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CONTENTS 


Pages 


Preface ^ (i)~-(ii) 

--rnfc fy^T? I 

1. Chapter I. — Introduction . . - . . . | i — 2 

2. Chapter II. — Constitutional Provisions . " . 3 — ^4 

3. Chapter III. — Safeguards 5 — 6 

4. Chapter IV. — ^Replies from the States .... 7 — 13 


5. Chapter V. — Southern Zone — 

(a) Andhra Pradesh 

(b) Madras 

(c) Kerala 

6. Chapter VI. — ^Western Zone — 

(a) Mysore 

(b) Bombay 

7. Chapter VII. — ^Northern Zone — 

(a) Punjab 
(&) Rajasthan 

8. Chapter VIII. — Eastern Zone — 

(d) Assam 
{b) Bihar 

(c) Orissa 

(d) West Bengal 

9. Chapter IX. — Central Zone — 

(а) Madhya Pradesh . 

(б) Uttar Pradesh 

10. Chapter X. — General 


14—17 
17 — 23 
23 — 24 


25 — 26 

26 — 28 

29 

29—32 

33 

33 

33—36 
36 — 3S 

39— 40 

40— 43 

44—47 


APPEND ICES 


Appendix "A’ 
Appendix 
Appendix ^^C’ 
Appendix 
Appendix 'E’ 
Appendix 
Appendix *^ 0 ’ 
Appendix ‘'H’ 
Appendix U’ 
Appendix 
Appendix 
Appendix 
Appendix 'M’ 

256 HA— 1 


48—52 

53 

54—57 

58 

59—110 

III — 112 

113 

114 — 121 
122 — 127 
128 — 135 

136 

137 

138—139 




PREFACE 


I took over charge as Commissioner of Linguistic Minorities on 
30th July, 1957 and the office has been located in Allahabad from 
27th October, 1957. 


This report is being submitted to the President under Article 
350-B(2) It deals with matters relating to safeguards for linguistic 
minorities provided under the Constitution and elaborated in the 
Memorandum on Safeguards for Linguistic Minorities which was 
laid before Parliament and approved by it. The President has direct- 
ed that the first report should be for the year ending 31st July, 1958 
This report, accordingly, covers only the period 30th July, 1957 to 
31st July, 1958. 

In the re-organisation of the States it was not possible to avoid 
having some tracts where there were a“ number of people belonging 
to more than one language group. Most of the trouble based on 
linguistic grounds is in these tracts Great care was necessary so 
that the situation m such tracts should not get aggravated. In a 
number of instances the State Governments, when their attention 
was drawn to the complaints received, agreed to set things right. 

Where a representation was made by a body or organization its 
name has been given in the report. The quotations in Chapter IV(D) 
are from the rules of the Public Service Commission of a State the 
name of which has been omitted as there may be such rules in 
force in other States also, from which copies of the rules had not 
been received. 


There was delay in receiving replies from most of the States to 
the Questionnaire [Appendix C] issued on August 21, 1957 and some of 
the States have even now either not sent replies or not sent full 
or complete replies. The views of the State Governments on some 
of the representations made were also ascertained after consider- 
able delay. It is no doubt true that the States have to look into 
these matters before they can send their replies and that no doubt 
takes time. It is, however, hoped that prompt attention would be 
given to communications from this office to prevent imnecessary 
delay. 


In September 1957 the Southern States of Madras, Andhra 
Pradesh, Mysore and Kerala appointed a small Committee consisting 
of Shri C. Subramaniani, Finance Minister of Madras, Shri Kala 
Venkatarao, Minister, Andhra Pradesh, Shri Hijlingappa, the then 
Chief Minister of Mysore and Shri E. M. S. Namboodiripad, Chief 
Minister of Kerala with Shri Subramaniam as Convener to give 
effect to the decisions embodied in the memorandum on safeguards 
for linguistic minorities. The Committee has not yet been able to 



finalise its proposals and several matters raised have, therefore, 
remained still unsettled. 

It must be acknowledged with thanks that every assistance was 
given to the Commissioner by the States that he visited in the 
course of his tours. 


26, Hamilton Road, 
ALLAHABAD, 
23rd Decemhei , 1958 


B. MALIK, 
Commissioner. 



CHAPTER I 


Early in the year 1954 the Government of India appointed a 
Commission for reorganisation of the States. The Commission went 
into the question in some detail and submitted its report in Septem- 
ber 1955. In the course of the investigation the Commission found 
that even if in framing the State boundaries linguistic principles 
were rigidly applied the problem of linguistic minorities would by 
no means be solved This was because not ail the language groups 
were so placed that they could be formed into separate States. 
There were a large number of bilingual belts between different 
linguistic zones and there existed areas with a mixed population 
even within unilingual areas. This problem of linguistic minorities 
was more acute near the boundaries of each unilingual or bilingual 
State and there were important places within a State where there 
were multi-lingual groups in various strengths 

During the course of its investigation, it was strongly urged 
before the State Reorganisation Commission that the safeguards in 
the Constitution had proved inadequate and ineffective. Whatever 
the merits of this assertion, the Commission had to take into 
consideration the fact that a large section of public opinion, both 
among the proponents and the opponents of linguistic States, 
favoured the strengthening of the existing constitutional guarantees 
lo linguistic minorities. 

The broad principles and objectives which governed the States 
Reorganisation Commission’s approach were stated as follows: — 

•‘(i) as the problem of linguistic minorities is common to 
unilingual as well as polyglot areas, the measures to be 
adopted should be such as can be applied to linguistic as 
well as composite States, 

(ii) while minorities are entitled to reasonable safeguards to 
protect their educational, cultural and other interests, it 
has to be borne in mind that such safeguards should not 
so operate as to perpetuate separatism or lo impede the 
processes of natural assimilation; 

(ill) the system of guarantees to minorities should not be 
such as to lend itself to misuse by parties interested in 
promoting a sense of disloyalty to the State; and 

(iv) it should be clearly understood that a State, in which a 
particular language group constitutes the majority, cannot 
be considered to be the custodian of the interests of all 
people speaking that language, even when they are resi- 
dents of other States.” 

The problem was examined in detail by the States Reorganisa- 
tion Commission in paragraphs 770 to 791 of its report and the 
Commission then examined the question of the agency for enforcing 
the safeguards. 



2 


As a result of the report of the Commission certain amendments 
were made in the Constitution by the Constitution (Seventh 
Amendment) Act, 1956, and Articles 350A and 350B were added to 
the Constitution. 

Article 350B provides for the appointment by the President of a 
Special Officer who is to investigate all matters relating to the 
safeguards provided for the linguistic minorities under the Consti- 
tution. 

As a result of the said amendment, a Commissioner for Linguistic 
Minorities was appointed and he took over charge on the 30th July 
1957. 



CHAPTER II 


Under Article 350B of the Constitution the Commissioner for 
Xiinguistic Minorities has to investigate matters relating to the 
safeguards provided for the linguistic minorities under the Consti- 
tution and report to the President upon those matters at such 
intervals as the President may direct. 

The provisions in the Constitution relating to the safeguards 
given to the linguistic minorities are as follows: — 

(a) Article 29(1) provides that any section of the citizens 
residing in the territory of India or any part thereof 
having a distinct language, script or culture of its own 
shall have the right to conserve the same. 

(b) Article 29(2) is to the effect that no citizen shall be denied 
admission into any educational institution maintained by 
the State or receiving aid out of the State funds on 
grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of 
them. 

(c) Article 30 confers on the minorities a right to establish 
and administer educational institutions of their choice 
and part (2) of this Article provides that there shall be 
no discrimination in making grants to such educational 
institutions Article 337 makes a special provision with 
respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo- 
Indian community for a limited period of ten years from 
the date of the commencement of the Constitution. 

(d) Article 350 gives every person a right to submit a 
representation for the redress of any grievance to any 
officer or authority of the Union or a State in any of the 
languages used in the Union dr in the State, as the case 
may be. 

(e) Article 350 A provides that every State and local authority 
shall endeavour to provide adequate facilities for instruc- 
tion in the mother tongue at the primary stage of educa- 
tion to children belonging to linguistic minority groups 
and the President shall issue such directions as he may 
consider necessary for the purpose. 

These Articles specifically deal with the rights of linguistic 
minorities. 

It is not necessary to mention here the other Articles of the 
Constitution dealing with language or with fundamental rights, as 
strictly speaking they cannot be said to relate to ‘‘safeguards 
provided for linguistic minorities” under the Constitution, which 
under Article 350B(2) the Special Officer has been authorised to 
investigate. Article 350B of the Constitution can, however, be so 


3 



4 


interpreted as to include therein infringement of general safeguards 
in the Constitution meant for all including the linguistic minorities, 
which affects adversely the linguistic minorities as such. 

It may be useful to mention that a linguistic minority in a State 
is any group of people whose mother tongue is different from the 
mother tongue of the majority in the State, district, part of a 
district or Taluk. Such minority language need not necessarily 
be one of the fourteen languages mentioned in the Eighth Schedule 
of the Constitution. 



CHAPTER in 


The safeguards proposed for the linguistic minorities in the States 
Reorganisation Commission Report were carefully examined by the 
Government of India in consultation with the Chief Ministers of the 
States and the action which had been taken or was proposed to he 
taken was communicated in the Ministry of Home Affairs letter 
No. 20/5/56“SRT, dated 19th September 1956, forwarding a copy 
of the memorandum on the safeguards for linguistic minorities 
(which was laid before and approved by the Parliament), for imple- 
menting the decisions embodied therein. This memorandum is 
Appendix ‘A’ to this report and it has been hereafter referred to as 
''the memorandum’'. There is a reference in “the memorandum” to 
the resolutions passed at the Provincial Education Ministers’ Con- 
ference in August 1949. For facility of reference the relevant resolu- 
tions are given in Appendix 'B’. 

The safeguards for linguistic minorities mentioned in “the memo- 
randum” may broadly be classified under the following heads: — 

(a) Educational facilities 

Educational facilities which would include facilities for instruc- 
tion in the mother tongue, facility for learning the mother tongue, 
recognition of schools established by linguistic minorities and giving 
of government, municipal or other grants-m-aid to them in the same 
proportion as to other similar institutions, admission in educational 
institutions (including technological, engineerng, medical, etc ) and 
such other facilities. 

(b) Recruitment to State and Subordinate Services 

Equal facilities to be given to linguistic minorities in the matter 
of selection. “The memorandum” provides that candidates should 
have the option to elect as the media of examination, in any exami- 
nation conducted for recruitment to the State Services (not including 
suborinate services), English or Hindi, or the language of a minority 
consisting about 15 to 20 per cent, or more of the population of a 
State; a test of prohciency in the State language may in that event 
be held after selection and before the end of probation. Where any 
cadre included m a subordinate service is treated as a cadre for a 
district, any language which has been recognised as an official 
language iii the district should also be recognised as a medium for 
the purpose of competitive examinations in the district. 

(c) No discrimination against in trade^ business etc. 

Equal facility for carrying on trade, commerce, and intercourse, 
etc. 


5 



6 


(d) TJnilingual and bi-lmgftcal States and recognition of minority 
language as official language in the State or in any part thereof 

A State is to be recognised as unilingual where one language 
group constitutes 70 per cent or more of its entire population. 

As bi-lingual if there is a substantial minority constituting 30 per 
cent, or more of the population. 

The same principle should be applied at the district level and a 
minority language may be recognised as official language where 70 
per cent, or more of the total population of a district consists of a 
group which is a minority in the State as a whole. 

(e) Puhhcation of notices and rules 

Publication of important Government notices and rules etc. in 
the minority language where a linguistic minority consists of 15 to 
20 per cent, of the total population of the Taluk, District etc. 



CHAPTER IV 


On the 21st August 1957 the Commissioner for Linguistic Minori- 
ties issued a Questionnaire to all the States for eliciting information 
on various matters relating to the linguistic minorities. A copy of 
the said Questionnaire is given m Appendix ‘C’ to this report. The 
Questionnaire was based on “the memorandum”. 

There was considerable delay in receiving replies and a number 
of reminders had to be sent to the various States. Some of the States 
have not yet sent replies or full and complete replies to the Ques- 
tionnaire. A separate chart giving the names of the States from 
which replies, tentative replies or no replies have so far been 
received is given in Appendix ‘D’; and the replies that have been 
received are contained in Appendix A summary of the replies 
received is given below, arrayed under the mam heads given in 
Chapter HI. 


A — Education 

(i) Primary Education 

In accordance with Article 350A of the Constitution of India 
.every State or Local Authority should endeavour to provide adequate 
facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the Primary stage 
of education to the children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 

With the exceptions given below all the States from whom 
replies have been received so far have intimated that Primary 
Education is imparted in the mother tongue, in case ten students in 
a class or forty students in a school have as their mother tongue a 
language other than the regional language. 

In the Punjab area of that State the linguistic minorities can opt 
for a medium of instruction of their choice and are not confined 
merely to Hindi and Punjabi, but the same is not the case in the 
government institutions in PEPSU area where Hindi is the medium 
of instruction in Hindi zone and Punjabi in the Punjabi zone 

In those parts of Madhya Pradesh which were previously in 
Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal the position is not very 
clear but in the rest of the State Primary Education is imparted in 
the mother tongue if there are ten students in a class or forty stu- 
dents in a school whose mother tongue is other than the regional 
language 


(ii) Secondary Education 

The resolution adopted by the Provincial Education Ministers’ 
Conference held in August 1949 was as follows: — 

(a) If the number of pupils whose mother tongue is a language 
other than the regional or State language is sufficient to 


7 



8 


justify a separate school in an area, the medium of instruc- 
tion in such a school may be the mother tongue of pupils. 
Such schools will be recognised for the purposes of 
grants-in-aid from Government according to prescribed 
rules. 

(b) Government will also provide similar fecilities in all 
Government and District Board schools, where one-third 
of the total number of pupils of the school desire to be 
instructed in their mother tongue. 

(c) Government will also require aided schools to arrange for 
such instruction, if this is desired by one-third of the 
pupils, provided that there are no adequate facilities for 
instruction in that particular language in the area. 

(d) The regional language will be a compulsory subject 
throughout the secondary stage. 

From the replies received it appears that the States are adhering 
to the principles laid down and the facilities contemplated are being 
provided. 

The Education Ministry, in consultation with the State Govern- 
ments, has evolved the three language formula which is as follows: — 

First Formula . (a) {i) Mother tongue^ or 

(«) Regional language, or 

(nz) A composite course of mother 
tongue and a regional language, or 

(tv) A composite course of mother 
tongue and classical language, or 

{v) K composite course of regional lan- 
guage and classical language. 

(5) Hindi or English. 

{c) A modern Indian or a modern European 
language provided it has not already 
neen taken under (a) and (h') above. 

Second Formula {a\ As abo\c- 

Engiisn ur a modem European language. 

it Hindi (for non-Hmdi speaking areas) 
or another modem Indian language (for 
Hindi spealang areas). 

Majority of the States have accepted the Second Formula, but 
there are certain exceptions and their views are as follows* — 

Kerala: 

^'Second formula accepted as follows* — 

(a) (i) Regional language or any language other than 
English and Hindi 

(ii) Regional language (Compulsory) Malayalam/Tamil. 

(b) English. 

(c) Hindi,” 



9 


Madras: 

‘‘The following formula has been adopted on the recommendations 
of the Legislature Committee in the White Paper on Education — 

Languages: — ^Part I. Regional language. 

Part II Hindi or any other Indian language not 
included in Part I 

Part III. English or any other non-Indian language. 

(The formula is so designed as not to impose either Hindi or English 
on any pupil.) ’’ 

(iii) Affiliation of schools and colleges situated in a State, to CJmuer- 
sities located outside the State, and receipt of grants-in-aid hy them 

The minorities whether based on religion or language have a 
right to establish and administer educational institutions of their 
choice and the State cannot discriminate in granting aid to such 
educational institutions, vide Art. 30 of the Constitution. 

As such, every State should have arrangements for affiliation of 
schools and colleges, in respect of courses of study in the mother 
tongue of the linguistic minorities, to universities and other authori- 
ties within the State itself. In cases where this arrangement was 
not possible it is contemplated that such institutions be permitted 
to seek affiliation to appropriate bodies located outside the State and 
that this outside affiliation should not act as a bar against their 
getting equal support from the State Government in which they 
are located. 

Generally speaking the States have agreed to allow the linguistic 
minorities the privilege of getting their institutions affiliated to 
universities outside their own boundaries. 

Andhra Pradesh has expressed its disagreement to the proposal 
for fear of creating strained relations between the universities in 
the adjoining States. There are, however, no institutions in the 
State which have asked for affiliation outside the State and there 
has, therefore, been no occasion of a refusal in this regard. 

The view of the Kerala Govenrment is that the Kerala University 
Act XIV of 1957 does not allow any educational institution within 
the State, save with the sanction of the Chancellor, to seek or con- 
tinue affiliation in any other imiversity. There are at present a few 
colleges affiliated to the Madras University which position has been 
permitted to continue for some time more, and grants-in-aid are also 
being allowed. 

West Bengal, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh are still considering 
the matter. 

In Bombay secondary schools having media of instruction other 
than those accepted by the Bombay S.S.C. Examination Board have 
been permitted to seek affiliation to appropriate bodies outside the 
State. The rules on the subject have been amended to allow such 
affiliation. 



10 


B — Official Languagre 

For purposes of Article 347 of the Constitution the Governmenc 
of India agreed with the States Reorganisation Commission that a 
State should be recognised as unilingual only where one language 
group constituted about 70 per cent, or more of its entire population 
and that where there is a substantial minority constituting SO per 
cent, or more of the population, the State should be recognised as 
bilingual for administrative purposes; and that the same principle 
might hold good at the district level. 

Recognition of a State as um-lingual or bi-lingual is without 
prejudice to the right exercised by any one resident in the State 
under Article 350 of the Constitution, to submit a representation for 
the redress of any grievance in any of the languages used in the 
Union or the State as the case may be. 

Where there is a hnguistic minority constituting 15 to 20 per cent, 
of the total population in that area, important government notices 
and rules should also be published in the language of the minority. 

So far, as it appears from the replies received, the Legisla- 
tures of the States of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar and Uttar 
Pradesh have adopted Hindi as the official language m those States. 

In Madras Tamil has been recognised as the official language (see 
Madras Official Language Act of 1956— Act XXXIX of 1956). 

In Andhra Pradesh English continues to be the official language, 
but the State is considering the question of declaring the regional 
language (Telugu) as the official language of the State under 
Article 345. 

# 

The Kerala Government have appointed an Official Language 
Committee to go into the question and the matter is still under con- 
sideration. They have m the meantime (from December 31, 1957) 
declared Hosdrug Taluk as a bilingual area. 

Orissa had adopted Oriya as the official language of the State 
under the Orissa Official Language Act, 1954. 

In Punjab the Sachar and Pepsu formulae provide for the use of 
Hindi and Punjabi as regional languages in different zones of the 
State 

The States that have linguistic minorities concentrated to the 
extent of 15 to 20 per cent, in some of their areas have accepted the 
principle of publishing important government notices, rules, etc. in 
the language of the minority group. 

C — Recognition of minority languages as medium for examinations 
conducted for recruitment to services 

The Government of India advised the State Governments that 
candidates should have the option to elect English or Hindi, or the 
language of a minority constituting about 15 to 20 per cent, or more 
of the population of a State as the medium of examination, in anv 



11 


examination conducted for recruitment to the State Services (not 
including subordinate Services). The State Governments were also 
advised that where any cadre included in a subordinate service is 
treated as a cadre for a district, any language which has been recog- 
nised as an official language in the district should also be recognised 
as a medium for the purpose of competitive examinations in the 
district. 

In Andhra Pradesh the practice is as follows: — 

For examinations of the S.S.L.C. Standard the Public Service 
Commission allows the general knowledge paper to be answered in 
English or the regional languages, i.e. Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, and 
Urdu. For examinations of a standard higher than S.SL.C. the 
medium of examination is English. 

So far as Departmental Examinations are concerned — 

(i) Where a test in only one language has been prescribed in 
the special rules it has to be taken in Telugu, the principal 
language of the State; and 

(ii) where a second language test is also prescribed in the 
service rules it should be — 

(a) in Hindi or Urdu in respect of the State Services, and 

(b) in Hindi or Urdu or in the districts of Srikakulam, 
Anantapur, Chittoor or Adilabad, Oriya and Kannada, 
Tamil or Marathi respectively in respect of subordi- 
nate services. 

The State Governments of Kerala, Orissa, Mysore and Uttar 
Pradesh have reported that as the minorities do not form more than 
15 per cent, of the population, the question of recognition of minority 
languages as medium of examination for recruitment to services does 
not arise 

The West Bengal Government have deferred action in this regard 
till a decision is taken on the issue of official language of the State. 

Madhya Pradesh Government have reported (Letter No. 2223/ 
6789/1(5), dated April 4, 1958) that recruitment to services in the 
State is not made through competition examinations, but they have 
noted the recommendation made by the Government of India in this 
behalf 

The Assam Government have not yet finalised their rules for 
recruitment to services 

The State Governments of Bombay and Punjab have made no 
comments on this point. 

D — ^Domicile rule 

All the States are of the view that with the enactment of the 
Public Employment (Requirement as to Residence) Act 1957, all 
restrictions relating to domicile for entry into government service 
are removed. 

For the people of Telengana area in Andhra Pradesh, however, 
special safeguards have been provided for a period of five years in 
so far as recruitment to subordinate ser\’ice is concerned. 



12 


No such restriction existed in Kerala even before the passage of 
this Act. 

The Bombay Government have also issued a notification stating 
that there is no restriction to any citizen of India for being consider- 
ed for permanent appointment m the State and that there shall be 
equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to appoint- 
ment to any office in the State. 

Article 16 of the Constitution makes it obligatory that there 
should be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating 
to employment or appointment to any office under a State. Some 
States have, however, made rules which are indirectly discrimina- 
tory, e.g. ‘‘they must hold a degree of a University established by 
law in (the State) or in other University recognised for the purpose 
by the Governor of (the State)”. In Appendix ‘A’ the qualifications 
given are as follows- — 

“A candidate must be — 

(a) a citizen of India whose original domicile is in (the 
State) provided he has not acquired a domicile else- 
where; 

(b) a citizen of India whose original domicile is not in 
(the State) but who has acquired a domicile in (the 
State) and has resided there for not less than five 
years at the date on which he applied for recruitment 
to the service or post; or 

(c) (i) a citizen of India; and 

(ii) a person who has migrated or may hereafter migrate 
from Pakistan to reside permanently in this State, in 
whose favour a declaration of eligibility has except as 
hereinafter provided, been issued by the Governor of 
(the State), etc”. 

The requirement that the candidate must hold a degree of a 
University established by law in (the State) or in other University 
recognised for the purpose by the Governor of the State is also 
discriminatory. The original requirement used to be a degree of a 
University established by lav^ in india or any other University recog- 
nised for the purpose by the Governor of the State 

It may be mentioned that according to the Rules for selection to 
the Engineering Service Class I of one of the States it is stated that 
preference is to be given to candidates who are graduates of the 
College of Engineers of that State and it is only if suitable candi- 
dates from that College of Engineers are not available that outsiders 
may be taken. 

E — Restrictions on private rights in respect of contracts for 

fisheries, etc. 

Under the provisions of the Constitution of India every State is 
required to grant freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse and 
the right to equality of opportunity to all citizens. 



13 

The State Governments of Delhi, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, 
Orissa, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have reported that 
no restrictions in respect of trade, commerce, intercourse and the 
right of equality of opportunity have been imposed. 

The Governments of Andhra Pradesh and Mysore have also 
accepted the recommendation made by the Government of India. 

In Assam the concessions granted by the State Government under 
Article 46 of the Constitution to certain backward classes of people 
in the matter of allotment of fisheries, contracts, etc. still continue; 
^otherwise it is said, there is no discrimination. 



CHAPTER V 


SOUTHERN ZONE 

In September 1957 the States of Andhra Pradesh, Madras and 
Kerala of the Southern Zone and Mysore appointed a Sub-Committee 
consisting of the Chief Ministers of Mysore and Kerala, the Revenue 
Minister of Andhra Pradesh and the Finance Mmister of Madras, to 
give effect to the decisions contained in “the memorandum” and to 
frame rules to safeguard the interests of the linguistic minorities. 
The Finance Minister of Madras State was appointed the Convener. 

During his visit to Madras in January 1958 the Commissioner met 
the Finance Minister of Madras and learnt that the Finance Minister 
had made certain tentative proposals to the other members of the 
Committee, but they had not yet sent their views and the proposals 
could not, therefore, be finalised. 

fa) Andhra Fradfesh 

Representations were received from linguistic minorities in 
Andhra Pradesh whose mother tongue is Urdu, Kannada, Tamil and 
Oriya, and a deputation of the Linguistic Minorities Committee of 
Hyderabad met the Commissioner on the 5th February 1958 when he 
visited Hyderabad. Many of the points raised before the Commis- 
sioner were not within his jurisdiction. The points that have some 
bearing on the work, of the Commissioner are given below: — 

The Urdu speaking minority claimed that — 

(1) Arrangement should be made to impart instruction through 
the medium of Urdu in all such Government and Munici- 
pal schools in which the number of students whose mother 
tongue is Urdu is 40 or 15 per cent, or more of the total 
number of students in the school, whichever is less; 

(2) In areas where the population whose mother tongue is 
Urdu is 15 per cent, or more, use should be made of Urdu 
along with Telugu, m the publication of Government 
notices, electoral rolls, signboards etc.; petitions and docu- 
ments written in Urdu should be entertained in courts and 
work in offices should be carried on in Urdu along with 
Telugu; 

(3) In the towns of Hyderabad and Secunderabad and such 
other towns where the population whose mother tongue 
is Urdu IS at least 15 per cent., business in municipal and 
other offices should be carried on in Urdu along with 
Telugu; 

(4) It v.'^as said that a large number of Urdu schools had been 
closed during the past ten years and services of a number 
of teachers had been d'spensed vith on the ground that 


14 



V. 


15 

they did not know the regional languages of the former 
Hyderabad State, namely, Telugu, Marathi or Kannada; 

(5) Arrangements for teachers’ training through Urdu should 
be made; 

(6) Vakils, pleaders and advocates who know only Urdu had 
been put to serious economic difficulties as they were not 
able to carry on their profession; 

(7) Urdu should not be eliminated from the signboards of 
Government offices, schools and other inscitutions, as also 
signposts on the roads in the Hyderabad City which has 
a large Urdu speaking population; 

(8) At Nizamabad, out of 400 students of the Government 
Multi-purpose High School nearly 300 had Urdu as their 
mother tongue, but technical and scientific subjects were 
now being taught only through Telugu as financial diffi- 
culties did not permit arrangements to be made for teach- 
ing these subjects through Urdu also; 

(9) There was dearth of Urdu teachers and arrangements 
should be made to supplement their number. 

(10) To safeguard the interests of the linguistic minorities it 
was suggested that a special officer of high status and 
seniority may be appointed by the Education Department 
to look after the interests of the linguistic minorities in 
all matters connected with education and sufficient funds 
should be provided for teaching of technical and scientific 
subjects in Urdu. 


The Andhra Pradesh Government in their letter No. 45/58-2, 
dated January 15, 1958, say that — 

far as Andhra Pradesh is concerned, the position in regard 
to the use of Urdu in the administrative, judicial and 
educational structure of the State has been safeguarded 
for a period of five years according to the agreement 
reached between the leaders of Andhra and Telangana on 
the eve of States Reorganisation and no restrictions have 
been imposed by this Government on the use of Urdu in 
this State. The position of Urdu in this State remains 
therefore unaffected, even after reorganisation and no 
action is, therefore, called for on the resolution passed by 
the Anjuman-e-Taraqqi-e-Urdu, Aligarh so far as Andhra 
Pradesh is concerned.” 


On behalf of the Kannada speaking people it was represented 
that-^ 


(1) In the districts of Chittoor, Anantapur, Kurnool, Mahboob- 
nagar, Gulbarga and Bidar, the Kannadigas formed a fair 
proportion of the population. Provision should, therefore, 
be made for imparting instructions through the medium 
of Kannada language;. 



16 


(2) Use of Kannada language in answering question papers 
at the Public Service Commission examinations should be 
allowed. 

On behalf of the Tamil speaking population it was claimed— 

(1) that Tamil should be recognised as one of the regional 
languages; 

(2) that knowledge of Telugu, Marathi or Kanada should 
not be insisted upon at the time of recruitment to services; 

(3) that adequate provision should be made for teaching of 
Tamil in the schools. 

On behalf of the Oriya speaking people it was claimed — 

(1) that due consideration of seniority was denied to members 
of the Oriya community by the Srikakulam District Board; 

(2) that no Oriya teachers are appointed in the bilingual areas 
by the District Board, Srikakulam; 

(3) that Oriyas are compelled to learn Telugu and other 
regional languages. 

The Linguistic Minorities Committee of Hyderabad claimed — 

(1) That teachers belonging to linguistic minorities are requir- 
ed to learn Telugu and when they fail to do so they are 
either dismissed or denied promotions and increments. 

(2) That if Telugu is not made compulsory in Marathi schools 
in the secondary stage grants-in-aid by the Government 
are stopped They claimed that Telugu should not be 
made compulsory in the secondary stage for a period of 
at least five years. 

(3) That though a large part of the population of Hyderabad 
is Urdu speaking and was accustomed to do its work in 
Urdu, out of the eight Magistrates in the Hyderabad City 
Criminal Court, three, including the Chief City Magis- 
trate, do not know Urdu which causes great hardship. 

(4) That the present employees should be afforded facilities 
to learn Telugu at Government expense and knowledge of 
Telugu should not be a condition for recruitment for a 
period of five years. 

(5) That linguistic minorities should be given a chance to pick 
up working knov^rledge of Telugu within five years of their 
recruitment. 

As regards the general suggestions made by the linguistic mino- 
rities they are under consideration by a Sub-Committee appointed 
by the States of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Madras and Mysore of 
which mention has already been made. The Committee has not yet 
finalised its proposals. 

The Commissioner discussed the various matters with the 
Governor, the Chief Minister, the Finance Minister, the Chief 
.^pprptarv. the Deoutv Director of Public Instruction and Assktant 



17 


Secretary of the General Administration Department and was satis- 
fied that attempts were being made, as far as possible, to implement 
the resolutions passed in the Education Ministers’ Conference held 
in 1949 which is mentioned in the memorandum, and though m the 
beginning as a result of the reorganisation of the States some diffi- 
culties might have been felt the State Government was looking into 
them and taking all necessary steps to remove the same. The 
agreement arrived at between the leaders of the respective areas at 
the time of the formation of the present State of Andhra Pradesh 
(which will be found at Appendix T’), it was claimed, was also being 
fully respected. 

Telugu is the principal language in the State but recognition has 
been given to Urdu as a regional language in all the districts of 
Telangana. Similarly, Marathi has been recognised as a regional 
language in Adilabad district. A copy of these resolutions will be 
found at x^ppendix ^G’. 

In the erstwhile Hyderabad High Court English was made the 
official language and English continues to be recognised as the official 
language in the High Court and courts subordinate thereto. In the 
courts and offices directly under the control of the State Govern- 
ment, such as Revenue Courts, Panchayats etc. translated copies of 
petitions, documents etc. are not asked for and it is incumbent upon 
the court to get these translated in case it happens to be in, any 
language other than the regional language Similarly, documents in 
English or in any of the recognised regional languages are also 
accepted for registration 

For State Services English is the general medium of examinations 
held for recruitment by the State Public Service Commission. 

The following statements which give useful inform'ation relating 
to the linguistic minorities were furnished to the Commissioner: — 

(1) Statements showing language-wise population in each 
district (Appendix ‘H’), and 

(2) Statements showing language-wise distribution of schools 
in Andhra and Telangana (Appendix ‘F). 

A perusal of these statements will go to show that a genuine effort 
has been made to meet the needs of each linguistic group. Griev- 
ances of the linguistic minorities are likely to continue to exist for 
some time. With the limited resources at the disposal of the States 
it might be difficult for them to fully satisfy the ever-increasing 
demands of the people whether they belong to the majority or the 
minority linguistic group. As regards the posting of officers it was 
pointed out that it was not always possible to confine an officer to a 
particular region and some difficulty may from time to time be felt 
when an official is posted to a district with the language of which 
he was not familiar; but generally such postings are avoided, 

(b) Mairas 

The Dakshina Malayala Minority Samaj has put forward the 
grievances of the Malayalam speaking minority in Madras State and 
particularly in the Kanyakumari district. A memorandum was first 



submitted to the Government of India in August 1956 which was 
followed by a deputation which waited on the Chief Minister of 
Madras and presented before him a memorandum, dated September 
11, 1957. The President of the Samaj forwarded copies of the afore- 
said two memoranda to the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities 
with his letter, dated November 6, 1957, along with a copy of a 
memorandum submitted to the Governor of Madras on July 25, 1957. 

A Conference of the Samaj was held at Muzhithurai on November 
24, 1957, in which twelve resolutions were adopted. When the Com- 
missioner visited Madras in January 1958 a deputation consisting of 
representatives of the Samaj waited on the Commissioner. Another 
memorandum, dated January 24, 1958 was handed over to the 

Commissioner. 

As these memoranda cover a lot of common ground, some of which 
do not concern this office, it would be necessary to set out only the 
points that are relevant. 

(1) In the Kanyakumari district, majority of the students belong 
to the Malayala minority community and they should be 
provided facilities for receiving instructions in Malayalam 
not only in the Primary Schools but in the Secondary 
Schools also. 

(2) It was alleged that in the Kanyakumari district after the 
reorganisation of the State some difficulty was being felt 
for &arth of teachers competent to teach in Malayalam. 

It has already been mentioned that a small Committee consisting 
of the representatives of the Governments of Madras, Andhra Pradesh, 
Mysore and Kerala are considering the question of formulating certain 
common principles for the protection of the minorities. Their work 
has not yet been finalised. The tentative views of the Madras Govern- 
ment have been placed before the Committee but the Committe has 
not yet come to a final decision. 

As regards the shortage of teachers, from enquiry on the spot the 
Commissioner found that after the reorganisation of the States many 
of the teachers opted for Kerala and there had been a reduction in 
the number of teachers who knew Malayalam. The shortage was, 
however, being fast made up by fresh appointment. 

(3) Another complaint was that Malayalam school buildings 
were not being kept in proper repairs. 

As no statistics or detailed information was furnished to show that 
the Malayalam schools were treated on a different basis and v/ere 
being given less building grant than other schools in spite of the repre- 
sentatives having been asked to do so it was not possible to take up 
this matter in any detail with the State Government though the 
complaint was brought to the notice of the Government. 

(4) It was also suggested that a special officer duly qualified in 
Malayalam be appointed to look after and safeguard the 
interests of the Malayalam people. 



19 


Though the appointment of a special officer may help in his being 
able to bring to the notice of the State Government any inconvenience 
suffered, it would probably be wrong in pnnciple to separate the 
Malayalam speaking people from the Tamil speaking people, and place 
them under the protection of a special officer. 

(5) In notification G.O.Ms. No. 831, dated March 12, 1957, of the 
Madras Government relating to the district-wise language 
qualification for appointment to the Subordinate Grade in 
the Madras Ministerial Service, Tamil alone is mentioned 
for Kanyakumari district, whereas Malayalam also is recog- 
nised for the districts of Nilgiris and Madras. 

The State Government have given recognition to Malayalam as 
one of the languages for the districts of Nilgiris and Madras, and 
they might consider doing so for the Kanyakumari district also. 

(6) That the Public Service Commission in their notification, 
dated October 25, 1957, inviting applications for appoint- 
ment of Sub-Magistrates in the Madras Subordinate Magis- 
terial Service reserved the appointment for candidates with 
an ‘adequate knowledge of Tamil’ and added an explanation 
that “a candidate will be deemed to possess an adequate 
knowledge of Tamil if he has either acquired knowledge in 
that language in the High School courses or if his mother 
tongue is Tamil”. As a result of this definition a candidate 
who claimed that he knew Tamil quite well but it was not 
his mother tongqe and he had not taken Tamil as one of 
the subjects for his High School Examination was held to 
be not eligible for selection and his application was 
rejected. 

This complaint was brought to the notice of the Government of 
Madras and the Commissioner was informed that the notification 
issued by the Public Service Commission on October 25, 1957, had 
subsequently been amended by G.O Ms. No. 3344, dated November 30, 
1957, which now provides that only a person with adequate knowledge 
of Tamil will be recruited to State Service, and that a person having 
an adequate knowledge of Tamil shall mean a person (i) who has 
acquired knowledge in Tamil in the High School courses; or (ii) who, 
whether his mother tongue is Tamil or not, is able to speak, read and 
write Tamil; or (lii) who has passed the Second Class Language Test 
in Tamil. 

As a result of the representation made by the Dakshini Malayala 
Minority Samaj, which was forwarded to the Madras Government by 
the Commissioner, the Madras Government has proposed a reconsi- 
deration of the question whether “adequate knowledge” should be 
considered necessary before or after appointment. Certain proposals 
have been made by the Government of Madras, copies of which have 
been sent to the Commissioner, for consideration at a joint meeting 
of the representatives of the Government of Madras, Kerala, li^dhra 
Pradesh and Mysore so that their decision might ensure a common 
policy among the southern States on the question of affording suffi- 
cient safeguards to the linguistic minorities in the matter of recruit- 
ment to the public services. The decision of the Sub-Committee, when 
arrived at would be included in the next report. 





(7) A further complaint was made that there had been discrimi- 
nation in the selection of Sub-Magistrates and District 
Munsifs since none of the candidates selected even from the 
Kanyakumari district belongs to the Malayala community. 

This is obviously a matter beyond the jurisdiction of the Commis- 
sioner specially as the selection was made through the Public Service 
Commission, and as a result of an examination held by it. 

(8) It was further alleged that students of the Malayala minority 
community find difficulty in securing admission in the 
professional and technological colleges such as medical and 
engineering colleges. It was said that they were being 
discriminated against on the score of language. 

It is not possible for the Commissioner to enquire into this matter 
specially as the selection is made through some sort of a competitive 
examination. But since the teaching in these subjects is still in 
English there seems to be no reason why an adequate knowledge of" 
Tamil should be required for admission into technological institutions 
or medical colleges. This matter has also been brought to the notice 
of the Madras Government and is under their consideration. 

(9) It was generally desired that instructions be issued that 
Malayalam and Tamil should be continued to be freely 
used for official and non-official purposes in the district of 
Kanyakumari. 

It may be mentioned that in the tentative memorandum prepared 
by the Madras Government, which has not yet been finalised by the 
Committee mentioned above (or representatives from Madras, Andhra 
Pradesh, Mysore and Kerala), they have suggested that a list should 
be prepared of local areas where the minority community consists of 
15 to 20 per cent, of the population so that in those areas all notifica- 
tions, rules and regulations etc. may be issued not only in the 
regional language but also in the minority language. 

(10) The Malayala community desired that passing of examina- 
tions in Tamil at the time of selection for appointments 
should not be insisted upon in their case. 

Paragraph 13 of “the memorandum’^ deals with the recognition of 
minority languages as the media for examinations conducted for 
recruitment to State Services It provides that English or Hindi or 
the language of a minority constituting about 15 to 20 per cent, or more 
of the population of a State may be the media of examination and 
the test of proficiency in the State language may in that event be 
held after selection and before the end of probation. The view ex- 
pressed by several States therefore is that if a minority does not 
constitute about 15 to 20 per cent, or more of the population of a 
State this paragraph in “the memorandum” does not apply. 

The feeling in some of the States is that qualifications as may be 
/{enerally prescribed in respect of proficiency in the regional language 
for pu^oses of public employment should not be relaxed in favour 
of pupils who elect to study their mother-tongue in lieu of the regional 
language. 



It may be mentioned hei'e that the H;|dras GpveiMiaeiit'Tsgir^n- 
sidermg the question whether adequate kftbwiecteei ^S faiiLa jfeuId 
be required before selection and appointment or ffiS^tsaiadiidSifeshould 
be required to pass a language test in Tamil within the time prescrib- 
ed therefor as a condition precedent to completion of probation and 
confirmation of appointment to the permanent public services of the 
State. 

(11) A small matter but of some significance was brought to the 
notice of the Commissioner that the names of roads and 
places, the milestones etc. in the Kanyakumari district were 
all in Tamil and it was pointed out that it caused incon- 
venience to the people and they should be both in Tamil 
and in Malayalam. 

This appears to be a reasonable demand As has already been 
pointed out, it would be convenient to the people and cause some 
satisfaction to them, if the Government notifications, bills and receipts 
etc. meant for the Kanyakumari district are both in Tamil and 
Malayalam. Same rule should apply to the names of places, roads, 
milestones etc. No impediment should be put on documents being 
executed and registered in Malayalam and petitions etc, being filed in 
courts in that language 

The representatives of the Anglo-Indians and Domiciled Europeans 
Association of Southern India, Madras, met the Commissioner. Their 
representations were forwarded to the Government of India. The 
request was that the Anglo-Indian High School Certificate of the 
Madras Government be accepted as equivalent to the Senior Cam- 
bridge Certificate for recruitment of Anglo-Indians in the Customs 
Department. They also said that vacancies reserved for Anglc- 
Indians are often not filled because these vacancies are not properly 
advertised in the papers and if intimation of these vacancies was given 
to the General Secretary of the Association he would be able to see 
that information reached qualified unemployed members of the com- 
munity. This appears to be a reasonable request. 

They pointed out that educational and boarding grant under 
Article 156 of the Code of Regulations for Anglo-Indian Schools grant- 
ed to the destitute Anglo-Indian children is discontinued if the child 
fails once. It was desired that the child should be given one more 
chance on the recommendation of the Headmaster of the school. 

Representation was also made by the Sourashtra Central Board 
that their language should be recognised as one of the languages in 
the Madras State, that adequate subsidies should be granted for the 
preservation of rare manuscripts and unpublished works should be 
printed at Government cost, that their language should be given Ml 
protection, that in the matter of educational facilities, appointment in 
Government jobs and other public services there should be safeguards 
for linguistic minorities, that preferential aid should be given to cot- 
tage and small-scale industries that may be started by the members 
of the community and they should have their due share of all other 
amenities contemplated by Government. 

A deputation of the Punjabi speaking minority claimed that special 
reservation of some seats be made in the schools for the children of 



22 


Punjabi speaking people, particularly those belonging to displaced 
families or from North India who were posted in Madras on govern- 
ment duty. But they admitted that they were very few in number 
and that their children were receiving education mostly in English 
schools. 

A Sindhi deputation wanted that their children should get educa- 
tion in Hindi or in English, but that m Madras in most of the schools 
instruction was imparted through Tamil. They admitted, however, 
that their children were receiving education in the Anglo-Indian 
Schools where English was the medium of instruction and there was 
now no difficulty in getting admission in such Schools. 

A deputation of the Marathi speaking minority had no particular 
suggestion and they did not say that they had any difficulty. Some of 
them had been in Madras for a very large number of years and knew 
Tamil quite well. 

Certain representations were received from the Telugu and 
Kannada speaking people in the Hosur Taluk including Vepanapalli 
Pirka, district Salem. They claimed that Telugu and Kannada should 
be declared official languages in the said taluk and their children 
should be given equal facilities in matters of education at all stages 
and recruitment to State and Central Government services. They also 
claimed that the Telugu educational institutions should be allov^ed 
to be affiliated to either Mysore or Thirupathy University. One of 
their complaints was that no proper provision had been made for the 
teaching of Kannada in the six High Schools and the two hundred 
Elementary Schools in the Hosur Taluk. It was said, however, that 
75 per cent, of the students in the Taluk get their education through 
Telugu and no change should be made in favour of Tamil 

Another matter that was brought to the notice of the Commissioner 
on behalf of Dhesiya Telugu Kumarapalayam was that though about 
90 to 95 per cent, of the people in the village were Kannada speaking, 
Tamil was being taught in the schools and representations made on 
behalf of the Sangam were still pending consideration It was re- 
quested that arrangements may be made for teaching of Kannada in 
the Five Elementary Schools in village Kumarapalayam. 

The representatives from Hosur Taluk met the Commissioner in 
January 1958 at Madras and the Commissioner discussed with them 
the various points raised by them in their memorandum. 

Since the Committee of Ministers appointed by the States of 
Madras, Andhra Pradesh, Mysore and Kerala were still considering 
the common policy to be laid down these matters would be disposed 
of by the Madras Government in accordance with the policy agreed 
upon. A request was made that the decision might be expedited and 
a common policy laid down by an early date. The representatives of 
the Madras Government informed the Commissioner that they had 
already prepared a draft what they considered should be the com- 
mon policy a copy of which was supplied to the Commissioner but 
there was delay in getting replies from the other States. Such 
matters, however, which were within the accepted policy laid down 
in “the memorandum” ihe Commh.uoner was assured would be 
implemented. 



23 


A personal complaint was brought to the notice of the Cpmmis- 
sioner while in Madras' that two Kannada speaking girl candidates for 
admission to the M.B B.S. course were not admitted as they did not 
know Tamil. So long as the medium of instruction in the Medical 
College is English there seems to be no good reason why knowledge 
of any other language should be insisted upon. 

As regards the resolution passed by the Trichinopoly Branch of 
the Anjuman-e-Taraqqi-e-Urdu that facility should be provided to the 
people whose mother tongue is Urdu in Madras and other States, 
which was sent to the Madras Government, their reply was as 
follows : — 

“I am directed to state that this Government have examined 
the requests contained in the resolutions forwarded with 
the letter cited which they consider to be too vague to call 
for any remarks. I am however to add that the Urdu 
speaking population in this State is a microscopic minority 
spread over half a dozen districts and that their interests 
cannot be said to suffer on any account.” 

(c) Kerala 

A representation was received from the Cardamom Planters’ Asso- 
ciation of South India that most of the cardamom planters, workers 
and inhabitants of Udumbanchola Taluk (Kottayam district) are 
Tamils and they are ignorant of Malayalam script, much difficulty and 
inconvenience are caused to them as all government notices, orders, 
tax receipts etc. are printed in Malayalam only. It was suggested 
that all the departments of the Government and the Panchayat Board 
of Udumbanchola should send their notices, receipts, forms etc. in 
Tamil also. 

The matter was referred to the State Government. The Secretary 
to the Government of Kerala in the Education Department has replied 
that the State Govemmnt have agreed that such linguistic areas where 
30 per cent, of the people do not know Malayalam, forms should be 
printed both in Malayalam and Tamil or Malayalam and Kanarese 
as the case may be. 

On behalf of the Kannada speaking people a complaint was receiv- 
ed about the change made in the railway signboards from Kannada 
into Malayalam. The complaint has been brought to the notice of 
the Railway Board for necessary action. It was also pointed out that 
forms used in courts and other offices are in Malayalam whereas the 
medium of instruction in almost all the schools to the north of Chan- 
dragiri river is Kannada, that clerks employed in the offices have no 
knowledge of Kannada and the villagers are, therefore, put to great 
difficulties; that Gram Sevaks and other officials appointed in Manjes- 
war Block of Community Development do not know Kannada; that 
Inspecting Officers appointed for schools where the medium of instruc- 
tion is Kannada do not know Kannada; that Government notifications 
are not published in Kannada newspapers; that Kannada translation 
of Land Reforms Bill of Kerala Government has not been published 
to solicit opinion of the people of this area in spite of the assurancea 



24 


given by State Law Secretary; that no mention of Kannada has been 
made in the syllabus for elementary schools; that Government is 
closing down several Kannada primary schools on the plea that the 
strength does not exceed 125. 

The complaints mentioned above were brought to the notice of 
the State Government but the reply of the State Government has not 
yet been received. All these matters and other matters will be con- 
sidered by the State Government in the light of the agreed policy 
laid down by the Committee consisting of the representatives of the 
Madras, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Mysore Governments. The 
State Government has in the meantime declared Hosdurg Taluk a 
bi-lingual area. 

On behalf of the Urdu speaking people the President of the Dakhini 
Nooral Haidayath Association, Ernakulam has urged that proper faci- 
lities for imparting of education in the primary stage to the children 
whose mother tongue is Urdu should be provided whenever and 
wherever there is demand for it. That examinations should be held 
for the selection of Urdu teachers and facilities should be provided 
for the study of Urdu as used to be the case in the former Madras 
State, particularly in conducting University examinations like Adeeb 
Fazil and Munshi Fazil. Urdu courses at the primary, secondary and 
collegiate stages of education should be opened. 

The Kerala Government has informed the Commissioner that faci- 
lities for instruction through Urdu have been provided whenever and 
wherever there is a demand fpr it. Urdu has been accepted as one of 
the languages through which instruction can be imparted in schools. 
The question of conducting University examinations like Adeeb Fazil 
and Munshi Fazil is under the consideration of the University. 

A brochure on the languages of the last census of Kerala State is 
given in Appendix W. 



CHAPTER VI 
WESTERN ZONE 
(a) Mysore 

Representations were received from Mysore from the Tamil, 
Marathi and Urdu speaking minorities. 

On behalf of the Tamil speaking minorities a resolution passed 
at Robertsonpet, Kolar Gold Fields, on October 3, 1957, was sent to 
the Commissioner. The demand was for appointment of an enquiry 
committee to go into the hardships and handicaps which the Tamil 
linguistic minority were suffering in the State of Mysore in matters 
of “politics, education, economic advancement, government ' employ- 
ment and promotions and even in the ordinary amenities of life”. A 
copy of the resolution was forwarded to the State Government and 
they replied that as no specific instances of discrimination were 
mentioned no action could be taken. 

The memorialists met the Commissioner during the latter’s visit 
to Mysore in February 1958. It was suggested to them that specific 
instances of discrimination should be mentioned to enable an enquiry 
to be made into the allegations. In spite of reminders nothing 
further has been heard from them. 

On behalf of the Marathi speaking minorities a complaint was 
received that the Mysore Government was introducing Kannada in 
Marathi Primary Schools in the Marathi speaking areas of Belgaum, 
Karwar and Bidar districts in Mysore State. The reply received 
from the State Government was that the apprehension had been 
caused in the minds of the Marathi speaking people by reason of a 
circular issued by the Superintendent of Education, who had done so 
as there was some difficulty in getting an adequate number of 
teachers to teach in Marathi. A meeting of all the guardians and 
parents was called on the 9th and 14th of June 1958 and it was 
explained to them that “Marathi students would continue to have 
facilities that existed hitherto” and that “Marathi knowing staff 
would be increased in the institutions at suitable opportunity”. A 
Press Note to the same effect was issued by the Secretary to Govern- 
ment, Education Department and the Circular which had created 
dissatisfaction was withdrawn. 

The other complaint was of a personal nature against the rever- 
sion of a student of Standard VIII in the Technical High School 
Karwar from the Technical to the Academic course on the ground 
that the boy did not know Kannada, and the school could not arrange 
for teaching of the Technical course through the medium of Marathi 
for want of properly qualified staff. A copy of the representation 
was forwarded to the State Government. The grievance has now 
been rectified and necessary instructions have been issued by the 
Mysore Government for the increase in Marathi knowing staff and 


25 



26 


directions have been issued to the authorities of the institutions con- 
cerned that Marathi students should continue to have the same faci- 
lities that had existed hitherto. 

On behalf of the Urdu speaking linguistic minorities a number 
of representations were made to the Commissioner. The Commis- 
sioner went to Mysore and discussed the matter with the represen- 
tative of the Anjuman-e-Taraqui-e-Urdu-Hind Mysore branch. The 
representative admitted that primary education was being imparted 
in Urdu to the students whose mother-tongue was Urdu in accord- 
ance with the provisions in “the memorandum.” He, however, sug- 
gested that after the primary stage an opportunity should be given 
to opt for either Hindi or Kannada as medium of instruction and 
this arrangement might be continued till the Urdu speaking mino- 
rities had familiarised themselves with the Kannada language. 
That the Orient Research Institute at Mysore should open an Urdu 
research section and Urdu should be recognised as a major subject 
for the purpose That broadcast in Urdu should be more frequent 
fro'T. Mysore and should devote longer time, and that electoral roll 
should be published in Urdu also. He further claimed that there 
should be reservation of seats for Urdu speaking minority in 
colleges, technical schools and technological institutions and 
that representatives of Urdu speaking people should be nominated to 
all Government bodies. Primary Education Board, Secondary Edu- 
cation Board, Senate and the University Syndicate, etc. 

The Commissioner explained to him that reservation of seats was 
not possible under the Constitution nor was it proper that the elected 
bodies should have people nominated to them on linguistic basis. 

As regards the education and other facilities the Mysore Govern- 
ment in their letter No. G.A.D. — ^ICON58, dated January 25, 1958, 

say that the Government “have agreed to adopt the safeguards men- 
tioned in the Government of India Memorandum on the Safeguards 
for Linguistic Minorities and on the basis of percentage of Urdu- 
knowing people in the various administrative units, only those re- 
siding in the districts of Bidar and Gulbarga will be eligible for 
prowsion of facilities according to the orders of Central Govern- 
ment.” 


(b) Bombay 

The representations received from Bombay were from the 
Kanada speaking and Urdu speaking minorities. The Kannada 
Sangha of Ambarnath presented a memorandum dated January 30, 
lUou. t(( ShnmaTi Durgabai Deshmukh which was forwarded to the 
Cormnissioner lor Linguistic Minorities The allegations were that 
there were no facilities for the education of the children of the 
workers of the WIMCO Match Factory at Ambarnath, and that at 
leoqt one school upto Class XI should be established where educa- 
tion should be imparted to the students in their mother tongue. 

A copy of the memorandum was forwarded to the Bombay Gov- 
ernment for such action as it might consider necessary. 

On behalf of the Urdu speaking minorities it was suggested that 
Urdu should be recognised as Regional language in the five districts 
of Marathwmda transferred from the erstwhile State of Hyderabad 



27 


to Bombay State; that Urdu classes should be opened in the local 
schools without the condition of having ten students in a class or 40 
students in a school; that aid to private educational institutions 
should not be stopped merely because they were Urdu schools. 

No instances were, however, quoted where this aid had been 
stopped and, therefore, no enquiry could be made on the point. 


The other suggestions made were that non-gazetted government 
servants should be given at least four years’ time to learn the 
regional language and during that period they should be exempted 
from the requirement of having adequate knowledge of Hindi and 
Marathi; that Government gazette notifications, Acts, Rules and 
Regulations, government pamphlets and hand-bills etc. should be 
published in Urdu also; that petitions written in Urdu should be 
accepted by all Revenue and Judicial Departments and evidence 
should also be recorded in Urdu as it used to be done before and not 
in Marathi and English only and arguments in courts should also 
be permitted to be addressed in Urdu; that names of the offices, 
railway stations, bus-stops etc. should also be in Urdu; that Urdu 
books and pamphlets should be made available in libraries and 
schools and colleges in sufficient numbers; that knowledge of Urdu 
should also be compulsory for the purposes of employment to govern- 
ment services; and that Government Merit Awards and prizes 
should be given to Urdu writers, poets and scholars also and financial 
aid should be given to the organisations which promote Urdu. 

The suggestions made above were sent to the Bombay Govern- 
ment along with a complaint received that the Collector of Osmana- 
bad district was not justified in asking the Muslim Waqf Board to 
discontinue correspondence in Urdu. 

As regards teaching of Urdu the State Government has in its 
letter No. OFL 1056/23547-B, dated May 28, 1958, given detailed 
information with respect to the position of Urdu in colleges and 
schools: 

''Old Bombay State . — ^Instruction in any Primary or Secondary 
School can be imparted through the medium of Urdu if the number 
of pupils wishing to receive instruction through this medium is 
sufficiently large to justify this Urdu can be studied as a separate 
subject in the schools and can be offered as a subject for the 
Secondary School Certificate Examination. Urdu can be offered as 
a modern Indian language at the Collegiate level also, 

Kutch . — Only Gujrati and Sindhi are the media of instruction in 
the Primary and Secondary Schools m Kutch. However there is no 
restriction imposed on Urdu as a medium of instruction or subject 
for study at schools or colleges.” 

Saurashtra . — In Saurashtra also there are no restrictions on the 
use of Urdu as a medium of instruction or as a subject of study in 
schools and colleges. 



28 


Vidarhha . — In Vidarbha “apart from the fact 'that facilities are 
provided ior the teaching of Urdu as a subject and for its use as the 
medium of instruction in the Primary and Secondary Schools, in- 
dependent Urdu schools are established wherever necessary, taking 
into consideration the local demand. Urdu can also be offered as a 
subject for the Secondary School Certificate Examination. There 
are about 262 Urdu Primary Schools and 3 Urdu High Schools. At 
the college level Urdu can be offered as a subject.” 

Marathwada . — “Urdu is one of the media of instruction in those 
Secondary schools in which there is a sufficient number of Urdu 
speaking pupils. In Government Secondary Schools Urdu mediiim is 
maintained though the number of Urdu pupils is very small. Urdu 
has been given its due position in Primary and Secondary Schools 
and Colleges in Marathwada. 

On the whole it would be seen that there are no restrictions 
imposed on the use of Urdu as a mediu m of instruction as a subject 
for study in the Primary and Secondary Schools and Colleges, in this 
State. On the other hand there are facilities for its use as a medium 
of instruction and as a subject for study and it is being used accord- 
ingly wherever the number of such pupils is considerable.” 



CHAPTER ¥II 

NORTHERN ZONE 

(a) Punjab 

rne Pur.jab representations were received only from 
die Urdu speaking minority It was pointed out that the medium of 
instruction at the Brayne’s Meo High School in Gurgaon district wavS 
Hindi in Devanagri script, Punjabi in Gurmukhi script was a com- 
pulsory language and Urdu was a secondary language It was sug- 
gested that Urdu ought to be the medium of instruction and that as 
BO text-books had been prescribed Jamia Millia books in Urdu weie 
being used as text-books. These books, it was said, were of a high 
stan&rd and it w'as diificult for the boys to follow them. 

Representation was also received from a branch of the Anjuman- 
e-T@raqqi-e-lFrd?i putting forward its claim that Urdu shoidd be 
given its rightful place in India and in some of the States like Uttar 
Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and Punjab etc. 

The reply of the State Government is that the language policy m 
the Punjab is dependent upon the final draft proposals on language 
question m Punjab (Sachar Formula), language arrangements 
in erstwhile PEPSU State (PEPSU Formula) ; and outline of the 
scheme for regional committees in the Punjab (Regional Formula). 
That the State Government has been acting in accordance with these 
formulae which were adopted as a result of common consent. It was 
pointed out rhat Hindi and Urdu were more or less the same language, 
very akin to each othex% the same rules of grammar and the construc- 
tion of sentences apply, the main difference being of script and of the 
fact of one drawing largely on Persian and the other on Sanskrit for 
their own vocabularies. It was further pointed out that in the days 
of Asoka the Great Pali (and even Sanskrit) was written in two 
scripts, VIZ. Brahmi from left to right and Khroshti from right to 
left, that it was more or less accepted that Urdu and Hindi were 
really the two forms of the same language but in any case to do anj- 
ibm^ furcher would require adjustments in the Sachar and PEPSU 
fonnulae That this again would require calm and dispassionate com- 
sideration at all levels in a congenial atmosphere. An assurance was 
given that the State Government had no intention to ignore the 
claims of Urdu, whatever they be, but that it will complicate matters 
if any change was made in the formulae without consulting all the 
parties concerned It was further pointed (mt that out of nearly a 
lae of candidates who appeared in the Middle School Examination 
in 1958, hardly 25 students took up Urdu as a second language. Afl 
others took up Hindi or Punjabi. 

(b) Rajasthan 

Eepresen cations were received from the Urdu speaking minoritf' 
md from the Sindhi and the Gujrati speaking minorities. 


251 HA- 3 


29 



One of the complaints was that Hindi used in bills, acts, rules,, 
notifications etc. is so difficult that it is not intelligible even to those 
whose mother tongue is Hindi and it is quite beyond the capacity of 
those whose mother-tongue is Urdu. It was requested that all laws, 
notifications, etc., which affect the Urdu speaking people should 
also be published in that language. It was suggested that the Presi- 
dent should issue orders under Article 347 of the Constitution to all 
courts and offices so that applications and documents written in 
Urdu should be accepted by them and Hindi translation or transli- 
teration should not be insisted upon. 

There were a number of other points raised regarding primary 
and secondary education which have now after the issue of “the 
memorandum” become of academic interest. It was also suggested 
that in competitive examinations conducted by the Union Public 
Service Commission or State Public Service Commission those 
whose mother-tongue was Urdu should be allowed to answer ques- 
tions ia that language. 

The representations were considered and replies sent from time 
to time both by the State Government as well as the Government of 
India. The Secretary to the Rajasthan Government, Education De- 
partment sent a detailed reply No. D 12702/F.I (956) -Edu-II/SB, dated 
August 22, 1956, to the Secretary, Anjuman-e-Taraqui-e-Urdu, 
relating to the educational policy of the Government. 

On February 11, 1958, the State Government appointed a Com- 
mittee to look into “questions like teaching of primary school boys 
in mother-tongue, teaching of regional language in schools, recogni- 
tion of a particular language of a minority as official lan^age, etc., 
relating to linguistic minority communities’* The Assistant Com- 
missioner for Linguistic Minorities was also invited and in July 1958 
the representatives of the linguistic minorities representing the 
following languages, Urdu, Sindhi, Gurmukhi (Punjabi), Gujerati, 
Bengali, Marathi and Magadhi; and the Assistant Commissioner for 
Linguistic Minorities met the members of the committee. 

According to the Census of India 1951 the largest concentration of 
Urdu speakmg minority is in Jaipur district — 24,500 out of a total 
population of 16,50,000, the percentage thus being 1-5 only. In 
Ganganagar district 1,65,000 persons speak Pimjabi as their mother- 
tongue. The total population being 6,30,000 the percentage works 
out to 26. The Sindhi-speaking minority is mainly in the Ajmer dis- 
trict which has a population of 6,93,000, out of which 44,000 speak 
Sindhi. Their percentage is thus 6 only. 

After prolonged discussions, certain recommendations, more or 
less unanimously agreed to by the representatives of the linguistic 
minorities concerned, were made to the Rajasthan Government. The 
recommend lions of the Committee were as follows: — 

“Primary Education — (1) Since teaching in mother tongue is 
essentially required for every student at the primary stage, arrange- 
ments must be made for instruction of students belonging to the 
linguistic minorities group in their mother tongue. Teaching in 
mother tongue of a linguistic minority group at a School be arranged 
if there are at least 10 boj'-s of that group in a class or at least 40 boys, 
in all in the School. , s 



(2) The teaching of regional and State language viz. Hindi, be 
introduced in such Schools as a compulsory subject from class III. 
To begin with, the standard of instruction be two stages below the 
standard formerly prescribed for the language rising gradually so 
that the standard be equalised by the time a student of the group 
leaves class A separate }<yllabus and books for instruction in the 
regional language shall have to be prescribed to achieve this. 

(3) The medium of instruction and examination shall be through 
the mother tongue up to class V. However, in order to facilitate the 
switching over to the regional language as their medium of instruc- 
tion in examination at the secondary stage, students of the minority 
group in such schools be given the option of answering questions 
through the medium of their mother tongue from class VI to class 
VII. 

(4) For mstruction m schools where linguistic minorities group 
exist, arrangements of teachers be made by the process of reshuffling 
so that as far possible no extra financial burden may fall on the 
State. Wherever, however, no adjustment of the kind be possible an 
additional teacher be deputed for instruction of the students of 
minorities group. 

<"5) Courses and books in various subjects fo^ instruction in each 
of the above mmority language be arranged. Tlus would take time 
and as such it would have been ideal to start the schools from one 
to two years. However, the question has already been pending for a 
long time it does not appear to be advisable to postpone it any longer 
for any reason and the difficulty be solved by adopting the courses 
and books as obtaining in other States as a transitory measure for 
two years during which time the State should be able to prescribe 
its own courses and books. 

(6) The scheme be brought into effect from July 1958 and with 
that view, the Director of Education be requested to prescribe course* 
and books by selection from amongst those existing in other places 
in the corresponding subjects. If necessary, publishers could as well 
be asked to submit books for consideration of the Department in this 
connection. 

(7) Secondary Education . — The medium of instruction at the 
secondary stag» must be Hindi throughout the State. The study of 
mother tongue of a Imguistic minority group may, however, be 
allowed as optional subject 

(8) In classes VI, VII and VIII Sanskrit is at present a compul- 
sory subject. The study of mother tongue as an optional subject 
would, therefore, require a revision in this behalf. The Imguistic 
minority group student may have an option to study either Sanskrit 
or his mother tongue, provided the number is at least 10 of that 
group in a class or at least 40 in all in the School. In respect of all 
other students Sanskrit must continue as a compulsory subject. 

(9) The decisions of the former Ajmer State Government in 
respect of the Sindhi Schools in Ajmer district should be imple- 
mented in due course. 





(10) Appropriate steps may be taken for including minority 
languages as subjects of optional study at Secondary and University 
level, 

(11) Geyieral — Important Municipal Notices and Rules of Ajmer 
and Ganganagar Municipalities should be published in Sindhi and 
Punjabi respectively. This facility may be allowed in other munici- 
pal towns also to a linguistic minority or minorities provided it is 
at least 15 per cent of the total population of the town, 

(12) In the examinations conducted for recruitment to the State 
Services, Hindi should not be a compulsory subject for linguistic 
minority groups of Rajasthan for a period of 7 years and that a pro- 
ficiency test in Hindi be held after their selection to the service but 
before the end of the probationary period. 

(13) If the Secondary Board or the University is not able to affi- 
liate a Linguistic minority group institutions, such institutions be 
permitted to get themselves affiliated to appropriate bodies out- 
side the State, without suffering for the reason from any disability 
in respect ol grants-in-aid given to institutions in the State. 

(14) The Government may appoint such agency as it thinks fit 
to enforce these recommendations.” 

The Decision of the Government arrived at on the 31st July 1958 
was as follows: — 


Copy of Order in Council 
280/58 

The report of the Linguistic Minorities Committee submitted with 
the Appointments Department Memo No 1311/PA/Spl/Sc , dated 
the 26th July 1958, was considered. It was ordered: — 

(!) That arrangements should be made for instructions of 
students belonging to the linguistic minorities group in 
their mother tongue from 1958, as recommended in sub- 
para (1) of para 16 of the report; 

(ii) that action should be taken on the recommendation con- 
tained in sub-para (12) of para 16 of the report with the 
modification that (i) the words, “for a period of seven 
years"' be deleted, and (ii) the words, “and further that 
it would be compulsory for the probationers to pass the 
Hindi test”, be added at the end; 

(lii) that for other recommendations, the report should first be 
examined by the department concerned and proposals sub- 
mitted to Cabinet for orders. 

(Chief Secretary). 

The decisions on the other points along with the decision of the 
State Government on the representations received by the Commis- 
sioner irom the Anjuman-e-Taraqqi-e-Urdu, Rajasthan have not vet 
been received. The State Government has informed the Commis- 
sioner that they are looking into the matters and would communicate 
Ihelr decision as early as possible. 



CHAPTEE VIII 
EASTERN ZONE 

(a) Assam 

Apart from a personal complaint received about madequacv of 
payrnent of consideration for compulsory acquisition of certain 
trees by the Assam Government, which was not possible for the 
Commissioner to look into, the only other complaint received from 
Assam relates to a notification by the Secretary to the Government 
of Assam, Legislative and Judicial Department, published in the 
Assam Gazette of February 26, 1958, at pages 926 and 927 in which 
applications to fill in a temporary vacancy in the post of Additional 
District and Sessions Judges in the Assam Judicial Service (Senior) 
Grade II were invited only from candidates who were natives of 
or were domiciled in Assam or were displaced persons, but the 
applications of such displaced persons were to be considered only 
if suitable local candidates were not available. Candidates domi- 
ciled in and displaced persons who migrated to A^sam were required 
to produce ‘‘Domicile Certificate’' or “Certificate of Eligibility’' 
Issued by the Deputy Commissioner. 

Several reminders have been sent to the State Government and 
the reply of the State Government is being awaited. 

(b) Bihar 

A number of representations were received from the Urdu- 
speaking minority in Bihar, Apart from the common resolutions 
passed on the Urdu Day, i.e. August 25, 1957, which was sponsored 
by the Anjuman-e-Taraqqi-e-Urdu-e-Hind, Aligarh, the other com- 
plaint was that there was no provision for teaching Urdu in 
Sahibganj College. That in spite of the requisite number of Urdu 
students, classes have not been started and representations made 
to the College authorities had received no response. 

The reply of the State Government is that all the questions 
relating to the Urdu-speaking minority were under consideration 
of the Government and will be properly dealt with. 

The State Government were requested to kindly expedite their 
decision They have in reply assured the Commissioner that they 
were looking into the communications received and will let him 
know their decision without further delay. 

(c) Orissa 

A representation was received from the Onssa Muhammedan 
Association, Cuttak that the suggestions of the States Reorganiza- 
tion Commission and Official Language Commission may be imple- 
mented with respect to Urdu and other minority languages in the 
State. It was further pointed out that by reason of the fa-^t that 


33 



marks obtained in Urdu by candidates for appointment to the 
Posts and Telegraphs Department in Orissa Circle were not taken 
into consideration in determining the position of the candidates the 
Muslim minority suffers a handicap. 

The memorandum was forwarded to the State Government and 
the reply received was that the matter was receiving the considera- 
tion of the Government. 

The Director (Staff) Indian Posts and Telegraphs Department, 
New Delhi, per his letter No. 60/3/58-SPB, dated February 25, 1958, 
informed the Association that whatever languages were recognised 
by the State concerned as State Regional languages the same were 
recognised by the Posts and Telegraphs Department also for 
pinposes of recruitment. Posts and Telegraphs Department consider 
eligible for appointment only candidates who have passed the 
Matriculation or equivalent examination in four specified subjects, 
viz; (1) English, (2) Mathematics (or Arthmetic), (3) Geography 
and (4) Hindi or regional language or Sanskrit if Hindi or regional 
language has not been taken, and the selection is made on the basis 
of marks in the above four subjects. Besides the above whatever 
languages are recognised by the State Governments concerned as 
State languages, the same are also recognised by the Posts and 
Telegrapl:Si Department and that policy is unanimously applicable 
to all Posts and Telegraphs circles. On this ground they have 
refused to recognise Urdu so long as it is not recognised as a State 
language in Orissa by the Orissa Government. 

The languages recognised by the various States are not many 
and the eligibility rule based on the language taken for matricula- 
tion or equivalent examination works unfairly in every State in 
India against all candidates whose mother-tongue is other than 
Hindi or the regional language, as many of them are likely to have 
taken their mother-tongue for the matriculation or equivalent 
examination in preference to the Regional language or Hindi or 
Sanskrit. 

The Commissioner has since discussed this matter with the Posts 
and Telegraphs authorities and was assured by them that the matter 
was being reconsidered. 

On behalf of the Andhra Linguistic Minority representation was 
made that students of the Andhra linguistic minority do not get 
admission in the technical institutions of the State; and that 
requirement of the knowledge of Oriya upto the Middle .standard 
for recruitment to the State Government services is prejudicial to 
the interest of the Andhra linguistic minority 

The complaint was forwarded to the State Government and the 
reply (letter No. 20902 Reforms, dated December 21, 1957) was that 
the State Government had gone into the matter thoroughly and was 
satisfied that there was not a single case where deserving candidates 
of the Andhra minority had been denied admission in a technical 
institution. It was pointed out that no specific instances were 
quoted and if specific instances had been given the State Govern- 
ment would have had these specific cases checked up. In support 



of their views the State Government have sent a statement showing 
the number of students who applied for admission and who were 
taken in. The statement is given in Appendix ‘K’. The statement 
shows that there was no discrimination. 

In respect of employment to public services, if specific instances 
of diSerential treatment were brought to the notice of the State 
Government, they were prepared to take suitable action. Informa- 
tion was sent to the person making the representation of the reply 
received from the State Government and he was requested that in 
case he had anything further to say he might inform the Commis- 
sioner and the matter would be investigated, but nothing has so 
far been heard from him. 

As regards the knowledge of Oriya language for recruitment to 
the State Government services, the views of the Government were 
that some working knowledge of the State language should not be 
considered to be too much of a handicap, and that such qualification 
was considered necessary in the larger interest of the society, in 
which a member of the minority might be living. This generally is 
the view of most of the State Governments. 

In the STATESMAN, Delhi Edition, dated March 11, 1958, a 
letter appeared under the heading “Parlakimedi" in which various 
allegations were made and it was stated that all the safeguards 
guaranteed to the linguistic minorities by the Constitution had been 
disregarded in that area. An enquiry was thereupon made by the 
Commissioner on the 12th March 1958 for details as to how the 
safeguards guaranteed by the Constitution were being disregarded. 
A reply was received towards the end of May 1958 and copies of 
representations that had been made to the Prime Minister, the 
Chief Minister of Orissa were enclosed. 

The charges were that in the matter of employment under the 
Municipal Council in Parlakimedi discrimination was shown against 
Telugu-speaking people which appeared from the fact that with 
the exception of a single Warrant Officer and a Bill Collector all 
other employees including temporary ones were Oriyas. Complaints 
were made about the redistribution of the Municipal wards at the 
time of Municipal elections. Other complaints were that the name 
boards of the streets and surrounding villages were in Oriya only 
and the minutes of the Council were kept only in that language; 
that officers of all Government departments at Parlakimedi knew 
only Oriya and had no knowledge of Telugu; that knowledge oi 
Oriva was insisted upon even at the time of admission to technical 
institutions and Medical colleges even though the teaching was 
through the medium of English; that the Telugu population was 
over 50 per cent, in 120 villages in Parlakimedi while the Oriya 
population was over 50 per cent, only in 57 villages. One serious 
complaint was that the language test which was insisted upon in 
all departments like Police, Magistracy, Medical, Registration, etc. 
was not fair and questions were asked which it was very difficult 
to answer even by those who might be experts in the Oriya langu- 
age. Similar complaint was made about the language test for 
admission in the technical schools and medical ^eMieges. • 



A copy of the representation was sent to tne State Go-yfe/ntneAt 
in June 1958. The reply dated 11th July 1958 was Lhat a repie- 
sentation similar to the one now received by the Commissioner haa 
been received by the Chief Minister of Orissa and a copy had been 
sent to the Prime Minister also, that the representation had already 
been examined in the office and a reply had been sent io the person 
making the representation. A copy of the reply sent was enclosed 
for the information of the Commissioner. The reply, however, dealt 
only with the question of percentage of population and it was 
claimed that there was no scope for any error in the language 
figures collected at the 1951 census. 

The Orissa Government was again approached for then comments 
on the other points raised in the representation and their reply is 
being awaited. 


(d) West Bengal 

Representatives of only Urdu-speaking minority had sent in 
representations and when the Commissioner insJied Calcutta they 
met the Commissioner. In the memoranaum submit!, ed by the 
Anjuman-e-Taraqqi-e-Urdu, Calcutta branch, a number ol genera] 
complaints were made but during the course of discussion it w'as 
submitted that whatever grievances there were they had beets 
remedied. They had promised that in case they had any specific 
grievance they would bring it to the notice of the CoTOmissioner 
but no further communication has been received from them in spile 
«f reminders 

Another complaint made in May 1958 was that the people od 
Kishengunj Sub-Division, which has now been transferred to West 
Bengal from Bihar, had a large proportion of Urdu-speaking people 
and provision should be made to help Urdu schools and retain the 
use of Urdu in courts but this was not being done 

The reply to this part of the complaint has not yet been received 
from the West Bengal Government 

The West Bengal Government in their letter No lObS-B/llL-l, 
dated February 5, 1958, enclosed a note from Education Department 
ef the State Government explaining the position of Urdu educaiicw 
sn West Bengal The note is as follows; — 

“It has been the policy of the Government of West Bengal 
to give as much facilities as possible to all school chilaren 
who learn through tneir mother tongue whether they are 
Bengali or non-Bengah students whose mother tongue is. 
other than Bengali. Tn pursuance oi that policy schools- 
ca>er'ng predominantly for children whose mother tongue 
IS other than Bengali such as Urdu are being recognised 
and given grant-in-aid in accordance with the prescribed 
rule 

Even a school where such students are m mmoaiy separate 
section had been permitted to be opened to enable them 
to learn through their mother tongue when, of course, 
their number would justify opening of separate section 

for iktm, •'■n 



tollowing principles have been enunciated for the 
guidance of the school authorities and the inspecting 
staff, viz., 

^A) Students whose mother tongue is not Bengali should 
be given full facilities to learn through their mother 
tongue at the Primary or Junior Basic stage; if m a 
Primary or Junior Basic School, the number of such 
students be not Jess than 40 in the whole school or 
10 in a class. 

The mother tongue will be the language declared by the 
parent or guardian to be the mother tongue. 

The teacher competent to teach through their mother 
tongue should be appointed m such a school. 

Besides their mother tongue, such students should learn 
Bengali which is to be introduced not earlier than 
Class III. 

^B) Separate section should be provided for students 
whose mother tongue is other than Bengali to enable 
them to learn through their mother-tongue provided 
that the total number of such students is one-third 
of the total roll-strength of the school and there are 
no adequate facilities for instruction through their 
mother tongue in any other school in that area. 

Schools established by or for the linguistic minority 
whose mother tongue is other than Bengali are 
eligible for recognition and grant-in-aid in accordance 
with the general rules prescribed. The medium of 
instruction in such schools may be the language of 
the pupils. 

A statement showing the number of High, Junior High and 
Primary Schools in Calcutta and Suburbs in which instruc- 
tion is imparted through the medium of Urdu is given 
below — 

Nos 

High Schools 10 

Junior H’gh Schools (including Junior 
Madrasahs) . . 8 

Primary Schools ... 32 

Besides, in the Arabic Department of the Calcutta Madrasah, 
the medium of instruction is Urdu irrespective of the 
mother tongue of the students. In the Anglo-Persian 
Department of the said Madrasah instruction is given 
through the medium of Urdu to those students whose 
mother tongue is Urdu. 

There are .alsc r few schools and Madrasahs m the muffasil 
area (where Urdu-speaking population predominates) 
imparting education through the medium of Urdu. 



It may also be stated that Urdu may be offered as one of the 
Major Indian languages for the School Final Examination 
under the Board of Secondary Education, West Bengal.” 

Representatives of the Government of West Bengal met the 
Commissioner in March 1958 and they pointed out that the Govern- 
ment had done all that could be reasonably expected to remove 
the grievances of the linguistic minorities. The Government of 
India’s formula about education had been accepted. Urdu had been 
recognised as a subject for the University examinations and it was 
one of the five languages recognised by the State Public Service 
Commission. 

The General Secretary, All India Gorkha League, Darjeeling, 
sent a letter dated October 29, 1956 to the Government of India for 
the inclusion of the Nepali language in the Eighth Schedule to the 
Constitution. This, however, is a matter not for the Commissioner. 
The inclusion of a language in the Eighth Schedule is of ve^ little 
significance and does not in any way affect the linguistic minorities 
or their rights and privileges. 

A representation was received on July 24, 1958, on behalf of the 
Andhra Linguistic Minorities in Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar, Bom- 
bay, Mysore and Madhya Pradesh who were employed in the South 
Eastern Railway. Their complaint was that proper educational 
facilities were not being given to the children of the railway em- 
ployees whose mother tongue was Telugu in Kharagpur (West 
Bengal), Jharsugada R.S. (Orissa), Berhampur R.S. (Orissa), Bhadrak 
R.S (Orissa), Dongarghad, Itwari, Motibaugh, Chindwara and 
Nainpur (Madhya Pradesh), Gondia R.S. (^mbay State) and 
Chakradharpur R.S. (Bihar). A copy of the memorandum received 
was sent to the Railway Board, New jDelhi, and the General Manager, 
South Eastern Railway, Calcutta for suitable action and to send 
■nformation thereof to the Commissioner by an early date. 



CHAPTER IX 


CENTRAL ZONE 
(a) Madhya Pradesh 

Representations were received from the Urdu speaking and Telugu 
speakmg minorities in Madhya Pradesh. 

On behalf of the Telugu speaking minorities of Bastar district it 
was said that the former Bastar State was imparting primary educa- 
tion in South-Bastar through the medium of Telugu but the C.P. and 
Berar Government closed all the Telugu schools in 1949 and the 
safeguards for linguistic minorities provided in “the memorandum” 
were not being implemented by the Madhya Pradesh Government in 
matters relating to medium of education and recognition of minority 
language, for administrative purposes. 

The State Government have pointed out, from the 1951 Census, the 
percentage of population whose mother-tongue is Telugu in each of 
the Tehsils of Bastar district. The percentages are given in appendix 
‘L’. The population of Telugu speaking people in the Bastar district is 
only 2 20 per cent, of the total and the schools which had been opened 
m 1944 and 1947 with Telugu as medium of instruction had all to be 
closed by 1948-49, when sufficient number of students were not avail- 
able. The State Government is examining the position afresh in the 
light of the suggestions made in paragraphs 2 and 3 of “the memo- 
randum”. The position is being re-examined also in the light of para- 
graph 11 of “the memorandum” as regards publication of notices etc. 
m tehsils and municipal areas in Bijapur and Konta Tehsils in 
South Bastar. 

I 

The Urdu speaking minorities representation was received from 
Bazm-e-Adab, Ujjain and Anjuman-e-Taraqqui-e-Urdu, Burhanpur. 
Many of the points raised in the representation are now covered by ' 
“the memorandum”. 

The Chief Minister at a Press interview at Bhopal on August 16, 
1958, said that in Madhya Pradesh there was a standing order that 
wherever there were over 40 children in an institution speaking a 
common language the primary education to them should be imparted 
in tlieir mother tongue. He further said that he wanted that the 
language should be “for some region and not for any particular com- 
munity”. He, however, pointed ^out that in Madhya Pradesh Urdu 
speaking people formed 1-4 per cent, of the total population of the 
State. 

The other points raised in the representation related to matters 
like the building of the Urdu Middle School at Madar Gate, which it 
was said was too small; and that the present Middle School should 
be raised to the standard of a High School or a new Urdu High School 


38 



m 


should be siarted m Ujja^n that Go*i,eainient Botifications, rules, 
electoral rolls, etc. sfaouid be m Urdu and l^rdii knowing Judges and 
Magistrates shouM be pusied al Burnanpur 


Tae u'piesenlai ons weie ioiwaided te the Madhya Pradesh Gov- 
erament. The rep y (DO No 1353-1663/1(3); dated February 24, 
1958) was that the various recoiutuons passed by the Urdu conference 
at Burhanpur will be exarninpc and a further eommunication will 
follow in due course Seveia] lemmders have been sent but 

the reply of the State Government is stiij await eo 


Uttor Fradejiii 

The Editorial Board of *Jagrat Goiisna (Nepah Jouniaih Garhi 
Cantt.H Debra Dun, sent a letter to the President complaining that 
Nepali children were not ab^e ic lake up Nepali ^ language as one^of 
the subjects m the High School and Jnxe™edlate classes^ which 
facility w^as available befou and that t/ie Piesideni should pass 
orders under Article 347 of int Conslilation for Ihe use of the Nepali 
language for official purpose*:^ in Ihtai Pr^desL 


As regards Nepali being a sab.iect ioi the High School and Inter- 
mediate classes, there no mention made in the reply received 
from the Uttar Pradesh Government The position is, however, now 
clarified by the acceptance by the State Government of the second 
three language formula evoiveo by the Ministry of Education which 
3S as follows: — 

(a) (i) Mother longue, or 
(u) Regional language or 

(id) A composite ec-uisc of mothei tongue and regionai 
language, or 

(ivl A composite course &i mathei tongue and classicaS 
language. 

(ti English or a moderr. European ianguage 


(c) Hindi (lor non-Hindi speakmg areas) or another modern 
Indian language (for Hindi ^.peaidiiig areas.) 


As regards the Ciiim that Nepaii be included m the Eighth Sche- 
dule, the question of inclasion oi any other ianguage in the Eif^hth 
Schedu’e has been dealt with in Chapters iUIl {d) and X oflhis 
report The Slate Gov irament has pointed out that the Nepalese in 
the^ State lota! only 53,445 out of total populaiion of 6,32,15,742 and 
^‘'’1 no such demand was made by the Nepali speaking people in the 
Stall ti at even in the Dobra Dun district which has the largest popu- 
iatjori of Nepalese the pereentao#!. more that^ five The districts 



il 

where the nwnhern mn up tour and more are the 

following:— 







I Val 

Pt-JpuiatK)!! 

Nepaii 

speaking 

Popnlatfon 

A Dehrd Oiiyi 



• 


3,62,005 

16,11:3 

z S^^5»r.inpnf 





1^,53,63^^ 

2,07a 

j Lliinof 




• 

f 9 ,S 4 ,/ 9 ^ 

1,220 

4. KauiAitr 





iq, 39 ,S 67 

U2 53 

5 Ihaa--]* 





S, 77,607 

2,417 

Q irafAjisx 





I 9 , 7 ? 5,634 

1,663 

7 Jjorakhptii 





22,38,58s 

2,6 3 

i Mamitil 





3135414 

12,207 

Alin Ora 





7.72,896 

3.035 

lo. Uarhwal 





to, 39.625 

2,471 

II Lutknow 





11,28,101 

2,i2i 

ri. ^hen 





10,58,343 

I 383 


Besides Wepaii ihe miy utnec ciuaotity language group who sent 
their representation to "lie Commissioner were the Urdu speaking 
minorities. 

The earliest repyeseni ition was of the year 1954 and was on behalf 
of the All India ADiuman'e-Taraqui-e-Urdu-e-Hind, Aligarh. On 
August 25^ 1957 the Urdu Day was celebrated in a number of places 
where identical .resolutions arafted by ihe Anjuman were passed. A 
cepresentatioji was received ircm the District Jamait-ul-Ulema 
Saharanpur on ^Sth Wovemoei 1957 The latter representation con- 
tained nothing new These representations mainly dealt with the 
language policy of the State It wB.b, pointed out in the representa- 
tions that Urdu was the mother-tongue of a large section oi people 
of the State Hindus and Muslims — and that it was not being given its 
due recognulon 

These representations after they were received by the Commis- 
sioner were brought to the notice of the Uttar Pradesh Government 

There is a great deal m common between spoken Hindi and spoken 
Urdu and it is generally difficult to classify the spoken language. The 
script is no doubt entirely different, otherwise the spoken language 
has a common structure, grammar and syntax, the main difference 
being in the conient of vocabulary at the margin In one case it is 
largely drawn from Persian sources vh^le m the other from Sanskrit. 



42 


The University of Jammu and Kashmir has organised a ]omt Depart- 
ment for Hindi and Urdu on the ground that there are distinct advan- 
tages in having one department because “philologically the language' 
is one and it has two forms written in two different scripts”. 

The Government of India, Mmistry of Home Affairs considered the 
representations made by the Anjuman-e-Taraqqui-e-Urdu-e-Hind and 
after considering the said representations and other matters issued a 
Press Note in Jidy 1958 which is given in Appendix ‘M’ to this report. 

The Press Note was welcomed by the Anjuman-e-Taraqqi-e-Urdu 
as- having substantially met their demands and in a Press Communique 
issued by the Uttar Pradesh Government on July 20, 1958, the State 
Government also fully accepted the Press Note. Uttar Pradesh Gov- 
ernment Press Communique adds; — 

■‘Out of the five proposals made in the statement 

the first four have been accepted by this Government from 
the very beginning . . . 


Medium of Urdu 

As regards the first, this State also follows the All-India Con- 
vention that the provision of facilities for giving education 
through the medium of Urdu is contingent on there being 
at least 40 prospective pupils in a school and at least ten 
such pupils in a class. Orders of the Government have not 
been followed in the spirit by some people in their enthu- 
siasm for what they considered to be the cause of Hindi. It 
IS also probably true, on the other hand, that certain prota- 
gonists of Urdu have at times made mountains out of mole- 
hills and come forward with complaints for which there is 
no genuine basis. Government would like to impress upon 
everyone the desirability of considering this question in an 
atmosphere free from passion and prejudice Only then 
it will be possible for the Government to assess how far 
its orders are being carried out. The best interests of the 
State and of all sections of the public will be served by 
everyone trving taithfully to carry out this policy m all 
sincerity 


Fifth Suggbstioh 

As regards the fifth suggestion the substance of all important 
laws, rules, regulations and notifications have been general ly 
issued in ‘Ittilaat’. now called the ‘Naya Daur’ the Urdu 
journal published by the Information Department. Books 
and Pamphlets explaining important legislative measures 
and laws like Zamindan Abolition Act, Decimal Coinage, 
Metric System of Weights and Measures etc have been 
brought out in Urdu by the Information Depsurtment from 
time to time. The press notes, progress reviews and other 
materials about Government activities, policies and deci- 
sions etc. issued through the Press Information Bureau of 
the State Government are published simultaneously iib 



Hindi, Urdu and English, but no definite policy has so far 
been adopted in this connection. The suggestion is a valu- 
able one and Government intends to see to it that it is 
implemented in befitting manner. Eegular publicity will 
be given to such matter in ‘Naya Daur’ and, wherever neces- 
sary, the Information Department and other official agencies 
will use other methods also m those localities where a fair 
proportion of the population can be taken to be conversant 
with Urdu. For the present the districts of Rampur, Bijnor, 
Bareilly, Moradabad, Saharanpur and Muzaflamagar and 
the city of Lucknow, have been selected for the purpose ” 

The communique further said — 

“The State Government has been taking other steps also for the 
encouragement of Urdu. For instance, prizes are given for 
Urdu books also and writers of Urdu are also beneficiaries 
from the fund out of which pensions are given to scientists 
and literary men in districts.” 

After the Press note issued by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Gov- 
imment of India, and in view of the views expressed by the State 
government and the Anjuman-e-Taraqqui-e-Urdu, it is no longer 
lecessary to discuss in this report the various points raised in the 
representations received from the Anjuman-e-Taraqqui-e-Urdu. How 
iar the decision are, however, being implemented will be considered 
and dealt with in the next report. 



CHAPTER X 


GENERAL 

The division of the States on linguistic basis has given rise to the 
mevitable result that the regional la .guage should gain prominence 
and should in course of the t me become the official language of the 
State. The other languages v;hith the mother-tongue of the 
minority communities living in the State, naturally do not get equal 
prominence or status. The result is that those whose mother-tongue 
is the minority language have not only a sentimental grievance but 
certain practical difficulties and inconveniences from which they 
suffer. 

It is, therefore, very necessary that the State Governments should 
be vigilant and look into the complaints received sympathetically 
and promptly call upon its officers also to do so and to take an 
objective and impartial view in all such cases Special care may be 
taken that there are no grounds for the feeling that there is discrimi- 
nation in matters of admission to schools, colleges, technical institu- 
tions and the Services. 

While it is the duty of the State Governments to create confi- 
dence in the minds of the linguistic minorities that they shall get a 
fair deal in matters of education, employment, trade and business, 
and that their language and culture shall not be adversely affected 
as a result of the establishment of linguistic States, it is very neces- 
sary that nothing should be done which might impede the free play 
of forces leading to social and cultural synthesis or process of natural 
assimilation. Love of one’s own language may be commendable but 
excess of it may be dangerous for the future unity and well being of 
the country. 

Our Constitution gus'^antees equality of the opportunity for all, 
provides for equal rights and liabilities throughout the length and 
breadth of the country and one citizenship, namely, the citizenship 
of India No citizen can claim that m anv part of the country he has 
any special rights which others are not entitled to A citizen travel- 
ling to any nook and corner of India has the Constitutional right 
to claim +he same pnvdeges and the same treatment as others wh@ 
may have lived there for centuries In other words India is one unit, 
we are all equal citizens of the same unit and every one has the 
same rights and privileges and is subjected to the same liabilities and 
restrictions. 

Language not only makes human communication possible, it als® 
facilitates the social life in the intricate modern communities in 
which human beings now live The welfare government of these days 
impinges on the social life of the community and in so many aspects 
ui It that it IS essential that there ^hould be means of communica- 
tion between the Government and tne people who are in its charge. 

44 



45 


The question ol linguistic medium thus becomes an important matter 
of concern not only to the country's governmental organisation but 
also to the individuals living in any particular area. 


The State Governments must grant proper educational facilities 
to the linguistic minorities in their States and help them in preserv- 
ing their language and their culture Generally speaking, all the 
States have accepted the view that primary education should as far 
as possible be imparted in the mother tongue of the child and that 
mother tongue should be as declared by the guardian. They also 
accept their obligation not to discrimnnate in matters of grants-in-aid 
etc. Certain practical difficulties, however, arise in implementation. 
It is said that there are insufficient number of schools for children 
of linguistic minorities and insufficient number of teachers 

About the first part of the complaint, necessary data is not yet 
available. As regards teachers there was some difficulty in getting 
the requisite number immediately after the reorganisation of the 
States but things are now improving.' 

It is also said that when students come for admission one by one 
each as he comes is rejected on the ground that there are not suffi- 
cient number of students already in the school and the minorities, 
therefore, get no chance. That to obviate this difficulty minorities 
try now to come m batches but that some more satisfactory method 
must be found. 


To make separate provision for teaching in the minority langu- 
ages extra expenditure has to be incurred and since there is hardly 
any school which is financially well off, it is natural that there is 
some reluctance to admit the requisite number and provide separate 
teachers or make separate arangements for teaching in the mother 
tongue. It may be that if the schools are required to maintain a 
book in which applications for admission are registered six months 
in advance, when the school re-opens the school authorities will be 
able to know whether requisite number in a particular minority 
language are available for admission. 


Another general complaint urged before the Commissioner in 
several States was that documents presented for registration are 
insisted upon to be in the official language. Here again there are 
certain practical difficulties. The Government will have to provide 
registration clerks who know the minority language also and are 
able to copy out the documents in the registers but the difficulty 
should not be insurmountable as clerks knowing the minority langu- 
ages would only be required in border areas or other places where 
the linguistic minorities are m sufficient numbers. 


Equal opportunity for entry into services, the universities, 
colleges, medical, engineering and technological institutions should 
be provided to all and the dice should not be loaded in favour of 
any linguistic group by language tests. So long as English is the 
256 



46 


medium of instruction there seems to be no valid reason why a proft 
ciency test in the regional language should be held as a condition^ 
precedent to admission into the technical schools and medical or 
engineering colleges though it may be necessary later when the 
medium of instruction is changed. 


For all this it is not necessary to take action either under Article 
345 or under Article 347. All this can be done by the State Govern- 
ments issuing suitable orders, keeping a watchful eye on their 
officers and from time to time giving them necessary directions 


India, except on rare occasions, has suffered due to internal dis- 
sentions, jealousies, bitterness and lack of a sense of common 
loyalty for the well being of the country as a whole. It is necessary 
that every attempt should be made, and if necessary a little extra 
expenditure incurred, to create a feeling of unity, common loyalty 
and friendliness among the people and avoid all sources of fiiction, 
discontent and jealousy. 


The recognition of the minority languages for certain specific 
purposes which touch the day to day life of these people will not 
retard the growth of the State language In their oivn interest and 
to be able to do their work satisfactorily and not to lag behind^ 
permanent residents of a State and all Government servants will try 
to acquire proficiency in the State language. So the ultimate purpose 
of developing the State or Regional language v/ill be served Any 
attempt to hurry through the process will create bitterness and 
jealousy and make the interests of the country as a whole to suffer. 

Some representations have been received for inclusion of certain 
languages m the Eighth Schedule. This request is made as there 
seems to be a popular impression that the fourteen languages men- 
tioned in the Eighth Schdule are the only languages that are recog- 
nised as spoken m India, This appears to be an erroneous impres- 
sion In the provisions relating to safeguards for linguistic minori- 
ties no mention is made of the Eighth Schedule and there is no 
I'eason to believe that the safeguards apply only to the fourteen 
linguistic minorities 


Articles 344 and 351 are the only two Articles that refer to ''the 
different languages specified m the 8th Schedule”. Articles 120 and 
210 provide that a member of Parliament or of a State Legislature 
may be allowed under certain circumstances, to address the House 
in ins "Mother tongue”. Article 350-A provides for adequate facili- 
ties for instruction m the "Mother tongue” at the primary stage. 
Articles 345 and 348 (2) mention "any other language used” in die 
State and Article 347 refers to "any other language spoken” by a 
substantial portion of the population. Article^ 29, 30 and 350 do not 
lefer to the fourteen languages mentioned in the 8th Schedule and 
cannot be so interpreted as to restrict them only to those fourteen 
languages. The words "Mother tongue”, “any other language used”' 
or "any other language spoken” cannot mean only the fourteen 



languages mentioned in the 8th Schedule which have been referred 
to specially m Articles 344 and 351 only. The Eighth Schedule 
would become inordinately long if every language spoken in India 
is included in it, and there seems to be no reason why that should 
be done. ' 


(Sd.) B MALIK. 
23rd December, 1958* 



APPENDIX A 


MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS 

SAFEGUARDS FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES 

The saleguards proposed for the linguistic minorities vide 
Part IV of the States Reorganisation Commission’s report, have been 
examined carefully in consultation with the Chief Ministers of the 
States and it is the Government of India's intention to accept most 
of the CornmissioiTs recommendations. The action which has been 
or is proposed to be taken is indicated in the paragraphs which 
follow 

2. Primary education. — Attention is invited to clause 21 of the 
Constitution (Ninth Amendment) Bill, providing for the addition of 
a new Article namely, 350-A to the Constitution regarding facilities 
for instruction in the mother-tongue at the primary stage of educa- 
tion The dircelTons which may be issued by the President under 
Article 350-A of the Constitution, as it is proposed to be enacted into 
law, likely co be based on the resolution accepted by the Provin- 
cial Education Minister j' Conference in August, 1949. The intention 
is that the ariangements which were generally accepted at this 
Confeicnce should be brought into force in States and areas where 
they have not been adopted so far 

3. Secondary educattov, — The Commission has recommended that 
the Government of India should, in consultation with the State 
Governments, lay down a clear policy in regard to education in the 
mother-tongue at the seconda:^ stage and take effective steps to 
implemen' it. The Commission has expressed the view that so far 
as secondary education is concerned, it will have to be treated 
differently from education at the primary stage, and has, therefore, 
not recemmendod constitutional recognition of the right to have 
instruction in the mother-tongue at the secondary school stage. 

4. The resolution adopted by the Provincial Education Ministers’ 
Conference in August 1949 contemplated the following arrangements 
Id regard to secondary education: 

(a) If the number of pupils whose mother-tongue is a language 
other than the regional or Slate language, is sufficient lo 
lustify a separate school in an area, the medium of instruc- 
tion in such a school may be the mother-tongue of the 
pupils Such schools organised or established by private 
agencies will be recognised for the purposes of grants-in- 
aid from Government according to prescribed rules. 

(b) Government will also provide similar facilities in all 
Government and district board schools, where one-third 
of the total number of pupils of the school desire to be 
instructed in their mother-tongue. 



49 


(c) Government will also require aided schools to arrange lor 
such instruction, if this is desired by one- third of the 
pupils, provided that there are no adequate facilities for* 
instruction in that particular language in the area. 

(d) The regional language will be a compulsory subject 
throughout the secondary stage. 

The Central Advisorjr Board of Education, after taking mto con- 
sideration the report of the Secondary Commission and the resolu- 
tion on the subject passed by the All-India Council of Secondary 
Education, has assigned to the mother-tongue an impor^ari position 
in the Curriculum at the secondary stage, so that pupils belonging 
to linguistic minorities mav be enabled to studv Lheir mother-tongue 
optionally as one of the three languages which are pi’oposed to be 
taught at the secondary school stage. The Government of India, as 
recommended by the Commission, propose to lay down a clear policy 
in regard to the use and place of the mother-tongue at the secondary 
stage of education in consultation with the State Governments and 
to take effective steps to implement it. 

5. Affiliation of schools and colleges using minority languages . — 
Connected with the proDosals contained in the preceding paragraphs 
is the question of the affiliation of educational instcmtions located 
m the new or reorganised States to appropriate Uii’versities or 
Boards of Education. It is of course desirable that every o float Jiould 
be made to evolve arrangements v/hereby educationa] instil utions 
like schools and colles'es can be affiliated, in respect of courses of 
study in the mother-tongue, to universities and oHier auihorities 
which are situated in the same State However, it nicy no^ always 
be possible to make such arrangements and having regard to the 
number of institutions of this kind, it may sometime be convenient, 
both from the point of view of the unwersities or the educational 
authorities concerned, and from the point of view of the institutions 
themselves, that they should be permitted to seek affilialion to 
appropriate bodies located outside the State This may be regarded 
m fact as a necessary corollary to the provisions contarined :n Article 
30 of the Constitution, which gives to the minorities the right to 
establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. 

6. It is, therefore, proposed to advise the State Governmems that 
in all such cases, affiliation to outside bodies should be yeimltted 
without difficulty. It is also necessary that any institution v/hich is 
thus affiliated should not suffer from any disabilities in regard to 
grant-in-aid and other facilities, merely because it cannot, from an 
academic point of view, be fitted into the framev/ork of educational 
administration within the State It is, therefore, proposed that irres- 
pective of affiliation to bodies situated within or without the State, 
all institutions should continue to be supported the States in 
which they are located. Legislation regarding Universities or Boards 
of Education may, where necessary, be reconsiderea fiom this point 
of view. 

7 Issue of directions by the President under Article 317 regard’- 
inq the recognition of minority languages as official languages — 
Attention is invited to Article 347 of the Constitution, which pres- 
cribes that on a demand being made m that behaU, the President 



50 


may, if he is satisfied that a substantial proportion of the population 
of a State desire that the use of any language, to be recognised by that 
State, direct that such language shall be officially recognised in a 
portion or the whole of the State. The Commission has recommend- 
ed that the Government of India should adopt, in consultation with 
the State Governments, a clear code to govern the use of different 
languages at different levels of State administrations and take steps 
under Article 347 to ensure that this code is followed. 

8. The Commission has proposed that a State should be recognised 
as unilingual, only where one language group constitutes about 70 
per cent, or more of its entire population, and that where there is a 
substantial minority constituting 30 per cent, or more of the popula- 
tion, the State should be recognised as bilingual for administrative 
purposes. The Commission has further suggested that the same 
principle might hold good at the district level; that is to say, if 70 per 
cent, or more of the total population of a district consists of a group 
which is a minority in the State as a whole, the language of the 
minority group and not the State language should be the official 
language in that district. 

9. The Government of India are in. agreement with these proposals 
and propose to advise the State Governments to adopt them. 

10. The arrangements to be made for the purpose of recognising 
two or mere official languages in a State or district which is treated 
as bilingual will be without prejudice to the right, which may be 
exercised under Article 350 of the Constitution by any one resident 
in the State, to submit a representation for the redress of any 
grievance in any of the languages used in the Union or the State. 

11. The Commission has further suggested that in districts or 
smaller areas like municipalities and tehsils, where a linguistic 
minority constitutes 15 to 20 per cent, of the population of that area, 
it may be an advantage to get important government notices and 
rules published in the language of the minority, in addition to any 
other language or languages in which such documents may other- 
wise be published in the usual course. 

12 The Government of India propose to suggest that State 
Governments should adopt the procedure suggested, as a matter of 
administrative convenience 

13. Recognition of minority languages as the media for examina- 
tions conducted for recruitment to State services . — ^Attention is 
invited to the Commission’s recommendation that candidates should 
have the option to elect as the media of examination, in any exami- 
nation conducted for recruitment to the State Services (not includ- 
ing subordinate services), English or Hindi, or the language of a 
minority constituting about 15 to 20 per cent, or more of the popula- 
tion of a Slate: a test of proficiency in the State language may in 
that event be held after selection and before the end of probation. 
The Government of India propose to advise State Governments that 
these suggestions should as far as possible be adopted. It is also 
proposed to recommend to the State Governments that where any 
cadre included in a subordinate service is treated as a cadre for a 
district, any language which has been recognised as an official 



51 


language in the district should also be recognised as a medium for 
the purpose of competitive examinations in the districts. The last- 
mentioned suggestion would follow as a necessary corollary to the 
acceptance of the Commission’s recommendations referred to in 
paragraph 8 of this note. 

14. Review of residence rules and requirements. — The Commis- 
sion has emphasised that the domicile tests in force in certain States 
operate to the disadvantage of minority groups and has recommend- 
ed that the Government of India should undertake legislation under 
Article 16(3) of the Constitution in order to liberalise the require- 
ments as to residence. The Government of India have carefully 
examined various suggestions which have been made from time to 
time With reference to the form which legislation intended to be 
enacted by Parliament under Article 16(3) may take. They have 
reached the conclusion that it is, on the whole, neither necessary nor 
desirable to impose at the present time any restrictions, with refer- 
ence to residence, in any branch or cadre of the State services. 

15. Certain exceptions may have to be made to the general rule 
of non-discrimination in the Telangana area, and the question of 
making special provision in regard to employment opportunities in 
certain backward areas may also have to be considered. It is expect- 
led, however, that these interim arrangements will not be continued 
beyond a transitional period. 

16 The Government of India propose to undertake legislation as 
soon as possible in order to clarify the position on the lines indicated. 
In the meantime, State Governments will be asked to review the 
rules relating to recruitment to State Services in the light of the 
position stated in paragraph 14. 

17. Restriction of private rights in respect of contracts, fisheries 
etc. — The attention of the State Governments is being drawn. to the 
relevant provisions in the Constitution regarding freedom of trade, 
commerce and intercourse and the right to equality of opportunity, 
and it is being suggested that the existing restrictions should be 
reviewed from this point of view. 

18. Recruitment of at least fifty per cent, of the new entrants to 
All-India Services from outside a State. — The question has been 
discussed informally with the Chief Ministers of States. No rigid 
rules are considered to be necessary, but the recommendation made 
by the Commission will be kept in view in making future allotments 
to the All-India Services. 

19. Recruitment of one-third of the number of Judges from out-- 
side the State. — ^The Commission’s recommendations are being 
brought to the notice of the Chief Justice of India. There may be 
difficulties in some cases in implementing these recommendations, 
but it is intended that, to the extent possible^ they should be borne 
in mind in making future appointments. 

20. Constitution of Public Service Commissions for two or more 
States. — ^The proposal that the Chairman and members of the Public 
Service Commissions in the States should be appointed by the 
President, has not been welcomed by the State Governments end it 



52 


is not, therefore, being pursued. There is provision m the Constitu- 
tion already for the constitution of Public Service Commissions for 
two or more States, vide Article 315. The procedure laid down in 
this Article may be followed at a later stage, in case it becomes 
necessary or desirable to constitute Public Service Commissions for 
two or more States. 

21. Agency for enforcing safeguards , — The States Reorganisation 
Commission had recommended that the services of the States 
Governors should be utilised for enforcing the safeguards for linguis- 
tic minorities. The Commission had not contemplated the vesting 
of any discretionary functions in the Governors, and they recom- 
mended what was regarded as a simple procedure which could be 
adopted within the framework of the present constitutional arrange- 
ments. In the light, however, of the views expressed both in the 
Joint Select Committee and m Parliament on the States Reorganisa- 
tion Bill and the Constitution (Ninth Amendment) Bill, the 
Government of India now propose to provide for the appointment of 
a Minorities Commissioner at the centre on the pattern of the office 
of the Commissioner for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. 
This officer will submit a report to the President on the working of 
safeguards for minor language groups at such intervals as the 
President may direct, and his report will be laid before each House 
of Parliament. 

22. Before concluding, the Government of India would like to 
endorse the observations of the States Reorganisation Commission 
in the following passage of its report, 

‘‘We wish to emphasise that no guarantees can secure a 
minority against every kind of discriminatory policy of a 
State Government. Governmental activity at State level 
affects virtually every sphere of a person’s life and a 
democratic government must reflect the moral and political 
standards of the people. Therefore, if the dominant group 
IS hostile to the minorities, the lot of minorities is bound 
to become unenviable There can be no substitute for a 
sense of fair play on the part of the m.ajority and a corres- 
ponding obligation on the part of the minorities to fit 
themselves m as elements vital to the integrated and„ 
ordered progress of the State ” 



APPENDIX B 


Resolution adopted at the Provincial Education Ministers Confer- - 
ENCE in August 1949 and approved by the Central x^dvisory 
Board of Education and the Government of India. 

‘The medium of instruction and examination in the Junior Basic 
Stage must be the mother-tongue of the child and where the mother 
tongue IS different from the Regional or State Language, arrangements 
must be made for instruction m the mother-tongue by appointing at 
least one teacher, provided there are not less than 40 pupils speaking 
the language m the whole school or ten such pupils in a class. The 
mother-tongue will be the language declared by the parent or guar- 
dian to be the mother-tongue. The Regional or State Language, 
where it is different from the mother- tongue, should be introduced 
not earlier than class III and not later than the end of the Junior 
Basic Stage. In order to facilitate the switching over to the Regional 
Language as medium in the Secondary Stage, children should be 
given the option of answering questions in their mother-tongue, for 
the first two years after the Junior Basic Stage. 

In the Secondary Stage, if the number of pupils, whose mother- 
tongue IS a language other than the Regional or State language, is 
sufficient to justify a separate school m an area, the medium of ins- 
truction in such a school may be the mother-tongue of the pupils 
Such schools, if organised and established by private societies or 
agencies, will be entitled to recognition and grants-m-aid Irom Gov- 
ernment according to the prescribed rules The Government will 
also provide similar facilities in all Government, Municipal and Dis- 
trict Board Schools where one-third of the total number of pupils of 
the school request for instruction m their mother-tongue. The Gov- 
ernment will also require aided schools to arrange for such instruc- 
tion, if desired by one-third of the pupils provided that there are lo 
adequate facilities for instruction in that particular language in the 
area. The Regional Language will, however, be a compulsory subject 
throughout the Secondary Stage. 

The arrangements prescribed above will in particular be recessary 
m metropolitan cities or places where a large number of people speak- 
ing different languages live or areas with a floating population speak- 
ing different languages.” 


53 



APPENDIX C 


No. F.1/1/57-CLM 

New Delhi, the 21st August, 1957. 
Office of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities 


From 

Shn B. Malik, 

Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, 
Ministry of Home ASairs, South Block, 
New Delhi. 


The Chief Secretary to the 
Government of 


Subject ; — Safeguards for linguistic minorities — collection of 
information regarding. 

Sir, 

As you are aware, under article 350-B of the Constitution, the 
Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities is required to investigate all 
matters relating to the safeguards provided for linguistic minorities 
under the Constitution and report to the President upon those matters 
at such intervals as the President may direct. I would, in this con- 
nection, invite your attention to the Ministry of Home Affairs letter 
No. 20/5/56-SR-I, dated 19th September 1956 forwarding a copy of 
the memorandum on the safeguards for linguistic minorities (which 
was laid before and approved by the Parliament), for implementing 
the decisions embodied in it. 


2. I presume that your Government must already have taken the 
necessary action on the lines indicated in the aforesaid memorandum, 
and I shall be thankful if you inform me of it at an early date. If 
any decision has still to be implemented, it may please be stated in 
your reply what action is proposed to be taken in respect of it, and 
by what time. In addition to the above, I shall require information 
on several other points, for incorporation in my report to the President, 
and I enclose, for your facility, a list of points on which I would like 
to have infonnation from your Government. You may add informa- 
tion on any point not covered in the 'list if it would be relevant for 
purposes of my report. 


Yours faithfully, 

B. MALIK, 

Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities. 

54 



55 


List of Points 

1. Under the new Article 350-A of the Constitution every endea- 
vour IS to be made to give adequate facilities for instruction in the 
mother-tongue at the primary stage to children belonging to linguistic 
minority groups. The matter was considered at the Provincial Edu- 
cation Ministers’ Conference in August 1949 and it was resolved that 
arrangements should be made for instruction in the mother-tongue by 
appointing at least one teacher provided there are not less than 40 
pupils of the same linguistic group in the whole school or ten such 
pupils in a class. 

It was also resolved at the same Conference that the Regional or 
State Language, where it was different from the mother-tongue, should 
be introduced not earlier than class III and not later than the end of 
the Junior Basic Stage and that in order to facilitate the switching 
over to the Regional Language as medium in the Secondary Stage, 
children should be given the option of answering questions in their 
mother-tongue, for the first two years after the Junior Basic Stage. 

It would be helpful if information is given as to the steps that 
have been taken to carry into effect the above resolutions and whe- 
ther there are any primary schools for linguistic minorities run by the 
State, Municipalities or District Boards? 

2. As regards Secondary education information may kindly be 
sent as to the facilities provided in Government, District Board, Muni- 
cipal and aided schools where there are a number of pupils, whose 
mother-tongue is a language other than the Regional or State Langu- 
age. And also if any proportion has been fixed as regards the number 
of such students before such facilities are provided. 

In the above connection attention may kindly be drawn to the 
resolution adopted by the Provincial Education Ministers’ Conference 
in August 1949 in regard to Secondary Education. It would be use- 
ful if detailed information is sent how far the above resolution is being 
implemented. The relevant portion of the resolution is being quoted 
below for convenience: — 

(a) If the number of pupils whose mother-tongue is a language 
other than the regional or State language, is sufficient to 
justify a separate school in an area, the medium of instruc- 
tion in such a school may be the mother-tongue of the 
pupils. Such schools organised or established by private 
agencies will be recognised for the purposes of grants-in-aid 
from Government according to prescribed rules. 

(b) Government will also provide similar facilities in all Gov- 
ernment and district board schools, where one-third of rhe 
total number of pupils of the school desire to be instructed 
in their mother-tongue. 

(c) Government will also require aided schools to arrange for 
such instruction, if this is desired by one-third of the pupils, 
provided that there are no adequate facilities for instruc- 
tion in that particular language in the area. 



56 


(d) the regional language will be a compulsory subject through> 
out the secondary stage. 

3. It may be stated whether there are any restrictions to an educa- 
tional institution within the State being affiliated to Universities or 
other authorities situate outside the State. Are there any such insti- 
tutions? If so, are they receiving Government grants from the State 
Government in the same proportion as other educational institutions? 

4. Are there any schools or colleges established by linguistic mino- 
rities, if so, are they receiving Government grants and in what 
proportion? 

5. Have any official language or languages been prescribed under 
Article 345 of the Constitution? 

6. The Government of India in the Circular mentioned above have 
suggested m paragraph 8 the principle on which a State or a District 
may be considered unilingual or bilingual. It has further suggested 
in paragraphs 7, 11, 13, 14 and 17 that 

(a) where 70 per cent, or more of the total population of a 
district consists of a group which is a minority in the State 
as a whole, the language of the minority group and not the 
State language should be the official language in that 
district; 

(b) where a linguistic minority consists of 15 to 20 per cent, ot 
the population of an area it may be an advantage to get 
important Government notices and rules published in the 
language of the minority in addition to any other language 
or languages in which such documents may otherwise be 
published in the usual course; 

(c) candidates should have the option to elect as the media of 
examination, in any examination conducted for recruitment 
to the State Services (not including subordinate services). 
English or Hindi, or the language of a minority constituting 
about 15 to 20 per cent or more of the population of a 
State. 

It -was also suggested that where any cadre included in a subordi- 
nate service is treated as a cadre for a district, and language which has 
been recognised as an officiai language in the district should also De 
recognised as a medium for the purpose of competitive examinations in 
the districts. 

(d) The Government of India had reached the conclusion that 
it was neither necessary nor desirable to impose at the pre- 
sent time any restrictions with reference to residence m any 
branch or cadre of the State Services and had suggested 
that pending legislation the State Government should re- 
view the domicile rules and the rules relating to residence 
qualifications; and 

fej the existing restrictions in some States regarding freedom 
of trade, commerce and mtexcourse should be reviewed and 
every citizen of India should have the right to equality of 
opportunity. 



57 


The State Governments must have taken necessary steps on the 
lines indicaled above suggested by the Government of India and the 
Commissioner would be grateful if information is sent as to such steps 
as may have been taken or may be intended to be taken in that 
connection. 

7 The Commissioner would also be grateful if information is sent 
of any special steps which may have been taken or which may be 
under contemplation to infuse confidence in the minds of the linguistic 
minorities and allay any fear of discrimination in their minds. 



APPENDIX D 


Statement op Replies to the Questionnaire 


SL Name of State 

No. 

I Andhra Pradesh 

2. Assam 

3. Bombay 

4. Delhi 

5. Kerala 

6. Madhya Pradesh 

7. Madras 

8. Mysore 

9. Orissa 

10. Pun)ab 
IT. Rajasthan 

12. Tripura 

13. Uttar Pradesh . 

14. West Bengal . 


Date of 

Date of 

receipt of 

receipt of 

final reply 

interim reply 

25-4-48 


28-5-58 


14-2-58 


12-5-58 


18-12-57 


4-4-58 

17-7-58 

4-11-57 

•• 

22-1-58 


18-3-5S 

23-4-5S 

14-3-58 


28-1-5S 


30-4-5S 

. . 


The replies from the Governments of Bihar, Himachal Pradesh and 
Manipur have not been received so far in spite of repeated reminders. 


58 



APPENDIX E 


From 


ANDHRA PRADESH 

General Administration (S.R.A.) Department 
Letter Ref, No, 4301/57-12. 

Hyderabad, the 25th Apnh 1958 


Sn M, Purushotam Pai, LC.S., 
Chief Secretary to Government. 


To 

The Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, 

26, Hamilton Road, 

Allahabad (with enclosure). 

Sir, 

Subject. — Reorganisation of States — Safeguards for linguistic mino- 
rities — information on the action taken on the 
Memorandum 

Reference . — Your letter No. F.1/1/57-CLM, dated the August, 1957. 

I am directed to invite a reference to the letter cited enquiring 
about the action taken by the State Government on the Memorandum 
on the safeguards for linguistic minorities with particular reference 
to the several points referred to in the note annexed to the above 
letter and to furnish the following information. 

(1) Provision of educational facilities to Linguistic minorities for 
imparting education in their mother tongue in Primary and Secondary 
Stages 

The resolutions of the Provincial Educational Ministers’ Confer- 
ence of August, 1949 on this subject were considered m 1949-50 b’ 
the Government of the composite Madras State (of which the Andhra 
area of this State was then a part of that State) and orders were passed 
in their proceedings Ms No. 1466, Education, dated lOfch May 195C 
(copy enclosed). These orders are m force in the Andhra areas of 
this State. According to these orders, 10 pupils per class or 30 per 
school, m the case of Elementary Schools is the minimum strength 
required for providing facilities for instruction through the medium 
of the mother tongue of the linguistic minorities where the mother 
tongue IS different from the regional language. The minimum re- 
quirement is, however, relaxed where managements of schools are 
willing to provide such facilities for smaller number of pupils. In 


59 



60 


Elementary Schools where the medium of instruction is other than 
Telugu (which is the regional language in this State) e.g. Schools 
where the medium of instruction is Urdu, Telugu is taught as an 
additional second language (2nd language) from Class or Standard III. 
The position is the same in the Telangana area also. 

In the Andhra area of this State most of the pupils in Secondary 
schools learn the regional language, Telugu, either studying it as first 
language or as their medium of instruction. Pupils who do not learn 
the regional language (Telugu) in either of the ways will only be 
few and it has not been possible to make the study of the regional 
language compulsory for the reasons stated in the last paragraph ot 
Madras Government’s Proceedings No. 1466, Education, dated 10th 
May 1950. In the Telangana region, study of the regional language 
viz.. Telugu as the second language is compulsory from Class III 
upwards A statement (Statement I) showing the number of Ele- 
mentary schools run in the Andhra area imparting education to the 
various linguistic groups in this State is enclosed. This statement also 
shows the number of schools in each of the language groups and the 
teachers employed for imparting education to these linguistic groups 
Similar information in respect of Telangana area both in regard to 
Primary and Secondary Schools is also furnished — Statement II 

(2) Affiliation of Schools and Colleges using minority language. 

There are at present no primary or secondary schools affiliated to 
any agency outside this State excepting the English Schools which 
train for the Cambridge Examination and they get grants-in-aid. It 
is considered that there is no need for separate affiliation of such 
schools to any agency outside the State and to arrange for the inspec- 
tion and payments of grants-in-aid as this Government have them- 
selves provided adequate facilities for teaching in the language of the 
linguistic minorities in primary and secondary schools The sugges- 
tion contained in para. 6 of the Memorandum of the Government of 
India, if implemented, will, in the opinion of this Government, result 
in strained relations between the Universities in the adjoining States. 
This Government are not agreeable to the proposals embodied in para 
6 of the said memorandum and they consider that the existing 
position in this State may be continued. 

(3) Use of minority languages for Official purposes. 

In para. 8 of the Memorandum, the Government of India have 
decided that a State should be recognised as unilingual where a parti- 
cular language group constitutes 70 per cent, or more of its entire 
population and that when there is a substantial minority consisting of 
30 per cent, or more of the population, the State should be recognised 
as bilingual for administrative purposes. The same principles have 
agreed to in deciding the language that should be used for 
me Official purposes at the district level. According to the 1951 
Census, Telugu speaking population in this State constitutes 86-1 per 
cent of the total population and according to the standards laid down 
by the Government of India, Andhra Pradesh is a unilingual State 
There is no language group in any of the districts in this State con- 
sisting of more than 70 per cent or more of the total population which 
IS a minority. 



61 


English continues to be the State language in this State though 
Telugu IS predominantly spoken. The question of prescribing an 
official language in this State under Article 345 of the Constitution 
is under consideration of this Government. According to the safe- 
guards given to the people of the Telangana area, the position of 
Urdu as it existed prior to 1st November 1956 in the administrative 
and judicial structures should be maintained for a period of five years 
from 1st November 1956 in that area In the circumstances stated 
above, the question of notifying a language other than English or 
Telugu m the districts as an official language does not arise now. 

(4) Recognition of minority languages as the media FOR EXAMI- 
NATION CONDUCTED FOR RECRUITMENT to State Services, 

It is presumed that the safeguard relating to the recognition of 
minority language will apply only in States where the examinations 
for recruitment to Public Services are conducted in regional language:^ 
so that the linguistic minorities will not be placed m a disadvan- 
tageous position The present position in regard to the competitive 
examination in this State for recruitment to Public Services is as 
follows * 

(i) The Andhra Pradesh Public Service Commission conducts a 
test of the S S L C. standard, in which four papers have to be answer- 
ed — three in English and one in the regional language The candidates 
are given the option to answer the general knowledge paper in 
English, Tamil, Telugu, Marathi and Urdu 

(li) The Public Service Commission holds tesk of higher standard 
than S.S.L.C [viz. Intermediate, BA, and BA (Hons.) Standards], 
The medium for these examinations is English in all the papers except 
the language paper where option exists not only as to the languages 
mentioned above but also to English, Sanskrit, Persian etc. 

(in) In regard to the Departmental Examinations the position is as 
stated below” . 

(1) w”here a test in only one language has been prescribed in the 
special rules, it should be taken in Telugu which is the 
principal language of the State; and 

(2) wffiere a test in a second language is also prescribed in the 
Service rules, it should be — 

(a) in Hindi or Urdu m respect of the State Services; and 

(b) m Hindi, or Urdu, or in the districts of Srikakulam, 
Anantapur, Chittoor or Adilabad, Oriya and Kannada, 
Tamil or Marathi respectively, in respect of Subordinate 
Services 

It will thus be seen that all employees are placed on an equal footing 
and none is at a disadvantage when compared to others. 

The question of giving an option to candidates to select a minority 
language as the media for examination conducted for recruitment 
either to the State Service or Subordinate Services does not arise as 
the examinations for recruitment to Public Services are held in 
English only I am, in this connection, to add that there is no mino- 
rity in this State constituting 15 to 20 per cent, of the total population, 
256 HA— 5 



62 


as the Telugu speaking population itself constitutes 86*1 pei cenL--™ 
and there is also no district where 70 per cent, of the population speak 
a minority language. 

(5) Reveiw of ihe Residence Rules and Qualifications. 

With the enactment of the Public Employment (Requirement as 
to Residence) Act, 1957. all restrictions relating to domicile qualifica- 
tions tor entering Government service in this State are abolished. 
But :n accordance vutli the safeguards given to the people of the 
Telangana region, that region is treated as a sejjarate unit j or a period 
of five years for purposes of recruitment to Subordinate Services. 
Thereafter there may not be any restrictions in this regard even in 
that region. 

This Government have noted the views of the Government of India 
contained m paras 17 to 20 of the memorandum on safeguards. 

Yours faithfully, 

(Sd ) BHARAT CHAND KHANNA, 
for Chief Secretary to Government. 

Copy of G.O.MS. No. 1468-Education, dated 10-5-1950 
SCHOOLS — Elementary and Secondary — Medium of Insiructio'a— 
Decisions reached at the Education Ministers^ Conference — 
Implementation — Orders passed 

Read: 

From the Deputy Secretary, Govt, of India, Ministry of Educa* 
tion. No. 3183/59-D1, dated 9-9-1949. 

From the Director of Public Instruction No. 544-E.1/48, dated the 
6th December, 1949. 

From the Secretary to the Government of India, Ministry of Edu-» 
cation. No. 15-16/49.D I , dated December, 1949 

From the Director of Public Instruction No Rc 544 E 1/49, 
dated 2-1-1950 

From the Director of Public Instruction No Rc. 544-E 1/49, dated 
10-4-1950. 

Order- 

At the Conference of the Education Ministers held in August 
1949, certain decisions were reached in regard to the medium oi 
instruction in elementary and secondary schools. The Government 
have considered them and they pass the following orders- — 

(i) In elementary schools the medium of instruction should he 
the moilicr tongue of the pupils Facilities fo'^^ such insiriiction 
should be afforded to minority students speaking a language different 
from the regional language provided there is a strength of 10 pupils 
per class or forty for the whole school and such students should be 
taught the regional language not earlier than III standard: 

The regional language which is generally the mother tongue of 
the pupils in the areas concerned, is already the medium of instmc* 
tion HI elmentary schools in this State The Government liave^ 
alrec iy Tmed a nzimmuin strength of 10 p^ipils per class or thirty peir 



63 


school lor ihe iirovision oi facilities for instructK' i •’ i a 

language other Tbsn the regional language to students belonging to 
linguistic minoricies 

Orders wili be issued separately in regard to the study of the 
regional language h’^ -h? rn nority students. 

hi) Slucle'jifS he given option to ansioe'' qiicr ion papers 

in their mother longae for the first two yeorL in secondary schools 
to facilitate the svjizc'ni'^^g over to ihe regional langncge as medinm 
of imtniction: 

This question vrdj aiise only in respecl of students from elememt- 
arv schools where a language dilTerent from the regional language 
is the medium of instruction This option to answer question papers 
in their mother tongue can be allowed in general secondary schools 
where the medium of instruction is the regional language, only :f a 
Muslim teacher is available m it and if not other arrangements will 
have to be made The present practice of ernplcying bilingual tni 
unilingual teachers in such schools will be continued. 

(lii) In Second.ary schools, prouision to receive msirvetton through 
mother tongue should be made provided one-third of the totml 
nuhcher of pupils reenure such instruction and local bodies and 
private managements providing such instruction shxuld he allovjed 
usomI grant. If the number of pupils in an area is sufficient to justify 
the opening of n separate school, the instruction in that school shouli 
he through the raoiher tongue of the pupils: 

The minimum strength prescribed by Government for the pro- 
vision of instruction through a language other than the regional 
language is 45 pupils for the three forms (forms I to III and Forms 
IV to VI) and this- will be adhered to. It is open to local bodies and 
private managements to establish separate schccis providing ins- 
truction in a language other than the regional language or to 
provide such instruction in existing schoois. They will be recognised 
and aided as other institutions. 

(iv) The study of regional language should be compulsory 
throughout the secondary school stage for students receiving ins- 
truction through a language other than the regional language: 

The Government have decided that from 1950-51 onwards, instead 
of the regional language any Indian language or a classical language 
or any other language may be studied as the first language for six 
periods a week; the medium of instruction being the regional 
language irrespective of die first languages, except where it is 
specially provided for, for the minorities under conditions prescribed 
by them. Students receiving instruction through the medium of a 
language other than the regional language will be few and if the 
regional language is to be taught to them, they will have to study 
four languages. The Government do not consider that it would be 
possible to make such a provision in the school curriculum and that 
it may be left to such students to study the regional language 
privately, if they so desire. 

(BY ORDER OF HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR) 

RAJJAIAH D. PAUL, 

{ Secretary to Government. 



STATEMENT I 


Number of Schools (Elementary) 
ANDHRA AREA 





Tamil 

Kannada 

Onya 

Urdu 

Snkakulam 



. 


62 

I 

Visakhapatnam. 



. 


•• 

21 

East Godarari 





.. 

13 

West Godarari 

* 




« . 

20 

Krishna East . 



. 



27 

Krishna West . 






30 

Guntmr North 






88 

Guntur Somth 



. 



62 

Kurnool . 




35 


90 

Anantapmr 



. 

6 


68 

Cuddapah 



. 



63 

Ncllorc . 

. 

- 

• 



63 

Chittoor . 

• 

• 

• . 183 


.. 

52 




1S3 

41 

62 

598 


Numbt? 0f Schools * 

Boys 

• 8,954 

2,622 

3.540 

27,046 

Girls 

• i4>432 

Ij 338 

1,890 

32,721 

Number ef Teachers . 

Men 

260 

84 

146 

1,124 

WomcD 

99 

39 

•• 

484 


64 



STATEMENT II 
Secondary Schools 

ANDHRA AREA 


Tamil 

Kannada 

Onya 

Urdu 

Number of Schools 9 

3 

2 13 

(of these four 
are Gort. 

schools). 

No, of Scholar:^ • 




Boys ...... 722 

315 

144 

1467 

Girls 227 

9 


107 

94 f 

324 

144 

1.574 

Trantmg Schools : 




Urda-— 5 (3 Mm and 2 Women) ElcmcaLary Giad« Guntuc 

' and Kuril® Hi 

r Guntur and Kurnool) 2 Eicmcatary Gudt ( Go Tcramcnl j* 


(Iskmiah-Kurnool) i Secondary Grade 

(Aided). 



Tamil — One Secondary Grade (Chutoor). 





Tala^'f^ana area : (Secondary and Primiry Schools) 


N.^yi-upet (Mihaboobna^ar District). 


All Go/errraeni Sciiools hare Telagu^ Urdu Kaum^da amd Marttki media. 


KizcBntahizd * 


GrW 


Prm'Hry . . . . 

AlvUic 

Midtipiirpose Hi^h Schoc! . 
K:sb School (Class I i® X) 



All ha^e parallel daises ij 
ksid Mara^ki stedit. 




.‘fc’ ^ M£ • 


’ 1 Nisaijsafeid. 


MeJ^k " 


1 Paralid SrcLiOus iJt Kajjiiiit 
> kJtC Ur4M. 


Gavommeiii Aiiddk--£:2/?w-H’gh Scli®»L 



ASSAM 


Appointment ‘B’ Department . .. Appointment Branch No. ABP. 

408/56/82, dated Shillong, the 28th May, 1958. 

From 

Shri K. K. Padmapati, I.A.S., 

Joint Secretary to the Govt, of Assam. 

To 

The Assistant Commissioner, 

for Linguistic Minorities, 26, Hamilton Uvad, 

Allahabad. 

Subject: — Safeguard for Linguistic Minovities and residential 

requirements for employment under the State. 

Reference: — ^Letter No. CLM/58(485), dated 5th May 1958 and No 
CLM/58(372), dated 1st April 1958, addressed to Chiei 
Secretary to the Government of Assam. 

Sir, 

I am directed to refer to the correspondence quoted above and 
to say that the State Government have, m conformity with the 
Public Employment (Requirement as to Residence) Act, 1957, have 
since abolished the imposition of any restrictions in the matter of 
appointment of Indian citizens to posts and services under the State 
Government. A copy of the State Government's order to that effect, 
No. ABM. 160/57/40, dated the 30th April 1950 is forwarded here- 
with. 

2. The State Government have also issued orders that av/ard of 
State Scholarships will be done on merit alone. This however, pre- 
cludes reservation for scheduled castes/ scheduled tribes laid down 
in the Constitution of India. A copy of State Government’s circular 
Nc^ EMI 135/58/1, dated the 18th March 1958 is forwarded here- 
with. 

3. The concessions granted by the State Government under 
Article 46 of the Constitution of India to certain backward classes 
©f people in the matter of allotment of fisheries, contracts, mohals, 
etc., still continue. 

4. The rules of recruitment to various State services have not yet 
been finalised 

5. The State Government already agreed to a proposal of the 
Ministry of Home Affairs that 50 per cent of new entrants to All 
In-ha Services allotted to this State should be candidates hailing 
from outside the State /J^otment to this State has been made 
accordingly. 

6. As regards other points raised m the letter No F 1/1/57-CLM, 
dated the 2lGt August 1957 issued by the Commissioner for Linguistic 
MiiioriLes, the departments of State Government concerned there- 
wuh will intimate the position direct to yoj^ 


Yours faithfully, 
(Sd.) K K. PADMAPATI, 
Jonit Secy, to the Govt, of Assam, 



GOVERNMENT OF ASSAM 


Appointment (B) Department .Miscellaneous Branch 

No. ABM-160/57/40, dated Shillong, the 30t?i April, 1958. 

OFFICE MEMORANDUM 

In pursuance of the provisions of Section 2 of the Public Employ- 
ment (Requirement as to Residence) Act, 1957 — published in the 
Gazette of India Extraordinary Part II Section I, dated the 9th 
December 1957 as Act No. 4 of 1957, the Government of Assam have 
decided that there would be no imposition of any restrictions as 
respects residence in the matter of appointment of an Indian Citizen 
in any branch or cadre of the State Services 

The undersigned is therefore, directed to say that in order to 
liberalise the requirements as to residence, the existing relevant Rules 
307(1) and (2) under Section VII of the Assam Executive Manual — 
page 109 and the instructions issued in the Appointment Department 
Office Memorandum No. AAM. 10/53/137, dated the 30th July 1953 
iiiay be treated as cancelled with effect from 1st May 1958 except in 
cases of displaced persons who are not citizens of India. As such the 
relevant paras 1(a), (b) (i), (ii) and (c) (i), (ii) and (hi) con- 
tained therein relating thereto may be treated as inoperative from 
1st May 1958. 

Under the provisions of the Citizenship Act, 1955 persons of 
Indian origin who have migrated from Pakistan (i.e. displaced per- 
sons) are now in a position to acquire citizenship of India after 
being ordinarily resident in any part of Indian Union under section 
5(1) (a) of the Act, and they are deemed to be citizens of India only 
when they register themselves as such. A person belonging to the 
above category of persons may however, be admitted to an exami- 
nation or interview conducted ‘by the Assam Public Service Com- 
mission or other authority and may be provisionally appointed om 
merit to any post or service under the State Government for one 
year only. Provided that he is a displaced person in whose favour a 
certificate of eligibility has been granted by Government and that 
the certificate of eligibility will be valid for one year from the date 
of his appointment beyond which he can be retained in service only 
if he has become a citizen of India. 

As regards para 3 of the abovementioned Office Memorandum 
No. AAM.10/53/137, dated the 30th July 1953, relating to contracts, 
settlement of fisheries, ferries, toll bridges, forests and excise shops 
etc., the respective Departments have been asked to take necessary 
steps to make necessary changes in the existing rules and laws 
who Will inform you in due course. 

As regards para 4 of the said Office Memorandum instructions 
issued by the Educatior. Department in the^'r ^etter No EML135/53/1, 
dated the 18tli March 1958 may be referred to. 

(Sd ) A. N XIDWAI, 
Chief Secretary to the Govt, of Assam. 



68 

GOVERNMENT OF ASSAM 

Education (G) Deptt Education Branch, No. EMI 135/58/lj. 

dated Shillong, March 18, 19*^^ 


From 

Shri U. Sarma, M.A. (Cal.) , M.Ed* (Illinois) , 

Under Secretary to the Government of Assam. 


To 


The Director of Public Instruction, Assam. 

Subject: — Residential qualification required of candidates in order 
to he eligible for State Scholarships. 

Sir, 

In supersession of the instructions contained in this Department 
Memo No EMI/35/52/69, dated 19-11-56 on the above subject I am 
directed to say that Government have now decided to award the 
State Merit Scholarships to all candidates on merit alone, regardless 
of residential qualifications, with immediate effect. 

This v/ill not however apply in case of Scholarships reserved foi 
Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes & other Backward Classes. 


Yours faithfully, 

(Sd.) U SARMA, 
Under Sccy to the Govt, of Assam, 
Eddcotion (G) Department 



BOMBAY STATE 

No. OFL-1057-C4U76-B 
Political and Services Department 
Sachivalaya, Bombay. 


From 

Shri B. K. Chougule, LA.S., 

Under Secretary to the Government of Bombay, 

Political and Services Department. 

To 

The Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, 

26, Hamilton Road, 

Allahabad. 

Subject: — Safeguards for lingiusiic miiionhe''^ 

Sir, 

With icference to your letter No. F.t/l/57-CLM, dated the 21sl 
Ai^usl 1957, on the subject noted above, I am directed to furnish 
information as detailed m subsequent paragraphs. 

J. \3 regards paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the list of points, copies 
of lOu letters No. SLM-1056/4156-D, dated the 3 1st October 1957 from 
the Sducation Department of this State and No. S“67-(e)-152»Gi-C, 
elated the iOtii December 1957 from tlie Director of Education are 
enclosed for information. Regarding list of primary schools reTeried 
tc b^, Jiiducation Department in point 1, Education Department of 
this State is being asked to furnish the same direct to you. 

3. So far as paragraphs 5 and 6(a) and (c) of the list of points 
ar. concerjied, no regional language/s has /have been recognised for 
Sc- L i, Bmtricis, Talukas as ofliclal Janguage/.^^ as suggested in para- 
grciL'^s 7, 11, 13, 14 and 17 of the Mern u’ancum of the GovGrnment of 
IndiO, as certain information is still awaited. 

4. A.' legards paragraph 6(b) orders have been issued to all con- 
cerned to issue status' ory orders and Noliucttions m regional langu- 
ages along wich En^libh versions. 

For paragraph ®(d), this Government have already irsiied 
ord '£ u .dor Resolution No 7CS5/4G, dated the 201h May 1950, a 
cjpy It winch IS enclosed. 

0 So far as paragrnph 6(e) is conceined. there are no reslric- 
tions : i ho linguistic minorities in this State in respect of freedoip 
of trade and commerce. 


Yours faitlifull3t, 

(Sd ^ B. K CHOUGULE, 
Under Secy to the Goi:t of Bimbay, 
F^litical & Services DepartmenL 



Copy of a letter No. SLM-1056/4156-D, dated the 31st October 1957, 
irom the Education Department, Bombay. 

Subject: — Safeguards for linguistic minorities — collection of 
information regarding 

Reference your secret endorsement No. OFL. 1057/C-7458-B, dated 
the 12 th September 1956, on the subject mentioned above. The 
requisite information with reference to items 1 to 4 of the letter 
No. F 1/1/57-CLM dated the August 1957 from the Commissioner 
for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of 
India, New Delhi, so far as this Department is concerned is as 
under: — 

Point ( 1 ). — The recommendation made at the Provincial Educa- 
tion Ministers’ Conference in August 1949 is already being imple- 
mented in this State. So far as Primary Schools in this State are 
concerned, the District School Boards are permitted under Primary 
Education Rule 32 to open a school for a Linguistic Minority provided 
the parents or guardians of at least 40 pupils claim a separate school. 
Similarly, under Primary Education Rule 115, a private school is 
recognised and aided by the Department by way of grants-in-aid if 
it has an average attendance of 25 children. This attendance is 
relaxed to 20 in hilly and backward areas and to 15 in case the 
pupils are girls or from Backward Classes. It is proposed to amend 
the relevant Primary Education Rule whereby the average attend- 
ance for eligibility for purpose of grant is further reduced to 15 lor 
all non-backward areas and 10 for all backward areas i\s for 
Secondary Schools, the Schools with a medium of instruction other 
than a Regional or State language (such as Bengali, Tamil, Malaya- 
1am etc ) are recognised and aided by the Department. Similarly, | 
Gujarati medium schools in Marathi speaking districts and Marathi 
medium schools in Gujarati speaking districts are als© recognised 4 
and aided imder the usual rules. 

As regards the supply of information regarding primary schools 
in this State, a copy of the latest administration report of the Educa- 
tion Department lor the year 1953-54 is forwarded herewith. Table 
No. Ill appearing at page 134 of the report gives the Educational 
instUaLors including primary schools run bj Government, Munici- 
Schoo’’ Boards 

Point 12) (b) — As Secondary Education in this State is mainly 
entrusted to non-official local agencies, it is not necessaiy to provide 
lor msti’uci Jon in a language of clie lingui-tic minorities in Govern- 
ment sccondarv schools 

Point (2) (c) — The resolution passed at the provincial Education 
Ml \ "^oni ''fence m 1949 brought to the notice 01 all non-Gov- 
ernmeuL odarv 3:’ “^ols in this State through the Educational 
Insnectors Mm implied ni tins clause has not so far been 

made hi he m any area and in case such a request is 

received the iry ariangements will be made 

Point (2) (d) — As regards making Regional language a compul- 
sory subject throughout the Secondary Stage, the position as it [ 
obtains at present is that the regional language is not compulsory* ^ 



chroughout the Secondary Stage in this State. All schools imparting 
instruction in a language of linguistic minorities have, however, to 
teach the regional language compulsorily in Standards III to VII. 
In the English teaching schools, the regional language is compulsorily 
to be taught m Standards III — X, This Government considers that its 
present policy regarding teaching of Regional language compulsorily 
11 ) Standards III — VII of Secondary Schools with a medium other 
than the recognised Regional language and in Standards III — of 
English teaching schools, adequately meets the requirements of 
linguistic minorities in having education in their language at the 
Secondary stage. The Bombay State Advisory Board of Secondary 
Education has recently examined the language pattern in this Stale 
and has suggested the following formula. 

A. (i) Mother Tongue 
or 

(ii) Regional language 
or 


(Hi) 

A composite course 
language 
or 

in mother 

tongue 

and 

Regional 

(IV) 

A composite course 
language. 

in mother 

tongue 

and 

classical 


B. Hindi 

C. English or a modern Indian language not taken under A & B. 

The above suggestion of the Board of Secondary Education is 
being examined by this Government. 

Points 3 and 4 , — Affiluition oj Schools and Colleges using minority 
languages. So far as the S.S.C. Examination of Secondary Schools 
are concerned, the Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu and Bengali medium 
schools find some difficulty in presenting pupils at the public examina- 
tion since these languages are not media of examinations recognised 
by the Bombay S.S.C. Examination Board. In view of this difficulty, 
such schools are at present allowed to have English as their medium 
in the higher Secondary Standards YIII — XI To solve this difficulty, 
it has since been decided by Government to permit affiliation of 
Secondary Schools in the State having media of teaching other tiian 
those accepted for the Bombay S.SC Examination, to appropriate 
bodies outside the State. A new rule (Rule 39-A) providing for such 
affiliation outside the State has, therefore, been added under Section 
IV in Chapter II of the revised Grant-in-aid code. A copy ol the 
Code IS enclosed. 

As regards affiliation of Colleges in the State to outside bodies, the 
Government of India has proposed that institutions where the teach- 
ing is done in the language of a minority which is not the Regioridl 
language should be permitted to affiliate themselves to outside bodies 
Without difficulty. This principle has been accepted by this Govern- 
ment and it is proposed to provide for il in the Acts of the various 
Universities constituted in this State by so amending the Uiiiversi-y 
Acts as to make it incumbent upon the University which adopts the 
Regional language of the area as the only or mam medium to allow 
affiliation to outside bodies Provision to this effect, already exists in 
the Gujarat, Poona, S N. D. T, University Acts. 



As regards supply of information regarding schools and colleges 
established by linguistic minorities and the Grant-in-aid they receive 
from the State Government, the Director of Education Poona, has 
been asked to furnish the requisite information to you direct.”. 

Copy of a letter No. S-67-(c)-152-GI-C, dated the 10th December 
1957, from the Director of Education, Bombay State, Poona. 

Subject. — Safeguards for linguistic minorities — Collection of 
information regarding. 

“I have the honour to solicit a reference to Government letter, 
Education Department No. SLM — 1056-4156 — D, dated 31st October, 
1957, on the subject mentioned above and to say that there are at 
present no recognised educational institutions in the residuary areas 
of the old Bombay State which are affiliated to Universities or other 
authorities situated outside the State. A provision has, however, been 
made in the Grant-in-Aid Code for such affiliation outside the State 
for such recognised educational institutes, which experience difficul- 
ties in presenting pupils at the public examination (S S.C. Examina- 
tion) on account of non-acceptance of their medium of instruction as 
a medium of examination at the said Examination I give below the 
names of non-Government Secondary Schools run by linguistic mino- 
rities in this Slate. 

(1) Bengali Education Society's High School, Morbag Road, 

Dadar, Bombay 

(2) South Indian Education Society's High School, Brahman- 

wada, Matunga, Bombay. 

v3) Andhra Education Society's High School, King’s Circle, 

BoniDay. 

(4) South Indian Welfare Bombay’s Girls High. School. 

Maiunga, Bombay. 

(5) S V. Unicn's High School, ?oona-2. 


These 5 scho'^ls are allowed by t le Department to use English as 
med’um of instruction in highei strndards ?.e 'i,HIItoXIin order liiat 
iiieir pupils snou'd experience r.c di;iicuiL 3 ’ at tbs S.S C Sxamina- 
'lon. Pbe-.e school, .la e also, ihi-reJcre no difficult 3 ' at present so 
far 93 sw, ii.ic, up uifir cuons .'or I'tie Public E-Tsmination (S.S.C 
Src-iT.i'iatiia) is concerned. It is. ho a ever permissible for iham to 
g'n fh^ainse.’ r 3 ar liaicJ to Unirersi* es or oliisr authorit-es situated 
o_u„.i.do riie Slate to enable th?'- puoiis to appear for the Public 
E\am.'"u>rn of ’iv co.nceinei bodj'^-'xnh toeir mother- 

longuc .he ricc.^rn of exam. i. at.: r. ts psr chore p'O'/.sicn in the 
Gr. rr-n-A’c Zeds 

2 She ment one t 5 s'^-zr’.c cie rocogmsed and aided by the 

D^'P,: rtricr , and .hey receive Cc-e-mment grant m the came prepor- 
' ■' ■'’h ot-e- .icn-GoverniT.ent r.ded sc.hools are paid Govern- 
•mV. j^-anx_ She foliotring are rates of Go.;einme.nt giiinls paid to 
ataed Seconda-' 3 / schools m this Stats 

(i.t ifaisttnafice .crant 

.^0 per cent and 33-1/3 per cent of 
the admitted expenditure of the 
P-''?c^ing year to schools in Uroan 
tnd Rural areas respsetirHy, 



73 


(2) Dearness Allowance 
Grant 

50 per cent, of the total admitted 
expenditure on Dearness Allow- 
ance. 

(3) Equipment Grant 

25 per cent, of the expenditure on 
equipment 

3. As regards the schools established by linguistic minorities in 
the new’ areas of the reorganised Bombay State the necessary infor- 
mation IS being collected from the Officers concerned and it will be 
submitted to Government immediately I get it from them. 

As regards colleges, it may be stated that at present there are no 
colleges in the Bombay State established by linguistic minorities and 
hence the question of the payment of grant-in-aid to such colleges^ 
does not arise. In so far as the aided colleges under the control ot 
this office are concerned all colleges affiliated to statutory Universi- 
ties are paid grants in accordance with one uniform set of rules.’' 


Government of Bombay, Govwinmknt Sirvici — Eligibility of 

CERTAIN CLASSK OF PIRSONS WHO AR® NOT CITIZENS OF INDIA FOR — 

Governraent of Bombay, Political and Services Department^ 
Resolution No. 7095/46, Bombay Castle^ 20th May 1950 

RESOLUTION OF GOVERNMENT 

According to rule 4 read with rule 3(d) of the Bombay Civil 
Services Classification and Recruitment Rules, appointment to 
services under the rule-making control of the Government of Bombay 
was confined to the natives of the Provunce of Bombay including 
persons who were domiciled in certain 'Indian States” which were 
contiguous to the territory of the State of Bombay and who were 
subiects of the Portuguese possessions in India. It was also the policy 
of the Government of Bombay that as a general rule no person who 
was not a national of the Indian Dominion should as far as possible 
be appointed to services under it This policy requires to be revised 
in the light of the provisions of the Constitution of India. 

2. The Constitution of India has established a common citizenship 
for the whole of India wuth the result that thve distinction between 
nationals of the Indian Dominion and subjects of the former "Indian 
States” no longer exists. It further provides that there shall be 
equality of opportunity for all citizens m matters relating to appoint- 
ments to any office under the State It follows therefore that all 
citizens of India are equally eligible for employment in services 
under this Government, it being no longer feasible to restrict 
recruitment to persons domiciled in this State and rules 3 (d) and 4 
of the Bombay Civil Services Classification and Recruitment Rules 
have ceased to be operative The question whether preference should 
be given to residents of this State in making appointments under 
this Government is being considered separately. 



3. While there is no constitutional ban to the appointment of 
non-citizens of India to services and posts under it, the Government 
of Bombay has decided in the interests of national security and on 
general grounds of policy that such appointments should, as hereto- 
fore, be made only iii exceptional circumstances and only ^on 
temporary or contract basis, the specific orders of Go^mrnment being 
obtained in each case. It is, however, considered desirable that 
citizens of certain adjacent territories which have close ties and 
associations with India should not be rendered entirely ineligible for 
permanent appoiiitment under the State. As an exception to 1he 
general rule mentioned above, therefore, it has been decided that 
the follov/mg categories of non-citizens may be rendered eligible for 
appointment to services had posts under this Government b 3 ’^ issue 
of ad hoc certificates of eligibility in their favour — 

(i) subjects of Nepal and Sikkim; and 

(li) persons who have migrated or may hereafter migrate 
from Pakistan with the intention of permanently settling 
down in India and who have not become citizens of India 
under the Constitution. 

The certificates of ehg’bihW be issued the Political and 
Services Department on the merds of individual cases after too 
character and antecedents oi the pei^sons concerned have been verified 
and found to be satisfactory. 

4. It has a) so been decided that subjects of the Portuguese 

possessions m Inch a, though che\" be non-citizens, should 

generally be held eligible for service urcler this Government and 
in their case no certificates of eiigibihtv in favour of individuals 
should be deemed necess-'r^e 


By order of the Governor of Bombay, 
M D BHAT, 

Chiej Secretary, to the Govt, of Bombay. 
Pobtical and Services Department. 


G.R.P & S D , No. 7095/56, dated the 20th May 1950 


To 



75 

BOMBAY 


No. SLM 1058/727-D, 
Education Department, 
Old Secretariat, Bombay. 

17th March 1958. 

From 

The Deputy Secretary to the Government of Bombay, 
Education Department. 

To 

The Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, 

28, Hamilton Road, Allahabad. 

Subject. — Safeguards for linguistic Minorities — collection of 
information regarding. 

Sir, 

1 am directed to irnnre a reference to your Vrter No. F.1/1/57-CLM 
Oi August 1957 addressed to the Chief Secretary to the Government 
of Bombay and with reference to information on the point relating 
to Primary Schools run by Government etc., in this State to observe 
as follows: — 

The recommendation made at the Provincial Education Ministers^ 
Conference in August 1949 is already being implemented in this 
State. So far as primar^^ schools in this State are concerned, the 
District School Boards are permitted under Primary Education 
Rule 32 to open a school for a Linguistic Minority provided the 
parents or guardians of at least 40 pupils claim a separate school. 
Similarly, under Primary Education Rule 115, a private school is 
recognised and aided b^^ the Department by way of grants-in-aid if 
it has an average attendance of 25 children This attendance is 
relaxed to 20 m hilly and backward area and to 15 in case the pupils 
are girls or from Backward Classes. It is proposed lo amend the 
relevant Primary Education Rule whereby the average attendance 
for eligibility for purpose of grant is further reduced to 15 for all 
non-backward areas and 10 for all backward areas. 

As regards the supply of information regarding Primary Schools 
in this State, a copy of the latest administration report of the 
Education Department for the year 1954-55 is forwarded herewith. 
Appendix No, III appearing at page 230-231 of the report gives the 
Educational Institutions including primaiy schools run by Govern- 
ment, Miinicpialities and School Boards. 

Yours, faithfully, 
rSd.) MOHD ABDULLA, 

Deputy Secreta'^y to the Government of Bombay^ 
Education Department. 


Through the Linguistic Minorities Officer, Bombay State, Shri 
N. S. Pardasani, I AS., Deputy Secretary to Government, Political 
and Services Department. 



76 

DELHI ADMINISTRATION 
Delhi Administration, Delhi 


No. F9/40/57-GAD. Dated the 12th May 1958. 

From 

Shri C. L. Anand, P.C.S , 

Under Secretary (Appointments), 

Delhi Administration, Delhi. 


To 

The Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, 

26, Hamilton Road, 

Allahabad. 

Subject. — Safeguards for linguistic minorities. 

Sir, 

With reference to the correspondence resting with your letter 
No. CLM/57(95), dated the 27th December 1957 on the subject noted 
above, I am directed to give below the requisite information in 
respect of the various items contained in the memorandum received 
with Ministry of Home Affairs letter No 20/5/56/SRI, dated the 
19th September 1956. 

Item 2. 

Facilities for instructions in the mother tongue at the primary 
stage of education exist in the schools of Delhi for practically all 
regional languages. 

Item 3. 

At the Secondary stage, instruction in the mother tongue is not 
compulsory but students have the option to answer questions at 
examinations in their mother tongue. Instructions are generally 
given in the mother tongue but technical terms are expressed in 
English. Students have the option to express in the language they 
choose. 

Item 4(a). 

Private schools in which the mother tongue of the pupils is a 
language other than the regional or State language are recognised 
for the purpose of grant-m-aid even if the medium of instructions 
in such schools is the mother tongue. 

(b) Government is providing similar facilities in all Government 
and District Board schools where one-third of the total number of 
pupils of the school desire to be instructed in their mother tongue. 

(c) No such request has been received in respect of any aided 
school but in case such a demand is received in future the manage- 
ment of the aided school concerned will be required to provide these 
facilities. 



n 

(d) Hindi is a compulsory regional language in Delhi throughout 
the secondary stage. 

Items 5 and 6. 

There is only one University in this territory and presumably 
no request for affiliation to any University outside this territory has 
been made by any institution in this territory in respect of coursas 
of study in the mother tongue. If any such request is made it will 
be considered in the light of the recommendations made in these 
paras. 


Items 7 — 10. 

These instructions have been noted. 


Items 11 and 12, 

These suggestions were communicated to the local bodies. 

Item 13. 

No examination has been prescribed for recruitment to State 
Services in Delhi Administration. 

Items 14-15. 

The condition in regard to residence in the recruitment to services 
in Delhi Administration has been done away but in this connection. 
Parliament has enacted the Public Employment (Requirements as 
to Residence) Act, 1957. 

Item 17. 

No restrictions have been imposed in this territory in respect of 
trade, commerce and intercourse and the right of equality of 
opportunity. 

Items 18 and 19 do not need any comments as Delhi Administra- 
tion does not recruit I.A.S. officers and Judges. 

Item 20. 

This Administration refers all cases to the Union Public Service 
Commission and has not set up any separate Public Service Com- 
mission of its own or jointly with any other State. 

Items 21 and 22 

No comments are called for on these paras 

Yours faithfully, 

(Sd ) C. L. ANAND, 
Under Secretary (Apptts.), 
Delhi Admn.^ Delhi, 


256 HA— 6 



KERALA STATE 


Public (States Reorganisation) Department 
No. SRN-3-28316/57/PD. Trivandrum, 18-12-1957. 

From 

The Chief Secretary to Government. 


To 

The Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, 

(Ministry of Home Affairs) , Government of India, 

Government House, Allahabad, U.P 

Subject — Safeguards for Linguistic Minorities — collection 
of information. 

Reference . — Your letter No. F.1/1/57-CLM, dated -8-1957 
and 1-11-1957. 

Sir, 

1 am directed to invite a reference to the letter cited as first 

paper and to say that necessary action on the lines indicated in the 
Meinoranium attached to letter No 20/5/56-SRI, dated 19th Septem- 
ber 1958 the Ministrv of Home Affairs has already been taken 

bv this S’r e Government The imormation required by you on 
the several points noted in your 'List of points’ is furnished below: — 

1. The Anglo-Indians. Gujarathee Brahmins, Tamil Brahmins, 
VelJalas and Nadars form the linguistic minority group of the 
Ti'avancore-Cocbm region of the Kerala Stale and the Kannadigas 
form that of the Malabar region oi Kerala. Facilities have been 
provnded for the education of the above linguistic groups in their 
mother-tongue In a good number of schools English has been 
permitted to be adopted as the medium of instruction to cater to 
the needs ot the pupils whose mother congue is English. In the 
easiO'most narts o' the Chittur Taluk in Palghat district where 
Tamil IS tne spoicen language, there are schools with Tamil and 
Malavaiam as media of instruction There were a large number of 
Tamil Schools in South Travancore and these areas have been 
transferred to Madras consequent on States Reorganisation. At 
Mattancherrv there is a Gujarathee Mahavidvalava providing full 
facilities for the education of this linguistic minority group. In the 
Kannada speaking area of the Kasargod taluk in N Kerala, there 
are schools with Kannada as medium of instruction. 

2 The general principle adopted with regard to secondary 
education in the State is that pupils should as far as possible be 
taught in their mother tongue Government have provided all 
facilities for this purpose 

The regional language, Malayalam, is the medium of instruction 
in Secondary schools. There are a number of schools with Tamil, 
Kannada and English as media of instruction for the benefit of the’ 



respective linguistic groups. In certain schools parallel classes are 
run with the regional language and the mother tongue of the 
minorities as media of instruction. 

Wherever there was demand from the parents of 1/3 of the 
students in a school, facilities have been provided for teaching them 
m the mother tongue, by running parallel classes. Even for less 
than 1/3, these facilities have been given. There are aided, Board 
and Government schools enjoying these facilities. 

Regional language has been declared as a compulsory subject 
throughout the secondary stage except in Sanskrit High Schools] 

3. The Kerala University Act XIV of 1957, does not allow any 
educational institution within the State, save with the sanction of 
the Chancellor, to seek or continue affiliation to any other University. 
But there are at present a few colleges in the State affiliated to the 
Madras University and they are permitted to continue as such for 
some time more in accordance with the transitory provision, viz.. 
Section 40(1). They are being given grants-in-aid in accordance 
with the provisions of the Grants-in-aid Code of the Madras State. 

4 There are a few schools established by linguistic minorities 
such as Anglo-Indians, Kannadigas, Gujarathees and Tamilians. 
These institutions are also receiving Government grants. Grant-in- 
aid IS given by the Government taking into account the annual 
expenditure incurred by the management every year 

The University has taken all possible steps to safeguard the 
interests of linguistic minorities m the State and has provided for 
the study of the following languages for the Pre-University and 
Degree courses — 

(1) Kannada, (2) Tamil, (3) Arabic, (4) Urdu, (5) Syriac^ 
(6) Hebrew 

The University has sanctioned all applications from colleges in 
the State for affiliation in the languages of the minorities mentioned 
above, and has also granted affiliation to the institutions for the 
study of Arabic in the Malabar area of the Kerala State 

5 No But an Official Languages Committee has been appointed 
by the Government to go into the question 

6 (a) There is no district in Kerala where 70 per cent or more 
of the total population of the district speak any language other than 
the regional language, viz Malayalam 

(b) This Government have accepted as a policy that so long as 
areas with linguistic minorities are included m the Slate prevision 
will have to be made for the supply of some of the important State 
documents in the minority language also As a first step, notifications 
regarding the Devicolam Taluk are being published in Tamil. Faci- 
lities have been provided for the registration of documents m Tamil 
in the Chittur, Devicolam and Peermade taluks and in Canarese in 
the Kasargod and Hosdrug Taluks respectively English and Malava- 
1am are the languages used generally in all the Courts in the State 
But in the Courts in the Devicolam taluk, Tamil also is in use. In 
the Courts in the Kasargod and Hosdrug taluks Canarese is also 
used 



(c) The aggregate strength of all the linguistic minority groups 
of Kerala comes to about only 6 per cent of the State’s population 
(vide para 308 of States Reorganisation Commission Report) . Hence 
the question of conducting examination for recruitment to State 
service in the language of the minorities does not arise. 

There is no district in the State where a separate language has 
been declared as the official language of the district 

(d) There is no statutory rule in Kerala relating to residence 
qualifications for recruitment to service 

(el There is no restriction of the type mentioned, in Kerala. 

7. Besides the facilities indicated in the answers above, it may 
be stated that in all spheres of Governmental activity, the growing 
needs of the linguistic minority groups are promptly attended to, in 
order to allay any fear of discrimination in their minds 

Yours faithfully, 

(Sd.) jor Chief Secretary to Government. 


KERALA STATE 
Letter No. C2-33885/57/ED 


Trivandrum. 
March 21, 1958. 


Prom 

Shn P. K Nambiar, I.A.S., 

Secretary to Government 

To 

The Commissioner for Linguistic Mmorities, 

Ministry of Home Affairs, 

Government of India, 

GovernmentHouse, 

Allahabad, UP 

Sir, 

Subject — Safeguards for linguistic minorities — Regarding. 

I am directed to forward herewith a copy of the map of Kerala. 
The safeguards provided in linguistic minorities are embodied in this 
State Government’s letter No. SRN-3-28316/57/PD, dated 18-12-1957 
to the Commissioner 

The following further points will be of interest to the Commis- 
sion — 


(1) The State Government have decided that parallel classes 
can be run m any school in English, Hindi, Canarese and 
Gujarathi provided there are 15 pupils willing to have that 
medium The parents are free to choose the medium of 
instruction under which education can be imparted to 



81 


their children. This gives the maximum amount of protec- 
tion to the existence of language groups m the State. 

(2) A College was established at Kasargode to serve the needs 
of Kannada speaking people. 

(3) The Government have also appomted the Education Secre- 
tary as the linguistic Minority OiScer to co-ordinate the 
activities of the different departments of the State in safe- 
guarding the interests of minority groups. 

Yours faithfully, 

(Sd.) P. K. NAMBIAR, 

Secy, to Government. 


MADHYA PRADESH 

Govbknmiunt of Madhya Pradkh Cestbal AjdmijNistratiok 

Depahtment 

No. 2223/«78S/I<V), dated Bhopal, the 4th April, 195G. 


From 

Shri L. B. Saxje, I.A.S., 

Deputy Secretary to Gcveniment, 

Madhya Pradesh. 

To 

The Conimisiioner for linguistic Minorities, 

2S, Hamilton Road, 

Allahabad. 

Subject: — Safeguards for linguistic minonties — Collection of 
information regarding. 


Sir, 

I am directed to refer to your Secret letter No. F.1/1/57-CLM, 
dated the 21st August, 1957 and subsequent reminder No. CLM/57 
(87), dated the 27th December, 1957, on the above subject, and to 
enclose a note explaining the position obtaining in this State and 
the action taken so far in respect of the various points mentioned 
m your letter referred to above and in the Memorandum on the 
subject of Safeguards for linguistic Minorities forwarded with the 
Ministry of Home Affairs letter No. 20/5/56-SRI, dated the 19th 
September, 1956, 


Youra faithfully, 

J[Sd,) L. B. SARJE, 
Dy. Secy, to the Government. 



82 

SAFEGUAUDS FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES 


Note explaining the position existing in Madhya Pradesh and the action taken ?o far w 
respect of the points contained in the Memorandum forwarded Jiith the Ministry 
of Home Affairs letter No. 20/5/56-SK/, dated the }<jth September, J?56 and Com- 

wdssioMf foT LiHguistic Secret Lsti&r No. F dated 21st 

August^ 1957- 

Paras of the Points in the 

Memoraaduin Commissioner’s 

letter, dated 
2ist August, 1957 

7 Point I The rccornniendatioiis of the State Education 

para. 2 . . . Pomr Ministers’ Conference held in AugS 

1949 were adopted in Old Madhya Pradesh. 
A copy of the order issued in Hindi with 
its English version is enclosed. The 
question of adopting these recommenda- 
tions in other regions of New M. P. mz., 
Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and 
Bhopal will be taken up shortly. A note 
containing some information m regard to 
the number of primary and Secondary 
schools for Linguistic Minorities and the 
grants paid to them is enclosed. This 
note is however not complete Further 
information is being collected and a 
complete note will follow. 


Para. 3 and 4 

. Point 2 

. The Instructions issued by old M.P. cited 
above cover the recommendations in 
regard to Secondary Education of Linguis- 
tic Minorities also. Further information 
available is given in the above note. 

Para. 5 « . 

, Point 3 

There are no such restrictions but at the 
same time there is no school or college 
for any linguistic ' minority so affiliated 
uptil now. 

Para. 6 • 

Point 4 

The information available has been shown 
in the note referred to above against 
para. 2. 

Para. 7 • 

• Point 6 (a) * 

. There is no such district m this State and 
as such no step is called for. 

Paras. 8, % 10 

. Point 6 .. 

. In this State, only one language group 
viz.^ Hindi constitutes about 87*4% of 
its entire population. There is no dis- 
trict in the State where under this princi- 
ple the language of the minority group 
should be the official language. 

Paras, ii — ^12 

• Point 6 (b) 

. The M. P. official language Act 1957 has 
recently been published. Action to im- 
plement this decision will now be taken. 

Part. 13 

* Point 6 (c) . 

• Recruitment to State Services is not done 
by competitive examinations in this State. 
These recommendations will however be 
kept in view if and when such an exami- 
nation is conducted. 

Para. 14 

, Point 6 (d) . 

There are no restrictions on the ground of 
domicile in this State. 


ara. 15 


This does not concern this State. 



Paras cf the Points in the 

Memorandum €0111^118810001*^8 

letter^ dated 
2 JSC Augusfj 1957 

Para. 16 Point 6 (e) 

Para 17 

Para. 18 

Para. 19 

Para. 20 
Para. 21-22 

Point 5 


The existing position lias been explained 
above against para. 14. 

There are no restrictions 01 discriminatory 
conditions attached regarding freedom of 
trade^ commerce and intercourse and 
right to equality of opportunity. 

The proposal is sound m principle and 
has been no^ed 

The Stare Government agree wiih these 
recommendat 10ns . 

No comments 

This has been noted 

. The State legislature has passed the M. P. 
Official Language Act, 1957 which has 
been published in the M P. Gazette on 
7th February, 1958 A copy of the Act is 
enclosed According to section 3 of the 
Act Hindi in Devanagan script has been 
declared official language ot the State. 
Issue of notifications under sec. 4 is 
being considered by the State Govern- 
ment. 


GOVERNMENT OF MADHYA PRADESH 
^ Education Department 

ISfo 2163-868-18-52 Nagpur, the 25th April, 1955. 

To 


The Director of Public Instructions, Madhya Pradesh. 

'Subject. — Medium of instruction for children belonging to linguistic 
minorities 

State Government has taken the following decision on the resolu- 
tions adopted at the State Education Ministers’ Conference held in 
August 1949. 

(A) Pupils whose mother tongue is one of the fourteen 
accepted languages mentioned m the constitution and is 
not the same as the regional language will be treated as 
pupils belonging to linguistic minorities. 

(B) where the mother tongue is different from the State 
language or the regional language and ( 1 ) if there are not 
less than 40 pupils in a primary school speaking that 
language in the whole school or such pupils in a class, at 
least one teacher shall be appointed to give instructions 





in that primary school through the medium of the mother 
longue, if there is demand for such instructions; 

(ii) if the number of pupils whose mother tongue is a 
language other than the regional or the State language 
ij sufficient to ]ustify a separate Secondary school m 
that area, the medium of instruction m such a school 
may be the mother longue of the pupils such schools 
shall be entitled to recognition and granls-m-aid from 
the State Government according to rules; 

( 111 ) if m any secondary school maintained by Government 
or a Local Body, one third of the total number of pupils 
of the school desire instruction in their mother tongue 
and if no other school in that area meets this demand, 
the question of providing such mstiuctions will be duly 
examined. 

(C) Loral Bodies v/bich have closed down primary schools 
providing instruction in non-regional languages should 
be advised to restart them If the Local Bodies are unable 
(o do so, Ihey should be ad^used to transfer all assets, 
building and equipment of such schools to such local 
(educational) societies as may be prepared to run them. 

(D) If non-Government Hindi and Marathi primary schools 
m v/hich the number of pupiis speaking a non-regional 
language is about 40 make a’^rangement for instruction 
through the medium of a non-regional language accord- 
mg to rules, they shall be gwen grants-in-aid on the 
acfiaissible expenditure on the usual terms For such 
additional sections m Secondary schools, and to new 
Secondary schools started for providing such instruction, 
grants-in-aid shall be paid on the admissible expenditure 
on the usual terms. 

2 Action has to be taken according to these decisions and the 
decisions are to be implemented soon. It is. therefore, requested 
^hat data be collected rnd self explanatory proposal, with financial 
implications be forwarded to the Government immediately. 

By order of the Governor 
Madhya Pradesh. 

(Sd.) SHAMANUJ VERMA, 

Under Secretary to Government, Madhya Pradesh. 

Educational Department. 


List showing the No. of Schools (Language) concbsning to 
Madhya Bharat Region (Boys and Gikls) 


Government Schools 

1 Gujarati 2 

2. Urdu 33 

3. Marathi 20 



85 


Aided Schools 


Name Amount Grant in aid. 


Es. 

1 Urdu Islamia School Indurakhi (Bhind) 300 

2. Anjuman Islam School, Bhilsa 180 

3. Sherania Urdu School, Ratlam 300 

4. Marathi Prathamik Shala, Mhow. 600 

5. Prathamik Pathashala, Gujrati Sama], Indore 4,000 

6. Gujarati Samaj Inter College, Indore. 51,000 

7. Gujarati Samaj Sajjan Vidyalaya, Ratlam 6,900 

8. Gujarati Samaj, Middle School, Ujjain. 7,900 

9. Urdu Vajahiya Middle School, Indore. 4,778 

10. Urdu Vajahiya Primary School, Class I, Indore. 5,000 

11. Urdu Vajahiya Primary School, Class II, Indore 4,625 


Though these institutions are in the names of Gujarati, Marathi 
and Urdu, yet other languages are also taught in them. 

Mahakoshal Region 

In the Mahakoshal area the medium o£ instruction in Govern- 
ment and non-Govemment High and I.E.M School is Hindi. 

The following non-Govermnent secondary schools have English 
medium: — 

(1) Christ Church Boys High School, Jabalpur. 

(2) St. Aloysius High School, Jabalpur. 

(3) Christ Church Girls High School, Jabalpur. 

(4) St. Joseph’s Convent Girls High School, Jabalpur. 

(5) St. Joseph’s Convent Girls High School, Sagar. 

There are no Anglo Indian English Middle Schools in Mahakoshal 
The following schools are through Urdu medium: — 

(1) Quadria Girls High School, Burhanpur. 

(2) Muslim Girls High School, Raipur. 

(3) Anjuman High School, Jabalpur. 

(4) Anjuman Contonment I.E.M. School, Jabalpur. 

(5) Husenia Girls I.E.M.S. Jabalpur. 

(6) Hakimia Coronation H.S. Burhanpur (Boys). 

The following schools are run through Marathi medium; — 

(1) Shri Nath High School (Girls) Chhindwara. 

(2) Maharashtra H. S. Jabalpur. 

(3) Pandit Waman Rao Lakhe, I.E.M. School, Raipur. 

Anglo Indian Schools are paid grant at the approved expenditure 
or i of annual income whichever is less as per Chapter V of the 
Anglo Indian Education Code. 

(ii) In the rest of the Non-Govemment secondary schools the 
Grant is paid on deficit basis. 



86 

VINDHYA PRADESH REGION 
Aided Schools 

Name Amount Grant m Aid 

1. Anjuman Islamia Schools, Tikamgarh 

2. Islamia School, Satna. 

3. Islamia School, Rewa 

There are no Marathi and Gujarati Schools. 


Rs. 

1,371 

120 

180 





MYSORE STATE 


No. GADIZOC57 
Enel; Statement. 


GrOVERNMENT OF MYSORE 

Mysore Government Secretariat, 
General Administration Deptt. 
Bangalore, ith Nov. 1957. 


From 

The Chief Secretary to the Government of Mysore. 


Shri B. Malik, 

Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, 

11, Edmonstone Road, Allahabad. 

StTBJECT: — Sajegtiards for Linguistic Minorities — Collection of 
information regarding. 


Sir, 

With reference to your letter No. F. 1/1/57-CLM, dated the 
August, 1957, on the subject noted above, I am directed to state as 
follows: — 

The safeguards mentioned in the ‘'memorandum on the safe- 
guards for Linguistic Minorities” mainly relate to: — 

(i) provision of the facilities for instruction in the mother 
tongue of the linguistic minority groups. 

(li) recognition of minority languages as official language 
ie., where 70 per cent, or more of the total population 
of a District consists of a group which is a minority 
in the State as a whole. 

(iii) publication of important Government notices, rules, 
etc., in the minority languages wherever a linguistic 
minority constitutes 15 to 20 per cent, of the popula- 
tion of an administrative unit like Taluk, District. 

(iv) recognition of official language based on the criterion 
referred to in clause (ii) above or the language of the 
minority constituting about 15 to 20 per cent, or more 
of the population of the State as a medium for exami- 
nations conducted for recruitment to State services. 


87 



88 


(v) removal of restrictions, if any, in the matter of trade, 
commerce and intercourse. 

(iv) removal of restrictions regarding dornicile in the rules 
relating to recruitment to State services. 

2 As regards (i) above, I am to state that the facilities as envi- 
saged by the Government of India are granted ^ to the linguistic 
minorities in this State in the matter of education The linguistic 
loinoriiies are treated on par with Kannada schools so tar as opening 
of additional schools or classes is concerned, in so far as there 
IS a demand for opening a primary school If there are 20 to 25 
pupils forthcoming, a new school or a branch school is opened. 
Similarly permission for opening additional sections in High School 
IS given wherever there is a demand, if 30 to 40 pupils are forth- 
coming. Every effort is being made to see that primary education is 
imparted through the mother tongue to all linguistic minority 
groups in this State. The State Government have no objection to 
taking action as suggested in the Government of India Memorandum 
on Safeguards for Linga stic Minorities in this behalf 

3. As regards (n) in para. 1 above, I am to state tliat as there is 
no minoniy having 70 per cent, or more of the total population m 
any district in this State, the question of recognising any minority/ 
language as the ofScial language in any district does not arise in the 
ease of Mysore State. 

4. As regards (iii) in para. 1 above, I am to enclose a statement 
showing the Unguis lie mmorities constituting more than 15 per cent, 
of the population in some of the districts/cities in this State. The 
State Government will make arrangements to publish important 
Government notices and rules in the minority languages indicated 
in the enclosed Statement. 

6. As regards (iv) in para 1 above, it may be stated that at present 
no recruitment examinations are held in this State entirely in 
languages other than English. This apart, for the reason stated in 
para. 3 above and as there is no moiority constituting about 15 to 
20 per cent, or more of the total population of the State, the question 
of recognising any minority language as a medium for examinations 
conducted for recruitment to State services does not arise in the case 
of Mysore State. 

6, As regards (v) in para. 1 above, I am to state that the State 
Government have no objection to taking action as suggested in para. 
17 of the Memorandum on Safeguards for linguistic Minorities. 

7. As regards (vi) in para. 1 above, I am to add that the Govern- 
ment of Mysore have no objection to remove restrictions regarding 
domicile in the rules relating to recruitment to State Services. 

Yours faithfully, 

(Sd) L. A. DHAMANIGI, 
for Chief Secretary to Govt, 



STATEMENT 


Percentage 

Linguistic Minority to total Names of Districis/Giftds 

population 


Hindustani 

I 5 * 8 r 

Bangalore Corporitlom. 

Do. ... 

17 20 

Mysore City. 

Urdu . 

l8 20 

Bidar District. 

Do. ... 

• 17 35 

Gulbarga District. 

Tamil 

31 69 

Bangalore Corporation. 

Do . . 

61 *16 

Kolar Gold Fields City. 

Telugu 

28*51 

Raichur District. 

Do. 

15 95 

Chitaldrug District. 

Do. ... 

59 69 

Kolar District 

Do 

19-81 

Kolar Gold Fields City. 

Do. ... 

17-78 

Bangalore District. 

Do. ... 

17-79 

Bangalore Corporation. 

Do. ... 

18 19 

Bidar District. 

Marathi 

26*59 

Bclgaum District. 

Do* . . . 

26-58 

Bidar District. 


ORISSA STATE 

Government of Orissa 
HOME DEPARTMENT 


No. 1537-A 

Bhubaneswar, the 22nd January^ 1958. 

Prom 


Shri P. N. Mahanti, I.A.S , 
Secretary to Government. 


To 

The Commissioner lor Linguistic 
Minorities, 26, Hamilton Road, 

Allahabad. 

Subject. — Safeguards for Lingmsiic Minorities — Collection of 
information 

Sir, 

With reference to your Office letter No. CLM/57(90), dated the 
27th December, 1957, I am directed to enclose a memorandum show- 
ing action taken by the State Government on the proposals forward- 
ed in Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs letter No 20/5/ 
56, SRI, dated the 19th September, 1956. 

Yours faithfully, 

(Sd.) P. N. MAHANTI. 
Secretary to Government, 




90 

MEMORANDUM 


Subject. — Safeguards for linguistic minorities 

Paragraph 2. Primary Education: The arrangements^ which were 
generally accepted at the Provincial Education Ministers Conference 
in August 1949 were brought into force in this State and the 
following orders were issued by Government in their Resolution 
No. 8396--E, dated the 12th September, 1949 

‘Tn all primal y or junior basic schools and the primary classes 
of all secondary schools the medium of instruction and examination 
should be the mother tongue of the child Where the mother tongue 
IS different from the regional or State language i.e., Oriya which is 
spoken by a large ma 3 ority of the people inhabiting the Province, 
arrangements will be made for instruction through the mother tongue 
by appointing at least one teacher provided there are not less than 
forty pupils speaking the language in the whole school. The mother 
tongue will be the language declared by the parent or guardian tc 
be the mother tongue The regional or State language, where it is 
different from the mother tongue will be introduced in the top two 
classes of the primary or junior basic schools and the corresponding 
classes of secondary schools In order to facilitate the switching over 
to the regional or State language (i.e. Oriya) as medium of instruc- 
tion in the secondary stage, children will be given the option of 
answering questions in their mother tongue for the first two years 
alter the primary or junior basic stage”. 

Paragraphs 3 and 4 Secondary Education' Accepting the resolu- 
tion adopted by the Provincial Education Ministers^ Conference in 
August 1949, the State Government of Orissa gpve effect to all the 
recommendations made in the said resolution and issued the follow- 
ing orders in their Resolution No 8396-E., dated the 12th September, 
1949. 

“In the Secondary stage if the number of pupils, whose mother 
tongue IS a language other than the regional or State language, is 
sufficient to justify a separate school in an area, the medium of 
instruction m such a school may be the mother tongue of the pupils. 
Such schools, if organised and established by private societies or 
agencies, will be entitled to recognition and grant-in-aid from Gov- 
ernment according to the prescribed rules Government will also 
provide necessary facilities in all Government, Municipal and District 
Board Schools where nne-lhird of the total number of pupils of the 
school request for instruction through their mother tongue Govern- 
ment will also require the aided secondary schools to arrange for 
such instruction if desired by one-third of "the pupils provided that 
there are no adequate facilities for instruction through that parti- 
cular language in the area The regional or State language, i.e., 
Oriya, will however, be a compulsory’' subject through the secondary 
stage” 

Further, the Board of Secondary Education, Orissa which is a 
statutory body, has made provision for the teaching of the mother 
tongue as a compulsory’ subject of instruction absorbing all the 



91 


modern Indian languages, which are ordinarily spoken by the “resi- 
dents of the State including members of the minority communities. 
The languages are Hindi, Bengali, Urdu and Telugu. The Board also 
gives the candidates for the High School Certificate Examination, the 
option of answering papers in non-language subjects either in their 
own mother tongue if the mother tongue is one of the languages 
mentioned above, or in English. 

Paragraphs 5 and 6. Affiliation of schools and colleges using 
minonty languages: There has been no change in the status quo 
regarding the boundaries of this State as a result of the recommenda- 
tions of the States Reorganisation Committee. No new mmoriiy 
group has come into this state. Therefore, no problem of new 
minority languages has arisen. Adequate and liberal provision 
has been in existence for the existing minority languages, in the 
Secondary School stage as mentioned above and in the College 
stage under the regulations of the Utkal University It is not neces- 
sary for any institution to seek affiliation outside the State. 

Information on the question as to whether there are any school 
or colleges established by linguistic minorities is being collected and 
wih be iurmshed as soon as available 

Pm ac^'^nhr 7, 3 9 and 10* From the 1951 Census figures of Orissa 
it 0 -^ ^’een thai P>2 37 per cent, of the population are Oriyas, 0-58 
per cent Bengalis; 2 33 per cent Telugus, and 14-72 per cent, other 
minoi. 'V grouos As no single minority group constitutes 30 per cent, 
or rnor^ o" toe noiulation m Orissa, the question of declaring the 
Stale as a Oxlinguai State does not arise 

From the Census figures of 1951, it can be seen that in none of the 
disc/iCuS jn ^his State any single minority community constitutes 70 
per cent or more of the total population of that district The ques- 
tion of lecognismg the languages of any minority group as the 
official language of any district therefore does not arise 

Pay'aqraplis 11 and 12* Information relating to the population on 
linguistic basis for Municipal and Tehsil areas are not available 
readily State Government have, however, no objection to issue 
instructions to give effect to the suggestion made in these paragraphs. 

Paragraph 13* No minority group in this State constitutes more 
than three per cent of the total population of the State. The ques- 
tion of prescribing any minority language as the media of any 
recriufment examination for State Services therefore does not arise. 

Paragraph 14* Parliament has, in the meanwhile, passed neces- 
sary legislation and therefore no further comments are necessary. 

Paragraphs 15 and 16* Do not require any reply. 

Paragraph 17 : Restriction of private rights in respect of contracts, 
fisheries etc . No restriction of the nature mentioned in this para, has 
been imposed by the State Government on the linguistic minorities. 

Paragraph 18: Does not concern the State Governitient. 

Paragraph 19: State Government will keep the suggestion in 
view. 

Paragraph 20: There is a Public Service Commission exclusively 
for this State since 1949. 



92 

GOVERNMENT OF ORISSA 
(Home Department) 


No. 2570/Ref. 

Bhubaneswar, the 5th February, 1958 


From 

Shri U. C Agarwal, I.A.S , 

Deputy Secretary to Government. 


To 


The Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, 

26, Hamilton Road, Allahabad. 

Subject. — Safeguard for Linguistic Minorities — Collection of 
information. 


Sir, 

In continuation of this Department letter No 1537A, dated the 
22nd January, 1958, I am directed to forward a statement showing 
the 'names of the ikiucational institutions established by Linguistic 
Minorities in Orissa. 

The grant-in-aid paid by Government to these schools is 2/3rd 
-of the net deficit of the school budgets 


Yours faithfully, 

The 5th February, 1958. (Sd.) U. C. AGARWAL. 

Deputy Secretary to Government 


Name of the School 


Name of the Linguistic minoniics 


1. Marwari High School, Cuttack Marwan 

2. City High Scoool, Berhamporc Tclug-ii, 

3. Mahamaya M. E. School for Ben- Bengali. 

galcc Boys, Cuttack. 


4. Madrasa Mumanit at Bhadrak 


Muslim Urdu 



PUNJAB 


Secretary to Government, Punjab, 
Education Department 


To 


Trom 

Shri B. S. Manchanda, I-A-S-, 

Secretary to Government, Funjac, 

Education Department. 

The Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, 

Ministry of Home Affairs, , ^ 

Government of India, South BiocK, 

New Delhi. 

Chandiga7'h. the 18tJi March, 19a8. 

, T 'Minorities — Colleehoa of mfor- 

SUBJECT -Safeguards for Linguistic Minoniies 

mation regarding 

Wo F1/1/57-CLM, dated the 
With reference to your Qppretarv to the Government 

August, 19.^7. addressed to /^lef Secretar^J^^to 

of Punjab. Chandigarh. ^ f'ff so^far as safeguards for linguistic 
the position obtaining , .oration is oiven m order of loe 

minorities are concerneu “fom^ letter under reference 

points menaoned in the enclosure to your leuc ^ ^ 

(1) The language formula, o^It October 1949 (cooy 

Diula, which was adopted by ihr same lines as the resolution 

enclosed as enclosure No I ^^^^CommStee on 5th August 1949 
passed by the Congress Working „ , ^ Ministers’ Conference 

knd as endorsed by the f e te^t 

soon after As will be seen languages of the 

and Punjabi were adopted gJallv to be the medium of ms- 

3tate; and, although P^’^^abi was ge tie the medium in 

cruction in the Punjabi-speaki ^ provided that the children of 
tne Hindi-speakmg area, it wa® / for a medium 

linguistic minority groups in arrangements to 

of instruction of their choice At made in accord- 

*S,irr«ruS Education Mmtsters- Conteronco^^^ 

The language arrangemrat in ^X'^two^zones— the 

different. The State of P®P ^ Hindi alone was to be tlie 

Hindi zone and the Punjab ^ the Hindi zone and Punjabi 

medium of instruction for all cm pgpsu Formula is enclosed as 

xn the Punjabi zone A copy “ me ^les in Pepsu were 

enclosure No II Thus, the "^dium of instruction for their 

allowed no choice with regard Pepsu Formula has been 

children In prartice, howey ’ t.+ptions m Pepsu The private 
observed only in *Sovernmen refused to fall m line with the 

Institutions have, m several cas®s^ , tp a medium of their 

general scheme and have ^^’^^ntmg schools were withheld for a 
choice. The grants of the dissenting 
year, but were later released. 

256 HA— 7 



94 


When Punjab and Pepsu were integrated in November 1956, it 
was agreed that the language arrangements in the areas of the 
two integrating States would continue till these were replaced or 
altered by agreement later on This arrangement, known as the 
Regional Formula, had the approval of the Parliament 

Thus, there are not one, but two, language arrangements in vogue 
m the new Punjab. The Sachar Formula is followed in the aieas 
of the erstwhile Punjab Stale and the Pepsu Formula in those of 
the erstwhile Pepsu State While the Punjab Formula allows 
almost unfettered freedom in choosing the medium of instruction to 
linguistic minorities, the Pepsu Formula does not permit anv such 
freedom 

Although technically, the Pepsu Formula, denying facilities for 
instructions in the mother tongue at the primary stage to the 
children belonging to the linguistic minority group, mav be taken 
as conflicting with the directive of the Constitution contained in 
Article 350-A, it is important to consider that is a part of ‘^an outline 
of the scheme for Regional Committees in the Punjab State"' 
(commonly known as the Regional Formula), which has been 
approved by the Parliament, and as such the ConstitutJonal objeC" 
tion, if anyi is not of much significance In the interest of peaceful 
development of the State, the State Government do not consider it 
advisable at the present juncture to re-open this question of langu- 
age arrangement in erstwhile Pepsu 

(2) As in the case of primary education, so also in the case of 
secondary education, the decisions of the Education Ministers" 
Conference 1949 were accepted by the State and incorporated in 
the Sachar Formula By the time a student passes the 8th class 
examination, he is expected to have learnt both Hindi and Punjabi 
and he is also given the freedom to answer his examination papers 
in all non-language subjects m either medium according to his 
convenience. 

(3) The educational institutions m the State ar^ mostly affiliated 
to the Puniab University, but there are no restrictions placed by 
the State Government that such institutions mav not be affiliated 
to the Universities or educational authorities situated outside the 
State In fact, some institutions imparting instructions in Sanskrit 
are actually affiliated to educational authorities outside the State and 
no distinction is made in the matter of grants to them 

(4) There are a number of educational institutions, both schools 
and colleges, established by linguistic minorities, and they are 
receiving Government grants m accordance ivith the rules of grant- 
in-aid There is no discrimination of any sort — not even in the 
Pepsu area, as mentioned m para 1 above * 

(5) Urdu and English continue to be official languages in the 
erstwhile Punjab area and Punjabi and English in the old Pepsu 
area The State Government have, however, decided to replace 
Urdu and English by Punjabi and Hindi bv 1961 The Regionai 
Formula lays down that the language of the region will be the 
official language upto the district level Accordingly, steps have 
been taken by the State Government to provide instruction^n Hindi 



and Punjabi to all Government servants, so that the official work 
may be switched on to these two regional languages in the near 
future. 

(6) The suggestions made by the Government of India m their 
Circular letter for determining uniiingual or bilingual districts will 
be duly borne in mmd when details for adopting Hindi and/or 
Punjabi for official work in different parts of the State are finalised. 
Already it has been decided that Government circulars and notices 
in areas where the linguistic minority forms a fair proportion of 
the population should be issued in both Hindi and Punjabi. 

The wishes of the Government of India that there should be no 
restriction wnth regard to residence in a particular area or part of 
the country and that the domicile rules should be liberalised, have 
already been generally accepted by the State, and in the matter of 
recruitment, the domicile condition is not insisted upon 

(7) The decision of the Punjab Government to issue all impoitant 
notices and circulars m both the languages of the State, viz, Hindi 
and Punjabi, in either region, has been welcomed by all sections of 
tne people Similarly it has been ordered that the applications may 
be made in any language and the replies thereto should also be 
given in the same language as far as possible to avoid inconvenience. 
These steps are intended to infuse confidence in the linguistic 
minorities and allay any fear of discrimination in their minds 

Yours faithfully, 

Sd/- B S. MANCHANDA, 

Secretary to Government, Punjab, 
Educational Department 


ENCLOSURE ‘P 

Final Draft ?rop(^sals on language question in East Punjab 

I. There are two spoken languages in the East Punjab, namely, 
Punjabi and Hindi, and there are also current two scripts namely, 
Gurmukhi and Devnagri. 

Punjabi shall be the regional language in the Punjabi-speakmg 
area and Hindi shall be the regional language in the Hiiidi-speakmg 
area The Provincial Government will determine such areas after 
expert advice 

Punjabi shall mean Punjabi m the Gurumukhi script and Hindi 
in the Devnagri script. 

II Punjabi shall be the medium of instruction in Punjabi-speak- 
mg area in all schools upto the matriculation stage, and Hindi shall 
be taught as a compulsory language from the last class of the 
Primary department and upto the matriculation stage and in case 
of girls in the girls school in the middle classes only 



96 


There will, however, be cases where the parent or guardian of 
the pupil may wish him to get instruction in Hindi on the ground 
that Hindi and not the regional language is his mother tongue. In 
such cases, without questioning the declaration of a parent or a 
guardian arrangements will be made for instruction m Hindi during 
the primary stage, provided there are not less than forty pupils in 
the whole school wishing to be instructed in Hindi, or ten such 
pupils in each class Under these arrangements Hindi will be the 
medium of instruction for the pupils in the primary stage, but the 
regional language shall be taught as a compulsory language from 
the fourth class and to girls in girls schools from the sixth class. 
In ,the secondary stage also the medium of instruction for these 
pupils will be Hindi if one-third of the total number of pupils in 
a Government, Municipal or a District Board School request for 
instruction in Hindi. Government will also require aided schools 
to arrange for instruction m Hindi, if desired by one-third of the 
pupils, provided that there are no adequate facilities for instruction 
in Hindi in the area If this condition of one-third is not satisfied 
then, in order to facilitate the switching over to the regional langu- 
age as medium in the secondary stage, Hindi-speaking_ pupils will 
be given the option of answering questions in Hindi for the first 
t-wo years of the secondary stage. The regional language would, 
however, be a compulsory subject throughout the secondary stage 

III Hindi shall be the medium of instruction in Hmdi-speaking 
area in all schools upto the matriculation stage, and Punjabi shall 
be taught as a compulsory language from the last class of the 
primary department and upto the matriculation stage and m case 
of girls in the girls schools in the middle classes only 

There wiU, however, be cases where the parent or guardian of 
the pupil may wish him to get instruction in Punjabi on the ground 
that Punjabi and not the regional language is his mother tongue. 
In such cases without questioning the declaration of a parent or a 
guardian arrangements will be made for instruction in Punjabi 
during the primary stage, provided there are not less than forty 
pupils in the whole school wishing to be instructed in Punjabi or 
ten such pupils in each class Under these arrangements Punjabi 
will be the medium of instruction for the pupils in the primary 
stage, but the regional language shall be taught as a compulsory 
language from the fourth class and to girls in girls schools from the 
6th class In the secondary stage also the medium of instruction 
for these pupils will be Punjabi if one-third of the total number of 
pupils in a Government, Municipal or a District Board School request 
for instruction in Punjabi Government will also require aided 
schools to arrange for instruction m Punjabi, if desired by one-third 
of the pupils, provided that there are' no adequate facilities for 
instruction in Punjabi in the area If this condition of one-third is 
not satisfied then, m order to facilitate the switching over to the 
regional language as medium in the secondary stage, Punjabi-speak- 
ing pupils will be given the option of answering questions in 
Punjabi for the first two years of the secondary stage. The regional 
language would, however, be a compulsory subject throughout the 
secondoary stage. 



97 


IV. To meet unforeseen situation arising out of the demand for 
imparting education in a language other than the regional language, 
Government may issue further necessary directions. 

V. In an unaided recognised school, the medium of instruction 
Will be determined by the management. It will not be obligatory 
on them to provide facilities for instruction in any other medium 
but it will be incumbent on them to provide for the teaching of 
Punjabi or Hindi, as the case may be, as a second language. 

VI. English and Urdu will, for the present continue as ohkial 
and court languages; these will be replaced progressively by 
Eindi and Punjabi in the light oi the principles laid down in the 
resolution adopted by the Working Committ^^e of the Indian Nalion- 
ai Congress a I its zTieeting held on nib August, J94h (copy enclosed), 

Vil TIrese proposals do not apply lo Ihose pup'ls vhoDo mmhor 
tongue IS neither Punjabi nor rlind . Suij’abie arrangements null 
b: made ici the education <=’ueh in Ihoiu methor 'ongue if 

then? :c a siihlcien: nuino-u’ oi iv.jh a- ore j ac? : rrmkc 

tnese arrangements possible 

f • zn CzLHi: 

Isi October, i&4? 


(e~ } w'lai e, 

m 1* / marta’r niingn. 


WOllAlMG CCAjHITEZ 
BIUlOGUhl. Ar£a 3 ago? 


. o JIL 




f' : 



, rnrnd 

r . an luy 

^ to 



1 I nc.f: 'rd SAms n.h-?e r W' ' hr ^ r?m/r:is 

' c amcr -n:c'' 'nh.jpiitcbl' h/^ ' ' o t"’ i n;* y.n 

oxhm Beurec such areoj tieie ,.-0 ;:jj l u - ■ - ^ ?hr:. me 



language gradually slips into another and for purposes of this 
resolution such areas may be termed bilingual areas 

It IS for a province or State to decide what its language is In 
multi-lmgual Provinces undisputed areas belonging to the various 
languages as also the fringe or bilingual areas should be demarca- 
ted and the language of each indicated by the Province or Slate 
concerned. 

For administrative purposes the language of the Province or 
the area concerned should be used In fringe or bilingual areas if 
the minority is of a considerable size, le 20 per cent of the popu- 
lation, documents which the public at large have to use, such as 
Government notices, etc electoral rolls, ration cards etc , should 
be m both languages For Court and administrative purposes, the 
language of the province or area will be used in all public offices, 
it will be open, however, to any person having another language 
to submit petition in his own language, which is officially 
recognised. 

For all Ind-o purposes ihere will be a State language in which 
the business of the Union will be conducted That will be the 
language of correspondence with the Provincial and State Govern- 
ments. All records of the Centre will be kept and maintained in 
that language. It wik also serve as the langir ge for mter-provin- 
cial and inter-SLate commerce and correspondence During a 
period Oi transition v/hich shall not exceed 15 years, English may 
be used at the centre and for inter-provincial affairs, provided that 
the State language will be progressively utilized until u replaces 
English 


Educatioiial purposes 

At the primary stage a child shall get instruction in h..s mother 
tongue which v/ill be according to the Wishes of the guardian or 
parents of the cnild I: will ordinarily be the language of the area 
or the urovincc Buc in other places also and particularly m 
fringe areas and in large cities tvhere people speaking diilerent 
languages congregate, public primary schools giving instruction in 
the language of a minority will be opened or sections joined to 
other piirnary schools, ir there is a reasonable number, say 15 
oiipils in a class der^anding instruction m that language. But even 
in such -chocls and sections gumg msirticlion Ihroiigh a minority 
htnu.iage, provincial language will be inLouuced at the nnddie stage 
0 / n for children speaking the mnnority language Instrucnori at llie 
secondary stage will ordinarily he given in the Fromnciai language 
but wffiere a sufficiently large number of pupils demand it smrools 
may be run on sections ahached to other schools in a minority 
language. proj_ded that this will be cetermnned having regard to 
conditions prevailing, in the locality such as, whether there are any 
existing institutions. Government or private giving instruction 
through the minority language, whether the finances^ of the pro- 
vinces can afford such independent schools, etc. At the secondary 
stage sUKh of the All India State Language should be taken up as 



99 


a second language. At the University stage the medium of instruc- 
tion will be the Provincial language. 

For the purposes of this resolution Urdu shall be one of the 
languages concerned. 


ENCLOSURE dP 
Pepsu Language Formula 

Pepsu is a bilingual State consisting of two zones known as 
Hindi-speaking and Punjabi-speakmg zones In the Hindi-speak- 
‘ng zone, Plindi is taught from the very first primary class and 
Punjabi as second compulsory subject from 3rd primary standard 
and similarly Punjabi from the 1st primary class and Hindi as 
second compulsory language from 3rd prjmar 3 j standard in Punjabi- 
speaking areas. Hindi is medium of instruction in Hindi zone and 
Punjabi in Punjabi-speaking zone 


TRIPURA 

Tripura Administlation Politicau 
Mo. F, lQ6£)-?/5G Aaartala, the March. 1953. 


From 

The Assistant Secretary, 

Tripura Administration, Agaric la 

To 

The Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities. 

Ministry of Home Afiaiiy, 

South Block, New Delhi. 

Suuject: Safeguards for Linauistic iniacn'ues — ^olh^cnon 
of infonnation regarding. 

- 

DU, 

With reference to your letter No. F 1/1/57 — CLM dated the 21si 
August, 1957 on the subject noted above, I am dn^ected to state as 
follows in respect of the items mentioned in the list of points en- 
closed with your letter under reference 

There is no primary school for linguistic minorities rur by the 
District Boards or Municipalities under ihis AdinmistratiCii. In 
Tripura a large majority of primary schools are managed oy the 
Territorial Council while a few such schools are run by pr'vate 
agencies who are given grants in aid b}^ this Admmislration. Except 
for the tribals, primary education is imparted through the mother 
tongue Different tribal communities have different dialects 
their own Most of the dialects have no script or literature to 
enable them to be used as the medium of mstPirtinns in pnmary 
or other schools There are about 3000 Lushais living in scattered 



100 


hamlets in particular areas who have a language which is recog 
nised as minor language to be offered for School Final Examination 
of Calcutta and Gauhati Universities. Special arrangements have 
been made in respect of primary schools in Lushai area, where 
Liishai is used as the medium of instruction and text books pres- 
cribed lor Lushais are also allowed to be used. Regional language is 
not allowed to be used in schools earlier than at the class III stage. 
It has also been so arranged that each primary, M,E, and Junior 
H^gli School m Lushai area has Lushai speaking teachers as far as 
pracioaoie Tv^o other linguistic groups, Garos and Khasis form- 
ing “;ery small minorities have also written janguages using the 
Roman script, but there has never been demand from them for 
malinig special arrangement. Primary schools for tnbals have beer 
pro c mid :n the interior even with an enrolment as low as 15. Ins- 
tructions have been issued to all teachers in schools situated in 
tribal IccaliLies to pick up the local tribal dialects and to expl 3 r>"' 
a;r’ word or passage m the texts which is u iintelligibie to the 
trionl sL.denm viih the help of equivalent expressions in loca 
tnbw dmlecls. Prizes Have been instituted ior encouraging non- 
tribal teachers cO' learn Tripun. Tripuri dialect has also been made 
conrpuisory fc„ the terchers undergoing training in the basic 
Training Coliegc, 

\iera 2 oj uhe Ust of points 

secondary education, theae are no District Beard or 
L'^unicycahty— riaiiaged Secondary Schools in Tripura, Secondary 
cducciiicn is imparted here through the regional language '^vhieh is 
Eei'iga:! and which happened to be the oiiiciai language of the 
StOie dunng me regime of the Maharajas. As regards miplementa- 
t::n iU Tripum m: the resolution adopted by the Frovinciai Educa- 
lien rums .0 0 Ccmerence in August 1949 in regard to secondary 
eduoaixn, t:i ' .arcs c: this Administration are as fellows 







;o the recognition and giuing of Go^/em- 
this tenutoiy to Secondary Schools 
Lrbhshed by prhmte agencies to meet 
tre '’mguistx miner ties. 

lubai cL'^lecis having no written 
':c„ ^rcuhies for instruction in Wose 
^ x rrrngdd ’’n Government and 
_h-ccnd?ry schoc.s a. present pendmg 
■ dm ?ur:pt .’o depict those dialects 


i?r r 







x-. V 'sh j 1 A" any lirriiistic 
'xr ouch senoois anl colleges 
. .js* o"- riL under ihe relevaii' 



xux 


Regarding items 5, 6 and 7 of the list of points 

The matter has been carefully considered by the Chief Com- 
missioner in consultation with the Council of Advisers and a reply 
intimating the views of this Administration have already been sent 
to the Government of India in our letter of even number, dated the 
30th July, 1957 in reply to the Home Ministry’s letter No. 20/5/56- 
SRI, date the 19th September, 1956 wherein it has been proposed 
that the Union territory of Tripura may be declared as unilingual 
with Bengali, which is either spoken or understood by not less 
than 80 per cent, of the total population as the official language. It 
has also been proposed at the same time to develop Tripuri which 
is a dialect without any script or literature, and which is spoken 
and understood by most of the tribes inhabiting the area by evolv- 
ing a suitable script and producing necessary literature with a 
view lo eventually recognising it as a major second language. 

There are no restrictions regarding freedom of trade, commerce 
and intercourse in this Territory and every cnizen of India has 
equality of opportunity in respect of these matters. 

Yours faithfully, 

Sd/- B. K. SEN, 
Assistant Secretary, 


UTTAR PRADESH 


From 


To 


S 


No. i986-A/ 111-135/ i9a6. 


Ui : 
Uhs 

i-rllCj: 


■2^ 

j Pradesh, 

xllCW. 


The Coiri'iiissiu'ie'' Icr Lie^uisdc Mice, 
Piar-iiitGia it-oac., 

Aiiahaoad, 





Sn% 



2. in this conric-ctioii I an* er ti note .hr' / - i' a nien 
taken so far oy the Beale orj Jic /..j . renirici'.. 

rf?£err3d to iii that Ivlenic^vini r 



102 


3 It will be seen that in the case ot some of the recommenda- 
tions either no action is required to be taken by the State Govern- 
ment or action has already been taken, while some of the recom- 
mendations are still under consideration , 

4. I am to add that in pursuance of article 345 of the Constitu- 
tion ‘‘the UP. Official Language Act 1951” was enacted by ^the 
State Legislative in 1951 tvhereby Hindi was adopted as the lan- 
guage to be used for all or any of^the official purposes of the State. 

5 Some further information bearing on the subject of your 
letter will follow as soon as it has been collected. 

Yours faithfully, 

Sd/- A S MISRA, 

Upsachiv. 


Note — The reference to the ^‘Commission” in the following 
notes is to the “States Reorganisation Commission" 

I Priinary education 

The Go\ernment oi India have agreed with ilie State Re- 
organisation Commission that arrangements for instruction in 
mother-tongue at the primaiw stage of education, which were 
generally accepted at the Education Ministers’ Conference in 
August 1949, should be broughi into force in States and areas 
where the^r have not been adopted so far 

2 Necessary orders for instruction in the child's mother tongue, 
when it IS dilTerent from Hindi, have already been issued by the 
State Government. A copy of this Governments letter 
No A-8435/XV'-3401“53, dated October 20, 1953, about this is en- 
closed. It has been emphasised in it that in such cases arrange- 
ments should be made for instruction in the mother tongue of the 
child by appointing at least one instructor, provided there are not 
less than 40 pupils speaking ihe language in the whole school or 
ten such pupils in a class — the mother tongue being the language 
declared by the parent or guardian to be the mother tongue. " 

II Secondary education 

The Commissmn have recommended that the Government of 
India should, :n consultation with the State Government, la}/ dmvn 
a clear policy in legcwd to education ri the mother-tongue at the 
secondary stage and mke effeccive steps to implement it. The 
Commission have suggested that so far as secondary education is 
conterned, ii will have to be treated differently from education at 
Ihe prhmary stage, and have, therefore, not recommended recogni- 
tion of the right to receive instruction in the mother-tongue at the 
secondary school stage The Government of India, following the 
recommendation of the Commission, propose to lay down a clear 
policy in regard to the use and place of mother-tongue at the 
secondary stage of educaLfon in cmsultation unih State Govern- 
ments and to take steps to implement it. 



2. The existing position in this State is that no language other 
^than Hindi is a medium of instruction at the Secondary stage. The 
question of making any other language as the medium of instruc- 
tions will be considered when a reference about this is received 
from the Government of India. 

III. Ajjfiliation oj schools and colleges using minority languages 

The Government of India have agreed with the recommenda- 
tion of the Commission that educational institutions using minority 
languages should be permitted to seek affiliation to appropriate 
bpdies located even outside the State in respect of courses of stiidj^ 
ih the mother-tongue and that the institution which is thus affilia- 
ted should not su&r from any disabilities in regard to grant-in-aid 
and other facilities, merely because it cannot, from an academic 
point of view, be fitted into the frame-work of educational admin- 
istration v/ithin the State. The Government of India have accord- 
ingly suggested that irrespective of afiiliation to bodies situated 
within or without the State, all institutions should continue to be 
supported by the States m which they are located and that legisla- 
tion regarding Universities or Boards of Education may, where 
necessary, be reconsidered from this point of view. 

2 The matter is still under the consideration of the Slate Gov- 
ernment 

IV. Recognition of minority Icaguages as ojjic.al languages 

(aj The Government of India have agreed with tne Commission's 
recommendation that a State should be recognised as umlingual only 
where one language group constitutes about 70 per cent, or more 
of its entire population and where there is a substantial minority 
constituting 30 per cent or more ol the population, the Stale should 
be recognised as bilingual for adm nistrative purposes. 

2 According to che 1&51 Census, .iindi is IL^ mother-tongue of 
79 8 per cent of the population of thns State. The follov/l i ' an 
extract from page 413 of the ‘Census of India, 1£51, Yoiiinie b Part 
I .A — Report': 

'Tt will be seen that 79-8 per ceni oi the population have 
returned Kindi, 10 7 per cent as nindiisiani and 6 B per 
cent as Urdu as their mether-iongues " 

In the circumstances Ue question of ’ecognjung Lnic Sfaie as 
binngual for admin*' s Ira tive purposes doe^ not ari.-e. 

(b) The State Re-orgamsation Commission have rec^mr^-^nird 
that the principle laid down in the iccommendauion toed 

against item IV (a) above might hold good at dis net .i, no if 70 
per cent , or more of the total population of a district c insists of a 
group which is a rninorily in the State as a whole, the hanguage of 
the minority and not the State language should be the o.ncidi lui. ga- 
uge m that district 

2. This recommendation is still under the consideration cf the 
State Government. 



104 


(c) The Commission have stated that the recommendations men- 
tioned against items IV(a) and (b) should be without prejudice to 
the righ1, under article 350 ot the Constitution, of any one resident 
in the State to submit a i epreseniation for the redress of any 
grie’^ ance in any oj the language, used in the Union or the State 

2. Tne suggestion is under the consideration of the State Govem- 
m .n 

d, ^'-xccordiuy i.xo Cormxn'^ . m districts or smaller areas 

II m 0.2110 palitis- c ^ Is whe^’e a Imgaistic miriority consa- 

1C — 20 ceil. ) the jouuiation of that area, li may he 

c V vmagcous" 1 '^ re., m poman Go’^ -smaient notices and rules 

n iP Jie aniuueg’”" luc m iddhaon to any other 

or Irngaarc 

2 7:s rc-conr ah die cons^aerahon of the State 

Gi 

V. xlv^cegr iiG i oj i 1 U; as uie mecha for* examina- 

' '.Oixda. led jK : ^ cc w L.ticii to Slate semnces. 

(t; hne Gc^eiiirion. mcu: h: ^ agieed with the ComniiSSxOns 
1 . LinromdatjOu that e .Cuir.er Sxiould liai-e the option to elecl as 
ti... mcjia gl eivauiinat ..Oxit..ciod Loi recrmtmcnt to the SoOhe 
scr iCcr: eucLucung niioidinotc -^tuvueesi English or Hmdi or uiie 
language oi ^ minor -5 — 20 per cent, or more of Lhe 

popuLoh n u Sntt-” c ‘u prc'mercv in lhe Staie language may 

III w 0 -. ^ .v.n. Ot 1 .. : V ewa on $nvj DOxOm lhe end of probation. 

. j., jOu.d It f jf n j b e ' mmonties in this State 

m 1 ic. ^erj - e n- u pep a mn In the circurnscances 

n. ‘hoa .3 w V ^ t i ^ ^ Gc ^ernment on the above 

dvvU -t 

w 1’' ciiwu-u \ 0 ai" y ccci.ee 

xP w 1 j.». t. j ^ L-u—.— . w'c <Lt j CciC a ^xJjL. r C.lij iy.K. «,C£ 

30 I ^ ^ ^'^1 tax c c rlo 

f m p. msec 0 - cornpc xhow 

fc 


c. 


1 

1 

n 

rr. ^ 



■" 2 , ^ i 

1- uG t .cr n:n. 

CG 

j 


1 iO .-UC br'.. Cfl 

i, 

re 



- - ''ll nr 1.. X w (L 2-. 

t ■'n^use n pies cm any 
j ..b * 1 a r nrnen or cadre of Ihr 

oG 






105 


2. The Government of India have, however, stated that certain 
exceptions may have to be made to the general rule of non-discrimi- 
nation in the Telengana area, and that the question of making special 
provision in regard to employment opportunities in certain backward 
areas may also have to be considered. They have, however, express- 
ed the^ hope that these interim arrangements will not be continued 
beyond a specified transitional period. While the Government of 
India propose to undertake legislation as soon as possible to clarify 
the position on these lines, they have asked the State Governments 
to review, in the meantime, the rules relating to recruitment to 
services in the States. 

3 The matter is being considered in consultation with the Gov- 
ernment of India 

Note: — The Parliamentary Legislation referred to in paragraph 
2 above has since been passed — vide the Public Employment 
(Recruitment as to Residence) Act, 1957, which received the assent 
of the President on December 7, 1957. This Act will come into force 
with effect from a date to be notified b^’' the Central Government 
under section 1(3). 


VII. Restriction oj private rights in respect of contracts, fisheries etc. 

While inviting the attention of the State Governments to ^*ie 
relevant provisions in the Constitution regarding freedom of trade, 
commerce and intercourse and the right to equality of oppor'^unilv, 
the Government of India suggested that the existing restricl]t3ns 
should be reviewed from that point of view. 

2. In so far as this State is concerned no restrictions have been 
imposed on any one in the field of commerce, trade and industry. 


VIII. Recruitment of at least fifty per cent, of the new entrants to 
All-India Services from outside a State, 

The Government of India have stated that no rigid lules are 
considered necessary, but the recommendation made by the Commis- 
sion will be kept in view m making future allotments to the All- 
India Services 

2. In view of what has been stated by the Government of India 
and of the fact that the allotment of candidates of the lAS/IPS 
services to the States is made by them in consultation with the State 
Governments, no action is required to be taken by this Government, 

IX Recruitment of one-third of the number of Judges from outside 
a State. ^ 

The Commission’s recommendations have been brought to the 
notice of the Chief Justice of India by the Government of India. 
The Government of India have stated that there may be difficulties 
in some cases in implementing these recommendations, but it is 
intended that, to the extent possible, they should be borne in mind 
in making future appointment 



106 


2. The Commission’s recommendation is still under the considera- 
tion of the State Government in consultation with the Chief Justice 
of the Allahabad High Court. 

X. Constitution of Public Service Commissions for two or more 
States. 

The Government of India have stated that as the State Govern- 
ments have not welcomed the proposal that the Chairman and 
Members of Public Service Commissions in States should be appoint- 
ed by the President, it is not being pursued They have further 
stated that there is a provision in the Constitution already for the 
constitution of Public Service Commissions for two or more States 
(vide article 315) and that the procedure laid down in this article 
may be followed at a later stage, in case it becomes necessary or 
desirable to constitute Public Service Commissions for two or more 
States 

2. In these circumstances no action is required to be taken by the 
State Government for the present. 

XI Agency for enforcing safeguards. 

The Government of India have stated that they propose to provide 
for the appointment of a Minorities Commissioner at the centre on 
the pattern of the office of the Commissioner for Scheduled Castes 
and Scheduled Tribes and that this officer will submit a report to 
the President on the working of safeguards for minor language 
groups at such intervals as the President may direct, and his report 
will be laid before each House of Parliament. 

2 Such an appointment has since been made by the Government 
of India by creating the post of Commissioner for Linguistic 
Minorities 


From 


No A-8435/XV-3401-5:i 


Sri S R Singh, IAS, 

Deputy Secretary to Government, 
Uttar Pradesh. 


To 

The Director of Education, 

Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad 

Lucknow, October 20, 1953 
Subject — Medium of Instruction, 

Sir, 

I am directed to say that Government’s attention has been drawn 
to the fact that m spite of the instructions issued in G.O. No. A-3725/ 
XV-3114-1948, dated July 15, 1948, which were amplified by G.O. No. 
A-798/XV-3191/48, dated July 29, 1952, provision is not being made' 
in some cases, particularly in institutions controlled by local bodies,, 



107 


for instruction in the child’s mother tongue when it is different from 
Hindi although there are adequate num&r of students who desire it. 
I am, therefore, to emphasize that in such cases arrangements must 
be made for instruction in the mother tongue of the child by appoint- 
ing at least one instructor, provided there are not less than 40 pupils 
speaking the language in the whole school or ten such pupils in a 
class — the mother tongue being the language declared by the parent 
or guardian to be the mother tongue. 

I am to add that the attention of the Municipal and District 
Boards is being drawn to the above and where facilities are still not 
being provided, you. should take steps to have them provided direct 
and if necessary move the Government in the matter. 

Yours faithfully, 

(Sd.) S. E, SINGH, 

Deputy Secy, to Government. 

Uttar Pradesh. 


No A-8435(i)/XV-340M953 

Copy forwarded tor information and necessary action to:- 

i ^ * ; I : 

fcJl ** 


WEST BENGAL 
Government of West Benga"- 
HOME DEPARTMENT 
(Political Branch) 

No. 3433-P/349/57 

From 

Shri C. N. Penn-Anthony, I.A.S., 

Dep>uty Secy, to the Government of West Bengal. 

To 

The Asstt Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities. 

26, Hamilton Road, Allahabad. 

Calcutta, the 30tb April, 1958. 

Subject: — Safeguards for linguistic minorities — collection of 
information regarding. 


Sir, 

I am directed to refer to the correspondence resting with your 
demi-official letter No CLM/53(:24), dated the 11th April, 1958, 
addressed to the Chief Secretary to this Government on the subject 



108 


noted above, and to state that necessary instructions have been 
issued to all Departments of this Government for the takmg of 
appropriate action to implement the decisions embodied in the 
Memorandum on the safeguards for linguistic minorities, which was 
forwarded with the Ministry of Home Affairs’ letter No. 20/5/56-SIlI, 
dated the 19th September, 1956. In this connection, I am to enclose 
for the information of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, a 
short note showing the action taken by the Education Department 
of this Government in the matter of providing education facilities 
to the linguistic minorities in this State Arrangements have also 
been made to publish important Government notices in the Darjee- 
ling district and the Santhal areas, in Gorkhali and Santhali 
respectively. Necessary instructions have also been issued to all 
District Boards and Municipal bodies in the State, including the 
Corporation of Calcutta, urging them to adopt the procedure, sug- 
gested in paragraph 11 of the Memorandum, referred to above, in 
the matter of the publishing in the language of linguistic minorities 
of important notices, rules and bye-laws etc. which are required to 
be published by the local bodies under the relevant statutes. 

2 This Government have not yet adopted Bengali as the official 
language of the State in terms of Article 345 of the Constitution and 
as such, the State Government feel that the question of recognition 
of any of the languages spoken by a linguistic minority group in the 
State as the medium for examinations conducted for recruitment to 
State Services should be deferred until a State language has, in fact, 
been adopted 

3 No restriction has been imposed by this Government regarding 
freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse within the State where 
all people have the right to equality of opportunity. 

Yours faithfully, 

(Sd) C N PENN-ANTHONY, 
Deputy Secy, to the Govt, of West Bengal. 


GOVERNMENT OF WEST BENGAL 
Education Department 

PRESS NOTE 

As the linguistic minorities in this province may have come to 
feel some uncertainty regarding the use of their mother tongue as 
medium of instruction in schools where they are in predominantly 
large majority particularly in view of the alleged treatment accord- 
ed to such minorities m some places outside West Bengal, the Gov- 
ernment of West Bengal in the Ministry of Education propose to re- 
assure the linguistic minorities in this province that, although it has 
icen adopted as a general principle that the medium of instruction 



109 


in all primary, middle and high schools will be the mother tongue 
of the pupils and in pursuance of that principle the medium of 
instruction will in generally of schools in West Bengal be Bengali, 
in schools catering predominantly for non-Bengali children speaking 
Hindi, Nepalese, Santhali, etc., as the case may be, the medium of 
instruction will however be the mother tongue of the majority of 
the school children but there will be separate provision for teaching 
through Bengali for those children whose mother tongue is Bengali 
provided their number justifies such arrangement being made. 

2 It has to be noted however that in all schools where the medium 
of instruction is other than Bengali, Bengali will be a compulsory 
language for all. 

3 This Government has kept the Centre informed about this 
policy and hopes that such a policy will be pursued by the other 
provinces— (31st July 1948). 


Primary and Secondary Education: 

The policy of the State Government in regard to Primary and 
Secondary Education is in conformity with the recommendation of 
the Central Advisory Board of Education, and is given in the enclos- 
ed Press Note. 

(5) and (6): Affiliation of schools and colleges using minority 

languages: 

The State Government are trying their best to provide facilities 
for education through minority languages and they are also examin- 
ing the question of affiliation of such institutions to their existing 
Education Authorities at the appropriate state. 

The State Government are not in a position to make any com- 
mitment at this stage in regard to affiliation of State institutions to 
Education Authorities outside the State. 

Grant-in- Aid: 

As regards financial assistance to Educational Institutions whose 
medium of instruction is other than the Regional Language, it is to 
be pointed out that a number of such institutions have sprung up in 
Industrial and Tea Colonies and Colonies set up by the Railway 
Authorities. In such a Colony it is the primary responsibility of the 
appropriate authorities who are commercial concerns to provide for 
the suitable amenities for the children of their employees. The State 
Government would be prepared to consider their cases sympatheti- 
cally, but each case will have to be examined on its own merit. 

It has been the policy of the Government of West Bengal to give 
as much facilities as possible to all school children to learn through 
their mother tongue whether thev are Bengali or non-Bengali 
students whose mother tongue is other than Bengali. In pursuance 
of that policy schools catering predominantly for children whose 
mother tongue is other than Bengali such as Urdu are being recog- 
nised and given grant-in-aid in accordance with the prescribed rule. 

256 HA— 8 



110 

Even a school where such students are in a minority separate 
section had been permitted to be opened to enable them to learn 
through their mother tongue when, of course, their number would 
justify opening of separate section of them. 

The following principles have been enunciated for the guidance 
of the school authorities and the inspecting staff, viz,: 

(A) Students whose mother tongue is not Bengali should be 
given full facilities to learn through their mother tongue 
at the primary or Junior Basic stage; if m a primary or 
Junior Basic school, the number of such students be not 
less than 40 in the whole school or 10 in a class. 

The mother tongue will be the language declared by 
the parent or guardian to be the mother tongue. 

The teacher competent to teach through their mother 
tongue should be appointed in such school. 

Besides their mother tongue, such students should 
learn Bengali which is to be introduced not earlier than 
Class III. 

(B) Separate Section should be provided for students whose 
mother tongue is other than Bengali to enable them to 
learn through their mother tongue provided that the total 
number of such students is l/3rd of the total roll-strength 
of the school and there are no adequate facilities for 
instruction through their mother tongue in any other 
school in that area 

Schools established by or for the linguistic minoritjr whose 
mother tongue is other than Bengali are eligible for recognition and 
grant-in-aid in accordance with the general rules prescribed. The 
medium of instruction in such schools may be the language of ^he 
pupils. 



APPENDIX T’ 


(Papers laid on the Table of the House) 

Note on Safeguards proposed for the Telangana Area 
A. Regional Standing Committee: 

L There will be one legislature for the whole of the Andhra 
Pradesh State which will be sole law-making body for the entire 
State and there will be one Governor for the State aided and advised 
by the Council of Ministers responsible to the State Assembly for the 
enUre field of administration. 

2. For the more convenient transaction of the business of Govern- 
ment with regard to some specified matters, the Telangana area will 
be treated as a region. 

3. For the Telangana region there will be a regional standing 
committee of the State Assembly consisting of the members of the 
State Assembly belonging to that region including the Ministers 
from that region but not including the Chief Minister. 

4. Legislation relating to specified matters will be referred to the 
Regional Committee. In respect of specified matters, proposals may 
also be made by the Regional Committee to the State Government 
for legislation or with regard to questions of general policy not 
involving any financial commitments other than expenditure of a 
routine and incidental character. 

5. The advice tendered by the Regional Committee will normally 
be accepted by the Government and the State Legislature, In case 
of difference of opinion reference will be made to the Governor 
whose decision will be final and binding. 

6. The regional committee will deal with the following matters; 

(i) Development and economic planning within the frame- 
work of the general development plans and policies for- 
mulated by the State Legislature; 

(ii) Local Self-Government, that is to say, the constitutional 
powers of Municipal Corporations, Improvement Trusts, 
District Boards, and other district authorities for the 
purpose of local self-government or village administration; 

(lii) Public health and sanitation, local hospitals and dispen- 
saries; 

(iv) Primary and secondary education; 

(v) Regulation of ^admissions to the educational institutions in 
the Telangana region; 

(vi) Prohibition; 


111 



112 


(vii) Sale of agricultural land; 

(viii) Cottage and small-scale industries; and 
(ix) Agriculture, Co-operative Societies, Markets and Fairs. 

Unless revised by agreement earlier this arrangement will be 
reviewed after ten years. 

B. Domicile rules: 

A temporary provision will be made to ensure that for a period 
of five years, Telangana is regarded as a unit as far as recruitment 
to subordinate services in the area is concerned; posts borne on the 
cadre of these services may be reserved for being filled by persons 
who satisfy the domicile conditions as prescribed under the existing 
Hyderabad rules. 

C. The position of Urdu: 

The Government of India would advise the State Government to 
take appropriate steps to ensure that the existing position of Urdu 
in the administrative and judicial structure of the State is maintain- 
ed for a period of five years. 

D Retrenchment of surplus personnel in the new State : 

The Government of India do not anticipate any retrenchment. 
The intention is that so far as possible, the service personnel from 
the Hyderabad State should be automatically integrated into the ser- 
vices of the Andhra Pradesh without any process of screening. Should, 
however, any retrenchment be found necessary, the entire personnel 
of the services of the enlarged State will be treated on an equal 
footing. 

E. Distribution of expenditure between Telangana and Andhra 
regions : 

Allocation of expenditure within the resources of the State is a 
matter which falls within the purview of the State government and 
the State legislature. Since, however, it has been agreed between the 
representatives of Andhra and Telangana that the expenditure of the 
new State on central and general administration should be borne 
proportionately by the two regions and the balance of income from 
Telangana should be_ reserved for expenditure on the development 
of Telangana area, it is open to the State government to act in accord- 
ance with the terms of this agreement in making budgetary alloca- 
tions The Government of India propose to invite the attention of 
the Chief Minister of Andhra to this particular understanding and to 
express the hope that it would be implemented. 



APPENDIX ‘G’ 


GOVERNMENT OF ANDHRA PRADESH 
Abstract 

PUBLIC SERVICES — Group IV Service — Regional Languages in 
Telengana Districts — Recognised. 

General Administration (Services — B) Department 

G.O.Ms. No. 1384. Dated the Hth August 1957. 


Read the following: — 

From the Commission Letter No. 1312/E1/57, dated 10th July 1957. 
Order 


Under Rule 30 (a) of the Special Rules for the Madras Ministerial 
Services read with Annexure III thereof, an adequate knowledge in 
a language or one of the languages of the District has been prescrib- 
ed as a qualification for recruitment to the Andhra Ministerial 
Service A similar provision exists in the Andhra Judicial Minis- 
terial Service Rules. After the formation of Andhra Pradesh, the 
question has been raised by the Andhra Pradesh Public Service 
Commission as to what regional languages should be recognised in 
the Telangana Districts for the purpose of recruitment to the above 
two services. The Government have carefully considered the ques- 
tion and have decided that Urdu should be recognised as a regional 
language in all the districts of Telangana in addition to Telugu and 
Marathi should also be recognised as an additional regional language 
so far as Adilabad District is concerned, for purposes of recruitment 
to the Andhra Ministerial and Andhra Judicial Ministerial Services. 


2. Necessary amendments to the above Rules will be issued sepa- 
rately in due course. 

(By order of the Governor). 


M. P. PAI, 

Chief Secretary to Government. 


To 

The Home Department (for issue of amendments to Andhra 
Judicial Ministerial Service Rules). 

All other Departments of Secretariat. 

All Heads of Departments including Collectors and District 
Judges. 

Copy to the Public Service Commission (with c.l.) . 
Forwarded/By order 

(Sd.) S. MAHFUZUDDIN, 

14-9-1957. Superintendent. 


113 





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Statement shcwmg Talukwne, Lchgt agcm^e Pcgvlamn of the Ecrdei Bihigval Tohqs w Andhra Pradesh 


116 


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{vi) Palmaner . 169,565 117,184 27,228 10,551 (Kannada) 6*3 (Kannada) 

14,602 (Other 69-1 16 -o 8*6 (Other langii- 

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iZii 




APPENDIX I ” 
Number of Schools (Elementary) 
Andhra Area 






Tamil 

Kannada Oriya 

Urdu 

Srikakulam 





62 

I 

Visakhapatnam 





. . 

21 

East Godavari 






13 

West Godavari 






20 

Krishna East . 






27 

Krishna West . 






30 

Guntur North 






88 

Guntur South 






62 

Kurnool . 





35 

90 

Anantapur 





6 

68 

Guddapah 





. . 

63 

Nellore . 



. 


. . 

63 

Chittoor 



. 

183 

. . 

52 


183 

41 

62 

598 


No, of Scholars : 

Boys 

• 

• 

• 

8,954 

2,622 

3,540 27,046 

Girls 

• 

• 

• 

4,432 

: 1,338 

1,890 32,721 

No. of teachers : 

Men 

• 

• 

' 

260 

84 

146 13X24 

Women 


- 


99 

39 

484 

Sd. lUegible. 

for D. R I. 
Andhra Pradesh, 
4-2-58, 


122 



123 


Secondary Schools : 

Andhra Area 


Tamil Kannada Oriya Urdu 

No, of Schools .... 9 3 2 13 

(Of these four 
are Govern- 
ment Schools), 


No, of Scholars : 

Boys 722 315 144 1,467 

Girls • • . * . 227 9 . . 107 


949 324 244 2.574 


Traimng Schools : 

Urdu 5 (3 Men and 2 Women) Elementary Grade 

Guntur and Kurnool 

(Guntur and Kurnool) 2 Elementary Grade (Govern- 
ment). 

(Islamtah'-Kumool) 1 Secondary Grade (Aided). 


Tamil . . . One Secondary Grade (Cliittoor). 


Telangana Area . — (Secondary and Primary Schools) 
Narayanpet (Mehboobnagar District). 


All Government schools have Tclugu, Urdu, Kannada and Marathi media. 
Nhamahad : 

Boys* Primary 1 

Boys’ Middle I All have parallel classes in Urdu 

Boys’ Multipurpose schools . • V and Marathi media. 

Girls’ High School .... j 

(Classes I to X) J 

Adilabad : 

As m Nizamabad. 

Medak : 

Zaheerabad : 1 Parallel sections in Kannada 

Government Middle-cum-High School. f and Urdu. 

Sd. Illegibk. 
for D.F. I. 

Andhra Piradesh. 
4-2-5S. 





124 

Information Re, Aided Schools in Andhra Pradesh 


Note : 


Telangana 

Grants are paid on teachers salaries only. The rate of grant is 2/3 rd 
of the net expenditure on salaries minus the fee income at standard rates. 
The number of teachers for purposes of grant are worked out on the follow- 
ing basis — 

Primary Schools . . . . i teacher for each section. 

Middle Schools . . . • li teachers for the ist 3 sections 

and 1 1 teachers for additional 
sections. In addition i P.LT., 
I clerk, I peon, i watchman, 
etc. are allowed. 

High Schools . . . • i i teachers for each section in the 

first three High School classes 
and teachers for the other 
sections. The Middle School 
classes are allowed as per 
Middle School rates. Besides 
one H. M. is allowed. 

(Sd.) Illegible, 

for D. P. I. 

4-2-58 

4-2-58 Andhra Pradesh, 


URDU 


High Schools (for Boys) 

1. Madrasa Aiz2a, Malakpet. 

2. Asaha High School, Malakpet. 

3. Anwarululoom High School, Nampalli. 

4. Paradise High School, Lakkad Kot. 

5. Islamia High School, Secunderabad. 

6. Islamia High School, Warangai. 

High Schools (for Girls) 

7. Girls’ High School, Mozam Jahi Market. 

Middle School (for Boys) 

8. Ashrapur Madaris, Troop Bazar. 

9., New Progressive Middle Schools, Kachiguda. 



125 


Middle Schools (For Girls) 

10. MMiajusharqici, Barkatpura. 

11. Islamia Girls Middle School, Secunderabad. 


Pr mary Schools (for Boys) 

12. Rifahui Miislimeen, Feelkhana. 

13. Gurba rrimary School, Ghansi Bazar. 

14. i\nwarul Islam Primary Scnoo^, Maisarum. 

15. An'* nan Khadimulniuslimcen, Xachiguda. 

16. Primary School, Secunderabad. 

Primary Scho'S {for Girls) 


i A-d Q^t.c.iecn, Snakar^aiij. 

i Aw.*. 'L ” KiCx* )s. !■} lia iiay 4.111, ^h^tagar. 

j Tc'bn: b .iarr i, Adarket, 

20 . hninmi b Pn*. .ay x\iZuigan|b 

21 . Wci-^cii \-*i. 1 t Ti ary hlaiiapalli. 

22. A ijuina.i A ra. .ij’i lAi auk Alcjiamkli. 


Ill d C Jhuuis . 

AilJwie Sw.uoC;j 
Primary Schools 


7 

4 

II 


22 


(Sd.) Illegible, 
for D. P. I. 
Andhra Pradesh. 


whAA.bDA 


Abstract. 

High Schools nk . - r . d "do, s) hjraoatuiiga High School, 

Hyderabad# 

IJyi b.choxh (Girts) Sarada Karnataka Pligh School, 

Sultan Bazar* 

Primary Sckoois . Nil 

ANDHRA 

I High SchuiL Kamiawia . . . Y. Ai. Kannida High School, 

Adoiii. 

GUJARATI 

High SPii fcr , . Nil. 

High Sc.i 'oA fur G:ds . . Nil, 

256 ILV-^ 9 



126 

I Middle School Middle School for i Gujarati Pragati Samaj Vidya 
Boys. Mandir, Sultan Bazar^ Hy- 

derabad. 

Middle School for Nil 

Girls. 

I Primary School Primary School for Nil. 

Boys. 

Primary School for Gujarati Primary Schnnl 
Girls. Secunderabad. ^ 


MARATHI 

2 High Schools . High School for Boys Vivek Vardliini Pligh School 

(Boys)^ Hyderabad. 

High School for Vivek Vardhini High School 
Girls. (Girls)^ Hyderabad. 

I Middle School Middle School for Palnitkar Middle School^ Sultan 

Boys. Bazar, Hyderabad. 

Middle School for Nil. 

Girls. 

3 Primary Schools Primary Schools for i. Doura Primary School, Sultan 

Boys. Bazar, Hyderabad. 

2. Vivek Vardhini Primary 
School, Plyderabad. 

3. Marati Saraswati Pathshala, 
Hyderabad. 

(Sd.) Illegible, 
for D. P. I. 
Andhra Pradesh. 
4-2-58 


HINDI 

High Schools for Boys : 

(1) Mufeedul Anam High School, Hyderabad City. 

(2) Dharamavant Hindi High School, Ykutpura. 

(3) Agarwal Hindi School, Charkaman. 

(4) L. M. G. Vidyalaya, High School, Begum Bazar. 

(5) Keshav Memorial High School, Narayanguda. 

(6) Marwadi Hindi Vidyalaya, Begum Bazar. 

(7) Marwadi Hindi Vidyalaya, Hashmat Gunj. 

(8) Hindi High School, Secunderabad. 

(9) Adarsh Hindi Vidyalaya, Nizamabad. 



127 


High Schools for Girls ; 

(10) Sri Bansiial Balika Vidyalaya, Begum Bazar. 

(11) Mufeedul Anam High School^ Hyderabad City. 

(12) Navjeevan Balika Vidyalaya> Ramkot. 

Middle Schools for Boys: 

(13) Rajasthan Hindi Vidyalaya, Kasar Hatta. 

(14) Jal Kshatria Prakash Hindi Vidyalaya, Alachilipura. 

(15) Kayastha Pathshala, Hussaini Alam. 

(16) Marwadi Hindi Middle School Secunderabad. 

Middle School for Girls : 

(17) Shakti Kanya Pathshala, Husaini Alam. 

(18) Keshav Memorial Kanya Shala^, Narayanguda. 

Primary Schools for Boys : 

(19) Keshav Memorial Primary School, Narayanguda. 

(20) Gopikishan Badruka Vidyalaya^ Mahboobganj. 

(21) Nishulk Prabahat Hindi Pathshala, Khairatabad. 

(22) Veerputra Hindi Vidyalaya, Shakar Gunj. 

(23) Shradhanand Prathamic Pathshala, Keshav Gunj. 

Primary Schools for Girls : 

(24) Agarwai Kanya Shala, Charkana. 

(25) Jagdish Hindi Kanya Pathshala, Mahboobganj. 

(26) Parop Karim Balika Pathshala, Secunderabad. 

Abstract 

High Schools • . . . 12 

Middle Schools . . • 6 

Primary Schools ... 8 

4 ... 

26 


(Sd.) Illegible, 

For D. P. I. 
Andhra Pradesh. 
4-2-58. 



Distribution of population in Kerala State by Mother Tongue {compiled from 1951 Census figures). 


128 


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ON 


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5 o 


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VO 

«-v 

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S8 


Kasaragod Taluk Persons . 411,031 278,772 708 17,907 27,844 337 14,896 9 34 70,524 

Percentage . loo-oo 67-82 0-17 4-36 6-78 o-oS 3-62 0-002 o-oi 17-16 



ivandrum. Quilon, Koitayam 


129 




130 




131 


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132 




133 



50 loi 



134 




135 




APPENDIX ‘K’ 


Statement regarding admission of Andhra Minority Students into 
different Technical Institutions 


Instimtion 

Number 

applied 

Number 

admitted 

Number not admitted with 
reasons 

I 

2 

3 

4 

Orissa School of Mining, Keon- 
jhar. 

3 

Nil 

3 (2 of them could not be 
selected on merit and the 
other not selected because 
his application was received 
late and the application was 
defective as the Matriculation 
Certificate and mark sheet were 
not attested.) 

Orissa School of Engineerings 
Cuttack. 

13 

8 

5 (Rejection was on the basis of 
merit). 

Industrial Training Centre;, 

Cuttack-Orissa School of 
Engineering, Cuttack. 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Industrial Training Centre, 
Cuttack-Orissa Poor Indus- 
try Cottage, Cuttack. 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Automobile and Diesel Training 
Institute, Cuttack. 

3 

1 

2 (2 candidates did not turn 
up for interview and also 
were underqualified for ad- 
mission). 

Industrial Training School, 

Burhanpur, 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Hirakud Polytechnic, Hirakud 

4 

I 

3 (3 did not appear at the inter- 
view). 

Orissa Veterinary College 

I 

Nil 

I (He was selected but did not 
turn up for admission.) 

Medical College, Cuttack 

19 

3 

1 6 (out of the 1 6 rejected, one 
did not turn for interview, 
one though selected did not 
turn up to take admission, 
9 could not compete on mex t 
and 5 were not considered to 
be permanent residents of 

Orissa being residents of East 
Godavari, Krishna^ Bellary dis- 
tricts of Andhra). 

Utkai Krushi Maha Vidyalaya, 
Bhubneshwar, (Agriculture 
College). 

2 

Nil 

2 (of the two rejected, one 
did not turn up for interview 
and was not eligible as he 
had no Mathematics. The 
other candidate was rejected 
on merit). 


136 


APPENDIX ‘=L” 


According to the figures of the 1951 census, the percentage of population, 
whose mother tongue is Telugu, in each of the Tahsils of Bastar district -is 
given below : — 



Name of the Tahsil 



Percentage of Teiug® 
Population 

(1) 

Jagdalpur . - . . 

• 


0 2S 

(2) 

Kondagaon. .... 

* 

* 

0 03 

( 3 ) 

Ranker ..... 

• 

* 

0 

6 

(4; 

Aniagarh Xarayanpur . 

• 

• 

0*02 

(S) 

Diinte\vara .... 

* 

• 

0*07 

(6) 

ihjapur . . . • 

• 

• 

22*04 

( 7 ) 

Konla . . • . 

- 


3 01 

(8) 

Bhanupratap Pur 

* 

• 

Nii 


Tor-IL PfiRCSNYAOE 

m 


2 20