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HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 



i!^^ 




Bl,ack Alder {Ilex verticillata) 



HOW TO KNOW WILD 
FRUITS 

A Gkiide to Plants when Not in Flower 
hy Means of Fruit and Leaf 

BY 

MAUDE GRIDLEY PETERSON 

ILLUSTRATED BY MARY ELISABETH HERBERT 



LIBRARY 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., Ltd. 

1905 

All rights reserved 



QK/lB 



COPYEIGUT, 1905, 

By the MACMILLAN COMPANY. 

Set up and electrotyped. Published May, 1905. 



NarbjooO ^rega 

J. S. Gushing & Co. — IJervvick & Smith Co. 

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 



from tDt)ic^ it0 inspiration camet 31 tooulu 
retierentl^ inscribe tljis boofe* 



" On the motionless branches of some trees, autumn 
berries hung like clusters of coral-beads, as in those 
fabled orchards where the fruits were jewels." 

— Dickens, in Martin Chuzzleioit. 

" A wonderful thing is a seed ; 

The one thing deathless forever — 
Forever old and forever new. 
Utterly faithful and utterly true — 

Fickle and faithless never." 



LIBRARY 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

Garden 

CONTENTS 

PAOE 

Illustrations . . . . . ■ • • . ix 

Introduction ^ii^ 

Adaptations of Fruits and Seeds for Dispersal 

AND Protection ^^ii 

Definitions ^^^ 

Guide to Plant Families xxvi 

Families and Species xxxii 

Descriptions of Species : 

Red or Reddish Purple 3 

Black or Dark Purple 155 

Blue 249 

Yellow 287 

Green . , 301 

White 307 

Glossary 325 

Abbreviations of Authors' Names .... 329 

Index of English Names 331 

Index of Latin Names 337 



vu 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Black Alder. Ilex verticillata 



Frontispiece 



PAGE 

American Yew. Taxus minor 4 

Jack in-the- Pulpit. Ariscema triphyllum .... 6 

Wild Spikenard. Vagnera racemosa ..... 12 

False Lily-of-the-Valley. Unifolium Canadense . . 15 

Clasping-leaved Twisted Stalk. Streptopus amplexifolius . 17 

Ill-scented Wake-robin. Trillium erectum .... 22 

Laurel Magnolia. Magnolia Virginiana .... 27 

Red Baneberry. Ackm rubra 32 

Common Barberry. Berheris vulgaris .... 35 

Spice Bush. Benzoin Benzoin 39 

Hawthorn Gooseberry. Rihes oxyacanthoides ... 41 

Purple-flowering Raspberry. Rubus odoratus ... 46 

Dwarf Raspberry. Rubus Americanus .... 51 

Low or Pasture Rose. Rosa humilis 60 

Sweetbrier. Rosa rubiginosa 63 

American Mountain Ash. Sorbus A mericana ... 65 

Red Chokeberry. Aronia arbutifolia .... 67 

Juneberry. Amelanchier Canadensis 70 

Scarlet Thorn. Craicegus coccinea ..... 76 

Wild Yellow or Red Plum. Prunus Americana . . 80 

Wild Red Cherry, Prunus Pennsylvanica ... 84 

Dwarf Sumac. Rhus copallina 88 



ILLUSTBATIONS 



Staghorn Sumac. Rhus hiria 

American Holly. Ilex opaca 

Burning Bush. Euonymus atropurpureus . 

Shrubby or Climbing Bittersweet. Celastrus scanden 

Bunchberry. Cornus Canadensis 

Flowering Dogwood. Cornus Jlorida 

Spring or Creeping Wintergreen. Gaultheria procumbens 

American Cranberry. Oxy coccus macrocarpus . 

Nightshade. Solanum Dulcamara 

Matrimony Vine. Lycium vulgar e 

Partridge Berry. MitcJiella repens 

Hobble Bush. Viburnum alnifolium . 

Cranberry Tree. Viburnum Opulus 

Indian Currant. Symphoricarpjos Symplioricarpos 

Smooth-leaved Honeysuckle. Lonicera dioica . 

Trumpet Honeysuckle. Lonicera sempervirens . 

Hairy Solomon's Seal. Polygonatum bijlorum . 

Smooth Solomon's Seal. Polygonatum commutatum 

Indian Cucumber Root. Medeola Virginiana . 

Carrion Flower. Smilax herbacea 

Red Mulberry. Morus rubra 

Poke. Phytolacca decendra 

Black Raspberry. Bubus occidentalis 

Wild Red Raspberry. Rubus strigosus 

Low Running Blackberry. Rubus villosus 

Running Swamp Blackberry. Rubus hispidus 

High-bush Blackberry. Rubus nigrobaccus 

Black Chokeberry. Aronia nigra 

Wild Black Cherry. Prunus serotina 

Inkberry. Ilex glabra .... 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



XI 



PAGE 

Buckthorn. Rhamnus cathartica 206 

Riverside Grape. Vitis vulpina 213 

Virginia Creeper. Parthenocissus quinquefolia . . . 216 

American Spikenard. Aralia racemosa . . „ . 220 

Wild Sarsaparilla. Aralia nudicaulis .... 222 

Bristly Sarsaparilla. Aralia Jiispida 225 

Tupelo. Nyssa sylvatica 227 

Black Nightshade. Solarium nigrum 235 

Maple-leaved Viburnum. Viburnum acerifolium . . 238 

Withe-rod. Viburnum cassirioides 241 

Sweet Viburnum. Viburnum Leniago .... 245 

Lov7 Juniper. Juniperus nana 250 

Red Cedar. Juniperus Virginiana 253 

Yellow Clintonia. Clintonia borealis 256 

Blue Cohosh. Caulophyllum thalictroides .... 259 

Silky Cornel. Cornus Amonum 264 

Alternate-leaved Cornel. Cornus alternifolia . . . 267 

High-bush Blueberry. Vaccinium corymbosum . . . 273 

Dwarf Blueberry. Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum . . . 276 

Low Blueberry. Vaccinium vacillans .... 276 

Arrowwood. Vibernum dentatum 281 

Blue or Mountain Fly Honeysuckle. Lonicera ccerulea . 283 

Low Hairy Ground Cherry. Physalis pubescens . . 295 

White Baneberry. Actcea alba 312 

Poison Ivy. Rhus radicans 316 

Panicled Cornel. Cornus candidissima .... 319 

Snowberry, Symphoricarpos racemosus .... 322 



INTRODUCTION 

If in country drive or ramble we happen upon 
an unknown flower, it is a comparatively easy 
matter, by means of the illustrations and the 
color guides of the modern field books of wild 
flowers, to identify it. The lack of similar 
reference books for identifying a plant by its 
fruit was forcibly brought to my notice during 
a drive in early autumn. Our journeyings led 
us along a wooded roadway where it was no 
longer the brilliance of the flowers which de- 
manded our attention, but rather the attractive 
masses of fruits. There was one shrub bearing 
fruits of varying colors in different stages of 
development which was very attractive and 
which I did not know. I naturally wished to 
make its acquaintance. 

Here the aforesaid field books failed to give 
their ready aid. Any system of analysis was 
of no avail, as the flower which preceded this 
special fruit was unobtainable. I was surprised 
at the meagerness of the descriptions of the 
fruits which I read, hoping to find my specimen 



XIV INTRODUCTION 

among them. It was this difficulty of approach 
to the identification of my fruited plant, and the 
scarcity of material relating to this aspect of 
the plant's life, that suggested the present book. 

I have attempted to deal v^ith those plants 
only which bear attractively colored fruits. 
These fruits are the more noticeable ones ; they 
do not, in most cases, develop until the blossoms 
have entirely disappeared ; and they naturally 
fall into a class by themselves, being adapted 
for the same method of seed dispersal. The 
list will naturally include herbs, shrubs, and 
trees. A guide based on the kind and struc- 
ture of the fruit will aid in determining the 
family to which a plant belongs, and under 
each family the species are grouped by colors. 
The illustrations will also aid in identifying 
specimens. 

If the acquaintance of approximately two 
hundred plants of our northeastern section in 
their fruited stage is made more accessible; if 
added attention is attracted to the result of the 
work of the flower, making our knowledge of 
the cycle of the plant's life more complete, the 
work, fragmentary though it be, may have a 
place. 

The order of arrangement of the Plant Fami- 



INTRODUCTION XV 

lies follows that of Engler and Prantl. The 
nomenclature and arrangement of species is 
essentially that of Britton and Brown. The 
additional name is the term used in Gray's 
sixth edition. In the classification of the 
Blackberries I have followed the general plan 
of L. H. Bailey, who has made a recent and 
careful study of them. 

I am indebted to many a work of reference 
for aid : Gray's " Manual," Britton and Brown's 
'^Illustrated Flora of the United States and 
Canada," Emerson's "Keport of the Trees and 
Shrubs of Massachusetts," Card's "Bush Fruits," 
Bailey's " Evolution of our Native Fruits," Ker- 
ner and Oliver's "The Natural History of Plants," 
and others. 

To the friends who have kindly furnished 
specimens I would extend my sincere gratitude. 
There have been many who, by the expression 
of a need for help such as the present book 
hopes to give, or by suggestion and encourage- 
ment, have strengthened my purpose to carry 
on the work to its fulfillment. I hold them all 
in grateful remembrance. 



ADAPTATIONS OF FRUITS AND SEEDS 
FOR DISPERSAL AND PROTECTION 

The perfected fruit — how it suggests both the 
backward and the forward look : backward over 
the stages of growth which have produced it, 
forward to the stages of growth which are 
potential within it. 

" My heart is awed within me when I think 
Of the great miracle which still goes on 
In silence round me — the perpetual work 
Of thy creation, finished, yet renewed 
Forever." — Bryant. 

Miracle, indeed, it is that inclosed within the 
seed is the power to burst its bonds, to utilize 
its stored food material, to gather nutriment 
from earth and air, to grow and to produce again 
a seed capable of continuing the life of the species 
from which it has sprung. 

For the development of this, however, certain 
conditions are necessary. The new plant must 
have room in earth and air for its best growth. 
If the seeds of a plant all started life in the 



xvill DISPERSAL AND PROTECTION 

immediate vicinity of the parent, and this were 
continued year after year, it is easy to see that 
there would soon be no room for new growths. 
The necessity of a means of dispersal seems to 
be fundamental to the fruit or seed. Examine 
fruit after fruit or seed after seed, and the varied 
and adequate structures for their dissemination 
are found to be most interesting. 

The winged fruit of the maple, the tufted seed 
of the milkweed, and the plumed fruit of the 
clematis are a few of numerous examples of 
fruits fitted for dispersal by means of the wind. 

Some fruits have mechanical devices which 
throw their seeds to a necessarily short distance. 
Have you not violated the command of the 
touch-me-not, just to see the parts of the pod 
curl up and throw out the seeds ? This method 
of dispersal is not especially advantageous, and 
is confined to comparatively few plants. It is 
interesting to note that these, as a rule, grow in 
spots sheltered from the wind, where its agency 
would be unavailing in scattering their seeds. 

Water is an agent in transporting a relatively 
small number of fruits. The cocoanut is admi- 
rably adapted for this means of dispersal, and 
the existence of the cocoanut palm on widely 
separated coral islands is interesting in this 
connection. 



DISPERSAL AND PROTECTION xix 

Doubtless your own experience with burdocks, 
agrimony, sticktights, and beggar ticks has 
been sufficiently emphatic to render unnecessary 
further mention of those fruits or seeds which, 
fastening themselves to men and animals, are 
carried by them hither and thither. Plants 
bearing such fruits naturally grow most pro- 
fusely by the side of the road or footpath. 

Animals and especially birds are instrumental 
in scattering seeds in still another way, using a 
part of the fruit for food and ejecting the seeds. 
It is this class of fruits with which this book is 
chiefly concerned. 

That seed dispersal is accomplished by the 
means noted above has been a matter of dispute 
among botanists, but carefully conducted experi- 
ments have proved, without a doubt, that many 
birds eject the consumed seeds unharmed. Inter- 
esting accounts of these are given in Kerner and 
Oliver's " Natural History of Plants." 

It has been found that while some birds grind 
up and destroy even the hardest coated seeds, 
others, like the ravens and jackdaws, destroy 
only the soft-coated seeds ; while thrushes and 
blackbirds eject unharmed a large majority of 
the seeds eaten. The small seeds pass entirely 
through the intestinal tract while the larger 
ones are separated from the pulp in the crop, 



XX DISPERSAL AND PROTECTION 

the pulp passing on into the gizzard and the 
seeds being thrown up. 

Many plants whose seeds are scattered by birds 
grow along the fence rows. The significance of 
this is apparent, the seed being dropped by the 
bird as he rested upon the fence. 

The parallel between the interdependence of 
the flower and the insect and that of the fruit 
and the bird is striking. The flower sets forth 
honey and sometimes a surplus of pollen for its 
guests, its color decorations are arranged most 
effectively, while often a subtle odor is a sign of 
welcome or repulse to wandering insects. The 
bee or other insect responds to these attractions 
and duly regales himself. In return for the 
hospitalities extended, he serves as the flower's 
messenger, bringing to the pistil of the flower- 
host pollen from a neighboring bloom, or bearing 
away with him freshly gathered pollen grains to 
deposit upon a near-by pistil. Cross fertilization, 
by means of which more vigorous seeds are pro- 
duced, is thus accomplished. 

Turning to the fruit, we find similar attrac- 
tions offered to the birds. A pulp is usually 
developed for food, an odor is sometimes pres- 
ent, Ss in the case of the strawberry, grape, and 
pineapple, and the different color schemes are 
fascinating. 



DISPERSAL AND PROTECTION XXl 

In what setting will the red fruit appear to 
greatest advantage ? In a green one, surely, and 
it is the plants whose fruit ripens while the sur- 
rounding foliage is still green, or whose foliage 
is evergreen, which usually bear red fruits. 
Amidst the brightly colored leafage of autumn, 
how effective are the blue and black drupes and 
berries ! Sometimes the dark-colored fruits are 
borne on red stems, producing a similar result. 
White fruits grow usually on plants which shed 
their leaves early, the white being brought into 
contrast with the bare branches, or, if low plants, 
with the floor covering of fallen leaves. The 
fruits are often massed in close heads, spikes, 
etc., rendering them still more conspicuous. 

The bird recognizes the sign of his especial 
hostelry from afar, and comes to the feast spread 
for him. As we have seen, he renders his host 
a mutual service, depositing its offspring in 
various places, some of which will doubtless 
prove auspicious for the seed's development. 

Bears are fond of berries and are said to scatter 
their seed. Mrs. Dana speaks of the berry of the 
wintergreen (Gaultheria procurribens) serving as 
food in winter for the hungry deer. 

Until the seeds are ripe, many features serve 
to protect them from destruction by the agent 
afterward so useful in dispersing them. The 



XXll DISPERSAL AND PROTECTION 

fruit has a disagreeable taste, is sometimes even 
poisonous. It has no scent and is inconspicuous, 
being green, like the foliage. Some fruits, hke 
the chestnut, walnut, etc., have an especial pro- 
tection in the surrounding involucre. 

Some ripe fruits have certain means of protec- 
tion against foes that destroy the seed as well as 
the pulp. Mice are fond of rose hips and the 
contained seeds, but do not venture along the 
thorny way by which they are reached. Fallen 
cherries are eagerly eaten by centipedes, but 
hanging on their lengthened stalks they are 
comparatively safe from them. 

Our knowledge is as yet not sufficiently detailed 
to state definitely that all of the fruits described 
in this work are used as food by birds or animals 
that scatter their seeds. Such fruits are included 
as seem adapted for transmission in this way. 
We do know that many of them are eaten by 
birds and know also the kind or kinds of birds 
using them. Dr. C. F. Hodge, in his book, 
" Nature Study and Life," has an interesting 
table of birds and their foods which includes a 
number of these fruits. Numerous investigations 
along this line are being made. Birds from 
various sections are sent to government experts, 
who, from an examination of the contents of 
their food tracts, are enabled to determine many 



DISPERSAL AND PROTECTION XXlil 

of the foods eaten by them. Observation of living 
birds and the foods they choose is nrged. 

Full of meaning is the study of fruits and 
their adaptations, and includes many uninter- 
preted problems, making us feel, with Calder- 
wood, " that the more we know, the more 
impressive becomes the unknown." 



DEFINITIONS 

The fruit is the ripened ovary, its contents, 
and any other parts that are closely connected 
with it. 

A herry is rather thin-skinned, and has its 
seeds loosely imbedded in soft pulpy or succu- 
lent material. An orange, a grape, a currant, 
are illustrations. 

A drupe has for its distinguishing featm^e a 
stone inclosing the seed. The portion surround- 
ing it may be fleshy, as in the peach ; fibrous, as 
in the cocoanut ; or leathery, as in the walnut. 

A pome has its seeds and their cartilaginous 
or bony surrounding membranes inclosed in a 
fleshy mass, which is thickened calyx or some- 
times partly receptacle. Apple, pear, and quince 
are examples. 

Aggregate fruits are masses of several carpels 
of the same flower which, when ripe, may or may 
not remain fast to the receptacle on which they 
are borne. Raspberry and blackberry are famil- 
iar examples. 

Multiple fruits are compact masses of the 
ripened product of many flowers. Pineapple 
and mulberry are the usual illustrations. 

Accessory fruits are simple fruits which have 
incorporated with them, as part of their mass, 
the developed surroundings or supports of the 
pistil. Gaultheria has its capsule surrounded by 
thickened fleshy calyx. 



GUIDE TO PLANT FAMILIES 
REPRESENTED 

I. GYMNOSPERMiE 

" Ovules naked upon a scale, bract, or disk." and Species 

Globose, formed by coalescence of fleshy scales. 

1 to 6 bony seeds. Pinace^ xxxii 

Cup-shaped fleshy disk nearly inclosing bony seed. 

Taxace^ .... xxxii 

II. ANGIOSPERMiE 

Pistil consists of closed ovary containing the ovules 
and becoming the fruit. 

1. MONOCOTYLEDONES 

Stem without central pith or annual layers, but with 
vascular bundles scattered through them. 
Leaves are mostly parallel-veined. 
Parts of flowers usually arranged in threes. 
Embryo has but one cotyledon. 

Fruit a Berry 

Growing in close heads on fleshy stalks. 

Arace^ xxxii 

Woody or herbaceous vines. 

Smilace^e .... xxxiii 

All others. Convallariace^ . . xxxii 

xxvi 



GUIDE TO PLANT FAMILIES 



XXVll 



2. DICOTYLEDONES 

Stems have bark, wood, and pith. 
Leaves are net-veined. 
Parts of flowers in fours or fives. 
Embryo has two or more cotyledons. 

{A) Fruit a Berry 

I. Calyx persistent. 

(rt) Berry crowned with shriveled remains of calyx. 

Grossulariace^ . 



(h) Calyx teeth or top of tube crowning summit of 
fruit. Vaccinium, Oxycoccus, 

and Chiogenes in 

VACCINIACEiE . . . 

Fruit in clusters on stems from the axils 1 
of the leaves. Symphoricarpos and j 

Lonicera in 
Caprifoliace^ . . 

(c) Calyx persistent at base of fruit and sometimes 
inclosing it. 

Plumlike fruit containing 4 to 8 hard seeds. 
Calyx thickened. 

Ebenaceje .... 

Many seeds arranged around an axial pla- 
centa, which sometimes extends far into 
the cells. Solanace^ .... 

Racemes. Berry 5- to 16-celled, one seed in 

each. PHYTOLACCACEiE . . 



Page of 

Families and 

Species 



xli, xlii 



- xliii 



xlii 



xlii 



II. Calyx absent. 
(a) Several-seeded. 



XXVlli GUIDE TO PLANT FAMILIES 

Seeds inclosed in Arils families and 

Species 

Arils pulpy. Seeds covering large lateral 
placenta in two rows. 

Podophyllum in 

BeRBERIDACE^ . . XXXV 

Arils fleshy. 

AnONACE^ .... XXXV 

Seeds not in Arils 

Fruit growing in racemes. 

Actsea in 

RanUNCULACE^ . . XXXV 

(6) One- to few-seeded. 

Parasitic. Loranthace^e . . . xxxiv 

Climbing shrub. Vitace^ xxxix 

Sour berries in drooping racemes. 
Berberis in 

BeRBERIDACE^ . . XXXV 

Others. Ligustrum in 

Oleace^ xlii 

(B) Fruit a Drupe 
Berrylike Drupe 
I. Calyx persistent, 
(a) Calyx teeth or top of tube crowning summit of drupe. 
About 5 nutlets, flattened or somewhat three- 
angled. Embryo small. Boots, bark, fruit 
aromatic. Araliace^ . . . . xl 

Ten small seedlike nutlets. Gaylussacia in 

Vacciniace^ . . . xli 
Double drupe with calyx teeth of 2 flowers. 

Rubiace^ .... xlii 
Juicy drupes containing 3 nutlets and | 
borne in cymes. Sambucus in ^ y'\ 

Caprifoliace^ . . J 



GUIDE TO PLANT FAMILIES 



XXIX 



(6) Calyx persistent at base. 

Four to eight nutlets. Ilicace^ . . . . 
Five to ten nutlets. Trailing or depressed 
shrub. Arctostaphylos in 

Ericace^ . . . . 
Low evergreen shrub with leaves rolled 
backwards until the margins meet. 
Empetrum in 
Empetrace^ . . . 
II. Calyx absent. 

Single nutlet. Thymeleace^e . . 

Two to four nutlets of cartilaginous texture. 

RHAMNACEiE . . . 



Page of 

Families and 

Species 



Xli 



XXXVlll 



Typical Dnipes 
I. Calyx persistent, 
(a) Calyx teeth or top of tube crowning the summit. 
Small drupe with usually globose stone. 

CORNACEiE . . . . xl 

One-seeded, flattened or tumid, thin, crus- 
taceous stone. Viburnum in 

CAPRIFOLIACEiE . . 

Dryish drupe with usually 3 nutlets. 
Triosteum in 
Caprifoliace^ . . 
(6) Calyx persistent at base. 

Drupe borne on fleshy red pedicel. 
Sassafras in 
Laurace^ .... 

Drupes in elongated racemes. 

Prunus serotina in 
Drupace^ .... 

Drupes in loose panicles. Chionanthus in 

Oleace^ .... xlii 



xlii, 
xliii 



xliii 



XXXVlll 



XXX GUIDE TO PLANT FAMILIES 

Page of 
Families and 
II. Calyx absent. Species 

Globose. Embryo curved. 

ULMACEiE .... XXXiv 

Globular, with mark of stigma near base. 

MeNISPERMACE^ . . XXXV 

Aromatic trees or shrubs. 
Oblong or obovoid drupe. 

Beuzoin in Laurace^e xxxv 
Fleshy, globular drupe. 
Fleshy cotyledons. Prunus, except P. 

serotina in Drupace^ xxxviii 

D7'y Drupes 

Exocarp covered with white wax. 

Myricace^ .... xxxiv 
Small, 1-seeded. Anacardiace^ . . xxxviii 

(C) Fruit a Pome 

Fleshy or berrylike. 

Two to five papery carpels, each 2-seeded. 

Pomaces .... xxxvii 

excepting Amelanchier 

and Crataegus. 
Small, 10-celled, 1 seed in each cell. 

Amelanchier in 

POMACEiE xxxvii 

Drupe-like, 1 to 5 bony carpels. 

Crataegus in Pomace.e xxxvii 

(i)) Aggregate Fruits 

Cone-shaped. The berrylike seeds hanging 
by a thread from each carpel, which 
opens when ripe along the back. 

Magnoliaceje . . . xxxiv 



GUIDE TO PLANT FAMILIES XXXi 

Page of 

Families and 

Species 

Ovoid head, of 1- to 2-seeded berries, each 

with a short curved beak at the tip. 

Hydrastis in 

RaNUNCULACE^ . . XXXV 

Head of small drupes on spongy or juicy 1 xxxvi, 
receptacle. Rubus in Rosacea . J xxxvii 

Dry achenes borne on surface of enlarged 
pulpy receptacle. Fragaria in Rosace^e xxxvi 

{E) Multiple Fruits 

Achenes covered by the succulent calyx, 
the united spike forming a multiple fruit. 

MORACEiE .... XXxiv 



(F) Accessory Fruits 

Four -cleft calyx inclosing ovary and be- 
coming berrylike in fruit. 

Lepargyrsea in 

El^agnace^ . . . xxxix 
Five-toothed calyx inclosing capsule in 
berrylike fruit. Gaultheria in 

Ericace^ . . . . xl 

{G) Miscellaneous 

Thick seed stalks bearing 2 naked seeds 
resembling drupes in their fleshy blue 
coverings. Caulophyllum in 

BeRBERIDACE^ . . XXXV 

Bony achenes in rather fleshy calyx tube. 

Rosa in Rosacea . xxxvi 
Somewhat fleshy, dehiscent, 2- to 5-parted 
pod with ariled seeds. 
' Celastrace.e . . . xxxix 



FAMILIES AND SPECIES 



I. GYMNOSPERMiE 

PINACEJE PINE FAMILY 

Blue 

Juniperus communis L. . . . Common Juniper. 

Juniperus nana Willd Low Juniper. 

Juniperus Virginiana L. . . . Ked Cedar. 

Juniperus Sabina L Shrubby Red Cedar. 

TAXACE^ ' YEW FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 

Taxus minor (Michx.) Britton . American Yew, 



II. ANGIOSPERIVLE 

(a) MONOCOTYLEDONES 
ARACEiE ARUM FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 

Arisasma triphyllum (L.) Torr. Indian Turnip. 
Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott. Green Dragon. 
Calla palustris L Water-arum. 

Green 
PeltandraVirginica (L.) Kunth. Green Arrow-arum. 

CONVALLARIACEJE LILY-OF-THE- VALLEY FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 

Asparagus officinalis L. . . . Asparagus. 
Vagnera racemosa (L.) Morong. Wild Spikenard. 



FAMILIES AND SPECIES xxxiii 

Vagnera trifolia (L.) Morong. Three-leaved Solomon's Seal. 
Unifolium Canadense (Desf.) 

Greene False Lily-of-the-Vallej. 

Disporum lanuginosum (Michx.) 

Nichols Hairy Disporum. 

Streptopusamplexifolius(L.)DC. Claspiug-leaved Twisted 

Stalk. 

Streptopus roseus Michx. . . Sessile-leaved Twisted Stalk. 

Trillium sessile L Sessile-flowered Wake-robin. 

Trillium nivale Riddell . . . Early AVake-robin. 
Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) 

Salisb Large-flowered Wake-robin. 

Trillium erectum L Ill-scented Wake-robin. 

Trillium cernuum L Nodding Wake-robin. 

Trillium undulatuni Willd. . . Painted Wake-robin. 

Black or Dark Purple 

Clintonia umbellulata (Michx.) 

Torr White Clintonia. 

Vagnera stellata (L.) Morong. Star-flowered Solomon's Seal. 
Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) 

Ell Hairy Solomon's Seal. 

Polygonatum commutatum (R. 

& S.) Dietr Smooth Solomon's Seal. 

MedeolaVirginianaL Indian Cucumber Root. 

Blue 
Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf. Yellow Clintonia. 

SMILACE^ SMILAX FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 
Smilax Walteri Pursh .... Walter's Greenbrier. 

Black or Dark Purple 

Smilax herbacea L Carrion Flower. 

Smilax tamnifolia Michx. . . Halberd-leaved Smilax. 
Smilax glauca Walt Glaucous-leaved Greenbrier. 



xxxiv FAMILIES AND SPECIES 

Smilax rotundifolia L. ... Greenbrier. 

Smilax hispida Muhl Hispid Greenbrier. 

Smilax Pseudo-China L. . . . Long-stalked Greenbrier. 

Smilax Bona-nox L Bristly Greenbrier. 

(6) DICOTYLEDOXES 

MYRICACEJE BAYBERRY FAMILY 

White 

Myrica Carolinensis Mill . . . Waxberry. 

ULMACEJE ELM FAMILY 

Black or Dark Purple 

Celtis occidentalis L Sugarberry. 

MORACEiE MULBERRY FAMILY 

Black or Dark Purjjle 

Moms rubra L B,ed Mulberry. 

White 
Morus alba L White Mulberry. 

LORANTHACEJE MISTLETOE FAMILY 

White 

Razoumofskya pusilla (Peck) 

Kuntze Small Mistletoe. 

Phoradendron flavescens (Pursh) 

Nutt American Mistletoe. 

PHYTOLACCACEJE POKEWEED FAMILY 

Black or Dark Purple 
Phytolacca decendra L. . . . Poke. 

MAG^OLIACEiE MAGNOLIA FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 

Magnolia A^irginiana L. . . . Laurel Magnolia. 
Masnolia acuminata L. . . . Cucumber Tree. 



FAMILIES AND SPECIES XXXV 

ANONACEJE CUSTARD-APPLE FAMILY 

Yellow 
Asimina triloba (L.) Diinal. . North American Papaw. 

RANUNCULACE^ CROWFOOT FAMILY 

Bed or Reddish Purple 

Hydrastis Canadensis L. . . . Orange Root. 
Actsea rubra. (Ait.) Willd. , . Red Baneberry. 

White 
Actsea alba (L.) Mill White Baneberry. 

BERBERIDACE^ BARBERRY FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 
Berberis vulgaris L Common Barberry. 

Blue 

Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) 

Michx Blue Cohosh. 

Telloio 
Podophyllum peltatum L. . . . May Apple. 

MENISPERMACE-ffi MOONSEED FAMILY 

Black or Dark Purple 
Menispermum Canadense L. . Canada Moonseed. 

LAURACEiE LAUREL FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 
Benzoin Benzoin (L.) Coulter . Spice Bush. 

Blue 
Sassafras Sassafras (L.) Karst. . Sassafras. 



XXXVl FAMILIES AND SPECIES 

GROSSULARIACEJE GOOSEBERRY FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 

Ribes oxyacanthoides L. . . . Hawthorn or Northern Goose- 
berry. 
Ribes rotundifolium Michx. . Eastern Wild Gooseberry. 
Ribes lacustre (Pers.) Poir. . . Swamp Gooseberry. 
Ribes prostratum L'Her. . . . Fetid Currant. 
Ribes rubrum L Red Currant. 

Black or Dark Purple 

Ribes Cynosbati L Wild Gooseberry. 

Ribes fioridum L'Her Wild Black Currant. 

ROSACEJE ROSE FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 

Rubus odoratus L Purple-flowering Raspberry. 

Rubus Chamaemorus L. . . . Cloudberry. 

Rubus strigosus Michx. . . . Wild Red Raspberry. 

Rubus neglectus Peck .... Purple Wild Raspberry. 

Rubus Americanus (Pers.) Brit- 
ton Dwarf Raspberry. 

Fragaria Virginiana Duchesne . Virginia or Scarlet Strawberry. 

Fragaria Canadensis Michx. . . Northern Wild Strawberry. 

Fragaria vesca L European Wood Strawberry. 

Fragaria Americana (Porter) 

Britton American Wood Strawberry. 

Rosa blanda Ait Smooth or Meadow Rose. 

Rosa Carolina L Swamp Rose. 

Rosa humilis Marsh Low or Pasture Rose. 

Rosa nitida Willd Northeastern Rose. 

Rosa canina L Dog Rose. 

Rosa rubiginosa L Sweetbrier. 

Black or Dark Purple 

Rubus occidentals L. ... Black Raspberry. 
Rubus villosus Ait Low Blackberry. 



FAMILIES AND SPECIES XXXYli 

Rubus hispidiis L Running Swamp Blackberry. 

Rubus cuneifolius Parsh . . . Sand Blackberry. 

Rubus nigrobaccus High Bush Blackberry, 

Rubus nigrobaccus, var. sativus Short Cluster Blackberry. 

Rubus Allegheniensis Porter . Mountain Blackberry. 

Rubus argutus Link Leafy Cluster Blackberry. 

Rubus Canadensis L Thornless Blackberry. 

POMACES APPLE FAMILY 

Hed or Reddish Purple 

Sorbus Americana Marsh. . . American Mountain Ash. 
Sorbus sambucifolia (C. & S.) 

Roem Western Mountain Ash. 

Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Ell. . . Red Chokeberry. 
Amelanchier Botryapium (L. f .) 

DC Shad Bush. 

Amelanchier Canadensis (L.) 

Medic Juneberry. 

Crataegus Crus-Galli L. . . . Cockspur Thorn. 

Crataegus punctata Jacq. . . Large-fruited Thorn. 

Crataegus cocci nea L Scarlet Thorn. 

Crataegus macracantha Lodd. . Long-spined Thorn. 

Crataegus mollis (T. & G.) Scheele Red-fruited Thorn. 

Crataegus tomentosa L. . . . Pear Thorn. 

Black or Dark Purple 

Aronia nigra (Willd.) Britton . Black Chokeberry. 
Amelanchier oligocarpa (Michx.) 

Roem Oblong-fruited Juneberry. 

Tellow 

Crataegus unifiora Muench. . . Dwarf Thorn. 

Oreen 

Pyrus communis L Choke pear. 

Malus coronaria (L.) Mill. . . American Crab Apple. 

Malus angustifolia (Ait.) Michx. Narrow-leaved Crab Apple. 



XXXVm FAMILIES AND SPECIES 

DRUPACEiE PLUM FAMILY 

Bed or Reddish Purple 

Prunus Americana Marsh. . . Wild Yellow or Red Plum. 

Prunus nigra Ait Canada Plum. 

Prunus maritima Wang. . . . Beach Plum. 

Prunus Pennsylvanica L. f. . . Wild Red Cherry. 

Prunus Virginiana L Chokecherry. 

Black or Dark Purple 

Prunus Allegheniensis Porter . Porter's Plum. 

Prunus spinosa L Sloe. 

Prunus pumila L Dwarf Cherry. 

Prunus serotina Ehrh Wild Black Cherry. 

EMPETRACEJE CROWBERRY FAMILY 

Black or Dark Purple 
Empetrum nigrum L Black Crowberry. 

AWACARDIACEJE SUMAC FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 

Rhus copallina L Dwarf Sumac. 

Rhus hirta (L.) Sudw Staghorn Sumac. 

Rhus glabra L Smooth Sumac. 

Rhus aromatica Ait Fragrant or Sweet-scented 

Sumac. 
White 

Rhus Vernix L. . . . « . . Poison Sumac. 

Rhus radicans L Poison, Climbing, or Three- 
leaved Ivy. 

ILICACEJE HOLLY FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 

Ilex opaca Ait American Holly. 

Ilex monticola A. Gray . . . Large-leaved Holly. 

Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray . Black Alder. 

Ilex laevigata (Pursh) A. Gray . Smooth Winter Berry. 

Ilicioidesmucronata (L.) Britton Wild or Mountain Holly. 



FAMILIES AND SPECIES XXXIX 

Black or Dark Pinhole 
Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray . . . Inkberry. 

CELASTRACEiE STAFF-TREE FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Pmjjle 

Euonymus Americanus L. . . Strawberry Bush. 
Euonymus obovatus Nutt. . . Running Strawberry Bush. 
Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq. . Burning Bush. 
Celastrus scandens L Shrubby or Climbing Bitter- 
sweet. 

RHAMNACEJE BUCKTHORN FAMILY 

Black or Dark Purple 

Rhamnus cathartica L. ... Buckthorn. 

Rhamnus lanceolata Pursh . . Lance-leaved Buckthorn. 

Rharanus alnifolia L'Her. . . . Alder-leaved Buckthorn. 

VITACEiE GRAPE FAMILY 

Black or Dark Purple 

Vitis Labrusca L Northern Fox Grape. 

Vitis aestivalis Michx Summer Grape. 

Vitis bicolor LeConte .... Blue Grape. 

Vitis vulpina L Riverside or Sweet-scented 

Grape. 

Vitis cordifolia Michx Frost or Chicken Grape. 

Parthenocissus quiuquefolia (L.) 

Planch Virginia Creeper. 

THYMELEACE-ffi MEZEREON FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 

Dirca palustris L Leatherwood. 

ELJEAGNACEJE OLEASTER FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 

Lepargyrgea Canadensis (L.) 

Greene Canadian Buffafo Berry. 



xl FAMILIES AND SPECIES 

ARALIACE^ GINSENG FAMILY 

Bed or Reddish Purple 
Panax quinquefolium L, . . . Ginseng. 

Black or Dark Purple 

Aralia spinosa L. ..... . Hercules' Club. 

Aralia racemosa L. . . . . . American Spikenard. 

Aralia nudicaulis L. . . . . . Wild or Virginian Sarsapa- 

rilla. 
Aralia hispida Vent. .... Bristly Sarsaparilla. 

Yellow 
Panax trifolium L Dwarf Ginseng. 

CORNACE^ DOGWOOD FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 

Cornus Canadensis L Low or Dwarf Cornel. 

Cornus florida L Flowering Dogwood. 

Black or Dark Purple 
Nyssa sylvatica Marsh Tupelo. 

Blue 

Cornus circinata L'Her. , . . Round-leaved Cornel or Dog- 
wood. 

Cornus Amonum Mill. . , . . Silky Cornel. 

Cornus alternifolia Lo f. . . . Alternate-leaved Cornel or 

Dogwood. 
White 

Cornus stolonifera Michx. . . . Red-osier Cornel or Dog- 
wood. 

Cornus candidissima Marsh. . . Panicled Cornel or Dogwood. 

ERICACE^ HEATH FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 

Gaultheria procumbens L. . . Spring or Creeping Winter- 
green. 



FAMILIES AND SPECIES xli 

Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi (L.) 

Spreng Red Bearberry. 

Black or Dark Purple 
Mairania alpina (L.) Desv. . . Alpine or Black Bearberry. 

VACCINIACE^ HUCKLEBERRY FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 

Vacciiiium Vitis Idaea L. . . . Mountain Cranberry. 
Oxycoccus oxycoccus (L.) MacM. Small or European Cran- 
berry. 
Oxycoccus macrocarpus (Ait.) 

Pers. ........ Large or American Cran- 
berry. 

Black or Dark Purple 

Gaylussacia resinosa (Ait.) T. 

& G. . Black or High-bush Huckle- 
berry. 

Gaylussacia duniosa (Andr.) T. 

& G Dwarf or Bush Huckleberry. 

Vaccinium atrococcum (A. Gray) 

Heller ........ Black Blueberry. 

Vaccinium nigrum (Wood) Brit- 
ton . Low Black Blueberry. 

Blue 

Gaylussacia frondosa (L.) T. & 

G Blue Tangle. 

Gaylussacia brachycera (Michx.) 

A. Gray Box Huckleberry. 

Vaccinium uliginosum L. . . » Great Bilberry. 

Vaccinium caespitosum Michx. Dwarf Bilberry. 

Vaccinium corymbosum L. . . High-bush or Tall Blueberry. 

Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum Lam. Dwarf Blueberry. 

Vaccinium Canadense Richards. Canada Blueberry. 

Vaccinium vacillans Kahn. . . Low Blueberry. 



xlii FAMILIES AND SPECIES 

Yelloio 
Yaccinium stamineum L. . . . Deerberry. 

White 
Chiogenes hispidula (L.) T. & G. Creeping Snowberry. 

EBENACE^ EBONY FAMILY 

Yellow 

Diospyros Virginiana L. . . . Persimmon. 

OLEACEiE OLIVE FAMILY 

Black or Dark Purple 

Chionanthus Virginica L. . . Fringe Tree. 
Ligustrum vulgare L Privet. 

SOLANACEiE POTATO FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 

Physalis Philadelphica Lam. . Philadelphia Ground Cherry. 
Solanum Dulcamara L. . . . Nightshade. 
Lycium vulgare (Ait. f.) Dunal. Matrimony Vine. 

Black or Dark Purple 

Solanum nigrum L. .... Black or Garden Nightshade. 

Yellow 

Physalis pubescens L Low Hairy Ground Cherry. 

Physalis angulata L Cut-leaved Ground Cherry. 

Physalis heterophylla Nees. . . Clammy Ground Cherry. 
Solanum Carol in en se L. . . . Horse Nettle. 

RUBIACE^ MADDER FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 
Mitchella repens L Partridge Berry. 

CAPRIFOLIACE^ HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY 

Red or Reddish Purple 
Sambucus pubens IVIichx. . . . Red-berried Elder. 
Viburnum alnifolium JNIarsh. . Hobble Bush. 



FAMILIES AND SPECIES xliii 

Viburnum Opulus L Cranberry Tree. 

Viburnum pauciflorum Pylaie . Few-flowered Cranberry Tree. 

Triosteum perfoliatum L. .' . Feverwort. 

Symphoricarpos Symphoricarpos 

(L.) MacM Coral Berry. 

Lonicera Caprifolium L. . . . Italian or Perfoliate Honey- 
suckle. 

Lonicera hirsuta Eaton . . . Hairy Honeysuckle. 

Lonicera dioica L Smooth-leaved or Glaucous 

Honeysuckle. 

Lonicera sempervirens L. . . . Trumpet or Coral Honey- 
suckle. 

Lonicera oblongifolia (Goldie) 

^ook Swamp Fly Honeysuckle. 

Lonicera ciliata Muhl American Fly Honeysuckle. 

Black or Dark Purple 

Sambucus Canadensis L. . . . American Elder. 

Viburnum acerifolium L. . . . Maple-leaved Arrowwood. 

Viburnum pubescens (Ait.) Pursh Downy-leaved Arrowwood. 

Viburnum cassinoides L. . . . Withe-rod. 

Viburnum nudum L Larger Withe-rod. 

Viburnum Lentago L Nannyberry. 

Viburnum prunifolium L. . . Black Haw. 

Blue 
Viburnum dentatum L. . . . Arrowwood. 
Viburnum molle Michx. . . . Soft-leaved Arrowwood. 
Lonicera coerulea L Blue or Mountain Fly Honey- 
suckle. 

White 

Symphoricarpos racemosus 

Michx Snowberry. 

Symphoricarpos pauciflorus (Rob- 
bins) Britton Low Snowberry. 



EED OE REDDISH PURPLE 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 

AMERICAN YEW 
Tazus minor. Taxus Canadensis Yew Family 

Fruit. — The fruit is drupelike ; the hard, 
bony, dark-colored, oval seed being nearly in- 
closed in a red, pulpy cup, which is the devel- 
oped fleshy flower disk. The drupe is solitary, 
growing at the end or the side of the branches. 
It is bracted at the base. 

Leaves. — The leaves are about half an inch 
long, pointed, and green on both sides. They 
are arranged spirally around the branches. 

Floivers. — The flowers are mostly dioecious. 
The fertile ones are solitary, and the sterile ones 
consist of a few naked stamens. April, May. 

This low shrub has spreading, crooked 
branches. It delights in a shaded situation, 
especially favoring the shelter of evergreens. 
It is sometimes called Ground Hemlock from its 
resemblance to young hemlock growths. The 

3 




American Yew {Taxus minor) 
4 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 5 

wood of the Yew is tough and elastic, and was 
used by the Indians in making their bows. 

It extends south to New Jersey and along 
the Alleghanies to Virginia. It also ranges 
northward from Minnesota and Iowa. 



INDIAN TURNIP. JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT 
Arisaema triphyllum Arum Family 

Fruit. — Bright, shining, scarlet berries are 
crowded together in an ovoid head. Each fruit 
bears the tip of the stigma at the top. One or 
two seeds are embedded in a scant, juicy pulp. 
August. 

Leaves. — One or two three-parted leaves 
usually overtop flower and fruit. The leaflets 
are ovate and mostly entire. The leaves some- 
times wither and fall before the fruit develops. 

Floivers. — The flowers are borne at the base 
of a club-shaped spadix which is nearly inclosed 
in a sheathing spathe, the top portion of which 
curves over, forming a sheltering roof. The 
flowers are mostly dioecious, although one plant 
sometimes bears both staminate and pistillate 
flowers. They are fertilized b}' small insects 



6 



HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 



which crawl around within the sheathing spathe 
and cover themselves with pollen. 




Jack-in-the-Pulpit {Arissema triphyllum) 



The plant has a turnip-shaped, wrinkled, pep- 
pery conn, which contains much starch. The 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 7 

Indians are said to have cooked it for food. 
They also cooked and ate the berries. 

The color of the hood and its markings is 
very variable, sometimes hght green with light 
markings, and sometimes dark with purple 
stripes. I was interested, one spring, to see if 
the light green spathes really did inclose male 
flowers and the dark ones female, as some 
authorities think probable. I gathered, one day, 
about thirty-six specimens. Of twenty dark 
ones, fourteen were pistillate and six staminate. 
Of sixteen light ones, five were pistillate and 
eleven staminate. The majority seem to bear 
out the supposition. Another interesting mat- 
ter came to my attention from the examination 
of the specimens. Sixteen plants each had two 
leaves, and of these fifteen were mostly pistillate 
and the other one had about as many staminate 
as pistillate blossoms. Of twenty specimens 
with one leaf, sixteen were mainly staminate 
and four pistillate. Later observations tend to 
show that the two-leaved specimens usually have 
pistillate flowers, and the one-leaved staminate. 

Jack-in-the-pulpit loves rich, wet woods, and 
extends as far west as Minnesota 'and eastern 
Kansas. 



8 HOW TO ENOW WILD FRUITS 

GREEN DRAGON. DRAGON ROOT 
Arisaema Dracontium Arum Family 

Fruit. — The orange-red berries grow in a 
large ovoid head. They are one- to few-seeded. 

Leaves. — The usually solitary compound leaf 
has nine to eleven radiating leaflets with the 
two side ones somewhat lobed. The leaflets 
are pointed and oblong-lanceolate. 

Floivers. — Both staminate and pistillate 
flowers usually grow on the same spadix. The 
upper part of the spadix is much prolonged and 
extends considerably beyond the pointed spathe. 
Both spathe and spadix are green. 

The range is about that of Jack-in-the-pulpit. 
Around the main club-shaped bulb, cluster many 
tiny bulblets, producing an effect which to a 
strong imagination might suggest the foot and 
toes of a monster and be responsible for the 
common name of Dragon Root. The radiating 
leaflets are a bit suggestive of a dragon s claws. 
Leaves and flowers are both green, the only bit 
of gay coloring that the plant affords appearing 
in the bright fruit cluster. 



RED OR REDDISH PUltPLE 9 

WATER ARUM 
Calla palustris Arum Family 

Fruit. — The few red berries grow in an 
oblong head. The seeds are few and inclosed 
in jelly. The spathe is persistent in fruit. 
July, August. 

Leaves. — The leaves are heart-shaped, and 
borne on erect or spreading stems. 

Floioers. — The flower stem is nearly as long 
as those of the leaves. The open, spreading 
spathe has a white npper surface and is green 
beneath. The spadix is much shorter than the 
spathe, and is covered with flowers, the lower 
of which are perfect and the npper ones often 
staminate. 

It is a low plant, less than a foot in height, 
and resembles the cultivated Calla. Spreading 
by a slender, creeping roots tock, it often occurs 
in masses. The rhizomes are used by the Lap- 
landers in making a kind of bread. It flourishes 
in cold bogs in Virginia, Wisconsin, and Iowa, 
and northward. 



10 HO IV TO KNOW WILD FBUITS 

ASPARAGUS 

Asparagus officinalis Lily-of-the- Valley Family 

Fi'idt. — The red berries are globose, and about 
as large as a small huckleberry. They are soli- 
tary or in pairs, and grow on a slender, jointed 
stem from the axil of a scale, which is really a 
modified leaf. The berry is three-celled, with 
two seeds in each cell. The calyx lobes are at 
the base of the berry. August, September. 

Leaves. — The true leaves appear as scales 
along the stem and branches. From the axils, 
along the branches, grow three tiny threadlike 
branchlets which are often mistaken for leaves. 

Flowers. — The flowers are small, bell-shaped, 
and greenish yellow. They grow on drooping, 
jointed pedicels. June. 

Tlie Asparagus was introduced from Europe, 
and has become quite a frequent roadside escape. 
It is very attractive in fruit, making one think 
of a miniature Christmas tree, with its gay 
decorations of red balls. The thick shoots of 
spring are edible, and bear the true leaves as 
large scales, which persist on the base of the 
plant until fall. 



BED OB BEDDISH PUBPLE 11 



WILD SPIKENARD 

Vagnera racemosa. Smilacina racemosa 
Lily-of-the- Valley Family 

Fruit. — The berries grow in a long racemose 
cluster at the terminus of the leafy, unbranched 
stem. They are globular, and when fully ripe, 
in late September, are translucent and a dull 
red in color. Before this, they present a pecul- 
iarly speckled appearance, being whitish, with 
many red dots and splashes. The flesh is thin. 
While the ovary is three-celled, with tw^o ovules 
in each, the developed berry contains but one or 
two large seeds. The fruits have an aromatic 
flavor. September. 

Leaves. — The leaves are alternate, nearly 
stemless, and have tiny hairs along the entire 
wavy margins. Each is oval-lanceolate, with 
a long, tapering point. They are so arranged 
along the stem that the plane of the upper sur- 
face is nearly parallel with the drooping stem, 
thus exposing it most advantageously to the 
light. 

Floivers. — The small, white, six-parted flowers 
grow in terminal, pyramidal clusters. May, July. 




Wild Spikenard {Vagnera racemosd) 
12 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 13 

Both in flower and fruit this plant lends its 
attractiveness to the woodside road. The stem 
is zigzag and somewhat inclined. The rodtstock 
is stout. It extends south to Georgia and west 
to Missouri and Arizona. 



THREE-LEAVED SOLOMON'S SEAL 

Vagnera trifolia. Smilacina trifolia 
Lily-of- the -Valley Family 

Fruit. — The globular berries grow in a few- 
fruited raceme. They are red when ripe. 

Leaves. — The leaves are usually three in 
number, although two or four occasionally 
occur. They are oblong, and taper to a nar- 
rowed sheathing base. They are acute at the 
apex. 

Flowers. — The white, six-parted flowers are 
smaller than in V. stellata. 

This is a smaller plant than False Spikenard 
or Star-flowered Solomon's Seal. A casual ob- 
server might confuse it with Unifolium Cana- 
dense, but it may be distinguished from it by 
the narrowed sheathing base of its leaf and its 
six-parted flowers. It grows in bogs and wet 



14 now TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

woods in New England, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Michigan. 

FALSE LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY. TWO- 
LEAVED SOLOMON'S SEAL 

Unifolium Canadense. Maianthemum Canadeuse 
Lily-of-the- Valley Family ^ 

Fruit. — The berry is whitish, thickly speckled 
with red until late in the season, when it be- 
comes a dull red. The fruits grow in a termi- 
nal cluster, and are much like those of Vagnera 
trifolla. 

Leaves. — The leaves are ovate to lanceolate, 
with a heart-shaped base. There are usually 
two, sometimes three on the stem. They are 
sessile or nearly so. 

Floioers. — The four-parted, small, w^hite 
flowers grow in a simple raceme. 

The heart-shaped base of the leaf and the 
four-parted perianth are " earmarks " of the 
species. This is a tiny plant, growing profusely 
in woods, sometimes in patches, sometimes alone. 
It is quite common throughout southern Canada 
and south to North Carolina, Iowa, and South. 
Dakota. 





False Lily-of-the-Valle'x {Unifolium Canadense) 
15 



16 HOW TO KNOW WILD FBUITS 

HAIRY DISPORUM 
Disporum lanuginosum Lily-of-the- Valley Family 

Fruit, — The red berry is oblong or ovoid, 
and is pointed at the top. It is pulpy, three- 
celled, and three- to six-seeded. It is usually 
single, on a terminal stem. 

Leaves. — The ovate-oblong leaves are taper- 
pointed, somewhat rounded at the base, and 
stemless. They are downy beneath. 

Flowers. — The greenish yellow, lilylike, 
drooping flowers grow on terminal, slender 
stems. May. 

The Disporum is a low, pubescent plant, with 
erect, somewhat branched stems. The rootstock 
is creeping. Disjyoruin means " double seed," in 
reference to the two ovules in each cell of the 
ovary. 

It is found in rich woods from Ontaria to 
western New York, Tennessee, and Georgia. 

CLASPING-LEAVED TWISTED STALK 
Streptopus amplexifolius Lily-of-the-Valley Family 

Fruit. — The red, globose, or oval berries are 
three-celled, with many seeds, arranged in two 




Clasping-leaved Twisted Stalk (Streptopus ampIexifoUus) 
17 



18 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

rows, in each cell. The berries are usually 
solitary and grow on sharply bent peduncles 
which spring from the leaf axils. August. 

Leaves. — The ovate, light green leaves are 
taper-pointed, heart-shaped, and clasping at the 
base, and are very smooth. 

Flowers. — The greenish white flowers are 
almost hidden beneath the leaves. June. 

The Twisted Stalks somewhat resemble the Sol- 
omon's Seal. They are, however, more branched. 
Streptopus is Greek, meaning twisted foot or 
stalk, in reference to the bent peduncles. The 
plant is quite generally distributed over the 
parts of America north of North Carolina, Ohio, 
Michigan, and New Mexico. 



SESSILE-LEAVED TWISTED STALK 
streptopus roseus Lily-of-the-Valley Family 

Fruit. — The fruit is a globose red berry, simi- 
lar to that of the preceding. 

This species is distinguished by : — 

Lack of bloom on the under leaf surfaces. 

Hairy leaf margins. 

Purplish pink flowers. 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 19 

Less abruptly bent flower stalks. 
Earlier period of blooming. 
Georgia, Michigan, and Oregon are its south- 
ern limits. 

SESSILE-FLOWERED WAKE-ROBIN 
Trillium sessile Lily-of-the-Valley Family 

Fruit. — The red, stemless berry is globular 
and about half an inch long. It is six-angled, 
three-celled, and many-seeded. 

Leaves. — The three whorled leaves are like- 
wise sessile. They are ovate, with acute tips, and 
are often spotted with lighter and darker green. 

Flowers. — The sessile flowers are a dull red, 
occasionally greenish. They have narrow sepals 
and petals, and an agreeable odor. April, May. 

This plant of moist woods grows in Pennsyl- 
vania and southward to Florida. Minnesota 
and Arkansas are its western limits. 



EARLY WAKE-ROBIN 
Trillium nivale Lily-of-the-Valley Family 

Fruit. — The round, flattened berry is small, 
about a third of an inch in diameter. It is red 



20 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

and has but three rounded divisions. This and 
Trillium erytlirocarinim are the only three-angled 
Trillium fruits. The berry is short-stemmed. 

Leaves. — The three ovate, whorled leaves 
are blunt at the apex, and have short stems. 

Flowers. — The flowers are small and white, 
with erect, spreading petals. March, May. 

This is a dwarf species, only two to five inches 
high. It grows in woods from Pennsylvania and 
Ohio, south to Tennessee and Iowa. 



LARGE-FLOWERED WAKE-ROBIN 
Trillium grandiflorum Lily-of-the-Valley Family 

Fruit. — The red berry is slightly six-angled 
and from one-half inch to an inch in length. 
The sepals persist at the base as do also the 
filaments, which remain green. The berry is 
globular, three-celled, and many-seeded. The 
peduncle is sometimes three inches long. 

Leaves. — Somewhat four-sided, but not as 
broad as Trillium erectum. They are pointed 
and nearly stemless — in the usual whorl of 
three. 

Flowers. — The flowers are large, with erect 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 21 

and spreading white petals that later grow pink. 
They grow on long, erect stems. 

This is a native of rich woods from Vermont 
to North Carolina, with Minnesota and Missouri 
as the western boundary of its range. 



ILL-SCENTED WAKE-ROBIN. BIRTHROOT 
Trillium erectum Lily-of-the- Valley Family 

Fruit. — The dark red, round ovate berry is 
distinctly six-angled. A dry stigma is at the 
junction of each two of these angles or ridges. 
The persistent dry sepals and remnants of the 
petals are at the base. The fruit is borne on a 
long, somewhat reclined stem. The berry is 
about an inch long. The brown seeds are 
numerous and horizontal in each cell. August. 

Leaves. — The leaves are broadly four-sided, 
with scarcely any stems. The apex is acute. 
The leaves grow in a whorl of three at the 
summit of the plant stem. At the time of 
fruiting they are apt to be torn, faded, and 
brown. 

Floivers. — The terminal, solitary flower is 
somewhat reclined and varies much in color; 



22 



HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 







Ill-scented Wake-robin {Trillium erectwn) 

white, pink, dark red, yellow, and even greenish 
blossoms having been found. The odor is very 
unpleasant. April, June. 



MEB on REDDISH PURPLE 23 

When driving in early spring along a wooded 
roadway, I have found great patches of this 
curiously colored blossom growing near streams 
or in swampy grounds. I. was quite content, 
however, to admire them from a distance, object- 
ing to the odor which a closer acquaintance 
entails. 

This odor and the color of the flower serve 
the plant a useful purpose in attracting the 
flesh fly, which Clarence M. Weed says is the 
most useful insect in disseminating the pollen 
of this plant. The color of the flower resembles 
that of raw meat, and the yellow specimens 
which I saw were quite the color of fat beef. 
This species grows as far west as Minnesota 
and Missouri, and south to North Carolina. 



NODDING WAKE-ROBIN 
Trillium cerauum Lily-of-the- Valley Family 

Fruit, — The reddish ovate berry is somewhat 
six-angled, and is borne on a short inclined or 
recurved stem. It is about three-quarters of 
an inch lono;. 

Leaves. — The three leaves a-re sessile or nearly 
so. They are very similar to Trillium erectum. 



24 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

Floivers. — The white or pink flowers have 
wavy-margined petals that roll backwards. They 
grow on a curved stem and are often hidden 
beneath the leaves. April- June. 

This Wake-robin favors rich woods, and ranges 
from Ontario to Georgia and Missouri and west 
to Minnesota. 

PAINTED WAKE-ROBIN 

Trillium undulatum. Trillium erythrocarpum 
Lily-of-the-Valley Family 

Fruit. — The bright red berry is about three 
quarters of an inch long, and is borne terminally 
on a nearly erect stem. It is ovate, with the 
narrow end rather pointed, is obscurely three- 
angled, and crowned with the persistent stigmas. 
Its three angles instead of six, lack of wings, 
and ovate shape distinguish it from all the other 
Trillmm fruits. The three spreading sepals are 
persistent at the base as are also dry remnants 
of the petals. The skin is thin, the pulp white 
and scanty, and the brown seeds numerous, ovate, 
and arranged horizontally. 

Leaves. — The leaves are in a whorl of three. 
Each leaf is petioled. The stems unite, forming 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 25 

a triangular surface, from the center of which 
springs the flower stem. The leaves are broad- 
ovate, with a long tapering point. 

Floiuers. — The recurved white petals are 
marked with crimson stripes at the base. This 
Wake-robin bears . one of the most beautiful 
flowers of the genus. 

The Painted Trillium grows in profusion in 
the Catskill and Adirondack mountains, and is 
found in damp woods as far west as Wisconsin 
and Missouri and south to Georgia. 



WALTER'S GREENBRIER 
Smilax Walteri Smilax Family 

Fruit. — The coral-red, globose berries are in 
umbels, growing on flattened stems which scarcely 
equal the petioles in length. The berries are 
two- to three-seeded. 

Leaves. — The ovate or ovate-lanceolate leaves 
are thick and green on both sides. They are 
somewhat heart-shaped at base, but are seldom 
lobed. The apex is bristle pointed. 

Flowers. — The blossoms are brownish, and 
grow in umbels. April- June. 



26 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

This is the only Greenbrier in our section 
which bears red berries. Smilax Walteri has a 
low stem, somewhat prickly below and unarmed 
above. It grows in swamps and moist places as 
far north as New Jersey. 



LAUREL MAGNOLIA 

Magnolia Virginiana. Magnolia glauca Magnolia Family 

Fruit. — The small conelike fruit consists of 
many coherent carpels, which are crowded upon 
the enlarged receptacle. When mature, the 
conelike mass is red and each carpel splits along 
its outer side. The one or two contained red 
seeds escape, but, for a time, each remains hang- 
ing by a slender white thread. The seeds are 
slightly bitter, but are used as food by the birds. 
September, October. 

Leaves. — The oval or elliptical leaves have a 
leathery appearance. They are light green and 
shining above and much whitened beneath. 
In the South, they usually remain on the tree 
during the winter, falling in the spring to give 
place to new growths. The petioles are short 
and tapering. 




Laurel Magnolia {Magnolia Virginiana) 



27 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 29 

Flowers. — Emerson says : " The flower, two 
or three inches broad, is as beautiful and almost 
as fragrant as a water lily." It is creamy white, 
solitary, and terminal. June. 

The soft white flowers, amidst the glossy 
green foliage, yield one of the pleasures found 
among the swamp growths of early summer, 
especially along the coast. The gradual transi- 
tion from one part of the flower to another is 
interesting. The sepals are much like the petals 
and the stamens retain a petal-like character. 
The fruit mass flies the red-seed banners to at- 
tract the bird carriers. In our section the plant 
is a shrub ; along the Gulf of Mexico it be- 
comes a tree. It has been found as far north as 
Cape Ann. The bark is usually brown, but on 
young growths is light gray. 

CUCUMBER TREE. MOUNTAIN MAGNOLIA 
Magnolia acuminata Magnolia Family 

Fruit. — The structure of the fruit is similar 
to that of the small Magnolia, but it is much 
larger. ' It is pink with red seeds. The resem- 
blance of the green fruit to a cucumber is the 
cause of one of its common names. 



30 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

The fragrant flowers are greenish white and 
rather inconspicuous, being so nearly the color of 
the foliage. 

This plant is rare in our section. It occurs 
in western New York and southward. It is a 
tree sixty to ninety feet high, with brown bark. 



YELLOW PUCCOON. YELLOW ROOT 

YELLOW INDIAN PAINT. ORANGE 

ROOT. GOLDEN SEAL 

Hydrastis Canadensis Crowfoot Family 

Fruit. — The fruit somewhat resembles a 
raspberry. It is a small head of one- to two- 
seeded crimson berries. The head is ovoid and 
blunt, and the fleshy carpels are tipped with 
short, curved beaks. 

Leaves. — There is a single roundish root leaf 
and near the top of the stem are two more 
rounded leaves. These are five- to seven-lobed, 
doubly serrate, and heart-shaped at the base. 

Flowers. — The blossoms are borne at the top 
of the stem. They are greenish white and 
inconspicuous. The sepals fall when the flower 




Red Baneberry {Actsea rubra) 



32 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 33 

opens. There are no petals, just numerous 
stamens and several pistils. 

This is a low, hairy perennial about a foot 
high. Its rootstock is thick, knotted, and 
yellow. The plant grows in rich woods from 
New York to Minnesota and southward. 



RED BANEBERRY 

Actaea rubra. Actaea spicata, Var. rubra 
Crowfoot Family 

Fruit. — The cherry-colored, oval berries grow 
in terminal ovate clusters about three inches in 
.length. A white berry is occasionally found. 
Each fruit is borne on a slender stem, and has 
a groove along one side extending from the stem 
to a black spot at the opposite end, the remnant 
of the stigma. The flesh of the berry is white 
and rather thin. The seeds are smooth and 
packed in two horizontal rows, with the points 
of attachment to the flesh on the grooved side. 
This fruit is a good illustration of the develop- 
ment of a simple pistil. The seeds differ in 
shape according to the position each occupies in 
the row. July, August. 



34 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

Leaves. — This perennial bears two or three 
twice- or thrice-compound leaves. The leaflets 
are. often lobed and sometimes the lower end 
ones are compound. They are coarsely toothed. 

Floivers. — The small white flowers grow in 
terminal ovate clusters. The sepals fall when 
the flower opens. The stamens, protruding 
beyond the petals, give the raceme a feathery 
appearance. The stigma, maturing before the 
anthers shed their pollen, necessitates cross 
fertilization, which is effected by small bees. 

This is a plant of the woods, and the fruit, 
with its beautiful rich coloring, brightens the 
wooded roadside in July. Near by the Wild 
Sarsaparilla drupes are blackening, while in more 
open spaces the Red and the Black Raspberries 
offer their delicious fruits. 

Its range is from Maine, south to New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania, and westward. 

COMMON BARBERRY 
Berberis vulgaris Barberry Family 

Fruit. — The oblong scarlet berries grow in 
clusters, w^hich are usually drooping. Each 
berry commonly has one seed, which is erect and 




Common Barberry (Berberis vvlgaris) 
35 



36 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

is covered with a hard, brittle coat. The fruit is 
very acid but is eatable when cooked. It makes 
a delicious jelly. The berries are eaten by birds 
and the seeds thrown up from the crop instead 
of passing through the entire digestive tract. 
September. 

Leaves. — The leaves seem to grow in rosettes 
from the axils of the spines. They are oval to 
obovate and bristly toothed. 

This spiny shrub generally grows in thickets 
and waste grounds in eastern New England, 
having become thoroughly wild there. It varies 
in height from one to six feet. The wood and 
inner bark are yellow. The spines, in groups of 
seven or three, are modified leaf structures and 
protect, against destruction from grazing animals, 
the fresh shoots, with their leaves or flowers, 
which grow from their axils. 

The flowers show ingenious arrangements for 
protecting the pollen against dew or rain, and 
for securing cross fertilization. The yellow 
blossoms grow in drooping, many-flowered 
racemes, and the concave petals of each bloom 
thus act as a roof for the pollen borne by the 
stamens which they cover. 

The lower third of each stamen is sensitive to 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 37 

the slightest touch. Both the hive bee and the 
humblebee come to the flower in quest of the 
honey which is produced by the saffron-colored 
swellings on the petals and in getting it are 
almost sure to touch the base of the stamens. 
These spring up and cover the head and parts of 
the fore legs and proboscis of the bee with 
pollen. 

" All down the loose-walled lanes in archin' bowers, 
The barb'ry droops its strings o' golden flowers, 
Whose shrinkin' hearts the school-girls love to try 
With pins, — they'll worry yourn so, boys, binieby ! " 
— Lowell's Sunthiii' in the Pastoral Line. 

The peasants of Europe, long before science ex- 
plained the phenomenon, declared that barberry 
bushes caused wheat to rust. The fungus caus- 
ing wheat rust often lives but part of its life on 
wheat. There is one stage of its growth which 
takes place on leaves of the barberry. Its pres- 
ence there is manifested by groups of little 
orange-colored cups, called " cluster cups/' which 
grow on the under surface of the leaf. 

The state legislature of Massachusetts, as early 
as 1760, passed — 

" An Act to prevent Damage to English Grain 
arising from Barberry Bushes." 



88 HOW TO KNO^r WILD FRUITS 

There are certain grasses, however, upon which 
the " summer spore " stage of the " wheat rust " 
is produced throughout the year. This stage does 
not need, in the spring, the intermediate host of 
the barberry leaf, but will grow directly on the 
young grain. Eradication of the barberry, there- 
fore, while necessary, and of advantage, does not 
always eradicate the trouble. 

WILD ALLSPICE. BENJAMIN BUSH 
FEVER BUSH. SPICE BUSH 

Benzoin Benzoin. Lindera Benzoin Laurel Family 

Fruit. — The oval drupes are red and shining, 
with thin, yellow flesh and a large stone. They 
grow in small bunches, of from two to five, on 
stout, short stalks. September. 

Leaves. — The oval or elliptical leaves are 
short-pointed at the apex and narrowed at the 
base. The under surface is paler than the upper. 
Yellow is the fall color. 

Flowers. — The flowers are small, yellow, and 
usually dioecious. They open before the leaves 
appear in the spring. April, May. 

This is one of the early blooming spring 
shrubs. The flowers and leaves, especially if 




Spice Bush {Benzoin Benzoin) 
39 



40 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

bruised, have an aromatic odor which, to some, 
is very disagreeable. It belongs to a family 
which includes such plants as the Camphor and 
Cinnamon. Its home is in damp woods. North 
Carolina, Tennessee, and Kansas limit its south- 
ern range. 



HAWTHORN OR NORTHERN GOOSE- 
BERRY 
Ribes ozyacanthoides Gooseberry Family 

Fruit. — The reddish purple berry is round or 
round-ovoid, smooth, and covered with a bloom. 
Like the other species, it keeps the dried calyx 
at the summit, and has similar seeds. July, 
August. 

Leaves. — The leaves are deeply three- to five- 
lobed, Avith the lobes toothed and cut. The base 
of the leaf is heart-shaped or wedge-shaped. 

Flowers, — The greenish or purplish flowers 
grow in few-flowered clusters, on short pedicels. 

This is a low, usually smooth, shrub, with 
crooked or reclined branches. When prickles 
occur, they are scattered, and the spines, if any, 
grow singly or in threes. The plant grows in 
wet woods as far south as New Jersey and west 




Hawthorn Gooseberry {Rihes oxyacanthoides) 
41 



42 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

from Newfoundland to Northwest Territory and 
British Cohimbia. It is also found in the Rocky 
Mountains as far south as Utah and Colorado. 



EASTERN WILD GOOSEBERRY 
Ribes rotundifolium Gooseberry Family 

Fruit. — The small, purplish, globose berry is 
free from prickles and delicious in flavor. It is 
borne on a slender, smooth stem and bears the 
mark of the calyx at the tip. The gelatinous- 
covered seeds are suspended in a pulpy mass. 

Leaves. — The small, roundish leaves are 
three- or five-lobed, with short and blunt di- 
visions. The pubescence is slight if any, and 
the leaf is shining above. 

Flowers. — The flowers are greenish, with the 
lobes sometimes a dull purple. They grow on a 
short two- or three-flowered stem. 

This is a shrub three or four feet high. The 
branches are spreading, with short, usually 
single, spines. The stems are smooth. Emer- 
son says that this is the most promising of our 
native gooseberries for cultivation. This spe- 
cies prefers mountainous habitats, and ranges 
from Massachusetts to North Carolina. 



BEB OR BEDDISH PURPLE 43 

SWAMP GOOSEBERRY 
Ribes lacustre Gooseberry Family 

Fruit. — The berry of the Swamp Gooseberry 
is small, about one-sixth of an inch through. 
It is prickly, although the bristles are weak. 
It is reddish or dark purple, and often grows 
in raceme-like clusters. The dried calyx per- 
sists at the summit. The seeds have crusta- 
ceous coats, surrounded by gelatinous ones, and 
are suspended by tiny threads. The flavor is 
unpleasant. July, August. 

Leaves. — One characteristic of the species is 
its deeply cut, five-lobed leaves. The petioles 
are slender and hairy. The leaf is thin, and 
hairy along the veins beneath. 

Floivers. — The greenish flowers grow in 
many-flowered racemes, differing in this respect 
from the other gooseberries. 

.Rihes lacustre seems to be an intermediate 
form between gooseberries and currants. The 
young stems are quite prickly, and the spines 
are weak and single or clustered. The older 
branches are smooth, excepting a few axillary 
spines. The plant favors wet woods or swamps 



44: HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

from Pennsylvania north to Newfoundland, and 
west through British Columbia and our northern 
boundary states. 

FETID CURRANT. MOUNTAIN CURRANT 
PROSTRATE CURRANT 

Ribes prostratum Gooseberry Family 

Fruit. — The round, light red berries grow in 
slender racemes. The berries and their short 
stems are covered with glandular bristles. When 
bruised, they smell like Skunk Cabbage. 

Leaves. — The leaves are deeply five- to seven- 
lobed. The lobes are ovate, acutish, and doubly 
serrate. The leaf stems are slender. 

Flowers. — The greenish flowers grow in erect, 
slender, several-flowered racemes. 

Prostrate stems, sometimes rooting, are char- 
acteristic of this species. The branches have 
neither prickles nor spines. The unpleasant 
odor, when bruised, of both plant and fruit is 
responsible for the name " Fetid Currant. " It 
favors cold, wet woods, and extends south from 
Labrador, especially along the Alleghanies, to 
North Carolina, along the Rockies to Colorado, 
and throughout southern Canada. 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 45 

RED CURRANT 

Ribes rubrum. Ribes rubrum, Var. subglandulosum 
Gooseberry Family 

Fruit, — The smooth, round, red berries grow 
in drooping racemes, and in appearance and 
taste are similar to the cultivated currant. 

The AYild Red Currant is very similar to the 
garden one, although that is probably a culti- 
vated form of a European species. The currant 
is native to America, Europe, and Asia. The 
Red Currant and the Fetid Currant are the only 
species with red berries, and the Fetid is easily 
distinguished by its glandular bristles and dis- 
agreeable odor. The range of our native fruit 
is in cold woods, from Labrador to Alaska and 
south to New Jersey, Indiana, and Minnesota. 



PURPLE-FLOWERING RASPBERRY 

Rubus odoratus Rose Family 

Fruit. — The tiny red drupes are closely 
packed together into a flat, close head, which 
separates readily from the broad receptacle. 
Withered stamens and recurved calyx lobes 



46 



HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 




Purple-flowering Raspberry {Rubus odoratus) 



surround the base. The fruits grow in clus- 
ters on bristly stems. The " berries " are acid. 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 47 

Leaves. — The large leaves are pubescent on 
both surfaces. They are from three- to five-lobed 
and finely toothed. 

Floivers. — Large, purple, roselike blossoms 
grow in loose clusters. 

It is for the attractiveness of the flowers 
rather than value of fruit that the Purple- 
Flowering Raspberry is known. The large 
peculiarly colored blossoms, so like the single 
rose in shape, appear advantageously against 
the large, soft, green leaves. '^ Grape leaves,'* 
Small Boy calls them, and they are quite similar. 
The shrub has no thorns, but recent growths ; 
stems, leaves, and calyx are densely clothed 
with glandular hairs. The plant occurs in 
rocky woods as far south as Georgia and Ten- 
nessee and west to Michigan. 

CLOUDBERRY. BAKED-APPLE BERRY 
MOUNTAIN RASPBERRY 

Rubus chamsemorus Rose Family 

Fruit. — The fruit consists of a few small 
drupes borne on a flat, broad receptacle, from 
which they separate when ripe. The flavor of 
the ripened fruit is pleasant, being sweet and 



48 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

honeylike. The ovate calyx lobes support the 
fruit at its base. It is yellow or amber-colored 
and usually tinged with red on the surface ex- 
posed to the sun. It is solitary and borne on 
a terminal stem. 

Leaves. — Two, simple, roundish, five- to nine- 
lobed leaves, somewhat like geranium leaves, 
grow on the unbranched stems. They are ser- 
rate and alternate. 

Flowers. — The blossoms are white. Stami- 
nate flowers grow on one plant; pistillate, on 
another. 

This is a low herbaceous plant without 
prickles, which, in New England, is found along 
the coast of Maine and on the highest peaks of 
the White Mountains. It grows quite abun- 
dantly in Nova Scotia, Labrador, Newfoundland, 
and in the northern part of Quebec. It flour- 
ishes in greatest profusion even farther to the 
north, being an Arctic plant in Europe and Asia 
as well as in America. The northern berries are 
superior in size and quality. 

The Indians in northern Quebec cook the 
berries in a sugar made from birch juice, and the 
dwellers in the posts of the Hudson Bay Company 
make from them a jam of rare flavor. 



BED OR BEDDISH PURPLE 49 

WILD RED RASPBERRY 

{For illustration, see page 182.) 
Rubus strigosua Rose Family 

Fruit. — The so-called berry is an aggregate 
fruit, consisting ol many small, imited drupes, 
the juicy pulp arising from the outer coat of the 
contained nutlet. The styles are persistent over 
the hemispherical surface of the fruit, and the 
persistent stamens surround the base. When 
ripe, the fruit separates from the white, spongy, 
oblong or conical receptacle. The fruits are 
borne in a loose cluster, either terminally or 
from a leaf axil. The fruit stems are thickly 
covered with recurved bristles. The fruits are 
red and delicious in taste and fragrance. July- 
September. 

Leaves. — The compound leaves are composed 
of three or five leaflets. These are coarsely and 
irregularly serrate, and the lateral ones are ses- 
sile. They are rounded at base and acute at 
apex. The under surface is whitish and downy. 

Flowers. — The white flowers grow in loose 
clusters. 

Aside from its dissemination by seeds the 
Raspberry is spread from the root. Suckers run 



50 HOW TO KNOW WILD FEU ITS 

out in all directions from the central root and 
send up new shoots in fresh soil. It is common 
to find the Raspberry growing in patches by the 
roadside, along fence rows, or in corners. 

Our Wild Red Raspberry is the ancestor of 
the various cultivated varieties. The cultivated 
White Raspberry is considered a " sport." 

Rubus neglectus, or Purple Wild Raspberry, 
is an intermediate form between the Wild Red 
Raspberry and the Black Raspberry. It is a 
plant with comparatively few bristles or prickles. 
The fruit is borne on upright stems, is dark red, 
and nearly hemispherical. In cultivation the 
fruit is yellow. 

DWARF RASPBERRY 

Rubus Americanus. Rubus triflorus Rose Family 

Fruit. — This fruit resembles in appearance 
that of the Low Blackberry. It differs in color, 
being dark red when ripe, and also in the sepa- 
ration of the few, two to five, grains which com- 
pose it from the receptacle, when the fruit is 
mature. Each grain is a juicy drupe inclosing 
a single hard-coated seed. The fruit is borne on 
a slender stem. July. 




Dwarf Raspberry (Rubus Americanus) 
51 



52 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

Leaves. — The compound leaves consist of 
from three to five thin, nearly smooth leaflets. 
These are coarsely and doubly serrate. 

Flowers. — The flower cluster grows on a slen- 
der stem and consists of from one to three small- 
ish white flowers. The sepals and petals are 
often six or seven in number, while those of 
the other species number but five. 

This vine is ascending or trailing, slightly 
woody and hairy, but has no prickles. The fruit 
is borne on upright stems. It favors moist 
woods, and ranges from Labrador as far south 
as New Jersey and westward. 



VIRGINIA OR SCARLET STRAWBERRY 
Fragaria Virginiana Rose Family 

Fruit. — The receptacle of the ripened fruit 
has become much enlarged, pulpy, sweet, and 
scarlet in color ; and bears, sunken in pits over 
its surface, several achenes. The lobed calyx 
subtends the aggregate fruit. The fruits of this 
species are globular. They grow on drooping 
stems, in small clusters, and are overtopped by 
the leaves. 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 53 

Leaves. — The radical leaves consist of three 
broadly oval or obovate leaflets which are thick 
and leathery. The leaflets are obtuse, bluntly 
toothed, and hairy. The leaf stems are hairy, as 
are also the stipules at the base of the petioles. 

Flowers. — The. white flowers grow in small 
racemes on naked, hairy stems. They have 
many bright yellow stamens, which form a 
pleasing contrast with the white petals. 

This is the common field strawberry of our 
section. The strawberries, aside from propa- 
gation by means of seeds, spread by runners, and 
the plants are usually found growing in patches. 
Fence corners, sandy knolls, and around rocks 
are spots which often reward our search for 
the berries. The common attractive color com- 
bination of red and green is seen in the leaves as 
well as in the leaves and fruit. At the time of 
fruiting some of the leaflets are often a bright 
red. 

Nor do the fruits depend upon color alone as 
a means of allurement, but send forth upon the 
breezes a deliciously perfumed notice that they 
are ready for guests. Have you not encountered 
it and, following its lead, shared with the robins, 
bluebirds, and downy woodpeckers, the delicious 



54 HO IV TO ENOW WILD FRUITS 

feast ? The wild flavor of the berries is beyond 
the power of cultivation to produce or retain. 

A strawberry bearing white fruits grows in 
the Alps. 

F. Virginiana grows from New Brunswick 
southward and as far west as South Dakota. 

Frag aria Canadensis or Northern Wild Straw- 
berry, described as a separate species by Britton 
and Brown, is especially a northern plant. The 
leaflets are oblong or narrowly obovate, and have 
comparatively few teeth. The fruit is oblong or 
somewhat rounded at the summit. The achenes 
are sunken in pits. 



EUROPEAN WOOD STRAWBERRY 
Fragaria vesca Rose Family 

Fruit. — The achenes are not sunken in pits 
but are borne on the nearly smooth surface of 
the conical or hemispherical fruit. The calyx 
lobes are sometimes spreading, sometimes re- 
flexed. The fruit cluster rises above the leaves. 

Leaves. — The thin, light green, three-parted 
leaves grow on stems that are shorter than the 
flower stems. 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE b5 

This species belongs to fields and rocky places. 
It is naturalized from Europe, and is less com- 
mon than Fragaria Virginiana. 

Fragaria Americana, American Wood Straw- 
berry, is by some considered a variety of Fixi- 
garia vesca, but is^ described by Britton and 
Brown as a distinct species. The leaflets are 
thinner and the fruit ovoid, or like a prolonged 
cone. The berry has a smooth, shining surface, 
looking almost as if varnished, and the achenes 
adhere but slightly to it. It is an inhabitant 
of rocky woods, and does not extend below Penn- 
sylvania and New Jersey. Oregon is its western 
boundary. 

THE ROSE 

The rose, with its dainty pink coloring, and its 
subtle fragrance, is a general favorite. Both in 
blossom and in fruit it presents interesting fea- 
tures of structure. This is one of the plants 
that protects its pollen from rain and dew by 
pitching a petal tent over the stamens. You 
surely remember the overlapping, folded aspect 
of the petals in the early morning or on a 
cloudy day. 

The rose produces no honey for the bee, but 



56 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

does offer a liberal supply of pollen. The mass 
of carpels at the center of the flower affords a 
convenient landing place for the insect and a 
substantial platform on which he may stand 
while gathering the pollen stores, which are 
yielded by the numerous stamens circled about. 
During his harvesting the bee carries pollen 
from one blossom to the receptive stigmas of 
another, and accomplishes the cross fertilization 
of the flower at the same time that he is gather- 
ing material for his " bee bread." 

The fruit of the rose is peculiar to itself and 
is known as a hip. It is considered by Gray 
and by Britton and Brown to be a fleshy calyx 
cup with a contracted mouth which incloses the 
bony achenes. Kerner and Oliver consider the 
hip as a hollow receptacle which contains carpels 
that are entirely distinct from the wall of the 
receptacle. The remnants of the styles remain 
at the mouth of the hip, which may or may not 
be surrounded by the calyx lobes. 

The fruits are eaten by birds and the seeds 
scattered by them. Mice, too, are fond of the 
hips but gnaw and destroy the seeds instead of 
aiding in their dispersal. Some rose hips were 
gathered from the bushes and scattered along 



ttEL OR REDDISH PURPLE 57 

the near-by path. In the morning, these were 
found to have been nibbled or eaten by the mice, 
while the hips on the bushes were left untouched, 
having been protected by the sharp thorns and 
prickles. These also hinder snails and cater- 
pillars from reaching and destroying the fresh 
foliage. 

There are five native species quite common in 
our section. 

SMOOTH OR MEADOW ROSE 

Rosa blanda Rose Family 

Fritit. — This globose, bright scarlet hip is 
generally smooth and retains the calyx lobes, 
which are erect on the fruit and somewhat hairy. 
September. 

Leaves. — The leaflets are five to seven in 
number, obtuse at the summit, narrowed at the 
base, and simply and sharply serrate. They 
have short stems or are sessile. The stipules 
are broad and dilated. 

Floioers. — The pink flowers are solitary or in 
corymbs. 

Rosa hlanda is a low bush not more than four 
feet high. It occasionally bears a few prickles 



58 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

but entirely lacks spines, this feature being a 
distinguishing mark of the species. The stems 
are a dark red. It favors moist, rocky places 
from Newfoundland south to New Jersey and 
west to Illinois and Ontario. 



SWAMP ROSE 

Rosa Carolina Rose Family 

Fruit — The scarlet hip is globose or de- 
pressed-globose. It and the stem are set with 
glandular hairs. The spreading or reflexed 
calyx lobes are deciduous. September -, remains 
during the winter. 

Leaves. — The compound leaves have five to 
nine leaflets, usually seven. They are usually 
narrowly oblong and pointed at either end. 
They are simply and finely serrate, dull green, 
and pale or pubescent beneath. Even in mid- 
summer they often become a dull reddish color, 
which is the regular autumnal shade. The 
stipules are dilated. 

Flowers. — The bright pink flowers usually 
grow in corymbs, seldom solitary. June- 
August. 

This rose of swamps and stream borders 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 59 

suckers freely and often grows in clumps. It 
is from one to eight feet in height. The spines 
are stout and often recurved. Prickles fre- 
quently occur along the stems. The range is 
throughout the Eastern United States. It is 
one of the most common species. 



LOW OR PASTURE ROSE 
Rosa humilis Rose Family 

Fruit. — The depressed globular or globose 
hips, with their pedicels, are hairy and glandular. 
The calyx lobes are not persistent. September 
and persistent. 

Leaves. — The leaflets are from five to seven, 
usually five. They are coarsely serrate, rather 
thin, acute at apex, short-stemmed or sessile. 
The stipules are narrow and entire. Bright 
reds and orange are the autumnal colorings. 

Floivers. — The solitary or two- to three- 
clustered pink flowers have a glandular calyx 
with lobed calyx lobes. May-July. 

The Pasture Rose is usually low, about three 
feet liigh. The spines are slender and straight, 
and the bush is more or less prickly. It is a 



60 



HOW TO ENOW WILD FRUITS 



'^P^SM 







"//' 




Low OR Pasture Rose {Rosa hwnilis) 

rose of dry soil and spreads rapidly by suckers. 
It extends south to Georgia and Louisiana, and 
west to Wisconsin. 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 61 

NORTHEASTERN ROSE 
Rosa nitida Rose Family 

Fruit. — The hip is globular, scarlet, and bears 
glandular hairs. The calyx lobes fall. Fruit 
is persistent. 

Leaves, — The leaflets are usually narrowly 
oblong and pointed at either end. They are 
sharply serrate, bright green, and shining. The 
stipules are generally broad and somewhat glan- 
dular. Bright orange and red are the fall colors. 

Floivers. — The flowers are in small clusters. 
June, July. 

A marked sign of this species is its red shoots 
with their prickles, which are nearly as stout as 
the slender spines. It is a plant of low stature, 
about two feet in height. Its range is quite 
limited — from Massachusetts north to New- 
foundland. 

DOG ROSE. CANKER ROSE 
Rosa canina Rose Family 

Fruit — The reflexed calyx lobes fall from the 
long ovoid hip, which is usually smooth. The 
fruit is red when mature. September. 



62 HOW TO KNOW WILD FBUITS 

Leaves. — The stipules are glandular and broad. 
The five to seven leaflets are quite thick, nearly 
smooth above, somewhat pubescent below, and 
sharply toothed. 

Floivers. — The flowers are often light pink or 
white. They are usually solitary, sometimes 
few-clustered. 

This species is sometimes ten feet high. It 
has stout spines with hooks. It is similar to the 
following species, but is not fragrant. It has 
been naturalized from Europe. It frequents 
roadsides south to New Jersey and eastern 
Pennsylvania. 

SWEETBRIER. EGLANTINE 

Rosa rubiginosa Rose Family 

Fruit. — The ovoid hip changes from yellowish 
to red in ripening. It is usually smooth, some- 
times slightly prickly with a prickly pedicel. 
The calyx lobes usually fall. September. 

Leaves. — The leaflets are usually doubly and 
finely toothed. The under surface is densely 
hairy and resinous. The apex is generally 
obtuse and the base rounded. Tiie leaf stems 
are prickly and the stipules are broad and glan- 




SwEETBRiER (Rosa ruhiginoso) 
63 



64 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

dular. The foliage when crushed or bruised is 
very fragrant. 

Flowers. — The blossoms are smallish but such 
a wonderful deep pink. They strangely lack 
fragrance. June, July. 

In this naturalized species, we have the Eglan- 
tine of English fame. The delicious fragrance 
of the leaves is unique. It is very thorny, with 
stout spines which curve downwards. Virginia 
and Tennessee mark its southern range. 

AMERICAN MOUNTAIN ASH 
Sorbus Americana. Pyrus Americana Apple Family 

Fruit. — The bright red, berrylike fruits show 
externally their pome characteristics by the five- 
pointed, starlike calyx teeth at the summit. A 
cross section shows the seeds in their five cells 
around the core. The fruits grow in large, 
heavy clusters. September, October. 

Leaves. — The compound leaves consist of from 
six to eight pairs of leaflets with a terminal one. 
Their stem is reddish. The leaflets are lanceo- 
late or oblong oval, sharply serrate, and pointed 
at the tip. The under surface is paler than the 
upper. They are yellow in the fall. 



BED OB BEDDISH PUBPLE 



Q^ 



Flowers. — The small white flowers grow in 
flat compound cymes. May, June. 




American Mountain Ash (Sorbus Americana) 

The Mountain Ash Tree is gorgeous in fruit. 
The birds, however, do not seem to care for the 
fruit, neglecting it if other food is available. 
The American species closely resembles the 



66 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

European, which is the one usually grown on 
lawns. Our native tree has a darker bark, 
smoother leaves and stem, more sharply toothed 
leaves, and darker, smaller fruit. The tree is 
more slender in its growth. 

The range is from Newfoundland to moun- 
tains of North Carolina, west to Michigan and 
Minnesota. 

Sorhus sambucifolia {Pyrus sambucifolia of 
Gray) is much like the preceding but with 
smaller cymes and larger fruit and flowers. It 
is a more northern tree, northern New England 
limiting its southern range. It occurs near 
Lake Superior and westward. 



RED CHOKEBERRY. DOGBERRY 

Aronia arbutifolia. Pyrus arbutifolia Apple Family 

Fruit. — The fruit grows in an erect cymelike 
cluster. Each pome, small and berrylike though 
it be, shows its resemblance to an apple in the 
calyx teeth and the dried stamens which it bears 
at the apex. A vertical section shows the 
" core," and a cross section the five cells with 
their normally two seeds. The flesh is reddish or 




Bep Chokebebry (Aronia arhutifolia) 
67 



68 HOW TO ENOW WILD FRUITS 

dark in color and not very thick. The separate 
fruits are reddish, globose or pear-shaped, and 
about the size of a large huckleberry. They are 
sweet but rather dry and astringent. They often 
remain long on the bushes, as birds do not seem 
to care for them. 

Leaves. — The margins of the oblanceolate or 
oblong leaves have fine rounded teeth. The 
petioles are short ; the apex is obtuse or sharply 
narrowed ; and the base, narrowed. The upper 
midrib is glandular. The under surface of the 
leaf is woolly. When the leaves change they 
assume dark red and orange shades. 

Floivers. — The white, rose-shaped flowers 
grow in compound downy corymbs. 

The chokeberry is a shrub from one to three 
feet high, occasionally reaching a height of 
twelve feet. It is largest in swamps and moist 
thickets but often grows in dry places. It is 
common from Nova Scotia south, and westward 
to Minnesota. 




® 



JuNEBERRY (AmelancMer Canadensis) 
70 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 71 

SERVICE BERRY. JUNEBERRY. MAY 
CHERRY 

Amelanchier Canadensis Apple Family 

Fruit — The berrylike pomes vary in color 
from a red to an almost violet-blue. They are 
covered with a slight bloom. The calyx lobes, 
at the summit, inclose several dried filaments. 
The ovary is five-celled with two ovules to a cell, 
but as the fruit develops a false partition grows 
between the two ovules of each cell, making the 
fruit ten-celled wdth one seed in each, if all the 
ovules develop. The fruits are generally globose, 
and grow in racemes on rather long, slender 
stems. They are sweet and delicious in flavor. 
They ripen in June ; hence the name of June- 
berry. 

Leaves. — The ovate or ovate-oblong leaves 
are sharply toothed, rounded or heart-shaped at 
the base, and acute at the tip. When young 
they are hairy, but become smooth. 

Floioers. — The white flowers, with their strap- 
shaped petals, grow in loose, drooping racemes at 
the ends of branchlets. 

This species is a tree from ten to thirty feet in 



72 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

height. It is said to fruit sparingly and to be 
soon robbed of its fruit by the birds, — bluebirds, 
robins, cedar birds, orioles, downy and hairy 
woodpeckers. I have been fortunate enough to 
know it in prolific seasons, when the trees stood 
laden with red and purplish fruits for two or 
three weeks. 

Amelancliier is a plant which is much influ- 
enced by climatic conditions. Two apparently 
different types exist east and west of the 
Kockies. On the Rocky Mountains the two 
merge into each other until they cannot be 
distinguished. 

The fresh and dried fruits of one variety are 
said to have been used by the Indians. Dr. 
Hooker says they make a pudding which is 
nearly equal to plum pudding. 

Amelanchier Botryapiiim, or Shad Bush, is a 
lower plant, sometimes a shrub. The young 
leaves are more woolly, the racemes shorter 
and thicker, and the fruit smaller, on shorter 
stems, and more juicy. It grows in low wet 
spots or in swampy woods. 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 73 

COCKSPUR THORN 

Crataegus Crus-Galli Apple Family 

Fruit. — The external appearance is decidedly 
that of a pome, with its ^Ye, persistent, sharply 
pointed calyx lobes at the summit. The seeds 
are, however, bony, like those of a drupe. The 
fruit is red and nearly globular. September and 
throughout the winter. 

Leaves. — The leaves are inversely egg-shaped, 
with pointed or rounded apex. The leaf tapers 
toward the base, the margin of which is entire. 
The remainder of the margin is toothed. The 
upper surface is smooth and shining and the 
lower one is paler. Yellow and red are the colors 
of the fall foliage. 

Floivers. — The fragrant white flowers grow 
in irregular corymbs. 

This Thorn becomes a small tree. It has long, 
slender, sharp thorns. It is not very common as 
a native, but is well adapted for cultivation. 



74 BOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 



LARGE-FRUITED THORN. DOTTED- 
FRUITED THORN 

Crataegus punctata Apple Family 

Fruit. — The red or yellow globular pomes 
are dotted with whitish dots. They grow on 
dotted hairy peduncles in leafy corymbs. The 
bony nutlets are rounded and somewhat grooved. 
The flesh is dry and tough but rather pleasant 
flavored. The calyx lobes crown the summit. 
The fruits are abundant. September. 

Leaves. — The inversely egg-shaped leaves 
are acute or rounded at the apex and taper 
toward the base, finally forming winged petioles. 
The margin above the middle is serrate. The 
veins beneath are prominent and usually hairy. 
The leaves are rather thick and firm. 

Flowers. — The white flowers grow in some- 
what leafy clusters. The flower stems are 
downy. 

This is a thick spreading tree with horizontal 
branches. It is not very tall. It frequently 
grows in thickets. The bark is rough. The 
thorns are sharp and light brown. The Duke of 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 75 

Argyle is said to have introduced this tree into 
English gardens. 

The seeds of the Thorn fruits, or haws, are so 
hard that it requires a considerable time for 
their germination. In some garts of France 
when a hawthorn hedge is wanted, the haws 
are fed to turkeys. The seeds are uninjured 
by the digestive process but the hard coats are 
somewhat softened, and germination is more 
readily secured. It extends along the Allegha- 
nies into Georgia and Alabama; Quebec and 
Ontario are its northern limits. 



SCARLET THORN 
Crataegus coccinea Apple Family 

Fruit. — The globose or ovoid pomes grow 
in small clusters, two or three fruits in each. 
They are bright red, on slender stems, and bear 
calyx lobes at the top. The flesh is thin. The 
three or four nutlets are deeply ridged along the 
back. The fruit is rather sweet and dry. Sep- 
tember, October. 

Leaves. — The broad-ovate leaves grow alter- 
nately on slender stems which are grooved above. 








Scarlet Thorn {Cratsegus coccinea) 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 77 

The leaves are finely toothed and deeply cut, 
almost lobed along the upper half. The outline 
somewhat resembles that of a White Birch leaf. 
The under surface is paler than the upper. 
Yellow is the fall color. 

Floivers. — The rather large white flowers 
grow on slender stems, in clusters. They have 
a strong, disagreeable odor. May. 

This is a low tree with crooked, spreading 
branches, ashy gray or light brown bark, and 
stout thorns attaining maturity on third-year 
growths. The plants^ like moist soil but will 
grow in pasture lands, where they form thickets, 
the thorns protecting them from destruction by 
grazing animals. In New England this thorn is 
generally larger than the other species. 

Cratcegiis macracantha has longer thorns, 
thicker leaves, stouter stems, and larger flowers 
and fruits. The leaves are sometimes doubly 
serrate. 

Crataegus mollis varies chiefly from CratcB- 
ejus coccinea in having hairy leaves, twigs, and 
leaf stems. It is about two weeks earlier. 

Partridges are fond of the Thorn fruits, and 
in the good old days, when snaring the birds 
was not "prohibited by law," the bright little 



78 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

apples were used for bait. " When I was a 
boy/' said an elderly man to me only the 
other day, '^we used to dig narrow paths in 
the snow ; set up two sticks with a string 
stretched across them, and a loop of horsehair 
hanging from the string ; scatter Thorn-apples 
along the path ; and await results. Many a 
plump bird have we found the next morning, 
unable to free himself from the horsehair loop, 
through which he endeavored to reach the 
edible fruits beyond." 



PEAR THORN 

Crataegus tomentosa Apple Family 

Fruit. — The pear-shaped, seldom round, drupe- 
like pome is red or orange-red. It is crowned 
by the erect calyx lobes. The flesh is thin and 
the seeds are bony. They are rounded, and 
have on the back two faint grooves. September, 
October, and persistent. 

Leaves. — The leaves are firm and leathery, 
and are borne on petioles which are margined 
to the base by the tapering leaves. The margin 
is doubly serrate, and sometimes so deeply cut 



liED OR REDDISH PURPLE 79 

near the apex as to form lobes. The under 
surface is downy along the veins. 

Flowei^s. — The ill-scented white flowers grow 
in leafy corymbs on downy flower stems. The 
calyx lobes are likewise covered with down. 

This small tree has dark brown to gray bark 
and sharp axillary thorns. It is quite widely 
distributed throughout the country, but is not 
so common in the Northern states. Central New 
York contains flourishing growths of it. The 
fruits cling to the tree until spring. 

WILD YELLOW OR RED PLUM 
Prunus Americana Plum Family 

Fruit. — The fleshy drupe is yellow or reddish, 
somewhat whitened with a bloom. It is globose, 
with a slight depression at the tip. It grows 
laterally on a stout, rather short, stem. The 
skin is thick and tough, the flesh quite thick, 
and the stone rather smooth, with quite sharp 
edges. August, September. 

Leaves. — The ovate leaves are coarsely or 
doubly serrate. They are nearly smooth, or 
somewhat hairy along the veins on the lower 
surface. The apex terminates in a long tip. 




Wild Yellow or Red Plum (Prunus Americana) 
80 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 81 

Floivers. — The white flowers precede the 
leaves, and grow in lateral sessile umbels. 
April, May. 

Authorities differ much as to its range. I 
have known the tree along Connecticut road- 
sides, especially in the eastern portion of the 
state. The tree is small and thorny, and is 
quite prolific, 

CANADA PLUM. HORSE PLUM 

Prunus nigra Plum Family 

Fruit. — This plum differs from the preceding 
in being oblong-oval. It is from an inch to one 
and a half inches long. The red or orange- 
colored skin is tough, and the flesh clings to the 
flat stone. It is of pleasant flavor. August. 

Leaves. — The ovate or obovate leaves are not 
so sharply serrate as those of Prunus Americana, 
nor bristle-tipped. The apex is long-pointed 
and the base wedge-shaped or somewhat heart- 
shaped. 

Floioers. — The white flowers are larger than 
in the preceding species, and change to pink 
after opening. They grow in two- to three- 
flowered umbels. May. 



82 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

This is a species of more northern range than 
Prumts Americana. In Canada the fruits are 
extensively marketed, being used raw or for 
preserving. The plant occurs in northern New 
England, but has not been reported in Connecti- 
cut, and is but occasional in Massachusetts. 
It flourishes in the St. Lawrence valley and as 
far west as Lake Manitoba. It follows streams, 
grows along fences, and springs up in thickets. 

BEACH PLUM 

Prunus maritima Plum Family 

Fruit. — The purplish or red bloom-covered 
drupe is globular and from one-half to one 
inch in diameter. It hangs by a slender stem. 
The stone is thin and sharp on one edge and 
rounded on the other. It is usually pointed at 
each end. August, September. 

Leaves. — The ovate or oval leaf has a rounded 
base and an acute apex. It is finely serrate. 
The leaves are arranged alternately. They often 
have one or two glands at the base. Dark red 
and orange are the autumnal colors. 

Flowers. — The white flowers grow profusely 
in umbels along the sides of the branches- 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 83 

They open before the leaves appear. April, 
May. 

This rather low shrub is a habitant of sandy 
or stony beaches, and sometimes grows in waste 
places twenty miles or so inland. It grows in 
clumps and often fruits abundantly. The plums 
are sweet when ripe, and in some places are 
gathered and sold for preserving. 



WILD RED CHERRY. BIRD CHERRY. PIN 
OR PIGEON CHERRY 

Prunus Pennsylvanica Plum Family 

Fruit. — The small light red drupes grow in 
clusters of from two to five. These clusters 
grow from the leaf axils or take the place 
of leaves at the end of the previous year's 
shoots. They often occupy a leafless space of 
six or more inches along the branches, with 
leaves above and below them. The slender 
fruit stem is from three-quarters to an inch 
in length. Each cherry is globular, about the 
size of a pea, and retains at the tip a remnant 
of the style. The flesh is thin and sour. The 
stone is large in comparison with the whole 




Wild Red Cherry (Priinus Pennsylvanica) 

84: 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 85 

fruit, is nearly globular, and has noticeable 
grooves and ridges along one side. July. 

Leaves. — The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, 
with pointed apex and rounded base. They 
are finely serrate, and in arrangement are alter- 
nate or in pairs. They are a bright shining 
green above and lighter beneath. In autumn 
they change to a bright yellow. The petioles 
are slender and grooved. 

Flowers. — The white cherrylike flowers grow 
in umbels of from five to eight blossoms 

The Wild Ked Cherry is a small tree from 
twenty to thirty feet high. It is especially a 
tree of the Northern forests, but extends south- 
wards along the mountains, attaining its great- 
est size in the mountains of Tennessee. It often 
springs up abundantly over cleared lands and is 
found along ravines. 

George Emerson tells of using the dry beds 
of hill streams as a footpath and of finding 
there numerous stones of the Wild Red Cherry, 
although there were no trees of the kind within 
a considerable distance. Water, as well as birds, 
seems in this case to act in scattering the seeds. 

The bark of the tree is reddish brown with 
raised, rusty-looking dots, and has the common 



86 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

cherry characteristic of peeling off in horizontal 
strips. 

CHOKE CHERRY 

Prunus Virginiana Plum Family 

Fruit — The drupes, which are about the 
size of peas, grow in long drooping clusters 
at the ends of leafy branches of the season's 
growth. Each cherry is borne on a short stem 
nearly equal to it in length. It is globular or 
oval, with a thin, shiny, dark red or nearly black 
skin. Yellow fruits have been found. The pulp 
is yellow, juicy, and rather sweet. The cherries 
vary much in flavor, but in all cases are more or 
less astringent. July, August. 

Leaves. — The oval or obovate leaves grow 
from rounded stems which are grooved on the 
upper surface. Two or four glands are borne 
on the margins of these grooves. The leaves 
are rounded or wedge-shaped at the base and 
sharply pointed at the apex. The margins are 
sharply serrate. The upper surface of the leaf 
is bright green and the lower one is lighter. 

Flowers. — The small, white, cherry like flow- 
ers grow in loosely flowered, erect, or spreading 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 87 

racemes. The petals are more rounded than 
those of the Wild Black Cherry. April, May. 

This shrub sometimes becomes a small tree. 
The largest growths are found in Nebraska, 
Indian Territory, and Texas. The trunk rarely 
has a diameter of more than two or three inches. 

The plant is decorative in fruit, with its clus- 
ters of shining, jewel-like spheres. The fruit 
of some shrubs is quite pleasant to the taste, 
while one cherry from another will " pucker " 
lips, tongue, and roof of mouth, and set one's 
teeth on edge. The skin seems to possess more 
of the astringent quality than the flesh. 

Bluebirds, robins, cedar birds, crows, king- 
birds, hairy woodpeckers, and flickers are fond 
of the fruit. Bears are said to aid in scatter- 
ing the seed. As for children, how they will 
fur their tongues with bunch after bunch of the 
cherries ! It is almost impossible to remove the 
stain of this fruit from clothing. 

The Choke Cherry has an extended range from 
within the Arctic Circle to the Gulf of Mexico 
and across the continent. It is a familiar fea- 
ture of roadside and fence-row growth and often 
grows near streams. 



88 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 




Dwarf Sumac {Rhus copallind) 



DWARF SUMAC 
Rhus copallina Sumac Family 

Fruit. — The panicle of bright red fruit is 
quite open. Each drupe is compressed and 



RET) OR REDDISH PURPLE 89 

rather short, bearing the stigmas at the top. 
Gray dots are scattered over the fruits. Tlie 
berry is acid. Persistent. 

Leaves. — There are from nine to twenty-one 
leaflets, with noticeable wings along either side 
of the stem between them. This is a distin- 
guishing feature of the species. The leaflets 
are often entire and shine above as if polished. 
The under surface is lighter and downy. In 
autumn the leaves become a rich purple. 

Flowers. — The fertile and sterile flowers are 
in separate clusters, the pistillate in much smaller 
ones than the staminate. 

This sumac, like Wucs hirta, is pubescent, but 
may be readily distinguished by its winged, 
seemingly jointed, petioles. The term " Dwarf " 
is somewhat misleading, as the plant sometimes 
reaches a height of eighteen or twenty feet. It 
is a beautiful shrub, growing on rocky hills. 

STAGHORN SUMAC 

Rhus hirta. Rhus typhina Sumac Family 

Fruit. — The small dry drupes are borne in a 
terminal, compound, compact cluster. Each fruit 
is one-seeded, has a very thin coat, and is thickly 



90 



HOW TO KNOW WILD FBUITS 




Staghorn Sumac {RJius hirta) 



covered with silky hairs. The calyx persists at 
the base. The fruits are acid. August, and 
persistent through the winter. 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 91 

Leaves. — The leaves are compound and odd- 
pinnate, with from eleven to thirty-one leaflets. 
The petioles are red above and green below and 
densely covered with hairs. The leaves are 
alternate. The leaflets are oblong-lanceolate, 
sessile, sharply serrate, acute at the tip and 
rounded at the base. They are paler beneath and 
hairy. The autumnal colors are brilliant; red, 
yellow, and orange. 

Flowers. — The sterile and fertile flower pani- 
cles are usually on different plants, although they 
are occasionally on the same one. They are 
greenish yellow. June, July. 

Rhus Mrta is sometimes called Velvet Sumac, 
and appropriately so, for branches and stalks 
are so densely coated with soft hairs as to 
resemble, both to the sight and touch, a velvet 
covering. This hairy appearance, together with 
the irregularly forked branches, somewhat re- 
sembling the horns of a young stag, has given 
rise to its other popular name, Staghorn Sumac. 

It sometimes reaches the stature of a small 
tree. The brilliancy of its autumnal foliage is 
a great addition to the hills which it frequents. 
Sometimes a whole pasture is aglow with it. 
For two successive springs I have seen my first 



92 HO[V TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

robin on the sumac bushes, dining on the fruits 
which have been preserved for it through the 
winter. The catbird includes sumac drupes in 
his spring diet. The taste of the berries after 
their exposure to the cold of winter is much less 
acid than in the fall. The bark and leaves, 
because of their astringent qualities, are useful 
in tanning. 

SMOOTH SUMAC 

Rhus glabra Sumac Family 

Fruit. — The dry drupes grow in a more open, 
compound cluster than those of Bhus liirta. The 
smaller clusters composing the fruit panicle alter- 
nate in much the same fashion as the leaves. 
The calyx persists at the base of each drupe, 
which is covered with fine red hairs. The fruit 
is rounded and flattened on two sides. September, 
and persistent. 

Leaves. — The compound pinnate leaves, with 
terminal leaflets, grow on smooth, reddish peti- 
oles. Authorities differ as to the number of 
the leaflets. They are oblong-lanceolate, sessile, 
toothed, and have a long point at the apex and 
rounded base. They are whitened beneath and 



iiEb OB iiEi>DISH PURPLE 93 

smooth. The foliage is gorgeous in crimsons 
and gold in the fall. 

Flowers. — The greenish flowers grow in termi- 
nal, much-branched heads. June, July. 

This is a smooth sumac which does not at- 
tain the size often reached by its velvet-coated 
brother. The two sumacs frequently grow to- 
gether and form clumps. Their deep roots ren- 
der them difficult of extermination. The berries 
are sometimes used in dyeing reds. 



FRAGRANT OR SWEET-SCENTED SUMAC 
Rhus aromatica. Rhus Canadensis Sumac Family 

Fruit. — The globose, red, downy drupes are 
in short clustered spikes. 

Leaves. — The compound leaf is composed of 
a terminal, short-stalked leaflet and two lateral 
sessile ones. The terminal one is sometimes 
three-cleft. The bruised leaves are rather fra- 
grant. In autumn the leaves are orange and 
red. 

Flowers. — The yellowish green blossoms 
appear before the leaves and are borne in short 
spikes. 



94 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

This is a low, straggling shrub, growing in 
patches on sandy or rocky banks. It occurs in 
western Vermont and thence west to Minnesota. 
It is not poisonous. 

AMERICAN HOLLY 
Ilex opaca Holly Family 

Fruit. — The globular red drupes are borne 
on short stalks along the recent growths or from 
the leaf axils, looking like big red-headed pins 
partly stuck into the branches. The remnant 
of the stigma at the summit appears as a black 
spot. The usually four-parted calyx lobes are 
at the base. Each drupe contains four to six 
small nutlets, which are ribbed, veiny, or one- 
grooved on the back. They are somewhat tri- 
angular in shape. The flesh is yellow and rather 
thin. Persistent. 

Leaves. — The thick, leathery, evergreen leaves 
are shining above and paler beneath. They have 
large teeth which terminate in spines. They are 
oval in outline, with pointed apex and pointed or 
angular base. 

Floivers. — These are usually dioecious. The 
small white or greenish blossoms appear in June. 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 



95 



The sterile or partly sterile ones grow in clusters, 
usually in the axils. The fertile ones are 
solitary. 




American Holly {Ilex opaca) 



This is a small tree with light gray bark, 
lighter than that of the beech, which it some- 
what resembles. Its evergreen leaves and bright 



96 HOW TO ENOW WILD FRUITS 

persistent berries make the fertile tree very orna- 
mental. In its native wilds, it often presents a 
weird appearance, so overhung is it with soft, 
grayish lichens. 

The leaves of the lower branches have the 
sharpest spines, preventing the tree's destruction 
by grazing animals. On the upper branches, 
beyond the reach of such enemies, the spines are 
less prominent, and at the tip of the tree they 
nearly disappear. 

" reader ! hast thou ever stood to see 

The holly-tree ? 
The eye that contemplates it well perceives 

Its glossy leaves 
Ordered by an intelligence so wise 
As might confound the atheist's sophistries. 

" Below, a circling fence, its leaves are seen 
Wrinkled and keen ; 
No grazing" cattle through their prickly round 

Can reach to wound ; 
But as they grow where nothing is to fear, 
Smooth and unarmed the pointless leaves appear." 
— Southey's The Holly-Tree. 

The glossy leaves and showy berries have long 
been associated with the Christmas season. The 
wood is hard and capable of a beautiful polish. 
It is used for cabinet making, whip handles. 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 97 

engraving, etc. Our species closely resembles 
the European Holly, differing from it in having 
less glossy leaves and duller fruit. Holly occurs 
more or less frequently in New England and New 
York. It is abundant from New Jersey along 
the coast to the south, and in the Gulf States. 
Holly is dependent upon sea air, and will not 
grow much more than a hundred miles inland. 
Ilex monticola, or Large-leaved Holly, grows 
in the Catskills and along the Alleghanies to 
Alabama. It is usually a shrub, rarely becoming 
a tree. It bears a reddish drupe containing ribbed 
nutlets. The leaves are thin, deciduous, ovate, 
and sharply toothed. The fertile flowers grow 
on very short stems and are solitary. The sterile 
ones are clustered. 



BLACK ALDER. VIRGINIA WINTER 
BERRY 

(For illustration, see Frontispiece.) 
Ilex verticillata Holly Family 

Fruit. — The bright, scarlet, glossy drupes are 
about a quarter of an inch in diameter. The 
dark stigma is at the top and the persistent 
calyx is at the base. The pulp is yellowish, and 



98 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

contains three to eight hmate smooth nutlets. 
The fruits grow on short stems and are sohtary 
or in clusters. They appear as if arranged 
spirally around the branches. The flicker is 
said to eat the berries. September, and clinging 
long after the leaves fall. 

Leaves. — The leaves tm-n black in autumn. 
They are oval or wedge-lanceolate, acute at the 
apex, toothed, smooth above and hairy below, 
along the depressed veins. 

Flowers. — The small, polygamo-dioecious 
flowers are solitary or clustered in the axils. 
May, June. 

The fence and stone-wall growth is brightened 
in the fall by the Black Alder with its scarlet 
berries. These are said to be eaten by flickers, 
and its growth along fence rows would suggest 
its dispersal by birds. The bushes with the 
berries snow-laden are a beautiful sight. I was 
glad to recognize these bright wild fruits in 
the windows of New York City florists, 
placed amidst fantastic orchids and customary 
Christmas decorations. The plant ranges 
throughout the eastern part of the United 
States as far west as Missouri. It also occurs 
in Nova Scotia. 



RED OH REDDISH PURPLE 99 



SMOOTH WINTER BERRY 

Ilex laevigata Holly Family 

Fruit. — The rich orange-red drupes are larger 
than the preceding and ripen earlier. They 
grow on peduncles in length equaling their 
diameter. September. 

Leaves. — T\iQ thin, light green, oval or oblong 
leaves have a glossy luster on either side. The 
apex is acute and often has a twisted point ; the 
base is also acute. The leaves are obscurely 
toothed. They are bright yellow in the fall. 

Floioers. — T\\Q small white flowers are per- 
fect or dioecious, and grow in the leaf axils on 
slender stems. 

The extent of this species is from Maine to 
the mountains of Virginia. Its range is much 
more limited than that of the preceding plant. 
Its yellow autumnal coloring is one distinguish- 
ing feature. 



100 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

WILD OR MOUNTAIN HOLLY 

Ilicioides mucronata. Nemopanthes fascicularis 
Holly Family 

Fruit. — The pale crimson, nearly globular, 
berrylike drupe grows from the leaf axil, on a 
red stalk, an inch or more in length. The flesh 
is yellowish and incloses four or five faintly 
ribbed stony nutlets. September. 

Leaves. — The oblong deciduous leaves grow 
on slender stems. They are entire or faintly 
toothed and acute or bristle-tipped at the apex. 

Flowers. — The flowers are small, white, and 
polygamo-dioecious. May, June. 

The long, threadlike peduncles are distinctive 
features of this much-branched shrub. It has 
an ash-gray bark. Its habitat is in damp woods 
along the mountains in Virginia, and north- 
wards. It is found west to Indiana and Wis- 
consin. 

STRAWBERRY BUSH 
Euonymus Americanus Staff-tree Painily 

Fruit. — The rough, warty, crimson capsule 
opens its usually fiYQ pods and discloses the 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 101 

scarlet arils of the seeds. There are one to four 
seeds in each cell. 

Leaves, — The ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 
nearly sessile, leaves are bright green with a 
pointed apex. 

Floioers. — The small flowers grow in loose 
cymes from the leaf axils. June. 

This is an erect shrub, sometimes six feet high. 
It grows along the wooded banks of streams 
from New York and Illinois, southward. 

Euonymus ohovatus, Running Strawberry 
Bush, is low and straggling. The leaves are in- 
verse egg-shaped, and grow on short stems. The 
flowers are smaller and earlier than in the pre- 
ceding species. The fruit is usually three-celled. 
It has a more limited range than Straw^berry 
Bush, its southern boundaries being Pennsyl- 
vania, Indiana, and Kentucky. 



BURNING BUSH. WAHOO. SPINDLE TREE 
Euonymus atropurpureus Staff-tree Family 

Fruit — The smooth fleshy pod or capsule is 
three- or four-lobed and purple in color. The 
pods open, when mature, enough to disclose the 




Burning Bush {Euomjmvs atropurpureus) 
102 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 103 

bright red ariled seed. The fruits grow on long, 
drooping stems and hang late on the branches. 
The fruit is said to be poisonous. October. 

Leaves. — The thin leaves are ovate or ellip- 
tical, pointed at the apex and pointed or blunt 
at base. They are finely toothed. 

Floioers. — The dark pnrple flowers grow in 
few-flowered clusters on drooping stems. 

In New England this plant appears only as a 
cultivated shrub. In New York, west to Wis- 
consin and Nebraska, and southward, it is found 
along the wood borders. In Arkansas and 
Indian Territory it reaches tree size. 



WAXWORK. SHRUBBY OR CLIMBING 
BITTERSWEET 
Celastrus scandens Staff-tree Family 

Fi'uit. — The yellow or orange berrylike 
capsule opens and bends backward its two to 
three valves, disclosing the scarlet arils which 
surround the seeds. There are three cells, with 
one or two brownish oblong seeds in each. The 
fruits grow in a loose, spikelike cluster. Sep- 
tember. 



104 



MOW TO EyOW WILD FRtflTS 




Shrubby or Climbing Bittersweet {Celastrus seandens) 



Leaves. — The ovate-oblong leaves are usually 
pointed at the apex and at the base. They are 
slightly toothed and alternate in arrangement. 



BED OB BEDDISH BUBBLE 105 

Floioers. — The staminate and pistillate 
flowers often grow on different plants. They 
form long, loose spikes. June. 

The fruit of this plant is highly decorative, and 
if gathered before the capsule opens will develop 
in the house and remain in good condition 
throughout the winter. The woody vine coils 
upon itself, and climbs over fences and trees. I 
shall never forget the glory which a roadside 
nook revealed one bright autumnal day. The 
dark Pine and White Birch were growing to- 
gether, and winding in and out and over both 
gleamed the bright berries of the Bittersweet. 
It was too beautiful to spoil, and we left it 
undisturbed. It grows from North Carolina 
northward, but is said to be rare in the White 
Mountain country. 

LEATHERWOOD. MOOSEWOOD 
Dirca palustris Mezereon Family 

Fruit — The oval, shining, reddish drupes are 
solitary or from two to three in a cluster. Each 
fruit contains a compressed ovate seed. The 
flesh is thin and tough. The fruit matures 
rapidly and falls early. 



106 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

Leaves. — The leaves are oval or inverse egg- 
shaped. The under surface is much lighter than 
the other. The petiole is short. 

Flowers. — The light yellow flowers appear 
before the leaves. Usually three come out of 
the same bud, with their short stalks cohering. 
April. 

It is from the toughness of its bark that this 
shrub receives its name, Leatherwood. The 
wood is quite brittle, but it is almost impossible 
to break the bark. The Indians knew of this 
quality and utilized it for thongs. The twigs 
are used in basket making with good effect. 
The plant grows in moist places in woods from 
New Brunswick to Minnesota, and south. 



CANADIAN BUFFALO BERRY 

Lepargyraea Canadensis. Shepherdia Canadensis 
Oleaster Family 

Fruit. — The fruit externally resembles a 
berry. The fleshy, four-cleft calyx, however, 
incloses a smooth nut or an achene, making the 
accessory fruit drupelike. It is yellowish red, 
oval, small, and insipid. July, August. 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 107 

Leaves. — On short, hairy stems are borne the 
ovate or oval opposite leaves. These are en- 
tire, obtuse at apex, narrowed toward the base, 
densely silvery scurfy beneath, and smoother 
and greener above. The scurf is often brownish. 

Floioers. — The small yellow flowers are dioe- 
cious. The pistillate have the ovaries inclosed 
in a four-parted, urn-shaped calyx tube, closed 
at the mouth by an eight-lobe d disk. 

A low, thornless shrub is the Canadian Buf- 
falo Berry. It has scurfy young shoots. It likes 
rocky banks. It is a northern plant, extending 
down into Vermont and New York. 



GINSENG 

Panaz: quinquefolium. Aralia quinquefolia 
Ginseng Family 

Fruit. — The fruit grows in a simple umbel. 
The berries are bright red, and sometimes in 
joined pairs. They are somewhat flattened, 
drupelike, and have two or three seeds. 

Leaves. — The compound leaves grow in a 
w^horl of three. Each leaf has fi^e leaflets, — 
seldom more, — and its appearance is somewhat 



108 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

like that of a Horse-chestnut leaf. Each leaflet 
is ovate or obovate, thin, and sharply toothed, 
with a pointed apex and narrowed or rounded 
base. 

Flowers. — The greenish yellow, polygamous 
flowers grow in small, simple umbels. July, 
August. 

The root of the Ginseng is in such demand 
for its supposed medicinal value that the plant 
has become quite rare. Recently Ginseng plan- 
tations have been started to supply the demand 
for the root. The Chinese, especially, prize it as 
a remedy for fatigue and a preventive against old 
age. The Chinese name for it is JincJien, mean- 
ing manlike, from its fancied two-legged shape. 
Its range is south to Alabama and west to Min- 
nesota, Nebraska, and Missouri. 



LOW OR DWARF CORNEL. BUNCHBERRY 

Cornus Canadensis Dogwood Family 

Fruit. — The bright red drupes grow in a com- 
pact bunch at the summit of the stem. They 
are globose and bear the calyx teeth at the tip. 
The solitary stone is smooth and nearly globular. 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 109 




BuNCHBERRY (Coruus Canadensis) 

Leaves. — The upper leaves are nearly stem- 
less, in a whorl of four or six at the top of the 
stem. One or two pairs of scalelike leaves 



110 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

sometimes occur along the stem. The leaves are 
entire, acute at each end, and ovate or oval. 

Flowers. — The small greenish flowers are in 
a close ^cluster, and surrounded by four white 
bracts. May- July. 

The Bunchberry is reported as growing pro- 
fusely among the White Mountains and the 
Adirondacks. It is very attractive in fruit. 
"But," said a woman who was exclaiming over 
them, " the people who live among them all the 
time don't even know their names and hardly 
notice them." Truly, many there are who, 
having eyes, see not the beauties of their com- 
mon environment. 

New Jersey, Indiana, and Minnesota are the 
limits of southern range. It extends far north- 
ward and westward. 



FLOWERING DOGWOOD 

Cornus floiida Dogw^ood Family 

Fruit. — The small ovoid drupes are bright 
red and grow in small bunches. They are 
ovoid and bear at the tip the calyx and the 
remnant of the style. The flesh is bitter and 




Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) 



111 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 113 

unpleasant. The stone is smooth and chan- 
neled. September. 

Leaves. — The leaves are oval with a pro- 
longed apex. They are narrowed at the base 
and entire. The upper surface is shining and 
the lower one lighter and often downy. The 
autumnal colorings are rich in scarlets and 
crimsons. 

Flowers. — The inconspicuous greenish flowers 
grow in heads, surrounded by a showy white 
involucre of four parts, often mistaken for the 
petals. 

This shrub or small tree grows readily in the 
shade of other trees. It is showy in springtime, 
with its large white bracts surrounding the 
flower clusters and acting as signals to the in- 
sects that assist in the fertilization of the incon- 
spicuous blossoms. These bracts are, in reality, 
developed bud scales, which are not in this 
plant thrown off when their protective offices 
against the cold and storms of winter have been 
performed. The blossom is the " corn sign " 
of the New England farmer. 

In the fall, the red fruit clusters amidst the au- 
tumnal foliage present a fine showing. The fruit 
lingers throughout the fall, and after the frosts 



114 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

have somewhat changed its taste is eaten by 
robins. The bitter bark is somewhat similar 
in its action to Peruvian bark and is sometimes 
substituted for it. 

The plant grows in dry woods from southern 
New England west to Ontario and Minnesota 
and south to Florida and Texas. 

SPRING OR CREEPING WINTERGREEN 

CHECKERBERRY. BOXBERRY 

TEABERRY 

Gaultheria procumbens Heath Family 

Fruit. -=^ The actual fruit capsule is five-celled, 
with many seeds in each cell. It is like a 
flattened sphere in shape, and its flesh is very 
thin. This capsule, however, is nearly inclosed 
in a thickened, fleshy, red calyx, which gives to 
the whole the appearance of a berry. The de- 
veloped calyx plainly shows its five lobes. It is 
subtended at the base by two small bracts. 

The so-called berries grow on short, drooping 
stems from the leaf axils. They are usually 
solitary. The berry is dry and mealy, but has a 
delightful aromatic flavor similar to the sweet 
birch. 




115 



116 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

Leaves. — The usually few, thick, evergreen 
leaves are borne at the ends of the branches. 
They are alternate, ovate and glossy above with 
a whitened under surface. They are sparsely 
toothed with bristle-like teeth. The petioles are 
short and reddish. The young leaves are tender 
and delicious in flavor. 

Floivers. — The usually solitary, white, nod- 
ding flowers are waxy and vaselike. 

When we search woods and moist banks in 
June for the '' Young Wintergreen " we are apt 
to find last year's berries still lingering. The 
new fruits ripen in the fall, and serve during the 
winter as food for the birds. This plant is one 
example of red fruits contrasted with evergreen 
leaves. The branches grow from a creeping or 
underground stem. The plant is found in vari- 
ous localities. Its range is southward from 
Maine and west to Michigan. 

RED BEARBERRY 

Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi Heath Family 

Fruit. — The drupes grow in short clusters 
and retain the calyx at the base of each fruit. 
They are red, and the flesh is mealy and taste- 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 117 

less. The five nutlets become inseparably united. 
Each shows a line along its back. The fruits 
remain on the plant during the year. 

Leaves. — The thick evergreen leaves are in- 
versely egg-shaped. The apex is obtuse and the 
base narrows to a short, downy stem. The upper 
leaf surface is shining and the lower one paler ; 
both are smooth. The margin is entire or hairy. 
The leaves are somewhat crowded towards the 
ends of the branches. In winter, the upper sur- 
face becomes somewhat brown and the under 
one reddish. 

Floivers. — The drooping, white or pink, 
pitcher-shaped flowers grow in a short end 
cluster. The stigma matures from two to 
five hours before the anthers shed their pol- 
len. The opening of the flower is bearded or 
filled with a "woolly thicket" to keep out 
winged insects. 

This evergreen shrub trails over rocks and 
sandy wastes. It abounds in the Alps and in 
other mountainous sections of Europe, as well 
as in the northern countries of Europe and Asia. 
It prevails throughout Canada and south to New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michigan, Ne- 
braska, Colorado, and California. 



118 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

Its nomenclature is varied, the plant being 
known as Foxberry, Bear's Grape, Mealberry, 
Barren Myrtle, etc. The fruits serve as food 
for grouse and partridges. The plant is used in 
tanning, especially in parts of Europe, and is 
also used for dyeing. The Indians smoke the 
leaves as a preventive against malarial disorders. 
It is known among them as Kinnikinic. 

COWBERRY. MOUNTAIN CRANBERRY 

FOXBERRY 

Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea Huckleberry Family 

Fruit, — The four- to five-celled, many-seeded 
berry is dark red, acid, and often bitter. It is 
less than half an inch in diameter. The fruits 
grow in short terminal clusters. August, Sep- 
tember, and persistent. 

Leaves. — The evergreen leaves are thick and 
leathery, with somewhat shining upper faces 
and paler under ones that are dotted with bristly 
black points. They are somewhat similar to 
box leaves but darker. They are obovate or 
oval and short-stemmed. 

Flowers. — The nodding, white or pink, bell- 
shaped flowers are in short terminal clusters. 
June. 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 119 

This is essentially a northern plant, extending 
far to the north, and appearing in our range in 
the mountains and along the coast of New Eng- 
land and west to the northern shore of Lake 
Superior. It also occurs in Europe and Asia. 
In northern Europe it flourishes profusely, and 
is there used in making a jelly which is served 
with roast beef and deer flesh. It is also used 
for colds and sore throats. The flavor of the 
fruit seems to improve towards the north, much 
of the bitterness being lost. Birds feed upon 
large quantities of the berries during their 
migrations. Bears, too, are fond of them. 
They uproot the bushes to get the hidden fruit 
near the ground. The shrub is low, only about 
a foot high, with the upright branches growing 
from creeping stems. 



SMALL OR EUROPEAN CRANBERRY 

Oxycoccus Oxy coccus. Vaccinium Oxycoccus 
Huckleberry Family 

Fruit. — The globose berry is red and when 
young is often spotted. It is rather smaller 
than the American Cranberry, is acid, and not 



120 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

often marketed. The berry is four- or five- 
celled and many-seeded. August, September. 

Leaves. — The small, thick, evergreen leaves 
are whitened beneath. They are ovate and 
entire. The margins are rolled backwards. 
The apex is pointed and the base rounded or 
heart-shaped. 

Floivers. — The pale rose-colored, nodding 
blossoms have the corolla nearly divided into 
four or five parts. The anthers converge to 
form a cone. May-July. 

The ascending branches rise to a height of 
from six inches to a foot and a half from a 
creeping stem which sends out roots at the 
nodes. Patches of cranberries are thus formed, 
usually in peat bogs. They grow as far south 
as New Jersey and west to Michigan. In 
Canada they extend from Labrador to Alaska 
and British Columbia. They also grow in 
Europe and Asia. 



EEB OR REDDISH PURPLE 121 



LARGE OR AMERICAN CRANBERRY 

Oxycoccus macrocarpus. Vaccinium macrocarpon 
Huckleberry Family 

Fruit. — The berry varies in shape ; nearly 
globular, ovate, or oblong. It grows from the 
sides of the branches. It is larger than the 
European Cranberry, and is the species which 
has been cultivated. It is red when ripe, acid, 
four- or five-celled, and several-seeded. Septem- 
ber, October. 

Leaves. — The leaves are similar to those of 
the preceding species, but are oblong and obtuse 
at the apex. 

Flowers. — The nodding pink flowers grow in 
clusters. June- August. 

This variety is larger and stronger than the 
preceding and, like it, grows in peat bogs. It 
grows throughout the north ' and in the states 
as far south as North Carolina and west to 
Minnesota. 

It was first cultivated in Cape Cod, which 
region still holds the highest reputation as a cran- 
berry section. Cranberry plantations have been 
also established in New Jersey and Wisconsin. 




122 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 123 

Eight hundred thousand bushels are estimated 
to represent a year's production of cultivated 
Cranberries. The wild Cranberries are also 
marketed. 

One plantation employs a thousand pickers, 
who camp in tents or cabins during the harvest- 
ing. Bailey thus describes the pleasures of the 
workers : " This picking time is a sort of a long 
and happy picnic — all the happier for being a 
busy one. The pickers look forward to it from 
year to year. They are invigorated by the 
change and the novelty, and they must come 
near to nature in the sweet and mellow October 
days. Those of our readers who have cast their 
lot with hop-pickers, or who have camped in the 
clearings in blackberry time, or who have 
joined in the excursions to huckleberry swamps, 
can know something of the cranberry picker's 
experiences. Yet I fancy that one must actually 
pick the cranberries in the drowsy Indian sum- 
mer to know fully what cranberry picking is 
like." — U volution of our Native Fruits. 



124 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

PHILADELPHIA GROUND CHERRY 
Physalis Philadelphica Potato Family 

Fruit. — Like all the other fruits of this 
genus the berry is inclosed in the enlarged 
calyx. When ripe, the berry fills the calyx or 
even opens it at the mouth. The undeveloped 
fruit calyx shows its ten angles and is depressed 
about the stem. The berry is reddish or purple, 
quite large, and pulpy. It grows on a slender 
stem from the leaf axil. The numerous seeds 
are flattened. 

Leaves. — The ovate to ovate-lanceolate leaves 
usually slant toward the base. They are entire 
or slightly wavy. They are smooth or a trifle 
hairy above. 

Floivers. — The flowers are yellowish brown 
with purplish centers. July-September. 

This annual is nearly smooth and is tall and up- 
right. It ranges from Rhode Island to Georgia 
and Texas and west to Minnesota and Nebraska. 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 125 

NIGHTSHADE. BITTERSWEET 
Solanum Dulcamara Potato Family 

Fruit. — The oval berries grow in clusters 
from the sides of the stem. In ripening, the 
berries change from green through yellow and 
orange to a bright red, often making a brilliant 
array of colors in the cluster. The berries are 
translucent with a thin skin, red pulp, and many 
seeds arranged around an axial placenta. The 
five-pointed, starlike calyx is at the base of the 
berry, which is borne on a stem about as long as 
itself. The general consensus of opinion seems 
to be that the berry is poisonous, especially if 
eaten in any quantity. It begins to ripen in 
July and hangs long upon the vines. 

Thoreau, in describing this fruit, says : " The 
Solammx Dulcamara berries are another kind 
which grow in drooping clusters. I do not 
know any clusters more graceful and beautiful 
than these drooping cymes of scented or translu- 
cent, cherry-colored, elliptical berries. . . . Yet 
they are considered poisonous; not to look 
at surely. . . . But why should they not be 
poisonous ? Would it not be bad taste to eat 




Nightshade {Solarium Dulcamara) 



126 



BED OR REDDISH PURPLE 127 

these berries which, are ready to feed another 
sense ? " 

Leaves. — The lower leaves are heart-shaped 
and the upper ones have two lateral lobes at the 
base. These lobes are sometimes separated from 
the leaf, forming two lateral leaflets. The leaves 
are entire and alternate. 

Floivers. — The blue, five-parted, wheel-shaped 
flowers are rendered attractive by the contrast of 
the blue corolla with the yellow conical group of 
stamens in the center. 

The Nightshade is a climbing vine, sometimes 
from five to six feet long. My most vivid recol- 
lection of it is, as seen from a bridge, growing 
over a small tree by the side of the river. The 
tree seemed hung with the graceful, decorative 
clusters. It is a member of the family which 
includes such cultivated plants as the potato and 
egg plant. 

It was introduced from Europe. It grows by 
the side of streams, around houses, and some- 
times trails over the stone walls by the road- 
sides. 




Matrimony Vine (Lycium vulgare) 
1-28 



RED OB REDDISH PURPLE 129 

MATRIMONY VINE 
Lycium vulgar e Potato Family 

^ruit. — The oval orange-red berries are soli- 
tary or few in the leaf axils. They are small, 
with the calyx persistent at the base. 

Leaves. — The small leaves are oblong or lan- 
ceolate and taper into a short stem. The mar- 
gins are entire. 

Flowers. — The purplish or greenish flowers 
are solitary or two to five in the leaf axils. 

In cultivation, this woody shrub is trained 
over trellises. When growing wild, it trails in 
masses over any handy support. Its branches 
are long and drooping. The vine is usually 
smooth. It often occurs as an escape from 
cultivation. 

PARTRIDGE BERRY 

Mitchella repens Madder Family 

J^ruit. — The scarlet berrylike fruit is really a 
double drupe, bearing at the summit the teeth of 
the two flower calices. Each ovary is four-celled 
with one ovule to a cell, and some fruits have four 



130 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

hard nutlets to each flower ; but often some of 
the ovules do not develop. The fruit is edible 
but rather tasteless. The pulp is white and 
mealy. The berries remain on the vines for a 
long time, and it is quite common to find flowers, 
fruit, and even tiny green fruits at the same 
time. 

Leaves. — The round-ovate or heart-shaped, 
shiny leaves vary from light to dark green. 
Some have prominent white veinings. They 
grow in pairs on short stems and are evergreen. 

Floioers. — The flowers grow in pairs and are 
united by their ovaries. They are very dainty 
with their white linings of soft fine hairs at the 
throat and an outside coloring of pink. They 
also have a delicate fragrance. 

This vine and its near relative, the Quaker 
Ladies, are our northern representatives of the 
family which includes such tropical plants as 
coffee and cinchona, the latter yielding quinine. 
Mitchella rejmis, besides belonging to our range, 
grows in the forests of Mexico and Japan. It 
frequents dry woods, especially pine forests, and 
trails its vines in masses around the foot of trees, 
the base of rocks, and over many a pine needle 
carpeted space. The contrast of the green vine 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 133 

and its bright berries with the brown of the 
needles is so charming that one wonders that it 
has not been copied for our indoor carpetings. 
A low glass dish filled with wood earth and con- 
taining a root or two of Ebony Fern, a little 
Rattlesnake Plantain, and a few vines of the Par- 
tridge Berry will serve all winter to shut-ins as 
a most delightful reminder of the woods. 

The plant is named for Dr. John Mitchell, an 
early Virginian botanist. 



RED-BERRIED ELDER 

Sambucus pubens. Sambucus racemosa 
Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit — The red berry like drupes grow in 
compact pyramidal clusters. Each fruit is glob- 
ular and crowned with remnants of calyx and 
style. The inclosed seedlike nutlets number 
from three to five. June. 

Leaves. — The opposite leaves are compound 
with five to seven ovate-lanceolate leaflets. These 
are finely toothed and acute. 

Floivers. — The small cream-white flowers, 
with their pale yellow stamens, grow in com- 
pound pyramidal cymes. April, May. 



134 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

For two weeks I had been looking, without 
success, for the bright red berries which this 
Elder bears. When almost in despair over se- 
curing a specimen, I chanced to be trolley ing 
in the vicinity of Mt. Tom, when my eye sud- 
denly caught a gleam of red against a rocky 
background. I knew at once that it was my 
coveted prize. Fortunately a switch was near, 
and while the car waited there I was able to 
hurry back, get my specimen, and resume my 
journey. This especial plant was growing out 
of a wall of rock. In general, it is found in 
rocky woodlands and has a wide range from 
New Brunswick south to Georgia and westward 
across the continent. A variety with white 
berries is said to have been found in the Catskill 
Mountains. 

The shrub grows from two to twelve feet 
high. The older stems are brown and warty. 
In blossom and in fruit the plant may be readily 
distinguished from the Common Elder, and at 
other times the brown pith in the young shoots 
serves as a determining feature. The fruited 
shrub, at a distance, looks something like a 
sumac. 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 135 



HOBBLE BUSH. WAYFARING TREE 

Viburnum alnifolium. Viburnum lantanoides 
Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit, — The large ovate drupes are coral-red, 
turning later almost black. Each contains an 
oblong-oval nut, which is obtusely pointed and 
grooved on both sides. The drupes grow in 
scanty clusters. 

Leaves. — The leaves are large, light green, 
heart-shaped, abruptly pointed, sharply toothed, 
and have rusty wool on the veins beneath. 
In the fall the leaves turn to red and orange 
shades. 

Floivers. — ^The flowers are in broad, showy 
cymes with larger, showy, usually sterile flowers 
around the margin. May. 

The reclining branches of this shrub often 
take root, making loops which "trip the way- 
farer." "Hobble Bush" is a name which is 
suggested by the appearance of the plant with 
its looping branches. It grows in low, moist 
woods from New Brunswick to Ontario and 
south to Pennsylvania and in the mountains to 
North Carolina. 




Hobble Bush {Viburnum alnifolium) 



136 




Cranberry Tree (Viburnum Opulus) 



138 



RED OR REDDISH PURPLE 139 

CRANBERRY TREE. GUELDER ROSE 
Viburnum Opulus Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The beautiful globose drupes grow in 
terminal cymes. They are bright red when ripe, 
having changed from green to greenish yellow 
and yellowish red. The separate fruits are 
about the size of Choke Cherries. At the tip 
are traces of the calyx teeth. The fruits are 
fleshy and inclose a flat stone with a thin crus- 
taceous coat. The stone is without furrows or 
grooves. The fruit is acid and a trifle bitter. 
August, and persistent. 

Leaves. — The leaves are opposite. They are 
strongly three-nerved and three-lobed. They are 
sparingly toothed, being usually entire along the 
margins of the sinuses. The developed leaves 
are dark green above and paler beneath. Dull 
red or purple are the autumn colors. 

Flowers. — The white flowers grow in a flat 
cyme. The marginal ones are larger and neu- 
tral, the central ones smaller and perfect. June, 
July. 

This is an interesting and attractive shrub. 
In the spring, it bears its showy white flower 



140 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

clusters, with their margins of large flowers, 
"just for show," to attract the roving insect to 
the encircled blooms. By cultivation of the 
European form, the central flowers have been 
changed to large neutral ones like those at the 
margin, the flower head has become spherical, 
and the Snowball Tree of the garden is the re- 
sult. The wild shrub not only yields a graceful 
bloom, but is most attractive in fruit, with its 
erect clusters of brilliantly colored drupes. 
These lose somewhat of their brilliancy after 
frost, but are conspicuous throughout the winter. 
The fruits make a good jelly and an agreeable 
sauce. 

The plant extends north from Pennsylvania 
to New Brunswick and west to Michigan, South 
Dakota, and Oregon. 



FEW-FLOWERED CRANBERRY TREE 
Viburnum pauciflorum Honeysuckle Family 

This species is fewer flowered than the preced- 
ing and lacks the marginal neutral flowers. The 
fruit clusters are small. The drupes are light 
red and contain flat, scarcely grooved stones. 



BED on B EDDISH PUBPLE 141 

It grows in cold mountainous woods nearly 
throughout Canada, in New England, and Penn- 
sylvania, and in the Rockies in Colorado and 
Washington. 

TINKER'S WEED. WILD OR WOOD 

IPECAC. WILD COFFEE. HORSE 

GINSENG. FEVERWORT 

Triosteum perfoliatum Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The rather dry orange or scarlet 
drupes are borne at the junction of leaf and 
plant stems. The long lobed calyx remains 
attached to the fruit summit. The drupes are 
covered with fine hairs and inclose three bony 
nutlets. 

Leaves. — The leaves are ovate to broadly 
oval, acute at the apex, abruptly or gradually 
narrowed at the base, and stemless or united 
about the stem. They are soft pubescent 
beneath and somewhat hairy above. 

Flowers. — The purplish brown flowers are 
usually clustered. June. 

This is a coarse hairy herb, growing from 
Canada and New England southward to Iowa 
and Alabama. 



142 HOW TO KNOW WILD FBUITS 



INDIAN CURRANT. CORAL BERRY 

Symphoricarpos Symphoricarpos. Symphoricarpos vulgaris 
Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The fruit varies in ripening from 
coral-red to reddish purple. It is small, ovoid- 
globose, and bears the calyx teeth at the sum- 
mit. The skin is thin ; the flesh is dry, mealy, 
and insipid ; and, although there are four cells, 
the seeds are but two in number, two ovules 
being abortive. The seeds are white and hard. 
The berries grow in clusters from the axils of 
most of the leaves. The fruits persist during 
the winter. 

Leaves. — The entire oval or ovate leaves are 
on short stems and opposite. They are a dull 
green and somewhat hairy beneath. They are 
usually obtuse both at apex and base. 

Flowers. — The pinkish bell-shaped flowers 
are somewhat hairy at the throat. They 
grow in clusters in the leaf axils. July. 

This plant is most prolific in fruit, which per- 
sists after the leaves have dried and fallen. The 
clusters extend nearly the length of the stem 
and bend it with their weight. 




Indian Currant (Symphoricarpos Symphoricarpos) 
143 



144 HOW TO ENOW WILD FRUITS 

The plant grows wild in New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania, along the banks of the Delaware 
River, in New York, and west to Dakota. It 
reaches Georgia and Texas on the south. It is 
often cultivated and sometimes escapes. 



AMERICAN WOODBINE. ITALIAN OR 
PERFOLIATE HONEYSUCKLE 

Lonicera Caprifolium. Lonicera grata 
Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit — The red berries are in a sessile termi- 
nal cluster, subtended by a united pair of leaves. 
The calyx teeth crown the summit of the several- 
seeded fruit. 

Leaves. — The two or three upper pairs are 
united by their bases. The lower ones are 
without stems or have very short stems. They 
are obovate or oval and entire. 

Floicers. — The fragrant flowers are whitish 
with purple tubes. They are strongly two- 
lipped. 

New Jersey and Pennsylvania are the north- 
ern limits of this climbing vine in its wild state. 
It is often cultivated, and sometimes escapes. 



EEB OR REDDISH PURPLE 145 

HAIRY HONEYSUCKLE 
Lonicera hirsuta Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The red berries grow in short termi- 
nal spikes. The calyx teeth are at the summit 
and the berry is several-seeded. 

Leaves. — The leaves are large and have hairy 
margins and under leaf surfaces. The base is 
rounded or narrowed and the apex obtuse. One 
or two upper pairs have united bases, the others 
are stemless or have very short stems. 

Floioers. — The orange-yellow blossoms grow 
in short interrupted spikes. They are two-lobed 
and the tube is clammy-pubescent. July. 

This twining shrub is a coarse species, with 
large leaves and hairy branches, leaves, and 
flowers. It grows from Maine to Pennsylvania, 
and west to Michigan and Minnesota. 

SMOOTH-LEAVED OR GLAUCOUS HONEY- 
SUCKLE 

Lonicera dioica. Lonicera glauca 
Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The berries form a compact cluster, 
composed of a series of usually three whorls. 



146 BOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

The whorls are more or less imperfect, owing to 
the nondevelopment of some of the berries. 
The cluster is borne on a short terminal stem. 
Each fruit is several-seeded and has persistent 
calyx teeth at the summit. The berries are 
without stems. They vary in color from orange 
to red, the red ones being the ripest. They are 
covered with a bloom. The pulp is similar in 
color to the skin. The berry is translucent. 
July, August. 

Leaves. — The leaves are mostly oblong and 
from two to three inches in length. The bases 
of the one to four upper pairs are united. 
The leaves not united by their bases are stemless. 
The terminal pair varies in shape from oblong 
to oval, and with its rich green coloring forms a 
most attractive setting for the bright berry 
cluster which it surrounds. The leaf margins 
are entire and the under surface is whitened. 

Flowers. — The flowers grow in terminal 
clusters. They are greenish yellow, sometimes 
tinged with red. The tube expands into two 
lips, the lower one narrowed and the upper one 
broader and four-lobed. The inside of the tube, 
the style, and the bases of the filaments are 
hairy. 




Smooth-leaved Honeysuckle {Lonicera diolca) 
147 



148 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

This twining vine is from tliree to five feet in 
lena^th, and is a most attractive feature of the 
wooded roadside in July, when the brilhant ber- 
ries gleam from their green background. The 
plant has a northern range from New England 
and Pennsylvania. 



TRUMPET HONEYSUCKLE. CORAL 
HONEYSUCKLE 

Lonicera sempervirens Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The bright, translucent, shining, 
coral-red berries bear the tiny calyx teeth at 
the summits. They are ovoid and several- 
seeded and grow in a spike of more or less 
fully developed whorls, somewhat separated from 
each other. There are usually three or four of 
these whorls with sometimes a solitary berry at 
the top. August-October. 

Leaves. — The entire leaves are smooth and 
are whitened on the under surface. They are 
in pairs, with the bases of the upper pairs joined. 
The flower and fruit clusters proceed from this 
united pair of leaves. They are evergreen at 
the south and deciduous at the north. 




Trumpet Honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens) 
149 



150 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

Flowers. — The long trumpet-shaped flowers 
grow in interrupted spikes. They are red or 
yellowish. The humming bird is one of the 
principal agents in securing the cross fertiliza- 
tion of the flowers. April-October. 

Here is another of our wild climbing vines 
that is beautiful in cultivation. Flowers and 
fruit often occur together well into the fall. It 
grows in copses in Massachusetts and Connecticut, 
southward and west to Nebraska. 



SWAMP FLY HONEYSUCKLE 

Lonicera oblongifolia Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The reddish or purple ovoid berries 
grow in pairs on long slender stems. They are 
usually distinct, but occasionally become some- 
what united. 

Leaves. — The oval-oblong leaves do not have 
hairy margins. They are nearly smooth on both 
sides when the leaves are mature. 

Floivers. — The greenish yellow pair of flowers 
is borne on a slender stem from the leaf axils. 

This is a bog or swamp shrub growing in 



nED OR REDDISH PURPLE 151 

northern New England and New York, and 
west to Minnesota. 



AMERICAN FLY HONEYSUCKLE 
Lonicera ciliata Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — Two globular or ovoid red berries 
are borne on the same stem, which grows from 
the leaf angles. The berries are not united at 
the base, and each bears at the summit minute 
calyx teeth. The berries are several-seeded. 
The bracts at their bases are minute. June. 

Leaves. — The thin, light green leaves are 
oblong-ovate, somewhat rounded or heart-shaped 
at the base and acutish at the apex. They are 
opposite and have hairy margins. 

Flowers. — The yellowish green, five-lobed 
flowers grow in pairs on a slender stem. 

This is a straggling shrub from three to five 
feet high. The stems are brownish. It grows 
in rocky woods from New Brunswick to Penn- 
sylvania and west to Minnesota. 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 

WHITE CLINTONIA 
Clintonia umbellulata Lily-of-the- Valley Family 

Fruit. — The berry of the White Clintonia is 
bl?vck, not quite so large as that of the Yellow, 
and has few seeds. The fruits grow in umbels 
at the top of the hairy stem, which sometimes 
bears also a single small leaf. 

Leaves. — The leaves are oval or oblong, with 
hairy margins. The stalks of the two to four 
leaves sheathe the base of the flower stem. 

Floivers. — The flowers are white, often speck- 
led with green or purple. They are fragrant. 

This species is confined to rich woods in 
the Alleghany Mountains from New York to 
Georgia. 



155 



156 now TO KNOW wild fruits 

STAR-FLOWERED SOLOMON'S SEAL 

Vagnera stellata. Smilacina stellata 
Lily-of-the-Valley Family 

Fruit. — The few berries grow in a terminal 
cluster. They are, according to Mathews, 
spotted at first and later becoming dull red. 
Gray says they are blackish, and Britton and 
Brown that they are green with six black 
stripes, or black. They are rather larger than 
the fruits of Wild Spikenard, quite hard and 
opaque. 

Leaves. — The oblong-lanceolate leaves are 
slightly clasping. The apex is acute or blunt. 
The leaf is flat or a trifle concave. 

Flowers. — The white starlike flowers grow 
in a siAall terminal raceme. 

This is a smaller species than V. racemosa, 
seldom growing over a foot high. Its rootstock 
is rather slender. It favors banks of streams 
and moist meadows. It extends south to New 
Jersey and west to Kansas, and, according to 
Britton and Brown, to California. 



BLACK OR BARK PURPLE 157 

HAIRY SOLOMON'S SEAL 
Polygonatum biilorum Lily-of-the-Valley Family 

Fruit. — The berry is nearly black, with a 
bloom. It is pulpy, three-celled, with one or 
two seeds in each cell. The stigma is at the 
summit. The berries grow on slender, drooping 
stems from the axils, and are solitary, or two in 
a cluster, rarely three. August, September. 

Leaves. — The light green leaves are oblong- 
ovate, alternate, and sessile. They are parallel- 
ridged and acute at the apex. The under 
surface is whiter and hairy. 

Flowers. — The pale green flowers look like 
tassels hanging in drooping clusters of from one 
to three flowers from the leaf axils. May. 

The scars left on the thick horizontal root- 
stocks, where the stalks of preceding years grew, 
give rise to this plant's common name, Solo- 
mon's Seal. These marks, which are indicative 
of the age of the root, are somewhat like the 
impression of a wax seal. This is a graceful, 
low, wood plant, with a curving stem and droop- 
ing flower and fruit clusters. 




Hairy Solomon's Seal {Pohjgonatum Mflorum) 
158 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 159 



SMOOTH SOLOMON'S SEAL 

Polygonatum commutatum. Polygonatum giganteum 
Lily-of- the -Valley Family 

Fruit. — This globular berry is also nearly 
black with a bloom. It is larger than the pre- 
cedmg, in keeping with the larger proportions of 
the species. The clusters vary in the number of 
their fruits from one to six. These grow on 
long, stout, drooping stems from the leaf axils. 
The berry is three-celled, one cell sometimes 
containing "six seeds. August, September. 

Leaves. — The large leaves are ovate and 
partly clasping. They are smooth throughout, 
rather darker green than the smaller species and 
somewhat paler beneath. The yellow fall leaves 
contrast well with the dark berries. 

Flotvers. — The drooping jointed peduncles 
bear two to eight large, greenish, bell-shaped 
flowers. June. 

The tall, stout stalks, sometimes seven feet 
high, with their large, spreading, gracefully 
cmved leaves and the numerous nodding clusters 
of black balls are imposing additions to the flora 
of moist roadsides. They also abound along 




Smooth Solomon's Seal {Polygonatum commutatum) 
160 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 161 

streams. The species grows as far west as the 
Rocky Mountains. 

INDIAN CUCUMBER ROOT 
Medeola Virginian Lily-of-the- Valley Family 

Fruit. — The dark purple berries are borne at 
the summit of the plant on upright stems. 
They are globular, usually three or four in num- 
ber, three-celled, and few-seeded. The mark of 
the style is at the tip. September. 

Leaves. — The leaves are in two whorls. The 
lower whorl is borne about midway of the stem 
and consists of from five to nine obovate-lanceo- 
late leaflets, which are stemless, parallel-ribbed, 
and netted-veined. The upper whorl, at the top 
of the stem, is usually of three, occasionally 
more, smaller ovate leaflets. 

Floivers. — The greenish yellow flowers are 
borne on drooping stems and are often nearly 
hidden beneath the upper whorl of leaflets. 
They are like small lilies and have recurved 
perianths, six recurved reddish stamens, and 
three recurved stigmas. June. 

The flowers on their drooping stems are often 
tucked under the upper leaflets, which serve as 




Indian Cucumber Root (Medeola Virginiana) 
162 



13LACK OB DABK purple 163 

umbrellas for them. When the plant is fruiting 
the stems become erect, and, in the fall, when the 
berries are ripe, the crowning leaflets and fruit 
stems, tinged with dull reds, serve as signals to 
the birds that harvest time has come. 

The horizontal tuberous rootstock is a charac- 
teristic feature. It is white, and similar in taste 
to a cucumber. 

" Its white tuberous root is crisp and tender, 
and leaves in the mouth distinctly the taste of 
cucumber. Whether or not the Indians used it 
as a relish I do not know." — Burroughs. 



CARRION FLOWER 

Smilax herbacea Smilax Family 

Fruit. — The flattened globose berries grow in 
more or less full rounded clusters. They are 
borne on long peduncles, sometimes six or even 
eight inches long. These stems grow from the 
axils of single leaves or from the axils of leafy 
branches, which themselves spring from the leaf 
axils. The berries are black with a bloom which 
is often decidedly blue. The flesh is thin, and 
the berry variable in the number of its seeds. 



164 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

two to six. It is normally three-celled, with 
two seeds in each cell. August, September. 

Leaves. — The simple alternate leaves are seven 
to nine ribbed and are netted veined. They are 
usually round-ovate. The apex is acute, some- 
times bristle-pointed, and the base is heart- 
shaped or obtuse. The leaves are entire. A 
pair of tendrils proceed from the leaf stem. 
The under surface is lighter than the upper. 

Floivers. — The dioecious greenish flowers grow 
in from twenty- to forty-flowered clusters. They 
are ill-scented, like " a dead rat in the wall," as 
Thoreau describes it. They are fertilized by 
insects, especially carrion-loving ones. 

The main stem is neither woody nor thorny. 
By means of the numerous tendrils it climbs 
over any and every support it may encounter. 
The spherical clusters of bluish black fruits are 
very attractive about the middle of August. 
They are a frequent sight amidst the roadside 
flower tangles, and flourish along streams and 
in moist places. They range east from Minne- 
sota, Missouri, and Texas to the Atlantic. 




Carrion Flower {Smilax herbacea) 



165 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 167 

HALBERD-LEAVED SMILAX 
Smilaz tamnifolia Smilax Family 

Fruit. — The fruit is a berry similar to that 
of the Carrion Flower, but smaller. The clusters 
are rather small and the peduncles shorter than 
in preceding species. The berry is from one- to 
three-seeded. 

Leaves. — The leaves are broad at the base and 
narrow decidedly about the middle of the leaf, 
making the base almost lobed. They are thick, 
leathery, and green on both sides. 

This, like several other smilax species, has its 
northern range in dry or sandy portions of New 
Jersey. It extends south to South Carolina and 
Tennessee. It is unarmed, and usually has circu- 
lar stems and branches. 

GLAUCOUS-LEAVED GREENBRIER 
FALSE SARSAFARILLA 

Smilax glauca Smilax Family 

Fruit. — The globose black berries grow in um- 
bels on flattened peduncles, which are rarely twice 
the length of the petioles. The umbels spring 



168 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

from the leaf axils. The flesh is thin and 
incloses from one to three large seeds. Sep- 
tember. 

Leaves. — The oval leaves vary in width. 
They are conspicuously whitened beneath. The 
apex is rather obtuse but ends in a sharp point. 
The petioles are rather short and bear tendrils 
near their bases. The leaves are somewhat 
persistent. 

Floivers. — The small greenish yellow flowers 
are dioecious. There are from six to twelve 
blossoms in the flower umbel, which is borne on 
a flattened stem. 

This woody vine sometimes bears scattered 
prickles, sometimes none. The stem is circular. 
It grows in thickets from Massachusetts to 
Florida and extends west to Texas, Missouri, 
and Indiana. 



GREENBRIER. CATBRIER. HORSEBRIER 

Smilax rotundifolia Smilaz Family 

Fruit. — The globular blue-black berries are 
covered with a bloom. They grow in umbels 
on a flattened stem, which seldom exceeds in 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 169 

length that of the petiole. They are one- to 
three-seeded. September and often persistent. . 

Leaves. — The leaves are ovate or round-ovate, 
somewhat heart-shaped or rounded at the base, 
and abruptly pointed at the apex. They are 
leathery, shining when mature, green on both 
sides, entire, and smooth. Tendrils grow from 
the leaf stems and are modified forms of stipules. 

Flowers. — Small, yellowish green, dioecious 
flowers grow in rather small clusters on short 
cluster-stems. April-June. 

This Greenbrier is quite common. Its yellow- 
ish green stem is round and the branches are 
somewhat four-angled. It sometimes grows as 
long as forty feet, and is generally armed 
throughout with stout prickles. It grows in 
moist places from New England to Georgia 
and as far west as Minnesota. 



HISPID GREENBRIER 
Smilax hispida Smilax Family 

Fruit. — The bluish black berries are in umbels, 
borne on stems that are over twice as long as the 
leaf stems. They are one- to three-seeded. 



170 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

Leaves. — The egg-shaped leaves are thin, green 
on both sides, rounded or slightly heart-shaped at 
the base, and pointed at the apex. 

Floivers. — The umbels are composed of flowers 
somewhat larger than those of the Catbrier. 

This vine is distinguished by the long black 
bristles which densely cover the lower portion of 
the stem. The upper portion is generally un- 
armed. Connecticut is its northern boundary. 
It grows in moist thickets. 



LONG-STALKED GREENBRIER 
Smilaz Pseudo-China Smilaz Family 

Fruit — The umbels of black berries grow on 
flattened stems from the leaf axils. They are 
quite full, bearing eight to sixteen berries in a 
cluster. The peduncles are considerably longer 
than the petioles, being from one to three inches 
long. 

Leaves. — The firm, almost leathery leaves are 
green on both sides. They are ovate or some- 
times nearly lobed at the base. The apex is 
acute or bristle-pointed, and the edge is some- 
times roughened with fine bristle-like teeth. 



BLACK OE DARK PUB PL E 171 

Floivers. — The flowers are dioecious and grow 
in full-flowered clusters on long flattened stems. 
July. 

Long-stalked Greenbrier, as the name indicates, 
bears its flowers and fruits on long stems. These 
are more than twice as long as the petioles. The 
main stem is circular and sometimes armed with 
straight prickles along its lower part. Most of 
the plant is unarmed. It belongs to our southern 
section from New Jersey to Florida and west to 
Indiana and Missouri. It favors dry sandy soil. 



BRISTLY GREENBRIER. STRETCH BERRY 
Smilax Bona-nox Smilax Family 

Fruit. — These berries are black with a bloom. 
The umbels are borne on a flattened stem about 
twice the length of the leaf stem. The berry 
usually has but one large seed. Its pulp is 
elastic, hence the name Stretch Berry. 

Leaves. — The leaves are round, heart-shaped, 
or often much broadened at the base and nar- 
rowed midway of their length, giving a some- 
what two-lobed appearance to the base. The 
apex is bristle tipped, and the margin and mid- 



172 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

rib are often spiny. The upper and lower sur- 
faces are both, green and shining. The stems 
are tendril-bearing. The leaves cling long to 
the vines. 

Flowers. — The dioecious flowers grow in 
quite full umbels. April- July. 

The prickles on this vine are few, short, stiff, 
and scattered. The circular stem and the 
angular branchlets are both green. It has been 
reported in Massachusetts, and extends from 
New Jersey to Florida, and west to Illinois, 
Texas, and Missouri. 



HACKBERRY. SUGARBERRY 

Celtis occidentalis Elm Family 

Fruit. — The solitary drupe is about as large 
as a pea. It grows from the leaf axil on a 
drooping stem. The calyx is persistent, and 
the stigma is at the tip. The ripe fruit is dark 
purple. The flesh is rather thin and very sweet, 
and the stone is large. September, October, and 
persistent. 

Leaves. — The two sides of the leaf are quite 
unlike, one being much broader at the base than 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 173 

the other, which looks as if a piece of it had 
been cut off obliquely. The apex is pointed. 
The margin is toothed except at the base. 
Autumnal coloring is yellow. 

This tree is similar to an elm in appearance. 
Its fruit is much appreciated by the winter birds. 
The trees which I have seen have been much 
disfigured by numerous insect galls upon the 
leaves. Its range is in woods and along river 
banks, in New England southward and west to 
Minnesota. 

RED MULBERRY 
Morus rubra Mulberry Family 

Fruit. — The fruit seems at first glance to 
resemble a Blackberry in structure. It differs, 
however, in being the product of a spike of 
several flowers instead of the development of 
several carpels of the same flower. Each sepa- 
rate fruit consists of an achene or nut sur- 
rounded by the calyx lobes which have become 
juicy. Each achene bears at the summit the 
tips of the two styles. Only one of the two 
ovaries of the flower develops. The multiple or 
collective fruit formed by the crowding together 



174 HOIV TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

of the separate fruits is about an inch long, is 
sweet, juicy, and edible. It grows on a short 
stem, usually from the axil of the leaf. The 
fruit in ripening changes from green to red to 
dark purple. July. 

Leaves. — The leaves are variable in shape but 
are usually heart-ovate. On young shoots they 
are often lobed. The margins are coarsely 
toothed. The upper surface is shining and may 
be smooth or rough. The lower surface is 
lighter. Yellow is the autumnal color. 

Flowers. — A tree sometimes bears both stami- 
nate and pistillate clusters of flowers, and some- 
times but one kind. A few pistillate flowers 
are occasionally found in the staminate flower 
spikes. 

The Red Mulberry is the only species native 
to America. The tree does not usually attain a 
great size, but sometimes reaches a height of 
from sixty to seventy feet. The finest trees are 
to be found along the lower Ohio and the Missis- 
sippi rivers. They range from Massachusetts to 
Florida and west to Kansas and Nebraska. The 
leaves do not serve successfully as food for silk- 
worms. These flourish best on the White Mul- 
berry leaves. An interesting feature occurs in 




Red Mulberry {Morus rubra) 



175 



176 now TO KNOW WILD fhuits 

connection with the pollination of the flowers. 
At the precise time that the anthers are ready 
to open, the filaments uncoil like a spring and 
throw the pollen upon the breezes. 



POKE. SCORE. GARGET. PIGEON BERRY 
Phytolacca decendra Pokeweed Family 

Fruit. — The dark purple berries grow in long 
lateral racemes opposite the leaves. The berries 
are like a sphere flattened vertically and are 
from five- to twelve-celled. Each cell contains 
one vertical seed. The berry is filled with a 
crimson* juice. The calyx persists at the base. 
September. 

Leaves. — The large coarse, leaves are often 
veined with purple. 

Floivers. — The five sepals are white or pink- 
ish and surround the conspicuous green ovary. 
The corolla is lacking. 

This is a large rank perennial. The large 
roots are poisonous but the young plants are 
cooked in early summer for " Greens," and are 
considered almost equal to Asparagus. The 
sturdy plants often occur along the roadside, and 
I have seen a rocky hillside pasture overgrown 



BLACK on BABK PURPLE 



177 



with them. Birds of several different kinds eat 
the berries. 




Poke {Phytolacca decendra) 



" Pokeweed is a native American, and what a 
histy, royal plant it is ! " — Burroughs. 



178 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

CANADA MOONSEED 
Menispermum Canadense Moonseed Family 

Fruit. — The ovary is nearly straight, and has 
the stigma at the apex. In the development of 
the fruit an incurving takes place, bringing 
the stigma mark near the base of the fruit. 
This gives the stone the form of a crescent or 
ring; hence the name Moonseed, because of 
its crescent shape. The stone is flattened later- 
ally, and is wrinkled and grooved. The drupes 
are globose-oblong, one-seeded, black with a 
bloom. They grow in loose clusters and re- 
semble Frost Grapes in appearance. The 
clusters, however, grow from the leaf axils 
instead of opposite them. September. 

Leaves. — The leaves are broad-ovate with 
usually three to seven lobes. They are heart- 
shaped at the base, and have a pale under sur- 
face. The leaf stem is slender and usually 
attached within the edge of the leaf. 

Floioers. — The small, greenish white, dioecious 
flowers grow in loose clusters from the leaf axils. 
June, July. 

This woody climber, sometimes twelve feet 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 179 

long, is readily distinguished from a grapevine, 
which it somewhat resembles, by the axillary 
position of flower and fruit cluster. It is 
common along streams south to Georgia and 
Arkansas. 

WILD GOOSEBERRY 
Ribes Cynosbati Gooseberry Family 

Fruit. — The brownish red berry usually 
grows singly. It is prickly, occasionally smooth, 
and has numerous seeds with crustaceous coats 
inclosed in gelatinous ones. The seeds are sus- 
pended by tiny threads in a pulpy mass. The 
berry bears at the summit the shriveled remains 
of the calyx. The flavor is good, but the sharp, 
awl-shaped prickles are objectionable. August. 

Leaves. — The three- to five-lobed leaves are 
alternate or clustered. The base is heart-shaped, 
and the lobes are incised or serrate. One or 
more spines are usually found at the base of the 
petioles. 

Floivers. — ThQ bell-shaped greenish flowers 
grow singly or in a few-flowered raceme. 

This is a low shrub of rocky woods from New 
Brunswick south, especially along the mountains, 



180 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

to North Carolina. It extends west to Manitoba 
and Missouri. 



WILD BLACK CURRANT 
Ribes floridum Gooseberry Family 

Fruit. — The drooping racemes bear smooth, 
black, round-ovoid berries with a linear bract at 
the base of each pedicel. The dried calyx is at 
the top of each fruit. Each berry is many- 
seeded, with the seeds attached by tiny threads 
to two opposite lateral placentae. The fruit is 
watery and insipid. July, August. 

Leaves. — Tiny resinous dots on the leaves 
are characteristic. The five to seven lobes of 
each leaf are doubly toothed. 

Floioers. — The large whitish flowers grow in 
drooping, loosely-flowered, bracted, and downy 
racemes. 

This shrub is erect, and reaches a height of 
from three to five feet. It is found in woods 
from Nova Scotia south to Virginia and west to 
Kentucky, Iowa, and Nebraska. 




^>. 




182 



BLACK OR BARK PURPLE 183 

BLACK RASPBERRY. THIMBLE BERRY 
Rubus occidentalis Rose Family 

Fruit. — The small, black, juicy drupes are 
packed in diminishing circles about the elongated 
receptacle, forming a flattened hemispherical, 
aggregate fruit. This separates when ripe from 
the receptacle and the reflexed calyx lobes at the 
base. Each drupelet is woolly near its points of 
contact with other drupelets. The remainder of 
its surface is smooth and shining. The fruits 
grow in small terminal clusters. The peduncles 
are set with recurved prickles. The fruit is 
sweet and delicious in flavor. July. 

Leaves. — There are usually three leaflets to 
each compound leaf. The two lateral ones have 
short stems. Scattered prickles are on the leaf 
stems. The leaflets are much whitened beneath, 
coarsely doubly toothed, and acutely pointed. 

Flowers. — The white blossoms grow in ter- 
minal corymbs. 

Pull off one of the fruits from the receptacle, 
slip it over the tip of the little finger, and see if 
it is not a veritable " finger cap," worthy of its 
name Thimble Berry. The plant yields, each 



184 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

year, beside the fruiting stems, gracefully curved 
leafy shoots, which will be the fruit-bearing por- 
tion of next year's growth. The Raspberry has 
been generally cultivated. 

In its native haunts it is found drooping over 
rocks, growing in clumps about decaying stumps 
or trees and in fence rows. 



BLACKBERRIES 

The Blackberry group seems to be especially 
difficult of exact classification. L. H. Bailey, in 
his book on " The Evolution of our Native 
Fruits," names certain varieties which are recog- 
nizable even by a non-expert, and I have de- 
parted somewhat from Britton and Brown's 
classification to adopt Bailey's more recent 
nomenclature and divisions. 

He separates, first, the Blackberries from the 
Trailing Blackberries, or Dewberries. 

The Dewberries are distinguished by their 
trailing habit of growth, their custom of rooting 
from the tips, and by the few scattered flowers 
in the flower cluster, the central one of which 
blossoms first. 

The Blackberry fruit, in general, is a collec- 



BLACK OR BARK PURPLE 185 

tion of small drupes, which remains attached 
when ripe to the jnicj white receptacle on which 
it is borne. 

Our principal Dewberries are two in number : 
Low Running Blackberry and Running Swamp 
Blackberry. 

LOW RUNNING BLACKBERRY 
Rubus villosus. Rubus Canadensis Rose Family 

Fruit. — The fruit grows in small clusters. 
It is usually hemispherical or ovoid. The 
drupelets are large, juicy, and rather sour until 
fully ripe, when they are quite sweet. At the 
base of each fruit is the calyx, from which the 
berry separates when it falls, leaving many dried 
stamens visible in the calyx cup. 

Leaves. — The leaves have three to seven 
oval or ovate leaflets, which are sharply doubly 
toothed. They are quite thick and large. Leaf- 
like bracts grow on the flower and the fruit 
clusters. 

This is the common Dewberry of the north, 
and is a frequent roadside trailing vine. The 
species is very variable. 

The rich dark reds of its fall leaves, spreading 



186 



BOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 



over stone walls, rocks, roadsides, and pasture 
lands, and contrasting with the yellow of the 
Golden-rod and the blue of the Aster, are im- 
portant factors in the autumnal color scheme. 
The Rubus villosus, that was named and 
described in 1789, has long been taken by bot- 




Low Running Blackberry (Rubus villosus) 

anists to be the High-bush Blackberry. In 
1898, Bailey, after personally examining the 
specimens described by Alton as Rubus villo- 
sus, decided that they were specimens, not of 
the High Blackberry but of the northern Low 
Blackberry or Dewberry. To this plant, then, 
the name Rubus villosus rightfully belongs. 

" For my taste the blackberry-cone, 
Purpled over hill and stone." 

— Whittier's Barefoot Boy. 



BLACK OR BARK PURPLE 



187 



RUNNING SWAMP BLACKBERRY . 
Rubus hispidus Rose Family 

Fruit. — The fully ripened fruit is nearly 
black. It is small, consisting of but few grains. 




Running Swamp Blackberry {Rubus hispidus) 

The berries are borne on leafless stems which 
are often bristly. August. 

Leaves. — The small, usually three, obovate 
leaflets are smooth, coarsely toothed, and blunt 
at the tip. They are shining and firm and 
appear evergreen. 



188 HOW TO KNOW WILD FBUITS 

Flowers. — The flowers are small and white, 
wdth few in the cluster. 

The fall foliage is brilliant. It grows not 
only in swamps, but in sandy places as well. 



The Blackberries, aside from their more erect 
growth, are distinguished by their denser flower 
clusters, the lower or outer flowers of which are 
the first to develop ; and also by their habit of 
" sucker " spreading instead of " tip " spreading. 

SAND BLACKBERRY 
Rubus cuneifolius Rose Family 

Fruit. — The fruit is rather small but sweet 
and solid. It grows in small short clusters with 
leaves often growing below the berries. July, 
August. 

Leaves. — The compound leaves consist of 
from three to five leaflets, which are obovate, 
obtuse, toothed, and quite thick. They are dull 
green above, whitened and woolly beneath. 

Floivers. — The white or pinkish flowers grow 
in short, usually terminal clusters of few flowers. 

This is a low variety, from one to three feet 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 189 

high. It is stiff and armed with stout prickles. 
It favors sandy soil. 



Of the High-bush Blackberries, Bailey makes 
three divisions : Ruhits nigrohaccus, Rubus ar- 
gutus, and Rubus Canadensis. Professor Porter 
also describes another form which Bailey is in- 
clined to accept as a separate one, Rubus Alle- 
gheniensis, or Mountain Blackberry. 

COMMON OR HIGH-BUSH BLACKBERRY 
Rubus nigrobaccus. Rubus villosus Rose Family 

Fruit — These so-called berries are oblong, 
seedy, firm, and sweet. They grow in long 
loose clusters, the lower berries usually ripening 
first. The ^yq long, narrow calyx lobes are 
reflexed at the base. July, August. 

Leaves, — The leaflets are three or five in 
number. Each has a distinct stem, the terminal 
one having the longest stalk. The leaflets are 
ovate, pointed, and coarsely serrate. The under- 
leaf surface is hairy and glandular. 

Floioers. — The large white flowers are borne 
in long clusters. Each pedicel is long and forms 




High-bush Blackberry (Rubus nigrobaccus) 
190 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 191 

a broad angle with the axial stem. The flower 
stems are hairy and glandular. 

The stems of the High Blackberry are fur- 
rowed, often recurved, and bear stout, hooked 
prickles. They are sometimes ten feet high. 
This is the common High Blackberry, and is 
found in woods and along country roads and 
feace rows. Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas are its 
western limits and the North Carolinian Moun- 
tains its southern. 

Through a confusion in the identification of 
early specimens, the name Rubus villosus has 
been applied to the High-bush Blackberry in- 
stead of to the Low Blackberry, which Gray 
calls Rubus Canadensis. This latter term, how- 
ever, belongs to the Thornless Blackberry. The 
Low Blackberry must bear its rightful title, 
Rubus villosus, and this leaves the High Black- 
berry without a name. Bailey has christened it 
Rubus nigrobaccus. 

The variety sativus, Short Cluster Blackberry, 
has rounder fruits, that grow in short clusters. 
The drupelets are loose and large. 

The leaflets are broader and the apex blunter. 

This is the common High Blackberry of the 
open fields. It is not so tall as the type. 



192 now TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

MOUNTAIN BLACKBERRY 
RubuB Allegheniensis Rose Family 

Fruit. — The drupelets are small and dry, and 
form a long, narrow fruit, with tapering top. 
The flavor is spicy. 

Leaves. — The smaller teeth and long drawn- 
out apex are distinctive features. 

This species has reddish branches and leaf 
stems. It is considered by some to be a moun- 
tain form of Ruhus nigrobaccus, 

LEAFY CLUSTER BLACKBERRY 

RubuB argutuB RoBe Family 

Fruit. — This species is distinguished by a 
shorter, leafy fruit cluster. 

Leaves. — The leaflets are smaller and nar- 
rower, somewhat rigid, nearly smooth, and 
coarsely serrate. 

It is a lower species than R. riigrohaccus, stiff, 
straight, and nearly smooth or quite so. It is 
distinctly a southern species, taking the place 
there which is occupied in the north by R. 
nigrobaccus. It has a wide range. 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 193 

THORNLESS BLACKBERRY 
Rubus Canadensis Rose Family 

Fruit. — The fruit ripens late and is sweeter 
than the other blackberries. 

This species is distinguished by smooth leaves 
and stems and its usual lack of thorns. The 
leaves are long, narrow, and have a long acumi- 
nation. The leaf stems are long and slender 
and the stipules are long. 

It grows as far south as North Carolina. 

BLACK CHOKEBERRY 

Aronia nigra. Pyrus arbutifolia, Var. melanocarpa 
Apple Family 

This plant is smoother than Aronia arhuti- 
folia, but the chief difference is in the fruit, 
this pome being larger, more juicy, and black 
in color. 

The shrub often grows in the vicinity of 
Huckleberry Bushes, and the two fruits some- 
what resemble each other. I well remember 
the cautions which as a child I received against 
mixing the two, the Chokeberry being con- 




Black Chokeberry (Aronia nigra) 
194 



BLACK OR BARK PURPLE 195 

sidered poisonous. I distinguished between 
them by the red juice or flesh of the " Dog- 
berry," as we called it. So strong was my 
early belief in its " killing " qualities, that, 
despite the testimony of several books as to its 
sweetness, pleasant flavor, etc., I confess I test 
them rather gingerly. The range is nearly the 
same as that of the Red Chokeberry. 



OBLONG-FRUITED JUNEBERRY 
Amelanchier oligocarpa Apple Family 

Fruit. — The pear-shaped pome is dark purple, 
and covered with a thick bloom. 

Leaves. — The thin oblong leaves are narrowed 
at each end and often acute. They are sharply 
toothed. 

Floivers. — There are few, one to four, blos- 
soms in a raceme. The pedicels are rather long 
and slender. 

This is a low, nearly smooth shrub, growing 
in wet places in Ontario, New England, and 
along the shores of Lake Superior. 



196 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

PORTER'S PLUM 
Prunus AUegheniensis Plum Family 

Fruit. — The dark purple globose drupe is 
small, only about half an inch in diameter. It 
has a bloom. The flavor is pleasantly acid. 
The stone has a groove on one side and a slight 
elevation on the other. August. 

Leaves. — The lanceolate or ovate-oblong 
leaves are finely toothed, and often have a 
long pointed apex. 

The flowers resemble those of Prunus Ameri- 
cana. 

This is a low tree or straggling shrub of the 
Alleghany Bluffs. It seldom bears thorns. 

SLOE. BLACKTHORN 

Prunus spinosa Plum Family 

Fruit. — The globose drupe is about half an 
inch in diameter. It is black, with a bloom, 
and grows singly or in pairs from the sides of 
the branches. The stone has one sharp edge. 

Leaves. — The ovate or oblong leaves are 
obtuse at the apex and narrowed at the base. 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 197 

They are sharply toothed and smooth when 
mature. 

Flowers. — The white flowers are soUtary or 
two in a cluster. April, May. 

This thorny shrub was introduced from Eu- 
rope, and often occurs as an escape along road- 
sides from Massachusetts to New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania. 

A variety, insititia, Bullace Plum, is less 
thorny, and has hairy leaves and stems. 



SAND CHERRY. DWARF CHERRY 
Pnmus pumila Plum Family 

Fruit. — The drupes are about half an inch 
long and are dark red or, when fully ripe, black. 
They are without bloom. The flesh is rather 
thin and the stone is large and ovoid. The 
cherries are solitary or in small clusters. The 
shrub usually fruits abundantly. The cherries 
are sweet and edible. August. 

Leaves. — The leaves are obovate-lanceolate, 
with a narrowed base. They are deep green 
above and paler beneath. The margin is 
toothed with the exception of a short distance 



198 HOW TO KNOW WILD FkUtTS 

at the base, which is entire. The leaves change 
to a deep red in autumn. 

Floioers. — The white blossoms grow in few- 
flowered clusters. 

This trailing or prostrate shrub sends up erect 
branches which are sometimes four feet high. 
The plant sends out suckers freely, and spread- 
ing thus soon forms clumps. It grows in sandy 
places along the eastern coast south to New 
Jersey. It also occurs along the shores of the 
Great Lakes. 



WILD BLACK CHERRY. RUM CHERRY 

Pninus serotina Plum Family 

Fruit. — The black drupes grow in loose 
clusters at the ends of leafy branches. Many 
of the flowers do not develop, and the cluster 
often has a scraggly appearance. In ripening 
the fruits change from green through yellowish 
red, red, and dark red to black. The separate 
cherries are spherical and flattened vertically. 
A tiny depression is at the summit and the 
persistent calyx is at the base. The pedicels 
are short. The flesh is yellow or reddish and 
rather thin. It is sweet, and although some- 




Wild Black Cherry {Pnuius serotina) 
199 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 201 

what bitter has a pleasant flavor. August, 
September. 

Leaves. — The dark green glossy leaves, with 
their whitened under surfaces, are alternate, 
and usually ovate or oval-lanceolate. The apex 
is pointed and the base rounded or narrowed. 
The teeth are so incurved as to appear blunt. 
The upper surface of the leaf stem is grooved 
and bears two or more small glands near the 
base of the leaf. Yellow is the autumnal color. 

Flowers. — The small white flowers grow in 
long, loose racemes. May, June. 

The tree sometimes grows to a height of 
eighty or ninety feet. The branches and bark 
of the young trees are reddish brown. The 
trunks of the older trees are almost black and 
the bark is scaly. The wood is hard and has a 
beautiful close grain. It is red and darkens 
with age, does not shrink nor warp, and is 
used for cabinet work and the inside finishings 
of houses. It is becoming scarce. The cherries 
are used in flavoring brandies and other intoxi- 
cants. Both bark and fruit are ingredients in 
certain medicines. The tree is common through- 
out the eastern part of the United States and 
extends west to Dakota, Kansas^ and Texas. 



202 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

BLACK CROWBERRY 

Empetrum nigrum Crowberry Family 

Fruit. — The black drupe is berrylike, globu- 
lar, and incloses six to nine seedlike nutlets with 
a seed in each. The calyx is at the base and 
the stigma is at the apex. The drupes are 
solitary in the leaf axils. They are juicy, acid, 
edible, and serve as food for the Arctic birds. 

Leaves. — The linear-oblong leaves roll their 
edges backward until they meet. They are 
dark green, thick, obtuse, and crowded along the 
branches. Evergreen. 

Floivers. — The purplish dioecious flowers are 
small and solitary in the upper axils. The 
stamens are much exserted. 

The Black Crowberry appears south to the 
coast of Maine, the higher mountains of New 
England, in northern New York, Michigan, and 
California. It is a native also of Europe and 
Asia. It is a much-branched shrub, low, densely 
leafy, and grows in thick beds. 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 208 

INKBERRY. EVERGREEN WINTER BERRY 
Ilex glabra Holly Family 

Fruit. — The berrylike black drupe is about a 
quarter of an inch in diameter. It is usually 
solitary in the leaf axils, with the calyx at the 
base and the mark of the stigma at the summit. 
The six seedlets are smooth. 

Leaves. — The leathery evergreen leaves are 
wedge-lanceolate or oblong. The apex is obtuse 
or acute and sometimes few-toothed. The re- 
mainder of the margin is entire. The upper 
surface is dark green and shining and the lower 
one paler and dotted with black. 

Flowers. — The small dioecious or perfect 
flowers grow in the leaf axils. They are borne 
on slender stems. June. 

This slender evergreen shrub is from two to 
six feet high. It has long been cultivated in 
England, but with us occurs mainly in a wild 
state. It grows near the coast from Nova Scotia 
to Louisiana. 




Inkberry {Ilex glabra) 
204 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 205 

BUCKTHORN 
Rhamnus cathartica Buckthorn Family 

Fruit. — The berrylike drupes grow in clusters. 
They are globose, somewhat flattened, black, and 
shining. The pulp and juice of the fruits are a 
peculiar green. The three or four inclosed nut- 
lets are grooved. The drupes are bitter and 
nauseating. August. 

Leaves. — The leaves are broadly ovate with 
prominent, sometimes hairy, veins, beneath. 
They are finely toothed. 

Floioers. — The small greenish flowers are 
dioecious. They appear a little later than the 
leaves. May, June. 

This is a shrub or small tree ten or fifteen 
feet high. The lower branches, while leafy, are 
short and stiff and end in sharp points, really 
serving the purposes of thorns. 

The berries were formerly used in medicines 
as a purgative, but are so severe *in their action 
that their use in this direction is now confined 
to veterinary practice. A green dye is yielded 
by the ripe berries, a purple dye by the over-ripe 
fruit, a yellow dye by the fresh bark, and a 
brown one by the dried bark. 



206 



HOW TO KNOW WILD FEUITS 




Buckthorn {Rhamnus cathartica) 



The plant is an escape from hedges in New 
England and the Middle States, and was intro- 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 207 

duced originally from Europe. It is also a native 
of northern Asia. 



LANCE-LEAVED BUCKTHORN 
Rhamnus lanceolata Buckthorn Family 

Fruit — This berrylike drupe has two grooved 
nutlets. It is black and shining. The fruits 
are in the leaf axils, sometimes in clusters of 
two or three. 

Leaves. — The leaves are oblong-lanceolate. 
On the flowering shoots the leaf apex is often 
obtuse. The leaves are finely toothed and some- 
what hairy on the veins beneath. 

Flowers. — The yellowish green blossoms are 
solitary or clustered in the leaf axils. May. 

The Lance-leaved Buckthorn grows along 
banks of streams and on hills from Pennsyl- 
vania southward. It is a tall, thornless shrub. 

ALDER-LEAVED BUCKTHORN 
Rhamnus alnifolia Buckthorn Family 

Fruit. — The black berrylike drupes are some- 
what pear-shaped. They are fleshy and inclose 



208 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

three grooved nutlets. They grow from the 
axils of the lower leaves on shoots of new 
growth. 

Leaves. — The broadly ovate leaves are dark 
green when fully grown. They are acute at 
the apex and the margin is bluntly toothed. 
The veins on the lower surface are very promi- 
nent. 

Floivers. — The greenish flowers are mostly 
dioecious and grow on short stems in the leaf 
axils. May, June. 

This is a low thornless shrub which grows in 
swamps, with New Jersey for its southern limit 
in our section. 



NORTHERN FOX GRAPE 

Vitls Labnisca Grape Family 

Fruit. — The fruit is very variable in color, 
in size of separate berries and of the cluster, 
and in flavor. Purplish black is the common 
color but ripe reddish and greenish fruits are 
found. The cluster is usually rather small. 
The berries are large, with a thick skin, tough 
pulp, and large, thick seeds. They drop readily 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 209 

when ripe. They are sweet, with a somewhat 
" musky " taste and odor. September. 

Leaves. — The leaves are likewise variable ; 
sometimes nearly entire in outline and broadly 
heart-shaped, sometimes three-lobed near the top, 
and sometimes five-lobed. The margins have 
sharply tipped teeth. The leaves are thick and 
large, with a green, nearly smooth upper surface 
and an under surface thickly covered with whit- 
ish or brownish wool. 

Flowers. — The inconspicuous flowers are some- 
times perfect, sometimes staminate or pistillate. 
The fertile racemes are compact. 

This luxuriant vine climbs by means of its 
tendrils, which are modified flower peduncles, 
over rocks and walls, and from tree top to tree 
top in the forest. It is our most common grape 
and the one from which many cultivated forms, 
such as the Catawba, Concord, and Worden have 
sprung. Its berries are considered the best for 
jellies and are also valuable for grape juice. 
This delicious beverage is justly growing in 
favor. It is rich in nutriment, containing as 
much nitrogenous matter as milk. 

The scurfy covering of the branches, stalks, 
and tendrils, together with the presence of ten- 



210 HOW TO ENOW WILD FRUITS 

dril or flower cluster opposite each leaf, are 
distinguishing features. The bark peels off in 
shreds. 

It occurs in New England and along the Alle- 
ghanies to central Georgia. 

SUMMER GRAPE 
VitiB aestivalis Grape Family 

Fruit. — The berries are medium-sized, one- 
third to one-half inch in diameter. They are 
dark blue or black with a bloom. The skin is 
tough ; the flesh sometimes dry and puckery, 
sometimes sweet and juicy, always lacking the 
musky flavor of Vitis Icibrusca ; and the seeds 
are small. The clusters are rather long, with 
long stems. September. 

Leaves. — The large leaves, thickish when 
mature, are angled or three- to five-lobed. The 
openings between the lobes are deep or broad 
and open. The base is heart-shaped. The young 
leaves are shining above and have tufts of 
brown down on the lower surfaces. The older 
leaves are dull green above and with the dis- 
tinguishing brown woolly tufts along the veins. 

Floivers. — The flower cluster is long and loose. 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 211 

This vine, like the preceding, is one of vigorous 
growth, and has given rise to several cultivated 
varieties. It is distinguished by its brown woolly 
masses on the leaves and by the absence of ten- 
dril or inflorescence opposite each third leaf. 

Bailey, in his " Evolution of our Native Fruits," 
gives its range as Chenung County, New York, 
and Long Island to central Florida and west 
through southern Pennsylvania to the Mississippi 
and Missouri. 

It is especially a southern grape, whose place in 
the north is represented by the next plant, Vitis 
hicolor, which is considered by Gray a variety of 
Vitis cBstivalis but as a separate species by Bailey 
and by Britton and Brown. 



BLUE GRAPE 
Vitis bicolor Grape Family 

Fruit. — The clusters are usually long, with a 
long peduncle. The berries are purple, with a 
dense bloom, medium in size, and sour in taste. 
The seeds are small. September. 

Leaves. — The large, usually three- to five-lobed 
leaves have not as deeply notched teeth as those 



212 HOW TO KNOW WILD FBUITS 

of Vitis cestivalis. A distinguishing feature is 
the thick blue bloom on the under surface of the 
leaf. It loses this toward fall, but does not have 
the brown woolly masses of the Summer Grape. 
The petioles and tendrils are long. 

The young growths, as well as the under leaf 
surface, are usually covered with the distinguish- 
ing blue bloom. The vine growls along streams 
and on banks from New York to Illinois and to 
mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. 



RIVERSIDE OR SWEET-SCENTED GRAPE 

Vitia vulpina. Vitis riparia Grape Family 

This species differs from Vitis cordifolia 
(the following species) chiefly in the following 
particulars : — 

Fruit. — The berries are thickly covered with 
blue bloom. The seeds are small. The fruit 
clusters are much-branched and often compound. 

Leaves. — These show deeper and more frequent 
lobes. The veins and angles are often hairy. 

Flowers. — The blossoms are very fragrant. 
They grow in smaller, denser clusters. 

This has a range from New Brunswick to 



BLACK OR DARE PURPLE 

A 



213 




Riverside Grape ( Vitis vulpina) 



North Dakota, Kansas, and Colorado, south to 
West Ynginia, Mississippi, and Texas. It is the 
source of some cultivated species ; Elvira, Clinton, 
and others. 



214 HOW TO ENOW WILD FRUITS 

FROST OR CHICKEN GRAPE 
Vitis cordifolia Grape Family 

Fruit. — The small round berries are numer- 
ous in the loose-branched cluster. They are 
black with a slight bloom, have a thick skin,^ 
scant pulp, and one or two medium-sized 
seeds. They are sour, but improve in flavor 
after being frosted. October, November. 

Leaves. — The leaves are usually undivided, 
but sometimes are suggestive of three lobes 
or angles. They are coarsely toothed with 
sharp-pointed teeth. The apex is generally 
long and pointed, and the base is heart- 
shaped. The upper leaf surface is shiny and 
the lower one green and usually smooth, with 
occasionally fine hairs along the veins. 

Flowers. — The flower cluster is long, branched, 
and many-flowered. 

This is the true Frost Grape, and is a vine 
of luxuriant growth, the trunk sometimes be- 
coming a foot or two in diameter. It grows 
in moist thickets and along streams from New 
England to central Illinois, Missouri, Nebraska, 
and southward. 




Virginia Creeper {Parthenocissus quinquefolia) 
216 



BLACK OB BARK PURPLE 217 

VIRGINIA CREEPER. WOODBINE 
AMERICAN IVY 

Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Ampelopsis quinquefolia 
Grape Family 

Fruit. — The globular berry is slightly de- 
pressed at the tip. It is dark blue or nearly 
black when mature, is two-celled, with one or 
two largish seeds in each cell. The flesh is 
thin and inedible. The berries grow in loose 
red-stalked clusters. October. 

Leaves. — The compound leaves are borne on 
long channeled red stems. The five to seven 
leaflets are in a whorl at the apex of the leaf 
stalk. They are variable in shape, oval or 
elliptical, and are coarsely toothed along the 
apex half of the margin. The stems are short 
and the apex is long and acute. The leaves 
early assume their red, crimson, and purplish 
fall colorings. 

Flowers. — The reddish or greenish small 
flowers grow in cymes. Despite their incon- 
spicuous appearance and apparent lack of 
odor, they are visited by many bees. 

Virginia Creeper is a vine which has been 



218 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

much cultivated. It grows rapidly, and covers 
house walls and various supports offered it. 
When growing wild, it climbs tree trunks 
and covers stone walls, fences, and rocks. It 
supports itself by means of the small disks at 
the ends of the tendrils. The fall coloring is 
brilliant. Its five leaflets are a feature dis- 
tinguishing it from the Poison Ivy, which has 
somewhat similar habits of growth. The 
latter's leaflets are but three in number. 



ANGELICA TREE. HERCULES' CLUB 

Aralia spinosa Ginseng Family 

Fruit. — The black berrylike drupes are five- 
lobed and bear the styles at the summit. The 
fruits grow in large terminal clusters. The flesh 
is thin. The fruits hang on the trees during the 
winter. 

Leaves. — The leaves are doubly or triply 
compound and very large. The leaflets are 
ovate, thick, and serrate. They are dark green 
above and paler beneath. The petioles are 
prickly. Dark red with traces of yellow is the 
fall coloring. 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 219 

Flotuers. — The small white flowers grow in 
umbels, some of which form a large panicle. 

In the south, this plant is said to become 
a tree of fifty feet in height. In our section, 
however, it is a small tree or large shrub. The 
branchless stems often grow in groups, bearing 
their large compound leaves in clusters at the 
top. The general effect is somewhat like a 
palm. The stems and leaves are thorny. The 
flowers, like those of the Spikenard, are late in ap- 
pearing and the fruit matures rapidly. Southern 
New York is the northern limit, although it is 
often cultivated farther north and sometimes 
escapes. 

AMERICAN SPIKENARD. INDIAN ROOT 
Alalia racemosa Ginseng Family 

Fruit. — The large raceme-like cluster of 
fruits is composed of numerous umbels. Smaller 
clusters grow in the leaf axils. The berry is 
small, gobular, dark purple or reddish brown, 
five-seeded, and crowned with tiny calyx teeth, 
through which the styles project. The berries, 
like the roots, are aromatic. September. 

Leaves. — The leaves are large and compound. 



220 



now TO ENOW WILD FRUITS 




American Spikenard {Aralia racemosa) 



Each has a main stem and two opposite lateral 
branches. Three to five leaflets, a terminal one 



BLACK OR BARK PURPLE 221 

and the others in pairs, grow on each of ' the 
stems. The leaflets are sometimes lobed. They 
are usually heart-shaped and sharply and doubly 
toothed. The point is long and sharp, and the 
base is heart-shaped. The veins on the lower 
surface are hairy. 

Floioers. — The small, greenish, umbelled 
flowers form long terminal spikes or smaller 
spikes in the leaf axils. July, August. 

Along the wooded roadsides, the greenish 
white flowers appear about the time that the 
Golden-rod begins to blossom. The fruit follows 
in haste; and the plant, with its tiny glassy 
spheres, is more noticeable than in its period of 
bloom. The berries are used as food by birds. 

Its range is from New Brunswick to Georgia 
and west to Minnesota. 



WILD OR VIRGINIAN SARSAPARILLA 
Aralia nudicaulis Ginseng Family 

Fruit — The fruit is borne on a naked scape, 
which is shorter than the leaf stalks. There is 
usually one large cluster of fruits at the top of 
the scape. This cluster is often composed of 



222 



HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 




Wild Sarsaparilla {Aralia nudicaulis) 

two small clusters borne on short stems. From 
this central cluster radiate, on longer stems, one 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 223 

or more smaller clusters of fruits. The clusters 
are compact and globular in appearance. The 
black berrylike drupes composing them are 
globular and about the size of peas. At the top 
of each is visible the opening of the calyx tube, 
with its minute teeth. Projecting through and 
beyond this are the five styles. The drupe is 
five-celled, with one nutlet in each cell. The 
green fruits are ridged, showing the five-celled 
structure externally ; but when ripe the drupes 
are nearly smooth. July, August. 

Leaves. — There is usually one, sometimes there 
are two, long stalked, compound leaves. Each 
leaf has three divisions of five to seven leaflets 
each. These are finely toothed and acute at the 
apex. 

Floioers. ^— The flowers are greenish white, 
and are borne in umbels composed of from three 
to seven clusters of bloom. 

The aromatic root serves as a substitute for 
the South American Sarsaparilla. Bluebirds are 
recorded as eating the fruit. It favors damp 
woods, and extends south from Newfoundland 
to North Carolina and west to the Dakotas. 



224 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

BRISTLY SARSAPARILLA. WILD ELDER 
Aralia hispida Ginseng Family 

Fruit. — The dark blue, almost black, berry- 
like drupes are usually five-seeded. When the 
fruit is green, or the berry somewhat dry, it 
shows its five parts very distinctly. The five 
styles protrude through the persistent calyx tube 
at the top of the fruit. Several umbels on very 
slender smooth pedicels grow at the summit of 
the plant stem. August. 

Leaves. — The leaves are twice pinnate, with 
long ovate leaflets. These are finely toothed, 
sharply acute at the apex, narrowed or rounded 
at the base, and hairy on the veins beneath. 

Floivers. — The tiny white flowers grow in 
nearly hemispherical clusters. 

This Sarsaparilla is distinguished by the 
bristles which are scattered along the stem. It 
grows from one to two feet high, and frequents 
rocky and sandy places. It extends south to 
North Carolina. 




Bristly Sarsaparilla {Aralia hispidd) 



225 



226 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

TUPELO. SOUR GUM. PEPPERIDGE 

Nyssa sylvatica Dogwood Family 

Fruit. — The fruit clusters grow on long 
slender steins from the leaf axils. They rarely 
contain more than two or three of the bluish 
black ovoid drupes. The flesh is thin and acid, 
and the bony stone grooved. The drupes serve 
as food for birds. October. 

Leaves. — The leaves are a soft glossy green 
above, with a paler, somewhat hairy under sur- 
face. They vary in shape from lanceolate to 
oval and obovate. They are often entire, some- 
times notched, with large teeth near the apex. 

Floivers. — Sterile and fertile flowers usually 
grow on different trees, but sometimes on the 
same tree. They are yellowish green. The 
sterile flowers grow in several-flowered clusters, 
and the fertile ones are solitary, or in a close 
whorl of a few blossoms. They grow on short 
stalks which elongate in fruit. 

This is an ornamental, rather small tree, with 
an attractive foliage. Its branches are rather 
low, horizontal, and quite close. The wood splits 
with difficulty on account of its twisted fibers. 




Tupelo (Nysm sylvatica) 
227 



228 now TO know wild fruits 

Tupelo is the Indian name for the tree. An 
interesting tradition in connection with the tree 
still clings around slavery days. It was cus- 
tomary to use a log of the Sour Gum as the 
back log for the rousing Christmas fire. As 
long as the fire lasted, work on the plantation 
was suspended. Prompted by the characteristic 
love of leisure possessed by the colored race, the 
slaves would cut a large log in the fall, sink it 
under water, and leave it there until near Christ- 
mas, when they would raise it and carry it in 
with the other Christmas fuel. Full of water, it 
burnt a long time, and the slaves enjoyed a cor- 
respondingly long vacation. The tree ranges 
from New England west to Michigan, and south 
to Florida and Texas. 



ALPINE OR BLACK BEARBERRY 

Mairania alpina Arctostaphylos alpina 

Heath Family 

Fruit. — The globose drupes are black and 
juicy. They inclose four or five separate nut- 
lets, each one-seeded. They grow in small 
clusters. 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 229 

Leaves. — The leaves are deciduous, toothed, 
and inversely egg-shaped, with conspicuous 
veinings. 

Floivers. — The white ovoid flowers have a 
narrow throat. They grow in terminal racemes. 

This Bearberry is an Arctic mountainous shrub 
around the world. It also occurs in the moun- 
tains of New England and Canada. It is de- 
pressed, not half a foot high. 



BLACK OR HIGH-BUSH HUCKLEBERRY 
Gaylussacia resinosa Huckleberry Family 

Fruit. — The black, shining, berrylike drupes 
grow in short racemose clusters. The calyx 
teeth are plainly visible. A cross section of the 
fruit near the base shows the circular arrange- 
ment of the ten nutlets around the core. This 
core tapers toward the summit, being somewhat 
cone-shaped. July, August. 

Leaves. — The thick green leaves are covered 
with resinous dots. They are entire and have 
short petioles. They vary from oblong to oval, 
and are obtuse or acutish. A purplish red is 
one of the most noticeable of its fall colorings. 



230 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

Floivers. — The reddish or pink bells grow in 
short one-sided racemes. 

There are several varieties with berries differ- 
ing from the type; some, pear-shaped; some, 
bluish ; and some, black with a bloom. 

Gaylussacia resinosa is the Huckleberry com- 
monly for sale. The flesh is harder than that 
of the Blueberries, but the hard nutlets are some- 
what objectionable. 

Huckleberries and milk ! What recollections 
of childhood the combination recalls ! Bluebirds, 
robins, cedar birds, crows, and blue jays share 
with mortals a liking for the berries. 

The Huckleberries contribute an important 
share to the beauty of the autumnal display of 
colors. Great purplish patches on pasture hill- 
sides are visible for a considerable distance. 

The species extends as far south as Georgia, 
and west to Minnesota. 



DWARF OR BUSH HUCKLEBERRY 

Gaylussacia dumosa Huckleberry Family 

Fruit. — The berrylike drupes, with their ten 
seedlike nutlets, are small, watery, and insipid. 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 231 

They are black and shining, without bloom, and 
grow in an open bracted cluster. July, August. 

Leaves. — The thick leaves are green on both 
sides, shining when old, and resinous. They 
are nearly or quite stemless, and often slightly 
downy. The apex is obtuse or acute, and ends 
in a sharp point. 

Floivers. — The racemes of white, pink, or 
red bell-shaped flowers grow in loose bracted 
racemes. June. 

The fruit of this variety is not of much 
account. The plant is the principal member 
of the genus southward. It grows in sandy 
swamps along the coast from Newfoundland to 
Florida and Louisiana. 

LOW BLACK BLUEBERRY 
Vaccinium nigrum Huckleberry Family 

Fruit. — The berry is black and has no bloom. 
July. 

Leaves. — The leaves are oblong, obovate, or 
oblanceolate. They are nearly sessile and finely 
toothed. The apex is acute and the base nar- 
rowed or rounded. The under surface is pale 
and whitened. 



232 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

Floivers. — The flowers are white and bell- 
shaped. The bell is rounder than the blossom 
of V. Pennsylvanicum. Only a few flowers ap- 
pear in the cluster. 

This is sometimes considered as a variety of 
F. Pennsylvanicum, and often grows with it. It 
differs from it in having a rounder, bell-like blos- 
som and in the black bloomless fruit. 

Vaccinium atrococcum is sometimes considered 
as a variety of V. corymhosum, which is de- 
scribed in the blue section. The stems and un- 
der leaf surfaces are downy. The berries are 
black and lack bloom. 



FRINGE TREE 
Chionanthus Virginica Olive Family 

Fruit. — The purple oval drupes grow in loose 
clusters. They are covered with a bloom. The 
four-parted calyx is persistent at the base and 
the style is at the tip. The dry flesh contains 
one stony seed. The skin is thick. 

Leaves. — The ovate or ob ovate-lanceolate 
leaves have stout, hairy stems. They are entire, 
and sharp or rounded at the apex. The under 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 238 

surface is hairy along the veins. The leaves 
turn yellow in the fall. 

Flowers. — The white flower clusters are deco- 
rative among the green foliage. The four nar- 
row petals, hanging like fringes, give the common 
name to the plant. 

The Greek, Chionanthus, meaning snow and 
blossom, refers to the white flowers. This shrub, 
or small tree, is native as far north as New Jer- 
sey and southern Pennsylvania, and extends 
southward to Florida and west to Texas, Ar- 
kansas, and Kansas. It grows along the banks 
of streams. It is often cultivated at the north. 



PRIVET 

Ligustrum vulgare Olive Family 

Fruit — The shining black berries are from 
one- to two-seeded. They grow in terminal 
panicles. 

Leaves. — The leaves are deciduous with us, 
but in the south of Europe are evergreen. They 
are entire and very smooth. 

Floioers. — The small white flowers are in 
terminal panicles. 

The leaves and bark are astringent. In 



234 HOW TO KNOW WILD FEUITS 

Belgium and in other parts of Europe, the small 
twigs are powdered and used for tanning leather. 
The juice of the berries is used in dyeing. This 
is a hardy shrub from six to eight feet high. It 
has been naturalized from Europe. It is often 
used for hedges. Some of its old English names 
are Primwort, Skedge, and Skedgwith. 

Privet is reported growing on the walls of 
Cologne Cathedral, the seeds obviously having 
been deposited there by bird agencies. 



BLACK OR GARDEN NIGHTSHADE 

Solanum nigrum Potato Family 

Fruit. — Smallish, black, globular berries grow 
in drooping clusters from the side of the stems. 
Their pedicels are slender, and the five-parted 
calyx is at the base. The berries are smooth 
and contain many thin, flat seeds. 

Leaves. — The ovate leaves usually have one 
side which is slightly longer than the other. 
They are wavy-toothed, thin, and have thin 
stems. 

Flowers. — The five-lobed white flowers grow 
in lateral clusters. July-September. 




Black Nightshade {Solarium nigrum) 
235 



236 MOW TO KNOW WILD FHUtTS 

By the roadside and in waste places, the Black 
Nightshade occasionally appears. It is a rather 
low spreading annual. 



AMERICAN ELDER. SWEET ELDER 

Sambucus Canadensis Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — Large, full, flat, drooping clusters of 
purplish or almost black drupes grow at the ends 
of the branches. Usually, five small nutlets and 
purplish juice are the contents of each fruit. 
The calyx teeth and stigma are visible at the 
summit. August, September. 

Leaves. — The compound leaves are opposite. 
Their five to eleven leaflets grow on short stems, 
and are oblong or ovate. They are coarsely and 
sharply toothed, the teeth sometimes hooked. 
The under surface is lighter than the upper, and 
hairy. The tip is acute and the base rounded, 
acute, or heart-shaped. 

Floivers. — The small, whitish, fragrant flowers 
grow in a flat compound cyme. 

In July, this blossoming shrub delights both 
the sense of sight and that of smell as one passes 
along the roadway bordered by it. In the fall. 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 237 

at school-opening season^ the drooping dusters 
of fruit are a feast for the eye ; are sometimes 
used for pies and homemade wine ; and furnish 
material for the country boy's ink bottle, much to 
the distress of his schoolma'am. Professor Budd 
is responsible for the statement, that with the 
addition of an acid, vinegar or lemon juice, 
Elderberries make as good a pie as Huckle- 
berries. 

The new growths are smooth and green, and 
the older stems are grayish, with raised dots. 
The pith is white, distinguishing this Elder from 
the Red-berried, which has a brown pith. It is a 
common plant of the United States and Canada. 



MAPLE-LEAVED VIBURNUM OR ARROW- 
WOOD. DOCKMACKIE 

Viburnum acerifolium Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The smallish drupes are somewhat 
oval in shape, with two opposite sides flattened. 
They are pointed at the tip. They are nearly 
black when ripe. The flesh is thin and the 
stone is doubly convex, with one ridged surface 
and the other one slightly two-grooved. The 



238 



HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 




Maple-leaved Viburnum {Viburnum acerifolium) 

fruits are borne in a terminal flat cluster, on 
reddish downy stems. Late August, September, 
and persistent through the winter. 



BLACK OR DARK PURPLE 239 

Leaves. — The leaves are in pairs, with tiny 
stipules at the base of the stems. The under 
surface of the leaf is lighter than the upper, and 
is soft, with down. The shape varies from oval 
to somewhat three-lobed. The leaves are un- 
evenly toothed. 

Floivers. — The flower cluster consists of 
perfect, small, white, or cream-colored blossoms. 
May, June. 

This is a low shrub, seldom exceeding six 
feet in height. It is quite readily distinguished 
by the resemblance of its leaves to those of the 
Red Maple. It grows on the border of woods 
south to North Carolina and west to Michigan 
and Minnesota. 



DOWNY-LEAVED ARROWWOOD 

Viburnum pubescens Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The dark purple oval drupes are 
clustered. The flesh is thin and the stone is 
two-grooved on each surface. August. 

Leaves. — The ovate leaves are stemless or 
nearly so. They are coarsely toothed and acute 
at apex, or sometimes the point is long drawn 



240 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

out. The under surface is soft with down. 
Purple and red are the foliage colors of autumn, 
which contrast with the dark berries. 

Floioers. — The abundant white flowers grow 
in an open cyme. 

The sessile, or nearly sessile, leaves and their 
soft pubescence are characteristics of this low 
branching shrub of rocky woods. It extends 
south along the Alleghanies to Georgia. It 
ranges west to Minnesota and Iowa. 

WITHE-ROD 
Viburnum cassinoides Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The globose or ovoid drupes are 
borne on red stems. The cluster presents a 
most attractive appearance with light green, 
pink, and blue-black fruits in various stages of 
ripening. The dark drupes are covered with a 
soft blue bloom. The minute calyx and stigma 
persist at the tip. The flesh is quite abundant 
and sweet. The stone is flat, with a slight hol- 
low on one side and a convex surface on the 
other. Late August, September. 

Leaves. — The thickish opposite leaves grow 
on flattened petioles, which nearly encircle the 




Withe-rod {Viburnum cassinoides) 
241 



BLACK OR BARK PURPLE 243 

smaller branches. Brown circular dots appear 
on the upper surface of the leaf along the mid- 
vein, and are scattered about on the under 
surface. The leaf is usually ovate, with a blunt 
tip. The teeth are fine and somewhat rounded, 
or the margin is sometimes entire. 

Floivers. — The flower cluster is quite large 
and full. The whitish flowers are small, perfect, 
and five-parted. June. 

The shrub is rather straggling, and has an 
ash-colored bark. The twigs are somewhat 
scurfy and dotted. The slender last year's 
growth is sometimes used in binding sheaves. 
It is a swamp plant, and extends south to New 
Jersey and west to Minnesota. 



LARGER WITHE-ROD 
Viburnum nudum Honeysuckle Family 

This is usually a larger species than Vihurnwn 
cassinoides, and has a southern range extending 
from New Jersey south to Florida. The leaves 
are more prominently veined than in the preced- 
ing, and sometimes scurfy above. The margin 
is generally entire. 



244 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

SWEET VIBURNUM. SHEEPBERRY 
NANNY BERRY 

Viburnum Lentago Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The drupes are crimson, before ripen- 
ing to a dark blue or black, and the two colors 
often mingle in the fruit cluster. The fruits 
are covered with bloom, are drooping, and the 
clusters have slender red stalks. The calyx tube, 
with the projecting stigma, is at the summit. 
The fruit is rather large and edible. The stone 
is flattened, has a blunt point, and is grooved on 
both sides. September, October. 

Leaves. — The broad oval leaves are sharp- 
pointed, and are sharply and closely toothed. 
The leaf stem is usually winged or margined. 
In the fall the leaves are deep red or marked 
with orange. 

Floioers. — The small white flowers grow in 
terminal cymes. The numerous yellow anthers 
give the flower a yellowish appearance^ May, 
June. 

This small tree has rusty, scurfy, scale-like 
bark, especially on the young shoots. Its foliage 
is good, and the flower clusters large and showy. 




Sweet Viburnum {Vihurnwn Lentago) 
245 



246 UOIV TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

It occurs quite frequently in woods and along 
streams from Canada to Georgia, and west to 
Minnesota and Missouri. 



BLACK HAW. STAG BUSH 
Viburnum prunifolium Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The dark blue, nearly black, oval 
drupes are borne in a few-fruited cluster. The 
fruits are whitened with a bloom. The oval 
stone is flat on one side and a trifle curved on 
the other. The flavor of the fruit is improved 
after having been frosted. September. 

Leaves. — The oval leaves are usually obtuse 
at the apex and finely toothed. They are dark 
green above and lighter beneath. They grow 
on short stems which are sometimes winged. 

Floivers. — The cream-white flowers grow in a 
flat-topped cluster. May. 

This Viburnum, like the Sweet Viburnum, 
sometimes reaches the stature of a tree. It is 
found from Connecticut to Florida, and extends 
west to Michigan, Kansas, and Texas. 



BLUE 



BLUE 

COMMON JUNIPER 

Junlperus communis Pine Family 

Fruit. — The berrylike cones do not develop 
until the second year, and often remain on the 
branches some time after ripening. When fully 
ripe, in the fall of the second year, the fruits 
are dark blue with a bloom. They are usually 
three-seeded. The flesh of the berry is dry and 
mealy. The seeds are slow in germinating, re- 
quiring two years. The fruit develops from 
three fleshy scales, united from their bases nearly 
to the tips, and inclosing three ovules. When 
ripe, the tips of the scales are still visible, with 
lines from each joiniug in a common center. 
The berry is nearly stemless and axillary. It 
is much used in making gin, an infusion of the 
berries being added to distilled grain. 

Leaves. — The short, stemless, sharp-pointed 
leaves are arranged in whorls of three. They 
are bright green and shining on the lower sur- 

249 




Low Juniper (Juniperus nana) 
250 



BLUE 251 

face, and channeled and whitened on the upper 
one. The whitened appearance of the upper sur- 
face is due to a thin layer of wax, which covers 
and protects, from dew and rain, the stomata, 
or openings, of the air passages. 

Floivers. — The staminate and pistillate flow- 
ers grow in aments on separate plants. April, 
May. 

Jimiperus communis is an erect shrub or small 
tree, common to the northern portions of Europe, 
Asia, and America. In the latter continent it 
extends as far south as New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Nebraska, Michigan, and along the Rock- 
ies to New Mexico. 

Juniperus nana (Jimiperus communis, var. al- 
pina of Gray) is distinguished from the pre- 
ceding by a growth in low circular patches. 
These spread over waste rocky hillsides and 
are eradicated with difficulty. The leaves are 
somewhat stouter and less spreading than those 
of Juniperus communis. 



252 HOW TO ENOW WILD FRUITS 

RED CEDAR 
Juniperus Virginiana Pine Family 

Fruit. — The fruits are globular or flattened 
and wider at the top, giving the " berry " a 
triangular outline. The so-called " berry " is 
formed by the coalescence of fleshy scales, the 
tips of which are indicated by tiny projections 
on the fruit. It grows on a straight peduncle 
and contains one or two seeds. Seeds and 
flesh are aromatic. October, November, and 
persistent. 

Leaves. — The leaves are of two kinds. On 
the younger trees they are often awl-shaped and 
arranged loosely along the branches. These 
also appear on older trees, together with short, 
scale-like, overlapping leaves crowded closely 
together. 

Flowers. — The sterile and fertile flowers are 
usually on different trees, sometimes on the 
same tree. The flowers are small and grow in 
terminal aments. April, May. 

The Red Cedar is a shrub or tree with reddish 
brown bark, which peels off in shreds on the 
older growths. The wood is whitish or red, and 



BLUE 



253 




Red Cedar 'Klk y^ 

{Juniperus Virginiana) '™ ^ 



has a pleasant, persistent odor. It is used for 
pencils, small boxes, fence posts, and sometimes 



254 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

pails. It is very durable, but has been used so 
extravagantly that it is now expensive. 

The Cedar seeds are scattered by birds, and the 
trees often grow along fence rows. They reach 
their greatest magnitude in swamps and low 
grounds of the south, but are common through- 
out the United States. In the north, they grow 
on dry hills as well as near swamps. 



SHRUBBY RED CEDAR 

Juniperus Sabina Pine Family 

Fruit. — The fruit differs from that of the 
Red Cedar in being borne on recurved stemlike 
branches instead of on erect ones. 

The leaves are of two kinds, similar to those 
of the preceding species. 

The Shrubby Red Cedar is a prostrate, some- 
times creeping shrub, seldom more than four feet 
high. It grows on the borders of swamps or on 
rocky banks in New England to Minnesota, and 
northward. 




Yellow Clintonia {Clintonia borealis) 



256 



BLUE 257 

YELLOW CLINTONIA 

Clintonia borealis Lily-of-the- Valley Family 

Fruit. — The ovoid berry is almost a pure blue 
in color. It is many-seeded. The umbel of 
fruit grows at the top of an erect stem. August. 

Leaves. — There are two to four shiny, oval or 
oblong, light green leaves, with their stalks act- 
ing as a sheath for the base of the scape. 

Floivers. — The three to six, greenish, droop- 
ing flowers grow at the summit of the scape. 
May, June. 

The plant is named in honor of De Witt 
Clinton, who was a governor of New York State 
and a naturalist. It grows from six inches to 
a foot in height. The rootstock is slender and 
creeping. 

It is found in woods from Labrador to North 
Carolina. Its western limit is Minnesota. 

BLUE COHOSH. PAPOOSE ROOT 

Caulophyllum thalictroides Barberry Family 

Fruit. — The fruit resembles a drupe, but is a 
naked seed with the outer coat fleshy. There 



258 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

are originally two seeds in the developing ovary. 
As these grow they burst their membranous 
covering and continue growth as pairs of naked 
seeds. The fruit is blue with a bloom, globular, 
and borne on short stout stalks. The fruits grow 
in raceme-like clusters. 

Leaves. — There is one large leaf at the top of 
the stem and sometimes a smaller one near the 
base of the flower. The compound leaf is thrice- 
parted and the leaflets have two or three lobes. 
They are coarsely toothed. 

Flowers. — The flowers are yellowish green, 
small, and in racemes. April, May. 

This herb of early growth appears, in rich 
woods, in April. When young, the whole plant is 
bloom-covered. It is more common to the west- 
ward, and extends as far south as South Carolina. 



SASSAFRAS 

Sassafras sassafras Sassafras officinale 

Laurel Family 

Fruit. — The fruit is an oval dark blue drupe. 
This fits into a red hollow cup, which is thick- 
ened calyx and fleshy stem. The calyx teeth 




Blue Cohosh {Caulophyllum thallctroides) 
259 



BLUE 261 

scallop the edge of the cup. The flesh of the 
drupe is rather thin and the stone large. The 
cotyledons are large and fleshy. The fruits grow 
singly or in small clusters from the base of the 
season's shoots. The fruit is eaten by birds, but 
is unpleasantly spicy. August. 

Leaves. — On the mature trees, oval leaves 
predominate. The young shoots bear oval 
leaves ; leaves with a lobe at one side, looking 
like the thumb of a mitten ; or three-lobed 
leaves, with two lateral lobes and a. terminal 
one. The hollows of the lobed leaves are 
rounded. The young leaves are reddish but 
become dark green above with a lighter lower 
surface. The leaves and twigs are mucilaginous. 
Yellow and orange are the fall colors. 

Floiuers. — The greenish yellow dioecious flow- 
ers grow in drooping many-flowered racemes. 

Sassafras and Spice Bush are our only repre- 
sentatives of a large family that, in the tropics, 
include plants that yield cinnamon, camphor, 
and several differently scented woods. The 
Laurel or Bay Tree, whose leaves were used by 
the ancients in making wreaths with which to 
crown their heroes, is also a member of this 
family. 



262 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

Aromatic bark is a common characteristic. 
The bark and roots are ingredients in root beer, 
and from the bark of the roots oil of sassafras is 
made. The bark of the Sassafras is much cracked 
and roughened. Emerson says that, in the south- 
western parts of the country, the dried leaves 
of the Sassafras are much used for flavoring 
soups. Columbus is said to have increased his 
own hope of being near land, and to have 
quieted the mutinies of his crew, from catching 
whiffs of the strong fragrance of the Sassafras. 
Sassafras roots were a part of the first cargo to 
be sent from Massachusetts to England. At 
that time they were much prized for supposed 
medicinal properties. The wood is brittle, but 
when seasoned is tough and light. The trees 
grow rapidly and spread hj suckers, often form- 
ing thickets. The range is through the Missis- 
sippi valley and eastward. 



ROUND-LEAVED CORNEL OR DOGWOOD 

Cornus circinata Dogwood Family 

Fruit. — The small drupe is very light blue 
or white. The fruit develops sparingly and the 



BLUE 263 

cymes are not very full. The stone is nearly 
globose and somewhat ridged. It is aromatic 
and bitter. September. 

Leaves. — The leaves are nearly round, some- 
times even broader than long. The apex is acute 
and the base rounded or heart-shaped. The under 
surface is densely hairy and has prominent veins. 

Floioers. — The white blossoms are rather 
large and in full-blossomed cymes. The pedi- 
cels are somewhat hairy. 

This shrub is quite spreading in its habit, and 
from three to ten feet high. Its branches are 
green and warty. The leaves are distinctively 
broad. It grows in the shade and often among 
rocks. It extends from Nova Scotia to Virginia. 



SILKY CORNEL. KINNIKINNIK 

Cornus Amonum Comus sericea 

DogTvood Family 

Fruit. — The drupes vary in ripening from 
green to pale blue. They are globular, with 
the calyx teeth persistent in a depression at the 
summit. The flesh is whitish and the stone 
noticeably ridged. The fruits grow in a flat 




Silky Cornel (Cornus Amonum) 
264 



BLUE 265 

terminal cluster. The peduncles and pedicels 
are reddish and clothed with soft down. Late 
August, September. 

Leaves. — The simple, opposite leaves are 
ovate or elliptical. The tip is pointed and the 
base is rounded or often uneven, one side being 
longer than the other. The stems and under 
leaf surfaces are downy, sometimes rusty. 

Floivers. — The small white flowers grow in 
flat compact cymes. June. 

This shrub is erect and somewhat spreading. 
Its green bark has a reddish tinge and in winter 
the branches become purplish. The branchlets, 
stems, and lower leaf surfaces are finely woolly. 
It is one of the latest of the family to blossom 
but fruits in company with the Panicled Cornel, 
the two often forming hedges along the fence 
rows and highways. It is very decorative in 
fruit, and is being more and more used by 
landscape gardeners. It grows quite exten- 
sively as far west as the Dakotas and south 
to the gulf. 



266 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

ALTERNATE-LEAVED CORNEL OR 

DOGWOOD 
Cornus alternifolia Dogwood Family 

Fruit. — The small deep blue drupes grow in 
an irregularly branched drooping cyme. Pedun- 
cles and pedicels are a deep red. The flesh of 
the drupe is scanty, white or pinkish, and of 
a pithy texture. There is but one stone, which 
is globose and usually two-seeded. The style 
projects through the minute calyx tube, at the 
summit of the fruit. The drupe is tenaciously 
bitter. It ripens in early August, being one of 
the first Dogwoods to fruit. 

Leaves. — The alternate leaves usually grow 
in clusters at the ends of the branches. They 
are entire or minutely toothed, and ovate or 
oval. The pointed apex is long drawn out and 
the base is rounded or acute. The upper surface 
is shining and dark green ; the lower one, whit- 
ened and covered with fine hairs, especially along 
the veins. The veins are prominent on the 
imder surface, looking like tiny cords running 
through the leaf. The petiole has a grooved 
upper surface. Yellow or yellow and scarlet are 
the fall colors. 




Alternate-leaved Cornel (Cornus alternifoUa) 



267 



BLUE 269 

Floivers. — The small, white, four-parted 
flowers grow in broad loose cymes. June. 

This is a pretty shrub or small tree, distin- 
guished from the other Dogwoods by its alternate 
leaves. Its flower clusters, too, differ, the second- 
ary stalks growing alternately instead of start- 
ing from the same point. The leaf clusters are 
broad and flat, and so arranged as to form a green 
background for the red and black of the fruit 
cluster. This Dogwood fruit, bitter though it 
is, serves as food for the birds. It is common 
from New Brunswick to Minnesota and as far 
south as Georgia. 



BLUE TANGLE. TANGLEBERRY. DANGLE- 

BERRY 
Gaylussacia frondosa Huckleberry Family 

Fruit. — The long loose clusters of berrylike 
drupes are characteristic of this species. The 
separate fruits are rather large, dark blue with a 
white bloom, globose, and sweet with a slight 
acidity. The calyx teeth crown the summit. 
The fruits ripen late and are rather scarce. 
July, August. 



270 HOW TO KNOW WILD FBUITS 

Leaves. — The short-petioled leaves are thin, 
large, pale green, whitened and resinous on the 
under surface, and oval to inversely egg-shaped. 

Floivers. — The greenish pink bells, as Emer- 
son says, " hang dangling on slender strings, 
from one to three inches long." These stems are 
bracted, and the raceme-like flower cluster is long 
and loose. May, June. 

In New England, the Dangleberry grows 
mostly along the coast. It extends south to 
Florida and Louisiana and west to Ohio. It 
prefers moist ground, and the fruit in the 
warmer locations is of improved quality. 



BOX HUCKLEBERRY 

Gaylussacia brachycera Huckleberry Family 

Fruit — The light blue, berry like drupes grow 
in short clusters. They have ten seed like nut- 
lets. 

Leaves, — The evergreen leaves are thick and 
leathery, and lack the resinous dots common to 
the rest of the genus. They are oval, and the 
margins have rounded teeth and are somewhat 
rolled backwards. The leaf stems are very short. 



BLUE 271 

Flowers. — The white or pink bell-shaped 
flowers grow on very short pedicels, in short 
racemes. May. 

This low shrub, scarcely exceeding a foot in 
height, has a limited range, occurring in dry 
woods from Delaware and Pennsylvania to Vir- 
ginia. 



GREAT BILBERRY 
Vaccinimn uliginosum Huckleberry Family 

Fruit. — The blue, bloom-covered, globular 
berries usually grow singly or in clusters of 
from two to four. They are four- or five-celled, 
sweet, and not very abundant. July, August. 

Leaves. — The oblong or obovate leaves, when 
fully grown, are thick, bright green above and 
paler beneath. They are entire and nearly 
stemless. 

Floivers. — The solitary or few-clustered pink 
flowers have their parts mostly in fours. 

This is a low tufted shrub with many 
branches. It inhabits the mountain heights of 
New England and New York, the shore of Lake 
Superior, and thence northward to Alaska. It is 



272 HOW TO KNOW WILD FEUITS 

also found in the northern countries of the 
Eastern Hemisphere. 



DWARF BILBERRY 
Vaccinium caespitosum Huckleberry Family 

Fruit. — The berry is globular and blue, with 
a bloom. It has a sweet flavor. It is five-celled. 
The fruits usually grow singly in the leaf axils. 
August. 

Leaves. — The smooth shining leaves are ob- 
ovate, with small blunt teeth. The petioles are 
very short. 

Flowers. — The white or pink flowers are bell- 
shaped. 

This is mainly a mountain or cold country 
shrub, and grows to a height of from four 
inches to two feet. 



HIGH-BUSH OR TALL BLUEBERRY 

Vaccinium corymbosum Huckleberry Family 

Fruit. — The berries differ much in color, 
some varieties bearing shiny black berries, some 
black with a blue bloom, and some blue. The 



BLUE 



273 




High-bush Blueberry {Vaccinium corymhosum) 

size of the berry is alsc variable. The berries 
grow in a cUister at the end of a shorty nearly 



274 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

leafless branch of last year's growth. The calyx 
teeth are noticeable at the summit of the berry. 
Some berries are very sweet and others rather 
acid. July, August. 

Leaves. — In the typical form the margins are 
entire. After the time of flowering, the leaves 
broaden without increasing in length. They are 
oval or elliptical-lanceolate. The petioles are 
short. The under surface is paler than the 
upper and may be smooth or hairy. 

Floivers. — The blossoms are white or pink- 
ish, cylindrical, and somewhat narrowed at the 
throat. They grow in short racemes. 

The High Blueberry grows to a height of 
from four to ten feet. It forms a bushy 
shrub. On the older branches the bark roughens 
and comes off in shreads. The leaves add their 
scarlet and orange colorings to the brilliancy of 
the autumnal swamp foliage. These berries 
grow as far north as Newfoundland, west to 
Minnesota, and south to Virginia. While reach- 
ing their most luxuriant growth in swamps, 
they are also abundantly found in old pastures. 





276 



BLUE 277 

DWARF BLUEBERRY 

Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum Huckleberry Family 

Fruit. — The globular blue berries are covered 
with bloom. They grow in clusters at the ends 
of the branches. The five calyx teeth are very 
prominent. Each berry contains many small 
seeds and is usually ten-celled. June, July. 

Leaves. — The oval-lanceolate leaves are stem- 
less and acute at both ends. The teeth are 
minute and bristle-like. Each surface is shining, 
but the lower one is lighter green than the upper. 
They are alternate in arrangement. In autumn 
they change to red colorings and fall early. 

Floivers. — The white bell-shaped flowers grow 
in few-flowered racemes. 

This is a dwarf shrub, with rough green 
branches, which are thickly covered with tiny 
white, raised dots. It is the earliest of the 
Blueberries to ripen, growing usually in rather 
exposed positions. It favors a thin, sandy soil, 
and especially frequents dry pine woods. It has 
a sweet and delicious flavor and such tiny seeds 
that it is a much more pleasant berry to eat than 
the Huckleberry. It is soft, however, and easily 



278 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

bruised, which prevents its being largely mar- 
keted. George Emerson says it is suitable for 
drying, and then forms a good substitute for 
currants, for use in cakes, etc. The cluster of 
ripening fruit presents an attractive color combi- 
nation, with its green, pink, red, and blue berries. 
Vaccinium Canadense, or Canadian Blueberry, 
is similar to the preceding, but has leaves 
which are downy on both sides and which 
have entire margins. The branchlets are also 
downy. The fruit ripens later in July or 
August. It has a more northern range, being 
most abundant in Canada. It is also found 
along the mountains, south to Virginia. It 
likes moist woods and swamps. 



LOW BLUEBERRY 
Vaccinium vacillans Huckleberry Family 

Fruit. — The berries of this shrub are borne 
in raceme-like clusters at the end of a nearly 
leafless twig. The calyx teeth are plainly visi- 
ble at the summit. The fruit when ripe is 
blue, with a bloom. It is slightly more acid 
than Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum but of good 



BLUE 279 

flavor. The berries ripen later than the pre- 
ceding. July, September. 

Leaves. — The leaves are oval or obovate, dull 
green above and glaucous beneath. They are 
narrowed or rounded at the base, and have 
short stems. The apex is acute and ends in 
a short bristle. The margin is entire or nearly 
so, and the leaves are alternate. In the fall 
the foliage changes to deep reds. 

Flowers. — The puak or greenish bell-shaped 
blossoms are somewhat contracted at the mouth. 
They grow in clusters. 

This shrub varies from one to four feet in 
height. It is stiff and erect. It grows in light 
soil along the wood borders and shaded road- 
sides from New Hampshire west to Michigan, 
and south to Carolina and Missouri. The plant 
is prolific, and when all the berries in the cluster 
have ripened the fruit may be stripped off by 
handfuls. 

ARROWWOOD 

Viburnum dentatum Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The fruits are blue, — dark lead, 
Emerson calls them, — but when gathered or 



280 HOW TO KNOW W^ILD FRUITS 

overripe become bluish black. They are oval, 
with calyx teeth and stigmas at the pointed tip. 
The flesh is thin, and the stone rounded on 
one side and with a rather deep groove on the 
other, making a cross section resemble a horse- 
shoe that has been flattened at the toe. The 
fruits grow in a flat-topped, erect cluster. They 
are dry and puckery, but are eaten by birds. 
August, September. 

Leaves. — The leaves are opposite, coarsely 
and prominently toothed, ovate, pointed at the 
tip, and rounded or heart-shaped at the base. 
The petioles are short. Little tufts of hair are 
often in the axils of the midrib and branching 
veins on the lower surface. The leaves are 
yellowish green. Dark red is the autumnal 
color. 

This shrub is from five to fifteen feet high, 
and has smooth gray bark. The under leaf 
surface has the little clusters of down in the 
axils. The name Arrowwood is applied to 
the shrub from the use made of the young 
shoots for arrows by the Indians. It inhabits 
moist places and borders streams. It extends 
south, along the mountains, to Georgia and west 
to Minnesota. 




Arrowwood {Viburnum dentatum) 
281 



282 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

SOFT-LEAVED ARROWWOOD 
Viburnum molle Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The blue drupe is similar to the fruit 
of the preceding species. It is larger, sharply 
pointed, and oily. The depression of the stone 
is not so deep as in Viburnum dentatum. 

Leaves. — The leaves are somewhat larger 
than those of the Arrowwood, but differ prin- 
cipally in being covered with soft hairs on the 
under surface. 

Vihuriium vioTle is principally distinguished 
from Viburnum dentatum by the pubescence on 
twigs, leaf, and floAver stems, and lower leaf sur- 
faces. It grows along the coast from eastern 
Massachusetts to Florida, and Texas. 



BLUE OR MOUNTAIN FLY HONEYSUCKLE 

Lonicera ccerulea Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The berry is formed by the coales- 
cence of two maturing ovaries. The exterior of 
the fruit shows its double structure by the two 
tiny " eyes " at the apex, each marking the rem- 




Blue or Moumtain Fly Honeysuckle (Lonicera coendea) 
283 



284 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

nant of a slightly five-toothed calyx. A cross sec- 
tion of the berry shows a clearly marked partition 
between the two ovaries. The berries grow on 
short peduncles. They are round or ovate and 
dark blue, with a bloom. The berry is quite 
juicy, but the flavor is unpleasant. June. 

Leaves. — The thickish, opposite, ovate leaves 
are rounded or narrowed at the base and obtuse 
at the apex. The upper and the under surfaces 
of the leaf are slightly hairy, as is the margin. 

Flowers, — The pale yellow blossoms grow 
on short stems in the axils of the leaves. The 
ovaries are almost united. May. 

This is a low upright shrub, from one to two 
feet high. It is quite common in mountain 
woods and bogs. The plant presents an inter- 
esting example of reserve buds. Three almost 
equal buds are formed, one above another, in 
each axil. The following year one bud develops 
into a shoot and the other two remain as they 
are, unless the first shoot is destroyed, when 
another bud develops to take its place. These 
reserve buds are said to keep their vitality for 
several years. 



YELLOW 



YELLOW 

NORTH AMERICAN PAPAW 
Asimina triloba Custard-Apple Family 

Fruit. — Several large fleshy berries are borne 
together on a thickened peduncle. These fruit 
stems grow laterally from the axils of last year's 
leaves. Each berry is from two to six inches 
long and somewhat resembles a green banana. 
Its color, when ripe, is a yellowish green, and it is 
covered with a whitish bloom. The pulp is light 
yellow and of a fine grain, is soft and sweet. 
Two rows of flat beanlike seeds are arranged 
horizontally and alternate with each other 
throughout the length of the berry. The 
seeds are inclosed in fleshy arils. They are 
large, and form an obstacle to the pleasure of 
eating the fruit ; the flavor is also too aromatic 
to be greatly relished. October. 

Leaves. — The leaves are large, from ten to 
twelve inches long and four to five broad. They 
are entire, alternate, and short-petioled. They 

287 



288 now TO know wild fruits 

are reverse egg-shaped with acute apex, and 
pointed or shghtly rounded base. The color 
of the fall leaf is dirty yellow. 

Flowers. — The solitary flowers are green at 
opening, changing through browns and yellows 
to a deep red. They have two rows of petals ; 
the outer three spreading, and the inner three 
erect, forming a sort of cup. April. 

This is a low tree or shrub, forming a thick 
undergrowth in many forests, especially through- 
out the Mississippi valley. The foliage is dense 
and gives to the plant a tropical aspect. It is 
our one representative of a family which includes 
many tropical species. Rich, moist, woodland 
spots and banks of streams are the localities 
which it prefers. Its northern limit is Ontario 
and western New York. It extends west to 
Michigan and southward. 



MAY APPLE. MANDRAKE. UMBRELLA 
LEAF. WILD LEMON 

Podophyllum peltatum Barberry Family 

Fruit, — The large ovoid or lemon-shaped yel- 
lowish berry usually grows from the fork of two 



YELLOW 289 

leaves. The fruit is fleshy and incloses numerous 
seeds, each of which is surrounded by a pulpy aril. 
These seeds are arranged in rows along a large 
lateral placenta. The fruit is sweet and edible. 
It retains the thickened stigma at the apex. 
July. 

Leaves. — The leaves are five- to nine-lobed. 
The lobes are two-cleft and pointed at the apex. 
The flowerless stalks bear single leaves with 
the stems terminating near the center, giving 
the leaves a truly umbrella-like appearance. The 
leaves of the flowering stalks are in pairs, and 
their stems join the leaves nearer their inner 
edges. The upper surface is darker than the 
lower. 

Flowers. — The large, white, drooping blossom, 
with its six to nine petals, is borne on a stout 
peduncle in the fork of the leaves. It is 
cross fertilized by bees, that visit the flowers 
for their pollen. They bear no nectar. April, 
May. 

The leaves and the horizontal creeping root- 
stocks are poisonous if eaten, but possess certain 
medicinal properties. The plant spreads by 
means of its creeping rhizome and forms large 
patches. The umbrella-like leaf fulfills the mis- 



290 now TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

sion suggested by its name for the pollen of the 
flower which it covers. The shape of the flower 
itself is evidently protective in a similar way. 
The manner in which the leaf forces its way 
through the ground is interesting. The lobes 
of the underground leaf are folded close to the 
stem, in closed umbrella fashion. At the point 
corresponding to the tip of the umbrella, the leaf 
cells are white and toughened, forming a hard 
knob. This, as the stem grows, bores its way 
through the earth to the surface. Above ground 
the group of cells softens, but remains as a white 
spot on the leaf. It grows in low woods, and is 
more prevalent in the Middle States than in 
New England. 



DWARF THORN 

Crataegus uniflora. Crataegus parvifolia Apple Family 

Fruit. — The yellowish pome is globular or 
pear-shaped. It is usually solitary and borne 
on a short peduncle. The glandular, deeply cut 
calyx lobes are persistent. 

Leaves. — The thick leaves are inversely egg- 
shaped. They are nearly stemless, and the 



YELLOW 291 

upper portion of the margin has rounded teeth. 
The upper surface is shining and the lower one 
hairy. 

Floivers. — The white flowers grow on short 
stems, usually alone, sometimes in pairs. 

This low downy shrub favors sandy soil, and 
grows from southern New York south to Florida, 
where it reaches tree stature. It extends west 
to West Virginia and Louisiana. Both flower 
and fruit usually occur alone. 



DWARF GINSENG. GROUNDNUT 

Panax trifolium. Aralia trifolia Ginseng Family 

Fruit. — The berries are yellow, usually three- 
angled, but sometimes in united pairs. They are 
two- to three-seeded. They grow in a simple 
umbel. 

Leaves. — The three compound leaves grow in 
a circle about the stem. There are three to five 
leaflets in each. The leaflets are sessile, the apex 
obtuse, the base narrowed, and the margin 
toothed. 

Floioers. — The tiny white flowers grow in a 
small, fluffy, terminal cluster. April, May. 



292 HO[V TO KNOW WILD FEUITS 

This is quite a common flower of our rich 
woods. It is seldom more than eight inches 
high. Its tuber is globular, edible, and aro- 
matic, but is rather difficult to procure, being 
so deep in the ground. Georgia marks the 
southern limit. 



DEERBERRY. SQUAW HUCKLEBERRY 
Vaccinium staminemn Huckleberry Family 

Fruit. — This berry is globose or pear-shaped, 
rather large, and greenish or yellowish. It is 
scarcely edible, falsely ten-celled, and few-seeded. 
The fruits grow in leafy-bracted racemes. Sep- 
tember. 

Leaves. — The oval or slightly heart-shaped 
leaves have short, downy petioles. They are 
whitened or slightly pubescent beneath, and the 
margins are slightly rolled backwards. 

Flowers. — The flowers are distinguished by 
their long stamens, which project far beyond 
the short white corollas. The flowers grow in 
graceful clusters, with leaf bracts smaller than 
the regular leaves. 

This is a much-branched shrub, from two to 



YELLOW 293 

five feet high. It grows in dry woods from 

Maine and Minnesota south to Florida and 
Louisiana. 



PERSIMMON. DATE PLUM 
Diospyros Virginiana Ebony Family 

Fruit. — The fruit is plumlike in appearance, 
but botanically is a berry, with sometimes as 
many as eight large flat seeds. When green, it 
is very astringent, and in the north needs the 
action of the frost to make it sweet and deli- 
cious. It then changes from a yellowish color 
to a yellowish brown. The style is at the 
summit, and the thick, four- to six-lobed calyx, 
at the base. September, November. 

Leaves. — The thickish leaves are dark green 
above and paler beneath. They are nearly 
smooth, ovate, pointed at the apex, and nar- 
rowed or rounded at the base. 

Floioers. — The flowers are usually dioecious. 
The fertile ones are solitary and grow in the 
axils, w^hile the smaller sterile ones are in small 
clusters. 

This tree is essentially southern, although it 



294 HO IV TO KNOW WILD FBUITS 

occurs occasionally as far north as Rhode Island 
and New York. The fruit is used in beers and 
brandies. The wood is blackish in color and 
is well adapted for use in carving. Shoe lasts 
are made from it. The Duke of Argyle is 
said to have given a Persimmon Tree to King 
George III. 



LOW HAIRY GROUND CHERRY 

Physalis pubescens Potato Family 

F7'uit. — This yellowish berry does not fill the 
small, short, membranous calyx. The berry is 
sticky. The solitary fruits grow from the leaf 
axils. 

Leaves. — The leaves are entire or somewhat 
wavy and angled. They are rather small, from 
one inch to an inch and a half in length. They 
are pubescent or nearly smooth with hairy veins. 

Floivers. — The flowers are yellow, with dark 
centers and purplish anthers. 

This is an annual which is much-branched, 
and has pubescent stems and leaves. It favors 
sandy soil from New York to Minnesota, and 
south to Florida and Texas. 




295 



296 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

CUT-LEAVED GROUND CHERRY 
Physalis angulata Potato Family 

Fruit. — The fruit-enveloping calyx is ovoid 
and has a sunken base. It sometimes shows 
purplish veinings. The greenish yellow berry 
nearly fills it when mature. The fruit is pulpy 
and many-seeded. The berries are solitary, 
hanging on slender peduncles from the axils 
of the leaves. 

Leaves. — The leaves are ovate and often 
wedge-shaped at the base. Many are cut into 
sharp, narrgw lobes. The leaves are long, thin, 
and smooth. 

Flowers. — The greenish yellow flowers are 
small and unspotted. The anthers are some- 
what tinged with purple. July-September. 

This smooth annual is erect, sometimes three 
feet tall, and much-branched. Gray defines its 
range from Pennsylvania to Minnesota, and 
southward. 



YELLOW 297 



CLAMMY GROUND CHERRY 

Physalia heterophylla Physalis Virginiana 

Potato Family 

Fruit. — The yellow berry is loosely inclosed 
in the membranous calyx, which is much sunken 
at the stem. The fruit stem and calyx are 
pubescent. The solitary fruits hang along the 
branches from the leaf axils. 

Leaves. — The leaves are broad, thick, and 
somewhat heart-shaped. They and the petioles 
are hairy. The apex is generally acute and the 
margin wavy, often having irregular, tooth-like 
lobes. 

Flowers. — The yellow, five-lobed flowers 
have brown centers and yellow anthers. 

This is the most common species and is very 
variable. It is a viscid, hairy, much-branched, 
spreading perennial. It extends from Ontario 
and Minnesota to Texas and Florida. 

Var. amhigua is coarser, and coarsely covered 
with long soft hairs. The anthers are violet. 



298 HOW TO KNOW WILD FBUITS 

HORSE NETTLE 
Solanum Carolinense Potato Family 

Fruit. — The smooth globular berries are 
orange-yellow and nearly three-quarters of an 
inch through. They grow in small, usually 
lateral clusters, on prickly stems. The calyx 
lobes are at the base of each berry. They are 
many-seeded. 

Leaves. — The ovate or oblong leaves have 
wavy margins or are lobed with acute or obtnse 
lobes. The veins of the leaves are often 
prickly. 

Floivers. — The violet flowers grow in ter- 
minal racemes, which become lateral in fruit. 

This perennial of sandy waste places is hairy 
and has branches, stems, and parts of leaves 
thickly set with yellowish prickles. It extends 
from Connecticut west to Iowa and south. 



GREEN 



GREEN 

GREEN ARROW-ARUM 

Peltandra Virginica Peltandra undulata 

Arum Family 

Fruit. — The berries grow in a head similar 
to the fruits of Indian Turnip and Dragon Root. 
The Green Arrow-arum berries, however, are 
green and nearly inclosed in the lower portion 
of the sheathing spathe. The upper part of 
the spathe breaks off before fruit develops. 
The one to three large seeds are inclosed in 
a colorless, jelly-like mass. The fruit-bearing 
stem is recurved, and the fruit bends to the 
water. 

Leaves. — The leaves are shaped like long 
arrow heads. One prominent vein extends from 
base toward tip and one from base into each 
basal lobe. 

Floivers. — The tapering spadix is covered 
with flowers throughout its length. It bears 
both staminate and pistillate flowers, the latter 

301 



302 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

at its base. The spathe incloses the entire 
length of the spadix, with the exception of an 
oval opening in front, about midway of its 
length. 

Clusters of Green Arrow-arum grow in shal- 
low water along river borders. It is about a 
foot and a half high. The sheathed fruit looks 
much like a pond lily bud and bends on its 
recurved stem to the surface of the water. It is 
quite possible that the fruit heads are broken by 
the force of the water and carried down stream 
to originate new colonies. Lack of bright 
coloring in the fruit is suggestive of some means 
of seed dispersal other than by agency of birds. 
The plant extends west to Michigan and Loui- 
siana. 

CHOKEPEAR 
Pjrrus communis Apple Family 

The Chokepear Tree, with its green, puckery 
pear, hardly needs description. I trust many 
another like myself holds it in grateful remem- 
brance for the childhood joys it has furnished. 
What an addition the fruit was, on chestnutting 
expeditions, to the ginger cookies, which always 



GREEN 303 



started out in the pail with us never to return. 
If you have never eaten it cooked as a sauce and 
flavored with molasses, you have yet to taste a 
very delectable sirup. 



AMERICAN CRAB APPLE 

Malus coronaria Pyrus coronaria 

Apple Family 

Fruit. — The apple is yellowish green and flat- 
tened lengthwise. The small, smooth calyx lobes 
are in the deep, broad depression at the summit. 
The fruit stem is slender. One or two dark 
brown seeds are in each cell. The fruit is 
fragrant but sour. It hangs long on the trees, 
and does not usually decay until the following 
spring. 

Leaves. — The leaves are ovate or triangular- 
ovate, they grow on short, slender, hard petioles. 
The margins are serrate. Sometimes the leaf is 
three-lobed. It is yellow in autumn. 

Floioers. — The flowers are much like those of 
the cultivated apple, but very fragrant and of a 
beautiful pink color. 

This tree is often planted near homes, because 



304 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

of the fragrance and beauty of the blossoms. 
The fruit is sometimes used for cider. The tree 
is not very high, spreading, and often thorny. 
This is particularly a northern species. 

A similar tree, Mains angustifolia, is the 
southern species, although the two overlap in 
range. Bailey says that the best mark of 
distinction between the two " is the thick, half- 
evergreen shining leaves of Malus angustifoliar 
The flowers are smaller than in preceding 
species. 



WHITE 



WHITE 



BAYBERRY. WAXBERRY 

Myrica Carolinensis Myrica cerifera 

Bayberry Family 

Fruit. — The fertile aments develop into clus- 
ters of dry drupes, with from four to nine sepa- 
rate fruits in the cluster. These clusters are 
fastened to the branches by short stalks. Each 
drupe is covered with many tiny grains, which 
finally become coated with white wax. The 
covering is first green, then blackish, and finally 
white. The stone is hard. The fruits persist 
for two or three years. 

Leaves. — The obovate or oblanceolate leaves 
are nearly stemless. They have resinous dots 
on both sides, are leathery, shining, bright green, 
and aromatic. The margin is slightly toothed 
toward the apex, otherwise entire. The base 
is narrowed and the apex obtuse, sometimes 
acute, or often ends abruptly in a sharp point. 

307 



308 HO IV TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

Flowers. — The fertile catkins are small and 
erect, and consist of several ovaries, which, are 
sheltered by scales. April- June. 

The fruits in the earlier days of our country's 
history were much prized for the wax which 
they yield. This is obtained by boiling the 
drupes and skimming the wax from the surface 
of the water. It was used for making candles, 
either alone or mixed with tallow or beeswax. 
The Bayberry candles emit a pleasant odor, but 
their light is not so bright as the flame of the 
tallow candles. The Bayberry will grow in 
almost any soil. It extends along the eastern 
coast, and occurs somewhat near the Great 
Lakes. 



WHITE MULBERRY 

Morus alba Mulberry Family 

Fruit. — The structure of the fruit is the 
same as that of the Red Mulberry. The fruit of 
Morus alba, however, is white, shorter, and not 
as juicy. July. 

Leaves. — The shining dark green leaves are 
variable in shape, serrate, and shining. 



WHITE 309 

The White Mulberry Tree grows rapidly, 
reaching a height of thirty or forty feet. It 
is a native of China, and its leaves are ex- 
tensively used as food for silkworms. The tree 
was introduced into America when silkworm 
raising was being tried in this country, and 
occurs now spontaneously near houses, especially 
in the vicinity of long-estabhshed silk manu- 
facturing plants. 



SMALL MISTLETOE 

Razoumofskya pusilla Arceuthobium pusiUum 

Mistletoe Family 

Fruit. — The ovoid-oblong berries are solitary 
and grow on short recurved stems. They are 
fleshy, with seeds inclosed in a sticky mucus. 
They develop in the autumn, a year or more 
after flowering. 

This is an inconspicuous parasite, drawing its 
nourishment from branches of the fir. It is 
olive green to brown in color, and the leaves 
are obtuse and scale-like. 



310 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS ' 

AMERICAN MISTLETOE 
Phoradendron flavescens Mistletoe Family 

Fruit. — The white berries are globose, pulpy, 
and one-seeded. They grow in clusters on a 
short foot stalk. 

Leaves. — The leaves are thick, leathery, yel- 
lowish green, oval or obovate, entire, obtuse at 
apex and narrowed into a short petiole at the 
base. They are persistent throughout the season. 

Flowers, — The dioecious flowers grow in cat- 
kinlike spikes. May- July. 

This parasite flourishes on deciduous trees, 
notably the Red Maple and Tupelo. Its wood 
is yellowish green, and the thick, firm leaves and 
white berries persist during the winter. The 
Mistletoe has a place in Christmas decorations, 
and may often be seen at that time exposed for 
sale. Phoradendron means tree-thief, referring 
to its parasitic life. While essentially southern, 
it occurs in southern New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. 




White Baneberry {Actssa alba) 



312 



WHITE 313 

WHITE BANEBERRY 
Actaea alba Crowfoot Family 

Fruit. — The terminal fruit clusters of the 
White Baneberry are oblong and usually more 
open than those of the Red. The white berries 
are almost globular, have a black mark at the 
tip and a crease on one side, extending from the 
apex to the pedicel. The pedicel is thickened 
and usually red. The lower pedicels are much 
longer than the upper ones. The numerous 
large brown seeds are packed horizontally. A 
plant with red berries on thickened red stalks 
sometimes occurs. The fruit develops in August, 
about a month later than the Red Baneberry, 
and persists into September. 

Leaves. — The leaves are twice or thrice com- 
pound, with deeply cut, acute lobes and sharp 
teeth. 

Floivers. — The petals are so like stamens as 
to seem to be transformed stamens. The flowers 
yield no honey, simply pollen, to the bees, which 
secure their cross fertilization. 

This herb grows in woods as far south as 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 



314 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

POISON SUMAC 

Rhus Vernix. Rhus venenata Sumac Family 

Fruit. — The smooth, somewhat glossy drupe 
is grayish. It is dry and slightly pear-shaped, 
with the sides unequal. It grows in open 
loose clusters from the leaf axils. It closely 
resembles the fruit of the Poison Ivy. August, 
September. 

Leaves. — The stalks of the compound leaves 
are usually purplish. There are from three to 
thirteen nearly stemless leaflets, which are un- 
equal at the base. They are a bright shining 
green, acute at the apex, entire, and obovate 
or oval. The autumnal colorings are most 
brilliant. 

Floivers. — The small, greenish yellow, dioe- 
cious flowers grow in open loose panicles from 
the leaf axils. 

It is not strange that many an unfortunate, 
hoping to prolong his enjoyment of the brilliant 
foliage, should be lured into gathering its 
autumnal leaves for home decorations. Im- 
mune, he may be, it is true, but doubtless a long 
period of suffering will follow his rash act. 



WHITE 315 

Some persons are poisoned by even passing near 
the plant, contact not being necessary. 

If in fruit, the whitish color of the drupes and 
their drooping clusters are sure marks by which 
this Sumac may be distinguished from the other 
species. The entire leaves and lack of winged 
petioles and pubescence are also marks of dis- 
tinction. 



POISON, CLIMBING, OR THREE-LEAVED 
IVY 

Rhus radicans Rhus Toxicodendron 

Sumac Family 

Fruit — The fruit closely resembles that of 
Poison Sumac. September and persistent. 

Leaves. — The compound leaves have three 
pale green leaflets, which are sharply toothed 
and entire or sometimes lobed. 

This plant is sometimes erect and one to three 
feet high, sometimes prostrate and trailing, and 
sometimes climbing. It supports itself by nu- 
merous rootlets, which penetrate and hold tena- 
ciously to various supports. Its three-parted 
leaves and white fruit distinguish this poisonous 




Poison Ivy (Rhus radicans) 
316 



WHITE 317 

plant from the harmless Virginia Creeper, Par- 
thenocissus quinquefolia, which is somewhat simi- 
lar in its manner of growth. The dryish fruits 
are used as food by the winter birds. For crows 
especially they serve as an important article of 
diet. One hundred and fifty-three Poison Ivy 
seeds are said to have been found in the stomach 
of one of these birds. The dry outer husks are 
removed by action of stomach and thrown out 
again in small masses through the mouth. 



RED-OSIER CORNEL OR DOGWOOD 
Comus stolonifera Dogwood Family 

Fruit. — The drupe is white, or whitish, and 
globose. The stone is very variable in shape. 
The fruits grow in flat-topped, rather smallish 
cymes. 

Leaves. — The ovate or ovate-lanceolate leaf 
has an abrupt, short, tapering apex and a rounded 
base. The upper surface is finely pubescent and 
the lower whitish and somewhat downy. 

Flowers. — The smallish flat cymes are rather 
few-flowered. June, July. 

Reddish branches are a characteristic feature 



818 now TO KNOW wild fruits 

of this dogwood. They are especially brilliant 
in late winter and early spring. The main stem 
is usually prostrate, of ten unnoticed because of a 
covering of leaves. This sends down rootlets 
and sends up slender branches, soon forming 
broad clumps. The main shoot is sometimes 
underground. 

The range of the shrub is from ocean to ocean, 
extending south to Virginia, Kentucky, Nebraska, 
Arizona, and California. A similar species occurs 
in Siberia. 

PANICLED CORNEL 

Cornus candidissima Comus paniculata 

DogTvood Family 

Fruit — The small, white, flattened, globose 
drupes grow in convex clusters. The peduncle 
and pedicels are red. The plant often fruits 
sparingly, and the clusters are consequently 
ragged and irregular. Each fruit is crowned 
with minute calyx teeth, through which the 
style protrudes. The flesh is thin and white, 
inclosing a two-celled, two-seeded stone. Au- 
gust, September. This is one of the earliest 
fruited Dogwoods. 




Panicled Cornel {Cornus candidissima) 
319 



320 now TO KNOW wild fruits 

Leaves. — The ovate-lanceolate leaves are 
opposite and entire. The petioles are short, the 
tip pointed, and the base acute. The under 
surface is whitish but smooth. 

Floioers. — The perfect white blossoms grow 
in loosely flowered cymes. May, June. 

Cornus candidissima is distinguished from our 
other white-fruited Dogwood, Cornus stolonifera, 
by its gray branches and its imperfectly convex 
flower and fruit cluster. It is a much-branched 
shrub, growing in thickets and along streams. 
It extends south to North Carolina and west to 
Minnesota. 

CREEPING SNOWBERRY 

Chiogenes hispidula Chiogenes serpyllifolia 

Huckleberry Family 

Fruit. — The shining, white, globose or oval 
berry is solitary in the leaf axil. The calyx 
teeth are present near the apex, and the berry 
is often bristly. It is small, four-celled, many- 
seeded, mealy, and aromatic, having much the 
flavor of Sweet Birch. August, September. 

Leaves. — The evergreen leaves are a dark 
olive green, with stiff brownish bristles on the 



% 



\ 



Snowberry (Symphoricarpos racemosus) 
322 



WHITE 323 

under surface. They are small, on short stems, 
and have backward rolled margins. 

Flowers. — The tiny white nodding flowers 
are single, growing on short stems from the leaf 
axil. Two bracts are beneath the calyx. May. 

The stems of this creeping and trailing shrub 
are scarcely woody, slender, and bristly. It is a 
native of Japan, and in our country extends from 
Newfoundland to British Columbia and south to 
Michigan, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, con- 
tinuing along the Alleghanies to North CaroKna. 
Chiogenes means " snow offering," referring 
most appropriately to the snow-white fruit. 



SNOWBERRY 
Symphoricarpos racemosus Honeysuckle Family 

Fruit. — The terminal fruit spike usually has 
a pair of leaves at its base. Solitary berries 
sometimes grow from the axils of the next 
lower pair of leaves. The ripe berries are quite 
large, waxy, and white. The persistent calyx 
teeth are at the top and two tiny bracts are at 
the base. The berries are nearly stemless. 
They have two large cells, each containing a 



324 HOW TO KNOW WILD FRUITS 

seed ; and two smaller empty cells. The seed 
coats are hard. The berries begin to ripen in 
July, and the spikes show fruit in various stages 
of development, with buds and flowers at the 
summit well into September. 

Leaves. — The ovate, usually entire leaves 
grow in pairs. The stems are quite short. 
The leaves are dark green above and lighter 
beneath. 

Flowers. — The small bell-shaped pink blos- 
som is four- or five-toothed. It is hairy at the 
throat. 

This is a common inhabitant of old-fashioned 
gardens, and lingers about abandoned farm- 
houses or even the cellars. It strays beyond 
the garden bounds and often occurs along the 
roadsides. It grows also along rocky banks in 
New England to Pennsylvania and westward. 
It is most attractive in September, when the 
spike is nearly full of matured fruits. 

Symphoricarpos pauciflorus appears in the 
mountains of Vermont and Pennsylvania and 
westward. The leaves are smaller than the 
preceding, and the berries grow singly or in pairs 
in the uppermost leaf axils. 



GLOSSARY 



Achene. A small, dry, indehiscent, one-seeded fruit with usu- 
ally a thin pericarp. 

Acute. Sharp-pointed. 

Alternate. As opposed to opposite. 

Ament. Synonymous with catkin. A spike consisting of im- 
perfect flowers with a scale-like bract at the base of each. 

Annual. Of but one season's growth. 

Anther. The part of the stamen which yields the pollen. 

Aril. A fleshy seed covering growing from the cord which 
attaches the seed to the seed vessel. 

Axil. The angle which the stem forms with a leaf or branch. 

Bloom. A secretion of wax covering the surface of leaf or fruit. 
Bract. A modified leaf at the base of flower or fruit. 
Bristle. A stiff, hairlike growth. 

Calyx. The outer and protective floral whorl. 

Capsule. A dry, dehiscent fruit of two or more carpels. 

Carpel. This is the seed-bearing part of the flower. It may be 
a simple pistil or one of the parts of a compound pistil. 

Catkin. Same as ament. 

Cell. A structure inclosing a cavity. 

Ciliate. With hairy margin. 

Compound. A whole made up of two or more similar parts. 

Connate. The joining of similar organs. Opposite leaves whose 
bases join. 

Corm. Like a solid bulb. 

Corolla. The inner floral whorl. 

Corymb. A flat-topped or rounded flower cluster with the mar- 
ginal flowers opening first. 

325 



326 GLOSSARY 

Cotyledon. A seed leaf or leaves. 

Cross Fertilization. The action resulting from the deposit of 

the pollen of one flower on the stigma of another. 
Cyme. A flattish flower cluster with the blossoms unfolding 

from the center outwards. 

Deciduous. Not persistent. 

Dicotyledonous. With two cotyledons. 

Dioecious. Staminate and pistillate flowers borne on different 

plants of the same species. 
Disk. A thickened circle of cellular tissue about the base of 

the stamens and around the ovary. 

Fertile. Productive. 

Gland. A secreting surface or structure. 
Glaucous. Covered with a bloom. 

Herb. With the above-ground stems living but one season. 

Involucre. Bracts surrounding a single flower or a flower clus- 
ter or head. 

Lanceolate. Much longer than broad. The widest portion is 
below the middle, and the leaf tapers towards either end. 

Monocotyledonous. With but one cotyledon. 
Monoecious. Separate staminate and pistillate flowers on the 
same plant. 

Node. The joints on the stem where a leaf or whorl of leaves 
would naturally grow. 

Oblanceolate. The broadest portion of the long leaf nearest the 

apex and tapering to either end. 
Oblong. Longer than broad, and with sides nearly parallel. 
Obovate. Egg-shaped, with broader portion nearest apex. 



GLOSSARY 327 

Obtuse. With a rounded or blunt end. 
Ovary. The part of the pistil containing the ovules. 
Ovule. The body which, when fertilized, is meant to become a 
seed. 

Panicle. A loose, irregular cluster with branching flower stems. 

Parasitic. Gaining nourishment from a host plant. 

Pedicel. The stem of one of the component flowers or fruits of 

a cluster. 
Peduncle. A stem of a single flower or of a flower cluster. 
Perennial. Continuing year after year. 
Perfect (flower). Having both stamens and pistils. 
Perianth. The floral envelope consisting of calyx and corolla if 

both are present. 
Petal. One unit of the corolla. 
Petiole. The leaf stalk. 
Pinnate. With the leaflets of a compound leaf on either side of 

the leaf stalk. 
Placenta. The interior portion of the ovary on which the 

ovules are borne. 
Pollen. The anther-borne grains which fertilize the ovules. 
Polygamous. Plants bearing staminate, pistillate, and perfect 

flowers on the same plant. 
Prickles. A slender, sharp growth from bark or rind. 
Pubescent. Finely hairy. 

Raceme. Spike bearing stemmed flowers. 

Receptacle. The modified portion of an axis upon which the 
flowers or portion of a flower is borne. 

Rhizome. An underground stem. 

Root. The underground part of the plant which obtains nour- 
ishment there. 

Scape. A naked flower stem springing from the ground. 
Seed. The ripened ovule. 
Sepal. One unit of the calyx. 
Serrate. With forward-pointing teeth. 



S2S GLOSSARY 

Sessile. Stemless. 

Shrub. Plants with woody structure and with several stems 

springing from the ground or near it, or whose stems are 

much-branched. Usually smaller than trees. 
Sinus. The margin between the lobes. 
Spadix. A spike having a fleshy axis. 

Spathe. One or more large bracts inclosing an inflorescence. 
Spike. Sessile or nearly sessile flowers borne on a somewhat 

elongated axis. 
Spine. A sharp growth from the stem. 
Sterile. Unproductive. 

Stigma. The portion of the pistil receptive to the pollen grain. 
Stipule. An appendage at the base of a leaf stem, sometimes 

joined to the petiole. 
Style. The portion of the pistil connecting the stigma and 

ovary. 

Tendril. A slender, coiling part of a climbing plant, aiding in 
its support. 

Umbel. A flower cluster in which the pedicels spring from a 
common point. 

Whorl, A circular arrangement of leaves, etc., around a stem. 



ABBREVIATIONS OF AUTHORS' NAMES 



Ait., Alton. 

Andr., Andrews. 

C. & S., Chamisso and Schlech- 

tendahl. 
DC, De Candolle. 
Desf., Desfontaine. 
Desv., Desvaux. 
Dietr., Dietrich. 
Ehrh., Ehrhart. 
Ell., Elliott. 
Hook., Hooker. 
Jacq., Jacquin. 
Karst., Karsten. 
L., Linnaeus. 
Lam., Lamarck. 
L. f., Linne (the son). 
L'Her., L'Heritier de Brutelle. 
Lodd., Loddiges. 
MacM., MacMillan. 
Marsh., Marshall. 



Medic, Medicus. 

Michx., Michaux. 

Mill., Miller. 

Muench., Muenchhausen. 

Muhl., Muhlenberg. 

Nutt., Nuttall. 

Pers., Persoon. 

Planch., Planchon. 

Poir., Poiret. 

R. & S., Roemer and Schultes. 

Roem., Roemer. 

Salisb., Salisbury. 

Spreng., Sprengel. 

Sudw., Sudworth. 

Torr., Torrey. 

T. & G., Torrey & Gray. 

Vent., Ventenat. 

Walt., Walter. 

Wang., Wangenheim. 

Willd., WiUdenow. 



INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES 



Alder, Black, 97. 
Allspice, Wild, 38. 
Angelica Tree, 218. 
Apple, American Crab, 303. 
Arrowwood, 279. 

Downy-leaved, 239. 

Maple-leaved, 237. 

Soft-leaved, 282. 
Arum, Green Arrow, 301. 

Water, 9. 
Ash, American Mountain, 64. 

European Mountain, 6Q. 
Asparagus, 10. 

Baked-apple Berry, 47. 
Baneberry, Red, 33. 

White, 313. 
Barberry, Common, 34. 
Bayberry, 307. 
Bearberry, Alpine, 228. 

Black, 228. 

Red, 116. 
Benjamin Bush, 38. 
Bilberry, Great, 271. 

Dwarf, 272. 
Birthroot, 21. 
Bittersweet, 125. 

Climbing, 103. 

Shmbby, 103. 
Blackberry, 184. 

Common, 189. 

High-bush, 189. 

Leafy Cluster, 192. 



Low Running, 185. 

Mountain, 192. 

Running Swamp, 187. 

Sand, 188. 

Thornless, 193. 
Black Haw, 246. 
Blackthorn, 196. 
Blueberry, Canadian, 278. 

Dwarf, 277. 

High-bush, 272. 

Low, 278. 

Low Black, 231. 

Tall, 272. 
Blue Tangle, 269. 
Boxberry, 114. 
Buckthorn, 205. 

Alder-leaved, 207. 

Lance-leaved, 207. 
Buffalo Berry, Canadian, 106. 
Bunchberry, 108. 
Burning Bush, 101. 

Carrion Flower, 163. 
Catbrier, 168. 
Cedar, Red, 252. 

Shrubby Red, 254. 
Checkerberry, 114. 
Cherry, Bird, 83. 

Choke, 86. 

Dwarf, 197. 

May, 71. 

Pigeon, 83. 

Pin, 83. 



331 



332 



INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES 



Cherry, Rum, 198. 

Sand, 197. 

Wild Black, 198. 

Wild Red, 83. 
Chokeberry, Black, 193. 

Red, m. 
Chokepear, 302. 
Clintonia, Yellow, 257. 

White, 155. 
Cloudberry, 47. 
Coffee, Wild, 141. 
Cohosh, Blue, 257. 
Coral Berry, 142. 
Cornel, Alternate-leaved, 266. 

Dwarf, 108. 

Low, 108. 

Panicled, 318. 

Red-osier, 317. 

Round-leaved, 262. 

Silky, 263. 
Cowberry, 118. 
Cranberry, American, 121. 

European, 119. 

Large, 121. 

Mountain, 118. 

Small, 119. 
Cranberry Tree, 139. 

Few-flowered, 140. 
Crowberry, Black, 202. 
Cucumber Tree, 29. 
Currant, Black, 180. 

Fetid, 44. 

Indian, 142. 

Mountain, 44. 

Prostrate, 44. 

Red, 45. 

Dangleberry, 269. 
Deerberry, 292. 



Disporum, Hairy, 16. 

Dockmackie, 237. 

Dogberry, 66. 

Dogwood, Alternate-leaved, 266. 

Flowering, 110. 

Red-osier, 317. 

Round-leaved, 262. 
Dragon Root, 8. ' 

Eglantine, 62. 

Elder, American, 236. 

Red-berried, 133. 

Sweet, 236. 

Wild, 224. 

Fever Bush, 38. 
Feverwort, 141. 
Foxberry, 118. 
Fringe Tree, 232. 

Garget, 176. 
Ginseng, 107. 

Dwarf, 291. 

Horse, 141. 
Golden Seal, 30. 

Gooseberry, Eastern Wild, 
42. 

Hawthorn, 40. 

Northern, 40. 

Swamp, 43. 

Wild, 179. 
Grape, Bear's, 118. 

Blue, 211. 

Chicken, 214. 

Frost, 214. 

Northern Fox, 208. 

Riverside, 212. 

Summer, 210. 

Sweet-scented, 212. 



INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES 



333 



Greenbrier, 168. 

Bristly, 171. 

Glaucous-leaved, 167. 

Hispid, 169. 

Long-stalked, 170. 

Walter's, 25. 
Green Dragon, 8. 
Ground Cherry, Clammy, 297. 

Cut-leaved, 296. 

Low Hairy, 294. 

Philadelphia, 124. 
Groundnut, 291. 
Guelder Rose, 139. 

Hackberry, 172. 
Hemlock, Ground, 3. 
Hercules' Club, 218. 
Hobble Bush, 135. 
Holly, American, 94. 

Large-leaved, 97. 

Mountain, 100. 

Wild, 100. 
Honeysuckle, American Fly, 
151. 

Blue Fly, 282. 

Coral, 148. 

Glaucous, 145. 

Hairy, 145. 

Italian, 144. 

Mountain Fly, 282. 

Perfoliate, 144. 

Smooth-leaved, 145. 

Swamp Fly, 150. 

Trumpet, 148. 
Horsebrier, 168. 
Horse Nettle, 298. 
Huckleberry, Black, 229. 

Box, 270. 

Bush, 230. 



Dwarf, 230. 
High-bush, 229. 
Squaw, 292. 

Indian Cucumber Root, 161. 
Indian Root, 219. 
Indian Turnip, 5. 
Inkberry, 203. 
Ipecac, Wild, 141. 

Wood, 141. 
Ivy, American, 217. 

Climbing, 315. 

Poison, 315. 

Three-leaved, 315. 

Jack-in-the-Pulpit, 5. 
Juneberry, 71. 

Oblong-fruited, 195. 
Juniper, Common, 249. 

Kinnikinnic, 118, 263. 

Leatherwood, 105. 
Lemon, Wild, 288. 
Lily-of-the-Valley, False, 14. 

Magnolia, Laurel, 26. 

Mountain, 29 
Mandrake, 288. 
Matrimony Vine, 129. 
May Apple, 288. 
Mealberry, 118. 
Mistletoe, American, 310. 

Small, 309. 
Moonseed, Canada, 178. 
Moose wood, 105. 
Mulberry, Red, 173. 

White, 308. 
Myrtle, Barren, 118. 



334 



INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES 



Nanny Berry, 244. 
Nightshade, 125. 

Black, 234. 

Garden, 234. 

Orange Root, 30. 

Papaw, North American, 287. 
Papoose Root, 257. 
Partridge Berry, 129. 
Pepperidge, 226. 
Persimmon, 293. 
Pigeon Berry, 170. 
Plum, Beach, 82. 

Bullace, 197. 

Canada, 81. 

Date, 293. 

Horse, 81. 

Porter's, 196. 

Red, 79. 

Yellow, 79. 
Poke, 176. 
Privet, 233. 

Raspberry, Black, 183. 

Dwarf, 50. 

Mountain, 47. 

Purple-flowering, 45. 

Purple Wild, 50. 

Wild Red, 49. 
Rose, 55. 

Canker, 61. 

Dog, 61. 

Low, 59. 

Meadow, 57. 

Northeastern, 61. 

Pasture, 59. 

Smooth, 57. 

Swamp, 58. 



Sarsaparilla, Bristly, 224. 

False, 167. 

Virginian, 221. 

Wild, 221. 
Sassafras, 258. 
Scoke, 176. 
Service Berry, 71. 
Shad Bush, 72. 
Sheepberry, 244. 
Sloe, 196. 

Smilax, Halberd-leaved, 167. 
Snowberry, 323. 

Creeping, 320. 
Solomon's Seal, Hairy, 157. 

Smooth, 159. 

Star-flowered, 156. 

Three-leaved, 13. 

Two-leaved, 14. 
Sour Gum, 226. 
Spice Bush, 38. 
Spikenard, American, 219. 

Wild, 11. 
Spindle Tree, 101. 
Stag Bush, 246. 
Strawberry, American Wood, 55. 

European Wood, 54. 

Northern Wild, 54. 

Scarlet, 52. 

Virginia, 52. 
Strawberry, Bush, 100. 

Running, 101. 
Stretch Berry, 171. 
Sugarberry, 172. 
Sumac, Dwarf, 88. 

Fragrant, 93. 

Poison, 314. 

Smooth, 92. 

Staghorn, 89. 

Sweet-scented, 93. 



INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES 



335 



Velvet, 89. 
Sweetbrier, 62. 

Tangleberry, 269. 
Teaberry, 114. 
Thimble Berry, 188. 
Thorn, Cockspur, 73. 

Dotted-fruited, 74. 

Dwarf, 290. 

Laige-fruited, 74. 

Pear, 78. 

Scarlet, 75. 
Tinker's Weed, 141. 
Tupelo, 226. 

Twisted Stalk, Clasping-leaved, 
16. 

Sessile-leaved, 18. 

Umbrella Leaf, 288. 

Viburnum, Maple-leaved, 237. 

Sweet, 244. 
Virginia Creeper, 217. 



Wahoo, 101. 
Wake-Robin, Early, 19. 

Ill-scented, 21. 

Large-flowered, 20. 

Nodding, 23. 

Painted, 24. 

Sessile-flowered, 19. 
Waxberry, 307. 
Waxwork, 103. 
Wayfaring Tree, 135. 
Winter Berry, Evergreen, 203. 

Smooth, 99. 

Virginia, 97. 
Wintergreen, Creeping, 114. 

Spring, 114. 
Withe-rod, 240. 

Larger, 243. 
Woodbine, 217. 

American, 144. 

Yellow Indian Paint, 30. 
Yellow Puccoon, 30. 
Yellow Root, 30. 
Yew, American, 3. 



INDEX TO LATIN NAMES 



Actsea alba, 313. 
Actsea rubra, 33. 
Actsea spicata, Var. rubra, 33. 
Amelanchier Botryapium, 72. 
Amelanchier Canadensis, 71. 
Amelanchier oligocarpa, 195. 
Ampelopsis quinquefolia, 217. 
Aralia hispida, 224. 
Aralia nudicaulis, 221. 
Aralia quinquefolia, 107. 
Aralia racemosa, 219. 
Aralia spinosa, 218. 
Aralia trifolia, 291. 
Arceuthobium pusillum, 309. 
Arctostaphylos alpina, 228. 
Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi, 116. 
Arissema dracontium, 8. 
Arisaema triphyllum, 5. 
Aronia arbutifolia, 66. 
Aronia nigra, 193. 
Asiraina triloba, 287. 
Asparagus officinalis, 10. 

Benzoin Benzoin, 38. 
Berberis vulgaris, 34. 

Calla palustris, 9. 
Caulophyllum thalictroides, 257. 
Celastrus scandens, 103. 
Celtis occidentalis, 172. 
Chiogenes hispidula, 320. 



Chiogenes serpyllifolia, 320. 
Chionanthus Virginica, 232. 
Clintonia borealis, 257. 
Clintonia umbellulata, 155. 
Cornus alternifolia, 266. 
Cornus Amonum, 263. 
Cornus Canadensis, 108. 
Cornus candidissima, 318. 
Cornus circinata, 262. 
Cornus florida, 110. 
Cornus paniculata, 318. 
Cornus sericea, 263. 
Cornus stolonifera, 317. 
Cratsegus coccinea, 75. 
Crataegus Crus-Galli, 73. 
Crataegus macracantha, 77. 
Crataegus mollis, 77. 
Crataegus parvifolia, 290. 
Crataegus punctata, 74. 
Crataegus tomentosa, 78. 
Crataegus uniflora, 290. 

Diospysos Virginiana, 293. 
Dirca palustris, 105. 
Disporum lanuginosum, 16. 

Empetrum nigrum, 202. 
Euonymus Americanus, 100. 
Euonymus atropurpureus, 101. 
Euonymus obovatus, 101. 



337 



338 



INDEX TO LATIN NAMES 



Fragaria Americana, 55. 
Fragaria Canadensis, 54. 
Fragaria vesca, 54. 
Fragaria Virginiana, 52. 

Gaultheria procumbens, 114. 
Gaylussacia bracliycera, 270. 
Gaylussacia dumosa, 230. 
Gaylussacia frondosa, 269. 
Gaylussacia resinosa, 229. 

Hydrastis Canadensis, 30. 

Ilex glabra, 203. 
Ilex laevigata, 99. 
Ilex monticola, 97. 
Ilex opaca, 94. 
Ilex verticillata, 97. 
Ilicioides mucronata, 100. 

Juniperus communis, 249. 
Juniperus communis, Var. al- 

pina, 251. 
Juniperus nana, 251. 
Juniperus Sabina, 254. 
Juniperus Virginiana, 252. 

Lepargyrsea Canadensis, 106. 
Ligustrum vulgare, 233. 
Lindera Benzoin, 38. 
Lonicera Caprifolium, 144. 
Lonicera ciliata, 151. 
Lonicera coerulea, 282. 
Lonicera dioica, 145. 
Lonicera glauca, 145. 
Lonicera grata, 144. 
Lonicera hirsuta, 145. 
Lonicera oblongifolia, 150. 
Lonicera sempervirens, 148. 
Lycium vulgare, 129. 



Magnolia acuminata, 29. 
Magnolia glauca, 26. 
Magnolia Virginiana, 26. 
Maianthemum Canadense, 14. 
Mairania alpina, 228. 
Malus angustifolia, 304. 
Malus coronaria, 303. 
Medeola Virginiana, 161. 
Menispermum Canadense, 178. 
Mitchella repens, 129. 
Morus alba, 308. 
Morus rubra, 173. 
Myrica Carolinensis, 307. 
Myrica cerifera, 307. 

Nemopanthes fascicularis, 100. 
Nyssa sylvatica, 226. 

Oxycoccus macrocarpus, 121. 
Oxycoccus Oxycoccus, 119. 

Panax quinquefolium, 107. 
Panax trifolium, 291. 
Partbenocissus quinquefolia, 217. 
Peltandra undulata, 301. 
Peltandra Virginica, 301. 
Phoradendron flavescens, 310. 
Physalis angulata, 296. 
Physalis heterophylla, 297. 
Physalis heterophylla ambigua, 

297. 
Physalis Philadelphica, 124, 
Physalis pubescens, 294. 
Physalis Virginiana, 297. 
Phytolacca decendra, 176. 
Podophyllum peltatum, 288. 
Polygonatum biflorum, 157. 
Polygonatum commutatum, 159. 
Polygonatum giganteum, 159. 



INDEX TO LATIN NAMES 



339 



Prunus Allegheniensis, 196. 

Prunus Americana, 79. 

Prunus maritima, 82. 

Prunus nigra, 81. 

Prunus Pennsylvanica, 83. 

Prunus pumila, 197. 

Prunus serotina, 198. 

Prunus spinosa, 196, 

Prunus spinosa insititia, 197. 

Prunus Virginiana, 86. 

Pyrus Americana, 64. 

Pyrus arbutifolia, 66. 

Pyrus arbutifolia, Var. melano- 

carpa, 193. 
Pyrus communis, 302. 
Pyrus coronaria, 303. 
Pyrus sambucifolia, QQ. 

Razoumofskya pusilla, 309. 
Rhamnus alnifolia, 207. 
Rhamnus cathartica, 205. 
Rhamnus lanceolata, 207. 
Rhus aromatica, 93. 
Rlius Canadensis, 93. 
Rhus copallina, 88. 
Rhus glabra, 92. 
Rhus hirta, 89. 
Rhus radicans, 315. 
Rhus Toxicodendron, 315. 
Rhus typhina, 86. 
Rhus venenata, 314. 
Rhus Vernix, 314. 
Ribes Cynosbati, 179. 
Ribes floridum, 180. 
Ribes lacustre, 43. 
Ribes oxyacanthoides, 40. 
Ribes prostratum, 44. 
Ribes rotundifolium, 42. 
Ribes rubrum, 45. 



Ribes rubrum, Var. subglandulo- 

sum, 45. 
Rosa blanda, 57. 
Rosa canina, 61. 
Rosa Carolina, 58. 
Rosa humilis, 59. 
Rosa nitida, 61. 
Rosa rubiginosa, 62. 
Rubus Allegheniensis, 192. 
Rubus Americanus, 50. 
Rubus argutus, 192. 
Rubus Canadensis, 185, 193. 
Rubus chamsemorus, 47. 
Rubus cuneifolius, 188. 
Rubus hispidus, 187. 
Rubus neglectus, 50. 
Rubus nigrobaccus, 189. 
Rubus occidentalis, 183. 
Rubus odoratus, 45. 
Rubus strigosus, 49. 
Rubus triflorus, 50. 
Rubus villosus, 185, 189. 

Sambucus Canadensis, 236. 
Sambucus pubens, 133. 
Sambucus racemosa, 133. 
Sassafras officinale, 258. 
Sassafras sassafras, 258. 
Shepherdia Canadensis, 106. 
Smilacina racemosa, 11. 
Smilacina stellata, 156. 
Smilacina trifolia, 13. 
Smilax Bona-nox, 171. 
Smilax glauca, 167. 
Smilax herbacea, 163. 
Smilax hispida, 169. 
Smilax Pseudo-China, 170. 
Smilax rotundifolia, 108. 
Smilax tamnifolia, 167. 



340 



INDEX TO LATIN NAMES 



Smilax Walteri, 25. 
Solaiium Carolinense, 298. 
Solanum Dulcamara, 125. 
Solanum nigrum, 234. 
Sorbus Americana, 64. 
Sorbus sambucifolia, QQ. 
Streptopus araplexifolius, 16. 
Streptopus roseus, 18. 
Symphoricarpos pauciflorus, 324. 
Symphoricarpos racemosus, 323. 
Symphoricarpos Symphoricar- 
pos, 142. 
Symphoricarpos vulgaris, 142. 

Taxus Canadensis, 3. 
Taxus minor, 3. 
Trillium cernuum, 23. 
Trillium erectum, 21. 
Trillium erythrocarpum, 24. 
Trillium grandiflorum, 20. 
Trillium nivale, 19. 
Trillium sessile, 19. 
Trillium undulatum, 24. 
Triosteum perfoliatum, 141. 

Unifolium Canadense, 14. 

Vaccinium atrococcum, 232. 
Vaccinium csespitosum, 272. 
Vaccinium Canadense, 278. 



Vaccinium corymbosum, 272. 
Vaccinium macrocarpon, 119. 
Vaccinium nigrum, 231. 
Vaccinium Oxycoccus, 119. 
Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum, 277. 
Vaccinium stamineum, 292. 
Vaccinium uliginosum, 271. 
Vaccinium vacillans, 278. 
Vaccinium Vitis-Idsea, 118. 
Vagnera racemosa, 11. 
Vagnera stellata, 156. 
Vagnera trifolia, 13. 
Viburnum acerifolium, 237. 
Viburnum alnifolium, 135. 
Viburnum cassinoides, 240. 
Viburnum dentatum, 279. 
Viburnum lantanoides, 135. 
Viburnum Lentago, 244. 
Viburnum molle, 282. 
Viburnum nudum, 243. 
Viburnum Opulus, 139. 
Viburnum pauciflorum, 140. 
Viburnum prunifolium, 246. 
Viburnum pubescens, 239. 
Vitis aestivalis, 210. 
Vitis bicolor, 211. 
Vitis cordifolia, 214. 
Vitis Labrusca, 208. 
Vitis riparia, 212. 
Vitis vulpina, 212. 



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