inches, culmen with shield 2 - 75, wing 10 - 7, tail 4 - 2, tarsus 3'80. 

Young (bird of the year, fide Col. Legge). Face, throat, and neck more tinged with green than in the 
adult; the back of the neck and head brownish, with the feathers here and there tipped with greyish; 
the back and wings sombre greenish blue, passing into brown on the rump and upper tail-coverts, the 
feathers with pale tips; the greenish-blue chest-feathers are likewise pale tipped, and the blue on the 
under surface is not so pure as in the adult, with the edges of the feathers greyish ; thighs cinereous 

2z 



334 

bluish, with light edges to the feathers; iris pale red, with the inner edge mottled with brown : bill 
red; legs and feet reddish, with the joints brownish. 

Young in down {fide Mr. H. Parker) covered with black hairs ; bill white, the sides at the base crimson ; 
casque purple or lilac ; legs reddish purple, toes lilac ; spur on the winglet lilac and very prominent. 

When, in 1876, I published in the 'Birds of Europe' (vii. p. 299) the article on the Purple 
Gallinule, I was under the impression that the common European Purple Gallinule's range 
extended as far east as the Caspian, as, indeed, it was then stated to be the case by all authorities 
on European ornithology. Since then, however, I have received examples from the Caspian, 
and have convinced myself that the species found there is identical with the Indian Gallinule, 
Porphyrio poliocephalus ; and as Gmelin's specific name of veterum, which I used for this and 
the South-European species when I considered them to be identical, cannot stand, this present 
species will stand as Porphyrio poliocephalus, and the Porphyrio which inhabits Spain, Algeria, 
Sardinia, and Sicily will, as shown by Dr. Sclater (Ibis, 1879, p. 196), stand as Porphyrio 
cceruleus ( Vandelli). 

The range of this species extends just within the limits of the Western Paleearctic area on 
the shores of the Caspian, and occurs eastward throughout the whole of India and Ceylon, 
and is found throughout Burmah. 

Dr. G. Eadde says (Orn. Caucas. p. 381) that he only met with it in the vast reed-beds of 
Lenkoran, where it is a resident, and is often very numerously to be met with during the winter. 
Pallas (Zoogr. Eoss.-As. ii. p. 157) records it from the Terek River, but it has not been observed 
there by any later explorer. Dr. Radde remarks that he has seen specimens from the Lower 
Volga, and (Vog. Transcasp. p. 97) that according to Mr. Jasewitsch it occurs numerously on 
Lake Delili on the Lower Atrek, and that Mr. Nikolsky speaks of a Porphyrio as being found 
at the mouth of the Giirgen. 

Mr. Blanford did not meet with it in Persia, but states that there is a specimen from 
Bagdad in the British Museum. Both Col. Swinhoe and Sir O. St. John met with it at Quetta 
in Afghanistan, and the former records it from Kandahar, and Mr. A. O. Hume says (Stray 
Feath. i. p. 249) that it is exceedingly abundant in some of the rush-overgrown lakes of Sindh. 
According to Dr. Jerdon it is " found throughout India and Ceylon wherever there are reedy 
lakes, extensive marshes, or reedy rivers," and Blyth states that it is to be met with on the 
eastern side of the Bay of Bengal to the Tenasserim provinces. Mr. Oates (B. of Brit. Burmah, 
ii. p. 351) writes that it is " found over the whole of Burmah except perhaps the southern half 
of Tenasserim, where Mr. Davison does not appear to have met with it." 

In Cochin China, Saigon, and Bankok an allied species is said to occur, Porphyrio edioardsi, 
Elliot, which, Mr. Elliot says (Stray Feath. vii. p. 23), " differs from P. poliocephalus in being 
darker on the back of the head, in having the blue of the breast of a darker shade, and specially 
in having the upper parts, including the wings, greenish black, instead of the purple back and 
rump and greenish-blue wings of P. poliocephalus, ." Swinhoe mentions, under the name of 
Porphyrio coslestis, another species from Southern China, which he describes as resembling 
P. poliocephalus, but having a white rump; but this is considered to be a doubtful species, 
or perhaps it may be a partial albino. 



335 

In its habits the present species closely assimilates with its congeners, Porphyrio cceruleus 
and P. smaragdonotus, and, like those, inhabits only the dense reed-beds and places overgrown 
with aquatic herbage. 

Speaking of its habits as observed at Lenkoran on the Caspian, Dr. G. Radde (/. c.) writes 
that " it is as stupid as a Coot. It is averse to leaving the densest reed-thickets and can easily 
be caught alive in these. Its flight is low and direct and it is an easy bird to shoot. It seeks 
to escape by running, and is averse to taking wing ; the steps it takes are long, being a foot in 
length ; when running it cocks its short tail up so that the white under tail-coverts are seen, 
and it jerks its tail continually even when otherwise quite motionless, in this respect much 
resembling Rallus, which it resembles greatly when running. Its chief weapon is the heavy 
bill, and the foot is much used in holding its food when parrot-like it stands on one leg. At 
times this bird collects in large flocks, and on the 16th December about 150 were observed 
leaving one reed-bed for another not far distant, running swiftly over the narrow meadow which 
divided the two. They ran like Coursers, with the neck stretched out, over the open ground, 
where they evidently felt unsafe, and some when scared up settled on a willow, forming a lovely 
picture." In Ceylon, Col. Legge writes (B. of Ceylon, p. 797), it is " so partial to rush-beds and 
waters which are overgrown with reeds and impenetrable sedge-growth, that it is only found in 
such spots, not inhabiting (owing solely to an absence of such cover) many places where one 
would expect to find it. It is, again, a very sociable bird, being quite gregarious in its habits ; 
and this is another cause which confines it to localities where there is feeding-ground and cover 
for large numbers of its fellows. In a neglected tank like Topare, through which the floods 
speedily pass, but leave a large area of shallow water, which in tropical climates speedily 
becomes a tangled mass of lotus-reeds, rushes, aquatic plants, and shrubs, the Purple Coot finds 
a perfect paradise ; and dozens may be seen stalking unconcernedly about on the floating leaves 
and herbage, violently jerking up their tails and showing the conspicuous white under-coverts, 
keeping all the while well out of shot and appearing to know that the swarms of crocodiles 
lurking about them are the best safeguard against the sportsman wading in within killing 
distance of them. In spite of crocodiles, however (which in these marshy places belong to the 
smaller species, Crocodihis palustris, which average about 8 to 10 feet in length, and are not 
dangerous), I have frequently waded for a long time, in search of other and more valuable 
species, through the haunts of the Blue Coot, and then I observed that he mysteriously 
disappeared into the surrounding vegetation and remained in concealment until after my retreat. 
"When put on the wing it flies well and swiftly. I have seen one flying round and round 
the lotus-pond at Colombo many times before alighting, its long legs stretched out behind him 
like a Heron's. At the Tamara Kulam, near Trincomalie, the dense rush-growth of which was 
tenanted by swarms of these Coots, their hiding-place was burnt down once a year by natives, 
and then they disappeared for some time, making their way probably through the jungle to 
other haunts in the neighbourhood." 

This Gallinule is said to feed on seeds and vegetable matter, and to be especially fond of 
rice. Its call-note is loud, and, according to Jerdon, somewhat fowl-like. Captain Butler writes 
that one he saw seized by an Eagle cried out piteously, making a noise very like the cries of a 
domestic fowl when caught to be killed. 

2z2 



336 

The season of nidificatiori throughout India and Ceylon is said to be July and August ; but 
Dr. Eadde had eggs brought to him at Lenkoran late in April, and Mr. Parker (Ibis, 1886, 
p. 187) surmises that in the south-east of Ceylon this Gallinule has two broods in the year. 

Mr. A. O. Hume, in his ' Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds,' 2nd ed. iii. p. 384, gives the 
following account of its nidihcation : — " The Purple Coot breeds all over the plains of India 
wherever there are large swamps and jheels with plenty of rush and weed. As a rule, not 
less than ten pairs breed in the same place. I have invariably in Northern India found the 
eggs in July and August, never earlier or later ; but they are said to have been met with in 
June and September. 

"Two noteworthy points are (1st) that all the birds in the same swamp both lay and 
hatch off about the same time ; (2nd) that in two different jheels only a dozen miles apart, and 
apparently precisely similarly situated, there will be a difference of fifteen days or more in the 
period of the laying of the two colonies. Thus I have noted that one year, on the 10th August, 
I found every one of over a dozen nests in the Atchuldy jheel empty and the young hatched 
off; while on the 16th of the same month at Rahun, distant some twenty miles only, I found 
seventeen nests full of eggs — mostly a good deal incubated it is true, but none ready to hatch off 
for at least a week. 

" The nest is made of pieces of rush and reed amongst thick grass and rice. Sometimes 
it is on the ground, sometimes, though not free, it is floating. In the latter case the bottom of 
the cavity will not be above an inch or two above the surface of the water, but there will be a 
mass of stuff submerged. Ten is the maximum number of eggs that I have as yet found in any 
nest, and I have repeatedly taken seven and eight well-incubated ones." 

Latterly the eggs of this Gallinule have come in considerable numbers into the hands of 
dealers here in Europe, and are not unfrequently made to do duty for the rarer eggs of Porphyrio 
cceruleus. I possess four eggs from Sikkim which have the ground-colour clay-buff, and are 
spotted and blotched with purplish-grey underlying markings and deep brownish-red surface 
spots, and measure from 1*9 by 1*4 inch to 2 - by L42. Compared with the eggs of P. cceruleus 
the ground-colour is paler, and the markings are fewer and smaller, and they are somewhat 
smaller in size. 

The specimen figured is the male above described and is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the large series in the 
British Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a,$ ad. Lenkoran, January 16th (Schhiter). b,$,c,$. Lenkoran, January 1888 (Schliiter). d, $. Len- 
koran December 1887 {Dr. G. Radde). 








:.- ■' - 



SARUS CRANE 

GT1US ANTIGONE . 



llmtern Bros. imp, 



GRUS ANTIGONE. 

(SARUS CRANE.) 



The Greater Indian Crane, Edw. Nat. Hist. Birds, i. p. 45, pi. 45 (1743). 

La Grue des Indes Orientates, Brisson, Orn. v. p. 378 (1760). 

Ardea antigone, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 235 (1766). 

La Grue a collier, Buff. Nat. Hist. Ois. vii. p. 307 (1780). 

Grus collaris, Bodd. Tabl. des PL Enl. p. 52 (1783). 

Grus torquata, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. xiii. p. 560 (1817). 

Grus antigone (Linn.), id. ut supra (1817). 

Grus orientalis, Frankl. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 123. 

Antigone antigone (Linn.), Bp. Consp. Gen. Av. ii. p. 100 (1857). 

Antigone collaris (Bodd.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxiii. p. 262 (1894). 

Figures notabiles. 
Edw Nat Hist. B. i. pi. xlv.; D'Aubenton, PL Enl. 865; Eeichenb. Handb. Fulic. 
tab. exxvii. fig. 428, tab. exxix. figs. 1235, 1240 ; Hume & Marshall, Game B. of India, 
iii. pi. i. 

Ad. capite et collo supero Budis, gula cum nucha postica et lateribus setis uigris tectis : regione parotic* 
plumis cinereis tectus : collo infra portionem nudam albo cincto : corpore supra cum collo infenore 
cinereo-ardesiacis: tectricibus alarum cinereo-albis, secundariis intimis elongatis fere albis versus 
apicem- remigibus nigro-fuscis : cauda cinerea : corpore subtus cinereo-ardesiaco, subcaudahbus 
pallidioribus: rostro pallide viridi-corneo, apice saturatiore : pileoalbo: capite rebquo et collo rubns, 
collo in parte inferiore Buda aurantiaco : iride aurantiaca : pedibus rubro-cameis. 

Adult (Sambhur, January 10th) . Head and upper neck bare, the throat, sides, and hind Beck covered with 
numerous black bristly hairs, the ears covered with a patch of ashy-grey feathers; the feathers on the 
Beck below the bare portion white for about two inches, and then merging into ashy grey ; upper parts 
generally ashy grey, becoming whiter on the wiBg-coverts aBd ob the terminal portion of the inner 
secoBdaries, which are nearly white at the tips, and are considerably elongated, reaching beyond the 
tail; quills blackish brown; tail ashy grey; nnderparts generally ashy grey, paler on the under tad- 
coverts : bill pale greenish horny with dark tip ; skin on crown white ; papillose skin of head and neck 
orange-red, shaded darker here and there, aBd furnished with a scaBty black wattle; at the bottom of 
the neck, bordering the plumage, is a collar-like space of bright orange skin ; iris orange ; leg"eddrsh 
or flesh-colour, darker on the joints. Total leBgth about 42 hiches, cnlmeB 7% wmg 26"5, tail 9-6, 
tarsus 11 '4. 

The Sams Crane is only a rare straggler to the Western Paleearctic area, and has not been met 
with west of Eussia. Professor Menzbier informs me that it was first recorded by Eversmann as 
occasionally visiting the steppes in the Government of Astrachan, and is, according to Karelin, a 



338 

very rare straggler to the neighbourhood of GuriefF, at the mouth of the Ural River, and during 
sixteen years it was met with on only three occasions, and one was shot and preserved. 

Von Nordmann (in Demidoff's Voy. Russ. Merid. iii. pp. 265, 266) says that during the five 
years previous to when he wrote it had only, so far as he knew, been twice observed in that 
district. He himself never saw the bird alive, but received specimens killed at Rostoff on the 
Don. Finally, it is recorded by Dr. Radde (Orn. Cauc. p. 391), on the authority of General 
Komaroff, who lived several years at Derbent, on the west coast of the Caspian, as occurring 
there on passage. 

I have not been able to obtain a specimen killed within the Western Palsearctic area for 
examination and comparison ; and Mr. Blanford informs me that in India it is so strictly resident 
that he greatly doubts whether it really has occurred as far west as Russia. Thus I had grave 
doubts as to whether I should include it, and only decided on so doing after being assured by 
Professor Menzbier that it really has been obtained as far west as the Ural. I do not find it 
recorded from Transcaspia or Persia ; but according to Dr. Jerdon (B. of India, iii. p. 663) the 
Sarus is found throughout the greater part of India, is rare south of the Godaveri, and also 
apparently in the Punjab, for Adams states that he did not see it there, but common in Central 
India, Bengal, and parts of the N.W. Provinces, and still more so in Kandeish. It has been also 
recorded by various subsequent writers from various parts of India : by Beavan from Umballa 
and Barrackpur ; by Capt. Hayes Lloyd as common at Kattiawar ; by Mr. A. O. Hume from 
Sind, where it is rare ; by Mr. R. M. Adam from the Sambhur Lake, where it breeds ; by 
Mr. V. Ball as rare in Manbhum, but common in the open valleys of Sirguja; by Capt. Butler 
as common in Northern Guzerat ; by Scully as common in the Nepal Tarai ; by Mr. George Reid 
as breeding near Lucknovv ; by Mr. Davidson as a straggler to Western Khandeish ; by Mr. F. B. 
Simson as not uncommon throughout Dacca and Mymensing in Eastern Bengal. In Burma, 
Cochin China, and south to Penang the present species is replaced by a nearly allied form, Grus 
sharpii, Blanford (Ibis, 1896, p. 136), which differs in lacking the white band on the neck below 
the bare or granulated portion, and the inner secondaries are pearl-grey and not white. 

In its general habits the Sarus Crane is confiding and fearless, and is generally not molested; 
in the territories of Holkar it is, Dr. Jerdon says, if not venerated, esteemed so highly as to 
be held sacred from the shikaries, and he has known complaints made against officers for 
shooting them. It is seldom found far from water, and breeds in wet, swampy localities. It is 
usually found in pairs, but occasionally several are seen together. Its note is a clear loud 
trumpet-like call, which, if uttered when alarmed or on the wing, may be heard a couple of 
miles off. 

According to Mr. A. O.Hume (Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds, 2nd ed. iii. p. 372) the breeding- 
season is in July or August, occasionally as late as November, and towards the end of June the 
old birds, which pair for life, commence to construct their nest, which is usually placed on some 
island or in a very shallow part in the midst of the largest jheel or swamp that they can find. 
"The nest," he says, " is a huge heap, a broad truncated cone, composed of reeds and rushes and 
straw, varying much in size according to situation and circumstances. At top it is about two feet 
in diameter, with a central depression from four to eight inches deep for the eggs. If, as is 
commonly the case, the nest is placed in water, the bottom of the egg-cavity will be from eight 



339 

to twelve inches above the surface of the water, and there may be six inches to two feet of nest 
below water. On more than one occasion, when in sudden and heavy falls such as we get in 
India, six and eight inches of rain falling within twelve hours, the jheels were rising very rapidly, 
I have seen the birds very busy raising their nests. One nest that had thus been raised I 
measured a couple of months later, when the ground on which it stood was dry, and found it to 
be fully nine feet in diameter at base and three feet in height, and it must have lost at least a 
foot by settling. When built on land surrounded by but not overflowed with water, the nest is 
a much less pretentious affair, perhaps five feet in diameter at base and a foot only in height. 
Occasionally, apparently where they could not get a large enough piece of water to secure as 
they considered their safety, I have found them seeking this in concealment. As a rule, the 
nest is out in the open, visible from all directions at a mile's distance. In the few cases to 
which I refer I have found it in dense beds of bulrush and reed so lofty that, even when 
standing on its nest, the bird was only to be seen by climbing a neighbouring tree. In these 
cases the rushes and reeds, where they were thickest, had been bent down across and across, 
so as to form a platform five or six feet in diameter, and on this a comparatively slight nest 
had been constructed. Two is certainly the normal number of eggs, but I have twice (out of 
more than one hundred nests) found three, and I have also occasionally seen three young birds 
in company with an old pair. 

" I remember one day, as I was coming home from Rahun, I saw in a sheet of rain-water 
some distance off the road a Sarus sitting on her nest and the male standing beside her. I rode 
as near the place as I could, and then sent my syce to get the eggs. As he commenced wading 
towards the nest the male began to dance about, flapping his wings and trumpeting bravely ; but 
when the man got within a few yards and landed safely on the patch of dry ground on which the 
nest rested, the male put his head down and ran off very crestfallen to a ridge in the water some 
fifty yards distant, whence he began with loud cries to encourage his lady not to allow ' that 
black rascal ' to take any liberties. She sat quite still, neither moved nor cried, only as the man 
came close to her made such vigorous pokes and drives at him that he got frightened and was 
picking up a great dry branch to strike her with, when I called out to him to flap her in the face 
with his waist-cloth. This he did vigorously, and this being more than she could endure, she 
reluctantly crept off the nest, now complaining loudly, and joined the male. There was only 
one egg: this the man brought, but before he could reach me the female had regained the nest, 
and after minutely examining it and making certain the egg was gone, she stood up on the top 
and with bill, legs, and feet commenced throwing the straw about in the air in the most furious 
manner as if beside herself with rage. Then the male came up trumpeting vigorously, but 
directly he came near her she flew at him, and he scrambled off, half-running, half-flapping, 
through the water, and making more noise than ever. By this time I had received the egg, and 
found the point of the young one's bill protruding, so sent the man back with it- sharp. As he 
approached, the female ran off, but she must have seen what he was at, for before (having 
gently laid the egg in the disordered nest, which he smoothed a little) he could get off the 
island, the female was down upon the egg, sitting as if nothing had happened, but uttering a 
low chuckling sound such as I had never heard before. But the real joke was to see the male: 
the moment he perceived that the coast was clear and that his mate was again sitting, he came 



340 

back to the nest and paraded round and round, his wings extended, his head in the air, trumpeting 
a ne pouvoir plus, clearly wishing her to believe that it was all his doing. 

" I have heard many stories of these birds showing fight in defence of their penates, but this 
was the nearest approach to anything of the kind I ever witnessed, and, as a rule, both birds run 
away directly you get within twenty yards of the nest. 

" With dogs it is different, and I have seen a large water-retriever so buffeted, scratched, and 
cut in two minutes that he was fain to make off at his best pace howling and yelping, and I have 
no doubt that foxes or jackals would fare equally ill." 

The eggs vary considerably in tone of colour and markings. Mr. Hume says that the 
" ground-colour varies : in some it is pure white, in some clear pale sea-green, in others a sort 
of pinky cream-colour, and numerous intermediate shades are observable. 

" Some few eggs are entirely spotless and devoid of markings, but they are commonly 
more or less profusely studded with blotches and clouds of pale yellowish brown, purple or 
purplish pink. Sometimes the markings are all large, in others (but more rarely) they are 
small and speckly. As a rule, the markings are, I think, most numerous at the large end. 
In some they are conspicuously so, and in some they are entirely confined to that part of the 
egg. As I notice when speaking of the eggs of the Great Bustard, the eggs of this species very 
frequently exhibit pimples, warts, creases, and wrinkles ; indeed, after examining a large series, 
I should say that not one in twenty was entirely free from such imperfections: but of the 
hundreds of specimens that I have at one time or another taken of this bird's eggs, I have never 
met with one anything like so richly coloured as those of the Common Crane (Grus cinerea), 
which latter, by the way, have always appeared to me, though larger and longer, to approximate 
somewhat in appearance to those of Otis tarda. 

"The eggs vary excessively in size, in length from 3 - 6 to 4'48, and in breadth from 2-35 to 
2'75 ; but the average of fifty-one eggs is 3*96 by 2 , 56." 

Five eggs in my collection from Loyah and Etawah, N.W. India, vary in ground-colour from 
nearly white to creamy buff, and are blotched and spotted with purplish-grey underlying shell- 
markings and brown spots ; two are very sparingly marked, whereas the other three are rather 
more profusely blotched and spotted. In size they vary from 3 - 43 by 2*40 inches to 4 - 33 by 2*62. 

The specimen figured and described is the adult bird in the collection of the Hon. Walter 
Rothschild, and the soft parts are taken from a live bird in the aviary at Lilford Hall. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. Hon. W. Eothschild. 
a, ad. Sambhur Lake, January 10th, 1889 (Dr. Lansdell). 

E Mus. E. B. Tristram. 
a, ad. India (Rev. M. Lamert) . 



709 





J. G- Keulema.ns del. etlrtK. 



KITTLITZ'S PLOVEPv. 

^E&IALITIS PECUARIA. 



Mintern. Bros . imp . 



iEGIALITIS PECTJAEIA. 

(KITTLITZ'S PLOVER.) 



Charadrius varius, Vieill. Nouv. Diet, xxvii. p. 143 (1818, nee Linn.). 

Charadrius pecuarius, Temm. PL Col. 183, livr. 31 (1823). 

" Charadrius pastor, Cuv.," Less. Man. d'Orn. ii. p. 319 (1828). 

Charadrius isabellinus, v. Miiller, Naumannia, 1851, pt. iv. p. 29. 

Hiaticula pecuaria (Temm.), Riipp. Syst. Uebers. Vog. N.O.-Afr. p. 118 (1845). 

JEgialitis kittlitzi, Eeichenb. Synops. Av. ii. tab. cv. fig. 1063 (1851). 

Hiaticula pectoralis, Licht. Nomencl. Av. p. 94 (1854). 

Hiaticula frontalis, id. ut supra (1854). 

Leucopolius pecuarius (Temm.), Bp. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 417 (1856). 

1. Leucopolius kittlitzi (Reichenb.), Bp. ut supra, (1856). 

JEgialitis pecuaria (Temm.), Brehm, Vogelfang, p. 283 (1855). 

JEgialites pecuarius (Temm.), Heuglin, Syst. Uebers. Vog. N.O.-Afr. p. 56 (1856). 

jEgialites longipes, Heuglin, ut supra (1856). 

JEgialites kittlitzi (Reichenb.), Newton, Ibis, 1867, p. 251, footnote. 

Charadrius sennaarensis, Pr. Wiirt. Icon, inedit. nos. 69, 70, fide Heuglin, J. f. 0. 1867, p. 303, 

Charadrius trochylos, id. ut supra. 

JEgialites varius (Vieill.), Harting, Ibis, 1873, p. 262, pi. viii. 

Kanhiapraia, in Benguela ; Vikiviky, Kibordnto, Malagasy. 

Figurce notabiles. 
Temminck, ut supra; Harting, Ibis, 1873, pi. viii. 

Ad. ptil. (est. fronte et linea per oculum usque ad nucham clucta albis : lined, angusta frontali, loris, cum finest 
infrk oculum ad collum posticum ducti nigris : pileo et corpore supra sordide fuscis : remigibus nigro- 
fuscis, primariis intimis in pogonio externo versus basin albo notatis : secundariis albo apicatis : 
tectricibus alarum minoribus nigro-fuscis : rectricibus mediis dorso concoloribus, proximis cinereo- 
albis, duabus extimis toto albis : gutture et pectore ochrascenti-ferrugineis, mento, gula et corpore 
reliquo subtus, cum axillaribus et subalaribus, albis : rostro et pedibus nigricantibus : iride fusca. 

Ad. ptil. Mem. corpore subtus magis albido, capite nee nigro notato et nucha, ferrugineo-fusca, : fronte, capitis 
lateribus et linea, infra oculari cervino lavatis : pectore superiore fusco-cinereo lavato. 

Adult Female (Nubia, April) . Forehead and a broad line passing through the eye to the nape white ; a narrow 
line on the fore part of the crown from eye to eye black ; rest of the crown and upper parts generally 
dusky brown ; quills blackish brown, the innermost primaries with a patch of white on the basal part 
of the outer web ; secondaries margined with white at the tips ; lesser wing-coverts blackish brown ; 
median tail-feathers dusky brown, the remainder greyish white, except the outermost, which are pure 

3a 



342 

white ; lores and a band passing below the eye down the side of the neck black ; lower throat and 
breast ochraceous ferruginous, rest of the underparts with the axillaries and under wing-coverts white ; 
legs and feet blackish; iris brown. Total length about 6"0 inches, culmen 07, wing 4*1, tail 1"85, 
tarsus 1'2, bare portion of tibia 065. 

Adult in winter (Lower Nile). Differs from the adult in breeding-plumage in lacking the black markings 
on head and neck ; the forehead and stripe behind the eye are tinged with buff, as are the sides of the 
head, nape reddish brown ; upper breast tinged with greyish brown, the ochreous-rufescent colour on 
breast is wanting, and the underparts generally are whiter than in the breediug-plumage. 

Young in down (S. Africa). Upper parts sandy grey, marbled with warm buff and black; a dark band 
passes through the centre of the crown to the nape, and a broad black band passes down the middle 
of the back, and there is also a black margin on the sides ; underparts white, tinged with buff on the 
flanks ; fore part of the crown white. 

The range of the present species extends throughout Africa, from Lower Egypt to the Cape of 

Good Hope, and in the former country it extends just within the limits of the Western Palasarctic 

area, though it does not appear to do so in North-west Africa, as I do not find it recorded from 

Tunis, Algeria, or Morocco. In Egypt it occurs to the Delta of the Nile, and is, Mr. E. C. Taylor 

informs me, not rare. Captain Shelley (B. of Egypt, p. 239) says that he found it "plentiful in 

Egypt and Nubia, frequenting similar localities to those of JEgialitis cantiana and jE. minor, and 

may generally be met with in flocks. Its numbers appear to vary considerably in the same locality 

in different years," for in 1870, he remarks, he only met with it once, near Golosaneh, although 

he was then anxious to procure some specimens, while in 1868 and 1871 it was one of the most 

abundant of the small Plovers. Mr. E. C. Taylor met with it near Girgeh ; and, according to 

von Heuglin (Orn. N.O.-Afr. p. 1035), it is a tolerably common resident in the entire Nile country, 

from Lower Egypt south to the White and Blue Nile. Dr. O. Finsch records it from Zoulla. 

Throughout Africa it appears to be very generally distributed both on the coasts and in the 

interior. On the west coast, Dr. Reichenow records it (J. f. 0. 1886, p. 381) from the Gold Coast 

to the Gaboon, on the coast and on lagoons and rivers, and (J. f. O. 1890, p. 107) at Bimbia on 

the sea-coast, and on the Camaroon at the villages; and Mr. Hartert (J. f. O. 1886, p. 610) met 

with it at Kama, Sokoto, and Anassarawa in the Niger Beniie country. Du Chaillu found it on 

the Camma River ; and Anchieta records it from Benguela. Andersson (B. of Damaraland, 

p. 274) speaks of it as not uncommon in Damaraland, but he does not think that it breeds there. 

At some seasons he found it very abundant at Objimbinque, but did not recollect having ever 

observed it on the sea-shore. Mr. E. L. Layard speaks of it (B. of S. Afr. p. 297) as being 

common about the chain of lagoons formed by the Salt River and along the sea-shore near Cape 

Town. He also saw it in September on the rocks at Green Point and on Robben Island, and 

it is abundant near Zoetendals-Vley. 

According to Mr. Ayres (Ibis, 1869, p. 300) it remains throughout the summer and breeds 
in the Transvaal, arriving there in August, and leaving for the winter months, and it has been 
recorded from most parts of East Africa. Captain Shelley (Ibis, 1888, p. 305) records it from 
Manda Island and Jipi, and (Ibis, 1894, p. 474) from Lake Shirwa in Nyasaland. Dr. G. A. 



343 

Fischer (J. f. O. 1879, p. 337) obtained it at Mambrui, East Africa, in June, and Emin Pasha 
at Bukoba in January, and Muhalala, Ugogo, in the interior in July. It is also found in 
Madagascar, and, according to Grandidier, occurs there on both the east and west coasts, and in 
Mr. Seebohm's collection there are specimens obtained in the Cape Verd Islands. 

In general habits Kittlitz's Plover is said to more nearly resemble the Lesser Ring-Plover 
than any other allied species. During the breeding-season, according to Mr. Ayres, it is found 
in pairs frequenting stony and tussocky ground where vegetation is scanty, and generally at no 
great distance from water ; and in the winter it is seen singly or in small parties, occasionally in 
company with other allied forms, on sand islands, the sea-coast, on flats or dunes, and on river- 
banks, but less frequently on the banks of canals or lakes ; but Mr. Ayres remarks that he found 
them frequenting mud-flats in the Transvaal. Its flight resembles that of the Lesser Ring-Plover, 
and it runs with great swiftness, stopping suddenly every now and again, bobbing its head, as 
many of the Plovers do. According to von Heuglin its food consists of larvae, worms, flies, and 
small beetles which live in the damp sand ; and Mr. Ayres says that the stomachs of a pair he 
shot contained insects, principally a species of white ant. According to Dr. Sharpe (Layard's 
B. of S. Afr. 2nd ed. p. 661), " it breeds on the Berg River in September. The eggs are laid in 
a little depression in the dry mud, which is heaped up a little round them. The eggs are olive- 
brown, profusely and confusedly marked with fine lines and spots of black throughout ; axis 1" 2'", 
diameter 10'". On leaving the nest the female, with a few rapid motions of her feet, covers the 
eggs with mud, and runs to some distance before taking wing. When driving in a troop of fifty 
or one hundred mares Mr. Kotze often discovered their nests by the courageous little bird facing 
the whole troop, napping her wings, and assuming a threatening attitude ; the galloping mares 
would divide right and left, and avoid the small atom, and thus she preserved her nest." 

The adult in breeding-plumage, figured and described, was obtained in Nubia by Hemprich 
and Ehrenberg, and is in my own collection, and the adult in winter and young in down described 
are in the collection of Canon Tristram. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides those in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser, 
a, ad. Nubia; b, ? ad. Nubia, April {Hemprich §• Ehrenberg). c, ? . Egypt {Rogers). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram. 

a. Lower Nile, 1864 {E. Cavendish Taylor), b. Gow on the Nile, March 8th, 1875 (/. H. Gurnet/), 
c. Fantee {Swauzy). d } pull. S. Africa {Sir A. Smith, Jardine coll.). e. Transvaal {Ayres). 
f. Potchefstroom, Transvaal, September 4th, 1879 {Ayres). g. Cape of Good Hope {Dr. Dyer Jardine 
coll.). h, ? . Knysna, December 5th, 1865 (C. /. Andersson). i, ? . Chnti, Madagascar (Last). 



3a2 



708 




' r/\M 




J.&.Keulemai 



iianhart imp. 



KILLDEER PLOVER 

JEGIAL1TIS VOCIFERA . 



^GIALITIS VOCIFERA. 

(KILLDEER PLOVER.) 



Pluvialis virginiana torquata, Briss. Orn. v. p. 68 (1760). 

Pluvialis dominicensis torquata, id. torn. cit. p. 70 (1760). 

Pluvialis jamaicensis torquata, id. torn. cit. p. 75 (1760). 

Charadrius vociferus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 253 (1766). 

Charadrius torquatus, id. torn. cit. p. 255 (1766). 

Le Eildir, Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. viii. p. 96 (1781). 

Charadrius jamaicensis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 685 (1788). 

JEgialites vociferus (Linn.), Bonap. Comp. List, p. 45 (1838). 

Hiaticula vocifera (Linn.), Gray, List Spec. Brit Mus. p. 71 (1844). 

Oxyechus vociferus (Linn.), Reichenb. Grail, p. xviii, tab. clxxii. figs. 725, 726 (1852). 

Charadrius (Oxyechus) vociferus (Linn.), G. R. Gray, Cat. of Brit. Birds, p. 142 (1863). 

Tildeo, Mexican ; Pijije in Costa Rica. 

Figurce notabiles. 
D'Aubenton, PI. Enl. 286; Wils. Am. Orn. vii. pi. 59. fig. 6; Audub. B. Amer. pi. ccxv.; 
id. 8vo ed. v. pi. 317; Lilford, B. of Brit. Isl. part xxv. 

Ad. fronte et stria superciliari albis : pileo antico cum lateribus nigris, medio et nucha fuscis : collo 
albo, et in parte inferiore nigro, circumcincto : dorso umbrino-fusco : uropygio et supracaudalibus 
aurantiaco-rufescentibus : remigibus nigro-fuscis, in pogonio interno albo marginatis : secundariis 
nonnullis in pogonio externo albo notatis : tectricibus alarum majoribus nigro-fuscis albo terminatis, 
reliquis dorso concoloribus : rectricibus extimis albis nigro transfasciatis et vix rufescente notatis, 
sequentibus ad basin rufescenti-aurantiacis, versus apicem nigris et albo terminatis, medianis fuscis 
et griseo-fusco apicatis : stria nigra a rostro per oculum ducta, gula et corpore subtus albis : 
pectore fasciis duabus nigris transversim notato : rostro nigricante : pedibus sordide viridibus : 
iride fusca. 

Adult Male (New Jersey, May) . Forehead and a stripe above and behind the eye white ; fore part of the 
crown black ; crown and nape warm brown ; lower neck encircled by a white band, below which is a 
broad black band ; upper parts generally warm brown ; upper tail-coverts rufous ; quills blackish 
brown, on the basal portion of the inner web broadly margined with white, and some of the secondaries 
with a white patch on the outer web ; larger wing-coverts blackish brown, broadly tipped with white ; 
rest of the wing-coverts like the back; outer tail-feathers white, broadly barred with black and slightly 
tinged with rufous, the next rufescent orange at the base, then black, broadly tipped with white ; 
middle rectrices greyish brown and not white at the tip ; below the white band which passes through 
the eye a black band passes from the base of the bill ; rest of the underparts white, except the black 
band encircling the lower part of the throat, and a second black band which crosses the breast : bill 



346 

blackish ; legs dull greenish ; iris brown. Total length about 8 - 5 inches, culmen - 92, wing 6"35, 
tail 3'8, tarsus l - 45. 

Young in clown (Arizona). Upper parts generally marbled greyish stone-brown; a broad band over the 
forehead white, and the black lines defined on the head as in the adult ; wings at the base like the 
back, then black, and the terminal portion white ; hind neck, sides of the back, and an irregular 
median line on the back black; underparts white, washed with warm buff on the sides, and on the 
lower neck a black band. 

Obs. The sexes do not differ in plumage. According to Dr. Elliott Coues the young birds have the black 
bands replaced by grey, and the upper parts duller and greyer, and when quite young the feathers of 
the upper parts are spotted with rusty brown; rump pale; markings of tail incomplete; but they 
speedily acquire the adult dress. 

The Killdeer Plover can only be included as a rare straggler to England, and has not been 
observed in any other part of the Paleearctic area. It was first recorded as having been 
obtained here by Dr. Sclater, who (Ibis, 1862, p. 276) stated that he received a mounted 
specimen from Mr. John E,. Wise, which the latter gentleman said had been shot by a keeper 
named Douding, in a potatoe-field near Knapp Hill, on the River Avon, about a mile from 
Christchurch, in April 1857, and was taken in the flesh to Mr. Hart, the well-known bird-stuffer 
in Christchurch, from whom it was bought by the owner Mr. Tanner. Mr. Howard Saunders 
throws some doubt on the accuracy of the above statements ; but there can be no doubt whatever 
respecting the second recorded occurrence, viz. that of a female which was shot by Mr. F. Jenkinson 
at Tresco, one of the Stilly Islands, on the 14th January, 1885, and exhibited by me at a meeting 
of the Zoological Society. Mr. Jenkinson sent me the following particulars of its capture, viz.: — 
"On Sunday, 11th January, 1885, I was walking home by the Long Pool on Tresco, and 
instinctively stopped to look at a favourite bit of mud and rushes at the west end. While I 
was looking, a bird flitted a few yards and settled on the grass between me and the mud; and 
as it did so it uttered a gentle half note which I felt sure belonged to no bird that I had 
seen before. 

" It was tame enough, and remained about for three days, its return to that particular spot 
apparently coinciding each day with the rise of the tide. On Monday I missed it, sitting, at 
25 yards after a long crawl. I half hoped that the keeper, who is a better shot than I am, 
would go after it, so I did not disturb it much. On Tuesday I put it up unexpectedly within 
a yard or two of me from behind a wall where I was waiting. The chestnut tail-coverts were 
very distinct as it flew away, uttering cries veritably ' vociferous,' but very plaintive and musical. 
I did not fire at it on that occasion. Next day I began by shooting a Ring-Dotterel by mistake ; 
I could not see the other anywhere; the day wore on, and I had to leave next morning. It was 
getting quite late when, walking up to the other end of the pool, I saw, beyond a raised causeway 
which crosses the pool there, a bird running on the wet ground. I fired instantly and the bird 
just uttered one characteristic cry, which assured me that it was the one of which I was in 
search, and lay there dead. 



347 

"The name Killdeer Plover at once occurred to me ; and next day I found a small book on 
American birds, and on reading the description of that species I found that it agreed with my 
specimen. The bird was a female in good plump condition, and quite the reverse of an exhausted 
straggler." 

In a work published on ' Madeira : its Climate, &c.,' by Mr. J. Y. Johnson, he states that the 
Killdeer Plover has occurred on that island, but I do not find any confirmation of this statement. 
It is an inhabitant of North America, where in many parts of the country it is common, and 
occurs from the Hudson Bay Territory, where it is met with only in the summer, down to Central 
America, where it winters. 

According to Richardson (Faun. Bor.-Am. p. 368) it " arrives on the Saskatchewan plains 
about the 20th of April; and at that season frequents the gardens and cultivated fields of the 
trading posts with the utmost familiarity in search of food. It hovers over the head of anyone 
who disturbs it, reiterating a loud, shrill cry, which is supposed to resemble the word killdeer." 

Capt. Blakiston says (Ibis, 1863, p. 129) that it " arrived in the neighbourhood of Fort 
Carlton on the 19th April in 1858. I found it a difficult bird to approach within the range of 
small shot. Besides my own, M. Bourgeau obtained specimens and eggs on the Saskatchewan." 
In South-eastern Oregon, Capt. Bendire found it one of the earliest birds to arrive in spring, and 
generally distributed in summer. 

In the Western States it appears to be common everywhere, and, according to Dr. Cooper, 
it winters in California everywhere south of San Francisco, migrating north in April and May, 
but some remain throughout the summer in Western California. 

In the Eastern States it is much less common. I never met with it during the two years I 
collected in New Brunswick ; my friend Mr. George A. Boardman, however, records it as occurring 
near Calais, Maine, in autumn, but it appears to be merely an accidental visitant. 

Dr. Brewer speaks of it as generally distributed in New England, but nowhere common; 
and it is recorded from almost all the Northern States as a common summer resident, wintering 
in the Southern States. 

I found it common in Texas, not only in the winter but also in the breeding-season, though 
not then so abundant as in the cold season ; but it certainly breeds there, as I found its nest. 
In Mexico it is a tolerably common winter visitant. Messrs. Sclater and Salvin (Ibis, 1859, 
p. 227) record it as found near Duefias; Mr. G. C. Taylor (Ibis, 1860, p. 313) records it from 
Honduras, and Mr. Frantzius (J. f. O. 1869, p. 378) as common near San Jose in Costa Rica. It 
is also stated by Bryant to be common on the Bahamas in winter, and by Wedderburn to be 
found in Bermuda at the same season. 

In its habits the Killdeer is a noisy, restless bird, and I, when stalking some rare bird, 
frequently found it a perfect nuisance, as if I was unfortunate enough to come near one it would 
generally, after running a short distance, fly up uttering its loud warning cry, which would at 
once put all the birds in the neighbourhood on the alert. I found it equally noisy in the winter 
as in the summer, and can therefore not endorse Audubon's statement that it is an unusually 
silent bird at that season. I found it not only on the sea-coast, but also inland at almost every 
pool, and have often been startled when watering my horse at some deserted-looking pool in a 



348 

half-dried-up river-bed by the wild cry of the Killdeer close to me. As a rule, I did not find 
them shy, as they would often remain until one came within a few paces of them, and then 
either fly up or run some distance before taking wing. They run with great swiftness, and when 
on horseback I frequently noticed that they would run out of the way and not take flight. 

Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway (Water-B. of N. Am. i. p. 150) write respecting its 
habits as follows : — " Like most of its race, this Plover passes much of its time on the ground, 
over which it moves with great rapidity. It can run with such swiftness that — according to 
Audubon — to run ' like a Killdeer ' has in some parts of the country passed into a proverbial 
phrase. This bird is also equally active on the wing, and mounts at pleasure to a great 
height; and during the love-season it is said to perform various kinds of evolutions while on 
the wing. 

" Its note consists of two syllables, resembling in sound ' kill-dee,' rapidly enunciated ; and 
occasionally, when the bird is much excited, only the last syllable is repeated after the first 
utterance of the double note. Generally it is sounded in a clear, loud tone, and as a signal of 
alarm. It not unfrequently startles other birds, and puts them on their guard, this habit 
rendering the Killdeer an object of dislike to the hunter. During the summer — especially 
when it is breeding, and afterward, even when its young are fully grown — the Kildeer is a noisy 
and restless bird, and is disturbed by the near approach of man. It will often squat until one is 
close upon it, and will then suddenly fly up or run off, startling the unwary intruder by a loud 
and clear cry. 

" The Killdeer feeds on worms and various kinds of insects on the uplands, and also 
frequents shallow pools and brooks in search of such small Crustacea as are found in the water. 
In the fall it is said to follow the ploughman, and pick up the larvae and other forms of insect 
life that are turned over in the furrows." 

The present species breeds from the extreme northern limit of its range down to Mexico, 
but, it would appear, much more sparingly in the southern than in the northern portion of its 
range. Its nest, so far as my personal experience goes, is extremely simple, being a mere 
depression in the soil sparsely lined with a few grass-bents ; but, according to Dr. Brewer, it is 
said to sometimes, though rarely, construct a nest of grass in a bunch of plants, and Wilson 
speaks of having seen nests with small fragments of shells forming a rim round the eggs. The 
nest is more frequently placed inland than close to the coast, and is often to be found far inland. 
I procured eggs from Systerdale, in Texas, and found freshly hatched young on Galveston Island. 
When the nest is approached the old birds exhibit the greatest anxiety, and fly round uttering 
their plaintive cry, or run along the ground feigning lameness to entice the intruder away, hence 
the nest is by no means a difficult one to find. It is said that during incubation both parents 
alternate in sitting, and do not leave the nest day or night, in this respect differing in a marked 
degree from JEcjialitis meloda and JEgialitis wilsoni. 

According to Dr. Brewer, the young can run about immediately after they leave the shell, 
though, as usual with birds of this kind, those I have met with generally tried to hide by 
squatting motionless on the ground. The eggs are deposited from April to June, according to 
the latitude where they nest, and in Texas I found them in May : they are four in number, 



349 

pyriform in shape, and those in my collection have the ground-colour pale clay-buff or ochre, 
and are blotched and spotted with black, the blotches being, as a rule, larger and more 
numerous at the larger end ; in one or two there are also irregular black streaks and lines, and 
all have a few paler shell-markings. In size they average 1-55 inch by 1*12 inch. 
The specimen figured and described is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens: — 

E Mm. H. E. Dresser. 

a, <$ ad. New Jersey, May (/. Krider). b. San Antonio, Texas, May, 1864 [H. E. D.). c. Hamilton Beach, 
May 4th, 1887 (/. W. Slainton). d. Near City of Mexico (G. H. White), e. Maryland, September 10th, 
1858 [Elliott Coues). f. New Jersey [Krider). g,pull. Fort Whipple, Arizona, August 10th, 1869 
(E. Palmer). 

E Mus. II. B. Tristram. 

a. Bermuda, 1818 [H. B. T.). b. Coban, Vera Paz (0. Salviri). c. Nova Scotia ( Wedderburn) . d,%. Ohio, 
1883 [Walton), e. N. America (/. H. Garnet/, Jr.). 



3B 



351 



Genus LOBIVANELLUS. 

Tringa apud Bodd. Tabl. cles PL Enl. p. 50 (1783). 

Parra apud Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 706 (1788). 

Vanellus apud Vieill. Nouv. Diet. xxxv. p. 208 (1819). 

Charadrins apud Wagler, Syst. Av., Charadr. no. 49 (1827). 

Lobivanellus, Strickland, P. Z. S. 1841, p. 33. Type L. indicus. 

Chettusia apud Gray, Genera of B. iii. p. 541 (1847). 

Sarcogrammus, Peichenbaeh, Natxirl. Syst. Vogel, p. xviii. Type L. indicus (1852). 

Tylibyx, id. ut supra. Type L. melanocephalus (1852). 

Tee present genus is represented in Asia, Africa, and Australia, and is found only in the 
extreme eastern portion of the western Palaaarctic area. 

Particulars are given in the following article respecting habits and nidification, in which the 
type species and the other members of the genus do not appear to differ. 

Lobivanellus indicus, the type of the genus, has the bill straight, about as long as the head, 
rather stout at the base and tapering towards the point, straight to the end of the nasal sinus, 
then slightly raised and decurved to the tip, which is narrow and rounded ; gape-line straight ; 
nasal sinus extending over more than two thirds of the length of the bill ; nostrils linear, 
lateral, subbasal ; wings long, the first primary shorter than the third, the second longest ; at 
the carpus a horny tubercle, which is sometimes developed into a spur ; a lappet of nude skin at 
the base of the bill in front of the eye ; tail long, nearly even ; legs long, slender, the tarsus 
anteriorly scutellate, the tibia bare for about half its length ; toes moderately long, the hind toe 
small ; claws rather slender, slightly curved, rather obtuse. 



3B2 



710 




J-G-.Keuleina.-na del.etlitk. 



REDWATTLED LAPWING. 

LOBIVANELLUS TNDICUS. 



Mini era. Eros, imp . 



LOBIVANELLUS INDICUS. 

(RED- WATTLED LAPWING.) 



Le Vanneau arme des Indes, Buffon, Hist. Nat. des Ois. viii. p. 64 (1781). 

Le Vanneau arme de Goa, D'Aubenton, PI. Enl. 807. 

Goa Sandpiper, Lath. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 165 (1785). 

Tringa indica, Bodd. Tabl. d. PI. Enl. p. 50 (1783). 

Parra goensis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 706 (1788). 

Tringa goensis (Gmel.), Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 727 (1790). 

Vanellus goensis (Gmel.), Vieill. Nouv. Diet. xxxv. p. 208 (1819). 

Charadrius atrogularis, Wagl. Syst. Av., Charadr. no. 49 (1827). 

Lobivanellus goensis (Gmel.), Strickland, P. Z. S. 1841, p. 33. 

Chettusia indica (Bodd.), Gray, Genera of B. iii. p. 541 (1847). 

Sarcogrammus goensis (Gmel.), Beichenb. Grail, p. xviii (1852). 

Lobivanellus indicus (Bodd.), Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Cursores, p. 68 (1865). 

Chettusia goensis (Gmel.), Tytler, Ibis, 1868, p. 203. 

Hoploplerus spinosus (nee Linn.), Radde, Ornis, 1889, p. 109. 

Sarcogrammus indicus (Bodd.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxiv. p. 149 (1896). 

Titai, Titi, Tituri, Titiri, in different parts of India ; Yennepa chitawa, Telugu (Jerdon) ; 
Verklikker, Dutch in Ceylon ; Al-kati, Ceylonese Tamils, lit. " Man pointer " ; Kiralla, 
Kibulla, Sinhalese (Legge). 

Figures notabiles. 

D'Aubenton, PI. Enl. 807 ; Gould, Cent, of Himalayan B. pi. lxxviii. ; Reichenbach, Grallae, 
Taf. ci. fig. 168, Taf. cii. fig. 1050. 

Ad. capite, collo et pectore nigris : stria, magna postoculari alba : dorso antico cinereo-albo : corpore supra 
tectricibusque alarum fuseo-cinereis viridi nitentibus, tectricibus alarum medianis rubro-purpureo 
nitentibus : supracaudalibus albis : remigibus ad basin albis et in parte reliquo nigris, secundariis 
magis albis, intimis fere omnino albis : tectricibus alarum majoribus albis et ad basin cinereis : cauda 
ad basin alba, medialiter nigra, et albo terminate, rectricibus medianis cervino-cinereo notatis et 
apicatis : corpore reliquo subtus albo : rostro ad basin coccineo, in parte apicali nigro : membrana 
lororum et marginibus palpebrarum coccineis : pedibus flavis, unguibus nigris : iride coccineiL 

Adult Male (Transcaspia, July 9th). Head, neck, and breast deep black; a white patch behind and rather 
below the eye covering the aural region ; fore part of the back greyish white ; rest of the upper parts 
brownish grey glossed with green, except on the median coverts, which are richly glossed with reddish 
purple ; upper tail-coverts white ; quills black, with the base white, this colour increasing on the 
secondaries until the innermost are nearly pure white ; larger wing-coverts grey at the base and 
broadly tipped with white ; tail white at the base, then black, and broadly terminated with white, the 



354 

median feathers marked and tipped with buffy grey ; underparts below the breast white : terminal half 
of the bill black, the basal half, the wattles in front of the eye, and the eyelids lake-red ; feet and legs 
yellow, claws black; iris crimson. Total length about 1T50 inches, culmen l - 45, wing 8'22, tail 4 - 78, 
tarsus 3 '2. 

Young in doivn (Sambhur, June 20th). Upper parts sandy grey, mottled with buffy brown and black; a 
black patch behind the eye ; sides of the head below the eye buffy white ; centre of the back distinctly 
marked all along with black ; throat and upper neck sooty blackish ; rest of the underparts white. 

Obs. The sexes are alike, differing only slightly in size, and there is, so far as I can see, no difference between 
the winter and summer plumage. The young bird has pale sandy-buff margins to the feathers, the 
crown of the head is pale brown, becoming black on the sides and the hinder portion ; throat and 
sides of the face white ; the sides of the head from the hinder ear-coverts dusky black, this colour 
extending over the lower throat and chest ; wattles very slightly developed. 

The range of the Red-wattled Lapwing extends from Transcaspia in the west to Assam in the 
east, being replaced in Burma by a closely allied species, Lolivanellus atronuchalis. Northward 
it ranges as high as Gilgit, and in the south it is found as far as Ceylon. 

According to Messrs. Radde and Walter {I. c.) it breeds commonly in the eastern portion of 
Transcaspia, both on the Tedgend and Murghab, as also on the Kuschk. They first observed it 
on the 1st April, 1886, at Kara-bend, and in 1887 found it generally distributed on the 
Murghab on the 6th and 7th April, but the largest number passed on the 24th and 25th April. 
Its loud, incessant cry, especially at its nesting-place, they say, becomes most tedious. 

Mr. Zarudny speaks of it as being a very common bird along the Tedgend and the central 
part of the Murghab, as also in the oasis of Pinde. Mr. Blanford met with it once in Persia, 
near Sarvistan, east of Shiraz, in June, where it was, he adds, very rare ; and I may here 
remark that there are specimens in the British Museum from Muscat, in Arabia, and from 
Mesopotamia. 

Lieut. H. E. Barnes speaks of it (Stray Feathers, ix. p. 459) as being rare near Chaman, in 
Northern Afghanistan; but Sir O. St. John found it common in Southern Afghanistan, and 
Col. Swinhoe says (Ibis, 1882, p. 120) that it was common throughout the Bolan and all 
through the country to Kandahar. Mr. Scully obtained it once at Gilgit in April ; and 
Dr. Jerdon says it is one of the best known birds of India, occurring everywhere from Ceylon up 
to Cashmere, to the west of which Mr. Ball met with it in the higher valleys of the Suliman 
hills up to an altitude of 3500 feet. Mr. Blanford obtained it in Baluchistan, where, however, 
it was by no means common, but Mr. A. O. Hume states that it is a common bird in Sind. 
Capt. Butler met with it on the island of Hendjam, in the Persian Gulf. In Cutch, Guzerat, 
and Kattiawar it is common, as also on the Sambhur Lake, where, according to Mr. Adam, it 
breeds from March to July. In Oodeypore, Mr. Hume met with it in February, and in 
Jodhpore, during the prevalence of a drought in the cold season of 1877-78, he found one or 
more pairs about every hamlet. Throughout the Bengal Presidency it is common, and 
Mr. Cripps records it from Furreedpore as resident, but it becomes rarer further east, and is 
only a straggler in North-east Cachar in March and April. In the south it is found in 
Travancore both in the hills and on the plains; and in Ceylon, according to Col. Legge (B. of 



355 

Ceylon, p. 963), " though widely distributed throughout the low country, it is somewhat partial 
in its choice of locality. It is very common in the northern half of the island, as also in the 
north-western and better-watered eastern districts, being in these parts found at almost every 
tank and jungle-begirt paddy-field that one visits. In the Western Province it is also abundant, 
but is chiefly found on pasture-land ; and about Bolgodde frequents marshes and the drier 
portions of large paddy-fields. In the Amblangoda, Wackwella, and Baddegamma fields and 
pastures, as also about Matara, it is to be met with in moderate numbers, and is likewise seen 
further east towards Tangalle and beyond that place. In the dry maritime region of Hamban- 
tota, Lobipluvia malabarica takes its place principally, though it may there be met with about 
tanks and marshes in the jungle. Further north, on the Wellaway Korale it is again more 
common, and ascends the hills at Lemastota to a considerable altitude. It is also to be found 
on the Uva patnas at times, where Mr. Bligh has seen it near Banderawella at an altitude of 
about 4000 feet. It likewise frequents suitable localities in Dumbara, but, I understand, chiefly 
in wet weather, when it is a visitor to that upland from the low country." 

In Burma it is replaced by a closely allied species, Lobivanellus atronuchalis (Blyth), which 
differs in having a broad white band over the ear-coverts and a white collar on the hind neck, 
whereas in the present species the white bands over the ear-coverts are continued and meet on 
the hind neck. 

In general habits the present species appears much to resemble our common European 
Lapwing, and is even more noisy than that bird. It is generally found near water, though 
occasionally is seen at some distance from it. Usually it is to be seen singly or in pairs, but in 
the cold season they collect in small scattered flocks, but seldom in large flocks. 

" Late in April," Mr. Zarudny writes, "near Kara-bend, on the banks of the rivers which 
are submerged during the floods, I observed both sexes ; the males were wheeling above their 
mates executing all kinds of aerial evolutions, like the Peewit. About the 27th June theyoun°- 
had left the nest, and between the 2nd and 12th July to the end of that month they collected 
in small flocks of from four to eighteen individuals. In each separate family there were from 
two to four young. Amongst all the Lapwings I have seen this bird runs and flies best. The 
cry of the male, which is heard in the spring, is loud and melodious, but difficult to reproduce. 
It is not easy to approach, being shy and always on the alert, and even during nidification they 
never at the approach of man show the same audacity as other allied species. In summer their 
food consists of different sorts of orthoptera which abound on the dry prairies and the steppes 
skirting the rivers. They prefer to remain near the water, and to search for their food on the 
sand-banks." In India they feed on worms, crickets, beetles, aquatic insects, and larvae, and if 
pressed by hunger they will feed on offal. Col. Sykes even found corn in their stomachs. 
Referring to its habits in Ceylon, Col. Legge writes (/. c.) : — "In common, however, with many 
other species which are so very tame and familiar in India, it is not so fond of the vicinity of 
human habitations as it is on the mainland ; for although it may be found on pasture-land 
surrounding villages and hamlets and even close to cottages, it prefers more unfrequented 
localities, such as the borders of paddy-fields, edges of marshes, meadow-land surrounding laro-e 
tanks, or the margins of the smaller village ones. Though not strictly a shy bird, it is wary 
enough to rise when approached before one is within shot of it, and then, when flying round the 



356 

place from which it has been disturbed, uttering its well-known cry in true Lapwing fashion, it 
manages to keep at a respectable distance from the intruder. When on the wing or when 
approached while on the ground, particularly at night, it is constantly uttering its harsh and 
rather amusing notes; these consist of a shrill cry, followed by others resembling the words 
' Pity to do it,' ' Did you do it? ' — which are particularly annoying to the inexperienced sportsman, 
as they are always vociferously given out after having been fired at and missed ! At night it is 
a most watchful bird, and ever ready in the jungle to alarm slumbering nature around it with 
utterance of these cries. When watching for deer, on a moonlight night, behind an ambush, 
or, as it is called in North Ceylon, a ' shade,' of newly-cut boughs, and employed in the somewhat 
monotonous sport (?) of intently gazing through a small opening in my lair at a water-hole some 
fifteen yards in front of me, I have had these troublesome birds run close up, and, finding me 
out, rise with loud cries of ' Pity to do it ; ' and whether it was a pity or not to do it, I used to 
find that after this alarm the deer gave the water-hole a wide berth, and did not come to 
drink." 

The Red-wattled Lapwing breeds throughout India, both on the plains and in the hill 
country, up to about 4000 feet above the sea-level. According to Mr. A. O. Hume, the 
breeding-season extends from March to August, but the largest number of the eggs in his 
collection were deposited in April, and the normal number of eggs appears to be four. He 
gives (Nests and Eggs of Ind. B. 2nd ed. iii. pp. 340-344) several detailed accounts of its nidifica- 
tion, from which I gather that it breeds on river-banks, the edges of swamps and ponds, and in 
well-irrigated gardens, except during the rainy season, when they select drier situations. The 
eggs are often placed amongst the ballast on a railway, on the top of an old hedge-bank, in an 
old brick-kiln, and on several occasions they have been found on the top of a flat-roofed house. 
The nest is usually a slight depression in the ground, which is often surrounded by a little circle 
of stones or a little ridge of sand, and in one instance, where the nest was on the roof of a house, 
the birds had collected all the little pieces of loose mortar on the roof and made a raised-up nest. 
This bird appears to have a partiality for a railway-line as a site for its nest, for Mr. Hume 
writes (I.e.) as follows: — "Going along the line at Etawah for about three miles, on the 
14th August, we found five nests, one containing perfectly fresh eggs. Four of these nests were 
on the kunker ballast within two feet of the rail, so that the footboard of the carriages of every 
train must have passed over and within two feet of the sitting bird. The fifth was on the top 
of the boundary bank, the bird sitting totally unconcerned as our trolly passed within six or 
eight feet of it, and only moving when I walked up to the spot. Brooks tells me that along 
his fifty miles of line he has seen at least one hundred nests within the last twenty days or 
month." 

The late Mr. Charles Home gives (Ibis, 1869, p. 454) the following interesting account of 
the nesting of this species on the roof of a house : — " The judge's court-house at Manipuri is a 
large building with a terrace-roof of plaster beaten fiat. Beneath it are also the courts of 
several other officers ; and it is frequented by from four to five hundred people daily. A broad 
ladder leads to the top of the building, which is surrounded by trees and adjoins a large swampy 
barren piece of land such as the Lapwing loves. While sitting in court I have often heard 
Lapwings making a great outcry ; but I never guessed the cause, until, on inquiry, I found that, 



357 

for the last three or four years at least, a pair had selected the bare terrace-roof to breed. 
They always chose the same spot for their nest — a little heap of lime rubbish about a coaple of 
feet across ; and in a very slight hollow in the top of this I found two of their eggs, which 
almost exactly resemble those of their English namesake. This habit is the more strange, as 
the Kites (Milvus govinda) generally succeed in carrying off their newly hatched young. I 
ordered the birds not to be disturbed, and watched them with some curiosity ; for I had thought 
that they always frequented the most lonely and barren places for the purpose of breeding. On 
July 1st, 1865, I went up the ladder to the top of the court-house, peeped quietly over the 
parapet, and saw the Lapwing sitting on her two eggs. Gently she slipped off and crept lowly 
along for two or three yards, when she lifted herself up, and, flying slowly, alighted a little lower, 
on the next ledge, pretending to think I had not seen her two eggs, exposed as they were on 
the heap of mortar. On July 3rd, when the heat on the roof was so intense that one could 
scarcely bear to touch the plaster, the eggs were hatched; but on the 6th, when sitting in court 
in the afternoon, I heard a tremendous outcry of the parents, and sending to the roof I found 
that the Kites had swooped down and carried off the chicks. This occurs again and again, and 
yet the birds persist in laying in the same place. 

" On July 9th, 1866, I happened to go to the roof of my own house, which is flat and 
terraced like that of the court-house. There I saw four eggs of this Lapwing lying on the 
smooth plaster in the middle of the terrace. There was no trace of a nest, save a curious line 
of little bits of plaster, forming an irregular circle six or eight inches in diameter; but the 
pieces collected were not numerous. My man suggested that they were placed to prevent the 
eggs rolling about with the wind in the parents' absence ; and this seems to be very likely. 
These eggs were never hatched, although the parents were most attentive, but were, one by one, 
carried off by the Crows (Corvus culminatus), which are ever on the look-out for the eggs of 
other birds." 

According to Mr. Hume, " the eggs of this species are of the typical Plover type — normally 
broad and obtuse at one end and pointed towards the other. Oval, truncated, and greatly 
elongated varieties also occur. The ground-colour varies, of course, as in all Plovers — in some a 
clear pale olive-green, in some a yellow, in others a reddish buff, while occasionally it is almost 
coffee-coloured. The markings are intensely deep brown or black ; and there are blotches, 
streaks, spots, and clouds thinly or thickly distributed over the whole surface. The endless 
variety in the colour of the ground, and the extent, intensity, and character of the markings, 
renders any more exact description impossible ; but 1 may note that, besides the primary 
markings, most of the eggs exhibit underlying clouds, spots, and streaks of pale inky purple. 
The eggs have scarcely any gloss. In length the eggs vary from T45 to T85, and in breadth 
from 1T3 to 1-3; but the average of sixty-four eggs is T64 nearly by a little over T2." 

The specimens figured are an adult male from Transcaspia, for the loan of which I am 
indebted to Professor Menzbier, of Moscow, and a young bird in down from the British Museum 
collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined, besides the series in the British 
Museum, the following specimens : — 

3c 



358 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser, 
a, $ , b, (J . N.W. India {Lieut. H. E. Barnes) . 

E Mus. Prof. M. Menzbier. 
a, (J ad. Merutchak, Transcaspia, July 9th ; b, ? ad. Kara-bent, Transcaspia, May 13th (Zarudny). 



711 




J- G.Keulemarts del.et lith.. 



1 

AFRICAN BLACK OYSTERCATCHER.. 
H/£matopus moquini. 



Mint em. Bros . imp . 



H^MATOPIJS MOQUINI. 

(AFRICAN BLACK OYSTER-CATCHER.) 



" Hcematopus niger, Cuv.," Temm. Man. d'Orn. ed. 2, ii. p. 533, "Afrique meridionale, 

Australasie " (1820, partial). 
Ostralegus capensis, Licht. Verz. Doubl. p. 73, desc. null. (1823). 
" Hcematopus niger, Cuv.," Less. Man. d'Orn. ii. p. 301, " Malouines, Cap, Nouvelle 

Hollande " (1828, partim). 
Hcematopus capensis (Licht.), Gray, Gen. of Birds, iii. p. 547 (1847). 
Hcematopus unicolor, Licht. Nomencl. Av. p. 93, " Kafferland," desc. null. (1854, nee 

Wagler). 
Hcematopus niger, Bolle, J. f. O. 1855, p. 175, "Canaries" (nee Pall.). 
Hcematopus {Melanibyx) moquini, Bp., add and correct Table &c. Prsecoces in C. R. xliii. 

p. 1020, "S. Africa" (1856) ; Gray, Hand-1. of B. iii. p. 22. no. 10064, " S. Africa" 

(1871). 
Melanibyx moquini, Bp., Reichenb. Handb. der spec. Orn., Grallte, pi. 168. figs. 1042-1043 

(1852). 
Hcematopus unicolor capensis, Seebohm, Charadriidae, p. 309 (1887). 
Melanibyx capensis (Licht.), Heine & Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein. p. 337 (1890). 

Corvino in Graciosa ; Gra/jo cle Mar on Lanzarote ; Cuervo marino on Fuerteventura. 

Figura unica. 
Reichenbach, ut supra. 

Ad. fuliginoso-niger : rostro et periophthalmis nudis corallino-rubris : pedibus bete et saturate coccineo- 
rubris : iride coccinea. 

Adult Male (Fuerteventura, April 20th). Entire plumage dark sooty black : bill and bare part round the 
eye coral-red; legs deep crimson; iris bright red. Total length 150 inches, culmen 3'45, wing 98, 
tail 4 - 3, tarsus 2'0. 

Adult Female (Fuerteventura, May 6th). Does not differ from the male in plumage. Culmen 3"55, 
wing lO'O, tail 4'5, tarsus 2'0. 

Although essentially an African species, inhabiting the coasts of South Africa on both sides of 
the continent, and even found occasionally in the southern parts of the Red Sea, this Oyster- 
catcher is found regularly and breeds in the Canary Islands. Berthelot met with it on the small 
barren island of Graciosa. Dr. C. Bolle (J. f. O. 1855, p. 175) says that he saw several pairs 
on the shore of the peninsula of Handia in 1852, and succeeded in shooting one specimen, and 
he subsequently states that Don Francisco Manrique observed this bird along the Straits of 

3c 2 






360 

Bocayne on the sandy shores on the north side of Fuerteventura, near Corral ejos, where, he 
adds, it doubtless breeds. Mr. Godman did not meet with it, but says (Ibis, 1872, p. 220) that 
it is occasionally seen on the coast of Teneriffe. 

Mr. E. G. Meade- Waldo obtained an old female, in which he found well-developed eggs, 
near the point of Jandia, on Fuerteventura, in February 1888, and adds that he was assured 
that it breeds on the north coast of Fuerteventura, and also on the islands of Lanzarote and 
Graciosa. In the following year he revisited Fuerteventura in February, but did not observe it, 
though a boy, who had five examples, assured him that they were breeding when he shot them. 
He subsequently, however, obtained a breeding pair on the island of Graciosa. 

In Africa the Black Oyster-catcher doubtless occurs all along the west coast as far as that 
portion which is opposite to the Canaries, but the records of its occurrence north of the Equator 
are very meagre. Andersson (B. of Damara Land, p. 277) speaks of it as being not uncommon 
on the mainland of the south-west African coast, as well as on the adjacent islands. Mr. E. L. 
Layard, who records it from the Cape Colony, states that it is '• not uncommon along the shores 
of South Africa, extending far towards the Line on both sides of the continent " ; and Mr. Sharpe, 
in his edition of Layard's B. of S. Africa, says that Mr. Bickard found it at Port Elizabeth and 
East London, but not plentiful at either place. According to Mr. Ayres (Ibis, 1862, p. 34) 
these Oyster-catchers " are very scarce in Natal. They frequent the sea-shore, are active in 
their habits, and run with considerable swiftness ; they feed along the sandy beaches ; on the 
receding of a wave they run quickly into the shallow water, and inserting their wedge-shaped 
bill up to their heads in the sand, haul out small crabs, which having secured they run high 
and dry to devour at leisure." 

In East Africa the Black Oyster-catcher has been met with as far as the southern portion of 
the Bed Sea. Biippell (Vog. N.O.-Afr. p. 118) says that a single specimen was obtained on the 
island of Dahalak in the Bed Sea, but not preserved, and von Heuglin (Orn. N.O.-Afr. p. 1041) 
speaks of it as of accidental occurrence on the dunes and islands in the southern part of the 
Bed Sea. 

In habits the Black Oyster-catcher appears to resemble //. ostralegus, frequenting the rock- 
bound or sandy shores, where they pick up small crustaceans, mollusca, &c, and often follow 
the receding waves in search of food. Bolle remarks on their great swiftness of foot, and says 
that they usually escape pursuit by running, and only take wing when closely pressed. They 
are usually seen in pairs and are inseparable, but in October and November, according to 
Andersson, they collect in large flocks and are then extremely shy and difficult of approach 
within gunshot range. Its cry is loud, like that of our common European Oyster-catcher, and it 
is said to be a somewhat noisy bird. It feeds on worms, insects, small crustaceans, and mollusca, 
which latter it searches for in the crevices of the rocks and under stones ; and Andersson remarks 
that while thus engaged it sometimes swims a short distance from rock to rock, and he further 
states that he has been told that its flesh is excellent, but that he himself never tasted it. 

The Black Oyster-catcher breeds in South Africa and also in the Canaries. Mr. Layard. 
says (B. of S. Afr. p. 300) that he received its eggs from Mr. Hugo, of Simon's Town, who 
procured them along the shore towards Cape Point. The eggs, he says, " are generally two in 
number, laid in a simple depression in the sand, in the debris accumulated just beyond 



361 

high water-mark. They are of a greyish cream-coloured ground, generally, but rather 
sparsely, covered with coarse, irregular, wavy black and dark brown broken lines : axis 2" 6'", 
diam. 1" 9'". My son found it breeding on Robben Island about Christmas 1865." Andersson 
(B. of Damara Land, p. 277) states that " it makes no nest, but deposits its eggs on the shingle 
of the beach ; these are four in number, of a drab colour, with eccentric streaks and spots of 
very dark brown." 

In working out the synonymy of the present species, I have found no small difficulty in 
deciding on which specific name it should rightly bear. Temminck (I. c.) was the first to refer 
to the African species (which he did not, however, separate from the Australian form) under the 
name of " Hcematopus niger, Cuvier " ; but on referring to the first edition of the ' Regne Animal ' 
(i. p. 469, 1817) I find that Cuvier gives no name to the African bird, and merely remarks, 
under Hcematopus ostralegus, " On en trouve . . . . au Cap une a plumage tout noir " ; and in 
his second edition (i. p. 5U4, 1829) he describes the Australian species under the name 
Hcematopus niger. 

In 1823 Lichtenstein, in his list of the duplicates in the Berlin Museum (I. c), included, 
without any description, an Oyster-catcher under the name of Ostralegus capensis, which has by 
some naturalists been supposed to be the African Black Oyster-catcher; but on making enquiries 
at the Berlin Museum I find that there is no specimen there marked by Lichtenstein as being 
his Ostralegus capensis, and it is there generally believed that under this name he refenred to a 
specimen of the Common Oyster-catcher. Under these circumstances capensis cannot be used as 
a specific name for the present species. On the other hand, however, there are two specimens 
of the African Black Oyster-catcher in the Berlin Museum, both from South Africa, which are 
marked by Lichtenstein " Hcematopus unicolor, Forst.," and doubtless his Hcematopus unicolor 
(Nomencl. Av. p. 93, 1854) refers to these two birds ; but again, as the specific title of unicolor 
was preoccupied by Wagler (Hcematopus unicolor, Forst. in MS., Wagler, Isis, 1832, p. 1230) 
for the New Zealand Oyster-catcher, it cannot be used for the African bird. In 1856 Bonaparte 
gave the name of Hcematopus moguini to the present species as distinguished from the Australian, 
which he refers to under the name of Hcematopus fuliginosus, and from the South American 
species, which he calls Hwmatopus niger ; consequently Bonaparte's specific name will stand for 
the African species. 

The nearest ally to the present species is the Australasian Black Oyster-catcher, Hcematopus 
unicolor, which differs in having the bill more elongated and the legs (according to Gould) 
brick-red instead of deep crimson. There are four known species of the Black Oyster-catcher, 
two inhabiting the Old World and two the New World, viz. : — 

Hcematopus niger, Pall., which inhabits the Pacific coasts of North America. This bird 
has the head, neck, and jugulum black tinged with plumbeous, the rest of the plumage being 
blackish brown ; the iris is yellow, and the legs pale flesh-coloured. 

Hcematopms ater (Less.), inhabits the Pacific coast of South America, not occurring north of 
Chili, the Falkland Islands, and the east coast to Tambo Point. It is said to differ from 
U. niger in having the bill shorter and deeper. 

Hcematojms moquini, of which full particulars are given above. It has the iris bright red 
and the legs deep red, the plumage being deep black without any brown. 



362 

ffcemafopus unicolor, Wagler, which differs from the African species as above stated, and 
inhabits the southern coasts of the Australian continent, Tasmania, the islands in Bass's Straits, 
and New Zealand. 

The two American species have the iris yellow and the legs and feet pale flesh-coloured ; 
whereas the two Old-World species have the iris deep red and the legs and feet the one brick- 
red and the other deep red. 

The specimen figured is the male above described and is in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, $ ad. Jandia, Fuerteventura, April 20th, 1888; b, ? . Jandia, May 6th, 1889 (R. Gomes). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram, 
a, b. South Africa (E. L. Layard). 




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TRINGA ACUMINATA. 

(SHARP-TAILED SANDPIPER.) 



Totanus acuminatus, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 192 (1821). 

Trinqa australis, Jard. & Selby, Til. Orn. ii. pi. 91 (1829, nee Gmel.). 

Schmniclus australis (Jard. & Selby), Gray, List Grail. Brit. Mus. p. 105 (1844, nee Gmel.). 

Tringa subarquata, S. Mull. Verh. Land- en Volkenk. p. 110 (1839-44, nee Giild.). 

Tringa pectoralis, Gurney, Zoologist, 1849, p. 2392 (nee Say). 

Tringa rufescens, Midd. Sibir. Reise, ii. pt. 2, p. 221 (1851, nee Vieill.). 

Pelidna australis, Licht. Nomencl. Av. p. 92 (1855, nee Gmel.). 

Actiturus australis, Bp. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 597 (1856, nee Gmel.). 

Tringa acuminata (Horsf.), Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 316. 

Limnocinclus acuminatus (Horsf.), Gould, Handb. B. Austral, ii. p. 254 (1865). 

Tringa crassirostris, Taczanowsky (nee Temm. & Schleg.), J. f. O. 1873, p. 103. 

Pelidna acuminata (Horsf.), Salvadori, Ucc. Borneo, p. 323 (1874). 

Trinqa (Limnocinclus) accuminata, Casteln. & Ramsay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. i. p. 384 

(1877). 
Actodromas acuminatus (Horsf.), Ridgw. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. iii. p. 199 (1880). 
Actodromas acuminata (Horsf.), Nelson, Cruise of R.S. ' Corvvin,' p. 86 (1883). 
Tringa (Actodromas) acuminata (Horsf.), Palmen, Vega-Exped., Fogl. p. 323 (1887). 
Heteropygia acuminata (Horsf.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxiv. p. 566 (1896). 

Figuras notabiles. 
Jardine and Selby, 111. Orn. pi. 91 ; Gould, B. of Austral, vi. pi. xxx. ; Nelson, Nat. Hist. 
Coll. in Alaska, pi. vii. ; Sclater, Ibis, 1893, pi. v. 

Ad. supra nigro-fuscus, plumis conspicue rufescente et cinereo marginatis, pileo magis rufescente : uropygio 
et supracaudalibus nigris : remigibus nigro-f uscis, scapis sordide albidis : rectricibus nigricantibus 
anguste albo marginatis, medianis elongatis et marginibus rufescente tinctis, omnibus acuminatis 
et cauda cuneiforma : stria superciliari alba, nigro guttata: gula, gutture et pectore albis, nigro 
guttatis: corpore reliquo subtiis albo, nigro-fusco squamato : pectore et hypochondriis rufescente 
lavatis : abdomine medio fere immaculato : rostro nigro-fusco, ad basin olivaceo : pedibus oiivaceo- 
ochraceis : iride fusciL 

Juo. corpore supra adulto similis, sed sordidior et saturation stria superciliari albidiore et majore : corpore 
subtiis nee squamato, sed mento et gula, fere albis : gutture et pectore bruunescenti-cervinis vix fusco 
striatis : corpore reliquo subtiis albo. 

Adult Male (Shanghai, April). Upper parts with the feathers blackish brown, broadly margined with 
rufous and ashy grey, those on the crown rather more rufescent ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
black; quills blackish brown, with dull white shafts; tail-feathers blackish, narrowly margined with 
white, the median ones longer than the others, and with the margins tinged with rufous, all the 



364 

rectrices pointed, the median ones more so than the others ; a streak over the eye white, spotted with 
black ; underparts white, the throat and upper breast spotted with black, and the rest of the under- 
pays marked with large V-shaped or squamate blackish markings ; breast and flanks washed with 
rufous : bill olivaceous at the base, otherwise blackish brown; legs yellowish olive ; iris hazel-brown. 
Total length about 8'0 inches, culmen l - 25, wing 53, tail 2 - 15, tarsus l - 2. 

Young (Yokohama). Differs from the adult in having the upper parts darker, the streak over the eye 
broader and whiter, and the underparts without any squamate markings, the chin and upper throat 
with scarcely any markings, the lower throat and breast warm buff faintly streaked with brown, and 
the rest of the underparts pure white. 

The range of the present species is very extensive, as it has been recorded from Northern India 
eastward to China and Japan, northward through Eastern Siberia to Kamtschatka and Alaska, and 
south to the Pelew Islands, the Sunda Islands, and the Moluccas to New Guinea, New Ireland, 
the Friendly Islands, Australia, and New Zealand. 

It has also strayed to England, where it seems to have occurred twice — the first specimen 
now in the Norwich Museum, and said to have been killed on the Denes of Great Yarmouth at 
the end of September, 1848, but at the time believed to be and consequently recorded 
(Zoologist, 1849, p. 2392) as a "Pectoral Sandpiper," having been sent to the late 
Mr. J. H. Gurney, who subsequently suspected (torn. cit. p. 2568) he might have been deceived 
as to the place where it was procured. Through the vigilance of Mr. Lowne, one shot by 
Mr. T. Ground, 29th August, 1892, on the mud-flats of Breydon Broad, near the same town, was 
brought to the notice of Mr. Southwell, who, after it had been determined by Mr. Gurney, Jun., 
at once recorded it in the 'Zoologist' for October in that year (pp. 356-358). Mr. Southwell's 
attention having been thus called to the subject, he found that the former specimen undoubtedly 
belonged to this species, and recorded the fact in the same journal for the following month 
(pp. 405, 406), beside bringing the matter before the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society 
on the 27th of September, in whose 'Transactions' (vol. v. pp. 364-368) his remarks may be 
read. Mr. Ground's example was also exhibited to the Zoological Society of London, at its 
meeting on the 15th November (P. Z. S. 1892, p. 581). Subsequently these particulars 
were partially communicated to ' The Ibis' for 1893 (pp. 181-185) by the late Mr. Seebohn, and 
a figure from Mr. Ground's specimen was then given (pi. v.) by the Editor. 

So far as I am aware this Sandpiper has not been met with in Continental Europe, and in 
Asia I do not find it recorded from anywhere west of Gilgit, where Col. John Biddulph 
(Ibis, 1882, p. 287) shot a single specimen, a male in adult plumage, on the 1st August. It 
was, he says, flying about with a number of Machetes pugnax. It has not been observed by any 
of the Indian ornithologists, nor do I find any record of its occurrence between Gilgit and China, 
where, according to Pere David (Ois. de la Chine, p. 470), large numbers pass along the coast in 
the spring, and late in the summer it is very numerous in marshy places near Pekin; and 
Mr. Swinhoe (Ibis, 1863, p. 412) found it very abundant on the marshes of Takoo, North 
China, in August, when a few may always be seen passing southwards. They return north 
late in May, and he procured specimens on the 18th and 21st of that month. According to 
Mr. Styan (Ibis, 1891, p. 506) it passes Shanghai in fair numbers in April and May; and it is 
abundant at Foochow at the same time. In Japan it appears to occur regularly on passage. 



365 

Messrs. Blakistcm and Pfyer say that it is often obtained near Yokohama, and has been collected 
at Nagasaki. Mr. Whitely (Ibis, 1867, p. 205) obtained it near Hakodadi in September and 
October. M. Kalinowski obtained two males at Chemulpo, in Corea, in May, but did not meet 
with it again during the time he spent in exploring Corea. 

In Eastern Siberia it was first observed by von Middendorff on the south coast of the 
Sea of Okhotsk on the 12th July; Messrs. Dybowski and Godlewski met with it on the southern 
Baikal, in Southern Dauria, and on the coasts of the Sea of Japan. Dybowski observed it in 
Kamtschatka and on the Commander Islands, and Mr. Stejneger obtained young specimens on 
Bering Island during the autumnal migration of 1882. From the middle of September and 
during the following three weeks, he says, they were observed both on the tundra near the great 
lake and on the rocky beach of the ocean searching for Gammarids. They were very shy, and 
mostly single or in small families. Larger flocks were never seen. 

Mr. Nelson who records it from the N.E. coast of Siberia and Alaska, writes (Cruise of 
U.S. 'Corwin,' p. 86) as follows: — " The first knowledge of this bird's occurrence on the coast of 
America was obtained by me at St. Michael's, where it is an abundant species every autumn, 
coming during August and remaining until the sharp frosts of the approaching winter cause it to 
hasten away. Following my capture of the species comes the capture on the coast of Kotzebue 
Sound, at Hotham Inlet, the 1st September, 1880. by Captaiu Hooper, on the ' Corwin ' during 
his first cruise in the Arctic ; and on the 9th of September the same season Dr. Bean, on the 
coast survey schooner ' Yukon,' secured a second specimen at Port Clarence, Bering Strait, and 
this concludes our present knowledge of the distribution of the species on the American coast. 
During the summer of 1881, on the 1st August, we landed from the ' Corwin ' on the north-east 
coast of Siberia, in the vicinity of Cape Waukarem, and found these birds numerous, feeding on 
the flats which were closely bordering the shores of the Arctic Ocean, and sparingly grown up 
with fine grass. From the actions of the birds at this time it was evident that they had nested 
in the vicinity, and this region is probably the true summer home of this handsome species." 

It was, as above stated, first recorded from the North American continent by Mr. Nelson, 
who obtained a female near St. Michael's, Alaska, on the 16th September, 1877, which was shot, 
he says (Nat. Hist. Coll. made in Alaska, p. 106), "on a muddy bank of a tide creek as I was 
passing in a kyak." Later in the season others were seen, and during each of the succeeding 
autumns they were found to be one of the most common species of Snipe about St. Michael's, 
frequenting the borders of brackish pools and tide creeks in company with T. maculata, the 
Bed-breasted Snipe, and several other species. 

In the winter it ranges very far south, and has been recorded from the Philippines, Pelew 
and Sunda Islands, New Guinea, New Ireland, and the Friendly Islands. Horsfield obtained it 
in Java, and Dr. A. B. Meyer records it (Ibis, 1879, p. 143) from Celebes. In Australia, 
according to Mr. Gould (Handb. B. of Australia, ii. p. 254), it is generally distributed in all 
parts of the country, including Tasmania, and in New Zealand a pair were received by 
Dr. Haast from Lake Ellesmere, and Mr. Potts (Trans. N. Z. Inst. v. p. 198) described the 
male in summer plumage. 

Eeferring to its habits, Mr. Nelson says (I. c.) :— " They were nearly always assoc ated with 
T. maculata, whose habits they shared to a great extent. When congregated about their feeding- 
places, they united into flocks of from ten to fifty, but single birds were frequently flushed from 

3d 



366 

grassy spots. Their motions on the wing are very similar to those of the latter, and they were 
rarely shy. On October 1st, 1880, they were found scattered singly over the marsh, and rose 
30 to 40 yards in advance, and made off with a twisting flight, uttering at the same time a short, 
soft, metallic pleep, pleep, and, pursuing an erratic circuitous flight for a time, they generally 
returned and settled near the spot whence they started." Those observed on the coast of 
Siberia were, he says, very unsuspicious, and allowed him to pass close to them, or circled close 
about him. They sometimes remain on the shore of Norton Sound up to the 12th of October, 
and he has seen them searching for food along the tide-line when the ground was covered with 
two inches of snow. " When feeding along the edges of the tide creeks they may almost be 
knocked over with a paddle, and when a flock is fired into it returns again and again." 
Mr. Gould also writes {I. c.) that in Australia "The sandy beaches of the sea-coast and the 
banks of the rivers in the interior of the country are equally visited by it ; and in all such 
situations it is to be seen either in pairs or in small parties of from six to fifteen in number. It 
is very fearless, and will allow of the nearest approach before it will take wing. In its economy 
it appeared to me to hold an intermediate station between the Sandpipers and true Snipes. It is 
a bird especially fond of the grassy sides of lagoons and open wet marshy places, where it trips 
over the herbage which rests on the surface of the water, and sometimes wades up to its body in 
search of insects. Its flight resembles that of the true Snipes. Of the specimens killed, by far 
the greater number were birds of the year." Nothing appears to be known respecting the 
nidification of this Sandpiper, which doubtless breeds in Arctic Siberia. Three eggs of a 
Sandpiper were obtained on the 'Vega' expedition at the winter- quarters on the 3rd July, 1879, 
which Professor Palmen (Sib. Ishafsk. Fogelf. p. 323) thinks were very probably those of the 
present species, but as they were absolutely unidentified this is merely a surmise on the part of 
the Professor. Meves describes these eggs as having the ground-colour greyish white with a 
yellowish tinge, the shell-markings reddish grey, the spots small, rusty brown or liver-brown, 
becoming confluent at the larger end, where the ground-colour is scarcely visible. The shape is 
pure oval, not the least diminished at the pointed end; they agree both in weight and size as 
well as in grain of shell with some eggs of Limicola platyrkyncha, but differ considerably from 
those of Tringa cdjjina. The measurements and weights are given by Meves as follows: — 
32x23 mm., weight 0'3S gr. ; 33x22-8 mm., weight 0-38 gr. ; and 31-5 X 23-3 mm., weight 
0-40 gr. 

The specimens figured are those above described, and are in my own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, S a( l- Shanghai, April 1873 (R. Swinhoe). b,juv. Yokohama (H. Pryer). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram. 

a. Takow, Formosa, I860; b, J. Shanghai, April 1873 (R. Swinhoe). c,S • Hakodadi, October 29th, 1893; 
d, e. Yokohama (Henson). 



713 




J.G.Keulemans 3ibK . 



SPOTTED SANDPIPER . 

TOTATSfUS MAEULARIUS. 



Hank, art imp. 



TOTANUS MACTJLARIUS. 

(SPOTTED SANDPIPER.) 



Tringa macularia, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 249 (1766). 

The Spotted Tringa, Edw. Gleanings, ii. p. 139, pi. 277 (1806). 

Totaaus macularia (Linn.), Temm. Man. d'Orn. p. 422 (1815). 

Totanus macularius (Linn.), Vieill. Nouv. Diet. vi. p. 406 (1816). 

Actitis macularia (Linn.), Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 979. 

Tringoides macularia (Linn.), Gray, Gen. of B. iii. p. 574 (1846). 

Actitis notata, Bonap. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 597 (1856). 

Actitis wiedi, id. ut supra. 

Tringoides macularius (Linn.), Gray, Hand-1. of B. iii. p. 46. no. 10280 (1871). 

Tringites macularius, Sclater & Salvin, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 309. 

Totanus hypoleucus, var. macularius, Ridgw. Ann. Lye. New York, x. p. 384 (1874). 

Figurce notabiles. 

Edwards, Gleanings, pi. eclxxvii.; Gould, B. of Eur. pi. ccexvii.; id. B. of Great Britain, iv. 
pi. lix.; Wilson, Am. Orn. vii. pi. lix. fig. 1 ; Audubon, B. of Am. pi. cccx.; id. 8vo ed. v. 
pi. cccxlii.; id. Orn. Biogr. iv. pi. cccx.; Naumann, Vog. Deutchlands, Taf. exev.; 
Reichenb. Grallse, tab. Ixxiv. fig. 591, tab. ccclviii. figs. 211, 212. 

Ad. capite et corpore supra fusco-olivaceo metallico nitente, capite et collo postico nigricante striatis, corpore 
reliquo supra nigricante guttato, fasciato et notato, sed uropygio et supracaudalibus fere immaculatis : 
remigibus olivaceo-fuscis, primariis vix albo apicatis et in pogonio interno plaga albtl notatis : secun- 
dariis ad basin albis et albo terminatis : rectricibus medianis dorso concoloribus, reliquis albo apicatis 
et nigro-fusco fasciatis : corpore subtus et stria superciliari albis, illo ubique nigro-fusco guttato : 
rostro ad basin carneo, versus apicem sordide fusco : pedibus pallide carneo-rubris : iride fusci,. 

Juv. corpore supra olivaceo-fusco nee metallico nitente et vix nigro-fusco notato, sed tectricibus alarum 
nigricante fasciatis : mento, gula et corpore subtus albis immaculatis, sed gutturis lateribus pallide 
cinereo-fusco lavatis. 

In immature plumage the present species closely resembles Totanus hypoleucus, but may be distinguished by 
having all the secondaries broadly barred with ashy brown, whereas T. hypoleucus has some of the 
innermost secondaries nearly pure white. 

Adult Female (Washington, April 24th). Upper parts brownish olivaceous, with metallic gloss; head and 
neck striped with blackish, the rest of the upper parts with blackish-brown bars, stripes, and spots, 
but the rump and upper tail-coverts are very slightly marked ; quills olivaceous brown, the primaries 
very narrowly tipped with white, and with a large white blotch on the inner web; secondaries white at 
the base, and broadly tipped with white ; median tail-feathers like the back, the remainder tipped with 

3D 2 



368 

white and irregularly barred with brownish black ; underparts and a superciliary line white, the throat 
with smaller, and the rest of the underparts with larger, brownish-black spots : bill flesh-coloured at the 
base, otherwise dusky; legs pale pink; iris brown. Total length about 7'5 inches, culmen 1 - 15, 
wing 4*1, tail 2*05, tarsus 0'95. 

Young (Washington, August 3rd). Upper parts dull olivaceous brown, without any metallic lustre and 
without the blackish markings, except on the wing-coverts, which are barred with dull blackish ; chin, 
throat, and underparts white, unspotted, the lower neck washed on the sides with pale ashy brown. 

Young in down (Koshkonong Lake, June). Upper parts greyish stone-colour, with darker marblings ; a 
stripe from the base of the bill through the eye to the ear, one from the crown down the centre of the 
nape, and a broad one along the middle of the back blackish brown; underparts white. 

A common and widely distributed species in America, the Spotted Sandpiper is said to have 
occasionally strayed across the Atlantic to Great Britain. It has been recorded as having been 
obtained here on more than thirty occasions, but most of these are undoubtedly cases of mistaken 
identity; and Mr. J. H. Gurney, who has most carefully sifted all the evidence obtainable 
respecting these alleged occurrences, informs me that only three are, in his opinion, above suspicion. 
Many of these erroneous occurrences may have arisen from the fact that they have been identified 
by comparison with the drawing in Bewick's ' British Birds,' which, as pointed out by Mr. Gurney, 
really represents the Common Sandpiper (Totanus hy-poleucus), and not the present species. I 
quite agree with Mr. Howard Saunders (Man. Brit. B. p. 592) that it would be most desirable to 
be able to examine a specimen killed by some trustworthy person in Great Britain ; but I think 
it advisable not to exclude it as a rare straggler, and have given careful figures of the adult and 
young to assist in identification of any specimen that may hereafter turn up, and may point out 
that in immature dress it may readily be distinguished from the young of our Common Sandpiper 
in having all the secondaries barred with ash-brown, whereas in Totanus hy±>oleucus the eighth 
and ninth are nearly white. 

The occurrences which Mr. Gurney considers to be undoubted are the following: — two 
obtained at Warrington, in Lancashire, in May 1863 (Smith, Notab. Mersey Distr. p. 51); 
one obtained at Eastbourne, Sussex, in October 1866, and now in the collection of Mr. J. H. 
Gurney ; and two, a male and female, which, according to Mr. Robt. Gray (B. of W. of Scotl. 
p. 299), " were left at the Aberdeen Museum in August 1867, in the absence of Mr. Mitchell, 
who up to the present moment does not know by whom the birds were presented, or where they 
were shot. Both were in the flesh, and had not been long dead ; they were very prettily marked, 
and somewhat dissimilar in size, the male being the larger. The female is now in Mr. Angus's 
cabinet; the other specimen has been kindly presented to me by Mr. Mitchell, and is now in my 
own collection." 

It has, so far as I know, never occurred in Greenland ; and though it is stated to have been 
obtained in Germany and Italy, there appears to be great doubt as to the authenticity of these 
alleged occurrences. Naumann (Vog. Deutschlands, viii. p. 41) includes it as having been 
" killed on a few occasions on the Rhine or Main, and also having occurred on the Baltic," 
but adds that he never had an opportunity of examining any of these specimens. Count Nicolo 



369 

Contarini, in his ' Catalogo degli Uccelli del Veneto,' states that it occurs at the two seasons of 
migration on the coasts of the Adriatic; and Mr. Luigi Althammer (Naumannia, 1858, p. 167) 
says that he examined specimens in the Count's collection which were in full spring plumage; 
but more recent writers on the ornithology of Italy disbelieve the authenticity of these specimens, 
and I am inclined to agree with them. Mr. Gatke believes that it has been obtained on 
Heligoland, and says (Die Vogelw. Helgoland, p. 495) that about the latter half of the thirties 
Hans Tonnies, a gunner, shot during the month of May, by a small pond on the Upper Plateau, 
what was described as a Soaltpieper (Totanus hypoleucus), " quite similar to the common 
species, but having a small round black spot on each of the white feathers of the underside." 
Tonnies considered it to be a mere variety, as he knew nothing of the Spotted Sandpiper, and 
disposed of it to a visitor. In May 1847 Claus Aeuckens noticed a small Sandpiper which he 
described to Mr. Gatke as being " white on the underside, with many black spots in form like 
the small roundish black spots of the Missel Thrush," and as Aeuckens knew nothing of Totanus 
macularius, Mr. Gatke believes it to have been that species. 

In America, which is the true home of this Sandpiper, it has a wide range, and is, according 
to Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway (Water-Birds of N. America, i. p. 30^), " one of the most 
common as well as most widely distributed species. It is found throughout nearly all North 
America, in the interior and on the shores of both the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans, breeding 
wherever found, from Texas to Alaska, and from Florida to Fort Anderson. That it is regular 
in its occurrence would appear from the fact that Richardson nowhere met with it in the Fur 
Region, neither in the interior nor on the sea-coast. It is found in Bermuda and in nearly all 
the West India Islands, breeding in some of them, and is met with in winter in Mexico, Central 
America, and different parts of South America." 

I found it abundant near San Antonio in Texas in September and October, and shot a single 
specimen near Matamoros in Mexico in August ; and Mr. White obtained it near the city of 
Mexico in the winter. Mr. Salvin (Ibis, 1859, p. 230) met with it on the rivers of Guatemala both 
on the tableland and on the coast in the winter ; Mr. Wyatt observed it near Ocafia in Columbia ; 
and Frantzius records it (J. f. O. 1859, p. 377) from Costa Rica. It occurs regular on migration 
in the islands all along the Atlantic coast. Messrs. A. & E. Newton say (Ibis, 1859, p. 257) 
that it is tolerably common in St. Croix, and probably remains there through the winter; 
Mr. E. C. Taylor speaks of it (Ibis, 1864, p. 95) as being very abundant in Trinidad, where it 
was also met with by Leotaud (Ois. Trinidad, p. 461) ; Mr. Lister includes it as occurring in the 
island of St. Vincent; Gosse records it from Jamaica as being common, arriving late in August 
and remaining until after the middle of April; Gundlach speaks of it (J. f. O. 1875, p. 325) as 
found in Cuba on passage in September and May, and he also (J. f. O. 1878, p. 188) states that 
it is common in Porto Rico after September; Major Wedderburn speaks of it as common in the 
Bermudas; and Col. Feilden says (Ibis, 1889, p. 496) that it is very common in Barbados, 
arriving in large numbers in July and August, and adds that he has been assured on good 
authority that examples may be met with in the island during every month of the year. 

"When I was in New Brunswick this appeared to be the commonest Sandpiper of those that 
were found there during the summer, and I observed it almost daily. It was by no means shy, but, 
on the other hand, tame and fearless unless molested. I usually met with it on the banks of 



370 

streams and on the shores of the numerous lakes which are scattered over the province. So far as 
I could ascertain, it arrived there early in May and soon commenced nidification. I seldom met 
with it on the coast, but generally inland, and not consorting with other Sandpipers, and after 
the breeding-season it does not appear to collect in flocks, as so many other Sandpipers do. Its 
flight is swift and somewhat irregular, and in the early summer I frequently saw it performing 
aerial evolutions at no great altitude. It runs swiftly, and may often be seen running on the 
timber logs and on the pole fences, nodding its head and flirting its tail. When wounded it will 
take to the water and swims with ease. Its note is a clear melodious whistle. 

Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway say (I. c.) that it arrives in Massachusetts late in April 
"in small roving flocks, and for a while moves about in a brief and even sportive manner, flying 
back and forth along and across the smaller streams, performing strange aerial evolutions, 
seemingly more for its own enjoyment than in quest of food. As these birds move about — 
and more especially when they meet other flocks of their own species — they give utterance 
to their cheerful and lively whistle, which is loud and shrill, and not unlike the syllables 
peet-ioeet several times repeated. Toward the close of the refrain the notes are lower and 
the sound more plaintive. A little later in the season they separate into pairs along the banks 
of smaller streams, and usually nest in freshwater meadows, or in low uplands not far from 
water; occasionally they nest in uplands not far from the sea. Sometimes this bird is so 
familiar as to make its nest within a garden, and not far from the house. In oue instance 
Mr. Nuttall found its eggs in the strawberry-beds of a resident of Belmont, Mass., while young 
and old familiarly fed on the margin of an adjoining duck-pond. 

"This species has a very characteristic habit of vibrating its tail and moving its head and 
body, as if balancing itself, the head and tail beiug alternately depressed and elevated. When 
excited, and anxious for the safety of its young, this vibratory motion is especially noticeable, 
and is joined with plaintive cries of peet-weet-weet." It feeds on worms, insects, and small 
mollusks, and during the winter is seen to frequent the sea-shore, following the retreating waves 
and picking up its food like the Dunlin. It is also said to visit ploughed fields in search of 
worms and insects of various kinds. 

Its breeding-range is extensive, as it has been found nesting from the extreme northern 
portions of its range down to the southern limits of the United States. It is said to nest in 
damp marshy places and in grass-fields, but I always found the nests on the borders of streams, 
generally not far from the water. The nest is a mere depression in the ground, lined with grass- 
bents or pieces of dry herbage, and tolerably well concealed. As a rule, the lining of the nest is 
very scanty, but nests found by Audubon in Labrador were, he says, made of dry moss raised to 
the height of several inches, and well finished within with slender grasses and feathers of the 
Eider Duck, and were concealed under ledges of rocks. 

Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway say (Water-B. of N. Am. i. p. 304) that "the young 
run about with remarkable ease and swiftness almost as soon as they are out of the shell. When 
danger approaches they immediately, upon an alarm signal from their parents, run and hide 
themselves, squatting close to the ground, and there remaining perfectly immovable, resembling a 
small drab-coloured stone with a single streak of black down the middle. If the young bird finds 
itself discovered, and an attempt is made to take it, it runs with great celerity, uttering the most 



371 

plaintive cries, and at the same time the parents exhibit symptoms of distress and counterfeit 
lameness with great skill. 

" Mr. Bartram informed Wilson that he saw one of these birds defend her young for a 
considerable time from the attacks of a ground squirrel. The mother threw herself, with her 
two young behind her, between them and the land, and at every attempt of the squirrel to seize 
them raised both her wings in an almost perpendicular position, assuming the most formidable 
appearance she could, and rushing forward on the squirrel endeavoured to drive it back. The 
young crowded together close behind her, sensible of their perilous situation, moving backward 
or forward as she advanced or retreated. This lasted some ten minutes, and would have 
terminated disastrously for the young birds, had not Mr. Bartram interposed for their rescue." 

The eggs, four in number, are deposited in May, June, or July according to latitude, are 
pyriform in shape, and are creamy drab or creamy ochreous in ground-colour, and are marked 
within distinct neutral tint underlying shell-blotches and rich dark brown surface spots and 
blotches, which have sometimes a tinge of purple. In size those in my collection vary from 
1-07 by 0-87 inch to 1-30 by 1, and 1-35 by 0-97 inch. 

The specimens figured are the adult and young birds above described, and are in my own 
collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined besides those in the British Museum 
the following specimens : — 

E Mus. II. E. Dresser. 

a, ad. Calais, Maine, 1863 (G. A. Boardman). b. New Jersey (/. Krider). c, <$ ad. Washington, D.C., 
May 10th, 1862; d, ? ad. Washington, April 24th, 1860; e,juv. Washington, August 3rd, 1859 
(Dr. Elliott Coues). f, half-down. June 23rd; g, young in down. June, Koshkonong Lake, Winconsin 
{Dr. T. M. Brewer). h. Near City of Mexico, winter (G. H. White), i, $ . Guatemala, winter 
(Dr. T. M. Brewer). 



714 




%m,j&Kr*t 



ulemans Ltli . 



SOLITARY SANDPIPER 

TOTANUS SOL1TARIUS . 



Hdnliarb 



TOTANUS SOLITABIUS. 

(SOLITARY SANDPIPER.) 



Green Sandpiper, var. B, Lath. Gen. Synops. iii. pt. 1, p. 171 (1783). 

Tringa ochropus, var. /3, id. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 730 (1790). 

Tringa solitaria, Wilson, Am. Orn. vii. p. 53 (1813). 

Totanus chloropygius, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. vi. p. 401 (1816). 

Totanus punctatus, id. torn. cit. p. 411 (1816). 

Totanus caligatus, Licht. Verz. Doubl. p. 74 (1823). 

Totanus macroptera, Spix, Av. Brasil. ii. p. 76, pi. xcii. (1825). 

Tringa glareola, Ord, ed. Wils. Am. Orn. vii. p. 57 (1825, nee Linn.). 

Totanus solitarius (Wils.), Audubon, Synop. p. 242 (1839). 

Totanus macropterus, Spix, Gould in Darwin's Voy. ' Beagle,' Birds, p. 129 (1841). 

Rhyncophilus chloropygius (Vieill.), Bp. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 597 (1856). 

Rhyncophilus caligatus (Licht.), Bp. ut supra (1856). 

Rhyacophilus solitarius (Wils.), Cassin in Baird's B. of N. Am. p. 733 (1858). 

Totanus chloropus, var. solitarius, Ridgw. Ann. Lye. N. York, x. p. 384 (1874). 

Totanus guttatus, Illiger in Mus. Berol., fide Gieb. Thes. Orn. iii. p. 648 (1877). 

Helodromas solitarius (Wils.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mas. xxiv. p. 444 (1896). 

Zarapico, Titera, Cuban ; Chorlito del Bio in Colombia. 

Figura? notabiles. 

Wils. Am. Orn. vii. pi. lviii. fig. 3; Audubon, B. Am. 8vo ed. v. pi. cccxliii. ; Spix, Av. 
Brasil. pi. xcii. ; Beichenb. Grail, tab. lxxiv. fig. 584 ; Lilford, B. of Brit. Isl. part xxvi. 

Ad. pileo et collo postico viridi-fuscis, hoc profuse et illo indistincte albido striatis : corpore supra viridi- 
fusco, albido guttato, sed uropygio et supracaudalibus indistincte guttatis : remigibus nigro-fuscis, 
primariis leviter Eeneo-nitentibus : rectricibus medianis viridi-fuscis, reliquis albis nigro-fusco trans- 
fasciatis : subtiis albus, gula f umoso-fusco striata et pectore conspicue eodem colore fasciato et notato : 
hypochondriis axillaribus et subalaribus albis, viridi-fusco transfasciatis : rostro nigro-fusco, ad basin 
mandibularum virescente : pedibus sordide viridibus : iride fusca. 

Adult in summer (Musquash, June 6th). Upper parts dark greenish brown, the crown slightly and the 
hind neck more profusely striped with white ; rest of the upper parts dotted with white, the rump and 
upper tail-coverts less marked ; quills brownish black, the primaries slightly glossed with bronze ; 
median tail-feathers greenish brown, the rest white barred with brownish black; underparts white, the 
throat striped with smoky brown, the breast boldly barred and marked with the same colour ; flanks, 
axillaries, and under wing-coverts white, closely barred with greenish brown : bill at the base of the 
mandibles dull greenish, otherwise brownish black ; legs dark greenish ; iris brown. Total length 
about 8 inches, culmen T35, wing 5'25, tail 2 - 3, tarsus T28. 

3e 



374 

Adult in winter (City of Mexico). Upper parts rather duller and greyer, the spots buffy white, the 
markings on the throat and breast more obscure and duller in tinge of colour. 

Obs. Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway describe the winter plumage of the adult as being " similar to 
the summer dress, but dark ashy above, less distinctly speckled, the forehead very indistinctly streaked 
or simply washed with ashy"; and that of the young as "above greyish brown, lighter and more 
olivaceous than in the adult, thickly speckled with buff; crown and nape pale brownish grey; cheeks 
and sides of neck nearly uniform grey ; forehead streaked as in the adult, and feet more greyish than 
in the adult." 

Like the preceding species, this is only an accidental visitor to us from the American continent, 
and has been recorded as having been obtained in Great Britain on three occasions, but has not 
been noticed elsewhere in Europe. The first occurrence was recorded by Mr. Robert Gray (Ibis, 
1870, p. 292) as of one shot some years previously by the late Mr. William Gordon, of Airdrie, 
somewhere on the banks of the Clyde in the higher grounds of Lanarkshire, and was examined 
and identified by Mr. Gray ; the second was, as I am informed by Mr. Jenkinson, who kindly 
sent me the specimen for examination, shot in the moors on St. Mary's, Scilly, on the 19th 
September, 1882, by a man named Joe Smith, who shoots Snipe and Woodcocks on St. Mary's 
when Mr. Dorrien Smith himself is not there ; and the third occurrence was that of one shot, as 
I was informed also by Mr. Jenkinson, by young Mr. Vingoe, in Marazion marshes, Cornwall, in 
October 1884, and was sold at Stevens's auction-rooms on the loth May, 1889, when Mr. Vingoe's 
collection was dispersed under the hammer. The bird killed on St. Mary's is, I believe, in the 
collection of Mr. Dorrien Smith. 

In America the Solitary Sandpiper has a very extensive range, being found as far north as 
about 65° N. lat. in the fur countries, where it breeds, down to Argentina, in South America, in 
the winter season. Sir John Richardson met with one at Great Bear Lake, in latitude 64° 30', 
on the 14th May, 1826 ; Mr. Dall observed it at Nulato ; Mr. Ross records it from the Mackenzie 
River, and Captain Blakiston (Ibis, 1862, p. 9) from the forks of the Saskatchewan in May. It 
is found throughout British North America : I observed several pairs on the Musquash River, in 
New Brunswick, during the two summers I remained there ; and Mr. Boardman records it as a 
regular summer visitant near Calais, in Maine, but never numerous. Throughout the entire 
United States it is generally distributed during the two seasons of migration, but, so far as I can 
gather, it does not appear to be anywhere numerous, and probably does not winter even in the 
furthest south of the States. I met with it on the Rio Grande in August, and near San Antonio, 
Texas, in April; and Mr. Lloyd (Auk, 1887, p. 186) found it tolerably common in Western Texas 
from September 5th to the 22nd, a few only remaining until October, but he rarely noticed it in 
the spring. Mr. White also obtained it near the city of Mexico, Mr. Salle at Orizaba and 
Cordova, and Mr. Whitely in Honduras. Barrows (Auk, 1884, p. 315) met with it in small parties 
at Conception, Uruguay, in August, September, and October; and Messrs.. Sal vin and Godman 
record it (Ibis, 1S80, p. 178) from Santa Marta, Colombia, in December. Count von Berlepsch 
(J. f. O. 1874, p. 259) gives a detailed list of the localities where it has been observed in South 
America, as far south as the Rio Plata and Argentina, and it was also observed by Mr. Barrows 
between Buenos Ayres and Azul in January. It is also tolerably common during migration on 



375 

the islands off the east coast of America. Messrs. A. & E. Newton (Ibis, 1859, p. 257) met 
with it in July and August in the island of St. Croix, where it is, they say. pretty common, 
arriving about the same time as the Yellowshanks. Leotaud (Ois. Trinid. p. 451) states that 
it arrives in Trinidad in August and leaves in October ; Gosse records it from Jamaica, Sundevall 
from Porto Rico, Gundlach from Cuba, where it is common during migration, and Messrs. Wedder- 
burn and Hurdis from Bermuda, where it is common in August and September, and some were 
seen in July and April; and Colonel Feilden (Ibis, 1889, p. 496) says that it arrives in Barbados 
in July and remains till the end of November. 

I see that some authors remark that this is by no means a solitary bird, but, so far as my 
own experience goes, I consider that Wilson's name is quite suitable, for I have never seen it in 
flocks but always singly or in small parties of two or three. When I first met with it in the 
woods of New Brunswick during the breeding-season, I was greatly struck by its similarity, in 
habits, to our European Totanus glareola. Almost every small stream held a pair, which seemed 
to reside there alone, for I do not remember to have found more than one pair frequenting the 
same stream. Their flight is easy and swift, much resembling that of bur Wood-Sandpiper. 1 
usually met with them on the banks of streams or lakes, or in the alder swamps, and never 
observed them perch on a branch, though they would run over the roots which often form a 
tangled lacework in the swamps ; but they seem to prefer to seek their food, which consists of 
worms and small insects, in places on the edges of streams and pools where there is but little 
vegetation. In Texas and Mexico, where I met with it in the autumn and in spring, I only saw 
it singly or in twos or threes frequenting inland pools or the banks of rivers. As a rule I did 
not find it shy, and, when undisturbed, by using care I have approached close to them when they 
were busily engaged in seeking for food on the banks of the streams. They are, as a rule, very 
silent, and I have only heard them utter a sharp whistle when they suddenly take to flight. 

Mr. Henshaw says that he frequently met with this Sandpiper in the west in mountainous 
localities, on the borders of such small ponds as are wholly surrounded by dense forests growing 
almost to the water's edge. He remarks that he found it " far from solitary, and rarely to be 
seen alone, little companies of six or seven being quite usual, and not unfrequently more may be 
seen together," which is, as above mentioned, contrary to my own experience. 

The breeding-range of the Solitary Sandpiper extends, according to Dr. Brewer, over the 
region north of latitude 44°, but to what extent north is uncertain. According to Audubon it 
nests in Louisiana, to Wilson in Pennsylvania, and Mr. Giraud says it is found on Long Island 
from May to September ; but these statements require confirmation. Mr. Henshaw believes that 
it breeds in parts of Utah, Colorado ; and Mr. Nelson, in his " Notes on the Birds of North-eastern 
Illinois," states that he has several times taken young birds near a prairie slough, which were 
just able to fly, and observed adult birds throughout the breeding-season. It certainly breeds 
on the river St. Croix near Calais, Maine, where my friend Mr. George A. Boardman has met 
with it regularly during the breeding-season. During the two seasons I collected in New 
Brunswick, I saw several pairs near Musquash which were evidently breeding, but in spite of 
every endeavour I could not succeed in finding the nest. They frequented dense alder swamps 
on the borders of small streams, and I spent many days hunting through these swamps and 
watching the birds but without success; and it must be a most difficult nest to find, as no 

3e 2 



376 

American naturalist has yet secured undoubtedly authentic eggs. Dr. Brewer says (Water-B. 
of N. Am. i. p. 282) that " eggs of T. macularius, as a general rule, are made to do duty for 
those of this species. The only egg which I have seen, and have reason to accept as authentic, 
was one taken in May 1878, by Mr. Jeuness Richardson, near Lake Bombazine, Vermont. The 
nest was on the ground, and the female parent was shot as she left it. The egg measured T37 
by- - 95 inch, the ground-colour being a light drab, similar to that of JEgialitis meloda; over 
this were scattered small rounded markings of brown, some of these quite dark, nowhere 
confluent, and not large enough to be called blotches. At the larger end there were a few faint 
purplish or lilac discolorations or shell-marks. The egg was elongated pyriform in shape." 

In general appearance the present species most nearly resembles our Wood-Sandpiper, but 
has the wing longer, and may readily be distinguished by its having the upper tail-coverts and 
central rectrices like the back, whereas in T. glareola the upper tail-coverts are nearly white. 
It has also the outer tail-feathers very distinctly barred with black and white, the white bars 
being broader than in the Wood-Sandpiper. It has, however, like the Green Sandpiper, only 
one large notch on each side of the posterior margin of the sternum, and is therein nearly allied 
to that species. 

The specimen figured is the bird shot at St. Mary's, Scilly, on the 19th September, 1882, 
for the loan of which I am indebted to Mr. Jenkinson, and the specimens described are in my 
own collection. 

In the preparation of the above article I have examined the following specimens : — 

E Mus. H. E. Dresser. 

a, ad. Musquash, New Brunswick, June 6th, 1860 [H. E. Dresser), b. City of Mexico, winter (G. H. White), 
c, S ,d, ? . West Flamboro', Ontario, May 29th, 1893 {K. C. Mcllwraith) . 

E Mus. Dorrien Smith, 
a. St. Mary's, Scilly, September 19th, 1882 {J. Smith). 

E Mus. H. B. Tristram. 
a,b. Bermuda, 1848 (/. W. Wedderburn). c. River St. Croix, New Brunswick, 1864 (G. A. Boardman). 



715 













... -i'K? 







Sftsw* / 






j.G.Kevilsmaas Jitk . 



YELLOW SHANKS 

TOTANUS FLAVIPES. 



Hariharb imp 



TOTANUS FLAVIPES, 

(YELLOWSHANKS.) 



Tellowshanks, Lath. Gen. Synops. iii. pt. 1, p. 152 (1785). 

Scolopax flavipes, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 659 (1788). 

Chorlito pardo mayor, Azara, Apunt. iii. p. 314 (1803). 

Totcmus natator, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. vi. p. 409 (1816). 

Totanus flavipes (Gmel.), Vieill. torn. cit. p. 410 (1816). 

Totanus fuscocapillus, Vieill. torn. cit. p. 400 (1816). 

Totanus stagnatilis (nee Bechst.), Gay, Faun. Chil., Zool. i. p. 422 (1847). 

Gambetta flavipes (Gmel.), Bonap. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 597 (1856). 

" Totanus leucopyga, Ulig.," Gray, Hand-1. of B. iii. p. 45. no. 10274 (1871). 

Totanus {Gambetta) flavipes, Gmel., Gray, torn. cit. p. 45. no. 10274 (1871). 

JEgialodes flavipes (Grnel.), Heine & Reichenovv, Nomencl. Mus. Hein. p. 327 (1890). 

Figures notabiles. 

Wils. Am. Orn. pi. lviii. fig. 5 ; Audub. B. Am. 8vo ed. pi. cccxliv. ; Reichenb. Grail, 
tab. lxxv. fig. 582. 

Ad. ptil. cest. pileo, nucha et collo postico nigro-fuscis, albo striatis: corpore supra nigro-fusco, albido et 
cinereo-cervino notato : supracaudalibus albis, nigro transfasciatis : remigibus nigro-fuscis, scapis fuscis 
extima excepta: rectricibus medianis saturate ciuereis nigricante transfasciatis, reliquis albis nigro- 
fasciatis : capitis lateribus, gula, gutture et pectore albis nigro-fusco striatis, his magis eodem 
colore guttatis : corpore reliquo subtus albo, hypochondriis nigro-fasciatis : rostro viridi-nigro : pedibus 
flavis: iride fusca. 

Ad. ptil. hiem. supra sordidior, nigro-fuscus vix albo guttatus, supracaudalibus magis albis : mento et gula 
fere albis : gutture et pectore nigricante striatis et fusco-cinereo lavatis : corpore reliquo subtus albo, 
hypochondriis indistincte cinereo-fusco notatis. 

Adult in summer (Koshkonong Lake, May 2nd). Crown, nape, and hind neck blackish brown, streaked with 
white ; upper parts generally blackish brown, rather boldly marked and spotted with white and buffy 
grey; upper tail-coverts white, barred with blackish ; quills blackish brown, the first primary with the 
shaft dull white, the remaining quills having dark shafts ; median tail-feathers dark ashy grey, barred 
with blackish, the remaining rectrices white also barred with blackish ; sides of the head, neck, and 
breast white streaked with blackish, the lower neck and breast with the streaks broader and larger; rest 
of the underparts white, the flanks barred with blackish: bill greenish black; legs yellow; iris dark 
brown. Total length about 10 inches, culmen 1*6, wing 6 - 2, tail 2 - 6, tarsus 2 0. 

Adult in autumn (Washington, September 16th). Upper parts much darker than in the summer, the 
markings reduced to a few dull whitish spots ; upper tail-coverts less barred, being nearly white ; chin 



9 



78 



and upper throat nearly white ; lower throat and upper breast streaked with dull blackish and washed 
with greyish brown ; rest of the underparts white, the flanks slightly marked with greyish brown. 

Young {fide Ridgway). Resembles the adult in winter plumage, but the light markings on the upper parts 
are more or less tinged with pale brown or dull ochraeeous. 

The Yellowshanks is another inhabitant of America which has found its way across the Atlantic, 
and has therefore to be included as a rare straggler, having been recorded from Greenland 
and having occurred at least twice in Great Britain: once near Misson, in Nottinghamshire, 
this specimen being now in the Leeds Museum, having formed part of the collection of the 
late Sir William Milner, who purchased it from the late Hugh Reid, a well-known bird-stuffer 
at Doncaster. The second specimen was shot by Mr. E. Vingoe on a salt-marsh near Marazion in 
Cornwall, on the 12th September, 1871. This species does not appear to have been met with on 
the continent of Europe, but it has occurred in Greenland. Mr. Moschler states (J. f. O. 1856, 
p. S35) that it was sent to him from there in 1854 ; and in 1867 1 received, together with a lot 
of eggs, a few badly made, unlabelled, skins from Greenland, through Kammerraad Erichsen, 
among which was one of the present species, and Mr. Erichsen informed me that all the 
specimens were obtained by his collector near Egedesminde in North Greenland. 

In America the present species is widely distributed, as it is found from Alaska and the 
Hudson Bay territory (where it breeds) down to Patagonia, where it has been obtained in the 
winter. Sir John Richardson (Faun. Bor.-Am. p. 390) speaks of it as being " a very common 
bird in the fur countries." Capt. Blakiston obtained it near Carlton, Mr. Murray records it 
from Hudson's Bay, and Mr. Boss as abundant on the Mackenzie (Ibis, 1863, p. 133). In 
Alaska, according to Mr. Turner (Nat. Hist. Alaska, p. 148), " it is only a straggler at Saint 
Michael's, and was seen only on two occasions on the beach in the early part of June. I obtained 
a specimen at Eort Yukon, where it is not common. On some parts of the Yukon River it is 
said to be common, but not so according to my observation. 

"I saw a specimen of this Snipe at Nuchagak on Bristol Bay in the month of June 1878. 
It was running along the muddy edge of the river. I had only time to identify it as it flew, and 
that only before I got within distance to shoot it. 

" It does not occur on the Aleutian Islands that I am aware of." 

Mr. Nelson (Cruise of ' Corwin,' p. 89) speaks of it as being a rare accidental visitant to the 
coast of Bering Sea in Alaska, and writes (Nat. Hist. Alaska, p. 118) as follows: — "During the 
exploration of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, specimens of the small Yellow-legs 
were taken at Sitka and Kadiak Island, on the south-eastern shore of the territory, and at Fort 
Yukon. Mr. Lockhart secured its eo-QS. Hartlaub records it in small flocks on Chilcat River. 
Dale found it in Nulato and the Yukon Mouth; and the middle of August, 1878, 1 shot a bird of 
the year at Saint Michael's as it was feeding on the border of a brackish pool. The natives were 
familiar with the bird, but told me it occurred only rarely. 

" In the Upper Yukon Region, however, it is more or less common, and among the skins 
brought me by the fur-traders is a female taken May 3rd, at Fort Reliance, and another secured 
on the 7th of the same month. On the Lower Yukon it is not common, and is very rare along 
the shore of Bering Sea. 



379 

" Spring birds from the Upper Yukon have many black feathers with irregular whitish 
borders scattered over the back, mixed with the ordinary winter dress. The young bird from 
Saint Michael's has the same pattern of coloration as the adult, but the colors are dull. There 
is no record of this species from the Asiatic shore nor from the Arctic coast of Alaska." 

According to Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Bidgway (Water-Birds of N. America i. p. 274), 
" Mr. J. A. Allen found it in considerable numbers about the lagoons of Eastern Kansas in the 
earlier part of May, and afterwards in August ; he also saw it at Lake Bass in Colorado, and a 
few were found in September in the valley of Great Salt Lake. It was not noticed by 
Mr. Bidgway in Utah or Nevada, but it has been found very abundant in August and September 
throughout Dakota and Montana, where it was invariably seen associating with the melanoleuca. 
Both species are there the most unsuspecting of the Waders, so that they may be approached 
without the slightest difficulty. Mr. L. Belding, in the winter of 1878-1879, procured a 
specimen on the coast of California. In the valley of the Mississippi this species is a regular 
migrant both in the spring and in the fall. It is much more abundant in its autumnal 
movement, and much more common than the melanoleuca, coming later and departing earlier 
than that species. None remain to breed near Lake Koshkonong, where in the fall they again 
become very abundant." It is, they acid, very generally distributed throughout the United States, 
but it appears to be more abundant on the eastern side of the territory, and is a regular and 
common migrant on the Atlantic coast. I met with it on the coast of New Brunswick during 
migration. My friend, Mr. George A. Boardman, states that he observed it near Calais, Maine, in 
the spring and autumn, and it is recorded from almost all parts of the coast down to Florida, 
where, however, according to Mr. Scott, it was a rather rare migrant about Tarpon Springs, but 
he did not meet with it in the winter. I met with it in Texas and Mexico, but only shot one 
during the two months I was at Matamoras. At San Antonio, Texas, in the spring of 1864, I 
noticed them oftener than I did at Matamoras, and shot several during April and early in May 
and saw several on Galveston Island early in June. It winters in Mexico and Central and South 
America. Mr. O. Salvin (Ibis, 1859, p. 229) met with it at Duehas, in Guatemala, in April. 
Mr. Barrows (Auk, 1884, p. 315) records it from the Lower Uruguay, and says that none were 
seen at Concepcion during May, June, and July, but they were numerous at Azul in January. 
Mr. Durnford also (Ibis, 1877, p. 199) records it from Buenos Ayres, where, curiously enough, 
he says it is resident, but in the winter receives a considerable accession to its numbers. It was, 
he adds, common at Baradero in April. He also (Ibis, 1877, p. 43) found it common in the 
Chuput valley, Batagonia, and adds (Ibis, 1878, p. 404) that it was seen occasionally on the 
Sengel. It occurs on passage on almost all the West India Islands. Messrs. A. & E. Newton 
met with it (Ibis, 1859, p. 257), but not plentifully, in spring and autumn on the island of 
St. Croix, but do not think that it remains in the island through the winter; Leotaud (Ois. 
Trinidad, p. 453) found it in Trinidad from August to October; Gosse records it from Jamaica; 
Gundlach from Cuba and Porto Bico, where it occurs in large flocks; Wedderburn from 
Bermuda; and Col. H. W. Feilden says (Ibis, 1889, p. 496) that in the island of Barbados the 
Yellowshanks "arrives in flocks about the 15th of July, though stragglers put in an earlier 
appearance. I shot an example on the 4th of July at Graeme-Hall swamp. The passage lasts 
till the middle of September, only odd birds appearing after that date. The Yellowshanks is 



380 

the most numerous of the migratory Waders, and generally forms the chief feature in the bag 
of the Barbadian sportsman. The flocks do not, however, remain long on the island, but pass 
on after a few hoars' stay." 

I have only had an opportunity of observing this species during migration, when it was in 
small flocks frequenting the coast and the borders of lagoons or inland on the banks of rivers or 
in marshes. 

As a rule, I did not find it very shy, but it is restless, and will when disturbed fly round, 
uttering its clear sharp whistle, thus putting any other birds that may be near on the alert. It 
feeds on worms, insects, and small marine animals, and gets very fat, being then excellent 
eating. In the breeding-season it is, according to Swainson, " seen either solitary or in pairs on 
the banks of every river, lake, and marsh up to the northern extremity of the continent. It is 
very impatient of any intrusion on its haunts, and often betrays the approach of the sportsman 
to the less vigilant of the feathered tribes by flying round his head, its legs hanging down and 
the wings drooping, and uttering its incessant though plaintive cries. Previous to its retreating 
southwards on the approach of winter, it collects in small flocks, and halts for a time on the 
shores of Hudson's Bay." It breeds in the extreme north of the American continent and 
throughout the fur countries; it also probably breeds as far south as Chicago, as Mr. Nelson 
obtained young birds, barely able to fly, there on the 1st July, 1874, and noticed several pairs 
during the breeding-season about the Calumet marshes. 

Spe