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-OF THE 



PHILOSOPHYSEPEDAGOGICS 



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HISTORY 



OF THE- 



PHILOSOPHY OF PEDAGOGICS 



BY 



CHARLES WESLEY BEMETT, LL.D. 

LATE PROFESSOR OF HISTORIC THEOLOGY IN 
GARRETT BIBLICAL INSTITUTE 




UNIVERSITY 



SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

C. W. BARDEEN, PUBLISHER 

1893 



Copyright, 1893, by C. W. BARDEEN 




fw. BAROEEN, SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

\o3 



PKEFACE 



In the following brief sketch I have used 
whatever material and sources were to me 
available. I have not hesitated often to use 
the exact language of an author when this 
clearly expressed my meaning. If I have 
not, by proper marks, always indicated this 
my indebtedness, it will be excused in an 
essay of this character, laying no claim 
whatever to originality. I have been most 
indebted to the masterly treatises of von Kau- 
mer, Schmidt and Goldammer, and I desire 
to recommend most heartily these authors 
as thorough and exhaustive. 




History of the Philosophy of Pedagogics 



INTKODUCTION 

The subject is a most difficult one, as 
will appear from an analysis. 

1. History means primarily " inquiry," 
"investigation," and then is applied to 
the results of this inquiry and investigation. 
Perhaps Cousin's definition may be good 
enough. "History is a complete and sys- 
tematically arranged account of the succes- 
sive and simultaneous developments of all 
the elements that constitute humanity." 
["Introduction to Study of Philosophy," 
p. 7.] 

2. Philosophy may be variously defined, 
but there is in all these diverse definitions a 
germinal unity. It has been called the 
" Science of Principles," " The explanation 
of the reason of things," " A collection of 
general laws under which all subordinate 



8 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

phenomena are comprehended." "The 
study of universal and necessary principles 
considered under their different aspects, and 
in the great problems which they solve, is 
almost the whole of philosophy it fills it, 
measures it, divides it." [Cousin, "Free, 
Beautiful and Good." Sect. I, p. 50.] 
" Philosophy is reflection, elevated to the 
rank and authority of method." 

3. Pedagogics is the science and art of so 
developing, by means of conscious influence 
on the physical, intellectual, and moral 
powers of man, the ideas of truth, freedom, 
and love that lie at the foundation of his 
god-derived nature, that he can meet spon- 
taneously, and independently, his human 
responsibilities." (Schmidt, " Gesch. d. 
Erziehung," p. 1.) 

We are, then, assigned the following task 
"to give a complete and systematically ar- 
ranged account of the general and necessary 
principles and laws by which there has been 
developed, by a conscious influence on the 
physical, intellectual and moral powers of 
the unfolding man, those ideas of truth, 
freedom and love that lie at the foundation 
of his god-derived nature, so that he can 



THE REFORMERS AS EDUCATORS 9 

spontaneously and independently meet hu- 
man responsibilities." 

You will immediately perceive that the 
field is too vast even for the most cursory 
examination within the time allotted to us. 
I have, after .considerable reflection, con- 
cluded to pass by the history of the nations 
of antiquity, to omit all examination of the 
educational theories of the Christian Fathers 
in the Eomish and Byzantine Churches, as 
well as the struggles of mediaeval times, 
marvellous as they were,, and briefly touch 
upon some of the most important and in- 
fluential systems that have appeared in the 
Post-Eeformation period. 

I. THE REFORMERS AS EDUCATORS 

A revolution in thought and life so radi- 
cal and far-reaching as that of the Reforma- 
tion of the 16th Century, could not leave 
the great subject of educational methods 
unexamined. The contrasts between the me- 
diaeval or church spirit, and the spirit of 
the new era, were sharp and irreconcilable. 

1. It was the subjective vs. the objective. 

2. It was the life of man in G-od and the life 



10 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

of God in man as the original revelation, vs. 
the binding power of external authority. 

3. It was the fullest freedom of faith and 
knowledge, vs. traditional creeds. 

4. It was the authority of conscience, vs. 
the authority of the Church or anything 
else whatsoever. 

Justin's principle was accepted by the 
new era " Christ is the eternal reason, with 
which the whole human race may become 
participant, and they are Christians who 
live according to this eternal reason." Prot- 
estantism saw that the schools were the 
training places for the callings of life so 
that not one class or calling whether ruler, 
or clergy, or knight but all alike should 
here be prepared for life's duties. The in- 
violability of the individual carried with it 
the duty of arousing the people to a sense of 
their responsibility to God and the State. 

So the contrast of the Pre-Eeformation 
school idea to the Eeform idea is sharp. 
The medieval and Catholic idea was that 
education must be special the Latin schools 
to educate the clergy and government of- 
ficials the schools of arithmetic and writ- 
ing for business men the girls' schools to 



THE KEFORMERS AS EDUCATORS 11 

educate the wives, etc., etc. The peculiar 
product and property of Protestantism was 
education for man AS man as a creature 
endowed with power and awful responsibil- 
ity. " The primary school of the Reformers 
was based on the idea that each one was to 
be his own priest, and that each was to per- 
fect in himself this salvation to which he 
was called ; and, therefore, that each should 
walk in immediate relation to God and the 
truth. 

The translation of the Bible into the ver- 
nacular and its wide diffusion, worked won- 
ders among the people in Germany and 
England. Erasmus, Luther, Melanchthon, 

Calvin, Zwinglius 
and all the reform- 
ers had a keen ap- 
preciation of the 
I duty of care for 
[the young. Luth- 
er regarded this 
as the noblest 
work in which 

man could engage, 
ERASMUS. 

and thought that 

Christianity could be powerful only as it 




12 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

scrupulously provides for the education of 
the children. His theory is " God sustains 
the church through the schools they are 
the fountains the seed of the church." 
" And just as government compels the sub- 
jects in case of war to bear the sword or 
knapsack^ so much more ought it to compel 
subjects to educate their children/' In the 
order of excellence of subjects Luther ranks 
religion first and uppermost next he es- 
teems language most valuable. With lan- 
guage the exact sciences are not to be 
neglected. He ranks history very high 
logic is less prized, since it gives no new 
capacity, as he thought. Rhetoric, gym- 
nastics, and music were invaluable. 

The high promises of the Reformers were 
not however to be realized. The fatal error 
they committed was in attempting to make 
the schools aids to advance their peculiar 
religious tenets, and in regarding instruc- 
tion in Christianity as the chief end and 
duty of the schools. They knew not how 
to tolerate purely secular learning. The 
spirit of the reformation was well nigh 
quenched in a war of dogmatic formulas, 
and by the mutual hate and jealousy of par- 



ABSTRACT THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION" 13 

ties whose real interest was mainly in a set- 
tled harmony. Scholasticism again revived, 
and we have the second stage, that of ab- 
stract theological education. 

II. ABSTRACT THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION 

This reached from the middle of the 16th 
to the 18th Century. This period is marked 
by the prominence of theologic and philosoph- 
ic studies to the exclusion of what are called 
natural sciences. If the latter were at all 
introduced it was more for practical utility 
than scientific value. Education and in- 
struction under this plan consisted largely 
in loading the memory with mere formulas. 
No opportunity was given for the free exer- 
cise of the powers of reason and imagina- 
tion in any direction that was pleasing, and 
in modes most natural to the individual. 

Melanchthon's celebrated (( Saxon School 
Plan/' that played so important a part in 
Germany and in other European countries, 
proposed : 1. To assemble the pupils morn- 
ing and evening in the church, for hearing 
the Bible and prayers ; at the evening serv- 
ice Latin hymns were to be chanted. 2. 
The Latin language was to be cultivated to 




14 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

the neglect of the vernacular. 3. The mas- 
ter was not to be 
so much a helper 
of the pupils as 
an object of their 
reverence. 4. The 
religious (really 
the sectarian ele- 
ment) was to pre- 
dominate in the 
instruction of all 
MELANCHTHON. thevarioiisclasses 

into which he divided the pupils. 5. The 
memory was to be crowded with the formu- 
las of the church, and with sentences pre- 
pared by the teacher. 

The same order, in all essentials, was fol- 
lowed by Bugenhagen in his " Church order 
for Brunswick " placing all under the over- 
sight of the officials and clergy. Also, this 
was closely imitated in Wittenberg. Re- 
ligion and Latin were the chief subjects of 
instruction. The higher differed from the 
lower in that the higher had reference to 
the preparation for clerical orders, and in- 
troduced logic and rhetoric, and a little 
more freedom was allowed to students for 



ABSTKACT THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION 15 



self-government and independent study. 
While the celebrated William Wolf uttered 
a protest against this system in declaring 
that thought, not religious hair-splitting, 
was a preparation for a pure life ; and love 
to God and man, not the inculcation of 

bigoted dogmas 
the chief ob- 
j ec t of educa- 
tion; and Trotz- 
e n d o r f and 
Sturm claimed 
that teaching 
was a high art 
that needed most 
careful study for 
its successful 
practice, the religious and political strifes 
of the Protestants worked the death of good 
instruction and tended to foster the spirit 
and modes of the Scholastic Philosophy, and 
to dwarf the powers by a discussion of the 
most minute and barren technicalities. The 
school was a place of dread and gloom to 
the pupils the veriest " vale of tears " to 
the youth of this unfortunate period. 




STURM. 



16 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

III. A HOPEFUL REVOLT 

It was to be expected that there would 
come a serious revolt against a system so 
unnatural and barren of results. It came 
from several sources, and worked a new and 
hopeful condition of things. The sources 
of this opposition may be summed thus : 

1. Inside the Romish Church, Jesuitism 
represented reformation of educational 
methods as well as opposition to Protestant- 
ism. 

2. Jansenism represented a still more rad- 
ical reformation in education, as in religion, 
within the Catholic Church. 

3. Pietism represented the protest in the 
Protestant Church against the dead, dry, 
educational methods, as well as against a 
drear religious formalism. 

4. More powerful than all, perhaps, was 
the revolt of Philosophy in the Empiricism 
of Locke, and the Inductive system of Bacon. 

1. Jesuitism 

opposed the freedom of the Reformation 
with its own freedom, which consists in 
the denial of all freedom to the man ; hence 
in the denial of human nature, in the denial 



JESUITISM 17 

of morality, and of Christianity itself. It 
appealed to the ambition and avarice of 
men. With a sharp and vigorous mind, it 
followed out its policy. It used men of 
gifted natures to inculcate its doctrine that 
mankind, like a wild beast, must be tamed, 
in order to be ruled. 

But its outward methods were almost the 
opposite of the Protestant. It substituted 
mildness, ease and grace of manner, and pol- 
ish for harshness, severity and solidity of 
attainments. Latin and poetry were the 
chief studies. To speak Latin and not the 
vernacular was peremptory. Classical stu- 
dies were only useful, however, to improve 
the style, and not, as in Protestantism, a 
mere servant of theology. Mathematics, 
geography, the vernacular, and even music, 
were neglected. 

Obedience to superiors, was the central 
idea of the system. Emulation was among 
the chief motives. Prizes, rewards, dis- 
tinctions, all appealing to this principle, 
were a large part of the machinery of this 
order. Corporal punishment was discoun- 
tenanced, and seldom practised. The high- 
est duty of the teacher was thoroughly to 



18 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

know his pupils. To change natural affec- 
tion into affection for the order, was a con- 
stant aim of effort. 

The instruction of the Jesuits was very 
mechanical leaving small and meager op- 
portunity for the exercise of the powers of 
reason. They cared little for primary 
schools except so far as they might find 
among the masses those who might give 
rich promise of aid and honor to the Order. 

2. Jansenism 

Not less strong, and vastly more salutary, 
was the opposition to the dead scholastic 
orthodoxy of Protestantism and the preten- 
sions of the Eomish Hierarchy that came 
from Pietism and Jansenism. In many 
things they were closely related. They rep- 
resent a true spiritual and religious feeling 
that desired to break through the constraints 
of form, and reach the central essence of 
Christianity. The Jansenists in Holland 
and France, the Puritans and Methodists 
in England and Scotland, and the Pietists 
in Germany and Switzerland, were powerful 
in breaking through the dead methods of 
abstract theologic, as well as the hierarchic 



JANSENISM 19 

systems of education, and infusing a new 
vigor into this most important department 
of labor. 

With its errors, Jansenism, nevertheless, 
manifested a most glowing love for 
young an unselfish surrender of rtse 
the interests of education and the race. 
matters of instruction it developed a method 
simple, rational, and adapted to nature. 
It inculcated the union of a more funda- 
mental study of religion with thorough mas- 
tery of language and philosophy. Porfr 
Eoyal furnished the most thoroughly pre^ 
pared and philosophical text-books of that 
age. Even after the suppression of Port 
Eoyal and the scattering of the Jansenists,. 
its spirit was perpetuated in Fenelon andi 
Kollin, and reached into high places through 
the matchless eloquence of the Court 
Preacher. [See his " de V Education des 
filles," dedicated to the Duchess of Beau- 
villiers.] 

In England we hear the earnest protest of 
the Puritans in the 17th, and of the Meth- 
odists in the 18th century, against the 
formalism in religion and the pedagogical 
methods of the established church. Milton 



20 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

had roused the kingdom by his trumpet 
tones, sounding a better method in educa- 
tion ; the Methodists had shamed the sloth- 
fulness of the establishment by furnishing 
religious instruction to the masses, and 
gathering the neglected children into Sun- 
day schools. In his work on education Mil- 
ton had advocated an equal attention to 
language and to the sciences. He gave a 
plan of instruction far richer in spirit and 
extent than had hitherto been known ar- 
guing for a general culture to the exclu- 
sion of professional studies. 

8. Pietism 

Even more powerful for reform in religion 
and in educational methods were the Piet- 
ists of Germany. Philip Jacob Spener, of 
whom it has been said "the world was not 
worthy/' Count Zinzendorf, and, most of 
all, Augustus Hermann Franke, in Halle, 
brought in a better day for the science of 
Pedagogics. Pietism sent a new vigor 
through the entire school life of Europe. 
It gave rise to better methods ; it created 
normal schools ; it furnished for Germany 
vastly improved text-books ; it brought the 



PIETISM 21 

schools back from the cloister to every-day 
life ; it was the first to conceive of the 
schools as an organic whole, resting at last 
upon primary education. 

The ground principle of Pietism was, 
without genuine piety all knowledge, all 
worldly wisdom, all culture are more hurt- 
ful than useful. Piety comports with every 
lawful position and calling in life. First, 
and foremost, therefore, must education 
strive after and guard itself by a radical 
improvement of the heart. 

The law of the educational method of 
Pietism was a continuous conversation with 
the pupils. Catechism is the very soul of 
instruction. Thus is learning made lighter, 
the intercourse of teacher and pupil becomes 
intimate. Yet this catechetical instruction 
must be conducted so carefully and skilfully 
as to strengthen and not to weaken the in- 
tellectual powers. The education of the 
memory was careful, the understanding was 
vigorously exercised, and i\\e pen was freely 
used with a view to exactness of expression. 

We cannot too highly estimate the bene- 
ficial work of Pietism in the pedagogical 



HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 



methods of Continental Europe. The effects 
reach to our own day. 

4. The Realistic- Philosophic Opposition to 
Scholasticism and to the Rom- 
ish Hierarchy 

It is time to turn to another source of 
opposition to Scholasticism in Pedagogics 
and to the methods of the Roman Hierachy. 
It came from the side of Philosophy. The 
instruction had become dead and forma! 
it yielded no rich and generous fruit. Books, 
mere books, words, terms with no breath 
of life in them. Terms and not things, 
zvords about things, not the things them- 
selves. Princi- 
ples were scarce- 
ly thought of. 

M on t a i g n e 
(1533-1592)', in 
France, and Ba- 
con - (1561-1G26,) 
in England, suc- 
ceeded by Locke 
(1632-1704), 

MONTAIGNE. 

were the great 
revolutionists to overturn the scholastic 




REALISTIC-PHILOSOPHIC OPPOSITION 23 

methods. Montaigne, so early as the middle 
of the 16th century, had become disgusted 
with the fruitlessness of the prevailing sys- 
tems. He said "We may take meat into 
the stomach as long as we please, and it will 
be all in vain unless it is digested and become 
a part of ourselves incorporated into our 
system/' Pedagogues and reformers should 
not speak as from a 'book, but from their 
own thought from an opinion intelligently 
formed by their own investigation. This 
that now seems a truism in pedagogical 
science, was with Montaigne's contempo- 
raries scarcely thought of. He regarded the 
vernacular of more importance than the 
dead languages, or any foreign language. 
This was a revolution, indeed. 

Bacon, the reviver, illustrator, and de- 
fender of Realism, in his "Inductive Phil- 
osophy/' by inviting the mind to leave the 
dead past, to contemplate the living present, 
and to look into living nature with open eyes, 
lays the very foundation of realistic educa- 
tional methods. 

He thus became the real father of all 
Trade-Schools, of Polytechnic Schools, etc., 
etc. 




24 HISTOKY OF PEDAGOGICS 

Locke, by looking into mind itself by 
studying anew its 
nature, its laws 
and its processes, 
bases afterwards 
in his "Thoughts 
on the education 
of Children," his 
entire pedagogi- 
cal views upon his 

philosophy. "A 
LOCKE. , , . 

sound mind in a 

sound body," is the foundation axiom of his 
whole system. Keep the body sound treat 
children as reasonable beings, not as things 
preserve their individuality check their 
selfishness inculcate self-government let 
the restraint come from within, through a 
cultivation of the conscience and will not 
from without, by means of rods and fear. 

Praise and blame are healthful motives 
corporal punishment is an extreme measure. 
Let praise be given in the presence of others, 
that it may not only stimulate the recipient, 
but his fellows as well administer reproof 
and blame to the child alone, lest he may 
lose his self-respect, as well as become a mark 



KEALISTIC-PHILOSOPHIC OPPOSITION 25- 

for the ridicule of his associates. A ground 
or reason for his discipline must ever exist- 
in the mind of the teacher, and this should,. 
as far as possible, be made known to the 
pupil specially by means of examples drawn* 
from history or from analagous cases sup- 
posed. 

Through the entire course of the child's- 
training the desire for knowledge must bo 
fostered. Inquiring children must be en- 
couraged, not chilled by rebuke or neglect. 
Play must be allowed work must be made to 
seem a recreation, not a task. Mere assigned 
tasks are not recommended. No help should 
be furnished by the teacher when there is 
self-help. The child should learn to read 
as soon as he learns to talk, and a foreign 
language must be learned as we learn our 
mother tongue. Latin is early recommend- 
ed. Yet the vernacular was far better than 
all other languages. 

Locke's theory of education is strictly util- 
itarian. A well-trained, well-appointed man* 
of the world was the product. 

In Germany the anti-scholastic methods, 
from a philosophical stand-point, received 
marked attention, and were wonderfully 



26 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

forwarded by such masters of pedagogics as 
Wolfgang Ratichius (1571-1635), John Amos 
Comenius, and others. 

Ratichius exclaims, " Antiquity is played 
out reason is now victorious.'' His princi- 
ples were clearly conceived and thoroughly 
wrought out. They were reduced to a few 
heads as follows : 

1. Everything according to the order and 
course of nature. 

2. One thing at a time, one study at a 
iime, one author only from which to learn a 
language. 

3. One thing oft repeated and deeply im- 
pressed. 

4. The vernacular first and foremost. 

5. No constraint, since this is unnatural. 

6. No more memorizing, since anything 
repeated to the understanding will neces- 
sarily be seized and retained by the memory. 
Hence lectures were repeated often, and no 
questions were asked during the progress of 
the lecture, lest the impression might be im- 
paired by this interruption. 

7. Uniformity in everything, ever pur- 
suing the same method in all stages of edu- 



IlEALISTIC-PHILOSOPHIC OPPOSITION 27 



cation, and in all things pertaining to the 
same stage. 

8. First the thing then the modeofi\\Q 
thing, first the materials and principles^ 
"then the rules. 

9. Everthing through experience, there- 
fore no authority without a reason. 

Katichius's system resulted in practical 
failure, since it degenerated into foolish ex- 
tremes, that defeated the very end he him- 
self had proposed. 

Comenins had great preference for the 

Sciences. H i s 
plan was to rep- 
resent every- 
thing possible to 
the senses. See- 
ing is demonstra- 
tion and believ- 
ing what we 
know must be 
learned. What 
is learned must 
"be treated as present, and estimated accord- 
ing to its uses. What is learned must be 
learned directly, not in a round-about-way, 
it must be learned as it is i. e., according 




COMENIUS. 



28 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

to its causes or origin ; the parts of a sub- 
ject must be understood according to their 
order,, position and connection. 

Everything, therefore, by a natural suc- 
cession,, studying one thing at a time. A 
subject must be continued until thoroughly 
mastered. Differences in pupils must be- 
noted in order that modes may be adapted 
to each. All knowledge should go towards- 
the elevation of the man : indeed, morality 
is vastly more than erudition. 

A school without discipline is like a mill 
without water. This discipline, however,, 
should have more reference to the charac- 
ters of the pupils than to the studies them- 
selves. Yet discipline should not prostrate- 
and discourage, but elevate and advance the- 
pupil. A high sense of honor and duty must 
be awakened, that will lead to a free-will 
service. With some curious and untenable- 
notions, Comenius's system was complete^ 
very thoroughly thought out, expressing 
sound views of human nature and of the 
duties and methods of education, and its in- 
fluence was very widely extended, and very 
lasting in its effects. 



HUMANISM 29 

IV. HUMANISM 

Bat it was not to be expected that the 
Tealistic school would proceed unquestioned 
and unchallenged as to its methods. Indeed, 
this extreme would provoke the opposite, 
as has ever been true in the history of human 
development. So that during the 18th cen- 
tury there is noticed a growing spirit of 
criticism of the pedagogical theories of real- 
Ism, as well as of the partial and excessive re- 
ligious discipline of the Pietists. It gave 
rise to the humanistic school, that taught 
that the goal and purpose of all education is 
to cultivate a purely human sentiment, and 
to awaken in the individual, the idea of 
humanity. 

The sole means necessary to this end, ac- 
cording to this school, was a thorough study 
of classical antiquity, its language, its laws, 
its antiquities. The ancient languages were 
.the sole foundation of all true culture. Greek 
and Latin literature are the sources of all 
,true and genuine erudition, and contain 
accounts of all religions. The Eoman juris- 
prudence embodies the spirit and essence of 
all that is truly valuable in law. The fun- 
-dameutals of medicine are here found, and 



30 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

philosophy, rhetoric, logic, poetry and his- 
tory, all that is valuable or necessary are- 
discussed in these ancient classical writings. 

Therefore, this theory of education con- 
fined the student in all the preparatory 
schools to the study of language, leaving 
what are technically called sciences exclu- 
sively to the University. It found its most 
zealous advocates in Germany, though it 
was widespread in its influence, and has 
largely affected the college curriculum of 
England and America. It gave Germany 
the leadership in Classical Erudition a 
leadership that she has maintained to the 
present hour. Such men as Cellarius, Gesner, 
Ernesti, Heyne, Boeckh, etc., etc., are the 
direct product of this school, or its most 
successful advocates. 

v. DEISM 

It is high time that we turn our thoughts 
to a most remarkable educational phenom- 
enon that appeared in England, France and 
Germany. It was the other extreme of a 
perverted Pietism, and the artificial, stilted, 
social forms that had been imposed on 
France by Louis XIV., and had found their 
way into England through the Restoration. 



DEISM 31 

This is usually known under the term 
Deism. The kernel thought of this system 
is that nothing can be certain to man that is 
not in accordance with the laws of his un- 
derstanding, that self-consciousness is the 
acme and ultimate for man, that revelation,- 
as it is called, may be useful to educate the 
crude masses, but is not necessary to Phil- 
osophy. It, therefore, rejects all that is 
supernatural in the Christian religion, and 
retains only what is common to all religions. 

The principles that are claimed to be thus 
common to all religions are as follows : 

1. There is one Supreme God. 

2. This Supreme God ought to be wor- 
shiped. 

3. Virtue and Piety are the most essential 
requisites to this Divine reverence and wor- 
ship. 

4. Man is under obligations to repent of 
and forsake his sins. 

5. Good and Evil will be rewarded in this 
life and the life to come. 

All beyond these five principles was re- 
garded superfluous, and the invention of an 
ambitious priesthood. 

The work that most completely embodies 
these principles in a system of education, is- 



32 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

Defoe's "Kobinson Crusoe/' It really in- 
corporates into itself the ground principles 
of Deism : unfolding under its pleasing nar- 
rative a theory of human development by 
mere natural processes. It is the picture of 
a child of nature overcoming obstacles, and 
being educated by these struggles with nature 
independently of the artificial helps of so- 
ciety. We all know what a marvellous pop- 
ularity this work immediately enjoyed. Its 
-translation into all the languages of Europe 
disseminated its doctrines throughout the 
entire continent, and awakened an intense 
-enthusiasm in many of the master thinkers 
of the 18th century. 

The man who embraced its principles most 
completely, and 
pushed them to a 
last extreme, was 
Rousseau, in his 
I celebrated work 
I "Emile."Tkis 
work reveals the 
thought of this 
wonderful man 
with regard to 

ROUSSEAU. . . , ' 

what he regards 




DEISM 33 

the true theory of education. The whole 
theory is Society is a curse a state of ab- 
ject bondage, that must be broken. He 
would have the child put forth its activities 
under no constraint, let the child strive to 
gain something because it needs it, let its 
instincts guide it to just what its nature 
craves. Obedience is not a motive or an end 
necessity of the nature is the law. The 
words (( obedience " and " command " he 
would blot out of the lexicons. 

He would not have a child see a book be- 
fore he is twelve years of age. The earliest 
education needs only to be negative it does 
not consisfc in distinguishing virtue from 
vice, but in guarding the heart from mis- 
takes, and the intellect from errors. His 
dogma is that all evil is the result of circum- 
stances ; these circumstances being largely 
products and concomitants of society and 
government. Hence the correction for these 
evils is a return to a state of nature, break- 
ing through all artificial shackles that now 
bind us. 

We see at a glance that Eousseau had by 
no means solved the deep problem of educa- 
tion, since he had recognized man neither 



34 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

as a member of society nor in the enjoyment 
of all his powers. So that his so-called 
natural development becomes, in fact, the 
most unnatural. Yet the effect of his treat- 
ise was powerful and far-reaching. It con- 

tinued its influe- 
ence for nearly a 
half century in 
^France and Ger- 
Imany. Itwasthe 
[immediate fore- 
runner and induc- 
ing cause of the 
efforts of Basedow 

in German ^ that 




SEDOW 

UAbiLDUW. . 

resulted in the 

founding of his celebrated " Philanthrop- 
inurn," and in the wide diffusion of a theory 
of Pedagogy that worked most disastrous 
results on German social life and patriotism. 
The energies of this noble people had been 
completely sapped by the sickly sentimental- 
ism that sprung from Philanthropinism, so 
that when the proud and victorious Napoleon 
marched on Berlin, he made the Prussian 
capital an easy prey. 

We have not the time to trace the wonder- 



FREEDOM OF ACTIVITY 35 

ful transition in the Educational method of 
Germany effected through the noble labors 
of Fichte and Schleiermacher, by which the 
moral element was reinstated and patriotism 
reinvigorated, so that from the plains of 
Leipzig the proud invader was hurled across 
the Ehine and sent a prisoner to Elba; It 
is a chapter in the History of the Philosophy 
of Pedagogics full of instruction and full of 
solemn warning to our own land. 

VI. FREEDOM OF ACTIVITY 



We have only time to mention the last 
stage of this History, viz., that in whicn 
free, untrammeled, activity of the human 
intellect in every department of research 
and discovery has been associated with a 
more profound sense of religious need ; in 
which the enterprise of commerce, the 
facility of national intercourse, the conquests 
over nature, the sacredness of individual 
rights, have all united to realize a better, 
purer type of civilization than the world has " 
before seen. 




36 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

The great genius of this last era of Educa- 
tional Philoso- 
phy is emphati- 
cally Pestalozzi. 
His personal his- 
tory and his 
methods have 
been made so 
familiar to us 
through Mr. Bar- 
nard's work 
PESTALOZZI. 

" Pestalozzi and 

Pestalozzianism," that we need spend little 
time on this sketch. Dr. Karl Schmidt has 
said of him : 

" Unattractive in outer appearance, poor- 
ly clad,, often unwashed, with matted hair, 
with shoes run down at the heels, and with 
stockings often half covering them, lacking 
in calm discretion, with little tact in busi- 
ness, without social shrewdness, through 
his all-embracing love, through his readiness 
to sacrifice in helping the distressed and 
down-trodden, and which could send him to 
cut off his silver shoe-buckles for a beggar 
and then bind on his shoes with straw, he has, 
through his humility, his modesty, his unself- 



FREEDOM OF ACTIVITY 37 

ishness, wherein none of his contemporaries 
approached him, harmless, and yielding 
as a child, mild and teachable, tender and 
full of feeling, inspired the world with the 
duty of ennobling the race, and in the long- 
continued contest against the coarse or more 
refined Materialism of his age, against the 
narrow Egoism and the trivial and painful 
Utilitarianism of the period, has lifted high 
the abiding ideal of human life, and labored 
for the good of the race and for the natural 
development of the mind of the child/'' 

The ground philosophical principle of this 
whole system is " Proceed from intuition 
to notion." This does not imply however, a 
mere passive receptivity, but a spontaneous, 
active receiving. As soon as the senses re- 
ceive their first impressions, begins the de- 
velopment of the powers of the man. The 
means used by him are to place the education 
of the people under the mother's care, and 
erect the home into a school. 

This idea he actualized by giving to 
mothers a Book on Education " The Book 
for Mothers," the first of the kind, it is be- 
lieved, that had ever appeared. If the home 
is not a holy temple of God, if the mother 



38 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

fails to vivify and inspire the heart and mind 
of the child then all thorough reform of 
the social condition is impossible. 

This is the fundamental note that rings 
through all his works. Already at the cradle 
of the unreasoning child, must we begin to 
snatch the race from blinding deceiving in- 
fluences, and place it in the hands of a better 
power which the experience of the centuries 
has enabled us to deduce in relation to 
mental and moral laws. This need of ele- 
mentary work is general. The mother in her 
processes must follow the course agreeable 
to the nature of the child, so also must the 
school. All school cultivation that does not 
thus accord must lead astray. Humanity is 
like in its nature, its needs and its goal ; 
hence a like discipline is demanded for all 
and evermore. 

Such in imperfect outline is the Philoso- 
phy of Education of Pestalozzi. 

In this connection one more man must be 
mentioned, whose zeal and success in primary 
instruction entitle him to a high place among 




FREEDOM OF ACTIVITY 39 

original workers 
in the Philosophy 
of Education. I 
refer of course to 
Frcebel the real 
founder of the 
Kindergarten in 
Germany. He 
agreed entirely 
with Pestalozzi in 

FRCEBEL i i i j.- 

his high estimate 

of family training going so far as to assert 
that so long as the mother neglects to train 
her child according to the laws of its nature, 
all attempted reforms in the schools will be 
in vain. 

His observation that the first dawnings of 
child-life were accompanied with desires for 
activity and motion led him to the determin- 
ation of the laws of this activity, and to the 
devising of means of conserving this restless- 
ness to useful and educating ends. Since 
activity is the very condition of development, 
to guide this activity into right channels he 
regarded all important. Noticing what was 
universal that is, the law of the action of 
the child he reached this result " that the 



40 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

nature of the child manifests itself univer- 
sally in play. No more true is it that birds 
build nests, or foxes dig holes, or bees form 
cells, than that children play ; it is their 
nature." 

Therefore, to develop and educate the 
young mind by means of play, is the central 
idea of FrcebePs system. 

We cannot pursue the system further. 
Suffice it to say that these two, Pestalozzi 
and Froebel are the coryphei of modern 
primary instruction, exerting an influence 
this hour on modern civilization that is en- 
tirely inconceivable. 

The fulness of this sketch might lead me 
to touch upon the more modern developments 
in the science of Pedagogy and speak of the 
modifying force of certain dogmas of modern 
philosophic thought such as Comte and 
his school Herbert Spencer, J. Stuart Mill, 
Hamilton, etc., etc. I deem it best not to 
trespass upon the territory of these essayists. 

CONCLUSION 

The History of the Philosophy of Peda- 
gogics has proved to me a most interesting 
and instructive study. It seems to me that 



COJSTCLUSIOJST 4Jb 

no one who makes any considerable preten- 
sion to thoroughness as an Educator, can 
afford to neglect it. It certainly shows us 
that Pedagogics is no chance work that 
every dabbler or pedant is well able to under- 
take, but rather the most serious, difficult 
and far-reaching in its consequences to the 
individual, the family, and the State. It 
teaches us that those great thinkers that 
tower like Alps above their fellows, have re- 
garded its study with the profoundest in- 
terest, and have brought to the solution of 
its hard problems their choicest powers. 

It likewise teaches us that there is a deep 
Philosophy of Pedagogics a Philosophy that 
has to do with subjects of no less interest 
than the nature of man, the destiny of man,.. 
and the means by which this nature can- 
realize this destiny. At a glance we see that 
the Philosophy of Pedagogics is only a branch 
or corollary of General Philosophy ; that it 
ever has shifted, and ever will shift, with a 
shifting Psychology, with a shifting Theol- 
ogy, with a shifting Philosophy of History, 
and with the shifting views of the doctrine 
of final causes. If man is of the Earth r . 
earthy after a few clays of struggling and. 



42 HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICS 

of tears to return to dust to rise no more ; 
if History at best is only your incoming on 
the stage to mount on the shoulders of your 
predecessors, and my incoming to mount on 
yours ; you and I alike serving our brief 
purpose, yet to have no share in some final 
triumph, then the Philosophy of Pedagog- 
ics is one thing, it may have its motives ; 
we may, possibly, find our inspiration to 
work. 

But if the History of Education is like 
Universal History a History of Mankind 
" ly G-od through God, to God," if Christ 
is the middle point of Universal History, 
^Iso of the History of Pedagogics, if my 
sacrifice is to contribute to the elevation not 
of my immediate successor alone, but to the 
Jinal triumph, which I, too, am to share ; 
if my destiny is bound up intimately with 
the destinies of the race, and the destinies 
of the race are affected by my conduct ; if, 
in short, this historic drama is the necessary 
medium of moral development to the race, 
which shall clearly appear in the grand de- 
nouement ; then this work of ours has its 
motives, it has its inspiration, /know it, 
you feel it, and we are willing, fellow 



CONCLUSION 43 

workers, to toil on in obscurity, if needs be, 
little appreciated it may be, poorly re- 
quited often, but still proud, and satisfied, 
because co-workers with the Great Teacher 
in lifting the race from bondage to freedom, 
and from darkness to the light of life. 




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JUN 51962 






LD 21-100m-9,'47(A5702sl6)476 

Smith (Edward.) History of the Schools of Syracuse, ntoth, 8vo. pp. 347 3 ou 

Song Budget, The. 183th Thousand. Paper, small 4to pp. 76, 

Song Century, The. Paper, small 4to, pp. 87 

Song Patriot, The. Paper, small 4to, pp. 80 

Song Budget Music Series, including all the above. Boards, pp. 243 .... 

Sornberger (S. J.) Normal Language Lessons, Boards, 16mo, pp. 75 

South wick (A. P.) Twenty Dime Question Books, with full answers, notes, 
queries, etc. Paper. 16mo, pp. about 40. Each 



C. W. BARDEEN, PUBLISHER, SYRAC 



Advanced Series. 

1. Physics. 

2. General Literature. 
5. General History. 

7. Astronomy. 

8. Mythology. 

9. Rhetoric. 

11. Botany. 

12. Zoology. 

16. Chemistry. 

17. Geology. 

inoi 



Elementary Series. 

3. Physiology. 

4. Theory and Practice. 

6. U. S. History and Civil Gov't. 
10. Algebra. 

13. American Literature. 

14. Grammar. 

15. Orthography and Etymology 

18. Arithmetic. 

19. Physical and Political Geog. 

20. Reading an 1 Punctuation. 

The 10 in one book, cloth, $1.00. The 10 in one book, cloth, $1.00. 

Extra Numbers, edited by C. W. Bardeen, 21. Temperance Physiology; 

22. Book-Keeping; 23. Letter-Writing. Each ". 10 

Quizzism. Quirks and Quibbles from Queer Quarters. 16mo, pp. 25.. . 25 

A Quiz Boon of Theory and Practice. Clotn, 12mo, op. 220 1 00 

Steven, (Wm.) History of the Edinburgh High School ''oth, 16mo, pp. 590 2 00 

Stilwell (Lamont) Practical Question Book. Cl< 

Stowell (T. B.) Syllabus of Lectures on Physiolor 

Straight (H. H.) Aspects of Industrial EducaV 

Swett (John) Manual of Elocution. Cloth, X 

Tate (Thos.) The Philosophy of Educqtt/ 

Taylor (H. F.) Union School Record Car/. 

Thomas (Flavel S.) University Degreerf 

Thompson (D'Arcy W.) Day Dreams o 

Thousand Questions in U. S. History. " 

Thoughts from Earnest Women. Pap' 

Tiedemann (D.) Record of Infant Uf 



10, pp. 400 1 50 

rds, 8vo, pp. 133.. 1 00 

r, 8vo, pp.12 15 

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mo, pp. 330 1 50 

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46 

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testions from the 
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15 

15 

50 
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XII. 


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Tillinghast (Wm.) The Diadem oj 
Underwood (L. M.) Systematic 
Uniform Examination Quesj 
beginning to March 1889, aj 

I. Arithmetic, 
III. Geography, 
V. Grammar, 
VII. U. S. History 
IX. Civil Govecr 
XI. Phvsioloa^ 

Valentine CS^L/aB; Wt. 50 

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Spanish Language. Leatherette, 

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Map Drawing BooU of the United States. Boards, pp. 37, Including 52 

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Williams (Geo. A.) Topics in American History. Cloth, 16mo, pp.50.... 50 
Williams (S. G.) History of Modern Education. Cloth, 16mo, pp.395.... 1 50 
Wilson (J. D.) English Grammar Made Practical. Cloth, 16mo, pp. 112. 75 
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Yawtjer (RoseN.) How to celebrate Arbor Day : Paper, 16mo, pp. 14 15 

The Indian and the Pioneer. Vol.1. Cloth, 8vo, pp. 189 2.00 

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