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New Popular Educator 

tl Complete jSncvKiopfcOfa 


Elementary and Advanced Education 

VoL. VI. 






[Co«fi»»n? ^rtiw Voh I’, i\ 320.] • 

‘ If the substance contains nitrogen, it maybe bnmt- 
ns already -described with certain additional, pre- 
cautions, and -the nitrogen gas which is evolved 
collected 'over mercuiy a»d measured, or the sub-, 
■ stance may bo heated with . soda-lime, when, in 
most eases, all the nitrogen is evolved as ammonia, 

■ which is collected and estimated. 

In order to arrive at tho'formula of a substance 

expresses the simplest ratio in which the elements 
are combined, is 'caHed an empiricaJ fonmCla. In 
order to' determine the true formula of the mole- 

cule, we must use other means; the simplest plan, 
which is also the one most gencially employed, 
is to determine the specific gra\ ity of the vapour 
of 'the' substance, since we know P- 1) 

'"words, molecular weight is double tlic specific 
. gravity of the vapour.' Now the vapour density of 
'the above hydrocarbon was found to be G8, its 
molecular weight is therefore 18(1, nud its mole- 
euXaar formula CjjHi, , 

from its percentage composition, (1) the numbers 
are divided by the atomic weights of the re'spective 
elements ; (2) the quotients so obtained are divided . 
by tho smallesi of the quotients ; the resulting ' 
quotients indicate the numhci.of atoms of the re- 
spective elements. Thus, to take the analysis of 
.the hydrocarbon given aWe-i . f 
•88-2 O '- -• 

11-8 H . ■ 

■ ’ . .’ . 100-0 ' ‘ . 

Wo divide 88-2 by the atomic weight of carbon, .12 t-^ 

these are divided by 'the smallest quotient,' 7-35 — ’ 

These numbers show thafi.thc substance contains ' 
i atom of carbon .to l.^^ths of an atom' of hydrogra,- 
but as wo cannot have fractions of an atom, wc 
multiply 1 and 1-G by 5 to get nd of fractions, and 
‘ thus get the^formula CgHg. - 

, .It is obvious that a substance having .the foimt^ 
CjjHjb, CjjHjj4, or CjjHas, would have yielded exactly 
the .same numbers 'on analysis, so tbat analysis 
’ alone cannot decide which of these formula! is the 
' true one; such a formula os' C^Hgl. which only 
121 ' 


The ^eat hulk of organic substances may be 
divided^to.the following classes 

X. ' JTydrooartom , — These are bodies containing 
hut two elements, carbon and hydrogen ; there are 
several groups, tlid most important arc 

(a) The Harsh Gns or Paraffin series. 

(i) The Olefine (“ i ’’ prononncod as co) series. 

(c) The Acetylene scries. 

(d) The Benzene or Aromatic scries, many of its 
members being derived from the .balsams, gums, 
and other aromatic substances. Benzene, CgHe, is 
the amplest of these hydrocarbons. 

2. Alcohols. — ^As already mentioned,- these may 
,be considered as tlie analogues of the hydrates or 
hydroxides of the metals thus, -u’c have KHO, 
potassium hydrate ; (ColT^HO, ethylic hydrate, 
ordinary alimhol. ' , 

'. 3. Mhers . — ^These are the o.vides of the radicles; 
. (CUHjJaO, ethylic oxide, or ordinary ether. 

4. SulpTit^, Seloniwm, and ' Telherima Alcohols, 
etc . — These contain sulphur, etc., instead of oxygen, 
and may be regarded as hydrosulphides, etc. ; thus, 
C^HgHS, ethylic hydrosulphide, sulphur alcohol, or 

5. Haloid Mhers and Ethereal Salts . — These 
clos.cfiy resemble, us 'regards their constitution, the 

r,eprosented by the formula ^ cHgHO* grapbically 

H H 

^ H— C b— O— H 

. Similarly, tho constitution of nWohycle i* 
presented | COH' aldehydes have 


tirins a f.ital tlciio; it 1ms a clmractprNiic tslonr 
rusi'inbliiip Utlpr almond oil. .\ >olntion of about 
U IKirts of (ho aeiil in 1(X> of wator K used in 
nicdirino; o.\<'n in This eseoedinply dilute s:a(p the 
do>-o adininistorod is 2 to a droji!-. A solution of 
Imlrooyanic. nold pradually dueoniiio«C!s trhen kept, 
but- it is found tbal tbo addition of a Iraco pC 
hydiooldorio or siilphiiric. aeid inalcrially' toiids to 
jirosorio thi' aqueous solution. Priissu- acid is 
found in niiiiiiloquantitiesintho kernels of pmclies. 
piiiins. etc,, in tlic loaves of the cherry laurel, in 
the cruilt: oil of biller almonds. It^ action as 
a poison is esireinely nipid, and as a ru]<* death 
ensues liefore there i.s time to administer an anti- 
dote; tlic best, tre.'itiiient- o.nnsi.sts in pouriiur cold 
water on tlic lu'ad* and neck, talmiiiisterinp an 
emetiu of a tai>Ics|ioonful of imu-tarrl in warm 
water, llte free ti«e of stimulants, sncli ns brandy, 
holdiiip ammonia to flic nostrils, etc. 

Hvdrocynnio aeid forms a series of salLs, the 
e.vanidcs, wliieh: in .some rc.sjiocts rcscinhle the 
ciiloride.s. hromide.s, and iodides. 

Ci/n»}f!r (Kr>r or KCy). — ^'fhis .‘alt is 
largelyn.sed in the tins, since its solution readily 
dis-s-olvc.s various silver sails, forminjr solutions suit- 
nljle for cluolrophiting. It is jirejiarcd on the laipc 
settle by fusiiipeight jiarl.s oi ivitassiumfcrrocyanidc 
with tlirco parts of dry ixilassinni carbonate until 
ce.ise* to bu evolved— 

K^l'-et’cYs + K-OOj = .IKOK + KCKO -I- Kc CO- 

Pot.'is.iiim c.v.nniilf if often foVraod in the Mast 
furnace (*rr Iron, Vol. V.. |>. ]2!I). It is a colour- 
loss orystallinc .snlj'liuicc \ery soluble in water; 
it has tlic odour of bitter nlmond oil, and is ns 
iwisonoiis as prussic acid, but its action is not 
quite so nijjid. ^ 

It a solution of silver nitmic be added to a wettk 
solution of pofti-ssinm cyanide, a white precipitate 
of silver cyanide. ApCX, is thrown down, but Iho 
precipitate readily dissolvo.s if more polnssinm 
cyanide be. added. 

J’ufaifium PerroryanUie or Yellntr Prnxtiatc of 
J’afnsli, K4l''e(CX)rt nr Kjl'*e(.'y,j. — Tliis is prepared 
on tlie large settle b.v fusing in iron jaits diy aiiliiinl 
mnitur which yoniains- nitrogen, snch as honis, 
hoof-sliaviiigs hair, etc., with iiot.-issium rarbunatc 

Kills, git ill" with feme suits a dark blue precipitate, 
Ihrussian blue. EcjCvn- 

J'otiifiiuoi I'erj-ifyunlUv < ur Jlcd I’niasiaic oj 
Potfi'ih (Kjl-Vfy,) N pic|micd by jias-ing cliloiinc 
slowly {Iirmigh a solntion of poltissitim feiTocyimiile 
until it is rediiish — 

The solitliim is then i;\ai«)mleil mid allowed to 
sland. when the feiricyiiiiido CMijiorute.s out in 
ruhy-red civstids, wliieh arc easily soluble in water 
to a greenish soliitinn. Tliis snlntiou ^^hca added 
to a ferrous s.ilt (as p'c.SOi) guves a daik hliic pic- 
cipitatc know 11 as Tuniliiiirs Iiluo, I''e.-,Cyj... Imt with 
ferric salts only a hi own or greenish ciiliiratiini is- 
pioduecd. < 

Ordiiiaiy I'rii«Man blue fnrais ti diivk-bliic mass 
witli a coppery lustre, soiiii-wliat rcseiiililiii" indigo; 
when heated in tlic air it liuriis like tinder; it is 
much tisiHl ns ii paint; t lie eolour is dest ruy cd by 
alkalies (KlIO. i te ) 

Poltrsfivui ■ or Sulpltocyanale 

(Kt’XS).— Dry ixil.issfinn fermoytmideis fused ivitli 
luilf its weight of sulpliiir : the fu*rd mnss is thou 
eitiractcd with water, and the iron in tlie soi.ition 
pieripif.-itu*! iiy nddiiig iiol.nssiam cnvluinale; the 
lilinite is then evii|ini'atcd, wiiim colnmless eryst.tls 
of llic sidphiMiyaiiide are iihlailieil. Tins siihstlliiuc 
is \ery soluble in watei. its solution has a latter 
taste, if is not poisoiioii-, it gites a deep bluu.l-icil 
colour with ferric salts 

i'yanio .Ich/ (IICXO), the ammonium cyaiinte, 
is interesting since if oilers a .striking exiituplo of 
the case witli wliiuh llie atoms often lonrrnngo 
themselves in organic, suh.slaiiccs, and tlms pro- 
duce totJilly diiTcrciif. couipoimds ; if a solution of 
iimiiioninni cyntiale bu eMiporateil, it is eouterted 
into quite another sulist.inee. urea — 

Urea, G0(N1I«)- somelimc.' tenued cnrbnmirle 
since it is eartiuii ilio.Nide, t’O.j, in wliicli one atom 
at o.vygon has lioen rcjilaced by twor.mldogen. XIL, 
groups. This .Siilr-talirc ocuiirs largely in tlie mine 
of niaminals, and furms tlie clticf snlistance by 
which (lie waste nitrogen leate.s tlic body. IVIien 
pure, urea is a tnuispareiil colourless riyst.illiiie . 
.substance, very solulile in wafer and alcohol; it lias 

1. The Jifarsli ffee or Fara^fflii Series . — The 
Bimplost mtmher ot (his series is niaish gas or 
methane, CH4 ; (lie carbon in this body is obriousiy 
a tet,rnd, and all its points of attachmont. or bonds 
are oooupied by atoms of hydrt^on, thus — 

Now, if we roijlacc one of the hydrogen atoms by 
methyl, CHj, wo lm\ o 


I I 

II— c — c— n. 

I I 

H H 

i.e., CjH„ or otliano, the second member of the 
series j if we repeat the process, we liavo 
H H H 

I I i 

H — C C C — II, 

1 I ! 

H H H 

CaHj, or propane, the tliird momber, etc. In this 

years. In ISuO Young turned his 

attention to a sort of coaly slate or slaty coal, 
knon-u as Doghend coal or Torbane Hill mineral, 
and found on distilling this tliat lie obtained a dis- , 
taiale containing much paraffin oil. In Pennsyl- 
vania petroleum had long been tnorni to the . 
Indian.^, and was collected and sold by the Seneca 
Indians as Seneca oil, but 'it was not till August, 
1859, that the first borehole was opened at Titnsville. 
This spring yielded over 800 gallons of oil per day 
this quantity has boon greatly exceeded by other 
wells, some of which have yielded over 100,000 
gallons per day. Those onorinons supplies have 
considerably cheapened the price, and at the 
present day the excellent illuminating agent, '• the 
paraffin lamp," is known in every cottsigo. ■ The 
crude petroleum, or, as it is commonly called in this 
country, ‘•paraffin,” seems to be a mixture of a 
great variety of paraffins with "a cmnparativoly 
small qttantity of hydrocarbons belonging to other 
scries, olofinoii, etc. ; the latter are destroyed by 
the action of strong sulphuric acid. etc. ; the acid 
is then neutraUsed with soda, .and the whole dis- 
tilled. Tiro portion which fust pmsscs over constitutes 
the so-called light petroleum, benzoline, petroleum 
spirit, naphthii, gazolinc, ligroin, etc. ; it is mncli 
used for dissolving grease, cleaning gloves, etc. ; 
it boils from 40° to 120° Cent., giving oil a henvji. 


Iiononr. anti v.-nt lackctl on to flic other titles of 
tlie liO'Sp.'Mii- Ilf It ns ilLsliiiulivc ami lionoiiiabic. 
It was sliiirctl. a< nlreatl.v stated, by counts, dukes, and prittre-liisliops. 

Certainly ntii least antonjr the Ulectors was tlie 
Mnrp-ate of IJrandcnlimp. Lord oC the territory 
l.viii" on the westernmost borders of tiio Knipire, ' 
!ind ineludine (sinee. luS.IJ in his possessions liiu 
duchy of rriissin, lie was eseeediiiply iKiwerfiil, 
and eould help or disoblipe his iieipidxmrs to a 
v.ry Ciinsidt'talilo e.\tcnt. 'J'liu neiphbouiinpprinces 
tl-erefore conrlctl Ins favour, iiiid, wliere tlieir 
interests and not their jealousies were eoncenictl, 
depended upon lilin to snjiport them npainst the 
power of the prinees lyinp to the easlwtird. They 
rallietl also roitnd 1dm as ngainrt foreipn fm*s. 
JCotwitlist.mdin}; iill these considtral ions, the 
Elector of rirandenlitirp rentnined loyal to the 
Imitcriiil constitution till lie coitlil no lonper do so 
and preserve his seir-nvspeel. or u\en his intlei>end- 
ciieu. Tlic TItirty Vears' IVar was, as lias been 
shown, n w.avor rclipioii, ,i war whicli went to the 
roof of the (juestioii phethcr I’rotestnntism siitmhl 
or should not t'.'sisl in Gurinany in spile of the will 
of tlic Emperor, v.ho was wliolly opposetl to it, and 
entirely devoted to the Itoinan Catholio faith. In 
(his war tlie Elector of lirandenlmrp. who Imd em- 
limettl the doetrine.s of the I’eformtition, took jiarl 
with the Prolnst.iat si'le. and pave in Ids liearly 
a'Ihusuiii to Gtt'lavits .Vtlolphtis and his succo.ssors 
in command. One of the result. s of tlie war wtis to 
show 1dm liow strona ho was, tind also to convince 
iilm. after the spirit tltaf had been di<])layeti in 
eondtiolinp tlic wtir. tlial (lie oltl lines of tlie 
Gcrmnii eonstitiitioii wore for aver oblitenitt“l, tliat 
I< to say, tliat between Itim, Iboso dependent <m 
liim, and llic Emperor, the old principle of loyalty 
could no loapcr exist. 

In 1701 the Elector I’rcderick. dceniinp liinwclf 
slrtinp eiioupli to m.akc pnotl his act aaiiiiist ail 
llio world, with his own liaiid.s crowned Iiiinsdf 
kiiip, and aiinotinced to (he world Hint Ids naiiic 
iienoefortli was not Elector of Eraiiticnbiirp, but 
King of Prii'.sia. The liotiso of Ilnltsbiirp .s:il on 
llio imiierial throne, and had procnnsl that the 
diaiiity of emperor s'lioidd he licrrditnry in tlic 
fiiinily. It coaid ill brook the assninptioii of 
kinaly })owcr by llio jioworful vassjd of the 
Emjiirc in ihe we.'t ; but c.xlimistcri by liie sustained 
efforts of thirty years of wtir, it was not in a take exception practically to the move, 
tlioupliit viewed Hie rise of Pnissia witli dislike, 
and waited for an opportunity of knocking it down 

Frederick the Kirst stirvivetl for twelve years 
hi.s usbuniption of royal dignity, and during tliat 

lime did his ‘utmost to weld int o a colici-oiit mas.s 
the nimicrons jiarts wliioli const iluled his- daiidiiions. 
tlpoii ids. successor, 3''rcdcrick 'Williaiii, devolved 
Ihe task of preparing the iiew-liorii kinpdom to 
guard ajpiinst tlic storm which s-eoiicr or inter, it. 
was seen, must burst, upon it. Not only was llioro 
tlic open hostility of Austrin and iter dependent 
state.# to be' overcome so. soon as tlioso slates 
shiiidd Imve .siinicieiitly recovered to allow of their 
taking tlu- field, but lliere were tlio jealousies of 
I'lanee and Itnssia to be. met, anil by some inc.'ins, 
]irnbatily nut wilhuiil violrnei', to lie alliiyed. For 
tills work of prujianition there was no fitter man 
Ilian (liii seeonil King of Prussia. A man with few 
ideas— some preal ones' were aiiiniig tbcm— lie liad 
the coiiKipe iuid tlio pertinacity to ciirry ids ideas 
out to tlic fullest, ami Ids aims were in the main 
for tlie itilvanceincnl, and iH'iiufit of Pne-si.a as a 
Eiirupeati Power. lie formed and orpaniseil the 
Prussian army on n inodul upon wldeli ids successor, 
Frederick tlie Great, Iinrdly improvod ; ho laid the 
fnmiilntion of Prussian finance on that of 
thrift wliich luis keen its chief and its most, 
iiilmirablu cimraol eristic evi-r since. The idea of 
military organisaliiiii thriiuglinut the country, so 
■ th.nt every timn of tlie population should be lialdo 
'to soldier-service, was the king’s'; and so w.ts the 
whaliiin which placed tlio iloiiiestio laws tijion n 
fi'otlnp sumewlint less tmnalisfactory Uinti that on 
wliieli they had liitlierto rc#lril. I'ct ho was a 
prince liuted ipdtu ns much ns lio w:is rcspccled, 
particularly In his own family, wlietc he iiclcd ns 
mi insane tynint, poiiip tliu ieiiptli on one occn.sicn, 
when he liad ponilcd his son, tlie crown prince, by 
rejiisited acts of opprt-.ssion into Hic Idcii of dc- 
.scrl ing Pnissia nltopciher. of conilciiming Hint son 
to dentil as It deserter, and of netimlly cansing his 
.son's friend mid cniupanion, Lieutenant Katie, to 
niulcrpo Hie extreme ponnily in Hio presence of 
the ]>riiicc. Hut of Hio school of this Tyrniimis 
came Frederick' the Great; from his brain i.-sued, 
ready-made and armed at all point.#, the kingdom 
of Pnissia, ns Minerva is fnlilcd .to liave done of 
old from Hio liend of Jupiter. Into Hic inlicritnnec 
left by such ii man canic Frederiok the Great, in 
the year IT'IO. by which time tlic iiatuiiis Imd hail 
leisure to look nroimil, mid to take noliec oi I lie 
new ]iecr which had S]ining up nniutip them. 

France, weakened by the long stud c.xlinu.sliiig 
wars of Lonis'XIV., was qiiilc unable, if slie wished 
it, to cnish tlie new Power ; lint it is ]irob.ablc she 
did not Hicn .sec whnl lias .since been forced upon 
her notice, tliat Prussia niiglit hcciunc a first-rate 
Power, oap.ablaof dispiitingHiBSiipromacy with licr 
in southern Eitroiic. Austria, however, saw, witli 
quick instinctive eyes, that if she wished to ho, as 



•son. G. Ann'^apora*!, the sophist, ’^vas the teacher of Fcriclcii. 
T. 0 Hercute-?, brio? i-ifcty to the unfortiinatt*. S. Epmuln- 
cindag wis of an unknonm father. P. Pity ntt unroriiiitatc u. 
10. Pc eager, O noting man, for truth. 11 Tlic inin.'^Mienitc 
, sen’c a liage a<»rvilude. 

SbiicparM Tiv Baatfiatn^ co^ia. 8. 'EAeotpe r&vt 
d7VX€t9. 3. *CA«aipojiei' tovs oTVxeiS. 4. TloXAoi vcoitat ytrav 
fiaOtjrai Sweparoi'p. 5* StJKparet 7jf tkiAAi) C. QmttiA- 

s'ouci T7JI>. SwKpaTOws. 7. Oi aftpoTetf iovXcvovo-t it|I» 

auT^P^*' fot'Accai*.'^ & Oav/ia^opci* rav icaAfi« Tpa<yu2uie So^o- 

icAcour t*. Of aXiiPcTs' Adyoi irttCaiTat. 10. 'EXcat'i^ rwi^ ^tor 

Ex, S3.-s>l. Tljo earth Wooins with lovely flowers. £,' Kfq» 
not fr«'c froiu heat Riul colcL S. We jiulgo the limiouraUc, not 
hy Icnstli of tiine.'hut by virtue. 4. Every height £n theiitortal 
Ricis Is not secure. 5. Eo not sp,*ak r^lsehootls. 0. W*o keep 
from evtl gains. 7. Wicked Rains twr bring dt^gmcc. 8. 
Brass is the xniiTor of bc.iut}’, aiitl wine of tlio mind, -8. Men 
aim at glory, 10 , Sleii rejoice in glory. 11 . The brave aim at 
glorious deeds. 12. We ndmiro the glorious dcctls of men. 

Ex. 34. —1. *AirexeTak vovripSn* KcpStaf. S. Ot owovSacot 
air^xeiTai sroi' 7raxo}pwi* Mpfiwr. ,3. Ol enroudatoc ^YOt*rat tmv. 
KoXfif. 4,^ Mil a»exov, di reario, daXffotf Jcal aXAo. 

Twr woiTjpwv' 5. Zijpca errerat ^ev8ft. 6. 0avpt<^opci» row? 
•EXXi|ra? twi* icX^wr ?weaa. 7. irowjpi nipin, 8. Ol 

OTpariHTot «!• TOif icXeeari. 



Ix onr lessons in Drn'n’ing, to be found in the pro- 
vions pages of the New FopuiiAe Bdwoatob, wc 
hoTo cndeavouTcd to place before our pupils tbe 
general principles tvhich belong to and {uo applic- 
able to tbe practice of drawing from tiio^of (that 
is, from copies), and also those principles which 
guide us in drawing from the oijeef. We 'now 
' undertake a-more direct' application of tbe iustruo- 
tion therein g^ren, for the purpose of introducing 
our pupils to that very interesting and delightful 
practice- of drawing, usually termed " skctcliing 
from nature’.’ ; we mean hy this, the taking up of a 
few simple materials and .seeking our subjects out 
• of doors, The phrase " sketcliing from natnre ” is 
a,veiy convenient one, and is generally understood, 
therefore we will retain it, although we prefer tlie 
expression '■ dratciiiff from nature,” as it implies 
greater care'and attention to details than the term 
sketching in its usual sense. -A loose habit of 
drawing may be 'called sketching, and if this were 
all that is understood by it, the jjraotice would be 
■a dangerous one for a beginner; but as we liave 
already given sufEoient cautions upon this point in 
the lessons lipon Drsiwing. we will only repaat ono - 
piece of adHco and pass on— “ Learn ia dram first ; 
sketch afterivards." In the cqnise of these lessons 
we shall find it necessary occasionally to refer back 
to the lessons in Drawing already given, as' our 
object is to a^iply practically the principUs which 

liave been there stated. . How many times has the 
question been asked, '“Do yon draw?” And what' 

Is the reply in the great majority of cases 1 “ Yes, 

bnt only from copies ; I have never attempted to 
■do anything from nature, liaring always con- 
sidered it so much ‘more difficult.'’ Now, there 
arc those who maintain the reverse, namely, that ■ 

drawing from nature is easier than copying pic- 

tures. Certainly tlic former is mneh more pleasant, 
and more satisfactory, as all must acknowledge ; 
.whether it is easier or more difficult depends upon 
the inclination of the mind, the practical expe- 
rience, or, speaking more exactly, the kind of ex- 
perience the pnx3il has been accustomed to. If the 
grammar of the art has been well learnt, the pupil 
will find that a very considerable amount of the 
knowledge he has acquirc'd whilst dra'wing from tJie 
fiat will' ho of the greatest service when drawing 
from nature. 

We have frequently met with portrait pointers 
who have ha(l to make duplicates of their pictures, 
and who have said they would much rather paint 
them again h'om the sitter tlian copy them from 
the original picture ; only those who have expe- 
rienced it can fully understand how much more 
feeling and life can be imparted to the work when 
nature is tbe guide than when they have to depend 
upon the limited expression of a copy. Bo with 
landscape : wc have frequently been more pleased 
with tbe “ original sketch,” taken upon the spot, 

• than with the finished picture painted from it in 
the studio at home. Although the “originar 
sketch” was not so highly finished ns the picture, 
yet it had the stamp of nature and freshness upon 
it, which could best he caught from the scene it- 
self, and which it is difficult to impart at second 
linnd. As the eye of the student becomes more 
and more accustomed to Nature, and keener to 
detect and apiireointe her beauties, he will discover 
much of wliich a common observer has but an im- 
perfect perception ; to the latter a landscape is the 
’ -same to-day as it was yesterday, lie can only see 
trees, boilings, and other objects abstractedly 
through one and the same medium ; while the eye 
. of the artist is continually discovering something 
fresh, perhaps principally caused by the successive 
changes of light, or from the positions of objects in 
relation to eaoli other, and their Contrasts in both 
colour and form. The tree before him in the-morn- 
ihg may certainly be the same that he sees in the 
evening, but how very different is the effect, and 
what a multitude of details with all their beauties, 
which were imperceptible in tbe morning, are 
brought out by the change of light. We have no 
doubt that many of our pupils, when they have 
conquered .their ciurly difficulties, will fjiscover 


oToct tlian the form in nntnrc, •which 
atluiit!: of no .nctuai lumiilvTij line, hiit presents only 
•the mt/fK flibcovenihle from other ohiccls by colour, 
and lisht and i-liade: another reason is, that objects 
in nature advance or rocedo from one another, 
vrhilst in a picture they are all arrang'ed upon one 

■iTi!h p’c.T=urc- and 'Urp-i.-'O dniwing- from 
nature ha* a chtitm about it vrliirli i-annot be 
rp,-ali-cil by f-nniii'o' o-ey. 

Tilt: necer-nty inat ‘'r::il'- ar.- siiaplc:— A WticJ. 
‘.lull i'-. a «olld iiiiio- of iniit-r oonil ose:i of "«veral 
layers huiuid tog'Sth'T ordy at she enyo*. so that 

when a drawing U coinpletod -wo haio only to slip 
a penknife benontli it and the nc.vt paper, pass it 
lonnd, remove the draning, and undcmcaih will be 

found another surface like the one already filled. 

ready for use. The fciud of iraper for pencil draw- 
ing ought not to be very rough, a slight grain will 
assist the pencil to mark freely, but on very rough 
paper it is impossible to give a very Iiigh finish to 
the work: rough papers are better adapted for 
colours. A few pencils. H. nn, and n. and a port- 
able sketching stool, will be all that is leqnisue for 
our first cssiy. Being now prepTcd. let ns suppose 
that we are on our way in sc.arch of a subject, and 
in the meantime we will make a few observations 
which especially apply to beginners. Xo one who 
has been accustomed to copy pictures only, can 
altogether comprehend wliat a very different thing 
it is to draw from nature until he has made the 
atterajit. when ho will discover there are several 
reasons for the diflcrcnoe. One is, that .all the 
objects in I he i picture a re reduced for him. probably 
to tlic exact size lie wislics to make them ; smother 
IS, the outline upon tlic papor has a more definite 

plane or surface ; and thus wo are led lo'aoknow-, 
lodge the necessity of knowing sometliing both of 
lineal and aerial persspcctive. . It 'is true many 
depend upon the eye alone for the proportions of 

the retiring parts as they recede, and consequently 

arc liable to make frequent and serious mistakes, 
wliich a little acqnniiitancc with perspeclive would . 
prevent ; but we intend to lake up this of our 
subject again. . • 

\Ve -will now pass on to another consideriition''' 
■with reference to the choice of stihject for the first • 
attempt of a heginiier. We well know the feelings 
with which most beginners go out for the' first time 
to draw from nature: their enthusiasm would 
Xiersnadc them to attempt things ; nothing 
short of some extensive prospeet, hill and dale, 
■woods, rivers, buildings— in short, a whole countiy 
side. Upon thk point we wish to caution our 
pujnls. It is one of the first and gi-catcst mistakes 
which young painters mako when they begin to 
draw from nature; nearly all, without e.vcaption, 
sit down to take some -cxlcnsire view, •without a 
question 'as to its composition, and without any 



inqnir.f Trhciljcr jIkv Trill b? able tn :3> tbron^Ii 
TTith it. Tlic i>rin'ji|Tal reas-oii tlay cive fur their 
choice ii “■ the hf.-iHiy nf the .■•rene." IVc heeril of a 
ciiee romr- "car“ ;t-.:u of a yonri? .'•tuflrni in the 
Hoyal .Aeaileiny, -n-iiii cnjiii-rl in the pjimin^ school 
an elaborate landscape by an old aiasnT; sneto-ed- 
in" beyond hi<= expectation-, he felt a Ftrong desire 
to jiaint a picture from naf are, liavins' hott. as he 
thoiiirlit, actjniretl suflictent uotrer to justify tlie 
attempt. .•Vcoordiiicly bo tvent to iho top of lligli- 
.gate Hill, and comnionoed a picture of the entire 
prospect looking northward; lie ttarked bard for 
soveial dtiy.o, hut found he was iiltcrnalely p.ainting 
in and rubhing out : the constant changes of sun- 
Bliine and shade, ns they passed over the Inndscnxic, 
perfectly bewildered him, anil the result was that 
he gtiTC it uj) cpiite disheartened. He resolved, 
itowever, to .show the little ho liad done to 
Constable (tlio painter of ‘-The C-tni-lieia ’’ in 
the Xational Gallery), and ask his auTice. Con- 
stable looked first at tlic picture and then at tlie 
youtli, and in a tiuict way, thongh with unmis- 
takable meaning, stiid. - My young friend, go anti 
draw a gato-po-t. and when yon have done that 
draw two post.i, and go on till you can manage a 
_ dozen ; afterwards add a cottage, then a tree, and 
proceed in this way until you hate power to do 
something more elaborate before you think of 
painting snoh a subject as this. Ton have made 
]trccisciy the same mistake tlial 1 made when I vras 
your ago ; you have begun at the wrong end.’* 

The above oscellent advice needs very little com- 
ment from us it is exceedingly valuable, and 
forcibly suggests the folly of msliing headlong into 
a multitude of diflioultie.s from which there is no 
escape, but at the oost of much discounigemont. 
Allranst. nckiiowlodgctliat. whatovorrony bcthccs- 
tent of the subjecl ihey propose to dmw, it is mci>- 
ttally romjtoanl of tcoerat particular nhJecH, each of 
n'hich requires a icparale ami careful finely. Xow 
the first question wliieli everyone mnst ask himself 
should bo. Can I coiry any one of those objects, 
independently of tlie ?” It ho cannot, let ns 

Fig. 1 will give some idea of the cla.^s of subject 
fora first attempt, and the manner of trcaling it. 
Tihich need not l>c maeh beyond a carefully ar- 
raiiged and cle.inly ilrawn nntlhic ; tbii shadow.« 
might be sli.ghtly inarkcil in by a fowp,inillel lines 
nnder the projecting parts, down the sliadowed 
sides of the posts, to define and bring forwanl the 
branch of a tree. In tliis simple arrangement of a 
few posts and weeds tlierc are no important rc- 
liiin.g Imas. consequently there wm.bp no necessity 
for vanu-hing points, a subject . for oar consi- 
deration further o.n. Tlie .distance of the station 
point, or the position of the draiigbi.-man from an_ 
object of this oln.<s and eictenr. ihiglit ho about n 
dozen or fonrteen yards, because sit tliat distance 
all conlaincd within its outer limits will be con- 
siderably within an angle of 110°.. (Sec lessons in 
Drawing, Fig. 25.) 

.Subjects of the class we b.ivo sclocted arc very 
common; a stile, a -bridge over a brook, and 
many more of the same kiml, are to' ho found 
almost evorj-whore. We have just said that the' 
dniwing need not be more than a carefully arranged 
outline. If for some time the piijiil will confine 
himself to ontlinel and use no more shadow tlian is 
necessary to assist in making the form clear and 
intelligible, it will be an advantage', because it is 
doing one thing at 'a time, Jmd ho isi not over- 
powering himself with diflicnltios ; besides, shading ■ 
bad ontUncs is n waste of time, ns shnelirig cannot 
improve Oic drawing, nor can it be saceoitsfuUy 
practised without the jwivcr of correot drawing, ns 
it is only an additional help to represent the form 
marked out by the 'outline. 'There ate other im- 
portant considerations to be nilend'ed 'to. Tliq 
pupil must remember, when he is seated, llmt tliO' 
few moments before he puts Ids pencil on the paper 
are very important. First, lie decide liow 
much of the subject be inlead,s to draw ; that being 
determined, lie must fix upon tlic centre of the' 
subject to be arranged in the centre of his paper, 
and ns in most cases the eye will be considerably 
below the cenlre, there will then bo sntlicient room 



ns it aiipears to him, Tvithont attempting any effect 
vhicU (toes not strictly belong to it. he ninst take 
up one principle at a time. The first will lie farm — • 
tills refeis. iu the first instance, to tlie shape anti . 
cliaractcr of the .subject as a whole ; then the posi- 
tion of , the ports relativo to each other; all' im- 
portant p.-irtioiilnrs he carefully exaininctl, his 
eye and his mind must become familiar with cvery- 

tliing: tlii.s wiU strengthen his confidence, so that 

when he licgiiis to draw, the acquaintance he has 
made witli his subject will be of the greatest value. 
In practice, it is jiossiblc to determine the relative 
heights of the parts with one another by placing 
tlin pencil lio'rizontally before the eye. having its 
edge on a level with any particular point, and by 
looking along tile remaining portion of the pencil 
■when thns plaocd, the pupil .will he able to sec. at 
'oncc'which other portions are on the same/level, ' 
which are above, and whioli below ; he must notice 
where lines if prcduced would out other lines 
already drawn, and. also where one jiart is over or 
iinder another. TVe have drawn dotted lines in the 
illustration (Fig. 1) to show the various directions 
in whioh the pencil might he held between the eye 
and the object, and the result it gives in deciding 
how the parts are placed in connection with each 

If otir pupils will c.are£nny follow the advice we 
have just given them, and at first strictly confine 
their attention to very simple subjects, they will • 
soon find thcmshlvcs in a position to attempt 
with confidence, something more advanced, which 
.will include much that will make a demand upon 
'their knowledge and' ti^pcricncc in perspective.' 
’■ IVIien we consider the infinite variety of the posi- 
tions of lines, and the relations they bear to each 
otiicr. so many difficulties arise, that wo must 
natnrally look about ns for assist'ance altogether 
independent of mere manval practice, of which no 
aiDoniht of experience, however huge it may be, 
can satisfactorily help us, and therefore we must 
h.ave recourse to .perspective. In out very first 
attempts tlta one great difficvltg presents itself, viz,, 
iww in (Iran the lines mhich retire; here istho 
starting-point from whioh every rule proceeds, and 
this difficulty oveiyonc will discover immccUatcly 

he sits down to drawfrom nature. Objects parallel 

with onr position, or with the .picture plane, like 
the posts in Fig. 1, have no retiring lines — ^the linos 
which represent them .are either horizontal or per- 
pendicular ; if horizontal, they are drawn across the 
-picture, and those which .are perpendicuhi’- in, ihe 
. object arc drawn so. Therefore, 'with prnper ntren- 
tion to.the positions and proportlonsjof these lines. 

exerrases of this kind will be found very eusy ; but 
when we come to 'lines' in other positions with 
■ regard to the picture ifiane, those irlticli •retire — 
that is, .go away 'from ns, like Uic lines of a railway 
when viewed from the top of a bridge— other con- 
siderations present themselves ; lines of this class 
may retire cither horizontally, or at an inclina- 
tion. Those of our pupils who accompanied us 
throiigh the course of Gcoinetrical Perspective 

given in these Jjages will not have to be told that 
there are established rales to aid us in’ drawing 
these lines according to the position in whioh they 
m.ay be placed; they will be .satisfied upon this point, 
and they will have discovered that by working out 
these problems their practice in drawing them 
is rendered easier, and they will have found the 
result to be satisfacfoiy. tVe have said before, 
there is no necessity, even if it were possible, to go 
through all the geometrical rules that can beapplied 
to the subject when drawing from nature ; but we 
do assert that it is necessary to Imow them, because, 
from liaving practised them upon subjects under 
given conditions, wc can satisfactorily account for 
tlic position of oveiy lino wo draw, let them he 
placed as they may. There nto many who take 
great delight in drawing from nature who affirm 
that perspective is a science not at all nece«sary to 
them, although they allow that it is c.-sentially so 
for architcois. This is a mistake, whicli may bo 
coupled with another into which they frequently 
fall, viz., that *■ it is too difficult to learn." They 
contend that “if the eye is propeily educated, 
nothing more is required ’’ This vague expression 
is one wo, hnvo heard very often, and, of course, 
many who use it have no. definite idea of what the,v 
mean by it. HV such, what they wish us to 
understand by the ‘■education of the eye The 
eye is not an instrument like the hand, n Inch must 
have some considerable and practical experience in 
order to carry out the iiitcntivns; the eye has no 
practical duty to perform, it is .simply the medium 
tliTongh which is conveyed to the mind the form, 
positions, and' proportions of the objects to be re- 
presented; and since positions and propoifioni, are 
not arbitrary, it follows that some kind of educa- 
tion is necessary to guide our judgment and practice 
in dealing 'with them : in other word'., the mind 
must be prep-ared by some precess to receive the 
fan impression of everything connected with the 
object as it stands, or under any condition in which 
it may ho placed, and to recognise details and 
peonliaritics whioli. without a previous preparation, 
we should inevitably pass over, totally igiioiant of 
•their existence. . IVo maintain that a little scientific 
education reveals facts which would otherwise be 
lost upon us. Consequently, we assert that the 

grammar of the tu'h 

We do not soy tliis to discourage, quite the 
reverse : we wish to prove the necessity of the 
course of study we reeornuiend ; it is short and 
easy, and we may romiirk, for the encoumgc- 
raeut of the timid, there is no need to carry it 
to tlio extent leriuirert by architects. As we 
proceed with our les.sons. onr impils will easily 
ilnd out for themselves how much is requisite, 
because, according to the class of snbicot we are 
drawing, occasions will present themselves which 
will make it necessary for us to refer to those rules 
which are applicable to the case, and most of which 
will he found in the previou.s jtages of the Nkw 
Fofulab Educatob. 

Wo will now direct the attention of our pupils 
to Fig. 2, which is nothing more than an arrange- 
ment of straight Unas in rarteus directions, each of 
whioh, whatever the direction may bo.i« subject to 
some especial rule for its, iraatmem. The rieir we 
have selected fand wo call it a view, because wo 
wish to talk about it to our pupib: a,s though we 
wore actually out of doors in front of it) is as 
practical and simple a-s we could select : it is taken 
from a small street in one of onr country towns. 
Wo have just said it is “ an arrangement of straight 
lines in various diroofions.'* Now lines in the 
positions of tho-,e wiiich compose onr subject are 

the line of sight, or, ns it is sometimes called, 
the horizontal line, hl; by holding the pencil 
horizontally before the eye, and noting tlie places 
where it cuts the lines of tbo subject, it will be 
seen in our view to cross the door on the right hand 
at about one-third 'from the top. ' This is a ven’ 
necessary step to take at the commencement, and 
must not be omitted, when we know thnt.afi iiorl- 
zontal retiring lines have'their vanishing jjoints on 
the lliie of sight. Our next consideration will bo 
if we find that half of the subject upwards is above'' 
the eye (that is. the il L), and the other half below 
it, then the H l will be drawn across the middle 
of the paper: if the HL is placed as in the riew 
before ns, at.about two-thirds from the top of the 
subject, then the lino must bo drawn at two-thirds 
of the distance from the top to the bottom of the 

Afterwards we must determine the position of 
the paint cf sight: this 'is aln-ags ajtjjasitc the 
egc on the line of sight. In gonorai practice ' 
we must so phace ourselves, when we are looking 
down a street, that the parallel sides of the 
street shall be parallel to the imaginary line 
called the direction of sight, whicli goes from 
the eye to the P s — in other words, the sides of 
tlie street must retire at right angles with onr 
Xmsition. In our view (Fig. 2) rs is 'the' point 


the learncr-srill oKcn lie cncimiburoil with fractions 
ivhich it is ilosirablc to nvoitl. Tims, in the equation 
above, half of the coefficient of the lowes! pon-er is 
5, the square of which y. Adding this to both 
sides, the equation will become J- oSjr -J- ^ 
= at! 4- the first member of wiiicli is a coinplcic 

square of the binomial, a.r -f 
Now it is obvioui to the student ihat molt iplying 
the equation by -1 hii.' precisely the same effect as 
removing the denominator i from the tliinl term. 
Hence, if we mnltijily the equation by •!, we not 
only .avoid the introduction of fnictioms. but also 
leave the square of the whole of the coefficient of 
the power to be added to both sides accord- 
ing to the rule. 

The first term eiidenlly continue*! to be n .square 
after it is nmlliplied liy J. for it is still the product 
of the jipiiTri! of certain factors. 

3. Jt will be iirn’ehed at oiico, that the second 
term Is comptssed of twiec the root, of ilic first 
torin niulliiilled into tlie nneflie.u'm of the last term, 
whloU coiistUutes the middle term of a hlnomiid 

Obfcmtion . — It is manifest from the pn-cctling 
domonslralion, that iimltiplyiiig by 4 is not a 
nccmarji stefi in completing the .square, but i' 
resorted to on this p-irticulav iiecasion as an ex- 
pedient to prevent the i«*<'iirrenee of fractions 
When, lliereforc, tlie eoellieion! of the lowest power 
is an even nnnibar, m that half of it can be taken 
without a remainder, we may .loiiyi/i/vlhe op"ititu>n 
by multiplying by llie cneflieieiit of tlie highest 
jKiwer alone, and adding to both sidis the xpciro 
of half the ccioflleiei.t of the Uiwe.-t powi>r of tlie 
unknown quantity. 


•Xiike the cquiitinn 7a~4-tbj-=r- T1 :. 

Multiplying by 7 it becomes •Jp3*-t-2M>j-=riitii). 
Adding the square of halt 
the coefficient, •lPj-=-J-2.''Oa--j-40n=JHW. 

lly evolution and trails. 

position, 7.r= 10. or j-=: 1 

2.52. Prnni the prinriplc' that liavi* been hiid 
down in tlio preceding Ic-son we may also deduce 
fiTiimi METiions nr cnvtrt,7rriso thi: sqr.viti:. 

Mii!flji>i/ Hr ii/iinfiiiA hi/ 111 fimn Ihe eurjirient 
of the hiffhnt jior-er of far vni.nnrn guantii/i, ant! 
atld to hath -sitlcs 4 iimes ihr /quart; vf Hr rtvffiricut 
vf the liiirr/f jmnvr. 

Am! vuiivr/rHi/. lurlfljiliiiiig the equation Vy the 
oroduL't of anil /quart' numher, ai n", into the co- 

effieieirt of the highest jioircr, and tulillng to loth 
sides the square tf half ihe rout of this numler inta • 
the square tif the crniffieient of the lateest j>aircr, teiU- 
render it a eomjilctc square. 


1. Take Iho equation a- — 3® =1 4. 

Multiplying by 16. etc., fSai-b 36 = 64 -h:;i 

= 100. ’ 

By evolution and trans- 
position, a-= 4. or — 1. 

2. Take the equation ar^ + cx—d. 

Multiplying by n-a, etc., n-a-a^ ii-acx -!- ^ 

= w''Vk? + the first member of .wbicli is the 
srpiare of the binotnml, nax -J- ^ ; :iiid from whicb 
... 4s e -p 'iad — e 

Tiierc is an iibrit>iis adrantayc. however. In em- 
ploying 4 in prurerenro to any other square number. 
Por multiplying the equation by 4 fiinos llio co- 
clfieieiit of the highest jiowcr, will ]iroducc Ibo 
uiidiHe term of a binomial square, tlto Hiird term 
of wliich is the square of the cocniuicnt of the 
lowest power. 

In the square of a binomial, the first and last 
terms arc alway.< jmilire. Por c.acli is tlie square 
of otic of Hie terms of the root, niid .all oven pownts 

If. then, — oeeiirs in an rquotiiin, it efliinnf , 
irith this siynfvrm a jmrt of thr/quarrof a hintimini 
But if ail tile signs in tlic eqiiniioii be e.liangcil, 
whilst the equality of the .sides will bo ]irc.“Brved, 
the term — le! will become iHisitive, and the square 
may then Ik* completed. 


Jteduec Ihe equation — .rS -i- Sxxxd — h. 
Changing all the .signs, — fij* = /i — d. 

In a quadratic iipiaiion the first term i.s the 
square of a single letter. Hut 11 hiiioniial quantity 
may ctui.sist of terms one or both of wliich arc 
alieady imwi'is. 

Tims, a-" -!- « is a binmnial, and its square ,is ’ 
ff® + Soj® -f 0-. where the judex of a* in Ihe first 
term is twiec tis- great a.s in the second. When tlio 
third term is deficient, the .square may be coui- 
pletcd in the s.ame manner as that of any other 
bimmiial. Kor the middle term i.s twice the pro- 
dma. of the roots of the two others. 

,So the .square of a-i -1- n, is + iiix" it=. 

' And the square of a-" -j- a, is a-” -b 2(ra;» -b a-. 

'~Any equation lehieh eontains only tiro different , 



poivers or roofs of tie v7ii7ioim girantitg, tie ii7dex 
of 0710 of iviich is f/rice that of fie other, -may be 
solved in tic same manner as a gtiadratle ejvdtion, 
by completing the sqttarc. 

, N.B. It most be observed that in the binomial 
root, the letter o:tprc5sins: the unknown quantity 
may still- have a traotional or integral inden, so 
that a further operation may be necessary. . - ■ 


Reduce t lie equation a* — —a. 

' Completing the square, — a!=d-i=i- + 6 — «- 

Extracting and ttans- ~ 

. posing, a- = ^ + + b — a. . 

Extracting again, a = + ^ 

' Exekcise G4. 

7. Beduca the equation a? -KS? = a + t. 

2S3. The solution of a qitadratic equation, 
whether pure or odfected, gives two results. For 
after the, equation is reduced, it contains an am- 
biguous root. In a pure quadratic, this root Is the 
7vJiolo value' of the unknown quantity. 

■,x Thus the equation ■ib“ = 64, , ' 

■ Becomes, when reduced, «= + ■✓64; 
that is, the value of 'a is eitW 8 or -v8,for each 
of these is a root of 64. Hare botli the values of ® 
are'the-same, except that they have contrary agns. 
This will be the case in every pure quadratic 
equation, because the whole of the second member 
is under the rncUcal sign. The two mines of the 
unknown quantify will be alike, ^copt that one 
will be positive and the other negative. 

But iiT adfcctcd quadratics, a part only of one 
side of the rodneed equation is under Jlie radical 
sign.. 'When 'this part is added to,'or subtracted 
from, that which is .without the radical sign, the 
-two results will differ in quantity, and will have 
tlimr signs in some cases alike, and in others uidike. 


Thus the equation a!®^- Sar=20,' . 

Becomes, when reduced, '«= 4 + -f 20.. 
ThatiS, - ® = — 4 + G. 

Here the first value . \ One poMtive 

ofasis — 4 + G=+ 2i andtbeother 

And the second is — 4 — G==--loJ negative._ 
Also the equation 8®= — 15, 

-Becomes, .when- reduced, « = 4'+ ,fl(i — 16. 

That is,- - a; = 4j-l. 

Here the first value, of 1 

aiis ' 4-H = + 6|. both positive. 

And tL». second is 4 — 

That these two values of x are correctly found, 
may be proved by substituting first one and then 
the other, for itself, in the original equation. 
Thus 5® - 8 x's =2S — 40 = - 1.5, 

And 8= — 8x3= 9 — 24 = — 16. 

In the reduction of an adfected quadratic 
equation, the value of the imknown quantity is 
frequently found to be imaginary. 

Thus the equation a;= — 8® = — 20, 
Becomes, when reduced, ® = 4 + ✓'16 — 20. 
That is. ® = 4 + 4. 

'Here the root of the negative quantity — 4 cannot 
be assigned, and therefore the value of x cannot 
be found. There will be the same impossibility in 
every instance in which the negative part of the 
quantities under the radical sign is greater than 
the positive part. 

"When one of the values of the unknown quantity 
in a quadratic equation is imaginary, the other is so 
also, tor both are equally affected by the imaginary 

Thus, in the example above. 

The first value of « is 4-1- ✓— 4, 

And the second is 4 — ✓— 4 ; each of 

. which contains the imaginary 

quantity ✓— 4. 

254. An equation which, when reduced, contains 
an imaginary root, is often of use to enable us 
to determine whether a prop'osed question admits 
of an answer, or involves an absurdity. 


Suppose it is required to divide 8 into two such 
parts that the product-will be 20. 

If ® is one of the i>arts, the 
, , • ' other will he . 8 — ®. 

‘By the conditions proposed (8 — x b = 20. 

This becomes, when reduced, as = 4 -1- ✓ — 4. 

Hme the imaginary expression ✓— 4 shows that 
an answer is. impossible ; and that there is an 
. absurdity in supposing that's may be divided into 
two such parts that their product shall be 20. 

' 265. Although a quadratic equation gives two 
re^ts, yet both these may not always be applicable 
to the subject proposed. The quantity under the 
radical sign may be prodaoed either from a positive 
. or a negative root. But both these foots may not, 
in every instance, belong to the problem to be 


Diviflo the tiamber 30 into two swch parts that 
their prroduot. may be eniial to S time# their Oilier* 

II sr = the le##. tlien 30 — .r = the {Treater part. 

Ey the !;uppo#uion. a? x f30-®)=.S x <30— 2a-). 
Thi# rcrtucod. give.# .r = 23 + 17 =40. or 6, the less 

Bnt as 40 cannot, he part of 30. the problem can 
have but ono real resolution, making the less pirt 
I), anti the greater part 24. 

25G. Tho precetling prinoiiiles in quadratic equa- 
tions may bo smtimed up in the foDowing 

- ■ GEXEnai, EULE. 

1. Tranujiaao alt the imhnamii qualities to one 
. side of the cgnation, and the hneivii quantities to the 

• 2. STahe the square of the Mihna/on quantity 
jjoslfire Of it is not already) iq eliam/mg the signs 
of all the terms on hath sides ; and place it for the 
first or leading term. 

3. To complete tho square, 

(1) Xlomore the cocfiicient of the second poteer of 
the xtnknomn, qnantitg. and add the square of half 
of the eo^eient of the first poirer of the stnhnoien, 
qvaiUttxj to hath sides (f the equation. 

(2) Or mvltiplq the equation hg four tmes.thc 
ooefiicient of the highest gioieer <f the vnhiown 
quantify, and add to loth sides the square of the co- 
e^ciexit ofthefii'st jianrer <f the nnhaon-n quantity. 

4. Jleduce the equation by catraeting the square 
root of hath sidu : and transpose the i/aon-n part of 
the binomial root thus obtained to the opqwsite side. 

, Exeecise C.». 

Bcduce the following equations: — 


E.xeucise 35. 

2. Jhr. . 

2. >^/4. 

3. fjy-iii. 

I 8. 2V3. 

Exeecise ST. 

30. «>-3nS,T&+B 
I.S. (P. 

2. ndMi/fi'. 

8 . 

4. se>dit. ' 

5. Wa. 

0. (a + »l 

7. {r-silS. 

■ E.xercise 

'll). 4* ana 6*. ! 

17. (a*)* ana (B=)'. 
tS.‘ (10)4 .and (10)’. 

01 . - 

22. 0».ysnnd2“,v'8- . 

31. 04^/2. 

32. T_+4^/3- 

m! 3S+lfv 

E.xeecise 50. 



Exeboisb ,61. 

8. Sand a, ' 12. “taildie. 
a. 15. and 12. 13. 0 and 4. 

]. ±21 and ±10. 

nsis in the point 0, mitl, further, that if a hori- quite beyond tho ordinary student. Befcrring to 

zontal linb be drau'ii througli that point, the ratio the %arc, rre see tiiat oidinatcs are ralues of 

of the "heUjkt of any jioiitf aitovo this line 
to iba jtnlnf'a alschsa or x h the multiplier • 

or coefficient of a in tho law. In this ^ il i’'* -JT" ' 

XUiTtionlnr case tho multiplier is 2, and it -n-r*.*" -rvy-i- -i-j-r-i- -f-r-rT' -t-t-i-i- 

sbould be obsor\-ed that if tho line sloped -tT ^ 4-!-}-i- -i-l-v-i- -••■!-+-{- -t-H-t- -i-— 

thc other, way on the paper, viz, from .f.' j.i-j-f 

right to loft, the multiplier would bo nega- « . : Y.:' -t.T!”!: ■ rr** ■"* i i"! [ ; ’ ■ < 1. ! ‘Tl H; T pT" ' 
tive; .also that tho intercept I (in this' __ A ' — ;-j- -r-j— 

case, S) would be negative if measured ..X-X ->—+h- T- p-f- -•"■-p-- -T-pH- 

from o ^oirnirarHs. Wo are now in a post- ~ i. 1 ■ 'V ’ - f1 *~: : ; ; 1 ■; -i-i i i -■ f -■■4- 

tion tO'llnd the law connecting the quan- n.i'TpI 

tities obtained from the experiment on a ip-:-p_r-!- "Ippr" — T’"t ". '^tt . rt+T" 

simple pulley, given at page 31. The ♦ : f : : : i_ , ’!! ! ' ~i~* . - i ! j_! ! ; • : ' ! 't j ! " ! , 

numbers when plotted,' as alre-ady de- j. \ 4 '' j't' pt-V.-- 

scribed, give tho points, p, q, n, s, etc., in Tt-j-i.:., j.. 

Fig. 13. These points do not seem at first ' .lj..-.:.. 4-^.4- .j-i.}.]. j.Ll.j. .LJ.4.j . 

sight to be on a straight -line, but on T+'y-' ’Jj.j CijLl’i . 

stretching a black thread among them wo- . T-j-r-r- -r-j-j-f 'fVTf -i-r-rT- -■ t-j-r 

find that they are iwetty uniformly dis- tbpi-i- s-i-r -r-j-,-.- .ri-t-r- -r-pj-j^ 

tributed on both sides of the, .and -.>-4-; T. J.4. 

that therefore tho little discrexiapcies ■ ■ ■ r f ■ , ; •;•!•! ■ , : ; : ; ■ T f , i ^ T 

which .appear are probably due to experi- "iXlp' ■fl't"'." vff.'-' 'rr; T' 

mental errors. -t-M-i- -r-;-’-'- •t'.-t-.' 

By drawing our straight line, or' curve .^ f : ! il J - i i i ■ J^r i ! *“ i I i ~^ i ^ i. t . ; I i . — :^l^' . . ; 1 .. ,.j. 
in the best mean 'positioif .among the , • - ' j.,„_ j,,_ 

points, .these un.avoidable errors are to a ' 

great extent corrected, hence one veiy important' fricUon, P, and abscissm values of load, a. Em- 
purpose of our squared paiier. To correct such ployingthe method alreadycxplained, we proceed to 


farmnlato the law connecting r rmrt A. The line 
cat."! tlie vertioil r.xi= nt .n point trhose value is 

from an expciiment iire often conncctctl ' 
more complicated law, but even in that ci 

There are many uses to whieh curves may be put, 
in fact, are pat,' in the affairs of everyday life. 
They are employed to shcrw the height of .the baro- 
me.ter or the temperature at various times during 
the day or week, and we have heard of a merchant ' 
'who thus kept a record of the price of a certain 
'commodity as time went on. By a' careful inspec- 
tion of the corves for several years, ho has been 
able on several occasions to' foretell a rise or fall in 
price, and to make his arrangements accordingly. 
DifSoult equations may be solved by the aid of a 
‘ sheet of squared paper, and, in our opinion, this 
and kindred graphic methods w.ill he more used in 
. the future than at present.' .The student should - 
carefully go. through' all the exercises which are 
, appended. . 

Exarciicg . — ^Hot the curves whose laws are given 
‘below;— • . - ’ 

+ = . ' •(3)v = a»>. 

(2).J<>-S»=±100. ■ (4)y = *'. 

Plot the curves showing -the relation of the fol- 
lowing numbers : — ; 

5. The Co3irorxD Istebest Law.— C ihfercs# 

, added every instant.') ■ , ■ ■ \ 

■ ITALIAN. — I, 

. . . ■ . ISTRODUCTIO>'. 

We propose to teach the grammar, structure, and 
vocabulary of the Italian language by a method 
not oonunonly adopted by the learned. B.vperience 
has convinced us that a strict adherence to scien- 
tific forms, though all-importaut in the cultivation 
of a language, does not tend to the advantage of 
the learner. . 

For its own intrinsic merits as a language, Italian 
d^rves to he studied by everyone . who would 
enjoy the pleasures of style, inexhaustible in variety. 
And they who would oulth-ate language for its ex- 
cellence must seek that of Italy for. the ideal beauty 
of expression. 

Our method will be a natural, a simple, and, we 
trust, an easy one. M'e shall discard, as much as. 
possible, idl the conventional terms of grammar. 
Our grammalacal progress will imitate the action 
of the mind in the formation of a sentence, with a 
dne regard to peculiarities of idiom. IVe begin 
with the noun; as soon as we have clearly explained 
the principles of pronunciation ; and we shall pro- 


tlie Italiiin poot-, t!io picjssiiro tloo- not coVisirt 
altogetliCT in apprcoiaivn'j tUr tlvmcht^, nr oven 
^shailcs of lliougliif, bi:l in tlic fnoiilir to Gn} 0 ]:llint 
divine linnnoiiy to v.-hich tlioy iiate nttnnoil the 
latifrimge. There is no in-ii|HiriiIi!e or u\en tety 
considerable dilfieiiity in m:i<terincr Italinn ]iro- 
nnnciation ; Init a tlunvxliti'nl attenlion to some 
leading principle-, and a stiidenl-like dilisenco, 
arc condition's ts'enlial to snccns-!. , ^ 

A tolerable nppnKicIi to iiecnrtioy in Ibdn't pro- 
nunciation may be made by letter-signs re|jrescnt- 
ing analogous sonnds familiar to the ear in one’s 
own Inngnnge. If one has made biinself so familiar 
tvitli the imitate*! sounds as to luive acquiml n 
considerable tocal command of -the leading ones, 
be may very soon accnmtely and jtcnuanenUy ao- 
qnu-o lliem by a few brief communications tvilli 
an oducnlcil native. 

Perhaps the most nsefnl beginning wc can nmke 
is to point oat the leading errors which English- 
men commit in ]>ronmmnng Italian. In lUo mastery 
of the pronniiciiiUen of the Continental langunge.s, 
and particularly of, the Englishman’s great 
difficult V IS in the vowels. 

The Englishman, perhaps from childhood, has 
heard no vowel sounds hut tho-e of his own island 
— his four sounds of a. hi- four sounds of o, bis 
fhreo sounds of Ji. his two sounds of e. nnd his two 
sounds of (— sounds little swayed by rule, and 
changing continually. Ho begins Italian, but 
carrying to the study the eomplos vocal habit of 
his langiuige, it niiist U* sotnc time before ho ran 
oomprohund and jmietise the simplicity ami ixjr- f, one Italian a, two Italiim e'f, nnd tvro 
Italian oV. 

Another Ridical oma* committed by Englishmen 
in pronoimuJng Italian aiNes from two oppositu 
Itrinciples. whioli may bo said to bo tbe funda- 
mental rules of the acrentnation of the langnnge.s. 
In, every word has its le-ndbig. nuirked. or 
strongly aceemed .syllable— geneially s]ve.aking, the 
root of the vvonl: and it follows that ■while this 
syllable is distiiiclly marked by the voice, ihe sob- 
onlinatc unaerented syllables fade away in the 
iilteinnee into .an airy nothingness Hint can hnrtllj- 
he iloscribed. It is rjuitc different with Italian. 
It has its .accented .syllables just as in Engllsb, but 
the .accent on the one does not destroy the vocal 
eunneintiun of the others. On the contrary, full 
and snlistanlial justice must ho done to cveiy syl- 
lable, each being cicaily sounded, full aird toundly 
with the vowel.s. and in a resonant cr vibrating 
tone with the consonants. The contrast maybe 
ob.secvcd in the proiumoiation of any of tbe many 
words of a kindred sound in both languages 

derived from the same cliL'.sio .stock. ' Take tlio' 




A tliirtl and radictil dilTtreiico between the 'two 

Languages, as icgards the ]irinciples of pronuncia;. 
tion, is this: in England, they speak from the 
mouth : in Italy, from.the'che-t, 

These are the radicid differences and difficulties 

which Diir readers must strive to overcome. 


"We now proceed to csplaui Italian pronnnemtion 
in a method of recent adoption by some ingenious 
teacher.s of Italy, by whlcli all iho conibiniitions of 
"tbo vowels and consonant -i nnd consequently all 
the ingvodienlB and comjjonent parts of the Itm-- 
gunge, will pass under the eye cl the reader. Let 
hhn learn fiom the vciy beginning of his lnbour.s 

to pronounce each syllable of the following words 
and tables, and be will soon acquire a correct 
method of pronnucintlon. 

The Italian language has live vovVcls,- roprosent- 
•ing seven sounds : — 

I. a, invariably sounded like the English inter- 
jection ati. ’ ; 

II. 7, invariably sounded like co in see. 

III. w. invariably sounded like Win ioo. 

IT. 1. e. invariably .sounded like ey in sey, but 
with a sliglit oiioning of the month only, 
and with an elevated tind clear tone. It 

is called, on that account, the close sound 
of the vowel. 

2. f, invariably sounded something like e 
in let, set, and the Hast c in crery, but 
with a wide opening of tlio mouth, and 
with n deep sound. It is called, on that 
neconnt, tho open .sound of the vowel. : 

T. 1. a. invariably sounded with a medium 
.sound between e and on, vvliich has no 
cqmvnicnt in the English Inngnagc, but 
wliieh may be otusily caught by tbo car- 
from hearing an ediic;ited Eonian or Xus. 
can .siieak. Perhaps an approximation is 
thcomfwy-jr.Mr.nml note, but with a sliglit 
opoiiing of tho moiilh only, ami vvith an 
elevated and clojir tone. It is called, on 
that nceonni, the sound of the vowel. 

2. a, inrarmbly .sounded somotbing like o in 
loril and vraiir/e, but vvith n wide opening 
of the mouth, and vvith a deep soxmd. It 
is called, on that account, the open sound 
of the vowel. 


as r, mar liaro the soantl of is in the word Sxitzer,_ 
or <ls in the word adze. According to modem 
ortliogmphy. tJic = is generally doubled between 
two single vowels in the middle of a word, but not 
aftera consonant, and not before diphthongs the first 
vowel of wliioh is i; as, for examples, ia, ie, io, 
where it must remain single, and has the hard sound. 

rtnlian. i’ron<i?iii«<i. • Enylish. 


There are six semi- vowels in the Italian hutguage, 
so called because in their utterance a vowel must 
be placed before the consonant.' They are not 
pronounced in one syllable only, as in the case of 
the mutes, but require the utterance of two syl- 
lables, which syllables are substantial!]' the same, 
though in an inverse order." The semi-vowels are — 
• 1. Ff, named 'in the alphabet effe (pronounced 
in the following manner— (if -fai). i 

2. Z l; named in the alphabet eUa (pronoiuiccd 
Cl-lai). It has two sounds— one 'like the English 
consonant 1; the second is a peculiar sound, of 
which we shall have occasion to speak in the pro- 
nouncing tables. 

3. ilf «», named in the alphabet e»i»ic (pronounced 
6m-mal). To ensure perfect acenmey in. the pro- 
nunciation, ■we may remark that when m is preceded 
■ by a vowel with which it forms one syllable, and a 
consonant being the next' letter, It mast be very 
softly soanded, and the voice must glide quickly to 

the next consonant, almost as 'if it formed part of 
the same syllable; for example, ambizione, ahm-bee- 
tzee-6-nai, ambition; emjtio, 6m-peeo, impious; 
ombriSf dm-brah, a shadow. 

4. F n, named in the nlphabet enne (pronounced 
£n-nai). Generally speaking, this letter is pro- 
nounced just as in English; but the observation 
made 'on the m is equally applicable to n. In 
similar ciroumstanccs, the voice must glide quickly 
from the n to tlie succeeding consonant : tor ex- 
ample, (i»<farc, alin-diih-mi, to go; eiitrare, en^trih- 
rai, to enter; oiida, dn'^ah, a ■wave. After y, n 
lias a pccnliar sound, which we shall have occasion 
to explain in the pronouncing tables. Often n is 
pronounced like m before words commencing with 
the cousonnnts b, vt, nnd p ; ns, gran bcitia, pro- 
nounced ginhrniC-steeah, a boorish, insolent fellow, 
great blockhead, etc. ; rcaljitreinmarnio, pronounced 
skol-pdc-nii iinmahrr-mo, to chisel in marble ; can 
poca fatica, pronounced kom p6-kah fah-tfio-kah, 
■with little fatigue. This is certainly the finest 
pronunciation, because it is tlie genius of the, 
Italian language, ns in tlie classical tongues, par- 
ticularly Greek, to soften the transition, or passing 
over, from one word to nn’'lber, and often from 
one syllable to the other, by changes of consonants. 

6'. Ji n named in the nlphabet erre (pronounce^ 
6r-xai). It, when it is followed by a consonant, must 
be vibrated with a stronger emphasis than in Eng- 
lish ; and It is on the other hand very soft before a 
■vowel ; a-s, carta, pronounced ki'ihrr-tn, paper, nnd 
soft in eara, pronounced kAh-rali, dear. 

6. a t, named in the alphabet csss (pronounced 
(is-sai). This consonant Has considerable variations, 
and is one of the most difficult to pronounce 
throughout corretfy, for even in Italy there are 

A strictly correct and Irreproachable pronuncia- 
tion of this consonant can only be acquired by 
closely marking its utterance in all its shades by 
Italians who speak purely. Speaking generally, 
there are two leading sounds. One is a sharp, hiss- 
ing sound, as in the English words sing, sieve; the 
other is a mucli milder sound, as in the English 
words obcosc, ease, please, etc. 


/ram J'al. t'., p. 363.] 

, VTU. — COnilBCT IxriiECTIOXB. 

"' ISFI.ECTIOX'’ in elocution signifies an upward or 
downward “slide" of voice from the' average, or 
level, of a sentence. 


There ere tv.-r. j-irejile •■ir.iJeciion'-" or “5-U'le=." — 
the 'Jjm-nrd ‘ir ■■ risiiip-," r.nd :hc t!o'.vnv.-aril or 
'• falhiiir." The former is nsnaliT irinrted hy the 
acute accent [']; the ialter. bv the jmi'C accent 


The union of tliL-e tv.-o inflection'! on the same 
sylliibie i- called the “civeumaej:." nr -tt-ave. tVIicn 
the circmnileM conjineiircs trhh the falling- in- 
licctioii. anil emh vrith the rising, it is callc-tl the 
‘•rising circnniflex." nuirke-1 thus [ * ]: n-hen it 
begins n-ith the rising, anti ends nrith the falling, it 
is called the -■ falling circumflex." marked thus [']. 

IVhen the tone of the s-oice has no upward or 
do-wnward slide, bnt keeps comij,iralh-ely level, it 
is called tbo “ monotone," maiited thus £-]. 

Jlcatiqilcx. — JRitting Xailectimi. 

“■Intensive,” or high, upward slide, as in the tone 
of surprise .— 

HA! Is it j'-ssiblt'! 

In the usual tone of a question, that may be 
answered by 3« or Xot — 


’• Moderate ■* rising inflection, ns at the end of a 
olatiso which loaves the sense dependent on what 
follows it 

If a-e nro siiicerclj- ilesimns of ailvancing In kndwioilge, wo 
shall nut hr -.panni; nf esertiou. 

The plight ” l•isinff marked thus ['], 

is used when the voice is suddenly and uuctqtectedly 
interrupted •— 

Wlicn the visitor cntcvivl the rOom— * < » ♦ 

The last-monlioned inflection may, for dis- 
tinction's sake, be marked as above, to indicate the 
absence of any positive upward or downward slide. ' 
and. at the same time, to distinguish it from the 
intentional and prolonged level of the “ monotone." 

Falling TKjtection. 

“ Intensive." or bold and low downward slide, as 
in the tone of anger and scorn 

Down, rutTdtsj insvVer! 

The “ fnU" falling inflection, as in the cadence at 
.a period ■ — 

All Ills emirls wre in v.iiii. 

'Tlip •■ nioilemtc " falling inflection, as at the end 
of a clnnso whicli foi-ms complete sense — 

Po lint in-csuiiic on ■ivc.iUh ; it limy he =wci't from yra .u r. 

Tile hnrie.'. weiv h.irlie^'nl ; tlio cairi.igcs were dnren up to 
iiiansinn w.i-. l-ll tn li- foi iiiir silence and solitude. 

Tlie “ .-n.'iiu’n.cbc," or slight falling inflection, 
marked thus ["]. as in the inerabers of a “ series,” 

or sequence of words and clauses, in the same 
syntactical connection ; — 

The foree. Hie =iee. the weight of the ahip| bore the aehooner 

The iircistildc force, Ihc vast size, the prodigious weigh; 
of the sliip, rendered thedestnictionof the scliooiicr inevitable. 

Tlie “ suspensive " downw.ii-d slide is marked as 
above TO distinguish it from the deeper inflection 
at the end of a clnnso, or of a sentence. 


The JlUingfolloneill»J the Falling. 
trillyottgd. orstny! • " 

Will yon ride, or 

Hid ho travel for health, or for pllKisiirc? , , . 

Docs lie pionouiice correctly, or aicorractly! 

Js It the rising, or tlie falliiig infleotioii ? 

The FaUirtg followed- the Sising 

I would rather go than staj'. • ' , ' - 

Ho tiavelleil for health, not pltasure. 

He pmiioniices corrtctly, not iiiconvetly. 

It is the falling, not the rising inflection. - 
Fwanijiles of Cirounifieis. ■ 

Tone o/afodlcrfl.— I've caught you, then,' at Iflst I 
/nmy.—Couiilgeons chief l-ftlic first In flight from pain! . 
J’lmnt'itg.— And though heiivy to wAIgli.asascorc of fat blieepi 
Ho was not, by any means, heavy to sleflp. 

Fxamjile if Monotone . — ^^Itiie an^ Horror. ' 

1 could a IJle unfiShl whoso Ifglitcst W6rd 
Would harrow Op thy sonl, fhecrc thy young blood, 

Hike tliy twO eyes, like stars, stflit from their sphflins. 

Thy knotted and combined lucks to pSrt, 

And each particular liRlr to stind on Snd, 

Like quills ujion the fretful iwrcnplne, • 

Hules on the Jitstng Inflection. 

Jlitle 1. — Tlie “intenmvo,” or high rising in- 
flection expresses eurjiriee and troiifler, as : — 

Hi 1 langli'st tliou, Loeliiel, mj- vision to sefiiu ? 

Mule 2. — ^The “moderate" rising inflection takes' 
place where the sense is inooniplotc, and depends 
on something which follows : — 

As sie cannot discern the .shadow moving .■dong the dial- 
plntc, so we caunot always tiace oui progress iu knowledge 
Mote. — ^l-ords and phrases of address, as they are 
merely introductory expressions, take the “ moderate 
rising inflection,” as 

Friends, I come not here to'K. • , 

Sir, I deej that the as-ertion i.s correct. 

Soldiers, you fight for hnnie ami liberty I 

■ Exception. — In emphatic and, 'in Icngtlierfed 
phrases of address the falling inflection takes 

.On ' ye brusa, -who nn.Ii to glory or the grata 1 
SuldicR. 1 it iny slaniinrti tills, look for ffic piume upon ymr 

■' Ehoutiiig tone. 


Ity friends my followers and my dilldi-cn! Hie Mil »e 
have entered Is one fiom nliich there Is no retreat. 

Gentlemen ami Imiylits— commoiicra and eoliliers, Edtvanl 
lie rnuKh iiinii liis thioiie'nill nut protit by a littoiy more 

Jlula :i. — The •• suspensive,” or slight rising in- 
cctinn, orcnr.s ivhcn expression is sutldcnlj- broken 
ff. as in the following passage in dialogue : — 

J'vst. The poisoning tUme— 

JluTcs vii the FaUinri Tnjiccilon. 

_ ItuTe 1. — ^The “intensive, downward slide," or 
“low,” foiling inflection, occins in the emphasis of 
rchement emotion, as : — 

•Os I 'OX to Ihejmt and the ffiorwm stri/:/ 

Jlulc 2. — The “full” foiling inflection usually 
takes place at the cadence, or close, of a sentence. 


Compound commetioinij .’series : — 

The lliii'l cxpauBC rtt the .lir, the eurfacp of the solid earth, 
the liiuiUl cieniviit of iv-iter, teem with delighted esisteiirc. ' 
Compound concluding; series; — 

Uoligliteil osidciiop terms hi the fluid eepaii’e Of thetir, tlic 
surface of the solid iMrtli,* and thi liiiuM eleintntofwBler.t 
JSxccjitioii 1.— Emphatic, abrupt, and discon- 
nected scries mar !mve the ‘-mnilcnite” or tlie 
“ bold ” downtritrd slide on erety incinlicr, acoonV 
ing to the intensitj’ of ospresrion, a.', : — 

Ilia success, he liiiiie, liis life wen Ml at stake. 

Tlie niaring of Iho sviiul, tiie mshiiic of the water, the dark- 
ness of the night, all conspitisl to orcrnhelm Ws gnm; spirit 
ulth dicail. 

Kloqueiice is .iclion, nillile, stihlliue, itisilike action. 

TIio sliorc, nliieli, luit a few luniuents before, lay so lorcly 
ill its calm serenity, gihied with the Is-anis ofn leicl sitn, now 
resnuiided vlth the mar of c.iniinii. the rhonts of UllUe, tho 
clash of arms, the curses of liatred, the shneks of igony. 

liecejiiion 2. — Light and humorous description 
gives the ■‘moderate" upvrard slide to all the 
luemhors of a series, as : — 

Her hookr, her music, lier pipers, her chithes, were all lying 
ahuiit the room, hi “ most adininsi disorder.’' 

3 —The language of pathos (pUj'), 
tcndcmcs.s, anil Ixiauty — wheihor in verse or prose 
• — takes the ‘•auspensive," or slight rising inflection, 
except in the last member of the “commenohig' and 
tho last but one of tlie ••concluding series,” which 
have the u.snal “• moder.'ito " rising inflection, as : — 
Xo moimiful llnncrs, hy n-eephis fondm-ss lahl. 

No Iiliik, no nlse, droopeii, iiii his disphnycl. 
Tlicre OTOpt in grrititilde, and j'y. .and hire, 

Till' mail of God will leus ui S.stib.sth noon. 

Tlicre (111 tlie gravel, vile iii«eels coiimmie tie* hand of the 
irllst, llw Imilu of Uie pliiKisopher, the ey* which sinrfcltsl 
willi cclc.sliol fite, ami tlie llii fiom which flowed irresistihlc 
1 loiiiieiice. 

Xole 2.— All series, except the plaintive— as lij- 
their form of nnnihfrs and roimtitlnn. they partake 
of the nature of “ oliniax." or nicrc.nse of sigiiincn- 
tioa— ahould he rend wUli a growing inteneiiy of 
voice, and n more prominent inflection on even' 
memlier. a.' : — 

Tie splciiiionr of the tlnnaiiieiit, the verdure of the earth, 
the raried coloiin of tliu lloweiu wliicdi flit the air with their 
Mgriiiiec, and (ho iiiusie of those nrlless voices whirh mingle 
on every tree ; all conspire to ca]itiv.ste our luarte, and to 
swtdl tliciii witli the most mpturons delight. 

Tlii.s remark applies somotime.s even to the rising 
inflection, bnt with pconliar force to cases in which 
the Lmgaugc i.s oliiiously meant to swell pro- 
gressively in clTect. from word towonl.orfrom clause 
to danse, and which end with a downward slide on 

t tell ysui, though yah, though all the wiittcD, thongli an' 
angel fniiu tVEAVr.X, should deelate the tnilh of It, J could 
not hcliovc it 

Jtule a . — All questions which ennnothe answoied 
by Ids or Tio end with tho falling inflection,- as ; — ■ 
tviicn wilt you ce.sse to trifle r 
Where can his equal lie fOuiid f 
Wliolias the luinlllinoil to maintain such an ass&itloii? 

Wliy come not on Uicsc vlclurs luuiiil f 
■ Whatwastheoiaect ofhisnmhitioti? 

How can such a piiigiose lie aecoinplished ? 

ZSBdiy>//iin.— The tone of real or affected surprise 
throws sucli questions, wiien rope,atcd, into the _ 
form of tho rising inflection, ns : — 
now can Biicli a pireposo lie acc/iiiiplMicd ! , 

To Uic diligent d/l Uilngri arc iHissible. 

JDfitJi Inflections, the liising anit the Falling, in 


Sale 1. — •'When negation i.« opposed to aflirma- 
tioii, the former has the rising, the latlor the • 
falling inflection, in whntcver order they occur, . 
and whether in the same or in different sentences. 

He dhl not call ni6 hut yJn. ’ 

lie was cstccmtsl not for ivcaltli, but fur wisdom. 

Study not for aniAsoment, hut for iiiiprurcnicnt. 

He railed yin, not mu. ' 

He was rstrcmtsl for wlsdofii, not for wealth. 

Study for hiipriivciiicnl, not formnusiunciit. 

This projKisal Is not a mere idle couililimciit. It proeccik 
from tire slnecr«.t and deepest feelings' of our htarts. 

Ilowanl sislteil .all Enrn]ic, not to siin-ey tlie Mimptiiaua- 
nC'S of iMlaccs, or tlie i.laloIiiicss of toiiiiiles ; not to innkc 
accutntc measnreiucnbi of the reinaiiii, of ancient gnhideur ; ' 
not to form n scale of tho ciirlinlllcs of landeni Art ; not to 
oollert meilnls or collate mAnnscriins i Iml to dive into Iho 
dcpllis of dhnci’inis ; loplimfr into the liifeetlon of liAspIlals; 

and dtmrusions of misery, liopressirm. nnd cantiniiiit ; to 
reniciuber th>. foiplttcn. to nttcml to tin- neglicted, to visit 
the fotsahen. and to ctuiipaic and collate the diatre-sses of nil 

Kate. — ^A similar principle applies to tlie rc.qding 
of concessions and of nncqnal antitheses or con- 
trasts. In the latter, tlie less important member 
linsllie rising, nnd the prcpondrrnnt one Ihe falling 
inflection, in whatever p.irl of n sentence they occur, _ 
and even in scpar.T(o .sentences, ns : — 

Science may laUe you to riniiicnce. But virtue alone car. 
gmde you tii liAppinoss. 

I rallicr clioose 

To wrong the dead, to wrong myself 

Than I wlil wrong snchTidnonmhlo men. 
Zirr^rfion.— Wlien negation is emphatic or pre- 
ponderant, it- takes tlie falling inflection, ns : — 

Rale 2 . — ^In question and answer, the falling- in- ' destroys all comma-panses, 
flection ends as far hclow the nTerage level of the' 'tinnems streamiof ovetflowi 
sentence ns the rising ends above it. In this w, 

iiofa.^'When or is ns'ecl etn^xmeUrelif, the second 
inflection does not fall, but rises, higher than the 

first, as:— ' Rate on " jSarmotiia” Rtflectioxis. 

Would the Influerce of the Blhle^x-en if It were not the . .. Harmonic’’ infleotlons-or those which, in em- 
loeord of rt dlvmd revelation— be to render prmces more 

lynmiilcal, or sul^cfs more TOigdvernable; tJic ricli more poafic phiasBS, are intended to pment the frequent 
insolent, or the poor inore <lis6rdcr]y; wotUA it make woree occurrence o£ emphasis in the same phrase from 
I'ireulB or cUnAren -Inwbamta or wives— masters oc ^tvanta becoming monotonous to the ear — are applied in 
-Wciide oruelslibours? Ort would It not make men more clauses of which every word is emplmtio, and nro 
vlrtuoiw,t and coneequently more hippr. tverj- dt^tion? separate infleoticn, as 

i7l<7c on tie Qrextmjlex, on If arc. J,g3 been guilty of one of the moil elidme/lil defa l| flat 

The circumflex, or wave, applies to all expressions <r«r dejrMed | the k'ature iI or the na'me || of mVk. 

used in a peculiar sense, or with a double meaning, iWc.— In such oases the infleoUons usually alter- 

and to: the t6nes of mookerj', sarcasm, and irony, nate, in order to glre the more vivid and pungent 

.sxsz— • - force' to vehement emphasis. 

Von may avoid a quarrel irith nn If. . . Vour if U.tbe 

only peacemaker: much i-irtne in nn tf.' 'Rule on Repeated, TT'ords, Rhrases, and Sentences. 

. From the very flirt niglit-and to 8aylt,t am bold- . Words, phrases, and sentences which are repeated 

rvebecure veryhi^Amtlmsurervecaushtofliai . ^ j,. ^ inflectiou. 

Go hang a oalfsklii on these recreant limbs I * ^ .c „4. savea-ww 

Wlmt B btouUfhl piece of work you have inado by your care- besides increasing in forcCi a ery repe i , 


Dar. -C ii-r Wte Xmninalhc). -n. 

Act'. — . 

In tliD pcnitive sintmlar the c is frequently 
oinittecl liefore t, -when the eli-ion does not cause 
an unpleasant, sound, as: — Erf .Icnis?, of the king: 
tes OloiiiilJ, of the inuntli : tt* Oalirj, of the year. 
Also, the -c of the dative is often dropped, as : — 
®cni Jloitig, to the king | and it is never used when 
a preposition stands before the substantive with- 
out an article, pionunn, or adjective preceding, 
as:— -aRit iScii.ifl, with approbation; init eairm, by- 
storm ; mil Sletji, on purjifSO j rra Siittr, of silver. 

Sin<jv!ar Plural. 

N. ®ec iSctj, the mnnn- Etc ®trgc, the mountains. 

G-. Set Scujrt, 01 tlie Set Setjc, of the moun- 
mountuin tniiis. 

D. Seal Scvac. to the Sen Shtgen, to the motin- 

Some nouns of this declension take the letter 
c after c in all ca'-es of tlie plural, and assume 
the Umlaut, if the radical vowel bo capable of it. 

flinimlar. Flnral. 

N. S.15 Eorf, the village. ®ic ©erfet, the villages. 

Gr. Sen ©ctfet of the Set Efifet. of the villages, 

D. Eem ©orfc, to the Sen ©erfeen, to the vil- 
village. " Inges. 

A. .©as ©cif, the tillage. Etc ©cvfcr, the villages. 

K. ©as Sict, the somr, 
G. ©cf '.'letee, of the -i 
D. ©cat Sirtc, tiiihc- .“c 

©1C Stctcr. the songs. 

©cc Sitict, of the songs, 
©cn Sicccm, to the songs, 
©ic Sirttv, the songs. 

• Ihe nouns of tlii- form (c-4-r) in the plural. 
, among which arc all substantives ending in -tbam 

Gi, egg. @ut,good, estate. SBiaut, mouth. 

3a*, compart- head. SJlcil, nestr 

raenr. toil, house. -ipfatit, gjledge. 

oas, vat, tab.' ^elj, wood., wheel. 

Seft, field. .Sera, horn. Sicis.'twig. 

O'clt, money. .^iifa, fowl. hen. aUnt, cattle. 

(Sanity, apart- Jt.ifS, calf. ©Cjlih, sign-hoard. 

ment. .Sint, child. eitio®, castle. ‘ 

(Sicniiitli, mind. Jifeit, dress. eiiHwrl, sword. ■ 

Ghfciilci^c. species. .?ctn, grain. Sfial, \-alley. ' • 

(Pcii^t. face. Ar.iBt. herb. ©utf;, cloth, shawl. 

,(9ciwnft,Epcctre. Samm, lamb. . • iSrif, people. 

(iimanti, garment. Sant, .land. 2CammS, doublet". 

®laS, glass. 9i*f, light. SBcit, woman. 

'®lict,’memboT. Sict. .song. 2Bcrt, word Csit '®' ' 
O'rat, grave, '9e^, hole. dictionary). ■' 

0ral. grass. 'SlB.itl, meal. , " . 

The following nouns of this form are- mas- 

Sl'fcicidit, villain. SRana, man. atotmimt, gnard- 

Sern, thorn. BMuiit, month. ian. 

Weill, spirit. _ Oct, place. ' 2Biil>, forest. 

©I'tt, God. !»ant, margin. aSiitm, worm. 

Scit, body. Sltaiifi, nosegay. . 

Most nouns of the old doolensiop whose Radical 
vowel is a, e, it, or aa, assume in the pUiml tho' 
Umlaut. Thus, '.bant, SeH 3itS;, Jjaitf, make their ' 
plurals as follows : — ’ ' 


Feminine. JWaeculmc.. 

N. ©ic 'SJutc, the hands. ®lc SOIinc, the sons. 

G. ©ctJ&.'intc.of the hands, ©tt Scfiiic, of the sons. 

O. ©m to tho ©cn SI'I'imi, to tho sons. ' 


A. ©ic c>jinu, the hands, ©ic SStme, the sons.' 

Xeufer.' • jVcirfer. 

S. ®ie Sfldict, the books, ©ic •S.tufcr, tho hotisos. ' 

G. Set ffliiSict, of the books, ©cv >')iuict. of' tho houses." ■ 
E. ©cn 9i!*ciu, to the ©cn -5511^01, to the houses.' 

A. ©K 3a*cr, the books, ©ic the houses.’ . 

The words in whicli the flmlaiit.thus occurs are, 
chiefly — (1) primitive "nouns of tho .masculine , 
gender ; (2) feminines which liave their plm'nl in - 
-c. as also fDiiittcr and Setter; (it) neuter primitives ,, 
having their plural in -ci : (4), .and lastly, nouns 
adding the diminutive terminations, -^rn and 

Kouns ending in -cl, -cn, -cr. -^cn, and'-lciii, reject 
the vowel c of iiiBection in all cases, both singular 
.and plural : 10 that those in -cl and -ct merely affix 

SiAffiiIi7r. Phtittl' 

.N . 3ec tliu Uird. - . Sic iBoaef, the biids. 

G. Erf 9 ;rjc(S, of the bird. ‘Ecr SSsgrf, of tl»e birds. 

D. Sem iSciicI, to the bird. Ecu SSi'iiclii, to the birds. 
A. Sen Sir^cl, tlie -bird. ' Sic BJcijct, the birds. 

27. Set Sc.icn, the .swoid. Sic Segtn, the swords. 

G. Sc« ScflciiS, of the Ecu Ecacn, of the swords. 

D. Sem Scjcii, to the Sen S«|cii, to the swords. 

A. Ecu Ecsjcii, the sword. Sic Ecgcn, the swords. ' 

17. ScrsSfirgct, the citizen. Sic iSiirgcr, the citizens. 

G. S« ffliirgerS, of the ScrtBfiracr, of the citizens. 

D. Sent fflfitgcr, to the Scnffliirgctii'.tothecitizens 
citizen. ■ ■ . , 

A.-'Sm’Siirgcc.the.oitizen.-.. Sic Sfirotrfthe citizens. 

IT. S.t8 tBu^tciii, the little Etc fflnifilcin, the littie 
book. books. 

G. S.e8 Eiitjtein?. ' of_ tlie iSet ,Sii<|i(ctn, of the little 
little .book. ‘ ‘ books. 

D.'Sein Sfitjfeirt, to the Sen ffldc^lcin, to ‘the little 
little book. books. 

A. Siis iSiiifiicin, the little Sic iSiiitifdn. the little 
book. books. 

• JT. Sn8 «C'5iit{ieit, the little , Sic SDriiit^icn, the little' 

. G. Srf of the Set Go^indjcn, of the little 

little son. , sons. 

D. Sent Si'Iint^en, to the . Sen to the little 

little son. sons. 

A, Sirf ®cl)n($cn,.the little Sic @ol)ii($(n, the little 
. . son.. , sons. 

Some /emiiiina nouns are in the plural varied 
accordinwto this declension, especially those ending 
in the siifiix.-nis. 


Singular. ' Plural. 

Sic ailaiiS, the mouse. Sic Sliiufc, the mice. ‘ 
ScciDlniiS, of the mouse, Scr iDliInr'. of the mice. 
Scr9i}iin3, to the mouse. .Sen iDMiifcn, to the mice. 
Sic aiiaus. the mouse.. Sic tDtAuj'c.-the mice. 

If. SieJtcnmmv, the know-. Sic Jicnutnijic. 

ledge. . ■ ■ ■ 

G. Scr Jteimtnis, of the Scr Jtcimlmnc.' 

. - knowledge. • . . i 

D. See Jtenmni?,' to the- Sen Jtcnntniifcn. .. 

knowledge. ' ' 

'A. SieJtcnntniPjtlieMow-', Sic JtcnntniiTc. 

ledge. ' ' ■ ‘ 

. .To ‘this class belong the nouns in the following 

<9cfc^nii(fi, swell- Olt a g > . 

Kote. — iWhen the nominative singular ends in 
-c/-e(, or -r, the rest of the cases in the singular and 
all the cases in the plural take n only. 

Singular. Plural. 

N. Set ®caf, the count. Sic ©rafen, the counts'. i 
G. Srf ©rafen, of the Set ©rafen, of the connts. 

A. Sen ©tafen, the count. Sic ©rafen, the connts. 

N. Set Salic, the falcon. Sic Satteii, the falcons. 

G. Srf5aifcn,ofthefaloon. Set Sallen, of the falcons. 
E. SemSaUcn.tothefaloon. Sen Salfcn, to the falcons. 
A. Sen Salien, the falcon. Sic SviKen, the falcons. i 
Eeminine nonns which are Indeclinable in the 
singular for the most part follow this' declension 
in the plural. Those ending in the sufSx -in in 
the singnlar, double the n in the plural. 


Singular. Plural. 

K. Sic €^iilb, the debt. Sic Si^iiitcii, the debts. 

G. Sct®diafti,of the debt. Set ©i^iiltcii, of the debts. 
D. Sci©^ufc,to the debt. Sen ©dpiftcn, to the debts. 
AI Sic the debt. Sic ©c^iiltcii, the debts. 

N. Sic 'Gictin, the shep- Sic ^ictiiiiicn, the shep- 
' herdess, herdesses. 

G. Scc.6tttiii, of the shep- Set ^irtinnen, of the shep- 
. herdess. herdesses. 

.D. 5Dcc ^Itiin, to tlie shep- Sen Sirtiniicn, to the shep- 
herdess, herdesses. 

a! Sit 4ittin, the shep- Sic .(^irtiiiticn. the shep- 
herdess. herdesses. 


aJiiittjr (iiionior) ami Tetlilet (ilaaphlor) are in 
tlio plural SKuttcr and Srcticr. I'lioy add ii to the 

All feminine mums were originally in the J-inpiilar 
declined according to the Mew Declension, inic'’® 
old inlleoted form” are still j'rcstrvrd in certain 
phrases. Tims, mit or m fftrra, witli or in rc.'pect 
<ir honour ■■—tst’rm, from (rhe; ouf Rrtcn. “on catih” 
— (Sttcii, from Ptte; mu iitciitcn, “with joy" — onuren, 
from Srnitt; ten or aiif Znun, “on the part of" — 
Sciitn, from Stitc: nuiner fft.iiKii arfnttfier, “my wife's 

OBSEiiv.iTiox.? OX inn i)ncr,EX.?iox or commos 


Some nouns have no This arises natur- 
ally from their meaning, and freqnently hapjH'iis in 
English ns well as in German. It will lie seen 
by the following list that in the c:ise of some 
words tho Eiiclish and Gorman languages agree 
in having no .singular ■ — 


tUBam, ancestors. 
?llnii, AI11.S. 
aittm tPttnm, 
incinllcttcr, small 
clot lies. 

_'J}liittnn, small' 

ters. papers. 
(SInlunitt. re- 

Sa'itl,irr<n, font- 
tVdtiittr, broth- 

Sfiilt. pcisple. folk. 

ffjrtftn. whey. 
Cfirm. Easter. 
]iiiitlici> and ‘PiiiijfttR. Wliit- 




'5chit trousers. 
3nri.3nifn. marks. 



SrrtfiTatifn. re- 


Trdtit er Srttw, 
Iiii'k.-, lee... 

5ri.mmtt, ruins. 

8Dnic have no plural, according {p the following 

(a) Generic name., of material subsf,ance.s, a.s: — 
E.t« (yrir, gold ; €ilt'», silver ; (rifcn, iron, etc. 

(ft) General term., and those cxpro.s.sive of ab- 
stract ideas, ns : — SI.niK pillage ; S!ii6m, glory ; t.if 
•J-wf-. cattle; ®(tnuaft, reason; .stclj. pride; Jlilltt, 
cold. etc. 

(r) Some names of plants, ns: — Stt the 

calihnge; .§etfoi, hops; JtrtiJc, cresses, etc. 

(if) All intinitircs employed ns nouns, ns also 
all neater adjective., .so employed, .ns : — Vettit, life ; 
Slnt.'iagm, wish ; taj SBrip, white, etc. 

(r) N'onns denoting quantity, number, weight, or 
measure ; as : — ®anl" bundle ; Satent, dozen ; Wrat, 
degree : Ttfimt, pound ; 3rll. an inch. etc. 

Thus, in German, we say ncitn .e, l.v'ifr, nlnefathomR; 
Funtert rt'tat, a Inmdrcd degrees, etc. reminincs 
ending in -t, and words denoting periods of lime, as 
also the names of coins, arc in gcncml cxceplcd 
from this nilc. 

Some in the plural have Iwo forms, conWylng 
in general diffcrcnl, though kindred, signincations, 
ti.s in tlic following exann>lt'.s:— 



®an(cn, lianks of 

SttSejin, 2.'c5ta, sheets of>cr. Si'flta . arolies, 
SaJ Staa, Tiast, tilings in gen- iTinafr, little erea- 

Stt Tern, Jrtatn. tliorn-lmshcs. 
£tt Sap, Sfft, feet. 

N'ote. — S' tntt merely expre-se^ pinr.'tlity ntja-rprins. 
In this it diffiTS from i’lfai.-f-en (hnnian bcinus). wiiii-h 
iia.s rcgi'.nl t o the kiml or spi-eies, ns also from i'liartr 
(inriij. wliicli denote.. ]Kiriicuhirly tlie scv. Throe 
compound... however, of wliich in llie 'iKaBa 
form, lliu lM.vt ]).iri, lake .,'l•m•raHr, in tlic plural, 
Etatf instead of Thus; — 

Siwntfar. Pliircl. 

JlrtthSawna. workman. ElrhitlUuK, workpeople, 

fitclnmaa, nolilom.-in. ("rrlttatc, nohlenien. 

.•i.uifm.nin, merchant .gsnpriut. miTcIaints. 

Santai.vaa. couimyraan Eaatttuic, country jssqile. 

Tlie distinctive dtilcrpnco Iiclwccn Sratt and 
‘I'Wnnct mav be forcibly siiiwvn liy lufen-nec to 
'he words (rf'tirutf and R.“(!n.lninr. RFcIcctt means 
"m.'irriod juvitfr" : ('fnii.’ signiucs “married 
men ' hu-kindc-J. 

Sfracr, tliorns 
(more than one). 

P‘:iirtttr, faces. 

Sal sorts of wool. .^'Mjtr, pieces 


^ir Eatra. S,ittn. siintters. S.lrtn, simps. 

S(t SRanr.. '», 111111. 

Xci ileal. iVraita. monilis. 
Tn Cn. Cuf. plaoe. (any). 

i'ianam, vassals, 
i'ipnlc, iil.-inet'. 
Crttt, places (par- 

S-tue, swine, 
erfiaartn, dmigh- 

Ecr Sitaiip, Sintusc, nos 
Ea5 aSr«. SSJrtttr, words imcon- 
neetecl (as in 
dictionary). . 

Ect 3tlL 3e!It, inches. 


Sf-mte, words (in 


Some nmins introiliiced fiom foreign languages 
_ retain tlicir original terminations, ns: — Set 9)!cti(iis, 
' a jdivsicinn ; plur. S<ittiti. pliysicians ; Sactum, deed ; 
Sacta, deeds. 

Some -iii.-if onlines and iicntcrs from the I’Vench 
and tho English merely afli.'c « to the genitive 
singular, wliicli is rotnined in all tho oases of the 
pluml. as yam. trr Strr, the lord ; gen. tc» 9crt», of 
tho lord : jdiir. tit SctlJ, tho lonls, etc. ; ter fffief, the 
chief : gen. tci Qr<tft. of tlic chief ; plur. tit the 
cliicfs, etc. 


roroign nouns of the neuter gender, as also most 
of tile masculines, arc of rlic Old Declension. 

Among the mascalincs must be noted those 
appellations of persons ending in the following 
tcrniimatioiis : — 

-at : ns, AattiiMr, 

-ar: ns, Slcrar, notary. 

-an : ns, .ttaileltait, castellan. 

To which may be added ahhol; fflwtft, 

pro\-ost; SUatfl, iwpe; Sifiitr, bishop; SSarjtmitiRcr, 
•mayor; Sricn, spy; X.riren, patron ; Ofitlitr, olliccr. 

Some liate in the pluml tlio form -tt (f-t-r), 
n.s: — •, ho-spitnl; Sritat, hospital; Jtanufef, 
waistcoat ; Dicjinitnl, regiment : plur. •^tfntJtn, hos- 
pitals ; <3ritllcr, hospitals, etc. 

Some in the plnml soften the radical rowels, 
■ ns ?(t"t, ahlint : J(t(,w, altar ; ffliW-rf, bishop ; ttfirr. 
choir; Pf', choml-song; •C’rfrital, hospital; 3ritaf, 
hospital ; Jianat, cnnnl ; (, clmptnin ; .lattlnat, 
cardinal; Jllelltr, cloister; fl’lntfit'# marsh; a’Jrr.iR. 
morass; !SaI.i|i, palace ; tDarft, pope; SSnrll, provost : 
plnr. 'ilt'K, abbots; Tilt, Ire, altars; tbifet^fr, bishops, 

roEEiGX jforxs or the xew Dnct.nxstox. 

To tlic Xew Dcclcn.sion belong all foreign nouns 
of tho feminine gender, and nohrly all inascuUncs 
u'liicii are tlie .ippcllntion of per/ons, and some 
which nre not, as: — Scr €lntcnl, the .student; ter 
Unnft, the lawyer; tee (5fcr[<ant, the elephant; ter 
'Surat, the dnc:it ; ter demefj the comet ; ter tHlancr, 
tlic planet ; tcc..triifciiant, tl'ic consonant; ter igrin], 
tile prince; ter Sti.uiii, the tyrant, etc. 

roKEiGx' xouxs p.tnTfA- op TirE or.D axd 

These are: J'ini, Xenlcr-s ending in -fi», as: — maifiv, the pa'hivc; gen. !p.i)ri«5, of the passive; 
plur. a).i{iiren, the passives. &ci>nr?/g, Titles of m-nlcs 
in -cr,as: — Scrier, a doctor; gen. Scclcrf, of a doctor ; 
plnr. Srctcrcn, electors. TMrilbj, Neuters ending in 
•at. -it, and -um, which also eiften have i before tlic -c a 

of the plitraf, as : — A.n'itar, a capital ; plur. /I.iritalica, 
cnpilals; or|iit,afossiI; plnr. {fcffiticii, fossils; Snuiiim, 
study ; plur.,e;ulicii, studies. Funrtldi/, The foliow- 
iiig masculines: — 3.ifnn, 'pheasant ; Jt.u'aiin, capon- 
ttenful, consul ; Ol.-inteffcl, slipper ; iCrSfcft, prefect ; 
igfalni, jisnlm; tltufiin, ruby; Eiaat, state;, 
treatise. To whioli add Snfeft, insect ; Jllciii. atom ; 
aiernetn, pronoun; @iaiut, statute; and ibcil’, vcib, 
which nro neuters. 

aixGUL.tll SUMUEH, 

Names of males and females, except when the 

latter terminate in -c, take < to form the genitive, 

, which is their only variation, as : — 

Nom. i&nnrii$, Henry. 
Gen. .$tinriit)t, of Henry'. 
Dat. i^rinrii^, to Henry. 
Ace. .^niinefi, Henry. 

(rtiMt'clIi, Eliznbctli.'ctlit, of ElizabctlL'ei6, to Elimbclh. 
Glifat'clfi, Elizabeth. 

It is customary with some writers to nfBx tn to 
the dative and accusative of proper names ; but t lie 
better usage distinguishes these eases by prefixing 
the article : ns, noni. ftiiing, Lessing ; gen. ec|;iii.i«. 
of Lcs.sing; dat. ktni Sriima (instead of Sefriiijcii), to 
Lessing; nee. trn Stliina (instead of SqTiiicriOi I-essiiig. 

Names of females ending in -c form the gemti\-o 
in -tnt and the dative in -rn, TIiosc of ninlcs 
ending in -f, -fl, -fit, -r, or -j, lake likewise in tlic 
genitive -cut, ns:— . 

y. Saift, Iionisa. S(it>nitf, Leibnitz. fSrp, Voss. 
G. I'airmr, of Louisa. Snfmliciit.of Letb- tSeffent, of 
nitz. Voss. . 

D. anifen, to Louisa. ant'iu|!,toL,elbnitz. fBi'F.toVoss. 
A. auifr, Louisa. ant'iiit), Leibnitz. iSrR, Voss, 
Names, w-licthcr of ni.alcs or fcmnlc-s, wlicu 
preceded by an article, nro indcolinabic, ns : — 

N. Scr Sditffer, tlic Scliiller. Sic aiiifc, tlic 

G. Set 3cfU(cr, of tiie Scliil- Scramfe, of the Louisa, 

D. Son e<^H(cr, to the SoliU- Etc auife, to the Louisa, 

A. Sen Si^iffcc. tho Schiller. Sic aiiifc, the Louisa. 

Proper nouns wlien employed in tho plural 
conform for tlio most part to tlic rnlcs foi tiie 
declension of common nouns ; tlio masculines 
Ijciiig varied according to the Old Dcelcnsioii, 
and the feminines nccording to the New. 

Soiiiclimcs the plural is made by tlio addition 
of I to the, ns : — Sic £d)incr;, tiie Schillers ; 
tit .^citert, the Iferdcrs. Those ending in -o add for 
the plnral -nc or -ncii, as: — G.its, Cato; nom. plur. 
Gatchc or Gaicntii, the Catos, oto. ' 

Their inflection is in no wise affected by the 

is of eqvial stnictaial imiiortance with vessels, consisting mainly of iraclundcs, long pro 
3 whole of the angiosperms, and so ranks also as chyma cells with bordered pits mainly on their 
livision, Thongh now only represented by three .radial walls. The medullary rays are often only 
lers containing about 50 gencia and less than qne-cell broad. Soft bast predominates in the 
0 species, the gymnosperms are a group of far phloem. The leaves generally receive two parallel 
3ater geological , antiquity than - angiosperms fascievdar bundles which may bifurcate, but do not 
■c Vol. III., p. 306), and. when they were the . form a network of veins and do not usually project 

chieftains ol the plant-world, no doubt presented a 

124 . , 

I the surface of the leaves. The leaves 


gcncmlly evcrpr'cri. n.ntl liave a FtronglT cnticn- 
larisi’tl oiiiflcTmis witii niimc-Toa= fiinken stomata. 
Interocllulnr longitnflinal jja.-s.a'res lined with an 
“epithelium" soerc-tin" gum or re>-in arc common 
in the pith, wood, cor-er, and leare.s. 

Though in the struclnre of their vegetative 
organs the gymno-'perms are not v.-idely dissimilar 
to the dicotyledons, v.-hen we examine their repro- 
ductive structure^ we find a very great difference. 
The flowers in all known existing species of gymno- 
sperms arc nnisexnak the plants btang either 
monoecious, or. less commonly, dicemous. There is 
seldom any trace of a perianth, and the floral axes 
are nsnnlly much elongated and bear the floral 
leaves in spirals. In fact, in interpret- 

ing the structures that make np the flower we Iiavc 
constantly to benrin mind the definition of a flower 
as ossontially an axis betiring sporophylls (see 
Vol. HI., p. 879). 

The stamens clc-irly exhibit their foliar nature, 
tliotigli they ate sometime.' peltate. The pollen- 
sacs, which open longitudinally, are two or more in 
number on each stamen, and are alwtiys outgrowths 
from the tinder surface of the staminal leaf. Tlie 
pollen-gitiins divide into two or more cells before 
pollination, each containing a nnolciis. the smaller 
cells being included within the larger one, which 
gives rise to the pollen-tube. 

Tho female flowers vary considerably in the 
different groups, in some cases bearing the ovules 
directly on the, no carpel.' being present, 
whilst in others tho ovules are on the margins, or in 
the axils, of the carpels. The carpels may closo 
round tho seed after fertilisation, but in no case is 
there a true ovary before fertilisation, or any 'tylc 
or stignm. The ovule has usually no piimhic. and 
its crahryo-sac is formed at some distance from its 
micropyle. Before fertilisation free cells are formed 
witliin the onibryo-sac. cotTCsponding probably to 
tho transitory antipodal cells in angiosperms (see 
Vol. IV., p. 187). Tlie»e unite to form a tissue 
which increases by cell-dlrision. This tis'ue is the 
female jirotliallus or archiyrerm (Joe. eil.) .and, 
thotigli formerly called endosperm, should not be 
conrounded with the tissue also so called, though 
preferably known .as metasperm, in angiosperms, 
wliich originates from the secondary nucleus of the 
' enibn-o-sao. On the archisperm several bodies 
known as areJicgouia. formerly called corj>usc«la, 
arise. Each archcffpnhtm originates in a single 
cell of tho prothallii.s which divides into an upper 
or neeli-ecU and a lower or cealrni ecU. The neeTt- 
rcU generally dividc.s into a rosette of four so-called 
stiffmelic cells, corre.sjionding to the synergada: of 
angiosperms (Vol. IV.. p. 187). The upper part of 
the central cell is separated off and is known as the 

caval-cell, the remaining and larger portion being 
■the oosphere. ' The pollen-grains are carried by 
wind to the micropyle of tho ovule where a drop of 
liquid is secreted which retains tlKm. They then 
send their pollen-tuhds tlirough the tissue of the 
upper part of the tcrcinc and between the neek or 
stigmatic cells of the archegoninm until thej' come 
in contact with rhe oosphere; but the pollen-tuhes 
often take more than a year in completing this 
penetration. After fertilisation the lower part ’of 
the oosphere divides into several rows of cells 
-known as siispcnsors or pro-cnibryes which may give 
rise to one joint embryo, or may each give rise to 
n ECjvaiatc mdiment.'iry one. I'rom this cause and 
from the fertilisation of tho oospheres of several 
archegonia the immature seed commonly contains 
several rudimentary embryos ; hut onlj’’ one, as a 
rule, comes to anytliing. . 

Tlie ripe seed is always filled with -archisperm, 
the embryo Ijdng straight in the centre with its 
radicle towards the micropyle. The two cotyledons 
are sometimes so deeply lobed as tp be described 
as nnmerous, tho wliolo group having thence been 
called Polyeolylettoncs. They contain chlorpirhyll 
whilst still within tho seed, being in this respect 
one of the chief exceptions to the rule that, this 
substance is not formed to tho absence of light. 

Tho chief distinctions, therefore, between. these 
gyranosperms and nnposporms .are : (i.) the naked 
ovules and absence of "stylo or stigma, if not of 
carpels altogether; (ii.) the formation of archi- 
spci-m and (iii.) archegonia; and (iv.) the presence 
of distinct “ inciudod colls or male proUiallus in 
the pollen-grain. 

Tlie Gymnospermia are divided into three orders, 
the Gnetaecic, (\m[fcTa, and Cgcadac. The 'Gnet- 
acete indudes tlie three genera Gnetvm, occurring 
in India and Gtiiann, Sphctlra to temper.vte regions 
in Europe, Asia, and South America, and Ilhl- 
triisebia in Angola. Gnetiim and Splicilra have 
jointed stems, generally shrnhhy, with opposite 
leaves, which ore minute in Pplicdra, but large, 
petiolate, lanceolate, and pinnately vetoed in 
Gnetvm. Tlie male .flowers have a rudimentary 
perianth, and tho outer coat of the ovule is pro- 
longed upwards like a style, 'll chcifielita wiraiilis, 
The only known sxrccics, growing in the sandy 
desert regions of Angola, where it -was discovered 
by IJr. "iVelwitoch. is. perhaps, the most wonderful of 
flowering plants (Fig. 90). It has two cotyledons 
when germinating, which are soon shed ; a woody, 
branched tap-root and a trunk about two feet liigli. 
This trunk, in addition to its ring of fibro-vascular 
bundles, has others scattered, as in monocotyledons, 
tlurough the fundamental tissue, some of the 
cells of which tissue are encrusted with crystals of . 

tlin?p tif Iroe-foms. coi'crcd with 
liic 5-pars of fallen lra\cs. and sunnountud by a 
rroiui I'f largo, loatlicry. ]iiniiatu k-nv*';.. Tlicy are 
diiEcioas, the ilinvcrs iK-ing cone' cither of peltate 
stamens hearing nunierou.s i)ollcn-.<.nos (inirrp- 
fjionnii/ht) on their under surface, nr of cnqrels. 
'fiiesp latter difier in form, t hose of <)ieas being small 
l<innntc leaves with their lower lobes convertctl 
into ovule.s whicli hare a fleshy coat and become as 
hirga a.' plmii'. Tlie utirohy fundainenial lis«tie of 
the stems of vjiriou- f.>rnif of eyeads yield fago«, 
whence thoir name •• Ciifrcr-hrcad.” 


i/e-, iv.’. y..r. !!-V.l 

SUI'Pl.n-MCN'T.Vl. .tXOLns (omtiHi-'il). 

XVIII. .ijijilimtiflii 1/ ilic /vrci/oiiig I'ormultt . — 
It will ho readily fVen how tlio jiower 10 work ottr 
nniiicrirnl valnos for fnnetions of dilTcrcnt angles 
i.s extended by tlio results of the Inst few sections. 
■Wo iiiaj- now olunln s-aliies for tlic halt or third, or 
for twice 'or three tinics any of the angles who«c 
s-alnes were compmed geometrically in* Section V., 
and for any combinations arising by addition or 
snlitraction of angles .'o csdcidiited. In this way. 
by steps which cannot he followed here, the entire 
table of iintuml sines and cosines has been con- 
structed. .and by mc.ans altogether fuicign to this 
treatise the corresnondin-r loearitlims have boon 

By (ti2) and (CO)— 

Co'ce. A -f- col. A = 

2 cos.- r A Cl 

sin. A “ 

in. A 
=: cot. .V A. 

I. Express tan. A -(• cot. A by a single fiinotioii. 

n .t a. sot- .\ — a. cos. A sin.® A_+_C£S^ 

■ sin. A sin. A cos. A 


os. A - 

11 . 2 A 

o. Keilucc ’-—Ion .single function, 'riiis 

is similar to CVtse 1. 

Sill. A 2 sin . }. Am 

.“ •> A 

' C. Express " I'lnglc function. This 

if again similar. 

Cos. A _ sin. (00° — A) _ 

1 + sin. A “ 1 -b co-s. (!IU® — A) 

2 .sinj:-13“ - i A) cmi. ( lf»°-> A ) _ Rin^(df.o - .> A) 
2 cos.® (15° -.’.A) “ cos.(l'6°-J.V) 

= (-15° - i A). 

7. Bring cos.s A — sin.'* A to a single function. 
Cos.* A— siii.*sV = (co.«.®A-f sill.® A) (cos.® A— sin. A) 

s= 1 X cos. 2 A = cos. 2 A. 

8. Bring sec. A -h tan. A to a single function 

8. Bring sc 


substitute this in the above equation ; then we 
obtain — 

a (sin. a: + cos. x tan. 9) =15. 

Multiply each side by eos. 9, nncl — 
a Csin. a + cos. 9 + cos. a sin. 9) = c cos. 9 ; 

or, ■ a sin. (» + 9) = c cos. 9. 

From which we obtain the ^-aluo of a + 9, and 
ultinintcly of a, 9 being already known from 

■XX. '^tias ietireeii Sidss and Anglet of Plane 
Triangles in general . — ^^ho solution of right-angled 
triangles was explained in Section X., and offered 
little difficulty. But for the solution of obligne- 
angled triangles more complex ratios hare to be 
established between the sides and angles, which 
are contained In the following propositions and 
formulae : — 

For example, in any triangle ado, ^ (65) 

Let A B c he the triangle (Figs. 12 and 18). From 
G drop CP perpendicular to AB, or, as in Fig. 13, 
to A B, produced either way ; 

then sin. A = — , and sin. B = — ; 

,2. Tlie sum of any tree sides is to their differenro 
as the tangemt of hostile sam of the opjgosite angles 
is to the tangent ef half their difference. 

By the last proposition, ^ 

Whence by (47), + g (67) 

This may be ■written differently ; for it (A -t- B) 
= i(180°-C); 

. • tan. § (A -h B) = tan. (00° - | C) = cot. J C ; 

3. The sum of any t>eo sides is to the third side as 
the cashte t(f haXf the dlffcrenee of the ofgiosite 
angles is to the cosine of half their sum. 

Since A -i-B = 180“ - O, sin. (A ■+ B) = sin. 0; 

a sin. A .5 sin. B 

• ’ • a ~ sin. (A + B)’ c ~ sin. (A'-h B)‘ 
Adding these equations, and using (41) and (GO), 
we get — 

• a + 6 _ sin. A -I- sin. B 

e — sin. (A + B) 
_ 2sln.^(A-bB)cos.i(A-B) . 

2 sin. i (A-t- B) cos. i (A + B) ’ 

"^ = oos;|(A + l) 

Similarly (by subtracting the second from the 
: first equation above instead of adding them to- 
gether) we find that 

Ihe difference of amy tmo sides is to the third sUe 
as the sine if half the difference cf the oji^osite 
. angles is to the sine if half their siim ; 

liecomes necessary to make measurements far closer 1i, the two outside wires are placed in series, and if 
than tliat. One of- tlie- most frequent cases that ,the plii% is not placed in either hole, then the three 
aiises is, to eonipnre two resistances which are wires are placed in series. 

supposed to he equal. The host method for making The details of construction of the key are shown 

Fig. SS.— Tnn Mcine Baiooc. 

the desired comparison is duo to IToster, and is 
generally known ns “ Poster's method." 

In this method tijc Itletre Bridge is employed — a 
piece of apparatus which is illustrated in Kg. 55. 
It consists of a wooden hase, upon the upper face 
of which is mounted a metallic rectangle ; three 
sides of this rectangle arc fohiied \iy a broad snb- 
stanlial copper hand — haring a negligible resist- 
ance — and the fourth consists of a platinum-silver 
wire lo to joining the copper blacks Fand^7. This wire 
is e.vactly one metre long, and over it slides a key k, 
which when depressed makes contact by means of 
■ a phitinum knife-edge with the wire; the exact 
point on the wire at which this ocntact is made is 
indicated by an anow-hcad on the key, which' 
slides against a scale, as shown, TIio scale is placed 
inside the metallic rectangle, and is carefully 
dirided into millimetres. In the usual foiin of tlie 

• on n larger scale on the lower part of the figure. 
It con^ts of a ligljt brass frame carrying two ter- 
minals, to which wires can he attached ; on A A as 
an pivoted alight lever I. h, wliich carries tlie 
knife-edge !•, and which is kept pressed up by means 
of a spring, k is an ebonite button upon which the 
finger is placed when it is desired to depress tho 
key. S is a light spring attached to the knife-edge, 
and which can fit into any one of three grooves in 
the lever li; by moving this spring into the proper 
groove the knife-edge can be made to make contact 
with any of tho three wires. 

On the side of the rectangle opposite to the wire 
the copper band is broken at four places, and ter- 
minals are fixed at suitable points as shown. In 
Fig.’ 55 two of these ga]js arc not in use, and are 

• consequently bridged over by two substantial pieces 
of copper, 6i and S,. The metre bridge can be used 


ana galTanometei: are joined ip as ' The battery and galvanometer are jt 
making a measurement the key is in the previous ease. , ^ 

ELECTBIOIir. . ' ' CS 

circuit as indicated. . The shunt on the gal\’ano- 
meter is now adjusted till a convenient deflection 

the resistances, and the wires from.the bridge, can 
be made to dip. Mlicn the resistances x and s are 
then interchanged, the resistances of the contacts 
remain practically the same. The reservoirs can 
be conveniently made by cutting holes Of the neces- 
sary "size in blacks of , parafiin-wax. The. great 
advantage of this test over all others lies in the. 
fact that the resistances of all contacts, except those 
between the mcroury and the coils — ^whioh are 
iicgligible-^as well' as the resistance of the copper 
band— are eliminated. ■ 

The trnth of the above formula can be verified by 
simplifying the following two- equations which . 
apply to the conditions of things when the two tests 
are made : — 

Eor Observation (1) , 

X + n + pj _ A. 

B -t 4 -f ,1 (1--*) & ’ 

for Observation (2) — - , 

' 8 + a + mi _ A . 

X*+ i) + fi (i—xj.) "iB * 

where . 

; = length of wire in centimetres, 

'' a = resistance of all contacts between K and c, 

6=' „ ' „ ,; atandD. 

•If the wire on the bridge is not of uniform 
resistance it must be calibrated ; that is to sky, we 
must know tliD resistance of each centimetre of it. 
As the resistance of a centimetre of, such a wire is 
seldom as great as *005 ohm, and is usually about 
half this value, and as it is easy to obtain a 'balance 
by subdividing a millimetre into quarters, it is clear 
that the difference between the' values of X and s 
can be obtained accurately to the' •0001 part'of an 
ohm. The most • probable source of errors in 
making such a test is due to heating effects caused 
either by the operator, or the lamp Used in connec- 
tion with the galvanometer. ’ This is a most 
suitable method for comparing reputed ohms with 
-a standard. ^ ' 


Tho highest resistance'that can be measured by 
the ordinary Wheatstone Bridge is 1,000,000 ohms, 
which is much smaller than many ordinary insula- ' 
tion resistances. Such resistances must of necessity 
be measured. 'by some other method, and the one 
most commonly adopted is that kno^ as, the 
“direct comiKirison.” The connections for this 
method are shown in Fig. 57. ^ 

The 'battery usually consists of a large number 
of cells; 100 Leclanches are'ofteii used. G' is a 
.reflecting galvanometer, with the adjustable shunt 
s attached. B is a very high resistance - of known 
value — usually a megohm. 

Obsebvatiox (1). — ^Witli these connections the 
key is depressed, and a current sent round the 

is obtained. 

The known resistance E is now removed, and the 
unkown one — ^let it be x — inserted in its place. 

ESB. S7. 

Observation (2). — ^The key is again depi^essed, 
and the shunt adjusted till a convenient deflection 
is obtained. 

Then the value of x is given by, the equation 

where Dj = deflection obtained in Observation (1), 
1>2= .. » (2). 
„ Si = shunt used in Observation (1), 

» S.=. „ „ „■ (2), 

„ G = resistance of galvanometer. 

'When measuring the resistance of many of the 
most common insulating substances, such as gutta- 
percha, india-rubber, etc., it will be notioed that in 
Observation (2) the deflection on.the galvanometer 
will decrease fairly quickly in the beginning, and 
more slowly as time goes on ; this means that the 
resistance of the substance increases fairly quickly 
when the current is first sent through it, and con- 
tinues to increase, but more and more slowly as time 
goes on^ This phenomenon is usually known as 
electrijicatlon, and is common to many high resist- 
ance substances. This phenomenon of eleotrifiention 
is clearly shown by the following figures, whicli are 
taken at random from 'a series of tests made by the 
■writer on a section of a gutta-percha covered cable, 
which now'spans the Atlantic. 


670 megohms 

„ „ 2nd „ 718 

„ „ 3rd ., 713 

., „ 6th „ 762 

, • „ „ 7th „ 778 

„ - ,. 10th „ 795 


Another pcciiliarilv in connection trith this 
phenomenon of clcctTification is \ lint if, at the end 
of n certain time, the direction of tlie current be 
reversed, the deflection -will inimedialelr become 
Iii"her tlinn anv of its previous values; hut, on 
keeping the current on. it will liecome smaller and 
smaller as in the previous case. This means that 
on reversing the cuircnt the resistance of the 
material apparentlv falls, hut gradually rises 
again when the current is kept on for a sufficiently 
long time. The following is a table showing the 
rohistance per knot in megohm.s. at a temperature 
of 7u° F.. of the same cable as in the previous test, 
but in this case the current, was reversed at the end 
of every three minutes. 


temporatme. and then by means of known constants 
were reduced to a temperature of 7o° F.. which U 
fliorccogiiiscil standard tcmpoiaturc for insulating 
inatbrials in cable-work. The necessity for re- 
dnoiiig all insulating rc.sistancos to a common 
standard teinperatuic becomes at once obvious 
when we rcidiso how enormously the resist.anccs 
of those inntoriala vary by the change of even n 
few dcgiccs in tompemture. Unlike flic metals and 

good conduclor^, their resistances r/fcrcasB with an 
increase of tomperatuTe. 

In the test above described the h.attery-power 
was kept conslaut for both observations. It often 

becomes conrcnicut to vary the battery-power, 
instead of the shnnt, or to vaiy both. In order to ' 
do this, the connections shown in Fig. 58 should he 

In Fig. 58 A B is a high resistance through which 
the current from the battery flows when the key k 
is depressed. The E.M.P. working between the 
points A and b is a fixed qu.antity, and is not 
sensibly altered by dcprc.s.sing the key Kj. . The . 
EU.T. working through the galvanometer and b, . 
clearly depends upon the position on A n, at vvlrioh 
p is attached. The nearer P is to A. the smaller . 
will be the E.3I.P.; in fact, tlicE.M.r. is proportional 
to the resistance between the points A and P, and is 
that fraction of the whole E.M.P. that A r is of A B. ' 

The two observations are made as in the previous 
test, blit the position of the point p is varied so as 
to prorliioc convenient deflections. 

Then, using llie same symbols as before — 

Tl’hcrc El = the eai.p, used in Observation (1), 

.. r.,= .. (2). 

These baiA’.’s are, of course, unknown quantities, 
but as they are proportional to the rcsistonccs 
between A and p, wo can substitute these resist-., 
nnccs for them. 

IVlicii the galvanometer is only provided with’ 
three shunts— as is usually the c.ase— this modified 
method is often o.vlromcly useful. 

In tests of this description the gnlvanometcr 
should always bo short-oirouitod when the key is, 
depressed, otherwise it may be broken by the sud- 
den moiiicntniy rush of current which takes place 
when the resistance under test hn.s a large capacity. 


In carryiiis out this, the quadrant electro- 
meter is used. ,The principle of this instrument has ' 
not yet been explained, but it will bo dealt witji in 
a following chapter ; for the present, it is sufficient 
to know that it is an instrument having the general 
external appearance of a reflecting galvanometer^ 
bat which, instead of raensuring the strength of 
a cuirent as a galvanometer does, measures the ■ 
potential of .any body with which it is in contact. 

The connections for making the test aro.sliown 
in Fig. 5fl. 

X is the resistance which is to ho measnred, and 
which, in the case of a cable, has a definite 
caiKicity. If it lias no oapaoity, or, nather, if its 
capacity is so small as to he inappreckablo, a con- 
denser of known capacity must be placed in parallel 
with it. 



E is the olcotrometcr. 

K is a clonhlo-cnrrcnt kov, -which is constructed as 
follows : — c and d are two substantial brass bars 
rigidlr fixed, .and eacli carrying a terminal at one 
end ; one of tliesc, c, is iisod at a somewliat higher 
level than the other, a and S arc springy brass 

- X 

Fig. 09.— Loss OF CuAnoc Mrruon. 

bars fixed at their upper ends, and resting against 
tlie under surface of the bat c, with which they 
both make good contact. Either or both bf these 
bars can .be pressed down at will, so as to break 
contact w'ith the upper bar, e, and to make contact 
witli the lower bar, d.- 

The Vatteryis aUeays attaohed to the treo fixed- 
hare, ns 'shown ; and it will then be seen that when 
thus connected up, it cannot be short-circuited by 
the key — this statement applies to all situations 
where a battery 'is connected to a double current 
key.. If a an'd S are both up, as shown in Fig. 59, 
no current can flow ; if they are both pressed down, 
no current can flow"; if h is up and a pressed' down, 
then a current will flow through X from right to 
left ; and if a is up and i down, a current -will flow 
tlnrough x from left to right. IVe thus see that a 
current' can be sent through the circuit in either 
direction, according to the arm of the key that we 
depress. fTliose keys are often provided -with cams, 
-by means of whiqh either or both arms can beheld 
in intermediate positions without .making contact 
with either bar; for .electrometer work jthese 'cams 
become a necessity. A, -word of warning on the 
subject of these cams -will'hot'be out of place here, 
more especially ns it deals with -a point 'not gener- 
ally recognised, even by those accastomed to wofk 
with electrometers. Thexams are usually made of 
' ebonite discs pivoted escentrioally, and, in order to 

_bring an arm of the key into an intermedmto posi- 
tion,' one of them is rotnterl till tlie arm is pressed 
down by the desirdd amount. This rotation of the 
ebonite cam in contact with the brass l>nr is quite 
sufficient to generate a static charge, wliich will 
'greatly affect the readings of the electrometer ; in 
fact, for any kind of delicate work the results ob- 
tained may be inconsistent, or entirely misleading. 
The substitution of brass for ebonite in the cams 
wonlil. introduce no evil effects, and would eliminate 
the source of error here pointed out. 

Returning to the “ Loss of Charge " test, the fol- 
io-wing observations must be made : — 

Obsekvatiox (1). — Depress one arm of the key, 
and thus charge both the electrometer and the 
resistance, x. The electrometer will now show a 
certain deflection, which is a measure of the 
potential to which the resistance has been charged, 

OBSE11V-A.TIOX (2).— Allow the arm of the koy to 
rise to an intermediate position, and maintain it in 
this position by means of the cam. Take Tcading.s 
. of the electrometer's defleotlou at the end of con- 
venient intervals of time — say thirty seconds— and 
‘ continue these observations for a few- minutes, or 
longer if necessary. 

From the moment of insulating the arm of the 
key the resistance, x, is no longer hoing charged 
b}* the battery, and ns its original charge gradually 
leaks throagh, its potential falls at the same rate : 
and, as the deflection on the electromotor ‘is an 
index of the potential, it therefore is an index. of 
the rate at which loss of charge takes placo througli 
the resistance, X. If the resistance, x, is very 
great, the deflection will fell extremely slowly, and 
it may he sufficient to take rendiugs at the end of 
.every one or two minutes, but when x is small,' the 
deflection falls rapidly, and readings at the end of 
eVety ten' or fifteen seconds may become neces- 

From these readings the resistance of x can he 
■ calculated by Siemen's formula, which is a-, 
follows : — 

.' . - x = 5 

2-303 F 105.“ 

where x = the resistance in megohms ; 

„ p = the capacity in microfarads of the re- 
sistance X, or the capacit}' of the 
condenser in parallel with it ; 

' D = deflection when battery is on ; 

„ d — deflection at the end of T seconds ; 

' „ T = time in seconds bet-ween observations 

for D and d. 

■ The quadrant oleotrometer is certainly a delic.ate 
instrument, but, at the same time, with ordinary 
'care, it is thoroughly trustworthy. 

tlati veteram. incensae coloniae. int oroepti esercitns ; 
turn clo aaluto, mox da victoria corta\-ere. Qnae 
oiincta etsi oonsiliis ductaque alterius agebantur, 
ac aumina rerum at reciporatao provlnciae gloria 
in duoem cossit, artom ot usum at stimulos addidarc 
■juveni, iutravitque animum militarjs gloriac cnpido, 
ingrata temporibus. quibus sinistra erga eminentcs 
interpretatio neo minus pericnlum ex magna &mn 
qnam ex mala. 

G. Hino ad capessondos magistratus in nrbem 
■ digressns Domitiam Dccldiauam, splendidis nata- 
libns ortara, sibi junxit; idque matrimonium ad 
maiom nltonti decus ao robur fult. Vixcruntqne 
mira Concordia, per mutuam caritatcm et in vicem 
sc antepoueudo, nisi quod in bona uxorc tanto 
maior Ians, quanto in mala pins culpac est. Sors 
quacstnrae provinciatn Asiam, pro oonsnle Salvlmn 
Titianum dcdit, quorum neutio corrnptus est, quam- 
- quam et prorincia dives ao xjurata pcccantibns, ct 
pro console in omnem aviditatcm pronus qnan- 
talibct facilitate redempturus osset mutuam dis- 
siinidiitionem mail. Anctus est ibi fUia, ia subsidinm 
. simul et solacium ; nnm iilium ante sublatum brcvi 
auiisit. Mox inter quaesturam .ao tribunatum plebis 
atque ipsum etiam tiibunatus annum qnicte ct 

placidins qnam feroci provincia digmim est. ! Tern- _ 
perarit Agricola vim suam, ardorcmqne compescuit, 
ne incresceret, peritus dbsequi cruditusquc utilia 
honestis misoere. Breri doinde Britannia consn-, 
larem Petilium Cerialom aocepit. Habuerunt’ vir- 
tutcs spatinm excmplorum. ‘fBed prime Cerialis 
labores modo'et d'iscrimina, mox et gloriam oom- 
mnnicabat : saepe jparti exercitns in experimontum, 
aliqnando maioribus copiis ex eventu praefoolt.' 
Keo Agiicola umqnam in snam famam gestis cx- 
sultavit ; ad auotorem^ao duoem ut minister for- 
tunam referebat. Ita rirtntc in obsequendo, vere- . 
cundia . in piacdicando ’extra invidiam neo [extra . 
gloriam crat. 

JTeireoiws Goternor of Aqnitania, holdsihe Consul- 
ship, and is then appointed Governor cf Mrttain. 

9. Bevertentem ab legationo legionis divas Ves- 
piasianus inter patrieios adscivit ; ao deindc pro- 
vinoiae Aqnitaniac pr.acposait, 5x>lendidae.!nprimis. 
dignitatis adroinistrationc ao spo consulatus, oui 
destinarat. Credunt pleriqne militaribns ingeniis 
snbtilitatem decssc, quia castrensis jurisdictio se- 
cuta et obtusior ac xduia manu .ugens calliditatem 
fori non excrccat. Agricola maturali' prndentia, ' 


^em consnlntTis revocattis csf, oomitante oxnnione 
Btitanniam. oi provinciam dari, nuUis in hoc snis 
sermonibus, scd qnia par ndebatur. Hand semper 
errat fama; aliqiiando et elegit. Consul egrcgiae 
'turn spei liliam juveni mihi' despondit ac post con- - 
salatum collocavit, et statim Britanniae piaepositns 
est, adjecto pontificatns saceidotio. 

Xlte GeograpTty'ef Sriiain, 

10. Britanniae eitiim populosque mulds scrip- 
toribns memorafos non in comparationem cnrae 
ingeniive referam, sed quia turn primum peidomita 
est. Ita quae priores nondum comperta eloqnentia 
percoluere, reruin fide -tiadentur.. 'Britannia, in- 
snlarumqnasHomananotitia complectitur masdma, ' 
spatio'ac ca'dq in.orientem Germaniae,' in occi-, 
'dentem -Hispanine obtenditur, GalKs in meridiem 
etiam inspicitur;. septentrionalia ejus, nullis contra 
tenris, vasto aj:que aperto maxi pulsantur. lE'ormam 
totius Britanniae Lirius veterum,' Fabins Bnstions 
recentium eloquentissimiauctores oblongae scutulae 
vel bipenni jadsimulavere. Ft est ea facies cltra 
Caledontam, unde et in universnm fama est tians- 
gre^. Sed immehsu'ra et enorme spatium procur- 
xentium e::tremo jam litore terrarum Telut in 
ounbum tenuatur.' Hanc oram novissimi maris tunc, 
primum Homann olassis circumveota insulam esse 
Britanniam adfirmavit; ac simul incognitas ad id 
tempos inbnlas, qnas Orcadns vooant, invenit* 
domuitque. Dispeota est ct Thule, quia hactenus 
jussiun: et hiems adpetebat. Sed mare pigrum'et 
grave remigantibus perhibent ne ventis quide'm 
perinde attolli ; credo quod rariores terrae montesqne, 
causa ac materia tempestatum, et profunda moles 
continui 'marls tardios impellitur.' ITataram Ocean! 
atqne aestus neqne quaerere hnjus opeiis est. ac 
multi rettulefe. Unum addiderim nusquam latius 
dominari mare, multom fluminom hue atqne illuc 
ferie, nec litore tenus adcrescere aut xesorberi, sed 

influere penitus, atqne ambire, et jugis etiam ac 

montibus inseri velut in suo. 


Cliap. V.— AdproJjiDK = " Served with the approval of." 
ElcetnSf-qum ranliiteniio aaltmant. Literally translated 
these words mean, “being ehosen,_ that' by constant 
companionship, he might jhdgo his character.” In 
English the sentence mnsf be, turned roimd, and elrefas 

ciumged flora active to passive : " triio chose hire ' 

(Agricoin) to he Ilia comrade, tlut he might judge his 
^ chnracter." . 

• ITcc . tiCwliim . . . neiiili/. "He did-not use his rank for 
the purpose of," or "lic-did not take advantage of iiis 

- Adjacfalionem = “ in onler to produce an efTect.” ' 

Mias, “ at anyhither time." ' 

. Tim . . .-max, Hote the contrast, “ iten ityvas a struggle 
for 'existence, soon afltr Jt was a straggle for nmsteiy.” 

In dneem rassil, « ft31 to the lot ot " 

Toaperilius, persoairied, “ legaided withdlsfavour hy an age 
in which," etc. 

Chap. VL— Hfiic, local, “ from hence." 

All a'jK3cnii<» magislraUts. Tlie Roman citizen uho tuck 
any jiart In public life, had to go thiough a xcgiiiar 
snccession ot ufflccs. ■ After seeing some inihtary service 
(as Agncohi hud done), it nas necessary for a man to go 
tliiongh tlie dilTetent stages of the civil career, the 
qmestocsiiip, the trilmnate, and tlie pr.-etDrahip ; nnd it 
aras only after holding these offlees that a man iras 
eligible for tlie highest magistracy of all, the consulship. 
For the duties of fliese offices we must refer yon to 

• your Roman history, or any good Dictionary of 

SiHendidla tuilallbus ortam, " a lady of distinguished lineage." 

Ill tinm se oKlepoiiendo, “ by prefen-ing each other to them- 
selves " ; fA., hy mutual self-saerifiee. 

'Jfisl quod (= except that) must not be tmnshitcd literally. 
It introduces a qnaliftcation = “ however.” 

sen iimesturae. Tliere were twenty qniestors to wltoiii 
rations duties were assigned. Tlie distribution of the - 
particniar offices w as derided by lot. 

Pro canmle = flit.) “ in place of a oonsun" Certain magis- 
trates who had the powers and duties of consuls or 
piaetors, while not actually holding Uie office, were 
caRedpro coasuie, pro praeiora. Tlie phrase came to he 
used as an official title, and might he used with any case 
* (here with an accusative, helow wlOi a siibst.). 

Seatro, sc., neither by the fact that Asia (whlcli gave great 
oppoctanltUs for cormptlon) was his province, nor hy 
the fiict that Salvins (who was liimself corrupt) was hw 
superior officer. 

Jtnhtam dlsslmulaUo«em, “a reciprocal couccalnient.” 

Fdia. This was the daughter afterwards married to Tacitus. 

£ulila(um, lit., •'raised up" = “ bom.” TVliea n ohtld wus 
bom.'the father acknowledged it and amionuciid his 
intention of rearing it by fonnally lIRing it up (talierc). 

Infer qijaeslvrani et fritininfuin s “(the time) between, "otu , 
governed by fmiisiif. 

Cnarus sub Ii'erone temporuui, f.e., he knew the dangers ut 
the times under Xero. 

Juriselietio'el/nncnl, " the office of (civil) Jarisdietlon had 
.not Mien to his lot." Of twelve pnetora tivo (chosen 
by lot) had the most impottant duty of controlling 
jndirial proceedings in all private cases. 

. Ludes et smnia honeris, " the games and tire rain display of 
the office.” The pnetors had to auperiiitend the public 
games, and usually sought popularity by presenting llieiii 
on a niaguillceut scale. 

A Galba. Xcrowas overthrown, and killed himself in a.p. CS. ' 
A year of confusion followed; Galba succeeded Hem as 
emperor, but was overthrown by Otho In G9 a.d. ; Otlio 
was couqnered by ntellins. who in Ore same j-ear wus 
defeated and killed by the forces of Vesp.'isien. Vesjiaslaii 
then became emperor, and reigned for some years; 

Ke ciOua, etc. ; f.e., the only loss which could not be rc- 
. covered was that caused by Eero's saci liege. 

Chap. VII.— Lfwiiler, with vaga, “wlUlo cruising for plunder' 
OIL, “lawlessly "). 

Ad sallemnia pielatb, “to perform the duties of Dlial 

A'lcnfio . . . deprehensiis, " overtaken hy tire news tliat 
Vespasian Imd assumed the empire.” 

Inilia prinelpaliis. In English we should express this idea 
passively. " Tlie hrst steps of his reign and the govern- 
ment of Oic city were ordered by Mucianus.” Muoianna 
was the llentenant of Vespasian. 

Alncuiinis. Tacitus explains the employnient of Mucianus 
tea the absence of Vespasian himself and Ids eldest 

gRiI>es if the skins be removed before the produc- 
tion of the alcohol. If other fruits be used-, 51s' 
gooseberries, currants, etc., yeast is usually added 
to start-the fermentation.' 

4. a. 11.40 . Cii.'Ciis Julius .Sgricolanasboni Id tlieancientand 
illustrious cAlomy of Foto' Julil, and Tjofli his grandfittlicis 
were, procurators to the Emperore, that is, of the hipest 
equestrian tanh. Kis father Julius Qnecinus was a Senator, 
126 , . ' . 


— 30+ r<0, or f’O j-irt*- CTiflJf of alcr.liol in Ii»i 
vtjliunr", (if lifj'ii'l ; iir.'l 20 uniloriiroof = 10^ 

— Titi - JO — -in pnn« i>T ■n-fi'flit of alcoliol in 100 

volumes of Ur, 1,1,1. 

In iin>:m" Urrarl in tlic orrliiiarr tvar the 
ah'ijlifiUr' f,-rin,-iitntioii play.*: an important, imrt : 
the yiTisl ndrlftl to the doupli can.‘c.-; tli*! liberation 
of r-arboii ilioxide. alcohol iM.-inr ••iiinillancon«ly 
frirrarrl; Ihu CO, .M-parates tliu particles of the 
•Iriiieh when hcateil in the oven, an, I so rentiers the 

Iirenrl licht. New bre.a,l contains 0-.114 per cent. 

of nl, 'Oil'll. IVlieti alcohol contains no water it is 
e.-illf-il “ alisohitc alcohol " ; this can he preparctl 
from ordinary .alcohol, or spirit of wine, hr tlis- 
tilliii"' it from freshly hiimt quicklime. Mctlirlalccl 
.sjiirit is quite iinfil. for tirinking’, antl so praotically 
iio rliily is eh.arped on it : it i.s mailo hy raising BO 
jnrts of spirit of wine (containing abont 01 |ior 
cent, of nhsuliitc .alcohol) with ten parts of wootl 
spirit (iinpiim met hylic .alcohol). Methylated spirit 
is unknown on the Continent. 

I’oru alcohol is a limpi,! liquid of an, though somcwlint pungent, ta-stc and 
talour, specilic gravity O'TBBS, boil.s at Cent.; it 
is cstrt'tncly useful for dissolving many substances 
insriluhio in water. When chlorine Is passed into 
alcohol for a long time, the alcohol is converted 
into chloral, a. he.avj' oily liquid, CCljCOH; when 
water is added to chloral a solid crystalline sub- 
stance, chloral hydrate, COIaCHCIIO),. is produced. 
When chloral or the hydrate is warmed with 
alkaline solutions, chloroforra is produced — 

ccijCOH + Kiio = ciicis + Kcrro.- 

Clilorofonn. Pntassimii 

Cidonal hydrate is thus ilccoraposcd by Ibc alkaline 
fluids of the body, and when taken internally pro- 
duces insensibility, and evcnlnally death. 

Hthtflic OjriHe.'nther, Siiljihiiric I't her, 
is oht.nined by hc.nting alcohol with a .small quantity 
of Milphnric .acid to a tenipcratiirc of 130® to 150° 
rent. Etiicr is a colourless, transparent, fiagmnt- 
smelling liquid, specific gravity '72, boils at 35-fi® 
(Vnt . ; when dropped on the hand it canse.s a 
.sensation of cold, owing to its rapid evaporation. 
If ether vapour ho inh.alcd it produces insen.sibility, 
hut it doe.s not. act so rapidly as chloroform. 

JJthi/t Ili/iiratiilpliiilc. J^iiljilitirMcchal. .Vercajifan 
(r..U5lIS) is a colourless liquid ; its odour is in- 
toleniWe. and adhere,* oh.stiitatcly to the clothes. 
It is prepared by distilling pol.-issium hyc1ra.sn1pliidc. 
KH.®, •n-ith calcium ethyl sulphate, CafC-lIsSQ,)- 

Ethyl forms many eonipotinds -witli chlorine, 
bromine, sulphuric acid, etc., which we h.ive not 
siiace to describe. 

.IcrfiV .4cid, [coull »-“■ 5- 

formcl by the oxidation of alcohol — 

r.iyio -h o_, = iir.ii.O; + 11.0. 

Vinegar, which is a dilute solution of arelir .acid 
(.3 to 5 per cent.). I* made on tli<- l.argo seal,' I'y 
trickling weak wine or beer over .-havings, usually 
contained in a l.nrgc tub. through which a con- 
tinuous current of air passes ; ,ho brown colour is 
due either to burnt sugar, or to the colouring matter 

absorbed from the wood of the c.ask. Acetic neicl 

is also one of the products of the di-tillation of 
hard wood.®, beech, etc . " wootl \ inci.'ar." 

Tlie strongest acetic acid is obt.uincd l>y hc.oting 
soiliniu acetate with strong sulphuric arid ; when 
cooled below 15-5® Ccnt.'thn liquid solidific.s into a 
colourless crystalline mass, hence it is termed 
“glacial” acetic .I’cid. At ordinary temperatures 
acetic .icitl is a colourless liquid of penetrating 
odour, which bli.stcrs the skin; itboilsat 120®Ccnt.; 
the saponr burns with n blue fl.nne. 

Acetic acid .att.-icks many juctals, iron, copper, 
lead, etc., and forms .1 miincrons and Important of salts. Hie acetate.®, wliich all evolve the 
odour of vincgar'whcn heated with strong sulphuric 

Attiiilie Aleahol (CjIIjilIO), tlie .ileohol of llio 
radicle amyl, Cjlln, i« the principal con.«tituem of 
“fusel oil,” f.r., the re.sidnc left after di-tilling tlio 
spirit from fermented pot.ntoes (potato hnincly). 
rye, etc. ; it. is said to occur in some cheap varieties 
of .spirit, and in froslilj' made whisky. It is ex- 
ceedingly poisonous, rapidly causing insensibility 
even inhalation of its vapour producing hctidnchc 

' The acids, as palmitic, mnrgarie. stearic, etc., 
derived from the higher memlier.® of tlii® series 
form import.ant. constituents of the fat.®, lard, suet, 
etc.; they arc often called the fatty acids', and 
the name has been c.stendcd to tlic wlmlc ••erict of 
acids; it is al-so usually applied to the r.-idicle-, 
alcohol.®. Ota, connected with tlu-se aeld.s, thus we 
liavc the fatty seric.s of alcohol®, acids, railiele.®, cte. 

IVe will now consider the derbative® of ®t>me of 
the dyad radicle®. 

J-yht/lme, OT Olefiant Oar (C-II,). i® one of the 
most iroporlaiit— it i® the >imph-t number of the 
Olefine series; the lowo-t memlxr® of the ®erie® arc 
gn«es and the hiphe®t solid®. -whilf tlie inttriiieihale 
members are liqnids. Like metliyl, etliyl. cle , they 
form llramtdc^<. hydrates, etc. , 

Jilhylene Jfyilrctr, JAhylcae Alcnhol. or Ohral. 
C«ll4(lIO)j. is a enlourless syrupy liquid witliout 
smell, hut ha® a slight swee; ta®;e. htnre it- name 
glycol (Greek gfirl It.,, sweet) ; it mixe.= rc:;«ily with 


of very minnic crystals ; it is almost insolnble in 
cold water, 1 patt of uric acid requiring 1,400 of 
cold W'ater, but dissolves in caustic soda, RaHO, 

The presence of uric acid can be detected by 
adding a small quantity of strong nitric acid, and 
then evaporating -to -diyness in a small poredain 
dish, taking care not to overheat the residue ; this 
is best secured by bolding the dish in the fingers ; 
a reddish residue is thus obtained, which is tamed 
purple by the addition of ammonia, RH4HO, and 
violet by caustic potasli, KHO. These colours nre 
due to the formation of the ammonium and potas- 
sium salts of “ purpuric acid,” C(,HsN,Ob. • The 
ammonium pnqjurate is usually called “murexidc,’’ 
and has given its name to the reaction just 
desoribed,_whioh is termed Hie mnrexidc test. At 
- one time murexide was manufactured from gnano 
on a largo scale ‘(12 owt. per week) for dyeing 
purposes, but the industry became extinct soon 
after the introduction of the brighter and clieaxier 
anilin dyes. ' . ' 

By the action of sodium amalgam (a mixture of 
metallic sodium and mercury) on uric acid it can 
be dep'rived of an atom of oxygen, and thus con- 
verted intoxanthin, which substance can 

also bo obtained from guanin, CjHjNjO. and this 
in Its turn can he prepared from Femrian gnano; 
both xanthin and guanin are white powders, almost 
insoluble in water. These bodies arc curiously 
cnongh closely related to “theobromin,” the active 
ingredient in cocoa and chocolate, and to thein or 
caifein, the substance' which endows tea and coffee 
■with their well-known action on the nervous system. 
Thus theobromin, which can he extracted from 
cocoa, has the formula CiiH.(CH4%lf40g; if this -be 
compared with xanthin, C-H^NjOj, it will he seen 
that theobromin is dimethylxanthin, i.e., two atoms 
of the hydrogen in xanthin have been replaced by 
two methyl, (OH3), groups. In caSein or thein the 
replacement lias gone further, and this substance, 
CjHCCHjljNjO;, is trimethylxanthin. These bodies 
have accordingly been prepared from xanthin, 
which • 

is glycerin. As we have •previously 
lard, etc., contain fatCy acids ; they 
salts in which stearic acid, etc., are ct 
a trivalent radicle propenjd, CsHs- 
fats are boiled for some time ■with sodium hydrate, 
JfaHd, or caustic potash. KHO, the following de- 
composition occurs (the ^rmula of stearic acid, 
is written HSt'in order to simplify 
the equation) : — 

(CjHs)®!* + SNaHO = CyisCHO)^ + SJTaSt, 

and we get as products a solution of glycerin and 
ordinary soap. In order to separate out the soap, 
a quantity of common salt is thrown into the 
solntion.and the soap, being insoluble in saltwater, 
floats on the top ; this is termed ” salting out ” the 
soap: ordinary hard soap is sodium stearate, 
polmitatc, etc., soft soap is the potassium salt of 
similar acids, and usually contains glycerin ; if hard 
soap is properly made it should contain no glycerin. 
When soap is dissolved in much water, free alkali, 
HaHO or KHO, is liberated ; this considerably 
facilitates the removal of grease, dirt, etc. As to 
the effect of hard water on soap $ec 'Vol. HI., p. 6. 
If soap bo boiled with any of the mineral arids, 
the fatty acids are set free — ^ 

Hast + HCl = NaCl + HSt. 

If a fat be distilled in a ciirront of superheated ^ 
steam (f.e., steam heated above 100® Cent.), it is 
^it np into a free fatty acid, which can he 
used in candle-making, and glycerin, which passes 
over with the steam. Glycerin thus obtained is 
purified by redistillation, or by cooling it to a very 
low temperature (0° Cent.), w'hen it orystallises, 
and the liquid impurities can be poured off.' 
When pure, it is a viscid liquid having a sweet 
taste; it can be mixed ■with water in all propor- 
tions; it dissolves many metallic oxides, as luce, 
also lead, copper, and iron oxides. If a bead of 
borax be moistened with glycerin, the bor.acic acid 


■(vholo being coustantlj- mixed j the nitroglycerin 
scpnrntcs out, being insoluble in the fluid, and is 
finally well washed with water. The manufacture 
is dangerous and requires very great care. 

Nitroglycerin solidifies about 20° Cent.; it ex- 
plodes, when heated or struck, with fearful violence. 
In this country it is absorbed by a ][>ecnliar form of 
silicious earth termed “Kieselguhr,” which consists 
of microscopic shells of iinrc silica, perforated in . 
every direction with minute tubes ; this earth 
soaks up the nitroglycerin (like a sponge does 
water), forming a .soft powder. In this state it is 
known ns ‘'dynamite," .mil is much safer to handle 
and easier to transport; dynamite explodes with 
terrible violence if suddenly hciited, struck, or 
detonated with a percussion-cap. Both nitro- 
glycerin and dj-namite if lighted with a match 
usually burn away without exploding; In other 
countries various materials arc used to ab^rb the 
nitroglycerin, as wooil-fibre, sawdust, etc. 



The literature of England is a collection of works 
of art, each one of which should bo studied 
separately for the sake of its individual excellence. 
Such a study will develop the taste and judgment, 
and give pleasure in proportion to the capacity 
df the student : it requires only diligence in read- 
ing, and sufficient discernment to appreciate what 
is read. All that a teacher can do to assist is to 
point out what are the works most worthy of study, 
to call attention to some of their more prominent 
beauties, and to aegmaint the student with the 
histoiy of their antliors. This service we hope to 
render in the course of the following lessons, so far 
as our .space permits us. 

But those who would gain the full benefit of the 
study of English literature must regard it from a 
wider point of riew. The literature of a country is 

poetry .or eloquent prose that he reads the history 
of the times in which the works he studies were 

It is not merely that he will find historical facts 
embedded in what he reads, which he might not 
meet with elsewhere, though this is true; but 'he 
•wiU also often find such facts related by eye- 
witnesses, and, therefore, with all that freshness 
and vividness of description which slamnlates the 
imagination and impresses the memory. He -will, 
moreover, be able to observe for himself, and at 
first band, what effect was produced upon men’s 
minds at the time by the great events of history 
with which he is only familiar by the _help of 

All these things are important. But the connec- 
tion between national bistory and a national litera- 
ture lies much deeper still; and it is of the utmost 
importance tluit every student of literature should 
at the outset clearly realise this. Everyone must 
observe that litoralnro in England has not been like 
a river flowing on in a steady and unbroken course ; 
but lias ebbed and flowed like the tide, though 
without the regularity of tlio tide. In the days of 
Edward ill., at the close of the fourteenth century, 
there was produced a' great mass of literature, of 
which Oliancor's poems are the most important 
examples. Eor a century afterwards there is almost ‘ 
a total blank. Then began gradually the revival, ' 
which culminated in the days of ‘Elizabeth and' 
James I. in an amount of literary life such os has 
never been seen in England before or since— the 
age of Shakespeare and the great dramatists, of 
Spenser and countless other poets. And the seme 
alternation of aotMty and depression is to bo seen 
throughout the whole history of our literature. But 
what it is important for the student to observe is, 
tliat these change^ arc not isolated or meaningless 
events. Literary actiiity is only one of the manj 
forms in wbioli .an increased mental energy exhibiti 
itself, and a period fertile in great books is sure to 
be a period fertile in great deeds and in great • 



revival of classical learning, of the Hefonnatibri, of 
the Spanish wars and the defeat of the Armada, of 
the voyages of Drake and the other great navi- 
^tors, and of the first .English colonisation of 

Bnt not only is the amount of -literary genius 
shown at different periods seen to he very Afferent ; 
the character and spirit of the works produced 
varies not less,' and this 'diversity is closely con- 
nected with the history of _ the times. Thus .the 
same exahcrance of life and energy, seeking a 
vent for itself in every direhtion, which in the days 
of Elizabeth and her successor sent English sailed 
and adventnrprs ahont the world, discovering 
strange lands, fighting — half as lawful .warriors, 
h.alf as pirates — on the Spanish main, or colonising 
^Ir^nin, is apparenfin all Elizabethan dramatists, 
and above all in Shakespeare. Their characteristics 
are activity of invention, freedom, atid variety. The 
same patriotic pride and, unity of national spirit 
which was shown when the Armada threatened onr 
shores is prominent in the litemture of the xieriod. 
It is the veiy keynote of at least one of Shake- 
speare's plays, Menry T'. But the next generation 
of Englishmen lived in a very different world. 
England was no longer a united nation. The king 
—Charles I. — and his people have been alienated 
from one another, the liberties of the nation are at 
stake, the civil war ensues ; and the political con- 
test is intensified and embittered by the reli^ons 
differences which are so ‘closely connected with it. 
The day is one in which every man is compelled to 
choose his side In a contest of surpassing im- 
E)oit<ince; and men do choose their sides, and 
maintain them^with rare earnestness and fidelity. 
And how does this change of spirit in men show 
itself in literature? The representative of the 
iiiterature of the age is Milton. Milton in power of 
genins falls bohind none of the Elizabethan jraets, 
except Shakespeare himself ; but in tone and spirit 
his works stand in the strongest contrast to thrfrs. 

' Seriousness of spiiit, earnestness of purpose, and 
an intense realisation of the presence of the unseen, 
are the characteristics of everything he has left us. 
Kor is the change less instructive in the next 
.generation. The Commonwealth was followed by 
■ the Bestoratibn. ' The cavalier party became in the 
ascendant. A natnral reaction against the extreme 
ansterity of pmatanism, 'ooinlnned with the evil 
example of a licentious court, produced a tone of 
morality lower than anything that had ever been 
Cmowh in England before; and this is immediately 
reproduced in the literature of the day. Diyden 
and, the school of comedy wiitras. whom we shall 
have'to describe hereafter are its chief representa- 
tives, and they stand in the m'ost marked contriut 

to the writers of the previous generation in the 
entire absence of any serious 'or earnest purpose, 
and in their gross immorality. 

Nor is it only the changes and movements taking 
ptocG within onr o'wn country which we may see 
V tiius faithfully reflected in the literature of each 
age. The study of literature enlarges our view and 
enables us to watch the influence which one nation 
lias exercised upon another, either by means of its 
living thinkers and ■waiters, or by its older literature. 
Tltns we all read, as a matter of history, that at the 
time of the first great harvest of English literature, 
in the reign of Edward III., tlie chief impulse to 
literary activity both in England and elsewhere ■n'as 
derived from Italy, for in that country there had 
but sbortly before been produced the great works 
of Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch. Bnt the extent 
of this inflnence can only be appreciated by reading 
Chaucer’s poems, and observing bow he — ^really one 
of the most original of poets — is indebted for his 
stories, for his metres,, and to a large extent for his 
style, to Italian models. Tliis onr renders will see 
moye folly when we come to treat of Chaucer’s 
poems in detail. In the same way we read of the 
great effect produced in England, as elsewhere, 
^during the Elizabethan era, by the revival of 
' classical learning, through study of the originals by 
the few, through the medium of translations with 
the many. There is no tvay in which tills influence 
can be more fully realised than by observing how 
a man like Shakespeare, who had “ small Latin and 
less Greek,” was affected by it. Play after play, as 
I JitUits drsar, and Antony and Cleopatra, is taken 
from classical sources ; and in each he shows not 
only that he can follow the narrative ns he read it, 
probably' in translation, bnt that he had larg^ely 
entered into the spirit and feeling of the time. 

We have said enough to show that the student of 
English literature has the opportunity of reading 
English history in the fullest, best, and most 
reliable way, for he is enabled to get a step nearer 
to the men with whose history he is dealing than 
he can do hy any other method. But the advan- 
tage of keeping the connection between literature 
and history always in view is not entirely on the 
side of liistoryt We liave said that the various 
books which go to make up the total of English 
literature may be studied as isolated works of art, 
and may be so studied with both pleasure and 
profit. No man, for instance , could read Samlet 
without enjoyment, whether he knows anything of 
Shakespeare and his times or not. But the pleasure 
we receive and the benefit we derive from a great 
work is in proportion as we understand the author’s 
meaning ; and we undofstand-his meaning in pro- 
portion as we are able by an effort of imagination 



still, to a great extent, people Wnles and Commill. 
They fell under the yoke of the Eoman Empire, 
and for five hundred years Eoman institutions and. 
Eoraan citilisation prevailed in tlie country. The 
Eomans abandoned their occnpatlon of Britain in' 
the middle of the fifth centuiy, but they did not 
leave the Britons to the enjoyment of . peace or 
security. Immediately after, if not before, the de- 
ixirturc of the Homans, a dangerous friend, soon to 
become a formidable enemy, had appeared on the 
counts of Britain. The Saxons, a people from the 
banks of the Elbe and the shores of the German 
Ocean, had commenced their long scries of inva- 
sions. The history of .tlie struggle between the 
Sn.xons and the Britons is 'lost in obscurity, but It 

ended in the' complete su'bjugation of Britain under 

the Saxon c^ominion; and som'e form of their 
language — a langnage.of the German stock, and 
the parent of our modem English— has ever since 
been the language of 'the great bulk of the in- 
habitants of this island. The Danes were the next 
invaders ; hut though they established their do- 
' minion for long, and although their tongue no doubt" 
materially modified the dialect of those xxrrts of 
‘ England with which they hod most to do, the 
language of the country remained substantially un- 
changed ; and it may be said that at the date of 
. the Korman Conquest, with the exception of the 
Ccltic-spenking districts, .which we need not here 
consider, the language of, England was one, and 
that was Anglo-Saxon (or First-English). . 

But the Xotman Conquest bxbnght a great change. 
The Eonnans, or Nortlnnen, who invaded and con- 
quered England under 'WilUam of Eormandy, were 
a Scandinavian race, nearly akin to the Danes; bnt 
dnring-tbdr long abode in.tlie province.of Nor- 
liiandy they had abandoned their original tongue, 
and adopted the language of those they had van- 
quished ; and Erench was the language which they 
cniiicd with them into England. Erom'this time 
onward there were two spoken languages in England 
— the Eorman-Erenoh of the court and tlie feudal 
castles, and the >Saxon of the mass of tlie people. 
Each of these languages had its writers, books 
intended for the nobles being written for the most 
part in French, those intended for the people in 
Saxon. But there was also a third kind of literature 
in this conntry. In the monasteries, wliich were 
scattered over all parts of the country, chroniclers 
and religious writers used Batin as their literary 
tongue. ' 

Wc hare.^oken of the Saxon tongue as tte parent 
of om:.modern English, and wo have just spoken of 
the Saxon literature which preceded the period at 
which the history of English literafure luoperly 
be^ns. And it may therefore be asked w^ we 

arbitrarily select a particular jxjint of time after 
which wo say the literature was Englisli, while 
what went before was not 7 In answer to this, wo 
say that we do not draw the line at the point at 
. which we have drawn it on the ground of any sudden 
or marked change in the language, though the lan- 
guage did undergo much modification at the very 
period in question ; bnt fo.r the reason we hai-e given 
above, tluit the Saxon or English literature before 
. Chaucer's day was not the literature of the whole 
English nation, but of the English-speaking portion 
of the nation : in his time it became that of the 
nation. The changes by which the langnage of the 
first Saxon invaders has in the course of centuries 
been transformed into the English of our day have 

been very gradual ; and there is no one point of 

time at which it can be said that Anglo-Saxon 
became English. Bnt in order to make more clear 
what we shall say in future lessons, it is well tliat 
our readers should be acquainted with the several 
stages 'into, which the prog^ress of the language 
is most conveniently divided. It must be re- 
membered, however, that these divisions are not 
always very clearly marked, and are not given in 
quite the same way by nU authorities. The lan- 
guage was Anglo-Saxon down to about the middle, 
of the twelfth century; and the name Transition 
JEngllsh' is given to it for the next hundred years, 
down to the middle of the thirteenth century. ■ 
From that time until the end of the fourteenth' 
century it is called Olil English. Then the name 
oS' Middle English is applied to the English in 
'■ use down to the reign of Elizabeth ; and after 
that period the language may be called Modem 

'In our next lesson we shall give a brief account 
of the remains which have come down to us of 
those various forms of literature — ^Anglo-Saxon,, 
Norman-French, and Latin — previous to the date , 
.at which we commence the history of English 
, literature proper. 

. Bat hy the days of Edward III. the English 
language had completely supplanted, whfle it partly 
ateorhed, the French of the Norman nobles, and 
had become the language of the whole nation. And 
that period, the age of Chaucer, is our first period 
in the history of English literature. 

- The second period extends from the death of 
Chaucer over a space of about a hundred years, 
down to the time of the first revival of literary 
energy under the Tudor sovereigns. 

. The tliird period extends from the first revival of 
literature, at the period we have mentioned, throngh 
the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., and includes 
within it the most brilliant portion of onr literary 


Xho fourth period is tlint which ineluclps the 
ceig^i of Cliarlcs I., llie Civil AYar, ami tlie Com- 

Tlic llftli period ‘is that of tlie Ei.'sloration. he- 
ffimiih}: with tliat. event, and extending down to the 
lievolntion of UiSS. 

'J'lic sixth period e.\tpnd.s from the Ilcvolution, 
■through tlic leign of Qtieeii Atinc and the earlier 
portion of tliose of the tKorin.-. and inrlmles wlial 
lia.s hceii hahitiKillv o:dle»l the Atipmslan age of 
Englisli lilcmtiirc, or tlie age of the rernTf school. 

The seventh ijeriod i.-^ that wiiich is iiitenncdiain 
5 iet.\veeii llin la<-t-ineutiiine<I tind the great revival of 
iroinantic litenitnre at the eml of the ciglitecntli 

'file eightli period is that of the rotjv.-il of the 
romantic sr.hool of literature. begtm in the 
reign of George III., under the impulse of the same 
iiilellectntil jme.-cmcnt whieh immeilititelypreceiled 
the great french lievolntion. the period to whieh 
helong Scott. Ilyinii. and Shelley, and which niay 
5 je said setircely yet to have come l<i an end. 

In the folhiwing eotir-i' of Ic.-.Mm-s we slmll treat 
of t periods in order, and of t li.* princi|ial writers 
belonging to oaelt of them, examining as fully ns 
SVC can the !mi<ortatit work' of these writers. 

f! U E li: K. — V I I I. 


Till', si:t;osi> pi;fi.i;ssi«ts rt)NTn.\(Ti;i>. 

A »i:vi.\TI0S from tin- iistijil form of the Second 
DecleiisUm intiy here claim the .stiiilentV alten- 

A few aiihsiaiitives in n-hich nn e or an t .stand' 
before tlie ense-eiiiiliigs undergo cunt raet ion. f«ir 
< ho principles ttliich regulate nmiraetioti, thc.stn- 
'lem must lefer to les'aii J„ Vol. V.. p. 112. He should 
learn both the tiiicoiilracieil ami the contraeti-d 
forms, first liorijiunlally. as rrXeor, rrAofj; wAiiep, 
trAoe. ete. ; tln'ii iK-rpemliciiIaily. as rrAitor, TAiiae, 
ttAoV, nneimlracled ; and wAorr, wAo?. irAJ. coii- 
Cnicled. Tims are declimHi i rzKiat, a fniUny or 
royatie: u r>[ik\oat. n niitiiiii rmtnd or rirci'm- 
rtarir/adon ; and Ti oerter, tt banc. 

Ji.v.tjii’Lits or coNTi:.\cTi:i» souss (sixoxn 


Ir" I'll. Ini' <"l.^ l.-nrinl, Imlnl. j 

X).vt. *rA 6 w rAili. , jrrpirAow ] oirr/u vv^. 

Ana. rAoos rAoui-. j rrpirAoot' rspivAoifr. ootcop pvtopi*. 


K.V. >rAi^ j rrmitrAjl Y- j 


After this umnner decline the ninltiplionlivo 
adjeetive ending in -6ot (-oDr). -ir\ (•>))» (-avr), 

as arrApiii, asAtj, arA'ipi’, xhiyle or simple!, 
adjeclivc.s of two termitiulion.': in -ifor (-oSr) and 
-MOP (-opr), fornietl from (lie substantive I'bas (ivSs), 
ike uiiini. as A, n tipoSr, tI ttVopi-, nvll-iiiitiileil (that 
in, ircll-ilhpafcil) ! mid from the .'iihstantive irArfot 
(B-A»Cr),as A,q (i>7A0Pt,T2i tpirAopp, roj/aying success- 
fully : and adjcetivc.« ending in -for, and denoting 
that of which a filing l.s made, ns Xfi'irror (xpcirops). 
xpiatta ixpeov), Xpu<s(av (x/jpcopp), ynhlrn. 

Hemcmhcr that in the neuter, nntl in all 
ciL'Cs after a vowel or/i. -co is eontnielod into -5: 

opyfp-io) {apyvpoT's), ipyvp-ia (ipyvpa), ipyvp-iov 
{apyvpoiir), of silrer. 

The rules for contraction given nbove (Vol. V., 
J). 22 ) nmsl he caroftdly studied, e.'peeially those 
applying to comnieted ndjeciives. 

Note al'o that — whatever the ticcent is on fho 
iineonlracied form — H ip contraeled syllable is 
always aeeentrnl eirciniifiex, except in the nomina- 
tive. aernisative, and vocative mnscnlinu :md jiuntcr 
of the dual. 

]:.VAMri.igs or co.vTti.ACTiin Aiiji:oTtvi;.'t (.sucund 




KA.V.ApPMi xP'srS AP>-r». lApA.i ArAS iaSu. 

a.ll. Appcou- Api.-r.Ip AI»'P»b- I AvNoip mpAmIp A<rA.rp. 


''AonAor, -OP, nnknown. ArjAot, -v, -or, known, 
’AAnSria, -or, n. truth. evident, clear. 

‘Apoui, -OOP (a, not, and '£KiraAvnT», 1 nneover. 
pdoi). auintclligent, ’EriKouifiifMi, I lighten. 
SGiiselos.'. ‘Ept{a, 1 contend, I am in 

"Apros, -osi i, brc.nd. strife with .someone. 


Euvovr, -ovp, -vrcll-dLS- 
posed, benevolcnl. 

Oepdvaira, -i]S,ri, n fcmnlo 

Kal — icsl, both — and. 

Ka'i'tor C-oSiO, -oa, t 4, a 
small basket. 

KoTOTTpor, •ou, . vi, a 

Kax-cXXoc. -oa. t4, a goblet. 

■Acyu, I say, I name. 

Kaai, -oa. i, the under- 
standing, the mind, 
the soul. 

’O\f7or, -71, -Ba, few. 

■'Op7i7, -5i, ^1 anger. 

'Opimis, -oa, 4, Orcstcs. 

'Ox^oi, -oa, 4, a multi- 
tude, crowd. 

Tlpoirtpcpu, I cany, I bring 

Suii, witb. 

T« 7* n, -ai, v, Tcgea, a city 
in Arcadia. 

T&aor, -oa, t 1, a cliUd. 

'Ti-aoi, -ou, 4, sleep. 

XoXiailr, -oa, 4, a bridle, 

Xifixtas, -ca,-caa,bra2Cn, 
uindc of brass. 

Vaxii (English Psyche'), 
-Vi, 7/, the soul. 

E.VKnciSE 47. 

Ir.-!n.slato into English 

1. Aiyos Kirovrpiv tan tou i'oo. 2. Tii- aoua 
ol SaSpo.'Troi 5iai{(rKaXa7'. 3. Tta taaoaa 4>IXov 
dopaTTEUE. 4. Ol 07080! ^fxoi mrrhv rovv IxooTna. 
C. 'O ttAoui Imv SStiAoi Tofr yairais. C. 24a ay 
via plov iye. 7. 'O Sx^oi oIik 8. Mi 

Sptfo TO** oidpc^TToir. 9. Ol 47080) roTr 470801* eiaoT 
oio’ia. 10. 'Opiyov 4il\up tiyur. 11. To ’OpeoTou 
doTo 4a T*7 *^ tJi'. 12. Af Sopdiroiaoi 4a Koao?* t6v 
£proa vpoa^fpouaiy. 13. O! 8eo1 ko) KoXta ko) Konhv 
wAoua toTs aotfroii xop4xou<7’ia. 14. 'Vvxvs 
4a8pi4ffois 4 7'oat ianv. IS. noAAeiicij ij dpTi 4a8p(«r»oia 
•via |!oSa dKKoAdTrro. 10. 'A»XoS* teriv 4 t5s 4X7ie<&* 
A47a*. 17. Adyo* Euaovi 47riKoa^f(« Adinir. 18. Ti 
ndirsAAda 4<7Tia apyvpovp. 19. 'O OdaoTor x47ETai 
XoAkou* ftn'o*. 

^ ExEnOISB 48. 

Translate into Greek: : — 

1. The understanding is a teacher to men. 2. 
The well-disposed friend is honoured (fftpaaeJor). 
3. TVell-disposcd friends aro honoured. 4. To the 
wcll-disiiascd are m.any friends (fhai is, the well- 
disposed have maiiy friends). 5. Abstain from the 
senseless. 6. Stiivc after benevolent friends. 7. 
Bring the bread in a basket. S, Avoid senseless 
youths. 9,' Senseless youtlis arc avoided. 10. The 
goblet is golden. 11. Silver goblets are beautiful. 
12. Pass life with understanding. 18. Contend ye 
not witb the senseless. 

Remark that, as a general role, the subject (or 
what -is commonly called the nominative) has the 
article, the prcdic.atc being without it. Thus, if, ns 
in the Inst Greek 5cntcncc,yon meet witli a sentence ' 
having two nonns connected by the verb eIfoi, 
fake first (that is, take as the subject) that which 
lias the article before it, as _ 

Sulyeel. . Praliailc. 

4 edvarot Atyerai x=A7coCr Ctted*. 

Death is called a brazen sleep. 


Superlative (Latin super, above, beyond, and latus, 
carried) is in grammar applied tb adjectives when 
they are in that form whieh signifies the greatest 
dc^c or amount of the quality described by them. 
As in Latin and English, the superlative in Greek 
denotes either the highest degree of a quality, or a 
very high degreo. The degree below, or an inferior 
degree of the qnality, is called the comparaiivc ; 
and the simple state' of the adjective is named the 
'positive. For e.vnmplc, sKcet is the positive, siveet-er 
the comparative,- and sivect-ost the superlative. 

The Greek language has two forms of comparison. 
Tho first, and by far the most common, is to add to 
the stem of the positive -repot, -repa, -repay for the 
comparative, and -totos, -tutt), -rarov for the super- 
Intlvc ; and tho second has the endings for the com- 
parative -Twy, -toy or -ay, -oy, and for the superlative 
-taros, -urrv, -taroy. This second fopni is found with 
very few words, but they are words in very general use. 

In some words which take the form -repos, etc., 
the stem is first modified in the manner explained 

Instead of these ordinary forms, the comparative 
nmy be indicated by pSX\o7>, vtorc, and tbc super- 
lative by yixiara, most, put before the adjective. 
But the regular forms sliould generally be used 
wlicn they exist. They may be grouped under 
tho two main forms, as follows : — 

I. The Fibst Fonsr. 



Most of the adjectives of this class simply add 
the forms of comparisDii to the stom. But in 
stems ending in omicron (-0), the vowel is length- 
ened to omega, (-w) when tho preceding syllalile of 
the stem is short : c.g . — 

(a) -O stems: — 

Positin. Stem. CompaTalire. Sofetialire. 

Kov^s, light, (kov^o-) Koutpi-repos. Kovf>4-Tara*. 
iaxopft, strong, (taxvpo-) iaxvp6-repos. laxypi-raros, 
XE7rr4i, thin. (Xettto-) XEirri-TEpo*. \eirr6-raros. 
aa^tds, wise. (o'B4>o-) aoipiS-repos. aviptS-raros. 

exppis, secure. (4xBpB-) ex^pci-rEpa*. txSp^-raras. 

Contracted words in -eoi, -our, undergo contrac- 
tions also in the comj[)aratirc and superlative : e.g . — 
Viieonlmcled. Contracted. 

Pos. tmpipvp-eot, pnrple. trop(pvp-oSs. 

Cbmp. irop^up-Eti-TEpor. voptpvp-ii-repos. 

Super. iToptpup-eii^aros. mp'pvp-ti-raros. 


The cnsning four adjectives in -uoi Cstem bid-) 
. — namely, '/fpai6s, old ; ^oAaiiis, if old, ancient ; 
irepaios, ieionffint; to the other side (ol thc'rivcr); 
. exohaios, idle — apiicar to drop the final o of the 
stem : c.ff . — 

Posilive. Stm. ■ OowijiflnKirc. Supiiattre. 

yepaios. (ytptuo~') yipal-rtpos, yepm-Taros* 

(Note that plf^os, dear, commonly has in the 
comparative /iSAAoi' iflKos, and in the snpcrlatirc 

The following adjectives in -ot— namely, cfiSiot. 
/air (Aveather) ; ^o-uxor [o and i]. gnict ; tiros, iihe; 
napmrXTiaios, similar; apBpios, early (in the morning) ; 
iiifiiai, late ; srpMs, in the daiea — appear to change 
the 0 of the stem into ai, so that the comparatiA’C 
.find superlative esactly correspond to the forms of 
the preceding : as — 

PasUliv. Stm. Coi«;xir«((rf. Superlattre. 

pioos, middle, (pero-) ptaal-rtpos. pural-raras. 

(l>) -T, -N, -P, -S stems;— 

Positia. Stm. P>mpwrt(rf. .^npnlatirr, 

ytivnis, sweet. (■yAuKu-) yXoni-repos. yhvKi^aros. 
pt\as, black. (ptAai'O psKiv-repos. pnXiv-raTos. 
)ie!kbP, blessed, (peueap-) panip-Ttpos. poKip-Toros, 
nXiiBiis, true. (iAijOes-) iXiiBia-repos. aKsfitir-reTos, 
/veviis, poor. (trci'ej-) wewV-Ttpot. wtric-raTos. 

(c) Stems in -ON (and a few others) appear td 
add -IS (-«) to tbo stem : e.g.. evSalpuv (stem -e>>), 
/ortnnate, hapjiy ; iipira(, rajiaoious. Thus: — 
JV»r(iiT. stem. Companttee. Supniatin. 

riiSatpuv. (cif£aipai'.) evSaiftoi-ianpos. rvSatfioi:roiKTCs. 
Spnat, (apoliy.) iprayir-Tipos. ipraylo-TOTOS. 

The adjectives in -eir, -o', wha'c stem ends in 
-irr, append the terminations -vtpoi and -raras 
immediately to the stem ; bat in the coming to- 
gether of two t's, tlie first clinnges into <r, whereon 
the foregoing r is dropped : — 


So, also, two adjectives in -os (namely, ippapiros, 
'Strong, and iKparas, ■unmixed') append the connect- 
ing syllable «r to the stem: as. ippupiv-iu-rtpos, 
ippuptv-itr-rmos ; oicpoT-t ir-rtpor, iupaT-tir-raTos. So 
oiSoToi, -O, -or, modest, has in tbo superlative oiSoi- 

The following fonr adjecth'es in -or (namely, 
AaAor, tathative ; paritpisYos, eating alone; a^^ayas, 
fond of good- eating ; and irrSxor, ^oor, Iteggi'ng) 
change o into i<r: ns, AdA-oi, XaX-ltr-repos, XaX-la- 

So contracted adjectives of two terminations 
change the a of the stem into «ir: e.g., sMos, 
cvi'oiir, nrcll-disjiosed, stem curoo-, comparative 

ovvo-oiF-TOposxxovrooaTepos, superlative evro-ea-Toros 
= ovrovoTaTOS. 

Adjectives in -ijs (gen. -oii), after dropping the 
■ns, take the connecting sylhablo nr, as : — ' ' 

Posttlre. Camparatln. ^ Superlative. ' 

KXfirr-ns, thievish. uKeirr-ls-repos. uXeirr-iir-raros. 

So also ono in -i|t of the tliird declension— 
namely. Asiwnr. -4s (gen. -tos, -o5t), faisc — makes 
ibfuZiirrtpos, ^evSioTaros. 


AaKsSKijudrior, -on, i, a 

KoptCu ’(I'apos), I think, 
1 hold as customary. 
OvDEfr, -eras, no one; 

ovStr, nothing. 

Jlarpls, -ISas, ip one's 
mother country. 

Siuirf), -nr. n, silence, ' 
Svapriarnnlr, -f), -ir, 

Ttpios. -a, -or, hononrc'd; 

esteemed, valuable. 
Kpiiatpos, -n, -or, useful. 

'Ay^Xa, I .adorn; in the 
middle voice with tlie 
dative, I am iwoud of. 

Atppris, -4, -or, chosen. 

'Apia-rrlSns, -ou, i, Aris- 

Bfmor, -a, -or, violent. 

Atuaios. -B, -or, jnst. 

'Eflrot, -oer, rh, a people, 

'li'Jior, -ov, 6, India)). 

KbAA/bt, -ov, i, Ciillins 
(a proper name). 

K4kAci> 4>, -wirot, i, Cyclops. 

The Englisli adverb of comparison titan, is 
represented 'by ij (Latin gtiam), wnth the same 
case after ns before it; thus, the son is wiser 
than the father, is in Greek i vtis tro^iirepiSs itrrtr 
4 i ssariip. Another form of comparison is to 
omit the ? and to pnt tlie second noun in the 
genitive, as 6 efts aoilnirfpos voO rrarpds itrrtr. 

Transliitc into Englisli : — 

1. ’ApnrrtiSns •oruxiaiaros 4i'. bAAb Stuatiruros. 
3. Ol KfeAwiTEr Piaioraroi ^trar. 3. XbAAIbs irAovirui' 
Tavor d)T 'ABnraiior. -1. OiBei' irmsnfs im xpuuipif- 
repar. S. Sr}-^ wot’ etrrlr alperuiTepa Xilyov. 0. 
OiSer tori au^las Tipiii-repor. 7. iSoipta srXoirov 
KTufiB Tipidrepov fOTir. 8. 'K AaKiSaiporiur Slmra 
ijr avXamrrdm. 9, O! 7 EpEiVtpoi TBfr Tar rear rtpais 
ayuAXorrai. 10. 'H jrBTplr roTs arBpilirois ^lArdri) 
terh'. 11. Ol "IrSoi waABfrBTOi' eOros ropl^orrai. 
12. '•'Q naiSes, eOTt ntroxahaTOi, 13. Ol Sirapria- 
Tiirol iTBofai ippuperetrrepoi ijaar rSr ’ABnratav. 
H. noAAol rSi' x'AiSiii'ui' fio-l ABAtiTTEpoi. 15. Ol 

oovAoi wgAAbkit ifeoSiVTBToi kbI uXejrrltrraTol eltnr. 

E.vebcise 50. 

Translate into Greek : — 

1. Tlie father is wiser than tlie son. 2. The 
mother is more talkative tlian tlie d.aiightcr. 3. 
Virtue is a most valnnblc possession. 4. Socrates 
was the wisest Athenmn. 5. Tlie Athenians were 
wiser than the Lncedaanomims. 0. No one of the 



'■ ancient Greeks was wiser than Aristides.- 7. Men 
- are quieter than boys. S. The Lacedaanonians were 
• very strong-. 9. Swallows are very chattering. 10. 
The raven is very thievish. 11. Socrates' manner 
of life -was very simple. 

• Compounds of xapis interpose «, as : — 

I’osiiirc, iirtxopit, -i. (Gen. imxaptr-ot, pleaang.). 
Comj}aT. eirixapir-eS-'repor. Sitjierl. 4Trixap‘T-^-TaTos. 


AVrrii, .Htna. 

Af^a. .suddenly. 

’Ao-flei^r, -is, powerless, 

'Ati'xIbi -ail V, misfor- 

A^fioSlrii, -tjr, jj, Aphrodite 

BaSis, -cm, -v, deep. - 

Bapis, -«ia, ,-«• heaty, 

‘Syupariis, -ts, self-OOU- 
troUed, abstinent. 

Eiirtfi^s, -ft, pious. 

Etixapu. -* Cg<Jn.' -Iroi). 

"Hfiti, -tir, i, youth. 

Kp'in'at, -ou. i, Critias. 

Mco-iirni, -JiroSt >J« the 
middle, moderation. 

Kivpa, -aTM.Ti.a thought 
(something in the voSs, 

'OpSo's. -4, -or, straight, 

', -Sr, 4. impulse, 
eagerness; seal-. 

OoSe'f nor, not even. 

XlapipXopai, I pass by. 

Tlpi<r$us, i [the only cases 
besides nominative 
are accusative srpiirffw 
and vocative srpiaPa; 
in the plural, Tp(ir0cii]. 
old, an old man. 

'anoj, -«<«, •«. swift. 

BxEnorsE 51. 

Translate into English : — 

l.'Af^a, &s viripa, irap«px«vai fiPtt, o.45’ tinrwr 4pp{i 
yiyvtrai r'axvripa. 2. Ti -fipas Baphtpiv iartv AfTwir. 

3, -'O Sararos vu BaBurir^ wapao'Aii(ri<4rari(r 

iCTty. i, Ol S'toi rols ray srptirBvTepav Istatyots X®V' 
ovirir. 5. iiklas SiKatas Kr7j<rts i<rTiy iiT<l>ot\«rri.T7i. 

0. 'H petrSrris tr rSair ao-^oAroTcpB fovfr. 7. Of 

yipavTss io-flewffvepof.ofo-i vSr vSuy. S. BovAiir op95r 
- evSiy larty iar^sAioTepov,' ' 9. Ol KipaKss pAirrarol 
«iirir. 10. ^aKpirtis iyKpaTiaraTas ijr Kol <ruippoviir- 
TOTOr. 11. ’Er toTs stoxibis wuAAomr of SrOpanroi 
<ru<ppovl<rr(pol eio-ir f; tv Toti-eJTrx‘“‘*' ■ 12. Kpirfor 

ijr op— ayfo-Taror. 13. ’A^poSfvii ijy x“P**<rr®'rt| snurSy 


Exebcise 52. 

- Translate into Greek : — 

1. Old age is very burden.some.' 2. Nothing is 
swifter than thought. 3. Moderation is the safest. 

4. No bird is blacker than the raven. 5. Thc^boy 
is swift, the man is swifter, the horse is swiftest. 

C; Youth is more attractive than old age. 7. The 

Ethiopians are very black. 8. No one of the 
'Athenians was more self-controlled than Socrates. 

9. "Critias was more given to plunder than Alex- 

ander. 10. Nothing is moro pleasing than beantiful 


. Ex. 33.— 1. The fishes rise up out of the river, a. Tlio 
huntciu catch wiia bears. 3. All averc like corpse.-. 4. Goil 
rules our souls. 5. llie vine brings forth grapes. 0. Tlie 
earth brings forth ciirs of corn niitl grapes. V. The mice 
fought once witli the frogs. S. Tlie mice are caught in traps, 
fi. Tile Syrians uorbhip fishes ns gods. 10. IVe (»teh fishes 
with a hook. 

Ex. 30.-1. '.tyiaaTpoi; aYpnloprr nut IxSue. 2. Oi txOiin 
•dypeiioin-ai iyu/trspair. 3. 'O ^pnmir f I’cSpEvn roiit aYpianv <rda9. 
4.- Oi poTputs Kal ol trrarjcuet tim. Ka\oi. C. 'ApreAor ^ep» 

• Pirpvcs. e. Toft Purpixuit irore 4i' pixn upbs tout piat. I. 
UporpXcaopey Tout itKUat. S. *H yij ^tpet uoAAdr ap1rt^aut. 

Ex. 3T.— 1. Vnntonness produces outrage. 2 Many are 
our comrades in eating and drinking, hut few In a good work. 

3. Wealth sets men free from scarcity .and w-ant. 4. Follow 
yoitr nature. S. Tlie pas.slons of the body prednee wars, and 
bisutiecUons, and battles. 0. The magistnitcs are the guar- 
dians of the laws in a city. 7. O citizens, keep away from' 
seditions. 8. O men, desire good deeds, a The natures of 
mcndilTer. 10. 3Iniiy evils spiring from arrogance. 11. The 
gifts of a had man bring no gain. 12. Cliaraeter and wealth 
without arisdom arc not safe possessions. IS. The fruits of' 
the flg-treo ore sweet. 14. Tlie possessions of virtue alone are 
secure. IS. Many cities liave walls. Ifi. The towers of the 
city ore strong. IT. The toavers arc an ornament to tlic city. 

Ex, 3$.— 1. '0 uAcDror Adei oariiiai'. 2. 'Hiitv cin ^fAoi lu 
romi sal ppiioa, iM,’ ouk iv roit sasoir. S. 'Ei> ip woAfi 6 
PanAeit tort ^Aof tut roptuv. 4. TlfSDif, it ivoiaa, roTc iv 
yfAci, 5. *n irot, ipiyov Tut sqAwi'. 0, Krijo-ti t4s dpcTfis ion 
pdill pepaia. .7. T^I icTti tltri iroAAoi oiipyoi. 8, ‘AyuM 
ripoi ^ipevarr Tipi)>> doTti. 0. 'Enoo yfi ^lion, 10. Ol 
wrpuTiurai >,ox«rToi irl rfi monjpto rfit uoAcus. 11. ’O koKlto, 

Ex. 39.— I. Kings hare a o.sre for their suhicets, 2. Tlie 
flock follows Its shepherd. S. Hcotor is slaughtered by 
AchiUcs. 4. Tlie priests saciillce oxen to the gods, S. Cyrus 
was tlie son of good parents, 0 Tlio ungrateful dishonour 
their pstents, 7. My son, obey your iiarents. S. Tele- 
maelins inn the son of IJIyssca. 9. Be ivilling to honour 
}-our jarents hoforc orcrj'thing. 10. The idle tales of old 
‘ women wc.-ir away (wcaty) the cars. 11. You rule gloriously, 

O king. 12. Old -women are very talkati\-u. 13. Shciiherds 
drive the flock of cattle to pasture. 14. Homer likens tlio 
eyes.of Juno to those of an ox. 18. Fatraclus was tlio frieiiil 

of Aclilllcs. 18, IVe admire Gyrus, the king of the Persians, 

because of his vlrtnc as well as his wisdom. 

Ex. 40.— 1. Ai ayiAai emvTos lUBfl. 2. 'O ainf igei 
.cmpiAnai* voS uoAirov. 3 Tn uru. Ttiperoi Aopi Tuv ypoZv. 

4. *11 •ypovc cirri' uoAvAoyov. 8. 'O uoipi;r uytt too d-ycAni' tuv 

Pouv trpit lii'' ireAir. 0. Boev Oiiei-Tiu vois SeoTt utra ruu iepeur. 

7. Ot yei'crv cTcpYOi'Tut VITO isle Teici*ui>, S. *Aya9ou con mupevot 

iXTty cmpcAeiar tuv d-ycAuv. , 

Ex. 41,-1. Homer sings of many litrocs. 2. Wo admire JIi.’ 
valdur of ttic heroes. 3. The slai-cs lead a sad life. 4. The 

garden otlhe uncle is line. 5. O child, be desirous of modcsty. 

C. Modesty- follows good men. 7. Wo admire Lysias for hts 
- petsunsivenem and grace. 3. Reverence is implied in modesty. 
9. Do not look at the ftice of Gorgon. ID. O Echo, often thou 
deocli-cstinen. 11. AH men aim at prospenty. 12. It is be- 
coming for n child and a young man to be modest. 13. Clio and 
Erato an muses. 

Ex. 42.-1. 'Oiiopos pSci 'AxiAAo rAr.iipisa. 2 'AxiAAcos o 
ijput ^erai uiro 'Opppev, 3. 'll apnri rev upuds ion Oaupaorij- 
4. 0o.vpi{optv TTIV iptl^v Tur ipiiuv, 6. Toct Spuoivion plot 



Avinjpor. G. TTarpui rtrn K^tro? KoXac. 7. ITat^rcr xafpovot rg 
cvcoToc. 8, Oav^o^e, u rat, fttra rqf aiSovv ri rpctyiutTci rwi* 
ayaGur. 0. 'Ilxot roAAaKtf ^tv5dfL(0a. “ 

Es. 43.— 1. Women rfiloico in omaincnU S. Tlio Greeks 
xvoralii)) j^cus. mid Po'icldon, mnl and other gmlK. 

3. 3Ioi1uKty becomes women. 4. TIio du;r« jptanl the hou*)f>. 

5. Till* pilot directs the ship. fi. Tiic »r traler 

Tnnhc the roi'k hollow. T. It is n wiiiimn's duty to watch 
her home. 8. It Is Uic iiart ofn gntnl wITm to keep hnuse. 
9. Tlio dice of Jovo always throw hicUlly. 10 . Dogs nflbrd 
men nid mid plc.*i!nii-c. 11. Tltc rritlimce of witiicssrs is often 
iinrelinble. 12. Carry, my cliild, the key of the clicsU lit. 
O 2ens, receive tlic jimyers of the unfortunate man. 34. 
Castor niul Tolliix wen: the .saviours of ships. Ifi. Silence 
brings hononr to every wonimi. lii. The illthtoiuans have 
dark liair. 17, Lady, keep safe your house. 18. WV'comh our 
hair with n comb. 10. A:ftcus keeps the keys of Iladt-t. 

TuraiKtdf ^vXArrtiv rqi* oiiricii'. * 3. 4>«pDi>{ri irXrTt oiiciac. 

4. KAcijr; oncior fia'pwrai piirpi. 5w Tote *AOi|i«ioic 

■Qrac roAAai I'^rr. 0. Atf ^rar roXAoi t*cw. ?. Ol 
ai'aMvrrravrcr «* tov I'Saroc. 8. *0 KvPtpniTn^ tOihft vaw% 
9. Tl invy (dtifcrat vrb Tou Mi/trpinjTDV. 30. Aia J£el 

Kx. 4B. — 1. To drink much wine i'l an evil. S. Kings haw 
large revenues. 3, In r.u>'pL is nbnudnncc of com. 4. Tl»e 
aea i^ gixat. 0. Cnrsiis lind great weallii. 6. From a slight 
Joy often arises great luiguistt. 7. To gentle wonls we yield 
wilii ple.asnrc. 8. The great gifts of fortune bring terror. P. 
TIio tcinpeiu of inany nieii arc gentle. 10 Toll W a great aid to 
virtue. 11. Cliildtvn love gentle fathers ami gentle mothers. 
12.* Keep up an oci|UAln(nnec (have Intercourse) with geiitte* 
hearlml men. 1.3. llie women arc g»*ntlc 14. Tlie inajnriiy 
of inanktiid call Alcjcnnilcr, King of Idaccdonlo, nie.*tt. 

)3x. 4G.—1. ’Aff^.xow troAAoO oh-ow. 2. Ol aoirw 
ooAAm oie^. .3. tloAiif oTior fiMtrrti rovt nt-Optimvt* 4. Toit 
^affiAcDffh' rioi pry^Aai frpocreSei. f*. *11 trpoaeiet vwr^acriAcW 
«{rr) grvoAii* 0* Aiynrree r\<( ffoAirv otfer. 7. IToAAote icu 
troAOe uAoOroc, bXtyo^ Sc toCt. S *Optyia$e rpacW,<0<Mi% 9. 
TA cOi] rAe yifeatMtie cVri rpaca. lU. KdAAae npatvt 
SOetri, 11. ‘AAi^Ai'Spoe, b rStv MoKceoiMV itaoiAn'v, roAAdKie 
/icyot TTpocrayopcvfToi. 


[CoiiHiiiml /mm p. 20.J 

It is not a cliniciilt matter to ilofcrmine jrrrrhrlff 
where the jininf of tight is to he found. If the 
pupil trill do ns tre rcconinicndcd in the last l(>s.snn 
— that is, liold his pencil lictwcen his eye and one 
of the upper retiring lines, say the cave.e, so that 
ihe line of the eaves shall coincide with, or bo 
made apparently to lie upon the length of the 
pencil, and when thus placed, carry his eye down- 
w.ards along the pencil until it cainc.s to the line 
of sight — he will find the pencil directed to the 
point opposite tlio eye, Tliis can be proved by 
placing the pencil upon another lino which is 
parallel to the eaves, say the foundation line of the 
wail ; tile pencil tlins pdaced will point in the same 

direction, and it would do the same if it be made ■ 
to coincide with thc-tops of tlio doors, or with .any 
other lines that may bo parallel with them. Tliere 
is nnotlicr way of proving that the point of sight is 
the vnni.shing xwint for linos going off at .a right 
angle with our position: if- we hold out our arm 
horizontally, and place it in a parallel position with 
the retiring side of llie street, we' shall find we are 
jmintlng to the point of sight. Let tho pupil try 
this, which he can do in a room if lie places him- 
self in such a x>osition, that on looking, before liim 
the direction of sight shall be parallel to the sides 
of the mom on the right hand and the left. 
IVc shall have to refer to this again wlien we 
place ourselves before a subject in which there is 
a building having an angle tow.-u:ds us, and not a: 

The first line that the pupil must mark in (we 
do not him to drav anj- lines until he 
has first determined the places of all the principal 
ones) will 1)0 the one nc.ircst the rs. Let this he 
the course of procedure in all aiscs, ihat is, when 
arranging tho positions of tho lines he mvri hegin- 
from ihe point of right, and as lie passes on, if 
to the right, mark the place for each line which 
crosses the line of sight ns ho epmes to it, then 
lake ujt lines on the lofl, commencing from 
the rs, and treat llicni in tho same way; tlion ho 
nnat determine the heights of the perpendicular 
lines drawn through these points of position. lie 
mast cxcroLsc his jndgment in this matter by flic 
coroiKirison of widths and heights in the original. 


The instructions we gave in tho last lesson re- 
ferred to the treatment of a subject when placed in 
a jmraUci position with ourselves, or with tlio pic- 
ture plane; we then endeavoured to show tliat we 
must be guided by tlio rules at paraiM iier.spective 
when intending to draw an object in this position. 
It will lie oiiiicccssary io say more upon this sub- 
ject. bo.vond recommending our ])npil.s to turn back 
to lessons in Drawing, No. II., t'ol. I., page TO. 
Tile remarks we there made, in conjunction with 
all that we have recently explained, will, we have 
no doubt, make tlie process sullicicntlj- clear to the 

Having given these directions, we will ndw 
snpiiosc ourselves to bo placed before a subject: 
haring an angle prrrenfcrl io vr / in other words, 
all its sidfs retiring. In this case wo must he 
guided solely by the rules of angular perspoctme. 
Here, once more we advise our pupils to refer to 
the instrnotlon.s upon Angular Por-spectivo in 
lessons in Drawing, No. II., Vol. I.J page 70. ■ 

After this there will he no difficulty in under- 



standing that a bnilding in jiaralhl pDrspcctivc can 
liavc but. ime position ; wliilsi. one in angular pcr- 
spcctivu may liaro many, according to llic angle of 
incliiiafinn tlie side of tlio bnilding may form xritli 
tlic picture plane or witli our position. Now, before 
we begin to make our drawing of the subject, we arc 
soppp-sed to liavo before us, wo must direct the atten- 
tion of our pupils to a few rcmnrk.s respecting the 
'relation there cxistsbetween the object itself and the 
picture they arc about to make of it. We undertake 
tins, witli the liope that it will give them a clear idea 
of wliat we mean by the expression jiifit used, “our 
position,” as it is so essentially necess.aty to nndcr- 
.stand thi.s term in connection with angular per- 
spective. In considering this there is one con- 
dition which we doubt not will bo admitted by 
.all — that the onlliiie of a subject, let it be composed 
of houses, trees, or anything else, ought to be so 
correet in tho drawing tlint if wo licld tlie pniicr up 
before ns, between tbo objects niid tho eye (sup- 
posing the p.aper to be transiiarcnt), we .slionld find 
that each lino in the drawing would coincide witli 
tho ootresponding line of tho object drawn. To do 
this exactly, or even to make an approximation to 
it, would indeed prove the ability of the draughts- 
man to . 1)0 very groat ; and althnugli to sonio of 
our pupils ’this view of tho quc-stlon inny seem strange, yet a little consideration will 
quickly put aside all doubts tliat may arise as to 
tlie of it ; and if the meaning it- 
conveys be rightly understood, wo .shall have got 
o^•er Iwlf tho difiioulty in comprehending tho 
meaning of tho term “ onr position.” 

Wlicn we are drawing any subject from nature, 
we arc snpj)oscd to be standing on an imaginary 
' line which goes off directly on our right hand .and 
on our left, and therefore nathcr ndrnncc.s nor 
rotrc.a,ts in its direction, Ifaving thus placed our- 
folvos/ wo nin«t look directly before us; conse- 
quently, the way we are looking, which wc will 
call ilic direction of sight, will form right angles 
with lliis imaginary line upon which we are sup- 
po.'ed to st.and. yinr lliis imaginary line indicates 
our jmsition, and if wc were cng.agcd in tracing a 
l.and.=c.ape from nature upon a piece of glas.s (whicli 
• would be tlie picture plane), that glass or picture 
would necessarily be placed jinrallcl 1o iliis imagi- 
nary line that marJts onr jmsition; therefore what- 
ever line in nature is found to be perpendicular to 
tlie picture jilane would ho perpendicular to llic 
line of jmsition also; and similarly, any line of the 
object which formed an angle witli the ono would 
in like manner form an angle with the other. It ' 
will he scon how the picture piano is situated with 
regard to the eye, E. It is parallel with onr posi- 
tion when wc stand beford it and look directly 

towards it, .and when a line from tlic eye E to the 
surface of the picture will form riglit angles with 
the picture plane, ns the line e rs with ni.. Well,, 
then, admitting this to be the c.aso, wo can under- 
stand (hat if a line in tlic object is .so placed that 
each end is equidistant from the iiicturc plane- 
(that is, parallel with it), wc have notliiiig more te 
do draw it acros.s tlic paper ; it has no vanish- 
ing point ; blit when the line one end nearer to. 
the eye than the other, it then retires and is at am 
angle Imth frith our jmsition and thejiictiirc jdanor 
all lines similar to 'this must hare their ranishing 

After the above reinnrks, we now come to the 
object of the present lesson, namely to giro some 
general directions to our pupils lioir they arc tojiro- 
eeed when they arc dratriny rctlriny lines front 

The mio in Pcrspcctivo for finding n> 
vanishing point is, Draw a line from the stntioir 
point parallel to the ground plan ns far ns the 
picture lAanc.” 'Wlion drawing from iintiiro, onr- 
practice must be founded upon tills regulation 
when wc desire to determine the vani.sliing points 
for tlic retiring lines of buildings or other regular 
objects at whatever angle they may appear before 
us ; all of which can very cnsilj* he done witliouti 
the ncce.ssity of making a plan of tlic subject, even ' 
were that possible. IVo recommend tlie practice 
of a few very simple problems in Geometrical Por- 
hpcctivc ; for wc can testify how much this branolD 
of art. prcp.nrcs the mind of the student of nature 
to perceive facts whicli might otiiorwiso be lost te 
him. It gives him confidence in plncing his lincs^ 
and the proportions of the whole and parts of 
objects, 50 that when a doubt arises lie lias a. 
■means at band to di.spcl it ; therefore wc uige 
tlio.«e of our pupils wliose only desire is to draw 
from nature witliout having any intention to pursue 
nny branch of art in which geometrical drawing is 
indispcns.sb1o, not to neglect the ndv.antnges n. 
-little geometrical knowledge affords, as ivo know 
from long experience how it imixirts a readiness 
and certainty in drawing lines wliich in thou- 
sands of hands -would run -wild -without its- 
gnidnneo. Upon tho same principle wc should, in 
Geometrical Perspective, “ draw a lino from the 
station point parallel witli the ground plan ” : so in- 
like manner tlie student, when standing heforo liis 
subject, slionld liold up liis arm horisontnlly and 
jmrallcl with tho rctiriny side of tho huilding he is- 
nboiit to draw ; and if he then looks in tho direction- 
of his .arm, lie will find ho is jmintiny to the ranish- 
iny point, which probably may be marked by some 
conspicuous object in tlic distance, perhaps n par- 
ticular tree or cottage, -which he must fix as a 


-vanishiiig: point-. Hc'mnst Ihon liold np bis pencil, 
at arm’s length, anti horizontally between his eye 
and the bnilding. and incnsnro its length on the 
pencil, then see how ninny oUhc.-ic lengths will be 
repeated between the end ot the building .and the 
object which had been previously marked as the 
vanishing 'point. Wo will suppo-so it is repeated 
twice: he must then commence by drawing the 
horizontal line, and tlien decide upon the size of_ 
the bnilding, or the .space ho intends to occupiy in 

of the porch. .The ridge of llio root and all lines. - 
.Xinrallel with it would retire in the other direction, 
but iicing at a very small angle with the ]Uctnro- ■ 
plane pr with onr position, tliby -would meet tho 
horizontal line at some distance out ' of the picture, 
so Uuit it wonUl-be impossible to place the vanish- 
ing point tvilliin the paper; therefore we must 
■ hoid up the pencil .horizontally between tho eye.’ 
and tlic roof, like the line h c, by whicli we asoer- 
tain the proportion of the inclination. 

bis drawing : say from ff to A (Fig. 3). that 
siKicc twice on the in., first to c and tlicii to e, 
wliich will be tlie -t^nnisliing xioiut for ait the 
parallel and liorlzniilal retiring lines ii]»in tiint side 
of tile building, TIic snnio practice must be ob- 
served for the retiring end of the tnithliiig: the 
arm must bo oxtondod in a parallel direction to il, 
tlio point iiscil upon, and llic building measurud oa 
the pencil ns Ijofore, and the distance repeated 
till it reaoho.s the object tlic .arm xrainted al. (/^r 
<Fig. B, wliere it is repented once and ii lialf, first at 
rf and file half at /. tlie oI>jeel pointed at.) If -wc 
place om-«olves further away froiir the hnilding, its 
measured Icngtli would be repeated oftener to ivach 
the VP. For an e.\-planation of this see the remarks 
upon Fig. :i!t, lessons in Drawing, Voi. 1., jtage 
222. Another method, or suh.sfitufc for holding out 
tlie arm to find tin* vr. is to place the pencil or a 
long ruler between the eye and upon nr coinciding 
w-itli the retiring line-. Tlio.'e linos -which are 
above tlie eye or III, will incline rfotranwrrfs. those 
below the eye will inelino vptrardg, all mertini/ at 
the name ranhltiiuj jiniiii. (See lessons in Draw- 
ing, No. II., Yol. I., page 70, explanation of the 
vr.) Suppose -we are about to draw the cliiireli 
(Fig. -1). Ai we are obliged to sit near to it, -we 
arc compelled to make tho point of sight at a in 
order to bring the wliolc subject within tlie nngie 
of vision. 0(1'’, and eons-oqueiilly nuikc it a case of 
angular perspective If wc could have sat furtlier 
away from it. we might liavo made it a case of 
parallel perspective, and have fixed tho point of 
sight at the VP of tlie end of thc‘hitilding. Under 
tlie present circumstances, if we liold ont'thc .arm 
parallel to the end of the building, wc slinll be 
pointing to the tree ns tlic VP ; this would bo the 
sunishing point also for the parallel retiring lines 

It is a very difficult task to give a -written cs- 
]>1au.ation of all that is to be observed wlion draw- 
ing from nature. The lirond practical rules wc 
have laid down we know to be simple in thciiisolves, 
and wc have endnavourud to make our oxjjlnnntions ' 
equally .so, hoping very few of our pupils will fail 
to understand them, ns wc have -u-ritten under a 
supposition tluil tlic problems in Per- 
sjicclivc in the.<c page.s linve been studied, because 
tiirougli a knowledge of them many and great difli- 
eiiltics will he ronderod easy and our explanations 
intclligdblo. If tlie eye only Is to be llepended 
n|H)ii, as some mniiitniii. what need is fliero for any 
a.<sistancc al all. eillicr from u-ritteu instructions 
or from the Hp.s of a ma.sler.’ As wo li.avo- .said 
before, there is not a line in nature but i§ siilijoct 
to some special rule for its rcpre!:entntion ; and- 
unless the rule lias been the guide for placing it. 
without fall that rule will liecomc its judge to 
condemn it. 

IVc must iio-w .say something upon the theory, 
and offer our pupils some advice upon tlie course 
Urey must imi.sue anioiigsr tlie dillicultics tliey . 
will find in the principles and ariiilic.ation of 
tlic art. The rules we have given will help them 
over granimatiral diflienllies and assist them in 
the work of construction, and for these rc.osons 
they cannot he dispensed with ; but tlicy arc in- 
capable of giving tliose clianns to a iiicturo which 
it is the provinro of tlicoryto impart, founded, upon 
a right fcclingfor tlic bcnuiics and effects of .nature. 
Our pupils have now at tlioir comin.afid a siiftioicnt 
supply of gcmnctricai information. a.s -well ns direc- 
tions whore to find it in tliose pngc.s. and of wliioh 
we hope and trust they will make a good use; it 
will prove to be the best and most solid foundation 
whcrcuiwn to build oilier principles to be derived 


IConlinnal from p. S5.1 

.The Istjefixite PnojroES Ok (eonttmted). 

Ip the word on denotes deiiiiitely n female, the 

•The vcjb and the other parts of speech hare 
alreadr been dealt with at such length that it is 
nnnecessar}' that we should devote further space 
to them. IVere we to ask you to occupy yourselves 
once more with them, we could merely repeat what 


The construction of the affirmutiTc sentence -is 
iis simple in Ererich as it is in English. The fol- 
lowing is the arrangement of the words: — 

, - 1. Sliijtct, 2. AltrilllU. 

Le niarcliaiKt aiiglnls 

. The merehaiil JSnuUih ,, 
lx fill dc vAtni nmi 

The son, nfymie/rUnil 

lx imrtcan de’fer 

The Immmer tif iron. 

When the attribute of the subject is placed in 
apposition to the verb, tlio construf^ion is the same 
, in the two languages : — 

When the verb is -in a compoitnd tense, many 
adverbs are placed between the ausUiary and the 
participle : — • ' • 

1. Siitj. 2. Aim'Iiary. 3. Adv. 4. Furtteijic. 
XoiM avons aouvont In, 

Il’« Imre q/len rmit , 

Long adverbs of manner ending in -ment, other 
long adverbs, and the adverbs of time and place, 
aujow^fflmi, demairi; Idor, iai, lit, are not placed ■ 
between the auxiliary and the participle : — 

Sons nvons ecrit nuioimVhnl. IIV have icWftcn todlay. 

See them. \ Speak to Ihem. 

When two porsonaL pronouns are used as objects 

Sbonld, however, the indirect and the direct ob- 
jects be in the third person, the indirect is placed 
after the direct : — 

In' the imperative used aiBrmativoly, the direct 
object always precedes the indirect : — 

■ The pronoun representing a noun in an oblique 
case generally preceded in English by a preposi- 
tion other than to is .in ETenoh plac^ after the 
verb: — 

.l...SKy. 2. rert. _ ■, 8. Jnrtfr. oitf. ' ‘ ' 

To render a sentence negative, ne is placed im- 
mediately before the verb, and pas, Jamais, 
etc., after it : — 

1. .9»l!/. • 2. Ifrff. 3. Vert. ' 4. h'eff. 

When tlie verb is in a compound tense, the first 


■ Note. — ^T ho c of llio pronouns ,/c, me, fe, and co 
is elided only when tlicy preende tlieir verb. 

. i is only elided in xi corning- before il, Ac/ fls, 
t/icj/. ■ 

, Although tiro words onre, Jurrirwc, oiti, mate, 
yatagan, yard, yaehi, yoga, yolc, yveea coiutncncc 
■with a rowel, tho article is not elided before 

This Iiriiiga to an end our detailed study of the 
Pronch Iniigiingc. Tlicre are jtill many dillicaUic.s 
for you to overcome. In order to render yonv task 
an easier one, we .slinil now set before you a list of 
idioms .md lielp to remove one great stumbling- 
block from your path by giving you a full list of 
words which resemble one another in spelling or 
pronunciation, but dilTer in meaning. But first we 
must remind you that the Vrenoli and English lan- 
guages have an important element in common, and 
that there is r .strildng analogv lietwccn a large 
numhor of English and l'’i-ench words. 

Ak/Clogv ncTwnns Esoi.iph asp Fnuscii 

Woiiu.s. Avord.s ending fit -rtf. -rr, -rfr. -ge, -7c, -nr, 
•ant, -cnt. -im, are tho same in Iwili languages; — 
•al Mliivml, aiiliiuil, lUlnrliKit, fiiLiI. 

-do I’nnwK Kr.wtr, «iiitms«i(k, inrrlrtilF, iirflndc. 

-go doiir.ip', imBi'. Vi-sti/e, nraiigc, (U'liige. 

-ic I'ocilr, raiwtilr, tnMv, imssllile, fcrtltr, riiUcutr. 
•ne . limUriiif, lutin', srcni', ramiiir, innctiinr, lircc>inv. 
•ant numiiuit, vljiitnnt, rmist.'int, Instant, aiTcis.snt. 

■ -ont I’fi'Sfui, cniiii'iil, iicpiilciil, pri'sl'lriit. nMUlcnl. 

. -Ion tjncstlflii, fraction, l.'pi(in. jicnsum. ivItBioti. 

idioms peculiar to Prenoh. arc very niimoron.s in 
tliat language. We have already in tho part of 
tlicse lessons presented a considerable number of 
snob expressions, and will here give a somewhat 
extendi list of those not pliiood in the examples 
and exercises. In iirovorbial sayiiig-s, wo have en- 
deavoured to give the equivalent English phrase. 
We would advise the student to analyse carefully 
the following idiomatic sentences, nnd particularly 
those which do not .admit of a liteiid or near trans- 
lation. Idioms nnd provcrhml iilira.-TS give a grant 
insight into the characlcr nnd ciistom.s of a n.atioii, 
and their ntinlysis is ofli-n of groat assistance in 
the acqitisiliun of a huigaage. 

The following list caiiiiol of course bo comraiffed 
to memory. A few idioins only .should bo learnt, 
every day, and if the .studciiT be wise, he will 
practise turning lliem from English back into 
Prencli, a.s well as from I’reiieli into Eiigli-Ii : 

O' I'lano nV-l tii-iirorMinl Thit rlniin tin’r, 

Ariaiij.i'z (vlti' nnjlrv » I'liiiii- Srilk If'dl iiM/i'-iWi/. 

Soil'. somiiiFS d'acconl siir te Jl’r ngrt’ I'giii IM 

Qili'l SSF (loniit'rlc/.voin I'et Wn'r otif ii'i.iiH jwii 
Iioiiimct miininli'f 

O'ln fvni Mon iiion nirnliv. TM »n/f uw rjvritu, 
Allnns nil fall. /j ( m niiiti' (o H/r 

wctl«2 inn pitiniiw It J'nii f ri.ntiJ( my jietli'iu'^. 

nil T/.'y lire Mh vjf Ike etinr miii'l. 
I'nii uliriiyi iik thov rr;iiv'<- 

ist JWiofi'i nhrftleer. Uir Ihiivj U 

Ill r»i' (irf ;iiil (o }f»ir ja-l jlifft. 

lit ilp< I l,i«t llmt uvol (It If f tiy Ilf 1 ly 

Kiitre a 

Jlost words ending in -org, -erg, -gy, -vey, •tg, 
•eiix, -nr, -iitir, -hie, -ire, become Pronoh by changing 
-ary Iiilo -alre Xi'ivs'siln', iiiUit.vliP. 

•ory „ -olro Mi'iimlr, aloln', viclolir. 

•gy .■ -fiio linorsii', ai-nio-ip, I'liiRip. 

-ncy .. -noo CU'iiK'm'o.iUTpncc.fWiIlinn'.cnnsl.mre. 
-ty ,. -tiS ClinriU'’, Ufliilv, lUvIiiltP. 

■or, -our -cur Cniulpiir, ni'lPiir. netpur. Ilnrlpnr. 

-Inc „ -In JInsciiIIii, fpiuiiiln, Plnnilpilln. 

-Ivo .. -IT Actlf, jrasiir. iiin-stf. 

Eiigli'-h feminine names ending in a finish in 
Preiioh in c; Sophia, Sophie. 

If you raa-'ter the above rules, yon will start at 
once willi a bj no means contcmplibic vocabulary. 

jJ'oTi;. — Studeiils should not .-iiisimic that be- 
c.ause some French wonls are more or less similar 
in spelling to -nine English wools, they are ako 
similar in signifio-atlon. This is far from being .al- 
ways till' ca.-e. 


The greatest barriers which separate one Inn- 
guage from auotlicr arc its idioms. Gallicisms, or 



thorn when in donbt. If, when he has road a 
portion of the list, lie Tvill covot np the English 
column, he ^riIl find it easy to test his knowledge. 

na a 


Sladame dc Stacl (ITGC-ISIT) wns a daughter of 
Necker, xropular minister of fmnneo to Louis XVI. 

Brought up in one of the most brilliant circles in 

Baris, she early showed her genius, and in 17G8 
published a comedy, Sajthla, and two tragedies, 
XaHi/ Jane Gre;/ ani. Manimoren:y. 

In 1786 ^he'was married to the Baron de Stacl- 
' Holstein, Swedish ambassador to the French Court. 
Although slie uph^d principles of liberty, she was 
-strongly opposed to the -violent policy of Eobes- 
piene, .and, at. the risk of ‘her life, published a 

“ Defence of the Queen.” She objected to Napo- 
leon’s tyranny, and by him was driven into exile. 

■ To her exile we owe the two best works she ever 
produced, “Corinne," a novel, and " L’Allemngne," 
a brilliant picture of German literature. • After the 
-battle of Waterloo Madame dc Stael again appeared 
• in Paris, and was favourably received by the King. 

Besides the works ulready nsimed, Madame do 
Stael -wrote “ Delphine,” a novel, “ Considerations on 

the French Revolution," “ Ten Years of Exile," etc. 

Use SociEiE de Froviece. 

La naissance, Ic mariage ct la mort-composaient 
tontc Vlilstoirc de notre soc!6tC, et ces trois £v£ne- 
ments diif iiraient lil moins qu’aillcurs. Reprdsentez- 
'vons oe que c’Ctait ponr une Itnlienne comme moi, 
que d'etre assise auteur d'une table d ,tlic plnsieurs 
lieures par jour apr&s diner avco la sociute de ma 
bcllc-mbre. Ellc £tait compos6c de sept femmes, 
les plus graves do la province ; deux d'entre elies 
dtaient les demoiselles, de c{nqu.antc ans, timides 
comme d quinze, mais bcauooup moins gales qu'd 
cct dgc. Une femme disait ft Tnutro : ” Ma cbftre, 
oroyez-Tous quo Veau soit nssoz houillanto pour la 
jeter sur le thfi 7 ” •* Ma cll^^o,” rgpondait I'autre, 

“ jc crois que cc serait trop tut, car ces messieurs ne„ 
sent pas encore prCts ft venir.” ” Resteront-ils long- 
temps ft table nujonrd'hni?” disait la troisiftme; 
“qn’en croyez-vous, mn ohbrol” "Jenesnis pas” 
rSpondait in qnntribmc ; '• il me semblc quo I'Sleotion 
dtt Parlemcnt doit avoir lieu in somnino proclmine,'et 
il sc pourmit qn’ils rcstassent pour s’en entretenlr,” 
"Non," roprenait In cinquiftmo, *' je crois plutot qu'ils 
parlcnt de cetto chnssc nu renard qui les a tant 
occupfs la scmainc-passcc.'ot qni doit recommencor 
Inndi prochain ; je orois cepcndiint que le diner 
sera biontut fini.” "Ah I je ne I'cspftre guere," disait 
la sixibmo cn soupirnnt, ct le silence recommen^ait. 

' J’avais 6t6 dans les convents d'ltalie ; ils me parais- 
saient plcins dc vie ft c&te de ce cerelc, ct jc ne 
savais qn'y devenir. 

Tons les quarts d'heure il s’Hevait une voix qui 

faisait la question la plus insipide pour ohtenir la 

rftponse' lil plus froidc ; ot I’onnui soulovd retombait 
avee un nouveau poids sur- ces femmes, que Ton 
aiirait pu croirc malheureuscs, si Thubitude prise dcs 
-renfance n'apiwenalt pas ft tout supporter. Enfin 
les messieurs revennient, et ce moment si .nttendn 
n’apportait pas un grand ohnngement dans in 
manibre d'etre dcs femmes : les hommes con- 
tinnnient Icur conversation nuprbs de la oheminee ; 

' les femmes restnient diins le fond de la chambre, 

distribnnient les tasses de thb ; et quand I'licure du 
’ depart 'airivait, dies s’en allalent avec leurs bponx, 

- prutes ft rccommencer le lendemain une vie nui no 

■niE N*K\v porui^wi educatoh. 


<li(i£rnit Op cpHc Oc la vcille qiie par la dale do 
ralinaiiach pi par la trace Ots ‘nimee?. qni vcnait 
enfin s'iiiiprimer Mir Ic visage, rlo cos femmes coinmc 
si ellcs en.ssenl vecit jicnilant co tcmiis. 


ICoiKJ/iiiel from p, SM 

woHK on i:.vEi«;v-i..i.iv of work— PE nrETCAi. 

IVe have seen something of the connection which 
exists hotween the friotfon of a machine nndthelonO 
on the machine, and we have fonncl that friction 
increiises ns the load inoreascs, that fiiction alw,a}-s 
acts againit motion helping the weaker force,‘aiKl 
tliat the greater useful effect we proditcc by means 
of a machine, the greater Kast(f [/? effect does friction 
also produce. Before, however, wecandednoeany/ttir 
as to the way in whioh the “ effleienoy ” of a machine 
varies, it will be noccss.nry to study the action of the 
machine from the point of view of tvorl- or energy. ‘ 

A force is said to do work when it is .exerted 
through a certain .distance in its own direction. 
It the force is measured in pounds— the force of 
one pound being taken 'to mean the pull of ±ho 
earth on that mass which we call one pound weight 
when the mass is situated at the sea-level at Green- 
wich— and the distance tlirough which the force 
acts is measured in feet, the product of tho two 
will give tho work done by tho force in foot-pounds. 
In other words, tho British engineer’s unit of work 
is the amount of work necessary to raise one pound 
weight one foot high in London. 

It is usual to speak of work being done wben -an 
opposing force or resistance is overcome, but work 
may also be done in alt Cling a body’s rate of motion, 
the resistance in that case being of a different 
kind, and due to what is sometimes called the 
body's inertia. 

JJnergy is the capability of doing work. Any 
agent wliich can do work is said to be possessed 
of energy. It is well, in studying IMecbnnics, to 
base our rpasoning, ns far as possible, on .the ele- 
mentary conception of norl-, ns almost all students 
have, or can soon grasp, this idea, and upon it can 
be built most of tlic laws of mechanics.' 

Nature supplies ns with almost unlimited stores 
of enorg}'. Tho moving air or wind, the groat stores 
of co.'il, the water in oar rivers and streams, and 
even the tides may all be utilised, and form ^ores 

of energy " for the use and convenience of man."’ 

It is true tliat in utilising these stores of energy 
there is always considerable waste, and in no case 

is tills truer than in mili.-iiig our stores of coal. 
tVhen we think tliat 1 1b. of coal gives oat energy 
equivalent to .nboiit 11,000.000 foot-pounds of work 
in burning, and that if 2 lb. of tliis coal are imrnt. 
in the fnrnaco of a very good steam-engine for one 
hour, the engine will not give out more than 
33,000 X liO = 1,980,000 foot-pouiiils of work — 
about .j’jtli of tlie eiiorjr.v in tlio coal — we begin to 
have some doubts as to wlicthcr our legacy of 
energy in tins sliapc may not in time bpsqnanderofl. 

It must not be thought that tlie difference of 
the amounts of energy supplied to and given out by 
the engine is tlcsfmyal, or ibsappairs aUogetlier. 
It merely takes .anptber form in wliich it is lcs.s 
useful to us, hence wo speak of it ns being Kaetcil. 
Energy can neither he created nor 'dertroyrd by any 
process witli wliieli man is hcqnaintcd, but it docs 
tend to take what is called a lower or less useful 
form. A body at a certain lieight possesses a store 
of energy in the fonn ot jmtcntial cncryy ; it is oiife 
of the higher forms of energy, and is readily con- 
verted into usofnl effect. For instance, it would 
be easy to tie a rope to a stone' on a hill-sldo, pas.s 
tho ropo over a pulley, and let it turn a machine by 
its descent. Also tho form of energy possessed liy 
amoving body, whioh we call hinetie energy, -moy 
be converted into useful effect without any great 
waste, as when the fly-wheel of a steam-engine 
continues the motion of tlic engine after tlie steam 
is shut off. A body wliich can give out heat, also 
possesses energy, but it is in a lower or less useful 
form. Thus the pound of coni possesses an immense 
store of energy, bat we htivo ,to burn it in the 
furaaco of an cn^ne,,and make use of a great dc.ul 
of complicated mechanism in order to got oven a 
small fraction of it converted into tlic useful form 
of mechanical work. 

Tlicrc is always this tendency for energy to run 
down into tho lower or useful form of heat. 
Mlhen the parts of a machine rub together, friction 
occurs and heat is produced, part of the energy 
supplied to the machine making its appearance in 
this form. But tho. total .amount of energy can 
neither be fttctrassVf nor diminixltcd ; this is known 
.as tho principle of tho Conservation of Energy. 

Tlie sciences of elcotricHy and magnetism reveal 
to us the existence of otiicr forms of molcenlar 
eneigy, but the law is still true, that for every 
foot-pound of energy which makes its appearance 
in one form, one foot-pound in some otiicr form must 
have disappeared. It is easy to see from this how 
futile arc the efforts which have been made to 
construct a •-perpetual motion.” It is impossible 
to ponstruct a m'achinc which will .offer absolutely 
no resistance to motion, and wherever such resist- 
ance is met with, energy is spent in overcoming it ; 





■' 1 . Tim dllTeVcnce of two nnitiTiors is 6 ; and if 4T Ik added to ' 
twice the eqnan of tlie.lcsa, it will be «iual to the square of 
, the greater. Wluitarethoiiunibcrst 


^nplicate, (rijilicirte, ^radrujilicafe, etc^ accorcHiig 
to the nanihcr of Tnultlplications. 

A ratio coiupounclcd of tirti equal ratios, tliat is, 
the square of the simple ratio, is called .1 duplicate 

One compounded of three, that is, the cube of the 
Simple ratio, is called a trijilicate ratio, etc. 

In a similar manner the ratio of the square reefs 
of two quantities is called n mbduplicate ratio; 
tliat of the cube reets a subtrSplicatc ratio, etc. 

Thus, the simple ratio of a to ft is a : A 

The duplicate ratio of a t'o b is a« : IP. 

The triplicate ratio of a to S is : IP. 

The sabdaplicatc ratio of to A is -tPa : ‘\Pb. 

The suhtriplioato ratio of a- to b is : ^\fb, ete.- 

N.B.— The terms dujilieaie, triplicate, etc., must 
not ho confounded with double, triple, etc. 

■ The ratio of 6 to 2 i.s G : 2 = 8. 

Double this ratio, that is, turicc the 

So also, the ratio of the diJTereuce of the ante- ’ 
cedents to the -difference of the consequents is the 
same. Thatis, 

20 — 12:5— 3: :12: 3 = 20:.';, ■ 

or ^ ^ — 4 

If in several couplets the ratios are equal, the sum . 
of alt the antecedents has the same ratio to ike sum 
of all the consequents, irhieTi anp one of the antb- 
eedents has to Us consequent. 

Triple the ratio, i.e.^ three times the 
ratio, is . 18 : 2 = 0. 

. The duplicate ratio, i.e., the square 

of the ratio, is • ; 2== 0. 

The triplicate ratio, the culc 
of the ratio, is Gi':ff'=27. 

2G3. That quantities may have a ratio to each 
other, it is necessary that they should bo so far of 
the same nature, that one can properly be said to 
be either equal to, or greater, or less than the 
other. Thus a foot has a ratio to an inch, for one 
is twelve times as great as the other. • 

264. From the mode of ’ expressing geometrical 
ratios in the form of a fraction, it is obvious tliat 
the ratio of two quantities is the same as the value 
of a fraction whose numerator and denominator arc 
equal to the antecedent and consequent of the 
gii-en ratio. Hence, 

To multiply or diddebofhthc antecedent and con- 
sequent by the same quantity, docs not alter the ratio. 
To nmltiply or divide the antecedent alone by any 
quantity, multiplies or divides the ratio; to multiply 
the consequent alone, divides the ratio; and to divide 
I the consequent, multiplies the ratio. Tliat is, multi- 
piying and dividing the antecedent or consequent 
lias the same effect on the ratio,~as a simihtr opera- 

Exercise G7. ■ 

I. Wlileli is the girateV, the ratio of 1 1 : p, or that of 44 i SS ? - 

5. Whleli is the Igrratcr, the ratio of n 4- 3 : ie, or tliat of 
£a + 7:'lo? 

8. If the anteccUeiit of n couplet he 05, and the ratio 18, wlmt 
is the consequent ? 

4. If tins consequent of a couplet he T, ond the ratio IS, what 
Is the antecedent! 

6. iniat Is till* ratio compounded of the mllos of S : 7, niid 
2e : Sb, and 7x+ 1 : Sj/ - 2! 

0. What is the ratio compounded of * + p •• I>, and e- p ; a 4-t, 
ond a 4* 6 : h f 

7. If the ratios of Br 4- 7 : Sr — S, and e + 2 1 Ji 4- S he com- 
pounded, wHl theyprodneo a ratio of greater inequality, or of 
less liininttUty ! 

5. What is the ratio compounded of * + p : o. and » - p ; B, . 


265. TVben four quantities arc related to one 
another in such a manner that the first diiided by 
the second is equal to the third dii-ided by the 
fourth — in other words, when the ratio of the first 
to the second is equal to the ratio of the third to 
the fourth, the four are said to be in direct pro- 
Xiortion. From this definition it will he seen that 

greater proportion to his income than those of 
■ another. ■ Bnt according to the "definition -which has " 
just been given, one §roportim is nmthef greater . 
' nor less than another. Bor egiudity does not admit 
of degrees. One ratio may be greater or less than 
' another. The'ratio of 13 : 2 is greater than that of 
G : 2, arid, less than that of 20 ; 2. But these differ- 
ences are not applicable to projtortim, yibea the 
term is used in its technical sense. The loose signi- 
fication which is so frequently atbiohed to.tiiis word, 
may bo proper enough infaniliar tawjMOQe; for it is' 
sanctioned by general usage. But for scientific pur- 
poses, t'he'disft«e<ioa between projiortUm and ratio 
should be clearly drawn and cautiously obserr-ed. . 

Proportion may be expressed .either by the com-, 
mon sign of equality, or by four points between the 
two couplets. 


8" 6 = -4-2, or 8 "G : : l-B") are arithmetical 
a"i = e-d, ora-J : :c"dj proportions. 


. 12 ; G = 8 ; 4, or 12 : 6 : ; 8 ; 4 1 are geometrical 

a:&=d;/i,or a-.h-.-.d-.h} proportions. 

The latter is read, “ the ratio of a to h equals the 
ratio V>f d to h;" or more concisely, “a is to as 
■ . d to A.” 

The first ahd lost terms are called the extremes, 
and the other two the means. JTomaloyotts terms 
are either the two antecedents or the two con- 
_ seqnonts. Analogons terms are the antecedent and 
'-oonsequent of the same couplet. 

As the ratios are equal, it is manifestly im- 
material which of the two couplets is placed first. 
li a li ::o :d, then c:d: : a: b. 

Thus_4 : 2 : : ^ ; that is, 4 is- to 2 recijgroealhj,' 

as 3 -to G. Sometimes, also, the order of the ternis . 
in one ‘of the couplets is inverted, -without -writing 
them in the form of a fraction. 

Thus 4 : 2 : : 3 ; G inversely.- In this case, the' 
first 'term is to the second, as the fourth to the 
third; that is, the first the second is 
equal to the fourth divided by the'third. 

' When there is a series of quantities, such that the 
ratios of the first to the second, of the second to the' 
third, of the third to the. fourth, etc., are all egual, 
the quantities are said to be in continued jirojiartion. 
The conseqnent of each x>receding ratio is then the 
antecedent of the following one, 

N.B. — Continued proportion is also called jpra- 

In the preceding 'articles of this section, the 
general properties of ratio imd proportion have 
been defined and illustrated; It now remains to 
consider the" principles -which arc peculiar to each 
hind of proportion, and attend to their practical 
application in -the solution of problems. 

Exekcisb G2. 

"Esebcise G4. 

The mimher of terms in a proportion must be at 
least /o?rr. Bor the equality is between the ratios 
of tivo ceuflets ; and each couplet must have an 
antecedent and a consequent. There may be a 
proportion, however, between three quantities; for 
one of the quantities may 'be repeated, so as to form 
two terms. In this case the quantity repeated is 
called the middle term, or a meaji projmrtional 
between the two other quantities, especially if the 
proportion is geometricab 

Thus the numbers 8, 4, 2, are proportional. That 
is, 8 : 4 : : 4 : 2. Here 4 is both the consequent in 
the couplet, and the antecedent in the last. 
It is therefore a mean proportional between 8 and 2. 

The last term is called a third jireggortionaltaMbe 
two other quantities. Thus 2 is a third proportional 

Inverse or reciprocal proportion is an equality - 
between a direct ratio and a reciprocal ratia 


I talia'it.— II. 

[Canttnual/romp. SB,] 


First, the sharp soend of s may be said to be 
the mling sound, because it is heard in the greater 
number of ^llables and trords. We shall in- 
TOriably mark it by the single letter * ,• and wher- 
ever tins is used, the reader will remember that 
it represents the sharp hissing sound' of the 
letter. It has always the sharp hissing sOtmd in 
the beginning of a word before a vowel; as, for 
e.vample, sale, prohounoed Siih-lai, salt ; sole, s6-lai, 
the sun ; semjirc, sSm-prai, always ; stiiito, s66-bee- 
to, suddenly. It has "also the sharp lussing sound 
'before the consonants e,f,p, q, and t : as, for ex- 
ample, '‘in sealtro, ^dhl-tro, shrewd ; sforzo, sfor- 
tzo, compulsion; erespo, krili-spa, crisp; pasqita, 
pah-sk'wab, Faster ; paelo, pilh-sto, a meal. It has 
. also &e sharp and Jrissing. sound after the con- 
sonants I, «,>andr, and we may say a pre-eminently 
hard and hissing sound in this case; as, for ex- 
' ample, /also, filhl-so, false; corse, kdrr-so, coarse; 
• arso, dhrr-so, burnt ; /arse, fdrr-sai, pgrhaps ;pianse, 
peealin'-sal, he wept ; Dime, -vin-sai, he tnnqaishcd. 

Secondly; the milde; sound of the s occurs gener- 
ally when it is placed between two vowels. As the 
nearest possible approach to it, we shall tollow 
the practice of .Walker’s English, pronouncing 
.dictionary, and mark it 'with a a for example, 
avelsa, ahv.v4e-zo,' opinion ; gvisa, gw6e-za, guise, 
manner; femora, tai-zd-ro, treasure; «sKra,.oo>z6o- 
rah, usury, etc. ■ • _ 

I^is rule is subject "to -several exceptions, the 
most important of which we must state here. 

Many Italian adjectives end in -oso tmA'-osa, and 
whenever before these terminations there is a vowel, 
the terminational s has the sharp hissing sound: 
as, for example,-yZorfas0, pronounced glo-ree6-so; 
. virtuoso, virr-tood-so, virtuous ; torticoso, torr-too6- 
so, tortuous. 

dis and mis, and before consonants the final s of 
these particles must always have the sharp hissing 
sound, even before the last-mentioned consonants : 
for example, dlshandlre, pronounced dis-bahn-dde- 
rai, to banish;, tiirifirr, dis-d€e-rai, to retract. 

When ss is between two vowels, it does not 
follow the rule of the single s, but must be sounded 
with a sharp hissing sound : as, for example, /osso, 
pronounced f6s-so, a ditch, a canal ; 'rosso, ifis-so, 
red ; pouo, p6s-sb, I can. 

We have not ‘yet spoken of the letter .Si It is 
named in the alphabet eooa (pronounced ah'k-kah). 
According to its alphabetical sound, and because 
its two syllables are substantially one, only placed 
inversely, it might be classed as a semi- vowel ; but 
as it is only an anxiliaiy letter to modify the 
sounds .of c and g, as we shall have occasion to 
exj^n fully hereafter, it is a mere soundless, 
written sign, not a letter. It also serves to distin- 
guish the -words ho, I have, from o, or ; hat, thon 
hast, from, ai, dative plural of the article ; ha, he 
has, from a, tl»e preposition “to ” ; and 7ifl»no,they 
have, from anno, the year. This distinction is, 
however, only for the eye, for in pronouncing the 
A is quite mute; and some pnrists, headed by 
Metastasio, instead of an h, put the grave accent 
on those first four words. 

' The Italian lias no aspirates, which essentially 
cUstingnisbes it from the leading languages of 
Europe. Only in the middle, and at the end of 
some few interjections, a kind of aspiration is 
heard, which is only produced by the prolongation 
of the sound of the vowel, or of ffie transition of 
the voice from one vowel to another — principally, 
however, by a more emphatic emotion by which 
such interjections are thrown ont : as, for example, 
ah! ahif dehJ ahimh! eh! oh! ekl! old! ohime! 

The letters JT, TV, X, and T, important letters in 
English, do not occur in Italian. 










Negress. I 

Berenice, a rrom 
■nioo siippesr. 




Surrenders (of towns). 

I laugh. . • 

Tliou gildeat. . 

Ptoiieit,v, ricinals, iiK 
Aaicat. (elianilise rot 


This is the plural o£ aiM, thing (pronounced 
k&-sah), one of those eNcepUonnl words where the 
s must be pronounced with a sharp hissing sunnd, 
though it is placed between two vowels. 

Italian. Pmttouiieta. EnfftUh. 

Formerly Sir, now Sire. 




Soft, iie.xlh1e, snp^e. 

Cenavnio tcluii-nnhm 




SaHsHed, satiated, tired. 

0 We supped. 

Bilciiiina (Iogical)L 
Enigma. [the chin. 

A blow with idle list under 
I smoke (meat). 


Yard (of a ship): 
nie Furies. 




CoiicBsso con-koos-so Moved, shaken, contrite. 

lYe have now to speak of the diphthongs ; hut 
before entering into details we may remark that 
these letters differ materially from the English, 

inasmuch as the two vowels, forming a diphthong 
do not entirely merge into one sound, but are in 
Italian more or less distinctly heard, though only 
pronounced by. ono opening of the mouth, and with • 
one emission of the air or voice, which gives them 
the value of one sound. This broad and general 
characteristic, however, prevails among all Italian 
diphthongs, tliat there must be a ruling sound, 
requiring a greater stress of the voice and more 
"distinctness of ntteranco, which ruling sound is at 
■ one time on the firal, at ‘another on the second of 
the two vowels. In those diphthongs where the 
second of the two-rnwcls is the ruling sound, the 
voice glides more rapidly from the first vowel to , 
the second, and is, as it were, absorbed by it. The 
second is on that account heard with greater dis- 
tinctness, and such diphthongs jnresent more of a 
united' sdiind.; while in' those diphthongs whei'c 
the'fitst of the two vowels is the ruling sound, the 
second is somewhat more distinctly beard than the. 
first vowel of those diphthongs which approach to 
a united sound, though 'shortly and quickly trailed' 
along, as it were, by tbe first. 

The second kind or class may bo termed, on this 
account, the sepifrateA diphthongs, tbe first class 
the vmitsd diphthongs— thm^ we must caution 
the reader not to undemtnnd these words in their 
strictly literal sense; because, Bs stated before, in'' 
all Italian diphthongs’ tbe two vowels, are more or 
less disUnotly heard. • 

United diphthongs are,- for esample 
• fa; oS'Snfiato (feeiiE'-to), breath; hiada (beefih- 
. dah), com ; piano (poeiih-no), even, slow. 
ic, as in lieta (leeS-to), cheerful ; bieco (beeS- ' 
ko); squinting ; priego (preeG-go}f request, 

- io, as in fiore (feed-roi),' flower; piove (pee6- 
. vai), it rains; brioso (bree-6-so), lively;, 
oliioma (keeo-raah),- head of hair. 
in, as iapHt (peefio), morn; fume (feedo-maO, 
a-river; selnuma (skeodo-mah), foam, scum. 
ua, as in guasfo (gwhli-sto), destruction ; gna 
' ^(T^ilh), here, hither ; quale (kwfih-lai), 

ve, as in gnerra few6rr-iali), war; Gnclfa 
(gw61-fo), a Guelph- ; questo (kwiii-sto), 
this. ' • ■ 

wf, as in guisa (gw6e-zali), guise, manner; 

Outdo (gwde-do), Gny ; qui (kwee), here. 
no, os in cuore (koo6-rai), heart (sood- 

no}, sound ; nomo (ood-mo), man. 

Scp,arated diphthongs are, .for example 
. ae, as in acre (uhai-rai). air,, gas ; acrimante 
' (nhai-ree-mflhn-tai), ono who predicts by 
the air, or by aeromancy. 


. do, as in Paolo CpilliO'^o), ^uly \ ^ 

au, 'as in aura (uliod-roU), a soft breeze'; lauro . 
> ' ‘ C^bdo-i'o), Ipuroli ^frauds 

deceit) /«««« '(tfi-hoo-no)* .inwn; oansa 
■ J (kdlico-sah),' a cause (;at^law)» affair. 

Wo' have classed 'au ns a separated 'diphthong^ 

like the English g in the words goMc, gi‘, and gttU. ^ 
' 'But suppose that it should he •necessary in the - de- 
clension of nouns, the conjugation of verbs, etc., to ' 
. give to the fc and g before the vowels e and t the 
same sound that c -and g have before a, o, and 
the letter A must be used, -which, being a incrc 
. soundless written sign, is’ on that account pre- 
• eminently suited to the purpose. In this way we 
■ .arrive at the combinations o7k and gh ; and from 
what has been said it is obvious that the sound of 
oh before e and i can be no other tluin the sound of 
k ; and the sound- of gh before e and i, tliot of g in 
the English words game, go, and gull. .And this is' 

, a fundamental rule of the Italian grammar. For 
example, hanclie fpronounoed bahn-kai), banks, 
offices ; ttccchi (stek-kee), thorns, •prickles ; TedetcK 
(tai-dAi-skeo), Gennans ; Titrehi (tfiorr-kee), Turks ; 
oche (, geese ; vocihio O-fik-keeo), an old man ;• 
perelie (per-kfiy), why, etc. . ' / . 

Henoe another fundamental rule of Italian, which 
goes sidp by side with tlie one above stated, that' 
whenever a necessity arises tor giving to the c. be- 
fore a, e, and « the compressed soimd of c in the 
English word ohuroh, and to g '^fore a, o, and » 
the compressed sound of g in ginger, tlie letter’i 
•(an auxiliary letter in' this case) must be placed 
between o and the vowels a, o, and u, and 'between 
g on^ the vowels a, o, and k; and the combina- 
tions thus arising will be eia, ole. ein, and gia, gio, 
gilt (pronoymcod tohah, tcho, tchoo,' and jah, jq, 
joo). For example, eiaseuno (tchah-sko6-no), every- 
body; ciffiBcia (tchfihn-tchah), foolery; oi6(toh6),. 
that, what ; oivffo (tchdof-fo), I oatoh, etc. 

■When 0 follows the letter's, thus forming the 
-combination to, and when at the same time it pre- 
cedes tlie vowels a, e, and «, or the consonants I ’ 
and r, it -will be clearly apparent tliat the c in this 
case will follow the general rule, and be sounded 
like h; ns sea, sco, sev, sola, etc., sort, etc. (pro- 
nounced skah, sko, skoo, sklah, etc., stoe, etc.). 
When, however, the combination sc immediately 
precedes the vowels e and f, the sound of the o is 
less compressed than without the s before it ; and 

sc ana a, o, ana u. .tSxamples : — Scarga (skalnr- 
piih), shoe; seoppiaro (skop-peeAh-rai), to burst, 
crack ; setifia (skdof-fcciih), a woman's cap ; solierno 
(sk&r-no)', mockery; sdMfcere (skee-ffth-rai), to 
avoid, to ‘have an aversion for; solamarc (sklah- 
m&li-rsd), •to exclaim ; scrivere (skrfie-vai-rai), to 
write,; scctec (shAl-to), selected ;'scct!rc (shfii-jiTo), 
separated; sefame (shdh-mai), ’a swarm .of bees;' 
cpseia (k&-sbab)i thigh ; seioUo (sli61-to), nngirded ; 
seieeeo (sb&k-ko), stupid; asoiutto (ah-sh66t-toj 


•V. ' ate, Chi, Giie, Ohi. ' 

Italian. JVojtoiiiiml. EiiaHstu 

Chao 'Is'il-’to Quiet. 

China kic-nq Brut. 








Xti oliopirntion lia"s yol bpcn mjulc in rcfcrenco 
(o tile jironiincintion of llio doiilile >' Qef). This 
ilciwniis. iw v.-en a-s tlie jiroimiiciatioii of double g 
Ow). on the vowel lliiit follows the latter e. If, 
ljowc\cr. that vowel which follows the letter e is f 
or/, the tloHblc r («•) sounded somethintr like 
fr'i in the Enjilish word match, only pcrlialis 
stronpor. and with vibration. On that ncenunt. wc 
have tried to imitate the stronper soniidof the ce 
by the letters fft-fi, iil.acinp the first f ii^tho first, 
syllable, and tch at the liepinainp of the .second, 
just as we have nflompted to imitate the sound tif 
the pg by placinp li in one syllable and J ai the 
Iwpinninp of the nest in sucli words as paggi (|i!ihd> 
j'cc), iwjrc.',, attendants. 








re»l Jis'-to 



liih>, |.ml. 

Tuft, t<.ek ofliilr, 
Itejal i-itai-e. 
fiiwrlnp ^ ^ 

3. (tiia, Giic, i 

t, Que, Qiii, f/ua. 







a Cla, Clc, ai, Oo, I 

Almost, «» If. 


1 msiiiit. five. 
l.ratlinr, sMu. 
Folhmrr, illscipir. 

r, Ole, OH. Olo. Ola. 



OH.n,.., IFatrs. 

! of llic 

liisliiin, a i 



Tills i.s thefirst occnrronce in these Ics'on.s oC the 
important conibinntinn gl. It has two dilfcient 
sounds, 'inien it is not followed by the Tetter i it 
has the sound cX gl in glitail. glchc. glnrg, glue ; imd 
this sound can olTcr no dillicnUy. lint when the 
eoinbin.'ition gl is followed liy the letter i and 
one of the vowels a, c. a, and a, it is prononnoed 
prccboly as the donblo 7 (//) in the Kiench word.s 
hoailll. Jlllc. grciillcr, grcuauillc, Imiiillvn, liillanl. 
hillct, liTmiillon,feiilllti. and. penei.-dly s]icaltinp, in 
all those wtirds where the ll has after the vowel i a 
sipieezed sound in the I'reneli lanpnapc. Thoy who 
ate unaeiinaintcd with French may form a notion 
of this sound by scp.arntinp and iinerlinp the gl in 
the enunciation, that is. by ]irunoimcinp 77 before 
tlio g. .and cbaiipinp the latter into g. Only the 
first 7 must po to one sylhdilt, nnd the seeond I 
along with the g, and with a stjneewd sound to the 
^•pinning of the mat. while care mast be taken 
that tbo voice should glide rapidly fioin one syllabic 
to the other, by which moans a more equal dis- 
tribution of the squeezed sound lly will be pro- 
duced. and a correct prnnimcifition of the gl 
cITcctcd. An appru.vhnation to this srmnd may be 
found in tbo vrowTs iinffiuii, mlliarg, 
hilinrii, hilliard*. teraglio, iniaglip, ami aglia. The 
let ter f, between the coinbtiialion gl mid the rowels 
a. c. a, and v, is <a< well as fn t be eoiiibinat ions eta, 
do. eiu, nnd gia, gio, ghi') n mere soundless written 
sign, to indicate gl before a, a, o, and i/. is not 
to liave the .sound of gl in glitntl. glebe, glnrij, nnd 
glue, but that squeezed sound the imitation and 
description of which wc have hero nttcinplcd. 

For cmimplc : cnglto (vilbl-Iyo), a sieve ; megllo 
(mel-lyo), better: pi,glio (pil-lyo), I t.nko, seize; 
mixetiglio (mis-l:6ol-lyo), mixture ; srrglinre fzvel- 
lyfih-tai), to awake ; logliere (tol-lyai-mi). to take 
away; tergliere (sht-l.lyai-rni), to choose; tloglia 
(dol-lyah), sorrows; bigliardo (bil-lyahrr-do), bil- 
liards; iiglietfa (bil-lyet-to), note, bill: imhrnglionc 
(iin-lirol.ly6-nni), a meddling fellow : fogliato (fol- 
lyofl-to), full of lea\-es. Jigli he; cgliiiu, tlicj’; 
gurgll, that one ; gli (the plural of the article or 
the pronoun), with its innnerons compositions, nnd 
git, the final infiection or ferniinationnl syllabic of 
nouns and verbs, linvo always the squeezed sound 
llgecf while the more syllable gli, at the eoni- 
ineiiccmcnl and in the middle of words, always has 
the sound of gl in gland, glebe, etc. The only ex- 
ception is Arigli, Englishmen (iiroiioimced fihn- 

7. Ona.'One, Oni, One, Omt. 

On- is a combination almost ns imporlant ns gl. 
O before n must never be omitted to lie sounded, 
as in the English words gitatr, gnat, etc.; but' 

101 , ‘ POPUL;^ 3EDTJCATOIt. 

lierbage, noiirisliins and Tcfnaliingi all tlio aniiablc anil eocial ' 
■virtues ; Tint onthuaiasiii is vliilont, sMdcu, rattlfligh'da a 
summer sliOwer, rooting up the fairest llOweis, and washing. 

. away the richest mould, in tlic pleasant garden of gocicty. 

'■ I li«r‘liOT,Fatriotism or her Irutli qucstloucd' with so much oh 
a whisper of detraction. , . ' 

l\1nt is the most odious species of tyi'anny ? That a haiid- 
' fill of^hen,'frec'aien]sclves, sliould execute the most base and 
abominable despotism ovw millions of Uioir fellow-creatm-cs ; 


I-* It f‘ir tl.}< f -ir VirttT- nfi iim^t <tnv 
Vi'jth ill- .)•!>< nt, i» h*iry, r7i»l 
N"*! : !!• niin.*> sj^rih^ •vl.all \* I iirr, 

Jtulc H. — nivjuiifitivp <»r.* — 

Will yrm Ti'>‘' IIIj- ni« n, aii«l ItMuly a%«crt your riclit<. nr will 
yciiT t!Uiu.‘ly Mil>riiit l»» iramiilfl oiir 

l)t<i tliL* lUiur.ip, in tiifir ll«M^t<'cI intrutlnrtivu pf civilKa- 
li‘iii, act fiJiiii a j»riiiHiilcrtf Ijiuiimi' in llic welfare of 

tin* niiil‘1^ tlr <Utl they not rallwr i«rocec<l on llie irnwly 
mill ]>ri1i0y of their onn and o\> 

ti-nilitiit its iloniiiiion? 

lio Mrtnou^ ItfiMtis, a hisli .stainlnnl uf mnrnllly, jiuificfency 
In llt(' arts ami eiu1>ullisliinciUs of Iifn, tlciHMi'l tiiioii iihymi'a! 
f<iriii.itton. nr tlio lalituilu in wlncli \%e are plaeetl t Di» they 
fitit upon thu civil and rcligion*{ institutluiis nhich 

(listin^nisli tliu country? 

The remnining rnlcs on infloctioni as thoy arc 
of frequent npplientiun, arc thought to he 
bulliciently illustrated by tlic oxanmles appended" 
to each rule. ATCpctition of iliosc. liotv'cvcr, may 
be useful to the student ns an exercise in retiew. 


[Coii/l;i7[CiI/rsm ji. 3S.) . 


TJicnB me few imrJ and fast lines in nature; so, as 
we learn more about the fossil plants of the Coal- 
.Muasurcs, we lind that the boundary between the 
gyranosperms, the lower division of flowering plants, 
and tlic higher groups of tlic so-catlcd flowcricss 
plnnts is less definite than nt first appeals. The 
Cruptogauua, as wc iiave sepn (Vol. r\’.,pp. 351-5), 
wore so called bcc.ausc their repradnetivo organs 
are often hidden from observation bj' their small 
isize, and have, therefore, long remained undescribed 
and uncxiflaincd ; but they arc pcrluips more dis- 
tingui.oliod from plinnerogams by the .absence of 
slrncliircs strictly homologous to seeds than by the 
absence of anytliing that might be called .a flower. 
Their vegetative organs are on the whole simpler 
than Iliosc of floworing plnnts or, as phanerogams 
have been termed, (seed-plants); and 

the maermjiurc (crabrj-o-sac) oven in the highest 
tyjies is distinct from the maerospuramjinm, tlic 
latter not including it with its inrotlinlliuin and 
.aiclicgoiiia or embrj'os, ns in. gv'innospcnns. TIic 
nnthcritHum (pollon-tubo) in most cryptogams 
produces a minute, definitely formed, protoplasmic 
body, the sperm-cell, which is commonly furnished 
with thread-like cilia by which it snims about in 
w.atcr. ami which is, therefore, known as the 
aitthencoirl (fiom Greek (Soi', r,7n» animal). Tliis 
closely resembles the spermatozoa of animals. One 
of the mosl obvious cliaiacteristics of most ciypto- 
gams is the formation .and liberation of quantities 

of simple reproductive sinicturos known gcncr.'dly 
as f]H>re>, so that they have K-en call'-d .<jmro- 
IKOtliiehig pkiiits, but t here is no cs.^eiif ial (lilfereuec 
between a iiollcn-gniin and one of the si>ores of 
cryptogams, so this distinction will not hold good. 

As we liave seen (Vol. IV., p. a.m) the cryptogaiiw 
comprise scrend very distinct types of .stmclun.'. 
three at least of which are of siilUcient siraetmal 
imiiortancc to rank with Pliancrognmia ns sub- 
kingdoms. Tlicy arc now well known as rieriihi- 
jilipta, lirgophyia, and 'JCliallpphyla. Of these, the 
first two mostly agree with phanerogams in having 
a well marked distinction between a stem or 
ascending axis and true leaves or lateral appendages 
to the stem, and thev’ have, therefore, been classed 
with phanerogams tinder thfi name CoriimpJipfa. 
They also agree with gj’inno.'pqrms in the produc- 
tion of archegonia within wliioli are the germ-cells 
oroosphcrcs.and Gpumaupcrmia.PlcrUUphiitq. and 
Srgophyia are, therefore, sometimes called Arehe- 

Ptcridqphyta 'and SrpojiJiyta agree further in 
exhibiting a marked attcrnailon nf gcncradom, as 
it is called, tlic spore in germinating giving rise to 
a plant very dissimilar to that which boro it. The 
two gonomtioDs or stages are known as tlio upttro- 
phorc OT xpornphyte, and the oopltorc or oppligte, tlio 
former boiiig asexual, bearing spores without any 
sexnal '{trocess, wliilst. the latter is sexual, bearing ' 
the anthcridia and tlic nrclicgonin from tlic for- 
tili^tion of which arises another sporophorc. Thu 
two snbkingdoms are contrasted in tliat, wliilst 
in Ptcridoifliyta tlic sporophorc is the conspicuous 
leafy plnnt nnd the oophorc small and transitory, 
in Biyophyta the leafy plant is the oox>horc and the 
sporoiihoro a more appendage to it. 

Tlie PteriiopJigta (Greek m-epls. jrtt-rh, a foni ; 
qivThr, pJuifSn/a plant) or, as they are often called, 
Vascular Cryptogams, include ferns; cliib-niosses, 
and liorsc-t.ailE, with a few other allied types. In 
all these groups the spores in germimiting give rise 
to small delicate prothnlli.'i (the oophorc) bearing 
the archegonia and anthcridia either scpnTiitcly or 
together (Fig. 91, d). Each archcgoiunm origin- 
ates, ns in grmnosi>crins, from one surface cell 
of the piotlinlUiuu ’which divides until it pro- 
duces a iiouoh-like body or rciifcr surroimdiiig 
the central cel! or oosplicre, a short ner/: usually 
of four tiers of four colls each, and two axile 
canal-ccll-s which become mucilaginous (Fig. 91, r). 
Tlie antheridi.a (Fig. 91, E) are lusiially roundisli 
and give rise in their interior lonmncrous xpennatv- 
cgin or motlier-cells of the ani liero'zoids. Tliose 
spermatocytes are simple cells, each coutaiimig a , 
few stnreh-grnnnlcs and an antlicrozoiil. tlic latter . 
formed mainly from its nuclons. Tlie niithcrozolds ' 



n r1i.=tinct cpMermi?, a collencliymntojis or ^crcn- 
ohyrnatoiis Jiyporlt-rTn, copious ninclamcntal tissue, 
and one, several, or many bundles of fascicular tissue. bundle.'. .Ire dosed, tlieir phloem usually sur- 
rounding the sylc-iii. True vessels seldom occur. 
Tile leaves maybe small and simple, but in many 

rliizocarps, or in other cjisos from a group of cells 

(evsjMrangiatc). a? in Iiorsc-tnils and olub-mo.‘:so.s. 
It consi.sts generally of an onier iraU of one or more 
layers of cells, a tajictvm or lining of dolicnu: cells 
which are aftenmrds absorbed, and an iniur mass 
of xjiayfigcnous (ejioie-producing) li.-suc, tlie fjioro- 
egtes or mother-cells of the spore.--. Each of llicse 
mother-cells divides into four. 

In ferns, horse-tails, and lycopods only one kind 
of spore is produced, though, wlicn the spore in 
these groups lias germinated and given rise to a 
prothallinm. that protlinHiiim may bear archegoniu 
or anthcridia csclusively. being tiius male or female, 
so that the oophore becomes dimclons. These groups 
are, tlicrefore, combined in the division Zsoigwriff. 
(Greek firor, isus, equal). In rliizocarps and selagin- 
cllas, on the other liaiid, two kinds of s-poraiigia are 
produced, viacrpsjwrantjia or mcgasjiorangta (Greek 
fuaepis, macTps, long ; ptym, mri/as, great) producing 
female macrosporcs or megaspores, and micro- 
tjjarmgia (Greek giKpis, mierSg, small) producing 
male microspoi-es. Those macrosporcs correspond 
to the embryo-sacs and the nincro.sporangia to the 
terednes of phanerogams ; whilst the niiorosporcs 
are homologous to” pollen-grains and the micro^ 
sporangia to pollen-sacs. The gi-onps in which the ' 
'distinction between the sexes is thus carried back 
. Into the sporophoro stage form the division Jldcnu 
■ s}>oria (Greek Irtpos, hitiros, diftorent). This 
division includes the two classes and 
Lifjnlata. Tiieir macrosporangid contain a small 
-number of macrosporcs .and their microsporongia a 
Larger dumber, of miorospores. Botli kinds of 
spores produce relatively small protliallin wliioh 
remain attached to' the spore and cannot be said 
to lead an independent existence, so that tlic 
oqphore stage is- merely an appendage to the 
ascxnally- produced bodies 'detached ’ from the 

The SJiizooarjKiB, or TTgilrojiteriitir, ns they have 
been colled,- include tavo orders, oneli avitli two 
small^enera, of aquatic or senii-nquntic plants. In 
England they are represented only by the little 
piU-wort (JPOularia glohvVfera). The oophore, or 
sexual generation, in this gi-onp i.s dea-oloped from 
two kinds of spores, microsporos and rnnoi-ospores. 
The miorospores are male, corresponding to the 
pollen-grains of phanerogams. They dia-ido into 
threo cells, one representing the prothiilliniii (tlie 
“included colls “of gymnosperms), and the oilier ■ 
two the antheridinm (pollen-tuhe).. The protoplasm 
of these two cells divides repeatedly to ns to form 
four or sixteen sperm.atocytes, in each of -which is 
formed a spirally coiled and ciliated antlicrozoid 
and a few starch-gi-ains. The spermatocytes burst 
and liberate the anthorozoids as they themselves 
escape from the antheridin. The macrosporcs. 



/row -IB.] 

Wketheh an nrijoctive is to be inflected at all, or 
not, depends Tidiolly upon tlie Tray in wliich it is 
used; for,TrUcn employed ns a predicate, it Is'never 
declined ; when as an attribute, almost always. Be 
the noun, t^ierefore, mnscnlinc, feminine, or neuter; 
be it singular or plural— ;i£ the adjeorive to which 
it is applied be-used ns a predicate, its form Tcmaihs 
unchanged: thus — _ . > ' 

Sec Sllnnii tfl gut, the man is good. • ' . 

Sic Bran i[t gut, the, woman is good. 

Ibat Jliiit i|t gut, the child 'is good. 

Sic ailJnncc rmt gut, the men are good. • 

3i5 uenne tic flintcr ftJSn, I call the children benn- 


There are two declensions of ad.'jecthas, as there 
are two declensions of nouns— the Old and the New. 
In either of these, according to circumstances, are 
attributive adjectives declined. The following are 
the terminations of 


Singular. . Plural. 


Gen. -rt, cn -cc -c», cn. -ct. 

Dat. -cm -cc -cm. • ‘ -cu. 

Aoo. lea -c -tt, -c. 

Adjectives ending in -cf, -hi, -cr, commonly drop 
tlie c upon receiving a suffix, as: — 

Gtd, noble. Gtlcr aJlnnu, noble man, 

Gtcii, oven. BCncc 2Bcg, even path. 

Siiutcc, pure. Smitcct ©eft, pure gold. 

Upon adding -cn, the c of the termination (-cn) 
may be dropped, as : — Sen rjcitcciL or ^citcen SBIecgcn, 
the serene morning. 

In the genitive singular masculine and neuter 
the termination ■ m is preferable. . 

Rule fob Adjectives. 

When the adjective stands either entirely alone 
before its substantive, or is preceded and restricted^ 
by a word that is undeolined or indeclinable, it' 
follows the Old form of declension. 


Sinffiilar. Plural. 


K. ©nUc'Batcr, good father, ©utc ffiatet, good fathers. 
G. ®ntc3(cn) iltiitccf, of ©iitcc tSAtcc, of good 
good father. fathers. 

D. ©iitcm SBatcr, to good ®iitcn ffifiteni, to good 
father. fathers. 

A. ©nten ’SttttT, good father. - ©iitc iSAtet, good fathers. 


N. @ule SSniter, good ffintc SBifiltcr, good mothers. ■ 

G. ©met Slimier, b£ good ©iitec aiKittec, of good 
mother. mothers. 

D. ©ntec SSmtcT, to good ©iitcn SSfitlcnt, 'to good 
mother, mothers. 

A. ®nte SItuttcr, good ®utcSlluttcc,goodniothcrs. 

N. ®ntcg@cfl>,goodmoncy, ©nic ©efter, good moneys.' 

, G. @nleJ(eu) ©clbci; of ©nice ©eften, of good 
' .good mbiujy. moneys. 

D. @utcm-©cltc) to good ©ntcii ©cltcn, -to good 
money. moneys, 

.A. ©ntcJQcTb, good money, ©ute ©citev, good moneys. 


Singular. Plural. 

Gen. -cn ' -c« 

Bat. -ea . -cn 
Acc.. -cit ■ ' -t 

Bulb fob Ad,je(|iives. , 

■When immediately preceded and restricted by 
the definite article,' by a relative or demonstrative 
■ pronoun, or by an indoflnite numeral declined after ' 
the ancient' form, the adjective 'follows the Now- 
form of declension. ' 


Singular. ' ' 

3 IA 8 CCLIKC. - rraitXIKE. 

N. 5)ar9mc3noim,thegood Sic gate ffmii, the good 

G. Set gutenSRannet, of the See gutcii iyenu, of the good , 

. good man. woman. 

B. Sera gufen aBnmic,to the See giitcn Smii, to the good 
.' good man. - woman. 

A. Sen gnicn IDIann, the Sic giitc 4ir.n1, the good . 
- good man.' . woman. 

Nom. SaJ 'gmc Jlinb, the good child. 

Gen. Set gulcn Aiiibct, of the good child. 

Bat. - Sem gmen Jtinbe, to the .good child. 

Acc. Snt gate Jliab, tlie good child. 

. '■ PluM. ; 

UASCCLix-s., , 'rmiisisn. • 

N. Sic guten SRiinnet, the Sic gulcn iSriiucn, the good 
' good men. ' •womon. ' ' 

G. Scc,gatcnSI2tanct,oftho S« gulcn St. men, of the 
good men. good -w-omoii. 

B.'Sen guten Sllfinnccn, to Sen gulcn Sciiucn, to the 
• the good men. ■ ' good women. 

A. Sic guten ©iliiincr, the Sic gnten Smuen, the good 
good men, - women. 

■ 114 



In German, as in English, the degrees of com- 
parison are commonly expressed by means of the 
suffixes -cc and -c(l ; thus : — 

PosUiKe. G>mj)arativa. SuperlaU«e. 

SBilt, wild ; >ui(t>cr, wilder ; loiltcp, wildest. 
Bcfi, firm ; ftflcr, firmer ; firmest. 


When the positive does not end in -b, -t, -[I, -t, 
’9i -ft^/ or -j, the t of the superlative snf^ (-tfi) is 
omitted, as : — 

J?(Sr, clear ; Ifiircr, olearer ; ffarfl, clearest. 

8icin, pure ; rciiicr, purer ; winft, purest, 

fine ; f(I;9ncr, finer ; finest. 

When the positive ends in -c, the c of the compara- 
tive and superlative suffixes (-cr,-c|l) is dropped, as : — 
aCtifc, wise ; Mjcifcr, wiser ; nicifcll, wisest. 

fiJiatc, weary; jmltcr, more weary; jiifibcfi, most 

Wlien the positive ends in -cf, -cii^ or -er, there 
would be two e's close together ; in the comparative 
the first is omitted ; in tlio superlative, the second ; 

Ctc(, noble ; ebier, nobler ; cbdfl, noblest. 

'Sraifen, dry ; trod itcr, drier ; trodenp, driest. 

lEapfcr, brave ; t.nbfvcr, braver ; tarflcfi, bravest. 

When tlio positive is a monosyllabic, the radical 
vowel (if it be capable of it) commonly takes the 
timiaiit in the comparative and superlative, as : — 
nit, old ; After, older ; Aftefi, oldest. 

@rvt, coarse ; srrtcr, coarser ; grutfi, coarsest. 

Jting, wise ; fliigtr, wiser ; , Hiigfl, wisest. 

Execptiotis . — From this lost rule, however, must 
be excepted all those ad,iectivcs containing the 
diphthong -an, ns : — Saiit (loud), lamer, (aiitcfl ; rau^ 
(rough), raujer, vaiiOc(l. So, also, the following : — 

aiunt, variegated. 

Jtnavr, tight. 

©att, satisfiOd. 

Sate, flat. 

S.r|)m, lame. 

©cpiaff, loose. 

ffa^t, pale. 

Safi, weary. 

©itianf, slender. 

ifatb, fallow. 

ScS, loose. 

©itrcff. riiseed. 

laip, fiat. 

iSlatl, tired. 

®tacr^ stiiL 

Ccob, glad. 

Sladt, naked. 

©teC}, proud. 

©crate, straight. 

iPIatt, fiat. 

®tra(f,stiff, tight. 

®Iatl, smooth, 

ffiliimb, clumsy. 

©tiimni, dumb. 

$1)^1, hollow. 

Slol;, raw. 

©tiiinrr, blunt. 

"Salt, amiable. 

giiinb, round. 

iToK, mad. 

Jta^I, bald. 

©acl;t, slow. 

SSed, full. 

Jtarg, stingy. 

©aiift, gentle. 

3a^m, tame. 


Comparatives and superlatives ore subject to the 
same laws of declension that regalate adjectives in 

the positive. Thus, after adding to ftJEn (fair) the 
suffix f-cr), we get the comparative form f^Snet 
(fairer), which is inflected in the three following 

Examples op the Comparative. 

(a) OLD FORM. 

- Singular. Plural. 

MAsa rmi. heut. roa ai,i. oESDcns. 

N. ©i^oncrtt -e -ej. ' @d)t>ncr c, 'fairer. 

G. @i$tmcre« (cn) -et -e« (en). ©i^iinercr, of fairer. 

D. @i$Dncrcnt -cr -eiit. @e^Sncvcn, to fairer. 

A. ©c^iincrtit -c -eS. @i(igncte, fairer. 

. (i) NEW FORM. 

N. fflet ff^L'acre (tie) -e (bas) -c. iDie fi^anecen, the 

•G. $cJf(^Onercn (lcr)-tii (bej) -nt. Ecr of 

the fairer. 

D. IDtmrt^Micrcn (betj-m (bcm)-(ii. Sen fcjiDiicrcn, to 
• the fairer, 

A. Scnfi^pncrcn (bit) -c (bal) -t. Sie fefiiincctn, the 


N, Unfa fi^&nrecc (iinfcre) -t (unfa) -t«, our 


G, UiifrecAf^Snactt (miftta) -cn (unfact) -c ii, of our 

D. Unferem fi^Snacn (unfertr) -rn (unfaem) -c u, to our 

A. Unfenn fc^tncicn (unfcrc) -c (imftr) -tS, our 


Nom. Uiifrec fttSneren, our fairer. 

Gen. llnfacr f(f;i>nctcii, of our fairer. 

Dat. Unrerrn ft^imeren, to our fairer. 

Aco. Unfcrc fcti'iicrcit, our fairer. 

Sometimes the c in the endings of pronouns and 
comparatives is omitted or transposed; thus, in- 
stead of nnfcrcS fi^ancrcn, we may say unfecA fc^Cuicrn, 
or nnfVcA fi^Dncni. 

In the superlative of the old form, the vocative 
only is used — a case which has not been set down 
in the paradigms, or examples, because it is always” 
like the nominative in form. 

Examples of tee Superlative. 

(ay OLD FORM. 



Voc. Siebper SSatcc ! S^cuctfic @ipivcpa \ ©ctonPcA Jliitb ! 
O dearest O dearest 0 most 

father I 



(the latest or last) are formed the CGirelative 
terms crftcfcr (the former) and Icttncc (the latter) { 

That the words in the preceding list of defectives 
are formed from adverbs, and arc comparatives in 
form rather than iafaet. 


When the degrees of comparison are not expressed 
by snfBxcs, the adverbs nic^r (more) and am mciflcit 
' (mosi;) are employed for that purpose ; thus — 
Fositirc. Comparative. Superlative. 
(Sinscrenf, mind- nic^r cingtttnf, am mcijlen ciiigAcnf, 

' ful ; > more mindful; most mindful. 

3trc, astray ; mc^r >rre, more am iiictilen irrr.most 
astray ; astray. 

Ccir, sorry; nic^r tcir, more ammdttenfcir.most 
sorry ; sorry. 


The above method of comxmrisan, whioh is 
vommonly called the compountl form, is chiefly 
jsed in cases — 

Where a compmuson is instituted between two 
different qualities of the same person or tiling, 
as: — ®c 111 me^r (iiftig aW iraiirig, ho is more merry 
than sad ; Sv luar mcOr g(fid(ii$ alt tovfcr, he was more 
fortuuato than brave ; 

Where the adjectives, like those in the list above, 
are never used otherwise than ns predicates ; 

Where the ndditibn of tlie suffixes of comparison 
would offend against euphony, as in the superlative 
of adjectives ending in -i|'4< ; thus, barbarous. 


S>a4 Sisl^fcjiti^eii. 

Gill gioffildcten Tam in ttv ettciigc afliiitcrS an to« 
Sdiflcr eiiicS rrrntnicn Santnianng, o(S ot ei gern $intia 
m^cptc. $a i’ffiictc tev Santmann fein ffciiflct nnt ua^m 
taS iiitraulid;c StEVdicn frciiiitiicfi in feint aSafimmg. . SRim 
VitCte cS tic airviiimcn iint Jltfiiinjicu aiif, tic non rdnem 
Sifcfic ficicn. 9liu$ tieften tie Eiutcc teS SantmaniiS bas 
ffiOgleiii lict tug niettl). Ultcr all nun ber Scii^iing iviebtr 
in baS Saiib fain uiib bit Gietiifcte telautten, ba fffnctc 
bee Santmaiin fein ifenpee, unb bet {(tine (SaP entpog in 
bas iKite a]l,i(td)en, unb bnuctc fein fllcp unb fang fein 
frepltctcs Siebctcn. 

llnb pc(;c, alS bet SDinIcc liicbcrfcDctc, ba Tam baS ffletp’ 
{cT;t(tcn atecmals in bic SBepnung beS SanbinnnnS unb ^atte 
fein 2Sci('d;cn iiiitgeOta(t;t. Set finnbmann abet fanimt feiiicn 
Jlinbcm frenten ptt fe5t, «(« Pe bic jciben 3:r;iccipcn fajen, Uiic 
pe nne ben Tlarcn fiiiglein jiitcautid^ um^erfganten ; unb bic 
Einbcc fagten: .£ic Sltgclgcn fefen unS an,.nls sb pe ctniaS 
fnacn niefltcn." 

!Da antn'cticlc bee SBatec: „!!Bciin pe reben fvnnteii, fo 
iDiicbcn Pc fagen: ffrcunbli^cS Sntrouen crncdet Snfeanen, 
unb Siebe erjeuget Stcgcniicbc:" 


IConiinued/romp. SO.] 

XXI. .Solution of ObliQue-angled Flame Trianyles, 
— ^It has been already explained (Section X.) that 
any plane triangle can he computed'when throe out 
of its six “elements” are given, provided Wnat a.t 
least one side be given. By aid of the. fonnidm 
developed in the last section, we proofed to show 
this in the three following cases, include all 
that can he pieiented ; viz. : — 

1. Where three .sides are given. 

2. Where two sidos and one angle are given. 

3. Where .one. side and two angles are given. 

1. Given the three sides a, b, o.' Find A, B, and C. 
The simplest way to effect this is by (76), 

log. tan. fA 

_ jQ log.(s-&)+log.(s-o3-0og- *+Ios- (g-g)) . 

whence, by the table of logarijthmic sines, tangents, 
etc., in Galbraith and Haughton’s mathematical 
tables, ^ A, and therefore A, be found. 
Similarly, by (70), 

Log. tan. § B 

s= 10 + 

A and B being now known, 0 of course is known 

Familiarity with the use of logarithms is neces- 
sarily assumed in the student, who will remember 
that, as 10 is added to all logarithms of trigono- 
metrical ratios (to avoid the necessity of entering 
negative indices in the tables, whiclr would other- 
wise arise from the fact that many of the ratios are 
less than unity), also necessary to deduct 10 
from them before using them in calculations, or 
(what is the same thing) to add 10 to the other 
side of any equation in which they may appear. 
This has been done above. The use of logarithm.^ 
is fully explained in our lessons in “Logarithms’" 

Exercise 4. 

1. Given a = a«, 7) = 31, e = 4B. Find the angles. 

2. Gtrann = lC-22. 6 = 15-32, c=21-50. Fiiid'Oio nnglea 

3. Given a = 1110, b = 1342, c = 1500. Find the angles. 

A GiTOn(i = l-S2, b = l,c = 0T5; Find the angies. 

2. This case appears in two forms — 

First, yiran tmo sides, a'amd b, and the inelvded 
angle O. Find A, B, and c. 

J(A-|-B) = ^(180'>'-C) = 90°-iC, ' 



terms of any two sides and included angle, the 
other in terms of the three sides. 

1. Area = § ic sin. A. 

If A is a right angle, area evidently = half the 
rectangle under the adjacent sides, which agrees 
with the statement, since sin. 90° = 1. 

If A is aente, as in Pig. 15, drop c P peri)en- 
dionlar to A B, or A B produced (Fig. IG). - Then, by 
Uuclid II.' 1, 


jput A B = c, and since ™ = sin.A,cpr=6 sin. A ; 

. therefore area = -J- Ic sin. A. 

If A be obtuse (Fig. 17), drop CP as before, on 
BA produced; then 

Area = ^AB x OP, 

But AB' = c and 0P = CA sin. OAp, and sin. 

C A F = supplement of A. 

.• . Area ^ tc sin. A (77) 

Or, log. 2 area = log. S + log. e x log. sin. A — 10. 

2. Substituting in (77) the value of sin. A given 
in (78), we got ^ 

Area = (s- a) (s- *) (s-c). (78) 

Or log. area 

_ log, s + log, (s - a) + log, (s - 8) + log, (t ~ o) 

but it is often easier to work out (77) arithmetically 
than to employ logarltluns. 

Exeboisb 7. 

1 . Given li = 3S root, e =117 fret, ami A = ST*. FindOieatea. 

2. Given a = 1000 yard*, b = 2-4 miles, and C = J2’. Find ' 
tlie area 

a Glvcn6=2-314,e=l'5Sr,nnd,A=49’0'20". Findthearea. 

4. Given o = 287-1, c = 310-24, and B = 1U» "S’ 32". Find 

4. Given a = 40, t. = OS, c = ,'.3. Find tlie area wilhout em- 
ploying losarilliiiia. 

ft Given a = 003, 4 = 507. c = 721. Find tlio .-irea. 

7. Given a = 0-44, b = 0-34, e = 0-2.1. Find tlio area. 

a GivenB = 2-06, 4 = 1-07,0=2-7. Find the area. 

We have now concluded our investigation of 
theoretic Trigonometry, or rather of such parts of 
the theory as will enable us to apply onr knowledge 
largely in practice. There are formulro for other 
ratios or values, such as for the r,-idiiis of the cirolo 
inscribed in, or oironmsoribed nbont, a given 
triangle, the area of the circumscrihcd circle in 
terms of the sides, the area of any jralygon in- 
scribed in a circle (whence the area of the mrelo 
itself may be obtained approximately), and the 
like ; bnt these, although useful, are not needed to 
enable us merely to solve “ heights and xlistanccs,” 
npon which the practical art of snr\-^ing mainly 
depends. A complete survey of a coast or country 
may he made, and heights and dist.inccs acenrately 
calculated,, without a single actusd mcasuferoent' 

being taken, except one at starting called the dase- 
linc. (It is nsual, however, to check a result here 
and there by actual measurement.)' By choosing 
or marking spots or objects at convenient distances 
apart, the whole district is divided into triangles, 
and it is obvious that a knowledge of one side of 
the first triangle calculated (the base-line before 
menrioned), on instrument for measuring .ingles, 
and a level, arc all that are required to enable it to 
be completely surveyed. 


The object of this lesson is to suggest rather than 
enumerate the practical uses of the science. Apart 
from its connection with Narigation — ^npon which 
' more will be said in the papers shortly to be devoted 
to that subject — Trigonometry is plainly employed 
in the practical work of measuring (1) heights and 
distances, (2) areas, and (8) contents of solids. By 
way of example we will take one or two of its 
simpler applications to the measurement of heights 
and distances, space forbidding even the enumera- 
tion of the many problems which may arise in 
measuring and surveying — most of whibh may, 
however, be solved, directly or indirectly, by the 
formulro already airlved at. 

Problem I.— To find the height of an inaccessi- 
ble object situated on a horizontal plane (Fig. 18). 

Let the tower K o he the object, measure from 
it a convenient distance, ed, and obsorvo the angle 
B AC. The right-angled triangle ABO can now be 
calculated (b c = A B ■ tan. B A c ; see Section X.), 
ono sidc,.AB (equal to ed), and one angle being 
known. ; To B o add E B, the height of the observer's 
eye above the horizontal plane, and we obtain the 
height' of the tower. 

Exercise 8. 

1. A petsan ivIidsc oyc is 5 ft. G in. nboro tlie smund, linving 
recedca 124 ft. from tlie liase of n tower, finds tliat its angular 
elevation is 52’ 84'. Caloiilate Its height. 

2. From file other side' of a street 42 ft. wide, 1 obscn-c that 
the elevniaon of tlie ftniit bf n hnnse is 40’ 23'. What is the 
height of tha Iionso, the Iieight of my eye being 5 ft.? 

Problem II. — To find tlie distance on a hori- 
zontal plane of an object of known height. 

Let the tower ia Fig. IS be the object’, arid' its ' 


when rubtea, but owing to tiio very fact that they 
are good conductors they lose their cliarges by 
leakage as quickl}' ns they arc generated, and thus 
no charges appear on them when subjected to tlie 
most delicate tests. If, however, the leakage be 
prevented— either by suspending them by a silk 
thread, or by fixing them on the end of a non- 
conducting rod — they will retain tlieir charges like 

The existence b£ a charge of one kind implies the 
existence of an exactly equal charge of the oppo- 
site kind, though the position of this second charge 
is not always apparent. If a positively charged 
body is suspended by a silk thread in a room, the 
.corros^onding negative charge will bo found 
distributed over the walls, floor, and ceiling, but 
principally on those places in closest proximity to 
the suspended body. Similnrl 3 -, a negatively 
charged body will always attract an exactly equal 
positive charge on neighbouring conducting ob- 


The system of units universally used for sciontifle 
purposes is tho oontimotro-gramnio-socond system, 
and in terms of these throe fundamental units all 
physical quantities can be expressed ; it is usually 
known as tho O.G.S. system, and its English equi- 
valents are as follows : — 

CEKTlUEtBE = ‘3037 inch = the unit of length, 
Gbamue =: 15-432 gm1ns= the unit of mass, 

Seooxo = tho unit of time. 

Prom these three fundamental units tho follow- 
ing, ns well ns all other units, arc derived : — 

VelocUy.—A. body mores with unit velocity when 
it moves nt the rate of one centimetre per second. 

Acceleration. — ^Tho unit of acceleration is that 
acceleration which, noting on a body for one second, 

imparts to it unit velocity- ; or, it is an acceleration 

of one ccntimctre-pcr-sccond per second. (In the 
following o.'ilculations the aocelemtion due to 
gravity will bo assumed as !)81 centimetres per 
. second; this being approximately tho velocity per 
second that gravity imparts to a falling body.) 

i'lirrc.— The unit of force is called the Hiptc. It 
is that force which, acting on a mass of one gramme 

for a period of one second, imparts to it a velocity 

of one centimetre per second. 

Wor*.— The unit of work is called the erg. It is 
the amount of work done in overcoming a force of 
one dype over a distance of one centimetre. 

Heat. — The unit of heat is called the caloric.. It 
is the quantity of heat required to raise the teniper- 

aturc of one gramme of water from 0* to 1” Cent. 

1 Cillorlo = 42,000,000 CIS*. 

TTnit jgf Quantity (JElcctricaV ). — In speaking, of 

the electric charges on bodies it is necessary to 
have some unit in terms of which the amount of 
such charges can be measured. Two similarly 
charged bodies will — ns has been explained — repel 
each other, and the force of this repulsion will 
depend upon the amount of charge on each body, 
ns well as upon the distance that separates them. 
For small bodies the force will be proportional to 
the product of the two charges, and will be in- 
versely proportional to tho square of the distance 
between them. This law is due to Coulomb, and 
supplies ns with a definition of unit quantity. It 
is best expressed in q-mbols thus : — 

where JP = the force of repulsion in dynes. 

„ =theqnantityo£chargeononebody. 

„ s'j= „ „ „ thcotherbody. 

„ A =the distance in centimetres between 

If now the distance A is made one centimetre, if 
the force of repulsion F is one dyne, and' if the 
charges are equal, then wo at once obtain a. defini- 
tion for unit quantity of electricity- in terms of tho 
fnndamcntal units, thus ; — Unit giiantliy is that 
quantity mliielt, n-licn placctl at a distaneo of one 
centimetre from an egnnl and similar gnaniityin 
air, repels it mitli afoi’cc of one dyne. 

Unit difference of Potential. — Considering any 
two similarly cliargcd bodies A and B, a force of re- 
pulsion always exists between them. If A moves 
up toward B it must do work in overcoming the 
force of repulsion, and the amount of work done is 
the product of the distance moved into tho average 
force. If A mor-es from an infinite distance up to 
a fixed position n it does w-ork in the process, 
and the work thus done can be recovered if a is 
now allowed to move from the fixed position away 
to an infinite dist.mcc. "Work must bo done on A 
in bringing into position, but when there, A is 
capable of doing an exactly ’equal amount of work 
in moving away from the position. IVlien in the 
fixed position a clearly hnsywfcnfrcf energy stored 
up in it, or energy duo to its position. If Aeon- 
tains unit quantity of electricity-, and we can mca- 

siu-c the work done on it in bringing it up to any 

position, we know tho potential at that point, since 
tlie work done on A is the measure of the potential. 
The potential at any point is the amoimt of reorh 

that must he done on unit quantity of jmitire elec- 

tricity in hringing it to that paint from an infinite 
distance. The difference of potential between any 
two points is therefore the amount of work that 
must be done on unit quantity- of positive elcc- 
trioity in moving it from one point to the other. 
Unit difference of potential (or of electromotive 


force') exists hetneen ttro jininis triiea it requires the 
expenditure of one erg to more will guaiititg if 
tireeiecfricifgfrom luic jioiiif to the other. ■ 

Vnit Current . — Unit ohrrent is that current which 
is caused by the passage of unit quantity across 
any section in one second. 


The Ampeee = the unit of current and is equal to 
'x'jjth of the absolute unit. 

The Volt = the unit of clecfroinotire force, 
and equals 100,000,000 absolute 

The Ojim = the unit of resistance, and equals 

1,000,000,000 absolute units. 

This most important problem follows ns a deduc- 
tion from what lias gone before, and will bo quite 
simptc to those who have read it carefully. It is 
required to find the horse-power which is being ex- 
pended in any portion of a circuit through which a 
knorvn current, and a known E.M.r. are woihing. 

Lot Vi and V™ bo the potentials at the two points 
between which it is required to find the horse- 
power that is being expended. 

Let c = the current flowing in the circuit, 

., E = the E.M.P. between the two points, 

Then E = v, — Vi = the work in ergs done on 
one unit of positive electricity in 
moving from one point to the other. 
EQ = the work in ergs done on q units in 
moving them from one point to the 

But according to the above definition of unit 
quantity Q =s c f, 

where i = the time in seconds during which the . 
current has been flowing. 

Substituting this value forq, 

E o # = work in eigs expended in t seconds by 
a current c and an eji.p. of E. 

■. EC = work in ergs expended in one second 
by a current c and an E.M.P. of E. 

dneed to the practical units ; it now remains to 
reduce the righl-lumd side to liorsc-powcr. 

One erg = one dyne x one centimetre. 

And graWty exerts a pull on a mass of one 
gramme of 981 dynes. 

The work done in raising one gramme through 
a height of one ccntimctTC = 981 ergs, 

but 1 foot = 30'4S centimetres, 
and 1 pound = -153'G grammes. 

The work done in raising one pound through 
a distance of one foot = 981 x 30-48 x 433-6 ergs, 
or one foot-pound = 13,380,000 ergs. 

horec5o°TOr } = foot-pounds per minute, 

I, „ = fiiiO „ „ „ second, * 

„ „ =:5i;0xl3,5G0,000crgs„ „ 

„ „ = 7,480,000,000 

10, 000,OOOec= 7,480,000,000 x horse-power, 

10.000. 0(10 EC ^ 

7.400.000. 000’ 

. Horse-powc 

That is to say, multiply the e.u.f. in volts by the 
current in amperes and divide by 746 In order to 
find the horse-power being expended in any portion 
of the circuit. , 


From the definition wo have 

1 caloric = 42,000,000 ergs. 

Inserting this value in the equation 
10,0<X),OOD E c = work in ergs per second. , 

Drat la calorics per sccoml = , 

Heat In calorics = 

Example 1.— On testing an nro lamp, -a-hioh 
was giving a light of 1,500 candle-power, it was 
found that the E.M.F. at tlio terminals of tho lamp 
was SO volts, and the current pn.4smg was' 10 


12 1 

Substituting the values given in the example in 
this expression, we get 

Emciciicy = 

= : 2S 1 cniidlcs per H-P. Amatr. 
In incnncicsccnt lighting the oflieienei' of a lamp 
is Sijoken of as so many watts per candle, therefore 

ExAMPiit: 2 . — IVhat is the xiowcr absorbed in 
a, glow lamp wliioh gives l(i candle-power, with am 
E.M.P. of 100 volts, and a current of -6 ampere ! 

Poirer = 100 x -G 

, . ^ = GO watts. Aiuitrr. 

. Emoicncy = 

= a-T3 watts per candle. Answer. 

Example 3. — ^What quantity of heat is de- 
veloped in the filament of the glow lamp (Example 
3) in 6 minutes. 

Or sufficient heat to raise 4280 grammes of water 
through 1° Cent. 


If two'noif-oonduoting bodies, such as silk and 
.glass, arc tubbed together and then separated by a 
definite distance, it will be found that they will 
have equal charges, but of opposite kinds. It is 
often taken for gi-antcd that the greater the amount 
of rubbing the greater will be the cliarges pro- 
duced, but this is a fallacy. The mere act of 
rubbing is useless except that it brings all parts of 
the two bodies into contact. If all parts of the 
two bodies could be brought into contact by any 
other means, and without the expenditure of any 
energy, the result — as far as the charges are con- 
cerned — would be exactly the same. Jt is not the 
■rnWntg, it is the actval contact ictrveen ihodissmi- 
lar substances that initially gives rise to the differ- 
ence of jiotential betneen them. The amount of this 
difference of potential depends upon the nature of 
the substances, and its value — whicli is called the 
contact gmtential difference— is well known for many 

It is now easy to understand where the comparor 
lively large charges on the glass and silk come 
from. They have extremely small charges when in 
contact — owing to their contact potential differ- 
ence — and in the act of separating them, work 
must be done in order to overcome the mutual 

attraction which takes place between them; in 

their final x>oEitions they therefore liave a liigli 
potential which is the cqni\-alcnt of the amount of 
work done in bringing them to those positions. 
Two insulated conducting bodies of dissimilar sub- 
stances would in the same manner become charged 
if brought into contact and separated as aho\'e 

The quantity of eleotrioity in such a chaTged 
body — if sufficiently large— can be measured by an 
ordinary ballistic galvanometer, tbus: — Connect 
one end of a wire to the charged body, and the 
other end to one terminal of the galvanometer, 
which is connected to earth by the other terminal. 
The cliargc on the bod3' will instantly rush through 
the galvanometer in the form of an electric current 
which is strong in the beginning, but gradually 
falls off to' zera as the body becomes discharged. 
The whole operation is’ piActioally instantaneous ; 
but while it lasts, an actual current is Hewing 
through the galvanometer, and this current natur- 
ally produces a throw, the amount of whicli gives 
a measure of the quantity aooumiilated on the 
charged body. The quantity thus measured is ex- 
pressed in coulombs where the coulomb is defined 
as that gvantitg tvhich floms per second j)ast any 
cross sect inn of a condnetor conveging one ampere. 

The quantity of charge that can be accumulated 
or condensed on any insulated body depends not 
only on its size, but also on' its proximity to neigh- 
bouring bo'clies, If a charged plate A is close to 
an uninsulated one B, 

_ — _B, 

it will induce on B an equal but opposite charge, 
and if the plate b be now insulated, let ns consider 
wliat happens if the distance between them is 
varied. In their original positions they are at a 
certinn potential difference, and attraction takes 
place between ; if tbej’ are moved apart, work must 
be done against this attraction, and therefore the 
jjotential difference between Ihem rises, and the 
greater the difference to which they are separated, 
the greater will be the potential difference between 
them. On the other hand, it they are allowed to 
move closer together under the action of their 

mutual force of attraction, the potential difference 

between them falls, and the closer they are to- 

gether the smaller will it become.' For any given 
positions of the plates the arrangement has a per- 
fectly definite capacity. The capacity of any 
arrangement is the number if coulombs that mast be 

giixa to one plate in order to jnvditce a jiotential 

difference of ana rolt bctniccn the iiva. The cap.icity 
therefore can ho increased by making 'the distance 
between the plates as small as possible. Such an 
arrangement is called a condenser, which may be 



defined as ttva conductors separated Jy an insulator, 
and so arranged that the eapacitff is large coiiipared 
iritk the size of the conductors. 

The capacity ot a condenser depends not only 
upon the size of the plates, and upon the distance 
bot-ween tliem, but it also depends upon tlic natnre 
of the insulating substance that separates them. 
It instead ot air they are separated by imrallin- 
wax. llie capacity ■will be nearly doubled ; it se- 
parated by mica, the capacity will be five times ns 
great. This means that each insulator has a pro- 
perty peculiar to itself which determines the 
capacity of tlic condenser in wliich it is used as 
the insulating subst.ance. In a condenser the in- 
sulating substance is called the dielectric, and this 
property is called the specific induetire capacity 
ot the dielectric. Air has been .assumed as the 
.-tandard, and the specific inductive capacities of .a 
number ot dillcrcut substnnccs are given in the 
following table : — 


SiKClIle InilncthcCsincIty. 

blicibi- • 

(•1111.1 iicrcli.a - - 
.Mic.i .... 
UIa^< (« cry Ilsht) 
II (wry^Uciibc) 



If two conducting pintc.s, separated by an insu- 
lator, are maintained at a fixed distance apart, and 
their dilterencc of potential gradually raised to 
a sufiicicnt amount, the diclcclrio between them 
becomes subjected to a continually increasing 
clcctiic stress, which it can no longer withstand, 
but will be raptured by the passage of an electric 
spaik between the two plates, which will then bo 
found to be disclinrgcd. The Aurora Borealis 
(Figs. GO and Cl) shows the manner in which this 
discharge occurs in a rarefied atmosphere. iVith 
diilcrcnt dielectrics, the quantity of electricity 
that can be given to the plates before discharge 
occurs v.'iries greatly, but its amount is fairly 
well known for the dillerent dielectrics ; it'must, 
however, bo remembered that it has no connection 
either with the insulating property of the material, 
or with its specific inductive capacity. The c.apacity 
of a condenser is not the quantity that can be put 
into it before discharge takes place, it is the quan- 
tity in coulombs that must be put into it in order 
to obtain a potential difference between the plates 
of one volt. 

The unit of capacity is called the Farad, but the 
condenser that would have a capacity of one farad 
would be so extremely large, that for practical pur- 
poses the microfarad Cone-millionth of a farad) is 
the unit generally adopted ; it is the capacity ef a 
condenser which would have a potential diffeicncc 
of one volt when one-millionth of a coulomb was 
put into it. The capacit}' of any condenser de- 
pends upon three things, as can be expressed thus : 


IVherc p=the capacity of condenser, 

„ A= area of plates, 

,, s = specific inductive capacity of di- 
electric. • 

„ (f = distance between the plates. 

It can therefore bo increased by increasing the area 
ot the plates, by diminishing the disthnee between 
them, and by using a dielectric of high specific in- 
ductive capacity. 

The usual method ot constructing a condenser of 
huge capacity is ns follows : — A number of sheets 
of tinfoil arc cut with a projecting lug .as show n in 
A, Fig. G2, and another set of the same size with 

Tiiifuil. I 

their lugs turned to the opposite side, as shown in 
c; also a number of sheets of bank-note paper 
about two inches both ways larger than the tinfoil, 
s. The sheets of paper arc tlien separately held 
up to the light, and any ot those in which pin-holes 
occur arc rejected. A batli containing melted 
paratfin-wax at a temperature of about 110° Cent, is 
also provided. A couple of sheets of paper nie now 

immersed in the paratfin-wax, withdra'wn, and 

placed on a horizontal heated iron slab ; a sheet of 

tinfoil is now placed on these p.apers, with its lug 
projecting beyond the paper, and to the left-hand 
side. Two sheets ot paper are now immersed irt 
the wax and laid over the tinfoil; another sheet of 
tinfoil is now taken and placed on the p.iper with 
its lug projecting to the right-hand side. Two 
more sheets of paper are next Laid on, and then 
another sheet of tinfoil, and this process is carried 
on till the condenser has been made the desired 
size. The condenser is now placed between two 
heated iron plates, .and a weight placed on them to 
squeeze out the superfluous paraffin, and the whole 
left till it becomes dry and hard. When finished. 



ctiam in pace : consilinm id di^-ns Augustus vocabat, 
Tiberius pracceptum. Agitnssc Gaium Caesarem 
dc iiitraiida Britannia satis constat, ni vciox ingenio 
mobili pnenitentiae, ct ingciitcs adrersus Germaniam 
conatus frustra fuissent. Diviis Claudius anotor 
itciati operis, tmns\'ectis Icgionibns ansiliisqnc ct 
adsumpto in partem rennu Vespasiano, quod ini- 
tium t’ciitume mox fortunac fnit : domitac gentes, 
capti regerct monstratus fatis Vespasinnus, 

14. Consniariiim primus Aulus Dautins ptac* 
porittis ac siibindc Ostorius Scapula, utcrqno bclld 
egregius: rcdactaquo pnulatim in foriuam pro- 

vinoiac proKima pars Britnnniac; nddita insnper 

vctcranormu coloniit. Qnaedam civitates Cogi- 
duiuno regi donatne (is ad nostram usque memoriam 
fidissimus mansit), vetere ao jam pridem rcccpta 
populi Bomani consuctudinc, ut Iiabcretinstrumcuta 
scrvitiitls dt reges. Mos Dldius Gallns parta a 
Xtrioribus continuit, paucis admodum castellis in 
ultcriora proiuotls, iter quae faina aucti oIBcii 
quacrcrotur. Bidiinu Veranius excepit, isque intia 
annum cxtinctus cst. Suetonius bine Panlinus 
biennio prosporas res habuit, snbactis nationibus 
drmatisque pmesidiis ; quorum nducia Honaiu 
insulain ut tires rebclUbus ministrantciu adgressus 
terga occasion! patefecit. 

Xhe Sj>iril of Hcvalt in Britain, 

10. Xainque absentia legntiremotomotuBritnnni 
agStarc inter se mala sertitutis, conferre injnrias ct 
intcrpictnndo ncccndcrc: nihil proflei patientia 
nisi ut grnviora tainquam ex faoill tolcmntibus 
impcrcnlur. Singulo.e sibi olim reges fnissc, nunc 
binos impoiii, c qulbiis Icgatus in sangiiincni, pro- 
cumtor in bona saevirot. Aoque discordiam prac- 
positorum, acque concordiam subjcctis cxitiosam. 
Altcrius mnnum ccnturioncs, altcrius servos rim ct 
contumelias misccrc. .Nihil jam enpiditati, nihil 
libidinl cxceptum. In proelio fortiorem esse qui 
spolict : nunc .ab ignavis pTornmque ot imbeUibns 
cripi doiuos, abstralii libeios, injungi dilcctns, 
tamqnam mori tantiim pro jiatria ncscicntibns. 
Quantniiim cnim transissc inilitum, si sese Britanni 
nuincrcnt? Sic Germanias exenssisse jugnm: ct 
liumine, non Occano defendi. Sibi patriam conjuges 
parentes, illis'avaritiam ct Inxurinm cansas belli 
esse. Bcccssuros, ut divus Julius rcccssisset, modo 
virtutem maiorum snorum aomularcntur. Nevo 
proclii unius nut altcrius cventu parcsccrcnt : plus 
impetus, majorem ■ constnutiam penes miscros 
esse. Jam Britannonim ctiam dcos miscreri, 
qui Bomanum ducem .absentem, qui rclcgntum in 
alia insula excroitum dotincrent ; jnm ipsos, quod 
diiScIllimum fuerit, deiibemre. Porro in cjiis 
modi consBiis periculosins esse dcprehendl quam 


Cliip. XI.— tr< tiller tartnror. " As } «n trould expect among 

llahUta earjTortim. ** TIic phpfiicnl tjiies,** 

itiKitiii; Calaloninm hnbiliiiitliijii eomar. This Is a aircct 
nlntatlon to those who hoht that cvcryhotl}' horn north 
of tlie Twcfil must he a btick Celt. 

Colonifi, i-c., ‘‘dark. 

PesUa contra IHsjyinia. The snltjccts of tho s-erb fiieinnt 
are curiously assorted. Tlusso irotds must be rendered : 
“the tact that Spain Is situate opposite to them." 

Cacti imtiio, “ The quarter of the heavens," or. In otiicr 
words, the climate." 

fit iinfrersnat anlinmnli. The dative case Is an agreement 
with wftf, which may he inferred. Translate : “Taking 
a broad view, I iliid it credible," etc. 

XoruM-nicifl. Tlie sense of the passage is “ the sacred rites 
and aupcrsdlions of the Britons arc the .same as those 
of the Gauls." 

Diprckembit. Second singular of the present siiljnnctive. 
It Is used iinpcnianally ns we luc “you," and the 
French use “on." 

5emi« hamt mnllum tlfreniu. Tlie langnngcs spoken by 
Britons and Gauls, which did not dillcr greatly, norc 
duilccts of Celtic. 

Cliap. XH— f/niiciflor aiiriyn. The practice of the early 
Britons dllfercd from that of most nations arho hare 
fnnght from a chariot; “Tlie cimriotcer Is the man ot 
noble birth, atliilo tlie depciidaiits light (huiii the 

JTunf prr priaeipcs, etc. “ Now they are dia'ided tiirongh tho 
action of chieftains, by faction and intrigue." 

Barns itiraEms . . . couirntiis. The English idiom dllTers 
arlioUy freiii tlie Latin, IVe should inako the (tales the 
iiontinatla-r, amt translate thus : “ Two or three states 
seldom eomhiiio together to arard olfa eommon danger." 

Curium, etc. TIio climate has altered little sliico the 
time of TaHtiis. Then, ns now, the sky avas darkened 
by mist nnd clnnd, so that all tho Bins of tho fog nio}' 
not be ascribed to 

Settket cxlTcma, etc. Tliis pxiilanation of tlio iiorlhcni twl- 
light fs of course h.asclcss. Theitns Iielioved that the 
earth avas flat, nnd that the night atas the result of the 
shudoar c.ast by the earth. 

Chap. XIII. —finr. Tacitus has Just been speaking of the 
country and its iirodiicis, niid naturally introduces the 
mention of tlie inhahitniits witli fjal. 

liijunrfa imperii niuneru. Lit., “tlie crjolned services ol 
the Empire," or, ns arc sliuiild say, “ the services en- 
JoIiiCfl by tlie Empire.” 

Si injariae abilnt. The character arhich Tacitus gives tlie 
niiclent Britons hciniigs to tliose irho Inhabit tho land 
toHlay, In spito ot tho Introduction of fl-esli blood. 
Now, as llicii, they nre ready to obey If tlicy are pro- 

• tcctcd fi-oni oppression ( iiijiirluc} ; now, os then, they con- 

sent to he ruled {porwiiO, hut avIII not endure slavery. 

igilur, Tlie coiuunctlon does not here imply a conseqncncc 
or result. It siinidy marks a transition from one sub- 
ject to .another. It iiiny he translated, “to continue," 
or, “ to resume." 

Dtna JiiRiis. The great Julius Ciesar was the first to enter 
Britain ai-lth nii army, and ho has left us tlio history 
of his c.ampaigiis. 

potttttstil. From potior, avlilcli, as you have learnt, {s fob 
loired by an abintli-o. 


as cane sugar, milk sugar, maltose, etc. ; (2) GIn> 
coses (CjHiaOc), as grape sugar or dextrose, frinit 
sugar or laevulosc, etc. ; (3) Amyloses or starokes 

Fig. SI,— PoTATO-STAnen GnASCLSs. 

(OjHioOj), as starch, dextrin, glycogen, collnlose, 
gam, etc. 

The above formulas simply give tlto ratios of 
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and do not represent 
the malecides of the substances. 

Oz7ie Sugar, or Sacefiaraue (Cj^H^O,]), is ob- 
tained from the juice of the sugar-cane, a variety 
01 occtroot known ns the sugar-beet, tho_ date, 
the sugar maple, etc. When boiled with dilate 
sulphuric acid, cane sugar is converted into ‘‘in- 
vert” sugar. Cold strong sulphuric acid instantly 
chars sugar, converting it into a voluminous black 
mass of carbon. When heated with nitric acid, 
sugar is converted into sacclinric -ncid, Q.k'jgOe. 

Cane sugar docs not reduce an alkaline solution 6f 

copper sulphate when the mixture is boiled for a 
short time. A solution of cane sugar does not fer- 
ment directly when yeast is added, but it is rapidly 
converted by lliat substance into a mixture of dex- 
trose and Imvulosc, and these bodies then enter 
into active fermentation. 

jni/t Sugar, or Laetesc (CkH-OuH-O), is obtained 
from the whey of curdled milk evaporation ; it 
forms hard white ciystals with a sweet taste, and 
ferments with great diiSculty on the addition of 

Maltose (C,2HjaO„HsO) is the suga’r produced by 
the action of diastase upon, starch, and occurs in 
malt ; it is therefore tiie sugar from which at one 
time beer was exclusively made. ' klaltose lednces 
an alkaline solution of copper sulphate, giving a red 
precipitate of cuprous oxide, Cafi. ' 

The Glucoses . — Glueose, Dextrose, or Grape Sugar 
occurs in the juice of sweet grapes, and 
in the urine of persons suffering from diabetes. It 
is most usually- prepiired by boiling starch with 
dilute sulphuric acid for some time ; it is much less 
sweet than cane sugar, and does not orj-stallise so 
readily. Cold strong sulphuric acid does not char 
glucose. Glucose is most readily distinguished 
from cane sugar by its reducing oction-on'mctallic 
oxides: a small quantity of a dilute solution of 
copper sulphate is placed in a test tube and mixed 
with a solntion of glucose ; caustic pohasb, KHO, is 
then added drop by drop until a clear dark-blue 
solution is obtained ; this is heated, w'hen a bulky 
precipitate, first yellow, Cii„(H0)2, then red, CunO, 
is thrown down, .and the blue colour completely 

Dmvufose closely resorablcs dextrose, it occurs 
in honey and many fruits ; a mixture of laevulose 
and dextrose is called fruit or invert sugar. If cane 
sugar be heated with dilute sulphuric acid, it is 
converted into invert sugar. 

Dextrose, obtained by beating starch with dilute 
snlphnric acid, and invert, obtained by heat- 
ing molasses with dilute sulphuric acid, are now 
manufactnred on an enormous scale, and sold as 
‘‘saccharin,'’ which is used as a substitute for malt 
in brewing beer. There are twp other substances 
named saoclmrin, one is the anhydride, OoH,,Op, of 
monobasic sncchario acid, the other is a sutetance 
man V times sweeter than ordinary sugar, with whioh 

it has no chemical relation whatever ; its full name is 
Starch CCpH,„Ob) is very widely diffused, being 
found in almost eVeiy-plaat ; some portions- of ’the 

■with tratcr, nnd T.-a5lilng the palp on a sioie. Tho 

FfB. BS— \VBE*T-STAmn Giusi'us. 

milky ilnld Trhich pnsses throngb contains the starch 
grannlos sospended in trator ; it is allowed to stand, 
when the staroh grndoaily settles; the water is 
then drawn oiT and the starch dried. Starch is in- 
soluhloincold water; when viewed nndertliemicro- 
soope the staroh gianales are found to have charac- 
teristic siinpcs, according to tho plant from which 
they arc derived. Conoontrio lines are nsnally 
noticed, which seem to be arranged round one spot 
called the “hiium,” tliis is well seen in potato 
staroh (Fig. Bl). If a mixture of starch and water 
he boiled, the granules seem to burst, nnd the starch 
onters iuto a sort of solution. IVhen a solution of 
iodine in potassium iodide is added to cold starch 
solution, a deop bluo colour is produced, which tan- 
isiies when the mhstuio is boiled, but usuaUj returns 
.again on cooling. 

Dextrin, or British gum C^HuO^, is prepared 
by boiling stnreb with dilate sulphuric aoid, or by 
heating starch to 250® Cent. ; if the starch he moist- 
ened with nitric or hydrochloric acid, a temperature 
of 120° Cent, is sufGoicnt ; dextrin is also produced by 
the action of diastase on starcb, maltose being 
simultaneously formed. Dextrin is a white or ycl- 

dipped for a tow second.? in a cold n.ixtnn- of two 
volumes of sulphuric acid with one of water, 
and then rapidly and tliorouglily waslied, it is con- 
verted into “ parchment p.aper.' so laigcly iiseil for 
covering jam pots, packing butter, etc, ; it can nI.«o 
be used of a bladder for experiments on 

If finely divided cotton w-oo1 be saaked in a cold 
mixture of one part of strong nitric and three parts 
of strong snlplmric aoid, and then thoroughly 
washed and ctirefiilly dried, it forms guncation, or 
pgrexglin, CjHjOCO.jjOj, three atoms of hydrogen 
being replaced by three XOj groups. Guncotton 
is much used as dn expiosive ; if lighted it burns 
rapidly without exploding, but if detonated with a 
percussion cap it explodes with great violence. It 
explodes equally well even it soaked in water, pro- 
vided that there is a small quantity of dry gun- 
cotton surrounding the percussion fuse. If the acids 
in which the cotton wool is soaked arc more dilute. 

Fk. si.— Rv&ST*ncii. Fig. cs.— ABiiownoOT.STAnen 

^ ^ (Eartludla) 

cottodim CjHj(NOs)jOs is formed Inste.'id of gun- 
cotton. Collodion is soluble in a mixture of otlior 
and alcohoi, the solution when allowetl to owiporatc 
leaves a tough, tenacious, transparent film ; it is much 
used in photography, also in surgery to form a lem- 
poiuiy covering for largo wounds, bums, etc. 


These may be considered as derivatives of Icnzcne. 
The substances which we have hitherto studied have 
been chiefly those which are closely connected with 






H ‘ 

Ei-om' benzene nil the ni'omalic hydroeai-boiis can 
be derived, thus toluene is methyl benzene, 
C„Hj(CIIj) ; xylene, dimethyl benzeue, CfiH4(CHa)„. 

I Senxene (CeH,-), sometimes called benzol, can be 
formed by heating acetylene to a red heat. It is 
usually obtained from ooal-tar oil — i.e., the liquid 
which distils over when coal is heated for rooking 
gas. Tlie oil is purified by repeated washings 
alternately with sulphuric acid and caustic potash, 
and is then distilled ; the portion which comes over 
between 80° to 90° is collected apart, and cooled 
to -12° Cent., when the benzene orystnllises out. At 
ordinary temperatures it is a thin colourless liquid, 
with pleasant odour; specidc gravity 'SSo. boils at 
SO-o” Cent. It is insoluble in water, but mixes 
readily with alcohol and ether. It dissolves iodine, 
sulphur, phosphorus, and tho fats readily. It must 
not be confounded with tlio so-called “benzolin,” 
which has similar solvent iiroperties, but is n light 
paniifin (see Vol. VI., p. 4). 

Benzeno forms (liko metlianc, ethane, etc.) various 
halogen derivatives, in wliich clilorino, bromine, and 
iodine take tlic X’kicc of tho Iiydrogen; thus, we 
have monochlorhenzenc, C,;H.,C1, dichlorbenzene, 
CjHjOlj, until we reach C^Clj (Itcxclilorbcnzcne). 
So, also, we liave — 

Nitroheicenc <C„H3N02),a Hght-ycllow poisonous 
liquid, obtained by adding benzene to strong nitric 
acid. It has an odour resembling that of biftcr- 
aluioiul oil. It is used for liarouring confectionery, 

. scenting soap, etc., under tlic name of “ Essence of 

Jlivbano," or artificml bitter-.almond oil. Enormous 
quantities have been used, of late years, for the 
manufacture of anilin. 

AniVn, or Amidohenxene (CjHsNHs).— This base 
— for it can be considered ns ammonia, NH-. in 
which one H has been replaced by phenyl, CeH^ — 
was firet obtained in 1820, ns a iirodnct of the 
distillation of indigo. It is ntu,illy manufactured 
by reducing nitrobenzene with nascent hydrogen ; 
iron-filings and hydrocliloric acid being 'used to 
generate the hydrogen — 

CoHjiNOa -1- 3Fe + OHCl = 

CoHjNH„ + SFeCI- + 2HaO. 

Anilin is a colourless liquid, with a peculiar 
odour; specific gravity l-03(i, boils at 184 •5“ Cent. 
Wlion quite pure, it solidifies at -8° Cent.; when 
exposed to the air, it turns brown ; it is not very 
soluble in water, but dissolves readily in alcohol 
and ether. When bleaebing powder (cliloride of 
lime) is added to a solution of anilin in water, a 
violet colour is produced. Both anilin and its 
vapour are very poisonous. Enormous quantities 
are manufactured, and nsed in the production of 
the well known auiliu dyes. , 

In 185G, Perkin commenced an investigation on 
the artificial formation of quinine. His experiments 
in this direction wore unsuccessful ; but, by treating 
tlio sulphate of auiliii with potassium bicliromale, 
he obtained what he described as a very unpromis- 
ing preqipilate, and extracted from it the now well 
known dye, Mattve. This, tho first anilin dye, was 
discor-er^ about Easter 183G ; and although it has 
been driven out of commcixe by other moro brilliant 
dyestuffs (it is Mill used in this country to colour 
the pemiy stamp), yet tho importance of its dis- 
covery can hardly bo over-esUmated. Mauve was 
eventually proved to bo tho sulphate of a powerful 
organic base, 

In 1858, another impoitnnt colouring matter was 
prepared— lied, or JlosanlUn (C;„H„iNs,0). 
Various salts, acetate, hydrochloride,' ofo., ocenv in 
commerce under the. names of magenta, fuchsine, 
etc. Colours of all shades are now prepared from 
the parent substance, anilin, and bodies closely 
allied to it; but their constitution is usually com- 
plicated, and their methods of preparation only 
interesting to the chemist .und the manufac- 

Phenyl Alcalwl, Cariohe Acid, Phenol, Gial-tar 
Crmsaie (CcHjHO).— Tliis substance may be con- 
sidered as benzene in which one H is replaced 
by the group HO. It is an important constituent 
of coal-tar oil, in which it was discovered in 1834. 
Tlie oil is distilled, and' the imrtion which passes 
over between 150“ to 200° Cent, collected. This 
portion is treated with caustic soda solution, the 
lower layer of liquid drawn off and decomposed by 
adding dilute sulphuiic acid. Tlie crude product 
tiius obtained is purified by distillation. 

Pure phenol crystallises in colourless needle- 
shaped crystals ; specific gravity 1-0G6, melting at 
40“ Cent., and boiling at 181'5“ Cent. On keeping 
it -usually turns a reddish colour. Its odour is well 
known. It is very poisonous, and attacks tho skin ; 
the best antidote is either half a tumbler of olive 

oil, or half an ounce of Epsom salts dissolved. in 

warm -water. Carbolic acid is a powerful dis- 
infectant ; it dissolves in about 15 parts of water, 
and is readily soluble in alcohol. The aqueous 



solution is roioured violet on the nddition of a Utile 
ferric clilorirte, 

IMicnol or envliolic aciil must not lie confoniulcd* 
with the creosote ubtniiied h.r distillinp; beech and 
other hard woods. Tliis creosote contniii«-, 
it is triie.sninc phenol ; but it contains, in addition, 
crco-ol (CV,H,Cn.,OCirjOII) and some allied bodies 
which to.cetlier pite it its eliaincteristic odour. 
This cioosote is innch used for prc-serviiip wood, 
fish (•‘kipi>trinp).’' etc. The coal-tar creosote 
dec.' not contain any ci cosol. etc. 

lie tlip action of stinnp nittic acid, piienol is 
converted into a nititi body, called — 

i’iVn-c .tdil, C..lI,(NO»').UC).— This substance 
forms \cllow crystals, wliieh bare an intensely 
bitter taste ; they ate sHphtly .'ohible in wafer, hut 
more readily in alcohol. The solution stains the 
skin mid dyc' wool and silk a hripht yellow. Its 
salts, the picratcs, c.vplodc violently whin he.ated. 
One of the varieties <iC sniokclcs* powder contains 
imteh picric acid. 

r,l);i«(i«r(C(H 40 s)isa yellow crystalline suKsttincc. 
obtained hy oxidNinp tinilin with dilute chronih- 
acid, IhCiOj ; when sitlphiir dioxide. SO.s i« passed 
into an neptcous sohition of qtiinonc. It is converted 

IfySrcQuinenc, or Qitiiid, C,;H|(HOj). — Tliis 
siibstaitco forms coUmtlc's jirisms; meltiiipat lt;'.*° 
Cent., soluble in 17 pari« of water, and easily in 
alcohol and (thcr. It reduces silver salt', and has 
been much u-cd dtititip the jvasi two or three yetvrs 
a« a pliotocrnphie '■ devclojicr.” 

Aeiif, CJf 5 ClIO)j-or. as it i.s more 
liroperly t enned, I’timitalM (since if is an alcohol, 
not nn acid)— is obtained hy heallnp feallio acid — 
Cfir^O.- — COa -f- QUrP,. 

C-illi.- s.i.r. fJ^Tr,all„t. 

Tt can Iio prepared hy Iioalinp the dried lesidiie 
obtained by cvapoialin" tin tirjneoii.s extmet of 
pallniits-. to iso-lf-.*!" Cent., in an iion sniicei'aii, 
covered wilb a jiapcr hood, it foini« culoiiih-ss 
crystals, which aie very lipht and very soluble in 
w.-itcr. Wlicn an alkali (XtiHO, KUO, or AiiiHO) 
i« added, its aqueous soliilinii rapidly ab.sorb.s 
o.xypen fioiii tlic air, and turns blown; it gives n colour wiili fcirous snlpliate, and 
lediiccs P'old and silver salts. H is n vvell-kiinvvii 
pliotopinjiliic " developer." 

JlenzcicA hlrhyih-, m Hitter . I /mii/irfOi/tCslIjCOH), 
ttiii be obtained by crttsliing bitter nhnond<, adding 
water, and then allnwing the mixlitre to stand five 
to .six hours at a temjicitittiic of to 'KT (.'cni. 
Jilt ter almond.s conltiiii what is termed a “gliicosidc" 
(i.c., a substance which yields praise siisar or glucose 
when it split.s tip) named " amygdaliii." Tlicy also 

contain a fermeni, “emtil.sin orsynaiilasc,” 
which has the power of splitting up ninypdiilin into 
hitter nlinniid oil, hydrocyanic acid, tind glucose. 
The benzoic aldehyde is ilieii distilled off. It is 
ohvioits that this oil will eonltiiii the prussic acid. 
'J'liu iiidinnry bitter aliiumd nil, llicrefoie, is very 
piiisoiioiis. II cjiii bn fivcil from the prussjo acid 
without spoiling its llavouiinp properties, but tlio 
pure oil is said not to keep so well. 

t.'nith- AcM. C,,lIj.(UO):,COOir. or HlC.lljOs), 
orruis ill iiiilptdis, in the leave.s of ccitiiiii oaks, 
and in sntiiacli. It farmscohiurlcss crvstals, vvbicli 
aic not very soliibh: in water. Its sniiilioiis give it 
bluish-Iilnck colour vvilli feriic salts (ordinary 

Tannic Ar<d. or Tannin (C„ir,.,0(,). occurs in 
nutpalls, ill sninavli. in tea, etc. It can be obtained 
fioiii iKivvih-rcd nntpnlls by extruding with ii 
iiiixtme of spirits of wine aiitl ctlier; tl:.- extract 
on standing scpainle.s into two layers, ibe lower 
being a snong solution of liiiiiiin. Tannin is 
icadily soluble in water. Its solution gives n bluc> 
bkick colour with ferric cliIoiide,mid prceipilntes a 
solution of gelatin. It is to this prnpeiiy of co- 
agulating and piecipitiiting idbiimiiimis bodies, etc . 
that eak-baifc, nutpalls, and other substanecs con- 
taining laiinin ovvt- tbeii enicacy in the tan-pils; 
the solution of tannin ginilually preripilalrs and 
ronvcit.« the oipaniu poition of thu skin into in- 
sohdile leather. 

The Terpeno (C,,,!!,^) arc hydrocaibons which 
occur in volatile oils— ns oil of tnipentinc, lemons, 
hcrgainot. citron, etc., wliich arc foimd in plants, 
chielly coniferous (fir.“, etc.) or nurantinccons 
(orange, lemon, etc.). The constitniion of these 
hydmcnrlions has not yet been detcrinineil ; they 
all have the satnepcrceningn composition, nitliough 
they diilcr ns rcgnrils their pliysical proper! ie.s, 
odotir, etc. These oils which arc often called the 
••essential oils, "differ from the fatly oils in leaving 
a giease stain on pajicr which is net permanent. 

fhiKyi/uir (C,,U„.0) is closely coimecled with the 

The esscnUnl oils arc obtained from the various 
plants cither hy pre.ssuie or liy ilist illation in a 
current of steam. Turjicntino is prepared by 
heating the olro-resinous jnicc which exudes from 
incisions in various pines; the turpentine distils 
over, while “ resin " nr colophony " lemaiiis liehiiid 
in flic retort. 

The AlhnhniJs arc niganic bases of vegetable 
origin. They all cniilniii nitrogen, and aic mostly 
solid; they unite vvitli acids, IICI, II.jSOj, etc., to 
form salt.s; their solution are all preciiiilalud by a 
soltilion of iodine in potassium iodide. Xicatinr 
is !i very ]ioisonuus brown liquid obtainud from 

include some of our most potent drugs and some of 
^our most active poisons. 

We have now concluded a brief siimmary of "■ 
few of the more important organic substances. 
In order to give the reader an idea of the present 
rate of progress in this branch of ohcmi.stiy, 
we may state that it lias boon computed that,, 
during tlio last ton years, the number of organic 
ooinpouiids known to tho chemist has been doubled. 
It is but sixty years ago that tho belief was 
widely prevalent that tho majority of bodies 
which were found iti plants and animals could 
bo built up solely in tho living organism. In 1828 
Wolilor arfillcinlly jiroparod urea, one of tlio most 
olmractoristic products of tho animal economy, 
from strictly inorganic materials. Since that date, 
substnnccnftersiibstnnco has been made artificially 
from tho elemonts carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and 
nitrogen. Nearly all tho fatly bodies, alcohols, 
acids, ethers, oto„ and tho vast majority of tho 
benzene derivatives, can tlms bo prepared. Among 
recent triumphs may be mentioned, the artifioinl 
prepamtion of alizarin (the colouring matter of the 
madder plant), indigo, oitrio acid, uric acid, and 
grape-sugar. At tho present time, as soon as the 
constitvtion of a body is discovered, its artificial 
production seems to bo simply a matter of patience. 

over northern seas," and overrunning helpless 
Britain, were wild, fierce, and uncivilised ; their 
life was wholly made up of war and adventure ; 
their gods were gods of battles, and their national 
heroes were warriors ; their conquest of Britain 
itsolf displayed energy and courage in abundance, 
and the most relentless cruelty in no less degree 
and their literature (if wo may ho allowed to 
stretch a point, and apply tho word to compositions 
which were not generally written, but banded 
down from month to mouth) consisted of songs 
of war and adventure, the nehiovoments of heroes 
related in rude verse. By far tho most important 
specimen of tho poetry of this period is the lay of 
"Beownlf." Tlie date of tho poem is doubtful. 
It was brought by the Saxons from Germany to 
their new home in Bngland, and was afterwards 
translated into Anglo-Snxon. The scene of tho ' 
poem has formed tlic subject of much controversy 
as to whether it be Sweden, Denmark, England, or 
mere dreamland. Tlie poem'rclales with much 
energy and freshness how Hrotligar ICing of Heorot 
and his thanes were persecuted by a monster, 
Grondel, who dwelt in tho fens, and who used to 
come by niglit and carry oil tho thanes as they 
slept in the hall after the feast ; how Beowulf, a 
thane and kinsman of H.ygclac King of the Goths, 

1 Kalpb Higden. 

3ut the Norman conquerors of England .were, as 

oltl Saxon P.vstein of alliteratire verses, it shows 
ns the rhyming voi-siiication borrowetl from the 
Norraaji-Fronch. In the main, however, its structure 

To the same century, though piohahly n later 
portion of it, hclungs tlio “ Ormulom." so calletl by 
its nutlior Orm, or Onnin, after liis own name. 
Ormin was an Aiigustinian friar, and lii-. book is 
a metrical vcr.«ion of the Gospel narrative, har- 
inoiiiscd, ns he exp1nin.s himself, from the four 
Evangelists ; and with homilie.s or discourses added 
upon the various passages, in tlio order in which 
the.v occur in the Cliurch serrices. Tlio “Or- 
inulum” i.s very long, and has but little poetical 
merit; bnl the vcrsilication is smooth, and its form 
is wortli noting. The metre is ahuosl identical 
with the modern ballad metre, but wUbont rhyme, 
and nl.'o without alliteration, 

Other icmaitis of Transition English litomturo 
have come down to ns, but none of so great general 
interest ns the two of which we have spoken. The 
laigcst and most important work of this period 
■wliioh has been published next to those mentioned is 
the “ Ancren Hiwle," or " Rule of the Anchoresses ” 
(that is, nuns). This curious book is a treatise on 
tho duties and dnngcis of mms, with full instruc- 
tions for their guidnneo upon all jioints, illnstrotcd 
by warnings and examples from the Bible and other 
sources. It is addressed, apparently by a learned 
divine (possibly Bishop Poor, who died in 1237), to 
three ladies, ‘‘sisters, of one father and one mother, 
having in the bloom of yontli forsaken all the 
pleasures of the woiid and become anchoresses.” 

Tho remaining period, falling between the middle 
of tho tliirteenlh century and tho age of Chaucer, 
is that during which tho name of Old English is 
given to tlie language ; and in it, as in the pre- 
ceding period, the literature in the native tongue is 
but scanty. 

The two most ambitious works in English be- 
longing to tliis period arc metrical chronicles, tliosc 
of Robert of Gloucester, and Robert Hlannyilg or 
Robert of Briiiine. Noilhor of these is of raucli 

, W.-IS all. nr nearly all. in French. But 
at this period, writers were busy turning tho most 
Xiopidar of the French romances into English ; and, 
as miglitbc expected, they were not only translated, 
but imitated, and to such an extent that a con- 
siderable quantity of the vernacular iioetry of that 
age lias been handed down to us ; while, of course, 
that which we iiosscss must he but a very small 
Xiart of tluit which once existed. 

Such is in very hriot ontllnc the histoiy of litera- 
ture in England before the groat era of which 
Chancer is the most distinguished reprcscutativc. 

CemjHirathe. -tuv -lor. 

SujicrJatirc, -urror -ion) -lOTw'. 

These forms are taken by t)Svs. mvef, and Taxiii, 
stvift, tho termination -us being removed. Taxis, 
however, lias in tho comparative Barrur (Oairaui' 
is another foim of the same word) j thus— 

Postttn. Compmalict. SniKrlnltn. 
fiS-is. yS-lui'. ijS-iOTOs. 

T«x-«r- Oarnui'. Tclx-urvoi. 

Also hy two adjectives -ending in -pos (namely, 
al<rxpis,heUifwl, shaiiiefiil; and (X^p6s, Iioslile), tho 
termination -pos being cut off ; ns — 

Positirr. C'omjriftiiirt. SiijKitnliiv. 

raoxpor. ahrx-loir. o'ox-ioTOS. 

#Xe/>os- c'xB-Iur. fxB-KTTOs. 


'AAAoi, -oi, -a, others. Of ixpards, tho ill- ' 
ZSiov, tA, a living being, temperate. 

an animal. ’Oapii, ii, smell. 

Kaip6s, -oS, i, season 'O^ir, -cut; u, a serpent. 

(feme generally). Ilapfxa, I affonl, coni- 

Aonr^t, -V, -op, the re- municato; (middle 

ExEnciSE 63. 

Transilatc info English . — 

1, 'O PaOvraros Smos {{SnrTfii itrriv. 2; IloAXa 
ivBt) ^Sfo-TTJP oaixrir jrapt'xtTai. 3. OiSl;* 0mt6» tari 
riis 9/3i)S. 4. T7 )v ctc<rxl<rTqi' SDtJX«(cii> at atcparcTs 

SouXE^ouirif. 6. nai7ciif fjSiirrdi' dtmi' i) 6. 

OvSli' af<rx*<f>' la-nv S) o\Xo /iJ»> iv vif txto’t fiXXo 
Si \lytiv. 7. OI to 7? XanroTs {TfSaii 

tttrtv. S. OuSer Tp di'O/iiuTr^ exStdf dorty j Si’S/Kuxvt. 

9. TitxMfTa i Koiptis iitret^tpct to 'Trpd7/iaTa. 

Exeecise 54. 

Tianslntc into Greek :— 

1. Nothing is sweeter tlinn deep sleei>. 2. Sleep 
is very sweet. 3. Nothing is more disgiitccfnl tlum 
slnvery. 4. SlnTe^J•^sn^orybUterfhing. 6. Horses 
tire very swift. 0. -Nothing i.s more unfriendly than 
bad advice. 7. It is most shnmcrnl to think one 
thing and say another. S. Bad men 1 bink one thing 
and say another. 9. Nothing is sweeter tlian a 
faithful friend. 

A number of adjectives not being rodnciblc to 
either of these forms, are called irregular (tliough 
some, it will be observed, liavc also tl»c regular 
form): c.ff . — 


1. 4y«9i(j, good apeiyoT, opKTTor, -q, -ov. 

$t\Ttuv ${KTurros 

KpfirTuiiitfiftlaaui)Kpirtaros ,. 
X^.*ti;i' X^ffTor „ 

S. KBirdr, bad «aitlar KdKitrrot „ 

X*lp<«>' X*^l’<«'ror „ 

fjTTur '(3<r<r“«')> [ijuKrro, adr.] „ 


3. KBXiSr, beau- uawlav /((iXXioTor „ 


4. iXyetyis, aJ^yayirtpos ^reg- oXynt'OToror „ 

painful «/nr) 

aXyioji’ fiXyio-TOr „ 

5. itaKp6s, long urntpArtpos umpircerm „ 

niaauv nipavros „ 

<5. niKpis, small umporipn lUKpSrmos „ 

cXdTT<i>s(4XfCiro’Os) #Xiix<OTor „ 

7. oXiyor, few peluv dXiynrror „ 

8. peyar, great fidfay pjyiaros „ 

9. ffoXvr, much rrXsfau' (vXray) v\t7<rros » 

10. ^?Sior, easy paav pharos 

11. ffdiray, ripe rrEmtlTcpas •ntraharos „ 

12. Ttluy, fat rrruTcpar n-idraTor n 

Soveial adjectives which express tlie idea of 
orier or sncccssion appear in the comparative and 
superlative only, since from "their import they can- 
not denote an absolute quality, and may be used 

only in comparison, 
preposition or adverb of x>tace. For c.vample : — 
Fromvpd, before n-pdrepor, prior ypuTos, first. 

From &t>ai, up aviirepot, upper ai’iiraTo;, upmost. 
From utrtp, over Cirtprepor, liiglicr vTrdproTar.bighcst. 
From ujrd, under Cvrepns, poster- votbtds, most be- 
ior hind. 

From df, from fo-xBror, .last, 

most from, most 

From irAqirfot', wXqiriofTepos, irXqiriafTaTOSs 
near (in Homer nearer nearest. 


From irpdvH>, for- vpoirtSrepat, fur- irpoo-diTaToj, for- 
wards ther, more in thest. 


'Qs, with a superlative, adds strength to it, as 
guaiii in Latin; for example, is Tixivvos, quam. 
celcrrimus, at siri/t as possible. 


’Avaymuos. -a, -or, noces- KfXeda-, I order. 

saty. KaXoicei'a, -os, it, flattery. 

"Avayaq, -qi, q, necessity. MaXeads, -4, -dr, soft. 
’Ayapxia, -as, q, ahsonCB MfVpar, -or, rt, mensiirsi 
of govorniiient, anarchy. moderation. 

Ttfra-r, -oros, 6, a noigU- Saiirrcu, I jeer. 

hour. Srspyu, I love, I am 

’EXcrOepas, -a, -or, free. sniisfiod with, I put 

“EpupvTas, -or, inborn. up with. 

'Eviort, sometimes. SdpgorXos. -or, 4, an 

’Erruxfir, -«s, fortunate. advisor. 

*H, cither, or. Swfipairdrq, -qs, soiind- 

'IJSqpta, -os, q, Spain. mindeclness. 

■loxi&i, I am strong. 

Exercise 55. 

Translate into English : — 

1. OSx 4 paapdroTos gfos fipiords ftrrai, aWa 4 
OTrorSaidraTos. 2. Mdrpor M vamv apioTor [under- 
stand doTir]. 3. TrSpai Twr ycpairdpur upcirous 
ciVfr. 4. SvpflovXos orSeis itrrt gEXTi'ur xi>drov. 5. 
•H Xtyr aiyqs KptitTora, i) aiy^r fX'- C- 'Afl 
apdrio-rdr doT« rb av^aXeoraTor. 7. Saiirreis, & 
XyOTo. 8. BeXridrwr Kaxlous iylart curuxdoTcpoi 
ci<nr. 9. 04a dvrl Xdnqs X^V®’’ bvdpiyyip aaadr. 
10. ifdXaacio ray SXXwr airdyray aaaur x^fp‘<’r<ly 
lirriy. 11. 'Aviip paXoabs rJir ^uxqr aal xpupdrwr 
{jrTan'. 12. TaTs yrraiflr q traxppoavtrii KoWltmi 
iperi doTTir. 13. Ora etrri arqpe adXXior 0(Xov. 
14. *H BovXEi'a Tp dXevBdpy oXy/orq dorir. 15. 'H 
55or pqaforq dtrrfr. 18. 'O apoadSsiXos dAox*<rrou 
yfyrcTBi ptyiirror. 17. 'H yq iKdrray lari rov 
^hu. 18. 2rdpye aal t 4 peiw. 19. ’OXfyiirroi 

Exmoisn SG, 

Translate into Gveck ; — 

1. Tliere is nothing better than a veiy diligent 
life. 3. Tlio opinion of the aucienl-4 is very good. 
S. Tinio is the best adviser. 4. Tlio truest is llio 
best 5. Grief is n very great evii. G. Xothing is 
WOI.SQ than flattery. 7. Tlio ino.'>t intemperate men 
are the slaves of pleasures. S. Women have nothing 
more" beautiful tlinn wisdom, fl. To free men no- 
tliing is worso tlian anaroliy. 10. Tlio crocodile is 
very long. 11. Tiie son is less than the father. 12. 
Tlio bad often Iiavo more property tlian tlio good. 
13. War brings many great evils. 14. It is easier 
to command ; it is liappior to obey. 15. AVc enjoy [*iij>e)'lai!ro neutei' of tlie ripest, fruits. 
16. My fatlicr's siieep are fatter tlian those of [f/io 
artiele tb] his neighbour. 


Under tlie name of adverbs wo indicate those 
indeclinable words wliich denote the relations of 
time nnd jilacc, or tlio relations of iratf and manner: 
ns, intT, thei'C ; pvv, nom; naXat, well. 

Adverbs of manner are formed from adjectives, 
by nfli.ving -wr to tlie pure stem of the adjective; 



loving. <pl\us, lovingly. 

Ka\if, beautiful. iraASr, bcmitifnliy. 

BirAour, simple. btAuf, simply. 

TOi, all. iroi'Tur, aitogctlior. 

xnitppuy, wise. iruippai'us, wisely. 

Taxis, swift. ra.^tiur, swiftly. 

fiiyas, great. /itydXas, gre.atly. 

bAtiS^s, true. oAiiPur, truly. 

avpriBris, accustomed. (rv>^{tai;,nccoiding to custom. 

Tlie terminations -Bn-, -Bi, and -St form adverbs 
by being added to nouns, pronouns, and verbs, to 
signify relations of place. Tims, -Otv denotes from 
ii iilaco Qvlicncc) ; -ffi, at a place {seliero) ; ami -5€. 

dami : nmtpiv, a ioiiy nay ; stipav, Veyontl a place 
(whence the country along tlie cast side of the 
.Jordan had the name of Pcriea, that is, the land 
beyond): Sapeav, gratis, gratniionsly ; trhptpoii, to- 
day (Latin hodio) ; avpiov, to-mnnme (Latin eras). 
coair.tRisox op adverbs. 

Adverbs of manner have commonly no peculiar 
adverbial termiimtion, but employ in the com- 

р. avative tlio neuter singular, .and in the superlative 
tlie neuter plural, of tlio corresponding adjectives. 
Tlic same fact may bo stated thus— namely, that 
tlio neuter singular of comiiarativos may be used 
adverbially (that is, with an adverbial signification), 
and tlmt the neuter plural of superlatives may 
be itsed witli an adverbial signifleation. For 

с. vamp1c : — 

rroM Cmiijximtiie, Superiallee. 

<to4ius (eoipis), wisely. aoftiTipov, troibiiTaTa. 

aa^ws (iTB^^r). clearly, aa^iartpiir. aatbeaTara, 

XapUrras papists), cliarm- xnpifTrtpor. xapiiaTara. 


f6Saifiivus(,tiSttiyuy), hap- tiSai/tavitr- tiSaiyovta- 
pily. Ttpav. rare. 

tuirxpHs (aiirxp^r), sliamC'. bYb^idi'. uYirxiaTa. 


nSias (uSwl.pleasantly.nSiM'. ij'Snrra. 

TBX^wr (vaxii), swiftly. OHttoi'. Tixnrra, 

Adverbs of pl.ace in -a retain that termination in 
the comparative and superlative: — 

Cniiijirin>tirf. Svptrlatlrc. 

&va, above. aru-Ttpu. avui-rdra. 

niru, below. Karoi-Tf'pw. kutb-tbtw. 

So compaintivc.s nnd superlatives in -w are 
formed fioni ; — 

C’oiiijittn>(irf. Su]trJaliir. 

sripa, beyond. sttpairipu. (7io?tc.) 

tijAoi*, at a distance. Tn^tntpo. TijAoTaTai. 

Finis, at a distance. iKaffrtpw. iicaardru. 

i-rris, near. {rporipw. iyyvriTci. 



vert the direct into indirect intcrrogatives and 
indirect relatives. Prefix r instead o£ ir, and 
then you ohtain demonstratives: as — . 

Dimt Jnltiros. 

j7, whither. fff , whitiier 7 Sn-p. rg, there, 


prim, when, at what iirqvffoi. runica.atlliat 

time 7 lime. 

S9er, whence. wdSer, whence 7 iTroBer. [rAcr, thence] 

[of, whither.] mi, whither 7 Sttoi. 

art, when. when 7 omre. Trfrt, then. 

o5, where. waP, where 7 Smu. 

ir, as. w£r, how 7 Siras. [t«5i, so.] 

Of these forms, of, ToBcr, and rwr are fonnd only 
in the poets, . 1111.1 are not to be ordinarily used in 
prose composition. 


Pronouns express the relation of an object to 
the speaker, inasmuch as tliey present either the 
speaker himself as the object (t/ie 
the person addressed (i/ie ueoad jjerstw), or the 
person spoken of (t/ie third penon). 

Pronouns may be divided _ into five classes — 
namely, the personal, tbe dcmonstratirci the re- 
lative, the indofiinto, and the interiogative. 

I. FEUsoxAi, pnoxouss. 

(1) The Suhstaniire Personal Pronouns. 

(i.) Tbe simple— namely, lyii (I^tin Cffo), P/ 
av (Latin tii), thou ; o5 (genitive), of himself. 

2fom. iy^, I. (TV. thou. ' 

Gen, fioS (t/ioS), of itdu, of thee. oS, of himself. 

Dat. ftot Qipoi), to o-of, to thee. oT, to himself. 

Aco. fir (rfir), me. ire, thee. 

f, liimself. 


Kom. avris auTri airS. 
Gen. avTov avrpr avrou. 
Dat. aur^ eurr; bvtu. 
Acc. aurSv ovr^v nwrii. 

outSv airruv airar. 
airroU ovrair auroir. 
auTOiir niritr nuTo. 

A~J }. — The personal pronouns in the nominative 
arc employed only when a special emphasis falls 
on them, especially in contrasts. This should be 
observo'd in the following exercises. 


rpBufiBi-aTor.Tli, a letter; AmipBelpa, I corrupt, 
pliir. letters (that is, destroy, 
learning). Su-yxotpa (dat.), I rejoice 

Atmpfpu (gen.), I differ with (someone), 

Exekcise 57. 

Translate into English : — 

1. 'E.yi> Iter ypdij>u, oh Sr val{tts. 2. SlBopai irt, 
Z Iliya Ztv. 3. 'fl *e?, fivour ftoO. 4. 'O narfip pot 
tplKraTis i<rrt, 5. 'O Bros iel o'i ^ArirVi, G, El pi 
jSAdrrrir, oim tx'^piiv Siaipiptis. 7. ’E 7 el> <ro5 if^u/iev- 
iorspds tipi. 8 . 'HSr'trr vtiBopu (rot, Z irdrtp, 0. 
*Hpe7r SpTi' trvyxaipoptv. 10. 'H h.ipa 6 pSj rS^pafvri. 
11. 'O BrSt iipTv iroAAi 070611 vapexti. 12. *0 Trarj/p 
i/iSt oripyit. 33. 'AvSptlus pdxeirBr, eS irrparifirot ■ 
ili&p ydp ixrri ri)V <pv\dmiv rt yhp SptTs 

^tiycTf, notro n sri\ts Sio^BrlprToi. 14. 'TpeSi' iortv, 
S iraiSts, rh ypdppara tnrouBofur poi'Bdvrii'. IS. 'H 
pitrtlP rZ irripyet. 10. Nuv ijp Kcacii rioos, 17. 
fx«vr tpi/iop wioruTarop. 18. Zipfp i varhp xoplf'voi • 
afi, yap o-irovSoi'us to ypdpiiara povBdvrTr. 19. 
SrowoTC, liKovr poS. 

Nom. vpfTs, wo. , 

Gen. vpiir, of us. 
Dat, 4 p~p, to us. 

Acc. Tjpus, us. 
N.A. s<5, we (us) 

Speir, you. 

vp£r, of you. 
bpiv, to you. 

BpSr, you. 

OKpZ, you two. 

oipsis [n. ir^to], 

o<pup, of them. 
trploi, to them- 

0-4101 [n. tnpia], 


G.D. v^v, of (to) aipfp, of (to) of (to) 

us two. you two. them two.] 

AMs, -Vt -d in the nominative signifies not mmply 
7ie, but he himself; in the oblique cases, however, it ' 
is used as a peisonal pronoun = he, she, it 1 — 

Exercise 68 . 

Translate into Greek : — 

1 . Wc write, but you play. 2. We two write, 
but you two play. 3. I honour yon, O ye gods. 
4. O boy, hear us I B. God always sees you. C. 
If I injure you, you rejoice not with me. 7. You 
rejoice with us. 8 . I willingly hear you, O parents. 
9. Father loves thee and me. 10. Mother loves you 
liotb. 11. It is my duty to watch tbe house, for I 
am the guardian of the house, 12. It is thy duty, 
O boy, to 'learn earnestl}-. IS! .The lyre affords 
pleasure to thee and me. 14. You two have a very- 
faithful friend. 

(ii.) The reflexive pronouns : ipavraS, ef myself; 
naoToS, of thyself ; fovroE, of himself. 


Singular. Exercise 00. 

, ireauToS (orauTou), {miroo (o&roS), TransTntc into Greek; — 

-5j. -3j. 1. The ■wise carry their property, about in them- 

a-tauTv (o-uuru), taurji solves. 2. Tlio av!U-iciou.s man enriches himself, 

-p. -p. • but injures others.’ 3. YoU gralify j'oursebaJS., 4.' 

. o-couTifv (n-eurdiO. fauriv (airir). The intemperate is not hurtful to othcrs'ancl useful 

-ijp. -pi', -i. to himself ; but he is an evil-doer to otlicns, and a 

mnohgroaterevil-doerio himself. 0. Good children, 
ip&rairSy. deurSv (oivSv). lo'o one anotlicr. 

flips into a liol'on- partly oirt of siplit. The left 
slope of the pit is covcreci with bmmbics and 
honeysuckles, and wc now- ixTcoivc for the first 
time a stream of water, running- under the shelter 
of some dock-leaves and foxgloves. Wiilst wc are 
drawing these a donkey approaches, and stations 
itself ujion the bare spot under the old tree, and 
its foal lies down by its side. These are vahmlilc 
additions to our picture. Two ragged children, 
wondering what weaic abont, come out of curiosity 
to •w.afcli onr proceedings. • Soon finding no amnsc- 
-thent in this, they go into the ghivcl pit, and. turn 
over the rnbbish tlic gipsias have loft. • These 
afford other suggestions, .and arc added to our 
-picture'. Seine ducks from off the common- come 
130 , ' ■ , 

uf contrast. The whole surface of the scene is broken 
up by passing lights and oloud-slmdows, which, ns 
tliey float along, bring out altcniatcly brilliant bits 
.of colour, backed up by sliadcs of various tones 
to relic™ tliem. Tliiia :i sameness is .avoided, and 
-w-liat is \ery important, they assist tlie perspecthe. 
.The sky .also helps ns ; its patclios of blue, broken 
up by n few dark eloiul-s, witli their thousands of 
semi-tones and white masses, form an excellent 
background, against wliich wc put in tlie sharp and 
-carernlly drawn tendrils and leaves of the ivy on 
tlm old live. tVe finish witli the weeds and wild 
flowers in the foreground, brighten np the cliildren’s, put a few more brilliant tonebes to the 
..ducks, the siiarkling -water, and the most prominent 


s, tone ' ing from Eatiirc, and to urge tUcni never to lot an 
5, and occasion pass bj- vrliicli can aflord them an oppor- 

oomes of .1 detid Iroo and a gmvol pitl” 

■ A repetiiion oC oxtrciiio contmsls mnst ■ be 
avoided, Tlioy •would render llic picture, if in ont- 
linc, .'ingiiliU' and harsh ; it in colonr, or light and 
sliado, llio result would ho "iKitchy.” Such cifccts 
are starlling, but they arc not plciusing when 
repeated. They must bo accomiranicd by middle 
tones of various grades. Plaok and while in juxta- 
position arc not iigreealilc; but ])1ucc coinbhiatinns 
of l.heni in oon,iutiotion ivith the extremes, and a 
w.ry dilTorcnt effect is produced. The Kiitic may 
ho .said of colours without their conihinatitins; 
lines also. Suppose a pcrpendicuhir lino outs a 
horisontnl one (and where tiierc is a repetition of 
these the elTecf bueoines, it will be neces.s!iry 
to take olt the Imr.-li elfecl they produce by adding 
inclined lines ^rre Vig. fi, where the .stnnping and 
inclined iigme.>< unite tlic two extremes, the one on 
the ground nnd the upright llgure). 

IVc musi now say somelliing tdiniit tho inlrodue- 
lion of figure.', ami otiier objects, all of which con- 
irilnito largely to the iiilerosl of a pictnro. If wc 
draw a view of a liver tiiid it.s .snrroumling.s, nnd 
there is it towing-path at tlio side, tla-re ought to 
bo boats ami biirge-liorses. A farmyard is not com- 
plete without cattle and pigs; or a sca-coasi 
witliont its bunts and fisliermen. In short, wluit- 
ever tnay be tiic cimraclcr of tlie landscape, the 
oItnr.actcr of the figure.^ must be in unison. To 
qualify, tlieicfore, in tins iirnncii of drawing.wc 
advise our pupils to lake It separately; lli!il is, to 
make e,special drawings and studies witliont any 
addilinnal Itindscnpc. 'I'bey will find that ligim*- 
drawing will require a lery close and inidividcd al- 
tontion. Afterwards, from a well-stocked jmrt folio of 
these studie.s.. select ions may lx- made nnd employed 
according to the iiat ure of tin* subject for .s|>ecial pur- 
poses. Iduny urtists are never without theirpnrket 
sketcli-honk and jieiieil, wit li wliieli tlicy an* alw.ay.s 
prepareil to note down gi'oups of figures, nniiiinis, 
boats, waggons, farm iiiqdemenls, or anytliing tluil 
may be ennsidered of Mifiicienl iinportanee to intro- 
duce into a pirtiiro. As a preparation for Ibis course 
of study, we strongly recommend the pme.ticc of 
drawing from simple olijccls, which can be cen- 
venii'iitly and readily obtained. M'itli reganl to the 
practicid treatiiieni of trees, wliicb to beginners are 
tlic most ditlieidl passages in landscape, wc wnnid 
refer our jiiipils to tlic lessons in Drawing. Tlwy 
will there fiiut all llie instruction that is neecssaiy 
for their giiidiince. 

In oonchisioii wo wisli to say a few wonis to 
tboBO who really possess a desire to excel in cIklw- 

1o tlicir art. s Constant, observation is highly im- 
portant.. It is not absolutely necessary to be always ' 
dniwing. Tho mind can at all times gather hints 
widcli are valniible. It is not Ihc/nrm of objects 
only which must engross their attention. Tliero 
arc rjfeeft and emnhinafimiii evcrywliero to be seen, 
wbioli must Im lliotightfully contemplated, nnd 
stored up for practical use; and if a free and 
correct maimer of drawing .has been acquired, the 
pleieiuro of being able to it .succc.ssfully for tlic 
purpose of depicting the I)ennlic.s of Nature ■will 
far more limn cnmpcn.satc tho .student forsthc 
labour he lias bestowed, or 1 lie trouble nnd anxiety 
be has experienccfl in overcoming the dillioulties 
eucountcred in liis 


It'antliii'id /mill ji. iS.] 

FniatCH Woans wiinjii Aiii: siMitAit ly Sriat,- 

HM. j 

O'liimPflp, 'Mnvrnttul: torisi 
iut}. •Co 

r^inmoilr, !»/. ;j 

t'miiiitr. >!M. -lownt. I 

Coiitlint, ntlj, 

’ rri 

OtnAdent, iiwffijnnf, ,('rl 

fftnir; inmifcrrj; ' | 

/ffitrr (fr;|'C«rp, c«rr. 

iiifffmrr tfnhr). | Cure** «/, uti'iiiff ; 

rib; || ' ' I age, ricaragu ' 



90.] ’ _ ■ 

Uavino considcrcil the subject of work, we arc in 
a position to discuss wlml is known ns the “me-, 
clinnicnl advantngo" ot ‘various simple machines. 
By means of a innohino we can inodtiy the amount 
of an applied force, and it seems to be in connection 
witli this fact that the term “ mcclianii£il ndran- 
tngc” has arisen. We may not, in fact we do not, 
on the whole derive any " adrantage” from the 
point of view of energy by the use of a maclrine, 
for we never get ns much energy from the inaoliinc . 
as we give to it, but wo may bo able by the help of 
a machine to obtain a muoli greater farce than 
that applied. 

Itf is in this sense that the term ‘-mechanical 
advantage ” is oniiilnyed. For instance, if a small 
force P balance a largo load or force w through 
the intervention of a maoliinn, the latio of w to p 
is called the -• mechanical advantage ■■ of the inn- 
chinc. The veal meohanloal ndvantage of any 
maohinc can only be obtained by c.\pcriincnt, and 
will depend on tlio condition of tlic machine as 
regards lubrication, ns well as on the load, iniat 
is usnnlly called tlio mccimiiicnl advantage of a, 
machine is really its rclocUy ratio, wliioh depends 
merely on tho si?.c.s of certain jiartsot the nmchitic, 
and wliicli is tlicrcforo always the .same for tlic 
same machine. 'J'lie study of velocity ratio is a 
geometrical one ; but if there were tw friction, the 
velooity ratio of a machine would be its mcohnnical 
advantage. It Ts useful to know how to find the 
velooity ratio of a mncliinc from the dimensions of 
certain parts, lieiu-o it iimy be well to spend a 
few minutes in I lie discussion of this point., on 
the .supposition tliat friction does not exist. Tlio 
way to find the real adrnntagc and 
efficiency will bo fully described in tlio next 

In tlio older books on mechanics we arc intro- 
duced to what arc called the “mechanical powers.” 
These aie tho lover, the pulley, the wheel .and 
axle, the inclined plane, the wedge, and the screw. 
The name “ inochaiiienl power" is not a ]inpi>yonc, 
for the term *‘ power " is now used in a dillercnt 
and perfectly definite sense ; nor is there any reason 
why some of these simple m.achines or elements 
should be considored separately from some of the 
others. It may, however, he of to study tho 
so-called mechanical advantage of some of the 
more important of them. First let us consider . 


let the weight w (Fig. IG) be sUVtod to move np 
the plane, and let p be the pull in the cord whiolv. 
just keeps np steadily the rriotion imparted to w. 
Then if f is tho length of tho piano and h its vor- 

then, tho ratio of its length to its lioight. ' The same - 
rule will bo found to hold good if we look at the 
matter from tho force point of view. Tlivoo forces act 
on the weight w, vir., the pnll of tho cord, 
gravity or pull ot the oartli, and the re- / 
iiclioii or force of tho plane against the >’ e , 
weiglit. The triangle of forces for these 
tlirce is shown in Fig. 17, and it is easy to 
sec that it is similar to tho triangle formed pig, 17. 
by the outline of' the plane itself, mid that 
x is to y,in proixirtion of Mo //. or of w to r, which 
gives the same rnlo as before. 

'tVb have assumed Hint the force P acts p.-iTOllcI to 
tho slope of the plane ; if.- however, it acts parallel 
to. the base of the plane, tlieii wlicn wmovosnp the 
entire slope, p will only fall ,a distance equal to the 
Vase of the plane, and in that case tlio mcclinnical 
adv.anlago or ratio of w to P is the Vase of the plane 
divided by its height. . . 

Jvxpcrimmtal Jlliisf rat-ion. — Tho student ' can 
readily arrange a simple piece of njiparatns .sucli as 
that shown in Fig. Ifi, and if ho employs very wcll- 
. oiled pulleys, ho will prob.ab]y obt.ain a result not 
very different from that just given. In order to 
get rid of friction as ns possible, the cord may 
be placed not parallel to the piano as shown in 
Fig. IS, and a very sm.all m'otioii of w only allowed. ' ■ 
Then, if a magnified drawing of the two positions • 
be made ns in Fig. 19, the direction of the cord is 


or, if P is applied by means of a bandle as nsnal, 
then the mcchiinlcnl advnnlaga ^ is the ratio (if . 
the circnmfcTcnce descrii/cil hy the jwint at rohieh 
Vis^ajjjtlied, dieUleH by lliejdteli tf thoterar. 

■ Pig. 21 shows some forms of the sorew-jack as 
' used for lifting weiglihs. ‘ 'J’lioro are many forms' of 
screw used in praciionl work. A .screw may be 
single, double, or trublo-Uiroadcd ; the tlu-cad may 
bo triangular or square-shaped, a large or aliort 
piece of screw may ho employed, and Ihe niit may 
or may not bo solid ; and our rule will require inodi- 
fiantion in sonic of tlicsc casc-s. Tims Uic propeller 
of a steamship is only a short bit of screw, and Iho 
nut is liquid water. In this case there is a good 
deal of slipping, or in oilier words the screw docs 
not advance tis far as it woidd if the nut werosolid. 
The following e.samplo will innkn this clear. 

J-txawjilc . — The pitch of a screw-prolieller is Hi 
fee/, the speed of ihe propeller .shaft 110 rcvoln- 
tions.pcr minufc, and the' slip 12 percent.; find 
the speed of the vo.sscl in knots per hour. Ono 
knot or nautical mile is equal to t!,0!*0 fool. 

If there were no slip, llio vessel would advance 
IB foot for every turn of tlio propeller, nnd hence 
lUxIlO or ITt'itl feet per luiuutc. 

Its real speed is 1700—12 per cent, of 1700. 

= 170(1-211-2. or ir.l«-S feet per niinulc. 

= inifi-S X 00, or 92,028 feet per hoar. 

I’utMiY nnocKs. 

In tlie .arrangeineiil of .simple pnUcylilocks shown 
ih Fig. 22, the lower block has three sheaves or 
]uilloys with n groove in each for Ihe cord or rope. 
The cord is fastened to t lie upper block, the .sheaves 
of which luay he called tho fixed pulleys since they 
do not rise or fall its tlic loa<l is rai.sed or lowen-d, 
pa.ssos down over one of the Imver pulleyj, up over 
a fi.xed one. down over aiiotUur lower 'one, up ovet 
a second fixed one, down over tlie third movable 
and up over tho third fixed pulley, then has :i 
smaller weight f attached to it. Tho lower block 
has the load w allaclicd to it, in fact tho load 
raised iiirluiles the weight of that block. There 
arc, it will ho seen, six parallel cords. eaeli of which 
will he slaekencd one fool if we lift the lower block 
ono foot, and honeo si.x feel of coni p-isscs over 
towards F, wbicli therefore falls six times as fast 
ns w rises. In fact, tlio mccliaiiical advnnlage, 
neglecting friction, of an arrangement of this kiiul 
is iirieo the number of viarablc pnf/cys, in this case 
it is six. 


In the last apparatus tlie sheaves or pnllf^s in 
each block arc of ihe same diameter. Inihc(7{/^<!i^ 

entiai pulley block this is 
not the case, hence tho 
mechanical advantage 
cannot be found by the 
rale given nbove. Tlio 
apparatus is shown in Fig. 

23. Tlio top block, whioli 
is slidwn separately in 
JTig. 24, has one sheave or 
policy only, but with two 
grooves cut in it, (lie din- 
mclers of these grooves 
being different-. Thus in 
Fig. 23 the groove c is a 
little smaller in dininclcr 
than the groove D. Hence, 
when the chain, which is 
endless, is pulled down 

turn to Iho top pulley, it Is 
pulled up a distance equal 
to iho ciromnfercnco of 
B, nnd at tho s.-imo lime '®- 

islctdowna distance equal to tho clronmroronco 
of 0. On tlie whole, therefore, one would he in- 
clined to say lhat the -weight 
is raised -a distance equal to 
the difforeiioc of these two 
circumfcrcnccs.^^ lint this is 
not ihe, tliougli given in 
many hooks, for wo have to 
consider ilic effect of the 

oftneoted by, linnger •n’orked bytli 


. 2. To find tlie last term of a tlescondmg sedcs. 
JF/'owi the first term suhtract the protbiet' »f the 
eonmon. dlffercnoc into the nvmier terms mhivs _ 
one, and the rcutainder mill he thc last term. ■ . - 
N.B. — ^Any other term may be fonnd in the same 
■way. Eor the series may he made to stop at any , 
term, and tliat may he considered, for the Umc^ as 
‘ the last. 

Tims, the iiith terra = n + (ni - 1) x <f. 


(1) If the first term of an ascending scries is 7, 
the common dirtcrciicc 3, and the nnmber of terms 
9, -what is the last term 1 A iw. c = a + (* — 1) A 
z=7+(i)-l)x 3 = 31. 

(2) If the first term of a descending scries is GO, 
the common difCcronce 5, and the numher of terms 
12, what is the last term t Am. s = «—(» — 1) rf 
= (iO-(12-l)xC = fi. 

(3) If tJie first term of an ascending series be 0, 
and the common dilloronco -I, what will the dth 
term be? A«*. r = « + (in - 1) rf = 9 + (5— 1) 
X<1 = 2S. 

2(i8. Tlioro is one otiior inquiry to bo made oon- 
corning a series in aritiiinotical progression. It. is 
often necessary to find tlio sum of all the terms. 
This is called the siwimation of the scries. The 
most obvious mode of obtaining the amount of the 
terras is to add them together. But the nature of 
progression will furnish us with a nioro expeditious 

Lotiistihr, for inataiirc, the scries 3, fi, 7, 0,11, 
eail also the s.-nno inverted, 11, 9, ,7, C, 3. 

The sums oC the toniis will lie, 1-1, 14, 14, 14, 14. • 
"Hmsc?,*"} ® 

“"imirtc™"} « 

’wm'™,” } 2a+ 1(7, 2(1 +4(7, 2a+itl.2a+id, 2a+i(7. 
Hence it will be perceived that the sum of alt 
the terms in the dmiblc scries is cqiird to the sum 
of the extremes repeated ns many times .as there 
are terms. Thus, 

The sura pC 14, 14, 14, 14, and 14 = 14 x 5. 

And the sum of the terms in the other double 
series is {2a + id) x fi. 

But this is irvice the sum of the terms in the 
single scries. If, then, wo put , 

a = the first term,, « = tlie number of terms, 
s = the last, s = the sum of the tenns. 

we sliall have this equation, X n. Hence— 

3. To find the sum of all the terms in an arith- 
tmcticnl progression. 

MnUifilg hay the sum ef the extremes into the 

emmher of terms, and the jiroduet mill he the sum qf 
■{he given scries. J 

Exauele. — ^W liat is the sum of the natural 
series of numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5j oto., up to 1000 7 

Aiu. s~~ X »=i±^ x 1000 = 500500. 

Tlie irwo formula! — 

s=a+(» — 1>Z, andi = ^^^x«,- , 

contain five diifcrent quantities : viz., a, the first 
term; &,the common difference ; .' d, the numher of 
terms : z, the last term ; amd s, the sum of all the 
terms. , ' . ■ . • 

209. From these two formula: others may be^ 
deduced, by •which, if nny i7ircc of tlie/vc quantities' 
arc given, tlie remaining two may easily 'be found. 
Tiic'most useful of these formida: nrc the follow- 
ing:— • ■ 

By the first formula, ' 

1. The last term,, f = rt + (m — 1) r7 in wliioh a, 

n, and d are given. ' ~ ' 

Transposing (n — 1) d, 

2. The first term, (t = i + (« — 3) d; s, n, and d 
being given. 

Transposing a in the first, and dividing by « - 1 , . 

3. The common difforenoe, d = ® ' 

being given. . ^ • - 

Transposing'nnd diriding, ' 

4. The numher of terms, n = — ^ — 1- 1 ! «, *, and 
d being given. 

By Iho .second formula, 

B. The sum of the term t, jf = — ^ X n ; a, r, and 
n being given. 

Or, by substituting for s its vnlno, 
g — r” t X « ; in which (r, a, and d ’ 

Bednoing tho preceding equation, 

G. 7%c first term, 'a = ; s, d, and n ' 

being given. 

7. The common difference, d = S *, a, and 

n being given, , • ' 

8. The numher of terms — 

_ ^/’(2fl - (7.)= + 8(7.v -2a + d. 

2d ■ 

a, d, and s being given. 

A variety of other formulso may 'he deduced from 
the equations already given,' the investigation oi 


quality I 

call it— that is, « followod by another consonant, 
as, sjiirUo, spirit; seetfri), sceptre. For example: 
il carneval passaio (11 knlirr-n!u-N?ihl ]tahs-sfih-to}, 
the last carnival (for ?7 a. man 

dcstra(a\i malm di!-.strah), on the right hand (for 
a iiiaiio dcstra') \ ogni 7iom iaaca (6n>nyco ooom tah- 
toliili-nh), every man was silent (for m/ai main 
faeca ") ; vhoJ far quaito (voo61 Xahr ka-iii-.sto), he 
■wants to do this (for ninlr/are ijurthi). 

In words ending wilii lln, and having the 
accent of tone on the .syllable preceding 7o. il is 
customary to omit the wiinle of the syllable 7a, if 
the .subsequent word begins with a consonant which 
is not the a imjnire. For example: hP7 for 7ic77n, 
bonuliful; gvr.7 for yinVfn. that, the roniicr; rarif7 
for vnrtU7a, horse ; wcivf for iiivf/7a, bird ; fratft 
for /rnfiVia, brother; irang«77 for /WBjinV/o. tran- 
quil ; emvf for earrvi/n, bniins ; rum'id for rw.wvffo, 
bfook, etc. 

:i. Tl<c abbreviations or omissions of the linnl 
vowels mcntioneil in tlio two ]ircccding rules can 
never tsike place in that part of a sentence which 
requires a pause, tluit l.s, liefore a coinnia, colon, or 
period. It is therefore, nut ntlowable to say fMa 
7iti vnu 7ie/7a tiinit, she has a line haiul, liut mana ; 
not C/il e ijiiel signnr.’ who is that geutiemanf but 
eignorc, i‘te. 

We will iiere give a general and concluding pro- 
nouncing table, showing tin* most enniplicatod 
eninbiniilinns of \owels witli consonants of the 
whole of the Italian iangnagc’ 

lluU'in. I'n-nniiii'i I. 

■\Vc shall now enter on the grammar proper of 
the Italian'languagc. 

"With regard to the selection of exercises, ivp 
shall not scruple, in addition to oiir own, to make a 
free use of examples which have passed tlic test of 
years of cxxicriciicc in the best schools of Italy and 

The exercises onglil to bo rotid over froqaontly, 
and ahviiys aloud ; and if committed to memory, so 
iimcli I he belter for tlic knowledge of the student. 


There arc Ihrce articles in the Italian Iangnagc, 
77 and 7a for the mn.sonIino, and 7a for i lie feminine,, 
gender, txjiiivnlcni to the English dciiiiito .'irticle 

The nrliclc 71 can only bo used before those 
innscnlini) wonls which begin with a cnnsoimnl, 
excc|iling always .t impure— r.e., x followed Ijy 
iinot her consonant, Tho plural is f. For cxami>lo : — ' 

The article 7a. wUhoiit tho ajiostroitho, can only 
lie used before those mascnline words which begin 
willi tile X impure. Tlie plnral of 7a is g7i. For 
moimxile : — 

1x1 tpi-rl-ln, the sjilrll . tn fim.ii F-lv. Hie straiiser. 

Illi rpi-ri-U, tlic «|>trlls. Wi rtm-nf/'-n, tlm stumseK. 

The article 7a is also used hoforc nil mn.sculine 

wonls lhal begin with a vowel ; lint in such a case 
the iipo.-.ttophe must bo u.scd thus, For ex- 

j; I<u-ip--bi, tlw aiip-l. V 1IH-)1|V-IM. file ollicp nr cm- 

-fSi nii-»e-Ii, ttic aiiecle. .fiT lm-pa-iihi, nir ugiccs >ir 

The jihiral g7i only requires tlieni)nslro])lu' before 
’ words (xnumeiicing with the vowel 7. and ntn-cr 
before words i-omnienciag with the towoIs. a. c. a. 
and u : which is clearly a iieoes,sary usage to 
niainl:un the squccjwl somid of (lie word g/i (llyce) 
.in these cases. 

Tho article 7a can only be used before words of 
the feminine gender which begin with consonants. 
The ]jhirnl is 7c. For c.xnniple : — 

/.a fti-rn-fa, Itic t.iWc. An wii-iliT, the Hint tier. ' 

Ix fi;.n>.7p, tlic tililes. lx i/iii.tfrf, the iiiotticrs. 

The article 7a must have tho ax'.Osfrophe. T, when 
it comes Iioforc words of the feminine gender com- 
mencing with a vowel. For esamplo : — 

Q, and by harmony, as : — 

"X :! ;i^; 




distiiigiiisimble by the jdace which they take hefpre 
or after the’ verb, for which reason tliey reqnire no 
special distinguishing mark. “ 

3Iost Jirlian nouns, masculine and feminine, 
change Iheir final ronel into i in the plural ; as, il 
pii-dre, the father, t pti-dri, the fathers ; il po-S-ta, 
the poet, i po-t"-ti, the poets ; il clr-vo, the stag, 
i efr-rt, the stags ; la vtd-dre, the mother, le 
nttt-dri. the mothers ; la nui-no, the hand, Ic md-ni, 
the linnds. ' 

The most important exceptions /rant this rule are 
feminine nouns terminating in a. which form their 
plural Ig changing x into B . as, la so-rel-la, the 
.sister, Ic so-rrl-lc, the sistersi 

JPer, generally speaking, is not contracted xrith 
an article commencing with the letter I, and in 
such cases it is enstomary to place pef and such 
an article separately ; as per lo pas-sa-to, for the 
past, etc. . ' 

In Italian, as in English, the .nouns have no 


' tCon«nM«l/n),ni). 111.] 

THOtJGH not possessing the obvious beauties of the 
ferns, and though distinctly lower in organisation, 

iccoious. Amongst tho archegonhi. 
thoro are generally ninlticolluluL* 
known us jiara^hyics (Fig. OG, 
od, ornngo coll-wsills, whoso solo 




fcTtnisatir.ii the contents of the centTnlcpil(o»4fl.’!Cw) 
acquire a ccUuIore ivall (oi'.ywre), the cMoiT>p!a«tK;< 
in the envi.-lope-tuhes hecmiic rerldish-yellnyr. ami 
the inner wells of these tubes become ligcified and 
bKck. Tiio whole nuculothen falls off. 

In srcrniinatinp in the nest sea'-nn the onsiwrc 
does not directly reproduce the leafy plant or 
oophore. but forms a cell-filament or ^ro-emhnjo ; 
one node of which gives off rbiznids. anrl the next 
bears some leaves and a bud which dneg, develop 
into the nest ouphorc stage. Though there is no 
; scvuany-pro'Uiced spore, there is some suggestion 
of an ahemathm of generations in which tin: 
Oophore is the conspicuous leafy plant, .as in 


tOar/iin>o(/romji. too.] 


The ne.vt clvaraotorlstic of good, reading and 
speaking, is just V stress." This word is meant to 
designate a peculiar inorlification of force, which 
distinguishes speech from music. A long-drawn 
musical sound has its most forcible part— in con- 
'sequence of ‘•swell” and "diminish” — at the' 
middle portion of the note, The tones of speech, * 
on the contrary — although, in a few cases, they • 
approach to this mode of voice — usually have the , 
chief force of each sound at the opening or the 
closing part. In music, the increase of force is 
comparativel}' gradual ; in speech and reading it is 
frequently abrupt. To these distinctive modes of 
voice the term “ stress " is applied. 

To understand the application of this term in 
.detail, it becomes necessary to advert to the mode 
of creating vocal sonnds. -In vocal muac the 
result is ohtained’by full “ inspiration ” Cinhaling or 
drawing in the breath),- and comparatively slight 
“expiration" (giving forth the breath). In this 
mode much breath is dr.awn in, much retained or 
withheld, and little given out at a time; and thus 
are produced these smooth, pure, and gradually 
increasing tones which are appropriate to music — 

, all the breath that is given forth being converted 
into sound, and none escaping that is not vocalised. 

In notes of veiy short duration, singing and speech 
are, it is true, brought nearer to a resemblance. , 
Bnt this r^emblance is more apparent than real, 

■ as may be observed in the execution of every good '' 
‘ singer,’ which, in the most rapid passages, still pro- 
duces the genuine effect of sbng, as differing from 
'..speech. The resemblance is owing solely to the 
brevity of sound, in such cases,, which does not 
afford time for broad and marked distinctions to "be 
■drawn by the ear. - ' " • _ 

The modes of voice which constitute speech, or 
are exemplified in reading, arc the following; — 

1. lt*.Drc.«. Stress.— T hi-s form of fon-c includes' 
two modes — •• oxplo'ion " and o.'cpukiou ” 

1 Exiilosion " is an abrupt and instantaneous 
bnr-t of voice — .vs, fm example, in violent anger, 

'Ibis being an instinctive, unconscious, involun- 
tary, impulsive emotion, does not allow time or 
disposition for any intentional or deliberate effect, 
but makes the creation of vocal sound seem an 
ineprcssible, spontaneous, electric production of 
nature, lying equally out of the reach of the under- 
standing and the will. 'I'his tone has its contrast 
in the decji. calm, and regular swell of the> tone of 
rererrnee. or the ample volume, and delibcr<ato 
force, of conscious atrtherUy axiA command, in. which 
the spe.vker is self-po.ssesscd and self-directed, and 
controls hi- vocal effects for purposes understood 
or felt. 

Contrast, for instance, the following angrj' shout 
of Doughus. when enraged by the defiance of 
^larmion. with the ex,amples of rercreniial invoca- 
fiox and aufJiorifaffrc command which occur in the 
subsequent paragraphs. 

Example of '■ Erjdosiim " 

Ur DRA WBRIDGE ’ groom ' Wliut, vvvr.DEn, IIO' ! 

Let the ronicr u.:-, sall ! 

The sounds of all the accented vowels, in this 
style, fall vtpon the ear with an instantaneous, clear, 
sharp, abrupt, and cutting force, at the initial or 
•• radical” part of each. 

2. *• Expulsion a conscious, intentional, and 
deliberate force, coming upon the ear with great 
power; as. for cxamxile, in the language of avtliari- 
tafire command. 

Example of '• Expitltion” 

Vanguard ! to right and left the front unf61d ! " 

In this style, hold and forcible as it is, and even 
sudden as is its commencement, the accented 
vowels do not startle the ear with the abrupt shock 
of the tone of anger, exemplified above. . There is 
a partial, though very brief, swell perceptible in 
the '• radical,'’ or initial part of each sound. Both 
of the preceding examples are classed under the 
head of ‘J-radical ” stress ; as their chief force lies 
in the “ladioal,” or first part of each sound. 

Ill .hlEDiAXi Stress. — This mode of force is ex- 
' hibited in 

1. "Effusion"— a raodeiate, gentle, and gradual 
swelling of tone— as, for example, in the calm and 
tranquil utterance of rcrerential feeling, in which 
no disturbing impulse agitates or forces out the 
Iireath, but the voice, somewhat as in music, glides 
-out, with a smooth effusive stream of sound. 


5)tt iinintc, tlio nintli. 

£Dn Biefitgllt, the fortioUi. 

I. jc^iitc, tlie tenth. ' 

It ffuifiigllr. the liflieth. 

o ctftc, the eleventh. 

0 fti^pgile, the sixtieth. 

o jitii'lftt, the 'twelfth. ' 

:i fitliniiigllt or rte^slgfic. 

.. itdjtfjmc, the ihir- 

the seventieth. 


„ oi^tsiglle, the eightieth 

o ■ nitrjcpiilc, the .foiir- 

I, naiiqigflc. . the nine- 

. teenth. 


, funfjt^iiic, the fifteenth. 

1, (iniKcctflc, the 100th. 

s fcitjc^ntc, the sixtcciit li. 

n fpintctt imb nflc, the 

rictciijdjiilc or ficf'idiiiit. 


the sovonteeiitli. 

.1, r;iuibitt unb jvbcitt, the 

ac^lsdmtc, the eigh- 



1, Biintcrt unb trittr, the 

> iKiiiijtrnitt, the iiinc- 


teuiith. . 

5ivciliunbcrt|i(, the 

s 5iu,iii]igflr, the twen- 

200th. . , 


1, trci^unbcTtilc, tlie 

M ciii iiiib iiuaiqigilc, the 



.. i.uifrubflr, the l.OOOlh. 

.. JUKI im> jiraiiugllf. the 

sniritaiircabjlc, the 



•1 trcijii'gflt.thothirlioth. 

1. Irritatifcubfle, the 

. cin ant twifiigile, the 



n icfnitaiifcnbltt, the 

.. iiitb treif igur, ic , t lie 


thirty-second, etc. 

1. (uiiitcrtlanfnibjlt, tt., the 

100,000lh, etc. 

Observe tlial, in the fornintion of the orl^hlnl^ 
from tlio cnnlinnl.', a certain law is oirservuti : 
si?.., from 8W<i (two) to ncimjcfni (itinctccn), the 
oorrespnndinij onlinnl in cacli case (trittt jiiul ntfifr 
exeejjteil) is ina/lo hy luldiiif; tile letters -It, ns ; — 
rfttti, two; jwtltf, soconil: vier, four; eitttt, fonrth. 
etc. Boj'oml tliat niiniher (nineteen), tlio snme 
citcct is produced by nddin;; -Pt, ns: — StBanjij. 
twenty ; jnianjijiit, Iwenlictli, etc. Prltt is from 
clicr (befovo). 

Xole, also, that Icr <iiitctr (the other) is often n.«ral 
ill place of ter jasitc, hut only in cases where two 
objcct.s alone are referred to. 

In coiupuimd nnniber!. it must be obsm'eil that 
the last one only, ns in Enplisli, bears l.hc sntllic 
-It or -fit; but in tlii.- ciL-e the units usually precede 
the tens ; thus, Ttr eicr init 3iv.uipjflc, tlie four and 

tVe have also a sort of intorroontivc onlinnl, forincil 
from imt (how) and vici (mncli, many), whicli is 
u.sed wlien we wish to jiiit the question, ’•'Which of 
tlio numhiT?" ns:— Scr uiiccicl(le ifltioue? wiint dny 
of tile month is lo-dny ? T>i<' mieviefpe ijl ct? how 
many docs that make J 


Tlie distributives, which answer to the question, 
“ How many at a time?'' arc formed, as in l^glisb. 

by coupling cardinals with the conjimOtion unb 
(niid), or by using beforo them the particle je (ever, ■ 
at a time). Thus : — 

3tt!ci anil jirci, two and two ; or ic jtiici, two at a 
time. ' . ' . . 

ffltci UBb ttti, three and three; or.jc tV£i,'thrce nc 
a time ; etc. 

, Multiplicative Numerals. 

The mnltiplioatives, which answer to'tlio question, 
“How'inanj’ fold?" are formed from the cardinals 
by adding the siiDi.'C -fmj (fold) or ■-('iltig (having 
fohls). Tims : — 

(fisfeifi or tinfillig,* onefold, or single. ' ■ , ' 

Biwifai} or, perifiiltig, twofold, or having two fold,!, 
or douhle. 

Srcifiiifi or treifadig, tlireefold, or treble, or triple. 
SSiafod; or tittfftftig, fourfold, or having four folds, 
or quadruple. 

Variative Numerals, 

Variative-s. which answer to tlic qiicelion, “ Of 
how many kinds?” are formed from tlic cardinals 
by ailixing tei (a sort or kind), the syllable n being 
inserted for the rake of euphony. Thus : — 

Giutriti, of one kind, ©wictlti, of three kinds, 
dwcicrid, of two kinds. a);nnil,itrlti, of many kinds, etc. 

Dimiuiative Numuiials. • 
'flic.dimidiatives, wiiioh answer to tlic qne.stioli. 

“ Wliicli (/.f.. which of iho numbei-s) is but a half?" • 
nro fonnoil from tlie ordinnis by siiilhcing the word 
(ialb(hnl0. Tims: — 

Bivdltl'.ilf.t tlio second lialf (i.c., one whole and 
n Jiulf). n. 

ffliWt^aU’, the third halt (i.f., two wholes and a 
half). 21. 

Slinlclialb.' tlie fourth Imlf (i.f., three wlioles and' 

■ nhnl0,31; etc. 


The iterntives. wliich answer to the qne.stion. ' 
"How often, or how many times?", arc formed 
from canlinals and from indefinite nnmoml.s, by 
tint addition of tlic won! iimf (lime), 'ynis : — ■ 
Ginniaf, one time, once. Setriiiinf, each time. 
Si'rimnl, lliree times. Slicliudl, nuinytimes; etc. 

aiJof is sometimes .separated from the nnmeral.s, 
.md is tlten regidarly declined as a iieiitcr noun. 

• ' Ginfihig is niso nppIM to wlial I.s timplt, arlhvs, or 

t lustcwl of pecitriiiilt, the word in ccminonuse is aiitnlfh'tlt: 
tlio imit anbtti heing frniirbtr oiitccc, thr monil. The 
noni rlimMbe antCRfinll) ; hut the liiinl t is'evclmiigbd for n t, 
probably for -the sake of assliiiihiUiig it iii/oi;n to of 
the nonlsofUiis class. . , 

178 , 


(Itcmij, enough, suffieient; never declined. (8(I» - 
jjriiiiji, monc,v enough. 

amtx. merely, only : never dcelincd.' SAUtccJIuncr 
copper only or nolhing but copper. 

» rilON'OUSS. 

In Gorman, jib in other langiinKt's, will lie found 
a nnmbur of those wordu wliicli, for the ■•.alti* of 
convejiicncp, arc ein]>loycd as the direct representa- 
(ivos oC nouns. 'J' are the Prononn.s. Theyare 
divided, accnnliug to the isirlicnlar oilleos which 
they ]icrrnrin, into six diiTerent classes, viz.: — 
I’ersonal, I’osses^ivo, Deniunstmlive, Dclerininatiw, 
Relative, and Julerrogalive. 









T.tni.r. OF THE l’noson}:.“i. Ao:. 

snrosn rr.[:;,us <aij. cl-sskils). • 

5)u, thou. 3^r, ye or yon; 

®dBttortnit, of thee. Uiitr, of you. 

iCit, to thoc. ' Riid;. to you 

SiA, llicr. (iu(^, you. 

Sdiirr or frin, of him.' 
atai, to him. 
aiin, him. 

Sic, tlicy. 
afircr, of them, 
abntn, to thcDi. ' 
Sir, thorn. 

Sir, stie. 
atrer. of her. 
atr, to her. 


Sic, tliey. 
aticcr, of them, 
afinen, to tlicm. 
Sic, them. 

.sVn.riiliir. J'liira'. 

a<t. 1. aUir. we. 

®ti, thou. atir, ye. 

Rr, he. Sic, they. 

Sic, rile. Sic. they. 

Rf, it. Sic, they. 

!■! sirtv'-Tii iTivi: riiosoess. 
Siefcr, tins, 
acner, that, 
ffer, llii.-.i.rthat. 

nil iTiin I'liiisers.. 
i!0cli)<cr, who, wliicli, 

(Ter, tliiil 

aUct, who, he or she. who 

iflv.ixjVB rrAisnr.vv, 
.Silijriitnr, I'tonil, 

Tlcin, my. Ilufcr, our. 

Sciit thy. Riict. jour. 

Scin, his. atr, their. 

Scm. its'. 

ffer] that, that one, he. 
sreticnije, that, that iM-rsim 
Scrfcllc, the same. 
Sclti.jcr, the same. 

2cli{>cr, such. 

aitecV who I S&it > what .’ 
aPcM'crV who? whieli.’ 
aSiiJ flit? what son of I 

isrniiMTC l•l•(l\•llrs-. iii.ii.(itivi: ask iti 
iV.tii, line, a eiTtain one. 
aiiuAlit, soiiii'oae, .-ome- Sid', himself, hei 
body. si-If, theiilselvt 

aiiciii.iri. no one. nobody. Pnnr.tcr, unennol 
acicriii.uiii, everyone, 

Pi:i!SI)S.tI. T'BOXOf.N.O. 

'I'liere are then live js-'r.'iinal proiimm'— nniindy. 
a* (/). which rejiresimlB the spi.:i|!,.r. and is thi-re- 
fore of the firs! peivoii ; SUi {thou), whieli re|ireseiii.< 
tlie JieariT, or persori .sfiokeii to, and is llien'fore of 
the srroiirl jiiir-snii ; and Ft (hr}. Sic (*ile). (if). 

re|ireseuling the persons or things s|H>ken of. and 
llierefore of tlie thin! jicrson. They nre deelined 

Sinynhir. rUiral. 

N'oin. ad'. 1. 2Sir, we. 

Gen. i’lciiicr, mein, of me. llnfcr, of U'. 
Dat, a);,r, to me. .tin:. In ns. 

Acc. a’lid;, me. linf, ii.s. . 

Xom, R», it. 

Gen. Seiner, of it. 
I).al. af'in, toil. 
Aec. (?«, it. 

Sic, they, 
abcer, of them, 
abiicn, to them. 
Sic, them. 

Ri:.M.M!K.S t»y TUB I’BItSONAt, PltO.N'OU.NB. 

The genii ivo.s mein, tciii, fciit, arc Urn earlier forms. 
The o(hei>,(incintr, tciiicr, fciiict) nre the ones now 
eominonty used. 

IVheii eon-trued with the prp])ositif>iw IJalteu, 
tcc.yn, and.uni— ivillcii (signifying “for tlie sake of,’ 
“on neeounl cif"), these genitives are united with 
the prepti-itlon by the eujihonic lelter.s et, or (its 
ea-e of imfct and ciicr) simply t. Thu.-', illhmdiccjcii. 
oiiaeeounl of me; imi mifnnt'ilica on neeounl of us. 

The per.'onid pronoun.- of the third person, when 
they lepre-enl thing-' without life, are seldom, if 
ever, ii-tsl in llio datiie, and never'in the genitive, 
in siicli in-tiuiecs. the eiirri'.s^Kinding case of tlie 
denton-ltalive trr, tic. is emjdoyed: tlms, tcifcit 
fof tlii-), of fciiicr; and tercii (of those). 
iU'te.'id r,f it'icr. 

Tlie word fcll-il or filter (.-elf, selve.s) may also, foe 
tile, sake of gt-aler cleariie— or empliiLsis, bo added 
not only to the proiioiiiis, but even to nouns. 'I'liii-. 
3il' fttlfc. 1 iiiy.sclC; lit Vriilc iettp, tlie pcojilo 

lleie, loo, observe tliat tlin jiersomd pronouns 
bnve al.-o in the plmal n reciproeal force. Tliiie, 
fie lichii fid', they hue one anotlier. Rut as fie littcii 
flit', for example, miglil signify “they love tliem- 
.-elves," tlie Germans .nl-o iiso tlie word ciii.uitcc (one 
aiiollier), about wliieli tliere can bo no mistake; a-', 
fie lictcn ciiwntcr. 

Ill polite eoiivev.satlon.tlie Gerralms n-e the ihiriT 
)*'rsoii plural whoie we use Oio sreoiuJ ; tlius, Srfi 
Isitc Sic gcfri'cn, I linve .-een you. To prevent inis- 
uonceplioii, (lie prunoiin.s thu.s used .arc airiltcii 



■•'hli U-tter; ta'i!c 3hntp. I thnnli 

yoi:. A >-!L.:I:ir '••iiciifice tif eroniraarto (snpp'-'^a'J) 
.ly liv foiiiid in our own laaguas."'. for -we 
invariab'y ujo tlia plural for tlie sincular; thm. 
*• How arf yntt ? " instead of “How art iiitir ?" The 
German*- jiroct-''d just one ftep beyond tliK and. 
bcsidc' takin:; the plural for the singular, take the 
third person for the- second. IVith them, onr familiar 
■.alulation. “flow do J/o>f do? "would he. '■How do 

It iuu--t he oh=eia-ed. however, that the second 
ji'Tson singular (Sii) is always, as in English, used 
in addre.'-'ing the Supreme Being. 'It is also the 
proper mode of address among close friends and 
near relatives. 'Ihe second person plural is employed 
hr superiors to their inferiors. The third person 
.singular (cr, fic) was used in the same maimer — that 
is. by masters to servants, etc. 

The neuter pronoun iff) of the third person 
singular, like the words it and t/icre in English, 
is often employed as a nominative both before and 
after verbs, singulai and plarnl,as a mere expletive 
—that is, more for the purpose of aiding the sound 
than the sense of the sentence. In this use, more- 
over, it is constmed with, words of all genders. 
Thus. (S< lit let 2)!.uu!, it is the man ; Ql id tic St,ni, 
!l is the woman'; ffs fiirt SKJniiet, thefftaa men; (S« 
tdiattt, it thunders ; (F« fcljtcn ride, iltere followed 
ninny ; etc. 

IVlien e« is thus used with a personal pronoun, 
the arrangement of the tvords is precisely the. 
reverse of the English, as:— SiJ Bin' tJ, it is I; S>u 
Bijl tl, it is thou ; Sic finti c>, it is they ; etc. 

Possessive Pkokouss.- 

The possessive pronouns .are derived, each re- 
spectively, froiA the genitive case of tlie personal 

Xote that in declining unfit and tucr, the c before 
T is often struck out. Thus : — 
lli'.rrcc(foriir.fcnr), iinfrc (for iinrcrc^, unfriSCforunfcnt), 

Giircr (for carrtr), cure (for ciictc), ciiccB (for cncrct). 

By their forms; therefore, these pronouns indicate 
the person and-nnmhcr of the nouns’ which they 
represent — that is, the person and number of the 
'jmscAinrs. As. moreover, they may he declined 
like adjectives, they also, make 'kno'wn by their 
terminations the gender, nninher, and case of the 
'nouns ■with which they stand connected; for, in 
respect to jnfloction, a- possessive pronoun agrees 
in gender, number, and case, not with the pmessor. 
hilt ■with the name of the thing posscsscc?.* - 

The possessive pronouns, when conjunctive— that 

is. when joined with a r.or.n— !.!■• inSected after the 
Old Form of dufloo'-icn. cxci-p; in three pl.accs 
(nom. sing. and r.oiii aii'l ace. neuter'), in 

which the tern,in.atinrt are wholly omitted, tliiis : — 


Xom. iSiciii 
Gen. Slitinc! 

Eat. dKciacm 
Acc. ailcinrn 


mnii aiicinc, my. 

nicintS. iOtcincr, of my. 

uicir.ciii. {Viciiicii, to my. 

mein. SKcinr, my. 

inien. however. lhe<=e pronouns arc absolute 
(that is, when they stand alone, agreeing with .a 
noun understood and demandingnsiiecinl emphnsis) 
the terminations proper to the tliree places noted 
above arc of course affixed. Thus, Eitfcr $iit ill 
mtintr, nidit tcincr, this hat is mine, not thine; tkfeS 
aiii^ tfi mcincS, this hook i.s mine. 

But when a possessive pronoun absolute is 
preceded by tiio definite article, it then follows 
the Xow Form of declension. 

Often, too, in this case, the syllublo 13 is inserted, 
hut without any change of meaning. 

IThen, finally, a possessive pronoun is employed 
as a predicate, and meioly denotes possession, 
without special emphnsis. it is not inflected at all. 
Thus, ffift <5'.wttn ifl mein, the garden is mine; tic 
SluBt ifl rcii'. the room is tliinc ; MS -^.uis ifl fetn, the 
house is bis. 

It should he added that the Germans, when no 
obscurity is likely to grow out of it, often omit the 
possessive pronoun, where in English it would be 
used; the definite article seeming snfiSciently to 
supply its place ; as : — 3(^ f;(iBr t« in Ini .Santen, I have 
it in the bands (thtit is, I have it in my hands). 


The REDsnEAbT 

-A mlbimst came in the scTciitrar the vi inter tn tho Mindoiv 
ornpioim enuntrynian, it" Uioiigli it ui^hcil tn cnino ill. Uhcii 
tbo eoiuitryman opened Iiis window, and took the conlitliii" 
little creature kindly Into Iiia dMellliig. It picked up the 
scraps and little cruinlw nliirli fell iroiii Ins talilc. Tlie 
children of Uic countirinan .also hived and clieii-.lied the little 
bird. Ent now, wlien the .sjinng .again came in, the land ami 
the hnshes were in leaf, tin- coiiiitryin-an opened his aviiidow, 
-and tlie Ijitle gnest flew nwny iiitn the neiglihonnng wood, ainl 
bnilt Ills nest and sing his merry little song. 

And, hdiald I when the winter retiiriicd, the little redhreat-t 
came again to the house of the coiintryin-aii, .and had Iirniight 
Ills litUe mate with him. Again tlie cuuiitryinan, nitli liis 
children, i^oiccd very mucli when they saw both the little 
creatures, as tliey looked cmindiiigly arnimil cut of tlieir clear 
little eyes; and the children said' “The little birds look 
at ns as If they wished to say sometliliig," 

Then Ore father answeicd: “If they cuiihl talk, they 
woidd say. Kind coiilldcncc awakes conOdence, .and love 
hegcls rctnm of love !" 



Tub simple instructions given by Linne to nil sno- 
cecding nntnralists were “ Observe aiitl compare." 
Tlio Swedish naturalist, whom wo call Linnanu?, 
asHiclnously followed his own nuisiti), and became 
one ol tile greatest inastor.s of the d.c.scriplion, and 
the largest contribntor to the science of the classi- 
ficiilion of living things whom the world has 

All tile Iiigher animals are free, locomotive, well- 
' defined individuals. Each lias witliin thccironm- 
soribed limils of its body, whether that body be of 
'moderate dimensions or oxiremcly mimitc, every 
organ wliioh is requisite to .self-existence and re- 
liroduotion. Tlic actions which .the body has to 
perform in order to carry on that orderly system of 
constructive olunigo wliieli is always associated 
witli life, are very numerous. To iierform theso 
actions, many complex orgaas are rcijuired : bcncc 
an animal is a very eomptict pieco of maebinory, no 
part of wliieli can bo dispensed with wilboiit crip- 
pling the wliole. As in a large factory every band, 
and wheel, and rod, from the greal piston to the 
lit I lo bobbin, 1ms its scimrntc ollicc, the adaptatioas 
ii> , wliieli liave required lliouglii and contriviince. 
sii tlicrc is no jmrt of any animal which is not fitted 
to carry out some necessary function. 

Tlie outward form of anim-.ils is often bcatilifnl. 
ami the study of it instructive; but it is obvious that 
we cannot expect to hnow an.; thing of the animal, 
considered ns a mnoliine, until we Iinve .soarcliod it 
tlirougliout by cnltiiig down to every internal organ, 
and c.vnmining all the pcouliaritios of each. It we 
neglect to do tliis, it is not only ]>rulinb1o. but 
I'artaln, that in the nncxnmincd part wo shall leave 
some societ of its life, some admirable contrivance, 
.some wonderful adaptation, nnnoliccd. This lends 
us to the conclusion Hint in order to acquire a know- 
loilgo of living things wo must use the knife. The 
microscope, tlio injecting .syringe, and all the aii- 
pliances of modern science may be used, but Ihe 
knife or scalpel is iiidi.sponsable, and the use of it 
1ms given a name to tlic science. The word anafimii/ 
is derived from tlio Greek Iii<d through, and 

ronii (tom’-r), n cjitting. In following the Linnaxiii 
direction to ohsarre in tins realm of Nature, it was 
iiatiiral tliat tlio only nfoan-s of obson'alion should 
give its name to tlio science which sprang out of 
the investigation. At first, liowever. the study wim 
directed upon one spccic.s only. If in more senses 
than one tho proper study of mankind ts man, it 
was natural that at first the human frame should 
monopolise all tlic attention of scientific dissectors. 

Hence tlic word anatomy was applied to tlie study 
, o_t the 'stmoturo of. tho human species. As science 
.advanced, other animals were examined in tlie sniiio 
■ tray, and' the. new study, as it always suggested a 
^comparison with tlie results of tho old, was called - 
. Comjyaratirc A-itaiomij. . ' - ' . 

Companitivo anatomy is a study of all the parts 
-of all the different kinds of bodies which are found 
in the animal klngiloni, so far ns strnctiiro is con- 
cerned. Strictly speaking, it treats of the dead' 
aiiiiiinl alone. It ilcscrihcs the machine when the 
motive iiower has ceased to act. Nevertheless, in 
examining flic slriictiiro of a species it is quite ini- 
jiossiblc, and voty.midc.siriihle, to cxchtdc flic idea 
-of the fnnclion wliich tlie several parts have to 
jicrform when nuimatcrl with life. 'J'hiis tlio twin 
.studies of anatomy (or tlio structure of living 
Ixiiiigs) and of physiology aro indissolubly connect od, 
though distinct from one imotbcr. Tho mechanist 
has to do willi the .‘■overnl ixirts of tho engine while 
tlitiy are at rest, Init every fitting is constriiotcd 
witli roforence to motion. He cnimbt exclude tho 
idea of motion while hcisconstrnctingliis machine. 
He asks himsoK at every singe, IVill it go? wilMt 
do its work well? The works of God cannot bo 
.constructed by man, and tlioir simplest contrivances scarcely be imitated j but man can examine and 
analyse lliem, and as be does so liowill be continu- 
ally asking himself, How does this structure not in 
the living nnimnl? and c.xolnini, ns knowledge 
dawits uiKin liim, How ndmir.'ihly is this organ 
const rncted lo do its work ! 

Tlio v;m<\oromj)araUv6 anatomy, however, suggest 
anotlior I ml li—tliey suggest tliat bring beings may 
be compared witli one another. Every nnimnl 
might lx» made a study by itself, as man lias Iioeii. 
The fact Hint ninu’s frame lias been tlie subject of 
thousands of books, and Hie object of million.s of 
investigations, and still affords unsolved problems, 
shows that the stndy of oacli species is nn- ' 
limited. On comparing Hie bodies of different 
animals, it is found Hiat Hioy are not totally dls- 
siiiiiliir Structures. Tlio first tiling which strike.s 
tlie student is that a very largo number of animals 
aro const meted upon Hie same ground-plan — they 
differ only in the details of Hioir stmoUirc. Now, 
the details of stnictiirc aro often most apparent on 
the exterior, while Hie e.ssontial plan lies deeper. 
The nnalomist Qx., dissector) will often reveal a 
similarity between two animals which tlie zoo- 
logist woidd not SHSi>ect. If we take two aiiininls' 
so utterly dissimilar in size, outward form, and 
habits as the Imt and tlic iiig, and dissect tliem, wo 
shall find that in Hie main tlieyaro alike. Notonly' 
is there a bony axis composed of ninny joints in the 
interior of the body of each, which supports .the ' 



animal. P' oridn to tije miijolis. iumI protect® 
till- nervnii'! mnrtcr, bat nith fevi* .anil .alight escep- 
tions wp .'iivl bone fur bnne, nm.>clc for luiiMtlc. 
nervv for none, in coniparinc: each ^loinf of the 
intoTiiiil ^^nlctnrQ of the two animals. Xot only is 
the fore limb of a dog built upon the same plan as 
the aria of a man, bnt it is p.«sonliallj- moie like it 
than it is to (he hind limb of the same animal. 

The .-.imilaritj- of structure which i-. found 
throaahout a very laigc number of .animals i® the 
tirst fact which strikes every candid stndcnt of 
eompitntitc anatomy. It is fortnntite for the study 
tli.1t tliis i® the ease. If every animitl were built up 
nil tin independent plan, no one could hope to gain 
a eMiiipreliensive iiew of the structure of the animal 
kingdom : nor would" the study be so interesting, 
fur the hitman mind delights in similitude.*, and 
generalisations ; moreover, on this likeness of stme- 
iiirc all ola.s3iiication of animal® depends. 

In pur.Miing hi.® study, tlie corajmnilne anatomist 
Snds that while .a very large number of animtds are 
constructrd tiftor tho same pattern, this pattern 
does not run through tho structure of all animals. 
He find® another multitiido of animals which are 
built upon a plan conimen to them all. hut this plan 
i® (piite different from that which cliaractorisc.® the 
first, proit]). When he has dptermiiicd tlio number 
of thr.®n largo- group.®, he finds farther that each 
spir-ic® in one of ihe.«e groups ia not 'in the same 
degri'u lil:i> or unlike every other of the same gronij. 
If c, h. i\ etc., represent a number of animals in a 
large group, ho finds that o is not iis like to ff a® h 
is to It, so tiiat ho can arrange them in somnthing 
like order, placing one nest to that to which it i® 
most like, so as to sliowtiiat though c be to a great 
pstenf unlike a. ypt ir i< connected with it by the 
intennedinte links. Our student will find also that 
each specie® is not in tlie same degree like or un- 
like Cl on it® next-door -neighbour, ns every other 
two nc.xt-door neighbours are. In other word®, 
there are gtips in the scries, iiiid very usefnl these 
gaps arc. bccan.®e they enable u.s to split up the 
tlinu'.mdr. of ®iiocic» which belong to each ^oup 
intonaturid sections. The great groups theinsclve.® 
are only®«l by very wide gaps ; .and these 
group® are .subdivided by Ics® marked gaps into 
smaller group.®, and' so on. The render mnst always 
remember that the vast sclicmc of animated nature 
is far more complex than any of these poor illustra- 
tions c.xpre-®. or else ho will be misled by that 
which w.'u; intended to explain it. Perhaps the best 
innstnation of the -relations of animals to one 
another is that of the riohly bnanclicd head of a 
large tree. In summer, when tho leafy covering 
.pres&nts an oven surface to the eye, the connection 
of tho ultimate twigs is not apparent ; but in winter 

we can see tlmt a nttmlvr of twig.® spring from one 
little biingli. .•> number of tlicsc boughs spring from 
a branch, and a number of these branclies may be 
traced down to where they diverge from the giant 

It follows from tlii® arrangement that a gre<at 
many things mtiy be .-aid nhont the structure of 
each nniitial in one group which will' be tntc of, all 
in that group. A great many moro facts may be 
stated of the animals of a smaller group, and so on. 
Xow these statement >■ are tho results of compara- 
tive anatomy, and the only tnie grounds of cl.assi- 

The c(mi]inrativc aimtomist has a most difficult 
task before him. and the collected wisdom of all 
conip.anitii e niiatnmists has not saved them from 
many blunders; bnt every .student of the science 
has this sntisfiiction : he knows that the clnsrific.'i- 
tion which i.® being worked out is not an imaginary 
but a real one. The classification which imifes 
animals into group® within groups, grounded on 
thoii likeness more or less to one another, indiontos 
n real and natural nlntionship in those which arc 
placed together. 

Of course, the fact that we can say so m.-iliy things 
which are Into of a whole group of mninitlB, but 
which cannot bo s-.-iid of any animal not belonging 
to tlidt gronp. sre.'itly .®impliiics the whole study o"f 
comparative anntomy. 'J'lnis nc can fiamo defini- 
tions of group®, but there i® this difficulty in tliis 
treatment of the subject; wo tiro not ncqnaintdd 
with all animtds, and it not nnfrequontly happohs' 
tliat when we have inade our definitions of two 
grotii).®. nppaienlly perfectly distinct, some stranger 
creature from some outlandish comitry is brought 
home wldch has some of tlio characters given in 
one definition and some tliat are given in the other. 
Then tlic definition® have to be tc-framed so as to 
include the new ®pceic® on one side or other of tiiu 
line of demarcation, or a new group made for its 
accommoibition. To avoid this rusnlt, it is porlinps 
better to take .some one animal of a group which 
has all the e.'.®eiitial features of its group well 
devTloped, and de.scnl>e it as a type, laying stres® 
on the dc.«cription of thoso peculiarities which are 
tlie mo®t widely po®®e®«od by tho members of tho 
group. As .1 mutter of fact, it will he found that 
an immense nmnher of forms cluster closely around 
such a typical specie®, whilst those form® which lie- 
• betw'con two sueli types will be few and lare. This 
plan of describing tyiics, we shall endeavour to 
follow; hut since the human mind longs for defini- 
tions because they are definite, we can hardly 
ascape .sometimes giving them. 

Tlic animM kingtlom is tlie realm we have to ex- 
plore. How is it bounded ? The question involves 



.■inytl.inir nj>]>m:;cliins i Fciomific basi-: by llip peat liitcn‘»(!ii<r as tlie history of the ^•a^ions clnssi- 
iiiiVoii Tuvicr. I’rc-r ions clnvifiers bad cndvxivounsl fioatiuii^ of the animal kingdom fmm Cuvier I hrouglr 
to mark ouJ tliese ilirision.s by differences in fonie Owen, Iluslcy, and Geponbaur to Clau.t, oar syacu 

one organ or svs- 
tern of organs'. 
Tiie sy.stcin wliich 
was generally made 
use of, ns iirodu- 
'■ing the most nat- 
ural rlassiJlfiilioii. 
■wa-s -of the 
organs of eiretil.a- 
tinn of till’ blood.. 
<ir the nutritiv*- 
iliiid wliicli an- 
swered to the 
liloofl. Tlio classi- 
licatwn of nnim.ils 
ascordirg to tlic- 
strueiuro of their blood-vc.s- 
s«ls, etc., wn.s per- 
haps :i.s pood jw 
.uiy founded on 
ony one system of 
<irpans'. At least, 
onr' peat aimto- 
inist. Hunter, who 
bad rarefully ex- 
tirnined nil tiie 
systems of organs 

of tiniinnis in re- 

Intinn to their ti«p in classifying, tliought so. It 
is now, hon-ever, recognised that it will not do to 
rely on any one clinnitlcr in cla.ssiricalitm. If a 
sdassificalion be made in tiejxmdence on tire mrxli- 
tientions of but one orgiiii, it Is sure tobennnatnnil. 
If, on Uh! coiitnny. It rsiii be slated that any group 
•of animals is distiiigiii-hed from tlid rest by im-cu- 
linrities in two or more systems of organs, that 
group is nltiinsi sure to be a one. Cuvier 
was more surce.ssritl than lii< iircdccc.«rcirs, not so 
inncli because he had any lictlcr key by wirich to 
rntcrjrrct the ntiimni kitigdonr, as Ircransi; he relied 
<in no key, bat fnrsting to his wide knowlerlgo of 
the structure of aniirials, and to his sngactoiis per- 
•coption of what similitudes or diffcretiecs were' 
fnnrlamental and what urrintportartt, he made a 
classification wlilcli recognised the plan of structure 
of each animal as a whole, that i.s, a.s made up of 
the snin of its organs. The difficultrcs iiitcndirig 
such a method arc far greater, the dcflniltonsof the 
branclias thus fontied are less simiilc and precise, 
than tliose of the former methods, hut the results 
have tlic.mcrit of being true to nature, and tliciv- 
forc stable. 

docs not iirrrtiU us to enlarge npon it ; wo must 
proceed to consider aninials for ourselve.s. 

In<te.nd of rrt once enumerating the numbers of 
Milr-kingiiumsof the nniinal ktngdurn. and appending 
toeaeliadrycalalopie of the cliaraiders npiui which 
they arc formed, it is, perhaps, lietter to induce the 
re.ider to examine two animals beiungiag to two 
dlfTereiit branches for himself, so that lie may re- 
mark tiie essential diiTcrcnccs in .structure whicli 
llicy ninnifcsf, .Suppose, tiien, ho procure ;i prawn 
and a stickiclxick, or, if lie aim at Inrgi'r specimens, 
more ca.sily examined, lie can obtnin, ns we have 
done, a lobster and a liaddock (Figs. 1-1). If thesi- 
be cjircfully observed, firs'l as to tlicir rxlernal 
eluiractor, and then as to tlicir intrnial organs, 
there will^lie found some points of similarity, but 
a great tnany {loiiits of 

ISotii .arc elongated animals, and both can be 
divided liy a inid-vcrtic.'il section inlu two similar 
li.alves-. The outer covering of the fish, tliuugh it is 
Govcrcil with small sc-alcf, in thin and flexible. It. 
offers bill little resisf.mco to pressure, and no firm 
support, or fixed point, from which muscles can’ 
play njion the limbs. It, moreover, evinces no 



manifest tendency to dirision info segments .or' the tn-o pairs of -longer and 'shorter f colors. Thus, 
rings. Turning to- the lohster, n-e find it is enclosed;' ' each of the tircnty segments of which the -lobster’s, 
in a hard inflexible armour, which is divided'into . body consists h,-is a pair of well-developed limbs, 
segments or rings, iflaood one behind the other, with thc exception of the last. • 

Tills division is well marked and condplotodn tlus How utterly different is the locomotive ajiparntus 
hinder part of tlio body, where there are seven . of the fish I The nccc.ssary hard pjirts upon wliicli 
liard nnnnlar iiicccs united by softer membrane, the muscles must play are nowhere io bo found on 

-They overlap one another .above, but are -scpniatod the outside. Tlicy arc .situated internally. Running 

beio'w. The 'great shield which covers thc.hcnd through the eeiilre of the ]body. from snout totail- 

and fore part of the body also consists of •.thirteen is 'a bony column or axis. This axis consists of 

segmont.s,"biit they liave all hcebinc united. This pieces which are so closely united end to end that 

thick hard outer -covering is the only solid part of they snpjwrt one anotlier, but they are oapable of 

the animnl, and tbereforu to this must be attached a slight motion on one another, so that the back-- 

usoles at both ends ; that is, both at the fixed 
point of .support from wliich they pull, and also at 
the p.n-t of the body or limbs wliich they are iii- 
toiidod to move. Tliis arnmgeineiit is eiirriod out 
even to tlie limbs, whoso .loint.s arc likewise eased 
in soparatc hard tubes, and wliich are tvielded from 
witliin. I>’urlher,'llioro is a tendency for 
isicli segment of llin hotly to have a pair of limbs. 
Indeed, on tlie.lasl .segment the ltiiib.s i 

which they form can be bent, and slightly, 
twisted. This hack-bone, ending forward in the 
base of llic skull, is tlic main part of ,tho hard 
skolelon whicli affords nltacliment lo the. muscles-, 
wliich move the limbs, 'in this case the tendency 
of each segment of Ibo intern.-il skeleton to produce 
liiiib.s is .-a) little marked, that there arc not more 
tlum two pairs of jiaircd limbs in all; and through- 
out lilts large sub-kingdom, which includes bc.asts,. 

iloii'Iopod. but on (ho next they form the side lobi-.s bird.s, rcptile.s. and .IWi, there are never more tlinu 
of tlic iail. and arc tlie iimln inbtrimionts by which this number found, tlinugb sometimes Ihci-o is 

I lie lolteter darts 
r.'ipidlv backwards 
when tilaruieil. 
The next four sce- 
iiionts have eai-Ii 
piiy-cd linilis. i-on- 
sisthig of two .small 
friiigi-d plates set 
at tlie end of a 
joint, and with 
them the hibsli-r 
jiaddles (luletly 
forwards. Then 
comi-.s a segment 
with a ]iair of 
limbs conriiosi-d of 
two joints, used 
lorotlicr iicci-.s.-!ary 
]niipo»cs. 'I'lu-ii 
under (be great 
.shield are the 
w-alkiiig liiiili!;, all 
iiiniiy-joimed. Two 
p.air.-< witli 
arc ]jrerodeiI by 

aled liy small piii- 

tlie formidable claws 
and jaws. Tli 

1C piilr, and some- 
times none at all. 
Tlicsc limbs arc not 
jointed hard tubes, 
palled and moved 
up the inside of 
them, but they arc 
supported by bony 
lever.-!, while llic 
iniisc1o.s net on 
them externnUy. 

other . -sy-stems of 
internal organs, we ■ 
find a marked dif- 
feroneo in the ar- 
r.iiigeiiient of the 
nervous, nlimciu- 
iiiy (food), .and 
blood - circulatory 
sy.stems, in relation 
to Olio a'uotlicr. 

In the lob.ster 
the nervous system 
consists of a double 
series of rounded 
masses called gang- 
ig side by side 

Next come flic foot-jnws lioas, which commence with ti 
six pains of these, placed, (though p.artia1ly united Ingcther} above the month, 
closely one over tin- oilier, beneath the mouth; and in connection with the eyes, nnlennto (foolers), 
they cannot bo seen in tlie engraving. Then come etc. From these two cords stretch, back, one 



mnninsr on onoh side the mouth or tlnoat. to 
another doable ganglion, ftad, from this, cords jiass 

Fig, 0.— XiniACtN-TiiA, iHOtrofn int SiucEOOa SimtCTos. 
• (j/!er.irip;ina Themson.) 

hack,' trhich unite the remaining nervous masses 

together, all of which lie in a series along the floor 
■ of the tubular cavity of the body enclosed by the 
rings.' Bach ring' has a'double ganglion of its own, 
but these 'are sometimes united together, as in the 
lobster. , The food_ canal runs from end to end 
through the centre of the body, and at its front 
extremity passes through the.nervous tract (as we 
have seen), and opens on the under side of the ho'dy. 

- The heart' is situated above the food canal, and 
just under the hard covering 'of the bach. VTe 
’ < have, therefore, the main blood, system situated 
I above the food canal in the centre, and the nervous , 
system 'below it ; these two Intter, however, cros^ 
ing one another arid exchanging places' just at the 
front of the animal.- • , . ’ 

^ Contrasted with this arrangement is ‘that of the . 

fish. In this animal the, food caniil occupies the 
•same pentral position, but the heart, instead' of 
lying above it, lies on the under side. The nervous 
system 'does not^, consist of a series of kiiots, but of 
a, obntinuons column, contained in a special bony 
’ tube. The relative .anangem^c is best nnderstpod 

by a rcfn-cnce to tlie illu.=tratinn. v,-bcic transverse 
sections arc given, .‘■upppcerl to be taken from tho 
patt.s of tile .miinnls where the 
lines marked a h cross the lateral 
views of the lobster and haddock. 

The fish and tho lobster, then, 
pre.sent two types of structure 
which .are utterly different in 
many fundamental points, and if 
in the comparison we have seized 
on tho'e points which are of 
greatest • importance, wc sh.’iU 
find that when wo compare any 
other animals belonging to those 
branches, first with the one type 
•and then with the other, in refer- 
ence to these peculiarities, we 
sbaU have no difficulty in 
fying them either in one division 
or the other. 

A dog, for instance, though n 
very different animal from a fish, 
is Uke it in the points we have 
noted. It has a back-hone of 
jointed voitebne, mid a columnar 
nervous system. It has no seg-. 
mented external skeleton. It has ' 
but four limbs, and its sows aie 
paired limbs lying side hj';- 
side, bnt are placed one above 
tho other. A dragon-fly is very 
different from n lobster in less-i 
fundamental particulars, but in 
the essentials named it is Uke to it. It has a chain 
of 'double nerve masses on the floor of its tubular 

body, crossed by the food canal between tho first 
and.second masses ; and so.we might run on threugb • 



v-bere b represents the terminal of one set of 
pbitcs, and A tlic terminal of the other set. The 
black space between the plates is filled with the 
insulating mica. 

. In order to test the capacity of a. condenser, or 
rather, toconix>ttre the capacities of two condensers, 
the following is the usual test : — The’eonnections 
are arranged as shown in Fig. G3. b is a battery 

of suitable C.U.F.. g is a ballistic galranometer, k 
is a key, and F is tlic condenser, 

Obseevatios (1) IVith these connections thekey 
is depressed, and the throw on the galTanometer 

The condenser is now removed, and a standard 
one, of known capacily, is put in its place. 

OBSEnvATiOK (3) The key is .again depressed, 
and the throw on the galvanometer agmin noted. 

From those two observations wo obtain the 
value of thb condenser under teat in terms of the 

standard, thus : — 


I cirscity 

cajiacity of Btandaid 

tliiow^vitli Biihnown capaci^ 
throw with btandoid. 

The truth of this can be seen from the following 
.considerations: — ^The throw on the galvanometer 
is proportional to the quantity of electricity tlmt 
' piisacs through it, and is therefore proportional to 
the quantity that flows into the condenser when 
the key is depressed — or that ilow^out of the con- 
denser when the key fc released. Furthermore, 
the quantity that flows into the condenser depends 
upon two things ; (1) the capacity of the condenser 
-itself, -and (3) the B.M.F. of the' b.-ittery. As the 
same battery is used in observations (1) and (2), it 
is therefore clear that the c,apacities of the two 
condensers arc proportional to the throws which 
they i;espectively give on the galvanometer. 

Or, using symbols. 

Let Fi = capacity of standard condenser. 

D, = throw obt.vincd with st.andanl con- 

Qi =r qiuintity of electricity in standard con- 

Fj = capacity of condenser under lest, 

n.'=r throw given by condenser under test, 

Q« = quantity of elcctiicity in condenser 
under test, 

E = E.3t.F. of battery. 

In observation (1) q, = e f-. 

In observation (2) Q, = e Fj. 

Dividing one by the otlicr we get 

and since Qi and q, are respectively proportional to 
D, and we may substitute in this expression. 

. 'Or,r.=F,^ 

IThcro the capacities of tho condensers are very 
great, tho throw.s may be so latgo as to be off the 
scale, and it may be necessary to put a shunt on 
the galvanometer in order to bring them down to 
readable values. A certain proportion of the 
charge will in this case pass through the shunt, 
but it must be remembered that the rules given in 
lesson VI. for the amounts of current that pass 
through the shunt and gulv.inometer respectively, 
apply to steady enrrents only, and are not applic- 
able ifl the cases of a sudden discharge, such as we 
must deal with in condenser work. The reason of 
this is tliat in the case of a rapidly varying current 
we must take into consideration the self-induction 
of the mrcuit, which it is not necessary to do when 
deaUng.witb steady enrrents. If the same shunt 
fa used in observations (1) and (2), the results ob- 
tained vrill be accurate, but if different shunts are 
used, accurate results cannot be obtained by simply 
multiplying the deflections by the “multiplying 
powers’* of the shunt ; some correction must be 
made for self-induction, but this is not often made, 
and in the majority of cases it is so small as to 
introduoe but a very small error into the results. 
For tougii testing we may neglect the small error 
introdneed hj using different shunts in (1) and (2) 
and use the formula 

OPEBATroN (1).— In 




'EKeTj>os, iKehtt.'iKfiyo is declined like avris supra The indefinite ns is ancncZiiio— that is, it inclines 

(i.e., quite regular except in the nominatiye and 
accusative neuter). 

Like ouTos de^ne TacraDror, roirairTi, .TomSro, 
'so great; ToiaDror, toibiIt)), T ainSTo,SltaA; •nfi^Kovros, 
■niAjifB^ni, ritXutnvza, SO old. Bemark, however, that 
the neuter singular, besides the form in -a, has a, 
■ form in -ov. 

The pironoun aMs, -4, -i! in the oblique cases 
peiforms the office of the personal pronoun (third 
person) singular and plural, as Aim, Aar, it, tAeiii. 
In union with the article — ^thus forming -4 aMs, 
4 air^i TO our4— it signifies "tlie same” (in Latin 
idem, eSdem, idem}. The article by orasls mingles 
with the pronoun in all cases in which the article 
ends in a vowel, making one word : thus, i a6rJs= 
airis, and in the feminine and neuter aHr^, rairri, 
commonly tbut^v j but as the orasis docs not extend 
throughout, we give the pronoun in full 
i out4i contracted into airis, 

Shtgrilar. Plural. 

N. airis airii raMp, airot, airal, raird, 

G. TairaS Tr)s air^s To4Ta0. tSp air&p, etc. 

E. raliT^ raliTp rair^. rois airatr, etc. . 

A. t4i» oArip tAp airlip Tairip. rois airois, etc. 

The difference of accent and breathing .thus 
distinguishes rairp, to the same (woman), from 
^ raArp, tO this (woman) ; and rainl, tAo Same tilings, 
from ToCra, these things, 

m. THI! BBLA.TIVE FltOKOnH Sr, toAo. 

Singular. Mural. Pual. ” 

Norn, ar ^ a. a'/ a! S. & S. &. 

Gen. a6 ijr a!. Sp Sp Sp. oIp ofv cTp. 

Eat. $ ^ oTs aTs oTs, oTp alp oTp. 

Acc. Sp jjp a. aOr Sr fi. • & & &. 


Eeclension of vir, someone; and rts, who? 

Indefinite ns, someone. Interrogative rls, who ? 


or throws back its accent on the foregoing word. 
In general the indefinite pronouns are distinguished 
'from the interrogative by being enclitics, and by 
their coming after, while the interrogative stand 
before, other words. ' 

By uniting Br with vir, we obtain. Bavir, ^rir, Sn, 
soAo, wAoceer ; which is declined thus : — 


Nom. Barir, ijris, on. 

I Gen. oVrtpos or Srov.-lioTtPos. 

Bat. ^tpi or BTM, ^npu 
Acc. oPTipa, VPTtpa, Sn. 

• Plural. 

, Nom. oinpes, tSnpcs, aripa or Sttb. 

Gen. uPTiPUp, Stoip. 

Eat- oTeniri (rarely; arair), atemtri. 

Acc. avavimr, aanims, anpu or arra. 

PutU. \ 

Njt. aSrive, Sripe. G.E. oIptipoip, aipnpaip. 
The interrogative pronouns— such as iroTat, of what 
hind? n6aos, how great? wSTt/>os,whicA(ot t\Yo)l — 
in becoining indefinite and dependent take 6 before 
them. ^UE, an-oTar, if iehatever kind; inciaos, Cjf 
irhatever magnUude ; Mrepos, whiehever. 

The negative compounds pf ns (namely, oSns, 
oBn, pirris, pirn, no pne, nothing) follow the simple 
T<s. Thus, oSns, oStipos, oStipi, oBripa, aHn, oBripes, 
otripa, etc. 


“EKoarar, 'p, -ov, each, OTor,-a,-av, ofwhatkind. 

everyone. 'PBaov, -ou, Tb,,a rose. 

‘Hjsapa, 4, a day. SrparpySs, -ov, 6, a 
^Epioi, -at, -a, some. general. 

I inquire into, Tpiiiro;, -ov, i, a manner, 
prove. ‘ mode of life, character. 

’EiriirToMi, -ur, p, a letter. ipoprlCa, I take anxious 
MpScls, ppSfpla, ppSip, care for; with acc., 
no one. ' ' desire, oursuc. 

E.VEKCiaB 63. 

Translate into English : — 

1..'0 ipT/p oStoi (or ovTos i apf/p) iryaSos ionp. 

2. 'H ypdpp oSti) (or aSrp p -/piipp) SiKofa iirrip, 

3. 'H yvpii uSr (nr pSe p yup}/) KaKii ionp. 4. 'O 
apiip IkoTpos (or eueTpos i apfip) SaaiAeis ionv. 6. 
'O Pttsrthcbs edfTbs (or avris ' S fiaoiAovs)' orparpySs 
limp. 6. ^epe airy, S uaT, Tijv kAoTp. . 7. 'Evioz uepl 
tSp ovtSp rps atrps ppipas oi ravra ytypArKownP. 
8.'Tb Aeytw sol ri updmip ov' raMp' lorip. 9.' 
TaSra t4 faSa, & SdSiAvi ip rf u^mp, uaXa imp. 

■•10. So^6p ri xpupni ipBponrds'ionp.' 11. Ei ipihtap . 
rov (for npis) iniKSis, rip rp6m>p atinv ifira^e. 
12. Tfr ypdipei rairpv riiv '.imaroXiip 't 1 3. Atyo /loi . 





TIIK KUMHnArjj. ■ 

The numcratx express llie rcJalion ot number. 
Aocorfling to their import, tlicy nmy bo iliridcil 
into Ihc classes — (1) 'J'lm Cardinals: (2) the 
Ordinals: (.'$3 Hie M’liltijdirafires : (-I) the iV»- ■ 
’iitirlifnals ; and (‘i), tlie fliihlantin; Xvmeralt. 

The foundiilion oC the whole .are the ranliiials, 
or the rhief, so called because they arc the liin^i 
(in Latin, rardd) on which the otlicrs turn. The 
cardinals answer to the question Iftm- many? as. 
"ane, t>rii,jire. i‘lc. Of the cardinaLs, the lour Ibat 
come lirst, and the round ntnubors from 200 
(SiaKoirioi) up to 10,(HK) (/iiipioi), us well ns the 
compounds of /uipiai. luive the inncrlioii!> iif 
adjectives; all the re^t arc indeeliimble. The 
thmtsinds .'tre formed by the help of iinmeral 
adverbs: for e.xainple. rjiu-xi'Acni. a.OOO. 

The tirdinnls denote the order in whinh the mim- 
buis ftillotv, or tli(‘ place' in the series held by a 
lleuhir niitnlii-r . as, the /mirth, wb/vtoi. They are 
all inlleett'd like tidjeetives ot llirce lenninations. 

The nniltliilieatives dciifile limr ejUrn a qtuilily i< 
repc:iletl. as im\lidil,fmtr/oUl, They are eoiiipouiids 
of irAiinr, anil hate three adjeetirnl teriiiinations. 
-net. -5. •oCr ; as, SnrAoer. Then there are inmwail 
adverbs in -cIkh, which answer to the question Jlmr 
nfteu .* as. tKaTocTovit. a hitnilrril times. 

'J’lic proiiortiotiiils ate compounds of vhaaios, 
■a, -or, and denote so much tlie more tlinn sotno 
otiier object : as, Si7.\airior, tirier as vturlt. 

The siiti.tanlire numerals express the abstract 
idcil of nuitdier : as, i; Su'oi Itjeti. -aSpi), dualitjf. 

The alphabet furnishes sitrns f<ir numbers, as 
well as supplies the elements of words. Henw. 
with the (ireeks, the fonr-nnil-twenty 1ctten> of the 
Dl]iiiabel are so iiiaiiy ciphers, in tlie series, Imw- 
l:ver, three obsolete forms nri’ introdncisl -nmiiely. 
after r the letter pavlruu) ar dignmma, f. orSn (that 
IS, c)as the sipi for «: .nlsn Komro (tlcil is. 9) as 
the si;ni for ill); and SnuTn, as the sisni for ItW*. 

The first ei"ht letteis. from ntjdia to thrla, ban 
or sti iiieludeit. m.-ike tlie tirsl .series consist iiur of 
units -, the ensuin'- eiiilit, from inta to pi, incindiii!; 
kappa, form the second series, or the succession of 
tens ; ami tlii' remainine ei'.;Iit, from rho to nmiiia, 
to;;cther with .w;ii/;i, make up I be hundreds. Jilrrm 
is lo'. or 10 anil I : tirelrr is ,(8', In and 2, etc. 

Up to 1I!)'.I, Hie letters, when used :is figures, 
have an tieeenl over Hieni each: thus, o'. When 
more than one sign stand together. Hie nmrk is ■ 
over the last thus', ly. With I.OOO. Hie alphabet 
begins afresh. In order to indicalo this, the mark is 
placed under the letter: thus, a' = l,bul ,o=1000; 

/ = Jl), but ,1 = 10,000. Tlius. iS'.il in Greek nutnerals 
is written ,a6.'9o'. 

Subjoined are lists of the c.ardinals, the ordinahs 

.and the nuiiieml advorhs, accompanied by our 
nnmbcra and the corro.spondiiig Greek signs. Tile 
English word.s, one, tiro, three, cto., need scarcely 
Im added; .and, of course, J/rrf, second, third, tenth, 
etc., will rendily be supplied by the student. 

1 ft' 

Cm, linnle. 

■ Onlinnls. 


dvot or BiJei) 



rpcTi, Tpla 


•i 8' 

Tirrap^s, -a, J* rcatrap 






7 i" 











11 Itt’ 


12 10' SwSfKa 


1!} ly' Tpefr kbI Siku 

rpLros Ha\ BfKaros, 

1-1 iP TtTTBprr kbI ofea, or 

TtVaprPrKBl ScKarpr. 


rf'prrpt kbI SrKarps, 



fKTOS Koi Sc'lIBTpr. 

17 if 


(dueppr kbI Scirarpr. 

18 II) 


tiySoos itai SeKaros. 

19 .<r 


tl'BTOr BbI ScKBTOt. 




21 KB 

cfs-ocri)' < 15 , p!a, iv 

(iKpariii BpuTPr. 





rtrrapaKov7a,or TtTTepnvorror. 







70 o' 



so it' 



90 9' 




20(1 cr' 

ciavoirioi, -au -a 


:'.00 r’ 

TpiaKuirioi, 'ai. 


-100 s' 

TCTpcifomoi, -at, -a 




(100 x' 

efaK^fflol, -Bl, -B 





ilcravoaioi, -at, -a 


9H1 s' 

tivK^triatr 'Oi, -a 


l.llOO ,a 

X'lAcot. -eo. -a 



-at* -a 


3.000 ,7 

rpiaxlhioi. -Bl, -a 

•I.O00 .8 

rerpoKtaxlMoi, -oi, -a 


.'..000 ,e 


C.tlO0 ,r 

i(aKiaxlhtoi, -Bi. -b 



fwraicKrx'Aioi, -ai, -a 


.>*.000 ,71 

OKTBKIirxf^lOI, -Bl, -B 

9.000 ,0 

IraKiirx'bioi, •«, -a 


10.000 ,1 

pvptoti -at, -a 


20.000 p 

Slip pppidSct, etc 


‘TIic wise man narrics ai)onl Ms pniiicrly In hliiiaeV. 5. Utter 
tlio praise of-tliy fricinls ratlicr tliaii tiiino own. 6. Virtue b 
lionoiinhlc ill itself. 7. Tlie greedy ciirleh tliciiiseivcs, luit 
injure otliers. 8. Tlie ineontiiipiit arc not only inliirioiw lo 
otlieis witliout being proritablo tn l1icniHelvi»i,but are ilocpi of 
evil to otlien., ntid inncli more .sn to tliciiiscli-cii. fl. We gratify 
oiirselvea witli most plc.TSiire. 10. Tlie gods are rrcefroiii ciiry, 
even aiiinng^t one aiiotlicr. 11, Bad men injure one anotlicr. 

Ex. 00 — 1. 01 iro^o; irrpii^'povm to npdvporo «• iovreif. 
‘i .'0 TTMei-tVnit iourbi- uAoOTifri aXAouT Si psijrm. 3. 'Ysidt 
avTovr "Pori|5 on* ion Tolj /th- SXSitK (lAo- 

pffmt, eouTu it u^cXiiior - iAAi KomiipYar (ite t5p oAAue, Immiv 

Si iroAii KiuovpYenpar. 5. 'AyaOo'i mnStt, oAAnAoiK orepyert. 



AnomTECTUiiE ha.s beeh definecl as “the art ot 
builrlinjf ” ; it might more correctly be termed “art 
in building,” for it is jireoisely when artistic quali- 
ties are found in a building " when,” as Sir Digby 
IVyatt says, '■ the structure is reared for something 
beyond the immediate wants of the individnal who 
erects it, and the first idea of giving it embellisli- 
inent comes into existence,” that it may claim 
to be a work .of ‘‘architecture” as dislinot 
from “building.” Arohitoofure is said to be a 
creative art in that the forms produced arc not 
found in nature ; whereas, in jiainting and in sculp- 
ture, imitation of nature or of its impressions is the 
first characteristic. This is only partially true. In 
its first stage, architecture (and it would be more 
correct to say building) is creative ; in its second 
stage it may be imitative ; not, however, of nature, 
but of the forms created in building. 

Tile earliest habitations of man were probably 
erected in the aUuviai plains of great rivets, and, in 
the valley of the Nile, wore raised in crude or sun- 
dried bricks. Their walls were built of greater 
thickness at the bottom in order to be able to 
support the superincumbent weight; tliat portion 
of the wall of the house which rose above the 
doorway or other opening had to be supported by 
n beam of timber of some kind, probably the trank 
of a palm tree, the arch and its principles not then 
being known. The space enclosed for the house 
had .also to be covered over with palm-tree trunks 
laid side by side and coated with mud to protect 
the interior from the heat of a tropical sun. 

So far all is creative, the forms evolved not beii^ 
found in nature ; and this brings ns to the second 
stage — the imitative. Some of the earliest tombs 
in Egypt iire those found near the Great Pyramids 
and at Sakhara ; they .are .sometimes excavated in 
the solid rock, sometimes out out in the side of a 
cliff. These tombs of one or moreclmmhers 
which might be correctly termed sepulchral chapels, 
for the body was laid in a pit, or well at a lower 

level, and the chambers served apparently as re- 
ception rooms for the rchatives of tlic deceased who 
came to make their offerings at his tomb. '.'5o far 
there is nothing remarkable, but here the artist 

steps in : he is anxious to suggest tliat this chamber, 

the reception room, is representative of tlie 
tlie deceased formerly lived in. Above the door- 
way he carvc.s in the solid rock an imitation of the 
palm-tree trank, put there in the crude brick dwell- 

ing to carry the wall abora ; on the ceiling lie ro- 
piodnccs the palm-tree trunks laid side by side to 
cover orcr/tlie space, and which 'carried tlie mud 
covering; on the outer face of the clinpcl ho copies 
that sloping or raking line which existed in the 
crade brick awelling where the walls were thicker 

at the bottom, imd various other features which 
were essentially constructional and creative In tlie 
first stage, are imitated and'roade use ot in tlie 
second as a decorative embellishment. Tlicsc were 
the first germs of architectural thought.' It is trim 
that wo luive assumed the prior existence of siiol> 
crude brick structures— structures which a single 
rainy day in England would consign to the ground; 
hut.whioh in Egypt, owing to the absence of rain, 
last for centuries : at. the present day behind the 
temple of thcBamcsscnm at Thebes are to ho found ■ 
the ^naries built by Hamescs the Great in'tlic 
fourteenth cfentury before Christ. The same tra- 
ditional method of building also is carried on down 
to the present day, and the huts of the fellaliccn or 
poorer xicople of Egypt are 'still built in sun-dried 
bricks, and their roofs still formed of jialm-trcc . 
trunks, just, in fact, as they woidd scorn to Iiave 
been in the earliest days of her civilisation, if we 
, may judge by the stone imitations found of thorn in 
the tombs above described, whicli- date some 
3,000 years before Christ. Contemporaneous u-itli 
these tomljs are others of a lar richer type, the , 
tombs of the higher personages of tlie realm, and 
• the fronts of those tombs seem to have been carved 


of the of iron for every kind of coi^tnic- . 
^ive requirement has completely rcvointionised all 
the ancient, styles, and placed us for the moment . 
in a transitional period, the ultimate' devdopment 
of which we are still unable to divhie. 

' We shall in tlic course of our lessons take up one 
. by one and describe the several styles -of archi- 
tecture. It has been the custom to distinguish 
between the earlier styles down to the end of tlie 
fifteenth century, and those phases of style which 
have followed, by calling the former the tme styles, 
and the latter the imitative styles. If, however, 
there bo any 'degree of reason in the argamont we 
'.have laid down, all the styles have been imitative 
in their archaic state, progressive in Uieir perfected 
state, and decadent in their later phases, and the 
death of one has, uhder altered conditions of reli- 
gion, race, or country, become the birth of another. 
Between the earlier stj-lcs known, and those whieh 
have been growing daring the last four centuries, 
however, there are certain very essential points of 
diitorouoo. The revival of letters in tbo fifteenth 
oentuiy, and the inrenlion of printing, led to two, 

• at least, very important olmngos : — 

1st. The cslrangcnicnt from architecture of a 
very largo class of intoUeotunl persons, who hence- 
■ ; forth elected to toaoli mankind tlirongh the printed 
book instead of recording them in the tcmxfic or 

2nd. The creation in men’s minds of a revival 
in favour of tiie earlier styles of architecture, of 
the Greek and tiio Roman (tlic only ones then 
known), oaused by the printing of theclnssic authors, 
who. described and expatiated on 'them in .such 
glowing terms, that not only in Rome, but tbrongb 
Italy, it equalled the impulse generated by a new 
creation. Instead of impro^ ing upon and gradually 
developing to now requirements the traditional 
stylo of the country, they stcpjrcd back twelve 
centuries or more to copy the forms and features 
of an antique style. In Italy, and in those ]xirts 
of Europe where the remains of Roman buildings 

Italy, but on tlieir return also to 'publish works 
containing illustrations of the chief buildings of 
antiquity they had seen. This new field of ‘know- 
ledge lias gradually been spreading, so that in tin's 

or less acquainted, not 
only with 'all the forms n|\|| 

and details of the great rM , 

Roman styles, but with |J|n|l|'onlJl . 

almost pvery development IfflI'llMBljy • 

of art which has existed 
in the world’s history; and 
in laler years the further, 
invention of pliotogrnphy 
and increased facilities of 
travel have flooded the ullslMiHI ■ 

present 'generation with ‘ 
such a plethora of wealth ^ .‘.Ja 

in arohiteotural forms, 
that many years, if not 
conlnries,will boToqiiirod ,j,'| •■rJ.jO |!f 

to absorb and digest it, , 
jVYo linve endeavoured, nllf''' '''t l! 

so far, to lay before our 
readers some of the causes ■] I ' j'W 

which underlie tbo growtli ' 

of the v-nrious styles of f i!l‘''JiLj .'i' 

mtiliiteotnrc, and wo pro- 
pos'c to lake those up in 
a 'scries of lessons, and I 

to draw attention to tbo ' 
pnnci])nl fonhs developed ' 

in each style. _ . Rs iw lli'ii 

'Iho slj’les of nrcbitoc- jgat 
tare may be divided 
broadly into two classes Fig. a— Lorra Conuns. 
— 1st, those wbioh have 

directly or indirectly influenced the origin and the 
development or growth of those buildings, features, 
or forms wliicli are found in Europe, and more par- 
ticularly ill our own country; and 2nd, those 
•which have been formed independently, unswayed 


had participated in the general movement. Bnt 
till the time at -which we have now arrived— that 
i-s to say, the fourteenth century — she was behind 
the rest of Europe in literature. In Italy, Dante 
had produced his work in the beginning of 
the century. Petrarch and Uooc.'icoio had written 
since. In other countries, too, mncdi bad been 
done. Bnt, as wo have seen, England was still 
without a litenaturc. Now, however, everything 
was in her favour. Her national unity was 
.achieved ; her language was iJtactically formed ; 
the nicntal energy w.aa present; and the desire 
for knowledge was so uniTCrsal, we arc told on 
authority which it is dililcuit to disbelieve, that at 
0.\ford and Cambridge the students might then he 
counted by thousands whore they now are by 

From comparatively early in the raign of 
Edw.-ird HI., we find signs of the revival of a 
luitional spirit in the po]inlar songs on subjects of 
Jintionnl iiueicst. Among liiose the most imporl- 
ani wliicli hme been printed are a scries of ton very 
spirited ballads by liam-onoc Minot, upon various 
tintllo'. and other nehievements of Edwanl III. 

But the first work of considoi-ablc extent smd 
merit wliieli demands our attention is the remark- 
able allegorical and satirical poem. “The Vision of 
Piers Ploughman.” IVo treat this as the fir-t 
hecause, though the year of its compo.«ilion ctimiot 
be exactly fixed, it belongs in form and stylo so 
nmeli moi'e to tlio preceding ago tlian any other 
rrrent poem of the period, and shows so tmicb less 
trace of the direct action of foreign inlincnce, that 
it naturally takes the first place in onlcr among the 
jwems of the ago of Clmuecr. The author of 
“Tho Vision of Piers Ploughman” is said, and 
there is no reason to disbelieve it, to have been 
■\ViIliam Lnnghind, prolxihly a native of Oxford- 
sliirc, wlio lived as a monk at Malvern ; and his 
placing the scene of his vision in the Malvern hills 
seems to confinn a part, at least, of the story. 

This singular poem relates a dream, or rather a 
series of dreams, in wliicli tlie poet see.«, nllogori- 
cally, the corruption and misery of the world; the 
remedy for those evils in tlie pursuit of trnlh ; and 
the one guide to truth and regenerator of tho world 
in tho person of Piers, or Peter, the Plonglinian. 
The world is a field full of people. Here nre the 
poor toiling; the rich -ivasting : the lawyers plead- 
ing for hire; the clergy idle and corrupt; the 
pardoners deceiving tho people for gain ; yet all 
the -ivliilc the castle of truth stands jtist abo^-c 
them, though they see it not. At court mede 
<corrupt gain), .and falsehood, and wrong, contend 
Math conscience, and po.ace, and rca.son; and 
lawyers, and confessors, .and counsellors arc on 

•the side of -wrong. At last Reason makes her 
voice heard in tho world. Men nre brought to 
confess their sins; each of the vices in turn' 
comes to confc.ssion ; and a great multitude set 
'ont upon the quest of Truth, But who shall show 
the -way? Fri.ars and pilgrims know , it not. 
Peter, a ploughman, presents himself as the guide 
to Truth. Bnt wo very soon soo that under the 
guise of the ploughman the poet presents to us* 
none other than the Divine Redeemer of the world, 
Tlion wc find Peter tho Ploughman employing hw 
followers in habour upon the field which ho tills 
(the world). We sec him ploughing the soil and 
sowing the seed of -Divine grace. While side by 
..sido with this wo h.ave another idlugory of “Do 
Well, Do Bel, and Do Best,” three degrees of moml 
excellence, .and tho guides and instructors of tho, 
soul. The poem ends somewhat abruptly — so much 
•so that some have thought it unfinished — with tho 
ravages of Antichrist in the kingdom of Peter the 
Plongbmnn. Wc liavo-snid cnongit io enable tho 
.student to approcinto tho general ohnrncter^ of tho 
religions lc.ssons which the writer seeks to convey, 
and of the nllcgorienl form in which he clothes 
tlicni. But the poem is no less a satire than a 
religious allegory. The vices of all classes of men 
arc painted witli tnuoh vigonr; hut above all tho 
eomiplions of tho clergy and the tuonnstic orders, 
their idlene-ss and neglect of their flocks, their 
• c&vctousncss and simony, their soIC-indulgencc, 
their deceptions to cxlrnot money from the people. 
TIic world as it was and the world as it might be, 
the Clmrch ns it'was and the Chnrcli ns it ought 
to 1)0, nre put hoforo us in constant contrast. 

The language of Ijnnglniid is decidedly more 
antique in cast then that of Cliniiccr, But what 
more tlian anything else connects tliis poem with 
the past, rather Ilian with the future, is its metre 
It bents every mark of having been written dis- 
tinolly for the jxiople, rather than for tho cultivated 
claascs. And, perhaps, for this reason the author 
chose for it the old Saxon nlliternfive metre, which 
seems to liave been then still habitually used, and 
even long afterwards sometimes occurs. In the songs 
of the people. The chicr pecnliiirity of that metre 
is tliiit in each couplet, or pnir of verses, two or 
more accented — tluit is, emphatic — syllables in the 
first line, and one in the second, begin with the 
same letter. Tho character of the metre will bo 
learnt more easily from the specimen whicli wo 
give tlran from any amount of description. It 

-will be observed that it dillers from our modern 

metres in having alliteration— that is to say. 
identity of initial lottor in syllables — of 
rhyme; and in nltcnding not to the number of 
syllables in a line, but i-nther to tho number of- 


vigorous, and no doubt somewhat exaggerated, pic- 
tures of wealthy and self-indulgent abbots, diss^utc 
monks, and lying pardoners, contrasted with his at- 
tractive sketches of the poor and pious parish clergy 
— liis sympathy with the movement of the Beformei;. 

It will easily be seen that the times in which 
Chaucer lived and the circumstances of his carccr 
were peculiarly favourable for a great and original 
poet, and especially for one with Cliaucer's un- 
rivalled power of catching and reproducing the 
peculiarities in eharaOter and habit of different 
classes of men. Border countries are the fhvourite 
ground of picturesque writers. ' Types of ohamotcr 
are more strongly marked and. more sharply con- 
trasted there than elsewhere. Thus Scott chose for 
his usual field the border-land between' England 
and Scotland, or the dividing line of highland and 
lowland. And the age of Chaucer may well be 
called the border-land between tlio dark ages and 
the modern period. In his own great poem he 
brings together the knight who had fonglit for the 
Cross and the prosperous London merchant and 
the csscntiiUl.r modern country gentleman; and 
this was a true picture oi the timc.s. 

So in the literature of that age, as we have 
already seen, the formal and Icni'ned Gower and 
the tongh and antique satirist Lnngland were 
alike contemporaries -of Clmuoor ; while in Italy 
Potraroh was writing poetry as polished and 
ai'tistic as any that the world has ever seen. This 
was just the age in which the genius of Chaucer, 
with its singular variety of scope, and its power 
of seising points of ciiaraotcr, would find the 
fullest play; and Chaucer's varied career was 
entirely in his favour. As soldior, courtier 
scholar, diplomatist, and man of business, he must 
liave had unusual opportunities of studying cha- 
racter and learning the real life of his age. And 
we find the character of his poetry in this respect 
just what wc might expect to find it under these 
circumstances. The poet has loft that marvellous 
pliotograph from real life, the prologue to the 
" Canterbury Talcs ” ; and the genuine and simple 
pathos of the story of Grisclda. The variety of 
chnractcr in the poetry of Chaucer keeps constantly 
before our minds that, though he is rightly called 

the source from which the stream of English iraotiy 

takes its rise, that source itself, like the grciit lake 

tliat feeds the Nile, derives its fulness not only from 

the springs tliat arise within its bosom, but from 
the streams whose waters it collects and makes its 
own. iScmc of the various channels of Uteinture 
which converge in the works of Chaucer we have 
already pointed ont, and wc shall ask oiw readers 
to bear this observation in mind when we corns to 
' remark upon the poems of Chaucer singly. 

Before proceeding to consider ,the poetry o£ 
Chancer in detail, it is necessary' to speak very 
shortly upon matters which have given rke to much 
controversy — the language in which he wrote, and 
the prinmple of vereifioation which he adopted. 
Some writers have treated Chancer as one who 
spoiled the pnrity of the. English tongue, by the 
.wholesale introduction of French words into it; 
while others have regarded his works as the most 
perfect standard of the English spoken in his day. 
The' truth appears to be that in the main' Chaucer 
used the English language as it was usually spoken 
and written- in , his day by the aristocracy and 
among educated men, which would for obvious 
Iiistorical .reasons be less purely Saxon and more 
mixed with French tliiui the language of the lower 
'orders. But it is also .beyond doubt that Chaucer, 

- in enlarging the range of ideas which were to he 
expressed in English poetry, must have, found "it 
necessary at the same time to enlarge its vocahn- 
laiy, and that ho did so by the adoption of word's, 
from the French, And though many riords used 
by him have since been lost, and many more have 
boon introduced, it is still true that the vocabulary 
thus formed is substantially the same as that now 
in use, though, of course, tlie spelling and the pro- 
nunciation have considerably changed,' and some 
words have dropped out o'f use o^ have had their 
moaning entirely altered. 

■With regard to the forms of English words ns 
written by Chaucer, a few points must bo borne in 
mind by the reader, in order to 'a thorough under- 
. standing of the author. In its earliest' form— the 
Anglo-Saxon — English was a language, like the 
classical Greek and Latin, with n complete system 
of inflections (see UngUsh lessons') — forming, for 
instance, the eases of its nouns by .ippropriate 
changes in their termination, instead of by the use 
of prepositions, ns in the present da}'. In the 
English of Clinnccr, tliough it was not so to the 
same degree in that of some of his contemporaries, 
these cnsc-cndings, except the s or cs of the geni-, 
live, are lost, tho rest being represented, if at all, 
by an e at tlie end of the word, which e is some- 
times sounded and sometimes silent. In words of 
French origin, also, the final e is in Chaucer, ns in 
French poetry, as often sounded as mute. Tlie' 
.presence of the final e in many words in which it 

is no longer written, and the fact that this final e 

is habitually sounded as an additional syllabic of 
the word, is tho one strongly marked diilerence 
between Chaucer's English and our own so far as 
the noun is concerned. But it will be noticed by 
eveiy reader of Chaucer that ths sounding of the 
final e is hy,no means an inrariable rule ; indeed, it 
is probaWy quite as often silent, especially before 


lO - ■■ 





|C(iii2iHtto(/nim^ 197 ] 


In the foregoing lesson we exaininccl some' .simple 
macliinos on tlio Iiypothc.sis that there was -no 
friction, but it is generally of more interest' to the 
■practical man to consider the machine as it 
st.s'nds, and to take friction into account. To in- 
A cdtigatc matliomatioally what the/eroa of friction 
is at each point in a maciiino at which rubbing 
occurs, would be .a very tedioii.s if not an impossible 
task. It is easy, however, to obtain, by experiment, 
results which show the goneml effect of friction, 
and to find farces which give the .summation of a 
large number of smaller forces of friction acting 
nt diilorent part.s .and in di iTcront directions through- 
out tho machine. 

IVo now proceed to show you how, bycxperimcnl. 
you may find out the laws of ellicienoy and friction 
of a real machine witli sulllcicnl accuracy for 
practical purposes. 

The construction of the machine itself docs not 
enter directly into tho process by which the re- 
quired results are obtained, hence wo shall suppose 
the machine all hidden from view, ns in Fig. 30« 

Pig. 30. 

tacre being none of the macluiic visible except two 
shafts projecting from tlic cover, to one of which 
we apply our force wliifsl the ottior raises the load. 
IVe must supi>osc tiiat there is no -.arrangement 
inside by which energy can be slored, and that the 
two shafts arc conpocted in such- a way that if one 
goes round uniformly, the other does the same, 
though probably at a diilorent speed. The first step 

is' to determine tho velocity ratio. . Since tlic di- 
mchaons of the dilfcrcnt parts of tho macliine arc 
not known to us, wo cannot follow the same 
method as in tho last lesson, but by direct measnro- 
mentthe speed of A can be compared with that of Ji. 
Thus, if the smaller weight n falls 5 feet whilst the 
larger weight A rises 3 inches, the Velocity ratio i.s 
— = 20, or 20 to 1. / 

It the usual reasoning about mechanical' ad- 
vantage were true, we should find that IJb.'at U 
would balance 20 Ib. at A. Possibly it may, as it 
requires a considerable force to sot the machine in 
motion, but if wo start n downwards it soon stop.s. 

Adding to the weight b till a steady motion 
downwards is maintained, wo find that more force 
is required than wo supposed. If we add to A, .and 
again find what u must be, a similar result is ob- 
tained, tho exosss weight at b increasing as the 
load is increased. ' 

'A scries of observations having been made, num- 
bers somewhat like the following are obtained : — \ 

Tlic numbers in tho fourth column are obtained 
from the rule given on page 89, which in this case 

Plotting the corresponding ixiirs of values of A 
and B ns the co-ordinntes of points, we obtain the 
straight line shown in Fig. 31. 

In order to see what' sort of law connects ef- 
ficiency and load, the numbers in the second and 
fourth columns .hare been plotted in Fig. 32. In 
order to make the vortical scale of the drawing 
sufficiently Large, tho origin is called -4 on that 
scale, hence the curve cannot bo shown passing 
through the origin ns it would if the zero points of 
both .scales agreed ; this would require too largo a 
figure. It will be seen that the law connecting , 
efficiency and load is »iof a simple one, that the effi- 
ciency increases with the load'more rapidly .at Hist, 
but later on becomes more nearly constant. 

Tho student will see that the curve is very similar 

Cor. — If any compound quantities, arranged as 
'in the preceding examples, are proportional, the 
simple quantities of -which they arc compounded 
are proportional also.' 

Thus, if a + l-.bx-.c + A‘.d, then a •. V x'-. e •. A. 
This is called division. (Euclid 'V. 17.) 

37G. Case V.— CoMPOUKDise FnoPOBnoBS.^ ' 

If the corresjmnding terms of too or’more rta^s 
of proportional tpiardities be imiltiplied toffether.the 
prodttets wiU be proportional. ■ , 

This process is called .eom 2 ?ounding proportions. 
It is the same ns eovummding ratios. It should be 
distinguished from what is called composition, which 
is an addition of the terms of a ratio. 

If ' a-.b-.-. Old 12:4:;6:2 

And Uaiimin 10:5::8:4 

Then ah ihl : : em : dn 120 : 20 : ; 48 : 8. 

Eor.from the nature of proportion, the two ratios 
in the -first rank are equal, and also the ratios ip 
the second rank. And multiplying Iho corre- 
sponding terms is multiplying the ratios— tljat is, 
multiplying eipuaU by equals, so that the ratios will 
still bo equal, and therefore the f 9 ar products must 
bo proportional. 

The same proof is applioablo'to any number of 

\piqii as \y 

From this it is evident that if the terms of a pro- 
portion be multiplied each into itself, that is, if tlt^ 
6e raised to any poster, they will stillbepropmtional. 
If aibilCld 2:4:;6:12 
aibiicid 2:4:-;6:12 
Thena=:J=::o=:(P. 4:1G::3Q:144. 

Proportionals will also bo obtained by reversing 
this process, that is, by extracting the roots of the 

Uaibiicid, then v^a : -lb ::Ve: v'rt 

For taking the products of the extremes and 
means, ad = be. _ 

. And extracting the root of both, sides, \/ad 
= ,/bc. 

That is, -/ai-Ibi: -/c : ^d. 

277. Case "FI. — Involution and Evolution op 
THE Teems. 

If several quantities are proportional, their like 
posters or lihe roots are proportUmal. . 

li dsbi-.csd, . 

Then a" ; : c" : d", and'’> v'a : a/c:™ fd. 

And " v'o” : ™ v'oo : Vd". 

That is, a'“ : i"* : : c"* : d'm. 

I then ahp : ilq : : ema : dny. 

'If the terms 'in one rank of proportionals be 
dtntdcd by the'corrcsponding terms in another rank, 
the quotients will be proportional. 

This is sometimes called the resolution of ratios-’ 

This is merely reversing the process ^ Case 1''., 
and may be. demonstrated in a similar manner. ■ 
lf.B. — ^This should be distinguished from what 
geometricians call division, which is a ssibtraetion 
■ of the terms of a ratio. . . ’’ 

"IVhen proportions , arc compounded by multipli- 
cation, it will the case that the same factor 
will be found in two analogous or two homologous 

■ • • Thus, it aib no id ' 

And miaiinic. 

■ assi iabi i cm cd. 

Here a is in the first two terms, and o in the lost 
' two. Dhdding by these, the proportion becomes 
mi,biinid. Hence, . • ' 

In compounding proportions, equal .factors or 
-divisors in two analogous or, homologous terms may . 

Thena:>».-:o:7s , '12:20::D:16 

. This rule may bo applied -to the cases to which 
the terins "eas asqno” and “ca? tequo perturbata" 
refer. One. of the methods may serve to verify the 

IVhen four quantities are proportional, if the first 
he greater than the second, the tMrd wilTbe greater 
than tian fourth ; if equal, equal ; if less, less. . 

Suppose aibiic'.d, then if 1 a > d, c > d, ' 

I a < J. c < d. 

If four quantities are proportional, their recipra- 
• cals are proportional, and vice versd. 

. suoh ports, that the greater increased by' 6 maybe' 
-to the less diminished, by 11 as 9 to 2: ■ . ^ 

,220 , / ' ■ . TEE new ’ PQPUIAB EDUCATOR. 

. ' -So E the order of -aDj- proportional quantities he 
inverted, the ratios in onq .series -will he the re- 
' ciprocdls of those in the other. .For by the invdr- 
’.sion each ailtooedent .becomes a .consequent, and 
‘nice versa; hut the ratio of , a consequent to .its 
• antecedent is the leoiprooal of the ratio of the 
an'teoedent to the consequent. That the reciprocals 
pf equal quantities are themselves equal is evident 
■^rora Ax. 4. • • 

V ■ 280. To investigate the properties of geometrical 

progi-ession, we may take neai-ly the same course as 
in arithmetical progression j observing to snbstitntc 
continnal miltijflication and 'division, instead of 
addition and suhti-action. It is .evident, in the first 
.place, that, 

■ In an aseendiniji geometrioal scries, ^each succeed- 
ing term is found by viuUtplying the ratio into the 
preceding term. ' 

If the first term is a, and the ratio r, ■ 

Then a x r = ar, the second term ; x r = atfi, 
the third j a»'= x r = rtr®, tho fourth ; ar® x r = ar*, 
the fifth, etc. 

And tho series is a;ar, ar\ itr^, ar>, ar®, etc. . 

If tho Jirsi term and the ratio are the same, the 
progression is simply a series of pon-ors. 

If the first term and ratio aro each equal to r, 
Then r x r =:r®,thc second term; r® x rssr®, tho 
third ; r® x r = r*, tho fourth ; r® x r = t®, tho fifth. 
And tho scries is r, r®, r®, r*. r®, r®, etc. 

In a descending scries, each succoeding term is 
found by dividing tlio preceding term hy the ratio, 
or mnitiplying by Uio fractional ratio. 

If the fii-st term is ar®, and tho ratio r. 

The second term is or «r® x ^ = or®. 

And the series is ar«, or®, or*, or®, or®, ar, a, eta 
If the first term is o, and the ratio r. 

The series is a, ^ etc., or a, ar-\ ar--, eta 

lvt.ana.3nl. 401. sill. stii. 
• By attending to the scries, o, ar, ar°, or®, oH, or®, 
oto., it will be seen that, in' each' term, the exponent 
of the power of tho ratio is one Im than the number 
of the term. 

If then 

a = the first term, r = the ratio, . 

E=: the last, 7t = the nninter of terms, 

wo have the cquatkm 5=orw-i,,the]nst term ; that is. 
In geometrical progression,' the last term is egnal 
to fheg^odvet of.thcfirstintoihaigimertf thesratio 
nhose index is one less than fhemimher of terms." . 

When tho first terra and, the ratio- are the same, 
the equation becomes s =3 rr®-? = r. ’ • .,1 

Of the four quauU ties, -q; £,.rj, and- », «ay.,tliree 
being, pven,. the other may be foiind.',. , .. .• 

• 1. By the last article , ' . ■ ' • 

■ ,5 =ar®-i=: tho lost .fcrOT.. '• , 

2. Dividing by r®-’,' ■ I • 

■~j^==a=zt\ie first term'. 

3. Divic(ing,thc fl,.ind extracting the root, 

n^'=: r=: the rorio.' V 

, By the last equation maybe found any number, 
of geometrical means between two given mimbcr.s. 
If »r=tho number of mc.-ins, m + S=zn, the srhole 
number of tenns. Substituting vi -f 2 for » in tho. 
equation, wo have, ' - , 

tho ra'tiq. 

Wlien the ratio is found, tho means are obtained 
by continued multiplication. 

28I.'- Tho ne.xt thing to be attended the rule 
for finding tho sm( of aXi the terms. ■ 

If any term, in a geometrical series, bo ninltipllcd 
liy the ratio, tho iwoduot will be tho .supcoeding’ 
term. Of course, iVeach of tlic terms he multiplied 
•by the ratio, a' now series will he ptodneed, in which 
nit the terms except the last will be the same as nil 
except' the- first in the 'other scries.' To make this 
plain, lot tho liewseries'bo written under tho other, 
in sucli a mtmnor' that each term shall he removed 
one stop to the righf of llmf from whioli it'is pro- 
dnoed in tho line above. 

Taka for oxiimple, tho series; '' 2,4,8,10,32,’’ 
Multiplying cnch term by the ratio, ' 4,8,10,32,04, 

Here it will be seen at onoo that tho Inst four 
terms .in the upper line are the same ns the first 
four In’tbe lower ’line. Tlie only terms which arc ' 
not in VolTt, are tho first of the one serie.', and thp 
Ipst of tlic other. So that when we subtract the 
one scries from the other, all the terms except these 
two will disappear, by hahmeing each 'other. ' 

If the given series' is,®, . . . or®-|. , 
Then mult, by r, ■we liave ar, nr®, ur®, . . . ar" or.®. 

' ‘ Now let s = the sum of the terms. 

Then,'" a'=a + ar-)- ' 

And multiplying by r, . . . 

■ rs= ar + ar" gr®. . . . -f nr®. 

Subtracting tho first equation from the second, 

nv — i.= ar — a. ' ' " ' 

And dividing by (r—l), ’ • ' 

In this equation, or® is the Inst term in the new, 
series, and -is therefore 'the product of the ratio 
into the last term in the giecn scries. . 

"'Thei’efpre, that is, , ' •• • • 

AW. da X.tln-iira,m)m London. AW. da A24iff-ta,fhnnAn>crt., 
tH Mii-dra, In Tx>ndaii. itt M-Hr-lo, In Albert. 
conAdn-dra, witli London. con Al-tSr-to, vrIUi Albert, 

iwr JAtHlro, for London. per AUiir-te, for Albert. 


'K’om. DLo, God. Abl. da l>Ao, Iboin God. 

Oeii. d( £1-0, of God. in DI-o,lnOod. 

Data a. ll(-o, toGod. con Di-o, wilb God. 

Aco. X)(-o, God. per DI-o, for God. 

It is obvious that proper names of gods, persons, 
towns, and other localities, require no article in 
the singular. 

There are, besides the artiole, many other words 
(numerals, pronouns, and adjectives) pointing out 
with more or less precision the' definite character 
of a noun, and generally connected with it. The 
declension of these words likewise i-equires that 
only the three case-signs di, a, and <i!a, should be 
placed befoi'e them. We shall also lay down here, 
as a general rule in Italian, that any numeral, pro- 
noun, or adjective which points out the definite 
character of a noun with a sufiicient or with a still 
greater precision than the article itself, renders the 
latter superfinons, and such words are, on the other 
hand, always accompanied by the artiifie when they 
do not precisely determine the noun before which 
they are placed. 

for the feminine, is considered , by many gmm- 
manans to be the indefinite article corresponding to 
a or ic English. It is a word expressing inde- 

■ finite unity : for example, iin U-lrrof a book, and li-na, 
ed-da, a house, express the general'idea of any book 
and any housa • It is, moreover, a word expressing 
definite unity, that is,' a numeral ; for cx^ple, vn . 
uS-moe cin-.gueMn-tm, one-man and five women; 

Ul>-l)raetrc6n-ce,cme pound and three ounces. 
It is also fr^uently a, pronoun, having the definite 
articles to and la before it signifying the one (mns- 
^line and feminine) : for example, V diicc dt 
si, V 6l-tro- di nS, the one says yes, the other no ; 

■ V il~na e lei-la, V dlitra n Vrdt-ta, the one (woman) 

is pretty, the other is ugly. . 'l 

Before a consonant which is not the s impure, and 
before the masonline nouns boginning with a vowel , 
one uses un : as wn U-bro, im- oa^dUlo, ttn in-gi- 
gno, va nS-mo. Tlie feminine, d-na, generally loses 
the <1, and anapostTophemust'besnbstitnted, before 
nouns commencing -with a vowel.’ The words of- , 
• oti-ni, some, pi. (for the masculine), and al-cft-ne, 
some, pi. (for the feminine), may be considered ns 
substitutes for "the plural of li-no and d-urr. jll- 
oil-Ttiand al^od-ne are, strictly speaking, the plurals 
of the pronouns al-ctl-no (maso.), and al-cd-na 
(fern.), somebody. . 

Singular. Plural. 



4. II bnon psirclre, la, buo-na'niiVdrc. C. n fra-1«l-lo’ 
6bu&-no,laso-rel-laebii6-iia., 6. Ilbn&nltai-tel-lD, 

■ la bno-na so-rel-l.^. T. Ml-b pa-dic; il mi-o bnon 
pd-clro. 8. Ml-a mu-rlrc ; la buo-na mst-drc._ 
n. Mi -0 i>il-clrD 6 bno-no, inl-a mii-dro 6 bu6-na.' lO. 
Mi -0 fra-tel-lo o mi-a so-rul-la. H. II aii-o bnOn 
fra-tol-lo o la mi-a bn6-iia so-riil-la. 12. Un pii-dre, 
A-na mii-dre, un fra-tCl-lo, A-na so-rCl-la. 13. Un 
bu6n p;i-dre, A-na buo-na rafidrc, un buOn fra-tcl-lo, 
A-na buo-na so-rfll-la. 14. Mi-o pa-drc fe un bnon 
piid-rCi mia rad-dre & A-na bnO-na mddrc, 13. TA-o 
pd-drc ha A-na buo-na so-rul-la, tA-a md-drc Im nn 
liiiAn fra-tSl-lo. 

THE riiErosiTiox w — its cse, etc. 

Tlie nsc o[ this word very frequently coincide.*! 
with tho uso of tho case-sign, or preposition of, in 
English grammar:— 

1. IVlien tho questions of tcltom? of nliieht of 
u'hoi'f rehosc? joliat Nntl or aort of? require tlic 
genitive also in English; for example, La-mi-re 
del jihdre, tho love of the father. 

2. Wlion geographical or other proper naintm 
indicating po.ssossion, domain, authorship, eta, or 
merely for tho purpo'-o of deHning them, arc joined 

' to other nouns : for example, la rll-ilt dt Ve-tii-zla, 
the city of Ycnicoi il ri-uno dl Sjia-ffiia, the king- 
dom of Spain ; il me-ae (H TA-gllo, the month of 
July; il nn-uie til Fran-ei-aeo, tho name of Kraticis; 
le ira-ne-tlie dl Al-fif-ri, tlio tragedies of Alficri; le 
eom-mf-tlic di Gol-do-iii, tlie comedies of Goldoni. 

8. When words expressing quantity, weight, or 
any kind of measure, are joined^to other nouns: for 
example, li-n/i fjiiati-li-fii di a quantity of 

slicep; ii-7ia lib-bra di car-ne, a pound of meat; vi- 
no di dw-ci an-ni, wine of ten years. 

Ij'or tlie sake of elegance, the preposition di is, 

' Iiowover, sometimes omitted after tho words ca-aa, 
liouso ; pal-Uz-zo, palace ; jdiz-za, place, .square ; 
rtl-ia, villa ; gallery ; /ff-i/U-j/fia, family; 
par-la, gate, entry, and some others, when they arc 
followed hy the name of the owner or the person 
after whom they tire c.alled : for example : in ca-aa 
Al-tic-ri, at the Altiori-houso ; ri-ei-no al jta-laz-zo 
Bor-ijbc-ae.-vuxve tho Borghase-p.alace, etc. 

Englbh compound nouns, or combinations of 
nouns, for the part must be decomposed 
by the genitive case with tho case-sign »f/, c-spccmlly 
when one of the nouns merely defines and qualifies 
the other, which is tho principal word conveying 
tho principal idc.a: for example, garden door, j/er-fu. 
di giar-di-no (door of the garden); stoUciqiBirrj', 
eu'-ra di pii-tra (quarry of stone) ; autumn Iraits, 
friit-ii’dan-iiin-tiOj- a music nmatenr; «» di-let-iaa- 
te di jnii-ai-oa. 

English adjectives, indicating the material or 

stiiil ficm which nnytliing is mabufacturod, ,6r 
denoting qualifies or derived from proper naincs of 
‘countries, nations, or towns, for the -greatest part 
will bo '‘translated into ifalian by niean.s of nouns in 
the genitive case: .for example, a gold watch, in. 
a-rti-lo-gio d'o-ra (a Wiitcli of gold); a marble 
statue, i-na, ata-iua di mdr-nto. • 

Whenever the' infinitive mood of any verb ex- 
plains and defines another word, the preposition' di 
must be placed before it (just ns the preposition- (jf 
with the present participle of English grammar in 
such cases) : for example, IJd i-'na gran ro-glia di 
viag-gid^e, he has a great desire to travel or of 

The word di is sometimes a mere expletive : for 
example, e-gll di-cc di at, cd I'-o di-eo di no, he say.s 
yes, and I say no. - ", 

' Li, among all tho prepositions of tho Italian 
language, is of by far the most extensive use. The 
i-cason of this is that di, properly .and philosophi- 
cally spojiking, merely expresses tho mental separa- 
tion of ideas or notions. 

Wo have thought it useful, in some cases, to 
denote the pronunciation of tlie corn. Wc have 
done so hy placing after such words in p,ircntliesis, 
ia, thus (<*), when tho pronunciation of the j or ss ' 
is to bo the .sharp hi.ssing one; nnd da, thus {da'), 
wlicn tho pronunciation of tho s or ss is to bo the 
.soft one. 


Plcnsarc, pia-ea-re. 

Oenuty, M-kz-za HlsliMt ilcgrer, er! 

And not. 

h rf-i'tf..). f. 

It}-. Itl-kz 

llclmvlonr, am-ilit- 
Dcliinx, n}>-j«r4ii<- 
Ik-loiigs, nji-iwi-fii- 

B111I.V, nSr^w. m 
Brotlicr, fm-lcl-la, 

Cnloiir, co-lii-n-. in. 
Coiiiiii(!rec,roiii-iiKi - 

Intcrcsl, If- 110 , in. 

Practlw, es-rr-el- 

Zitl, III. 


nniiilioiv, nr-n-iin- 
If- 110 , 1" 

l 41 liSlingc,llM-! 7 lln,f. 
ik’si'iliitor, ic-ffl-jla- 

Uro., r. 
^Inn. •* 

gli nil 

Dawn, fflimi-Wr,, .olur-ii". in. 
Disomcr, tlis-or-ili. 

Esmebc, iiMMii, m. 
Fatlicr, }ir!4trr, m. 
Pmill, rr-ni-re. in. 
Eertilit}*; ‘fir-lUU 


Mnvtcr, pa-iiri-ne, 
MUnl, .i-iii-mn, f. ; 

Mirror, jjiA-riito, in. 
Monpy, ftn-nn.m,in. 
Must nliRiys obey, 


Elelit, 7 i«4s. f. . 
Oriininciit, or-nn- 

Pnbicc, pb-Mz-za 

Slior^lis, i^cnr^rln. 
Histnr, m-r/l-la, T. 
Soldier. wMii-to, 

•iii-iim, f. 

SiirinR, j 

Tinii^nlUity, gtiii- 
Tronburo, Ic-sa-ro, 
Ti nr, ‘ri-ro. 

'Wnniith, caUiurelm, 

twill, r. . 

Wise inaii,««-rio, 111 . 
Yoiinp irtnn, gld*m- 


' Translate into Italian : — 

1.. Hypocrisy is a lioinnge ■n-liioh vice renders to.‘ 
■rirlno. 2. Nature only requires tliat wliicli Is 
necessary. 3. Reason demands the usotnl, self-love 
looks for the agreeable, iiassion requires the super- 
• (luons. 4. Largo trees give more shadow th.m fruit. 
.V God is the Rather of men and the Preserver of 
I lie creatures, 6, Tiic stars of the heaven, the birds 
of the air, the fish of the sea, the plants, the 
animals, are worts of the Lord. 7. The wisdom of 
God is like the light of 'heaven. 8. The order, the 
hcanty, and the pleasantness of the world arc 
evident proofs of the existence of a Supreme Being. 
1). The csccBs of the passions is generally the cause 
of the misfortune of men. 10. The lust of intem- 
pemnee and inpontincncc is the enemy which 
brings to man the greatest damage ; it weakens his 
powers, deprives him of riches, and injures his most 
precious good, the hcaltli. 

Wo now come to some illustrative c.vcrclscs of 
the of rff. Tliat he may clearly understand the 
difforenoo bclwcen the two languages, the pupil 
will do best, wherever it is allowable, to translate 
tlicsr oxcroiaos by Englisli comjionnd nouns, or by 
combin.ations of nouns, or by adjectives prcccdtng 


AliU«, dress. Chici-hrro, cais /sots, islaiid. 

.demiv-futimr, orn.v t'liK/Kf, (hv. «nol. 

nicnt, In aihdress. ('«()». Iilnw, shot. jMitr. inUk (Jtor dt 
Aata, vliipxnr. CiilleUn. kiilfr, liillf, rioaiii). 

ulnrtli,, enrpt, l«Hly, (timu iMvr ffiir tr-ni-rr, 

jlrfftiiln, Mhcr. t’nriTJioiir, cntn'c- to rise), rising. 

ticket.' ’ /)oi.i(tiii''>w. tvacticr. ’ 

JJirm, lic.r. riiif/ni, \viui|.)». ««»»*.. M-iy. 

ofllrlid sral, Fhr (for Jto-ic), Mitnicllo, cloak, 
staiiiii. Ilotivr jlfniicrCIskyoangav. 

Mriiei'io, in, (id, 7e Cente, ]it'oidi-. 
Mr-rtn, t.), mill, nhiTlamln, aiirland. 
fll. .v.inl. illorno, <Iay. 

MigUtt, III, (Id. femt. 

ivacfs), also mi 

, KnvIMt, GiTiimii, 

, Cfdico, f/isooi, aaiin*. or Krciirli mile. 

1 (f->).,fctocKiiig. (;iii*rr;>', Joscidi. .UKiira, iiirasnrc. 

>111 (I<1, 111 , jil., Giiido, Inst. Mfggio, buKlicI. 

nisrrs. (rnm (for snin-dr), Afoufr, moiiiilain, 

|iaiin,lsd1, clock, laigc. uiirnlirokvrH (oi 

liiidi strikes!, ftioiotr, Moillr til iiicl.a), 

'.dog. r/mno, com. .tforo, team, 

I, lii-nd, (ddef. rfar<n(io,gimrd(enr. A'neie, itaiiic. 

eitfo, great coat jm di iTHnidiii, A'lonrro, niimlicr. 
clo.ik, main giiniat, or Oyho, olU 

te, meat. main gnanl- 0;e7v, work {capo 

Pama, pen. .So, tlioii art inwlity preserved 

iV2» (fs), Idccc. {]KZ:o (I'innor- in casks (diriMo 

rfrira, stone. «n(r, Idoeklicad, aitoHtidlagio,tou- 

7'ipif,(t<ibacci4pliie. ilnnec). ' nngu). 

Putaki, pistol. Seuloi, one licars, Tnauonlar (for (ro- 
Plmnti, featlicr. Is lienni moii-td-rc, to set, 

Posfa, iMst. Sieilifl, Sicily. 'disappcai), set- 

PrcmWosWakcmc. Sol (for so-h), sole, ting. 

Presa, jiinci}. only, single. Tratto, throw, cast, 

Prabtm, giiorni- Sole, sun. stroke. 

pfonei gaiTison. , /itirnle, hoot , Triinniafe, tilbunal. 
Piinta, point, Strwht, loail, way, court. 

Pitnfo, iioint. runic; sti cut. 7'r(tppn, troop. 

rpiantity. .s/rii^o (h), os- P/icio, olllce. ' 
tkiorio, fourth part, tiich. ' Pcceliio, old. 

quarter (of a Sue, Iini, I'cim, vein. 

IKiillld}. (ste.ail. Ttttxicco, totiacco, Veniina, iiiilillKT of 
Tfnifn road, laad- smifl. twenty, score, 

Jtazai (fs), race, Tasvi, tax. I'elm, glass, icuic. 

s|wctcs, kind. Tazzit (fs), cup. rnio, wine. 

Itcgoo, kingilom. Tc (imniounCud (e)- I'isln, sight, view. 

Snnlegnn. itardliiia. tea. jffcefiiiio (fs), scqiiln' 

/i<mr 7 «, idioe. Trin, linen. (gold coin ennciit 

Schcnira, fencing. ToKo (pronoimecd at Venice ami in 

SciampnQua, chain- lOr-co), piceu, tilt. Tinkcj', about 
isaglle. Toren, tnlicll, blow, fls.) 

.Sncii((fs},ScotI.aiid. stivkc. )!io(fsX uncle, 

tief, SIX. Tonnctlngto, com- ifnccfiei'o (fs), sugar. 


Translate into English : 

1. II man-tcl-lo dcl-lo Ki-o. 2. L'fi-bi-to di Gio- 
vnn-ni. 3. oi'v-sa di ini-ti so-rol-la. •!. II lo-vdr, 
.il tm-mon-tnr del su-lc. S. Ld-nn di pe-co-ro. G. 
Piin-to di vi-stn. 7. La cd-sn di cor-re-zid-no. 8. 
Sun-tc-si im cdl-po di pis-(u-ln, 0. Cd-vc di pid- 
tra o di mdr-mo. 10. J1 sii-o cd-po d’6-po-ra. 11. 
II cor-po di gudr-din. 12. Con tin sol trdt-to di 
lifin-na. 13. Un toc-co di cam-pd-na. 14. Vti-tro 
di fi-nd-stra. l.'i. l5-na ghir-Idn-da di fifi-ri, 1(5. 
Fez-zo d‘i-giio-rdn-tc clic sdi! 17. La piin-ta di 
col-tdl-lo. 18. ti-nn vd-na d’ar-gdn-to. 19. Do- 
ind-ni c gl6r-no di pd-stn. 20. Jla-d-stro di di-sd- 
gno, di schdr-ma. 21. Cer-ti-fi-cd-to d'uf-ff-cio. 
22. lin-pd-rod'iVit-strin. 23. Rd-gno dTn-ghil-tdr-ra, 
di Sed-zia, d’lr-lun-fla. 21. La oit-ta. di Ldn-drn. 
d'E-din-biir-go, di Diih-b'-no. 2.7. II di' Gen- 
nd-lo, di Miig-gio. 21«. L'i-so-la di Si-oi-lia. di 
Sar-dd-gna. 27. Un quar-to d’d-m. 28. U.-na 
rdz-za di cii-ni. 29. Cdr-sa di ca-vdl-li. 30. Lc 
‘tnip-i>e di pre-sf-dio. di guar-ni-gid-ne. 


April, .t-pr£-le. Finish ^ ilriiikiiig, Mav,^ jrirysflo. 

da. ‘ Oia-ss I,;cc7ifr.n:,m. Kino, nv-re. ' 

Ball, tol.lo, m. Halfanomir.iMm-;- On tlio contrary, 
Bira.|. |«-»r. III. go mi.cio, f. nf/’iii-niii-fro. 

■ Button, 7oi(-Io-hi, III. lie hail gi ^ ' ” 


• r.aiis, f'n-riJlI. 

*Ch.angcablc, lu-riii. jfHtt.rc. g'crMnniancc (i.r., 

- bi-lr. Jlnni, li-m, f. . coineily), com.nic- 

City, rff-fii, f. I come, ii‘,i.yo. ^ i7io, f. 

Com, pit, iniiic, 7ifn'iirinfr,ignnnuit. Oolmr, indcr (mill. 

qinny. Imjtro, cinpno. taiyx 

CuniUn, horse. /ii/iiiifii, iiiiiiinicr- Jtii", m. "(iil. lc jid- 

CcHttmdo, humlred. atile, innitftilile. fo, f.), |xili. 

ivelglit. Iiighillcim, Eng. J’niir, 

Crrfifiriifo.ccrtillcatc. land. ituino, cloth. 

Che, that. Irlamta, Iivlalid, /’ecom. sliecp. 

.Deecniber, fS'^i’ia. 

(pton, ^ Fotnid, iih-kio, f. 

Tiemblc, anil tuttei-, .inAaiMrtarerWeiil . 

(«,1 Al,G"iD'!.alIniBlity will,' ■ ' 

‘ Tlie affriglited wurld falln livadlong from its sphere^ 

. Flaunts, and anirs, ami aj-stcm^dlsappeaf I 

Solenmiti/^ , 

Fatlier! Tli^hiind 

Hath reared these TCiicraWe culuiniis ; Tlion 
■Didst weave this verdant rSuf. ThSu didst IGok down - 

laughing “tremor,'’ making the beginning, the micl- 
dle, and the end of every emphatic sound distinct 
and' xirominent and cutting to the ear. The 
“quality" of the voice in this tone is strongly 
“ aspirated," but not guttural ; the " inflection 
is usually "falling,” but sometintes becomes the 
“trave ” or " circumflex."’ 


“mbaorato force," “liighx>itoh,” and “lively move- ' 
ment”; .moderate “radical stress";’ and smooth; 

“ pure quality ” of tone, with varied “ inflections.” 

' Celia. I pmj tlioc, Rosnlind, sivoot iny c6^ bo mirrn- 
liosaliad. Well, I will Jiira» tlia condition or my ritatc, to 
ny'dice in yitirs. From Iicnccforlli I wIK, coz, and devise 
' ajidrU; let me s6e; wiint tliink you of fnlllng in tare f 

Celia. I prj-tlicc, do, to make ajidrf 'withal ; hut love no 
man in good eanicsl, 

' Jlosallnd. Il'lmt slinll bo onr syort, then ? 

Cclio. Let us sit and tiiock the goad hmtsemifi-, Fdrlune, 
from her srMel, tlmt licr yifls may Iioncoforth be bestowed 

Jlasalind. 1 would we coiiM do so ; for lier benellls are ' 
mlpWly misplaeeit; and the tfOitnlf/'iil | blind I teamnn | doth 
mast mistake her gifts to wiiiirn. 

' Eule 17. — Tratitiuillity, eerenity, and repose arc 
indicated by “moderate force," “middle pitch,”' 
and “moderate movement"; softened “medial 
stress”; “.smooth" and “pure quality” of tone; 
and moderate inflections. 


How .sweet the mooiillghl sleeps upon Uiis lidiik! 

Here will we sit, and let the saHli(l.s of music 
Oreep III onr cam I soft stillness, and Uie night, 

BccOiiio the tonclies of sweet hilnnotiy. 

Isiok how the floor oflieaven 
Is tlilek Inlaid with )nlhiei aflirlglitgOld I 
Tlicie's not the siiiallest orli which tlioii Ixdiold'sl, 

Out I in his motion | like an Angel | sings. 

Still eiiirliig to the }‘onng.eycd cliernbiiii : 

Snell haimony Is In imiuoital simls I 
Tlic careful study and practice of tones cannot 
ho too strongly urged on the attention of young 
Tc.'idcrs. Ilciiding devoid of tone is cold, mono- 
tonous, and mcclianical, and false, in point of fact. . 
It defeats the main cnil of rending, vriiich is to im- 
part thought in its natural union with feeling. 
Eanlly tones not only mar the clicct of expression, 
but ollend the ear, by their Wolation of taste and 
propricti'. Heading can po.ssc!;s no intcrest,-spocch 
no eloquence, witlioiit natural and vivid tones. 

The foregoing examples should be pracliFcdwitb 
close attention and persevering diligence, till every 

property of the voice exemplifled in them is per- 

fectly at command. 

XI.— APrnopjitATi; 3 iodui,atiox. 

The word " modulation " is the term niiplicd, in 
elocution, to changes of force," " pitch,” and 

“movement," “stress,” “quality," and "inflection” 

which occur, in continuous and connected reading, 

in p-Tssing from tlic peculiar tone of one emotion 
to that of another, "Modulation," therefore, is 
nothing else than giving to each tone, in the 
rending or speaking of a whole piece, its appro- 
priate character and expression, 

The first practical c.vercisc which it would he 

most advantageous to .perform in tliis department 
■ of, elocution is to turn back to the exercises on 
.“versatility ".of voice, 'and repeat them till they 
'can be executed with perfect facility and precision. 
The next exorcise should be a review, without tlio 
reading of the intervening rules, of all the examples 
given under the head of “ tones." A very extensive 
and varied practice will thus be secured in “ modu- 
lation.” The student should, while performing this 
exercise, watch narrowly, and observe exactly, every 
change of tone, in passing from one cx,amplc to 
another. The'third course of exercise in “ modula- 
tion ” is to select '.some of the following pieces, 
which arc marked for that purpose, as the notntiou 
will indicate. A fourtli course of-practice may be 
taken on plcocs marked by the student himself. ■ 


[Sfarhctl for Jlhctorlcal Pauses] in, poetry. 1 
n«re I AT® old tree?, till oiks | .mil gimrldd pines, ' 
Tiiatstronm I witli gmy.greon masses; liere | tbo ground. 
Wns never treiickcd by npnde ; niid flowers | spring up I 
Tlnsowb, Biid die nngatlicred. It h sweet | 

To Unger here, among the fliltbig birds, 

And Icniilng squirrels, Wiiiiilcrlng brooks, and winds I 
That shake the leaves, and scatter, ns they pass, 

A fragrance I froui the cedars, thickly set • 

Witli pale blue berries. In these peacctul .sliedcs,— 
Peaceful, unpruncil, immeasurably old,— 

My tbongbts i go up the long I dim I p.itli of years. 

Back I to tbe earliest iLiys of liberty, 

O FnnenoM I thou art net, as jioets I dream, 

A fair young girl, witli liglil I and delicate limbs, 

And waiT tresses | giistiing from tlie cop I 

Wtlli wlilcb tlio Roman ninslur i crowned tils stave [I 

Wlicn be took olT the gyves, A tic.irdnl man, 

Armctl to the teeth, att thou ; one nrafleil h,iiid i| 

Grasps lire tiroad .sldcld, and one | tlic sword ; tliy Iirow 
Glorions ill l>c.ility | tliongli it lie, is srorred II 
With tokens of old wars ; thy massive limbs |I 
Ate strong with struggling. Power | nt tlico lias Iniiiiclici) 
His iKilts, and I witli bis Ilglitnings I smitten tbco ; 

Tlicy could not quoncli tbo life tlioii bast from bcaven. 
Merciless power | lio-s dug thy dungeon deep. 

And bis swart arinoiirci-s, by a tliousiiid tires. 

Hare forged tby cliain ; yet, wliile be deems thee bound, 
Tim links are slilvcrcd, and tbe prison w-alls | 

FaU outward : tcrriidy thou apriiigcsl fortli. 

As springs tlio flame I ainvc a biiriiing pile. 

And shonlcst to the natinns, who return. ' ' 

Thy slioiitings, while the pale oppressor | flies; 

Tliy birthright | was not gi\-eii I by huuiaii'hands : 

'TIiou wert twin-bam > w-ilh man. In pleasant iiclds, 

While yet our race wns few, tlion snt'st with liini. 

To tend the quiet flock | and watch the stars, 

And teach the reed to utter simple airs. 

Tlion I by bis side, nndd'thc tangled wood, 

Bklstsvarniioii the panther i and the wolf. 

Ills only foes; and thou I with him I didst dinw • 

Tlie earliest furrows ) on the iiiouiitaln side, 

Tliy enemy, although of reverend look. ' . 

lloary • with many years, and far obeyed,. 


tljc times ftsmlghlhrtntiJn their puUic.itlon, wercfhctxra sitincA. 
of : of wliiiOj DofUluy toW lue. Hint tlicj* were 

hronglit to liliii hy the nutlior, tlirit they misht lie fairly c^iueiU . 
"Km'ylinc,"HniiUiG, “wasi then \mUent\viccuver;lga\’e him 

for the prfris, with cvoiy line irrilten twee o\-cr n secnml lime," 

His (Icclnmtloi), that his cme for Ins worlcs ceased at tliuir 
puMicatlon, wan not ;>ti'ictly tn\e. llis itaiciilal allctition 
never ahaiuloiUHl them ; whnt he fmuid amiss In tlie Unit 
cdilioii he silently corjecled in those that fWlowwI. Ho 
appears 1o have reviscrl the lUaih aiul fiml It fiam some of 
its linpeiTi'idions; and the Essaif on rdvived many 

improvcmeiitSf after its first appoamiice. Jt will nddoni Ih^ 
fotiiid thsit lie nUen*<l M'ltliont mhihig clwriiesi, tiegnnec, or 
vigour. Fnpo had, perhaps, the jVulgiAeiit of Hiydeii ; hnt 
Hrydeii rerlalnly ivnntcd the diligence of 

In ncqiiiidl knowledge,* the suiierlority must be alloucil to 
Hr>dL‘n. whose viUieatloii was nuiie sdiol<tslic, mnl wlm, 
hefoi'C he became an nnthor, had been alloncil more timo for 
study, lYith better iiienns of inforiiintlon. Ills iiilml lias n 
Inivei range, and hu collects Ills images and illustrations ftmu 
a lunre e\toiisl\u ciixaimfercuco of seiem'c. Hrydeti kia^vr 
luoie i»r iiinn In his pmeral iiutuie, ami Vopc In his local 
miUinvM. The notions of Hidden woie forimsl by ctunpru* 
henshc siKvnl.itlun, and thO'<u of ro]ic by niitiute nttcntiim. 
Tlieui K iHOii' diuiid) m tliu Uuouledgu of HryMcn, amt tnoic 
ccrtatiity m that of l’o|ie. 

r(*elry was not the mOc ]>inbcof eitlmr; for tmtli rvcellcd 
likewi'-e in piosc ; hut I*o]ie did nut lioiunr bis prose ft<mi hU 
predccosscr. Tin* stih- of Ikydin i> capricious and \:ulinl ; 
that of rojK* Is I'.Mitlmis mid ihiiruim Hiydrn olieys the 
inulitins of his own mind; Pope coiistr.ilmt Ids mind to his 
own rnlis of cotnimsmoii. IhYden isHoinctlmes vclienientaiid 
rapid : rope is always Mimoth, niiirontt, and gentle. )Jrydcti*M 
page Is a field, using into im'qnaUtus, and diwi^llted 
b> the vailed vxnlK.r<nicc of nhniidant vrgtdation : Popc^slsa 
velvet lawn, slmwii by the hejthe mid Imdlcd by the toller. 

Of gctiitts. that iiowei v*hie1iennstltnti*sa|MK;t ; that quality 
without whieli jinlginvlil is <‘u1d, ami htmwiedgc is iiif^rl ; that 
viu'igy which collects. coiiibiiips,t*nH{difles, an*l hithiiates ; tlio 
hniN'tlorit> iimst. with some hesitation, l>c allmvvd to l>rj:*i1cn. 
Jt w not to be iiifei red, that of tins itouilcnl vigour iVipe liad 
only a little, becntise Dj) den Ind iiioic ; for rvety other writer 
since Mtltmi nni-l g!\ e iiKice to ; mid eivii of Drydon It 
niuht be sanl, that if hu has hnghter iMiagmidis, lie 1ms not 
better P‘ 'ems. Orydeii > pei hirniain ts w etv altrays hast j*, either 
excited by some external ore.isimi, or evtoricd by domestic 
iiectssiiy; he comjiosed without Ctuislderation, and ]mbllsbc<l 
without corrcetiuii. JVliat his niiiiil (s>uld Mipplyat rail, or 
gather In one cxedisian, w’as nil that he songht, mid all tint 
hog.ivr. T]]e<ldatorrc.antion of IVjk! enabled him to coinlriisr 
Ids sentiments, to miiUiply his imap's, nnd to oi*cfimuiite nil 
that study Jiiiglit produce, or chantT miglit sup}dy. If the 
illghts of Ilrytleii, therefora, arc higher, rmitinites longer 
on llie wuig. If of Ihydeii's tire the blare is Imghtcr, of 
pope's the lieat Is more regular nml cmwl.'iiit Ujjdeii often 
Miriusai's o\]H'Ctiih<Mi, and Pupe nevir falls Iwluw it. Di^’deii 

deliglit — Jolinsun. 




If tvc groui> the Clinrncoa: \Vitli the Uryopliyta, ive 
can with oonsUlenible accuracy ilclinc llio Thalia- 
plnjla as i:)Iaiits in which tlicrc is no structural dis- 

tinction into .root, stem, and leaf. ' .They iiavc 
likewise no vessels, .and .but little diilorenti.ation of 
tissues of any kind. IVliilst .higher forms among 
them form cell^, and may even have a second- 
ary growth in thickness by means of a mcrismatic 
zone, others are made up of cell-iilaments either 

Fi?. PS.— Tan CoMuiis Itiinws Mnn ti (.tfntor MvwKt. 
t, bjore; is, raycslmm ; t, sniiiilinjilioie ; ,«j>, biioraiigimn. 

singly or iutcrlaocd'in a folt-likc manner, or erin 
consist of single cells. Sluch of tiie life of many 
lower fornw is pa.ssfd in tlie condition of naked or primordial coll-s, often ciliated .and. 
frcc-siriiuiiung : but in higlier types this motile 
condition i< often contined to tlic nnthciozoidls. 
These antlierozoids are in this sub-kingdom ncvc£ 

There arc numerous mctliods of reproduction, 
botli vegetative and sexual, in the sub-kingdom. At 
the b,aso of the scrie- are types iii wliich sex does 
not seem to have appeared, and at its siiinmit arc 
others wliicli aie apparently ajiopamovs, having 
Fometiincs some’ sexual organs inescnt, but dis- 
pensing altogether witli any process of fertilisation; 
In most groups Invad-cclU tirts produced by a purely 
vegetative process. These are comnipnly .green, 
ciliated primordial cells, known nsgonUlia, coasjiorcs', 
or zeagaHiilia among., and cplls neitlier green, 
ciUatc, or motile auiong_ Fungi, known, ns coniSia 


becomes cut oE by a aurrowing at its base (a^- 
. ftrieiion'), ■ , " ' . 

■Fun^ may be provisionally grouped under five ’ 
sub-classes, of ,wliicli our elementary scope and 
limited space will only allow ot our discussing a few 
leading types. They are tlie Carjiom^/eefes, Oomy- 
ectes, Zi/gomyeetcs, Myxomycetes, and Pretomyeetes. 
The sub-class Oarjmmyeetes includes three scries, 
The PasMiomijcetcs liavo no known melliod of 
sexual reproduction, but agree in the product ion of 
iasidio/pures by abstrietii^n from the slender pro- 
cesses or sfcriywafiz on nolnb-shapcd cell or iasitf/nvi, 
terminating a liyplia. Tlioy comprise three orders, 
the gelatinous TremeUini, the Gastcramycetcit ami 
• the ITymcmmycctcs. The <?asferi»ii>/i:efc.‘iincludc the 
puff-balls (XyciyicrffflB, ctc.)and stink-homs (PhaZ- 
lug), wliioh are auyiocarjmig, ripening their spores, 
tlint is, within a spherical “ fructification,” wltich 
afterwards bursts its outer layers ox i>erldltm. 

The Jlymenomyectcg* are gymuncarjiaug, the 
Imsidia on wlilcli ttic spores form being produced 
over an exposed .surface or hymeninm. ' The usual 
form in this order is tlio (»p or umbrella-Hke simpc 
familiar to tis in tiio common musliroom. (Fig. ,99.) 
There is a myeelimn or “spawn” of thread-like 
hyphro penetrating the gvouml, dead wood, or rAhev 
substratum, and on it appear the “fruolifications" 
or gonidiophoreg as roimdctl bucl-liko masses of 
parallel hyphro with apical growth. (Fig. 90 A.) 
Each of tlicso nsunlly develops into n stnik ovsftjici 
and the cap-like pileiis. (Fig. 99, Ji.) An outer 
layer of hyphn: (velum univenale) burst in growth 
(Fig. 99, n) may form a cup-like volva round (he 
base of the stipes and (locciilcat .scales on the 
pilous, wliilst nnol her similar meinijranc (Fig. 99, C) 
below tlie pilciis {rclum partialc) may’rcinain as a 
torn ring (fljnmius) round the stipes. (Fig. 99, ».) 
The under-surface of the piieiis consists of radiat- 
ing "gills” or lamclltcln the suh-onler Ay/rr/cfBf, 
to wliich file mushroom (Agarieug cawjwgtrig) 
belongs; of tubes in tlie touglior sub-order Pely- 
poroi; and of spines in the llgdnacci. The 
entire surface of tliose various slnicturcs is 
covered hy flie liymrinum,a In^-cr of clnlvsliapcd 
cells, some sterile (paraphyscg), others (Imaidia) 
producing four slender points or branchas (uterig- 
viata), at the free ends of whicli the gonidia or 
basidiospores are formed, as already said, by nbstric- 
tion. They are generally white, pink, or purple, 
and as they fall, uoloiir the gills. 

The JUcidiomycetcg or Urediatr are parasitic on 
the stems or loaves of iiowcring-plants, 'some- 

' It win lie seen Hint tlic snti-clnsscs, scries, anil many 
onlers of Fungi ciiil in the sullis Tnyectn (Greek fivicgc, -was, 
inutfs, -civs, a nnisliroam). 

times only exhibiting "a marked, altcmatiott 
of gcme'mtiohs — diffeient ' stages -of 'which have 
been thought entirely distinct plants-r-but, being 
also lietereccioiig (Greek erepos, liSterSs, another; 
oIkos, i>ib3t, a liouso), ix., passing the rnrious stages’ 

' of their development on distinct host-plants.- For, 

. example, Pitccinia graminU, whoat-mildew, lias 
black, twD-ccllcd resting teleutosporcg' (Greek 
tthmirti, tSlSutS, the end), ' wliicli germinate in 
spring, producing short branched ' liyplim (pro- 
myeelta). The terminal cells of the branches of a 
promycelinm become small round siurcs (gporidia). 
These will only germinate on the leaf of a barberry 
(Serberis), producing a mycelium which pierces 
the epidermis of tlie leaf and forms a dense felt 
between the mesophyll cells. Yellow swellings 
appear first on the upper and then on the lower 
surface of the loaf, and rounded bodies hurst 
through the palisade and lower mesophyll tissues. 
Those on tlic upper siirfiice lire gpermogenia, con- 
taining hyplim, the ends of wliloli separate as ap- 
parently fnnctionloss gpermatia. ' On the lower 
surface are the “ clustcr-cii]is ” ot ircidiq, once 
known as .dCeidlum Perlrrldis. They ate filled 
' with liypbm or hnstdin, cacli producing nr chain of- 
orange irciilmpores. Those mcidiosporcs only' 
germinate on the green stem or loaf of a grass — 
wheat, for instnncc—prodncing a mycelium , which 
outers by a st ornate. Six or ten days later this 
mycelium gives off branches (bitgidia) which burst 
through the epidermis of the in lines bearing 
oval orange uredo-gporeg, once known ns Xntdo 
trgetum, Tlicsc nredo-spores germinate also on 
gnissc.>:, producing a myooliuui entering stomata and 
producing fresh urcdo-siioros. Towards tlio end of 
siiiiiincr the bkick two-celled teleutogpores appear on 
bnsidia, at first among tlie uredo-sporcs, so forming 
llic black lines often seen along aripc piece of straw. 
They rest during tlip winter. The aeidium may be 
tiic rosiilt of an act of fertilisation as yet unobserved. 

The jigeomyevteg arc a large group of varied and 
complex slrnclnro agreeing in producing spores 
(agcogpevfg), generally eight, by repeated biparti- 
tion of the nnclous of a club-slmpod cell or asms. ' 
One branch of their myccliiim, the arehicarp or 
ageegonium, is sometimes fertilised by conjugation 
with another, the diitlieridium ox pollinedium. The 
arcliicarp then becomes surrounded .by sterile 
hyphic and gives rise to tubes (ascogeiiaus tubes) 
bearing the asci ,• but these are sometimes produced 
ai)t>gamonsly.i.f., •without fertili-inticn. Tbcascinrc , 
cither in open enp-like fructifications (apetUeeia)-, in 
pvrifbeeiaCpyrcKOcarpg), with only:,a narrow opening 
ahovo;orin cfeisfenziyM, altogether olosed in. Many 
forms multiply even more rapidly vegetativoly by- 
means ot gonidia, erect hyplirn ending inn radiating 

Qospoi^,' having escaped from the ^outh of the 
. concepta^sle^ grows by divisioivinto a- new plant , 

, ‘,The., ChlorophyeotB^ or green algas( are, znany of 
, thorn,, fresh-water ^orms, whilst some of them Uve 
as “ aulophytes,” or ‘‘guests,** or. as true parasites 
within the ~ lesj-ves ’ of angiosperms. Some are’ 
imicollular, others filamentous, and othmrs are cell- 
snrhicos ; but none of them reach the complexity 
of tisaue attnined byth§ PluBO^yccsa and Florfdeae. 
Interesting groups belonging to this sub-olass ar^ 
the CoiijugattB^ ^ including Spirogym and ' the 
desmids; the Coi^orvaoete^ I*t^aeo^eaeets^ 
bhietB^ and Siphomee. Spirogyra consists of multl- 
celluJar. filaments with' nuclei, vaouolnted proto- 
plasm, and spiral chloiophyll-bonds. In conjugation 
cells in different filaments put out processes which 

protoplasm of one ooll (riqkle> passes' ovmr into 
the other <fomale), and unites' with' its protoplasm 
to form ' a resting zygospore {$eo VoL II.*, pp. 376, 
380, Figs. 11,* 18); In the alUed Mewoarpns, the 
sygospore is formed betwceli tho filaments, as in 
JUncorl • The Dcsmidem ate closely related to such 
forms as Spirogyra^ but are uuiceiiular. 

The Ot^ifuTvaceto aro mostly fresh-water and^ 
Unmentoua, though which is eaten under the 

layer of colls. , In many oases the thollas 1ms tho 
power of breaking up into aepanyte cells which re- 
commenoo growth independently. Zoospores occur 
in most fol'ins, .but, Che sbxual processes are 
oxtiremely vanied, the gametes being sometimes 
similar, whilst in otiicr oases there is a large 
'oosphere and motile antherozolds. 

The Protoeoccaoeoi aro fresh-water uniovular 
forms, often living on damp earth, or as aulophytes 
within tho tissues of other plants {cfKtophytlo'^y 
sometimes lichens. Though each cell is capable of 
independent life, they sometimes, os in Hydrtf* 
diotyon, tiie water-net, unite into colonics (pomobia). 
They produce ciliated zoospores, and multiply 
rapidly by ' bipartifcion, whilst, as in most other . 
Ohlorophyceaa, some cells at certain seasons cliange 
their chlorophyll to a red substance (plUororufit^ 
and pass into a resting condition. The green coat-^ 
ing on the bark of trees in damp spots con^ts of 
forms belonging to this' group, such as Plewroeoemta:’ 

The globe-animalcules,” favouHte 

microscopic objects,' commonly form.coniparativcly’ ' 
large colonies (fioonobit^^ of a rounded form, made 
up of 'rounded daughter-cells which each have two 
cilia protruding through the cell-walls of the colony 
and imparting -a rapid 'movement to the whole’ 
colony.- Conjugation takes place by the union of. 
two free-swimming ciliated.zoogametes. 

.,.^6 are a large, mostly marine,, group, 

ark^le as reaching a large.size and considerable ‘ 

differentiation < of. form 'without septa in their 
Tentative .^iractiires, so that they must be/termed^ 
I either unlc^ular 'or non-cellular. ‘ Numerous’ 
mufiei ‘occur in them.. Caulerpa^ for instance, 
treach^, in the Mediterranean, a length of seveial 
■'yards, witli-rhizoid, stem and leaf -like paits, but no 
septa. Cellulose threads do, however, in places 

it. In otlier forms a muc^branched tube is 
'Woven together into a sort of- tissue. ' Taiiolievia^ 
which grmys on damp soil ot in ffesli or bnwjkisU 

cut off by septa ; one becomes a rounded oogonium 
containing ono oosphere; the other, a hooked 

zolds. Both organs b^st, and the oospore, when . 
■fertilised, becomes a red-brown resting»spore. 

* Tl)e Piatomaciks are unicellular, and much 
resemble the desraids, from which they differ in, 
their highly silicified cell- walls and in the presence 
of the brown colouring-matter diaiomin. They 
occur both in fresh and in salt ’water, increasing 
rapidly by bipoxtition. Each cell' is enclosed in 
two silicified valves one fitting m'er the other like 
the lid of a piU-bme. In division the valves separate, 
each forming a new and slightly smaller one on the 
Inner side. At inteiyals large cells known as 
aux^peres are produced and the process re^ 
commences, the daughter-cells cotzmionly remaining 
slightly linked together in ohains. The siliceous 
coverings, being marked with minute geometrical 
ornamentation and being practically indestructible 
and .readily rendered transparent, are favourite 
microscopic objects. 

Among the alge which form the so-called 
g(^nidia of the lichens the majority seem to belong 
to the lowly Cyanopbyoea, the blue-green series. 
No sexual process is known in this group. Some of 
them, as Glagocapsa, occur in gelatinous groups 
owing to the daughter-cells of repeated divisions 
remaining enclosed in the mucilaginous walls of the 

as in u^ostoot imbedded in jelly. 

Though the Umits of our space and Jhe elementary 

reference to the lower and less familiar groups of 
phmts very brief, we have now x>assed in review all 
the leadii^ types of the vegetable kingdom. App’-*^ 
from* the interest arising from their varied uses 
T ua n, our rapid survey will have sufficed to show 
that- plants present an almost infinite variety 
r structure combined with a fundamental unity 
function that, can hardly fail to-arouse feelings 
rev^ent^ admiration in the thoughtful mind. _ 

r, s 



ICKiiliiliint /imil f. 179.J 

Di:mosht«ativj: Pjiosous.i. 

Tnn pconlinr ofl'mc; oC a. clviuonstRitivc pronoiin 
is 10 point out the rclntivo jiasitiioi of the oltjcet 
to wliicli it refers. Of llicse tliere arc tlircc, 

SMcftr, tliis (pointing to Kimotliing near at hand). 

Otiitr, Hint, (inclicntiiig .-■-oinclliiug rfmote). 

•Ptr, tltis or tlial (referring lo tilings in either 

tTicrfr mnl itntr are Oeclinctl after the Old Form of 
adjective.-;, tliiis: — 

Notn. tTuftr titft titfrJ (ritf), thh. 

Oen. Si«f<{ titfcc titftJ. of this. 

I);it. tEwfcni tititr titftm. to this. 

Ace. ffithii titft litftf (tin), thit. 

Ttr. when nsvd in eomieetion with a noun, is 
iiiileeted like the detinite nrtiele. 

When Used idisohitely (that is, to repre-ent .-i 
suh.statitite), it is inlleeted thus! — 

t^iiir/ntar, J*li'ra(, 

Mom. Str lit kaj. Sit, 

Hen. Siiffn(tff) t(r(ii(w) ttiifa(Hf). Stttn. 

Dat. Stilt itr ttiii. Stntn. 

Ace. Sin tii t.i«. Sit. 

Oiisiinv.vTros.s on rtin Pi;mi>ssti:.\tivi:s. 

The neuters tiifti (eonirtietfd fonu kit.’X ttntJ' 
ntid ina are. like cJ. eiiiphiyei) with verlw. withont 
distinction of gender or numher. Tliii', Sit.' lO 
cm a'l.tim, this i^ .-i man ; lit! fiar mttBfil’tii, the.scare 
men ; itntf ift tint *), tliiit is a vnnnmi ; t to. 

Sitftr, when denoting iinraediate pro.viinily, 
signilii-s t!i!r, ns.’—jn iicftc aptlt ift alltJ rtrj.W.lti!j', 
in this World all is transitory. More gen> rally, 
however, it answers in tise to that. Jintt .'dwiiys 
tieiiotes greater remoteness than tieftr, .and signilU-s 
thiit, I/OII, yiindir, as.— Stem iii launt 
that (er yoiiderl star is hanlly visit, le. 

3tiirr and licftr, wlu-ii employeil to contrast 
or coinparison. often find their eipiivideiil' in the 
Ihiglisli eaiiressions the former— the latter; that, 
tliat one— tills, this one. 

The denirinstratiie ttr, tit, r.u is distingnisbahlc 
from the arliele with wliieli it is identiral in form, 
iiy being ntti’red with greater eiiiphasis, as in the 
foilowing example :—®ft Tiana f-at tf aeftt.}!, niil-t Itncr, 
thu intin has said it, not that one. 

The form tef is eliielly found in componnds, a-s; — 
Siriuacn, on this account. 


Sieft. these, 
ffitftr. of these. 
SitfiB. to these. 
Titft. these. 

Somctimo.s ter is,’forthG sake of greater clcarno.s.s. 
employed in place of a pos.sessivo, as ffr lanllc ftiiitii 
tSefter uiik ktlTen Scfiii, ho painted his consin and his 
Min (fit., and the son of this one— t.c., the cousin’s 

The in-onanns, Imtb demonstrative and dctcrniina- 
tive, are fretjnenfly made more inlcnsire by the 
particle ctea, rrea, renj ; tfen tieft tOlunic, this very 
llowcr; rfen taj .tint, that same child; ettn tirfilf'c' 
the very same. 

DnTnnjtisATivi: Piiosouss. 

Tlic pronouns of this class are commonly bct 
down among the demonstratives. Their distincitre 
fetiture. however, is that of being used where an 
anti-eedenl is to be limited by a relative clause 
Miccei-iliiig. and so rendered more or less prominent 
or empluitic; llins.Tcr, iwM'tr Kiij fp.niltrt, rtiticnt Seb' 
he (that man) who acts wisely, deserves 
Fn»m this use they ilcrive the lutiue detcrminatirc. 
They an-- 

Scr, that, that one. he. 

®ttitnijt,tliat, that pTsOii (stronyly delcrmtnetirr). 

Sttfiltt. the s.nne (denoting Mentit;i). 

Crlbijtr, the same (seldom used). 

•Sc!d'tt,sneli(m.arl:liigxii«, 7,1 riVy of kind or nature). 

Ttr, when used in connect iem with a nnnn, is 
deelinvd like the deinoiistnitive ktt— that is. like 
the definite article. IVheii used ahsoliiteli/, it 
differs from the demmistrtitivc tir only in the 
gemtiie ]; taking i trtc instead of t trt a. 

Ttritiiiji and ketftlt'f are eomiwinnded of ktr and 
the jsirts iiiti.ji and ftlft lesjfetlvely. In del-lining', 
both juirt' of e.ieli must be inflected— tet like the 
artiele. ami and ftltt after the New Koriii of 
adjective-. Thus;— 

Sioi/idar. I'lurol. 

Nom. S'ttitiajt titiiin.3t l.t»|tiii,';f. Tititiiiatii. 

fion. Sk.'ttnijtn titio-.i^rii tttitm.jta. Ttiitnigta. 

Pat. Timitnijin tintni-trii ttmiiiiijin. Tiii|(ni,3ta. 

Ace. Ttnitnittn kititiisj: l.ttitnijt. Titiiiujin. 

•Stltijtr. fettite, ftlti.ti!, and ftM’tr, frtd't, fdif'Ci’ are 
di-elined afti-r the (Jid rorm of adjectives; the 
latter, however, when the indefinite artiele (tin, 
tint, fin) pteri-h-s. takes the .Mixed Form. 

IVlieii tir. eoines tficr ftlibtr, the latter is- not 
inlleetiHl at all, as; — iclct, tin a'limii, sueli a man. 

NeaiV syniiiiymoiie with ftliStr are ilie words 
kt^ulridim, tfrjItWin, ftiiicfjltid'tii, ibrcijIti.-Stii, ;iH which 
are iiidceHnalile; as; — 3di B.d-t ftintii lliii.t.w.9 niit 
tcrjltid-tn Snitin, I have no wit It such 

Jlr.hATivt: I’r.ONou.NS. 

* Tlie proper otllije -of a relative pronoun is to 


the conditionals. Thns, from lottK. fo .pTWie, we 
have — 

JPutures. Omditioneds. 

(1) 3^ lectbt iDtcn, I aJiall 3^ wnTtc tttm, I should 

praise. praise. 

(2) 3i$ wcrte gdcM ^iCtn, , 3^ niitte gtlobt ^aBcn, 

I shall have praised. I should have praised. 

SBcttcn is also employed with the part parUmple 
of a principal verb, to form the passive vince. Note, 
also above, that te c rb e and w u r k e are rendered by 
their equivalents shall and should in the coniugation 
of the English verb. 

Ebmauks on the tjsb oe ««ben and ©ein. 
As the present perfect and pluperfect 

verbs must be conjugated, sometimes with ^nfen and 
sometimes with ftin, it becomes important to know 
when to use the one and when the other. The 
determination of this question depends chiefly- 
upon the signification of the main verb. The 
•; general rules are the following 

(1) $oSen is to be used in conjngating all oeiive 
trausUivo veris, all rcfiemive verbs, all impersonM 
verbs, aU the auxiliaries of the second class (viz., 
baifcn, tbniien, mtgni, isoticn, r°Qcn, miipn, and Taffcn), 
and many intransitives, 

(2) ©ein is to he used in conjugating all in- 
transitive verbs signifying a change of the con- 
dition of the subject, as:— fflebei^en, to prosper; 
gcncfcn, to recover; teifen, to ripen; ((jtwinbtn, to 
dwindle; (ItrScn, to die; all verbs indicating motion 
towards or from a place, as: — Sttcn, to hasten; 
gcljtn, to go; rciteit, to ride; finhn, to sink; and 
also all verbs in the passive voice. 

(3) Some verbs take in the formation of these tenses 
either ^nbcn or ftin, according as they are em^oyed 
in one sense or in another. This, however, will be 
best understood by practice in reading and speaking. 
The following are examples : — 

St i(l in ftiaem neucn aBagcn He has driven off in his 
fortgcfofjrtn. new carriage. 

SDicin iSmbtc ^nt fbttgrfn^tcn My brother has pro- 
tcutn^ ju tcfcn. needed to read 


2)08 SSiancc id scftona. The wateris (has) frozen. 

2>cn oTincn 9Rann $ot c8 in It has chilled the poor 
bnn Inttcn Bimmet gcfcomi. man in the cold room. 
2)n8 Sctiff ift auf cincn Sclfcn The ship has struck upon 
geflojittt. a rook. 

ffioS S3ot£ 5ol btn JtJnig Mom Thepeoplehavethmrtthe 
2r;ronc gello^en. king from the throne. 

2)08 ©^iff ifl 008 lifer The ship has bedn driven 
gctrictcn. upon the short 

2)re S3oum $ot ncuc Bmcige The tree has shot forth 
gttrielen. new branches. 

PABaDiasis ON the Auximaeies of the Fikst 

•You have already, lec-irnt how to conjugate the 
anxiliaify verbs at least in the indicative] mood ; 
but for the sake of completeness we shall set ‘the 
whole -verbs before you now. 

(1) .gaheit, to have. 

raiisEST. 'past. 

Bmg'. .3(5) I have. Sing. 3:fi ^ottc, I had 
2)n5ail. '• 2)u5fl«c|i. 

Sr^t. ■ Gt^ntle. 

Plwr. SBir ^oScii. • Flur. aBir Jottm. 

• 35t ' S^r I>olteL 

Sing. Siff ^ntc ge^«H, I Sing. 3^ 5otte ge^ofc ■/ 
have had. , had had. 

©a 5oii getflOt ' ©a 5otlc|l gc^oW. 

St ^ot ^ct;oM. • ' ®t ^otte gtJoM. , 

Plur. SBir Jottii gc^obt. J^iir. SSic fatten gejotr. 
35t ?n6t gejobt. - S^t Mattel gt^oH. 

' @ie jaben gt^abt. ©it gotten gt^abt. 

'i^ng, 3tb )Mctbt ^obca, I Sing, '3:^)»trtegtfablJobcii. 
shall have. ' ■ Ishallhavehad. 

©u Jabin. , Suftitilge^obt^obm. 

fft nlib !^obtn. ' ■ St iMitb gcjnbi Jatm. 

Plur. 2Bir itnten Jabtn. ' . Plur. 2Bir )»«tcn gcjabt 

. 3bt tBttbct ^abtn. 
@ic iMcrbcn ^abm. 

S^t tBCrtel gc^obt 
@it 'merben gc^obt 



S^. 3^ ?«bc, I may Sing. 3^ ?5(lc, I might 
have. , ha-ve. ■ 

- ©a ^bcfl. ©n '^SUeft. 

Sc ^obc. ' St foltr. 

Pfwp. aBitboboi. Plur. SBirl^atltn. . 

S^rtabcl. 3bc ^attet. 

Sit ]^abtn. ©tc ^oltcn. 


.Sing. 3^ Sate gejabt, I Sing. Stb 5«ttc ge^abl,- I 
mayhayehad, might ha-ve had 

'2>u $obc|l gef abt. , ©u batlefi ge^obt. 

Sr Jabc gtbabf. . - Sc $atte gt^aW. ' 

■Plur. Ifflir 5obcn gc^abt. J^icr. 5!Bir gc^abt. 

S^c jobet ge^obt. 3bc'|'atlet ge^abt. ' 

Sit ^aben gejobt. ©it iatim ge^obt. ' 



Flier. S!Bic tviitten ftis. Flitr. SBit n>flt4cn Bcmtfcn 
■ , ■ fciii. 

3jit lofirtct fun. wnrtet ' snueftn 

Sic tnutten fciii. . Sic iDuctcR stlDq'tit 



Sing. Sci (tii), be thou. 

Sii cr, let him be.' 

Plur. Scicii reir, let us be. . / 

®cit> (il)r), be ye. . • 

Stim fie, let them. be. 



Sctii, to bo. (Snuefcit fan, to have' Scut luntcn, to be 
been. about to be. 


‘ScKirt, being. fSaueicn, been. 


(Cou^litKA^/roHi 2*. 180.] 


SiE fViLLiAM Thomson’s Quadrant Blootrometer ’ 
for measuring differences of potential has more' 
than once been referred to in the preceding lessons, 
and merits a more complete dos'eriptioh than is 
usually accorded to it in elementary text-books. 

It consists essentially of the foiloxring five parts: — 

1. A moealle 'needle. 2, Fenr fixed gmdmnfs. 

8. A oondenscr or Zegden jar. 4. A rejdciiUJtcr. 

B. Ati idiostatic gauge. 

Of these five. Nos. 1 nnd 3 form the primary 
parts of the .instrument. Nos. 3, 4,, and 5 being 
auxiliary parts which take no place in its actual 
working, but which hare for their objects the keei)- 
ing of the needle charged to a definito potential, 
nnd the testing of that potential. 

The needle consists of thin sheet aluminium 
corrugated in the direction of its length so as to 
combine stiffness xrith lightness, and shaped some- 
what like a double canoe-paddle with a broad flat 
stem. It is placed horizontally in the four quad- 
rants as shown in Fig. GS— -which also shows its 
shape — and occupies a symmetrical position with 
respect to each pair of opposite quadrants. Through 
the centre Of the needle and at right angles to its ' 
plane runs a platinum wire, the lower end of which 
dips into the Leyden jar, nnd the upper end of 
which terminates in a crosshead e o'. Between the ' 
Cr0.sshead and tlie needle is fixed a mirror ni, npon ' 
which a bB.nn of light can be thrown and reflected 
on to a scale, as’ in a Velleoting -galvanom'cter ; an ’ 

extremely small motion of rotation of the needle 
round the platinum wh-c as axis can thus be detected 
and measured. To each end of the crosshead is 
fixed a single silk fibre— as shown— the upper ends of 

Fig. (IS. 

whioli are attached to the top of tho-instrument, but 
are attached in such a manner that the distance be- 
tween, them can be increased or diminished as 
desired. These fibres fonn a blfilar suspension for 
the needle, which therefore takes up h definito p'osi- 
tion, controlled by the force of gravity. Tho farther 
the fibres are placed apart at the top o'f the instru- 
ment the greater will be the controlling force exer- 
cised by gravity on the needle, and the greater 
therefore must be the applied force which will turn ' 
the needle through a given angle. Clearly thou, the 
sensitiveness of the electrometer can he inorcased 
or diminished by diminishing' or increasing the 
distance between the points of suspension of tho 
fibres. Besides' supporting the needle, the long 
silk fibres also insure its thorough insulation. 

The quadrants are'mado from a flat circular brass ' 
box. by cutting it along two diameters at right 
angles to each other, nnd boring a hole through its 
centre. In the instrument the quadrants are 
arranged as slioxvu in Fig. GS, A, B, A', B', enclosing 
the needle w. Those quadrants are mounted on the 
tops of circular glass pillars, which serve the 
doable purpose of thorougbly insulating and main- 
taining them in their respective jiositions ; three of 
these pillars are rigidly fi.xed to the base of tlm 
instrument, and the fourth is mounted on a movable 
piece of brass in such a manner that by means of a 
large milled-hcad screw it can be either adjusted, 
•or completely xvithdrawn for the purpose of insert- 
ing or removing the needle. The opposite.pairs of ’ 
quadrants are joined together, as shoxvn' in the , 
figure, by means of thin copper wires. ■ . In its 
simplest- form, the Quadrant ’'Electrometer— with 
the addition of a lamp and scale — is now dompletc, 
and works in the following manner : — ' 


«lii< pip'-e of ajiinratii' j- knot™ as the Re- 

Tlie pc-nural aniv,'aT:iiirc nf the rcplpnislicr ami 
if; po.'itioii relativi; to the top of the electrometer 

arc shown in Fig. 70, whilst the manner in which it 
note is best studied in Fig. 71. Simiiar letters are 
used for similar parts in tlio two figures: A and B 
arc pieces of brass rigidl}' fixed to the ebonite sup- 
port, and usually known ns the indvetors; c and 
D arc also plccc.s of bnuss attaclicd at the ends of 
tlio stout ebonite bar n, and usually' known ns the 
earrierx ; the bar R resolves about the vertical 
spindle R R, which teninnates — above the case of 
the instruineiit— In the inillcd head st (Fig. 70) ; s 
and s' are light .springs, permnncntly 701000 to- 
gether by the piece M ; s and d are light 
springs, one of which is connected with the sul- 
phuric acid and with one of the inductors, and the 
other with the other inductor. 

Let us .suppose that the sulphuric acid — and con- 
sequently the inductor a — ha« a -k charge, and 
that the carriers c and D arc in contact with the 
.springs s nnd s' respectively. Tlie -k chaigo on 
inductor A will induce a — charge on c.arrieV c,nnd 
will repel, through the connector M, a -k elinrgc on 
to carrier n ; a.s the .spindle rotatc.s in the direction 
of the arrow, the carrier c will come into contact 
trith the spring d at the .«:iuie time that the carrier 
» will come into centnet with the spring s. The 
carriers being now inside nnd in contact with tlie 
indurtor.', will immediately give up their charges 
to them, so that induclor n will receive a — charge 

and ,\ will have it# original ~ eharge inrrr-asr.-i bv 
the comrihntion it rppcivp- from l>. I ii- r.atri-T- 
will now |Ki#s on rvitlmut cliargps till tvirrur u 
comes into contact with the sjiring s. and carrier o 
comes into contact with tlie .spring s : while in tins 
jio-ition inductor .v will indiu-e a — i-liargc on 
carrier n, and a -f charge on carrier c. wliilst in. 
dtirtor II will induce a — cluirge on carrier r, am'' 
a — charge on carrier n : tlie effect of liolh in- 
ductors i.s therefore to induce a -k charge oncarrier 
C. and a — ciiargc on carrier 11 . On further rotation 
of the spindle, the carrier.s are lirouglit into the 
po.sifions shown in Fig.71, wliercmirricr v i-s giving 
np its — charge to induclor n. and c is giving ni> 
its -k ciiargc to A. This cycle of operation# i# 
rcpc.'iled witli each revolution of the spindle, and 
the cliarge in the eondoiiscr and needle can tlieie- 
fore lie raised to nny desired amount. By follow- 
ing out a similnr process of reasoning, it will 
also be seen tlint if the spindle be related in 
the opposite direction, the charge in llio coudonsor 
and needle will be diiiiiviihrd inxtead nf hchnj 

When we have finisbod using tlio replenishcr, the 
carriers must on no account be left in contact witli 
the inductors, ns shown in Fig. 71, ns the leakage of 
the charge would thereby bo inoronsod, but must bo 
left free. In order to insure tliat they arc left in 
the proper position, the device shown on tlio top of 

Fig. 71.— IliAaRsn nr Tiio.mso.s-'# Ri:n.r..s-i.siii;it. 

tlio in.stnimcnt in Fig. 70 is adopted. Attaclicd to 
the head n is a pin wliicli r.t> into and locks M 
when the curriers arc free; l>y Inrniiig n this pin 
can be wilhdraini. 'Tlio spring K rests against a 

tcill toll ns niion tliQ charge bns reached the 
desired amount; That somethin" is the idiostatic 
gauge ■n-liich i« illustrated in Fig. T2. It consists 
of tT.-o horizontal discs placed close together, hnt 
so aitanged that the distance between them can he 
varied hr raMng or lowering the nnder one; in the 
figure only tlie upper disc c is shown. In the 
centre oi the upper disc a square hole is cm, and. 
in this hole n square piece ol nlumimum p fits; 
this square forms the blade of a spadC'Shaped ^ece 
of alnminiuui, of which 7i is the handle, and F the 
fork nt its end. The ends of the fork are jtfined as 
shown by a fine hair, and inside the fork rises a 
small enamelled pillar on whioh are two dots. The 
small lens I is lu-cd for determining the position of 
tho hair with reepeot to these dots. The whole 
fork is suspended on a tightly strained platinum 
wire, which passes through two holes in the handle 
and over a small projection between them. The 
lower of the two discs is connected to the sulphuric 
acid, and is therefore charged to the same potential 

lowest jiosition. A.« tiiiis arranged, the ordinary 
electrometer would give a deflection of about 50 
divisions for one volt. On the other hand, when high 
electromotive forces arc being measured, the needle 
must not be highly charged, which means that tbe_ 
lower disc must bo in .an elevnted position. Even ' 
when the disc is in its highest iwsition, the deotro- 
meter may he too sensitive to measure the applied 
EAt.P., and as tho charge on the needle cannot be 
fuitbcr lowered it becomes necessary to com- 
municate only a definite portion of this B-ii-F. to 
the quadrants. This is managed by means of what 
is called an " induction plate,” whioh consists of a 
small thin brass plate attached by a glass stem to 
the tcq> of the instrument, and situated horizontally 
over the quadrant. A terminal, marked i in Fig. 
69, is attached to this plate. Tho electrometer can 
be used with the following sis degrees of sensith'e- . 
ness, in four of which the induction plate is brought 
into use : — 

FntST DEGItEi:. — One pole of source joined to 
one jiair of quadrants, the other pole and other 
pair of quadrants joined to frame of instrument. 

Secokd Degbse. — O ne pole of source joined to 


- 251 

formula SiO^ and the last by CaCO^. These shells, 
of hothkiucb, derive much interest from the fact that 
they arp now being- clcpositcd in imincnso nnmbeis 
on the bed of the Atlantic Ocean. In stirvej'ing, 
for tlie of laying the Atlantic telegraph, a 
number of cut quills, -with their oiien ends down- 

wards, wore attached to tlie sonnding-lrad, and 
tliese T.'iu into the mud and brought it up in their 
Inbc.s. On oKamination under the microscope it 
was found to consist almost entirely of the empty 
shells of once living things. Thus it was found 
tlint an imnicn'-e tract of sea-bottom in^niid-ocean, 
which the off-sconrings of the land — sand, mud, 
etc. — never reach, was being strewn \Wlh clialk and 
flints by tliosc little animals, wliicb, living on tlie 
water above, first gatlicrcd these substances from 
the sea. and dying, bequenthed them to form a 
Etnatum below. The great chalk foiination, whose 
long, massive, rounded downs arq found distributed 
all over northern Europe, once formed the bed of 
an ocean, and thus built up. These chalk 
ranges arc unstratiHed — that is, they are not 
formed of thin layers one at top of the other, as 
sediments strewn by tidal currents would be : they 
am also composed of carbonate of lime and nodnies 
of flint. Those peculiarities, together with their 
wide cirtcnt, accord well with this supposition as to 
their origin. 

The Infusoria are the comxilicated Protozoa, 
possess definite montlis, often continued ‘inward as 
'free hanging gullets, and the substance of their 
bodies is bounded by a ontiole of definite form. 

One of the Infusoria, whicli tuny he taken asa type 
of the class, is called theP.-irammcium (Pig. 7, p. 185). 
auditisamostinterestinganimalto watch. It may 
be found almost wlicrcrcr a little animal m.atter is 
allowed to decay under water. Under the micro- 

scope it may bo seen to be swimming swiftly about 
bj' means of its many cilia, which are regularly 
distributed over the body;-ncar tlie mouth are some 
which are rather larger, and those cotitinually drive 
food into the month ; flic food-drops pass into the 

body and are gradually absorbed by the living 


One of the higlicst animals belonging to this sub- 
kingdom is the noctiluca (night-light) (Fig. 8, p. 18G). 
This animal has the power 'of emitting light when 
excited, and perhaps there is no more splendid sight 
in nature than tliat which is presented on a warm 
Slimmer niglit -when n rippling wave charged with 
these animals breaks upon the shore. It instantly 
becomes fringed with a bright green phosphorescent 
light, which flashes along the bench, as it strikes it 
^ obliquely, in hues to which the finest sliot silk, or 
even the gre'en and purple which glances from the 
neck of the starling, are poor and dull. - 


All the Metazoa arc distinguished from the Proto- 
zoa by the fact tliat t ho single cell— egg cell (ovum) 
— from which they start undeigoes division into a 
number of cells, and all tlieso cells remain con- 
nected .IS a single wliole. As the cells increase in 
numbers they tend to become .arranged in two 

layers, one internal to the other, and between them 

a third is intercalated in all the forms higher than 
the Porifera and the Coelcnterata. These layers 
me called the germinal Inycis ; the outermost is 
distinguished as the cpiblast, the inner as the 
hypoblast, and the median ns the mcsoblast. From 
these three layets all the tissues and organs of the 
body are developed. In the Porifera and Coelcnte- 
rata the cpiblast is sexmrated from the hypoblast' 
by a layer of v.irying thickness, which is known as 
the mesoglina or mid-jelly. 


It was not till tho mode of development of 
sponges had been studied, and they liad beenfound 
to be derived from an egg cell which underwent 
division (or “segmentation"), thnt their jrasition 
among the Metazoa was assured. What are ordinarily 
known as sponges arc the fibrous skeletons of these 
animals. Tho branching fibres— which spring from 
a common base, and then reunite to form a dense, 
closely woven mass, traversed by many canals 
and porous throughout— are, when they grow from 
their submarine Levantine rock, clothed nil over 
with living cellular tissues. Many sponges have, 
besides the homy skeleton, spicules, or sharp 
angular spines lying in the substance of their 
bodies, and projecting beyond their surfaces, so ns 
to protect them from being devoured by their 
enemies. Both these spicules and tho homy 

skeleton are of almost infinite variety in the different 

sjiccics. and exhibit nnother instance of bow a 
simple form, -when endowed with life, may produce 
very complex products. 

■ »Tlie most interesting part of the economy of 
sponges is tho metliod by which a circulation of 
sca-wnteris maintained through them. This circula- 
tion is absolutely necessary to bring both food and 
fresh aerated water to these fixed animals. Tho 
simple insjiection of the skeleton of a large Turkish 
.sponge shp-ws that there are on its ontside two 
kinds of holes — the, large round ones, which lead 
down to the great canals, and the smaller pores, 

which lie between them. If a living sponge be 

watched, while at work under water, especially if 
the experiment be aided by placing some finely 
powdered indigo in the water, it will be found Uiat 
from each of the large holes (osciila) tlicre gnshes 
a fountain of-water, which is sucked in through the 


profntnram, si Itomann nbiquo arma cl velut c 
conspcctii libcrtiis tollcrclar. 

Agricottt's Progress in the Xorfh. 

2.". Cotoniin ncstiito, qua sextimi odicii annum 
incolinbnt, nm|)I(':cii.s civitatc-.s tians Dndolrinm 
sites, qnia moms univcrsaritiii nlira {Kntiuin et linslibiiM pxcrcitn.s ilini'm tiinfbnntnr,]iartns 
dassc c.'cplnravil ; qiiac ab A(ri'icci1.a priinnm ncl- 
siimpta in jmrtcm virimn scqiiobalnr cfn-OKiti .speeir, 
cum simni tcrni, siniiil marl bclliim iiiipnllorplur, 
ac -saepr isflain enstris pcde.s oqnosqnp rt nnnlicns 
iiiilrs niixti rDpiis ot lactitin .sun qni.squc facia, 
suos casus nttullcrciit, nc aiorto silvarmn nc luon- 
tinin prorumia, niatlo ttnipi-.slntum ac llnctnuni 
advorsa. bine tcrni cl bnstis, bine victus Ocrimus 
militari jnctanlin ccini'ar.-ircni m\ Itritniinosqnmpic, 
at. ex captivis nmlioliatiir, visa clasvls t>1>stu|K'. 
fneiebat , tnmqnain aporlti niaris sui mtccio iiltimmn 
viclis pcrfiipimu l•lau«lpl•ctln•. Ad ninniis cl anmi Calcdnninm incnlcntcs jinpuli. ]vinitn 
iiiiUtno. laajaro f;imii, nil iiuis cvi dc i^'noti>., «.p. 
pnpnarc nllro caslclla ndorli, iiiclnmut provncantcs 
addidernni ; n-prcdUuidiiinqiit' cilra Ihidblrinin et 
cxi’cdcndum ivitins qnain isdlcreninr ipniivi specie 
pradcnliuin adaiancliant, ciiin inli-rim copntecii 
bestis pbiribus neminbus irrnpturos. Ac nc .super- 
ante lunucro et i«'riiiii Ineormu oiremnircltir, diviso 
et ipse in ires jiartes c-xereiln incc.ssii. 

j 1 Xiijht Aflrti'h vgott ihe Xinth Pegivn. 

2(5. Quisl nbi (vipnltmii liosti, iimtnia repente 
ciitislilo unlvcr.'! nnnnm lepiuacm ui ninxitiiR iii- 
vtdidani tiocti- adcressl. inter sumnum an trepidn- 
tionein eaesis \ipilil)as iirii|a>rc. ilnmqiie In ipsis 
caslrls ptipnalsitiir. ciini Acrirnia iter iKi'tinm 
all exploratoiibiis edneliis te %-e.sliciis insiTiilus; 
velncissimos cqnitum peditiimqne as'ultaro tentis 
papnnntimn itiliel. lacx ali tmiversis ndici clniimrem ; 
et prepinqna luce fiibeie slpna. Ita niieipitl iiialo 
territi Rrilaniii el Rnaianis ndiil animus, ac 
.•eenri jiro salute di: tdoria certabaiil. I'llrcipiin 
itiain enqs.Te ol fail atrnx in ip'is jiortamm 
anpusliis jirneliuiii, diuirc piiKi iici-tes, ntriiqiie 
e.xercitu cerlante. bis, nt tiili-sse o)K-m, (His. ne 
epnis.sp nnxiiin sidcrcniiir. QuikI nisi paliidcs et 
sit\ac fiipientcs te-Ni'Scnt, debcllatiim ilia victoria 

T/ie Ilrihms prrpaTc/ar line. 

27. riijns cniiM-icntiaac faina ferox exercittisniliil 
virtiiti suae iiniain et pcnetrtindnm C.akiinninm 
inveniendiiniqiie tandem Rritannian terminiim 
contiimo praeliciiiim ciirsu fremebant. Alqiie illi 
modocanti ac s-ajiiente.s prompt! ]iost evcnlnm ac 
mnpniloqtii cratit. iniqiiissimn imcc licllonim con- 
dicio est : prospora oainos sibi vindiennt, ndversa 

tint impulantur. At Rrltanni non .virtnto so, sed 
occnbioiio ct arlc dnois victos tati, niliii-ox tin'O- 
gnntia rcmiltcrc, quo ininna jnventiiicni armnrent, 
coiiingcs ac liberos in locn lata trnnsfcrrcnt.coctibas 
nc sacrificiis conspirntioncm civitatuin snneirent. 
Atquc ita irrilnlis iilrimqnc animis disccssum. 

■ The Aflrciifirrcs of ihe Vsipian Cohort. 

2S, Endcm ncstnic coliors Usiponim per Ger- 
ntanins conscriptii et in Rrilanniam trnnsmissa 
nin;;nnin ac niomombilc fncinns ansa cst.. Occiso 
centurionc nc milifibti.s, qui ad tradendam dis- 
ciplinain iimnixti manipulis exemplmn cl rcctorcs 
iiabclKiiitnr, tres libarnicas adnetis per vim guberna- 
tariliiis ascciidcrc; ct mui rcnavlgantc. Kiispcctis 
dnobus enqnc interfectis, noiidnm vidgato riimorc 
lit niirnrnlitiii pmeveliebantiir. JIox ad nquandum 
niqiH: mitiii raptum ct cum iilcrisque. Brilan- 
norum siia defensantinm prnelio congressi ac saepo 
•vietores. aiiqnando pidsi, eo ad extremum inopine 
venere, ill infirmissimns snoruni, inox sortc diictos 
vescerenlur. Atqnc ita circumvecii ISritaiiniara, 
ainissis per iiiscitiiim regendi tmvilms, pro prae- 
dnniliits btdilti, pnmnni a Suoiiis, jnox a Frisiis 
iiiterceiili sunt. Ac facre qiios jier cotnnieroia 
vemimdatoi et in nnstram usque ripam imitntinno 
etiientinm addnetos indicium tanti ctisusilliislnivil. 
Agrlet’h's Xorrh io the Ornmpians.—The Sjimh of 
Oahjneos to his Poiloircrs. 

2!'. Jnitio ai-stalis Agricola domestico vulnero 
ietiis. anno ante nnlnm liUtim amisit. Quern casiim 
nei|Ht.- nt jderiqne fortinm virorum ambitiose, neqiio 
per lamrnta ac inaerorem niuliebritcr ttdit : 
et in luetu bellum inter reinedia erat. Ipilur 
]>raemis‘a elasse, quae pluribns loeis praednln 
niacnmn ct iticertmn terrorem faceret, p.x))cdito 
exerritn, r.ui ex iJrilannis fortissimos ellongapaec 
e.xploratos addidcrat.nd montem Granipium pervenit, 
quern jam bostis insederat. Nam Jlritantii niliil 
friicti piiciiae prioris event II, et idtioncni ant seivi- 
tiiim c.xi>eclanti-s. tniidt'inquc dooti cuiommic pori- 
cnliim conrordia propulsjindiiin, lemitionilius ct 
foedcribtis oiiiiiinm civitatnin vires cxnivornnt. 
.Tnmqnc super iriginla inilia annalonini nepicie- ' 
bantiir, ct iidliiic adllaebal nmnisjnvcntiwetquilnis 
criiiln lie viridis senecliis, clari bello et sun qnisque 
dceora gestantes, cum inter pliirca duces virtiite et 
gi-nere praestaiiK nomine Galcacusnpiidcontraclam 
mnltitiidinem proelinia poscentcni in biiiio modiim 
iocutiis fcrliir: — 

iiO. Qiiolieiis ennsns belli ct necessitntem nostrum 
inlueor, mnginis inilii miiiniis cst liodicrmim diem 
consensnmqiie vcstrnm initiiim libertalis toti Bri- 
tanniac forej nain ct miiversi servitatis oxpeites 
ct iinllnc nitia tcmic nc nc marc qiiidcin sccuriim 


(1) A-ifai, I loose. . . AcUve. 

(2) AvVai, I loose myself. _ Miadle. 

(3) \ia)uu, ■ I a»i loosed. Passive. 

Here' we have a verb in tlireb fonns. The iirsi; 

' form is caJlecl the Aatioe Voice, the'second form is 
called the Middle Voice, the third 'form is called 
the Passive Voice. In the-notive vojoe, the subject 
‘ acts j in the passive voice, the subject is- acted 
upon j in the middle voice, the action comes back, 
upon the subject — that is, the subject is both acting' 
and acted upon. It is called siUrldle becanse it 
■ stands in sense midway between active and pasdve, 
partaking of the signification of both. These 
varieties, it will be noticed, are varieties in both 
form and meaning. Thns, Xi!u, the active, differs 
in form from Atia/iai, the middle. ".'It differs also in 
signification ; for while Xilai signifies J hose, \voimt 
signifies J loose myself. ^ 

Verbs in the aotivo voice are either transitlee or 
iiiiratisUive. They are called transitive -when the 
action passes on to, and acts upon, something which 
is called i/ie ohjeai, ns Xiiw rho ivSpa, I loose the 
man, where the object &vSpa is' acted upon by the 
subject of Atiw. In an .intransitive verb the action 
does not pass on to an object, ns CdAAo, T l/loam. 
It Is obvious that an intransitive verb can have no 
passive voice.- Some intransitive verbs, however, are 
found with a middle voice, inasmuch as the middle 
does not always denote an action done to oneself 
(like ‘r^irro/ua, I strilie myself), l^ut also an action 
done for oneself, as vapaoKovdiofiai Sehryoy, X pre- 
pare a 1/tealfor myself; and it is in this latter sense 
that some intransitive verbs may have a middle 
voice— c.y., verbs in -tia-. as, pouKsia, I am a 
connseXloT ; /3ovAriio/(Bi, X am a counsellor for myself, 
X deViberate, 

In relation .to numbers (2) and (3), as given 
above, it may be noticed that the English X loose > 
myself and 'X am hosed are very nearly related in 
meaning. If I loose myself, clearly, 1 am loosed. 
The chief difference between the two is, that in 

the former the action is restricted to one jierson, 

namely, the subject; while, in the latter, it ex- 

tends to a second person — the person, that is, by 
whom the subject is wrought upon. The differ- 
ence, in consequence, is rather in the person 
than the act. Accordingly, the form remains 
the same, being in both cases' Aiia^. Indeed, 
two forms are found only in the future and aorist 

Very few, if any, verbs are known to possess all 
the tenses of the three voices, as they might he 
formed analogically. "What forms really exist win 
appear as we proceed. 

The tense is that' modification of the' verb which 
indicates the time of the action, - whetiiek past, 
present, or future. . , 

The tenses are divided in£b two classes-^rimitrjf 
ox prinevpaV, and secondary or historie. '' ' 

. '(i.) Principal- Xinscs. ' . ' ' 

(1) Present. Kia, X hose . ' ■ ' - 

(2) Enture. Kiaa, X shall hose. ■ 

(3) Peffeot. AeAvko,' X have loosed. ' - 

(ii.) Historic Tenses. (. ■ 

(1) Imperfect. Hkvop, J mas hosing, X hosed. 

(^Aorist. ^\va-a, X hosed. ■ < 

(3) Pluperfect. ^AeAiSkt), X had loosed.' . , 
Each of the historic tenses is foiined from its 
corresponding principal; thus:— ' ■ ) 

Tens. Ai». X-iou. .Xihioia., 

\ Historical. cAudi'. iXooa. •' ' 

The exact manner -of their formation will be 
explained by-and-by. At present observe that an 
action may be considered ns now* 
the present tense ; as proceeding in past time^ 
the imperfect, fosse ; as proceeding in’ time to 
<»moj— tho ftttnp tense ; ad actually done in p'nsf 
time— the- aorist tense; ns having proceeded in ■ 
past time— tho perfect tense ; and as having pro- 
ceeded previously . to 'sbme dther past act-^the 
pluperfect tense. Accordingly, the present tense 
properly si^ifies, as in- A'iSw, X am leosiny ; and' 
the {Missive^ Atiopai, X am being hosed. Mark, also,- 
that the niruRFEOi denotes both an act going on 
in the past, and a continual and repeated act. The 
AORIST, ns the word signifies, denotes an action as 
. simply past, without any exact limitation, and so' 
is called the indefinite (such is 'the meaning of the ' 
lerin) tense, or tho tense of historical narrativo. If . 
is constantly used in Greek where we should um a - 
pluperfect in English.' The PERFECT denotes a past 
act whicli,in itself orinits consequences, comes down 
to or near the present time. The pluperfect de- 
notes an act done and past, wheii another past act' 

' -was proceeding or -was completed. Double forms are ■ 

found of somo of these tenses — ^viz., of the perfect,- 

future (in the passive voice),' and aorist (commonly 
disiingnisHed as the first, or weak, 'and the second, ' 
or strong, aorist). A third future, or perfect pasaive'- 
futnre, is also found. . 

' Only few verbs have both forms, ■ ' . 

AIO'ODS. , . ■ 

Mood is a grammatical 'term employed to pqiqt 
out the maunhr of an action: , If we describe an 
act as simply taking place, we u9e=7- 

(1) The XndicaUoe-~as \ia, X hose, , ■■ 


wo have left the tenso-stora of tho'rir&t iioristactivo 
\ (Auir-j. This is foi'med by the addition of si^ma 
■ (s) to the simple stem ; and hence the first aorist is 
also known as the “sigmatic" aorist, though, as , 
' .will be observed, in some cases the i is lost, and 
compensation made by vowel-changes in the stem. 
This is the case in all liquid stems': e.g., root fttv- 
gives as first aorist l-/ici'-(r-a, which appears as 

Accordi ng to the general statements and explana- 
tions already set forth, the verb may be regarded ns 
a total comprising a number o^ ideas or representing 
a number of facts. This maybe exemplified in Xci'iriu, 

I leave, and KfiipBei'liTTiv, ihcy irvo might have Iteen 
left. Thus 

Person. .Yiimter. Tense. ATooiI., Vvitt. 
Xei'sree. 1st. Singular. Present. Indie. Active. 

’’ 3rd. EuaU Aor. 1st. Optat. Passive. 

Erom this iitstance it maybe seen tliat the Greek ■ 
verb varies, or is modified in person, in number, in 
tense, in mood, and in voice. Accordingly, it is the 
business of the learner to become familiar with the 
verb in all those its modifications, so as to .at once 
recognise every form he may meet with in reading, 
and be ready at first sight to assign its meaning. 

It will be necessary to go through these modifica- 
tions in detail. 

Before'we proceed to the general conjugation of 
the Greek verbs, we must present a peculiar form— 
namely, that of the substantive verb, or verb of 
existence, elvai, iv Vo, with some parts, of which the 
student is already familiar; and wo must give at 
. once the main talcs for the accentuation of verbs. 


We have already seen that the general principle 
for the accentuation of verbs is that they throw 
back the accent as far as possible — ^that is, place it 
as near the beginning of the word as the general 
rules summed up above allow. 

It must also be leraenihered that participles, like 
adjectives, follow the laws tliat determine tlie ac- 
centuation of nouns ; and that in compound verbs 
the accent can never precede the augment (c.p., not 
bnt aveixov, not irapvaap hut wapuirio'). 

There are, however, a good many exceptions to this 
general principle, which must be chrefnlly observed. 

I. All .lotive optatives third person singular in 
-01 and -ni are accented on the pennltima (i.e., are 
paroxytone, since -oi and -m are counted as long in 
the optative). 

II. The infinitives of the firet aorist active, the 

second aorist middle, the perfect passive, and all 
infinitives in -eoi, are accented on the pennltima 
(i.c., either paroxytone or properispomcnon, accord- 
ing to the length of tho last syllable). • • 

III. Tho second aorist infinitive active' fs alwayf; 
accented on the Inst syllable (pcrispomcnon). . . - 

IV. The second aorist participle active, all active 

participles of verbs in. -;ui, and all in -«i and'-ws, 
a're oxytonc. • . ' - 

V. The perfect passive participle is paroxytone. 
VL The imperative of the second aorist middle 

(second person singular) in -ou is perispomeiion, 
■mth a few exceptions. 

To these must .also be added (though 'they are 
rather apparent than real' exceptions) the circum- 
flexed futures, the suhj unctives of the passive aorisLs 
and of verbs in -pi (circumflex), and the optatives of 
verbs in -/u, with all other Ciises of contraction. 


- ' Singnlar. ■ 

^nEse^-T. jMPEnrccT. fotubb 

■ li dpi, I am. ijv or I n'de. ^7opai;Z shall he. 

2. d, thou art. ^oBa, thou ivast. ?op or -ei, thou 

• sliait he. 

3. iart, he is. . ijv, ho was. Horai, he shall 'he, 

, • ‘ , Dual. ■ ' , . 

. 2. (arop,gan tire i)tov, you tivo toioBov, yon two 
are . . mere.' shall he. ^ 

3. ftrrov, they they two iosoBov, they two 

two are. mere. . , shall he 

■ ■ Plural. 

X. toper, we are. ^pey,wewere. ioipsBa,' me shall 

Siny. 1. 3 , 1 may be. 

- 2. pt, thou mayst he. 

3. S, he may he.. - 
Dual. 2. uTor, you two may he. 

I ' 3. ^Tor, they two may he. 
Plur. 1. Sper, we may he. 

3. uiri, they may ho. 

Sing. 1, rfijv, T might he. ■ ■ . toolprir., 

2. «fi7i, thou viightst he. . tooia. 

3. dll, he might he. teoiTO. 

Dual. 2. (eIiitov) dror, yon tno m ight he. tootoBav. 

^.(diiriir') dTiiv,they two might he. iaoioBrir. 
* Y.B.— This tonsa ot .this mood is only used In 'OraUo 
Ohliqim to represent the future indtcetlvo of Recta, the optative 
iKing the regular mood of Oratlo Obliqna. Tims cfq onsjrere 


rtoi^YjKiJs, -(fi/, agri- &pSv, lit. if i* W see — 

omtural. ■ [Hence' the that is, -you may see. 

. name Georgies, given npittfiui, I purchase ; vpl- 
to Vergil's diclaotio airSai,inflmtiTe present 

, poem on agriculture.] middle, to ggmehase ; 
Aiioi, I go down, enter; oAk jrpiiurBat, lit. 
vph Sivros fi\tov, before mas mlt to purehase — 
sunset. tha); is, eould_ wf lie 

'Evi, prep., with dat.= jimoliased. . 

in tlie^ewer of. ^ 'SvrKaA.eai, I call together, 

’Eri^civcii, I leave, lack ; convoke ; i <rvyKi^iir, 
I iirsKaee, 3rd pers. sing. convener. 

second aorist active, Tafcr, -tus, ij, a rank or 
failed. file of soldiers. 

@i\a, 1 desire, I, will. *cpa, I bear. 

NiKtla, I conquer, Murcia, -as, i), planting,' 

‘Opau, I see, behold; c-aro. 

ipao, infinitive present '^npa.-at,^, an hour (Latin 
active, to behold ; Hffriv hora), time. 

Wy ftleiid is faitlildss. • 9. Your intellect governs your boJy. 
JO. My Jwy is diligent, but ypuis is not. ' 

Ex. (12. — ^1. Sts iranifi joTiv AyaSo's. 9. ‘O vetijp /ioC torir . 
'iyaOis. 3. ' ‘Ilfiuv o vanjp e vni' dyoAes. 4. SiAtTspoi Soutoi 

iptrepat ic «mv Si^pons. 9. ‘O ^I'Aos cniS sauToO'per ri fpyn 
Sovfiii^n, «v As t 2L W atAur. 

Ex. 63 ^1. This innn is good. 9. This opinion is jnst 3. 

Thisivomnnisbeauliriil. 4. Thnl' men is a Icing. S.Tliclcing 
liimscir is gencial. 6. Take lilm t1>e key, iny boy. 7. Some 
l>caple have not tlic same opinions about tlie same things on 
the same da}’. 6. Saying 'and doing aro 'not tlie same. 9. 
These roses wlileit bloom In the garden arc beautifiil. 10. A 
wise creatnre is man. 11. If you wish .to tvin anyone's iWeml-. 
shill, find out his character (his ways). 12. Who Is writing 
tliis letter? IS. Tell mo who le cvrltlng this letter? 14. Give 
a sliare to others of the things yon have. 15. Happy la the 
man who lias children. 16. Happiest Is he who has no trouble. 
17. IVIiat are yon thinking nbont? 18. 1 do not say what 1 am 
thinking about, s 19. Sueh ns each man's character is, such is 
his life. 20. Wlio is that lady? 21, Tell me who that lady is. 

y.S.—The inJinitivB of verbs, mith the nenier 
article, is vsed as a Tioiin in Greek. 

BsnnciSE Od. - 
Tnmslato into English : — 

1. 'H T<£|ir fjo iKaThv ivSpts. 2. ''Hv T?r Spas 
piKphv vpb Sivros iiKlov. 3, 01 v6pot (ilpJai eliri Tul> 
apapruXar, 4. Taints Bdoaris ienori Cntda. 6. 

'O eiTos iriKtstt Ka! srplaeSat oix ){v. G, "Eirrtv Spue 
T& Spas. 7. 'H ’Aysiet\ilov iperi/ irapiStrjr/ta iv. .8. 
'Hptv dptanp obK (ario. 9. ’EyAi teapot i evyKtOiSiv, 
10. OItiJs leriv i pikSv. II. 'Eyii pla eoirar elpt. 
12, BamAeiis t>op((ei ipas airov etvai. 13. ‘'Ewriv o2v ' 
T~is yeupyiKTis rixrvs i rar SivSpav ^urela. 14. "'Eemv 
diroTs iyopd, 15, 'Ev voTi ieJpais ijpeo. 10. 'O Kvpos 
4 p Todroir ijr. 17. 'Ewl wol terat raSro. 18. OA puephr 
ayaSiv ippirrao srpieserir. 19. Tj[ Pla vpieeunv 
txBpai kb) K'vtapot, 20. Tj7 impeKtl^ weptcmii TcSv • 
<p(\oip etSM. 21. Ilapijp ■A7eo'lAaor SSpa thi/my. 22. 
Kupfi vafmeav Ik IleAoTrovv^o'ov rues. 

Exeucise G5. 

Translate into Greek : — 

1. This is in my power. 2. The laws are in your 
power. 3. It is in your power to pnrcliasc com. 

4. It was in the power of the enemy to be present. 

5. It is in the power of good boys to excel. 6. It 
will be in my power to approach the city. 7. 
Panisbmonts belong (vpimpi) to sinners. 8. Thy . 
care of thy friends is aai example to all. 9, The 
ships have come to the king. 


Ex. 61. - 1. My ftitlicr is good. 2. All men love Uialr own ' 
fatheis. 3. Your children learn their letters earnestly. 4. 
Your children are beautiful. 5. Your children are oxcellent. 

6. Weblamoourowncbildreu. 7. Year friend EthlUiniL S. 

' >" 


■ [Cenltmied/remp,. 207.] . 

• CHAUCEB AhT) HIS TIMES (confiniifd). ' 

The vorsifioation of Chaucer hns been the snbjeot 
of mtfch controversy. To ft few his lines have 
seemed absolutely without metre, rhs-thm, or order 
of any kind ; while others have perhaps run into an 
opposite extreme, and have represented' his versi- 
fication to' be ns regular as that of Pope .or Gold- 
smith. Tlie truth seems to be that, in general, 
Chaucer’s versification is quite regular, the proper, 
measnre of syllables being found in the line and- 
, the proper number of nooents. The seeming irregn-. 
larity nriscs from not attending to the pronnneia- 
tion of words in Chaucer’s time. But, on the-other 
Iiand, it is plain that Chaucer did allow himself far 
greater licence in the matter of metre than modern 
poets have done ; and there are a- large number of 
his lines in which, though a certain rhythm is pre- 
served, the syllables will not bear counting. The 
main key to Cbauoer’s versifioation is to be fonnd 
in what we hav-e already explained — ^the sounding 
of the final e. It must nlso be remembered that 
many words of French origin, snob -ns courage, 
menace, ligumir, were not pronounced as we pro- 
nounce them, with a marked' emphasis on the first 
pliable, o&ttrage, menace, lUjtionr, but as in.French, 
with botli syllables' equally emphasised, courdge, 
menace, ligiiaar. 

A thorough understanding of Chaucer’s system 
of versification is of so much importance to anyone 
beginning to rend his works, that we give here the 
' first twelve lines of the Prplogiie to the “ Canter- 
bury Tales " as they are commonly printed, folloyved 
hy a metric^' arrangement.-of the same. Botk the. 

Tbs mosb instraclirQ alnssification of the vcritings 
of a great author is almost alwiys that fonncted 
upon chronological order, for such an arrangement 
;ihow.siis not only the author's u’orks, buttbehi&toiy 
of his mind as well. But the histoiy of Chaucer's 
t\-rltings is so indefinitely ascertained that no 
ohronological arrangement of them can be reliable. 
They may, however, usefully bo grouped into certain 
classes, according to their general character. In 
the first place, we find a series of poems, some of 
them of considerable length, but by no means 
among the longest of Chaucer's poems, which dis- 
tinctly belong, in subject, in form, and in treat- 
ment, to the school of the French romance-writers, 
who, as we hare seen, had from the 'first supplied 

she will to those who seek her honours, while the 
names of the great dead are inscribed in their appro- 
priate places upon the temple. This scheme affords 
to Chaucer not onl3' ample space for brilliant and 
impressive description, but for keen discrimination 
of the oharaoteristios of those to whom ho assigns 
a place in the temple j while the injustice of the 
goddess’s decrees admits of that satiric treatment 
of whioli Chaucer was a master, 'The general 
character of this poem can be gathered from Pope’s 
modernised version of it, under the name of “ ’Ihe 
Temple of Fame.” 

The long poem of “ Troilns and Cressida," and 
the series of tales published under the title of “The 
Legend of Good IVomen,” are of a wholly different 
school. In them we find nothing of dream or 
allegory, nothing of the visionary unreality of the 
romance. The subjects, no doubt, are very remote 
from our own time or from Chancer’s, but the 
interest of the poem is purely human and natural. 
•• Troilns and Cressida,” though many of its principal 
characters are Homeric, is founded on a story 
wholly unknown to, and) indeed, quite ont of har- 
mony with, the notions of classical times. Chancer, 
no doubt, derived the story from Boccaccio, 

chivalr.v still common, as wc liavc seen, mClinuoer's' 
time. Biit lie has not gone far wlicn the host iudig{^. 
nimtly interrupts him, telling him he will 'have no 
more of such " drafty siieclic ” and “ rhymfe dog- 
gerel " ; whereupon the poet begins again, and lolls 
in prose the moral talc of Mclibmus and his wife 
Prudenco. One of the. esistiiig talcs, too, is told 
by one who is not among tho company which 
started from tho Tabard. During the journey the 
cavalcade is joined by a canon, an nlchcmist and 
.1 most unscrnpnlous rogue, .and liis yeoman or 
servant. And tho yeoman tells a talc, in which he 
eirposcs tho fraud and folly of his master so cffcc- 
tually, that tlio canon leaves the company as 
abruptly as ho -had joinctl it. The story, ^loo, of 
ilie pilgrimage itself is as incomplete ns tlic number 
of the talcs, All that has come down to ns— and 
no doubt all that was written has come down to 
us— is tlio general prologue, in wliich tho pilgrims 
are described, tlic plans for tho journey fonnod, 
and tlio start related j the twenty-four talcs 
already mentioned ; and short prologues or intro- 
ductions to tho several talcs, containing de- 
tached portions of tlic history of tho journey. 
But whothor tho talcs nro now prosen'cd in tho 
order in whicli tlicir author would have Anally 
retained tliom, and to what portions of the jonmey 
tho various prologues refer, it is often iinixisbiblo 
to decide. There is imicli reason to think that > 
Chaucer, at ids (Icatii. left what ho had written 
very niiicli in confusion, and tliat some other 
hand nrratigcd tlic fragments. 

Tlie work naturnlly divides itself into two parts, 
the one dc.'illng with llic history of tho pilgrims 
and tlio incidents of tlicir journey, and consisting 
of the general prologue to the whole work, and 
the special prologues, or introductions by which 
the talcs arc connected together; tlio otlior con- 
sisting of the Iwciity-foiir tales told by the 

The prologuQ is tlic nio-t rcm.'irknblc of nil 
Chaucer's works, and one of the most remarkable 
in the whole mngo of lilcmturc. It consists, for 
the most part, of a .series of masterly portraits of 
the pilgrims, every one of which is now, nftcr nn 
interval of nearly Avo hundred years, as fresh, as 
clear, and ns vivid, ns if it lind been ixiiiitcd 
ye.sterday. Each one of them embodies the 
characteristics of tho class of which it is the typo 
so fully, tliat wc feel convinced that wo know 
what kind of men the monks, the lawyers, the 
doctors of Chaucer's day were ; tliat we know, in 
fact, what our forefathers and their manner of life 
were like. Yet cncli one is .also marked by indi- 
vidual traits belonging to t 
which impress upon the mi 

of are no more abstract ropresentativos of classes, 
but reaPUving men.nnd women. Every student, of 
literature ought to make himself thoroughly 
familiar "trith this prologue. All that wc can do is 
to show Chaucer’s manner of description by means 
of a few selected examples. The Arst portrait we 
choose is that of tho prosperous monk or abbot. 
In this extract wo alter the old spelling in some 

A moDk {hero vbs, n Cilr for the jnaiatric,r 
An ont-Tlilcr, that loved vetict^’c ; = 

A nunily man, to he an abbot able. 

Full iiuiiiy a dainty liorsc bad be in slnblc ; 

And wlicii lie rode, men iniglit Iiis bridic bear 
Jingle in a wliistling wlAd so clctir, . 

And ecfcs as loud ns doth the chapel belL 
Tlicre .as this lord was kuc|)cr ol tlie cell,* 

The rule of Saint Jlaiire or of Saint Bcneyt,* ■' 
llecanM! that It was obi ninf soincdcal straight,* 

TIds Uk.a monk let forby bcih pace,? 

And held after tlio newc world tlie space.* 

He gaf not of that text n pulled lien,» 

That saitli, that biintera bon none holy men ; 

Ne rlial n monk, when be is elolsterlcss. 

Is likened to n flsb that Is watcries ; >0 
Ws Is to say, n monk out of bis elolstrc, 

But tbllke text be Iield not worth nn oyster; 

And 1 snide Ids opinion wns good. 

Wbnt'i should be study and mnkc idmsolven wood,” 
Upon n book in cloistro nlwsy to pore, , 

OrswItikoU Willi bis linmlcs, nral labour, 

As Auslyii bit?>‘ How sbnll the world be ecrvedl .tuslyn hnve bis swynk to him reserved. 
Xlicrefore be was n prlcnsvur nrlgiit ; » 

Grc} bounds bo bod ns swift ns fowl in flight ; 

Of prikyng nnd of bunting Ibr Aic bnro 
Wns oil bis bist,>f for no cost wold lie spare. 

. J S.-IW bis sieves purlllcd at tlic bnnd » 

With giys. oml that tlio finest of a land j ’» 

And for to fasten bis hood under bis cliin, 

He bad of gold i.wrougbl a curious pin ; 

A love bnot in tlio greater cud there was. 

His bead was InM, and sbonu ns nny glass. 

And eck his face as be bad Iwn anoyntp’ 

He sras a lad full and In good point :™ 

His cycn steep, *< and roiling in bis licad, 

• A fine-looking man, /or Wic mnsfery— f.e., above others. 

' Hunting. * Even. 

• Where this monk was superior of flic monastery, 
s St. Beneilict. * Soiiirwhat strict. 

• Irft them pass by. We slill say, " Gave the go-by to." 

" Followcil the w,iys of the modern world. 

' He ftwe not (would riot give) a plucked fowl for— plncnl 

0 It svas an old nnd famllier saying that a monk out of 'bia 
monaster}' was like a flsb out of water. 
nWby. I'Had. »Toil. 

1* As Austin b.idc — f.r„ according to the rale of St. 

•s .1 Ihorongli Iioiscman. 

' “ I'lcasiire, desire, will. 

” Einbroidereilnttbc wrist. 


i72 r the, hew - POPULAH EpuCASrOB. , 

, il reprit aveo seviBritc, “ Savez-vons qne tfcst.Ia 
^seconde fois que votre p6re sc rend cbupable d’un 
'crime envers mademoiselle ? ” 

' Je ie sais,” repondit Mile, de Lajolais, arec' la 
plus grande ingennitc i " mais .la premiere fois il 
dfait innocent, Siie." 

“Mais, cettefoi^'ilnel’est pas, "rfipliquaBonaparte 
“ Anssi o’est sa griloe quo jo ■\eBs de^nde, Sire," 

■ reprit Maria, “ griice, ou je mouvrai derant Yons.” 

' > /L’Emperour, ne pouvant plu's-maitriser son emo- 
tion, se baissa vers ello’eu lui disant — ' 

' “ Eb ! bien,' oui, mademoiselle om, je rons I'rm- 
cordo. Mais, relevez-rous." 

' Et, lui jetant un sourire d’enooniagement et de 
bonte. il degagea see mains tenues toujours arec 
force et s’eloigna virement. 

Xc saisissement de la joie fat plus dangereux 
-pour Mile de Lajolais que la douleur. La.paurre 
enfant tomba lourdement et sans coimaissance sur- 
le niarbro do la galeric. 

Eruce aux soins de Vlmpfiratrice, de la Princesse 
Hortense et de Icurs dames, Slllo. do Lajolais le- 
. prit bientot connaissance . “ Mon pfere, moif pore I " 
luurmnra-t-ellc aussitdt qu'cllc pntparler." “Ob!, 
quo je sois la premitre il lui anuoncer sa griice” ' • 
Et se levant, ello voulut s’debapper des btas qUi ' 
' la retenaient ; mais trop faibic pour tanf d'dmotions 
direrses, ello y retomba sans force.' 

' “ Rien no prosse maintenant, mademoiselle,” dit 
une des dames; “prenez un pen de repos et de' 

, nourrlture ; vous irez une heurb plus tard.” 

“ Une heure plus lard ! ” so rficria Maria ; " vous 
roulez que je retarde d'uno lieurc I'annonce de la 
vie il an, bomme condamn6 il mart, surtout .qunnd 
cct bomme est mon pire. Oh ! Madame/’ ajouta- 
t-cllc, sc tournant vers rimpSratrice, “laissez-moi 
partir de griice ; songez que o’est mon perc : qn’il 
a sa grace, et qu'il ne Ic sail pas encore.^ 

“ Soil, mon enfant," lui rSpondit I’excellente Jos6- 
pbinc ; “ mais vous ne ponvez aller seule il sa prison.” 

“ Je suis bien venue seule il votre chfiteau,” r6- 
pondit-elle vivement. 

“ Que votre majestenous permette d'accompagner 
Mile, de Lajolais,’’ demanderent il la fois plnsicurs 
officiers et aides-de-oamp de I’Empereur, que I'ac- 
tion pourtant bien.natutelle de Lajolais 
avail remplis d'admiration. 

‘•M. de Lavalette* me rendra oe service,” dit 
rimpfiratrice, souriant gracien'sement A I'un d’erix; - 
“ainsi que monsieur (ddsignnnt un aide-de-camp de 
service). ITousvous servirez d'une de mes voiturra; 
allez, messieurs, je vous confie Mile, de lajolais.” 

* Lo general Lavalette iivalt £paust line niece de llmptei- 
trice. Condemiie k raort cn 1815, U fiit eanve iwr- la generoiix 
dtroiiement de sa fciiiiiic, qiil s’introiluisit. daiu ss prison,, et 
cliangea de vetemeuts avee lui. ' 

■Bien qu’dpnisAe de fatigue,. de besoin et d’6mo- 
tion, Maria refusa de-preiidi'e et nourriturqet repos. 
Elle vonlni elle-mSine ' voir atteler' les obovanx, 
'presserlcs gens, et ne se tint en place que lorsqu'cilc 
et ses condiicteurs ,furent install^s sur les coussins 

' Alofs la volture partit au galop de six bans 
chevaiix : elle franebit avecune rapiditA inoroyable 
la distance qui separait Saint-Cloud de la prison. 
Pendant tqut le trajet, Maiia, droite et raide, tenait 
les .yeux fixAs sur le chemin qu'elle avail encore a 
pa^urir; son regard sembWt vouloir dfivorer la 
distance; sa poitrine' haletait, comme' si c'Atait 
elle, au lien dies chevaux, qui train-at le oarrpsse,'ct 
elle 6tait pule, si piile, que deux 'ou tfois, fois se.s‘ 
c'ompagnons lui odresserent la parole, mais inutile- - 
ment, elle ne les entendait pas. Qunnd^ voiturc 
s'arreta, elle 's'Alanpa par-dessus ’ le marcbepied 
avant que' M. -de Lavalette eut eu le temps de lui 
offrir la main pour descendre, et ne pouvant ar- 
ticuler quo ce.mot, “Vite, vife 1 ” Elle pareddrait 
les longs co.rfidors de la prison, pr^eSd’ont le geolicr 
etses guides, ,et rfipfitant' toujours, “Xite, vite I ” 
ArrivdO; A- la ports dn cacbot, il fallut bien qu’elle . 
attendit que le 'geolier cn Abt oiivert la serrnre, et 
tird de'ux duotmes verrd'us ; mais' A peine la portc 
eut-elle eddd, que, se prdcSpitnnt .dnns I’intdrieur, 
elle Alla tomber dans les bras do eon pbrp,'*en criant, 

*• Papa', I’Bmpereur . . lavie . . . gritc'e.” .... 

Elle ne put aobever ; ' sa volx se perdait en longs oris, 
chaque parole pommenode finissai^.par uh eanglot. 

Le gdndral de Lajolais crut un-' instant qu’on 

■ veuait le oherober pour le condnire A la mort, et 

que' sa fllle nyant trompd la vigilance des gardlens, ■ 
avail tout bravd pour lui faire ses adieux. ' ' 

Mais M. de Lavalette le ddtrompa bientdt ; voyant ’ 

■ que Maria vaincue par I'dmotion rie pouvait arti- 
- coler un son, il prit la parole : 

. L'Smpercur vons accorde votre grAcc, gdndral,” 

^ lui dit-il, "et vous la devez au courage et A In' ten- 
' -diesse de votre fllle.” ' ' 

. -Puis aveo une dmotion dont il ne pouvait se . 
ddfendre, il raconta au gdndral de'-LiijolaiB tout ce 
que sa fllle avail fait pour lui. 

E. Masco be SAiKT-HiLAniE. 


' , ' The Cars-Oastl'e. I • 

. A good liusliixiid, Ills vviEc, and two pretty cliHdrea p-isscd 
Oieir days In peace in tlie simple liermitagc wlicre, as peace- 
. 'Billy as tlioy, tliolr parents had lived. OTie husband and wife, 
'shoring Oic mild cates 'of the -household', . cnltlvatcd their 
garden, gathered in their harvests,' and ill the evening. In 
sdramcr, supping under the leaves ; in winter, in front of their. 

' ilre, Uwy pr^icd'to their sons on virtue and pri^oiu, and 
‘ spokc-to them of the happiness which tliese always give. Tlio 
father enlivened his 'semion by a story, the moth ot'by li caress. 

."The older of these children, by nature serious and studlous. 


Gulf, it. is in tho TOlley of the Nile, in North Egypt, 
thnt.tlic most niicicnt aroliitcctunil romnins arc. 
found ; and therefore, chronologically, the Egyptian 
Style claims oiir first attention. 


TIic prosiniity of the ranges of hills (the Arabian 
and Liliyan chains) to the Nile, and the facility ' 
which that river nlTordctl for tho tran-sport of the 
stone quarried in them, enabled the Egyptians at 
an e.arly period in the world’s. history to reproduce 
in the more lasting material, stone, those erections 
in crude or unbvirnt brick, and in 'timber, which, . 
probably, for centuries formed llieir rude habita- 
tions, and served ns sanctnarics or temples raised 
to tiie Creator of the Universe. In the tomb.v.sur- 
ronnding the Great Pyrauiids, which date from 3000 
to 4000 years B.O., we find tho earlio-st examples of 
Egyptian ardiitecluro. and the form-s-which tliey 
assume may bo looked upon as tho prolotyiics of 
that mns.>.ivc construction wliioli forims It.s chief 
characteristic. Tlic walla of their tcmplc.s. and of 
tlio imgc, or pylons, wtiich prcceilc tlie 
entrances, arc tliickcr at tlic hottoin than at the 
top; consequent ly, tho sides inko (just in the 
sntnc way as the liuts of unburnt brick do at tho 
I>rescnldny).and give an effeol of inimciisc solidity 
and strcngtli. Of the doine.stic arobitectiire of the 
Egyptians wo know but little ; the remains of lier 
ancient splendour are found lit her tondx and in her 
tcmplc.s, and would seem, from the representa- 
tions on the walls, to liavo been the models on wliioh 
the jMlaces and lioiiscs wore coiiied. Of tlip tomiis, 
tlic most colobrated are 1 lie Great Pyianiids at Gizeh, 
nhoat soion 111110.1 to the soiilli-west of Cairo. The 
tlircc Groat Pyramiils, witli otliers in I Iiq necropolis 
of Memphis (at tlio pcriml above mcniioncil tho 
capital of Egypt), were llio burial-places, or toniUs 
of tlie kings, or. at least, of llinse of royal blood. 
The Great Pyniiiihl of Clicops ciccnpicd a square 
oacli side of whicli measured 73.' feet, and coverwl nii 
area equal to tlial of Ijincoln's Inn Fields. Tlie sides 
siope.l 11J1 to a jioint -181 feet ahove tlic ground, tlie 
greatest licighl of any stone building in the world 
until the euiiii'Iclioii of tlie spire of Cologne Catli- 
edrnl, the ajK'X of wliicli rise.s to .WO feel above tlie 
])aiemen;. The ciUiing of the great Pyramid and a 
portiiiii of tlietopliave already disappc-arml ; so tliat 
in ils present state it consists of a series of steps, 
2 )3 in niiiiiber, varying in licight from -1 feel to 
2 fool (i iiirhes. The second Pyramid is sliglilly 
smaller, anil still retains 11 portion of its casing at 
the top. TIic tliirrl Pyr.iniid was loss Ilian half the 
size, but tlic casing w,ns of granite from Sycnc, 3tMl 
miles ahove Ciiiio. 

In tlie vicinity of tlio PjTamids, and on the west 

hank of tho Nile, ate nnmhorlcss tombs whioli 
formed a portion of the necropolis of Memphis, 
which was fifteen miles long. These tombs are 
now known under tho term of mastdba, an Arabian 
word signifying a “bench.” These rnattaias'-aic 
rectangular 'masses, varying in length from 15 to 
150 feet, and from 12 to 80 feet high. Their sides 
are sloped, so that they resemble the crude brick 
huts of the natives. The greater 'portion of them 
is in solid masonry or brickwork ; but on tlie eastern 
side there arc small chambers, .some of wliicli were 
open to tho pas'ser-hy, and in which originally offer- 
ings were made to tho deceased. These tombs all 
belong to tlic C'lriier dyniislios. After tho removal 
of the capital to Thebes, the tombs were always 
excavated in the solid rock ; .md though invaluahlc 
as records of history— for tho walls are covered with 
drawings and hieroglyphics— arcliilccturally they 
have but little intero.>.'t. 

The princiiKil temples of Egypt arc found at 
Thebes ; mid as their plans have much rcscmhlnnce 
one to the other, it will he siifilclont to take one ns 
iin c.xainple. Tlierc is tliis peculiarity about tliom— 
that Wlietlier they took centuries to build (being 
cuntinanlly ndilcd to nnd enlarged, ns the Temple 
of Kanink), or were built within a few years, ns (he 
Temple of Edfoii (Figs. 5, (J), they nil have the same 
accumulation of parts. The sanctuary nt the back 
is preueded by one or more Imils, one in front of tlic 
<ithe.r, succeeded liy a great “ hall of columns," after 
which great courts were added one in front of the 
other. Each of these fenturos increases in size or 
lieiglil. till the great “luill of columns" i.s readied, 
whii-his the fnntiircin Egyptian architect iiri.. 
Tlio great linl! of Knmnk (Fig. 4), Ims n doiihic row of 
twelve columns down the centre (87 feet lilgh from 
gTonnil tosoffit of Ihcstoncbcnnis.onwhiclilhc stone 
slabs of tlic roof arc carried, and iUI feet in circiim- 
ference), and •■•even rows of coliinins on cacli side, of 
les-er ]iei.<!lil. gmng a total of f>8 coliimhs ; the hull 
covering an area of 70,000 square feet, greater limn 
any English catliedral. In front of this Iiall was a 
court, with ]>ortico.s round it; nnd on the entrance 
side, a hnire pylQii. or gateway, 300 feet long and 
]O0 feet liigli, with an ciitrnnce-porlnl in tlic centre. 
Generally speaking. In front of llicse pylons were 
immense seated figures in granite or bnsalt, and 
obelisks, similar to tlie example now erected on tlie 
Tliniiics Einb.mkincnt ;.:ind from the entrance, n- 
loiig iKivcd c,aiiscw,ay, flanked with pcdest.als carry- 
ing .spliiiixc.s led to tlie river, .and ii.sod for 
processions. Tlio Temple of Kariiak, and others 
at Tliebes, date prinr.iiially from tho middle of the 
1 nil century B.C. At Ed ion, Pldl.'u. nnd Denrlerali are 
otiicrinagniliccnt temples oil, iter date. Tho columns 
which supported tlie roofs are of two main types — 

columns. There are eleven 
varieties of capitals ; and 
in the Portico at Philm. 
oven a greater number. 

There aro some temples 
which are partiallv out in 
the rooh, and partially 

built in front; and one oeiebcated example at 
Abou.simbel, which is eotirel.v excavated in the roolt 
to a dox>th o£ 150 feet, with liall of columns, and 
fllberhalls.chambers,and.«anctnary. Itisinfrontof 
t his temple that the huge .seated figures, CO feet high, 
were carved in the rock, full-sized copies of which 
occupied the south transept of the Crystal Palace 
before the fire. 


Though, as we have already said, there is every 
reason to believe that the settlements in the 
nllnvial lands bordering on the Tigris and Euph- 
rates, and north of the Persian Gulf, may have been 
earlier even than those in the valley of the Kile, the 
earliest re.cords do not go back quite so far, and 

it is not necessary to distinguish them here. Of 
the Chaldean Style, very few remains have been 
found ; and the duration of the Babylonian kingdom 
being less than a centory, little more would appear 
to have been clone beyond restoring some of the 
more ancient Chaldean t emples ; so that a description 
of the nature of the Assyrian Style will cover all 
that is requisite 

Broadly speaking, there are only two classes of 
buildings — the temple and the palace. In order 
to nnderstnnd the peculiar nature of these struc- 
tures, it is necessary to point out that the country 
bordering on the Tigris and Euphrates is perfectly 
flat, and in periods o^ Inundation is liable to be 
flooded. Tlie first precantion. therefore, which 

flights of steps in front, a ramp was forrocd round which wotil 
the tower. The remains of colour on this temple, of tlio walls 
as well as on that of the Bits Nim'roud, sh’on' that 
each storey was decorated witUholourod materials 
and dodiontod to the 'sovon planets : the lowest, 

Ijlaok, dodio.ated to Saturn : then orange, to Jupiter; ' 

_ rod, to Mars ; yellow, to the Sun ; green, to Venns ; 
blue, to Mercury; and white, to the Moon. The 
liujelihe at Babylon is supposod to have been the 
largest of those temples, its base being about (iOO 
feet, and its lieigbt calculated at 430 feet. 

Tlio Chaldean palaces nro too ruined to be able to 
trace out tbeir plans ; they seem, liowovcr, to liave 
been similar to those found in A.ssyrin, the oldest IZI 

of wliiohis the North-west Palace at Nimroud,buiIt 
by Asshur-bani-pal, 884 B.C. Tills was discovered 
and cKcavated by Sir Henry Layard, to whose 
exertions we owe the groat bulls from tlie gateways 
and the sculptured slabs from the walls of the 
reception rooms which are now in the British 
Museum. The largest and most complete palace 
yet discovered is that at Kliorsnbnd, situated about 
fifteen miles north of Ninc%’ch. The city of Khors- 
abad was about a mile square, and in the north-west 
of it was built the cnbrmous platform or terrace on 
which llic palace stands. This plat form was 30 feet 
high, and covered .an area of about 1,000,000 sqViare 
feet, or 1,000 feet each w.ay. A flight of steps in 

278 . THB'NETtf POPULAR - EDUCATOB. /; ■’ 

the surface blocks'of the,w<aU8, richly eniimeBecI in 
colours, lioing in beton of concreCc instead of burnt 

The only other remains of Persian -work. known 
. are the tomb of Cyrus- at Pasargadse, a stone' 
sarcopliagus raised on a series of steps — ^the remains 
of a building close by which is thought to be a 
■palace of Cyrus, with a hall of eglnmns — a portico 
of somewhat similar nature to those describe^ but - 
witliout ornament or enrichment of any kind— and 
one' or two square.buildings known as fire temples, 
■' but wliioh are probably tombsT 


[Coiifimirf /rfiitt p. 217.) 

EXAMPLES. • - ' . 

CoNSiDEB now the equilibrium of a body which is 
free to move about an axis, and which is acted on 
by forces tending to turn it about that axis. The 
body shown in Fig. 33 will do lo illustrate what we 

mean. 'We must either suppose that the body has 

no weight, or that it is pivoted at such a point that 

its weight Ims no tendency to turn it, which is the 
case in this instance if the pivot passes through 
its “ centre of gravity." Wo may remark in passing ' 
that this “ centre of grarity" is defined as the 
point through which the resultant of all the forces 
of gravity, acting on the body, always passes. The 
term “'centre of mass ” is much better, as it is only 
a certain class of bodies which licax a centre of 
gravity. Imagine the arrangement shown in Fig. 
83 to be frictionless, andtheweightsnicely adjusted 
so that there is no more tendency for the body to 
turn in one direction than the other, then if it gets 

.'one complete turn in. the positive direction— br 
.'agalnst-the hands of a watch— the weight attached 
to c willfall -a distance equal to the circumference 
• 'of its pulley, whilst A and B rise distances equal! 
respectivMy, to the circumferences of-their pulleys. 
The law of work tells ns., that the work done -by c 
in falling mlist be equal to that done on, A and B 
in raising them since we assume that there is no 
' friction. - Hence we have the rule — 

Pall in c X ciroamference of c's pulley ’■ 

=pull in A X circumference of A's pulley+ pull 
in B X circumference of B's pulley.-. 

Since each circumference is 2 v times its radius, 
dividing, this equation across .by- 2 ir, we 'get 
Poll In c x‘o’s radius = pull in A x A’s radius + 
pull in B X B's radius. , , 

. Now each radius is at right angles to the cord, 
ijl., the force exerted by the cord at the point 
'whore it leaves the pulley, hence we, see- that .each 
liroduct is simply Vos ixirttcrilar force vmlfijilied hy 
thejmytandUtular from the axis on the line showing 
the direetion of that force. This product gets a ' 
'name, it- is called the moment of the force about 
the 'axis referred to,' and its amount is a measure of 
the tendency of the force to turn the body about 
the axis. ■ , • ' 


then is this, #/ a wmicr of forces act on. a hodg 
teddingUturn ital>oict,an axis, there mill he egnili- 
hrlum if thesmn of the siioments tf the forces te7idi»g 
to tnmit against the hands of.d match is egual to 
the sim of the moments ef the forces lending to turn it 
with the hands of a mateh : or in other words, if the 
algebrajc snm of-the moments is zero. We think we 
can hear the intelligent student objecting here, and - 
saying, “you b'avo in your jlinstration only taken .a 
particular case in which the distance of'eacb force , 

from the axis remains constant,” and that in prac- 

tical examples this is' not 'usually the case. The 
objection is perfeotlyright,andwewill endeavour .to 
meet In doing so we must adoptji method which 
we, have already used, viz., that of supposing ,a very 
small motion given to the body, the cords being 

attached directly without pulleys.- Let the small 

angle turned through by the body be called d (Fig. 
34), all lines on the body will turn through the 
same angle. Fig. 35 is an enlarged drawing of a 

part of- Fig. 34, and it will be seen from it that the 

work done by ■Wjis-W'i.x V Q. But since 0M4 s 
perpendicular to pm, and qp pecjjendienlaT to pt, 
the two triangles 0 M P and T Q P have' the angles at 
O and p equal, and the angles af’q and M also equal, 
'boing right angles, benpe the triangles are similar, 
ytlierefore ^■=^- • - 


' tlic moment of tills are fonr supports or fulcra a, a, a, a, on which the 
L‘128. . extremities 'oE the triangular levers a, d, t ; a, i?, I, 

mo,ment, all the other rest. Each lever has, therefore, two supports, in 
iver the opposite way. fact, we may f’onsicIcT each as two levers bent so as 
lit of the lever is T x G to meet at b. ' At the points c, r; e, c, etich S inches 
, - - ' ’ from a, the top plate or .platform, which receives 

. • . X <= = 27'72 iiiolies, ulilcli Is the distance rcqiiirol. 

It will readily bo understood that the same 
method ns that adopted for finding the con- 
ditions of equilibrium for a single lever may 
he applied to any combination of levers. Thus 
It the ratio of tho two arras oE a lever a B I • 
(Fig. 87) bo such thatil lb. at A supports 3 lb.- ) 
at n as shown, it is just tho same whether tho j 
long arm of another lover apply that force or C 
a dircot weight. So the 3 lb. upward force at 
'b will balance a force of 9 lb. at c, which again 
will balance 27 lb. at D, the levers being all 
similar as regards tho ratio of their arms. 

It is easy to sec, however, that if mnch motion 
takes place there will no longer ho eqmlibrinm,'a.<; 
the distance from either fulcrum of the polut of 

tnnee a » is to 'c a as’ 1 to 4.;, hence the combined 
effect is that 1 lb. at d will bal.mce 4 x 7=28 lb. 
of load on the platform. IVe have not taken into 
.account the weights of the levers or platform, but 
by properly placing each fulcrum these weights 
can be allowed fob so that each weight placed on 
the weighing lever will represent exactly "28 times 
its real weight. 

In the case of a more complicated weighing 

oontaot, say, of the two levers at b, will not he the 

machine, such ns that shown in outline in Fig. 39, 
it will be necessary to take into nocount the 
weights of the different parts. Let » lb. bo tho pull in 
the rod A B at iU lotvcr cndflwn a little consideration 
will convince the student that the pull in tho rod at 
its upper end is a? -f. the weight of the rod, in this 
cnsca; 20 lb. It may seema little strange to the 
lioginhcT that the rod should act on the lever o A 
vpirariU with a certain force, and that it should 
also Slot on the lever B o doirntmrds and with .t 
greater force. Imagining the rod to be of india- 
rubber in a strctclicd condition will assist in reason- 
ing as to the different sense of the two pulls, and 
thinking of the rod ns being merely suspended from 
the lever b c, when the pull at the top is 20 lb. and 
at the bottom 0 lb., and then adding x lb. to each, 
will show the reason of the different amounts at the ' 

With this explanation let 'US now solve the ques- 


forces be a and y lb. "respectively.'is 
evident that x + y must be equal to the sum of 
the loads as the beam' does not move up or down. 
This gives us the first condition ® + y = 42. 

' Taking moruents about the point A', we have^ 

tion in connection witb problems on beams, etcr 
Before leaving this subject we must refer to the 
units in which moments are usually measured. It 
the force is in ^unds, and the 'perpendicular in 
. feet, the .product or moment will be expressed in 
pounds and feet, and the unit vdll be a quantity 
.'resembling the unit of work. In the case -of work 
the product was that of a force and ^tance 
meamre/l in its otvn direction, here the product is , 
that of a force and a distance measured at right 
angles to its direction. No convention has yer 
been adopted to distinguish between the two cases, 
th^h it has been suggested that the symbol 
v^— 1 should be prefixed to' the product In the 
' latter case. It is usual to speak. of the unit of , 
' work as a foot-pound and of the unit of moment 
as a pound-foot, this being merely to' make 
a sort of distinction between the two. A moment 
is a vector quantity of a class sometimes called 
localised vectors” or "rotors”; a quantity of,^ 
energy, on the other hand, is a wafar quantity or 
mere numeric. Moments can be compounded like 
forces, the line representing the moment being 
given in position and supposed to be the axis of the 
moment, and a proper convention being adopted as 
to the connection between the arrow bead on the 
line and the direction of rotation of the moment. ^ 
Two equal, opposite, and parallel forces, acting oii a' 
body, tend to produce rotation only, and form what 
, is called a couple. The moment of a couple is the 
product of one of the equal forces and the per- 
pendicular distance between the two. 


. [Cofiti/iiial/rorap. 221.1 ■ 


283. Three quantities’ are in harmonical ^rogres- > 
sion ichen the first is to the third as the difference 
i of the first and second is to the difference of the 
second and third. , ' - 

_Jt is essential that these .differences should be 
formed in the same oi'der— that is to say, by sub- 
tracting cither the seco.nd from the 'first, and the 
third from tbe'second ; or the first from the second, 

' and the second from tlie third. Thus it' will not 
do to subtract the second quantity~ffom the - first, 
and the second from the third: For' the sake of . 
exactness in this respect, and also for the sake of 
brevity, a well known imathematioian (Todhunter) ' 
prefers to use symbols, and gives the foUowing 
definition of harmonical progression 
Three quantities a, J, ,c-are said to be in -liar- 
monical progression- when a-.e-.-.a — h-.h— e, 

A series of quantities, more than three in number, 
maybe in.harreonical progression, provided every ■ 
three 'consectUive quantities are in harmonical pro- 
gression. ' ' . 

284. In consequence of the fact that the 
i reciprocals of quantities in- harmonical profes- 
sion are' in - arithmetical progression, a' third 
definition - has been thus stated; Quantities , are 
said to be in hamwmcal progression sohen thiir 
reeiprocals are in anthmettcal progression!- 

-The fact that the/reciprocals are in arithmetical 
progression may be seen by the following 
Example.— L et ®,:y, s be in harmonical pro- 

ao&y.x-y.y-t, - .. 

' Therefore, s (» — y) = » (y — s). 

And dividing by ays, we get — 

, 0 y’ . 

where it is .clear- thitt 'a, y, and s must be in 
arithmetical progression. . • ' 

285. This property of the reciprocals 'gives ns a 
' method by m^s of which to xnsert a given nteMber 

of haroionieal means beiKeen tno given terms. 

If a and ® be two given 'terms,' and .n the 
number of' terms to be inserted, then it is 
' ewdent that 'the problem may be solved by , 
inserUng « arithmetical means between — and — 
This wonld make the arithmetical series— ' 

• i- + x(n + l) + 2(»t''-®) ' 

a' ax(n,-(-l) ’ + 

' gOt + l)-Ht(g-®) 1 

' *-• ••■ . ’{ X 

■ And the harmonical progression would necessarily ' 

' .aaCH + l) • ■ , gaiOt-H) • ' ' ' 


S-i'i Xi' cnn Tj? r-5tabl:;!w^ tLe sen 

rw'LLTK'N or coJiroi-KD qrAXTiTint. 

CiT. Eule. — 1. .Im.'r/r ii,c ierxis aceordinff io 
the jhnecri e/ e.-e rie Jetirre. f,t that f»c hipheet 
■[imrcr t-hnU ftrvd the next hipicti next. etc. 

2. Te.\c therc"t nffhejiret term, for the first term 
of the reQVircd 

3. iSirbtrae! the jiorcr from the p'ren quantity, 
anil lih’iile thefirt* tern of the ramainilrr hy the 
first tern of the root inrelred to the next inferior 
poKcr and niilfijitiril hy the index of the giren 
jtotTer ; the qvoticn* vilt he the next term qf the 

4. Siiitracf the jtmrrr of the te.rms atreadg found 
from the yiren quantity, and, vsiny the same dMsor, 
jiroeced as before, 

PBOOr. — This rule rcrifics itself. For the root, 
•whenever n new term i« a'Wed to it, is involved, 
for the p'^ri'cso of subtracting its power from the 
given quantity ; and -when the power is equal to 
this quantity, it is eridont the true root is found. 

E-itAMPLE.— Ertract tiie cube root of 

,j«j.r.r'-3e<-ll<7>+C(7= + 12e— 8(«»+ff- 

Plvisor A) _ llns 

S-t‘ + s^> + n9 Sai + 3a*+ a» 

Divisor B)" + 0«s + 12« — 8 

Sa.+c.J_3i5_tv,+4 _ fiff* - 12e3 + Gai 4- 12g - 8 

Divisor A is thus found, 3(n-)® 

3 X a X 

Sum = Sd^ + 8o* + a~ 
Diiisor B is thus found, 3(o- + a)- 

3x(-2)x(a= + «) 


Sum = •3n'‘ + Ott"' — 3(1* — Go +4 
ii'.i?. — ^In finding tlic divisor in the 4th example 
of Exercise 74, the term Sa in tlio not 
involved, because the power next below the square 
is the first power. 

2S8. Tlic square root may be extracted by tho 

. Rule. — 1. Arrange the terms of the given quantity 
according to the jwn-ers of one of the letters, take the 
roof if the first term for the first term of the required 
roof, and suhtraet thcqioKcr from the given quantity. 

2. Bring dmn tiro other term." .riir a dividend. 
Divide hy do'ihle the roof already found, and add 
the quotient both to the root and to the divisor, 
llultiply the dirhor, tints ive.-cosed, into the term 
last placed in the root, and suhtraet the product 
from the dividend. 

3. Bring doier. tiro or three additional terms, and 
proceed as luforc. 

Pnoor. — hlulfiply the root info itself, and if, the 
jnroduct is equal to the given quantity, the rvork is 

Example. — ^TV hnt is the square root of 
«- + 2a?i + 6= A- 2ac + 2Iie + i:“(a + 6 + b 
a-, the first subtrahend. 

2fl + i) » 2«SA-f/- 

Into h = Zah a- b-, the second subtrahend, 
2a4-‘26 + r) * * Zac -h-Zbe A- c- [trahend. 

Into e = Zac + Zbc + c“, the third sub- 

Proof . — The squnre of the root a + & 4- o is equal 
to the given quantity. 

For (fi + f-y = flS + 2a5 + = o' + (2o + &) x J. 

And substituting Ii r= o + f<, the square Ifi = o' 

+ (2o + ^) X 

And(o + J + cy = (A + o)' = 7i' + (2/( + c) x c; 
that is, restoring the values of h and Ifi, 
(o+S+cy=:a' + (2o + J) X J + (2 o + 2J+c) xc. 

In the same manner it may be proved that, if 
another term be ndded to the root, tho power will 
be increased by the product of that term into its^, 
and into twice the sum of the preceding terms. 

The demonstration will be substantially the same, 
if some of the terms be negative. 

It •will frequently facilitate tho extraction of 
roots to consider the index as composed of two 
or moiefaetors. 

Thus <^=a- And =0^ ^ That is — 

■ 'Die fourth root is equal to the square root of the 
square root ; 

The mxth root is equal to the square root of the 
cube root ; 

The eighth root is equal to the square root of the 
fourth root, etc. • 

To find the sixth toot, therefore, we may first 
extract the cube root, and then the square root of 
that result. 

// Exercise 74. 

1. Find the 4th root of a* + Ea> + S4a^ 4- SSa + 16. 

2. Find tho 5th root of n*+5n>b + 10n»5» + lOft’M + sal + IS. 

3. Find tlie cube root of n^ - On'b + ivat”- Sl\ 

4. Find thcsqniirernotor4iiS-lfttft+ni?+l(i«7i-246h+10It». 

D. Find tho square root of 1 - 45 + 45J + 2j/ - 4by + j/s. 

0. Find tho square root of o' - So' + 3n' - 2a* + o*. 

T. Find the nqiiare root of n‘ + 4(i=5 + 45* _ 4a* - S5 f 4. ■ 

8. Findthc.sqnarcraotorz<-4i*4-ar*-4r4-l. 

0. Find the cube root of z* — 6z* 4- ISf — 20if> + 15i* — Gz 4- 1. 

A m-fon-fd dl clasche-ii-ttO, according to the irill or lildiig 
of everyhody., * . , , 

Itl-ta-luT-si ad ol-at-tto, to Tehcl or mutiny against some-' 

AlVo-Tiin-le, oit'oc-ci-den-te, towards the east, west 

^Ti-dd-rs a gran jaiwi, tO walk svith long stndes. ’ ; 

fifi-re a Mc-ca a-ptr-la, a do-cW o-Jidr-ti, n Imc-cio n-pdr-fc,' 
II cd:j» elii-no, a ckid-ma «tdl-te, to stand with an open or 
gaping mouth, with open arms, with the liead inclined, 
with dishevelled hair, 

A brl-glia sefdi-ia,' with slackened reins, at tnil 'speed or 

Pa-ra-ga-na-re d^na cd-stt a guil^ht altra c&m, to compare 
one thing with another. , , 

Cott-dan-nUo a «i-la dMe pa-Id-re, condemned iiir life to 
the galleys. 

£s-3i-re saiMMt a guHrOie ell-m, to feel compassion for 
<or to he susceptible oO something. 

£o./it-rdi a/or-m, thou wilt do it by eonstmint. 

CliU-de-re ad ai-cd-no, to ask or require of somebody. 

A-v4-re a si-gno-re, to have as d master. 

A di-e a dit.e, two at a time, two and two. 

r vhraset. For ex- 

A hudamer-cd-to, at a small price, cheap. 
AUa peg-gia, ns bad as possible. 

Alda rtn-fa^ confusedly, pFOmisouousIy. 
A hde^, by word of mouth. 

' Vt-nta-e 6l-le md-ni, to come to blows, or to • 


ndttU, go. Ugll marl, he died. Pala 

ndnte, will you Egll to ranitiirrd, lie 
— • will^Miig or con- 

Egll i mto, lie was 

Ella pin tin, slie a^ 

dfUiley. ■ 

_ Eestiiia <dancliig, 
eldl-le or Brl-alo- gaming, etc.}, 

' evening party, 

Fiorina, florin. 

Fircna, Florence, . 
imputed to lilm. 
nuaifagiio, proflt 

Arrivermo, shall ^ 
Avutnlro, tlie 

Easloiiata, blow 
(witli n stick). 

JJene, gooil. 

Erfriot (also Dri- 

Pdlaooo (it), palace 

Paroltt, word. 
PasKg^i^, to take 

Chi (only of per- 
CoHf re!’ anger. 

lo nndrt donrnnl, : 

Corte, court (of a 

Di quig ffoiu Iiere. 
DlfcltOg fault. 
Vogana, custuiii- 

^rmire, to tileei>. 

"ntcls or reckons 

LiberaHlA, liber- 

Lioiu, L);onfl. 


Midtg eril. ! 


jlfoiitio, luill. ! 


hforre ((«),•• f. pi., i 
wedding, marriage i 
foast. , I 

0, or. 

Ogiium, everybody. 

Fltiro, Peter. 

Porta, door. 

Praiuo, dinner. 

Preftriioc, he pre- 

Pnsto, soon, 

Prc^inm^^in.), pm- 


SojWiornn, he lives 

Spasm, ^stime, dl- 




Z'ira, draws, con- 

‘ ■ Esbkcise 11. 

‘ Trafasltfte into English':,— : 

L HamEui-riii-tol.'ilSt-tc-raaGib-Tun-ni. .2. Ti- 
rii-re ad un nc-cel-lo. 3. IL mer-edn-te pen-sa nl 
■gua-dd-gno. 4;- Ddl-le pa-r6-le si vfin-ne dMe Ira- 
sto-ndt-te.' fi. A chi I'a-vd-te ino-strd-^to 7 a Pifl.tro 
o al-la on-gi-na? 6. -A che pen-sd-te7 ' 7. 
all'ay-ve-ni-re. 8. Ar-ri-ve-rd-mo pr6'-sto dl-la ppji.- 
si-mapd-sta7 '9. ]&-gli e c6r-so sd-bi-to dl-la por-ta. 
10. Par-liUya. ad d-no stra-nil-ro.. , il. Lo in-ci-to 
dl-Ia 'cdl-Wta. 12. La' sd-a,co’n.-ver-sa-zi6-nc mi 
vid-ne a- n&-ia. ,13. .iS-gii se -lo rS-oa a dis-o-nd-re. 
lA lia li-b6.-ra-li-ta,'gli Tden iin,-pu-td-tii a‘di-fdt-to. 
16. iSis-si. d-ra-no dl-la' cdc-cia, fil-Ie'n&z-ze, a prdn-zo, 
a cd-no, al fe-sti-no. ' 16. l-o' an-drb ' db-'ind-ni a 
nn hdl-Io. '' 1-7. fe-si vdn-no' a spds-so, a pimiseg- 
.^-re. 18. An-did-mo al caf-ffe. 19. Per d&-ve si 
ya dl-la -pd-sta? dl-la do-gd-na? 20.- ]&:gU h a 
Ber-U:no. , , - - . . 

THE PARTICLE DA.' ' ' , ' 

Wc hat% already stated that the' particle di de- 
notes a mere mental sepamtion 6£ ideas or notions, 
tvbfle the particle da expresses a real separation oE 
objects. JJa expresses any. kind of tangible or 
mental and imaginary,' but clear and real separa- 
timh'removal, distance, 'or direction /rm a person 
or thing. » 

1 ■ Examples. 

ScMa-ii da gui-sto lu6-go, begone Itom' this plaep. 
Atdonda-ni-re d-ni da tin lud-go, to remove one' from a 

L'ue.elt-Ii t n-soido diUa gab-iia the biril has flown out 
efthocage,. ' 

Cii (pron. ciS) dt-p(n-io diil-Iit fir-lil-nit, da rel, that 
dspcnils on good luck, on you. ' 

DcAir-re d-no TO-giS-ne do «n prin-ci-pto JUt-io, to deduce 
■ an argument (proof, or evidence) from n fhlso principle. 
C« do Pi-do-nr, Carthage was bnlll 

, '.Fu h’gli da oted-nf sii0-f se.gTe.ti ne-mvet oc<, he 
was occused by Bome of bis secret enemies. 

The particle da also is-used in order, by naming 
the birth-place, to distinguish ' one person from 
others of. the same appellation. The .birthiplaco 
thus becomes, as it were, the surname of the 

Clo-sdn-ni do Fle-so-le, Pti-tro da C^ti-na, Ixo-ndr-di da 
. rtn-ci, CuWo do Silrtm, Fo-Ii-dd-ro do £Sj.ra-»iig-pii), 
Ba-Jittl-lo da tTr-hi-no, etc. 

- A logical Gontradictiori and anomaly — though in- 
troduced and sanctioned by a universal usage, for 
the most part in the place of the preposition a — ^is 
the constant employment of da in connection with 
those verbs which, -with scime house, mansion, 
apartments, lodging, or any other place of con- 
tinnanoe,. denote nay hind of motion, to ot fomards, 
any land of lining or residing with, and any-Ttind of 
visit paid to, a'gerson : — ' 


• [Xmrhedfmr metrnrfeal Pavtes, Emphatis, and 
' Injteetimu.'] 

as before ; tlie sound will be heard) but it will be 
faint and ijociilmr in tone. If we Inhale hydrogen 
gas (which for this purpose must be quite pure), 
and then attempt to speak, the Toico likewise will 
be found greatly changed in character, having 
become hollow and thin, at the same time being 
considerably higher than usual, so ns to resemble a 
squeak. lYe see, then, that the intensity of any 
sound depends upon the density of the air in which 
it is generated rather than of that in which it is 

Wlicn at great elevations on the sides of moun- 
tains, all sounds are wonderfully diminished in 
intensity in consequence of the rarefied state of 
the air. Saussare says that on the summit of 
Mont Blanc the report of a pistol was not loader 
than that of an ordinary cracker, and the travellers 
were obliged to speak in a louder tone than usual 
in order to be heard. 

The rate at which the sound-wave travels through 
the air does not depend at all upon the intensity or 
the pitch. If it did, music when heard at a little 
distance would be quite changed into discord, since 
the louder notes would outstrip the others. 

In the case, however, of extremely loud sonnds, 
snoh as. for instance, the report of a heavy piece of 
ordnance, tliore seems to be a slight departure from 
this law. 

■ Sound is conducted by liquids or solids, as well 

other, the ticking will bo hoard much farther oil than 
it would otherwise be. In a similar way the eartli 

soond, for if the ear be - 

applied to its surface, - 

the footsteps of men 

' .or horses -approaching ' I 

may be heard at a very ^<l ^ip|||||||||| ||||iiy ' 

great distance. iSo.too, 

the ' metal 'lails, the - | |||||||ljl 

sound caused by the . . i | i| 

wheels of n train can , | || 

be heard mncli farther • | 11 | ' 

off than it can by any • | | H 

Xierson merely stand- >• ^ | 1 |h’ 

'ing up and listening. ' ^ - 

Many very interest- a SliW 

Ing experiments can 

bo tried to illustrate . ’ 

the conduction of E E 

sonnd. One of (he . Fig.'s. ^ 

simplest is to suspend ' ’ • 

a common'pokcr Ii>y a piece of string or list. '\Vind 
the ends of Ibis round the forefinger of oach hand, 
and having put the fingers into the oars, make the 
pokor swing so as to strike against the fonder or 
somo picco of metal. In- 

T stead of the sonnd usually 
B board wo sliall now hear 
one , almost resembling 
that of a church bell. 

plentifuBy , along the 
string than through the 
air, tlint the sonnd is very 
-gfeatly increased in in- 
tensity, .and is heard for a ' 

from iilnce to place, ' Lei 

Fig. c. twelve or fifteen foot long 

• be rested on the tips of 
the fingers of two people, and against one end of it 
let there be held a thin sounding-board, or a box of 
thin wood, or, better still, a violin. Now -strike a" 

' Bdisok's PnONOOKAPti Is remarkable in tracing 
a record of sounds produced eitlicr by the Immau 
voice or musical instruments ; these records can in 
tlieir’turn reproduce the original sounds. The 
instrument is siiown in I'ig. 8. It consists of ntvas 
cylinder which can bo driven at a constant speed 
by tin clcctro-molor. A light style; attached to a 
disc somewhat resembling the disc of a telephone, 
cuts a minute spiral furrow in the rotating 
cylinder, at the same time leaving indentations 
corresponding with the sounds received. This 
cylinder wlion rotated at any future time can, in its 
tiu^, notuato the stylo and disc, and thus commnnl- 
oato to tho air sounds resembling those which pro- 
duced tlio record. This forms one of tho most 
complotc and wonderful proofs yet adduced of the 
fact that certain vibrations of tho air communi- 
cato to our oars certain dotiiiito sounds. 

It is not necessary to refer to the great utility of 
such an aiTangcmcnt or to tho ninny ways in which 
this great invention of rcenriUnff vibrations for 
, future reproduction may bo of service to mankind. 

We may now collect and review tbe main causes 
wliich inlincncc the intensity of any sound. 

The first, ns has already been explained, is the 
distance of the sounding body from the car, the 
sound being found to diminish in intensity inversely 
as the square of the distance; that is, a sound 
wlien licard at double the distance has only one- 

boards used in conjunction with tuning-forks, and 
wc shall have occasion to refer to others as wo 

These statements may be more easily remom- 
beted.if put in the following concise shape ; — . 

1. Intensity varies inversely ds the square of the 

2. Intensity varies directly as the square .of- tho 
amplitude of tho vibrations. . 

8. Intensity increasos with the density of tho 

4. Intensity is modiBed by the condition of the 

5. Intensity is modified by tlio .proximity of a 
-sonorous body. 

Wc cannot better tho present lesson 
than by alluding to tho remarkable property wliioh 
tho vibrations of sound— especially of a regulni- or 
musical kind — liavo of communicating similar - 
vibrations to bodies in their neighbourhood. ' The 
effect thus produced is due to what is called enn- 
sonhnee. A tuning-fork immediately takes up the 
vibrations of nnotlier wliicli is in nnison with it. 
A string or an'oigan-pipc will reinforce the 'sound 
-of a corresponding tuning-fork held near it. , 

Jatetfareiiee afSatmil . — Just as two similar sound- ' 


Thus, ill some verbs, n clin'crcnt, mdicnl vowel is 
found in cncli of these three jinrls _ ' 

Tnjiiiitive. I’ast. ' Pmt Parlietplc. 

'■PUtcn, hep ; Ht, begged ; sd'ctcn, begged. 

'9clfcii, lielp ; Iinlf, liolped : gtfiolfcn. liclixxl. 

Shincii. reflect; faiui, reflected; gcfonncii, reflected, 
tlniircii, drink ; iniiif, drank ; grtninkn, dmnk. 

Wlieii in the of the changes noted in 
llio text above, a long lowol or diphthong lic- 
conie.s .iliiirl, ilie final consonant of the mol is 
doubled, as 

SWtcit, to ride ; rill, rode : gcrillcn, ridden, 

itlroi, to .suffer ; fin, suffered ; grfiiicii, suffered. 

In the case of kirtii, note also that t is changed 
into il.s cognate t. When, on llie olhi-r hand, a 
short vowel is thus inaile long, the second of two 
nidicid eonsonanls is omitted:— - 

SJitttii, to hog : tsu, lieggod ; gtkKii, Iwggcd. 

Jtomnnii, to come ; tAm, came; getemnicn, come. 

In some, the vowel or diidilhong in the pa«t and 
the luirl iciplc is the same, but is different from that 
in l.ho infinitive, as 

Cfliimnnt, glimtiiur; gtomin, glim- grgk’niuicn, glim- 
mered ; mered. 

*cC'(ii, lift ; firt, lifleil : gdrivn, lifted, 

t'iictii, suffer ; lilt, suffeied; gdiltcn, suffered. 

S.nigfii, seek ; frj, sucked ; gtfitgrn, sucked. 

Scfcitt'eii, sliove ; ftlKt, -lioved ; gcfd/ctra, shoved. 

Sd|Ktl<cii, write; fitnidt wiote;' ,gt{il>itcl-(n. written. 

In others, tlie vowel or diphthong of the infinitive 
is ciianged in tlie past, but re.Mimeil in the itarli- 
ciple, ns : — 

1) infra, blow Hid, blew; get-infm, blown, 


Wd'tn, give ;', gar i- : gopt'oi, given. 

(Mngrn, iiang; Hug. Iiiinvr: gt^uigrii, liinig. 

fliaiiinrii, eomc ; fniii, t'aiiii- ; gth'inmcii. come. 

t.uuVn, run ; lief, ran : gdiiurm, run. 

3<1|iiffen, create; frtiuf, created ; <s<rili.rlirn. erealed. 

IJe.sides tlic viiwel-elianui's iiulicaleil above, 

verbs of tlie ancient coiijugsition have the follow- 
ing oliaraetcriviie-. : — 

(«) Tlie ixist participle end- in -tii or -ii. and is 
Ihorebv ilisiinguislierl from tlial of the Now- Form 

(Vrtislfcii, liDlpi'd (froiii OklcM, praised, (from 

■'jflFcii). Srtin). 

Qki.iflcn, fallen (from fflclictt, loved (from 

Snlleii). 5'irfirnV 

Qtrtnignn, home (from (lifla&r,'<]nickcncd (from 
ffrngen). ' Soteii). 

(Sctorii, bidden (from Qlrtanfii) t, cxcliangccl 
Xicten). (from SaiiftiiciO. 

(J) Those having n in tlic Jirst iierson singalar 
of tliG present indicative, and in tlie participle, 
assume the Ilmtanl in ilmsccimfl and the third poison 
singular; thus; — 

Indicative.— IV cswif., 

Sing. . Plur. Sing. Phtr. 

3i( fniigr SOir fongoi. Sit; iitiingc Slfir frftl.igni. 

Snfjiigft Sfirfniigt. Sii fill (tig fl Slit fififagr. 

HrfAngt Sit fniigcii. Qcfd)ttigl Sit fdilngai. 

(e) Some verks having c (long) in thc,//wf person 
singular of Iho present indicative, take in theswn/irf 
ami the third person it; and some Imviiig c (short) 
take in the samo jihieos the vowel {(sliort) ; and in 
both instances the iinperat ivo {nemd pmon iingvlar) 
adopts the vowel-form of the second person of the 
indicative. Thus 

IsuiCATrvj;.— /Vtvri'af. 
fitng. Ptiir, Sing, P/ur. 

Sif* (tft. I rend. SOir Itftn. 3ri> (idft, I help. SBir Mftn. 

Sinlitftn Sir left. !Iiutii(fil 3l>tl>tm.' 

(irdtft Sit Icftn. (it tiilfl ©it (itlfm. 

iMPKii.VTtvi:.— y’weiif. 


9U« tu (for (Ittf), rend tu (for- lalft), helji 
thou. ■ thou. 

Stft tt, let him read. ■5rift cr. let him helji. 

I'cf™ U'ir, let as read. .&cirtii ivit, lot us help, 
t’tfrt lilt, read ye nr you. .(-tlfci flu-, lielp ye nr you. 

Stku (it. let them lead. .5clftn (ic, let them Iiclp. 

Tile voiiis tliiis ailopi tlie vowel-form of 
tlie second iKTsOii of Hie indieativc Ui-o also 
tlie chaiacterisiin -c final; giving, as above. lit*, 
lor Heft; till, for titfc.Vlc. Tim miaceentcd c final 
is, in other instimeo.s, nli-a snmet.imc.s omitted. 

(ft) In the past Milijiincfivc tlie radic:il vowel, 
it it be capal'le of it, assumes the lliiil.nil; thus ; — 

1 sDicATi vi:.— /k.r/. Su n.i uncti vii.—Ihirt .' 

Sing. Pliir. Sing. Pliir. 

3(^ fpradi SCir fi'tsditn. 3d> fi''C SBir fi'riii('fii. 

Sn fprsdgt 3ftr fpt.ubl- Su ft't,idit|l . Stir fv<>ct. 

(ir-frra* Sie frrnilim. tJr fi't.iri;e Sit frr.ld'tii. 

3ilifdihi.3 "Bit fc(|Iii.j(n. . 3d; fdilftgt SBir fd;Ifigcii. 
Su-fdiluiifl 3r<r fi^Iiigt. Su filiiiigcft . 3(<r f.tfiiget. 
(fr ^liig eic fijiiigcii. Pt fdiKlge Sic fdilugcn. 


the Anthozoa arc uonlined to. the sea. TJnUl we 
become acquaintcil with the lower and the lowest 
animals, we are apt to conclude that the conditions 
under which we live are those most favourable to 
life. Admirably adapted' ns the human body Is to 
perform all the functions of life, man treads the 
solid eartli and breathes the flnid air, furnished 
with senses and powers which enable him to escaim 
tlic manifold dang;cr3 and to proi'idc against the 
constant changes of aerial life, and he does this 
with such ease that he forgets entirely tiiat he is 
living under difficult conditions, over which it is only 
his superior organism that pves him the mastery. 
Wlieno\-or the most experienced swimmer or diver 
takes o “header” into the sea, he leaves behind 
him the bettor part of all his perceptive and loco- 
motive powers. The eyes and cars seem inufllcd, 
and locomotion becomes a struggle in which ho is 
conscious of wasted power, producing insignificant 
results. Helpless when tlu'own upon the ocerm, ho 
succumbs at once wlicn plunged beneath its sur- 
face. Hence it is not at all unlikely that he should 
consider tlio air as the vitJil fluid and the waler the 
abode of death. The landsimin thinks of the, con- 
tinent ns abounding with life, and rich with the 
. forms of beauty to whicli life gives origin, but lie 
thinks of tlio ocean as n waste, desolate and void. 
Of course the sliglitest reflection and knowledge 
would remove this o.xtromo idea. Our flshcrics, 
maintaining tiicir ground ns sources of wealtli and 
moans of employment, wticn the chase of all land 
animals has censed to be remunerative, proclaim to 
the economist, though ho be no naturalist, that the 
water, rather tlian the laud, gives sholtcr to living 
things. Nevertheless, few people snificiently recog- 
nise that the conr'orse of the common notion'is 
correct. Life is far more eiisily maintained in 
water tlian in air. Structures which could not 
support their own weigiiL in nir may he loconiotivo 
organs in water, urging tlie body to wiiich they arc 
attached— is true, but clleclively — throngb 
a medium whicli, tiiongli of greater resistance, 
presses equally on all parts. Delicate and feeble 
organs, which would in air, are floated 
fortli in water to subserve tlic touching, or even the 
.seizing function. Aloisturc. which is so necessary 
to almost all the organs, and to the performance of 
almost all functions, has not to be retained nnd 
husbanded with care nnd contri\unce, but ]a^•es the 
whole body. 

A s a st riking instance of t lie importance of tliis last 
consideration, it may be staled that tlie.rcspirntion 
of any animal can only bo maintained by liawng a 
moist membrane with tlie fluids of the body on one 
(internal) side, and oxygen on the outer .tide. These 
are the necessary conditions of respiration, ' and_ 

therefore of life. Now the water contains a sulficicnf 
amount 'of oxygen for the purposes of respiration 
dissolved in it, and the. other condition— namely, 
the moisture of the membrane which contains the 
nntritivo fluid of the, body— ^is maintained in the 
water-animql .witliout any contrivance whatever.' 
Hence tho exterior of flie body, or a lobe or leaflet 
protrnded into tljo wAter around, is, quite sufficient 
to enable water-animals to breathe. On I'and it is 

different. Tho higher animals must .have elaborate 

.contrivances to maintain the moisture of the respi- 
' ratoiy membrane. ■ It must be placed internallj', 
lest the external air nnd'wind should carry off the 
mohstiirc. It must be confined to small cavities, 

lest their large capacity should incommode the 

animals, and, being thus limited, the membrane 
must be folded elaborately to increase its 'area. 
In animals where these contrivances are not 
. found, or not found in efficient^ condition, life in the 
air is difficult to maintain. Such animals are 
always in danger of being dried up. Thus, the 
toad must keep to his dark, moist hole. , The, grey 
slug nci’cr comes out but at night, and the black 
sing .only atlcr rain. It is, in fact, .scurcely too 

Fig 10.— ExLsimm Section or Stem or OOrallium 
Bubrvm (Bed Cobai.). 

mnoh to say that the w.iter is both the home and 
•the. cradle of life. "Ndt only are all the lower 
anim.nls aquatic, hut the Ibwcr forms of-' many of 
the higher classes are so too. Both zoology nnd 
geology proclaim this fact. Life teems in the ocean. 


, Spanish wliep r begins a word, when' douhletl, and ' 




as there arc vowels or rliphtliongs ; as, qiiiri-ce, ' 
nor-te, pa-ricii-ic. 

In English, the wor<I quince forms onijr one 
'syllable; in Spanish it is prononncetl hamf-thay. ' 
Every letter in Spanish is pranounceil except the J, 
and the « in the syllables gne, gni, and qiic, qui. 
There me no silent vowels or consonants, as in the 
English words thumb, throne, jmlui. 


In .Spanish the voice never rests itself on any 
other letter of a syllable than a vowcL In the case 
of diphthongs and triphthongs, when in accented 
syllables, the aeoent is generally placed on that 
vowel which we have marked in the list of diph- 
thongs and triphthongs. Thus f/e-nc, having the 
accent on the first syllable, has the stress of the 
voice on the c of the diphthong, thonglrthc accent 
is not written over the vowel. 

In words ending in eliin, the accent is on the o, 
.and not on the / of the diphthong, ns marked in the 
list ; as, resic-rea-cton. 

Words Uint end in a consonant are accented on 
the last syllable, without any marked accent over 
it: as, caliz,, cup; eajiaz, able; virlvd, virtue. 
These are accented ns if written ca-tiz, rir-fuit, etc. 
Exceptions ■—.Vtirtes, Tuesday ; Viernes, Friday ; 
and proper names ending in ez. ns Perez. 

Words that end in a vowel are accented on the 
syllable next to the last, without any marked accent 
over It: .as, rnsfro, track ; hiifa, leaf; fttd/ra, vulture; 
accenlofl as if written riia-iro, bSi-tre, etc. 

Words that end in two vowol-s, whether their 
vowels form a diphthong or two sep.irate syllables, 
come under the .above rule: ns, mf/a, luitred ; ojm- 
Icncio, opulence; /Vlca, idea; accented as if written 
e-rf/o, tt-pn-lin-cia, i-^e-a. 

Words that end in a consonant, and are accented 
on any other syllable than the last, or that end in a 
vowel (or diphthong), and are aceeirted on any other 
than the syllable ne.xt to tlio last, have the accent 
nmrkcd to show tlio exception from the 
rales : its, otirccl, prison ; cavuctee, character ; ac- 
cented on tlio syllable marked. 

Words that end in two vowels, which arc com- 
monly known as diphtliongs, usnally Iiavctlic accent 
marked if it falls on one of the vowels; ns,/a>2<asia, 
pocsta, feiiorio. miuui. Words which end with y have 
the accent on the last syllable, without being marked. 

In compound words there are a few exceptions to 
the above rules. In adverbs of quality or 
uianner, ending in -mente, some follow the general 
rule, and others retain the accent on the first part 
of the word, on the same syllable on which it would 
be if - 2 «eB/c were not affixed: eu-ohi-ia-mente, 

succinctly; U-be-ral-min-tc, liberally. 

The plurals of' words retain the accent on the 
same syllable (whether marked or not) as in the 
.singular: ns, jardin,jarilines ; caliz, cal ices. There 
are two exceptions, cardeter and rUgiiiien; their 
plurals being accented caractcrcs and rcgimetics. 

The above rules iire applicable ,to all parts of 
speech except the .persons of verbs; 'these are 
accented nccoi-ding to the following rules :-r- 

The persons of verbs arc accented On the syllable 
next to the last, without being nmrked : as, hablt>. 

I speak'; they drink ; fifctem, he would make. 

-Infinitives, haying no person, are not included in.tliis 
rule, but arc always accented on the last syllable. 

In the case of persons of verbs, whenever the 
accent does not fall on the syllable next to the last, 
it is marked : as, cstd, he is ; hablarS, I shall speak ; 
hdblardn, they will speak ; amb, I loved. The only 
cxccptionrto tins rule is the second person plural of 
the imperative mood, and words ending in ay or ay, 
which are alw.ays aeoented on tlie last syllable, 
'n’iihoiit the accent in general being marked : as, 
hablttd, speak ye hacetl, make ye ; eetoy, I .am. 
Some 'writers, however, place the accent on the last 
fqrllable, as hablrid, haccd. 

Tlio nccent is by many writers marked on certain 
monosyllables to di.stinguish thetn from others of 
similar orthography and prommeintion, but oi 
different meaning: ns, cl, the, and il, lie ; se, him-' 
self, and se, I kno'U’, and si, be ; si, if, and si, 
to himself. Tlie letters «, to ; S, and ; <i, or; »f, or, 
arc also generally used with a marked accent, 
though some writei-s on)it it. 

Throughout tliese lessons, every word which docs 
not coiiic under the three general i'nlc.s of accentu- 
ation will have the accent marked over the vowel 
upon which the stress of TOice is to be laid. 

'The learner will now be able to pronounce the 
names of the Spanish letters of the alphabet, giving 
to each letter its true Spanish sound, according to 
the preceding directions :~a, be, ce, cJto. de, e, ^e. 
yc, ache, i, joia, ha, cle, die, emc, cue, die, a,J/e, cu,. 
erre, esc, tc, u, re, cqiiis, igricya, zeta. 


The comma, semicolon, colon, period, .etc., ,are‘ 
the same, and arc employed in the same manner, ns 
those in English. The m.arks of interrogation and 
exclamation are xfiaced in Spanish both before 
and after interrogative and ejaculatory phrases or 
sentences: as , camape no cs nncro? Is not. 
this sofa new 7 / Quo ceyvedad ! ; Fobre Mpana 
tVliat blindness ! Poor Spain I 

The diant 2 si.s (• ■) is used over the v in-thc syllables 
gue,gui, awe, and qwi when the ?< is to be sounded, 
as agilcTo ; and also over the .last of two vo-a-els 
which 'usually form a diphthong, to indicate that 


tlip physician. 13. Tlic Inisbnnds of the ilanghters 
of tlie jwlge. 1-1. The brotiiers of the female 

Xoiins sire diuded into proper nnd common, ns in 
English ; nnd to them belong gender, number, per- 

In Spanisli grammar, every noun is considered as 
eitlier mn,sciiline or feminine, whetherit really has 
any gender or not. 

The following ai-e the rules for distinguishing the 
gender ; — 

Xouns tvhich are the names of males, as well ns 
those which denote the ranks, offices, pi-ofcssions, 
or employments of males, are masculine : as,hombre, 
man; perro, rfoy.- rej’.Jiny; pintoy, jjainter; zapa- 
tero. sheemaber. ' ■ • 

Nouns which are the names of fcmnics, as well as 
those which denote the ranks, o.t*ces, professions, 
or employments of females, are feminine : as, muger, 
woman ; raoa, cok ; rcina, f[»een ; costuroia, »«»»»- 
otrena ; zapatera, shoemaker's wife. 

And of those which are not comprehended in the 
above rule."! •— 

Nouns which end in -a, -rf, -ioM, -Is, and -cr, are 
feminine ; ns, marca. mark ; locnta,/<*ffy ; soledad, 
snlitntle ; religion, religion; hipdtesis, hupothesis; 
timidez, tiiiii^Hg. 

Nouns which do not end in -(z,-(i,-<o»,-is,and -e:, 
are masculine; as, zapato, shoe; honor, honour; 
t6, -tea ; jnbon, soap. 

Nouns used only in the plural arc of the gender to 
which they would belong, from their termination, If 
they had a singular form. Thus, caizoncs, hreeehes, is 
masculine, and grevns, greares, is feminine, because 
eatson and grera would bo of these respective 
genders, from their termination. Eldrcs, fasces, 
and fauces are exceptions to this rule, they being 

There are some few masculine nouns 
having feminine endings nnd some few feminine 
nouns which end otherwise than in-a, -d, •ion, -is, 

Nouns ending with a vowel not accented, form 
their plural by adding s to the singular ; ns — 

Amigo, frUiul. Amitiw; /ricinli. 

There are a few cxccplions to the aboie general 
rules for the formation of the plural nouns : they 
are as follow ; — 

If the noun end with c, this letter is changed into 
-ecs to form the plural : as — , 

Jucz,jiii7sr, , Jiicccs,ftitf.«.t. 

If the noun end with e accented, the plural is 
formed by adding s.- as — 

Fmitapie, Ifdt. Pantapli!', tirtv. 

If the noun end with s immcdiatclj' preceded by 
a rowel not accented, no change takes idace to 
form the plural .- as — 

. HipAlrsIs, iiqialtiesis. niii6tc.<is, hypelhms. 

The following nouns arc irregnlnr in tlic formation 
of the plural: — SoEil, sofa; papii, po2)o, father; 
mamti, mamma; duo, diiiie; their plurals' being 
so/ds, papas, mamas, duces. 


In Spanish, nouns have but two oases, tbo nomin- 
ative and the ohjeciire—tho former being the agent 
or subject of tbe verb ; the latter the object of an 
action expressed by the verb, or of a relation ex- 
pressed by a preposition. 

There is no possessive case in Spanish; property 
or possession is expressed by tbo means of the pro- 
position do; as — 

El lifio do Juim, the sen of John ; i.o.. Mil's joii. 

La casa dolamugst, thehonsc of the Tiomnii; i.o., tlieiraman's 

El IllMO es do Marla, the hmh is of Narg ; I.o., the hook is 

One noun cannot serve as an adjective for another 
noun, as in English. Thus, such phmsc.s ns— the 
York road, a paper hat, anivoryspoon, are in Spanish 
to be rendered : el camino de York, un sombrero de 
papcl, nna cucliara de marfll ; i.o., the road if (to or 
Torh, a hat of paper, a spoon of iconj. 

Itcmas-k . — It is nooessai-y to mention tlmt of the 
few verbs for the present g^ven in the vocabulary. 


the hot .incl cold janctions was 1° Cent., and when 
the mean tcmperatnrc was aliput 20° Cent. (Vnom 
experiments by Dr. Matthicssen.) 


E.M.F. 111 


E.M.F. in 


Gold . . . 

- 1-2 

+ 07‘0 

+ SK-O 

- 3*0 

Bismuth .(^‘rystal 

Bisnuith (crvstni 

i + 22-0 

Co^rCpnro) . 

Iron ^ano wire) 

- OJ- 

Meroniy . 

Lead . , 

Tin . 

CopptT (coiniUCT- 
cial). , , 

, + 0*42 

Antimony im’s« 
tal a^sial) ' . 

•Ttillurhnn » 

- 26*4 

Flatinum j 

aelciiiiim . . 


In a thermo-eleotrio couple made ot any two of 
these metals, the direction of the current through 
the heated junotion wiU be from the higher to the 
lower metal in this list, and the E.M.P. generated 
will be — for 1° Cent, of difference of tchtperature — 
the difference between the figures opposite to those 
metals. An example will make'this clear. 

Consider a couple made of pressed commercial 
bismuth wire and pressed commercial antimony 

The figure opposite pressed comnieroial bis- 
muth wire is -1-97 

The figure opposite pressed commercial anti- 
mony wire is — ? 

Subtracting - 6 from -|- 97 we fet 103 micro- 
volts as the E.M.F. of the couple when the difference 
of temperature between tlie janctions is 1° Cent. ; 
and the direction of the onrrent tbrongh the hot 
junction is from bismuth to antimony, since 
bismutli stands higher on the list than antimony. 
When tlie numbers have both thfe sign -I- or both 
-. the'E.M.F. can he found in a similar manner: 
thus, commercial copper has — O'l, and iron piano' 
wire has — 17'3 ; \ subtracting — IT’6 from — 0-1 

curious results : For the first degree difference of 
temperature we will get a certain B.M.P. in the 
circuit; for the second degree the e.m.p. will he 
Increased, but not quite doubled; for the third 
degree the e.m.p^ will he further increased, hut will 
not he three times the original e.m.p., and so on— 
each degree increase of tempeiature adding on a 

certain amount of E.M.P., but the amount thus 

added on gets smaller and smaller as the Tempera- 
ture rises, till it has reached 273° Cent., when the 
E.M.F. in the circuit reaches a maximum. Any 
farther increase of temperature will now dimini-'h 
the E.M.F., and when it has reached 550° Cent, there 
will be no in the circuit. The temperature 
275° Cent, is known as the neutral point for copper 
and iron. If the cold junction is the same number 
of degrees’ below' the neutral point that the hot 
junction is above it, there will he no effective e.m.p. 
in the circuit; thus, if the. cold junction is at a 
temperature of 100° Cent., and the hot junction at 
350° Cent., or if the cold junction is at 270° Cent., 
and' the hot junction at 280° Cent., there will be 
no effective, and consequently no current 
generated in the circuit. On the otlierhand, if the 
hot jnnotion is a greater number of degrees above 
the neutral point than the cold junction is below it, 
there will bean, but in the reverse dircotion, 
and a current 'will flow through the circuit in the 
opposite direction to its 'previous course; this' 
means that the order of copper and iron has been 
reversed on the above list. These facts are repre- 
sented graphically in Fig. 74. In this figure the 


Fig. 74., . 

E.M.P. of the couple is represented vertic.'illy, and 


trantibus foitissimiim quodque animal contra mere, 
pavida et inertia ijiso agminis sono pdlnntur, 
sic aceriimi Britannorum jam iiridedi cejoiderant, 
reliquus.est nnmerns ignavoriim eti_ inetuentiiim. ' 
Qnos quod tandem invonistie, non resUtemnt, sed, 
deprebensi sunt; 110106311000 res et extremo metu 
torpor dcfixore aoiem iiidiis vostigiis, in qnibns 
piilchmm et spcctabilem •rictoriain edcretis. Trans- 
igitc cum expeditibnibns, imponitc quinqnaginta 
nnnis magnum diem, adprobate roi iinblica'e nnm- 
qiiam exercitui iinpuiari potuisse ant moras belli 
ant caiisas robellandi.” 

Agrieola's Tactics. 

35 . Et adloquente adlinc Agricola militnm ardor 
eminebat, et fiiiera orationis ingens alacritas con- 
eecuta ost, slalimquc ad arma discntstun. Instinctos 
riiciitesque ita disposnif, ut podilum niixilia, quae 
ooto milium orant, mediam acieiu flrraaront, eqnitnm 
tria milia cornibns adfnndorcntur. Legioiics pro 
vallo stetore, ingons victoriac deoiis cUraRomniimn 
snnguincm bollanti, et niixilium,. si pellerontur,. 
Britannorum acios in spooiem siinnl nc torrorom 
editlorlbus locis constitemt ita, nt primnm agmeii 
in aequo, cctcri per adclive jugnm coiircxi vblut iii- 
surgeront ; media campi covlunnrius o'ques strepitu 
ao discnrsii oomplobat. Trim Agricoin suponmte 
liostium raullitndhio veritus, no in troiitcm simnl 
et Intera euonnn pugnarotur, didiiotis ordinibiis, . 
qnamquam porroctior .aoius futura crat et arces- 
sondns pleriqvie Icgionea admonebant, promptior in 
spein et (Iriniis lulvcrsis, dimisso cqtio pedes ante 
voxilla coiistitit. 

Tiic Jlattlc am! Hie Defeat of the Cateilonlans. 

35 , Ac prime congressu emimis cortalmtnr ; simul- 
qnc Constantin, simnl arte Biitaniii ingentibns 
gladiis et brevibus oetris missilin iiostromm vitaro 
vel excutere, atqnc ijisi imignnm vim telornm snjicr- 
tiindero, donee Agricoin Batavonim coliortcs ac 
Tiuigroinm duns ooliortntiis,ul remad mncronc.s 
no maiiiis nddiiccrcnt ; quod et ipsis vetustate 
niilitiac cxcrcitntiini et lio.stibiis inb.-ibile, pirrn 
scuta et enormes glndios gcrciitibiis ; nani Britan- 
noTiim gladii sine mncroiie complexum armorum 
et in arto pngnam non tolorabant. Igilur ut 
Bnt.avi misccrc ictu.s, ferire iimboiiibus. ora fodere, 
et stratis qui in aequo ndstitcrant, crigcrc in colics 
neiem cocpcrc, ceterne coliortcs acmiilntionc et im> 
pet u cqniiisac preximos quosqiic cacdcrc : nc pleriquc 

Boraineoes nut integri festinatione victoriae relin- 

queb.-intur. Interim equitum tnrmac, nt fugcrc 
covinnarii, peditum so proclio miscuerc. Et qnam- 
quam rccCntcm ton-oreiii intulerant, densis tnmen 
hostium ngminibiis et inncqiinlibus locis hacrebnnt.; 
minimeque eqiicstris jam piignac facies crat. 

cnm.aegre' clivo instantes simnl cqnornm corporibns 
impellerentur ; ac saepe vagi oiirrns, exterriti sine 
rectoribus eqiii, ut quemque formido tuleratj trans- 
versos incnrsabant. ' • ' ' ■ 

XOTES TO TACITUS (coitrintinl). , 

Cliap. IXXL— iVr (tiieedis. " By eonscrlptloiia.’ 

Bmmforlmmeriiie. Forlumc is licroiiscd in s concrete ssIl^o, 
just as tlie cognate word' usually is 'in Eiiglisli. Tlio 
• expression is rcrtumlnut, as /nrlunae adds lint little to tlie 
meaning of teim. Similarly niter eta anus means nothing 
more lliaii "erops." 

EmiratsHdls. Jtiaunirciiicans "to defend" and so "to iiinhe 
passable." Ilcro It has one meaning with sffi'is, and a 
slightly. different ono with pnliidilius.' - Translate, “hy 
dcariiig forests and draining stvdinps.” 

Manetpinm. In Iloiiinii law viaiiciplim Is a formal, inclhoit 
of sale, in which tlie object sold is taken in the hand 
alidtlic money wciglicd out. .lleiiee inaueipiuat comC'. 
to menu that which is sold i.n 8ecanl.uico nltb'tlils 
custom, ami particularly a “slave." 

ScrrUulem. Concrelc, not abstract. ‘‘Britain Is pureha-.iiig 
every day. and every day is feeding lier own blaMo,." 

A'ai-i nos et rites. "lVe,as]stc comers and wortliless slaves," 
' It shqnld bo remembered that tliroughout the siieecli 
Galgamis is ic|<re.sented ns contrasting ibc Calcdonlnni., 
iiotnithOaiilb or Teutons, but with the other tribes ol 

'Fmim tiller. Ilcrc Boadleea Is referred to. 

Chap, xxxn.— tVodris lUmmMhut ne lUKarDth. Tlio<e 
words must be taken with ci'iri. " Panions through our 
qiiniwls and discords." 

Alsi. Tills clause Is ironic.'il. " Unless (ns, of course, you 
don't)," etc. 

■Avt mlltt pItriiipK jmtrla tint itiio rsf. The Roman army 
containeil ninny roroignors, iimny Britons even, ns was 
explained in a prciious chapter. Alia menus "otlici 
than thiV f.c., •• cue far distant." 

Jfbsints wasus. "Our own troops." 

A'fc oiiirquain ultra /braiidf'iis. '■ Be.mnd tlicre is no cause 

Semmmlmiiie, The able-bodied had itikcn the llrhl: ihe 
colonh-.s were left in the Immls of men loo old for active 

Cliap. XXXni.— Ereeiirn: ornlloiim. That .so polished and 
eloquent a speech should ho roecired with disconlaiit 
shouts is ‘not. a little rcniarknhlc, and the statemeTit 
cmpliasiscs the unreality of the speech which Tacitus 
lias put into the mouth of the Caledonian leader.' 

Jam^ie aginim, cic. " Now the line foriiicil mill tliere was 

£tpo ffnesA. Tlie conquest of Brit.siii, says Agricoln, Is m. 
longer a nintlcr of hearsay or report.- He, with his 
army, lias nilvaiiecd farther than Ids predecessors, and 
holds the countiy hy force. 

In agMine. " On the iiianih." 

Qianidoactcs. " TVlicn will be the lottlc ?" dcics, as yon 
Imvc already Icanit, mean's an army ilrami up in battle 

I'eln rirfnsjiiF I n npcrtc. " Voiir wishes and bravery has-e'an 
open field." , , 

In/ronlcm. "So long.ns ive present onr front to the foe.'" 


[s force*;, and attciirlcdiliiai with Siuposiiig cflbct 'vrlicn tlicm, anil one iiildurtiikhiff the navigation, '.they anapccledninl 

by sea and land the «.w w.aa npgcd. In tniUi, tha same pnl to death tlio oUii'i- two! .As tlic attempt was not yet 

|) often conlaiued tlie foot and the horse and the marines, divolgcil, tlieir hinncliing into the deep helietd as a wonder, 

iisly sharing Uie saine meats, acrctnlly magnifying their Anon, having landed for llic imrpose of getting w-aidr and 

ihats, tlielr own 1mz.srds .sad ndvenlnres, end they com- seizing the necessaries of life, and having cngnged'willi many 

il with a aoldicr'snrrog.iiice, now llie depths of monntaiiis Britons, wlio defended ihelr own prniicrty, tliey freqnenlly 
forests, now the onlnsges of wovee .and tempests ; here iirovcd vretorious, end were soiiioti;ncs defentc*! : tliey were nl 
..exploits by tend and against the foe, ilierethcvaiiqnlshed last reduced to want so pressing ns to leed npnn one another, 
nconn Upon the Britons also, as froin the enpUves svas fiislnpoiithc weakest, then ii]s>nwhniMSQeier the lot fell. In 

learnt, the sight of the llccl Imniglit iniich conalernatlon and this inniincr Uicy were cniTicd round .iliout Britain, and liaving 

dismay; as if, now that their solitary ocean ami reoesscs of lost tlieir vessels thiuiigh Igiiomncc liow to luaiiage tliciri. 

tlic deep were dlseloscd ainl invaded, tlio Inst refnge of tile they were nccoimtrd rolihers and pimtes, and fell into tlie 

Iinlshcd was out on; To anus llie soverai ivinplis Inhabit- bauds llrst of the Sncvleiis, aftornanls of the Frlsi-sns. Ifn.v, 

UaU'donln had inimorliato, and advancing with as thej- were Imiiglit and sold for sliivas. some of tliem.tiiroiigli 

it jntade, made aiill greater bycninninn niinonr (as usual rhimgeofinnatcrs.wcTebrnnghtovertooursidcnf IheBhinr, 

linigs Hint aic nnkimwii), assailed onr forts nnprovuked, and were rendered famous froili tlie discos-ery of an nds-eiitnru 

m.ntcd mneii fear and niami as issuing the ehallenge. so extraordinary. 


Sing. 3. xi-<r-ni * or-«ie. 
Snal. 3. \i?-<r-otTov. 

3. Kv-tr-alTriv. 

Pbtr. 1. ' 

2. \v~tr-aire. 

3. Au-ir^oiei' or -eiai'. • 


CZilv the 

Sctwul Perfect. . SecoTulAorisL-rStem 

Sing. 1 . . 1. Xm-ot/u 1 ’ (LOx^ 

(_Litc the 1st- Pesffeet.'i 2. AiVoir f Opt.Praent.) 


Presell < 4 — Stem Au-. P'irst Aarisf.— Stem \v^ir-. ■ 
Sing. 2. ^S-e, Imisc ihiitf, ctci XD-(r-oK,*?oim-<7i»»,eto. 

3. \v-tTu. " kusAru. ' ' 

Puah 2. Hv-erav.* Hi-ir-aToy. 

3. \veTuy, 4 ^u-ir-driuy. ■ ' '»’ 

Phir. 2. J^v-fTe » - Xd-s-ars. 

, 3, XU'^T^travOr-tlvTUi'. Ku-a--dTaray'or ‘dprair* 

'After lie. hns lc.imt .to recognise the .connection' 
and dcrivatiou-of llio several parts, and so/formed 
some idqa of the perfecii simplicity of the whole, ho 
should commit tho/fentire paradigm to memory, and 
not pass on 'until he -has 'accomplishc’d the task. 
He- will -find that the. effort will he more than com- 
pensated by the gain. • 

It is customary in Greek grammar to give four 
parts- of the, -verb as- the principal parts, or those 
parts from u;lnch the others may be formed — viz., 
the Present, the Future, the Perfect, and the Aorist. 
The- connection of the other pacts with these four 
is shown in the table of stems- given above. ' ThLs. 
may be seen in the following .examples-r-nw, f 
honour ; fiov\(ilm, T adeise ; and Xoi!», Z wash : — 
Praeiit. ' ■Future. I’er/ecl. Aertsl. 

tIu. rhra. ' TE-rJKa, friirB. 

JSsuXemu. PuvKuvaa. P^SaiKeuica'. • ePoiXeuaa. 
■hsriw, AotVii).. . ' Ki-kouKO. , ' i\ousa. 

First Perfect.— Stem Ac-Au-a-. 
S(«y. '2. Ae*Ai/-K-e.* 

8. ht-kv-K-irv. 

Pnal. 2 . Ai*Au-k-etov. 

Piur. 2. A«-Ai-«-eTe. 

3. Ae-AicK-ETOffav or 

Secotul Perfect. . . 

. ... 

Second -rlorist.-iStem 

Sing. 2. Aiir-«.l 
(X//a! the Present 
Pmperattee.y • ' 

Here we hiivo the same parts in-their 'stems : — 
Fm-SUm. ' FnlmtSum:- ' Per/eitSlcm. Aorist i'Unu 

TI-. TKT- TU-TIK-.' . ' i-TIO-. 

fiovKuu-. ■ Pouhsve-. fis-ScivKcvK-. i-'BoUksva-. 

-Aov-. ’• Kove-. A«-Aow/f-. 'i-\ow-. 

From these the’ other parts arc readily forined. 
■ Take T«r- as ah example : — 



First Aorist. 
First Perfect. 
Second Perfect. 
Second Aorist. 

Ati-«ii', to loose, to he loqsinff. 
Ki-o-etv, to be about to loose. 
AO-ff-oi, U\ loose, to hare lotised. 
Ac'Av-k-c'i'u, to hare loosed. 
vs~^ii-v:i-vai, to have appiared. 
Aia-e'v, to leave, to have left. 


Present. A^-oir, loosing. 

Future. A^'C'er, about loosing. 

First Aorist. Av'-tr-or, having loosed. 

Fir-st Perfect. Xo-uv-k-us, haring loosed. 

Second Perfect, m-tpno-ds, hai'ing appeared. 
Second Aorist. Xin-iiy, having Irft. 

The connection of tie parts will beepme obvious 
if we pnt the stems together. 

' ' STEMS. 

frajwi/ret Fiitim. First Aorist. First Perftcl. 
. All-. cAii-. Auff-. eAiicr-. AeAuic-. 
First riojmfia. Stxonil Prrfccl. Smmd PluiKrfiet. .iseooa Aorist. 
eXoXvK-. weipiii'-. twe^v-. &nr-. 

The fir-st thing which the student should do is to 
make himself familiar with the stems. Having got 
the stems, he will easily acipiirc the rest,' . ‘ '. 

tAt-w, Tto-otpi, Tie-eto, rio-oii), triir-ct, • rltr-aifu, 
rTe-gi, riir-as, etc. ' 

What these parts are the student must learn from 
the paradigm. , 

He may'be assisted in becoming acquainted with 
the verb in different ways. Let him, with that 
view, study this table of . 

VOICE. . ' " 

Singvlar. ' Puat. ' Plural. 

0!l-pS,-p, -hrOVi-TITO 

Ind.Imp'erf.'-op,-«r, -s. -erov, -rrvo. -oust', -eve, -or, 
1st Aorist. -o, -or, -t. -ktov, -btjjh. -a/ior, -aro, -ar. 
Pluperfect, -p, -ns, .-ci. '-evov, - 6 T 7 )v. -ffiev, -sToj -souv 

Optative^ J -«i«, 

Pres, andl _ ■ 
Perfect. J; 
Aorist. - • -«i 

inconsiderable length, 
verses. It is founded 

.diiction of Boccaccio, cal — — , 

being one of the chaT.aoters, and is the same' story 
which has been told in the play of The Tneo Nbhlc • 

. KiHsmcti. The Squire's tale is suited to the cha- 
racter of tlie squire. It is a wild story of love 
and enchantment, probably of Oriental origin, and 
only h.alf finished. Tho Man of Law's tale is the ' 
pathetic story of Constance, borrowed by Chaucer 
from tlie “ Confessio Amantls " of Gower, as it had . 
been by Gower from earlier writers. The Doctor 
of Bliysic tells the Homan story of Virginia. The 
Briorcss relates the charactcristio story of a little . 
Christian child murdered by Jews, and of the 
miracles that followed his death and revealed the 
crime. The Clerk's tale, one of tho most pathetic 
talcs ever .told, is tho story of Patient Grisclda, 
since made familiar in many forms to all readers, 
but then told in English for the first time, being 
the last talc in the “ Decameron." 

Among tho storio.s of tho second class, the most 
humorous perhaps arc those of the Miller, the Prior, 
and the Canon's Veoman ; but tho first and second 
of these, like most of Chaucer's humorous talcs, arc 
much too coiirsc to suit tho taste of tlie present 
day, tliough their morality of thought and xmrposo 
is nlwiiys pure and true. Tho Parson's tale is of a 
class by itself. It is in prose, and is, in fact, a 
sermon or moral discourse. 

Tlie following powerful description of tlie Temple 
of Mars and its decoration is taken from the Knight's 

And doHiivnrd on a Iiil under a lient,' 

Tlier stood tlie Tcininil of Mnrr Amiypotcnt, 

WroiiRlit nl of burned steel of which thenlres 
tVns long niid strej't, .ind pnstly for to sec. 

And Ufercoiit c.unc n rape niid sneh a prise,* * 

That It inndc all tlic pates for to rise. 

The iiorthcii light In nt llio dorc .sclion, 

Itir 11 Indow on lIio walls lie was then noon, 

Thnnigh tho which men might iiu light ilisceni. 

Tlie dores were nlle ndcmnimts* cteme, 

I-clenclicd nrritliwnrt niid endeinng* 

With iron lough ; niid for to make llslroiig 

Brcry jiilcr the tcinpiil to siistciiie 

IVns tonne greet, of iron bright nnd sdicne .' 

Tlicr saiigli I ili-st tho dnrl: yinagiiiliig 
Of felony, and nt the cominssyiig ; 

Tlie cniel ho, ces rad ns cny glecdc;r 
Tlie plkcpiirs,' nnd cek tho pale dtedc ; 

The siiiylcr with the laiyf under his clola: ; 

Tlie schipiic lircnnyng’ with tho Make smoke ; 

Tiio tresoiiii with tlie imirtheryiip in tlio tied ; 

Tlie oiien woitos, wilh waiindcs ill bi-bicd 
t A hend— Hint is, a slope. 

» The entry. This cuntiuetloii Is very coinmoitln Chancer, 
s Fiess or crowd. * Spark. 

•* Adamant. • Fiekpiirso, Uilof. 

s Across and along. » Sliiiis burning. 

“ Bblning. lo Bled, covered with blood. 

The nayl y-drovc in the achode"> a-nyghf; ' 

.1 Tlie ooldo doth, with nioiitli gapyng upright. 

■ Amyddes of tlio tcinpiil snt inlachnimco; 

With sory comfort .mil ovcl contciiannco 
I saiigh woodnesu laughyng in Ida rage : . 

Armed complaint, oiithces,» and llera outrage. 

Tho rarroigncis in the biisalic, with tlirotc yKuirvc ; 
A thousand slain, and not of qiialinc y-storre 
Tim llRiuntc, willi the proyx by force y-rnfb; 

Tlio toivn desirolcd, tlicro was no thing laft. ■ 

Tot snngh I hrento the schiiipes hoppestorc.s ;*! - 
The hnntc= strangled- wlth“ Uic wild bores : 
Tlib-sowc frclcne* the child right in the cradcl ; 

Tlio cnoke i-scaldcd, for at ids longe ladcl. ' ' - 

Kought hclli foipctcn the infortnne of Mart ; 

Tho carter over-ryden of his cart, 

Under the whet tlilloivi! lie lay adotin. 

• Tiler wer also of Marts dlvisioun,M ' 

Tlio h.irhoiir,*e and the Imirehcr, nnd the sniyth, 
Tliat forgeth scimrpe sivcrdcs on Ida stltli. 

And nil nbovo depcyntcil In n tour 
Saw I conquest silting In gret liomiur, ' 

With tho sehnrpc sword over Ids heed 
Uongyiigo by n sotil tivyiio Ihrecd.a' 

‘ Chaucer's was a. complete human nature — os’eom- 
plcie ns Shakespeare's, tbongh with less of philo- 
sophical depth and stately enrichment, 'rbo poet 
of the “CnntcrbntyThlcs’' has the simplicity of a 
child, combined with the knowledge of n man, 
Though a scholar nnd nn accomplished writer, his 
treatment of tho joys nnd sorrows of human life 
has in it somctliing elemental nnd primitive ; yet 
ho could depict society like a courtier and a man 
of tho world. Though his chief work was never 
completed, it remains a noble monument of tho 
genius of n great Eugiishman who died more than 
a century and a lialt before the fulness of tho 
Eliznbctlinn age. 


'n'ith the death of Chaucer and his few eminent 
contemporaries the first period of English litera- 
ture closes, nnd it is succeeded by a period' of 
literary- deartli. Tho last half of tho fourteenth 
century was, ns .we have seen; in England, an age 
of national unity and national glory, of religious 
1* Contention. i* Shrieking. , ' 

w Menace. Heart's blooil. i* Hair.- 

“ Driven Into tlie hair— f into the iicnd. _ ■ . 
w Mnaness. '• Outcry. 

“ CjUTion, corpse. , 

»> Kot <!caa of disease. To storve or stm-c Is to die. , 

*1 "Sciilppos iioppcsteres*' is probably tlie, dancing ships 
ftom the motion of n sldp on tho nni-cs. 

“ Hnnlcr. , « With Is frequently used for Iii/.' 

, Dci-oiiring. s* Oftlic company, the nrmy of Mors. 

The barbcr-snigeon. 

» Tho referenco is to tIic>word of D.imoeles. 




9 proi^ood^ da ^ladame, X^cetitl^'^et .d 

m du iils.du peo^cu^; s'fitait 

demettro quelque 

a - faisant etaiim devenu pour Jacopo I’objet cVnr 


clamps ( 

each couple when the gas is full on is about '03 
volt, and its internal resistance about ‘005 ohm ; so 
that.when the rings arc all joined in scries 
The E.3i,r. of battciy = -'!> voUr. 

Internal resistance of lialtcry = -29 ohm. 

With rings connected in parallel 

Though the E.S.F. is small for such a large 
number of couples, it must not be forgotten that' 
the internal resistance is also small, and though for 
general work it cannot be said to be economical, 
still there are many situations in which it might be 
used with advantage. The facts that it is only 
necessary to light a jet of gas in qrder to start the 
battery working, that there are no acids used, tliat 

described, hut., their airangement is somewhat 
different. The rings .are built up over a coke 
fnrnace, and the heated gases have to pass up 
through the central tube T, down the flue o, and 
up through P. before escaping at A. The external 
vertically-arranged sheets D are of copper, and help 
to radiate heat from the ' cool junctions. The 
battery -contains 6,000 elements joined up in series. 
• It is about 8 feet in height, and 3 feet 3 inches in 
diameter. It has an e.ut.f. of about 220 volts when in 
full working order, and a resistance of about 30ohms. 
Its consumption of coke is at the rate of about 



a conplc of arc lipl.t', bat it i*; not efSckct. onlv 
about 5 jitr rent, of tlic energy in tbe coke b^ing 
convertctl into energy in the form of current, Klislst 
!la jtcr cent, of the licnt is waited. 

A certain arnonnt of Micce*-*. lia® been acli:<*»r'l 
by ItcbicckV mndincation of Xoe^ reittery. The 
tlierino-jKi'-itive eiement is an alloy of rinc and 

antimony, and tlie negiitive one is Gcrman-sslvcr. 

The Irattcrr contains 20 couples in series, arranced 

nidially round a common a.Tds where a single 

JJun-sen gas-burnor is pbiccd. One set of junctions 
are thus pkieed on t!io inside and the alternate 
OI1C.S on the outside of the b.attery. The single 
Bunsen fi-amu is sulficient to heat the junctions 
arningcd on the inside, wliilst those on the outside 
.-iro well situated for radiating "VVlicn the 
flame i.s full on, the E.M.r. of the battery is about 
2\t volts and the rcsisttincc .about -75 ohm. Two 
or throe of the,-e batteries arc convenient for 
elcctro-plnting on a small scale. 

The battery of Markus attracted considerable 
.attention when first brought out, though it has not<1 the expectations that wore formed about 
it. Both elements arc alloys, having the following 
compositions : — 

Tlicrmo-positivc clement, 

Antlumuy ... IS parts. 


tOrlir. esJ /rr-. p. S--.J 

.tm.iCATiox or!ir..t ti> of;oMm:v. 

2?1 . It is often c vjiedir iif io mr.fcc use of nicobraical 
notation for expre.--inp the rdatien.s nf gf-'jir.e‘hc.-il 
quantities, ami ‘o tlirow tiie !rrvctiil "■tej'-! of a 
demonstration into the fonn of equation^. By Ihi.s, 
the nature of the njisoniiig is not altererl ; it is 
only translated into n dillerent iarffuasc. Signi 
arc substituted im rrerrfs. but they arc iiitcndod to 
coiivQ' the same meaning. A great part nf the 
dcmon<.tration.s it' Geometry really consist of ti 
scries of equations, thongli tliey iii.ay not be 
pre.senicd to us nnder the nigcbmic forms. Thus 
the proposition that Hie 
turn of the three angler e/ 
a triangle is'cgual io tmi 
right angles, may bo de- 
monstrated cither in 
common langucge or l)y 
means of the signs used 

in algebra. a i> j> it i 

Let the side A B of the rig. j. 

triangle ABC (Fig. 1) bo 

producetl to n ; let tlic lino n i: be tlmwn p.arallcl 
to AC; and let c ll I be a rigiit' angle. 

The demonstration in worrls is as follows: — 

Ji!'<mutli ... 1 „ 

Thormo-nogalivo rlcmcnf, 

. Copji.T .... 10 ports. 

Zinc tf „ 


One set of junctions tire fiuttcncd to an iron bar, 
blit; insulated from it by mica, and the other setaro 
immersed in wnter. Heat is communicated to the 
alternate junctions from the iron bar.- The i:JI.F. 
of each couple is about -Oo volt, and the resistance 
is a variable quantity, owing to the fact that the 
elements easily oxidise at the contacts and increase 
the rc.sist.ancc. 

Wlien it is considered what enormous strides have 
been made in almost cvcr.v bmncli of electrical 
engineering witliin the p.ast few yc.irs, it is singular 
to note how small is the development that has 
taken place in tlicrtho-clectricity during Uie same 
time. Tlie immediate cause is due to the fact that 
no two of the commoner metals lie snfliciently far 
iipart on the tliorrao-oleclric scale to give a fairly 
high E.M.r. witliin ordinary ranges of temperature, 
wliilst those that would give a rcnsonablc E.JI.F. 
are loo rare. jV p.-iir of alloys, however, might be 
found wliich would give n high E.11I.F. combined 
u-ith icasohablc, and it is in thU direction 
that wo must look for further development ol the 
thermo-electric battery. 

(1) Thc angle ebb is cgual to the angle 

(Euclid I. 20). 

(2) The angle CBE is egual to the angle A c n. 
C3) Therefore, the angle ebb added to cue— 

that i.s, tlic niiglc cbb — is cqttal to BAO 
added to A c b. 

(4) If to tlicsc cqu.als we add the angle A bp, 

the angle o b B added to A b c i» cjimf to 
B A C added to A C B and ABC. 

(5) Bat CBB added to ABC is equal to twice 

a HI — that is. to two right angles. (Euclid 
1. 13.) 

(6) iTliererorc, the angles bac and acb and 

ABC arc together equal to twice G II I, or 
two right angles. 

Xoiv by snbslitnting the sign -f for the word 
addal or and, and the sign = for tlie word equal, 
we slmll have the same demonstration in the 
followii^ form : — 

(1) By Euclid I. 29, E B D n A C. 

(2) And c B E = A c B. (Euclid I. 20.) 

(3) Addfng tiie two equations, ebb -k CBi: = 

BAG -b ACB. 

(4) Adding ABC to both side.s, CBD -f- ABCar 


(6) Blit by Euclid I. 13, cnD-{-ABC = 2cnE 
(C) Therefore, BAC-fACB-bABC = 2oni. 


By comparing; one by one, the steps of Uicsc two 
clemonslriitions, it will bo scon that they are prc- 
jisoly. the same, except tliat they are differently 

It will be observed that the notation in the 
example just given differs in one respect from 
that whioh is goiierally used in algebra, E'lcli 
quantity is 1-opro.sentcd, not by a xhtgle letter, bnt 
by eercral. In common nigebrn, when one letter 
stands inimedialcly before another, ns ab, withont 
any ohariictcr between them, tliey arc to be con- 
sidered .as vniHijilied Ingolher. 

Bat in Geometry, A n is .an expression for a 
xlnfflc limi, and not for the product of A into B. 
Mult.iplie.ation is denoted either by a point or by 
the sign x. The product of An into CD is AB.CD, 

There is no iinpropriely, however, in ropre-senting 
a quantity by a single letter. Wo intiy 
make h stand for a lino or an angle, os well as for a 

If, in the example above, wo put the iuiglc 

nAC=/<, ciiD=y, QUi=i, 

tho demon.stratlon will stand thus: — 

(1) By Euclid I. 2!), <t = J. 

(2) And c =rf. 

(11) Adding the two equations, a -h e=f/=li d. 

(•1) Adding It to hot h sl(le.s, y + //=r fr + «f + 7». 

(5) Bv Euclid 1. i:l, a + h =21. •' 

(C) Tlioreforc, b + d + k=2l. 

Tliis notation Is apparently inoro simple thtui tlio 
other; but it deprites ns of what is of groat import- 
ance in geometrical dcmonstnitions— a continnnl 
and e:i.«y reCorence to the Ilgurc. To distinguish 
tlio two nicthoils, eapUaU arc goiiemlly used for 
that which is peculiar to Geometry; and small 
Icltera for tlial wliicli is proiK:rly .algebraic. 

„ If a line, whose length 

is measured from a given 
jKiinI or line, be con- 
• siderod jmsilire, a lino 

A proccciling in the vjijh’- 

*' ® site direction must be 

considered iicgaiirc. It 
An (Fig. 2), reckoned 
from D E on the right, is 
positive, A c on Ihc left 
Fig. 2. is negtilive. Hence, it 

in the course of a calcu- 
lation the algebraical value of a line is found to be 
negative, it must be measured in a dircefion oppo- 
site to that whicii, in the same process, lias been 
considered positive. 

In algebraical ' colcnlalibns there is frequent 
occasion for nmlti].tlicaUon, divisie/i, involntien, 
otc. 1 But -liow, it may be asked, can geometrical 
quantities be multiplied into each other? One of 
the factors in mnltipUcation is always to bo con- 
sidered as a wiimler. Tho operation oonsisls in 
repeating tho multiplicand as many' times as there 
nre -unite 'in the mnltiplior. How, then, can a line, 

.a surface, or a soUd., bceomo a multiplier 7 

To explain this it will be necessary to observe 
tliat whenever one gcometrioal quantity is multiplied 
into anotlicr, some giariicular length is to be con- 
sidered the unit. It is immaterial what this lengtli 
is. provided it remains the same in different parts 
of tlic .same calculation. It be an inch, a foot, 
n rod. or n mile. If, for instance, one of the lines 

110 a foot long, and tlio other half a foot, tho factors 
will he, one 13 inches, and tho other fi, and the 
product will be 72 inches. Though it would bo 
nb.snrd to say that one line is to be repealed as 
often as another is long, yet tlioro is no impropriety 

111 saying tliat one is to be repeated n.s many times 
as there arc feet or rods in the otiicr. This tho 
nature of a c.ulculation often requires. 

If the line which is to bo the nmltiplier is only a 
jiart of the Icngtii taken for the unit, the product 
is alike part of the imiltiplicnnd. Thus, if one of 
tlic factors is 0 inches, and the other ImlC an inch, 
flic product is 3 inches. 

Instead of referring to the measures in common 
rise— ns inches, feet, etc. — it is often convenient to s 
fix upon one of tho liiio.s in a figure as the unit witli 
wliich to comimrc'all the others. Wlien there .ire 
a number of linc.s drawn wltliin and about a circle, 
the radius is commonly taken for tho unit. This 
is particularly tho ease in trigonometrical calunla- 

Tlie ob.ocrvvilions which have boon made con- 
cerning lines may lie a])plicd to surfaces and solids. 
Tliere inny be ocoavion to niifiliply the area of a 
figure by tho number of inclics in some giron Hue. 

But hero anolhur dilliculty prc.scnts itself. The 
product of two lilies is often spoken of as lieing to a surface; .and the product of a lino and n 
surface ns equal to a solid. But if .a lino has no 
breadth, how can the mnltjplication — that is, the' 
repetition — of a line produce a surface? And if 
a surface has no tliickncss, how can a repetition 
of it produce a solid ? 

In answering these inquiries it mnst be admitted 
that nic.asurcs of length do not belong to the same 
class of magnitudes with superficial or solid meas- 
ures, and llmt none of the steps of a calculation 
can, xiropcrly speaking, transform the one into the 
other. But though a line c.antiot become a surface 
or a solid, yet the several measuring units in common 



use arc ■=o nfLi^iiril to cnch other that 'CTinTcs. cubes, 
etc., are Iv.rialc'l hr lines of the sain- name. Thus 
tlio ?i(le oi !i .'•riimrc incli is n inch : tiiat of a 
sqtiarc rot-, a linear ro'l, etc. Tlie Jenjffi of a lir.rar 
inch i.s, tlicreforc, the same .a.' the length ori-rcanih 
of a squate ir.cli. 

If. then. .'-e\cml square indies are phaccil tc- 
ETCilicr, .as fiom Q to r. (.Tiir. 31. the xuMler of 
tliem in the ikirUIpI- 
o-mm o E is the same a® 
the nnmbor of linear 
inches in the side QE; 
and if ■ore knoir the 
length of this, we linre, 
of course, the area of tho 
parallclogRini, which is 
liere snppoi-ed to be one 
r.P ,a, ' inch wide. 

Bat if the breadth is 
several inches, the larger parallelogram contains as 
many smaller one.s. c.ach an inch wide, as there are 
inches in the whole breadth. Tims, if the parallel- 
ogram AO (Fig. 3) is fl inches long and 3 inches 
broad, it may be divided into throe such parallol- 
ograms as o K. To obtain, then, tho aamber of 
squares In tho largo parallelogram, we have only to 
multiply the number of squares in ono of tho small 
pnrallclogranis Into tho number of such parallel 
ograras contained in the whole figure. But tho 
number of squ.nre inclic.s In one of the small 
]inrnI1oIogTnms is equal to the number of linear 
inches in the le/ifftfi a. b. And tho number of small 
parallelograms is equal to the nuniher of linear 
inches in the hreadth BC. It is, thoreforo, said 
concisely that the area rif a jiaraVctagram is egval 
to its length iir.iltijiHed into its Ircadth. 

IVe hence obtain a convenient idgcbmical ex- 
prcs.sion for the area of a right-angled parallelogram. 
If two of 'the sides perpendicular to each other arc 
AB and nc. the cxprcssionforthcarcaisAB x bc; 
that is, putting a for the area, 

a=AB X nc. 

It must bo remarked, however, that when A B 
•stands for a line, it contains only linear measuring 
units ; hut wlicn it enters into the expression for 
the area, it Is supposed to contain snjicrjicietl units 
of tile same name. 

The expresMon for the area may also be derived 

by another method more simple, hut less s.atisfactoiy 
perhaps to some. Let a (Fig. -4) rcprcscut a square 

indi. fnot. rod, or ntitcr maos-aring rniii. and let h 
ami / bc two of its sidc-s ; also, let A be tho area of 
any right-angled p.ariinelngram. B it's breadth, and 
J. it- lengfli. Then it is evident that, If tho breadth 
of each weip tlie .-amt. tho .areas would bo a.', the 
lengths; and if the bmetli of each were the same, 
the arcn.s would lie as the breadths. 

Tliat is. • A : <z : : I, : when the breadth is given ; 

And A : IT : : B ; e. wiicii the length is given ; 

Therefore, A .a : : B x L, ; d x 1, when both vary,- 
That is. tho area is sis the product of the length and 

Hence, in solving problems in Geometry, the 
toi m product is frequently substituted for rectangle ; 
nnd whatever is there proved concerning the equality 
of certniii rectangles, may be .applied to tho product - 
of tho lines which contain the rectangles. 

B * ■ • 

rig. S. Fig. 0. 

The area of an olliguc pairnijel'ogram is also 
obtained by multiplying .the base .into the per 
pendicnlar height. Thus* tho GXjppession for the 
area of the parallolograin a‘bk» (Fig. 6) is 
JIjrx.VD. or abxbo. For.AjfxBO is the 
area of the right-angled panilldogrnm a bos; 
nnd by Euclid I. 3U, parallelograms upon equal 
bases nnd between the same parallels, are equal; 
that is, A B C B is equal to A B M. 

The area of a square is obtained by multiplying 
ono of the sides into itsc\f. Thus the expression 
for the area of the square AC (Fig. 15) is (AB)®; 
that is, a=(A B)®. 

For the area is equal to A B x B c. 

But A B = B c ; therefore, ABxnc = ABXAB 

The area of a triangle is equal to half the product 
.of the|hase and height. Thus the area of the 
triangle A B G (Fig. 7) is equal to half AB into G H, 
or its equal B c; that is. 

For the area of the parallelogram abod is 
A B X B c ; and by Euclid I. 41, if a parallelogram 
and a triangle arc upon the s.ame base and between 
the same parallels, the triangle is half the parallelo- 

Hence, an algebraical expression may be obtained 

for the area of any figure wh 
byrightlines. For every sut 

Thus, the right-lined figi 

■ The area of the triangle 
That of the triangle 
That of the triangle 
The area of tlio whole figur 


ivorwhicli is bounded As a ^trface is expressed by the product of its 
figure may be divided length and breadth, the contents of h solid may be 

expressed by' the product of its length, breadth, 
ABODE (Fig. 8) is and depth. ‘ ^ -• ---j 

. of solids i! 
o side of a cubic inch is a sq 
a cubic foot, a square foot, ct 
Iict A BCD (Fig. 3) represent the ba 
irallelopipcd, five inches long, three ihchi 
id €me inch deep. It is evident there m 
any cubic inches in the solid as there ai 

B inch the side- 



EXiUtPLE i . — A vrotcrfall is to be utilisctl for elec- 
tric lirfitiuj:. Tlie engineer who is sent to inspect 
the place and report on the powef arailable. finds net 
the following: data : — ^The waternt one place flows in 
a straight rectangular channel, the width of which is 
4 feet, and depth of water 2 feet, the average velo- 
citv of the water being 2 feet per second. If the 
available fall is 20 feet, the turbine watcar-wlicels to 
be used h.itc an cSicicncy of 60 per cent., and the ■ 
dynamo an cScicticy of SO per cent., neglecting 
other losses of energy, find how many GO-watt 
, incmndcsccnt lamps may be supplied (the weight of 
I cubic foot of water being taken as G2-4 lb.). 
The flow of water is 

4 X 2 X 2s3Cculiiefe^t perj>Mondt 

3= 16 X iiO cubic feet minute, 

and the weight of water jiassing over the fall per 
minute is 

Ifi X eo X 62-4 lb., 
which falling 20 feet give 

16 X 60 X OJ-4 X 20 =11,580,000 ft-lb. every minute, 
hence the power is 

therefore there are only 363 x -43 or 174 horse- 
power available for lighting purposes. Since 746 
watts are equivalent to one horse-power, there are 
— =: 13‘4 lamps lighted per horse-power ; hence 
the total number supplied is 174 x 12-4, or about 
2.157 lamps. . ■ , • • 

•IVe do not say 'that the method of measuring the 
flow of water here indicated -is at all accurate. 
ProfcEsot J.' .Thomson, of Glasgow University, 
discovered a very simple and accurate method of 
measuring the quantity of water fioiring in such a 
case as that just given." The water to bo measured 
is allowed to flow over a V-shaped notch cut in a 
board, as shown in Fig. 42, the notch being of the < 
shape of a right-angled isosceles triangle and - 
'having sharp edges. The only measurement re- ' 
quired is the height, 7/, of still- water level above the ' 
lowest point or angle of the notch. Tf this height 
is measured in feet, then the quantity of water, in 
cubic feet, flowing over the notch per second is 
.obtained by raising' the mimbcr- cxjrressing- this 
^ight to the fifth poveer, extracting the sgnare root, 
■and multiplying the result by 2-645. 

Example 2. — ^The method above described was 
employed to measure the flow of water in a certain 
stream, A being 1-3 feet.- I.f. this .water drives a . 

turbine water-wheel of GO per cent, efficiency, the ■ 
fall being 20 feet, find the power given out by the 
turbine. Answer, G-ii3 horse-power. 

In connection -witU tlie subject of power it is 
often of great importance to be able to calculate 
the power required to propel a vehicle, either along 
a level or up an incline of given slope. Usually 
the force or xiull neecssary to move the vehicle 
along a leecl road is given, this force - being 
generally stated a® a fmetion of the weight of the 

vehicle; for instance, the resistance — ^whioh is 
equal and opposite to this force— of a traincar 
varies &om 20 to 30 lb. per ton of its weight, 
whilst for a good railway it is not more than 8 or 
9 lb. per ton for moderate speeds, the road being 
level in both cases. If tlie vehicle is merely drawn 
along a level, the work done per minute is found by. 
multiplying the distance it goes in feet by the total 
tractive force in pounds. If the vehicle .is drawn 
up a hill, the work done may be divided Into two 
parts ; the first, that done in overcoming tractive 
rcsist.mcc's ns on the level, and the second, that 
done in lifting the whole weight of the vehicle, 
through the difference of level between its first and 
last xmsitions. A few examples will make this clear. 

Example 3. — ^Find the power necessary to 
propel a tramcar weighing 5 tons along a level - 
road at the rate of 5 miles an hour, tractive 
resistances .averaging 22 pounds per ton. 

•Here the force resisting motion is 
5xSS = lI01b; 

The car moves 

S X 6,280, or 26,400 l^et ei-eiy hoar, 
or 440 fi!ot every iiiliiute, , 

- hence the work done per minute is force X distance 
^ = 110 X 440 tt.-lb. 

and the jpower rcqnif ed is 

- ' horeo-pon-or, nearly. 

The iiower required to start Hie car would, how- 
ever, be considerably in excess of tins. ■ 

1. He comes from the riding-school, and not &om 
the garden. 2. From Hamburg to Paris is a hun- 
' dred and ninety French miles. 3. Hoes he come 
from' the shop? 4. Do you come from the play? 
S. No, u'e come from the hall. 6. The fomitarc of 
hfr. Hall has been sold by his heirs. 7. TVliore do 
these gentlemen come from 1 8. Some letum from 
the chase, others from 'walking, and these latter 
from fishing. 9. .Hero is the money -which has been 
sent to me by the father. 10. This depends on the 
mother, and not on the brother. 11. The transition 
from -virtue to rice is far shorter than from -rtce to 
vlrtne. 12. I expect an answer from John ; he has 
betn already three months in London. 13. William 
has returned to-day from Paris. 


The preposition in denotes being, continuance, or 
m'otion in tic interior of a thing. It also denotes 
any kind of motion or penetration into it. The idea 
of existence in a time or in a, certain eoadition, 
particnlarly in a certain state or dispotUian of fie 
mind, likewise requires the use of in. The prepo- 
sition a, on the contrary, merely expresses presence 
near or aiout a tiring, or motion, approach, and 
tendency fo 'it. For example: — 

£jin inti iriaT-di-na, in qatlta cd-ne-rn, in elUa, inpiaz-at, 
' he is iu the garden^ in that TOoni| in the town, in the 

tt’oH an-drA in JrSpdgoTutf he will go to 

England, to Spain. 

JCi:! nit-le seHe cSn4o, In the year irOO. 

€eosi\ Crl-sto nde^ue in Jesm Christ washom 

In Bethlehem. , 

Jm-rnSr-genTe 4-tio ner'r4-<9ifa, to plnnge -one Jn tiie 

.i-ie.o, ndc-Qne il Kenton, in the year 
in which Galileo died, Newton was bom. 

The words ci-sa, cir-te, pa-idz-so, fed-tro, Ict-te, 
and seuS-Ia have a proper or original and a figurative 
signification. In the former case they demand the 
preposition in( in the latter, the proposition a 
(-withont an article) before them. For example : — 

tplt h nO-Ia tir-le, ntl pa- He le In the court-yenl, In 
Us-a>, in ledtm. In Ut-to, in the pelecc. In the theetro. In 
<4eu<.ra,{ne(i-». the bed, In the school (t.e. 

building), in the house. 

£ptc i It t6r4e, a jm-lds-a, a He Is nt court, at Gulldhull, 
(ta4ra, a I2t.<o, a seuMu, a at the play, elck in bed, nt 
ed.^ school, at home, 

J-B ri-do nH-la tenie, net 1 go Into the court-ysid, In- 
pu-tde-m, ml M-(rc, ml Ut-to, to tno palace, Into tdio theatre, 
tnA-las«id-?a, ntl-Ia cd-m. Into the bed. into the scliool 
(tr. bunding, Into the house. 

J‘OV&*doatdr.le,tt.pat&i-so, I go to court, to Guildhall, 
a <nl-lra, a Ut-to, a emS-la, a to tlio play, to bed ({.e. to 

cd-su. sleep), to echool, home. 

In addition to these uses, in has some indefinite 
meanings, whioh will admit of several prepositions 
or adverbial expressions for the purpose of trans- 
lating them into English. For example: — 

Ifo-mi-ud-n, di-re gudl-riie ci!s-o in In-ti-no, to name, say 
something In Latin. 

Spo-rd-re tn Dt-u, to hope in Ood. 

PoT-td-n suiSl'Che c£-<a tn dos-n. in tisla, in cCr-pn, to 
cany sometliing on one's back or slioulders, or about 
one's self, on tho head, on the body. 

Coa-fic<d-re in li-im cra-ce, Ibstcn or nail something to a 

In ms mo-vtn-do ds’ td-yli dooht i ni-i, turzdng towards me 
the laya of Iier beautiful eyes. 

Vi-do in a ri-edi-fo il pSpo-lo, he saw the people rebelling 
agaipst him. 

Caor-dd-re in li-no, to look at one. 

lld-n gudl-cAs cSsa in da-no ad ii-no, to give one sometliing 

■f-glt e.m gui in wiat'i-ildn-le, lie was hue fin? this Jn au-re.iii.ra, to Ihture, far tlis future, henceforth, 

xnoinent. , * . Jn/re^fa, in a hurry, hastily. 

he lies In the agonies of death.* ' • /n /ac-cia, to one’s fUce. 


jJmiii, year {fl Jior tlicy liavc goiio 
ilfgUauniuTiltir out. 

e(n, tlic bloom of i^;aFc,floircr, bloom, 

yoiitli, flowcf of iirinic. will be iiriiited. 

lifi!,i>riiiicafouc's /'reHii.liiistc.btinT. Side, you ni^ 


aiaio, ScoUnw.. . 


iiy,o; 7 -iim*ff£-t*o-lc la tbom imboily? 
ema^^-ijni-a, f. €e ntf-uc-ito i 
Angur, ciU-ie^u, f. ICpy,, f. 

iiiui, ilon-n ; 1 nly. clraiober. 

'e lunmio, Jjtllo, bcil. . TriIto, tbeotrc, 
ia nobody. I (Bimc yilny house. ' ' 

*' — ’ — before him. 7cm]M, time, l(a- 

CttMiwym, coniitry. 

1 found mu®. w< 

l/Riio, f., liund. 

ircAia, Turkey. 

OlUtifItC, UCllBT. 

Copacila, ability, jVe, me. . . — ~ 

talent, skill. Siforu onn amentlite, gone there. 

Carnam, eoacli, both died.- Fiamfo, journey. 

carriage. Om, hour. ricfiK), m.. nleiiKi, 

Cor/a, f., iinper(car- Oslerla, public- f., nelghboorine, 

topeniRi, vellum). bouse, tavein, Inn. conttguouL ad- 

Cattem, miger. Plttaa, market- aoinhig, adjaeent. 

Capfn, f., abun- ninco, squaic. I 
dance, plenty; Pialt, font, log 

j_ . (piiuta del pietir, 

irt-yurd. end or point of 


, ntiou spent in tlio 

cticbia, fcitelien. tltoroot,{.e.,toe}. countr.r («s*erc fn 
A onduto, ho is Porto, port, harbour. vinemUiliim, to 


Jf partito. be has 
departed. u'“ till 


Translate into English : — ‘ 

1. £l-la h ndl-la stdiiza vi-ci-na. 2. S6-no qui-si 

In p&r-to, 8. iS-gli in i,u-stria, in I-tfi-lia, in 
cam-pS-gna, in vil-leg-gia-th-ra. 4. l6-gii -ra nd 
giar-dl-no; in qn41-1a cii-tne-ra; in EMin-cia; in 
cam-pd-gna; in 1-scd-zia; in Tur-clii-a. 5. l^gU 
' 6 nel oor-ti-le, ndl-la cu-ci-na, n61-la oan-ti-na. 0. 
& nn-dd-to in chil-sa, in cit-tsl, inpidz-za, inted-tro. 
7. A-bi-td-Tainqnel-lacd-sa. S. Lotro-Td-iinl8t-to. 
!). An-t8-nio 6 in c61-le-ra con me. 10. Be no pdr-la 
■ in tdt-ta la oit-fi, 11. ]<: par-ti-to in fr6t-ta. 12. 
Vi h an-dd-to in car-rdz-za. 18. £s-si s6-no sor-ti-ti 
in qud-sto pun-to. 14. A-d8s-so si8te nel-le mi-e 
mu-ni. 15. Lo pre-ce-det-ti in pfin-tn di piSdi e qni 
I'a-spgt-to. 16. 1-0 mi ri-p8-so n41-Ia ca-pa-ci-t4 
di mi -0 fra-tdl-lo. 17. Al-qu-an-to cd-jne se no 
stam-pe-nln-no in car-ta pe-co-ra. 18. Voi si6-te 

Kitchrii.m-.. ...., 
Castle, oi-sUl-lo, ni. }Inii, uo-mo, m. 
Cellar, can-U-ua, f. jlroii-., tiifc-ci, tn. 

Find, Ird-rn-ao. Play. gliiS-eo, in. to. 

Fine weatlier, bet Room, ed-iae.m, f. Unfortunate, 
-- — Shell we go to take -ii-ce, ui. 

oiirbicnkfiist? re- U'e iliubst ird. 
yliii-mo •• 

Has gone oo 

E.^£RCISB 16. 

Translate into Italian : — 

1. The unfortunate find consolation in hope. 2. 
Yonr sister is not in the room, she must either have 
gone into the kitchen or into the cellar. S. Shall 
we go to take our breakfast in the summer-house 7 
4. In an agreeable company time passes very ' 
quickly. 6. Is nobody in the casUc 7 - 6. Ho, tbe' 
steward has gone out (in') this moment. 7. You 
have had fine weather for yonr journey; 8. Yoii 
will have in this note the count’s direction. ' 9. He 
hid tbe key in that sideboard. , 


ITben the preposition mitli denotes company, 
society, union, community, connection, or when It 

ihe instrument or means by which si 
thing is effected, it coincides wi;th the use of con in 
Italian. In the former case, -the -words tofftttJier 
with, besides; to, or similar ones, and in the latter 
the words by means of, by ayency of, by dint of, by, 
through are frequently equivalents of with, and are 
translated by cOTi. Eor e-vample: — 

An-ii-re nd/ra-fcHo, to go n-itli Uie lirotber. 

&-sore, std-rc con.d-iio, to be ivitb one, to belong to one ; 

i.«., to one'i. IhiiiR]-, comiuiiiyi etc. ' ' ' 

Cmn-lat-te-re col iie.iiii-™, to figlit with tlio cnoniy. ' 


hnndsomcbook. T. My motlior hits Timight this hat. 8. Thy 
brother has seen this line carrlngo, 9. Your Jittlo brother is a 
goad child. lC..This watch is very good. 11. ^ia beantirtal' 
’•ing Is for this child. 12. My nncle has .a son aii4 a daughter. 
13. We Imre received a iiresenL 14. llavcyon'wrlttenaletter? ' 
lli. My sister has received a fine e.ap. IG. Bast than also sold 
thy carringot 17, This present la for your aunt. IS. My 
dauijiiter is very tall. 10. This father has abcautlllil daughter. 
20. Tills child la my son. 21. The gnrilcn thatl have seen Is 
very large. 29. My father has lost his hat and his umbndin. 
23. Our uncle has sold Ills beautiful carriage. ' , - 

Ex. ID.— 1. 1 tempi d'ndcssononsonoimigliarl. 2. Eglisieta 
iiascostn iiclla stanza di dlctro. 8. La nostm eittii ha nn ]iontc 
111 pictrii, la vestra ns ha solniiieiife lino dl Icgiio. 4. Ednanlo 
ha rieeviito da Londra nn orliiolo il'oro, ana spada d’argcnlo, e 
un palo di flbhic d'oeeiaio. S. Una volta si portavono dcgliabiti 
di panno'e de’ gilt dl volinto. a. I.’uso dal vasi di ranio e stato 
proildtc in Svezia. 7. Cliosignitlcaqiicsiosuflnodlcnmpniic! 

B. Clic dito del iianiio elic lio coinptatof 9. Essodhoonoo 
ilno. 10. B del mlore? 11. Bfflo c hello. 12. Ecco dicci 
famceia del talfeU che volevate avere, e doilicl famecia della 
tela Intistd che nvetc doniandat.s. 

Ex. 11.— 1. I have sent the letter to John. 2. To shoot at a 
bird. '3.TIiCJncrcIinntthinkaorprollt, 4. From words they 
came to blows, a. To whom have yon shown it! to Peter or to 
the cousin? 0. IVhntnrcyonthinkiug of? 7. 1 am thinking of 
thofiilure. 3. Shall no soon arrive at Ihe next post? 9. Hu 
ran Immediately to the door. 10. Be spoke ton stranger. II. 
He provoked him to anger. 12. Bis conversation becomes 
tedious to me. IS. Be reckons It a dishonour. 14. Uberallty 
Is Imputed to him ns a fault. IS. TJicy were at tlio chase, 
the wedding, the dinner, the supper, the ball. HI. 1 shall go . 
to a ball to-morrow. 17. Tlioygo for .amusement; to taken 
walk, IS. Jjdl ns go to the coffee-house. 19. Which is the 
way In the post? to the enstem-honse? 29. Be is at Berlin. 


[Conllimed /rnm p. 299.1 


In the Inst lesson vre saw' that sound is the result 
of vibratory motion, and Hint it is made known to 
ns through the sense of hearing duo to the action 
of Uic tremors in the air on the minute nerves of 
the internal car. We saw, too, thot sound may be 
of the kind whichwccallfioisdiOr itmaybezvroirca/. 
It is very diflicnit to dcfino tho exnct lino of demar- 
cation between the two, for noises which are them- 
selves unmusical may blend with others so as to 
produce a pleasing olTcct, as the tap of the drum or 
the clash of cymbals j and oven the roar of the traffic 

in the great city m.ay become mellowed by distance 

into an agreeable bum. Hhc commonest source of 
non-musionl sounds is the shock of bodies striking' 
together ; friction, electrical discharges, and explo- 
sions of inflammable substances also furnish irregu- 
lar sounds of particular kinds. Sounds of the large 
and more distinct class, in which the vibrations are 

of a TCgnlar kind, are of more interest to us, and in 
this lesson we 'propose to discuss some facts con- 
nected with the production of such sounds. ' 


We have already, refcn'cd to one of the commonest 
sonrocs of musical sound!;, vis., vibrating' strings. 
These have been crajiloyed for the production of such 
sounds in nearly all countries, and from a very oarly 
Ijeriod. If the string is uniform in thickness and 
textnrcand jSa8iiie,its vibrations maybe tranooerse, 
longitudinal, or torsioTial. Transverse . vibrations 
are tho most usual and of greatest interest.'. This 
mode of vibration may bo studied ‘with the help of 

the tonometer or monocliord, which is shown in 

Fig. 10. 

It consists esscnti.-illy of a single wire or cord,^ 
»i «, the length and tension of which can, be varied. 
One end of this is flxccl to a peg at the extreme left 
of tho instrument; tho other end passes over a 
pulley, andyluts a number of weights suspended 
from- it, by moans of which the tension can bo 
altered at ploaBiiro. Two bridges, m and », arq 
placed under the cord, one nenr each ond; tbeso 
form its virtual cxtromitlcs, and rest upon -tho 
hollow sounding-box wliich forms the bnsc of tho 
instrument. When tho w^ro is sot In vibration, tlio 
pnisations are convoyed through these bridges to 
tlic .sounding-box, and tlias to the body of air con- 
tained in it. In this way tho power of tho sound is 
voiy materially inbreased. 

If we wore .merely to suspend tho cord from n 
fixed hook, pincing a wciglit at the lower end to 
keep it stretched, and then to .set it in vibration, wo 
should, easily discern its vibrations by tho eye, but 
scarcely any sound would bo produced, as there is 
no .vibrating body to which its motion would bo 
imparted. In tho sonometer the cord vibrates in tho same way, bat the soiinding-box enables ns 
to hear os well as to see tho vibrations. 

At the back of the instrument is a scale, on which 
the distance between m and n is divided into one ' 

hundred equal parts, and a movable bridge, o, can 

be placed at any part of tills, so ns to toucli the 

string in any required place, and dnmp-its vibrations 

If now wo remove o nltogcthcr, and pluck tho 

string in the centre, or draw a violin-bow across it. 

we shall obtain a sound which is tho fundamental 
note of tho string, the' whole of which will bo 
thrown into vibration, as . shown at a (Fig. 11). 
Now place the bridge, o, .at the diviaon of thoEc<a]c 
marked 60 — ^that is, midway between m and n — and 
excite one division of tho string by means of the - 
bow, as before. Both parts will at once be thrown 
into vibration, and the cord wiU present the appear- 


Torsional viVralions.'—^SiesiAes the two.modcs of vi- 
bration referred to above, the string may also vibrate 
vdth a torsional motion, which can be made evident 
by attaching a ring with a papm- flier to the o6ntre 
ofthestnng. When the 
string is plucked or 
bowed, the fiier.rotates, 

, showing the, 'torsional 
motion. ,Dr. Stone— to . 

' whose excellent- little 
book on' spnnd .■we 
are much indebted ^ 
— mentions the diflOi- 
oulty attending -the 
production of grave 
tones by enlargii^ the 
sectional area of 'the 
string, owing to ,the‘ 

■ sounds introduced by 
the torsional vibrations 
of the string. 


Pig. 12. Here again we have 

the three kinds of 
vibrations, the transverse being of greatest Import-' 
anoe. When a rod is fixed at both ends and 
caused to vibrate, it behaves like a string- 
vibrating in one, two, or more segments, but the 
rapidity of vibration differs' from that of a string. 
Thus when a string is divided into tmo segments, 
each of these vibrates twice as fast as the whole 
string would do, whereas a rod in a similar case 
vibrates with a rapidity increased in the ratio of 25 
to 9 ; with two nodes and three segments the ratio 
.is 49 to 9 ; three nodes and four segments 81 to 9, 
and so on. 

A rod fixed at one end has already been referred 
to. It gives a nnmbcr of 'vibrations which is - 
inversely as the square of its length; and notes 
may he produced, the period of the gravest tone 
being the time occupied by a pulse in travelling 
fotir times the length of the rod. 

A common application of this mode of vibration 

mnch grater- than in the case of strings ; they arc, 
therefor^ lest noticeable than in strings, and on 
'account of .the comp.Trative jiurity and simplicity 
of its tone it is mnch used in researches on sound. 
The note produced has, however, the 'great dis- 
advantage of rapidly falling off in intensity, due to 
friction. •■'When placed on 'a sounding hoai'd or box, 
. as shown in tiie last figure, the note is more snstained. 
Electric and other methods have been devised by 
which the fork may he kept vibrating for a length of 
time. Tuning-forks are also jnnoh' used in experi- 
' ments in other departments of physics.' 

• The only example of the application of longitudi- 
nal vibrations in rods wbich'we shall notice'is'that 
furnished by Marloye’s harp, Tig. 18. ' It co^ists of 

a nnmber of deal rods ' standing vertically .on an 
obbqne-sbaped sounding, hoard, into' which the 
lower extremities of the rods are fixed. These rods 
are caused .to -vibnite'by rubbing them in a.longitn- 


25 of tin. ‘ TJjo supposed good effect prodneed by 
the nddition of a little silver seems to be purely 
iniaginni^'. A section of a boll is shown in Pig. 18. ' 

Musical glnssca, selected so ns to form ronglily a 
sort of scale and tuned by being partially fiWl 
witii water, have been used, to produce music, 
being excited by rubbing the edge with tlic wetted 

Meeds and organ Those can best be con- 

sidci'cd . together. Heeds consist of elastic pieces 
of wood or metal 
usually fixed at one 
end and -vibrating at,, 
the other. Heeds are 
usnally divided into 
two classes, five, and 
beating or sMlting 
reeds. In the latter 
the reed overlaps the 
orifice, wlierctts in the 
former it vibrates 
freely between the 
edges of the opening. 
Jlost orcheslnd reed 
instruments, and all 
tile older forms of 
organ pipes, have heat- 
ing reeds. 

Vihrattons of eel- 
limns of air in jiljvs . — 
In wind instrumcni.s 
the confinol colniimof 
air i.< the sonr>rou>. 
body. It is confined 
in a pipe usually of a 
eylindrieid or pri'-ma- 
tie shape. 'Jlie air i< 
set in vibration by im- 
f pinging on a ridev- 
Tii;. :i>. .shaped piece or on a 

One very common form of organ pipe is shown in 
Kig. Ifi. The followingconsideral ion will explain tlie 
action of air in an organ pipe I5y holdiiigany tuning- 
fork to 1 he Jiioiith of n pln.«s jar, ra- tula*, of fiiUMc 
length, it will bo noticed tliat the sound is great 
erea.sed. Now remove the tuning-fork, nnd.liolding 
t lie t ubu to t liclips.blow across its open mouth; a note 
will be produced which will be found to be exactly 
the .same as that of the tiiniiig-fork. The rush of 
tlio air across the open month cansc.s a inirober of 
dilferent imlses, of wliich the tube selects tho’one 
which i.s in most perfect accordance with itself, 
and increases its power. Hy taking different 
tubes, and blowing ncros.s them in this way, we 
Bhiill find that in each exactly the same note 


is produced as that tittered by a tuning-fork which 
Tcsotmds in unison wiUi the tiibo. 

By blowing more violently we shall obtain a 
note considerably above that first heard, and by 
blowing witli still greater force wo shall obtain 
notes suoeessivoly higher and higher. If the' 
number of vibrations corretponding to the funda- 
mental note bo represented by 1, -we shall iind 'tlmt 

rig 50.. 

these orertones, as they nro called, arc rcprc.'Bnlod 
by the odd nmnbers 3,’.’i, 7, etc. If, for in’slnnce, 
llie riindamcnlnl note requires 100 vibratioiis-in a 
weoml, the next note above it that can bo obtained 
froin.llic same pipe is jiroducod by fiOO vibrntinns, 
ill tlicsame time. We Ctiniiol. make' tlic pipe utter 
any intermediate nutc,n.s, for instance, one witli 200 
or 23(1 vibrations. 

By examining the condition of tlio nir inside the. 
tube, we slmil la> able to under.stand tlic]i of. 
this. We .sliall find tliiit the lioltoni, or closed ond, 
of the tube is .always n node, while the inoutli cor- 
re.sponds to a ventral segment. 

Wlien the fulidnmentnl note is sounded, tlic 
lenglli of tlie sound-wave i,« just double that of tlio 
lidie : the motion of tiic air in wliicb i.s represented 
at .\ (Fig. 20), being merely a single pulse up and 

Now, .T.swe blow nion- violentlj', a node is formed 
in the tiilie, and sinoc tlic nuiiith is a vcntnil seg- 
ment, and the iKitlmn a nmle, the second node 
must clearly bo onc-tiilrd of the way down the tube, 
a.s shown at a. 'ilie pid.sos in thi.s case will be as 
rcprc.seiiled in tlie abcrc figure at B. TIic node a 
iiKiy indeed be considered .as n thin layer of air rc- 
roaining quite motionless, while the air between it 
anti the next node, which in the case ntidcr con- 
.sidcration is the bottom of tlio tube, pulses alter- 
nately backward and forward. 

A very good proof of tliis .statement is aiTorded 
by filacing an organ-pipe on .a wind-ohest, and pro- 
curing a sm.all nicnibrnno slretclicd over a ring of 
sucli a size as to bo capable of passing up and down 
tiic tube, which, for this experiment; sliould Iiavs a- 


state of vibration. The laws' for tbe. vibrations, of 
strings are not, however, followoci by these so-pallsd 
vocal chords, for no string so short could produce 
so low a note ns those of the male voice. They do 
not follow the laws of a pipe, but approximate more 

Fig. 23. 

closely to the conditions of a free rood. It is not 
necessary to refer farther to this matter here, as 
tliero is a considerable doubt as to the exact action 
.accompanying the production of certain notes by 
the lumian vocal organs. 

The indefatigable Dr. Koenig, of Paris, who has 
.already been- referred to, constructed an apparatus 
by wliich rariationsef prcssKrcAvja tothevibraUons 
of a column of air in pipe produce visible effects on 
burning gas-jets. Three small gas-jets arc fixed at 
delinito points in an organ-japc, as shown in Fig. 2,3. 
The gas which supplies the jets is separated from 
the air in the pipe by a thin membrane, and when 
the pipe is made to " speak,” the ilarac at a node is 
violently .agitated, whilst that at a ventral segment 
is hardly affected; sliowing there are much 
ere.ater changes of pressjire at the nodCj and that 
thenir at a ventral segment is almost in the same 
condition as that outside. K the flame is reflected 

on to a revolving mirror, it presents the appearance 
of a serrated or wave-like h.and of light. The same 
mirror may be employed for two pipes giving, say, 
a note and its octave, and the serrations will he 
fonnd to he twice ns numerous in the one case ns in 
•the other. 

• The resnlting image for a note and its octave are 
shown in- Fig. 2i. The reader will understand.thc 
reason of the prodnotion of such an image by con- 
sidering tliat if the. mirror remained at rest the 
pulsating flame would appear in the mirror simply 
as it appears when looked at directly. If now the 

mirror has a motion at riglit, angles to the direction 

of the piilsations of the flnine, the combination of 

the two shows a continuous serrated band of light 
on .account of the persistence of impressions on the 
retina of the eye. Owing to the diCSoulty of rotat- 
ing the mirror at n constant speed, delicate investi- 
gations involving important quantitative results -.are 
best carried out by a riSrnfisy instead of a rotating 
mirror. And" such .was adopted by Professor 
Herbert McLeod, of the Hoyal Indian Engineer- 
ing College, Cooper's Hill, and Major Clarke, K.E., 
in important experiments on Inning-forks, the 
8i>ccd of mliohines, etc.. Those results — 
published in the Proceedings of the Boynl 
Society 'for 1877 and elsewhere —were, 
with groat kindness, placed at our disposal 
by Professor McLeod, and wo •will de- 
vote a short space here to this interesting 

It is evident that if the image of a point 
of light ho observed in a aihrating mirror 
att.ached to a tuning-fork or reed, the image 
of the point in the mirror will appear as a 
str-aight lino. If, liowever, the linninntis 
point moves in n direction at right .angles 
to the pl.ano in which the mirror vibrates and 
parallel to the plane of themln-or.the two straight- 
liuc motions will produce a sinuous or wavy image ; 

Fig. '21. 

the dimensions of the waves depending on the ainifli- 
tude of the vibrations of the fork, and on the rate of 
motion of the point of light in relation to the period 
of the fork. For instance, if equidistant points on a 


revolving; di^c nre Tien'ed in the miirer, and if the 
rate of the di'-c is such that the tune occupied by 
a point in travelling over the distance between 
two coiiseontivo points is equal to the time of one 
complete vibration of the fork, a continuons 
stationary image such as that shown at <t Eig. 25, 







The following specimen of (iescrij;tlrc Tntmovr 
requires the ‘-lively movom'ent ” in its rate of utter- 
ance. The voice is, in this instance, acfelcraicd 
hegond the rate cf serioiit ebmmunication. in any 
form, although it does not possess the rajiidiUj wbicli 
belongs to the escited style of lyric or dramatic 
poetjy, in the most vivid style of humorous mtpres- 
sion. This lesson- combines, also, an esempliRcation 
of “moderate’ force and “middle” pitch. Thu 
' object in view in the practice of such exercises as 
this is to gain animation aad hrisiincss in utterance. 
A lagging or drawling tone Is utterly incom- 
patible with humorous delineation. JTcra rapidity, 
however, will not succeed in imparting liveliness to 
'style : the utterance roust bo slotv enovgh to be dis- 
tinct, and spivitcA- 


Tlic renowned Woutcr (or ‘Walter) van T» illor was descended 
fhim a long line ot Batch hmgomaef cts, wlio had stiecesslvnly 
dozed away Uicit lives and grow n fat upon tlie bench of magis- 
tracy In Rotteidara, and who had comported themselves nfth 
each singular wisdom and propriety that ttiey were naver cither 
heard or talked of— which, next to beingniitversally applauded, 
bbonld be the object of ambition of all ages, magistrates, and 


in belief, anil not ■ , It elianccd Uic plodding icuher of n eeliool,— 

- , . Aminorwhlm', bold, lecklcss, yetno fool,— 

El Hi' EiflifS fi'nil. LrKli'^lcsi-s.ttfEns’i'*(HfE> 

Lji-* rnsICM>, lit I.ngliTl. ( 

Un liomlro feapotaMe, a «sj»ftalJr matt. 
Unu fcIlcMait apnri'iite, cii oj>jwrc«</KcI<jt. 
- Slalaa obias, or oLna ntaba, Va<i mrls. 

Acljoctives in Spanish are as a rale i>!nccrl 
after the nouns tvjiich iliej- qualify, thongh some 
gencriillr come before the noun; and some can 
precede or follow the noun, according to the taste 
of the -nTitor or speaker. Thus, 

G-iu'ral, Pobiv, poor. , 

Gniinlo, jivti'. Jlico. licit 

Urriiiflvi, Koliii-.lii. lobiiw. 

^nU6i liifi! ji 

ElEq^Mniin, He iu"|IjI?"vVtc Son^'re' 

Es, f*.’ • ’ ploilc. ’ Telirl'KWii, .olooliiy, 


iuiiijpagci Tret, three, 
t'mmie. VonlaJ, inith. 

Undo, preltit. Vlvjn, iM. 

_ Los Tnraanles niii- Y, aiul, ' 

Faloi,' Mfc, ■ de- ?”> 
etiVnl, • ««. 

Some ndjcollves and adjective pronouns drop the 
' final o in the masculine singular (but not in the 
plural), when they are placed before the noun, but 
never tvlion they arc placed after it. These are : 
uno, a (or one); .algunol saaic; ningnno; none"; 
■ primoro, /?«(■,• postrcro,,7ari,- torcero, thlrHj bneno, 
good I malo, lad f ns, 

Algan fnito, eow/rutt. 

tin buen hotnbre, nr nii tiniutin bnenoi a gooi man. 

‘S.'into, saint, when prefaed to the name of a male 
person, drops its last syllable ; ns, San Pedto, St- 
PiStcr., .Ciento, Attntfra/f, when it immediately 'pto- 
cedcs a noun, masculine or feminine, drops its final 
syllable ; ns, oien sirbolcs, Jttmdred trea ; but, ciento 
y dos ilrbolcs, hundred- andtten trees.- GmT>dc.grcat, 
large, generally Joses its final q-llnble when the 
noun to which'it is prefixed begins with a consonant ; 
as, gran poder, great ^pancr. TVhen grande does not 
^ mean sixe or magnitude, but good qualities, (7ran 
is used if the noun follow it. Thus, gran hombre 

ris used for the conjunction and, except before 
words beginning with i or hi, when £ is used. ‘ 
Exeroise 6.’ 

Translafo into English 

, 1. El camino es estrccho. 2. La casa es espa- 
ciosa. 8. Las mngcrcs son sob£rbin.s. 4. Lc^ 
Xngleses no tienen diccro. S. Las Inglcsns no 
tienen bnmbre. G. Los EspnBoles no tienen sed. 
•7. Las Amcricannssonhormosns. 8. Loslibrosson 
nnevos. 9. X7n buon general os el alma de un ejfir- 
. cito. 10. El Erances es pobre y EobC-rlfio. 11. El 
itmSgo del mGdico es ignorantc. 12. El jnes es 
slibioyrico. lS...Lnl6ngna=falnz*nonmalo verdad. 
14. Los Americanos nman dincro. 15. Los hijos 
del pintor son fuertes y robustos. IG. Los pobres 
tienen hambre. 

Exeboise G. 

Translate into Spanish 

1. The Eronchman wrote letters to the Spanish 
woman. 2. The Amerioaus nre friends of the 

means, a-great man : and grande hombre. a fall man. 

. Adjeefives nre often used without the noun (the 
latter being understood) : .as, 

£1 pobre, the poor (nnn). Un ignoiaute, an 1it«aimU(iuaii).' 

The gender can be knonm by the article which 
precedes the adjective. 

If the adjective refer to something to' which we 
do not apply a gender, the neuter artiole to is used ; 
aj, lo poco, lo mucho, the lllile, the much, or that 

English (Jnglesosy. 
dark. 4. Th4dangh' 
are pretty. S. The 1 
of the physician is s] 



If in English 'two ohjeotiTO oases of personal 
pronouns are in the same sentence, one of them 
governed by the preposition to, understood, and the 
other by a verb, the one governed by Uie preposition 
is placed first in Spanish j as — ^ 

If the pronoun be reflective— that is, if the nomin- 
ative and objective oases refer to the same person — 
the reflective pronoun must come before the otH^, . 
if another be used in the same sentence ; as— • 

£1 cum se inu ilirigld, Tht rector adilresscd himself 

When in the second objective case any one of 
the pronouns mi, ii, si, is preceded by the preposi- 
tion eon (with), this preposition is prefixed to the 
pronoun, and the syllable go affixed,- the whole 

The first objective case of the personal pronouns 
comes aitet infinitives, iuiperaiives, anil gerunds* of 
the verb, forming one word with.the verb ; hs — - 

When one verb governs another in the infinitive, 
the objective pronoun may come before Uie first or 
after the second verb ; as— 

BlAlcrann lavaAver; or, el The Oermanher goes torn; or,' 
Aleman va i, vcrla. the German goes to «e-ber. 

The first or second person plural of the impera- , 
tlve drops its final letter when nes or as is joined to 
it; as— 

SeiitAnionoi (and not seiitJ- G\un1ilos(andnotgiisndiidoe), 

. liiosnos), let-«s^t-oiirselvcs. gtmnl-goimelves. 

Mlo, and its objective case fa,are properly used for 
a noun to which we cannot' assign any gender; and 
though not strictly correct, the pnaotioe is allowed 
of nsing lo for the masculine le, if this pronoun be 
directly governed by a verb. 

Personal pronouns must always agree with the 
nouns for which they are substituted in gender, 
person, and number. 

• Exekcise S).- 

(Thepersoiiul J’roiiouiis arc in llalics.) 

Translate into English : — 

1. Pedro me escribid dos cartas. 2. JSlla le did nn 
libro. 3. MIoshaTlO.' -1. E/te fes esoribidalgnnas 
caHas. si El mddico les habld. G. Ib soy pobre y 
viejo. 7. 3W eres miiy subio., 8. M es ignorante. 

9. 2/esetros somos faertes y ricos. 10. El pintor tc 
did una cnchara de plata. 11. La muger was, vid.' 
12. El carpintero nos Imbld. 18. Los Espauolcs le 
babloron. li'. El jnez tdenc niucba confianza cn 
V. 15. Pedro le did el libro. IG. El Aleman no Ic 

'did dinero. 17. La Alemana no- le habld. 18. La 
muger no me habld. 19.’ El pintor no ie vid. 20. 
El carpintero 'no les halld. 21.- J'o voy a darfo nn 
libro. 22. V. es lico. 23. I'"!' sou pobres. 24. 
T'T'-. son sobdrbios. 

In forming a ne^tive sentence, tbe adverb no ‘ 
must come not only before' the verb, but even 
before personal pronouns of the first objective case ; 
as, Juan no me lo dijo, Mn nut to-mo it sald—i.a., 
John said it fiot tu me. . ' ' 

Vuestra meroed, contracted into listed (which is 
written F.), though of the third person, "is equi; 
valent to the/English wbrd gate ; thus the sentence 
“yotiarciJch,’'if addressed to ono person, would 
be V. es lioo fyinir KorsMji is rich) ; if addressed to 
more than one person, YY. son ricos (gmir norsliips 
arc ricli). When females ■ are referred to, 'the ' 
feminine form of the adjective must be used. 

Exebcise 10. 

' Translate into Spanish : — 

1. Peter mote' me two letters.' 2. The painter, 
gave him a book. 8. She found them. 4. Ho wrote 
to-tbem some letters. 61 I am poor and old.. C. 
The judge spoke to-them. 7. Thou art very rich. 

8. He is wise. 9. We are ignorant, io. They are 
•strong and rich. 11. The painter gave thee a silver 
spoon. 12. The woman saw us. 13. The carpenter 
spoke to ris.' 14. The iSpanish woman spoke, to him. ’ 

10. Thepbysiciansawhim. IG. The Frenchwoman 
saw them (maso.). 17. The German woman saw 
them (fem.). 18. The carpenter made it (fo) -for ' 
him. 19. The paiiiter has confidence in her. 20. 
The printers have mnch.confidcnce in hW 21. The 
Englishman made it for me. B2. You gave me a 
book. 23. You are very wise. 24. Yoii are hungry.' , 
25. Ton have a house. 20. You (plur.) are thirsty. 
27. 'Yon (plur.) are not proud. 28. You (plur.) love 



jilnie® willi their cilia are considered to V)C like 
eoinb--, wliencc the name fit the group. The 
inoiitli oj)rti=i at. the end, where there is a slight 
jjroluhcrniicc, and it leads down to a curious 

Certain islaiuhs in the Soulli SenN arc entirely enm- 
jjosed of cond, and they arc aluio.i-t all of ti cirridar 
form, enclosing a Imsin of water. ring-like 
islands are called atolls. The enclosed h.-usin is 

branched system of canals, best understood by a 
roforonoe to tlie illustration. (Fig. 17, p. 2C2.) 

Another family of the Otenopliora as represented 
by a strap-shaped animal, which is called Ceutvs 
leiicrif, or the girdle of Venus. This animal 
occurs in the Mediterranean Sea, and is described 
as very beautiful. The idea which suggested tlic 
name is poetic and aijpropriate, for from the foam 
of the sea which washes classic shores Venus was 
supposed to have sprung, and as she emerged she 
left her zone behind. 

The Anthozoa, especially the Zoantharia, play 
an important part in modifying the earth's crust, 
for these are the animals which produce the 
coral reefs and coral islands. The animals mainly 
concerned in building up coral reefs cannot live 
at more than about 10 to 30 fathoms below the 
surface, and of course they cannot live above it, 
but they delight in the boisterous waters of the 
surface. Their instincts guide them to build 
up on almost all coasts of the tropirail seas long 
banks or bars, which are always highest on the 
ocean side, and highest of all towards the direction 
from which tlie fiercest winds blow. 

Those banks or reefs come to the surface at .some 
distance from the shore, and enclose a lagoon of 
still water, which is a safe harbour for ships. 

shallow, but outside tlie island, even to the 
shore, the sea is very deep. The phenomena of 
-reefs furnished to our renowned natnralist, DarwinJ 
a means of proving that the crust of the earth was 
being slowly npheaved or slowly depressed in 
different areas. 

In Figs. 20, 21, 22, and 23 the principal forms of 
reefs are represented as though we had cut per- 
pendicularly down tlirongli land, reef, and sen, anrl 
so could see their relations. 

In Fig. 22, A represents a volcanic island sur- 
rounded by a barrier reef with its enclosed lagoon. 
Suppose this to be slowly lowered in relation to tlio 
surrounding sea, the corals will continue to build 
on tlieir old foundation, maintainingtlicir position at 
the surface, wliile the solid mountain disappears, 
and at last a ring-like reef, or atoll, is formed. 

If, on the other hand, tlio land rise, the corals arc 
killed, and fresh ones must begin farther down on 
the submarine flanks of tlic mountain, wliilc a 
fringing reef (Fig. 21) is left on the side of tlie 
mountain above sca-lcrcl. 

The actual position of many coral reefs corre- 
sponds well with this theory. 


Under the head of Vermes. -ire iheliiderl a number 
of forms which liave but little relalion with one 


Ilie nniniiil, llii- .'■oft orpan in irliicli thn 

l)am.-iio 1-: lo'lpi'il form' a s.pir-fli'rensivo 
nroiinii thi' of oommoii (nrr-olar) f i'Mie. TJiu-. the 
t'rtiitiire smiely cii>-com'ril in .a ciivity. tliroiipli 
tlie Trails of wliii-li the liquid!: jienelrate. and are 
.ahsorbeil by the bladrli-r-like aniiiinl. Ry the aid of 
Ihif. nutriment fresh chaiipps oi'ciirTritlitliepTontli 
of tiie larva. Tims on oim side of the interior of 
the bladder a ronn.l body jrrotv# and so projecis into 
the ctivily. and in this the head and neck of llie 
future perfect worm areformed. On this head the 
circles of honks and the snokers are developed, so 
that the examination of the larval form when at an 
ndvance-l stage trill enable the examiner to deter- 
mine to tvliicii species the creature belongs, tyheii 
this process is completed, the larva -has reached 
a st.-igc beyond which it cannot become more 
developed unless it changes its position, and tliis 
oliangc of position is not an active but a passive 
one. Hence mnltiludescf those creatures probably 
die and became disintegrated without ever attaining 
the perfect fonn. Tliose, however, whose lif&circmt 
becomes complete,* arc transferred to the stomach 
of a carnivorous animal by the flesh in which thqr 
are lodged being devoured. Thus the animal .has 
twodifferenthosts, one of whioli entertains it in the 
immature condition, and tlio other when it becomes 
perfect and sexually capable of reproducing its 
npocios. ' of those eyttoiil animals, when in 
the oystoid or blnddcr-UVo^ state, inhabit the soft 
structure of herbivorous or grain-feeding aniumls ; 
while when they arrive at the ceitoid or taire-worm 
condition, they aro found in the oamivoroiis.animals 
which feed upon their former hosts. It lias been 
shown tlint the CysticcrcnsfascMaris of the Iiv%rof 
'a mouse becomes the Trmia erassieoJIis (the thick- 
iicokcd tapeworm) of the intestines of the cat, and 
the Cysticercvii pisiformU {t\vi poa-sbaped bladder- 
tall) of the rabbit becomes the To'nia serrata 
(notched tapeworm) of the dog. In the case of the 
species wc have been describing, the host of tlie 
larva is usually the pig, and the ho-st of the adult 
worm is man. As might he expected, it is foimd 
th.'it tlie Ttenia tolinin infeots those most who are 
espeeiaily fond of ill-cooked sausages. In Germany 
tliis unfortunate taste for nearly raw pork ha.s 
produced the harmful results, not only by 
introducing this worm, but also another, called 
Trichina- sjiiralis, a worm of much higher organisa- 
tion. and belonging to an order to be referred to 
lioroafter. IViioii llie flesh oontainingthe encysted 
entozoon is being digested by the animal who has 
Vicon iinfortunatpenoegli to swallow it, the digesting 
operation goes on not only so far as to liberate the 
creature, but also to dissolve away the bladder 
which encloses the head. Then the creature, like 

the libenitcd geniim in the “ .\niliinn Kigli:«" 
begins to take revenee on il» iilicmter for its lo!;;,- 
imi>risonnicnt. It fives itself l>y it:, hook- and il- 
Slickers to the wail' of the inlc'tinos. and its nei:': 
grows and becomes segmentcii .'i' liefore de.'frilied. 
As coni)iarcd to the iinmpn~e length and size of llie 
cliain of segment.'. Ilic liead is ridiculously small ; 
and tints the simile of the genius, who. when 
libciatcd ftvun his bottle. a.ssmned siieh vast and 
fofmi<1ab1c dimensions, is not inupimipriati! to llie 
rapid development which follows the liberation of 
this worm from its cyst. 

The effect upon tlie human .system ocea.slnned by 
tapcworios is exlremoly di.siressing. Tli'e 'jiaticnr 
suffers not. only from .lo.'.s of .appetite, cmnciiitinn, 
and lassitude, but the syinpatliotic nervous system 
ik affected so .as to produce convulsions and 
epilepsy. Distro.ssing. liowever, ns tlicsecffecl.snre, 
they are not so as aro produced by the 
X)rcscncc of the immaturo form, because tlie adult 
worm Is confined to tlie intestines, and is tinis, so 
to speak, in a situation external to tlie body, while 
tho larvae, ns we have soon, penetrate into all parts 
of tho body, and their presence is move or less 
injurions ns they take np their abode in the move or 
less vital organs. It they find their way to a posi- 
tion under the skin or in tlie muscles, they iiro' 
comparatively harmless ; but if they penetrate the 
eye or the brain, they occasion pain .and sometimes 

'In tracing tho oirclo of life of tho Ttrnla, we find 
it runs through ail the forms named, in the follow- 
ing order : — 

1. The egg. , 

2. TIio embiy'o, actively travelling by a 'six- 
hooked boring apparatus. 

3. Tlie resting larva, con.sisting of a • head 

enveloped iha terminal bladder. _ 

4. Immature tapeworm liberated from its 

5. .Segmented and .sexually matnro tapeworm. 

0. Free segment; called a proglottis, from its 
likeness to tho tip of the tongno. 


■ tCbiifiiiiik/niniji.30J.I ■ 

Pap,amgsi of a Vrain or the Old Form. 
Stfllnsoi (to .strike) is tluis conjugated : — 

raraasT. i-ast. 

.S..3i^ fi^fiijic, I strike. S. S.-ti rdihig, I struck. 

■ Sill 3ii idiliijil. 

6r ruilailt. ffr f(tilu. 3 . 




tSciiicit, to bite 

brljic, K. 


it? biffc ' 



SBctlcmmcii, PI to pinch, press 
(by .anxiety) 

t(V t'dfcninic, ic. 

ic$ bcffsmtn 

ic? bcticninitc 



fflctgcn, to conceal 

i(t bngc, tu birgll, tc birgt, ]t. 

ic? barge 

birg ' 

geborgm ■ 

Serflcii, to burst ■ 


it? baiRe 

tjcrflc or t)ir[l 


aictcilgcu, to deceive 

i<i betiuge, X. 

icb fetwg 

it? belciige 

aictocgcit, P) to induce 

iri; btiurge, >c. 

ict; bewog 

it? btivSgc • 

beniegc • 


ffliegen, to bend 

iiil bitgc, K. 1 ■ 

icb beg 

it? beat 


aiietcii, P) to oITor, to bid 

t(^ iMfir, ar. 

ie4 bet 

ic? bbte 

bicFc ' 


aiiiitcn, to bind 

id; bilitt, jc. 

ic5 bunt 

tc]^ (Ante 



autcii, to entreat, to bog 

id; bilif, K. 

tep but 

id; I<aic 



tOIiirni. to blow 

icil bfafr.tii btsfcjl, cr bH(l, M. 

icb Mic« 

it? blicfc 



iSIcibni, to remain 

idj bhibc, ic. 

ic$ blicb 

it? blicbc 



sBraten, to roast 

id.) bratc, tn bwitli ar feai(i, 
(r br.itrt lu* brat, tt. 

it( brict , j 

it? biictc 


!Qrci(ica, to break 

id;bnd;c,tu btiiVP,ttbtii;pl,it. 

iip brucR - 

ic? btaclie 


iSrtnncn, to burn 

itb brennr, k. 

i^ brunntc , 

it? btciinte 


aiiingtii, to bring 

Iiriiitjf, at. 

tdi bwebte 1 

if? bta(?lt 



Btiiftn, to think 

[ri} ttnff. JC. 

id> bottle. 

it? barbie 


gcbad;t - 

Snigtii, P) to bargain 
®rffit;cn, to tlirash 

> idi tinge, ir. 

id) biutg 

it? ti’ingc 



id; trcft^c, tu trifejep, cr 
ttifdit, It. 

Id; btcftj j 

it? brafctic ar 



Sringcii. FI to press, to urge 

id; t tinge, ic. 

itp brang 

ic? itaiigc 



ffiatfcii, to be allowed 

u^ tntf, til tntfP, et tetf, le; 

ir^ butftc 

it? biltfie 


flrtiuft . 

CnU'fanani. to receive 

iiti taitf.inge, bn cmlfangR, 
cr cintfangi, le. 

ic$ cmbpiig 

it? caibpiigt 



(fintfditea, to recommend 

id) cnit>te(<le, tu cra|>pc|lp, 
er cnttpcbll, je. 

tc| cmbfulil 

it? cmbfclilc 



GtMciii'cii, n to turn pale 

t i(ti etbleiiiie, je. 

it? ttbfic? 

it? ttMit?t 



i(ii crln^ce (etifite), w. 

it? ctfcr(crtr?c) 

it? eilfif'cc (er- 

ttta?tt (ttliltt) 

eiftbrcn (ci> 

Grlbfdjcii, V) to extingnisli 

iill (rli'rd;e, tu cttipifcR, tt 
celiftfit, jt. 

ic? ctiq'cb 

ic? cctbrc?te 



Orr<^.iltfn, to re.sonnd 

itb ctfd-tll 

it? tTrt?bfrc 



to bo frightened 

Id; etribrcde, tn trfd-r 
er etfditidil, ir. 

it? CTfc?cnf 

it? ctftbraie 



(xrsi'iigcn, (“1 to consider 

iid etwage, 1C. 

it? ttii'sg 

it? fdvisic 


ffifeii, to oat 

id;cnt, tiiiiTcP, cripl,tt. 

it? up 

it? ape 



S.i(ivcn, P“l to drive in a 

id; f,ibtc,tii faftP. tt fajrt, ic. 

ic? fiibt 

ic? fiibrc 



5.11101. to’^fnll 

iih f.illc. til faflP, cr fnfll 

it? pd 

it? Ptfe 



5.iit,]cii. ('“) to catch 

idi f.iligc. tu fangp, er fangt 

it? pug 

icb piigt 



Snt’ttn. to light 

id; feitte, tii fcditcR ar pt^tp, 

ic? ict?t 

it? p'i?ic 

feeble. frii(l) 


5iattr, to find 

id; piitc. It. 

icb fuUb 

icb fanbe 



alccticii, to twist 

idi Prdjie, tu Rci^tcR ar 
Pii^lp, cr Pcibtet ar Pii^t 

it? Rmbt 

ic? P6t?tc 

pci?tc (Pit?0 



n) iScFrcniint is not freqiieiiUy used, nndis cmjiloycd only in the sense of comjtrcfscil. I'** Irregnlnr wlien it 
nicKiis to iiuliicc ; regular when it means "to move a 6m/y or nfFcct tlio minihilifirs.'' W SBciitfl and tent, in 
the present, are poetical. W Singu is sometimes used in tho past in the sense of ?iirc. F) For triiiig. 
trimj was formerly in use. Derived from HriAtn, io irliUcn ax in Ihc snn, wliich is regular. (•') Like 
TtrICf(I;tn and niiSItftiicn, irregular only wlien intransitive. Sofi^tn is always transitive and rognlnr. P") 
Irregular always as an intransitive verb; bnt rcgnlar when transitive. P*1 More frequently used ns a 
regular verb. i’-T All tlie compounds of fasten are incgular except. iDillfaJtcn. F“) The forms peng and pciigc 
are obsolete; ■ . • 


!X)cr riiiiigrigc SlrtibcT. 

(?in SIratcc ivAr vcrirrt in ta SCullc. 3niri Tagc 6attc 
cr iiidjts jii cffcn iiiit ninr tii Olcfafir, hungers ]u flciWn, aft 
tr cint von Ven SBniitrjtiil'm niitraf, on ttnea Me 

SldrcnMn i^re Jtanicclc IrAnfen. '^iec fa^ tr aiu Mm SanM 
einen tfeinen Irtcnien ©ocf liegtn. „ OIrtt fei geloSl," fagtt cr, 
aft cc i^n auf^ob \mi anfri(ltc; .tai finb, gfaiiM xdi, iDaltcIii 

3n tiq'cr fufirn ■^offiiung fgnctc cc ten Sad, fat' leas cr cnl^iclc 
unt rief ten Xranrigteit aiiS, cS rmt mir SPtrltn." 

The Littei: C*SAnv Binn. 

A little Riel naiiica Camllne linA ii innct lovely ailiarj- Wnl. 
Hie littlc'creaturc sang troin early morning till the evening; 



The walls of the Acropolis of Hlvcento were IG feet 

coming virtually thcrcCore a subtermnoaii loml>, to 
wliicli access was oblniiiccl through a paved cause- 
way.' One of the stones forming tbo lintel was 
29 foot long, 17 foot wide, and 3 foot 9 inches 
thick, weighing over 100 tons. Tlicro wore othor 
tombs of this at Mycennj, of which altogolhor, 
here and elsewhere, eleven examples are known. 
Some of those .and tlic walls of palaces Imvc been 
made known to us through the rc.searchcs of tlic 
late Hr. Schlicmann. One cl.ass of building, 
however, is absent — ^vix., the temple; and it is 
not till we come down to the seventh ccntniy 
(about GGO) n.c. that wc find the first ex- 
ample in tlie Horic temple of Corinth. The 
researches made at Hi.<»!nrlik, the reputed town of 
Troy, have not been so succe.csfnl, owing to the more 
or ]es.s complete dcstrnclion of the palace there; 
but of tlic palace at Tiryiis sufficient remains to 
suable us to restore in our imagination nt least 
some of tlio features of tbo palace of Ulysses as 
described in tlio “ Odyssey." 

The earliest example of temples of the ardbaic 
period is that already mentioned nt 'Corinth, of 
wliioli a few columns only renuiin : they arc of the 

Horic order, very stately in proportion, and still 
‘ cany the archiri-avc (e}>istyUum), or beam, which 
supiiortod the 'root. After Corinth come some of 
the temples at Sclinus in Sicily ; hnd at the close 
of the sixth century B.C., the temple of iEgina, also 
of the Horic order. > 

It now becomes necessary to say a four words 
about the “ orders,” as they are called, anil wliicli ^ 
are known as the Horic, Ionic, and Corintiiiun 
orders. The two first were dovolopott independently 
one of Uie other by cliilcrcnt races. An order 
consists of several parts, all constriictivo in their 
origin, but, as employed, partly constructive .and 
partly decorative : its principal , feature is the 
column (with or without a base), which is crowned 
by a capital, on wliioh rests the cntnblntnre. Tlie 
entablature is divided into three parts : the arebi- 
travo, epistyle, or beam, .wliioli rests on the capital ; 
the fricre, the depth of which edrresponds to the ' 
minor beams resting hcliind on the nrohitravo ; and 
tho cornice, wliich ovcrhinigs the frieze to protect it 
nndthcbniidiDg)rcncaih, and sometimes cnrrics the 
gnllor of the root. IVc have no oliio to the origin 
of Ihe Horic (Fig. 7) order. It has been assftmed 
by some that it was derived from Egypt ; but the 
ixrlygonal column thoro 
found hn.s a base, which 
shows it was copied from a 
wooden colnmu (a wooden 
colurtm .requires n base to 
prevent tho decay of its 
lower part from damp) ; 
there is also no cushion 
under the nbnens, or crown- 
ing momher, of tho Horic 
column. IVlicn wo come 
to the lonio (Fig. 8) order, 
wo arc on snror ground, for 
'(.be base, Uic llutiiig of the 
shaft or column, nnd tlic 
volute' capitnl, all betoken 
an Asiatic origin, sncii ns we 
find in Persian nrohitocturo 
already described. 'riio 
Ionic order was probably 
developed in Asia Minor, 
though it is dilBcull to find 
its earliest types. 

Tho Corinthian order is 
‘ of reiy much later date, and 
may fairly ho supposed to 
hare been suggested by 
the bell capital of Egypt 
already referred to. It lias been thought by some 

that it has a metallic origin, and that its leaves 

and volutes wore originally forged in .motal and' 



apjilic.s to the lioll -c.-rital. stib#cqHonlly licing- 
cnpicil in -iom-. 

The naf-iio of tin- forin'= aiirt tlicir application 

•win be bettor nndorf-too<l liy n description of tbe 
class of building -wliicli tlicv were employed to 
decomto, and in wliioh tlicy formed also the 
essential conslniotive element. 

It has already bucii pointed out — in the second 
lesson — tluit ilicEgyjitinn temple formed the model 
from •n'hieli all other sfnictiircs borrowed their 
leading- fcatiin:' : and although, ns we have already 
sttitcd, no remains have been foniid of any early 
archaic temple', we may fairly assume that the 
sanctuary or temjilc of the Deity must, in these 
early times ns in tlin-e of a later period, have called 

forth the higher instincts of man's imagination in 

its conception, .and I lie greatest perfection of work 

they were capable of in its erection. 

The doTolo])nient and growth of the Greek 
temple, like that of the Egyptian, was cumulative; 
that is to say, in course of time it bccnmcmorc and 

more imprjrtant ; inil there the .similarity cca.<H!s. 

Tlic Egj-ptian temples were enclosed with lofty 
walls, and hidden 1 ly immense pylons. The Greek 
temple was isolated, and intended to lie scon on all 
sides. Witli llie exception of tlio addition of n. 
-/rronaes, orrcstibnlc, to the cell or sanetbary', and 

an ppiiihadmmis, or trca.sury, behind it, we do not 
find that incrc.asc in the niimherof clmnihcrs and 
pillared halls as at Knmnk and Edfou. Many of the 

Greek temples enclose only the simple sancluaiy — 
that which wo may regard ns the gonn of tho pri- 
niitivo temple — consisting of four walls and covered 
•natli a sloping roof, the ends of wliieli, or tlic front 
and back clovation, formed that feature known as a 

To give tho front more dignity in appearance, 
or iiossibly to yield shelter to the priest standing 
before the door (tiie priest only entered a Greek 
temple), or again to nlTord protection to tlic xxiint- 
ings or votive shields, by prulonging the side toHs 
and providing two colutuns to carry the entablature 

or pediment, a porch would bo formed which is eon- 

stantly found in Greece, and is known ns a portico- 
in-nntis. Tho temple being visible on all sides, for 
the sake of symmetry a similar feature would be 
added at the back ; it served no purpose except the 
protection of paintings or sculpture, there being no 
entrance door on that side. Suppressing the pro- 
longation of tho wall and substitatinc columns, we 
arrive at tlie typo of temple — known as tetrastyie 
— with four cohunus in front : the word prostyle 
mldcd would indicate a front portico only; if added 
to the back as well, the full title would be tofrastyle 

P.OTVU. {EtslonUhn.} 



ampliiprosbyle. When six columns were placed in 
front, tile term hexnstyle was given ; and the coiisc- ' 
qnont increase in width (the sanotuniy heingalwnys 
of modest ' dimensions) allowed of columns being 
carried down the flanks or sides, forming what is • 
known as a poristj’lo ; in such cases tliere being 
alwnj'S a portico at each end as well. With eight 
columns in front the temple was octastyle. 

When j ten columns were employed in front, a 
greater splendour and riolmoss was given by forming 
double TOWS all round, the temple thus becoming 
decastylc and diptoiril. In some easas the inner 
row of columns was . omitted, the peristyle being 
then of double width, and the term psendo-dipteral 
was given to it. Tlioro is a Icmxilc at Agrigentiun 
in Sicily, dediotitod to Jupiter, which has seven 
coliimiia in front (hoptaslyle),andoncatPa:'5tinn in 
Alagna Graicia witiv nine ; bnt thc->c are exceptions. 

As a rule, on the flanks of a tompto there ore 
twice ns ninny columns as there arc in the front, 
plus one. Thus iu an octn.stylo temple with eight 
columns in front, tlioro will bo (counting the oast 
ones again) seventeen on each flank. The rule is 
not invariable, bnt it exists in the ba«t cxnmplo.«. 
The great prolongation of the temple would lead 
to too gi'oat a Icngtii for tho celliu A pronaos 
or vc.slibnle w,as therefore iiilrodiiccd in tho front, 
and a j/osiicjtm at tho back. In large temples wc 
Jiiul in addition an oplstlmdomus, or troasiny. for 
llio offerings made to tho Deity. 

In large temples tlic increased width given to the 
cella would render it too wide lobe roofed over wilh- 
ont intornicdinto supports (cs.peoiiilly as the finest 
temples wore oorcrod witli m.arble slabs in iiiiitn- 
(ien of tiles) ; a row of eolnnins therefore was carried 
on each side of the cella, and these were arranged 
in two storey.s one above the other, with an arclii- 
t rave between, which may sometimes have snpportcd 
a gallery. In the treasury, columns of the Ionic 
order, of much lighter proportions, were used so ns 
to eceiioniisc space. 

In order to give the temple more imiiortancr, it 
was placed on a liaso or stylobate consisting of 
three steps ; tho hcigiit of tlie steps varying, accord- 
ing to the .size of the temple, from 6 inches to 1,S 
inches or more. 

There is one exceptional building, the Ercclhcnm, 
in which throe temples — or, rather, two temples and 
a portico of carynt id figures— all placed on different 
levels, arc combined togetWin one picturesque anil 
harmonious assemblage. 

This dc«oriiition of tho various plans of Greek 
temxfica, which is not necessarily cbronologic:i], 
will enable our renders to underst.and bettor tho 
application of the orders already enumerated. 

The plans being of the simplest and most clcmcnt- 

tay character, tlic grAit artist was enabled to con- 
centrate all his imagination and thouglit on the 
perfecting of'the traditional forms handed down to 
him, and his knowledge of construction in their 
execution. The, rivalry 'of the various states of 
'Greece tended also greatly to the development of, 
tho archit'cctiiral style of ' their tcmplc.s. The ' 
blending of tlio two rncos — of the hide and hardy 
Dorian race with the softer mitnro of tho lonians 
— raised tho Greek stylo to a position which it 
still holds above all other styles, in the beauty 
oT its forms .and delicacy of its omamont and 
mouldings, in its perfection of execution, and Inst, 
though n'ot'lcimt, its hoing the framework in which 
the efforts of man’s gcniui:, the soulplurcs of 
Phidias and his contemporaries,, were incoiponatecl. 

IVc may now proceed to .a description of •the 
principnl buildings of Greece, 'foremost .amongst 
which .comes tho Partlvcnon in the Acropolis of 
Athens and dedicated to Minerva . 'Using the terms 
alroiulydo.soribed, the 'Parthenon is ootnst.Vle-peri- 
stylar. It is of tho Doric order ; tho height of the 
coinnms bcitig 30 feet, equal to OJ times the lower 
ilinmctor of tho coUmms. (This method of estah- 
lisliing the relative projiortionB of tho column is 
duo to A'itrnvins, a Homan author of tho Augustan 
era, and was jirobably not timt employed 'by the 
Greeks.) Tlio columns of the temple of Corinth, 
alrp.ady referred, to ns the c-irlicst Doric temple 
known, have a height of four diameters only, thus- 
showing that tho dcvelopnicnt was towards gi'eater 
lightness and elegance. ’I’ho Doric oolumns of tho 
Parlliciinn carried an entablature consisting of 
architrave, frieze, and cornice, eciiial to twice the 
dininctor of the columns — 11 feet. Above liiceorntcc 
on the front and back clc^-ntions rose the pediment, 
the sloping sides of which represented the roof 
behind ; and tho whole building was raised on a 
stylobate, six foot high, of throe slops. 

Tlic stylobate, tho coluiims and their capitals, the 
eiilablaturc and podimonts. and the wall, wore all 
Imilt of Poiitclic iiinrhlc ; as also the covering of 
the pcrislylc. The roof wa.s constructed in timber, 
.and carried a covering, in imitation of tiles, made of 
l*!irian innrblc. The materials, tliorefore. and the 
Goiistrnctinn wore of tho finest jjossible kind. So 
far the description is easy; but tho refinements 
carried into tlic iiroportinns aud-fhe com|>Ii>tcd sur- 
faces are of the most delicate n.atnrc, infrotliiced (so 
far as we arc able now to follow) to correct, cerlain 
optical delusions. Tho columns taper to a less 
diaiiiclcr at the top tiran they are at the bottom; 
their sides, however, are .not straight, bnt have a 
slight curve known as the cnta.sis. Tlie iutcroolumni- 
alion — viz., the .space between <he centre oolumns — 
is wider tlian tho others (ITtruvius bays, to .allow the 


The Jtcccjrtion «f the .Vcws tO. Home. 

Sn. Hnnc rerura cursum, qunYnqiiam nnlla vcr- 
bornm jnctnntia cpislnlis Agricolae anctiim, nt 
Domitiano moris orat, fronte lactns ijectore anxiiis 
oxcopit. Incrat conscientia dcrisiii fnissa nnper 
falsnm e Germania triiimplinm, empHs per com- 
mcrcia, qnonira liabitus et crines in captivomni 
spccicm formarentuT : at mine veram magnamqne 

victoriam tot milibiis bostinm caesis Ingenti fama 

celebrari. Id sibi maxime formidolosum, privati 
bominis nomcn supra principis attolli: frustra 
stadia lori et oiviUani artiam deeas in sUentinm 
acta, si militnrcm gloriam alios occnj&ret ; cetera 
ntcamqnc facilius dissimnlari, dacis boni impeia- 
toriam virtutem esse. Talibns enris exercitus, 
qnodqiie saevae cogitationis indicium erat. secreto 
sno satiatu.°, optimum in praesentia statnit reponere 
odium, donee impetus famao et favor exercitus 
langiiesceret : nam ctiam turn Agricola Britanniam 

AgrXevWe Itctuni. 

40. Igitur triumpbalia ornamenta et inlnstris 
Etatuae honorem et qnldquid pro trinmpho datnr 
mnlto verbornm honorc cumulata, dccerni in senatu 
jnbet addiqne insnper opinlonem, Suriam provinciam 
Agricolae destinari, vacnam turn morte Atilii Bnfi 
oonsnlaris et maioribiis rcservatam. Credidere 
plcriquc libertnm ex secretioribus ministeriis inissnm 
a I Agricolnm codioillos, quibns ei Snria dabatur, 
tulisse, cum praeoepto ut, si in Britannia foret, 
traderentur ; eumqae llbcrtum in ipso freto Ocenni 
obvium Agricolae, ne appellate quidem co ad 
Eomitianuin remeasse, sivo verum istad, sive ex 
ingenio principis flctnm ac oompositum est. Tradid- 
erat interim Agricola snccessori sno provinciam 
qiiictam tutamque. Ac ne notabilis celebritate et 
frequentia ooourrentium introitos csset, vitato 
amicOTum oIBcio noctu in urbora, noctu in Folatium, 
ita nt praeceptum erat, veuit ; exceptusque brevi 
osculo et nullosermoneturbaeservientinminmixtuB 

est. Cctcrnm nti militare nomen, grave inter 

otiosos, aliis virtutibus temperaret, tranqnillitatem 
atqne otinm penitus auxit, onltu modiens, sermone 
facilis, nno aut altero amicorum comitatus, adeo 
uti pleriqne, quibns mngnes viros per ambitionem 
aestiinnre mos ost, viso aspeotoqne Agricola quaere- 
rent fnraam, panel interpretnrentur. 

41. Crobro per eos dies apud Domitiannm absens 
neensatus, ab.sens absolutus est. Cans,T. pericnli 
non crimen ullnm ant querela laesi cuiusquam, sed 
infensus virtutibus princeps et gloria viri ao pessi- 
mnm iniinicornm genus, laudantcs. Et oa inseenta 
sunt rei publicae tempera quae sileri Agricolam 
non sinorent : tot exercitus in Moesia Daciaqne et 
Germania et Par.nonin temoritato aut per ignaviam 

duenm, tot militnres viri cnin tot cohort ibns 
oxpiignati ct ciipti ; nec juin dc liinitc imperii et 
ripa, sed dc hibernis logionmn ct pusscssionc diibi- 
tatiim. Ita cum dnmnn daninis continu.'ireiUur 
atquc oninis annus fiiueribns ct claclibns insigni- 
rctnr, pcsccbatnr ore viilgi dux Agricola, coin- 
parantibus cunctls vigorem e.t ennstautiam ct cx- 
pertnm. bellis nnimum cum inertia ct lormirline 
ceteromm. Qnibns scrmonibiis satis constat Doiiii- 
tinniqnoqne aurcs vcrbcmt.'is.dnm optimiLs quisqnc 
libertornm araorc ct fide, pcssiini inalignitntc ct. 
liiun-c promim detcrioribus principcm cxstimulabnnt. 
Sic Agricola siuiiil snis virtutibus, simul vitiis 
aliornm in ipsam gloriam pmoceps agebatiir. 

He Declines a Prnuoimdatc. 

42. Adcrat jam annus, quo proconsulatnm Africao 
et Asiac sortiretur, et occiso Givica nuper nec 
Agricolae consilium deerat ncc Domitiano exem- 
plum.' Aocesscre quidam cogitatiomim principis- 
periti, qni iturusne esset in prorinoiam ultro Agri- 
colam interrogorent. Ac prime cccultius qiiictem 
ct otium landare, mox operam suam in adprobnnda, 
oxcDsatione oilerre, postremo non jam obscuri 
snadentes simul torrentesqno pertraxoro ad Domi- 
tianum. Qni paratns simulatione, in ndrogantiam 
oompositns, ct andiit. preces exousantis ct, enm > 
adnuiaset, ngi sibi gratias pnssus ost, nec ombuit 
bcneficii invidin. Snlarium tamcn proconsnlnre 
solitnm oficrri ct quibusdam a sc ipso conoessnm 
Agricolae non dedit, sive oiTensns non petitnm, 
sive ex conscientia, ne quod vetiierat vldorotur 
emissc. Proprium hnmnni ingcnil cst odissc quern 
laeseris: Domitiani vero nntnra pracceps in iram, 
et quo obsourioT co inrevocabilior, modcrationc 
tamen pnidentiaque Agricolae ieniebatur, quin non 
contumacia neque inani jactntionc libertatis famiim 
fatumqne provocabnt. Sclant, quibns moris est 
inlicita mirari, posse etiain sub nialis principibus 
raagnos viros esse, obseqniuinque no niodestiam, si 
indnstria ac vigor adsint, eo landis csccndcrc, quo 
pleriqne per abmpta, sod in nullum rei publicae 
usnm, ambitiosa mortc inclnrncrunt. 

NOTES TO TAOn-US {co/itliiiittl). 

CImp. XXXVII.— T’ocai menus "free from care." Triinslatc 
it tir an advcib in English ; “ wci-c enlinly despising." 

, AdsahitalKlU rrlintas. "Hcseived fur the cinergeneic.s of 
war!" The neuter accusative of an ailjcctive followed 
by a geuiti-va Is a favourite idiom willi Ticitns. In this 
chapter you liava two insiaiives,. siiuima coUlum and 
sabifa heRi. 

Tcma imKslarc. "Turned tlieir' tael: upon," f.c., "lied 

CMiccfi. "Tliey rallied." 

iiuiagiais. _ fiidugo Is properly iut " enuioslns or sanound- 


(Tcction. Awe and. terror are frail Ijonda of endcanoent: and tho last j^ear you utterly diseouinteil liy a shout whoa, under 


Complete in 6 Volumes, price 3s. 6d. each, 

A Cyclopedia of Technical Education, 

Uniform with " Cassell's Pojntlar Edncator." 


A few Press Opitiions respecting Cassell’s Technical Educator. 

“ At one of the bucolic gatlierings in London the other day a gentle- 
man, who ought to have knowui better, raised an objection to the report 
of the Royal Commission on Secondary Education because it would 
involve a twopenny rate. Without going into the notorious question of 
the need of technology among the agriculturists of this country, we 
would surest to the speaker in question, and the many shortsighted 
persons who think with him, a casual glance through the volumes we 
have before us. The growth of the taste for practical instruction in 
every department of industry, not excluding agriculture, is undoubted. 
In the towns evidences of it may be seen any winter evening in the 
attentive faces of the ‘ continuation ’ scholars, youths and maidens, who 
come mentally fresh and -vigorous at the end ^f a hard day’s work and 
g^ve their teachers the greatest possible satisfaction. How much the 
Messrs. Cassell have done to foster this healthy appetite for useful 
knowledge has been told again and again, and will bear re-teUing. 
If there is any hope for our husbandmen and villagers at all, and in 
our opinion there is, they can only expect to realise it by keeping pace 

with the times. ‘The Technical Educator’ affords one means, and a 
cheap one, for it is a veritable cyclopsedia of all industries, from 
allotment gardening to dyeing, building and civil engineering. 
The frontispieces to the volumes arc typical enough, one being a 
beautiful vase of flowers in colours, from the fuchsia to the rose, and 
the other a tinted diagram of cross-weaving. The high standard of 
the various papers, illustrated without stint, is maintained through- 
out, and we are glad to believe that .this admirable periodical, in serial 
or volume form, has become a recognised aid in our public libraries and 
adult educational institutions, and that it has found its way to the home. 
The printing of both letterpress and pictures is .unusually good.” — 
Daily Chronicle. 

" Messrs. Cassell & Company have done more than almost any 
other publishing house to help self-taught students to acquire, at all 
events, the elements of a liberal education. Wc arc glad to find 
that the new edition of ‘Cassell’s Technical Educator’ is now complete 
in six volumes. The highest authorities have been consulted in the 
preparation of this encyclopaedia of trade and manufactures, and 
the services of practical experts in every department of technical 
knowledge have also been enlisted. The value of the book as a 
practical work of reference is not open to question, for the contributors 
to its pages arc men who are fully qualified by training and personal 
experience to deal with design in textiles and fabrics, the manufacture 
of steel and iron, building construction, practical mechanics, aiid many 
other subjects about which amateurs and young students need explicit 
directions. There are many illustrations and diagrams in these volumes, 
and an admirable index.” — Sfatuiard. 

"Men who have risen from the ranks and made their mark in 
public life have traced their success to the inducements and aids to 
self-improvement afforded by the long-famous ‘ Popular Educator.’ It 
may well follow that many amongst the generation to whose service 
‘The Technical Educator’ has been dedicated will, in j'cars to come, 
look back on this work also in like manner, witli grateful recogni- 
tion of the help and impulse it is now aflbrding them towards putting 
themselves in the ranks of scientific and industrial advancement, 
and achieving success by identifying themselves with the vigorous 
forward movement of their day, in place of idly letting the great 
wave of progress pass them by, to leave them, presently, stranded 
and out of date. While Parliament and public bodies have been 

" The type, the drawings, the letterpress are all of the best, and a 
more excellent work of reference it wou].d be difficult to find.” — 
Liverpool Mercury. ' 

“To students and workers with brain and fingers, these volumes, 
with their clear instructions and admirable illustrations, are simply 
invaluable.” — Bristol Times and Mirror. 

“Much attention is now directed to technical instruction, and the 
utility of these volumes should be apparent Especially has the want 
of such a work been felt among those who have not had the opportunity 
of attending technical instruction classes; but this void is now quite 
filled. Descriptions of processes and machinery are not easy to make 
plain, but this difficulty is in ‘The Technical Educator’ to a great 
extent overcome by the employment of a very large number of dia- 
grams and photo-mcchanical blocks of the machinery employed. These 
si.x handsome volumes form a complete and an almost. indispensable 
workmen’s library.” — Dundee Advertiser. 

"In every respect the publication is worthy of the eminent’ house 
from which it issues. The contributors are obviously past-masters in 
their several branches, botli as regards principles and practice. The 
public are familiar with previous editions of ‘The Technical Educator.’ 
The current edition is distinguished by new articles written by authors 
and teachers whose knowledge is in every respect up-to-date; new 
illustrations expressly prepared for the Avork, new coloured plates, 
convenience of size, and clear, legible letterpress." — Liverpool Post. 

“This splendid work is now complete, and the six volumes offer 
unrivalled aid to young men anxious to get on in the Avorld. In all no 
fewer than thirty-two different subjects arc dealt with by writers who 
not only are themselves practical experts, but who have the rarer gift of 
clearly imparting their knoAvledga” — Bradford Obsover. 

CASSEI.L & CO-MPANV, I.imiteu, Ludgate Hill, London ; Parii, .Ve7V Vori &• jl/e/ihnrnt. 



Cassell & Company’ 

Seleetiens /tom Casutt ii Company s eubhcatiom. 

Hlhtairatcb, IFxnj: Jlri, arib otljer ^Jalumcs. 

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Pictures and Eighteen Coloured Plates. In Three Vols. js. each, 

Adventnxee In CriticlEm. By Q (A. T. Quiixer-Coucb). Gs. 

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AnlmalB, Popular Hlotory ot By Henrv Scberren, F.Z.S. With 13 
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Arcbltectiiial Drawlngt- By R. PhekA Spiers. Ulustiatcd. xos. 6d. 

Art, Sacred. With nearly 200 FuB-pagc Illustrations and Descriptive Text. pS' 
' Art, The Magazine oC With £.xquisitc Photogravures, a-Serics of Full-page 
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Artlatlo Anatomy. By Prof. M. Duval. Cheap Edition, 3a 6d. ' 

Ballads and Songs. By William Makepeace Tiiaceekav. With Original 
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Barber, Charles Burton. The Works of. With Forty-one PLatos and Portraits, 
nnd Introduction hy Hakkv Furkiss. Cheap Edition, 7s. fid. 

Berry, D.D., Eov. 0 . A., Ufe of. By the Rev. J. S. Drummo.s'd. With 
Fortr.-ut. fis. 

Biographical Dictionary, CasseU’s. Conmining Memoirs of the Most 
Eminent Men nnd Women of all Ages and Countries. Cheap Edition. 3s, fid. 

Birds, Our Borer British : Their Hosts, Eggs, and Summer Eanuta. By 
R, Krartok, F.Z.S, With about 70 Illustrations from PbotoRraphs by C, Kcartoh. 

Birds’ Rests, British: How, Where, and When to Find and Identuy Them, 
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Bitter Heritage, A. ByJ. Bloundki,le-Burton. Gs. 

Blaok Watch, The. The Record of an Historic RcgimcnL By Akciiibald 
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Breechloader, The, and How to Dse It. By W. Gree.nck, 3s. Gd. 

Britain's Roll of Glory: or, the Victoria cross, its Heroes, and their 
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British Bollada With 300 Oliginal'lllustmtions. Cheap Edtiivn. Two Volumes 
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British Battles on Land nnd Ben. By lAttus Grant. With about 800 
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Cathedrals, Abheys, and Chnrdies of England and Wales. Descriptive, 
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Cats and Eittens. By Henriette Ronkek. With Portrait and 13 magnificent 
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China Painting. By Florence Lewis. With Sixteen Coloured Plates, See. ja 
Choice Dishes at Small Cost. By A. G, Pavne. Cheap Edition, la 
Chums. The Illustrated Paper for Boys. Yearly Volume 8s. 

ClvU Sorrtco, Guido to Employmout la the. Entirely New Edition. Paper, 

CUuloal Manuals lor Practitioners and Students of Medlclua' (/4 List of 

Ve.umes forwarded poet free on apfilication to the i'abltsherx.'i 

Clyde, Cassell's Guide to tho. Illustrated. Gd. 

ahalcespeoro, Tho^ Eogland of. By E. GoADsr. With 

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Shsiispero, The I.eopold. Wth 400 Illustrations, and nn 
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