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THE 
HYDROGEOLOGY 
OF 
SOUTHERN ONTARIO 



(FIGURES) 




Lake Huron 



>* 



Ministry of Environment and Energy 




Hydrogeology of Ontario 
Series (Report 1) 



Ontario 



THE 
HYDROGEOLOGY 

OF 
SOUTHERN ONTARIO 



VOLUME 2 
(FIGURES) 



BY 
S.N. SINGER, C.K. CHENG, AND M.G. SCAFE 



MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY 

TORONTO ONTARIO 

1997 

ISBN 0-7778-6007-4 

SET ISBN 0-7778-6692-7 



To all users of the: HYDROGEOLOG Y OF SOUTHERN ONTARIO 

Enquiries regarding the purchase and distribution of this manual should be directed to 

RonenHouse 

a division of Ronen Publishing House Inc. 

505 Consumers Road, Suite 910 
Toronto, ON. M2J 4V8 
Phone: (416)502 1441 

(800)856 2196 
Fax: (416)502 9410 

(800) 870 7239 

Enquiries regarding amendments, suggestions or comments should be directed to : 



Drinking Water Section 

Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch 

Ministry of Environment and Energy 

125 Resources Road, West Wing 

Etobicoke, Ontario 

M9P 3V6 



°HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN 

IN RIGHT OF ONTARIO AS REPRESENTED BY 

THE MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY, 1997 



PREFACE 



This report describes the hydrogeology of southern Ontario in terms of the hydraulic parameters of various bedrock 
and overburden units, and the geologic conditions under which ground water flow systems operate. In addition, 
the report provides an assessment of the long-term ground water recharge and discharge, and an evaluation of 
ground water quality. The report is intended to provide basic hydrogeologic information that can be used for the 
wise management of the ground water resources in southern Ontario. 

Toronto, June 1995 



HI 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

(VOLUME 1) 

Page 

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 

2. INTRODUCTION 3 

2.1 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ONTARIO'S GROUND WATER RESOURCES 3 

2.2 IMPORTANCE OF SCALE IN HYDROGEOLOGIC STUDIES 4 

2.3 PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY 5 

2.4 LOCATION 5 

2.5 RELEVANT INVESTIGATIONS 5 

2.6 PREVIOUS HYDROGEOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS 6 

2.7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 8 

3. GEOGRAPHY 9 

3.1 PHYSIOGRAPHY 9 

3.2 DRAINAGE 10 

3.3 CLIMATE 11 

4. DATA AND METHODS USED IN THE STUDY 13 

4.1 DATA USED IN THE STUDY 13 

4.2 THE WATER WELL INFORMATION SYSTEM 13 

4.3 THE RAISON GIS SYSTEM 14 

5. HYDROGEOLOGIC DEFINITIONS 16 

5.1 GROUNDWATER 16 

5.2 AQUIFERS 16 

5.3 HYDRAULIC PARAMETERS 17 

6. GROUND WATER OCCURRENCE IN THE BEDROCK 20 

6.1 BEDROCK TOPOGRAPHY 20 

6.1.1 Dundalk Dome 21 

6.1.2 Bedrock Valleys 21 

6.2 PRECAMBRIAN ROCKS 21 
6.2.1 Precambrian Hydrogeologic Unit 22 

6.3 PALAEOZOIC ROCKS 22 

6.3.1 Early Cambrian Strata 23 

6.3.2 Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician Strata 23 
6.3.2.1 Nepean-March-Oxford Hydrogeologic Unit 23 

6.3.3 Middle to Late Ordovician Strata in Eastern and Central Ontario 24 

6.3.3.1 Rockcliffe Hydrogeologic Unit 25 

6.3.3.2 Ottawa Group Hydrogeologic Unit 25 

6.3.3.3 Simcoe Group Hydrogeologic Unit 25 

6.3.4 Upper Ordovician Strata in Eastern and Central Ontario 26 

6.3.4.1 Billings-Carlsbad-Queenston Hydrogeologic Unit 26 

6.3.4.2 Blue Mountain-Georgian Bay Hydrogeologic Unit 27 

6.3.4.3 Queenston Hydrogeologic Unit 27 

6.3.5 Lower Silurian Strata 28 
6.3.5.1 Cataract Group Hydrogeologic Unit 28 



IV 

Page 

6.3.6 Middle Silurian Strata 28 

6.3.6.1 Dyer- Wingfield-St. Edmund Hydrogeologic Unit 29 

6.3.6.2 Clinton Group Hydrogeologic Unit 30 

6.3.6.3 Amabel-Lockport-Guelph Hydrogeologic Unit 30 

6.3.7 Upper Silurian Strata 32 

6.3.7.1 Salina Hydrogeologic Unit 32 

6.3.7.2 Bass Island Hydrogeologic Unit 32 

6.3.8 Lower Devonian Strata 33 
6.3.8.1 Bois Blanc Hydrogeologic Unit 33 

6.3.9 Middle Devonian Strata 34 

6.3.9.1 Detroit River Group Hydrogeologic Unit 34 

6.3.9.2 Dundee Hydrogeologic Unit 35 

6.3.9.3 Hamilton Group Hydrogeologic Unit 35 

6.3.10 Upper Devonian and Mississipian Strata 35 
6.3.10.1 Kettle Point Hydrogeologic Unit 36 
6.4 A COMPARISON OF THE WATER-YIELDING CAPABILITIES AMONG VARIOUS 

BEDROCK HYDROGEOLOGIC UNITS 36 

7. GROUND WATER OCCURRENCE IN THE OVERBURDEN 37 

7.1 OVERBURDEN THICKNESS 38 

7.2 ILLINOIAN GLACIAL DEPOSITS 38 

7.3 SANGAMONIAN INTERGLACIAL DEPOSITS 38 

7.4 EARLY WISCONSINAN DEPOSITS 38 

7.5 MIDDLE WISCONSINAN DEPOSITS 39 

7.6 LATE WISCONSINAN DEPOSITS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER 

WELLS IN AREAS WHERE THESE DEPOSITS OUTCROP AT THE SURFACE 39 

7.6.1 Nissouri Stadia! Deposits 39 
7.6.1.1 Catfish Creek Till 39 

7.6.2 Erie Interstadial Deposits 40 

7.6.3 Port Bruce Stadial Deposits 40 

7.6.3.1 Deposits Associated with the Combined Erie-Ontario Lobe 40 

7.6.3.1.1 Maryhill Till 40 

7.6.3.1.2 Port Stanley Till 41 

7.6.3.2 Deposits Associated with the Combined Huron-Georgian Bay Lobe 41 

7.6.3.2.1 Tavistock Till 42 

7.6.3.2.2 Mornington Till 42 

7.6.3.2.3 Stratford Till 43 

7.6.3.3 Deposits Associated with the Georgian Bay Lobe 43 

7.6.3.3.1 ElmaTill 43 

7.6.3.3.2 Dunkeld Till 44 

7.6.3.4 Deposits Associated with the Huron Lobe 44 
7.6.3.4.1 Rannoch Till 44 

7.6.3.5 Deposits Associated with the Simcoe Lobe 44 
7.6.3.5.1 Newmarket Till 44 

7.6.3.6 Glaciofluvial and Glaciolacustrine Deposits Associated with the 

Port Bruce Stade 45 

7.6.4 Mackinaw Interstadial Deposits 45 
7.6.4.1 Wentworth Till 45 

7.6.5 Port Huron Stadial Deposits 46 
7.6.5.1 HaltonTill 46 



Page 

7.6.5.2 Kettleby Till 47 

7.6.5.3 St. Joseph Till 47 

7.6.6 Two Creeks Interstadial Deposits 48 

7.6.6.1 Quaternary Unit 18 48 

7.6.6.2 Quaternary Unit 19 48 

7.6.6.3 Quaternary Unit 20 49 

7.6.6.4 Quaternary Unit 21 49 

7.6.7 Greatlakean Stade Deposits 50 

7.6.8 Glaciofluvial, Glaciolacustrine, Glaciomarine and Marine Deposits 50 

7.6.8.1 Ice-Contact Deposits 51 

7.6.8.2 Outwash Deposits 52 

7.6.8.3 Sands and Gravels of Glaciolacustrine Origin 52 

7.6.8.4 Sands and Gravels of Glaciomarine and Marine Origins 52 

7.6.8.5 Silts and Clays of Glaciolacustrine Origin 53 

7.6.8.6 Silts and Clays of Glaciomarine and Marine Origins 53 
7.7 HOLOCENE (RECENT) DEPOSITS 53 

8. GROUND WATER FLOW SYSTEMS 55 

9. LONG-TERM GROUND WATER RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE 57 

9.1 GROUND WATER AND THE HYDROGEOLOGIC CYCLE 57 

9.2 SOIL MOISTURE AND GROUND WATER RECHARGE 57 

9.3 TIMING OF GROUND WATER RECHARGE IN SOUTHERN ONTARIO 57 

9.4 QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER DISCHARGE 

AND RECHARGE 58 

10. GROUND WATER QUALITY 60 

10.1 GROUND WATER QUALITY IN THE BEDROCK 61 

10.1.1 Precambrian Hydrogeologic Unit 62 

10.1.2 Nepean-March-Oxford Hydrogeologic Unit 62 

10.1.3 Rockcliffe Hydrogeologic Unit 63 

10.1.4 Ottawa Group Hydrogeologic Unit 63 

10.1.5 Simcoe Group Hydrogeologic Unit 63 

10.1.6 Billings-Carlsbad-Queenston Hydrogeologic Unit 64 

10.1.7 Blue Mountain-Georgian Bay Hydrogeologic Unit 64 

10.1.8 Queenston Hydrogeologic Unit 64 

10.1.9 Clinton Group-Cataract Group Hydrogeologic Units 65 

10.1.10 Amabel-Lockport-Guelph Hydrogeologic Unit 65 

10.1.11 Salina Hydrogeologic Unit 66 

10.1.12 Bass Island Hydrogeologic Unit 66 

10.1.13 Bois Blanc Hydrogeologic Unit 67 

10.1.14 Detroit River Group Hydrogeologic Unit 67 

10.1.15 Dundee Hydrogeologic Unit 68 

10.1.16 Hamilton Group Hydrogeologic Unit 68 

10.1.17 Kettle Point Hydrogeologic Unit 69 

10.2 GROUND WATER QUALITY IN THE OVERBURDEN 69 

10.2.1 Sodium 70 

10.2.2 Iron 70 

10.2.3 Chloride 70 

10.2.4 Nitrate 70 

10.2.5 Sulphate 71 



VI 

Page 

10.2.6 Hardness 71 

10.2.7 Total Dissolved Solids 71 

10.2.8 Overburden Ground water Types 71 
10.3 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL GROUND WATER 

QUALITY ENCOUNTERED IN BEDROCK AND OVERBURDEN WELLS 71 

11. CONCLUSIONS 73 



REFERENCES 75 

TABLES T1-T25 

(VOLUME 2) 

FIGURES 

(VOLUME 3) 

APPENDIX I METHODOLOGY 

APPENDIX II TRANSMISSIVITY-PROBABILITY GRAPHS AND SPECIFIC CAPACITY-PROBABILITY 
GRAPHS 

APPENDIX III WATER QUALITY DATA FOR BEDROCK WELLS 

APPENDIX IV WATER QUALITY DATA FOR OVERBURDEN WELLS 



Vll 



LIST OF TABLES 



Table 1 


Table 2 


Table 3 


Table 4 


Table 5 


Table 6 


Table 7 


Table 8 


Table 9 


Table 10 



Kind of water encountered in bedrock wells by county 

Water-yielding capabilities of various bedrock hydrogeologic units in southern Ontario 

Kind of water encountered in overburden wells by county 

Summary of Quaternary sand and gravel deposits 



Page 
Tl 
T2 
T3 
T4 



Selected gauging stations in southern Ontario, their periods of record, and drainage areas T5 

Long-term means of monthly and annual ground water discharge/recharge at selected 

gauging stations in southern Ontario T6 

Ground water quality in various bedrock hydrogeologic units T7 

Ground water quality for wells completed in areas where various overburden deposits 

outcrop at surface T 1 1 

Bedrock ground water types T15 

General characteristics of natural ground water quality encountered in bedrock and 

overburden wells in southern Ontario by various parameters T16 



Figure 1 


Figure 2 


Figure 3 


Figure 4 


Figure 5 


Figure 6 


Figure 7 


Figure 8 


Figure 9 


Figure 10 


Figure 11 


Figure 12 


Figure 13 


Figure 14 


Figure 15 


Figure 16 


Figure 17 


Figure 18 


Figure 19 


Figure 20 


Figure 21 



Vlll 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 
(VOLUME 2) 

Location of the study area. 

Map of southern Ontario showing the counties included in the study. 

Physiographic regions in southern Ontario (from Thurston et al, 1992). 

Major drainage basins in southern Ontario (from MNR, 1984). 

Mean annual precipitation (a), snowfall (b), evapotranspiration (c), and runoff 
(d) in southern Ontario (from MNR, 1984). 

Locations of bedrock wells in southern Ontario. 

Bedrock elevation in southern Ontario. 

Ranges of specific capacities for wells completed in Precambrian rocks. 

Bedrock hydrogeologic units in eastern Ontario. 

Ranges of specific capacities for wells completed in the Nepean-March-Oxford 
Hydrogeologic Unit. 

Ranges of specific capacities for wells completed in the Simcoe Group Hydrogeologic Unit. 

Ranges of specific capacities for wells completed in Blue Mountain-Georgian Bay 
and Queenston hydrogeologic units. 

Ranges of specific capacity values for wells completed in the Amabel-Lockport- 
Guelph, Salina and Bass Island hydrogeologic units. 

Ranges of specific capacity values for wells completed in the Bois Blanc, Detroit 
River Group, Dundee, Hamilton Group and Kettle Point hydrogeologic units. 

Water-yielding capabilities of bedrock hydrogeologic units in southern Ontario. 

Correlation chart for southwestern Ontario (from Thurston et al, 1992). 

Locations of overburden wells in southern Ontario. 

Overburden thickness in southern Ontario. 

Areas where sand and gravel deposits outcrop at surface in southern Ontario. 

Ground water level within the bedrock in southern Ontario. 

Ground water level within the overburden in southern Ontario. 



IX 



Figure 22 Hydrographs of water level fluctuations in observation well W-5A (piezometers a and 

b) during water year 1971-1972 (from Singer, 1974). 

Figure 23 Static water level in well IB during 1972 in the Blue Springs Creek watershed (from 

Coward and Barouch, 1978). 

Figure 24 Bedrock wells with natural water quality problems. 

Figure 25 Percentage of samples exceeding the PDWO for sodium (200 mg/1). 

Figure 26 Percentage of samples exceeding the PDWO for iron (0.3 mg/1). 

Figure 27 Percentage of samples exceeding the PDWO total dissolved solids (500 mg/1). 

Figure 28 Percentage of samples exceeding the PDWO for chloride (250 mg/1). 

Figure 29 Percentage of samples exceeding the PDWO for sulphate (250 mg/1). 

Figure 30 Minimum, mean and maximum levels of hardness for various bedrock hydrogeologic units. 

Figure 31 Overburden wells with natural water quality problems. 

(VOLUME 3, Appendix II) 

Figure Al Transmissivity-probability graph for wells completed in Precambrian rocks. 

Figure A2 Transmissivity-probability graph for wells completed in the Nepean-March-Oxford 

hydrogeologic unit. 

Figure A3 Transmissivity-probability graph for wells completed in the Rockcliffe hydrogeologic unit. 

Figure A4 Transmissivity-probability graph for wells completed in the Ottawa Group hydrogeologic unit. 

Figure A5 Transmissivity-probability graph for wells completed in the Simcoe Group hydrogeologic unit. 

Figure A6 Transmissivity-probability graph for wells completed in the Billings-Carlsbad-Queenston 

hydrogeologic unit. 

Figure A7 Transmissivity-probability graph for wells completed in the Blue Mountain-Georgian Bay 

hydrogeologic unit. 

Figure A8 Transmissivity-probability graph for wells completed in the Queenston hydrogeologic unit in 

central Ontario. 

Figure A9 Transmissivity-probability graphs for wells completed in the Amabel, Lockport and 

Guelph Formations. 

Figure A10 Transmissivity-probability graphs for wells completed in the Salina and Bass Island hydrogeologic 

units. 



Figure All Transmissivity-probability graph for wells completed in the Bois Blanc hydrogeologic unit. 

Figure A12 Transmissivity-probability graphs for wells completed in the Detroit River Group, Dundee and 

Hamilton Group hydrogeologic units. 

Figure A13 Transmissivity-probability graph for wells completed in the Kettle Point hydrogeologic unit. 

Figure A14 Specific capacity-probability graphs for wells completed in glaciofluvial deposits. 

Figure A15 Specific capacity-probability graphs for wells completed in sands and gravels of glaciolacustrine, 

glaciomarine and marine origin. 



FIGURES 




Figure 1. Location of the study area relative to other parts of Ontario. 









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