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WEST FRONT OF REIMS CATHEDRAL, 1208-1380 



HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 



ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL 



BY 

A. D. F. HAMLIN, A.M., L.H.D., A.I. A. 

PROFESSOR OF THE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE IN 
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



WITH 400 ILLUSTRATIONS 




NEW YORK 
THE CENTURY CO. 



Copyright, 1916. by 
THE CENTURY Co. 



Published, October, 1916 



PRINTED IN U. S. A. 



Architecture ft 
Urban Planning 
Library 



/US' 



TO 
MY STUDENTS 

IN GRATEFUL RECOGNITION 
OF THEIR INTEREST AND DE- 
VOTION WHICH FOR THIRTY- 
THREE YEARS PAST HAVE 
MADE TEACHING FOR ME 
A CONTINUOUS PLEASURE 



PREFACE 

Books on ornament are so many that to add to their 
number may seem at first sight a wholly superfluous 
task. Yet in all the long lists of the bibliographies of 
the subject there appears a singular lack of systematic 
treatises on the history of the various styles which have 
marked the growth and progress of decorative art. 
Elaborate compendiums of ornament grouped by styles 
or by other categories are not wanting; the splendid 
"Grammar of Ornament" of Owen Jones, and "Orna- 
ment polychrome" of Racinet; the "Ornamentenschatz" 
of Dolmetsch, the "Handbook of Ornament" of Franz 
Sales Meyer, Speltz's "Styles of Ornament," and the 
excellent plates of "Historic Ornament" published by 
the Prang Educational Company, are examples of such 
collections of ornament, all meritorious in various ways, 
and all highly serviceable to students and decorators. 
But in the whole catalogue of the Avery Library of Co- 
lumbia University the richest collection in this coun- 
try of works on architecture and the allied arts I have 
found but two titles of systematic histories of ornament, 
one in French and one in German ; neither available for 
those who read only English, and neither of them, even 
for those who can read French or German, exactly suited 
to the needs of the average English or American student 
of architecture or decoration. 

I have for years felt the need of some such text-book 

vii 



PREFACE 

for students in my own courses in Columbia University 
in the History of Ornament. Of the many works in Eng- 
lish, French or German, mentioned above, which to any 
extent recognize the historical element in the styles of 
ornament, some are too expensive for student use ; some 
are too brief or too superficial in their text, some inade- 
quate in their illustrations. In response to many ap- 
peals from teachers in other institutions, from their stu- 
dents and from my own, and with a view of meeting my 
own needs in teaching, I have ventured on the task of 
attempting such a systematic history of ornament. This 
volume represents the first half of the work which I hope 
to complete by a second volume, if this one shall meet 
with the favor of the public. It is, however, complete 
in itself, as it covers the ancient and medieval styles, 
leaving the styles of the Renaissance, of modern times 
and of the Orient, for the second volume. 

The predominance of illustrations from architecture 
is due not merely to the fact that these chapters are 
based on lectures to architects ; but also to the fact that 
the styles are most clearly exhibited in the progress of 
architecture as the "mistress art." It is hoped that the 
"Books Recommended" will enable the reader to supply 
for himself the illustrations from the other arts which 
he finds lacking in this work. 

With regard to the illustrations, I may say that the 
majority are either from my own drawings or reproduced 
directly from photographs. As they are presented 
purely to illustrate the subject and not as models of 
draftsmanship, I trust they will not be too severely 
criticised on the technical side. The extreme small- 

yiii 



PREFACE 

ness of many of them has been made necessary by the 
desire to keep the volume within modest limits of size 
and price. For the same reason the number of plates 
in color had to be restricted. Larger plates, larger 
cuts and more of them, would have made the book bulky 
and costly beyond measure, at least for student use. 

I beg herewith to make my acknowledgments to all 
who have helped me in preparing these illustrations: 
especially to a number of my students, whose names 
will be found in the List of Illustrations; to Messrs. 
Chapman and Hall for the use of several illustrations 
from Ward's "Historic Ornament"; to Messrs. Long- 
mans, Green & Co. for the use of a cut of capitals from 
my "History of Architecture"; to the Prang Educa- 
tional Company, for the use of a number of illustrations 
in color from their "Plates of Historic Ornament"; to 
the publishers of the "Architectural Record" for several 
cuts from various issues; to the "American Architect" 
for permission to use a number of my own illustrations 
in various issues between 1898 and 1901 ; to the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, New York, for permission to 
reproduce a number of the Museum's official photo- 
graphs of casts and models in the Willard Architectural 
Collection ; to the house of Bruno Hessling for permis- 
sion to reproduce a number of illustrations from Meyer's 
Handbook of Ornament, and my Fig. 332 from Speltz, 
Styles of Ornament; to my daughter Genevieve for 
two drawings ; and to the officers of the Avery Library 
for much valuable assistance cheerfully rendered. I 
have tried to give credit, in my List of Illustrations, for 
all such assistance, and to indicate the sources of the il- 

ix 



PREFACE 

lustrations as far as possible. Some of them, however, 
were drawn so long ago, or have come into my posses- 
sion from sources so long forgotten, that I have not been 
able in every case to do this. I trust I have not tres- 
passed on any one's proprietary rights in any case. 
Many of my own drawings are re-interpretations of sub- 
jects appearing in other works; in such cases I have, 
where possible, indicated the source by the words "after" 
so-and-so. 

There are two classes of figures besides the Plates I 
to XXII: those in the text, and those gathered into 
pages distributed through the text. To aid the reader 
in finding the references to illustrations, I have in the 
text referred to all of the first class, those in the text 
by the abbreviation "Fig." or "Figs."; while the word 
"Figure" refers always to illustrations grouped in 
pages; the page-reference is sometimes added. 

I desire to express my appreciation of the cordial and 
generous cooperation of The Century Co. in the prepa- 
ration of this work. 

I commend this fruit of my labors to the kind con- 
sideration of teachers and students of architecture and 
decorative design, and to designers generally, with the 
hope that it will be found to meet their needs and prove 
useful both in the class-room and the studio. 

A. D. F. HAMLIN. 
Christmas Cove, Maine, 
August 14, 1916 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

3 



CHAPTER 

I INTRODUCTORY 

II PRIMITIVE AND SAVAGE ORNAMENT .... 20 

III EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT 32 

IV CHALDEA AND ASSYRIA 55 

V WEST ASIATIC ORNAMENT: PHRYGIA, LYDIA AND 

PERSIA 65 

VI PRE-HELLENIC ORNAMENT: ^EGEAN AND ASIATIC 73 

VII GREEK ORNAMENT, I 88 

VIII GREEK ORNAMENT, II 110 

IX ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN ORNAMENT, I .... 127 

X ROMAN ORNAMENT, II 151 

XI POMPEIIAN ORNAMENT 170 

XII EARLY CHRISTIAN OR BASILICAN ORNAMENT . . 187 

XIII BYZANTINE ORNAMENT 206 

XIV ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT: I, ITALIAN AND FRENCH 234 
XV ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT: II. ANGLO-NORMAN, 

GERMAN, SPANISH AND SCANDINAVIAN . . . 266 

XVI GOTHIC ORNAMENT: STRUCTURAL 282 

XVII GOTHIC CARVING AND INDUSTRIAL AND ACCESSORY 

ARTS 303 

XVIII PARTICULAR SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT: I. 

FRENCH AND ENGLISH 331 

XIX PARTICULAR SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT: II. 

GERMAN, SPANISH, ITALIAN 366 

INDEX . 393 



XI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

In the following List, the sources of the illustrations are indicated wher- 
ever possible. A number of them, however, have been made from drawings, 
tracings or engravings in the Author's possession from sources he has been 
unable to identify. All illustrations not otherwise designated are from 
original drawings by the Author. Wherever these have been based on or 
suggested by illustrations in other works, the fact is expressed by "A. after" 
followed by the source from which the drawing has been derived or on which 
it is based. Many cuts are from drawings by students of Columbia Uni- 
versity; these are indicated by the initials C. U., followed in some cases by 
the student's name. It has not been possible to trace the source of all these 
drawings. Other abbreviations and references are as follows : A. = Author ; 
A. C. H. = Haddon, Evolution in Art; A. M. N. H. = American Museum 
of Natural History, New York; Arch. Rec. = Architectural Record (N. Y.) ; 
A. p. T. =:L'Art pour Tous; Bond = Introduction to English Church 
Architecture; Colling = Gothic Foliage, Gothic Ornaments; F. & L. = 
Furtwangler und Loschke, Mykenische Vasen; F. P. = Flinders-Petrie, 
Egyptian Decorative Art; Hauser = Sty llehre der architektonischen Formen 
des Mittelalters; Loftus = Researches in Chaldcea, etc.; Met. Mus. t=> Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, New York; Meyer = Meyer's Ornamentale 
Formenlehre; O. J. = Owen Jones, Grammar of Ornament; P. d'A. = Prisse 
d' Avennes, L'A rt Egyptien; P. & C. = Perrot et Chipiez, Histoire de Vart 
dans I'antiquite; Pho. = Photograph ; Rickman <= A ttempt to Discriminate 
the Styles, etc.; Ward = J. Ward, Historic Ornament; W. H. G. = W. H. 
Goodyear, Grammar of the Lotus and articles in Architectural Record. 

In the text of this work, references to cuts intercalated in the printed 
page are indicated by the abbreviation "Fig." or "Figs." followed by the 
number. The word "Figure" in full followed by a number refers to illus- 
trations grouped in full pages. 

PAGE 
West Front of Reims Cathedral Frontispiece 

1. Grapevine Border: Typographic Ornament, from an Advertise- 

ment 9 

2. An "All-over" Pattern 9 

3. Linear Ornaments: a, Fret; b, Wave or Current Scroll; c, 

Rosettes, etc 9 

4. Carved Ornament, Court of Doge's Palace, Venice 9 

5. A Powdered or Spangled Pattern 9 

6. Radiant Ornament: Carved English Gothic Boss (after an illus- 

tration in Monumental News) 9 

7. Arabic Star Pattern 9 

8. Diaper Pattern, English Art-School Work 9 

xiii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

9. Carved foliage: Porte de la Vierge, Notre Dame, Paris .... 9 

10. Orange Border, Semi-naturalistic (A. after ill. in Journal of the 

Royal Society, 1892) 9 

11. Persistence in Ornament: Tnlobe Lotus Motives, Egyptian, Greek, 

Roman, Gothic 9 

12. Convergence and Reversion: The Anthemion Motive, Greek, 

Roman, Byzantine 9 

13. Anthemion Motives, Greek and Byzantine 9 

14. Accidental Convergence: a, Egyptian Flower; b, Byzantine Cy- 

presses 9 

15. Primitive Dagger-handle, Neolithic 23 

16. New Zealand Tiki-tiki Pattern: a, Carved; b, Stamped .... 23 

17. Maori Spear-head: Eyes and Tongue 23 

18. Papuan Manhood-belt: Face Motives (A. after A. C. H.) ... 23 

19. Typical Basketry Forms 23 

20. Peruvian Grass-cloth: Animal Motive, Toucan 23 

21. Peruvian Grass-cloth : Animal Motive, Dog 23 

22. Savage Carvings: a, New Zealand; 6, Hawaiian 23 

23. Brazilian "Fish" and "Bat" patterns (A. after A. C. H.) . . . 23 

25. Scratched Ornament on Maori Flute (A. after A. C. H.) . . . 23 

26. Brazilian and New Zealand Face Motives 23 

27. Tusayan (Mexican) Jar (in A. M. N. H.) 23 

28. Chiriqui Alligator Motives (A. after A. C. H.) 23 

29. Maori Paddle: Detail 24 

30. Javanese War-Drum Head (A. after A. C. H.) 26 

31. a, Pueblo Jar; b, Spiral from Vase in PI. II, 8; c, Prehistoric Jar 

from Budmer, Bosnia 28 

32. Mexican Jar, in A. M. N. H 29 

33. Detail from Sarcophagus of Menkaura (A. after P. & C.) . . . 33 

34. Slate Palette in Louvre (A. after Capart) 36 

35. Dish of Fruit, from a Tomb (A. after F. P.) .38 

36. The Lotus: a, Natural; 6, c, Conventionalized 47 

37. Lotus Forms: a, Full Flower; b-c, Trilobe Forms 42 

38. Lotus Border, from a Tomb (A. after O. J.) 47 

39. Lotus Border, from a Tomb (A. after P. d'A.) 47 

40. Lotus Rosette 47 

41. Lotus and Spiral Pattern (A. after P. d'A.) 47 

42. The Papyrus Plant 43 

43. Detail of Campanifonn Capital 47 

44. Lotus or Aquatic Plant 47 

45. Detail of Campaniform Capital, from Luxor 41 

46. Painted Campaniform Capital, Karnak 43 

47. Painted Papyrus-head Cap (A. after P. d'A.) 47 

48. Spiral All-over, with Rosettes (A. after P. d'A.) 47 

49. Fret, or Key-Pattern, with Rosettes 47 

60. Zigzags and Lozenges 47 

51. Spiral Waves and Rosettes 47 

xiv 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

52. Intersecting Circle Pattern .47 

53. Spirals on Scarab Seal (A. after F. P.) .. . .44 

54. Palmette with Tabs (A. after W. H. G.) 47 

55. Palmettes; a, Jewel, 4th Dynasty; b, Painted (A. after W. H. G.) 47 

56. Palmette-and-bead Necklace 47 

57. Vulture, painted on Ceiling (A. after P. d'A.) 47 

58. Winged Globe, Cornice (A. after P. & C.) 47 

59. Uraeus Cresting, Ptolemaic (from an Engraving) 47 

60. Feather Ornament (A. after F. P.) 60 

61. Decoration by Lines, Imbrications and Chevron 45 

62. Typical Egyptian Cornice 47 

63. Three Columns; a, b, c, Upper Part and Plans; d, Lower Part of 

Clustered Shaft (A. after Meyer) 50 

64. Three Egyptian Capitals (A. after Meyer) 50 

65. Osirid Pier (A. after P. & C.) 51 

68. Mosaic Wall-pattern (A. after Loftus) 57 

69. Assyrian Motives: a, Lotus; b, Palmette; c, Rosette (after Meyer); 

d, Imbrications (after O. J.) ; e, winged disk or globe (after 
Layard) ; /, Guilloche (after P. & C.) ; h, Pomegranate; i, Pome- 

granate-palmette scratched on Ivory (A. after A. C. H.) ... 58 

70. a, b, Pine-cone Lotus Border, carved: c, Part of Sacred tree (after 

Ward) 60 

71. Assyrian Volutes 61 

72. a, Ivory Palmette Terminal Ornament; b, Palm-tree, from Relief 

at Koyunjik 62 

73. Assyrian Winged Monster or Griffin (A. after P. & C.) . . . . 62 

74. Details from Phrygian Tomb-f acades : a, of "Midas"; b, Doghanlou 

(A. after P. & C.) 65 

75. Capital from Neandreia: Proto-Ionic 66 

76. Doorway from Persepolis 67 

77. Persian Details: a, Architrave and Cornice from a Tomb; b. Palm 

Ornament; c, Stairway Parapet; d, Column-Base, all from Per- 
sepolis (A. after P. & C. and W r ard) 69 

78. Volutes from Persepolitan Capital 70 

79. Ahuri-mazda, from a Relief 71 

80. Cretan Column 75 

81. Cretan Frieze Ornament 76 

82. Cretan Painted Ornament: Rosettes and Vitruvian Scroll (A. after 

P. & C.) 76 

83. Fret or Key Pattern, Knossos 76 

84. Late Minoan Vase (A. after Engraving) 75 

85. Marine Plants, from a Sarcophagus found at Gortyna (A. after 

P. & C.) 76 

86. Ornaments from Cretan Terra-cotta Ossuary (A. after P. & C.) 76 

87. Upper part of Column, Tholos of Atreus 76 

88. Mycenaean Bowl; Basketry Motives 76 

89. Mycenaean Frieze Ornament 76 

XV 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

90. Mycenaean Nature Forms: Plants, Squid, Dolphin 76 

91. Mycenaean Pottery Spirals 78 

92. Cuttle-Fish, from a Vase 76 

93. Scale Ornament from Tiryns 76 

94. Mycenaean Motives: a, b, Heart Forms; c, Branched Spiral (A. 

after F. & L.) 76 

95. a, Current Scroll, Tiryns; b, Vase Ornament, Mycenae .... 78 

96. Plant Forms, Mycenae Pottery (A. after F. & L.) 79 

97. Squids, Mycenae Pottery 79 

98. A Mycenae Button 80 

99. Detail fronrWall Band, Tiryns (A. after P. &C.) 80 

100. a, Gold Inlay, Spirals on Sword; b, from Bronze Stele: both from 

Mycenae 82 

101. a, Mycenaean Vase; b, from Bronze Tripod, Athens 81 

102. Mycenaean Ornament in Alabaster (A. after P. & C.) .... 81 

103. Rosettes : a, Tiryns; b, Mycenae (A. after P. & C.) 81 

104. a, Mycenaean Plant; b, Egyptian Palmette 81 

105. Ivy Band, Mycenaean Pottery 81 

106. From a Phenician Silver Platter 81 

107. From a Mycenaean Silver Cup 81 

108. Phenician Silver: Palmettes and Griffins 81 

109. a, c, Phenician Palmettes; b, Greek Vase Ornament 81 

110. Cypriote Oenochoe (A. after W. H. G., in Arch. Rec.) .... 81 

111. Detail from Cypriote Sarcophagus from Amathus, in Met. Mus. . 81 

112. Cypriote Lotuses (W. H. G. in Arch. Rec.) 81 

113. Cypriote Bronze Stele (A. after W. H. G.) 81 

114. Cypriote Stone Stele in Met. Mus 82 

115. Cypriote Lotus, checkered (W. H. G. in Arch. Rec.) 83 

116. Cypriote Ornaments 83 

117. Phenician Vase from Jerusalem (A. after P. & C.) 84 

118. Detail, Cypriote Vase from Ormidia, in Met. Mus. (A. after P. 

& C.) 84 

119. Cypriote Vase Ornaments; Nature Forms, o, Goose and Lotus; 

6, Astarte (?) and Plants; c, Fantastic Flower (A. after P. & C.) 85 

120. Lotus-and-Bud Borders from Rhodian and Melian Vases ... 86 

121. Greek Vase, Fine Period, in Royal Museum, Naples (Pho.) . . 89 
121 A. Carved Anthemion Band, from Erechtheion, Athens (Pho.) . . 89 

122. Greek Palmette Ornament; Early Vth Century B.C. (A. after Lau.) 94 

123. Anthemion Band, Typical Linking by Spirals, compared with typi- 

cal Assyrian Linking 94 

124. Typical Geometric Ornament Elements 96 

125. Typical Nature Form-Elements 96 

126. Typical Architectural Forms 97 

127. Carved Rinceau, Temple of Apollo at Didyme, near Miletus: from 

Base of Column (A. from Pho.) 94 

128. Types of Greek Vases: a, Aryballos; b, Lekythos; c, Rhyton; d, 

Alabastron; i, I, Hydria; /. Krater; e, g, Amphora; h, Ointment 

Box; k, Kylix (A. after Meyer) 101 

xvi 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

129. Geometric or Dipylon Vase, from Museum of Sevres (A. after J.) 103 

130. Rhodian Vase, Sevres Museum (A. after Jacquemart) .... 103 

131. Single and Double Frets 94 

132. Guilloche, from Painted Molding 94 

132A. Wave or Current Scroll . . . . , 104 

133. Anthemion with Branding Scrolls .. ,. 105 

134. Types of Anthemion Patterns 105 

135. Types of Anthemions 94 

136. Types of the Lotiform Motive 94 

137. Vine Pattern, from Vase 94 

138. Elementary Rinceau on Pottery i ... 94 

139. Lotus-and-bud Origin of Egg-and-dart Motive 108 

140. Apulian Vase; Sevres Museum (A. after Jacquemart) .... 109 

141. Detail from Handle of Apulian Vase 94 

142. Painted Molding Ornaments 113 

143. Painted Ceiling Panel from Parthenon, (G. K. H. after Meyer) . .111 

144. Carved Egg-and-dart and Water-leaf 113 

145. Details from North Door of Erechtheion: a, Cantilever or Bracket; 

b, Rosette 113 

146. Corinthian Capital, Temple of Zeus, Athens 113 

147. Triple Guilloche on Torus of an Ionic Base 116 

148. Foliage Capital, from Aegae 118 

149. Branching Scroll and Covering-leaf; from Erechtheion .... 113 

150. Painted Terra-cotta Antefix; Athens 119 

151. Acanthus (or Aloes?) on Steles 113 

152. Acanthus and Burdock Leaves 120 

153. Acanthus: a, A. Mollis; b, A. Spinosus 113 

154. Corinthian Capital from Bassae (Phigalaea) 121 

155. Corinthian Capital from "Tower of the Winds," Athens .... 121 

156. Detail of Etruscan Terra-cotta Cresting (A. after A. p. T.) . . 128 

157. Details from Terra-cottas in Campana Collection, Louvre (A. after 

A. p. T.) 128 

158. 159. Borders or Edgings of "Campana" Terra-cottas (A. after A. 

p. T.) 129 

160. Part of an Etruscan Terra-cotta Pilaster; Lilies (A. after Rachel) 130 

161. Etruscan Pilaster Cap. (A. after Durm) 131 

162. Bronze Mirror and Jewels (A. after Meyer and Ward) .... 131 

163. Roman Decorative System: Hall of Baths of Caracalla (Denk- 

maler der Kunst?) 134 

164. Roman Arch and Columns, from Arch of Titus 136 

165. Niche Cap from Baalbek (A. after Durm) 137 

166. Scroll from Temple of Vespasian, in Villa Aldobrandini .... 138 

167. Typical Roman Moldings 139 

168. Ionic Capital with Corner Volutes 140 

169. Corinthian Capital, Temple of Mars Ultor (A. after d'Espouy) . 141 

170. Composite Capital in Lateran Museum 143 

171. Two Pilaster Caps (Meyer) 145 

172. A Modillion 142 

xvii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

173. Restoration of Cornice of Basilica ^Emilia (from photograph of 

original drawing by R. H. Smythe) 143 

174. Order of Temple of Castor and Pollux; Photograph of Cast in 

Metropolitan Museum, New York 150 

175. Restoration of Arch of Constantine; Photograph of Model in 

Metropolitan Museum, New York 150 

176. Two Standing Acanthus Leaves 151 

177. Varieties of Acanthus Leaf Detail (A. after Durm) .... 152 

178. Pilaster Scroll Nests: a, Late Roman, from an old French Litho- 

graph; b, Fragment in Villa Medici, from Cast in Columbia 
University 145 

179. Roman Rinceau and Scroll Nest, from Forum of Trajan, in Lnteran 

Museum (A. from Pho.) 154 

180. Candelabrum in Vatican (Meyer) 145 

181. Two Rosette Types 145 

183. Rinceau from Temple of Sun (A. after a French Drawing) . . . 154 

183. Three Roman Anthemion Ornaments 156 

184. Ceiling Panels from Arch of Titus, Baths of Caracalla, and 
Basilica of Constantine 157 

185. Dolphins, from an Etruscan Terra-cotta (Meyer after Kachel) . . 145 

186. Bucranes and Festoon or Swag (Meyer) 145 

187. Stucco Relief from Tomb in Via Latina (Pho.) 159 

188. Stucco Relief from House exhumed in 1879, now in Museo delle 

Terme, Rome (Pho.) 159 

189. Mosaic Floor Pattern, from Pompeii 145 

190. Detail of Floor Mosaic from Villa Italica near Seville (A. after 

Pfeifer) 163 

191. Roman Marble Vase in Naples Museum (Pho.) 165 

192. Roman Marble Vase, from Cast in Metropolitan Museum, New 

York 165 

193. Details from a Bronze Vase and Jewelry, perhaps Etruscan . . 163 

194. Under Side of a Vase in the "Hildesheim Find," now in Berlin 

("Workshop") 164 

195. Roman Grotesque; Detail of Relief from Forum of Trajan in 

Lateran Museum (A. from Pho.) 168 

196. Pompeiian Ionic Capital (A. after Watt) 171 

197. Pompeiian Moldings (A. after Mazois and Zahn) 112 

198. Canred Rinceau, from a Tomb in Pompeii (A. from Pho.) . . . 173 

199. Painted Wall, Third Period (Pho.) 176 

200. Painted Wall, Fourth Period (Pho.) 176 

201. Stucco Relief from Stabian Baths (Pho.) 180 

202. Pompeiian Floor Mosaics (A. after Zahn) 181 

203. Mosaic Fountain in Casa Grande, Pompeii (Pho.) 185 

204. Marble Table Supports from House of Cornelius Rufus, Pompeii 

(Pho.) 185 

205. Candelabrum and Table Leg (A. p. T. and Meyer after Botticher) 18:2 

206. End of a Sarcophagus in S. Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna (C. U.) 188 

207. Interior (Detail) of S. Lorenzo Fuori, Rome (Pho.) . . . . .189 

xviii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

208. Floor Mosaic in S. M. in Trastevere (from a French Drawing) . . 194 

209. Byzantine Veined Wainscot (Journal of R. I. B. A., 1887) . . . 196 

210. Apse-head Mosaic in S. Clemente, Rome (Pho.) 189 

211. Ornaments in Mosaic: a, from St. John Lateran; b, Sta. Maria in . 

Trastevere 197 

212. Pulpit Detail from Sta. Maria in Ara Coeli, Rome (Ward) . .199 

213. Pulpit Details from S. Lorenzo Fuori, Rome (Racinet) .... 200 

214. Detail of Cloister Arcade, St. John Lateran, Rome (Pho.) . . . 203 

215. Mosaic on Annular Vault of Sta. Costanza, Rome (Pho.) . . . 203 

216. Detail of Order, Tomh in Palace of Diocletian, Spalato .... 207 

217. Capital with Impost Block, San Vitale, Ravenna (A. from Pho.) 208 

218. Corinthianesque Capital, S. Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna (A. after 

Dehli) 209 

219. Basket Capital, S. Apollinare Nuovo (C. U.) 210 

220. Byzantine Surface Carving: above, from Hagia Sophia; below, from 

St. Sergius ("Kuchuk Aya Sofia") 211 

221. Frieze from St. John Studios (Emir Akhor Jami) 213 

222. Byzantine Acanthus Molding, from an Abacus 213 

223. Anthemion Ornament from Ravenna 213 

224. Anthemion Cornice from St. Mark's, Venice (V. E. Macy) . . . 214 

225. Byzantine Crosses and Anthemions: above, left, from Hagia 

Sophia; right, from Civic Museum, Venice; below, from Ra- 
venna 215 

226. Acanthus Leaves and Rinceaux, from Bishop's Palace, Ferentino 216 

227. Vine Border from Carved Pluteal in San Vitale, Ravenna . . . 219 

228. Detail from Fig. 225 220 

229. Peacock Openwork Panel, Torcello (Pho.) 217 

230. Carved Interlace from Spalato (Pho.) 217 

230A. Carved Interlace from St. Mark's, Venice 220 

231. Openwork Panel in San Vitale, Ravenna (Pho.) 217 

232. Basket Capital from St. Mark's, Venice (Pho.) 217 

233. Guilloche Pattern from Hagia Sophia (Meyer) 222 

234. End of a Sarcophagus in S. Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna (C. U.) 222 

235. Openwork Window Filling, Sta. Maria Pomposa (Pho.) . . . 223 

236. Mosaic, Detail from Tomb of Galla Placidia, Ravenna (Pho.) . . 223 

237. Ivory Throne of Bishop Maximian in Cathedral of Ravenna (Pho.) 223 

238. The Crown of Charlemagne (Ward) 227 

239. Fabric in Bamberg Museum (Bayet) 231 

240. Syrian Carving: a, from Tourmanin; b, from Bakouza .... 231 

241. Russian (Georgian) and Armenian Carving, chiefly from a Litho- 

graph by Gagarin 230 

242. Details of Marble Inlays on Flank of Cathedral of Pisa . . . .240 

243. Mosaic Altar Front from Ferentino (Pho.) 236 

244. Detail from Facade of San Michele, Lucca (Pho.) 236 

245. False Window, San Stefano, Bologna (Pho.) 236 

246. Lintel of a Door, San Guisto, Lucca (Pho.) 242 

247. Pavement Detail from Baptistry of Florence (Pho.) 242 

248. Interior of Cathedral of Monreale (Pho.) 247 

xix 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

249. Capitals from Cloisters of Cathedral of Monreale (Pho.) . . . 247 

250. Painted Cufic Inscription, Palermo (Gen.) 243 

251. Detail from Bronze Doors of Cathedral of Monreale by Bonnano 244 

252. Arcaded Cornice from S. Martino at Palaia (A. from Pho.) . . .215 

253. Wheel Window of Church at Altamura (Pho.) 253 

254. Portal of Church of San Zeno, Verona (Pho.) 253 

255. Lombard Carved "Monsters": above, Capital from Church at 

Aurona; middle, Symbols of St. John and St. Mark on Pulpit in 
S. Stefano, Bologna; below, from San Ambrogio, Milan (A. after 
Osten and de Dartein) 246 

256. One Bay and Detail, St. Paul-trois-Chfiteaux (A. after ReVoil) . 250 

257. Portal of Church at Carrenac (Pho.) 259 

258. Portal St. Jean of Cathedral of Rouen (Pho.) 259 

259. Capital from Cathedral of Angouleme (Pho.) 259 

260. Shafts and Figures, West Portal of Chartres Cathedral (Pho.) . . 259 

261. Caps and Arch Carvings, St. Pierre d'Aulnay (Pho.) 259 

262. Double Capital, St. Martin des Champs, Paris (Pho.) .... 259 

263. Romanesque Iron Knocker (Pho. of Cast in Trocadero Museum, 

Paris) 259 

264. Baseo with Spurs 251 

265. Late French Romanesque Capital (C. U., Zetsche) 252 

266. Carved Rinceaux, from Mantes (above) and Vaison (below) . . 255 

267. Acanthus Leaves from Portal of Church at Avallon 256 

268. Carved Rinceau, Avallon 256 

269. Double Rinceau, Notre Dame, Paris (A. after V.-le-D.) . . .257 

270. Romanesque Ornaments (Hauser) 261 

271. Carved Anthemion Bands, Church of St. Aubin at Angers (A. after 

Cahier et Martin) 262 

272. Grotesque, from Church of Notre Dame, Poitiers 263 

273. Leaf Motive on a Tile, St. Omer 264 

274. Corinthianesque Capital, Lincoln Cathedral (C. U.) 267 

275. Capital from St. Peter's, Northampton (C. U.) 267 

276. Ornaments from Doorway of Iffley Church, Oxfordshire (Rick- 

man) 268 

277. Beak or Bird's-head Molding 268 

278. Interlaced Arches (Hauser) 269 

279. Anthemion Ornaments: above, from St. Savior's, Southwark; be- 

low, from Hereford Cathedral 270 

280. Celtic Initials: Q, from an Italian Periodical; O, from Lindisfarne 

Gospels (O. J.); S, from Book of Kells (A. after Sullivan) . . 270 

281. Various Interlaces (Racinet, etc.) 271 

282. Cover of St. Patrick's Bell (Ward) 271 

283. One Quarter of Cover of Molaise Gospels (Ward) . . . . . .272 

284. Capital from Gernrode 273 

285. Capital from Church in Wiirttemberg (Gen.) 274 

286. Doorway from Abbey of Heilsbronn (Hauser) 275 

287. Capital from Tarragona (Gewerbehalle) 276 

288. Capital from Tarragona (Gewerbehalle) 276 

XX 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

289. Norwegian Carving: a, from Church at Stedye; b, Unidentified 

(Gen.) 277 

290. Norwegian Chair or Choir Stall (Gewerbehalle) 277 

291. Details of Candelabrum in Milan Cathedral (Ward) . . . .278 

292. Chandelier at Hildesheim, Detail (A. after illustration in Archi- 

tectural Record) 279 

293. Romanesque Gold Cup in Museum at Bergen (Workshop) . . . 280 

294. Three French Gothic Capitals: a, from Sainte Chapelle, Paris; 

b, from Notre Dame, Paris; c, from North Spire of Chartres 
Cathedral (A., from his History of Architecture) 283 

295. Decorative Gable over Window, Cologne Cathedral (Hauser) . 284 

296. A Clustered Pier, Plan and Elevation (C. U.) 285 

297. Romanesque Capital from Bayeux Cathedral, and Gothic Capital 

from St Martin-des-Champs, Paris 286 

298. Gothic Clustered Bases, from Cathedral of Halberstadt (Hauser) 

and Rouen (Raguenet) 287 

299. Gothic Pier-Arch Moldings from Chartres, Le Mans, and St. Mac- 

lou (Rouen) (A. after Simpson) 288 

300. Enriched Cornice Molding, Notre Dame, Paris (Hauser) . . . 289 

301. Vaulting Boss, French (Hauser) 289 

302. Vaulting of Apsidal Chapel, Beauvais (C. U.) 290 

303. Tierceron Vaulting: Chapter House of Wells Cathedral; Exeter 

Nave; Lincoln, Lantern (Pho.) 291 

304. a, Nave of Winchester Cathedral; b, Fan Vault, Henry VIFs 

Chapel, Westminster (Pho.) 292 

305 a, Plate Tracery, Etton Church 293 

305 b, Bar Tracery, Meopham Church; c, Perpendicular Tracery, North- 
fleet Church (A. after Brandon and others) 294 

306. Cusps in Tracery 295 

307. French Rayonnaut Balustrade (C. U. after V.-le-Duc) . . . . 296 

308. French Flamboyant Balustrade, Chateau de Josselyn (C. U.) . . 296 
309 a, A French Early Gothic Crocket (Hauser) ; b, a French Flamboyant 

Crocket, Evreux Cath. (C. U.) 298 

310. A Gothic Cresting (Meyer, after Jacobsthal) 298 

311. French Flamboyant Tabernacle Canopy, House of Jacques Creur, 

Bourges (Pho.) 299 

312. Gargoyle from Notre Dame, Paris (Pho.) 299 

313. Capital, St. Martin-des-Champs, Paris (C. U., C. S. Haight) . . 304 

314. Corner Leaf, Notre Dame, Paris 305 

315. French Rayonnant Capital (C. U., Zetsche) 305 

316. Capitals, Chapter House of Southwell Cathedral (A. from Pho.) 306 

317. Crocket, Wells Cathedral (C. U.) 306 

318. Capital from Salisbury Cathedral (C. U., J. J. Ide) 307 

319. Tudor Flower (A. after Colling) 307 

320. Arcade of Kings, Amiens Cathedral (Hauser) 308 

321. Tympanum, Porte de la Vierge, Notre Dame, Paris (Pho.) . . .310 

322. Reliefs from Portal of Notre Dame (Pho.) from onst in Trooadero 

Museum) 310 

xxi 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

323. Tomb of St. Stephen, Abbot of Aubazine (Pho. from cast in 

Trocadero Museum) 310 

324. The Last Judgment, Central West Doorway of Notre Dame (Pho.) 313 

325. Rood Screen, Alby Cathedral (Pho.) 313 

326. A Miserere, Beverley Cathedral (A., after Bond) 312 

327. XlVth Century Pew End, Winthorpe Church (C. U.) 315 

328. Detail from Wrought-Iron Screen in St. Sernin, Toulouse . . . 316 

329. "Penture" or False Hinge, Central Doors of Notre Dame, Paris 

(Pho.) 318 

330. Iron Screen in Bourges Cathedral (Pho.) 318 

331. Two French Tile Patterns (A. after Meyer) 319 

332. Manuscript Ornaments, XVth Century (Speltz) 320 

333. A French Medallion Window, Chartres (Arch. Rec.) 323. 

334. a Part of Jesse Window, Chartres Cathedral (Arch. Rec) . . .322 

335. b Upper Part, Canopy Window from Cologne (A. after Hasak) . 322 

335. c Upper Part, Canopy Window from York (A. after Glazier) . . 322 

336. German Grisaille Windows, from Cologne Cathedral (above) and 

Altenburg (below) 324 

337. Leading of a Xlllth Century French Window, "The Wedding in 

Cana" (Arch. Rec.) 325 

338. Upper Part of a French Figure Window in Chartres Cathedral 

(Arch. Record) 326 

339. Part of Pulpit in Strassburg Cathedral (Pho.) 327 

340. Church of St. Maclou, Rouen (Pho.) 327. 

341. Detail, Carving on Front of Sens Cathedral 332 

342. Capital from Sainte Chapelle, Paris (C. U., Zetsche) 332 

343. Detail from Cornice of Notre Dame 335 

344. Detail from Cornice of Church at Norrey, near Caen (A. after 

Nesfield) ' 335 

345. Oak Leaf Cornice of Sainte Chapelle, Paris (Hauser) .... 336 

346. Late Gothic Molding, Choir Enclosure of Notre Dame, Paris . . 336 

347. Rosette-Boss from Sainte Chapelle 337 

348. Vertical Carved Rinceau, Notre Dame, Paris (A. after V.-le-Duc) 337 

349. Reliefs from Base of Portal of Notre Dame, Paris (Gewerbehalle) 338 

350. Early Gothic Grotesque, Chartres Cathedral (Pho.) .... 334 

351. Part of Late Gothic Choir Screen, Amiens Cathedral (Pho.) . . 334 

352. Two Figures from Portal of Amiens (Pho.) 339 

353. XlVth Century Ivory Triptych in Municipal Library, Amiens 

(Pho.) * ... 339 

354. Half of Western Rose Window, Chartres Cathedral (Plate Tracery) 341 

355. Early French Tracery, from Reims Cathedral 341 

356. "Lanterne des Morts," Avioth, Brittany (Pho.) 343 

357. Flamboyant Detail, Church of St. Jacques, Reims (from a French 

Lithograph) 343 

358. Rayonnant Tracery Carved on Wood, from a Church Door (Pho.) 348 

359. Flamboyant Tracery, Church of St. Pierre at Louviers (Pho.) . . 348 

360. a, One Half of Spandrel Carving, Church at Stone, Kent; b. Capital 

from Lincoln Cathedral; r, from Ely Cathedral (from Engrav- 
ings in Monumental News) 350 

xxii 



PAGE 

361. Early English Capitals (Casts in Metropolitan Museum, New 

York) (Pho.) 351 

362. Triforium of "Angel Choir," Lincoln Cathedral (Pho.) . . . . 351 
3(j3. Wreath Capital, Beverley Cathedral (?) (from engraving in Monu- 
mental News) 353 

364. a, Finial, Chapter House of Wells Cathedral; b, Crocket from 

Beverley Minster (C. U., Scott, Bartberger) 353 

365. Molding Ornaments, Early, Decorated and Transitional (Rick- 

man) 354 

366. Carved Spandrel, Church at Stone, Kent (C. U.) 354 

367. Detail, Diapered Triforium, Arcade of Westminster Abbey (Rick- 

man), and Detail from Diapering of Main Arcade 355 

368. Detail, W r ooden Screen in Manchester Cathedral, XVth Century 

(C. U., Wilson) 356 

369A. Curvilinear Period Carved Wooden Panels (A. after Colling) . . 357 

369. Carved "Poppy-head" from a Pew-end in St. Mary's, Bury St. 

Edmunds 357 

370. Plate Tracery, Lillington Church, Northants (A. after Bond) . . 358 

371. Geometric Tracery, E. Window, Raunds Ch. (Rickman) . . . 358 

372. Curvilinear Tracery; a, Ithlingboro, Northants; 6, Over, Cambs; 

c, Little Addington, Northants (Rickman) 359 

373. Perpendicular Window, Beauchamp Chapel, Warwick (Rickman) 360 

374. Hammer Beam "Open Timber" Roof, Trunch Church (Rickman) 362 
374A. Open Timber Roof, Lavenham Church (Bury) 363 

375. Porch of Church of St. Lawrence (Lorenzkirche) Nuremberg (Pho.) 367 

376. North Side Portal, Freiburg Cathedral (Pho.) 368 

377. General View, Freiburg Cathedral with Open Work Spire (Pho.) 368 

378. Central Portal, Strassburg Cathedral (Pho.) 371 

379. North Side Portal, Strassburg Cathedral (Pho.) 371 

380. Altar-piece or Reredos, Church at Esslingen (Hauser) .... 369 
380A. Carved Pew End, German Middle Gothic (Gewerbehalle) . . .370 

381. Late German Gothic Carving (Gewerbehalle) 373 

382. Shrine or Reredos in Church at Braunau (Arch. Rec.), and Details 

from West Portal, Freiburg Cathedral (Pho.) 372 

383. Interior of "New" Cathedral of Salamanca (Pho.) 367 

384. Patio (Court) of the Infantado Palace at Guadalajara (Pho.) . . 375 

385. Interior of Chapel of the Condestabile in Burgos Cathedral (Pho.) 375 

386. Mudejar Detail (Gewerbehalle) 374 

387. Part of Flank of Cathedral of Florence (Pho.) 376 

388. Part of Front of Orvieto Cathedral (Pho.) 381 

389. Details from Lucca Cathedral: Sculptured Shaft and Marble In- 

lay (Gewerbehalle) 378 

390. Capital from a Tomb in Church of Santa Chiara, Naples . . . 379 

391. Wall-Tomb in San Antonio, Padua (C. U.) 380 

392. Tomb of Can Mastino II Scaligero, Verona (Pho.) 382 

392A. Tomb of Giovanni Scaligero, Verona (Pho.) 382 

393. Facade of Sienna Cathedral (Pho.) 385 

394. Twisted Shaft and Marble Inlay, Campanile, Florence (Pho.) . . 385 

xxiii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

395. Tracery, Or San Michele, Florence (Pho.) 386 

396. Front of a Gothic Palace in Venice 383 

397. Detail from Altar Canopy, Or San Michele, Florence (Pho.) . . 389 

398. Detail, Painted Wall in a Chapel of Santa Croce, Florence (Pho.) 386 

399. Carving from Arch of "Mandorla" Door, Cathedral of Florence 384 

400. Detail, Choir Stalls of Molfetta Cathedral, now in Museum (Pho.) 389 

401. Capitals from Lower Arcade of Doge's Palace (C. U.) .... 387 



ZZ1V 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL 



I 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL 

CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTORY 

Definitions. 

The history of ornament is the record of the origins 
and progressive developments of decorative design. 
By decoration is meant the adornment or embellish- 
ment of an object by purposed modifications of its form 
or color. When decoration is effected by the repetition 
or combination of specific form-elements according to 
a predetermined scheme, the form-elements are called 
motives. Collectively they are denominated ornament, 
and when combined or repeated according to some defi- 
nite geometric system, they are said to form a pattern. 
Thus on page 9, Figure 1 is an ornament; so is Figure 
2, which shows a geometric pattern formed with the mo- 
tive aa. Pure ornament is that in which the decorative 
purpose wholly dominates the design, as distinguished 
from decorative painting and decorative sculpture, in 
which the decorative purpose is subordinate to the pic- 
torial or sculptural representation of a fact, event or 
idea. 

3 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Thus in the Parthenon the sculptured pediments, 
metopes and frieze, representing episodes and scenes 
from Greek mythology and legend, are examples of 
decorative sculpture; while the triglyphs, antefixas and 
painted moldings are examples of pure ornament. 

There is a large field of decorative design which par- 
takes somewhat of the character of both pure ornament 
and pictorial or sculptural representation. Such are 
symbolical and grotesque figures, masks, lions' heads 
and much floral ornament, all of which are at once 
decorative and representative. Each example of such 
decoration must be classified according to its predomi- 
nant purpose. Thus, although Figure 1 plainly pic- 
tures a grapevine, its formally artificial arrangement 
shows it to be intended as an ornament and not a picture. 
There are, however, many cases in which the purposes 
of representation and decoration are so evenly balanced 
that they may be with equal propriety assigned to either 
category. 

Classifications. 

Pure ornament may be classified according to any of 
several principles : e.g., according to 

A. Its way of covering space. 

B. The manner and means of its production. 

C. The method or principle of its design. 

D. The object to which it is applied. 

E. Its relation to structure. 

A. According to the way in which ornament covers 
space it may be divided into linear, all-over, and radiat- 
ing ornament. Each of these may be subdivided into 

4 



INTRODUCTORY 

continuous and discontinuous ornament. In linear 
ornament the motives are arranged in sequence along a 
single line, to form bands or borders, as in Figure 3, in 
which a and b are continuous linear patterns, and c dis- 
continuous. In "all-over" patterns the units are ar- 
ranged along two or more intersecting systems of lines 
so as to cover a broad surface ( Figures 2, 5, 8) . In radi- 
ating patterns the surface is covered by units radiating 
from a central point (Figures 6, 7). In each of these 
cases the ornament may be continuous, each unit being 
connected with its neighbors (Figures 3, a, b; Figure 18, 
page 23) or discontinuous as in Figure 3, c or Figure 5. 
Continuous "all-overs" forming a mesh of two sets of 
intersecting lines are called quarries (from the French 
carre = square). Discontinuous all-overs are called 
powderings; more rarely they are said to be spangled 
(Figure 5). When isolated units are powdered or 
spangled in the meshes of a quarry, the combination is 
called a diaper. Figure 5 is a powdering; 2 is a quarry ; 
8 a diaper pattern. 

B. According to the means by which the ornament 
is produced, it is classified as plastic or chromatic. Plas- 
tic ornament is such as depends on light-and-shade for 
its effect, being produced by raising or depressing the 
surface in various ways, as bj r molding, carving, hammer- 
ing, stamping, etc. (Figures 4, 6, 9). Chromatic orna- 
ment is all such as depends on color (including black 
and white) for its effect, as in Figure 10 representing a 
painted band. Certain classes of textile ornament, like 
lace and embroidery, in which open-work and relief are 
depended on to produce the pattern, are included under 

5 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

plastic ornament. Chromatic ornament comprises all 
painted ornament, enamel, inlay, stained glass and 
mosaic, and all such textile ornament as depends upon 
effects of color, whether produced by weaving, printing, 
needle work, or otherwise. 

C. According to the source and principle of its de- 
sign, ornament is divisible into the three categories of 
conventional, naturalistic, and conventionalize 'd-natural 
ornament. Conventional ornament is in general that 
which is the product of fancy or definite rule working 
upon pure form, and is for the most part geometric in 
character. Zigzags, frets, spirals and all geometric 
patterns fall under this head (Figures 3, 7). Natural- 
istic ornament comprises all decorative forms derived 
from Nature directly and with little or no change, such 
as flower and leaf forms, lion's heads, and the like, as 
in Figures 1, 10. When, however, natural forms are 
subjected to purposed modifications to adapt them to 
decorative effect, they are said to be conventionalized; 
and this class of ornament constitutes more than half 
of all the ornament of nearly all the historic styles. The 
acanthus leaf (Fig. 174), and a whole world of floral 
motives in both classic and medieval art, belong in this 
category (Figures 4, 6, 9, 10, on page 9, and 16 b, 20, 
28 on page 23). The nature-form is subjected to one 
or more of the operations of regularization of details 
that in nature occur irregularly or unsymmetrically ; 
suppression or abstraction of features that occur in 
nature but are repugnant to the desired decorative effect ; 
exaggeration of minor details; multiplication of what 
occurs only once or at rare intervals in the natural ob- 

6 



INTRODUCTORY 

ject; and combination, or the union in one design of ele- 
ments that do not in Nature occur together. 

D. According to the object to which it is applied, 
ornament is divided into architectural ornament, applied 
to or executed in or upon fixed structures, and industrial 
ornament, which adorns movable objects. Capitals of 
columns, friezes, gargoyles, finials, cornices, and balus- 
trades are examples of architectural ornament; vase- 
decorations, furniture-carving, silverware, jewelry, 
laces, book-covers belong technically in the field of 
industrial ornament. There is a large class of decorative 
works that may be placed in either category, such as 
pulpits, choir-stalls, monumental candelabra and the 
like. 

E. Ornament may again be divided into two cate- 
gories according to its relation to structure. Structural 
ornament is that which belongs to, grows out of, or 
strongly suggests, the structural framework and consti- 
tution of the object ornamented: such are capitals, 
cornices, balustrades, window-trims, tracery, moldings, 
paneling, metal scroll-work and the like. Applied orna- 
ment is that which is added to an object already complete 
structurally; such as painted ornament, mosaic, inlay, 
paper-hangings, tapestries, etc. 

Significance of Classifications. 

All these classifications are devices for convenience 
in the discussion and criticism of ornament, and are 
important only as they serve this purpose. They cor- 
respond to real differences of design, process and pur- 
pose, but there is always a wide borderland in which 

7 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

classification is not easy, and perhaps not important. 
Each classification covers the entire field of ornament, 
so that any decorative design may be assigned its place 
in all five classifications. Thus the carving in the 
spandrels of Westminster Abbey (Fig. 367) would be 
(A) a diaper, (B) plastic ornament of (C) convention- 
alized-natural flowers, (D) architectural and (E) either 
structural or applied, as one may prefer to consider it. 
A fret-border embroidered on an altar-cloth or painted 
on a vase, would be a linear, chromatic, conventional, 
industrial, applied ornament. These classifications 
depend upon one's critical judgment, especially in C, 
D and E, so that differences in the classifications of the 
same ornament by different writers are frequent and 
unimportant, especially where a design combines ele- 
ments from different categories of the same class, as 
when carving and color are combined, or natural forms 
blended with purely geometric or conventional elements. 

Meaning of History. 

Decorative design appears at first sight to be so 
entirely a matter of the designer's unhampered fancy, 
that a history of the art might seem an impossibility; 
for how can there be a history of millions of indepen- 
dent, unrelated fancies? But as a matter of fact no 
designer is or ever has been wholly free. In the first 
place, he knows but an infinitesimal fraction of the world 
of possible decorative forms those, in short, which he 
has been taught or has seen, or has learned by experi- 
ment. He is hampered by the traditions of his art, by 
the taste of his age and the demands of the market, by the 



tools and materials he uses, by his own mental and artistic 
limitations. By reason of common limitations and en- 
vironment, the designers of any one place and time tend 
to work alike in certain respects, and those character- 
istics which are common to their work constitute the 
style of that time and region. The history of ornament 
is, then, the record of the origin, growth, decay, succes- 
sion and inter-relation of the various styles of decorative 
design. 

The Historic Styles. 

"Style" is distinctive character or quality. The his- 
toric styles of ornament are the distinctive ways, methods 
and systems of decorative design which have prevailed 
in different countries at different times, and are desig- 
nated usually by the names of the peoples who have 
practised them and by the age, century, period or reign 
in which they have flourished: as, for example, the 
Roman Imperial Style, the French Gothic, Italian 
Early Renaissance and American Colonial Style, etc. 

Each historic style is seen to have passed through the 
successive stages of infancy and early growth, maturity 
and decline, after which it disappears, usually giving 
place to a new style, either derived from some other 
civilization, or growing up out of the declining style by 
the introduction of some new germinant principle of de- 
sign. Of the great variety of ornament- forms produced 
in any one period, a few find favor and are constantly re- 
peated, while the others disappear. A tendency thus as- 
serts itself in a given direction, and by countless in- 
finitesimal changes of these familiar forms along the line 

10 



INTRODUCTORY 

of this tendency the style is developed and then gradu- 
ally transformed. The historic styles are phenomena of 
growth, of racial and epochal environments, not sud- 
denly occurring phases due to chance. No man and no 
coterie of men can create a real and living style; for 
style depends not alone upon the designer, but also on 
his inheritance and environment. 

The "Biology" of Styles. 

The development of styles presents many analogies to 
biological phenomena. Transmission by inheritance, 
persistence of type, occasional reversions towards the 
primitive type, exceptional forms analogous to the; 
"sports" that occur in Nature all these are met with 
in the history of ornament, as well as the constant evolu- 
tionary progress from simple to complex, from the 
rudimentary to the highly organized. There is also 
observable in the development of ornament a phenom- 
enon which may be called convergence, in which two 
lines of development from different sources approach 
each other and finally coalesce. The resulting form or 
pattern resembles somewhat both its ancestors, though 
constituting a new type in itself. It is therefore often 
impossible to assign a single origin to an ornament-type ; 
and much of the discussion and controversy about dis- 
puted origins might be avoided by recognizing the orna- 
ment in question as derived by convergence from both 
or all of the several sources to which the disputants 
assign it. 

In Figure 11, page 9, a, b and c suggest the pos- 
sible evolution of the "trilobe lotus," c from its simplest 

11 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

painted form, a in Egyptian ornament, while d f e and / 
illustrate the persistence of this motive in Greek, Roman 
and Gothic ornament respectively, the whole covering 
a period of nearly 3000 years. In Figure 12 a Greek 
vase ornament of anthemions is shown at a, followed by 
a Roman derivative modified by acanthus-leaf details. 
The three lower examples are Byzantine acanthus 
leaves which have converged towards the anthemion type 
to such an extent that they may with equal propriety be 
called anthemions or acanthus leaves. Figure 13 (in 
which b is an enlargement of c in Figure 12) further 
illustrates this convergence of the Byzantine acanthus 
towards the Greek anthemion-type, though this latter 
was probably quite unknown to most Byzantine artists. 
In Figure 14 we have a curious example of accidental 
reversion towards an ancient type: the left-hand form 
a being an Egyptian representation of some water- 
plant, while the two anthemion-like forms at the right, 
b, are late Byzantine conventional representations of 
the funereal cypress tree ! 

Prehistoric, Primitive and Savage Ornament. 

It remains to consider briefly the relation to historic 
art of those early forms of ornament which were pro- 
duced before the dawn of the historic cultures, as well as 
of the ornament of savage and barbarous peoples that 
have remained outside the currents of modern civiliza- 
tion. So far as the arts of the cavemen of the 
paleolithic and neolithic ages are concerned, there is no 
traceable connection between them and the earliest his- 
toric civilizations those of Egypt and Chaldea : the in- 

12 



INTRODUCTORY 

termediate links have perished absolutely. With re- 
gard to savage ornament, the fact that it is contempo- 
raneous with civilized and even modern cultures, makes 
possible an influence from the latter upon the savage art 
which establishes certain occasioned resemblances be- 
tween the two. But there is no evidence as yet discov- 
erable of the unaided development of savage art into 
civilized and progressive art. The essential character 
of savage art is that of arrested development. It is 
often interesting and effective, but seems incapable of 
further progress. It is sterile, and as a subject of study, 
quite outside the field of the historic styles. 

Primitive ornament, on the other hand, is ornament in 
the earliest stages of its development. The term may 
therefore be applied to the beginnings qf historic art or 
of particular styles, as well as to that of the Stone Age 
and prehistoric times. Primitive ornament is fre- 
quently uncouth, while savage ornament is often highly 
elaborated (see Plates I and II) ; but the latter has 
ceased to advance, while primitive ornament often re- 
veals the promise and potency of indefinite life and 
growth. The one is a dwarf, the other an infant. 

Six Propositions. 

The history of art seems to bear out the following 
propositions : 

I. The earliest known historic ornament belongs to 
civilizations already well advanced. 

II. The primitive origins of this earliest known his- 
toric ornament have yet to be discovered and identified. 

Prehistoric remains in Egypt are being studied, and 

is 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

have thrown some light upon the earliest stages of art in 
that most ancient of known civilizations; but the prob- 
lem has not yet been by any means fully solved. 

III. Savage or aboriginal ornament has never yet 
been known to develop unaided into a civilized and pro- 
gressive art. 

IV. The ornament of every historic style is found 
to be chiefly derived from that of some older civilization, 
until we reach back to the earliest historic art of Egypt 
and Chaldea, beyond which its sources have not yet been 
traced. 

V. Each historic culture has imposed upon the decora- 
tive art thus inherited or borrowed a development and 
form of its own, either by blending with the borrowed 
forms others of its own invention, or by progressive 
modifications of detail, or by both together. 

VI. In these modifications of the imported or in- 
herited ornament-forms, their original use and signifi- 
cance are in time lost sight of or ignored. Magical 
forms become mere symbols, symbolic forms mere orna- 
ment; and structural forms are applied where the con- 
struction does not demand them, so that they become 
in time motives of architectural decoration pure and 
simple. 

Value of the Study of Ornament Styles. 

The importance of this study lies in its value not only 
to the designer, in enabling him to design consistently, 
either by following a given style closely or by diverging 
from it intelligently ; but also to the archeologist and the 
student of history. For the style of a work of decora- 

14 



. INTRODUCTORY 

tion is frequently a more reliable index of its date than 
written documents, which have more than once been 
proved to be incorrect or to have been misinterpreted, 
by the evidence of decorative style in the work under 
discussion. The character and relations of the ornament 
of different countries, peoples and times have often af- 
forded valuable suggestions, confirmations or corrections 
as to the historic movements and relations of these peo- 
ples, and an index of their advancement in civilization. 
The history of ornament is thus an important division 
of the general history of civilization. 

Method of this History. 

The history of ornament may be treated according 
to either of two methods. By one of these the origin 
and development of the dominant motives of ornament 
are taken up in succession, each of these being traced 
through all of the styles in which it is formed. 1 By the 
other, which is followed in this volume, attention is di- 
rected to the origin and development of the historic 
styles of ornament, all the various motives, kinds and 
types of ornament of each country and period being 
considered in discussing the style of that time and re- 
gion. In this volume we shall treat of the styles of 
ancient and medieval art, leaving the Oriental and mod- 
ern styles to be treated in another volume. 

Summary of the Sequence of Styles. 

Geographically as well as chronologically, this study 

i This is the method followed by Mr. G. A. T. Middleton in his "Motives of 
Ornament" (New York, 1914) and by myself in a series of papers on the "De- 
velopment of Decorative Motives" in the "American Architect," 1898-1901. 

15 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

begins with Egyptian art in the Nile Valley. The art 
of early Chaldea in the valley of the Tigris-Euphrates, 
though rivaling that of Egypt in its antiquity, is less im- 
portant in the domain of ornament than the Egyptian, 
and less important also than that of Assyria, which de- 
veloped later in the same river basin. Greek art both 
inherited and borrowed from both these arts ; little, per- 
haps, directly, but much through the intermediate arts of 
Phenicia and of the early Mediterranean cultures in 
Crete, Mycenae, and other ^Egean centers. All these 
borrowed elements were completely transformed in 
Greek art, whose developed forms passed into Roman 
art and were again transformed by the Roman genius. 
Greek and Roman art have tinged that of all subsequent 
ages among the European and Western nations. The 
growth of Christianity after the fall of Rome developed 
new centers of civilization and new conceptions in art, 
giving rise to Byzantine art in the East and to Roman- 
esque and Gothic art in the West. For a thousand 
years the forms of Roman art appeared to be forgotten, 
except for faint reminiscences of them in Italy. Yet 
like the Egyptian wheat, buried with a mummy but 
springing to life after a score of centuries in the tomb, 
the vital elements of Roman art revived with the 
Renaissance of classic studies in the fifteenth century 
in Italy, and have largely dominated Western art ever 
since. 

Meanwhile in the Orient other ideals have prevailed, 
and although the Mohammedan nations have in each 
case founded their art on that of the Christian peoples 
they have conquered, they have developed it under the 

16 



INTRODUCTORY 

dominion of their own ideals into something quite apart 
from Western art. China and Japan have also their 
own independent though related styles of decoration; 
while the decorative art of the non-Moslem Hindus rep- 
resents another group of styles remote in character from 
those of Europe. 

The problem of early American art in Peru, Central 
America and Mexico is one of great uncertainty and 
the subject of no little controversy. The art of these 
countries offers one of the richest as well as most diffi- 
cult fields for architectural exploration and study. The 
expeditions conducted by Professor Bingham of Yale 
University have added much to our knowledge of the 
monuments; but the subject has not yet entered the 
domain of precise history, and must lie outside the scope 
of a manual like this. 

Books Recommended. 

[The bibliography of ornament is so extensive, and includes 
so many works of doubtful value to the student, that an ex- 
haustive list of books on the subject of each chapter of this 
work is out of the question. The lists of "Books Recom- 
mended" have been made to include the most important works 
of reference generally available in the larger libraries of cities 
and educational institutions, as well as text-books and hand- 
books of a more popular character, in English, French and 
German (besides a few in Italian and Spanish). In such a 
selected list it will inevitably happen that some titles will be 
omitted which, in the reader's judgment, ought to be included, 
and others included which might well have been omitted; for 
individual judgments must differ in many cases. The author 
and the publishers will welcome suggestions for the improve- 
ment of these lists in future editions.] 

1. On General Theory of Ornament: BOURGOIX: Theorie de 
Vornement (Paris, 1883). W. G. COLLJNGWOOD: Philosophy 

17 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

of Ornament (Sunnyside, 1883). H. PFEIFER: Formenlehre 
des Ornaments (Stuttgart, 1906). GOBLET D'ALVIELLA: The 
Migration of Symbols (Westminster, 1894). A. C. HADDON : 
Evolution in Art (London, 1895). A. D. F. HAMLIN: Devel- 
opment of Decorative Motives (in American Architect, New 
York, 18981901). J. HAUSELMANN: Studien und Ideen iiber 
Ursprung, Wesen und Stil des Ornaments (Zurich, 1889). 
F. E. HULME: Birth and Development of Ornament (London, 
1893). J. RANKE: Anfdnge der Kunst (Berlin, 1879). ALOIS 
RIEGL: Stilfragen; Grundlegungen zu einer Geschichte der 
Ornamentik (Berlin, 1893). G. SEMPER: Der Stil m der 
technischen Kiinsten, oder Praktische Aesthetik (Munich, 1878- 
79). G. STURM: Animals in Ornament (London, 1895). 

2. General Handbooks and Collections. DOLMETSCH: Der 
Ornamentenschatz (Stuttgart, 1889; also an English edition, 
London, 1912). EBE: Die Schmuckformen der Monumental- 
bauten aus alien Stilepochen (Leipzig, 1896). L. GAUCHEREL: 
Exemples de decoration appliquee etc. (Paris, 1857). R. 
GLAZIER: Manual of Historic Ornament (London, 1906). 
GROPIUS und LOHDE: Archiv fur omamentale Kunst etc. (Ber- 
lin, 1876-79). E. J. B. GUILLAUME: Histoire de Vart et de 
Vornement (Paris, 1888). D. GUILMARD: La connaissance des 
styles de V ornementation (Paris, 1849). A German edition of 
the same under the title Geschichte der Ornamentik (Berlin, 
1860). J. HAUSELMANN: Die Stylarten des Ornaments in den 
verschiedenen Kunstepochen (Zurich, 1882). J. E. JACOB- 
STHAL: Grammatik der Ornamente (Berlin, 1874; with large 
wall-plates for class use). OWEN JONES: Grammar of Orna- 
ment (London, 1857; new edition, smaller size, London, 1910). 
F. K. KLIMSCH: Ornaments (London, n. d.). MECHIN: Dic- 
tionnaire de Vart ornemental de tous les styles (Paris, 1888 91 ). 
F. S. MEYER: Omamentale Formenlehre (Leipzig, 1886): 
English edition under title Handbook of Ornament (New York, 
1898?). R. NEWBERRY: Gleanings from Ornamental Art of 
Every Style (London, 1863). R. PFNOR: Ornementation 
usuelle de toutes les epoques (Paris, 1866-68). A. RACINET: 
UOrnement polychrome (Paris, 186987). H. SHAW: En- 
cyclopaedia of Ornament (London, 1842). J. B. WARING: Il- 
lustrations of Architecture and Ornament (London, 1871). 

18 



INTRODUCTORY 

J. WARD: Historic Ornament (London, 1898). G. E. WES- 
SELY: Das Ornament und die Kunstindustrie in ihrer geschicht- 
liche Entwickelung (Berlin, 1877). 

In the above list the Grammar of Ornament of Owen Jones 
and Ornement Polychrome of Racinet are monumental collec- 
tions of decorative designs in color, veritable encyclopaedias 
of ornament of all kinds except the architectural, of which there 
are only a few examples in Owen Jones, and none in Racinet. 
The Dolmetsch collection, second only to the above two in rich- 
ness and elegance of presentation, contains a fair proportion 
of illustrations from architecture. Meyer's Handbook of 
Ornament is another standard collection, arranged not by styles 
but by topics and categories of subjects. Glazier's Manual 
of Historic Ornament is excellent as far as it goes, but its 
modest size makes impossible a complete presentation of any 
of the styles. Speltz's Styles of Ornament is the most compre- 
hensive of all the smaller collections, covering all the styles 
both of architectural and industrial ornament with a wealth 
of illustrations in black-and-white. The new edition, revised 
by R. Phene Spiers, of London, is especially recommended. 
The Prang Educational Company publish an excellent series 
of Plates of Historic Ornament, in color, based on a series orig- 
inally edited by the late Professor W. R. Ware. 



19 



CHAPTER II 

PRIMITIVE AND SAVAGE ORNAMENT 

The Origins. 

When and how did decorative art first begin? The 
question can never receive a final and complete answer, 
since the oldest extant specimens of ornamental art, 
dating back to the palaeolithic age, betray a skill which 
points to beginnings in a still more remote past. 
The dagger-handle of carved reindeer bone in Figure 
15, representing a wounded fawn, is a surprisingly skil- 
ful adaptation of naturalistic representation to decora- 
tive use; it dates from the neolithic period of the Stone 
Age. Chipped flint knives and remarkably life-like 
sketches of animals engraved on bone, including the 
prehistoric mammoth, found in strata of great antiquity, 
likewise suggest long antecedent periods of training. 

The answer to our query is generally sought by 
anthropologists in the work and processes of modern 
savage tribes. 1 The most generally accepted theory is 
that which derives the earliest ornament from primitive 
superstitions. The savage and presumably primitive 
man did likewise instinctively animates or personifies 
all the forces and most of the phenomena of Nature. 

i Consult however the query raised by Dr. Talcott Williams in a paper 
printed in the "Report of the Smithsonian Institution" for 1896 entitled, 
"Was Primitive Man a Modern Savage?" 

20 



PRIMITIVE AND SAVAGE ORNAMENT 

He fails to distinguish clearly between the real and the 
imagined, the animate and inanimate, and ascribes to 
fancied resemblances the qualities of the thing re- 
sembled. Hence he seeks to portray, imitate or suggest 
whatever force or thing he wishes to have or control, as- 
cribing to these caricatures the powers of their originals. 
An eye painted on a canoe gives the canoe and its 
owner the power to steer a safe course ; a bird on the stern 
gives it speed (see Plate II, 21) ; a human face with a 
mouth full of fierce teeth imparts fierceness and cour- 
age to the bearer of the weapon or other object on which 
it is carved or painted. Figure 17, page 23, illustrates 
the head of a Mangaia (New Zealand) ceremonial spear 
to be borne by a chief: it represents, inverted, a tongue 
protruding from a mouth set with sharp teeth beneath 
two huge eyes. The protruding tongue signifies defi- 
ance ; the teeth, ferocity ; the eyes, keen vision ; together 
they constitute a powerful amulet, magically endowing 
the chief with bravery, ferocity and far-sightedness. 
But it will be noted that the entire representation is dec- 
oratively effective; indeed, the decorative purpose quite 
overmasters all idea of naturalistic portrayal. A like 
purpose is observed in the Papuan "manhood belts" 
(Figure 18), on which the scratched patterns of human 
features are fetishes imparting to the wearer the manly 
qualities they symbolize. 

Such a representation is called a fetish, and the super- 
stition to which it is due, fetishism. It is one manifesta- 
tion of what is generically known as animism, of which 
another form is totemism. Among certain tribes, as in 
Alaska, each family or clan has its own animal or other 

21 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

object not merely as a heraldic symbol, but as a posses- 
sion conferring its qualities on the whole clan: such a 
symbol is called a totem. An Alaskan totem-pole, 
like the quarterings of a coat-of-arms, portrays the 
pedigree and relationships of the occupants of the tent or 
tepee before which it stands. According to the animis- 
tic theory, therefore, primitive and savage ornament is 
believed to have grown up out of the carving or painting 
or weaving of fetishes and totems primarily for the 
sake of their magical use. This practice in time awak- 
ened the rudimentary decorative instinct; and this in- 
stinct asserting itself with constantly increasing force 
has led to the progressive modification of the original 
semi-naturalistic forms until they are often no longer 
recognizable as such, as in Figures 17, 18 and 24 
(page 23) ; Figure 24 showing patterns derived from the 
head of the frigate-bird. 

The Technic Theory. 

Another theory attributes the awakening of the 
decorative instinct to the processes and results of primi- 
tive industries, especially pottery, basketry and weav- 
ing. In these industries there occur inevitably cer- 
tain rhythmical repetitions and alternations of form or 
color which are in themselves decorative. Thus in 
grass-weaving and basketry, if grasses of two colors are 
alternately plaited or woven together a checker pattern 
results, while simple variations in the plaiting produce 
plaids, quadrangles, stepped triangles and crosses 
(Figure 19). The awakened decorative instinct seizes 
upon these effects and develops them purposefully. It 

22 



FigIS 




TZtsayan Jar C Mexico) 



l5Rimltve dagger-handle. l&New&aland'tiki-tiki'motiYe.foyaori spear-head. Id&puanface-motNes 
19, Basketry forms .2o,Zl, ftruvian animal motives. 22, Maori and Hawaiian carvings. Z3Bra- 
Zi/ian grass cloth patterns, Zf. f&puan frigafabird forms ?SJ1aori flute ornament. 26.tomBmzi/- 

23 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 



then begins to appropriate for decorative use fetish and 
totem forms (Figures 20, 21, 24, 28) and adds to these 
other nature forms, which it eventually uses as pure 
ornament, with little or no regard for magical intent. 
Figure 16 shows in a an apparently conventional orna- 
ment thus derived from the New Zealand totem-figures 
of women shown in b, which represent the pedigrees of 
New Zealand chiefs in the female line. The technic of 
wood-notching has converted these figures into the orna- 
ment known as the tiki-tiki-tangata. 

It seems likely that both theories are measurably cor- 
rect and must be jointly invoked to explain the begin- 
nings of ornament. The discovery and development of 
motives originating in technical processes and the de- 
velopment of nature-forms through animistic impulses 
have probably been concurrent. It seems quite clear 
that nearly all spirals, zigzags, plaids, lozenges, and 
many other geometric motives, have originated in the 

processes of weaving, 
plaiting and string-lash- 
ing. Even the fact that 
modern savage tribes 
call these motives by the 
names of animals, winds, 
etc., does not prove their 
animistic origin. Thus 
m PLATE i, 21. in Figure 23 the Indians 

of Central Brazil call a the tunny-fish pattern, b the liz- 
ard pattern, and c and d bat-patterns! All four patterns 
were probably technomorphic in origin, and received 
these names as afterthought explanations of their origin 

24 




: 

' 

Fio. 29. DETAIL FROM MAORI PADDLE 



PRIMITIVE AND SAVAGE ORNAMENT 

and meaning. For primitive man is always a myth- 
maker, who seeks to explain everything by a story or by 
some theory of magic; and the widely different names 
given to the same form by different tribes suggest that 
their several explanations are invented after the fact, not 
handed down by tradition from still more primitive ages. 

Character of Savage Ornament. 

Its artistic quality is often of a high order, revealing 
a keen sense of decorative propriety, a wise choice and 
proportioning of means to ends, and great skill in space- 
filling (Plates I and II) . In boldness and effectiveness 
of design it often surpasses the work of more civilized 
peoples. If lacking in subtlety and the higher graces of 
line and movement, it is often rich, well distributed, and 
executed with singular patience and skill. Structural 
ornament, in the strictest sense, hardly exists at all; 
nearly all savage ornament is pure surface-decoration. 
It consists largely of patterns of small motives indefi- 
nitely repeated by painting, stamping or weaving, or by 
surface carving, so as to cover the whole or a major 
part of the object. (Figures 16, 20, 22, 23-27; Plate 

I, Nos. 4, 6, 8, 13, 15, 21, 23.) Here and there appears 
a caricature of the head or body of a bird or beast (Plate 

II, 19, 20) ; or even the grotesque head of a man, as in 
Fig. 30. 

The South Sea Islands. 

Among the most interesting developments of savage 
decorative art are those of certain Polynesian peoples, 
particularly in New Guinea in the north and New Zea- 

25 




FIG. 30. WAR-DRUM 
HEAD, JAVA. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

land in the south. Second only to 
these in interest is the art of the 
Hawaiian, Friendly or Tonga, 
Samoan and Fiji Islands. Bas- 
ketry, weaving and wood-carving 
are the chief artistic industries of 
these peoples ; their pottery is unim- 
portant. Animism is everywhere in 
evidence in these products: clubs, 
spears, paddles, stone-headed adzes, 
often designed for ceremonial and 
not practical use, are covered with 
patterns invested with fetishistic or 
totemistic meanings. Many of these 
patterns may, however, have had a 
technic origin in basketry, wood-notching, etc. (Figure 
29; Plate I, 11, 15,21, 23). 

The patterns in Figure 24 (p. 23), are all derived 
from the frigate-bird's head ; they are from the Papuan 
Gulf of New Guinea. The very similar pattern in Fig- 
ure 25 a pattern scratched on a Maori (New Zealand) 
flute is claimed by Haddon 2 of Cambridge as having a 
different origin, as the art of New Zealand appears to 
be wholly disconnected from the northern Polynesian 
styles, and the frigate-bird does not otherwise figure in 
Maori patterns. Figure 22 shows a variation of the 
tiki-tiki pattern from New Zealand, and two narrow 
borders from Hawaii, both carved in wood. In Plate I, 
No. 7 is a specimen of New Zealand tattooing, an art 

2 A. C. Haddon, "Evolution in Art," London, 1895. 

26 



PRIMITIVE AND SAVAGE ORNAMENT 

originating in Polynesia, and carried to high perfection 
both in New Guinea and New Zealand. Some of the 
tattoo-patterns appear to be purely decorative, conform- 
ing to the facial modeling; others have a definite signifi- 
cance as fetishes or as totems. 

Primitive American Ornament. 

Basketry, weaving and pottery are the chief indus- 
tries of the primitive and ancient peoples of South and 
Central America, Mexico and the southwestern regions 
of the United States. The pottery of these countries 
is particularly abundant and interesting. As Peru, 
Central America and Mexico were the seats of a highly 
developed civilization centuries before the Spanish con- 
quest, the art of those ages has no place in a discussion 
of primitive and savage ornament. While the begin- 
nings have been made in the working out of the Mayan 
and Aztec chronologies, we must await the decipherment 
of their written records before we can write the history 
and chronology of the Peruvian, Mexican and Central 
American art of antiquity, many of whose monuments 
have long been known, and others more recently discov- 
ered by the Yale expeditions under Professor Bingham. 
Until these problems have been worked out it will be 
impossible to determine the historical relation of such 
advanced decorative art as is shown in Plate II, 2, 3 
and 7, to the more modern pottery shown on the same 
plate. 

Both the Mexican and the Zuni and Pueblo pot- 
tery show great fondness for the spiral (Figs. 31, 32: 

27 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Plate II, 8, 11, 13) . According to W. H. Holmes this 
is due to the derivation of all American pottery from 
primitive processes of building up the vessel with suc- 
cessive spiral coils of clay "rope," which process in turn 
is derived from coiled basketry (see Plate II, 12, a 
Washoe basket-bowl) . This theory is borne out by the 

occurrence of many 
basketry patterns in 
Bolivian and other pot- 
tery. But the Peruvian 
spirals in Plate II, 14, 
may be derived from 
the coiled snake (II, 
16). The spiral is 
common in Pueblo 
pottery; Fig. 31 a 
shows an example, 

FIG. 31. a, PUEBLO JAR; b, DETAIL FROM . 

PLATE II, 8; c, PREHISTORIC JAR FROM which CUl'lOUSly rCSCm- 

bles an ancient j ar ( re- 
versed) from Budmer in Bosnia, illustrated in Hoerner's 
"Urgeschichte." The spiral b is an enlarged detail from 
the jar in Plate II, 8. In the same plate the illustra- 
tions 5 and 8 offer curious analogies to early Greek 
pottery-ornamentation. Such resemblances, probably 
wholly fortuitous, have given rise to many specula- 
tions as to the origin of the ancient American civiliza- 
tions. 3 

The modern American Indians, especially those of the 

3 All of the illustrations in Plate II are from sketches made in the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History in New York, which possesses a superb 
collection, in its Anthropological section, of examples of primitive art, both 
American and foreign. 

28 




PRIMITIVE AND SAVAGE ORNAMENT 

Southwest, are clever potters and particularly skilful 
in basketry. The blankets, baskets and beadwork of 
many other Indian tribes are rich in decorative sugges- 
tion, and will be increasingly val- 
ued as these arts tend to disap- 
pear with advancing civilization. 
The examples shown in these 
figures and plates can by no 
means adequately illustrate the 
richness and variety of savage 
and primitive ornament; they 
can only suggest its general 
character. Every tribe has its 
own special products and pat- 
terns; to some extent they FlG - ^ MEXICAK JAB. 
mingle and overlap through commerce and migration. 
They seem to have been but little modified in style by 
the contact of civilization, though this contact is apt to 
result in the disappearance of the native art and the 
substitution of manufactured foreign products. 

Summary of Characteristics. 

The main characteristics of savage art may be briefly 
summarized as follows: 

I. Geometric ideals control generally both the distri- 
bution and details of the decoration. 

II. Natural forms are invariably of magical signifi- 
cance. They converge towards the technomorphic 
treatment because the savage cares nothing for accuracy 
of representation, provided the type is recognizable ; and 

29 




A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

exaggeration and caricature resulting from the influ- 
ence of materials and tools do not destroy the type. The 
technomorphic geometrization of details is a natural re- 
sult of the processes of their production. 

III. Of many motives it cannot be determined 
whether the origin is animistic or technomorphic. Na- 
tive identifications and explanations of form are by no 
means always trustworthy. 

IV. The zigzag, quadrilateral, fret and spiral ap- 
pear in nearly all savage styles, though the coil and 
spiral are wanting in certain defined districts in the 
South Seas. 

V. Savage ornament is almost wholly surface orna- 
ment, in which general effect is the chief concern and is 
produced by a disposition of parts almost always judi- 
cious and artistic. It is usually composed of minute 
motives, more or less crowded. The higher qualities of 
grace, refined curvature and rhythmic movement, and 
highly organized and complex composition, are gener- 
ally wanting. In short, the pursuit of an unattained 
ideal and the progress that results from it, do not ap- 
pear in savage art, which remains content with its past 
which it reproduces with variations but without con- 
sistent advance. 

Books Recommended. 

As before, the general collections of Dolmetsch, Glazier, 
Owen Jones, Racinet and Speltz. Also, H. BAI/FOUR: The 
Evolution of Decorative Art (London, 1893). A. C. HADDON: 
Evolution in Art (especially for Polynesian art: London, 
1895). J. RANKE: Anfdnge der Kunst (Berlin, 1879). H. 
STOLPE: Evolution in the Ornamental Art of Savage Peoples 

30 



PRIMITIVE AND SAVAGE ORNAMENT 

(Trans. Rochdale Literary and Scientific Society, 1891); Stu- 
dier i americansk Ornamentik (Stockholm, 1896). E. B. TY- 
L.OR: Primitive Culture (London). Consult also W. H. 
HOLMES: Origin and Development of Form and Ornament m 
Ceramic Art in Fourth Annual Report, Bureau of Ethnology 
(Washington, 1886). 



31 



CHAPTER III 

EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT 

"Egypt is the oldest daughter of civilization" ; 1 "a 
lighthouse in the profound darkness of remote an- 
tiquity." 2 

Land and People. 

The valley of the Nile was the birthplace of historic 
civilization, so far, at least, as extant evidence can de- 
termine it. The history of Chaldea carries us back, it 
is true, six or seven thousand years, but the oldest monu- 
ments of Egypt point to a long precedent development, 
the beginnings of which are lost in the mists of antiquity. 
It is, however, outside of our purpose to study this twi- 
light age of Egyptian art. Of the thirty dynasties 
enumerated by Manetho, the first reigned in Memphis in 
Lower Egypt at a date variously estimated at from 3600 
to 4500 years B.C., over a well organized kingdom 
possessed of cities, a priesthood, established grades of 
society, and other features of a developed civilization. 
Hemmed in between the wall-like cliffs of the Nile val- 
ley, this kingdom flourished for some thousands of years 
the one civilized nation in a vast world of barbarous 
nations, developing unaided her own arts and supported 

i Perrot & Chipiez, "History of Ancient Art"; vol. I, page 1. 
* Rnan, quoted by Perrot & Chipiez ; ibid., page 19. 

32 



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT 



by the inexhaustible fertility of the Nile mud. Herodo- 
tus rightly called Egypt "the gift of the Nile," which 
became to the Egyptians a source of endless symbols and 
cosmic-religious ideas. 
Within this valley the 
Egyptians were long 
untouched by foreign 
influences, and the ap- 
parent changelessness 
of Egyptian art is one 
of its most striking 
characteristics. 

The government of 
Egypt was an autoc- 
racy, and society was 
divided into castes, 
with the priest-caste 
at its head. To this 
caste belonged the 
king, who was deified 
after death. The re- 
ligion, grossly idola- 
trous in its lowest pop- 
ular form, and polytheistic in its highest phases as un- 
derstood by the educated priest-caste, possessed many 
lofty spiritual conceptions underlying its externally 
complex mythology. Particularly important were its 
solar deities Amen or Ra, identified with the sun; 
Osiris and his sister-spouse Isis or Hathor, and Horus 
their son. The ideas of death and immortality were con- 
spicuous, making sepulchral art the most important 

33 




FIG. 33. 



DETAIL OF SARCOPHAGUS OF 
MENKAUBA. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

branch of design next to temple architecture. Primitive 
fetish-conceptions never wholly disappeared; Maspero 
declared that "every Egyptian ornament was a talis- 
man," and symbolism characterized every detail of 
decorative art. The tombs, designed to be inviolable so 
far as the intention of their designers was concerned, 
and hermetically sealed against the entrance of the liv- 
ing, were internally decorated with -pictures of scenes, 
objects and pursuits which, it was believed, would be- 
come realities to the Ka, the shadowy "double" or half- 
spirit of the deceased, who could thus enjoy the pleasures 
of feasting and the chase while imprisoned in the tomb, 
awaiting final release by the judgment of Osiris and his 
forty assessors. It is from these tombs and from the 
sarcophagi (Fig. 33) and mummy-cases found in them 
that a large part of our knowledge of Egyptian life and 
decorative art have been derived. 

Influence of Climate. 

Except during the short rainy season the Egyptian 
sky is cloudless, the sun intensely brilliant. Mists, half- 
lights, soft gray tones and delicate tints such as northern 
lands and artists know and love, are here unknown. In 
the blazing sun and black shadows delicate relief and 
subtle modulations of surface would be lost. Hence 
strong and bold relief are necessary out of doors : while 
both there and in the dim interiors color is essential for 
decorative effectiveness. Egyptian ornament is pre- 
eminently an ornament of color. The dryness of the 
air and the absence of frost result in a permanence which 
cannot be secured in other climates. Wood and cloth 

34 



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT 

seem in Egypt as imperishable as stone and bronze. 
Hence an influence towards slowness of change, towards 
permanence both of types and details, which exists no- 
where else. 

Materials. 

There is almost no timber in Egypt, and where stone 
was lacking, or was unsuitable or too costly, mud or 
clay served as the building material, often with a frame- 
work of reeds or stiff papyrus-stalks bound together to 
form posts and beams. The palm was the principal tree, 
with the sycamore for occasional use in cabinet-work. 
The painted representations of framed woodwork al- 
ways show long and narrow panels, such as could be 
framed with long thin pieces from the palm-trunk 
(Fig. 33). Marvelous was the decorative art which 
grew up under these limitations. Pottery, glass, enamel 
and metal-work in copper, bronze and gold were all O 
known to the Egyptians from an early age, and weav- 
ing of "fine twined linen," embroidery and the tanning 
of leather were also practised. 

Historic Periods. 

Without going into details, we may divide the history 
of Egyptian art into six periods. I, The Prehistoric 
Age. II, the Old or First Empire, comprising the first 
ten dynasties ; this is the age of the Great Pyramids and 
of the earliest tombs, from 3400 B.C. 3 to 2160 B.C. Ill, 
The Middle or First Theban Empire, two dynasties, 

s These dates are those of Breasted. Some other authorities assign much 
earlier dates to the Old Empire. 

35 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 



2160 to 1788 B.C. IV, The New or Second Theban 
Empire, the 18th-20th dynasties inclusive, 1588-1150 
B.C. This is the great age of Egyptian history, the most 
splendid in its temples and tombs, as well as in war 
and conquest. It followed a period of two centuries of 
artistic sterility under five foreign dynasties called the 
Hyksos or Shepherd Kings. V, the Saitic and Persian 
Period, comprising the dynasties 21 to 26 inclusive, and 
the Persian rule which began in 525 B.C.: from 1150 to 
324 B.C. VI, the Revival or Ptolemaic Period, under 
the Macedonian Ptolemies and the Roman dominion: 
324 B.C. to 330 A.D. The first half of this period was 
one of revived artistic activity after a long decline. 



Prehistoric Ornament. 




FIG. 34. PREHISTORIC SLATE PA- 
LETTE IN THE LOUVBE. 



It is only within recent 
years that the pre-Pharaonic 
art of Egypt has become 
known by a sufficient number 
of examples to permit of 
assigning any dates or se- 
quences of style. Discoveries 
at Koptos, Nagada and Aby- 
dos since 1893 have unearth- 
ed the products of long ages 
before the first dynasty- 
crude painted statuettes of 
earthenware, ivory pins and 
combs, spoons and rings, flint 
knives with ivory gold- 
plated handles, vases of pot- 

36 



tery and slate palettes or ink-mixers (Fig. 34). In 
none of these is there evidence of a developed decorative 
style, zigzags and a few crude patterns derived from 
basketry being almost the only pure ornaments. There 
is, however, considerable imitation of Nature, more and 
more realistic and correct as one approaches historic 
times. Religion and magic account for much of this 
naturalism. The slate palette from the Louvre shown 
in Fig. 34 is in its motive so like many "Sacred Tree" 
compositions from Assyria in which a tree is flanked by 
erect monsters or human figures, that some authorities 
refer it to prehistoric Chaldean influence. On the 
other hand, the entire Asiatic series of figures of beasts 
facing a central tree or shaft may have originated in 
Egypt. On the whole these finds throw little light on 
the origins and early development of the historic orna- 
ment of Egypt. 

Historic Ornament; General Survey. 

The historic ornament of Egypt may be dated as ex- 
tending from about 3500 B.C., the date of the earliest 
examples in the collections, down to the Christian era. 
From the Old Empire the remains are almost wholly 
of sepulchral and industrial art scarabs (Fig. 53), 
mummy-cases, jewelry, furniture and tomb decorations. 
The Middle Empire has bequeathed us a few examples 
of its architecture, but the great architectural age is that 
of the New Empire, though the Ptolemaic is also rich 
in this field. The Middle and New Empire periods 
have also left us many examples of sepulchral art. This 
entire body of decorative art, covering a period of be- 

37 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

tween three and four thousand years, shows an ex- 
traordinary continuity and uniformity of character and 
spirit, in spite of the progress observable when it is 
closely studied. Egyptian art is marked by a highly 
developed decorative sense which rarely fails to employ 
both form and color in the most effective and appropri- 
ate manner. The influence of symbolism and of sur- 
viving traditions of magic is everywhere observable, 
though the symbolic significance of the forms used was 
probably by no means always a controlling influence in 
the design. In many cases it may not have been at all 
consciously present in the mind of the designer. 

Sources and Motives. 

The Egyptians employed both geometric and natural 
forms, the latter always more or less conventionalized. 
The geometric motives were no doubt chiefly of technic 
origin, the natural forms magical or symbolic. The con- 
ventionalizing tendency was always strong, even in 
purely pictorial and representative paint- 
ing and sculpture, largely from the influ- 
ence of heiratic formulae and traditions in 
sepulchral and temple decoration. In 
ornament there is rarely any attempt to 
picture natural objects realistically. Thus 
the lotus (Figure 36, page 47), which ap- 
pears in Nature as at a, is usually depicted FIG. 35. 
in side-elevation, greatly simplified, as at & A jjJ'J. OF 
and c; and a dish of fruit is shown partly 
in plan and partly in elevation, the two combined in one 
representation (Fig. 35). Human figures are drawn 

38 




EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT 

with the head in profile, the shoulders in front view, and 
the legs and feet in side view, both feet planted squarely 
on the ground, one behind the other. 

Besides the classes of ornament above described, there 
is the important category of architectural ornament. 
This consists largely of conventionalized Nature-forms, 
with only a comparatively limited list of really structural 
motives. 

General Character. 

Egyptian ornament is characterized by a certain 
rigidity and formality of character, which permitted of 
only a very slow and gradual evolution ; there is no such 
marked change of style, previous at least to the Ptole- 
maic age, as marks for instance the development of 
Greek or of Gothic ornament. But there is an ex- 
traordinary variety of detail in the treatment of a some- 
what limited stock of fundamental motives. It is pre- 
dominantly an art of surface-decoration by color: the 
range of structural and architectural forms is very 
narrow. Color was largely depended upon for the 
decoration of buildings as well as of movable objects, 
and color was used with admirable judgment for decora- 
tive effects. The colors chiefly used were red, yellow, 
blue and green, with black and white occasionally as 
foils; these colors are seldom the pure colors of the 
spectrum or their nearest pigment analogies, but "re- 
duced" tones or shades, the red verging towards the red- 
brown; the yellow a warm tone such as is produced by 
tinging yellow ochre with burnt-sienna; the blue com- 
monly of a dark shade, the green ranging from a sap- 

39 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

green to a dark olive. There are of course exceptions, 
especially in enamels and glass, but they only emphasize 
the prevailing sobriety and richness of the color in other 
works. The use of gold in decoration was very sparing. 



Nature Forms. 

Both plant and animal forms were used in Egyptian 
ornament. The animal forms chiefly the vulture or 
hawk, and the urasus or cobra, together with wings 
and feathers were almost invariably religious or sym- 
bolic. So also was probably the lotus and perhaps also 
the papyrus among vegetable forms ; most of the other 
plants and flowers that occur seem to have been used 
for purely decorative reasons. 

The Lotus. 

This has been called the sacred flower 4 of Egypt 
(Figure 36) ; it was the largest and most beautiful of 
flowers known to that land, and figured prominently in 
both royal and religious ceremonies. As a product of 
the life-giving, wealth-bestowing Nile it was symbolic 
both of that river and of the solar divinities which ruled 
the river's inundations and imparted to it its fertility 
and life-renewing powers. It is shown in the hands of 
kings and gods ; laid as an offering on altars and tied to 
the tops of posts and columns. It figures in the capitals 
of columns and is made the basis of endlessly varied 
borders and all-over patterns. Professor Goodyear in 

* Flinders Petrie, however, denies its sacred and symbolic significance 
("Egyptian Decorative Art," page 106). 

40 



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT 

his "Grammar of the Lotus" has endeavored to prove 
that all Egyptian ornament is based on the lotus and that 
since all classic ornament can be traced back ultimately 
to Egypt, and most later styles to the classic, the lotus 
must be considered to be the parent of nearly all historic 
ornament. This is surely carrying the thesis too far, 
but it is undeniable that a very considerable part of 
Egyptian ornament is of lotus origin, while many forms 
not lotuses at all, converged towards the lotus type, so 
that the lotus influence is traceable far beyond the area 
of actual lotus derivations. 

The Egyptian lotuses used in decoration were the 
nymphcea lotus and the nymphcea cerulcea respec- 
tively the white and blue lotus. The rose lotus (nelum- 
bium) was probably not known till a late date. The 
Nile lotus is a large water-lily, with four green sepals 
and a corolla of white or blue petals surrounding the 
yellow central group of stamens and pistils (Figure 
36, a). It was represented usually in side-elevation, 
showing three sepals and usually six petals. The bud 
was shown with only two sepals visible, and sometimes 
with no division of sepals at all. The outline of the 
open flower was either trumpet-shaped, bell-shaped or 
rectilinear. A derived form was the trilobe, in which 
the petals were omitted, and the two lateral sepals curled 
over into volutes; but by a decorative inconsistency, a 
second set of sepals frequently adorned the trilobe 
(Fig. 37, c f e). 

As a border ornament, the lotus was alternated with 
the bud, usually in a pendant position, perhaps in imi- 

41 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

tation of, or convergence towards, fringes of tassels; 
and with these alternating forms were combined round 
dots, loops and other details whose meaning is not ob- 
vious (Figure 38). In late work the lotus-bud is often 
replaced by bunches of grapes or by nondescript forms 
generally recalling the oval outline of the bud ( Figures 
38, 39). 

The lotus was also frequently used as an isolated 




e 

FIG. 37. LOTUS FORMS; a, FULL FLOWER; b-e, TRILOBE FORMS. 

motive, as on paddles, vases and other objects; and as 
a terminal ornament, e.g., to adorn the prow or stern 
of a boat (Figure 36, c), or to form the capital of a 
column (Plate III, 10, 19). Many writers consider 
Egyptian rosettes in general to be representations in 
plan of the open lotus, or even of the seed vessel of the 
flower, but Flinders-Petrie has shown 5 that many 
rosettes are plainly representations of other flowers, and 
that others are probably of technic origin. Some 
rosettes are, however, unmistakably lotus rosettes 
(Figure 40, page 47) . 

The lotus figures in many all-over patterns in associa- 
tion with the spiral (Figure 41, page 47). The archi- 
tectural uses of the lotus are discussed later. 

6 "Egyptian Decorative Art," page 58. 

42 



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT 




FIG. 42. THE PAPYRUS 
IN NATURE. 



Other Plant Forms. 

The papyrus (Fig. 42) is the most important of 
these. Its straight, stiff triangular 
stem with four root-leaves wrapping 
its slightly swelling base, is imitated 
in the clustered shafts of many col- 
umns (Plate III, 11), and painted 
as a decoration on walls and on bell- 
capitals, often alternating with con- 
ventional lotuses (Figures 43, 45, 
Fig. 46 ) . The stem bears a bunch of 
tiny flowers, forming with their 
stems a group of green filaments 
with reddish tops, growing out of a calyx of four leaves 

or bracts. These supply the 
suggestion for many bell-shaped 
forms in ornament (Figure 
47), including the great cam- 
paniform capitals of huge col- 
umns like those of the Karnak 
hypostyle hall (Figure &3; 
Plate III, 10 ). 6 

The daisy, convolvulus, 
grapes, and thistle occur in 
ornament; also other plant forms not always recogniz- 
able. Many rosette and leaf forms are probably mere 
conventional ornament types, not intended to portray 
particular plants. The spiked ornament of Figure 44 

In the "Grammar of the Lotus," Prof. Goodyear claims as lotus-forms a 
host of ornament motives and pictorial representations plainly derived from 
the papyrus. There are, it is true, many forms in which, by convergence, the 
two types are blended in one. 

43 




Fro. 46. CAMPANIFORM CAP- 
ITAL, KAKNAK. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

is identified by Flinders-Petrie as well as Goodyear, as 
a lotus with the central sepal exaggerated. This does 
not seem convincing: it is too persistent and uniform 
a motive in late art, and too unlike the lotus to warrant 
this explanation without strong proof, and may repre- 
sent some aquatic plant not now existent in the Nile 
valley. The palm appears in capitals during and after 
the XVIIIth dynasty, and is frequent in Ptolemaic and 
Roman work (Fig. 64, c, page 50; Plate III, 17). 

Animal Forms. 

The vulture, with widespread wings, symbolizing pro- 
tection and maternal care, is a frequent and a splendid 
decoration of temple ceilings, and appears in many 
other applications (Figure 57; Plate III, 20, 23) . The 
wings alone, with the sun-disk significant of Ra, are 
still more frequent, especially over the gateways or 
entrances of temples (Figure 58). The urceus or 
cobra is a symbol of death, hence of the royal power of 
life and death, and hence of royalty itself. It decorates 
the winged disk (Figure 58), the royal head-dress, and 
the cornices of certain buildings; especially in the 
Ptolemaic age, of the front screen- walls of the hypostyle 
halls (Figure 59). The scarabceus or 
beetle is rarely a purely ornamental mo- 
tive, but appears isolated on mummy- 
cases and elsewhere, as a symbol of crea- 
tion and life, and was the commonest of 
amulets (Fig. 53). It is occasionally 
FIG. 53. Scara- found in late all-overs, as in Plate III A. 
The head of Hathor was used as a sym- 

44 




bceus Amulet 
(Reverse). 




61. ZIGZAGS ; b, 
IMBRICATIONS; c, CHEV- 
RONS. 



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT 

bolic decoration on columns, especially in the Ptolemaic 
age (Plate III, 9) . The sphinx, a symbolic compound 
of lion's body with human head (an- 
drosphinx) or a sculptured ram 
(criosphinx) , was employed to line 
the dromos or avenue leading to a 
temple, and is occasionally found 
executed in bronze, basalt or diorite, 
of small size, perhaps as an amulet. 
But the sphinx belongs rather to 
sculpture than to ornament. Feath- 
ers appear not only in representa- FIG 
tions of great fans or royal insignia, 
but in the form of scale-like ornament 
or imbrications (Fig. 61, b; Plate III, 21, 22), which 
may be derived from the actual use of feathers in cloth- 
ing. Figure 60 may represent fans, or highly conven- 
tional lotus forms. 

Conventional or Geometric Motives. 

These are of the greatest variety, and are used with 
consummate skill, sometimes alone, very often in com- 
bination with flower-forms, especially the lotus. Fig. 
61 a illustrates one of many effective examples of the 
decorative use of simple straight lines. The zigzag 
occurs with great frequency; it is used often to repre- 
sent water on the Nile, but may not always have had this 
significance. Associated with the zigzag is the chevron 
(Fig. 61, c). Opposed zigzags produce lozenges or 
diamonds, and occur in simple all-over patterns (Figure 
50). It is quite likely that all these are primarily of 

45 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

technic origin, from basketwork and weaving. Plaids 
and check-patterns are undoubtedly technomorphs. In 
the tombs of Ti and of Ptah Hotep at Sakkarah, mat- 
tings of plaited rushes or straw are plainly represented 
as filling the panels of the walls, with patterns of great 
variety in checks, quarries and zigzags. 

The circle was the basis of a great number of patterns, 
and intersecting circles forming four-petaled flowers or 
stars are very common (Figure 52; Plate III, 16, 18). 
Rosettes are found in unlimited variety. It is impos- 
sible to affirm in every case whether they are purely 
geometric and conventional, or floral, or technomor- 
phic: nor is their origin important except as affecting 
theories of esthetics and psychology. In many designs 
they are clearly floral: a beautiful rosette is formed by 
four spreading lotuses alternating with lotus buds about 
a common center (Figure 40). 

The spiral, though not as important in Egyptian 
ornament as later it became in Greek art, was much used 
both in linear and all-over patterns. Its earliest occur- 
rence is on scarabs or seals of the very early dynasties, 
where it appears merely as a decorative space-filler 
(Fig. 53) or border. It is not frequent on large ob- 
jects until the XVIIIth dynasty; it is one of the com- 
monest decorative motives thenceforward until the 
Decline. It appears occasionally as a current scroll or 
"Greek wave" (Figure 51). Its most frequent use 
is in all-over patterns on textiles (or painted represen- 
tations of them) , and on ceilings in the tombs. Quarries 
are formed by four (rarely three) lines winding spirally 
about each of a series of dots arranged in diagonally 

46 



6 
Fig.36 C 

aNduraLb.cCo\/e,niionaIheJ 



FigJlLduaSpirah FigJS. Belt Capital .with 
fopyrus Decoration 



? r&rr. ^ 

Conventional Rjfyms 



Fiq.57.Fbinked Vulture 



Fig-62. "Typical Cornke 



Winged DiskorGhbe. 




A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

intersecting rows. The angles are often filled with 
lotus-blossoms, and the quadrilateral spaces with ro- 
settes, lozenges or other motives (Figures 41, 48; Plate 
III, 7, 8) . A variant pattern is formed by series of C- 
shaped links or volutes in horizontal and vertical pairs. 
Another variant is seen in patterns of opposed vertical 
rows of S-scrolls forming lyre-shaped spaces as in 
Figure 41 and Plate III, 8. 

Fret patterns are the angular or rectilinear counter- 
parts of spiral patterns, though the quadruple con- 
vergence on the points of a mesh is rare (Figure 49, 
which is the counterpart of Figure 48). The fret is 
but rarely met with as a border-pattern. It will be 
noted that the pattern in Figure 49 is formed by two 
intersecting line-motives, and that it produces a series 
of "swastikas." There is no evidence, however, that the 
swastika, as a separate motive or as a symbol was used 
or even known in Egypt. Its occurrence in these pat- 
terns is purely fortuitous (Plate III, 12, 14). 

The Palmette. 

This is the name given to an ornament which occurs 
in Egyptian, Assyrian, Phenician, Cypriote and Greek 
art, in almost countless variations, and of which the 
Greek anthemion is the direct derivative. It consists 
(Figures 54, 55, 56) of a group of diverging leaves or 
petals springing from between two spirals; it is pre- 
dominantly used as an isolated or terminal motive in 
Egyptian art. An early example is a gold jewel from 
the IVth dynasty (Figure 55, a) ; later examples are 
shown in Figures 55, b, 56. The origin and significance 

48 



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT 

of this ornament are not fully determined. All author- 
ities agree that it is a lotus-motive, but how the particular 
combination of a species of semi-rosette with a trilobe 
lotus came about and what it meant are not wholly clear. 
One theory makes it a half -plan of the flower above an 
elevation of the same 7 (see ante, Fig. 35); another 
sees in it the symbol of the rising sun or Horus, over the 
lotus or Nile. The spiked flower-motive in Figure 44 
may perhaps be a variation of the palmette rather than 
of the lotus or of an unknown aquatic plant. It is not 
to be confounded with representations of ceremonial 
royal fans, though somewhat resembling them. Pecu- 
liar horn-like volutes in some examples (Figure 60) are 
probably representations of the third and fourth sepals 
of the lotus-calyx. The oval or semicircular object 
nesting between the voluted front sepals is probably the 
core-body or pericarp of the flower seen between its 
sepals; it becomes an essential feature of all the later 
and derivative forms persisting through Greek art and, 
indeed, through all the ages to our own. 

Architectural Forms: Piers, Columns and Cornices. 

The architectural forms of Egyptian ornament were 
comparatively few and simple. There was no system 
of uniform orders like the Greek and Roman; but one 
type of cornice, the cavetto cornice, was universal 
(Figure 62; Plate III, 9, 11) . This was usually orna- 
mented with vertical flutings, perhaps as reminiscences 
of primitive papyrus-stalk framing, and with a torus at 

7 F. P., op. cit., page 70; also Goodyear, "Grammar of the Lotus," pas- 
sim, 

49 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 




FIG. 63. TYPES OF COLUMNS. 



its base, plainly derived from a bundle of reeds bound 
together. This torus was frequently carried down 
the corners of pylons and other enclosing walls. A 

winged disk invariably 
adorned the central 
part of the cornice 
over all temple door- 
ways (Fig. 58). 

Columns had shafts 
of three types: the 
circular or cylindrical, 
the clustered, and the 
polygonal or proto- 
doric (Plate III, 10, 11; Fig. 63, a, b, c). The fisrt 
two tapered upward in most cases, and sometimes had 
a slight swelling or convexity at the base (Fig. 63, d). 
The clustered shafts consisted of four or eight members 
(or rarely even more), which were sometimes cylindri- 
cal, sometimes formed with an arris or edge (Fig. 
63, d). The so-called "proto-doric" columns had from 
eight to thirty-two sides, flat or slightly concaved; they 
are chiefly found in rock-cut tombs and a few scanty 
temple-ruins of the Middle Empire (Fig. 63, c). 

The Capitals of columns 
were of the greatest variety, 
but divisible into a few main 
groups: the bud capital, 
single or clustered (Fig. 63, 
a, b; Plate III, 11); the 
bell-shaped or campaniform, 




FIG. 64. 



single or compound 
(Fig. 64, a, b; also Figure 46 and Figure 43; Plate 

50 



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT 

III, 9, 10) ; the palmiform (Fig. 64, c; Plate III, 17) ; 
and the Hathoric (Plate III, 9) . The bud-capital was 
the most common; the campaniform appears chiefly in 
the central aisles of hypostyle halls, as at Karnak and the 
Ramesseum ; the compound campaniform, the palmiform 
and the Hathoric belong chiefly to the Ptolemaic age, 
which produced also various exceptional forms of which 
those in Plate III, 15 and 19 are ex- 
amples. The bell capital was adorned 
with painted petals around its lower 
part, and with rows of flowers on erect 
green stalks. These are apparently 
survivals or elaborations of the green 
filaments of the papyrus-head from 
which this type of capital is probably 
derived 8 (Figures 43, 45, 47; Fig. 46; 
Plate III, 10). Indeed, many other 
features of the Egyptian columns point 
to the influence of papyrus origins. 
Every shaft, even when cylindrical, is 
bound by five or more bands at the top, 
a detail evidently derived from the bind- 
ing of clustered supports such as 
bundles of papyrus stalks ; the clustered 
shafts often have an edge or arris, like the triangular 
stem of the papyrus; the slight swelling at the base, 
swathed in leaves, with the upward taper, is a marked 
characteristic of the papyrus stalk (see Fig. 42) ; the 

s Prof. Goodyear in his "Grammar of the Lotus" and elsewhere sharply dis- 
putes this view, contending that this capital is derived from the seed-vessel 
of the rose-lotus. His authority is weighty, but his arguments not convinc- 
ing. See ante, page 43, Note. 

51 




FIG. 65. OSIRID 
PIER, LUXOR. 



bound stalks of the bundle-molding plainly point to the 
structural use of papyrus stalks in primitive times ; and 
the bell-shaped cap, striped with green vertical lines 
rising from a calyx of leaves, and with its red lip, is the 
appropriate architectural interpretation in stone of the 
spreading papyrus-head of green filaments rising from 
a pseudo-calyx of leaves, and bearing small reddish tops 
or heads. The combination of all these features is more 
easily and naturally explained by the papyrus origin 
than by any other theory. But there is probably con- 
vergence towards familiar lotus-types: it is always 
dangerous to attempt any narrow and exclusive assign- 
ment of origins to decorative forms. 

The shafts of simple cylindrical columns were gen- 
erally covered with bands of incised and painted 
hieroglyphics and pictures, serving both to adorn them 
and to give scale to their simple masses (Plate III, 10) . 

Osirid Piers. 

Besides the columns there occur in several temples 
square or rectangular piers, often fronted with colossal 

sculptured figures of Osirid 
holding a scourge and a 
"Nile key" or "key of life" 
(Fig. 65). 




FIG. 66. 



PAINTED PECTORAL ON A 
MUMMY-CASE. 



Industrial Arts. 

The Egyptians practised 
the arts of the goldsmith 
and jeweler; not only have we in our museums gold 
jewelry of very great antiquity rings, bracelets, pen- 

52 



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT 

dants, brooches and necklaces (Figures 55, a, 56; but 
we have on mummy-cases and in pictures representa- 
tions of necklaces and pectorals of great 
splendor (Figure 66) . In all these the 
lotus, bud, and palmette are constantly 
recurring motives. The art of enamel- 
ing was understood and practised with 
skill, especially for amulets. Glass was 
known, was used for vials and small ob- 
jects, and was highly prized. Small 
objects like spoons and perfume-boxes 
were carved in wood, often in highly 
artistic designs (Fig. 67; Plate III, 
25 ) . Textile art was highly developed, 
linen being the chief material. The 
figured stuffs, hangings, etc., have per- 
ished, but the tomb paintings show us 
the designs once employed: some of 
these have already been illustrated 
(Figures 41, 48, 52; Plate III, 6-8, 
12-14. Pottery and earthenware were 
produced in large quantities, and were 
articles of export, but the product did not compare 
either in grace of form or in decoration with the later 
ceramic work of the Greeks. Enameled earthenware 
was used for the finer bowls, platters, etc., and enameled 
tiles were early used in architecture, as around a door 
in the stepped pyramid of Sakkarah, but apparently not 
in buildings after the Hyksos period. Amulets and 
small ornaments were made of enameled earthenware, of 
cloisonne enamel on metal (gold or copper), of bronze, 

53 




FIG. 67. CARVED 
WOODEN SPOON. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

and of diorite and other hard stones. Of these amulets 
the scarabcei are the most numerous; one side being 
modeled to represent the scarabseus beetle (an emblem 
of life after death), the other side, flat, having incised 
hieroglyphs and spiral or scroll ornaments. 

Not much furniture has been preserved, but the few 
extant examples, of sycamore wood, and the very numer- 
ous sarcophagi and mummy-wraps and cartonnages, 
furnish almost countless examples of painted ornament. 
Carved spoons and perfume holders were often highly 
elaborate (Fig. 67; Plate III, 25) . 

Books Recommended: 

FLJNDERS-PETRIE : Egyptian Decorative Art (London, 1895). 
W. H. GOODYEAR: Grammar of the Lotus (London, 1891). 
PERROT and CHIPIEZ: Histoire de Tart dans Vantiquite: Egypte 
(Paris, 1884) ; also English edition, History of Ancient Art in 
Egypt, trans. W. Armstrong (New York, 1885). PRISSE 
D'AVENNES: L 'Art Egyptien (Paris, 1878). ROSELLINI: 
/ Monumenti del E git to e delta Nubia (Pisa, 1832-1844). 



CHAPTER IV 

CHALDEA AND ASSYRIA 

The valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers was 
the cradle of a civilization second only to that of Egypt 
in antiquity. Indeed, it is believed by some scholars to 
reach as far back as that of the Nile Valley, though its 
origins are buried in obscurity. The two civilizations 
early came into contact with each other, and there are 
traces of reciprocal influences between them. The 
material remains of Chaldean art are far less rich and 
important than those of Egyptian art, and the most 
important among them, from the point of view of deco- 
rative design, belong to a period when Egyptian art was 
already in its decline. Early Chaldean art lasted from 
a date reaching back 3000 or 4000 years B.C. to 1250 B.C., 
when the Assyrian power attained the ascendancy. The 
Assyrian empire was overthrown 606 B.C. by the second 
Chaldean or Babylonian empire, and this in turn suc- 
cumbed to the Persians 525 B.C. The most important 
monumental art of these three periods is that of the 
Sargonidae of Assyria, from 900 to 606 B.C. Recent 
excavations by the Germans at Babylon have brought 
to light many remains of both the earlier and later 
Chaldean empire : but our chief concern is with the prod- 
ucts of the Assyrian dominion. 

55 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Land and Materials. 

From the high table-lands and hills of Northern 
Mesopotamia to the Persian Gulf, the country is almost 
flat, a vast alluvial plain, abounding in clay, extremely 
fertile under irrigation, but lacking both stone and 
timber. All building was consequently of brick, either 
sun-baked or kiln-burned, and chiefly the former. 
Timber from the distant mountains or from Syria was 
costly and was used but sparingly; fuel was expensive 
and burned brick therefore also expensive. Thin slabs 
of alabaster or of limestone were the only forms in 
which stone could be used, except in rare instances. 
These limitations made all architectural art based on 
stone construction impossible, and confined decorative 
art within narrow limits. Ceramics in the form of bricks 
and enameled tiles and pottery ; textiles, especially rugs 
and hangings, and bronze in small amounts, were the 
principal media of artistic expression, although sculp- 
ture, chiefly in the form of carving in low relief on 
alabaster, was also practised with a skill which is re- 
markable when one considers the scarcity and costliness 
of stone. Of wood carving there are hardly any ex- 
amples. 

Early Chaldean Art. 

The remains of decorative art from ancient Chaldea 
are not numerous. Abundant cylinders and inscribed 
bricks, ruins of temples and palaces, a few statues of 
kings or deities carved in stone obtained from abroad, 
some pottery and a few objects in bronze, make up the 

56 



CHALDEA AND ASSYRIA 

bulk of the product of the excavations carried on in 
Niffer (Nippur) the sacred city, in Warka, Mugheir, in 
Babylon, and in 
other places be- 
longing to this em- 
pire, 
arts 



The plastic 
were appar- 
ently not in gen- 
eral highly devel- 
oped. The most 
ancient examples 
of its architectural 
ornament known 
are the walls of 
Warka (Erech), 
formed with ver- 
tical reedings and 
panels, and covered with a simple mosaic (Fig. 68) 
formed of cones of terra cotta driven into their sun-dried 
brick facings. The flat exposed bases of these cones, 
enameled in various colors, form patterns of lozenges 
and zigzags, apparently derived from familiar mattting- 
patterns. Flat tiles may have been used in other cases, 
but they have all perished. 

Assyrian Ornament: Origins and Motives. 

Assyrian decoration depended largely on naturalistic 
representation: human figures, bulls, lions and other 
animals appear frequently, not merely in the great 
sculptured pictures on the alabaster wainscot of palace 
halls, but in the subordinate decoration of buildings and 

57 




FIG. 68. WALL-MOSAIC, WARKA. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

in the ornament of minor objects. There was also a 
large group of motives derived from Egyptian art, 
greatly modified oftentimes in treatment but still recog- 




Fio. 69. ASSYRIAN ORXAMENT MOTIVES. 

nizably Egyptian. Another class of motives are in 
dispute, but two facts seem clear: first, that the As- 
syrians originated little in the way of decorative motives ; 
and, secondly, that whatever they borrowed underwent a 
transformation into something that is purely Assyrian 
in character. 

The lotus (Fig. 69, a); lotus-palmette (&), and 

58 



CHALDEA AND ASSYRIA 

winged disk or globe (e) are undeniably derived from 
Egypt- Tne rosette (Fig. 69, c) and the guilloche (/) 
are common to both Egyptian and Assyrian ornament, 
but it is not demonstrated that they were not indepen- 
dently invented by the Chaldeans from whom the As- 
syrians probably received them. 

The chevron (Fig. 69, g) and imbricated or scale 
ornaments (d) are peculiarly Assyrian, but as they are 
also found in Egyptian art, they belong with the rosette 
and guilloche in the doubtful class as to origin. The 
so-called "pomegranate" (Fig. 69, h, i) is probably 
Chaldean. The pine cone (Fig. 70, a) is an Assyrian 
form, but as it conforms in outline and in its occurrence 
to the lotus-bud, it may be claimed as a lotus derivative. 
The stepped-pyramid, used as a parapet ornament, 
seems to be purely Chaldean. 

But if the Assyrians borrowed freely from Egypt l 
they as freely modified what they borrowed. The lotus 
was carved in low relief with sharply pointed, gracefully 
curved petals and sepals (Figs. 69, a, 70, a), and was 
given a wholly new calyx, the three sepals being evi- 
dently looked upon as petals ; the bud was likewise given 
an extra calyx and carved sometimes with three instead 
of two sepals showing (Fig. 70, b). It was alternated 
with buds and with pine-cones, and combined into elab- 

i Prof. Goodyear quotes Oppert for proof that under Gudea (3000 B. c.?), 
the Chaldeans imported stone from Egypt during the Fourth Dynasty; 
points out that under the XVIIIth Dynasty Assyria was a province of 
Egypt, and calls attention to the later Assyrian conquests in Egypt and 
Syria and to the importance of Phenician commerce between Assyria and 
both Egypt and Syria ("Grammar of the Lotus," page 177, note). It must 
be remembered that the Phenicians not only carried Egyptian products to 
Asia, but themselves counterfeited or imitated them, so that Egyptian 
forms and motives were greatly multiplied and widely disseminated. 

59 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 




orate rosettes (Plate IV, 8). The lotus-palmette 
(Fig. 69, b) was often substituted for the lotus (Plate 
IV, 1) and used in borders; as an isolated terminal 

ornament (Fig. 72, a) ; 
as the chief detail of the 
Sacred Tree (Fig. 70, 
c; Plate IV, 2), and 
in many other ways, 
carved in alabaster-re- 
lief, painted on plaster, 
enameled on bricks, cast 
or engraved in bronze. 
In all borders, the units 
were connected by vo- 
luted bands, often curved 
into semi-circles or semi- 
ellipses (Figs. 69, a, 70) 
and frequently fastened 
together by links. This 
is a purely Assyrian de- 
vice, and the organic link- 
ing of the units no 
longer merely strung along a straight line as in 
most Egyptian examples marks a decided decora- 
tive advance. Whether the frequent use of branch- 
ing and opposed double volutes (Fig. 71), so com- 
mon in Assyrian decoration, was derived from the vo- 
lutes of the Egyptian trilobe lotus and lotus-palmette, 
or from the curled-over ends of the linked bands, is not 
clear and perhaps not important. The discussion as to 
whether the palmette in Assyrian art "is" a lotus or a 

60 




FIG. 70. a, b. PINE 
BORDER; c, DETAIL 
TREE. 



AND LOTUS 
OF SACRED 



CHALDEA AND ASSYRIA 

palm-tree also becomes unimportant if one simply ad- 
mits that the decorative motive was derived from or 
suggested by the Egyptian lotus-palmette, but was 
treated in detail by the Assyrians in a manner plainly 
suggesting a conventional palm-tree 
(Fig. 72) ; an example of decora- 
tive convergence which has scores of 
parallels in the history of ornament 
motives and symbols. In the sin- 
gular "sacred tree" which so often 
occurs in Assyrian reliefs (Fig. 70, 
c), the intention is unquestionably 
to represent or symbolize the palm; 
in that sense the palmettes which 
compose it "are" palm-tree forms, 
while in decorative type and origin 
they "are" lotus-palmettes. The 
so-called pine-cones referred to 
above may represent, as believed by 
E. B. Tylor, the inflorescence of the 
male date-palm, or it may be what it 
appears to be, a pine-cone. 

The rosette is used with such frequency as to deserve 
to be called the Assyrian motive par excellence. It ap- 
pears in every branch of Assyrian decoration, and in 
every possible material. The pomegranate is more 
exclusively Assyrian but less conspicuous by its fre- 
quency. All-over patterns are rare ; of architectural or 
at least of genuine structural forms there are very few. 
Columns appear only in the form of colonnettes; a few 
bases and capitals have been found, and the reliefs from 

61 




FIG. 71. ASSYRIAN VO- 
LUTES. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

the palaces show how they were used, as mullions and as 
supports for pavilions. In these, as also in furniture, 
coupled volutes are favorite devices, and undoubtedly 

furnish the first step in the de- 
velopment of the Ionic capital 
(Fig. 71). 

Living Forms. 

The human figure, grotesques 
or monsters, part man and part 
beast, and representations of 
animals, all play a large part in 
Assyrian decorative art; not 
merely in the great pictures in 
low relief which wainscoted the 
lower parts of the interior walls, 
but in more purely ornamental 

FIG. 72. a, TERMINAL PALM- and symbolic compositions, 
; b, PALM-TREE, FROM sometimes carved in relief in ala- 




baster, sometimes in flat color on 

tiles or plaster. The huge symbolic "portal guardians" 
winged monsters with human heads and bodies of 
bulls that flanked the arched gateways of the palaces 
and fortifications, are genuine decorative compositions 
of extraordinary power and remarkable execution. The 
details are highly conventionalized; five legs are shown, 
two appearing in front elevation and four in the side 
view; the hair and beard are curled into closely coiled 
spirals and the muscles exaggerated (Plate IV, 7). 
The winged lion and winged bull, as well as winged 
human figures representing deities, appear frequently 

62 



CHALDEA AND ASSYRIA 

in enameled earthenware tiles. The griffin (Fig. 73), 
a monster with a lion's or panther's body and the head 
and wings of an eagle, plays an important part in this 
decorative system of religious symbolism. It probably 
originated in Chaldea, and spread thence through West- 
ern Asia, to appear in Greek and Roman art in later 




FIG. 73. GRIFFIN OR MONSTER, FROM A RELIEF. 

years. In naturalistic pictures the forms and action 
of animals were rendered often with surprising realism ; 
but these belong in the field of pictorial relief sculpture 
rather than of ornament. 

Colors and Technic. 

The Assyrian technic in the representation of nature 
never fell into the absolute rigidity of hieratic conven- 
tion observed in Egypt. Within its far narrower field, 
it was excellent in execution, but less rich in variety of 
motive and pattern of ornament. The gamut of color 
was restricted: green, blue, yellow, black and dark red 
were the colors chiefly employed. The use of black in 

63 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

chevrons as a detail of the decoration is particularly 
noticeable (Fig. 69, b, c, g, h). Not many examples 
of painted ornament have been preserved; a few frag- 
ments of plaster show patterns like those of the enameled 
tiles. Bronze was used for jars and bowls, for furni- 
ture and probably also for covering gates and some- 
times other architectural features; but very few ex- 
amples of this application of bronze to architecture have 
been preserved. The gates of Balawat in the British 
Museum, dating from the time of Shalmaneser II (9th 
century B.C.) were decorated with strips or bands of 
sheet bronze bearing repousse reliefs of the campaigns 
of that king. The recent German excavations in Baby- 
lon have uncovered the palace with its Gate of Ishtar, 
whose towers were adorned with plates of bronze which 
have disappeared. In these excavations it was also 
found that the Babylonians, lacking stone and alabaster, 
faced their gateways with enameled bricks bearing large 
compositions in color, each brick being separately 
molded and colored to produce its own small fraction of 
the design. This style of decoration was later adopted 
in Persia: it is probable that Babylonian artists were 
imported to Susa to execute the Persian bricks and to 
teach the art to the Persians, among whom decorative 
ceramics have been an important art ever since. 

Books Recommended. 

BOTTA and FLANDIN.: Monument de Ninive (Paris, 1849-50). 
PERROT and CHIPIEZ: Histoire de I'art dans Vantiquite: Clial- 
dee et Assyr'ie (Paris, 1883); also English translation by W. 
Armstrong, History of Art in Chaldcea and Assyria (London, 
1884). PLACE: Ninive et VAssyrie (Paris, 1867-70). 

64 



CHAPTER V 

WEST ASIATIC ORNAMENT 
PHRYGIA, LYDIA AND PERSIA 

The northern half of Asia Minor, west of the river 
Halys, was occupied, during the centuries from the 
tenth to the sixth B.C., by the Phrygians, originally from 







Fio. 74. a, PART OP FACADE OF "TOMB OF MIDAS"; b, DETAIL FBOM TOMB AT 

DOGHANLOU. 

Thrace ; whose empire was overthrown early in the sixth 
century by the Lydians of the extreme western littoral. 
Along the Asiatic shore south of Lydia were the Gary- 
ans and Lycians. In all of these several domains there 

65 




Fio. 75. CAPITAL FROM 
NEANDBEIA. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

developed a material civilization which has left numer- 
ous remains, chiefly of tombs, though excavations now 
being made at Sardis and others that are still in the 
future may supply us with products of other arts as well 

as of architecture. The prin- 
cipal examples of ornament thus 
far to hand occur in the rock-cut 
tomb-fa9ades, some of which, 
like the so-called Tomb of Midas 
(Fig. 74, a) and a tomb at 
Doghanlou (b) suggest textile 
design. This region has from 
great antiquity been noted for 
the weaving of rugs; other ornaments are clearly de- 
rived from wood-construction, while others again show 
Assyrian, Persian and ^Egean influences. 

Several capitals and fragments of capitals (Fig. 
75) found in Asia Minor, with branching volutes and 
with recurved petals, furnish the probable prototypes of 
the Greek Ionic capital and of certain details of the 
Persian capitals. 

Persian Ornament. 

The art of Asia Minor bears no comparison in splen- 
dor and variety with that of the great Medo-Persian 
empire of the Achsemenid kings Cyrus, Cambyses, 
Darius, Xerxes and their successors. This empire, 
which began its conquering career in 608 under the 
Mede Cyaxares, and fifty years later attained greatness 
under Cyrus (559-529) and his successors, developed 
a grandiose architecture of palaces, halls, gates and 

66 



PHRYGIA, LYDIA AND PERSIA 

tombs in which Egyptian and Assyrian motives were 
blended with others derived from wooden construction 
and from the early art of the Ionian Greeks of Asia 
Minor. This brilliant and showy art expired with the 
fall of Persia before the Macedonian armies of Alex- 
ander (330 B.C.) ; but the art instinct of Persia, though 
under an eclipse for several centuries, was destined to 
revive under the Sassanian rule, and in still later cen- 
turies to affect profoundly the development of Moham- 
medan decorative art. 

Architectural Ornament. 

The ruins of Persepolis, Pasargadae and Susa reveal 
a remarkable develop- 
ment of columnar archi- 
tecture of stone with 
wooden ceilings and 
roofs. The walls were 
of stone, or of brick with 
stone dressings to the 
doors and windows. 
These have banded 
architraves with pa- 
pyrus-bundle moldings 
and cavetto cornices, 
evidently derived from 
Egypt (Figs. 76, 77, a). 
Stone was used for 

embankment walls and stairs, for the great palace 
terraces, for the window-dressings just mentioned, 
and for the columns; the walls were chiefly of sun- 

67 




FIG. 76. DOORWAY, PERSEPOLIS. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

dried brick, though at Susa enameled bricks were 
used with extraordinary effect, to produce huge wall- 
pictures in low rounded relief, and bands of elaborate 
decoration, all in rich colors enameled or fused upon 
the surface of the bricks (Plate IV, 14, 15). Decora- 
tive relief-sculpture in stone was employed, based 
primarily on Assyrian models, but treated in a taste 
peculiar to the Persians, and always highly decorative. 

The most striking feature of Persian architecture was 
the columns with forked capitals representing the fore 
parts of bulls set upon an elaborate composition of 
double scrolls, upright and inverted bells, and carved 
beads (Plate IV, 9, 10). These are typical of Persian 
eclecticism; one recognizes the Egyptian bell capital (see 
Fig. 46) ; the Assyrian and Phenician double scrolls 
(Fig. 71) ; the Asia Minor recurved leafage (note the 
astagal or necking in Fig. 75) ; and the primitive 
wooden forked post which has been used from im- 
memorial antiquity, in Media and Phrygia, to support 
the timber roofs of peasant huts. 

The shafts were finely fluted, and rested on elaborate 
molded bases, often bell-shaped (Fig. 77, d; Plate IV, 
9) carved with elaborate leaf -patterns. The slender 
proportions of the shafts, their small flutings and 
molded bases, all point to a common origin with that of 
the Greek Ionic column which came to its full develop- 
ment a century later than the Persian column. Both 
probably had their origin in Asia Minor, though the 
remains of their prototypes thus far discovered are 
scanty. 

The same is true of the banded architrave and the 

68 



PHRYGIA, LYDIA AND PERSIA 

dentils of the Ionic order; 
they are found both in Per- 
sian (see Fig. 77, a) and 
Lycian architecture, in 
both of which they plainly 
reveal their origin in tim- 
ber construction. 



Persian Ornament Motives. 

These were chiefly de- 
rived from Egypt and 
Mesopotamia ; the lotus, 
lotus-palmette and rosette 
are those most frequently 
employed, but treated with 
details which differentiate 
them clearly from the 
Egyptian, Assyrian or 
Chaldean forms. In linear 
bands of lotus-palmettes 
and buds the units are con- 
nected by nearly semicir- 
cular loops instead of the 
flattened links of the As- 
syrian style (Plate IV, 
14). Plate IV, 12, and 
Fig. 77, b, show the lotus 
palmette on a stem like that 
of some palms which grow 
by successive pairs of 
leaves rising one out of the 

69 





FIG. 77. 



d 

PERSIAV DETAILS. 



a, Architrave and Cornice from a 
Tomb; b, Rosettes and Palm; c, 
Stair Parapet; d, Column-Base, 
Persepolis. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

other; evidently, therefore, not intended at all for a 
lotus, but as a purely conventional plant- form, perhaps 
even a palm-tree. Spiral and voluted forms are also 
common, both in flat ornament (see Plate IV) and in 
the mighty grouped vertical volutes of the capitals of 
columns (Fig. 78). The Assyrian stepped parapet 
also appears in the decoration of the platforms and stairs 
of Persepolis (Fig. 77, c). From Egypt were de- 
rived the fluted cavetto cornice (Fig. 77, a) and the 
winged disk, converted into a winged ring encircling the 
figure of a god, Ahuri-Mazda (Fig. 79). The sculp- 
tural representations of warriors, winged lions and 
winged bulls were based on Assyrian prototypes. The 
wood-constructions of Media and Asia Minor gave the 

suggestions for the 
forked capital, the 
banded architrave and 
the dentil. The leaf 
ornaments on the bases 
(Fig. 77, d) and the 
shorter leaf-ornaments 
resembling eggs and 
darts (Fig. 77, c) are 
possibly remote deriva- 
tives from the lotus 
bud and from lotus 
bands ; more directly, 
however, derived from 

Fio. 78. VOLUTES OF A CAPITAL, Assyria, as is also the 

PERSEPOLIS. * 

stepped-pyramid para- 
pet. The bead-and-reel molding, which occurs in some 

70 




PHRYGIA, LYDIA AND PERSIA 

capitals, is possibly derived from the papyrus-bundle 
molding. The torus, which appears in the column bases, 
the bead-and-reel, the shaft-fluting, the decorated col- 
umn-base, the banded architrave, were all destined to be- 
come important elements in the architectural decoration 




FIG. 79. AHURI-MAZDA FROM A RELIEF. 

of the Greeks. Whether their origination is to be cred- 
ited to the Persians, or, as is more likely, to the Ionian 
and other races of Asia Minor, is not clear; but the Per- 
sian was the earliest developed architecture in which they 
were systematically employed. 

Persian ornament is of interest partly on account of 
its own splendor, partly on account of its relations on 
the one hand to the Semitic art of Mesopotamia and on 
the other to the Aryan art of Greece. It stands inter- 
mediate between the two, alike in time, place and char- 
acter. It is an eclectic style, borrowing freely from 
every source, but profoundly modifying whatever it 
adopted, and displaying a genuine creative originality, 
as well as a remarkable power of ingenious adaptation, 

71 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

in its use and development of what it borrowed to new 
purposes and in new combinations. 

Books Recommended, 

DIEULAFOY: UArt antique de la Perse (Paris, 1883). 
FELLOWS: Account of Discoveries in Lycia (London, 1841). 
FLANDIN and COSTE: Voyage en Perse (Paris, 184354). PER- 
ROT and CHIPIEZ: Histoire de Vart dans Vantiquite: Perse; 
Phrygie, Lydie, Carle et Lycie; Sardaigne et Judee (Paris, 
1885-1890). The same in English: History of Art in Persia; 
History of Art in Phrygia, Lydia, Caria and Lycia; History of 
Art in Sardinia and Judaea (London, 1886-1891). TEXIER: 
Description del* Armenie et la Perse (Paris, 1842-52). 



CHAPTER VI 

PRE-HELLENIC ORNAMENT 
AND ASIATIC 



Intermediate between the art of Egypt and Meso- 
potamia on the one hand, and the distinctively Occi- 
dental art of Greece on the other, stands the group of 
styles that developed in the islands and along the shores 
of the ^Bgean and the Mediterranean Seas during a 
period of thirteen to fifteen hundred years previous to 
the first Olympiad (776 B.C.). The cradle of the civi- 
lization represented by these styles was the island of 
Crete Crete "of the hundred cities," as it is called in the 
Homeric poems. The Cretan civilization, as made 
known to us by the discoveries of Evans and others at 
Knossos, Phaestos and in other parts of the island, 
beginning in a remote past in the third millennium B.C., 
had attained a high development by the end of the XXth 
century B.C., and reached its culmination in the XVIth 
and XVth centuries. This progress was interrupted 
by repeated catastrophes which mark its division into 
periods, 1 and was finally overwhelmed, about 1400 B.C., 
by a foreign invasion, perhaps of Pelasgi or Achaeans 
from Greece. 

i First, Middle and Late Minoan eras, each subdivided into periods. The 
name Minoan is derived from that of the more or less legendary King Minos. 

73 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

The influence of the Cretan culture which though 
contemporary with the Middle and New Empires in 
Egypt seems to have borrowed but little from that coun- 
try, dominated that of prehistoric Greece and Asia 
Minor. Out of this influence was developed the art of 
Mycenae, Tiryns and Troy (Ilios, Ilion), commonly 
called Mycenaean, which flourished from 1500 to 1300 
B.C., and after two centuries of decline was in turn ex- 
tinguished by the Dorian migration of 1104 B.C. Artis- 
tic activity, however, continued in certain islands like 
Melos and Rhodes, while Assyrian art was flourishing 
in Asia (1100-600 B.C.), and while the Phenicians were 
distributing and imitating the art-products of both 
Egypt and Assyria and making them known through- 
out the whole Mediterranean basin. On the island of 
Cyprus all these various currents of art-influence con- 
verged into a singularly mixed product, which partakes 
by turns of the characteristics of each of its components, 
and in its later phases also reflects the influence of early 
Greek art. 

Cretan Ornament. 

The excavations at Knossos, Phaastos, Hagia Triada 
and other Cretan sites have disclosed the remains of a 
well-developed civilization with an art vigorous and full 
of character, which strongly influenced that of the whole 
^Egean and eastern Mediterranean. Of its architecture 
nothing is left but foundations of extensive palaces and 
fortifications, fragments of a few columns and archi- 
traves, and bits of painted plastering on walls. The 
columns (Fig. 80) tapered downward and bore sim- 

n 




FIG. 80. 
COLUMN FHOM 

KNOSSOS. 



AEGEAN AND ASIATIC 

pie heavy torus capitals. A notable architectural mo- 
tive, frequently recurring in Mycenaean art, is that shown 

in Figure 81 (page 76) composed of a f *nF[| 

pair of semi-rosettes flanking a vertical 
rectangle. Its significance and origin are 
uncertain. On plaster and on pottery the 
circle, rosette and spiral wave or " Vitruvian 
scroll" are frequent, in various combina- 
tions (Figure 82) ; also a heart-shaped mo- 
tive which was carried into Mycensean 
decoration. The elaborate "key" or fret- 
pattern of Figure 83 is from a plastered 
wall at Knossos. 

Of Cretan pottery comparatively little 
has survived, but the elaborate late Minoan 
vase from Knossos shown in Fig. 84 reveals a highly 
developed pattern of conventional leaf -forms. Fig. 85 
from a sarcophagus found near Gortyna, shows a curi- 
ously conventionalized portrayal of marine plant-life. 
Figure 86 shows two all-over patterns from a large pot- 
tery ossuary; one resembles a common Egyptian pat- 
tern (see Figure 52) ; the other is peculiarly Cretan. 

The interior of the same ossuary 
is decorated with representations 
of waves, fishes and shells. 

Mycensean Ornament. 

The art-products of the My- 
cenaean culture include those 
from Tiryns, Troy, Argos, 
FIG. 84. LATE MINOAX VASE. Nauplia, Menidi and other sites, 

75 




Fig.81, Cretan Frieze Ornament 



Fig.85. Fret Rrttemfinossoa. 



Fig86.Cretari4//&verf : ltttern3 



Fiq SQ.JIanne. Life.Mycencean Fbttery 



Fig 94 Mycenaean Motives 




AEGEAN AND ASIATIC 

as well as from Mycenae proper, besides specimens 
found in Rhodes, Cyprus and other islands, which 
were obviously imported from Mycenaean centers. This 
culture was especially proficient in the minor arts, in 
pottery, goldsmith's work and bronze. It was less no- 
table relatively in its architecture, although the great 
tomb known as the Tholos of Atreus, and the Lion Gate, 
both at Mycenae, attest the power to produce a certain 
amount of architectural splendor. The ruins of Troy, 
Tiryns and Mycenae show extensive stone structures 
of a somewhat primitive character. Figure 87 shows 
the upper part of one of the columns of the Tholos door- 
way, with a capital and downward-tapering shaft evi- 
dently derived from Cretan prototypes. 

Of sculpture there is very little, no free statues having 
come down to us; but the so-called "island stones" or 
carved gems exhibit a high degree of artistic skill, and 
there are fragmentary reliefs showing intelligent study 
of nature. 

Mycenaean ornament displays many motives from 
Cretan art (e.g., that in Figure 89 from a frieze), and 
is itself continued in many works of Cypriote, Rhodian 
and Phenician art. Each has its own characteristic 
forms, but connected more or less by common motives. 
Pottery and metal work were the fields most success- 
fully cultivated, and the ruins of Tiryns have also re- 
vealed much clever decoration on plaster. Primarily 
growing out of Cretan art, Mycenaean ornament displays 
frequent traces of Egyptian influence, and in addition 
exhibits a considerable amount of indigenous design, 
both naturalistic and technomorphic. The example in 

77 




FIG. 91. MYCENAEAN POTTERY, SPIRALS. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Figure 88 shows pat- 
terns derived from 
basketry, singularly like 
many found on South 
American pottery ; while 
in Figure 90, a, b, c. and 
Fig. 97, the representa- 
tions of marine plants 
and animals reveal an 
instinct for the observa- 
tion and imitation of Nature, of which traces are found 
in Cretan art, and which later, in Greek art, flowered 
into the superb sculpture of the Periclean age. 

Besides the architectural forms already referred to, 
the motives characteristic of Mycenaean ornament are 
the zig-zag (Figure 87), spiral (Fig. 91); the run- 
ning scroll; a heart-shaped motive (Figure 94) perhaps 
converging towards the cuttlefish (Figure 92) ; the 
rosette, both carved and 
painted (see Figure 89) ; the 
double-branched volute recall- 
ing the lotus trilobe (Figure 
94, c) ; a peculiar variant of 
the guilloche (or the current 
scroll?) shown in Fig. 95, a 
and in the detail of Figure 89 ; 
and a number of unnamed mo- 
tives, e.g., the imbricated pat- 
tern from Tiryns in Figure 93. 
A somewhat similar motive in a linear repetition on 
vases, suggests an inverted egg-and-dart (Figure 95, b) . 

78 




Fio. 95. a, CURRENT SCROLL, 
TIRYNS; b, VASE ORNAMENT, 
MYCENAE. 



AND ASIATIC 



Figs. 96 and 97 show various Na- 

ture-forms, apparently derived 

from marine life ; Fig. 97 is a vase 

from lalyssos bearing a squid as its 

chief ornament. The cuttlefish 

squid, dolphin (?), and sea- weed 

are common, besides many forms 

like those in Figure 90, d, Figs. 

96 and 97, impossible to identify. 

On the so-called "Mycenae buttons" 

thin plates of gold stamped or 

repousse in low relief, appears the 

peculiarly Mycenaean motive of a 

band winding in and out around Fl - 9G - PLANT -FORMS, 

small eyes or round dots, with ex- 

cellent decorative effect (Fig. 98) . 

The lotus and the multiple scroll, so common in Egyp- 





Fio. 97. SQUIDS, ON MYCENAEAN VASES. 

tian decoration, appear frequently, as in a slab from a 
tomb-ceiling in Orchomenos, 2 in the band from a wall- 

2 Figured in P. & C., "Histoire de 1'Art"; Sturgis, "History of Architec- 
ture," vol. I, 125; Tarbell, "A History of Greek Art," page 55; Marquand, 
"Greek Architecture," page 155. 

79 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 




FIG. 



painting in Tiryns (Figure 99), the ornament from a 
Mycenaean sword shown in Figure 100, a, and the 
Mycenaean stele b. The spiral also ap- 
pears in other forms, as in Figure 101, 
page 81, on the base a and in the bronze 
work detail b ( from a tripod in Athens ; 
its Mycenaean origin is problematic). 
98. A MY- I* 1 Figure 103 we have rosettes from 
BUTTON. Tiryns and Mycenae obviously de- 
rived from Cretan prototypes like those in Figure 82. 
Figure 102 shows a Mycenaean double-rosette frieze 
ornament in alabaster very similar to the Tirynthian ex- 
ample of Figure 88, both being nearly identical with the 
Cretan example in Figure 81. Figures 104, 105 and 
107 exhibit other Mycenaean nature-forms. In Figure 
104, a is a common Mycenaean plant form (see also Fig. 
96) which it is interesting to compare with the Egyp- 
tian lotus-palmette b. 

Phenician Ornament. 

During the decline of ^Bgean art, from 1500 B.C. on, 
the Phenicians were developing 
and extending their commerce and 
industries. This presumably Sem- 
itic people, occupying a narrow 
strip of the Syrian coast, north of 
Palestine, were the mercantile car- 
riers of the ancient world, with 
prosperous colonies along the 
Mediterranean shores, of which Carthage became the 
chief. They were traders and imitators rather than 

80 




FIG. 99. PAINTKD WALL- 
PATTERN, TIRYNS. 



'igJOlM/ceiKeanSpirab a jtycen? Plant; 





FigJOffivmaPhenkianPhtler' 



fletail.5ilverCup. 



Figl08Phenkian:Silver 




Fig.ntCypnoteJ/vma 




Fig.H5.Cypriote Stele, 
Bronze. 



81 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

originators in art; they carried and exchanged, and 
freely counterfeited, Egyptian and Assyrian or 
Babylonian wares and stuffs. The detail from a silver 




a 



FIG. 100. MYCENAE SPIRAL ALL-OVERS; a, GOLD IKLAY oir 
SWORD; b, BRONZE STELE. 

platter in Figure 106 is plainly an imitation of Egyp- 
tian work. Sidon was for a long period under Egyp- 

I tian rule. The Phenicians were 
skilful weavers, dyers and bronze- 
workers. Solomon's temple at 
Jerusalem was largely of Pheni- 
cian workmanship, and the ac- 
counts in I Kings, vii, 13-45 and 
I Chronicles iii, 15-iv, 17 prove 
the Phenicians of 1000 B.C. to 
have been capable of cast- 
ing large objects of "brass" 
(bronze), such as the columns 
"Jachin" and "Boaz" and the 
huge "laver" borne on twelve oxen. 

Distinctive Phenician ornament motives are few. 

82 




FIG. 114. CYPRIOTE STONE 
STELE. 



AEGEAN AND ASIATIC 

The most characteristic is a species of palmette springing 

from the concave side of a voluted 
crescent (Figures 108, 109, a, c), 
derived from the Assyrian pal- 
mette with horns, converging with 
the Phenician crescent, symbol of 
the goddess Astarte. It persists 
into Greek art of the fifth century 
B.C. appearing as a vase band-mo- 




FIG. 115. CYPRIOTE LOTUS, 
FROM VASE. 



tive (Figure 109, b). 

Cypriote Ornament. 

Cyprus was an important entrepot of Phenician com- 
merce, and its art is peculiarly interesting because of the 
mingling of Egyptian, .ZEgean, Phenician and early 
Greek influences which it betrays. In general character 
it resembles sometimes the Mycenaean, sometimes the 
Phenician. Its principal motives are 
the lotus, almost grotesquely trans- 
formed from the Egyptian type 
(Figure 112, also Fig. 115) ; the lotus 
palmette in several variant forms, 
one the Phenician palmette with up- 
turned volutes (Figure 111), and 
others such as those in Figure 113 and 
Figure 114, used as finials or cap for 
steles and pilasters. A curious de- 
sign, compounded of palmettes, trilobes and horns is 
that in Figure 111 from a sarcophagus in the Metropoli- 
tan Museum in New York, from Amathus ; in a variant 
form which may be a lotus and not a palmette, it ap- 

83 




FIG. 116. CYPRIOTE 
ORNAMENTS ON 

VASES. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 




FIG. 117. PHENICIAN VASE FROM JERUSALEM. 



pears also in Fig- 
ure 110, appar- 
ently related to the 
Assyrian Sacred 
Tree (see Fig. 70, 
c). It will be ob- 
served that this 
entire composition 
recalls the primi- 
tive Egyptian de- 
sign of Fig. 34. 
The type con- 
stantly reappears in Asiatic art. Rectangles, lozenges, 

and checkerings applied even to the central sepal of the 

lotus betray the persistent influence of primitive basketry 

patterns (Fig. 115, in which note also the swastikas). 

The lotus is always ungraceful in Cypriote art. The 

recurved or voluted 

sepals in Figure 112 

and Fig. 115 are 

closely related to the 

branching volutes in 

Fig. 116, the lower 

ornament in which 

a four-petaled flower 

is probably, like 

the checkers, lozenge 

and triangle of Fig. 

T -r-i. tin FIG. 118. DETAIL FROM CVPRIOTE VASE 

L15 and rigure 1A ^^ QRMIDIA (MET. MUSEUM, N. Y.). 

a reminiscence of 

primitive pottery and basketry (see Chapter II). 





AEGEAN AND ASIATIC 




C. 




FIG. 119. CYPHIOTE VASE ORNAMENTS: 
a, GOOSE AND LOTUS; 
6, TREES AND ASTARTE; 
c, A LOTUS. 



This survival appears also in the splendid Phenician 
vase from Jerusalem (Fig. 117) and the Cypriote 
vase from Ormidia (Fig. 118) the latter in the New 
York Metropolitan Museum. Animals, human figures 
and plant forms appear on vases the horse, goose 
(Fig. 119, a) and bull, and caricatures of the human 
form (Fig. 119, b). 3 The swastika or fylfot 
appears occasionally as a minor detail, probably as 
a solar symbol, as in Fig. 115. The affronting 

3 Compare the queer plants beside the figure (is this Astarte?) with 
those from Mycenae, in Fig. 96 and Figure 104. 

85 





FIG. 120. LoTTJS-AND-BiRD BORDERS 
ON RHODIAK AND MELIAN VASES. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

of two opposed birds or beasts on either side of a 
central shaft or column, as in Figure 110, preserves 

or repeats a common 
Asiatic (Assyrian, My- 
cenaean, Hittite, Pheni- 
cian) symbolic motive, of 
which probably the earli- 
est examples is the prehis- 
toric Egyptian slate-carv- 
ing shown in Fig. 34. 
Whether the goose, horse, 
swastika, etc., are solar 
symbols, is a question not 
yet certainly answered. Fig. 119, c, from a Cypriote 
cenochoe in the Metropolitan Museum, illustrates the sin- 
gular mixture of lotus and other forms frequently met 
with in Cypriote art. 

The ornament of Rhodes (Kameiros, lalyssos, etc.) 
and of Melos, is a later development from the My- 
cenaean, less mixed with Egyptian and Assyrian forms 
than the Cypriote. It is found chiefly in pottery re- 
mains, covering the period from the ninth century B.C. 
down to historic Greek art, thus supplying a connecting 
link, though a slight one, between the Hellenic and pre- 
Hellenic cultures. Examples are shown in Fig. 120 
of a Rhodian lotus-band (above) and a Melian (be- 
low), the latter an almost exact duplicate of that on 
the Cypriote vase from Ormidia shown in Fig. 118. 
Comparison of both with the Mycenaean jars of Figure 
88 and Fig. 117 sufficiently demonstrates the inter- 
relation of these three phases of pre-Hellenic art. 

86 



AEGEAN AND ASIATIC 
Books Recommended. 

A. P. DI CESNOLA: Salaminia, Cyprus (London, 1884). M. 
COLLIGNON: Archeologie grecque (Paris, 1887), also an Eng- 
lish edition. FURTWANGLER and LOSCHKE: Mykenische Vasen 
(Berlin, 1886). MITCHELL: History of Ancient Sculpture 
(New York, 1883). PERROT AND CHIPIEZ: Histoire de Vart 
dans I'antiquite, la grece archaique (Paris, 1903). H. SCHLIE- 
MANN: Mycence and Ilios (New York, 1881). 



87 



CHAPTER VII 

GEEEK ORNAMENT, I 

Introductory. 

The Hellenic peoples were gifted with an especial 
endowment of the artistic faculty. While their geo- 
graphical situation brought them early into contact with 
the older civilizations of Egypt, the Mediterranean 
basin and Mesopotamia, their own esthetic aptitudes 
enabled them to assimilate all that they borrowed, and 
in transforming it, to endow it with a wholly new ele- 
gance and refinement. Two characteristics are con- 
spicuous in all their intellectual and artistic activity: 
their attitude of persistent inquiry in the presence of 
every fact and phenomenon of their experience; and 
their recognition and pursuit of ideals. The Greek 
asked Why? Whence? How? where other peoples had 
simply acquiesced unquestioningly in Nature's order or 
the teachings of tradition, and he strove unceasingly 
after unrealized perfections in every undertaking. The 
progress of Greek civilization stands therefore in sharp- 
est contrast with the slow advance and slow decline of 
Egyptian art bound by ancient and sacred traditions, 
and with the stagnation of Assyrian art. It was from 
the earliest stages progressive, and in this respect 
breathes the modern spirit and appeals to modern tastes. 

88 




FIG. 121. GREEK VASE, "FINE" PERIOD. (NAPLES MUSEUM) 




FIG. 121A. ANTHEMION BAND AND CAP MOLDINGS, FROM THE ERECHTHEION 



GREEK ORNAMENT, I 

Greek art in its keen observation of Nature, its vivacity, 
charm and grace, its refinement of proportion, its deli- 
cacy combined with vigor, and its artistic restraint, is 
not only vastly superior to the arts that preceded it, 
but at its best, and within certain clear limitations, un- 
surpassed by any that have succeeded it. 

The People. 

The Greeks were not a nation, but a group of small 
states, bound together by a common language and re- 
ligion, and by certain common ethnic traditions. Greece 
proper was the center and focus of their culture, but 
Greek colonies established themselves in Southern Italy, 
Crete, Cyprus, Rhodes, the ^Egean islands, while a 
large part of Asia Minor was inhabited by Ionian 
Greeks. In spite of this division into small states, often 
rivals and even enemies in war, the Greek culture was 
fundamentally one: all Greeks called themselves Hel- 
lenes, and the rest of the world Barbarians, and all the 
states took part in the quadrennial Olympic games. 
The Dorians and lonians were the leaders in the de- 
velopment of Greek art, and their names have been 
given to the two principal "orders" originally distinct 
styles of Greek architecture. 1 The other two chief 
constituent races of the Hellenes were the Achseans and 
jiEolians. 

Periods of Greek Art History. 

Between pre-Homeric art, discussed in the last chap- 

i For a concise summary of the historical beginnings and race movements 
of the Greeks, consult W. M. West's "Ancient History," 80-100 (Allyn 
& Bacon, Boston). 

91 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

ter, and that of historic Greece there is a noticeable 
hiatus. Dorpfeld, it is true, derives the Doric style of 
architecture directly from the palace architecture of 
Mycenae and Tiryns, but there are grounds for ques- 
tioning this derivation. In any case, the ornament of 
that age seems to have died with the civilization to which 
it belonged, and historic Greek art differs in quality and 
spirit as well as in its forms from that of the ^Egean 
culture. 

Dated Greek history begins with the first Olympiad, 
776 B.C. It is customary for convenience to divide the 
history of Greek art into six periods. The first or 
Archaic may be considered as lasting from the first 
Olympiad or from 650 B.C. when the earliest Doric 
temples known to us were begun to 500 B.C. ( Some 
writers prefer to specify an early and a late Archaic 
Period, divided at 550 B.C. and lasting until 480 B.C., 
the date of the Persian invasion.) The next or Tran- 
sitional Period, beginning at 500 (or at 480) B.C., lasts 
until the middle of the fifth century, and ushers in the 
great age of Greek art, commonly called the Periclean, 
which followed the final victories over the Persians in 
466 B.C. This occupied the second half or the last two- 
thirds of the fifth century B.C., and was followed by the 
Decline of the first half of the fourth century. A bril- 
liant revival manifested itself during the last half, which 
constitutes the Alexandrian age. A further decline en- 
sued, more rapid and complete, lasting until the Roman 
conquest in 146 B.C.: this we may designate as the Post- 
Alexandrian Period. But even in its decline Greek art 
produced many noble and beautiful works; while after 

92 



GREEK ORNAMENT, I 

the Roman conquest, Greek artists wrought for Roman 
masters and infused a new artistic element into the 
Roman taste and art ; so that a complete sketch of Greek 
ornament must take into account works produced as 
late even as the time of the Antonines. 

All these periods are but vaguely defined, for historic 
Greek art was continuously progressive; the change of 
style was gradual and constant. Hence they are to be 
considered merely as arbitrary devices for facilitating 
the grouping and classifying of the works of different 
times and styles, and for marking certain well-defined 
stages of development. 

Some General Characteristics. 

Whereas in Egyptian ornament color predominates 
over form, it plays a subordinate part in Greek orna- 
ment, in which plastic form, as expressed and revealed 
by outline and light and shade, is the controlling element, 
The Greeks seem to have been the first people to delight 
in pure beauty of form and of line-movement apart from 
symbolism and representation, and it was their constant 
reaching out after an ideal perfection of form that gave 
to their works their immortal freshness of beauty and 
vitality of interest. 

The Greeks cared little for mere patterning; there is 
no characteristic Greek all-over ornament. But in 
every work of Greek decoration the idea of structure is 
present; not necessarily of the structural framework of 
the object decorated, though this is generally recognized; 
but an organic and logical relation between the object 
and its decoration, and between the various parts of the 

93 




Fia.]<Z$Oreekand Assyrian 

n?1S24rt#R*aeUB.tolia\frC Ornament -Links fig.&HJaekFhib 



fig 127 Carved Rmceau from Miletus (Late). 
a b c 



/"Zg A5?. Varieties oftfnthemion Motive 




Fig.158 Elementary Rinceau on Vase 



Fiq.136 Varieties of LottibrnJIolfve 



94 



GREEK ORNAMENT, I 

decoration. This quality also appears in the way in 
which the ornament itself is designed and its elements 
put together; they are never merely strung together; 
they are organically united into a coherent design 
(Figure 122). This structural quality is by no means 
confined to architectural ornament, though it is there 
most conspicuously in evidence ; it appears in the paint- 
ing of a vase or the composition of an anthemion band 
as truly as in the ornament of the Erechtheion. Com- 
pare, for example, the monotonous and inorganic string- 
ing together of lotuses and buds in Egyptian bands, or 
even the stiff linking of Assyrian forms, with the or- 
ganic structural combination of alternating motives in 
the Greek anthemion bands figured in Plate V and 
Figure 123. 

Another unfailing quality of Greek ornament is its 
artistic restraint. The Greek artist knew when to hold 
his hand, when to leave a surface plain, when not to 
elaborate a motive or pattern. 

These qualities of plastic beauty, grace and vivacity 
of rhythmic movement, structural fitness and artistic 
reserve, impart to Greek ornament a distinction which 
sets it apart from all other decorative styles, unless it 
be that of the early Gothic period in France. 

The examples of Greek decorative art that have come 
down to us consist chiefly of two classes: architectural 
ornament, for the most part carved, though often en- 
hanced by added color; and pottery, for the most part 
painted. But so marked is the architectural feeling in 
the vase decoration, that many motives were carried 
from pottery into the architecture; while not a few of 

95 




FIG. 124. GEOMETRIC ELEMENTS. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

the architectural details were executed in terra-cotta 
and painted, much like the vases. 

The Motives. 

These constitute an alphabet of only moderate extent. 

The greatness of Greek orna- 
ment lies in the variety and 
originality of the combina- 
tions of these few funda- 
mental forms, and the ele- 
gance of the results, rather 
than in the number of the 
primary motives. So nearly 
endless are the variations of 
these, that instances of exact reduplication of any orna- 
ment on different objects are almost unknown. Even 
such forms as the Doric capital, or the egg-and-dart 
molding, are never exactly alike on two different build- 
ings. 

In framing any list of 
motives, it is difficult to 
draw the line between re- 
lated forms and to deter- 
mine when it is proper to 
distinguish them as really 
separate motives, and 
when not. With regard 
to certain nature-forms, 
also, there may be differ- 
ences of judgment as to whether they should be ac- 
counted as ornament or as sculpture or painting. We 

96 




FIG. 125. NATURE-FORMS. 



GREEK ORNAMENT, I 

group the motives listed below into three groups 
geometric, natural and structural. 

The geometric motives (omitting simple dots, circles 
and parallel lines) are six: the fret or meander; the 
wave or Vitruvian scroll; the spiral, both single and 
branched ; the S-curve or " line of beauty" ; the rosette 2 
and the guilloche (Fig. 24). 

The principal natural forms are : the lotus and lotus- 
bud, the palmette or anihemion, the vine, and the 
acanthus leaf, from the vegetable world (Fig. 125) ; 
and from the animal kingdom human heads or masks, 
heads of animals, paws, wings, griffins or chimeras and 
sphinxes (Plate VI, 25, 26, 29, 35) . Festoons of flow- 
ers and fruit (called the "swag" in English books), ox- 
skulls (bucrania) and fluttering ribbons also occur in 
late Greek art, usually on altars, with symbolic signifi- 
cance. Purely pictorial 
representations of men, 
horses and beasts, whether 
painted or carved, are ex- 
cluded from the list, as 
belonging to pictorial art 
rather than to pure orna- 
ment. 

The chief architectural 
motives not included 
above are seven (Fig. 
126): moldings; fluting s or channelings; dentils; the 
egg-and-dart and its derivatives; the bead-and-reel; 

- The star which occurs in rare instances may be considered as a variant 
of the rosette. 

97 




FIG. 126. ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

scales and imbrications ( also used in painted ornament ; 
not shown in the figure), and the rinceau ot branching 
scroll (Figure 127). 

The swastika or fylfot has been omitted from these 
lists, although occurring on early vases, because it is 
there used rather as a symbol than as a systematic orna- 
ment, and was early dropped from Greek art. The 
guttce of the Doric order might perhaps be added, though 
their use is very restricted, and they do not form a 
motive capable of variation and combination into mani- 
fold patterns. 

Of all these motives three, the lotus (bud and blos- 
som), the palmette, and the egg-and-dart, are clearly 
traceable to Egyptian origins. Four others, the fret, 
guilloche, rosette and wave, occur in Egyptian orna- 
ment, but it cannot be proved that they came into Greek 
art from Egypt, though this may quite possibly be the 
fact. The spiral has been the common property of all 
decorating races, and it was the Greeks who first dis- 
covered the real beauty of its combination with the S- 
curve and developed it into the most important single 
contribution to the art of pattern-design made by any 
people since the Egyptians first discovered and exploited 
the value of contrasted alternation in their lotus-and- 
bud bands. In the adaptation of the acanthus leaf to 
carved ornament they further increased the debt of sub- 
sequent ages to Greek art. The rinceau (Figure 127), 
which is a combination of the S-line, the spiral, the vine- 
motive and the acanthus leaf, was developed during the 
Alexandrian age into an ornament which has contributed 

98 



GREEK ORNAMENT, I 

a most important element to the splendor of Roman, 
medieval and modern art. 

Pottery Decoration. 

A brief sketch of the historic development of Greek 
pottery is essential for the intelligent discussion of its 
decoration. 

The potter's art was transmitted from the pre- 
Homeric to the post-Homeric civilization without inter- 
ruption, and practised in various centers of which 
Rhodes, Melos, Athens, Corinth, Ccere in Etruria 
(though the majority of the vases found in Etruscan 
tombs were of Greek and not local manufacture), and 
in the post- Alexandrian period Apulia and Campania 
in Southern Italy, were the most important. Burnt 
clay, though fragile, is an almost imperishable material, 
and tens of thousands of vases have been preserved to 
our day, for the most part in ancient tombs, from as 
far back as the seventh century B.C., and covering 
the entire period from that time to the Christian Era. 
All these vessels were made on the wheel 3 and painted, 
chiefly in black and red. Very few of these were 
modeled in relief, notwithstanding the Greek predilec- 
tion for sculpture. The Greek potters preferred the 
simplicity of a pure and refined silhouette to the more 
complex effects of relief-modeling (Figure 121, Fig. 
128). The same reserve was shown in their long-time 
preference of the simple black-and-red decoration, with 

3 Note that the dates given above exclude from consideration the archaic 
Mycenaean and other pre-Homeric pottery, of which some of the earlier 
examples are crude vessels molded free-hand and not turned on a wheel. 

99 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

only occasional and sparing use of other colors, to the 
more showy effects possible with a varied palette, such 
as became fashionable to a limited degree in and after the 
Alexandrian age. Thus their pottery decoration was 
in sober colors, while in their architectural ornament 
they employed brilliant reds, blues, green and gold. 
This is in striking contrast to the modern taste which 
prefers sobriety of coloring in its architecture and 
brilliant tones for pottery and porcelains. 

Changes of Style. 

The earliest pottery was of a light red color, with 
decorations in black and dark red or brown. In the 
sixth century B.C. the color of the earthenware of the 
vases was often a yellow-red, nearly orange, and the 
decorations almost exclusively in black, while the forms 
were more refined, profiled with more subtle curves 
than formerly. In the early fifth century or second 
archaic period, the ware was of a darker red, and the 
black slip employed in the decoration really a black 
paint covered with a thin slip or glaze became very 
perfect and was used as a solid background, the decora- 
tions being left of the natural dark red of the ware. 
This change of technic led to a complete change in the 
character of the ornament, as will later be shown. Dur- 
ing the fourth century a further change occurred; the 
ornament became complex and overcharged, varied 
colors were added to the black and red to brighten the 
effect ; the vase-profiles lost their earlier refinement, and 
modeling of figures and details in relief became more or 
less common, especially in Apulian and other Italo- 

100 



GREEK ORNAMENT, I 

Greek vases, which were often of great size. The art 
declined rapidly under Roman rule; as bronze, marble, 




FIG. 128. TYPES OF GREEK VASES: a, ARYBALLUS ; b, LEKYTHOS; c, RHYTON; 
d, ALABASTROX; e, g, AMPHORA; /, KRATEH; h, OINTMENT Box; i, HYDRIA; 
k, KYLIX; /, HYDRIA. 

alabaster, glass, gold and silver came more and more 
into use for the finer vessels, the plain clay earthenware 
ceased to be a medium for artistic expression. 

The grace and beauty of the Greek vases of the 6th- 

101 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

4th centuries B.C. are due, first to the innate artistic 
spirit of the people; and secondly to the use of terra 
cotta vases as gifts and prizes. They were regarded as 
works of art, and the painters who decorated them were 
proud to sign their works. The decoration of these 
vases was executed with a bold, free hand which the 
published illustrations generally fail to reproduce. 
Special care and attention were bestowed upon the 
form, proportions and silhouette of these vases, in spite 
of their humble material. A singular elegance of shape 
characterizes nearly all of the Greek pottery ; the profiles 
are composed of exquisitely subtle curves harmoniously 
blended. The chief among many types are the amphora, 
a tall two-handled (or three-handled) jar for wine 

(Fig. 128, e, g)\ the 
cenoclioc, a large-bodied 
wine- vessel ; the hydria (i,l), 
a wide-mouthed water- jar; 
the lekyihos (&), a small 
slender-necked vase for per- 
fumes or for votive and 
funereal uses ; the somewhat 
similar aldbastron, usually 
of alabaster (d) ; the krater 
(/) ; a cup or jar with a 
spreading mouth; the kylix 
(k), a broad, dish-like ves- 
sel (these two types merge into one another) ; the rhyton 
(c) , a drinking horn, shaped often like an animal's head; 
the aryballos (a), and various other forms. 





Fio. 129. GEOMETRIC VASE, SEVRES. 



102 



GREEK ORNAMENT, I 



Development of Motives. 

In an important group of early archaic vases the deco- 
ration consists of successive bands alternately of orna- 
ment and pictures (e.g., the Dodwell vase, a in Fig. 
128). Another group, in the so-called "geometric" 
style, 4 are adorned with bands of parallel lines, zigzags, 
curious frets, concentric circles, stars or flowers, swas- 
tikas irregularly disposed, and checkered patterns 
imitated from basketry or textiles (Fig. 129). In 
others, mostly from the islands or from Asiatic Greek 
factories, Oriental influences are evident ; lions, sphinxes 
and gazelles, horses and the solar goose are pictured 
upon them, and in the ornament proper the lotus and 
lotus-palmette are common (Fig. 130; this may pos- 
sibly be a Rhodian vase). 

As the potter's art advances, the fret, wave and an- 
themion are increasingly used and developed into the 
greatest possible va- 



riety of forms. The 
fret occurs in several 
varying types ; the sim- 
ple fret as in Figure 
131, a (page 94), the 
compound fret, formed 
by two intersecting 
lines of alternate 
"keys" and "humps" 
crossing to form a series of swastika motives (ib., b) ; 
the resetted fret in which the key-motive alternates with 

* Called also "Dipylon style," "Dipylon vases," because of the number of 
vases in this style exhumed near the Dipylon gate in Athens. 

103 




FIG. 130. EARLY VASE; RHODIAN? 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

a square or round rosette (Plate VI, 5, 9) ; the oblique 
fret, and the double fret (Figure 131, c). All these 
were drawn free-hand, usually in such manner as to 

make the black stroke and 
red background of about 
equal thickness. 

The spiral wave was not, 




FIG. 132A. as hag been frequently as- 

serted, a representation of water, and hence always 
placed at the foot of the vase: it was used as a border 
alike above and below the picture or vase-painting, as 
a variant of the fret, from which it was probably de- 
rived (Plate VI, 1, 3; Fig. 132 A) . 

The Anthemion. 

The anthemion is the most important and most beauti- 
ful of all Greek ornament motives. Its origin can be 
clearly traced back through Phenician and Assyrian 
forms to the Egyptian lotus and lotus-palmette. 5 Its 
resemblance to the blossoms of the honeysuckle, recog- 
nized by the Greeks in its name dv0e>iov, is a fortui- 
tous resemblance or an afterthought, more noticeable in 
the late examples than the earlier, and is not an explana- 
tion of its origin. In the Assyrian lotus-and-palmette 
borders (see Plate IV), the units are connected by 
linked voluted bands; the Greeks substituted for these 
the double-curved or S-scroll (Figure 123), introducing 
thereby a wholly new element of grace and rhythmic 
movement into the composition (see Plates V and VI). 
They also curved the "petals" of the palmette in vari- 

s For an exhaustive discussion of this derivation, cf. Goodyear, "Grammar 
of the Lotus" (London, 1891). 

104 



GREEK ORNAMENT, I 

ous ways, elaborated the connecting scrolls, and refined 
their forms and combinations in an extraordinary variety 
of ways, creating out of the somewhat monotonous and 
lifeless Oriental pal- 
mette an entirely new 
and exquisitely beauti- 
ful ornament (Figs. 
133, 134). Fig. 134 
represents diagram- 
matically a few of the 
principal types of 
Greek anthemion bands single and double, opposite 
and alternate, vertical and oblique; the anthemion open 
as in a, c, d or framed as in &., e, almost always alter- 
nating with a contrasting motive derived from the lotus. 




FIG. 133. ANTHEMION- WITH VOLUTED 
SCROLLS; FROM A VASE. 







FIG. 134. TYPES OF AXTHEMIOX PATTERNS. 
105 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

which we may call the lotiform motive (Figure 136). 
Figure 135 illustrates a number of typical treatments 
in detail of the anthemion proper, which springs from a 
triangular-shaped spot or nucleus (or rarely a simple 
dot) set between opposed spirals or volutes. In Figure 
136 are shown a few of the variants of the lotiform mo- 
tive. Very admirable is always the skill with which the 
ornament is distributed and the spaces occupied. 

The change in the fifth century from the black- 
on-red to the red-on-black technic led to a change in 
the character of the anthemion patterns. To economize 
the labor of painting-in the black background, the spaces 
between the leaves or other elements of the design were 
reduced, the ornament became more crowded and richer 
in effect, and the hair-like lines of the black-on-red type 
were omitted or replaced by broader lines of red ( Figure 
135, e). Some of the anthemion patterns of the late 
fifth and of the fourth centuries are remarkably rich and 
elaborate; they were made in the later vases to cover 
large areas on the body of the vase, taking the place of 
a picture on one side of the vase, especially in the 
Apulian pottery (Plate V). 

Next to the fret and anthemion, the vine is the most 
important motive in pottery decoration (Figure 137; 
also Plates V and VI). It occurs sometimes with a 
straight stem, sometimes with a wavy stem, and may 
represent in different examples the laurel, ivy or grape- 
vine. The laurel crown of victory in athletic and 
literary contests is symbolized by the laurel "vines" on 
vases intended as prizes or honorary awards; while the 
ivy and the grapevine were both sacred to Dionysos, 

106 



GREEK ORNAMENT, I 

and naturally figured on vases for wine as well as on 
those presented as gifts in token of good fellowship. 

The type of vine in which a wavy stem throws out its 
leaves alternately on either side to fill the hollows of the 
waves (Figure 137), furnished one of the most impor- 
tant elements in the development of the rinceau. The 
substitution of branching scrolls (already common as a 
subordinate detail of certain anthemion patterns in the 
Periclean period, see Fig. 133) in place of the leaves 
and berries, produced the elementary rinceau of Figure 
138. 

The Guilloche. 

This is found in its simplest form in both Egyptian 
and Assyrian ornament (see Fig. 69, /) ; but was de- 
veloped by the Greeks into a richer band-pattern by 
doubling and even trebling the rows of "eyes" and 
braided interlacings. Only the simpler forms are, how- 
ever, common on pottery (Figure 132). 

Other Forms. 

The "egg-and-dart" appears frequently on the lips 
of vases, and both it and other U-shaped and scale-like 
imbrications (Plate VI) are used on the bodies. These 
related forms are probably derived from the lotus-and- 
bud, as suggested in Fig. 139 ; 6 but it is equally likely 
that the scale-ornament was derived from the use of 
feathers, scales in armor, or other like industrial im- 
brications. 

e This derivation was first pointed out in "Comptes-rendus de la Socie'te' 
Centrale d'Architectes" for 1875, and later elaborated by Professor W. H. 
Goodyear. 

107 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Spirals and branching scrolls are common in the de- 
tails of pottery-decoration, especially the spirals of the 
wave or Vitruvian scroll; but the branching scroll as 




FIG. 139. EVOLUTION OF EGO-AXD-DAHT. 

an independent motive is never used except in late 
rinceaux. The scrolls of anthemion frames and links 
sometimes branch twice or even three times, as in Fig. 
133, but never more than this. 

Alexandrian and Apulian Pottery. 

The Alexandrian age brought in a new taste for mag- 
nificence in all branches of art, and the pottery of the 
late fourth and early third centuries reflects this changed 
spirit in the excessive elaboration of the decoration. 
The coloring was enriched and varied, all parts of the 
vase were covered with pictures and ornament, in which 
branching scrolls played an important part. Simplicity 
and grace of movement were lost in the complexity of 
multiplied spirals and fantastic details. The potter's 
art was developed in new manufacturing centers in 
southern Italy (Apulia and Campania), which became 
celebrated for the size and splendor of the vases they 
produced. The handles were made especially impor- 

108 



GREEK ORNAMENT, I 

tant, and modeled heads and figures were often intro- 

duced into the decoration. Fig. 140 illustrates one 

of these Italo-Greek vases, and 

in Plate VI and Figure 141 

(page 94) are shown some of 

the complicated details com- 

mon in this pottery. 

Architectural Ceramics. 

Painted terra-cotta orna- 
ments were long used on build- 
ings of stone or wood, though 
stone and marble displaced 
them on the more important 
buildings from a very early 
date. Moldings, especially 
crown-moldings on cornices, 

, . , 

antenxaB, acrotena and ridge- 
tiles were the chief of these ceramic ornaments. They 
display many of the motives and patterns of pottery- 
decoration, in modified form and richer coloring, in which 
green and yellow were used as well as red and black: 
frets, anthemions, the egg-and-dart, guilloche and scale- 
motive are the commonest decorations. Similar orna- 
ments were later painted on marble and formed an im- 
portant element in Greek architectural ornament. 

Books Recommended: 

List follows next Chapter. 




FK- 14 - APUUAK VASE; 

SEVRES MUSEUM. 



109 



CHAPTER VIII 

GREEK ORNAMENT, II 

Architectural Decoration. 

In the application of the arts of decoration to architec- 
ture, the Greeks attained an extraordinary degree of 
perfection within a comparatively narrow field. The 
artistic reserve was even more noticeable in their archi- 
tecture than in their pottery. Accordingly we find a 
sparing use of ornament upon their buildings, but its 
scale and distribution were determined by the most 
judicious taste, and its execution was as nearly perfect 
as the artist's utmost skill would permit. In the Doric 
buildings the ornament proper is chiefly painted and 
confined to certain well-defined members ceiling- 
panels, moldings, capitals and the like (Plate VI, 32- 
35). The most important decorative effects depended 
not upon the ornament but upon sculpture pediment 
groups, metopes and friezes. The plastic ornament 
of Doric buildings, as distinguished from the sculpture 
and the painted details, consisted chiefly of the moldings, 
triglyphs, mutules and guttse, the antefixse ranged along 
the edge of the cornice, the lions' heads serving as spouts 
at each end of the long horizontal lateral cornices, 
acroteria at the angles of the pediments, and the flutings 
and very simple capitals of the columns. Most of these 

no 



GREEK ORNAMENT, II 

are shown in the lower part of Plate VI. Of the bronze 
gates, grilles, lamps and other adjuncts of these build- 
ings we have no remains. 

The painted ornament of architecture comprised (a) 
molding ornaments (Figure 142, page 113) ; (b) ceil- 
ing-panels (Fig. 143) ; (c) 
solid color applied to tri- 
glyphs (blue), metopes 
(red) (Plate VI, 33), and 
sometimes to walls and pos- 
sibly columns; (d) the 
painting of the woodwork 
of the interior ceilings; (e) 
mural pictures on the in- 
terior walls. Of d and e 




FIG. 143. PAINTED PANEL, CEILING 
OP PLEROMA, PARTHENON. 



no remains are extant. 
We do not certainly know 
the exact tones of the colors used in a, b and c, owing to 
the faded condition of such vestiges of color as still ex- 
ist. Modern restorers usually represent them as some- 
what brilliant (Plate VI, 33-35) : perhaps they were less 
intense than these representations would indicate. 

With the development of the Ionic style in the sixth 
and fifth centuries, carved ornament assumed greater 
importance and took on increased richness and variety, 
which reached the highest point of splendor in the Alex- 
andrian age, especially in Asia Minor, and gave birth 
in the fourth century to a variant form, the Corinthian, 
in which the capital of the column was the most impor- 
tant and ornate feature (Plate VII, 14). The carved 
egg-and-dart and "water-leaf" molding ornaments 

ill 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

(Figure 144; Plate VII, 8, 11), the carved anthemion- 
band (Figure 121 A), rosette and guilloche, the acan- 
thus-leaf and rinceau, and the splendid carved stele- 
heads of the fourth century (Plate VII, 13, 15), were 
all important fruits of this development. 

Style History. 

The earliest architecture of "historic" Greece, i.e., 
subsequent to the first Olympiad (776 B.C.), was of the 
Doric style. It was characterized by massive columns 
with 16 to 20 shallow channels meeting in sharp arrises, 
set directly upon the stylobate (the stepped platform 
supporting the building) without bases, capped by 
simple capitals, and bearing an entablature consisting 
of a plain architrave, a frieze divided into square panels 
or metopes by triglyphs, and a simple cornice with 
mutules under the overhanging cornice (Plate VI, 
33-35; VII, 6). A triangular pediment filled with 
sculpture framed between the horizontal and raking 
cornices, marked the gable-ends of the low-pitched roof. 
Carved ornament was almost wholly lacking. This 
style was employed for six hundred years or more, vary- 
ing only in its proportions and minor details. It reached 
its culmination in the Parthenon (438 B.C.), and was 
the style chiefly used for temple architecture in 
European Greece, including Magna Grsecia (Southern 
Italy and Sicily). 

Towards the end of the sixth century the Ionic style, 
originating in Asia Minor, began to dispute the suprem- 
acy of the Doric, and became the dominant style in the 
Greek cities of Asia Minor. Its slender proportions 

112 




fig. 153 a flcanthu3 Moll is. RgW Cawed Moldings. 



ng.15? 

Acanthus Sptnosus 




T. T-f-Wi MHU\V 



fmjjff. Corinthian Capita 



Fig. 149 Branching Scrofland Leaves 




113 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

and some of its details betray the influence of early pro- 
totypes in wood. Its distinguishing features are the 
slender columns adorned with twenty-four flutings 
separated by narrow fillets and standing on molded 
bases, bearing capitals formed by spiral volutes con- 
nected by a horizontal band ; the doubly or triply banded 
architrave, unbroken frieze, and cornice without mu- 
tules, often (especially in Asia Minor) adorned with 
dentils and invariably crowned by a cymatium (Plate 
VII, 9). As already remarked, carved ornament took 
the place of painted ornament on the moldings and on 
other parts, although color was still used as a subordi- 
nate element to enhance the decorative effect. The 
carved anthemion was used with fine effect both on flat 
bands and on the high cymatia of the cornices (Plate 
VII, 5, 11) . Carved rosettes, "cantilevers" or brackets 
(Figure 145) and other enrichments also occur. The 
style reached its highest magnificence in such splendid 
Asiatic monuments of the fourth century as the Apollo 
Temple at Didyme near Miletus, the Artemision 
(temple of Diana) at Ephesus and the Mausoleum at 
Halicarnassus. 

In the variant form known as the Corinthian, which 
was in time, especially under the Romans, developed into 
a distinct order, the column was made still more 
slender, and the capital, more than a diameter in height, 
was composed of one or two rows of acanthus leaves 
under coupled volutes which supported the corners or 
horns of a molded abacus (Figure 146, page 113; Plate 
VII, 12, 14) . Employed at first only for small decora- 
tive structures like the Choragic Monument of Lysicra- 

114 



GREEK ORNAMENT, II 

tes, it was later applied to propylzeas (Eleusis), shrines 
or treasuries (Epidaurus) , and later even to the colossal 
temple of Zeus at Athens (170 B.C.). Carved orna- 
ment was in these buildings carried to the furthest limit 
of elaboration known in Greek art, as in the three- 
branched finial of the Lysicrates Monument (330 B.C.), 
shown in Plate VII, 3; the capitals from Eleusis (240 
B.C.), the rinceaux on column-bases at Didyme (Fig. 
127, page 94), and later under Roman rule, the frieze 
and cornice of the Temple of Zeus at Aizanoi. 

Painted Details. 

In the decoration of moldings with color, the object 
in view was to emphasize the profile by means of re- 
peated motives of the general character of the egg-and- 
dart or U-motive, modified in outline to suit the profile 
(Figure 142). Flat surfaces, such as the corona of a 
cornice or the edge of a Doric abacus, were often painted 
with a fret, though the wave, the guilloche and the 
anthemion-band were also often used, both on terra- 
cotta and on marble (Plate VI, 28, 32). 'The an- 
themion also figures in beautiful symmetrical patterns 
in gold on a blue ground in the ceiling-panels or coffer- 
ings of the pteroma or peristyle of the Parthenon and 
other buildings (Fig. 143), recalling by their grace 
and freedom of line the finest of the black-on-red vase 
decorations. Acroteria, antefixas and stele-heads were 
in the earlier examples painted, in the later ones carved ; 
the anthemion was the almost exclusive ornament used 
on all these, sometimes combined with the acanthus-leaf 
as a subordinate detail (Plate VII, 1, 13, 15). 

115 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Carved Details. 

In nearly all the carved ornament we may trace the 
imitation and elaboration of painted ornament derived 
primarily from pottery-decoration. Let us first con- 
sider the moldings. Five chief motives occur in their 
decoration by carving: the bead-and-reel for small 
bead-moldings; the egg-and-dart on convex profiles; 

the "water-leaf" 
on cyma-reversa 
moldings ; the guil- 
loche on torus 
moldings ( Fig. 
147) ; and the an- 
themion on the 
high Ionic cyma- 

FIG. 147. CARVED TRIPLE GUILLOCHE ON TORUS tium Or CrOWn- 

OP IOKIC BASE. molding. All but 

the first and fourth are carved elaborations of the 
painted molding ornaments described above as them- 
selves derived from pottery-motives, or from pottery 
directly; the bead-and-reel is an importation from Asia 
Minor and may have been derived, via Asia Minor and 
Persia, from the Egyptian papyrus-bundle molding. 
All these carved ornaments were designed and executed 
with extraordinary skill and care, and their beauty and 
perfection have seldom been approached and never sur- 
passed in later ages. Apart from the beauty of their 
decoration, moreover, the Greek moldings are remark- 
able for the refinement of their profiles, composed of 
curves as subtle and delicate as the silhouettes of the 

116 




GREEK ORNAMENT, II 

Greek vases. It was the Greeks, indeed, who first dis- 
covered and developed the artistic possibilities of mold- 
ings in architecture. The unvarying Egyptian com- 
bination of the bundle-torus and cavetto or gorge was 
effective but monotonous, and neither in Assyrian nor 
in Persian architecture is there apparent any sense of 
the beauty of effect inherent in moldings of varied pro- 
file artistically combined. 

The Ionic Capital. 

The origin of this peculiar architectural feature, with 
its twin spiral volutes and lateral "bolsters," set above 
a carved echinus and supporting a molded abacus, has 
been a subject of much controversy. 1 As in so many 
other cases, it was probably the result of convergence 
of more than one line of development. The volutes can 
be traced back to the branching voluted forms of As- 
syrian (see ante, Fig. 7) and JEgean art, and finally 
to the trefoil-lotus of Egypt. This seems to have 
blended with reminiscences of primitive "bracket" caps 
used on Asiatic wooden columns, and a wooden origin 
is further suggested by the slender proportions of the 
shaft and its setting on a well-marked base. The oblong 
voluted bracket cap was apparently combined with what 
seems to have been originally an independent form of 
capital a crown of one or two rows or rings of leaves 
like "oves," clearly derived from nature and not from the 
egg-and-dart motive, toward which, however, it con- 

i Cf. W. H. Goodyear, "Grammar of the Lotus," and his article in the 
"Architectural Record," vol. Ill, No. 3, "The Lotiform origin of the Ionic 
Capital." Also in Perrot and Chipiez, "Histoire de Part dans Pantiquete," 
vol. VII, 618 seq. 

117 




A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

verged to form the carved echinus of the Ionic capital. 
One form of this foliated capital, shown in Fig. 148, 
is probably a prototype of the high bell or basket of 

the later-developed Corin- 
thian capital. 

The fully developed cap- 
itals of the Erechtheion are 
among the most elegant 
forms in classic architecture, 
and were executed with 

FIG. 148. CAP FROM AEGJE. ,. .. n 

extraordinary perfection of 

detail. The high necking adorned with a carved an- 
themion is peculiar to this one building (Plate VII, 7). 

The Carved Anthemion. 

This was, next to the capitals, the most characteristic 
motive in Ionic decoration. Its origin in the anthemion 
bands of painted vases has already been explained. 
The technic of carving brought about a number of 
modifications of detail, such as the ridging and furrow- 
ing of the stems, leaves and scrolls, the elaboration of 
the "lotiform" motive (Plate VII, 4), and the intro- 
duction of the acanthus leaf (or in some cases apparently 
the leaf of a thistle or aloe) to mask the junction of 
fluted scrolls where they branch (Figure 149). The 
most celebrated example of the carved anthemion is that 
which adorned the north and west sides of the Erech- 
theion, and which is much like that on the neckings of 
the columns (Figure 121 A; Plate VII, 11). 

The commonest application of the carved anthemion 
band was to the high cymatium of the Ionic cornices. 

118 



There are many fragments of such carved cymatia of 
great beauty. One of these on the Acropolis at Athens 
shows a bird perched upon its scrolls an almost isolated 
instance in Greek art of a purely naturalistic represen- 
tation in the midst of a bit of formal ornament. 

Another and quite a different use of the carved an- 
themion is found in carved marble antifixae and acro- 
teria which replaced the earlier painted terra-cotta 
and painted marble. Plate VII, 1, illustrates a marble 
antefix (or possibly a ridge-cresting unit) from the 
Parthenon, which may be compared with Fig. 150, 
a painted acroterium or antefix of terra-cotta, and the 
stele-heads in Plate VII. 

Stele-heads. 

Closely related to the acroteria and antefixse are the 
stele-heads, i.e., the upper 
ends or finials of memorial, 
sepulchral or votive stones. 
Apparently the earliest 
sepulchral steles w r ere 
topped with a gable- 
formed finish suggesting 
the end of a sarcophagus, 
and adorned with a painted 
anthemion springing from 
a nest of acanthus leaves. 
This combination perhaps 
recalled an ancient prac- 
tice of planting an acan- 
thus or similar plant 




FIG. 150. PAINTED TEBRA-COTTA 
AXTEFIX. 



119 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

(aloe?) on the flat top of a square or round stele (Fig- 
ure 151, page 113) . With the increased vogue of carved 
decoration the painted stele-heads disappeared and the 
carved type was elaborated into a remarkably beautiful 
design, especially in the fourth century, to which belong 
the fine examples in Plate VII, 13, 15. 

The Acanthus. 

The acanthus is a common plant in Greece and Italy, 
related to the common burdock (Fig. 152). The 

variety known as the 
acanthus spinosus of- 
fers, by its formally 
regular growth and its 
crisp, crinkly and 
prickly leaves, excel- 
lent suggestions for 
decorative convention- 
alization (Figure 153, 
b). The date of its 
first appearance in 
Greek ornament is uncertain; it began to be quite fre- 
quently used, however, by the latter part of the fifth 
century B. c., as a covering leaf to mask the branching 
scrolls of carved anthemions, as in the example from 
the Erechtheion (Figure 149). These earlier examples 
suggest the thistle and the aloe quite as much as the 
acanthus; but this may be merely fortuitous resem- 
blance. Another early example is shown in Fig. 154, 
probably the earliest type of the Corinthian capital 
found in the ruins of the Apollo temple at Phigalaea 

120 




FIG. 152. ACANTHUS LEAF (above) 
BURDOCK (below). 



GREEK ORNAMENT, II 

(Basso?) in Attica, but now lost. With the develop- 
ment of carved ornament the leaf was more and more 
highly elaborated, almost always in association with 
volutes or spiral scrolls, chiefly applied to one or an- 
other of four decorative uses: the anthemion-band, the 
Corinthian capital, carved stele-heads, and the carved 
rinceau. The last three were executed with especial 
richness of detail in the Alexandrian age. 

The Corinthian Capital. 

This, the richest of all capital-types, developed only 
gradually into the final form which the Romans adopted 





FIG. 154. EARLY CORINTHIAN CAPITAL FIG. 155. CAPITAL FROM "TOWER OF 

FROM BASS-iE. THE WlNDS," ATHENS. 

and made their own. Contemporary with the over- 
elaborate "Lysicrates" example in Plate VII, 14, we 
find the much simpler form from the "Tower of the 
Winds" shown in Fig. 155. A capital from the Tholos 
of Epidauros shows an approach towards the later form 
from the Temple of Zeus at Athens (Figure 146) , which 
dates from 170 B.C., and furnished the prototype for the 

121 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Roman Corinthian. In this, sixteen volutes spring in 
branching pairs from eight caulicoli or leaf-nests, to 
meet in pairs under the centers and corners respectively 
of the hollow-curved and molded abacus, each caulicolus 
rising from between two upright acanthus leaves of the 
upper or second of two rows of eight leaves each which 
encircle the bell or core of the capital. The plain bell- 
type of Fig. 155 suggests a possible imitation of Egyp- 
tian palm-capitals ; but its late date makes this explana- 
tion of its form less probable than that of derivation by 
simplification from the more elaborate contemporary 
type of Epidaurus or the Lysicrates monument. Very 
complicated variations were produced in Eleusis, while 
at Didyme near Miletus, at Priene, and in some other 
examples, piers or pilasters were capped with the curi- 
ous form shown in Plate VII, 10. 

The Greeks never developed any type of modillion 
cornice for the Corinthian entablature, which remained 
essentially Ionic in character. 

The Rinceau. 

The foliated scroll known by this French name does 
not appear, at least in carving, until the Alexandrian 
age. Its origin in painted ornament has already been 
suggested (see ante, page 98) ; in carved ornament it 
appears to be an extension of the branching scrolls which 
accompanied the anthemion on some Ionic cymatia, on 
the anthemion band of the Erechtheion (Plate VII, 11) 
and on the more elaborate types of stele-heads (Fig. 
150; Plate VII, 13, 15). In these examples the scrolls 
branch only twice or thrice in diminishing repetitions. 

122 



* 
GREEK ORNAMENT, II 



On the gable of one of the splendid sarcophagi 
Sidon in the Museum at Constantinople, twin scrolls 
branch symmetrically from the center to form not a 
'subordinate feature, but the entire decoration, of the 
pediment (Plate VII, 1). The Choragic Monument 
of Lysicrates was capped by a superb finial of triple 
branching and interlaced scrolls, springing from three 
scroll-arms which spanned the flattened dome of the 
roof, and supporting presumably the prize tripod 
awarded to the choir-leader Lysicrates (Plate VII, 3). 
It was an easy and natural step from these to a con- 
tinuous line or band of equal branching scrolls, with an 
acanthus-leaf wrapping and partially masking the 
several branchings. The base of one of the colossal 
columns of the Didymseon near Miletus (the Temple 
of the Didymgean Apollo) bears a superb carved rin- 
ceau, the earliest and almost the only example of a com- 
plete continuous rinceau in Greek architecture (Figure 
127, page 94). The Greek rinceau generally lacks the 
reversed calyx or cup-flower at each branching that char- 
acterizes the Roman type; the acanthus-leaf is simple, 
thick and rather flat ; the scrolls end in a sharp point in- 
stead of a rosette or flower, and are formed by deeply 
channeled bands and not by round stems like the Roman. 
It was reserved for the Romans to develop and elaborate 
this type, as will appear in a later chapter. But al- 
though the rinceau as a continuous band-motive is rare 
in Greek carved ornament, it appears frequently as a 
limited motive after Alexander's time, and several 
elaborate examples of its use are in the British Museum 
from Eleusis. 

123 



Other Carved Motives. 

Carved scales representing tiles adorned the dome- 
like roof of the Monument of Lysicrates, and the gabled 
cover of the great "Alexander" sarcophagus (so-called) 
from Sidon, now at Constantinople. The latter also 
has a finely executed frieze of a grapevine with a con- 
tinuous waving stem. The carved fret appears occasion- 
ally, as on a marble funereal monument in the form of 
a vase, in Athens. Lions' heads are carved to decorate 
the spouts for discharging roof-water through the 
cymatium, as on the Parthenon (Plate VII, 29, 35) , the 
Temple of Apollo at Delos and other examples. The 
griffin was carved in the round as an acroterium orna- 
ment, and in relief on either side of a central tree or 
vertical motive an Oriental device already referred to 
(see ante, page 86). Beautifully executed examples 
of these grotesques or monsters adorned many of the 
capitals of the Temple of Apollo at Didyme. The fine 
marble table-supports found in Pompeii were very 
probably of Greek workmanship, but will be noticed 
later under the head of Pompeiian ornament (see page 
186). 

Relation to Roman Ornament. 

Greek ornament may be said to have finally passed 
over into and been absorbed by Roman art. With the 
conquest of the Greek states, Greek artists became the 
servants of Roman wealth and power with all the Roman 
love of magnificence, and contributed greatly to the 
decorative beauty and refinement which are so often 

124 



GREEK ORNAMENT, II 

present in Roman works. In Asia Minor the Greeks 
retained in considerable measure their independence of 
taste under Roman rule; the remarkable crocket orna- 
ment from the frieze of the Temple of Zeus at Aizanoi, 
of the time of the Antonines, as well as many other de- 
tails of this and other temples and tombs in Asia Minor, 
exhibits the Greek originality of design. The capitals 
of pilasters of the Arch of Hadrian at Athens (dr. 
120 A.D.) reveal something of the same originality, 
crispness and independence of the Imperial formalism. 
Southern Italy and Sicily abounded in works and prod- 
ucts more Greek in style than Roman; and the entire 
decorative system of Pompeii, in all its branches, dis- 
plays a Grecian delicacy, fancifulness and charm, 
which are due either to the employment of Greek artists, 
or to the large element of Greek blood in the popula- 
tion of all Magna Grsecia. Doubtless the walls of 
Pompeii represent the last corruscation of the Greek 
mural painter's art, and they are the only examples 
which have come down to us. 

Books Recommended: 

ANDERSON AND SPIERS: Architecture of Greece and Rome 
(London, 1907). BAUMEISTER: Denkmdler des klassischen 
Altertums (Berlin, 1881-89). BOTTICHER: Die Tektonik der 
Hellenen (Berlin, 1874-81). CHIPIEZ: Histoire critique des 
orders grecs (Paris, 1876). DURM: Antike Baukunst (in 
Handbuch der Architektur series, Darmstadt, 1885). L. FEN- 
GER: Dorische Polychromie (Berlin, 1886). A. FLASCH: Die 
Polychromie der griechischen Vaseribttder (Wiirzburg, 1875). 
FURTWANGLER AND REICHHOLD : Griecliisclie V asenmalereien 
(Munich, 1900). J. I. HITTORFF: Restitution du Temple 
d'Empedocle a Selinonte, ou L' Architecture polychrome chez les 
Grecs (Paris, 1851). G. KACHEL: Kunstgewerbliche Vorbilder 

125 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

aus dem Alterthum (Karlsruhe, 1881). A. MARQUAND: Greek 
Architecture (New York, 1909). LAU: Die griechischen Vasen 
(Leipzig, 1877). M. MEURER: Die Ur sprung sformen des grie- 
chisclien Akanthusornamentes, etc. (Berlin, 1896). STUART 
AND REVETT: Antiquities of Athens (London, 1762); also 
French and German editions of the same. TARBELL: History 
of Greek Art (New York, 1902). L. VULLIAMY: Examples of 
Ornamental Sculpture in Architecture . . . Greece, Asia Minor 
and Italy (London, 1824). W. R. WARE: Greek Ornament 
(Boston, 1878). J. C. WATT: Examples of Greek and Pom- 
peiian Decorative Work (London, 1897). J. R. WHEELER 
AND H. N. FOWLER: Handbook on Greek Archeology (New 
York, 1909). 



126 



CHAPTER IX 



The Roman Genius. 

With Roman ornament we enter upon a new chapter 
of the history of art. Roman art grew up under condi- 
tions almost the opposite of those under which Greek 
art developed. Instead of a group of rival and fre- 
quently hostile states, allied only by race, religion and 
language, we have in the case of the Romans a single 
state comprising peoples of many races, languages and 
religions, welded together into a powerful and highly 
organized military empire. Lacking the prevailing 
artistic and philosophical instincts of the Greeks, the 
Romans possessed on the other hand a remarkable genius 
for organization and administration, and a spirit at once 
practical and progressive. With the growing wealth 
and power which followed upon their long career of 
conquest, the Romans developed, somewhat late in their 
national life, a taste for luxury and splendor. The arts 
which flourished under the direction of these tastes were 
chiefly of foreign origin, though they took on in time a 
distinctively Roman character. The Romans became a 
nation of mighty builders and engineers, and architec- 
tural decoration and all the decorative arts that are 
concerned with personal comfort and luxury were car- 

127 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 




FIG. 156. ETRUSCAN TERRA-COTTA CRESTING. 

ried to a remarkable, and in some cases an extraordinary, 
degree of elaboration and splendor. Sculpture, on the 
other hand, was never a characteristic medium for the 




FIG. 157. ETRUSCAN DETAILS. 
128 




ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN ORNAMENT, I 

expression of the Roman genius. Roman ornament 
lacked somewhat of the refine- 
ment and restraint of the Greek, 
but was more varied and more 
flexible. It was eminently 
adapted to the purposes which it 
had to serve, and is well worthy 
of study for its elegance and 
versatility of design. 

Etruscan Ornament. 




Before the conquest of the FIGS. 158 AND 159. ETKUS- 
Greek states introduced Greek CAN TERRA - COTTA Btm 
art into Roman life, the Romans depended mainly upon 
the Etruscans for such forms of art as their modest 
requirements called for. This singular people, whose 
race-origin and early history are still shrouded in ob- 
scurity, possessed an architecture of their own betray- 
ing a certain remote kinship with the Greek, but crude 
and undeveloped artistically. Their frequent use of 
the arch, and the character of their ornament, so far 
as it appears in their works in bronze and gold, sug- 
gest an Asiatic influence, chiefly Phenician, possibly via 
Carthage. Their ceramic art, especially in its later 
phases, was based on Greek models. The Campana 
collection of terra-cotta reliefs in the Louvre, belonging 
to the first century B.C., show much technical cleverness 
in adapting Greek pictorial subjects, and even the 
painted scroll ornaments on late Greek and Campanian 
vases, to modeling in relief. The ornamental borders 

129 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 





FIG. 160. DETAIL OF A PILASTER. 

of these reliefs retain a curiously Asiatic character (Fig. 
159). In Figs. 156-160 a number of typical Etrus- 
can forms are shown. Painted terra-cotta ornaments, 
such as were used on the wooden superstructures of 
their temples, are preserved in the museums of Italy; 
they strongly resemble others found in Pompeii and 
southern Italy, which are very likely of Etruscan work- 
manship. These represent the highest development of 
Etruscan architectural decoration, but plainly exhibit 
their Greek derivation. The cap shown in Fig. 161 
illustrates the crudity of native Etruscan details and 

130 




ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN ORNAMENT, I 

strongly suggests a 
Phenician or Ori- 
ental influence. 

The Etruscans 
were skilful bronze- 
founders, and ap- 
pear to have prac- 
tised also at an 
early period the art 



FIG. 161. ETRUSCAN PILASTER CAP. 

of spheirelaton or sheet-metal 
hammered into relief on a base of 
carved wood. The fine bronze 
chariot in the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum at New York appears to be 
a product of Etruscan work of 
this sort of the seventh century 
B.C. 

Etruscan jewelry and filigree 
were often of great beauty 
brooches, pendants, chains, etc., 
of gold sometimes set with gems. 
Some of it is possibly, however, 
of Greek manufacture (Fig. 
162). 

The pottery of Etruria was un- 
important compared with that of 
Greece. The most interesting of 
its products were black vases 

131 




FIG. 162. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

modeled in relief (bucchero nero), but these display lit- 
tle pure ornament except flutings on the body. It ap- 
pears to have no relations with the prehistoric black 
pottery of the so-called Terramare and Villanova pe- 
riods. 

The Greek Conquests. 

The conquest and absorption of the Greek colonies 
in southern Italy and Sicily in the late third century B.C., 
and of the states of Greece proper, ending, with the fall 
of Corinth (146 B.C.), in the establishment of the Greek 
province of Achaia, not only made the Roman cam- 
paigners familiar with the marble magnificence of the 
Greek cities and the beauty of Greek art, but brought 
to Rome itself countless treasures of that art and hosts 
of Greek artists and artisans. Roman architecture un- 
derwent a gradual transformation, which accompanied 
and expressed the change in the Roman taste. Mum- 
mius, the conqueror of Corinth, was in all matters of art a 
boorish ignoramus ; Sulla, who sixty years later captured 
Athens in the course of his final campaign against 
Mithridates, was a cultivated admirer of literature and 
art. As a result of this process of education and growth 
in refinement of taste, the Etruscan city of Rome, built 
of brick, terra-cotta and timber, was transformed into 
a Greco-Roman city of stone and marble. The Greek 
orders, radically modified in detail, were adapted to new 
uses, in combination with Etruscan forms of column 
and Etruscan types of plan and the Etruscan arch and 
Asiatic vault, and entirely new decorative forms and 
effects devised in connection with new constructive ma- 

132 



ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN ORNAMENT, I 

terials and processes. Sculpture, mostly by Greek 
artists, received new decorative applications ; the arts of 
the bronze-founder, the modeler in stucco and the mural 
painter were developed rapidly to a high pitch of excel- 
lence ; and the modest alphabet of Greek ornament-forms 
was expanded into a remarkably rich and varied system 
of decorative devices. In all these arts it is not always 
possible to distinguish between true Greek handiwork 
and that of the Roman imitators, who were probably in 
many cases Etruscan by race. 

The Decorative System. 

The Romans created for architecture wholly new 
requirements, applications and uses. To meet these 
they devised equally new methods and processes of con- 
struction, employing combinations of brick, rubble, 
cement, concrete, stone and marble never known before. 
The Roman genius for organization and system asserted 
itself in the erection, by means of the vast armies of 
unskilled labor at their disposal, of ingenious and stu- 
pendous structures, massively built of coarse materials, 
and producing novel effects of scale and grandeur made 
possible for the first time by the use of the arch and 
vault. This massive construction of coarse materials re- 
quired a decorative skin or dress, both internally and ex- 
ternally, of finer material, such as stucco, mosaic, marble 
wainscot or veneer, or facings of cut stone, with mold- 
ings, panels, friezes, cornices, carving, sculpture and the 
like, besides such structural features and adjuncts as 
columns, porticoes and porches, which must be wholly 
made of the finer materials. This system was funda- 

133 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

mentally different from that of Egyptian or Greek ar- 
chitecture, in which stone or marble was the only ma- 
terial, and temples the chief subjects of architectural 
design. In these the decoration, other than painting 
and free sculpture, was of necessity an integral part of 
the construction, or at least incorporated in it or exe- 
cuted directly upon it. With the Roman system, a 
large part of the ornament was, equally of necessity, ap- 




Fio. 163. TEPIDARIUM, BATHS OF CARACALLA. 

plied ornament, executed after the completion of the 
massive structural frame or core of the building (Fig. 
163) . This is the system which has prevailed, and must 
prevail, in all styles and in all regions in which the chief 
building-materials are coarse or undecorative in them- 
selves, or in which, even where stone and marble abound, 
the exigencies of building require the use of the com- 
moner and coarser materials for the main fabric of the 
edifice. It is the system in general use in modern prac- 
tice, and is entirely reasonable and artistically proper, 
in spite of the objections raised against it by certain 

134 



ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN ORNAMENT, I 

critics who assail it as "false" and "illogical," because 
the construction is not identical with the decoration but 
is concealed by it. But solid masonry of cut stone or 
of brick and terra-cotta, and in some cases wooden or 
steel construction, afford the only opportunities for the 
Greek or Gothic system in which construction and 
decoration are, or may be made, inseparable; and even 
with these the interior must in most cases be concealed 
by plaster, wainscot, tiles, ceilings and the like. The 
analogy of the skin of human beings and animals affords 
a justification from Nature, of the Roman, Byzan- 
tine and modern system, in its decorative concealment 
of the internal organism and construction, revealing only 
the general masses of the structure. 

By the Roman system, the unskilled labor of hordes 
of slaves, soldiers and peasants could be turned to 
account in the heavier work of construction, and great 
numbers of vast buildings be erected with comparative 
rapidity, leaving the decorative work to be later executed 
by artists and artisans, upon this structural core. The 
Roman genius for organization and adaptation, guiding 
and directing these artists, who were chiefly foreigners, 
at least in the earlier periods, developed new forms of 
decoration, in which conventional ornament took the 
place of figure sculpture. 

The principal types of decorative work thus developed 
were: (1) the decorative use of architectural features, 
such as columns, entablatures, pediments, moldings, 
panels and ceiling-coffers; (2) carved ornament in ex- 
traordinary variety; (3) figure-sculpture, such as groups 
in pediments, free statues on columns or entablatures in 

135 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

certain classes of structures, and reliefs in panels, 
spandrels and other defined spaces; (4) the chromatic 
effects of colored marbles and granites in columns, 

wainscoting and 
pavements; (5) 
mosaic of glass or 
marble in floors and 
ceilings; (6) stucco- 
relief in delicate 
patterns, often com- 
bined with (7) 
mural painting in 
brilliant colors, and 
(8) bronze work on 
ceilings, in grilles 
and doors, and in 
decorative adjuncts 
like tripods and 
candelabra. 

Architectural 
Features. 

FIG. 164. ROMAN ARCH (ARCH OF TITUS). The remarkable 
variety of the Roman buildings and structural devices 
lent itself to a corresponding variety of decorative ef- 
fects in which the purely decorative use of various 
structural features played a prominent part. Pilas- 
ters and engaged columns with their entablatures, pedi- 
ments over doors, windows and niches, recessed arches 
and deep ceiling-panels were the chief elements of 
this pseudo-structural decoration. The combination 

136 




ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN ORNAMENT, I 

of the arch adorned with its archivolt and keystone 
with engaged columns carrying entablatures (Fig. 
164) was the most important of these decorative de- 
vices, and has been in more or less constant use ever 
since Roman times. In the later Imperial age, and 
particularly in the provinces, as at Spalato in Dalmatia 




FIG. 165. NICHE-CAP, BAALBEK. 

and in Syria at Baalbek and Palmyra, there was, under 
the Antonines and later emperors, a remarkable increase 
in the variety of these decorative applications of archi- 
tectural features. Curved and broken pediments, 
colonnettes on brackets, spirally fluted columns, and 
niches with shell hoods are among the features most 
widely used. Some of these works have a singularly 
modern look, as if of the Palladian Renaissance, which, 
indeed, independently re-invented many of these devices 
thirteen hundred years later * (Fig. 165) . 

i This use of structural forms as mere decoration has been condemned 
as "sham" and "false" design by certain purist critics, who contrast it un~ 
favorably with the "truthful" architecture of the Greek and Gothic builders. 

137 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Conventional Ornament. 

In developing the details of this system the Romans 
were obliged to employ Greek artists and to begin with 
Greek models for the most part. The Greek orders, the 
Greek fret and anthemion, molding-ornaments, rosette, 
acanthus-leaf and rinceau, were appropriated, but not 
without radical modifications. With such stupendous 




//V 



FIG. 166. FRAGMENT FROM TEMPLE OF VESPASIAN, IN VILLA ALDOBRANDINI. 

aggregations of buildings as the Romans raised in their 
cities both in Italy and abroad structures often many- 
storied and of vast dimensions figure-sculpture was 
out of the question as the chief decoration, not so much 
on account of its enormous cost as because it would have 
been wasted and ineffective. Carved conventional 
ornament, on the other hand, with its repeated units, 
(Fig. 166) enriches such buildings without requiring 

But even in Greek architecture there are analogous "shams," like the 
pseudo-structural paneling of the Greek pteroma-ceilings, while the useless 
false gables and the rich wall-traceries of Gothic art are perfect examples 
of the purely ornamental use of forms primarily structural. The fact is 
that in all advanced stages of art the structural forms of earlier stages have 
been similarly turned to decorative account. 

138 



ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN ORNAMENT, I 

that semi-isolation and that nearness to the eye which 
are essential for the best effect of figure sculpture. 
Plastic ornament was carried by the Romans to the 
highest perfection of appropriate design, of rich effect, 
and often of exquisite execution. Moldings were 
combined and profiled with the greatest care, though 
the profiles were generally less subtile than those of the 
Greek moldings. In monumental buildings nearly all 





FIG. 167. ROMAN MOLDINGS. 

a, SIMPLE WATER LEAF; b, ENRICHED WATER LEAF; c, d, ACANTHUS 
LEAF ENRICHMENTS. 

the moldings were enriched by carving, the ornamenta- 
tion being more elaborate than in the Greek prototypes 
sometimes, indeed, too minute for the best effect, but 
almost always appropriate and beautiful (Fig. 167). 
The general effect of all this decoration was one of 
great dignity and splendor. The striving for magnifi- 
cence sometimes led to offenses against good taste, and 
the execution is occasionally coarse, but such offenses 
are rare, . and beauty, refinement, delicacy and charm 
frequently characterize even the grandest works. 

139 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

The Orders. 

The most conspicuous adornment of Roman buildings 
was effected by the use of columns and pilasters with 
their entablatures, in one or more of the so-called "Five 
Orders" the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and 
Composite (Plate VIII). In reality there are but 




FIG. 168. ROMAN IONIC CAPITALS. 

three, the Tuscan and Doric being mere variants of 
one type and the Composite and Corinthian of another. 
Upon their so-called Doric column, which was really 
an enriched and refined form of the Etruscan ( Tuscan ) 
column, the Romans placed an entablature derived from 
that of the Greek Doric order, with its triglyphs and 
mutules. The Ionic was but slightly varied from the 
Greek Ionic type of Asia Minor. The capital occurs 
in two forms : one following the Greek model, but with 
a straight band between the volutes, on the front and 

140 



ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN ORNAMENT, I 

rear faces, instead of a depressed curved band (see 
Plate VIII, 3) ; and the other with four double volutes 
at the angles of the abacus, in order to make the four 
faces of the capital alike; this is sometimes called 
erroneously the "Scamozzi Ionic" (Fig. 168). The 
Corinthian, an elaboration of the Greek Corinthian but 




FIG. 169. CORINTHIAN CAPITAL, TEMPLE OF MAES 
ULTOR. 

with a special type of cornice, is the really distinctive 
Roman order. With the Greeks it had been a mere 
variant of the Ionic; the Romans developed its capital 
into a type generally recognized as one of the most beau- 
tiful ever devised. In its most perfect examples, as in 
that of the Pantheon, the Temple of Castor and Pollux 
and the Temple of Faustina, it consists of two rows of 
erect acanthus-leaves surrounding and concealing the 
lower two-thirds of a bell-shaped core on which rests a 

141 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

molded abacus with concave sides. The upper part is 
concealed by sixteen spiral volutes which spring in 
branching pairs from eight caulicoli or leaf-nests, set 
between the eight leaves of the upper row. These 
volutes meet in eight pairs under the four corners of the 
abacus and under rosettes at the centers of its four sides 
(Fig. 169, Figure 174; Plate VIII, 4, 6) . The details 
of this type are endlessly varied; in late examples ani- 
mals and human figures sometimes take the place of the 




FIG. 172. MODILLKW. 

corner volutes. The Composite capital, having volutes 
only at the angles, and larger than in the Corinthian, 
may be considered an inferior variant of the Corinthian, 
though sometimes very splendidly carved (Plate VIII, 
2, 7; Figure 170) . It somewhat resembles a four-faced 
Ionic capital placed upon the lower part of a Corinthian 
capital. Pilaster caps show a greater variety of design 
than capitals of columns (Plate VIII, 8; Figure 171). 
To these improvements upon the Greek order they 
added that of a special type of base, an elaboration of 
the Attic base, consisting of two tori separated by two 

142 



3 




FIG. 170. COMPOSITE CAPITAL (LATERAN MUSEUM, ROME) 




Fia. 173. RESTORATION OF CORNICE, BASILICA /EMILIA (FROM DRAWING BY R. H. 

SMYTHE) 




145 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

scotias and a single or double bead. In late examples 
these moldings were all carved, reproducing at the base 
something of the elaborate richness of the capital (Plate 
VIII, 9, 10, 11). 

But the Romans not only perfected the Greek Corin- 
thian capital and base ; they developed also a new type 
of cornice which completed the Corinthian as a distinct 
order (Figure 174, page 151). This was accomplished 
by the simple but epoch-making device of introducing 
modillion brackets beneath the corona and above the bed- 
mold of the typical Ionic cornice. The modillion 
(Fig. 172) was a completely new architectural in- 
vention. The recently excavated fragments of the 
Basilica Emilia (86 B.C.) show a primitive form com- 
posed of a mutule decorated on the under side with a 
reversed scroll (Figure 173). 2 The modillion of the 
Maison Carree at Nimes (4 A.D.) somewhat resem- 
bles this type; the more perfect type is shown in 
Plate VIII, 4. 

Variety in the Roman Orders. 

It is frequently asserted that the Romans reduced 
their Orders to a purely mechanical system of mathe- 
matically formulated dimensions for each part. This 
assertion springs from a blind acceptance of the rules 
laid down by Vitruvius (or of the later formulae of 
Vignola and other Italian Renaissance writers) as if 
they represented the actual historic practice of the 
Romans. In reality nothing could well be further from 
the truth. There are no two examples of any of the 

2 Tliis appears to have been used over an Ionic order. 

146 



ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN ORNAMENT, I 

orders from different buildings that are alike, either in 
general proportions or details. The Roman Doric is 
at least as varied as the Greek Doric, and the variety 
in Corinthian capitals and entablatures is simply aston- 
ishing. There was, no doubt, throughout the Imperial 
age a tendency towards uniformity in certain general 
features and proportions, but this never hardened into 
cast-iron formulae, and the beauty and vitality of Roman 
ornament are largely due to the variety and individual- 
ity of the designs of different buildings, and of different 
times and places. 

Decorative Uses of the Orders. 

In Roman architecture columns were not only used 
for their original function as true structural supports 
in porticoes and colonnades, but also, with their entab- 
latures, for decorative purposes, by engaging them in 
the walls, which were thus architectually divided into 
bays and stories. In arcaded structures the columns, 
apparently engaged into the piers between the arches, 
were in reality parts of the piers themselves, acting to 
that extent as buttresses; but their chief function in 
such buildings was esthetic, not structural. They were 
expressive as well as decorative, emphasizing to the eye 
the lines of vertical support and of concentrated thrust 
of the building, while indicating externally the internal 
structural divisions. At the same time they broke the 
surface of the edifice into rectangular panels or units, 
outlined by strong lights and shades, in which the arches 
were effectively framed. 

The Romans also invented the pilaster, a flattened 

147 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

replica of the column, used as a wall-decoration, and 
as a respond behind free-standing columns, as in tri- 
umphal arches and forum walls. Over columns so 
placed in front of pilasters the entablature was made to 
project in a salient block, while between the columns 
it was set back nearly to the wall-face, thus producing 
the much criticized ressaut or "broken entablature." 
When this projecting block and the column below it 
together serve as a pedestal for a statue, as in the Arch 
of Constantine (Figure 175), they serve at least a real 
esthetic function. In other cases the order thus used 
becomes a purely factitious decoration, unexplained to 
the eye, as it supports nothing even in appearance. 

The shafts of columns and of pilasters were sometimes 
fluted, sometimes smooth. When monolithic shafts of 
polished granite or marble were used, as was general in 
the later Imperial age, the decorative splendor of the 
colored material took the place of enrichment by fluting, 
as a characteristic Roman practice. 

The use of pedestals, by means of which an order of 
smaller-scaled parts could be used for a given height of 
story, was another distinctively Roman device to add to 
the flexibility of the Orders (Figure 175). 

Books Recommended: 
See List at end of Chapter X. 



148 




B a 



a 2 

*r * 

a 

'. Q 
fl O 




2 3 



CHAPTER X 

ROMAN ORNAMENT, II 

Carved Ornament. 

In this field Roman art surpassed all previous styles 
in the variety and splendor of its achievements, and 
originated types which have persisted through all the 
centuries since. The beauty of the Corinthian capital 
and entablature has already been alluded to, as well 
as the richness of the Roman carved moldings. Roman 




FIG. 176. TYPICAL ACANTHUS LEAVES. 

friezes, bands and panels were adorned with a like rich- 
ness of conventional carving. Practically the whole of 
this ornament was based on Greek prototypes the an- 

151 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 



themion and rinceau supplying the motives for the 
greater part of it. If we add to these the rosette, 
festoon or garland, 1 and the use of symbolic and 
grotesque forms, and note that the acanthus-leaf in an 
endless variety of modifications, was worked into every 
possible detail, we have the key to the greater part of 
this ornament. But with these few fundamental 
motives the Roman artists developed a quantity and 
variety of designs which for richness and appropriate- 
ness of effect and extraordinary flexibility of application 
have never been surpassed. Some of it is heavy and 
over-wrought; but the beauty and refinement of the 
great majority of examples entitle them to high praise. 

The Acanthus. 

This constitutes a type rather than a particular form 
of leaf. As compared with the 
Greek type, it is less massive, less 
pointed, more minutely modeled; 
it suggests a larger, thinner, more 
flexible and more complex leaf, 
with well-developed "eyes" at the 
bases of the lobes and "pipes" or 
ribs curving from these to the base 
of the leaf (Fig. 176) . The stand- 
ing leaves in the figure may be 
compared with the natural acan- 
thus mollis in Figure 153, a (p. 
113). There are many leaves in 
nature which are divided in much 




Fio. 177. TYPES OF 
ACAXTHCS. 



i Or "swag," as it is often called by English writers. 

152 



ROMAN ORNAMENT, II 

the same way, and the Romans varied the carved type 
almost ad infinitum, so that it recalls various leaves, and 
modern writers have given them fanciful names accord- 
ingly the "olive," "palm," etc. though in each case 
we have a purely conventional variation of the type. 
Fig. 177 shows a few of these variants. 

The acanthus was used (a) as a standing leaf in 
capitals and on some moldings; (b) as a molding orna- 
ment (Fig. 167, c, d) ; (c) as a nest or bunch of leaves 
from which to start a rinceau (Plate IX, 1, 10, 12; Fig- 
ure 178, Fig. 179) ; (d) as a caulicolus or wrapping- 
leaf to mask the branching of the scrolls (Plate IX, 10; 
Figs. 166, 179) ; (e) as an ornament around the 
stems of candelabra and the bellies of vases (Plate X, 
13; Fig. 180) ; (f) as a conventional plant to alter- 
nate with or replace the anthemion (Plate IX, 8), and 
(g) to form the petals of a rosette (Fig. 181; Plate 
IX, 9). All these applications may be studied in 
Plates VIII, IX and X. 

The Rinceau. 

The origin and development of the rinceau have al- 
ready been traced in Greek ornament (pages 000). 
The Roman version of it became the most important of 
all Roman motives, and has been perhaps the most pro- 
lific of all historic ornament-forms except the lotus. A 
round stem, springing from a nest of acanthus-leaves 
(Figs. 166, 179, 182), branches into scrolls alternately 
winding upon one and the other side, each terminating, 
not in a point as in the Greek type, but in an elaborate 
flower or bunch of leaves (Figure 181, page 143) . Each 

153 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

branching is concealed by an elaborate caulicolus or 
wrapping-leaf, which springs from a calyx-like cup- 
flower at its base. Such spaces as would otherwise be 




FIG. 179. RINCEAU, FORUM OP TRAJAN. 

left bare are often filled with subordinate scrolls and 
tendrils, and in rare instances animal life is introduced 
in the form of birds, mice and insects (Plate IX) . 




FIG. 18;?. RINCEAU, FROM TEMPLE OF THE SUN. 

While some examples of the rinceau are heavy and 
overcrowded, as in the example from the Temple of the 
Sun (Fig. 182), others are remarkable for their deli- 

154 



ROMAN ORNAMENT, II 

cately handled relief and exquisite details (Fig. 179). 
There is the greatest possible variety of effect both in 
the composition and detailed treatment. 

The rinceau was used (a) for friezes and bands; (b) 
for pilasters, either single, filling the whole width of the 
pilaster-panel, or doubled symmetrically on either side 
of a central axis (Figure 178) ; (c) on flat surfaces or 
panels of almost any form symmetrically repeated on 
either side of a vertical axis. Examples are shown in 
Plate IX. 

The Anthemion. 

The preceding examples illustrate the applications 
of the acanthus listed under c and d (page 153) ; Fig. 
183 and Plate IX, 8, illustrate a group of forms based 
on the anthemion. While some examples resemble 
quite closely the Greek carved anthemion, others depart 
widely from the type, constituting a new and original 
ornament form. 

Ceiling Decoration. 

The wooden ceilings of the basilicas and private 
houses have perished. Vaulted ceilings were decorated 
in either two ways : by stucco ornament, modeled in re- 
lief and painted, or by paneling in deep "coffers" or 
"caissons." These were derived originally through 
Greek architecture from wooden ceilings framed with 
intersecting beams. In the Pantheon they appear to 
have been hewn out of the solid brick masonry of the 
dome, long after its original completion, its 28 rows of 
panels fitting but indifferently over the eight-fold 

155 





divisions of the architec- 
ture below. An early 
and elegant example of 
vault-paneling is seen in 
the soffit of the Arch of 
Titus (80 A.D.). The 
panels were in most cases 
simple geometric forms 
squares, octagons, "loz- 
enges," etc.; the sides of 
each caisson were molded 
and the fields of the pan- 
els adorned with splen- 
didly carved rosettes or 
with mosaic patterns, or 
else left plain (Fig. 184) . 
Ceiling decoration in 
stucco is treated in a later 
paragraph (page 161; 
see Figures 187 and 201) . 

Figure Sculpture. 

Figure sculpture played 
a far less important part 
in the decoration of Roman buildings than in the Greek 
monuments. The reasons for this have been already 
touched upon (page 138). Nevertheless the splendid 
decorative value of the figure was not ignored, but was 
availed of in many decorative reliefs of high artistic 
excellence. The Romans were especially successful in 
the sculpture of symbolic grotesques and of infant fig- 

156 




FIG. 183. 



ROMAN CARVED ANTHEMI- 
ONS. 



ROMAN ORNAMENT, II 

ures (genii and amorini) . By a grotesque is meant an 
artistic combination of heterogeneous Nature-forms, as 
in Fig. 195, where an infant figure is provided with 
wings, and terminates in a superb acanthus scroll in 
place of legs. The festoon or "swag" and garland, 
bound with fluttering ribbons representing sacrificial 





FIG. 184. 

fillets (Figure 186; Plate VIII, 3, 6) ; the bucrane or 
ox-skull, likewise a sacrificial symbol (Plate IX, 7) ; the 
dolphin and steering-paddle symbolizing Neptune and 
water (Figure 185) ; the Imperial eagle, and trophies 
of arms and armor, are common in Roman decorative 
art. 

The most beautiful of Roman relief decorations are 
perhaps the charming reliefs modeled in plaster on the 
ceilings and walls of houses and thermse, as noted in a 
later paragraph. 

157 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Wall Decoration. 

Three methods were employed : marble veneer, paint- 
ing and stucco-relief. Both in the richer private houses 
and palaces, and in the thermae, basilicas and temples, 
the lower part at least of the interior walls was wains- 
coted with slabs of variegated marble, so set as to pro- 
duce symmetrical patterns of veining. This practice 
was probably introduced from Asia Minor, where 
marble abounds, although it has been contended 2 with 
a good deal of force, that it came from Alexandria 
together with the sort of mosaic called Opus Alexan- 
drinum. The origin is less important than the result. 
A special emporium was established on the Tiber for 
the traffic in marble, of which enormous quantities were 
required for columns, wainscots and pavements. The 
ancient wall-incrustations have mostly disappeared, torn 
away to supply materials for medieval and even Renais- 
sance buildings. One important example, however, 
remains; the interior wall of the Pantheon, up to the 
main cornice, still retains for the most part its original 
lining, in perfect condition. This style of decoration 
has survived in the Early Christian basilicas and Byzan- 
tine churches (see Chapters XII and XIII). 

Stucco Relief. 

It was the Romans who first, with the aid, most prob- 
ably, of Greek artificers, developed the artistic possibili- 
ties of work in stucco for interior decorations, especially 
of vaulted ceilings. This art had evidently reached 

2 See "Transactions of the Royal Institute of British Architects," vol. Ill, 
New Series; 1887. 

158 



5 




FIQ. 187. STUCCO RELIEF; TOMB ON VIA LATINA 




FIG. 188. STUCCO RELIEF, FROM A ROMAN HOUSE (IN MUSEO DELLE TERME) 



ROMAN ORNAMENT, II 

a high state of perfection by the middle of the first 
century A.D. The substructions of the Golden House 
of Nero (who died A.D. 68), and of the Baths of Titus, 
built in 74 on the same site, together with numerous 
examples in Pompeii, which was overwhelmed by the 
eruption of 79 A.D., afford abundant proof of the bril- 
liance, delicacy and originality of the Roman stucco- 
work of this time. The Roman stucco, made in part 
with pounded marble and thoroughly slaked lime, was 
extraordinarily fine and durable. It was applied only 
as fast as it could be worked into decorative form, and 
molded partly by mechanical means, partly freehand, 
while still wet. The area to be decorated was laid off 
in panels of various geometric forms, outlined by mold- 
ings of delicate profile, often enriched with eggs-and- 
darts, leaves or other ornaments. The panels were 
then adorned with paintings, with glass-mosaic (as in 
the Baths of Caracalla), or more frequently, with relief 
arabesques or figures modeled in the stucco; and it is 
in these last that the highest skill was manifested. The 
exquisite charm of this work, its delicacy of low relief, 
the freedom and dash of its execution indicate artistic 
ability and taste of a very high order (Figures 187, 188) . 
Important examples of various handlings of this 
material are: at Rome, Tombs on the Via Latina, the 
substructions of the Baths of Titus and of Nero's 
Golden House, ruins on the Palatine and fragments in 
the Musec delle Terme from a house uncovered in 1879 
near the Villa Farnesina, in excavations for the new 
Tiber embankments; at Pompeii, the Baths of the 
Forum (the tepidarium), Stabian Baths and a few 

161 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

examples in private houses. The great majority of 
these date from the first century A.D., after which a 
more robust and monumental decoration of walls and 
ceilings appears to have gradually displaced this charm- 
ing but minute and intimate form of art. 

The ornaments of stucco in low relief were often com- 
bined with painting, on walls as well as ceilings. The 
labyrinth of piers and vaults under the ruins of the 
Baths of Titus on the Esquiline (part of them belong- 
ing to the Golden House of Nero) are doubly interest- 
ing because they furnished the models from which 
Raphael drew his inspiration for his remarkable painted 
stucco-relief decorations in the Loggie of the Vatican, 
and less directly, Giulio Romano and Giovanni da 
Udine for those in the Villa Madama. 

Painting. 

The above examples, especially those from the house 
uncovered in 1879, and others in the Villa of Hadrian 
at Tivoli, and in the so-called Casa di Livia on the 
Palatine, prove the substantial identity of style of the 
mural paintings in the Capital with those at Pompeii, 
with only such differences of quality as one might expect 
between the Capital and a provincial town, somewhat 
hastily rebuilt after the earthquake of 63. This phase 
of Roman ornament will be treated in the next chapter, 
devoted to Pompeii, on account of the great number 
and importance of the Pompeiian examples. 

Pavements. 

The floors of all important buildings were of marble 

162 




FIG. 190. 



DETAIL, FLOOR, MOSAIC, IN VILLA 
ITALICA, SEVILLE. 



ROMAN ORNAMENT, II 

or mosaic. Marble 
was used in large 
panels of various 
colors in circles, 
squares and simple 
geometric forms ; but 
as with the wains- 
coting, most of these 
pavements have dis- 
appeared to provide 
materials for the 
floors of Christian 
basilicas. That of 
the Pantheon may be in part original, and fragments of 
the floor of the Basilica Julia have also been preserved. 
Mosaic floors were paved with minute tesserae or 
roughly squared fragments of 
colored marble, tile or other ma- 
terial, set in patterns usually of 
a plain field with a decorative bor- 
der in the larger rooms, though in 
smaller rooms all-over patterns 
were not uncommon (Plate XI, 
9, 11, 12). Outside of Rome, in 
Asia Minor and in other remote 
provinces as well as in Pompeii, 
elaborately pictured floors were 
executed in tessera? of variously 
colored marbles. The most fa- 
mous example from the House of 
the Faun in Pompeii is now pre- 
163 




FIG. 193. ORNAMENTS, 
BRONZE AND GOLD. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

served in the Naples Museum (see page 182). Figure 
189 illustrates a floor pattern of "swastikas" from a 
house in Pompeii. There are some fine examples in the 
Museum of Constantinople. Fig. 190 shows a detail 
of the mosaic floor of a Roman villa near Seville, Spain. 

Furniture and Utensils. 

Whatever furniture was of wood has perished; but 
the more important and permanent objects in the equip- 




Fio. 194. UNDER SIDE OF SILVER VASE, HILDESHEIM TREASURE. 

ment of houses were of marble and bronze, and of these, 
together with the smaller utensils and furnishings in 
bronze, we have many examples in the various museums. 
As, however, the great majority of these are from 
Pompeii, they will be briefly discussed and illustrated in 
the following chapter on Pompeiian art. Plate X and 
Figures 191, 192 and Figs. 193, 194 show illustrations 

164 




FIG. 191. MARBLE VASE, NAPLES MUSEUM 




FIG. 192. ROMAN VASE (FROM CAST IN METROPOLITAN MUSEUM, NEW YORK) 



ROMAN ORNAMENT, II 

of pedestals, candelabra and vases, mostly in the muse- 
ums of the Vatican and of the Capitol at Rome and in 
the Museo Nazionale at Naples. Large vases of marble, 
elaborately sculptured, were used in the decoration of 
villas, presumably in the gardens, serving most probably 
as vases for the planting of flowers, vines and small trees 
or shrubs. In these, Roman decorative art reached a 
high degree of excellence and supplied models which 
the Renaissance artists of Italy and later of France 
imitated with success but hardly surpassed. The 
Museum of the Louvre possesses a colossal marble vase 
with spiral flutings and figures in relief, and other ex- 
amples are found in the Capitoline and Vatican museums 
at Rome and the Nazionale at Naples (Figures 191, 
192). Convex and concave flutings, acanthus-leaves 
and guilloches, the vine and grotesques are the most com- 
mon adornments of these fine vases, the grace of whose 
outlines is fully equal to the splendor of their decoration. 

Goldsmith's Work and Jewelry. 

Skill in jewelry was shown by the Etruscans, who 
may have furnished the greater part of the jewelers 
even in Imperial times. The character of the later 
jewelry bracelets, brooches, pendants and pins does 
not differ essentially from that of the earlier Etruscan 
work except in greater variety of form. The bronze 
and silver mirrors deserve notice for the beauty of the 
handles and backs. The famous Hildesheim Treasure, 
discovered in 1868 at Hildesheim, Germany, com- 
prising gold and silver bowls, platters and other vessels 
magnificently decorated with figures, vines and orna- 

167 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

ments in relief, reveals the same excellent taste and fine 
workmanship observable in Roman works in bronze and 
marble (Plate X and Figure 193). 




FIG. 195. 



Books Recommended: 

As before, ANDERSON and SPIERS, BAUMEISTER, JACOBSTHAL, 
KACHEL, VULLIAMY. Also, F. ALBERTOLLI: Fregi trovati negli 
Scavi del Foro Trajano (Milan, 1824) ; Ornamenti d'wersi An- 
tonini (Milan, 1843); Manuale di varii ornamenti . . . e fra- 
menti antichi (Rome, 1781-1790). J. BUEHLMANN: The 
Architecture of Classical Antiquity and the Renaissance (New 
York, 1900). G. P. CAMPANA: Antiche Opere in Plastica 
(Rome, 1851). J. DURM : Baukunst der Etrusker; Baukunst 
der Romer (Darmstadt, 1885). G. EBE: Die Schmuckformen 

168 



ROMAN ORNAMENT, II 

der Monumentalbauten (Leipzig, 1896). H. D'ESPOUY: Frag- 
ments de I 'architecture antique (Paris, 1896-1905). P. Gus- 
MAN: UArt decoratif de Rome (Paris, 1908). S. HESSEL- 
BACH: Vergleichende Darstellung der antiken Ornamentik, etc. 
(Wiirzburg, 1849). J. DE MARTA: L'Art Etrusque; Archeol- 
ogie etrusque et romaine (Paris, n. d.). STRACK: Baudenk- 
maler Roms. (Berlin, 1891). C. H. TATHAM: Etchings 
(London, 1810). TAYLOR AND CRESY, Antiquities of Rome 
(London, 1824). THIERRY: Klassische Ornamente. C. UHDE: 
Architecturformen des Klassischen Altertums (Berlin, n. d.); 
also an edition in English (New York, 1909). 

Consult also various volumes of the engravings of PIRANESI 
(to be found only in the larger libraries) ; the volumes of 
L'Art pour Tous (Paris, 1863 ) ; and the printed transactions 
of various archaeological societies, for valuable material. 



169 



CHAPTER XI 

POMPEIIAN ORNAMENT 

The decorative art of Pompeii was a provincial phase 
of Roman art differing from that of the capital in cer- 
tain aspects, precisely as in Dalmatia, in Syria and in 
North Africa, local conditions modified the detailed 
forms of decorative expression while the Roman impress 
was nevertheless over all. It is pervaded by a spirit 
of Grecian delicacy and refinement, due to the strong 
Greek element in the population of Southern Italy; but 
there are details on the other hand which smack of the 
Etruscan. The importance of Pompeiian art is due to 
its wonderfully complete preservation by burial under 
the scoriae after the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 A.D. 
Its progressive excavation since 1748 has laid bare the 
aspect, life and art of a provincial South Italian city of 
the first century, while all other Roman cities (except 
Herculanum, still buried) have suffered complete trans- 
formation by successive rebuildings through eighteen 
centuries. 

Two facts must be kept in mind in all study of Pom- 
peiian art: first, that the majority of houses and many 
of the temples and public buildings were, at the time 
of the eruption, newly built to replace those destroyed 
by the earthquake of 63 A.D.; and that in consequence 

170 



POMPEIIAN ORNAMENT 

of the earthquake they were mostly low buildings, un- 
like the more lofty and monumental architecture of 
most other cities; secondly, that they represent the 
relatively early Roman art of the first century, previous 
to the time of Domitian, and not of the later and more 
splendid Imperial age. Yet in the matter of decoration 
there is less difference of style than one would expect 
from the work of the same age in the Capital (e.g., the 




FIG. 196. IONIC CAP, CORKER VOLTTTES. 

House of Livia and the frescoes in the Museo delle 
Terme) or even of a later period as seen in the Villa 
of Hadrian. 

The ornament of Pompeii will be discussed under 
four heads: (1) Architectural detail ; (2) Mural decora- 
tion; (3) Mosaic; (4) Furniture and utensils. It will 
be seen that in all these divisions, while the motives are 
essentially Roman, there is a freedom, a lightness of 
touch and delicacy of treatment, which suggest Greek 
workmanship, and which are probably due to the per- 
sistent strain of Hellenic blood in the population of all 
Southern Italy. 

171 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 



Architectural Detail. 

The Orders were handled with great freedom, whether 
executed in cut-stone, or, as more frequently, in rubble 
or brick finished in stucco. The Doric order was often 
of the Greek rather than of the Roman type ; the Ionic 
capital usually had doubled corner- volutes and a very 
slight projection or width as compared with both Greek 
and Roman types (Fig. 196), and the Corinthian 




FIG. 197. POMPEIIAN MOLDINGS. 



capital was considerably varied, both in the number and 
character of its leaves. The Roman type of acanthus 
is not found, a more bluntly crinkled leaf being pre- 
ferred. The Doric columns had no bases, those of the 
other orders often lacked plinths ; the moldings differed 
from the Roman, in having profiles more varied and 
delicate, with an almost feminine refinement (Fig. 
197). The entablatures have for the most part 
perished. The few fragments that remain intact show 
the same characteristics in varying from the fashions 
of Rome and in refinement of detail. A common 
Pompeiian feature was the filling-up of the lower part 

172 



POMPEIIAN ORNAMENT 

of the flutings of stuccoed columns, to prevent the 
chipping and marring of the fragile arrises ; sometimes a 
convex "flute" or bead inserted in this portion protected 
without quite filling the fluting, and this has become a 
common decorative device of modern architecture. 

All this Pompeiian architecture of rubble and stucco 
was embellished with color, of which traces still remain. 
Even capitals were painted and the carved and molded 




FIG. 198. CARVED POMPEIIAX RINCEAU. 

details were adorned in like manner. One house is 
known as the Casa del capitelli colorati, the House of 
Painted Capitals, because of the perfect preservation 
of the color on its stucco or cement capitals; but it was 
originally but one of hundreds so adorned. Figure 198 
illustrates the elegance of detail in a carved rinceau in 
stone. 

Mural Decoration. 

In this field the Pompeiian remains are unrivaled. 
The chief means of decoration was by painting on 
stucco ; the use of rich marbles, whether for construction 

173 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

or wall-incrustation, although increasingly common in 
Rome for at least a half century before the destruction 
of Pompeii, was not common in the provincial town. 
The surprising thing is that within less than sixteen 
years after the destructive earthquake of A.D. 63, this 
town should have been rebuilt with such elaboration of 
elegance in its painted decorations as the remains have 
exhibited. Many of the paintings have been trans- 
ferred to the Royal Museum at Naples, but the wealth 
of decoration still remaining in place is astonishing, in 
quality as well as quantity. Some of the more recently 
excavated houses that of Queen Margherita, of the 
Vettii, and others, equal or surpass the splendors of the 
Museum (Figures 199, 200). 

Four well-marked periods or styles (for doubtless 
they overlap independently of period-limits) are recog- 
nized. The first, supposed to be Etruscan or Cumaean, 
and dating as far back as 100 B.C., is that of walls simply 
divided into panels of different colors with occasional 
painted imitations of marble wainscot. The second, 
called the Greek, supposed to have been introduced 
about 80 B.C., is distinguished by the earliest use of 
pictures copied from Greek originals, or reminiscences 
of them, the subjects being mostly taken from Greek 
mythology. A very simple type of painted archi- 
tectural embellishment accompanies many of these pic- 
tured decorations: painted columns, bases and entab- 
latures serving to mark off the wall-divisions. The 
third and fourth styles are Roman or Pompeiian; both 
are found in the houses rebuilt after the earthquake, 
and both are characterized by a light and fantastic archi- 

174 



POMPEIIAN ORNAMENT 

tecture painted in a conventional perspective, with 
slender columns as of gold, with extraordinary entab- 
latures, pediments and balconies, giving vistas of the 
clear sky above, and enclosing pictures of varied sub- 
jects, sometimes of large size, or simpler colored panels 
in the centers of which float airy figures of nymphs, 
cupids and other mj^thological beings, In the Fourth 
or Florid style this "dream" architecture is still more 
complex, attenuated and fantastic than in the Third, 
and the simpler and more obvious wall-decorations 
of friezes and arabesques play a smaller part in the 
scheme. 

In the painted details, apart from pictures and the 
architecture, there is a great variety of conventional 
patterns for bands of ornament; a remarkably elegant 
treatment of the rinceau motive, in varied colors on 
black or red (Plate XI, 6) ; and a corresponding inter- 
pretation of carved pilaster arabesques in painted 
arabesques of yellow and other colors on a red, green or 
dark background (Plate XI, 1-6). Much of this 
decoration has the character of mere artisanship, but it 
is extremely clever artisanship, and one has no right to 
call for the higher qualities of art in the decorations of 
ordinary houses. 

The technic of the painting has been much discussed ; 
but it is now quite generally believed to have been 
executed in true fresco on the wet plaster, at least in 
the majority of examples; and then touched up and 
many of the details worked over, in the finer examples 
with encaustic painting. In this last process the pig- 
ments were mixed in melted wax on a hot metal palette 

177 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

and applied with a hot iron instrument instead of a 
brush. 1 

Stucco Relief. 

This form of mural decoration, as applied both to 
walls and ceilings, has already been touched upon (see 
ante, page 158). A comparison of the examples from 
Rome and Pompeii respectively, discloses no funda- 
mental difference of style or even quality between the 
work in the two cities. The most notable examples in 
Pompeii are those in the two chief baths the Thermae 
of the Forum and of Stabii. In these we have a rinceau 
frieze, delicate panel-moldings, ideal or mythological 
figures, Tritons, winged figures, dolphins and the like, 
and free-hand arabesques, all treated with an animation 
of design, a freedom from mechanical repetition and 
hardness, and a delicacy of handling, worthy of Greece 
and of the Capital, and surprising to find in a relatively 
small provincial city (Figure 201; Plate XI, 7, 10). 
This and the Roman stucco-work ought to be fruitfully 
suggestive to modern decorators, for its effects are full 
of charm, and yet not unduly costly or difficult to pro- 
duce. 

Besides these interior decorations in low relief, there 
should be mentioned the decorations of the exteriors of 
buildings by stucco details molded upon a rough core 
of rubble or brick, and also the use of stucco for columns 
and capitals in place of stone. It is easy to criticize 
adversely this substitution of a fragile for a monumental 

i In the Metropolitan Museum of Art at New York there are several sec- 
tions of wall from a villa at Boscoreale, with decorations of the Third 
Period, mostly landscapes of buildings and farms. 

178 




FIG. 201. POMPEIIAN STUCCO RELIEF; FROM THE STABIAN BATHS 



POMPEIIAN ORNAMENT 



material in exterior ar- 
chitecture; but given a 
scarcity of marble and of 
good building stone with 
an abundance of soft tufa 
and of "pozzolana" for 
the making of cement- 
stucco; given also the ne- 
cessity of a rapid re- 
building of almost an 
entire town after the 
earthquake of 63, and it 
would be hard to imagine 
a more artistic and satis- 
factory result than the 
Pompeiians produced in a 
few short years with rub- 
ble, stucco and paint. 

Mosaic. 




FIG. 202. MOSAIC FLOOR PATTERNS. 



Mosaic floors were al- 
most all of Opus Grecanicum, laid in small tesserae of 
marble and other stone or even tile, in patterns which 
frequently suggest rug-designs. Each floor has a bor- 
der and either an all-over patterned field (see Fig. 189) , 
a central medallion, or a spangled field (Fig. 202; 
Plate XI, 9, 11, 12). The swastika appears in some of 
these. The chained dog with the inscription Cave 
Canem ("beware the dog") was a common decoration 
of the prothyrum or vestibule. The finer houses boasted 
elaborate pictures in color, made with very small tesseraa, 

181 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

and in some cases, no doubt, copying parts or the whole 
of celebrated Greek pictures. Genre pictures and ani- 
mal subjects were common. The greatest and finest of 




FIG. 205. TABLE-LEO (MARBLE) AND BRONZE CANDELABRUM DETAILS. 

NAPLES MUSEUM. 

all mosaic pictures was found in the House of the Faun 
and transferred to the Naples Museum; it represents 
presumably the Battle of Issus, in a panel measuring 

182 



POMPEIIAN ORNAMENTS/I^ , , 

A 1 1 ^Hlt 

over 9 by 17 feet, and probably reproduces some cel0 A^ ^Ti 
brated Greek painting in Alexandria, from which city, 
after Pompey's victory in 69 B.C., a strong Hellenic in- 
fluence was exerted on Roman art. The portrait of 
Alexander is unmistakable; the light and shade, fore- 
shortening, drawing and color are remarkable and the 
execution extraordinarily fine. 

Mosaic was employed on walls as well as floors, though 
sparingly. A singular freak or novelty of design was 
the occasional combination of stucco-relief and mosaic. 
Another use of mosaic was in the decoration of the 
entire visible surface of various edicules, such as shrines 
and niche-fountains (Figure 203, p. 185), upon which 
the most brilliant colors of blue, red and green were 
applied by the use of glass tessera?, and varied effectively 
sometimes by scallop-shells inserted in bands or lines. 

Furniture and Utensils. 

The excavations at Pompeii and Herculanum have 
thrown a light on the more intimate details of Roman 
life not elsewhere to be obtained ; not only by the paint- 
ings of scenes from daily life and by the sgraffiti or 
scribblings on walls, but even more by the great wealth 
of utensils, implements and furniture of metal and 
marble exhumed from the ruins and for the most part 
transferred to the Naples Museum. Everything of 
wood and cloth was destroyed by the eruption, but 
marble and bronze and even iron were preserved by 
their burial in the volcanic ashes, and we have set before 
us the marble tables that adorned the atrium and peri- 
style, the fountains and marble vases or basins, the 

183 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

bronze couch-heads and frames, the candelabra and tri- 
pods of bronze, the braziers, water-heaters, mirrors, 
lamps, hair pins, fibulce or clasps, and innumerable other 
objects of metal. Here again the Greek refinement 
appears in all the details. Grotesques are sculptured 
with consummate skill (Fig. 204) ; especially notice- 
able are the lion's paws terminating in human or in 
beasts' heads (Plate X, 11, 12) and the winged monsters 
on table-supports. The lightness and grace of the 
bases and fluted standards of tripods and candelabra 
suggest that from them in part came the inspiration 
for the fantastically slender columns of the wall-paint- 
ings (Fig. 205). It is interesting to compare these 
slender candelabra and tripods with the massively splen- 
did forms of Roman candelabra in bronze and in marble 
in the Vatican (see Plate X). The Pompeiian tombs 
and altars compared with the Roman show a somewhat 
similar contrast in the detail, though less strongly 
marked; there is more reserve, less monumental bold- 
ness in the composition and in the detail. 

Books Recommended: 

MAU, trans, by KELSEY: Pompeii (New York, 1902). 
MAZOIS: Les mines de Pompeii (Paris, 1824). NICCOLINI: Le 
case ed i monumenti di Pompeii (Naples, 185496). PRESUHN: 
Die neueste Ausgrabungen zu Pompeii (Leipzig, 1882). 
ZAHN: Ornemens de Pompeii (Berlin, 1828); Omamente oiler 
Klassischen Kunstepochen (Berlin, I860). 



184 




FIG. 203. MOSAIC FOUNTAIN, IN COURT OF 
CASA GRANDE 




FIG. 204. MARBLE TABLE SUPPORTS; HOUSE OF CORNELIUS RUFUS 



CHAPTER XII 

EARLY CHRISTIAN OR BASILICAN ORNAMENT 

It would be hard to point to two successive styles of 
architecture and ornament further apart in spirit and 
detail than those of Imperial Rome and Early Christian 
Rome, yet they form no exception to the rule of style- 
development by gradual transition. This transition is 
for us obscured first by the widespread destruction of 
early churches in the East during the Moslem conquests 
and in the West during the persecutions under Dio- 
cletian, and also by the fact that the beginnings of Chris- 
tian symbolic art in Europe were made in the catacombs 
and not above ground, and were thus humble and incon- 
spicuous. But the Christian artists were Romans, 
working upon the basis of Roman art traditions which, 
up to the legalization of Christianity by Constantine in 
312 A.D., were applied alike to secular and religious 
buildings. It was the predominance after that date of 
religious art employing a wholly new symbolism that 
most effectively differentiated the Christian from the 
pagan Imperial style. 

Christian art began, then, nowhere as a consciously 
new art, but everywhere in Syria, Asia Minor, Egypt, 
Italy and Greece as a phase of the existing local art. 
In the Eastern empire, with Constantinople as its center, 

187 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

religious architecture and decoration diverged rapidly 
under Greek influence from the style of the West to 
become what we call the Byzantine. In Italy, with 
Rome as its center, they took on the development com- 
monly called the Early Christian, or Latin, or from 
the resemblance of the churches to the secular basilicas 
of the Empire the Basilican style. 

Early Christian Art Sepulchral. 

The beginnings of Christian art are not, however, to 
be looked for in architecture. Until the edict of Con- 
stantine legalizing Chris- 
tianity, its rites were, at 
least in the West, prac- 
tised in private, largely in 
secret, and the language 
of symbols took on in- 
creased importance where 
persecution so often fol- 
lowed open speech. Upon 
the walls of the cata- 
combs, which served not 
merely as places of sep- 
ulture but also as meet- 
ing-places for worship, 
were painted scriptural 
scenes and symbolic com- 
positions : the Good Shep- 
herd as a yOUng man FlG - ~ 06 - SARCOPHAGUS END, RAVEX if A. 

carrying a lamb on his shoulder, in evident reminiscence 
of the classic Herakles Kriophoros ; the fish, the letters of 

188 





FIG. 207. DETAIL, SAN LOKENZO FUORI LE MURA 




FIG. 210. APSE MOSAIC, SAN CLEMENTE 



BASILICAN ORNAMENT 

which word in Greek (frflw) form an acrostic of the 
Greek words for "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior"; 
the vine, in allusion to Christ's saying, "I am the Vine," 
and other like representations. Later many other forms 
were added : the Labarum the standard borne by Con- 
stantine's army after his victory of the Milvian Bridge, 
in both forms ^ and -f- ; the letters I H S, the first 
three letters of the Greek IHSOYS, later taken to signify 
both lesus Hominum Salvator and In Hoc Signo 
(vinces), the words heard or seen by Constantine in his 
vision at the Milvian Bridge; the cyress-tree, symbolic 
of the cemetery and hence of death and burial and 
finally baptism, which was regarded as the burial of 
the sinful nature ; * the emblems of the four evangelists 
the ox for Matthew, the lion, for Mark, the head of a 
man for Luke, the eagle for John; angels and cherubs, 
funereal wreaths and festoons and finally the cross itself, 
equal-armed after the Greek fashion, or with a long 
standard after the Latin. Sheep to represent the flock 
of the Church; the Paschal cup, the peacock and other 
emblems of various significations were little by little 
added to the list, and appear both in Latin and Byzan- 
tine art. It is somewhat remarkable that the cross does 
not appear until late ; hardly at all before the latter part 
of the fifth or the early sixth century. Many of the 
Christian emblems were already familiar forms in 
Roman pagan art. Angels were but Roman winged 
genii endowed with a new significance; the vine, origi- 
nally a Bacchic emblem, became a Christ-symbol; the 
wreath and festoon were transferred from the service 

i Romans vii, <t. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

of Roman sacrifices to that of Christian burial. Most 
of these forms were used at first with purely symbolic 
intent, having significance only for the initiated. In 
time, however, the symbolic intent, as always in the 
evolution of decorative art, because subordinate to the 
decorative: the symbol became a common ornament, 
multiplied and endlessly varied in the decoration not 
merely of sarcophagi (Fig. 206) and funereal chapels, 
but of churches, baptisteries, oratories and tombs. All 
the resources of mosaic, painting and carving were en- 
listed in their representation. Figure sculpture alone 
remained for centuries undeveloped, largely in conse- 
quence of the hatred of pagan idolatry with which it 
was so generally associated in the popular mind. 

Architectural Ornament. 

Early Christian art in the West made little of archi- 
tecture. Two types of building predominated, the 
basilican church and the baptistery. The first was a 
simple three-aisled hall with a wooden roof, a semi- 
circuliar apse for the clergy at the further end, and a 
transverse porch or narthex across the entrance-front. 
The two rows of columns which separated the broad cen- 
tral aisle or nave from the side-aisles, supported each a 
clearstory wall rising above the roofs of the side-aisles 
and carrying the lofty central roof: these walls were 
pierced with windows to light the nave. In the larger 
basilicas there were double side-aisles, and in some in- 
stances a transverse aisle, called the transept, as high and 
nearly as wide as the nave, crossed it directly in front 
of the apse. The arch forming the front of the apse 

192 



BASILICAN ORNAMENT 

was generally called the triumphal arch, though in tran- 
septal basilicas the name is applied to the great arch by 
which the nave enters the transept. Excepting the half- 
dome over the apse, no vaulting was employed in these 
churches. The columns were taken from pagan ruins, 
and so indifferent were the churchmen to architectural 
regularity that the columns of the same row often dis- 
play a great variety of sizes and even different orders 
of capitals (Figure 207). This was partly due to the 
poverty of the churches during the gloomy centuries fol- 
lowing the fall of Rome, but all the evidence points to a 
strangely prevalent indifference to architecture as an 
art, which the three great basilicas of St. Peter, St. Paul 
and Sta. 2 Maria Maggiore (all three originally built be- 
fore the final fall of Rome) only emphasize by contrast. 
The builders of basilicas were chiefly engrossed with the 
applied decorations of their churches. Even in this 
field, Roman art remained almost stationary for centu- 
ries, depending largely upon Byzantine artists for a part 
of this decoration. 

Elements of Latin Ornament. 

The architectural ornament consisted of the following 
elements: (a) pavements of colored marble and hard 
stone, in a combination of opus sectile and opus Alex- 
andrinum; 3 (b) marble sheathing or wainscot on the 
lower walls; (c) mosaic on the apse and its arch, on the 
triumphal transept arch, and on the clearstory walls; 
rarely, in late examples, on the exterior of the front or 

2 Hereafter S. and Sta. will be used for San, Santo and Santa. 
Sectile =3 cut to shape ; A lexandrinum =. of small geometric units. 

193 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

narthex and on cloister arcades; (d) the ornamentation 
of the fixed furniture of the church; and (e) , the decora- 
tion by painting or otherwise of the wooden ceilings of 
nave and aisles. 

A. Floor Pavements. 

Dates and periods are hard to fix and signify little in 
this field of design, as the style remained practically un- 




FIG. 208. FLOOK MOSAIC, SAN CLEMENTS, ROME. 

changed for centuries. The nave floor was commonly 
divided into rectangular panels by broad bands of 
colored marble in which were set guilloche patterns (Fig. 
208) in opus sectile combined with Alexandrinum. 
The panels were filled with field patterns of Alex- 
andrinum surrounding discs or slabs of solid color 
(see Plate XIII, 12). Porphyry, verd-antique, ser- 

191 



BASILICAN ORNAMENT 

pentine, and white and yellow marble were the usual ma- 
terials employed, and the resulting effects were rich and 
yet sober, indestructible, and soft in color-harmony. 
The round disks were cut from antique columns sawed 
into slices, and all the ruins of antiquity were a quarry 
for paving materials. 

This form of floor-decoration is probably the most 
effective ever devised. The contrast of the solid dark 
red or green of the disks with the sparkle of the minute 
patterns of Alexandrinum and the sweeping curves of 
the huge guilloches surrounding them, produce a decora- 
tive ensemble in every way admirable. Splendid ex- 
amples survive in the churches of Sta. Maria in 
Trastevere, Sta. Maria Maggiore, San Lorenzo, San 
Marco and San Clemente. Floors of this description 
were in vogue throughout the entire Middle Ages, in 
Rome and its neighborhood and even in remote Italy, as 
in the floor of the Byzantine St. Mark's Church at 
Venice, dating from the llth century. 

B. Marble Wainscoting. 

This system of wall decoration, often called incrusta- 
tion, was inherited from ancient Rome, but was used 
more extensively in the Eastern than in the Western 
churches. The Roman basilicas have moreover been so 
often remodeled that nearly every vestige of their in- 
crustations has disappeared. Exceptions are found in 
Sta. Agnese and in Sta. Sabina; in the latter the arch- 
spandrels are inlaid with formal conventional patterns. 
Usually the practice was followed of symmetrically pair- 
ing slabs having similar veinings, as is shown in Fig. 

195 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 





FIG. 209. BYZAKTIKE WAINSCOT. 

209, a Byzantine example from Constantinople. This 
practice is common to the Basilican and Byzantine 
styles. 

C. Mosaic. 

In this art, at least in that branch of it in which small 
cubes or tessera of glass are employed to form pictures 
and patterns on walls and vaults (opus Grecanicum), it 
is impossible to distinguish sharply between the Byzan- 
tine and Basilican or Latin styles. Greeks from Con- 
stantinople doubtless were often employed to execute 
mosaics in Rome, and were probably the originators of 

196 



BASILICAN ORNAMENT 

this form of Christian art. By means of minute tesserae 
of glass "paste," pictures and patterns can be formed of 
any desired combination and gradation of colors, gold 
and silver effects being produced by gold- or silver-leaf 
imprisoned between two layers of glass paste fused to- 
gether. The deep blues, from lapis-lazuli to a soft 
green-blue, the rich reds, soft yellows and greens and 
brilliant gold and silver of this sort of mosaic made pos- 
sible a splendor of color far transcending any form of 
painting, and unrivaled in depth and intensity except by 
the later invention of stained glass. Its magnificence 
appealed strongly to the taste of the early Christian cen- 
turies, and its adaptation to pictorial representation 
fitted it to express that symbolism which the mental 
habit of the times demanded. Accordingly there is 
more of picturing than of pure ornament, which is con- 
fined chiefly to narrow borders, often simulating jewels 
set in gold. It remained for the Byzantines to develop 
the possibilities of mosaic in the field of pure ornament. 
The most important mosaics were in, or on, the apse- 
vaults, and represented such subjects as the Kingdom of 
God by the symbolism of the Shepherd and twelve sheep, 
or some like composition. Similar subjects, with angels, 
adorned the spandrels by the apse arch, and the trium- 
phal transept-arch. The clearstory often bore pictures 
of saints, angels and apostles, and Biblical scenes. 
Among the finest of all Latin mosaics are those of the 
apses of Sta. Pudenziana and Sta. Maria in Trastevere, 
the apse and triumphal arch of St. Paul without the 
Walls ( S. Paolo fuori le mura) recovered from the ruins 
of the original basilica and incorporated in the modern 

197 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

reconstruction; of Sta. Prassede and Sta. Sabina, all at 
Rome; and of the two San Apollinare churches at 
Ravenna (sixth century). Of later date is the superb 
rinceau decoration in the apse-head of San Clemente 
(1096-1104) : an exceptional example of conventional 
ornament in mosaic in a basilica (Figure 210). Apart 
from such applications of the rinceau, there were 
few distinctive ornament motives in the mosaic decora- 




Fio. 211. EARLY CHRISTIAN MOSAIC BORDERS. 

tions. Fig. 211 shows two examples of mosaic bor- 
ders, a from the palace of St. John Lateran, a mosaic of 
the eighth century ; b from the f aade of Santa Maria in 
Trastevere, both in Rome. 

D. Ecclesiastical Furniture. 

The chief elements in the fixed furniture of the 
churches were the ciborium or baldaquin the canopy 
over the altar and tomb of the saint; the altar itself; 
the choir-enclosure; and the two pulpits or ambones, 
affected respectively to the reading of the Gospels and 
of the Epistles, the former being adorned with a 

198 



BASILICAN ORNAMENT 

columnar candelabrum. The 
seats for the clergy were orig- 
inally simple steps of marble set 
around the apse, and the bishop's 
throne was apparently of very 
simple design. Later the clergy- 
seats were removed from the 
apse or bema and the altar 
placed there in their stead, 
though the ciborium remained 
in its original position to mark 
the tomb of the martyr or saint. 
All this fixed furniture was of 
marble, usually built up of flat 
slabs inlaid with opus Alexan- 
drinum. The ciborium was a 
structure of four columns with 
a pyramidal roof; the altar a 
simple rectangular box or table 
of marble; the choir-enclosure a Fm ' 2l2 ' ARA CoELI ' RoME * 
paneled marble parapet about three feet high; the am- 
bones, elevated reading-desks on either side of the choir 
reached by flights of steep stairs. The decoration of 
these simple forms was often very rich, especially of the 
pulpits and altar frontals (Fig. 212). It consisted of 
inlaid patterns of opus Alexandrinum combined with 
disks and guilloches of sectile, in principle like the floor- 
mosaics, but finer in scale and execution. In the later 
work, the geometrical units of the Alexandrine mosaic 
triangles, squares, circular segments, etc. were often of 
glass paste, producing much more brilliant effects than 

199 




A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

the marble and porphyry units of the earlier works. It 
appears to have been first used in the spiral flutings of 
the gospel or Easter column. This brilliant form of 
Alexandrine work, whatever its origin, became espe- 
cially common in Southern Italy, and was practised 
there and in Rome as late as the thirteenth century. It 
is found in the cloisters of Monreale (twelfth century), 




FIG. 213. MOSAIC DETAILS, PULPIT IN SAX LORENZO Fcow. 

in Sicily, and in those of San Paolo fuori and St. John 
Lateran at Rome (thirteenth century). Rome became 
the center of an important school of marmorarii and of a 
great industry in marble mosaic, and its artists traveled 
far to execute orders for church furniture and cloister- 
arcades. The family of the Cosmati (from Cosmatus 
or Cosmas, grandson of the founder of the school) , were 
especially noted for several generations, and their name 
is often applied to the combination of sectile and Alex- 
andrinum which they used and developed (Figs. 212, 
213 from Ara Coeli and San Lorenzo Rome. See 
Chapter XIV). 

200 



BASILICAN ORNAMENT 

In the cloisters above mentioned, in the Easter 
columns, and frequently also in the ambones (Fig. 
212), twisted shafts or spiral flutings were used. The 
introduction of this form of column, theoretically inap- 
propriate for a support, into Italian art, may be traced 
to the rich but ugly twisted column now in St. Peter's 
at Rome, brought in the sixth century from Jerusalem, 
where it was believed to have been a part of the "Gate 
Beautiful" where St. Peter healed the lame man (Acts 
iii, 2-10) . It belongs probably to the decline of Roman 
Imperial art, much later than St. Peter's time. 

E. Ceilings. 

Not one of the ceilings of the earlier basilicas remains 
to us in its original form. It is unlikely that in churches 
resplendent with marble and mosaic the ceilings were 
as bare and barnlike as are to-day most of those which 
have not been entirely remodeled in comparatively re- 
cent times. We are, however, left to speculation as to 
their precise treatment. The painted open-trussed 
ceilings of several medieval churches of the eleventh and 
twelfth centuries (Messina, 4 Monreale, San Miniato 
near Florence) show a somewhat similar treatment 
though belonging to different styles, which points to the 
existence of a strong ancient tradition (see Chapter 
XIV). It is likely also that in some cases the trusses 
were concealed by a decorative ceiling of wood, paneled 
in coffers with rosettes, after the fashion of many Greek 
and Roman ceilings, and richly painted and gilded. 
But no such ceilings remain to our day. It may be, 

* Destroyed in the earthquake of 1909. 

201 



however, that the splendid ceiling of Sta. Maria Mag- 
giore is a reproduction or imitation of the original of 
the fifth century. 

Vaulted ceilings were chiefly confined to baptisteries 
and tombs. The earliest of these are the dome over the 
central space and the annular vault over the encircling 
aisle of Sta. Costanza at Rome, erected by Constantine 
presumably as the tomb of his daughter Constantia, but 
from early times used as a baptistery. The decorations 
of the dome have perished, but among the well-preserved 
mosaics of the aisle- vault are vintage scenes (Figure 
215), apparently pagan, but here transferred to the 
service of Christian symbolism; and geometrical pat- 
terns combined with small figure subjects. But in 
nearly all domical and vaulted buildings after the fourth 
century the Latin and Byzantine styles are one and 
the same, and the ornament of such buildings will be 
taken up in the chapter on Byzantine art. 

From the preceding paragraphs it may be rightly in- 
ferred that the Early Christian builders were singularly 
lacking in architectural inventiveness. There is not a 
single structural form, not an architectural innovation, 
not an ornament of purely architectural character, that 
can be credited to their initiative. Their art was sta- 
tionary and unprogressive, and contrasts surprisingly 
with the rapid progress and splendor of achievement of 
the contemporary Byzantine art in the Eastern Empire. 

Books Recommended: 

BUNSEN: Die Basiliken des christlichen Roms (Munich, n. d.). 
ESSENWEIN: Ausgange der klassichen Baukunst (in Hand- 
buch der Architektur, Darmstadt, 1886). A. L. FROTHING- 

202 



1.1 




FIG. 214. DETAIL FROM CLOISTER, ST. JOHN LATERAN 




FIG. 215. MOSAIC IN VAULT OF STA. COSTANZA 



BASILICAN ORNAMENT 

HAM: Monuments of Christian Rome (New York, 1908). 
GERSPACH: La Mosa'ique (jParis, 1889). GUTENSOHN AND 
KNAPP: Denkmale der christlichen Religion (Rome, 1822-27). 
HUBSCH: Monuments de V architecture chretienne (Paris, 
1866). PORTHEIM: Uber dem dekorativen Stil in der altchrist- 
lichen Kunst (Stuttgart, 1886). VON QUAST: Die altchrist- 
lichen Bauwerke zu Ravenna. DE Rossi: La Roma Soter- 
ranea Christiana (Rome, 1864-77). N. H. J. WEST-LAKE: 
History of Design in Mural Painting, from the Earliest Times 
to the 12th Century (London, 1915). 



205 



CHAPTER XIII 

BYZANTINE ORNAMENT 

In striking contrast to the architectural poverty of the 
Latin or Western ornament of the early church stands 
the architectural richness of the decorative art which 
grew up in the East Roman or Byzantine empire, and 
which was founded upon and largely dominated by the 
architecture. With the decline and fall of Rome, the 
lamp of civilization passed to Constantine's eastern 
capital on the Bosphorus and into the hands of the 
Byzantine Greeks of Thrace, Macedonia, Asia Minor 
and Syria. These Greeks, largely Asiatic, borrowing 
freely and impartially from classic Greek, Roman and 
Asiatic sources, developed with singular rapidity in the 
fifth and sixth centuries new types of vaulted construc- 
tion and a system of decoration of remarkable original- 
ity and beauty, in which the Oriental love of brilliant 
color and surface ornament was blended with the Occi- 
dental appreciation of logical construction and pure 
form. This Byzantine art culminated under Justinian 
(527-565) ; invaded Italy, especially after the Byzantine 
conquest of Ravenna; and spread through the entire 
extent of the Byzantine empire. The decline that set 
in soon after the brilliant reign of Justinian was a slow 
decline, so that we find this art still productive in the 

206 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT 

eleventh and twelfth centuries. Indeed, St. Mark's at 
Venice, one of its most brilliant works, dates from 1047, 
while offshoots from the parent stem throve for cen- 
turies in the ecclesiastical buildings of Russia and 
Armenia, and later in the impressive mosques of the 
Ottoman Turks. 

Leading Characteristics. 

The. Byzantine system of design and decoration was 
in fundamental prin- 
ciple like the Ro- 
man in its use of a 
decorative skin or 
veneer of marble, 
mosaic, or other fine 
material upon a 
structural mass or 
core of brick, con- 
crete or like coarser 
material. The chief 
difference, structur- 
ally, was in the use 
of the dome on pen- 
dentives in place of 
groined vaulting; Fl - 216 - DETAIL >M SPALATO. 
and decoratively, in an entirely new and original treat- 
ment of detail. For the classic Roman play of light 
and shade by means of relief carving and architectural 
features the Byzantines substituted a system of decora- 
tion in color and surface-etching, reducing all surfaces 
as nearly as possible to unbroken planes or curves, sup- 

207 




A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

pressing all avoidable projections and recessings. Mar- 
ble incrustations and pavements were used with even 
greater splendor than in Rome, and all vaults covered 
with superb mosaics, or, when means were lacking for 
the more splendid adornment, with pictures in fresco on 
plaster. 

Architectural Ornament. 

Such details of architecture as were inherited from 
classic Roman precedent were subjected to a flatten- 




Fio. 217. IMPOST CAP, S. VITALE. 

ing process by which they lost all their strong reliefs, 
high lights and deep shadows. This process had begun 
as far back as 300 A.D. in the Palace of Diocletian at 
Spalato (Fig. 216), in another part of which one also 

208 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT 

observes arches carried directly on columns, as in 
Byzantine buildings. In the Spalato entablature, by 
changes of profile and proportion the architrave has 
been exaggerated, the frieze reduced to a mere molding, 
the corona to a fillet, and the general profile of the cor- 
nice almost to a 45 splay. In Hagia Sophia, the 
masterpiece of Byzantine art, we find a similar treat- 




Fio. 218. CORINTHIANESQUE CAP, S. APOLLINARE Ntrovo, 
RAVENNA. 

ment of cornices and moldings, while capitals, shafts, 
archivolts and all other features depart in an equally 
striking degree from Roman models (Plate XII, 1, 2). 

Impost Blocks. 

The Byzantines invented a new feature, the impost- 
block, to replace the bits of entablature which the 

209 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Romans in their vaulted buildings interposed between 
the capital and the spring of the vaulting. The Byzan- 
tine impost-block, shaped like the inverted frustum of a 
pyramid (Fig. 217; Plate XII, 3) was decorated 
with monograms, crosses, lambs or other symbols, or sur- 




Fio. 219. "BASKET" CAP, S. APOLLINAHE Nuovo, RAVENNA. 



face-carving. The capital proper sometimes retained a 
semblance of the Corinthian (Fig. 218) or Ionic 
type; but was in other cases greatly simplified in mass 
and covered with lace-like or basket-like patterns, some- 
times deeply undercut the basket type Fig. 219 ; Figure 
232, page 221. These occur alike in Ravenna, Parenzo, 
Constantinople, Salonica, Venice and Syria. In the 
magnificent capitals of the great columns of Hagia 
Sophia the impost-block is dispensed with (Plates XII, 

210 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT 




2; XIII, 2), and the 

- vigorous but graceful 
mass of the capital, 
with its corner volutes 
and surface carving of 
flat acanthus-leaves, 
performs adequately its 
true function of carry- 
ing the heavy arches 
that rest upon it. A 
frequently occurring 
type with central and 
corner ridges (Fig. 
219) may have been 
suggested by uncut or 
roughed-out Corinthian 
caps, blocked-out in this 
way for the subsequent 
detailed cutting of the 
central rosettes and volutes and the corner volutes, cau- 
licoli and leaves. 1 

Shafts. 

Shafts are of polished marble, granite or porphyry, 
sometimes, as in Hagia Sophia, ringed with a number 
of astragals or annulets, a treatment detrimental to the 
best effect. 

Spandrels and Soffits. 

The soffits were decorated either with mosaic, as in 
S. Vitale at Ravenna and the upper arcades of Hagia 

i This ingenious and plausible suggestion seems to have originated with 
the late Professor W. R. Ware. 

211 



FIG. 220. ABOVE, CARVED SPANDREL FROM 
HAOIA SOPHIA; BELOW, FRIEZE FROM 
ST. SERGITJS. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Sophia, or with marble, which was sometimes carved in 
bands of lace-like patterns as in the lower arcades of 
Hagia Sophia. The archivolt was marked by small 
moldings (Plate XII, 2). Spandrels were commonly 
incrusted with marble without other ornament, as in St. 
Mark's; sometimes mosaic or fresco was used in either 
pictorial or arabesque patterns (Plate XIII, 2), or 
surface-carving was executed on the marble incrustation 
(Fig. 220). The nave of Hagia Sophia shows both 
of the last two treatments. 

Carving. 

In all Byzantine decorative carving, figure-sculpture, 
high relief and indeed true relief of any kind are singu- 
larly lacking. In their place the Byzantine artists de- 




Fio. 221. FRIEZE, ST. Jonx STUDIOS, COXSTAXTIXOPLE. 

veloped a system of carving by incision, the entire pat- 
tern lying in one plane, so designed that the background 
formed a series of isolated pits or depressions, the total 
effect being rich and highly decorative in spite of its flat- 
ness. The patterns were chiefly based on the acanthus 
and rinceau (Figs. 220, 221, 222) ; but the leaves and 
stems were flattened, the lobes made pointed, the pipes 
suppressed, the calyx-flowers and caulicoli of the rinceau 

212 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT 

obliterated, and the points of the leaves so disposed as 
to touch the concave sides of the stems of their neighbors, 
or to meet each other point to point, forming innumer- 
able triangular or quadrilateral pits or spots of back- 
ground. The leaves were channeled with V-section 
channels, and the whole produced an effect as of stone 
lace work applied to a flat background (Figs. 224, 226) . 
The origin of this peculiar treatment of classic motives 
has been variously explained. Viollet-le-Duc credits 




FIG. 222. ACANTHUS ANTHEMIONS. FIG. 223. 

it to Syrian, and chiefly to Jewish influence. Early 
Christian and pre-Christian tombs in Palestine show a 
somewhat similar style of dry and flat surface-carving, 
with frequent use of the vine-motive which is also com- 
mon in Byzantine ornament. In Central Syria inter- 
esting remains from the third to sixth centuries also dis- 
play kinship with Byzantine work (Fig. 240). On 
the other hand, the same tendencies are visible in the 
palace at Spalato (see ante, Fig. 216) in Dalmatia, 
and to some extent in works of Constantine's time. The 

213 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

most probable explanation of the genesis of the style, 
so far as its decorative art is concerned, is found in the 
influence of the Asiatic Greeks, who would most natu- 
rally combine the Asiatic love of surface decoration in 
minutely detailed all-over patterns, with the traditional 
motives of Greek classic and Roman art. It was the 
rise and preeminence of Constantinople in the sixth cen- 




Fio. 224. AXTHEMION FKIEZE, ST. MARK'S, VENICE. 

tury under Justinian, that gave to this nascent style its 
first great impulse. The artificers in mosaic, ivory- 
carving, enamel and other arts from Constantinople, 
many of whom had, during the preceding century, found 
their chief employment in Italy and other foreign coun- 
tries, were now abundantly and constantly employed in 
their home Capital. Under Justinian's strenuous and 
splendor-loving rule, the arts of design were developed 
with an almost feverish activity. The flat surface-carv- 
ing harmonized better with the flat color-decoration in 
marble and mosaic than the more vigorous relief of the 

214 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT 

Roman and Greek prototypes; and architectural light- 
and-shade was treated in a wholly new spirit, and the old 
types of capital and entablature gradually disappeared. 

Moldings. 

The profiles were weak; effect was sought by enrich- 
ment rather than pro- 
filing; and splay faces 
covered with acanthus- 
leaves frequently occur 
(Fig. 222 and Plate 
XII, 1, 
most 
molding 




2, 4). The 

characteristic 

was the so- 
called billet molding, 
cut into small blocks or 
dentils, often in two 
rows in which the 
blocks of one are op- 
posite the spaces of the 
other, as appears in the 
lower part of 1 in Plate 
XII. This molding 
was especially used for framing the slabs of marble 
veneer, and contributed strongly to the general effect of 
a sparkling play of minute spots of light and shade 
which the Byzantine artists loved. 

Bands and Borders. 

The fret, anthemion, vine and rinceau of classic art 
all appear in Byzantine borders and friezes, but in 

215 



FIG. 225. CROSSES AND AKTHEMIONS. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

modified forms, often exhibiting a singular reversion 
towards earlier, long- for gotten types in Greek pottery. 
The artists of the sixth to twelfth centuries could hardly 
have known or even seen any antique Greek vases, and 
it is hard to explain how and why this reversion took 
place ; it most probably came about through Roman ver- 
sions of the anthemion and other vase ornaments, sur- 




Fio. 226. ACANTHUS LEAVES (above) ; and RINCEAU 
FROM BISHOP'S. 

viving in Roman carvings and mosaics (compare 
Fig. 225 with Fig. 135). What makes this rever- 
sion the more interesting is that most of these Byzantine 
anthemions are really acanthus leaves in disguise, as 
may be seen by comparing them with unmistakable 
acanthus leaves like those in Figs. 218 and 221. The 
Byzantine carvers, by flattening the leaf and altering 
its lobes, gradually worked it into a quasi-anthemion 
form, and then under a similar decorative impulse did 

216 



12 




F(g.Z29 Psacock Fbnel Idrcelb Fi&230 Interlace (Man). 
tig JHJ RrfbivtedfcnelSydale 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT 

with it much as the Greek pottery-painters had done 
with the anthemion and palmette, nearly or quite a thou- 
sand years earlier. 

The Rinceau. 

This has already been alluded to. The friezes from 
St. Sergius (Fig. 220) and St. John Studios (Emir 
Aklior Jami) at Constantinople (Fig. 221), are fine 
examples of the typical Byzantine continuous rinceau- 
movement uninterrupted by calyx-flowers, and the 
merging of stem and caulicolus into one flat, flowing leaf 
design; while in Fig. 226, b it is seen in its most de- 
generate form, in a carved slab from the Bishop's Palace 
at Ferentino. The vine also occurs frequently, espe- 
cially in Italy, singularly recalling painted vine-patterns 
on Greek vases (Fig. 227). 

Symbols. 

Symbolism played an important part in the carved 
decoration as well as the mosaics of the Byzantines. 
The vine, already alluded to, is often represented as 
springing from the Paschal " 

cup or chalice (Plate XII, 
5 ) ; the cross often studded 
with jewels and always 
with spreading ends (Figs. 
225, a, b; 228 and Plate Fl0 ' 227 ' VlNE BoRDER ' s ' VlTAU! - 
XII, 3, 9) ; the cypress-tree, symbol of the grave, and 
hence of the mystic burial of baptism (see ante, page 
189), and in this sense carved on baptismal fonts and 
plutei and elsewhere in baptisteries (Fig. 228) in a form 

219 




A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 



singularly like an anthemion; the 
peacock, as the symbol of the soul 
(Figure 229; Plate XII, 9)- 
these are the most frequently re- 
curring symbols. An effective 
decoration for square or circular 
panels was devised by making the 
four arms of the cross frame four 
acanthus-anthemions, as in Fig. 
225, a from Hagia Sophia. 

In later work, especially in 
Italy where Lombard influence 
may account for it, monsters and 
grotesques sometimes appear. It 
is curious to note how often pea- 
cocks (as in Figure 229; Plate 
XII, 9) , lions or monsters, even griffins, as in the exam- 
ple from Sta. Maria Pomposa (Figure 235) are placed 
symmetrically at the base of a cross or tree, recalling a 
favorite device of Greek and Roman art, derived origi- 
nally from Assyrian and Hittite prototypes. 2 




FIG. 228. DETAIL OF 
CROSS IK FIG. 225. 



Guilloches and Interlace. 

The Byzantine artists expanded the ap- 
plications of the Greek guilloche-motive 
into a whole system of interlaced patterns, 
in which squares, lozenges and circles, 
large and small, are combined with great 
variety and ingenuity. The more elab- 




Fio. 230A. 



2 See Figure 34 and cf. Goblet d'Alviella, "The Migration of Symbols," 
pages 122-140. 

220 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT 

orate examples belong to the later developments. 
Some of the most complex designs are found in Ar- 
menia, where they almost rival the Celtic interlaces (see 
page 271 ). Whether these are due to Celtic manuscripts 
carried into Armenia, or whether the Celtic interlaces 
were themselves descended from Byzantine sources is 
not clear (Fig. 230A; Figures 230, 231 ; Plate XII, 10) . 
Perforated panels were a special delight of the Italo- 
Byzantine designers ; they are found chiefly at Ravenna, 
serving as parapet-panels. Figure 231 shows a detail 
of one of the most splendid of these remarkable works 
(see also Plate XII, 9). 

Floors and Incrustations. 

The rich and varied marbles of the East supplied 
abundant materials for decorative pavements and wall- 
veneers. In principle these resemble those of the Latin 
buildings; guilloche-patterns or borders frame large 
circles or rectangles of marble, porphyry and verd-an- 
tique in the floors ; while thin slabs of veined marble set 
so as to form symmetrical veining-patterns, encrust the 
walls up to the spring of the main arches and vaults ( Fig. 
209; Plate XII, 1). The monotony of their smooth 
surfaces was broken by the billet-moldings with which 
the slabs and bands were framed. The composition of 
this wall-paneling was not always good; the apse of 
Hagia Sophia, for example, is a jumble of panels with 
little or no organic system in their arrangement. The 
general effect, however, of this veneering in veined 
marbles is always rich and yet sober; and in St. Mark's 
at Venice it reached the highest perfection of internal 
harmony. 

221 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 



Mosaic. 

The crowning splendor of Byzantine decoration was 
in its mosaics. These at first 
differed in no wise from the 
Latin (see page 196), which 
were, indeed, probably executed 
in many cases by Byzantine ar- 
tists. But the domes and vaults 
of the East gave special oppor- 
tunities for the application of 
this noble form of decoration, 
and these were freely availed 
of. Conventional ornament was 
made to play a far more im- 
portant role in the Byzantine 
than in the basilican churches, 




Fio. 233. FROM HAGIA 
SOPHIA. 



though figure-subjects 
and pictures still form the 
chief decoration. Hagia 
Sophia and the Kahrie 
Mosque (once a Byzan- 
tine church called Mone 
tes Choras) at Constan- 
tinople and the two 
churches of San Apolli- 
nare, the Episcopal pal- 
ace and San Vitale at 
Ravenna offer the finest 
examples of this art, the 
cubes or tessera? of glass 
being very small, espe- 




222 



FIG. 234. SARCOPHAGUS END, 
RAVEXHA. 




FIG. 235. FROM STA. MARIA POMPOSA FIG. 236. MOSAIC, TOMB OF GALLA 

PLACIDIA 




FIG. 237. IVORY THRONK OF BISHOP MAXIMIAN, RAVENNA 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT 

cially in the first-named. One of the earliest examples 
of the application of glass mosaic of this type to vault- 
ing is the tomb of Galla Placidia, the daughter of Theo- 
dosius, at Ravenna; the barrel- vaults of the cross arms 
and the rude dome of the central lantern being adorned 
with remarkably effective pictures and patterns, some 
on a blue and some on a gold ground (Figure 230). 
The gold ground predominates in Hagia Sophia and in 
some other examples and imparts a richness of effect not 
otherwise attainable (Plate XIII). 

In many Byzantine mosaic pictures there appear rep- 
resentations of shrines, niches and other architectural 
subjects derived from sarcophagi, church furniture and 
minor structures of which no trace has survived. Simi- 
lar forms are seen in manuscript illuminations and in 
ivory carvings and sarcophagi (Fig. 236). 

Church Furniture. 

Few examples remain of this branch of decorative 
design for which the Byzantines were so celebrated. 
The accounts of the furniture of Hagia Sophia given 
by Paul the Silentiary describe an almost incredible 
splendor of jewels, gold and silver. The most impor- 
tant work of this sort in metal now extant is the "Pala 
d'Oro" or silver-and-gold altar-piece of St. Mark's in 
Venice, by Constantinople artists of the twelfth cen- 
tury (but much altered in more recent times). Plate 
XII, 8, figures the end of an Italo-Byzantine silver chest 
in Florence. Of works in marble there exists in the 
basilica of S. Apollinare in Classe at Ravenna a By- 
zantine baldaquin or ciborium, and in Venice the much 

225 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

later ciborium of St. Mark's, besides a fine octagonal 
canopy and pulpit in the north aisle. In the cathedral 
of Ravenna the ivory throne of Bishop Maximianus is 
carefully preserved (sixth century, Figure 237) . Ivory 
carving, indeed, was one of the special arts of Byzan- 
tine civilization; book-covers, diptychs and triptychs in 
this material exist in museums and private collections. 
Ivory was a precious material in the Middle Ages, and 
the art displayed in these small works combined the 
pictorial composition of the manuscript illuminators 
with the technic and the ornament of the marble-carvers, 
but with more freedom in the relief. The cross, pictorial 
scenes and grapevine borders of the throne of Maxim- 
ianus just referred to, are precisely in the style of the 
diptychs, though on a larger scale. 

In many of the minor works of church equipment and 
furniture enamel was used with or without the accom- 
paniment of gems in elaborate settings, to impart rich 
color to the object decorated. The field of each color 
was slightly hollowed out in the metal silver, gold or 
copper and in this shallow pool the separate colors 
were fused in the furnace. This process, called 
champleve enameling, was carried in the path of Byzan- 
tine trade to France where, at Limoges, an important 
center of this art-industry was developed in the twelfth 
to fourteenth centuries. Fig. 238 represents the 
Crown of Charlemagne, a fine example of late Byzan- 
tine goldsmith's work of the ninth century. There are 
in various libraries highly ornate book-covers in gold, 
enamel and precious stones of the ninth to twelfth cen- 
turies. 

226 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT 

Textile Ornament. 

The arts of weaving and embroidery were highly de- 
veloped by the Byzantine civilization, which delighted 




FIG. 238. THE CROWST OF CHARLEMAGXE. 

in splendor of official apparel. Byzantine stuffs, fabrics 
and embroideries are found in many museums, mostly 
those of the later phases of the art (ninth to twelfth 
centuries). Fig. 239 shows an example from the 
Museum of Bamberg. 

Manuscript Illumination. 

Christianity has been called the religion of a book. 
In no other religion has the written word played so 
important a part. Long before the final fixing of the 
canon of the New Testament, individual books gospels, 
epistles, writings by the early Fathers were being 

227 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

multiplied by skilful scribes and widely circulated by 
missionaries. The development of monasticism stimu- 
lated the production of books and led to the establish- 
ment of schools of calligraphists and miniaturists or 
illuminators. With increasing veneration for the sacred 
writings there came increasing splendor in the manu- 
scripts, which were embellished by pictures, illuminated 
initials and decorative borders. In this new art the By- 
zantine Greeks showed the highest skill, and the result 
was the final domination of the Byzantine taste and 
style in this field, as in the closely allied art of mosaic 
picturing and ornament. 

The initial letters of chapters or books were made 
into ornamental designs covering a considerable por- 
tion of the page, and painted with brilliant red, blue, 
green and gold, often with accompaniments of an archi- 
tectural character with or without figures. Illustrations 
of scriptural scenes and allegorical compositions were 
often introduced, covering an entire page. In these 
the drawing and coloring followed the formulas that 
governed the design of like figures in mosaic and fresco 
decorations of the churches; formulas that became 
hieratic and were finally written down in inflexible rules 
that have survived to modern times in the monasteries 
of Mt. Athos, 3 and in the icons of the Russian churches. 
This stiff and conventional style of painting was the 
parent of Italian religious painting in the Middle Ages ; 
and indeed of all Christian medieval painting, architec- 
tural as well as in manuscripts. For the Byzantine 
manuscripts were scattered through the monasteries and 

3 Cf. Crowninshield, "Mural Painting." 

228 




Carvings from Chbrch&s ot J^lokhcta ancl Chonamta; Georgia. 

FIG. 241. GEORGIAN AND ARMENIAN CARVING 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT 




FIG. 239. BYZANTINE FABRIC, 
BAMBERG. 

ern myths, even those of 
pagan origin, to supply 
motives for elaborate in- 
terlaces in borders and in- 
itials. 

Syrian Christian 
Ornament. 

In Syria, Christian art 
took on a special form in 
the absence of the brick, 
timber, marble and glass 
on which Latin and By- 
zantine art so largely de- 
pended for artistic ex- 
pression. The buildings 
of central Syria show a 



churches of Western as 
well as Eastern Europe, 
and formed the models 
from which both the 
Celtic and Scandinavian 
schools of manuscript 
decoration took their ear- 
ly inspiration. In these 
interlace, which is a sub- 
ordinate element in the 
Eastern models, became a 
dominant feature, though 
it made use of the North- 




FIG. 240. SYRIAN CARVING. 



231 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

dry, restricted style of stone carving, akin in its flatness 
to the Byzantine, making much use of geometric patterns 
and retaining classic details only in forms so changed 
as to be little more than travesties of the originals, as 
at Kelat Seman, Rouheiha, Tourmanin, etc. In cer- 
tain cities, however, Byzantine artists introduced marble 
and mosaic, as in the famous Golden Church at Antioch, 
no longer extant. The Moslem conquest under Omar 
(638) put an end to the life of Syrian Christian art and 
resulted in the destruction of most of the Christian 
churches. (Figure 240, from Tourmanin and Ba- 
kouza. ) 

Russian, Georgian and Armenian Ornament. 

The Eastern Church, in the Balkan peninsula, and in 
what is now the Russian Empire, including Georgia and 
Russian Armenia, highly interesting phases of Byzan- 
tine art. Aside from the singular architecture of the 
Russian churches with high pinnacled lanterns, this art 
is especially rich in manuscript illumination, enameled 
and jeweled silver- and goldsmith's work, and surface 
carving. In this last department of design intricate in- 
terlaces suggest the reacting influence of the Celtic 
manuscripts; although it is possible that both may hark 
back to a common derivation from the simpler interlaces 
of early Byzantine art in Constantinople. They fre- 
quently betray also the influence of Moslem art and have 
a strongly Oriental character throughout. 

Figure 241 exhibits a number of examples of this 
architectural carving from Mokheta and Chouamta in 
Georgia and Gelathi in Armenia. 

232 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT 

Books Recommended: 

BYZANTINE 

As before, ESSENWEIN, GERSPACH, HUBSCH, VON QUAST. 
Also, BAYET: L'Art byzantin (Paris, n. d.). H. C. BUTLER: 
Architecture and other Arts in Northern Central Syria (New 
York, 1903). A. DEHLI: Selections of Byzantine Ornament 
(New York, 1890). DIEHL: Manuel de I'art byzantin (Paris, 
1910). G. G. GAGARIN: Sbornik bisantiskikh i drevnerusskikh 
ornamentor (St. Petersburg [Petrograd], 1887). Moscow 
MUSEUM OF ART : Histoire de I'ornement russe du X m * au XVI me 
sietcle d'apres les manuscrits (Paris, 1870). ONGANIA: La 
basilica di San Marco (Venice, 1881-88). R. P. PULLAN: On 
the Decoration of Basilicas and Byzantine Churches (Papers of 
the R. I. B. A.; London, 1875-76). SALZENBERG: Die alt- 
christlichen Baudeukmale von Constantino pel (Berlin, 1854). 
N. SIMAKOV: L'Ornement russe (St. Petersburg [Petrograd], 
1882). TEXIER AND PULLAN: Byzantine Architecture (Lon- 
don, 1865). VIOLLET-LE-DUC : L'Art russe (Paris, 1877). 
DE VOGUE : Syrie Centrale (Paris, 1865-77). 



233 



CHAPTER XIV 

ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 
1. ITALIAN AND FRENCH 

A strictly chronological treatment of ornament his- 
tory might be held to require taking up at this point the 
beginnings of Mohammedan ornament; but a due re- 
gard for continuity prescribes rather the following of 
the current of European Christian art through the Mid- 
dle Ages before taking up the diverging art of the Mos- 
lems, which will therefore be reserved for another vol- 
ume. 

The name Romanesque has been so widely applied to 
the various phases of European art in its transition from 
the Latin and Byzantine phases to the so-called Gothic, 
that it will be retained in this discussion. It is, indeed, 
not an inappropriate term, since the art of Italy and 
Western Europe from about the ninth to the thirteenth 
century sprang from roots easily traced back to pri- 
mary sources in the art of classic Rome. 

The Romanesque Period. 

Throughout all Europe, except in parts of the Byzan- 
tine Empire, the centuries from the fall of Rome to the 
twelfth constituted a period of chaos, upheaval, and 
gradual evolution. War, famine, and pestilence re- 

284 



15 




FIG. 243. ALTAR FRONT, FERENTINO 






FIG. 244. DETAIL FROM FRONT OF 
SAN MICHELE, LUCCA 



FIG. 245. FALSE WINDOW, SAN 
STEFANO, BOLOGNA 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

peatedly devastated Italy; the Arabs and Moors over- 
ran Sicily and Spain and threatened France; there was 
commotion and turmoil among the German and Scandi- 
navian tribes, who poured over the lands occupied by the 
older civilizations. Out of this chaos Christian insti- 
tutions were slowly emerging, and it was the Church 
which first reared its majestic form, appearing as the 
one universal and invincible fact, everywhere claiming 
supreme authority and divine power. Of its two chief 
manifestations, the papacy and the monastic system, the 
last was nearer the people, visible and tangible, and in 
the confusion of warring authorities it gained steadily 
in favor and influence. Uneasy souls gave or be- 
queathed to the monasteries treasures of land and 
money ; peace-loving souls fled to them as asylums from 
war and oppression, and the great monastic brother- 
hoods multiplied their chapters, grew rich, built churches 
and cherished such arts and such learning as the Church 
demanded or favored. Architecture, decorative reli- 
gious sculpture and carving, manuscript illumination 
and other decorative arts flourished in the monasteries 
as they grew in wealth and the centuries brought in- 
creased peace and order. 

As, in the preceding ages, there was a marked differ- 
ence between the art of Eastern and Western Chris- 
tendom, so in this Romanesque period Italian art dif- 
fered in important ways from that of France and west- 
ern Europe. That of Germany stood midway between 
the two, the Italian Lombard influence predominating. 
But in all these styles Byzantine influence is discernible, 
exerted through the medium of those artistic products 

237 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

for which Constantinople was famous, manuscripts, 
ivory-carvings, ecclesiastical goldsmith's work and em- 
broideries. Mosaic, however, was never in demand in 
the West; form rather than color dominates Roman- 
esque art, and the resources of the abbeys and parishes 
were bestowed upon large and spacious edifices rather 
than upon such costly adornments as that of mosaic. 

Italian Romanesque Ornament. 

Italy being not a state but a group of states and prov- 
inces, there appear at least five more or less distinct 
styles in her early medieval art ; the Basilican or Latin 
in Rome and its neighborhood ; the Byzantine in Venice, 
Ravenna and on the East coast generally; the Tuscan 
in Etruria (Tuscany) from Pisa to Florence and even 
Siena; in the South, especially in Sicily, the Siculo- 
Arabic, a compound of Arabic, Byzantine, Latin and 
Norman elements; and in the North the Lombard, in 
which the Germanic spirit of the race which overran 
northern Italy in the seventh century expressed itself 
in new forms and combinations. 

But while these may be properly called distinct styles, 
they so frequently overlap and mingle that it is not 
always easy, nor indeed reasonable, to classify a given 
building definitely in one of these categories. The 
unity of the Church, the migrations of monks and other 
ecclesiastics and especially of builders and carvers, con- 
tributed to a constant blurring of the boundary lines of 
these styles. 

The Basilican and Byzantine styles have been already 
discussed, but in many examples from the other styles 

238 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

their influence is clearly seen in various details. More- 
over, these two styles in their later manifestations un- 
derwent developments and changes, from the influence 
of Western art, which differentiate them from their ear- 
lier phases. Basilicas of the Latin type continued to 
be built until the thirteenth century, and the art of the 
mosaicist in opus Alexandrinum was developed in great 
splendor by successive generations of the Cosma family 
and their apprentices, in altars, pulpits, and other archi- 
tectural applications, so that this sort of inlaid geometric 
mosaic is commonly known as Cosmati work. Roman 
artists carried it into southern Italy and Sicily, where 
it mingled with the Siculo-Arabic work. The ex- 
amples referred to in Chapter XII, and illustrated in 
Figs. 211-213, may be compared with the altar-front 
from Ferentino in Figure 243 and the columns from 
Monreale in Figure 249. In Florence especially, ex- 
amples of the persistence of this art may be seen in va- 
rious details of the cathedral and Giotto's campanile 
(Figure 394). 

Tuscan Romanesque. 

In Pisa, Lucca, Pistoia and the neighborhood there 
was developed in the llth-13th centuries an ecclesias- 
tical style based on the basilican plan but dressed in an 
architectural apparel of black and white marble in 
stripes, adorned with purely decorative arcades; re- 
cessed arches springing from pilasters against the lower- 
story walls, and superposed tiers of free arches on 
columns in the upper stories of the front. Inlaid pat- 
terns, chiefly geometric, adorned the tympana and 

239 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

spandrels of the lower arches (Fig. 242). Carving 
was sparingly used, but the capitals were carefully 
carved on classic models, and the shafts sometimes 
carved with rinceaux of equally classic character (Ca- 
thedral and Baptistery of Pisa, eleventh century) . In 
Lucca the Cathedral and the later church of S. Mi- 




FIG. 242. IN-LAID PATTERN'S, PJSA CATHEDRAL. 

chele (Figure 244) show rich inlays of black on white, 
with fantastic grotesques, due perhaps to Lombard in- 
fluence which is also seen in some of the columns, and in 
the lions or monsters which serve as bases to columns in 
many churches. Some of the carving at Lucca sug- 
gests Byzantine influence. The use of striping in dark 
marble and of inlay is seen as far east as in Bologna. 
Figure 245 shows a window of the Baptistery of S. 
Stefano, where Byzantine influence appears in the inter- 
laces of the perforated panels set in the striped wall. 
The richly carved lintels of doors in the church of S. 
Giusto, Lucca (Figure 246), show the mixture of influ- 
ences which impinged on art in Tuscany. 

In Florence and San Miniato, paneling in black and 
white takes the place of striping a less correct treat- 

240 



1 O 




FIG. 246. LINTEL, SAN GIUSTO, LUCCA 




FIG. 247. DETAIL, PAVEMENT OF BAPTISTERY, FLORENCE 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 



ment structurally though more decorative. In some 
churches, especially in the Baptistery at Florence and 
in San Miniato, the pavements show inlaid patterns in 
black and white which could hardly be surpassed for 
decorative beauty (Figure 247). Altar and altar-rail 
at S. Miniato are treated with inlays of the same 
sort. 

The style was occasionally imitated in remote cities, 
as at Troja in southeast Italy, where the cathedral is 
decorated with recessed arcades after the Pisan manner. 

The Siculo-Arabic Style. 

The Arab conquest of Sicily and the subsequent ex- 
pulsion of the Mohammedans by the Crusaders, with the 
establishment of a Norman 
kingdom, and the persist- 
ence of Byzantine tradi- 
tions, all combined to de- 
velop a singularly mixed 
but effective style of decora- 
tion. The Arabic pointed 
arch, inlaid marble wain- 
scot with a serrated parapet-cresting after the fashion 
of Cairo, Byzantine glass-mosaic on the upper walls and 
occasional vaults, are conspicuous in such edifices as the 
cathedrals of Monreale (Figure 248), the Martorana 
and Palatine chapels at Palermo, and others. Latin or 
''Cosmati" mosaics inlaid in twisted shafts adorn the 
cloisters of Monreale (Figure 249; see also Figure 214) , 
and some of the pulpits and altars. The open-timber 
ceilings are richly painted and gilded ; Cufic inscriptions 

243 




FIG. 250. CUFIC DECORATION, 
PALERMO. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 




FIG. 251. DETAIL FROM BRONZE DOORS, 
MONHEALE CATHEDRAL. 



appear in these 
(Fig. 250) and 
Arabic geometric 
interlace in the 
pavements. The 
bronze doors are 
by North Italian 
artists (Fig. 251), 
and here and 
there even Lom- 
bard details occur. 
Color appears ev- 
erywhere, in Ori- 
ental profusion. 
Except in the cap- 
itals, many of which are antique, carving is little used, 
but some of the cloister capitals at Monreale are fine 
examples of decorative sculpture, showing both Norman 
and Byzantine influences (Figure 248 ). 1 It was a 
brilliant, confused, and short-lived style. 

Lombard. 

This style was not confined to Lombardy ; it prevailed 
through Emilia and as far east as Verona, and south 
even into Calabria and Apulia. The Lombards, a Ger- 
manic race by origin, introduced into Italian art an 
entirely new note of solemnity and somber humor, ex- 
pressed in the rugged massiveness of their churches and 
the grotesques in their carving. They contributed to 
architecture decorative forms and devices which spread 

i The spirnl and zigzag flirtings shown in Figure 249 were originally filled 
with Cosmati-work of inlaid mosaics. 

244 




into western Romanesque art. Among these were the 
arcade cornice (Fig. 252), long pilaster strips flat, 
semi-cylindrical, or spirally twisted ; the round or wheel- 
window (Figure 253), the col- 
umn resting on a monster's 
back; the splayed doorway 
adorned with many columns in 
the jambs and with successively 
recessed or stepped arches above 
the door-lintel (Figure 254). 
The open arcade under the FIG. 252. AHCADED CORN- 
eaves of many Lombard ^E, s. MAETIKO, PALAIA. 

churches is a part of the architecture rather than orna- 
ment. Many of these features are common in the 
French and Germanic Romanesque, though they origi- 
nated in Italy. There was a constant interchange be- 
tween the Benedictine monasteries of these countries; 
the Crusades brought Western hordes into Italy, and 
such commerce as there was aided the dissemination of 
architectural ideas as well as of commodities. More- 
over the maestri comacini, the skilled masons and carvers 
organized into guilds of traveling artisans, were almost 
wholly recruited from the North Italian country, and 
they carried their art into remote regions of Italy and 
into other lands. 

Grotesques. 

The medieval "bestiaries," of which copies have come 
down to our day, prove the symbolic significance of 
many of the grotesque sculptures, each beast and part 
of a beast having a specific meaning, so that each com- 

245 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

bination of heterogeneous parts to form a grotesque 
monster, signified a particular combination of definite 
ideas, as in a symbolic language. But the medieval 

sculptors of Lom- 
bardy, with imagi- 
nations saturated 
with the medieval 
superstitions which 
peopled air, earth 
and sea with count- 
less invisible be- 
ings, mostly mal- 
efic, loving to blast 
and blight every 
perfect and beauti- 
tiful thing, but 
which could be di- 
verted by charms, 
incantations and 
symbols, and even 
by marring in ap- 
pearance the seem- 
ing perfection of 
a human work 2 
these Germanic 
Italians of the 
North treated with 
a species of humor- 
ous decorative art the wild and fantastic symbols and 

2 This superstition survives in a real but attenuated form in the jettatura 
of Italy and the "evil eye" of the Eastern Mediterranean. 

246 





FIG. 255. CAP FROM AUHONA; SYMBOLS OF 

EVANGELISTS OK A PCLPIT; CENTAUR 

FROM SAN AMBHOGIO, MILAN. 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

talismans which grew out of this superstition (Fig. 

255). 

Other Forms. 

Not a little of the Italian ornament of the Roman- 
esque period is hard to classify under any particular 
style-name, being the product of local or of conflicting 
influences. Thus the wheel-windows show considerable 
variety. The marble perforations of the Cathedral of 
Troja suggest Oriental prototypes, while the traceries 
of those of S. Pietro and of Sta. Maria at Toscanella 
are designed on quite different principles. Certain 
Italian manuscripts of this period betray the hand or 
influence of Irish scribes. This variety of stvle in 

V > 

Italian Romanesque art presents an interesting contrast 
to the impressive unity of general effect in Western, es- 
pecially French, work of the same period. 

THE FRENCH ROMANESQUE 

General Character. 

French Romanesque ornament is completely domi- 
nated by the monastic architecture. Previous to about 
1020 architecture in France was extremely crude, ex- 
cept in Provence, while Roman traditions still imparted 
a certain elegance to ecclesiastical buildings. 3 By 1000 
A. D. the feudal system on the one hand, and the monastic 
on the other, had attained coherent form, and were domi- 
nant over the developments of the nascent civilization. 
Architecture was chiefly military and monastic, and 
while the feudal lords built strong castles, the monks 

8 Consult ReVoil, "Architecture romane du Midi de la France:" plates. 

249 



were learning to build stone 
churches with vaults. In 
the absence of antique ruins 
to serve as quarries of ready- 
made decorative material, 
and without either models or 
trained artisans for the pro- 
duction of mosaic, carving 
and inlay, the arts of decora- 
tion had to be created anew. 
The art that slowly emerged 
from this destitution was a 
struggling art, at first crude 
in design and execution. To 
its earliest phase the French 
give the name of Carolingian 
art. The architecture was 
massive, thick- jointed, spar- 
ing in ornament except about 

FIG. 256 DETAILS FROM CHURCH tne doOl'WayS, at which the 
OF ST. PAUL-TROIS-CHATEAUX. _ 

builders' highest art was be- 
stowed. As the eleventh century advances, this art be- 
comes finer, richer, more knowing, still vigorous but bet- 
ter in technic; the accessory arts multiply and grow in 
perfection. There developed a certain unity of general 
style throughout France, controlled to a remarkable ex- 
tent by a rigid logic of construction. More than in any 
previous style in any land, the forms not merely of the 
structure proper, but also of its decoration, were deter- 
mined by the special exigencies of materials and struc- 
tural science. Although provincial schools appear in 

250 




ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 



the architecture (Provence, Charente, Auvergne, Bur- 
gundy, Normandy, Ile-de-France) the decorative de- 
tails do not vary greatly. True, the Byzantine influ- 
ence is more clearly traceable in some districts, the clas- 
sic in others, especially in Provence (Fig. 256), but 
it requires a closer discrimination to detect these pro- 
vincial variations in the ornament than in the architec- 
ture, in the details than in the composition, and far more 
than is required to classify Italian ornament of the same 
period. This is due to the dominance of the great mon- 
astic orders, especially of the Benedictines; uniformly 
skilful artists, they tended to develop a common style 
wherever they established their abbeys. 

Architectural Ornament: Columns and Capitals. 

The French Romanesque column is a descendant from 
the classic column, modified by its new uses as a mem- 
ber of a compound pier or as a jamb-shaft or nook-col- 
umn in a door or window. Lombard or comacine influ- 
ences seem to have had a share in its development. The 
shaft is straight, without en- 
tasis or taper (Figure 257) ; 
sometimes, in late doorways, 
richly carved with geometric 
patterns (Figure 260). The 
base is of the Attic type, 
often with corner-leaves 
( Figure 264 ). The capitals 
are generally of the Corinthian type, but with a heavy 
abacus added, and the proportions and details modified 
in innumerable ways (Figure 265; Plate XIV). At 

251 





FIG. 264. BASEO 
SPURS. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 



Moissac they have a decidedly Byzantine character. 
The introduction of grotesques, both human and bestial, 
gave rise to new types (Figures 259, 261). Occasion- 
ally a species of cushion capital is used, especially in 
Normandy, the upper part square, with a heavy abacus ; 

the lower part scalloped or 
convex-fluted once or more 
times on each face. A very 
beautiful double capital is pre- 
served in the Museum at Tou- 
louse (Plate XIV, 1). An- 
other double cap is Number 
2 in the same Plate, from 
Chalons-sur-Marne. The con- 
trast in style illustrates the 
difference between the carving 
of Provence, with strong By- 
zantine tinge, and that of the 
Ile-de-France in the North. 
Some of the earlier work is 
hewn out with the mason's-ax ; 

later the chisel comes into more general use, and the 
established types are greatly varied by the introduction 
of figures, jewel-studded bands, and foliage of new 
types. 4 In Plate XIV, 3, 4, 5, the Corinthian tradition 
is clearly shown in all the capitals. 

Carving; Bands and Panels. 

The classic acanthus-leaf, rinceau, and even anthe- 
mion appear constantly in various modifications, and in 




FIG. 



265. LATE ROMANESQUE 
CAPITAL, PARIS. 



* Consult article "Sculpture" in V.-le-Duc 
1'architecture." 

252 



; 'Dictionnaire Raisonnd de 




ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

Provence the fret is 
used as a carved run- 
ning ornament, as at 
St. Gilles. The acan- 
thus-leaf and rinceau 
preserve in some cases 
an extraordinarily 
classic character, even 
in comparatively late 
examples, suggesting 
direct copying from 
antique fragments 
(Avallon, Fig. 267, 
St. Denis, etc.). 
Even late in the 
twelfth century the 
Roman tradition 
sometimes appears 
very strong in carved 
rinceaux, as in Figs. 
266, 268. But gen- 
erally the classic tra- 
dition was gradually 
lost, and a sort of naturalism began to creep in, though 
not yet the direct copying of Nature. The rinceau has 
a round stem but no wrapping-leaves ; the stem is fluted 
or ridged to suggest the bark ; the branches spring from 
it like grafts, with little ridges around their starting- 
places ; the leaves are still strongly conventional but not 
at all like acanthus-leaves, having rounded lobes and 
spoon- like hollows ; they are broad and massive, and the 

255 




FIG. 266. CARVED RINCEAU: UPPER, FROM 
MANTES; LOWER, FROM VAISON. 



A HISTQBJBOF ORNAMENT 





FIG. 267. AC- 
ANTHUS 

LEAVES FROM 
AVALLOX. 



entire IJsidto is carved in high relief and 
sometimes weeply undercut (Figs. 266, 
268). The double rinceau sometimes ap- 
pears, enclosing the large leaves in ovals 
or in heart-shaped openings (Fig. 269). 
In almost all cases the rinceau represents 
the grape-vine and its ecclesiastical sym- 
bolism is obvious. 

The framed anthemion, so common in 
Byzantine carving, hardly occurs in 
French Romanesque friezes or bands. 
Towards the end of the twelfth century, 
however, we find in its place, and evidently 
descended from it> an ornament consisting of broad 
fluted triple or five-lobed leaves enclosed by branching 
leaves often adorned with jewels. 
Sometimes the central leaf of the 
trilobe is carried up under the fram- 
ing leaves and curled over it (Fig- 
ure 262). This motive seems to 
have come in from Germany, and is 
frequently found in painted orna- 
ment, both on walls and on manu- 
scripts. 

In certain regions along the paths 
of Byzantine and Lombard influ- 
ence, beasts and human figures are 
shown twined into the convolutions 
of the rinceau (Plate XIV). Ar- 
cading as a decorative external fea- 
ture never attained in France the 

256 




FIG. 



268. UIXCEAU, 

AVALLON. 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

importance it achieved in 
northern Italy. The two 
most noted examples are 
the fronts of Notre Dame 
at Poitiers and of the 
Cathedral of Angouleme 
(about 1130). These be- 
tray Italian and Byzan- 
tine influence; the arches 
are not free as at Pisa, 
but attached to (or re- 
cessed in) the wall, fram- 
ing statues, windows or 
reliefs. Internally, how- 
ever, wall-arcades occur 
frequently, especially as 
decorations of the side- 
aisle walls under the win- 
dows; such arcades are 
called arcatures. In 
Normandy the arches are 
sometimes interlaced, and 
this device was later 
adopted in England and is common in Anglo-Norman 
churches. 




FIG. 269. DOUBLE RINCEAU, 
NOTRE DAME, PARIS. 



Moldings. 

With the new types of building a new art of molding- 
profiles begins to appear. Whether its origin is in the 
Lombard doorways or is local, its development was con- 
trolled by that logic of structure to which allusion has 

257 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

already been made, and which specially distinguishes 
French Romanesque architectural art. All arches being 
stepped, and their square edges, as already described, 
cut into roll-moldings between chamfers, there resulted 
in doorways and pier-arches an alternation of plane, 
hollow and convex surfaces which proved extremely ef- 
fective (Figures 257, 258). Out of this simple treat- 
ment was developed a more elaborate system of varying 
hollows, rolls and flat surfaces, which the English Gothic 
artists were to carry in later times to the highest per- 
fection (see Chapter XVIII). In contrast with the 
classic tradition, according to which all important mold- 
ings project from the general surface, the medieval 
builders developed the contrary system of moldings cut 
into the surface. The exception is in the projecting 
drip-moldings which defined the extrados of the arch on 
exterior walls, especially over doorways. 

Doorways. 

As a general rule the outer step or "order" of a series 
of stepped doorway-arches was brought down upon 
an inpost carried by a column set flush with the outer 
face of the wall, or upon the square pier formed by the 
wall itself. Sometimes, however, it was returned into 
the wall, as in Figure 258, or abutted into projecting 
members, as in Figure 259. Each "order" of the series 
of diminishing arches was carried by its own distinct 
supports, whether columns (jamb-shafts) or piers, as 
in Figures 257, 258. The various orders were either 
plain, with roll-moldings, as already explained, or 
carved with enrichments often of great splendor of ef- 

258 



19 




ChartiesCaJh 

Fig '259 From flngoulemeGtih Fig 261 From J/. Pierre d flu/nay 




ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

feet. It was upon the church doorways 
that the monastic artists lavished their 
richest ornaments. In the North, geo- 
metric motives were especially promi- 
nent, and among these the zigzag was 
particularly favored in Normandy (d 
in Fig. 270), cut into the face of the 
arch, or into the soffit, or both; the 
"broken-stick" ("batons-rompus") , the 
lozenge and dog-tooth or pyramid (i) 
are also common. Byzantine influence 
is discernible in the billet (e, Fig. 270), 
and in the flat treatment of figure-re- 
liefs in the tympanum as at Carrenac 
(Figure 257). Imbrications (g), 
checkers (6), "nail-heads," foliage- 
forms and grotesques are also of fre- 
quent occurrence. Figures 261, from St. Pierre at 
Aulnay, and 258 from Rouen Cathedral (Porte St. 
Jean) show the extraordinary richness of some of these 
Romanesque doorways. The Rouen example belongs 
to the early 13th century and is therefore early Gothic, 
but it is still full of the spirit, and shows many of the 
details, of the Romanesque. 

Horizontal moldings receive but little emphasis in 
French Romanesque ornament, and there are no dis- 
tinctly typical horizontal moldings, except those of the 
Attic bases of the columns already mentioned. Hori- 
zontal bands, however, are not uncommon, richly carved, 
often with anthemions or palmettes (Fig. 271) which 
betray the ever-present Byzantine influence. In place 

261 



I 6 



FIG. 270. RO- 
MANESQUE OB- 

NAMENTS. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 





FIG. 271. CABVED BANDS! 
FBOM ST. AUBIK, ANGERS. 



of the classic cornice the monastic 
builders had only the Lombard 
arcaded cornice, or the more elab- 
orate corbel table. In minor posi- 
tions the simplest copings with one 
or two moldings suffice. 

Corbel Tables. 

These may have originated in 
the classic modillion-cornice, or 
they may have been evolved out of 
the necessity of providing a pro- 
jecting shelf at the top of the wall. 
In Provence (Southern France) the first is doubtless 
the correct explanation, as the corbel-table of the gable 
over the porch of St. Trophime at Aries has corbels 
carved with the acanthus in evident reminiscence of 
classic modillions. In Central and Northern France 
the corbels are usually grotesques of masks or monsters. 
In some cases they are found in conjunction with the 
Lombard arcaded cornice, particularly in Auvergne and 
in Southern France. Corbels for other purposes than 
the support of a corbel-table were of varied forms, often 
resembling capitals with a "drop" or "cul-de-lampe" at 
the bottom, formed either of foliage or of figures or gro- 
tesques. 

Figure Sculpture. 

It was during this period that the French began the 
development of that wonderful art of decorative sculp- 
ture which they carried to so marvelous a height of artis- 

262 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

tic beauty in the portal-sculptures of their Gothic cathe- 
drals, at Chartres, Amiens and Reims. At first they 
were contented with reliefs in the portal tympanium 
(Figure 257) but free statues were later set in the deep 
jambs of the portals, representing saints and apostles 
and martyrs : this practice appears to have begun about 




FREJTCH ROMANESQUE GROTESQUE. 



the middle of the 12th century (Figure 260). By- 
zantine and classic influences and traditions dominate in 
the earlier sculpture (Plate XIV, 3, 5) ; but the French 
soon impressed upon all their sculpture, whether of stat- 
ues, reliefs or grotesques, the stamp of their own orig- 
inal genius (Fig. 272; Plate XIV, 7). Both in tech- 
nical execution and in appropriateness to its architec- 
tural setting, these later Romanesque sculptures mark 
the opening of a new chapter in decorative art. 

Painted Decoration. 

The scanty remains of the painted decoration in 

263 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

French Romanesque churches indicate a prevailing sim- 
plicity, marked by effective composition with rather 
crude coloring and execution. The painted ornament 
was generally restricted to certain well-defined portions 
of the edifice, such as the apse and chapels. Wall sur- 
faces were marked with conventional masonry joints or 
simple quarries, spangles or diapers in red ochre and 
black; sometimes the effect was varied by painted wall- 
arcades and representations of wall-draperies with con- 
ventional folds. Columns were striped or painted with 
chevrons or zigzags in red, dark green and yellow or 
gold, and the capitals were enriched in the same colors. 
Figure painting was rare; when employed it was 
strongly Byzantine in character, like the contemporary 
manuscript pictures, as at St. Ceneri, or Ste. Rade- 
gonde, Poitiers. Leaf-forms were sometimes used for 
borders and narrow bands. 

Accessory Arts. 

In iron-work, tiles and wood-carving the French mo- 
nastic artists executed works of considerable merit, em- 
ploying generally forms akin to the architectural orna- 
ment or else inspired from Byzantine models ; but they 

by no means equaled the variety 
and richness of the Italian deco- 
rators. Figure 263 shows a 
door knocker of the 12th cen- 
tury, from a cast in the Troca- 
museum ' At Limoges 




FIG. 273. LEAF PATTERN, there Was a flourishing School of 

a, ST. OMEB. workers in enamel by the chant- 

264 



' I 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

pleve process. In this work, as in the other minor arts, 
the Byzantine influence is prominent. Fig. 273 is a 
characteristic leaf-detail from the red-and-brown tiling 
in the cathedral of St. Omer. The tile floors of chan- 
cels and chapels of the late Romanesque period were 
often of great elegance, in simple and effective patterns 
in buff, red, brown and black. 

Books Recommended: 

As before, HUBSCH. Also: BAUM: Romanesque Architecture 
in France (London, 1912). CAHIER AND MARTIN: Melanges 
d'archeologie (Paris, 1868). CATTANEO: U Architecture en 
It alie (Venice, 1890). COURAJOD: Lemons professees, etc. 
(Paris, 1903). CUMMINGS: A History of Architecture in Italy 
(Boston, 1901). DE DARTEIN: Etudes sur V architecture 
lombarde (Paris, 1882). DEHIO AND BEZOLD: Die Kirchliche 
Baukunst des Abendlandes (Stuttgart, 1887-1901). F. M. 
HESSEMER: Arabische und alt-it alienische Bauverzierungen 
(Berlin, 1842). LECOY DE LA MARCHE: Les manuscrits et la 
miniature (Paris, 1886). E. MOLINIER: L'Orfevrerie civile et 
religieuse du- F e a la fin du X^sie'de (Paris, 1899). Musee de 
sculpture comparee du Trocadero (Paris, no date). F. OSTEN: 
Bauwerke in der Lombardei (Frankfort, n. d.). H. REVOIL: 
Architecture romane du Midi de la France (Paris, 1867). 
ROHATTI/T DE FLEITRY: Les Monuments de Pise (Paris, 1866). 
E. E. VioKLET-LE-Duc : Dictionnaire raisonne de V architecture 
francaise, etc. (Paris, 1868). 



265 



CHAPTER XV 

ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

II. ANGLO-NORMAN, GERMAN, SPANISH AND 
SCANDINAVIAN 

Anglo-Norman Ornament. 

Previous to the Norman conquest of England in 
1066, the architecture of that country was of the crudest 
description, and, the ornament of the style, the so-called 
Saxon, was so rude and scanty as hardly to deserve men- 
tion. With the incoming of the new and foreign ele- 
ment, however, there began a remarkable development, 
both architectural and decorative ; and, as is so often the 
case, the result of the blending was in some respects 
more brilliant than even the stronger of the parent styles. 
While the Norman (more properly "Anglo-Norman") 
architecture derived its chief inspiration from French 
Norman models, it rapidly diverged from them into a 
strongly national style in which carved decoration was 
very liberally employed. This Anglo-Norman orna- 
ment is remarkable for its vigor, variety and effective- 
ness. Its fundamental elements were comparatively 
few, and chiefly of French origin, but it was more 
abundant and varied in its details and applications. 

Norman Columns. 

The bases, of the Attic type, have spur-leaves some- 
times but not always; the shafts are usually plain, but 

266 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

sometimes carved with zigzags, spiral flutings, or large 
quarry-patterns (as at Durham). The capitals are 
rarely of the Corinthianesque type (Fig. 274; Plate 
XV, 5) , except in late instances under French influence. 
The prevailing type is the cubic or cushion type (Fig. 
275) ; next the foliated or Corinthianesque, and the least 
frequent are the grotesque capitals. Sometimes two 




Fio. 574. CAPITAL 

FROM LINCOLN 

CATHEDRAL. 



Fio. 275. CAPITAL FROM ST. PETER'S, 
NORTHAMPTON. 



types are combined side by side, as in Plate XV, 1. The 
abacus is heavy, molded, sometimes carved with saw- 
teeth, zigzags or other ornaments. The scalloped 
cushion type is also very common (Plate XV, 3) . Cor- 
bels are either plain or grotesque. 

Doorways, Arches and Moldings. 

The doorways are often extremely rich, especially 
after 1130. The zigzag is the ornament most fre- 
quently used; it is carved on each of several arch-steps 
and sometimes carried down the jambs in lieu of nook- 

267 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 




FIG. 276. ORNAMENTS FROM 
IFFLKY CHURCH. 



shafts, as at Iffley. 
Zigzags on the face and 
soffit of an arch are ar- 
rayed to produce al- 
ternate pyramids and 
lozenge-shaped holes ; al- 
ternate zigzags are con- 
vex and concave in 
section. Saw-teeth, star- 
flowers and pyramid jew- 
els abound (Fig. 276). 
Round jewels or "nail- 
heads" are applied in hollow moldings, and rosettes 
or flowers are not uncommon. Another characteristic 
ornament is the beak-head, a grotesque bird's head with 
enormous beak, applied 
to the voussoirs of an 
arch, the beak pointed in- 
wards, and sometimes 
spanning several mold- fy 
ings (Fig. 277). Gro- 
tesques occur in arch or- 
naments, but rarely. The 
billet-molding also oc- 
curs occasionally, but usu- 
ally with round billets in- 
stead of square. 

The effect of the 
crowded ornament of the 
Anglo-Norman doorways 
is often extremely rich, 




FIG. 277. BEAK-HEAD MOLDING, 
IFFLEY CHURCH. 



268 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

the multiplied points of light on projecting details show- 
ing brilliantly against the dark shadows. Famous ex- 
amples of such doorways are those of Iffley Church, 
Barfreston Church and the Prior's Door of Ely Cathe- 
dral, and many others. 

Arcatures are of frequent occurrence, usually with in- 
terlaced arches. These are found sometimes even on 
the exterior, though more usually employed for interior 
walls (Fig. 278). 

Other Carved Ornament. 

Free figure sculpture is almost unknown, but figures 
in relief are sometimes seen, and grotesques, both human 
and animal are very frequent. Foli- 
age is rare, and when it occurs is 
highly conventional and very simple. 
The anthemion motive is not uncom- 
mon (Fig. 279) ; it is obviously of 
Byzantine derivation by way of the 
French Romanesque. Interlace is oc- 
casionally met with, probably due to 
Celtic influence. 

Painted ornament appears to have been occasionally 
used in the chancels and wooden roofs of churches, but 
extant examples are very rare. That of the east end of 
St. Cross Church, near Winchester, discovered late in the 
last century and restored, shows simple conventional pat- 
terns in red ocher and black. The ceiling of Peterboro' 
reproduces the painted lozenge-pattern of the original 
which it replaces. That of Ely is also a modern decora- 
tion based on Norman precedents. 

269 




FIG. 278. INTER- 
LACED ARCHES. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 



Fonts; Metalwork. 

A few "Saxon" or pre-Norman fonts have been pre- 
served, all of crude 
workmanship, the 
more elaborate 

among them suggest- 
ing an effort to copy 
Byzantine details. 
The Norman fonts 
are of better work- 
manship, cut in stone 
or cast in lead, usu- 
ally in the form of 
a square or round 
bowl on a short shaft 
(or several shafts) 
and base, and quite 
frequently adorned 
with figure subjects, 
poorly executed. The Byzantine influence is often evi- 
dent in the Norman fonts, some of which resemble 




FIG. 279. CARVED ANGLO-NORMAN AN- 

THEMIONS: FROM ST. SAVIOR'S, SoUTH- 

WAHK (ABOVE); HEREFORD CATHEDRAL (BE- 




Fio. 280. CELTIC Mss. INITIALS. 
270 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 



Venetian-Byzantine well- 
curbs. Metal work does not 
appear to have been carried 
to an advanced degree of 
perfection in this period. 
The celebrated bronze can- 
dlestick of Gloucester Ca- 
thedral is evidently of for- 
eign, probably of Italian,, 
workmanship. It is of an 
alloy of bronze and silver. 
(But see below.) 





FIG. 282. COVER OR SHRIXE FOR ST. 
PATRICK'S BELL. 

271 



FIG. 281. CELTIC INTERLACES. 



Celtic Ornament. 

The artists in the 
Irish monasteries de- 
veloped a remarkable 
skill in certain depart- 
ments of decorative 
art, notably and fore- 
most, in manuscript il- 
lumination; almost to 
an equal degree in 
ecclesiastical metal- 
work. Interlace of 
an extraordinary in- 
tricacy is a character- 
istic of their art in 
both fields. In this 
they display a close 
kinship of spirit with 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Scandinavian art, in which the representation of the 
Great Tree Yggdrasil, whose branches cover Earth, 
Heaven and the Underworld, are interlaced with the 
convolutions of the serpent or dragon Nithhoggr. 
Whether these interlaces originated in the North or were 
developed from Byzantine interlace it is difficult to de- 
cide. Fig. 280 illustrates various forms of Celtic inter- 
lace initials; Fig. 281 shows carved interlaces and the 

curious spiral ornament called 
the "trumpet pattern." Fig. 
282 is the famous shrine or cover 
of the iron bell of St. Patrick, 
decorated with jewels and inter- 
laced filigree of flat silver wires; 
while Fig. 283 shows one quar- 
ter of the cumdach or case made 
for the Molaise Gospels, of sil- 
ver on bronze with jewels and 
the grotesque symbolic lion of 
St. Mark. This is dated about 
1020. The bell shrine is later. 
The Celtic crosses serving as grave stones particu- 
larly the so-called "high crosses" present the best ex- 
amples of Irish stone-carving. The cross-arms are con- 
nected by a circle, and the angles between them cut into 
by curved notches; the flat faces and often the sides of 
the stone are covered with patterns (rarely with figures 
as at Monasterboice) in low relief; the patterns show the 
characteristic interlaces, often very complex and elabo- 
rate. Such a cross is shown in Plate XV, 16. 




FIG. 283. ONE QUARTER 

OP COVER OP MOLAISE 

GOSPELS. 



272 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

German Romanesque Ornament. 

In Germany, as in France and England, architectural 
decoration may be said to have its real beginning in the 
eleventh century, the earlier works being crude and al- 
most bare of ornament. The architectural awakening 
began in Saxony, but its most brilliant and prolific 




FIG. 284. CAPITALS FROM GERNBODE. 

achievements were in the Rhine provinces, where a truly 
splendid style of church architecture grew up in the 
llth-13th centuries, in which the ornament is remark- 
able for its admirable propriety and its force and rich- 
ness of design. It would be hard to find better capitals 
in any of the medieval styles than those of these Rhenish 
minsters, and the carving of grotesques fully equaled 
that in any other country. The decorative forms are 
all of foreign origin, French, Lombard and Byzan- 
tine, but combined with remarkable skill and wealth 
of fancy. The medium of transmission of these vari- 

273 




A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

ous influences is complex; commerce, the interchange 
between Eastern and Western monasteries, the circula- 
tion of Byzantine and Irish manuscripts and Byzantine 

ivories and ecclesiastical 
work, and other causes, all 
united in giving form to the 
German Romanesque types. 
The Byzantine is the strong- 
est influence in the details of 
the ornament ; the acanthus- 
anthemion, jeweled bands 
and shallow surface carving 
are frequent (Plate XVI, 

Fio. 285. FROM WUBTTEMBEBG. 4> 5> 1Q> 12> 15) . The Ger- 
man capitals vary from strongly Byzantine types to al- 
most Gothic foliage. Thus the cap from Gernrode 
(Fig. 284) shows Byzantine massiveness with its im- 
post-black and jeweled bands. Fig. 285 shows a capital 
on an octagonal shaft with molded abacus and a some- 
what free and loose treatment of the Byzantine-Roman- 
esque framed anthemion motive. The zigzag occurs oc- 
casionally, and grotesques abound, not only in capitals 
and corbels but also in shafts, bands and other places. 
The execution of most of the ornament is excellent. 

The Lombard influence appears in the grotesques, 
though these often give evidence of independent 
German design, but also in such architectural fea- 
tures as the deeply-splayed doorways (Fig. 286, 
from Heilsbronn), the arcaded cornices, pilaster- 
strips and open arcades under the eaves of apses and 
sometimes of fa9ades. At Rosheim, in Alsace, is a 

274 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

church-front of almost pure Italian or Lombard design. 

The arts of metal were practised with skill. Both 

wrought-iron and cast bronze were employed for grilles, 

gates, hanging lamps or crown-lights and for candela- 




FIG. 286. PORTAL FROM HEILSBHONK. 

bra and church vessels. Gold, silver and enamel were 
also employed for richer and finer products (of which 
an early example, perhaps of real Byzantine manufac- 
ture, at Aachen was illustrated in Fig. 238). Manu- 
script illumination reached a high pitch of development 
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and stained glass 
in the thirteenth; the former following purely Byzan- 
tine models, the latter retaining its Romanesque charac- 
ter in the face of the growing Gothic influence. In all 

275 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

these arts Germany was influenced both from the West 
and the East, France, Italy and Byzantium contributing 
to the final result. Examples of some of these various 
phases of German art are illustrated in Plate XVI. 

Spanish Romanesque Ornament. 

The Spanish peninsula was the field of successive in- 
vasions, conquests and internal struggles through the 





FIG. 287. TARRAGONA. 



Fio. 288. TAEBAGONA (?). 



entire Middle Ages, and there was little chance for the 
development of any independent national style. The 
few great churches erected in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries show a dominant French influence (Zamorra, 
Avila, Tarragona, Salamanca, Barcelona, Compo- 
stella) ; and while the composition is vigorous and effec- 
tive and the ornament well disposed, it presents no strik- 
ing novelty of detail (Figs. 287 and 288 illustrate two 

276 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

capitals which are thoroughly German in style) . A re- 
markable characteristic of this style is its absolute free- 
dom from Moorish details or influence, although the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries witnessed the culmination 





FIG. 289. NORWEGIAK CARVING: 
LEFT SIDE, FROM STEDYE CHURCH; 
RIGHT SIDE, UNIDENTIFIED. 



FIG. 290. CHOIR SEAT, 
NORWEGIAN. 



of that brilliant art. This exemption was doubtless due 
to the hostility between the Christians and Moslems. 

Scandinavian Ornament. 

The decorative art of the north of Europe, in the 
Scandinavian peninsula especially, took on a special 
character, the precise origin and relations of which to 
Byzantine art on the one hand and to Celtic art on the 
other, are still subjects of controversy. As in Celtic 
ornament, elaborate and complicated interlace is the 
dominant characteristic; and as in the Celtic manu- 

277 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 




Fio. 291. DETAILS OF CANDELABRUM, 



scripts, the interlace 
is based largely on 
the convolutions of a 
dragon or serpent, 
Nithhoggr, with the 
branches of the great 
earth-covering tree 
Yggdrasil. The most 
characteristic exam- 
ples of this art are in 
the wood-carvings of 
doors and doorways 
of ancient churches, 
some dating from the 
eleventh or even the 
tenth century (Fig. 
289). As these are 
of later date than 
many masterpieces of 
Irish manuscript or- 
nament, some of which 
belong to the eighth 
and possibly to the 
seventh century, it 
seems likely that this 
Scandinavian art is, 
in part at least, rooted 
in Irish art, though 



MILAN CATHEDRAL. 

this doubtless derived its first inspiration from Constan- 
tinople and Byzantine church fittings, ivories and Gos- 
pels. Fig. 290 shows a Norwegian chair (or rather stall 

278 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

from a choir) of perhaps the twelfth century, in which 
the character of the earlier art still appears. 

Romanesque Metal Work. 

It is difficult to assign precise national limits to some 
of the phases of metal work of the Romanesque period, 




FIG. 292. DETAIL, CHAXDELIER AT HILDESHEIM. 

especially in the line of ecclesiastical gold and silver and 
silver-gilt copper. Some of this work found in Western 
churches was undoubtedly from the Constantinople 
workshops e.g., the famous Pala d'Oro or jeweled 
golden altarpiece of St. Mark's, Venice. The Byzan- 
tines taught the art to the artisans of Italy, France and 
Germany, and Figs. 291-293 illustrate some of the 
most famous examples of this work. Fig. 291 shows 
two details of the magnificent bronze candlestick in 
Milan Cathedral. A very similar candlestick, at least 
as to its base, is among the treasures of Reims Cathedral. 
Fig. 292 is from a bronze candlestick at Hildesheim. 
The fine chalice in Fig. 293 is a part of the treasure of 
a church at Bergen (Norway) , and illustrates the use of 

279 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

filigree with jewels, which was a characteristic Byzan- 
tine form of the goldsmith's art. A very similar chalice 
is, or was, in the treasury of Reims Cathedral. 




FIG. 293. GOLD CUP, BERGEX. 



The architectural styles, thus grouped under the gen- 
eral name of Romanesque, gradually passed over into 
what are called the Gothic styles. The transition was 
not sudden, but the change though gradual, was a real 
one : not alone a change of details or of structural prin- 
ciples, but of spirit and character. The Gothic styles 

280 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

expressed the new order which came in with the final 
establishment of settled institutions, religious, political 
and social, throughout all Western Christendom. 

Books Recommended: 

As before, DEHIO and BEZOLD, HUBSCH. Also, BOND: In- 
troduction to English Church Architecture (London, 1913); 
Cathedrals of England and Wales (London, 1912)- DAHL- 
ERUP, HOLM AND STORK : Tegnmger of aeldre Nordisk Architek- 
tur (Stockholm). FORSTER: Denkmdler deutscher Baukunst 
(Leipzig, 1855-69). J. T. GILBERT: Facsimiles of National 
Manuscripts of Ireland (Dublin, 1871). A. HARTEL: Archi- 
tectural Details and Ornaments of Church Buildings, etc. (New 
York, 1904). HASAK: Die romanische und die gotische Bau- 
kunst (Stuttgart, 1899). T. KUTSCHMANN: Romanesque 
Architecture and Ornament in Germany (Text in German; 
New York, 1906). C. MOLLINGER: Die deutsch-romanische 
Architektur (Leipzig, 1891). H. OTTE: Geschichte der 
romanischen Baukunst in Deutschland (Leipzig, 1874). T. 
RICKMAN: An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles, etc. (Lon- 
don, 1817). E. SHARPE: Churches of the Nene Valley; Orna- 
ments of the Transitional Period; The Seven Periods of Eng- 
lish Architecture (London, various dates). E. SULLIVAN: 
The Book of Kells (New York, 1914). W. R. TYMMS: The 
History, Theory and Practice of Illuminating (London, 1861). 

For Spanish Romanesque, consult the fine work of LAMPEREZ 
Y ROMEA, Historia de la arquitectura cristiana espanola, etc., 
also the incomplete series entitled Monumentos Arquitectonicos 
de Espana, to be found in a few of the larger libraries. 



281 



CHAPTER XVI 

GOTHIC ORNAMENT: STRUCTURAL 

Gothic architecture was the result of the development 
which took place in the effort to solve the problem of 
constructing a vaulted cruciform church of stone, with 
a clearstory to light the central aisle or nave. All the 
special forms and details of this architecture are more 
or less directly incidental to this development: vault- 
ribbing, buttresses and pinnacles, clustered shafts, 
pointed arches, moldings and tracery, were all evolved 
in this process of working out the above problem. The 
greater part of the ornament of the medieval churches, 
chapels and even secular buildings, consisted of the 
adornment of these structural features. Whatever dec- 
oration was not structural, either in function or origin, 
was symbolic or pictorial. The sculpture and the stained 
glass of the great cathedrals constituted an illustrated 
Bible which even the most illiterate could in a measure 
understand. 

This style-development took place first of all in 
France. Other countries borrowed from France both 
the general composition and the details of their Gothic 
architecture. England alone among them retained a 
large measure of independence, developing her own 
Gothic style freely along national lines from germs 

282 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT: STRUCTURAL 

brought over from France, grafting upon the foreign 
plant their own original additions. Germany copied 
French models much more closely in some cases, while 
manifesting in others an originality verging on caprice. 
Spain and Portugal borrowed from all three, though 
mostly from France; Belgium was hardly more than a 
province of France in her architecture ; while the Italians 
developed no truly Gothic style, but grafted Gothic 
decorative details, much altered, on structures in which 
the Gothic principles, both of construction and compo- 
sition, were wholly ignored. 

Periods. 

It is convenient to divide the history of the style in 
all the above countries except Italy into three periods 
those of development, culmination and decline, or Early, 




FIG. 294. GOTHIC CAPITALS: a, EARLY FRENCH, FROM THE SAINTE 

CHAPELLE; 6, 14rH CENTURY CAP FROM TRANSEPT OF NOTRE DAME; 

c, FLAMBOYANT, FROM NORTH SPIRE OF CHARTRES. 

Developed, and Florid. These correspond to the so- 
called Early French, Rayonnant and Flamboyant 
phases of Gothic architecture in France, and the Lancet, 
Decorated and Perpendicular in England; these names 
being derived from the form and tracery of the windows. 

283 



In the English styles these phases belong roughly to the 
thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, respect- 
ively : in France they appear from twenty to fifty years 
earlier : in Germany somewhat later. The ornament of 
the Early Period (in France 1160 to 1240 or 1250) is 
the simplest and most vigorous, the imitation of natural 
forms least literal. In the Developed Period design 
and execution are finer, ornament more profuse and 
more naturalistic, and window tracery ( and in England 
vault-ribbing also) became more important elements in 
the decorative scheme. In the Florid Period the styles 
diverge considerably in the different countries, but in all, 
the ornament is more complex and often overloaded, and 
also often more thin, wiry and dry, technical cleverness 

and minute detail taking the 
place of restraint and vigor 
of artistic design. The orna- 
ment oscillates between the 
extremes of realism and con- 
ventionalism. This sequence 
is illustrated in the three 
capitals of Fig. 294. 

Structural Ornament. 

Every important struc- 
tural feature was either made 
ornamental in itself, like the 
clustered shafts, capitals, tri- 
forium-arcades, window-tra- 
ceries, roof-balustrades and 
water-spouts ; or adorned 
with carved adjuncts and de- 

284 




FIG. 295. DECORATIVE GABLE 
OVER A WINDOW, COLOGNE. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT: STRUCTURAL 



V V 



tails, like the crockets, finials, 
gablets and tabernacles of pin- 
nacles and buttresses, or the foli- 
age and flowers on enriched mold- 
ings ( See Plate XVII ) . In the 
Developed and Florid Periods, 
by the operation of a never-fail- 
ing law of decorative evolution, 
certain forms and features orig- 
inally structural came to be used 
as pure ornament. Thus gables, 
originally used only at the ends 
of gabled roofs, came to be used 
as purely decorative features, 
adorned with surface or open- 
work tracery, over doors and win- 
dows where no such roofs existed 
(Fig. 295) ; in England the vault- 
ribs, serving in earlier buildings 
as a framework upon which to 
build the fillings, became finally 
a mere patterning in relief on 
the vault-surface ; in Germany the spire, at first a steep 
roof over a bell tower, became a gigantic ornament of 
open tracery and not a roof at all. 1 

Piers, Shafts and Columns. 

Except in some of the earlier French and later Bel- 
gian and Dutch churches, all the piers were clustered, 

i See pages 134, 135, and 137 note for other examples of this law of devel- 
opment, and comments upon it. 

285 




FIG. 296. CLUSTERED 
GOTHIC PIER. 



slender shafts being grouped around a central core, 
sometimes joined to it, sometimes quite separate. 
These shafts were usually circular, but sometimes pear- 
shaped, springing from bases at a common level, except 
in the later examples and carrying elaborate foliated 
capitals (Fig. 296). Sometimes, in England espe- 





PARIS 



a. 6* 

FIG. 297. ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC CAPITALS; a, FROM BAYEUX CATHEDRAL, 
6, FROM ST. MARTIN DBS CHAMPS, PARIS. 

cially, the shafts are belted at intervals with molded 
bands. Vaulting shafts are often sprung from carved 
corbels high up, instead of bases on the ground, or set 
on the caps of the main piers. Gothic shafts are never 
carved, but are sometimes painted. 

Capitals display a a great variety of designs, usually 
employing foliage as their chief adornment. The earlier 
French capitals generally recall the Corinthian type by 
their bell-shaped core, square abacus with the corners 
cut off, and volute-like corner crockets, but the abacus is 
always massive in proportion to the cap and shaft, and 
the development of the type from the Romanesque is 

286 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT: STRUCTURAL 

evident (Fig. 297). Later capitals have the foliage 
more complex and more naturalistic in detail ( Fig. 294 
b) ; the abacus is octagonal or round; in England the 
plain molded bell-capital without foliage occurs fre- 
quently, and the Corinthian type is lost in the convex 
wreaths or bunches of foliage in the foliated caps. In 
the Florid Period capitals are often omitted, and when 




FIG. 298. GOTHIC BASES: EARLY TYPE, FROM 
HALBERSTADT; LATE TYPE, FROM ROUEN. 

used are often poor in design ; they vary between extreme 
naturalism and capricious convention (Figure 294c). 

Bases show a very interesting progressive develop- 
ment. The simple Attic type of the Romanesque styles 
survives for a while but first loses its corner spurs, then 
changes gradually, the plinth taking on a constantly in- 
creasing importance until it becomes a high pedestal, 
with the moldings above it much reduced and simplified. 
The lower torus also becomes higher and larger, assum- 
ing the later phases an ogee or pear-like profile. 
The corners of the plinth were cut off in many Roman- 
esque bases; in the Gothic the plinth (i.e., each member 
of a complex base) is almost always frankly an octagon 

287 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

or semi-octagon in plan (Fig. 298) . In the later period 
of the style it is often in two stages, constituting a 
pedestal rather than a simple base. 

Moldings. 

The simple roll molding of the Romanesque styles is 
replaced by increasingly complex profiles, in which pear- 
shaped sections frequently alternate with deep hollows, 
producing effective contrasts of multiplied narrow lines 
of light and shadow. In the first two periods the pro- 




Char 





FIG. 299. FRENCH PIER-ARCH MOLDINGS OF THREE PERIODS. 

files are sharp and vigorous, and in the pier-arches the 
grouping of rounds and hollows conforms more or less 
closely to the stepped profile of the arch-construction. 
In the Florid Period the steppings of the arch-section 
generally disappear in a generally splayed effect. The 
profiles in this period are less vigorous than in the pre- 
ceding, the hollows being broad and shallow, the convex 
moldings smaller, and fine fillets are multiplied, giving 
at times a thin and wiry appearance to the grouped pro- 
files (Fig. 299). 

Enriched moldings are more frequent in English than 
in French work, though they occur in all the periods in 
France (especially in late work), England, Germany 

288 




FIG. 300. CORNICE-MOLDING, 
NOTHE DAME, PARIS. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT: STRUCTURAL 

and Spain. Convex moldings are rarely enriched, but 
the hollows between them are adorned with leaves, 
crockets, ball-flowers, and 
in early English work with 
pyramid-flowers or "dog- 
tooth" ornaments. In place 
of a cornice or corbel-table, 
the wall (especially in 
France) was often crowned 
with a high, deep cavetto 
filled with standing leaves (Fig. 300). In the Florid 
Period, the French sometimes filled the broad hollows 
between the finer members of a molding-group with ex- 
quisitely carved naturalistic vines. This treatment oc- 
curs in English examples (e.g. the portals of Southwell 
Chapter House) in the Decorated Period. In the fol- 
lowing (Perpendicular) Period in England the hollows 

w r ere more often enriched with 
widely spaced square rosettes. 
In both France and Ger- 
many moldings of different 
profiles were made to cross and 
intersect in work of the latest 
phase of the Gothic, the intri- 
cate cutting of their intersec- 
tions giving occasion for that 
display of technical cleverness 
which characterizes that period. 
Vaulting. 

Gothic vaulting is based upon the principle of a 
framework of ribs supporting the filings of masonry of 

289 




FIG. 301. CARVED VAULT 
Boss: FRENCH. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

small stones. The rib framework is simple in the early- 
work of all countries, the only ornament being the mold- 
ings of the ribs and sometimes a carved keystone or boss 
at their intersections (Figure 301). In France this 
simplicity persists nearly to the end (Fig. 302). In 




FIG. 302. VAULTING, APSIDAL CHAPEL, BEAUVAM. 

England the ribs were multiplied by the addition of tier- 
cerons (Figure 303) and of subordinate connecting ribs 
or liernes, and combined into highly ornamental pat- 
terns ("star" and "net" vaults), with carved bosses at 
each intersection. This patterning developed finally 
into "fan vaulting," in which the ribs were purely decora- 
tive moldings cut in the stones of the inverted semi- 
conoids of the vaulting (Figure 304, b; a sump- 
tuously ornate form of stone ceiling, but without that 

290 




EXETER CATHEDRAL 




LINCOLN CATHEDRAL; half of Tower Vault 




L 

FIG. 304A. INTERIOR, 



WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL: LIERNE VAULTING 




FIG. 304B. FAN VAULT, HENRY VII's CHAPEL, WESTMINSTER 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT: STRUCTURAL 



clear expression of structure which marked the earlier 
vaulting. 

In Germany and Spain the vault-ribs were, as early 
as the latter part of the Developed Period, built to fit 
predetermined conventional patterns, in which the lines 
were not always, as they always were in England, true 
plane curves. The builders in these two countries de- 
lighted in tours-de-force, displays of cleverness in creat- 
ing and solving difficult problems of vault-rib construc- 
tion; but the results are neither so rich nor so pleasing 
as in England. 

Window Tracery. 

This was one of the most decorative and characteris- 
tic features of Gothic architecture. Its development 
may be followed from the Romanesque coupling of win- 
dows under a discharging arch through successive stages 

in which the separating 
pier became a column or 
a slender chamfered or 
molded pier of cut stone, 
while the spandrel above 
was perforated with a cir- 
cle; then treated like a 
thick plate of stone with 
decoratively cusped or 
foiled openings cut 

ETTOX 




Fio. 305 a. 



PLATE TRACERY, 
CHVRCH. 



through it (plate tracery 
Fig. 305 a). Then the 
window was further divided into three, four, or more 
lights by slender molded or shafted mullions, and 

293 



the space between their pointed-arched heads and the 
main window-arch filled with circles or geometric pat- 
terns of stone work, the interest of the design being now 
transferred from the shapes of the openings to the shapes 
of the stone work (bar tracery, Fig. 305 b). Towards 
the end of the middle Period the circular arcs and circles 
of this type of tracery (which was carried to the highest 
perfection in the great East and West windows of Eng- 




FIG. 305 6. BAR TRACERY, MEOPHAM CHURCH; c, PERPENDICULAR 
TRACERY, NORTHFLEET. 

land and the great wheel- windows of France) reverse 
curves were introduced, giving a swaying movement to 
the lines. In France this is continued through the next 
period, giving it the name of Flamboyant from the 
flame-like forms of the very intricate tracery patterns 
used both in arched and circular windows. In England 
on the contrary there supervened, from about 1375, a 
rapid change, leading to the Perpendicular style of 
tracery ; huge windows being filled with a very mechan- 
ical, though structurally excellent, system of vertical 
bars, sometimes crossed by transoms on small flattened 

294, 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT: STRUCTURAL 

arches (Fig. 305 c). In Germany there was less uni- 
formity, but a general resemblance to the French flam- 
boyant forms. These various developments are illus- 
trated in Fig. 305 and Plate XXI. 

Noticeable in all developed Gothic tracery is the intro- 
duction of cusps, separating or enclosing foils, also the 
branching of the moldings, so arranged that the main 
mullions and circles have a section composed of the ag- 
gregate of all the subordinate arch or mullion mold- 




Fio. 306. VARIETIES OF CUSPS. 

ings which came together in them. The several com- 
ponent groups of moldings are called orders. Cusps 
may consist of only the inmost molding widened into a 
point, or of a molding or complete order branching off 
so as to form a small triangular opening (Fig. 306). 
Sometimes one of the outer moldings of the arch of a 
door or window was pointed with cusps terminating in 
small finials (Plate XVII, 2, shows this treatment ap- 
plied to a flying buttress-arch in Germany) . 

Wall and Gable Tracery. 

During the course of the Developed Period the deco- 
rative richness of the window-tracery led to the repeti- 
tion of like forms on certain wall-surfaces, upon which 
they formed ornamental panels framed in the lines of the 

295 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 




tracery in relief; a prac- 
tice especially common in 
English Perpendicular 
and German Florid 
Gothic work, but found 
in all countries (see Plate 
XVII). In France it 
also became an increas- 
ingly frequent practice to 
erect over doorways and 
windows false gables i.e. 
gables having no roof behind them but employed as or- 
naments filled with openwork tracery similar in char- 
acter to that in the arched heads of the windows. Such 
gables were especially elegant in design in the Flam- 
boyant churches of France (Figure 359). 

Balustrades. 

These were at first composed of small columns carry- 
ing round or pointed arches under the capstone or rail. 
Later the geometric forms of open tracery were applied, 



FIG. 307. RAYONNANT GOTHIC 
BALUSTRADE. 




FIG. 308. FLAMBOYANT FRENCH BALUSTRADE; CHATEAU OF JOSSELYN. 

296 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT: STRUCTURAL 

circles, triangles and quadrilaterals with closed or open 
cusps predominating. Such balustrades are used at the 
lower edges of roofs as well as for balconies, tower-para- 
pets and (rarely) stairways (Fig. 307, Plate XVII, 
14, 17) . They became as complex as other features in 
the Florid Period (Fig. 308) especially in Germany, 
where they often formed veritable geometric puzzles. 

Pinnacles, Crockets and Finials. 

These are as characteristic of the Gothic styles as is 
the tracery. The buttresses both the clearstory wall- 
buttresses and the outer buttresses external to the side- 
aisles were commonly terminated by a tall slender 
pyramid, square or octagonal in plan, rising from gab- 
lets crowning two or four faces of the buttress-top, or 
from minor pinnacles at the corners (Plate XVII, 1, 2, 
5). These pinnacles were adorned along the hips or 
edges with crockets (Plate XVII, 4) outward-curl- 
ing leaf-like or flame-like protuberances richly carved; 
and terminated in a finial, composed usually of a cen- 
tral stem ending in a ball or bud and branching out be- 
low this into four or more crockets, forming a remark- 
ably effective terminal flower or ornament (Plate 
XVII, 6, 11). 

Crockets (Fig. 295) are also used to fret the salient 
edges of the saddleback copings of gables; along the 
hips of spires; as ornaments to the outer drip-moldings 
of arches, especially in the Florid Period; and (rarely) 
between the clustered shafts in doorways and triforiums. 
Finials, of like character with those on pinnacles, are the 
usual termination of the summits of gables, and of ogee- 

297 



arches in late Gothic design (Plate XVIII, 5). In 
early work the crockets, alike those of the finials and of 
gable-edges or spire-angles, invariably curl outwards, 





a b 

Fio. 309. CROCKETS: a, EARLY FRENCH; 6, FLAMBOYANT. 

like the curled-up volutes of fern in the Spring (Fig. 
309 a). Later they took on more elaborate foliage- 
forms with complex, wavy outlines, often in the last 
period of the style losing all decision and character in 
their mass and detail (Fig. 309 b) . 

Crestings of 
stone, of cast-lead, 
of terra-cotta were 
employed to deco- 
rate the ridges of 
most of the roofs, on 
which the covering 

Fio. 310. GOTHIC CRESTING. W3S Usually of lead, 

copper or slate. They were customarily of rather sim- 
ple design, ending against finials of metal of a more 
elaborate sort (Fig. 310). 

Tabernacles. 

Not strictly structural in themselves, these were em- 

298 




GOTHIC ORNAMENT: STRUCTURAL 

bellishments of structural features or parts, chiefly of 
buttresses and of the jambs of deep doorways. They 
consist of a niche or recessed arch to hold a statue, a 
corbel to support it, and a decorative gable or canopy 
over it, the canopy often running up into an elaborate 
spire. The decorative function of the whole was that 
of breaking up the bare mass of a vertical strip or but- 
tress, or of a wall, or of the doorway jambs with a 
deep shadow and the brilliant lights of the statue, and 
to emphasize the vertical movement of the lines of the 
whole composition. The canopy was made increasingly 
elaborate as the style progressed, and in late examples 
was composed of a bewildering intricacy of minute 
arches, pinnacles and traceries, the whole forming an 
extraordinarily rich decoration ( Figure 311). 

Corbels were of frequent occurrence in all the Gothic 
styles, as supports for statues, for vaulting-ribs, for 
vaulting-shafts and for columns ; they were not used, as 
in Romanesque buildings, to support a cornice or corbel- 
table. They were almost invariably carved with foliage, 
after the general fashion of the capitals, though some- 
times in England made very long vertically (e.g. Lich- 
field Nave). Grotesque heads and human figures ap- 
pear in the third period; they are rare in the two pre- 
ceding. A late French corbel and crocket are shown in 
Plate XVIII, 13, 14. 

Gargoyles. 

Gothic eaves-spouts and those also which projected 
from the buttresses were invariably carved into the sem- 
blance of long-necked, vomiting monsters, called gar- 

301 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

goyles (Plate XVII, 1). Remarkable skill was dis- 
played in the composition and anatomy of these gro- 
tesque monsters. They are among the most striking 
examples of the decorative-symbolic treatment of purely 
utilitarian members (Figure 312) . 

Books Recommended: 

As before, BOND, DEHIO AND BEZOLD, HARTEL, VIOLLET- 
LE-Duc. Also, G. L. ADAMS: Recueil de sculptures gothiques 
(Paris, 1856). BAUDOT: La Sculpture francaise au 
moyen-age et a la renaissance (Paris, 1884). ENLART: 
Manuel d'archeologie francaise (Paris, 1902). A. L. FROTH- 
INGHAM: A History of Architecture, vol. iii, iv (New York, 
1915). L. GONSE: L'Art gothique (Paris, n. d.). HASAK: 
Die romanische und die gotische Baukunst; Der Kirchen- 
bau; Einzelheiten des Kirchenbaues (Stuttgart, 1903). A. 
HAUSER: Stillehre der architektonischen Formen des Mit- 
telalters (Vienna, 1899). K. A. HEIDELOFF'. Ornamentik 
des Mittelalters (Nuremberg, 1838-55). T. G. JACKSON: 
Gothic Architecture (London, 1915). KLINGENBEHG: Die 
ornamentale Baukunst, etc. (Leipzig, n. d.). C. MARTIN: 
L'Art gothique en France (Paris, 1915). C. MOORE: De- 
velopment and Character of Gothic Architecture (New York, 
1899). NESFIELD: Specimens of Mediaeval Architecture (Lon- 
don, 1862). PARKER: Introduction to Gothic Architecture; 
Glossary of Terms in Gothic Architecture; Companion to 
Glossary (London, 1861-66). A. N. W. PTJGIN: Glossary of 
Ecclesiastical Ornament and Costume (London, 1868). M. 
SCHMIDT: Meisterwerke der dekorativen Sculptur, XI XVI 
Jahrhundert (Stuttgart, 1894-95. This is a German edition 
of the work listed after Chapter XIV under the title Musee de 
Sculpture Comparee du Trocadero). E. SCHMUZER: Gothische 
Ornamente (Berlin, 1892). G. G. UNGEWITTER (tr. by Mon- 
icke) : Gothic Model Book (London, 1862); Sammlung mit- 
telalterlicher Ornamentik (Leipzig, 1866). 



302 



CHAPTER XVII 

GOTHIC CARVING AND INDUSTRIAL AND ACCESSORY ARTS 

Decorative Carving and Sculpture: Foliage. 

The tradition of the classic acanthus and of its By- 
zantine modifications, clearly evident in all Romanesque 
carved foliage, gradually disappeared in Gothic art. In 
the second half of the 12th century the French carvers 
began to turn for inspiration and suggestion to the com- 
mon vegetation about them, and developed an entirely 
new category of foliage-forms. This change was due 
to the formation of guilds of free or non-monastic ma- 
sons and carvers who traveled from one site to another 
to ply their art, untrammeled by the monastic traditions. 
They were the counterpart in France of the maestri 
comacini of Italy, and their appearance was synchro- 
nous with the cathedral-building movement in France, 
to which was chiefly due the impulse toward progress 
and innovation which produced the Gothic style. As 
Viollet-le-Duc has pointed out, 1 these artists first con- 
ventionalized the simple forms of the earliest sprout- 
ing Spring herbage, thick and crisp, suggestive of 
the new life and energy of Nature. The crocket, de- 
scended no doubt from the Corinthian corner-volute, 
was carved like a thick flattened shoot bearing a globular 
bunch of uncurling leaves (Fig. 309). Like the Cor- 

i Article "Sculpture" in "Dictionnaire raisonn" (vol. viii). 

303 



inthian volute, it was the dominant feature of capi- 
tals, as in Fig. 313; see also Plate XVIII, 1, 2, 3. 
The other leaves were massive and concave in modeling, 
and all the foliage was made to grow out of the capital 




Fio. 313. CAPITAL, ST. MARTI N-DES-CHAMPS, 
PARIS. 

or other member which bore it (Fig. 314). As the 
carver's skill increased, the stiffness of the early conven- 
tionalism disappeared, and a beautiful type of foliage 
was evolved, still conventional and thoroughly archi- 
tectural, but with grace and delicacy of detail, and varied 
by a closer study of particular plant-types (Plate 
XVIII, 1). This study led to an increasing natural- 
ism, to a more and more realistic copying of more com- 

304 



INDUSTRIAL AND ACCESSORY ARTS 

plex and more mature leaf- 
types from shrubs and trees, 
and these were wreathed 
about the architecture in- 
stead of seeming to grow out 
of it (Figs. 294 b and 315) . 
By the end of the 14th cen- 
tury this tendency was being 
carried to extremes, though 
with remarkable technical 
beauty of execution, and 
thereafter the design oscil- 
lates between dry conven- 
tionalism and excessively 
minute realism (Figs. 294 c 
and 316) . In England the 




FIG. 314. CORKER LEAF FROM 
NOTRE DAME, PARIS. 



first stage of develop- 
ment is hardly at all 
represented. The 

crocket from Wells 
Cathedral (Fig. 317) 
is an exception in its 
resemblance to early 
French models. The 
early English capitals, 
crockets and corbels of 
the 13th century show 
instead an extraordi- 
narily beautiful han- 
dling of minute curl- 




Fro. 315. FREXCH RAYONNANT CAPITAL. 
305 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 




FIG. 316. CAPITALS, CHAPTER HOUSE OF 
SOUTHWELL CATHEDRAL. 

ing trefoils, often highly intricate and of marvelous ex- 
ecution (Fig. 318). The naturalistic stage is seen in 
innumerable late thirteenth and early fourteenth cen- 
tury churches, in which, as in France, the flowers and 
foliage are applied to the architecture 
in wreaths and hunches, as in the re- 
markable doorways of Southwell 
chapter-house (dr. 1294; Fig. 315). 
Foliage is scanty in Perpendicular 
work, and the mechanical form of the 
Tudor rose (Fig. 319) is the most 
characteristic floral adornment. In 
Germany there is no systematic de- 
velopment of foliage design, though 
there is much very beautiful foliage; it is, however, in 
great measure copied or imitated from French models. 

306 




Fio. 317. CROCKET, 
WELLS CATHEDRAL. 



INDUSTRIAL AND ACCESSORY ARTS 



Figure Sculpture. 

Figure sculpture applied to the decoration of build- 
ings had become almost a lost art during the Dark Ages, 




FIG. 318. CAPITAL, SALISBURY CATHEDRAL. 

and the monastic builders of the eleventh century and the 
first half of the twelfth had only partially and sporadi- 
cally renewed it. We have already seen, however, that 
in occasional instances the French sculptors had dis- 
played great skill in such works as the porches of St. 
Trophime and St. Gilles at Aries 
(Plate XIV), and the west portal 
of Chartres (Figure 260), and the 
widespread use of grotesques had 
developed both technical and artis- 
tic ability in the use of the chisel. 
In the cathedral and church arch- 
itecture of the Gothic period 1160 
to 1500 and particularly during 

307 




FIG. 31!). TUDOU FI.OWEH. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the free develop- 
ment of art which succeeded the monastic period brought 
into being an entirely new phase of decorative figure- 
sculpture. The French cathedrals were people's 
churches quite as truly as bishops' churches, and their 
builders made them into picture-Bibles in stone. The 
portals were especially rich in plastic representations of 
saints and angels, kings, prophets and martyrs, and the 

figures were modeled with 
fine regard for their archi- 
tectural setting. The deep 
jambs and the central door- 
pier were adorned with 
standing figures, often of 
heroic size, sometimes of 
great beauty. The great 
tympana over the doorways 
bore reliefs of Christ or the 
Virgin enthroned amid 
scenes of life of the Virgin, 
of the Last Judgment or equally solemn subjects (Fig- 
ure 321 ) . The cavernous arches were studded with con- 
centric ranks of throned and adoring angels. An arcade 
high up on the facade was filled with figures of crowned 
kings of France or of Judea (Fig. 320) , while from tab- 
ernacles on buttresses and rood-screens and transept- 
fronts angels and saints looked down upon the throngs 
below. The earlier sculpture is the most architectural 
in character: as the thirteenth century advanced the 
treatment was more realistic, with more of positive 
beauty of pose and feature (Figure 322) reaching its 

308 




FIG. 320. PART OF "GALLERY OF 
KINGS," AMIEXS CATHEDRAL. 



PIG. 321. TYM- 
PANUM OF PORTE 

E LA VlERGE, 

NOTRE DAME 



Fia. 321 




FIG. 322. RELIEFS FROM PORTAL OF NOTRE DAME 
FIG. 323. TOMB OF ABBOT STEPHEN OF AUBAGINE 



INDUSTRIAL AND ACCESSORY ARTS 

culmination in the "Beau Dieu" and other superb fea- 
tures of Reims (Plate XVIII, 10; Figure 323) though 
the transept porches of Chartres are perhaps, taken all 
together, the most magnificent examples in medieval art 
of the perfect balance between architecture and sculp- 
ture. The most notable Gothic sculptured portals in 
France are those of Chartres, Reims and Amiens; out- 
side of France, those of Strassburg, Freiburg and Bale. 
The later sculptures were excessively pictorial, small in 
scale and wonderful in their minute realism and delicate 
detail, as in the choir-screens of Amiens and Chartres. 

Outside of France figure sculpture was far less abun- 
dant and less skilful: that of Lichfield and of Wells for 
instance, though decoratively effective, has only inferior 
merit as sculpture. The "Angel Choir" of Lincoln 
(Figure 362) is charming from both points of view, but 
is an exceptional work. It is in the porches and rood- 
screens of the fourteenth century that the best English 
figure-sculpture is found. The figure-sculpture of Ger- 
many is hardly of importance, except at Strassburg and 
Freiburg, and the marvelously minute and realistic fig- 
ure-work of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, 
especially in pulpits, screens and the like. That of Spain 
and of the Low Countries is relatively unimportant. 

Minor Architecture. 

Choir screens, stalls and thrones, pulpits, tombs (Fig- 
ure 323), shrines, altars and fonts were designed with 
the fundamental features of monumental architecture, 
but with greater richness and greater freedom and mi- 
nuteness of detail (Plate XVIII, 16). As the tend- 

311 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

ency toward minute ornamentation grew, through the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and as such minute 
decoration was better adapted for works of less monu- 
mental scale than for the churches themselves, these 
minor works became more and more the characteristic 
masterpieces of the stone-carver's art. The intricacy of 
the canopy-work with its bewildering network of arches, 
cusps and pinnacles is only equaled by the perfection and 
delicacy of the execution. Verbal descriptions can give 
little idea of the marvelous detail of some of these works, 
and even the illustrations fail to convey a complete im- 
pression to which the works themselves give rise. The 
most beautiful of these works are generally the French, 
though the Germans at times press them closely (see 
Figure 339), and some even of the French works, as 
the rood-screens at Bourg-en-Bresse and Alby, are at- 
tributed to German artists (Figure 325). 

Wood-Carving. 

Choir-stalls offered a specially rich field for the wood- 
carver's chisel. Each seat was provided with a high 
back usually terminating in a projecting canopy, which 

in turn was finished 
with gablets, pin- 
nacles and a high and 
complex spire. The 
arms separating the 
seats were richly 
carved, and the 

MIIEBE.E, BEVEHLEY hinged Seat, when 

CATHEDRAL. folded back, dis- 

312 





FIG. 324. TYMPANUM, CENTRAL DOORS OF NOTRE DAME, PARIS: 
THE LAST JUDGMENT 




FIG. 825. ROOD SCREEN, ALBY CATHEDRAL 



INDUSTRIAL AND ACCESSORY ARTS 



closed a grotesque cor- 
bel, called the "mise- 
rere" (Fig. 326). In 
the later Gothic the 
choir stalls were extra- 
ordinarily elaborate. 
Other specimens of 
wood carving are found 
in the pew-ends of Eng- 
lish churches, with 
elaborate finials (Fig. 
327) ; in the bosses and 
hammer beams of Eng- 
lish wooden ceilings 
(see Fig. 374) ; in 
chests and furniture for 
the sacristy, and in the 
details of half-timbered 
houses in England, 
France and Germany; 
as well as in domestic 
furniture (chests, ta- 
bles and chairs), espe- 
cially of the 15th and 
16th centuries. The 
details are all derived 
from the contemporary 
stone architecture and 
carving, though modi- 
fied to suit the material. 




FIG. 327. 



PEW EXD, WlNTHOBPE 

CHURCH. 



315 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Metal Work. 

Iron was costly in the Middle Ages, and, except for 
clamps and drainages, and in Italy for tie-rods in the 

vaulting, was rarely 
used for primary 
construction. Its 
chief uses were for 
nails and bolts, for 
hinges and door-fit- 
tings, for gates and 
grilles, and for locks, 
latches, keys, armor 
and arms. Cast-iron 
was rarely employed, 
although a late 
Gothic example is 
shown in Plate 
XVIII, 17. The 
medieval wrought 
iron, especially of 
France, Italy, Ger- 
many and Flanders, shows marvelous skill in forging, 
decorative effects being produced by splitting, twisting, 
welding and riveting the bars by scroll-work, rosettes, 
and repousse or hammered work in sheet metal (Fig. 
328; Figures 329, 330). 

Lead was used for crestings and for covering spires 
and dormers. Bronze, brass, copper and silver were 
handled with skill in the movable furnishings of the 
church, candelabra, pyxes, monstrances, chalices, cro- 
ziers, pastoral staves and the like. Enamel and jewels 

316 




Fio. 328. CRESTING OF IRON GRILLE, ST. 
SEBXIN, TOULOUSE. 




FIG. 329. IRON SCREEN, BOUHGES CATHEDRAL 




'Fio. 330. IRON FALSE HINGE (Penture); NOTRE DAME, PARIS 



INDUSTRIAL AND ACCESSORY ARTS 

were employed to heighten the richness of these objects. 
The goldsmith's and silversmith's art derived most of its 
origins from Byzantine art, but departed rapidly from 
it and developed a style wholly Western and Gothic. 

Textile Ornament. 

The remains of medieval embroideries, laces and tap- 
estries are not abundant. There was little richness of 
dress or textile furnishings except in ecclesiastical dress 
and among the few who were rich and powerful in 
Church and State, and to a remarkable extent the ec- 
clesiastical robes and embroideries have disappeared, 
though they were undoubtedly often of great beauty 
and even magnificence. Those preserved to this day 
are mostly of the fifteenth century, except a respectable 
number of Spanish and Sicilian embroideries and silk 
damasks of the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries which 
show a strongly Oriental inspiration. 

Tiles. 

Fine pottery was an almost unknown art in western 
Europe in the Middle Ages except among the Moham- 
medans of Spain and Sicily. Ceramic tiles were, how- 
ever, used in floors, especially about the altar in France, 





FIG. 331. 



FRENCH TILE PATTERNS. 
319 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

and examples of their simple but effective patterning are 
seen in Fig. 331. 

Manuscript Decoration. 

This art, derived originally from Byzantine, elabo- 
rated in Ireland, England and France in the Roman- 




Fio. 332. LATE GOTHIC MANUSCRIPT ORNAMENTS. 

esque period, reached a very high state of perfection in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, developing into 
different schools of design in France, Flanders, Eng- 
land, Germany, Spain and Italy. Three different 
classes of design are to be distinguished : pictorial deco- 
ration (the so-called miniatures), initials, and borders. 
The first belongs to the art of painting, though it al- 
ways displayed a highly decorative character; the other 
two belong to the domain of pure ornament. They 
drew largely upon the contemporary art of stained glass, 

320 



a 




FIG. 334. a. JESSE WINDOW, CHARTRES 
FIG. 335. b. UPPER PART OF A CANOPY AViNDOw, COLOGNE 
c. CANOPY WINDOW, YORK 



INDUSTRIAL AND ACCESSORY ARTS 

both for the color scheme and the details, but with much 
freer handling and frequent use of foliage and of free 
abstract design in flourishes, scrolls and interlaces. 
Gold was used with fine effect though sparingly. The 
name of Jean Fouquet stands conspicuous in the bril- 
liant French school of the late fifteenth century. The 
most notable production of the Flemish school was the 
Grimani Breviary, now in Venice; but every consid- 
erable collection of manuscripts possesses beautiful ex- 
amples of the various schools in breviaries, books of 
hours, psalm-books, chant-books and secular works- 
chronicles, histories and editions of the classics. Fig. 




FIG. 333. A FRENCH MEDALLION WINDOW. 
32$ 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 



332 illustrates a few details of this brilliant and fascinat- 
ing phase of medieval design ; other examples are shown 
in Plate XX. 

Stained Glass. 

Of all the arts allied to Gothic architecture, that of 

the stained glass win- 
dows is the most char- 
acteristic as a special 
product of the style. 
From timid begin- 
nings in the Roman- 
esque buildings l it de- 
veloped rapidly as the 
size and splendor of 
the traceried windows 
increased. The depth 
and brilliancy of color 
attained by the glass- 
makers of the thir- 
teenth century pro- 
vided a new decorative 
resource for the 
church-builders and 
window-designers ; a 
richness and intensity 
of blues, reds, yellows 
and greens rivaling 
the splendor of mo- 
saic. The mechani- 




Fio. 336. GERMAN GRISAILLE. ABOVE, 

FROM COLOGNE; BELOW, FROM 

ALTEXBURO. 



1 The Germans claim an active production of mosaic glass as early as 
1000 A.D. at Tegernsee (Meyer, "Ornamentale Formenlehre"). 

324 



INDUSTRIAL AND ACCESSORY ARTS 

cal imperfections of the early glass made it only the 
more sparkling, while the heavy leading employed 
gave a suitable foil to the glowing colors by its black 
lines which tended to harmonize as well as separate oth- 
erwise crude juxtapositions of color. 

The early windows were arranged in medallions, each 
containing a picture in mosaic, as it were, made up of 
small units of color 
separated by the 
lines of the leading 
(Fig. 337). The 
spandrels between 
the medallions were 
filled with quarry- 
work or foliage in 
grisaille (lines of a 
semi-opaque brown 
pigment fused onto 
the glass at a com- 
paratively low tem- 
perature). A border of leaves or other conventional 
units framed the whole. A few such windows have 
come down from the 12th century (the earliest stained 
glass extant is at St. Denis, said to be of 1108) , and they 
continued to be used through the greater part of the thir- 
teenth century. "Jesse-tree" windows and medallion 
windows entirety composed of foliage, conventional or- 
nament and grisaille were also common through this 
century (Fig. 335). The invention of the yellow stain 
(stannic oxide) led then to the making of "canopy" win- 
dows, with large figures standing under elaborate trac- 

325 




Fio. 337. LEADING OF AX EARLY FRENCH 
WINDOW: THE MARRIAGE AT CANA. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 



cried canopies of yellow glass (Figures 335, from York 
Cathedral). Ribbons with inscriptions were increas- 
ingly used, the coloring was less pure and intense, the 
composition more involved, with much painted detail. 
With the 15th century there was a further decline in rich- 
ness of color; much white or nearly transparent glass 

is used, and the treat- 
ment is more pictorial 
and less decorative. 
With the advent of the 
Renaissance the art in 
western Europe passed 
into eclipse, except for 
occasional artists in 
France, in Flanders and 
in Germany. In Italy, 
where windows had us- 
ually been of moderate 
size in medieval times, 
the art of decorative 
stained glass had not 
flourished; but with the Renaissance it received a sud- 
den impulse, and some beautiful works were produced, 
by Ghiberti among the first. The most splendid me- 
dieval glass is to be found in France, Chartres Ca- 
thedral and the Sainte Chapelle being especially rich; 
the transepts of Notre Dame, Paris, and the clearstory 
of Tours Cathedral also supplying notable examples. 
Unhappily, the superb glass which was once the glory 
of Reims Cathedral has been completely destroyed by 
the German bombardment. In England the icono- 

326 




FIG. 338. EARLY FRENCH FIGURE 
WINDOW: CHAHTRES. 



INDUSTRIAL AND ACCESSORY ARTS 

clasm of the Puritans and the havoc of Wyatt in the 
early nineteenth century have left but scanty remains 
of the old glass. Canterbury and York possess fine 
glass and there are a few good pieces still left in Salis- 
bury Cathedral. Very late examples are to be seen in 
King's College Chapel, Cambridge, and in St. Jacques 
at Liege. The best German glass is in the Cathedrals 
of Cologne, Altenburg and Strassburg (Fig. 336). 
Figs. 337 and 338 illustrate the leading of the early 
glass, a most important element in the decorative effect 
of the window. 

With the later years of the fifteenth century the 
Gothic style approached its extinction by the rapidly- 
spreading art of the Renaissance. But while it had 
reached the final limit of structural development, and 
architecture was sensibly declining, the arts of ornament 
were still at the highest point of richness and of technical 
perfection (Figures 339, 340) . This splendor of minute 
decoration, of complex tracery, realistic pictorial sculp- 
ture, sumptuous embroidery and showy furniture was, 
however, the final coruscation of an expiring flame. 
The decorative details of the style long resisted the in- 
vasion of the Renaissance style from Italy, in France, 
England, Germany and Spain. But the new style was 
more than a fashion ; it was but one symptom of a funda- 
mental change of spirit of the artistic point of view, of 
civilization and ideals, and by the middle of the six- 
teenth century Gothic art had passed away. 



329 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Books Recommended: 

As before, DEHIO AND BEZOLD, ENLAET, GONSE, HASAK, 
MARTIN. Also, H. ADAMS: Mont St. Michel and Chartres 
(N. Y. and Boston, 1913). DECLOUX AND DOURY: La Sainte 
Chapel du palais (Paris, 1865). F. H. EGGERT: Sammlung 
gothischer Verzierungen (Munich, 1865). E. HERDTL: 
Flachenverzierungen des Mittelalters und der Renaissance 
(Hannover, 1875). A RACINET: L'Ornement polychrome 
(Paris, 1869-87). J. ROSENTHAL: UArt du Hire au Mot/en- 
age et dans les temps modernes (Munich, 1901). H. SHAW: 
Alphabets, Numerals and Devices of the Middle Ages (London, 
1845). V. TEIRICH: Eingelegte M armor-Ornamente des Mit- 
telalters und der Renaissance (Vienna, 1875). VIOLLET-LE- 
Duc: Articles "Peinture" and "Vitrail" in the Dictionnaire 
raisonne, etc., previously cited (Paris, 1868). J. B. WARING: 
Examples of Weaving and Embroidery (London, 1880). 



330 



CHAPTER XVIII 

PARTICULAR SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC OENAMENT 

I. FRENCH AND ENGLISH 

In the general discussion of Gothic ornament in the 
last two chapters, while the chief attention was given to 
the developments in France, many references were made 
to the diverging practice of the English, German and 
Spanish schools. This chapter and the following will 
be devoted to a more detailed treatment of the several 
national styles or sub-styles of Gothic decorative art. 

French Gothic Ornament. 

The Gothic style in France may be considered as 
lasting from the beginning of Notre Dame at Paris in 
1163, to the accession of Francis I in 1515. It is cus- 
tomary to divide this period into three divisions or 
periods, the Early French, from 1163 to 1250 or there- 
about; the Rayonnant, 1250 to 1375, and the Flam- 
boyant, 1375 to 1515. These are somewhat arbitrary 
divisions, as the progress from one stage and phase of 
development to another, whether in window-tracey, carv- 
ing or stained glass, was continuous and gradual. 
Through all this development French Gothic ornament 
was marked by certain characteristics which distinguish 
it from the English and other national styles. 

331 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 



Carving. 

The carving of foliage underwent a progressive devel- 
opment which has already been described (pp. 303-306) , 




FIG. 341. CAHVED BAKD, FRONT OF SENS CATHEDRAL. 

from the simple and strongly conventional early type 
(Fig. 341) , to the highly naturalistic and detailed foliage 
of the Rayonnant period, and 
thence through the decline of the 
Flamboyant. But in all these 
stages it was marked by a vigor of 
design, a crispness of execution, 
and a strongly architectural char- 
acter hardly equaled elsewhere. 

Capitals were tall and bell- 
shaped at first, with high square or 
octagonal abaci (Figs. 297, 313, 
342; Plate XVIII, 1, 2, 3) ; later 
the foliage, which in the earlier 
stages of the style seemed to grow 
out of the shaft and was strongly 

332 




Fio. 342. CAPITAL FROM 
SAINTE CHAPELLE. 




r r^::,jjr'tvy;\'v 

4Mfe^Sfe 

:N<=I^ 

- : ;** 
r& 

:^< 




SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 




conventional, was 
made more naturalis- 
tic and applied to or 
wreathed around the 
bell in less organic 
fashion, as in the 
splendid caps of the 
nave-piers of the Ca- 
thedral of Reims 
(Plate XVIII, 7) . In the Flamboyant period capitals 
are often dispensed with altogether between the piers 
and pier-arches. 

Moldings. 

Until that period foliage was occasionally employed 
in the hollows of moldings, especially in cornices formed 
by rows of standing leaves or crockets occupying the 



Fio. 343. DETAIL FROM CORNICE, NOTRE 
DAME, PARIS. 




FIG. 344. CORNICE MOLDING, FROM NOHREY. 

high hollow or cavetto between convex moldings above 
and below (Figs. 343-346). In the series shown in 

335 



these figures we may trace the progress of the treatment 
from conventional through naturalistic carving to the 
weaker conventionalism of the later Gothic. In the 
Flamboyant period elaborate vines were carved in highly 




FIG. 345. OAK LEAF MOLDING, SAINTE CHAPELLE, PARIS. 

naturalistic fashion in the hollow moldings, as in the ex- 
ample from the porch of Troyes Cathedral in Plate 
XVIII, 15. A more conventional rendering of foliage 
is seen in the example from St. Urbain at Troyes in the 




Fia. 346. LATE GOTHIC MOLDING, CHOIR ENCLOSURE, NOTRE DAME, PARIS. 

same Plate, No. 18. Foliage was throughout all these 
periods employed with admirable effect in crockets, 

336 



SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

finials, vaulting-bosses and the 
like (Fig. 347). Surface- 
carving is seldom employed. 
The rinceau survives in early 
work in occasional pilaster-like 
vertical bands and horizontal 
lintels (Fig. 348), but passes 
out of use very early in the 
thirteenth century. 




Figure Sculpture. 




FIG. 348. CARVED VERTICAL RINCEATT, 
NOTRE DAME, PARIS. 

337 



FIG. 347. Boss FROM VAULT 
OF SAINTTE CHAPELLE. 

The free figure- 
sculpture of the great 
portals of cathedrals 
has already been al- 
luded to (page 307). 
The throned angels in 
the portal arches, the 
standing figures of 
apostles, martyrs and 
saints in the deep 
jambs (Figure 352), 
the reliefs on the pedes- 
tal courses of the jambs 
(Fig. 349) constitute 
a combination of 
deeply significant and 
artistically appropri- 
ate sculpture never 
elsewhere equaled, be- 
fore or since (see 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

ante, page 308 and Figure 323; also Figs. 320, 349). 
Grotesques often mingle effectively with carved 
foliage, as in Figure 350 from Chartres Cathedral. 
Very striking and nobly decorative also are the 
colossal angels standing in the pinnacled tabernacles 

surmounting the but- 
tresses of Reims Cathe- 
dral. 

The culmination of 
minute realism, alike in 
statues and reliefs, 
came in the fifteenth 
and early sixteenth 
centuries, in choir-en- 
closures like those in 
Amiens Cathedral 

(Figure 351) and 

FIG. 349. RELIEFS FROM BASE OF Chartres, and in choir- 
POBTAL, NOTRE DAME. screens and tombs, as 

in the famous examples in the Brou church at Bourg- 
en-Bresse. In no other country did figure-sculpture 
play so important a part in the decorative system. 
Equally appropriate and decorative with these archi- 
tectural sculptures was the minor decorative figure- 
work in wood and ivory, as evidenced, for example, in 
the beautiful ivory triptych from the Municipal Library 
of Amiens, of which Figure 353 illustrates the central 
panel. 

Tracery. 

In the Early French period the tracery was at first 

338 





FIG. 352. Two FIGURES FROM FIG. 353. IVORY TRIPTYCH, IN AMIENS LIBRARY 

PORTAL, AMIENS CATHEDRAL FRENCH, X\"TH CENTURY 




' 35 *' HALF OF WEST ROSE, CHARTRES. 



SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

extremely simple. The Cathedral of Chartres shows the 

finest examples of plate tracery in its western rose 

window (Fig. 354) and the tops of the clearstory win- 

dows of the nave. In the windows of St. Denis, Notre 

Dame at Paris, Reims 

and the nave of 

Amiens we have the 

simpler types of bar- 

tracery (1225-1240; 

Fig. 355). In the 

Sainte Chapelle at 

Paris the choir Of 

Amiens and the external chapels of Notre Dame at 
Paris, bar-tracery takes on a greater geometrical 
elaboration; very possibly under the influence of Eng- 
lish examples (see page 360) ; and throughout the 

Rayonnant period, both in the 
splendid rose windows of the 
transepts, as in those of Notre 
Dame and of Reims (Plate 
XVIII, 9), and in the side win- 
dows, especially of the clear- 
stories, there is a great variety of 
rich geometrical patterning. 
While the English during the 
thirteenth and early fourteenth 
centuries unquestionably sur- 
passed the French in the rich- 
ness and variety of their bar- 
tracery, the French rose win- 
dows of the same period are un- 

341 




355. EARLY 
REIMS CATHEDRAL. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

equaled elsewhere in their kind ; and it is they that give 
the name Rayonnant (= radiating) to the period, on 
account of their radiating or wheel-like design. The 
illustration in Plate XVIII, 12, from the fine model of 
a portion of the church of St. Urbain, Troyes (about 
1260), in the Trocadero Museum, Paris, shows the more 
slender and open type of the French geometric bar- 
tracery of the thirteenth century which developed out 
of the simpler early types. 

Cusping is an important element in these designs 
(Plate XVII, 10, 15; Plate XVIII, 5, 9, 12), both the 
closed and the open cusp being employed. An unusual 
treatment is the cusped fringe on the intrados of the 
outer arch in the portals of Amiens (about 1280) . 

As the style developed, tracery-design became more 
and more important as mere ornament, in openwork 
gables and tracery cut in relief on solid walls as a mere 
surface decoration. Plate XVII, 10, shows a detail 
from the transept of the Cathedral of Meaux; ib. 15, a 
detail from the south transept of Notre Dame, Paris, 
showing a bit of the great rose window and the wall- 
tracery on the spandrel. Balustrades, which in the 
first period were hardly more than rows of colonnettes 
or narrow arches supporting a rail (Plate XVII, 14, 
17), were in the two following periods composed of 
openwork tracery of great beauty (see ante, Figs. 307, 
308). 

Flamboyant Tracery. 

By the middle of the fourteenth century the increas- 
ing taste for minute and fanciful decorative detail began 

342 



pq 

*w / 





to affect the design of window-tracery, by the substitu- 
tion of flowing and waving lines for the simpler geo- 
metric combinations of circles, pointed arches and cusps 
which had hitherto satisfied all requirements for over a 
century. The "ogee" arch was substituted for the arch 
formed by simple circular arcs, and the flame-like forms 
which result from dividing a circle through the center 
by a wave-line, became almost the dominant motive in 
the tracery-design. The resulting style of design, 
though less logical structurally than the earlier geo- 
metric types of tracery, was more flexible and capable 
of a greater variety of combinations. It dominated the 
entire architecture of France from 1375 to 1515, and 
covered the exteriors of churches with an extraordinary 
wealth of traceries, both of openwork and of blind or 
wall-tracery (Figures 340, 356, 357; Figs. 358, 359). 
It was especially effective in the rose windows, as in 
the front of St. Ouen, Rouen, the fronts of Rouen 
Cathedral, the Sainte Chapelle, Paris, Tours, Amiens, 
and Reims Cathedrals, and the transepts of Beauvais. 
In several cases these Flamboyant roses were inserted 
in earlier f^ades (Amiens, Sainte Chapelle). The 
front of Rouen Cathedral, long unfinished, but com- 
pleted within recent years, is the most elaborate and 
splendid example of this Flamboyant design; next to 
it stands the exquisite little church of St. Maclou at 
Rouen; while the north spire of Chartres Cathedral, 
and the charming little church at Louviers (Figure 359) , 
are others among many examples of the marvelous rich- 
ness and delicacy of which the style was capable. 

The origin of this change in tracery design is gen- 

345 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

erally now ascribed to English influence. A considerable 
part of northern France was in English hands in the four- 
teenth century, and (as will be later shown) the English 
had before the middle of that century developed their 
"flowing" or "curvilinear" tracery. While they soon ex- 
changed this for the more rigid "Perpendicular" tracery, 
the French developed the suggestion of the wavy line to 
its utmost possible results of decorative splendor. 

Stained Glass. 

The development of the art of stained glass was so 
closely associated with the progress of Gothic architec- 
ture that Fergusson, in his "History of Architecture," 
claims it as the one exclusively distinguishing feature of 
the Gothic style, which might properly be called "the 
stained glass style." The Romanesque churches, with 
their thick walls and small windows, offered little scope 
or suggestion for pictured windows. The Gothic style, 
with its concentrated supports and gradual reduction of 
wall areas, developed a progressive increase in the size 
and loftiness of its windows, and this progress stimu- 
lated the art of pictured and decorative glass by giving 
it greater opportunities. Indeed, the larger the win- 
dow, the more necessary became colored glass to reduce 
the excessive glare; while the more splendid the glass 
and the deeper and richer its tone, the greater was the 
tendency to enlarge the windows. The structural 
progress of the French Gothic style was thus closely 
associated with the progress of window decoration by 
colored glass. While the French led in this, as in so 
many other branches of decorative art, and while more 

846 




FIG. 358. RAYONNANT TRACERY, CARVED, ON A CHURCH DOOR 




FIG. 59. FLAMBOYANT TBACERY, CHURCH OF ST. PIERUE, LOUVIEBS 



SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

fine glass has survived in France than in any other 
country (see ante, page 326), there was at the same 
time less fundamental difference in style between the 
French and other national schools than one might per- 
haps expect. Figure design, in all three periods, was 
more nearly universal than either in England or Ger- 
many, and the colors were generally at least in the 
first period deeper and richer. In purely decorative 
effect it may be doubted whether any later glass ever 
equaled the three lancet windows and the western rose 
of Chartres Cathedral, the earliest of these dating from 
the end of the 12th century. 1 It is to be noted that 
in the borders and decorative details of the early Gothic 
windows Romanesque forms are persistent, as also in 
the illumination of manuscripts. See Figs. 334, 337, 
338 ; Figure 335 ; and Plate XIX. 

Painted Decoration. 

As in the Romanesque period, it is probable that wall- 
painting in France was confined to the chapels and to 
a few important spaces in the general design. Possibly 
all the capitals and chief moldings may also have been 
picked out with bright color in the hollows and gilding 
on the projecting fillets. We know that most of the 
figure-sculpture was painted, and vestiges of the original 
color decoration can still be detected in some cases. The ' 
vault-fillings were in many cases not painted, their care- 
ful jointing showing that they were not meant to be 
plastered. There were, however, exceptions to this rule, 

i See the admirable account of these windows in Henry Adams' "Mont 
St. Michel and Chartres," published for the American Institute of Archi- 
tects, Boston, 1913. 

349 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 



and it is likely that not a few were painted blue with 
gilt stars. From vestiges of the original painting dis- 
covered in the Sainte Chapelle at Paris a complete in- 
terior decoration in color was carried out in that chapel 
about 1860. The result is gorgeous, but the opaque 
colors of the brilliantly painted walls suffer under the 
glare of transmitted color through the windows, and this 





FIG. 360. EARLY ENGLISH CARVING, a, FROM CHURCH AT STONE, KENT; 
b, LINCOLN CATHEDRAL; c, ELY CATHEDRAL. 

probably explains why interior coloration was not more 
general after the 12th century. The essays in color- 
decoration by Viollet-le-Duc in the chapels of Notre 
Dame are far less brilliant, but also less interesting. 

In conclusion, it should be noted that the French 
handling of decorative detail of all kinds was in general 
more logical, more strictly architectural, than in other 
countries, with the possible exception of England. Ele- 
gance and propriety of design are combined in an 
eminent degree in nearly all French Gothic ornament. 

350 




FIG. 361. EARLY ENGLISH CAPITALS, FROM CASTS IN METROPOLITAN MUSEUM, 

NEW YORK 



'//jskX'W'J.BjAN -'///^-^-' Jj 




FIG. 362. DETAIL OF ANGEL CHOIR, LINCOLN CATHEDRAL 




FIG. 363. DECORATED 

CAPITAL: BEVERLEY 

CATHEDRAL. 



SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

English Gothic Ornament. 

The English work of the first two periods, as com- 
pared with the French, shows a general predominance 
of decorative over structural f ^\ 

conceptions, but without sacri- 
fice of structural propriety. It 
displays less of severe logic, but 
often more of charm ; less vigor, 
but often greater delicacy and 
richness. English cathedral in- 
teriors, while far less lofty and 
majestic than the French, are 
generally more ornate, richer in the play of light and 
shade, often more beautiful. All the details are on a 

smaller scale, and re- 
markable effects are 
produced by mul- 
tiplied repetition. 
The moldings are 
finer and more num- 
erous, the shaft-clus- 
terings more com- 
plex, the carved orna- 
ment more varied 
and abundant (Plate 
XX, 1-; Figures 
362,363,364). On 
the other hand, the 
exteriors were far 
less ornate than the 

FIG. 364. a, FINIAL, WELLS CHAPTER ti v j.u n 

HOUSE. 6, CROCKET, BEVEHLEY. -French; the ngUTe- 

353 




A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 




FIG. 365. ENGLISH MOLDING ENRICH- 
MENTS. 



sculpture was great- 
ly inferior, both in 
amount and quality. 

Carving. 

Its variety is 
equaled by its rich- 
ness, in the first two 
periods, cir, 1200- 
1375. The foliage 
was at first of min- 
ute trilobes, perhaps 
of the herba sacra 
or water-arum, with 
globular leaflets 

beautifully curled 
and deeply under- 
cut in dense clusters 
in capitals, corbels, 
crockets, hollow 




Fro. 366. SPANDREL, CHURCH AT STONE, KENT. 
354 



SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

moldings and spandrels, the leaves growing, as it were, 
out of the shafts or moldings (Fig. 360; Figure 361). 
Later the foliage became highly naturalistic, wreathed 




FIG. 367. ABOVE, THIFOHIUM, WESTMINSTER ABBEY; BELOW, DETAIL OF 
DIAPERING OF MAIN ARCADE. 

in bunches about the capitals (Fig. 363; also ante Fig. 
316), or forming vines in the arch-moldings of door- 
ways, as in that of the chapter-house of Southwell or 
those of Lichfield Cathedral. The oak and maple oc- 
cur most frequently (Fig. 364 a) ; later sea-weed and 

355 




A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

other intricate forms 
appear (Fig. 364 b) ; 
and finally there ap- 
pears a mingling of 
highly conventional 
forms with naturalistic 
vines and flowers. 
The hollows of mold- 
ings are studded with 
leaves, dogtooth orna- 
ments and ball-flowers, 
or filled with running 
vines (Fig. 365), un- 
til about 1350, after 
which molding-enrich- 
ments became more 
rare. Surface carving 
in panels and on arch- 
spandrels is much more 
frequent than in 
France (Fig. 366). Diaper patterns occur on flat 
surfaces, especially spandrels of arcades, as in the nave 
of Westminster Abbey (Fig. 367). 

English figure-sculpture is decidedly inferior to the 
French ; there is nothing like the stupendous porches of 
the French cathedrals with their wealth of statues and 
reliefs. The west front of Wells Cathedral is the only 
example of an English west front adorned profusely 
with sculpture, and but little remains of the original 
figures there. Some of the late porches, however, 
erected in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, are 

356 




FIG. 368. PART OF WOODEN SCREEN, 
MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 



SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 





FIG. 368 A. "CURVILINEAR" PANELS IN WOOD. 

richly adorned with figures in niches, as at Exeter and 
Canterbury. Very rich in fig- 
ure-sculpture were also some 
of the great loth-century 
reredoses of English cathed- 
rals, as those of Winchester, 
St. Saviour's at Southwark 
(cathedral), and some others. 
Mention has already been 
made in Chapter XVI I of the 
"Angel Choir" of Lincoln, il- 
lustrated as to its sculptured 
triforium-spandrels in Fig- 
ure 362. 

Woodwork of all sorts the 
English excelled in, especially 
in the 14th and 15th centuries. 

357 




Fio. 369. "POPPY HEAD." 




Fio. 370. PLATE TRACERY, LIL- 

LINGTON, NOHTHAXTS. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

The wooden choir-screens, 
choir-stalls, pew-ends, font- 
covers and the like, were 
often of great beauty (see 
ante, Fig. 327), with elabo- 
rate surface-tracery, can- 
opy-work, and carved gro- 
tesques. Very character- 
istic are the "poppy-head" 
finials to the pew-ends. 
Fig. 368 illustrates part of a carved wooden screen, of 
which there are many in English parish churches; Fig. 
368A, 14th-century surface-paneling in wood; Fig. 
369 a poppy-head finial. But the greatest glory in the 
later woodworkers was the oaken ceilings of halls and 
churches; these will be discussed later. 

Moldings were generally richer, more minute and 
more varied than the French, 
more subtile in profile, and 
more often enriched, as al- 
ready explained Fig. 365). 
The English composed their 
groups of Gothic moldings 
so as to produce successions 
of deep undercut hollows 
contrasting with boldly pro- 
jecting roll-moldings or bow- 
tels. There was continuous 
increase in richness and com- 
plexity until 1350, after 
which there is observable a 

358 




Fio. 371. EAST WINDOW, 
RAUNDS, NOBTHANTS. 



SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

falling-off in vigor and effectiveness: the hollows are 
flatter and broader, the rolls and bowtels less vigorous 
in their contrast with the hollows. The bowtel a roll- 
molding with a slightly salient lip or fillet, giving it an 
almost pear-shaped section is peculiar to English archi- 




FIG. 372. Ftowixo OR "CURVILINEAR" TRACERY; a, ITHI.IXGBORO', 

NOBTHANTS; 6, OVER, CAMBRIDGESHIRE; C, LlTTLE ADDINGTOK, 
NORTHANTS. 

tecture. Another noticeable English feature is the 
label or drip-molding over the pier-arches in church in- 
teriors, as well as over exterior arches, doors and win- 
dows; the French confined this feature wholly to ex- 
teriors. The English never affected the intricate inter- 
secting moldings of late French and German Gothic 
art. 

859 



Tracery. 

In this the English equaled and even surpassed the 
French architects. There is a more systematic and 
logical progression from lancet-windows coupled or 
grouped under a discharging arch (Plate XX, 6), 
through the stages of plate or perforated tracery (ib. 7 
and Fig. 370) ; of molded tracery in the window-head 

springing from mullions of slen- 
der clustered shafts (8), to the 
perfection of "Decorated" bar- 
tracery, with two or three "or- 
ders" of moldings and open cusp- 
ing (9). The "Decorated" pe- 
riod is generally considered to last 
till the "Perpendicular" period, 
i.e. to about 1375. But the 
Geometric style of tracery, com- 
posed chiefly of circles or wheels 
and pointed arches, began as 
early as 1320 or earlier to give 
way to flowing lines, as in an 

Fio. 373. PERPEXDICULAB J 

TRACERY, BEAUCHAMP early example at Wells. This 

CHAPEL, WARWICK. , , , . ,, , ,. 

ushered in what is called the 

Curvilinear style of tracery, which has already been men- 
tioned as the probable prototype and parent of the 
French Flamboyant style of tracery. Examples of 
Flowing or Curvilinear tracery are in Plate XXI, 10, 
and in Fig. 372. This phase of tracery design was of 
short duration in England. Instead of developing, as 
in France, into a style of ornate fantasies, it gave way, 
somewhat suddenly, to the mechanical rigidity of the 

360 




SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

Perpendicular style (Plate XXI, 11, and Fig. 373). 
This last was structurally the most correct form of tra- 
cery, though decoratively inferior to the two preceding 
stages. Thus English tracery passed from a structural 
origin through a decorative development, to a structural 
culmination and decline; while in France the progress 
was throughout to the end in the direction of a purely 
decorative evolution. 

Round windows were less important in England than 
in France. The transepts of Lincoln show an early 
"plate" circular window (the "Dean's eye"), and a late 
curvilinear rose, called "the Bishop's eye." The tran- 
sept roses of Westminster Abbey (Plate XXI, 13) are 
almost French in character. The English preferred 
vast East and West windows to the round windows of 
France, and made of them sometimes superb composi- 
tions, unequaled in their kind elsewhere, as were the 
French rose windows in theirs. Tracery was carried 
across wall surfaces to form rich paneling, especially in 
the Perpendicular period. Openwork gables and balus- 
trades are not important. 

Vaults and Ceilings. 

In these the English developed phases of art wholly 
their own. Skilled in shipbuilding and framed struc- 
tures, they simplified the problem of vault-construction 
by multiplying the ribs, thus breaking up the twisted 
surfaces of the fillings into long narrow triangles easy 
to handle. These additional ribs were called tiercerons 
(Figure 303) ; they terminated in a horizontal ridge-rib 
at the summit of the vault. Later, short bridging ribs, 

361 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

called liernes were added to the system, forming complex 
patterns ("star" and "net" vaults), as in Winchester, 
Norwich, Canterbury Cathedrals, Gloucester choir and 
Lady-chapel, and many other examples (Figure 304 a) . 




Fio. 374. HAMMER BEAM ROOF, TRUNCH CHURCH. 

The decorative idea thenceforth predominated; the 
tiercerons being given the same curvature throughout, 
generated surfaces of revolution like inverted semi- 
conoids of concave profile, their bases meeting at the top, 
leaving lozenge-shaped voids which were filled up by 
various decorative devices. The ribs, no longer struc- 
tural, were simply carved in relief on the conoids, and 
the whole vault was covered with a patterning of these 
fine decorative ribs and adorned with rosettes and often 

362 



SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

long pendants (retro-choir of Peterboro; cloisters of 
Gloucester; King's College Chapel, Henry VII's chapel 
at Westminster, etc.) . The decorative splendor of the 




FIG. 374 A. OPEN-TIMBER CEILIXO, LAVEXHAM CHURCH, SUFFOLK. 

English vaulting is of the highest order, and nothing 
equal to these vaults is found in any other school of 
Gothic design (Figure 30 b). 

No less remarkable are the superb oaken ceilings 
borne on huge arched trusses, of which the highest de- 
velopment is the hammer-beam type as illustrated in the 

363 



roof of Westminster Hall (1395-1525). All the de- 
tails of these roofs were rich and appropriate to the ma- 
terial, and the ends of the horizontal hammer-beams were 
frequently adorned with carved heads or sculptured 
angels, while the glow of discreetly-used color and gild- 
ing added to the effect (Figs. 374, 374 A). 

The English stained glass differed from the French 
less in fundamental character than in detailed treat- 
ment. The English windows were generally lighter in 
tone than the French, at least after the earliest period 
when it is likely that there was a strong French in- 
fluence. The English developed to great splendor the 
"canopy" window, in which each "light" or vertical divi- 
sion is occupied by a life-size figure of a saint, prince or 
noble, under a canopy of splendid architecture executed 
usually in yellow glass, as if to represent gold. An 
example is illustrated in Figure 335, from York Cathe- 
dral. 

Unhappily the destruction of "idolatrous" glass by 
the Puritans and by various "restorers," beginning with 
Wyatt in the early nineteenth century, has left but little 
of the old glass to our day, at least compared with the 
wealth of France in such glass. Some of the finest ex- 
amples are in Canterbury Cathedral. 

Painting. 

As in France, but little painted decoration remains 
from the Middle Ages in England, except in moldings 
and minor details : but there is no doubt that polychrome 
decoration was almost universal. A few examples of 
such decoration are shown in Plate XX. 

364 



SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

Books Recommended: 

As before, DEHIO AND BEZOLD, FROTHINGHAM, MOORE, 
PARKER, SIMPSON. Also for English Gothic, Architectural 
Association Sketch Book (London). ATKINSON AND ATKIN- 
SON: Gothic Ornaments selected from various Cathedrals and 
Churches in England (London, 1829). F. BOND: Gothic 
Architecture in England; Cathedrals of England and Wales; 
Wood Carvings in English Churches; Fonts and Font Covers; 
Screens and Galleries in English Churches; Westminster Ab- 
bey; Introduction to English Church Architecture (Oxford and 
London, 19051913). BRANDON: Analysis of Gothic Archi- 
tecture (London, 1849) ; Open Timber Roofs of the Middle 
Ages (London, 1849). T. T. BURY: Remains of Ecclesiastical 
Woodwork (London, 1847). J. K. COLLING: English Mediaeval 
Foliage; Details of Gothic Architecture; Gothic Ornaments 
(London, 1848-1856). E. A. FREEMAN: An Essay on the 
Origin and Development of Window Tracery in England (Lon- 
don, n. d.). C. MOORE: The Mediaeval Church Architecture of 
England (New York, 1912). PALEY: A Manual of Gothic 
Mouldings (London, 1845). T. RICKMAN: An Attempt to Dis- 
criminate the Styles (London, 1817). E. SHARPS: Mouldings 
of the Six Periods; Treatise on the Rise and Progress of Win- 
dow Tracery in England (London, 1871). Spring Gardens 
Association Sketch Book (London). Consult also monographs 
on particular churches and cathedrals. 



865 



CHAPTER XIX 

PARTICULAR SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

II. GERMAN, SPANISH, ITALIAN 

German Gothic Ornament. 

Cleverness of technical execution and a tendency 
towards displays of skill rather than purity of design 
mark the German Gothic work. There is much borrow- 
ing from French models and Cologne, the greatest of all 
Gothic cathedrals, is clearly modeled after Amiens and 
Beauvais. Most of the German Gothic details of the 
first two periods are based on French types. In the 
naturalistic rendering of the leaves of the oak, maple, 
vine, etc., the German cleverness of technic found free 
scope, and in the 14th century began to show independ- 
ence of French models. There is abundant use of the 
grotesque, in which a very Germanic broad humor often 
takes the place of the French artistic refinement. 

The moldings generally resemble the French. In the 
Florid period intricate intersections of moldings of dif- 
ferent profiles seem to have given special delight to the 
German stone-cutters and wood-carvers because of the 
technical difficulty of their execution (Figures 339, 1 
375,381). 

lit is difficult to distinguish between some of the French, German and 
Flemish work of the late Gothic period. The Strassburg pulpit may be 
either a French or a German work. 

366 




FIG. 375. PORCH OF CHURCH OF ST. LAWRENCE, NUREMBERG 




FIG. 383. VAULTING, CATHEDRAL OF SALAMANCA 











B 





SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 



Tracery. 

It was in this 
the German love 
of intricate and fan- 
tastic design and 
clever workmanship 
achieved its highest 
successes. Such win- 
dows as those of 
Cologne, St. Cather- 
ine at Oppenheim, 
the Frauenkirche, 
St. Sebaldus and St. 
Lorenz at Nurem- 
berg, the minster at 
Ulm and the choir of 
the Palatine Chapel 
at Aachen, show skil- 
ful geometric design 
with extraordinarily 
long, slender mul- 
lions. Often the tra- 
cery is doubled, the outer plane of the window being 
adorned with purely decorative mullions and tracery, all 
quite useless, in addition to that which holds the glass 
( Ulm, Strassburg) . In the fifteenth century the design 
becomes flamboyant, the vesica ( Fischblase = fish blad- 
der) or palm-leaf form constituting a favorite and much- 
multiplied detail in the intricate patterning. Quadri- 
laterals and triangles with curved sides are frequent. 
Balustrades are often of perplexingly ingenious patterns. 

369 




FIG. 380. ALTAR-PIECE OH REREDOS, Ess- 
LJNGEX CHURCH. 




FIG. 380 A. CARVED PEW END; GER- 
MAX MIDDLE GOTHIC. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Openwork or traceried spires are peculiarly German 
features, as at Freiburg in Baden, Esslingen, Strass- 
burg, and the modern reproductions of old designs at 
Cologne, Ulm and Ratisbon (Regensburg). The spire 

loses its function as a 
true roof, but the ef- 
fect is highly decora- 
tive (Figure 377). 

Openwork gables 
and traceried walls are 
frequent; and the trac- 
ery of pinnacles and 
canopies for taber- 
nacles, shrines ( Sac- 
ramentshaiislein ) choir-stalls, pulpits and rood-screens 
is intricate beyond description and executed with 
consummate skill. Some of the richest screen-work in 
France (e.g. at Alby) is thought to be of German work- 
manship. Branch-tracer y, an utterly illogical and mon- 
umentally inappropriate naturalistic copying of vine- 
branches or rustic-work, appears as the last stage of de- 
cline in German Gothic art. Figures 378 and 379, from 
Strassburg, illustrate the richness of the best German 
late Gothic work. 

Stained Glass. 

A window from the earlier apse of Cologne cathedral 
has been preserved in the present structure begun in 
1248; in which there are also fine examples of German 
14th century glass. Others are to be seen of various 
dates at Altenburg, Nuremberg (see Fig. 336), Strass- 

370 



f 
ft 





h 




SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

burg, etc. In principle German glass is like the French, 
but with much more of grisaille, foliage and geometric 
patterning, and less of figures until the 15th century, 
when a pictorial style came in 
with much painting in place of 
mosaic or pot-metal coloring, and 
a very frequent use of figure-sub- 
jects. 

In the minor arts wood-carv- 
ing, metal-work, etc. the Ger- 
mans produced much that is in- 
teresting, generally marked by 
the same qualities of fantastic ca- 
price, quaint humor and technical 
excellence, to which attention has 
already been called in other de- 
partments of art (Figs. 380, 381; 
Figure 382). 

Spanish Gothic Ornament. 

Medieval Christian art in Spain 
was subject to diverse influences, 
which prevented a homogeneous 
organic development of style, but 
helped to impart to it a highly 
picturesque character. The con- 
temporary Moorish art stimulated the tendency towards 
surface ornamentation, while German, French and even 
English characteristics occur in not a few cases. The 
Spanish fondness for unrestrained exuberance of orna- 
ment overrode the structural logic of Gothic design and 

373 




Fro. 381. GF.RMAX LATE 
GOTHIC CARVIXG. 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

produced, in the fifteenth century especially, composi- 
tions of extraordinary and fantastic richness (Figure 
384). 

Spanish Gothic ornament is especially rich about the 
doorways of churches and in the arcades of cloisters and 
patios of the 14th and 15th centuries. Tabernacle work, 
tracery and cusping of great complexity, and heraldic 
escutcheons form the chief resources of such decoration 
as is not directly inspired from foreign models. 

The traceried 
spires of Burgos 
suggest German 
work ; the general 
decorative details of 
the facade suggest 
both Amiens and 
Ratisbon. The in- 
FIO. 386. MUDEJAB DECORATION. terior decoration of 
this and other churches is hard to classify or formulate, it 
is so varied and so capricious in character, though almost 
always effective (Figure 385). Vault decoration fol- 
lowed in Spain no well-defined principle, but in its use of 
multiple ribs resembles the German rather than the Eng- 
lish Gothic. The rib-patterns though often designed as 
abstract decorations rather than as a structural frame- 
work (Figure 383), are nevertheless always true ribs, 
not mere moldings carved out of the masonry as in Eng- 
lish fan-vaulting. An occasional admixture of Moor- 
ish details with the Gothic (Fig. 386) produces what is 
called the Mudejar style. 

Window tracery is of less importance in Spain than 

374- 





FIG. 384. PATIO (COURT) OF PALACE OF THE INFANTADO, GUADALAJARA 




FIG. 385. INTERIOR OF CHAPEL OF THE CONDESTABILE, RI:KGOS CATHEDRAL 




FIG. 387. DETAIL, FLANK OF FLORENCE CATHEDRAL 



SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

in more northern countries because of the small size of 
windows required in a hot climate; on the other hand, 
tracery as a surface decoration is carried to the extreme 
of elaborate complexity. 

A striking characteristic frequently met with in Span- 
ish decorative work is the effective way in which the 
most fanciful and overwrought ornamentation is brought 
into close contrast with the most severely plain surfaces, 
and minute detail with grandeur of scale. 

Italian Gothic Ornament: the System, 

The principles of design that dominated the Gothic 
styles of western Europe never found acceptance in 
Italy. The structural logic of the French and Eng- 
lish builders and their system of ribbed vaulting, isolated 
supports and external buttresses were foreign to Italian 
traditions and ideals. The opportunist methods of the 
Italian Romanesque builders and the persistent tradi- 
tions of Roman design, with its pilasters, round arches, 
cornices and acanthus leaves, were more in accord with 
Italian taste. When the intercourse between French, 
German and Italian chapters of the Benedictine and 
Cistercian orders began to make the splendid church 
architecture of the West known to the Italians, the re- 
sult was only a very inadequate attempt to add some of 
the superficial details of that architecture to buildings 
constructed after the traditional Romanesque fashion. 
Pointed arches, steep gables, pinnacles, finials and 
crockets, and tracery strangely modified or travestied, 
were applied to buildings wholly Italian in design, with- 
out reference to the principles underlying the design and 

377 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

use of these details in the West (Figure 387). Each 
building was conceived of as a walled enclosure some- 
times vaulted, sometimes roofed with wood upon which 
to spread decoration, not as an organic structure to be 
made decorative in itself. The form and outline of a 
church facade had no necessary relation to the form of 




FIG. 389. DETAIL FBOM PORTAL OF CATHEDRAL, LUCCA: CARVED RIXCEAU 
AXD MARBLE INLAY. 

the church behind it; it was a screen, a surface to be 
ornamented like a frontispiece (Figure 388). The 
flanks might or might not be similarly adorned. The 
interior provided areas for mural paintings. The ma- 
terials for exterior decoration were round and pointed 
windows, gables, pinnacles, pilaster-strips, panels, sta- 
tues, colored marble, inlays, mosaic, anything that would 
produce patterns in light and shade, form and color 
(Plate XXII). The facades of Sienna Cathedral 
(1284) and Orvieto (1310), and the flanks and east end 

378 



SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

of the Duomo at Florqnce (1357-1408) illustrate this 
conception of the relations of architecture and ornament. 
The superb campanile at Florence (1334-50) by Giotto, 
Gaddi and Talenti, is its most perfect embodiment in 
the admirable harmony of the ornament with the struc- 




FIG. 390. CAPITAL FROM A TOMB IN STA. CHIARA, NAPLES. 

tural lines and mass (Plate XXII). Polychromy 
rather than light and shade was the chosen medium of 
decoration ; the use of Gothic forms was a concession to 
fashion which prevented a truly rational development of 
style. In the works just mentioned and countless 
others, black, red, green, yellow and white marbles, in 
panels, stripes and inlays, are mingled with pseudo- 
Gothic and half-classic details. The Roman tradition 
refused to die (Fig. 389), and Corinthian capitals 
(Fig. 390) , the Attic base, round arches with archi volts, 
acanthus leaves, rinceaux and moldings of Roman pro- 

379 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

file, are used with no sense of their incongruity with 
pointed arches, twisted shafts, crockets and tracery. 

Architectural Details. 

All the Gothic forms are capriciously varied. The 
most notable single feature is the spirally twisted shaft, 




FIG. 391. TOMB IN SAX ANTONIO, PADUA. 

frequently used as a mullion in subdivided openings, and 
as a jamb-shaft in recessed doorways. It is clearly a 
survival from Romanesque practice (Fig. 391; Plate 
XXII, 5, 6). Mosaic and inlay the Italians could 
never give up, and as their Gothic decoration was pre- 
eminently a decoration of surfaces, inlaid bands and 
panels of colored marbles in geometric patterns appear 
perfectly in place alongside of Gothic pinnacles and trac- 
ery (Figure 394). The tracery was rarely except in 
Venice and in a few churches built by foreign artists 
designed as a structure to be built up in stone after the 
true Gothic fashion ; it was rather a surface of stone to be 

380 




FIG. 388. CENTRAL PORTION, FACADE OF CATHEDRAL OF ORVIETO 




FIG. 392. TOMB OF CAN SIGNORIO SCALIGER, VERONA 




FIG. 392A. TOMB OF GIOVANNI SCALIGER, VERONA 




perforated and carved, as in the Duomo windows and 
the Or San Michele at Florence (Figure 395). In 
Venice, however a remarkable and more truly structural 
type of tracery was de- 
veloped in the 14th cen- 
tury in secular build- 
ings; first in the majes- 
tic arcades of the Doge's 
Palace, and then in pri- 
vate palace fa9ades, in a 
style singularly vigorous 
and original (Fig. 396). 
The triforium tracery of 
San Martino (cathe- 

FIG. 396. FACADE OF A GOTHIC 
dl'al) at LuCCa (1370), PALACE, VENICE. 

has much of the Western character. That of Milan 
cathedral (1386 ) is presumably of German design. 

Minor Works. 

In these the Italian decorative genius found its most 
congenial expression. Tombs, altars, chapels, shrines, 
ciboria, choir-stalls, fountains and pavements afforded 
free scope for Italian fancy and love of color. In these 
inlay and mosaic, Cosmati-work (see ante page 200) and 
surface decoration were perfectly appropriate. The al- 
tar of the church of Or San Michele, Florence, by 
Orcagna (Figure 397) ; the tombs of the Scaligers in 
Verona (Figure 392) ; wall-tombs and canopy- tombs in 
Venice and elsewhere, are not surpassed by works of like 
purpose anywhere. 



383 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 



Decorative Painting. 

The remarkable schools of painting which arose and 
flourished in Florence in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries and in Sienna in the fourteenth, fall outside the 
field of a history of ornament, except as to the sub- 
ordinate details of their mural decorations. The cul- 
mination of this school is seen in the frescoes of Giotto 
(1267-1337), especially in the church of S. Francesco 
at Assisi, and of his followers, the Gaddi, etc. The 
decorations of vault-ribs and of borders of pictured 
panels on walls and vaults show a mingling of classic 
survivals with geometric details 
evidently inspired from Cosmati 
work and geometric inlays (Fig. 
398). The persistence of classic 
rinceaux and acanthus leaves ap- 
pears often like a foretaste or an- 
ticipation of the Renaissance, in- 
stead of a lingering reminiscence 
of traditions never quite lost since 
the days of the Roman Empire. 
Carvings like those on the Man- 
I dorla door of the Florentine 
I Duomo (dr. 1399; Fig. 399) are 
11 evidences of the vitality of those 
1 traditions, which the foreign Gothic 
4 1 fashion could not wholly drive out. 
^Other painted decorations, as in S. 

FIG. 399. DETAIL FROM * AT j & \ j 

THE MANDORLA DOOR. Anastasia, Verona and S. Andrea, 

FLORENCE CATHEDRAL. Vercilli, and the cloisters of the 

384, 





FIG. 393. CATHEDRAL OF SIENA 





FIG. 394. TWISTED COLUMN AND INLAY, CAMPANILE, FLORENCE 




FIG. 395. CARVED TRACERY, OR SAN MICHELE, FLORENCE 




FIG. 398. DETAIL, PAINTED WALL AND VAULT, SANTA CROCE, FLORENCE 



SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

Spanish Chapel of Sta. Maria Novella at Florence, are 
of a more distinctly Gothic character. The upper 
chapel of Sta. Maria in the Palazzo Pubblico at Sienna 
is another noted example. 

Wood and Metal, 

Choir-stalls and furniture offered abundant oppor- 
tunity for the decorative skill of the Italian wood-carv- 








FIG. 401. CAPITALS, DOGE'S PALACE, VENICE. 

ers, who often combined wood-inlay or intarsia with 
their carving. But so many of these medieval wood- 
carvings were removed to be replaced in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries with the works of the Renaissance 

387 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

artists, that this phase of Italian medieval art is less im- 
pressive than some others. A single example is shown 
in Figure 400 from Molfetta; it shows a curious survival 
of earlier tradition in the almost Romanesque aspect of 
the animal reliefs. There are a number of fine medieval 
iron grilles in Italian churches, and the grilles surround- 
ing the tombs of the Scaligers (Figure 392) are elegant 
examples of this form of art. 

The foregoing paragraphs have sketched only in the 
barest outline the Gothic ornament of Italy. The whole 
country is a vast museum of decorative art of all periods, 
for its people, from the days of ancient Rome to our 
own, have always been decorators first of all, and an 
encyclopaedic volume would be required to treat ade- 
quately the history of their achievements in the decora- 
tive arts. 

Conclusion. 

With the closing years of the fourteenth century in 
Italy, and a century later in western and northern Eu- 
rope, the Gothic style began to be extinguished by the 
rapidly-developing and widely-spreading art of the 
Renaissance. Architecture had already reached the 
final limit of its structural development under the Gothic 
system, and was sensibly declining in power and 
grandeur. But, as we have seen, a splendid decorative 
flowering accompanied this decline in structural origi- 
nality, and reached its highest level of richness and tech- 
nical perfection in the fifteenth century, in France, Eng- 
land, Germany and Spain. This splendor of minute 
decoration, of complex tracery, realistic pictorial sculp- 

388 




FIG. 396. DETAIL, ALTAR IN OK SAN 
MICHELE, FLORENCE 



FIG. 399. DETAIL FROM STALLS, 
MOLFETTA CATHEDRAL 



SCHOOLS OF GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

ture, sumptuous embroidery and showy furniture was, 
however, the final coruscation of an expiring flame. In 
Italy, meanwhile, the new flame of the Renaissance had 
been kindled and had been growing in brilliancy and 
spreading as it grew brighter. The Western arts long 
resisted the Italian invasion; they refused to kindle from 
this new flame, to copy the new fashion. But the new 
style was more than a fashion; it was the expression of a 
fundamental change of spirit, of a new artistic point of 
view and attitude, of a new civilization and new ideals. 
The old order was passing away, and by the middle of 
the sixteenth century Gothic art was dead. 

Books Recommended: 

As before, ADAMY, DEHIO AND BEZOLD, HASAK, FROTHING- 
HAM, UNGEWITTER. Also, for the German Gothic, BOISSEREE: 
Histoire et description de la cathedrale de Cologne (Munich, 
1842). FOERSTER, Denkmale deutscher Baukunst (Leipzig, 
1855-69). HARTEL: Architektonische Details and Ornament 
der Kirchlichen Baukunst (Berlin, 1891). KLINGENBERG: Die 
ornament ale Baukunst (Leipzig, n. d.). E. ATJSM WERTH: 
Kunstdenkmaler der christlichen Mittelalters in den Rheinlan- 
den (Leipzig, 1858). For the Spanish Gothic, LAMPEREZ Y 
ROMEA: Historia de la arquitectura cristiana Espanola, etc. 
(Madrid, 1908-09). Monumentos Arquitectonicos de Espana 
(Madrid). D. ROBERTS: Sketches in Spain (London, 
1837). SMITH: Sketches in Spain (London, 1883). G. E. 
STREET: Gothic Architecture in Spain (New Ed., London, 
1913). WARING: Architectural Studies in Burgos (London, 
1852). WARING AND MACQUOID: Examples of Architectural 
Art in Italy and Spain (London). 

For the Italian Gothic, CUMMINGS: A History of Architec- 
ture in Italy (Boston, 1901). GRUNER: Terra-Cotta Archi- 
tecture of North Italy (London, 1867). KING: Study Book 
of Mediaeval Art (London, 1868). NESFIELD: Specimens of 

391 



A HISTORY OF ORNAMENT 

Mediceval Architecture (London, 1862). SCHULTZ: Denkmaler 
der Kunst des Mittelalters in Unteritalien (Dresden, n. d.). 
G. E. STREET: Brick and Marble Architecture in the Middle 
Ages in N. Italy (London, 1874). WARING: The Arts Con- 
nected with Architecture in Central Italy (London, 1858). 



S92 



LIST OF PLATES 



. SAVAGE ORNAMENT: POLYNESIAN 

1. Carved Window-Head, New Zealand (after Pho. in A. M. 

N. H.). 

2. Detail, New Zealand Paddle-Handle (after O. J.)- 

3. Detail, New Zealand Canoe (after Racinet). 
4, 5. Hawaiian Stamped Cloth (after O. J.). 

6. Detail, New Zealand Paddle-Handle (after O. J.). 

7. Tattooed Mummy-Head, New Zealand (after O. J.). 

8. Samoan Grass Cloth, String Decoration (A. M. N. H.). 

9. New Zealand Grass Cloth (A. M. N. H.). 

10. New Zealand Club (Racinet). 

11. Scratched Pattern on a Tongan Club, New Guinea (after 

A. C. H.)- 

12. Hawaiian Stamped Cloth (after O. J.). 

13. New Zealand Club (after Glazier). 

li. From a New Guinea Spatula (after A. C. H.). 

15. Detail, Handle of New Zealand Paddle of 21; Faces and 

Figures. 

16. New Zealand Club (A. M. N. H.). 

17. Frigate-Bird Ornament, New Guinea (after A. C. H.). 

18. Frigate-Bird Scrolls. New Guinea (after A. C. H.). 

19. Samoan Fan (A. M. N. H.). 

20. New Zealand Stamped Cloth (after O. J.). 

21. Blade of New Zealand Ceremonial Paddle (after O. J.). 

22. Scratched Ornament on Pipe, New Guinea (after A. C. H.). 

23. Carving from New Zealand Canoe (Racinet). 

24. Painted Eaves Boards, New Zealand (after Pho. in A. M. 

N. H.). 



II. SAVAGE ORNAMENT: AMERICAN 

1. Bolivian Cloth. 

2. From Temple of Uxmal, Mexico (Racinet). 

3. Mexican Terra-Cotta Head. 

4. Indian Basketry Patterns. 

5. Ancient Mexican Pottery Border. 

6. Bolivian Hanging Jar. 

7. Sculptured Stele or Pillar, Uxmal. 

8. Mexican Jar with Spiral. 

9. Mexican Serpent Jar. 

10. Neck of Mexican Jar: Pseudo-Anthemions. 

11. Mexican Bowl; Spirals and Zigzags. 

12. Washoe Basket (after print in Yale News). 

13. Mexican Duck Jar. 

14. Peruvian Gold Disk. 

15. Mexican Platter with Grotesque. 

16. Peruvian Platter with Snake Ornaments. 

17. Carving from a Mexican "Throwing Stick." 

18. Peruvian Cloth, Toucan Pattern. 

19. Mexican Pipe-Bowl, Carved Stone. 

20. Prow of Alaskan War Canoe. 

21. Stern of Alaskan War Canoe. 



All the above, except 2 and 12, are original sketches from ob- 
jects in the American Museum of Natural History, New York; 19 
by Miss G. K. Hamlin; the rest by the author. 



'exuan(Wood) ' Urn-Cloth 




III. EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT 

1-5. Painted Lotus Borders from Tombs (chiefly after P. d'A.). 
6-8. All-Over Patterns from Tomb Ceilings (after P. d'A. and 

P. & C.). 
9. Hathoric Capital and Entablature, Temple of Nectanebo, 

Philse (after P. & C.). 

10. Column, Campaniform Type. 

11. Lotus-Bundle Column, Temple of Thothmes III, Karnak 

(after P. & C.). 
12-11. All-over Patterns from Tomb Ceilings (after Meyer and 

P. d'A.). 

15. Floral Capital, Ptolemaic, from Philae (after P. d'A.). 
16,18. Circle All-over Patterns (after P. d'A.). 
17. Palm Capital, Temple of Edfu (after O. J.). 

19. Lobed Lotus Capital from the Tbeban Oasis (after O. J.). 

20. Vulture with Plumes of Royalty; from Ceiling of a Hypo- 

style Hall (after P. d'A.). 
21,22. Imbri Patterns (after Dolmetsch). 

23. Vulture or Hawk in Gold and Enamel (P. & C.). 

24. Enamel Rosette for Inlay (in Metropolitan Museum). 

25. Carved Perfume-Spoon of Wood (Meyer). 

26. Scarabaeus or Beetle. 



H!A EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT 

1. Various Lotus and Other Borders from Tombs (chiefly after 

Prisse d'Avennes and Dolmetsch). 

2. Campaniform Column, from Ramesseum. 

3. Lotus-Bud Clustered Column, Luxor. 

4. All-Over Patterns Painted in Tombs (after Dolmetsch, 

Prisse d'Avennes and Perrot and Chipiez). 

5. Ptolemaic Capitals, Hathoric and Floral from Philae (after 

Prisse d'Avennes and Owen Jones). 

6. Ptolemaic Capitals, Lotus and Palm, from Theban Oasis and 

Edfu (as above). 

7. Feathers as Insignia (after Owen Jones). 
8,9. Imbrications (Dolmetsch). 

10. Floral Ornaments (after C. H. Walker). 

11. Furniture, in part from Tomb Paintings (after Meyer). 

12. Wooden Shrine (Dolmetsch). 

13. Detail from Facade of Tomb (after Perrot and Chipiez). 

14. Utensils and Jewelrv. 



Illustrations not otherwise designated are from original draw- 
ings by the author. 



41 




IV. ASSYRIAN AND PERSIAN ORNAMENT 

1. Assyrian Double Palmette Border, Tiles (after P. & C.). 

2. Assyrian "Sacred Tree" (after O. J.). 

3. Imbrications or Scales: a, Painted; b, Carved (after O. J.). 

4. Pavefent Slab, Koyunjik. 

5. Pomegranate Border, Nimrond (after O. J.). 

6. Assyrian Chair, from a Relief (P. & C.). 

7. Assyrian "Portal Guardian" Winged Bull, from Khorsabad 

(P. & C.). 

8. Lotus Rosette from a Pavement, Koyunjik (after O. J.). 

9. Column from Susa (after P. & C.). 

10. Column from Persepolis (after P. & C.). 

11. Lycian Tomb (P. & C.). 

12. Detail from Persepolis: Palms and Rosettes (after P. & C.). 

13. Details from Staircase Parapet (after Ward). 

14. Palmette Tiles from Susa (after P. & C.). 

15. Enameled Brick Wall-Facing from Susa (after P. & C.). 
16, 17. Details from Rock Tomb, Naksh-i-Rustam. 

18. Detail, Architrave, from Persepolis. 



/2 From Hsnepolia 
1 5. Susa: Brick Wall. 




V. GREEK ORNAMENT, PAINTED: CHIEFLY ON POT- 
TERY 

1. Anthemions, Black on Red. 

2. Dish, Geometric or Dipylon Period (P. & C.). 
3, 7. Palmettes, Black and Brown on Red. 

4. Framed Anthemions Red on Black. 

5. Palmette or Framed Anthemion and "Lotus" Motive: Black 

and Brown on Red. 

6. Hydria, Early Fifth Century (Art Pour Tous). 

8. Oblique Anthemions, Black on Red. 

9. Anthemions and Fruits. 

10. Double Palmette-and-Lotus Band: Red on Black. 

11. Anthemion Pattern, from an Apulian Vase in Xew York. 
12, 13. Vine Bands, Red on Black. 

14. Ivy Band, Black on Red. 
15, 16. Small Vertical Laurel and Ivy Bands. 

17. Painted Terra Cotta Antefix (incorrectly labeled as of Mar- 
ble), Athens. 

18. Hydria, Fine Period. 

19. Painted Marble Antefix. 

20. Framed Anthemions, Red on Black. 

21. Foliated Scroll or Rinceau, on a Late Apulian Vase. 

22. Anthemions, Black on Red. 

23. Vertical Vine Band. 



The above illustrations are from various sources: Owen Jones, 
Kachel, Art Pour Tous, Lau, and original sketches from the object. 



ff&lmette -Stack and brown onffed 



S.Fblmetteeic. -Black and Brown on Red. 



8 OMiaueflnlhemions-dlacKonRed. 




VI. GREEK ORNAMENT, PAINTED: POTTERY AND 
ARCHITECTURE 

1,2,3. "Vitruvian" Waves and Scrolls. 
4, 5, 9, 10. Various Fret or Meander Bands. 
6, 11. Anthemions, Red on Black. 

7. Imbrications. 

8. Flower Band (Lotuses?). 
12. Lotus-Bud Band. 

13, 14. Plant and Vine Ornaments. 

15. Egg-and-Dart and Laurel Band. 

16, 18, 19, 22. Anthemions and Palmettes, Black on Red. 
17,20,21,23,30. Anthemion Bands, Red on Black. 

24, 27. Large Anthemion Ornaments, Black on Red. 

25, 26. Late Painted Decorations, Apulian. 

28,31,36. Painted Guilloches on Terra-Cotta Strips and Moldings. 
29, 32-35. Polychrome Decorations of Architectural Members. 



Nos. 1, 2, 3, 20, 23, 25 are from drawings by the author after 
Owen Jones and Kachel; 28, 30, 36 from drawings by the late 
Prof. M. K. Kress of Columbia University; 32 is from Perrot and 
Chipiez; the rest from the late Prof. W. R. Ware's "Greek Or- 
nament." 



IFLAT 








VII. GREEK ORNAMENT, ARCHITECTURAL 

1. Carved Pediment Rinceau, from one of the "Sidon" Sar- 

cophagi at Constantinople. 

2. Marble Antefix, supposedly from the Parthenon. 

3. Carved Finial of Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, Athens: 

Restored. 

4. Typical Carved Lotiform Motive, from the Erechtheion. 

5. Carved Anthemion on an Ionic Cymatium. 

6. Doric Order of the Parthenon. 

7. Ionic Capital from the Erechtheion. 

8. Moldings from the Erechtheion : Water Leaf, Bead-and- 

Reel, and Egg-and-Dart. 

9. Ionic Order of the Erechtheion. 

10. Capital from Eleusis (after Meyer). 

11. Anta-Cap from the Erechtheion (Meyer). 

12. Greek Corinthian Volutes. 

13,15. Stele Heads from Athens, Fourth Century. 

14. Corinthian Capital from the Choragic Monument of Lysic- 
rates : Restored. 



All the figures on this Plate are from original drawings by the 
author except 8 and 1 1 which are taken by permission from Meyer's 
"Handbook of Ornament"; and 5, from an unidentified source. 



PLATE YE GREEK ORNAMENT 



I 'Carved Rinceau. 



'Sidori 'Sarcophagus 



SFragmentofaCymalium W^ 




15. 5tele-HeadMero ^Century 



ChoragicMon-. of Lysccrates JS Stele -Head flthens, ^Century 



VIII. ROMAN ORNAMENT, THE ORDERS 

1. Doric Order, Thermae (Baths) of Diocletian. 

2. Composite Order from the Arch of Titus. 

3. Ionic Order from the Temple of Fortuna Virilis. 

4. Corinthian Order, Temple of Castor and Pollux. 

5. Middle Band of Architrave, Temple of Castor and Pollux. 

6. Greco-Roman Corinthian Order of Temple of "Vesta" (so- 

called) at Tivoli. 

7. Composite Capital, Thermae of Caracalla. 

8. Unidentified Corinthian Pilaster Capital; Late Greek or 

Greco-Roman. 

9. Enriched Attic Base in Capitoline Museum (after Meyer). 

10. Enriched Corinthian Base in Baptistery of Constantine 

(after Meyer). 

11. Enriched Corinthian Base from Temple of Concord (Meyer). 



All the figures on this Plate are from original drawings by the 
author, based on various authorities (7 is after a photograph), ex- 
cept 12 which is taken directly from Meyer's "Handbook of Orna- 
ment." 



SnMMnaMOMMOMlL^VLmOMK^^ 

FX ^~^7^-~^^c2-fJfJK^^ 1 ^^f^P/f^ I*" 



2 Order of the. ftrcJi of Titus :Compasite 



S-MxldkExind of flrchitrme; Temple of(astorand fbllux 




IX. ROMAN ORNAMENT, CARVING 

1. Taenia Molding, Arch of the Silversmiths. 

2, 3. Moldings between Architrave Bands, Temple of Vespasian 
(from Photographs of French Restorations). 

4. Semicircular Panel in Court of Mattei Palace, Rome, with 

Rinceaux and Rosettes; its source is unknown (after 
Vulliamy). 

5. Detail from Border of a Silver Platter (after Kachel). 

6. Rinceau, from Temple of Vespasian. 

7. Bucrane, from an Altar (after Tatham). 

8. Fragments from Forum of Trajan in Lateran Museum (after 

a Photograph). 
9, 10. Details from so-called "Florentine Tablet" (after Kachel). 

11. Enriched Ove, Temple of Vespasian (after an old French 

Lithograph). 

12. Pilaster Fragment in Villa Medici, Rome (from Cast in Co- 

lumbia University). 

13. Oak-Leaf and Rosette Band (Unidentified; after an old 

French Lithograph). 

14. Pilaster Fragment with Double Rinceau, in Palazzo Fano, 

Rome. 



All the above illustrations are from drawings by the author. 
The sources of 6 and 14 cannot be verified. 



4? 



ROMAM ORNAMENT: CARVING 




Detail from border 
of a Silver Platter 



4. RmdunknwnSource. m Court of Mattel fbbce. Rome [Marble) 



10 fl &rt rf the'noicnceTdUeL.nthe IJfizi 
celabld. 




12 Pilaster Fragment mVlUa, Media 73 Oak Leaf and RosetteBand 



. ] " H Pilaster Fragment in fol rtono. 
(Double Rinceau lype-cpvUh 12) 



X. ROMAN ORNAMENT, MINOR ARTS 

1. Cinerary Urn in British Museum (after Glazier). 

2. Silver Crater from Hildesheim (Meyer, after Kachel). 

3. Silver Patera from Hildesheim (after Kachel). 

4. Marble Hydria from Pompeii (after Photograph). 

5. Bronze Saucepan, Naples Museum (Meyer). 

6. Cinerary Chest and Urn in Vatican Museum (after Piranesi). 

7. Bronze-Tripod in Berlin Museum (after Meyer). 

8. Marble Support or Stand in Villa Borghese, Rome (aftev 

Piranesi). 

9. Bronze Tripod, Naples Museum (after Meyer). 

10. Candelabrum on Triangular Pedestal in Vatican Museun.' 

(after Piranesi). 
11, 12. Marble Table Legs, Vatican Museum (after Meyer). 

13. Bronze Candelabrum Base, Naples Museum (after engrav- 
ing in "The Workshop"). 



All the illustrations on this Plate are from the author's drawings, 
based on the sources indicated. 



48 




XI. POMPEII AN ORNAMENT 

1. Detail from Temple of Isis (R. Paufve after Zahn). 

2. From a Painted Wall in Naples Museum (R. Paufve, after 

Niccolini). 

3. From House of Marcus Lucretius (H. W. Haefele, after 

Niccolini). 

4. Painted Border (R. Paufve, after Zahn). 

5. From House of the Vestals (Author, after Zahn). 

6. Frieze in Temple of Isis (Author, after Zahn). 

7. Fragment of Stucco Relief from Excavation Near Villa 

Farnesina, Rome (Author, after Photograph). 

8. From a Wall not now Extant, in Pompeii (H. W. Haefele, 

after Niccolini). 

9. Detail of Pompeiian Floor Mosaic (R. Paufve, after 

Zahn?). 

10. Figure in Stucco Relief, from Excavation Near Villa Farne- 
sina, Rome (Author, after Photograph). 
11,12. Details from Pompeiian Floor Mosaics (H. W. Haefele). 




FloorMosa/c, 



10 Stucco (Rome). te-Mosaic Border 



XII. BYZANTINE ORNAMENT, CARVED 

1. Capital, Impost, Mosaic and Marble Paneling, Hagia Sophia, 

Constantinople. 

2. Spandrel with Surface Carving in Marble, Hagia Sophia, 

Constantinople. 

3. "Basket" Capital and Impost Block, San Vitale, Ravenna. 

4. Pier and Cap in Front of St. Mark's, Venice, from St. 

John of Acre. 

5. Inlaid Capital and Impost Block, St. Mark's, Venice. 

6, 7. Details from Bronze Doors of the Vlth Century, Hagia 
Sophia, Constantinople. 

8. Italo-Byzantine Silver Chest in Museo Nazionale, Florence. 

9. Puteal (Perforated Parapet), San Vitale, Ravenna. 

10. Panel from Crypt of St. Mark's, Venice; Xth Century. 



All the above illustrations are from photographs or photo-prints. 



5( 





2 Spandrel. tfag'ia.5ophia. 



1 Capital. Ftinels and Mosaic, 

i __^^^rffc. 









5 Inlaid Cap, 5t Mark's. Venice. 




Pe 

-/ 

In ffbnt qfSt Marfc, Venice 



* 

-\ ^^>4^ 




8 Silver C/Jest. Florence,. 9 Openwork fbnel.SMtale, 




XIII. BYZANTINE ORNAMENT, MOSAIC 

1. Mosaic Detail, Hagia Sophia, Constantinople. 

2. Spandrel and Capital, Gallery Arcade of Hagia Sophia, 

Constantinople. 
3, 4. Details of Mosaic from Hagia Sophia, Constantinople. 

5. Detail of Mosaic in St. George, Salonika. 

6,7,8,10. Details of Mosaic from Hagia Sophia, Constantinople. 
9,11,14. Mosaic Details from San Lorenzo fuori le Mura, Rome. 
12, 13. Details of Floor Mosaic in San Marco, Rome. 



Of the above illustrations Nos. 1, 2, 6-10 are from student- 
drawings by S. Y. Ohta, after Prang and Salzenberg; 11 and 14 
from student-drawings by H. J. Burke; 3, 4, 5 and 6 are repro- 
duced by permission from Prang's Plates of Historic Ornament; 12 
and 13 are from measured drawings by the author. 



51 



14-3. Lorenzo fuart. Rome 




XIV. ROMANESQUE OKNAMENT, FRENCH 

1. Double Capital from La Dalbade, Toulouse, in the Toulouse 

Museum. 
2.^ Double Capital from Church of Notre Dame at Chalons- 

sur-Marne. 
3, 5. Details from Central Portal of Church of St. Gilles, near 

Aries. 
4. Capital from Church of St. Pierre-le-Moutier. 

6. Carved Rosette, from Portal of Church at Moissac. 

7. Carved Tympanum from a House at Reims. 

8. Rosette (unidentified). 

9. Detail from Porte Ste. Anne, Cathedral of Notre Dame, 

Paris. 

10. Fragment of P'rieze from Portal of Church of St. Gilles, 

near Aries. 

11. Carved Monster from Portal of Church at Moissac. 



All the illustrations on this Plate are reproduced from photo- 
graphic post cards of casts in the Museum of Comparative Sculpture 
of the Trocadero, Paris. 




! Double Cap'dai La Dalbade. Tbuloux.dnloulouseSluxum) 2DoubteCapilal, Notre Dame de Chalons jurrfome. 





4 Capital from St.Pierre-le-J1outier. 5. Porch of5t.Gilles (Arle$. 



6 Rosette, Mo&sac . 



7 Tympanum fmmaHousen Reims. 






9 ^/7; fyte&JIme. ND Kins 



10. Fragment. Frieze , Fbrch qjSt. Gill es>( Aries) 



}] Monster.Sb/s-wc. 



XV. ANGLO-NORMAN AND CELTIC ORNAMENT 

1. Voluted Capitals from Harmston Church, Lines (after 

Bond). 

2. Grotesque and Scrolls, Shobdon Church, Herefordshire 

(after Rickraan). 

3. "Scalloped"-Type Capitals, New Shoreham Church (after 

Bond). 

4. Anglo-Norman Anthemion Ornament (unidentified). 

5. Capital, Canterbury Cathedral (after Rickman). 

6. Peterboro Choir, Two Bays (illustration by Author in Van 

Rensselaer, "English Cathedrals"). 

7. Zigzag Arch-Ornament from Malmesbury Abbey (after 

Parker). 

8. Star-Flower on an Arch in Romsey Abbey (after Rickman). 

9. Anglo-Norman Cushion Capital (unidentified; C. U. Student- 

Drawing). 

10. Billet or Checker Molding from Winchester Cathedral 

(after Parker). 

11. Anthemion Ornament from Hereford Cathedral. 

12. Initial P, from Book of Kells (after Sullivan). 

13. Detail from Celtic Cross at Ruthwell, Ireland (after 

Champreys). 

14. Interlace from Cross at Mugle, Ireland. 

15. Interlace Border from an Irish MS. (after Racinet). 

16. The South Cross at Aheny, Ireland (after Champreys). 



All the above illustrations are from the author's drawings ex- 
cept 9, which is an unidentified student's drawing. 



i Caps Vo/uted 



2 Shobdon . Herefordshire - 3 . Caps. Scalloped 




12. Initial (F) //aw Boo* of 'Kelts' 



XVI. GERMAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

1. Carved Pier in Church at St. Jak, Hungary (from a draw- 

ing by Stein). 

2. Twelfth Century Capital from Cathedral at Naumburg (C. 

U. Student-drawing). 

3. Twelfth Century Capital from Gelnhausen (from Hauser, 

"Stillehre . . . des Mittelalters"). 

4. Double Capital, Minster at Limburg-on-the-Lahn (Hauser, 

"Stillehre"). 

5. Detail of Bronze Ornament, Aachen. 

6. Rosette from Heiligenberg near Vienna (Meyer's "Hand- 

book" etc.) Gelnhausen. 

7. German Romanesque Capital (from an unidentified engrav- 

ing). 

8. Twelfth Century Bronze Knocker (Meyer). 
1). Rosette from Cathedral of Bale (Meyer). 

](). Anthemion Band from Church at Hersfeld, Saxony. 

11. Acanthus Molding from Miinzenberg, Hesse ("Gewerbe- 

halle"). 

1 1 2. Anthemion Band from Fulda, Hesse-Cassel (after Prang). 
13. Romanesque Stained Glass from Heiligenkreuz (Hauser, 

"Stillehre"). 

Ik Carved Band from Liebfrauenkirche, Halberstadt (after 
"Klingenberg, Mittelalterliche Ornamentik"). 

15. Anthemion Frieze from South Germany (after Prang). 

16. Carving from Tomb in St. Thomas', Strassburg. 

17. Carved Band from Anhausen-an-dem-Brienz, S. Germany 

("Gewerbehalle"). 



Illustrations not otherwise attributed are from drawings by the 
author. 



PLATE 3TML 



O. Capital. Ml (esitury 



\.Church at Jaktiungay 



AT. UehfiauenlriKhe. Halberytadt 

IRfS 



/3. Glass. HeilLgenKrtuz 



ISfrieiz. South Gemvry ft. fiomaTomb.StlfomaiOxjrch. 17 From South Germany. 




XVII. GOTHIC STRUCTURAL ORNAMENT 

1. Buttress Pinnacle from Notre Dame (Hauser). 

2. Flying Arches, Sta. Barbara, Kuttenberg (Hauser). 

3. Decorative Gable, Cologne Cathedral; Middle Period Tra- 

cery (Hauser). 

4. Crocket from St. Urbain, Troyes (Hauser). 

5. Buttress Pinnacle, Notre Dame, Paris (C. U. Student Draw- 

ing). 

6. Early French Finial. 

7. French Gothic Vault Rib (Hauser). 

8. English Pier Arch Moldings (Hauser). 

9. Late Gothic Crocket, Rouen (Hauser). 

10. Wall Traceries, Transept of Meaux Cathedral (C. U. Stu- 

dent Drawing). 

11. Finial Cathedral of Troyes (Hauser). 

12. Half-Plan and Elevation, Clustered Pier, Notre Dame, 

Paris (C. U. Student Drawing). 

13. Pier Cap and Arch Moldings, Chartres Cathedral (Hauser). 

14. Early Gothic or Transitional Balustrade (C. U. Student 

Drawing). 

15. Detail from Transept of Notre Dame, Paris (C. U. Stu- 

dent Drawing, after Lassus and V.-le-Duc). 

16. Flamboyant Balustrade, Chateau of Josselyn (C. U. Stu- 

dent Drawing). 

17. Early Gothic Balustrade, Notre Dame, Paris (C. U. Stu- 

dent Drawing). 



PLATE 



oo 

GOTHIC ORNAMEMT. STRUCTURAL 




/f Balusliade.Tronsitional Detail from 5 Transept. Notre Datm.fbrb 17 f&rly Gothic Balu5tia(fe>. 



XVIII. GOTHIC ORNAMENT, CARVING 

1. Capitals, North Porch of Chartres Cathedral; XII Ith Cen- 

tury. 

2. Capitals, Northwest Portal, Laon Cathedral; Early Xlllth 

Century. 

3. Early French Gothic Capital. 

4. Pedestal, North Porch, Chartres Cathedral. 

5. From St. Urbain, Troyes. 

6. Arch Ornament, North Portal, Bourges Cathedral. 

7. Nave Piers, Reims Cathedral. 

8. Bishop's Throne, Toul Cathedral, Early Xlllth Century. 

9. Transept Rose (as before Alteration), Reims Cathedral. 

10. The "Beau Dieu," Reims Cathedral. 

11. Vault-Boss, from an Apsidal Chapel, Seez Cathedral. 

12. Model of Apse of St. Urbain, Troyes; in Trocaderp Mu- 

seum. 
13, Ik Corbel and Crocket, Rouen: Flamboyant. 

15. Vine Molding, Window of St. Urbain, Troyes, XlVth Cen- 

tury. 

16. "Bahut" in Cluny Museum, XVth Century. 

17. Cast-Iron Knocker, from House in Rue du Lion, Troyes 

(XVth Century). 

18. Molding, Porch of Troyes Cathedral (XVth Century). 

19. Fragment, Hotel de la Tremoille, in Court of Ecole des 

Beaux-Arts. 



All the above illustrations are from photo-print post-cards of casts 
in the Museum of Comparative Sculpture in the Trocadero, Paris. 



/ Caps N. Porcti. Chartrc 



2. Capitab NW Fbrtul. Loon Cathedra 



.3 Earfy Capital StJxttf) 



' ^j^^| &>bbopsThrone .Tout 'Cathedral 
, Reins 



9 Transept Rose, l&ims Gu 



K MaCtloJ/ipse. St. Urban, Trcyes 



16 'Bu/iut (fjaenstyQKJt, tii 




XIX. GOTHIC ORNAMENT, STAINED GLASS 

1. Border, Window in Bourges Cathedral (Prang). 

2. Border, Jesse Window in Chartres Cathedral (H. W. 

Miller). 
3,4. Figures from Chartres Jesse Window (H. W. Miller). 

5. Border, Window in Bourges Cathedral (Author, after Owen 

Jones). 

6. Grisaille, Window in Bourges Cathedral (Owen Jones). 

7. Border, W T indow in Bourges Cathedral (Owen Jones). 

8. Border, Window in York Cathedral (Owen Jones). 

9. Border from Window in Church of St. Thomas, Strass- 

burg (Author, after Owen Jones). 
10. Window Detail from St. Denis (Prang). 



o < 




I Border. >ourgej Gath 



2 Border, Jesse wnao*/. C/TartnssGjfo , End of- M* Century 




3 and 4 Figures from Jesse Window, Chartrcs Cathedral. 




6 Grtsaille. Bourses Cbml. 7 Dourcje. 




.5 ' B>order.Dourge5 9 51 Thomas Church. Strassburg 



XX. GOTHIC ORNAMENT; PAINTED, CERAMIC AND 
MSS. DECORATION 

1. Painted Molding, Ely Cathedral. 

2. Painted Enriched Molding, Beverley Cathedral. 
3, 4. Painted Decorations from Brunswick Cathedral. 

5. Painted Decoration from Reims Cathedral. 

6. Painted Decoration, Salisbury Cathedral. 

7. Painted Decoration, Winchester Cathedral. 
8,12. Tile Units from French Churches. 

9. Painted Decoration from Church of the Jacobins, Toulouse. 

10. Painted Decoration from Ranworth Church, Norfolk. 

11. From West Walton Church, Norfolk. 
13. French Tiling, Xlllth Century. 

14,16,17,19-24. Ornaments from Manuscripts of the Xllth and 

Xlllth Centuries. 
15, 18. Borders from Manuscripts of XlVth and XVth Centuries. 



Of the above illustrations, Nos. 1 to 7 inclusive and 9, 10, 11 are 
from Prang's "Plates of Historic Ornament," by permission, Nos. 
8 and 12 to 24 inclusive are from Owen Jones, "Grammar of Orna- 
ment." 



58 




3 



m 

Q, TILE UNIT 



IO. RANWORTH CH-, Norfolk . 1 1 WtST VA1.7DN CH V NorfolK , 




HO 27. 2- 

/!0 /Vb Is. A? /D 24indU3ivf one from Manuscripts: ffafld IQ are 
the others are o/ JheAI/ ! as?dJ(/ll- Cesitur/e.5- _^ 



24. 



XXI. ENGLISH GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

1. One Bay, Salisbury Cathedral. 

2. One Bay, Choir of Lincoln Cathedral. 

3. One Bay, Lichfield Cathedral, Nave. 

4. Detail from King's College Chapel, Cambridge. 

5. Perpendicular Wall Tracery. 

6. Lancet Windows, Warmington Church. 

7. Plate Tracery, Carlisle Cathedral. 

8. Geometric Tracery, Rippington Church. 

9. Geometric Tracery, Chapter House, York Cathedral. 

10. Curvilinear Tracery, St. Michael's, Warfield. 

11. Perpendicular Tracery, Beauchamp Chapel, Warwick. 

12. Curvilinear Tracery, Oxford Cathedral. 

13. Transept Rose, Westminster Abbey. 

14. Capital from Lincoln Cathedral: Early English. 

15. Capital from Beverley Cathedral: Decorated. 

16. Cresting Ornament, Arundel Church: Perpendicular. 

17. "Decorated" Finial. 

18. "Decorated" Crocket. 

19. "Decorated" Capital, Beverley Cathedral. 

20. Carving from Trull Church. 

21. One unit of a Diaper Decoration. 

22. A "Perpendicular" Doorway and Door Paneling. 



Nos. 1, 2, and 3 are reproduced by permission from the Au- 
thor's drawings in Van Rensselaer's "English Cathedrals" (The 
Century Co.). No. 4 is from part of an illustration in Simpson's 
"A History of Architectural Development" (Longmans); 5 is from 
Speltz, by permission; 6-11 are by the author; 12-15 are from 
Gwilt's "Encyclopedia"; 17, 18 by the author after Speltz; 20-22 are 
from drawings by Columbia students, from unidentified sources. 



'Decorated' Fmiat Oak leaf packet # 




XXII. ITALIAN GOTHIC ORNAMENT 

1. Detail, Portal of Cathedral of Messina. 

2. Open Tracery, Venetian Style. 

3. Central Doorway, Cathedral of Messina. 

4. Traceried Window, from a Town Hall. 

5. Twisted Columns, from Niche in Fa9ade of Church of Or 

San Michele, Florence. 

6. Detail from Upper Story of Campanile, Florence. 

7. Porch of Cathedral of Amalfi. 

8. Gothic Detail in Terra-Cotta, Bologna. 

9. Capital, Lower Arcade of Doge's Palace, Venice. 



All the above illustrations are from photographs or photographic 
prints except 9, which is from a student's drawing. Nos. 1, 3 and 
7 are from photo prints published in the magazine Stone, reproduced 
here by permission. 



4. Wmaou of an Italian Ibwn -Ha/I 




^Tv? 
7. Porch, Cathedral oJAma/fL 



8.Tem-cottaDetoil,E>ol<yna. Q.Cap/tal, Doqesfblacz.Venice 



INDEX 



INDEX 



AACHEN, Palatine Chapel, 369 

Acanthus: in Byzantine O., 211, 
216; in French Romanesque O., 
252, 255; in Greek O., 98, 120; in 
Italian Gothic, 379; in Roman O., 
152 

yEgean Culture and art, 73 sq. 

Ahuri-Mazda, 70, 71 

Aizanoi, 115, 125 

Alaska, 21; Totem Poles, 22 

Alby, Cathedral, 312, 370 

Alexandria, 158, 185 

Alexandrian and Apulian Pottery, 
108 

Altenburg, 370 

American Indians, 28 

Museum of Natural His- 
tory, 28 note 
" Ornament, Primitive, 27 

Amiens Cathedral, 363, 311, 338, 341, 

342, 374 
" Triptych in Library, 338 

Angel Choir, Lincoln Cath., 311, 357 

Anglo-Norman: Anthemions, 269; 
Arches, Corbels, Doorways, Mold- 
ings, 267; Carved Ornament, 269; 
Fonts and Metal Work, 270; Or- 
nament in General, 266; Painted 
Decoration, 269 

Angouleme, 257 

Animal Forms in Egyptian O., 44 

Animism in Primitive O., 21 

Anthemion in Anglo-Norman O., 
269; in Byzantine O., 215, 216; in 
French Romanesque O., 269; in 
German O., 274; in Greek O., 104, 
118, 119; Greek Types of, 105; in 
Roman O., 155 

Antioch, Golden Church at, 232 



Applied ornament defined, 7 

Apollo Temple, Didyme, 114; Phig- 
alaea (Bassae), 120 

Apulian pottery, 99, 100, 108, 244 

Ara Coeli (Santa Maria in), Rome, 
200 

Arcatures, 255, 269 

Arch: of Constantine, 148; of Ha- 
drian at Athens, 125; of Titus, 
136, 156 

Arches: Anglo-Norman, 267; French 
Romanesque, 258; Gothic, 288 

Architectural Ceramics: Greek, 109; 
Etruscan, 130; Pompeiian, 130 

Architectural Motives in Greek O., 97 

Architectural Ornament: Defined, 7; 
Byzantine, 208; Early Christian, 
192; Egyptian, 38, 49, 52; Gothic 
in General, 284; Greek, 110; Pom- 
peiian, 172; Roman, 136; Roman- 
esque, in General, 251 

Aries, 307; St. Trophime at, 262 

Armenia, 207, 221 ; Ornament of, 232 

Artemision (Temple) at Ephesus, 
114 

Asia Minor, 65, 66, 111, 112, 114, 116, 
140, 158, 163, 206 

Assisi, 384 

Assyrian: Lotus, 58, 59; Ornament, 
Origins and Methods of, 57; Sa- 
cred Tree, 36, 60, 84; Stepped 
Parapet, 70; Volutes, 60, 61 

Athens, 99, 115, 119, 121, 125 

Aulnay, St. Pierre at, 261 

Auvergne, 251 

Avallon, 255 

Avila, 276 

B 

BAALBEK, 137 

Babylon, 57; Gate of Ishtar at, 64 



395 



INDEX 



Balawat Gates, 64 

Bale Cathedral, 311 

Balustrades, Gothic, 296 

Bamberg, 227 

Baptistery: Florence, 243; of S. 
Stefano at Bologna, 240 

Barcelona, 276 

Barfreston Church, 269 

Bases: Gothic, 287; Greek, 114, 115; 
Roman, 142; Romanesque, 251 

Basilican Ornament, 187 sq. 

Basilicas, Christian: Sant' Agnese, 
195; San Apollinare at Ravenna, 
198, 2-20, 223, 225; Ara Coeli, 200; 
San Clemente, 195, 198; St. John 
Lateran, 198, 200; San Lorenzo 
fuori le Mura, 200; San Marco, 
Rome, 195, 198; Santa Maria Mag- 
giore, 193, 201; Santa Maria in 
Trastevere, 195, 196; St. Paul with- 
out the Walls (San Paolo fuori le 
Mura), 193; St. Peter, 193; Santa 
Prassede, 198; Santa Pudenziana, 
198; Santa Sabina, 198 

Basilicas, Pagan: ^Emilia, 144; Julia, 
163 

Bassae (Phigalaea), 120 

Basketry, 22, 27, 28, 78 

Baths: of Caracalla, 161 ; at Pompeii, 
161, 178; of Titus, 161, 162 

Battle of Issus, Mosaic, 182 

"Beau Dieu" of Reims, 311 

Beauvais Cathedral, 366 

Belgium, 283, 285 

Benedictines, 245, 249, 377 

Bergen, Golden Chalice at, 279 

Biology of Styles, 11 

Bologna, Baptistery of S. Stefano, 
240 

Books Recommended (see end of 
each chapter). 

Bosnia, Jar from, 28 

Bourg-en-Bresse, Brou Church, 311, 
338 

Bowtels, English Gothic, 359 

Brazil, Central, 21 

Brou Church, 311, 338 

Budmer in Bosnia, Jar from, 28 



Byzantine Details: Acanthus, 211, 
216; Anthemions, 215, 216; Bands 
and Borders, 215; Carving, 212; 
Church Furniture, 225 ; Floors and 
Incrustations, 219; Guilloches and 
Interlace, 218; Moldings, 215; 

Mosaic, 220; MSS. Illumination, 227; 
Rinceau, 217; Shafts, 211 

Byzantine Influences, 237, 240, 243, 
244, 249, 252, 255, 261, 264, 265, 
270, 273, 274, 275, 277, 279, 319 

Byzantine Ornament, 206 sq.; Archi- 
tectural 208; Chief Characteristics 
of, 207; Textile, 227 



CALABRIA, 244 

Campania, 99, 108 

Campanile, Florence, 239, 379 

Canopy Windows, 325, 364 

Canterbury Cathedral, 329, 362, 364 

Capitals: Anglo-Gorman, 267; By- 
zantine, 210, 211; Egyptian, 50; 
Etruscan, 130; Gothic, 283, 286, 
332; Greek, 113; from Neandreia, 
66; Persian, 68, 70; Pompeiian, 
173; Roman, 140-142, 144, 147; 
Romanesque, 251, 252, 273 

Carolingian Art, 250 

Carrenac, Portal of Church, 261 

Carved Ornament: Anglo-Norman, 
269; Byzantine, 212; English 
Gothic, 354; French Gothic, 332; 
French Romanesque, 250; Gothic 
in General, 332; Greek, 111; Ital- 
ian Gothic, 384; Italian Roman- 
esque, 240, 245; Roman, 138, 149 
sq. 

Casa dei Capitelli Colorati, 172 

Casa di Livia, 162 

Castor and Pollux, Temple of, 141 

Cathedrals: Alby, 312, 370; Alten- 
burg, 329; Amiens, 262, 311, 338, 
341, 342, 345, 366; Bale, 311; Can- 
terbury, 329, 362, 364; Chartres, 
263, 307, 311, 326, 338, 341, 345, 
349; Cologne, 329, 366, 369, 370; 



396 



INDEX 



Durham, 267; Ely, 269; Florence 
(Duomo) 379, 383, 384; Freiburg, 
311, 370; Gloucester, 363; Lich- 
field, 311, 355; Lincoln, 311, 357, 
361; Lucca (S. Martino), 383; 
Paris (Notre Dame), 326, 341, 342, 
350; Peterboro', 269, 363; Ratis- 
bon, 370; Reims, 263, 279, 280, 326, 
335, 338, 341, 345; Rouen, 261, 345; 
Salisbury, 329; Sienna, 378; South- 
well, 289, 306; St. Denis, 255, 325, 
341; Strassburg, 311, 329, 369, 370; 
Tours, 326, 345; Troyes, 334; 
Wells, 305, 311, 356, 360; Winches- 
ter, 357, 362; York, 326, 329, 364 

Ceilings: of Basilicas, 201; English, 
269, 361 ; Roman, 155, 156 

Celtic: Art, 221, 231, 271; Crosses, 
272; Influence, 219, 297; Interlace, 
271, 272, 277, 278; MSS., 219, 232, 
271, 277 

Central American Art, 27 

Chaldea and Assyria: Land and Ma- 
terials, 56; Chronology, 55; Early 
Art, 56 

Chalons-sur-Marne, 252 

Chapter House, Southwell Cathedral, 
289, 306 

Character: of Anglo-Norman O., 266; 
of Byzantine O., 207; of Egyptian 
O., 36; of Gothic O., 284, 303, 331, 
353, 366, 377; of Greek O., 93; of 
Roman O., 127, 132, 149; of Roman- 
esque O., 238, 239, 244, 249 

Charente, 251 

Charlemagne, Crown of, 224, 227 

Chartres Cathedral, 263, 307, 311, 
326, 338, 341, 345, 349 

Chevron: in Assyrian O., 59, 64; in 
Egyptian O., 45 

Choir Stalls, 311, 312, 387 

Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, 
114, 121, 123, 124 

Chouamta, Georgia, 232 

Chromatic O., Denned, 5 

Church Furniture: Byzantine, 223; 
Early Christian, 198; Romanesque, 
279;*Gothic, 316 



Cistercians, 377 

Classic Influence and Tradition: in 
French Romanesque O., 249, 255; 
in Gothic O. generally, 303; in 
Italian Gothic O., 377, 380; in Tus- 
can Romanesque, 240 

Classifications of Ornament, 4; their 
Significance, 7 

Cloisters, Gloucester Cathedral, 363 

Coere in Etruria, 99 

Cologne Cathedral, 366, 373 

Color: in Assyrian O., 63; in Egyp- 
tian O., 38; in Gothic O., 323, 324, 
349, 364; in Greek O., 109, 111; in 
Italian Architecture, 378, 384; in 
Pompeiian O., 177; in Roman O., 
162 

Columns: Anglo-Norman, 266; Cre- 
tan, 74; Early Christian, 139; 
Egyptian, 49, 50; Gothic, 285; 
Greek, 112, 114; Persian, 68; 
Roman, 136, 137, 140, 147; Roman- 
esque, 240, 251 

Comacini, Maestri, 245, 303 

Composite: Capital, 142; Order, 
140 

Compostella, 276 

Conclusion on Gothic O., 388 

Constantine: Arch of, 148 

Constantinople, 123, 124, 164, 196, 
210, 214, 238, 278, 279 

Conventional Ornament: Defined, 5; 
in Egyptian Art, 45; in Roman 
Art, 138 

Convergence in Ornament, 12 

Corbels: Gothic, 301; Norman, 267 

Corbel Tables, French Romanesque, 
262 

Corinth, 99, 132 

Corinthian Capital: in Gothic O., 379; 
Greek, 121; Roman, 141 

Corinthian cornice, 144 

Corinthian Order: Greek, 114, 121, 
144; Roman, 122, 141, 142, 144 

Cosmati and Cosmati Work, 200, 
239, 243, 383 

Crestings, Gothic, 298 

Crete, 73 



397 



INDEX 



Cretan: Columns, 74; Spiral Scroll, 

75 

Crockets, Gothic, 297, 301, 303, 305 
Crown of Charlemagne, 224, 227 
Curvilinear Tracery, 346, 360 
Cusping, 295, 342 

Cuttlefish in Pre-Hellenic Art, 78, 79 
Cypress, in Byzantine Art, 217 
Cypriote: Lotus and Palmette, 83, 

84; Ornament, 83 
Cyprus, 77 



D 



DALMATIA, 107, 170, 213 

"Decorated" Style, 283, 289, 360 

Decorative Carving: see Carved Or- 
nament 

Decorative Painting: Anglo-Norman, 
269; English Gothic, 364; French 
Gothic, 349; French Romanesque, 
263; Italian Gothic, 384; Pom- 
peiian, 177; Roman, 162 

Decorative System: of Italian Gothic 
Style, 377; of Roman Architecture, 
133 

Definition of Terms in Ornament, 3 

Delos, Apollo Temple, 124 

Developed Period in Gothic O., 293, 
295 

Didyme, 114, 115, 122, 124 

Dipylon Pottery, 102, 103 

Doge's Palace, Venice, 385 

Doghanlou, Tomb at, 66 

Doric Order: Greek, 92, 112, 113, 117, 
140, 147; Pompeiian, 172; Roman, 
140, 147 

Doric Style and Temples, 92 

Dorpfeld, Theory of Doric Order, 92 

Drip Moldings, English, 359 

Duomo of Florence, 379, 383, 384 

Durham Cathedral, 267 



E 



EARLY Chaldean Art, 56 
Early Christian: Architectural orna- 
ment, 192; Ceilings, 201; Church 



Furniture, 198; Floors, 194; Mo- 
saic, 196; Ornament in General, 187 
sq.; Sepulchral Art, 188 

Early French Style, 283, 284, 331 

E. B. Tylor, 61 

Egg-and-Dart in Greek Ornament, 
107, 108 

Egypt: Influence of Climate, 33; 
Land and People, 31 ; Materials, 34 

Egyptian Art, Periods, 34 

Egyptian Ornament: Architectural, 
38, 49, 50-52, 54; Columns and 
Piers, 49, 50, 51, 52; Frets, 48; 
Furniture, 54; General Survey, 36, 
38; Industrial Arts, 52; Jewelry, 
49; Lotus (see Lotus); Pottery, 
34, 53; Prehistoric, 35; Rosettes, 
46; Sources and Motives, 37; Swas- 
tika, 48; Trilobe Lotus, 41, 42, 60, 
78 

Elements of Latin Ornament, 193 

Eleusis, 115, 122, 123 

Ely Cathedral, 269 

England, 255, 282, 285, 286, 287, 290, 
293, 294, 305, 315, 320, 326, 360 

English Gothic: Carving, 354; Dec- 
orative Painting, 364; Drip Mold- 
ings, 359; Foliage, 354; Figure 
Sculpture, 356; General Character, 
353; Influence on French Tracery, 
341, 346, 360; Moldings, 356, 358; 
Tracery, 360; Woodwork, 361 

English Romanesque (See Anglo- 
Norman). 

Epidauros, Tholos of, 121, 122 

Erechtheion, 118, 120, 122 

Esslingen, 370 

Etruscan Ornament, 129 



FAUSTINA, Temple of, 141 
Feathers, in Egyptian Ornament, 45 
Ferentino, 239 

Fergusson, on Stained Glass, 346 
Fetishism, Animism, Totemism, 21 
Figure Sculpture: English Gothic, 
356; French Gothic, 337; French 



398 



INDEX 



Romanesque, 262; Gothic in Gen- 
eral, 307; Roman, 156 

Fiji Islands, 26 

Finials, Gothic, 297 

Flamboyant Period, 253, 283, 331, 
336, 360; Tracery, 294, 342, 360 

Flanders, 320, 326 

Flinders Petrie, 40 note, 44, 49 note 

Florence, 240, 379, 380, 384, 385; Bap- 
tistery of, 243; Campanile, 239, 
379; Duomo, 379, 383, 384; Or San 
Michele, 383; Santa Maria Novella, 
387 

Florid Period in Gothic O., 284, 288, 
289, 296, 297 

"Flowing" Tracery, 346, 360 

Foliage: English Gothic, 354; French 
Gothic, 332; Gothic in General, 303 

Fonts, Anglo-Norman, 270 

France, 249, 282, 283, 284, 288, 289, 
294, 296, 303, 315, 316, 320, 326, 
360, 362, 364, 388 

Freiburg Cathedral, 311, 370 

French Gothic Ornament: Carving, 
332; Figure Sculpture, 337; Foli- 
age, 332, Moldings, 333; Painted 
Decoration, 349; Rose Windows, 
294, 341, 342, 345; Stained Glass, 
326, 346; Tracery, 338 

French Influence in Spanish Roman- 
esque O., 276 

French Romanesque Ornament : 
Arches, 255 ; Carving of Bands and 
Panels, 250; Classic Influence in, 
249, 255; Corbel Tables, 262; Door- 
ways, 258; Figure Sculpture, 262; 
General Character, 249; Moldings, 
257; Ornaments, 261; Painted 
Decoration, 263 

Fresco, in Pompeiian Art, 177 

Fret or Meander: Egyptian, 48; 
Greek, 97, 98, 103 

Friendly Islands, 25 

Frigate Bird, 26 

Furniture: Egyptian, 54; Pompeiian, 
185 

Furniture, Ecclesiastical (see Church 
Furniture) 



G 

GADDI, 379, 384 

Gargoyles, Gothic, 301 

Gates: of Balawat, 64; of Ishtar at 
Babylon, 64; Lion Gate at My- 
cenae, 77 

Gelathi, Armenia, 232 

General Character of: Byzantine O., 
207; Egyptian O., 38; 'French Ro- 
manesque, O., 249 ; Greek O., 93 

General Survey of Egyptian O., 36 

Geometric or Dipylon Pottery, 102, 
103 

Geometric Motives: in Egyptian O., 
45; in Greek O., 96, 97 

Geometric Tracery, 360 

Georgian Byzantine Carving, 232 

German: Branch Tracery, 370; 
Gothic Moldings, 366; Gothic Or- 
nament, General, 366; Minor Arts, 
375; Moldings, 370; MSS., 375; Ro- 
manesque O., 273; Spires, 285; 
Stained Glass, 275, 372; Tracery, 
369 

Germany, 237, 256, 273, 279, 283, 285, 
295, 297, 306, 315, 316, 320, 326, 
329, 388 

Gernrode, 274 

Giotto, 239, 379, 384 

Gloucester Cathedral: Candlestick, 
271 ; Cloisters, 363 

Golden House of Nero, 161, 162 

Goodyear, W. H., 41, 43 note, 44, 49 
note, 51 note, 59 note, 107 note 

Gothic: Architecture Defined, 282; 
Architectural Periods, 283; Balus- 
trades, 296; Bases, 286, 287; Capi- 
tals, 283, 286, 332; Carving, 303, 
332; Crestings, 298; Crockets, 297, 
301, 303; Cusping, 295, 342; Dec- 
orative Painting, 349, 369, 384; 
Figure Sculpture, 307, 337, 356; 
Finials, 297; Foliage, 303, 332; 
Gargoyles, 301; Minor Architec- 
ture, 311; Metal Work, 316; Mold- 
ings, 288; MSS. Decoration, 320; 
Piers, Shafts and Columns, 285; 
Pinnacles, 297; Stained Glass, 324, 



399 



INDEX 



564; Structural Ornament, 324; 
Tabernacles, 298; Textiles, 319; 
Tiles, 319; Tracery, 293, 282, 283, 
293, 338-346, 360-361, 374, 380; 
Vaulting, 289, 361, 374; Wood- 
work, 812, 357, 373 

Gothic Schools and Styles (see under 
separate titles) 

Greco-Roman Art, 93, 124 

Greek: Acanthus, 98, 120; Anthe- 
mion, 104, 118, 119; Architectural 
Ceramics, 109; Architectural Dec- 
oration, 110; Art Periods, 91; 
Carved Details, 116; Conquest by 
Rome, 124, 132; Corinthian Order, 
114, 121, 144; Doric Order, 112, 
113, 117, 140, 147; Doric Style, 92; 
Geometric Motives, 96; Griffins, 
Grotesques, 124; Guilloche, 98, 
107; Ionic Order, 113, 117, 140; 
Moldings, 109, 111, 115; Nature 
Forms, 96, 97; Ornament, General 
Characteristics of, 93; Ornament, 
Introductory, 88; Ornament, Mo- 
tives of, 96, 97; Ornament, Related 
to Roman, 124; Painted Details, 
Polychromy, 115; People, 88; Pot- 
tery, Changes in style of, 100; Pot- 
tery, Decoration of, 99-109; Pot- 
tery, Geometric or Dipylon, 102, 
103; Pottery, Types and Forms of, 
102; Rinceau, 98, 108, 122; Stele 
Heads, 119; Style History, 112 

Greek Wave or Spiral Scroll: in 
Egyptian O., 46; in Greek O., 104 

Griffins: Assyrian, 63; Greek, 124 

Grimani Breviary, 323 

Grisaille, 325 

Grotesques: Anglo-Norman, 268; 
French Gothic, 338; Greek, 124; 
Pompeiian, 185; Roman, 157; Ro- 
manesque, 245 

Guilloche: Assyrian, 59; Byzantine, 
218; Early Christian, 199; Greek, 
98, 107 

H 



HADDOX, A. C., 26 



Hagia Sophia, 209, 210, 212, 220, 221, 
222, 225 

Hagia Triada, Crete, 73, 74 

Hammer Beam Ceilings, 363 

Hathor Head in Egyptian O., 44, 50 

Hawaiian Islands, 26 

Heilsbronn, 274, 279 

Henry VII's Chapel, Westminster, 
363 

Herculanum, 183 

Hildesheim: Candlestick, 279; Trea- 
sure, 167 

Historic Styles, Survey, 10 

History, meaning of, 8 

Holmes, W. H., 28 

House: of the Faun, Pompeii, 182, 
183; Golden, of Nero, 161, 162; of 
Livia, Rome, 171; of the Painted 
Capitals, Pompeii, 173; of Queen 
Margherita, of the Vettii, Pompeii, 
174 



IALYSSOS, Rhodes, 79, 86 

Iffley Church, 269 

Ile-de-France, 251, 252 

Imbrications: Assyrian, 59; Egyp- 
tian, 45; French Romanesque, 261; 
Greek, 107 

Impost Blocks, Byzantine, 209 

Indians: American, 28; of Central 
Brazil, 21 

Industrial Ornament: Defined, 7; 
Egyptian, 52 

Intarsia, 387 

Interlace: Byzantine, 221, 272; Celtic, 
221, 271, 272, 377, 278; Scandina- 
vian, 277 

Introduction to Greek Ornament, 88 

Ionic Order: Greek, 113, 140; Pom- 
peiian, 171, 172; Roman, 140 

Irish Art, 271, 274, 278; also see 
Celtic 

Islands: Fiji, 26; Friendly, 26; 
Hawaiian, 26; South Sea, 25; 
Samoan, 26 

Italian Gothic: Architectural De- 
tails, 380; Decorative Painting, 



400 



INDEX 



384; The System, 377; Tracery, 
380, 385; Wood and Metal, 387 : 

Italian Romanesque: Carving, 240; 
Cosmati Work in, 239; General, 
238; Grotesques, 245; Inlay and 
Striping, 240; Lombard Style, 244; 
MSS., 249; Siculo-Arabic Style, 
243; Wheel Windows, 249 

Italy, 234, 245, 303, 316, 319, 320, 
326, 329, 388 

Ivory Carving, Byzantine, 224 

Ivory Throne of Maximian, 224 



"JACHIN and Boaz," 82 
Java, War Drum Head, 26 
Jean Fouquet, 323 
Jerusalem, 82, 85 
"Jesse Tree" Windows, 325 

K 

KAHRIE Mosque (Mone tes Choras 

Church), 222 
Kameiros, Rhodes, 86 
Karnak, Hypostyle Hall, 43 
Kelat Seman, Syria, 232 
Knossos, Crete, 73, 74, 75 



LABEL or Drip Moldings, English, 359 

Lancet Style, 283 

Leading Characteristics of Byzan- 
tine Ornament, 207 

Lichfield Cathedral, 301, 311 

Liernes, 290, 362 

Limoges Enamels, 224, 264 

Lincoln Cathedral: Angel Choir, 311, 
357; Circular Windows, 361 

Lion Gate, Mycenae, 77 

Living Forms in Assyrian Ornament, 
63 

Loggie of Vatican, 162 

Lombard Doorways, 258 

Lombard Style, 238; Influence of, 
218, 258 



Lombards, The, 244 

Lombardy, 246 

Lotiform Motive, Greek, 106 

Lotus: Assyrian, 58, 59; Egyptian. 

40-42, 58, 60, 69, 83, 84, 98, 104; 

Trilobe Lotus, 41, 42, 60, 78 
Louviers, Church of St. Pierre, 345 
Lucca, 239; San Guisto at, 240; San 

Martino at, 383 
Lycian Architecture, 69 
Lydia, 65 
Lysicrates, Choragic Monument of, 

114, 121, 123, 124 



M 



MAESTRI Comacini, 245, 303 

Maison Carree, Nimes, 144 

Mandorla Door, Florence Cathedral, 
384 

Mangaian Ornament, 21 

Manuscript Illumination, 219, 227, 
232, 277, 320 

Martorana, La, at Palermo, 243 

Maximian, Ivory Throne of, 224 

Meaning of History of Ornament, 8 

Meaux, Cathedral, 342 

Medallion Windows, 325 

Melos, Melian Pottery and O., 74, 86, 
99 

Metal Work, Gothic, 316 

Method of this History, 15 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, N. Y., 
vii, 85, 131, 178 note 

Mexican Pottery, 27 

Milan Cathedral, 279, 383 

Miletus, 114, 122, 123 

Minor Architecture, Gothic, 311 

Minor Arts, German, 373 

Modillion, The Roman, 144 

Moissac, 252 

Mokheta, Georgia, 232 

Molaise Gospels, 272 

Molding Ornaments, Gothic, 289, 358 

Moldings: Anglo-Norman, 267; By- 
zantine, 215; Drip or Label, 359; 
Egyptian Torus, 49, 50; English 
Gothic, 358; French Gothic, 288, 



401 



INDEX 



333; French Romanesque, 257; 
German Gothic, 306; Greek, 109, 
111, 115; Roman, 139, 153 

Molfetta, 388 

Monasterboice, Ireland, 272 

Mone tes Choras (Kahrie' Mosque), 
222 

Monreale, 200, 201, 239, 243, 244 

Monument of Lysicrates, 114, 121, 
123, 124 

Mosaic: Byzantine, 220; Chaldean at 
Warka, 57; Early Christian, 196; 
Italian Gothic, 380; Pompeiian, 
181; Roman, 162 

Motives in Ornament: Assyrian, 57- 
59; Denned, 3; Egyptian, 37, 45; 
Greek, 96-98 

Mudejar Style, 374 

Mural Painting: Italian, 384; Pom- 
peiian, 173; Roman, 162 

Museums: American of Natural His- 
tory, 28 note; of Capitol, Rome, 
167; Metropolitan at New York, 
vii, 85, 131, 178 note; of Naples, 
164, 167, 174, 182, 183; of Toulouse, 
252; of Trocade>o, Paris, 264, 342; 
of Vatican, 167, 186 

Mycenae, 74, 77, 92 

Mycenaean: Buttons, 79; Ornament, 
77; Spirals, 82 

Myth-making Faculty in Savages, 25 



N 



NAPLES, Museum of, 164, 167, 174, 
182, 185 

Nature Forms: in Egyptian O., 40; 
in Greek O., 96, 97; in Myce- 
naean O., 79 

Neandreia, Capital from, 66 

New Guinea, Art of, 25, 27 

New Zealand: Art of, 24, 25; Maori 
Flute from, 26; Tiki-Tiki Pattern, 
26 (see also Mangaian) 

Nippur (Niffer), 57 

Nithhoggr, 272 

Norman (see Anglo-Norman) 

Normandy, 251, 257 



Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, 326, 

341,342 

Notre Dame Church, Poitiers, 257 
Nuremberg, Churches at, 369, 370 



OPPEKHEIM, St. Catherine's at, 369 

Opus Alexandrinum, 158, 193, 199, 
239; Grecanicum, 181, 196; Sectile, 
193, 199 

Orcagna, 385 

Orchomenos, 79 

Orders of Architecture: Composite, 
140; Corinthian, 114, 121, 122, 14], 
142, 144; Doric, 92, 112, 113, 117, 
140, 147, 172; Ionic, 113, 140, 171, 
172; Tuscan, 140 

Origins of Ornament, 30 

Ormidia, Vase from, 86 

Ornament: Classifications of, 4; De- 
fined, 3; Origins of, 20 (and see 
Table of Contents) 

Orvieto, 378 



PAINTED Decoration (see Decorative 
Painting) 

Painting, Mural (see Mural Paint- 
ing) 

Pala d'Oro, 223, 279 

Palace of Diocletian, Spalato, 208 

Palatine Chapel, Aachen, 369 

Palazzo Pubblico, Sienna, 387 

Palermo,. 243 

Palestine, 213 

Palm Tree in Assyrian O., 61 

Pahnette: Assyrian, 61; Cypriote, 
83; Egyptian, 48; Greek, 104; Per- 
sian, 69; Phenician, 82, 83 

Pantheon at Rome, 140, 155, 158, 163 

Papuan Art, 21, 25, 27 

Papyrus in Egyptian O., 43, 51, 52 

Parenzo, 216 

Paris, 326, 331, 341, 342, 350 

Parthenon, 115, 119, 124 

Pasargadae, 67 



402 



INDEX 



Pattern Defined, 3 

Pavements, Decorative (Floors): in 
Baptistery, Florence, 243; Byzan- 
tine, 208; Pompeiian, 181; Roman, 
162; Romanesque, 265 

Periods: in Egyptian Art, 34; in 
Gothic Styles, 283, 331; in Greek 
Art, 91; in Pompeiian Art, 174 

Perpendicular Style, 244, 283, 289, 
296, 306, 346, 360, 361 

Persian: Architectural O., 67; Col- 
umns, 68; Ornament Motives, 69; 
Stepped Parapet, 70 

Persistence of Motives, 11 

Peruvian Art, 27 

Peterboro' Cathedral, 269, 363 

Phaistos, Crete, 73, 74 

Phenician Ornament, 79, 82, 83 

Phigalaea (Bassae) Apollo Temple, 
120 

Phrygia, 65, 68 

Piers: Egyptian, 49, 51, 52; Gothic, 
285 

Pine Cone in Assyrian Ornament, 59 

Pinnacles in Gothic Architecture, 297 

Pisa, 238, 239, 240, 257; Baptistery, 
240 

Pistoia, 239 

Plant Forms: in Egyptian Ornament, 
43; in Mycenaean O., 79; in Gothic 
O. (see Foliage) 

Plastic Ornament Defined, 5 

Plate Tracery, 293, 360 

Poitiers, Notre Dame at, 257; Ste. 
Radgonde, 264 

Polychromy: Greek, 109, 111; Italian, 
378, 379, 384 

Polynesian Ornament, 25 

Pomegranate in Assyrian O., 59 

Pompeii, 125, 130, 162, 163, 164 

Pompeiian: Architectural Detail, 
172; Decorative Art, 170; Furni- 
ture and Utensils, 183; Mosaic, 
181; Mural Decoration, 173; 
Periods in Mural Decoration, 174; 
Stucco Relief, 178 

Pomposa, Santa Maria, 220 

"Portal Guardians," Assyrian, 62 



Portugal, 283 

Pottery: American, 27, 28; Apulian, 

99, 100, 106, 244; Bolivian, 28; 

Cretan, 75; Egyptian, 34, 53; 

Greek, 99; Melian, 74, 86, 99; 

Mexican, 27; Peruvian, Pueblo, 27, 

28; South American, 28; Zuni, 27 
Pottery Decoration, Greek, 99-109 
"Powdered" Ornament Defined, 5 
Prehistoric and Primitive Ornament, 

12 

Prehistoric Egyptian Ornament, 35 
Priene, 122 

Primitive American Ornament, 27 
Provence, 249, 251, 252, 255, 262 
Pueblo Pottery, 27 

Q 

QUAERY Defined, 5 



R 



RATISBON (Regensburg) Cathedral, 
370 

Ravenna, 206, 210, 211, 220, 223, 224, 
238 

Rayonnant Style, 283, 331, 332, 341, 
342 

Reims Cathedral, 262, 278, 279, 280, 
326, 335, 338, 341 

Rhine Provinces, 273 

Rhodes, 77, 86, 99 

Rinceau: Byzantine, 217; French 
Romanesque, 255, 256; French 
Gothic, 337; Greek, 98, 108, 123; 
Pompeiian, 177; Roman, 153-155 

Roman: Acanthus, 152; Anthemion, 
155, 156; Architectural Features, 
136; Carved O., 138, 149 sq.; Ceil- 
ing Decoration, 155; 156; Con- 
quests of Greece, 93, 124, 132; 
Conventional O., 138; Decorative 
System, 133; Figure Sculpture, 
156; Floor-Pavements, 162; Fur- 
niture and Utensils, 164; Gro- 
tesques, 157; Moldings, 139, 153; 
Mural Painting, 162; Orders of 



403 



INDEX 



Architecture, 140, 144, 147; Ilin- 
ceau, 153-155; Stucco Relief, 158, 
178; Wall Decoration, 158, 162 

Roman Genius, The, 127 

Romanesque, English (see Anglo- 
Norman) 

Romanesque, French (see French 
Romanesque) 

Romanesque, German (see German 
Romanesque) 

Romanesque Metal Work, 279 

Romanesque Ornament: Italian in 
General, 238; Lombard, 244; Tus- 
can, 239; Scandinavian, 277; Span- 
ish, 276 

Romanesque Period, The, 234 

Rose Windows: English, 361; 
French Gothic, 341, 342, 345, 361 

Rosettes: Assyrian, 61; Cretan, 80; 
Egyptian, 46; Gothic (Vaulting 
Bosses), 290; Greek, 98; Myce- 
naean, 78; Persian, 69; Roman, 
142, 143, 153 

Rosheim, Alsace, 274 

Rouen: Cathedral, 261, 345; St. 
Maclou, St. Ouen, 345 

Rouheiha, Syria, 231, 232 

Russian Byzantine Ornament, 232 



S 



SACRED Tree, Assyrian, 36, 60, 84 

Sakkarah, Tombs at, 46 

Sainte Chapelle, Paris, 326, 341, 345, 
350 

Salamanca, 276 

Salisbury Cathedral, 329 

Salonica, 210 

Samoan Islands, 26 

San Andrea, Vercelli, 384 

San Apollinare Churches at Ra- 
venna, 198, 220, 223, 225 

San Francesco, Assisi, 384 

San Lorenzo fuori, Rome, 200 

San Marco, Rome, 195, 198 

San Martino, Lucca, 383 

San Paolo (see St. Paul) 

San Miniato, 201, 240, 243 



San Stefano, Bologna, 240 
San Vitale, Ravenna^ 211, 220 
Sant' Anastasia, Verona, 384 
Santa Costanza, Rome, 202 
Santa Maria in Ara Coeli, Rome, 
200 

" " Maggiore, Rome, 193, 
201 

" " Novella, Florence, 387 
" Pomposa, 220 

" " in Trastevere, Rome, 

195, 196 

Santa Prassede, Rome, 198 
Santa Sabina, Rome, 195 
Sardis, 66 
Savage Ornament, Characteristics 

of, 25, 29 
Saxony, 273 
Scaligers, Tombs of the, 382 (ill'n) ; 

383, 388 

Scandinavian Ornament, 277 
Scarabaeus in Egyptian Ornament, 

44, 54 

Sicily, 238, 239, 243, 319 
Siculo-Arabic Style, 238, 239, 243 
Sidon Sarcophagi, 123, 124 
Sienna, 238, 384, 387; Cathedral, 378 
Significance of Classifications, 7 
Six Propositions on History of O., 

13 

Solomon's Temple, 82 
Sources and Motives of Egyptian O., 

37 

South Sea Islands, 25 
Southwark, St. Saviour's, 357 
Southwell Chapter House, 289, 306 
Spain, 283, 293, 311, 319, 320, 329, 

398 
Spalato in Dalmatia, 137, 207, 208, 

209, 213 
Spanish: Chapel of Santa Maria 

Novella, Florence, 387; Gothic 

Ornament, 373 ; Romanesque 

Style, 276 

Sphinx in Egyptian Art, 45 
Spirals: JEgean and Pre-Hellenic, 

78, 82; Egyptian, 46; Greek, 98; 

in Savage Ornament, 28, 30 



404 



INDEX 



St. Ceneri, 264 

St. Denis, 255, 325, 341 

St. Gilles, near Aries, 255, 307 

St. John Lateran, Rome, 198, 200 

St. Maclou, Rouen, 345 

St. Mark's, Venice, 195, 207, 212, 

223, 224, 279 
St. Omer, Cathedral, 265 
SI. Ouen, Rouen, 345 
St. Paul without the Walls (San 

Paolo fuori le Mura), Rome, 198, 

200 

St. Paul-Trois-Chateaux, 250 
St. Pierre, Louviers, 345 
St. Saviour's, Southwark, 357 
St. Trophime, Aries, 262 
St. Urbain, Troyes, 336, 342 
Stained Glass, 320, 324; English, 

366; French, 346; German, 370 
Ste. Radegonde, Poitiers, 264 
Stepped Parapet: Assyrian, 59; 

Persian, 70 
Strassburg, Cathedral, 311, 329, 369, 

370 
Structural Ornament: Denned, 7; 

Gothic, 283 
Stucco Relief: Pompeiian, 178; 

Roman, 158, 178 
Styles: "Biology" of, 11; Historic, 

10; Summary of Sequence of, 15; 

Value of Study of, 14 
Summary: of Characteristics of 

Savage Ornament, 29; of Sequence 

of Styles, 15 
Sun Disk on Egyptian Buildings, 

44 

Susa, 64, 67, 68 
Swastika: in Cypriote Ornament, 

84, 85, 86; in Egyptian O., 48; in 

Greek O., 98; in Pompeiian 

Mosaics, 181; in Roman O., 164 
Syria, 206, 210, 213, 229 
Syrian Christian Ornament, 229 
System: of Italian Gothic Orna- 
ment, 377; Roman Decorative, 133 



TALENTI, Architect of Campanile, 379 



Tarragona, 276 

Technic Theory of Origins of Orna- 
ment, 22 

Tegernsee, Earliest Stained Glass, 
324 note 

Temples: of Apollo at Didyme, 114, 
115, 122, 124; of Apollo at Phi- 
galaea (Bassae), 120; of Castor and 
Pollux, Rome, 140; of Egypt, 43, 
51; of Erechtheion, Athens, 118, 
120, 122; of Faustina, Rome, 
140; of Parthenon, Athens, 115, 
119, 124; of Zeus, Athens, 121 

Textile Ornament: Byzantine, 227; 
Gothic, 319 

Theories of Origins of Ornament, 
20, 22 

Tholos: of Atreus, Mycenae, 77; of 
Epidauros, 121, 122 

Throne of Maximian, 224 

Tiercerons, 290, 361 

Tiles: Chaldean and Assyrian, 57, 
63; Romanesque, 265; Gothic, 319 

Tiryns, 74, 75, 77, 78, 92 

Titus: Arch of, 136, 156; Baths of, 
161 

Tombs; of Abbot of Aubazine (ill.), 
309; at Doghanlou, 66; of Galla 
Placidia, Ravenna, 223; "of 
Midas," 65, 66, 68; Persian, 67; 
at Sakkarah, 46; of Scaligers, 
Verona, 383, 388; on Via Latina, 
161 

Toscanella, Churches at,, 249 

Totemism, 21 

Totem Poles, Alaskan, 22 

Totems, New Zealand Female, 24 

Toulouse, Capitals in Museum of, 

252 

Tourmanin, Syria, 231, 232 
Tours Cathedral, 326, 345 
Tracery, Gothic Window: English, 
360; French, 338; German, 369; 
Italian, 380, 383; Spanish, 374 
Trilobe Lotus, 41, 42, 60, 78 
Triptych in Amiens Library, 338 
Trocade>o Museum, Paris, 264, 342 
Troja, 243, 249 



405 



INDEX 



Troy, 74, 75, 77 

Troyes: Cathedral, 334; St. Urbain 

at, 334, 342 
Tudor Rose, 306 
Tuscan Order, 140 
Tuscan Romanesque Style, 239 



ULM, Minster at, 370 
Uraeus (Adder) in Egyptian Orna- 
ment, 44 



VALUE of Study of Styles, 14 
Variety in Roman Orders, 144 
Vatican Museum, 167, 186 
Vaulting: English Gothic, 285, 361; 

German, 293; Gothic in General, 

289 

Vaults and Ceilings, English, 361 
Venice, 207, 210, 219, 223, 380, 383; 

Doge's Palace at, 383; St. Mark's 

at, 195, 207, 223, 231, 238, 282; 

Tracery, 380, 383 
Vercelli, San Andrea at, 384 
Verona, 244, 391, 392 
Vignola's Rules for the Orders, 144 
Vine in Byzantine Ornament, 106; 

in Greek O., 106 
Viollet-le-Duc, 303; His Restoration 

of Chapels in Notre Dame, 350 
Vitruvius, 144 



W 

WALL Decoration: Byzantine, 219; 

Pompeiian, 173; Roman, 158, 162 
Wall and Gable Tracery, 295 
Wall Mosaic at Warka, 57 
Ware, W. R., 211 note 
Warka (Erech), 57 
Wells Cathedral, 305, 311, 356, 360 
Westminster: Abbey, 361; Hall. 

364; Henry VII's Chapel, 363 
Wheel Windows: French, 294; 

Italian, 249 
Winchester: Cathedral, 357, 362; St. 

Cross at, 269 
Window Tracery (see Tracery, 

Gothic Window) 
Wood Carvings, Gothic, 312 
Wood and Metal in Italian Gothic 

Art, 387 
Woodwork, English, 357, 363 



YGODRASIL, 272 

York Cathedral, 326, 329, 364 



ZAMOHRA, 276 

Zigzags: Anglo-Norman, 267; Egyp- 
tian, 45; French, 261; German, 
274; Savage, 24, 30 

Zufii Pottery, 27 



406 






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