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PRESIDENT’S SECRETARIAT 

(LIBRARY) 

Accn. Class . 

The book should be returned on or before the date 
last stamped below. 




WESTERN STATES 
GAZETTEER. 


.VOLUME V.-Part A, TEXT. 




Cbe Central India state" Sazetteer Series^ 


WESTERN STATES 

( M K E W A. ) 

GAZETTEER. 


VOLUME V.— Part A, TEXT. 


COMPILfeD BV 

Captain C. E. LUARD, M.A< (Oxon. ), I. A., 

Superintendent ojf Ga^ctteet in OenWal India* 


PRINTED AT THE 

BRITISH INDIA PRBSS, BYCUDDAt BOMBAY. 

1908 . 

JPricc -Kfif. ^ or Ss* 





PREFACE. 


This volume^ deals with the States lying in the Malwa or the 
Western Section of the Agency^ excepting the three large States of 
Gwalior, Indore and Bhopal which are separately dealt with. The 
accounts of twelve States are included in the volume, the two 
branches of Dewas, Rajgarh, Narsinghgarh, Jaora, Ratlam, Sita- 
mau, Sailana, I>har, Jhabua, Barwani and Ali-Rajpur, The States 
are taken in order by Agencies. Some allowance should be made 
for deficiencies as this is the first attempt of its kind and those 
engaged in the work had no earlier account on which to base their 
Gazetteer. It was a work of creation and not of simple revision. 
That much might be added in these accounts is sufficiently obvious 
and this will; I trust, be done when the volume is revised. If it has 
had no other effect, it has at any rate, stimulated an interest in past 
history and instituted a search into the old records, which may 
produce treasure later on. The conditions under which the work 
was carried out and the difficulties to be overcome varied, generally 
speaking, indirectly with the condition of the administration 
as well as with the size of the State. In those States which 
had been for any length of time under British supervision, owing to 
the minority of the chiefs, the collection of data was immensely 
simplified, whereas in States managed on more strictly native lines, 
it w^as a task requiring much time and trouble- The detailed 
statistics required for the tables had, in almost all cases, to be 
collected direct from the pafxvarVs village papers, a most lengthy 
and laborious proceeding. The district mechanism for collecting 
such statistics was in many cases most primitive, while it was 
in no case trained and organised as in British India, and it was often 
difficult even to get those by whom the figures had to be furnished 
to understand what was required and quite impossible to expedite 
matters. This entailed much hard work on the Gazetteer Officers 
and also caused delay when it was decided to bring the Tables 
up-to-date (1905). 

In dealing with the history 1 have endeavoured to give every 
reference which might assist those interested in the subject to 
follow it up in greater detail* The State Gazetteer Officers had 
no knowledge of^how or where to seek for published information 
on the history of , their States and the reference work was, therefore, 
done entirely by myself. I am, therefore, solely responsible for 


^ Owing to its size it was subsequently split up to A, — Text and B.— Tables. 



ii 


PREFACE. 


any omissions which may have occurred. As I had to procure my 
works of reference from the Asiatic Societies of Bombay and 
Calcutta and could not retain the work by me an abstract of every 
important book and paper had to be made. Much time was taken up 
in preparing these precis which might have been otherwise employed 
and possibly some important references have been overlooked. In 
giving the references as fully as 'possible I have done so in the hope 
that some person interested in the subject will follow up the 
chies given, more especially as regards information given by 
Muhammadan historians. In Elliot’s History the extracts are, 
as a rule, limited to passages dealing With the general history 
of India, while those referring to individuals and individual incidents 
and exploits are left out. The excised passages are of importance, 
moreover, in that they give the names and relate exploits of 
Rajput chiefs who held commands in the Muhammadan armies. 
Ry searching the original MSS., which I had neither time nor 
the opportunity to do, much of interest to individual States would, 
I am convinced, come to light showing in what campaigns members 
of the ruling houses took part. 

For the information of those, who wish to follow up the history 
it may be noted that a Bibliography ” of the Literature of Cen* 
tral India, including chronological tables of its history, has been 
lately published by the India Office, and can be procured from 
Messrs. Thacker Spink and Company, Calcutta, and all other Gov- 
:srnment agents. 

The spelling of vernacular words has been given so as to repre- 
sent the pronounciation as far as is possible without the use of 
special type to distinguish similar letters belonging to diflereat 
groups. 

The individuality of the different accounts has been as far as 
possible preserved in each Gazetteer. The accounts also vary in 
interest, that of the Dhar State with its famous historical sites 
being af most importance to the general reader. 

In concluding I must acknowledge my indebtedness to all with 
whom I. have had to deal in the compilation of this volume My 
sincerest thanks are due to the Chiefs who have shewn a genuine 
interest in the work and .have materially assisted me, especially in 
the historical sections, with information not otherwise procurable, 
as well as by that general countenance and support on which 
success depended. 

The Gazetteer Officers, who were immediately under me, have, 
without exception, done admirably, and ray warmest thanks are 
due to them for their zeal and energy, in carrying out their duties 



PREFACE. 


Ill 


which were often very irkEome. A list of those associated with 
the compilation of this volume is given below : — 


Dewas State (S 
Dewas State (J 
Rajgarh... 
Narsinghgarh . 
Jaora 
Ratlam ... 

Sitamau 

Sailana ... 

Dhar 

Jhabua ... 
Barwani 
AH -Raj pur 


B.) ... Mr. M. N. Phadnis. 

B.) ... „ D. B. Sane, L.C.E. 

... Thakur Ajgar Sinha, B.A. 

... Pandit Kunj Bihari Lai, B.A. 

... Mirza Muhammad Said, B.A. 

... Mr. D. F. Vakil, B.A, 

^ Pandit Vasudev Rao- 
** c Pandit B. Damodar Rao. 

... Pandit Bishan Lai* 

Mr. W. T. Kapse, 

I „ B. N. Khory. 

...Mr. Damodar Bhagwant Kaveshwar. 
... „ Meherjibhoy Hormasji. 

... „ Narayan Vaman Naik 


There are also many others not thus officially connected with 
me to whom my thanks are also due. Among these I may mention 
Mr. K. K. Lele, formerly Director of Public Instruction at Dhar ; 
Rao Bahadur R. J. Bhide, B.A., Superintendent of Dewas (S.B.) ; 
Rai Bahadur Lala Bishesarnath, Diwan of Rajgarh ; Lala Durga 
Sahai, Superintendent of Narsinghgarh ; Khan Bahadur Yar 
Muhammad Khan, C.S.L, Minister of Jaora ; and Mr. P. Babu Rao 
Walewalkar, B.A., L.L.B., Diwan of Ratlam. 

The office at headquarters also deserves its meed of praise. The 
work of adjusting and checking and retyping the accounts has 
been severe. The whole staff, however, has worked with zeal, and 
I am much indebted to Pandit Shridhar Rao Vinayak Dhamankar , 
the Head Clerk, and the office staff generally for their prompt 
and careful attention to the work. 


Last, but not least, my thanks are due to the Political Agents. 
So far, as was possible, I avoided adding to their already fully 
occupied time by making references but occasionally it has been 
unavoidable, and I would express my thanks for the trouble they 
have invariably taken in answering my questions and satisfying my 
importunities* 


C. E. LUARD, CAPTAIN, 


Superintendent of Gazetteer in Central India* 


Cektrae India Agency, Indore, 
Dated the 15th January 1907* 


} 




CONTENTS 


DEWAS STATES. 


Title Page. 

Coats of Arms. 

Genealogical Tree. 


CHAPTER I. 


DESCRIPTIVE— 

Page, 

Section I — Physical Aspects 

1 

,t II— History ... 

2 

,, HI — Population... 

13 

CHAPTER II. 


ECONOMIC— 


Section I— Agriculture ... 

17 

♦, II— Wages and Prices 

25 

,. Ill— Forests 

26 

M IV— Mines and Minerals 

28 

M V— Arts and Manufactures... 

ib 

»• VI — Commerce and Trade ... 

29 

,1 VII — Means of Communication. 

31 

,* VIII— Famine 

32 

CHAPTER III. 


ADMINISTRATIVE— 


Section I— Administration 

34 

„ II— I>aw and Justice 

38 

,, III— Finance 

41 

M IV — Land Revenue ... ... 

43 

M V— Miscellaneous Revenue 

48 

Vl-Public Works 

50 

.1 VII— Army 

51 

M VIII— Police and Jails 

53 

T, IX— Education 

54 

t, X— Medical ... ... ... 

S5 

1 ) XI — Surveys 

ib 

CHAPTER IV. 


ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS 


AND 


GAZETTEER. 


Senior Branch, 


Administrative Units 

57 

Gazetteer ... ,,, ,,, 

63 

Junior Branchy 


Administrative Units 

70 

Gazetteer ... ... 

76 

Appendix A— Treaty ... 

Map of the Dewas States, 

80 


rajgarh state. 

Title Page. 

Coat of Arms. 

Genealogical Tree, 

CHAPTER 1. 
descriptive— 

Section I — Physical Aspects ... 83 

•• n-History 


M III— Population gg 

CHAPTER 11. 

ECONOMIC— 

Section I — ^Agriculture 91 

M II — 'Wages and Prices 93 

„ III— Forests 94 

,, IV— Mines and Minerals ... ib 

f, V — Arts and Manufactures ... tb 
,, VI — Commerce and Trade ih 

M VII — Means of Communication. 95 
VIII— Famine 


CHAPTER III. 
ADMINISTRATIVE— 

Section I— Administration ... ... 96 


,, II — Law and Justice ... ... ib 

t, III — Finance 97 

,, IV— Land Revenue ... ... 98 
,, V — ^Miscellaneous Revenue ... ib 

„ VI — Local and Municipal 99 

,, VII— Public Works ... ib 

„ VIII— Army ib 

,, IX— Police and Jails ... ... 100 

X— Education . ib 

XI— Medical ib 

M XII — Surveys ib 

CHAPTER IV, 


ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS 
AND 

GAZETTEER. 

Administrative Units ... 101 

Gazetteer... 103 

APPENDICES— 

“A" Agreement ... ... ... ... 107 

♦‘B” Variations in Early History as given , 
by Rajgarh and Narsinghgarh, 109 
(For M^ of the State s^e after page 179.} 



11 


CONTESTS — ( Contd.) 


NARSINGHGARH 

STATE. 

Title Page. 

Coat of Arms. 

Genealogical Tree. 

CHAPTER I. 

DESCRIPTIVE— 


JAORA STATE. 

Title Page. 

Coat of Arms. 

Genealogical Tree, 

CHAPTER L 

descriptive— 

Page. 

Section I — Physical Aspects 181 

,, II — History ... 182 

„ III — Population 188 


Page. 


Section I— Physical Aspects ... 

113 

t, 

II — History 

114 

»» 

Ill — Population 

CHAPTER II. 

ECONOMIC— 

118 

Section I — Agriculture 

121 


II — Rents, Wages and Prices 

128 

»» 

III — Forests 

130 

» j 

IV— Mines and Minerals 

132 

j» 

V — Arts and manufactures ... 

133 

i) 

VI — Commerce and Trade ... 

134 

>r 

VII — Means of Communicationt 

137 


VIII — Famine ... 

CHAPTER III, 
ADMINISTRATIVE — 

138 

Section I — Administration 

140 


II — Law and Justice ... 

142 

it 

Ill — Finance ... 

145 

it 

IV — Land Revenue ... ... 

146 


V — ^Miscellaneous Revenue ... 

152 

if 

VI — Public Works 

153 

It 

VII— Army 

ib 

»j 

VIII— Police and Jails 

156 

it 

IX— Education ... 

157 

It 

X — Medical 

158 

tj 

XI — Survej^s 

zb 


CHAPTER IV. 
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS 
AND 

GAZETTEER. 

Administrative Divisions 

Gazetteer... 

APPENDICES. 

Engagement 171 

’‘B” Variations in Early History as given 
by Rajgarh and Narsinghgarh 173 

"'C’* Statemens showing the time of sowing 
and reaping, necessity for irrigation, and 
number and times of waterings for the 
various crops 

Map of the Rajgarh and Narsinghgarh 
States. ^ 


CHAPTER II. 

ECONOMIC— 


Section I— Agriculture ... ... 191 


,, 

II — Wages and Prices 

194 

it 

III — Forests 

195 


IV — Mines and Minerals 

196 


V — Arts and Manufactures ... 

tb 


VI — Commerce and Trade ... 

197 

ft 

VII — Means of Communicaton 

198 

») 

VIII — Famine ... 

CHAPTER III. 

ADMINISTRATIVE— 

199 

Section I— Administration 

200 

}* 

II — Law and Justice 

201 

It 

III— Finance ... ... 

203 

S9 

IV— ‘Land Revenue .»• 

207 

tf 

V — Miscellaneous Revenue... 

210 

*t 

VI — Public Works ... ... 

212 

5J 

VII — Army 

213 

1 t 

VIII— Police and Jails 

zb 


IX — Education ... ... 

214 

)t 

X — Medical .«« 

215 


CHAPTER IV. 
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS 
AND 

GAZETTEER, 

Table of Administrative Units ,*t 217 

Gazetteer 

Appendix A— Treaty 319 

(For Map of the State see after page 353.) 

RATLAIVI STATE. 

Title Page. 

Coat of Arms. 

Genealogical Trees. 

CHAPTER I. 

DESCRIPTIVE— 

■ Section I— Physical Aspects 221 

„ II— History 223 

„ III— Population 236 



CONTENS— (co«/d) 



CHAPTER 11. 



ECONOMIC— 


Section I — Agriculture 

244 


II — Wages and Prices 

262 

»> 

III — Forests .i. 

265 


IV — Mines and Minerals 

ih 

»> 

V — ^Artsand Manufactures... 

ih 

>3 

VI — Commerce and Trade ... 

270 

it 

VII — Means of Communication 

277 

if 

VIII — Famine 

278 


CHAPTER III. 



ADMINISTRATIVE— 


Section I — Administration ... 

281 

i 1 

II— Legislation and Justice ... 

283 


Ill — Finance 

288 


IV— Land Revenue ... 

290 

a 

V — Miscellaneous Revenue ... 

297 


VI— Public Works 

301 

if 

VII— Army 

302 

f> 

VIII— Police and Jails 

ib 


IX — Education ... 

304 


X — Medical 

307 

n 

XI — Surveys 

308 


CHAPTER IV. 



ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS 


AND 


GAZETTEER, 


Administrative Divisions «.« 

... 309 

Gazetteer ... ... 

... 3U 

Appendix A — Agreement 

... 317 

(For Map of the State see after page 388.) 


SITAWIAU STATE. 

Title Page. 

Coat of Arms. 

Genealogical Tree. 


CHAPTER I. 


Section I— Physical Aspects .« 

319 

jj 

II— History 

320 


Ill— Population 

326 


CHAPTER 11. 



ECONOMIC— 


Section I— Agriculture 

329 

»» 

II— Rents, Wages and Prices 

335 


HI— Forests 

ib 

if 

lY— Mines and Minerals ... 

336 

t> 

V— Arts and Manufactures.., 

ib 

>t 

VI — Commerce and Trade ... 

ib . 


VIl — Means of Communication 

337 


„ VIII— Famine ... 338 


Hi 


CHAPTER III. 

administrative— 

Section I — Administration ... ... 33^ 

„ II— Law and Justice ... 341 

„ III — Finance ... ... 342 

„ IV — Land Revenue ib 

n V — Miscellaneous Revenue ... 343 

)i VI — Local and Municipal ... 344 

VII— Public Works ih 

„ VIII— Army 345 

„ IX — Police and Jails ... ... ib 

„ X— Education ib 

„ XI— Medical 346 

„ XII — Surveys ih 

CHAPTER IV. 


ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS 
AND 

GAZETTEER. 

Administrative Divisions ... ... 347 

Gazetteer 34$ 

APPENDICES.. 

Appendix A — Statement of Crops ,*« 351 

Do. B,— Engagement 352 

Map of the Jaora and Sitamau States. 

SAILANA STATE. 

Title Page. 

Coat of Arms. 

Genealogical Tree. 

CHAPTER I. 

DESCRIPTIVE— 


Section I— Physical Aspects ... 355 
„ II — History ... ... . 357 

,) III — Population 359 

CHAPTER II. , 

ECONOMIC— 

Section I — Agriculture ... ... 362 

„ II— Rents Wages and Prices. 369 
,, III— Forests 370 


,, IV — Mines and Minerals ••• 372 
„ V— Arts and manufactures ... 373 

„ VI — Commerce and Trade ... ib 
„ VII — Means of Communication. 375 
„ VIII— Famine ... 376 

CHAPTER III. 

ADMINISTARTIVE— 

Section I — Administration 378 

,, II— Legislation and Justice ... ' 379 

„ III — Finance 380 

' IV — Land Revenue .»» ... 382 

V — Miscellaneous Revenue... 383 



CONTENTS — (coned,) 


!ir 


Page. 

„ VI — Public Works ... ... 383 

f, VII — Army tb 

i, VIII —Police and Jails 384 

IX — Education... ... ... tb 

99 X*— IVledical ..i *»• •*. 38S 

„ XI— Surveys ib 


CHAPTER IV. 

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS 
AND 

GAZETTEER. 

Administrative Divisions ... ... 386 

Gazetteer 387 

Map of the Ratlam and Sailana States. 

DHAR STATE. 

Title Page. 

Coat of Arms. 

Genealogical Tree. 

CHAPTER I. 


- 

DESCRIPTIVE— 


Section 

I— Physical Aspects *•« 

389 


II— History ... ... 

395 

n 

III— Population 

402 


CHAPTER II. 



ECONOMIC— 


Section 

I— Agriculture 

406 

If 

II— Rents, Wages and Prices 

*422 

)i 

HI— Forests ... .n 

425 

jj 

IV — Mines and Minerals ... 

430 

>» 

V — Arts and Manufactures 

431 

jf 

VI — Commerce and Trade 

434 

~9t 

VII— Means of Communication 442 

„ VIII— Famine 

446 


CHAPTER IIL 

ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Section I — Administration ... ... 443 

„ n— Legislation and Justice ... 451 

~ » III— Finance ' 455 

- IV— Land Revenue 

„ V— Miscellaneous Revenue. 466 
,, VI — Local and Municipal 459 
•t VII— Public Works ... 

„ VIII— Army 

IX— Police and Jails 
)f X— Education 

jf XI— Medical ... 

„ XII — Surveys ... 


CHAPTER IV. 
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS 
AND 

GAZETTEER. 

Page. 

Administrative Dvisions *it 483 

Gazetteer 493 

APPENDICES. 

Appendix A — Treaty ... 510 

,, B. — List of Archaeological Places 513 
Map of the Dhar State. 

JHABUA STATE. 

Title Page. 

Coat of Arms. 

Genealogical Tree. 

CHAPTER I. 

DESCRIPTIVE— 

Section I— Physical Aspects ... 517 


„ II — History 

... 

518 

„ III— Population ... 


527 

chapter II, 



economic— 



Section 1— Agriculture ... 

*•« 

528 

„ II — Wages and Prices 

*.« 

530 

„ III — Forests ••• 


ib 

„ IV — Mines and Minerals 


532 

,, V — Arts and Manufactures 


533 

„ VI — Commerce and Trade 

... 

534 

„ VII— Means of Communication 

535 

„ VIII — Famine 


536 

CHAPTER III. 



administrative— 



Section I— Administration ... 


537 

„ II— Legislation and Justice. 

538 

„ III — Finance ... ... 

*** 

539 

,, IV — Land Revenue ... 


540 

„ V — Miscellaneous Revenue... 

$43 

,, VI— Public Works ... 

•»« 

543 

,j VII— Army ... 

... 

ib 

„ VIII — Police and Jails ... 

... 

544 

„ IX — Educataion 

.»* 

ib 

» X — Medical 

... 

ib 

CHAPTER IV. 



ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS 


AND 



GAZETTEER, 



Table of Administrative Divisions 


545 

Gazetteer 


ib 

APPENDIX. 



Appendix A— Engagement 

♦ *9 

553 


Map of the Jhabua State. 


... 471 
472 
474 
476 
481 
... 482 



CONTENTS— (cofjyci.) 


V 


BARWANI STATE. 

Title Pa^e. 

Coat of Arms. 

Genealogical Tree. 

CHAPTER I, 

DESCRIPTIVE— 

Section I — Physical Aspects ... 555 

,, II— History ... ... ... 556 

,, III — Population 561 

CHAPTER II. 

economic- 


Section I— Agriculture 

563 

1 1 

II — Wages and Prices 

567 

tf 

III — Forests 

568 

« • 

IV — Mines and Minerals 

573 

« * 

V — Arts and Manufactures ... 

ib. 

t > 

VI — Commerce and Trade 

574 

1 » 

VII — Means of Communication. 

577 

i* 

VIII— Famine ... 

579 


CHAPTER III. 



ADMINISTRATIVE — 


Section I— Administration 

581 


II — Law and Justice ... 

582 


Ill— Finance ... ... ... 

584 


IV— Land Revenue ... ... 

tb. 


V — Miscellaneous Revenue ... 

586 


VI— Public Works 

587 


VII — Army 

ib. 


VIII — Police and Jails 

588 


IX — Education ... 

ib. 


X— Medical ... 

589 


XI — Surveys ... ... 

ib. 


chapter IV. 

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS 
AND 

GAZETTEER. 

Administrative Units ... ... ... 590 

Gazetteer... ... 593 

(For Map of the State see after page 615.) 

GLOSSARY 

INI^EIKbM. ... ,,, 


ALI-RAJPUR STATE. 

Title Page. 

Coat of Arms. 

Genealogical Tree. 

chapter l 

DESCRIPTION— 

Section I — Physical Aspects 597 

i. II—History ... 5gg 

,, III— Population 600 

chapter II. 


ECONOMIC— 

Section I — Agriculture ... 502 



II — Wages and Prices 

603 


III — Forests .. 

ib. 


IV — Arts and Manufactures .. 

607 


V — Commerce and Trade ... 

ib. 


VI — Means of Communication. 

608 


VII — Famine ... ... 

ib. 


CHAPTER III. 



ADMINISTRATIVE— 


Section I— Administration 

609 

>> 

II— Law and Justice 

ib. 

r » 

Ill — Finance 

ib. 

s t 

IV — Land Revenue 

ib. 

t > 

V — Miscellaneous Revenue .. 

610 


VI— Public Works ... ,,, 

ib. 

* * 

VII-Army 

ib. 

»• 

VIII— Police and Jails ... 

ib. 

> » 

IX — Education... »*• ... 

ib. 

• > 

X— Medical 

ib. 


CHAPTER IV. 
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS 
AND 

GAZETTEER. 

Table of Administrative Units ... 611 

Gazetteer 

Appendix A— Engagement 615 

Map of the Barwani and Ali-Rajpur States. 


• t«4l ••• 1-12 

••• ••• l“~“'‘!S3iUl 




BIBLIOGRAPHY. 


The works consulted included local books such as the Ratan 
Rasa and Gunvachanika of Ratlam, the Tarikh -i-Mdlwa of Karam 
AH etc. 

Ain. — Ain-i-Akbari, Translated by Blochmann and Jarret, 

A. S.W.I. — Archaeological Survey of Western India. 

Bernier ^s Travels (Constable). 

B. F. — Ferishta’s History, Translated by Col. Briggs. 

B.G. — The History of Gujarat by E. C. Bayley (1886). 

Bombay Gazetteer (old edition). 

B. R. — Bhandarkar’s ‘^Report on the search for Sanskrit MSS.” 

C. A.S.R. — A. Cunningham. Archaeological Survey Report. 

Col. Gurwood* — Wellington s Despatches (1835). 

Price, D. — Memoirs of J ahaugueir (1829). 

E.I., Ep. Ind. — Epigraphia Indica. 

E.M.H. — Sir H. Elliot, The History of India as told by its own 
Historians. 

Terry, E. — 'Voyage to East India (1655). 

Forbes, J. Oriental Memoirs (1st Ed- 1813). 

G.D. — Grant Duff, A History of the Maharattas (3 vols. Ed-) 
Hakluyt’s Voyages (Ed. 1809)^ 

History of Mandu by a Bombay Subaltern- 

Prinsep, H.T, — Memoirs of Amir Khan (Calcutta, 1832)- 

Inayat Khan.^ — Shahjahan Nama> 

Ind- Ant., I. A. — Indian Antiquary. 

J-A.O.S. — Journal of the American Oriental Society. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Bengal. 

J.B.R.A.S- — Journal of the Asiatic Society, Bombay. 

' J.R.A-S. — ^Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, London. 

Sylvester, J.S- — Recollections of the Campaign of Malwa and 
Central India (Bombay). 

Forbes, K. — Rasmala* 

Malet’s Diary in, Selections from the State papers in the Bombay 
Secretariat {Maratha Series, vol. /.) 

Parasnis. — Life of Brahmendra Swdmi Dhavadshikar. 

Raikes. — Memoir on Thurr and Parhur, 

Rajasthan. — J. Tod. Rajasthan (Calcutta, Ed. 1893) 

R. T- — Tabakat-i-Nasiri by Major Ravarty (1881.) 
Seir-ul-Mutaqhrin, 4 vols (Cambray, Calcutta.) 

Malcolm, Sir John. — Memoir of Central India. 

Broughton, T, D, — Letters from a Mahratta Camp (Constable.) 
Tieffenthaler. — Description Historique et Geographiqtie de-t Inde^ 
Paris 1786. 

Lowe, T. — Central India during the rebellion of 1857 (1860). 
Blacker, V. '' (IVCahratta "War) JMemoir of the operaction of the 
British Army 1817-19- (1820.) 

Vikramdnkadeva Charita Ed. Btihler (Bombay, 1875), 

Thorn, W. — Memoirs of the War of 1817-18* 


J-B.A-S— 
J.A.B.— }> 

J.B.A,— J 




Dewas State. 




ARMS OF THE DEWAS STATE. 


Senior Sranch 



Arms. — Gules ; Hanuman statant argent holding mountain 
Drondchal in dexter and a mace in sinister hand, on a 
Chief, or a pellet between two flames proper. Crest — 
Wings erect gules. Supporters. — Elephants. 

]VEottO# — Dal dvayo hhdti vamshah: ‘‘Two branches grace 
one stem (family) ’’ 

Note. — The banner of the State is red and bears Hanuman ; 

the flames and pellet refer, respectively, to the Chief^s 
Agnikula descent, and the fact that they are Ponwars, 
whose rule extended according to proverb over the 
world (pellets), the wings in the crest also referring 
to this wide dominion. The Elephants are a reference 
to the same fact as the wings and pellets, the 
Ponwars being Gajmantas.. 

GsHealogical Creed. — The family belongs to the Rig-veda 
and the Rik-shdkhd. Vasishth gotra, having three 
pravarasj the 'Vasishth, Indrapramada and Sha- 
radvasu. The Chief is a Vaishnav Hindu and belongs 
to the Maratha Kshatriya clan. The family deities 
ijzuladevatas) are Khandoba of Jejuri and Bhavani of 
Tuljapur, in the Deccan. 




Arms of the Dewas State, 
Junior Branchs, 



Arms." — Gules; Hanuman statant argent holding mountain 
Dronachal in dexter and a mace in sinister handj 
within a bordure or charged with four pellets 
between eight flames proper. Crest — Wings 

erect gules. Supporters — Elephants charged on 
shoulder with mullets argent. 

Motto* — Dala dvayo hhdti vamshah \ “ Two branches 

grace one stem ( family ). ” 

Note. — Gules is the State colour. The Hanuman is borne on 
their banner. The flames, pellets, wings in crest and 
elephant supporters all refer to the Paramara clan 
from which they trace descent, the flames alluding to 
their Agnikula origin, and the wings and elephants 
to their world wide rule. 

The motto is self-evident. 

Genealogical Creed, — The family belongs to the JRig-veda 
and the Rik-sJidklia, Vasishth gotra^ having three 
:pravaras, the Vasishth^ Indraprainada and Bha- 
radvasu. The Chief is a Vaishnav Plindu and 
belongs to the Maratha Kshatriya clan. The family 
deities ( kuladevafas ) are Khandoba of Jejuri and 
Bhavani of Tuljapur, in the Deccan, 

These were the arms given at Delhi. The present arms are modilied, the 
bordure being omitted and “ Chief ’’ added, bearing a sun between two crescents. 







CHAPTER I. 

DESCRIPTIVE. 

Section I-— Physical Aspects- 
BOTH BRANCHES. 

The curious twin States of Dewas are situated in the Malwa^ Situation. 
Agency Political Charge of the Central India Agency. 

The two States lie, except for the isolated pargana of Bagaud, Boundaries, 
entirely on the Malwa plateau. Their territories which are inexVi- 
cably intermixed with the possessions of other Central India chiefs, 
especially with those of Sindhia and Holkar, lie roughly between 
latitude 22° and 24' N., longitude 75° and 77' E. The various 
boundaries will be dealt with in detail in the pargana accounts. 

The States derive their name from the hill of Dewas, probably Name, 
a contraction of devi vdsini, which stands close to the capital. They 
are officially distisiguished as the Senior Branch (S. B.) and Junior 
Branch (J. B.). 

The Senior Branch has an area of 446, and the Junior Branch of Area. 

440, square miles. The greater part of the country, as lying in 
Malwa, shares in the general conditions prevalent over that tract, 
consisting of wide rolling downs of highly fertile soil dotted over 
with the curious flat-topped hills common to the Deccan trap area. 

In the Khdsgi and Bagaud parganas portions of the Vindhya Hill system, 
range cross the district, with hills standing from 300 to 500 feet 
above the surrounding plain. In the hilly country of the Bagaud 
pargana the peaks of Dhajari and Tumai Mata rise considerably 
over 2,000 feet above sea level. 

The main watershed is formed by the Vindhyan range whence all River systeui. 
streams flow northwards towards the Jumna-Ganges dodb- There 
are in the States three main water systems connected respectively 
with the Chambal, Sipra, and Kali Sind rivers. 

The Chambal which flows for about 10 miles through the Eingnod 
pargana (J. B.) is of considerable size, but of no use for irrigation. 

Xhe Sipra flows along the western border of the main block of 
territory of both Branches for about 30 miles. The banks are high and 
the waters of little use for irrigation. It does not, moreover, flow 
throughout the year, though at various places in its course there are 
pools which retain water during the whole twelve months. On the 
banks of this stream, which is of noted sanctity, stand several places 
held sacred by the Hindus, notably Suklia (S. B.), Havankhedi 
0. B.), and Dashwa-ghat near Langarkhedi (J, B). At the 
confluence of the Nagdhaman and Sipra a temple was erected by 

* Until 1007 these States were directly under the Agent to the Governor. 

General, the First Assistant acting as Pohtical Agent, 



2 


DEW A3 STATES. 


Haibat Rao Bapu Sahib of the Junior Branch. The lesser Kali Sind, 
^vhich rises near Jaitpura village (23= 0' N.. 76= 9' E.) in the 
Senior Branch flows for 18 miles through the States, while the 
greater Kali Sind flows through the Sarangpur pargana. These 
rivers are of no use for agricultural purposes. Numerous tributa- 
ries feed these streams, some of which are used for irrigation during 


part of the year, 

. 1 The Dewas States have never been surveyed, but lie entirely in 
jeo-ogj. Deccan Trap area and present all the features common to that 

formation. 

j The vegetation is principally a low forest with sometimes a fair 

* ^ amount of bamboo (Dendrocalamti^s stricHis), The chief trees are 
Bufea^ Bombax, Anogeissus, Acacia, Bttchanania, and Boswellia, 
The shrubs or small trees include species of Grewia, Zizyphtis, 
Casearia, Prosopis, Capparis, Woodfordia, Phyllanthus, Canssa, 
and the like. In the southern outlying part of Dewas, near the 
Narbada, the forest vegetation is that characteristic of the Central 
Indian Highlands, with Ougeinia, Tecfona, Terminalia, and 
Dalhergia as typical trees. 


w:id The animals found in the Dewas State are the same as those 

arjmals. elsewhere in Central India. Of the larger kinds tigers are practically 

never met with, there being no jungles affording suitable cover. 
Leopards are seen occasionally in the hills. Of deer the sdmbar 
iCervus tmicolor) frequents the hills by Raghogarh (S. B.), 
while the smaller species of deer, the black-buck {Antilope, cervi 
capra) and chinkdra {Gazella benetii) are to be seen everywhere. 
The usual birds and fishes occur throughout the States. 


CHnia^:8 and 
rainfall. 
(Tables I 

and a.) 


The climate varies in the Mahva section and in Bagaud. On 
the plateau the equitable conditions prevalent in that region 
obtain, while in Bagaud the temperature rises somewhat higher. 
The highest recorded temperature at Dewas in the last 10 years 
was 111° in 1897, the lowest 53° in 1901. 


The average rainfall for Dewas town and districts is 35 inches. 


Section II*— History. 

The chiefs of Dewas are Maratha Ponwars claiming descent from 
the old Paramara Rajputs who held sw^ay in Mahva from *the 
9th to the 13th century. ® 

The Paramaras being dispersed by the Muhammadan conquerors, 
a part of the clan entered the Deccan where they became gradually 
absorbed into the local population and became Marathas. 

The first historical ancestor of importance is Sabu Singh, or 
Shivaji as he was called in the Deccan, Shivaji settled at the 

^ By Mr. E. V'redenburg, Geological Stirvey of India. 

» By Lieutenant-Colonel D, Prain, I. M, S., Botanical Survey of India. 

® For a sketch of this portion of the history see Dhar State Gazetteer. 



HISTOBY. 


3 


village of Hange near Ahmadnagar. Having some horse and foot 
at his disposal, he took to raiding and on one occasion was captured 
by the great Shivaji, then occupied in founding the Maratha 
Empire. 

Shivaji, however, soon released him and enrolled him among his 

supporters. Sabu Singh was wounded at the battle of Kalyan 

(1646). He returned to Hange and founded the village of 

Sukbewadi, now called Supa, of which he was granted the Patelship. 

In 1647, however, he was killed in a skirmish. He left a son Krish- 

naji, then a child of five or six, who, with his mother, was obliged 

by family dissensions to leave Supa. About 1660 Krishnaji visited 

Shivaji, who employed him in the army and later on reinstated him in 

his ancestral lands for good services rendered to the Maratha cause, 

/ • • » ^ 
granting him also the villages of Kanagi and Karangaon in mam. 

He left three sons, Bubaji, Rayaji, and Keroji who also appear to 
have risen to high rank by their services. Bubaji was given the title 
of Visvas Rao^ a title still held by the heads of the Supa family. 

Bubaji had two sons, Kaluji and Sambhaji, who joined the 
Maratha expeditions which entered Malwa on several occasions. 

In 1696 they reached Mandu, and thus renewed the ancient connec- 
tion of their house with Malwa. From Sambhaji are descended 
through Udaji Ponwar, the Dhar Ponwars, and from Kaluji the 
house of Dewas, 

Kaluji had four sons, Krishnaji, Tukoji, Jixvaji, and Manaji, of 
whom Krishnaji and Manaji settled in the Deccan, while Tukoji 
and Jiwaji entered military service. , Rising to positions of impor- 
tance they ultimately received the jyarganas of Dewas, Sarangpur, 

Alot, Ringnod, Gadgucha, Bagaud, Hamirpur in Bundelkhand, and 
other lands in Norllaern India and ^vere also permitted to carry a 
banner and sound a drum {Qhaughada), The territory in Northern 
India has since been lost. 

The two brothers then commenced to rule jointly over the same Dual rule 
country* there being at first no distinct separation of the territory established, 
into shares. As might be expected, this arrangement was unsatis- 
factory and led finally to a partition during their lifetime. The 
lines descended from Tukoji and Jiwaji are respectively styled the 
Senior and Junior Branch or Bari and Chhoii pdniu 
SENIOR BRANCH. 

The date of Tukoji’s birth is not known, but he took part in the Tukoji L 
battle of Tirla against Daya Bahadur in 1732. He was, in return ( 1728 — 53 )* 
for his services, granted the honor of carrying the Jarlpatka 
(a standard of gold lace) and in certain sanads uses the title of Sena 
Hapta Sahasri ^ (or commander of 7,000 horse) apparently acquired 
at this time. 

^ This title is found in the sanads given by Tukoji Rao to the ancestors of ^ 

the Diwilnand Fhadnis, for villages in Khandesh. 



4 


BEWAS STATES. 


Tukoji took a prominent part in the events of the day and is 
mentioned by BajI Rao I. in a letter^ dated 15th May, 1740, to his 
brother Chimnaji Appa, written from Delhi. 

Tnkoji also took part in the capture of Bassein from the 
Portuguese by the Peshwa*s brother Chimnaji Appa in 1739, and 
in a letter ^ written by Chimnaji to the Peshwa he commends his 
valour. Tukoji was present in the battle fought at Bhopal between 
the Marathas under Baji Rao I. and the Mughals under Nizam-ul~ 
mulk in 1738. ® Tukoji in a letter to Brahmendra Swami, dated 
from Ganegaon, writes of his being on an expedition to Maksudabad 
when he, vvith his whole army, took advantage of the fact to visit 
Benares and Gaya. ^ Tukoji accompanied the Peshwa in a 
number of expeditions, and the close connection that existed between, 
him and the Satara Raja is shewn by the grant of land at Ganegaon, 
24 miles east of Poona, toTukoji’s wife Savitri Bai, by Raja Shahu 
who looked upon her as his sister. This piece of land is still known 
as choli or the bodice in regard to its being the gift of a brother to 
sister. Tukoji was killed in 1753 in Marwar where he had gone 
with Jayapa Sindhia.® His brother Jiwaji, always devoted to 
him, performed his funeral ceremonies at Pushkar. Tukoji held 
the Pdtilki Yatan or Patelship of Ganegaon, considered one of the 
greatest honors that a Maratha can aspire to. 

Krishnaji Tukoji was succeeded by Krishnaji, a grandson of his brother 
Krishnaji, who was adopted by Savitri Bai. Krishnaji was a minor 
and remained at Supa with his father’s family while Savitri Bai 
endeavoured to manage the State from Ganegaon. This arrange- 
ment did not prove a success and the power of the State decreased 
rapidly. On reaching his majority Krishnaji took over the admi- 
nistration. He accompanied Jankoji Sindhia and was present at 
the disastrous battle of Panipat (January 6th, 1761). 

After the death of Madhav Rao Peshwa in 1772 Krishnaji joined 
.the party headed by Mahadji Sindhia, with whom he remained for 
twelve years in Northern India. 

Krishnaji adopted Vithal Rao, the son of his own younger 
brother Rdnoji, who succeeded to the Chief ship under the name of 
Tukoji Rao 11. 

During these long absences the administration of the State was 
conducted by the Diwan Mahipat Baji Rao, the ancestor of the 
present hereditary Diwan. The chief function of the minister in 

Paras of Brahmendra Swami Bhavadskihar^ page 2x. 

2 Ihid.^ page 74, 

® G. D. I*, 459 * 

^ Parasnis— Xt/e of Brahmendra Smami^ page 199, 

* G. D. I., 6oi. 



HISTORY. 


5 


those days was to give the patganccs on ijara or farm to bankersj 
who advanced money to defray the necessarily heavy military 
charges. Krishnaji like other Maratha chiefs was, owing to bis 
large army, over-burdened with debts and was, at length driven to 
reduce the number of his forces. From a memorandum of 1781 it 
appears that serious disputes arose at this time between the heads 
of the tw'o Branches necessitating the intervention of the authori- 
ties at Poona. 

Krishnaji Rao built the Senior Branch palace in the town, also 
the Ganga haori and temples adjoining it. 

When Krishnaji, who was still in Upper India with Sindhia, 
found that his health was failing he endeavoured to return to 
Poona. Finding, however, that he was too weak to undertake the 
journey he wrote to Nana Phadnis at Poona regarding his adopted 
son Tukoji, at the same time securing the powerful support of 
Mahadji Sindhia, and the famous Ahalya Bai Holkar, who wrote 
on his behalf to the Peshwa. 

Krishnaji died while on his way south on the 11th of March, 

1789, at Burhanpur. 

In a letter written to the Peshwa on July 13th, 1789, Sindhia TukoJi 
urged the claims of Tukoji and mentions the good services 
which his adoptive father had rendered to the Maratha cause, ^ 
while Raja Sadashiv Rao of the Junior Branch was living in retire- 
ment at Ujjain. The appeal was successful and Tukoji became 
Chief. Madhav Rao Narayan Peshwa, presented a khilat to Tukoji 
Rao on recognizing him as Krishnaji’s heir in 1789, 

Tukoji II. succeeded on the death of Krishnaji* The chiefs of 
Dhar and the Junior Branch endeavoured to prove that the adop- 
tion of Tukoji had never really taken place and deputed agents to 
represent this fact to the Peshwa at Poona. The all powerful 
support of Mahadji Sindhia and Ahalya Bai Holkar, however, was 
given to Tukoji,^ 

Tukoji’s difficulties were enhanced by the intrigues of Bhagwant 
Rao, an illegitimate son of Krishnaji, who, when Tukoji proceeded 
to Poona to secure his succession, came to Dewas and taking 
advantage of his absence, began to exact money from the ryots. 

For six or seven years he remained in the Alot pargana and 
oppressed the people by his extortions ; but was finally caught 
and imprisoned by Tukoji Rao, who with great magnanimity 
' pardoned him and provided him with a suitable allowance. 

The two Branches at this time possessed the following 
parganas : — 

I. — Parganas held by the two Branches — Dewas, Alot, 
Sarangpur, Ringnod, and Bagaud. 

^ Original letters in Dewas and Indore Records. 



6 


DEWAS STATES. 


II. — Parganas held jointly by Sindhia, Holkar, and Ponwdrs 
of Dhdr and Dewds — (1) Sundarsi (C, I.) ; (2) Hamir- 
pur in Bundelkhand ; (3) Dongala (C. I,, part of 
Nimanpur, Makrar, and Dhar) ; (4) Chhayan (C. I.) ; 
(5) Nalcha (C. I.) ; (6) Banswada (Rajputana) ; (7) 
Kurwad (Rajputana) ; (8) Sherpur; (9) Piplod (C. I.); 
(10) Indargarh (Datia) ; (11) Khatoli (Rajputana) ; 
(12) Dungarpur (Rajputana) ; (13) Kotah (Rajputana) ; 
(14) Sapor (Rajputana); (15) Bakaner (C. I.); and 
(16) Balon. 

III. — Villages held in jdgir in the Deccan — (1) Newasa 

(Ahmadnagar) ; (2) Jalgaon (Khandesh); and (3) Chin- 
chodi (Khandesh). 

IV. — Pdtilki hags of villages in the Deccan — (1) Chinchodi 

(Khandesh) ; (2) Takli (Ahmadnagar) ; (3) Ganegaon 
(Poona District). 

During the disturbances which followed the death of Narayan 
Rao Peshwa in 1773, and which continued practically without 
intermission until 1818, the State lost most of its possessions. 

In the wars with Holkar and Sindhia Tukoji Rao was deputed by 
the Peshwa to assist General Wellesley and thus for the first time 
came into personal contact with the British. During the Pindari 
war, Tukoji II. was again brought into contact with the English "in 
assisting to pacify the country. 

In 1818, the Treaty’ between the British Government and the 
two Dewas Chiefs was concluded by which the States were 
required to provide a contingent force of 50 horse and 50 foot each, 
and to carry on their administration through a single minister. 

Sir John Malcolm who visited Dewas in 1818 presented the Chiefs 
with the following autograph letter : — 

Camp Dewas, 

31st of March, 1818. 

“ This is to request that any English Officer halting or passing 
Dewas will be Particularly careful of the cultivation and shew 
any attention in his power to the wishes of its Chief Puar who 
is of the first family in Malwa and very friendly and well disposed 
to the English Government.” 

(Sd.) John Malcolm. 

As soon as peace was restored, Tukoji proceeded to set the 
administration of the State in order. He died on 28th September, 
1827, and was succeeded by his son Rukmangad Rao, born in 1818. 


^ Appendix A* 



HISTOKT. 


7 


He had married twice, his first wife Savitri Bai, a daughter of 
the Deshmukh of Mandaogon, died soon after, while his second 
wife, Bhawani Bai, a daughter of the Deshmukh of Chalisgaon, was 
the mother of Rukmangad Rao. 

Rukmangad Rao succeeded his father when only nine years old. Rukmangad 
During his minority, his mother Bhawani Bai Sahiba managed ( 1827 -— 6 o) 
the State with the help of her minister. In her time the whole 
State excepting the Bagaud pafgana was surveyed and a settle- 
ment of the land made. She also abolished the system of giving 
out the parganas on farm. This survey was made according to the 
old Kad dhdp system, and was completed within three years. 

The record of this survey is still recognized as authoritative. 

The administration of the Bagaud pargana which, owing to its 
distance from head-quarters, could not be efficiently controlled, was 
made over to the British authorities in 1828. The surplus reve- 
nues, after defraying charges of administration were paid to the 
two Branches in equal shares. 

In the year 1832, Rukmangad Rao married a daughter of Maha- 
raja Sayaji Rao Gaekwar of Baroda, named Rew^a Bai, and later on 
another daughter, Yamuna Bai, but had no issue. 

Bhawani Bai Sahiba died in 1835. She was an able adminis- 
trator, who followed strictly in the footsteps of her husband, in the 
management of the State. After her death, ill-feeling arose 
between the Chief and his minister Govind Rao Aba, of the Supekar 
family, who then administered both Branches. This dispute 
eventually ended in his ceasing to be the Diwan of the Senior 
Branch, with the sanction of Government, 

A dispute arose at this time between the two Branches 
and ended in an arrangement by which the Chief of the Junior 
Branch, Raja Haibat Rao Bapu Sahib had agreed to establish his 
head-quarters at Sarangpur, and the sanction of Government was 
given to this arrangement. Later on, however, the two Chiefs 
became reconciled and the arrangement was abandoned. 

The contingent force, which the State was required to maintain 
under the Treaty of 1818 was at this time commuted for a yearly 
cash payment of Rs. 16,800 Hali (Rs. 14,240 British currency). 

Raja Rukmangad Rao in 1856 adopted Bubaji Rao, the third son 
of Madhava Rao of Supa, the adoption being recognized by 
Government, He also in the same year married a third wife, a 
daughter of the Deshmukh of Sangamner. The next year was 
marked by the Mutiny throughout India. During the Mutiny the 
State suffered some spoliation at the hands of the mutineers, but 
gave al]^ assistance to refugees. The British Government recognized 
the services of Rukmangad Rao by presenting him with a khilat 
and acknowledging his services, while a sum of money was granted 
as compensation for the extra expense incurred in keeping up 



8 


DEWAS STATES. 


Krishna] i 
Rao II. 
(1860—99). 


a large force during these troublous times. The Thakur ^of 
Raghogarh, the holder of 20 villages on an istimrdri tenure, joined 
the mutineers. His thakumt was, therefore, attached and the 
territory divided between the two Branches. About two years after 
Rukmangad Rao fell ill, and at the request of his wife werj,t to 
Baroda for treatment, where he died on 26th of July, 1860. 

Bubaji Rao, the adopted son of Rukmangad Rao, succeeded to the 
gaddi under the name of Krishnaji Rao II. Being a minor the 
late Chief’s widow Yamuna Bai Sahiba was appointed regent. 
She administered the State with success for seven years. 
Krishnaji Rao married a daughter of Maharaja Jayaji 
Rao Sindhia of Gw’alior, w^ho presented her wdth a dov/ry of 
four lakhs. This marriage was celebrated at Gwalior with great 
pomp. The Chief \vas granted powers of administration in 1867. 
Krishnaji Rao established the first regular judicial court in the 
State called the Addlat presided over by a Nazim. Raja Krishnaji 
Rao attended the darhdr held at Barwaha by Lord Northbrook in 
1872. The young Raja, however, soon burdened the State wdth a 
debt amounting to 20 lakhs. His mother Yamuna Bai Sahiba 
again took over the administration with the sanction of the Agent 
to the Governor-General, but unfortunately she w’as unable to 
improve matters, and the State was finally put under super- 
vision in October, 1875, with Rao Bahadur Diwan Pandurang 
Rao Tatya Sahib Gore as Superintendent. He made numerous 
improvements in the administration. In six years he had almost 
paid off the debts, and the Raja was again given ruling powders, 
Tatya Sahib Gore was succeeded by Pandit Sarup Narayan, a 
retired Native Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- General, 
Pandit Sarup Narayan resigned office in 1885, partly on account 
of his declining health, and partly on account of a difference 
of opinion with the Raja. After Pandit Sarup Narayan, Rao 
Raja Sir Dinkar Rao, the famous minister of Gwalior, was made 
an honorary adviser to the Chief. He was succeeded in 1886 
by Mr, Vishnu Keshav Kunte, the Raja’s powers being once 
more curtailed. In 1890 Mr. Kunte, who had until then been 
minister, was made Superintendent, the Chief being divested 
of all ruling powers. During his administration the finances 
were improved' while attention was given to education, medical 
relief, irrigation, and public works, and a debt of about 6 lakhs 
was discharged. In 1898 powers were again granted to the 
Chief, being conferred in open dafhdr hy the Agent to the Governor- 
General, the present Maharaja Sindhia attending. The Rani-Bagh 
water works for the supply of drinking water to the capita} which 
were planned and carried out at considerable expense by Krishnaji 
Rao out of his private savings, were opened by Colonel (after- 
wards Sir) D. W, K, Barr on the day of investiture (1898). 



niSTOEY, 


9 


Raja Krishnaji Rao’s first wife Rani Tara Raja S^iba, the sister 
of the present Maharaja Sindhia, died in 1893, and the Raja then 
married the daughter of Sardar Balwant Rao Jadhao, Havildar 
of Kolhapur, She is also styled Rani Tara Raja Sahiba and is still 
living. Raja Krishnaji Rao died on i2th October, 1899. 

The present Chief Tukoji Rao III. was adopted after the demise 
of Raja Krishnaji Rao II. Tukoji Rao is the eldest son of Sardar 
Anand Rao Madhava Rao alias Nana Sahib Ponwar of Supa, real ^ 
elder brother of Raja Krishnaji Rao 11. He was born at Dewas 
on the 2nd of Paush badi Samvat 1944 corresponding to 1st 
January, 1888. He was known before his adoption as Keshav Rao 
Bapu Sahib. The late chief who had brought him to Dewas from 
Supa, a few months before his death, with the intention of 
adopting him as his heir, sent him to be educated at the Victoria 
High School at Dewas. Raja Krishnaji Rao died suddenly of heart 
disease before the adoption ceremony had been carried out, but 
the Government of India in deference to his known wishes 
sanctioned Bapu Sahib’s adoption by his widow Rani Tara Raja 
on 14th April, 1900. He was installed on the gaddi by the 
Hon’ble Mr. C. S. Bayley, I.C.S., Agent to the Governor- General 
in Central India. His Highness Maharaja Shivaji Rao Holkar, 
G.C.S.L, and the Raja of the Junior Branch v/ere present on this 
occasion, as also representatives of the Dhar and Baroda States. 

The superintendency of this State during the chief’s minority has 
been held by Lala Bisheshar Nath and Rao Bahadur R. J. Bhide 
who is still Superintendent. The administration of the pargana of 
Bagaud, made over to the Government of India in 1828, was restored 
to the State in 1901. Various reforms have been effected in all 
branches during the administration of the present Superintendent. 

The young Raja was sent to study at the Daly College at Indore 
and later on joined the Mayo College at Ajmer, where he passed 
the diploma examination in 1905, winning several prizes. Plis 
Highness is bethrothed to the eldest daughter of His Highness 
Chhatrapati Maharaja of Kolhapur. 

The chief bears the titles of His Highness and Raja and enjoys 
a salute of 15 guns. 


The Chief has a younger brother named Jagdeo Rao Bhau S^ib Connections 
Ponwar who is the jdglrddr of Supa in the Deccan to which he and^Sard^r^. 
succeeded on the death of his father in 1904 and is also a second 
class Sardar under the Bombay Government. Pie is a Jdgir- 
ddr and first class Sardar of th'-s State. At present he is being 
educated at the Daly College at Indore. He uses the hereditary 
title of Visvas Rao, literally meaning “ trustworthy, ” originally 
granted to Bubaji. He possesses as an heirloom the khilat 
(dress) bestowed on his ancestor by the Mughal Emperor. 



10 


BEWAS STATES. 


H. H. the 
Dowager 
Maharani 
Yamuna Bai, 


Persons o£ 
position in 
the State* 


Other relations and connections of the Dewas Chief include His 
Highness Malhar Rao Baba Sahib Ponwar Raja of the Junior 
Branch and His Highness Udaji Rao Ponwar, Raja of Dhar. 
Besides these, he is related to Their Highnesses the Maharajas of 
Baroda and Gwalior, through the matrimonial alliances contracted 
with them by the two preceding Chiefs. 

The Dowager Maharani Yamuna Bai Sahiba is the daughter of the 
late Sa 3 ^aji Rao Gaekwar, Sena-Khas-Khel of Baroda (1819 — 47), 
She was born in 1829 and married Raja Rukmangad Rao in 
1843. After tbs death of her husband in 1860, she was appointed 
Regent, Raja Krishnaji Rao being a minor. Yamuna Bai Sahiba 
administered the State for seven years as Regent with success. 
When the State came under supervision, she retired to her jaglr 
village of Jamgod. For 15 years she lived in seclusion, only 
varied by pilgrimages to the principal holy places in India. Finding 
life in a village inconvenient at her advanced age, she returned to 
Dewas in 1890. She has lately sold her jewels and ornaments and 
with the major portion of the proceeds, amounting to Rs. 40,000 
she has endowed public charities, among which are the Women’s 
Ward of the Dewas Hospital, and the Trust Fund ” for advancing 
loans for the construction of agricultural wells by the ryots. The 
Government of India conferred the title of Maharani upon her 
in recognition of^ her public benefactions, the sanad being 
presented by the Hon’ble Mr. C. S. Bay ley, I.C.S., C.S.I., Agent to 
the Governor-General in Central India, on the 7th January, 1905, 
in a public darhdr held at Dewas. 

Among the Sarddrs of the State, the following may be men- 
tioned : — 

(1) Shrimant Jagdeo Rao Bhau Sahib Ponwar, real brother of 

the present Raja Sahib. 

(2) Shrimant Baya Bai Sahiba Ghatge, daughter of Raja Ruk- 

mangad Rao Ponwar by Rani Rewa Bai Sahiba, daughter 
of His late Highness Maharaja Sayaji Rao Gaekwar 
of Baroda, 

Among the Darakhaddrs of the State are the following ; — 

(1) Bajirao Amrit, hereditary Diwan whose ancestors came into 
Malwa with Tukoji Rao I, Three members of the family 
were Ministers of the State. The present Diwan was 
educated at the Daly College and has passed the Entrance 
Examination of the Allahabad University from the 
Dewas High School. He enjoys a jd^lr worth 
Es. 17,00(f a year and works as the honorary Judicial 
Assistant to the Darbar and Assistant Sessions Judge. 



HISTORT. 


11 


( 2 ) Keshavrao Ramchandra, hereditary Phadnis ( Accountant” 

General). His ancestor also accompanied Tukoji 
Rao I. His hereditary duties are those of the Accountant- 
General of the State. He holds three villages with 
an annual income of Rs. 6,000. 

JUNIOR BRANCH. 

Jiwaji Rao, the founder of the Junior Branch, became in later Jhvaji Rao 
years more or less a religious recluse, passing his time in seclusion ^ 1* 

at Mendki, where the pumping station of the present water- works 
is situated. He died in about 1775 A. D. leaving two sons, 

Sadashiv Rao^ and Anand Rao. 

Sadashiv Rao succeeded his father on the gaddi. During his Sadrishiv Rao 
rule the importance of Dewas increased considerably, the population ^ ^775— 9° 
rising rapidly and the limits being extended. At this time the 
Ranch mdlidl palace, the old residence of the chiefs, was abandoned 
in favour of the Ldhvdda^ a new building erected by Sadashiv 
Rao. At his death, which occurred about 1790, his son Rukmangad 
Rao succeeded. 

The history of this period is one continuous record of ravage Rukmangad 
and depredation by the Pindaris, Sindhia, and Holkar on the one 
hand, and of internal strife with the local Thakurs on the other, 
the latter taking advantage of the unsettled condition of the State, 
to break into open rebellion. Dewas w^as indeed at that time, as 
Malcolm says,“ the sport of every change,*' and so desperate had the 
condition of affairs become, that but for the timely appearance of 
the British on the scene at this juncture, the State would have been 
absorbed into either Holkar’s or Sindhia's dominions. 

Rukmangad Rao, who died in 1817, had no children, while his 
cousin Haibat Rao, who would have succeeded, had died in 1808. 

Plaibat R*ao’s widow Mhalsa Bai thereupon adopted, rather 
against Rukmangad Rao’s wishes, Nilkanth Rao Patharekar, who 
after adoption received the name of Anand Rao. 

The first and most important event of his time was the Anand Rao 
conclusion of the treaty of 1818 with the British Government, ( 

Peace was restored throughout the country, and the Chief and his 
minister Govind Rao Aba, who was an able administrator, found 
time to turn their attention to the improvement of the internal 
condition of the State. Anand Rao, like his great grandfather, 

Jiwaji, was'of a religious turn of mind. He had no offspring and in 
1837 adopted his nephew Murar Rao, son of Amrit Rao, afterwards 
called Haibat Rao. Anand Rao’s religious tendencies led him to 
make extravagant gifts to temples and religious institutions, of 


1 See Appendix A. 



12 


DEWAS STATES. 


Haibat Rao 
( 1840—64 ). 


Naniyan Rao 
( 1S64— 92 ). 


Malhar Rao 
(iSga— }. 


which his adopted son Haibat Rao did not approve. This caused 
a disagreement between them and finally Anand Rao retired into 
seclusion at Ujjain and later to Benares, leaving the management 
of affairs to his heir. He died at Benares in 1840. 

Haibat Rao was a good administrator and the affairs of the State 
prospered during his rule. The present palace was built by him. 
He acted most loyally during the Mutiny. The territory confiscated 
from the rebellious Thakur of Raghogarh was at this time divided 
between the two Branches. In 1859 he had adopted as his heir 
Chandra Rao Supekar who was renamed Jiwaji Rao. A son was, 
however, born to him in 1860 and named Narayan Rao. 

Haibat Rao died of cholera at Dhar on the 12th May, 1864, and 
\vas succeeded by his infant son Narayan Rao, Govind Rao 
Ramchandra and Ganpat Rao Ramchandra conducted the affairs of 
the State during his minority, which lasted till 1879. 

Narayan Rao was also a good administrator, and paid particular 
attention to education, founding the Victoria High School in 1891 
besides opening many vernacular schools in the districts. A hospital 
was opened in 1889 in the chief town and dispensaries at 3ll pargana 
headquarters. A public library ( 1887 ) and a Municipality were 
also established by him. The scheme for the water supply of the 
town was also his, but was not completed in his day. 

In his endeavours to improve the administration he was most 
ably assisted by his ministers, Khan Bahadur Munshi Shahamat 
Ali, C.S.I.(1879 — 86), Mr. A. Shrinivasa Rao (1886-87), and Rao 
Bahadur Nilkanth Janardan Kirtane (1887 — 92). 

Narayan Rao attended the Delhi Darbar of 1877 and was presented 
by the Government of India with a banner and medal. 

He died after a short illness on 1st January, 1892. Having no 
children, he had adopted as his heir Malhar Rao, the eldest son of 
his (adoptive) brother Jiwaji Rao. 

The present chief was born on the 10th August, 1877, and educated 
at the Daly College at Indore. He received powers of administra- 
tion in 1897. 

Dining the minority Rao Bahadur Krishna Rao Mulye acted as 
Superintendent, and then for two years as minister (1897 — 99) 
being succeeded by Mr. R. J. Bhide ( 1899— '1902), who was followed 
by the present minister Mir. Daulat Rao Khanwilkar. During this 
period, many reforms were effected. The administration of the 
pargana of Bagaud, made over to the Government of India in 1828, 
was restored to the State and the revenue settlement of the Khasgi 
(Akbarpur) pargana carried out. The surplus revenue was ex- 
pended in erecting suitable buildings for the public offices and 



POPULATION. 


13 


a guest-house, the drainage of the town of Dewas was improved, 
and a water supply laid on to the town from wells at Mendki, where 
a pumping station was established. 


The chief bears the titles of His Highness and Raja and enjoys 
a salute of 15 guns. 

The chief is connected with the Senior Branch Raja and the peudatodi”^ 


Raja of Dhar. 
Dewas. 


Two widows of his adoptive father still live bn'aWe 
* XXXI)i 


Feudatories are of three classes of apta-varga sardars (blood 
relations), Sardars, mdnkarts and jdglrddrs. In the first class are 
the Khase Sahib Sadashiv Rao and Satya Sahib Ponwar, the 
grand-nephew of Raja Haibat Rao who holds Badoli in jdgtr\ 
Sadashiv Rao was educated at the Daly College at Indore and at 
the Mayo College at Ajmer, later on joining the Imperial Cadet 
Corps. Chandra Rao Ponwar, jdglrddr of Baloda, and Shankar Rao 
Appa Sahib Ponwar, jdglrddr of Tumlaoda, are in the same class. 

Persons of position in the State are the hereditary Diwan Keshav 
Rao Ganesh whose ancestors came into Malwa with Jiwaji Rao. ^ 
The duties of the office are no longer performed by the representative 
of the family. He holds lands and a jdgir yielding Rs. 21,000 
annually. The ancestors of the hereditary Phadnis Lakshman Rao 
Vyankatesh also accompanied Jiwaji Rao. He holds a jdgir of 
four villages yielding annually Rs. 10,000. The’ present jdglrddr 
performs the duties of the office. 


Section III.— Population* 

[Tables III and IV.] 

SENIOR BRANCH* 

The population of the Senior Branch was in 1881, 73,940; in 1891 Enumera- 
82,389; and in 1901, 62,312 persons ; males 32,157, females 30,155.^'^*^^* 
Classified by religions Hindus numbered 53,512 or 86 per cent.; 

Musalmans 7,176 or 11 per cent. ; Jains 663 ; Christians 3 ; and 
Animists 958, 

The mean density was 139 persons per square mile, a fall of 45 per Density, 
cent, since 1891. The State contains two towns, Dewas (8,783) and 
Sarangpur (3,278) shared by the two branches, and 248 villages, Towns and 
excluding 12 held by guaranteed holders. The average population villages, 
per village is 202 persons. 

The sex and civil condition returns give 938 females to 1,000 Sexand civil 
males, and 101 wives to 100 husbands. condition. 

The prevailing dialects are Malwi and Rangri spoken by about 
70 per cent, of the population. Of the whole population, 4 per cent. ^ 

are literate, 0*4 per cent, being females. 



14 


DEWAS STATES. 


Castes, Balais, Chamars, Banias, Rajputs, Gujars, and Sondhias 

predominate among castes. 

Occuptiaons. Xhe only important occupations are those of agriculture and 
general labour followed by 65 per cent, of the people. 


JU2JIOR BRANCH. 

The population of the Junior Branch was in 755/, 68,222 ; in 1897^ 
ions. 69,684; and in 1901, 54,904 persons; males 28,010, females 26,894. 

Classified by religions there were 46,892 or 85 per cent. Hindus; 
5,323 or 9 per cent. Musalmans ; 835 Jains ; one Christian ; 
2 Parsis ; and 1,851 or 3 per cent. Animists. 

Density. ^The mean density is 125 persons per square mile. There has 
been a fall of 37 per cent, in the density since 1891. Two towns, 
Dewas and Sarangpur, which are shared by the two branches, and 
251 villages are situated in the State. The average village 
population is 180 persons. 

Sex and The figures for sex shew 980 females to 1,000 males and 99 wives 

condition. husbands. 

Language The languages and dialects prevailing in the State are Hindi 

and literacy. (33,898), Rangri and Malwi (3,323), Urdu (3,052), and Marwari 
(2,931). Taking all ages there are 8 per cent, males and 3 per 
cent, females who are literate. 

Castes. The prevailing castes are Balais, Banias, Chamars, Brahmans, 

Rajputs, Gujars, Khatis, Knnbis, M^is, and Sondhias. 

Occupations. The occupations chiefly followed are those of agriculture, grain 
dealing and general labour. 

BOTH BBAKCHES- 


Density. 
Towns and 
villages. 


Sex and 
civil 

condition. 

Language 
and literacy. 


Castes. 


Social Cha- Ordinarily the dress of a male Hindu consists of a pagrl or 
RACTERISTIO. turbau, a piece of cloth about 50 or 6Q feet long and 1 foot wide 
Dress. with gold ends. A kurfa or shirt, an angarkha or long coat 
reaching to the middle of the leg fastened on the right side, a 
dhoti (loin cloth) worn round the waist gnd a dupatta (scarf) are 
the principal articles of apparel. All these are generally white, 
except the turban and scarf which are often coloured red or 
yellow. Agricultural classes wear the dhoti, a handi or small coat, a 
pichhoda of khddi cloth and a pagri. In the chief town there is a 
tendency to dress after the Maratha fashion, but retaining a safa or 
a round felt cap as head-dress, with boots or shoes instead of juta. 
In Dewas town the people assimilate their way of living more to 
that prevailing in the Deccan than is usual elsewhere in Central 
India. All sarddrs, whether Marathas or not, wear Maratha dress, 
and though this is still to a considerable extent the custom in Dhar 
State it has to a very noticeable extent died out in Gwalior, 



POPULATIOIJ- 


15 


Hindu female dress consists of a lehenga (petticoat) of coloured 
cloth lugda or orni (a sheet used as an upper garment to cover the 
face and upper part of the body), and a kdnchll (bodice). The only 
distinction between Muhammadan and Hindu dress is that 
Muhammadan men, except agriculturists, wear and not the 

dhoti and fasten the angarkha to the left and not like the Hindus 
to the right of the chest; females wear pai jamas instead of the 
lehenga and a kurta over the hdncklu 

Meals are generally taken twice, at mid-day and in the evening, Food, 
only the well-to-do take light refreshment in the morning and in 
the afternoon. The staple food grains used are wheat, jowdr^ 
maize, and gram ; and the pulses tuat^ urad^ mung, and masur. The 
ordinary food of the rich and middle classes consists of rice, 
chapdtis ( thin cakes ) of wheat flour, tuar pulse, rice, ght, vegetables, 
and milk and sugar. The poorer classes in the country including 
the peasantry, except on festival occasions, eat rotis (thick cakes) 
made of the coarser grains with pulse, vegetables, uncooked onions, 
salt and chillies. 

No local Brahmans or Banias eat flesh. All castes, except 
Brahmans, smoke tobacco and Rajputs generally take opium in the 
liquid form called kusumha* 

The greater part of the population being agricultural, spends its Daily life, 
days in the fields from sunrise to sunset. The mercantile 
population begins work about 9 a.m., usually closing shops about 6 or 
7 P.M. or even earlier. Their houses are generally separate from 
their shops. 

Houses are mostly built of mud with thatched or tile roofs. In Houses, 
towns there are a few brick-built houses, but none are of^great 
size. 

Child marriage is common with the higher classes. Polygamy is Marriage, 
common only among persons of position and the lower classes such 
as Gaolis, Chhipas, Chamars, etc. Widow marriage prevails among 
the lower classes. 

The dead bodies of Hindus are burnt, except those of sanydsis^ Disposal of 
bairdgis and infants which are buried. Cremation takes place by 
the side of a stream, the ashes being, if possible, conveyed to a 
sacred river, otherwise they are committed to some local stream. 
Muhammadans bury their dead. 

The principal festivals are the Dasahra, Holi, Diwdli^ Gangor^ Festivals and 
and local fairs. All the sarddrs of the State attend the Dasahra 
dafhdf to pay their respects to the Chief. Before the celebration of 
the festival all weapons are examined and repaired and arms together 
with horses, elephants, etc., as forming part of a military force are 
worshipped. This is a relic of the old days when the Dasahra 
heralded in the recommencement of forays. This martial feast is 
observed with great enthusiasm. The HoU and Diwdli are general 
festivals, the Gangot being confined to females only. 



16 


DEWAS STATES. 


Nomencla- 

ture. 


Public 
H EALTH , 


Plague. 


The ordinary amusements in villages are drum-beating and sing- 
ing and the reciting of tales and poetry among grown up people, and 
hide-and-seek, gili danda (tipcat) and anhhmlchi (blindman’s buff) 
and kite-flying among children. 

Hindus name their children after gods or famous personages. As 
a rule, each man has two names, the janma-rdshl ndm which is used 
when the horoscope is drawn up and the hoUd ndm or common 
name by which persons are 'generally known; the latter are of 
religious origin or merely fanciful and affectionate, such as Ram 
Singh, Malhar Rao, Tukaram, Damodar, Sukhdeo, Bheru Sing. 
The agricultural and lower classes are very fond of dimunitives, 
such as Rama, Bherya, Sukha, and the like. 

Names of places are given after a deity or persons such as Dewas, 
from Deva-vasini, Sarangpur from Sarang Singh, Gopalpura after 
Gopal, Gangakhedi after Ganga, and so on. 

The general health of the people of both Branches has been 
good during the greater part of the last 20 years. During the 
famine year of 1899-1900 numbers died from a virulent type of 
fever which broke out in the districts carrying away many 
belonging to cultivating and labouring classes. Small-pox in a 
virulent type has appeared twice, in 1891 and 1899, and cholera 
has broken out several times in the last 20 years. It was of a 
virulent type during 1896 and 1900. 

Dysentery prevails generally from March to September and 
malarial fever from October to December in most years. 

The first case of plague to occur was an imported one, brought 
by a low caste woman from Mhow in August, 1903. Three indi- 
genous cases were detected in the Bara Bazar of the Senior Branch 
in September, dead rats being soon after found in the vicinity. 
The disease started in the Junior Branch in October. Nearly the 
whole of the population left the town and went to live in the health 
camps and surrounding villages. Prior to this preventive measures 
such as segregation and quarantine were employed but without 
results. The disease increased in virulence up to the 3ist October 
in the Senior, and 13th November in the Junior Branch, it then 
gradually declined, the last case occurring in the Senior Branch 
on December 13th and in the Junior Branch on January 13th, 
1904. The total number of attacks and deaths in the two 
Branches, including imported cases, were 103 attacks and 87 deaths 
in the Senior, and 184 attacks and 162 deaths in the Junior Branch. 
The disease then spread to the districts, resulting in 227 attacks 
and 180 deaths in the Senior, and 294 attacks and 197 deaths 
in the Junior Branch districts. It lingered on sporadically till 
February, 1904. The disease was in many cases of the septi- 
cemic type and caused death within 48 hours. The attacks chiefly 
occurred among Musalmans and Brahmans. Inoculation was 
resorted to, 2,341 persons being inoculated, 1,971 in the town and 
370 in the districts. 



CHAPTER tl- 

Economc. 

Section I.—Agrioulture. 

[Tables VII. to XV., XXVIIL, XXIX., and XXX.] 

BOTH BRANCHES* 

Except in the ^argtXna of Bagaud where the ground is hilly and Genersii 
ftot highly productive, the land is for the most part covered with (tables Vlt 
the rich and highly fertile “ black cotton ” soil. The two parganas X. ) 
of Dewas and Khasgl are termed gavdlu dr wheat producing 
parganas to distinguish them froin the rest* 

The soil is classed according to its natural formation, appearance, Clas&lhcatioii 
aiid composition, as being deep or shallow, black, yellow or grey, 
clayey, or stony and also according to its situation with regard to 
proximity to a village or jungle, or a high road or railwayd 
Position, by facilitating irrigation, manuring and disposal of 
produce, tnaterially affect the remunerative quality of the soil, 
besides inherent fertility. Soils are also classed according to 
the use to which the cultivator usually turns thein, as for growing 
Vabi or kharlf crops, poppy or sugarcane, as well as under the 
broader distinctions of dry and irrigated land. 

The principal classes recognized are cliikat hdll-nUaiii^ a bard 
clayey adhesive and deep black soil.” This quality of black 
soil is very rare, being only met with in some parts of the Dewas and 
Khdsgi parganas. It yields excellent crops of wheal both in point 
of quality and quantity. This' land passes into second 'class 
soil when it is too shallow to retain moisture long. In that 
case it is used to grow joudr, Sddhdran hdli or Kdhnat kali 
is a mixture of black and sandy soils in the proportion of 
about 3 to 10, It is lighter in colour 'and looser in texture than 
cJiihat and more easily soluble in water. About three-fourths 
of the total cultivated area in the States comes under this head. 

It grows good crops of wheat, gram, etc. The average depth 
of the soil varies from 3 to 5 feet. Dhdnini or pill is a reddish 
yellow-coloured sandy soil* The depth of this soil varies from 
3 to 6 or 7 feet. It is only fit for hharlf crops. Sasar is a 
brown^oil. It is generally deep but mixed with kankar (nodules 
of lime) and sand. It is a hard soil and is usually met with 
on the banks of rivers or sometimes at the foot of a hill* 

It grows all the kharif crops, such as jowdr, cotton, ranieli, 
and tillu Pdndhari (or white soil) also called hhuri is met with 
in the neighbourhood of villages. It is greyish white in colour 
and grows khafif crops, maize, mjgira, etc. It is somewhat 
hard and does not dissolve easily in water. , Talhhdta is a 
black loamy soil, but very shallow with rock not far from the 
surface. It is found generally at the foot of hills ; it cracks in the 



18 


BEWAS STATES. 


dry season on the evaporation of the moisture it hoJds. It bears 
jov:dr and cotton. Gerawa is a red-coloured soil mixed with 
stones. It is found at the foot of hills. It ‘ordinarily grows 
hliartf crops, but if deep enough fahi crops also. The stones in 
the soil are an advantage. Kharchi is a white soil blacldsh at 
the surface. It is somewhat salt in character. A thin layer of 
alkali on the surface prevents much water from penetrating it, 
while if the layer is very thick, it will bear no crops. It is met 
with in some villages in the Dewas pargana, Muramdti or khardi 
is a very shallow black soil usually mixed with kankar and fit only 
for kharlf crops especially tillu Khardi-hardi is a still poorer soil 
than the last, shallower and more stoney. It is met with in the 
i>argana of Bagaud and is only fit to grow tilU on, becoming 
exhausted within three years. 

The soils are classed by position as chauras or even lying land 
dhdhi or of uneven and sloping surface and chajbera or rela or cut 
up by ravines and ndlds. Soil fit for the cultivation of rice is 
called Sdigafta, 

Soils classed by use are known as addn or garden land which is 
fit for poppy and sugarcane, similar but less fertile land called 
rdkhad or nim addn, being fit for growing jowdr, tobacco, wheat, 
and vegetables. Land suited to fruit trees and groves is called 
amardi or bdgh ; land near a village is called gaonxvdm and is 
always valuable as the proximity of a village confers facilities for 
manuring, irrigation, and close supervision. Other classes are 
hir or grass reserves and cliarnoi or village grazing lands. 

Extension or Until 1899, the famine year, a steady increase in the cultivated 
area was observable annually, but since then a decrease of about 
(Tables vill. 6 per cent, has taken place. 

Systemofcul- A great portion of the black soil, wdiich retains moisture for a 
w*th after the rains, is reserved for the cultivation of the rabi 

the^soib^^^ crops such as wheat, gram, and poppy. A somewhat inferior class 
of this land is sown with kharlf crops such as jowdr, cotton, etc. 
The cultivator’s calendar or tipana is regulated by the influence of 
the nakshatms or asterisms especially those falling in the four 
rainy months. 

Cultivators commence the preliminary preparation of the soil by 
clearing it of plants, weeds, etc., on the ' Ahhdtij day which 
corresponds to about the beginning of May. Bullocks and ploughs 
are worshipped and sweetmeats distributed before operations 
commence. Ploughing costs on an average one. rupee per hlgha. 
Sowing. sowing of the kharlf seeds is commenced on a propitious day 

fixed in consultation with a local astrologer, usually a Brahman. 
This falls in June when the soil is well soaked by rain. The 
Weeding. sowing of the rabi crops is begun in October. The small weeding 
plough Qxdom has to be passed twice or thrice through the standing 



AGIUCULTURE. 


19 


crop in the case of mai^e, joxvar, and mihngphaU (ground nut) ; but 
not in case of wheat or gram. Poppy and sugarcane require weeding 
twice or thrice. Maize and joxmr are reaped in October and Reaping. 
December, respectively. Cotton is collected in three successive 
pickings, in October, November, and December. Of the rahi crops 
gram is gathered in March and wheat and linseed a month later. 

Poppy is sown in November and gathered in March. Sugarcane 

is sown in December and gathered a year later. In the case of Threshing, 

maize, the heads only are cut off and dried while jowar is mowed 

down and brought into the khala or threshing-floor where the 

ears are cut off and dried, and then trodden over by bullocks. 

Wheat, gram, and linseed are cut down when dry and trodden 
over by bullocks. The collection of chlk or crude opium consists Opium, 
in two operations, or scarifying the heads, and luna collecting 
the juice. The former consists in incising the poppy heads by 
means of a small iron implement with three blades. The sap that 
oozes out from these incisions is the crude opium or chik and is 
collected the next morning in metal or earthen pots, by means of 
an iron scraper called the chirpala. These two processes are 
continued for about a week. The heads whens> dried are taken to 
the khala and the seed beaten out and sifted. 

DufasH or double crop land, bearing two crops the same year Double crop- 
consists usually of rakhad or a dan soil in which maize or urad is 
§own first, and wheat, gram, or alsi afterwards. If tobacco is 
sown in addn land, onions may be grown after the tobacco has 
been cut, but if it is sown in rakhad land no second crop can be 
had. In adetn soil poppy is sown as dufasli with maize or’ hemp, 
these two being kharlf crops. 

Two crops are often sown together such as jowdr and tuar. Mixed sow- 
jowdr and ambdri, a common combination being that of or 

■I lurcim 

sugarcane and poppy. 

Sugarcane thus sown is called bar. Sugarcane takes a complete 
year to mature and the poppy only five months. 

^Rotation is not very regularly practised, though well understood. Rotation of 
When carried out, jowar is alternated with wheat or gram, sometimes or 
cotton with jowar. In plli and bhiiri soils, jowar is generally 
rotated with cotton. In kali soil wheat or gram is alternated 
with jowar. 

Manuring is confined to poppy, sugarcane, and garden produce. Manure. 
Manure ordinarily consists of cow-dung and village sweepings and 
is essential to poppy and sugarcane crops. Its very limited supply 
precludes its being employed except on the best soils. Night- 
soil is gradually coming more and more into use in the suburbs of 
towns. The excretions of sheep and goats are sometimes used as 
manure. Poppy is often manured by san-chur or urad-chur* 

A crop of hemp or urad is sown and ploughed into the soil when in 
flower, thus affording a green manuredn which the poppy is planted. 



20 


nE'U'AS STATES. 




Principal 

klidi and 
ml} crop'?. 


Maize, 

Jowar, 


Tuar, 

Ur^d. 

Whes^t 


The old agricultural implements are still in use, with the 
exception of the kolliu or upright stone press for sugarcane, which 
has been supplanted by the modern iron or ^vooden roller press. The 
exportation of hides has also made the leather charas expensive and 
there is a tendency among agriculturists to replace it by iron mots. 
The principal agricultural implements are the hal or plough ; the 
hakhha}\ a harrovr or weeding plough ; the clom^ a small weeding 
plough ; the a hollow bamboo used for sowing grain ; Xhephdora 
or spade; the danfdU or dardfa, a sickle, and the kiirliddi or axe ; 
the gdva or long country cart is used for carrying the grain. 

The chief khanf crops are makha or maize {Zea-mays) ^ jowdr 
[Sorghum vulgare)^ kap^ or cotton {Gossypmin indicitm)^ tirad 
[Phaseolus radiaUts), tuar {Cajanus indictis)^ miing {Phaseolusi 
niHugo)^ hdjra {Peiicillaria spicata)^ iilli {Sesamuni indicuni)^ sdl 
or rice (Ojyza saliva), mmgphall {Aracis hypogea), hangni 
[Panicum italicam), ranieli (Guizotia oleifera). At the rahi the 
important crops are ^vheat ox gehun {Triticuiii aesthmni), gram or 
cimiia {C^cer arieftmim), poppy (Papaver somnifentm), sugarcane 
[Saccharum officinanim), alsi or linseed [Linum usitatissimum,) 
inasur {Ervum Jens), hatla {Dolichos sinensis), matctr {Pisunt 
sativum ). 

Maize is of three classes, adanga, sdti, and safed, Adangc^ 
comes to maturity in about four months ; the ears of grain usually 
spring from close to the stem. Sdti is of a yellowish colour and 
is a small plant which matures in about sixty days, Safed has a 
whitish colour and is reaped within three months. 

Jowdr is placed in eight classes, fitdwadi, jamddd, rat ad, 
ndndhai, chihn, hand el, safed, ptinyasi, and kesar. The titdzi;adi 
varietj^ has ears of grain shaped like a crest ; the chief characteris- 
tic of this variety is that the crop can be grown in a field which 
has not been carefully prepared or ploughed. Jamddd is of a yellow- 
ish colour, its ears being circular in shape and usually drooping* 
l^dtad is red in colour ; it is seldom produced, however, as it has 
not a very good flavour. Ndndbai is a small plant, the ears in this 
variety usually strike from the seventh leaf. ChiJiui, kaser, and 
Other varieties are eaten as luxuries at feasts. The ears are patched 
while green and then eaten ; this preparation is called pukhadd, 

7iia) is of two kinds, shidlu and Hiilidlu, Gtihdlu tuar is reaped 
in nine months, slndl^ siy; months, after sowing. 

UrcTd is also of two kinds, hhadauria and Ulia \ the hhadauria 
variety is a deep black colour while telia is lighter, Bhadauria is 
sown with irrigated maize, and is reaped with it, while teJiais sown 
in dr> lana in which cotton is sown, and is reaped in the months of 
December and January. 

Five kinds of wheat are recognised safed, ekdani, or ddudkJidm, 
katbardi, pissi massi, and IdL The seed olddndhhdni has been 



AGHTOULTURT]. 


21 


lately imported into a few villages of Dewas pargana on account 
of the demand for it in foreign markets, where it commands a high 
price. This wheat is pinkish in colour ; hathardi is a hybrid of 
lal and dmidhhdnl wheat. It is usually consumed in local markets. 
Ldl is the least valuable kind and is of a red colour. Pissi and 
viassi are the varieties usually produced in irrigated lands, after 
a crop of maize. If water is insufficient for the irrigation of poppy, 
this class of wheat is generally grown, Massi is covered with long 
black spines. 


Jowdr is the principal staple food grain with the majority of 
people throughout the greater part of the year. Maize and hdjra 
serve the sa,me purpose \vhen the supply of jowdr fails. Wheat 
and rice are used by the upper classes of the people only. The 
agriculturists pay the State revenue from the proceeds of the 
wheat, rice, cotton and poppy crops, retaining the mahka^ jowdr, and 
bdjra for their own use. 

Ttlar, 7nnng^ itrad, masur, and gram are the chief subsidiary food 
crops. 

The principal oilseeds are tilli, rameli, linseed, mirngplialt and 
poppy. 

The hemp called san {Crotolaria juncea) and cotton are the 
chief fibres. 

The principal spices grown are cry-cew/ {Lingiisticum ajowan), zlra 
{Ciinnniij)i dhaiia {Coriander), and haldi {Turmeric). 

Opium, gdnja, bhang, and tobacco are the chief stimulants 
produced. 

The ordinary vegetables cultivated are potatoes, cabbages, 
brinjals, carrots, and many varieties of country vegetable. 

About 30 years ago wheat from local seed began to be ousted 
in the British India markets by grain of better quality and con- 
sequently a new variety called ddudkhdni was imported from 
Dhar, and has since been found to maintain a high quality. 
Maize from America was tried but did not thrive at all well, 
but the jowdr seed called hdtmasani obtained from the Deccan 
gives good results. The general tendency of foreign seed is to 
change gradually into the local variety, green mjing, for instance, 
turning into the local grain. Cultivators are not, however, easily 
induced to accept new varieties of seed. 

The area in acres occupied by the principal crops in a normal 
year is given below: — 

SENIOR BRANCH. 


Staple food 
grains. 


Subsidiary 

crop's. 

Oilseeds. 

Fibres. 

Spices, 

Drugs, 

Vegetables, 


New varieties 
of seeds. 


Area under 
crops. 
(Table X,) 


Jowdr (30,000), makka (3,800), rameli (2,500), tuar (1,300), urad Kkarif, 
(300), san (500), rice (300), bdjra (300), chaola (200), mung and 
other mixed crops (13,700). 

Wheat (12,000), gram (6,000), opium (3,200), aJsi (900), hejafa Babi. 
(1,900), tobacco (200), sugarcane (100). 



22 


r>EWAS STATES. 


‘Khar if. 


Jtahi, 


Average 
yield in 
maunds. 


Irrigation. 


Sources. 


Wells. 


Area 

irrigated. 


Concessions 
to well 
sipkers* 


JUNIOB BRANCH. 

Joxcar (40,000), cotton (8,500), fttar (7,800), urad (5,200), m^lng 
(3,900), makka (3,300), tilU (1,700), bdjra. (1,100), rameli (700), 
rice (400). 

Gram (24,200), wheat (10,000), poppy (3,000) alsi (1,000), 
tobacco (400), sugarcane (100). 

BOTH BRANCHES. 

The average yield in maunds of grain to each acre sown is for 
maize 9 to 14 maunds, joxvdr 6 to 9, tilli 3 to 4, cotton 3 to 4j, 
rice 9, wheat 4J to 7i, gram 5 to 7, tuar 3 to 4|, alsi 3 to 4, urad 
3 to 4|, and opium 7| to 9 seers. 

Irrigation is mainly confined to poppy, sugarcane, and garden 
produce, but it is also used with wheat, gram, mungphall and 
barley when sown in addn or garden land. 

The principal sources of irrigation are storage tanks, wells, 
orhlSi and small ndlds dammed across by masonry, or temporary 
earthen embankments. Irrigation from tanks is effected by means 
of channels, while from wells and orhts the water is lifted by as 
cliams or bag lift worked by bullocks. 

The average cost of constructing kachcha and pakka well 
is Rs. 200 and 600, respectively. 

The normal area irrigated is in the Senior Branch 7,800 acres 
and Junior Branch 4,600 acres. 

The irrigated area has been reduced in the last few years, 
owing to a large number of wells having gone out of use, and 
capricious monsoon. 

Both Branches make concessions to cultivators who improve 
the land by digging wells. 

SENIOR BRANCH. 

Since the last famine, a new scheme has been introduced in 
the Senior Branch to encourage irrigation by wells and orhls. 
The scheme, which was proposed by the present Superin- 
tendent, Mr. R. J. Bhide, was based on the fact that tanks 
are best undertaken by the Darbar, but wells by private enterprise. 
Tanks are too costly for private individuals to construct, but, 
in the case of wells, the burden on each individual is compara- 
tively light, and the return good. The cultivator, moreover, 
knows instinctively where to find water and how to sink a well 
cheaply. He supplies his own labour and supervision and brings 
material in his own carts. To encourage their construction, there- 
fore, land broughtunder irrigation by a new well constructed at ihe 
owners cost is assessed at dry rates for five years, and at the 
conclusion of this period, a fixed quit- rent {istimrdrl) is fixed for 
the. land at half the average wet rate levied on land of the same 
quality irrigated from State wells. The right to mortgage, sell, and 
alienate is also granted. Loans from a special fund called the 
Yamuna Bai Irrigation Trust founded by Maharani Yamuna 



AGRICULTUEB. 


23 


Bai Sahiba are granted to enable cultivators to construct wells 
on favourable conditions including repayment of loans in five 
years with interest varying from 3 to 9 per cent. Many wells 
have already been constructed on these conditions'". As a further 
encouragement to individual effort and wider publicity, an 
inscribed tablet is fixed at State expense on the wall of every 
well so constructed, giving the owner’s name and date of com- 
pletion. This is done publicly in the presence of the ryots of 
the pargana^ the circular being read aloud and its benefits 
explained* A small present of clothes is also made to the 
owner of the well. 

BOTH BRANCHES. 

Cattle-breeding is more or less common in all the parganas Cattle. 
The well-known Nimari^bullocks are bred in Bagaud and the Malwi 
at Sarangpur, A cow and a bullock cost from Rs. 10 to 20 
and Rs. 30 to 50, respectively. Sarangpur produces a superior 
breed of buffaloes costing from Rs. 50 to 100 each. 

Camel-breeding is carried on by the Senior Branch in Alot 
pargana^ and the Junior Branch in the 'Ringnodpargana on a small 
scale. The camel is shorn of his wool every year, from which 
blankets are made. The blankets vary in weight from 8 to 10 lbs. 
each, and are sold at from Rs. 4 to 8 each. The excretions of 
camels are highly valued as manure. A camel for baggage work 
can be had for Rs. 30. Goats are of two kinds, the Barbarl and 
Makvi, The former is much valued for its milk, sometimes giving 
as much as three seers. These animals cost from Rs. 5 to 15 per 
head. 

Every village has its allotted charnoi .or grazing grounds, while Pasture 
there is ample waste grass land. grounds. 

The following are the most common diseases among cattle : — 

Chhad . — Cattle affected by this disease will not eat and the Cattle 
veins below the tongue become congested and assume a black colour. <fiseases. 
The usual remedy is to open the veins and rub them with salt and 
turmeric. Birlo , — An insect is said to enter the nose of animals 
while grazing and cause this disease. It is believed to be cured by 
causing certain mantras or incantations to be recited in front of the 
animal by a specially qualified person. Another, and more effective 
remedy, however, is to wrap an ill-smelling plant round the nostrils 
of the animal affected with the disease, as the o^our drives out the 
insect. Phapa . — This is an affection of the stomach. It is cured 
by branding the body near the ribs with red hot iron. Kamedi . — An 
insect lays eggs in the horns of the cattle. After a time innumer- 
able small insects are produced, which eat away the horns and 
finally the top of the skull. A poultice made of the leaves of the 
kavlt {Feronia elephantum) and nlm {Melia indica) is applied to 
the affected part. 



24 


i)E\VAvS STATES, 


Cattle Fairs. The most important cattle fairs are those held twice a year at 
}Jxvni.) Bheswa, near Sarangpur, and every week at the Sipra river, and at 
Alot and Gopalpura (in Sarangpur) all in the Senior Branch ; and 
at Padhana (Sarangpur) in the Junior Branch, Of these that 
held at Bheswa is the largest. This fair is held tAvice a year in Mdgh 
(January) and in Baisdkh (May). It is a noted cattle fair to which 
persons come from considerable distances, even from Delhi, 
Khandesh, and the Deccan. The State levies a tax of three pies per 
rupee on all sales of cattle. The tax is given out on contract and 
realises about Rs. 5,000 a year. Transactions of the value of over 
two lakhs take place. The fair opens and closes on each occasion 
with a ceremony of worship at the shrine of Bijasini Mata situated 
on a neighbouring hill. The expenses of this ceremony are defrayed 
by the State, The association of the fair wdth the Bijasani shrine 
constitutes its main attraction. 

Population About 90 per cent, of the population live directly or indirectly 
agrr/ulurc. agriculture, the chief cultivating castes being Rajputs, Kurmis, 
Anjanas, Gujars, Kachhis, Khatis, Nayatas, and Mewatis, 

SENIOR. Branch. 

Takkivvi. Formerly very few advances were made to agriculturists, but 
since 1889 a sum has been regularly entered in the Stale Budget 
for advances of grain for seed and subsistence. Advances in cash 
are also made for other purposes. Since the famine year the 
advances have greatly increased and amount roughly to Rs. 30,000 
every year, 

A large quantity of grain amounting to several hundreds of 
maunds of jowdr, wheat and gram, is purchased annually at the 
proper season and stored in each pargana from which the kanidsddi^ 
provides his kirsdns 'sVixh.jowdr for food, and wheat and gram for 
seed. Convenient centres are selected for these grain stores. This 
grain is usually issued at current prices, the amount being recovered 
in cash without interest after the harvest. Takkdvi advances aie 
made in cash repayable in 2 to 5 yearly instalments to enable 
kirsdns to purchase bullocks, to deepen, cleanse, or repair wells, 
and to build new houses. 

Gratuitous advances are also made to poor agriculturists, when 
urgent necessity arises. These measures have saved the agricul- 
turists to some extent from the burden of exorbitant interest 
•demanded by village bankers and from other incidental losses, so 
ruinous in the long run. 

JUNIOR BRANCH. 

Takkavi advances are usually made to agriculturists in cash to 
enable .them to purchase seed, manure, and bullocks. Advances 
are also made for the construction of wells and to such cultivators 
as wish to build new houses. These advances are made with or 
without interest according to the circumstances of each case. The 



WAGES AND PSICES. 


25 


interest charged varies usually from 6 to 9 per cent The seed 
iakHavi is recovered at the end of each harvest, while that given in 
cash is generally re-payable in two to five years, by instalments. 

Section n.— Wages and Prices. 

(Tables XIII. and XIV.) 

BOTH BRANCHES. 

The usual rates for skilled labour are from 6 to 12 annas per day 
and for unskilled from 1^' to 4j annas. The day labourer in 
vili^es IS generally paid in kind, receiving from 2 to 2i seers of 
grain a day. Artizans are paid from 4 to 5 annas. 

Labourers are required for dhdlni or reaping, and bedni, the 
process of cutting off and gathering the ears of grain brought to 
the kJiala or threshing-floor. For dhdlni a labourer is usually paid 
from 5 to 10 seers per bigha. The recent famine having carried off 
a large number of labourers, labour rates have been of late much 
higher than in preceding years. 

Wages for kcitdi or reaping are given in the shape of bundles Wheat, 
called pulas or pindis. One pindi is given for every 20 pindis cut, 
one pindi containing about 5 seers of grain. Owing to the higher 
value of wheat no such difficulty is usually experienced in getting 
labourers for wheat reaping as is experienced in the case of jowdr. 

For gathering gram, one chans is paid for every 20 to 30 chdns Gram, 
pulled up. A chdns is a row of plants growing in one furrow. In 
this way a man earns from 5 to 7 seers a day. 

The picking {binana) of cotton is paid at the rate of Rs, 2 to 3 Cotton, 
per fiidni picked. There are three pickings in the season. 

For collecting poppy juice {chik ) cash wages are given, labourers Poppy. 
being usually paid one rupee for every three days or eight rupees 
per bigha. 

Prices have increased all round within the last few years. The Prices, 
prices in villages which are near the headquarters of a pavgatta or 
roads or railways facilitating export, are higher than those prevailing 
in places far from good communications. 

A middle class clerk enjoys an annual income of Rs. 150 to 300. Material 
His family usually consisting of four or five members is entirely 
dependant upon him for their maintenance. His diet is generally 
very plain, except at festivities, when he indulges in a better 
quality of food. His dress is also very simple, consisting of a dhotat 
or waist doth, handi or jacket, angarkha and turban or pagri. His 
whole furniture including pots, bedding carpets and sundry articles 
hardly amounts to Rs. 200 in value. 

Since the famine of 1899.1900 the effects of which still linger, the Cultivator, 
condition of the cultivator has changed for the worse. Before this 



26 


dewas states. 


calamity befell him he could boast of the possession of some cattlop 
but is now compelled to obtain the assistance from the Darbar or 
a banker in purchasing ( or hiring ) bullocks, and even seed. Tho 
high rates now levied and the fall in the price of opium in recent 
years have also greatly diminished the power of cultivators to face 
bad seasons. Extravagance on occasions of festivals, marriages, and 
death also materially contribute to bring about this state of things. 
He lives mainly on jowar and dal» His usual dress is a course 
dhotar, pagr^ and handi. The State has had to assist the cultivators 
largely to save them from becoming mere landless labourers. It 
Is hoped that with improved seasons and the various measures 
of relief and assistance extended to them by the Darbar they will 
recover their prosperity in a few years. 

Day labourer. Though the day labourer is never well off, his position has been 
improved by the rise in wages caused by famine and plague. If he 
had learnt not to squander his surplus earnings, his position would 
be materially improved. 

Section HI.— Forests- 
(Table IX,) 

SENIOR BRANCH. 

The forests in this Branch lie in the Dewas, Khasgi, and Bagaud 
parganas. 

The forests cover 26 square miles, 17 lying in the 'B§.gzx\^pargana^ 
where more valuable trees are met with and the forest 
is reserved. The forest in Dewas and Khasgi parganas^ 
which is about 6 square miles in extent, is not in one con- 
tinuous piece but lies in detached sections on the outlying 
spurs of the Vindhyas. The reserved forest at Raghogarh is 
Important. It consists almost entirely of teak and Urminalia^ 
Besides these forests, there are two or three plots of ground in the 
Dewas and Alot parganas where sandalwood grows. These plots 
are reserved by the State. 

JUNIOR BRANCH. 

The forests in this Branch cover about 21 square miles lying 
wholly in the Bagaud pargana, A small portion lies in Dewas and 
Khasgi. 

BOTH BRANCHES. 

Systera of The kamdsdars of the pafganas in- each Branch control the 
control. forests assisted by a darogha and chaukiddrs. The Kachcha 
kisam trees are given to the cultivators to make agricul- 
tural implements and for building purposes free of charge, or 
are disposed of under the orders of the kamdsddf^ who allows 
villagers to cut and take them away either for their own uso or 
to sell as fuel, on payment of a tax of from 2 to 4 annas pet 
icart-load. The Darbar’s sanction is, however, necessary for 



rORjESTSa 


27 


cutting trees belonging to the Pakka kisam on which duty is 
levied according to an authorised schedule. 

The normal figures of receipts and expenditure of the Senior 
Branch are Rs. 1,700 and Rs. 350 and of the Junior Branch are 
Rs. 1,600 and Rs. 310> respectively. 

Bagris, Bhiis, and Banjaras live and work in jungles on daily 
wages of 4 annas for a man and 2 to 24 annas for a woman# 
and 1 to 14 for a child. 

The forest yields only teak of an ordinary class, small posts, 
joist and rafters being made out of it. Anjan^ bsa, and sddad 
are used as beams in building houses. Babul trees are generally 
employed in making wheels for carriages and agricultural 
implements. The fruit of the behdda, aonla^ bel^ and babul are 
used in preparing medicines, while the fiowers of the mahud are 
used in distilling liquor. 

The bark of the babul and sal are used in tanning and preparing 
dyes. 

Trees are divided into two classes, pakka kisam or superior 
trees and kachcha kisam or ordinary varieties. The first class 
includes all timber trees valuable for building. The second class 
includes trees which are generally used as fuel. 

The more important trees under each class are given below : — 

Pakka Kisam* 

Sag or teak {Tectona grandis) ; anjan (Hardwickia hinata) ; 
hia (Pterocarpii-s matsupiutn) ; babul [Acacia arabica) ; sddad 
(Terminalia tomentosa) ; nlm (Melia indica) ; am or mango 
{Mangifera indica^ ; tinach (Ougeinia dalhergioides) ; dhdman 
(Grewia tiliae folia and vestita) ; hnli {Tamarindus indica) ; bans 
or bamboo [Dendr ocalamus st rictus and other varieties) ; khajut 
or date palm {Phoenix dactylifera ) ; mahud {Bassia latifolia) ; 
temru (piospyros tomentosa), 

Kachha Kisam- 

Behdda {Tetminalia belerica)\ mokha {Scherbera swietenioides ) ; 
kadam {Stephygyne parviflora) ; kusant {Carthamus tinctorius) ; 
Chiron ji {Buchanania latifolia) ; dhdora {Anogeisstis latifolia) ; 
khair {Acacia catechu) ; aonla {Phyllanthus emblica) ; sali 
{Boswellia $ errata) ; khejra {Prosopis spicigera) ; gular {Ficus 
glomeratd) ; khdkra {Butea frondosa)^ 

The following grasses are met with : rosha, gonradi, kdnsla or Grass, 
darhha^ haru^ punia, kandi^ and durwddi, 

Rosha {Andropogon oi several varieties, the commonest being 
A* Martini) is found in abundance in parts of the State. It is eaten 
when young, and when full grown is used for thatching. The es- 
sential oil of this plant is extracted for medicine and also used as a 
scent. Gonradi is a coarse common grass which flourishes in n^ost 
places. It grows about three feet in height and bears small 



28 


DEWAS STATES. 


Grazing, 


Cotton and 
cloth manu* 
factures. 


Factory 

industries. 


red flowers ; wher. youug it is eaten by cattle tboiigh iioz 
very nourishing. It is also used for thatching. KanslcT' 

or darhlia { AegfOBtiz cynostirioides ) is a coarse gras> 
grows in swamps and jhtls^ It has a feathery fiov/er and 
grows to^about 4 feet in height. Cattle eat it when yoiiDg, is 
held sacred by Hindus, and is always used in religions raid 
sacrificiai cerenionisSj seats are also made of it, and ropes for agri- 
cultural purposes. Baru is always found in nalds^ and 

rivers. It is spearlike in appearance and grows about 4 or 5 Hez 
in height When dry it resembles karhl. Its stalks 
green are given to elephants. It is, v/hen ripe, used for writing 
pens. Punia is a very valuable grass for feeding caltle and is 
always given to milch cattle. It grows in any good soil with 
moderate moisture. Kandi or chinidri is a valuable grass food 
for cattle. It grows in most places, but best on black ccttors 
soil. Durwddi or durnpadi grows on irrigated fields especially m 
hedges and in jhils. It agrees well with cattle, but its chief 
value lies in the delicate shoots which are always found growing 
round the base of its stem. 

The cattle from the villages adjoining the forests are allo^ved to 
graze in them. 

Section TV-*— Mines and Minerals. 

( Table XII. ) 

No minerals have been as yet found in the State, but a few stone 
quarries exist here and there. 

Section V— Arts and Manufaetures- 
(Table XI.) 

Sarangpur cloth and fine muslins have been long famous but 
unfortunately the industry is- decaying rapidly, 

The common country khddi cloth is made everywhere as vval] 
as country blankets. A certain amount of printed cloths are also 
made. 

A ginning factory has been established in the Senior Branch at 
Gopalpura, a village on the Agra- Bombay road near Sarangpur. It 
contains 10 gins, and one other has recently (1906) been opened 
at Alot. 

Three cottpn presses and one ginning factory have been open- 
ed in the Junior Branch, The three former are located in the 
parganas of Bagaud, Ringnod and Dewas, and the latter in Dewas, 
In the busy season about 1,000 maunds of raw material are consumed 
and 160 bales turned out' daily. The bales are sent to Bombay 
or Ahmadabad. The busy season lasts from January to April. 
Statistics are given below : — 



COMMEHCE AHI) TEABE, 


29 


1 s 

3 

4 

5 

6 

( Naiure of 
j "'oik den to; 
Ha?ne of ! press gin- 

1 I'lhtg or 

j , 

When 

started. 

[Horse- 
power 
of En- 
gine. 

Num- 
ber of 
presses 
and 
gins. 

Hands em- 
ployed. 

Per- 

ma- 

nent. 

1 Tem- 
po ra- 


BBmO'R BBAHCH- 


I, Gopaip^iiia Ginsiingf 
Factory. j 

Ginning. 

rSSS 

*2 

10 

6 

1 

2. Alot Gmning Fac-,' 
lor?. j 

DOft 

£906 I 

*4 

1 10 

8 


jraiOB BBANCH. 


u, C'iri Fa c : 0 r 7jj Pre s s s i n g 
CoitCTi P/esff and gin- 
. c © m 0 r n e c a u n-ng, 

Dewas. ^ 

1900 

Z2 

43 

to 

142 

3 Cotton Press fid Pressing ... 
Dagsud. ? 

1S96 

M 

1 

3 

45 

z Coiion Pii-ss ac| Pfessilng ... 
Ring nod, | 

1895 


1 

3 

40 


Bcction Vi.*“-*Cominerc3 and Trade. 

BOTH BBANOHES. 

Tbe import trade is confined to articles required for local General 

consuRxptioa and the ercpon mainly to grain, poppy, and cotton, 

Though the railways have caused a distinct increase in trade, the 
increase is not as yet very great. 

The principai exports are grain, cotton, oil-seeds, poppy, crude Chief exports 
opium and tobacco; and the imports rice, cloth, sugar, salt, spices, 
motals, kcrosine oil, timber, leather, and piece-goods. 

Before the opening of the railways, Indore was the only impoii- 
ant trade centre for both the imports and exports of Dewas. 

A^great portion of the grain trade of this State is now, however, 
carried on with Indore, Ujjain, Ratlam, and Jaora, while imports 
come from Indore, Ujjain, and British territory direct. 

The chief centres of trade in the State are the capital and head- Trade 
quarters of the several parganas in each Branch. Dewas town is 
by far the most important gathering and distributing centre, in as 
much as it commands the trade of the neighbouring territory for 
about 40 miles round. Weekly markets are held at the head- 
quarters of each pargana and at several big villages in each pargana. 

They serve to supply articles of daily consumption and necessaries 
to the villagers. The average attendance of the dealers varies 
from 200 to 1,000. These places are both distributing and 
gathering centres. 

The principal castes engaged in trade are Banias, Boboras, and Traders. 
Malwi Brahmans. Banias are either opium merchants, corn 



30 


DEW AS STATES. 


dealers, cloth merchants or sarafs ; Bohoras are general merchants 
and dealers in timber, oil, and hardware ; Malwi Brahmans are 
mostly sahukars. 

Trade routes. The tra£5c is generally carried by bullock-carts. That from 
Dewas and Sarangpnr passes to Indore and Ujjain by the Bombay- 
Agra and Dewas-Ujjain roads, respectively ; that of Alot and 
Gadgucba to Ujjain and Ratl^ by the Eajputana-Malwa Railway, 
and that of Ringnod to Jaora. Bagaud also sends its produce by 
the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. The Banjaras, once an important 
class, who carried most of the trade, both imports and exports, 
have now taken to other pursuits. 

The long bullock-carts or gdra of the kirsdns travel to all parts 
of the State, especially to the railway stations and important 
commercial centres. 

Se*frs.^^“^' village in the State has at least one shop kept by 

** a Bania who deals in ordinary articles of daily use. Some also 

make advances to the cultivators at the time of sowing, collection 
of the revenue, marriages, etc., recovering their loans with high 
interest. 


There are no local hawkers as such, but a class of Muhammadan 
hawkers, popularly called vilayatls^ coming mainly from Afghanis- 
tan, pay yearly visits to most villages in the State, and offer goods 
for sale, consisting chiefly of cloth, spices, and dried fruits, at 
exorbitant prices. The villagers agree to pay the price at some 
future date fixed according to their convenience often a year in 
advance. The traders return at the appointed time to recover 
their money and the man who is unable to pay receives short ^shrift 
from^ his rough creditor. The State now endeavours, as far as 
possible, to prevent these men hawking their wares, ‘ 


Capitalists, About a score of capitalists live in the State who are supposed 
to own capital varying from Rs. 15,000 to Rs. 75,000, while those 
possessing Rs. 75,000 and over, number three or four. These men 

are either merchants or money-lenders or both. They are all local 
men. 


Measures of 
time. 


Four eras prevaU in the State, the Vikrama Samvat which is 
followed by merchants of aU castes and creeds. The new year of this 
era begins on the first of Kdrtik Shukle ( October) or the beginning 
of bright fortnight of Kartik. The accounts for the preceding yjx 
are closed and the new account books opened on this day. On the 

the dark 

0 night of Ashwm, called Dtwali, merchants worship Lakshmi, the 

TdhaZ of the Shdli 

vahana or Shaka era is followed by Deccanis in their religious 

^tth the new moon on the 
Cudtpadwa day in Chaitm, which falls in March. The name 



MEANS OE COMMUNICATION, 


31 


Gudipadwa is a Marathi term, meaning the first day on which gudls 
or small flags are hoisted by all Hindus of Maharashtra as a sign of 
the commencement of the new year. The third era, which is that 
usually followed officially in both Branches of the State, is called 
the Mdlwl year.^ The accounts of the State are closed at the end 
of this year. It begins on the day on which the mrig nakshatra 
falls, which coincides usually with the 5th or 6th of June. For the 
sake of regularity in accounts and in business matters, the official 
year is nowadays terminated on the 31st of May, the new year 
commencing from the 1st of June. This year is employed in all 
official correspondence and in the State accounts. Formerly the 
Muhammadan names of the months were used with this era and 
the monthly salarie s of State servants were paid according to these 
months. But since the superintendency of Diwan Tatya Sahib 
Gore, the English months have been substituted. The day is now 
divided on the European system. 

Section VII.—Means of Oommtmication. 

(Table XV.) 

BOTH BRANCHES. 

Railways as yet nowhere serve the State directly, but their influence Railways, 
is apprec^le, and was most noticeable during the famine of 1899- 
1900 when grain was poured into Dewas. The new line from Nagda 
to Muttra, forming part of the Bombay Baroda & Central India Rail- 
way system will traverse the Alot pargana of the Senior Branch 
and the Gadgucha pargana of the J unior Branch, with stations at 
Kasari and Alot In the Senior Branch. 

The Agra-Bombay high road runs through State territory from Roads 
north to south, passing by the towns of Dewas and Sarangpur CTable XV ). 
about 28 miles, lying within the State. Metalled roads also join 
Dewas with Ujjain and Sehore. The total mileage of these roads 
Is about 42, for the maintenance and repairs of which, the two 
Branches of the State together make a yearly contribution of 
Rs. 4,200 to the British Government. There are two unmetalled 
feeder roads, one in the Bagaud pargana which connects the Bagau^ 
and Padlia villages with Mukhatiara station of Rajputana-Malwa 
Railway, covering a**distance of 18 miles and the other joining 
Alot and Gadgucha to Nagda Station (25 miles). A metalled 
road runs^between Dewas town and the Mendki water works 
of the Junior Branch, a mile and quarter distant. The rest of 
the State roads are unmetalled fair weather roads. It is proposed 
to connect Dewas town with Raghogarh and Akbarpur Khasgi by 
a metalled road, the cost being shared by the two Branches. 

^ Locally this is always so termed but it is actually the Deccan /hsZi era which 
was introduced by Shah Jahan in 1636 after the conclusion of his campaign in 
the Deccan. The Maratbas adopted it and introduced it into Malwa. The 
year 1240 of this era commenced in the second month of the Hijri year 1247 
corresponding with July, 1831, To convert to A. D, add 590. See Pnnsep’s Ujje- 
fikl TaUeSf Vol, II, 170 , and Grant Duff’s Uistory of the M.ahara,tta9^ 46, note. 



32 


dewas states. 


Post and 
Telegraph. 


Famine of 
2899-1900 . 


Imperial Post Offices have been established at Dewas town and 
Sarangpur and branch offices at Sipra, Raghogarh, Alot, Padhana, 
Ringnod, Barotha, and Padlia. A combined Post and Telegraph 
Office has been opened at the capital and at Sarangpur. 

Section VIII.— Famine. 

(Table XXX.) 

A deficiency or total failure of the rains is nsiially the cause 
of scarcity and faniinCi though distress is occasionally caisSed by 
excessive rain, hail, and pestSe Agriculturists recognize certr.ti) 
prognostics [adakha) by means of which they proles': to predict tns 
nature of the rains. For example, the incessant blowing of the 
strong wind called kuldwcifi at three successive inlervals of a week 
is supposed to bring in favourable rains. Its failure is :: sure sign 
of insufficient rain, 

Within the memory of the oldest men no famine had visited 
Malwa till 1899-1900. It was the direct result of a total failure of 
the rains and the consequent loss of kharlf as well as the 
rabi crops. Prices rose rapidly and the agricultural and labour- 
ing classes soon felt the pinch. To combat this calamity, 
they were forced to borrow from the sdhukdrs and pAwn their 
small property, consisting of silver ornaments and brass or cropper 
pots, and finally to dispose of their cattle, the doors and rafters of 
their houses and even the tiles on their roofs to piircnase 
necessaries, 

SENIOR BRANCH. 

In the Senior Branch 38 relief works were opened providing 
work for 8,500 persons daily during the height of the distress, the 
cost amounting to Rs. 23,034, while Rs. 7,110 was spent on poor 
houses, and Rs. 21,000 received from the Indian Charitable Relief 
Fund were chiefly spent in rehabilitating broken down cultivators,* 
TaJzkdvi advances to the amount of Rs, 58,272 were distributed, 
and 3 lakhs of ‘revenue were suspended. In 1902, nearly tho 
whole of this amount, besides all previous arrears, in all 5 kik^\s 
were remitted in commemoration of the coronation of the 
King-Emperor. The total direct cost of the famine was 4 lakhs, 
exclusive of remissions of old arrears, etc. 

JUNIOR BRANCH* 

In the Junior Branch relief works w^ere also opened in diilereni 
parts of the State which gave relief to about 10,000 persons, costing 
Rs. 28,238. Shops were started, supported by public funds at 
which grain was sold at low rates and food and clothing were 
distributed daily at the garlhkhdna (poor-house) at a cost ol 
Rs. 2,067. Takkdvi^ in the shape of bullocks and seed and grain was 
issued to agriculturists to the amount of Rs. 27,216. GuduitGat' 



FAMINE 


33 


relief was afforded to the extent of Rs. 3,383, while Rso 20,795 were 
received from the Indian Charitable Relief Fund. Suspensions were 
made to the amount of 1 *7 lakhs in this year and Rs. 95,000 in the 
succeeding year, while finally 4*5 lakhs had to be remitted. The 
total cost of the famine being 7 lakhs. 

The famine brought in its train high mortality. Some of the 
people died directly of starvation, but the majority losing power of 
resistence were carried off by small -pox^ cholera, fever, diarrhoea 
and other diseases. 



DEWAS STATES. 


CHAPTER III 

ADMINISTRATIVE- 

[Tables XVI. to XXVII., XXV., and XXXI.l 
Section I- —Administration. 

BOTH BRANCHES. 

In Mughal days, the State was included in the sarhafs of 
Sarangpur, Kotri-Pirawa (Alot and Gadgucha), and'Mandu (Bagaud). 
In early days the Chiefs of Dewas were usually absentees, attend- 
ing the Peshwa in some campaign. The Diwan managed the 
State, giving out the parganas on ijard. Two other important 
officials, who attended the. Chief in the field, were the secretary or 
Chitnls and the commander of the army, the Bakshi. 

In those days the Chief did not sign official documents or letters. 
He added the words He vinanti, or, “ this is my request,” at the end 
of the letter and in the case of financial papers, wrote sahi or kamr^ 
that is, “ sanctioned ” in the top corner. The Diwan then wrote 
Mdrtand or Gajdnan, the names of the gods Martand and Ganesh 
at the top, the accountant, if it was a financial paper, adding 
jdnijee chh or “ be it known and the date ” at the bottom. Finally 
the State seal was affixed. Two seals were kept, the smaller 
bearing the words, mortah shud (i.e., muhuHah shud), it has 
been sealed.” The larger seal bore in the case of the Senior Branch 
the words Shri sheo charani dridh hhao [father of chief), sut 
[chiefs name): in the Junior Branch the superscription ran 
Shiva ndth charani tatpar [father's name ), sut [chiefs name) 
nirantar* 

These seals are still used, the names of father and son, of course, 
changing with each ruler. 

SENIOR BRANCH. 

Departments, ^he Chief exercises a general control over his State, the Diwan 
or minister being the principal executive officer, charged with the 
supervision of all the departments. The Chief exercises under the 
treaty of 1818 full powers in general and in civil and criminal 
judicial matters. 

No administrative departments existed in the Stale till it was ^ 
brought under British supervision, affairs being conducted by a 
Council formed of the Diwan, Phadnis, and two other officials. All 
official correspondence was carried on in the name of the 
Kdrparddjdn (conductors of affairs). Administrative departments 
were inaugurated by Tatya Sahib Gore, when Superintendent. 

The following departments now exist : — Darbar, Revenue, 
Judicial, Phadnisi or Accounts, Military, Educational, Medical, 
Public Works, Treasury, Survey and Settlement Office, and 
Shagirdpesha. 



ADMINISTRATION, 


OO 


Darbar, — The Darbar is presided over by the Chief, who is 
assisted by the Diwan. It is the controlling office. 

The Revemie Department, — This department came into exsitence 
under Lala Bisheshar Nath, Rao Bahadur Kunte, seeing the 
necessity of controlling the revenue and accounts work of the 
parganas, appointed an officer with the designation of Sar~kainasdar. 
This officer was chief revenue officer and supervised all the revenue 
and accounts of the kamdsddrs. He also had charge of the 
survey and settlement office. Lala Bisheshar Nath amalgamated 
this office with the Darbar and changed the designation of the 
Sar-kamdsddr to that of MtUki muhhtidr. This officer now acts 
as Revenue Secretary in the Darbar office. 

Judicial, — This department also came into existence in Lala 
Bisheshar Nath’s time. Before that the Superintendent or Minister 
used to supervise the judicial work. An officer with the designa- 
tion of Judicial Secretary, now works as Secretary to the Surperin- 
tendent. 

Phadnlsl. — The accounts branch is in charge of the hereditary 
Phadnls, It is the audit and accounts office of the Stale. 

Military, — This department was placed in, charge of a special 
officer in Rao Bahadur Kunte’s time. Previously its several 
branches, such as the Pdgds (cavalry), Sihandi (irregular force), 
Topkhdna (infantry and artillery), were managed by different 
officers. The Bakshi is selected from among the Sarddrs and is 
usually a relative of the Raja. 

BducationaL — The Superintendent of the Dewas High School 
is the head of this department, and Director of Public Instruction- 
The department is managed jointly by both Branches. 

Medical, — This is also a joint department. The State Surgeon 
of the Dewas hospital is the chief medical officer for the two 
Branches. He is also the sanitary officer. 

Public Works, — The Engineer is in charge of the public works 
department including the water works. He is also the Municipal 
Secretary for Dewas Town. 

The Treasury, — Till Rao Bahadur Tatya Sahib Gore’s adminis- 
tration, there were no treasuries in the State. Sums collected iri 
the parganas were deposited with a local banker qf respectable 
position, who was called the Potddr, He had branches at the head- 
quarters of each pargana. The State bore part of the expenses of 
the staff, and paid interest on any advances drawn. In Tatya Sahib 
Gore’s time a central treasury at Dewas and sub- treasuries at 
pargana headquarters were opened. These were abolished under 
Rao Raja Sir Dinkar Rao’s administration and the Potddr was 
re-appointed. Except for this temporary reversion to the old- 
fashioned system under the advice of Sir Dinkar Rao, the treasury 
system has been adhered to. In Lala Bisheshar Nath’s time a here- 



36 


DEWAS STATES. 


ditary jaglrddr of tbs State was put in charge of the treasury 
department with the designation of treasury officer, 

SuVvcy and Settlenieut Office. This office was established in 
Rao Bahadur Kunte’s time. The surveys of cultivated land had 
till then been made by zaminddrs and Izdmmgos or their agents. 
The survey was usually carried out by the mirdha or hereditary 
class of native surveyor. This practice was then put an end to and 
a survey office for the whole State with a surveyor in charge was 
instituted. The survey of the whole State was made by this 
office on the plane table system. 

Shagirdpesha. — This department deals with the retinue 
conveyances and establishment, including elephants, palanquins, 
carriages, etc., of the Chief. It is otherwise called the Palace 
department. 

Official The official language of the State is Marathi in which the accounts 

language, State and judicial proceedings and correspondence are kept. 

Administra- The State for administration purposes is divided into 5 parganas, 
Dewas, Alot, Sarangpur, Khasgi (Raghogarh), and Bagaiid. Besides 
these parganas the Chief receives an assignment of 7 per cent,, 
on the revenues of the Dongola tappa, situated in the Nimanpur 
pargana of Dhar State. CextBm pateli rights are also held in the 
three villages of- Ganegaon in the Poona District, Tankli in the 
Ahmednagar District, and Chinchagawan in Khandesh. Each 
pargana is in charge of a hamdsddr who is the chief revenue officer 
and magistrate of his charge. The kamdsddrs are assisted by a 
daftarddr or accountant, a cliitnls or head clerk, a police inspector, 
and other subordinates. Each pargana has its hereditary revenue 
officers of the old times called the chaitdharis and kdnungos^ 
JUNIOR BRANCH. 

Departments. The Chief exercises, under the treaty of 1818, full powers in 
judicial, revenue, and all general administrative matters. 

The departments of the administration are the Darbar or Chief *s 
office; the Judicial Department; the Revenue Department ; the 
Military Department ; the Educational Department ; the Medical 
Department ; the Accounts Department ; the Munsarlm of Kdrhiidna 
or the Palace Department ; the Survey and Settlement Depart- 
ment ; and the Public Works Department. 

Darbdr, — The Darbar office is presided over by the Chief who 
acts through the Diwan. Officials submit all reports to this office 
on the Judicial, Revenue, and general work of the districts, 
receiving final orders. 

« 

Jtidicial.—Tids department is controlled .by the Naib-Karbkarl 
(assistant minister) who is a District Magistrate and also decides 
civil suits above the value of Rs. 8,000, and hears all civil appeals 
preferred against the Nyayadhhh, 



AT):\IINISTEATION. 


Revenue, — The Say-kamasdat is the chief revenue officer and 
supervises all the revenue work, being also in charge of the survey 
and settlement office. 

Miliiary, — The head of the Military Department is the Bakshl. 

EdiicationaL — The Superintendent of Dewas High School 
supervises the joint educational arrangements in both Branches of 
the State. 

Medical. — The State Surgeon of the Dewas Hospital is the 
joint Chief Medical Officer of both Branches. 

Accounts. — The State Treasury and Accounts Department are 
in charge of the hereditary Phadhis. 

Palace Department. — The Palace Department is under the Kdr- 
khdnddr who is in charge of the State stables and carriages and of 
all religious and charitable allowances and also makes all arrange- 
ments for ceremonials, festivities, and official darhdrs held at the 
palace. 

Public Works. — The State Engineer is in charge of the Public 
Works Department which includes management of the water works. 

The official language of the State is Marathi in which the accounts Official 
of the State and judicial proceedings and correspondence are kept, language. 

The State is for administrative purposes divided into six parganas Administra 
each in charge of a kamdsddr assisted by a staff consisting of a 
Police Inspector, daftaddr or accountant, chitnls or head clerk and 
clerks for revenue and judicial work, and patwdris. The kamdsddr 
is the chief executive officer and also exercises magisterial powers 
of the second or third class, and civil powers in suits not exceed- 
ing a value of Rs. 500. 

The six parganas are those of Dewas, Sarangpur, Ringnod, 

Khasgi (Akbarpur), Gadgucha, and Bagaud. Besides these regular 
parganas the Chief receives 7 per cent, from the revenues of the 
Dongola tappa situated in the Wimsax^ux par ganaoi Dhar State. 

BOTH BRANCHES. 

The internal administration of the village is carried on by the Village 
patwdrlsy patel^ havalddr^ chaukiddr^ and halai. The patwdrl was 
formerly a vatanddr, that is he either enjoyed a grant of revenue 
free land or a fixed grain allowance or both in return for the 
work of keeping accounts and collecting the land revenue. This 
system did not work satisfactorily and consequently paid patwdris 
have been gradually substituted. The patwdri also supervises 
the bringing of new land under cultivation, executes the orders 
of the kamdsddr s and assists in collecting the revenue. The patel 
is the headman of the village and assists the patwdri in extending 
cultivation, sees that no encroachment upon land belonging to the 
village is made, settles petty disputes among the villagers and 
carries out the kamdsddr's orders. The havalddr acts under the 
instructions of the patwdri. He assists in recovering the tauzi 



38 


DEWAS STATES. 


Early days. 


Present 

system. 


( instalment of the revenue ) from the cultivators, and keeps watch 
over cultivator’s produce, pending payment of the revenue demand. 
The dalat gives information to the Police of any offence committed 
within the boundary of the village : he also acts as a crier [daundi- 
wdla) announcing orders of the Darbar to the villagers by beat of 
drum. When any official visits the village he arranges for supplies 
of grain, grass, fuel, etc. He carries messages and does all kinds 
of menial service. 

The parsai is the village priest and astrologer. He consults the 
panckdnga or calendar and points out auspicious days for sowing and 
performing marriages and other ceremonies. He also carries out 
certain rites at marriages among the villagers and supplies drinking 
water to Brahman travellers and State officials visiting the village. 

Besides these officials and servants every village of any size has 
its blacksmith, carpenter, cobbler, potter, chamdr or leatherworker, 
iiai or barber, and others. The barber in particular is an important 
personage, as besides the work of shaving, he carries a torch, acts 
as intermediary in arranging marriages, and is the newsmonger of 
the whole neighbourhood. He lights lamps and looks after 
the house at which officials of the State put up when on tour. 
The artisans prepare agricultural implements and keep them in 
order ; for this work they are repaid by a share of the village 
produce at each harvest. 

Section II.-Law and Justice* 

SENIOR BRANCH. 

Only cases of first importance were in early days heard by the 
Chief or minister. For Dewas town an ordinary clerk was en- 
gaged who decided trifling criminal cases. This clerk used to 
dispose of these cases by inflicting small fines, a moiety of the 
fines being sent to the Junior Branch, which used to follow the 
same course. Serious offences of highway or gang robberies and of 
murder were all dealt with by the kamdsddrs of parganm^ usually 
by inflicting corporal punishment and imprisonment. The penalty 
awarded for theft of all descriptions and serious assaults, was 
ordinarily corporal punishment with a korda ( a leather thonged 
whip) or with a zerband (a leather martingale). Persons under 
suspicion of murder or theft were beaten daily until they confessed 
to an offence. Officials, State servants, and persons of importance 
were imprisoned in the Alot garhi (fort). Those who could afford 
to pay heavy sums were invariably released. 

This condition of affairs continued in the Senior Branch till 1867 
when the Addlat (court) at Dewas was opened, and an officer 
coRedihendzim addlat appointed as civil and criminal judge, in the 
time of Raja Krishnaji Rao II, Although this court was established 
the old oral system of administering justice and inflicting punish- 



LAW AND JUSTICE. 


39 


ments was adhered to. When, however, Tatya Sahib Gore became 
Superintendent of the State he discontinued oral enquiries, and 
had regular written records made of each case. The kamasddrs 
used to send up the most trifling cases to the Superintendent for 
disposal. The Alot kamdsdd/ still used to inflict the punishment 
called dhinda^ a punishment usually awarded for the offences of 
adultery, rape, or elopement. The offender was placed upon an 
ass facing towards the tail with his face besmeared with 
lampblack, and led through the town. Pandit Sarup Narayan 
invested the kamdsddrs of patganas with third class magisterial 
powers and introduced the British Indian Penal Code and 
Criminal Procedure Code. Later on, when Rao Bahadur 
V. K. Kunte took charge of the State, the system prevailing in 
British India, modified to suit local usage, was adopted. A regular 
series of courts was instituted from subordinate courts 

to the final appellate court. In administering justice British Acts 
are followed in the spirit, the Darbar retaining the power to make 
such modifications as are suitable to the circumstances and 
condition of the people. 

No legislative body exist in the State. The Superintendent (or Legisiati o n. 
the Chief when exercising powers) in consultation with the minister 
and other officials, issues the necessary rules and regulations 
which have the force of law. The Indian Penal and Criminal 
Procedure Codes, the Civil Procedure Code and Evidence Act have 
been adopted with modifications, while local Acts regulating Court 
Fees, Limitation, Stamps, Registration, and the carrying of arms 
have been lately framed and passed by the Darbar. 

The Raja is the highest judicial authority ’in the State exercising 
full powers under the treaty of 1818. 

The Addlat (Court) of Dewas is presided over by a civil judge State Courts 
who decides civil cases up to any amount in value. He is also a 
magistrate of the first class. An assistant is given him with powers 
to decide civil cases up to Rs. 200 ; he is also a second class 
magistrate. The jurisdiction of the Addlat extends over Dewas 
town and the parganas. 

In the parganas the kamdsddrs are invested with civil and criminal 
powers. The kamdsddrs of Sarangpur, Bagaud, and Khasgi exercise 
the powers of a first, second, and third class magistrate, respectively. 

They are also civil judges for their parganas. The Sarangpur 
kamdsddr is empowered to entertain suits up to Rs. 1,000 in 
value, the Bagaud kamdsddr up to Rs. 500 and the Khasgi 
kamdsddr up to Rs. 50. 

In the pargqna of Alot the kamdsddr has heavier revenue work 
and so is given only criminal powers as a first class magistrate, an 
independent officer being appointed as civil judge and subordinate 
magistrate for the pargana. The latter is empowered to dispose of 



40 


DEWAS STATES. 


Cost of estab' 
iishment. 


Legislation* 


Courts* 


ca=es up to a value of Rs. 1,000 and exercises magisterial powers 
of the second class. All appeals either civil or criminal are prefer- 
red to the Darbar at Dewas presided over by two judges. The 
hereditary Diwan is the senior Judge and the Judicial Secretary the 
junior. The second and final appellate court is that of the Chief. 

The total annual expenditure on law and justice in the State is 
about Rs. 11,000, the value of property litigated on in the year 
1905 was Rs. 61,000. 

JUNIOE BEAHCH. 

A regular court was first established at Dewas in the year 1873-74. 
Before that, the Chief and his Diwan used to administer justice 
at their discretion. 

Besides imprisonment, whipping, transportation and capital 
punishment, detention in the stocks or Hhodct was commonly 
inflicted, while another punishment consisted in placing heavy 
stones on the heads of criminals who were then left out in the hot 
sunshine. These old methods of punishment have gradually died 
out since the establishment of regular courts. Appeals from the 
decisions of this court -were preferred to the ruling Chief or to the 
Darbar. 

No legislative body exists in the State, any acts or regulations 
required being issued by the Chief in consultation with the 
Diwan. The General Acts of the Government of India are followed 
as guides in most matters. A Limitation Act was passed in 1886 
and a Court Fees Act in 1894, both based upon the similar British 
India enactments. 

The kamdsdar in charge of each pargana is invested with the 
powers of a magistrate of the second or third class, and also authoris- 
ed to dispose of civil suits to the value of Rs. 500, In the town of 
Dewas a civil court is presided over by the Nydycidhlsh or 
civil judge who decides original suits to the value of Rs. 8,000, 
and also exercises the powers of a magistrate of the second class, 
and hears civil appeals against the decisions of the kamdsddrs. 
He is assisted by a magistrate of the third class with powers to 
dispose of such civil cases as are handed over to him by the civil 
judge. Civil and criminal appeals from the decisions of both 
these courts and all criminal appeals from the decision of the 
kamdsddrs are preferred in the court of the ndih-^kdrhhdn who is 
invested with the powers of a District Magistrate and who is also 
authorised to entertain original civil suits of unlimited value. He 
also deals with criminal cases and original suits against sarddrs 
and mdnkans. The Darbar court (Chief’s personal court) is 
the highest court in the State, dealing with heinous cases and 
hearing final appeals. 



E'INANCE. 41 

The judicial establishment costs about Rs. 17,000 annually. Cost of 

1*1 *1 r^r\c /^ ^ dstStbllSnrnCfliu 

Value of property litigated about m the year 1905-06 was and litigation. 
Rs/61,000. 

Section III.— Finance. 

(Tables XXVIII. and XXIX.) 

The history of the State finances begins 'v^ith the establishment of Finance, 
the British Supremacy. Prior to the treaty of 1818 the Chief was 
obliged to maintain large forces to assist the Peshwa. To defray 
the heavy expenditure incurred he had to borrow heavily from 
bankers who were repaid by assignments of the land revenue of 
the State, v^hole parganas being given out to them in farm. Many 
bonds are still held by the descendants of these old salmkars, 

SENIOR BRANCH. 

During the time of Tukoji 11. the annual income of the State was 
not more than Rs. 75,000* After the lapse of about 30 years, the 
revenue rose to 1*6 lakhs and 30 years later to 3 lakhs. As the 
income of the State gradually increased during these 60 years, the 
expenditure under various heads also increased. An examination 
of the items of expenditure during the last 50 years shows that 
the State income before 1818 was expended almost wholly 
on the army, the Raja’s personal household, and allowances to 
his sardars and courtiers, very little being spent on the ad- 
ministration or improvement of the land. Since the State came 
under British supervision, however, large sums have been spent on 
the judicial, police, and revenue administration of the State, and 
on education, medical relief, and public works. 

From 1866 to 1876 while Krishnaji Rao II. was conducting the 
administration, the State was burdened with debts caused by his 
extravagance. The debts at length became so unwieldy that the 
Government of India was obliged to interfere. Since then the 
finances of the State have been properly controlled and the heavy 
debts, amounting to nearly 30 lakhs were rapidly paid off, while 
at the same time considerable sums were spent on improvemen ts. 

The finances of the State are now controlled by working on a 
regular budget. 

Weekly accounts of receipts and expenditure from the pargana 
treasuries are sent regularly to the phadmsl office where they are 
examined and incorporated with the sadt^ accounts,, Formerly 
monthly accounts called tdUhand or goshwdm were sent in, 
now these weekly accounts have been substituted for them. 

Every payment is made on a cheque issued from the phadnlsl 
office under the Darbar’s sanction. 

The kamdsddrs of parganas are only authorised to incur limited 
eT^penditure within their budget allotments. 



42 


DEWAS STATES, 


Chief sources ^ j-evenite is about 3-5 lakhs of which 2-7 lakhs are 

and expendi* derived from land \ Ks. 33,000 from customs and excise i Rs, 10,000 
^*^*’®* from duty on opium; law and justice Rs. 10,000 ; and Rs, 7,700 

from tanka. The land alienated in jaglrs produces an income of 
about Rs. 80,000. 

The main heads of expenditure are Chief’s establishment 
Rs. 76,000 ; collection of revenue Rs. 69,000; military Rs. 28,000 ; 
public works department Rs. 28,000; general administration 
Rs. 24,000 ; police Rs. 22,000 ; education Rs. 8,000 ; and medical 
Rs. 7,000. 

In the famine of 1899-1900, the State was obliged to borrow 
3 lakhs of rupees from the Maharajas Sindhia and Holkar. To 
liquidate this loan, Rs. 25,000 a year are alloted in the budget. 

JUNIOR BRANCH. 

The finances of the State are supervised and controlled by the 
Diwan. Regular budgets are prepared at the beginning of the year 
while weekly accounts of receipts and expenditure are submitted 
from the parganas to the phadnlsl office where they are audited 
and incorporated with the sadr accounts. 

No reliable material is available regarding figures for the income 
and the expenditure of the State before 1880. 

The chief sources of expenditure at that time were the palace 
expenses, allowances to the Raja’s sarddrs and the military, the 
amount spent on the administration being very small. 

Chief sources income is 3 *5 lakhs of which 2*6 lakhs come from land. 

ot rev^enue " 

and expendi- Rs. 20,000 from customs dues, and Rs. 14,000 from opium and 
excise. The income of land alienated in jdgus is Rs. 7OJ0QO. 

The chief heads of expenditure are collection of revenue 
Rs. 50,000, Chief’s establishment Rs. 48,000, and general adminis- 
tration Rs. 17,000. 

The financial position of the State was satisfactory till 1899 
when famine loans amounting to 3*7 lakhs were contracted. The 
State holds Government paper to the extent of 2*8 lakhs. 

BOTH BRANCHES. 

Coinage. There was never a State coinage, all transactions being carried 
on in the coinage of Indore, Ujjain, Partabgarh, Bimdi, and Kotah. 
These coins received special marks on them called tappa from 
State goldsmiths specially appointed for the purpose, before being 
circulated for use in the State. 

The mark made at Dewas town on halt coins was called a jald^ 
dhdri, being the image of the Shivlingam, that at Alot and Gadgu- 
cha was a circular emblem representing the figure of the moon. 
The copper coins current in the State were called Barddi ( 
from Berars ) pice. 



Li\ND REVENL’K. 


43 


All these coins have disappeared since the introduction of British 
coin in 1895. 

In 1876 hdli was made legal tender and remained so till 1895 
when British coin replaced it from the 1st of June 1895. This 
reform was effected gradually by requiring the payment of all fines 
and all fees in civil suits to be made in British coin, while the 
contractors for sdyar and ahhdri were ordered to pay in British 
Indian coin. Finally the ijdraddvs were required to pay the land 
revenue in British coin at a fixed rate of exchange, which allowed a 
slight profit to ijaraddr^ The whole revenue was afterwards 
converted into kalddr coin at the rate of Rs. 104-12 hdli to Rs. 100 
British coin. 

Section IV—Land Revenue- 
(Table XX.) 

SENIOR BRANCH. 

The land is the property of the Chief, a cultivator having culti- 
vating rights only so long as he rays the assessed revenue. The 
tenure is ryoHcdri each cultivator holding directly from the Darbar 
without the intervention of a farmer or zaminddr. 

Each khdia ( holding ) contains a few hlghas of irrigated land, 
the greater part being dry land called mdUtni together with a 
certain share of pasture land. In pargana only do the 

cultivators possess rights of sale, mortgage, and alienation. 

The present scheme of istimrdn wells mentioned under irriga- Tenure. 
4ion carries full occupancy rights with it with respect to the irrigated 
area. The State land is occasionally given in b-atdi tenure 
{ hdta^ a share) in which the actual produce of the field is shared 
between the cultivators and the Darbar ; this is the practice in 
remote and inaccessible parts or where land fit for cultivation has 
not been taken up by regular cultivators. 

Another method of disposing of the land is occasionally follow- 
ed, When owing to the desertion of a village its fields are lying 
fallow they are made over to the cultivator of an adjoining village 
on pdyd-hdsht tenure. The holders of such land pay in the 
revenue at the harvests. 

Much State land is held in indm which is of five dlasses. 
Devasthdn and dharmdddya land grants are made for the 
maintenance of temples and the support of Brahmans. Kkoti 
land is held by the paid or headman of each village ; these lands 
are partly revenue free and have been in the possession of the 
family for generations, the pat els being only required to pay the 
Hsdld cess on this land, equivalent to one-third the normal assess- 
ment. Paltia lands are petty grants held by village servants, 
such as balais, carpenters, etc. ; their holders are not required to pay 
any revenue or cesses. Jaglr lands have usually been given revenue 



44 


DWEAS STATES. 


Special 

tenure 

(Tables Vnr 
and XXXI}. 


Settlement 
(Table XX). 


Rates, 


Cesses 
(Table XX). 


free, either for signal service rendered or through favour. There 
are fourteen Jdglrdars in the State holding twenty-four villages 
(see Table XXXI). Istimrdrl tenure land is held on a quit rent or 
permanent settlement. These grants are either of whole villages 
or individual holdings, or for land held under the irrigation Trust 
Fund rules, and are generally old grants made to indigenous 
Thakurs. There ?Lre ten istimrdrddrs holding twenty-four villages. 

Besides these tenures there are two special tenures in Alot 
pargana. These are called chauthdn and tiirkdn, Chatithdn^ 
means a fourth and turhdii, belonging to a Turk or Muhammadan. 
Turkdn lands are those held from the Muhammadan period and the 
present holdings dating from that remote time are still preserved 
and regarded as privileged. After the decline of the Muhammadan 
power, the Marathas levied the customary tax of one-fourth or 
chaiith on these lands which came to be called chauthdn lands. 

These^ tenures are still held hereditarily by the cultivators of 
the villages of Bhim and Kalshya in Alot pargana. The holders 
of these villages, who are Sondhias, always resisted a regular survey 
and settlement, but yielding to pressure the villagers of Kalshya ( to 
escape assessment ) agreed to pay double the old rates. 

It is a rule that no land held on indm or istimrdr can be sold 
without the permission of the Darbar. 

The land was "first surveyed in the time of Tukoji Rao II., and 
since then 'much wasteland has been brought under cultivation 
and the area under irrigation materially increased. Until lately 
pasture grounds included in the khdta of a cultivator were not 
assessed but were given free for his use, but now every plot of 
ground is brought under assessment according to its productive 
powers. The rates oT assessment and cesses have gradually 
increased and now appear to have reached the climax, some 
addition to the assessment having been made at each stage in the 
history of the State during the last fifty years. 

The rates for land vary in different pafganas according' to the 
productive capacity of the soil. The rates for wet land vary from 
Rs. 3 in Bagaud to Rs. 18 per hlgha in Alot pargana^ where the 
rates for irrigated land are higher than in other parganas^ as the 
soil is -richer and specially adapted to poppy cultivation. The 
rates for dry land vary from 6 annas to Rs. 2. The rates for land 
in which betel and tobacco are produced often rise to Rs* 30 per 
hlgha. 

The cesses fall under two divisions; Ordinary and Extra- 
ordinary. 

Ordinary cesses are of two kinds; General and 

Special. 

The general cesses are rates levied on land-revenue and are 
payable by all the cultivators. They are as follows 



LAND REVENUE. 


45 


Palwari Cess at 4 per cent, in T^evi&s pargana and 3*125 per 
cent, in the other parganas. It was levied to meet the cost of the 
patxoari establishment. Gao Kkarcha ( village expenses ) levied 
at 3*125 per cent, to meet village expenses on the occasions of 
festivals, and for charities:, etc. In the Dewas pargana a cess called 
the grass cess is levied instead at the same rate, while the village 
expenses are defrayed by the patels out of the suhdl ( shares of 
grain ) received by them. Madrdsa patti or school cess at "a per 
cent, for maintenance of schools. 

The special cesses are — 

Peri ( tree-tax ) at 3 annas per mango tree and mahtici tree. 

Patel paiti, a nazardna which was formerly levied from each 
patel to the amount of a full assessment on the pdtcVs klioti land 
once every 3 years. It is now, however, taken yearly, one-third of 
the whole amount being paid each year. It was originally called 
when . levied every 3 years. Bhet,-— Formerly patels and 
Thakurs presented a Bhet of one rupee each to the Chief and the 
principal officials when visiting a village. These are now absorbed 
into the State revenue demand and are realised annually. But- 
rafta. — Formerly all halais had to give a bundle of yarn each 
free for ropes required for the horses of the pdga. This is 
now commuted into a fixed cash payment of Rs. 2 per village, 
which is defrayed by the halais. Chamdri or Adhodl. — Formerly 
the chamdfs hdd each to give half a hide (hence the name 
Adhodi) free for the use of the State pdga. It was subsequently 
converted into a cash payment of Rs. 2 per village. 

Extraordinary cesses are Tlkkdpatti^ Bd^ipatti^ and DdhhaU 
khdrij nazardna, 

Tikkdpatti is levied on the occasion of the Chief’s succession. 

It is levied on all classes of mudfi- holders, in enjoyment of 
land or cash or both. One year’s nett income is taken. Bdnpatti 
is levied on the occasion of the Chiefs marriage. Formerly one 
year’s nett income was taken. Similar paftis were taken in old 
times on various occasions which entailed extra expenditure on 
the State. DdkhaUkhdrij nazardna is l&viedi on ih.e occasion of a 
mudfiddr's succession to his mudfi. One-fourth of the nett income 
is taken when the heir is direct, and one-third or one-half, respect- 
ively, when he is a remote collateral or is adopted. 

The cultivator until lately paid the tauzi ( revenue ) in four instal- Collection, 
ments. The first instalment is called shakunpota tauzi so called 
because the amount collected from the parganas, is placed as an 
auspicious present before the Chief in the public darhdr which is 
held every Dasahra, This instalment was introduced by Rao 
Bahadur Tatya Sahib Gore who, when Superintendent, ordered 

1 Literally ** omen-purse,'’ i.e., the completeness or otherwise of this collec- 
tion acted as an omen of the rest. ^ 



4G 


BEWAS STATES 


that two anims per rupee out of revenue demand should be 
coilecled before the Dasahra ( 10th of Asx):?iit sttdl ). This instalment 
is also called the maize tattzi as the first crop which ripens is 

The other instalments fell in Kdrfik^ EJdgh, and SctisdkJi, These 
have now (1906) been abolished and replaced by two instalments 
of 8 annas each, realised within six weeks of MorgasJitrsa stidi 
15lh (November), and C/ra^'f suefi 1st ( April ), respectively. This 
gives the cultivator ample time to dispose of bis produce in the 
open market. 

The i>afwdrl collects the revenue. In Dewas pargana^ he 
formerly received as bis fee a grain dole, called stdzdl, at the rate 
of five seers on every hlgha cultivated. This practice has been 
abolished and patwdris now receive a cash payment instead. Many 
of the patwdris in the Dewas pargana are hereditary servants, but 
since villages have been regularly grouped in circles, and each circle 
has been put in charge qf a patxodrl, these hereditary pa txodr'i ships 
have ceased to exist. In the Sarangpur and Alot parganas 
pafiodrls were formerly paid half an anna in every rupee collected. 
A peon is attached to th^ paiwdrl who duns the cultivators if the tattzi 
is not paid. In Dewas he is known as the hdmddr^ and in Alot as 
the havalddr, For each pargana an officer, called the sar-patxvdrl, 
is appointed to inspect the work of the patxodrls. 

The revenue which idie patxiodrl collects from his circle is sent 
to the pargana treasury whence the kamdsddr transfers it to 
the Huzur treasury. The revenue work of the kamdsddrs is 
supeivised by the Revenue Secretary, 

Formerly all the parganas in the State were given on ijdrd or 
farm, but now only a few villages are farmed out. The ijdraddr 
pays the assessed revenue by instalments and in return receives a 
commission at the rate agreed on when the contract was made. 
The ijdraddr can with the kamdsddr*s sanction evict any cultivator 
who does not pay the revenue demand. 

Besides the ijdraddrs, the class of men known as tlpddrs ( middle- 
men ) advance money to the cultivators to enable them to pay the 
revenue demand, receiving back the amount with interest, after the 
produce is sold in open market, or else on condition of receiving the 
whole produce at a rate fixed in anticipation. The transactions 
between the tlpddrs and cultivators are usually private, but occasion- 
ally the tlpddrs make the advances on the security of the Darbar. 

About Rs- 69,000 are spent on the collection of the land revenue, 
on account of the salaries of the kamdsddrs of parganas with their 
establishments, together with the allowances called ddmi^ paid to 
the hereditary zaminddrs and kdnnngos. 



LAND REVENUE. 


47 


JUNIOE BRANCH. 

The Chief is the sole proprietor of the soil. The ryof has only 
cultivating rights on his holding so long as he pays the revenue. 

There are, however, a few exceptional cases in the t>argana of 
Bagaud, where agriculturists enjoy proprietary rights entitling them 
to sell, mortgage, or otherwise alienate their land. 

At first the system of assessment called haJphala ( assessment PettkmpTifc 
by the hal or plough ), which was in vogue long before the appear- NX), 
ance of the Marathas in Malwa, was generally adhered to. The land 
was occasionally measured, before being assessed, by the niirdlias 
or local surveyors, who usually did their work either by means of a 
rope or a bamboo, a system known as the kaddhdp, and sometimes 
by an eye estimate only. This system of measuring continued in 
force till 1880. 

Raja Narayan Rao early became convinced of the utter useless- 
ness of this method and the gross abuses attending it, and abolished 
it. A regular survey of the territory w^as commenced at his 
instance in the year 1880 and completed in 1883-8t-. This survey 
brought to light an area under cultivation of about 25 per cent, over 
and above the assessed land on which no revenue was being paid. 

Another serious defect was also discovered in that, while the 
standard measure for area was at that time a hlgha equivalent to 
165 square feet, the actual high a used in survey was only to 
145 square feet. The Darbar endeavoured to bringing the practical 
measure up to the theoretical one but found it impracticable, and 
the reform has been dropped. 

A second survey was commenced in 1894 and completed in Second 
1897. No assessment has as yet been made, however, on account survey, 
of the famine of 1899, 

In the time of Raja Jiwaji Rao the land revenue of the State 
was leased on the ijdrd system. Biit this has been gradually 
abolished, and, at present, only a few villages are given on ijdrd. 

The settlements of parganas of Bagaud and Khasgi ( Akbarpur) 
were made in 1891-92 and 1895, respectively. 

The of each village assisted by patel and chauhlddr QoWacil^xL. 

collects the revenue of the village and sends it to the' kamdsddr, 
who, in turn, forwards it to the State treasury. Money lenders called 
tipddrs advanced money the cultivators to pay off the State revenue 
demand on the condition of receiving it back with interest after 
the sale of the produce in open market, or not infrequently on 
the condition of receiving the whole produce at a rate fixed in 
anticipation. These transactions between the tipddrs and cultivators 
are usually private. But occasionally such advances are made on 
the guarantee of the State. A certain number of villages are still 
held on ijdrd, the ijdradar or farmer being responsible for the 
payment of the revenue and being allowed from 6 to 10 per cent; 



48 


DEWAS STATES, 


comiTiission for the trouble of collection. This system facilitates 
realisation of the demand but is liable to be detrimental to the 
permanent interest of the cultivators, unless followed with great 
caution and under strict supervision. A high assessment, specially 
on irrigated land and the considerable fall in the price of opium in- 
recent years, have greatly diminished the capacity of the cultivators 
to withstand natural calamities, while gross extravagance on the 
occasions of marriages and other ceremonials are serious causes of 
poverty. The revenue has alw^ays been paid in cash. 

Rates. The rates for irrigated land vary from Rs. 3 in the pargana of 

Bagaud to Rs. 30 in the Ringnod pargana per hlgha. The latter 
abounds in rich soil and is specially suited to poppy cultivation. 
The rates for dry land vary from annas 6 to Rs. 1-12 per hlgha. 

Eemissiotis After the famine of 1899-1900 villages were grouped and classified 
according to the average amount of rain they received and the 
ordinary harvest produced, and a scale was fixed for each group, a 
certain proportion of the revenue being suspended. The revenue- 
thus suspended was finally remitted at the time of the coronation 
of Edward VI 1. It amounted to 4’5 lakhs. 

Tenures Tenures fall into two classes, khalsa or those directly under the 

ind^xxxr)! 3*^^ alienated lands. The latter comprise grants to 

sardars and officials, and a few mtidfi or revenue-free holdings. A 
certain number of villages are held on ijdfd or farm. The ijdraddr 
has no power to alienate his land. Some of these ijdrd leases have- 
been granted to old State servants. A revenue circular, issued in 
1881, confers occupancy rights on cultivators under special circum- 
stances. There are also some land holders in the Ringnod pargana, 
who enjoy land in permanent ijdrd subject to the condition of theii? 
agreeing to pay the revenue with such periodical increments as the 
Darbar may consider justifiable. 

Section V.—Miscellaneous Revenue. 

(Table XXL) 

BOTH BRANCHES. 

The chief sources of miscellaneous revenue are excise, customsi 
and stamps. 

Opium. The average area under poppy in the Senior Branch territory 

is 3,200 acres, most being grown in the Dewas and Alot parganas. 
In the Junior Branch the area cultivated averages 3,000 acres, and 
lies mainly in the Gadgucha and Ringnod parganas. In both 
cases the ordinary rates for irrigated land are levied, which vary 
from Rs. 29 per acre to Rs. 10, each acre producing about two 
dharls (10 seers) of chlh. No opium is manufactured locally, the 
crude product being sent to Indore, Ratlani, and Ujjain. The 
duties levied are a hidi tax of two pies per rupee ad valorem, and an 
export duty of. Re. 1 per dhari exported from the State known 
as aphirn parmat. About 1,000 maunds are exported yearly, the 



MISCELLANEOUS EEVENUE. 


49 


income derived from taxes being in the case of the Senior Branch 
Rs. 10,000 and of the Junior Branch Rs. 12,000. 

Hemp drugs are cultivated to a very small extent, the greatest Other drugs* 
area being at Nagda and Saronj village in the Dewas pargana of 
the Senior Branch. 

Until 1900 the ahkarl or excise arrangements were managed 
independently by each Branch, while the jagtrdars and istimrdrddfs 
controlled the abkarl in their own villages. This system was un- 
satisfactory owing to the intermingling of territory and was in the 
year mentioned replaced by a joint system. Compensation was at 
the same time given to holders of alienated land and the control of 
their excise taken over by the Darbars. 

Owing to the isolated position of the parganas, it has been found Liquor, 
impossible to have a central distillery. The contract for each 
pargana is separately auctioned, contractors having the power to 
grant sub-contracts. The number of shops is, however, fixed by 
the Darbars. The contract is auctioned in the presence of officials 
from both Branches. In the isolated pargana of Ringnod, the 
contract is managed exclusively by the Junior Branch. 

Liquor is of three classes, Mltha of 15 U* P., selling at Re. 1 
per bottle of 24 ounces ; Dubdrd of 25 U. P., selling at 8 to 4 annas 
a bottle ; Rdshi of 60 U. P., selling at 3 to 2 annas a bottle. 

No duties are levied except the usual octroi on mahud flower 
imported within octroi limits for the distillation. 

In the Senior Branch there are (1905) 65 shops, one for Dewas town 
and 33 for the pargana, giving 1 shop to 5 square miles and 890 
persons; 17 in Alot, or 1 to 8 square miles and 1,099 persons ; 5 in 
Sarangpur or 1 to 12 square miles and 2,120 persons ; and 9 in 
Bagaud or 1 to 4 square miles and 296 persons. The revenue 
amounts to about Rs. 8,000 a year, of which Rs. 6,500 are 
derived from Dewas town and pargana. 

In the Junior Branch there are (1905) 83 shops or 1 to every 5 
square miles and 661 persons. The revenue amounts to Rs. 9,000 
per annum. The incidence in each case is 2 annas per head of 
population. Free control is vested in the R'amdsddrs of parganas. 

Jdglrddrs have no right to distil, receiving cash compensation 
instead. 

The States formerly levied a tax on salt either consumed in, Salt, 
or passing through, their territory. In 1878 this duty was stopped 
at the request of the British Government, in return for which a 
compensatory payment of Rs. 412 is made annually to each 
Branch. 

The office dealing with the collection of customs dues was former- Customs, 
ly called the Sdyar Office. The dues were levied at very varied 
rafes, which differed in almost every large village. Three main 
classes of duty existed — a transit duty, a consumption duty levied 



50 


rnJWAS STATES, 


Stamps. 


on all goods sold, and a tax called ( collection ) levied m kind 
in all bazars and in periodical fairs, on every article offered 
for sale, a hand fill of vegetables being taken from the marts, a spoon- 
ful of oil from the telis, a pnda ( bundle of 100 leaves) from the 
iamoUs, and so on. 

A curious exception, however, existed as reg’ards the Alot bazar, 
which was exempted from all Sdyar duties. A stone bearing the 
usual effigy of an ass (gadhe-gal) stands in the bazar, with an 
inscription stating that Sayar duties should not be levied on articles 
brought into that bazar. But during Rao Bahadur Kunte’s adminis- 
tration in the year 1896 the levy of Sayar duties was introduced. 

All transit duties except those, on opium were abolished in 1887. 
As regards the rest, to do away with the obnoxious features of the 
old duties, and to put an end to the frequent disputes between the 
two Branches arising from a dual control, in the year 1900 both 
Branches agreed to abolish the old Sayar and substitute for 
octroi duties to be levied in towns and a bi&i or a weighing tax at 
2 pies per rupee ad valorem in villages on all village-produce export- 
ed. The octroi was made joint but the hiiti separate. The octroi 
duties are collected by the joint octroi officer at each place, a re- 
fund being allowed on goods re-exported as in British India. The 
bidi is collected by the patimri in each village. Octroi and hidi 
receipts amount to about Rs. 7,000 and 5,000 for the Senior Branch 
and Rs. 5,000 and 6,000 for the lunior Branch. 

SENIOR BRANCH. 

Till 1902 no stamps had been issued in the State, fees known 
as rastttn being taken in cash at the rate of per cent,^ on the 
value of th6 suit. The practice of charging rasum was introduced 
by Rao Bahadur Tatya Sahib Gore, Mr, R. J. Bhide, the present 
Superintendent, introduced stamped papers for the drawing up of 
instruments and plaints in the year 1902, and in 1903 a regular 
Stamp Act for the Senior Branch was passed. Since the introduc- 
tion of stamps the income has amounted to about Rs. 2,600 per 
annum. 

JUNIOR BRANCH. 

A local Stamp Act was introduced in 1886. Only two-anna .and 
four-anna stamps are in use. Court fees were introduced in 1 894, 
All classes of application must be written on the two-anna .staniiicd 
paper. In civil suits one anna per rupee up to Rs. 1,000 and half- 
an-anna per rupee above this value are levied as Court fees. The 
annual revenue is about Rs. 3,000. 

* Section Vl.-Publie Worbs- 
SENIOR BRANCH. 

In early days public works were entrusted to a Huzuria, or atten- 
dant upon the Raja, whose pay was Rs. 8 per month, and xvho was 
nevertheless, entrusted with the expenditure of tbousandh of 



AKMYo 


51 


rupees. The condition of public works under these circumstances 
may be easily imagined. An engineer, assisted by a staff of three 
overseers, is now in charge of this department. The department 
is concerned with the construction and repair of State buildings 
and irrigation works. Within the last ten years this departnienl 
has erected many public buildings, the most important being the 
Charitable Hospital at Dewas and dispensaries at Alot and 
Sarangpur, the stables, the Court house, and the Guest House ( the 
cost of its construction being shared by both Branches ) and the 
Banibagh water- works, at the capital besides many pakka wells, 

A metalled road, from Dewas to Rfighogarh of 22 miles, is shortly 
to be taken in hand at a cost of Rs. 96,000 by both Branches jointly. 
A fixed contribution of Rs. 4,200 is paid annually to the British 
Government for the up-keep of Imperial roads passing through the 
State. 

JUNIOR BRANOH^ 

The Public Works Department was organised in 1877. This 
department is concerned with all State buildings and important 
projects in the town and parganas. Works of minor importance in 
t\\Q pai^ganas are generally entrusted to the supervision of the 
kamasdars* For such Imperial roads as lie within the State, a 
fixed contribution .of Rs. 4,200 is paid annually to the British 
Government through the Central India Agency. The w^ater-works 
for the supply of the town were completed in the year 1901. A 
qualified mechanical engineer is in charge of the works, the State 
engineer exercising a general control. The average sum alloted 
for new works, repairs, and establishments is about Rs. 29,000. 

The most important works undertaken and finished during the 
last 15 years are a Guest House (built jointly by both Branches) 
costing Rs. 26,500, Court House Rs. 24,600, Electric Machinery 
and Buildings Rs. 15,900, tahsll Courts Rs, 7,700, Drains Rs. 7,300, 
and Irrigation Works in the State costing Rs. 39,000. 

Section VII- — Army^ 

(Table XXV.) 

SENIOR BRANCH. 

In early days the Chief was by profession a soldier, and most of 
the State resources were spent on the army. From the old 
records, it appears that Tukoji Rao I. had a force of about 7,000 
horse when he accompanied Baji Rao I. on his various campaigns. 
This number his son and grandson could not maintain. 

During the time of the Peshwa Madhava Rao II* the State 
maintained a body of 1,617 horse. Under the treaty of 1818 
the State undertook to keep up a Contingent Force of 50 horse 
and 50 foot, which was in 1827 increased to 75 horse and 200 
foot arid together with Holkar’s Contingent of 400 horse, con- 
stituted the Eastern Malwa Contingent. On the amalgamalion of 
the Eastern and Western Malwa Contingents in 1859, the obligation 



52 


DEWAS STATES. 


was commuted for a money payment of hali Rs. 3 j, 022 
( Rs. 28,475 British ) annually, shared equally by the two Branches. 

No regular force is now kept up, a small mounted body which 
acts as escort to the Chief and also assists in police and revenue 
work and some footmen for guard duty only being entertained. The 
cavalry consists of 62 SillcidccYt sowars, the head of the pdgd is 
called the pdgms the post being hereditary. These men belong to 
Maratha ^nd Muhammadan families of Dewas and Sarangpur 
whose ancestors served the State in early days. Of the 62 sowars 
22 are posted in Alot, Sarangpur, Bagaud, and Raghogarh to 
assist the kamdsddrs in the parganas. The posts of sowars are 
hereditary and descend to their sons and heirs, when no qualified 
heir is forthcoming, a bdrglr or temporary paid substitute, is 
appointed. A chanda fund was first introduced in 1897 to provide 
sowars with mone}^ to purchase remounts on the death or rejection 
of a horse. Each sowar pays in Rs. 12 to the fund and receives 
Rs. 125 when he needs to purchase a horse. The money is 
returned to the fund in instalments of Rs. 5 per month. 

Infantty and The irregular infantry are called sibandi. They have no uniforms 
Artillery. merely as guards and assist district officers. They are 

armed with swords, laggi, and ballam, A laggi is a hollow bamboo 
out of which a ball is fired by means of country-made powder. 
These men number 68 and are mostly Muhammadans and Mara- 
thas. They receive Rs. 5 a month. The regular infantry and 
gunners are classed as tophhdna . They number 100, of 

whom 7 are Jamdddrs and 13 gunners, the rest being infantry ; these 
men are trained and provided with uniform. They act as guards 
at the State treasury, Central Jail, and Palace Gates. They are 
selected without any distinction of caste or creed, but the majority 
of them are Purbias from the United Provinces ; their pay is Rs. 6 
^ per month. A band of 15 men is attached to the infantry. Pen- 
sions are given to these men. The expenditure on the army 
amounts to Rs. 28,000 a year. 

JUNIOR BRANCH. 

• There is no regular army. Some irregular cavalry and infantry 
are maintained which serve as a bodyguard to the Chief and assist 
the police in the districts. They are recruited from amongst 
Rajputs, Musalmans, and Marathas. 

The pay of the infantry varies from Rs. 5 to Rs, 6, while that of 
cavalry is Rs. 18 per month. 

A pension is usually given after 30 years of service. 

The cavalry number 71 and the infantry 99. There are four 
serviceable guns in the State used for firing salutes. 

The annual expenditure on the army is about Rs. 30,000, 



POLICE AND JAIL. 


53 


Section VIII, ~ Police and Jail« 

( Tables XXIV. and XXVI. ) 

SENIOR BRANCH. 

Formerly all police work was carried out by the sihandi sepoys, 
and detection of crime was made by the peons attached to the 
kamdsddrs of par^anas. In the time of Raja Krishnaji Rao 11. a 
regular office called the Kotwdli was started in Dewas, Alot, and 
Sarangpur. 

There are now police in each pargana quartered at 11 police 
stations {thdnas) and outposts with a thdnaddr, two sowars and 
four peons attached to it, situated at ^the principal village in 
each group of 15 or 20 villages. Pay is fixed at Rs. 5 per month- 
The total effective strength is 258 men of whom 7 are mounted and 
posted at Alot. The ratio of police to population and area is one 
policeman to 242 persons and 1 • 7 square miles. 

Besides the police, village chauktddrs who represent the early 
police, keep watch and ward in the districts, informing the regular 
police of the occurrence of crime. Each man receives 32 hlghas of 
dry culturable land in return for his services. He has about 
30 houses in his charge, the number of chauklddrs being proportional 
to the number of houses in a village. These chauklddrs are 
mostly Bagris, Nayaks and Rawats by caste. They also receive 
pay from the State at Rs. 5 per month. 

Owing to the low pay educated natives are not inclined to join 
the police. 

A ,Police Officer was sent to Indore to receive instruction in 
the classification and registration of finger prints. 

Settlements of members of the Moghia criminal tribe have been Criminal 
started at Kasari, Manawada, and Chaplakheri villages in the Alot 
pargana. They number 79 persons. 

A Central jail has been established at Dewas and district lock- jails, 
ups at Bagaud, Raghogarh, Alot, and Sarangpur. No industries 
are carried on in the jails as the number of prisoners is very small. 

They are usually employed in the -State gardens and on the roads 
of the town. 

JUNIOR BRANCH- 

Up to the year 1881 there were no regular police in the 
State, The village chauklddrs carrying on all police work except 
in Dewas town where a few men were engaged on small salaries. 

In 1881 this town force was expanded into a State force and given 
a uniform and regular organization. Every pargana has now a 
qualified Police Inspector posted in it with a certain number of 
constables under him. 

One chauklddr is attached to every village in the State. Under 
the old system, the chauklddrs were paid by a grant of land. These 
grants were too small to support a man and his family and in 
consequence he was obliged to do other work to the detriment of 



54 


BEWAS STATES. 


his duties. It has been now settled that every chattkidcn^ is entitled 
to a grant of land of the second best quality varying from 15 to 30 
bighas according to the size of the village. 

The only criminal tribe is that of the Moghias who are treated 
according to the rules laid down by the Government of India. 
Settlements have been started at the villages of Jhangeria and Nirani 
of the Gadgucha pargana. Every man is given some land for his 
maintenance which is assessed at a low rate, and plough bullocks, 
and seed free, in addition. The Moghias number 65 persons. 

The police and cliaukiddrs number 404 men, giving a ratio to the 
area and population protected of 1 to 1*09 square miles and 125 
persons respectively. 

Both the chauklddrs and police are directly under the controe 
of their respective police inspectors. 

Jails. A Central Jail has been opened at Dewas with district lock-ups 

at pargana head-quarters. No industries are earned on. The 
expenditure on jails is about Rs. 2,000 per annum, and the cost of 
maintaining each prisoner is about Rs. 45. 

Section IX -“Education. 

(Table XXIII.) 

BOTH BRANCHES. 

General. Jhe first regular schools were opened in the Junior Branch 

territory in 1871 by Raja Narayan Rao. Up to 1877 the Senior 
Branch did not co-operate, but in that year a joint educational 
department was set on foot and «till controls education in both 
Branches. In 1887 this department was taken over by Mr. K. K. 
Lele and rapidly reached a high state of efficiency. Many village 
schools were opened, a kindergarten for infants, and technical 
classes. In 1871 the Victoria High School was established, moving 
in 1892 into its present quarters. When, in 1899, Mr. Lele 
was appointed tutor to His Highness the Raja of Dhar, the charge 
of the educational department was made over to his pupil, the 
present Superintendent, Mr. G. N. Shastri, M.A., who received his 
education at this institution. The school still maintains its high 
position. The number of boys in the High School in 1891 was 113; 
1901, 106 ; and in 1905, 152. 

Girls’ A girls’ school was opened in the town in 1887, the number of 

School. pupils in 1891 was 32, while in 1901 it rose to 49, and in 1905 to 

142. Education is imparted in vernacular, in reading, writing, 
and simple arithmetic. The difficulty of obtaining teachers, 
and the early marriage of pupils hinder progress in this direction. 

Muhammadan Three Persian schools are maintained, one in Dewas and the other 

education, two in the districts of Sarangpur and Alot for the education of 
Muhammadans. In 1891 there were 48 boys; in 1901, 60; and 
in 1905, 70. No Muhammadan has yet passed the entrance exa- 
mination. This class of the population is poor while some i^rejudicc 
appears to exist against learning English. 



SURVEY, 


55 


The proportion of boys under education to those of school-going 
age according to the last Census is 9*8 per cent. The educational 
department is supported by the two Darbars from the proceeds 
of the cess called Madrassa patfi levied on the land revenue. 

Education is given gratis except for small fees lately introduced 
for High School classes. 

In 1881 the annual budget ngure for the Senior Branch was 
Rs. 3,300 and for the Junior Branch Rs. 2,875 ; in 1891 it rose to 
Rs. 4,134 and Rs. 3,554, respectively; in 1901 to Rs. 6,857 and 
Rs. 7,042 and in 1905 to Rs. 8,750 and Rs4 8,240 respectively. 

In 1891 the number of schools was 15 with 588 students, in 
1901 the uumber rose to 27 with 920 students, while in 1905 it was 
58 with 2,096 students. 

Each pupil costs, in the High School, Rs. 20, and in the primary 
schools, Rs. 6 per annum. 

Section X—Medical. 

(Table XXVII.) 

BOTH BRANCHES. 

The Medical Department is common to both the Branches of the General. 
State, and its joint annual charges, amount to about Rs. 14,000. 

The department in its present form was organised in the year 
1877 A.D., when the present Medical' Officer Rao Sahib K. G. 

Pathak, L.M., assumed charge. 

Up to the year 1889, there was no separate building for the 
joint State Hospital and much inconvenience was consequently 
felt. The Senior Branch then constructed the present hospital, 
the inpatients’ ward, etc., at a cost of Rs. 13,000. Previous to 
this there had been only a small dispensary under a native doctor, 
the annual cost being about Rs. 700, 

The States now maintain five dispensaries located in the outlying 
parganas, 

A midwife is attached to the hospital to treat females 
and attend cases of labour in the town. 

Vaccination is not compulsory. The pice packet system of Vaccination 
selling quinine has not been adopted here, but Hospital Assistants quinine, 
distribute quinine or cinchona febrifuge free to all who come to 
their dispensaries. It is also kept by village school masters who 
issue it gratis. 

Section XI.— Survey. 

SENIOR BRANCH. 

All the State parganas were surveyed by the old kad-dhdp system 
in the year 1830. The survey dealt only with cultivated land. 

This survey is called the Phadnisl mapti as it was carried out by 
the phadnls through the zaminddrs and hdnungos of pargafias 
by the mirdlinSf a special class of men, usually Muhammadans. 

These mirdhds who were hereditary servants used to get one rupee 



56 


BEWAS STATES. 


for each village surveyed. A rope of jute fibre about 62 feet 
long was the standard measure. Between 1830 and 1894, all 
the parganas were surveyed. In 1894 a Survey Department 
was established and classes for patwdris were opened, these men 
afterwards surveyed all the villages by the plane table. Maps 
of each village are kept in the Survey Office with the record 
of the survey. A clerk is attached to each pargana. Almost 
all the patwdris have now been trained to survey. A regular 
settlement of the whole State has not yet been taken in hand 
on account of capricious monsoons and unfavourable seasons. 

JU.ISIIOR BRANCH. 

In early days the land was occasionally measured before being 
assessed by specially appointed officers called mirdhds^ who carried 
out the survey either by means of a rope of a certain known 
length (about 62 feet), or a bamboo (a system known as kad-dhdp) 
and sometimes by a mere eye estimate. This system continued 
more or less in vogue down to 1880. 

A regular survey was first made by Khan Bahadur Munshi 
Shahamat Ali, C. S. I., when minister. It was commenced in 
1881 and completed by 1884. The area of the whole State was 
found to be 285,405.6^^^^5 (159,628 acres). The standard 
measure of a btgha, it should be remarked, was not the same 
throughout. Speaking generally, the bigha^ before these survey 
operations, was equivalent to 132 square feet. This measure being 
smaller than that used in adjoining States, was increased to one of 
145 feet square wherever practicable ; where it was not practic- 
able, the original measure was adhered to. A second survey was 
undertaken during the minority of His Highness Malhar Rao, the 
present Chief, by Rao Bahadur Krishna Rao Mulye in 1894 and 
completed during a course of four years. A complete staff was 
engaged from outside the State for both the Survey and Settlement 
operations. Local men who attended the survey party and 
received instruction in surveying were offered scholarships, and, 
when sufficiently trained, were eventually engaged as paiwdris* 
In this survey the pargana of Khdsgi (Akbarpur) was taken in 
hand in 1894, Sarangpur in 1895, Ringnod in 1896, Gadgucha in 
1897, Dewas in 1898, and Bagaud in 1901. 

Only the settlement of Bagaud* has been completed so far. The 
settlement of the other parganas has had to be postponed on 
account of a succession of bad years, while the settlement of the 
Khasgtpargana, though complete, has not been brought into force 
for the same reason. 



CHAPTER IT 


Administrative Units and Gazetteer. 


SENIOR BRANCH. 

DewSiS Pargana (including iiL/z(7sgi). — Formerly a few scattered 
•/illages in each pargana went by the name of Kha^sgt meaning 
private or ' personal property of the chief, and were vested in the 
Rani of the Ruling Chief. They ceased afterwards to be regarded 
as personal, but the name Khdsgl continued to be used. In 1901 for 
administrative convenience these villages were merged in their 
respective parganas^ and the southern part of Dewas pargana was 
assigned instead as the Khdsgl pargana. No separate description 
of it will be given and the Dewas pargana will be treated as a 
whole here. 

The Dewas pargana is situated to the north of Indore between 
22° 41' and 23° 19'north latitude and 75° 58' and 76° 22 'east longitude. 
Its greatest length from north to south is 45 miles and from east to 
west 26 miles. The total area amounts to 1974 square miles (126,515 
acres) of which 65,049 acres are under cultivation, and 61,466 
acres are unculturable waste. The revenue amounts to 1*9 lakhs, 
including Rs, 43,000 from alienated land. 

It is bounded on the north by the parganas of Tarana and Kayatha 
of Indore State j on the south by the Indore pargana | on the west 
by the Sanwer pargana of Indore ; and on the east by Sonkach 
pargana of Gwalior State, The Dewas pargana including Khdsgl 
Pargana QompxiSQS 120 villages, of which 16 3XQ jdglr villages, 12 
isHmrdrl villages and 92 khdlsa villages. 

While the land in the Dewas pargana proper is typical of the 
Malwa plateau, in the Khdsgl pargana round Raghogarh the country 
is cut up by a spur of the Vindhyas. The peaks of Chaptibari 
(2,404) and Kisthihari are of importance. Various soils from 
Chikat-Kdli-Utfam to the most inferior Khardi Bardt are found in 
this pargana the latter being commonest in the hilly tracts of the- 
Khdsgt pargana and the former in the Dewas pargana. 

The rivers which flow through the pargana are the Sipra, Nag- 
daman, Rudrawati, Lodri, Gangi, and tesser Kali- Sind; 

The most important season in this pargana is the rahi^ that part 
of the pargana which lies north of Dew^ town being very favour- 
able for spring sowings. 

The chief crops at the kharlf are jowdr^ make, cotton, and 
oilseeds ; at the rahif wheat, gram, and poppy. 



58 


DEW AS STATES 


The pargana contains 30 tanks, 636 wells and baorts, and 
60 orhls which irrigate 3,500 acres. The average recorded rainfall 
of the last 25 years is 30 inches. The heaviest recorded rainfall 
was 50T2 in 1903, the lowest 18'79 in 1904. 

The forests cover about 6 square miles but do not form a 
<-ontinuous tract. The major part lies near Raghogarh. The plots 
growing lahul and chandan ( sandalwood) trees are reserved. 

Raghogarh was held till 1857 by the Thakur of Raghogarh. He 
rebelled and his territories were divided between the two Branches. 

The population of the i>argana in 1901 was 30,404, including 
15 642 males and 14,762 females ; giving a density of 154 persons per 
square mile. Hindus numbered 25,854 or 85 per cent., Musalmans 
4,105 or 13 per cent., Jains 391, Animists 51, and others 3. 

On the important sacred days, a fair is held at the Sipranear the 
village of Suklia on the Agra-Bombay Road. People also fleck 
to any village on the banks of the Sipra to bathe during an eclipse 
of the sun or the moon, and on other important religious occasions. 

Commercial fairs are held at the Sipra on Saturdays and a 
Dewas town on Mondays, and at Akbarpur and Sirolia on 
Thursdays. The Bombay-Agra, Dewas-Sehore, and Dewas-Ujjain 
roads traverse the pargana, 

A combined Post and Telegraph Office is maintained at the town 
of Dewas with a branch Post Office at Raghogarh. An experi- 
mental bramch Post Office has been lately opened at the Sipra 
in the Senior Branch 

A rest-house has been built at Raghogarh. 

The jagirs in this pajf^gcinct are those of 

(1) Patada held by Shrimant Sardar Jagdeo Rao Bhau Sfihib 

Ponwar, yielding an annual income of Rs. 2,361. 

(2) Palnagar held by Shrimant Bayabai Sahib Ghatge, with 

an annual revenue of Rs. 3,700. 

(3) Churlai held by Sardar Rayajirao Jadhao Deshmukh 

with an annual revenue of Rs. 2,200. 

(4) Singavada and Achlukhedi held by Sardar Gangaiirao 

Ponwar, yielding annually Rs. 2,800 and 1,700, respect- 
ively. 

(5) Sirolia, Bhilakheda, and Polai held by the hereditary 
Diwan, yielding annually Rs. 11,154, Rs. 1,680 and 
Rs. 3,188, respectively. 

(6) Lohari held by the hereditai-y Phadnis { Accountai^t- 

General ), with an annual income of Rs. 2,150. 

(7) Pimplia held by Ramrao Ganesh Atre with an annual 

revenue of Rs. 1,850. 

(8) Bijaipur held by the hereditary Zemindar of the Dew^s 

pargance, with an annual income of Rs. 2,800. 



ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS, S. B. 


59 


(9) Napakheda, held by the hereditary Kanungo of the Dewas 
pargana with an annual revenue of Rs. 2,000. 

Istinirarl Tenures, — Thakur Onkar Singh of the guaranteed 
State of Pathari holds one village in jaglr and 9 villages un- 
guaranteed istimrdrl tenure in this pargana. Similarly the 
Thakur of the guaranteed estate of Jawasia holds 2 villages on un- 
guaranteed istimrdrl tenure. Civil and criminal jurisdiction 
over the villages of both the Thakurs lie with the State. 
The Thakur of Pathari receives annually Rs. 2,519 Hdli coin as 
girds from the State and pays Rs. 2,124 per annum as quit rent. 
The Thakur of Jawasia receives Rs. 1,488 Hali coin as girds and 
pays Rs. 750 as quit rent. 

Alot Pargana — A detached pargana lying in the north-west 
of the State round the town of the same name situated in 23® 31' 
and 23° 54' north and 75° 29' and 75°42' east, about 60 miles from 
Dewas town. Its greatest length from north to south is 26 miles, 
and from east to west 16 miles. The total area is 146*75 square 
miles and the revenue 1*7 lakh of which Rs. 28,100 is from alienated 
holdings. The pargana is bounded on the north by Gangrar 
pargana of Jhalawar, on the east by the Mehidpur and Zarda 
parganas of Indore on the south by the Khachraud pargana of 
Gwalior, and on the west by the Tal and Barkhera parganas of 
Jaora State. The territories of the Gadgucha pargana of the Junior 
Branch are intermingled with those of pargana. 

The pargana falls into two divisions. The southern portion is 
fertile, but the northern portion is cut up by hills. The pargana 
contains 80 villages of which 3 are jdglr villages, 12 are on 
istimrdrl tenure and 65 khdlsd. 

The climate is temperate and the average rainfall as recorded 
for 19 years, 29*5 inches. A maximum fall of 52*57 inches was 
experienced in 1900-01 and a minimum of 14*24 inches in 1904. 

The prevailing soils are kdll^ hhurl rater (red soil) and hhadodi^ 
a local name for the stoney saser or kankreli soil. 

The only rivers of importance are the Sipra which flows through 
the pargana for 20 miles, and the Luni which has a course of about 
21 miles and then joins the Sipra. At Sipawara, at the confluence 
of the Sipra and Chambal in Jaora territory, a temple to Mahadeo 
has been erected and numerous ghats, A fair is held here on all 
religious festivals. The name of Alot is supposed to be derived 
from that of Alia Bhil who first settled in this region. The 
pargana was at one time known as the Isampur pargana from the 
village of that name, now held on an istimrdrl tenure by the 
hereditary Kdnungo, In Mughal days it was included in the 
KotrPPirawa sarhdr of the Malwa Suhah and was the head- quarters 
of a mahal, ^ 


l Giv^in as Ahor in Blochxnann’s Aind-Akbari, 



60 


DEW AS STATES. 


Little is known of the early history. This pargana was 
included in those made over to Ratan Singh of Ratlam by the 
emperor in 1665. It passed finally to Tukoji Rao I. The pargana 
suffered severely at the hands of Holkar, Sindhia, the Pmdaris, 
and the Wagh jagtrdai>s of Mehidpur, who ravaged its territories 

continually. 

The population of the pargana in 1901 was 18,638 : males 
9 669 females 8,969 ; giving a density of 127 persons per square 
mile. Hindus numbered 17,183 or 92 per cent., Musalmans 1,163, 
Jains 218, and Animists 74. 

A fair is held on 15th oiVaishdhh sxidl each year in honour 
of the deity Anadi Kalpeshwar at Alot when people bathe in the 
tank near the temple. A weekly cattle and grain market is held on 

Saturday at Alot. 

Of the total area (94,006 acres) 47,474 or 55 per cent, are 
cultivated, 937 are under forest, and 19,527 waste. The most 
important kharlf crops are jowdr maize, and cotton ; in the rahi 
wheat and poppy- 

Sources of water-supply and irrigation are 8 tanks, 462 orhls 
and 287 wells and baorls. The total area irrigated from these 
sources is 2,800 acres. 

The usual coarse hhddi cloth and blankets are made in many 
villages. A special kind of khddi known as khesld is made here 
and much used for coats. Some printing on cloth is also carried on. 
Glass-bangles are made at Khajuria, 8 miles from Alot. 

At present no railway passes through the pargana, but the 
Nagda-Muttra line, now under construction, will have stations 
situated at Kasari and Alot. No metalled roads have yet been 
constructed. ^ 

A branch Imperial Post Office has been opened at Alot. 

Alienated Lands. — The jdglrs in this pargana -are those of 
Munj held by the hereditary Phadnis, Dhutakheri held by the 
Supekar Diwan and Kheri by an old retainer’s family. 

The istimrdrl villages are those of Dudhia, Dharola, and 
Badnawara, held by Zalim Singh Zamindar, Dhaturia and Kishen- 
garh by Bhawani Singh Zamindar, Ralayata and Isampura by the 
hereditary Kanungos, the Padiar Sondhias hold the villages of 
Bhojakheri, Naweli and Satikhera, and Riccha is held by Bhawan 
Singh. 

BEgSktld Pargana. — This pargana is situated on the southern 
slope of the Vindhyas between 22° 14' and 22° 25' north latitude and 
75° 50' and 76° east longitude. 

The area of tho pargana is 40‘25 square miles (25,773 acres ), of 
which 8,131 acres are under cultivation, 11,614 acres are covered 
with forest and 6,028 acres are unculturable waste. 



ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS, S. B, 


61 


The pay'gana is bounded on the north by Vindhyan scarp in 
Indore State. On the east and the south by the Barwaha pargana 
of Indore and on the west by the Junior Branch portion of the 
Bagaud pargana. The pargana comprises 20 villages including one 
joint village, of which 4 are/i^gt/' villages and 16 hhalsa. 

The whole pargana being situated in the Vindhya region is hilly, 
nearly one-third being covered with forest which yields various kinds 
of limber, chiefly teak and anjan. 

Only three small streams, the Malan, Kodi and Adwa-nala 
traverse the pargana. 

The great ridge which runs along the northern boundary of the 
pargana iot 10 miles consists of several ranges and spurs running 
almost parallel to one another. 

The names of the principal peaks and spurs are Dhajari ( 2,676 ), 
Tumergarh, Nanagarh, Harjatnal, Ramguwal, Rosiabari, Bherughat 
and Mahadeokho. 

The principal kharlf crops are jowar^ cotton, til, and maize; and 
at the rabi, wheat and poppy. The pargana possesses 211 wells and 
baoris which irrigate about 400 acres. 

The average rainfall since 1901 is 24*4. The pargana contains 
forest covering about 17 square miles. 

The most important trees are sag {Tectona grandis), biya 
{pterocarpus marsupium), tinach {Qugenia dalhergioides), mahua 
(jBassia latifolia) and an;ian {Hardwickia binata), 

Bagaud is said to derive its name from Bagi, a plundering class of 
people, now extinct. An old well at Bagaud is said to bear an 
inscription dated 1266 Samvat (A. D. 1209). 

The early history of the pargatia is not known. The pargafia 
was transferred by the two States to British management in 1828, 
an officer called the mahal-karl acting for both Branches, under the 
direction of the Political Agent in Bhopawar. The villages Of 
Senior Branch and Junior Branch were .mixed up as in the rest of 
the State. The surplus revenue left over after meeting administrative 
charges was paid annually by the British Government to both the 
Branches in equal proportion. The administration was made over 
to the two States in 1901 and opportunity was taken of the rendi- 
tion to divide the pargana into two blocks, an eastern and 
western block, the Senior Branch retaining the former and the 
Junior Branch the latter. 

The population of the pargana in 1901 was 2,666 persons ; 
including 1,381 males and 1,285 females, giving a density of 66 
per square mile. Hindus numbered 2,222 or 83 per cent,, 
Animists 383, Musalmans 50, and Jains 11. There are 20 
villages, of which 4 are jdgir and 16 khdlsd. Total revenue 
Rs. 15,000, of which Rs. 1,600 are from alienated holdings. An 



G2 


BEWAS STATES. 


unmetalied road leads from Mukhtiara station on Rajputana-Malwa 
Railway to Bagaud (10 miles). 

Alienated Land . — In the pargana of Bagaud, there are two jdgtr^ 
ddrs, the hereditary Diwan and the Phadnis of the Stale who 
have each one jdglr village. The present zaniinddr of the 
pdrgana Rao Hamir Singh, a Bhiiala by caste, enjoys two villages 
on jd^r besides ddml dues amounting to Rs. 400 a year from the 
Senior Branch. 

SSrangpur Pargana. — This pargana is situated between 
23® 31' and 23® 44' north latitude and 76® 30' and 76° 48' east long” 
ilude ^in the north-east of Dewas surrounding the town of Sarangpur* 
It has an area of 62 square miles, of which '20, 100 acres are under 
cultivation and 19,523 acres are unculturable waste. 

It is bounded on the north by the Khujner pargana of 
Narsingbgarh State; on the east by the Talen pargana of 
Rajgarh State ; and on the west and south by the parganas of 
Shajapur and Shujalpur of Gwalior and the Kall-Sind river. 

The pargana contains 40 villages, of which one is a jdglr 
village and 39 are khdlsd villages. 

The pargana lies^ on the plateau, the soil being highly 

fertile and suited to all crops, especially cotton. The important 
rivers are the Kali-Sind which flows through the pargana for 
three miles as far as the town of Sarangpur ; and the Newaj which 
flows along the eastern boundary. 

The principal crops at the hharlf are jowdr, maize, and cotton, 
and at the rabi, wheat, gram, and poppy. 

The pargana contains 6 tanks, 335 wells and bdorls and 140 
orhls which irrigate 1,117 acres. 

The average recorded rainfall for the last 18 years is 3^1*86 
inches. The rainfall reached a maximum of 52T2 inches in 1892 
and a minimum of 12*33 inches in 1899. 

The history of the tract is given under the town of Sarangpur. 

The population of the pargana according to the census of 1901 
was 10,604 persons, of whom 5,465 were males and 5,139 females, 
giving a density of 171 persons per square mile. Classified by 
religion, Hindus number 8,253 or 78 percent., Musalmans 1,858 or 
18 per cent., and Animists 450 and Jains 43. The total income is 
Rs. 65,700 including Rs. 3,600 for alienated land holdings. 

A fair is held at Bheswa twice a year on the 15th of Mctgh sudl 
and on the 15th of Vaishdkh sudl. It is noted as a cattle fair lo 
which purchasers come from long distances. It con tinues for a 
week on each occasion. The fair is nominally held in honour of 
the goddess Bijasani. A weekly market is held at Gopsilpura ,a 
village on the Agra^Bombay road on the western bank of the 
Kali Sind every Thursday. 



GAZETTEER, S. B. 


63 


Sarangpur was in ancient times famous for its production of 
fine cloths. The industry was at one time a very flourishing 
condition its products finding their way to all the ‘ important 
markets of India. It is now declining rapidly and likely to 
soon die out, unless helped by the State. In the Senior Branch 
portion of the town about 115 looms are at work employing 150 
men. The thread or yarn for cloth is nowadays imported either 
from Calcutta or Bombay, as it is cheaper and stronger than 
yarn prepared locally. When local thread was used, it was tested 
by a class of men called Katlya, who have been settlers in this 
district for centuries. These men allowed the nails of their thumbs 
to grow to a great length ; when sufficiently grown they were 
pierced with holes of the requisite degree of fineness through which 
the thread was passed in testing. Sarangpur was also famous for 
its iron bridles and Sarota or nut-crackers. 

The Agra-Bombay road passes through the pargana for about 
15 miles. The Bhopal-Ujjain Railway line also traverses it with 
a station at Akodia, 8 miles from Sarangpur. A combined Post 
and Telegraph Office is maintaified at Sarangpur. 

An Imperial Inspection Bungalow is situated on the Agra-Bonibay 
Road, and a large sarai^ built by both Branches, jointly on the right 
bank of the river. 

GAZETTEER. 

Alot, pargana Alot. — Is the headquarters of the pargana situated 
in 23'" 46' north latitude, 75® 36' east longitude. It was origiually 
inhabited by Gorwal Brahmans and Kulmis. Though not yet a 
place of importance, it should develope rapidly after the opening 
of the Nngda-Muttra Railway. 

Alot contains a vernacular school, a dispensary, post office, and a 
ginning factory. Temples to Anadi Kalpeshwar and Chandra-shekhar 
stand near a sacred tank, which is visited on festival days by 
large numbers of bathers. The water of the tank is sprinkled on 
standing crops in case of rust and other diseases. Two mosques, 
built in 1524 and 1526 are also situated here. The population in 
1901 was 3,858 persons. 

BSibardia, pargana Sarangpur. — A village situated about 3 
miles, east of Sarangpur. A nald here has been closed by a dam 
and supplies flow irrigation for 50 acres. Area of the village 1,800 
acres. Population 263. 

pargana Bagaud. — ^The headquarters of the pargana 
of Bagaud. Situated in latitude 22® 19' north and longitude 75® 54 
east. Population 496 persons. 

pargana Sarangpur. — A village situated 10 miles north 
of Sarangpur in north latitude 23® 43' and east longitude 76® 35'. It is 
noted for the great Bheswa Fair held twice a year at the temple of 
the goddess Bijasani Mata, the family deity of the Umat Rajputs. 



64 


DEWAS STATES, 


The shrine is situated on the top of a hill. The legend is that a 
Banjara’s daughter was in the habit of taking her cows to graze on 
this hill. When she wished to water them, she used to clap her 
hands and a plentiful supply at once gushed forth from the rock. 
One day her father followed her. Finding that she was being 
watched, the girl threw herself into the gushing water and re- 
appeared in the form of the goddess. 

An inscription on the door of the temple is dated Jeth hidi 3rd 
Samvat 1852 (1795 A. D.). The village contains a Hindi school 
and a police station. Population 642 persons. 

Btiira and Sarangpur. — Two villages situat- 

ed close together. They are inhabited by Padiar Sondhias. These 
people formerly gave much trouble by their turbulent behaviour* 
The land is mostly held on Chauthdn and itirkdn tenures ( see Land 
Tenures ). Bhim has a population of 438 persons and an area of 
2,134 acres, and Kalshia a population of 356 and an area of 3,200 
acres. 

pargana Dewas. — A village situated in latitude 23® 14' 
north, longitude 76° 0' east, 24 miles north, of Dewas. The 
inhabitants are mostly Kunbis. Its population (1901) numbered 777. 
It contains a village school. Area 1,978*7 acres. 

DewSS Town, pargana Dewas. — Chief town of the twin Stales, 
situated 1,784 feet above sea level ,at 22° 58' N., 76° 6' E. The 
town lies at the foot of a conical hill known as the Chdmunda 
pahdy or hill of the goddess Chamunda, which rises some 300 feel 
above the general level. The town derives its name either from 
this hill which, owing to the shrine upon it, was known as Devivasini 
( the goddess’s residence ) or as is also alleged from the name of 
the founder of the village Dewasa bania. 

The earliest supposed mention of Dew^as is in the Pnthvirdjrdsd 
of Chand Bardai. At Dewas, Prithviraj is said to have encamped 
with his army while returning to Delhi from Ujjain. In Akbar’s 
days, Dewas was a small village under Nagda. In old papers it 
is entered as Nagar Nagda kasbd Dewas, i, e., the town of Nagda 
and suburb of Dewas, 

The history of Dewas after the advent of the Marathas in 
Malwa has already been given in the State history. 

It was not a place of importance until after 1739, when it came 
into the hands of the Marathas. Until 1886 the two Branches 
exercised joint jurisdiction. In that year definite limits were 
assigned ‘to each Branch, a new street being made to form the dividing 
line. Population, xvhole town 7881, 11,928; 7897, 15,068; 7 907, 15,403. 
Senior Branch. — 1901, 8,783: males 4,518, females 4,265. Con- 
stitution, Hindus b,127 or 70 per cent., Musahnans 2,367 or 27 
per cent., Jains 281, Christians 3, Animists 5. Occupied houses 2,737. 


1 A jint account for both Branches, 



65 


GAZETTEER, S. B. 

Junior Branch, — 1901 ^ 6,620 : males 3,396, females 3,224. Con- 
stitution : Hindus 5,124 or 77 per cent., Musalnians 1,387 or 21 per 
cent., Jains 109, Animists 67. Occupied houses 2,030. 

The two palaces, the court-houses, the guest-house, the school and 
the hospital are the most important buildings in the town. 

The Chamunda hill is mounted by a broad flight of stone steps ; 
at the summit is an image of the goddess cut in the rocky wall of a 
cave. 

The town is supplied with a double system of waterworks, one 
belonging to each Branch. The water is pumped from two wells 
and distributed throughout the town by stand-pipes. 

There are two sets of public offices and two jails in the town. 
The Kanch mahal is an old building which dates from times prior 
to occupation by the Marathas. It was built by Abdul Salam 
Kanungo. The Ponwar chiefs used to halt here before they had 
actually settled at Dewas. It is now used as a jail by the Junior 
Branch. 

The two sections of the town are administered by separate 
municipalities. 

The school, hospital, guest-house, octroi and garl-adda are con- 
ducted jointly by both Branches. 

A combined Government Post and Telegraph Office is situated 
in the town. 

Dewas is situated on the Agra-Bombay high road, 24 miles 
from Indore ; branch roads lead to Ujjain 24 miles distant, and 

Bhopal SO miles. 

Dliaj^ri, Bagaud. — A lofty peak of the Vindhyas rising 

to 2,676 feet above sea level (22° 24' north in latitude and in longitude 
75° 53' east). The name Dhajdrl is derived from the word 
corrupted to Dhaja, a flag. 

DliarolSj, pargana Alot. — An village situated in 23° 45' 

north latitude and 75° 35' east longitude* It contains a quarry of ex« 
cellent sandstone' used for building purposes, especially by contractors 
on the Nagda- Muttra Railway. Population 263. Area 1,816 acres : 

GopElpura, pargana Sarangpur. — A village situated close to 
Sarangpur across the Kaii-Sind river on the Agra-Bombay road. It 
contains a ginning factory. A weekly bazar is held here. Popula- 
tion 155 persons. 

Groyal, pargana Alot. — Village and Police It was formerly 

a station for the Malwa Contingent, and the old lines are still 
to be seen. Population 143. Area 1,743 acres. 

Gulawata, pargana Sarangpur. — A village situated 6 miles 
south of Sarangpur. It is one of the largest villages in the Sarang- 
pur pargana has a good deal of irrigated land. Population 608 
persons. 

JEmgod, pargana Dewas. — A village held by Her Highness the 
Maharani Yaxnuna Bai. This village stands on the Dewas- Sehore 



66 


DEWAS STATES. 


Road, in latitude 22° 58^ north, longitude 76° 14^ east, 8 miles east 
of Dewas. Population 589 persons. 

Kamalsara, pargana Sarangpur. — A village locally famous for 
its breed of horses and buffaloes. It is situated in latitude 24° 41" 
north, longitude 76° 10' east. Population 334 persons. 

KasEri, pargana Alot. — Village and police thana situated at 
the source of the Luni river, in latitude 23° 35' north and longitude 
75° 31^ east. It will be a station on the Nagda- Muttra Railway, 
The land of the village is divided into two parts known as 
Kasdrl Chavdn and Kasdrl Harod^ after the names of two Thakurs 
who hold muafi land. Population 720. Area 3,000 acres. 

Kha juri, pargana Alot. — A Police station lying about 10 miles 
north of Alot. Population 445. Area 1,978 acres. It is well known 
for its glass bangles which are manufactured and exported in large 
quantities. A school has lately been started here. 

IjunT, pargana Aloi . — Formerly headquarters of a tappa^ In 1808 
it was usurped by Bhagwant Rao Ponwar, illegitimate son of Krishnaji 
Rao Ponwar I, but was soon after recovered by Tukoji Rao II. ll 
is a large village having an area of 3,300 acres and a population of 
586. It stands on the bank of the Luni river. It contains a village 
school and a small fort {garhl). It stands in 23° 35' N. and 76° 42' E* 

MatlEsa, pargana Bagaud. — Below the peak called Tumergarh is 
an extensive table-land called Manasa. This table-land stands 2,600 
feet above the sea and is 2| miles long and i mile broad, and covered 
with rich black soil. A well and the ruins of a fort indicate human 
habitation in the past, 

Mithangarh, pargana Alot. — A village now deserted, situated 
8 miles north of Alot. It shews many signs of having once been a 
place of considerable importance, but nothing is known of its 
history. The situation on the lofty bank of the Sipra is a line one. 
Tradition assigns its settlement to one Dayal Das Raghodas Jhala 
Rajput in 1 579, 

pargana Alot. — A jdglr village situated 2 miles north of 
Alot. It is an old village, now held by the hereditary PhadiiTs of 
the State. A well built in 1666 stands here, bearing the name of 
Aurangzeb. Population 320, Area 911 acres. 

N^gda, pargana Dewas. — A village, situated 3 miles south of 
Dewas town, in latitude 22° 55' north, longitude 76° 5' east. It 
was apparently in early days a place of some importance together 
with the adjoining village of Palnagar as numerous Jain images 
are to be seen there. It is not, however, mentioned in the 
Ain4-Akhari and must have been destroyed before Mughal days. 
Several temples and the remains of a city wall still exist. The 
ganja and betel-leaf produced here have a considerable reputation. 
Population 1,424 persons. 



GAZETTEER, S. B, 


67 


P^rdia, pargana Sarangpur* — A village situated 8 miles north of 
Sarangpur. It appears to be an old village as a sati pillar bears an 
inscription of 1540 Samvat (1483 A. D.). 

The village is inhabited by Kunbis. It lies 2 miles south-east 
of Bheswa, and has an ample water-supply in consequence of which 
the big Bheswa fair is held here when water fails at Bheswa. 
The village is noted for its production of turmeric. Population 1,242. 

PEtan, pargana Alot. — Village and police thana situated 6 miles 
south of Alot. It was the headquarters of the khasgi mahal before 
the formation of the new khasgi pargana. It possesses a large 
opium area and its soil is rich. Population 757. Area 4,438 acres. 

REgllOgarh, pargana Dewas. — Headquarters of the Khasgi 
pargana situated in latitude 22® 43' north and longitude 76° 13' 
east, lately formed out of the Dewas pargana. It was formerly 
in the possession of Daulat Singh Thakur, who took part in the 
Mutiny of 1857, and was deprived by Government of his jaglr 
villages, which were divided between the two States. The village 
contains a small fort which was the residence of the Thakur, and is 
now utilized for the tahsll and other offices. A small rest-house, 
a branch Post Office, and a village school are located here. The 
population amounts to 272 persons. 

lSi3X^VCl^ri(diBXf pargana Dewas.— A police station under a Thanadar. 
It is situated in the centre of the Dewas pargana^ about 12 miles 
north of Dewas, in latitude 23° 9' north, and longitude 76° 3' east. 
Population 273. Near it is the village Nikalank, with a Shiva temple 
and a holy tank. A big fair is held here on the Shivaratri day. 
Bathing in the tank-water is supposed to cure white leprosy. 

Saidablgli, pargana Sarangpur. — A village situated about 3 miles 
south of Sarangpur which had been deserted for some time and was 
re-populated in 1844. From the name it appears to have originally 
been held by Sayads who made a large garden here. Sayads formerly 
lived in large numbers at Sarangpur. The village had many wells 
which are now mostly silted up. Four have been lately cleaned 
out and repaired for irrigation. The masonry work in these is fine, 
l^opulation 142 persons. 

Sarangpur Town, pargana Saran^^pur — Situated on the east 
bank of the Kali Sind in latitude 23° 34' north, longitude 76° 31' 
east. The site is very old but the town as it now stands 
does not date back later than the days of the Muhammadan 
kings of Malwa of the 15th century and is entirely Muhamamdan 
in character. That it was a place of importance in Hindu 
times is shewn by the finds of old coins of the punch-marked 
Ujjain type dating from B. C. 1000 to 500 which are often 
washed out in the rains, while numerous portions of Hindu and 
Jain temples are to be seen built into walls. ^ The place first 

I A. Camiiugliam. — Ai'ckcsoloijicitl iSuTvay II, ^28. This is a joint 

account for both Branches. 




68 


DEWAS STATES. 


became important under Sarang Singh Khicbi in 1298 from whom it 
received its present name. In the 15th and 16th century during 
the rule of the Malwa Sultans, it rose to great importance and is 
constantly mentioned by the IMuhammadan historians, while the 
wide area covered by the ruins of the old town shews that it was 
then a large and flourishing place. In 1519 it was seized by the 
Rajput Chief Silhadi but was recaptured by Mahmud Khilji II 
almost at once.^ In 1526 it was wrested from Mahmud Khilji II 
of Malwa by Rana Sanga of Chitor, but during the confusion 
resultant on Babar’s invasion it fell to one Mallu Khan who 
attempted to assume independence in Malwa but was soon after 
subdued by Sher Shah/ It was then included in the governor- 
ship of Shujaat Khan/ and on the fall of the Suri dynasty passed 
to his son Bayazid better known as Baz Bahadur. Baz Bahadur 
assumed independence and struck coins of which a few have been 
found. Sarangpur is best known as the scene of the death 
of the beautiful Rup Mati, the famous Hindu wife of Baz 
Bahadur. She was renowned throughout Malwa for her singing and 
composition of songs, many of which are still sung. Her lover 
is described by Muhammadan writers as “ the most accomplished 
man of his day in the science of music and in Hindi song,” and many 
tales of their love are current in the legends of Sarangpur and 
Mandu. 

In 1561 Akbar sent a force to Sarangpur under Adham Khan 
Atka. Baz Bahadur taken by surprise and deserted by his troops 
was forced to fly. Rup Mati and the rest of his wives and all his 
treasures fell into the hands of Adham Khan. Various accounts 
of Rup Mati’s end are current, but the most likely relates that she 
took poison to escape falling into the hands of the conqueror.'^' Baz 
Bahadur after various vicissitudes finally, in 1570, presented himself 
at Delhi and was graciously received and raised to a mans ah of 
1,000 and later to 2,000. He died in 1588 and lies buried in a 
tank at Ujjain, according to tradition, beside the remains of Rup 
Mati. ® Sarangpur was from this time on incorporated in the 
Suhah of Malwa and made the chief town of the Sarangpur sarhar^ 
In 1573 it was given in jagtr to Muzuffar Khan the deposed 
Subah of Gujarat.^ It was also a mint town. 

In June, 1564, Akbar, who was marching against the contumacious 
Governor of Mandu, Abdulla Khan, was detained here by rain/ 

In 1734 it fell to the Marathas. After falling to the Mar/ithns 
the place must have decayed rapidly since Tieffen thaler who saw it 
in 1750 states that it was then a small place { vtlle mediocre ) and 

I B. F., IV, 264. 2 E. M. H., IV., 378— 392. 3 Uid, IV., 492. 

4 Ibid, V,, 270. 5 Ain-i-Akbari, 11 ., 28. 6 E, M. H., V., 353. 

7 V, 2S9— 291. 



GA^IETTEER, S. B. 


69 


largely ruined.^ In April, 1785, Malet and Forbes visited the 
town which Malet describes as a fine place, but its inhabitants dis- 
contented with Maratha rule which was loose and desultory.” 
Forbes noticed the fine cloths made and their low prices.® Sarang- 
pur was held by Holkar from 1806 to 1809, when it was given in jdgvi^ 
to Karim Khan Pindari from whom it was taken in 1814 by Sindhia. 

In 1818 it was restored to Pewas under the treaty made in that 
year. 

Population : — Whole town. — 7887, 11,921 ; 7897, 15,068; 7907, 

6,339. 

Senior Branch. — 1901, 3,278: males 1,586, females 1,692, com- 
prising 1,857 or 56 percent. Hindus, 1,368 or 42 per cent. Musal- 
mans, 16 Jains, and 37 Animists. Occupied houses 2,075. 

Junior Branch. — 1901, 3,061: males 1,440, females 1,621, com- 
prising 2,064 or 51 per cent. Hindus, 843 Musalmans, and 149 
Jains. Occupied houses 2,234. 

The Muhammadan population is large. This is mainly due 
to the town having been in* the hands of the Pindari leader 
Karim Khan. After the place passed to the Ponwars in 1818 
they found themselves unable to control the turbulence of the Pathan* 
Mughal and Rohilla element in the town and were obliged to call on 
Holkar to assist them. Many of the members of these families 
still serve in the Holkar, Bhopal, and Dhar State troops. Among 
the Pathans, one Himmat Khan Bahadur possesses old papers 
showing that his family rendered valuable military service to the 
Bundi, Kotah, and Gwalior States. His family still enjoys a grant of 
land worth about Rs. 4,000 a year from the Narsinghgarh State. 

Many Kazis of the shia sect formerly lived in the Kaziwddd 
quarter of the town whose families held a prominent position in the 
town, their descendants still enjoying considerable grants of land from 
the State. They possess sanads both from the emperors of Delhi 
and the Peshwas and used during the Muhammadan period to affix 
their seals to official papers. 

Sarangpur was in former days famous for its fine muslins. The 
industry has decayed since 1875, and though it still lingers, is gra- 
dually dying out. 

There are few buildings of any note now standing, and those 
which remain are in a dilapidated state. One is known as 
Pup Matl-kd-gumhaz or Rup Mati’s hall ( lit. dome ), but from 
its absolute similarity to the buildings near it, this name would 
appear to be an invention of later days. Another similar domed 


^ Tieffenthaler ( 1, 351- 

t Malets, Diary, T., 499 ; Forbes, Oriental Memoirs* 




70 


I>EWAS STATES. 


building called Pahlwan-ka-gumbaz bears an inscription of 1496 
stating that it was erected in the time of Ghyas-ud-din of Malwa. 
A Jama Masjid once a building of soine pretentions bears a record 
dated in 1640. There was formerly a fort, largely constructed of 
Hindu and Jain remains, which are said to have been brought from 
Tingajpur village in the Sundarsi pargana of Indore State, but all 
that now remains are fragments of the wall and a gateway with an 
inscription referring to its repair in 1578. Another mosque called 
the Plr-Jaii’ki-Bhafti, a picturesque building, is also in a dilapidated 
state. Among numerous Hindu and Jain remains, one statue of a 
Tirthankar was found which had been erected in 1178 Samvat 
(1121 A. D. ). An image in one of the existing Jain temples bears 
date Samvat 1319 ( 1252 A, T). ). 

Up to 1889 the two Branches of the State exercised a joint control. 
In that year the town was divided into two equal shares, each 
share being managed by a with a separate establishment, 

A joint school, sami. Inspection Bungalow, and a British Post and 
Telegraph Office are located in Sarangpur. Sarangpur is 30 miles 
from Maksi station on the Bhopal-Ujjain line and 80 miles from 
Indore on the Bombay-Agra Road. 

Sirolia, pargana Dewas. — The largest village in the pargana 
situated in latitude 22® 52' north, longitude 76® 11' east. It is a 
jdgtr village held by the hereditary Diwan of the State. Sugar-cane 
is largely grown in the village, A large weekly market is held 
every Thursday* Population 2,397. 

pargana Bagaud. — In longitude 22® 22' north and in 
latitude 75° 54' east. Next to Dhajari the most important peak, also 
called Tumai Mata (2,513 feet ) from an old temple to the goddess 
Tumai Mata which stands on the summit. The temple is now 
in ruins. The peak is called Tumergarh from the ruins of a 
small fort in the vicinity of the temple. A magnificent view is 
obtained from this peak over the surrounding country into the broad 
valley of the Narbada. 

JUNIOR BRANCH- 

iDewHiS pairgarta. — The pargana lies round the chief town 

and has an area of 104*12 square miles, of which 5T miles are 
cultivated while the rest is unculturable waste. 

'Th.e pargana is bounded on the north by Indore and Gwalior 
on the south and west by Indore, and on the east by Gwalior. 

It contains 68 villages of which 18 are jdglr. 

The revenue amounts to Rs. 75,900. The whole pargana lies on 
the plateau and is covered with fertile soil. 

The only rivers are the lesser KaP-Sind and the Sipra. 

A spur of the Vindhyas runs along the eastern border from which 
many small streams of Rudrawati, Nagdhaman, Uodhri, an<I Gangi, 
rise and flow into the Sipra. The streams mentioned have in iuany 



ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS, J- B. 


71 


cases been dammed and now form tanks which are very useful for 
irrigation. While the general level is about 1,600 feet many hills 
rise to a greater height ; of these the most important peaks are 
those at Nagda (2,293 ), Ajampura ( 2,225 ), and the hill of 
Chamunda-Mata at IDewas ( 2,162 ). 

The rainfall averages 35 inches ; the highest fall recorded being 
46 inches in 1893-94, and the lowest 15 inches in 1899-1900, 

The population was in 1901, 16,975 persons: males 8,769, females 
8,206, giving a density of 162 per square mile. Classified by religion 
Iher^ were 14,314 or 85 per cent. Hindus, 2,475 or 15 per cent 
Musalmans, and 186 Jains. 

The chief crops are rahi crops — wheat (4,387 acres) and poppy 
(362) ; hharlf — malzlza (1,135), cotton {5^1), jowar (8,568) and 
pulses. 

The sources of irrigation number 49 tanks, 236 wells, 22 haorls 
and 156 orhls^ while the land under irrigation is 850 acres. 

A weekly fair is held at Dewas every Monday, at Agrod on 
Wednesdays, at Jardinganj on Fridays, and at Sia on Tuesdays, the 
last two being cattle fairs. Metalled roads from Dewas to Indore, 
Ujjain, and Sehore traverse th.e jbargana. 

BSLgaud. Pargana. — This pargana is isolated from the rest of the 
State, lying on the southern slopes of the Vindhyas, between 22° 14' 
and 22^ 25' north latitude and 75° 50' and 76° east longitude, having 
an area of 38.89 square miles, of which 15.6 square miles are covered 
with forest, and 9 square miles unculturable waste. 

The pargana is bounded on the north, south, and west by Indore 
State and by the Senior Branch pargana of Bagaud on the east* 
It comprises 25 villages, of which 6 are Jagir and the rest khalsd. 

The revenues amount to Rs. 10,300, excluding alienated lands. 

The pargana being situated in the Vindhyas is much cut up by 
hills. Nearly half the pargana is covered with forest. A peak 
called Dhajari, rises |o 2776^ vide 61 feet above sea level. 

In the Mahadeo-kho or valley there is a noted lingam of the 
god Shiva, which is popularly supposed to have been used by the 
Rishis in ancient times as a place for meditation. Other places of 
local importance are Tumergarh, Mothagarh and Chhotagarh. 
Shilajlti or bitumen is said to exude from rocks, in these valleys. 
The prevailing variety of rock is trap. Though the country is 
intersected by streams there are only two rivers of importance, the 
Malan and the Koyadi, which fall into the Narbada. 

The rainfall averages 24 inches. A strong masonry dam, 
apparently of considerable age, has been thrown across the rive^ 
Malan near Padlia. 

Population (1901) 4,018 persons : males 2,021, females 1,997, giving 
103 persons per square mile. Hindus numbered 2,783 or 69 per cent*, 
Animists 790, Musalmans, 345, and Jains 97. 



72 


DEWAS STATES. 


The principal crops are jowar (3,300 acres), fuar (1,200), cotton 
(1,850), hdjara (900), rice (60), maize (400) and pulses. 

Sources of irrigation number 255 wells, 3 bdorts, and 12 orJiis, 
The laud under irrigation is 462 acres. A metalled road joins 
Padlia village with Mukhtiara station (14 miles) on the Rajputana- 
Malwa Railway. 

Pagaud derives its name from an old temple dedicated to 
"^he goddess Bageshvari. This pargana was handed over to the 
East India Company for administration in 1828 and was restored 
to the State in 1901. A new settlement was made in 1902. 

Qadguclia ’POiVgBiTlQi.-Th.ispargand is situated to the north-west 
of Dewas between 23® SV and 23° 49^ north latitude and 75® 29^ 
and 75® 42^east longitude, having an area of 49*96 square miles, of 
which 23*5 square miles are under cultivation and 21 square miles 
are unculturable waste. 

The pargana is bounded by Jhalawar State on the north, by 
Sindhia’s dominions on the south, by Indore on the east, and by the 
Jaora State on the west. It contains 27 villages, 2 of which are 
jdglr and the rest khdlsd. The revenues amount to Rs. 37,500. 

The pargana lies on the Malwa plateau and is watered by the 
Sipra and the Luni river. 

The average rainfall during the past 16 years is 26*62 inches. 
The heaviest fall being 37 inches recorded in 1903-04, the lowest 
14 in 1904. Population in 1901 was 4,932 persons : males 2,597 
females 2,335, giving a density of 98 persons per square mile. 
Classifed by religion Hindus numbered 4,717 or 97 per cent., 
Muhammadans 165, Jains 42, and Animists 8. The chief crops arc 
maize {60Q) ^'jowdr (8,500), and poppy (500). 

The water supply is comprised in 16 tanks, 179 wells, 22 hdoris 
and 27 orhis. Two of these tanks called Rdtadya and Ram- 
pirwdla are old and are said to date from the Mughal period. 
The former is at Jiwangarh and the latter at Pknplia village. 

The new Nagda- Muttra Railway will pass through this pargana. 

Of the early history of the pargana nothing is known. It was 
made over to the Ponwars by Balaji Baji Rao Peswa about 1 745. 

KhESgi Pargana. — This pargana is situated to the south of 
Dewas town. The area of the pargana is 101*90 square miles 
of which 64*88 miles are cultivated, 5*47 square miles are covered 
with forest, and the rest unculturable waste. 

It is bounded on the east by Gwalior State, and on the north ^ 
south and west by Indore State. The pargana comprises ^6 
villages, of which 9 are jdglr. 

The revenue amounts to Rs. 68,330, excluding alienated lands. 

The country is to a certain extent cut up by a spur of the 
Vindhyas which lies to the east. Numerous small streauts How 



ADMINISTOATIVE UNITS, J B. 


73 


from these hills to join the Sipra, many of which have been dam- 
med to form tanks which are used in irrigating. The average 
rainfall is 30 inches. The population of the pafgana according to 
the Census of 1901 was 9,558 persons, of whom 4,807 were males 
and 4,751 females, giving a density of 94 persons per square 
mile. Classified by religion there were 8,840 or 92 per cent. Hindus, 
392 Musalmans, 278 Animists, and 46 Jains. 

The sources of irrigation are 20 tanks, 281 wells, 6 bdndhs, and 
129 orhts. The land under irrigation amounts to 897 acres. 

The prevailing crops are Jowdr 8,632 acres, maize 395, 
wheat 3,973, gram 1,293, opium 478, rice 148, and pulses. 

Religious festivals are held on all important sacred days at the 
Trlveni-ilrth on the river Sipra near the village of Ranayar. 

The land now forming this pargana originally belonged to the 
Thakur of Raghogarh, a feudatory of the Hewas Chiefs. In 1857 he 
rebelled and his territory was divided between the two Branches. 

Ringnod pargana. — This pargana is situated round the head- 
quarters town of the samS name, in23‘^ d4^ and 23° 52^ N., 75° 11' and 
75^ 25' R. and in the north-west of the having an area 

of 84*24 square miles, of which 35*7 square miles are under cultivations 
and 39T square miles is unculturable waste. There is no forest. 

The pargana is bounded by the Gwalior State on the north and 
west and by the Jaora State on the south and east. It 'comprises 
40 villages of which 36 are khdlsd, and 4 jdglr. 

The revenues amount to Rs. 58,900. 

The pargana lies on the Malwa plateau, the soil being of very 
high fertility. It is watered by the Chambal, Pingala, and Malini. 
Other tributary streams flowing through the pargana also afford 
ample facilities for irrigation. 

The average rainfall during the past 16 years is 25’5 inches, the high- 
est recorded fall being 44 inches in 1900, the lowest 11 inches in 1899, 

Population was in 1901, 8,967 persons ; males 4,574, females 
4,393, giving a density of 107 persons per square mile. Hindus 
numbered 7,773 or 87 per cent., Muhammadans 524, Animists 412, 
and Jains 258. 

The principal crops in the pargana are pulses 11,700 acres, 
cotton (1,300), poppy (1,200), gram (6,200), jo^dr (2,600), maize 
(200), and wheat (300). Wells number 446, bdorls 15, Bjndorhts 85 
in this pargana. The land under irrigation is 1,000 acres. 

A religious festival called the Mendhaji is held at Gondi- 
Shankar on the 15th day of the month of V aishdkh in honour of 
the God Mahadeo, and a weekly fair is held at Mandvi every 
Saturday, where cloth, grain, and cattle are sold. 

Ringnod is a modern corruption of the name ** Ingnod ” which is 
itself a corruption of the Sanskrit name Inganapada. This is shown 



74 


BE WAS STATES* 


by the i2th century inscription discovered here and now deposited 
an the museum of the Victoria High School at Dewas. 

Occasionally excavations in the vicinity of Ringnod^ bring to light 
the remains of ancient habitations. The ^pargana ca,me into the 
hands of the Ponwars at the beginning of the 18th century, and like 
the rest of the State suffered severely from the depredations of 
Holkar and the Pindaris. 

SSrangpnr pargana. — This pargana is situated to the north- 
east of Dewas, surrounding the town of Sarangpur between 23^ 31' 
and 23"^ 44' N. and 76° 30' and 76° 48' E., having an area of 61*32 
square miles, of which about 27*9 square miles are under 
cultivation, and 25T square miles are unculturable waste. It is 
bounded on the north, south, and east by the Rajgarh and 
Narsinghgarh States respectively, and on the west by Sindhia's 
territory and the KaK-Sind river. 

This pargana contains 36 villages, all hhdlsd. The revenues 
amount to Rs. 55,300. 

The pargana lies on the Malwa plateau and soil is black and 
highly fertile being specially used for the cultivation of poppy, 
yote?d:r,and cotton. The revenue is paid mainly from the proceeds of 
poppy cultivation. The cultivation of wheat, formerly extensive, 
has diminished owing to the capricious monsoons of late years, cotton 
and jowdr taking its place. Two rivers flow through the pargana. 
The Kali-Sind river at Sarangpur is of considerable width. A 
temple dedicated to God Mahadeo, called Kapileshwar, was built in 
the bed of the river by Jiwaji Rao Ponwar, the founder of the Junior 
Branch ; the Newaj flows along the eastern boundary of the pargana. 

The average rainfall is 34*86 inches. The highest fall was 52T2 
inches in 1892, the lowest 12*33 inches in 1899. 

Population was in 1901, 10,454 ; males 5,242, females 5,212, 
giving 171 persons per square mile. Hindus numbered 8,465 or 81 
per cent, Jains 204, Muhammadans 1,422, Animists 363. 

The prevailing crops are jowdr (8,400 acres) and cotton ( 3,000 ), 
the soil being especially suited to the latter. Poppy ( 400.) is 
extensively cultivated in the rahi season. 

Two tanks, 352 wells, 86 orhls and 7 hdorls supply water for the 
irrigation of about 800 acres. 

A considerable concourse o£ people assembles near the village 
Bakhatpura on the bank of the river Kali-Sind, on the 15th day of 
the month of Kdrtik every year. It is a religious festival, the place 
being considered -sacred. Two markets are of importance. One is 
held at Udrankhedi and the other at Padhana. The former is held 


1 Indian Antiquary, VI, 55, 



GAZETTEER, B. 


75 


every I^Ionday, a considerabie sale of cattle taking place, and 
the other every Tuesday and also continuously for the whole first 
fortnight of the month of Phalgtm. It is also a cattle fair and is 
attended by about 5,000 persons. 

The weaving of cotton cloths has long been an important 
native industry of Sarangpur. Formerly in a flourishing condition 
its cloths ^found their way to all the important markets of India. 
Since 1875, however, it has been decaying rapidly and unless 
strenuous eflbrts are made to arrest its decay, will soon be a thing 
of the past. 

Some interest attaches to the local production of yarn for which 
the Sarangpur weavers were formerly noted. It was prepared by 
a^ class of men called Katiya, who have been settlers of this 
district for a long time. They used to allow the nail of the thumb 
to grow, which when sufficiently long, was pierced with holes of 
the requisite degree of fineness. Through these the threads of 
cleaned cotton were made to pass and the necessary degree of fine- 
ness obtained. Now that thread of any degree of fineness can be 
purchased cheap, this method is seldom resorted to. Thread is 
usually imported from Calcutta and Bombay as being stronger, 
finer, and cheaper than the local article. The number of men in 
the Junior Branch portion actually engaged in this occupation is 
176, of whom 93 are Koshtis and S3 Momiits. 

Iron bridles and the Sarota or Adkitta ( a knife for cutting betel- 
nuts ) are also -prepared here, and have a considerable sale in the 
surrounding district. 

The Thakurs of Ringnoda, Bapcha, and Asarata breed horses from 
country mares and the Arab stallion at Agar. The Thakur of 
Asarata also keeps both stallions and mares for breeding purposes. 
1 he breed IS called Pachrangi (mixed breed )/the horses fetching 
from Rs. 100 to Rs. 200. 

The Malwi cattle of this pargana are considered the best for 
heavy draught. A pair of bullocks costs generally from Rs. 100 to 
Rs. 150. The sale of these animals is carried on an extensive scale 
in the weekly and annual fairs held in the pargana. Dealers from 
a distance visit the fairs to purchase these bullocks. 

The Agra-Bombay high road passes through this Pargana and an 
imperial Inspection bungalow is situated at Udrankhedi, and a sarai 
at Sarangpur. 

The history of the pccTgana is largely that of Sarangpur town. ' 
Sarangsingh Khichi, the founder of Sarangpur, is said to 
have fought with the ancestors of the present Rajput families of 
Asarata village in this pargana for the hand of a girl in marriage. 



76 


BEWAS STATES. 


It is said that 750 widows committed sail with the dea.d bodies of 
their husbands who fell in a great fight which took place at Karja 
village, now in the Gwalior State. 

GAZETTEER. 

Agrod, pargana Dewas, J. B. — A village lying 12 miles north of 
DewaSjin latitude 23° 10^ north and longitude 7o 16 east. It is an 
old village ; a fair is held every W ednesday. A Hindi school is 
located here. The population vras (1901), 479. 

Asawati, pargana Ringnod. — A jdgir village, situated on the 
Chambah 12 miles north-east of Ringnod, in 23° 49^ N. and 75° 22^ 
E. It was founded by Doria Rajputs about 500 years ago. ' 

Population 546 ; males 271, females 275, of whom 516 are Hindus. 

X)ewa3 Town. — Vide Gazetteer Dewas, Senior Branch. 

S^ulpurSi and NajibSibad, pargana Sarangpur. — These two 
villages originally formed a part of the city of Sarangpur when it was 
at the height of its prosperIt 3 ^ Najibabad has a spacious sarai in it 
and the temple of Nilkaatheshwar Mabadeo. Fulpura lies to the east 
of Sarangpur, at a distance of two miles from it, and Najibabad to 
the north-east at a distance of quarter of a mile. Population (1901) : 
Fulpura 72, and Najibabad 158. 

Gadglicba, pargana Gadgucha. — This village, the head-quarters 
of the pargana^ lies 25 miles north of Nagda Station, on the Ujjain- 
Ratlam line, in 23° 47^ north latitude and 73° 35^ east longitude. 

The village belonged originally to Bhils from whom it was taken 
by the Solanki Rajputs. Formerly a wall with four gateways sur- 
rounded the village. A Hindi school, a dispensary and a letter- 
box (but no Post Office ) are located here. A Railway Station is 
under construction midway between Alot and Gadgucha. Popu- 
lation, 797. 

G02ldi-Dliar8illisij pargana Ringnod. — This village lies 3-2 miles 
north-east of Ringnod, in 23° 46^ N. and 75° 2V E. It contains a 
Hindi school. Population 524 : males 272, females 252, of these 
440 are Hindus. 

Iclliwada, pargana Sarangpur. — A village 10 miles to the north 
of Sarangpur. The inhabitants claim to be Paramara Rajputs who 
came from BijoK, in Marwar, whence they were expelled by the 
Ghori kings. Population (1901), 175, all Hindus. 

3 pargana Gaag'ucha. A jdgir villag'e, situated 6 miles to 
the east of Gadgucha. It was originally populated by the Bhils. It 
was given by Anand Rao Ponwar to his preceptor Shri Guru Maharaj, 
It was once a British military post. A fire which broke out in the 
camp caused much damage and the troops then moved to Mehidpur. 

pargana Ringnod. — This large village is situated on 
the bank of the Pingala, 2 miles west of Ringnod, in 23° 46^ N. and 



GAZETTEER, 


77 


75° 14^ E. A Hindi school is located here. Population 960 : males 
484, females 476, of whom 771 were Hindus. 

pargana Gadgucha. — An old village, is situated 6 
males to the south-east of Gadgucha. During the time of Pindari 
troubles Anand Rao Ponwar encamped here with his force. The 
Padiar Sondhia Thakur rendered valuable service at this time, in 
recognition of which this village was given to him on istimrdri 
tenure. Captain William Borthwick visited the village about this 
time and gave some certificates which are still held by Thakur’s 
desce^ndant, Balwant Singh. 

XiEa. 2 :er pargana Gadgucha. — This village is situated on 

the Sipra, 4 miles to the east of Gadgucha. To the south of this 
village is an old temple of Baijnath Mahadeo ; at a little 
distance from the temple is the Dasharath ghdt^ This place is 
looked upon by Hindus as a Tlrth and is resorted to for bathing 
purposes. Here one Jogidas Rawat fought the Pindaris and was 
killed, and his wife Tejkunwar Bai burnt herself with the dead 
body of her husband. This fact is commemorated in the inscription 
on a sati stone and the pdla or tomb of the Raw-at, both of which 
are still standing. Thakur Galaji Solanki erected ramparts round 
the village in 1806 Samvat. 

M3hu> pargana Sarangpur. — K village situated on the Agra- 
Bombay road, 7 miles north of Sarangpur, in latitude 23° 37^ N. 
and longitude 76° 3S' K, The inhabitants are Rajputs of the 
Chauraishi clan, and profess to have originally come from Udaipur. 
A vernacular school and a large gdri-adda are situated here* 
Population 482 : males 230, females 252, of whom 421 are Hindus. 

MEadvij pargana Ringnod. — A large village, 6 miles north of 
Ringnod, in 23° 47^ N. and 75° 21^ E. It contains a Hindi school. 
PopuLition 783 : males 396, females 387, of whom 701 are Hindus. 
A cattle fair is held here every Saturday. 

Mend-ki, pargana Dewas. — A small village, two miles west of 
Dewas, in latitude 22° 59^ north and longitude 76° 4' east. Jiwaji 
Rao Ponwar, founder of the Junior Branch, passed many of his days 
living in a hut in the shade of the mango-grove here. He afterwards 
erected a temple dedicated to God Mahadeo. The village contains a 
Hindi school. The pump for the water works has been erected here 
from which a supply is carried to Dewas town. Population 419. 

Nipariia-lila, pargana Gadgucha. — A jaglr village, situated 10 
miles to the south of Gadgucha. This was founded by Doria Rajputs 
from Girnar in Gujarat. Dimbaji Rao Ponwar gave the patel-ship 
of this village to Nirbhesingh, the ancestor of the present pat el. 
During the Pindari disturbances Anna Sahib Supekar, then Diwan, 
rendered very valuable services, in recognition of which this village 
was given in indm to the Diwan’s family. 



78 


DEW AS STATES; 


Padhana, pargana Sarangpur. — A large commercial village on 
the Agra-Bombay road, in latitude 23® 35^ N. and longitude 76® 38^ E.> 
7 miles north-east of Sarangpur. A Girasia Th?kur, Chandra Bhan, 
a notorious freebooter, founded this village and built a small fort. 

Cattle fairs are held here v^eekly on Thursday. A branch Post 
Office and a vernacular school are situated here. 

Population 1,777: males 934, females 843, of whom 1,453 are 
Hindus. 

Padlia? pargana Bagaud. — Head-quarters of the pargana lying 
14 miles west of Mukhtiara station on the Malan river, in latitude 
25® 18^ north and longitude 75® 51^ east. Padlia has only lately 
sprung into existence. 

An old dam holds up the water of the Malan. A Hindi school 
a dispensary, and a branch Post Office are located here. A ginning, 
factory was opened in 1895 by a Parsi merchant. Population 
589 : males 290, females 299, of whom 479 are Hindus, 77 Jains, 
23 Musalmans, and 10 Animists, 

Ringnod, pargana Ringnod. — The head-quarters of the pargana^ 
it is suituated in 23® 44" N. and 76® 14' E., on the bank of the river 
Pingala, 5 miles to the east of Dhodhar Station, on the Rajputana- 
Malwa Railway. A dispensary, a Hindi school, and a branch Post 
Office are located here. Population 1,424; males 710, females 714, 
of whom 945 were Hindus. 

Ringnod was until comparatively lately known as Ingnod, which 
was a corruption of its ancient name Inganapada, found on an old 
inscription. The inscription is on a stone slab now in the school at 
Dewas, and records the grant of money to the village of Agasiyaka to 
defray certain expenses connected with a temple to Mahadao called 
Gohadesvara, perhaps the temple of which the remains are still to 
be seen, 7 miles from Ringnod, on the bank of the Sipra. The 
grant is made by Sri-Vijayapala-deva and is dated 11th Ashadha 
Shuklapaksh Samvat 1190 or A,D. 1133-4. The figure of Garuda, 
common on Paramara grants, is engraved in one corner. ^ 

Sarangpur Town —Vide Gazetteer Dewas, Senior Branch. 

pargana Dewas. — A village situated in latitude 23° 2' north 
and longitude 76° lO' east, on the Agra-Bombay road, at a distance of 
7 miles from Dewas. At one time the village must have been in a 
very flourishing condition, as numerous remains testify. 

The dam of a tank called the ‘‘ Mirza Sagar ” ( now entirely silted 
up ) is made of sail stones, pillars of a Hindu temple, and Plindu 


Indian Antiquary^ vu,55. 


GAZETTEER, J. B, 


79 


and Jain images, and is two hundred feet in length and five feet in 
breadth. A Hindi school is situated in the village and a cattle fair 
is held every Tuesday. Population 1,230. 

^pargana Dewas. — A village bdng to the north 
of Dewas, at a distance of about 22 miles. A Hindi school is located 
here. Population 613. This village contains a reserve of sandal- 
wood. 



APPENDIX A. 


Engagement between the Honourable the East India 
Company and the Maharajah Tookajee Puar and Anund Kao 
PUAR, Joint Rajaks of Dewas, their heirs and successors, settJed 
by Lieutenant Alexander AIacDonald, acting under authority 
from Brigadier-General Sir John Malcolm, K. C. B. and 
K. L. S., Political Agent to the Most Noble the Governor- 
General, on the part of the Honourable the East India 
Company, and Succaram Bapoo, on the part of the Mapiarajahs 
Tookajee Puar and Anund Rao Puar, Joint Rajahs of 
Dewas : the said Brigadier-General Sir John Malcolm being- 
invested with full powders and authority from the Most Noble 
Francis Marquis of Hastings, K.G., one of His Majesty’s 
Most Honourable Privy Council, Governor-General in 
Council, appointed by the Honourable Company to direct and 
control all the affairs in the East Indies ; and the said Succaram 
Bapoo being duly invested with full powers on the part of Tookajee 
Puar and Anund Rao Puar, Joint Rajahs of Dewas — 1818. 

Article 1- 

The British ^Government will grant its protection to the 
Maharajas Tookajee Puar and Anund Rao Puar, joint Rajahs of 
Dewas. 

Article 2. 

The Rajahs Tookajee Puar and Anund Rao Puar engage that, 
in addition to the attendants of their persons and the sebundees of 
the country, they will keep up and regularly pay 50 good horse 
and 50 foot well armed who shall be at the disposal of the British 
Government ; and after three years, as the revenue of the aforesaid 
Rajahs of Dewas will be augmented by the increase of inhabitants 
and cultivation, 100 horse and 100 foot shall be kept up and be at 
the disposal of the British Government. 

Article 3. 

The British Government will protect the Rajahs of Dewas in 
their present possessions of the mehals of Dewas, Sarungpore, 
Allote, Goorgoocheh, Bingnowde, Bughowde, as well as the share 
of the collections amounting to 7 per cent, of the^nhird part of the 
province of Sundersee belonging to the Rajah Ramchander Rao 
Puar of Dhar, and an equal share, viz,^ 7 per cent, of the collection 
of the province of Doongla belonging to the aforesaid Rajah of 
Dhar. The British Government will further protect the Rajahs of 
Dewas against the attacks of enemies, and will aid them in the 
settlement of any of their rebellious subjects, and will mediate in a 
just and amicable manner any dispute that may arise between them 
and other States and petty Chiefs. 



DS\TAS STATEiS. 


8i 


Article 4. 

The Rajahs of Dewas engage to have no intercourse or com- 
munication with any other States, and to enter into no affair of 
any magnitude without the advice and concurrence of the said 
British Government. 

Article 5. 

The British Government agrees to consider the Rajahs Tookajee 
Puar and Anund Rao Puar in every respect the rulers of their 
present possessions, and engages to give no protection to any of 
their -discontented relations or dependants, and not to interfere in 
the internal administration of the country. 

Article 6. 

The Rajahs of Dewas relinquish their claim of 7 per cent, on 
the collections of the province of Dongla, belonging to Rajah 
Ramchunder Rao Puar of Dhar, in favour of that Chief, from the 
beginning of the year 1876 to the beginning of the year 1879, 
Bickramjeet, in order that the above said province, which is now 
entirely desolated, may be again inhabited ; and after the expiration 
of these three years the Rajahs of Dewas will consider themselves 
entitled to their share of 7 per cent, on whatever sum may be 
realized after the deduction of expenses. 

Article 7. 

The Rajahs of Dewas, with a view to the improvement of their 
possessions, agree to act by an union of authority and to administer 
the affairs of their provinces through one public minister or chief 
officer. 

Article 8. 

This engagement consisting of eight articles, has been this day 
settled by Lieutenant Alexander MacDonald, acting under the 
direction of Brigadier -General Sir John Malcolm, K.C.B. and 
K.L.S., Political Agent to the Most Noble the Governor- General, 
on the part of the Honourable Company ; and by Succaram Bapoo 
on the part of Tookajee Puar and Anund Rao Puar, joint 
Rajahs of Dewas. Lieutenant MacDonald has delivered one copy 
thereof in English, Persian, and Mahratta, signed and sealed by 
himself, to the said Succaram Bapoo to be by him delivered to the 
Maharajahs Tookajee Puar and Anund Rao Puar, and has received 
from the said Succaram Bapoo a counter-part of the said engage- 
ment, signed and sealed by himself. 

Lieutenant MacDonald engages that a copy of the said engage- 
ment, ratified by the Most Noble the Governor-General, in every 
respect a counter-part of that now executed by himself shall be 
delivered through Succaram Bapoo to the Maharajahs Tookajee 
Puar and Anund Rao Puar, within the period of two months ; and 
on the delivery of such ' copy to the Maharajahs this engagement 






0 -\ 

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DewasJ.B Fair Weather Road — 

0ewas5.B & Dewas J 8 Railway & Station « 


Brttfsli Post Office RO. Battlefields «X 

Telegraph Office TO. Archaeological PtesA 

Dak Bungalow b Fairs 5 

Inspection Bungaloiv e Shikar Preserve 5^P 

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tahsil £ 

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Dewas S.B 446 54304 - 

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82 


APPENDIX A. 


executed by Lieutenant MacDonald under the immediate direction 
of Brigadier-General Sir J. Malcolm shall be returned ; and 
Bapoo Succaram in like manner engages that another copy, rati- 
fied by the Maharajahs Tookajee Puar, and Anund Rao Puar, in 
every respect the counter-part of the engagement now executed by 
himself, shall be delivered to Lieutenant MacDonald to be forward- 
ed to the Most Noble the Governor-General, within the space* of 
the following day ( to-'morrow ); and on the delivery of such copy 
to the Most Noble the Governor -General, the engagement executed 
by Succaram Bapoo, by virtue of the full power and authority 
vested in him as abovementioned, shall be returned. 

PlASTINGS. 

G. Dowdeswell. 

J. Stewai^t. 

C, M. RiCivETTS. 


(Sd.) 


Government Seal. 


Ratified by the Governor- General in Council, at Fort William, 
this 12th day of December, 1818. 


(Sd.) J. AT>AM, 

Chief Secretary to Covernaicnlo 











ARMS OF THE RAJGARH STATE. 



Arms — The arms borne by the State are those depicted in their 
banner. Hanuman bears a mace in his left hand and a 
mountain in his right. Lambrequins — Argent and 
Gules. The descent of the Chief from the Malwa 
Parmaras is signified by the Boars as supporters, and 
the origin from the sacred fiie-pit at Mount Abu by 
tlae flame. 

Motto — Rao aihoitiya Rdjgarh Darbav. “ Chief of Rajgarh 
has no equal. ” 

Ba>lllier — The State banners are red, with figures of a Katdr 
(dagger) and a Khdnda (big, double-edged sword) in 
yellow upon it ; and while with a figure of Hanuman 
in red. 

Gotrachar — or genealogical creed — 

Gotra — Vasistha, 

Veda — Yajur. 

Shakha — Madhyandini. 

Shairav — Gora of Duparia. 

Preceptor — Balanandjiwala. 

Bhat — Dhandarpa Dhandu and Jangra Bagri. 

Cliaran — Sandhayach. 

Dlioli — Jevra. 

Plirohit — Jodhpura Dantela (Dantavla and Parikh). 

V yas — N agar. 

Barwa— Chandisha. 

Kslietra — Avantika (Ujjain). 

Devi — Sanchai. 




GENEALOGICAL TREE OF THE RAJGARH FAMILY, 

,/\/V\/VV\A/NA/V.A/V\/V^^ 

As regards the early chiefs of this clan there is great nncert^nty. It has been impossible to reconcile accounts from the two branches, 

those interested may refer to Appendix B, 

I Rawat Ddai Singh (1603-1621 ). 


II Rawat Chhatar Singh (1621-38) Maha Singh 


III Rawat Mohan Singh (1638-97) Jagannath Singh Paim Singh 


IV Rawat Amar Singh (1697-1740) Surat Singh 
I (Thakur of Suthalia) 


V Rawat Narfat Singh (1740-47) Abbey Singh VI Rawat Jagat Singh (1747-75) Ajit Singh 


VII Rawat Hamir Singh Kaluji Guman Singh Jorawar Singh Rnd Singh Kesri Singh Budh Singh Pahar Singh Achal Singh Bija Singh 

(1775-90) I 

VIII Rawat Pratap Singh (1790-1803) 


IX Rawat Prithwi Singh, (1803-15) Pyare Singh X Rawat Newal Singh (1815-31) Kok Singh 


XI Rawat Moti Singh (1831-80) Mehtap Singh 


XII Rawat Bakhtawar Singh (1880-82) Balwant Singh XIV Raja Bane Singh (1902- ) 


XIII Raja Balbhadra Singh Mahtab Singh 
(1882-1902) 


Birendra Singh 




83 


CHAPTER I. 


Hill system. 
Rivers. 

Geology. * 

Botany.*^ 


DESCRIPTIVE. 

Section I.—Physical Aspects. 

Rajgarh is one of the mediatised States of the Central India Situation. 
Agency under the Political Agent in Bhopal. The State, which 
has an area of 941 square miles, ^ is situated between latitude 23° IT 
and 24° 11' N. and longitude 76° 23' and 77° 14' E. in the section of 
Malwa known as Uniatwara, so called after the Umat clan of Rajputs 
to which the chiefs of Rajgarh and Narsinghgarh belong. 

The territories of the State are intermingled with those of Boundaries. 
Narsinghgarh, but are bounded, roughly speaking, on the north by 
Gwalior and Kotah States, on the south by Gwalior and Dewas, on 
the east by Bhopal, and on the west by Khilchipur. The northern 
portion of the State is much cut up by hills, but the southern and 
eastern districts are situated on the Malwa plateau. The Slate 
is watered by the Parbati river which flows along its eastern 
border and by its tributary the Newaj which flows by the chief 
town as well as numerous small streams. 

The country in the southern and eastern parts is covered with 
Deccan Trap, but in the hills along the northern section the 
Vindhyan sandstones are exposed. 

The forest vegetation consists of deciduous trees with patches 
of bamboo ( Dendrocalmas str ictus ). The leading species include 
Karrai {’sietculia urcus ) Boiuhax malaharicum^ Bufea frondosa, 
Bitchaiiania la ti folia, Ano^eiss^is lati folia, Diospyros tomeniosa 
among trees; while among shrubs occur species of G>*c%via, 

Zyziphus, Casearia, Carissa, fiappatus, WoodfonJia, PhyllauiJius, 
and Antic! csnia. Herbaceous species of Dcsinodiuuh Crotolaria, 
Alysicarpiis^ Cassia, Tricliosauthes Heliotropium, Solanuni 
Cocculas, etc,, arc also common. 

Various kinds of deer, leopard and wild boar arc met with in 
the State. The usual classes of small game arc also found. 

The climate is a temperate one, though somewhat greater 
extremes arc encountered in the hilly tract. 

The average rainfall is about 29 inches. 

Section II.— History- 
(Genealogical Tree.) 

The chiefs of Rajgarh and Narsinghgarh are Umat Rajputs, 
a branch of the great Paramara clan which ruled Malwa from 
Ujjain and Dhfir for six cen turies . 

^ In Administration Reports it is usual to put the area at 962, the area 
of the mediatised estate of Sutli.ilia ( 22 square miles ) being included. As llie 
administration is independent of the Darbur, this area is omitted in dealing with 
the State. 

^ By Mr. E, Vredenburg— Survey of India. 

^ By Ueutenaiit^oloncI D. I'rain, I. M. S.—Dotauical Survey of India, 


Fauna. 


Climate 
(Table 1). 

Rainfall 
(Tabic II). 


Early days. 



84 


RAJGARH STATE 


The Paramaras are one of the four Agnikula clans whose original 
chabitation is always given as Mount Abu.^ 

Umra Singh and Sumra Singh were two brothers, the sons of 
P.aja Mang Rao, whose twelve queens, according to tradition, 
produced thirty-five sons, the founders of the 35 s'hakhas or branches 
of this house.® 

Umra and Sumra took up their habitation in the desert of 
Rajputana and Sind, and the famous fort of Umarkot, the birth- 
place of the greatest of the Mughal Emperors, was named after 
the elder brother. His descendants are the Umat Rajputs who 
gave theif name to the Umatwara tract of Malwd^. The Umrds 
and Sumras appear to have been defeated about 1226 by the Sodhas, 
another branch of the Paramaras in the 13th century ( 1226 A. D. 
but continued to live under their suzerainty. In 1351, howex'-er, the 
Paramaras were driven out by Sammas. 

According to the Bcglay-iiama the Sumra dynasty started ruling 
in A. H. 445 or A. D. 1053. A list of the rulers is given b^^ the 
Tii'fatii-i’-Kiram of whom no less than four, it may be noted, bear 
the Umat name of Duda. The Muhammadan writcfvS, however, are 
confused in their accounts, and it is difficult to extract any very defi- 
nite facts. From Iheir connection with the Umra section a large 
tract of Sind became known as Umra-Sumra, of which the most 
important city was Alor. 

From the annals of the Sammas it is evident that they ox])olIc<l 
the Paramaras in the 14th century, the giving the 

date of the conquest as 734 A. H. or A. D. 1334, and others as 752 
A. H. or 1351.“ 

The Umat annals assign the migration of Sarangson to V. S. 
1404 or A. D. 1347, which agrees well witli this dale. In 
the 14th century the Umats made their way into Malwa under 
Sarangsen, establishing themselves at Dhar in 1317 during 

the reign of Muhammad Tughlak ( 1325 — 51 ). Saran*cs<;n, on, 
acquired land between the Sind and Parbali rivers. H,e is said to 
have been, granted the title of Rawat by the Raiia of CliiLor. Stivcral 
of his descendants held positions cf trust under i\m eniperurs. 
Rawat Karam Singh or Kamaji, fourlli in descent from 
is said to have been governor of Ujjain in the time of Sik;mclar 
Lodi (1489 — 1517). He received a sancul for 22 districts in the i^arl 
of Malwa still known as Umatwara after these chiors. 1 iir> chief 
town was Duparia ( 23'' Z2! N. and 76'' 14' E.) now in the Sfinjnjmt 
zila of Gwalior State. Rawat Krishnaji or Kishen Singh was 
also governor of Ujjain, the Kishenptxra quarter of that city being, it 
is said, named after hiai. He died about 1583 and w^as succeeded 

I See Dhiir State Gazetteer. 

* Tod — JRdjasthdn, I, 84; II, 298, 

® Raikes — Memoir on Thurr and ParJnir, lSr>0^ 

* Sir H. Elliot The liiaiory of India cc& Md by own UUi0n<m*% 1 , 533# 



HISTORY. 


by his son Dtogar Singh who founded the village of Dungarpur 
12 miles from Rajgarh, making it his headquarters. He was killed 
at Talen (23® 34^ N. and 76® 46' E, ) in 1603 leaving six sons, the 
two- eldest being Udaji and Dudaji. Udaji succeeded to his father’s 
estate and settled at Ratanpur, 12 miles west of Narsinghgarh, his 
succession being recognised by the grant of a sanad by Akbar 
(1556—1605 ). 

Udaji’s successor Chhatar Singh was killed at Ratanpur in 1638 in 
a fight with the Imperial army. His minor son Mohan Singh suc- 
ceeded him, the management being entrusted to Diwan Ajab Singh 
of the Dudawat branch, who had acted as minister to the late chief. 
The headquarters were now moved from Ratanpur to Dungarpur. 
Ajab Singh was killed at Nalkhera (23® 50' N. and 76° 17' E. ) 
in 1668 in a fight with the Muhammadan army and was succeeded by 
his son Paras Ram as manager of the minor chief’s estates. The 
headquarters of the Udawat branch was at this time moved to 
Rajgarh and that of the Dudawat to Patan, 2 miles south of Rajgarh 
where Paras Ram built a fort. 

Mohan Singh now began to suspect Paras Ram of designs on the 
Slate and differences arose. At first a division of villages was made 
in V. S. 1732 (A. D. 1675). This produced a sort of dual jurisdic- 
tion which resulted in endless feuds that were finally settled in 1681 
by a definite partition of the territory between the two sections, the 
Rajgarh chief receiving five extra villages in recognition of the 
seniority of his branch of the family. 

Thus were founded the separate States of Rajgarh and Narsingh- 
garh.^ 

Mohan Singh was succeeded by his eldest son Amar Singh. A 
jdglr consisting of the village of Suthalia and other villages was, in 
1697, granted to his brother Surat Singh whose descendants still 
hold this land. In the 19ih century on the mediation of the 
British authorities a sanad was granted in 1825 by wliich the 
Thakur was guaranteed in the j^ossession of the holding. In Aniar 
Singh’s day Rajgarh was attacked by Sawai Jai Singh of Jaipur 
who, however, consented to raise the siege for a payment of 9 lakhs. 
The chief was unable to pay the whole sum and surrendered his 
son Abhey Singh as a hostage, until the last three lakhs were paid 
up, A local landholder, however, became surety for this amount 
and Abhey Singh was released. Abhey Singh was not long after 
murdered by one of his attendants, and his father died of grief. 

Nothing of any importance took place in Narpat Singh’s time. He 
died of small-pox after ruling seven years. 

He was succeeded by his brother Jagat Singh who ruled for 28 
years. 

Rawat Jagat Singh had ten sons. The eldest Hamir Singh suc- 
ceeded as Rfiwat. The second son was Kaluji, whose descendant s 
^ 3ee Narsinghgarh State Gazetteer. 


Udaji 

(1603—1621). 


Chhatar 

Singh 

(1621—38). 

Mohan 

Singh 

(1638—97). 


Amar Singh 
(1097—1740). 


Narpat Singh 
(X740-47), 

J.-xgat Si ugh 
(174.7—75). 



Hamir Singh 
(1775-90 ). 


Pratap Singh 
( 1790 — 1803 ). 


Prithwi Singh 
( 1803 — 15 ). 


Newal Singh 
(1815-31 ). 


36 RAJGAKn STATE. 

were the jaglfdafs of the village Khejda ; the descendants of the 
third son are the jdglrddrs of the village Badedi ; the fourth son 
was Jorawar Singh, whose descendants are the jdgJyddrs of Barguya ; 
the Patalp^i was held by the descendants of the fi fill son ; 
the descendants of the sixth are the jdglrddn of Sundarimr ; those 
of the seventh son are holders of the village of Nfiriabch; and the 
descendants of the eighth son Pahar Singh of Kandyakhedi. The 
ninth and tenth died without issue. 

Rawat Hamir Singh ruled for 15 years. During bis last days, 
the Marathas besieged the fort of Rajgarh, but agreed to abandon 
the siege on the payment of three lakhs. This the chief could not 
pay and, therefore, gave up his son Pratap Singh as a hoslnge. Tlic 
Kotah chief, however, became security for the money and 
Pratap Singh was allowed to return. From this time the Rajgarh 
chiefs became tributary to Sindhia. 

Hamir Singh was succeeded by Pratap Singli, who liad tw'o sisters 
Amarbai and Surajbai, of whom the cider Aniarbai married the uncle 
of the Maharana of Udaipur, and Surajbai, Bhim Singh the cirief of 
Jhfibua. He had four sons Prithwi Singh, I'y^'^c Singh, Newal 
Singh and Kok Singh, and also one daughter named Nawalkunwar 
who was married to the Chandrawcat Thakiir of Rfuupura ( hukn’e). 

Prithwi Singh who succeeded on the death of liis father ruled for 
12 years. Rajgarh was during his time taken by Siiidhia's general 
Jean Baptiste Pilose apparently because the })ayment of Iribule due 
was in arrears. On an appeal being made to Sindhia, lic.w* 
ever, a compensatory payment of 6 lak hs was made for the damage 
done to the State. 

Prithwi Singh having no heir adopted Newal Singli to succeed 
him passing over Pyare Singh who was a confirmed gdtija i.mokur. 
A conspiracy was then formed by l^'yare Singh and Knk Singh, 
the youngest brother, who contrived to murder IVitliwi vSingJi. Ihio 
Sardars, however, supported Newal Singh and lie tiblained Iluj gaddi, 

Newal Singh succeeded in 1815 and ruled for 15 years. During 
the settlement of Malwa by Sir John Malcc.Ing in 1818 an 
agreement was mediated between Sindbia and Newal Singji, 
and Talen and several other villages were made o\‘cr lo 
Sindhia in payment of his claims for tribute ngriinst the Kuwat, 
while a written agreement was executed by Urn chief, giving to the 
British Government alone the right lo interfere in the affairs of the 
chiefship.^ Another agreement 'was made regarding the settlement 
oftheRawat’s claims on the Scirangpur d^arga 7 ia of the Dewas 
State by which the right to' sayar dues, certain lands, etc., were 
commuted for a cash payment of Bhopali Ks. 5,102. In 183! 
Newal Singh committed suicide leaving two sons MoU Singh and 
Mehlap Singh. 


A SCO Appendix A* 



HISTORY. 


87 


Rawat Moti Singh succeeded in A. D. 1831 and ruled for 48 Moti Singh 
years. ( 1831.-80). 

He attended the Darbar held by Lord William Bentinck at Saugor 
in 1832. At the urgent request of Moti Singh Jankoji Rao Sindhia 
restored pargana of Talen in 1834 but at the same time raised 
the tribute to 85,000 Chandori rupees ( Rs. 51,000) and stopped 
the tanka formerly given for Shujalpur, 

In 1846 the State was placed under management owing to mal- 
administration, but was restored to Moti Singh in 1856. The 
administration was entrusted to the chiefs uncle Kok Singh aided 
by the Diwan Rnm Lai. On the death of latter by accident in 
1847 the superintendence was taken over by an official acting under 
the orders of the Political Agent. In 1855 the State contributed 
Rs. 25,000 towards the construction of the section of the Agra- 
Bombay road lying within its limits. 

Rajgarh was plundered by the mutineers in 1857, the chief 
making no attempt to oppose them. They took away about 5 lakhs 
worth of treasure. In 1867 Moti Singh was granted a salute of 11 
guns. In 1870 he became seriously ill but was ultimately cured by 
a Muhammadan and under his influence he became a Musal- 
man in 1871, and took the name of Muhammad Abdul Wasih Khan, 

In 1872 he was granted the title of Nawab. In 1880 all transit 
duties on salt were abolished in return for which a compensatory 
payment of Rs. 618-12-0 is made yearly by the British Government, 

Moti Singh had three sons, Bakhtawar Singh, Balwant Singh 
and Bane Singh. He had also two daughters, Dipkunwari and 
Daiilatkunwari. The daughters were both married to the chief of 
Raghugarh, Balwant Singh predeceased his father, who, dying in 1880, 
was succeeded by his eldest son, Bakhtawar Singh. 

Bakhtawar Singh, though a Hindu, retained all his father’s Musal- Bakhtuwar 
man officials. This Chief died in 1882 leaving two sons, Bal Bhadra 
Singh and Mahtab Singh, and one daughter Bhamvar Bai, who was 
married to llic Raja of Slacopur-Baroda (Gwalior). 

Bid Bhadra Singh succeeded in 1882. In 1884 the Chief abolished Bal-Bhadrca 
all transit dues except those on opium. In 1885 during the visit of the 
Viceroy, Lord Dufferin, to Indore, the hereditary title of Raja was ' ^ ' 

conferred on the Rawat. He constructed the roads to Khilchipur >. 
and Biaora, and contributed 2 lakhs towards the construction of the 
portion of the Schore-Biaora road lying in the State. 

Bal Bhadra Singh died in 1902 without issue and was succeeded by Bane >Singh 
his uncle Bane Singh, the pi'esent chief. The State has made ). 

extraordinary progress during the last few years in every direction. 

The administration formerly of the most old-fashioned type being 
now very competent and well organised. The present Chief before 
his succession was for many years the principal executive officer of 
the State, 



8*8 


EAJGARH STATE. 


Raja Bane Singh attended the Delhi Darbar of 1903 and received 
the gold commemorative medal, and was in 1905 presented to Their 
Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales at Indore. He 
has a son and heir, Birendra Singh, born on 17th January, 1892, who 
is being educated at the Daly College. The State pays a tribute of 
Rs. 85,000 Chandori coin ( about Rs. 51,000 ) to Sindhia for Talen 
and of 1,050 Kotah Rupees (about Rs. 900) to the Rana of Jhalawar 
for Kalipith pargana. He receives a tdnha (casli payment) of 
Haii Rs. 3,187 (about Rs. 2,400) a year from Sindhia. 

The Rajgarh Chief bears the Titles of His Plighness and Raja and 
enjoys a salute of 11 guns. 

Section Ill.—Population. 

(Tables III to VI.) 

Enumerations. Three enumerations have taken place giving 1SS1, 117,533; 

1891, 119,489; 1901, 88,376 persons: males 46,118, females 
42, 258. A decrease of 26 per cent, has thus taken place since 

Density. 1891. The density amounts to 94 persons per square mile. 

Towns and The State contains 2 towns Rajgarh ( 5,607 ) and Biaora (5,399) 
villages. 522 villages\ of the latter 605 had a population of under 500 ; 

sixteen of between 500 and 2,000, and one of over 2,000. 

Vital statistics These have only been collected for one year, and give 27 births 

(Table V), 20 deaths per mille on the total population for 1901, 

Religions. Classified by religions there w^re 78,343 Hindus or 89 per <’ent., 
4,925 Musalmans or 6 per cent., 4,788 Animists or 5 per cent., 
chiefly Bhils, 310 Jains, and 10 Sikhs. 

Language and The prevailing form of speech is Mfilwi ( Rangri ). Hindi coming 
literacy. second in importance. Of the total population 1,339 or about 
2 per cent, were literate. 

Castes. The predominating castes were Chamars 12 per cent, and Rajputs 

and Sondhias each 8 per cent. 

Occupations. Agricultural and pastoral occupations prevail, 60 per cent, of 
the population engaged in occupations connected with the soil. 

Social cha- The people dress in the fashion common to Malwa. Ordinarily 
^ consists of ^pagn or turban, a piet'e of 

Dress. cloth about 50 or 60 feet long and 9 inches wide with gold ends ; 
this cloth is often shot with gold and silver thread, called mmuhl, 
worn by well-to-do people on festive occasions such as marriages. 
Clothes consist of a hurta or shirt, an angarhha, or long coat 
reaching to the middle of the leg, fastened below the riglit ear, and 
on the right breast, a dhoti ( loin cloth ) worn round the waist and 
a dupatta (scarf). All these are generally white except the turban 
which is often coloured. Agricultural classes -wear a dhoti, 
a. handl, and a pichhora of khddi cloth as well as a piqlrK In 
towns there is a great tendency to dress after the Kuropcan fa.shion 
1 Since the Census of 1901, 85 new villages 



POPULATION. 


89 


retaining the safa ; a round felt cap is, however, often used as 
head-dress with boots or shoes instead of juiu 

Hindu female dress consists of a lehenga (petti coat), orni ( a 
sheet used as an upper garment to cover the face and upper part 
jof the body), and a kdnchli (bodice). 

The only distinction between Muhammadan and Hindu dress 
is that Muhammadan males, except agriculturists, we 2 LX pai jamas 
and not dhotis, and have the opening of the angarhha placed on 
the left and not like Hindus on the right side of the chest ; females 
wear paijdmas instead of leheiiga and a kufta over the hdnchll. 

Meals are generally taken twice, at mid-day and in the evening. Food, 
only well-to-do persons take light refreshment in the morning 
and in the afternoon. The staple food grains used are wheat, 
jotmr, maize, and gram, and the pulses tuar, urad, muiig, and 
masur. The ordinary food of the rich and middle classes consists 
of chapdtis ( thin cakes ) of wheat flour, tuaf pulse, rice, ghl, vege- 
tables, milk, and sugar. The poorer classes in the country including 
the peasantry, except on festive occasions, eat fotis ( thick cakes) 
made of the coarser grains, with pulses, vegetables, uncooked onionsj 
salt, and chillies. No local Brahmans or'Banias eat flesh. All castes, 
except Brahmans, smoke tobacco and eat opium, while amongst the 
Rajputs opium is. also taken in the liquid form called kastimha. 

The greater part of the population being agricultural spends its Daily life, 
days in the fields from sunrise to sunset. The mercantile popula- 
tion begins work about 9 A.M. usually closing shops about 
6 or 7 P.M. 

Houses are mostly of mud, with thatched or tiled roofs. In Plouses. 
Rajgarh and Biaora there are a few stone or brick-built houses 
but none is of great size. 

Child marriage is usual among Hindus. Polygamy is common Marriage, 
only among Rajputs of position. Widow marriage prevails among 
the lower classes only. 

The dead bodies of Hindus are burnt except those of Sanydsis, Disposal of 
Bakdgis, and infants which are buried. Cremation takes place by 
the side of a stream, the ashes being, if possible, conveyed to a 
sacred river ; otherwise they are committed to some local stream. 
Muhammadans bury their dead. 

The principal festivals are the Dasahra, Holi, Diwdli, Gangor, Festivals and 
and local fairs. All the sarddrs of the State attend the darhdr amusements, 
and pay their respects to the Chief on the Dasahra day. Before the 
celebration all weapons are examined and repaired. This is a 
martial day and is, therefore, observed by Rajputs with enthusiasm. 

The ordinary amusements are playing and singing among grown up 
people, and hide and seek, kite gill danda ( tip-cat), and ankh^ 

michi (blindnian’s-buff) among children. The commonest village 



RAJGARH STATE. 


90 

recreation is for people to assemble together after the day’s work at a 
prominent place and pass away a few hours in smoking, telling stories, 
and talking. In towns chausar and various card games are played. 

Nomenclature. Among Hindus the twice-born are named after gods or famous 
personages. They have two names, the janmardshl ndm which 
is used when the stars are consulted and at birth to draw the horoscope, 
and the hoUa ndm by which persons are generally known, which are 
either of religious origin, or merely names of fancy and affection, 
such as Ram Singh, Bir Singh, Damodar, Sukhdeo, Bheru Singh, Piari 
Lai. The agricultural and lower classes use dimunitives largely such 
as Rama, Bherya, Sukha, and the like. Names of places are given 
after persons such as Ramgarh from Ram Singh, Gopalpura after 
Gopal, Gangakhedi after Ganga, and so on. 

Public Public health until 1904-05 was good. In that year plague appear- 
(Table VI), in 219 attacks and 156 deaths ; an attack in 

1905-06 at the same place resulted in 63 cases of which 42 were fatal. 



AGEICULTHEE. 


91 


CHAPTER II. 

ECONOMIC. 

(Tables VII to XV, XXVIII to XXX.) 

Section I.— Agriculture- 
( Tables VII to X. ) 

The soil of the State is of high fertility except in the hilly tracts Genera! 
to the north. ConaUions, 

Soils are classed by quality and appearance, situation, such as Soils, 
proximity to a village or forest, and crop-bearing power. 

The principal classes recognised under the first method are 
hahnat or cliikat hall, a loamy black soil of high fertility, with a 
great power of retaining moisture, bearing excellent crops at both 
harvests, with or without irrigation. It is sub-divided according to 
depth and power of holding moisture into uttmn or best, madhyam or 
moderate, and sddJidran or ordinary. Pill is a yellow soil of no 
great depth and lighter in texture than the preceding, used mostly 
for kliarlf crops ; pdndUar, a whitish soil of sandy constitution found 
near old village sites, and at the foot of hills, used chiefly for growing 
millets ; anthar’pdthar, a black loamy soil but shallow, having rock 
close to the surface, it is also found at the foot of hills and 
bears good kharlf crops, and, if winter rain is plentiful, will also bear 
a rahi crop ; khardi, stony red coloured soil, light and shallow, found 
on sloping ground and only fit for kliarlf crops, becoming ex- 
hausted after two orThree seasons of continuous cultivation ; hardi, a 
poor shallow soil more stony than the last, only capable of bearing 
kodon and other inferior grains ; kachhdr, the alluvial detritus in the 
beds of rivers and streams, used for tobacco, chillies, maize, and 
vegetables. 

By position soils are classed as chattras or level, dhdlu or sloping, 
chapera or cut up by ndlas, and or low-lying. 

Other terms arc or irrigated, addii ox garden, Ur or grass 
preserves, charnoi or village grazing lands, amrdi or groves of fruit 
trees, and khcra or manured and irrigated land near village. 

As far as possible the less productive soils are sown first, as they Cultivated 
soon lose tbeir moisture. The normal area cultivated amounts to 
about 150,000 acres. No figures arc available for early years. Viii and ix). 

The soil is first cleared of weeds and rubbish by means of the agricui.- 
hakkhar. It is then ploughed, and, after the rain has commenced, is ‘Twrai- Prag- 
ploughed oncc‘. more and sown. In the case of land to bo sown Tillingi 
in the rabi season the ploughing is continued at intervals till the 
rains are over so as to ensure its absorbing all the moisture possible. 

The sowing is carried out in the case of large seed by dropping it Sowing, 
into furrows made by the nai or seed drill, while in the case of the 
fine seed it is sown by hand broadcast. 



HAJGARH STATE. 


Reaping. 

Double 

cropping. 


Mixed 

sowing. 

Rotation. 

Manures. 

Pests. 

Implements. 

Crops. 

Area sown 
(Table X). 

Food crops. 

Oil seeds. 

Fibres. 

Drugs, and 
Garden 
produce. 


92 


The khanf crops are reaped in November and the rabi in March. 
Jowar is cut off high up the stalk, but other crops at the foot of the 
plant. Gram is pulled up. The heads of grain are trodden out 
at the kkala or threshing-floor, and then winnowed and stored for 
sale. 

Double cropping (dufasli) is practised on first class soil with- 
out irrigation if the rains have been good. Most irrigated land will 
bear two crops. The usual sequences are maize, sa7i or ttrad 
follov/ed at the rahi by gram, masur or tvar^ tobacco in addii land is 
succeeded by onions, maize or san by poppy, a sequence known as 
''^lahha-dv-mi or san-dusai, and maize by wheat or gram. 

Mixed sowings ( be jam ) are popular with cultivators. Jo%mr is 
often sown v,7ith trar, and cotton with but the favourite combi- 

nation is sugar-cane and poppy. The poppy comes up in four 
months and the sugar-cane in about twelve. The yield of poppy is 
not so good as when it is sown alone, but the sugar-cane is not very 
injuriously affected. 

Rotation though understood is not systematically practised. 
Cotton is rotated with jowdr in any soil, in pili soils joxvdr is rotated 
with tilli, cotton or ramclL 

Only poppy fields, sugai-cane and garden produce arc usually 
manured. Village sweepings and cowdung are comnionly used. 

Rats especially after a year of deficient rainfall, locusts and gcrua 
or red blight are the most ordinary pests. 

The most important implements are the bahkhar or weeding plough, 
hal or plough, hhnrpa or hoc, and phdora or spade. 

The area sown at the hkarlf averages in a normal year 77,000 
acres and at the 73,000 acres. The principal crops are joxedr 
29,000 acres, ^nakka 23,000, cotton 12,000, wheat 56,000, gram 
10,000, and poppy 5,400. 

At the hkarlf the food crops sown are 7nakka or mfiizc {Zca 
mays), jowdr {Sorg,kmn vul^are), tirad (Pkaseohis radtatus), 
(P^nnengo), bdjra (Pencillaria spicaia), ti<ar {Cajaiius indiciis) ; and 
at the rchi, gcliiin or wheat {Triiicum aestivina), gram or chana 
[Cicer arieiiuum), barley ox jan [Horchum vitlgare), Diamr {Ervum 
lens) and hatla {DoUchos sinensis). 

Oil seeds are tilH (Sesamitm indienm), ahi or linseed {Limim 
ustatissmiiim) , rameli {Giiizotia oleifera).. 

The only important fibre is cotton {Gossypimn indienm), san 
{Crotolaria juncca) and amhdri or pdtsa^i {Hibiscus cannabinus) 
are lillie cultivated. 

Poppy {Papaver soimiifcrum) aknie is of imijx)rlance. Many 
native and European vegetables and spices arc senvn, including 
potatoes, radishes, onions, garlic, ajwdn {Lingmiicnm ajoxemt)^ 
chillies (Capsicum), kaldi (turmeric), dkania {Coriander saiivum)^ 
and others. ' 



WAGES AND PlilCES. 


93 


Among fruit trees mangoes, custard appie, guavas, pomegranates 
and oranges are cultivated. 

No new seeds or implements have been introduced, except the roller Progress, 
sugar-cane mill. 

The total irrigated area in normal years is about 11,400 acres, Irrigation 
of which 5,200 lie in the Biaora ^argana and an average of 1,200 
in each of the rest, except Sheogarh, where there is very little irrigated 
irrigation practised. 

The whole of the irrigation is carried out from wells and orlits. Sources. 
These are worked ordinarily by the cha/as or bag water-lift. 

The average cost of making a hacliha or unbricked v\^eii is Rs. 100 
and for a stone well Rs. 300. 


No special means exist for breeding cattle. The villagers rear cattle Cattle (Table 
in their villages but without any particular regard to stock. The local 
Umatwari breed, a variety of the Malwi has a considerable reputation. 

Pasture is more than suflicient for local needs and except in a 3 ^ear Pasture, 
of famine much hay, karhl ( dried yoz<yd:/ stalks), and hkusa ( chalT) 
are available for sale. 


At Biaora and Rajgarh large cattle fairs take place. The former Cattle fairs 
is often attended by British officers buying on behalf of the Govern- 
ment Supply and Transport Corps. 

About 46 per cent, are supported by agriculture, the classes chieily Agricultural 
engaged being Kunbxs, Kachhis, Sondliias, Lodhas, Dangis, Pals, 

Ahirs, Chowrasia Rajputs, and Chamars. 

Loans to cultivators are made freely whenever they are needed. Xakkuvi. 

In 1904, Rs. 11,700 and in 1905-06 Rs. 8,000 were given as advances 
free from interest to cultivators to enable them to deepen and siiik 
wells and purchase cattle. 

Section II.— Wages and Prices- 
(Tables XIII and XiV.) 

Wages for agricultural operations are paid in kind, labourers Wages, 
receiving 2 or 3 seers of grain daily for weeding, and for reaping 
6 to 7 seers in the case of jowaranOi 5 to 10 in the case of wheat in 
the shape of pulls (bundles), 8 pulls being given for cvcr 5 r 20 cut. 

In the case of gram one chans or row of plants is given for every 
25 or 30 gathered. 

For picking cotton Rs. 3-8 are given per maul picked, or 2 annas 
cash daily. Poppy operations are paid for in cash at 2 to 3 annas a 
day. 

Though there has been a distinct rise in prices of late j^ears prices 
variations in prices in different parts of the State are now Jess than (Rd)lc XIIT), 
they were in early days, when want of communication made export 
froxn some places almost impossible. On the whole a rise of about 
50 per cent, is said to have taken place between IdoO and 1890 In 
grain prices. But wages hav e also risen about the same extent and 
the two thus balance each other. Tlxe temporary abnormal rise in 
1899-1900 was due to famine. 



BAJGARII STATE. 


0 f material condition of diflereiit sections of the community is 

the people, the cultivator having to a great extent recovered from the 

effects of the famine of 1899-1900. 

This is shewn by the fact that in spite of a total failure of the 
poppy crops in 1905, necessitating the remission of Rs. 40,000, the 
collection of the revenue imprqjred in 1905-06, while some 15,000 
hlghas of new soil have been brought under cultivation. 

Section III.— Forests. 

(Table IX.) 

iore^^ The jungles of the State, which scarcely amount to true forest, 

cover about 214,900 acres of which 121,200 lie in the Biaora pavgaiia. 

System of A Forest officer is in charge, who is assisted by rangers. Wood 
control. 

cannot be cut in reserved jungie without permission, but the poor 
are permitted to collect jungle produce free of charge, and are also 
given wood for implements and house building free. Two classes of 
trees are recognised, in the first or pahhi kisam are mango (Manglfera 
mdica )jam%in ( Eugenia jamholana ), tamarind ( Tamanneius 
indica), dlidman ( Grewia vesHta), maliiid (B^rssia Jatifolia)^ sandal 
{Santalmi albun), tlnach {Oiigcinia dalbergioidcs), teak [Tcctona 
gyandis)^ hahera {Terminalia hclerica) and klicjra ( Pyosopis 
spicigera). In the second class or kacliha kisam are dhdom 
(Anogeissus latifolia ), salai ( Bosxvdlia sermta ), khair {Acucia 
catechu) f gondi {Covdia fnyxa)^ {Zyztphus aojda^ 

(Phyllanthus emhlica ), gular {Ficus glomcrata), karonda ( Camsa 
carandas)^ and others. 

In famine years the whole jungle area is thrown open to the people 
without restriction. 

Section IV.— Mines and Minerals- 
(Table XII.) 

building stone is quarried on the 
sandstone outcrops at Silapaii ( 23® 58' N, and 77® 5' E. ) and 
Kotda (23° 5' N, and 77° 10' E.) villages. Silawats and Chamars 
are engaged in this work. 

Section V.— Art and Manufactures. 

(Table XL) 

A ginning factory has been established at Biaora winch has one 
gin in it It turns out about 5,000 maunds of cleaned coUon in 
the year employing about 26 hands. 

The only articles made locally arc coarse kliddi clotii, blankets, 
and ghu No opium is made, ail chlk being exported. 

Section VI.— Commerce and Trade. 

Isolation from railways has prevented any very great (Icvelopmcmt 
of trade, though some improvement is visible in the ku;t few years. 

exports arc food graius, cottoa, crude opium ( chili ), g/,?, 



FAMINES. 


95 


poppy-seed and tilU ; and the principal imports piece-goods, sill^, 
salt, sugar, kerosene oil, rice, food grains, and hardware. 

Trade is carried on by Jain and Hindu Banias and Muhammadan Traders. 
Bohoras, the former dealing in opium, grain and piece-goods, and the 
latter in hardware. 


The centres of trade are Rajgarh and Eiaora especially, and to a Trade 
lesser extent the headquarters of the other parganas. centres. 

The principal firms are those of Seth Hazarilal Baldeo, Birdichand Firms. 
Ganesh Ram, and Janki and Kishenlal Chaudhri. 

Goods are taken to Guna, Sehore, and Indore by the Agra-Bombay Trades routes, 
and Sehore roads whence they are despatched by rail. 

Section VII* — Means of Communication. 

(Table XV.) 


No railway traverses the State. The metalled roads in existence 
are those from Rajgarh to Biaora and Khilchipur, from Biaora to 
Narsinghgarh and Sehore, and the Agra-Bombay road. The mileage 
of metalled roads is 138 and of unmelalled 5 only. The first road 
made was the Agra-Bomhay, opened on this section in 1843. 

Combined Imperial Post and Telegraph Offices have been 
established at Rajgarh and Biaora. 

Section VIIL— Famines. 


Roads. 


Post and 
telegraph 
(Table XXIX). 


(Table XXX.) 

The only famine of which any records exist is that of 1899-1900 
which fell on the State with great severity. 

Relief works were opened and every endeavour made to assist the 
people. About Rs. 28,000 were spent directly in relief while 
remissions to the extent of 2*5 lakhs followed as an indirect result 
in 1901 and 1902. 



EAJGARH STATE. 


CHAPTER III. 


Official 

language. 


Adminis- 
trative Divi- 
sions (Tables 


ADMINISTRATIVE. 

(Tables XVI to XXVII and XXXI. ) 

Section L— Administration. 

Chief. The Chief is at the head of the administration. In all general 

matters and in civil judicial suits his orders are final, but in criminal 
cases his powers are limited. 

Diwaii. The Chief is assisted by a Diwan to whom he delegates all 

executive authority, this official being responsible for the proper 
working of the different departments. 

Departments. The principal departments are the Darbar, Revenue, J udicial, 
Public Works, Police, Educational, and Medical. 

Official Rangri Hindi is the official language in which all revenue papers 
language. accounts are rendered, while English and Urdu are used in 

recording orders and proceedings. Correspondence on important 
matters with the Political Agent is carried on in English. 

Adminis- The State is divided into seven par^aiias* Ncwalganj, Biaora, 
Jons^{TaWos R^fiphh, Karanwas, Kotra, Sheogarh, and Talcn. Each pargcrna is 
VIII and IX in charge of a iahsildar who is the chief revenue officer, and a 
magistrate and civil judge for his charge. He is assisted by 
officials of the police department, and the usual revenue and office 
staff. The parganas average 100 square miles in area excepting 
Biaora with 386 and Sheogarh with only 5 square miles. 

Village Each village has its own community headed by the patch The 
autonomy. members are the patch palxodn or village accountant and 

record-keeper, halai who runs messages and does miscellaneous 
work, the chauUddr or watchman, the Chamar or leather worker r, 
blacksmith, carpenter, barber, and others. Most of these individuals 
are paid by grants of land and a share of the produce at each 
harvest. 

Section II.— Law and Justice. 

(Tables XVI andXVIL) 

Legislation. No legislative body or special official exists in the State. The 
Chief in consultation with his Diwan promulgates laws, and issues 
such orders as may be necessary, in circulars. 

The British Laws adopted in the State are : the Indian Penal 
Code, Criminal Procedure Code, Civil Procedure Code, Iwidencc 
Act, and Contract Act. Other Acts adopted arc : the Gambling Act, 
Limitation Act, Court Fee and Stamp Act, Registration Act, and 
Act for the Prohibition of Opium Smoking, Procedure is adapted 
to local usage where necessary. 

eleven Courts have been established. The lowest 
courts are those of the mumifs, which arc of three grades. Omi 
mwisif is of the third grade and empowered to deal with taiitb 
not exceeding Rs, 50 in value six are of the second class with 


Village 

autonomy. 


Legislation. 



LAND REVENUE. 


97 


power to entertain suits not exceeding Rs. 300 in 'value; and 
two are of the first class dealing with suits up to Rs. 3,000 in value. 

The Diwan exercises the powers of a District Judge while His 
Highness’s Court is the final tribunal of revision and appeal. 

The District Judge hears appeals from munsifs of the first class, 
who are themselves empowered to entertain appeals from second and 
third class mttnsifs. 

The lowest criminal Courts are those of the tahslldars who are Criminal, 
magistrates of the second or third class, at Rajgarh and Biaora there 
are first class magistrates. 

The jurisdiction of the Rajgarh magistrate includes the Kalipilh 
and Newalganj par^anas^ in which the tahslldars are magistrates of 
the second and third class, respectively. The Biaora magistrate’s 
jurisdiction extends over the remaining four parg^anas in which there 
are four second class and two third class subcrJinate magistrates. 


These magistrates exercise the powers laid down in the British 
Indian Criminal Procedure Code. The Diwan acts as a Sessions 
court from whose decisions appeals are preferred to the Chief. 

The Darbar is required to commit murder and dacoity cases for trial 
by the Political authorities. 

A Registration Act was introduced in January, 1906, based on the Registration. 
British India Act'' (III of 1877). Already documents of the value of 
over Rs. 5,000 have been registered shewing the appreciation of 
this means of security. 

Section Ill.—Pinance- 
(Tables XVIII and XIX.) 


The financial arrangements of the State have been revolutionised Present sys- 
in the last few years. A regular budget is now prepared from which 
no deviation is allowed without special sanction. All accounts are 
submitted by tahslldars to headquarters, where tlxey are checked 
and audited. 


The total normal income of the State is about 4 ’ 5 lakhs of which 
3*5 ai'G derived from land revenue, Rs. 32,000 from customs and excise 
(including Rs. 15,000 from opium), and Rs. 37,000 from interest on 
Government securities, miscellaneous Rs. 31,000. The expenditure 
amounts to about 4 * 1 lakhs, the principal heads being Rs. 65,000 
on general administration, Rs. 65,000 on the Chief’s establishment, 
Rs. 45,000 on police and army, Rs. 18,000 on collection of land 
revenue, Rs. 52,000 on tribute, miscellaneous Rs, 70,000, and one lakh 
on public works. About Rs. 47,000 of revenue ai'e alienated in jdgirs, 
etc. The expenses of the administration have risen with imijroved 
methods. 


Sources of 
revenue and 
expenditure. 


The State has never had a coinage of its own. Till 1897 local Coinage, 
coins of Bhopal and other States were current. The British rupee, 
which was introduced in that year, is the only legal tender. 



98 


EAJGAKH STATE. 


System. 


Cesses, 


Collection. 

Suspension. 


Tenures, 


Opium, 


Section IV.—Land Kevenue. 

( Table XX. ) 

The land belongs to the Chief, the cultivator having an interest 
in it only so long as he pays the revenue punctually. 

The revenue is still collected on the manotl system, being farmed 
out to bankers who are responsible for the assessed demand, 

A regular settlement is, however, in progress and will soon be 
completed. 

The new settlement has been effected on the basis of that 
introduced in Gwalior, and follows generally the lines of settlement 
in British India. The rates are fixed in accordance with the 
quality of the soil and facilities for irrigation manuring and 
disposal of produce. 

The only cesses that it is proposed to continue are dami levied to 
cover the pay of patwdris oX 3 ’15 per cent, and Darbar nazar at 
Rs. 4 per annum from the patel of each village. 

The land being farmed out, the mustdjirs pay in the amount due on 
their farms to tlie talisllddrs who remit the revenue to headquarters. 

Suspensions and remissions are given whenever a bad season 
or famine makes it imperative. In the two years succeeding the 
famine of 1899-1900 remissions to the amount of Rs, 2*8 lakhs 
were made, and in 1905, owing to the destruction of the poppy by 
frost, Rs. 40,000 were remitted. 

Tenures fall into two main classes khalsa and alienated land. 

In hhdlsd land the management lies directly with the Darbar, 
while jd^r land is managed by the holder. 

Of the total area 60 square miles with an income of about 
Rs. 47,000 is alienated in jdgir and other forms of grant.^ 

Section V.— Miscellaneous Revenue* 

(Table XXI.) 

The chief sources of miscellaneous revenue are customs, excise, 
and stamps. 

Poppy is extensively grown in the State. The area sown and 
the amount of chlh exported since 1895 are given below : — 


Year. 

Acreage, 

Hx[)ort hi Maunils. 

1895 

4,185 

601 

1896 

4,127 

677 

1897 

3,885 

957 

1898 

9,753 

I,3dl 

1899 

3,239 

1,386 

1900 

927 

J,224 

1901 

4,390 

189 

1902 

3,392 

986 

1903 

5,443 

i 768 

1904 

6,387 

S 1,137 

1905 • 

6,482 

^ 392 

1906 

6,812 

1,198 


*• This excludes the guaranteed estate of Suthulia* 



ABMYo 


99 

All chlk is collected by the Darbar and sold to merchants who 
export it to Indore and Bhopal, where it is made into opium. A duty 
is levied of Re. 1 per dhari (10 lbs.) weight and 3 pies as hiai or 
weighing tax on every rupee’s worth sold. The revenue from 
this source is about Rs. 15,000 a year. No restrictions are imposed 
otherwise. 

No hemp is cultivated locally. On imported gdnja and bhang 
As. 8 per maund is charged. 

The only liquor used is that distilled from mahud {Bassia latifolic^ 
flowers. Two classes of liquor are made, one of 60® U. P. and 
the other of 25® U. P., which are sold at Rs. 1-2-0 and Rs. 3 per 
bottle, respectively. 

A contractor is given the contract for the State. He retains 
the supply of the Rajgarh and Biaora towns in his own hands, and 
sublets the rest to village contractors who supply parganas. The 
number of shops is 84 or one to every 11 square miles and 1,050 
persons. 

Under the agreement of 1881 the British Government pays 
Rs. 612-8-0 a year to the Darbar as compensation for dues formerly 
levied on salt. 

The use of judicial stamps was introduced in 1872. The 
revenue from this source is about Rs. 1,400 a year. 

Up to 5th June, 1904, sdyar was worked by contract. After that 
date the rules were revised, and it is now being administered depart- 
mentally. 

Section VI.—Loeal and Municipal* 

(Table XXII.) 

Municipal committees have been introduced at Rajgarh and Biaora 
composed of officials and non-officials selected by the Darbar, 
Little interest is, however, as yet taken in these institutions by the 
people. The Hospital Assistants act as Secretary and the Nazim 
and Civil Judge as Presidents. 

Receipts from local taxes amount at Biaora to about Rs. 800 a year, 
which does not cover expenses, the balance being met by the Darbar. 

Section Vll.-Public Works. 

(Table XV.) 

This department is in charge of the Slate Engineer who is 
assisted by subordinates. The department deals with repair of 
all State buildings, roads, and irrigation works. The annual expen- 
diture on w^orks is about 1 lakh a year. 

Section VIII.—Army. 

(Table XXV.) 

The State army consists of 30 cavalry, 102 infantry, and 
7 artillery with 4 serviceable guns. The cost of maintenance is 
about Rs. 20,000 per annum. 


Liquor, 


Salt. 

Stamps. 

Customs. 

MunicipaL 



100 


RAJGAEH STATE. 


Section IX -Polioe and Jails. 

(Tables XXIV and XXVL) 

Police (Table A regular Police force was set on foot in 1902. It now 

XXIV). numbers 309 constables of all grades under a Muntazlm^ who is 
assisted by an Assistant Muntazim, 5 Inspectors, one of whom deals 
with the Moghias, and 13 Sub-Inspectors. The Police are distribut- 
ed through eleven thanas. 

The Police are armed with muskets. The ratio of the force 
to the population is 4 men to every 1,000 persons, and as regards 
area, 1 to every 3 square miles. 

Criminal The Moghias in the State are settled at the villages of Bani 
and Bodanpur. The arrangements are in charge of the Munsarim 
of Moghias, who sees that the members of this tribe remain in the 
settlements and that they are provided with bullocks and means to 
cultivate. The numbers on the roll are 372 persons, 120 men, 
121 women and 131 children. 

Jails Two jails have been established in the State, one at Rajgarh 

Table XXVI). other at Biaora. Industries are carried on in the Rajgarh 

Jail. The new jail at Biaora which was built at a cost of Rs. 2,700 
was only opened in 1905. Before that prisoners were confined in 
a small cell. The total annual expenditure on prisoners is about 
Rs. 1,300, or Rs. 40 per prisoner. 

Petection. The registration and classification of finger impressions is carried 
on by a police official, who has been trained at the Central Bureau 
at Indore. 

Section X.-Education. 

(Table XXIII.) 

The first schools were opened at Rajgarh and Biaora in 1887. 
In 1891 there were two schools maintained at a cost of Rs. 600. 

In 1904 the Bane High School was opened at the chief town. 
There are now three schools, the High School at Rajgarh and the 
Primary schools at Biaora and Talen. The pupils number about 
300, the total cost being about Rs. 1,500 a year. 

Section XI.— Medical- 
(Table XXVIL) 

Hospitals have been opened at Rajgarh and Biaora in charge of 
qualified Hospital Assistants. The number of in-door patients 
number about 200 and of out-door 1,500 yearly. The cost of 
upkeep is about Rs, 3,000. 

Section XIL— Surveys. 

A complete survey of the State has been made preliminary to 
the Settlement. 

This survey was carried out with the plane table by the State 
paiwarls who were specially trained for the purpose under the 
Revenue Officer of the State, who, from time to time, consulted and 
received advice from Mr. H. J. Hoare, 1. C. S., Settlement Officer, 
Indore State. 



ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS. 



CHAPTER IV- 


ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS AND GAZETTEER. 

( Tables VIII to X. ) 

Newalganj pargana. — Thi%pargana lies round the chief town 
and has an area of 88 square miles, of which 82 are khalsa and 
6 alienated in jagtrs. 

The pargana is a good deal cut up by hills. It is watered by 
the Newaj and An jar, both tributaries of the Parwatl, itself an 
affluent of the Kali Sind. 

It is bounded on the north by the Jhalawar State, on the south by 
part of Narsinghgarh and the Biaora pargana, on the east by the 
Kalipith pargana and Maksudangarh State, and on the west by 
Khilchipur. 

Population was in 1901 ^ 9,625 persons: males 5,038, females 4,587, 
of whom 8,088 or 85 per cent, were Hindus. 

The capital town Rajgarh and 86 villages, of which 42 are jdgtft 
lie in this pargana. 

The soil is not of high fertility, being mostly hardu The cultivated 
area amounts to 9,500 acres of which 850 are irrigated. 

pargana is in charge of a tahsllddr who resides at Rajgarh. 
The revenues amount to about Rs. 7,800. 

BiRora pargana. — The Biaora pargana lies in the south-east of 
the State having an area of 386 square miles, of which 347 are 
khdlsd and 39 jdgtr. 

The pargana is mostly level plain. The An jar and Newaj flow 
through it. 

It is bounded on the north by the Kalipith pargana, on the south 
by N arsinghgarh, on the east by Bhopal, and on the west by the 
Karanwas pargana. 

Population was in 1901, 34,893 persons: males 18,205, females 
16,688» of whom 31,139 or 90 per cent, were Hindus. 

The town of Biaora and 258 villages, of which 78 are jdglr, lie in 
the pargana. 

The soil in the pargana is fertile, the cultivated area amounting 
to 66,700 acres, of which 5,200 are irrigated. 

A tahsllddr is in charge, with his headquarters at Biaora. The 
revenues amount to 1 • 1 lakh. 

Kalipith pargana. — A pargana situated to the east of the chief 
town, with an area of 102 square miles, of which 3 are held by 
id^rddrs^ 



KAJQARH STATE, 


101 

It is watered by the Anjar river. 

On the north it is bounded by the Jhalawar State, on the east by 
Narsinghgarh, on the south by the Biaora j^argana^ and on the west 
by the Newalganj pargana. 

Popuiation in 1901 was 9,226 persons: males 4,907, females 
4,319, comprising 8,905 or 96 per cent. Hindus. Villa-ges number 
159, of which 48 are jagir. The soil is fairly fertile, cultivation 
occupying 15,000 acres, of which 900 are irrigated. 

This pargana was granted to the Rajgarh Chief by Raja Bliim 
Singh of Kotah (1707 — 20) after the subjugation of Bhilwara.^ On 
the formation of the State of Jhalawar this territory passed to Zplini 
Singh, and the tanka of Rs. 600 paid originally to Kclah is now 
paid to that Darbar. 

The headquarters are at Kalipith where the tahslldar resides* 
The revenues amount to Rs. 21,000. 

Karanwas pargana. — This pargana lies to the south of the 
chief town. It has an area of 111 square miles, of which 4 are 
alienated in jagtrs^ and is bounded on the north by the Newalganj 
pargana^ on the east by Biaora, and on the south and west by 
Narsinghgarh. The boundaries are not, however, strictly definable, 
as portions of Narsinghgarh intervene. 

The Newaj, Nairakhar, and Dudhi rivers water this district. 

Population was in 1901^ 9,782 persons : males 5,153, females 
4,629, of whom 9,240 or 95 per cent, were Hindus. 

The pargana comprises 65 villages, of which 7 are jdgir. 

The cultivated area is 20,400 acres, of which 2,750 are irrigated. 

A tahsilddr is in charge, who resides at Karanwris. "i'he 
revenues amount to Rs. 53,000. 

Kotra pargana* — An isolated pargana lying round Kotra 
village to the south of Narsinghgarh town. 

It has an area of 149 square miles, of which 2 are alienated in 
jdglrs. It is bounded on the east by Bhopal and on tiie other 
sides by Narsinghgarh. 

The population in 1901 was 13,435 persons : males females 

6,594, of whom 10,786 or 80 percent, were Hindxis. 

The villages number 84, of which 11 are jdglr. The cultivated 
area amounts to 17,500 acres, 550 being irrigated. 

This pargana is managed by the tahsilddr^ whose headquarters 
are at Kotra. 

The revenues amount to Rs. 73,000. 

Sbeogarh. pargana. — A small isolated pargana comprising 
one village lying in the midst of Gwalior territory, 12 miles soutli-oast 
of Agar. It has an area of only 5 square miles, all khdisa* 






GAZETTEKRu JQg 

Population was in 1901 ^ 207 persons : males 109, females 98, of 
whom 188 were Hindus. 

The cultivated area amounts to 200 acres including 50 irrigated. 
A tahslldar is in charge. The revenues amount to Rs. 800. 

Tal6n pargBoIia. — An isolated pargana lying about 35 miles 
south of Rajgarh. It has an area of 100 square miles, of which 
6 are alienated in jdglrs. The boundaries are not definable, as the 
pargana consists of numerous small detached pieces. Generally 
speaking, however, it is surrounded by portions of Indore, Narsingh- 
garh, and Gwalior. The Newaj river flows close to the headquarters. 
Population was in 1901, 11,208 persons : males 5,865, females 
5,343, of whom 9,997 or 90 per cent, were Hindus. It comprises 
54 villages, of which 6 are jdgir. 

The cultivated area is 20,700 acres, of which 1,100 are irrigated. 

The Talen town is shared with Indore, a dual control being 
exercised. The origin of this arrangement is that when Sindhia 
gave up his share of the pargana to Rajgarh in 1834 Holkar also 
made over his share to Narsinghgarh, but retained half the village of 
Talen as a mark of suzerainty ; a joint jurisdiction was thus started. 
Negotiations are going on (1907) between Indore and Rajgarh for an 
exchange of land so that the whole of Talen may belong to Rajgarh. 

The tahslldar resides at Talen. The revenues amount to 
Rs. 60,800. 


GAZETTEER. 

Bi^ora town, pargana Biaora. — Headquarters of tlae pargana 
and an important trade centre, situated in 23° 55' N. and 76° 57' E., 
on the Agra-Bombay road, 42 miles from Shujalpur railway station 
on the Bhopal-Ujjain Railway. Population in 1891, 6,476 and in 
1901 , 5,607 : males 2,917, females 2,690, of whom 4,461 or 80 per 
cent, were Hindus. It is an old town and was in Akbar’s day the 
headquarters of a mahal in the Sarangpur sarkdr. Before the open- 
ing of the railway, when all tralBc passed along the high road, its 
position was one of greater importance. A large market is held 
here every Monday, and a large fair yearly, in April. A ginning 
factory has been established here. 

The old and new towns form separate sections. It contains an 
old fort, a residence for the Chief, a school, a dispensary, a sarai, a 
combined Imperial Post and Telegraph Office, and an Imperial Public 
Works Inspection Bungalow. A Municipality has been lately started 
with an income of about Rs. 800 derived from local taxes. 

Gllliagoda, pargana Kalipith. — Village situated in 24° 7' N. and 
76° 45' E., about 10 miles north of Rajgarh, The forests here 
are a favourite resort for tigers. 



104 


RAJQABH STATE. 


Kaiipith, pargana Kalipith. — Headquarters of the pargana^ 
situated in 24® 2' N. and 76® 55' E. Population 7901, 634, It 
contains the pargana offices, 

KaranwS&S, pargana Karanwas. — Headquarters of the pargana, 
situated in 23® 49' N, and 76® 51 ' E., on the Agra- Bombay high road, 
10 miles from Biaora. Population 1901, 544. The pargana 

offices are located here. An old tank lies near the village. 

Kotra, pargana Kotra. — Headquarters of the pargana and thana, 
situated in 23® 38' N. and 77® 10' E., 6 miles south of Narsinghgarh. 
Population 1901 , 292^ An old fort and temple are located here. 

Rajgarh town, pargana Newalganj. — The capital of the 
State is situated on the left bank of the Newaj river, in 24® 1' N. and 
76® 46' E, It is 85 miles by road from Bhopal, and 57 from Shujalpur 
station on the Bhop^-Ujjain Railway. 

The town was founded in 1640 by Raja Mohan Singh. In 1785 
it was visited by Malet who was on his way to join Sindhia in 
Agra. Malet says that at this time Sindhia had a gumdshta 
residing here, who was endeavouring to obtain payment of the 
tribute due. This man Devi Gole by name, begged Malet to use 
his influence to induce the Chief to pay. Malet, however, said his 
mission necessitated his entering into no party questions and pointed 
to a mango tree covered with fruit, which was standing in the 
very midst of his camp, of which not a single mango had been 
taken, as a practical proof of his assertion.^ 

-c 

The town contains no buildings of importance. The Chief’s 
residence, a State guest house, a sarai, an hospital, a school, and a 
combined Imperial Post and Telegraph office are situated here. 

Population was in 1891, 6,476, and in 1901, 5,399 persons : males 
2,795, females 2,604, comprising 4,091 or 76 per cent. Hindus, 
1 Jain, 1,253 or 23 per cent. Musalmans, and 54 Animists. 

In 1857 Rajgarh was the scene of one of Tantia Topi's defeats. 
After his defeat at Gwalior by Sir Hugh Rose, Tantia Topi fled 
to Jhffirapatan. The Raja of that place escaped to Susner where 
some British troops were stationed, and left his capital to the mercy 
of the rebel leader, who promptly took 40 cannon from the Jbalrapatan 
parks, and also increased his following by 10,000 recruits. With 
this augmented force he then advanced on Rajgarh. General Michel, 
commanding the troops from Mhow, at once moved upon Rajgarh, 
and through timely intelligence given by Captain Hutchinson, 
Political Agent at Bhopal, came upon T&atia’s troops in the act of 


1. Forrest— Sctecftorts from Papers in the Bombay Secretariat, 1. H. 
Sylvester Vol I, S00„ 


gazetteer. 


105 


pitching camp near the town of Rajgarh. The troops were unable 
to attack at the moment, and, during the night Tantia drew off 
towards Biaora. A body of British Cavalry pursued and came on 
a small party of the rebels not far from Biaora. The pursuing 
party was a small band of cavalry only, and, in following the 
rebels, suddenly emerged on a plateau, where the whole of the 
enemy’s force was drawn up, consisting of two guns, two hundred 
infantry and sixty sowars, A volley of musketry saluted the British 
party, who rode for their lives. Later on the main body of the 
British force came up, and, after a sharp fight, the whole of Tantia’s 
guns, numbering 27, were captured, and his army dispersed for 
a time/ 

Sstnkliaif pargana Kotra, — ^Village situated in 23° 36' N. and 
76° 9' E. Population 1901 , 149. A fair known as the Shiamji-kd- 
mela is held here in Magh and attended by large numbers ; much 
traffic in cattle takes place on this occasion. 

Sheogarh, pargana Sheogarh. — Headquarters of the pargana 
situated in 23° 46' N. and 76° 10' E. Population 1901 ^ 207. 

Sika, pargana Kotra. — ^Village situated in 23° 33' N. and 76° 
52' E. Population 1901 ^ 454. A large tank is situated here, which 
is covered with wild fowl in the cold weather. 

Talen, pargana Talen. — Headquarters of the pargana^ situated 
in 23° 34' N, and 76° 46' E., on the Newaj river. Population 1901^ 
2,163. The tahsllddr in charge resides here. 


^ Recollections of the Campaign in Malwa and Central India^ Bombay 
OSOo'), p, 217 • 




107 


APPENDIX A. 

Translation of an Agreement on the part of Rawut Newul 
Sing, Rajghur. i 

Seal of Rawut Newul Sing. 


Whereas from old a determined tunkha or tribute has been paid 
to the Maharajah Alijah Soubadar Dowiut Rao Sindia Bahadoor by 
Rajghur, and whereas for two or three years past this tribute has 
not been regularly discharged and above Rupees 16,000, due on 
account of the present year, and still unpaid, I have now of my own 
accord and pleasure ( in order that the tribute may henceforth be 
liquidated, and that no cause of delay or dispute may exist ) resolved 
to separate and assign villages of Rajghur, according to a schedule 
herewith annexed, to the Kamaisdar of Atmaram Punth in order 
that the tribute to the Maharajah may be realized from the revenues 
of these villages and that no cause of blame or shadow of claim may 
in future exist ; and through my desire to please the Maharajah I have 
separated the aftermentioned villages and made them over along with 
the sayer and rights of every description thereunto attached, to the 
kamaisdar of Atmaram Punth from the commencement of the 
Fuslee year 1227, and I will not in any manner hereafter interfere 
with them or their inhabitants. 

And whereas the abovementioned villages being generally much 
out of cultivation and possessing but a stinted population, the 
expense of management and sebundee will be great, the same must 
be provided from their revenue; for with this or any other claim 
respecting them I have henceforth no concern. And whatever 
omissions of tribute there may have been on my part previous to the 
year 1826, I consider myself absolved from the same in consequence 
of the present cession. 

I hereby under the foregoing considerations also agree to resign 
all claim to those sums on account of tunkha, bhet, &c., which, 
through the favour of the Maharajah, my ancestors and I have been 
in the habit of receiving from the pergunnahs of Shujawalpore and 
Shahjehanpore. 

And whereas by concluding this agreement I have conformed to 
the pleasure of the Maharajah Dowiut Rao Sindia, as well as pro- 
vided in future for the regular payment of the tunkha and obviated 
ail causes of complaint hereafter on either side,* the Maharajah 
accordingly has graciously restored and confirmed to me the remain- 
ing part of my possessions ( including the fort of Rajghur) which had 
bean attached in consequence of the delays and subterfuges that baa 
occurred in the payment of the tribute. 

Memorandum of districts and villages alluded to above, as made 
over in commutation of tribute^ 




m' 


Pergunnah of Behar ... 5 5 villages, including the fort of Kotra. 


91 

Tullain ... 63 9 9 

9 ) 

99 

99 

Ruttunpore 14 „ 

99 

99 

99 

Pachore 39 ,, 

99 

99 


Total ... 171 villages. 



Total one hundred and seventy-one villages. 

Dated 

1st Chait 


Soodee 1876 Sumbut. 

Translation of an Agreement by the Rawut Newue Sing 
of Rajghur, dated 1st Chait Soodee 1876 Su mbut. 

Seal of the Rawut Newue Sing. 


Whereas it was settled with Kristnajee Pundit that the tribute 
from Rajgurh to the Maharajah Alijah Dowlut Rao Sindia should^ 
for the present, or Fuslee year 1226, be Rupees 23,000 ; and whereas 
Rupees 6,045 of the above sum has been paid through Kristnajee 
Pundit, it is now agreed that I should pay the remainder or 
Rupees 16,955 by giving a banker’s acknowledgment for the same 
amount. 

Whatever sums may justly be due and forthcoming from the 
villages now made over, on account of balances for the present year, 
shall be carried to my credit, and a corresponding deduction made 
from the amount for which the acknowledgment has been given. 

Translation of a Provisional Agreement concluded by 
the Rawut Newul, Sing of Rajgurh, dated 1st Chait 
Soodee 1876 Sun^but. 


The seal of the Rawut Newul Sing. 


The Rawut Newul Sing of Rajgurh has concluded, through tlie 
mediation of Captain W. Henley, the following agreement with the 
British Government : — 

Whatever disputes shall arise between the Rawut and the neigh- 
bouring States, or between his subjects and those of the surrounding 
countries, shall be referred for settlement to the nearest Britisli 
authority in Malwa, without whose acquiescence the Rawut will not 
attempt to settle anything of this nature, but will accede to his 
arbitration and conform to his injunctions. 

Any thieves, robbers, and plunderers who may be found within 
the bounds of the State of Rajgurh shall be apprehended and, if 
required, sent to the nearest British authority in Malwa ; and sliould 
the Rawut not apprehend any thief, robber, or defaulter so demanded, 
who it may be ascertained has been sheltered in one of his villages, 
such village shall be liable to forfeiture, 





APPENDIX B 


A 

Rdjgarh. 

Umats are descended from Umarsi, 
son of Mang Rao. 

Umarsi and his brother Sumarsi 
went to Sind and founded Umarkot. 
Then Umarsi ieft and went to Abu, 
while Sumarsi remained and founded 
the Sodha family of the present day. 

Umarsi founded the Umats. The 
twenty-first in descent from Umarsi, 
Bhau Singh went to Chitor where for 
services rendered he was given the 
title of Rawat — “ with a splendid 
Khilat.” 

Sarangsen in the seventh genera- 
tion from Bhau Singh, who lived in 
the 14th century, went to Dhar and 
later took the Sarangpur district. 
He then made Duparia his chief town. 
Khemkaran second in descent from 
Sarangsen (it is not said how long 
after Sarangsen ) seized the country 
between the Sind and Parbati rivers 
which was thenceforth known as 
Umatwara. Kumanji or Kamdji 
( Rawat Gumanji ) two generations 
after Khemkaran at the end of 15th 
century, according to the account, 
built Khujner fort but lived in Ratan- 
pur. Later on he obtained from 
the Delhi Emperor Sikandar Lodi 
(1489 — 1519) a grant of land including 
Pachor, Khadad, Lakhanwas, Jhun- 
jhunipur (now Rajgarh), Khujner, 
and Biaora, a sanad being granted 
later for other land also, at Agar, 
Shujalpur (then called Mirzapur), 
Khachraud, etc. Four generations 


later came Rawat Rdmdji whose 
elder son Bhimaji became Rawat and 
the younger Jitagi founded the family 
of the Borkhera and Mundla Thakurs. 
Rawat Benaji succeeded and in 
Samvat 1586 (A. D, 1529) fought 
with the Delhi troops. 

Rawat Krishna ji served Akbar 
( 1556—1605). 

Rawat Dungarsiji who lived in 
16th century was killed at Talen. He 
left six sons. The two eldest being 
Udaji and Dudaji. 

Uddji succeeded and Dudaji was 
made Diwan by Udaji. 

Chhatarsingh succeeded in 1621 
A, D. making Ajab Singh, grandson 
of Dudaji, Diwan. Chhatarsingh 
died in 1638 A. D, Mohansingh 
succeeded as minor. 

Ajab Singh built the forts at Raj- 
garh and Patan in Samvat 1705 
(A. D. 1648 ). Ajab Singh died (how 
is not known ) and Paras Ram suc- 
ceeded him as Diwan of the State. 
State divided in Samvat 1738 (A.D. 

i681). 

B 

Narsinghgarh, 

The Umats are descended from 
Rana Utnji ruler of BhinmaP (in 
Jodhpur). They came over to Central 
India in Muhammadan times, driven 
away from Rajputana by the Cliau- 
hans. They had been 300 years in 
Bhinmal, when this took place. The 
Umat Chief who was expelled was 
Sarangsen. 


^ This is curious and interesting, but unfortunately no further information is available 
see Bhinmal. Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. I, Pt, II, p. 449 . 'journal of the Royal Asiatic Socu''ty, 
October, 1904; and Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society t 1902, 413. 



Sarangsen went to Dhar in 1347 in 
the time of Muhamad Tuglak (1325 
1351 ) and received the title of Rawat 
for services rendered, Rawat Karan- 
siji or Kamaji fourth in descent from 
Sarangsen was made Governor of 
Ujjain in Sikandar Lodi’s time and 
obtained 22 parganaSi some of which 
now form the States of Rajgarh and 
Narsinghgarh. He made Duparia his 
capital, 

Rawat Krishnaji was sixth in 
descent from Kamaji and was also 
Governor of Ujjain where Kishnapura 
is called after him. He died in 1563 
and was succeeded by Dungarsiji. 
He was killed at Talen in 1594, 

He had six sons, the two eldest 
Udaji and Dudaji, Udaji succeeded 
making Ratanpur his capital. He 
received a Khilat from Akbar (1556 — 
1605). In the time of Jahangir, 
Dudaji for services rendered was 
given the title of Diwan and a sanad 
for certain territories. 

Chhatarsingh, Udaji’s successor, 
was killed in 1638 at Ratanpur. 

Mohansingh succeeded and made 
Dungarpur his chief town. Diwan 
A jab Singh was killed in 1668, 
Paras Ram succeeding. Paras Ram 
lived at Patan and Mohansingh at 
Rajgarh. 

'* The Emperor Aurangzeb then 
granted a sanad for the State in 
the joint names of Mohan Singh 
‘‘ and Paras Ram.” 

c 

Note on above 

BY 

The Superintendent of 
Narsinghgarh. 

Umarsi and Rana Umji are dif- 
ferent versions of the name of the 
person. Both the Rajgarh and 


the Narsinghgarh accounts agree in 
making the Umats belong to the same 
family as Vikramadilya who had his 
capital at Ujjain. It would thus 
appear that, while the Rajgarh 
account sends Umarsi and Sumarsi 
to Sind and Abu, the Narsinghgarh 
account begins from a later date and 
finds Rdna Umji already ruling at 
Bhinmal (in Jodhpur), Whether 
Umarsi (Umji) lived at Bhinmal or 
Abu there is no means to decide, but 
probably Abu and Bhinmal both 
formed part of one continuous terri- 
tory. Then, again, whether Sdrang- 
sen^ who, according to both the 
accounts lived in the 14th century, 
went to Dhar from Bhinmal or from 
Chitor cannot be ascertained. There 
is no documentary proof available to 
prove the one or the other statement. 
The Rajgarh account is taken from a 
narrative written on a roll of paper 
said to have been compiled in the 
time of Nawab Abdul Wasih Khan 
(alias Raja Moti Singh) of Rajgarh, 
and the Narsinghgarh account is based 
on information, supplied to Mr. C. 
B. Burrows, Publisher of the Re- 
presentative Men of Central India,” 
which was, with certain modifications, 
taken from the “ History of Nar* 
singhgarh ” given as an appendix to a 
book named ** Mehtab Divfikar,** 
written in the time of the late Raja 
Mehtab Singh of Narsinghgarli, It is 
not known \vhat tJio basis of the 
account in the Raj.i^arh roll of paper 
or in the appendix to Melitab Diva- 
kar is. Under the circumstances 
there is no reconciling the facts 
which must stand in either account 
as they are. The sanads referred 
to in tho Rajgarh and NanJneJigarh 
accounts are not forthcoming cither. 
Whether the title of Ranurt was con* 
ferred on lihau Singh by the Ram 



of Chitor, as the Rajgarh accotlnt 
says, or on Sarangsen by the Muham* 
madans as the Narsinghgarh account 
would seem to imply cannot be as- 
certained as no documentary evi- 
dence to support either statement is 
forthcoming. The Rajgarh account, 
however, specifies the particular ser- 
vices which earned the title {RdwUt) 
from the Rana of Chitor, while the 
Narsinghgarh account does not name 
any. 

Rawat Gumanji or Kumanji or 
Kamaji or Karansiji are different 
versions of the name of one and the 
same person. 

The Rajgarh Gazetteer officer says 
that it is impossible to say whether 
the sanad given by the Delhi Em- 
peror to Rawat Gumanji exists or not 
as the old State papers at Rajgarh 
are in a mess. 

Whether Dudaji was made Diwan 
by Udaji as the Rajgarh account 
says, or the title of Diwan was con- 


ferred On him by Jahangir, as stated 
in Narsinghgarh account cannot be 
ascertained. But the following sen- 
tence taken from AITCH ISON'S 
Treaties, Vol. IV.,page 279, dear- 
ly shows that the Rajgarh and Nar- 
singhgarh chiefs did not stand to each 
other in the relation of chief (master) 
and Diwan (minister). " The power 
of the Umats was established in the 
district known as Umatwara in the 
17th century by two brothers, named 
Mohan Singh and Paras Ram, xy/m 
assumed the titles of Rawat and 
Dixvdn, and made a division of their 
possessions, the Rawat retaining 
5 villages in excess of the portion of 
the Diwan as an acknowledgment 
of bis superior birthright.*’ It ap- 
pears to me that the real word 
is Dlmdn — not Diwan. Diman is 
probably a word of Sanskrit origin 
meaning “ the resplendent in 
honours. ” The word is largely 
used in this sense in Bundel- 
khand." 


^ This title is used in Bundelkhand, but never in Mfilwa, and I do not think that 
the Superintendent of Narsinghgarh is correct in assuming this. The word appears 
to be derived from dco, man or strong as the gods. Aitchison’s statement was supplied by 
the Darbfir and is not authoritative. — {£d.) 



GENEALOGY. 



Rao Mangrao. 

„ Unaarsi. 

Rana Kharsiji. 

„ 

„ Devrajji. 

„ Singhenji. 

„ Jitsinghji. 

„ Bhimsinghji. 

„ Dholji. 

„ Bhumbiharji. 

„ Vir Dhoulji. 

„ Singhanji. 

„ Bajrangji. 

„ Madhyarajji. 

„ Gajrajji. 

„ Lakhansiji. 

„ Jaspalji. 

„ Rajpalji. 

„ Moharsiji. 

„ Amarsenji. 

„ Patalsiji. 

„ Gajvahji. 

„ Bhausinghji. 

„ Sheraji. 

Rawat Mojaji. 

„ Narsinghji. 

„ Udhoji. 

„ Dhiraji. 

Sarangsen (1345—1375). 


Rawat Jasrajji (1375 — 1397). 

„ Khemkaranji (1397—1437). 

„ Haluji (1437—1447). 

„ Kamaji (1447—1489). 

„ Dalipsinghji (1489 — 1501). 

„ Kalyansinghji (1501 — 1513). 

„ Jodhaji (1513 — 1523). 

„ Ramaji (1523—1525). 

„ Bhimaji (1525—1527). 

„ Benaji (1527 — 1558). 

„ Krishnaji (1558 — 1583). 

„ Dungarsingh (1583 — 1603). 

„ Udaysingh (1603 — 1621). 

„ Kshatrasinghji (1621 — 1638). 

„ Mohansingh (1638 — 1697). 

„ Amarsingh (1697 — 1740). 

„ Narpatsingh (1740 — 1747). 

„ Jagatsingh (1747 — 1775), 

„ Hamirsingh (1775 — 1790). 

„ Pratapsingh (1790 — 1803), 

„ Prithwisingh (1803 — 1815). 

„ Newalsingh. (1815 — 1831). 

„ Motisingh (1831 — 1880). 

„ Bakhtawar Singh (1880— 
1882). 

Raja Balbhadra Singh ( 1882— 
1902). 

,, Bane Singh (1902 


9) 





ARMS OF THE NARSINGHGARH STATE. 



Arms — Palv of six ar^^ent and p^ules ; on a bordure vert, eight 
cinquefoils. Crest Wings endorsed onsigned with a 
flame proper. Supporters Boars. Lambrequins — 
Argent and gules. 

Motto — Md kshobhaya nrasinJjoyaiii, meaning “Do not disturb 
me, I am lion amongst men”. Or “May Narsinghgarh 
Raj continue unmolested.” 

Note. — The descent of the Chief from the Malwa Paramaras is 
signified by the Boars as supporters, and the origin from 
the sacred fire-pit at Mount Abu by the flame. 

Banner-— The State banners are red, with figures of a kalar 
(dagger) and a Ithunda (big, double-edged sword) in 
yellow upon it ; and with a figure of llanumati in red. 

GotrEcllErA — or Genealogical Creed — 

Gotra— Vasistha. 

Veda- Yaiur. 

Shakba— Madhyandlni. 

Bhairav— Cora of Dubaria. 

Preceptor — Bfilanandjiw.ala. 

Bkat — Dhandarpa Dhandu and Jiingra Bagri. 

CbEran — Sandhayacli. 

Dholi — Jevra. 

Purohit — Jodhpura Dantela (Dantavla) and Parikh. 

VySs — Nagar. 

Barwa— Chandisha. 

Kshetra — Avantika ( Ujjain ). 

Devi — Sanchai . 

The present Chief is a Hindu of the Ramfmuj Vaishnava sect- 




Genealogical Table of the Narsinghgarh Family. 


RAWAT KISHAN SINGH 


Dungar Singh 


Udaji 

(Rajgarh family.) 


Jmdm of Ronsll 


Hate Singh 


oj BUihkm, 


Jait Singh 


Ajab Singh 


I. Paras Ram 
(1681-95) 


11. Dalel Singh 


III. Moti Singh 
(1695-1751) 


IV. Khuman Singh 
(1751-66) 


V. Ach.al Singh 
(1766-95) 


VI. SoBHAG Singh , , , , 

(1795-1827) Sobhag Singh.) Pratap Singh 


Karan Singh. 

(Received Ronsla in Jagir.) 

I . 

Sardar Singh 

. I 

Lai Singh 


Jmrdan ojJharkia, 


ofUMk 


Bhairon Singh 

Sher Singh 

1 

Nawal Singh 


Gopal Singh Unkar Singh 
Umed Singh 


Lachhman Singh 


Singh Sanwat Singh 


Guman Sngh 


Kok Singh 
leceiv 
in] 


Moti Singh 

VII. Hanwant Singh I_ | 

Chain Singh (1827-73) By adoption Arp Singh Karan Sngh 

(Adopted from the Dsdpat Singh (Succeeded (Presnt 


ani Singh IX. Mahtab Singh / Chhatar Sal 
(1890-95) 


VIII. Pratap Singh X. Arjun Singh 
(1873-90) (1895 


o/ fyiriafs oj 
, Borkhm, Lmrlk 


Jagmalji ^ Gopal Singh 
( Received the Jagir ( Received the Jagir 
of Borkhera, ) of Pathari-Lasurlia. ) 


I I 

Himmat Singh Kishan Singh 
( Received Jharkia in Jagir.) | 

Anup Singh | Takht Singh (Received Miindla 

in Jagir.) 


Rup Singh 
Gajaji 


Umed Singh 
Bhirat Singh 

Durjan Singh 

1 

Shiv Singh 


Amar Singh 


Hari Singh 
Kanak^ Singh Kushal Singh 
Rudra Singh 
Anant Singh 
Hamir Singh 
Pratab Singh 
Gulab Singh 


Piar Singh 
(By adoption) 


Chhatar Sal 


IS 




CHAPTER L 


DESCEIPTIVE. 

Section I.—Physical Aspects. 

The State of No^rsinghgo-rh is one of the mediatized and guaran- Situation, 
teed chiefsliips of the Central India Agency under the Political 
Agent in Bliopnl l^ing in the division of Mahva known as Umat- 
wara. The chief town of Narsinghgarh, which is the capital of the 
State and from wdiich it derives its name, is situated at latitude 
23° 43^ north, longitude 77° 9^ east 

The place is named after the deity Nsisingh, the favourite god of 
Paras Pam, who founded tlie town and the Stale. There is still an 
old temple dedicated to Narsingh at Eajgarh and a ja^ir has been 
set apart to meet tlie expenses of the worship of the deity. At 
Narsinghgarh, how-ever, tlie worship of Na-rsingh has now^ given 
place to that of Sri Eaghunathji, the ordinaiy local salutation now 
being Jai Ra g^hunatli ji oi, ioxmtxly, Jai Narsingh ji. 

The State has an area of 741 square miles according to the Area and 
cadastral survey completed in 1902. Its boundaries can be best 
seen from the map as its tendtorics are inextricably intermingled with 
those of the sister State of Rajgarh. Roughly speaking, bov/ever, it 
lies between 23"^ 30^ and 24^^ 0^ north and 76° 20^ and 77° 16^ east, 
being bounded on the north by Rajgarh, Khilchipur and Indore, on 
the south by Gwalior and Bliopfil, on the east by Maksudangarh and 
Bhopal, and on the west by Gwalior and Dewas, 

Narsinghgarh became a separate chiefship in 1681 A. D. when 
Paras Ram and his brother, Mohan Singh, made a division of their 
possessions, 

The State lies entirely on the plateau, and the scenery is typical Natural diyi- 
of Mahva, its territories forming a broad? open undulating plain 
covered for the most part with fertile black cotton soil. Trees of" 
any size are scarce, except near water, or round old villages. 

The only hills arc those belonging to the outliers of the Vindhyas Hills, 
on which the Narsinghgarh fort stands, the highest point rising to 
1,890 feel above sea level. 

The only important rivers in the State are the Parbati which flows Rivers, 
along the eastern border, the Newaj? a tributary of the Kali Sind, , 
and the greater Kali Sind itself. There are also numerous minor 
streams of local importance of which the Sukar and the Dudhi are 
the largest. Many nalas also retain water throughout the year in 
deep pools, locally called patial^ which form an important source of 
water for irrigation purposes. 



114 


NARSINGHGARH STATE, 


Geology. 1 


Botany, ft 


Fauna. 


Climate 
(Table 1 ). 


The State has not yet been geologically surveyed, but lies mainly 
if not wholly, in the Deccan Trap area, the hills at Narsinghgarh 
town forming an isolated outlier of Vindhyan sandstone. 

The forests of this State are composed of trees, such as Diospyros 
tomentosa^ Ano^eissus laiifolia, Buchanania latifoliai SterctiUa 
urens, Boswellia serrata, Terniinalia tomentosa and T. arjuna ; of 
shrubs, such as Grewia, Zizyphtis^ Capparis, Carissa, Casearia^ 
Woodfordia, Phyllanihus^ and Antidesma, with occasional climbers 
like Spatholohus, Ptieraria^ and other Legnminosae ; some Convol- 
vulaceae and species of Dioscorea, Cocculus, and Vifts, Sometimes 
the forest contains a considerable amount of male bamboo {Dendro- 
calamus strictus)* 

Species of deer, leopard, panther, wild boar and other animals are 
to be seen as elsewhere; while the usual birds, fishes, reptiles 
insects, &c., are met with throughout the state. 

The climate like that of Malwa generally is temperate, no great 
extremes being met with. 


Rainfall The rainfall as recorded for the last 13 years gives an average of 

(Table II). 50 inches. In 1891-92 a maximum of 74 inches was reached while the 
lowest fall was 25 inches, recorded in the famine year of 1900-01. 


Section IL— History. 

( Genealogical Tree. ) 

Early history. The Chiefs of Narsinghgarh, like those of Rajgarh are Umat 
Rajputs, descended from Umra Singh or Umaji. They belong to the 
Paramara or Puar branch of Agnikula Rajputs. Umra Singh and 
Sumra Singh were two brothers, the sons of Raja Mang Rao, whose 
twelve, queens according to tradition, produced thirty-five sons, the 
founders of the 35 shdkhds or branches of this house. ® 


Umra and Sumra took up their habitations in the desert of Rfijpu- 
tana and Sind and the famous fort of Umarkot, the birth-place of the 
greatest of the Mughal Emperors, was named after the elder brother 
His descendants are the Umat Rajputs who gave their name to the 
Umatwara tract of Malwa. The Umras and Sumras appear to have been 
defeated about 1226 by theSodhas, another branch of the Paramaras 
in the 13th century (1226 A. D.) * but continued to live under their 
suzerainty. In 1351, however, they were driven out by the Sammas, 
According to the Beglar-ndma the Sumra dynasty started ruling 
in A. H. 445 or A. D. 1053. A list of the rulers is given by 
Tufatu4-kirdm* Among these Chiefs, it may be noted, no less than 
four are named Duda. The Muhammadan writers, however, are very 

» By Mr. B. Vredenburg of the Oeological Bumy of India, ' 

! LieuteBanfc-Colonel D, Prain, I. M. S., of the Boianical Bwv&y of Inim 
» Tods Rajasthan CCalcatta Reprint), I, 84. 

* Raike^’ Memoir oh. Thufr and Rarhurt 1856. 



HISTORV. 


115 


confused in their accounts and it is difficult to extract any definite 
facts. From its connection with the Umra and Sumra clans a large 
tract of Sind became known as Umra- Sumra, of which the most 
important city was Alor. 

The annals of the Sammas support the expulsion of the Sumras 
from the rule in the 14th century, the Beglar-nama giving 734 A, H. 
or 1334 A. D, and others 752 or 1351/ 

The Umat annals assign the migration of Sarangsen to V. S* 
1404 or A. D. 1347 which agrees well with the date given above. 

Sarangsen Paramara appears to have come to Malwa and 
established himself in Dhar in 1347 A, D. in the time of Muhammad 
Tughlak (1325-51), and is said to have received the title of Rawat 
from the Rana of Chitor. Rawat Karan Singh (better known as 
Rawat Kamaji), fourth in descent from Sarangsen, was appointed 
Governor of Ujjain during the reign of Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517) 
and obtained a sanad for twenty-two patganas in Malwa which 
became known later on as Umatwara of which some still form 
part of the Umat possessions. He established his capital at Duparia 
(23 32 north and 76 14 east) which is now included in the Shajapur 
pargana of the Gwalior State. 

Sixth in descent from Rawat Kamaji was Rawat Krishnaji or 
Kishan Singh, who was also governor of Ujjain, where the Kishan- 
pura muhalla bears his name ; a gate which is said to have been built 
by him stands in it. He died in 1583 A. D. and was succeeded by 
the eldest of his four sons, Dungar Singh, who laid the foundation of 
the village of Dungarpur, 12 miles to the south-east of Rajgarh, the, 
capital of the Rajgarh State. 

He died fighting the Imperial forces at Talen (now in joint posses- 
sion of Rajgarh and Indore States), 12 miles from Shujalpur Station 
on the Bhopal-Ujjain Railway in 1603 A. D. Pie had six sons of 
whom the first two were Udaji and Dudaji. Udaji succeeded his 
father in 1603 A, D. and established his capital at Ratanpur, 12 
miles to the west of Narsinghgarh town. He received a khilat and 
sanad from the Emperor Akbar (1556 — 1605). In the time of 
Jahangir (1605 — 28) the brothers Dudaji and Bhau Singh joined the 
Imperial forces in the invasion of the fort of Gagron. Bhau Singh 
was killed in an action at Suket. The junior branch at this period 
became the minister of the senior and are henceforth known as 
Diwan/ 

^ Bir H. Elliot's The History of India Told hy its Own Historians, 1583. 

* The NarsinghgaTh people have a tradition that Dudaji received the title of 
Diwan from Jahangir. This is most improbable and after very careful investi- 
gation T find there is nothing to support the tradition, which is a later fabrication 
intended to cover the fact that the title was derived from the members of the 
junior branch acting as hereditary minister to the senior. No instance is known 
to me in which the title Dlwdn was conferred by Imperifil sanad, — En. 



116 


NAnSIMGHGAM STATE. 


Paras Ram 
(1681—95). 


Dalel Singh 
(1695). 

Moti Singh 
1695-1751) 


K human 

Singh 

(1751—66). 


Achal Singh 
(1766—95). 


Sohliag Singh 
(1795—1827). 


‘During Ajab Singh’s regime, who was second in descent from 
Dudaji, a battle was fought in 1638 A. D. with the Imperial 
forces at Ratanpur in which Rawat Chhalar Singh, nephew and 
successor to Rawat Udaji, lost his life. Chhatar Singh was 
succeeded by his son, Alohan Singh. When Rawat Chhatar Singh 
was killed at Ratanpur, the family ccnsidcting it to be an unlucky 
place left it, and Rawat Mohan Singh settled at Dungarpur (23*^ 53' 
north and 76^49' east), and Diwan Ajab Singh at Nalkhera (23'' 50' 
north and 76° 17' east). Ajab Singh lost his life in a skirmish with 
the Imperial forces at Nalkhera in 1668 A. D. and was succeeded as 
Diwan by his son, Paras Rfan. Rawat Mohan Singh transferred hi^ 
capital to Rajgarh soon after this and Paras Ram moved to Patau, 
2 miles from Rajgarh, where he built a fort wbich is now in ruins. 

Relations between the two branches became strained at this time, 
Mohan Singh believing that Paras Ram had designs on his State. 
At first an arrangement was made in 1675 by which villages were 
allotted to each, but no definite boundaries were assigned. 'I'his led to 
further friction and finally in 1681 the territory was' divided between 
Mohan Singh and Paras Ram, The division was accordingly carried 
out and thus created the separate chiefships of Rajgarh and Narsinghf 
garh. The Rawat received five extra villages in acknowledgment of 
his seniority. The rulers of Narsinghgarh being descended from 
Dudaji are known as Dudawats and the rulers of Rajgarh being 
descended from Udaji are called Udawats. 

After the partition Paras Ram transferred his capital to Narsingh- 
garh. 

Paras Ram was succeeded in 1695 by Dalel Singh who died the 
same year. 

Moti Singh succeeded Dalel Singh and transferred the capital 
back to Patan where he died after ruling for 56 years in 1751, 
During his time the Uniats were granted certain lands by Bliim 
Singh of Kotah which later on gave rise to a demand lor idnlm} 
He was succeeded by his son, Khuman Singh. During Khunian 
Singh’s time the Marathas obtained the ascendency in Mfilwri and 
the Urnats were forced to submit, Khuman Singh agreeing to pay a 
yearly tribute of Rs. 85,000 Salim Shdhl to Holkar. 

Khuman Singh died in 1766 A. D. and was succeeded by his son, 
Achal Singh, who transferred the capital back to Narsinghgarh. He 
married into the Udaipur family. Dying in 1795, Achal Singh was 
succeeded by his son, Sobhag Singh, who was ruling during the settle- 
ment of Malwa by Sir John Malcolm. An agreement was then mediated, 
in 1818, between the Narsinghgarh Chief and the rulers of Indore, 

1 1 Oil’s Ud'jasihdn^ II, 486. Rrijgarh Btill pays tdnki to Jluilriwar. 



HISTORY. 


117 


DewaSj and Gwalior guaranteeing the regular payment of the tribute 
due to Hoikar and the receipt of Rs. 1,200 as tdnha from Sindhia, and 
of Rs. 5,102 from Dewas, in settlement of certain claims on the 
Sliujalpur and Sarangpur parganas} Sobhag Singh married a niece 
of the Maharana of Udaipur. In 1819 he exhibited signs of 
imbecility and the administration was entrusted to his only son Chain 
Singh. Tod describes how he met Sobhag Singh at Palana in 
Jodhpur in 1819 when he was living at Udaipur.® 

In 1824 Chain Singh openly murdered his minister Rup Ram Bohra 
and Mr. Wellesley, then Resident at Indore, was instructed to remove 
him from the administration of the State. Chain Singh, however, 
resisted the carrying out of the order and Mr. Maddock, the Political 
Agent, was obliged to attack his camp which was pitched to the west 
of Sehore. Chain Singh was killed and his cenotaph still stands on 
the spot where the fight took place. Sobhag Singh then resumed 
the management of his State and ruled for three years. He died in 
1827 A. D. without issue and his widow adopted Han want Singh of 
Bhatkhera (Narsinghgarh) who was the fifth lineal descendant of 

Jait Singh, brother of A jab Singh. In 1872 be received the here- 
ditary title of Raja which was henceforth borne by the Chief in- 
stead of that of Diwan, and a salute of 11 guns. Planwan 
Singh’s eldest son, Bhawani Singh, who predeceased him, married 
a daughter of the Raja of Khetri in Jaipur. Bijai Kunwar Bai, 
Hanwant Singh’s daughter, in 1872, was married to Maharaja 
Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur and is the mother of the present Chief 
of that Slate. On his death in 1873 Hanwant Singh was succeeded 
by his grandson, Pratap Singh. Hoikar demanded payment of 
nazardiia but the claim was not admitted by the British Government 
In 1880 Pratap Singh abolished transit dues on salt passing through 
the State in lieu of which he was in 1881 granted an yearly cash 
payment of Rs. 618-12-0. In 1884 he abolished all transit duties 
except those on opium, and made a contribution of Rs. 56,000 
towards the construction of the Biaora- Sehore road. 

Pratap Singh attended the Darbar held at Sehore simultaneously 
with the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi in 1877 A. D. He was the 
first Rajput Chief to go to England, which he visited in 1887, and had 
the honour of an audience with Her late Majesty Queen Victoria* 
The University of Edinburgh at the same time conferred the 
Plonorary Degree of D. C. L. upon him. He was married to a 
niece of Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur. Pratap Singh died 
without issue in April, 1890. 

^ Appendix A. 

3 Tod’rf [lujastUm^ I, 622. 


Hanwant 

Singh 

(1827-73). 


Pratap Bingh 
(1873~9u). 



118 


NARSIKGHGAHH STATEo 


(1890—95)5^ Pratap Singh was, with the consent of the Government of India, 
succeeded by his uncle, Mahtab Singh, in 1890. Mahtab Singh 
died on the 6th November, 1895, also without issue, and the 
Government of India selected, as his successor, Arjun Singh, then 
9 years old, a descendant of Thakur Sanwat Singh of Bhatkhera, 
brother to Hanwant Singh. 

Arjun Singh was formally installed on the 6th January, 1897. 
He was educated at the Daly College, Indore, and the Mayo College 
at Ajmer and is now under training at the Imperial Cadet Corps- 
at Dehra Dun. The State has been under superintendence since 
1895. Great improvements have been effected in every direction 
since the superintendency. A cadastral survey of both khdlsa 
and jdgir lands and a revenue settlement have been completed 
(1907). A telegraph line has been constructed from Pachor to 
the capital ; the medical, postal, educational, and public works 
departments have all made great strides during the period, while 
the finances of the State have been placed on a most satisfactory 
footing. The administration has been in charge of Rai Bahadur Lala 
Raushan Lai and Munshi Durga Sahai, the present Superintendent- 

Titles. The Chief bears the titles of His Highness and Raja and enjoys 
a salute of 1 1 guns. 


Feudatories Thakur Dalpat Singh of Bhatkhera, a cousin of the present Chief 
(Table XXX). and Thakur Sardar Singh of Tori, a Khichi Rajput, are the premier 
jdglrddrs of the State. The income of the Bhatkhera jdgW is 
Rs. 12,000 a year and that ofiTori Rs. 9,500. 


Section III.— Population. 

(Tables III and IV.) 


Enumera- 

tions. 

Variation 
and Density, 

Towns and 
Villages. 


Population was 1881, 112,427; 1891, 116,280; 790/, 92,093 
persons : males 47,609, females 44,484 ; shewing a decrease since 
1891 of 24,187 or 20 per cent, due mainly to the severity of famine 
of 1900-01, Density is 124 persons per square mile. The State 
comprises 1 town and 461 villages^, 431 of the latter having a 
population of under 500, 29 of between 500 to 2,000 and one of 
over 2,000. Occupied houses number 17,788. 


Vital Statis- 
tics. (Table 
V). 

Beligions, 


These have only been collected for three years, and give 26 births 
and 23 deaths per mille on the total population for 1901- 

Classified by religions there were 82,822 Hindus or 90 per cent., 
8 Sikhs, 358 Jains, 4,088 Musalmans or 4 per cent, 4,816 Aniinists 
or 5 per cent, and 1 Christian. 


Lan ua e and prevailing form of speech is Malwi (Rangrl), Hindi coming 

lit^acy.^ second in importance. Of the total population 3,276 or 3 per cent, 
were literate of whom 136 were females. 


1 Recent report gives 435 villages ou the reveuuo rcconls. 



POPULATION. 


119 


The predominating castes were — Rajputs 8,524 or 9 per cent., Castes. 
Chamars 6,960 or 7 per cent., and Brahmans and Balais each 
5 per cent. 

Agricultural and pastoral occupations prevail, 42,000 or 45 per Occupations, 
cent, of the population being engaged in occupations connected with 
the soil, and 7,100 or 8 per cent, were labourers. 

The people dress in the fashion common to Malwa. Ordinarily Social char- 
the dress of a male Hindu consists of a pagrl or turban, a piece of 
cloth about 50 or 60 feet long and 6 inches wide with gold ends ; 
the cloth is also often shot with gold and silver thread when it is 
called mandih It is worn by well-to-do people on festive occasions, 
such as marriages. His clothes consist of a hurt a or shirt and 
angarl^ha or long-coat reaching to the middle of the leg, fastened to 
the body with twisted cords below the right ear, under the right 
shoulder and on the right breast ; a dhoti ( loin cloth) worn round the 
waist and dapatta (scarf). All these are generally white except the 
turban which is often coloured red, yellow, etc. The agricultural 
classes wear dhotl^ a handle and pichhora of khddl cloth as well as a 
pagru In towns there is a tendency to dress after the European 
fashion retaining the sdfa. The round felt cap is now often used 
as head-dress with European boots and shoes instead of the jutu 

Hindu female dress consists of a lehenga or petticoat, a kdnchli 
(bodice), and a dupatta or orhni (scarf). The only distinction 
between Muhammadan and Hindu dress is that Muhammadan males, 
except the agriculturists, wear paijdmas and not dhotis^ and have 
opening of the angarkha placed on the left, and not, like the Hindu, 
on the right side of the chest ; females wear paijdmas instead of 
lehengas and a kurta over the hdnchll. 

Meals are generally taken twice, at midday and in the evening. 

Only well-to-do persons take light refreshment in the morning and in 
the afternoon. The staple food grains used are wheat, jowdr^ maize, 
and gram, and the pulses tuar, urad, mung, and masur. The ordi- 
nary food of the rich and middle classes consists of chapdtis (thin 
cakes) of wheat flour, tuar pulse, rice, ghl, vegetables, milk, and sugar. 

The poorer classes, including the peasantry, except on festive 
occasions, eat rotis or thick cakes made of the coarser grains, with 
pulses, vegetables, uncooked onions, salt, and chillies. No local Brah- 
mans or Banias eat flesh. All castes including some Brahmans smoke 
tobacco and eat opium, while amongst the Rajputs opium is also 
taken in the liquid form called kasumba. 

The greater part of the population being agricultural, spends its 
days in the fields from sunrise to sunset. The mercantile population 
begin work about 9 A. M. usually closing shops about 6 or 7 P. M. 



120 


NARSINGIIGz\IlH STATR, 


Houses, Houses are mostly of mud, with thatched or tiled roofs. In Nar- 

singhgarh itself there are a few stone or brick built houses but none 
is of great size. 

Marriage, Child marriage is usual among Hindus. Polygamy is common 
only among Rajputs of position ; widow marriage prevails among the 
lower classes only. 

Disposal of The dead bodies of Hindus are burnt except those of safiyasist 
the ea . hairdgis, and infants wdhch are buried. Cremation takes place ])y 
the side of a stream, the ashes being, if possible, conveyed to a sacred 
river ; otherwise they are committed to some local stream. Muham- 
madans bury their dead. 

festivals and The principal festivals are the Dasahra, Hoh\ Diu'dll, Gauge, r 
amuseineats. sarddrs of the Stale attend the efarhdr and 

pay their respects to the Chief at the Dasahra. Before celebration 
all weapons are examined and repaired. This is in particular a 
martial day and is, therefore, observed by Rajputs with eiithusiasin. 

The ordinary amusements are playing and singing among grown up 
people and hide and seek, gilt danda (tip cat), and aukliuiichi (blind- 
man’s buff) among children. The commonest village recreation is, 
for people to assemble together after the day’s work at a prouiiucnt 
place and pass away a few hours in smoking and talking. In towns 
chaiisar and various card games are played. 

Nomoncla- Among the Hindus the twice-born are named after gods or famous 
personages. They have two names, the jannia rdshl ndm which is 
used when the stars are consulted and at birth, to draw up the horos- 
cope, and the holta ndm by which persons are generally known. These 
are either of religious origin or merely names of fancy and affection 
such as Ram Singh, Bir Singh, Damodar, Durga Sahfd, Madan 
Mohan, and Kunj Biharilal. The agricultural and lower classes use 
diminutive largely, such as Ladu, Jawaria, Balli and the 
Names of places are given after persons,, such as Ramgarh from 
Ram Singh, Narsinghgarh after Narsingh, Gangakhedi after Gauj^a, 
and so on. 

Public During the last 15 years public health has been modcTate. In 1891 

^(Tab^S VI). Cholera and Small-pox carried off about 10,000 persons, in 1890 and 
1897 the same epidemics accounted for 5,000 deaths, and in 1899 
Small-pox again claimed 2,000 victims, out of a population greatly 
weakened by 4 famines. 



CHAPTER II. 


ECONOMIC. 

(Tables VII— XV. and XXVIII.— XXX. ) 

Section I-— Agriculture- 

The general character of land in the four parganas of the State eon- 

is much the same. For the most part it is fertile and bears good (xXesVII— 
crops of all the ordinary grains, and also poppy; but the irregular!- S). 
ties and insufficiency of the rains during the last ten years has caused 
agriculturists to sow hhanj crops on lands which used to bear rabi 
crops. 

The soil is classed according to its natural formation, its situation, Classes of 
and the use to which it is put. 

As regards classification by natural formation three main classes 
of soil are recognised. 

Kalnmt, kali (black cotton soil), a dark coloured loamy earth, spe- 
cially suitable for the cultivation of cotton but which also produces 
e.xce)ient crops of vdieat, gram, jowar, and poppy. BJnmar (brown 
soil) is specially suitable for the cultivation of wheat, but also produces 
coiton, gram, jorc’dr, etc. Patlon, a shallow stony soil, generally 
growing jowa^, tilli, rameli, etc. It is very inferior to the other two. 

Each of these soils is sub-divided into superior and inf erior according 
ro depth and the proportion in which kankar (gravel) is mixed with it. 

As regards classification by situation there are three classes of 
chaunis or even-lying land ; dhalu or of uneven or sloping surface ; 
and galat or low-lying land where water accumulates. 

As regards classification by crop bearing power, soils are divided 
into dera or rice land ; piwat or irrigated land in which sugarcane^ 
poppy, vegetables and wheat are grown ; thdla, single cropped soil, 
adjacent to wells and orhis in which chillies, mungphali and wheat are 
sown ; addn, double-cropped soil, also adjacent to wells and orhis in 
which maize and poppy are usually sown ; bdgdt or garden lands; 
parati-jadid, land lately gone out of cultivation ; parati-kadmi, old 
fallow land ; blr, grass reserves ; charokhat, village pastures ; and jhdri, 
jungle or forest land. The greater part of the soil in the Narsingh. 
garh pargana is bhumar, while black cotton soil predominates in the 
Khujner pargana. 

The surface of the country is undulating with a gradual fall from 
Narsiughgarh towards the Kali Sind river on the west. 



122 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


praSe The system of cultivation does not vary in different parts of the State, 
(see Appen- Cultivators prefer the deep kail and hhumar to patlon soil, because the 
dix B), latter suffers more from either an insufficiency or an excess of rain. 


Preparations for ploughing ordinarily begin from Baisakh Sudl 3 
(May) popularly known as Akhdtij. These consist in clearing the land 
of the stumps of the previous gear’s crop by passing the weeding plough 
or hakkhar over it and removing stones, grass, etc., making it ready for 
ploughing. The seed is sown after a few showers have fallen. This 
is the process for the kharlf crops. The rahi crop land is ploughed 
continuously to let it absorb as much water as possible. Thus prepared 
it is allowed to remain fallow until after the kharlf harvest is over, 
when it is finally ploughed and sown. Ganwdnlia or chankhdr is the 
term applied to land which is thus tilled and kept ready for rabu It 
is said that the rain of the Ashlekha nakshatra (or asterism)’ is most 
beneficial for the rabi crops. 

Ceremonies. Xhe harrow which is the first implement used in preparing lands is 
worshipped on the Akhdtlj\ The worship which is carried out by the 
whole village takes place at a field. Five principal villagers, together 
with a carpenter, go to the field with the harrow and bullocks. There 
they first bow to the earth with one end of the turban thrown loosely 
round the neck and worship the god Ganesh with offerings of rice, roli^ 
and white thread, also tying a piece of coloured thread round the harrow, 
and marking it too with roll and rice. They then apply the rice and 
roll to their own foreheads and that of the carpenter. A coloured thread 
is tied round the horns of the bullocks, and round their own right wrists 
and that of the carpenter. Five furrows are then made in the field with 
the harrow after distributing sweetmeats to the people and giving a 
stdha ( dole of uncooked food ) to the carpenter. 

The usual charge for ploughing a bigha of land once is one rupee. 

Seasons, Two seasons are recognised — the kharlf season locally knovm as the 

sidlu and the rahi as the unhdlu or chaitl. In the former jowdr^ rice, 
maize, cotton, etc., are grown and in the latter wheat, gram, and poppy. 

Dufasli land. About one- eighteenth of the total cultivated area is dufasli or yields 

two crops in the year. In addn soil poppy is sown for dufasli in 
three ways : ( 1 ) Maize is sown first and reaped, and poppy put in as 
the second crop. ( 2 ) San (hemp) or urad is sown first, and when it is 
flowering plough is passed through the crop which falls to the ground 
and forms manure in which poppy is then sown as the second crop. 
(3) Sugarcane and poppy are sown together. Maize, wmd, or san 
are put in first and then wheat. 


^ One of the 27 asterisms which rise and set during the Hindu year, 
3 A mixture of rice, turmeric and alum. 



AGRl ULTURE 


123 


The feWt/ crops are sown (locally called orni) usually in the month Sowing, 
of Asddh (June and July ) and the tabi in Kunwdr and Kdrtik 
( September to November ). Jowdr, maize, rice, kodon, mung, urad, 
tuar, wheat, gram, alsi, etc., are all sown by a drill plough composed 
of the nai, and ori. The nai makes furrows and the seeds put into 
the ori, as the drill plough moves, fall into furrows through iL Poppy 
seeds are sown broadcast. 

No re%ious ceremony is performed at the time of sowing. The 
sowing of the kharif crops depends on the rains, no propitious day 
IS awaited but Sundays and Tuesdays are avoided. A day is, however, 
pronounced as propitious by the village astrologer for the commence- 
ment of rabi sowings. 

Jowdr and maize each require 3 to 5 seers of seed per high a \ while 
wheat requires from 15 to 45 seers, gram and mungphali from 15 to 
28 seers and alsi from 5 to 20 seers per bigha. The quantity of seed 
grain per bigha varies with the quality of the soil. 

After the crop has sprouted to a height of six or eight inches, a small Weeding, 
harrow (kulpa) is passed over the field two or three times in case of 
maize, jowdr, and cotton. No kulpa or weeding is, however, required 
in case of wheat and gram. Weeding is carried out in case of poppy 
from three to six times ; of sugarcane from three to seven ; muttgphali 
from two to six; maize and jowdr from two to four ; and cotton, tilli, 
and rameli twice. 

Maize is reaped (called Idoni ) in Kunwdr (September and October) Reaping, 
and reaping operations generally commence in the month of Aghan 
(November and December) for kharif crops and in Chait and Baisdkh 
(April and May) for rabi crops. In case of maize the ears only are 
cropped off and dried, while jowdr is mowed down with its stalks and 
brought into the khala or threshing yard, where the ears are cut off 
and dried. They are then trodden over by bullocks, the grain being 
winnowed and stacked ready for use. Wheat, gram, mung, and urad 
are cut down or pulled up by the roots when ripe and brought into 
the farm yard, the rest of the process being the same as in case of 
jowdr. Opium is collected by lancing the poppy with the nakha 
( lancet ) and scraping off the exuding juice with the charpala. The 
capsitles containing the seed are plucked by hand when dry and the 
seeds beaten out. 

Sometimes sugarcane and! poppy are planted together, the sugarcane _ 

taking 12 months to grow to maturity. The outturn of poppy grown ings, 
in this manner is not so large as it would be if it were allowed to grow 
alone, but sugarcane is not injuriously affected. In this way the 
farmer gets two crops from the same field, for the same amount of 
labour in ploughing, etc. 



124 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


Rotation. 


Manuring. 


Irrigated 

crops. 


Sugarcane, 


Strictly speaking no systematic rotation of crops is practised, 
although different crops are often sown in the same field in succession. 
The cultivators generally alternate jowaf with wheat or gram and 
cotton with jowar. In patlon soiljowdr is generally rotated with iilH 
and rameli or cotton. In kahnat and bhumar soils wheat or gram 
is alternated -with, jowdr. 

The use of manure is confined to maize in the case of hharif crops. 
With rabi crops it is specially used in fields where poppy, sugarcane 
and wheat are sown. The manure generally consists of village sweep- 
ings and cowdung. A special kind of manure is, however, used for 
poppy made of seen or ufcid called sc^itchiiT or tiTccdcJiuv* This process 
consists in sowing san or urad first and when in flower ploughing it 
into the ground. Fifty cart loads of manure a year are obtained from 
50 head of cattle. 

The only important crops irrigated are poppy and sugarcane. Of the 
total irrigated area (1904-05) amounting to 10,066 acres, poppy 
usually occupies 5,350 acres and sugarcane 6S0. The, price of ci iidc 
opium has risen from Rs. 4^- per seer to Rs. 6:i per setr during the 
last decade. 

The expenses in cultivating one bigha of poppy for opium are given 
below ; — 


Particulars. 

Amounts 


Ks. a. p. 

Seed 

0 5 0 

Water 

6 8 (i 

Tax per hi§}ia 

GOO 

Ploughing, etc 

10 8 0 

Total 

23 5 0 

Receipts 

34 0 0 

Balance 

10 11 0 


There is no record to show the actual yield of sugarcane per highn 
but it appears that the yield has decreased of late while the price has 
risen. It is stated that the average yield of jaggery per higlia of 
sugarcane for the period 1891 to 1900 was from 10 to 1 9 niaunds, and 
the price of jaggery Rs. 4-4-0 per maund. In 1901 the yield is said ter 
have fallen to from 8 to 16 maunds per Ingha, while the price of 
jaggery rose to Rs. 5^ per maund, it is now (1905) Rs. Gi per inauiid 



AGRICULTURE. 


125 


Expenses in cultivating one Ugha of sugarcane ;• 


Particulars. 

Amount, 

Scod..* ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Water 

Tax per blgha ... 

Ploughiingj etc. ••• ... ••• ••• 

Total 

Receipts ... 

Balance ... 

Rs. a. p. 

15 0 0 

17 8 0 

10 0 0 

33 0 0 

75 8 0 

100 0 0 

24 8 0 


The profit to the cultivator in case of both sugarcane and opium 
would be double this if he were to use his own bullocks instead of 
hired animals. 


No new implements have been introduced. The ordinary agricul- implements, 
rural implements are— the hal or plough ; bakkhar or harrow ; 
nai or seed drill attached to the plough ; ori or bamboo tube fixed to 
the nai through which seeds fall into the furrows; kudali or 
pick-axe ; ckaras or leather bucket used for drawing water from 
a well ; chhari>ala or instrument with which poppy heads are scraped, 
after being slit by the nakha ; datal or shovel ; khurpa, a weeder 
or hoe ; kulhddi or axe ; ddntra or sickle : phdora or spade ; and the 
khurpi or small hand weeder. 

A decrease of about 10 per cent, took place in the cultivated area cultivated 
of the State during the 10 years ending 1900 A.D., but taking into area and vari- 
account the area lately brought under cultivation the total reduction ^Tables VIII 
at present is about 5 per cent. and IX). 

The area cultivated in a normal year is at the kharif 127,200 Area under 
acres, and at the rahi 29,600 acres. The predominating crops in ^c). 
the first case are jowdr 90,400 acres, maize 10,800 acres, oilseeds 
1,400 acres ; and at the rahi, wheat 12,600 acres, gram S,900 acres, 
poppy 5,100 acres, pulses 1,.100 acres, oil seeds 600 acres. 

The most important food crops at the kharif are — makha or maize Kharif and 
{Zea mays), jowdr {Sorghum vulgare), rice or dhdn {Oryza sativa), 
kodon (Paspalum stoloniferum), kdngni {Panicum italicum), mimg 
{Phaseolus mungo), urad {Phaseolus radiatus), tuar {Cajamis 
indicus), tilli {Sesamum indicum),a.nd mungphali {Arachis hypogea); 
and at the rahi — wheat or gehun ( Triticum aesHvum), gram ( Cicer 
arietinum), barley or jau {Hordetm vulgare ), masur (Ervimlens) 
and bath {DoHchos sinensis). 



126 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


Staple food 
grains. 


Subsidiary 
food grains. 


Oil-seeds. 

Fibres. 


Spices. 


3)rug«. 


Fruit and 
vegetables. 


Progress. 


Irrigation. 


Sources. 


Maize and jowar are the staple food grains of the common people 
throughout the year. The rich generally eat wheat and to some 
extent rice also. The poorest classes use kdngnt and kodon in times 
of necessity. 

Gram is used as a subsidiary food by all classes. The ordinary 
subsidiary food crops are the pulses tmrt urad, mung^ masur^ 
hatla^ etc. 

The oil seeds grown are ramelii rdi (mustard), linseed, and 
poppy seed. 

Cotton {Gossypium indicum) is very extensively sown, but the 
two kinds of hemp, san ( Crotolaria juncea ) and amhdri or pdtsan 
( Hibsicus cannabinus )f only to a limited extent. 

The chief spices grown are sonph or aniseed (Pimpinella anisus)^ 
Zifa (cumin), dhania {coriander sativum)^ ajwdn (Lingusticum 
ajwan)i chillie {capsicum).^ ginger, onions,, and garlic. These are 
only grown on a small scale. 

Poppy [Papaver scmntferum) is very extensively sown. Gdnja 
{Cannabis sativa) is grown on a very small scale. 

Mangoes {Mangtfera indka)^ guava, custard apple, mnlberrieSr 
plums, jdmun {Eugenia jarmolana), lemons, oranges, singhdra or 
water nut {Trapa bispinosa), kharbuza {Cucumis melo), tarbuz 
{Cucurbita citrullus), pkunt {Cucumis momordica), shakarkand 
or sweet potato {Ipomea eduUs) are the fruits usually produced. 
Brinjal {Solanum melongena)^ taroi {Laffa acutangula), hhindi 
{Ahelmoschus esculentus), karela {Momordica charantia^ var : muri^ 
cafa)i radish, carrot, kaddu {Lenginiaria vulgaris)^ sem {Phaseolus 
vulgaris)^ gilki { a variety of Laffa acutangula with a smooth skin)> 
ghuiydn (Colocasia antiquorum), potato, kakri {Cucumis utillis- 
simus), pdlak or country spinach {Spinacea oleracea) , soya {Anethmn 
sowa),pochia, lauki, zamln^kand {Arum campanulatum) , kulpha 
{Chenopodium), 2Xii ganwdrphall are the vegetables most commonly 
produced here. 

In the famine of 1900 when the indigenous wheat ran short pissi 
wheat was imported from Chandausi and Hoshangabad and sown* 
The out-turn was satisfactory but the indigenous wheat which is con* 
sidered of superior quality gives better results. 

Irrigation is mainly used with crops of poppy, sugarcane, and 
garden produce. 

The principal sources of water supply are othls on the banks of 
rivers, streams, and ndlds, wells, bdons, and tanks. The usual 
method by which the water is extracted is by the charas. The 
dhenkli or counterpoise lift is used to a small extent. 



agriculture. 


127 


The State contains 2,459 kachcha or unbricked wells, 498 masonry 
wells and bdorlst 241 kachcha and Z%pakka orhls, 48 tanks, and the 
same number of ndlds, from which irrigation is practised. The tanks, 
however, do not retain water long, all with the exception of those 
situated at Bijaigarh, Narsinghgarh, and Hulkheri becoming dry in 
the hot months. The same is the case with most of the ndlds and 
streams. 

The cost of digging a well varies with the nature of soil. Rs. 100 Wells, 
for sinking a kachcha and Rs. 500 for a masonry well may be taken 
as the average cost. 

The average area irrigable by each kind of well is from 2 to 10 
bighas^ i. 0., 1| to acres. It varies greatly with the situation of the 
well and the depth of the water. 

The average cost of irrigating a higha of land once is Rs. 1-4-0. 

The irrigated area of the State is about 11,300 acres. The area Irrigated 
irrigable at the Settlement of Samvat 1943 ( 1885-86 A, D. ) must (^Table IX) 
have been much greater than this, as it has since undergone consider- 
able diminution owing to a large number of the irrigation sources 
having gone out of use and capricious monsoons. 

The Umatwari cattle a variety of the Malwi are well-known. They Cattle 
are, like the Malw^, usually of a grey or silver grey colour, of medium 
size, but very active and strong, and much prized for field work. The 
hoofs are shapely and hard. 

There are ample pasture grounds in the State, and no difficulties Pasture 
are experienced in an ordinary year in feeding cattle. In a famine S^^ouDds, 
year they are driven into forest reserve land. In a normal year karhi 
(dried jowdt stalks), hay, and hhusa (chaff) are in excess of local 
requirements and villagers are able to sell them. 

The prevalent cattle diseases are : — Cow-pox, mouth disease, Diseases, 
flatulance, parparia (hardening of the skin of the shoulder and 
rotting of the flesh ), phephana (lung disease), and foot and mouth 
disease. The common remedy with the cultivators for all these 
diseases is to cauterise the affected part and administer a mixture 
of oil, salt and kdchris. 

The chief cattle fairs are those held at Pachor from Paush sudi 8th, Pairs (Table 
for 15 days, which was started in 1892 ; the Narsinghgarh fair 
held from Phdgun Badi 8th, ior 15 days, started about a century 
ago; the Bhumka fair, which was revived in 1905 after being in 
abeyance for 25 years, lasts for 15 days from Aghan 8th and 
the Ram Bihar fair held from Baisdkh Badi 8th, for 15 days, started 
some 25 years ago. 

These fairs, which were opened with a view to encourage trade^ 
though commercial gatherings are principally cattle fairs. They 



128 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


Agricoltural 

population. 


Takkavi. 


Rents. 


Wages. 


bring in to the State an income of about Rs. 6,000 a year in sdyar 
dues. The persons ordinarily attending the Pachor, Narsinghgarh, 
and Bihar fairs are in round number about 6,000, 8,000, and 4,000> 
respectively. 

About 90 per cent, of the population lives on agriculture, of whom 
about 60 per cent, are actually agriculturists and 30 per cent, 
labourers. 

Rajputs, Dangis, Ahirs, Gujars, Kachhis, Lodhas, Lodhis, Son- 
dhias, Deswalis, Minas, Dhakars, Khatis, Rajan-Khatis, Telis.™ 
Kulmis, Pals, Lorhas, Rewaris, Chaurasia, Ranwalas, Jats, Purbias 
and Pan wars are the castes chiefly engaged in agriculture 
Chamars, Balais, Saharias, Bhils, Pardis and such members of the 
above agricultural classes as are not rich enough to cultivate land 
of their own depend on agriculture as field labourers. 

Very little takkavi was advanced by the State to cultivators before 
1899 ( Samvat 1956). 

The famine of 1900, however, crippled the resources of agriculturists 
and takkavi advances on a somewhat large scale became necessary, 
and the Darbar made liberal advances of khdd ( food grain ) and 
htj ( seed grain ), and plough bullocks. Lately good harvests have 
improved the condition of the cultivator and the necessity for such 
advances is gradually diminishing, being already almost entirc^Iy 
restricted to cultivators in villages which possess no local banlcor 
( sahukdr ). Though, according to rule, interest is levied at the rate 
of 6 per cent, per annum on these advances, on account of the poverty 
of the agriculturists recoveries of interest are not made with any 
great degree of strictness. The advances are realised at the harvest 
in full or in part according to the means of the cultivators. If any 
amount remains outstanding it is recovered the next season. 

Section II.— Rents, Wages, and Prices- 
[ Tables XIII and XIV. ] 

All land being the property of the Chief the sums paid by cultiva- 
tors are revenue and not rent. ( See Land Revenue. ) 

In villages wages are generally paid in kind. 

/owdr.— Labourers are required for two processes: Kaini or 
cutting the crop on the field, and katarni or hednt cutting of the 
heads at the khalidn or threshing-floor. Higher wages are given 
for katnly wages being given in heads of the grain. A day’s wages 
for kaini vary from 7 to 8 seers a day, and for hednt from 3i seers 
to 4 seers a day. In bad years lower wages are paid amounting to 
half or threeTourths of the quantity paid in ordinary years. 



RENTS, WAGES AND PRICES. 


129 


Wheat , — Wages for reaping wheat are given in ears of wheat. 

To every four reapers one man is attached, who binds the stalks into 
sheaves. The reapers get two sheaves or g,awaB a day each and the 
binder three gawas, A gawa contains a seer or a seer and a quarter 
of grain. Besides these labourers women follow and gather up the 
stray ears that escape the hands of the reapers and the binders. They 
rub out the seed from the ears, and the grain so obtained is divided 
into three equal parts, of which one part goes to the women and the 
remaining two to the cultivator. The number of labourers available 
for reaping wheat is generally larger than that available at the jowar 
harvest. This is probably due to the fact that cultivators have little 
or nothing to do at the wheat harvest, while they have many other 
engagements at the jowar harvest, including preparations for the 
rabi. 

Gram , — For gathering gram a labourer gets a bundle of gram 
plants, which contains from two to three seers of grain, daily. The 
quantity of gram plants given is technically called a kadpi. 

Cotton . — Cotton usually undergoes three pickings. The charge for 
the first picking is Re. 1 for every 3 maunds ( of 40 seers each ) 
picked, for the second picking Re. 1 for every 2 maunds, and 
for the third Re. 1 for every l| maunds. 

Poppy , — Labourers are paid in this case in cash and get from 
to 2 annas a day for lancing the poppy heads, and 2 pice for 
scraping off the juice. The work of scraping is done for two-and-half 
hours or so in the morning only. 

Sugarcane , — For cutting and paring from 16,000 to 20,000 canes 
the charge is Re. 1. A double set of labourers, one for the day and 
the other for the night, is required to prepare jaggery from the 
sugarcanes. Those who work during the day get simple wages, 
about 2 sooxsoijowdrl, while those who work at night get quarter of 
a seer of gur as wages and about the same quantity of gur for eating 
on the spot. Of these workers, the man who puts the sugarcanes 
into the press gets special wages of 4 to 6 pice a day, and about half a 
seer of jaggery in addition, whether he works by day or by night. 

The wages vary in the diiioront parganas. For reaping and 
wheat the charge in the Narsinghgarh and Chhapera parganas is 
from 8 to 10 seers of grain per hlgha, and in Pachor and Khujner 
from 24 to 28 seers in case of maize jowar and 15 seers in case 
of wheat and gram. 

The village artisans ( the carpenter, the blacksmith, and the yiHago arti- 
Chamar ) and the village servants ( the Balai, barber, and the Bhil ) sans, 
are given a certain quantity of corn at each harvest. The carpenten 
the blacksmith, and the Bhil gel so much grain for each plough in 



130 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


the village, while the Balais, the Chamars, and the barber get wages 
according to the number of members who form the families of the 
cultivators served by them. 

The famine of 1899-1900 temporarily lowered the wages of labour- 
ers, which rose again immediately after, on account of the diminished 
supply of labour. 

The extension of roads has not as yet produced any perceptible 
effect in the wages usually current in the State. 

Jowdr and maize are sown everywhere and, therefore, their prices 
do not vary much. Wheat, however, which is produced over a largo 
area only in the Narsinghgarh pargana, is cheaper there than in 
Pachor, where little is sown or in Khujner and Chhapera, where still 
less is cultivated. 

Prices. Prices of grain have generally risen during the last few years prin- 

cipally owing to greater facilities for exportation. On the whole an 
increase of about 25 per cent, has taken place. 

material condition of an ordinary middle class clerk is neither 
very prosperous nor very wretched. Pie lives more or less from hand 
to mouth and has to incur considerable expense in clothing in order to 
keep up a respectable appearance. Formerly, such clerks used to 
wear a mirzai, dhotis zxidpagrl. Now they use the ktiria^ achhan 
or coat, trousers or dhotl^ sdfa or round cap, etc. This 
clerk has now to spend about three times as much on his dress 
as his ancestors did. The furniture in his house is also apt to bo 
more showy and more costly, ^but less durable than that of his 
father. 

The condition of the cultivator has not undergone any material 
change. He lives as economically as before and has not to conform 
to! the conditions of modern dress and living. He wears the coarser 
kinds of cloth and his usual dress consists of a mirzai, dohar 
dhoti, and a pagrh 

Wages now run high and the day labourer makes a very fair 
income. As, however, he has not learnt thrift, his material condition 
has not been materially improved. 

Section Ill.—Porests. 

Classification, The forest here is divided into tw^o principal classes, called Bam or 
State Forest and Chliota or Village Forest, 

Legislation. In Bara or State Forest grazing charges are levied, while in 
Chhota or Village Foiest grazing is allowed free. The rules for the 
protection of trees, however, are the same in both. 

A set of Forest Rules based on the Forest Act VII of 1878 wore 
introduced into the State in January, 1902, and serve to regulalu the 
cutting of wood in the jungles. 



FORESTS. 


131 


The State Forests contain the following trees : — A char {Bxichanania 
latifolia), amalias {Cassia fistula)^ aonla [Phylldnthiis emhlica), 
aritha [Sapmdiis dctergens), babul {Acacia arabica)^ hahera 
( Terminalia belerica ), bans ( Dendrocalamus strictus ), bar {Ficus 
hengalensis)t hecal {Celastrus sengalensis ) , hija { Pterocarptis 
marsupium)^ bhandara {Gardenia latifolia)^ dhaman {Grewia 
tiUaefoliavestika)fdhdora {Enogeissus latifolia)^ dudhi {Wrightia 
tictoria and tomentosa)^ garnal {Carissa spinarum)^ gular 
{Ficus glomerata)^ hingotia { Balanites roxburghii)^ imli {Tama^ 
rindiis indica), jdmun {Eugenia jambolana), kachndr {Bauhinea 
variegata)^ kadamb ox hem { Anthocephalus cadamha)^ kalia 
seja { Lagcrstroemia parvloflra ), karanj {Pongamta glabra ), 
karonda {Carissa carandas)^ kora { Strobilanthus callosus)f 
hhair {Acacia catechu)^ khajur {Phccnix dactylifcra)^ lasora 
or gonda {Cordia myxa)^ mahud {Bassia latifolia)^ makoi 
{ Zizyphus ocnoplia)^ mendul { Dolichaudrone palcata), pipal 
{Ficus religiosa)j sdgwdn {Tectona grandis)^ sdlar {Boswellia 
serrata), semal {bomhax malaharicum) ^ siris or sdr amli 
{Alhizzia lehek)^ shisham {Dalbergia sissoo)^ tinas {Eugeinia 
dalbergioides)i and tendu {Diospyros tomentosa). The Village 
Forests consist principally of am {Mangifera indica), babul 
{Acacia arabica),ber {Zizyphus jujuba), chandan {Saritalum 
alam),gjUar {Ficus glomerata),khdkra {Butea frondosa), khajur 
{Phoenix dactylif era), khejra {Prosopis spicigera), kora {Stro- 
hilanthiis callosus), mahud { Bassia latifolia), min {Melia indica), 
pipal {Ficus reUgiosa), and sdgwdn {Tectona grandis). 

The Forest Department of the State is managed by a Forest Officer Control, 
who acts directly under the orders of the Darbar. He is assisted by a 
jamdddr and Forest Guards who patrol the forests and protect them. 

The Village Forests and other fuel and fodder reserves in the districts 
are managed by the Inspector kdnungos and the State Forest Officer 
inspects them from time to time. Forest Guards look after these 
forests also. 

Timber, bamboo, grass, etc,, are cut from the State Forests by the pQ^egts and 
Forest Department every year and are stored at the P'orest Depot the people. 
{baria ) where they are sold at fixed rates. 

People in general can take no forest produce without the permis- 
sion of the State Forest Officer, but they are generally allowed to 
bring headloads of dry fuel and other forest produce, such as edible 
fruits, etc., free of charge. Cultivators get wood for agricultural 
purposes every year free of charge from both the State and Village 
Forests, and also either free or at reduced rates, whenever their 
houses are destroyed by fire. 



132 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


Area. 

Revenue* 


Wages. 


Grasses. 


Building 

stone. 


In times of scarcity, when grass cannot be had, people use the 
leaves of bans ( bamboo ), mango, mahud^ hahuh ptpal, khajur, 
etc., as fodder and all forests except a few special reserves are 
thrown open for grazing with the sole restriction that no trees are to 
be cut down. This was the course adopted in the famine of 1900. 

No system of cutting fire lines has been adopted. When, however, 
a forest catches fire, gangs of chamdrs and other people are at once 
despatched to put it out with branches of khajur, khdkra, and other 
trees. According to the forest regulations the zannnddrs of villages 
within three miles of a forest are bound to assist the Forest Department 
in extinguishing fire. In case of refusal or neglect to render necessary 
assistance, they are punishable in the Forest Officer’s Court with a 
fine not exceeding Ks. 50. 

The average area of the State Forest is nearly 138 square miles, 
and that of the Village Forest nearly 140 square miles. 

The average revenue realised between 1881 — 1890 was Rs. 5,300 , 
for 1891—1900 Rs. 6,270 ; for the last five years it has been ; 1900-01, 
Rs. 8,090; 1901-02, Rs. 8,030; 1902-03, Rs. 8,690; 1903-04, 
Rs. 8,860; and 1904-05, Rs. 8,900. The expenditure averages 
Rs. 6,550, 

The forest is mostly cut and cleared according to the coppice 
method. The selection method is also employed in some cases, In 
1901 a nursery of mahud, jamufit mango, shisham, shahiut^ and 
sdgwdn plants was started at Narsinghgarh town, The plants are 
used for roadside planting, 

Chamars and Saharias work in the forests. The rate of wages 
per man, woman, and child is 2 annas, 1 anna 6 pies, and 1 anna 
respectively. 

The grasses known as keh machari, punia, lampi ( Ohrysopogan 
acicularis)f and gundar ( Andropogon ) are used as fodder as well as 
for thatching purposes. The seeds of shdma ( Oplismcnus ) ^ grass 
are used as food by the poor people in time of famine as well as in 
ordinary years. Lampi and raunsa (Andropogan) and khajela arc 
used medicinally, oil being extracted from them. Dub {Cynodon 
dactylon ) grass is used as fodder and medicinally. 

About one-eighth of the total population depends upon forest pro- 
duce for its livelihood especially the lower classes, such as Chamars, 
Saharias, Kolis, Bhils, Pardis, etc. 

Section IV.— Mines and Minerals* 

(Table XIL) 

No valuable minerals have been found in the State. There are, 
however, building-stone quarries situated in the sandstone hills round 
Narsinghgarh town. 

1 Very similar, if not idontioal, with pankum frumc/U(iccu7n^ 



ARTS AND MANUFACTURE, 


133 


The quarries are divided into two classes : those which turn out 
pakka { hard stone sufficiently long for beams, etc. ) and those which 
turn out kachcha (softer) stone used for pillars, arches, and carved 
work. The number of the former class in work is 12 and of the latter 4. 

They are worked by the local stone-cutters. A royalty amounting 
to about Rs. 200 annually is collected by the forest department at 
the quarries, an export duty amounting to about Rs. 400 per annum 
being also levied. 

Section V.— Arts land Manufacture. 

( Table XI. ) 

No opium is manufactured here. The crude chik is exported 
mainly to Indore and in small quantities to Ujjain and Bhopal. 

Khddl cloth, tat-pattliCdS^oXs^newdr ond tape are prepared in the 
jail at Narsinghgarh on a small scale. Khddl cloth, tdt-paftles and 
newdr are also made in certain villages of the State but there is no 
export trade in these articles. Razdis (quilts), jdjams^ and other 
cloths are printed at Narsinghgarh, Bora, Pachor, Khujner, Sandaota, 
and Chhapera. The dyers at Narsinghgarh town are specially 
expert in dyeing sdfas and other cloths, in fine, light, and fast colours 
of various shades. Blankets of inferior quality are prepared in a 
few villages. 

The potters have now begun to turn out good bricks and tiles. 

Carpenters, blacksmiths, tailors, and shoemakers have made a 
distinct improvement in their respective arts. 

Very good lance shafts and walking sticks are prepared by the 
Kanderas at Narsinghgarh. These were formerly prepared from bam- 
boos produced in Narsinghgarh but now that the local supply of good 
bamboos is almost exhausted, they are prepared from bamboos import- 
ed from Banchhor in Bhopal State, 40 miles from Narsinghgarh. 

A ginning mill was opened at Pachor in 1895 A. D. by the Darbar 
and Seth Nazar AH Alabux of Ujjain. The total cost of starting 
the gin including buildings and machinery was about Rs. 50,000. 
The Narsinghgarh State withdrew from the concern during the 
Superintendency. The gin is worked by a 250 horse-power engine 
and contains 19 gins, and 9 permanent and 81 temporary hands are 
employed. It works for 8 months of the year at a cost of Rs. 5,600. 
In the four months’ slack season the upkeep costs Rs. 300. The 
current local impression is that the gin has deprived many families of 
their ordinary avocation at home, though it is not denied that a cer- 
tain number of labourers are employed in the factory every year 
during the cotton season, Pinjaras still employ women of different 
castes, who work with the charkhts or hand gins on a limited scale. 
The charkhl is said to turn out better binola or cotton seed for agri- 
cultural purpose than the ginning factory and fetches better price. 


Opium. 

Cloth. 


Pottery. 

Manual 

industries. 


Factory in- 
dustries. 



134 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


General 

Condition. 


Exports and 
imports. 


Centres of 
trade. 


Classes 
engaged in 
trade. 


As local labour is sufficient for the purposes of the ginning factory, 
there is no migration from neighbouring villages. The labourers 
earn from Rs. 5 to 6 per month. 

Section VI.— Commerce and Trade* 

Trade throughout the State as a whole has made no very marked 
advance of late years, and traders still rest satisfied with sending 
their raw materials to Indore and Ujjain, the chief centres of trade 
in Malwa, and occasionally to Cawnpore and Bombay. In recent 
years, however, there has been a marked improvement in trade both 
at the town of Narsinghgarh and in the districts. This improvement 
is mainly due to the opening of the Indian Midland Railway and the 
construction of the Sehore-Biaora feeder road, while the abolition of 
export and import duties on food-grains, the introduction of a uniform 
system of currency and of a uniform system of weights in place of old 
currency and measures, has assisted in fostering the growth of trade. 

Some merchants have made considerable fortunes in the grain 
trade which is the most extensive. Money is generally hoarded, as 
only those who lend money professionally place it out at interest, 
while little or none is invested in banks or in the purchase of promis- 
sory notes or other investments. The medium of exchange is the 
British kalddr rupee and Htmdts* Imperial Government currency 
notes are not very much used. 

The principal exports are crude opium, cotton, grain, 
rameli^ alsh poppy-seed, hemp, and jaggery ; the principal imports 
being groceries, salt, sugar, piece-goods, kerosine oil, metals, rice 
and grain. 

Crude opium is mostly exported to Indore, cotton and ghl to Bhopal, 
Ujjain, Indore, and Bombay, and oilseeds to Bombay, and grain to 
wherever there is demand for it. 

Grocery, salt, and metals are imported from Indore and cloths and 
sugar from Bombay. Grain is imported, whenever there is need 
for it, from the United Provinces, the Central Provinces, or the 
Punjab. 

There is no means available in the State for estimating the value 
of the exports and imports. 

The chief centres of trade in the State are Narsinghgarh town, 
Khujner, Pachor, Chhapera, Kurawar, Bora, and Sanclaota. 

The fairs held at Narsinghgarh, Bihar, Bhumka, and Pachor are 
principally cattle fairs. 

. The castes and classes engaged in trade are Banias of the Mcrat- 
wal, Mahesri, Bijawargi, Agarwal, and Oswal sections and Gujargaur 
Brahmans. These deal in grain, opium, and cotton chiclly. Bohon.u' 



COMMERCE AND TRADE. 


135 


( Shia Muhammadan ) deal in kerosine oil, grocery, cloths, and 
European wares. The proprietor of the cotton gin at Pachor is a 
Bohora. The MeratwM, Agarwal, and Oswal Banias also deal to some 
extent in grocery. 

The principal trade routes in the State are the Sehore-Biaora and Trade routes. 
Agra-Bombay roads and the road from Shujalpur station on the 
Indian Midland Railway to Pachor and from Pachor to Khujner, and 
from Khujner to Chhapera, the entire length of which is 42 miles. 

Carriage is chiefly by bullock carts ; but pack animals, bullocks, 
camels, and asses are sometimes employed. 

Shopkeepers are found in large villages only. They are usually Shop- 
Banias and generally deal in grocery and provisions in small quanti- 
ties and sell necessaries to villagers. They are both distributors 
and gatherers on a small scale, as they ’generally buy grain from the 
cultivators and sell it to big merchants or in the market towns. 

People in general have taken to using imported articles freely, Consumption, 
principally cloth, kerosine oil, sugar, glassware, metalware, and 
English and continental miscellaneous articles of every day use. 

Villagers generally purchase goods at the weekly markets. In 
villages in which there are shopkeepers, however, villagers purchase 
from them and not at the markets. Shopkeepers occasionally go 
round and visit small villages with their wares. 

A few big traders deal direct with the Bombay merchants through 
agents at Bombay. 

The number of capitalists in the State is 27, of whom 3 are Brah- Capitalists, 
mans, 3 Thakurs, 3 Muhammadans, and 18 Banias of the Oswal, 

Mahesri, and MeratwM clan. The usual practice for the capitalists 
here is to act at the same time as money lenders, bankers, and 
merchants. Of these capitalists 17 are generally supposed to have 
from Rs. 15,000 to Rs. 75,000 and 4 from Rs. 75,000 to Rs. 1,50,000 
and 6 over Rs. 1,50,000. The leading merchants of the State are 
local capitalists. 

Precious stones such as diamonds, emeralds, topaz, etc., are weighed weights 
by the alsi and rattl, the latter being 1 J times the weight of the ratti 
used in weighing gold, 20 alsls making one ratti and 64 rattis a Precious 
kaldar rupee, stones. 

Pearls are weighed by the ratti used for precious stones, but their Poarls. 
price is settled by chav. 

Precious metals, such as gold and silver, are weighed by the precious 
chdnval, ratti, mdsha^ and tola, and in larger quantities by chhatdks, metals, 
seers, and maunds like ordinary metals, such as brass, copper, etc. 



136 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


Avoirdupois. 


Measures of 
capacity. 


Capacity 
measures for 
other subs- 
tances. 


Measures by 
length. 


Measures by 
surface. 


Measures by 

cubic 

contents. 


The seer here is equal to 80 kaldar rupees in weight : 


8 chdnvals {grains of rice) = 
8 rattis = 

12 mdshas ~ 

5 tolas = 

16 chhatdks = 

40 seers = 

6 tnaunds = 

100 mants = 

100 mandsas = 


ratti 

mdsha 

tola 

chhatdk 
seer 
maund 
mdni 
1 mandsa 
1 kandsa 


Articles of bulk are weighed by seers^ tnaunds^ mdni^ mandsa, and 
kandsa. 

Alkali, cotton, drugs, spices, salt, sugar, etc., are sold by chhatdks^ 
seerSi matmds, etc, 

Kerosine oil and liquors are sold by the bottle. Milk and 
country oil are for convenience sold by measure, but these measures 
are based on the standard weight of the ordinary seer. 

Grain was formerly sold by a measure locally known as the pai* 
It contained 1 seer and 6 chhatdks of wheat, the quantity varying of 
course with different grains. It was generally made of brass and had 
a cylindrical shape. Its fractional measures were known as the 
adwai or udai, i, i pai and chauthia^ i. <?., i pau These measures 
have now been replaced by a uniform system of standard weights 
consisting of chhatdk, adpai ( 2 chhatdks ), pdo ( quarter seer or 4 
chhatdks), adhseer (half seer), seer, 3.nd panseri ( 5 seers) weights. 

In measuring cloth the yard, cubit, span, girah, and ajigul are 
used. The yard is equal to If cubits. Raw cotton and silk are always 
sold by weight. Manufactured goods, such as various Icinds of cloth, 
are sold by length generally and by number when more convenient. 
For goods sold by number the unit in ordinary use is the kori or 
score. 


People here do not generally understand surface measures hut the 
Engineering Department purchases stone slabs, and wood planks of 
uniform thickness by surface measure. The unit employed is the 
square foot. Beldars prepare kachcha (mud) walls by surface 
measure, the unit being a cubit square for which they generally 
charge one anna. 

Masonry is measured by cubic contents and the unit is 100 cubic 
feet, timber planks and stone slabs are also measured by cubic 
contents, the unit being 1 cubic foot. 

Earthwork is similarly measured, the unit being 1,000 cubic feet. 
Rubble stone used in buildings is purchased at a certain pric^^ per 
1,000 stones according to the dimensions and the quality of the stone. 



MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. 


137 


The State financial year commences from the 1st November. Moamrea of 
Bankers and traders, in general, commence their year from the first 
day after the Diwdli, which is celebrated on the fifteenth day of Kdrtik, 'vat ), 

( October-November ). The year so commenced is called the Umat- 
wari year. It is five months in advance of the Vikrama Samvat 
year. The era followed is the Vikrama Samvat commencing on Chait 
Sudi first { March ). 

Section VII-— Means of Communication. 

( Table XV. ) 

There are no railways within the State but one has been proposed Railways and 
from Bhilsa through Narsinghgarh to meet the new Nagda-Muttra eHects. 
line. 

Although no railway traverses in the State, the effect of the Bhopah 
Ujjain Railway was very noticeable during the late famine. In the 
early part of the famine the local traders, anticipating high prices 
elsewhere, exported large quantities of grain which they had stored 
up in previous years. Consequently in the latter part of the famine 
it was necessary to import grain. This was easily effected and there 
was never any danger of actual want of grain and although high 
prices had to be paid, there was always food available for distribution 
which prevented the general migration, a bad supply of grain always 
produces. 

Prices of grain, cotton, etc., have generally risen owing to the 
greater facility for export. The prices of American and Russian 
kerosine oil, European stores, fine cloth, and other articles from 
Bombay have generally fallen. 

No perceptible effect on language or religion is to be noticed. 

In 1891 there were only two metalled roads, the Agra-Bombay and Eoada 
the Sehore-Biaora, running through the territories of the State. The ^ 

State is now fairly well provided with means of communication. 

Besides the Sehore-Biaora road passing through the capital and the 
Agra-Bombay road which traverses the Pachor pargana and which 
both are Imperial, a new metalled road has recently been constructed 
by the Darbar from Pachor to Khujner, another from Shujalpur 
station on the Midland Section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway 
to Pachor which passes through the territories of Gwalior and Rajgarh, 
and a third from Khujner to Chhapera. The entire length of these 
roads from Shujalpur to Chhapera via Pachor and Khujner is 42 
miles. The portion of the Sehore-Biaora road running within the 
Rajgarh and Narsinghgarh territories from Hingoni Dak Bungalow to 
Biaora is 40 miles. The length of the Agra-Bombay road running 
within the Rajgarh and Narsinghgarh territories from Biaora to 
Sarangpur is 33 miles. 



138 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


CaTtB. 


Post and 
telep'raph 
( Table 
XXIX). 


Causes. 


Famine 

warnings. 


1899 — 1900 . 


The Sehore-Biaora and Agra-Bombay roads are kept in repair by 
the Imperial Public Works Department and the other roads by the 
State. Besides the above metalled roads, the country is well traversed 
by good unmetalled fair weather roads. The opening of Railways has 
to a great extent thrown the Agra-Bombay road into disuse except as 
a feeder. 

The prevalent pattern of country cart in the State is a two-wheeled 
vehicle with an iron axle, wooden spokes, and iron tyres. 

The old pattern which it has displaced was made with solid wheels 
with a wooden axle and iron tyres. The old pattern was better 
suited for kachcha ( fair weather ) roads. 

The present pattern is lighter and cheaper and well suited for 
metalled roads. 

There is a Sub Post Office at Narsinghgarh and Branch Post 
Offices at Pachor, Khujner, and Chhapera. All these are managed 
by the Imperial Postal Department. Telegraph Offices have been 
opened at Narsinghgarh and Pachor in combination with the Post 
Offices. 

Section VIII.— Famine. 

(Table XXX.) 

The chief causes of scarcity and famine in different parts of the State 
are short out-turn due to insufficient or excessive rainfall, damage by 
hail, locusts, rats, khoda ( rust), etc. Insufficient rainfall more often 
affects the Chhapera j^argana and the Patan subdivision of Khuj- 
ner, where the soil is of the patlon variety, while an excess of rain 
has a similar effect on the deeper soils of the Narsinghgarh, Pachor, 
and Khujner parganas* Jowdr and maize being the staple food 
grains of the poor, the out-turn of these crops is more important 
than that of wheat and other rahi crops. 

Cultivators believe in certain superstitions which they consider as 
warnings of famine such as the appearance of a comet, the setting of 
the moon before Hirni' on the Akhd-tlj night, etc. Scarcity or 
famine is said to have occurred in 1791, 1833, 1868, 1877, 1896, and 
1900. The famine of 1833 was due to excessive rain, the rest to a 
deficiency. There are no definite records however regarding any 
but the last. The Census Report of 1901 shows the population of the 
Narsinghgarh State to be 92,093. The reduction of 24,187 persons 
or 20 per cent, during the last decade was due to the effects of 
epidemics of choleVa, small-pox, and fever on a population already 
weakened by the famine. 

In the famine of 1899-1900 every effort was made to provide assist- 
ance, relief-works being opened and gratuitous relief given freely* 

' The llindu Constellation of tbe d<ier. 



FAMINE. 


139 


These relief measures cost the Darbar Rs. 1,12,302, the number 
coming on relief being 1,132,383 units of one day. A sum of 
Rs. 9,290 was also received from the Indian Famine Charitable 
Relief Fund. 

Although no cut and dried scheme is ready for adoption in case of Measares. 
future famines, a list of useful works that can be at once opened is 
kept ready. 

When all the crops fail kandur, khajur^ karonda^ plpcil^ bar, her, 
tendu, mahud, SQtnal, sdgwdn, jhejru, and gular fruits are used by 
the poor. 



CHAPTER III. 

ADMINISTBATIVS. 

Section I.—Administration. 

(Tables XVI.— XXVII.) 

General. Narsinghgarh is a mediatized and guaranteed Chiefship of the 

second class, and the Chief does not exercise the power of passing 
sentences of life and death. 

In civil and revenue matters, however, he exercises full powers. 
The Chief either exercises these powers personally or delegates them 
to a Minister wholly or in part. There is no Council in the State. 
The present Chief (1907), Raja Arjun Singh, being a minor is receiving 
training at the Imperial Cadet Corps at Dehra Dun and administra- 
tive authority is vested in a Superintendent who manages the 
State under the direction of the Political Agent in Bhopal. 
Departments. The principal departments of the administration are the Revenue 
and Settlement, Judicial, Accounts, Army, Police, Jail, Public 
Works, Forest, Customs otSdyaft Medical, Education, and Kdrkhdna 
(household, etc.). 

The various departments except the last are dealt with in detail 
further on. The last department known as the kdrkhdna^ is in 
charge of the Muhtamlm of kdrkhdna who manages miscellaneous 
sections, such as the sisbles, fUkhanat shufarkhdna, gaitshdla^ sileh- 
khdna^ etc. He also arranges for Darbars held in the State and for 
the reception of State visitors. 

Official The official language of the State is generally Hindi in which the 

aagua o, accounts and State correspondence are kept. Urdu and English are 
also used, the former in judicial proceedings and the latter in corres- 
ponding with the Political Agent's office. 

Administra- For administrative purposes the State is divided into 4 parganas or 
(Table Huzur with its headquarters at Narsinghgarh; the 
and Chapter Pachor tahsll with its headquarters at Pachor ; Khujner iahsil with 
its headquarters at Khujner and the Chhapera kihsU with its 
headquarters at Chhapera. 

In regard to size and revenue the tahsUs would stand in the order 
Khujner, Narsinghgarh, Pachor, and Chhapera, 

The district staff in each tahsll consists of the tahsilddr who is 
the chief revenue officer and magistrate, a ndib tahsilddr who assists 
the tahsilddr in revenue matters, and in exceptional cases in the 
magisterial work of the district, a khamnchi or treasurer who keeps 
the revenue accounts as well as cash, a sarishteddr who is in charge 
of the tahsll office and the usual staff of clerks and sul ordirate 



ADMINISTRATION. 


141 


revenue officers and menials. Besides the above, there are subordi- 
nates of the Police, the sdyar^ and the Public Works department 
in each tahsll. 

The internal affairs of a village are controlled by the pateh patwdru 
Balai and the Bhil or gashtu 

The patel or as he is sometimes called the zamtnddr is the Village auto- 
person charged by the State with the duty of managing the village, 

Upon him rests the duty of keeping the village in a flourishing 
condition, and he is also responsible for, the regular payment of the 
land revenue. In consideration of the duties thus imposed upon him, 
the patel gets a grant of revenue free-land, varying from 10 to 50 
btghas on which he pays half the rent only. Such land is known as 
pateli higha or adh'-amli hlgha. He has, moreover, authority to spend 
a certain sum known as the gdon kharch or village expenses and 
any balance standing over from the sum at the end of the year is 
retained by him. Manure belonging to such villagers as do not culti- 
vate any land also belongs to him. The duties of protecting the 
boundary against encroachment and of preventing and reporting crime 
rest upon him. The paiwdTts are the village accountants and 
record-keepers. Their records contain every circumstance relative 
to the revenue, measurement and allotment of the land and village 
rights. Formerly, they were authorised to levy a cess called ddml 
of 4 per cent, on revenue collections of their respective villages and 
enjoyed several other minor rights and perquisites from cultivators 
at the gathering in of the various crops, such as a share of the sugar- 
cane and opium produce. Some pcitwaris hold mudfi lands. The 
patwdrl is generally a member of the village panchdyat. The 
Darbar now recovers the ddml as a cess and pays the patwdns out 
of it. Their other rights and perquisites have J)een abolished 
excepting the mudfi lands. The Balai though of low caste is an 
important factor in the village community. He is paid by a grant of 
land on a nominal rent, and receives a small share from the produce 
of the village. He reports all improper transactions and offences 
that take place in the village. These reports were formerly made 
to the patel but are now made to the police. He guides travellers 
through his limits and carries all messages and the baggage of State 
officials according to the direction of the pateL He also arranges for 
the rasad or supplies if any person visits his village. The Bhil or 
gashti is the village watchman. He watches the crops and is also 
public guide and messenger. As village watchman, he keeps watch at 
night, observes all arrivals and departures and as a subordinate of the 
Police he is expected to be informed of the character of every indivi- 
dual in the village, and to help the regular Police in tracing crimes 
committed in the village. He either holds land on which he pays a 
nominal rent or is paid by share of produce of the village fields. 



142 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


Other members of the community are the village artisan, the 
carpenter, blacksmith, and Chamar, and village servants, such as the 
barber and waterman- These are paid customary and fixed wages in 
kind at harvest time. 

Formerly every village used to have its own panchayat where all 
petty transactions of a civil and criminal nature were decided# In 
serious cases they used to report their decisions to the Darbar and if 
the Darbar thought proper to interfere it used to take up the cases 
and decide them. But since the establishment of the organised 
Police and regular criminal courts, all criminal cases big and small 
are reported to the Police and decided by the magistrate. As regards 
civil cases the village panchayats still try to settle them privately and 
amicably, and only when the parties are not satisfied with their 
decisions do they have recourse to law courts. 

The pafeltpatwdrlf and two or three other respectable and intelli- 
gent persons of the village form the panchdyat. 

The village officials and artisans thus continue to carry on their 
functions as of old, except the patwdri who now partakes more of 
the nature of a State servant than a village official. 

Sectionll*— Law and Justice- 
(Tables XVI and XVII.) 

Sarly days. Before the advent of the British, in the days of Rajput, Muham- 
madan and the Maratha rule, the panchdyat system for dispensing 
justice prevailed everywhere. These panchayats were of two kinds, 
generally in petty disputes the two parties referred the matter to 
panchayats of their own selection and bound themselves to abide 
by their decision. 

The second kind of panchdyat consisted of panchas selected by 
the State. Such panchayats generally consisted of five public 
functionaries, the zaminddr and the kdnungo. The more impor- 
tant cases which could not be privately and amicably settled were 
referred to this panchdyat by the Darbar. The panchas delivered 
their opinion and the Darbar declared its decision in accordance with 
their opinion or rejected it, and passed its own orders* The Chief 
was the final arbiter in all civil as well as criminal matters. Capital 
punishment was very rare, even in cases of murder, compensation in 



LAW AND JUSTICE. 


143 


money being usually taken. In the three upper castes a murderer 
would invariably escape on paying compensation to the relatives of 
the murdered man, but in the case of lower classes capital punishment 
was at time's inflicted, A thief generally escaped with a fine. 

No special body or official is appointed by the State for the purpose Present 
of framing laws and regulations. The Chief issues circulars on the LegisTatiou. 
procedure of courts, or regulating the conduct of any department, as 
he thinks fit, after consulting the head of the department and the 
Minister. 

Proper civil and criminal courts were established and powers 
assigned to them in 1884. 

Among the more important circulars issued, are a circular regard- 
ing court fees, amending the previous circular of 1887, passed in 
1898 ; a circular regarding limitation of suits for moveable and 
immoveable property passed in 1898 ; an arms circular for the regu- 
lation of the use and possession of fire-arms introduced in 1899 ; a 
circular prohibiting State servants from engaging in trade in the 
State, passed in 1901 ; and a set of forest rules framed by the State 
and sanctioned by the Political Agent and enforced in 1902. 

Certain rules restricting promiscuous sale of opium in the State 
were framed on the lines of the rules in force in the Indore State and 
after being approved by the Political Agent were promulgated 
in 1903. 

The system of administration of civil and criminal justice in force Codes, 
in all the Courts of the State is that founded on the Civil and Criminal 
Procedure Codes and Indian Penal Code of British India. 

The following British India Acts are used in the State courts : — 

The Indian Penal Code, the Criminal Procedure Code, the Police Act, 
the Civil Procedure Code in its main principles with adaptations to 
suit local usage, and the Evidence Act. 

When exercising powers, the Chief has full and final power in all Powers, 
civil suits, but in criminal cases he ordinarily exercises powers simi- 
lar to those of a Sessions Judge in British India, but submits all 
heinous offences for trial by the Political Agent. The Superinten- 
dent is at present the principal judicial authority. The Chief usually 
delegates his civil powers to the Dlwan^ acting himself only as a 
court of appeal; but in criminal matters, serious cases are committed 



144 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


to his court. The powers of existing courts are detailed in the state* 
ment given below : — 




POWJERS. 

No. 

Name of the Court. 

Criminal. 

Civil. 

1 

The Superintendent’s 

Court. 

District Magistrate 
with special po- 
wers under Sec- 
tion 30, Criminal 
Procedure Code. 

Suits of unlimit- 
ed value and 
appeals up to 
Ks. 1,000. 

2 

The Kazim’fl Court* ... 

First Class Magistra- 
te with additional 
powers specified in 
Schedule IV of the 
Criminal Procedure 
Code, 


3 

4 

The Civil Judge’s 

Court. 

The Tahsildar of Nar- 
singhgarh’s Court. 

Second Class Ma- 
gistrate, 

Suits up to Es. 
1,000 and ap- 
peals up to Rs. 
BOO. 

Civil suits up to 
Rs. 100. 

6 

The Tahsildar of 

Pachor’s Court. 

Do, 

Do. 

6 

The Tahsildar of 

Khujner’s Court. ! 

Do, 

Do. 

V 

The Tahsildar of 

Ohhapera’s Court. 

Third Class Ma- 
gistrate. 

Suits up to 

Rs; 60. 

8 

The Naih Tahsildar of 
Khujnor’s Court. 

Do. 

Do. 

9 

The Forest Officer’s 
Court, 

Do. 

Vil 

10 

The Kamdar of Bhat* 
khera’s Court. 

Do. 

Suits up to 

Rs. 60. 

11 

The Manager of Tori’s 
Court. 

Do. 

mi. 


Rehiabks. 


the powers 
of this Court 
and final 
appeals lie 
to the Poli- 
tical Ageat 
at Bhopal 


Most of the courts in the State are also endowed with revenue 
powers. 

General cost possible to give the general cost of the establishment, as 

of the esta- the same staff does both the works, but the annual cost of the two 
blishment, purely judicial courts is about Rs. 3,700 per annum. 

The value of property litigated about, in 1905 was Rs. 25,548-3-S# 
Nine pies per rupee is the court-fee charged in all courts. 



FAMINE 


145 


Witnesses are required to make statements in the name of the 
deity specially worshipped by their family or caste, There Is no 
form of oath peculiar to the State. 

Section III.— Finance, 

(Tables XVIII and XIX, ) 

There are no records available which give any details of the Syetem. 
system pursued in early days. From enquiries, however, it appears 
that the revenue was collected on the hatdi system, the Darbar 
taking a certain share of the cultivator’s produce. This system was 
subsequently replaced by a system of payment In cash which 
continues to the present day. 

The accounts of the State are kept in Hindi and written In the Acooimta 
old style in hahi khdta (Ledger), A regular account of receipts for 
tlie whole State is kept in Daftar Mat (head revenue office) and the 
accounts office which both check tahsllddrs* accounts. As regards 
expenditure, the head of the department which incurs the expenditure 
and the State accountant check the accounts, payment being made 
by the order of the Superintendent on a report from the accountant. 

All receipts and expenditure are controlled by the' budget allot- Control, 
ments which are framed by the Superintendent and approved by tha 
Political Agent annually before the commencement of the financial 
year, Monthly, quarterly, and yearly returns of the actual receipts 
and expenditure are submitted. 

The normal revenue amounts to about 5 lakhs, of which 3*3 lakhs Sources of 
aro derived from land revenue, Rs. 36,000 from customs, Rs. 5,000 *'®venuo and 
from excise, Rs. 12,000 from dues on opium. The normal expen- (Tables XVIU 
diture is about 4'3 lakhs, 1 lakh on general administration, 

Rs. 12,703 on Chiefs establishment, and Rs. 58,600 in tribute. 

There have been no marked changes under any heads of receipts 
except land revenue, the increase under this head being due merely 
to improved methods of administration. 

As regards expenditure there has been a considerable decrease 
since the State came under superintendence, under the heads of 
dharmdda or charily, palace, army, and kdrhhdna, and an increase 
under general administration, law and justice, land revenue, 
forest, police, and public works. The decrease under dharmdda is 
due to economical and methodical management, under palace, 
mainly to the minority of the Chief, under army, to reduction in its 
strength, and under kdrkhdna^ to general reduction in its various 
sections. 

The increase under general administration, law and justice, land 
mvenue, forest and police, js due to the fact thatlall those departments 



Financial 

poxitiuu. 


coinage. 


Oeneral* 


146 NARSINGHGARH STATE, 

have now been reorganised and put on a proper footing. The increase 
under Public Works department is due to the allotment of large 
sums for the construction of works of public utility and to the 
introduction of an efficient staff. 

In 1819 the revenues of the State amounted to only about 
Rs. 60,000 a year, by 1824 they had risen to one lakh. 

The financial position of the State has improved materially since 
it came under superintendence. When the State came under super- 
vision in 1896, there was a cash balance of about Rs. 30,000 in the 
State treasury, the debts amounting to Rs. 85,000. The debt has 
been cleared off and the Darbar now holds Government promissory 
notes of the nominal value of 2*38 lakhs, while the cash balance 
in the treasury (1906) amounts to over a lakh of rupees. -In addi- 
tion to the debt mentioned above the Darbar has had to pav regu- 
larly to the Indore Darbar a sum of Dritish rupees 58,577-0-1 
every year as tribute, and also to cope with the severe famine of 
1899-1900 followed by several years of poor harvest. It has also 
capitalised its subscription to the Sehore High School for Rs. 19,000, 
has completed a fresh revenue settlement, reorganised its courts and 
police, and constructed a large number of useful and important 
public works at the capital and in the districts. 

The State never had a currency of its own. Bhopali rupees and 
Hali coins of Indore and Ujjain were in general use till 1897, when 
the British currency was introduced. 

Under Instructions from Major Newmarch, Political Agent In 
Bhopal, in June, 1897, an Ishtihdrwas issued by the State notifying 
that from the 15th July, 1897, the British rupee and its fractional 
coins would be the sole legal tender in the State. This conversion 
was effected by the imposition of an import tax of 20 per cent, on 
the old silver coin, by the payment of all salaries in British coin, and 
the use of this coin in ail State accounts, and by receiving the 
payment of the land revenue at a rate of 110 Bhopali rupees equal 
to 100 British. From 20th February, 1898, all rupees other than the 
British rupees ceased to be legal tender and were received only for 
their silver value. 

The result of all these proceedings was so satisfactory that the 
Darbar was able to announce in the Annual Administration Report 
for 1897-98 that the British rupees had thoroughly replaced local 
currencies, 

Seotlon IV.— Land Revenue. 

( Table XX. ) 

The Chief is the sole owner of the soil, cultivators having no 
heritable or transferable interest in the land they cultivate, and lliu 

I Iviuivalent to the uibute al ^;5,ooo iDulim .^hahi ru^^ecii payubU: under 
guarantee. 



LAND REVENUE. 


147 


sums paid over by them to the Darbar arc thus, in accordance with 
official phraseology revenue and not rent. For any improvements 
effected on the land by them, they get no return beyond immunity 
from payment at full rates for a ceitain number of years guaranteed 
under the Papiras rules. So long as the revenue is paid regularly 
and the liability for any arrears that may be due is acknowledged, 
possession remains undistuibcd. If a cultivator leaves a village the 
land cultivated by him is given to another. If he returns he cannot 
claim the land as a” right even if he had built wells or otherwise 
improved it. Revenue is paid on all land held at the time of the 
settlement, even though portions of it may have fallen out of 
cultivation in subsequent years. The proprietary right of the State 
is considered so sacred that even muafklars and ja^trdars cannot 
alienate their lands. Formerly, the mudfiddrs used to mortgage 
their lands in satisfaction of debts but this they arc now unable to 
do under the order passed by the Political Agent in 1899. Ihe 
jdgtrddfs have only the right to collect the revenue from their jdgir 
villages, and thus arc simply assignees of the revenue. All other 
rights such as the right to hear civil and criminal suits, recovery 
of sdyar duties and the right to unclaimed property and control of 
the Abkariare vested in the Darbar. Theicrglrs being the gift of the 
Chief, all successions and adoptions arc made with his approval, and 
under his orders and a circular has been issued intimating that no 
jdgtrdar will be recognised as such unless and until his succession 
or appointment has received the sanction of the Chief. 

The rule is that on the death of Taiy jdg^rddr whether he has 
direct heirs or not, iho jdgtr, ipso facto, comes under the managemont 
of the nearest tahsllddr until a new jdgtrddr has been recognised 
by the Stale. 

The State villages arc managed cither under khdlsa management 
or on mustdjiri* 

Under hhdisd management if the paid and the cultivators of a 
village have sound credit they pay the revenue direct to the tahsllddr* 
Those who have not good credit obtain f 7 iafioiiddrs wdio stand 
security for the assdmis^ becoming personally responsible to the 
tahsllddr for the revenue demand of the village. The vtanoiiddrs 
recover the assessed revenue from the cultivators and also interest 
and Chitthdwan ; and Hunddwan is levied from the manoiiddr by the 
State. Chitlhdwan is so called from its being recovered from the 
cultivator by the manoiiddr when ho presents the Darbar with the 
chifht or bond making him responsible for the revenue demand. 
This is levied at from 1 to 2 per cent, on the amount dealt with in 
the chithu Hunddxoan is a premium levied by the Darbar from the 
manoiiddr whenever be pays by hundi and not in cash. 



148 


' NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


At the time of a new or a revisional settlement when the amount 
of the demand has been fixed, the patels and tnustajirs are called 
on to make offers for the leases* When an offer is accepted a patta 
is given for the period of the Settlement and a kabuliat taken from 
the lease-holder. 

During the continuance of the Settlement the State demand Is 
limited to the figure entered in the patta. Profits accruing from 
improvements or the reclamation of waste areas made during the 
period of a Settlement go to the tnusfajir. The rates fixed at a 
Settlement cannot be raised or lowered by the f7iustaj%t, 

4 

Concessions. Certain rules known as the Pagras rules regulate the rates to be 
taken from land newly brought under cultivation, or land brought 
under irrigation by the construction of new wells or orhts. Full 
rates are not levied on such lands for a certain number of years. 
If the mustajir is the patel of the village he has a further right to 
what remains over of the gaon-kharch^ money allowed to him for 
defraying the usual village expenses. The State considers the 
mustajir responsible for the proper management of the village during 
the period of his lease. The basis of the existing assessment is the 
crop bearing power of the land and the possibility of irrigating 
and manuring it. 

Scttieraenis Three revenue Settlements have taken place In Samvat 1922-23 
( abe ( 1865-66 A. D.), 1932-33 ( 1875-76 A. D.). and 1942-43 (1885-86 
A. D.) each for a period of 10 years. The period of the third 
Settlement expired in 1896 but no fresh Settlement was made 
owing to the unreliability of the village records, and the Settlement 
of 1885 A, D. was continued, the figure for the land revenue 
demand being that of the last year of the Settlement of 1885. Since 
the famine of 1899-1900, villages whose condition had deteriorated, 
have been given out on the old ijdra or farm system, progressively 
increasing rates being levied. This system was resorted to owing to 
the deterioration of the villages by shortage of men and cattle 
caused by the famine of 1900, 

In the case of the villages in which new land has been brought 
under cultivation, in excess of the area covered by the pattas of 1886, 
an extra lump sum is added for such land in the paru^dnas issued 
to the tahsilddrs. This demand on naudhdd ( newly broken ) lands 
is only approximate and the recoveries are made with leniency. 

Surveys. The Survey ( only of the area under cultivation ) for the Settlement 
of 1865-66 A. D. was made with a hemp string chiiin measuring 
58i yards of 34ii inches each and assessment was made at the 
following rates in accordance with the quality of the soil ; - . 



LAKt> REVENUE. 


149 


Latid producing — 

1. Maize and opium in succession per htgha 

2. Sugarcane ... ... ... n 

3. Wheat or gram m 

4. Rice and in succession... ,, 

5. Jowdr or cotton ... n 

6. Rice alone 

7. Fallow fields 


Rs. Rs. 
3- 0 to 13-0 

6- 0 I) 12-0 

0-12 ,» M2 
2 - 8 „ 5 - 0 
0-12 „ M2 
2- 0 „ 4- 0 
Nil 


First Reltle- 
ment, 1865. 


The demand was progressive at a rate of 1 to 2 per cent, yearly 
up to ten years. In the Patan sub-division of the Khujner tahsll 
which contains many small villages and an inferior class of soil lower 
rates were assigned. 


On the expiry of this Settlement no fresh survey was made but Second 
leases were granted in most cases at the rates current in the last year 
of the previous Settlement ( Samvat 1932). At the same time 
enhanced rates were levied on villages which had been improved. 

The enhancement, however, was not made on any fixed principle, 
a lump sum being added. 


In Samvat 1943 the old jarib survey was abandoned and at the Third Settle 
request of the paiels and agriculturists the Rajgarh chain and land 
rates were adopted. The Rajgarh chain measured 58jf yards of 
36 inches each, the rates being fixed as follow ; — 


Land producing — 



per 

hlgha. 

Rs. 

1. 

Maize and opium In succession... 

tf 

8-0 

2. 

Sugarcane... 

M 

10-0 

3. 

Wheat or gram 

tt 

2-0 

4. 

Jowdr or cotton 

■■ 1 

1-4 

to 

5. 

Rice and masur In succession ... 

1 

1) 

M2 

6-0 

6. 

Rice alone 


3-0 

7. 

Vegetables or garden land 

»> 

8-0 

8. 

Wheat or gram on irrigated land 

»f 

5-0 

9. 

Colton on irrigated land 

If 

4-0 

10. 

Lands attached to a Well but not 
irrigated by it ... 

II 

3-0 

11. 

Masur alone ... 

M 

2-8 

12. 

Opium alone 

l> 

5-0 

13. 

Sugarcane and opium together ... 

t» 

5-0 

14. 

Plemp and opium... 

II 

5-0 

IS. 

Maize and tobacco in succession 

II 

8-0 

16. 

Maize alone 

II 

3-0 

17. 

Newly fallow imirrigated lands... 

It 

M2 

18. 

Newly fallow irrigated 

tl 

5-0 



ISO 


NARSINGHGARH STATE, 


These rates were uniform and did not vary with the quality of the 
soil. But the soil of the Khujner and Chhapera parganas being 
richer than the soil In the Narsinghgarh and Pachor parganaSy the 
incidence of the new assessment told more heavily on the Narsingh- 
garh and Pachor parganas than on Khujner and Chhapera. After 
careful consideration of the circumstances of the case, the demand 
on the Khujner and Chhapera villages \vas, therefore, enhanced, while 
some reduction was granted in the case of the villages of the 
Narsinghgarh and Pachor When this had been settled an 

increase at the rate of one anna per rupee was made on the total 
demand in accordance with the practice in force in the Rajgarh State. 
Ill spite of this increase the total demand for the whole Stp-te was 
found to fall short of the figure at the previous assessment. Thereupon 
with the concurrence of the patels a further increase of half an anna 
per rupee was made and pattas ( leases ) w^ere given for a period 
of 10 years expiring in Samvat 1952-53 (1896). 

Other changes were also introduced at this Settlement. PTalf an 
anna per rupee which used to be recovered as the difference in 
exchange between Hdli and Bhopali coin was discontinued ; a school 
and hospital cess at As. 8 per cent, of the revenue demand was 
introduced, the hhent due of Rs. 9, which used to be recovered from 
every village of the Stale, was replaced by one of from Rs. 4 to 
Rs. 8 levied in proportion to the revenue of the village and the 
daffar-mdl or office cess of Rs. 4 per village was abolished. The 
rules and principles adopted at this assessment were in force till 
1906. The new settlement (1907) has changed them altogether, 

Kalmat^ hhumaty and patlon soil are met with in all the four 
pargaiias of the State, Unirrigated patlon soil, whatever the crops 
on it, is assessed at Rs. 1-4-0, Bhopali rupee per blgha^ while unirri- 
gated deep black soil is assessed at from Rs. 1-12-0 to Rs. 2 per blgha 
according as it grows joxt'dr and cotton or wheat and gram. No 
distinction of the quality of soil is observed in assessing irrigated 
crops which are assessed for single crop land at Rs. 3 to Rs. 5 per 
blgha and for double crop land at Rs. 6 to Rs. 8 per blgha. 

The revenue is realized in two instalments of As. 12 and 
As. 4 which fall due on the last day of Kdrtik (November) and 
the last day ol Chaii (March), respectively. It is recovered in cash, 
never in kind. In hh disci villages where there is no manotlcldry if 
there is any doubt regarding the punctual payment of the revenue 
by the cultivators, the tahslUidr arranges to keep a watch over the 
crops and recovers the State dues by compelling the cullivators to 
dispose of the produce, and pay the revenue deniaxid. 

Where there is a manotlddry he is responsible for the contract 
payment Where the village is given on miistdjiri tenure^ the 



LAND REVENUE. 


151 


nwstajir gives security for the payment of the revenue. When 
a mustajit cannot pay or produce a surety, his property is liable to 
attachment. If this is not sufficient, the tahsilddr deals with the 
mtistdjiri village lands in the same manner as with the khdlsd 
village lands, keeping a watch over the crops of the village and 
realising the revenue by disposing of the produce. 

The previous method of collecting revenue was more centralised C'^Uectioa 
than the present one, in as much as under it the mustdjirs and 
manotlddrs throughout the State assembled at the capital together 
with their respective tahsilddrs on the Kdrtik Sudi 30 (the commence- 
ment of the local financial year) and the Revenue Office after the 
settlement of their previous year’s accounts issued panvdnas to the 
different manotlddrs for the payment of the current year’s revenue 
for which they gave a kahuliat to the said office. All this is now 
done away with, and the tahsilddr s receive the agreements from, and 
issue parwdnas to, the manotlddrs^ direct. 

The incidence of the land revenue in ordinary years is not at all inoidoncc, 
heavy. Taking good and bad years together the incidence amounts to 
nearly one-third of the net profits of the agriculturist. 

Ordinarily the agriculturist can lay by enough provisions to 
stand one famine, but in a rapid succession of scarcities and 
famines he cannot withstand. The incidence amounts at present to 
Rs. 3-2-0 per acre of cultivated land and Re. 1-2-0 per acre on the 
total area* 

Suspension and remission of land revenue are freely 
when the agriculturist is really unable to pay the demand. During 
the famine of 1899-1900 only As. 8 (50 per cent.) of the total 
revenue wore collected and the demand of the other half was 
suspended. In the year 1901 some villages were visited by a severe 
hailstorm and the agriculturists were unable either to maintain 
themselves or pay the revenue, and remissions were granted 
amounting to Ks. 7,577, 

The State revenue is realised in cash. Payment in kind, however, 
still survives between the cultivators and the manotlddrs and 
tnustdjirs who to a certain extent recover the revenue in grain, etc* 

To guard agriculturists against oppression by the mustdjir or manoft- 
ddr, the rates of crops taken as payment in kind, are settled by the 
iahsilddrs in accordance with the current market rates having due 
regard to local facilities for the export and disposal of the grain. 

A cadastral survey’^of the whole State with a view to revision of gyg. 

Settlement has been made, and the Revenue Settlement just tem. 

(1907) completed has been made for 15 years (Samvat 1964 to 1978) 
and leases to individual cultivators have been given on the Ryotwari 



152 


KARSINGHGARH STATE, 


Castoms. 


Opium* 


system.’*' This is a departure from the old system under which settle- 
ment was made for 10 years and whole villages were leased outto' 
miistdjirs. The revenue will now be realised direct from the cultiva- 
tors' and not through mustdjirs and manoiiddrs (bankers) as was 
hitherto done. 15th of February and 15th of May are the dates by 
which the revenue must be paid in by the cultivators according to 
the instalments fixed and noted in each individual lease. 

Section V.— Miscellaneous Revenue. 

(Table XXL) 

The only Important sources of miscellaneous revenue are the- 
Customs or sdyar duties and Excise or ahkdri. 

For Customs arrangements the State is divided into 32 ndkas or 
circles, each ndka being under a ndkdddi^ who has generally from 
12 to 15 villages in his charge. It is his duty to visit these villages, 
daily and see that no dutiable articles escape duty, and to pay his. 
collections to the chabutra or circle office to which he is attached, 
every month. There are two chabutras in the State, one at Khujner 
and the other at Narsinghgarh. 

A mukhtdr at each chabutra supervises the work of the wd/ea- 
ddrs under him and receives their monthly accounts, while the 
muhatamim of sdyar is in charge of the whole department. 

In khdlsd villages without manoiiddrs the agriculturists sell' 
their opium to traders and pay tlreir revenue. In the case of villages 
under manoiiddrs and mustdjirs it is the manoiiddrs and’ mustdjirs 
who collect the opium and send it in gunny bags to Indbre, usually 
giving Hundls to the State on [their agents at Indore in payment of 
the revenue and dues, the money realised being credited to their 
accounts in the tahsll and the treasury. All opium is exported as* 
chlk. The plant is cultivated in all the parganas^ land growing 
poppy paying revenue at Rs. 8 per acre on the average. 

The average number of acres under opium cultivation for the 
7 years from 1884 to 1890 was 9,900 acres axid for 10 years from 
1891 to 1900, 7,500 acres, the actuals in the last seven years being 
1900-1901, 6,967; 1901-1902,7,043; 1902-03, 5,090; 1903-04, 5,187; 
1904-05, 5,696; 1905-06, 2,193; and 1906-07, '7, 742. 

One acre will produce 6 seers (12 lbs.) of chlk. The chik or crude 
opium produced is weighed by a weighman in the presence of the 
patel and patwdri, the amount being registered and reported by 
the latter to the tahsllddr and muhatamim of sdyar before it is 
exported. 

The average number of gunny bags of opium (each containing 
100 seers ) exported from the State every year is (jstinuiled at about 
450, the gross average value being about Rs, 2,‘10Jl00» 



MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE. 


153 


The State levies an export duty on crude opium at the rate of 
Rs. l'7-6 per dharl of 5 seers including the biai or weighing tax. 
The proceeds average Rs. 10,000 per annum. An import duty of 
As. 12 per dharl is also levied. 

The amount exported between 1890-1900 averaged 1,200 maunds 
a year, the actual figures being for 1900-01, 912 maunds, 1901-02 
1,087, 1902-03, 1,347, 1903-04, 848, 1904-05, 299, 1905-06,583, 
and 1906-07, 1,024 About 30 maunds are consumed locally. 

The cultivation of opium is popular both with the State and the 
cultivator. With the former, because in ordinary years it provides a 
sure and easy means of realising the revenue demand, and with the 
latter, because a small area sown with poppy suffices to pay the 
revenue, while the grain produced in his fields remains for the 
maintenance of himself and his family. On the other hand, the 
poppy plant is delicate and the least excess of heat or cold destroys it 
In recent years the irregularity of seasons, the deficiency of the water, 
supply for irrigation, and the great fall in prices, as compared with 
fifteen years back, have caused a decrease in the area sown of nearly 
50 per cent. The annexed statement gives the acreage and estimated 
outturn since 1884: — 



Estimated Area 

1 





Cultivated. 

Estimated Outturn. 


Remarks: 

Years. 







Acre. 

Hood. 

Maunds. 

Seers. 

Ohliatak. 


1884 ... 

11,569 1 ... 

3,630 

10 

12 



1885 ... 

10,286 


1,783 

1 

8 



1886 ... 

9,578 


1,213 

11 



Average from 

1887 ... 

9,258 


1,502 

2 


y JSb-li to 1890 
.r is 9,900 acres 

1888 ... 

10,542 


1,687 

28 


1 sown and 1,600 

1889 ... 

7,476 


1,196 

4 


I maunds produ- 

1890 ... 

10,547 


1,687 

20 



ced. 

1891 ... 

8,609 


1,377 

20 




1892 ... 

7,866 


928 

38 




1893 ... 

8,106 


972 

27 




1894 ... 


... 

* • • 



Figures not avai- 

1895 ... 

10,785 


1,087 

20 



Irible. 

1896 ... 

10,487 


1,586 

10 




1897 ... 

1898 ... 

6,476 

7,478 


844 

934 

36 

30 

12 

8 


Average from 

1891 to 1900 is 

1899 ... 

6,780 


847 

21 

. * . 

r 7,500 acres 

1900 ... 

818 


78 

1 

8 


sown and 960 

1901 ... 

6,967 


859 

32 

■ • • 


maunds pro- 
duced. 

1902 ... 

7,043 


1,215 

8 

... 


1903 ... 

5,090 


840 

22 

. . . 



1904 ... 

5,187 


830 

... 

. . . 



1905 ... 

5,696 


655 

28 

. . . 

1 


1906 ... 

2,193 


329 

... 

. . . 

1 


1907 ... 

7,742 


1,161 


... 













154 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


Other drugs 


Liquor. 


Balt. 


Customs, 


The fall in the average produce per acre is noticeable. It was 
6 seers for the 7 years ending 1890, 5 seers for the 8 years ending 
1899, 3f seers for 1900, and less than 5 seers for 1901, 

No hemp is cultivated in the State. An import duty of As. 5 
per maund is levied on gdnja, and of As. 10 .on bhang. No 
charas is consumed. The average amount imported is 9 maunds of 
gdnja and 2 of bhang which are obtained from Indore, Bhopal, and 
Sehore. The right to vend is sold by auction, bringing in Rs. 30 
annually. Gdnja is retailed at 7 chhatdks to the rupee and hhdng 
at 4 seers to the rupee, but the price is not fixed by the State. 

The only liquor consumed is that made from mahud flowers. 
Two systems of liquor contract are in force. At Narsinghgarh Town 
liquor is issued from a central distillery, managed by the Darbar, but 
in the parganas separate contracts are farmed out to local kaldls 
who are grouped in circles. The right of manufacture and vend go 
together. The liquor is of two qualities 60° under proof and 38° 
under proof, which are sold in the town at Rs. 1*2-0 and Rs. 3 per 
gallon, respectively. The district contractors sell at cheaper rate. 
No direct duties are levied on the liquor, As, 3 per maund of 
flower and 3 pies weighing tax per rupee’s worth sold are levied on 
flowers brought from outside ; on local mahud flowers only the latter 
duty is paid. District contractors pay Rs, 2 annually. The 
retail shops number 81 or 1 shop to 9 square miles and 1,137 persons. 
At Narsinghgarh Towm the mohatamim of Abkari controls the 
arrangements and in the parganas the tahsllddrs. The revenue 
from this source is about Rs, 7,000 per annum. 

Very small quantities of other liquors are consumed and no rest- 
rictions are imposed on them* 

In 1880 the State abolished all transit {rdhddri) duties on salt 
passing through its territories and received as compensation from 
British Government 150 maunds of salt annually to be delivered at 
Indore free of cost. In 1881 this compensation, in common with 
similar payments in kind made to other States, was commuted to an 
annual money payment of Rs. 618-12-0. 

Up to 1890 the sdyar was given out on contract and even till 
as late as 1900 the taxes imposed were burdensome and complicated* 

The old sdyar {dasfur-uhamal) or customs m\es of 1878 were 
revised in 1900 by which exports and imports of grain were exempted 
from duty and the duties levied on different articles of merchandise 
were altered, with a view to raise the duty on those articles which 
were generally used by the rich and to reduce it on the articles used 
by the poor. A weighing tax ( biai) was also introduced which has 
led to an increase of revenue under sdyar. In 1884 the State 



ARMY. 


ISS 


abolished all transit duties within its territory with the exception 
of those on opium. 

There is no Stamp Act in force either as regards State or private Stamp, 
transactions, but the judicial courts in the State realize court-fees 
from stamped paper, the revenue from stamps sold being about 
Rs. 1,400 a year. 

Section VI.— Public Works. 

A regular Public Works Department dates from the establishment Matiagement. 
of the superintendency in 1896. The department is in the charge of 
the State Engineer. All local works are carried out by the department 
under the orders of the Superintendent after plans and estimates 
have been approved by the Political Agent. 

The chief original works carried out during the last sixteen years Works?, 
ending 1906 are the new palace at the fort at Narsinghgarh, a sarai, 
a dispensary, a custom-house, a post and telegraph office, cavalry lines, 
a school and a jail at the capital, a post and telegraph office and a 
dispensary at Pachor, the Khujner-Pachor (7i miles) and Pachor- 
Shujalpur (8 miles) roads and the Khujner-Chhapera road (14 miles). 

Excepting the first three works all these rest have been carried Expenditure, 
out during the superintendency. The average annual expenditure 
is Rs. 32,000. 

Section VII.— Army. 

The State army is divided into two classes, regular and irregular, oiaasiacatiou. 
The regulars consist of infantry and cavalry, the sillahdari and 
Umat-Risdla, which latter acts as personal bodyguard to the Chief, 
and artillery. The irregulars comprise Rajput hedds generally serving 
as bodyguards for the members of the Chiefs family ; and Billdddrs 
cr personal attendants of the Chief. 

No restrictions are made as to the classes from which men for the 
infantry, sillahddr cavalry and artillery are taken. 

The Umat-Risdla and Rajput hedds are recruited from local 
Rajputs as far as possible. Billdddr form a special local class 
of men here who go by this name. 

The Sillahddri sowars, who provide their own horse, get Rs, 20 per 
month, and the UmaURisdla sowars get Rs. 6 per month independent 
of the horse, which the State provides for them. The rest get from 
Rs. 3 to Rs. 5 per month. 

There are no fixed rules regarding the number of years a man has poasioas. 
to serve or as to pension. Usually men serve as long as they can 
and when they become incapable, a son or some other relation is 
provided as a substitute, if he has suitable qualifications. If the 
man has no such relations he is given pension or a maintenance 
allowance. 



156 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


Police. 


Section VIII-~Police andJails. 

(Table XXIV and XXVI.) 

Before the year 1883 no regular police existed in the State. The 
safety of the State and the people was entrusted to the care of 
certain jamddars who had each from 40 to 50 men under them. 
These bodies were known as hedds and were named after the jamdddt^ 
in command. No investigating powers were given to them- In 
1883 a beginning was made in forming a regular police force. 
Constables and thdndddrs were appointed and powers of inves- 
tigation were given them. 

Later on, the thdndddrs were entrusted with limited magisterial 
powers, and empowered to decide petty cases of theft, mischief, etc. 
This arrangement continued with certain modifications till 1896 when 
the State came under superintendence. A muntazim of police for 
the State was then appointed, a deputy inspector from the Thagi and 
Dacoily Department being selected for the post. The police was 
then entirely reorganised, and the magisterial powers previously 
exercised by Lhe thdndddrs were withdrawn. Departmental arrange- 
ments were made on the lines of those in foice in Qie Punjab police 
and rules have been framed from time to time on llu Hues of the 
British India Police Act (V of 1861). 

For the safe carriage of the post and for the protection of roads 
and the boundaries of the State, chatikls or outposts have been 
established at which sowars and sepoys are posted. These clumkls 
are now placed under the police department. 

The Balais and Bhils in the different villages of the State who 
serve as rural police, keep watch and ward in the villages and 
convey reports of all extraordinary occurrences and offences, births 
and deaths, etc., to the nearest police station. The ratio is one 
policeman to every 500 persons and if the guards set apart for the 
jail and the Moghia settlements and protection of the town of 
Narsinghgarh are excluded, the average strength of the regular police 
comes to one constable to every 6 square miles. 

To be enlisted as a constable a man is required to l^e 5 feet 
7 inches in height and 33 inches round the chest and between 18 and 
30 years of age. The rules are not, however, very strictly enforced 
and no restrictions exist regarding caste. A manual in the form of 
questions and answers is taught to the constables after enlistment, 
but no drill. 

A clerk has been instructed at Indore in the classification and regi- 
stration of finger prints, who has now commenced recording and 
classifying for the Darbar. 

The regular police is armed with ialwdrs and the boundary 
police with muskets and talwdrs. 



EDUCATION. 


157 


Members of the Moghia criminal tribe belonging to the State are Criminal tri- 
settled at the three villages of Mugalkheri, Hulkheri and Korawar, 
where the State provides them with the means and implements 
necessary to enable them to follow agricultural pursuits. They are 
now taking to them more readily than before. The settlements 
are supervised by the Assistant Agent to the Governor-General 
in the Criminal Branch. The number on the roll on the 31st 
December, 1906, was 88. 

A regular jail was established in the State sometime between 1881 
and 1890. A subordinate jail was 'opened at Khujner in 1901, at 
Pachor in 1902, and at Chhapera in 1905- In 1901 jail mortality 
was about 20 per thousand, as against 40 in 1897. There have been 
no special epidemic diseases in the jail. 

In the jail at Narsinghgarh tdt-pattls, khddt, newdr and mats are Manufacture, 
prepared and also carpets to order. The hhddl cloth prepared is princi- 
pally used for the clothing of the prisoners. Tdt-pattls, newdr and 
mats are sold in the open market when not required by the State. 

The average annual expenditure is about Rs. 2,000. The average 
cost of maintaining each prisoner is about Rs. 30 a year. 

Section IX-— Education. 

( Table XXIII. ) 

Before the State came under superintendence in 1896, crude 
efforts had been made from time to time to start primary schools in 
the parganas and a middle school and a girls’ school at the capital, 
but all these efforts proved abortive for want of serious and sustained 
efibrts on the part of the State and the backwardness of the general 
public. 

In 1896 there were nominally three schools in the State, at 
Narsinghgarh, Pachor, and Khujner. The number of boys in all the 
three schools did not amount to more than 75 and the number of 
teachers to seven, A regular middle school has now been started at 
the capital with seven primary schools in the parganas: 

Three State-aided schools were opened in the parganas in 1905 
at Kolri, Mandawar, and Bhayana. 

The number of teachers in the State schools is 18, of whom 6 
are English-knowing, one being a graduate and the number of boys 
529, of whom 67 read English. 

The State schools are modelled on the Sehore High School. 

The pay of teachers in the primary schools ranges from Rs. 8 to 
20, and in the middle school from Rs. 20 to 40. 



158 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


Expenses of education are met mainly by the State, education in 
primary schools being free, while in the middle school at the capital 
a low fee is charged which brings about Rs. 60 a year. The State 
spends about Rs. 4,000 a year on education. 

Section X.— Medical. 

(Table XXVIL) 

Dispensaries. There are at present 4 dispensaries in the State, one at the 
capital and the other three at the headquarters of the tahsils. The 
Narsinghgarh dispensary was established in the last years of Raja 
Hanwant Singh’s time (about 1863), the Pachor dispensary some* 
time before 1881, the Khujner dispensary in 1885, and the Chhapera 
dispensary in 1899. 


Information regarding the daily average of patients and other 
points concerning which records were available with respect to the 
several dispensaries is entered in the table. The Agency Surgeon 
in Bhopal supervises the 4 dispensaries. 

Vaccination. method of inoculation is followed in the State nor is it 

done by any particular caste or class, the vaccinators being of any 
caste. They are appointed by the Bhopal Agency Surgeon. Vacci- 
nation is not compulsory but people are urged to adopt it as the 
safest preventive against small-pox. In public institutions such as 
jails, schools, etc,, it is compulsory. About 86 per cent, of the 
population are protected by vaccination. 


Quinine. 


Sanitation. 


The pice-packet system of selling quinine has been recently 
introduced, sales being effected through the Post Offices. 

No rules exist regarding village sanitation in ordinary years, but 
when any epidemic occurs in the village itself or in the neighbour- 
hood, special precautions are taken to check its progress. Wells are 
then treated with permanganate of potash and refuse in the 
villages is destroyed. 


Section XL— Surveys. 

Three surveys have been made in the State since Sam vat 1922 
(1865 A. D.) all for revenue purposes. The first was made in 
Samvat 1922 (1865 A. D.), the second inSamvat 1942 (1885 A. D.), 
and the third in 1898 which took four years for its completion. 
The first two surveyed the cultivated area only ; while the third 
included the whole area of the State cultivated, culturable and 
unculturable. 

The first two surveys were made with a hemp string “ chain " 
measuring 58i’ yards. In the first survey the yard measured 34i 
inches, while in the second survey it measured 36 inches. 



SURVEYS. 


159 


The last survey of 1898 was done with the plane table. The area 
dealt with by the survey of 1898 was 474,240 acres. 

In order that on the completion of the Settlement the patwans 
may be capable of checking and keeping up the records with accuracy* 
all patwdrls were trained in survey work, each patwdrl being made 
to survey his own circle. 

The patwdrls have also been trained in the preparation of land 
records on the model of the system introduced by Colonel Pitcher 
in Gwalior. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Administrative Divisions and Gazetteer* 

(Tables II, III, VIII, IX, XX, XXIX, and XXXI.) 

Pachor Parg-ana. — The Pachor pargana lies between 23° 30^ and 
23° 51' north and 76° 43' and 76° 55' east, having an area of 127 
square miles with head-quarters at Pachor. It is bounded on the north 
by the Biaora pargana of Rajgarh, on the east by the Narsinghgarh 
pargana, on the south by the Shujalpur pargana of Gwalior and on 
the west by the Khujner pargana. The average rainfall is 32 inches. 

Population was in 1901, 16,298 persons : males 8,388, females 
7,910. Constitution — Hindus 14,969 or 92 per cent., Jains 62, MusaL 
mans 479, Animists 788, living in 71 villages^ with 3,244 occupied 
houses. The castes and classes following agricultural pursuits are 
Brahman, Rajput, Chaurasia, Ranwala, Gujar, Jat, Dhakar, Mina, 
Purbia, Panwar, Kachhi, Bhil, Balai, and Chamar. The villages on 
the western boundary of the pargana are watered by the Newaj river 
which forms the boundary between the Pachor and Khujner parganas. 
The Dudhi river which skirts its northern boundary supplies water 
to only two villages of the pargana. The soil is mainly of the 
halmat class. 

Of the total area 32 per cent, is cultivated. Irrigation is effected 
from orhls on the banks of the rivers, nalas and tanks and to some 
extent from wells. 

The pargana is in charge of a tahsildar who is the revenue oJEfiicer 
and second class magistrate with powers to try civil suits up to 
Rs, 100. The principal exports are crude opium, cotton, and wheat. 
The pargana contains 19 country liquor shops which bring in an 
annual income of about Rs. 5 75, 

The present revenue demand for the pargana is Rs. 63,109. 

ChhEpera Pargana , — 'Ihispargana lies between 23° 46^ and 23° 
55' north and 76° 23' and 76°35' east, having an area of 86 square 
miles, with head-quarters at Chhapera. 

It is bounded on the north by the Jirapur pargana of Indore and 
the Khiichipur State, on the east and south by the Khujner pargana 
and on the west by the Nalkhera pargana of Gwalior. In the 
western and southern parts the soil is rocky, while in the eastern and 
northern parts it is level and fertile. The average rainfall is 28 inches. 

Population was in 1901, 9,306 persons: males 4,805, females 4,501, 
living in 50 villages with 1,564 occupied houses. Classified by popu- 
lation Hindus number 8,590 or 92 per cent,, Jains 74, Musalrnans 244, 
Animists 398, chiefly Bhils, Brahmans, Rajputs, Kulmis, Sondhias, 


^ Jtecent report gives 64, villagea. 



administrative divisions. 


161 


Dangis Dhakars, Lorhas Giijars, and Kachhis are the principal classes 
which follow agriculture. 

Five villages on the western boundary of the pargana are watered 
by the Kali Sind river, which serves as a boundary between this 
pargana and the Nalkhera pargana of Gwalior. 

Of the total area 31 per cent, is cultivated. The irrigation is done 
chiefly from the wells. The pargana is administered by a fahsUdar 
who is the chief revenue officer and a magistrate of the third class with 
powers to decide civil suits up to Rs. 50. 

The principal exports are crude opium, cotton, poppy seed, and 


mungphalt. 

The pargana contains a topographical survey station at Ramnagar 
hill, five miles from Chhapera. One country liquor shop is situated 
at Chhapera which brings an annual income of Rs. 189. 

The present revenue demand of the patgana is Rs. 43,445. 

Khuiner Pargana.— This pargana lies between latitude 23° 32' and 
23° 59' north, and longitude 76° 27' and 76° 51' east, having an area of 
260 square miles with head-quarters at Khujner. It is bounded on the 
north by the Khilchipur and Rajgarh states, on the east by the fjiran- 
was pargana of Rajgarh and the Pachot pargana, on the south by the 
Shujilpur ot Gwalior and the Satangput of Dewas 

and on the west by the Nalkhera pargana of Gwalior and the Chha- 
pera The average rainfall is 48 inches. 

Population was in 1901, 27,899 persons ; males 14.363, females 
13 536 living in 160 villages" with 5,185 occupied houses. Hindus 
number 25,295 or 91 per cent. Jains 126, Musalmans 904 or 3 per 
cent. Animists, 1,574 or 5 per cent. 

Besides Brahmans, Rajputs Mahajans, and Musalmans, the follow- 
iii<^ castes are met with in the pargana : Kulmis, Dangis, Dhakars, 
Sondhias, Pals, Khatis, Lorhas, Rewaris, Balais, and Chamars. 
They mostly follow agriculture. 

Six villages on the western boundary of the pargana are watered 
by the Kali Sind river which serves as a boundary between this 

pargana and. the PisXkhexa pargana oiGviaWot. 

Of the total area 30 per cent, is cultivated, ^he pargana is in 
charge of a talislUw who is the revenue collector and second class 
magfstrate with powers to try civil suits up to Rs. 100. The present 
revenue demand for the pargana is Rs. 1,69,386. 

Twenty-five liquor shops are situated in the pargana, the income 
derived from them being Rs. 838 a year. 

A Topographical Survey Station is located at Chondapura village 

hill 2 miles from Khujner. 

1 Recent report gives 156 villages. 



162 


NARSINgHGARH state. 


Narsinghgarh Par^ana. — This j>argana lies between 23® 29' and 
24® 1' north and 76® 54' and 77° 17' east, having an area of 267 
square miles with head-quarters at Narsinghgarh. It is bounded 
on the north by the Biaora pargana of Rajgarh, on the east by 
the Maksudangarh and Bhopal states, on the south by the Shujalpur 
pargana of Gwalior, and on the west by the Pachor pargana. 

The country is level and highly fertile, bearing excellent crops of 
poppy and all ordinary food grains. 

The average rainfall for the pargana is 50 inches. Population was 
in 1901^ 38,590 persons: males 20,053, females 18,537. Constitution : 
Hindus 33,968 or 88 per cent., Jains 96, Musalmans 2,461, Animists 
2,056, Sikhs 8, Christian 1 , living in one town, and 180 villages* Svith 
7,795 occupied houses. 

The castes following agricultural pursuits are Rajputs, Br^mans, 
Dangis, Ahirs, Gujars, Kachhis, Lodhas, Lodhis, Sondhias, Deswahs, 
Minas, Dhakars, Khatis, Musalmans, Chamars, and Balais. 

Of the total area 31 per cent, is cultivated. Though the villages 
on the eastern boundary of the pargana have the Parbati river flowing 
near them, it is but little used for irrigation on account of the height 
of its banks. Villages on the north-west corner of the pargana are 
watered by the Sukar and the Dudhi streams. 

Irrigation is practised from wells, orhls on the banks of streams, 
and a few tanks. 

The pargana is administered by a tahstldar who is the revenue 
officer and a second class magistrate with civil powers to decide 
suits up to Rs. 100. 

The principal exports are crude opium, poppy -seed, cotton, and 
wheat. The pargana is traversed for 28 miles by the Sehore- Biaora 
road. 

A distillery and 24 country liquor shops are established in the 
pargana, which bring an annual income of Rs. 2,460. 

The present revenue demand for the pargana is Rs. 1,03,565. 

GAZETTEER. 

Axid 2 M\&t 3 .t pctrgana Narsinghgarh. — The village lies 6 miles from 
Narsinghgarh town in 23° 46" north and 77° 7' east. It has three sati 
pillars of Samvats 944 (887 A. D.), 1528 (1471 A. D.), and 1715 
(1658 A. D.) with inscriptions which cannot be made out wholly, 
and some sail pillars of Samvat 944 (887 A. D.) one, however, 
refers to the construction of a tank at the village and states that 
Andalhera was included in pargana Bihar, sarkdr Sarangpur. 

Population 1901, 410. 

Baoli, pargana Khujner. — A village situated in 23° 46' north 
and 76° 38' east, 2 miles west of Khujner. It contains a garhi said 


1 Recent report gives 1 65 villages. 



GAZETTEER. 


163 


to have been built some 200 years ago by Thakur Moti Singh 
Jagtrdar, A sati pillar stands here with an inscription dated 1723 
A, D. Population 164. 

BhaySna, pargana Khujner. — Is situated in 23^ 48' north, and 76® 
34' east, 38 miles west of Narsinghgarh town and 6 miles from Khuj- 
ner. It was known in Muhammadan days as Akbarpur and was 
the headquarters of a mahal in the Sarangpur Sarkar.^ How and 
when it came to be called Bhayana is not known, but it may 
possibly have been its original Hindu name. Two old temples of 
Thakurji and a mosque are situated in the village. A damaged 
Persian inscription is cut on the mosque but cannot be read. The 
mosque is stated to have been built by some ancestors of the Kazis 
of the State. 

Near the village is a hill which goes by the name of Tamba-Barli 
or copper hill, where, it is believed, copper ore was formerly worked. 
Recent analysis, however, shews that the ore contains 62 per cent- 
of oxide of iron but no copper. Population was in 79(97, 951 per- 
sons : males 474, females 477, living in 199 occupied houses. 

Biaora-MSLndu, pargana ’Khu^iier .' — Is situated in 23® 39' north 
and 76*^ 29' east, 36 miles from the Narsinghgarh town and 14 miles 
from Khujner on the Kali Sind river and 6 miles from the Agra- 
Bombay trunk road. It is said to be a thousand years old and 
to have received its name from a patel of the village named Mandu, 
who was of the Kulmi caste. 

The Muhammadan troops stationed in the Sarangpur sarkdr are 
said to have been cantoned here. This seems very probable as 
Biaora-Mandu is only 6 miles from Sarangpur. 

It was from this place that the Muhammadan forces noted the 
fire lighted on the Solakhamba at Bihar ( called Shahr hdbd-hdji 
in the Ain-i-Ahhari) and subsequently conquered it. 

On a rock feet high and 6 feet square in the bed of the Kali 
Sind river at a distance of about 25 chains from the village is 
a Phallic emblem of the god Mahadeo said to be very ancient. 
This village was given by Raja Sobhag Singh in jdglr to his 
brother-in-law, Thakur Amar Singh. The Thakur built a garhi 
in 1802 but went away to his native place in Mewar in 1824 
A.D. On the death of his nephew, Chain Singh, the village became 
khdlsd, Biaora-Mandu was the scene of two small skirmishes in 
the years 1813 and 1847. The former took place between Raja 
Sobhag Singh and the Dewas State army, and the second between 
Raja Hanwant Singh and his brother, Sanwat Singh, jdgirddr of 
Bhatkhera (Narsinghgarh). In the latter after 40 or 50 persons on 
both sides had been killed, the two came to a reconciliation. 


1 Ain, 11, 203. 


164 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


Population was in 1901 , 443 persons : males 222> females 221 i 
living in 145 occupied houses. 

BihSr, pargana Narsinghgarh. — A collection of petty hamlets 
situated 7 miles to the south of the Narsinghgarh town situated in 23® 
37' north and 77° 9' east and 2 miles from the Sehore-Biaora road. 
Bihar is of interest on account of its former importance. It was at one 
time evidently a great centre of Jain worship as numerous remains 
are to be met with on the hill above the present village. Among 
the series is a grand Jain figure. The figure is cut in the sandstone 
rock of a cave. It is 8i feet high but the head has been removed, the 
pedastal which remains ornamented with lions and the chinha of 
a bull shewing that the statue was that of Adinath, the first 
Tirthankar. 

It is possible that there may have been a monastery here the name 
Bihar being a corruption of Vihara. The site is certainly suited 
to the purpose, being secluded and watered by the Parbati river 
which flows at a short distance off the hill. 

A building known as the Sola khamba (sixteen -pillared building) 
stands on the hill next to that on which the cave temple is situated. 
It is ascribed to the Khichi Rajputs from whom the Muhammadans 
are said to have conquered the place. Local traditions suppose the 
building to have been fifteen storeys high. It is popularly said to have 
been built by a rich shepherd of the place named Shamltaran in 
Samvat 1304 (1247 A. B. ). 

It is related that once a big fire was lighted on the top-moSt storey of 
the Sola-khamba which attracted the attention of the Muhammadan 
forces encamped at Biaora Mandu, near Sarangpur, about 36 miles 
away, and led them to attack Bihar and conquer it. They then, it is 
said, pulled down most of the Sola khamba and out of its materials 
built the mosque which still stands on this hill. The inscriptions on 
the northern and eastern gates of the mosque which are in Persian, 
show that it was built in the time of Mahmud Shah on the 
15th day of Ramzan in the Hijri year 844, A.D. 1440. Another 
prominent relic of the Muhammadan occupation of the place is 
the building known as Hajira or Hujra which contains the tombs 
of Shaiti-h Haji Qutab-ud-din, his nephew, and his servant. The 
inscription on the entrance of the first storey shews that the 
building was erected in the time of Muhammad Shiih in the Flijri 
year 870, A. B. 1465. 

It is on account of this Haji’s tomb that Bihar is named Shah 
baba haji by the Muhammadans, and is thus entered in the Ain- 
i-Akbari as the headquarters of a mahal of the Sarangpur Sarkar. 
The local Patwati family has an account of the place. Unfortunately 





165 


it is so hopelessly confused as to dates and persons as to be of 
very little value. It would appear from this account that the 
place was once known as Badravati and to have been held 
successively by the Solankhis ( Chalukyas ) and Khichis. It was 
evidently a place of some importance during the Muhammadan 
period. It was renamed Ram-Bihar after it fell to its present 
possessors. 

Besides the buildings noted above there are two temples one 
dedicated to Mahadeo and the other to Parbati and hundreds of sati 
pillars on the plain to the south of Bihar. 

There are no inscriptions on the temples but some of the sati 
pillars have Hindi inscriptions which, however, do not convey any 
important information* 

A cattle fair is held at the site of Ram-Bihar on Baisdkh hadi 
8th, lasting 15 days. 

The principal castes now inhabiting the hamlet of Ram-Bihar are 
Brahmans, Kayasthas, Rajputs, Kachhis, Dhakars, etc. 

Ram-Bihar has now become reduced to a small hamlet of 11 houses 
with a population of 53 persons. The site of the present settlement 
lies a short distance from the old site and is called Kachhipura. 

Bijaigarh, Narsinghgarh. — A village situated in 23°42' 

north and 77° ll'" east, 2 miles south-east of the Narsinghgarh town. 
It has an old hill fort, now in ruins, said to have been built by the 
KhTchi rulers in these parts. The village contains several sati pillars, 
bearing dates from 1698 to 1709 A. D. Population 1901 ^ 209. 

Bhumka, patgana Khujner. — A village situated in 23° 49' north, 
and 76° 32' east, 10 miles to the west of Khujner. It contains a 
temple, rebuilt in the time of Raja Hanwant Singh with an inscription 
of 1S54 A. D. The purport of the inscription is that a Chief of Sondhia 
caste vowed by a sacred oath that he and his caste people would 
not commit any thefts within the borders of Umatwari. Population 
1901 145. A cattle fair is held here annually in the month of Aghan 
(December). 

Chhapera, pargana Chhapera. — The headquarters of the tahsUoi 
that name is situated 46 miles west of Narsinghgarh town in 23° 54^ 
north and 76' 30° east. The name is derived from the Chhapi ndla 
which flows past the village and subsequently becomes the Chhapi 
river. Formerly the chief place in the pargana was the village of 
Rampura on the opposite side of the Chhapi, now in ruins- At the 
spot where Rampura was situated, an image of Hanuman and the 
remains of a mud fort are to be seen. Portions of a city wall and 
substantial masonry gateway are still standing round the present 



166 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


village of Chhapera which indicate that it must have been a place 
of some importance in times gone by. 

Eleven Vaishnav and Jain temples and a mosque are situated 
in the village. The Jain temple contains four images, three of which 
bear the date Samvat 1548 (1491 A. D. ) and one Samvat 1797 
( 1740 A. D. ), but there are no inscriptions. It is said that the place 
was looted in the year 1857 A. D. by a detachment of the British 
forces when it could not obtain any supplies, the tahsllddr having 
fled. The detachment is said to have proceeded thence to Rajgarh 
where it defeated a force of the Peshwa’s at the Eagdara pathar. 
Population was in 7 PO/, 2,602 persons males 1,341, females 1,261, 
It consists mostly of Brahman, Mahajan, Kachhi, Lorha, Dhakar 
Kulmi, Chamar and Balai castes. 

The unmetalled road to Indore which passes through this place 
has. increased its importance. 

A market is held every Friday. A school, a dispensary, a post 
office, a sarai^ a police station, and a customs post are located here. 

Khujner, pargana Khujner. — The headquarters of the pargana 
of the same name situated in 23® 47' north and 76® 40' east, 32 miles 
to the west of the Narsinghgarh town. 

Population was in 7907,2,837 persons: males 1,528 ; females 
1,309. 

The place is believed to be 500 years old. There are two 
ancient temples of Mahadeo but they bear no inscriptions. 

The oldest sail pillar in the village bears the date Samvas 
1715 (A. D. 1658) and belongs to the mother of Moti Kunwar 
Umat. The mosque at the place was built in Samvat 1788 ( 1731 
A, D. ) and is said to have been erected by a Mussalman oilman. 

A metalled road from Khujner connects with the Agra-Bombay 
road at a distance of 7| miles. 

Narsinghgarh Town, Narsinghgarh. — The capital of the 

Narsingharh State situated 1,650 feet above the sea at latitude 
23° 43^ north, and longitude 77® 9' east. It was founded by i^aras 
Ram, the first Chief of Narsinghgarh in 1681, on the site of the 
village of Toplia Mahadeo. It stands on the Biaora-Sehorc high 
road at a distance of 44 miles from the latter place. The town 
derives its name from god Narsingh, one of the ten Avtdrs ( incarna 
tions ) of Vishnu, and a favourite deity with the founder of the State. 

The name of the temple ( Toplia Mahadeo) owed its origin to 
the village at the foot of the hill which was inhabited by Saharias 
who made a livelihood by manufacturing toplis (baskets), from the 
bamboos which grew in abundance on the surrounding hills, which 



gazetteer. 


167 


they sold in Ram Bihar town. The temple is dedicated to Shiv 
Baijnath, The town is most picturesquely situated. It stands in a 
valley enclosed by three hills encircling a fine lake also built by 
Diwan Paras Ram. On the principal hill stands the fort of 
Narsingh. While temples of Mahadeo and Hanuman crown the 
other two. At the close of rains when the hills are clothed with 
vegetation and the country at their feet is covered with waving 
fields of grain, the scenery of the town is so enhanced in beauty with 
the lake below reflecting the fort and palaces in its clear waters 
that it presents is a sight not easily forgotten. 

The fort contains the palace buildings of which there are three 
principal parts— the Darhdr Hall otherwise known as Kdli-kd-chauk^ 
the Rdola, and the new palace. All the three buildings command 
a very fine view of the town and the lake, the surrounding hills and 
the plains beyond, while themselves adding greatly to the appearance 
of the fort. The fort is approached by a metalled road passing by 
the Ramola and by four other steep paths, by two of which 

elephants and horses can pass. The names of the four paths are — 
Ghora ghdti, Bhandara ghdti, Thdoria gJidti, and Dakan ghdti. All 
the State offices were in former days located in the fort but have now 
been transferred to a building at the east end of the town. 

The population has been 7887 ^ 11,400 ; 7897, 8,561 ; 7907, 8,778 
persons : males 4,627 ; females 4,151. Occupied houses 2,031. 
Hindus number 7,434 or 85 per cent,, Sikhs 8, Jains 80, Musalman 
1,210 or 14 per cent., Christian 1 and animists 45. The prevailing 
sects are Vaishnavas, Shaivas, and Shakts amongst Hindus, and 
Sunis among Muhammadans. 

Business generally begins about 8 o’clock in the morning and goes 
on till sunset with couple of hours break at mid-day for dinner and rest. 

Several temples dedicated to Ramchandra and Krishna built by the 
members of the Chiefs household, stand in the town, the most 
important being the temple of Raghunathji, the present family 
deity, the temple of Kali Taldi dedicated to Krishna and that of 
Shriji ( Govardhan Niitbji ), and that of Madan Mohan Lralji. Be- 
sides these, the old temple of Baijnath Mahadeo or Toplia Mahadeo, 
the temple of Pdtla Pant Mahadeo and Hanuman garhi are other 
religious edifices of local importance. There is a perennial spring 
in the temple of Baijnath Mahadeo which never dries up. 

At the entrance of the town on the Sehore side stands a small 
bungalow which serves as a rest-house, while a sarai has been 
erected in the town* 

The hospital is located in the centre of the town. It is in charge 
of a Hospital Assistant and provides limited accommodation for 
indoor patients* 



168 


NARSIl^XSHGARI? STATE. 


The Victoria High school building, which is situated at the entrance 
of the town near the Dak bungalow, was built in 1899. 

Much has been done during the superintendency to improve the 
appearance as well as the sanitary condition of the town. New 
buildings have been erected for the accommodation of the Post and 
Telegraph Office, a Customs Office, Cavalry Lines and Jail. Old 
roads have been repaired and new roads made. A Municipal Com- 
mittee was appointed in 1897 to supervise the arrangements for 
sanitation and the lighting of the principal streets and lanes of 
the town. 

The Kotwal is the city police officer and is responsible for the 
protection of the town. Reworks under the orders of the Muntazim 
of police and has a staff of 34 men who are distributed through 
chaukis in the town. A cattle fair is held here in Phagun (March). 

Naihera, Pachor. — A village 10 miles west of Pachor 

lying in 23° SV north and 76° 49' east. It is situated on the banks 
of the Newaj river. 

There is a European cemetery here containing five masonry built 
tombs which appear to be those of the guard stationed here to keep 
the peace in the adjoining districts in later years of Diwan Sobhag 
Singh (1795 — 1827 A. D. ). The camp was known as camp Dabri. 
The guard is said to have remained here for about 14 years. In the 
vicinity of the village, about a mile from the grave-yard, the traces 
of the old houses are still visible. Population in 1901 was 187. 

Pachor, pargana Pachor. — Headquarters of the tatgana 
situated in 23° 43' north and 76° 47' east on the banks of the Newaj 
river, 24 miles west of the Narsinghgarh town on the Agra-Bombay 
road. 

Its earlier name is said to have been Paranagar. It seems to be 
an old place as mutilated portions of Jain idols are often found 
when excavating. An old temple of Mahadeo stands to the east of 
the present town and is said to be about 300 years old. An old 
garhi in the heart of the town was built in the Muhamandan period. 
Tradition relates that when this fort was in course of construction it 
was demolished nightly until steps were taken jointly by Plindus 
and Muhammadans to celebrate the worship of KaUtji Maharaj or 
as the Muhmmadans called him Kalekhdn Pif\ the presiding genius 
Zocx. 

The garhi is now in ruins but the worship of Kaldji Malidrdj or 
Kalekhdn Plr still continues. The image of Kaldji and the tomb of 
Kalekhdn are situated in the north-eastern corner of the garhi the 
first on the outside and the second just inside. 



GAZETTEER. 


169 


Three temples are dedicated to Shrt Thdkni^Jt and there is 
one mosque. They all seem to be of recent date. Three sati pillars 
are inscribed, the oldest bearing the date Samvat 1475 (1418 

A. D.). 

In the mutiny of 1857 Pachor was looted by a party of mutineers 
from Indore. 

A cattle fair is held here on Paush'sudi 8th lasting 15 days. 

* 

Population in 7907 was 1,915 persons : males 1,037 ; females 878 ; 
living in 398 occupied houses. 

P^tan^ pargana Khujner. — (23° 58' north and 76^ 48' east.) This 
place was the old capital of the Narsinghgarh Chiefs from 1668 — 1766 
with a break of 14 years ( 1681 — 95 ) during which time the capital 
was temporarily transferred to Narsinghgarh. It is situated on the 
banks of the Newaj river, 2 miles from Rajgarh. A few old temples, 
a substantial fort, and palace of those times still stand here, but 
are now more or less in ruins and deserted. Numerous sati pillars 
and tombs, some of which bear inscriptions which are not intelligible, 
are to be found round about the village. There are several big bdorls 
here, some of which have spacious accommodations in them. Patan 
was finally deserted in the year 1766 A. D. when the capital was 
finally transferred to Narsinghgarh. Population in 7907 was 168. 

PB.t^npiXt,pargana Narsinghgarh. — Ratanpur, which was once the 
capital of the Umats, was situated on the bank of the Dudhi river, 
It is now non-existent. Its site lies near the present Tajpura village, 
12 miles to the west of the Narsinghgarh town. Udaji first establish- 
ed his capital at Ratanpur in the year 1603 A. D., and it continued 
to be the capital of the Umats till 1638 A. D. when Chhatarsingh, 
the successor of Udaji, was killed there in a battle with the Imperial 
Forces. On this account the place was considered unlucky and was 
abandoned. 

The remains now existing of old Ratanpur are a mosque, a temple 
of MahMeo, and three sati platforms. The satis bear Hindi 
inscriptions which cannot be made out. They bear dates which shew 
that they belong to the time when* Ratanpur was the capital of the 
Umats. 

After Ratanpur was abandoned as being unlucky, a small pura 
(hamlet ), namely Tajpura, was established and the lands of Ratanpur 
were transferred to it. Tajpura is now in the joint possession of 
Rajgarh and Narsinghgarh. 

Ratanpur is 6 miles from the Bapcha Dak Bungalow on the 
Sehore-Biaora road. 



170 


NARSINGHGARH STATE. 


Sandaota, pargana Khujner. — (23° 51' north and 73° 35"' east.) 
A village 6 miles west of Khujner containing several temples three 
bearing inscriptions of 1751, 1754, and 1798 and built in the time of 
Diwan Motx Ram and Raja Achal Singh. Four sati pillars with 
inscriptions, dated 1485, 1718, 1714, and 1753 stand here. Popula- 
tion in 1901 was 1,091. 

Tori. — A village lying in 23° 55' north, 77° 13' east, 14 miles 
north-east of the Narsinghgarh town. It has a garhi, said to l^ave 
been built by the Perias, and a temple erected by the Khichis ; the 
latter has an inscription bearing these dates, viz. 1697, 1832, and 
1883. Population in 1901 was 1,063. _ It is the place of residence 
of the jagirdar of Tori. 



171 


APPENDIX A. 

Translation of an Engagement executed to the Soubadar 
by Dewan Sobhag Sing and Koonwur Chaen Sing of 
SOOBSTAN, NuRSINGURH. 

Whereas the above Soobstan was always assessed at Salim Sahi 
rupees 85,000 per annum ; and whereas the Pindaree troops having 
entered the country laid waste the pergunnah, and the people, in 
consequence, deserted the place ; and whereas we, being unable to 
pay the revenue and to meet the necessary expenses of the Soobstan, 
brought the matter to the notice of the Circar ; the Circar, in com 
sideration of the aforesaid circumstances, and with a view to the 
improvement of the pergunnah, has directed the payment of the 
revenue for six years according to the following instalments, viz , — 


In 1875 

Sumbut ... 

• « « « • • 


Rs. 

25,000 

„ 1876 


• • » • « • 


35,000 

„ 1877 




48,000 

„ 1878 


• « • • ♦ . 


60,000 

„ 1879 




72,000 

„ 1880 





85,000 




Rs. 

3,25,000 

Therefore 

we shall, as 

ordered, pay 

without an objection, year 


after year, the above amount of Rupees three lakhs and twenty-five 
thousand, wliich includes the expenses of the mehal, in six years 
according to the said instalments commencing on the 15th Kartick 
Soodee and ending on the 15th Bysack Soodee. 


Transi.ation of a Perwannah from Mulhar Rao Holkar to 
Dewan Sobhag Sing and Koonwur Chaen Sing of Soobstan 
Nursing URH. 

W^hereas the above Soobstan was assessed at rupees 85,000 per 
annum, but in consequence of the passing and repassing of the Pindaree 
troops through the mehal it was laid waste ; and whereas you, with 
a view to bring the matter to the notice of the Circar^ deputed Roop 
Ram Bohora, who, on arrival, represented that, as the mehal was 
desolated, there was no means of discharging the revenue due to the 
Circar, amounting to rupees 85,000, and also requested that the 
Circar might graciously be pleased to take the above sum by instab 



172 


ments every year so that the mchal might be improved ; and whereas 
it is necessary to realize the revenue of the Soobstan as usual yet 
having regard to tha fact that the pergunnah has been laid waste, and 
in consideration of the representation made by you, as well as with 
a view to the improvement of the mehal, it has been decided, in the 
presence of the said Roop Ram Bohora, that the yearly revenue of 
the mehal shall be paid in the following progressive payments, so 
that the amount of rent in the 6th year shall be Salim Sahi rupees 


85,000 ■ 







Rs. 

In 

1228 or 

1875 

Sumbut 

. . . 

. • t 

. . « 

25,000 

JJ 

1229 „ 

1876 


... 

. . • 

. . . 

35,000 

9J 

1230 „ 

1877 

>» 

... 

. . . 

. . . 

48,000 

>> 

1231 

1878 


... 

... 

. . . 

60,000 

»» 

1232 „ 

1879 


... 

... 

... 

72,000 


1233 „ 

1880 

J3 

. .* 

... 

... 

85,000 


Rs. 3,25,000 


Therefore the sum of Salim Sahi Rupees thrce^lakhs and twenty- 
five thousand having been fixed by the Circar a the aggregate 
amount of revenue of six years, this perwannah is given to you. You 
will therefore remit to the Circar the above amount of Salim Sahi 
Rupees three lakhs and twenty-five thousand according to the 
aforesaid instalments through the mamlidar and lake receipts for the 
same. 

Dated 15th Jemmadeeul-Akhir 1219 A. H. 



APPENDIX B. 


173 


Variations in early history as given by Rajgarh and Narsinghgarh, 


A 

Rajgarh, 

Umatsare descended from Umarsi, 
son of Mang Rao. 

Umarsi and his brother Sumarsi 
went to Sind and founded Umarkot. 
Then Umarsi left and went to Abu, 
while Sumarsi remained and founded 
the Sodha family of the present day. 

Umarsi founded the Umats. The 
twenty-first in descent from Umarsi, 
Bhau Singh went to Chitor where 
for services rendered he was given 
the title of Rawat— “ with a splendid 
Khilat.” 

Sarangsen in the seventh genera- 
tion from Bhau Singh, who lived in 
the 14th century, went to Dhar and 
ater took the Sarangpur district. 
He then made Duparia his chief 
town, Khemkaran second in descent 
from Sarangsen ( it is not said how 
long after Sarangsen ) seized the 
country between the Sind and Par- 
batx rivers which was thenceforth 
known as Umatwara. Kumanji or 
Kamdji (Rawat Gumanji) two gene- 
rations after Khemkaran at the end 
of 15th century, according to the 
account, built Kujner fort but lived 
in Ratanpur, Later on he obtained 
from the Delhi Emperor Sikandar 
Lodi ( 1489— 1519) a grant of land 
including Pachor, Khadad, Lakhn- 
was, Jhunjhunipur (now Rajgarh) 
Khujner, and Biaora, a sanad being 
granted later for other land also, at 
Agar, Shujalpur ( then called Mirza- 
pur), Khachraud, etc. Four gene- 


rations later came Rawat Rdmaji 
whose elder son Bhimaji became 
Rawat and the younger Jitagi found- 
ed the family of the Borkhera and 
Mundla Thakurs. Rawat Benaji 
succeeded and in Samvat 1586 ( A, D, 
1529) fought with the Delhi troops. 

Rawat Krishndji served Akbar 
(1556—1605 ). 

Rdxvat Dungarsiji who lived in 
16th century was killed at Talen, He 
left six sons. The two eldest being 
Udaji and Dudaji, 

Uddji succeeded and Dudaji was 
made Diwan by Udaji. 

Chhatrasingh succeeded in 1621 
A. D, making Ajab Singh, grandson 
of Dudaji, Diwan. Chhatarsingh 
died in 1638 A. D. Mohansingh 
succeeded as minor. 

Ajab Singh built the forts at Raj- 
garh and Patan in Samvat 1705 (A. D. 
1648 ). Ajab Singh died (how 
is not known ) and Paras Ram suc- 
ceeded him as Diwan of the State 
State divided in Samvat 1738 (A. D. 
1681 ). 

B 

Narsinghgarh, 

The Umats are descended from 
Rana Umji ruler of BhinmaU (in 
Jcdhpur ). They came over to Cen- 
tral India in Muhammadan times, ‘ 
driven away from Rajputana by the 
Chauhans. They had been 300 years 
in Bhinmal, when this took place. 
The Umat Chief who was expelled 
was Sarangsen. 


1 This is curious and interesting, but unfortunately uo further information is available 
See Bhinmal. BoDihay Gazetteer, Vol. T, P. H., P. 459; Joarnal of the Royal Asutie Society 
October, 19)4,; and Joxmal of the Bom')ay Btanch of the Royal Aolatio Society, 190j, 41 . 



174 


NAHSINQHGARH STATE, 


Sarangsen went to DMr in 1347 in 
the time of Muhamad Tuglak (1325 
1351) and received the title of Rawat 
for services rendered. Rawat Karan - 
siji or Kamaji fourth in descent from 
Sarangsen was made Governor of 
Ujjain in Sikandar Lodi’s time and 
obtained 22 parganas, some of which 
now form ihe States of Rajgarh and 
Narsinghgarh. He made Duparia 
his capital. 

Rawat Krishna] i was siyth in 
descent from Kamaji and was also 
Governor of Ujjain where Kishna- 
pura is called after him. He died in 
1563 and was succeeded by Dungar- 
siji. He was killed atTalen in 1594* 
He had six sons, the two eldest 
Udaji and Dudaji. Ud?ji succeeded 
making Ratanpur his capital. He 
received a miat from Akbar (1556— 
1605). In the time of Jahangir 
Dudaji for services rendered was 
given the title of Diwan and a sanad 
for certain territories. 

Chhatarsingh, Udaji’s successor^ 
was killed in 1638 at Ratanpur, 
Mohansingh succeeded and made 
Dungarpur his chief town. Diwan 
A jab Singh was killed in 1668, Paras 
Ram succeeding. Paras Ram lived 
at Patan and Mohansingh at Rajgarh/ 
“The Emperor Aurangzeb then 
“ granted a sanad for the State in 
“ the joint names of Mohan Singh 
“ and Paras Ram.” 

C 

Note on above 

BY 

The Superintendent of 
Narsinghgarh. 

Umarsi and Rana Umji are dif- 
ferent versions of the name of the 
same person. Both the Rajgarh and 
the Narsinghgarh accounts agree in 


making the Umats belong to the 
family of Vikramaditya who had his 
capital at Ujjain- It would thus 
appear that, while the Rajgarh ac- 
counts sends Umarsi and Stunarsi 
to Sind and Abu, the Narsinghgarh 
account begins from a latter date and 
finds Rand Umji already ruling at 
Bhinmal (in Jodhpur). Whether 
Umarsi (Umji) lived at Bhinmal or 
Abu there is no means to decide, but 
probably Abu and Bhinmal both 
formed part of one continuous terri- 
tory. Then, again, whether Sdrang- 
sen, who, accoi'ding to both the 
accounts li^ed in the 14th century^ 
went to Dhar from Bhinmal or from 
Chitor cannot be ascertained. There 
is no documentary proof available to 
prove the one or tl)e other statement. 
The Rajgarh account is taken from a 
narrative written on a roll of paper 
said to have been compiled in the 
time of Nawab Abdul Wasih Khan 
{alias Raja Moti Singh) of Rajgarh, 
and the Narsinghgarh account based 
on information, supplied to Mt. C* 
B. Burrows, Publisher of the “ Re- 
presentative Men of Ccuitral India,” 
which was, with certain modifica- 
tions, taken from the “ History of 
Narsinghgarh ” given as an apt)endix 
to a book named “ Mahtab Divakar,” 
written in the time of the late Raja 
Mahtab Singh of Narsinghgarh. It 
is not known what the basis of the 
account in the Ix’ajgarh roll of paper 
or in the appendix to Malitab Diva- 
kar is. Under the circumstances 
there is no reconciling the facts 
which must stand in either account 
as they are. The sanads referred to 
in the Rajgarh an<f Narsinghgarh 
accounts are not forthcoming either. 
Whether the title of Raxcal was con- 
ferred on Bhau Singh by the Rani 



APPENDIX B. 


175 


of Chitor, as the Rajgarh account 
says, or on Sarangsen by the Muham- 
madans as the Narsinghgarh account 
would seem to imply cannot be as- 
certained as no documentary evidence 
to support either statement is forth- 
coming. The Rajgarh account, how- 
ever, specifies the particular services 
which earned the title ( Rdwat ) from 
the Rana of Chitor, while the Nar- 
singhgarh account does not name any* 

Rawat Gumanji or Kumanji or 
Kamaji or Karansiji are different 
versions of the name of one and the 
same person. 

The Rajgarh Gazetteer officer says 
that it is impossible to say whether 
the sanad given by the Delhi Em- 
peror to Rawat Gumanji exists or not 
as the old State papers at Rajgarh 
are in a mess. 

Whether Dudaji was made Diwan 
by Udaji as the Rajgarh account 
says, or the title of Diwan was con- 


ferred on him by Jahangir, as stated 
in Narsinghgarh account cannot be as- 
certained. But the following sen- 
tence taken from AITCHISON'S 
TREATIES, Vol. IV, page 279, 
clearly shows that the Rajgarh and 
Narsinghgarh chiefs did not stand to 
each other in the relation of chief 
(master) and Diwan (minister). “The 
power of the Umats was established 
in the district known as Umatwdra 
in the 17th century by two brothers, 
named Mohan Singh and Paras 
Ram, who assumed the titles of 
Rdwat and Diwan, and made a divi- 
sion of their possessions, the Rawat 
retaining 5 villages in excess of the 
portion of the Diwan as an acknow- 
ledgment of his superior birthright.” 
It appears to me that the real word is 
Dimdn — not Diwan, Diman is pro- 
bably a word of Sanskrit origin mean- 
ing “ the resplendent in honours.” 
The word is largely used in this sense 
la Bundelkhand. 


t This title is used in Bundelkhand, but never in Malwa, and I do not think that the 

Superinlendent of Narsinghgarh is correct in assuming this. The word appears to be ^rived 

from (Jso,riw» or strong as the gods. Aitchisons statement was supplied by the Darbsr 
and is not authoritative.— (Ed.) 



176 


NARSINGHGAUH STATE. 


Rao Mangro. 

„ Umarsi. 

Rana Kharsiji. 

Paimji. 

„ Devrajji. 

„ Singhenji, 

„ Jitsinghji. 

„ Bhimsinghji. 

„ Dholji. 

„ Bhutnbiharji, 

„ Vir Dhoulji. 

„ Singhanji. 

„ Bajrangji. 

„ Madhyarajji. 

„ Gajrajji. 

„ Lalihansiji. 

„ Jaspalji. 

„ Raj pal ji. 

„ Moharsiji. 

„ Amarsenji. 

Patalsiji. 

„ Gajvahji. 

„ Bhausinghji. 

„ Sheraji. 

Rawat Mojaji. 

„ Narsinghji. 

„ Udhoji. 

„ Dhiraji. 

„ Sarangsen (1345' 


GENEALOGY. 


■ 1375 ). 


Rawat Jasraji (1375 — 1397). 

Khemkaranji (1397 — 1437). 

„ Haluji (1437—1447). 

„ Kamaji (1447 — 1489). 

„ Dalipsinghji (1489 — 1501). 

„ Kalyansinghji (1501 — 1513). 

„ Jodhaji (1513 — 1523). 

„ Ramaji (1523 — 1525). 

„ Bhimaji (1525 — 1527). 

„ Benaji (1527—1558). 

„ Krishnaji (1558—1583). 

„ Dungarsingh (1583 — 1603), 

,, Udaysingh (1603 — 1621), 

,, Kshatrasinghji (1621 — 1638). 

„ Mohansingh (1638 — 1697). 

„ Amarsingh (1697 — 1740). 

„ Narpatsingh ( 1740 — 1747). 

„ Jagatsingh (1747—1775). 

„ Hamirsingh (1775— 1790). 

„ Pratapsingh ( 1790 — 1803). 

„ Prithwisingh (1803 — 1815). 

„ Newalsingh ( 1815—1831 ). 

„ Motisingh (1831 — 1880). 

„ Bakhtawar Singh ( 1880— 
1882). 

Raja Balbhadra Singh ( 1882 — 
1902). 

„ Bane Singh (1902 — ) 




m 


APPEN 

STATEMENT SHOWING THE TIME OF SOWING AND 

AND TMES OF WATERINGS 


Quality 
of Boil. 

Name of Crops. 

Time of sowing. 

Time of reaping. 

Dtiep 

Maldsa alone or with Urad ... 

In the first showers cf 
Asaih. 

Kuar ... ... 


Cotton 

Asarh ... 

Prom Agghan to Phagun. 

»» 

Jowar alone or with Mmig and Tuar ... 

Do 

From Agghan to Pus ... 


nice ... 

Do. lit ... ... 

Kuar 


Hemp 

Do. ••• ... 

From Kuar to Kartik ... 

rt 

Mungphali 

Do 

From Agghan to Pus ... 

yj 

Masur and gram on single cropped Har 
(unirri gated land). 

Kuar and Kartik 

Phagun to the beginning 
of C’hait. 

»> 

Wheat on single cropped Har ... ... 

From the middle of Kartik 
to the middle of Agghan. 

Ghait 

t9 

Masur and gram on double cropped lands 
adjacent to villages. 

Ditto 

Do. ... 

») 

Wheat on double cropped irrigated lands. 

Ditto 

Do 

1) 

^’oppy 

Middle of Kartik to the 
beginning of Agghan. 

Opium extracted in l^ha- 
gun and the Poppy plant 
cut in Chait, 

T» 

Sugarcane with Poppy ... 

Kartik ... 

In Pus, Magh and Phagun 
next year. 

« 

Sugarcane alone ... 

Agghan and Pus 

In Magh and PhSgun 
next year. 

Shallow 

Jowilr and Cotton 

End of Asarli 

Agghan 

Patlou. 

Eameli Tilli.., 

Sawan 

Kuar and Kartik ... 

» j 

Kangni 

Asarh ... 

Bhadon 



DIX C- 

REAPING, NECESSITY FOR IRRIGATION AND NUMBER 
FOR THE VARIOUS CROPS. 


i?9 


o & 

I Number of waterings. 


Time of watering. 


Remarks. 


Irrigated in time of di'ougkt . 


Irrigated in time of drought if possible. 


yes 1 or 2 in Narsinghgarh, 
3or 4 in Pachor, Khuj- 
ner and Chhapera. 


Irrigated in tune of drought if possible- 


2, Agghaii ) If there are winter 
1, Pus > rains, the number 
1, Mfigh ' of watering is loss. 


2, Agghan 
2, Pus 
2, Magh 
Pliagun 


The held has also to bo Watered at the 
time of sowing. 


2, Agghan; 3, Pns;S, Magh, There is another kin'l o£ seed wUch 


beginning of Phagun, 


requires only 6 waterings, but its plants 
are of small growth aud very sensitive 
to cold^ They are therefore sown on a 
small scale only. 


12 times, besides the 1, Phiigun ; S, Chait; 3. Bai- Irrigated together with poppy till 

Tl A 4.^ 4-1- ^ Mrt<rK 


watering for Poppy 


From 20 to 40 


1, irnaguu , u, uai~ — 

sakh ; 6, Jaith to the setting Magh. 
in of rains- 


I, Agghan ; Pus ; Magh 


■h ’ h : i. Bai- 

Bakh ; .|, Jaith ; 1 Asorh. Narsinghgarh. 


More waterings are refjnired in the Khoj- 
nor and Chhapera par^anas than in 
- - ” * , Pachor than in 





Scale lkelis:4 Miles 

4 S 


References 

RAJGARH Road Metvlled 

N^RSINGHSARH Road Projected 

Dtipuht:/ Fair Weal’ber RoacI 


Vmf.4i', \ yM; 


Brihsh Post Off,ce . 
State Post Office , . 
TelagraphiOfftce . . 
Oak Bungalow . , 
Inspection Bungalow 
Stale Guest Hcuss 
Camping greuncl 
Serai . . . 

Thana 

Tahsil, 


PO ]h9nd^Tahsll 

a Oul Post , 

TO Battli’ fteldv 
It ^■‘cllal*olQglcdl places 
i Fairs 

d SHikai Pre<ierv’as 

f Foiesjl Reseive 

/ Cantonment 
f Fori 




ii\y '■fcwA JaJn, f I ^ 

W“ ■■■ I 


Aywllei. PopMlfll" 

NaHiiighgarli r+i a^osj 

Raj art) 9+0 883/6 

Sutlialia 20 4«23 


/'V o^/naiuuivi NA 

/ / T. — " If/md ^ Ai 

/ „/ * 1509 

“Fi i~JI 

|V‘ " ''c;/ \ £eini.pm . |\ 

; V/* • TTiS; 



K LA-' > ^ B /■ ,J« \ s™' . • 

• Ay#-™ ,ji^- ,. I', rt/l k -- 

::'“'A I ■Hfe -r*.>rs 


y* UmH 'd V j 
(I ^ \ \ / 

via AW 

IjBo' ’ - / 'I 


^ nisc/ Aa\. SA^' A'^^^y3&,’'''!bCT.-.''Wi"„ J-X 

,fc •*», "yf^A I “iV VXT- 5V 

?«to/ km ^^ySpWt A/A aA/^-^^'A./ '.y • \ T v ^7' f W"" A«wj\ \ ' ' :/ ^•'i 

Af^yiy »t;\ S i'/v 7A-?yt A--'^y“y'" A“'S7 aJ 


?«to/ km ^^ySpwt ‘/A aAt V* \ T v ^7' f W"" A«wj\ \ ' ' :/ 

Z»i.* kWyA XT’ A 1 j7( \/ /)A\ pAv X* /.vi 

UBi'Xi/A./l' ' V'”'’‘'™'"^i ^ An' I’ f/X'^A a'\*T ' ’'-•'I '“i »\ •?' YfcwjyT*' / 

rW" Ah'-'-?:} '^f.\'A¥^ J 

/ 7aJ/A f7iv'y(W>ArM 

^\ Si ‘"''P ilis'X”*. VXa(X ' >' Vhw 






V.\ ^ ! m 

'^1 ^((miQclu 


^ / [hnm T i _ I /-"i i ' \ 

/ ; i ii . , i A 

f \ \ .. 'A ilTr Z y t! pi n \l T / 

,LulMvr' Mn 


I M5X_4a.' 

'|*»;'^k’'i ' V j&Mm A I 



r.vwXjV \ aa« yA'F'^r 
hHwL' 


fwSTttT' pfrf\ '( r-'--'" f'^ 

A ’ ■' f i/ X / “'Vf. f jAtf'fftl, 

I v*'^X^'fc'<»’W^r; y F / iXyr''^ 1 t'Ofjctnimmi '^M'Umaur . j \ PVTf 

1 ^ (,..« y,^,^ „l ^ J 

'1 X' Vw'^M 'lmfyXy‘-\x^ '(lfXf„'V' 


/7i:nw^J ' .' ^'1 

f 'i x \\/ A • X'’'% f f Nv '>'** ‘^<^,■1 

^’ l T i liiU iw/«s4' -r^ 

S X ■ A-A-PtAH t .hx' Jrl.«„ S A ’ I 


^ L 7R'' '/"’X" y77 M'- 

T A llKT A i *r.O'is 


S, - J O 


NARSINSHGARH 


\ RA^SARH 



/ fimal^nj 


iBim 

9 


1 










ARMS OF THE JAORA STATE. 



These are the arms used at present by the State. The com- 
ponent parts are explained thus : — 

Ams-*~“The crescent is the mark of Islam; the swords 
the national weapon of the Afghans ; the scale? 
indicate justice and equity. 

Supporters.— The lions indicate the protection of the 
British guarantee. 

Crest* — The star is the Heaven’s Light, 

Motto* — Requires no explanation. 


^ote:— arms given above are not those granted at Delhi in 1877, which were. 

Arms- — Vert ; three mullets argent pierced of the field in bend 
dexter within a bordure gobony argent and gules. 

Crest- — A tiger’s head erased argent. Supporters — Black 
buck. 

These are thus explained by Mr. Taylor. Green is 
the Musalman colour; white (argent) and gules 
are the colours of the Holkar banner, Ghafur 
Khan having been with Amir Khan a participator 
in Jaswant Rao Holkar’s fortunes. The mullets 
represent spur rowels in allusion to Pindari life. 
The motto given at the same time was Dil-wa-datdat, 
“ Stout heart, great wealth,” or Fortune favours 
the brave.” 





6 


Jaoza State Bonnet is 





ARMS OF THE JAORA STATE. 



These are the arms used at present by the State. The com- 
ponent parts are explained thus : — 

Arms* — The crescent is the mark of Islam; the swords 
the national weapon of the Afghans ; the scales 
indicate justice and equity. 

Supporters. — The lions indicate the protection of the 
British guarantee. 

Crest- — The star is the Heaven’s Light. 

Motto- — Requires no explanation. 


The arms given above are not those granted at Delhi in 1877, which were. 

Arms- — Vert ; three mullets argent pierced of the field in bend 
dexter within a bordure gobony argent and gules. 

A tiger’s head erased argent. Supporters—BIack 
buck. 

These are thus explained by Mr. Taylor. Green is 
the Musalman colour; white ( argent) and gules 
are the colours of the Holkar banner, Ghafur 
Khan having been with Amir Khan a participator 
in Jaswant Rao Holkar’s fortunes. The_ mullets 
represent spur rowels in allusion to Pindari life. 
The motto given at the same time was Dihwa-daulat, 
“ Stout heart, great wealth/’ or “ Fortune favours 
the brave.” 


Jaoza State Bannet is 



The colours are those of the Jaora house; the arms have been 
described above. 



Genealogrlcal Tree of the Jaora Family, 


I, — Abdul Ghafur Khan ( 1818 — 25) 
II.““Gliaus Muhammad Khan ( 1825 — 65) 
III* — Ismail Khan ( 1865—95) 

IV.— Iftikhat AU Khan ( 1895 )— 




CHAPTER L 

DESCRIPTIVE. 

Section I.— Physical Aspects. 

The State of Jaora lies in the section of Central India known as Situation and 
Malwa and is one of the three Treaty States in the Agency of the 
same name. The territories of the State are much split up, the main 
block consisting of the tahslls of Jaora, Barauda, Tal, Barkhera, and 
Nawabganj ; the remaining tahslls of Malhargarh and Sanjit being 
separated from the main block. The main block lies between 
23° 30' and 23° 55' N. and 74° 52' and 75° 32' E.; and the portion 
comprising the tahslls of Sanjit and Malhargarh, between 24° S' 
and 24° 20' N. and 75'^ 0' and 75° 28' E. The area of the State is 
568 square miles. 

No origin is traceable for the name Jaora. From the sanads Name, 
and other documents in the possession of Thakurs it is clear that 
the name is an old one. Before it came into the possession of 
Nawab Ghafur Khan it was a small village of 300 souls and was 
held by a Thakur of the Solanki clan. 

The main block is bounded on the north and east by the territo- Boundaries 
ries of Gwalior and Dewas, on the south by portions of Ratlam and 
Gwalior, and on the west by portions of Gwalior and Partabgarh. 

The district of Nawabganj is separated from the rest by the Thakurat 
of Piploda ; the tahslls of Sanjit and Malhargarh are surrounded on 
all sides by portions of Gwalior and Indore; patches of these States 
also intervene and cut up these tahslls into many small sections. 

Except the western portion of Nawabganj which is hilly, the rest Natural divi- 
of the country is typical of Malwa, consisting of undulating plains 
dotted over with isolated flat-topped hills. 

There are only two rivers of importance in the State, the Maleni Rivers, 
and the Chambal. The Maleni, which is a tributary of the latter, 
rises in the hilly country near Sailana and flows through Jaora 
territory* into the Dewas State where it joins the Chambal It 
drains the whole of the Jaora tahsil and part of Barauda. The 
Chambal, which has its source in the western slopes of the Vindhya 
hills, flows in a northerly direction and receives the drainage of part 
of the Barauda tahsil and of the whole of the Tal and Barkhera 
tahslls. It is joined near Sipavra (a village of Barkhera ) by the 
Sipra river, which here divides the territories of the State from 
those of Jhalawar. The banks are steep and the river little used 
for irrigation. The Chambal runs throughout the whole year, but 
the Maleni, only for four months in the year. 



182 


JAORA STATE^ 


Two potty streams flow through the tc^hslls of Malhargarh 
and San jit, the Sau, and the Retam, tributaries of the Chambal* 
The Sau has its source in the hills of Partabgarh and flowing 
past the town of Mandasor, separates the territories of Gwalior 
and Jaora, it then enters the Sanjit tahsll and empties itself 
into the ChambaL The Retam flows in an easterly direction. No 
facilities are afforded by any of these rivers for irrigation. 


Geology. ^ 


Botany, » 


Fauna. 


The State has not as yet been surveyed but lies mainly, if not 
entirely, on Deccan Trap. 

The flora are those common to Malwa, consisting mainly of scrub 
jungle containing species of Capparis, Grewia, Zizyphus, and Wood- 
fofdidi with trees of 3ute<z, HofnhuXi and Anogetssus ; here and 
there Boswellia is met with. Many herbaceous plants also flourish 
of the order Leguminosae, Boraginae, and Compositae, 

Leopard and bear are occasionally met with and black-buck 
{Afitilope cctvicctpt^d') and chiiikdfci {Guzcllcf hcuctH) are not 
uncommon. Small game is plentiful. 


Climate and '^’he climate of the State is very equitable, sharing in the condi- 
rainfall tions common to the plateau. The temperature seldom rises much 
(Tables I and jg usually between 80'" and 70°. The average rain- 

fall is 30 inches. 


Malhargarh has a scantier rainfall than the other tahsiJs, the 
average being 24 inches. During the famine of 1899-1900 only 
12*8 inches were recorded. 

The rainfall returns of the last twenty-five years shew a maximum 
of 43 inches in 1900-01 and a minimum of 12*8 in 1899-1900, the 
year of famine. The excessive rains of 1900 caused considerable 
flooding in the low-lying parts of the country, the crops being 
seriously damaged. 

Slight tremors of earthquake were felt in 1881, 1891, 1898, 
Cyclone, etc. 1902, In 1857 very heavy floods occurred in Barauda inundat- 
ing the whole tahsU, 

Section II.— History. 

( See Genealogical Tree. ) 

The ancestors of Abdul Ghafur Khan came from Swat and 
belonged to the Tajik Khel. During the reign of Muhammad Shah 
( 1719 — 43) Abdul Ghafur Khan’s grandfather, Abdul Majid Khan, 
came to India in hopes of making his fortune. On arriving in India 
he joined the service of Nawab Zabta Khan of Najibabad in a 
humble capacity, under Ghulam KMir Khan, the son of Zabta Khan, 

(1) By Mr. E. Vredenburg, Geological Survey of India, 

( 2 ) By Lieut-Col, D. Prain, I, M. S., Botanical Survey of India, 



HISTOET, 


183 


and rose to be a confidential adviser and attendant. Abdul Majid 
had two sons, Abdul Hamid and Abdul Rashid, the latter being one 
of the most learned men of his day. After the death of their father, 
the two brothers entered the service of Ghulam KadirKhan, remain- 
ing in his service until 1788 when he was put to death by Sindhia 
for the atrocities practised on the aged Emperor Shah Alam, 

After this event the two brothers went to Rampur in Rohilkhand 
where Abdul Rashid Khan, the younger brother, devoted himself to 
literary studies. The elder, Abdul Hamid Khan, settled down as an 
agriculturist in Bhainsia, a village of Rampur, where four sons, 
Abdul Karim Khan, Abdul Hakim Khan, Muhammad Nazim Khan 
and Abdul Ghafur Khan were born to him. Abdul Ghafur Khan, the 
youngest, married the daughter of Akhund Muhammad Ayaz Khan, 
a cousin of his father, Abdul Hamid Khan. Another daughter of 
Ayaz Khan was married to the emperor Bahadur Shah and thus 
Ghafur Khan was connected with the last of the Mughal emperors. 
Abdul Ghafur Khan spent most of his time between Delhi and 
Jaipur. In the latter place his father-in-law held a high post with 
the title of Nawab, 

At this time the famous quarrel, regarding the hand of the 
Sesodia Princess, Krishna Kumari, arose between the Chiefs of Jaipur 
and Jodhpur. Ayaz Khan joined with the free-booter, Amir Khan, 
the founder of the Tonk State in Rajputana, in settlingthe dispute.^ 
The friendship thus started led Ayaz Khan to give his youngest 
daughter in marriage to Amir Khan'who thus became Ghafur Khan’s 
brother-in-law. Ghafur Khan then joined his brother-in-law. In 
1808 JaswantRaoHolkar became insane and the Indore State was 
managed by Bala Ram Seth under the directions of Tulsi Bai. A 
mutiny in Holkar’s army gave Amir Khan a chance of interfering, 
and after assisting Tulsi Bai in quelling the disturbance, he left 
for Rajputana, Ghafur Khan remaining behind as his representative 
at the Holkar court. Ghafur Khan, at this time, is said to have 
received the title of Nawab “ and an assignment of Rs. 20,000 per 
mensem from Bala Ram Seth for the support of himself and a body 
of one thousand horse, which he agreed to maintain. In the disturb- 
ances caused by the revolt of Dharma Kunwar, Ghafur Khan 
was instrumental in assisting Holkar ‘by giving timely notice to ' 
Amir Khan. 

After the death of Jaswant Rao in 1811 disputes arose as to 
the succession of Malhar Rao, the adopted son of Tulsi Bai, in 
which Ghafur Khan espoused the cause of Malhar Rao. ___ 

Rajasthan, I, Menaar, Chapter XVII, page 429 J Mdrwar, II, Chapter XIV, 
page 137 ; Chapter XV, page 141; Central India, I, page 267. 

K In 1808 the received the titles of Nawab and Iftikkdr-ud~daula from 
Amir Khan, Prinsep’s Zife of Atnir Khan, page 360. This, however, 
is said to be an incorrect statement, not supported by the State records. 


184 


JAORA STATE. 


Ghafur Khan After tlie battle of Mehidpur (21st December, 1817) in which 
( 1817 — 25 ). he abstained from taking an active part, and the subsequent 
flight of Malhar Rao Holkar, Ghafur Khan sent Mir Zaffar 
AH, his agent, to offer his submission to the British, On the 
conclusion of the treaty of Mandasor on 6th January, 1818, ^ Ghafur 
Khan was guaranteed the possession of the Sanjit, Malhar- 
garh, Tal, Mandawal, Jaora, and Barauda® tahsUs, the tribute of 
Piploda and the sdyccr dues of the whole tract, on the condition 
that he and his heirs should maintain a body of 600 horse to 
co-operate with the British forces. Amir Khan, however, protested 
against the clause on the ground that the original grants had really 
been made to his son, Nawab Vazir-ud-daula, and although Ghafur 
Khan’s name had been used, he was acting merely as his repre- 
sentative. ® Amir Khan’s claims were, however, rejected. In 1823 
the quota of troops required to be maintained under the treaty was 
fixed at 500 horse, 500 foot, and 14 guns. 


In 1821, certain agreements were mediated between the Nawab 
and the Malhargarh Thakurs. The Malhargarh Thakurs claimed 
to be tributary jdglrddrs, but it was held that they were merely 
guaranteed lease-holders, their tenure depending on the due observ- 
ance of the terms of their tenure ; until 1890 they were a constant 
source of trouble to the Darbar. 

Ghafur Khan died in 1825 leaving an infant son, Ghaus Muham- 
mad Khan. 


Ghaus Ghaus Muhammad Khan, an infant of two years old, succeeded, 
his investiture being made in the name of Malhar Rao Holkar to 
(1825—65). -v^horh a nazardna of two lakhs was presented. Ghafur Khan’s elder 


widow, Musharraf Begam, was appointed guardian with her son-in- 
law, Jahangir Khan, to assist in the administration. Two years 
afterwards owing to mismanagement, the Begam was removed 
from the guardianship and the administration entrusted to Maulvi 
Muhammad Said Khan, Usman Khan being appointed guardian 
to the Nawab. Muhammad Said Khan was followed by Sheikh 
AH Azam, and finally Captain Borthwick ; the State remaining under 
superintendence till 1842, when Ghaus Muhammad Khan received 
administrative powers. 


. The masonry bridge over the stream which passes through 
the centre of the town was built by Captain Borthwick during the 
minority of this Chief, who also established hoiwdlis in the tahslls 
where criminal cases were heard, appeals lying to the general 

1 See Appendix A. 

a Originally granted to him in 1810, Life of Am%r Khan^ 393. 

s Life of Amir Khdn^ pages 47S'6. 



HISTCHY^ 185 

criminal court at Jaora. He also opened a hospital, and a court 
of Muhammadan law presided over by a Maulvi. 

In 1842 when the Western Malwa Contingent was amalgamated 
with the Eastern Malwa Contingent furnished by the Indore and 
Dewas States, the quota of troops to be maintained by Jaora was 
commuted for a yearly contribution of Half Rupees 1,85,810 
(equivalent to about Government Rupees 1,82,614), During the 
mutiny of 1857 the Nawab rendered most important and loyal 
services to the Government of India and as a reward' the contri- 
bution was again reduced to Hali Rupees 1,61,810-4-0 (equivalent 
to Government Rupees 1,59,027) and an increase of 2 guns was 
made in his salute. In 1862, the Government of India granted 
a sanad guaranteeing the succession to the State in accordance with 
Muhammadan Law and custom in the event of the failure of natural 
heirs. In 1865 the Chief received permission from the Govern- 
ment of India to adopt the titles of Mohtasham-datda and 
as personal distinctions. Nawab Ghaus Muhammad 
Khan was a very popular ruler. He died in 1865 leaving an only 
son, Muhammad Ismail Khan, then 11 years of age. Nawab Ghaus 
Muhammad’s chief adviser and minister was Hazrat Nur Khan, 
the father of the present minister, Yar Muhammad Khan, who 
will be always remembered in Jaora as the builder of the city wall. 

It had been intended that during the minority of Muhammad 
Ismail Khan, the late Nawab’s mother should act as the nominal 
head of a Council of Regency, but her death occurred within a few 
days of that of her son. It was then decided that the adminis- 
tration of the State should be carried on as in the lifetime of the 
young Nawab’s father, subject to the control of the Political Agent 
in Western Malwa. The Nawab was accordingly installed by the 
British Government in the name of Holkar to whom according to 
precedent a ndzafdna of two lakhs of rupees was presented by 
the Nawab. In return the Maharaja Holkar offered a khilat of 
Rs, 5,000 but this, with the permission of the Government of India, 
was returned by the Nawab as being out of proportion to the 
nazardna. The Chief then adopted the titles of Ihtisham'Ud-datda 
and Firozjang as personal distinctions. 

Attempts were made by the Nawab of Tonk, on behalf of his 
step-sister, the elder widow of Nawab Ghaus Muhammad Khan, to 
interfere with the succession and management of the Jaora State. 
For these proceedings he incurred the severe displeasure of Govern- 
ment and was forbidden to send any one to Jaora, or to concern 
himself in any way with State affairs. 

Protests were also made by Holkar against the grant by the British 
Government of a samd of succession, and against the recognition 
and installation of the young Nawab without his knowledge or 


Ismail Khan 
C1865-95). 



186 


JAOHA STATE. 


consent. His claim to be consulted on the succession was held to be 
untenable under Article 12 of the Treaty of Mandasor, by which the 
British Government distinctly guaranteed Jaora to Nawab Ghafur 
Khan and his heirs on certain conditions, and as unwarranted by 
any precedent. In 1874 Nawab Muhammad Ismail Khan whose 
education had been supervised by a British offxcer specially deputed 
for the purpose was entrusted with the administration of the State. 
Hazrat Nur Khan> C. S. I., his father’s chief adviser, remained on as 
minister. In 1881 the Nawab abolished all transit duties on salt 
passing through Jaora State, and in consideration of this act an 
annual compensatory payment of Rs. 2»500 is made by the British 
Government. In the same year he was made an Honorary Major 
in British Army, In 1881, Ismail Khan dispensed with the services of 
Hazrat Nur Khan, who had conducted the administration most ably 
for about 16 years, and himself assumed the direct management of 
affairs. On the advice of the Political authorities, however, a 
Council of four was appointed to assist him in conducting public 
business. The Nawab, however, objected to their attempt to 
control his 'expenditure and the councillors gradually with drew 
from their position as advisers, with the result that in 1885 the 
State finances shewed a deficit of 16 lakhs. The State treasury was 
empty and an application to [the Government was made for a loan 
of two lakhs. Arrangements were then made by the Government 
to extricate the State from its difficulties and a treasurer was 
appointed who wajjmade responsible to the Political Agent, and a 
regular budget was drawn up which could not be exceeded. 

In 1883, a son, Muhammad Iftikhar Ali Khan, was born to the 
Nawab and was recognised by Government as his successor. In 
1885 the Nawab selected Yar Muhammad Khan and Umrao 
Muhammad Khan the sons of Hazrat Nur Khan to assist in the 
administration. The former, whose services were borrowed from the 
Government of India, was eventuaUy appointed as minister in 1887. 

In 1887 all transit duties, except those on opium, were abolished 
in honour of the Jubilee of Her late Majesty the Queen- Empress. 

By 1887-88 the financial affairs of the State had improved and a 
further retrenchment was effected by the Chief who reduced the 
number of his military followers. 

In 1888 hegar or the forced labour system was abolished, The 
Nawab attended Indore on the occasion of Lord Lansdowne’s 
visit to Central India, and had the honour of paying and receiving 
visits from His Excellency the Viceroy. The Chief, at this time, 
decided to abolish the ijdra system of farming out villages to contrac- 
tors, and means to carry out the reform were set on foot the same 


year. 



HISTOET. 


187 


The marriage of the Chief’s daughter with the Nawabof Rampur 
was celebrated at Jaora in 1893. On March 5th, 1895, the Nawab, 
who had been ill for some time, died. Ismail Khan like his prede- 
cessor was most loyal to British Government. Under the orders of 
the Agent to the' Governor-General, Khan Bahadur Yar Muhammad 
Khan assumed charge of the State, the Chief being a minor. 

Nawab Iftikhar Ali Khan, the present Chief, was born on the 17th htikhar Ali 
January, 1883. He was installed on the 29th July, 1895, by the 
Agent to the Governor- General in Central India. The installation 
Darbar was attended by all the principal yagi/'d'drs, officials, and 
merchants of the State. Some Thakurs did not, however, attend on 
the pretext that the seats allotted to them at the Darbar were not 
suitable to their rank. For this insubordination several were punished 
by the attachment of their villages and by the infliction of fines. 

The debt of 16 lakhs, which had long embarrassed the State, was 
cleared off this year. Captain the Hon’ble A. F, Napier was appointed 
guardian and tutor to the young Chief who joined the Daly College 
at Indore. In 1898 the Agent to the Governor- General opened the 
new Zenana Dispensary built in commemoration of Her Majesty the 
Queen-Empress’s Diamond Jubilee, while the Victoria Institute, also 
erected in commemoration of the Diamond Jubilee, was opened by 
Major R. H. Jennings, the Political Agent, in January, 1898. The 
IstimrardarSi and guaranteed Thakurs whose villages had been 
attached in 1895, owing to their insubordination, received them back 
on a full apology being tendered to the Darbar, and on their written 
promises that they would not, in future, deviate from the path 
of allegiance. In this year the currency was reformed. On 17th July, 

1898, Captain the Hon’ble A. F. Napier died at Indore and the 
appointment was given in 1899 to Captain D. Cameron of the 
Central India Horse. Iftikhar Ali Khan served in the Imperial 
Cadet Corps for about 15 months leaving the Corps in 1902, 

In January 1903 at the Coronation Darbar as an Imperial Cadet 
he rode in the escort of His Excellency the Viceroy and in addi- 
tion he attended the Darbar as a Ruling Chief, The Chief continued 
his studies at the Daly College until December, 1899, when he went 
to live at Jaora and commenced learning the work of administration 
under the supervision of the minister. The Chief was married to 
his cousin, the minister Yar Muhammad Khan’s only daughter, on 
the 8th March, 1903, and was granted full powers of administration 
in March, 1906, 

The Chief bears the titles of His Highness and Nawab and enjoys Titles, 
a salute of 13 guns, the titles of Fdkhr-ud-daula sxidSaulatjmg 
being personal to the present Chief. 



188 


JAORA STATE. 


Feudatories. 22 Thakurs, who hold under the British guarantee, are divided* 

into three classes, viz:, Jagtrdars, Istimrdrddrs, and Hereditary lease 
holders. Piploda and Bilaud belon'g to the first class. The former 
pays an annual tribute to the Darbar, while the latter hold ihis jdglf 
free. The Thakurs .of Tal, Sirsi, Sadakheri, Kherwasa, Barkhera* 
Khojankhera, Uparwasa, Shajaota, and Sidri hold villages on 
ibstimrdr tenure and pay an annual fixed rent to the Darbar. The 11 
Malhargarh Thakurs are mere hereditary lease holders and their 
leases are subject to periodical revisions. The incomes of their 
holdings range from Rs. 60,000 to Rs. 300. Ten jdglrddrs hold 
directly from the Darbar those of Amba, Mandawal, and Pahera, 
having been in existence prior to the foundation of the State; while 
Banikheri and Hunkheri ^were granted for service rendered, and 
the others given to relations and members of the Chief’s family. 

Archeology. No archaeological remains are to be met with in the State. At the 
junction of the Chambal and Sipra rivers, however, near the village 
of Sipavra, stands an old temple dedicated to Kamleshwar Mahadeoj 
with a stone ghat leading down to river. Large numbers of people 
gather here from the surrounding country in the month of Baisdkh 
at the full moon to bathe. The name of the founder of the temple 
and the date of its construction are not known. Anand Rao Ponwar 
granted 60 blghas of land for the support of Gusain priests connected 
with the temple, a right still enjoyed by their descendants. 

Section Ill.—Population* 

(Tables III and IV.) 

Enumerations Three regular enumerations have been made in 1381, 1891, and 
1901, giving, respectively, a population of 108,834, 117,650, and 
84,202. The decrease of 39 per cent, between 1891 and 1901 was due 
to the severe famine and disease of 1899-1900. It should be 
mentioned that Sir John Malcolm had a Census made in 1820 which 
gave a population of 66,958. 

Density. The mean density is 148 per square mile, but the rural density is 
only 98. 

Towns and Two towns Jaora (23,774) and Tal-Mandawal (4,954 ) and 
Villages. 337 villages ^ are situated in the State, Of the latter 319 have a 
population of less than 500, the average population being 164 
persons to a village. 

Migration. Of the total population 58,354 or 69 per cent, were born in Jaora 
and 17,933 mother States of the Central India Agency, Of foreigners 
most came from Jodhpur and the United Provinces. 

I Since the Census of igoi nine ^more villages have been brought on the 
Register. 



POPULATION. 


189 


In 1901 males numbered 42,686 and females 41,516, giving 972 
females to 1,000, males. The figures for civil condition shew 102 
wives to 100 husbands. 

Classified by religions there were 62,405 Hindus or 74 per cent 
3,314 Jains, 15,854 Musalmans or - 19 per cent., 2,585 Animists, 
25 Christians, and 19 others. All the Christians and 72 per cent of 
the Musalmans live in Jaora town. 

The prevailing form of speech is Malwi and Rangri spoken by 
64 per cent of the inhabitants. Of the total population 3,668 or 
4 per cent were able to read and write, of whom 108 were females. 

The language used officially and in the State Courts is Urdu, 

The population is mainly agriculturist, about 90 per cent 
obtaining a livelihood from occupations connected with the soil. 

In Jaora town Muhammadan influence in dress is very marked 
particularly among the educated classes, even Hindu clerks and 
officials when attending office dressing themselves in the chogha^ 
achkan, sdfa^ and paijdma. The more educated classes, both 
Muhammadan and Hindu, now dress their hair in European 
fashion. In feeding, style of living and style of house also the 
Hindus imitate Muhammadans, On ceremonial occasions when a 
Hindu invites a Muhammadan friend, he treats him, as far as the 
ceremonial is concerned, just like his Hindu brethren and vice 
versa. The expenses of marriages among the rich are from 
Rs. 1, 000 to Rs. 5, 000, among middle class from Rs, 500 to 
Rs. 1, 000, and among poor from Rs, 50 to 200, 

Muhammadan cultivators and other Muhammadans living in villages 
observe Hindu ceremonials very largely in their marjcjages, thus 
they worship the goddess of small-pox, fix the toran ( a wooden 
arch ) over the door in the middle of which they put the wooden 
figure of a parrot, and also fix a plough {hal) on the door, while 
observing many other Hindu customs. Muhammadans can hardly 
be distinguished from Hindus in villages except by their beards and 
closely-cut moustaches. Among the rich and middle classes of 
Muhammadans the pagrl, angarkha, and paijdma are giving place 
to Parsi caps, the fez, shirts, frock-coats, collars, and neckties, 
Muhammadan women in villages wear Hindu ornaments. Malwi 
Brahmans in Jaora wear a Marathi 

The spread of English education and increased facilities for 
trade are causing people to lead a more civilised form of life, 
and to expect amenities which 20 years ago were considered 
unattainable luxuries, thus entailing greater expense in living. This 
is exemplified by the fact that whereas there was only one shop 
for the sale of European goods before the Railway reached Jaora, 
15 new shops have now been started and the demand for such 


Sex and civil 
condition. 


Religions. 


Language and 
literary. 


Official 

language. 

Occupations, 


Social 

ohAkacte- 

RISTICS. 

Press. 


Castom, 


Amenities; 



190 JAOEA STATE, 

goods is increasing yearly. The condition of the cultivator and 
labourer in spite of the famine of 1899-1900 is three times as 
good as it was 20 years ago. 

Dai]y life. Traders and artisans rise at 5 in the morning and labour to 
12 noon and then from 1 P. M. to 6 P. M. Meals are taken at 
6 A. M,, mid-day, and 8 P. M. The meals consist of wheat and joivarl 
bread, and vegetables. They rest at 10 p, M. After the mid-day 
meal traders and artisans rest for one hour. 

Cultivators and field labourers rise before day-break and take out 
the cattle to graze, returning at sun-rise when they breakfast on 
jowdri and maize before proceeding to fields ; at mid-day they rest 
for one hour, and resume work from 1 to 6 P. M. The evening 
meal is taken at sunset. 



CHAPTER IL 

ECONOMIC. 

[ Tables VII to XV, and XXIX and XXX, ] 

Section I.— Agriculture. 

[ Tables VII to X. ] 

The Jaora State possesses some of the richest soil in Malwa General 

conditions. 

while it is for the most part highly fertile. Being dependent 
however, on the rainfall for its water supply, the total failure of rain 
in 1899-1900 led to a famine and notwithstanding liberal measures 
adopted for relief, about 30,000 persons succumbed to disease and 
starvation, which considerably decreased the resources of the State 
while much land went out of cultivation. 

The land of the Barkhera tahsll is undulating with a fall towards ^ Conditions 
the Chambal on the north, the soil being fairly fertile ; in Tal, the 
land is mostly level or undulating with soils of good quality ; in 
Barauda the land -is level consisting mostly of kali soil ; the 
surface of the Jaora tahsll is undulating with a fall towards the 
Maleni on the east, the soil being also largely hall ; conditions in 
Nawabganj are similar; in Malhargarh and Sanjit the land is level 
and fertile with a few small hills, here and there, which do not 
interfere with cultivation. 

The soils recognized are very numerous, the more important being Soils. 
kail or black, pill or yellow, hhurl or grey, retill or sandy, kankreli 
or nodular and gritty, paihrill or stony, and khan or'^saline. 

Each soil is subdivided into classes according to its depth and 
power of retaining moisture. 

Kail is a deep loamy soil (the black cotton soil of Europeans), 
pm a shallower soil than kali with less power of retaining 
moisture used chiefly for kharlf crops ; hhurl is a grey soil of similar 
properties to the last, while kankreli, pathrill and kharl are poor 
soils, which can only be cultivated during or soon after the rains. 

Classified by position soils are classed as chauras or level, Ihdlii- 
wait or uneven and sloping and talai, the last, being land situated 
in the hollows along the Chambal and Maleni rivers, consisting of 
rich alluvial deposits and growing excellent crops of maize, wheat, 
and gram. Other terms used are hlr (grass reserves), charnoi 
(village), grazing land capable of being cultivated), banjar (waste 
land), and goya (grazing land, but uncultivale),^ addn or garden 
land, and hdra or land capable of being manured, which will grow 
vegetables, tobacco, and maize. 

Two seasons are followed, the kharlf or autumn crop season Seasons, 
and the rahi or spring season, the former lasting from about 



192 


JAORA STATE. 


June to October and the latter from about October to March. Jowar 
and maize are the predominating crops in the autumn and wheat, 
gram, linseed and poppy in the spring. 

The normal area under cultivation is about 157,700 acres of 
which 11,400 acres are irrigated. 

Fields are prepared for the khartf at the end of May, the seed 
being sown as soon as some rain has fallen. During the rains, the 
rahi land is ploughed several times so as to allow the water to 
penetrate the soil. It is sown in October and November. The more 
sandy and less fertile soils are always sown first. Artificial irriga- 
tion is not required for the grain crops. 

Rotation is not very systematically practised. Jowar is generally 
doubfe "sowing rotated with wheat or gram and sometimes with cotton. If the soil 
is irrigated, maize or san is sown first and reaped and then poppy is 
put in, sometimes urad and san are sown first and when these are 
flowering, the plough is passed over them, thus forming a green 
manure in which poppy is sown. Two crops are often sown 
together, such as jowdr^ and tuar^ a very common combination being 
poppy and sugarcane ; but this double sowing affects the out-turn of 
poppy, though not to any great extent that of the sugarcane. This 
combined cultivation of sugarcane and poppy is considered very 
profitable by the cultivator as he gets the product of two crops 
consecutively. Practically, all irrigated land is dufasli, bearing two 
crops, an autumn and a spring crop ; in first class land two crops 
can be sown without irrigation. When tobacco is sown on irrigated 
ground, onions are usually sown afterwards ; but in an unirrigated 
area no second crop is possible. In soils lying near villages, maize 
is sown first and if rain falls in November or December gram or 
masur is put in as a second crop. 

Manure. Manuring is confined to poppy fields and land near villages. The 
manure used consists of village sweepings, cowdung, and, sometimes 
but not often, human excretion. 

Implements. The most important implements are the hakhhar or weeding 
plough or harrow, the hal or plough, ndli or seed drill, j>hdora or 
spade, and hhurpa or hoe. 

Area sown at The normal area sown at the khartf is about 197,400 acres and 
Txable X*]. 34,900 acres. The chief crops are at the khartf^ jowar 

14,800 acres, maize 23,600 acres, cotton 32,000 acres; and at the rahi 
wheat 7,000 acres, gram 7,500acres, and linseed 8,900 acres : poppy 
covers about 11,500 acres. 

food'^(fo\ The principal crops at the khartf harvest are maize or makka 
each rar^ves^. mays),jowdr {Sorghum vulgare)^ bdjra {Pencillaria spicata)^ 
urad(Phascolmradiatu$)t tuar {Cajanus indicus)^ m^ng {Phaseolus 
mungo)f tilU {Sesammi indicum)^ sal {Oryza sativa)^ hodra^ 


Cultivated 

area. 

(Table IX). 
Agricultural 
practice. 


Botation, 
dxifasli and 



AGRICITLTUBED. 


193 


[Paspalunt sioloniferum), sdmdn {Panicum frumenfaceum), chaola 
{Doliclios sinensis), mungphall {Arachis hypogea ) ; and at the rabi, 
wheat (Triticum aestivum), gram {Cicer arietinum), jau {Hordeum 
vulgare), alsi {Linum usitatissimum), masur {Ervum lens). 

Oilseeds are tilli {Sesamum indicum), rdmtilli Oilseeds,. 

oleifera), and linseed. 

Of fibres the most important is cotton {Gossypium indicnni) \ san Fibres. 
{Crotolaria juncea), and amhdrl or pdt saH {Hibiscus cannahinus] 
being cultivated to a lesser extent. 

Dill-seed, cumin-seed and coriander are sown in small quantities, Spices, 
and chillies, garlic, onions, turmeric, and ginger in some quantity. 

Poppy is the only stimulant grown in Jaora. Stimulants. 

The commonest fruits and vegetables are guavas, mangoes, lemons, Fruits and 
custard-apples, pomegranates, plums, figs, mulberry, plantain, vegetables, 
peaches, oranges, tamarind, aonla ; and the vegetables usually 
grown cabbage, turnip, raddish, carrot, beet-root, potato, various 
gourds, cucumber, cauliflowers, brinjals, and other native plants. 

Jowdr is the staple food of the poor at all seasons of the year, staple food 
maize in the rains and bdjta from November to March, while wheat 
is consumed by the rich throughout the year, and by the middle 
classes from March to June. The aboriginal tribes live on kodra 
and sdmdn and other inferior grains. The subsidiary crops grown 
are nrad, mung, masw, chaola, and tuar* 

No new agricultural implements have been introduced, except Progress, 
the roller sugarcane press, which is now generally used for 
extracting the juice. An iron bucket for drawing water from 
wells has also been tried, but has not proved popular. 

The introduction of foreign varieties of seed has not been Improvement 
attended with success, in the famine year of 1899 foreign wheat ' 
and gram seeds were sown in small quantities, but the plants did 
not grow well, and bore no grain. 

Irrigation is practically confined to poppy, sugarcane, mungphall 
and vegetables being only very occasionally used with wheat, ^ ^ ® 
barley, and gram. Except in 1899-1900 when the rainfall was very 
scanty, the water supply has always been sufficient. 

The principal sources of water are wells and orhls. The water Sources, 
is raised from wells and orhls by the charas and is distributed 
through channels from tanks ; tank irrigation is, however, met 
with only in a few places. 

Masonry wells ordinarily cost about Rs. 400 and kachcha or Wells, 
earthen wells Rs. 200. 



194 


JAOBA STATE. 


Area irrigated The normal irrigable area is 11,400 acres or 7 per cent, of the 

cultivated area. 


Cattle. There is no special breeding establishment in the State. The 

t.Tabie VII) agricultural classes keep cows and rear calves, and the local 
Malwi breed is produced here as elsewhere on the plateau. Their 
characteristics are a grey or silver grey colour, medium height, with 
deep wide frames and shapely bones with hard feet ; the dew lap and 
loose skin on the neck is well developed and the hump prominent. 
They are very strong and active. 

Horses, buffaloes, sheep, goats and to some extent camels are 
also reared. The average value of cows is Rs. 12, that of buffaloes 
Rs. 60, goats Rs. 2-8, sheep Rs. 2, horses Rs. 50, asses Rs. 5, camels 
Rs. 50, oxen Rs. 20. 


Pasture 

grounds. 


Cattle Dis- 
eases, 


Cattle fairs. 
( Table 
XXVUT.) 
Population 
engaged in 
agriculture. 


Takkavi. 


Since the famine of 1899-1900 much land has gone out of culti- 
vation resulting in an increase of grass land. Pasture grounds are 
ample everywhere and no difficulties are experienced in feeding 
cattle except in a case of absolute failure of the rains. In a normal 
year grass and karht (dried jowaf stalks) are more than sufficient, 
and villagers are able to sell green grass and karhl in excessof their 
own wants. 

Cultivators name a large number of diseases which affect cattle, 
the commonest are zaharbdd, an abscess ; kurkiirl^ an abdominal pain 
or cholic ; kharat^ foot and mouth disease ; and chilli^ an affection of 
the lungs. In almost all cases .'firing is first resorted to, internal 
remedies being given as stimulants. 

A list of fairs is given in the Table XXVIII. 

In every village 86 to 90 per cent, of the population live on agri- 
culture. Agriculturists belong to the Gujars, Kunbis, Dhakars, 
Dangis, Rajputs, Gadris, Sondhias, Mewatis, Bagris, and Anjanas 
castes. 

Cash advances (takJcdvi) are made by the State to cultivators. The 
rahi takkavi is given in the latter half of October or in November 
and is realized in March. Khanf takkavi is given in the latter half 
of June and July and is realized in J anuary. Interest at the rate 
of 6 per cent, per annum is charged by the State on these advances. 
Takkavi was formerly realized in kind at the rate called sawdiii 
li maunds of grain being taken for every maund given. Now the 
sawdin system has been abolished and interest is taken in cash. 
Takkavi is also given in the* shape of bullocks, and is realised in 
instalments. On bullock takkavi given in cash interest at 6 per 
cent, is charged. 

Section IL-~Wages and Prices. 


(Tables XIII and XIV.) 

Wages. The wages of both skilled and unskilled labour have during the 

last 30 years risen considerably, it is believed by about 60 per cent 



WAGES AND PRICES. 


195 


which is proved by the fact that a carpenter or smith who could be 
engaged for As, 4 per day, will hot now accept less than As. 6 or 7 
per day. Unskilled labour, however, temporarily became cheaper 
during the famine of 1899-1900 owing to the influx of the people 
from the famine-stricken tracts of Rajputana. On the other hand, 
reduction in population causes a rise when the immigrants leave 
the State. 

Prices of grain, oil-seeds, oik cotton, leather, ghl have risen above Prices. 

50 per cent, owing to increased exportation, but are much steadier 
than formerly, while the prices of European stores, fine cloth, kero- 
sine oil, sugar and other articles of kirana, such as betek spices, 
dyes, dried fruits, etc., have fallen. 

The condition of the different classes of the people is fair. The Material con- 

cultivator has, to a certain extent recovered from the effects of the of the 

people. 

famine 1899-1900. The position of the middle classes has not 
improved materially as many professional men are obliged to keep 
up an appearance which entails a heavy drain upon their usually 
small incomes. The day labourer, however, has profited by the rise 
in wages caused by famine and plague. 

Section III*— Forests. 

( Table IX. ) 

There are, strictly speaking, no forests in the State. Of the Trees, 
trees met with the hahM, sagan^ mango, khajur, bamboo, iilrn, and 
jamun are used for building purposes. The mahua is used for food 
while liquor is distilled from its flowers, the residue, after the liquor 
has been extracted, being given to cattle. An oil is also extracted 
from its seed, which is generally adulterated with ghi. 

The commonest grasses found are saxmjh halbij, and jejru, the Gl^rasses. 
seed of which is eaten by the people in famines. Among the grasses 
pn which cattle graze are goiida,^masun, gunrddi^ kalla^ lampria 
onia^ kdns {Imperata spontanea), and bhalia. 

Certain grass lands (bzrs) are reserved, no cattle being allowed to 
graze on them, the grass being cut and stacked for the use of the 
State. Timber is allowed to be cut only from those jungles which 
are not reserved. 

The jungles are in charge of the tahsllddrs, who are assisted by Control, 
forest patrols. Timber is sold, but cultivators are allowed to cut 
sufficient wood for building purposes and for their agricultural 
implements, free of charge. The cattle of villages adjoining forests 
are allowed to graze in them free of dues, but these cattle must be 
brought back. to the village at night. Poor people are allowed to 



196 


JAORA STATE. 


bring in a head-load of any kind 0 / jungle produce without paying 
any duty. 

Area. The area under reserve and unclassed forests is about 63,600 

acres. 

Kevenue, Revenue is derived from forest only by sale proceeds of grass. 

The receipts were in 1890, Rs. 600 ; 1900, Rs. 590 ; 1901, Rs. 159 ; 
and 1905, Rs. 1,275. 

t?cuUivators Concessions are given to encourage the clearance of jungle. 

‘ During the first year no land revenue is taken from the newly 
cleared land, in the second year a quarter of the usual rate is 
levied. The demand increases gradually every year till it reaches 
the full rate of assessment in the fourth year. Fruit trees planted 
by cultivators during their tenure of land are treated as their 
private property and they can dispose them of like other property 
in their possession. 

hTjunVle,*”^ Minas, Bagris and Kunbis live and work in the jungles. 

The rates of pay given to these men when engaged on forest work 
are for a man 3 annas, a woman 2, and a child Ir} daily. 

Classes. Trees are divided into two classes: Pahka kisam (valuable trees) 

and kachcha kisam ( ordinary ). 

In the first class are mango ( Mangifera indica)^ tamarind ( Ta* 
marindus indica), hahM {Accqcia arabica)^ shlsham (Dalbergta 
sissu ), jdmtm ( Eugeni jamholana ), khajur { Phoenix dactylifera)% 
sandal {Santalum album), dhdman (Grewia vestita), mahud [Bas^ 
sia latifolia ), temru (Diospyros tomentosa), her {Zizyphus jiijuha)^ 
kabU {Fcroniselephantum), khair {Acacia catechu), bamboo (various 
kinds), khirni (Mimusops hexandra). In the second class are 
dhdora { Anogeissus latifolia), khejra { Prosopis spicigera), gonda 
{Cordia myxa), ghlar ( Ficus glomerata), hhcikra {Bntca frondosa), 
plpal ( Ficus religosa ), bar ( Ficus indica ), karonda {Carissa 
carandas), karanj {Porgamia glabra), harra {Terminalia chcbtda), 
behdda {Terminalia belerica), amaltds {Cassia fistula)^ 

Section IV —Mines and Minerals, 

Stone quarries Except a few stone quarries there are no known mineral deposits 
of any importance. The quarries are worked chiefly by Chamars 
and Mewatis. 

Section V.— Arts and Manufactures* 

Hand Indus- Crude opium from the Tal, Barkhera and Barauda tahslls is 
made into opium at Jaora, that from Malhargarh and Sanjit going 
to Mandasor. The crude opium is purchased Jfom the cultivators 
by dealers and their agents and brought to th^ factory. 



COMMERCE AND TRADE. 


197 


Balais, Kolis, Salvis andBhambis weave coarse cloth called kliadl^ Cotton 
rezi and susi^ etc., which are considered much more durable and 
warmer than English manufactured cloth and are used chiefly by 
the labouring classes. 

Printing on various fabrics as dupatta^ dhoils, angochhas and Cotton 
handkerchiefs is practised at Jaora where there is an extensive 
manufacture of these stuffs. Carpets, blankets, tape (newdr), khadl, 
etc., are also prepared in the Central Jail at Jaora. 

Certain articles of jewellery characteristic of the State are made Jewellery, 
in Jaora, they are Hira-tarash-pazeb, of silver, bdlas or ear-rings of 
gold, and gold and silver buttons. 


The brass lotas manufactured in Jaora are noted for their good Brass and 
- , . copper work, 

workmanship. 


A ginning factory was established at Jaora in 1892. It contains Description 
16 gins ^vorked by a 20-horse power engine. The present staff fndustrk^ 
employed in the factory consists of ten hands, while the temporary (Table Xl). 
staff employed in the busy season, from December to March, 
numbers 50. Wages are paid at the rate of As. 3 for men and As. 2 
for women, per diem. 

The cotton seed {binola) from the ginning factory is of less value 
for sowing than that obtained from cotton cleared by hand. 


Section VL—Commerce and Trade* 


Before 1895 the taxes levied on merchandise were so exorbitant 
as to paralyse trade. A regular and easy tariff was then introduced, 
resulting in an immediate increase in commerce. Formerly a curious 
custom existed, by which money was lent by bankers to persons in 
State service on a State guarantee ; this system has been entirely 
abolished, as the indebtedness of the employees often told very 
severely on the State, which was obliged to settle their debts. The 
chief medium of exchange is the Government rupee and htmdls ; 
currency notes are not much used. 

The principal exports are cotton, opium, poppy-seed, rdmtilli^ grain, Exports and 
tobacco, linseed, and til ; and imports grain, piece-goods, sugar, rice, 
yams, ropes, tanned hides, metalware, kerosine oil, salt, and tea. 

Opium, cotton, poppy-seed, linseed, and grain are exported to 
Gujarat and Bombay; while, on the other hand, a considerable 
quantity of grain is imported from United Provinces and .Oudh and 
the Punjab. 

The chief centre of trade is Jaora. Weekly markets are held in all chief centres 
the tahsils except Barkhera. The Jaora market is attended by trade, 
about 3,000 sellers and buyers, and the tahstl markets by about 400 
or 500 persons. Grain, cattle, and daily requisites are sold in these 
markets. The markets are both distributing and collecting centres. 



198 


JAORA STATE. 


The chief articles of distribution being pottery, country cloth, grain, 
vegetables, oil, etc. The sellers are generally also producers. Bar- 
ter is not uncommon in sales of vegetables and grain between 
villagers. Banias generally collect local produce at these fairs and 
export it to Jaora, or more distant places where a demand exists. 

Collecting Messrs. Graham 8c Co. have a bulk oil depot at Jaora. The 
teg agencies? those of Gobind Ram Khemraj, Girdhari 

Lai, Sri Newas, Raghunath Das, Har Bhagat Das, Baldeo Das, 
Ram Chandra, Gulji Jagannalh, Lachminarayan, Badri Narayan, Bidi 
Chand Bachhraj, Moti Narajan, Punamchand [Dipchand. These 
native firms deal principally in grain, opium, sugar, and cloth. 

Principal The castes and classes engaged in commerce are Oswal Banias 
theh^* Malwa and Agarwal Banias from Shekhawati. They deal chiefly 
several fnnc- in grain, cotton, opium and cloths. Shia Muhammadan Bohoras 
tions. 2n European stores, metalware, spices, and oil. The Banias do 

some banking business, standing security for cultivators for the pay- 
ment of State dues. Parsis deal in European stores and native 
liquor ; Kunjras in spices, such as onions, garlic, ginger, chili, 
turmeric and coriander. 


Routes and ^ T}xe principal trade route is the Rajputana-Malwa Railway, and 
mode of cain- roads, the most important being the Jaora-Piploda road, Jaora- 

Ratlam road, and Jaora-Nimach road. Merchandise is conveyed 
by carts or by pack animals, bullocks, camels or ponies to the 
railways. The agricultural classes, Banjaras, Mewatis and Jats are 
the principal persons engaged in carriage. 

Opium is exported to Bombay by rail and grain to Gujarat, Mewar, 
and the Berar District of the Central Provinces. The last named 
place takes a large amount of jowar. 


Village shop- Shopkeepers are found only in large villages. They are usually 
keepers. Banias by caste and sell all necessary articles, provisions, etc., to 
villagers and travellers, while buying grain, ghl, opium and oilseed 
from villagers for export. They often barter spices, tobacco, gwf ^ 
and oil for grain, with villagers. 

Section VIL— Means of Communication. 


( Table XV. ) 

Railways. The Rajputana-Malwa Railway passes through the town of Jaora 
and also traverses the tahsll of Malhargarh, with a station at the 
latter place. 


Influence on 
famine. 


The influence of railways was marked during the famine of 
1899T900. Grain was imported from the Punjab in very large 
quantities by grain dealers, and merchants made considerable profits. 
But for the railway there would have been general migration. 



FAMINE. 


199 


Many technical terms have been introduced both in regard to On knguage. 
travelling and the carriage of goods, while the general use of English 
has become more common owing to easy communication with big 
towns in British India. 

Caste rules have been relaxed on journeys owing to the necessity on religion, 
of sitting next to persons of impure caste, and the difficulties 
attendant on ablution and feeding. On the other hand^ communication 
between isolated sections of different castes is easier and the bonds 
of caste brotherhood have been drawm tighter. 

There are two metalled roads in the main block of the State, the Road system 
Mhow-Nimach road, which after crossing the Maleni river passes CTable XV). 
through the State for 12 miles, and the Jaora-Piploda road with a 
length of about 18 miles. Both these roads are maintained by 
Government. 

A combined Post and Telegraph Office has been opened at Jaora Post and 
with branch Post Offices at Barauda, Malhargarh, Nawabganj, 

Sanjit, and Tal. XXIX). 

Section VIIL—Famine* 

( Table XXX. ) 

A total failure of the crops was unknown before 1899-1900 
though occasionally either the hharlf or failed partially, but 
never both crops. The average rainfall recorded at Jaora during the 
year 1899-1900 was 12‘8 inches, or less than half that received in a 
normal year. The rains opened well, heavy showers falling through- 
out June. In July, however, no rain was received. The sudden 
failure of the monsoon caused the loss of the entire kharlf crop, and 
fodder was very scarce. Hopes were entertained that the situation 
might be saved by good winter rains, that have never been known to 
fail in Malwa, but contrary to all precedent, they also failed. The 
result was a total loss of the rahi crop also. Immigration from Mewar 
and Marwar had commenced early in 1899 and continued throughout 
the year. From the beginning of January 1900 to the end of August, 
owing to the consumption of unwholesome food, dysentery, diarrhoea, 
and other stomachic disorders prevailed, and a virulent type cf 
cholera raged from April to July. These diseases claimed 12,000 
victims, of whom 9,000 were inhabitants of Jaora and 3,000 from 
other States. About 8 per cent, of the population was carried by 
these diseases. 

Relief works were opened and gratuitous relief afforded to all 
who required it. 

The cost of affording relief, both on works and by free grants, 
amounted to over 2 lakhs, the State supporting 11T6 per cent* of the 
population daily for several months. 



JAOKA STATE. 


CHAPTER III. 


Present 

tsm. 


sys- 


Adtninis t r a* 
live divi- 
sions 


Chief- 


ADMINISTRATIVE. 

(Tables XVI to XXVIL) 

Section I.— Administration. 

Before 1818 Jaora formed part of the Indore State. The admi- 
nistration up to as late as 1886 was of rather an incoherent and 
irregular description. The present system was inaugurated by 
Yar Muhammad Khan on his appointment as minister to Nawab 
Muhammad Ismail Khan in 1886. 

The State is, for administrative purposes, divided into four 
iahstls of Jaora, Barauda, T^-Barkhera, Sanjit-Malhargarh and 
(Table VIII). the Nawab ganj. tahsll is in charge of a tahsllddr 

assisted by a ndih-tahsilddr and the usual staff. The revenue 
work is in charge of the kdnungOy who supervises the patwdns and 
other subordinate revenue officials. The small tappa of Nawabganj 
is in charge of an amtl. 

The Chief is the final authority in all general administrative and 
civil judicial matters. In criminal cases, however, he is required to 
submit all sentences involving death to the Political authorities for 
confirmation. The Chiefs court is known as the Mohakma4-aUya- 
ijlds khds sarkdr Jaora* 

The minister is the principal executive officer and acting under 
the Chief’s orders disposes of cases of every description, revenue, 
criminal and civil, sending up sentences involving the penalty of 
death or imprisonment for life to the Chief for his consideration^ 
The minister also exercises a general supervision over the working of 
every department of the State and can appoint or dismiss any 
member of the subordinate service with the exception of the heads 
of Departments. 

The following are the chief departments of the administration — the 
Revenue department, Financial department, Judicial department, 
Educational department. Military department, Police department, 
Public works department, Medical department, Kdrkhdndjdt or 
Chief’s personal establishments, and the Vahtidt dealing with corres- 
pondence between the Political Agent and the Darbar, 

Certain recognised officials exist in every village. The paiwdrt 


I^inister. 


Bepartmen'ts. 


Village aulo- 
jjomy. 


is the village accountant, who keeps up the records of the State 
revenue demand, agricultural statistics, and the accounts of all 
transactions between the cultivator and his sureties; the paid exer- 
cises a general supervision over the village, reports offences, assists 
in extending cultivation, and in the collection of the State demands. 
He is also responsible for the waste of produce by cultivators ; the 



LAW AND JUSTICE. 


201 


havildat reports every matter, great or small, relating to the collection 
of the revenue demand to the tahsilddr^ and watches the crop of 
cultivators who have not given surety for the payment of their 
revenue; the chauktddr keeps watch and ward in the village, reports 
the commission of offences to the police, assisting the latter in trac- 
ing criminals ; ihe gaon-halai reports on all affairs of general interest 
and sees to the supply of provisions to the State officials visiting 
villages. As an instance, the village of Sohangarh may be taken, 
with a population of 542 persons living in 232 houses. 

The area amounts to 1,227 acres ( 1,964 hlghas ), of which 152 
acres (243 hlghas) are irrigated. The village possesses 475 head 
of cattle, of which 451 belong to cultivators, 200 being used for 
agricultural purposes. The prevailing cultivating caste is the Kunbi 
(41). The principal village officials are a patwdrl on Rs. 10 a 
month, paid by the State ; two pafels holding rent free land worth 
Rs. 93 and Rs. 88 per annum respectively, two chauklddrsiviih land 
worth Rs. 86 and 70 ; a havilddr (State servant) on Rs. 4 a month ; 
and a gaon-halai with land worth Rs. 22 a year, who also receives 
haks worth Rs. 27 a year from the villagers. 

Section Il.-Law and Justice. 

(Tables XVI and XVII.) 

No regular judicial system existed during the time of Nawabs Early days. 
Ghafur Khan and Ghaus Muhammad Khan, most cases being 
disposed of verbally. Only cases of great importance were reduced 
to writing and evidence recorded and a regular written judgment 
issued. Imprisonment was awarded for short terms only and res- 
pectable offenders were usually punished by confinement -within 
the palace walls. Sentence of death was seldom passed and event 
if passed, was usually commuted to life imprisonment ; accused 
were never handcuffed. 

In 1886 Yar Muhammad Khan on his appointment as minister, Present 
gradually introduced a judicial system modelled on that of Britis 
India, "adapted to suit local requirements, and appointed a retired 
Extra Assistant Commissioner from Berar as head of the judicial 
department. All iahsllddrs exercise magisterial powers in their 
respective tahsils, three holding second and three including the Nmb 
tahsUddr of San jit third class magisterial powers, and three out 
of the five tahsllddn are empowered to hear civil suits, when the 
value of the subject matter does not exceed Rs. 500. The N^ib 
tahsiUddr of Sanjit can hear civil suits up to the value of Rs. 50. 

In 1892 a local Criminal Procedure Code was issued with a Legislation, 
schedule of offences based on the Code of British India. W^henever 
any question arises, which cannot be settled by existing laws, a 
reference is made to the minister, who with the Chiefs concurrence 



202 


JAOEA STATE. 


Codes and 
Laws. 


Powers of 
courts* 


High Court or 
Murafa-iala, 


Cost. 

Value of pro- 
perty litiga- 
ted. 

Fees. 


issues a circular, deciding the point or points for the guidance of the 
courts concerned, and such circular has the force of law. Circulars 
regulating the procedure of the courts and the service of the sum- 
mons and warrants are also issued from time to time by the minister 
who deals with the enacting, amending, or repealing of any law in 
consultation with the Nawab. 

The codes issued in the State are the Criminal Code of Jaora 
State, with schedules of offences, and the Civil Procedure Code 
(British), also circulars and regulations issued by the minister deal- 
ing with various subjects, such as procedure, police, excise matters, 
and the like. 




Powers. 



Name of Court. 

To entertain 
suits. 

i 

Imprison- 

ment. 

Fine- 

Whipping. 

Appeal. 

Minister „ 

Any value. 

Appellate 0i 

ily .. 



Second ap- 
peal from 
Chief 
Judge. 

Chief Judge ... 

Rs, 15, coo 

3 years ... 

Rs. 1,000 

24 stripes ... 

First ap- 
peal from 

1 ower 
Court. 

Sub -Judge and 

Rs. 1,000 

6 months ,. 

Es. 160 . 

6 stripes ... 


Magistrate, First 
Class. 





Magistrate, Sec- 


3 months .. 

Rs. vr> 



ond Clas". 





Magistrate, Third 


3 weeks ... 

Rs. 2$ .. 


«•« 

Clas*?, 




Mnnsif at Jaora 
Town. 

Rs. £00 



«.*i.. 

#•4 


A final appeal lies to the Chief in civil suits and in criminal cases 
those involving transportation or imprisonment for life require his 
confirmation, while cases involving a death sentence require to be 
confirmed by the Political authorities. 

The cost of the judicial establishment is about Rs. 14,000 a year* 

The value of property litigated on from 1880 to 1900 was 13 
lakhs; in 1905 it was Rs. 35,000. 


The rate of fees leviable on the institution of civil suits on both 
the original and appellate side is 5 per cent, on the value of the suit 
and on saffa suits 10 per cent. 



T'I’S'AXCE. 


203 


Plaints or memoranda of appeal in suits to establish or disprove 
a right of occupancy are levied at the rate of 10 per cent., but plaints 
or memoranda of appeal in^ suits to obtain possession of a wife 
are admitted free. 

Section IIL—Pinance. 

(Tables XVIII and XIX.) 

Up to 1818 while Jaora was still a part of Holkar’s dominions,^ 
and during the rule of Nawab Abdul Ghafur Khan and his successor 
Nawab Ghaus Muhammad Khan, no regular financial system existed 
though accounts of a sort^appear to have been rendered. After the 
death of Nawab Ghaus Muhammad Khan and during the minority 
of Nawab Ismail Khan when Hazrat Nur Khan was appointed 
minister, he introduced a regular yearly budget and established a 
proper control over the finances. 

The State financial year is now reckoned from. 1st June to 31st Present sys- 
May. The budget is prepared before the commencement of the 
new year and no deviation is allowed from it. On the expiry of 
six months a revised budget is prepared in February, and accounts 
are adjusted accordingly. 

All heads of departments are required to send in their budgets to 
the minister who checks them and forwards them to the State 
Accountant-General, The heads of the Judicial, Educational and 
Medical departments after consulting and obtaining the sanction 
of the minister submit their budgets direct to the Accountant- 
General’s office. The Accountant-General incorporates all depart 
mental budgets into a general budget for the State. 

All sums received in the tahsils are deposited with the tahslU 
dar in the district treasuries situated at each tahslL When the 
amount of the deposit exceeds a fixed amount for each department 
it is remitted to the Central treasury at Jaora. 

Income is received at the State treasury on a cash remittance note 
called an irsdl ; payments being made on bills. A copy of the balance 
sheet with the details of all receipts and payments is submitted 
daily to the minister’s office and another copy to the Accountant- 
General’s office, where the items are audited and compared with the 
irsdls and bills which are also sent daily to the Accountant-General’s 
office from the treasury. Each department submits a daily balance 
sheet to the Accountant- General’s office when a general balance sheet 
for the whole State is prepared and submitted daily to the minister’s 
office. No bill can be passed by the Accountant-General for which 
provision is not made in the budget. A bill beyond the budgeted 
grant can be passed only when special sanction for it is given by the 


1 This is shewn by the Indore records of A halya Eai’s time- 



204- 


JkOlJA iSOlATE. 


minister, rhe Accountant-GeoeraL has also to see that the money 
paidoiat on accouiitof salaries or contingencies has been applied 
to its proper use. T'hepayand con tingent receipts are sent to the 
Accoaxitant-Geaerars office w^Lexe th ey are checked and filed. Reve- 
nue collections made on a.ccoua t of the State cannot be spent but 
mast be remitted to tbetr-easury. Ko alterations can be made in 
the budgeted grants excep tby thie iminister. 

Bevenue and The normal income and expenditure is 8*5 lakhs and 7*3 lakhs 

Expenditure, respectively. TThe table below?" skews the revenue at dififerent 


periods ; — 


Tear. 

1 La-nd Revenue, 

Other sources. 

Total. 


IRs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

1823 

3,04,000 

1,22,000 

4,26,000 " 

1885 

6,43,4-00 

81,200 

7,24,600 

1881-90 

6,35,531 

1,32,959 

7,68,590 

1898-99 

7,05,500 

59,800 

7,65,300 

1891-1900 

6,19,202 

2,09,774 

8,28,976 

1900-01 

4,27,011 

3,13,779 

7,40,790 

1901-02 

3,27,368 

2,28,979 

5,56,347 

1902-03 

5,80,860 

2,93,499 

8,74,359 

1903-04 

5,06,534 

1,91,342 

6,97,876 

1904-05 

2,54, S 33 

1,65,339 

4,19,972 

1905-06 

5,22,1 17 

1.88,093 

7,10,210 

1906-07 

6,11,046 

1,58,876 

7.69,923 

Average 

5,11,441 

1,78,803 

6,90,244 


The re'veaues ha. we grow;vn considerably since 1823, the net income 
between 188'9aind 189S tbe fanmine ^^ear amounting to Rs, 1,32,000 
under all heads cf revenue. 


The pernicioos Mustaf an sj^stein which was in vogue in former 
times under which not: only a single village but some times several 
were leased oirt to contractors has been replaced by the 
^/j^lsi^systeinonder whioh the State deals directly with its tenant 
through its 

The growth of customs, excise aad miscellaneous cesses is due to 
the expansion eftrad^ and the increased general opulence of the 
people. The groisrth of opium cesses is due to the extensive culti^ 
vation of poppy. Under tlie heads of Stamp, Registration and 
Judicial, increase is dme to the efficient organisation of those depart- 
meuts. After tbe death of MawabGhaus Muhammad Khan, when 
Hazrat hlar Khan m3nag:ed the State during the minority of 
Muhammad Ismail Khian, the sources of revenue developed rapidly 
andthienet amount of increase under all heads till 1873, when the 

p eriod of minority cuded, amouoted to Rs. 43,367. 

1 Malcolm’s I, 2oi, and State records. 





FiNArs'ciS, 


aos 


Under the administration of Khan Bahadur Yar Muhammad Khan, 
C. S. L, the revenue grew still further and the net increase in reve^ 
nue from 1889 till 1899 amounted to Rs. 1,31,726. 

In 1896 after the liquidation of the heavy liabilities, irrigation 
works on a considerable scale were taken in hand and had not the 
famine of 1899-1900 crippled the resources of the State a still greater 
advance would have been made in revenue. 


The year of famine, moreover, was followed by a year of epidemic 
fever which carried off a large number of cultivators, in consequence 
of which a considerable area both of irrigated and dry land was left 
uncultivated, and the revenue in 1902 fell by Rs. 1*3 lakh as com- 
pared with 1898. The famine thus not only caused a decrease in the 
revenue collections and swallowed up the State savings amounting 
to about 3 lakhs, necessitating the borrowing of 3 lakhs from the 
Government of India, but also reduced the revenue paying population 
and retarded recovery. 

Subjoined is the comparative statement of expenditure under prin-. Expenditure, 
cipal heads for several years (returns for 1823 are not available). 


Years. 

Collection 

of 

Ke venue. 

Army 

and 

I Police 

General 

Administra- 

tion.3 

' 

Other heads. 

Total. 


Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs.' 

1881-90* 

31,969 

54,101 

1,38,458 

4,00,957 

6,25,485 

1891-19C0 

41,980 

62,317 

1,26,257 

6,88,376 

9,18,930 

19CO-01 

52,910 

66,869 

1,12,570 

7,91,386 

10,23,735 

1901-02 

59,955 

67,583 

1,15,533 

5,97,167 

8,40,238 

1902-03 

62,662 

69,051 

1,21,51'9 

6,22,992 

8,76,214 

1903-04 

64.285 

67,547 

1,14,540 

4,81,356 

7,27,728 

190-1-05 

48,756 

62,524 

1,02,861 

3,17,225 

5,31,366 

19C5-06 

46,191 

59,831 

1,15,107 

4,53,506 

6 74,635 

1906-07 

44,125 

59,326 

1,15,868 

5,24,839 

7,44,158 

Average. 

50,315 

63,238 

1,18,078 

5,41,978 

7,73,609 


Before the year 1885 the army absorbed a large share of the State 
income. The expenditure on both army and police in 1898 under 
the new organisation was far below, that on the army alone in 1885. 
The chiefs personal allowance before 1885 was also excessive 


^ No Police in this year, 

» Law and Justice and Chiefs establishment:, 












206 


JAOilA feTATE. 


Coinage. 

Silver. 


Copper. 


( Rs. 28,000 ), and the figures for 1898 and 1902 in the table represent 
the Chief’s personal allowance together with the pay of his servants. 
The cost of revenue collection includes establishment and also the 
dami cess (amounting to Rs. 5,500) made to istimrdri Thakurs. 

Owing to the embarrassed condition of the State finances in 1885, 
all public works were stopped, but in subsequent years a school, a jail, 
a hospital and court buildings were constructed, but other projects 
under contemplation were delayed by the famine of 1899T900 and 
indebtedness. The State receives tribute from several Thakurs in 
Salim Shdhl currency and in consequence of the depreciation of 
that currency suffers some loss. The tribute and other payments 
made by the guaranteed Thakurs amount to Rs. 70,290 Salim 
Shdhl or roughly about Rs. 40,000 British currency. The rate of 
exchange is fixed annually by the local administration. 

The rupee used in the State at its foundation was the Salim 
Shdhl coined at Partabgarh by Raja Salim Singh, and the rate of 
exchange of the Salim Shdhl with the Government rupee and also of 
other local currencies such as the Indore and Gwalior Hdli, and 
the Bundi and Kotah rupee was always fluctuating. In 1895, 
therefore, the Salim Shdhl currency was abandoned and the 
British rupee substituted for it. The introduction of the British 
rupee has proved most beneficial. The State was one of the first to 
convert its coinage which was effected at a premium of only 130 
rupees for 100 British. Since the introduction of the Government 
rupee, the value of the Salim Shdhl has depreciated considerably 
and the rate of exchange has now risen to about 200 Salim Shdhl 
to 100 British. The exchange was carried out by causing all court 
fees to be paid in British coin after October 1st, 1895, while from 
the beginning of 1896 the revenue demand and tribute were also 
taken in this coin, and from November all State transactions were 
carried on in this currency. For the State accounts and transac- 
tions the exchange rate has now been permanently fixed at 125 
Salim Shdhl for 100 British, 

The State has never coined gold or silver. A State copper 
currency is still used.^ The monopoly of coining copper appears 
from the records of the State to have been formerly vested in a 
contrabtor. The difference between the intrinsic and the established 
value of the coin was the contractor’s profit. The copper coinage 
manufactured in fprmer days in Jaora mint varied from that now 
current, being about 5 mdshas in weight. Afterwards a new piece 
weighing one tola was struck, followed by another of rather less 
than a iola in weight, -These were rudely cut pieces bearing usually 


1 J, A. B,, BXVI, page 261. 



LAKD REVENL^£J. 


Z07 


only a portion of tho stamp, and their size and value were 
constantly varying. 

A fixed weight was introduced in 1895, the coin being ^nashas 
In weight, and similar to the Government copper coinage both in 
weight and dimensions. 

The exchange value of the present copper coinage in regard to a 
British rupee varies from 20 and 24 ganda^^ one ganda consisting 
of four single or hvo double pice. 

Section IV.— Band Revenue. 

( Table XX. ) 

The State is th-e sole proprietor of the soil. The systems on which System, 
the land revenue is collected are known as thekhdlsd ^.ndmustdjrt. 

In early days, practically only the second form existed. In khdlsd 
land, the State deals directly with the cultivators through its 
officers. Though the leases are granted direct by the State^ the 
revenue in khdlsd land is not always collected directly from 
cultivators but through the tlpddrs ( money lenders ), who usually 
stand surety for the revenue due from several cultivators. When 
dealing with the cultivators directly, the State keeps watch over 
the crop, and if necessary, realizes the demand by the sale of the 
produce. In miistajarl lands the State farms out its rights to certain 
lessees ( mustdjlrs ), who agree to pay a fixed sum annually. The 
ntusidjlrs realise from the cultivators the total assessed demand for 
the villages included in their lease. The power of altering the rate 
of assessment is enjoyed by the mustdjlrs, who can increase 
the demand for land rent without the interference on the part of the 
State.. However, the system of mustdjarl having proved injurious 
to the interest of the State, as well as of the cultivators, is being 
totally abolished. The khdlsd land is leased out annually at a 
specified revenue, the leases being renewed every year.. 

No systematic survey or settlement of the State has been as yet Settlement, 
made, and the present demand is based on the old rough assessment 
in force, when the State was founded.. 

The rates paid for different classes of soil are given below : — Rates. 


Classes of SoH. 

Rates per acre. 

Maximun. 

Minimum. 

1. Adan or irrigated poppy or 

Rs. a. p. 

22 8 0 

Rs. a. p. 

10 5 0 

garden land. , 

2.. Bara (manured land) ... 

4 10 0 

, 2 13 0 

3. Rankar 

10 0 0 

4 10 0 

4. Mai 

2 0 0 

1 0 0 


No special rates are levied for particular kinds of crop ; irrigated 
land pays a higher rate than unirrigated of the same class. 



208 


jaoba state. 


Incidence. 


Oolleotion. 


The incidence of the land revenue assessment is about Rs. 27-4-9 
per head and the net balance remaining to the cultivators, after the 
payment of the State revenue demand, and the cost of cultivation is 
about Rs. 26-12-10 per head. The average annual income of a 
cultivator, with a family of four persons is estimated at Rs. 107-3-4 
or Rs, 8-15-0 per member. It is calculated that, on the occurrence of 
famine after a period of four or five normal years, a cultivator with 
a family of four can withstand it without having to borrow money. 

Revenue is collected in four instalments {tauzts). In the month of 
September when the maize crop is ready the cultivators are required 
to furnish security for the revenue demand and for the amount of any 
advance they may have received as takhavi for food, the purchase 
of bullocks, seed, or agricultural implements. Most cultivators then 
furnish the required security through iipdars (money lenders), by 
which the State’s right of direct collection from the cultivator is 
transferred to the ftpdar. The tlpddr executes a written bond to 
pay this demand into the treasury in four instalments. On the 
receipt of this bond the cultivator is discharged of his obligation 
and the State deals only with the tlpddr. 

Cultivators who cannot furnish security pay their revenue direct 
to the tahslldars. 

In cases where there is no fipddr as the crops ripen? the girddxvar 
or patwdrl makes an appraisement of standing grain, and fields of 
which the produce is considered sufficient to cover the State 
demands are watched by the tahsllddrs or ndib tahsllddrs^ being 
put under the immediate charge of a havllddr until they are cut 
and sold and the revenue has been recovered from the proceeds. 
The entire value of the out-turn of poppy and linseed crops and the 
greater portion of the wheat and gram crops is taken from the 
cultivator, while of maize mdjowdr crops a sufficient quantity forth© 
maintenance of the cultivators is left to them. After both harvests 
are gathered, the cultivator’s accounts are made up according to the 
average market rates during the year. Cultivators of assured 
honesty are allowed to sell the produce of their fields themselves 
and pay the State demand. No security is taken from such 
cultivators and no guard is placed over their crops. 

In times of scarcity or famine an appraisement is made of stand- 
ing crop and after deducting the amount of grain necessary for the 
cultivator’s maintenance the State demand is satisfied as far as 
possible by sale of the remainder, the realisation of the balance 
against the cultivator being suspended. Should the actual value 
of the out-turn be above the appraised value, the State leaves 
the balance to the cultivator. 



LAND REVENUE, 


209 


During the famine of 1899-1900 out of a revenue demand of 
Es* 7*8 lakhs only Rs. 2*3 lakhs were realised. Of the outstanding 
balance against the cultivators of Rs. 5*5 lakhs, Rs. 3*2 lakhs 
were remitted in honour of the coronation of His Imperial Majesty 
King Edward VII and later on the balance of Rs. 2*3 lakhs. 

The forms of tenure obtaining in the State are isiimran^ tenure, 

and muafi. In making settlements with certain Rajput Thakurs 
lands were granted to them in isiimrdt or permanent tenure at a 
fixed quit rent. The practice was not followed in other cases 
and it has ceased to exist. The istimrdrddrs have no power to 
sell or mortgage the lands, but they and their descendants are 
entitled to enjoy their rights in perpetuity. To mustdjlrs or farmers 
of revenue land is let for periods extending up to 20 years. On 
the expiration of the period if the Darbar finds that the mustdjlr 
has exerted himself to increase the revenue either by bringing new 
land under cultivation or by improving its quality, it continues the 
lease of the holding for another period of 20 years, charging an 
enhanced rate equal to one-fourth of the increased revenue. 

Mudft lands are as the word implies revenue free holdings. Mudfl 
grants were made in charity or as a reward for good and loyal 
service by the former rulers of the State. They are held in perpe- 
tuity and the holders have absolute power to alienate either by sale 
or mortgage. Haqqulkhidmat[are lands given in return for service 
and are of two classes : those lands which are granted to village 
officials, such as patelsy chauklddrs^ halais and menials which are 
revenue free, and secondly those given at reduced rates to pawdddrs, 
the old cultivators of the village, chiefly Rajputs whose duty it is to 
be present when called on, and who can also be employed to keep 
watch and ward in the village. Lands given in return for service 
cannot be sold or mortgaged by the holders and can be resumed 
by the State on failure to perform the duty for which they were 
granted. 

Cultivators receive lands on yearly leases [paitds). This custom 
is a very old one. In the early period of the State history, written 
leases were not actually granted, but the arrangement was well under- 
stood, Now written leases are given annually to cultivators, stating 
the amount of the demand, and that it will be realised in four 
instalments on fixed dates, any loss or gain due to the character 
of the harvest being borne by the cultivator, who can in no 
case throw up any land specified in the lease within the period 
for which it is granted. The late Nawab Ghaus Muhammad Khan 
made a rule, that if a cultivator excavated a well on his land at his 
own cost, and thereby converted his land into irrigated area, 
revenue was to be charged not exceeding half the oi dinary irrigated 



210 


JAORA STATE. 


Kzcise. 
[Table XXI]. 


Opinm. 


rates in force in the State. Much new land was, under this 
inducement, brought into cultivation. The rule is still in force. 
Persons digging a well have powers to sell or mortgage it, in which 
case the liability of meeting the State demand is transferred to the 
buyer or mortgagee. 

Section V.— Miscellaneous Revenue. 

(Table XXL) 

The excisable articles .consumed in Jaora are foreign liquors, 
country spirit, gdnja, hhdng, chendu, opium, and nidjum. The 
last is an intoxicating sweetmeat prepared of hhdng leaves fried 
in gJii and mixed with the syrup of sugar. The general export 
of crude opium or chlk is prohibited, except from the Malhargarh 
and Sanj^'t tahslls. These tahsils are so far from Jaora that it is 
more convenient for local merchants to send the chlk to Mandasor 
and Ratlam, An export duty of Rs- 14-6-6 per niaun-d is levied 
on Malhargarh and Sanjit crude opium and on any opium allowed to 
be exported from other parts of Jaora territory under special per- 
mission. An export duty on manufactured ball opium is levied at 
the rate of Rs. 2-2-5 per dharl of 5 seers. Duty on manufactured 
ball opium prepared from crude opium imported from places within 
100 ^os (200 miles) distant from the State is levied at Rs, 0T5-l| 
per dharl and duty on crude opium imported from places above 
100 kos distant at Re. 0-10-6^ per dharl. Opium tal<en to the 
Government scales for export is subject to duty at the following 
rates per chest; — 

(j). On a chest of 140 lbs. weight of ball opium of Jaora produce 
the duty is Rs. 30-0-9. 

(«). On a chest of crude opium of foreign produce from a place 
under 100 kos the duty is Rs. 13-4-0 ; and from a place 
over 100 kos distant Rs. 9-4-0. 

The acreage sown with poppy was in 1895-96, 17,872; 1900-01, 
9,648; 1901-02, 6,995; 1902-03, 7,416; 1903-04, 11,167; 1904-05, 
4,770; 1905-06, 3,785; and 1906-07, 11,023. The diminution 
since 1895 thus amounts to about 70 per cent. 

The total exports to Bombay from 1894-95 to 1898-99 averaged 
790 chests and the duty Rs. 24,000; from 1899-1900 to 1903-04 
the number of chests averaged 650 and duty Rs. 19,000 ; in 1904-05 
463 chests were exported, the duty amounting to Rs. 14,519, 
in 1905-06, 462 and in 1906-07, 329 the duties being 

Rs. 14,326 and Rs. 10,050, respectively. The diminution in the 
number of chests is attributable to the fact that crude opium from 
foreign territory is now imported into Jaora in smaller quantities than 
formerly owing to the increased supervision exercised by other States 
over the export of their crude opium, while in 1899-1900 and two or 
three subsequent years the out-turn has been poor. 



MISCELLANEOUS EEVENUE. 


211 


Although a-s much as Rs. 22*8 per acre is charged on irrigated land 
capable of growing poppy yet its cultivation is very popular owing to 
the profitable return it gives. Each acre produces about 5 seers of 
chlk. Crude opium and poppy seed enables the cultivator to pay the 
greater portion of his assessed revenue without difficulty. Moreover* 
poppy cultivation does not affect the productive capability of soil so 
injuriously as many grain crops do. About two-thirds of the State 
demand is realised entirely from opium. An average rainfall of 
30 inches Is considered sufficient to fill the wells, so as to allow of the 
proper irrigation of the poppy crop. 

A duty of 14 annas 6 pies is levied per maund of opium sold locally, 
from both vendor and purchaser. No other tax is imposed on opium 
consumed locally and no price is fixed. It is eaten in pills, drunk 
in Ka^umba and in Jaoratown smoked as chendu, 

Gdnja^ bhang and mdjmn are imported from Ujjain and other other drugs, 
places by a licensed contractor, about 12 maunds being brought in 
yearly. It is sold at fixed rates — gdnja, 12 annas 9 pies, Ihdngy 
6 annas 6 pies, and charas^ 1 anna 3 pies per seer. Chendu is prepared 
from opium locally by a licensed contractor. 

Opium is more largely consumed than the other drugs and is not Consumption^ 
chargeable with any duty as regards local consumption. 

Country spirit is distilled from mahud {Bassia JatifoUa) flowers Liquor, 
and the contract for distillation and vend in Jaora and the districts 
is sold by auction. Jaglrddrs^ however, exercise the right of distilling 
within their own holdings. No one except the contractor can distil 
or sell liquor. He can also grant licenses for the distillation and 
vend of country liquor to sub-contractors. No duty is levied on 
materials used in distillation. The number of shops for retail sale is 
unlimited and depends upon the contractor. The prices range from 
about Re. 1 to As. 3 varying in different parts of the State. 

The incidence of the excise revenue per head of population 
is Re. 0-1-6. 

Foreign liquors, chiefly brandy, whisky, and gin, are consumed to Cousump- 
a small extent only. The village people use country liquors entirely, 
but the Rajput istimrdrddrs are becoming, to a certain extent, 
addicted to the use of foreign liquors. 

Villagers are very little addicted to drinking and abstain entirely 
from the use of bhangs mdjum, and gdiija^ the last being chiefly con- 
sumed by Hindu ascetics and their chelas. Many Hindus and 
Musalmans of the well-to-do class use bhang and mdjum in the hot 
weather. The use of chendu is confined to Jaora city. Opium is 
chiefly consumed by villagers and the labouring classes in small 
quantities, and is also administered to children. 



212 


JAORA STATE. 


Cnptoms. 


Salt* 


Stamp* 


Control, 


The control of excise is vested in the tahslldars^ who are 
assisted by the police. The revenue derived from excise amounts 
to about Rs. 8, 700 a year. 


Export and import duties on the following commodities are taken 
as per tariff given below : — 

Exports, 


Commodity, j 

Duty per maund. 

I. 

Wheat, joxvdr^mahka and other cereals.. 

As. 1 

11. 

Ghl, oil, sugar, gur, tobacco, Kir ana, 



groceries 

» 5 

III. 

Linseed 

1 

IV. J 

^31oth ... ... ... ... * • 

13 


Imports, 


I. 

Wheat, other grains ... 

Ps. 6 

II. 

G/ji, oil, and groceries ... 

As. 5 

III. 

Linseed 

1 

IV. 

Cloth 

,, 13 


On the sale of live-stock a duly of As. 2 per rupee is levied. 


The Customs revenue during the year 1904-05 amounted to 
Rs. 22,152 in 1905-06 to Rs. 28,683 and 1906-07 to Rs. 33,243. 

In 1881 an agreement was made between the British Govern- 
ment and the Nawab of Jaora for the abolition of all transit duties 
formerly levied on salt passing through the Jaora Slate, the British 
Government undertaking to compensate the Darbar by a yearly 
payment of Rs, 2,500. 

Before the year 1885 only one class of stamps of the value of 
eight annas was used for all kinds of applications. There are now eight 
classes of judicial stamps of values ranging from Rs. 5 to one anna. 

In civil suits fees are collected in cash. Since the introduction 
of these stamps the judicial revenue has increased. 

Section VI.— Public Works- 
( Table XV. ) 

This department was formerly managed by darogdhs appointed 
from local men irrespective of their professional attainments. In 
1891 a qualified overseer was put at the head of the department. 
It is now under the control of a State Engineer acting under the 
orders of the minister. It has no concern with Imperial works, 
but all State work with the exception of minor works in the 



POLICE, 


213 


districts, which are carried out by tahsildars are under its 
control. 

The department spends about Rs. 46,000 a year. The most Works, 
important works carried out in the last twenty years are the Central 
Jail at Jaora (Rs. 52,378), the Barr High school (Rs. 34,184), 
Victoria Zenana Hospital (Rs. 20,203), General Hospital, Jaora 
(Rs. 6,433), Police station at Tal (Rs. 4,514), the Topkhdna road 
(Jaora) including Q,pakha causeway over. the Piria khal (Rs. 10,850), 
and the Kumaria road (Rs. 3,297). 

The new public office building, which is estimated to cost about 
Rs. 1,25, 000, was taken in hand in 1898 and is still under construction 
Besides the above original works many old buildings and roads 
were repaired. 

The crippling of the finances in 1899-1900 affected this department, 
almost all the proposed original works being suspended or abandoned 
The building of the public offices mentioned above was the only 
work carried on. Most of the relief ’ works undertaken during the 
famine were done under the supervision of the department. They 
consisted mostly of irrigation works, and steps are now being taken 
to complete them, so as to render^^them practically useful. 

Section VII.— Army. 

(Table XXV.) 

In 1817 Ghafur Khan and Roshan Beg commanded a force of 
two battalions numbering to 1,258 men with 8 guns. ^ 

The State army is at present composed of 58 regular cavalry, 37 
artillery, and 103 regular infantry with 362 irregular infantry, in all 
593 men* and 17 serviceable guns. 

The troops are drawn from all classes, physical fitness being the 
only condition for enlistment. 

The pay of an Infantry man is Rs. 5-10 per mensem and that of 
Sowar Rs. 18-6) and of an Artillery man Rs. 6. There are no 
regular periods of service fixed, nor there are any established rules 
for pensions. 

The average expenditure on State troops is Rs. 70,000, 

Section VIII.— Police and Jail. 

(Table XXIV and XXVI.) 

The regular police force at Jaora was organised by the minister PoUce. 
in 1892 during the time of Nawab Muhammad Ismail Khan. The 
rural village police or Chaukiddrs are, as far as the police work 
is concerned, under the control of the State Superintendent of 
Police. The strength of the regular police is, one Superintendent 
of Police, 4 Inspectors, 9 Sub-Inspectors, 41 Head Constables and 

302 Constables. 

} Wi Tlioxn.— ofth§ War of 1817-18f p* 1§, 



214 


JAORA STATE. 


Detection. 


Jails. (Table 
XXV.l). 


Institutions* 


The strength of the rural police is 332. One Policeman thus 
keeps watch over 228 persons. The recruits to be enlisted must not 
be under 5 feet 4 inches and are required to execute a bond of good 
behaviour. 

The regular police supervise the work of the rural police and 
report to the Superintendent if the latter are not discharging their 
duties properly* 

The registration of the finger prints has been introduced, and 
two police officers were specially deputed to learn the system at 
Indore. A class for teaching the system to the police is formed at 
Jaora, and numbers of the police force attend the class and receive 
instruction. 

The police are armed with swords and guns. The guns are 
State property, the swords partly State and partly private property. 
When on duty arms are issued, but when not on duty the arms are 
taken back. 

A jail was first started in 1881 at Jaora, district lock-ups being 
opened later on in the tahslls of San jit, IVTalhargarli, Nawabganj 
Tal and Barauda. In 1896 the manufacture of carpets, darls^ 
sljda^ and asan (prayer carpets), newdr, khddl^ susii etc., was insti- 
tuted in the jail. The average expenditure on the jail is Rs. 4,000, 
the cost per prisoner being about Rs. 40. 

The profits from jail industries average Rs, 200 a year* 

Section lX.—Ediicatioii. 

(Table XXIIL) 

An English school was opened in Jaora in 1866, by Hazrat Nur ^ 
Khan. The present school building known as the Barr High school, 
after Sir David Barr, K. C, S. L, formerly;Agenl to the Governor- 
General in Central India, was opened inlSQ^Nsiiie school did not 
prosper until a change of head master was made*1Il^l901. The . 
result of the new management was that the numbers in'ihe High 
School rose from 39 to 138, with an average attendance of 96, and 
out of five students sent up for Matriculation at the Calcutta and 
Punjab Universities three passed in the second division. Since 
the establishment of an English school in Jaora eleven students 
have passed. Besides the High school there are ten Primary 
schools, two of which are in Jaora, and eight in the districts. The 
grant-in-aid system was also introduced into the State to encourage 
and extend private enterprize in education, and one school impart- 
ing education up to the primary standard with an average daily 



MEDICziL. 


215 


attendance of eighty has been affiliated to the Barr High school. 

The staff including that of the affiliated institution consists of 34 
teachers and one monitor. The average expenditure on education 
is Rs. 7,000, making the cost of educating each pupil Rs. 29. 

The expenditure on secondary education is Rs. 3,200 and on pri- 
mary Rs.' 1,600. 

English is taught to pupils who have passed the Lower Primary Instruction, 
standard. Attention has also been paid to technical education and 
as an initial measure a tailoring class has been opened in connection 
with the Barr High school. The class is well attended and the boys 
seem to appreciate the instruction given. A paiwan class has also 
been opened. There was originally no provision for Sanskrit 
education in the school, but the Darbar considering the claims of 
its Hindi subjects, has now opened a class for Sanskrit teaching. 

Scholarships of the value of Rs. 15 are awarded monthly to the 
best students on the result of examinations. 

Attention is also paid to the physical training of the boys, a Physical 
trained gymnastic master being entertained. Among the out-door 
games cricket and foot-ball are encouraged. Athletic tournaments 
are held annually in the school in which all the boys from the 
State schools compete. Prizes are awarded annually for both 
scholastic and athletic qualifications. 

Public female education has not yet been started. There are Female Eda- 
private schools (inaktabs) in the town in which Muhammadan girls 
learn the Koran and sewing. 

Only four Muhammadan boys have so far passed the Entrance Muliampadan 
examination. Muhammadan backwardness in education may be 
attributed partly to indifference and partly to poverty. 

Section X*— Medical. 

(Table XXVII.) 

From 1881 to 1891 the State possessed one Hospital in Jaora and institutions, 
no dispensaries in the districts. 

In 1893 the Tal and Sanjxt dispensaries were opened and in 1894 
the Malhargarh and Barauda dispensaries and in 1897 the Nawsb- 
ganj dispensary and Victoria Zenana Hospital. An in-patient sec- 
tion was added to the Jaora hospital in 1895 with twelve beds. 

The average yearly number of out-patients and in-patients is Expenditure* 
50,000. 

The number of operations performed in the Jaora hospital in 1881 Operations, 
was 670, and in 1891, 1,226 and in 1905, 1,326. The increase in 
the number of operations is due to the hospital having been placed 
under an expert Assistant Surgeon. This hospital is now specially 
noted for eye operations. 



216 


JAOEA STATE. 


Vaccination. 


Quinine and 
village 
Sanitation. 


Vaccinators are selected either from Muhammadan or Hindu 
classes. The method of inoculation is from arm to arm, calf lymph 
is used to begin the wort every year. Vaccination is not’compulso^ 
This operation is becoming yearly more popular. 

In 1881, 235 were successfully vaccinated ; in 1891, 299 • in 19m 
1,133; and in 1905, 1,901. ’ * 

Quinine is distributed free to the public. No attempt to improve 
village sanitation was made till 1901 when a committee was establish- 
ed in Jaora town and the sanitation of Tal, Barauda, Sanjit, Malhar- 
garh, and Nawabganj was put under the Hospital Assistants. 



CHAPTER IV. 

ADMIDTISTRATIVE DIVISIONS AND GAZETTEER. 


Name of Tahsil. 

Area in 
Square 
Miles. 

Numb BE of 

Population. 

Cultivated Area. 

Land Reve' 
nue. 

Towns 

Vil- 

lages. 

Total, 

Irrigated. 

1 

i 

3 

3 

4 

5 

6 

1 

7 

8 

Jaora 

Barauda 

Tal ^ 

f San jit 

1 Malhargarh ... 
Nawabganj 

188 

76 

71 

81 

144 

8 

1 1 
i* 

70 

62 

75 

59 

64 

16 

1 

1 39,015 
11,108 

17.002 
5,738 

10.003 
1,336 

1 

41,662 

34,922 

32,276 

20,770 

26,695 

1..363 

2.159 

301 

3,555 

2,017 

3,319 

73 

Rs. 

2,31,589 

1,48,960 

1,75,035 

52,124 

1,05,868 

8,432 

Total ... 

563 

2 

1 

346 

84,202 

157,688 

11,424 

7,22,008 


Barauda> tahsll Barauda, — A village situated in 23° 33' N. and 
75° 20' E., half a mile from head-quarters, kchilla of Baba Farid 
Shaherganj, a Muhammadan saint stands here, and an annual fair 
is held at the spot in honour of the saint in the month of Chait, 
when numerous pilgrims attend. Population in 1901 amounted to 
2,536 persons : males 1,310, females 1,226. Occupied houses 662. 

Barkhera, tahsll Tal-Barkhera. — Once the head-quarters of the 
iahsll, situated in 23° 53' N. and 75° 28' E. Population in 1901 
amounted to 476 persons : males 241, females 235. Occupied 
houses 131. 

Jaora Town, tahsll Jaora. — The capital town of the State is 
situated about 1,600 feet above the level of the sea in 23° 38' N. and 
75° 10' E. on the Ajmer- Khandwa Branch of the Rajputana-Malwa 
Railway, 535 miles distant from Bombay vid Khandwa and 432 miles 
vid Ratlam, It has an area of about 2i square miles. The village of 
Jaora belonged originally to the Khatki Rajputs, but was taken by 
Ghafur Khan for the site of his chief town in 1825. It is divided 
into 26 quarters, containing bazars for the sale of different articles. 
The quarters are usually named after the class of inhabitants. 

No old buildmgs of any great importance exist in the town, the 
palace. Jama masjid, temple to Hanuman, Dharamsala and tombs 
of Ghafur Khan and Ghaus Muhammad being the most important. 
To the north of the town lies the Dargah Abu Said and a mile and 
a half east the Husaini tekri, a place held to be of. great sanctity, 

owing to the periodical visits made there by the spirit of the Imam 
Hussain. 

Since the census of igoi nine more villages have been brought on the 
Register. * 
















218 


JAORA STATE. 


Two hospitals, one for males and one for females, two Ytinani 
dispensaries, a guest house, a high school and two smaller education- 
al institutions, a jail, Imperial post and telegraph office, and several 
sarais are situated in the town. 

The population has been: 1881 j 19,902; 1897, 21,844 ;7P(91, 
23,774 persons : males 11,749, femalesl 2,025. Occupied house 1, 
4,641. Hindus numbered 10,381 or 43 per cent., Musalmans 11,421> 
or 48 per cent., Jains 1,682, Parsis 18, Christians 25, Animists 242 
Classified by occupations 2,035 persons followed military pursuits 
2,277 domestic service, and 7,705 industrial pursuits. 

The town is watched by a police force of 41 constables. 

Malhargarh, tahsll Sanjit-Malhargai*h. — Is the head-quarters of 
the tahsli, situated in 24° 17' N. and 75® 4' E. Population (1901) 
2,000 persons : males 1,064, females 936. Occupied houses 450. 

NawShganj. — The head-quarters of the icrppa or tahsll 
same name, smallest administrative division of tlic Stale, situated in 
23® 320' N. and 74° 56^ E. Population (1901), 405 persons; males 
215, females 190. Occupied houses 114, 

5anjit, tahsll Sanjit-Malhargarh^ — Once the head-quarters of the 
tahsll situated in 24® 18' N. and 75® 22' E. Population (1901 ). 
1,203 persons; males 638, females 565- Occupied houses 452. 

5upavra, tahsll Tal-Barkhera. — A village situated in 23® 54' N, 
and 75'® 29' E. at*th(2J confluence of the rivers Chainbal and Sipra. 
An old temple of Mabadeo and a small bungalow built by Nawab 
Muhammad Ismail Khan stands in the village. The scenery at this 
spot is fine. Population (1901), 52 persons : males 32, females 20. 
Occupied houses 10. 

Tm {Tal Manddwat), tahsll Tal-Barkhcra. — A town and head 
quarters of the tahsll, situated in 23® 43' N» and 75® 25' IC., 18 miles 
by a fair weather road from Jaora station on the Rn jputjma-Malwfi 
Railway. The exact date of its foundation is unknown, l)iit tradition 
assigns it to one Taria Bhil in 1300\Samvat (A- D. 1 21 3). In the 
sixteenth century the Mughal Subahdar of Malwa, assisted by the 
Doria Rajputs, seized it. It remained under the control of the 
Subahdar up to 1100 A. H. or 1683 A. D., but subsequently passed 
bn to some Paramara Rajputs from whom it was taken by Ilolkar 
in 1810 A. D. Holkar retained possession until 1818, wdien it was 
assigned to Ghafur Khan under the treaty of Mandasot. The 
population was; 7897, 5,120 ; 7P07, 4,954 persons: males 2,561, 
females 2,393 ; comprising Hindus 3,352 or 72 per cent., Musalmans 
1,166 or 23 per cent., Jains 223 or 4 per cent., and Animists 13. 

_ A municipal committee was started in 1902. Its average annual 
income amounts to Rs. 1,000 and expenditure to Rs. 900. 

The work of watch and ward is carried out by a State police force 
consisting of 1 inspector and 32 constables. 



219 


APPENDIX A. 

Artices 2 and 12 of the Treaty of Mandasor with Maharaja 
Holkar, dated 6th January, 1818. 


ARTICLE 2. 

Maharajah Mulhar Rao Holkar agrees to confirm the engagement 
which has been made by the British Government with the Nawab 
Ameer Khan, and to renounce all claims whatever to the territories 
guaranteed in the said engagement by the British Government to 
the Nawab Ameer Khan and his heirs. 

ARTICLE 12. 

The Maharajah engages (and the British Government guarantees 
the engagement) to grant to Nawab GufFor Khan his present jaidad 
of the districts of Sunjeet, Mulhargurh, Taul, Mundawul, Jowrah, 
Burroade, the tribute of Peeplowdh, with the sayer of whole. 
These districts shall descend to his heirs on the condition that the 
said Nawab and his heirs shall maintain independent of thesebundy 
for his pergannahs, and his personal attendants, in constant readiness 
for service, a body of six hundred select horse ; and further, that 
this quota of troops shall be hereafter increased in proportion to the 
increasing revenue of the districts granted to him. 




Ratlam 3tate. 




ARMS OF THE RATEAM STATE. 



Arms — Or seme of poppy heads ; Hanuman statant armed with a 
mace and katctr proper ; a chief paly of five tenne, argent, 
gules, or, and vert. Crest— A hand holding a dagger 
imbrued proper. Supporters — Falcons.^ 

SllottO — Ratanasya sahasain tadvansh ratnam, “The exploit of 
Ratan Singh is the glory of his family.’* 

Note — The seme of poppy heads refers to the plant typical of 
Malwa from which the Ratlam State derives most of its 
revenue. Hanuman is the god of all warriors. "J'hc 
paly of five shews connection with Jodhpur { pachraiigit ). 
The dagger refers to the well known story of Ratan Singh’s 
having stopped a mad elephant in the streets of He! hi with 
nothing in his hand save a dagger. The falcons refer to 
Pakhani devi, the tutelary deity of the Rathors, who iias 
on more than one occasion appeared as a falcon to assist 
the family. 

Sanner — The banner of the State is white with Hanuman in red 
upon it. The god bears a mountain in his left and a mace 
in his right hand. The State colours arc dark green and 
yellow, used in all State liveries, etc. 

GotrEChara — Gautama Gotra ; vada madbyfindini shakha. 

OeXXealogical creed — The genealogical creed or Gotra chara 
of the Ratlam family gives Gautama Gotra, Yajitr x'cciu, 
Mddhydndinl Shakha, Bhalrava Maiulovra ; khdrtar 
gachJ^awdla, preceptor; Singala genealogist; liohid, 
bard; JDedhada dholi or drummer; Sat'ad^ purohit ; 
Daima^ Bias; kcddrvaiishi, harica ; slictahaudha-ramc- 
shwar, 'kshetra ; Patikhdni Revi, tutelary goddess ; etc. 

Religion — The present chief is by religion a Plindu the 

lahhkul vaishi^tava sect, and worships Nagnedia 
MiEta. Clan* — The Rajas of Ratlam arc; Rathor 
Rajputs of the Surya vansha, (solar race) to which 
the Maharajas of Jodhpur, Bikaner, Kishangarli and 
Idar belong. The Ratbors are ^illuded to in poems 
as Kdmadhvaja (vulgo kdjnadli)- The rulers of 
Ratlam belong to the Danesara Shakha ( sept* ) 
of the tribe of Kamadhs or Rathors. 


JVote . — ^The emblems described above were emblazoned on the chief's banner 
displayed at the Imperial Assemblage o£ 1st January 1877 and were used by 
authority/^ 




GENEALOGICAL TREE OF THE RATLAM CHIEFS, 


UDAI SINGH' 


(Jodhpur.) (Founder of Kishangarh State.) (Jhaior.) 


Jaswant Singh Kanji 


I. Ratan Singh Kahan Singh Fateh S 


11. Ram Singh Rai Singh 

Nahar Singh ! 

(1658-82) (Ancestor of 



KachhiBaroda 



family,) 

1 ” 

1 

i 

1 

Hateh Singh 

III, Shiv Sihgh 

IV. Kesho Das 

1 

(»84) 

(1684) 

Bairisal 


(Founder of 

Sitamau State.) 

(Dhamnod.) 


Y. Chhataesal Akheraj Prithwi Singh jit Singh Kesri Singh Sur Singh Dhirat Singh Sakhat Singh 
(I68fl709) (Ancestor of 


VI. Kesri Singh 


Pratap Singh 
(Raoti.) 

(Killed in the battle of Sagod.) 


VIL Man Singh 

( 171643 ) 


VIII. Prithvi Singh 


Ishwari Singh IX. Padam Singh Zorawar Singh 
( 1773-1800) 


X. Parbat Singh 


Rk Singh Khuman Singh Hindu Singh 
( jharwasa. ) ( Ancestor of ( Ancestor of 


XL Balwant Singh Vijai Singh 


asNo.XIL) 


XIILRanjit Singh 

(M) 

XIV.iAjjAN Singh 


Fateh Singh 




Genealogical Table showing the Descent of Rajas of Ratlam and of the niost important Ruling Families in and 

out of Maiwa connected with that of Ratlam, 


RAO SIHOJI 
( 1211 ) 

( Grandson of last King of Kanauj, Jaichand, who settled at Pah.) 

( Nine others. ) 

Rao Chandaji 
( 1381 ) 

( Acquired Mandor from Parihar ruler by marriage. ) 

Rao Rimalji 
( 1408 ) 


Kamoji 

( Founder of Kamot 
family such as 
Bagivas and Samdari. ) 


Pataji Rupaji Rao jodhaji 

( Founder of Patwat ( Founder of Rupawat ( 1427 ) 

family such as family such as ( Founder of Jodha 

Ahua. ) Chakhu. ) family and had 14 sons. ) 


Champaji Kumpaji Jaitaji 

' Founder of Chmpawat ( Founder of Kumpawat ( Founder of 
family such as family such as Asop Jaitawat family 

Pokran and Awa. ) and Chandawal. ) such as Bagri. ) 


Bikaji 

(Founder of Bikanir in 1488. ) 


Keshodasji 
6th in descent 
(Founder of Jhabua State, 
in 1584. ) 


Rao Satalji 
( Killed at Pipar. 

I 

Rao Sujaji 
( 1489 ) 


Dudaji Kannsiji 

( Founder of Merta family such as ( Founder of Karamsot 
Ghanerao, Rian and Kachawan. ) family such as Kheosar. ] 


Rao Gangaji 
(1516) 


( Founder of Udawat family such as Ras, Kimaj and Raipur. ) 


Rao Maldeoji 
( 1532 ) 

Founder of Amjhera, held more territory than any other Marwar Chief, ) 

Rao Chandarsen 
( 1562 ) 

( From 1565 to 1583 Akbarheld Jodhpur* ) 


Raja Udai Singh 
( 1584) 

[ Received title of “ Raja ” from Akbar and added Singh *’ to his name. ) 


Rao Ram 
{ of Amjhera. ) 


Kishan Singhji 
(Founder of Kishangarh. 


Raja Sur Singhji 
( 1595 ) . 

( Conquered Gujarat and the Deccan for Akbar. ) 

Raja Ga; Singhji 
( 1620 ) 

Maharaja Jaswant Singhji 

- - ( 1638 ) ^ ^ , 

I The first Maharaja served with distinction in Afghanistan, died at Peshawar* ) 

Maharaja Ajit Singhji 
( 1680) 

( Drove Mughals out of Ajmer, was murdered by his sons* ) 


Dalpat Singh 
(ofjhalor) 

Maheshdas 

I 

Ratan Singh 
( Founder of Ratlam. ) 


Maharaja Abhe Singhji 

(1725) . (Founder 

(Took Ahmedabad) 

I 

Maharaja Ram Singhji 
(1750) 

( Called in the Mafathas. ) 

I 

Maharaja Bakht Singhji 
( 1751 ) 

Ceded Ajmer to the Maralhas* ) 

I 

Maharaja Bijai Singhji 

( 1752 ) . 

^ ( A medel administrator, recovered Ajmer temporarily, and took Godwar [from Mew^ ] and Umarkot.) 

Maharaja Bhim Singhji 
( 1792 ) 

Maharaja Man Singhji 
; (1803) 

( Condlied a treaty with the British Government in 1817, ) 

Maharaja Takht Singhji 
( 1843) 

{ Showed a loyal spirit during the Mutiny. ) 

Maharaja Jaswant Singhji 
( 1873 ) 


I 

Anand Singhji 

(Founder of Idar and Ahmednagar,) 


MahSraja Sardar Singhji 
(The present Chief.) 



CHAPTER I. 

DESCRIPTIVE. 

Section I-— Physical Aspects- 

Ratlam is the chief Rajput State in the Malwa Political Charge Situation, 
of the Central India Agency. It lies between latitude 23® 6' and 
23® 33' N. and longitude 74® 31' and 75® 17' E. 

-The name is popularly said to be derived from that of Ratan Origin of 
Singh, the founder. This is, however, a fallacy as Ratlam was 
already in existence before Ratan Singh was granted the district, 
since it is mentioned by Abul Fazt in the Ain-i-Akbari as one of the 
mahals in the Ujjain sarkar of the Malwa subah, ^ 

The territories of the State are inextricably intermingled with Boundaries, 
those of Sailana and its boundaries are in consequence not very 
dearly definable j but generally speaking, the State touches the terri- 
tories of Jaora and Partabgarh (in Rajputana) on the north, Gwalior 
on the east, Dhar and Kushalgarh (in Rajputana) and parts of 
Indore on the south, and Kushalgarh and Banswara (in Rajputana) 
on the west. 

The State has an area of 902 square miles, of which 455 square Area, 
miles are alienated in jaglrs and other grants, only 447 square miles 
or 49- per cent, being khalsa or directly under the Darbar. ® 

The whole State lies on the Malwa plateau. It may, however, be- Natural Divi- 
divided internally into two sections, the plateau section, called locally 
Malwi land, and the hilly tracts called DflngrT. The eastern part 
comprising the plateau division is in general an open and level plain, 
sloping gently northward and highly cultivated, while the western- 
portion of the State is wild and hilly. The Malwi section has an area 
of 315 square miles and the hilly tract of about 587 square milsci. 

The scenery is typical of Malwa. During most of the year the Scenery, 
country is a monotonous straw colour, which only for a brief' space 
during the rains and immediately after gives place to a land of bright 
green hills and plains, covered with waving crops and high grass. 

The hills in the west are part of the Vindhya Range, and furfiier Hill sysi»®.u 
west, form the sections of Malwa known as Bagax and Kanthal. 

The scarps are covered •with small trees and low scrub jungle, while 
no hill rises to more than about 2,000 feet above the sea. 

Ain, II, 199. 

2 Besides this 60 villages with a^i appposimate area of 228 square miles, which* 
originally formed part of the State, now form the territory of the Rao of Kushalf 
garh in Rajput^a. Xhe Rao still pays tmka to the Satlto Darhar. 


222 


RATLAM STATE. 


Detached conical hills such as those. of Garwara, Gurwari, Luni, 
Havra, etc., occur here and there in the western portion of the State, 
rising to about 500 feet above the plain. 

Rirer system, Mahi, rising in Amjhera and flowing northwards, passes 

through the hilly tract of Bajna. The Mahi is here of no great size 
and flows in a rocky bed. There are no other rivers in the State, 
but the Jamarh, a small tributary stream flowing westward into the 
Mahi, the Maleni, lying between Ratlam and Jaora, the Kudel in the 
Ringnia kamasddrl and the Ratagari in the Dharar kamdsddn 
which are also of some local importance. The Maleni and the 
Kudel fall into the Chambal in the north-east. Besides these, there 
area few khdls or ndlas which, however, all dry up in the hot season 
and, therefore, hardly deserve notice. There are several tanks in 
the State but none is of any size. 

Creology. ^ State lies geologically in the Deccan trap area, and the soil 

is formed chiefly of the constituents common to this formation, 
basalt predominating, together with the black soil which always 
accompanies it. 

botany, a The forest vegetation is often composed of low scrub jungle prin- 
cipally consisting of species of Gtewict, Ztzyphus^ JPhylltxnthus^ 
Camparis ^ Carissa^ Tamarix^ Woodfordia^ Acacia ^ Dicrostachys 
Prcsopis, and Cordia. The taller trees include BuUa frondosa, Termi- 
nalia afjuna, SietctiUa utens, Bombax fnafabartcum, and at times 
Boswellia serrata, Anogeissus latifolia and A, pendula, Etythrina 
suhefosay Solenocarpus, Anacar-dtnum^ Bucha^nania latifcUa, Casea- 
via iomentosa are also not uncomnxon. Among herbaceous plants 
the natural families I^cgutniftosc, Compositae and Boragineae are 
well represented. 

Wild animals. The larger wild animals met with in Ratlam territory consist of 
panthers, tendua {Eelis pardus),vnldL boars, 'hy&n.ss, jarrak (Hyarna 
striata), ]3.ck3}s, gldar (Cants aur-eus), and 'wolves, hheria (Cants 
palipes); tigers are found only very occasionally. Man-eating panthers 
sometimes appear in the wilder parts. Only very recently a panther 
carried off about 15 human beings ip the neighbourhood of Bajna, 
which he infested for a couple of months. The superstitious Bhils 
told many tales about it, believing it to be a “ Ghost-tiger, ” whose 
body was possessed by the spirit of some evil-doer. The Bhils 
^gard the tiger as a sacred animal, holding it in superstitious awe. 
Tiger’s claws hung round children’s necks are considered by them 
as charms against all kinds of evil, while it is common belief among 
natives of all classes that the bristles round the mouth of a tiger can 

T By Hr. E, Vredenburg, Geological Survey of India. “ 

« By D. Pyain, I. H, S., Botanical Survey of India, 



HISTORY. 


223 


be used for poisoning people, and that tiger’s fat is a certain cure 
for rheumatism. 

Besides all the birds commonly met with, wild duck, teal, and Birds, 
snipe ate found in the tanks in the cold weather, and partridge, quaih 
sand grouse and floriken in the season, 

t'ish of thfebest class such as mahseer are not found in the State. Fish. 
Certain restrictions are imposed on catching fish owing to the 
religious prejudices of the Jains. The Species common in the waters 
of the Mahi are the Garodia^ Kharpat, Bd^n^ Dudhl^ Pahdri, Pilia^ 

Mirjd, and Sdn%ioah The Bagrls are the most expett at catching all 
kinds of game. 

As the State lies wholly on the Mahva plateau its climate is mild Clini?.te and 
and equable. Though the diurnal range of the thermometer is consi- 
derable, the mean temperature during the year is comparatively low 
In the hot season, moreover, the nights are invariably cool and 
refreshing. 

An average Of thedast ten years gives the normal annual rainfall Balnfalu 
of Ratlam as 27 inches, distributed oVer the year as follows ; — 

4 inches, July 13 inches, August 9 inches, and in the remaining 
months 1 inch. The highest recorded rainfall in any one , yeat is 
53 ‘27 inches, Vhich fell in 1875, when all the crops in the plains were 
injured, though those in the hills escaped. The lowest recorded 
rainfall was 16 inches in 1899, the famine year. Very heavy rain 
fell on the 10th September, 1902, 9 inches being received in 5 hours. 

Streams of muddy foaming water coursed along the streets of the 
town, the khdh (brooklets) were all flooded and much damage done. 

The rainfall in both the natural divisions is the same. 

On the 16th of March, 1863 A. D., an aerolite fell at the village of Storms, oy-. 
Palsoda, about 6 miles to the north-east of Ratlam. The sky was 
clear, when a loud noise was heard on the West which, according to 
report, lasted for some time and three stohes suddenly fell almost at 
the same time at three differeiit spots within a distance of 200 yards. 

No other meteoric stones have ever fallen here within the memory 
of the oldest inhabitants. 

Section II^—History. 

(Genealogical Tree.) 

The Rajas of Ratlam are Rathors of the. Suryavansh ( Sok 
Race) to which the Maharajas of Jodhpur, Bikaner, Kishangarh and 
Idar belong. Raja Maldev of Marw^ (Jodhpur, 1532—84), a contem- Baja Udai 
porary of the Emperor Akbar, was succeeded by his son, Udai Singh oil 

(1584—95). Udai Singh’s eldest son, Suraj Singh (1595—1620),^^'''^^'^* 
succeeded his father on the gaddi of Marwar and bestowed on his 
younger brother Dalpat Singh, a comprising Jhalor, Balahera, paipat Singh 
Rherda, and Pisagun. Balpat Singh of Jhalor was the progenitor Jhaier* 



224 


RATLA^J STATE, 


of the branch from which the Rajas of Ratlam spring. On the 
Maheshd^. death of Dalpat Singh in Samvat 1666 (A. D. 1609) his son, Mahesh- 
das succeeded to Jhalor. He became noted for his services to the 
emperor, and Shah Jahan added considerably to his jaglr. He 
especially distinguished himself in 1630, with the army of the Khan~i- 
hhmtan at the reduction of the fort of Daulatabad in the Deccan- ^ 
This fort was only carried after a fierce struggle in -which Mahesh- 
das’stwo brothers were slain and he himself severely wounded. For 
his numerous services he was later on rewarded by the grant of 
84 villages in the pargana of Phulia and 325 villages in that of 
Jehazpur and was raised to the rank of seh-hazarl ( commander of 
3,000 horse ). Maheshdas died at Lahore in Samvat I 70 I 5 
(A. D. 1644). 


Different chroniclers give different dates for the birth, accession 
and death of the earlier Chiefs of Ratlam. ® 


B\tan Sfngh 
a652-65). 


The date of the birth of Ratan Singh, the founder of the Ratlam 
State, has been variously given as Samvat 1686 ( A. D. 1525 ), 1675 
(1618), and 1662 (1605); while for the foundation of the city 
of Ratlam by Ratan Singh, Samvat 1705 ( 1648), 1709 ( 1652 ), and 
1711 (1655 ) are given by different authorities. Maheshd?s’'s son, 
Ratan Singh, was no less distinguished than his father. There is an 
anecdote related of Ratan Singh that, while attending the Mughai 
Emperor’s court at Delhi, he one day attacked with only a dagger 
(katar) and turned back a mad {mast) elephant, called Kahar Koh 
that had chanced to get loose and was spreading consternation in the 
streets of the city. This gallant deed was done in front of the 
palace, while the Emperor was looking on from a balcony. On 
account of the uncommon daring shewn on this occasion, many 
favours and marks of honour were heaped upon him by the Emperor 
Shah Jahan. The katar or dagger that did him such good service 
is still carefully preserved with great pride in the Ratlam armoury, 
and has always been an object of reverence to the descendants of 
Ratan Singh. The bard Kumbhakarna has given a ver>" spirited 
version of this incident in his Ratan Rasa or Ballad of Ratan Singh. 
It is said that Maheshdas -was very fond of his second son, 
Kalyandas, who was good-looking and fair, while the eldest Ratan 
Singh was dark in complexion and short in stature. When Ratan 
Singh learnt that his father intended to disinherit him and make 
Kalyandas the successor to the gaddi of Jhalor, he went to Delhi to 
represent his case, but was unable to obtain audience till after his 
adventure with the elephant had brought him to the Emperor’s 
notice. The Emperor on learning that Ratan was the famous 


" E. M. H„ TII, 142. 

^ Authorities are the Tarlkh-i-Mdlwd^ by Karam Ali \ Bri#/ Mistory of "Batldm 
by Amarnath; and the Family Eecords. 



HISTORY. 


225 


Maheshdas’s son, and that he had a grievance and sought audience, 
summoned him to his presence. Ratan Singh appeared with his hands 
bound with a handkerchief in token of submission. The Emperor 
grasping his folded hands and pretending to be angry said : “ Well, 
Ratan, you have stabbed my favourite elephant ; what can you do 
now ?” Ratan Singh, who had a ready wit beyond his youth (accord- 
ing to the bard he was but twelve ! ) replied : “ Sire, when a man 
takes the hand of another he protects him for life, now that the 
King of the world {Shdh^i-Jahdn) has condescended to take both 
my hands, I cannot but rise in world.” This speech pleased the 
Emperor so much that he ordered Maheshdas to take Ratan Singh 
back into his favour, remarking “ Kalydn falydn chhor do, Ratanha 
jatan karo’’ 

This gallant adventure with the elephant is popularly held to be 
the reason of the grant of the joiglr in Malwa by Shah Jahan. But 
recent researches have established the fact that Ratan Singh did 
not gettheydgtj- till very much later. From the Ratan Rasa and 
Cunvachanika ^ it appears that he rendered conspicuous service 
(1687—47) against the Persians in Khorasan (Persia), and at 
Kandahar in quelling the rebellion raised by the Uzbeks. “ Shortly 
after his return from Kandahar he was granted a ja^r worth 53 
lakhs of fupees including the twelve large parganas of Dharar 
(Ratlam), Badnawar (in Dhar), Dagparawa, Alot in Dewas; Titrod 
(Sitamau), Kotri, Gadgucha in Dewas; Agar, Nahargarh, Kanar, 
(all in Gwalior), Bhilara, and Ramgharia. There can, however, be 
little doubt, that the grant was as much due to policy as generosity, 
Shah Jahan desiring to place a feudatory Rajput State on the west 
of Malwa to guard against attack by the subahdat of Gujarat, whose 
favour with that of other high officials Aurangzeb was courting for 
his own ends. The undoubted courage of Ratan Singh,' eombined 
with the dignity of his clan and the great services rendered by so 
many members of his family to the Mughal Emperors, Shah Jahan 
decided in his choice of the young Rajput nobleman. 


1 The following lines are from Ounvachamka, the author of which took 
part in the battle of FatehabSd in which Batan Singh fell 

firs?n»r 

fr«fr«ifrr w>i^-7RFrrfrrfR»?r^orfj^-crrti0|f r 

Maheshdas* s bardic name. 

^r??f=Eatan Slngh (his complexion was 

dark)* 

» Inayat Khan in his Shah Jahan nama mentions how *‘Keshji Batan, son 
of Maheshdas ” and others charged a large body of the enemy. This must be 
Batan Singh,— E. M. H., VII., 80- 



226 


RATLAM STATE. 


With this end in view, the jdglr^ above alluded to, was conferred 
upon Ratan Singh with the rank {mansabY of seh-hazdri (Commander 
of 3,000 horse), the insignia of the chaur (yak’s tail), morchat 
(peacock plumes), suraj muhhi (representation of the sun and the 
moon on fans), and mdhi-marutib (insignia of the fish). These 
insignia are still preserved and are paraded on great occasions and 
accompany the Raja whenever he goes out in full state. The 
author of Tdrtkh-i-Mdlwd says, that few chiefs in these parts 
can boast of mahi mardtib received direct from the Emperor 
of Delhi. Ratan Singh had not been long in possession of his 
new jdglr when he was summoned to join Raja Jaswant Singh 
of Marwar, who was marching at the head of an imperial army to 
check the advance of the combined forces of Murad and Aurangzeb. 
Aurangzeb arrived at Burhanpur in February 1658, and remained 
there a month completing his arrangements. Jaswant Singh was 
entirely, and for a military commander culpably, ignorant of the 
proximity of the two brothers till they were within 14 miles of the 
city of Ujjain, when Raja Sheoraj, commandant of Mandu, informed 
him that Aurangzeb’s army had crossed the Narbada at Akbarpur 
(now Khalghat). Dara Sbikoh’s men, who were in the fort of Dhar, 
on hearing this news abandoned it and joined Jaswant Singh. 

Jaswant Singh accompanied by Kasim Khan then advanced to 
within three miles of Aurangzeb’s army. On 22nd Uajjah 1068, 
A. H. (20th April/ 1658) the two armies met near the village of 
Dharmatpur (23° 2' N. and 42/ E.)* Bernier, ^ who was present, 
gives a graphic account of the fight and its consequences. Kasim 
Khan, who shared the command of the imperial troops with Jaswant 
Singh, treacherously left the field with his Musalman soldiers at the 
most critical point in the battle, leaving Jaswant Singh exposed to 
imminent peril. But Jaswant and his 30,000 Rajput soldiers deter- 
mined to make one desperate attempt. “ Jaswant, spear in hand, 
mounted his steed, Maboob, and charged the imperial brothers ; ten 
thousand Moslems fell in the onset, which cost seventeen hundred 
Rathors, besides Gahalots, Haras, Gaurs, and some of every clan 
Rajwara. Aurangzeb and Murad only escaped because their days 
were not numbered.” ^ Thus did the Rajputs maintain their reputation 
for courage and for loyalty {swdmi-dharma) to the Emperor, whose 
salt they ate. 

^ These raansahs or ranks were originated by Akbar. It should be noted that 
though a rank was stated to he Sch-JictzcLiri (3,000^ 

(5,000), etc. it .did not mean that he brought this number of men into the field, and 
usually the actual contingent is stated after the mansab, e.g., a commander 
of 6,000 with 2,000 cavalry Ain-i-Ahhari^ I, 245. 

2 E. M.H., VII., 219. Bernier'* s (Constable), p. 36, 

* Tod’s 1, 47, 


HISTORY. 


227 


Hatan Singh resolving to try a desperate chance fell upon the 
enemy with a chosen body of Rajput cavalry and wrought such havoc 
that the enemy gave way. “ Of all the deeds of heroism performed 
on this day, those of Ratna of Ratiam by universal consent are pre- 
eminent and ‘ are wreathed into immortal rhyme by the bard * in the 
Rasa Rao Rutna. He also was a Rathore, the great grandson of 
Ude Singh, the first Raja of Maru; and nobly did he shew that the 
Rathore blood had not degenerated on the fertile plains of Malwa.” ^ 

But Murad at this juncture came up with reinforcements and tide 
turned against him and the brave founder of the Ratiam State with 
many thousands of his Rajput brethren perished. A chhatrl (ceno- 
taph) to this day marks the spot wh^re his body was burnt on a pile 
of broken spears. Among those who fell in this field of carnage with 
Ratan Singh were the Sachora Chauhans Bhagwandas and Amar- 
das of Rancher (a first class jdglr under Ratiam) ; Makund Singh the 
Kara Chief of Kotah with his five brothers ; Dayaldas the Jhala, and 
Arjun Singh the Gaur. Chauhan Bhagwandas of Rancher was lying 
near his Chief Ratan Singh, both riddled with wounds. Bhagw^das 
dying as he was, tried to prevent his flowing blood from mingling 
with that of Ratan Singh by raising a bank of earth between them. 

Ratan Singh seeing this told him to forbear and let their blood 
mingle, saying “ Henceforth we and our descendants will be as 
brothers of the same blood.“ Since then the Ratnaut Rathors or 
descendants of Ratan Singh and those of Bhagwandas Chauhan no 
longer intermarry as being of one family. Thus did Ratan Singh 
give his life to support the honour of his house at an early age. 

The seven Ranis® of Ratan Singh, when the newa of hi^ death 
was brought to them, ascended the funeral pile with the turban of 
their deceased husband. 

Some accounts say that after Ratan Singh’s death the Emperor 
Aurangzeb deprived the family of a large portion of its territory, 
while the troublous days of the Maralha ascendancy which followed 
contributed to further diminish the extent of the State. 

A difference of opinion long existed as to who succeeded Ratan Ram Siagh 
Singh on the gaddi of Ratiam. But careful enquiry shews that Ram 
Singh, his eldest son, succeeded and ruled for twenty-four years. 

This chief was killed in a battle in the Deccan and was succeeded Shiv Singly 
by Shiv Singh, who died without issue. (1682-84). 

Shiv Singh was succeeded by his younger brother Keshodas, who Keshodas 
was only a boy at the time. Exactly what happened at this junc- 
ture it is not easy to decide, but he lost the gaddi soon after, his 
uncle Chfiatarsal succeeding to the rule of the State. The story 

^ Tod's BajasiMn^ I. 4^7, 

3 Karam All’s Tarikh^i-Maliud, Amar Nath’s Brief History of- Ratiam and local 
traditions say seven Ran^s, whereas Ratm Bdsa mentions only two. 



228 


RATLAM STATE. 


Ohha tarsal 
^ 1684 * 1709 ), 


Kesri Singh 
(1709-16). 


Man Singh 
(1716-43). 


usually related is that Keshodas incurred the imperial displeasure 
by putting a Muhammadan official to death or at any rate by net 
interfering to save him, and was deposed by the Emperor* 

In 1684 Chhatarsal issued a grant to a Gusain assigning him certain 
revenues in the Ratlam p^rgana. In this grant Chhatarsal is described 
as Mahdrdj-adhiraj and Shri huzur which points to his having been 
or at least to his considering himself the ruling chief at this time, 
these titles not being used in an earlier grant of 1671. A great part 
of the life of this chief was spent in the Deccan in company with the 
Emperor who was then engaged in destroying the only important 
Muhammadan States left in India, Raja Chhatarsal did good service 
in the wars with Bijapur and Golconda (1684-87) as well as at the 
siege of Raigarh and Jinji^ (1693). He also accompanied Bahadur- 
Shah in his expedition against Mirza Kambaksh (1707-8). * He 
returned home with the imperial army in Samvat 1765 (1708) and 
again set out for the Deccan the same year. He fought with great 
courage afPanhala. When, however, his eldest son, Hate Singh, was. 
killed in a battle in the Deccan, he became indifferent to ambition 
and on his return home divided his territory between his two surviv- 
ing sons and his grandson, and retired from the world, becoming an 
ascetic at Ujjain, where he spent the remainder of his days in prayers, 
and devotion. During the latter part of Chhatarsal’s rule Keshodas 
founded the Sitamau State (see Gazetteer of that State)* 

By Chhatarsal’s division, his sons Kesri Singh and Pratap Singh 
obtained Ratlam and Raoti respectively,, and his grandson Bairisal (son 
of Hate Singh) Dhdmnod. Dissensions soon after arose, however,, 
and Bairisal retired to Jaipur leaving his jdgir to be administered by 
his uncle Kesri Singh. Pratap Singh viewed with no small concern 
this annexation of his nephew’s jdgir to Ratlam. Differences 
between Pratap Singh and -Kesri Singh finally became acute and 
Kesri Singh was ultimately killed in 1716, Kesri Singh’s eldest 
son, Man Singh, who was then at Delhi, was informed of this event 
by his younger brother Jai Singh. Man Singh immediately set out 
from Delhi supported by a body of imperial troops and was joined by 
Jai Singh at Mandasor with auxiliary troops from Narwar. The^ 
brothers then marched upon Ratlam and met their uncle Pratap Singh- 
at Sagod (23° 19" N. 75° 4' E, ) and after a fierce struggle over^ 
powered and killed him. 

Man Singh then mounted the gaddi. The rule of this Chief is, 
notable for the number of jdglrs he alienated to kinsmen and friends. 
The largest of these was conferred upon his younger brother Jai 

" E, M. H., VH. 848, 

« E. M H*, TO. 



HISTORY. 


229 


SiBgh, from whom the Sailana family are descended/ All these 
jdglrddrs, with the exception of the Chief of Sailana, are still sub- 
ordinate to the Raja of Ratlam. It was during the rule of this Chief 
that the Marathas first appeared on the scene, though excepting 
a few skirmishes nothing of importance occurred during his day. 

He died in 1743, and was succeeded by his son, Prithvi Singh, in Prithvi ftingh 
whose time the State began to be overrun by the Marathas, from 
whose incessant incursions, immunity was only obtained by the 
payment of enormous sums of money. Prithvi Singh died in 1773, 
after a troubled rule of thirty years. 

Padam Singh, the successor of Prithvi Singh, finding he Fadam Singh 
could not resist the Marathas, at last made an agreement with 
Sindhia to pay an annual tribute. Dying in 1800 he was 
succeeded by Parbat Singh in whose time the ravages of the Parbat Singh 
Marathas increased. The town of Ratlam was twice pillaged CiS00-2o). 
by Jaswant Rao Holkar® ; the Raja of Dhar overran the district 
from end to end ; and to complete the tale of disaster when the 
tribute in consequence of these raids became overdue Sindhia’s army, 
under Bapu Sindhia, marched upon the town. To meet Sindhia’s 
demands was, of course, impossible? as the State had been laid waste 
and the revenues had dwindled to almost nothing. There was, 
therefore, no alternative but to have recourse to arms ; and Parbat 
Singh accordingly placed himself at the head of 12,000 Rajputs, 
including many clansmen who were subjects of other States, and 
determined to make a last desperate attempt for liberty. Broughton 
in his ‘ Letters ’ mentions how Bapu Sindhia experienced a severe 
mortification in the defeat of the detachment sent against the 
fort of Ratlam.® The garrison sallied out during the night and 
completely defeated the troops sent against them, with the loss 
of more than half their numbers and all their guns.” * Further 
bloodshed, however, was averted by the opportune appearance of Sir 
John Malcolm who mediated an agreement with Sindhia and guaran- 
teed on behalf of the British Government the payment of the tribute 
due, while Sindhia was to send no troops into the country or interfere 
in any way in the internal administration or succession. This 
engagement was entered into on January 5th, 1819 A. D. 

The trials and mortifications that had fallen to the lot of this 
chief told upon his mind, and he shortly after showed symptoms of 
insanity. Nobody had access to him except his favourite Rani, Jhaliji, 
who had great influence over him, and in fact ruled in his name. 

His second Rani, Chundawatji, jealous and alarmed at the power of 

^ See Sailana Gazetteer. 

* In 1801 after his defeat at Indore by Sindhia, and in 1803. 

* Actually that of TJchangarh ( 23* 22' N, 74* 55' B. ). There is no fort at 

Eatlam. 

* Broughton, “ Le^iers from a MaratM (Constable), 228« 

» Appendix A, 



!L\TLA!vI STATE» 


Balwaint 

Singh 

( 1825 , 5 ^). 


Shaiion 

Singh 

(1S57-64). 


2c C 

her rival, went, in an advanced state of pregnancy, to her brother, the 
chief of Salumbhar, and was there delivered of a child in Samvat 
1871 (A. D. 1814). Jhaliji questioned the genuineness of the child's 
birth, and attempted to put her pretended son, Bijai Singh, on the 
gaddu This gave rise to much contention and disturbances -were 
anticipated. After many unsuccessful attempts to reconcile the par- 
ties it was proposed and agreed to by all that if the Rana Bhim Singh 
of Udaipur to whose house the child was nearly allied on his mother’s 
side consented to allow his own son to eat with him (the Hana him- 
self can eat with no one) he would then be considered legitimate. 

The Rana was accordingly applied to by Sir John Malcolm, to 
whom the case had been referred for decision. The Rana assured 
‘Sir John Malcolm through Captain Tod that Balwant Singh was the 
son of Rani Chundawatji who was his (Rana’s) sister. Balwant 
Singh was, therefore, both his nephew and nephew to the Rawal of 
Salumbhar who was the Rana’s brother. The Rana not only allowed 
his son to eat with Balwant Singh, but also said bis sixteen XJmraos 
should sit together and eat from the same dish with Balwant Singh, 
The Rani and her son were accordingly sent to ‘Udaipur. A person 
attended on the part of the accusers and another was sent by Sir 
John Malcolm, In the presence of all these parties the son of the 
Rani, of Udaipur ate from the same dish and at the same time 
as young B^ilwant Singh. This put an end to all objections. 
Aitchison, in Kis Treaties and Sanads^ says that Parbat Singh 
'had no children, which is an error, 

Balwant Singh, the son and heir of Parbat Singh, succeeded to the 
gaddl in 1825 when he was eleven years- of age. During his minority 
•the State was managed by Colonel Borthwick, Political Agent at 
Mehidpur, under whose administration the condition of the State 
greatly improved. On attaining his majority, Balwant Singh showed 
a tendency to squander money. He was a great patron of letters 
and attracted many bards and Charans from various parts of India 
to whom he made munificent gifts. In spite of his extravagance 
’he left at his death a surplus of forty lakhs of rupees in the treasury 
in coin and jewels. He rendered conspicuous service during the 
-mutiny, in recognition of which his successor received a dress of 
^honour and the thanks of Government. 

Bhairon Singh, of Jharwasa, fifth in descent from Raja Man Singh 
whom the late Raja had adopted, succeeded at the age of eighteen. 
He was unable to rise to the duties of his new position, putting 
entire trust on Bakhtawar Singh Songara, brother of the Thakur of 
Nandi, who had since his father’s time been nominally harnddr. 
This man misused the trust reposed in him by his master for 



history; 


231 


his' own ends.' He appointed as his deputy a* Bania, whose- 
relations and friends soon filled all places of trust and emolument; 
The Raja v/as closely watched by the kamdar's creatures, who kept 
him in complete ignorance of what was going on. Six years of this 
administration, emptied'^the treasury, embarrassed the finances and 
involved the State in heavy debts which ih took ten years to 
liquidate. 

Bhairon Singh died suddenly- in • 1864, leaving behind him a 
bankrupt State, impoverished subjects .and an infant, son Ranjii 
Singh, who was placed .upon the g^ddi^ 


During Raja Ranjif Singh’s minority, Khan Bahadur gl'! 93 !^® 

Muhammad Shahamat Ali (afterwards C. S. I.), Native Assistant to 
the Govemor-Generars Agent for Central India, was appointed 
Superintendent of Ratlam, the Thakurs of Amleta and Sarwan being 
associated with him. An investigation into the accounts of the 
State proved the fraud and peculation of the former kdmddr Thakur 
Bakhtawar Singh, brother of the Thakur of Namli, and his deputy; 

They were fined two and a half lakhs of rupees, their jdglrs were 
confiscated, and they were forbidden to return to Ratlam during the 
minority of the Chief. , Mir Shahamat Ali had many difficulties ta 
encounter at the outset. The debts amounted to about ten lakhsy 
large arrears were outstanding in all payments, while the larger 
villages were either mortgaged or farmed out on ridiculously easy- 
terms. The new Superintendent, .however, by his vigorous measures 
contrived in the space of 17 years to entirely remodel the administra- 
tion and liquidate the debt, while spending 6 lakhs on roads and 
other improvements. 

Raja Ranjit Singh received his education at , the Daly College at 
Indore* In 1877 he attended the Delhi Assemblage. In 1880 he 
received independentcharge of his State, Mir Shahamat Ali remain^ 
ing on as minister till January 1881. Raja Ranjit Singh was in 
1877 granted an increased salute of 13 guns and in 1888 the title 
of Knight Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian. 

Empire. 

Ranjit Singh married" in 1878 a daughter of His Highness Raf 
Sahib Sir Man Singhji of DHrangdhra, in 1886 the eldest daughter 
of the Maharaj Kunwar Jaswant Singh of Dhrangdhra and in 1889 
the daughter of Bhati Amar Singh of Bikrampur. By his first 
Rani, Jhalijx Sahiba, he had one son, the present Raja Sajjan Singh, 
who was bom in January''1880, and one daughter, who is married 
to His Highness the Maharaja of Rewah. He also had a daughter, 
by his second wife^^ who is still unmarried, . 



232 


RATLAM STATE. 


Saijan 

1893- 


Titles. 


SingE Ranjxt Singh died of pneumonia at Ratlam on the 20th January 
1893 and was succeeded by his only son Sajjan Singh, then 13 years 
of age. The administration of the State was carried on by the 
Diwan, Khan Bahadur Cursetji Rastamji, C. I. E., under the 
supervision of the Political Agent. Raja Sajjan Singh studied at 
the Daly College at Indore where he resided with his guardian 
Mr. Arthur Herbert. 

Sajjan Singh was invested with ruling powers on the 15th 
December 1898. He has contracted two marriages, the first with a 
daughter of His Highness Maharao Sri Mirza Raja Sawai Sir 
Khengarji Bahadur, Rao of Kutch, on the 29th of June 1902, and the 
second with a daughter of the Maharana Sri Pratap Singh, Raja of 
Sunth, on the 24th October 1902. The second wife died of phthisis 
at Ratl^ in July 1906. 

The Chief in 1902 joined the newly inaugurated Imperial Cadet 
Corps, attending the Delhi Darbar as a member of the Corps, 
retiring from it in March 1903, with the rank of Under Officer. He 
was presented with the gold Delhi Darbar Coronation Medal. 

In 1905 the Chief was present at Indore during the visit of 
Their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales, and 
also in Calcutta where as a Member of the Imperial Cadet Corps he 
formed one of the Prince’s Escort, 

The Raja of Ratlam being the head of the Rathor Rajputs of 
Malwa important clan questions even between persons who do not 
belong to the Ratlam State are referred to him for decision.^ 

The Chief bears the hereditary titles of His Highness and Raja, 
and enjoys a salute of 11 guns. 

Relations by blood : — The Chief has no near male relative on his 
father’s side, nor has he any children. The jdgirddrs of Badchhapra, 
Amleta and Baloda ( under Gwalior ) are distant relatives being 
descended from the younger sons of Raja Man Singh. They are 
locally saluted as mdf*dj ® on account of their relationship on the 
father’s side with the Chief of Ratlam. The jdgirddrs of Shivgarh 
and Sarwan are descended from the brothers of Raja Ratan Singh. 
The most important Chiefships allied to Ratlam by consanguinity 
are Jodhpur, Bikaner, Kishangarh, Jhabua, Sailana, Sitamau and 
Idar. For Rathor ruling families ( in and out of Malwa ) connected 
with that of Ratlam, see the genealogical trees A and B. 

Connections by marriage : — The most important connections by 
marriage which have been formed in recent times by the ruling 
family of Ratlam are those with A, Iwar, Rewah, Dhrangdhra* 

1 Malcolm’s “ Central India ” I. 40. 

® J/ardj, % e*, mine, xa not to he confused with Maharaj. 



HISTORY. 


233 


Dungarpur, Kachh-Bhuj, and Sunth, Intermarriages between the 
ruling houses of Udaipur (Mewar) and Ratlam have also taken place 
Raja Parbat Singh of Ratlam married Rani Chandawatji, a sister of 
one of the Maharanas of Udaipur. Raja Balwant Singh of Ratlam, 
the present Raja’s great grandfather, married Rani Ranawatji of the 
Udaipur House. A daughter of Raja Prithvi Singh of Ratlam waS 
married to the Mah^ana of Udaipur. Prithvi Singh had two 
daughters, Saras Kunwar and Sardar Kunwar. The former, of whom 
he was very fond, he gave in marriage to the Rana of Udaipur, the 
latter to the Rana’s nephew. The marriages were celebrated in 
Ratlam. The Rana, however, suddenly died on his way back to 
Udaipur and his nephew succeeded him. A celebrated bardic 
couplet about this runs : — 

“ Sarsi hi narsi bhai, Sire bhai Sardar ; Pithal bechdra kia hare 
Karanhdr kartdr'^ 

There is here a pun on the word saras which literally means excel- 
lent. It is also the name of the favourite child. One of the sisters 
of the Raja Ran jit Singh was married to the late Chief of Alwar and 
the other to the son of the late Chief of Dungarpur. The present 
Raja’s mother was a daughter of His Highness the Maharana Man- 
singh of Dhrangdhra. One of the Chiefs sisters is the wife of His 
Highness the Maharaja of Rewah. 

The chief jdgtrddrs of the State, styled Thdkurdn, Umrdos, or state Jagir- 
when they are descendants of the younger sons of a former Chief, 
mdrdj, hold lands from the State on the condition of rendering 
service when required. A Rajput jdgirddr of the first class is 
commonly styled thdhurdn. The jdglrddrs on the Bagar frontier 
and in the hilly districts formerly guarded the passes and prevented 
inroads of Bhils and other marauders, 

K&jd^rddrs pay an annual tribute, called tanka, which, however, 
bears no definite proportion to their income. It is generally fixed 
anew at the time of fresh succession to a jdglr and may be increased 
at the wiU of the Darbar. In return, three of the chief jdglrddrs 
used formerly to get annual sirj^dos or dress of honour, in lieu of 
which certain small sums are now deducted from the tanka payable 
by them. The jdglrddrs also pay other minor charges known as 
fdla, anni, etc. A succession fee {nazardna for talvodr bandhdi) 
amounting generally to one-fourth of the jdgirddr's income, as 
entered in the State jamdbandi records, in the case of a son 
succeeding, to one-half of the income, in the case of a brother 
or other near relative and to a full year’s income in the event 
of the adoption of a distant collateral relative is levied by the 
Darbar. 



234 


RATLAM STATE. 


Succession is by primogeniture- The jd'gh^dars are obliged to 
attend particular darbdrs and festivals and solemnities and join the 
Raja’s sawdris. 

The first class jdglrddrs^ now five in number, are permitted to 
wear gold anklets. They exercise such judicial powers within their 
jdglrs as are granted by the Darbar from time to time. None of 
the jdgtrddrs has the right of adoption on failure of issue. The 
jdglr is, as a rule, attached' on the death of a jdglrddr^ whether he 
leaves an heir or not, and the Raja appoints an officer to manage the 
jdglr pending decision regarding succession, tdnka, etc. During a 
minority the officer manages the idgir. On the appointment ' of a 
successor the ceremony of tulwar handhdi (buckling on the 
jdglrddr's sword) is performed in the case of any of the five first 
class jdglrddrs by the Raja himself,, and in that of other jdgtrddrs, 
the successor is installed formally by any sarddr or officer deputed by 
the Raja for the purpose. For a. list of the jdglrddrs see Table 
XXXI. 

The tdzim or recognition by the Raja in darhdr varies according 
to the rank of the jdglrddr. The highest degree of recognition is 
known as ^furi tdzim. The nobleman bows on arriving in the 
presence of the Raja. The latter rises from his seat and receives 
the thdkur with hdnhpasdr (stretching out of arms), a sort of semi- 
embrace. On departure the Thakur bows and the Raja rises from his 
seat and returns the salutation. Nobles of a lower rank receive 
j>url tdzlfn and hdthmildna ( clasping of hands ) instead of the 
bdnhpasdr^ A still more modified degree, of recognition is the ddhl 
(half) tdzim, when the Chief only half rises from his seat at the 
entrance and exit of sarddr. 

In darhdr the Raja sits on the gaddi, which is placed in a central 
position in the darhdr Hall. The jdglrddrs, sarddrs, and lower 
officials sit on the carpet, on which the gaddi is placed, in parallel 
lines to the right and left of the Raja according to their rank. 
The jdglrddrs sit close round the gaddi and next to them, but 
at a little distance, sit their hunwars. Below and behind the 
jdglrddrs and hunwars^ sit the sarddrsy purohits ( officiating 
priests), gurus (religious preceptors), and vydses (astrologers). 

The Diwan sits immediately behind the Raja, this place being 
considered the highest seat of honour among the darbdrts. Near 
the Diwan sit the Dhahav"^ and the higher officials. Behind the 
Raja stand servants with the insignia of State. In the darhdr held 
by the Raja for a representative of the British Government, the 
Diwan occupies the first seat among jdglrddrs, 

^ The jDhdbai's family is Tisually of the caste. From this family wet 

nurses are obtained lor the Chiera children* 




•HISTORY. 


215 


The jaglfs and other classes of alienated land absorb 44 per cent, 
of the total State revenue, 56 per cent, going to the Darbar. The 
income of these jdglrs is derived entirely from land revenue, the total 
land revenue of the jdgtrddrs exceeding that of the khdlsd area. 

There are no recognised hereditary office-bearers in the State, 
though a son, if fitted for the post, -may succeed his father, 

^especially in religious offices. 

The jdglrddr of Panched, the Sairanis (a 'tribe of Musalmans), the 
Mahajan families of Loda and Mehta, the Vyases and some 
Shrimali Brahmans accompanied the first Raja, Ratan Singh, from 
Marwar at the foundation of the Ratlam State. Some Shrimali 
Brahmans also settled in the time of subsequent Rajas, and some 
held important offices including that of the Diwan (then styled 
hdmddr). The jdglrddr of Panched used formerly to attest all 
'grants of land and villages made by the Rajas. The only here- 
ditary duty he now performs is that oi^talwdr handhdi ( buckling 
on the Raja s sword ) on the succession of a new Raja. The Bdrot 
or bard of the village of Sutretx invokes hlessings at the wedding 
of the Rajas, for which he receives a dress of honour and an 
elephant. A money payment is now generally made in lieu of 
these presents. 

The Sarwan and Shivgarh jdglrddrs are descendants of Ratan 
Singh’s brothers. They and the jdglrddr of Namli hold lands under 
other Chiefs also. The petty jdglr of Bhati-Barodia is held by a 
Bhati Rajput ; the first holder received the estate as being brother-in- 
law to a former Raja of Ratlam. The Bunera jdglrddr^ a Rathor 
of the Fatehsing sept, was formerly a big land-holder, but was 
deprived of a considerable portion of his possessions for misbehaviour. 

The Rao of Kushalgarh pays an annual tribute of Rs. 1,225 Salim 
Shdhi to Ratlam on account of the jdglr of Khera, comprising 60 villa- 
ges granted to him by the Ratlam State in 1782. Ratlam also service 
a sum of Rs. 6,000 yearly from Sailana as its share of the customs 
dues levied in that State. ( See Miscellaneous Revenue.) 

Ratlam is not rich in objects of archseological interest. In the Archaeology, 
village of Sejaota, granted in jdgir to the Thakur of Panched, about 
three miles north of Ratlam, stands a bdorl (or well with steps ) 
which bears an interesting inscription in Rangri. It is the oldest 
inscription yet discovered in the State, and is dated Samvat 1723 (1666 
A.D.) The inscription states that the well was commenced in 
Samvat 1723 (1666 A. D.) by Gangagxr Gusain. The cost amounted 
to Rs. 21,001 Sdlim Shdhi, It concludes “in the reign of Maharaj Shri 
Ram Singhji this well was constructed ; Padshah Dillipatl Aurang- 
zebji, Samvat 1727 (A.D. 1670), month Kartik, 5th Sudi^ ' Thurs- 
day. Completed in years.” A portion of the village is still held by 



236 


KATLAM STATE. 


Eaumera- 

tions. 


Census of 1881 
and 1891. 


Census of 
1901. 


Gusains, as a religious grant. Some old copper-plates were found in 
1891 at the khalsd village of Nauganwan or Naugama (23'^ 28’ N. and 
75® 4^ E.) in the Dhamnod Kamdsddri, twelve miles north of the 
town of Ratlam, while a well, near a Brahman’s house, was being 
widened with a view to steining. Two sets of plates were found* 
They are interesting as shewing that the rule of the Vallabhi 
dynasty of Gujarat extended as far east as Sailana and Mandasor. 
The first plate records the grant by Dhruvasena II of Vallabhi 
( 629-241 ), made from the victorious camp pitched at Vanditapalli, of 
a field to two Brahmans of Dashapura (Mandasor.) The boundaries 
of the field are given and a genealogy similar to those found in other 
grants of these kings.^ 

The first grant is dated in G.S. 321 (A.D. 640-41 ) and grants 
IQOhhakttsoi land in the Vishaya or district of Malavika. The 
places mentioned as being on its boundaries are Dhammanahaddika, 
now Dhamnod (23® 26' N. and 75^ 2^ E.), Deva kulapdtaka, now 
Devalkheri, Chandraputr^a^ now Chandoria (23° 29' N. and 
75° 5’ E.) in Sailana State? and the tank of Nirgandi and field of 
Viratarmandalin (not identified). ^ 

The other grant is issued from Vallabhi and grants 100 hhahtls of 
land in Malwa to two Brahmans. It is dated in G.S. 320 '(A. D. 
639-40). It mentions Navagr-dma^ now Naugama ( 23° 28' N. and 
75® 4' E. ) where the plates were found, Varahodaka, now Bharoda in 
Sailana State (23^^ 27' N. and 75° 5' E.), Pullndanaka, now Palduna 
(close to Naugama) and the stream Lashmanapattaka ( not known). 
Dr. Hultzsch supports these identifications. ^ 

Section III.— Population. 

(Tables III and IV.) 

There have been three enumerations of the State, in 1881, 1891 
and 1901. The census of 1901 was the first from which details for 
iahsils and villages were published. 

The total population at these enumerations amounted in 1881 to 
87,314 and in 1891 to 89,160,! 

In the last enumeration the population fell to 83,773. ^ This 
marked decrease was due, no doubt, to the fact that the Census was 
taken while the State was still suffering from the effects of the famine 
of 1899-1900. 

1 I. A,, VII, 31 Ep. hhd. I. 89, 

® These identifications by the Diwan have been rejected by Dr. fleet, 
who identifies Dhammanhaddika with Dhamnar in Indore and Devakulpataka as 
Dalaoda near Mandasor, but these identifications do not appear to be borne out by 
the place of find or the second set of plates. 

» Arch. Surv. Eep., 1902-3, 232, J?pr. In., VIII, 189. 

^ This figure excludes the population at Bail way Stations situated within 
the State, which amounta to 1,451 bringing the total up to 85,224. 



POPULATION. 


237 


The density per square mile according to the census of 1901 is Density and 

y QT15>t 

92*8 per square mile, including the chief town. If this is excluded the 
rural density is only 54. The density for the entire State was in 1881, 

96*8 and in 1891, 98*8 persons to the square mile. 

The capital is the only town in the State having a population Towns and 
of 34,976. Of 206 villages, 182 have a population of less than 500, ^ 
while 15 have from 500 and 1,000 inhabitants, 7 from 1,000 to 2,000 
and 2 from 2,000 to 3,000. The average population of a village 
is 236 persons. The number of occupied houses was returned as 
17,593, of which 6,833 were in Ratlam town; each house contained on 
an average 4*8 persons. In Ratlam town the figure rises to 5 • 1 per 
house. The chief town has grown rapidly owing to the opening of 
the Rajputana-Malwa Railway, the population increasing by 6,499 
persons or 21 • 8 per cent, in the last decade. 

Migration is infinitesimal either between districts in the State or to Migration, 
and from foreign territory. Of the total population 60,833 persons 
or 73 per cent, were born in the State and 76,082 or 90 per cent, in 
Central India, leaving only 10 per cent, as the results of migration. 

Most immigrants come from Rajputana ( 4,584 ) and the Bombay 
Presidency ( 2,023 ). 

Vital statistics have only been registered since 1900 and are not very Vital statis- 
reliable, but the normal mortality previous to the great famine was ^Tables V and 
about 20 per mille. In the year 1899-1900 the mortality in the VI). 
town was 54 per mille, the figure for the whole State being 41, Plague 
broke out in November 1902 in the capital and the mortality that 
year rose to 68 per mille. During the second appearance of the 
epidemic the figure was still higher, viz., 75 per mille. The state- 
ment of causes of death shows that in an ordinary year malaria 
fever has the greatest number of victims. 

The normal birth-rate for the last decade is about 19 per mille. 

The birth-rate in 1905-06 was 24*6 per mille. During the plague 
epidemic it varied from 16 to 19. During the famine of 1899-1900 it 
was so low as 9 *8 for the whole State. The number of births in the 
town was 172 in 1905-06, 271 in the previous year. The births in the 
khalsa district numbered 630, and the deaths 528, giving the ratios 
26 and 22*4 per mille respectively the last year. 

The census of 1901 shewed 42,169 males and 41,604 females, Sex and civil 
which gives 986 women to every 1,000 men. In the town the 
proportion is 978 females to 1,000 males. The deficiency in the 
female returns is much less than it was in earlier enumerations. 

The married exceed the unmarried by 29 per cent. The figures 
for those married give 966 wives to 1,000 husbands for the whole 



23S 


RATLAM STATE. 


State. The town figures shew 959 wives to 1,000 husbands. The 
statistics are given in the appended table : — 


Condition. 

Total. 

Males. 

Females. 

Unmarried 

30,671 

18,153 

12,518 

Married ... 

39,650 

20,199 

19,451 

Widowed 

13,452 

3,817 

9,635 

Total ... 

83,773 

42,169 

[ 

41,604 


Eeligions. Classified by religion the population shewed 62 persons in every 
100 as Hindus, 16 as Animists, 12 as Musalmans and 7 as Jains 
Christians number only 283. ^ 

Of the total Hindu population, 32,209 or 61 per cent, were returned 
as Vaishnavas, 9,216 or 17 per cent, as Shaktas or Devi-worshippers, 
5, 265 or 10 per cent, as Shaivas and 336 as Smartas. Besides 
these, there were 2,433 worshippers of Ram Dev or Rampir, 781 of 
Devdharamraj, 518 Ramsanehis, 424 KabiTpan this and 114 wor- 
shippers of Pabuji The three gods or rather deified heroes, Rampir, 
Devdharamraj and Pabuji, being not generally known in these parts, 
have been noticed below. 

pharamaraj or Dev Narayan or Udoji, as he is variously 
raj. known, is believed to have been an incarnation of Vishnu or Shri 

Krishna. The story runs that some 900 years ago there lived in the 
village of Gotha in Mewar 24 Gujar brothers called the Baghdawats, 
who were hardened drunkards and were a terror to their neighbours. 
One of these brothers could foretell events three months before they 
occurred. The Baghdawats were very powerful , and no one could 
prevent them from oppressing the people around. Vishnu one day 
descended in the form of a Brahman, afflicted with leprosy, and went 
to the Baghdawats’ house to ask for alms, believing that they would 
ill-treat him, on which he would curse and destory them. But the 
Baghdawats, knowing that the Brffltman was no other than Vishnu, 
embraced him and showed him every hospitality so that he, at the 
request of the eldest brother’s wife, consented to be bom incarnate 
as her son. The Baghdawats were all, soon after, killed in a fight 
and Dev Dharamaraj was bom in. fulfilment of the promise made 
by Vishnu. He gave evidence of his possessing a portion of the 
divine essence by performing many exploits. He, when only seven, 
aided Jffl Singh Paramara, Raja of Dhar ( 1055—1080 ), in driving 
* If the fiailway popalation is included they number 431, 



POPULATION. 


239 


away certain demons who infested his country. At the age of twelve 
he ascended to heaven from Rai Bhanai in Mewar, Gotha and Rai 
Bhanai are the chief seats of this sect. Almost all Gujars worship 
Dev Dharamaraj. They do not generally live in houses made of 
bricks, for in the shrines dedicated to Dev Dharamaraj large bricks 
are kept bearing figures of Dev Dharamaraj on horseback with a spear 
in^his hand. Serpents are also carved round the figure of the horse- 
man. The Bhopa or priest wears a black thread round his neck to 
which is suspended a silver or brass ornament on which the figure of 
Bheru is engraved. He possesses some pictures called i>hadj 
illustrating the several valorous deeds of the hero, Dev Dharamaraj, 
who is always represented as riding a green horse. In Marwar the 
of Deoji or Dev Dharamaraj ’s shrines are generally Gujars 
who lead celibate lives. It is said that Rana Sanga built a shrine 
in honour of Dev Dharamaraj at Chiton 

Ramdevor Rampir lived about the end of the 13th century. He Dev. 
is believed to be an incarnation of Krishna. Tradition states that one 
Ajmulji Thakur, a Tonwara Rajput of Pokaran in Marwar, had no 
issue. He was very pious and made seven pilgrimages to Dwarka. 

Shri Krishna, pleased with his devotion, blessed him with a son who 
possessed a portion of God’s essence. This boy was Ram Dev and 
grew up possessed of miraculous powers. He could restore the 
dead to life and could make inanimate things come to him from 
distant places. Oh one occasion, by simply lifting up his hand, he 
saved a ship from foundering although he was himself on land 
thousands of miles distant, the passengers and crew, in their hour of 
danger, having invoked his help. Ram Dev’s Samadh or tomb is 
situated near Pokaran where a large fair is held every year. 
Although some Rajputs and other high caste people are among his 
adherents, he is mostly worshipped by the lower orders. Ram Dev’s 
image is not worshipped. In his shrines (here only wretched huts ) 
are slabs of stone bearing pdduka or foot-prints on them. The 
Bhopas or priests of this sect carry about a toy-horse made of 
rags and collect offerings in the name of Ram Devji’s ghora. 

Pabuji is said to have lived in Marwar about 600 years ago. For Pabnji. 
his prodigies of valour he was after his death deified. Many legends 
have grown up about him. In a village called Kolu Mandal in Marwar 
there lived a Rathor Rajput named Asthanji Dhandhal. His wife’s 
name was Phulwati. One day Dhandhal, while taking a walk in a 
garden, found a newly- born child wrapped in the petals of a lotus 
flower. He took the child home and entrusted him to his wife’s care 
who promised to nurse him on the condition that her husband should 
never go into her room without giving notice by making some noise 
or hawking. One day Dhandhal entered his wife’s room without 
giving her any notice and to his amazement saw that a lioness was 



240 


RATLAM STATE. 


giving suck to the child. The lioness was his wife, who, resuming 
her human form, rebuked her husband for his breach of faith and 
left him in anger. The boy was named Pabuji and was believed to 
be an incarnation of Lakshman, Rama’s brother. The worshippers 
of Pabuji here are very low-caste people. In Marwar many Bhils 
worship him. In shrines dedicated to Pabuji his form is engraved 
on slabs of stone. He is represented on horseback with a spear in 
his hand. The locale of this sect is Kolu Mandal in Marwar. 

Jain sects. The Jain sects enumerated shewed 796 or 12 per cent. Digambaris> 
4,067 or 63 per cent. Svetambaris and 1,589 or 23 per cent. Dhundias 
or Thanakpanthis. In the town Jains number 4,903, of whom 649 
are Digambaris,^ 819 Mandir-margis, 2,065 Svetambaris and 1,366 
Dhundias. 

Musalman Of the total number of Musalmans, 8,428 were Sunnis, 2,265 
sects, Shias, almost all Bohoras of the Daudi sect. 

Animistic Of Animists, 4,481 or 32 per cent, returned themselves as wor- 
sects. shippers of Mahi-mata and Bara bij, 3,301 or 23 per cent, of Bhag- 

wan, 5,916 or 42 per cent, of Devi or Mata, 227 of Shiv and 27 of 
Pabuji. Thus about 60 per cent, returned themselves as worship- 
ping various Hindu deities. 

As regards the sects of Mahi-mata^or Bara bij, the former is the 
presiding deity of the Mahi river, whom all Bhils hold in great 
reverence always invoking her aid in their thieving expeditions ; Bara 
bij are the 12 (bara) second days ( bij ) of the new moon, i.e., the 
first day on which it is usually visible. 

Language. The predominent dialects in the State are Malwi and its cognate 
Rangri spoken by 58,275 persons or 70 per cent, of the population; 
Hindi (8,972) and Bihli (8,220) are the next most important forms 
of speech. 

Literacy. Of the total population 6,515 or 15 per cent, were literate in the 
whole State, including 6,030 or 14 per cent, males and 485 or IT per 
cent, females. 

Male and The census returned 2,185 boys and 267 girls as under instruction, 
*°Sether with 3,845 males and 218 females not under instruction, 
religion. but able to read and write. It appears that of the total Hindu 
male population 12*6 per cent, are able to read and write or are 
under instruction, while only 0-75 per cent, of the Hindu female 
population can read and write or are under instruction. Among 
the Muhammadan males 12-3 per cent, are literate and among 
Muhammadan females 2*7 per cent. The Jains shew 61*8 per cent, 
of literate males and 3*3 per cent, females. The figures for Parsi 
males and females give 66*6 and 58 *6 per cent, literate, respectively, 

1 Maiidir-margig are either Digambaris or Sretambaris. 



POPULATION. 


241 


Among Christians 23*7 per cent, males and 15 • 7 per cent, females 
were returned as literate. Only one animistic male out of 6,974 
can read and write, while out of 7,028 animistic females not one 
possesses this qualification. But among the famine orphans, now 
in charge of the local Missionaries, there are about 50 animistic boys 
and 30 animistic girls who are being taught to read and write. 

Among Hindu castes, Brahmans (11,600) predominate form- C aste, tribes 
ing 16 per cent, of the population ; these include 907 Shrimalis, 

1,045 Audich, 1,339 Sakhwals, 936 Harnia gauds, 292 Gujar gauds. 

Rajputs (6,000) include 754 Rathors, 338 Chauhans, 226 Solankis, 222 
Parmars and 184 Sesodias. Banias ( 4,200 ) include 842 Mahesris, 

715 Agarwals, 220 Khanderwals and 170 Oswals. Chamars (3,300 ) 
are the most numerous of the lower classes. The important cultivat- 
ing classes are Kunbis 2,900, Jats 1,680, Dhakars 690, Khatis 1,400 
and Malis 1,040. 

Among Jain Banias ( 6,452 ) 4,614 are Oswals, 161 Agarwals and lains. 

142 Saraogis. 

Among Muhammadans, Shaikhs number 3,200, Pathans 2,500 and Musalmans. 
Bohoras 2,000, 

The Animists, who are practically all Bhils, numbered 14,000, Animists. 

Rural occupations, as may be supposed, predominate, over 22,000 Occupations, 
persons with 13,000 dependents or 42 per cent, of the total population 
following some pursuit connected with agricultural or pastoral 
occupations, while 10,400 including 4,000 dependents or 12 per cent, 
have “general labour’' as their means of livelihood. If the town 
figures are excluded, the percentage engaged in rural occupations is 
80, Of the remainder, 21 per cent, are employed in the preparation 
and sale of material substances, manufactures, etc., and 5 per-cent, 
in trade. 

The people dress in the fashion * common to Malwa. Ordinarily Social 
the dress of a male Hindu consists of a pagn (turban), a piece of a 
cloth about 50 or 60 feet long and 6 inches wide with gold ends ; this Dress, 
cloth is sometimes shot with gold and silver thread, called mandil^ 
and worn by well-to-do people on festive occasions or marriages ; 
hurta (a shirt); angarhha (long coat), reaching to the middle of the leg 
and fastened with twisted cords below the right ear under the right 
shoulder and on the breast, a dhoti (loin cloth), worn round the 
waist and a dupatta (scarf). All these are generally white, except 
the turban which is often coloured red, pink, purple, yellow, etc. The 
Rajputs often wear the multi-coloured pagns peculiar to Ratlam, tied 
in narrow and picturesque folds, with a sword at the waist, the 
emblem of the soldier class. The wearing of paijdmas instead of 
the dhoti and the sdja for the pagrt is Common among the younger 
generation, 



242 


RATLAM STATE, 


Agricultural classes wear a dhotu a bandi, or coat> a pichhora a 
khddl cloth and a pagru In the town there is a greater tendency to 
dress after the European fashion. The sdfa, or a round felt cap, is, 
however, retained as head dress. 

The Hindu female dress consists of a ghdgra (petti-coat of coloured 
cloth), orhnl or lugara (a sheet used as an upper garment to cover 
the face and upper part of the body) and a kdnchll (bodice). 


The only distinction between Muhammadan and Hindu dress 
is that the Muhammadan men, except agriculturists, wear paijdmas 
and not dhotis^ and that the opening of the angarkha lies to the 
left and not as with Hindus to the right side. The females wear 
paijdmas instead of the ghdgra and a kurti over the choli. 


Food. 


Bally life. 


Houses. 


Customs. 


Marriage. 


Disposal of 
tie dead. 


Meals are generally taken twice, at midday and evening. Only the 
well-to-do take light refreshment in the morning and in the after- 
noon. The staple food grains used are wheat, jowdr, maize and 
gram, with the pulse, tuaf^ urd^ mung and masur as subsidiary. The 
ordinary food of the rich and middle classes consists of chapdtis 
(thin cakes) of wheat flour, iuar^ rice, ghl^ vegetables, milk and 
sugar. The poorer classes in the country, including the peasantry 
eat rotls (thick cakes or loaves) made of the coarser grains with pulses » 
vegetables, uncooked onions, salt and chillis. No local Brahmans or 
Banias eat flesh. All castes except the Brahmans smoke tobacco 
and eat opium, whicli amongst the Rajputs is presented to friends 
also in liquid called hasumha. 

The whole population almost being agricultural spends its days in 
the fields from sunrise to sunset except at the end of the spring 
harvest and during the four rainy months. 

Huts are usually of mud and are either thatched or tiled. In 
Ratlam town there are houses of two or more storeys, but in the 
district only the larger villages possess double-storeyed buildings. 

Marriage, funeral and other customs are the same as elsewhere 
and require no special mention. 

Child marriage is the rule among Hindus while adult marriage is 
usual among the Bhils. Polygamy is common only among the 
Rajputs of position. Widow marriage prevails among the lower 
classes only. 

The dead bodies of Hindus are burnt except those of Sanyasis, 
Bairagis and infants, which are buried. Cremation takes place 
by the side of a stream, the ashes being if possible conveyed to a 
sacred river, otherwise they are committed to some local stream. 
Muhammadans bury their dead. 


Festivals and The principal festivals are the Dasahra, Holt, Ganger and local 
amusements, nobles of the State attend the Dasahra darbdr to pay 



POPULATION. 


243 


theif homage to the Chief* Before the celebration all the weapons 
are examined and repaired. This is a martial day and is observed 
with great enthusiasm. 

The ordinary amusements in the rural area are drum beating and 
singing among grown up people and hide and seek, danda 
( tipcat ) and ankhmichi ( blindman’s buff ) among children. The 
commonest amusements among villagers is to , assemble together 
after the day’s work at a prominent place and pass away a 
few hours in smoking or talking. In the capital town chausarj 
card games and kite flying are also indulged in. 

Among Hindus the twice born are named after gods or famous Komencla- 
personages. They have two names, the janma rdshl ndm which is 
used when the stars are consulted and the holta ndm by which per- 
sons are generally known; the former is usually of religious origin. 

The public health of the State was always good until 1902 when Public 

TT A TiTTf 

a serious attack of plague took place. Infection was brought piague! 
from Godhra where plague was then raging. The epidemic started 
in November and died out in April. The number of recorded 
cases was 3,221 and deaths 2,411. The disease was most fierce in 
the town. All measures were adopted to check its ravages and after 
some opposition the people readily assisted in reporting cases. 
Inoculation was tried but without success. 

A regular pest of rats added to difficulties. The people, more- 
over, firmly believed that these rodents were animated by the spirits 
of Bhils who had died in the famine year (1899-1900), a belief 
which was increased by the damage they did to maize crops, maize 
being a favourite luxury with Bhils. 

It may be remarked that an attack of Bubonic plague was expected 
in 1835 when Raja Balwant Singh, on the Political Agent’s sugges- 
tion, issued a circular in Rangri, giving instructions as to its detec- 
tion, and simple but extremely drastic rules for its treatment. The 
latter consisted in at once bleeding the patient and adminis- 
tering sona-mukhi ( senna ), nasot ( Ipomea turpethum ) or jamah 
got a ( Croton tiglium ). The patient was then to be kept cool by 
being enveloped in wet clothes, a poultice of ajwdin ( Lingusticum 
ajowan ) seed and lime juice being applied to the bubos. Luckily 
the epidemic never became severe. 



244 


CHAPTEK IL 

ECONOMIC. 

(Tables VII— XV, XXVIII to XXX.) 

Section T— Agriculture* 

(Tables IX and X.) 

Genial con- The State land falls into two sections corresponding with the 
mate/ rain- divisions. The 315 square miles which lie on the plateau 
d enjoy all the conditions common in Malwa. The rainfall is about 
sions, 27 inches and the soil well suited to all kinds of cultivation. In the 
hilly tracts, covering about 587 square miles, the conditions are not 
such as to favour agriculture. The soil is poor and the inhabitants 
little given to cultivation. 

The plateau is covered with black and brown soil of good quality, 
on which excellent khartf and rahi crops can be grown. In the 
hilly tracts only khartf crops are generally sown. Good black soil 
is also found in hollows between hills, but, owing to the paucity of 
cultivators and of proper means of irrigation, rahi crops are but 
little cultivated. A year of scanty rainfall proves unfavourable to 
both natural divisions alike, but a year of excessive rainfall, though 
unfavourable to the khartf crops in the plateau, is beneficial to the 
rahi crops ; while the hilly tracts fare badly in a year of heavy as 
well as of scanty rainfall. 

The plateau land is generally speaking level. It is drained by the 
Mahi river and its affluent the Jamar. The Kamasddrl of Ringnia 
is all level land. Dhamnod has some small hills scattered here and 
there over it and Dharar is mostly hilly ground. The western 
portion of the State is entirely hilly. 

The rainfall is much the same in both natural divisions. The 
rainfalls in the months of June, July, August and September, 
commencing about the middle of June and ending about the middle 
of September. Light falls in July and heavy falls in August are 
favourable to the crops. Heavy falls in July are injurious to maize 
and yotiyiZf, but beneficial to the rahi {spring) crops. Scanty falls 
are unfavourable to both crops. Showers in December are favourable 
to the wheat and poppy crops, but those in January and February 
seldom fail to injure them, producing the disease called gerua, blight 
or rust, which seriously affects the quantity and quality of the wheat. 
But these December, January and February showers are of rare 
occurrence. Frost and hail occasionally damage the poppy crop, but 
fortunately not frequently. 



AGRICULTURE 


245 


East winds in Savan (July- August) are said to predict a good rainy 
season. 

Savan mas chale purvalya. 

Becho bail^ le lo gaiya. 

When the east wind blows in Savan, sell off your oxen and buy 
cows. Rain will be plentiful and no oxen wanted to work the well, 
and fodder will be ample for cows. 

Regarding early cessation of the rains a proverb runs : — 

Savan sukla saptarm, chhipke uge hhdn, 

Kahe ghdg sun ghdgnl, barJzhdh deo tithdn. 

If the sun rises out of the clouds on the 7th of the bright half of 
Shrdvan (about the 22nd of July) then the peasant says to his wife 
‘ the rains are over' 

According to Hindu Astronomy there are twenty-seven nakshatras 
or asterisms in the moon’s path. All agricultural operations are carried 
on with reference to these asterisms. Ten nakshatras fall in the 
rainy season. The Mrig nakshatra commences about the 5th June 
and Ardra about the 20th. Sowing operations for the kharlf crops 
take place in Mrig. Rainfall in these nakshatras is favourable to 
the crops. But very heavy rainfall during this period is believed to 
produce certain insects which are injurious to the flowering crops 
unless they are subsequently washed away by continual showers in 
Uttara nakshatra. The Punarvasu nakshatra commences about 
the 4th July and Pushya about the 18th July. Heavy showers in 
Punarvasu are not considered good, as they weaken the crops and 
make them pale in colour. Rainfall during Pushya is beneficial, 
correcting any evil done by the rains during Punarvasu, The 
Ashlekha nakshatra commences about the 1st August and Magha 
about the 15th of that month. Heavy rain in Ashlekha is injurious 
to the kharlf but favourable to rahi crops. Rainfall in Magha is 
very beneficial to both kharlf and rabi crops. The Purva nakshatra 
commences about the 29th August and Uttara about the 12th 
September. If it rains much in Purva blight and insects injure the 
kharlf crops, but rain in Uttara is most desirable. Hasta 
conimences about the 25th of September. If there has been no rain 
during the previous nakshatras it is much wished for now. It is 
most beneficial to the rabi crops. There is seldom rainfall in Chitra. 
If it rains then the kharlf crop is altogether ruined. Rain in Swdti 
is equally injurious. Cotton especially is always damaged by rain- 
fall in Swdti. Both the Swdti and Chitra nakshatras fall in 
October. The following Rdngri proverbs current in the State are 
interesting in this connection : — 

‘‘ Varse Ashlekha, to unbi maslega. ” If it rains in Ashlekha 
young wheat will be rubbed between the palms (and eatenl . 
wheat will be plentiful. 



246 


J?ATLAM STATE. 


Soils. 


Unhi is the grain of the young wheat plants which is only parched 
and eaten if the crop is plentiful. 

Magsar men dhanvay to sdkh men ^lithd'^r If you sow crops 
in Mrig^ insects [Hi) will attack them. 

Another local saying runs Sdvan koro to karsdn soro. ” A 
rainless Sdwan is preferred by the peasant (who can then weed 
his fields whereby the young sprouts flourish better). 

Bigdi Asddi to paryo i>achhddir If in Ashdd the sowing 
operations are not commenced the whole season is spoiled. 

Barse bakh pakh to san na dehhy Bakh pakh is rustic for 
Punarvasu, If it rains in Punarvasu the hemp is spoiled. The rain 
which falls in Punarvasu is believed to be bitter in taste and not 
good for hemp. 

Andh men mat wdi (sow) re andha, Chhore nai ne wdi kdnda'^ 
O you fool, do not sow corn in the Anurddha nakshatra. Lay aside 
the drilhplough, and sow onions. 

“ Sdvan gdje^ to Bhddwe reheni zodje.'^ If it thunders in Sdvan^ 
in Bhddo you will have scarcity of water. 

“ Rehent'' is the water-wheel by which water is drawn from wells, 
Hdthi aur Chatra men varse chhut, to chana vatla ve akhut. 
Heavy rains in Hasta and Chitra are beneficial to gram and peas. 

Bhddavado varse to fal ful darse.^' Rain in Bhddav and 
vegetables grow plentifully. 

There are other rules by which the probable quality of the 
rainfall is prognosticated. If garbhadhdraita^ literally the 
conception of rain clouds, commences when the moon is in the 
nakshatra of purvdshddha in the month of Mdrgashzrsa, rain will, 
it is believed, fall within the space of 195 days. The garbha 
formed in the bright half falls as rain in the dark half and vice versa 
and that formed in the daytime, in the night and vice versa. The 
garbha formed in the bright half of Mdrgashirsa and of Pausha 
always gives scanty rain, but that formed in Pausha Badl (dark 
half) gives plentiful rain, which commences in the bright half of 
Sdwan. 

Land for cultivation in this State is broadly classed as mdletru 
or hdrdni (dry land, dependent on the rainfall for its water) and 
ahpdshi ovplyat (irrigated land). The crops in the first class are 
grown with no other moisture than that resulting from the ordinary 
rainfall. The prominent varieties of soil in mdletru land are known 
locally as kali (black), hhuri (brownish), dhdmnl (dark brown), Idl 
(reddish), and bhdtori (stony). The superiority or inferiority of a 
soil is also judged by its depth, Dhdmni soil is believed by some 
cultivators to be even better than kdli soil. The black loamy soil 



agriculture. 


247 


called kcdt is suited to cotton, but owing to the want of labour as 
well as the small proportion of cultivated land to the total cultivable 
area, cotton is not much sown, food-grains being more important. 
The 'kail soil is subdivided into uttam (superior), madhyam 
(middling) and kanisht (inferior) kinds according to the depth of the 
soil over its rocky substratum. Black soil of the first class has a 
-depth of from 5 to 8 feet above yellow earth. Black soil of the 
second class is of less depth and is less productive. The third class 
is much poorer in both respects. The first two grow excellent rahi 
and hhanf crops, the third only kodra and other inferior 

millets. Dhdmnl soil is of two kinds. The first class is about 
12 feet in depth, the second about 3 feet deep over a substratum of 
kankar (lime nodules) and muram or gravel. A larger area of 
dhdmnl is under cultivation than hall. Bhurl soil is poorer 
and shallower than dhdmnl and is only suited to inferior crops. 
Ldl^ a red coloured soil known also as hardly is found on hill 
slopes mixed with kankar. It grows kodra, tilli, etc. The 
kail, dhdmnl, and the hhurl soils are in some places strewn with 
large stones. They are then called hhdtorl kail, khdiot^l dhdmnl 
and hhdtorl hhurl. Both kharlf and rahi crops can be grown on 
them as the stones help the soil to retain the moisture by reducing 
evaporation. Soil cut up by runnels of water is called chhdpra. 

Another classification is by the number of crops borne, land 
being termed ehfasli or du'fasli according as they bear a single or a 
double crop in the year. 

Irrigated land which is double cropped is divided into addn and 
rdnkhar. In addn the second crop is usually poppy, but in rdnkhat 
the second crop consists generally of peas and barley instead of 
poppy. Rice is sown here and there in patches of black soil in the 
plains and in the hilly tracts where water collects in some quantity. 
Such soil is called sdUki-zamln, sdl being the vernacular term for 
rice. Grass land reserved for hay is called hlr and grazing land 
charnou 

Of the total area of the State, 20 per cent, is cultivated, 40 per 
cent, is culturable but not cultivated, 35 per cent, is unculturable 
waste, and about 5 per cent, is under' forest. The large percentage 
of culturable land is due to the paucity of agricultural population. 

There are two seasons : the kharlf or shldlu (the autumn crop 
season) and the rahi or unhdlu, (the spring crop season). The kharlf 
season lasts from June to October. The most important food grains 
and cotton are grown during this period. Sowings commence as soon 
as the rains have properly set in, the crops being gathered by October, 
The rahi crops are sown in October and November. Wheat, gram 


CaUivatecI, 
Culturable 
and Waste 
A.’ens. 
tTdble IX .> 


Seasons. 



248 


RATLAM STATE. 


and poppy are the most important. These are the crops from 
which the cultivator pays his revenue. To ensure a good harvest 
ample rains are needed in the latter part of the kharlf season, so as to 
thoroughly moisten the soil and also fill up wells and tanks, which 
are required for poppy and other irrigated crops* These crops are 
gathered by the end of March. 

Cultivated The total normal cultivated area 116,700 acres, of which 7,200 ‘ 
area and acres, or 62 per cent, of the cultivated area, are irrigated. The 
(^TaSe^ill). average area cultivated has thus fallen from about 129,000 to 
116,000 or nearly 11 per cent. The fall commenced in the 
famine of 1899-1900, and its effect appears to have become perma- 
nent, a fact easily explicable by the serious diminution which has 
occurred, in the ranks of the cultivating classes. This decrease is 
most noticeable as regards the area sown at the raU which has fallen 
from 61,000 to 57^000 or 20 per cent., while the kharlf has remained 
unaltered shewing that the diminished population has substituted 
kharlf for rahi crops. 

Tillage. The first process is harrowing which begins at the Akhatlj festival 

about the end of April. The field is cleared by means of the harrow 
called bakkhar, the surface of irrigated land being previously manured. 
A fortnight after the moisture laden wind called Kulawan blows 
from the south-west and continues to do so for several consecutive 
days. Then there is a lull, after which it again blows for several 
days. After the fourth burst, it is usually followed by rain. A change 
of direction and irregularity in the intervals between bursts are sup- 
posed to be unfavourable. 

Agricultural Agricultural operations, as has been already mentioned, are carried 

practice. out with reference to certain astronomical conditions. 

Ploughing is always commenced in the light half of Vaisdkh (April 
May ) when the harrowing is completed. The furrows are never 
carried deeper than six inches as the phul or nutritive element is 
not supposed to lie at a greater depth. 

Kharlf land. The land for the kharlf crops is ploughed twice and then sown, 
under the influence of the Mrig nakshatra (June- July) when the soil 
has become sufficiently moist to receive the seed, while the surface is 
hard enough for the bullocks to move across it without its balling on 
their hoofs. 

The seed is sown through a seed-drill ( nai ) affixed to a plough, 
a harrow following immediately behind to close in the furrows 
{chdsrd). The seed germinates in four or five days and in a fortnight 
the young plants are about a foot high. They are then weeded 
{ninddi) and thinned out, the process being done twice. These 
crops are^sown chiefly in dhdmnljkud bhuri soils. The kharlf crops 



AGRICULTURE. 


249 


are gathered in September and October. The ears are taken to the 
threshing floor {khala), dried and the grain trodden out b3^ oxen. It 
is then winnowed. Tuar is an exception to this rule, the grain being 
threshed with a flail (mogn). 

Land used for rabi crops is ploughed repeatedly to ensure its land, 
absorbing moisture. The first ploughings take place in June and July, 
and in August they are cross-ploughed. Gram and linseed are 
sown in September or October, wheat in November and poppy in 
January. The crops are gathered between March and April. They 
are trodden out and winnowed in the same way as kharlf crops. 

The process of cultivation is carried out far more carefully in the 
plateau than in the hilly tract. The heavier black soils are most 
used for rahi crops. 

Most of the land on the plateau is able to bear a double crop when Double-crop- 
irrigated. Maize is usually the first crop, being succeeded by poppy, 
wheat or garden produce. 

It is not uncommon to sow two crops simultaneously bejara, in Mixed sow- 
the same field. Mung and tuar are often sown with jowar in the 
same field on the plateau, but in the hilly tract mung is always sown 
separately. Maize is harvested two and a half months, and jowar 
four and a half months, after sowing. It must be noted that tuar 
seeds are of two kinds, shidlu and unhdlu. Both are sown at the 
same time as the jowar, but the shidlu tuar is cut in the month of 
Paush (December-January) and the unhdlu in Phdgun (February- 
March). When the water supply is ample, poppy and sugarcane 
are also sown together, the latter taking a whole year to come to 
maturity. 

No fixed system of rotation is practised, nor are different portions, Rotation, 
of field left fallow alternately for a year or so. It is customary 
however, when virgin land is first broken up, to sow it at the outset 
with gram. This crop is succeeded the next year by wheat, the third 
year by jowdr and the fourth year by cotton. This rotation is then 
sometimes repeated omitting gram. After three or four such rotations 
a return is made to the gram crop with a view to restore the fertility 
of the soil. Wheat and rice crops exhaust the soil? while gram and 
cotton act as restoratives. In many instances jowdr is alternated 
with wheat for a number of years without the application of any 
manure or other restorative. To compensate for the exhaustions of 
poppy land it is usual every third or forth year to sow a crop of san 
{Crotolaria juncea) in the field and when it is in blossom to plough it 
into the soil leaves and stalks together. The broken san plants 
form a green manure, which is considered first rate fertilizing 
agent. 



250 


RATLAM STATE. 


Manure. 


Irrigated 

crops. 


Pests. 


With the exception of poppy, sugarcane, tobacco and garden 
produce no crops are manured. Practically only irrigated land is 
manured, maletni land being very seldom so treated, 'Baras, the 
small compounds or gardens attached to huts, are also manured and 
maize sown in these, but hdra land bears only a very small propor- 
tion to the total cultivated area. The hopes of the cultivator are 
always centered in the well-being of his poppy crops, there being 
hardly a single cultivator on the plateau without his poppy field, 
however, small. The manure used generally consists of village 
sweepings and cowdung. Human excretion is practically never 
used. A hlgha of poppy land requires about 10 cartloads of cow- 
dung manure, that is, about 200 maunds pahka. In every village 
pits are dug on the outskirts into which cowdung and sweepings 
are thrown and allowed to remain exposed to sun and rain for a 
year. The longer the manure remains in the pits the better it is 
supposed to become. Just before the monsoon bursts, the manure is 
removed from the pits^and heaped up in the centre of the fields. 
About one-eighth of the manure is strewn over the field for the maize 
crop, the remaining quantity being reserved for the subsequent poppy 
crop. In 1880 it was found by experiment in the Ratlam model 
farm, then under the supervision of Mr. NaorojiPathak, that if lime 
manure at the rate of 500 lbs. per hlgha was added to the usual 
quantity of cowdung manure the yield was not only considerably 
increased in quantity, but also much improved in quality. Sheep or 
goat dung manure is considered the best for the tobacco crop. A 
flock of sheep or goats is made to remain on the field for a night or 
two on payment of a small sum to the shepherd. Manure is dear 
and the insufficiency of it is often felt. It was especially so after 
the famine of 1899-1900 when heavy mortality took place among 
the cattle. Dried cowdung cakes, moreover, are largely used as fuel, 
and fetch a high price, a fact which tends to make manure scanty. 
Some kinds of food such as hdta ( balls of flour ) can be cooked on 
a fire of cow-dung cakes. Oil-cakes are used as manure for betel 
plants [pan), ^ 

The only crops systematically irrigated are poppy, sugarcane and 
garden produce. When water is insufficient to ensure the proper 
cultivation of poppy, maize, wheat, or gram is often sown instead on 
irrigated land. 

The commonest enemies of the crops are the blight, called gerua, 
rats and locusts. Rats always appear in large numbers after a year 
of deficient rainfall. The damage done by them in 1900 was exces- 
sive, the failure of the rains in 1899 permitting whole broods which 
would ordinarily have been destroyed, to come to maturity. Locusts 
appear only occasionlly. Frost when it does come, fortunately 
not often, is most destructive especially to poppy crops. In 1905 



AGRICULTURE. 


251 


very severe frosts were experienced and the whole of the poppy and 
gram crops and most of the wheat were destroyed. 

The implements and equipment of a cultivator are ordinarily of the Implements, 
simplest kind, the most important being the hal (plough), hakkhar 
( barrow ), nai ( seed-drill ), kalpa^ khurpl ( hoes ), dardnia ( sickle ), 
phdora^ koddla, dantdll, ohe, sahhal^ ( all spades ), kufdda (axe), ndda^ 
char^ala (for incising poppy capsules), pafada,^ chdlna (sieves), 
supra (winnowing fan), taramuchi (stool), rassa (rope),ywm, samal 
and charas (water-bag). These implements are all made locally 
and are of a very simple and primitive type. 

The normal area under crop amounts to 124,000 acres, of which cropped. 
kharlf crops occupy 62,700 acres, and rahi crops 61,300 acres. Of appendS^to 
these acres food grains occupy, as a rule 88 per cent, in the kkanf X.) 
and 82 per cent, in the rabi season. The amount of seed required 
for a bigha (f acre) and the average outturn in each case is given 
in the following table. 



252 


RATLAM STATE, 


Statement showing the quantity of seed 

for each crop, in 


Ilescription of 
harvest. 

Kind of crop. 

Seed in seers 
( Pakka> 

Yield in 

maunds 

(Pakka). 

1 

2 

8 

4 





( 

Jowar 

2i 

8 


^Cdahha ^ •«* ••• 

5 

9 

Food graia j 




1 

Sal ••• ••• ••• 

15 

4 

1 

Kodra.*« 


6 

r 

Arhar [Tuar) 

2 

4 

1 

Dal grain X 

Mting ^ ••• 

2 

3 

1 

Uiad ••• 

5 

4 

< 

Bamtilli .*« ••• 

li 

li 

Oil seed > 



$ 

c 

TilU ... 


Ih 

Fibres ... 

Cotton ••• ... 

5 

2 





f 

Wheat ^ 

20 

2 

1 

Food grain < 

Gram ^ 

15 

H 

[ 

Barley ... •*. 

15 

5 

Bal grain 

Fatla..* ... ... 

15 


( 

Alsi ® ... ••• 

5 

If 

Cfil seed 




L 

Sarson 

5 



Poppy ® 

3 

5 seerst opium and 




1^ maunds poppy 




seed. 


Sugarcane ^ ••• 

15 Bs. worth 

12 maunds of 



of seed. 

molasses . 


Ajwan 

,1 

li 

2 






AGRICULTURE. 


253 


sown, that of produce, etc,, per h^ha (f of an acre) 
the Ratlam State. 


Value of 
yield in 
rupees 
(Kaldar). 

Watering, 

Cost of pro 
duction inclu 
ding seed, 
watering, re- 
venue and 
other charges, 

Profit in 
rupees. 

Kehabks. 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

6J 



1 

^ With jowar either iuar or mikig is 
always sown, half a seer of tuar or 

15 

8 


(See opium.)- 

(See opium) 

mung seed being required. The figures 
against yow;dr do not show yield, value 
or profit from tuar or mung. 


I 


2 With makka urad' is generally sown, 
half a seer of urad seed being required 

D 


3 

2 

per htgha. The figures against makka 
do not show the year, value, profit, 
etc., of urad. 

8 

6 

8 


6 

2 

s The figures against arTtar {tuar ) , mung 
and urad are true only when these 


5 

1 

pulses are sown by themselves. When 
mung is sown with yotodr the yield is 


G 

2 

1 maund only. When urad is sown 
with makka. the out-turn is 

5 


8 

2 

maunds only. 

5 


8 

2 


8 


H 

2i 


6 


5J 

i 

* With wheat or gram alsi is sown, 
when about a seer of alsi seed is 

5 


4i 


required. 

12J 

4 times 

11 



9 

8 times 

7 

2 


7 




® Alsi is here shown as sown by Itself 
and not in the same field with wheat 

Not 

cultivated 

now. 

(see Makka). 

or gram. 

80 \ 





a i 

8 times. 

30 

6+16 

® Poppy is grown in double cropped 
land* The cost of production of both 
the makka and poppy crops ( Es. 30 ) 
and the profit ( Es. 21 ) are shown 
against opium. 

98 

21 times. 

76 

20 

4 



4 

7 Sugarcane sown here is of three 
varieties, the better varieties yielding 
from 15 to 20 maunds of gur, 

N, B.-Besides the net profit shown in 
eolunm 8, the cultivator himself and 
his family supply labour for the greater 
part of the year, thus saving the cost 
of paid servants, eto. 


254 


RATLAM STATE. 


Dufasli land 
(TaUe K). 

Kharif food 
crops. 


JoTjvar. 


Maize. 


Inferior 

grains. 


Babi food 
crops. 


Wheat. 


Gram. 


Bailey. 

Subsidiary 

crops. 

Oilseeds, 


Eibres. 


The area of dufasli or double crop-bearing land is 7,200 acres or 
6*2 per cent, of the whole area cultivated. 

The most important crop is jowdr which occupies 29,400 acres or 
47 per cent, of the total area sown at the season. The crops next in 
importance are maize (10,300 acres or 16 per cent, of the kharif 
area) , and rice (1,000 acres). 

Jowdr is sown on all classes of soil, and forms the most important 
food grain of the people in the cold season. 

Maize which comes next in importance is the staple food grain 
during the rainy season. 

Many minor classes of grain are also produced at this harvest ; of 
these the most important are kodra {Paspalum stoloniferum), sdmli 
{Panlcum frumentaceum), kuri ( a variety of Panicum frumen- 
taceum)i hatti {Paniciim Italicum), kdngni {Paniciim milUaceum) 
and hdota or nidi {Elensine coracand). 

Most of these are used for making a sort of cake either alone or 
mixed with maize and jowdr flour. Food grains are also obtained 
from various wild plants growing in waste lands, podhna^ a grain 
abounding in the hilly tracts, wehhria or zinzru^ aokidmung and kdseo 
or kusa {Poa cynosuroides) being the most important. The Bhils use 
various bulbs and plants found in the jungles during the rainy season. 

The most important rahi food crop is wheat {Triticum aestivum) 
which occupies 31,800 acres or 52 per cent, of the rabi area, gram 
iCicer arietinum) 13,800 acres or 22 per cent, following. 

Wheat is the staple food grain of the better classes in the spring. 
Its price makes it a luxury for the poorer people. 

This grain is largely used for feeding horses and cattle. It is also 
used by the people, being eaten both green and parched. 

This grain only occupies a very small area and is not systemati- 
cally sown. 

The inferior subsidiary crops at this season are methi (Trigonella 
fosnum graceum) and batla (Pisum sativum). 

The most important oilseed is linseed which occupies 3,700 acres 
or 6 per cent, and poppyseed 7,300 acres or 13 per cent, of the rabi 
area, TilU occupies 2 j 800 acres or 4 per cent, of the kharif area. 

Fibres are represented by cotton and hemp. Cotton is much the 
most important covering 4,500 acres or 7 per cent, of the kharif 
crop area ; the area sown with this crop is steadily on the increase. 

Two classes of hemp are found, ambdri {Hibiscus cannahinus) 
or Deccan hemp called pdt san and san {Qrotolaria juncea). 
These crops do not, however, cover a large area. 



AGRICULTURE. 


255 


Of drug producing crops poppy (Papaver soniniferuni) is the most Poppy, 
valuable, covering 7,300 acres or 12 per cent, of the rahi area. It is 
the chief crop, moreover, from which the cultivator pays his revenue 
and is, therefore, of primary importance. Its cultivation requires 
much care and labour. 

Of late successive years of deficient rainfall and a decrease in 
the demand have diminished the area sown with poppy, as the 
figures given below clearly shew : from 1881-90 about 9,250 acres 
were sown annually, and from 1891-1900, 8,700. In 1893 the area 
sown amounted to 9,051 acres, while the average from 1893 to 1903 
was 8,800 acres. The actuals for the last five years have been, 

1900-01, 7,101 acres; 1901-02, 6,836 acres; 1902-03,7,241 acres; 

1903-04, 7,183 acres ; 1904-05, 7,079 acres ; and in 1905-06,7,137 
acres. One acre yields about 20 lbs. of chtk or crude opium. 

Poppy land is usually double cropped. It is ploughed three times Cultivation 
just before the rains. When the monsoon bursts and the soil becomes 
saturated to the depth of about 9 inches, 10 lbs. of maize and the 
same weight of urad {Phaseolus mungo) or chaola (Dolichos sinensis) 
are sown in every htgha. On the fourth day after sowing, the seeds 
sprout. The fields are then harrowed two or three times and weeded. 

Maize is ready for harvesting within two or three months of the 
sowing. When the maize has been reaped the field is again ploughed 
five or six times. Small rectangular beds are then formed, and carefully 
manured with cattle-dung a year old and poppyseeds sown broadcast 
by hand, about 5 lbs. being required for each blgha. The soil is then 
turned up and irrigated. It is again watered within a week. The 
crop sprouts about seven days after the second watering. Weeding 
operations commence a month after the sprouting of the plants- 
Weak plants are pulled out, only the healthiest being allowed to 
grow. Each plant requires a space of about nine inches square. 

The young plants so pulled out are eaten. The first three waterings 
are called korwan^ gdrwdn and ttjwdn respectively. The fourth, fifth 
and sixth waterings take place with intervals of 12 days, between 
every two waterings. When the poppy field has been watered five 
times buds begin to form. At the seventh watering the flowers open 
and at the eighth or ninth watering the capsules or poppy-heads are 
ready for scarifying. Within a week of the last watering the 
capsules are incised with a small instrument resembling a fork with 
three sharp pointed prongs called charpala^ Each capsule is incised 
about four times at intervals of two to three days. The second and 
third incisions produce the largest quantity of juice The field 

is usually divided into three^ sections, the different tappings being 
done in each part successively, otherwise the labourers would not be 
continuously engaged in work. The incisions, which are vertical, are 
made in the forenoon and the juice which exudes is collected early 



256 


RATLAM STATE. 


Oarden 

produce* 


in the morning of the succeeding day. Linseed oil is used in order 
to prevent the juice from sticking to the hands and the implement 
used for collecting it. When the capsules have undergone four 
tappings no more juice exudes. These operations, from sowing to 
collecting the juice, extend over four months from November to 
February. 

Well water is supposed to be better for poppy than that from 
tanks and rivers. Garlic is often planted on the ridges dividing the 
opium hydYzs or beds, while on the borders of the poppy fields barley, 
masur^ jlra and dhania are grown in small quantities. 

The conditions most favourable to the growth of poppy are warm 
sunny days and cool dewy nights. Wind and rain are unfavourable 
to the poppy heads as they injure the capsules, while frost 
absolutely destroys them. Cloudy weather prevents the juice from 
exuding. The chief varieties of poppyseed sown are seven. The 
lakaria variety bears pink flowers. The plant is tall, reaching a 
height of about six feet. The seed-pod is bigger than that of other 
varieties. It thrives best in dhdmm soil and requires to be watered 
nine times. The incision of the capsules should be commenced 
while there is still some moisture in the soil. The yield of opium is 
high. The lilia variety bears either rose or purple flowers. The 
plant is not so tall as the laharia plant, and the capsule is smaller. 
It is watered seven times. It ripens earlier than the lakaria variety, 
but incisions are not commenced until the soil cracks from dryness. 
The dholia variety resembles the last in all respects except that it 
bears white flowers, and yields less opium than the first two 
varieties. The agria variety bears red flowers. Its seeds are also 
reddish. It requires only six waterings. The yield is similar to 
that of the dholia variety. The variety called kathia from the 
colour of its juice, which resembles that of catechu, bears white 
flowers. The petals are thick and coarse. It needs to be watered 
seven times. The yield is good. The gangdjala variety resembles 
lilia, but the flowers resemble those of lakaria. The capsule is 
globular in shape, flattened at the top and bottom. It yields less 
opium than lilia. It is watered seven times. The kunpalia variety 
resembles the lilia in all respects except that its capsule is oval in 
shape. 

Gardens exist near all places of any size especially in Ratlam 
town where vegetables and fruits are produced to a considerable 
extent. The commonest vegetables are haingan {Solanum me- 
longena), carrots, pdlak {Rhinacanthus communis), potatoes ; the 
chief fruit trees are mango, jdmun {Eugenia jamholana), sltdphal 
{Anona squamosa), andr {Psydium guava) limes, oranges and plan- 
tains. 



AGRICULTURE. 


257 


A good agriculturist at the harvest selects all the cleanest and Progress, 
soundest seeds for next year’s sowing. The selection of wheat 
seed is especially of the greatest importance. Wheat and gram 
seeds are preserved in pits ( generally with only earthern walls), 
with which almost every village is provided. The seed is thus 
preserved in a healthy state, free from damp, fermentation and 
vermin. The seed is ordinarily the property of the Bania of the 
village, who, as a rule, supplies not only the seed-grain, but food- 
grain to all the poorer cultivators, receiving it back at the harvest. 

Interest is charged in the case of seed at the rate of one-fourth of the 
quantity of the seed-grain lent, and in the case of food at the rate of 18 
per cent, per annum on the current price of the food-grain supplied. 

Attempts have been made from time to time on the part of the 
State to improve the quality of grain, by importing seeds of wheat, 
cotton and poppy as well as flowers and vegetables. Potato seed 
from Poona, Firozpur and Simla has been tried and that from the 
last place gave good crops. Cotton seed from Higganghat in the 
Central Provinces, opium seed from Behar, gram seed from the 
Punjab and wheat seed from Dhar have also been tried. With the 
exception of the Dhar wheat seed, however none thrived. The 
yellowish white wheat known as daudkhani gehun on being accli- 
matized changes in colour in three or four years until it resembles 
the local reddish coloured variety. In the last famine American 
maize was sown, but it failed to give a good crop. A species of 
jowdr called the do-jowdr (on account of the husks containing two 
seeds instead of one) was also introduced during the last famine, and 
a variety of wheat called pisst was imported from the United Pro- 
vinces ; the last was found to grow well, but is considered inferior 
in quality to the local red wheat. 

In the time of Mir Shahamat Ali a model farm was started at New imple* 
Ratlam. A sugarcane-crushing mill and water-lifts of English “^eiits,etc. 
make were introduced. An English plough was also tried but it 
failed to give satisfaction. 

No irrigation is practised in the hilly tract, the Bhils having irrigation, 
neither the means nor the knowledge required to effect it. 

The cultivators in the plateau generally irrigate a part of their 
holdings. The principal irrigated crop is poppy, sugarcane and 
some vegetables are also grown as irrigated crops, but to a very 
small extent only. When the rainfall is scanty and the storage of 
water in the wells is considered insufficient for irrigating poppy, gram 
is grown instead. Sugarcane requires about 24 waterings during 
the period of about 12 or 15 months which it requires to come to 
maturity, whereas poppy requires about 8 waterings during four 
months (November to February). The poppy crop, besides leaving 
a greater margin of profit to the cultivators than any other crop, 



258 


RATLAM STATE. 


enables him to reap a crop of maize off the same field. The maize 

crop grown on poppy land is reaped in 60 to 70 days after sowing. 

Area irrigat- The total area irrigated amounts to about 7,200 acres forming 6*2 
per cent, of the total cultivated area. 

Sources and Water is drawn from wells and orhts (pits dug in nald and 
methods. tanks). Weils number 1,248 and tanks 17. Water is drawn out by 
means of the charas, a leather bag worked by a pair of bullocks. An 
iron vessel called a mot is now often substituted for the leather bag. 

The average depth below the suface at which water is found is 
about 35 feet. 

The Darbar, considering the utility of wells for irrigation, has for 
the last 10 or 12 years annually set apart a sum of Rs. 10,000 for 
digging new wells and deepening and cleaning existing Izdchchor 
ones, and steening them where necessary. 

The cost of excavating the tanks used for irrigation was 
Rs. 1,39,200. 

Though no actual water rates are levied a return on the expendi- 
ture incurred on keeping up wells and tanks is obtained by rating 
land so irrigated higher than dry land. 

No portion of jdglr land is irrigated by the State tanks. The 
existing irrigation work could be improved to some extent, but the 
increase in the area irrigated would not be commensurate with the 
outlay. 

There are a few ndlds (rivulets) in the State, but they cannot 
with advantage be utilized for the storage of water. 

Cost of wells. The cost of digging a well is on an average about Rs. 300 and that 
of steening it is about Rs. 500. The average cost, therefore, of 
making a kachcha well may be taken to be Rs. 300 and a pakka 
masonry well Rs. 800. 

The average area irrigated by a well is 11 hlghas or 5 *4 acres. 
A cultivator, who uses his own or borrowed capital in making a well, 
gets one blgha of land rent-free out of every three hlghas of land that 
he irrigates, being charged revenue only for two hlghas at the 
ordinary irrigation rate which is Rs. 12-5-0 per hlgha (Rs. 25 per 
acre). Irrigated areas in a normal year and in a year of deficient 
rainfall are as follow ; — 


Description. 

4 

Area irrigated through State 
works in acres. 

Area iri-igated through pri- 
vate works (in Jagir vil- 
lages) in acres. 

3n a normal 
year- 

In a year of 
drought. 

in a normal 
year. 

In a year of 
drought. 

By tanks I 

162 

1 

98 1 


By Orhis in nalas... 

1,669 

... 

511 


By wells 

2,889 

378 ■ 

1,911 

lii 

Total ... 

4,720 1 

378 

2,520 

111 ^ 



AGRICULTURE, 


259 


The usual Malwi cattle are bred by cultivators. No attempt has Cattle and 
been made by the State to preserve purity of stock, or improve the (Ta\)l6^vn^* 
breed. Conditions are not so favourable for cattle-breeding as in 
many other parts of Malwa. The cattle bred locally are sufEcient 
for the local demand, but they are not produced in sufficiently large 
number to admit of their being sold out of the State. The chief 
centres of cattle-breeding are the villages of Lalguwadi, Mudari, 

Kuwajager, Kalmora, Sarwad, Bibrod, Dhaturia and Palsodi. 

Cultivators do not generally milk cows which have given birth to 
male calves, allowing the latter to suckle the whole of the milk, 
when so bred they are in four or five years fit to be put to work. 

Malwi cattle are much in command in the Deccan, the Deccan Kunbi 
preferring the Malwi breed to any other. In the last famine trade in 
cattle was extraordinarily brisk. Thousands of animals were brought 
to Ratlam town from neighbouring States and sold to purchasers from 
Gujarat, Kathiawar and the Deccan. A pair of bullocks generally 
sells at from Rs. 50 to 100. 

A return of the live stock in the State for 1905-06 shows 9,230 
bullocks used as plough cattle, 8,486 cows, 1,292 male buffaloes 
and 5,165 female. Horses and ponies number 355, goats and sheep 
6,722. 

There is no village without its pasture and hit lands, which Pasturelands. 
supply ample fodder for the cattle. One hlgha grass land produces 
thousand bundles of grass, a bundle being about one pound in weight. 

There is usually no need to supplement the grass with chaff {hhusa). 

The grass in the hlrs is cut and gathered in October and November, 
it is then stacked and supplies fodder for nine months of the year. 

The duh iCynodon dactylon) grass of Upper India which is much 
liked by cattle is only found near ditches on the sides of roads. 

Grass lands occupy about 30 per cent, of the total area of the 
State. The area of bir or reserved grass lands is 181 square miles 
and that of charnoi or free pasture lands 158 square miles. For every 
sdmad ( plough ) a cultivator is given from 4 to 5 htghas of rent-free 
grass land. A cultivator with one sdmad is supposed to cultivate 
from one to two blghas of addn or irrigated land and 20 to 30 highas 
of dry or mdletru land. The grass from the htr together with the 
stalks of maize, wheat and other crops yield sufficient fodder for the 
cattle of the cultivators. The total estimated number of plou|hs in 
this State is 5,232, so that at the rate of 5 highas per sdmad, the 
total area of grazing land given to the cultivators would be 2616*0 
blghas or 21 square miles. (A in thi s State is 146*6 feet 

^square or about half an acre). 

Besides the revenue-free grass land, the cultivators and others are 
also granted grass land at an annual rental varying from 12 annas to 



260 


RATLAM STATE. 


15 annas per htgha\ the area so rented is about 6 square miles. The 
area of the hlr or grass land, reserved for the use of the State and 
the jagtrdars, is about 20 square miles. Some portion of the 
remaining hlr land is utilized by the Bhils and others, who cut the 
grass and sell it in the neighbouring villages, and thus earn a liveli- 
hood at a time when there is no demand for labour in the fields. 
Out of the total area of blr land, about half remains unutilized, and 
the grass on it is generally burnt. 

During the famine of 1899-1900 when numbers of Marwaris came 
in from Rajputana with large herds of cattle, cattle-owners had to 
use the leaves of the ber^ hhajur» ptpal and gular as fodder. The 
leaves of the plpal and gular, however, proved detrimental to the 
health of the cattle. 

Grass is usually preserved in stacks which are protected from rain 
by a peculiar conical arrangement of the top sheaves. In some 
places the top is plastered over with mud and cowdung. Grass thus 
stacked can be used for a couple of years ; after this period it loses 
its nutritive elements. 

Cattle fairs. There are two cattle fairs in the State, a large one held at the 
capital and a smaller one in the village of Dhanasuta. In the famine 
of 1899-1900 great mortality occurred among the cattle in Central 
India, Gujarat and Kathiawar, which resulted in an abnormally 
large demand for animals to replace these ; Ratlam being a junction 
on the railway, a very marked impetus was given to the cattle trade 
in the town. A clear idea of the increased trade in cattle at that time 
is derived from the figures for duty levied which amounted on 
agricultural cattle sold during a portion of the year of the famine and 
the succeeding year to about Rs. 1,25,000 as against a normal sum* of 
Rs. 1,000. On calculating the sale and purchase of cattle from the 
duty receipts, the duty levied being 4 per cent, on the value of the 
cattle, the total value of the cattle sold must have been about 31 
lakhs of rupees. The cattle market in the town was formerly held 
weekly, but since the famine year it has been held daily. The 
demand for cattle, however, in recent years has been by no means 
so great as in 1900* 

Agricnltnral Persons engaged in ail branches of pastoral and agricultural 

population. according to the census of 1901 numbered 22,191 actual 

workers ( males 14,720, and females 7,471 ), while those of both 
sexes dependant on these workers numbered 13,230. These figures 
amount to 42 per cent, of the whole population, and 80 per cent, of 
the rural population. 

Classes en- Qf the castes engaged in agricultural pursuits the Kunbis, Tats and 
Dhakars are considered the most skilful cultivators ; the Lodhas 
and Ajanas being ranked next and then the Khatis, Mails and others- 



AGRICULTUREo 


261 


Cultivators, as a rule, do not possess large holdings, the average Holdiogs. 
holding being about 20 acres. 

Generally speaking all cultivators are in debt to their salmkars or indebtedness, 
bankers, who advance them seed and food-grain. This indebtedness 
is augmented by the absence of all desire to lay by money. When 
a cultivator experiences a good season he invariably squanders his 
gains in extra extravagance during marriages and other ceremonial 
functions. If he could learn to put by money, the ordinary condition 
of the agriculturist in the plains would be, generally speaking, good. 

The profits of cultivation have largely increased. The selling prices 
of food grains, as well as of opium and other crops, have nearly tripled 
within the last 30 or 40 years. Moreover, the whole family of a 
cultivator, boys and girls, as well as grown up men and women, are 
engaged in field labour, a circumstance which saves much expense. 

The soil on the plateau seldom fails to produce a crop whether the 
rainy season is favourable or unfavourable and with the exception of 
the great famine of 1899-1900 this State has never been known to 
suffer from a total failure of the crops in any year in the last half a 
century. There have been years of scarcity but the crops, even in 
such years, were tolerably good. 

The Bhils, however, who inhabit the hilly tracts are, owing to their 
naturally indolent and nomadic habits, unable to make the best of 
their holdings. They live largely on jungle products, and earn a 
scanty subsistence by selling wood for fuel, Bhils living on the 
borders of Malwa are somewhat better off than those in the hills as 
they ' work as field labourers. But if the kharlf harvest in their 
villages is plentiful, they cannot be induced to work in spite of the 
high v/ages offered at the time of the rabi harvest* 

Takkdvi advances are sometimes made by the State to cultivators 
for the purchase of bullocks, seed and food-grain. As a rule, 
however, the State authorities induce* the local sdhukdrs or bankers 
to make advances, on a State guarantee. In the case of cultivators, 
who have no credit with sdhukdrs^ the State advances seed from the 
State khohs ( underground pits in which grain is stored ). There is 
no fixed rate of interest. The seed takkdvi is realized in kind from* 
the cultivator at the harvest. One-fourth of the seed advanced is 
recovered in addition to the quantity lent, by way of interest. This 
is known as sawdn, L <3., 1|. No interest is, as a rule, charged on 
bullock takkdvi, although no hard and fast rule exists. Cultivators 
are also given advances by the State for digging wells, but very few 
avail themselves of this facility, the result being that almost all the 
wells in the State used for irrigation purposes are owned by the 
Darbar. In the hilly tracts, however, the sdhukdrs make their own 
arrangement with the tarvis ox headmen of Bhxl villages, who, as a 



262 


RATLAM STATE. 


Wages. 


Prices. 


Variations 
and causes. 


Material 

condition. 

Cultivator* 


rule, stand security. Since the famine of 1899 many sahukars have 
stopped making loans, and the State has had to make more advances 
than previous to that famine. 

Section II.— Wages and Prices* 

(Tables XIII, XIV.) 

In villages wages are still generally paid in kind. Ploughmen 
{Hdlis) are generally paid Rs. 5 per month or from Re, 1 to li per 
month with food and clothing. For ploughing, a man is paid 3 annas 
a day, at the sowing the wages are increased to annas 4 a day. For 
collecting wheat a labourer receives one sheaf out of every thirty he 
cuts, his average daily earnings being from 8 to 10 lbs. of wheat. 
For collecting and threshing other crops a labourer is paid 2 annas 
a day in addition to a small dole of grain. A female labourer receives 
a little less than a male. For collecting opium juice a labourer 
is paid 1| annas a day and is in addition given a small quantity of 
the juice about one tola's weight on an average. Those employed 
in picking cotton are paid li annas per dharl or 5 seers ( 10 lbs.) 
picked. Their daily wages come to about 2 annas. For other 
agricultural operations such as potato or ground-nut digging a 
labourer is paid 2 annas a day. Village artisans and servants 
receive a fixed quantity of grain from each field at the harvest. 

The usual price of jowdr is about 12 Rs. per rndnl or about 20 seers 
to the rupee, but the price fell in 1902 to Rs. 5 per mdnl, i, e,^ 48 
seers per rupee. The result of the fall was felt specially in the 
town and to some extent in the districts. In the town the wages of 
ordinary labourers rose from 6 pice to 3 annas per labourer and many 
of the cultivators found a difficulty in getting hdlis for temporary 
work in the fields. 

In the famine year prices rose rapidly, reaching a maximum in the 
case of maize of lOf seers instead of 25 to the rupee, in the case of 
wheat of 10 instead of 16, of jowdr of 10 instead of 23 and in the 
case of kodra of 20 instead of 60. 

In time of scarcity or famine, when there is no demand for labour 
in the fields, a decrease takes place in the rate of wages. The great 
mortality which followed on the famine of 1899-1900 materially 
reduced the labour supply, while the appearance of plague in the 
districts in 1902 just as the crops were ready for harvesting, and the 
difficulty of inducing labourers to work in infected areas, was a serious 
hindrance to the collecting of the opium. 

The material condition of the rural population is said not to have 
fully recovered from the effects of the famine of 1899-1900 which 
involved the cultivator in heavy debt. The possessions of a cultivator 
are very few, and his mode of life very simple. He has generally two 



WAGES AND PRICES, 


263 


rooms in his hut with an enclosed compound at the back, styled the 
hara. One of the rooms he usually utilizes for himself and his 
family and the other for his cattle. Very few cultivators have a 
separate shed for cattle. The houses are usually tiled except in the 
hilly tracts where they are thatched with dry leaves and grass. 

Formerly, most cultivators owned a larger number of cattle than 
they now do. It is estimated that 20 years ago each cultiva^r had 
on an average 2 plough bullocks and from 5 to 8 head of cattle. 
He has now on an average about 5 head of cattle in all, including 
plough bullocks. The family of the cultivator consists on the 
average of about 5 souls. In a dark corner of one of the rooms used 
for the accommodation of the family, the cooking place is situated and 
near it the house-wife keeps her cash generally buried underground. 
This is house -money and is never touched by the husband save 
on urgent necessity. In the other corner is the earthen ware hotht or 
receptacle for storing grain. The culinary pots are generally earthen 
except the drinking cup {lota) which is of brass. A quilt {razat) 
or a piece of matting is used as a bed. This is generally stowed 
away in the loft above the kitchen during the day along with pots 
and other miscellaneous articles. The larger agricultural imple- 
ments are generally stored outside in the hara^ the smaller in the 
loft. The cultivator early in the morning takes his plough and 
bullocks to the fields, while his wife prepares his meals, which 
consist usually of one or two loaves of maize flour with some 
vegetables. The elder children or the wife herself takes the food 
and a chattl (earthen jar) of water to the field. After the cultivator 
has taken his meal his wife stops and assists in the field work. In 
the evening the cultivator returns and has his evening meal. Except 
in the hot season the cultivator and his family all sleep together 
inside the hut. 

The dress of the cultivator consists generally of a dhoti or loin cloth 
worth about 8 annas, a twofolded cloth generally made of khddt 
(coarse cloth) used for covering his body costing about Rs. 2, a 
small turban worth about Re. 1-4-0, and native shoes worth about 
a rupee. In some cases he has also a short coat, also made of khddl^ 
which he uses on ceremonial occasions or when he has to go into 
the town to make purchases or to see State official. The coat costs 
him about one rupee twelve annas and being made of double cloth 
lasts him for two years. The dress of his wife consists of two 
skirts {lehengas ot ghdgf^as) each worth from 4 to 5 rupees, two 
bodices {cholls) worth about 8 annas each, and 2 or 3 head cloths 
{lugras) worth about 12 annas each. The children wear a small coat 
and a cap costipg from 5 to 6 annas. With a country blanket for the 
rains, the total cost of the dress of a cultivator’s family consisting of 



264 


KATLAM STATE, 


Day labourer. 


Middle class. 


Eecent 

clianges. 


one cultivator, his wife and two children is about 30 rupees per yeaib 
and the cost of living including bis diet expenses about Rs. 90. 

In the case of Bhil cultivators the ordinary charges for dress are less 
by one-half of that of other cultivators. In regard to diet also the 
Bhii supplements his food by jungle produce of which he has the 
free use. His savings from the profits of cultivation as also his 
earnings by the sale of fuel and green fodder go almost wholly to the 
village Kalal or country liquor seller. 

The agricultural day labourer has a smaller hut than the cul- 
tivator. His belongings are similar except that he possesses no 
agricultural cattle or implements. He has, as a rule, no stock of 
grain, but depends on the daily earnings of himself and his family 
for livelihood. The son of a field labourer generally works as an 
apprenticed halt or ploughman to the cultivators and is paid from 
one to two rupees a month according to his age. At the time of 
the wheat harvest labourers often travel long distances and their 
wages which are generally paid in kind are accumulated to form 
a stock v/hich supports them when there is no work in the fields. 
The average annual expenses of the agricultural labourer are not much 
less than those of the cultivator. 

The dress of the middle class Hindu clerk consists of a thin muslin 
shirt, a long coat of Manchester cloth, a dhofi or paijama^ 
a turban (generally coloured) or cap and native shoes. The dress 
of his family is the same as in a cultivator’s family, the difference 
being in the quality of the cloth, muslins being generally used 
instead of the hhadl (coarse cloth). The annual expenditure on dress 
for himself and his family is about Rs. 60 and on food Rs. 120, 
the total annual cost for a family consisting of 3 or 4 members 
being about Rs. 180. 

In the case of Muhammadans of the same standing a clerk generally 
possesses from 2 to ^pagrls the same number of diipatds (scarves), 
from 6 to 8 kiiftas (shirts), the same number of paijmnas, 3 or 4 
angarkhas (coats) and 3 to 4 pairs of shoes. These articles cost 
about Rs. 80 a year. His wife will have from 6 to 8 changes of clothes 
costing about Rs. 50. Food costs about Rs. 180 a year, making 
the total cost for a family of 3 or 4 persons Rs. 310, 

The stg^idard of living in the case of middle class clerk has certainly 
risen, articles of foreign manufactures such as glass and China ware 
and fine cloths being much more commonly used. In the case of 
cultivators and labourers no great change is to be observed, the only 
marked difference being the substitution of kerosine oil lamps for the 
local seed oil cMmgh, 



ARTS AND MANUFACTURE, 


265 


Section III.— Forest- 

(Table IX.) 

The State possesses no real forest although the hills of the Control, 
western districts are covered with jungle. No systematic forest 
management is followed as the Forest Department inaugurated 
1873 was abolished in 1888. The revenue officers now control the 
cutting of trees and removal of produce from forest situated in their 
charges. 

The trees are not of very great value or large size, teak { Tectona Trees, 
grandis) of small size, dhdora {Anogeisstis latifolia), behem 
(Terminalia belenca), maJmd { Bassia latifolia), and khdkhra 
( Biitea frondosa ) being the most important species. Bamboos 
grow in large quantity near Bajna. 

Some catechu has been prepared from the khair {Acacia catechu)^ Produce, 
about 170 maunds being made in 1904-05 and sold for Rs. 8,000, 

Work in the jungles is carried on by the Bhils, who collect forest 
produce and fuel for sale. A large area is covered with grass which 
in 1904-05 sold for Rs. 13,000, giving a profit of Rs. 9,000, 

Section IV.— Mines and Minerals- 

(Table XII.) 

Lying in the Deccan trap area the State is not favourably placed 
as regards mineral deposits. No systematic survey has as yet taken 
place, and possibly in the sandstone out-crops which occur here and 
there minerals may yet be discovered, 

^ Jhink-kd-pathhar a variety of calcite, as it is called lo 9 ally, is jhiuk-ka- 
found at Bibrod, a village three miles from the town, and is used in pathhar. 
making plaster. 

A quarry of red sandstone, six miles from Ratlam town, is used Building 
for extracting building stone. stone. 

Section V-— Arts and Manufactures. 

(Table XI.) 

A few Hindu weavers (Salvi'. and Bhambis) and some Musalman Hand Indns- 
weavers (Momins) carry on this industry. Most of the latter came ^cotton weav- 
to Ratlam from Jhalawar, Rampura ( Indore ) and Shajapur ^ng, etc. 

( Gwalior ) about 50 years ago. Local thread, varying from 20 to 
50 counts, is used for coarse cloths. For finer textures thread vary- 
ing from 50 to 200 counts is imported from Bombay. The coarse 
hand-woven khddl cloth, on account of its cheapness and strength, 
is largely used by the poorer classes. The well-to-do prefer cloth 
imported from Bombay, Turbans of fine texture made by the local 
Momins and Salvis compare favourably with those made at Delhi, 
but it appears that local artisans are handicapped by their ignorance 



266 


RATLA^I STATE. 


of the bleaching process carried on in Delhi. An attempt is now being 
made to introduce the flyshuttle among the weavers. The famine 
of 1899-1900 affected this industry severely, the weavers losing 
credit with the saliukar^ while a rise in the price of yarn has also 
caused a depression in the trade. 

Raw cotton from the fields is sold to wholesale dealers, who get it 
cleaned in the local factory or give it to the hand-gin workers in the 
town. These workers number about 300. The cotton seed, which 
serves as food for cattle, is purchased from the ginners. The ginned 
cotton then passes into the hands of Pinjaras ( cotton teasers ), who 
number about 50 families in the town, from whom it passes to the 
spinners. Spinning formerly gave employment to about 2,000 
women, but owing to the use of machine-made yarn the numbers so 
employed are diminishing yearly. The spun thread passes to the 
weavers. The total number of families engaged in the weaving 
trade is about 150, of which half are Muhammadan Momins. None 
of them are capitalists, all being dependent on sahukars. 

Dyeing, etc. Till a few years ago the dyeing industry was in a very thriving 
condition. The followers of this craft came originally from Marwar 
and Alwar. They are all Muhammadan Rangrez. The Rangrez 
families now number 80. They dye in all colours. The kusum or 
safHower ( Carthamtis thictoria) dyeing and lehria dyeing of Ratlam 
have a considerable reputation in the neighbourhood. Cloth-printing 
was also extensively practised by the Chhipas of the capital, as well 
as those of the jaglr villages of Rancher and Dhanasuta, but is now 
carried on to a small extent only. The art has declined of late 
years, pwing to the import of foreign made dyeing-stufFs. 

The two most important classes of dyeing are the chunrl and 
lehria^ two forms of kneo or bandanna dyeing. In each case the 
cloths are coloured with a variety of shades by dyeing certain 
portions and then tying them up while other parts are bleached and 
dyed, the process being repeated as often as required. 

In the chunri work, the designs used are the phulddr ( patterns 
of flowers), moti-chur ( of pearls ), laddwhhdt ( of the shape of the 
laddu sweetmeat), and hareli (shaped like the vegetable of this 
name ( Momordica caranfia ). 

In lehria work the cloth is so tied as to form a zig-zag pattern ; 
this is used in turbans and saris. 

Metal work. Iron-work is carried on by the blacksmiths, most of whom were 
Iron. brought by Colonel Borthwick from Khachraud some 70 years ago. 
The Lohars of Ratlam, who are a handy and hardworking class, 
number about 60 families. They manufacture utensils and agricul- 
tural implements. The manufacture of iron safes, which are now 
much in demand in neighbouring States, was introduced about 20 
years ago. 



ARTS AND MANUFACTURE. 


267 


The brasiers in Ratlam are mostly Hindu Kaseras -while the Brass and 
coppersmiths are mostly Muhammadan Kalaigars. Most of the works, 
brasiers were brought into Ratlam from Mewar during the time of 
Raja Prithvi Singh. A tradition exists in the community that 
their goods were exempted throughout India from customs duties. 

The Kaseras of Udaipur were once told to cast a brazen Nandi 
( sacred bull of Shiva ) of natural size, which the Maharana wanted 
to install in the famous shrine of Eklingnath in Mewar. Twice the 
mould cracked while the molten bronze was being poured in, thus 
rendering their labour futile, and entailing great loss. A third mould 
was made which was also about to give way when one of the mould- 
ers with rare boldness placed his back against the crack and kept it 
there unflinchingly till the work of moulding the bull was accom- 
plished. The moulder died, but the Mah^ana’s orders were carried 
out. The Maharana then decreed that in future all their wares 
should pass duty-free. 

Besides the usual utensils the brass moulders make “ hubble-bub- 
bles, ” which are in great demand in the neighbouring districts. 

There are about 75 families of Kaseras, of whom about 20 are capi- 
talists, the remainder being dependent on sahukars. About 100 
other families maintain themselves by working as hammerers, 
scrapers, etc., in the brasiers’ shops. 

A few turners called Khairatis and Churigars carve imported Caning? 
ivory into bracelets, combs, dies, chessmen, fans, etc. The ivory 
bracelets made here are exported to neighbouring States. Ivory 
bangles, coloured red by a special process and painted in gold with 
simple figures, known as chanderhai bangles, find a ready sale in 
the neighbourhood. 

The manufacturers purchase the cHfe (crude opium) from the 
cultivator through daldls or brokers, and import it into Ratlam 
where it is made into opium chiefly for the Bombay market. 

Though the Malwa process of turning the ch%k into bails ( hatti ) 
appears, at first sight, to be a rough and ready one, the manipulations 
involved requires experts, who are limited in number and confined 
almost wholly to the Brahman class. In Ratlam, Sakhwal, Bagda 
and Harnia Gaur Brahmans have monopolised the art. Their 
dexterity is well known and their services are in great demand in 
the neighbouring States, They can tell at a glance whether a cer- 
tain ball is their own handiwork or not, though placed among balls 
made by different persons. 

The cKik is first collected in a big copper vat about 6 to 8 feet in 
diameter and 1| to 2 feet in depth, A workman then steps into the 
vat and treads the juice with his feet, holding on to a piece of rope 
over-head to give him purchase. The contents of one vat oxchakh 
is about 25 maunds ^akka ; this quantity is considered sufficient to 



268 


RATLAM STATE. 


provide one day’s work for a full complement of workmen, usually 
16 hands. After the whole has been trodden into a uniform viscous 
mass, a lump is taken out, placed on a platter and kneaded and 
manipulated by men sitting opposite to each other. Four pairs of 
manipulators knead the lump which is passed on to each pair 
successivel 3 \ These lumps after undergoing this manipulation are 
taken to the head man, styled the jamaddr^ who rolls them between 
his hands into balls of about a pound’s eight each. The jamdddr 
continually \vets his hands with rahhd-kd-pdnl^ the water in which 
the bags containing the chlk have been washed. The balls are then 
thrown into finely powdered ^attl (dried and broken opium leaves). 
They remain covered with these leaves for a couple of months, when 
they are broken up and re-made so as to ensure homogeneity, a process 
known as chapai. The balls w’-hen ready are placed in the boxes 
called ardhia or “ half chest ’’ (two such boxes making a “ chest ’’ 
containing 140 lbs. ) in which the opium is exported. 

Opium from Banswara or Khandu is inferior to that of Malwa, 
with which it is never mixed in a higher ratio than that of one to 
eight or ten parts by weight, otherwise the mixture fails to satisfy 
tests. 

The cliih is always tested before it is purchased. This process, 
known as tanoh nikdlncc^ consists in making a solution of 24- tolas 
of chlh with about 21 tolas of hot water and straining it while hot 
through threefolds of Chinese rice paper. If the chik is good it 
should pass through in two or three minutes. The filtered solution 
is then concentrated by boiling and is allowed to stand till the 
next morning. If the viscosity is then such as to allow of its being 
drawn up in thin filaments on a piece of straw it is good. This 
residue should be about one tola in w^eight. Adulteration of opium 
is now very common, tamarind, jaggery, 'wax, French chalk and 
gram flour being the ingredients usually employed in adulterating. 

The cost of labour in manufacturing fifty Tzachcha maunds of chlh 
into balls is (exclusive of the cost of oil, pali, chests, etc.), Rs. 42, 
the labourers or workmen employed getting about four to five annas 
a day cash each, besides a pound of parched wheat sweetened with 
molasses. About 200 families are] supported by this hand-industry. 
The local workmen or liamdls have a high reputation and generally 
go to Bhopal, Ujjain, Indore and Siddhpur (Gujarat) to manufacture 
opium. In these places there are no skilled local men. Till 1857, 
juice was always sent to Ratlam from these places to be made 
up into bails. It is interesting to note the terms on which the 
Ratlam hamdls were first secured by the Gujarat merchants in 
Siddhpur-Pattan. The engagement extended over a period of about 
eight months, from the day they left Ratlam. The terms amounted 
to one rupee cash, J seer of g/iJ, ^ seer of molasses, 4 seer of sugar 



ARTS AND MANUFACTURE. 


269 


I seer of rice, 2 seers of wheat flour per head per diem, while during 
the caking operation tolas of tobacco and 1 tola of majum were 
added to the above. At present the cash wages are reduced to half 
this amount, while rice, sugar, etc., is no longer given. 

Cloth printing was also until recently an industry of some conse- Cloth print* 
quence ; but competition with European printed cloth has almost 
killed it. The printers were Musalman chhlpas^ most of whom 
have, owing to the decline of the industry, left Ratlam for other 
places in search of employment. 

The undyed cloth is first soaked in a solution of cow-dung, it is 
then after a thorough rinsing in clean water dipped into a mixture of 
castor oil and sanchora. It is then soaked in a solution of myrabolan 
[harda) powder and then printed with the designs which are cut on 
wooden blocks. 

The dyes used formerly consisted of a pigment made of hirdkasi 
{Ferric sulphate) and a red dye formed of geru (red ochre), alum, 
flour and gum thickening. Of late, however, aniline dyes 
have been substituted for these, while the dye from the al (Morinda 
tinctoria) used on borders has been replaced by alizarine. Some half 
a dozen Bohora families are engaged in manufacturing soap and gun- 
powder. The ingredients of the soap are oil of poppy seed, sajji 
(impure carbonate of soda), lime and castor oil. 

In the manufacture of gunpowder the ingredient used are nitre Gunpowder, 
sulphur, charcoal of the ak {Calofrapis procera) and gum. 

Snuff prepared in Ratlam is in great request in the adjoining dis- Snuft. 
tricts. Dried tobacco is beaten into dust with a flail {mogri) and sifted 
through a sieve. This process has to be carried on in a closed room 
and is very trying to the workmen. The powdered’’tobacco is then 
ground fine in a mill. The dearer varieties of snuff are perfumed with 
musk and other scents. 

A maund {pakka) of tobacco yields twelve seers of snuff, which Arash-ki- 
sells at from eight annas to a rupee a seer according to its quality. 

The local masons {sildwats) prepare a fine plaster for walls 
called ardsh-M-halai^ which gives their surface the appearance 
of smoothly polished white marble, but without its characteristic 
veins. A coarse quartz known as ardsh-kd-pathhar, obtained from 
quarries in Banswara, is broken into small pieces, which are then 
burnt in an open fire fed with cow-dung cakes (chhena). The burnt 
stone is then slaked in boiling water with. which a little milk and 
curds have been mixed. The stone, now reduced to powder, is mixed 
with water and the mixture, kept in earthen pots, is prevented from 
drying by the addition of water from time to time. Bits of stone, 
which are only partially burnt, then settle at the bottom. They 



270 


RATLAM STATE. 


are removed and mixed with pieces of another kind of stone, 
known as jhin^ha-pathhar^ a variety of calcite, found scattered over 
the hilly parts of the State. The mixture is then ground and made 
into a sort of mortar, with which the first coating is given to the wall. 
Then the plaster obtained by making an intimate mixture of the fine 
powder of jhiu’ka-pathhar and the liquid slaked amsh-ka-pathhar 
is laid on and polished with trowels. To make the surface more 
glossy it is rubbed constantly with the crushed kernels of cocoanuts 
and chdroU seeds [Buchanania latifolia) tied up in a piece of thin 
cloth. It is the fine powder of jhin-kd-paihhar which enables the 
plaster to receive a high polish, while the sloktdijzrdsh-kd-pccihhaf 
gives it consistency. 

Comb manu- About 20 families of Banjaras are engaged in this industry. They 

facture. have settled permanently in the town and given up their original 
work of carriers. The combs are made of wood and bought up by 
Bohora merchants, who export them to Ujjain, Jaora, Hoshangabad, 
Mandasor and other places. 

Section VI-— Commerce and Trade- 

History. Ratlam was once one of the first commercial towns in Central 

India, being the centre of an extensive trade in opium, tobacco and 
salt. It was also famous in Malwa for its time bargains called sattas, 
which were carried on more systematically than elsewhere and were 
in favour among the merchants of Malwa. 

Before the opening of the railway line to Khandwa in 1872, there 
was no better mart than Ratlam. The opening of the railway, though 
beneficial in many ways, dealt a blow to trade by diverting it to 
other channels, and by opening new distributing centres in the 
neighbourhood. Ratlam then ceased to import much more than was 
actually required for local consumption. In 1878 the railway line 
was extended to Ratlam and cart traffic, unable to compete with 
the railway, rapidly declined. 

Opium. The opium trade has also suffered. When the whole of Malwa 

produced little more than 25,000 chests of opium, Ratlam alone 
manufactured and exported for the China market 15,000 chests, and 
in return attracted a large portion of traffic from Bombay and 
Gujarat and distributed the same among other towns of the country. 
The number of chests of opium gradually decreased to 5,000, then 
4,000 and is now less than 2,000 a year. In 1843 when the Govern- 
ment scales for weighing opium were set up in Ratlam, there were, 
with the exception of Indore and Dhar, no other scales in Central 
India. The opium grown in all districts bordering on Ratlam, and 
even that grown in distant places, used to be brought to the town for 
weighment. But during the last 25 or 30 years scales have been 
established at Jaora, Mandasor, Chitor, Bhopal, and Baran, which 
has also tended to decrease this traffic, 



COMMERCE AND TRADE. 


271 


Since the opening of the railway the tobacco trade has also Tobacco, 
declined. In 1875 over 30,000 pakka maunds were imported from 
Gnjarat and in 1879, 20,000 maunds, of which 13,000 were brought 
by rail and 7,000 by road. The average import now amounts to 
about 8,000 maunds a year. 

A similar decline in piece-goods and Mrdna (miscellaneous articles), 
chiefly imported from Bombay, is also observable. Formerly, no 
less than 200 to 300 turbans were turned out daily from local 
hand-looms, but now not half this quantity is made, while instead 
of some 25,000 maunds pakka of raw cotton which used to be 
imported 30 years ago, only about 10,000 are now brought to the 
town yearly. In 1893 a ginning and pressing factory was opened 
but it failed owing to the declining trade in cotton. A new factory for 
ginning only was started in 1903. A flour-mill has (1906) 
been opened. 

While the chief article of trade as regards value has always been 
opium, as regards quantity food grains have always predominated. 

The trade statistics, though not quite accurate, shew that in the last 
20 years the imports were considerably in excess of exports in re^ 
gard to most articles, the balance of trade being, therefore, against 
the State. Recently trade in timber has been brisk. 

The principal imports in order of importance are : — crude opium, Chief imports 
cloth, food-stuffs, European hardw^are, spices, ghi, molasses (gzif), 
sugar, tobacco, salt, kerosine oil and metal goods; and the principal 
exports are : — opium, food-grains, cotton, tilli, linseed, metal articles, 
hides, shoes and betel-leaves. 

Cloth, spices, metal goods, kerosine"^oil, sugar and European wares 
are imported from Bombay, tobacco, salt and silks from Gujarat, ghl 
and fine muslins from Delhi, wheat and gur from the United Provin- 
ces, woollen stuffs from the Punjab and crude opium and gram from 
neighbouring districts. Of exports grain, oilseeds and opium go to 
Bombay, cotton to Khandesh and Gujarat, betel-leaves to the Punjab 
and spices, sugar, tobacco, metal and piece-goods to surrounding 
districts. 

The consumption of imported articles has increased rapidly Consumption, 
especially since the railway was opened. Twenty years ago coarse 
cloth coloured with indigenous vegetable dyes was worn even by the 
middle classes, who have now taken almost entirely to using European 
cloth, mostly from Manchester. It has become the fashion now- 
a-days for women in this part of the country to wear saris and 
orhnls coloured with washable aniline dyes. This has given a stimulus 
to the importation of such dyes, and in spite of an order issued by 
the Darbar twenty years ago, and not yet abrogated, by which dyers 
were forbidden to use foreign dyes, the growing popular demand for 



272 


RATLAM STATE. 


aniline dyes has caused it to become a dead letter. The fast vegetable 
dyes which were once in favour, are now being ousted by alizarine 
fast dyes imported from Germany, 

This change in popular taste has almost killed the cultivation of 
the al {Morinda tinctoria)^ kusumb [Carthamas tinctoria) and 
other plants yielding colouring matter. The aniline dyes, though 
less permanent are more brilliant, cheaper and colour stuffs more 
rapidly than vegetable dyes. 

Synthetic indigo, however, has not yet supplanted the natural dye. 
A noticeable increase has taken place in the consumption of Mauri- 
tius sugar, kerosine oil, cloth, glass ware, stationery and toys, which 
are used by all but the poorer classes, and especially the tinsels and 
zinc and brass ornaments, which are prized by Bhil women, arrow 
shafts and heads, painted or lacquered bamboo sticks, as also parti- 
coloured threads called lachha used in women’s toilets, and at 
marriages and various animistic rites. The sellers are petty dealers 
from the neighbouring villages who are generally Banias, or craftsmen 
like potters and cloth-printers. 

Markets and The town of Ratlam is the only important centre of trade in the 

t}z*add ccn* • 

tres.f State. In the villages of Dhanasuta, Namli and Bajna weekly 
markets ( hats ) are held, while shops called peths are to be met 
with in the villages of Dharad, Dhamnod, Pancher, Sarwan and 
Shivgarh. 

Trading The principal castes engaged in commerce are the Mahajans, who 

Ol£t3S'0S • 

trade in opium, cloth, grain, sugar and tobacco, while they also lend 
money and transact satta or time bargains. 

Musalman Bohoras deal in glass-ware, stationery, sugar, jaggery, 
iron, spices, dried fruits, kerosine oil, gunpowder and miscellaneous 
articles. They are the chief medium through which trade in 
European articles other than cloth is carried on. Kaseras and 
kalaigars trade in brass and copper -ware ; Mochis trade in leather 
and country shoes ; Kunjaras and Mails are respectively Muham- 
madan and Hindu dealers in vegetables. Among Brahmans only 
the Nanwanas are money-lenders by trade. 

Trades-union. There is no trades-union in the proper sense of the term in the 
State, but the sakal-panch in a sense takes its place. The primary 
duty of this body is to regulate and decide caste disputes, but it also 
has a voice in all trade matters. The religious heads of the Dhundia 
Jain community occasionally prohibit their followers from engaging 
in a particular trade. The grain-dealer’s panchdyat often agree to 
arbitrarily raise the prices of grain in times of impending famine. 
In the beginning of the last famine the people complained of this to 
the State, The dealers expecting that the Darbar would interfere 
and fix prices, closed their shops and the State was obliged to open 



COMMERCE AND TRADE. 


273 


its own shops. The strike continued for some days till the dealers 
saw no interference was intended when they were induced to carry 
on their trade as usual. 

The practice of apprenticeship prevails in almost every kind 
trade. In a banker’s firm the position of an apprentice is below 
that of the lowest gumdskta or clerk. An apprentice receives no 
pay> but the proprietor or the head agent {munlm) of the firm 
sometimes helps him in earning a small income of about four or five 
rupees a month by speculating. 

In the manufacture of opium and in the industries of gold-smiths 
copper-smiths and others, an apprentice is paid from one -half to 
two-thirds the salary given to trained workmen. Formerly, the town 
had its Nagar Seth^ the acknowledged head in matters of trade, but 
for the last thirty or forty years he has existed only in name, the 
hereditary title of Nagar Seth being still enjoyed by the Kataria 
family. 

Itinerant traders attend the weekly hats in the districts and in Pedlers, 
neighbouring States, the market days being so fixed as to admit of 
their attending each in turn. The peths and weekly markets are 
chiefly distributing centres. The hats near Bhil villages are collect- 
ing stations for jungle products such as gum, honey, bees-wax and 
white musll (tubers of a species of asparagus). The chief articles 
sold are provisions, coarse cloth, spices, earthen pots, tobacco, etc. 

The purchasers are chiefly the local cultivators. The shop- Shop-keeper, 
keeper is not only a distributor but is also a gatherer, as he buys 
articles of local produce from the villagers, and sells them to whole- 
sale dealers in the town. He generally barters spices, cloths and 
other articles for grain and cattle. The Bhils usually have a 
standing account with the shop-keeper which is cast and checked 
, every year. In liquidation of their debts the Bhils generally point 
out or make over some of their cattle which are valued by panchas 
and set off against the debt. This process is called dhor-khandni ^ 
by the Bhils. The shop-keeper lets these cattle out, for agricultural 
purposes, on hire. After the agricultural operations are over the 
bullocks are again hired by the Bhils together with carts and used 
in the carriage of fuel and timber to the different markets. 

The shop-keepers in the villages are also the persons on whom the 
Bhils principally depend for their khdd-btj or food and seed-grain 
advances. A good harvest in the case of a Bhil at the most only 
means subsistence for six months. A considerable portion of the 
harvest is generally given away in charity, for, the Bhil when in 
funds is unusually generous, and gives no thought to the morrow. 

The remaining balance generally goes to fill the pockets of either the 


^ Lit : breaking up of the dlwr or herd o£ cattle. 



274 


RATLAM STATE. 


liquor-seller or the Bania. This continues year after year till the 
Bhil is entirely dependent on the village Bania. The hlj is gene- 
rally advanced on the usual sawan system, an inferior grain being 
generally advanced, repayment in kind being made in a superior 
grain. A Bhil gets an advance of kodra (an inferior millet) and 
agrees to repay in maize the next year, and in default to pay a similar 
quantity of wheat — a still more expensive grain — the third year in 
lieu of the maize or kodra. Cash loans are few, but always carry 
exorbitant interest, sometimes one to two annas on the rupee per 
month. Generally the headman or tarvl has to stand security to 
induce the Bania to open an account with a Bhil residing in his 
village. The system, though certainly not in the interests of the 
Bhils, is nevertheless in favour with them. In the famine of 
1899-1900 when it was found that the Bania not only gave short 
weight to the Bhils but also charged exorbitant prices for grain, the 
State opened shops in the Bhil districts and sold at a fixed rate. But 
the Bhils, who had accounts with particular Banias, could not be 
induced to buy at the State shops, preferring to trudge many miles 
daily in order to go to their own Banias for their necessaries. 

In the last famine, many of the Bhils died and village shop-keepers 
who had made advances to them failed. Few shop-keepers now 
deal with the Bhils in the old way, and the State has had to step in 
and take the Banias place. 

These village shop-keepers used to have their khohs (granaries) 
full of such grain as kodra^ which keeps without deteriorating for 
years together, and also herds of cattle which they hired out, but 
since the famine year they have had to give up this practice. 

State control. These petty village shop-keepers themselves have now lost credit 
with the big town Banias and the State has had to lend them sums 
free of interest to open shops in remote villages. In matters of 
trade with a view to prevent malpractices by dishonest Banias the 
State has made arrangements for the control of sales. Grain is now 
sold not by measure but by weight. A contractor appointed by the 
State supervises all weighments. This system is in force both in 
the town and in the districts. All grain of not less than three maunds* 
weight has to pass through the weighing contractor’s hands. This 
precludes the possibility of grain dealers defrauding customers by 
giving short weight. The weighing contractor is allowed to charge 
the seller one anna on every mdni (6 pakka maunds) weighed. He 
pays Rs. 1,200 annually to the State in consideration of the profit 
he makes. For the sale and purchase of such goods as ghl, jaggery, 
hemp, cotton, etc., the weighment has to be made at the State 
scales which are set up in the Manak chowk. A pass, certifying to the 
weight is then given, a duty of half an anna per maund being levied 
from both the seller and the buyer. An annual income of about 



COMMERCE AND TRADE, 


275 


Rs. 2,000 is derived from this source which is credited to the Munici- 
pality. Quantities of less than one pakka seer are not brought to 
the scales. 

In almost all trade transactions brokers {dalals) are greatly in Brokers, 
evidence, separate dalals dealing with transactions in buying and 
selling houses, cattle, cloth, drugs and almost all articles. These 
dalals who are required by the State to register their names, no 
others being recognised, number about 500. 

Special arrangements have also been made by the State for con- 
trolling the sale of timber brought in by Bhils. In order to protect 
these simple folk from being imposed upon, certain persons have 
been appointed by the State to sell all timber brought in by Bhils 
by auction to the highest bidder and to see that the money is paid 
over to the Bhils, 

Certain cesses have been levied at the instance of the traders 
themselves, the amount so collected being expended on charitable 
objects in consultation with a committee of traders. 

The carriage of goods to and from Ratlam is done by rail and Trade rentes 
road. Exports and imports are chiefly carried by the Rajputana- 
Malwa, and Bombay Baroda and Central India Railways, to 
and from the chief trading centres of Northern India, the Bombay 
Presidency, Rajputana and Central India. The export and import 
trade with the adjoining tracts of Bagar, Kanthal and the neigh- 
bouring districts and villages is carried on by means of bullock 
carts and pack bullocks. Carts and pack bullocks are hired out by 
Telis and cultivators, camels by Musalman Kunjaras, and oxen by 
Banjaras, Telis and local Mahajans. The goods thus carried are chiefly 
grain, hides, mahud flowers and timber. Goods are carried by carts 
in winter and summer but in the wet weather by means of bullocks, 
buffaloes, and asses. The owners of carts and pack animals are not 
as a rule traders. The cart traffic has greatly declined in conse- 
quence of the opening of Railways. Formerly, as many as 3,000 
country carts plied between Ratlam and other places and 5,000 pack 
bullocks, but the number of carts is now reduced to 200 while of 
pack bullocks, scarcely fifty remain. 

The principal trade routes are the Banswara, the Khachraud and 
the Mhow-Nimach, roads. Traffic goes by rail to Indore, Nimach 
Ujjain, and British India generally, 

Ratlam is now an important Railway Junction and its importance 
will be increased on the opening of the Nagda-Muttra branch. 

Capitalists having more than Rs. 1,50,000 are about 21 in number Capitalists, 
and belong mainly to the Oswal, Fatehpura, Porwar, Agarwal, 

Nanwana Brahman, Nagar Brahman, Bohra and Saraogi classes* 

They engage in different kinds of trade. 



276 


ratlam state. 


The number of capitalists who are supposed to have from 
Rs. 15,000 to Rs. 75,000 is 150 and of those having from Rs. 75,000 
to Rs. 1,50,000 is 40. 

Native firms. The principal native firms in the State dealing in opium, grain, 
cotton, etc., have trade connections with big merchants in Bombay 
and Gujarat. 

The chief opium merchants are Seths Magniram Bhaubhutsingh, 
Gulji Puranmal, Udeyram Jainarayan, Shivbaksh Johar Mai, Shiv- 
shamal Kishan Dayal, Ramchandra Kedarmal, Harsamal Harbaksh 
Premsukh Nandlal, Fatabhai Bhaikhan, Sanwalbhai Nathhubhai, 
Kheta Varda, Tarachand Bhimraj and Gomaji Mayachand. 

The chief grain and oil seeds merchants are Karamchand Bhoj- 
raj, Kevalji Pannalal, Sataram Goda, Ganesh Sivnarayan Sivnath 
Ganesh and Ramnarayn Chunilal. Misrimal Muthralal and Dhanna 
Keval deal in cotton, etc. 

^ firt^*^ The Shell Transport ” and the “Standard Oil ” Companies have 
established bulk oil installations in the town for the sale of kerosine 
oil, while the Burma Oil Trade Company is now erecting godowns for 
storage and sale. The oil is sold in the districts and the neighbour- 
ing States in cans. 

Almost every article is sold by weight excepting liquor, which 
Precious ’ is sold by pints and quarts. Only one weight, the rattl is used 
™ris^*etc precious stones, pearls, etc., twenty seeds of alsi ( linseed ) 
making one mitu Rattl weights made of agate are imported from 
Jaipur. 

A gunj or charmi seed {Abrus precatorius)^ a small red and black 
berry, is the smallest Jeweller’s weight, 

3 Barley grains =5 1 Gunj\ 

Ij Gunj ... = 1 Rattl, 

Pearls are weighed by the rattl, but the price is calculated by a 
complicated process, in which the weight has to be turned into 
chavas, the price being so many rupees per chava. The following 
is the table of goldsmith’s weight ; — 

1 Gunj ... ... ,,, = 1 Rattl, 

8 Rattls ... ... ,,, = 1 Masha, 

12 Mashas = 1 Tola. 

Goldsmith’s .weights by which gold, silver, etc., are weighed 
are made locally of bell-metal. One rattl of goldsmith’s weight is 
equal to one gunj or charmi. 



MEANS OF COMMUNICATION, 


277 


Bulky goods are weighed according to the following table which 
Cakes the place of avoirdupois : — 

40 Kaldar {British) Rupees in weight = 1 Ih, or 1 seer kachcha. 

80 Kalddf {British) Rupees in weight = 1 seer pakka, 

5 Seers pakka (1 Paserl) = 1 Dharu 

8 Dharis = 1 Maund pakka* 

6 Maunds = 1 Mdnt, 

100 Mdnis = 1 Mandsa, 

100 Mandsas = 1 Kandsa. 

Alkali, coffee, cotton, drugs, rice, salt, spices, molasses, and sugar, 
etc,, are all weighed according to the above table of weights. 

Only liquor is measured by addhis or half bottles and hotals or 
full bottles. All other articles solid or liquid are weighed and not 
measured. 

The English measure of length is generally used in the State. 
Silks, woollen and cotton cloths are measured by the wdr (yard). 
Cloth is also measured by the hath which is equal to about 1^-8 
Lengths of fields, roads, etc., are measured by jarths (chains). 
When things are sold by number, English numbers are almost always 
used, e. g-, nibs, holders, pencils, stockings, etc., being sold by the 
dozen. 

Logs of timber and pieces of cloth are sometimes sold by the 
kori or score. Mangoes are generally sold by the hundred. 

The unit of land surface measure is a blgha* It is equal to 
146 feet 8 inches square. One acre is equal to 2*025 blghas. 

The English measure of cubic contents is used for road metal, 
earthwork and masonry. 

The Samvat era Vikrama is followed in the State. The State 
official year begins on the first day of the dark half of the month of 
Bhddrapada ( August ) and ends on the last day of the month of 
Shrdwan (July). In Ratlam with the majority of the Hindus, and 
for State purposes also, the first day of the lunar month is the Badi 
Pratipada or the first of the dark half of the month. But the 
lunar year, especially with other Brahmans, begins with the first 
day of the bright half or Shukla paksh in Chaitra. With Banias, 
however, the new year begins on 1st Kdrtik Sudi ( bright half ) 
and not Chaitra. 

Section VII.— Means of Communication. 

(Table XV.) 

In 1872 the Ajmer-Khandwa branch of the Eajputana-Malwa 
metre gauge railway was opened up to Ratlam. It runs for 25j 
miles through the State with stations at Ratlam, Namli and Naugan- 
wan. Ratlam is the junction for this line and the Bombay, Baroda 
and Central India broad gauge railway, the Ujjain-Godhra- Baroda 


Measures by 
capacity. 


Measures by 
length. 


Measures of 
surface. 

Measures by 
Cubic Con* 
tents. 


Measure 

time. 


of 


Railways. 



278 


RATLAM STATE. 


branch of this system running for about 10 miles through the State 
with stations at Eatlam and Marwani. Its importance will be still 
further increased by the extension of this branch to Muttra from 
Nagda. The effect of these lines during the famine was very 
marked, grain being imported in large quantities and materially 
assisting in checking migration. The effect in other directions is not 
noticeable, except in Ratlam town where the use of European cloths 
is becoming general. 

There were no metalled roads in the State before the superintend- 
ency of Mir Shahamat All, during the minority of Raja Ranjit 
Singh. The State is now traversed by about 50 miles of metalled 
road of which 15 miles are kept up by the Darbar, 33 by Govern- 
ment and 2 by Gwalior. The 15 miles lie in and around the town 
of Ratlam and are in great part maintained by municipal funds. 

The most important roads are Mhow-Nimach road of which 25 
miles lie in State territory and 8 miles of the Namli-Sailana road, 
both maintained by Government. 

Villages, as a rule, are connected by unmetalled roads. 

The usual country carts are employed in the districts, but in 
Ratlam springed carriages and bullock shigrams are common. 

The Postal arrangements in the State are all Imperial. The 
number of Post offices is five, two in Ratlam town, one at Namli, one 
at Pancher and one at Sarwan. 

An experimental branch Post office was opened at Bajna at the* 
instance of the Darbar, but was closed as the receipts did not cover 
the cost of the establishment. 

A Telegraph office has been opened in the town combined With 
the Post office besides the offices at the Railway Stations of 
Ratlam, Namli, Nowganwan and Marwani. 

Section Vlll-’-Pamine. 

(Table XXX.) 

Early records. cultivation only about six per cent, is 

artificially irrigated by wells, orhis and tanks, which are dependent 
for their supply of water on the yearly rainfall. 

In the year 1877-78 the rainfall was comparatively scarce, 
amounting to hardly half the normal quantity. Little or no water 
was available for irrigation, while a want of water for drinking pur- 
poses was felt in many places. The prices of staple food grains rose 
abnormally. 

There was also a scarcity of fodder for cattle. During that year 
56,319 people were relieved. In addition to this about 2,000 Bhils* 
were fed daily for several months. A sum of Rs. 1,500 was spent 
also in feeding unclaimed cattle and wild birds during the rainy 
season when no food is available in the jungles. 


BoadSc 
(Table XV). 


Caxts. 


Post and 
Telegraph 
( Table 
XXIX ). 



FAMINE. 


279 


In 1887, 1889, and 1897 scarcity was experienced, on the first 
occasion from excessive and in the last two years deficient rain. 

In the year 1899-1900 actual famine occurred in the State, still 
known to people as the Chhapania (literally ‘^the fifty- sixth’’) or the 
Samvat year 1956. The total rainfall during the year was only 14j 
inches, as against the then normal rainfall of 34 inches. The deficit 
in the production of food stuffs was about 90 per cent. About 8 per 
cent, of the population had to be relieved during the months of 
March, April, May and June, and relief operations were continued for 
ten months and a half, the daily average of the persons relieved during 
the whole period amounting to 5 per cent, of the population. The 
Bhils in the hilly tracts were the worst off. They were the first to 
feel the pinch of famine and about 36 per cent, of the Bhil population 
had to be relieved for seven months. The cost of relief per unit on 
the relief works was one anna six pies per day and the cost of 
relief per 1,000 workers, including establishment, etc., was Rs. 92^ 

To meet this calamity sums of money were advanced by the State 
without interest to the village Banias to purchase food-grain and 
make advances on credit to their clients? and to enable them to 
open shops for the sale of grain in out-of-the-way places. Money was 
also advanced to labourers on the condition of their doing State 
work. It was arranged that the Bhils in the Bajna district should 
be employed in cutting grass and wood, and that their carts and 
bullocks should be employed on hire in conveying the grass and 
wood to Ratlam. In the town the petty dealers had to close their 
shops as they could get no grain to carry on their business, the big 
mechants, who had stocks of grain having raised the prices. The 
sdhukars and merchants were then induced to arrange amongst 
themselves that those in the town who had stocks on hand should sell 
•at a price fixed by their panchas. Some merchants were induced 
to undertake the importation of grain from outside and sell at one 
rupee per mdni (6 Bengal maunds) under the cost price, the State 
remitting the usual customs duties and taxes on all imports. By this 
means a very large quantity of grain was brought into the State,, 
and prices remained comparatively stable and did not again rise. 

Subsequently it was found expedient to open relief -works in 
November 1899. 

In the beginning there was a scarcity of fodder, but the hilly tracts 
of Bajna supplied grass and gave employment to the Bhils. Some 
grass was also imported from Amargarh (Jhabua territory) by rail. 
The normal price of grass in ordinary times is Rs. 5 per one 
thousand bundles, but the average price of grass daring the famine 
year rose to Rs. 12 per thousand bundles. The condition of cattle in^ 
the Malwa plateau was bad,, while in the hilly tract it was fair. 



280 


RATLAM STATE. 


The famine was not equally severe in all parts. In the Bhil district 
of Bajna it was most severe, less so in the three districts of Dharar, 
Dhamnod and Ringnia, and comparatively light in the town suburbs. 
About 62 per cent, of the Bhil population of Bajna, and about 5 per 
cent, of the rest of the population were actually relieved. The 
number of those employed on works during the latter period of the 
famine was 5,202, and of those receiving gratuitous relief 2,120 
per diem. Up to the end of March 1900, the total number of units 
relieved through works were 400,219 and those relieved gratuitously 
163,587. 

Effect on po- The effect of the famine of 1899-1900 on the Bhil population was 
puiation. demoralising. Not being used to hard work, they did not avail 

themselves of the relief works until compelled by hunger to leave 
their homes. Begging is considered highly disreputable among them, 
and a Bhil, who lived by begging, was generally put out of caste. 
During the famine, however, this sentiment disappeared and many 
Bhils took to begging and continued as professional beggars after 
famine conditions ceased to exist. 

The influx of immigrants from other places in a weak state of 
health resulted in an outbreak of cholera and small-pox among the 
Bhils and also among the inmates of the poor houses. The mortality 
during the year was 56 per thousand of the population as against 
the normal rate of 20 per thousand. 

There was also an increase of crime against property during the 
year. The number of thefts and offences against property committed 
during the year was 1,010 as against 282 during the previous year^ 



CHAPTER IIL 

ADMINISTRATIVE. 

(Tables XVI to XXVII). 

Section L— Administration. 

In early days before the establishment of the British supremacy Harly daysw 
and indeed until the minority of Raja Ranjit Singh, the administra- 
tion was conducted on the old lines. The Chief was the sole authority 
in the State, his word being law in all matters. He was assisted 
by officials whose powers were very ill-defined. Judicial powers 
were wholly undefined and might, rather than right, was the rule 
of the day- 

All districts were farmed out to ijdraddrs who, so long as they 
paid in the contract sums, were left to their own devices, making 
their own terms with cultivators, and, as a rule, exercising judicial 
powers within their holdings. Appeals always lay to the Chief,, but 
he was not easily accessible, save to those who could pay their 
way, and the administration was thus in great part left to ijdraddrs^ 
landholders and big officials. 

Ratlam being a mediatised State, the Chief exercises the powers 
generally granted in such cases. He has unlimited powers in all 
matters of general administration and in civil judicial cases, but 
in criminal matters his powers are limited. 

The Chief takes the leading place in the administration, hearing Chiefs 

position. 

all important civil suits, appeals, civil and criminal, and reviews the 
decisions of the Dlwdn in all cases in which it may be necessary. 

He is assisted by a Dlwdn, who is the chief executive officer ^^wan. 
and who also hears and disposes of appeals sent up from the lower 
courts. All executive powers are delegated to the Dlwdn, who 
acts under the instructions of the Chief, In regard to financial 
questions the Dlwdn has power to sanction all expenditure provided 
for in the budget ; as regards extraordinary charges not provided for 
in the budget he has to obtain the orders of the Chief, The principal 
departments of the administration are the Darbar presided over by 
the Chief ; the Judicial department ; the Revenue; Accounts or MdU 
Daftar; Treasury; Sdyar or Customs; Daldli ; Public Works; 

Medical ; Educational ; Shaglrdpesha ; Military or Bakshi Fouz ; 

Police ; the Muhdfiz daftar or Records ; Abkari ; Department of the 
Munsarim Jdgirddrs or Officer managing Jdglrs under attachment 
and the Palga or Stables, 

The official language of the State is Hindi in which all records Official Lang- 
have been kept. 

The State is, for administrative purposes, divided into two fahslls 
with headquarters at Ratlam and Bajna, each in charge of afTa\ies\lI 
tahsllddr* and VIII— < 

Appendix 

— II.' ' to 

“ The post of Biu'dn has been abolished since July, 1907 , aud his powers vested 
in a council* one of its members acting as Secretary. 



282 


RATLAM STATE. 


Village admt 
nisloation. 


The tahsilddr of Ratlam is assisted liy a ndib tahsllddr. The faltsll 
sub-divisions are called hamdsdariSt each being in charge of a 
kamdsddr. 

In the Ratlam tahsll there are three sub-divisions with headquar- 
ters at Dharar, Dhamond and Ringnia, while the villages in the 
immediate vicinity of the town are in a separate circle known as the 
Halka-gtrd kasha in charge of a patwdru There are no sub-divr- 
sions in the Bajna tahsll. The tahsllddr is the chief executive and 
judicial officer of the charge, exercising in the latter capacity the 
powers of a magistrate of the second class, and of a civil judge. 
The kamdsddrs similarly exercise the judicial powers of a third 
class magistrate and subordinate civil judge. 

The tahsllddrs and kamdsddrs are assisted by the usual clerical 
^aff and in villages by the patwdrls and havilddrs. A patwdrl has 
charge of four or five villages of which he keeps the records. 

The Bajna tahsll is not an important one from the point of view 
of revenue. The Ratlam tahsllddr has three kamdsddrs under him, 
each of whom is assisted by five patwdrls. Each patwdrl is allotted 
a group of villages. All copies of records, accounts and statistics 
regarding the villages are kept by the patwdrl. The kasha villages 
in the vicinity of Ratlam town are supervised by the Gird-patwdru 
In all, the Ratlam tahsll has 16 patwdrls each collecting from 
Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 25,000 yearly. 

Considerable autonomy is still enjoyed by village communities. 
The chief person in the village administration is the pat el. He 
generally holds some rent-free land, which is called khotl. He is 
required to assist the patwdrls in recovering the land revenue and 
is the mouthpiece of the villagers of his village. He is required 
to see that village chauklddrs and others do their duty. He had 
formerly a powerful voice in village administration, but appears to 
have lost much of his prestige. 

When serious offences take place in the village the patel gives 
information through the chauklddr to the nearest Police thdna. In 
order to carry out the duties which legitimately fell on th.e patel 
in former days a havilddr is appointed by the State to each 
village. He assists the patwdrl who generally has charge of three 
or four villages to collect the revenue. All family quarrels in the 
village and the petty cases between villagers and sdhukdrs are 
settled by the patel, who uses his influence to bring about an 
amicable settlement. In the hilly tracts, the Bhil headman is 
called the tarPi. He has the entire charge of his village, the revenue 
being generally collected through him. He settles all disputes 
among the* villagers and otherwise sees that they keep the peace* 
The tarvl is given a turban yearly and some land rent-free. 



LEGISLATION AND JUSTICE. 


283 


The next most important official is the chmikldar. He is not 
only the village watchman whose duty it is to guard the villagers 
by night, but at harvest time he is required to keep watch over the 
threshing ground, while he is also required to report all births and 
deaths in his village to the revenue office. Formerly his responsi- 
bilities were very heavy as he was bound to make good to the 
villagers any loss occasioned by his negligence. With the introduc- 
tion of regular police, however, this responsibility has disappeared* 

The chatiklddr is given rent-free land in return for his services. 

The gdm-balai is the village messenger. When letters or parcels 
or the baggage of State officers on duty have to be carried, the 
gdm-balai is brought into requisition. The halai takes these to the 
precincts of the next village and hands them over to the halai of 
that village. 

Every village, in accordance with its size and importance, has 
its artisans. The village carpenter, blacksmith, Chamar (leather 
worker), potter or the Kumhar and Nai or barber, all find their places 
in the community. In order to enable these people to settle in a 
village the State generally grants them some land reveinue-free* 

For their work, however, they are paid in kind by the cultivators at 
harvest time. Minor villages, which are not in a position to have 
their own artisans, depend upon the artisans of the nearest big 
villages, the customary perquisites being given at harvest time. 

Section II — Legislation and Justice- 
(Tables XVI and XVII.) 

No regular system of law and justice prevailed in the former Early in titn- 
days. In almost all administrative features, the little jdg%f village of 
to-day presents an exact semblance of the big States of early 
times. The hdmddr was the chief executive functionary in the 
State, who being next to the Raja was usually a man selected from 
one of the leading families. This man was the centre of all Legis* 
lative, Judicial, Revenue and General administrative power. His 
idea of government was that of an arbitrary and uncontrolled autho- 
rity, he encouraged the people to look upon him as their oracle and 
to come to him even in minor disputes and quarrels. Decisions 
were always verbal and summary. The kdmddr had a hotwdl as 
his assistant, who acted as a kind of magistrate and chief police 
officer deciding almost all criminal cases, and when necessary 
producing parties for final orders before the kdmddr. 

There appears to have been no written law and no record of 
cases was kept. Civil cases were generally referred to panchdyats^ 
the decisions of the panchas being oral and based on custom and 
local usage. No rules of limitation existed. A Court fee was 



S84 


RAtLAM STATE. 


ieviecJ, which Went by the name of tiazarana, and usually amounted 
to 25 per cent, of the value of the suits. A written document 
promising payment of the amount of the Court fee was taken from 
the parties. 

Most crimitial cases never reached the Kamddr at all, but were 
settled by respectable people or by the panchas of the caste to 
which the patties belonged. The panchas also imposed fines and 
the money so realised was treated as panchdyat money. Their ideas 
of wrong doing were peculiar and some of the most respectable 
inhabitants enjoyed the privilege of affording protection to criminals 
of any degree. Theft was, however, always considered a most 
heinous offence. 

The punishment of death was seldom awarded* Thieves were 
punished by the amputation of a hand and murderers by that of 
both hands and feet, even as late as 1825.^ The commonest form 
of punishment was that of hath or the stocks. The hath was kept 
in the open space within the four walls of the kot^ as the residence 
of the Raja was termed. To enhance the suffering, the stocks were 
placed in the sun. These punishments were inflicted in extreme 
cases only, the ordinary form of punishment being fines and forfei- 
ture of property. Thefines were, however, generally exorbitant and 
were supposed to atone for any wrongful act irrespective of its 
character, as well as supplying compensation to the sufferer. Fines 
were realised on both the movable and immovable property of the 
individual and were considered as part of the regular revenues of 
the State. The above system prevailed in the State till the first 
quarter of the last century and little improvement seems to have 
been made in the system of administering law and justice till 1868 
when Mir Shahamat Ali was appointed Superintendent. He at once 
organized a regular system by establishing courts for civil and 
criminal work. A Munsarim^s Court was also established for hear- 
ing and deciding cases against j&^rddrs^ servants of the State and 
respectable inhabitants of the town especially privileged in that 
behalf. First class jdglrddrs of the State were also given limited 
civil and criminal powers within their jd^r limits. Civil and 
criminal justice were thus administered regularly, while to assist 
officers some simple rules were collected in a small book called 
*‘Ain-i-Riasat.” Written records of all cases were also made. The 
Kotwdl still disposed, as a magistrate, of most criminal cases 
coming to his notice. Raja Ranjit Singh, however, separated the 
magisterial duties from those of the police. The Judge’s court was 
first established in 1888J^ with the original and appellate powers 
formerly held by the Darbar Court, with certain modifications, while 
the Darbar Court was merged into the Ijlds-khds or Chief’s Court, 


^ A Rajput suffered this penalty just before the appointment of Mir Shahamat Ali. 



LEGISLATION AND JUSTICE, 


285 


it being provided that the Diwan should, as far as practicable, 
sit with the Chief in judicial cases. 

The present system was introduced during the minority of the Present sys- 
present Raja by Khan Bahadur Cursetji Rastamji Thanawala when 
Diwan of the State, 

The Codes used in British India have been, as far as practicable, 
introduced with adaptation to local circumstances, while the spirit of 
the British Indian Laws is strictly followed. Formerly almost all 
civil cases were decided by permanent panchas nominated in this 
behalf. These panchas were both the final appellate and original 
authorities. This permanent system of panchdyat was abolished 
as it was found to be impractical and inexpedient and the parties are 
now left to their own free will to appoint panchas if they like. 

The civil and criminal powers are combined in the same official Legislation, 
and the powers of the various courts are based on those exercised 
by similar courts in British India. 

Rules and orders are issued from time to time as may be neces- 
sary on procedure and other matters. 

The British Criminal Procedure Code and Penal Code are followed British codes, 
in the criminal courts. 

In civil courts the British Code is only used as a guide. 

Certain local regulations such as the “ Border Court and 
“ Boundary Settlement Rules” are also in force, while the State reci- 
procates with many others as regards extradition and the service 
of civil processes. 

The most important local rules and orders are noted below. 

The immense importance of these transactions necessitated State Bulcs for 
control. A daUdll office was established at which all satta transac- transaction, 
tions are required to be registered and unless so registered they 
are not cognizable by the State Courts. 

The British law of limitation has been introduced, as it was Limitation, 
found that the old general order, by which all suits could be enter- 
tained up to 15 years, was unfair in its operation. 

By a rule, known as the rule of ddmdupat^ civil courts refuse to Interest, 
recognize money transactions in which the amount including 
interest exceeds twice the principal. In grain transactions a similar 
rule, known as the rule of ilgna^ bars cognizance when the principal 
and interest in kind exceed three times the amount of grain ori- 
ginally advanced. 

Important cases in which even purely caste matters are in question Castedis- 
have now been made cognizable by the courts. It was found that 
outcasting and severe penalties were often enforced on such purely 
accidental occurrences as the death of a dog by the passing of a 



286 


"RATLAM STATE. 


Conjugal 

rights. 

Protected 

animals. 


Justice, 
Civil Courts 


District 

courtS|l 


Criminal 

courts. 


carriage over its body. These cases often led to serious disputes 
upsetting whole communities and the Darbar, therefore, now inter- 
feres. 

Cases of conjugal rights are tried in the criminal as well as civil 
courts, in accordance with ancient custom. 

Certain animals are considered sacred and are protected: cows nlU 
gaii black buck, chinkara^ monkeys, sdras, peacock, and blue rock 
pigeons. Any one disobeying this order by killing one of these 
animals is subject to prosecution under section 188 of the Indian 
Penal Code, 

There are, in all, fourteen courts in the State. At headquarters 
' are the Darbar Court presided over by the Chief, the Judge’s Court, 
and the Sub-Judge’s Court. 

The Sub- Judge has powers to entertain any suit up to a value of 
Rs. 5,000 and to dispose of cases of transfer of property and succes- 
sion. The Judge exercises the powers of a Small Cause Court 
Judge for suits not exceeding Rs. 200 in value, and can also entertain 
suits of any value with the proviso that his judgments in those 
exceeding Rs. 10,000 in value are submitted to the Darbar Court for 
final orders. In other matters he exercises the same powers as a 
District Judge in British India. 

The civil powers of the Darbar Court are unlimited. It is the 
final court of reference and appeal only. 

The Darbar Court and the Judge’s Court exercise the same powers 
for the districts as for the town. 

The subordinate courts in the districts are those of the kamdsddrs 
and the sadr tahsllddr. The kamdsddrs of Dhamnod, Dharar and 
Ringnia are empowered to entertain civil suits not exceeding Rs. 50 
in valud, when the cause of action lies within the kamdsddrl. The 
sadr tahsilddr and the Bajna tahsilddr are Sub- Judges exercising 
the same power for the sadr tahsll and Bajna as the Sub- Judge 
does for the town. 

The criminal courts are presided over by the same officers as the 
civil courts. 

In the town the Sub- Judge exercises the powers of a magistrate of 
the second class as laid down in the Criminal Procedure Code, with 
special powers in regard to caste and matrimonial disputes. 

The Judge is a magistrate of the first class and can try all ofiFences 
except those punishable with death, which he commits to the Darbar 
Court. The Chief, sitting as a Sessions Judge, can pass any sentence 
authorised by law, but is required to submit all sentences of death 
and transportation for confirmation by the Agent to the Governor- 
General. 



LEGISLATION AND JUSTICE, 


287 


The kamasdars exercise the powers of a magistrate of the third 
class for their respective charges, while the sadr and the Bajna 
tahsllddrs exercise the same powers as the Sub-Judge does in the 
town. 

First class jdglrddrs are usually vested with the powers of a 
magistrate of the second class within the limits of their jdglrs and 
defray all costs. 

The procedure in the civil and criminal courts follows the British Procedure, 
codes and rules with only slight modifications. 

The usual forms of oath are administered except in the case of Oaths. 
Moghias and Bhils, Moghias swear holding the leaf of a plpal 
tree (Ficus religiosa) in their hands. Bhils swear by Bam- 
The Bdm-blj ^ are the twelve new moons of the lunar year ; other 
binding oaths are those made in the name of Mahlrndfa, the Bhil 
tutelary deity of the Mahi river, and a naked sword. 

Court fees are charged in accordance with special rules issued 
by the Darbar. All fines and fees including those realised by 
jd^rddrs go to the State Treasury. 


Year. 

Civil Suits. 

^ ^ Statistics 

Criminal Cases. of suit, and 

cases. 

Filed. 

Disposed of. 

Filed. 

Disposed of. 

1 

1903-04 ... 

973 

886 

850 

845 

1904-05 ... 

813 

784 

984 

985 

1905-06 ... 

716 

654 

1,230 

1,196 


Though no law exists as to the registration of documents, it is Hegistration. 
open to parties to give notice of a mortgage, sale or other transac- 
tion to the Sub- Judge’s court. A proclamation is then issued by 
the court calling on objectors to lay their objections before the 
court by a certain date. If no objections are laid, a certificate is 
issued by the court sanctioning the transfer. This certificate is, 
however, no bar to the institution of a civil suit. 

The number of documents thus dealt with were between 1881- 
1890,904 ; 1891-1900, 890; and 1905,930. 

^ Literally, “ the 12 or seconds ” second day of the moon when it is clearly 
visible. 



288 


RATLAM STATE. 


Sources of 
ReTenue. 


Expenditure. 


Section HI — Finance. 

(Tables XVIII and XIX.) 

In the Ain-i-Akhari, Ratlam is given as a mahal of the Malwa 
Sfibah. Its land revenue then was 44,21,540 dams ( Rs. 1,10,538). 

When the land, forming the State, was originally granted by the 
Emperor Shah Jahan to Ratan Singh, it comprised Uvelve parga- 
nas : Dharar (Ratlam), Badnawar (nowinDhar), Dagparawa, 
Alot ( now in Dewas ), Titrod ( Sitamau ), Kotri ( Indore ), Gadgu- 
cha ( Dewas), Agar, Nahargarh and Kanad (Gwalior), Bhilara 
and Ramgharia. These parganas were invariably farmed out for 
a fixed sum and there are no records to show what the revenue of 
these parganas was at that time, but it is believed to have been 
53 lakhs. 

The land revenue of the*whole State excluding the jdglrs was, in 
1771, 2 • 15 lakhs Salim ShdhL At the time of the survey of 1863, 
the land revenue was 1 *8 lakhs Salim Shdhi, Subsequently in the 
settlement of 1867 the land revenue ( excluding the jdglrs) ^ was 2*75 
lakhs Salim Shdhi, and in the next settlement in 1877 3*46 lakhs, 
Salim Shdhi or 2*7 lakhs British coin at which figure it stands at 
present. 

The system of collecting revenue at the time of the first survey 
in 1865 A. D. was what is known as the Batotra system. The 
cultivator made over a share of his produce in kind, which was sold 
in the market. At the first regular settlement this system was 
changed, all revenue from irrigated land being taken in cash. 
Later on, all revenue was collected in cash. The result of the 
successive survey settlements has been noted under Land Revenue. 

The total khdlsd revenue amounts, in a normal year, to 5 lakhs of 
which 2*8 lakhs or 56 percent, are derived from land, Rs. 76,000 or 
15 per cent, are derived from customs, Rs. 34,000 or 7 per cent, 
from tdnka, Rs. 20,000 or 4 per cent, each from excise and other 
assessed taxes, Rs. 11,000 or 2 per cent, from stamps, Rs. 2,500 
from law and justice, Rs. 1,000 from salt compensation and 
Rs. 55,000 or 11 per cent, from other sources such as interest on 
advances, sales, etc. 

The expenditure amounts to 4*8 lakhs. The chief heads of 
expenditure are charges in respect of land revenue, Rs. 42,000 or 9 
per cent.; Chief’s establishment, Rs, 47,000 or 10 per cent,; general 
administration, Rs. 75,000 or 16 per cent.; police, Rs. 70,000 or 15 per 
cent.; tribute paid to the British Government, Rs, 43, 000 or 9 per 
cent.; public works, Rs. 18,000 or 4 per cent.; law and justice, 
Rs, 16,000 or 3 per cent; education, Rs. 3,000 ; medical, Rs. 9,000 ; 
pensions, Rs, 9,000 ; army, Rs* 15,000 or 3 per cent.; irrigation-a 



FINANCE. 


289 


Rs. 9,000 ; and other items, f. e., travelling expenses, charities, 
festivals, entertainment of guests, etc*, 1*2 lakhs or 26 per cent. 

The State accountant deals with all orders regarding receipts and A<^oa^ts 
disbursement, appointments, leave, dismissal and pension, and also 
audits and checks the accounts submitted by the various departments. 
Payment orders are initialled by the accountant and endorsed by 
the Chief in his own hand (or by the Diwan in his absence) and 
are then marked by the Dlwdn with the State seal. The order for 
payment is cashed by the State treasurer, a daily account of receipts 
and disbursement being submitted to the Chief for signature. 

The State never had a silver coin of its own. The silver coin 
formerly current in the State w’as the Salim Shdhi rupee coined in 
Partabgarh and locally called the Garh riipiya. The coin weighed 
168 • 5 grains, of which 130 were pure silver. All the State revenue 
and other demands were paid and received in this coin. A large 
amount of spurious coin was in circulation called naram, which was 
openly bought and sold in the market at less than the nominal face 
value. Besides the Salim Shahi^ the coins of other State were also 
t:urrent in the bazar. 

In 1896 the Salim Shdhi currency was replaced by British coin. 

At the time of the conversion it was roughly estimated that there 
were about two crores of Salim Shdhi coin in circulation in the State. 

With a view to facilitate the conversion a certain period was 
allo\yed after which it was ordered that all payments to and by the 
State would be made in British coin only, and that no suit regarding 
dealings in the Salim Shdhi or any currency except the British would 
be cognizable by the State courts. To prevent the introduction of 
Salim Shdhi coin a prohibitive ad valorem duty of 25 per cent, was 
imposed on the import of such coin. The conversion was effected 
without any difficulty and without the necessity of obtaining coin 
from the Government mint. 

The State has from a very early date had a copper coin of its Copper, 
own. ^ It was originally simply a piece of copper with a rough 
design hammered on the surface, which it was easy for any body to 
imitate. Accordingly, with a view to prevent imitation, the State 
imported special machinery from England and introduced a milled 
copper coin with a design of the tutelary god Hanuman and the 
word Ratlam on the obverse, and the Samvat year and the words 
Yek Paisa in Hindi on the reverse. This coin, though smaller in 
size than the British quarter anna copper coin, is of nearly the same 
weight and is current within the limits of this State at the same rate 
as British paisa, viz., 16 annas for a British rupee. The State 
mint was worked only when a demand for copper coin arose in the 
market. Since the replacement of the Salim Shdhi currency by the 


1 See-‘‘ J. B. A./’ LZYI., 161. 



290 


RATLAM STATE. 


(xeneral, 

Early 

system, 


Present 

day. 

Settlements. 


British coin, British copper coin has also come into use and the 
demand for the State copper coin has fallen considerably, the local 
mint not having been worked at all since the date of the conversion 
of the currency. 

The edges of the new coin are raised and milled. The coin is 
considered sacred in some localities on account of the image of 
Hanuman which it bears and is sometimes worn round the neck as 
talisman. 

Section IV.— Land Revenue. 

{Table XX.) 

The soil belongs to the Chief, the cultivator having no proprietary 
rights. The right of occupancy enjoyed by the cultivator con- 
tinuing only so long as he pays the State dues. He cannot transfer 
or sell his holding without the orders of the Darbar. According to 
official phraseology, therefore, payments made by cultivators to the 
Darbar are revenue and not rent. 

The ijara system of farming out villages at a fixed rental for a 
certain number of years was formerly in vogue. The ijaraddr 
paid in a certain sum agreed on to the Darbar and made what he 
could out of the cultivators, while about 10 per cent, of the estimated 
revenue was made over to him to cover jthe cost of collection. This 
system was later on controlled by the Darbar who found that much 
oppression was exercised by the farmers of revenue. The revenue 
was assessed by the Darbar and the ijaraddr had no power to 
enhance or lower the assessment. In villages which had not. been 
properly surveyed the ijdra was hilmukhta and the revenue was 
received in a lump sum from the ijaraddr, being generally fixed with 
reference to the revenue collections of a certain number of preceding 
years. In the case of hilmukhta ^ ijdras, the ijaraddr had the 
right of enhancing the rent. The cultivators do not generally take 
much interest in improving their holdings and in the case of the ijdra 
lands it was found that the ijdraddrs, when they discovered that their 
contract did not'repay them, took no pains to improve the land, but 
made as much money as they could out of the holding and left the 
villages in a worse condition than they were before they came into 
their possession. During the recent minority this system was discon- 
tinued except in some villages which cannot be profitably managed 
directly on account of the paucity of cultivators. These are still 
given on ijdra for periods varying from five to seven years. 

The land revenue of the State is mainly derived from the cultiva- 
tors in khdlsd villages, a small sum only being derived from jdgtr- 
ddrs {tanka). 

Three settlements have been made in 1830, 1867 and 1877* In the 
second settlement leases were granted for 10 years, and in the third 


^ literally, at a fixed rate. 



LAND REVENUE. 


291 


settlement for 15 years. Since then leases have been continued in 
the name of the same cultivators and they have been guaranteed the 
undisturbed occupation of their lands so long as they pay the yearly 
assessment regularly. Land and implements of husbandry are now 
exempted from attachment in execution of a civil decree. 

The revenue assessment on the lands in the hilly tracts inhabited in hilly 
by Bhils is levied by the plough of land and called halhandl, A 
plough is theoretically as much land as can be ploughed with one 
pair of bullocks. The area cultivated by one plough {sdmad) is about 
20 high as. If the soil is of superior quality, growing wheat and 
gram, it is charged at Rs. 15 per sdmad or plough, while moderately 
fertile soil is assessed at Rs. 6 to Rs. 10 per plough. The tafvl or 
headman of the Bhil village receives some revenue-free land which 
he gets cultivated by the villagers of his village. This land is called 
halma. 

The first settlement in the plateau villages was made during the Settlement 
minority of Raja Balwant Singh in 1830 by Colonel Borthwick, 

Political Agent and Superintendent. The rate of assessment for 
irrigated land at that time was Rs. 10 Salim Shdhi (British coin Rs. 8) 
per blgha. In the case of dry land, the yearly assessment was 
still collected in kind. In Ratlam town and villages in the imme- 
diate vicinity half the produce was taken by the State, while in the 
districts it varied from one-third to two-fifths. This system, called 
the hatotm system, was oppressive and resulted in the mal-treatment 
of the cultivators for supposed offences as regarded the clandestine 
removal of standing crops. It w’as, therefore, abolished during the 
minority of Raja Ranjit Singh and a cash assessment introduced 
throughout the State. 

The next settlement was made by Mir Shahamat AH both of Settlement 
the khdlsd and the jdglr lands, which was commenced in 
and completed in 1870. 

The total area surveyed (excluding Bajna tahslt) was 760 square 
miles or 486,534 acres (985,231 hlghas), of which 11,576 acres (23,442 
hlghas) were irrigated and 113,304 acres (529,440 hlghas) were dry 
land. The cultivable but uncultivatec^rea was 156,092 acres (316,087 
highas) and the uncultivable waste 206,631 acres (417,262 hlghas). Of 
the above area 304,821 acres (604,342 hlghas) were held hy jdgirddrs 
and 188,093 acres (380,888 blghas) by the State. The agriculturists 
numbered 24,577 and non-agriculturists 25,644, possessing 5,734 
ploughs, 3,960 in jdgirs and 2,774 in hhdlsd. This gave 7| persons 
and 2i bullocks to a plough, two buUocks being able to plough 
about 15 acres (30 blghas) of land which was almost the average 
size of a cultivator’s holding. 

The settlement was for 10 years (ending in the year 1877). The 
total land revenue including jdglr and dharmdda land was Salim 



292 


RATLAM STATE. 


Shdhi 10*24 lakhs and deducting 7*49 for jdgir and dharmdda, the 
khdlsd-revenue was 2*74 lakhs or one*fourth of the total demand. 
Three fourths were thus absorbed by jdglr and dharmdda grants. 
This income even before the settlement did not rise higher than 1 *77 
lakhs, so that there was an increase of Salim Shdhi Rs, 97,000 or 
59*7 per cent* more than the old demand. Receipts from other 
sources amounted to 3 • 1 lakhs, making net receipts from all sources 
at the end of the official year 1870-71, 5*8 lakhs and the jama 
of the whole State Rs* 13*35 lakhs Salim Shahid 




Settled Jama 


Old Jama. 

Land 

Revenue. 

Siwai. 

Land 

Cess. 

Total. 

Increase, 

Percent- 

age, 

Khdlsd 

1,77,709 

2.51,238 

14,012 

9,490 

2,74,740 

97,030 

59-7-0 

Khdlsd Dhar- 
mdda and 
Chdkrdna. 


2,09,628 

••• 

... 

2,09,628 


• •• 

Khdlsd resum- 
ed land. 

1 


8,591 


1 

8,591 


i ••• 

Jdglrs 

1,86,471 

3,76,265 

15,367 

8,914 


2,14,074 

117-1-9 

Dharmdda and 
Chdkrdna, 


1,23,389 

... 

• • • 

1,23,389 


... 

Under consi- 
deration* 

1,301 

7.590 

• • • 


7,590 


... 

Total Rs..., 





... 

10,24,484 

3,11,104 

92-9-9 


The rate of assessment compared with that prevailing in the neigh- 
bouring States was low. Thf average rate per acre of addn or 
irrigated land was Sdlim Shdhi Rs, 32-4-6, mdl or non-irrigated land 
was Rs, Sdlim Shdhi 4-12-6, addn and mdl Rs. 7-3-0 Sdlim Shdh^ 
and addn, mdl and cultivable land Rs. 2-14-6 Sdlim Shdhi. 

S«ttletnjent At the third settlement the revenue amounted to 3 • 46 lakhs, giving 
an increase of 82,700. The increase was derived from income on 
lapsed land grants and improvements made in the land. The set- 
tlement was made for 15 years (1877 to 1893). The average rate on 
irrigated land was Rs. 35 Sdlim Shdhi and on non-irrigated Rs, 5 
Sdlim Shdhi per acre. The cost of carrying out this settlement 







LAND REVENUE. 


293 


was Rs. 16,000 Salim Shdlii against Rs. 34,000 Salim Shdhi in the 
preceding settlement. 

A fourth settlement was commenced in 1895, but the work was 
not completed. 

The average rate per acre at present is Rs. 25 '( per dig/ra Present 
Rs. 12-5-7) for irrigated land, Rs. 3-8 (Re. 1-11-6 per hlgka) for 
unirrigated land. The minimum rate in the case of irrigated land is 
Ks. 8 (Rs. 4 per btgha), while the maximum rate is as much as 
Rs. 32 per acre (Rs. 16 per higha). For dry land the rate varies 
from annas 8 to Rs. 4 per acre (annas 4 to rupees 2 per higha). 

The incidence of land revenue per head was in the year 1881^ Incidence 
Hs. 6-12-8 ; 1891, Rs. 6-13-6 ; in 1901 it was Rs. 6-0-0, and at present 
Rs. 7-8-0. If only khdlsd area is taken the incidence stands at Rs. 4. 

The most important cesses are sarkdna charged at per cent. Cesses. 
on the assessment of each holding and is paid by ail cultivators and 
tiildi, a weighment cess levied in kind by the State contractor, who 
supervises the repayment of advances to the tlpddrs weighing the 
cultivator’s grain at the khala. 

Certain occasional cesses such as anni and han^ etc., are levied 
at marriages, etc., in the Chief’s family. Cultivators in jdglr as well 
as in "khdlsd land pay these cesses. Miscellaneous cesses known as 
chamdnddg, kumhdrl-ldgi etc., are also paid to the Darbar by 
village artisans, such as ]^umhars, Chamars and others, who are permit- 
ted to carry on their professions in the villages and who enjoy certain 
perquisites. For instance, the Chamars have a right to the hides of 
all dead cattles selling them at a profit in the village, and the Kumhars 
use the earth and clay in their pottery work without paying for it, 
this cess taking the place of a royalty. The sarkdna tax was origi- 
nally intended for the construction and improvements of roads in the 
districts. But the receipts are not now applied to this purpose. The 
total receipt from all cesses aggregates Rs. 15,000 a year, of which 
Rs. 5,000 is derived from sarkdna. 

The land tenure prevailing in regard to cultivators is akin to the Tenure. 
r'sotwdri system of British India except in the few villages, which, 
as has been mentioned above, are farmed out. 

In former days the revenue was collected through the patel or collection 
headman. In the commencement of Mir Shahamat Ali’s administra- of Revenue, 
tion, the settlement was, in the first instance, made asdmiwdr and 
the lease of the village was granted to thopatel, a deduction varying 
from 5 to 10 per cent.'being made in his behalf from the fixed jama- 
handi. On villages ‘y&ding a revenue of Rs. 5,000 and under, 10 
per cent was allowed, on those assessed at Rs. 5,000 to 10,000, 7| per 
cent., and on those assessed at Rs. 10,000 to 20,000, 5 per cent 



294 


RATLAM STATE. 


This allowance was held to give an adequate return to the ifaterl 
for the expenses of collection, etc., for which he was responsible. 
Each further enjoyed certain rights iJiaTi) and revenue-free lands 
which he held in perpetuity, and which generally secured him 
respectable income. These lands were given to the paid on the 
condition of his inducing cultivators to settle in his village, and were 
called hhoti lands. Some patels even now possess such lands, 
though the percentage that they received from the revenue collections 
has been discontinued. This system of collection was replaced 
by the tipdarl system which is in vogue at the present day. In 
accordance with this system the revenue oificers use their influence 
in securing sahukdrs, who stand security for the cultivators and 
guarantee the payment of the yearly assessment. The tipddrs, 
besides paying the revenue demands, advance seed and food-grain to 
the cultivators and thus have a lien on the produce of their fields. 
The revenue officers determine the value of the produce, and in cases 
of dispute between the cultivator and the tlpddr^ fix the rate of interest 
and settle the account. About 20 per cent, of the cultivators are 
dealt with in this manner through the tipddrs» 

The land revenue of the State is collected yearly in four instal- 
ments. On the 15th of the bright half of the month of Bhddon, four 
annas in the rupee are taken, and on the same date of Magsar (Aghan) 
another four annas, amounting to half the assessment for the kharlf 
or rain crops. These instalments are called the makdi ( maize ) and 
jowdr tauzls respectively. On Phdgun haSl Amdvas or the 15th of 
the dark half of the month of Phdgun, six annas are collected and 
on Vaisdkh badi Amdvas two annas, making up the remaining 
eight annas in the rupee. The last two instalments are called the 
afim (poppy) znigehun (wheat) tauzls respectively. The instalments 
are not, however, strictly enforced and in the case of cultivators who 
have got tlpddrs, the kharlf collection is often deferred till the opium 
harvest, in view of the supposed solvency of the tlpddrs. Sums not 
realized at the end of the year are debited to the next year’s account 
against the name of the cultivator. About 5 per cent, of the total land 
revenue remains uncollected in an ordinary year. In hard times 
suspensions and remissions are granted. 

Suspensions Although the revenue demand is supposed to be paid in four 

skns. 0° it is usual to allow the first two instalments 

to stand over till after the opium crop is collected. When a partial 
or total failure of the poppy crop occurs, no coercive measures are 
employed to exact full payment of the demand, payment being 
suspended till the next season. 

During the minority of the late Chief remissions were granted 
every third year. But in recent years this practice has not been 
followed and the arrears against the cultivaiors and their tlpdarst finally 



LAND REVENUE. 


295 


amounted to about 10 lakhs. In the year 1903, therefore, in honour 
of the coronation of the King-Emperor, a remission was granted of 
arrears on account of land revenue and other sums due up to Samvat 
1957 {A, D. 1901 ), These remissions amounted to 8^ lakhs. 

When a cultivator constructs a well in his holding, the State Concessions 
levies revenue on only two-thirds of the area irrigated by the well. 

The cultivator is, moreover, granted proprietary rights on such land, 
similar to those enjoyed by hereditary istimrafdars. The digging of 
wells is not commonly practised by cultivators and, therefore, no rules 
have been issued on this subject, individual cases being dealt with on 
their merits as they arise. In cases in which wells are dug a reduc- 
tion is invariably made in the assessment rates. 

The land tenures in Ratlam are divided into two main classes, 
khdlsd or Darbdr lands and jdglr and other classes of alienated land. 

The area held in khdlsd is 447 square miles or 49 per cent, of the 
total area, while the remainder 455 square miles are alienated.’" 

Thus the extent of jdgir land is nearly double that of khdlsd Tenures, 
and —a not uncommon feature of land tenure in most Rajput States. 

Jdgtrs are of three kinds : — (1) Estates of sarddrs held upon a 
service tenure and paying tribute. Alienations to younger branches 
of the ruling house may be included under this head. (2) dharmdda 
lands, which are endowments for the support of temples and other 
religious and charitable institutions. Priests, who hold Dharmdda 
jdgtrSi are required to render professional service. (3) Chdkrdna 
lands or petty grants made to State servants in lieu of wages. Villages 
granted to Bhats, Charans and the like fall under this head, also the 
portions of villages granted, as a rule, to Rajputs, which are called 
pdwds {ixom* pdo' memirig one-fourth), and various similar petty 
miscellaneous holdings which are included in Chdkrdna alienations. 

All classes of jdglr holders pay tanka (tribute) except a few 
priests holding religious endowments. Service was originally the chief 
claim to the holding of land, though the terms of service were never 
very precisely fixed. The tdnka or tribute paid by the jdglrddrs 
bears no definite proportion to the rental of the estate and varies 
from 18 to as much as 40 per cent, of the gross revenue. All the 
umrdos hold their jdglfs on the condition of serving the State with a 
quota of horse and foot in times of emergency and regular payment 
of tdnka cesses, etc., due from them. Raja Ranjit Singh had intended 
to fix the service to be rendered by jdglrddrs^ but the matter still 
remains undecided. Jdglrddrs are subdivided into hara and chhota 
or first and second grade jdglrddrs. Those whose yearly income 
ranges from Rs. 15,000 to 60,000, are placed in the first grade, and 

1 An area of 228 square miles known as the Khera jd.gir is held by the Rao 
of Kushalgarh in the Rajputana Agency. 



296 


ratlam state. 


those whose income is under Rs. 15,000 in the second grade. All 
these jdglrdars are the creation of former Rajas and none holds 
on a guarantee from the British Government. Besides the tanka ^ 
the Chief has the power to levy additional cesses from time to time. 

Every jdglrddr was formerly bound to keep a body of men 
{zdbfa) ready for the service of the State, at the rate of one horse and 
two footmen for every thousand rupees of his income, less the tanka 
which he paid yearly to the State. But times are changed and the 
present jdglrddrs have not been called upon to render military service 
for many years. They still, however, on certain occasions, furnish 
sowars and sepoys at functions, festivals, etc. With the exception 
of the customs and the excise revenues, the jdgirddrs have a right to 
the full enjoyment of the land revenue from their jdgl^ villages, on the 
clear understanding that they pay the tanka punctually to the State 
and act in subjection to the Darbar and in obedience to its orders, 
and render service, personally or otherwise, as may be required. A 
vakil remains in attendance at Ratlam on the part of every jdglrddr. 
No jdglrddr has the power to alienate or mortgage any part of his 
holding, or to hold direct or indirect communication with any other 
State and political officers. He is also not allowed to encumber his 
estate beyond his lifetime, no debts being recovered from his heirs. 
Besides the tdnka^ jdgirddrs pay phala^ bdn^ etc., taxes levied on the 
succession of a Chief, marriage in the Chief’s family and other such 
events entailing extraordinary expenditure on the part of the State. 
Such charges are levied from landholders in khdlsd districts also 
jdgirddrs also pay nazardna, (succession fees) on succeeding to their 
estates. 

Only jdgirddrs who have been specially empowered can exercise 
civil and criminal powers within their estates. 

In the case of jdglr grants to male relatives of the Chief the con- 
ditions as regards service, tdnka, etc,, etc., are the same as in the case 
of the other jdglrs^ In the case of Zandna ladies, however, as the 
jdglrs are allotted for their maintenance during their lifetime only, 
no tdnka is taken. Petty holders, such as Pdweddrs and the like, 
also pay small sums as tdnka. Some of the dharmdda land holders 
are required to provide for the upkeep of temples and other charitable 
institutions out of the income of their holdings. 

Before a regular survey was made, these petty holders of grants 
appropriated much land that never belonged to them. Mir Shahamat 
All considered it inadvisable to resume the land and, therefore, rated 
the extra portion so appropriated at half the settled rates and con- 
tinued it in the possession of the occupiers. The income derived 
from this source was made over to the Municipality but it is now inclu- 
ded in the regular jamdbandi of the State, Municipality receiving 
a fixed sum by way of compensation. The revenue from this source 
is called munjahta. 



MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE. 


297 


Section V.— Miscellaneous Revenue. 

(Table XXL) 

All miscellaneous revenue comes under two heads : sayar or Cus- 
toms and ahhdri or Excise. 

As in other States in Malwa, opium is a valuable revenue-paying Opium, 
commodity and has always been subjected to somewhat heavy 
taxation. Ratlam town, as has been already noted, was once the chief 
centre of the opium trade in Malwa, but since the opening of 
railways and the establishment of Government scales at other places 
the trade has dwindled. 


Various dues are imposed on this drug at different stages. On 
chtk the following duties are levied : — (1) An import duty of 
Rs. 2-12-0 per maundon local cliik brought to the town for manu- 
facture; and of 15 annas per maund on foreign chl'k, (2) A transit 
duty of Rs. 1-11-6 per maund on all chik, (3) An export duty of 
Rs. IS- 8-9 per maund on all chlk. 


On manufactured ball opium a transit duty of Rs. 2-2-0, per maund 
is levied on a maund’s weight (80 lbs, ) of opium balls and of 
Rs. 2-13-6 on a ‘^chest” (140 lbs.). 

The export duty per “chest” is Rs. 21-2-3, but a remission of 
Rs. 8 per chest is made in the case of opium manufactured from 
chlh brought from outside the State. 


Besides these regular taxes, various cesses are levied in regard to 
satta or time-bargain transactions. 

Each chest (140 lbs.) of opium exported to China, therefore 
before it reaches the scales, pays nearly 30 rupees in dues irrespec- 
tive of dharwdi charges levied on satta bargains, 

A chest of opium (140 lbs. ) costs about Rs. 470, which may be 
thus distributed : — Rs. a. p. 

Cost of 170 lbs, of chlk 408 


Cost of manufacture 
Interest on capital... 
Export dues 
Miscellaneous dues 
Brokerage ... 

Other charges, boxes, etc. 


8 

32 

20 

1 


0 

0 

0 

0 

14 


0 13 
5 5 


0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 


Total... 476 0 0 


The sale price in the town is about Rs. 530 which gives a profit of 
Rs. 54 per chest. 

If, however, the chest is exported to China an additional duty of 
Rs. 600 has to be paid to the British Government, at the scales. 
The price of a chest in Bombay is about Rs. 1,150. About 2,500 
chests of new and 2,000 of old opium are usually available for sale 



298 


ratlam state. 


Consumption. 


Vend. 

Liquors. 


in the town every year. The average amount of opium manufactured 
annually is about 280,000 lbs. and the revenues from poppy cultiva- 
tion and opium dues form 50 per cent, of the State khalsd income. 

The China export figures vary. The average number of chests 
exported to Bombay annually from 1850 to 1870 amounted to 
6,000 ; from 1870 to 1900, 2,700 ; the actuals for 1900-01 being 1,523 ; 
1901-02,2,119; 1902-03, 2,007; 1903-04,1,506; 1904-05, 1,522 and 
1905-06, 680. 

The average amount of the duty on opium exported to Bombay is 
Rs. 32,000 a year, and that for export to places in India Rs. 2,000. 
Import duties amount to Rs. 4,000. Opium can only be exported on 
a pass. 

It is estimated that 20 per cent, of the population consume opium 
in some form. Of consumers, 75 per cent, use it in very small quan- 
tities. About 60 maunds are consumed annually which comes to 2^ 
tolas per head of population per annum or ll| tolas per head of the 
20 per cent, who consume the drug. It is given to infants up to 3 
years of age. It is also drunk by Rajputs as kasumba and eaten by 
others. 

Kasumba is made by dissolving 2\ tolas of opium in 20 tolas of 
water. This gives sufficient liquor for 20 persons. Sweetmeats are 
always eaten afterwards. This is called khdr-bhanjana or destruction 
of acidity, and is considered essential after drinking this concoction. 

The duties on this drug bring in a considerable income amount- 
ing on an average to Rs. 34,000 as export duties and Rs. 4,000 as 
import annually. 

There are no restrictions as to vend, opium being sold like any 
other articles of commerce. 

The only liquor of importance is that made from the flowers of the 
mahud {Bassia latifoUa), The liquor is made in pot stills, the 
right to vend being sold by auction to a contractor, who has a 
central distillery at Ratlam and makes his own arrangements for 
supplying the shops. Except in the case of a few shops situated in 
the inaccessible parts of the Bajna tahsil which are held by a sub- 
contractor; all the shops are supplied from the central distillery. 
The number of shops is 103 or about 1 to every 1,000 persons. 

The liquor varies in strength from 60° U. P. .called rdshi or phul 
to 25° U. P. called dubdta. 

The selling price is 18 annas per gallon of 60° U. P. in the town 
and 15 annas in the districts. A gallon of 25° U. P. costs Rs. 2-4-0 
in the city and Rs. 1-14-0 in the districts. 

The revenue amounts on an average to E.s. 14,500 a year from 
ftftdlsd area, Rs. 11,800 being derived from- the plateau area and 
2,700 from the hilly tracts of Bajna. 



MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE^ 


299 


This gives an incidence of 3 to 4 annas per head for the whole 
State, but of Re.l per head for the Bajna tahsll, where large quantities 
are consumed by the Bhils. The State abkdri system has just been 
(1906) extended to all jdglrs and the income from this source 
amounts to Rs. 10,000 yearly. 

Foreign liquors are very little used. In the town a certain amount other liquorsu 
is drunk but no account is taken of its sale. 

Hemp is cultivated in very small quantities about four acres only Hemp drug, 
being sown and no restrictions of any kind are placed on the sale of 
either bhang, gdnja or charas, 

A duty is levied on imports and exports at the rate of 5 annas per 
maund. About Rs. 1,500 worth of hemp is imported yearly from 
Sanawad in Indore State. About 100 maunds are consumed yearly. 

The sdyar or customs duties form a considerable part of the customs, 
revenue of the State, amounting on an average to over half a lakh of 
rupees a year. 

In the famine year of 1899 it rose to two lakhs owing to the 
increased traffic in cattle. The receipts from customs rank next in 
value to those from land revenue, which is the largest item. The 
dues are collected according to a regular schedule of tariffs in which 
the duties are calculated on the weight and not on the value of the 
article. 

The income from the sdyar is always deemed a royalty and is 
never included in the land grants made to any jdglrddr. Until very 
recently even the sdyar revenue of the Sailana State was also 
collected by Ratlam as a suzerain right. Of the amount collected 
the Ratlam Darbar used to pay back 27 per cent, on dues from 
bichhditi (dues on the goods of foreigners) to the Saiiana State. The 
system proved troublesome and was commuted for a consolidated 
payment of 7 per cent, of the revenue collected, both on thdm (goods 
of local merchandise and dealt in by local merchants) and bichhditi 
(goods imported or sold by foreigners). These distinctions no longer 
exist. The original object of this payment was to assist the Sailana 
Chief to cover the expenses of his visits to Ratlam at the Dasahra 
and Sarad Punam festivals. In 1887 an agreement was made 
between the States of Ratlam and Sailana with the assistance 
of the political authorities, by which the former State received 
annually from the latter a sum of Rs. 18,000 Salim Shdhi as compen- 
sation for relinquishing its right to levy customs dues in Sailana 
territory. This amount was, in 1901, reduced as a concession on 
the part of the Ratlam Darbar to Rs. 6,000 British coin. These 
two States have also agreed mutually not to levy transit dues on 
each other’s opium* 



300 


RATLAM STATE. 


Salt. 


Before Mir Shahamat All’s period of administration the customs 
used to be farmed out to contractors, generally big sahtihars. At 
that time five different rates of duty were levied. This unequal 
taxation formed a great obstruction to trade. To put an end to 
these anomalies, he abolished the contract system and had all dues 
collected directly by State officials, a new and more equitable scale 
of duties being introduced. 

The customs dues were formerly levied in two ways. The sayar 
dues proper were levied and paid in the chief town, while a second 
duty of a very light character known as khiint (share or portion) was 
leviable in all villages, both khalsa and jaglr, through which the 
goods passed. Sdyar dues were classed under three heads : hatail 
(imports), bharti (exports), and rdhddri (transit duties). The Wtunt 
duties were included in the assessed revenue of a village. Smce 
1869, however, khunt dues have been abolished, compensation being- 
given as a matter of grace to some of the jdgtrdars to recoup them 
for the loss thus' caused. This compensation is still paid. 

The transit duty on salt was abolished in 1881, the British Gov- 
ernment agreeing to pay Rs. 1,000 yearly in compensation, and a 
few years later all transit dues, except those on opium, were removed. 

The present rate at which the sdyar dues are levied is, with 
slight modifications, the same as that fixed by Mir Shahamat Ali in 
1864. The schedule of duties levied at the customs house at Ratlam 
is issued under the title of Dastur-ul-amal sdyar. 

Till quite lately (1906) the standard weight on which dues were 
calculated was the pauthi or a bullock load, estimated at 6 kachcha 
maunds. In the case, however, of goods brought by railway, except 
grain, which whether rail-borne or not, was taxed at 6 maunds to the 
pauthi (8 kachcha maunds forming apauthi). It should be remarked 
that these weights were only estimated, as the goods were not actu- 
ally weighed. Every cart of two bullocks carried about 30 maunds, 
or 5 pauihis. Formerly a cart paid duty on three pauthls only, a 
rebate of two-fifths or 40 per cent, being allowed on the actual load, 
and a custom still prevails of allowing 20 per cent, to 25 per cent, 
discount. In jdglrddrs' villages and in those held by the Ranis 
and Dharmdda grant holders, no sdyar duties were le-vied before the 
time of Mir Shahamat Ali, who, however, enforced these duties in all 
cases, permitting only the personal food supplies of the jdglrddrs to 
pass duty-free. During the administration of Khan Bahadur Cursetji 
this privilege was withdrawn together with all other remissions. No 
dues are, however, levied on head loads of grain or on grain used by 
cultivators, either as seed for sowing purposes, or for personal con- 
sumption, and no sdyar dues are levied on articles passing from one 
village to another in the State. No rdhddri or transit duties are 
now charged, except on opium, and all goods can be imported free 



PUBLIC WORKS. 


301 


of sayar provided bulk is not broken or the commodity does not 
change hands or remain in Ratlam over 10 days. In other cases an 
import duty is charged. The sayar system was thus very complicated 
and could only be understood by a reference to the tariff. Dues are 
now levied on the maund weight ( 80 lbs.). The only case in which 
a rebate is allowed is eight per cent, to local importers of piece-goods. 

Taxes on the stalls of sellers in the market are the only imposts now 
farmed out, all taxes being collected by the State. There are no 
fixed principles apparently for determining rates. Almost all articles 
are liable to duty, being classed linder 60 heads. 

A brief notice of some of the imposts formerly levied may be 
given. The imposts known as sawan and lathhct were first levied 
for the purpose of building the town wall, and as a compensation for 
closing butcher’s shops. Tiild^i (weighment tax) and bharai (the 
filling up of scale-pans with grain), both weighing taxes, were levied 
by the dalali office. Rdwld and dewla were charity dues for the 
support of certain temples. State and private. A tax called holdi 
(meaning safe passage money) was also levied. In olden times the 
highways between Malwa and Bagar and Kanthal were unsafe owing 
to the unsettled state of the country, dacoities and robberies being of 
every-day occurrence. This state of affairs ho longer obtaining, the 
holdi tax has been lohg discontinued. The term Chalatl was a tax 
to cover the daily doles, not e^siceeding 2-8-0, made to fakirs 

and other beggars put of the daily receipts of the sayar. 

The working of the sayar department was formerly e:^pensive and Control 
tedious, while owing to the complicate nature of the tariffs only adepts . 
could at once say to what duties a certain consignment was liable. 

The new tariff that has now been issued abolishes all minor imposts 
and is simple in its operation. 

In Ratlam territory there are 27 ndkas or customs stations, 12 round 
the capital and 15 in the districts. The nakadars m distncts 
have no fixed stations, but have to go the round of the villages in 
their respective circles. There are eleven taldshlddrs (literally dis- 
coverers or seekers) or supervisors in the town besides the 12' 
ndkdddrs. 

The sayar department also collects municipal rates such as the 
road, lighting and education cesses, the amount realized being 
credited to the Municipality. 

Smugglers when caught have to pay six times the duty leviable as 
a penalty. Smugglers of opium, however, are criminally prosecuted, 
opium being a contraband article. 

Section VI— Public Works. 

(Table XV.) 

Before the establishment of a regular department v(?ork carried 
out by contractors was measured and supervised by a committee of 



302 


RATLAM STATE. 


Works and 
expenditure. 


Recruiting 
and pay* 


Pensions. 


Early system. 


officers including the State Accountant, but on the appointment of 
an Engineer this system was done away with. 

The Public Works Department is under the supervision of 
the State Engineer, overseers who act under his order being in 
immediate charge of the works. 

The Engineer has no control over works mjdgtrs. All estimates 
and accounts of the Department, both for the town and the districts, 
have to pass, through the Engineer, to the Accounts Department. 
The State khdlsd works are under the immediate supervision of the 
town overseer except the local works, the expenditure on which is 
met from Municipal funds, these works being under the immediate 
supervision of the Municipal Secretary. 

The average expenditure incurred on the Public Works Depart- 
ment in the town is about 15 thousand a year and the expenditure in 
districts about 9 thousand. The public works carried out by the 
Municipality consist chiefly of the construction and repair of roads 
and bridges in the town, the average annual expenditure being about 8 
thousand per year. In the last ten years, with the exception of famine 
works, no important irrigation works were taken in hand by the State 
in the districts, the sum allotted being appropriated to the cleaning and 
deepening of old wells and the excavation of new ones. The only 
new work of importance during the last ten years is the new Jail in 
the town, which cost about Rs. 20,000. 

Section VII.— Army. 

(Table XXV.) 

The State army consists of a body of regular cavalry of 62 men 
with one officer, and of 100 regular infantry with 16 officers 
{Tilangas) who furnish guards for the palace and offices. The 
State also possesses five serviceable guns manned by one officer and 
12 gunners. The cavalry are armed with native swords {talwdr) and 
lances and the infantry with muskets and bayonets. 

The men are drawn from all but the lowest classes. Pay in the 
case of the infantry varies from 6 to 7 rupees a month and in the 
case of cavalry and the body-guard from 7 to 9 rupees a month. 

The heirs of a soldier, who is killed when on duty generally receive 
a small pension. The State rules provide that after 20 years* 
service a soldier may receive a pension equal to one-third of his 
pay, and if the period of his service extends over a period of 30 
years a pension equal to half. The total cost of the army is about 
15,000 year. 

Section VIII.— Police and Jails. 

(Tables XXIV and XXVI.) 

A regular police force was organised in 1870 in the town and ten 
years later in the districts* Before this all watch and ward in the 



POLICE and jails. 


303 


districts was done by the village chaukldars^ who received a small 
plot of revenue-free land in remuneration for their services. These 
men were held personally responsible for all the thefts occurring 
within their beats through their carelessness and had to make 
good all loss caused by robberies. 

The State police are divided into three sections, keeping watch Distribution, 
in the town, at the Jail, and in the districts. 

The whole force is in charge of a Superintendent at headquarters, 
who is assisted by an Inspector in charge of the district force. 

The town police number 195 of all ranks distributed through ten Town, 
outposts. These men are dressed in khdki^ their lungls being sur- 
mounted with a black badge. 

The district police number 157 men of all grades. Of these 117 District, 
are distributed in the Ratlam tahsil and 40 in Bajna. 

The district police are dressed similarly to the town police, but wear 
a red badge in the Inngi, 

These men are distributed through 35 thdnas in the Ratlam, 10 
in the Bajna tahsil and 3 in the jdgtrs. 

The chauklddrs number 248 in plateau villages. In the Bhil Rural Police, 
villages of Bajna tahsil^ the tarvls make their own arrangements. 

These men are responsible for the due report of all accidental deaths 
and crimes in their villages, such reports being made to the nearest 
police thdna. They are also required to assist the police in every way 
besides acting as messengers. They are remunerated by revenue- 
free grants of land amounting in all to 4,784 i hlghas. 

The police are armed with swords and muskets with bayonets. Arming. 

The only important criminal tribe is that of the Moghias. Of the Criminal 
members of the above tribe 110 are settled in 20 khdlsd villages and 
39 in 11 villages. These settlements are in charge of a special 
Motamid, who is supervised by the Assistant to the Agent to 
Governor-General in the Criminal Branch, at Indore. The total 
number of Moghias on the register in 1905 was 167, including 11 
absconded and 3 under sentence in jail. 

The registration and classification of finger prints is regularly car- Detection, 
ried out under a trained man. 

The Railway police are Government police. Railway 

Police. 

A central jail was established at Ratlam in 1865 with a subsidiary Jails 
jail at Bajna. Onjy short-time prisoners were confined in the latter, 
which has lately be^n abolished. * 

Figures for jail morfality vary considerably, being 28 per mille in Jail 
1901 and 52 per mille in J 905, mortality. 



304 


RATLAM STATE. 


Jail induis- 
tries. 


B^istory. 
Bayly days. 


Bresent sys- 
tem- 


Prisoners formerly worked only in the State gardens and the State 
lithographic press. As this did not give sufficient occupation, 
some of the prisoners are now made to grind wheat and other grain 
required for the use of the State kothar, A man has recently been 
appointed to teach prisoners the art of making carpets (galichas and 
4arls). Ordinary dusuti and some varieties of checked cloth are 
also turned out by the prisoners who use flying shuttle handdooms. 
Cane work and carpentry are also taught. A certain number work 
as labourers for the Public Works Department. These industries 
have been only recently introduced. The charges against the several 
Departments employing jail labour amount to about Rs. 2,500 a year. 

Section IX— Education- 

(Table XXIII.) 

Till 1864 only private schools existed in the State in which the 
local rdngrl dialect and native system of account-keeping were taught. 
Only Baniaand Brahman boys attended these schools, and there were 
no schools for girls. Boys received instruction in mental arithmetic 
and in reading and writing, just sufficient to enable theyn to carry on 
their father’s business and beyond this point they did not attempt to go. 
In 1864 during the minority of Raja Ranjit Sipgh a public school was 
opened in the town by Mir Shahamat AH. It was divided into three 
classes, teaching English, Hindi, and Urdu, which were attended, but 
not very regularly, by 1,075 and 20 boys respectively. A purely 
Sanskrit department under a Shastri was shortly afterwards added. 

In 1870 the English department was placed in charge of an English 
Head Master, Mr. T. Middleton. Arrangements were also made to 
educate girls by opening a small school in the town and two in the 
districts. In the beginning of 1872 Sir Henry Daly opened the 
Ratlam Central College, when the present building which cost 
Rs. 64,000 was yet incomplete. At the same time 16 village schools 
were established in connection with the Central College, while private 
elementary schools were given grants-in-aid, ' A few schools had 
been established previously in villages in 1869. In November 1875 the 
Viceroy, Lord Northbrook, who visited Rqtlam on his wa,y to 
Rajputana, distributed prizes to the boys of the college. .In memory of 
this event the Municipality founded two scholarships denominated the 
Lord Northbrook Scholarships, one for Science and Arts and the other 
for Medicine. In this year religious teachipg was introduced, a 
Maulvi giving religious instruction to Muhammadan boys and a 
Shastri to Hindu boys, once a week. The next year the educational 
department of the State was placed under the immediate supervision 
of Mr. G. R. Aberigh-Mackay^, at that time tutor to the Raja. 

I O-eorge Robert Aberigh-Mackay, son of the Rev J. Ab'righ-Miackay, Bengal 
Chaplain V born, July 26, 1848; died, January 12, 1881: well-known as the author 
of Twenty-one Days in India” and other workp. He was Principal of the 
Daly College at Indore from 1877 until his death. 



EDUCATION. 


305 


In 1887 the educational department was transferred from the 
Darbar to the Municipality, which body, with a view to economy, 
dispensed^ with the services of the European Superintendent of Edu- 
cation, Mr. H. Sherring, who had been Principal of the College for 
seven years. 


The Ratlam Central College was in 1884 affiliated to the University Central Col- 
of Calcutta up to the standard of the First Examination in*Arts, but 
no students have been prepared for this examination. Under the 
Universities Scheme of 1905 the institution is now affiliated to 
Allahabad University. 


The college at present consists of three departments: — The High 
School teaching up to the University Entrance Standard ; the Anglo- 
Vernacular Branch School affording instruction in English subjects 
up to the fourth standard ; and the vernacular department, in which 
Hindi, Urdu and Marathi are taught. This vernacular department 
acts as a feeder to the English department, and care is taken that no 
boy proceeds to the study of English before he has had a thorough 
grounding in his own vernacular. 


Department 
of the College* 


The higher English classes here, as in other schools in Central India Higher Eng- 
have always been numerically weak. The majority of the students cUsses. 
being poor leave school from the 2nd or 3rd English class. Parents 
ask very little more of their sons than that they should learn enough to 
pass the Middle Class Examination and then get employed in the 
Railway, Postal or some other department. In the last ten years or 
so, over 50 boys educated in the college ( who left from the 3rd or 
the 2nd English class ) have secured employment in the Railway as 
signallers, assistant station masters, etc. Their straitened circum- 
stances prevented them from studying further and even if they had 
read for two or three years more and passed the Entrance Examina- 
tion, they would have found it difficult to secure better employment 
than they are at present holding. 

On analysing the records it appears that in the first twenty years Examination 
after the opening of the college (1872) only eleven boys passed 
the University Entrance Examination. In the last decade 16 boys 
passed the Entrance Examination and over 60 the Central India 
Schools Examination, carrying off many scholarships and prizes 
in open competition. In 1905 a Ratlam student passed first among 
those sent up from schools in Central India for the Entrance Exa- 
mination and was awarded a special medal by the Agent to the 
Governor-General in Central India. 

In January 1900 Khan Bahadur Cursetji Rastamji Thanawala, The Barr 
C. I. E,, then Dlwan of Ratlam, founded an annual silver medal, ^edal. 
called after Colonel Barr (now Sir David Barr, K. C. S. L), then 
Agent to the Governor- General in Central India, the “ Barr Medal.’* 



306 


RATLAM STATE. 


It is presented every year at the annual prize distribution to the 
student of the High School who obtains the highest number of marks 
in English. 

In 1904 a drawing class was opened at the High School which has 
been recognised as a local centre for holding the Bombay School of 
Art examinations. Fourteen students have passed the first Grade. 

Succession list The following have been successively Principals of the Ratlnm 

«P,mc,p.,.CoUeg,:-Mt. T. Middleton (1870.1876), M, J. L. MaoArth™ 
(1876-1880); Mr. Herbert Sherring (1880-1887); Babu Pruna 
Chandra Banerji (1887-1889) ; Babu Rajninath Nandi ( 1889-1893), 
and Mr. D. F. Vakil (1893-1907). 

Ste^'schooh. addition to the college the Darbdr maintains two primary 
' vernacular schools in the town, fourteen village schools in the kamas- 
darts and one girls ’ school in the town. 

In 1905-06 the total number of schools of all classes in Ratlam 
was 55, of which 18 were maintained by the State, 6 by jdgZrddrs 
and 31 by private individuals attended by over 1,800 pupils. These 
figures show one school to every 15 square miles and about 22 pupils 
in every thousand of the population. 


The Girl’s 
School. 


The town girl’s school has hitherto been so only in name. The 
people are conservative and many purposely keep their women in 
ignorance. A few girls are sent to this school, but early marriage cuts 
short their instruction. A special building is to be erected for the 
accommodation of this school. 


O’! In 1905-6 the number of boys attending the State vernacular schools 
was 300. The average number of boys on the rolls of the College, 
including the vernacular departments, was 395, the average- dail y 
attendance being 259, that is, 65’6 percent.; on 31st March 1906 there 
were 358 boys on the rolls of the College, of whom 107 were in the 
English department. The town is rising in importance and with it 
the desire for English education. Plague first appeared in 1902 and 
successive outbreaks since then have somewhat affected attendance 
in recent years. 


Caste disttl- The caste distribution (1905-6) of the boys learning English was 
bution. Brahnaans 70, Rajputs 4, Banias 13, Muhammadans 11 and others 9. 

The Earbar is alive to the necessity of encouraging education 
among the Rajputs and a scheme for providing residential quarters 
for Rajput boys is under consideration. 

Mnham- The Muhammadans do not avail themselves fully of the benefits 
“• of even vernacular education although provided almost free by the- 
State. Only one Muhammadan has passed his Matriculation exa- 
mination from the college since it was opened. 

Population of The population of school-going age (8-15), forming about 15 per 
.^.Mi-going cent, of the total population ( excluding the rr^ilway population), is 



MEDICAL. 


307 


12,500 (boys and girls), of v^hom IS per cent, (or 1,800) are at 
school. The census of 1901 returned 2,185 boys and 267 girls as under 
instruction, of whom 1,073 boys and 44 girls were Hindus ; 454 boys 
and 123 girls Musalmans ; 438 boys and 16 girls Jains ; 52 boys and 
28 girls Animists and 168 boys and 56 girls of other religions. 

No fees were charged till April 1894, when at the recommendation Tuition fees, 
of Mr. R. H. Gunion, Principal, Daly College, Indore, a low scale 
of monthly fees was instituted in the English department. An 
admission fee of 6 annas is levied in all departments of the institu- 
tion. The town people also pay a local rate for education. 

The average cost of the whole teaching staff of the educational Annual 
department in 1906 was about Rs. 7,600 ; in 1896 it was Rs. 6,300 ; 
in 1886, Rs. 13,550 British coin. 

No book shops have been opened in the Ratlam town in which Publications. 
English books, even elementary English educational books, find a 
place. A few very cheap Hindi books are offered for sale in some 
three or four book stalls in the market. There are three Printing 
Presses in the town, but no newspapers are published. 

Section X*— Medical. 

(Table XXVII.) 

No regular medical institutions existed in the State till 1881. A Medicalinsti- 
few hakims and vaidyas^ who practised privately, were given aid 
by the State, on the strength of which they styled themselves State 
hakims. During the minority of Raja Ranjit Singh, a charitable 
dispensary was established in the town. This institution remained 
under the supervision of the Residency Surgeon at Indore from 1881 
to 1887. The old system of engaging hakims and vaidyas was 
also continued. An attempt was made to give medical aid to 
jdglrddrs and ryots in the districts, but the jdglrddrs refused to pay 
a share of the expenses and the arrangement fell through. 

In 1885 the foundation stone of the present hospital, named after TheMaharau 
the Chief’s mother, the Mahdtdnl Rdjkunwar Hospital^ was laid by H?spi^7^^ 
Sir Lepel Grffin and was declared open by Mr. F. Henvey on the 
20th February 1890. The old arrangement was done away with 
and the hospital placed under the direct management and control of 
the Darbar. The Mahdrdnl Rajkunwar Hospital is situated in the 
Mdnakchauk in the heart of the town. The building cost Rs. 21,760. 

In 1897 the Darbar at the cost of Rs. 10,000 acquired some houses in 
the vicinity of the hospital and by demolishing them secured an 
open space round the building, which was badly wanted. The 
hospital only contains accommodation for eight indoor patients, which 
is insufficient for the needs of the town. A well equipped operation 
room is attached to the hospital. 



308 


RATLAM STATE. 


Expenditure. 


Operations, 


Vaocinationt 


Village sani- 
tation# 


The staff consists of a superintendent, a hospital assistant and 
a midwife, two compoundersj a dresser and five menial servants. A 
native doctor (hakim) is also kept in State employ for such people 
as prefer native to European methods. To give medical relief to 
the villagers and the Bhils in the Bajna district a qualified hospital 
assistant and a hakim have been engaged at the expense of the 
State. 

The Darbar sanctions Rs. 7,300 annually for the State medical 
department out of which sum Rs. 1^200 is contributed by the Town 
Municipalityi 

Besides a large number of minor operations, such major operations 
as amputation j excision of the breast, rhinoplasty, removal of cataracts 
and tumours and midwifery operations Ivere performed in the Town 
Hospital in the last decade. 

Vaccination is not compulsory in the State. It is performed on 
children of the age of from three months to seven years* The season 
for vaccination is from November to April. The people are fhlly 
alive to the advantages of getting their children vaccinated. For the 
town one vaccinator is employed, who is a Brahman by caste and 
vaccinates all classes of the people. No special vaccinators are 
employed for the districts, village school masters being usually told 
off to vaccinate children in their villages. No regular arrangement, 
however, exists for carrying on vaccination in the districts and 
intelligent villagers, who appreciate the advantages of vaccination 
bring their children to the town to be vaccinated. About two per cent, 
of the population are protected. 

Chamars remove all dead carcasses, beyond this and the fact that 
the villages are generally situated on elevated spots, and the pits for 
conserving manure are made on the outskirts, village sanitation can 
scarcely be said to exist. In the town all sanitary arrangements are 
in the hands of the Municipality. 

Section XI.— Surveys, 

Except the surveys made, for revenue purposes (vide Land 
Revenue) no survey has as yet been undertaken. 



CHAPTER lY- 


ASMIHISTBATIVB DIVISIONS 

AND 

GAZETTEER. 

(Tables I. Ill, VIII to X, XIII, XVIII, XIX, XX, XXIII and 

XXIX.) 

RSitl^xn ta^llSil • — This tahsil lies in the centre of the State 
between 35° 5'’ and 23° 33' north latitude and 74° 47' and 75® 20' 
east longitude, having a total area of 599 • 43 square miles, of which 
362 • 8 square miles are held in jaglr. 

It is bounded on the north by Jaora, on the east by Gwalior, on 
the south by Jhabua and Dhar and on the west by Sailana and the 
Bajna tahsil. 

The average rainfall is 34 inches, but in recent years the monsoons 
have been uncertain. The Ratlam tahsil falls almost wholly in the 
plateau. The country is, in general, open, level and highly cultivated. 
Some of the jaglrs under this tahsil comprise hilly tracts, specially 
the jaglrs of Sarwan, Shivgarh and Basindra, which lie in the 
western portion of the tahsil. 

Population according to the census of 1901 is '55,571 in the 
hhdlsa portion and 23,719 in the jdgirs^ total 79,290. Of the khdlsd 
population, 34,976 persons live in the town of Ratlam* the rest living 
in 74 villages. The jdgir portion of the tahsil contains 53 villages. 

T\i^khdlsd population, 55,571 (males 28,002^ females 27*569), 
classified by religions gives 36,241 or65‘2 per cent- Hindus; 5,349 or 
9' 6 per cent. Jains ; 8,931 or 16-1 per cent. Musalmans ; 4,714 or 
8’5 per cent. Animists; 282 Christians, and 54 others. Of this popu- 
lation 34,976 persons, including 20,757 Hindus, 8,122 Musalmans, 
4,903 Jains, 858 Animists, 282 Christians, and 54 others, live in 
Ratlam town. The jdgir population, 23,719 (11,827 males, 11,892 
females), includes 15,531 Hindus, 1,024 Jains, 1,586 Musalmans, 
5,576, Animists, and 2 others. 

Of the total area of the tahsil 110,100 acres are cultivated 

of which 7,100 are irrigated. The hhdlsa portion of this tahsil 

is in charge of a tahsilddr^ who is the chief revenue officer and 

also a second class magistrate with powers to entertain civil suits 

up to Rs. 5,000 in value. 

* 

The present revenue demand is Rs. 2,75,939 for the hhdlsa 
villages, while Rs. 5,39 >587 are alienated in jdgi't^s. 

Ninety country liquor shops are situated in the tahsil, of which six 
are located in the town of Ratlam, 44 in the hhdlsa portion, and 40 
in jdgir. 



310 


HATlfAM STATE. 


The income derived from these shops is Rs. 22,1 21 a year. 

The Bombay, Baroda and Central India ( Ratlani-Godhra and 
Ratlam-Uj jam Sections ) and Rajputana-Malwa ( Ajmer-Khandwa 
Section) Railway lines meet at Ratlam town. The stations of 
Marwani on the former, and Nauganwan and Namli on the latter 
falling within the tahsll, 

'The Mhow-Nimach road traverses the tahsll for 25 miles, the 
Runija-Khachaud road for two miles and the Namli -Sailana road for 
eight miles. 

For revenue purposes the Izhalsa portion is sub-divided into 
kamasdarls of (1) Dhamnod, (2) Dharar, and (3) Ringnia, each under 
a kamdsdar^ and (4) the hallz a- gird-kasha^ including the capital 
and villages immediately around the town. This last sub-division is 
under a patwdrl. 

The principal villages with population are in hhalsdi Dhamnod 
(1,727), Dharar (1,424), Palsoda (l,069),Palduna(773), Barbodna (584), 
Bantodia (679), Dhonswas (639), Itawah (630), Nauganwan (681), 
and Nagra (591). AtBibrod (443), a village in Dhamnod hamdsddrl^ 
there-are some Jain temples, where an annual fair is held. At Sagod 
(192), another village in Dhamnod, two miles west of Ratlam, a fight 
took place between Man Singh and Partap Singh in 1717. The 
chhatrls .of Partap Singh and his brother Kesri Singh stand 
here. The tomb ©f a British officer is also to be seen in this village. 
It is inscribed with the name of Lieutenant Kenneth of the 18lh 
Bombay Native Infantry, and the date February 1818. He was 27 
years of age. The principal villages in jdglr land are Amleta (505), 
Dhanauta (1,481), Gajoda (1,084), Isarthuni (582), Malwasa (703), 
Namli (2,282), Pipalkhunta (614), Pancher (l,970), Sarwan (with 
hamlets) 1,900, Sejawata (639), Shivgarh (vdth hamlets) 2,538. 
Twenty-nine jdgJrs and other alienated holdings .are situated in the 
tahsll five being first-class holdings. 

ESjna tahsil.— The ancestors of the Thdkur of Isarthuni 
originally held Bajna in jdglr. In 1724, it was made hhdlsd^ 
Thakur Bhawani Singh being given Isarthuni in lieu of it. The 
Bajna tahsll lies between 23"'l3' and 23°33' north latitude and 
74^35' and 74°47' east longitude, having an area -of 302 '81 square 
miles. The headquarters are at Bajna. It is bounded on the north 
by the Pariabgarli fiitate, on the east by the Dhamnod Izamdsddri^ 
on the soulh by portions of Sailana territory and Kushalgarh, and on 
the west by the Banswara State. The average rainfall is slightly 
above that of Ratlam iahsll, 

£ne country is wild and .hilly, the scenery,, near Uchangarh, 
IS miles west of Ratl^, a high rocky fastness on the right bank of the 



GAZETTEER. 


311 


Mahi, bein^ very fine. The remains of an old fort and settlement 
are still visible. The ruins of the temple of Khakai mata stand near 
the fort. A legend runs that the goddess was in the habit of assume- 
ing human shape and joining in the games of the village children. At 
the Bhil chiefs request a Nai attempted to seize her. She cursed 
the chief who was soon after defeated by his enemies the Bharmalot 
Rajputs. No Nai, it is said, vs^ill ever approach this shrine* 

The river Mahi, rising in Amjhera (Gwalior) and flowing -north, 
passes through this ialisil. This part of the river is, however, of 
no great size, and has a rocky bed. 

According to the census of 190L, the population of this falisil 
was 4,483. 

Constitution : Hindus 516, Jains 79, Musalmans 76 and Animists 
3,712, forming 80 'per cent, of the population. The Animists are all 
Bhils. 

Of' the total area, 6,600 acres are cultivated of ^which 100 acres 
are irrigated. 

The present revenue demand for the tahsll is Rs. 14,000. 

Thirteen country liquor shops are located here, the income derived 
from them being about Rs; 2, 500. 

This tahsll is in charge of a tahslldar^ who is the Revenue Collector 
and Second Class Magistrate with powers to entertain civil suits up 
to Rs. 5,000 in value. 

This tahsll contains 2,000 acres of reserved forest: As the soil 
is not suitable for rahi crops, only hJiarlf crops are grown. 

Except near the headquarters the population consists mainly of 
Bhils who are indifferent cultivators, and are also indolent. 

No railway or metalled roads traverse this tahsll. 

Bajna, the headquarters .of the tahsll {23°19''.N., and 74°41' E.), is 
situated 28 miles west of Ratlam town and has a population of 652". 
It \vas originally held by the Mahida^ Bhils^ It’ then passed to the 
Bharmalot Rathors, and was held by them in jdglr, until Thakur 
Bhawani Singh was given Isarthuni in lieu of it. The only other 
important villages are Chikni (126), Chaoni Jhodia (180), .Kherda 
(128), and Kelkach (203). 

Hhe jdglr of Berda is situated in this, The population of 
Berda with hamlets was in. 1901, 702. 

RatlEm Town. — The chief town from which the Ratlam State 
takes its name lies in latitude 23°19'< N.. andTongitude 75^5' E., at 
1,577 feet above the sea level. It is ,430 miles distant^ by rail from 
Calcutta and 408 from Bombay. It is also situated on the metalled 
road from Mhow to Ajmer, being 88 miles distant from Mhow and 
74 from Indore. 


^ Mahida, literally, “ living on the Mahi river. 



312 


RATLAM STATE» 


The Khandwa-Ajmer branch of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway 
and the Godhra-Ratlam-Ujjain branch of the Bombay, Baroda and 
Central India Railway meet at Ratlam. Its importance as a junc- 
tion will be still further enhanced on the completion of the Nagda- 
Muttra extension now under construction. 

The history of the town is not known before it became the chief 
town of the State, except that in Akbar’s day it was the headquarters 
of a mahal in the Ujjain sarkar of the Suhah of Malwa. Its im- 
portance dates from the time when it was selected by Ratan Singh 
as his Capital. The town is divided into two sections : the old town 
including the Thdofia hazay, Dhechaiji-kd-has^ etc.^ and the new 
town surrounding the Chandani Chauk. In the old town the 
streets are narrow and irregular and the houses poor, while in the 
new town, founded by Captain Borthwick in 1829, the streets are 
broad and regular and the houses well built. 

Ratlam was only a small town before the superintendency of 
Mir Shahamat Ali during the minority of Ranjit Singh. He opened 
the present Manik Chauk, the great square in the heart of the town, 
then a garden belonging to a jdglrddr and a favourite resort for 
thieves, and made many improvements by constructing good roads 
and clearing away insanitary buildings. 

The most important buildings in the town are the Ranjit-bilas” 
palace in which the Chief lives, the Ram-bagh Kothi or guest-house 
standing in a garden in which a small zoological collection is kept 
up, the Central College and Rani Raj Kunwar Hospital. A small 
hospital is also maintained by the Canadian Presbyterian Mission. 
Religious and charitable institutions include 200 Hindu temples, 
16 Jain temples, 9 Thanaks or Jain monasteries, 33 mosques. A 
dak bungalow, an encamping ground and four sarais are situated 
in the town, two in the centre of the town and two near the railway 
station. Many persons from Bombay and elsewhere going on 
pilgrimage to Nathdwara in Mewar stop at Ratlam. In order to 
provide accommodation for the people, Seth Narayandas Thakarsi 
Mulji of Bombay has recently erected a new Dharamshala near 
the railway station on the site granted free by the State for the 
purpose. For the comforts of the travellers stopping in the State 
sarai and in the travellers’ bungalow arrangements have been made 
with the railway company to have water service pipes laid on to 
both these places. 

A public library called the “ Native General Library ’’ has lately 
been opened. It is supported by subscriptions from the public and 
by a contribution from the State. 

A State lithographic press has been established at Ratlam which is 
worked by the prisoners in the jail. Two typographic presses are 
owned by private individuals. 



GAZETTEER. 


513 


The local Fatehpuria traders have erected a pinjrdpol (refuge for 
decrepit animals) for cows and bullocks. 

The total population at the census of 1901 was 36,321 including 
that at the railway station : males, 18,519 ; females, 17,802. In 1881 
it was 31,066 ; and 1891, 29,822. 

An increase of 6,499 or 21 ‘8 per cent, has thus taken place since 
1891. The number of occupied houses in 1901 was 6,833 as com- 
pared with 5,812 in 1891 ; about 5 persons inhabit each house, built 
in regular lines, and the streets broad and airy. 

The inhabitants of the town of Rati am classified by religion shew 
Hindus 20,757 or 59 per cent. ; Jains 4,903 or 14 per cent.; Musal- 
mans 8,122 or 26 per cent.: Animists 858 ;and Parsis 47 ; Christians 
282 ; J ew 1 ; Sikhs 6. Among Hindus the Shrimali Brahmans may 
be mentioned. A body of these men accompanied Ratan Singh from 
Marwar when he founded the State, and many rose to positions 
of trust and importance including that of Diwdn. 

The Muhammadan population comprises 1,871 Bohoras who are 
all Shias, 2,069 Pathans and 2,590 Shaikhs. With regard to these 
figures those who thus describe themselves are seldom real Pathans, 
Mughals, etc., being in many cases Hindu converts. The town 
Kazi estimates that about 50 Mughals, 600 Pathans, 120 Say ads and 
122 Shaikhs are of true descent, while 500 are converted Rajputs, 
300 other Hindu converts not of menial classes, and the rest are low 
caste converts. 

Several shrines stand in the town sacred to the memory of Muham-* 
madan saints. One Edi-Shah Ghebi^Shah brought to Ratlam a 
relic of the well known saint of Syria, Badi-ud-din Madar Shah 
who died at Makanpur in 840 A. H. or 1436 A. D. Some htghas of 
land have been assigned by the State to the Chilla or shrine in 
Ratlam where Madar Shah’s relic is preserved. The relic is a brick 
from the tomb of Madar Shah at Makanpur. An Urs fair is held 
on the anniversary of Madar Shah’s death at the Chilla. Several 
Hindus and Musalmans attend it, the Raja also visits the spot on 
this occasion. 

The Sairanis, a class of Muhammadans who came over with 
Raja Ratan Singh, the founder of the State, from Jodhpur, have 
erected a shrine near their mtihalla in honour of Khudabax Shahid, 
a Muhammadan saint, who died at Ludlu in Jodhpur State. It is 
said that Ratan Singh reposed great faith in this Saint. 

The Jain community of Ratlam is an important element of the 
town population, many being merchants of considerable means, 
Ratlam is also one of the most important Jain centres in Central 
India. Several Thdnaks (monasteries and convents) for devotees 
of the various sects have been .established here, which are visited 



51-4 


BATKAM STATE. 


periodically by the great gurus of this'sect. The Digambaris number 
649; Mandir Margis ( Digambari and Svetambari), 819 ; Svetanibari 
2,065 ; Thankpanthis or Dhundias, 1,366 and 4 unspecified. 

The Christian community including the railway population is 431. 
Most of these are employees in the railways or members of the Cana- 
dian Presbyterian Mission station. These figures shew a rise of 4-80 
per cent, on the figure for 1891. This is mainly due to the large 
number of orphans in the Mission station at the end of the famine 
of 1900, though an increase in the railway staff accounts for part of 
the rise. 

The occupations followed most generally are those of the prepara- 
tion and supply of food stuffs and opium and the sale of grain and 
piece-goods. A considerable number of persons are engaged in State 
offices, domestic service and in the care and service of temples. Large 
numbers act as business agents, brokers,, and follow other commercial 
pursuits. 

The. usual domestic arts such as the preparation of jewellery (Sonars 
numbering 1,017), household utensils (Kasaras number 447 ; Kumhar 
549), etc., are followed. The most, important manufacture is that of 
opium, which employs a large number of person sduring the season. 
The extraction. of oil employs 701 persons. A ginning factory has 
just been opened and also a flourmill. 

Ratlam was once one of the first commercial towns in Central India 
a position which it appears to be rapidly regaining. It was the prin- 
cipal centre of the opium, tobacco and salt trade and was also famous 
for its time-bargain {satta) transactions. The opening of the rail- 
way from Khandwa in 1872, though finally beneficial, at the time 
dealt a blow to the opium monopoly hitherto enjoyed by Ratlam, by 
diverting trade to other channels and. by opening fresh distributing 
centres in the neighbourhood. The very extensive cart traffic which 
had hitherto existed, was unable to compete with railway, and rapidly 
declined. When the whole of' Malwa produced little more than 
25,000 chests of opium, Ratlam alone manufactured and exported for 
China market 15,000 chests and in return attracted a large portion 
of traffic from Bombay and Gujarat. The number of chests of 
opium exported gradually dwindled until it is now less than 2,000 a 
year. The opium grown in States bordering on Ratlam was, in those 
days, all brought to Ratlam for weighment. But during the last 30 
years scales have been established 'at Jaora, Mandasor, Chitor, Bhopal 
and other places, which has caused a decrease in the trade. Before 
the opening of the railway the total quantity of tobacco imported 
annually here was some 22,000 maunds (pakka),, whereas now only 
about 8,000 maunds are imported annually. A similar decline in 
piece-goods and kirdna (miscellaneous articles) is to be observed. 
With the decline of the trade the sdyar. revenue has suffered. . 



G'AZETTEER. 


315 


The principal exports are opium, grain, cotton, linseed, opium- 
's eed, metal ( manufactured ), hides, shoes and betel leaves and the 
principal imports crude opium, cloth, food-stuffs, European glass and 
other wares, spices, gjit, molasses, sugar, tobacco, salt, kerosine oil 
and metals. 

The chief trading classes are Hindu "Banias (2,074) 

Eanias (4,903), the latter include Oswals (4,000) and Agarwals (150). 
These families usually came from Gujarat and Marwar. They are 
ma ny of them men of wealth. A pmjrapol or house for animals has 
lately been opened. Some idea of the trade carried on in the town 
may be gathered from the -table appended . 


Articles. 

Import C maunds ). 

Export ( mounds ). 

1905-0G. 

1904-06. 

1903-04. 

1905-06. 

1904-06. 

1903-04. 

Wheat and other grains.. 

106,700 

105,856 

130,498 

10,473 

10,388 

^ 28,251 

Oil seeds... 

•** ••• 

14,006 

18,373 

23,370 

4,189 . 

' 6,743 

6,961 

Opium juice 

Opium chests 

t«« ••• 

••• 

595 

S,022 

4,590-^ 

2,674 

64 

1,1914 

84 

1,70SJ 

Opium halls 

••• 

2j' 

7^ 

k 

190 

115-i 

62J 

Cotton ginned 




636 

8,075 

4,414 

5,238 

Seed, cotton 

... 

19,631 

15,176 

1,703 

53 

3 


Yaxn 

• ft a • ■ • 

963 

896 

1,336 

52 

30 ' 


Timber 

••• ••• 

14,287 

15,374 ' 

9,816 

6,928 

6,174 

5,676 

Woollen cloth, 

etc. 

711 

638^ 

790-J 

363 

166§ 

249 

.Miscellaneous 

■ •«« 

. 85,779 

81,305 

103,468 

39,806 , 

31,762 

38,443 


Total ... 

, 242,6741 

\ 240,438 

276, 206^ 

72,807i 

60,193 

86,612 


An Imperial post office has been opened in the town with branch 
at the Railway station. The town ofiice is combined with a Telegraph 
office. The minor criminal work of the town and environs is dealt 
with by the town Magistrate who exercises powers of the second class. 
He is also the Sub-judge. 

The municipal system may be said to have commenced in 1865 
when the town was divided into 45 muhallas or wards, each being 
placed in charge of an influential resident, who was entitled the mtr 
muhallas or head of the ward. He was empowered to settle petty 


316 


RATLAM STATE 


judicial matters "and also exercised a general control over the wards. 
A chauhldar and a sweeper were placed under him to look after the 
sanitation of the ward. In 1887 a regular municipal committee was 
substituted for the mlr mti^haTLa. It was formed of 24 members, of 
■Whom 13 were State officials and the rest non-officials, appointed 
•annually by Darbar from among respectable residents. The non- 
'officials were the permanent .panchas who continued as commission- 
'ers from year to year. It was found advisable to modify this sys- 
tem and in 1893 tbe committee was reduced to 11 members, 5 
^officials and 6 non-officials. In 1895 the town municipality was 
■abolished, the control of the town being taken over by the Darbar 
without any municipality and placed under the management of the 
J>iwdn. The municipal funds are devoted to conservancy and 
sanitation, education, roads, lighting^ pnblic buildings and charity. 

Octroi is the principal cess levied by municipality and amounts to 
about 50 per cent, of the total municipal revenues. A grant in cash, 
instead of the munzahta Tag in vogue up till 1894, was made over 
by the State to the municipality to be applied mainly to education. 
A house tax was introduced in the year 1895 in lieu of several petty 
and vexatious taxes which were abolished. The average annual 
receipts are about Rs. 40,000 and the expenditure Rs, 35,000. 

The town police number 195 men under the State Superintendent 
of Police. The headquarter station is situated in Chandni Chauk, 
while 10 outposts are established in the different wards. This gives 
one policeman to 178 of the population. The 45 muhallas are also 
watched over by 21 municipal chauhlddrs and the sanitary arrange- 
ments attended to by 60 sweepers. The chauhlddrs supervise the 
sanitation and are bound to report all infringements of municipal 
rules. 



317 


APPENDIX A. 


Translation of an Agreement entered into by the Thakoors 
of the Banswara, Pertabgurh, and Malwa Frontier, and signed 
in the presence of the Political Agent of Meywar and the 
officers on special duty in Western Malwa in February, 1861. 

We agree to the arrangement proposed for preventing the 
predatory incursions of the Bheels into Malwa, and we volun- 
tarily bind ourselves that if any Bheels attempt to pass through 
any of our lands, we will oppose and drive them back ; and 
that, if the force available to any one of us is insufficient for 
this purpose, we will call upon each other for assistance, and 
promise that we will never refuse assistance when intelligence 
is given us ; and should there be any dispute amongst our- 
selves, we will not call in the assistance of the Bheels, and if 
any one of us combines with them, or gives them assistance 
or knowingly allows them to pass through his lands, on proof 
of the same we will agree to whatever punishment the Govern- 
ment may award. The above agreement we make of our 
own free will, and, further, if any Bheel claims “ choutan ” 
from us, should he be able to show that payment of the same 
has been stopped within the last 12 years, we agree that the 
payment shall be revived, 

(Sd.) Maun Sing, Thakoor of Surwun of Rutlam, 

( „ ) OoNCAR Sing, Thakoor of Peeplowda of Jowrah. 

( „ ) Kessry Sing, Thakoor of Sankhera of Mundisore. 

( „ ) Chuttersal, Thakoor of Sagtullee Boree of Pertab- 


„ ; Hindoo Sing, Thakoor of Raepore of Pertabgurh, 

( „ ) KhosialSing, Thakoor of Amberama of Pertabgurh, 

( „ ) Hindoo Sing, Thakoor of Motteea of Pertabgurh. 

( „ ) Parbut Sing, Thakoor of Nadbail of Mundisore. 

( „ ) Sew Sing, Thakoor of Salimgurh of Pertabgurh. 

( „ j HuRREe Sing, Maharaj of Amba of Jowrah. 


NO. CLIV. 

Translation of an Agreement concluded through the mediation 
of Brigadier-General Sir J. Malcolm and guaranteed by him in 
^e name of the British Government between the Rajah of 
Rutlam and Bapoo Sindia for the future regular payment of the 
tnbute upon that district — 1819. 

I, Purbut Sing, Rajah of Rutlam, do hereby bind myself, 
my heirs and successors, to pay to Bapoo Sindia, or to any 



318 


ratlam state. 


other person duly authorized by the grant of the Maharajah 
Dowlut Rao Sindia, an annual tribute of Salim Sahi Rupees 
84,000 at the following periods : — 

Rs. 

During the Muckee harvest,., ... 14,000 

„ Jowara „ ... ... 28,000 

5 , Wheat „ ... ... 42,000 


Total 84,000 

Should any instalment on the expiration of one month 
and fifteen days after the conclusion of any one of the above 
harvests remain unpaid, land to the amount of the failure shall 
be forfeited to Sindia’s government, and all claims whatever 
on my part and on the part of my heirs and successors upon 
the land so forfeited shall for ever cease. 

Bapoo Sindia agrees to receive the Rutlam tunkha of 
Rs. 84,000 in the manner above-mentioned from the Cutcherry 
at Rutlam, and binds himself to abstain from all interference 
whatever in the administration of the Rajah’s government, and 
that he pledges himself in no manner to cause any additional 
expense to the government of Rutlam by the maintenance of 
troops, or in any other way whatever, nor shall any of his 
troops in future be stationed in the Rajah’s country. 

This agreement between Purbut Sing, Rajah of Rutlam, and 
Bapoo Sindia was concluded through my mediation and 
guaranteed by me in the name of the English Government. 

JOHN MALCOLM, 
Brigadier-General. 

Camp at Rutlamr^Sth January 1819. 





arms of the sitamau state. 



Arms : — Gules : on a bend argent 3 tridents azure ; the whole 
within a bordure tenne. Crest — A sun in splendour 
proper, on a wreath gules and tenne ; and a sword 
proper. Supporters — Two boars Argent. 

IMEottoS : — “ Devydh Pattanam^ Rdj Sadanam. — ” “ The 
shrine of the goddess, the home of a Chief ” and 
Satyamev Jayati ” — “ Truth only predominates.’* 
Note : — Pamily colour : — Dark blue. Family banner : — This 
bears a red figure of the sun on a white ground. 

The Trident is the weapon of the tutelary goddess 
of the clan- 

The sun in the crest shows Suryavansh descent. Boars 
were assigned as supporters in 1877 to all the 
Rathors of Malwa- 

Gr enealogical Oresd — Gautam Gotra\ Yajur 'V eda\ 

Mddhyandini Shdlzha ; Bhatrava Mandovra ; Kh^^rtar 
Gdchhawdla, preceptor ; Shingala, Rao ; Roltid 
Bard ; Bhedma^ Dholi • Sewad^ Purohit ; Biama, 
Vyds\ Keddrvdnshi^ Barwa ; Onhdrndthi^ KulJzshetra 
Rashtra Syena ; Tutelary Goddess ; Hindu, Vaisha- 
na%\ Religion ; Rathor Rajput, Clan ; Solar, Race ; 
Dinesera ( Kabandhaj ) Sept. 

The arms given are modified from those granted at 
Delhi in 1877, which were : 

Arms : — Gules*, on a bend argent 3 lilies (now tridents) azure : 

the whole within a bordure, tenne. Crest : — A lion’s 
face ( now sun ) sable. Supporters ; — Boars argent- 
The explanation of these arms, as given in 1877, is that the lilies 
refer to Sita, an emblem of purity ; the bordure of tenne (Sindhia’s 
colour) shews that the State is tributary to Gwalior. 




GENEALOGICAL TREE OF THE SITAMAU CHIEFS, 


H, B.-Only anlial wes ate giw below, 

TJDAI SINGH 
Mabatajaofloipoi. 
(158M51 

I 

Dalpat Siigii 
oijbalor. 

MabestiDas. 


1 

Rai Singh Hate Singh Kesri Singh 

Chhatar Sal Akheraj Sakhat Singh 

Rk Singh 

(KMBaroda.) (Thakurof 

(Raja of Eatlk.) (Ancestor of (Ancestor of Thakurs 

of Ratlk 

1 Patki, 

Thakursof of MulthaninDhar). 

1 

Sultan Singh Sitamau.) 

Amba in Jaora.) 

Shiv Singh 

1 


of Ratlk. 

1 

1 1 

Padam Singh Bhkt Singh. 


I KeshoDas 

1 (Ancestor of Naugama 


(1695-1748) 

Nahar Singh ThtasinSailm) 



II GajaSisgb BakhtSiDjli. 
(IIM) 


III Fateh SiHGH 
(I7iM802) 


IV EajSikgh I 

(1802-6)) Takht Singh 


(186J-8S) 

VI Bahadur SiHGH 
adoptel. 
(1886-99) 


Zoiawai Singh 


Dalel Singh 


No, VIII,) 


ofChikla, (sncceededas 
Sitaman. No, VII, ) 


No, VI,) 


VII SHARDDL SiHGH 
adopted. 
(1899-1900) 

VIII Ram SiHGH . 




CHAPTER I. 

DESCRIPTIVE. 

Section I.—Physical Aspects. 

The Sitamau State, which is one of the mediatised States of the Sifcuf^tion and 
Central India Agency, lies between 23°48' and 24° 14' north latitude 
and 75° 17' and 75° 36' east longitude having an area of about 
350 square miles. 

It is bounded on the north by the Indore and Gwalior States, Boundaries, 
on the south by Jaora and Dewas, on the east by Jhalawar State in 
Rajputana, and on the west by Gwalior. 

The place from which the State takes its name was founded by a Name. 

Mina chief Sataji, the name Satamau, or village’’ of Sata having 
been metamorphosed into the more orthodox name of Sitamau. 

The whole State lies on the Malwa plateau, the country consisting 
of broad rolling plains with here and there the fiat-topped hills 
characteristic of the Trap country. 

The hills are usually covered with a scrub jungle of khejra HiUn. 
{Prosopis spicigera), khdkra {Bvttea frondoscc) and other small trees 
and shrubs. 

The only streams of importance in the State are the Chambal, klvcrs. 

Siv and Sansri. The total length in the State of the waters of the 
Chambal with its tributaries the Siv and Sansri and Sipra is Similes. 

The Chambal flows from south to north the Sipra and Siv and Sansri 
entering on its right bank. The Chambal flows all the year round 
and at Bhagor and Dhaturia village (23° 57' N., 75° 3l'E.) is navi- 
gable for boats in the rainy season. The usual rude “ dugouts 
locally kngwn as ghadaul^ are found at almost all fords during the 
rainy season. This river abounds in excellent fish. 

The only important piece of water in the State is the artificial Lakes, 
lake at Laduna village which was for some time the capital. 

The State lies entirely in the Deccan Trap area and presents all Geology. ^ 
the features common to that formation. Wide rolling plains covered 
with black soil, with out-crops of basalt and laterite and here and 
there flat-topped hills breaking the continuity of the plain. ' 

The vegetation is mostly scrub jungle consisting of various BoTANy. s 
species of Gre voia<, Zi&yphus, Capparis, Carrissa, Woodfordia, as 

^ Mau or Mahu is a common termination to village names and is a 
corruption of the Sanskrit word Mahi, land. 

^ By Mr. E. 'V'redcriburg, Geological Svr&ey oj India. 

^ By Lieut-Oolouel D. Prain, I. M. S., Botanical Survey of India* 



320 


SIT^MAU STATE. 


the principal shrubs, and of Btiiect^ Bomhax, Sfercuha AnogeissuSi 
Biichanania^ Acacia and Pliyllanthus as the chief trees. Here and 
there Boswellia serrata is met with in which case the scrub jungle 
is always scanty. The herbaceous species - met with are mainly 
JLegitminosae such as Desmodiunt, Alysicaypus Orotolafia\ 

Boragineae such a.s H elitoropium and Tricliodesma ; and Compositae 
like Pulicaria, Blumia Gonicaulon and Launcea, 

Fauna. Wild animals are not very plentiful there being little or no cover 

for the larger kinds, although leopard {Felts pardtis) are met with 
occasionally. Small game and all the ordinary birds are found. 

Climate and The climate which is the same as that of Malwa generally is 

*I^C Tm 3cr stiXii*© 

(Table I.) temperate, no extremes being met with. In the hot weather the 
temperature varies between 104'^ and 98°, in the rains between 
98° and 78° and in the cold vreather between 94° and 60°, 


recorded rainfall of the past 10 years gives an average of 
26 inches. The highest recorded fall w^as 52 inches in 1900, the 
lowest 11 inches in 1899. 

Public Health, There is, as a rule, little sickness in the State, the most unhealthy 
season being at the close of the rains when malarial fever is common. 
Epidemics, except for a short attack of plague have been very 
rare, and never severe, although cholera and small-pox have 
appeared from time to time. 

Section II*— History. 

{ Genealogical Tree. ) 


The chiefs of Sitamau are Rathor Rajputs connected with the 
Ratlam family and the early history of this branch of the clan is 
that of the Ratlam State.^ They are descended from Maharaja Udai 
Singh of Jodhpur (1584-95).® This Chief had no less than 34 legiti- 
mate sons and daughters. His seventh son was Dalpat Singh whose 
eldest son was Maheshdas. Maheshdas in 1634 entered the Imperial 
army and in return for his services was granted a mansah. Sub- 
sequent to entering the Imperial service he with his mother the 
Majx Sahiba Chauhanji, left his home at Jhalor in Marwar to proceed 
on pilgrimage to the famous shrine of Onkarnath on the Narbada. 
On the way his mother fell seriously ill near what was then the 
small village of Sitamau and died. The holders of Sitamau at that 
time were also Rathors, known as the Gajmalod Bhumias. Mahesh- 
das asked the Bhumias for a piece of ground on which to perform 
the funeral rites and erect a cenotaph to his mother. The Bhumias, 
however, refused and Maheshdas was obliged to purchase a plot 
of land privately, on which he erected the cenotaph which is still 
standing. 


^ See Ratlam State Gazetteer. 

3 Tod’s Rajastlian, I. 622, II 85, 48, 



HISTORY. 


321 


The Bhumias little imagined the close connection which would 
exist in future between Sitamau and the descendants of the Rathor 
chief to whom they had refused to grant a plot of land for his 
mother’s last resting place. Maheshdas revenged himself on the 
Gajmalod Thakurs by an attack of a somewhat treacherous 
nature, and then proceeded on his way. Maheshdas after rising to 
great distinction in the Imperial army died at Lahore in 1644 at the 
age of 51. 

A representative of the Gajmalod Bhumias, it may here be re- 
marked, still lives at Shamau. The family belongs to the Rawat 
Sagawat branch of the Rathors. They came from Laontara village 
in Idar State, migrating in 1456 to Khera village about a mile from 
Sitamau, under one Jhujhar Singh. After driving out the Bhils and 
Minas they settled in this district. In 1549 Nagaji, the grandson 
of Jhujhar Singh, seized Sitamau from the Bhils and became a petty 
independent chief.. 

Maheshdas had five sons of whom Ratan Singh, the eldest, suc- 
ceeded to his possession. According to popular tradition Ratan Singh 
while at Delhi distinguished himself by boldly attacking and checking 
the destructive career of a mad elephant named Kahar Koh who 
had broken loose in the streets of the city, and for this manly and 
chivalrous deed was granted certain lands in Malwa by the Emperor, 
part of which stUl form the Ratlam, Sitamau and Sailana States, 
This incident took place about 1647 A.D. Ratan Singh made the 
village of Ratlam his capital, but he had scarcely settled there when 
he was called on by the emperor to accompany the head of his clan 
Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur against the combined forces of 
Murad and Aurangzeb. In the battle of Fatehabad^ near Ujjain on 
20th April, 1658, he fell fighting with great valour. His seven ^ Ranis 
immolated themselves upon his funeral pile, and a cenotaph erected 
in his honour still stands on the battlefield. Ratan Singh was suc"* 
ceeded by his. eldest son Ram Singh. 

Ram Singh (1658-82), after ruling for 24 years,, died in a fight at 
Daulatabad and was succeeded by his eldest son Shiv Singh (1682- 
84 ) who only ruled two years. 

What took place on Shiv Singh’s death has always been a sub- 
ject of discussion between the Ratlam and Sitamau branches. The 
true facts of the case can never be satisfactorily settled at this long 
interval. Whatever may have been the rights of the case, the fact 
remains that Kesho Das succeeded to the ^cidcii of Ratlam on the 
death of his brother in 1684. About this time an officer of the Mughal 
court called Nasir-ud-din vras sent to collect the jizrya or poll-tax, 
levied on all non-Musalmans, a tax detested by the Rajputs and 


Tod’s Rajasthau, II, 48 Bernier’s Travels (Constable), 38. 

* ® Amarnuath’s llifstonj-EntXam and local 

tradition say seven Eanis, whereas Ratlam Ra&a mentions only two* 



322 


SITAMAU STATE. 


Kesho Das 
( 1693 - 1748 ). 


Gaja Singh 
( 1748 - 62 ). 


Fateh Sintarh 
( 1762 - 1802 ). 


Ea] Singh 
( 1802 - 67 ). 


which had been long in abeyance but had been revived by Aurang- 
zeb in 1680.^ Opposition was offered and Nasir-ud-din was unfor- 
tunately killed. 

That Kesho Das, who was quite young at the time, was personally 
concerned in his murder, there is no proof whatever, but as the ruling 
chief he was held responsible and was deposed by the emperor who 
placed his uncle Chhatar Sal on the gaddi. Kesho Das thus found 
himself deprived of his lands, and it was only after long residence 
at Delhi and a strong representation of his case that he managed to 
get the ear of Aurangzeb who, in 1695, granted him the dci.reeparganas 
of Titrod, Nahargarh and Alot, then yielding a revenue equal to that 
of Ratlam. In the year 1695 Raja Kesho Das established himself at 
Sitamau, and perceiving the natural advantages which the situation 
of the town possessed, he conceived the idea of making it the capital 
of his State, and proceeded to lay the foundations of the rampart, 
afterwards completed by Raja Raj Singh, which still encircles the 
town. Kesho Das’ sister was married to Maharaj Kumar Sardar 
Singh of Mewar. He died in the year 1748. He left two sons, Gaja 
Singh and Bakht Singh. Gaja Singh who succeeded Kesho Das 
was born in the year 1713 and ruled from 1748 to 1752. On account 
of the Maratha raids Gaja Singh, in 1750, was obliged to move his 
headquarters to Laduna, a stronger position than Sitamau. 
Gaja Singh was succeeded by his posthumous son Fateh Singh. At 
this time Sitamau shared the fate of other Malwa States in the 18th 
century and fell under the suzerainty of Sindhia. The Marathas 
established their sway in this part of Malwa about the year 1750, 
when the parganas of Alot and Nahargarh passed to the chiefs of 
Dewas and Gwalior. In the year 1753 Maharaja Daulat Rao 
Sindhia granted Fateh Singh a sanad confirming him in the territory 
he still held on payment of a tribute of 41,500 Salim SJidhl 
rupees annually. Fateh Singh was still a minor and Sindhia practi- 
cally took over the management of the State putting his own official 
in charge. Fateh Singh was obliged to content himself at Laduna 
with the scanty income arising from some four or five villages which 
alone were left in his immediate possession. The ever-increasing 
exactions of the Gwalior officials at last compelled Fateh Singh to 
send a confidential representative to Maharaja Daulat Rao Sindhia. 
In the year 1795 Daulat Rao granted Fateh Singh a new sanad fixing 
the tribute at 42,000 Salim Shdhi rupees per annum, the incre- 
ment being apparently made to bring the sum into conformity with 
the tribute imposed on the neighbouring States of Ratlam and 
Sailana. Fateh Singh died in the year 1802. 

Raj Singh who had been born in 1783 succeeded to the gaddt on 
the death of his father. During his rule the generals of Sindhia and 
Holkar continued to ravage the State, notwithstandin g the 

1 Bir Heary Elliot. The J/istory ofTndici an tM hy lU oion historima VH, 296, 



HISTORY. 


323 


agreements, and laid waste large tracts of fertile land, the dominions of 
Sindhia being extended up to the very gates of Sitamau. Moreover, 
increased annual tribute of 60,000 Salim Shahl rupees was exacted 
from the Chief though the sanad contained a stipulation for only 
Hs, 42,000. When this grievance was represented to Bapu Rao 
Sindhia, the officer of the Gwalior Darbar entrusted with the collec- 
tion of the tribute, he expostulated with his subordinate at Sitamau 
and ordered that only the stipulated sum of Rs. 42,000 should be 
levied together with such an additional amount as was absolutely 
necessary for defraying the actual expenses of the officials and esta- 
blishment deputed to collect tribute. The Gwalior officials, however, 
did not relax their hold on the State and subjected its inhabitants to 
great oppression. At this juncture the British appeared on the scene 
and Sir John Malcolm in 1820 mediated an agreement ^between Maha- 
raja Daulat Rao Sindhia and Raja Raj Singh by which the latter 
was confirmed in the possession of his territory on paying a tribute 
of Rs. 60,000 Salim Shdhl annually to the Gwalior Darbar 
under the British guarantee. The increase of Rs. 18,000 appears to 
have been due to a misunderstanding as to the actual amount 
collected during the preceding 20 years- The sum of Rs. 42,000 
was the actual tribute, the Rs. 18,000 being the sum levied to defray 
the expenses of collection. These expenses of collection were, 
however, at the time confounded with the actual tribute. This mistah e 
inflicted on the State the additional burden of Rs. 18,000 a year. 
The original sanad stating the annual tribute to be Rs. 42,000 could 
not be produced at the time when the agreement was negotiated by 
Sir John Malcolm. It was afterwards found and is in the possession 
of the present ruler. In this agreement Sindhia pledged himself to a 
course of pacific non-interference; he further agreed not to send his 
troops to levy tribute from the Sitffinau State, not to interfere in the 
internal management of the State, or the succession of the chief. This 
agreement, which had been concluded between the Raja and Sindhia’s 
representative Bapu Sindhia, secured to the Chiefs of Sitamau the 
undisturbed possession of their hereditary lands. Repeated represen- 
tations were made regarding tribute. In consideration of these and 
the discovery of the original sa nad a remission of five thousand 
rupees (Rs. 5,000 ) a year was made in 1860 by Maharaja Jayaji 
Rao Sindhia when the Raja’s son Maharaj Kunwar Ratan Singh 
personally waited upon him. The State whose autonomous existence 
was thus secured has been unswervingly and staunchly loyal to the 
paramount power. During the trying times of the Mutiny in 1857 
Raj Singh remained faithful to the British Crown and in recognition^ 
of his fidelity, friendship and attachment, a khilat valued at 
Rs. 2,000 was presented to him. In 1865 the Chief agreed to cede 
any land that might be required for railway purposes on the usual 
terms. In Raj Singh’s time the ra mpart commenced in the days of 

^ Appendix * — 



324 


SITAMAU STATE. 


Bhawani 

Singh 

( 1867 - 85 .) 


Bahadur 

Singh 

( 1885 . 99 .) 


Kesho Das was completed, while the palace, the foundations of which 
had been laid by Raja Fateh Singh, was finished by Raj Singh’s mother 
Rani Chaoriji. On the restoration of peace Raja Raj Singh 
had removed his capital from Laduna back to Sitamau ( 1820 ). Raj 
Singh was an able ruler and noted for his philanthrophy and charity. 
As his two sons Abhay Singh and Ratan Singh had predeceased him, 
in 1844 and 1864, respectively, he was succeeded by his grandson 
Raja Bhawani Singh, son of Ratan Singh. In the year 1881 an 
agreement was concluded between the Government of India and Raja 
Bhanwani Singh by which the Darbar abolished all transit duties on 
salt passing through Sitamau, receiving as compensation a sum of 
Rs. 2,000 annually. After ruling for 18 years Bhawani Singh died 
without issue on the 28th May 1885, and was succeeded by Raja 
Bahadur Singh, the elder son of Thakur Takht Singh of Childa. On 
this occasion Sindhia put forward a claim to be consulted regarding 
the succession, and also claimed the right to receive nazarana 
(succession dues). It was ruled, however, that Sitamau being a 
mediatised chiefship of the first class, the primary condition was not 
tenable, while succession dues were payable to the British Govern- 
ment only and not to the Gwalior Darbar. The one yearns revenue 
leviable under the rules on the occasion of Bahadur Singh’s suc- 
cession was, in consideration of the poverty of the State, commuted 
to half that sum^ amounting to Rs. 35,000 {Salim Shahl), A khilat 
of the value of Rs. 8,875 was bestowed on the Chief at his installation 
in the form of a deduction from the nazarana. In February 1887 on 
the occasion of the Jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen-Empress, 
the Raja abolished all transit duties in his State, except those on 
opium and wood. 


Raja Bahadur Singh died of pneumonia on the 8th of April 1899. 

( 1899 - 1900 .) he left no male issue he was succeeded by his adopted brother 
Shardul Singh who, however, died of cholera on the. 11th of May 
1900. During this short period the State experienced the terrible 
famine of the Samvat 1956 (A.D. 1899), which told heavily upon 
the finances of the State, as the Darbar was obliged to incur the 
heavy debt of one lalch and twenty-five thousand rupees in order to 
afford relief to its subjects. 

Bam Singb Shardul Singh left no heir and the Government of India selected the 
( ^ present Chief, Ram Singh, second son of the Thalcur of Kachhi- 
Baroda as the nearest collateral relative, to succeed the deceased. In 
consideration of the poverty of the State only Rs. 40,600 or half a 
year’s net income was taken as nazardm which was, moreover, made 
payable in four instalments. A khilat of the value of Rs. 10,125 
was at the same time bestowed on the Chief at his installation in 
the form of deduction from the nazarana. Raja Ram Singh was 
invested with ruling powers on the 28th February 1905, 



HISTORY. 


325 


In 1905 the Chief was presented to Their Royal Highnesses the 
Prince and Princess of Wales at Indore. 

The Chief bears the hereditary titles of His Highness and Raja, Titles, 
and enjoys a salute of 11 guns. 

The total revenue of the State is 3 lakhs which includes ^ j j 

khdlsd, 1 *07 jdgtr^ and 67,000 mud^. 

Of the 93 villages comprised in the State (of which 4 are at pre- 
sent deserted ), 30 are khdlsd and 63 jdgir or mudfi. 

The alienated villages are held by 41 jdgtrddrs and mud^ddrs. Of 
these 32 are Rajput sarddrs, 12 being Rathors, 6 Chauhans, 6 Bhatis, 

1 Sesodia, 1 Gaur and 6 Charans; of the rest 1 is a Jat, 3 are 
Kayasthas, 4 Brahmans, 1 a zandm sarddr and 1 a swaml. 

The sarddrs are divided into four classes. Two are in the first Jagirdars. 
class and exercise the powers of a magistrate of the second class 
within their holdings and have a right to receive dohrl tdzlm,^ or 
double tdzim from the Chief and hdUka-kurdh,^ Six are second 
class jdglrddrs. They exercise third class magisterial powers and 
enjoy dohri tdzim and hdhupusao. -five jdgirddrs are in the 

third class, who exercise no magisterial powers and receive only 
single tdzim. The eight in the fourth class do not receive tdzim. 

All pay tribute to the Darbar, and are liable to personal service. 

On a Thakur’s death his eldest legitimate son succeeds, or an 
adopted heir. In the case of a direct heir itazdrdna at 1 0 per cent, 
on the assessed income of ihejdglr is taken and in the case of adop- 
tion at 25 per cent. No succession takes place without the Chief’s 
sanction, and the tribute payable is liable to enhancement. Jdglrddrs 
attend the Chief at all important festivals and on occasions of 
the Chief’s birth-day, marriage in the family, etc. 

The jdglrddrs of Dipakhera and Khejria are First class 
sarddrs. 

The Thakur holds six villages with a revenue of Rs. 10,800, and Dipakhera. 
pays Rs. 3,900 in tribute. Besides double tdzim and hdt-ka-kurdb 
he takes part in the ceremony of installing a new Chief on the gaddl. 

The Khejria Thakur holds seven villages with a revenue of Khejria. 

Rs. 7,700. He pays Rs. 4,233 in tribute to the Darbar. On the 
installation of a Chief he places the kanthi round his neck and 
binds on his sword (talwdr handhai ), 

The remaining jdglrddrs will be found in Table XXXI. 

1 Tanfim is the reception given by the Chief to a Sardar on his entering into 
his presence. 

2 Hdt-ka-Mrab literally drawing] back hands.The Chief places his hands on the 
Sardars’ shoulders drawing them down on to his cheat j in hdku^usao the hands 
are only placed on the shoulders. 



326 


SITAMAU STATE, 


Section III. — Population. 
(Tables III and IV.) 


Enumeration, There have been three enumerations of the State in 1881, 1891, 
and 1901. On the first two occasions the census was not carried out 
in detail, but in 1901 returns were made out for all villages and 
tahstls. The total population in 1881 amounted to 30,839 persons, in 
1891 to 33,307, and in 1901 to 23,863. There is no doubt that the 
decrease in 1901 was mainly due to the famine of 1899-1900 from 
which the State had not recovered when the enumeration took place^ 


Tensity and 
Variation, 


Towns and 
Villages. 


The density in the last enumeration amounted to 68 persons per 
square mile as compared with 93 in 1891 and 88 in 1881. The 
average density for Malwa in 1901 was 116 persons to the square 
mile. The variation in the three decades amounted in 1891 to an 
increase of 7 per cent, and in 1901 to a decrease of 28 per cent. 

Out of a total of 90 inhabited towns and villages, 83 had a popula- 
tion of under 500 persons, 5 between SCO to 1,000, 1 of over 1,000 
and under 2,000, and 1 town, that of Sitaniau, with 5,877 inhabitants. 
The number of occupied houses was 5,747 with an average popu- 
lation of 4 • 1 persons per house. 


Migration. Migration has but small effect on the population. Even in the 
famine it was not till driven to absolute extremities that the villagers 
attempted to leave their homes. Of the total population 74 per 
cent, were born in Sitamau and 23 per cent, in contiguous districts 
of other States, 


.Vital Statis- The record of vital statistics was only started in 1902-03, and it 
(Table V. cannot be said that the returns are very reliable. The ratio or 

and VI. ) recorded births per 1,000 in 1902-03, 1903-04, 1904-05 and 1905-06 

was 11 *8, 12 *75, 19*2, and 18’ 1, respectively, and that of deaths 20*5 
18*12, and 12 ’4. The high rate of the deaths in 1902-03 and 
1903-04 was caused by an epidemic of pneumonia. 


Sex, Age, and Of the whole population in 1901, 12,175 were males and 11,688 
females. This gives an average of 960 fem.ales to every 1,000 males. 
The highest ratio exists among Hindus where it amounts to 960 
females to 1,000 males. The total unmarried population numbered 
8,137, the married 11,244, and the widowed 4,482 including 1,339 
widowers and 3,143 widows. Statistics of civil condition are given 
in the annexed table : — 


Civil Condition, 
1901. 

Males, 

F emales. 

Total, 

Unmarried 

5,363 

2,774 

8,137 

Married 

5,473 

5,771 

11,244 

Widowed 

, 1,339 

3,143 

4,482 



POPULATION. 


327 


Classified by religion Hindus number 21,406, constituting 90 per Eellgiong. 
cent, of the population, while Muhammadans number 1,517, Jains 
781, and Animists 159. 

The prevailing form of speech is the Malwi dialect of Rajasthani Language and 
spoken by 23,336 persons or 98 per cent. Of the total population 
only 1,246 persons or 5 per cent, were literate, of these 42 were 
females. 

Of the various castes Brahmans and Rajputs are the most CJastes, 
numerous, each numbering 4,000 ; according to social precedence Bacea. ^ 
they stand first. The other castes such as Dangis, Kunbis, Balais, 

Chamars are of some note. 

The people dress in the fashion common to Malwa. Ordinarily the Social 
dress of a male Hindu consists of a i)agn or turban, a piece of cloth 
about 50 or 60 feet long and 6 inches wide with gold ends ; this cloth is I>ress. 
sometimes shot with gold and silver thread, called ntandll^ and worn 
by well-tO'do people on festive occasions ; a hurta or shirt, angarkha 
or long coat reaching the middle of the leg fastened with cords on 
the right breast, a dhoti or loin cloth, worn round the waist, and a 
dupatta or scarf. All these are generally white except the turban 
which is often coloured red, yellow? etc. The Rajputs often wear the 
multi-coloured pagfi peculiar to Rajputs, tied in narrow and pictures- 
que folds, and a sword buckled round the waist the emblem of the 
soldier class. Being in clo^ touch with the Muhammadan State of 
Jaora they are also addicted to wearing i^aijdmds instead of dhoti 
and the sdfa instead of a pagru Agricultural classes wear the dhoti 
a handi or coat, a pichhora of khddl cloth and a pagrl. In the chief 
town there is a greater tendency to dress after the European fashion 
but retaining a sdfa or a round flat cap as head dress, with boots 
and shoes instead of jutl. 

The Hindu female dress consists of a lehenga or petticoat of 
coloured cloth, a lugada or orhnl used as an upper garment to cover 
the face and upper part of the body and a kdnchll or bodice. 

The only distinction between Muhammadan and Hindu dress is 
that Muhammadan men, except agriculturists, wear paijdmds .and 
not the dhpti, and fasten angarkha to the left and not like the Hindus 
to the right of the chest; females wear paijdmds instead of the 
lehenga and a kurta over the kdnchll. 

Meals are generally taken twice at mid-day and in the evening Food, 
only well-to-do people taking light refreshment in the morning and 
in the afternoon. The staple food grains used are wheat, jowdr, 
maize and gram and the pulses tuar, urad, mung and masur. The 
ordinary food of the rich and middle classes consists of chapdtls 
( thin cakes ) of wheat-flour, tuar, rice, ghl^ vegetables, milk and 
sugar. The poorer classes, except on festive occasions, eat rolls 
( thick cakes ) made of the coarser grains with pulses, vegetables 



328 


SITAMAU STATE. 


Daily life. 


Honscjy. 

Marriage. 


Disposal of 
tlse dead. 


Festivals and 
aronsements. 


Nomencla- 

ture. 


Public 
Health, 
Plague, etc. 


uncooked onions, salt and chillies* No local Br^mans or Banias eat 
flesh. All castes except the Brahmans smoke tobacco and eat 
opium, while amongst the Rajputs the latter is also drunk in the 
liquid form called kusumba. 

The greater part of the population being agriculturists spends its 
days in the fields from sun^rise to sun-set. The mercantile popuia* 
tion begins work at about 9 a.m. usually closing shops at about 
6 or 7 p.m. 

Houses are mostly built of mud, with thatched or tiled roofs. In 
Sitamau itself there are a few brick and stone built houses. 

Child marriage is common with the higher classes. Polygamy is 
general only among Rajputs of position. Widow marriage prevails 
among the lower classes. 

The dead bodies of Hindus are burnt, except those of Sanyasis, 
Bairagxs and infants, which are buried. Cremation takes place by 
the side of a stream, the ashes being, if possible, conveyed to a 
sacred river ; otherwise they are committed to some local stream. 
Muhammadans bury their dead. 

The principal festivals are Dasahra, Holi^ Diwdli, Gangor and 
local fairs. All the sarddrsoi the State attend the Dasahra Darbar 
to pay their respects to the Chief. Before the celebration of this 
festival all weapons are examined and repaired. This is a martial 
feast observed with great enthusiasm. The Hdl and Diwdlt are 
general festivals, the Gangor being confined to females only. 

The ordinary amusements in villages are drum-beating and sing- 
ing among grown-up people, and hide-and-seek, gUi-danda ( tip-cat ) 
kite-flying and ankhmlchi (blind man’s buff) — of the children. 

Hindus name their children after gods or famous personages. 
As a rule each man has two names, a janma’-rdshi-ndm, 
which is used when the horoscope is drawn up and the 
"bolta ndm or common name by which persons are generally 
known; the latter are of religious origin or merely fanciful 
and affectionate, such as Ram Singh, Bir Singh, Damodar, Sukhdeo, 
Bheru Singh. The agricultural and lower classes are very fond of 
dimunitives such- as Rama, Bherya, Sukhya, and the like. Names 
of places are given after persons such as Sitamau from Sita, Gopal- 
pura after Gopal, Gangakheri after Ganga, and so on. 

Plague first appeared in Dipakhera, a jdglr village, on the 13th 
February 1904, but the Th^ur did not inform the State authorities 
till the 21st February 1904, as. he supposed the cases to have been 
caused by some other disease. It did not spread, however, 
remaining in the village. There were in all 8 cases and 6 deaths. 
The plague was of the bubonic kind. Segregation, evacuation 
of houses and quarantine were all employed as preventive means. 
The people were not ready to co-operate in taking these measures. 



CHAPTER IL 

ECONOMIC. 

(Tables VII— to XV, XXIX and XXK.} 

Section I.— Agriculture, 

(Tables VII to X.) 

The country slopes gradually from south-west to north-east, and General Cois- 
the general character of the soil is the same throughout this small 
State. It consists mainly of the black cotton variety, is fertile, and 
bears good crops of all the ordinary grains and of poppy. 

The cultivators recognise four chief kinds of soil in the State, Clasaea o6 
each of which is sub-divided into three comparative classes according 
to its fertility and richness. They are kali or black cotton soil, hhuri, 
a grey sandy soil, pilimatti, a hard yellow soil, and dhamni a reddish 
gravelly soil ; the first two are far superior to the others and are the 
most cultivated. They all bear crops at both the kharlf ( autumn ), 
and rabi ( spring ) harvests. The first three classes, of the soil are 
suitable for irrigation. 


The results of a local analysis made ter ascertain the quafity of the 
soil are given in the table annexed : 


Name of SoU* | 

OltSiSS, 

Percentage 
of loam, 

! 

1 

Percentage ' 
of sand. 

yield per acre of opium, 
maine and wheat, in* 
pounds. 



1 


Opium. Maize. 

r 

Class 1 

90 

10 

22 1,900 

1 

„ 2 

86 

14 

20 1,500- 

Black soil, irri-*<( 


C 90 

10 ? 


gable. 

3 

1 68 

32 i 

16 1,150 

f 


5 90 

10 

380 Wheat. 


tl 1 

t 90 

' 10 

250 Jowar^ gram 





and cotton*. 



( 80 

, 20 

250 Jowdr, and 

Black soil, not'^ 

» 2 

< 


320 gram. 

irrigable. 


1 82i 

, . 17i 

250 Jowdr. 



C 78 

22 ? 

160 Jowdr and 

' 


1 70 

30 S 

Cotton, 





Opium. Maize. 

r 


< 80 

20 

32 ' i,9oa 


» 1 

1 82 

18 

24 1,500 

1 

2 

78 

22 

24 1,500. 

BhufH irrigated.-^ 

3, 

( 91 

9 

20 1,200 

1 

n 3 

1 90 

10 

16 960 



i 76 

24 

16 960' 



330 


SITAMAU STATE. 


Seasons and 
operations. 


Cultivated 
area and 
variation , 
(Tables VIII 
and IX. ) 
Agricultural 
practice. 
Kharif crops. 


Kabi Crops. 


Name of Soil, 

Class. 

Per- 
centage 
of loam. 

Per- 
centage 
of sand. 

1 

Yield per acre of 
opium, maize and 
wheat, in pounds. 

r 

Bhuri, unirri- ^ 

Class 1 

91 

9 

320 Jowdr, gram, 
and cotton. 

gated. L 

„ 2 

55 

1 

45 

125 Jowdr and 
cotton. 

Opium. Maize. 

PiJhnattif irrigated 

» 1 

75 

25 

20 1,200 

. . ^ 

Bhdmni soil, un- J 

irrigated. | 

i: 

» 1 

85 

15 

320 Jowdr, black 
gram, and 
cotton. 

2 

85 

15 

250 Jowdr and 
cotton. 


» 3 

80 

20 

250 Jowdr and 
cotton. 


The agricultural year is divided into two seasons. The khanf or 
shidlu lasting from July to October in which the autumn crops are 
sown, and the rabi^ or unhdlu spring crop season commencing in 
October and ending in March or April. 

In the earlier season .the more important but less Valuable 
food grains such as jowdr and maize are sown and in the 
latter wheat, gram and poppy. 

Both seasons depend entirely on the south-west monsoon for 
their water-supply, the rich black soil being capable of absorbing 
sufficient moisture to admit of the production of the spring- 
crops without irrigation except in the case of poppy. 

The proportion of cultivated to uncultivated area is small, only 
about 45,200 acres or 15 per cent, being under crops in ordinary years. 
There has been no marked change in the area cultivated. 

Land intended for khanf crops is ploughed twice or thrice in the 
end of May or June, operations being usually commenced on the third 
of Vaishdkh, termed the Akhdtij. Weeds are thus extirpated and the 
land is made ready to absorb the rain. After the first fall of rain it is 
ploughed again and prepared for sowing. At the sowing it receives 
another and final ploughing. If the rainfall is favourable the kharif 
crops are sown in Jeth and A sar/t (between 20th of June and 20th of 
July). Most kharif crops a,s jowdr and maize receive two weedings, 
tod cotton three* Rice after transplanting is weeded three times. 

Preparations for the rabi sowings begin in Asdrh (June- July) and 
(July- August). The ground is ploughed repeatedly to ensure 
the absorption of the rain. Sowing then commences after the 
Dasahra usually in October. Wheat, gram, linseed, barley and 
sarson are generally sown in Kdtik (October-November), but poppy 



AGRICULTURE. 


aai 


is not sown till Aghan (December-January). These crops are not 
weeded except poppy. 

The seed is usually sown through a drill or hollow bamboo called Sowing. 
ndlyo fixed behind the plough. A small wooden board called a 
ddnglia attached in rear smooths down the soil over the seed and 
fills in the furrows {chans or chdnsara. Fine seed such as poppy is 
sown broad-cast. No festival is held at the time of sowing, but in 
certain cases auspicious days (generally, a Sunday, Monday or 
Tuesday), and good omens are awaited before commencing operations. 

The rahi harvest takes place in Phdgun (February- March) and Reaping, 
Chait (March- April). In the case of maize the ears only are cut 
off and dried, while jowdr is cut down and brought in to the farm 
yard (khalyan) where the ears are removed and dried. The ears in 
both cases are then trodden over by bullocks, and finally winnowed. 

Gram and linseed are pulled up when dry and brought into the 
farm-yard, the remaining processes being the same as before. 

A plough with one pair of bullocks can plough from 1 to 2 
bighas per day or even 3 htghas per day in the kharlf season, 
when the ground is more friable. The hire of the ploughman 
with his plough and a pair of bullocks is usually 1 rupee Salim Shdhi 
(equivalent to 8 annas, British coin). But of late, owing to lack of 
labourers, competition has raised the wage to 1 British rupee. 

The area worked by one plough in a year is from 25 to 30 htghas 
( 18 acres). A sum of Rs. 100 will defray the expenses of cultivating 
34 htghas (2 1 to 25 acres) of land ; Rs, 50 being required for a pair 
of bullocks and another Rs, 50 for the plough and other charges. 

As usual in Malwa nearly all the land is dufaslt or double crop Double 
land. The average being in 1905-06, 3,901 acres. cropping. 

Mixed sowings are very popular with the cultivators, the idea Mixed 
being that even if the yield is not so good in each case a complete 
failure is thus avoided. The commonest combinations are jowar 
and tuar and sugarcane and poppy. 

Strictly speaking no systematic rotation of crops is practised, i^otatfoi. 
although different crops are not uncommonly sown in the same field, 
in succession. Thus jowdr is sown in one year and is replaced by 
cotton, gram, or wheat the next year. 

Manure is little used except with poppy, sugarcane and vege- Manure, 
tables, though it is occasionally applied to wheat, gram and cotton 
when fields are close to villages. 

The only available manures which are common in these parts 
are cow dung and village sweepings. Heaps of, these are allowed 
to accumulate in villages during the year and when sufficiently 
decomposed are applied to the fields. 



332 


SITAMAU STATE. 


Irrigated Irrigation is necessary only for poppy, sugarcane and garden 
^rops. produce. When water is ample, it is used with wheat and gram or 

even maize crops, but these crops do not require artificial watering, 
the soil being sufficiently retentive of moisture to ensure the reach- 
ing maturity without it. 

Diseases and Locusts and rats are the greatest scourges. In years of defir 
pests. cient rainfall the latter prove most destructive, the young broods not 

being destroyed by the rain. In 1899-1900 and 1900-01 rats caused 
considerable damage. 

Im lements important implements used are the plough or hal, bakhar 

’ or harrow, a flat log used for breaking clods and levelling the soil the 
Phaora or spade, kuddli or hoe, nai, a seed drill, juda (yoke ), 
kolpa or dora, dardnta (sickle), khurpt (weeder), charas^ muhdlu 
Naia (axes), sandor (for tying the leather bag), (for sitting 
at the time of char as driving), chharpala. 

Crops, whole area ordinarily under crops 38,600 acres are occur 

pied by khartf and 6,600 acres by rahi crops. Of this area 40,335 
acres or 91 per cent, is sown with food crops. 

Dufasll land occupies 6,300 acres or 17 per cent., the crops being 
usually jowdr and maize in the autumn and wheat and gram in the 
spring or maize followed by poppy. 

Kharif crops. The principal khartf food crops are jowdr (Sorghum valgare) 
maize or makka (Zea mays), mung {Phaseolus mungo), urad (Pha* 
seolus radiatus), tuar (Cajanus indicus) and rice {Oryza sativa). 
The chief crops in the spring are wheat (Triticum aestivum) 
gram or chana {Cicer arietinum), and barley or jau (Hordeum 
vulgare)t 

Oil-seeds cover 400 acres, the most important being aTsi, {Liimm 
usitatissimum, ranteli (Guizotiaolifera) and tilli {Sesamum indicum). 
The most important fibre is cotton, which covers on an average 
1,400 acres ; hemp with san {Crotolaria juncia) and amhdrl 
(Hibiscus cannabinus). « 

The importance of opium as a source of revenue makes the poppy 
crop an important one. Poppy covers on an average 4,300 acres, 
the actual figures for 1905-06 being 1,480. It is usually sown in a 
field which has previously had maize grown in it. It is invariably 
manured either by green manure obtained by sowing san or urad 
on the ground and ploughing it Into the soil when in flower, or else 
with village sweepings and cow dung. The plants are thinned out, 
arranged in small beds and carefully watered. Eight or nine water- 
ings are required. When the petals have fallen and the capsules are 
firm to the touch and covered with a light brown pubesence they 
are ready for scarification. The process of scarification commences 
in February or March according to the date of sowing. The scari- 
fication is done with a small three-bladed knife called the nakhi or 


Babi crops. 

Oil-seeds. 

Fibres. 

Poppy and 
other drugs. 



AGRICULTUI^E. 


333 


nana. The blades are fastened together in a line one-eighth of an 
inch apart and wrapped round with thread so as to leave only the 
points protruding. Incisions are made from the bottom to the top 
of each poppy head ; the operation being repeated three times. An 
instrument called the chharpala is used for scraping off the juice. 

It consists of a shallow iron tray 6 or 7 inches wide with one edge 
turned up and two sides open. The flat edge acts as the blade in 
scraping, a piece of cotton saturated with linseed oil is placed over 
the blade, by which it is oiled before being applied to the capsule. 

The juice is removed from the chharpala to a pot containing linseed 
oil. The daily collections are stored in an earthern pot at home. 

The cultivation of bhang and gdnja is not carried on systema- Hemp drugs, 
tically, though the seeds of these plants are sometimes sown by 
farmers down the sides of their fields. 

Of fruit trees grown, the following are the most important : — Garden 
jdmphal (guava), rdmphal or bullock s heart (Anona reticulata)^ produce, 
sitdphal or custard apple {Anona squafnosa)^ ntmbu or lime’' (Citrus 
var acidd)^ mltha nlmhu or sweet lime {Citrus var limetta ), anjtr or 
fig {Ficus oarica)^ am^ mango {Mangifera indica)^ kela^ plantain 
{Musa sapientum), andr^ pomegranate {Punica granatum). 

The most important vegetables are potato, raidlu, arvi, cab- 
bage, bengan {Solanum nielongend)^ shakarkand {Batata edulis), 
hdlor, cucumber, and various plants of the gourd class. 

No marked improvements have as yet been effected in the imple- Progreps, 
ments which, except for the introduction of the roller-sugar milh 
are the same as they were centuries ago. New varieties of seed 
have only been tried here and there in gardens, the cultivator being 
suspicious of any innovations, while no attempts have as yet been 
made to use artificial manures. 

Irrigation is chiefly employed with poppy and sugarcane and Irrigation 
occasionally for wheat, barley, peas, masur, and gram if sown in a^^ix) 
irrigable land. The total irrigated area (1905-06 ) amounts to 3,901 
acres or 9 per cent, of the total cultivated area. 

The principal sources of irrigation are wells and orhls, tanks being Source*, 
comparatively little used for this purpose. 

The water is usually raised in the leather bag known as a charas 
but occasionally the counterpoise lift known as a dhenkli is em- 
ployed. 

The average cost required for making an ordinary kachcha or Cost of wells, 
unbricked well is Rs. 125 and for a masonry well Rs. 400 to 500. 

The average area irrigated by a kachcha well is about 3 acres 
(5 btghas)y and by SLpakka well, double the area. 

. Land is generally irrigated from wells by means of the sundia 
charas^ a leather bag containing about 50 gallons of water. It derives 



334 


SITAMAU STATE, 


Cattle and 
live-stock. 
(Table VII.) 


Prices. 

Horses. 

Diseases. 


its name from the spout, not unlike an elephant’s trunk [sund)^ 
through which the water enters the channel leading to the field. In 
a few places orhls^ wells dug in a river bed or fed directly from 
a stream, are used. Tanks are seldom so used. 

The live-stock was first censused in 1904-05. The figures are 
given in Table VIL The cattle belong mostly to the well-known 
Mdlwi breed and are reared in all villages of any size. Little care is, 
however, taken to ensure purity of stock, goats and sheep are simi- 
larly reared but not special breeds exist. 

The price of a good cow varies from Rs. 12 to Rs. 18, of a bullock 
from Rs. 30 to Rs. 50, a male buffalo from Rs. 10 to 15, and a female 
from Rs. 30 to 50. Sheep and goats cost from Rs. 2 to 4 each. 

Ponies are bred in some villages. They are of small size. They 
sell for Rs, 15 to 25 each. Donkeys cost about the same. 

The diseases affecting cattle are foot and mouth disease, pneu- 
monia affections and ulcers and abscesses usually in the stomach or 
genital organs. Anthrax is very rare. 

In all cases a hot iron is, if possible, applied to the affected part 
while country liquor and medicinal herbs are administered. It is 
also usual to resort to mantras or incantations as the evil eye is 
generally looked upon as the source of the evil. 

Pasture grounds are more than sufficient for all needs, and except 
in the famine of 1899-1900, no lack of fodder has ever been 
experienced. 

The classes engaged in agriculture are Kunbis, Anjanas, Kachhis 
Gujars, and Ahirs, and form about 50 per cent, of the populations. 
Holdings are small, one cultivator seldom holding more than 10 acres 
(16 highas). 

Indebtedness. To be in debt is the normal condition of the cultivator and even of 
many landholders. Although the famine of 1899-1900 and recent 
bad seasons are given as the cause, there is no doubt that lavish 
expenditure on marriages and other ceremonies and a total inaptitude 
for saving is mainly responsible. As a rule, the local tt±>ddr who 
advances seed and cash is the creditor. 

Takkavi, Before 1899-1900 all advances were made by tlpdars and local 
bankers. In the famine, however, and during the bad seasons that 
followed the cultivator was unable to obtain advances of khad-hlj^ 
( t.e., food and seed grain), the local bankers being chary of advan- 
cing any more to men already deeply in their debt. The State then 
made advances (fakkdvi) of both cash and seed. On cash grants 
12 per cent, per annum is charged, while on seed advances the 
amount advanced is received in kind, plus one-quarter or 25 per cent. 
This is known as {galla'^ corn ; sawdn = Ij). 


Pasture, 


Agricultural 

population. 



FORESTS. 


335 


Section II.-Rents, Wages and Prices. 

(Tables XIII and XIV.) 

The land being all the property of the Chief and no proprietary 
rights being recognized^ no rents are paid, the contributions of the 
ryots being revenue. 

The loss of population incurred in the famine of 1899-1900 raised 
the wages of all classes by 50 per cent, temporarily but no general 
rise is noticeable. 

Wages for agricultural operations are usually paid in kind. For Wages, 
reaping jowdr, 8 seers of grain ; for maize, 5 seers ; for urad and 
chavla^ 20 seers ; and for rice, 5 seers are given. In the case of 
wheat, 4 juris or bundles, about 4 seers weight of grain ; for gram 
1 chdnsa or row of plants is given for every 40 chdnsa, 
gathered, a hlgha containing about 500 chdnsas. 

The proportion of the outturn absorbed by these wages is in 
the case of jowdr i-, maize v/heat x\jj gram, yV* i and 

chavla 

A man thus makes from 4 to 4^ seers a day or about 2^ 
annas worth. For picking cotton, 2 pies are given for every seer 
picked. In the case of operations on the poppy plant it is usual 
to pay cash wages. Labourers now get from 3 to 4 ann as a day, 
and a small quantity of opium. Formerly the rate was from one 
to two annas, but after the famine, in which, notwithstanding all the 
efforts of the State, there was a considerable loss of life, wages rose. . 

These have risen, wheat which sold in 1880 at 22 seers to the Prices, 
rupee now sailing at 10 only, jowdr at 13 instead of 40, maize at 19 
instead of 40, and gram at 16 instead of 34, roughly a rise of 50. 
per cent. 

The most prosperous members of the community are the merchants Material* 
The settled administration and continued peace which has obtained 
since 1820 has tended materially to increase their wealth, in spite 
of severe loss due to bad years and the difficulty in collecting 
debts remarked on above. 

The Rajput landholder is not much better off as a rule, than his culti- 
vator. His lavish expenditure in marriages and other ceremonies has 
thrown him into the arms of the money-lender, while a hereditary 
distaste for agricultural pursuits and an utter lack of business faculty 
increases his difficulties. 

Section III.*~Forests. 

(Table IX.) 

The State possesses no forest at all, but four small pieces of jungle 
are reserved for shooting purposes. These are watched by a few 
sepoys under a darogah. 



336 


5ITAMAU STATE. 


Building 

stone. 


Hand Indus- 
try. 


Factory. 


Imports. 


Exports* 


Weightsand 

UBASUBES. 


Length. 
Official year. 


In the famine these preserves were thrown open to the public. 
The only trees of any value are the khair {Acacia catechu) ^ 
mahua {Bassia latifolia)^ and a few coppices of sandalwood {San- 
talum album). 

Section Mines and Minerals- 
( Table XIL ) 


There are no known mineral deposits in the State, and the preva- 
lence of Deccan Trap over almost the whole area makes it unlikely 
that any will be met with. A little limestone is found at one or two 
villages and is used locally for building purposes. 

Section V-— Arts and Manufacture- 

( Table XL ) 

In all large villages the coarse country cloth called khadi and 
blankets, are woven, while the usual earthern pots and metal vessels 
required for household use are made by local artisans. No impor- 
tant manufactures exist, however. Opium is made to a very small 
extent only. 

A ginning mill was opened in 1902, and in 1903 put out 6,684 
maunds of cleaned cotton, and in 1905, 18,000 maunds. 


Section Vl.—Commerce and Trade. 

Trade, although it has grown rapidly since the opening of the 
Rajputana-Malwa Railway and the construction of a metalled road 
to Mandasor, is still more or less in its infancy. 

The chief imports are rice, sugar, salt, English piece-goods, 
country cloth (from Marwar and Gujarat), manufactured metals, 
hardware, and kerosine oil. 

The chief exports are food, grains, oil-seeds, cotton (raw and 
cleaned), ghi^ hides, and crude opium. 

The weights used are all hachcha^ or half those known as pahka. 
The maund in this case contains 40 seers. 


5 Rupees = 1 Chhafdk. 

2 Chhatdks = 1 Adhpao, 

2 Adhpaos = 1 Pao, 

2 Paos = 1 Adhser. 

2 Adhsers = 1 Seer (40 British rupees). 

21 Seers = 1 Paseris. 

5 Seers or 2 Paseris = 1 Dhari. 

4 Dharis = 1 Maund (or 40 seers =1,600 rupees). 

The measure of length is the gaz or war of 52 inches. 


There is not one fixed date for the commencement of the official 
year. The St^te financial year commences on the first of July, 
but in the Judicial Department it begins on the first of April. 



MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. 


337 


As a rule, the merchants follow the Vikrama Samwat era, both the 
Purnamanta and A manta systems being followed* The majority 
follow the latter. 

The following table gives time as divided by the people in general. 
In certain of the State police stations kachchi ghan measures are 
kept. The State offices are provided with modern clocks and 
follow the European division of the day. All religious and other 
ceremonial observances are measured by kachchi gharls* 

Table of Time, 


60 Vipals — 1 Pala, 

60 i^alas = 1 GharL 

2| Gharis = 1 Hour. 

3 Hours = 1 ^rahar> 

8 Frahars = 1 Day and Night. 

7 Days = 1 Saptdh. 


15 Days =^lFakshaor[Fak]i) 
2 Fakshas—l Mas (Month), 
or (Pakh), 

6 Mdsas = 1 Ayan, 

2 Ayans = 1 Year. 

12 Years = 1 Yuga- 


Sitamau is the only trade centre and market town not only for the Centres of 
State but also for the neighbouring districts of Alot (Dewas) Tal 
(Jaora), Gangrar (Jhallawar) and Nahargarh (Gwalior). 

A weekly market is held at Sitamau every Thursday. This is Fairs and 
noted for its transactions in cattle. The average attendance of sellers 
and buyers is about 2,000 persons. Though the weekly markets are 
mainly attended by people from Malwa, cattle traders from Me war 
and Gujarat also attend this gathering. 

The castes and classes engaged in trade are Banias of all sects, Mechanism of 
Agarwals, Porw^s, Oswals, Mahesris, Nimas and Bagdyas, They 
deal in grain, opium, and cloth. 

Muhammadan Bohoras deal in spices, English stores, groceries, 
kerosine oil, and sundry articles. The big merchants purchase from 
the cultivators or petty village traders and import to Sitamau, where 
they sell to agents of firms in various parts of Central India who 
export to Bombay and elsewhere. 

Carriage is effected by means of carts owned mostly by Khatis Carriage, 
and Mails who ply to and from Railway stations to most places in 
the State. In some places carriage is by pack bullocks and buffaloes 
owned by Bagdyas and Musalmans, The Government rupee is the 
chief medium of exchange. Hiindls and money-orders are also 
used, but currency notes are not popular. 


Section VII.— Means of Communication, 


(Table XV.) 

No railways traverse the State, and only one metalled road, Railways! 
the Sitamau-Mandasor road, 18 miles in • length, runs for four 
miles in Darbar territory, the remaining 14 being in Gwalior. 

It connects Sitamau town with Mandasor station on the Rajputana- 
Malwa Railway. It was started in the famine of 1899-1900 as 



SITAMAU STATE. 


338 

a relief work. The porticn lying in Sitrmau^is mainlained by 
Governinent and the rest by the Gvalior Eaibar. Traffic passes 
mainly by bullock cart, but passengers often use springed bullcck 
shigrams or pony tongas. 

Post and A combined pest and telegraph cffice has been opened in Sitfmau 

Telegraph. tewns no other offices exist in the State. 

Section VIIL-Famine- 

(Table XXX.) 

Early records. Early records shew scarcity, but never actual famine, in 1857, 
1867, 1868, 1886 and 1896. 

In 1899-1900, however, the rainfall failed entirely, only 11 inches 
and 61 cents, falling within the State. The result was a severe 
famine. No such visitation had occurred within the knowledge of 
living man and the people were quite unprepared to face it. 

The scarcity was followed by disease which carried off large 
numbers of the weakened population, resulting in a decrease of 
28 per cent, in the population. Ev’ery measure w'as taken to alleviate 
distress but it was not possible to reach all. 

The Darbar spent Rs. 60,000 on relief, and remitted and sus- 
pended Rs. 37,000. 



CHAPTER 111. 

ADMINISTRATIVE. 

(Tables XVI— XXVII.) 

Section I.— Administration- 

In early days the administration was conducted on patriarchal Early days, 
lines. The Chief heard all complaints in open darbar, deciding 
everything verbally. He was usually assisted by a minister who 
was financial adviser. The districts were farmed out to merchants 
who, after paying the amount of their contract made, what they 
could out of the cultivator. 

Maratha raids and heavy contributions levied from the Chief 
increased the burden of the ryot and finally caused the evacuation 
of most of the villages. After 1820 the country began to recover 
slowly and cultivators gradually returned to their villages. 

The Chief is the head of the administration, bemg the final authority Present 
of reference in all matters connected with the general administra- 
tion and civil suits. In criminal cases his powers are limited. 

He is assisted by a dlwdn or minister who acts under the Chief's 
order, exercises a general control over all subordinate officials, and 
is the chief executive officer. 

The administration is divided into the Mahakma khds or diwan's Departments, 
office, the Judicial Department, Revenue, Police, Customs, 

Accounts, Education, Shdgird-pesha (dealing with the Chiefs private 
establishment), Public Works or Tdmir, Medical, Modikhdna and 
Miscellaneous. 

The official language in the State is* Hindi in which all records official 
are kept. langange. 

For administrative purposes the State is divided into three tahsils Administra- 
with headquarters at Sitamau {sadr ■ tahsU), Bhagor and Titrod ‘iivisions 
The sadr tahsll is under a tdhsilddr who controls the revenue 
work of the whole State. The Bhagor and Titrod tahsils are under 
ndib-tahsilddrs who act under the orders of the tahsilddr. These 
officials are assisted by a staff of clerks. While the viWzge patwdris 
and havilddrs act under their orders. A pafwdri has charge of 
from four to five villages. 

While the tahsilddr is able to deal with all ordinary matters, he 
refers any important questions to the dlwdn, who, if necessary, 
consults the Chief. 

The tahsilddr is also a magistrate and civil judge. The ndib- 
tahsilddrs are subordinate judicial and revenue officers. 



340 


SITAMAO STATE. 


Tillage No material change appears to have taken place as regards village 
Autonomy, autonomy. Every village has a patel (headman) who is considered 
the official channel of communication between State officers and the 
inhabitants of his village. He assists in collecting the revenue and 
maintains order in the village. His assistance is also required 
annually when the agricultural operations commence and leases for 
holdings are given to cultivators. When disputes arise in the village 
he acts as an arbitrator. He has the honour of presenting nazar 
or hhQt on behalf of the villagers to the Chief and officials at the 
Dasahra festival and when they come on tour. As compensation for 
his services ihepatel gets from 20 to 30 rupees per annum from the 
State. He has also a right to a pair of shoes and a charas (leather- 
bucket) from the village Chamar, free of charge. 

The hav^ldat assists the patel in looking after the village and 
reports all matters to the divisional officer or the patwdrl. He is a 
State-paid servant. The villagers often give him a share of the har- 
vests, but this is optional and not universal. He keeps the 
village register and assists in the collection of the revenue. 

The Balai is the village hereditary watchman. He is given some 
land, revenue-free, by the State and some small share of the produce 
of the village by the cultivators. He is supposed to be acquainted 
with the name, occupations, and exact possession of every in- 
habitant of the village, and is expected to know every house, tank, 
well, tree, field, land-mark and boundary of the village. In all 
disputed land cases his evidence is the most essential. He is an 
appointed guide to all travellers through his limits. He also carries 
messages or loads when directed to do so by the havilddr or patch 

The gdmof or village priest has a few btghas of land given him 
free of revenue and gets small fees at marriages, naming of children 
and funerals at which he officiates. He usually has some old pothi, 
and the current year’s almanac by the help of which he fixes the 
propitious hour for sowing the crops, for marriages, etc.,/ and also 
foretells good or bad seasons. 

The chauhiddr or village-watchman is also included in the village 
community. In most villages he is assigned a small revenue-free 
holding in return for his services. 

The black-smith and carpenter make carts and the implements 
required by the cultivator and assist in building his houses. The 
potter fabricates the earthen utensils of the village. The barber 
besides cutting hair, serves at the time of a birth, marriage, or death, 
and also on festive occasions. All these receive compensation 
for their respective labours in a fixed proportion of the village crops, 
made over at the harvest. 



LAW AND JUSTICE. 


341 


Section II. — Law and Justice. 

(Tables XVI and XVIL) 

In early days judicial powers were undefined and exercised by Early days, 
any one who was sufficiently strong. It was usually recognised 
that all jaglrdars and even farmers of districts could exercise 
judicial powers within the limits of their holdings. The Chief 
heard any cases which came before him in open darbdy deciding 
them verbally, no records being kept. 

In the year 1820 A.D., the State became a feudatory of the British 
Government, and a vakil was placed in attendance upon the Poli- 
tical Agent in Mehidpur which was then the head-quarters of the 
Western Malwa Agency. 

Though matters were still left in most part to the Chief to deal 
with as he wished, cases of dacoity and murder and other crimes of 
a serious nature were required to be reported to the Political Agent 
for confirmation of the sentence, though the sentence awarded was 
in practice seldom interfered with. 

There being no regular punishments, these were often invented. 

As a rule, however, in cases of theft or dacoity a beating with shoes 
was given and a fine imposed. In cases of murder, the hand or 
nose was occasionally cut off, capital punishment was rarely resorted 
to. By degrees these rude measures gave place to more civilised 
methods. 

The Indian Penal and Criminal Procedure Codes and the Evidence Legislation. 
Act have been introduced and are followed in the courts of the State, 
with necessary adaptation to the customs and usages of the people. 

In the year 1895 local regulations for the trial of civil cases were 
introduced. 

There are four courts of original judicature, the mini's and Judicial. 
$adr-tahsildd/s courts at head-quarters, and the two ndib^ 
fahsilddrs' courts in the districts. Besides these State courts, the 
two thdndddrs and the jdgirddrs of Dipakhera, Khejria, Lawarij, and 
Mahua exercise judicial powers. The jdgirddrs of Lawari and 
Mahua have been invested with third-class magistrate’s powers and 
civil powers to hear suits up to Rs. 50 in value. While the jdgirddrs 
of Dipakhera and Khejria exercise second-class magistrate’s powers, 
and can try civil suits up to Rs. 100 in value. The sadrdahsilddr 
is a second-class magistrate and can hear civil suits up to a value 
of Rs. 200. The ndzim is invested with first-class magistrate’s 
powers and can deal with civil suits up to a value of Rs. 2,000. 

Suits beyond 2,000 in value are sent up by him to the diwdn in * 
mahakma^khds, with his opinion. The nd&im also hears appeals 
from the thdndddrs and jdgirddrs. The Chief sitting in Ijlds-' 
khds is the final court of appeal in the State in all civil suits, 
la criminal cases he exercises the powers of a Sessions Judge 



342 


SITAMAU STATE. 


under the Criminal Procedure Code, but submits his decisions in all 
cases involving a sentence of death, transportation or imprisonment 
for life to the Agent to the Governor- General for confirmation. 

Section III,— Finance. 

(Tables XVIII and XIX.) 

Up to 1895 no regular financial system existed in the State. In 
that year a regular budget was prepared for the first time. The 
finances are collected by the tahslldar who is assisted by the 
ndih-tahsilddn. 

Revenue and ^he chief sources of revenue are Land giving, Rs.72,300or 57 per 

xpen iturc. . Customs, Rs. 13,200 ; Excise, Rs. 900 ; tdnka^ Rs. 4,500 ; Law 
and Justice, Rs. 2,500 ; Tribute, Rs. 31,000 ; Compensation for Salt, 
Rs. 2,000. The chief heads of expenditure are Chief’s establish- 
ment, Rs. 22,700; General Administration, Rs. 11,200; Police, 
Rs. 7,100; Education, Rs. 800 ; Medical, Rs. 1,600; Tribute paid, 
Rs. 27,300, and Civil.Public Works, Rs. 5,200. 

Ooinage. Until 1896 the silver coin of the State was the Salim Shdhl rupee 

of Partabgarh. A local copper-coin was struck at Sitamau. 

In 1896, the British rupee was made the only legal tender. Four 
copper-coins have issued from the State mint. All were circular 
coins, that issued by Raja Raj Singh was marked on the obverse with 
a trident [trishut) and on the reverse with a sword ; the issue made 
by Raja Bahadur Singh were dated 1896 and 1897 A. D., and that of 
Raja Shardul Singh in 1900 A. D. The designs on the last three 
coins were otherwise the same. 

Section IV.— Land Revenue. 

(Table XX.) 

Early days. In early days the districts were farmed out to merchants who paid 
the amount agreed on in the contract, and made what they could out 
of the ryot. Revenue was paid in kind. The amount of land 
revenue due from the districts was named in the contract, but 
as no control was exercised over the actions of the ijaraddr^ the 
cultivator was left to his mercy. During the time of the Maratha 
invasion of Malwa the heavy exactions demanded from the Chief 
as well as those levied in raids led to the abandonment of 
most of the land. 

The State is the sole proprietor of the soil and all sums paid by 
the ryot are thus revenue, and not rent. 

Present sya* No settlement has as yet been made, while a survey commenced 

Se^temenfc. object had to be abandoned on account of famine of 

18994900. 

Method of The rates on the land are fixed in accordance with the. nature of 
assessment. position of the field as regards villages. 

Demaid. Although no regular settlement has taken place, assessments are 
based yearly on the nature of the soil and facilities for irrigation. 



MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE. 


343 


The State demand is collected in most cases through 
(bankers), who stand security for the cultivators and pay the 
revenue due at each instalment recovering from the cultivator. When 
a cultivator has no tlpddr the produce of his land is put in charge 
of the havil^ar of the village until the State demand has been 
recovered. The revenue is collected in three instalments. The first 
falls on the full-moon of Kdtik (October) and is known as the 
pdtichwarHauzl, at which one-quarter of the demand is paid in. 

The second instalment called the jawdr-tauzl falls on the full-moon 
of PaiiSi when one-fifth is collected. The remainder is collected at 
the full-moon of Baisdkh and is called the unhdlu-tauzu 

Failure on the part of the tipddr or cultivator to pay the demand 
incurs a penalty of interest charged at 12 percent, per annum. 

Suspensions and remissions are freely made when necessary. In SuapenBion 
1899-00, one- third of the revenue demand was suspended and one- 
fifth finally remitted. 

Tenures are of two main classes : zamtnddrl {khdlsd) BXidjdgtr or Tenures, 
alienated lands. 


Leases are granted to the cultivator by the Darbar for periods ZamindUr, 
varying from 1 to 2 years. 


Alienated holdings are jdgirs and mudfi* The former are held by 
jdglrddrs who pay a certain tribute to the State, while in the latter 
case nothing is paid, though occasionally a temple or religious 
institution has to be supported from the revenue of the mudfi. 


Alienated 

holdings. 


Section V.— Miscellaneous Revenue. 

The chief sources of miscellaneous revenue are opium and country- Excise, 
liquor. 

The average area under poppy is now 4,300 acres, the actual figure Opium* 
for 1904-05 being 4,480. From .22 to 30 rupees an acre are paid for 
such land, a return of ten seers of chtk or crude opium being obtained 
of every acre sown. 

The actual amount exported in the last five years has been ; 1900-01, 

127 maunds; 1901-02, 556; 1902-03, 332; 1903-04, 581; 1904-05, 

460. About 100 maunds pass through State territory each year 
and pay transit duties. 

A duty of Rs. 11-10 per maund is levied on all crude opium exported 
from the State, and on ball opium Rs. 13-4 per maund or Rs. 24-13 
per chest ( 140 lbs.). A transit duty on all kinds of opium passing 
through the State is levied at the rate of Rs. 1-10 per maund provided 
it does not break bulk. 

No restrictions are imposed on wholesale or retail vend. The Sales* 
amount of crude opium and of the manufactured article exported 
in the last five years is given below. 



344 


SITAMAU STATE. 


Other drugs. 
Liquor. 


Balt. 

Customs. 

Stamps. 

Municipality 


Year. 

Quantity exported 
in maunds, j 

Quantity passing in 
transit, in maunds. 

1901 

127- 0-12 

73-32-8 

1902 

556-16- 0 

119-12-8 

1903 

332- 1- 0 

101- 5-8 

1904 

581- 8- 0 

88-19-0 

1905 

460-32- 8 

147 -22-0 


No restrictions whatever are imposed on the sale of hemp drugs 
but a small duty of 6| annas is imposed per maund imported. 

Until lately liquor was distilled in almost every village. Now 
the contract for the State has been given to one contractor who sup- 
plies all but certain jdglr villages. 

No duty is levied except one of three annas per maund on mahud 
flower imported for its manufacture. At present there are 12 shops, 
or one shop to every 29 square miles and 2,000 persons. 

No other control is exercised. The income from this source 
amounts to about Rs. 5,000 per annum. 

No foreign liquor or fermented liquor is drunk in the State. 

The sale of salt is regulated by the agreement entered into with 
the Government of India in 1881 by which all salt that has paid duty 
in British India is admitted into the State free of duty. As 
compensation for dues formerly levied, Rs. 2,000 per annum are 
paid to the Darbar by the Government. 

The total income derived from this source amounted to Rs. 12,000 
in a normal year. 

In 1896 stamps were introduced for judicial purposes. The 
State accountant supplies stamps to the courts, there being no 
licensed vendors. The average 'revenue derived from stamps 
is Rs. 1,100. 

Section VI.— Local and Municipal. 

The chief town is managed by a committee of which the members 
are not elected, but nominated, the minister presiding. 

Section VII.— Public Works. 

(Table XV.) 

The State finances have not yet permitted the employment of a 
trained overseer, and since its organisation in 1895 it has been 
managed by thediwdw, who makes or superintends the making of all 
estimates. A darogah supervises the work of , contractors and 
keeps the accounts. 



EDUCATION, 


345 


The average yearly expenditure during the last ten years 
amounted to Rs. 4,000. Since the organisation of the department in 
the year 1895 the following buildings have been constructed: — Guest 
house, school, coach-house, Zanana hospital, some portions of the 
palace, the new in the Ramniwas garden, and a public library. 

Section VIII.— Army* 

(Table XXV.) 

There is no regular army in the State, but a few Rajput sowars 
serve as a body-guard to the Chief. 

Section IX.— Police and Jails- 
(Table XXIV.) 

A regular police force was set on foot in 1896 and put under Police, 
a Superintendent. Constables are armed with a gun and sword* 

The police number 114 men, giving one constable to three square 
miles and 209 people. 

No special system of recruiting or training obtains. 

The chatikldarSi who number 30, are directly under the revenue Eurai. 
officers, but are, at the same time, bound to assist the police in detect- 
ing crime and reporting all serious cases. 

A man has been trained at Indore in the classification and regi- Finger im- 
stration of finger prints. pressions. 

Only one jail has been established, that at Sitamau, which has Jah ( Table 
accommodation for 31 prisoners. XXVI, ) 

Previous to the construction of this jail in 1896, prisoners were 
locked into a small room without any regard for the number of 
occupants. In the year 1901, there was only one death in the 
Sitamau jail by fever and dysentry, and one in the year 1902-03 by 
pneumonia. In 1904 pneumonia was the prevalent disease in the 
jail as well as in the district. 

The expenditure on the jail amounts to about Rs. 1,200 a year, 
and the cost of maintaining each prisoner, Rs. 3 per month. 

Prisoners are employed on public works and in gardens. 

Section X.— Education* 

(Table XXIII.) 

No school existed in the State till 1895. In that year a primary 
school was started by the Municipal Committee of Sitamau. It 
teaches English, Hindi, and Urdu upto the third ’standard. 

The school had no suitable building till the present building was 
constructed by the Darbar from municipal and other funds in 1897, 

The average number of boys receiving education is 125, of whom 
about IS are usually Muhammadans, and the rest Plindus. There 
are at present 150 boys on the school roll, whose ages vary from 6 
to 25 years. 



346 


STTAMAU STATE. 


Vaccination. 


Since the year 1898 A. D. the school has been maintained by the 
Darbar at an annual cost of about rupees 800 ; the average cost per 
student is about five rupees. 

Section XI*— Medical. 

(Table XXVIL) 

A dispensary was established in 1893 by the late Chief Bahadur 
Singh, Before that the public were treated by native Hahlnts and 
Baids, 

The daily average number of patients, In-door and out-door, for the 
year 1891 was ten; it is now 60. 

The ordinary budget allotment amounts to Rs. 1,400, of which 
Rs. 900 are for establishment, and 500 for medicines, etc.. 

The number of operations, major and minor, performed were in 
1891, 207 ; 1902, 183; 1903, 212 ; 1904, 179. 

Vaccination is regularly carried on and is gradually becoming 
more popular. 

Section XII— Survey. 

As already stated in the land revenue article no survey has yet 
been carried out. A survey was started in 1897, but was abandoned 
for want of funds after nine villages had been surveyed. The pre- 
paration of the rough estimates and other information regarding 
these villages is complete, 



CHAPTER IT. 

ADMINISTRATIVK DIVISIONS 
AND 

GAZETTEER. 

(Tables I, III.— VIII, X. XIII, XVIII. XIX, XX, XXIII, and 

XXIX. ) 

Sadr Tahsil: — This tahsll has an area of 168 square mUes, 
and comprises the town of Sitamau and 46 villages, of which 33 are 
held by jagtrdars. 

The population in 1901 numbered 12,678 : males 6,416, females 
6,262, living in 3,086 occupied houses. 

Classified by religions the population consisted of 10,705 Hindus 
1,267 Musalmans, 578 Jains, 128 Animists. 

The tahsil is administered by the Sadar tahstlddr who is the 
revenue officer and also a second-class magistrate and civil judge 
with powers to entertain suits up to the value of Rs. 200. 

The present capital town of Sitamau and Laduna, the old capital 
are the only places of importance in the tahsil. 

Seventeen jdglr holdings are situated in the tahsil. 

The metalled road traverses the tahsil from Mandasor to Sitamau. 

The total revenue of this tahsil is Rs. 1,84,700, of which the 
jdglrddrs receive Rs. 1,16,600. 

Bhagor Tahsil. — This tahsil lies on the south of the State, has 
an area of 87 square miles, and contains 20 villages of which 
9 are khdlsdf and 11 held by jdglrddrs. The population in 1901 
numbered 4,788 persons : males 2,513, females 2,275, living in 1,129 
houses. Classified according to religions Hindus numbered 4,596, 
Muhammadans 83, and Jains 109. 

The tahsil is in charge of a ndib-tahsllddr who is the 
revenue official and a third-class magistrate and civil judge with 
powers to decide suits up to the value of Rs. 75. He is assisted by 
the usual establishment. Bhagor, the head-quarters, is the only place 
of any note in the tahsil. 

There are 1 1 jdglr holdings situated in the tahsil. 

The land revenue of the tahsil is Rs. 33,200, of which Rs. 9,500 
represent the jdglr income. 

Tltirod T9)llsil.““This tahsil which has an area of 95 square 
miles is situated in the east of the State. It comprises 27 villages of 
which 8 are khdlsd and 19 jdglr villages. 

The population in 1901^ numbered 6,397 persons; males 3,246, 


* Including B»jkheri tahsil now amalgamated with Titrod. 


348 


SITAMAU STATE. 


females 3,151, living in 1,532 houses. Classified by religions there 
were 6,105 Hindus, 167 Miisalmans, 94 Jains and 31 Animists. 

A fiaih-iahsildar is in charge of this small tahsil who is the 
revenue collector and also a magistrate of the third class, and 
civil judge with powers to hear suits up to the value of Rs. 75. 
He is assisted by two patwdrls and the usual establishment. 
Besides Titrod, the head- quarters and the jdgtr village of Bajkheri, 
no placeOof importance exists in the tahsil. 

There are 1 3 Jdgirs in this tahsil. 

The land revenue of the tahsil is Rs. 23,500, the share of the 
jdgtr holdings being Rs. 15,400. 

Gazetteer. 

Bajkheri tahsil TitcodL " — An important jdgir village, situated 
12 miles north of Sitamau in 24° 13' N., and 75* 27' E. The 
jdgirddr is a Rathor. 

The population in 1901 numbered 327 persons : males 163, females 
164, living in 61 houses. Banias and Kumhars predominate. 

It was formerly the head-quarters of a separate tahsil. 

Bhagor tahsil Bhagor; — The head-quarters of the tahsil is situated 
in 23° 53' N., and 75° 25'' E. on the Chambal river, ten miles south 
of Sitamau town. 

The population in 1901 numbered 695 persons : males 356, females 
339, living in 157 houses. 

The name is popularly derived from Bhrigu-Kshetra or the resi- 
dence of Bhrigu Rishi, who is popularly supposed to have held a great 
sacrifice here in ancient days. A local deposit of volcanic ash, not an 
uncommon thing in the Deccan Trap area, is apparently the origin of 
the tale, these ashes being looked upon as the remains of a vast sacri- 
ficial fire, and not, as they in fact are, the remains of one of Nature’s 
own great fires. From the steep banks of the Chambal, lumps of this 
volcanic ash ate taken out by the religiously-inclined, and carefully 
preserved. 

The place is undoubtedly an old one as there are signs of old 
foundations, and old coins have been occasionally dug up. 

A fair is held here annually in the month of Chaitra at the 
Rdm-navmi. 

Brahmans and Dangis predominate and are mostly agriculturists. 

tahsil Sadr: — A village situated in 23° 59' 
N., and 75° 23' E., a mile and a half to the south of Sitamau town. 
It is very picturesquely placed on the edge of a large lake. This is 
one of the oldest places in the State. 



GAZETTEER. 


349 


Popular tradition assigns to it an origin so remote as the fifth 
century A.D, Laduna is said to be a contraction of Lava-nagara, a 
supposition which is supported by the name of the lake Lavasagar. 
Beyond this no further trace remains as to who this Lava was, whose 
name thus survives in association with the town and the lake. 

The local accounts say that Banjaras originally flourished here 
and the construction of the old temples of Dharam Raj and the 
goddess Palki Chamunda and the lake are attributed to these Banjaras. 
The village passed later to the Minas. Nothing is known about 
them except that a wife of one of these immolated herself with the 
corpse of her husband and became sati. A stone chahutra still 
commemorates her fate. Erom the Minas it passed into the hands 
of a Rajput, Dhandu, from whom it passed into the hands of 
Ratan Singh, the founder of Ratlam some 275 years ago. An 
anecdote is told of the way in which Laduna was taken by 
Ratan Singh. “ He encamped near the Lavasagar and asked for 
singhara nuts from the lake. But instead of these he was offered by 
way of joke some lumps of earth. He accepted them, but being 
offended at the insult seized the village from the Dhandus. The 
place where Ratan Singh encamped is to this day called the ** Ratan- 
garh.” Raja Keshodas when he was granted the three parganas 
of Titrod, Alot and Nahargarh and created the independent Chiefship 
of Sitamau, at first made his headquarters at Laduna. From 1750 
to 1820 it also remained the capital of the State, Sitamau being 
too open to attacks by Marathas. 

The population in 1901, numbered 1,697 persons ; males 864, 
females 833, with 470 occupied houses. 

SitEniatl Town tahsll sadr: — The capital of the State situated 
1,700 feet above sea-level, in 24° 1' N. and 75° 23' E., on a small hill. 

The town approached from the east is very picturesque. The 
battlements of the fort stand boldly out above the trees in the 
gardens below, the old fort, wail, and tower seen from afar having 
a curious resemblance to the castle at Windsor, on a small scale. 
The town which is surrounded by a wall with seven gates, is ascribed 
to a Mina Chief Sataji (1465 A.D.). It fell later into the hands of 
the Gajmalod Bhumias, who took it from its original owner about 
A. D. 1549, There is stiU a descendant of these Thakurs in the 
State. In about 1650 Mahesh Das Rather, as has been already 
related, was forced to stop at Sitamau owing to his mother’s illness 
and death, and on the refusal of the Bhumias to grant him land 
for her cenotaph attacked and killed most of them. The connec- 
tion thus established between this place and the Rathor clan 
caused Ratan Singh to get it included in his grant of Ratlam. 

The population amounted in 1881 to 5,764, in 1891, S^Sei, and in 



350 


SITAMAU STATE. 


1901, 5,877 persons: males, 2,925, females 2,952, living in 1194 
houses. Classified by religions, Hindus numbered 4,448 or 76 per 
cent., Jains 435, Musalmans 988, and Animists 6. The population 
has increased slightly since 1881. 

The chief wards (jnxihalla) of the town, named, as a rule, after 
the castes occupying them, are : Nandwana-ghdti, Khdti-muhallay 
Ghatidwds^ Udambayonki-ghdti^ Bohom-bdkiial, Telidwds^ Bdgria- 
Phala, Ghorwdl Ghdti^ Kdztptira and Kdgdihdya* 

A large cattle market is held in the town every Thursday, 

A committee for the management of the town was instituted in 
the year 1895. It consists of 20 membersj 6 being officials and the 
rest nominated by the Darbar from among leading men in the town. 
The Dlwdn presides. 

The income derived from local taxes amounts to about Rs. 1,000 
a year and the expenditure to Rs. 900. Many improvements have 
been effected by the committee since 1895, including the widening 
of the streets, improved conservancy and sanitation, installation of 
street lamps, and erection of a building for the combined post and 
telegraph office. 

The cost of the town police, who number 87 constables, exclusive 
of the superintendent, is Rs. 348 per mensem. Of the total number 
of houses, 800 have one storey, 324 are double-storied, 210 three 
storied, 100 four-storied, and one five-storied ; 1,300 are untiled. 

The town contains a guest house, hospital and a British post and 
telegraph office, and panchdydti houses maintained by the Bagrias, 
Bohoras, Porwals and other Banias where caste dinners are held. 

Sitamau is 132 miles distant by road from Indore, It is connected 
with the Mandasor station of ' the Rajputana-Malwa Railway by 
a metalled road 18 miles in length, being 486 miles from Bombay 
via Ratlam and Baroda. 

Titrod tahsll Tirod: — The head-quarters of the Tilrod 
is situated six miles to the east of Sitamau town, in 24° 2' N., and 75° 
29 E. It is an old village and was in Mughal days of some importance 
being the head-quarters of a mahal in the Mandasor sarkdr of the 
subah of Malwa. The population in 1901 numbered 643 persons, 
322 males, 321 females, with 155 occupied houses. In Mughal days 
Titrod must have been marked by signs of prosperity which have 
since disappeared. It now contains six Hindu temples and one 
Swetambar Jain temple dedicated to Adi-nath. Kunbis and Rajputs 
predominate. 



Appendix A, 


351 


Statement showing the various Crops grown in the 
Sitamau State. 


i^O. 

Season. 

Name of crop* 

Seeds used 
per acre. 

Yield per 
acre. 

Eemabks. 

I. 

Kharif- 

Makka 

Lbs. 

Lbs. 


1 

- 

Sati ••• 

16 

o 

o 

o 

'I Makka C niccijs ) is of two kinds 





one which is reaped within 60 day; 
>-and hence called Sdii, and another 







variety after 105 days, is called 



Adaya 

16 

1,600 

J Adaya. 

2 


Urad *•• 

24 

160 

If Urad (^Phaseoltis radiatus") is sown 






with makkaf only 8 lbs. per acre are 
required. 

3 


Jowar **« ... 

8 


Sorghum vulgare. 

4 


Mung ... ••* 

2 


Mung (Phaseolus mango) is sown 
together withyoiod/*. 

5 


Chavala 

20 

125 

Ghavala (Doliehas sinensis) is sown 






with makka’ 

0 


Bajra 

8 

250 

Penoillaria spicaia. 

7 


Tuar 

16 

200 

Tuar ( Oafanus indicus ) is sown 
with jowar. 

8 


Eice ... ... 

48 

1,000 

Oryza satim. 

9 


Tilli 

7 

200 

Sesamum indi cum. 

10 


Eamtilli 

7 

! 250 

Guizotia olijera. 

11 


Kangni 

7 

200 

Panioum Ualicum. 

12 


Cotton 

16 

250 

Gossypium trtdicum. Cotton is picked 

II. 

Eabi. 




three times, 

13 


Poppy 

16 1 

24 

Papaver somniferiim. Besides crude 
opium, the produce of the poppy 
seeds, amounting to about 280 lbs, 
per acre, is also gathered and sold. 

14 


Wheat 

64 

770 

Triticum aestiriim^ 



(1) Wheat pro- 

■•**«• 





duced byi 
irrigation. 






(2) Wheat pro> 
duced without 
irrigation iu 
Eabi land only. 

64 

320 


15 


Gram— 

(1) By irrigation 

48 

770 

Cicsr atiotinum, 



(2)Without irri 

48 

250 




gation. 




16 


Barley.., 

64 

950 

Rordeum vulgarot 

17 


Peas ... ... 

64 

580 

Pisum satuum and arvensB, 

18 


Masfir 

48 

250 

Ervum lens. 

19 


Sugarcane 

, 3,200 pie- 

- lbs. 

Saocharum ojfflcmarum* 



ces of su- 

3,200 





gaicanes. 

(gour), 


20 


Linseed ,* 

8 

250 

Limcm usitatissimum. This ia 

- . 





produced without irrigation. 




352 


SITAMAU STATE, 


APPENDIX B. 

Substance of an Engagement between Dowlut Rao Sindia 
and the Rajpoot Chief of Seetamhow, Raj Sing, conclud- 
ed through the meditation of Major-General Sir John 
Malcolm, G.C.B., and guaranteed by him in the name of 
the British Government 1820. 

His Highness Dowlut Rao Sindia for himself, his heirs and 
successors agrees to receive from the Seetamhow country a fixed 
annual tribute of Salim Sahi Rupees 60,000 by periodical 
payments as follows, viz : — 

1st Payment of Muckee kist payable in the Hindee month 
Kotug ... ... ... ... ■ ... ... Rupees 12,000 

2nd Payment of Jowaree kist payable in the Hjndee 

months Pose and Muk, Rupees 12,000 in the former and 
Rupees 12,000 in the latter month ... ... Rupees 24,000 

3rd Payment of Oonala kist payable in the Hindee 

months Cheyt and Bysack, Rupees 12,000 ip the former and 
Rupees 12,000 in the latter month ... ... Rupees 24,000 

Amount of fixed tribute, Salim Sahi ... Rupees 60,000 

His Highness engages to abstain from all interference in the 
affairs of the Seetamhow country and from intermeddling with 
regard to the succession to the government of it. His Highness 
further engages to withdraw all troops belonging to him from the 
Seetamhow country, and never in future to sepd a military force 
into it. 

Raj Sing, the Rajah of Seetamhow, engages for himself, his heir 
and successors, punctually to render to Sindia’ s government the afore- 
mentioned tribute of sixty thousand Salim Sahi Rupees as above 
specified, and it is stipulated that provided, after the above-mentioned 
payments or instalments have severally become due, a period of a 
month and a half shall elapse, and the whole or any part of the 
instalments shall remain unpaid, land to the amount of the whole 
instalment in which a failure in the payment of the whole or a part 
shall have occurred, shall be forfeited by Raj Sing and continue 
alienated from him, his heirs and successors for ever, to His High- 
ness Dowlut Rao Sindia, his heirs and successors for ever, but the 
amount of land so forfeited shall be deducted from the amount of 
the tribute, 

(A true translation.) 

(Sd.) Wm. Borthwick, 
Commanding Holkar'^s Horse and acting under the orders of 
Major-General Sir John Malcolntn 

On the recommendation of Colonel Sir R. C, Shakespear, Kt. 



Appendix B. 


353 


and C. B., Agent, Governor- General for Central India, Maharajah 
Jayajee Rao Sindia, of his own free will and accord, by a letter to 
the address of Rajah Raj Sing of Seetamhow, of date 2nd November 
1860, remitted (Rupees 5,000) five thousand rupees of the annual 
tunkha of (Rupees 60,000) sixty thousand payable by this engage- 
ment, the said remission to have effect from Sumbut 1916. 

(Sd.) R. J. Meade, 

Agent, Governor-General for Central India. 
Camp Seetamhow, lMh December, 1863. 

Translation of a Letter from H. H. Maharaja Javaji Rao 
Sindia, to Raja Raj Singh of Seetamhow, dated 2nd Novem- 
ber 1860 A.D., corresponding with Katik Badi 4th, Sambat 1917, 
Your letter intimating that you have sent your son, Ruttun Sing, 
to Gwalior to make some request in the matter of the tribute has 
been received. Your son has represented that such a reduction may 
be ordered to be made from the amount of the tribute as will make 
you ever grateful to us. Therefore from the tribute which you have 
hitherto paid, Rs. 5,000 a year have been deducted as a favour; and 
the remaining sum of Rupees 55,000;shall continue to be paid by 
you, year by year, according to the stipulated instalments. 








D 

fthera. 


r 




Dam«Lkhe.rf 

fj |/} V" 


SITAMAU&PIPLAUDA 

Seale lIiieK = Miles 

0 S 


6 , Gwalior 

JaoPG I -J 5 itamau ' 

Baraucfa Road Metalled = 


Td 
Bsrkhera 
Sanjlt 
Nawab^anj 
Malhargarh 
Piplocla 


Fort 

Bnti-sK Post Office PO 
Telegraph Office T.O 

State Post Office a 

Dak Bungalow h 

Inspection •• c 

Stale Sues House </ 
Camping ground t 

Serai f 

Fairs g 

Thana S' 

Tghsil f 

Thana«TahsiI S 


ArecL PopulaUon^ 

Jaora 568 8420^ 

Stlamau 350 25 

oda 60 


Fair weather roao- 
Railwa^& Station - 




nfkrtu 

‘Jkachurhoc. ^ 

1 ( Wa^i 

^jJjincL f T 

^ \ ' 

Kocns^r \ 

Dho^fo- \ v'O 


f Piploda 
^foKhcrauda 


[d^udixrkhf’^oc. 

I J ■ 

dhefpui/i 

^ MawayiA-nJ ^i' 

^ n J I 

V Baki^Uf^uM 









w 





2'!^ 




N )~'^h(t}iaura, 

' i ' 

■^^pakh^rct. 


\J(eir/in c£t _ 


r^- 


75130 ’ 


/^rep^red Ai/ 6 S Su/e, 

Praughisifiatj^ 

S0jetteer Office C J Itvo^ 






ARMS OF THE SAILANA STATE. 



Arms Gules, a falcon close argent witlim a bordure tenne 
Crest '. — A leopard’s head erased sable. Supporters'. 
Boars argent. 

Motto : — Na hhaya-m ishat-mahadashritam. “ In the protection of 
the great there is not the least fear. 

Note Red is the colour of the State flag. Tenne was given as 
showing that they pay tribute to Sindhia. The bird is the 
Pankhani Devi, the tutelary goddess of the Rathors. 

Gotrachar;— (see Ratlam State Gazetteer.) 




OENEALOQICAL tree 


OF THE SAILANA STATE. 


CHHATAR sal 
(K aja of Ratlam.) 



Pratap Singh 
(of Raoti.) 


(?£) , 

(Fon 


Devi Singh 

(Pre-deceased, 

Ins father.) 



"■>‘Tsr "'■Pr 



IV Mokham Singh 
(1782-97) 

V Lachhman Singh 
' (1797-1826) 

VI. Ratan Singh 
(1826-27) 


VII, Nahar Singh 

(1827-42) 

1 

VIII. Takht Singh 
(1842-50) 

IX, Dole Singh 
(1850-95) 


Danlat Singh 
(Jagirdarof 
Semlia.) 

1 

Bakhtawar Singh 

Shiv Singh 

Khushal Singh 

1 

Nahar Singh 
Bhawani Singh 


X lASWOT Singh jaswant Singh Chhatar Singh 
(Adopted ) ( Adopted by No. IX. ) I 

Raghtt Singh Bishwanath Singh 



. Mandhata Singh Eamchandra Singh AjatShaWS^J 

nr kiosh (lEgirdarofAdwania.) (Jagirdarof Bharora-) Oagtftoc 

® ■ ' adoptedtothegaddio Wjlian- (Bom, 20th March 1900.) 

(Born, 18 th January 189iJ 




CHAPTER I. 

DESCRIPTIVE. 

Section I : — Physical A speots. 

The Sailana State is a first-class mediatised State of the Central Situation, 
India Agency, under the Political Agent in Malwa. It lies on the 
confines of the great Malwa plateau, its own ^ves tern-most district 
being situated in the hilly tract which terminates the Malwa plateau 
in this direction. 

The State is called after the chief town, which is said to derive Name, 
its name from its position at the foot ( anana, literally mouth ) of 
the hills ( sliaila ), 

The State is made up of numerous scattered portions, which are Boundaries, 
mingled in inextricable confusion with those of the neighbouring 
State of Ratlam, making it impossible to define the boundaries with 
any accuracy. Different sections of the State, however, touch por- 
tions of the Gwalior, Indore, Dhar, Jhabua, Jaora, Banswara States 
and Kusalgarh Estate, the two last being situated in the Rajputana 
Agency. 

The confused nature of the boundaries and the lack of a com- Area, 
plete survey makes it similarly impossible to give an absolutely 
accurate figure for the area* Approximately the State covers 450 
square miles, the extremes of latitude and longitude being 23^ O'” 
and 23° 27' north, 74° 46' and 75° 17' east. 

The State falls naturally into two sections. The eastern and major Natural divi- 
portion lies on the Malwa plateau. The country in this section is form- 
ed of wide open rolling plains, with here and there the low fiat-topped 
hills common to the Deccan trap area, while the soil is highly fertile 
and the inhabitants skilled cultivators. From the chief town 
westwards, however, the conditions alter abruptly, 'the wide open 
downs give place to closely packed hills covered with scrub-jungle 
and intersected by numerous water courses; the soil, moreover^ is poor 
sand stony, while the Bhils, who form the greater part of the inhabi- 
tants, are very indifferent cultivators. The whole of the western 
ejection is covered with hills, but none is of any great height, the 
only important peak being that of Kawalakhamata (1,929 feet) 
which stands near Barmawal 23° 7' N and 75° 10'. On the summit 
stands the temple of Devi. 

Only two rivers flow through the State, the Mahi and Kivera and 
Maleni. The former rising near Amjliera in Gwalior flows by 
Bajranggarh village, and then taking a westerly course, traverses the 
upper confines of Bagar. This river is used for drinking purpose 



356 


SAILANA STATE, 


GeologyA 


Botany.^ 


Fauna 

"W iid animals. 


Birds* 


Fishes. 


Climate and 
temperature 
(Table !)• 


Bainfall 
(Table II), 


only. The Maleni rises just south of Sailana town and taking a 
westerly course, flows behind the palace. Its waters 

are not of any value for irrigation. The only other stream worthy 
of mention are the Simlaodi 'which rises at Simlaoda village 23° 1' 
N and 75° 15' and, after uniting with the Ratnagiri, flows for 15 
miles through the State. This stream is of value for irrigation. 

The State lies mainly in the Deccan trap area, and has not yet 
been surveyed. The hilly region to the west of the State belongs to 
a tract of which the geology is very complicated, and it is quite 
impossible to form an accurate idea as to its constitution. 

The vegetation is usually of the nature of scrub-jungle with 
species of Grewia, Zizyi>hviSi Capparis, Carissa, Woodfordia as the 
principal shrubs and of Butea, Bomhax^ Sterculia Anogessus 
Biichanania^ Acacia^ Phyllanthtis as the leading trees ; sometimes 
Boswellia serrata is the principal species, in which case the brush 
wood is much more scanty. The herbaceous species are mainly 
Legnminosie like Desmodium, Alysicarpits CrotoJana, Boraginece 
such as Heliotrophim and Trichodesma, Compositce^ like Pulicaria^ 
Bumea, Goniocatilon and Launea, 

Wild animals are not found in large numbers, the country, except 
the portion, lying in hilly tract, affording them but little cover. In 
the plateau section black buck ( Antilope cervicapra ) and Chinkdra 
( Gazella beneti ) are common, while in the hills leopard and bears 
are found. 

The birds of tjie State include all species usually met with in 
Central India. Partridges, sand-grouse, quail, pigeon and the 
common classes of water-fowl are found everywhere. 

Fish, owing to the lack of large rivers and tanks, are comparatively 
speaking scarce, though JRo/jw and Sdnwal are found in some 
localities. 

The climate is temperate over the greater part of the State. There 
are no records for the hilly region. In the hot season the tempera- 
ture as recorded at Sailana varies on an average from a maximum of 
101° to 97°, in the rains from 87° to 75°, and in the cold season from 
70° to 60°. 

The rainfall in the plains averages 35 inches, and in the hilly tract 
40 inches. 


1 By Mr. E. Vredenbnrg, Geological Survey of India, 
f By Lieut.-Col, D Brain, I. M. S., Botanical Survey of India^ 



HISTORY, 


357 


Section IL— History. 

(Genealogical Tree.) 

The Sailana Chiefs are Rathor Rajputs of the Ratnawat or 
Ratnaut branch of Ratlam^. They are descended from Maharaja 
Udai Singh of Jodhpur ( 1584-95)^ Dalpat Singh, the seventh of 
Udai Singh’s seventeen sons, had a son Maheshdas, whose eldest 
son was Ratan Singh. Ratan Singh rose to distinction under Shah 
Jahan and about 1648 received certain lands in Malwa, ultimately 
fixing on the village of Ratlam for his capital, and founding the 
State of this name which his descendants still hold ; Ratan Singh 
was killed at the battle of Ujjain (or Dharmatpur)^ near FatehabM 
on 20th April 1658. He was succeeded by Ram Singh (1658-82), 
Shiv Singh (1682-84), Keshodas (1684), and Chhatarsal, (1684). In 
1708, Chhatarsal lost his eldest son, Hate Singh, and broken down 
by this bereavement retired from all parts in the administration 
during the next year. 

* He had, however, divided his territory into three shares, his eldest 
son Kesri Singh receiving Ratlam, Pratap Singh Raoti ( Sailana 
State ) and grandson Beri Sal, the son of Hate Singh, Dhamnod. 

Discussions at once arose and Beri Sal retired to Jaipur leaving 
his jdglr to the care of his uncle Kesri Singh. 

At length differences between .Kesri Singh and Pratap Singh 
became acute and ended in the death of the Ratlam Chief in 1716, 
Kesri Singh’s son was at Delhi at the time, Jai Singh, his younger 
brother, at once informed him of the state of affairs, and the two 
brothers joining forces defeated Pratap Singh at Sagod (23° 18^ 
N., 75^ 4' E.) two miles, south-west of Ratlam. 

The Raoti jdglr formerly held by Pratap Singh now fell to 
Jai Singh. 

Jai Singh in 1736 left Raoti and founded the present capital of 
Sailana. 

Jai Singh died in 1757, and was succeeded by his second son 
Jaswant Singh, Devi Singh the elder brother having been killed 
some years previously. Daulat Singh the youngest was given the 
jdglt of Semlia. Jaswant Singh died v/ithout issue and was 
succeeded by his younger brother Ajab Singh (1772-82) who left 
three sons. The eldest Mokham Singh (1782-97) succeeded, the 
two younger brothers Bhopat Singh and Guman Singh receiving, 
respectively, the jdgtrs of Deolan and Adwania. The Sailana 
State had by this time fallen under Maratha dominion and 

i The Gazetteer of Ratlam State should be consulted for further informatiou, 
s Tod Hdjasihdn I 622 II — ^35 — 48. 

3 Bierniev'^s Travels (Constable) p. 53. 


Jai Singh, 
(1730—57). 


Chiefs be- 

tween(1757-<* 

1850), 



358 


SAILANA STATE. 


Dule Singh, 
(1850—95.) 


Jaswanii 

Singh, 

(1895- 


much territory had passed into the hands of Holkar and Sindhia the 
Chief having become a feudatory of the latter. Mokham Singh was 
succeeded by his son Lachhman Singh (1797-1826), who was ruling 
during the settlement ^ of Malwa by Sir John Malcolm. In 1819 an 
agreement^ was mediated between Lachhman Singh and Daulat Rao 
Sindhia, by which the Sailana Chief agreed to pay Rs. 42,000 Salim 
Shahi annually to the Gwalior Darbar, the British authorities gua- 
ranteeing the due payment of the amount. This sum was in 1860 
assigned by Sindhia to the British Government to defray the cost 
of the Gwalior Contingent, and is now paid to the Government of 
India and not to Sindhia. 

Lachhman Singh died in 1826 and -was succeeded by his son 
Ratan Singh who left no issue and was succeeded by his uncle 
Nahar Singh in 1827. Nahar Singh (1827-42) was followed by his son 
Takht Singh who died in 1850 leaving a minor son, Dule Singh. 

The State remained under British administration till the disturb- 
ances of 1857, when it was put in charge of Ratan Singh’s widow. 
In acknowledgment of her excellent services at this time in preserv- 
ing order and furnishing troops, all the members of the Council of 
Regency were granted hhilats. In 1859 Dule Singh was granted 
administrative powers. In 1864 the Chief agreed to cede any land 
required for railways, and in 1881 abolished all transit duties on salt. 
In 1884 the Raja, having no issue, adopted Jaswant Singh the eldest 
son of Bhawani Singh of Semlia, wdio was recognised by 
Government as his heir. By an arrangement dating from early 
days the Ratlam and Sailana Darbars used to levy customs {sayar^ 
dues jointly in Sailana State. As may be supposed, considerable 
friction had been caused by the exercise of this right, and by 1887 
the question had reached an acute stage. In that year at the sug- 
gestion of the political authorities these difficulties were put an end 
to by a fresh arrangement under which the Ratlam Darbar relin- 
quished its right of collection, the Sailana Darbar agreeing to pay 
Rs. 18,000 Salim Shahi, reduced to Rs. 6,000 British rupees, in 1901 
to Ratlam and levy the dues itself, while Ratlam undertook not 
to levy dues on Sailana goods exported to Ratlam, or imported from 
Ratlam to Sailana. In 1887 in honour of the Jubilee of Her 
Majesty the Queen-Empress all transit dues except those on opium 
were abolished. 

Dule Singh died on October 13th, 1895, and was succeeded by the 
present Chief Jaswant Singh who had been educated at the Daly 
College at Indore. Jaswant Singh succeeded to a State burdened 
with a heavy debt ; this was almost paid off, when the disastrous 
famine of 1899-1900 again embarassed the finances. 

Every department of the State has been remodelled and brought 
into consonance with modern requirements by the present Chief. 

1 Malcolm's Central Iwka^ II., 206— 814, 

Appendix A. 



POPULATION. 


359 


For his excellent administration during the famine and his many 
reforms Jaswant Singh was presented in 1900 with a Gold Kaisar^l- 
Hind medal, and in 1904 was made a Knight Commander of the 
Indian Empire. 

Jaswant Singh has five sons Dilip Singh, his heir, Bharat Singh 
who has been adopted to succeed to the guaranteed estate of Mul- 
than, Mandhata Singh who is jdglrddr of Adwania, Ramchandra 
Singh of Bharora and Ajat Shatru Singh of Morda. He has also 
three daughters, the eldest Bapu Devidra Kunwar has been 
affianced to the Maharawal Vijaya Singh of Dungarpur, the second 
Bapu Shiva Kunwar to Raja Arjun Singh of Narsinghgarh, and the 
third Laxmi Kunwar to Durjan Sal Singh, Chief of Khilchipur 
State. 

The Sailana Chief bears the Titles of His Highness and Raja and Titles, 
enjoys a salute of 11 guns. 

There are fifteen jdglrddrs in the State, of whom twelve hold on Feudatories, 
a service tenure and three possess maintenance grants. Ten are 
Rathors, of whom the first twelve given below are blood relatives of 
the Chief. 

These are the Thakurs of Adwania, Bharora Morda, Semlia, Bar- 
mawal, Raoti, Ghatwas, Kari, Kaneri, Nayapura, Chandoria and 
Kotra. 

The juglrddrs of Umrao and Nalkoi are Songira Rajputs and the 
Thakur of Mewasa is a Sesodia. 

An old temple at Bilpank bears an inscription dated in V.S. 150 (?) Archseology. 
or A. D, 144 (?), the last figure being illegible, the temple of Kawala- 
khamata near Barmawal has a record dated^on V.S. 1151 or 1095 
A.D. At Semlia village there is an old Jain temple which bears a 
record dated in Samvat 1533 Sdwan Sti^dl 15 (A, D, 1477) dedicated 
to Santi Nath, but beyond this there are no places of known archaeo- 
logical importance. 

The temple of Kedareshwar close to Sailana town is certainly not 
of any great antiquity, but its situation at the bottom of a deep 
gorge is unusual, and highly picturesque. 

Section III.~-Population. 

(Tables III and IV.) 

Three enumerations of the State have taken place in 1881, 1891, Ennmera- 
1901, but in the last only were full records made. In this last census, 
however, the effects of the recent famine (1899-1900) were still 
apparent. 

The population at each census has been : 1887, 29, 723 ; 1897 Density aaid 
31, 512; and 7907i 25,731 persons; males 12,844 and females 12,887. 



360 


SAILANA STATE. 


Towns and 
villa/jes. 


Migration. 


Vital Statis- 
tics. 


(Tables V & 
VI.) 

Sex and Civil 
condition. 


Bcligions. 


Language and 
Literacy. 


Castes, Tribes 
and flaces. 


Occupation. 


An increase of 6 per cent, thus took place between 1881 and 1891, 
followed by a decrease of 1834 per cent, in 1901, shewing only too 
clearly the disastrous effects of the great famine. The density per 
square mile at each enumeration was respectively 66, 70 and 57. 
The population is distributed through one town that of Sailana and 
96 villages with 5,967 occupied houses. 

Strictly speaking no town exists in the State, the population of the 
capital amounting to only 4,255 persons. The average village con- 
tains 224 inhabitants, 89 out of the 96 having less than 500 people 
and only 2 over 2,000 inhabitants. 

No statistics of migration are available. Of the total population, 
however, 61 per cent, were born within State limits and 87 per cent, 
in the neighbouring districts of Gwalior, Ratlam and Jaora. 

These have only been collected for the last two years, and are not 
very reliable. 

In the Census of 1901 males and females numbered 12,844 and 
12,887 respectively, giving practically 100 females to every 100 males. 
The figures for civil condition are condensed in the table appended : — 



Total. 

Males. 

Females. 

Unmarried 

9,974 

5,993 

3,981 

Married 

11,409 

5,697 

5,712 

Widowed 

4,348 

1,154 

3,194 

Total ... 

25,731 

12,844 I 

12,887 


Classified by religions 67 persons in every 100 are Hindus, 24 
Animists, 5 Musalmans and 3 Jains. Hindus number 17,193 of whom 
5,900 live in the eastern part of the State, while of the Animists 
4,008 or 16 per cent, live in the Bilpank and Raoti Kamdsdans. 

Lying mainly in Malwa the dialect spoken by the bulk of the 
population is the Maiwi or Rangri form of Rajasthani used by 
20,159 or 78 per cent., while 455 persons or 2 per cent, employ 
the forms of Rajasthani not proper to Central India, and 15 per 
cent. Bhxli. 

The principal castes are Kunbis (2,700), Rajputs (2,100) and 
Brahmans (1,700). The Bhils who number 6,300 live in the hilly 
tract to the west of the State. The Rajputs are the principal land 
owners, being either jdgtrddrs or zamlnddrs^ while the Kunbis are 
the most important cultivating class. 

The population of the State is almost entirely supported by 
agriculture or field and general labour. 



POPULATION, 


361 


Except in the use of the coats and shirts instead of the an garlzh as 
and knrtas little change is noticeable in the mode of living of the 
middle classes. 

Males usually wear a pagyi on the head, a coat or angarkhaj a shirt Bress. 
or huTta and trousers, ^paijdmas, or a dhoti. 

Females wear small sdrl to cover the head, a small bodice called 
a cltoll and a ghagra ( petticoat ) ; a jacket or bandl is subs- 
tituted for the cholli and is often worn by the unmarried girls. 

Food consists of wheat bread, vegetables, green if procurable Food, 
otherwise dry, the latter being eaten especially in summer and 
during rainy season until the green vegetables are obtainable. 

Being m.ostiy agriculturists, the major part of the population rises Daily life, 
at daybreak and proceeds to the fields or pasture lands, returning 
just before sunset. 

Houses are generally of mud and either thatched or tiled. In Houses. 
Sailana a few large houses have been erected by merchants and 
others. The Bhils build rough bamboo shelters thatched with grass 
Local artisans are not well off for want of sufficient employment, 
many articles formerly of local manufacture being now replaced by 
the western manufactured articles. 

Except cholera during the famine of 1899-1900 the State never Public Health 
suffered from any severe epidemic till 1903 and 1904 when plague ^ 

appeared in Sailana and some villages. 

Plague first appeared at Bangrod in January, 1903. The total Plague, 
number of cases reported being 1,628 seizures and 1,094 deaths. 

The above figures include the cases which occurred in the town of 
Sailana, during the rainy season of 1904 ; they were 567 seizures 
and 400 deaths. 

No case has occurred in the State since the last week of April 
1906. 


Detail : — 


Yea^s. 

Seizures, 

Death. 

(1902-03) 

210 

129 

(1903-04) 

206 

134 

(1904-05) 

1,182 

819 

(1905-06) 

30 

12 

Total... 

' 1,628 

1,094 



Oeneral. 


Glasses of soil. 


Beasous* 


CHAPTER II. 

ECONOMIC. 

(Tables VII— XV, XXIX and XXX. 

Section I. —Agriculture. 

As regards general agricultural characteristics the State may be 
conveniently divided into the three circles of Bangrod — Sailana, 
Bilpank, and Raoti. The land in the first circle^ consists of a deep 
fertile soil free from stones and gravel ; the land of the second circle 
is rather less fertile, being mixed with a considerable pi'oportion of 
stone and gravel, while the land of the Raoti circle, which lies in the 
hilly tract, is shallow and stony and of very low fertility. The 
prevalent crops of the first and second circles are gram, wheat, cotton 
and poppy. Poppy is sowm to a very small extent in the third circle, 
where the principal crops are maize, kodon, kdngndi mil, til and 
some rice and cotton. 

There are no statistics giving the acreage of each different class 
of soil. The different soils are locally known as kail ( black cotton 
soil), Idl a red soil, Idldidll a combination of the black and red, 
dhdmni a brown soil, hhurl a light brown soil, pathrlU a stony soil, 
and galat or low-lying ground with a great power of retaining mois- 
ture which bears rice. 

The black soil is sub-divided into two classes according to its ferti- 
lity known as kail tdfam or best and kali madhyam or average. 

The black soil bears excellent crops of all the ordinary grains and 
of cotton and poppy, while the red, brown and stony soils are only 
used for hdngnd, mil, tuar, jowdr and til. No difficulty is 

experienced in the cultivation of the soils in the first and second 
circles, but in the third circle, which lies in the hills and is less 
productive, only those patches of land which lie on the slopes at the 
foot of the hills can be cultivated. 

Soils are also classified as addii, mdl, rdiikar, hir and rdkhaf, 
A dan is irrigated land growing two crops, usually a maize crop in the 
autumn followed by wheat, gram, linseed, sugar-cane or poppy in the 
spring. Mdl is unirrigated land used for both autumn and spring 
crops. The rdnkar is irrigated land capable of bearing a double 
crop. If the supply of water is not sufficient for the irrigation of 
poppy, wheat or gram is sown instead. Biy land consists entirely 
of grass reserves, while rakhat is the name given to reserved jungle. 

The agricultural year is divided into two seasons known as the 
kharif or shidlu, the autumn season in which the staple food grains 
such as maize, jowdr and kodon are sown ; and the rabi or unhdlu, 
the spring crop in which the more expensive grains such as wheat 
and poppy are grownt. 



AGRICULTURE. 


363 


Agricultural practice differs in the Malwa and hilly tracts. In the 
former preparations for the autumn crops commence on the 
3rd : of the light half of the month Vaisdkh or akhdtlj as it is 
called. 

The land is first prepared with a harrow and then ploughed and 
weeded. On the ahhdtlj the cultivators eat food cooked with gur 
(molasses) after which they commence ploughing. When the sowing 
is over the cultivators worship their implements, and distribute 
parched maize or wheat. An auspicious day though not essential is 
usually selected for the commencement of the sowing, the second day 
of every lunar and dark fortnight being always avoided as seeds sown 
during that time are believed not to yield a good crop. 

The usual charge for ploughing a hlgha.oi land in the plains is 
one rupee per plough, while in the hilly tract it varies from one rupee 
and a half to two rupees. 

In the hharlf or autumn crop maize is first sown, while jowdr 
which requires more moisture is not* sown till after a good fall of 
rain has taken place. In the hilly tract the sowings are made only 
after the rains have fully set in and soaked the ground, as the stony 
soil is incapable of bearing grain until weU moistened. 

The total cultivated area is 41,800 acres (83,650 bzghas^), which 
amounts to 14*5 per cent, of the total area. Of the area cultivated 
3,660 acres (7,320 bighas) are irrigable. No records are available 
giving details for various years, A decrease took place after the 
famine of 1899-1900, which has now been to a great extent retrieved, 
except in the hilly tract. 

The fertile nature of the land makes it possible to obtain a hharlf 
and rahi crop off the greater part of the State, 3,696 acres or 11*37 
per cent, of the cultivated area being dufasU or double crop land. 

It is a common practice to sow two crops which mature at differ- 
ent times, in the same field, though the yield is not so good in either 
case. The most ordinary combinations are those of maize and urad^ 
jowdr and mung and tuar and mung. Poppy and sugarcane are 
also sown together. The return in the case of poppy is not so good 
but the sugarcane is not injuriously affected. 

Strictly * speaking no systematic rotation of crops is practised, 
although experience has dictated certain sequences as advisable, 
when practicable, maize is, as a rule, alternated with wheat, gram 
or poppy and sometimes cotton with jowdr. 

In mdl land if sesamum, mung, urad or cotton are alternated 
with jowdr or rice it is said to improve the yield the next year. 

In addn soil poppy or gram is rotated with maize, urad or san. 

Tobacco sown in addn land is followed by onions. Tobacco, 
however, is very little sown in the State. 

^ A in this State is equal to If acre or 2 Uglhas equal to one acre practically. 


Agricultural 

practice. 


Cultivated 

area. 


Doable erop- 
ingi 


Mixed soiv- 
ings. 


Rotation, 



364 


SAILANA STATE. 


Manure. Manuring is not systematically practised, partly because the 

dung of cattle is so largely used as fuel and for plastering 
houses. It is chiefly used in double crop land (adan) and 
principally with poppy and sugarcane. The manure consists 
generally of village sweepings, the dung of cattle and sheep, and 
ashes. Night soil is also used as a manure, but only in or near 
towns. Green manure is commonly used in crops of poppy 
san or urad being sown and ploughed into the soil, while still 
in flower. This is known as sa7^chur or uradchur. Artificial 
manures are unknown. 

Twenty-five cart loads of manure are obtained from twenty-five 
head of cattle in a year. 

Irrigated The soil over the greater part of the State is very retentive of 

crops. moisture and none of the crops except poppy, sugarcane and garden 

produce require artificial irrigation. When water is available, how- 
ever, wheat, barley and maize are occasionally irrigated. ^ 

Diseases and Rust (gerwa) is the commonest form of blight. Locusts and 
pests, much damage especially in years in which the rainfall 

has been scanty, and no destruction of the young animals takes 
place. After the drought of 1899-1900, rats swarmed in all the fields 
and did much damage to the crops in 1900-01. 

Hail occasionaHy causes damage, and in 1905 severe frosts, unpre- 
cedented in Malwa, entirely destroyed the poppy and gram crops and 
much of the wheat. 

Implements, The implements are few and simple, the most important being 
the hal or plough, hakkhar or harrow, Izarra or dor a a small harrow 
psed for passing down growing crops, the nai a hollow bamboo sur- 
mounted by a funnel used for sowing seeds, jbharaJz a similar imple* 
ment having two funnels, dardta^ a sickle, 7idna a knife, used for 
incising poppy heads and the chhart>ala used for scraping off the 
juice from the heads. 

Crops, areain The total area under cultivation is 42,000 acres (83,650 hlghas ), 

each harvest, 28,500 acres (57,000 blghas, ) are under kharlf and 13,500 

acres ( 26,600 hlghas ) under rahi crops. 

Duffisli la?id. Although the greater part of the cultivated land is capable of 

bearing two crops, the average area under is 3,690 acres. 

^harif crops. T]ie principal food, grains sown at this season are jowdt^ {Sorghum 
vulgare), makka or maize {Zeamciys), urad {Phaseolus radiatus)^ 
Qhaqla {Dolichus sineu^is), hdngnl {Panicum italicum), hodra or 
kodon ( Paspalum stoloniferum ), rice {Oryza safiva), til ( Sesa^ 
mum indicum)j rameli {Guizotia oUiferaj) mungphall {Arachis 
hy pages), tuar {Cajanus indicus), mung {Phaseolus mungo). In 
the hills sdmli and mdl are the most important grains sown. 

Sowings, The autumn crops are sown in June as soon as rains commence. 

Maize, jowm tih urad and tiiar are twige weeded and the dora 



AGRICULTURE. 


365 


is passed dowti the standing crop, while kodra^ Izdngnt and sdmli are 
only weeded. 

Maize, sdmli and mdl are reaped at the end of the rains, the other 
crops being gathered in November and December. 

The chief food-grains at the rahi are wheat ( Triticum aestivum), crops, 
gram {Cicer arietinum ) , barley { H or detim vulgar e) ^ masur {Ervum 
lens), pea { Lathy rus satzvus). 

The spring crops are sown in November, gram and masur are 
gathered in February and the remainder by the end of March. 

The average quantity of seed required in the plains per high a yield. ' 
is as given below 

If makka and urad are s6wn together, makka requires 5 seers 
and urad 2i seers of seed. If they are sown separately, makka 
requires 7i seers and urad 10 seers per bigha. If joxmr, mmig 
and tuar be sown together jowdr requires 2 seers and mung and 
tuar li seers each. Til and RdmtilU each require li seers, cotton 
5 seers, rice 8 seers, gram 15 seers, hemp 20 seers and peas 5 seers 
per hlgha. These are all sown separately. When wheat and lin- 
seed are sown together, wheat requires 16 seers and linseed 4 seers 
of seed. If they are sown separately, wheat requires 20 seers and 
linseed 6 seers. 


The average yield per hlgha is as follows : 


Wheat 

• « • 

... 2 to 

2i Mds. 

Gram 

* « • 

... 2 to 

2| Mds. 

Pea 

• • » 

... 2 to 

2i Mds. 

Poppy 


2 to 

5 Srs. 

Barley, 


2| to 

4 Mds, 

Linseed 


3 to 

5 Mds. 

Makka 


... 5 to 

6 Mds. 

Tilli 


3 to 

5 Mds. 

Paddy 


5 to 

6 Mds. 

Jowar 


... 5 to 

6 Mds. 

Cotton 

* 0 9 

... 1 to li 

Mds, In the 


about 2f in the hilly tract. 


In the" hilly tract 25 per cent, more seed is required to give the 
same outturn. Of the grain most sown in the hilly tracts hdngnl 
and mdl each requires 2i seers of seed, sdmli 5 seers and kodra 
3 seers to the hlgha* 


In the case of maize the heads only are cut off, while jowdr is Reaping, 
cut down with the stalks. The ears are dried and trodden out by 
bullocks and the grain winnowed. Wheat, gram, linseed, etc., are 
plucked when dry, the rest of the process being the same as with 
jowdr* 


The subsidiary crops grown are : — tuars mung usually sown 
with jowdr, urad with makka and masur ^ 



366 


SAILANA STATE. 


Oil seeds. 


Fibres. 


Poppy. 


Garden 

produce* 


Betel 


The chief oil-seeds are ( 607 acres), ( 219 acres) and 

linseed (250 acres). These crops are not extensively sown 
however. 

Cotton (2,166 acres), san (230 acres) and ambari are sown to 
a small extent only, the last two being chiefly sown as a green 
manure. 

This valuable plant covers 2,268 acres on an average. The 
sowings during the last five years being 1900-01, 2,482 acres ; 
1901-02, 612 acres ; 1902-03, 2,268 acres ; 1903-04, 2,724 acres ; 
1904-05, 601 acres ; 1905-06, 845. 

It is sown in November often together with sugarcane though 
in this case the yield of opium is not so good. The sugarcane 
which comes to maturity nine months later is not, however, much 
affected. The poppy fields are carefully manured either with green 
manure or village sweepings. The seed is sown in small square 
beds and carefully watered. In all seven or nine waterings are 
given. When ripe the heads are scarified with a three-pronged 
implement called a nana and the juice collected in little linseed 
oil and sold as crude opium or chik to the manufacturers chiefly 
at Ratlam. 

The average cost of cultivating a bl^a of poppy land is about 





Rs. 

a. 

P. 

Seed ... ... 

« • » 

• • • 

... 0 

8 

0 

W’eeding 


• •• 

... 3 

0 

0 

Watering 

• •• 

... 

... 9 

0 

0 

Incision and collection... 



... 4 

0 

0 

Revenue on land 


... 

... 13 

0 

0 




29 

8 

0 

Sale of chik 

... 

... 

... 35 

0 

0 

Profit to cultivator 



... 5 

8 

0 


Hemp for the manufacture of bhang and charas is not grown in 
the State. 

The ordinary vegetables and fruits cultivated are gourds of many 
kinds : cabbages, onions, carrots, egg-plants, {Solanum mehngena)^ 
muri ( Fcsniculum panmosi ), methi ( Tngonella Joenum grczcum ), 
mango, custard-apple, plantain, shaddock and various figs, melons, 
and limes. 

A betel leaf plantation in the Chanrani village of the Bilpank 
iahsll, covers about three hlghas of land. The land is cultivated 
one year, the plant living for two years and giving produce, the soil 
being allowed to remain fallow during the third year, being again 
cultivated in the fourth year# 



AGRICULTURE. 


367 


The betel leaf is exported to the United Provinces and the 
Punjab. The garden has a great name and merchants from Delhi 
visit the garden to purchase these leaves. 

Sugarcane is cultivated on 20 acres (40 hlghas), often in conjunct- Sugarcane, 
ion with poppy. The cost of planting 2 ,hlgka is about Rs. 75, the 
receipts amounting to Rs. 90. It takes, however, twelve months 
to reach maturity. 

Sugarcane is sown in the months of November and December. 

The crop is cut down the next year in the same month in which 
it was sown. It is irrigated continuously up to the end of March 
and then four times a month until break of the monsoon. It is 
again irrigated at the close of the rains, twice a month, until the 
crop is cut. 

No real progress has as yet been made either in the introduction Progress* 
of new implements and seed or the treatment of soils. 

In 1899-1900 wheat from Central Provinces was used as seed 
and grew as well as the local Malwa seed. Himalayan maize was 
also sown in the State garden and in a few places in the district. 

The experiments with Himalayan maize seed proved successful, 
but as the crop ripens late its sowing has not been extended. 

Irrigation is mainly confined to poppy and sugarcane and garden irrigation, 
produce which cannot be grown without it, but is, when available, 
also used on crops of barley, mungphall, methi ( Trigonella foemim* 
graecum) onions, wheat, gram and peas. 

The principal sources of water-supply are wells, tanks and orhis Sources. 
The usual lift used is the char as. The State possesses in hhalsa 
land 43 baoris, 66 j>akka or masonry wells, 287 kachcha wells, 29 
masonry orhlst 79 kachchl orhis and 6 tanks. The cost of irrigating 
a hlgha of land is about Re. li in the plains and Re. 1 J in the 
hilly tracts. 

In y agif lands 1 2 6aons, 25 masonry wells, 349 kachcha wells 
167 orhis and one tank exist. 

The cost of digging wells varies with the nature of the soil, Cost of wells. 
The average cost for digging an unsteened well is on the plateau 
Rs. 125 and in the hills double that sum, while for a masonry well 
the average is Rs. 500 in the plateau and in the hilly tract Rs. 700, 

The water is divided into khara (strong sweet), mltha (sweet) and 
mora unsweet). The khara variety is preferred for sugarcane; 
mltha is good for all crops ; and mora is suitable for poppy. 

The total area irrigated is 3,66 1’5 acres* In comparison with 
former days the area irrigated is said to be steadily increasing. 

No cattle statistics are available. No special local breeds exist. Cattle. 

The well-known MSwi cattle are bred by all cultivators, but no 
regular breeding establishment is kept up and no care is taken to 



368 


SAILANA STATE. 


preserve purity of stock. Buffaloes, sheep’and goats are similarly 
reared throughout the State, and here and there horses and 
ponies. 

The average price of a pair of plough bullocks is Rs. 60. 

Diseases. xhe commonest cattle diseases are zaharhad which affects the throat 
of the animal and often the testicles and penis ; hameri^ a kind of 
gout, which affects the joints of the legs and the roots of horns, 
causing the horn to hang down ; if the disease affects the loins or the 
joints of the legs the animal becomes unfit for work ; Khursdda 
( foot and mouth disease) or ulceration and worms in the hoofs, an 
epidemic disease. Kanbatian^ cramp in the joints, which makes 
the animal restless and uneasy and is often fatal ; chhalVi, rheuma- 
tism ; SLndi>haipra or pneumonia. 

In treating Jaharhad^ Kameri^ chhalli and phaipra the affected 
part is burnt with a red hot iron called a ddghdena or cautery. 

In the treatment of Kanhanan a circular line is made with a red- 
hot iron round the body, from the face to the haunches. 

In cases of khursdda^ powdered hel leaves, brick dust and the 
hair of a man are mixed together and the preparation thrust into 
the affected parts. 

Easturelands. Pasture land is ample. In the hilly tract there are large grass 
areas. No difficulties are experienced in an ordinary year in 
feeding cattle* Even in the famine year fodder was sufficient in 
the jungle reserves. In an ordinary year the supply of harU 
(dried jowdr stalks) and hay is more than sufficient, the villagers 
being able to sell harhl and hay after meeting their own wants. 

Cattle fairs. Cattle are sold in the weekly markets held at Semlia and Bangrod 
on Saturday and Friday respectively. 

Agricultural classes of agriculturists are Kunbis, who form 11 per 

population, cent, of the population. Holdings are never large, the average area 
cultivated by one man being about 15 htghas. 

Indebtedness. Almost all cultivators are in debt usually to local bankers who in 
most cases act as ilpddrs or securities for the revenue of a certain 
number of agriculturists to whom they advance seed and money. 
Bad years and no idea of saving money are responsible for the 
general indebtedness of the cultivators. 

The mortality in the late famine has made the supply of field 
labourers inadequate and has caused a shrinkage in the area sown 
especially with Yobi crops which require more care and a good supply 
of labour. About 38 per cent, of the land is still lying fallow as the 
cultivator cannot venture to sow when he is unable to count on a 
sufficiency of labour for the harvesting. 

TakkSrYi* To remedy this state of affairs and also to free the cultivator from 
the exorbitant demands of local bankers the State now makes 
fakhdvi advances, to the poorer cultivators of khdlsd villages. This 



RENT, WAGES AND PRICES. 


369 


is Imown as hlj or seed takkdvi ; while the advances of grain which 
are made to poor cultivators during the rains for food are called 
khdd takkdvu Bail takkdvi consists of loans granted for the 
purchase of animals. 

The last two are generally given in the month of Asdrh (June), 
while the seed takkdvi is given in October and November, The 
advances are recovered at the harvests. Interest when taken in kind 
is levied at the rate of i of the quantity granted, and in cash 
at twelve rupees per cent, per annum. 

If the cultivator fails to pay the advances within 12 months an 
additional charge at the rate of 25 per cent, is made for each year 
of arrears, on seed takkdvi only. 

Section II Rentsj Wages and Prices- 
(Tables XIII and XIV). 

The land being ail possessed by the Darbar^ the contributions of 
cultivators are revenue and not rent. 

The rates for cash wages for skilled and uskilled workmen are wages, 
given in the table. 

The wages for agricultural operations are usually paid in kind. 

For weeding maize or jowdr Iz seers of grain are given per man 
per diem. For cutting maize 3| seers ; for cutting and gathering 
jowdr heads 2\ seers; for gathering gram or wheat 4^ seers weight 
of the plants. Poppy operations are paid in cash ; for incising pods 
ii anna daily and some opium is also given weighing abo’^t two 
tolas and worth 22 annas. 

The wages shewn above are given in a normal year. A halt or 
permanent servant of a cultivator or land owner, who assists in 
sowdng seeds and does other miscellaneous work, receives monthly 
pay which amounts to about 2 annas per day, while temporary 
servants or day-labourers receive from three to four annas a day from 
October till the end of rahi harvest. 

Wages for gathering cotton are paid in two ways, either three 
annas a day per head or it is given on contract at ten annas per 
maund of picked cotton. 

In the famine of 1899-1900 wages fell, weeding operations being 
paid at the rate of one seer of maize or jowdr per day per man, 
the low rate being due to the large numbers demanding employment. 

The prices of food grains are given in table XIV. RnceB. 

The indebtedness of the cultivator has been already remarked on ^ ^ . 

The famine of 1899-1900 has left the cultivators worse off than Material con- 
usual, and would have been in many cases^ unable to carry on dition. 
their operation but for the assistance afforded them by the Darbar. 



370 


SAILANA STATE. 


Control^ 


The landlord class was also left in poor circumstances owing to 
difficulty experienced in the collection of the revenue of their 
holdings. 

The field labourer has, of late years, profited materially by high 
wages in kind and cash, but as he has not learned to save he has 
derived no permanent benefit from his increased earnings. 

The merchant on the other hand has gained largely by the improved 
administration introduced by the present Chief and is yearly increas- 
ing in prosperity. 

Seotionlll Forests. 

(Table IX). 

Strictly speaking there is no forest land in the State, but the hills 
of the Sailana and Raoti fahsils are covered with stunted jungle. 

Since 1901'-02 some forest land in the Sailana tahsU has been 
made rahhat or reserved. The small value of the forests obviates 
the necessity for a separate staff, and the forests are in charge of the 
kamdsdars of the tahsll in which they stand. For the protection of 
the rdkhaf at Sailana three forest patrols keep watch over the 
khdlsd portions. 

The two portions of forest area falling in khdlsd territory are in 
charge of the tahsllddr of Sailana town, while the rest which lies 
in the jdglr of Kotra is under the jdgirddr. In the rakhaf in 
Sailana tahsll the following trees are preserved : sdg ( Tecfona 
grandis^, sddad {Terminalia tomentosa), shlsham {Dalhergia slssu), 
imli {Tamarindus indica), mahtid {Bassia latifolia), mango am 
(Mangifera indica)^ tinach {Ougeinia dalhergioides) ^ khair {Acacia 
catechu), kaveria {Ixora parvi fiord), rohan {Soyniida feh rifuga), 
jdmun {Eugenia jamholand), dhdora {Anogeissus latifolia) and bam- 
boos {Dendrocalamus strictus) and others. These trees are not 
allowed to be cut down without the sanction of the Darbar. The 
produce is taken by the State but a certain proportion is given free to 
cultivators for the construction of huts and agricultural implements. 

The forests of Raoti, Bajranggarh and Deolan where there are 
considerable tracts covered with trees and grass, are used for cutting 
fuel and timber and for grazing. 

All forest land is open to the public for grazing purposes. 

The reserved forest area amounts to 675 acres open forest 
to 24,005 acres and grazing lands 82,872 acres. No income is 
derived by the State from forest produce. Except in the rahhat, 
the jungle land is open to the public who cut down timber and sell 
the fruit, lac, gum, and wood, free of ail dues. The Bhils of the 
hilly tract make a livelihood by collecting and selling jungle 
produce. 



FORESTS. 


371 


List of the commonest forest trees. 

Sag, Teak {Tectona grandis), 

Kavra {Hollarrhena antidysenterica) . 

Sadad (Terminalia tomentosa). 

Rohan {Soymida febrifuga). 

Bamboo {Dendrocalamus stnchis) and others. 
Haldu {Adina cardi folia). 

Salar (Shorea robusta). 

Nim (Melia indica). 

Shisham {Dalhergia sissu). 

Garmoro or AMALTAS {Cassia fistula). 
Mohini [Odiiia wodier). 

Karam {Anthocephalus cadamba). 

Bia {Ptercearpiis marsuphim). 

Kauria [Ixora parvifiora). 

Garario {Cleistanthus collinus). 

Khajur {Phoenix Silvestns). 

Mango {Maiigifera indica). 

Jamun {Eugenia jambolana) . 

Kadangi {Stephegyne parvifolia). 

Bor {Zizyphus jujuba) 

Gular {Ficus glomerata). 

Karondi {Carissa carandas).. 

Khirni {Mimusopo hexandra). 

Phaiper {Gardenia lati folia). 

Khakra {Butea frondosa), 

Karan j {Pongamia glabra). 

Kharwar {Ficus asperula). 

Marethi or Aonla {Phyllanfhus emhlica) 
Gadhapalas {Eryfhrina indica and suberosa). 


Characteris- 
tic trees- 


Kanthor or 

Billa {Aegle marmelos). ^ 

Dhaora {Anogeissus latifolia). 

Saras {Alhizzia lehbek). 

Khejra {Prosopis spicigera). 

Hewan {Acacia leucophloea). 

Dhaman {Grewia tilice folia) • 

Timru {Diospyros fomenioeea). 

Tinach {Ougeinia dalbergioides) . 

Anjan {Hardwickia binata). 

Babul {Acacia arabicd). 

These are mostly used in making agricultural implements. The 
wood of dhaora is used specially in making the axles of carts ; of 
the hevan for the yoke ; timru and tinach for the udai or pole, 
which connects the cart with the yoke ; anjan for the wheels ; 

^ As its leaves are offered to the god Mahadev, the Bhils hold it sacred and 
do not use its wood for fuel. The fruit is used as medicine. 



372 


SAILANA STATE. 


Grasses. 


enable XU). 


babul for wheels of carts, and also for the body of the bakhar, hal, 
and of carts. Dhaman wood is used for the thala which supports 
the pulley in wells. The fruit of the imli is eaten, and its wood 
used for making the thala of wells, the ghatar {Schreibera swieten- 
oides)i is used for making fences. The Subes of the semal {Bombax 
malabancum) are used in extracting juice of sugarcane in the sugar- 
cane presses. 

The khair {Acacia catechu) is used for making agricultural imple- 
ments while catechu is obtained from its bark and used in tanning. 
The fruit of the aonla is used for washing the hair of the head, 
and in making sweet preserves* The mahitd {Bassia latifolia) is 
one of the most valuable of these trees, its blossoms being used for 
distilling country liquor, while its oil is given to cattle. The fruit 
also is eaten, and the wood is used as timber. 

The fruit of the baheva {Terminalia helerica) is used in dyeing 
stuffs and skins and also as a medicine. The wood of khirnl {Mimii- 
sops kexandra) and dudl {Wrightia tomentosa) are used for making 
wooden toys, such as tops, child's comforter {chusnl) tardmak is used 
for thatching roofs. 

Sandal {Santalam abhmii) is used for timber and its essence 
in making caste marks on the forehead. 

The fruit of the Karkata {Zizyphus xylopyra) and I^achndr {Bau- 
limia variegata) are used as vegetables by the poorer classes, 

Mokha or ghater (Schnehexa swietenoivodes) wood is used for mak- 
ing the pestle {Idt) of oil presses, while the bar {Ficus indica) , plpal 
(Ficus religiosa), and gidar {Ficus glomerata), are used for the khfmt, 
or body of the press. White musli {Asparagas filiciners) when dry,^ 
is used as medicine. 

Many useful grasses are found, the most important being rusa, 
(Andropogon), sdmdn, hehria^ kdns, gudaria, sairau, Punian^ toli 
hharola, garela^ hhalki, gadela, sukli, bagdi^ punch-bhadra, Gundia 
and lapria. The seeds of sdmdn {Panicum) and bekria, are used 
as food especially in famine time, and kans^ gudaria, and rusa for 
thatching huts, and the remainder as fodder. 

During the famine all restrictions were removed, and preserved 
forests were also thrown open to the public. 

Section IW— Mines and Minerals. 

(Table XII. ) 

There are no known minerals deposits of any value in the State 
but it is possible that the hilly region may possess minerals of 
commercial importance. Basalt is found in all parts but is too hard 
for use, except in plinths, lining wells, etc. A quarry of sandstone 
is worked at Titri (23^16'N —75’= 6'E.) and the stone is exported to 
Ratlam where it is used for building houses. 



ARTS AND MANUFACTURES. 


373 


Sandstone quarries formerly existed also at Kaneri, Lakhia, and 
Rupakhera in Bilp^k but they were closed a few years ago. 

The quarry at Lakhia was worked by the Godhra-Ratlam Railway 
when the line was being constructed. Since its completion the 
quarry has been lying idle. 

Section V — Arts and Manufactures. 

(Table XI.) 

Only the usual coarse country cloth (Khadi) and blankets are 
made in a few villages in the Sailana, Bangrod and Bilpank tahslh. 

Khadi is especially woven at villages where Balais and Bhambis 
live ; and blankets are made by Gadris. 

A great decrease has taken place in the output of these articles 
owing to the importation of machine made cloths. 

Cotton is spun in the Sailana and the Bilpank tahsils ; especially 
at Barmawal where there are many handlooms. Dyeing and printing of 
imported cloths is carried on at Semlia by Muhammadan 
chhipas. Formerly the al {Morinda tinctoria) dye produced at the 
Ghatwas, Gunawad and Semlia villages was used by these chhipas 
but during the last five or six years aniline dyes imported from 
Bomabyhave been substituted. 

The usual country utensils of metal and pottery and lac bangles 
are made in all large villages. 

A ginning factory was started by Bhau Sardarmal in November Factories. 
1892, but the owner became bankrupt and absconded in 1896. 

A Steam weaving factory called the Malwa Weaving and Manufac- 
turing Company, has been started, (18th August, 1906) at Sailana 
by Messrs. Gumanji Javahirlal of Partabgarh which exports pagris 
to neighbouring States and district. 

Section. VI •• —Commerce and Trade. 

Commerce has never been very flourishing in Sailana owing to 
want of communications, although conditions have improved since 
the railways were opened. To encourage trade all transit duties 
(rdhaddn) were abolished in 1887 by Raja Dule Singh, 

In the famine of 1899-1900 to further facilitate and encourage 
trade all import and export duties on staple food grains were abol- 
ished. This famine [taught the people that it was fatal to confine 
their trade to Ratlam only and have no connection with British 
Districts as they found themselves limited to a single source of 
supply, which was already strained to the utmost. 

The principal articles of export are crude opium, unrefined cotton, Exports and 
food grains to a small extent, til, linseed and opium seed. Imports. 

The chief imports are salt, sugar, kerosine oil, gur, cloth and 
cotton seed. 



374 


SAILANA STATE. 


Markets and 
trade centres. 


Meokanism 
of trade 


Eirms. 


External 

trade. 


Measures and 
weights. 


The chief -markets and trade centres are Sailana, Semlia, Bilpank 
Bangrod, Barma-wai, and Raoti. Traders purchase grain, etc., frona 
the cultivators and export it. Cultivators have usually hypothe- 
cated the proceeds of the harvests to their tlpdars who sell the 
produce to merchants from the trade centres. 

Trade is carried on by Brahmans, Banias andBohoras, the former 
two dealing in opium, cloth and grain, the latter in groceries, spices 
and hardware. 

Trade passes to Gujarat and Bombay by the Namli, Runija and 
Naugawan stations on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway and the 
Bangrod and Raoti stations of the B ombay Baroda and Central India 
Railway. The chief mediums of exchange are the British rupee, 
hundls and money-orders ; currency notes are but little used. 

With Bhils barter is common, jungle produce such as wax, gum, 
Zac, timber and fire- wood being exchanged for cloth, grain, liquor, 
and necessaries. 

Bohora Abdulji Alimohamed, Yusufali, Abdulji Tayeb Khan, 
deal in sundry articles, from Bombay. Magniram Gordhandas 
Rakhabdas Kesrimal and Shivanarain Lakhmidas, deal in cloth 
and sundry articles. Bhagirath Kothari, Pannalal, Ranka Onkar, 
Rakhabdas Pannalal, deal in cloth importing from Bombay, the 
Punjab and the United Provinces. Jawarchand, Dhulji, JamnalaS 
Chandalia and Bhagirath Bhandari, deal in staple food grains and 
sundry articles. 

From Bombay cloth and kerosine oil are imported, turbans from 
Delhi, salt and cotton seeds from Khandesh and sugar and gur from 
the United Provinces. 

Crude opium is exported to Ratlam and Indore, other articles to 
Gujarat and Bombay, 

The weights and measures in ordinary use are given below : — 

The weights used are the same as in British India with the two 
exceptions given. 

For weighing articles of trade and manufacture such as sugar 
cotton, metals, molasses, oil, ght, etc., the following weights are in 
use ; — 


4 

Chhatdks 

= 

7 

Pao, 

16 

Chhatdks 

= 

7 

Seer^, 

10 

Seers 

= 

7 

Dhari. 

4 

Dharis 


7 

Maund, 

12 

Maunds 


7 

Mdni^. 

100 

Mdnis 

= 

7 

Mandsa, 

100 

Mandsas 

=: 

7 

Kandsa, 


1. This is a kachcha seer equal to 39| Briiish rupees about I lb. The pakia seer 
of British India is equal to 2 lbs. 

2, The weights from this point axe the same as in Briiish India where 6 mkka 
maunds is equal to 1 Mdni. 



MEANS OF COMMUNICATION, 


375 


Locally the fields and lands are usually measured by htghas, 

20 Biswas = 7 Bigha^ 

if {nearly 2 Blghas) = 1 Acre. 

Two methods of reckoning the time of day are in vogue. The 
English method by which the day and night make 24 hours and the 
oriental method in which time is measured by the kachchl ghari^ 
which is equal to 24 minutes. One whole day and night is divided 
into 8 prahars, 4 prahars falling in the day and four in the night. 

60 Vipals = 1 Pal. 

60 Pals = 7 Gharl. 

But the duration of prahars changes according to the season with 
the length of the day or of the night. In Malwa the length of a 
prahar varies from 6 to 9 gharls. 

Formerly, the State financial j^ear commenced from Bhadon Badt 
1st; i- e., the day following the full moon of In Samvat 

1908 (a. D 1852) the commencement of the financial year was fixed 
from the entrance of the sun into the constellation of Leo known as 
the Sinha Sankrant, but in 1858 the old method was again adopted. 
In order to make it agree as nearly as possible with the Christian 
months and dates since in 1897 the official year has begun on the 
first of August which usually falls on or near Bhadon Badi 1st. 

The Vikrama Samvat as used in ordinary computation commences 
from 1st Chait Sudl or about 5 months before the financial year, 
thus in 1906 the financial year commenced on August Ist while 
the Vikrama Samvat year 1963 began on March 25th. 

Section VII Means of Communication. 

(Table XV). 

The Rajputana-Malwa and the Godhra-Nagda-Ujiain-Ratlam 
branch of the Bombay Baroda and Central India, 'both traverse the 
State. No stations on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway fall within 
State limits, but Sailana town is connected by a metalled road 
with Namli station on that system. On the Godhra-Nagda-Ujjain- 
Ratlam branch the stations of Raoti with Namli station and Bangrod 
fall within the State, while those at Bilpank, Namli and Runija 
though just beyond the border are also useful. 

The effect of the railway was very noticeable during the famine of 
1899-1900, grain being imported in large quantities from the United 
Provinces. 

Though prices rose to 150 per cent, above the ordinary rates, there 
is no doubt they would have risen far higher, but for the railway. 
The opening of railways has not as yet produced a noticeable 
effect in the speech or religion of the people. 

Only two roads are metalled. One is the feeder road from Namli 
station to the town of Sailana, a distance of about 10 miles, which 
was constructed and is still maintained by Government. 


Measures by 
surface. 


Measures of 
ti me. 


Kailways. 


Eoads, 
(Table XV). 



376 


SAILANA STATE. 


Vehicles 

used. 


Post and 
Telegraph* 


The other is the Mhow-Nimach high road, also constructed and 
maintained by Government, which passes near Semlaoda, Bilpank 
and Mewasa. 

Damnls (carts) drawn by a pair of bullocks are used by passengers 
conveyances between Sailanaand Namli station and country chJiakras 
for transporting goods along all roads . 

Two Public Works Department inspection bungalows are situated 
in the State, one at Sailana at the end of the feeder road from Namli 
and the other at Mewasa between Jaora and Namli on the Mhow- 
Nimach road. 

Imperial post offices have been opened at Sailana, Bangrod and 
Raoti. There is no State postal system. The only telegraph offices 
are those at the railway stations of Bangrod and Raoti within State 
limits and at Namli 10 miles from Sailana town and at Naugawan 
about two miles from Bilpank village. 

Section VIII : —Famine. 

(Table XXX). 

As the crops are entirely dependent on timely rainfall, a failure of 
the rains always means scarcity or famine, * 

The only famine which the State is known to have experienced is 
that of 1899-1900. 

Rain fell plentifully in June and the first week of July, when over 
1 1 inches had been recorded, prospects were good and grain cheap, 
wheat selling at 16i seers per rupee and maize and other grains at 
about 24 seers. At the end of July the rain suddenly stopped only 
19 cents of scattered rain falling during August. Prices at once 
began to rise, the rates in October being, wheat 8i and maize and 
gram 9 seers each. The khanf crops yielded a very poor out-turn 
only 50 per cent, of the maize crop being received. No rain fell in 
October and famine soon declared itself. 

It was then necessary to take measures to cope with the calamity. 
The local grain dealers, contented themselves with importing such 
grains as they could obtain from Ratlam, where the market was daily 
getting stiffer and prices were rising rapidly. The Bhils and even 
the peaceful cultivators, who had lost all means of subsistence* were 
driven to committing crimes. In Raoti armed bands of Bhils from 
Kusalgarh and Jhabua were raiding in all directions, and the regular 
and irregular forces of the State available for Raoti could with 
difficulty keep order. Cattle were, moreover, dying from starvation, 
while large numbers were killed by the Bhils for food. At the same 
time emigrants from M