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The Philippine 

Agriculturist 

(University of the Philippines Publications: Series A) 


VOLUME XXII 


JUNE, 1933 TO NARCH, 1934 

(Complete in ten numbers) 


PUBLISHED BY 

THE COLLEGE OP AGRICULTURE 

UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES 



CONTENTS 

VOLUME XXII 

JUNE, 1933 TO MARCH, 1934 
(Complete in ten numbers) 


NUMBER 1, JUNE, 1933 


On research. B. M. GONZALEZ 1 

The digestibility by the carabao of flint corn silage. A. T. Taleon, Valente 

Villegas, and Mamerta Manahan-Ylagan 13 

Selection of varieties and strains of niungo {Phascolus aureus Roxb.) PURIFI- 

cacion M. Caguicla 23 

A comparative study of the emasciilator and the emasculatome methods of cas- 
tration. Engracio Basio 43 

Note: Baker Memorial Scholarship Fund 67 

Note: The Second Rural Life Institute. Manuel Monsalud 68 

Note: Gifts from U. P. Student Council 70 

Current notes from — Journal of Farm Keonomiesy The. Farmers' Gazette^ Trop- 
ical Life, Commerce and Industry Journal (Philippines), The Madras Agri- 
cultural Journal (Reprinted from the **States7na7c") , The Purdue AgricuU 
inrist (Purdue University), New Zealand Journal of Agriculture 71 

College and alumni notes 73 

NUMBER 2, JULY, 1933 

An obituary: Edgar Madison Ledyard. Edwin Bingham Copeland 87 

Floral morphology of Musa errans (Blanco) Teodoro var. hotoan Teodoro. Jos6 

B, Julia NO, and Proceso B. Alcala 9i 

Cost of production of lowland rice in the College of Agriculture. Alejandro B. 

Catambay, and Juliano C. Jugo 127 

A study of the results of the second Philippine egg laying contest. F. M. 

Fronda 148 

Abstract: “Sweet potato, Ipomoca batatas Linn. vs. Calopogonium muconoides 

Desv., a legume, as pasture exops for growing pigs.” A. D. Pablo 157 

Current notes fi’om — The Australian Sugar Journal, Tropical Life, The Journal 
of the Jamaica Agricultural Society, The Farmers' Gazette (Ireland), Com- 
7nerce and Industry Journal (Philippines), Jounud of Agriculture (Austra- 
lia) 158 

College and alumni notes 160 

number 3, august, 1933 

Some thoughts on production 163 

A preliminary study of pupils in vocational agriculture. Francisco M. Sacay . 165 

The effect of different soil media on the rate of growth of cacao (Theobroma 

cacao L.) seedlings. Pedro Z. Madrid 172 

Studies on the use of a Pateros hatcher in incubating chicken eggs. CeIbar B. 

Tantooo 189 

A study of the palatability and feeding value of some Philippine plants for 

goats. Felicisimo D. Suratos 202 

Note: Rome and agriculture 219 

Abstract: “Some clarification characteristics of cane juice.” J. P. Mamisao ... 220 



THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST rii 

Current notes from — Scicvce, The Journal of the Department of Agriculture of 
South Australia, Iowa Agriculturist, Tropical Agriculture, The Australian 
Sugar Journal, Tropical Life, Queensland AgHcultural Journal^ The Journal 

of the Jmnaica Agi'icultural Society 222 

College and alumni notes 224 

NUMBER 4, SEPTEMBER, 1933 

William Arnon Henry, Wisconsin pioneer 229 

A report on a rice inbreeding experinumt in the College of Agriculture. TORIBIO 

Mercado, and Pedro Juachon 234 

Additional cyanophoric plants of the Maquiling region: IV. Jose B. Juliano .. 254 

Cost of producing sugar cane in the College of Agriculture. Alejandro B. 

Catambay, and Jesus E. Seoovia 258 

Studies on the consumption of sugar for one year by fifty Filipino families in 

Calauan, Laguna. Jose C. Atienza 274 

Hens and pullets as sources of <‘ggs for foundation stocks. Conrado B. 

Uichanoo 285 

A review: ‘'Poultry breeding.” Micuei^ Manriosa 298 

Current notes from — Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad, B. W. L), Queensland 
Agricultural Joiiriml (Australia), The Tropical Agricfiltiirist (Ceylon), 
Commerce and Imlustry Journal (Philippines), The Australian Sugar Jour- 

nal, 27ie Far7uers* Gazette, (Ii*eland) 299 

College and alumni notes 801 

NUMBER 5, OCTOBER, 1933 

Grasses and man 306 

Observations on the decomposition of cellulose in certain Philippine forest soils. 

D. I. Aquino, and D. P. Tabije 311 

Mechanical injuries to roots and conns of abaca in relation to heart-rot disease. 

Mariano M. Ramos 322 

Comparative studies on the gro-wth and maturity of Los Bafios Cantonese and 

Nagoya chickens. Telesporo Tioaquen 358 

The amount of residual arsenic on leafy vegetable crops sprayed and dusted with 

arsenical insecticides. Juan N. Samson 366 

Note: On banana. M. R. Monsalud 372 

Current notes from — The Jounml of the Jamaica Agricultural Society, The New 
Zealand Dairyman, Tropical Life, The Dlauter (F. M. S.), The Tropical 
* Agriculturist (Ceylon) , Live Stock Bullet in, The F^armers* Gazette ^Ireland) 374 
College and alumni notes 376 

number 6, novEiMBBr, 1933 

International cooperation in agriculture. Robert L. Pendleton 381 

Distribution of mosaic and Fiji diseases in sugar cane stalks; effects of these . 
maladies on the germination of the eyes and transmission of the viruses by 
pin pricks. G. 0. Ocfemia, Evaristo A. HuRTArK>, and Crispiniano C. 

Hernandez 385 

Chemical analysis for possible sources of oils of forty-five species of oil-bearing 

seeds. Salvador P. Padilla, and Florencio A. Soliven 40S 

A study on the comparative economy of egg production of the Nagoya and of the 

Los Bancs Cantonese breeds of fowls. Ladislao G. Martir 416 

A study of coconut seedlings in relation to shape of nuts. Felicisimo S. Maceda 420 
Abstract: “A further study of nitrification in the Philippine Soils.” PORFIRIO 

R. Manaoop 442 



IV 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Current notes from — Philippine Jourval of Commerce, Farming in South Africa, 
Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad, B. W. I.)» Agriculture and Live-Stock in 

India 443 

College and alumni notes 445 

NUMBE31 7, DECEMBER, 1933 

The Society for the Advancement of Research. F. M. Fronda 451 

Science and the scientist. Lbopoldo B. Uichanoo 455 

Disease resistance in plants. L. R. Jones 459 

A method of plant improvement based on the use of hidden heritable bud varia- 
tions and those produced through injury. N. B. Mendiola 4r>5 

Changes in chemical composition of Cantonese eggs in holding. Mblecio T. 

Lbgaspi 509 

Abstract: “Preliminary studies on the influence of the presence of males upon 

the gi*owth and maturity of pullets.” Alfonso S. Marcelo 521 

College and alumni notes 522 

NUMBB21 8, JANUARY, 1934 

Farming in Bukidnon. Emma S. Yule 529 

Harmful effects upon young rice and maize plants of rice straw when added to 

clay loam soil in pots. R. B. Espino, and F. T. Pantaleon 534 

Soap making on the farm. Pedro A. David 657 

Bunchy-top of abaca, or Manila hemp; II. Further studies on the transmission 
of the disease and a trial planting of abaca seedlings in a bunchy-top de- 
vastated field. G. O. Ocfemia, and Gabino G. Buhay 5G7 

Protein supplements in poultry rations: I. Comparative studies of the effects of 
shrimp meal, meat scraps, tankage and fish meal as supplements in rations 
for growing chickens. F. M. Fronda, AcEiiO C. Badelles, and Juan S. 

Padilla 582 

Abstract: “The coconut industry in Pila, Laguna.” Jesub de Guzman 599 

Current notes from — Journal of Agriculture (Victoria), Queensland Agricul- 
tural Joumrial, The Planter, Tropical Life, Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad, 

B. W. I.), Malayan Agricultural Journal, Tropical Life GOO 

College and alumni notes 603 

number 9, FEBRUARY, 1934 

The Los Banos Biological Club; Ten years of active work in research. Miguel 

Manresa 607 

Effects of pre-heating on the operation of a high compression tractor engine 

using alcohol and alcohol-gasoline blends as fuels. A. L. Te20DORO 625 

Effect of various methods of storing corn on the degree of damage due to weevils. 

Lbopoldo B. Uichanco, and Santiago R. Capcx) 653 

Chemical analysis of the water supply of the College of Agriculture for the year 

1931-32. Ramon A. Cruz, and Ricardo T. Marfori 673 

Protein supplements in poultry rations: II. Comparative effects of shrimp meal, 
meat scraps, tankage, and fish meal as supplements in rations for laying 

hens. Alfredo A. Francisco, Gregorio S. Chan, and F. M. FronIia 685 

Abstract: “A comparative study of two kinds of manimanihan, Alysicarpus num- 
midarifolius (Linn.) D. C. and Desmodium dapitatum (Burm. f.) as forage 

crops. PoRFiRio V. Barlaan 698 

Current notes from — The Tropical Agriculturist, The New Zealand Dairyman, 

The Australian Sugar Journal, The Journal of the Jamaica Agricultural 
Society, The Journal of the Department of Agriculture of South Australia, 

Tropical Agriculture 699 

College and alumni notes 702 



THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


V 


NUMBER 10, MARCH, 1934 


The most profitable investment of the government of the United States 705 

A preliminary study on the elimination of the acid error by the use of phosphoric 

acid for the direct and invert readings. Fi/JRENCIO A. Soliven 708 

Report on truck field tests in Canlubang, Laguna using A-alkohl motor fuel 
No. 1, B-dehydrated alcohol and gasoline as fuels. A. L. TeX)IK->ro, and 

J. P. Mamisao 720 

Livinir conditions in farm homes in Memdex Nunez and Amadeo, Cavite; Manga- 
tarem, Pangasinan; and Camiiing, Tarlac. Jose E. Vei.monte, Juan O. 

SUMAGUI, AND PEDRO IT. ViRAY 745 

Effects on the growth and development of sugar cane plant of bagasse when 

added to soil in pots. Artemio P. Malabayabas 777 

Published contributions of the College of Agriculture: XI. B. M. Gonzalez .... 804 

Abstract: “Some preliminary studios on the propagation of cacao (Thcobro^ym 

cacao L.) by stem cuttings and by graftage.“ Benigno Legaspi 813 

Current notes from — Internatimud Review of A(jricidtiO’e, Agriculture and Live- 
stock in India, Queeiifilavd Agrieuliu ral Journal, The Journal of the Jamaica 
Agricultural Society, The Cyprus Agricultural Journal, The Tropical Agri- 
culturist (Ceylon), Tropical Agrieuliure 814 

College and alumni notes 81fi 


ERRATA 

Page 113, line 7 from bottom “Part I” should read “Plate I.” 

Page 257, line 18 from top *'Corehorus acutaugidus (salulot)” should lead '*Corchorus 
acutangidus (saluyot).’’ 

Page 488, line 11 from bottom “membrance” should read “membrane.’* 

Page 694, line 16 from top “Fronda, F. M., Acelo C. Badelles and Juan S. Padilla. 
1933*’ should read “Fronda, F. M., Acelo C. Badelj.es and Juan S. Padilla. 
1934.** 




ON RESEARCH 


Opinions of Some Successful Scientific, Industrial 
and Business Executives ^ 

You have undoubtedly come prepared to listen to what I may 
say, but I am sure, even if I made it my life work to develop thoughts 
similar to those I shall presently read to you, I would fall far short 
in the results. In bringing these opinions before you, I have at- 
tempted to classify them and give them a certain continuity. 

Recognition of need for research 

We are now passing through a period which clearly brings to 
ndnd the fact that civilization unarmed by science is at a terrible dis- 
advantage in a struggle for existence ; and we must realize that this 
arming cannot be done at short notice. — Andrew Mellon. 

The intellectual stimulus accompanying great upheavals, however 
they originate, finds expression in unusual achievements in science. 
— George P^llery Hale. 

Indeed, it is practically impossible to pitch upon any problem 
in modern life whose complete solution does not involve an appeal to 
several lines of scientific approach. . . . 

In other words, the price of a sound, progressive national life is 
in these times wdesp^’ead and intelligent scientific research. . . . 

In a general way it had long been a subject of comment that 
the Germans had succeeded in ex])loiting scientific research for the 
improvement of their industry and agriculture to a degree unrivalled 
by other countries. But with the outbreak of the war the crush- 
ing efficiency of the many new techniail devices of the German army 
lent added emphasis of the most dramatic character to the apprecia- 
tion of what had in that country been accomplished in these lines. . . . 

• Certainly the national character of the obligation to foster re- 
search, both in pure and applied science, as widely as our resources 
will permit, cannot be called in question by any thoughtful observer 

' General contribution from the Collcp:c of ARriculturo No. 84S. 

* Extracts from an address delivered by Dr. B. M. Gonzalez, Dean, Colleg’e of 
Agriculture, before the Second Philippine Science Convention, Manila, February 
16 , 1933 . 

PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST, VOL. XXJI, NO. 1, .JUNE, Vy^’6 



2 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


of the present trend in the development of civilization, and it is essen- 
tial in this connectipn that we conceive of research as the organized 
technique of science itself for its own propagation.— James Rowland An- 

GELL. 

There seems to be no department of human activity in which 
the rule of thumb man has not come to realize that science which he 
formerly despised is useful beyond the scope of his own individual 
experience 

We are not limited, however, to a military objective, for when 
the war is over the international competitions of peace will be re- 
sumed. No treaties or leagues can prevent that, and it is not de- 
sirable that they should, for no nation can afford to be without the 
stimulus of competition. 

In that race the same power of science which has so amazingly 
increased the productive capacity of mankind during the past cen- 
tury will be applied again and the prizes of industrial and' commer- 
cial leadership will fall to the nation which organizes its scientific 
forces most effectively. — elihu Root. 

The function of the executive in d research 
institution 

Care must be taken to secure competent executives, either from 
the ranks of those whose primary training has been along research 
lines and who have shown capacity for handling men and compli- 
cated problems or from those of executive capacity and experience 
who have shown a proper sympathy for the requirements of re- 
search .... 

It is essential that whoever is responsible for the direction and 
success of the industrial research undertaking should be a man with 
a broad outlook, a full appreciation of all of the factors of the business 
problem, and a man who can sympathize with and appreciate the vary- 
ing points of view which he encounters and who can harmonize all of 
the activities into a smoothly- working machine. — Frank B. Jewett.” 

The management must not only be able to adapt its methods to 
the psychology of the workers, but it must also be able to change its 
plan of research as the work develops and as discoveries are made. — 
C. E. K. Mees. 

The prosecution of research today is upon an entirely different 
basis. Not only do those in the same science coordinate their work, 
if they are to attain the highest results, but all branches of science 



ON BESEABCH 


a 


are regarded not as separate and unrelated agencies, but as parts 
of a common effort. A research started in a purely physical field 
may find its. solution in a chemical reaction or a physiological process. 
The research men of a nation are not isolated individuals but an or- 
ganized and cooperating army. — Henry S. PBiTCHEyrr. 

A spirit of cooperation should be encouraged among all types of 
research laboratories, as no greater good to society can arise than 
from a wider distribution of the duties and responsibilities of re- 
search. Accordingly, well established research laboratories should 
be willing to cooperate and render informative service necessary for 
the establishment and organization of other research laboratories. — 
Andrew Mellon. 


On the organization of research tvork 

The real work of organization and research must be done by men 
who make it the whole business of their lives. — Elihu Root. 

And we thus come to the ideal organization of research, which 
may be stated in a few words : “getting good research men and let- 
ting them do what they want to.” In practice this limit of disorgan- 
ization cannot be achieved in an institution of any size .... 

Results in research cannot be obtained by hard woi’k alone ; more- 
over, elaborate planning, which is such an important factor in modern 
production, can easily be a disadvantage in research. The situation 
is perhaps analogous to that of war. To go to war without a plan is 
quite fatal. To go to war with a rigid plan which can not be changed 
as fresh circumstances arise may also be fatal. — c. E. K. Mbes. 

A research laboratory searches for knowledge, particularly in its 
own field. Two things are important in this connection: one is 
an insatiable thirst for knowledge ; the other is an ample library and 
record facilities where this knowledge can be sought, orderly assem- 
bled, and stored away. — c. W. Thompson. 

• More specifically, this obligation to foster research means, first, 
the providing for a greatly enlarged personnel with much better fun- 
damental training than is at present available. It means, second, the 
securing of the necessary facilities of laboratories, apparatus and all 
sthe physical conveniences that are involved in scientific work. It 
means, third, the procuring of sufficient freedom from other duties 
to permit research workers to give their full and undivided attention 
throughout such periods as may be necessary to the completion of 
their research undertakings. — James Rowland Angell. 



4 


THE PHIUmNB AGRICULTURIST 


Whatever the scheme finally adopted to provide for an expansion., 
in the domain of fundamental research and the development of com- 
petent industrial research workers, care must be taken to insure that 
pressure from the industries will never be so great as to withdraw 
those men who can render the greatest service by continuing as in- 
vestigators in the field of pure research and the training of younger 
men. Such a course would be suicidal if long continued and I men- 
tion the point because of the fact that my experience indicates a con- 
siderable tendency on the part of industries which have benefited from 
industrial research to endeavor to attract into their service the best 
of the university reisearch men. I confess that the temptation to do 
this is very great and that the monetary inducements which industry 
can offer to the individual are large and not easily to be withstood by 
a man whose normal human reaction is for the material welfare of 
his family. — Prank B. Jewett. 

Finance and research 

Research is essentially a speculation, but it differs from most 
speculations in that the odds seem to be weighted heavily in favor of 
the speculator, so that if industrial research is undertaken with com- 
petent men and is allowed to carry on in the face of difficulty and 
failure, profit is almost inevitable. — c. E. K. Mees. 

The expenditures for research in a large laboratoiy comprise the 
salaries and expenses of executives ; office, library, shop, storeroom, 
and building operation and maintenance; salaries of research men 
and assistants ; supplies and house charges, which will include as well 
special charges for shop and office work; and traveling expenses in- 
curred during investigational inquiries and during the attendance of 
members of the research staff at appropriate scientific gatherings. — 
William A. Hamor and George D. Beal. 

It is on the men in independent research and in our educational 
institutions that the great burden of scientific advancement must* al- 
ways rest, and from them that the inspiration of the younger gener- 
ation of oncoming scientific workers is derived. What we need 
above all things is the better support of these men. They should not, 
by the necessities of living and the cost of equipment, be forced into 
our industrial laboratories. . . . 

We may make these academic posts so attractive to the student of 
science that he will seek and occupy them permanently because of the 
opportunities they afford him to advance knowledge by original re- 



OK RESEARCH 


0 


search without anxiety for bread and family and equipment. It is 
true that money can not buy genius, but many a genius in science has 
defaulted because he has had to eat. — Herbert Hoover. 

The training of researchers 

Successful research demands trained investigators, and these 
cannot be produced in a day. It also demands adequate provision of 
funds, not merely during the feverish moments of war, but through- 
out those long periods of calm, when the foundations that underlie 
the success or failure of a nation are laid. — gbcrge Eli.eby Hale. 

No form of human effort is more highly individualistic, or 
more exacting in its demands upon the vitality of the worker, than 
research 

Above all they should have creative instinct, which is the driving 
force underlying research h. L. Trumbull. 

No extensive and successful industrial research growth can be 
looked for unless provision is made for a continuing supply of com- 
petent men of broad general training and a specific and thorough 
training in the methods of scientific research — frank B. Jewett. 

Research workers should be men of critical judgment and un- 
questioned integrity. It is not sufficient that they refrain from 
deceiving others; they should ever be alert to avoid deceiving them- 
selves. — Webster N. Jones. 

A high level of preliminary scientific education, a far-reaching 
general professional training and a moderate degree of specialization, 
such should, according to the views of the writer, be the qualifications 
which the agricultural scientist of tomorrow' should be expected to 
supply. — E. Marchal. 

The human factor in research 

A research laboratory is an organization made up of human 
bqjngs with all the advantages and limitations which that involves. 
In my opinion, the more really human are the members of a research 
organization, the more successful it will be. Or, to put it another 
way, the leas it operates along the lines of discipline, such as we think 
of in connection with the army, the more successful it will be. The 
enthusiasm of a worker must never be dampened, although properly 
it may be directed. He should always be encouraged when he shows 
a thirst for knowledge. All that may be necessary is tactfully to 
guide his thirst for knowledge to the particular problems on which he 
should be working 



THE PHIUPPINE AGEICULTURIST 


t> 


In a research laboratory, while there must be a certain willing- 
ness to be driven and tQ report promptly knowledge already acquired, 
there must also be an unwillingness to be driven unduly on problems 
requiring study and careful investigation. — c. W. Thompson. 

There is no lack of money, no lack of material facilities, no lack 
of courage, no lack of approval on the part of directors, for we have 
long ago learned that material facilities are easy to obtain, that mon- 
ey spent in properly directed fundamental research, large though the 
sums may be, is small in comparison with the direct and indirect re- 
turns, and finally that apparent courage in deciding to go ahead is 
not so very courageous after all when it is exercised by men of ability, 
training and experience who have shown themselves competent in 
their own fields, whether these fields be within the laboratories or 
within the precincts of the executive offices. 

What then is it that should stop us from an immediate attack if 
we are so sure of the ultimate result? The answer is the simple, 
three-letter word ‘men’. Not mere human male bipeds but men en- 
dowed by nature with at least a modicum of the spirit of scientific 
research to which has been added, either through fortune, personal 
initiative, parental solicitude or a far-sighted policy on the part of 
the State, that orderly training and opportunity for expansion of in- 
tellect without which natural talents are of little avail. — Frank B. 
Jewett. 

Research workers are of many different types, and an elastic out- 
look on the part of the management is a dominant factor in the pro- 
duction of the best results. However efficiently a laboratory may 
be organized and however energetically the staff may endeavor to 
produce results, if they do not have the inspiration to make the dis- 
coveries which should follow applied research effort, the laboratory 
will be sterile. — c. E. K. Mining 

Only young men of marked promise should be encouraged to do 
advanced work. David Starr Jordan expressed the opinion that it 
is ‘no use loading a $10,000 education on a 60-cent boy’ " 

Is his measure of success largely financial or does he appreciate 
that the attainment of happiness, health, and opportunity for service 
to humanity are as important as a large income? — Webster N. Jones. 

Research in universities and educational 
institMions 

Except for the special laboratories of a few large industrial 
organizations and the smaller laboratories of individuals, both scien- 
tific and industrial research have been carried on in the laboratories 



ON SESBARCH 


of educational institutions by individuals who are at once- teachers 
and investigators. The combination of teaching and research should 
doubtless be continued, for it is profitable alike to student and teach- 
er and tends to promote both research and scientific training. It 
is possible on the one hand for students to render valuable research 
assistance while studying in a college or university, and on the other 
hand it is almost inevitably true that contacts of the teacher with ad- 
vanced students increase his value as an investigator. But already 
pure research has become so broad in its applications, and so insist- 
ently demanded by practical interests, that it constitutes an over 
heavy burden on educational institutions and must therefore be taken 
care of in a measure by the provision of special organizations. — 
Theodore N. Vau.. 

The university with its great thinkers and vast and precious 
teaching resources is undoubtedly the most favorable milieu for the 
purely scientific training of the agricultural scientists of the fu- 
ture. — E. Marchal. 

In general. University research is carried on in the interstices 
of other duties, and the only wonder is that so much of it is produced, 
and that on the whole it is of so respectable a character 

It is a matter of common knowledge that the most serious limi- 
tation of the research productivity of these institutions is occasioned 
by the overwhelming burden of classroom instruction which many 
of the men are obliged to carry. Such classroom work is not only de- 
structive to research because of the sheer intellectual and physical 
fatigue which it occasions, but also, and perhaps more significantly, 
because of the interruption to attention and the close observation of 
critical phenomena which it compels. — James Rowland Angeli,. 

Teaching without research soon becomes hide-bound, uninterest- 
ing, of little inspirational or cultural value. — r. w. Thatcher. 

Research in pure science 

Everywhere and always, pure science constitutes the active source 
from which, although often it may be by long and devious paths, true 
practical progress is surely derived. — e. Marchal. 

For a number of years the world has been gradually developing a 
better appreciation of the scientific method and of scientific research 
largely bwause the benefits derived through its application to industry 
have been strikingly demonstrated. There are many examples of the 
commercial value of researches begun in pure science with no idea of 
immediate industrial application. — h. E. Howh 



8 


THB PHILirnNB AGBICVLTURIST 


While the solution of specific industrial problems and the attain- 
ment of specific industrial objects will be of immense value, the whole 
system will dry up and fail unless research in pure science be included 
within its scope. — euhu Root. 

Research in the biological and physical sciences takes two 
forms; industrial research (which is the application of science), and 
research in pure science. Obviously, there must first be a pure 
science before there can be an application. I am aware that there 
is a twilight zone between them, but no scientist has difficulty in 
finding the borders. — Herbert Hoover. 

Research in industry 

In an address some years ago, Whitney of the General Electric 
Company referred to research as the parent of industrial growth. . . . 

I know of no more significant tribute to research than to com- 
pare a list of industrial common stocks measured by the frequency 
with which they occur in the portfolios of our investment trusts and 
a list of companies measured by their activity in industrial research. 
The order of names on each list is almost identical. — Broderick Has- 
kell Ja 

Success in genuine industrial research presupposes all the qual- 
ities which are applicable to success in pure science, and, in addition, 
other qualities, executive and personal, more or less unessential in 
the pure research laboratory. — Andrew Mesllon. 

The close connection in recent years between industrial progress 
and what may be called industrial research is significant. The large 
industrial enterprises have been developed as much through the or- 
ganization of their scientific departments as through that of their 
operating departments. These departments of industrial research 
will undoubtedly be continued along present lines for, while their 
maintenance is costly in the aggregate, the expenditure is negligibfe 
by comparison with practical results when spread over a large pro- 
duction. — Theodore N. Vail. 

Research in agriculture 

The knowledge of the results accompli^ed in agriculture by 
national and state scientific investigation and cooperation is perhaps 
too wide-spread to make it necessary even to mention that subjest.— 
Abibbosb Swasey. 



ON RESEARCH 


9 


Th« Hierher Asrricultural Institute situated in tiie country and in 
rural surroundings, where at every point the instruction can be re- 
fre^ed and invigorated by practical demonstration, with its experi- 
ment farm, its research stations staffed with eminent scientists 
should prove a focus of applied science in direct and constant touch 
with the great general intellectual center provided by the university 
town from which, consequently, it should not be too far distant 

In certain special schools, though classed as of the “Higher” 
rank, there is a tendency to make the professional instruction degener- 
ate into a kind of technical initiation into the practice of such and 
such a branch of agricultural industry or speculation. Under the 
guise of exercises in the adaptation of theory to practice, the student 
is required to carry out processes? and manual operations, which could 
be far better learned after the completion of his studies during the 
course of the stage which every student should pass through before 
starting on his professional career. . . . 

Another danger to be avoided in the higher agricultural course 
is in the writer’s opinion the tendency towards an exaggerated specia- 
lization 

The march of agricultural progress might be made far more 
rapid and sure, and much of the labor, expense and trouble of testing 
and trials might be avoided if our agricultural scientists were given a 
superior equipment of pure science and could go direct to the original 
sources of the great discoveries for the maintenance of their activi- 
ties — 

The most urgent need of today is rather for true scientists, com- 
petent to achieve success in original research, than it is for able tech- 
nicians or merely popular lecturers. The responsibility for training 
such men lies with higher agricultural education, but if the work is 
to be adequately accomplished, higher agricultural education must de- 
velop and improve its methods and organization. — e. Marchal. 

It is a sad mistake so to emphasize the practical or economic 
importance of agricultural research work that our constituency gets 
the idea that only men of practical farm experience should be used in 

agricultural investigational work 

We must point out that the skilled scientists (not necessarily trained 
farmers) must be used in the investigations; and that agricultural 
operations like industrial operations are founded on true scientific 
principles, and that only those who are trained to recognize and under- 



10 


THE PHILIPPINE AOBICULTUBIST 


stand these principles can accurately interpret the observations which 
are made in the field or laboratory and draw the correct conclusions 
therefrom 

The work of the agricultural experiment stations is somewhat 
better known and enjoys a somewhat more desirable position in the 
public mind than does general university research; but even here it 
is evident that station men feel that they do not have all the public 
support to which the importance and value of their work should en- 
title them. — R. w. Thatcher. 

Publicity in research 

It is felt that a satisfactory staff composed of able research 
men, a proper selection of fundamental problems, and a judicious 
handling of patents will result in a natural publicity. This publicity 
should be so effective that no salesmanship on the part of the uni- 
versity will be necessary. The industries, like the public, are inter- 
ested in results and accomplishments, not in propaganda or advertis- 
ing.— d. B. Keyes. 

Science has been popularized to an extent that has made it a 
faith with many people that have no adequate means of appraising it. 
. A public trust is placed therefore in the hands of those who are able 
to interpret properly the economic significance of research. — Broderick 
Haskell Jr. 

Pitfalls in research 

Research is not merely the collection of existing facts and data 
on a given subject; that is but an incidental though important phase 
of the work. One type of research creates new knowledge and gives 
new power over materials ; the other type seeks to supply this newly 
created knowledge to the solution of specific problems. The two are 
really interdependent, equally complex and necessary. — h. E. Howe. 

Your isolated and concentrated scientist must know what has 
gone before, or he will waste his life in doing what has already been 
done, or in repeating past failures. He must know something abost 
what his contemporaries are trying to do, or he will waste his life 
in duplicating effort. — euhu Root. 

Many tendencies of the time indicate both the opportunity and 
the necessity for further effort. Not least of these is a widespread 
public preference for sensational discovery, even if based on little or 
no evidence, rather than for solid accomplishment of more sober sort. 
Pseudo-sdentific journals, taken by thousands of enthusiastic ama- 
teurs, often feed their readers on the veriest nonsense in the guise 



ON RESEARCH 


11 


of science. Charalatans offering fabulous wares are successful in 
securing appropriations from Congress. Such indications suffice to 
show the importance of rendering the sound results of scientific and 
industrial research more widely known, in language easily understood 
by all intelligent readers.— gbjorge Ellery Hale. 

The common opinion seemed to be that all that was necessary was 
to construct a building or buildings, put in some machinery and in- 
struments, gather together a few human beings, label the whole, a re- 
search laboratory and proceed to ‘research’ .... 

Every day I meet men or groups of men who have acquired a 
certain superficial knowledge of research matters and a limited vo- 
cabulary of its terms and who talk convincingly of the future of in- 
dustrial research and of the enormous material benefits to be derived 
from the extension of this form of activity. They fail utterly to real- 
ize that the mere dubbing of a man by some research title does not 
make him any more a real research investigator than sewing a pair 
of wings on a tunic makes a man a military aviator. They also fail to 
realize that even under the most favorable conditions as to human ma- 
terial, the mere getting together of a group of men does not bring a 
research laboratory into being. — prank B. Jewett. 

SOURCES OF QUOTATIONS 

Angell, James Rowland. 1919. The development of research in the United 
States. Reprint and Circular Series of the National Research Council 
No. 6: 1-19. (President, University of Chicago.) 

Hale, George Ellery. 1919. The purpose of the national research council. 
Bulletin of the National Research Council 1; Part 1; No. 1: 1-7. (Direc- 
tor, Mount Wilson Observatory.) 

Hamor, William A. and George D. Beal. 1932. Control of research expense. 
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 24: 427-431. (Institute of In- 

dustrial Research.) 

•Haskell, Broderick Jr. 1932. A banker^s viewpoint of industrial research. 
Industrial and Engineering Chenustry 24: 963-956. (Guaranty Company of 
New York.) 

Hoover, Herbert. 1926. The vital need for greater financial support of pure 
science research. Reprint and Circular Series of the National Research 
Council No. 66: 1-6. (Secretary of Commerce.) 

Howe, H. E. 1919. The organization of scientific and industrial research at 
home and abroad. Bulletin of the National Research Council 1; part 1; 
No. 1: 21-43. (Vice Chairman, Division of Industrial Research, National 

Research Council.) 



12 


THE PKIUPPmS AGRICUtTUBIST 


Jbw01T» Frank B. 1919. Industrial research. Reprint and Circular Series of 
the National Research Council No. 4: 1~16. (Chief Enfirineer, Western 
Electric Co., Incl) 

Jones, Webster N. 1932. Selection and training of industrial research person- 
nel. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 24: 423-427. (Processing 
Division, B. P. Goodrich Co.) 

Keyes, D. B. 1932. Codperative chemical engineering research in the Univer- 
sity. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 24: 947-949. (Engineering 

Experiment Station, University of Illinois.) 

Marchal, E. 1923. The higher agricultural education of the future. Reprint 
and Circular Series of the National Research Council. No. 51: 1-6. 

(Professor of Agriculture, State Institute of Agriculture, Gembloux, Bel- 
gium.) 

Mees, C. E. K. 1932. Scope of research management. Industrial and Engineer- 
ing Chemistry 24: 66-66. (Director of Research and Development, East- 

man Kodak Company.) 

Mellon, Andrehy W. 1919. The value of industrial research. Bulletin of 
the National Research Council 1: part 1; No. 1: 16-18. (Secretary of 

the Treasury; President, Mellon National Bank of Pittsburgh.) 

Pritchett, Henry S. 1919. The function of scientific research in a modern 
state. Bulletin of the National Research Council 1; part 1; No. 1: 10- 

11. (President, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.) 

Root, Elihu. 1919. The need for organization in scientific research. Bulletin 
of the National Research Council 1; part 1; No. 1: 7-10. (Chairman, 

Board of Trustees, Carnegie Institution of Washington.) 

SwASEY, Ambrose. 1919. Cooperation between science and industry. Bulletin 
of the National Research Council 1; part 1; No. 1: 14-16. (President, 

Warner and Swasey Company.) 

Thatcher, R. W. 1919. Remarks in discussion of President James Rowland 
Angell’s address on “The development of research in the United States.” 
Proceedings of the Thirty-third Convention, Association of American Agri- 
cultural Colleges and Experiment Stations. (Dean, College of Agricul- 
ture, University of Minnesota.) 

Thompson, C. W. 1932. Principles, of research laboratory management. In- 
dustrial and Engineering Chemistry 24: 68-71. (National Lead Com- 

pany, Brooklyn.) 

o 

Trumbull, H. L. 1932. Direction of investigation in the experimental stage. 
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 24: 199-202. (Chemical Research 

Laboratories B. P. Goodrich Co.) 

Tail, Theodore N. 1919. Relations of science to industry. Bulletin of the Na- 
tional Research Council 1; part 1; No. 1: 12-14. (President, American 

Telephone and Telegraph Company.) 



THE DIGESTIBILITY BY THE CARABAO 
OF FUNT CORN SILAGE » 


A. T. TALEON, VALENTE VILLEGAS AND 
MAMERTA MANAHAN-YLAGAN 

Of the Departments of Animal Husbandry and Agricultural Chemistry 

The importance to the animal husbandman of knowing the di- 
gestibility of feeds is apparent. As Henry and Morrison (1923) 
point out “the digestible matter is obviously the only portion of the 
feed which is of use, since the remainder passes out in the feces with- 
out even having entered the body.” So far as the present authors 
know, the digestibility of flint corn silage by carabaos has not been 
determined. As information on the subject should be of practical 
valtie the study reported in this paper was undertaken. 

The objects of this study were to determine : (a) how much of 

the nutrients contained in flint corn silage are digested by native 
carabaos, and (6) their coefficients of digestibility. 

This study was carried on in the College of Agriculture, Univer- 
sity of the Philippines, from April 30 to May 10, 1931, covering 
a period of 11 days. According to Jordan and Hall (1900) “the 
collection period should not be less than five days, and probably need 
not be over a week.” 


MATERIALS 

Com silage 

The corn silage used was produced in the College and was pre- 
served in the silo for five months. It was of the Yellow Flint va- 
riety and when cut for the silo was just beyond the roasting stage; 
the lower leaves were turning yellow. The corn was then two months 
and 20 days old. 

Animals 

Four healthy Philippine carabaos, one steer and three cows were 
used. Jordan and Hall (1900) state that “very often only two ani- 
mals are used in a single test, but four or more give more reliable 

’ Experiment Station contribution No; 884. Read before the Los Ba- 
fioB Biological Club on December 16, 1932. Received for publication January 
7 1933 

The writers are indebted to Messrs. Felicisimo Suratos, Abelardo Gatan 
and Constancio Antenor for help rendered in gathering the data in the night. 


18 



14 


THE PHILIPPINE AGKICULTUSIST 


results, since the influence of individual peculiarities is less when 
an average is taken.” The animals ranged in age from four years 
to eight years and four months, the average being 5 years, 10 months. 
They weighed from 417 to 611 kgm., averaging 472 kgm. 

Bam and tools 

The barn has a concrete floor which made the collection of 
feces free from foreign matter possible. 

Empty kerosene cans and shovels for the collection of feces and 
wide-mouthed bottles for samples for analysis were used. A small 
galvanized iron spoon was used in getting samples of feces for anal- 
ysis. A “Fairbanks” balance, sensitive to 0.2 kgm. was used for 
weighing the feed consumed and feces voided. 

Feeding and management 

Before the experiment was started, the animals were subjected 
to a preliminary test period of 10 days during which they were fed 
only corn silage. This test was necessary in order to clear the ali- 
mentary canal of the previous feeds. During this preliminary pe- 
riod the feces were examined daily to detect the first appearance 
of corn silage. Kernels of corn first appeared in the feces of two ani- 
mals on the fourth day and in those of the other two on the sixth 
and seventh days. It was deemed safe to conclude that on the day 
the actual experiment was begun the animals were digesting only 
com silage. Jordan and Hall (1900) suggest that the preliminary 
feeding period for ruminants should be from eight to ten days. 

t)uring the day, or from 6:00 a. m. to 6:00 p. m. the animals 
were placed in separate stanchions. From 6:00 p. m. to 6:00 a. m. 
they were turned in an open space, also with concrete flooring, where 
they were free to move around. 

During the experimental period, the animals were individually 
fed at about 7 :00 and 11 :00 a. m. and 4 :00 p. m. Common salt and 
water were also regularly given. At each feeding time the animals 
were allowed all the silage they would consume, the procedure being 
to give the feed in portions so there would be little left over. None 
of the animals lost weight, showing that they received sufficient 
nutrients from the feed. Ewing and Wells (1914) consider that 
animals given all the com silage they will consume twice daily are 
on maintenance ration. The daily feed consumption of each ani- 
mal was recorded. 

Throughout the whole experimental period, one person was al- 
ways on watch day and night, ready to collect the feces. The ani- 



DIGESTIBILITY OP FLINT CORN SILAGE iO 

mals were kept on a concrete floor except at weighing time. When 
the animal was taken to the scales for weighing, a second person 
followed behind with an empty can ready to catch the feces. 

Every time an animal defecated, the feces were collected, weighed 
and samples taken for analysis. The collecting was done by scrap- 
ing the feces from the concrete floor, except in a few instances when 
an empty can was held at the hind part of the animal in the act 
of defecation. To facilitate collection, clean empty kerosene cans and 
shovels were always in readiness near the animals. The amount of 
feces passed out by each animal daily was thus obtained. 

The chemical analysis 

A sample of the corn silage for chemical analysis was obtained 
daily. Two-liter, wide-mouthed bottles with cork stoppers were used 
for this purpose. At every feeding time representative portions 
were taken from the pile of silage to be fed to the animals and 
placed in the bottle. At the end of the day the accumulated sample 
was submitted for analysis. A few drops of formaline were added 
to prevent deterioration. One sample was analyzed for all the ani- 
mals each day. 

As containers for samples of the feces, one small, wide-mouthed 
bottle, properly labeled, was provided for each animal each day. 
Every time an animal defecated representative portions, taken from 
the different parts, were placed, after the feces were weighed, in 
a bottle. With the preservative, the accumulated sample of the 
feces of each animal for the day was submitted for analysis. 

In the analytical laboratory, the feed and feces were ground in 
a meat grinder and portions were taken for moisture, ash, crude 
protein, crude fiber, nitrogen-free-extract, and fat determinations. 

The methods of chemical analysis used were in accordance with 
the directions embodied in the Official and Tentative Methods of 
Analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (1926) . 

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 

Silage consumption, feces voided amd the analyses 

Table 1 shows that the animals consumed corn silage in amounts 
ranging from 21.0 to 26.6 kgm. a day, averaging 24.6. kgm. This 
amount represented the consumption of 6.2 kgm. for every 100 kgm. 
live weight. The amount of feces voided ranged from 16.1 to 21.2 
kgm., averaging 17.8 kgm. a head daily, or 3.8 kgm. feces for 100 



16 


THB PHIUPPIME AdBICnLTimiST 


kgm. live weight. In a previous study on carabaos, Villegas and 
Taleon (1932) reported 6.1 kgm. com silage ctmsumed, and 8.6 kgm. 
feces voided for every 100 kgm. live weight. 

The average analyses of corn silage and feces follow: 


Com silage Feces 

Dry matter 80.72 per cent 14.14 per cent 

Crude protein 2.26 " ” 1.49 ” ” 

Crude fiber 8.16 ” ” 8.28 " ” 

Nitrogen-free-extract 18.04 ” ” 7.21 ” ” 

Pat 0.87 ” " 0.22 ” " 


The corn silage of the College contained more dry matter, crude pro- 
tein, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free-extract than that reported by 
Henry and Morrison (1923) and Bailey (1908). In fat, however, 
these authors give higher figures, Henry and Morrison, 0.6 and Bai- 
ley, 0.8 per cent. 

Nvirient consumption and coefficient of digestibility 

The coefficient of digestibility of each nutrient, or the percent- 
age digested, was obtained by first computing the amount consumed 
by the animal in one day and the amount undigested or passed out in 
the feces. The difference between the two represented the amount 
digested, which is only approximately correct according to Henry 
and Morrison (1923). Dividing the amount digested by that con- 
sumed and multiplying the quotient by 100 gives the coefficient of 
digestibility. 

The amount of one nutrient fed to an animal was obtained by 
multiplying the amount of the nutrient contained in one kgm. feed 
by the amount of feed consumed. For example, on the first day of 
the experiment, animal No. 30 consumed 23.3 kgm. of corn silage, 
which by analysis contained 27.87 per cent dry matter or 0.2787 
kgm. dry matter a kilogram. The animal then consumed 6.49 kgm. 
of dry matter that day. 

The quantity of one nutrient undigested or that portion passed 
out in the feces was found by multiplying the amount of the nutrient 
contained in one kgm. feces by the weight of feces voided. Thus, 
on the first day of the experiment. No. 30 voided 12.0 kgm. of feces, 
which by analysis contained 14.93 per cent dry matter. The ani- 
mal, therefore, passed out 1.79 kgm. dry matter. On the first day 
of the experiment the animal digested 4;7 kgm. dry matter, which 
represented 72.42 per cent of the amount fed. 



DIGESTIBILITY OF FLINT CORN SILAGE 


17 


In like manner, the coefficient of digestibility of the dry matter, 
crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen-free-extract and fat by the indi- 
vidual animal was obtained daily. 

Table 2 shows that, on an average, a carabao consumed 7.50 kgm. 
dry matter, 0.55 kgm. crude protein, 2.01 kgmi. crude fiber, 4.42 kgm. 
nitrogen-free-extract and 0.09 kgm. fat a day. Out of these, how- 
ever, 5.00 kgm. or 66.27 per cent dry matter, 0.29 kgm. or 51.81 
per cent crude protein, 1.43 kgm. or 69.92 per cent crude fiber, 3.17 
kgm. or 70.89 per cent nitrogen-free-extract, and 0.05 kgm. or 49.18 
per cent fat, were digested. 

Table 2 shows the coefficient of digestibility of com as reported 
by Henry and Morrison (1923) and Bailey (1908), the former using 
immature dent com, the latter flint, at glazing stage. While cara- 
baos were used in the present study, it is presumed that the two 
authorities cited above used oxen. Comparing the present study 
with that by Bailey (1908), which is also for flint corn, it is seen 
that our percentages are lower, notably in fat. 

Nidrients consumed per 1000 kgm. live weight 

Table 3 shows the amount of the different nutrients digested by 
the carabao for every 1000 kgm. live weight, computed by dividing 
the amount of a nutrient digested by the weight of the animal 
in kgm. multiplied by 1000. For example. No. 30 weighing 511 kgm. 
digested 5.57 kgm. dry matter. Therefore the animal digested 10.90 
kgm. dry matter for every 1000 kgm. live weight. It is shown that 
the four animals required from 9.74 to 11.03 kgm. dry matter per 
1000 kgm. live weight; 0.55 to 0.68 kgm. crude protein; 2.92 to 3.17 
kgm. crude fiber; 6.35 to 6.91 kgm. nitrogen-free-extract; 0.10 to 0.13 
kgm. fat; 10.09 to 10.93 kgm. total digestible nutrients. The nu- 
tritive ratio was 1:15.07 to 1:17.35. The sum of the digestible 
crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen-free-extract, and fat multiplied 
b/ 2.25 gave the total digestible nutrients. On an average, the four 
carabaos digested 10.59 kgm. dry matter, 0.63 kgm. digestible crude 
protein, and 10.63 kgm. total digestible nutrients for every 1000 kgm, 
live weight; the nutritive ratio was 1:15.87, or one part protein to 
15.87 carbohydrate equivalents. 

Compared with the maintenance requirements of an ox at rest 
in the stall, (Henry and Morrison, 1923) the carabaos in this ex- 
periment consumed less dry matter than the ox, but the other nu- 
trients were about the same. 



18 


THE PRtUPFlNE AGBtCULTOiUeT 


Digestible nutrients 

The digestible nutrients the feed contained were computed by 
multiplying the chemical analysis by the coefficient of digestibility; 
this product is the amount of the different nutrients in a feed that 
is utilized by the animals. For example, by using the analysis of 
tiiie feed and table 2, it may be seen that the com silage used con- 
tained 20.36 kgm. digestible dry matter in every 100 kgm. (0.3072 
X 0.6627 X 100). By this process of computation, the corn silage 
was found to contain the following digestible nutrients in every 
100 kgm. : 

Dry matter 20.36 kg^. 

Crude protein 1.17 ” 

Carbohydrates 18.60 ” 

Pat 0.18 ” 

Total nutrients 20.08 ” 

Nutritive ratio 1:16.16 

Henry and Morrison (1923) give the following figures for corn 
silage, immature : 

Dry matter 21.0 kgm. 

Crude protein 1.0 ” 

Carbohydrates 11.4 ” 

Fat 0.4 " 

Total nutrients • 13.3 ” 

Nutritive ratio 1:12.3 

Comparing the two tables it is seen that the com silage studied in 
this College had about the same digestible dry matter and crude pro- 
tein and carbohydrates ; the total nutrients were much higher ; the fat 
was lower; and the nutritive ratio was wider. 


SUMHABY 

This study on the digestibility by the carabaos of flint com si- 
lage yielded the following data : 

1. Yellow Flint corn silage of the College had the following chem- 
ical composition : 

Dry matter 80.72 per cent 

Crude protein 2.25 ” ” 

Crude fiber 8.16 ” ” 

Nitrogen-free-extract 18.04 ” ” 

Pat 0.87 ” 


II 



DIGESTIBILITY OF FLmT CORN SILAGE 19 

2. The coefficient of digestibility of the corn silage was found to 


be: 


Dry matter 

Crude protein 

Crude fiber 

Nitrogen-free-extract 
Pat 


66.27 per cent 

61.81 ” ” 

69.92 ” 

70.89 ” " 

49.18 ” ” 


3. Native carabaos at rest used the following per 1000 kgm. live 
weight: 


Digestible dry matter 10.59 kgm. 

Digestible crude protein 0.63 ” 

Total digestible nutrients 10.63 ” 

Nutritive ratio 1:15.87 


4. The corn silage contained the following digestible nutrients 
in every 100 kgm. of feed: 


Dry matter . . 
Crude protein 
Carbohydrates 

Fat 

Total nutrients 
Nutritive ratio 


20.36 kgm. 
1.17 

18.60 ” 
0.18 
20.08 
1:16.16 


LITERATURE CITED 

Anonymous. 1926. Official and tentative methods of analysis of the associa- 
tion of official agricultural chemists. 626 p., 26 fig. Washington, D. C. 

Bailey, L. H. 1908. Cyclopedia of American agriculture. Vol. Ill, xvi + 708 
p. New York; The Macmillan Company. 

Ewing, P. V., and C. A. Wells. 1914. Digestion and metabolism of a steer 
when placed on a continuous ration of corn silage. Georgia Station Bul- 
letin 109, p. 146-158. Cited in the U. S. Dept. Agric. Exper. Sta. Rec. 
32: 668. 1916. 

Henry, W. A., and F. B. Morrison. 1923. Feeds and feeding. (Unabridged) 
18th ed., X + 770 p., 200 fig. Madison, Wisconsin: The Henry-Morrison 
Co. 

Jordan, Whitman H., and Frank H. Hall. 1900. The digestibility of Ameri- 
can feeding stuffs. U. S. Dept. Agric. Exper. Sta. Bull. 77 : 1-100. 

Villegas, Valbntb, and A. T. Taleon. 1932. Observations on the activity of 
Philippine carabaos in the barn. The Philippine Agriculturist 20: 661- 
670. 



20 


THE PHILIPFIMB AGEICULTimiST 


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TABLE 2 

Showing the amount of nutrients consumed, digested, and their coefficients of digestibility 


UOBSTIBILITY OF FLINT CORN SILAGE 


21 




22 


THB FaSLtBPXm AORICULTXmiST 


TABLE 3 

Showing the amount of nutrients digested per 1000 kilograms live weight 





CARBOHYDRATES 

1 

TOTAL 

1 DIGP-STIBLE 
NUTRIENTS 


ANIMAL 

DRY 

MATTER 

CRUDE 1 
PROTEIN ' 

Crude 

fiber 

, Nitrogen- 
1 free- 
extract i 

PAT 

1 NUTRITIVE 
^ RATIO 

Herd No^ 

hgm. 

kgm. 

kgm. 

1 

kgm. 



IBHIII 

30 

10.90 

.68 

3.11 

6.91 

Hii3H 



39 

10.61 

.65 

2.95 

6.69 




45 

11.03 


3.17 

6.85 


10.91 

BQliy 

54 

9.74 

.65 

2.92 ; 

6.35 

.12 

10.09 


Average 

1 10.69 

1 .63 

1 3.03 

1 6.72 

1 -11 

1 10.63 1 

1 15.87 







SELECTION OF VARIETIES AND STRAINS OP MUNGO 
(PHASEOLUS 4UREUS ROXB.) ^ 

PURIPICACION M. CAGUICLA 

WITH TWO TEXT nCURES 

The mungo plant {Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) is one of the most 
popular legumes in the Philippines. It is grown extensively in many 
provinces of the Islands, notably Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Cavite 
and Batangas. In these provinces it is raised on a commercial scale. 
In many other provinces it is grown mainly for home consumption. 
Because of its high protein content, mungo is highly recommended 
for food. The mungo plant, being a nitrogen fixing crop, is also 
used for green manuring. In some parts of Pangasinan and Nueva 
Ecija and in the plantations of some large sugar centrals it is planted 
in rotation with rice or sugar cane. Occasionally the seeds are used 
as feed for live stock, especially for chickens. 

Because of the value of mungo as a food and as a soil-enriching 
crop, a study of varietal types and selection of desirable strains with- 
in a variety with respect to yield in green materials and seeds under 
Los Banos conditions is important. Hence, this work was under- 
taken. 

RBVIEW OF LITERATURE , 

While mungo has been mentioned extensively in literature as 
one of the soil-enriching legumes, no critical study of the kind here 
attempted has been reported. A few of the published works which 
have some bearing on the present investigation will be cited briefly. 

According to Dulhi and Fuller, as cited by Kingman (1915), the 
mungo is grown in India as an intercrop with millet or cotton. When 
grown alone it is sown broadcast at the rate of 10 to 13 kilograms per 
hectare. These authors state that sowing is done after a rain, and 
maturity comes at different times of the year depending upon the 
variety and the soil and climatic conditions. 

Watt (1908) claims to have found that very good results could be 
obtained by green manuring with mungo when it is turned under at 

* Thesis presented for graduation, 1932, with the degree of Bachelor of Agri- 
culture from the College of Agriculture, No. 346; Experiment Station contribution 
No. 886. Prepared in the Department of Agronomy under the direction of Dr. N. 
B. Mendiola, and Mr. T. Mercado. 


23 



24 


tBK PfilUPPWE AancULTUSIST 


the age of six to eight we^s. He states that this age is the best for 
green manuring because it is the blooming stage of the plimt, when 
it has its highest amount .of green material; 

Saleeby (1911) recommended mungo as one of many leguminous 
plants which can be cultivated to great advantage in abaca plan- 
tations. For, besides its value as food, it enriches the soil with nitro- 
gen, which is essential to the growth of abaca. 

Kingman (1915) recommended yellow seeded mungo, black 
seeded mungo, and green seeded mungo as good for cover crops. 
They cover the ground well, choke out the weeds and in addition give 
a good yield of seeds. 

According to San Miguel (1916), the important points which 
govern selection work in mungo are productivity, evenness of matur- 
ity, heavy production of vegetable matter, resistance to disease and 
suitability to season conditions. 

OBJECTS OF THE PRESENT WORK 

This work was undertaken with the following objects: (a) to 
assemble as many varieties of mungo as possible; (6) to study the 
variability in yield of seeds and of green materials per plant; (c) to 
determine the yield of different varieties and to select the promising 
ones; and (d) to select the highest yielding strains in a variety. 

TIME AND PLACE OF THE WORK 

The work was conducted in the Plant Breeding Field in the Ex- 
periment Station and in the Plant Breeding Laboratory of the College 
of Agriculture, University of the Philippines from March, 1931 to 
March, 1932, covering a period of approximately twelve months. 

The data reported in these studies were obtained from two sea- 
son plantings. The first, or wet season planting was on May 11, 
1931, and the second, or dry season planting on October 3, 1931. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Varieties vsed 

The local varieties of mungo used in this work were secured * 
from twelve different regions in the island of Luzon, Philippines, 
covering seven provinces. These varieties from different places fall 


’ The writer wrote to the presidents of 20 municipalities requesting that 
she be supplied with sample of seeds of mungo to be used for experimental pur- 
poses. Eleven presidents responded, sending samples, for which acknowledge- 
ment is here made. 



VABQiTlZS AKD BTBiUNS OF KCKOO 

under three main groups which are easily distinguished by seed color; 
namely, yellow, green, and black mungo. The place of origin and date 
on which seeds were received for this study are shown in table 0. 

TABLE o 

Varieties of mungo used in this work 


VARIETY NAME<* 

SOURCE 

DATE RECEIVED 

1. College Green 

College of Agriculture 

April 1, 1931 

2. Binafigonan Green 

Binangonan, Rizal 

April 16, 1931 

3. Urdaneta Green 

Urdaneta, Pangasinan 

April 29, 1931 

4. College Yellow 

College of Agriculture 

April 1, 1931 

6. Lipa Yellow 

Lipa, Batangas 

April 9, 1931 

6. Candelaria Yellow 

Candelaria, Zambales 

April 10, 1931 

7. Calamba Yellow 

Calamba, Laguna 

April 11, 1931 

8. Tanauan Yellow 

Tanauan, Batangas 

April 12, 1931 

9. Lemery Yellow 

Lemeryf Batangas 

April 19, 1932 

10. Munoz Yellow 

Munoz, Nueva Ecija 

April 20, 1931 

11. Sariaya Yellow 

Sariaya, Tayabas 

April 22, 1931 

12. Rosales Yellow 

Rosales, Pangasinan 

April 29, 1931 

13. Aliaga Black 

Aliaga, Nueva Ecija 

June 1, 1931 


* These names were coined by the writer for convenience in this study. These 
mungoes bear no variety names in their places of origin. 


Sorting of different strains 

When received, the sample representing each variety was exam- 
ined at once and the seeds sorted according to color. 

There is a considerable range of variation among yellows and 
some variation among greens. Not much variation, however, was ob- 
served among the dark colored seeds or black seeds. In the writer’s 
judgment the color types seem to affect the nature of the seed coat 
and the general shade of each group. It was possible, therefore, to 
establish other color types from the three distinct groups. For exam- 
ple, the yellow mungo can be further differentiated into dull yellow, 
shiny yellow, and brownish yellow. Likewise the greens can be easily 
separated into dull green and shiny green. In any sample of a mun- 
go variety these differently colored seeds were found in various pro- 
portions. The percentages of these colored strains were determined 
in each lot of seeds of a given variety. The seeds of one color are 
designated as belonging to a strain. 

Preparation of the land and planting the seeds 

The land was prepared thoroughly by plowing and harrowing 
several times before the seeds were planted. The different seed 








THE PHIUPPmE AOKCULTOSIST 


etrfdns found in each variety were planted separately. Each strain 
was planted in a row. The rows were 60 cwitinaeters apart and the 
seeds were drilled in the row at a distance of 80 centimeters between 
hills. Five or six seeds were planted to a hill. Practically the same 
care was given to all strains planted. 

Field observations 

Duration of germination was observed and the perc«itage of 
germination of each strain in a variety was taken. One month after 
planting, the variability of some agronomical characters, such as hairi- 
ness of leaves per plant was studied. The leaves were described as 
narrow medium or broad. As there seems to be an association be- 
tween the color of base and the color of node of the plants, the correla- 
tion of these morphological characteristics was studied. 

Observations on the average height and weight of plants belong- 
ing to each strain were made during the three periods of vegetative 
growth. These were: (a) before flowering, (b) full bloom and (c) 
after flowering. 

Insects attacked the plants. The larvae were picked off by hand. 
Later on, on the suggestion of Dr. L. B. Uichanco of the Entomology 
Department the plants were dusted with calcium arsenate powder. 
The plants were sprayed once every 15 to 20 days. 

No treatment was given to diseased plants. The dried leaves 
that fell to the ground were collected and burned. 

Chemical analyses of the plants 

The plants, pulled up while they were in flower, were dried and 
prepared into samples for analysis for nitrogen, phosphorus (P 2 O 5 ), 
and ash. These analyses were performed in the Experiment Station, 
of the bhemistry Department. 

The remainder of the plants in the field were allowed to mature. 
As soon as the pods turned black, a sign of maturity, the plants were 
pulled up, and after the roots were washed were taken to the labora- 
tory. 


Laboratory observations 

In the laboratory the plants from each strain were weighed indi- 
vidually. The average weight of plants of each strain was then com- 
puted. After weighing, the pods from each plant were r^oved and 
placed in separate paper bags. The pods from different strains were 
dried the same length of time in the sun. When thoroug^ily dry they 
were weighed separately and the average dry weight of pods from 
each plaxrt was determined. The seeds were then removed from the 



VABISTIBS AMO 8TKA1M8 OF HUNGO 


27 


pods and weighed separately. The average dry w^ght of seeds of 
each plant was recorded. The color of seeds produced by each plant 
from each strain was critically noted and compared with that of the 
original color of the strain planted. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Different strains found 

It may be seen in table 1 that the different varieties received from 
different sources were not uniformly of one color but contained mix- 
tures of seeds of different colors. Of the 13 varieties, Calamba Yel- 
low, Lemery Yellow and Sariaya Yellow varieties had five color 
strains each. Dull Yellow, shiny yellow, dull green, shiny green and 
brownish yellow strains were observed in Calamba Yellow and Saria- 
ya Yellow varieties. The Lemery Yellow variety had dull yellow, 
shiny yellow, dull green, brownish yellow and black strains. 

In the College Yellow, Tanauan Yellow, Lipa Yellow and Candela- 
ria Yellow varieties, four strains ; namely, dull yellow, shiny yellow, 
dull green and shiny green were represented. 

Binahgonan Green variety had three color strains of seeds. 
These were dull green, shiny green and greenish yellow. The College 
Green variety had fpur color types, two of which were green and two, 
dull yellow and purplish brown. The Munoz Yellow variety was com- 
posed of three kinds of yellow, dull yellow, shiny yellow and brownish 
yellow. Two classes of yellow were found in Rosales Yellow variety. 
The Urdaneta Green and the Aliaga Black varieties were found to be 
free from mixture, the former being pure green and the latter pure- 
black. If the color predominating in the seed samples studied could 
be taken as representing the typical color of the sample then College 
Yellow, Tanauan Yellow, Lipa Yellow, Candelaria Yellow and Lemery 
Yellow are typically dull yellow ; and Calamba Yellow, Munoz Yellow, 
Sariaya Yellow and Rosales Yellow are shiny yellow. Likewise, the 
College Green and the Urdaneta Green varieties are both dull green ; 
the Binahgonan Green variety is shiny green. The Aliaga Black va- 
riety is pure black. The existence of several strains within a given 
local variety suggests at once the possibility of extracting more desira- 
ble strains. 

Observations on the seeds of strains that changed from their 
original color to greenish red in storage showed that out of the total 
number of seeds of the shiny green strains from Binahgonan Green 
variety, 14.76 per cent changed to greenish red in storage ; 9.64 per 
cent of the dull green strain from Urdaneta Green variety and 11.40 



28 


THE PHtUPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


per cent of the dull green from the College Green variety also changed 
to greenish red. The results of the observations indicate that the 
seed color of green varieties of mungo undergoes some changes during 
storage. Similar observations were made with other varieties but 
no such change was noted. 

Germinaiion at wet and dry season plantings 

The different strains of mungo seeds of the wet and dry season 
plantings exhibited almost the same duration of germination. With 
the exception of the College variety, the germination in both seasons 
lasted for three days. The College varieties germinated in four days. 
There was, however, a slight variability in the percentage of germina- 
tion, observed not only among the varieties but also among the strains 
within a variety. 

In all strains the seeds planted in the dry season gave a lower per- 
centage of germination than those planted in the wet season. In the 
wet sea, son, there was recorded a general average of 81.40 per ceht 
of germination, in the dry season only 73.29 per cent. By planting 
seeds in the dry season which were intended for the wet season plant- 
ing, an average of about 8 per cent of the seeds lost their vitality. 
When ranked as to germination ability, the native local varieties in 
wet season planting stand as follows : 

Best germination, 90 per cent or more ; Tanauan Yellow and Lipa 
Yellow. 

Good germination, 80 to 90 per cent: Lemery Yellow, Munoz 
Yellow, Urdaneta Green, Rosales Yellow, Sariaya Yellow, Binangonan 
Green, College Yellow and Calamba Yellow. 

Fair germination, 70 to 80 per cent: College Green. 

Hairiness and form of leaves of different strains 
of mungo 

Different plants under each strain of mungo showed differences 
in the degree of hairiness and form of leaves. Some of the plants in 
the same strain had hairy leaves, others had smooth leaves and still 
others were intermediate between hairy aiid smooth. In some cases 
plants in one strain had only smooth or hairy leaves. In some plants 
the leaves were intermediate between smooth and hairy. It would 
seem that hairiness and form of leaves are varietal characteristics. 
To illustrate this, the different strains from the College Yellow va- 
riety may be cited. Of the 359 plants of dull yellow strain, 26 individ- 
uals had smooth leaves; 219 plants, intermediate; and 115 plants, 
hairy. Out of 390 plants of shiny yellow strain, 43 individuals had 



VABIETIES AND StKAINS OF MUNGO 


29 


smooth leaves and 347 plants were intermediate. No plant of this 
strain was hairy. All the 22 plants of shiny green strain were in- 
termediate between hairy and smooth. 

As to form of leaves, the strain of the College Green variety 
may again be used as an example. One hundred eighty-five plants 
from 359 individuals of dull yellow strain had narrow leaves, 47 
plants had medium sized leaves and 127 plants had broad leaves. 
Out of 390 plants of shiny yellow strain, 266 plants had narrow leaves ; 
127 plants, medium sized leaves ; and 27 plants, broad leaves. Out of 
322 plants of dull green strain 89 plants had narrow leaves ; only 3, 
medium sized leaves ; and 130 plants, broad leaves. Out of 22 plants 
of shiny green strain only one plant had narrow leaves and 21 plants 
had broad leaves. 

The above data indicate that the different strains of mungo stud- 
ied are variable as to forms and degrees of hairiness of leaves. 
Since some strains had either smooth or hairy leaves, it is probable 
that by judicious selection, types with this constant morphological 
characteristic can finally be established. 

The form of leaves varied considerably even among the plants in 
each strain. This apparent lack of uniformity may suggest that the 
different varietal types were heterozygous for this character. Since 
the form of leaves involves complexity of size inheritance, the inter- 
pretation of the apparent segregation of mungo strains with respect 
to this trait does not fall within the scope of this study. It is suf- 
ficient to state that the appearance of diversity of types regarding 
hairiness and form of leaves may be due to hybrid nature of local va- 
rieties of mungo. 

Color of base of stem and node of the plant 

One of the most striking characteristics found among the young 
mungo seedlings was the association of the color of base of stem and 
color of node. In all varieties, the mungo plants with green base 
generally had purple nodes, while those with purple base invariably 
had either purple or green nodes. The majority of the plants from 
each strain with green base had purple nodes. The Tanauan Yellow 
variety is an example. 

Out of 342 plants of the dull yellow strain from Tanauan Yellow 
variety 301 had green base of stem and 240 had purple nodes, and 
41 had purple base of stem and 102 had green nodes. From 376 
plants of shiny yellow strain from Tanauan Yellow variety only 
6 plants had purple stem bases and 240 had purple nodes ; 371 plants 
had green bases of stem and 136 had green nodes. 



30 THB PRILIPPINB ACnUCULVOtttSt 

The coefficient of correlation between the color of base and color 
of node is r = 0.9754 ± 0.0012. These figures leave no doubt as to 
the significance of high correlation that exists between these two agro- 
nomic characters, suggesting that perhaps these characters are linked ; 
or if caused by the same genetic factor, it would mean that this factor 
affects t^e base of stem in one way and the nodes in an entirely dif- 
ferent way. 


Duration of flowering and maturity of seeds 

It was found that the duration of flowering and maturity of seeds 
varied according to season of planting. The wet season culture gener- 
ally had longer duration of flowering and maturity of seeds than the 
dry season planting. Moreover, in the wet season culture, the local 
varieties showed variation in the age and duration of flowering and 
maturity of seeds. The different strains found in each variety, how- 
ever, had in nearly all cases the same duration of flowering and ma- 
turity of pods. Binangonan Green variety flowered the earliest, 
the Aliaga Black variety, the latest. The Binangonan Green variety 
flowered at the age of only 38 days after planting, while the Aliaga 
Black variety flowered at the age of 66 days. Nearly all the different 
strains of the other varieties began flowering at the age of 48 to 49 
days. It is interesting to note that the shiny green strain of Tanauan 
Yellow variety began flowering 36 days after planting. This indi- 
cates that an early strain might be isolated from a late variety. The 
shiny green strain of the College Green variety flowered at the age of 
49 days; the dull green and dull yellow strains of the .same variety 
flowfered at the age of 57 days. 

The Binangonan Green variety exhibited the shortest duration 
of flowering; the College Green variety, second; the College Yellow, 
Urdaneta Green and Rosales Yellow, third ; Calamba Yellow, Tanauan 
Yellow, Lipa Yellow, Candelaria Yellow, Lemery Yellow, Munoz Yel- 
low and Sariaya Yellow, fourth ; and Aliaga Black, fifth. Binango- 
nan Green had a duration of flowering of 13 days; College Green, 15 
^ys; Ccdlege Yellow, Urdaneta Green, and Rosales Yellow, 16 days; 
Calamba Yellow, Munoz Yellow, and Sariaya Yellow, 17 days; and 
Aliaga Black, 19 days. The shiny green strains of Tanauan Yellow 
variety had only 16 days duration of flowering. 

The maturity of pods of the different varieties ranged from 6 
to 10 days. All of the pods of Binangonan Green matured within 
five days; Munoz Yellow, Sariaya Yellow, Urdaneta Green and Rosa- 
les Yellow, within 6 days; Candelaria Yellow and Lemery Yellow, 7 
days; Calamba Yellow, Tanauan Yellow, (except in one strain) and 



VABISTIBS AKO STlUnrS OF KONOO 


31 


lipa Ydtow, 8 days; College Yellow and College Green, 9 days; and 
Aliaga Black, 10 daya 

With the wet season planting^ therefore, the Binaiigonan Green 
matured first; Candelaria Yellow and Lemery Yellow, second ; Calam- 
ba Yellow and Tanauan Yellow, third; College Yellow and College 
Green, fourth; and Aliaga Black, fifth. 

Mungo seeds planted during the dry season generally flowered 
and matured earlier than those planted during the wet season. Most 
of the strains of the dry season culture flowered at the age of only 40 
to 46 days after planting, which was about 3 to 6 days earlier than 
those planted during the wet season. In the varieties, Tanauan Yel- 
low, Candelaria Yellow, Binaiigonan Green, Lemery Yellow, Urdaneta 
Green and Rosales Yellow, the duration of maturity of pods was the 
same in both the wet and dry season plantings. On the other hand, 
plant, of Aliaga Black variety grown m the dry season matured 3 
days earlier than those planted in the wet season. In the dry and 
wet season cultures, Binahgonan Green variety flowered and matured 
the earliest of all the varieties planted; the Aliaga Black variety flow- 
ered and matured the latest. It is of interest that Binaiigonan 
Green was the only one which proved to be a dwarf variety. 

Average weight of green materials and height of plant 

The amount of green materials and height of plant of mungo va- 
ried among the different strains in a variety. Such variability was 
also noticed among the 13 local varieties of mungo planted. Among 
the different strains in a variety, it may be seen in table 2 that plants 
grown during the wet season had more green materials than those 
grown during the dry season (see fig. 1 and 2) . In wet and dry sea- 
son plantings, the greatest amount of green materials per plant was 
attained during the flowering period. The three strains of College 
Yellow variety may be cited as an example. These three strains va- 
ried in weight per plant from 24.51 to 27.32 grams before flowering 
and 77.06 to 79.10 grams at the time of flowering. But these weights 
gradually decreased to a range of from 70.72 to 73.93 grams after 
flowering. The same was true with the other strains in each local 
variety. The decrease in weight of vegetable matter after flower- 
ing was due to the falling of dry and old leaves after flowering, the 
insect pests Phytometra ehaleites Esp., Thermesia rubricans Bussd., 
Mods ondata Fabr., Protoporce eonvolvtdi Linn., and to the attacks 
of leaf spot caused by Cercospora cruenta Sacc.* 

‘The insects were identified by Mr. Arsenio Y. Coronet of the Entomology 
Departneent and the fungnia was identified by Miss Victoria B. Mendiola of the 
Plant Pathology Department. 



82 


THB PHIUPPINB AOmcULtURIST 


Ten strains were very seriously attacked by this disease and 
the pests. The plants were unable to continue flowering and died 
before reaching maturity. From a total of 43 strains planted, 8 
strains yielded a total weight for the entire plant at the time of flow- 
ering of more than 95 grams. These were the shiny yellow and dull 
green strains from Tanauan Yellow variety; dull yellow and dull 
green strains from Lipa Yellow, shiny yellow from Lemery Yellow; 
dull green from Urdaneta Green, and dull yellow and shiny yellow 
from Rosales Yellow. None of the strains showed an increase in the 
amount of green materials after flowering. 

These data indicate that the mungo plants for green manuring 
should be plowed under while they are in flower, for at this stage 
they have the greatest amount of vegetable matter. 

Since only 10 strains were found highly susceptible to disease 



Fig. 1. — Wet season culture of mungo showing the vigorous vegeta- 
tive growth of the plants. Note the height of the dwarf variety, 
Binahgonan Green, in the middle. 


and ]^sts, it seems to indicate that the other strains may be consid- 
ered resistant or tolerant to the presence of the disease and pests. If 
such is the case it may be possible to isolate some resistant strain or 
strains within a given local variety. 

During the dry season planting the amount of green materials 
was also found to be greatest while the plants were in flower. The 
growth of the plants was rather slow after the flowering period was 
over. This condition seems reasonable for at this period the plants 
had attained maturity. 

As may be seen in table 3 the average weight of greep materials 
and height of plants varied considerably. In the wet season plant- 
ing, Urdaneta Gr^n variety had the largest amount of green ma- 
terials; Lipa Yellow, second ; and Rosales Yellow, third. The Urdane- 
ta Green variety had an average of 165.2 grrams of green materials per 



vabubties Atn> stbains of mvngo 


33 


plant; Lipa Yellow, 98.97 grams; and Rosales Yello^, 96.62 grams. 
The other varieties had average weights of green materials lower 
than 96 grams. The tallest variety grown was Urdaneta Green with 
an average height of 125.00 centimeters. The shortest variety was 
Binaiigcman Green with an average height of only 44.50 centimeters. 
The range in height of the different mungo varieties clearly indicates 
that tall and dwarf types may be recognized in this legume. 

In the dry season planting, Aliaga Black variety had the largest 
amount of green matter, an average of 12.39 grams per plant. Bi- 
nahgonan Green variety had the lowest, 4.47 grams per plant. From 
these data it may be concluded that a decidedly larger amount of green 
matter was obtained from mungo planted during the wet season than 
when planted during the dry season, therefore, mungo plants intended 
for green manuring should be grown during the wet season and plow- 
ed under while they are in full flower. 



Fig. 2. — Dry season planting showing the heights of the plants of 
the different varieties. (Photogpraphs by Photog^phic Division, 

Soils Department.) 

Chemical dnalyses of the plants 

Triplicate samples of each strain were analyzed by the De- 
partment of Chemistry.' The results of the analyses are shown 
in table 4. The average amount of ash varied from 12.68 to 
15.91 per cent, nitrogen from 1.91 to 3.19 per cent and phosphorus 
(PjOg) from 0.68 to 1.26 per cent. Binafigonan Green had an 
average composition of 15.91 per cent ash and 3.19 per cent nitrogen 
content, the latter being the largest amount found in any of the varie- 
ties of mungo analyzed. College Yellow showed the lowest ash con- 
tent, ha'ving an average of 12.58 per cent for the three strains and 
Urdaneta Green gave the lowest, 0.69 per c^t nitrogen content. The 
other strains •within each variety varied only slightly as to the amount 
of ash, nitrogen and phosphorus content. 

The variations in chemical composition show that in case the 
land lacks nitrogen, Binahgonan Green is the best to plant for this 


34 tHE PHlLtPPINB AOB^ITLTUBIST 

variety exceeds the others in this food element. If, however, the soil 
is deficient in phosphorus, Lipa Yellow may be recommended for 
green manuring. 

Yield of the different strains and varieties of nmngo 
per plant 

While the amount of green materials of mungo plants was greater 
in the wet season than the dry season planting the yield of seed per 
plant in the dry season, was decidedly greater than in the wet season 
(see table 6). The production of seeds in the wet season was very 
much lower than in the dry season. This statement holds true for 
nearly all the strains planted. Calamba Yellow variety produced 
nearly the same amount of seeds per plant from the wet as from the 
dry season cultures. The mungo plants grown in the dry season pro- 
duced more than twice as much seed as those grown in the wet season. 
The green and black strains planted in both seasons produced more 
seed than the other strains. The highest yielding strain was the 
dull green from Lemery Yellow variety with an average yield of 1.6 
grams per plant; shiny green from Binangonan Green was second 
with 1.525 grams ; dull green from Candelaria Yellow was third with 
1.382 grams; and Aliaga Black fourth, with 1.172 grams. 

By reference to table 5 it may be seen that the dull green from 
Lemery Yellow, was the most productive in seeds; the Aliaga Black, 
however, which occupied a fourth place in production can be classed 
with the dull green strain from Lemery Yellow variety on account 
of ‘uniformity of its yield in the two seasons of planting under Los 
Banos condition.^. 

‘ Purity test 

In order to determine the purity of the original strains, seeds 
from different varieties were planted and the color characters of the 
seeds produced were recorded. 

There were observed strains of mungo that produced seeds not 
entirely true to their original color. These are the shiny green, d^ll 
green and greenish yellow from Binangonan Green variety ; dull yel- 
low from Candelaria Yellow; dull green from Lipa Yellow; shiny 
yellow from Munoz Yellow; shiny yellow from Sariaya Yellow; and 
dull yellow from Rosales Yellow. The shiny green from Binafigo- 
nan Green variety had 2 plants with dull green color of seeds; 
and 3 plants greenish yellow out of 29 plants that produced seeds. 
The dull green strain had one plant out of 4 plants that produced 
shiny green seeds and the greenish yellow strain out of 14 plants had 



VAKSTISS AND STRAINS OF MUNGO 


86 


one plant with dull gr^ea seeds and 6 plants with shiny green seeds. 
Out of 40 plants of dull green strains from Lemery Yellow, 1 plant 
produced shiny yellow seeds and 2 plants produced black seeds. The 
shiny yellow from College Yellow variety had one plant with dull 
yellow seeds out of 21 plants that produced seeds. Dull green strain 
from Calamba Yellow variety had one plant with dull yellow out of 10 
plants. Shiny yellow from Mufioz Yellow variety had one plant with 
brownish yellow seeds out of 10 plants. The shiny yellow from Sa- 
riaya Yellow variety had two plants with brownish yellow seeds out 
of 21 plants. Out of 12 plants the dull yellow strain from Rosales 
Yellow variety had one plant that produced shiny yellow seeds. The 
remainder of the plants in each strain produced seeds true to their 
original color. 

The appearance of off types with respect to seed color in mungo 
varieties indicates that some of the strains were heterozygous for this 
character. The mungo plant is a highly self-fertilizing plant, al- 
though there is also an appreciable degree of cross-pollination. To 
interpret color segregation on factor differences was not attempted in 
this study. It is of interest, however, that in these results it was 
found that black gave nothing but black, yellow, mostly yellow with 
some green ; and green mostly green with a few yellow. 

SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS 

The results obtained from this study may be briefly summarized 
as follows: 

1. The different local varieties of mungo (Phaseokis aureus 
Roxb.) used in this study when classified on the basis of color of 
seed fall under the three main groups; namely. Yellow, Green and 
Black. 

2. The thirteen varieties studied were mixtures of differently 
colored seeds or strains. Most of these strains were found heterozy- 
gous, at least with respect to color of seeds, of base, of stem and node 
of stems, hairiness and form of leaves. 

3. The color of seeds of some mungo strains changed to a cer- 
tain extent while in storage. 

4. No significant differences were found on the duration of 
germination of seeds planted in the wet or dry season although 
the percentages of germination of mungo seeds were greater in the 
wet season planting than in the dry season. 

6. The germination in the wet season stands as follows: 

Best germination — Tanauan Yellow and Lipa Yellow. 



THE PHILIPPINE AGRICVLTUBIST 


se 


Good germination — ^Lemery Yellow, Munoz Yellow, Urdaneta 
Green, Rosales Yellow, Sariaya Yellow, Binaiigonan Green, College 
Yellow and Calamba Yellow. 

Fair germination — College Green. 

6. The duration of flowering and maturity of mungo was longer 
in the wet season than in the dry. The wet season culture was se- 
riously affected by diseases and pests. 

7. The Aliaga Black and Binaiigonan Green varieties were 
found to be resistant to the leaf spot diseases and to the pests. The 
Rosales Yellow and Urdaneta Green were found to be very suscepti- 
ble to pests, being the first varieties attacked by the insect pests. 
The shiny green strains were from College Yellow, College Green, 
Calamba Yellow, Lipa Yellow, Tanauan Yellow, Candelaria Yellow 
and dull green from Sariaya Yellow varieties; the dull yellow from 
Muhoz Yellow, shiny yellow from Lipa Yellow and brownish yellow 
from Lemery Yellow were found to be very susceptible to diseases 
and pests. 

8. Of the local varieties studied, the Binahgonan Green was 
found to be a dwarf variety. The tall variety found was Urdaneta 
Green. 

9. The yield in green materials of mungo was higher in the 
wet season than in the dry season culture. On the other hand, the 
production of seeds was higher in the dry than in the wet season. 
This indicates that under Los Bahos conditions mungo should be 
planted during the wet season if it is to be utilized for green manuring 
purposes, and during the dry season if the object is to obtain high 
production of seeds. 

10. The yield in green materials of mungo was found to be 
greatest when the plants were in flower, hence they should be plowed 
under when they are at this stage. 

11. The Binahgonan Green variety was found to have the highest 
content of nitrogen. The shiny green strain from this variety gave 
exceptionally high nitrogen content and was finally isolated for this 
characteristic. Therefore, it may be recommended for planting in 
land deficient in nitrogen. The Lipa Yellow variety, because of its 
high phosphoric acid content, can be recommended for planting in land 
deficient in phosphorus. The strain selected from this variety was 
dull green. 

12. Of the different varieties tried, Urdaneta Green< Lipa Yellow 
and Rosales Yellow proved to be heavy yielders of green materials. 
The strains with exceptionally high production of green materials are : 
shiny yellow, and dull green strains from Tanauan Yellow variety; 



VARIETIES AND STRAINS OF MUNGO 


37 


dull yellow and dull green strains from Ldpa Yellow; shiny yellow 
strain from Lemery Yellow; dull green strain from Urdaneta Green 
and dull yellow and shiny yellow strains from Rosales Yellow, 

13. The Aliaga Black variety, shiny green and dull green strains 
from Binangonan Green were found more suitable to Los Banos con- 
ditions for seed production than the other varieties studied. 

14. This study on different mungo varieties shows that by fur- 
ther selection varietal types or strains of uniform seed color, high 
yield in green materials and seed pods, high content of nitrogen and 
phosphorus, early and late maturity periods and types with some de- 
gree of disease resistance may be isolated. It is believed that a fur- 
ther study with a more detailed account of genetic and morphological 
characteristics would be of material help in the establishment of dis- 
tinct types and the standardization of Philippine mungo (Phaseolus 
auretis Roxh.) varieties. 

LITERATURE CITED 

BAlliEY, L. H. 1909. Legumes. Cyclopedia of American Horticulture. 26th ed., 
xiv. + 897-898 p. London: The Macmillan Company. 

Kingman, F. C. 1916. Vegetable and cover crop trials at the Lamao Experi- 
ment Station. Philippine Agriculturist Review 8: 88-86. 

Saleeby, M. M. 1911. Abaca (Manila hemp). Agricultural extension work 

lecture No. 3. Philippine Agrricultural Review 4; 302. 

San Miguel, L. A, 1916. Test and selection of mungo beans. The Philippine 
Agriculturist 5: 164-179. 

Watt, S. G. 1908. Green manuring. The commercial products of India, vii -f" 
1189 p. London: Hazell, Watson and Viney, Ltd. 



88 


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TABLE 2 

Showing the average weight of green materials and height per plant at three different stages of different strains 


VARIETIES AND STRAINS OF MUNGO 


39 


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• The plants were attacked by leaf spot caused by Cereospora cruenta Sacc. and died at flowerinjf stase. 



40 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 





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VARIETIES AND STRAINS OF MUNGO 


41 


TABLE 4 

AfUtlysBs of QTCon Tiuiteriuls at blooming stage of the wet season planting * 


VARIETY NAME 

STRAINS ANALYSED IN 

A VARIETY 

ASK 

NITROGEN 

PHOSPHORUS 

(P,OJ 



per rent 

per cent 

per cent 

College yellow 

Dull yellow 

12.75 

2.52 

0.67 


Shiny yellow 

12.69 

2.73 

0.88 


Dull green 

12.32 

1.98 

0.50 


Average 

12.58 

2.61 

0.68 

College Green 

Dull yellow 

11.16 

2.60 

0.79 


Dull green 

14.36 

2.21 

0.69 


Average 

12.76 

2.40 

0.74 

Calamba Yellow 

Dull yellow 

15.20 

2.43 

0.40 


Shiny yellow 

14.16 

2.31 

0.81 


Dull green 

14.29 

2.64 

0.93 


Brownish yellow 

13.44 

2.54 

0.98 


Average 

14.27 

2.48 

0.78 

Tanauan Yellow 

Dull yellow 

14.31 

2.51 

1.25 


Shiny yellow 

13.87 

2.76 

1.12 


Dull green 

13.57 

2.64 

0.84 


Average 

13.91 

2.65 

1.07 

Lipa Yellow 

Dull yellow 

14.04 

2.22 

0.90 


Dull green 

13.60 

2.35 

1.69 


Average 

13.82 

2.28 

1.26 

Candelaria 

Dull yellow 

13.75 

3.10 

0.50 


Shiny yellow 

14.97 

2.33 

0.94 


Dull yellow 

14.14 

2.49 

0.78 


Average 

[ 14.28 

2.66 

[ 0.74 

Binahgonan Green 

Shiny green 

15.71 

3.37 

1.06 


Dull green 

i 15.94 

3.04 

0.76 


Greenish yellow 

16.08 

3.17 

1.26 


Average 

15.91 

3.19 

1.02 

Lemery Yellow 

Dull yellow 

13.61 

2.05 

1.13 


Shiny yellow 

13.78 

2.08 

0.83 


Dull green 

16.08 

2.22 

0.94 


Black 

i 17.16 

1 2.54 

1.08 


Average 

15.14 

2.25 

1.00 

Munoz Yellow 

Shiny yellow 

11.92 

2.33 

0.69 

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Brownish yellow 

12.44 

1 2.30 

1 0.79 


Average 

12.18 

2.32 

i 0.72 

Sariaya Yellow 

Dull yellow 

14.75 

1 2.55 

1.03 


Shiny yellow 

1 14.00 

2.60 

0.92 


Brownish yellow 

1 12.04 

2.27 

[ 0.61 


Average 

13.60 

2.47 

0.85 

Urdaneta Green 

Dull green 

12.57 

0,69 

0.98 

Rosales Yellow 

Dull yellow 

14.70 

2.71 

1.03 


Shiny yellow 

14.56 

2.71 

1.04 


Average 

14.63 

2.71 

1.04 

Aliaga Black 

Black 

14.82 

1.91 

1.06 


•Analyzed by Experiment Station, Department of Agricultural Chemistry. 




Showing the compamtive yield of each strain of mungo 


42 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OP THE EMASCULATOR AND 

THE EMASCULATOME METHODS OF CASTRATION ^ 

ENGRACIO BASIO 

WITH ONE PLATE 

A new instrument for castrating farm animals called the emas- 
culatome is being used in the United States, Europe and South 
Africa. This instrument is also kno^vn as Burdizzo pincers or for- 
ceps and talage. According to Fitch (1929) the emasculatome, al- 
though very generally used in Europe and South Africa, was not 
introduced into the United States until late in 1927. Several reports 
in popular live stock magazines state that the instrument is easy 
to handle; is a very effective tool for castrating large and small ani- 
mals; makes possible the castration of a larger number of animals 
in a given time than by any other method; does not produce exter- 
nal wound, and does not disturb the growth or strength of the cas- 
trated animals. In short, it is claimed that it is the best instrument 
in the market for castration. So far as the writer has been able to 
determine no extensive investigation is available in the Philippines 
or elsewhere to substantiate this claim for the superiority of the in- 
strument. Because of this lack it appeared important to determine 
whether the emasculatome method of castration has any advantage 
over the ordinary method. 

PAST WORK ON THE SUBJEXTT 

Fitch (1929) writing on his experience with the use of the emas- 
culatome claims that the swelling incident to castration usually dis- 
appears in from 4 to 5 days in all animals except pigs and old bulls, 
where the reaction may persist for 10 to 16 days. None of the 
animals seemed to be at all sick or “off feed” and recovery was 
prompt with little or no visible shrinkage. This writer further 
claims that the time for the complete absorption of the emasculated 
testicles varied from one month in smaller animals to three months 
in old bulls. 


* Thesis piesented for graduation, 1931, with the degree of Bachelor of Agri- 
culture from the College of Agriculture No. 346; Experiment Station con- 
tribution No. 886. Prepared in the Department of Animal Husbandry under the 
direction of Dr. Miguel Manresa. 


43 



44 


THK PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Maurer (1930) reports that swelling of the testicles continued 
from 6 to 14 days and that in young animals a complete atrophy of 
the testicles was usual, but in older animals a hard mass about the 
size of a nut could be felt in each shrunken scrotal sac several months 
after castration by the emasculatome method. Apparently, this au- 
thor was disappointed with its use with stallions. Working on 
lambs, Maurer found that no difference in size and uniform degree 
of flesh could be determined in favor of the Burdizzo forceps. 

Souquere (1929) observed that with bulls, the testes remained in 
the lower part of the scrotum during the first month after castration ; 
later, the cord contracted, then the testes were drawn well up into 
the upper part of the scrotum and became greatly reduced in size. 

Alvarez and Lachos (1928) in their histological examinations of 
the testes of a horse castrated by the emasculatome method report 
that the number of interstitial cells had increased and that the semi- 
nal epithelium had undergone atrophy without greatly disturbing 
the vascularity of the testicles. 

OBJECTS OF THE PRESENT WORK 

The objects aimed at in this investigation were: 1. To secure 
data on the following points: (a) The relative effects of the two 
methods of castration on the duration of swelling, gait of animals, 
disposition, color in case of cattle, size of neck in case of cattle and 
carabaos and sex instincts, (b) Time of healing under the emas- 
culator method and the time of complete atrophy under the emas- 
culatome method of castration. 

2. To make gross or macroscopic and microscopic studies of the 
effect of castration by the emasculatome method of castration on 
g’oats, the object of which was to secure answer to the following 
questions : (a) What is the direct effect of crushing the spermatic 

cord on glandular tissue and on interstitial tissue of the testes? 
(b) How long do the mature sperm cells- remain viable in the testes 
after such treatment? 


TIME AND PLACE 

The work was conducted in the Department of Animal Husband- 
ry, Collesre of Agrriculture and the College of Veterinary Science, 
University of the Philippines and in the neighboring barrios in the 
municipality of Los Banos, Laguna. The work was begun on May 
3, 1929, and closed on February 1, 1931, thus covering a period of 
21 months. 



STtn>Y OF METHODS OF CASTBATION 


45 


MATERIALS AND METHODS OF PROCEDURE 

Materials 

Animals. In this work, 14 cattle, 14 water buffaloes, 4 horses, 
and 10 goats were used. Of these animals, 3 cattle, 6 water buffa- 
loes, 3 horses and all the goats belonged to the Department of Ani- 
mal Husbandry, College of Agriculture; 11 cattle, 8 water buffaloes 
and 1 horse, through arrangement, were available from the owners 
living in the neighboring barrios. 

Scales. A pit live stock scale was used for weighing the animals. 

Equipment. Ropes were used in casting cattle and water buf- 
faloes and for tying the legs together preparatory to the operation. 
For throwing down and restraining the horses a casting harness 
was used. For the emasculator method of castration the instruments 
used were a sharp knife and an emasculator provided with double 
crushing surfaces. For the emasculatome method of castration an 
emasculatome was the only instrument used. Three per cent creo- 
line solution and tincture of iodine were used to disinfect the scro- 
tum and instruments for the operation with the use of the emascu- 
lator. A pine tar ointment consisting of equal parts of pine tar and 
cosmoline with a little creoline was applied to the wound as fly repel- 
lent. A thermometer was used for determining the temperature of 
the animals. 

Equipment used in the microscopic work. For the microscopic 
work carried out in cooperation with the Anatomy Department of the 
College of Veterinary Science the following were used: Dissecting 
set, reagents, receptacles, paraffin, oven, lamp, microtome, slides, 
cover glasses, compound microscope, and camera lucida. 

Procedure 

Department animals. The animals were run in pairs, one to be 
castrated by the emasculator and the other by the emasculatome 
method. 

• The animals were fasted at least 15 hours before castration. 
Just before the operation the weight and temperature of each ani- 
mal was taken. Observations on the size of the testicles of the 
animals castrated by the emasculatome method, size of neck in cases 
of cattle and water buffaloes, color in case of cattle, and disposition 
in all animals were recorded. 

In the emasculator method of castration the animal is thrown 
down and hogtied. That is, when the animal is properly restrained 
with ropes, one man holds down its head and another the ropes tied 



46 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


around the legs away from the operator; then the animal is ready 
for the operation. The scrotum is washed with creoline solution. 
With a sharp knife a cut is made through the scrotum and tuni- 
ca vaginalis into the testes, the wound being large enough for the 
testes to pass out. The tip of the scrotum having been removed, 
the knife is struck through the tunica vaginalis parietal layer to the 
testis until it is exposed. The tunica vaginalis parietal layer, at the 
point where it connects with the mesorchium, is cut with a knife, 
freeing the spermatic cord from the connective tissue which might 
present difficulty when the emasculator is applied. The testis is then 
pulled out gently while the mesorchium is being pushed inward and 
the emasculator is applied. The emasculator is kept pressed on the 
spermatic cord for from two to four minutes to minimize the loss of 
blood. After the emasculator has been removed and the blood wiped 
off, the wound is painted with tincture of iodine and then the fly 
repellent is smeared over and around the wound. 

In the emasculatome method of castration the animal is thrown 
down, but, excepting the horse which is hogtied, the fore legs and 
the hind legs are separately tied together. In preparing the animal 
for operation one man holds down its head, another the rope tied 
around the fore legs, and the third the rope tied around the hind 
legs towards the rear, thus allowing the operator ample space for 
action. For a right-handed man it is very convenient to lay the ani- 
mal on its left side. There is no necessity for cleaning or disinfecting 
the scrotum before the operation. First, the left testis is grasped, 
then with a little pulling it is drawn against the apex of the scrotum 
so as to allow a little pulling of the testis when the spermatic cord 
has been crushed by the emasculatome. With the thumb, index fin- 
ger and middle finger of the left hand the cord is pushed towards one 
side. With the right hand the opened instrument is now applied 
above the fingers of the left hand. Resting one of the levers on the 
ground, the instrument is closed by pressing the other lever down- 
ward gradually but firmly. When sure that the spermatic cord* is 
caught between the jaws of the emasculatome the testis is pulled to 
effect a complete separation or a crushing of the cord. In like man- 
ner the right cord is crushed. It will aid in preventing leaving one 
cord uncrushed if the operator crushes left cord first, then right 
cord, or if he prefers, the reverse. The point is, follow the same 
order. No fly repellent is applied on the scrotum except when a 
bruise is made, which sometimes occurs in the operation on older 
animals. 



STtTDY OF METHODS OF CASTRATION 


47 


The emasculatomized animals were placed under observation 
and study throughout the duration of the experiment. Weights were 
taken at the time of the operation, three days later and again after 
four days. After this period of seven days, weights were taken 
weekly for one month and then monthly for at least one year. The 
temperature was taken of the first few animals castrated by either 
method, but as there was no appreciable increase in any case this 
observation was discontinued. The animals paired were subjected to 
practically the same care and treatment during the experiment. All 
the animals were kept under the usual conditions on a Philippine 
farm. 

Animals owned by people living near the College Campus. The 
same general procedure used with department animals was followed 
with the outside animals, except that these animals were cared for 
by their owners. Weighing of these animals was discontinued 6 
months after the operation. 

Animals belonging to farmers not living near the College Canu 
pus. With these animals no weights were taken. Other observa- 
tions were recorded, but not as often nor as regularly as with the 
animals belonging to the department or to the people living near 
the Campus. 

Microscopic studies on goats. In these studies, goats ranging 
in age from 4 to 9 months were used. One goat was used as control, 
that is the testes were removed just after it was castrated by the 
emasculatome method; the crushing effect of the instrument on the 
spermatic cords was observed, and sections taken for microscopic 
study. The nine remaining goats were first castrated by the emas- 
culatome method. Then the emasculator was employed in removing 
the testes. The testes of the goats were taken out at the following 
intervals after operation : 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, 1 month, 2 months, 
3 months, 4 months, 5 month.®, and 6 months. The testes were 
examined macroscopically and microscopically for the presence of via- 
ble spermatozoa. At least two blocks of about one centimeter cube 
in size were cut out for micro-sectioning. Slides were examined 
under the microscope using both low power and high power. Then 
drawings were made under camera lucida. 

Before and after castration by the emasculatome method, the 
scrotum of each goat was measured. Measurements of length, cir- 
cumference, width, thickness of the left half and of the right half 
of the scrotum were taken daily for two weeks and weekly there- 
after. The preparation of the micro-sections and the studies there- 



48 


THE FHlUrPINE AGBICULTUBIST 


on were carried out in coSperation with the Anatomy Department 
of the Collesre of Veterinary Science under the immediate direction 
of Dr. Manuel D. Sumulonsr. 

RESin.TS OF THE EXPERIMENT 

The data on the relative effects of the emasculator and the emas- 
culatome methods of castration in cattle as to duration of swelling, 
gait, disposition, color, size of neck, and sex instincts are shown in 
table 1. With water buffaloes the effects of the two methods of cas- 
tration on duration of swelling, gait, disposition, size of neck and 
sex instincts are shown in table 2. Table 3 gives the observations 
on the effects of the two operations on duration of swelling, gait, 
disposition, and sex instincts in horses. Table 4, shows the obser- 
vations on the healing time in cattle, water buffaloes, and horses 
castrated by the emasculator method. Table 5 shows the time re- 
quired for complete atrophy of the testes in the three kinds of ani- 
mals castrated by the emasculatome method. 

DISCUSSION OP RESULTS 

Duration of swelling, gait, disposition, color, size of neck, 
and sex instinct under the emascvMtor and the 
emoLsculatome methods of castration 

By the term, “duration of swelling,” as used in this paper is 
meant, in either method, the length of time the scrotum presents an 
enlarged condition. 

Cattle. Table 1 shows that with cattle castrated by the emascu- 
lator method, the average duration of swelling was 12 days, the 
shortest ^duration being 7 days and the longest, 20 days. With ani- 
mals castrated by the emasculatome method, the average duration 
of swelling was 22.6 days, the shortest being 10 days and longest, 
86 days. In both methods the swelling was of longer deration with 
the older animals. 

The gait of the animals castrated by the emasculatome method 
was less affected than with those castrated by the emasculator meth- 
od. In the emasculatome method of castration, two-year old ani- 
mals or younger did not show any change in the way they walked or 
moved about. In both methods of castration the younger the ani- 
mal the less was the effect on the gait. 

The data show that the animals castrated by the emasculator 
method suffered a greater degree of shock from the operation than 
those castrated by the emasculatome method. The animals were 
either excitable or in an irritable state or both for an average of 



STUDY OF METHODS OF CASTRATION 


49 


10.7 days when castrated by the emasculator method and 4.9 days 
when castrated by the emasculatome method. In either operation 
the shock to the older animals seemed greater than with the younger 
ones. 

The change in color for animals castrated by either method was 
marked for practically the same length of time. In younger ani- 
mals, however, the change in color took place a little sooner than 
with the older animals. The following transformations of color 
were observed: black to dark; yellow to whitish yellow; red mixed 
with dark hairs to scarlet; mottled color to whitish yellow. These 
colors when present at the tail and shanks did not change apprecia- 
bly. White and gray colors did not change. 

The change in the size of neck was not noticed in young animals 
where no development had taken place; nor in older animals that 
were thin and out of condition. With animals whose necks were 
well developed, either method of castration caused a partial dimi- 
nution after about two months. With Nellore grades the size of 
the humps also decreased. Some farmers believe that the reduction 
in size of the neck does not handicap their work bullocks in strength 
and endurance. 

The emasculatome method of castration is as effective as the 
emasculator method in destroying sex instincts in cattle. Actions 
and behavior of the eight cattle castrated did not seem to manifest 
sex desire. 

Water buffaloes. As may be seen in table 2 the average dura- 
tion of swelling with water buffaloes castrated by the emasculator 
method was 7.6 days, the range being 2 to 18 days. It may be noted 
that 18 days, the maximum duration of swelling, is twice as long 
as the next longest duration, which was 9 days. In this particular 
case the prolonged duration of swelling was due to maggot infesta- 
tion of the wound, which necessitated the casting of the animal, 
picking out the maggots and applying a chloroform pack to the af- 
fected parts. With animals castrated by the emasculatome method 
the average duration of swelling was 37 days, the minimum, 21 days 
and the maximum, 47 days. The duration of swelling was shorter 
with younger animals. 

With animals castrated by the emasculator method, two did not 
show any change in gait; the others varied from 1 to 10 days. With 
animals castrated by the emasculatome method, the period before re- 
turn to normal gait varied from 6 to 16 days. One animal showed 
no change of gait. 



50 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTUBIST 


In both methods of castration the duration of irritability and 
excitement seemed to vary with the degree of tameness or wildness of 
the animal. The tame animal returned to normal disposition ear- 
lier than the wilder one. The animals castrated by the emascula- 
tome method showed greater effects from shock than those castrated 
by the emasculator method. This may have been due to the fact 
that the spermatic cords of water buffaloes are relatively larger and 
shorter than those of cattle, and the skin covering is thicker. The ef- 
fect of the emasculatome was such that the testes were drawn close 
to the body upward and the swelling was so marked that a slight 
motion caused a rubbing of the injured parts against the inside of 
thighs of the animal. This continual irritation undoubtedly tended to 
make the animal ill-tempered. 

As with cattle, decrease in size of neck in water buffaloes was 
discernible in animals with fully developed necks. With animals 
castrated by the emasculator method the decrease in size of the necks 
was noticed as early as 1 month and as late as 2 months; with ani- 
mals castrated by the emasculatome method the average was 2 
months. When the neck was fully developed before castration, a 
similar condition was noted in water buffaloes as in cattle, that is, 
neither method of castration effected much change. 

With water buffaloes, the sex instincts disappeared entirely soon 
after castration by the emasculator method. With animals castrated 
by the emasculatome method not as good results were obtained. Of 
the 5 animals castrated by the emasculatome method 3 were observed 
to lose their sex instincts outright. One animal, about 2 years, 9 
months bid, continued to show sex instincts for one month. Another, 
about 4 years of age, was observed to cover females and fight with 
other carabao bulls for about 8 months after castration. None of 
the females covered, however, has as yet shown conception incident 
to these services. 

Horses. With the horse castrated by the emasculator, the dura- 
tion of swelling was 12 days and the sex instincts were lost soon aft- 
er castration. Its gait returned to normal after 5 days and its dis- 
position within 10 days. 

With the 3 horses castrated by the emasculatome the one 9 months 
old suffered swelling for 4 days ; of the other 2, one for 36 days and 
one for 40. None of the three showed any change in gait and dis- 
position as a reaction to castration. While the younger horse which 
had not matured sexually at the time of operation did not, of course, 
show sex desires after, one of the other two horses did continue to 



STUDY OF METHODS OF CASTRATION 


51 


show its sex instincts for several months after the operation. Horse 
No. 2 had to be recastrated by the emasculator after one year for it 
was repeatedly noticed to cover mares. This horse showed upon cas- 
tration by the emasculator testicular tissues which were normal. In 
fact, microscopic examination of smears taken from these normal 
tissues showed the presence of living spermatozoa. Further details 
of this result are given elsewhere in this paper. 

Weights of animals castrated by the emasculator and the 
emasculatome methods 

Cattle. The mature animals paired differed by 70 kilograms in 
weight but they were of about the same age and condition, and were 
used to about the same care and farm work. The young animals 
paired differed by 6 kilograms in weight, were about the same in 
age, condition and care. The weight curves of the young pair dif- 
fered little up to 2 months after castration. Later, while the animal 
castrated by the emasculator method steadily grew, the other animal 
decreased in weight before it resumed its growth at a lower rate. 
The animal castrated by the emasculatome had greater shrinkage in 
weight and regained weight later than the one castrated by the emas- 
culator method. After 1 month, the weight curves of the 2 animals 
were about the same. 

Water buffaloes. Two pairs of water buffaloes were used. Of 
the first pair, the animal castrated by the emasculator method de- 
creased in weight and required 1 month to regain the loss. The 
other animals, on the other hand, did not suffer shrinkage, instead 
their weight curves went on unaltered. After 1 month, the rates of 
growth of the animals were fairly even. There was a slight dif- 
ference in favor of the emasculatome in that the animal castrated 
by the emasculatome method lost less weight after the operation than 
the one castrated by the emasculator method. In their growth curves 

later there was no significant difference. 

• 

Time of healing under the emascuiator method of castra- 
tion and the time of complete atrophy under the 
emasculatome method 

The phrase, “time of healing", in this paper is used to mean the 
period between the date of the operation to the date when the wound 
was completely closed. 

Cattle. With cattle castrated by the emasculator method the 
healing time ranged from 14 to 26 days, with an average of 20.8 



52 


THE PHIUPPINE AGBICULTORIST 


days, as shown in table 4. The data show that healing took place 
with younger animals in a shorter time than with older animals. 
Table 5 shows that of the 8 animals castrated by the emasculatome 
method, complete atrophy of the testes took place in 76 per cent of 
the number, the shortest time being 7 months and the longest, 14 
months. These changes were observed in animals 1 to 3 years of age. 
The other 2 animals at the close of the experiment still showed signs 
of incomplete atrophy of the testes. These findings would seem co 
be contrary to those reported by Fitch (1929) who claimed that com- 
plete absorption occurred in from one month with the smaller ani- 
mals to three months with old bulls. It is quite possible, however, 
that a variability in the time of complete absorption occurs in animals 
of the same species but in different environment. 

Water buffaloes. As may be seen in table 4 the minimum hejil- 
ing time with water buffaloes was 8 days and the maximum, 25 days, 
the average healing time being 14.6 days. As was the case with the 
cattle, healing was faster with the younger water buffaloes than 
With the older ones. With the animals castrated by the emasculatome 
method, complete atrophy of the testes took place within 16 months in 
one animal that was 3 years old. The scrotum of the other animals 
at the close of the experiment showed indications of the presence of 
testes which were still undergoing degeneration 

Horses. With the only horse castrated by the slit method, com- 
plete healing took place within 23 days. In only one horse (9 months 
old) of, the three castrated by the emasculatome method were the 
testes completely atrophied. This was observed 7 months after cas- 
tration, as shown in table 5. Horse No. 2 had to be recastrated by 
the emasculator method one year later. It was found that the testes 
had partially degenerated. The left testis the cord of which was 
completely crushed was smaller than the right one the cord of which 
was only partially crushed. Microscopic examination revealed the 
presence of viable spermatozoa in the right testis. To these sperma- 
tozoa was attributed the persistent manifestation of sex instincts 
after castration by the emasculatome. The same case was apparently 
true, although not so well marked, with horse No. 3. At the latest 
observation, one year after this animal was castrated by the emas- 
culatome method, the testes were partially degenerated. The left 
testis had degenerated to a size smaller than an average hen’s egg 
and the right testis was about twice as large. 



STUBY OF METHODS OP CASTRATION 


63 


Macroscopic and microscopic studies on the effect of castra- 
tion by the emasculatome method 

Effect of crushing the spermatic cord on the glandvlar and inter- 
stitial tissues of the testis. Observations, so far made, on the effects 
of castration by the emasculatome method were on the external body 
features and behavior of the animals castrated. These observations 
may not warrant a conclusion as to how good and how effective the 
instrument is in sterilizing farm animals. To remove any doubt re- 
garding efficiency of the instrument, macroscopic and microscopic 
studies were conducted on the testes of sexually mature goats. These 
goats were emasculatomized and after varying intervals of time their 
testes were removed to be studied macroscopically and microscopical- 
ly- 

As to the efficiency of the instrument in crushing the spermatic 
cord, examination of the testes removed from the ten goats castrated 
by the emasculatome method showed that the spermatic cord was com- 
pletely crushed. The cremaster muscles and most of the blood vessels 
and nerves were cut. The rest of the blood vessels and nerves were 
either partially cut or crushed. The vas deferens was likewise 
crushed, but never .completely severed. Blood clots filled the place 
of injury. The mesorchium in most cases was never severed. The 
testes began to degenerate usually 10 days after emasculatomization 
when swelling had subsided. Blood had hardened in the veins and 
capillaries of the testes. The glandular substance and interstitial tis- 
sues were discolored, the extent of discoloration varying with time. 
With the testes removed, after 7 days the depth of the bluish dis- 
coloration from the surface of the testes was about 1.5 centimeters. 
With the testes removed, 6 months after castration the colors of the 
glandular and interstitial tissues from without inward were yellow 
and pale white and the texture became friable and rather firm to 
touch. These conditions deviate much from those in the normal state 
when the gland substance is soft and reddish gray in color. 

The slides showed that in some cases the convoluted tubules had 
undergone diminution in size accompanied by the widening of the 
inter-tubular spaces. In most cases no reduction in size of convoluted 
tubules but widening of inter-tubular spaces occurred. The lumena 
of the tubules were generally not discernible after 14 days. Within 
two months, nuclei in the parenchyma of the tubules disappeared. 
The sections seemed to show that atrophy of the testes is not asso- 
ciated with continuous decrease in size of the tubules until they are 
finally resorbed. Apparently, atrophy in this case is the decrease 



64 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


in size of the tubes, widening of the inter-tubular spaces and con- 
traction of the interstitial tissues to such an extent that the tubules 
begin to disintegrate. The sections from the testes removed six months 
after emasculatomization showed that the disintegration of the tu- 
bules takes place either from outside, or inside or by both ways at 
the same time. It was noted that in some sections the walls of 
the tubules were broken, in others, the germinal epithelium was not 
continuous; it tended to split into several parts; while in other sec- 
tions the disintegration was apparent from both outside and inside. 

Of the sections made, the effect of the emasculatome upon the 
interstitial tissues first becomes apparent in these from the testes 
removed 3 days after the operation. The interstitial tissue begins 
to withdraw from the walls of the tubules. In 6 months the inter- 
stitial tissue was well contracted in the already widened inter-tubular 
spaces; in some parts it was reduced to a thin-threadlike structure. 
These histological findings are in agreement with those reported by 
Retterer (1928) who worked with bulls. He found complete absence 
of Leydig cells in the interstitial tissue. Alvarez and Lachos (1928) 
working on the histology of the testes of a horse castrated by the 
emasculatome method reported an opposite result. They found the 
greater number of the cells of Leydig in the interstitial spaces. Atro- 
phy of the seminal epithelium occurred without greatly disturbing 
the vascularity of the testicles. It is quite possible that these workers 
may have been dealing with slips, although the different species 
may show such a difference. 

The testes removed 6 months after castration were so atrophied 
that the section made from what appeared to be the remnant of the 
testes did not show any trace of gland substance, but showed cells of 
the epididymis. 

Viability of mature sperm cells after castration by the emascula- 
tome method. To determine the presence of living spermatozoa in 
the testes of animals castrated by the emasculatome method, smears 
were taken from the glandular substance of the testes, epididymis 
and vas deferens immediately after the removal of the testes. These 
smears were diluted in physiological salt solution and centrifuged 
before they were examined under the microscope. Microscopic exam- 
ination showed that the viable spermatozoa were present in testes re- 
moved 3 days after emasculatomization. A few spermatozoa were 
also observed after 7 days but they were apparently weak. In all 
other testes removed later no spermatozoa could be found. This ex- 
periment yielded results much different from those of an experiment 
which Quinlan (1928) carried out with vasectomized sheep in whose 



STUDY OF METHODS OF CASTRATION 


55 


testes he observed, that spermatogenesis continued to take place at 
12 months and up to 30 months after vasectomy. It should be noted, 
however, that in vasectomized animals the blood vessels and the nerve 
supply of the testes are not disturbed. In vasectomized males only 
the vas deferens is cut. In the emasculatomized .animals the blood 
vessels and nerves, together with the muscles, that are inclosed in the 
cord are completely crushed thereby depriving the testes of their nutri- 
tion and nerve supply. 

Practicability of the emmculatome method of castration 

Cattle. With cattle, the emasculatome is a practical instrument 
for castration. Especially is this true on ranches where many bull 
calves not needed for breeding purposes have to be castrated in the 
shortest time possible. This method of castration can be used any 
time of the year in any place and under unfavorable conditions, as 
rainy weather, prevalence of tetanus infection, and of blow flies. The 
instrument has been proved effective in sterilizing cattle. The ani- 
mal is not greatly inconvenienced and the young animals do not gen- 
erally go “off-feed.” Although the handling of the instrument seems 
simple, precision in its use is most important. In the operation one 
should always be sure that both cords are thoroughly crushed, if not 
severed. Contrary to the practice of castrating the animal while 
standing, as is in vogue in the United States and France as reported 
by Fitch (1929) and Maurer (1930) and Souquere (1929), the writer 
suggests that animals be cast for the operation. The extra trouble of 
restraining the animal in this way will be more than compensated for 
by the higher percentage of success. After the instrument is closed 
over the spermatic cord, a little pulling of the testes away from the 
grip of the instrument will cause complete separation of the cord. 
It is a good practice to crush one cord at a time. 

Water buffaloes. With carabaos up to 2 years of age the instru- 
ment can well be used. But with older animals the use of the emas- 
culatome becomes more an instrument of torture than of utility. The 
closing of the instrument over the spermatic cord requires the strength 
of at least two men. Although the crushing of the cord is effected, the 
operation usually makes a break in the skin. This condition defeats 
the secondary purpose of the instrument, in that it exposes the ani- 
mal to secondary infection. It seems possible, however, to modify 
the instrument so that it could be used for carabaos over 2 years old. 
The most important modifications suggested are a wider gap between 
the jaws and a longer handle to increase leverage advantage. 



56 


THE PHILIPPIHB AGRICULTURIST 


Horses. The writer does not feel justified in makingr any gen- 
eral conclusion as to the use of the instrument with horses as the 
cases used in this study were very few. However, some statements 
can be made on its use with this animal : 

1. The emasculatome can not be used by an inexperienced man 
in castrating horses. 

2. It can be used with some difficulty, however, by an ex- 
perienced man with young animals and with less difficulty with older 
ones. 

3. The emasculatome is a safe instrument for castrating horses 
because, as a rule, there is no severe injury on the skin, thereby re- 
ducing the possibility of infection, such as tetanus. 

4. The important thing in castrating horses is to be sure the 
spermatic cord is completely severed. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

1. The emasculatome method of castration was found to be as 
effective as the emasculator method of castration for cattle and 
goats of all ages and water buffaloes up to 2 years of age. 

2. Complete atrophy and resorption of the testes took place in 
9 months with young animals; the time was much longer with older 
animals. Time required for absorption of the testis varied directly 
with its size. 

3. One method had no decided advantage over the other on the 
growth of animals, although the animals castrated by the emascula- 
tome method suffered less shrinkage than those castrated by the emas- 
culator method. 

4. Duration of swelling was much longer with animals castrat- 
ed by the emasculatome method than with animals castrated by the 
emasculator method. Duration of swelling was generally less with 
younger animals than with older. 

6. With animals castrated by the emasculatome method, change 
in gait was not associated with the duration of swelling. 

6. With cattle, the emasculator method of castration was more 
painful than the emasculatome method. The reverse was true with 
water buffaloes. 

7. Both methods of castration effected change in color of cattle 
in practically the same length of period. Change took place a little 
earlier with younger animals. With young cattle and Water buffa- 
loes, either method caused decrease in size of neck, but less with older 
animals where the neck had fully developed. 



STUDY OF METHODS OF CASTRATION 


67 


8. Average healing time under the emasculator method was 
about 21 days with cattle and 16 days with water buffaloes. Healing 
time was generally shorter with younger animals. 

9. Microscopic studies showed that in properly emaaculatomized 
goats the testes were incapable of producing spermatozoa 7 days after 
emasculatomization. 

10. The glandular substance and interstitial tissue of the testes 
of goat were practically dead 2 months after emasculatomization. 

11. The data on horses are not conclusive, but there are indica- 
tions that the instrument cannot be handled by inexperienced men 
with ’ success, owing to possibility of incomplete crushing of the 
spermatic cord and therefore incomplete castration. 

12. The castration by the emasculatome method is simple, quick, 
and safe, but should be executed with a proper technique to be effec- 
tive. 


LITERATURE CITED 

Alvarez, R. G., and J. de Pabix) Lachos. 1928. Sobre los modificaciones histo- 
logicas del testiculo castrado a gran mordaza en el caballo (On the histo- 
logical modifications of the testis in the horse castrated by the emascu- 
latome). Revista de Higiene y Sanidad Pecuarias, (Madrid) 18: 97-10 
Fig, 1-2, 

Fitch, E. L. 1929. The emasculatome in general practice. Veterinary Medicine 
24: 237-239. 

Gaviola, V. D. 1929. Observations on the time of healing by the slit and cap 
methods of castration. The Philippine Agriculturist 18: 191-200. 

Maurer, J. 1930. Experiences in castration with Burdizzo forceps. The Cor- 
nell Veterinarian 20: 63-68. 

Quinlan, J. 1928. Vasectomy as a method of sterilizing ram lambs: A com- 
parison with castrations. Thirteenth and Fourteenth Reports of the Di- 
rector of Veterinary Education and Research, Department of Agriculture, 
Union of South Africa; Pretoria, p. 683-591. Fig, 1—20; charts 1-2, 

Retterer, Ed. 1925. Evolution du testicale du taureau apres encrassment (ta- 
lage) du canal deferent (Changes in the testes of the bull following de- 
struction of the vas deferens). Comptes rendus de la Soc. de ?iol. de Pa- 
ris. Ntim. 23. — de Octubre 1925. (Alvarez, R. G. and J. de Pablo ad citto). 

SOUQUERE, M. L. 1929. Observations on the subcutaneous crushing of the tes- 
ticular cord in the castration of bulls. Veterinary Medicine 24; 207-209. 



68 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICUIiTURIST 


TABLE 1 


Shovring the relative effects with cattle of the emasculator and the emascula- 
tome methods of castration on duration of swelling ^ gait^ dis- 
position, color, size of neck, and sex instincts 


Animal No. 

EMASCULATOR METHOD 

Animal No. 

EMASCULATOME METHOD 

Duration of swellins 

Return to normal gait 

Change in disposition to 
normal 

Change in color 

Change in size of neck 

Change in sex instincts 

Duration of swelling 

Return to normal gait 

Change in disposition to 
normal 

Change in color 

Change in size of neck 

Change in sex instincts 


1 days 

days 

days 

mo. 

mo. 

mo. 


days 

dayB 

days 

mo. 

mo. 

mo. 

1 

1 

2 

1 1 

1.5 1 

0 1 

0 

1 

10 

0 

1 

1.5 

0 

0 

2 

1 9 

4 

3 ' 

2.0 ' 

9 1 

0 

2 

15 

0 

2 

2.0 

0 

0 

3 

.10 

5 

6 

2.0 

2 

0 

3 

20 

0 

10 

2.0 

0 

0 

4 

14 

5 

11 

2.0 ! 

2 

0 

4 

23 

0 

5 

2.0 

0 

0 

5 

13 

4 

19 

2.0 

2 

0 

5 

15 

0 

2 

2.0 

0 

0 

6 

2a 

8 

25 

2.0 

2 

0 

6 

33 

4 

5 

a 

0 

0 





1 



7 

30 

3 

7 

2.5 

2.5 

0 








8 

35 

3 

7 

2.0 

1.5 

0 

Av. 1 

12.0 1 

1 1 

10.7 1 

1 1-9 ! 

I - 1 

1 ^ 

1 Av. 

\J^ 

1- 

1 ^'9 1 

1 2.0 

hr. 

1 0 


® When the color was gray at the time of castration it did not change. 



STUDY OF METHODS OF CASTRATION 


59 


TABLE 2 


Showing the relative effects with water buffaloes of the emasculator and the 
emasculatome methods of castration on duration of swelling, 
gait, disposition, size of neck, and sex instincts 



1 

days 

1 days 

days 

mo. 

vio, j 

[ 

[ days 

days 

days 

1 mo. 

mo. 

1 

2 

1 ® 

0 

0 

0 

1 

1 36 

14 

27 

1.0 

0 

2 

7 

1 

5 

0 

0 

2 

21 

0 

35 

1.5 

1 

3 

5 

1 

6 

0 

0 

3 

1 42 

16 

30 

2.0 

8 

4 

8 

2 

20 

2.0 

0 

4 

47 

6 

6 

3.0 

0 

5 

6 

7 

7 

1.6 

0 

6 

40 

15 

68 

2.0 

0 

6 

7 

0 

12 

2.0 

0 




i 



7 

18 

4 

4 

1.0 

0 





1 


8 

6 

i 

9 

1.6 

0 







9 

9 

6 

6 

2.0 

0 







> j 

1 

11 

7.6 1 

— 

1 - 


Fm 

fi 

37.0 1 

— 1 

31.2 1 


— 


in sex instincts 



60 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


. TABLE 3 

Showing the relative effects with horses of the ertiasculator and the emascida' 
tome methods of castration on duration of swelling y gait, 
disposition, and sex instincts 


d 

*2 

£ 

< 

EMASCUIJ^TOR METHOD 

Animal No. 

j 

1 

! EMASCULATOME METHOD 

L 

Duration of swellinj; 

Return to normal srait 

Chansre in disposition to 
normal 

Chanj^e in sex instincts 

Duration of swelling 

Return to normal gait 

Change in disposition to 
normal 

Change in sex instincts 

1 

days 1 

1 days 

days 

1 mo. 


days 

days 

days 

mo. 

1 



10 

0 

1 

4 

0 

0 

0 


12 1 

1 ^ 



2 

36 

0 

0 

12“ 

• 





3 

40 

0 

0 

0 

Average | 

12 { 

6 1 

1 10 

1 0 1 

1 Average | 

26.7 

1 0 1 

0 1 

— 


® Although the testes had been greatly reduced in size this animal continued 
to cover the mares that were in heat until he was castrated by the emasculator 
method one year after the application of the Burdizzo pincers. At this time 
it was found that a small portion of the testes remained functional. In fact, 
microscopic examination revealed motile spermatozoa in the right testis. 



STUDY OF METHODS OF CASTRATION 


61 


TABLE 4 

The time required for complete healing to take place in different kinds of ani- 
mals that were castrated by the emasculator method 


CATTLE 

‘WATER m7FFA[>OE4J 

HORSES 

Animal No. 

One-year old 

' _ _ _ 

Two-year old 

Mature animals 

Animal No. 

One-year old 

Two-year old 

Three-year old 

Mature animals 

Animal No. 

Mature animals 


1 daya 

daytt I 

days 


days 1 

days 

days 

days 


days 

1 

14 


— 

1 

8 

— 

— 

— ! 

1 

23 

2 

1 — 

19 

— 

2 

— 

14 

— 

— 



3 

I — 

— 

20 

3 

— 

9 

— 

— 



4 

— 

— 

23 

4 

— 

12 

— 

— 



5 

— 

— 

24 

5 

— 

15 

— 

— 



6 

— 1 

— 

25 

6 

— 

— 

16 

— 







7 

— 

— . 

— 

25 « 



1 




8 

— 

— 

— 

16 







9 

— 

— 

— 

16 



Av. 

1 14 

1 19 

1 23 

1 Av, 

1 8 

1 12.5 

1 16 

1 

1 Av. 

to 

CO 

General average — 20.8 


General average — 14 

.6 




® Wound was infested with maggots. 



62 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE B 

Showing the time required for complete atrophy of the testes to take place in 
different classes of animals castrated hy the emasculatome method 




incomplete atrophy of the testes. 











64 


'rHE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Plate I 

Fig. 2. Testis of goat 6 months old removed 3 days after emasculatom- 
ization, X 1. 

Fig. 10. Testis of goat 7 months old removed 6 months after emascula- 
tomization. X 1. 

Fig. 11. Camera lucida drawing of section from normal testis of a goat 
7 months old. X 360. 

Fig. 19. Camera lucida drawing of section from testis of a goat 7 months 
old, 6 months after emasculatomization. X 360. 

Fig. 20. Camera lucida drawing of section showing a portion of the ger- 
minal epithelium from normal testis of goat 7 months old. X 2160. 

Fig. 25., Camera lucida drawing of section showing a portion of the ger- 
minal epithelium from testis of a goat 7 months old, 6 months after 
* emasculatomization. X 2160. 



Bahio: Study methods castration 1 


[Philippine AKiiculturist, Vol. XXIl. No. 1 



Plate I 




NOTE: BAKER MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIP FUND 


As the Baker Memorial Scholarship Fund is the result of volun- 
tary contributions given as a tribute to the memory of Charles Fuller 
Baker, Dean College of Agriculture 1917-1927, it is well to period- 
ically report on it. 

In accordance with the recommendation by the original Baker 
Memorial Committee, the dean, the secretary and the head of a de- 
partment of this college compose the Standing Baker Memorial Schol- 
arship Committee. This committee on April 10, 1931 reported con- 
tributions for 1931 up to that date as P103. 

On April 7, 1933 the committee reported further contributions 
as follows: 


1931 

Mr. Leopoldo J. Villanueva r4.00 

Class of 1932 Fll.OO 

1932 

U. P. Student Council P600.00 

Mr. Gaudencio Reyes PIO.OO 

Dr. M. Manresa, Chairman Social Affairs, C. A. 

(Surplus of Christmas Fund) P6.29 

1933 

Student Body, College of Agriculture P30.00 


With these additional contributions the Fund on April 7, 1933 
was P2,764.29. 

The aid from this fund has been awarded as follows : 1929-30 
to Ambrosio V. San Pedro, now assistant in agronomy; in 1930-31 
to Engracio Basio, now assistant in poultry husbandry; in 1931-32 
the»award was divided between Juan Padilla, now in charge of Eli- 
zarde poultry projects in Baguio and to Marcelino G. Canlas. In 
1932-33 the aid was again divided and awarded to Proceso Alcala 
and to Filomeno Butac. 

According to the prescribed conditions of this scholarship, it is 
awarded to a self-supporting student or students of the senior class; 
the selection is made “on the basis of character, promise of future 
usefulness and scholarship.” The apiouht awarded this year to each 


6T 



68 


THE PHIUPPINE AGBICULTUBIST 


of the Baker Scholars was P63; though a small amount yet a wel- 
come help to a young man who supports himself on the wage of 10 
to 14 centavos an hour, the current rate on the Campus. 

The Fund is always open to contributions, large or small. Con- 
tributions may be sent to the Dean, College of Agriculture, and Mr. 
Alfredo V. Yfiiguez, the Chief Clerk and Disbursing Officer will 
transmit them to the Treasurer of the Fund, the Secretary of the 
University of the Philippines. Each increase in the Fund increases 
the interest, hence increases the amount of the award. It is grati- 
fying to note the generous contributions from student organizations. 
Money given to the Baker Memorial Fund each year gives comfort 
and cheer to one or more students ; may help to relieve a burden which 
might otherwise become too heavy to be borne. Surely a better in- 
vestment of funds than in a banquet which lasts but an evening. 


NOTE: THE SECOND RURAL LIFE INSTITUTE 

The second Rural Life Institute was held under the auspices of 
the National Christian Council and the College of Agriculture from 
March 27 to April 1, 1933. This year’s institute registered 46 (37 
men and 8 women) delegates representing 22 provinces; last year 
there were 36 (28 men and 8 women) delegates from 18 provinces. 
The. delegates to this Institute came from regions as widely sep- 
arated as Cagayan in the north and Lanao in the south. Among 
the delegates were pastors, missionaries, students, laymen, teachers 
in training schools, and clerks. 



Fig. 1. — Showing process of making soap at home using coconut oil. 
Lecture, by Dr. P. David. 





MOTE: THE SECOND RURAL LIFE INSTITUTE 


69 


About five hours a day were devoted to lectures, demonstrations 
and discussions under direction of members of College faculty. In 
addition there were Round Table discussions conducted by the leaders 
in the Institute and one formal address each day on a general 
topic by a guest speaker. 

The scope of the agricultural work is indicated by the following 
program. 

March 27 — (1) Plant propagation. (2) Food preservation. Dr. L. G. Gon- 
zalez. 

March 28 — (1) Poultry raising for profit. Dr. F. M. Fronda. 

(2) Caponizing — actual operation performed by delegates 
under direction of Mr. Engracio Basio. 

March 29 — (1) Hog raising. (2) Castration of pigs. Dr. M. Mondohedo. 
(3) Good types of farm animals. Dr. V. Villegas. 

(1) Selection of varieties and seeds. Dr. N. B. Mendiola. 

(2) Uses and preparation of products from different perma- 
nent farm crops products. Dr. P. David. 

March 30 — (1) Uses and preparation of products from annual farm crops. 
Mr. Vicente Aragon. 

(2) Useful hints in vegetable growing including the raising of 
onions. Dr. L. G. Gonzalez. 

(1) Farm, sanitation. Construction of Antipolo types of toi- 
lets, Dr. A. L. Teodoro and Prof. A. B. Catambay. 

March 31 — (1) Some common insect pests, and their control. Dr. L. B. 
Uichanco. 

(1) Some common plant diseases and their control. Dr. G. O. 
Ocfemia. 

(1) Fertilization and manuring. Dr. R. B. Espino. 

(1) Cheese making. Dr. F. B. Sarao. 

April 1. Balanced diets of Filipino food. Preparation of balanced 
meals from native materials, such as rice, fish, vegetables; 
cost and food values. Dr. F. 0. Santos. 



Pig. 2. — Samples, mostly raw, of balanced meals from native prc^ucts, 
used by Dr. P. O. Santos in lecture on balanced diets of Pilipino 
food. The rice part is not shown. Upper horizontal column shows 
breakfasts; middle and lower horizontal columns, lunch or sup- 
per. 


70 


THE PHILIPPINB AGBICULTOBIST 


The lectures and discussions were made as practical as possible. 
Demonstrations were used freely. 

The prepared products from farm crops were shown. The food 
for balanced meals was shown not as a whole, but the food for the 
different meals which would give a proper diet. 

The delegates manifested genuine enthusiasm in all the subjects 
and demonstrations presented by the College of Agriculture faculty. 
A large number of the facilities of the Departments of the College 
which gave lectures and demonstrations were placed at the disposal 
of the delegates thus making their six-day sojourn on the Campus 
interesting as well as profitable. 

In the closing meeting of the Institute resolutions were voted 
by the delegates expressing cordial appreciation of the courtesy and 
the valuable instruction received from the faculty of the College, 
and also expressing gratitude for the kindly hospitality extended by 
Rev. and Mrs. Hugh Bousman of the Evangelical Christian Center. 

Manuel R. Monsalud 
Of the Department of Agronomy 


NOTE: GIFTS FROM U. P. STUDENT COUNCIL 

In the past two years the U. P. Student Council has done nota- 
ble work on the Campus through their donations. In 1930-1931, 
P2060 was appropriated by the Council as a grift for the construction 
of a gate at the entrance to the grounds of the Associated Colleges. 
This gate is still in process of construction. In 1931-1932, P500 was 
appropriated by the Council for the construction of cement seats 
to be placed on the Campus. These seats which are of the popular 
model for College campuses and parks add beauty to the Campus 
and give much comfort to the students, college residents and excur- 
sionists. During this same year, P600 was donated to the Baker 
Memorial Fund of the College of Agriculture. In 193^1933, P800 
was appropriated by the Council for the construction of a statue, 
to be placed just within the Campus Gate. 

The sources of all these appropriations is from the 60-centavo 
U. P. Student Council semestral fee collected from each U. P. Stu- 
dent. 

The Associated Colleges of Los Bahos wish to express their 
hearty thanks to each U. P. Student, and especially to the U. P. 
Student Council for these generous gifts of permanent value. It 
reveals a fine spirit of interest in civic welfare. 



CURRENT NOTES 


Taking as its discussion topic “Adult Education and Rural Life," 
the American Country Life Association meeting at Oglebay Park, 
Wheeling, W. Va., October 13-16, 1932, viewed this question from 
many different angles in the various forum sessions and general 
meetings. The objectives of existing agencies were analyzed and 
modifications suggested. A well-balanced local program of rural 
adult education, it was held, should provide not only vocational guid- 
ance and training that will enable farm men and women to take 
effective adjustments to changing economic conditions and to dis- 
coveries in the natural science, but will also furnish the basis for 
more stimulating cultural, social, and recreational activities. The 
need for greater coordination among the agencies operating in this 
field as a means of avoiding duplication and conflict, and of filling 
in the gaps received considerable attention. 

Journal of Farm Economics, January, 1933 


As eggs are also a good source of supply of all the other vita- 
mins except C (which is present in oranges, lemons, tomatoes, and 
other fruits) it is all the more important that their value should 
become generally known. Milk and milk products are not so rich 
nor so certain a source of vitamins as eggs.... 

Every child should have both his egg and his apple daily (or a 
tomato instead), as well as his milk allowance. 

The Farmers’ Gazette, October 8, 1932 


The price of Maguey from Cebu in the Philippines fell off as 
producers had little incentive to strip and prepare the fibre at cur- 
rent values. This caused supplies to be irregular, so spinners turned 
to sisal. With Davao fibre, on the other hand, interest is said to be 
broadening in this well-prepared fibre, and when trade revives it 
is safe to predict that its consumption will rapidly increase. Where 
it has been adopted it gives universal satisfaction owing to its care- 
ful preparation and great strength. 

Tropical Life, February, 1933 

71 



72 


THE PHIUmNB AGRICULTUBIST 


Our backwardness in commerce and industry is largely attrib* 
uted to our lack of organization and cooperation among ourselves. 
Our meagre participation in any line of commercial activities is too 
patent to need any comment. Taking these facts as our beacon 
light, the bureau of commerce and industry has adopted as one of 
its main projects for the present year the establishment and organ- 
ization of trade promotion associations in important provincial cen- 
ters. 

Commerce and Industry Journal, Philippines, April, 1932. 


Rice in Austria. Experiments in rice-growing have met with 
success in Central Europe. Good rice in satisfactory quantities is 
reported to have been yielded by marshy land in Hungary, and it is 
now intended to open an experimental area for rice cultivation in 
a nearby district of Austria. During the coming spring rice is to be 
grown on the borders of the Neusiedlersee Lak, according to an an- 
nouncement by the Agricultural Chamber of the Burgenland, a dis- 
trict on the border of Austria and Hungary. The slime in this 
area contains salt, and is therefore expected to prove suitable for 
the growing of rice. 

The Madras Agrictdtural Journal January, 1933 
(Reprinted from the "Statesman” Jan. 20, 1933) 


Much of the increased interest in agriculture being shown by 
the rural youth of today is due in a large part to the educational 
program being carried on by the 4-H clubs and Future Farmers or- 
ganizations. These organizations have among their purposes the 
promotion of education in agriculture; the creation of more interest 
in the choice of farming as an occupation ; and the creation of a love 
for rural life 

In view of the benefits derived from these organizations, it is 
desirous not only to continue the cooperation of the schools, societies 
and agricultural departments of the state, but to further it so that 
the worth-while work of these organizations may be carried on in 
a larger way and to a better advantage. 

The Purdue Agriculturist (Purdue University) February, 1933 


Never allow ducklings to sleep on damp or wet bedding, as this 
is a common cause of leg weakness, and once a duckling becomes 
affected in this way little or nothing can be done for it. It is really 



COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 


78 


a matter of prevention by checking everything that tends to create 
a moist atmosphere. The first essential to this end is to place the 
water-vessels well away from the sleeping-quarters, so as to prevent 
the bedding-materials from getting wet. 

Young ducklings should be always protected from hot sun, as 
they have thin skulls and are very prone to sunstroke, which is a 
common cause of heavy mortality. Good shade is the secret for 
preventing this trouble. 

N. Z. Journal of Agricrdture, Aug. 20, 1932 


COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 

Mr. E. D. Hester, American Trade Comiriissioner, formerly 
Head of Department of Economics and College Registrar gave the 
Commencement Address at the graduation exercises of the Rural 
High School on March 17. 


The Associated Press dispatches of March 6 carried the sad 
news of the death of Mr. Edgar M. Ledyard, agricultural director 
for the United States Smelting Company, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Mr. Ledyard was on the faculty of the College of Agriculture from 
1911-1914, being the first instructor in entomology. 


Dr. and Mrs. W. J. Simpson from the Changli Mission near 
Peitaho, China, spent a week at Copeland House in February. Doc- 
tor Simpson is in charge of the agriculture and fruit culture work 
in this mission, hence found the College and Forest School nurseries 
of great interest, and Maquiling a never failing source of beauty 
and pleasure and of course, information. 


Dean Gonzalez recently received a letter from Mr. Sam B. Dur- 
ham, who was the first professor in animal husbandry in this College. 
We quote from the letter: 

“I want to take this opportunity of thanking you for the pub- 
lications which you have forwarded. They have furnished me no 
small amount of genuine interest. I congratulate you personally 
upon the success you have made of the work in your charge. Our 
director is making a study of the memorial publication — I can as- 
sure you that I think Dr. Baker was the greatest man I have ever 
known. 



74 


THE PHILIPPIKE AOBICULTURIST 


“How I would enjoy returning and trying out some permanent 
pastures in that country ! I am more of a permanent pasture spe- 
cialist now than anything else.” 

Mr. Durham is now District Dairy Agent in the cooperative 
extension work in . agriculture in Oklahoma. The cooperating fac- 
tors are Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College and United 
States Department of Agriculture. 


Dr. A. I. de Leon in the sixth travelogue took his audience to 
Oberammergau to the 1930 performance of the famous Passion Play. 
The many pictures in color supplemented by Doctor de Leon’s graph- 
ic description made the play which in 1934 will have been given in 
this mountain village for four hundred years very real. The journey 
with the speaker from Berlin to Oberammergau made an interesting 
prologue, especially the visit to the world famous Munich Museum. 

On the evening of February 4, the audience in the seventh and 
last travelogue of the year spent an hour or more on Jersey Island 
under the guidance of Dr. Miguel Manresa. If Doctor Manresa had 
as merry a time during his stay in this home of the Jersey cow, as 
he gave his audience, it might be recommended as a place to go for 
a cure for the blues. 


The eightieth meeting of the Los Banos Biological Club was held 
on Thursday, January 26, 1933, at 7:30 p. m. in the Poultry Hus- 
bandry lecture room of the College of Agriculture. 

The following papers were read and discussed: 

1. '^Chei^iical Control of Sap>stain and Mold in Green Lumber and Logs” by 
Ranger Ricardo Buhay. 

2. **An Investigation on the use of Phosphoric Acid for Inversion in Sugar Anal- 
ysis” by Mr. Florencio A. Soliven. 

3. ”A Comparative Study of the Emasculator and the Emasculatome Methods 
of Castration” by Mr. Engracio Basio. 

The eighty-first meeting of the Los Banos Biological Club was 
on Thursday, February 16, 1933, at 7 :30 p. m. in the Poultry Hus- 
bandry lecture room. 

The following papers were read and discussed: 

1. ”An Evidence Relating to the Transmissibility of the Fiji Disease of 
Sugar by an Insect Vector.” 

By Dr. Gerardo 0. Ocfemia. 

2. “Studies on the Comparative Effects of the Duration of Direct Sunlight 
in the Establishment of Plantation of Camagong {Diospyros discolor 
Willd.).” 


By Ranger Nicanor P. Lalog. 



COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 


76 


3. "The Pood of the Male Inmates of Bilibid Prison.” 

By Dr. Francisco O. Santos and 
Mr. N. A. Pidlaoan 

The eighty-second meeting of the Los Banos Biological Club was 
held on Thursday, March 9, 1933, at 7 :30 p. m. in the Poultry Hus- 
bandry lecture room of the College. The following papers were 
read and discussed: 

1. "Collection and Care of Philippine Orchids.” 

By Ranger Mamerto D. Sulit. 

2. “Chemical Analysis of the Water Supply in the College of Agriculture.” 

By Messrs. R. A. Cruz and 
R. T. Marfori 


On the evening of February 10 at Center the Mimics presented 
a program of three parts. 

Part I was a one act play — “The Pot Boiler’" by Alice Gers- 
tenberg. 

The cast was: 

Sud 

Wouldby . 

Mrs. Pencil 
Miss Ivory 
Inkwell 

Ruler 

Mr. Ivory . , 

Part II was a group of songs : 

The Soldiers^ Chorus 

(From "Faust” 1869 by Charles Gounod) 

Rig-a-jig 

Polly Wolly Doodle 

Quilting Party 

Drink to Me Only With Thine Eyes 

^ (Words by Ben Jonson [1673-1637], melody, old 
English Air) 

The Bull Dog 

Stars of the Summer Night 

(Words by Longfellow [1840], music by I. B. 

Woodbury) 

The Anvil Chorus 

(Prom "II Trovatore” 1863 by Guiseppe Verdi) 

Part III was “A Valentine,” a tableau vivant — Nora Roa was 
“The Girl in Heart” to whom Jose Quintos with emotional inter- 


Chorus 

Chorus 

Double Quartette 

Chorus 

Chorus 

Quartette 

Chorus 

Abel Silva and Chorus 


Pedro Lorenzo 
Romulo Gines 
Numeriano Cuevas 
Felix Remigio 
Rasuman Macalandong 
Andres Caranto 
Laureano Lucas 



76 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTXmiST 


pretation sang “Little Annie Rooney/' In the chorus the love motif 
was sustained with fervor by the sixteen voices of the male chorus. 


Chorus : 

1st Tenors Felix de Leon Flores, Basunie 

Saropie, Abel Silva 

2nd Tenors Venancio Duarte, Jose Quintos, 

Federico Paguyo 

1st Bases Martin Rosel, Racine Base, Pri- 

mo Castro, Celestino Quilang, 
Federico Reyes, Ladislao Mar- 
tir. 

2nd Bases Miguel Guzman, Victorio Anto- 

nio, Constantino Valero, Fla- 
viano Olivares 

Director of Mimics Miss Anne Cole 

Musical Director Mrs. Hugh Bousman ^ 

Accompanist Mrs. Hugh Curran 


The Aggie Pen Club at the close of its second year distinguished 
itself with issuing Farm Leaves, a magazine of 60 pages. The con- 
tents are stories, sketches, poem,8, etc. of a character that would do 
credit to clubs of longer life and greater sophistication. The format 
merits high praise, as do the illustrations. The Club and the Adviser, 
Miss Turner deserve and have received praise of a panegyric qual- 
ity. 

Miss Katherine Turner, instructor in Department of English re- 
signed at close of College year. She spent a month in the Southern 
Islands before sailing for the Homeland. Miss Laura Mae William- 
son, teacher of English in Rural High School resigned and sailed 
for the United States in April. 


The Siamese Students’ Association celebrated the Siamese “New 
Year with a reception and dinner at the Manila Hotel on the evening 
of March 31. In the Buddhist Calendar, still used in Siam, this was 
the eve of the New Year, 2476 B. E. 


Mr. Getulio Guanzon, a University Fellow in the United States 
returned to the Islands and reported for duty in Department of 
Chemistry in February. Mr. Guanzon studied in Louisiana State 
University and University of Minnesota, receiving a degree of Ph.D. 
in Agricultural biochemistry from University of Minnesota. 



COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 


77 


Jose Garcia Villa the Filipino short story writer now in the 
United States recently wrote the editor of a Manila weekly asking 
for biographical notes on Jose Quintos '33 who had published short 
stories under a pen name in this weekly. Mr. Quintos was one of 
the first group of members of the Aggie Pen Club. 

Mr. Pedro Rodrigo ’21 B.Agr., ’23, B.S.Agr. was a Campus vis- 
itor in March. Mr. Rodrigo who was formerly instructor in Agron- 
omy is now with the Bureau of Plant Industry. 

Mr. Paulino Menor ’26 B.Agr. was on the Campus in March 
revisiting old loved spots. Since his graduation, Mr. Menor has been 
in Davao. He is technical adviser with the Furukawa Plantation 
Company. At the time of his visit he was on a four months vacation. 
In addition to work with his company where the principal crops 
are abaca and coconuts, Mr. Menor has a 10 Ha. farm about 40 kilo- 
meters from Davao. 


The following students received degrees on March 21, 1933. 

Ad Interim 


Bachelor of Science in Agriculture 

1. Telesforo Tioaquen (June) 

2. Honorio L. Ylizarde ” 

3. Francisco P. Franada ” 

4. Moises G. Angel (October) 

5. Generoso Baladad ” 

6. Pedro Z. Madrid ” 

7. Jesus P. Mamisao, B.Agr., '30 ” 

8. Constancio Medrana, 

B.Agr., '27 

9. Benigno Orig 

10. Melecio J. Ouano ” 

11. Sabas P. Tangco ” 


12, Wenceslao Villareal (October) 

13. Juan F. Villaroel Jr. " 

Bachelor of Agriculture 

1. Felix N. Camba (October) 

2. Jose H. Campo " 

3. Gregorio S. Chan ” 

4. Getulio B. Viado ” 

Certificate in Agricultural Education 

1. Francisco Barros, B.S.A. (June) 

2. Sisenando Reantaso, B.Agr., B.S.A. 
(October) 


Completing work in March, 19S3 


Bachelor of Science in Agriculture 

1. Luis A. Aldea 

2. Fidel H. Alonte, B.Agr., '30 

3. Octavio Alzona 

4. Cecilio B. Antonio 

6. Perico Y. Arcedo 

6. Alfonso T, Asuncion 

7. Genaro M. Baquiran 

8. Angel T. Battung 


9. Pacifico R. Bautista 

10. Angel Belandres 

11. Apolinario D. Benitez 

12. Jose P. Biboso 

13. Filomeno L. Butac (Baker Scholar) 

14. Elena M. Caguicla (Miss) B.Agr., 
'32 

15. Marcelino G. Canlas 

16. Eliseo C. Carandang 



78 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


17. Magdalene M. Cero, B.Agr., ’32 

18. Dominador D. Clemente 

19. Felipe E. Crisostomo 

20. Numeriano L. Cuevas, B.Agr., ’32 

21. Rafael T. David 

22. Alberto C. Elefano 

23. Allredo A. Francisco 

24. Marceliano A. Ganay 

25. Nicasio M. Garcia 

26. Venancio R. Garcia 

27. Justino Guiyab 

28. Manuel S. de Guzman 

29. Crispiniano C. Hernandez 

30. Evaristo A. Hurtado 

31. Juliano C. Jugo 

32. Felecisimo S. Maceda 

33. Ladislao G. Martir 

34. Emilia 0. Odjiar (Miss) 

36. Ponciano F. Ortiz 

36. Salvador P. Padilla 

37. Adriel A. Palma, B.Agr., ’32 

38. Mariano C. Pamintuan 

39. Leonor A. Pandinco (Miss) 

40. Antonio A, Perez 

41. Simon L. Perez, B.Agr., ’31 

42. Nazario A. Pidlaoan, B.Agr., ’29 

43. Jose N. Quintos 

44. Ramon R. Reyes 

46. Briccio 0. Reynoso 

46. Vicente S. Kongo 

47. Juan M. Samson 

48. BasuUie Saropie 

49. Jesus E. Segovia 

50. Hilario Sicam 

51. Elias V. Sombito 

52. Cesar B. Tantoco 


53. Conrado B. Uichanco 

54. Lorenzo J. Valdez 

66. David M. de Vera 

66. Enrique R. Villanueva 

67. Nicolas C. Villanueva 

68. Lauro Ynalvez, B.Agr., ’29 

Bachelor of Agriculture 

1. Proceso E. Alcala (Baker Scholar) 

2. Jose T. Alhama 

3. Nicanor S. Bartolome 

4. Diosdado S. Bongato 

5. Guillermo L. Canlas 

6. Onofre M. Casupang 

7. Eleuterio P. Enriquez 

8. Olimpio R. Fontanilla 

9. Benjamin Lazatin 

10. Isabelo M. Monje 

11. Domingo Y. Odejar 

12. Mariano M. Ramos 

13. Arturo de los Reyes 

14. Bartolome J. Sison 

Bachelor of Science in Sugar Techno- 
logy 

1. Newton L. Jison 

2. Salvador B. Oliveros {cum laude) 

3. Domingo S. Regner 

4. Rafael B. Rotor, B.Agr., B.S.A. 

6, Jose P. Sto. Domingo 

6. Conrado S. Veloso 

Certificate im Agricultural Education 

1. Perico Y. Arcedo, B.S.A. 

2. Dominador D. Clemente, B.S.A. 

3. Domingo Tenebro, B.Agr., B.S.A. 


Salvador B. Oliveros was awarded the “Joaquin Gonzalez Medal” 
and the “Faculty Medal of Merit.” 


The class ’33 includes two women, Miss Emilia Odjiar and Miss 
Leonor Pandinco. This brings the number of women in the College 
of Agriculture Alumni Association up to six. 


Getulio Viado was awarded the H. Atherton Lee prize of fifty 
pesos for the best theisis. By request of Mr. Lee theses on sugar were 



COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 


79 


not entered in the contest. The title of Mr. Viado’s thesis was: “Ana- 
tomical studies on some common white grubs affecting Philippine 
field crops.” Adviser was Dr. L. B. Uichanco. 


Enrollment for Summer Session, 1933 as reported from Secre- 


tary’s office: 

Regular students 269 

Cross-registrants from School of Forestry 3 

Extension courses 48 

Poultry 42 

Plant Propagation 6 


On the evening of March 11 in the College Auditorium the Var- 
sity Sweaters and Letters, College Letters, trophies, medals and rib- 
bons for the year 1932-1933 were awarded. 

The program follows: 

Part I 


Song, A. — ^V. — F By the Audience 

Procession Varsity Letter Men 

College Letter Men 

Opening Remarks By the President, Los Banos 

Sub-Board of Athletic Man- 
agement, Dr. R. B. Espino 


Announcement of the results of the U. P. Manila vs. U. P. Los 
Banos Championship Games 


Basket ball Won by U. P. Los Banos 

Volley ball Won by U. P. Los Banos 

Football Won by U. P. Los Banos 

Carnival relays Won by U. P. Los Banos 

Boxing Won by U. P. Los Banos 

Track and Field Won by U. P. Los Banos 

Tennis Won by U. P. Manila 

Baseball Won by U. P. Manila 


Part II 

Song, ‘‘Push on U. P.” 

Talk, World Olympic Games at Los Angeles 


Yells 


Part III 

Distribution of prizes and awards: 

Song, “U. P. Band” By the Audience 


By the Audience 
By Prof. C. C. Bartolome, 
Head, Department of 
Physical Education. 

By the Audience led by 
Cheer Leaders 



80 


THE PHIUPPINE AGIUCULTUBIST 


The Los Bahos Sub-board of Athletic Management the past year 
revised the rules and regulations governing the award of College 
Letters, making the changes effective for 1932-22 awards. 

The principal changes are: In team events, the one awarded a 
Letter must be a regular registered student in a college; must have 
played at least one full game in the U. P. Inter-section and his team 
must have won the championship. 

In individual events, to be awarded a Letter one must win either 
first or second place in the U. P. Inter-section or Inter-unit games. 

A winner of a Varsity Letter is entitled to a College Letter for 
the event. 

A general requirement is that one must be a member of the 
college team and must attend practice regularly. 

Stars 

A new feature in U. P. Athletics in the awarding of stars. 
There are four stars awarded. A College Star, Varsity Star, P, A. 
A. F. Star and F. E. A. F. Star. These stars are awarded for ex- 
ceptional achievement either, in individual or team events. 

ATHLETIC ACTIVITIES FOR COLLEGE YEAR 

(C. A.) College of Agriculture; C. V. S.) College of Veterinary Science; (F. S.) 
Forest School; (R. H. S.) Rural High School. 

V. P. Los Banos Intramural League 

The Seniors, C. A. with a total of 74 points won the Intramural general 
championship. 


Units 

Basket 

ball 

Volley ball 

Football 

Carnival 

relay 

Track & 1 
field 

Tennis 

Total 

points 

C. A. ’83 (Seniors) 

20 

8 1 

■I 

8 

8 


74 

C. A. ’34 (Juniors) 

12 ' 

11/3 


20 

12 

Bl 

661/3 

F. S. 

0 

12 

■1 

0 

20 


48 

C. A. ’36 (Freshmen) 

8 

11/3 



0 

■M 

41 1/3 

C. V. S. 

0 

20 { 

■1 


4 


32 

C. A. ’36 (Sophomore) 

4 

0 



0 


8 

R. H. S. ! 

0 1 

11/3 1 


1 0 1 

0 1 


61/3 


V, P. Los BaHos Intramural Carnival Relays 
The following are the results of the U. P. Los Baiios Intramural Carnival 


Relay: 

C. A. (Juniors) 28 points 

C. A. (Freshmen) 24 ” 

C. A. (Seniors) 22 ” 










COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 


81 


C7. P. Intramural track and field 

The following are the results of U. P. Intramural track and field: 

F. S 47 6/6 points 

C. A. (Juniors) 47 ” 

C. A. (Seniors) 32 ” 

JJ* P. Intramural Relay Carnival at U. P. Los Banos Athletic Wield 

Unit IV composed of the Associated Colleges at Los Banos won the U. P. 
inter-unit track relay championship at U. P. Los Banos Athletic Field. The 
events won by the Los Banos cinder path artists were 400-meter relay, long 
distance relay, sprint medley relay, and the 1,600-meter relay. 

Results of the U. P. Intramural Carnival Relays were as follows: 

First Unit IV 40 points 

Second Unit II 24 points ' 

Third Unit III 12 points 

Fourth Unit I 6 points 


U. P. Intramural Track and Field meet held at Manila 

The following are the results of the U. P. Intramural Track and Field Meet 
held at Manila: 

First Unit IV 77 points 

Second Unit II 59 points 

Third Unit I 20 points 

Fourth Unit III 0 points 


Winners of the U, P. Los Banos Intramural League 


Volley ball C. V. S. 

Winner general championship C. A. (Seniors) 

Tennis C. A. (Seniors) 

Soccer football C. A. (Freshmen) 

Carnival relays C. A. (Juniors) 

Track and Field F. S. 

Basket ball C. A. (Seniors) 

Individual highest point winners 

Pedro Y. Yatar C. A. (Junior) 

Amado B. Paggao C. A. (Senior) 

Varsity Sweater Men 
Track and Field 

Guillermo R. Manalo C. A. (Junior) 

Basket ball 

Alberto Elefano C. A. (Senior) 

Boxing 

Adolfo Castillo C. A. (Senior) 



82 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUKIST 


Baseball: 


Varsity Letter Men 
Major Sports 


1. Anselmo Guillen . . 

2. Emmanuel Elayda 


C. A. (Senior) 
P. S. 


Basket ball: 

1. Briccio Reynoso 

2. Jesus Suarez 

3. Romulo Payawal . . . 

Track and Field: 

1. Amado Paggao 

2. Pedro Yatar 

3. Pedro Lorenzo 

4. Teodoro Malasig . . . 

6. Guillermo Manalo . . . 

6. Domingo Gapuz 

7. Feliciano Gautane . . . 

8. Florentino Fontanilla 


C. A. (Senior) 

C. A. (Freshman) 
C. A, (Sophomore) 


C. A. (Senior) 

C. A. (Junior) 

C. A. (Junior) 

C. A. (Freshman) 
C. A. (Junior) 

C. V. S. 

F. S. 

F. S. 


Soccer football: 

1. Antonio Flores C. A. (Senior) 

2. Jesus Suarez C. A. (Freshman) 

3. Jose Utzurrum C. A. (Senior) 

4. Chakr Charudat C. V. S. 


Minor Sports 

Volley ball: 

1. Felicisimo Maceda 

2. Raul Ruiz de Arana 

3. Julito Marcos 

4. Jose Zaldivar 

Boxing: 

1. Adolfo Castillo 

2. Ceferino Maypa 

3. Rodolfo Pugeda 

4. Nemesio Gubatan 

5. Ricardo Estrella 

Tennis: 

1. Jose Utzurrum 

Basket ball midget: 

1. Avelino Bigomia 

2. Rafael Roces^ Jr 

3. Alberto Eiefaho 


C. A. (Senior) 

C. A. (Senior) 

C. A. (Senior) 

C. A. (Freshman) 


C. A. (Senior) 

C. A. (Sophomore) 
C. A, (Sophomore) 
F. S. 

F. S. 


C. A. (Senior) 


C. A. (Junior) 
C. A. (Junior) 
C. A. (Senior) 



COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 


83 


Baseball: 


College Letter Men 


1. Anselmo Guillen 


2. Emmanuel Elayda 


C. A. 
F. S. 


Basket ball: 

1. Briccio Reynoso C. A. 

2. Jesus Suarez ” 

3. Romulo Payawal ” 

4. Alberto Elefano ” 

6. Avelino Bigomia '' 

6. Rafael Roces, Jr ” 

7. Julito Marcos ” 

8. Conrado Veloso ” 

9. Diosdado Bongato ” 

10. Felino Rodriguez ” 


Soccer football: 

1. Antonio Flores C. A. 

2. Jesus Suarez ” 

3. Romulo payawal ” 

4. Avelino Bigomia ” 

6. Jose Utzurrum ” 

6. Ceasar Mamon ** 

7. Phanom Smitananda 

8. Pablo Macariola 

9. Rafael Roces, Jr ” 

10. Basunie Saropie ” 

11. Thuan Komkris ” 

12. Magdaleno Cero '' 


13. Chakr Charudat C. V. S. 

14. Philandero Avancena R. H. S. 


Volley ball : 

1. Felicisimo Maceda C. A. 

2. Julito Marcos ” 

3. Raul de Arana ” 

4. Jose K. Santiago ” 

6. Felix Arriola 

6. Narciso Pepito ” 

7. Jose Zaldivar ” 

8. Santiago Banilan ” 

9. Guillermo Manalo ” 


10. Carlos Vargas F. S. 

11. Regalado Benavidez ” 

12. Carpio Cenon R. H. S. 

13. Felipe Crisistomo C. A. 



84 


THE PHILIl^PINE AQEICULTUBIST 


Boxing:: 

1. Adolfo Castillo C. A. 

2. Ceferino Maypa ” 

3. Rodolfo Pugreda ” 

4. Mig:uel Alba ” 

5. Nemesio Gubatan F. S. 

6. Ricardo Estrella ” 

Track and Field: 

1. Pedro Yatar C. A. 

2. Amado Pag:Kao ” 


3. Teodoro Malasig: . 

4. Pedro Lorenzo 

5. Guillermo Manalo 

6. Alfredo Gano . . . 

7. Antonio Alberto . 


8. Doming:o Gapuz C. V. S. 

9. Feliciano Gautane F. S. 

10. Florentine Fontanilla 

11. Longinos Espinosa 

12. Felix Gaudencio 

13. Laureano Marquez C. V. S. 

14. Crisostomo Marasigan R. H. S. 

Tennis: 

1. Jose Utzurrum C. A. 

2. Dominador Clemente '' 

3. Osmundo Mondonedo ” 

4. Octavio Alzona ” 

5. Mariano Pamintuan " 


Medals Awarded 

P. A. A. F. (Philippine Amateur Athletic Federation) 

1,500 meter run: 

First place Pedro Yatar C. A. 

10,000 meter run: 

First place Pedro Yatar C. A. 

1,600 meter relay: 

First place Teodoro Malasig C. A. 

Amado Paggao ” 

Pedro Lorenzo 

400 meter hurdles: 

Second place Amado Paggao C. A. 

400 meter run: 

Second place Teodoro Malasig C. A. 

Running broad jump: 

Second place Florentine Fontanilla F. S. 



COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 


Stars 

P. A. A. P., Vanity and College Stars 


Track and Field: 

1. Pedro Loreniso C. A. 

2. Pedro Yatar C. A. 

3. Amado Paggao C. A. 

4. Teodoro Malasig C. A. 

College Stars 

1. Feliciano Gautane F. s. 

2. Longinos Espinosa ” 

3. Florentino Fontanilla 

4. Domingo Gapuz C. F. S. 

Boxing: 

1. Adolfo Castillo C. A. 


(/. P. Inter ^section Games 
U. P. Manila vs. U. P. Los Banos 

1. Basket ball — Winner, U. P. Los Banos — Captain, Briccio Reynoso 

2. Boxing — Winner, U. P. Los Banos^ — Captain, Adolfo Castillo 

3. Baseball — ^Winner, U. P. Manila — Captain, Ambrosio Padilla 

4. Carnival Relays — Winner, U. P. Los Banos — Captain, Pedro Yatar 

5. Track and Wield — ^Winner, U. P. Los Banos — Captain, Pedro Yatar 

6. Tennis — Winner, U. P. Manila — Captain, Lope Yngayo 

7. Volley ball — Winner, U. P. Los Banos — Captain F. Maceda 

8. Football — Winner, U. P. Los Banos — Captain, Antonio Flores 


IN MEMORIAM 

Arsenio Bayla, B.Agr. *18. 
Agricultural Economist, Bureau of Plant Industry 

Manila, March 5, 1933 


Glicerio Caguicla. B. Agr. *31. 

Junior Agriculturist Assistant, 

British North Borneo Company 
1931-1933. 

Keningau, British North Borneo, January 31, 1933. 






AN OBITUARY: EDGAR MADISON LEDYARD 


Edgar Madison Ledyard, born May 10, 1875 in Plymouth, 
Michigan; died, March 6, 1933 in Salt Lake City. He entered the 
Philippine service as a teacher in 1904; served first in the Visayas, 
then in Bulacan, then in the Manila High School. When the Col- 
lege of Agriculture opened in 1909, he was Instructor in “agricul- 
ture,” — actually in entomology — ^and Mrs. Ledyard was Instructor in 
Modem Languages, — English and German. A year later, he became 
Assistant Professor of Entomology. After two more years, he was 



EDGAR MADISON LEDYARD 


given added title as Superintendent of Building and Sanitation. He 
was named Property Officer and Cashier in 1913. All of these 
titles merely confirmed his responsibility for duties previously as- 
sumed or imposed; their purpose was to give him earned increase 
in salary, while his promotion in academic rank was impossible. 
During the academic year 1911-12, Mr. and Mrs. Ledyard were on 
leave, studying in the University of Michigan. From his return 
in April, 1912, to my own return in July, Mr. Ledyard acted as dean 
of the college, — as he did for shorter periods on other occasions. 

PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST, VOL. XXII. No. 2. JULY. 198S 


87 


88 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTURIST 


As acting dean, he signed the. diplomas of the class of 1913. A 
year later, he became an alumnus of the college himself. He and 
Mrs. Ledyard resigned in 1914. 

After a year of graduate study in the University of California, 
he was made agricultural director of the United States Smelting, 
Refining and Mining Company at Salt Lake City. His job then was 
to prove that smelter fumes were not ruining the neighboring agri- 
culture, the company being defendant in countless suits for damage. 
Characteristically, he worked himself out of this job, by proving 
experimentally that the tenderest plants throve near the smelters, 
and winning every suit brought to trial. This made him a marked 
man. With promotions and increase of responsibility, he remained 
with the same company until his death. At the same time he was 
a consulting expert for various other great corporations. 

As to his record in the college, I would quote from its records : 

I have just received your report for the past year as Assistant 
Professor of Entomology, Property Officer, Disbursing Officer and 
Cashier, and Superintendent of Buildings and Sanitation. I desire to 
express my cordial appreciation of this report, and to state that the 
recommendations made in it will, without exception, be put into effect 
as far as I am able to accomplish this. As your report carries a 
valedictory post-script, I find myself in the far from pleasant position 
• of being obliged to recognize that this report covers the end of your 
service for this college. As I have repeatedly stated in annual rei>orts 
and to others, your service here has been characterized by remarkably 
high practical value. I take great pride in the record which this col- 
lege has made in the five years of its existence. The establishment of 
such an institution, and its management during its early years, are a 
problem essentially different from its administration in later years. I 
feel that we have succeeded in establishing this college, that its lines 
of endeavor have been largely mapped out, and that along the most 
important of these lines, the days of clearing and exploration are 
passed. In the most difficult pioneer work of the establishment of the^ 
college, you were my right hand. 

I note from your report that you think your work in sanitation is 
the most important you have done here. I do not believe I fail to ap- 
preciate this work when I disagree with you. This work has been 
valuable; how valuable no man knows, for no man can say what would 
have happened, or might still happen if the work had not been done. 

But the sanitation would never have been needed if the college had not 
been established or had not grown. I give a higher place to the service 
you rendered in the establishment of the college itself. In my own 
opinion, your most valued service to this college has been by your moral 
influence on the student body. As an example: I recall the time 



SDaiUt MADISON LBDYABD 


89 


when, ^ jrour personal influence, every unmarried pensi<mado sent to 
this institution had an account in the Postal Savings Bank, except one 
boy who had bought a carabao. By teaching habits of honesty and 
thrift and an attitude of fairness, and by making the whole student 
body feel the effect of this teaching, I consider that you performed a 
work of very much greater value than any system of sanitation we 
have planned should be considered to have. 

The statement that he was “my right hand” has been made and 
quoted repeatedly. It was meant to be complimentary; the right 
hand does dependably whatever the brain wills. And right there 
the expression is most inadequate. He did do what was asked of 
him, and that was much. But, from the day the college opened, it 
was service on his own initiative which really distinguished him. 
His house was the first office of the college, and its first classroom. 
The sanitation of the college was his own project. His “cam- 
paign” — ^this use of the word had not yet been invented, — for stu- 
dent thrift, industry, and personal independence were on his own 
initiative. I thank nobody else in any similar measure for the char- 
acter stamped on the student body of the college during its most 
plastic days. 

For myself, I have lost such a friend as I do not expect to find 
again. 

Edwin Bingham Copeland 
Founder and First Dean, College of Agriculture 


The following tribute is an excerpt from the special issue of 
Ax-I-Dent-Ax, the Employees' Magazine of the United States Smelt- 
ing, Refining and Mining Company and Subsidiaries. The issue bears 
the title, “A Tribute to Edgar M. Ledyard”. 

EDGAR MADISON LEDYARD 

The busy paths of life seem so often to turn prematurely and 
abruptly, by means of a hidden entrance, into the Valley of Shadows. 
Such was especially the case with the brilliant career of Edgar M. 
Ledyard, Agricultural Director for this Company since 1915, and, 
incidentally. Editor of its employees’ magazine, the Ax-I-Dent-Ax, 
since 1929. In his untimely death this Company is deprived of the 
valued services and loyal support of a distinguished scientist whose 
peculiar place, carved out by himself, cannot be filled by another; 



90 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUBIST 


the community which he loved loses an aggressive and successful 
champion of many worthy causes; and numerous individuals, prom- 
inent and lowly, are cast within the gloom of sorrow. 

A true Scotsman, he was instinctively frugal of his facilities and 
his time. Likewise he was instinctively generous in sharing and 
giving, with the tender sympathy of woman. Unostentatiously he 
materially aided many young men and women to earn some needed 
funds, to gain an education, or to attain a permanent position. One 
of his chief sources of satisfaction and interest was in seeing these 
people flourish under opportunities he had given them. But he was 
sensitive to any delinquency or breach of faith. To him idleness, 
indolence and unworthiness were major sins; while sham, fraud and 
hypocrisy received from him a quick, frank and untempered rebuke. 
He demanded and inspired the best in everyone within the horizon 
of his interest. 

He loved life enthusiastically for the opportunities it gave him 
-for individual achievement, following his own wholesome inclinations. 
He enjoyed a lively contest, if fairly waged ; and had a strong lean- 
ing toward the unfortunates of the earth, the “under dogs,” the for- 
gotten men and women, bereft of a needed patron. Having a fear- 
less independence of thought, he would never compromise a convic- 
tion or a principle to gain an ally or effect a cooperation, but would 
rather go his way alone, maintaining lofty goals before his vision. 
Thus jiis intimate friends were selected carefully and sparingly; and 
he demonstrated abundantly that his recipe for having staunch 
friends was to be one. 

Endowed with rare intellect, uncanny discernment, a remarkable 
memory, a commanding personality, the initiative to make his own 
opportunities, and a tremendous amount of energy for carrying them 
out, he crowded into his brief span of years the achievements of, an 
unusually generous lifetime, leaving a great many worthwhile pro- 
jects unfinished. Always confident and buoyant, he willingly carried 
an immense load ; but suddenly an overtaxed heart, impaired beyond 
his knowledge, proved inadequate to carry him through a dual siege 
of gallstones and pneumonia. His work was to him a religious ex- 
pression, of honesty, truthfulness, thoroughness, fairness, charitable- 
ness, and benevolence. Thus his deeds become his own lasting memo- 
rial, erected in the hearts of those touched by his influence. A full 
life, richly lived, is the well earned benediction on his head. 



FLORAL MORPHOLOGY OP MUSA ERRANS (BLANCO) 
TEODORO VAR. BOTOAN TEODORO ^ 

JOSfi B. JULIANO AND PROCESO E. ALCALA’ 

Of the Department of Plant Physiology 


WITH FIVE PLATES AND ONE TEXT FIGURE 

Taxonomic (Teodoro, 1915, and Quisumbing, 1919) and 
agronomic (Elayda and Morada, 1931) studies on Philippine banan- 
as are rather extensive and thorough, but very little morphological 
work has been done locally. In his study on the development of the 
seeds in Scitimineae, Humphrey (1896) found five fertile stamens 
in Mma rosea and sometimes a small staminodium in the place 
of the sixth stamen of which the androecium is compoised. Fila- 
mentous and septate structures arise from the placentae and 
bases of the funiculi and the testa of the seed consists of an outer 
-deeply palisaded layer and an inner layer of large cubical cells. 

Tischler (1913) reported a normal development of the embryo 
sac in “Rajah Siam”, “Rajah Sereh” and “Njonha Bali”, and that 
these same embryo sacs were situated below the periclinally elonga- 
ted nucellar cells. He further found that the outer integument was 
Absolutely degenerated in the mature seeds. 

D’Angremond (1912) made mention of the fact that Musa para- 
disiaca Linn, subspecies sapientum is parthenocarpic and upon 
crosising it with Appelbacove, few seeds were developed. The de- 
velopment of the embryo sac in Appelbacove is generally normal, 
although some abnormalities, such as the formation of five or more 
megaapore daughter cells instead of the usual four, were found by 
him. The nucleus of the megaspore mother cell may divide with- 
out any wall formation, and in a great majority of cases the con- 
tents of the older megasporanges are wanting; the cause or causes 
of which were not given by the author. 

In his more extensive report, D’Angremond (1914) described 
the inflorescence of Gros-Michel (Musa paradisiaca Linn, subspecies 
sapientum) and Musa omata var. chittagong. He stated that the 

‘ Experiment Station contribution No. 890. Received for publication, 
April 11, 1983. 

’ The greater part of the data in this paper was presented by the junior 
author, a Baker Memorial Scholar, in his thesis for graduation, March, 1933, with 
the de^ee of Bachelor of Agriculture from the College of Agriculture, No. 348. 


91 



92 


THB PHILIPPINE AOBICULTOBI8T 


first three bracts of the inflorescence subtended no flowers, the sixth 
to twelfth, female flowers, and the rest, male flowers. He traced 
the development of the microspores and found each of the mature 
microspores from Musa onuda var. chittagong and Gros-Michel 
possessed a generative and a vegetative nucleus. He performed 
some germination studies of the microspores, and recommended a 
medium consisting of 8 per cent sugar and 10 per cent gelatine. The 
development of the embryo sacs in some of these varieties of banana 
followed the conventional. But in some of them the mature embryo 
sacs contained only antipodals, or only egg-appaxatus, and in ex- 
treme cases they were empty. The last condition was true with the 
parthenocarpic varieties he worked on. He reported cases where 
two embryo sac mother cells developed in megasporange of Appel- 
bacove and a “tetrad” of five cells was actually formed. In his at- 
tempt to produce seeds he performed pollination experiments with 
the following results: with Gros-Michel (9) and Appelbacove (^) 
only four seeds were formed; with Appelbacove (9) and Gros- 
Michel (5) thirty-eight seeds; with Gros-Michel (9) and Mttsa 
omata var. chittagong ( ^ ) , abundant seeds. He further stated that 
the edible bananas were parthenocarpic and that artificial pollina- 
tion had no influence on the shape and size of the fruits. 

In an attempt to produce a more resistant cross between Gros- 
Michel, an immune and sterile variety, and some other seeded varie- 
ties of bananas. White (1928) first made both morphological and 
csrtological studies on several varieties now grown in the Plattfield 
Plantation of the United Fruit Company in Jamaica. He studied 
the development of the inflorescence and floral organs of the flowers. 
Like D’Angremond (1912, 1914), White (1928) found the develpp- 
ment of the embryo sac in Gros-Michel to be normal with some 
freaky formation of the megaspores. In Rodoc Clamp a regularly 
seeded variety of Musa basjoo Sieb & Zucc. (?) var., the develop- 
ment of the embryo sac was believed by. White (1928) to be normal, 
although no detailed studies of the earlier stages were made. He 
also traced the development of the microgametophyte and found 
that the divisiim of the microspore mother cells was successive with 
the formation of linear and tetrahedral tetrads. 

Recently, Skutch (1927, 1931) made a very extensive and ex- 
clusive study on the anatomy of the axis and leaf of bananas. His 
reports include detailed descriptions of parts from the base of the 
stolon to the tip of the “protecting leaf”. 


A^ording to White (1928) this variety originated from the Philippihes. 



FLOBAL MORPHOLOGY OF MUSA ERBANS 


98 


Our knowledge on the floral morphology of our Philippine banan- 
as with special reference to Mma errana (Blanco) Teodoro var. 
botoan Teodoro is fragmentary, hence this study. In this study 
an attempt was made to prove whether or not pollination is neces- 
sary in the normal development of the fruit of this variety of 
banana. In a work of this nature one ia always tempted to take 
up the development of the inflorescence as well as the fruit and 
seed, because these are either the origin or the end products of the 
flowers. While the findings herein reported may not wholly answer 
the numerous questions relative to the improvement of our seedy 
bananas, they may serve as bases for more extensive studies if these 
become necessary in the future. 

MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The material used in this study was obtained from a seeded 
variety of banana, Mtisa errans (Blanco) Teodoro var. botoan Teo- 
doro, which was growing along Molawin Creek below the Ex- 
periment Station Bridge and from banana plants in the barrios of 
Anos and San Antonio, Los Banos, Laguna, during the period from 
November, 1931 to October, 1932, inclusive. Inflorescences of dif- 
ferent sizes as well as fruits and seeds at different stages of growth 
and development were gathered from time to time from plants which 
produce fertile seeds and from those which produce sterile seeds. 

Laboratory study 

The material was fixed either in the field or in the laboratory. 
The fixatives tried in this study were chromo-acetic solution, Bouin’s 
fluid, Camoy's fluid, and formo-acetic-alcohol (70 per cent) pre- 
pared according to the formulae given by Chamberlain (1924). Of 
these fixatives, chromo-acetic solution was found to be best for the 
megasporanges (ovules) and seeds, and formo-acetic-alcohol '(70 
per cent) for the anthers, inflorescences and young fruits. The 
material was embedded in paraffin in the usual manner and cut 
five to ten micra thick. Difficulty in sticking the paraffin ribbons 
from ovaries and fruits of rather advanced stage of growth was 
experienced by the writers as well as by D’Angremond (1912, 1914). 
White (1928) did not encounter such difficulty ovdng, perhaps, to 
the difference in fixatives used by him. The ordinary Mayer’s egg 
albumen and Land’s gum arable fixative as given by Chamberlain 
(1924) did not help much in overcoming the difficulty. However, 
by eliminating the glycerine constituent from Mayer’s egg albumen 
fixative, the ribbons were found to hold fairly well on the micro 
slijles. The floating of the sections was due to the mansion of 



94 


THE PHIUPPINE AGBICULTUBIST 


mucilaginous secretion of the filamentous outgrowths from the pla- 
centae and bases of the funiculi of the megasporanges (pi. 2, fig. 17) 
and young seeds. This secretion expands in the presence of water 
and mechanically detaches the sections from the micro slides even 
though the fixative is present. 

Several stains were tried, among which were triple stain, 
safranin-light green, Heidenhain’s iron-haematoxylin with orange 
gold dissolved in clove oil as counter stain, and safranin-Delafield’s 
haematoxylin combination. The last two combinations proved very 
satisfactory. 

Field study 

In order to prove whether pollination is necessary in the normal 
development of the fruit in this variety of banana, several inflores- 
cences from both hard- and soft-seeded forms were bagged with 
cheese cloth *. Bagging was done before any fertile bract had opened 
and care was exercised to prevent the entrance of microspores. The 
bags were removed three days after the last bract subtending female 
flowers had opened. Observations were made on the performance 
of these bagged inflorescences. 

With the object of confirming the results obtained from the 
treatment given above another operation was carried out. The 
description follows : A few hours before anthesis the writers opened 
with their fingers the bract subtending the female flowers on the 
inflorescence and the flowers in each fascicle were divided into three 
groups. In the first group the stigmas were clipped off with a pair 
of scissors: the second group was pollinated artificially with micro- 
spores ‘from mature stamens of Musa sapientum- Linn. var. com- 
pressa (Blanco) Teodoro and Musa errans (Blanco) Teodoro var. 
botoan Teodoro, and then bagged ; the third group served as the con- 
trol, so was not treated at all. This same procedure was followed 
for all the female fascicles on the inflorescence of both the hard- 
seeded and soft-seeded forms. A few flowers from each of the lots 
were gathered at intervals of 12 hours (for three days) and evefy 
two days thereafter, until the seeds were rather hard to the touch. 
These flowers and young fruits were fixed as usual and were cut 
for microscopical examination as described above. 

* Bagging and clipping experiments were also made on other varieties of 
bananas; namely, (1) Latundan, Mttsa sapientum Linn. var. einerea (Blanco) 
Teodoro, (2) Saba, Mvsa sapientum Linn. var. eotnpressa (Blanco) Teodoro, 
(8) Lakabin, Musa sapientum Linn. var. laeatwn (Blanco) Teodoro, and (4) 
Gloria, Musa sapienium Linn. var. tematensis (Blanco) Teodoro. It was found 
that these varieties are panthenocarpic and no alteration on the normal de- 
velopment of the fruit was observed from any of them. 



FLORAL MORPHOLOGY OF MUSA ERRANS 


95 


OBSERVATIONS 

The inflorescence and the flowers 

Description. The inflorescence of Musa errans (Blanco) Tei>- 
doro var. botoan Teodoro is a large, ovate-oblong, indefinite, terminal 
and pendant spike. On its axis are arranged in 3-ranked spiral suc- 
cession numerous bracts in the axils of which are subtended 2-rowed 
fascicles of flowers. The first three basal sterile bracts are oblong- 
lanceolate, light green to reddish orange inside and green outside. 
The fertile bracts are pubescent, yellowish red above, light green 
inside with yellow patches at the base and are partly persistent (pi. 
5, fig. 66 and 68). In the axis of the basal fertile bracts are sub- 
tended the female or pistillate flowers. Usually, above these female 
floral clusters are one to two fascicles of neuter or “pseudo-hermaph- 
rodite” flowers. Succeeding these neuter flowers towards the 
apex of the inflorescence are numerous fascicles of staminate or male 
flowers. 

The individual female flower (pi. 1, fig. 10-11) is from 8 to 10 
centimeters long, possessing a pale yellow, 5-toothed perigonium, 
the lobes of which are golden yellow in color. It possesses six 
staminodia which are short, stubby, club-shaped structures above 
the ovary. One of these staminodia is reduced to a slender thread- 
like structure, gradually tapering towards the tip. Occasionally a 
few of the female flowers possess one to five fertile stamens (pi. 1, 
fig. 11) which form fertile microspores. Above the ovary and just 
surrounding the whorl of six staminodia is a poorly developed nec- 
tary. This may secrete a thick mucous-like substance which collects 
in the scale. The scale is an oblong, boat-shaped, white structure 
with a short acute apex. The pistil consists of (1) a large columnar 
style surmounted at its apex by a globose stigma and (2) an inferior 
ovary which is tricarpous, pale yellow and angular. Five carpels 
may take part in the formation of the pistil, and this may be attrib- 
uted to twining of the adjacent pistils so common in our partheno- 
carpic bananas. This is of rare occurrence in this variety of ba- 
nana. The placentae are axillary, and arise from the fusion of the 
margins of the carpels. On each placenta two rows of anatropous 
megasporanges are formed. 

The neuter flower (pi. 1, fig. 9) is very much smaller than the 
female flower and nearly equals the male flower. On the upper 
portion of its ovary is a well developed nectary. Some flowers in 
the neuter fascicle may contain one to five fertile stamens and these 
can only be differentiated from the true staminate flowers by thdr 



96 


THE PHIUPPINB AGRICULTintlST 


8ize and persistence on the mature fruit cluster. The neuter flowers 
whether they possess few fertile or all sterile stamens remain as 
degenerated small fruits which are a few centimeters long, and scarce- 
ly one centimeter thick (pi. 5, fig. 62). These degenerated fruit- 
like structures persist until the rest of the bunch ripen. The ovary 
is slightly longer but more slender than that of the male, and posses- 
ses no true loculi. It is provided with an irregularly branched 
opening lined with glandular epithelium (pi. 3, fig. 28). The sta- 
mens are reduced as in the female flowers. 

The rest of the upper distal portion of the inflorescence is oc- 
cupied by the male flowers. Each of the flowers (pi. 1, fig. 12) 
possesses a single perigonium and scale similar to those found in the 
female and neuter flowers. The pistil of the male flower is a little 
bit shorter and less plump than that of the neuter. Its ovary is 
much more slender, and its stigma is much smaller than those of the 
two kinds of flowers described above. The nectary of this flower is 
very well developed. The stamens are large and well developed 
with the white filaments convex on their abaxial sides and concave 
on the opposite sides. The anthers possess four sporanges which de- 
hisce along the longitudinal sutures. 

Ontogeny or development. The ontogeny of the pendant, spi- 
cate inflorescence of this variety of banana and apparently of two 
distinct forms, one of which produces hard germinable seeds, and 
the other, soft sterile seeds, show a very marked similarity to that 
reported by White (1928) in Jamaica. It starts as a dome-shaped 
apical meristem which can easily be distinguished from the vegeta- 
tive growing point by its relatively broad size, becoming concave at 
first and later assuming a blunt conical apex. It differentiates just 
at the time the stem begins to elongate, and at times the stem has 
actually elongated for some time before the first fascicle is formed. 
The growing point cuts off lateral ridges, one at a time, at its con- 
vex apex extending to almost half its circumference and these give 
rise to the bracts. Usually, the three basal bracts are sterile and 
subtend no flowers. When the height of the young bract is twice 
its width in longitudinal section, the fascicular primordium (pi. 1, 
fig. 1) appears as a mammillate hump at the axis. This fascicular 
primordium then elongates obliquely, and after it has grown to an 
appreciable length it bifurcates, giving rise to two rows of floral 
primordia (pi. 1, fig. 3). These floral primordia develop into pis- 
tillate, neuter and staminate flowera, depending on their position on 
the axis of the inflorescence. It seems that this method of develop- 



FLORAL MORPHOLOGY OF MUSA BRRAHS 


97 


ment of the inflorescence is followed with resrularity in nearly all of 
the species of Musa, especially so in those reported by White (1928) 
and in the Philippine seeded variety of banana. 

The development of the floral organs of the three kinds of flow- 
ers is acropetal and the description of that of the male will, there 
fore, suffice. The floral primordium is flattened at its apex and 
very soon the three lobes of the outer perianth (pi. 1, fig. 2) arise 
simultaneously at the periphery of that flattened primordium as 
three hemispherical masses in a single whorl. Before they have 
elongated to any appreciable extent the inner whorl of three per- 
ianth lobes (pi. 1, fig. 3) are cut off within the outer perianth seg- 
ments and these inner lobes alternate with the outer. These per- 
ianth lobes, outer and inner whorls, then elongate together for some 
time. This active growth of the perianth lobes leaves the growing 
point as a depression within. The next organ to be formed is the 
stamens which arise as six small tubular structures within the in- 
ner whorl of the perianth lobes (pi. 1, fig. 4) . The last floral organ 
to appear is the pistil (pi. 1, fig. 5). The floral organs, therefore, 
arise in the following sequence : outer perianth lobes, inner perianth 
lobes, stamens and pistil. White (1928) who also traced the 
sequence of development of the floral organs of those species of Mvsa 
in Jamaica, reports that the stamens are in two whorls and that the 
outer whorl of three stamens arise at the same time with the inner 
whorl of perianth lobes. An examination of the transverse section 
of the young male flower (pi. 1, fig. 7) surely reveals that three of 
the stamens are in line with the whorl of inner perianth lobes. How- 
ever, examination of the longitudinal sections of the flowers shows 
a different story (pi. 1, fig. 6). These stamens arise from differ- 
ent points on the floral primordium and as they elongate they push 
themselves outward and so align themselves with the inner whorl of 
perianth lobes. Macroscopically, White (1928) may have been mis- 
led in his interpretation. 

Long before anthesis the three lobes of the outer perianth fuse 
together and with two of the abaxial lobes (pi. 1, fig. 7) of the in- 
ner perianth, form the perigonium (pi. 1, fig. 8) . The axial lobe of 
the inner perianth, alone, (pi. 1, fig. 7) contributes to the develop- 
ment of the scale (pi. 1, fig. 8). Of the six stamens generally dif- 
feroitiating in the young flower only the axial one aborts (pi. 1, fig. 
8) in the male flower; in the female and neuter flowers all abort. 
Sometimes a few of the staminodia in the female (pi. 1, fig. 11) and 
neuter flowers may enlarge and actually produce fertile microspores. 



98 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Megasporange and megagametophyte 

The megrasporange is already differentiated at the time the in- 
florescence is about midway in the pseudostem or when the ovary 
is about one centimeter long and one fourth centimeter in diameter. 
It appears as a conical protuberance fronn the placental wall and 
grows directly at a right angle to the ovary wall. The megaspor- 
ange then is at first atropous, and by differential growth it becomes 
anatropous with its micropyle pointing in all directions. It possess- 
es two distinct integuments, a thick outer integument and a thin 
inner (pi. 2, fig. 17), which arise basipetally. The development of 
the megagametophyte in both forms of this variety of banana is 
identical. 

The megagametophyte of the Philippine seeded variety of ba- 
nana is of the normal type and follows the conventional. The 
early history of its development follows that of the parthenocarpic 
■Gros-Michel (D’Angremond, 1914, and White, 1928), and the ma- 
ture megagametophyte is similar to that of the seeded Rodoc Clamp 
(White, 1928). The inner integument has already been formed 
when the archesporium arises from a subepidermal cell at the sum- 
mit of the nucellus (pi. 2, fig. 13). This archesporial cell is easily 
distinguished from the surrounding cells by its relatively large size 
and great affinity for stains. It is polygonal in shape with its elonga- 
ted axis parallel to the nucellus of the megasporange. This cell 
divides periclinally into an outer primary parietal cell and an inner 
megaspore mother cell (pi. 2, fig. 14) so often reported among mono- 
cotyledonous plants (Coulter and Chamberlain, 1903). This divi- 
sion of the archesporium takes place prior to the differentiation of 
the outer integument, and just at the time the megasporange is half 
anatropous. The primary parietal cell does not become very active 
so the megaspore mother cell is usually separated from the epidermis 
of the nucellus by a single layer of parietal tissue (pi, 2, fig. 15). 
One or two periclinal divisions may take place among some of the 
parietal cells (pi. 2, fig. 16), so that two or three layers of parietal 
tissue may be found between the megaspore mother cell and nucellar 
epidermis. This thin or rather thick parietal tissue is eventually 
destroyed by the subsequent development of the megaspore mother 
cell. Among the Scitimineae the presence of parietal tissue is gen- 
erally the rule (Humphrey, 1896, Wiegand, 1900), although Guig- 
nard (1882) reports that in Canno, indica parietal tissue may some- 
times not be developed at all. 



FLORAL MORPHOLOGY OF MUSA ERRANS 


99 


The megaspore mother cell with its enlarged apex directed to- 
wards the micropyle (pi. 2, fig. 16 and 16) then elongates very rap- 
idly until it finally reaches the epidermis of the nucellus. Its 
nucleus also enlarges and its cytoplasm increases in amount and be- 
comes thick. When the nucleus is in synapsis (pi. 2, fig. 16), the 
nucellar epidermal cells lining the micropyle radially elongate until 
they form a thick micropylar pad (pi. 3, fig. 42). By two successive 
divisions of the megaspore mother cell a row of four megaspore 
daughter cells (tetrad) are developed (pi. 2, fig. 18, 19 and 22). 
Sometimes the outer of the two megaspore cells may exhibit early 
degeneration (pi. 2, fig. 20) and only the inner divides. Three (pi. 
2, fig. 21) instead of the usual normal four megaspores are, there- 
fore, formed, as i.s true also with Dieffenbaehia (Campbell, 1900). 
The formation of three or four megaspore cells are found to be of 
general occurrence among many monocotyledonous plants. Three 
megaspores are usually formed in Anthericum ramosum (Stras- 
burger, 1879), and Trieyrtis and Ywca (Guignard, 1882). How- 
ever, Ikeda (1902) reports four megaspores in Trycirtis hirta and 
Vesque (1879), three in HemerocaUis, Allium, and ConvaMaria. 
Three or four megaspores are developed in Zostera (Rosenberg, 
1901) and Potamogeton (Wiegand, 1899, Holferty, 1901). Among 
the Scitimineae, Humphrey (1896) observed the formation of three 
or four megaspore cells as the rule, with the exception of Costus 
where the megaspore mother cell does not divide at all. In both 
cases the innermost megaspore mother cell becomes functional 
(pi. 2, fig. 22), and gives rise to the normal seven-celled mega- 
gametophyte. The functional megaspore cell then enlarges and 
elongates, and the nucleus usually remains at its center. Soon 
this nucleus moves to the micropylar region of the uninucleate 
megagametophyte (pi. 2, fig. 23) where it finally divides, giving rise 
to two daughter nuclei (pi. 2, fig. 24). These two daughter nuclei 
migrate to the opposite poles (pi. 2, fig. 25) where they divide fornir 
ing the quadri-nucleate megagametophyte (pi. 2, fig. 26) and by one 
more division these nuclei form the seven-celled megagametophyte 
which is found in many angiosperms. 

The mature megagametoph 3 rte is similar to that of Rodoc Clamp 
(White, 1928) in shape and contents. It shows a distinct egg- 
apparatus (two synergids and a megagamete) , two polar nuclei and 
three antipodal cells (pi. 2, fig. 27). Among the Musaceae, normal 
development of the female gametophyte has been reported in Musa 
cocdnea (Tischler, 1913), M. paradisiaea (D'Angremond, 1912), 
M. ormta var. Chittagong (D’Angremond, 1914), Strelitzia reginae 



100 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICVLTITRtST 


(Brown and Sharp, 1911), and HeUeonia psUtaeorum (Humphrey, 
1896). The synergids are irregular in shape, and each possesses a 
thick vacuolated cytoplasm, and a single nucleus which may remain 
either at or farthest from the center of the cell, and usually farthest 
from the micropyle. These synergids may persist for some time 
after fertilization (pi. 3, fig. 40) and then degenerate. The megaga- 
mete possesses a dense cytoplasm and a rather distinct, large nu- 
cleus. It is always larger than either of the two synergids. 

The antipodal cells lie in a large chalazal socket of the embryo 
sac, each possessing fairly distinguishable walls, thin cytoplasm, and 
small rhomboidal nucleus. Like the synergids, the antipodal cells 
may also persist even after fertilization for some time in the embryo 
sac as degenerated cells with deeply stained nuclei and hardly dis- 
tinguishable walls (pi. 8, fig. 40). The antipodals usually disappear 
later than the synergids. The presence of three small, ephemeral 
antipodal cells is a general character of the Scitimineae as of the 
Musaceae (Tischler, 1913; D’Angremond, 1914; and White, 1928), 
the Cannaceae (Guignard, 1882; Wiegand, 1900) and the Maran- 
taceae (Schachner, 1924). However, Lbtscher (1906) observed 
only one large antipodal cell in EUetaria sp. and Costus sp., both be- 
longing to the family Zingiberaoeae. Schnarf (1929) believes that 
this deviation in the group might have been due merely to misin- 
terpretation. 

The polar nuclei usually lie near the opening of the basal (pi. 
2, fig. 27) socket or may actually be near the antipodals. They re- 
main intact for a long time, and generally fuse during fertilization. 

Microsporange and microspores 

Of the three kinds of flowers formed in this variety of banana, 
only the male flowers, seldom the female (pi. 1, fig. 11) and the 
neuter, form fertile stamens. Out of the six stamens formed in a 
single staminate or male flower, only five reach maturity, and pro- 
duce fertile microspores. 

The young stamen is early differentiated into a rather stout 
short filament and a long slender anther (pi. 1, fig. 12). The anther 
is at first a mass of similar cells surrounded by an epidermis which 
is more or less circular in outline. Later, it becomes four-lobed in 
transverse section and enlarges (pi. 3, fig. 29) before the archespo- 
rium is actually developed. The primary archesporial tissue is dif- 
ferentiated at the central portion of each lobe (pi. 3, fig. 80) of the 
anther at the time the male flowers are from two to three milli- 
meters in length. The archesporium as well as the tapetum arise 



FLOBAL MOBPHOLOCY OF MUSA BBBAMS 


101 


simply by sinirle regional differentiation among the central cells of 
the lobes of the anther similar to that reported for Rodoc Clamp by 
White (1928). The cells of the archesporium then enlarge, and 
their cytoplasm becomes more dense than that of the surrounding 
cells. These archesporial cells which possess large nuclei, function 
directly as the sporogenous tissue or microspore mother cells as is 
true in Malva, 'Datura, Mentha, Chrysanthemum (Coulter and Cham- 
berlain, 1903) and several species of Asclepiadaceae (Strasburger, 
1901, and Frye, 1901). The cells directly surrounding the micro- 
spore mother cells function as the tapetum. 

The microspore mother cells are at first polyhedral (pi. 3, fig. 
30-31) with dense cytoplasm and well defined nuclear membranes. 
Before the microspore mother cells pass into synapsis they, together 
with the tapetal cells, separate from the parietal tissue en masse (pi. 
3, fig. 31), after which time their vacuoles may disappear com- 
pletely (pi. 3, fig. 32). They then round off and proceed to divide. 
The division of the microspore mother cells is successive (pi. 3, fig. 
33 and 35), and the tetrads are either arranged in a linear (pi. 3, 
fig. 34 and 36) or tetrahedral fashion (pi. 3, fig. 35). Successive 
divisions of microspore mother cells have been reported in Musa 
sapientum (Tischler, 1910, D’Angremond, 1914), Heliconia bihai 
(Schnarf, 1929), MvLsa basjoo (White, 1928), Curcuma eoloraia, 
Costus cylindricus, Alpinia gigantea, Canna indiea, Maranta san~ 
guinea and Thalis dealbata (Schnarf, 1929), and in Nipa fmiicans 
(Radermachera, 1925). The microspores after being formed 
separate from one another, round off, and acquire their own coats. 
Soon after rounding, the microspore forms a thick mucous mem- 
brane and a large central vacuole appears (pi. 3, fig. 37) in it. The 
young microspore then possesses a round to ovate nucleus at its 
periphery. After it has reached its full size, the vacuole usually 
disappears and its nucleus divides. One of the daughter nuclei 
enlarges and stays at the center of the microspore, loses its chromatic 
character, and becomes the vegetative nucleus (pi. 3, fig. 38). The 
other nucleus which is lenticular, functions as the generative nu- 
cleus, and may lie next to the wall of the microspore or at the 
center of the dense cytoplasm. Examination of microspores be- 
fore dehiscence will show the presence of two to seven tube nu- 
clei (pi. 3, fig. 39) of different sizes lying ■with a single generative 
nucleus. These supernumerary tube nuclei seem to be empty, and 
each possesses a single peripheral black nucleolus. The presence of 
these extra tube nuclei do not have any morphological significance 
at all, but their presence in many of the microspores is rather inter- 



102 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTURIST 


esting to note. This may be attributed to the fragmentation of the 
tube nucleus under certain conditions of nutrition (Coulter and 
Chamberlain, 1903), and this same phenomenon has been reported 
in Lilium trigonum (Chamberlain, 1897) in which four and in one 
case eight tube nuclei were found. Smith (1896) discovered that 
half of the microspores he examined from Eichomia crassipes ex- 
hibited two pollen tube nuclei, while Fullmer (1898) counted as many 
as two to eight supernumerary tube nuclei in the microspores of 
Hemeroeallis fvlva. In Asclepias, Frye (1901) also observed frag- 
mentation of the tube nucleus. 

The formation of three microspores instead of the normal four 
from a single microspore mother cell was often observed by the 
writers especially from the linear tetrads (pi. 3, fig. 34) from the 
two forms of Philippine seeded bananas. This same thing was re- 
ported in Appelbacove by D’Angremond (1914). This degeneration 
of some of the pollen grains is believed by White (1928) to be due 
to the abnormal behavior of the tapetum and the archesporium, which 
is shown by the early, late or no cytokenesis in the pollen mother 
cells, or in extreme cases by the unequal distribution of the nuclear 
material during the heterotypic and homotypic divisions of the mi- 
crospore mother cells. 

■ The tapetal cells are at first uninucleate, but by the time the 
microspore mother cells are rounding, they become binucleate by 
simple mitotic divisions of their nuclei. Similar behavior of the 
tapetal cells was observed by White (1928) in Musa basjoo. Binu- 
cleate tapetal cells are found in Typha latifolia (Schaffner, 1897), 
Eiehornia crassipes (Smith, 1898) and Lactuca saliva (Jones, 1927). 
In the last species the tapetal cells become binucleate at about the 
beginning of synezesis, or a little earlier, but later they become 
quadrinucleate. These binucleate tapetal cells in Musa errans 
(Blanco) Teodoro var. botoan Teodoro together with the rest of the 
parietal tissue, except the two hypodermal layers of cells below the 
epidermis of the anther, are absorbed by the developing microspores. 
In other words at maturity of the anther, only the epidermis, endo- 
thecium and a single layer of cells below it remain in each lobe. 
The epidermis of the anther remains parenchymatous, while the 
endothecium (pi. 3, fig. 41) becomes sclerenchymatous and greatly 
aids in the dehiscence of the microspores. The characteristic rod- 
like thickenings found in the endothecium of many anthers of an- 
gioisperms are hot developed in this tissue of this variety of banana. 



FLOBAL MOBPHOLOOY OF MUSA EBRAN3 


103 


The fruit 

Deaeription. The oblong, curved, and angular fruit of this 
variety of banana which produces hard germinable seeds (pi. 6, fig. 
63) is pale green, turning yellowish orange when ripe; the sterile 
soft-seeded form is a deep green to yellowish green at maturity. In 
both forms the perianth segments, the styles and staminodia, or in 
some cases even the fertile stamens, are more or less persistent on 
the fruit (pi. 6, fig. 66 and 62). The fleshy portion in which are 
embedded numerous black (hard-seeded form) or whitish (soft- 
seeded form) seeds is whitish in color. The fruit at maturity 
measures from ten to twenty centimeters in length with an average 
diameter of four centimeters. 

The normal development of the fruit in both forms necessitates 
pollination. This is shown by the fact that if the inflorescence 
were bagged (pi. 6, fig. 67) or the stigmas of the female flowers 
were clipped off (pi. 6, fig. 59, 61 and 62), the fruits remained small 
and aborted, as compared with the normal fruits left undisturbed 
(pi. 6, fig. 60) or artificially pollinated (pi. 5, fig. 61). However, 
in some of our non-seeded varieties of bananas such as Mma sapien- 
turn Linn. var. cinerea (Blanco) Teodoro, M. sapientum ^hinn. var. 
compressa (Blanco) Teodoro, M. sa/pientum Linn. var. lacatan 
(Blanco) Teodoro, and M. sapientum Linn. var. tematenais (Blanco) 
Teodoro, pollination is not necessary in the proper development of 
their fruits as shown by repeated bagging experiments conducted 
by the writers. 

Pericarp. A question that is of much interest is the morpho- 
logical nature of the edible portion of the fruit of this seedy banana. 
Examination of numerous preparations reveal that two distinct 
groups of tissues participate actively in the formation of the fleshy 
edible portion in this fruit. The first consists of the placentae, the 
walls of the loculi, the axis, and portions of the funiculi of the seeds 
with the multicellular filamentous outgrowths coming from their 
bases. The second comes from the pericarp of the fruit. 

At the time the ovary is less than two millimeters in length its 
wall is composed of a homogenous mass of parenchymatous, isodia- 
metric small cells, delimited on both sides by distinct pentagonal to 
rectangular epidermal cells. Later, the cells toward the middle por- 
tion of the ovary wall increase in diameter and from thence the wall 
consists of (1) an outer portion (exocarp) of small cells wherein 
are found numerous vascular bundles and (2) an inner portion (en- 
docarp) of large cells which become smaller inward (pi. 4, fig. 54). 



104 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


This differentiation of the ovary wall was observed when the flower 
was three millimeters in length and the ovary was two millimeters 
long. 

Long before the differentiation of the archesporium in the meg- 
asporanges takes place, and while the inflorescence is at the middle 
of the pseudostem, distinct formation of the intercellular spaces 
was observed in the endocarp (pi. 4, fig. 55). At anthesis these air 
spaces have enlarged to such an extent that aerenchyma is actually 
formed (pi. 4, fig. 53) in it. The subsequent enlargement of the 
ovary compressed these large air spaces in the endocarp, and this 
tissue looked like that usually developed in floating organs of many 
hydrophytes. By the time the fruit is about ripe (pi. 4, fig. 62) the 
exocarp possesses few and rather smaller air spaces than those in 
the endocarp (pi. 4, fig. 46). Because of the more compact nature 
of the cells of the exocarp, the air spaces in it are never compressed, 
and they remain undeformed until maturity of the fruit. Also the 
presence of vascular bundles in the exocarp renders it more resistant 
■to the pressure exerted by the enlarging tissues within. 

The endocarp further undergoes complete differentiation when 
heavy deposition of starch grains takes place in its cells before the 
ripening of the fruit (pi. 4, fig. 46). The dissepiments which ac- 
tually separate adjacent compressed, large air spaces are composed 
of one to two rows of cells. The vascular bundles are absent, and 
the endocarp becomes soft and juicy. This tissue easily separates 
from the exocarp and adheres tenaciously to the soft tissues enclosed 
by it.‘ Of the pericarp, therefore, the endocarp contributes to the 
edible portion of the fruit and the skin or peel is but a part (outer) 
of the mature ovary wall. It might not be incorrect to conclude that 
the order of the development of the fleshy portion in this fruit would 
apply equally well to all parthenocarpic fruits of Miisa sapientmn 
Linn., except that in them even the aborted seeds contribute to sonjio 
extent in the sum total of their fleshy edible portion. 

The seed 

Development. The mature seeds from both forms of this 
variety of banana are round to ovate or cordate in shape, with two 
of their sides flattened or compressed. A great majority of the 
seeds from the soft-seeded form are whitish, soft, and are much 
deformed and exude a milky substance when pressed between the 
fingers. A few of them may become plump and hard, but at full 



FLORAL MORPHOLOGY OF MUSA ERRANS 


105 


maturity of the fruit such seeds become soft. Both kinds of seeds 
when about to mature vary in diameter from 4.1 to 4.9 millimeters on 
their flat sides, and 6.1 to 6.9 millimeters on their greatest diameters. 

The trend of development of the seed herein reported agrees 
with that reported by White (1928) for Rodoc Clamp. Before the 
megasporanges are fertilized, the embryo sac occupies the extreme 
micropylar portion of the nucellus (pi. 3, fig. 42 and 43) on the top 
of which is the characteristic micropylar pad so well developed in 
the species of Mvsa. Soon the tissues of the nucellus lying adjacent 
to the integument and extending from the walls of the embryo sac 
outward and downward to the chalaza begin to break down to form 
an inverted funnel-shaped cavity with the main mass of the nucellus 
in the center intact. This “autolytic” process gradually extends 
downward and then inward until the central mass of nucellar tissue 
is completely cut off from the chalazal end and is left suspended in 
the cavity of the embryo sac alone (pi. 4, fig. 44). This nucellar 
mass may remain for some time after fertilization. As the seed 
increases rapidly in diameter, the nucellar cavity correspondingly 
spreads out laterally. This encroachment of the nucellar cavity 
does not go deeper than the tissues surrounding the chalazal vascular 
bundles, because this tissue, together with the outer layer of 
the seed coat, breaks down into a mucilage tissue which swells up 
(pi. 4, fig. 44). This swelling of the mucilage tissue makes the 
cavity flat and fungiform instead of subglobose. and the nucellar 
mass is pushed up against the micropylar region. Simultaneous 
with this growth of the mucilage tissue, the integument immediately 
surrounding the micropyle also thickens rapidly, pushing into the 
cavity to form the micropylar collar (pi. 3, fig. 42 ; pi. 4, fig. 44 and 
46). A cylindrical sheet of tissue of the outer integument through- 
out its thickness and just above the collar becomes differentiated 
into an abscission layer which cuts off the micropylar plug (White, 
1928). This plug is thus made up of the tissues of the outer integ- 
ument plus a portion of the vascular bundles, and constitutes the 
atil-like structure usually found around the micropyle of the mature 
seed. 

In the case of the sterile seeded form of banana, degeneration 
of tha nucellar tissue commences long before fertilization takes place 
(pi. 3, fig. 43). Soon after the megagametophyte is fully formed 
in the sac or even after fertilization, the nucellar tissue, together 
with the inner integument, separates from the outer integument, 
and leaves a clear space between these two integuments. The seed 
may continue to develop for some time, and later degenerate. 



106 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTURI8T 


Embryo. The development of the embryo or zygote has not 
been followed in detail as the material at hand was too scanty to 
warrant such a study. However, the zygote does not begin to 
divide until after endosperm formation is well under way. In fact, 
White (1928) never saw it divide until six weeks after pollination. 
The embryo of the mature seed is very small, and does not contain 
a well defined suspensor. The writers are inclined to believe that 
the embryo is found in both kinds of seeds, soft as well as hard. 

Like White (1928), the writers were not able to follow the 
course of the pollen tubes from the stigma to the megasporange. 



Fig. 1. — Showing two plantlets arising from a 
single seed. XI. 


Perhaps the pollen tubes follow the glandular canal which penetrates 
the stigma, enter the micropyle and push through the micropylar pad. 
directly into the embryo sac (pi. 3, fig. 40) . 

It is interesting to note that the repeated efforts of the writers 
to discover a case of polyembryony in this variety of banana were 
not without success. In one sowing of one thousand and seven 
hundred fifty seeds, a seed was discovered giving rise to two plant- 
lets (fig. 1). The two plantlets were perfectly developed, and nearly 
identical in size. One may take this as an example of early branch- 
ing but if such is the case the plumules ought to vary in size and 
vigor. The writers are inclined to believe that this is another case 





FLORAL MORPHOLOGY OF MUSA ERRANS 


107 


of polyembryony in Musa {M. errans var, botoan). The first case 
of polyembryony ever repoil^d in Musa was in Musa ensete (Gatin, 
1906). 

Endosperm. The endosperm in this variety of banana is of the 
nuclear type similar to that reported in Musa coceinea and M. sapien- 
tum (Tischler, 1913), Musa basjoo (White, 1928), Marantaceae 
(Schachner, 1924) and Canna indica (Humphrey, 1896, Wiegand, 
1900). In Ammomum Da, nielli, a member of the family Zingibera- 
ceae, Schiirhoff (1926) states that Palm reported a “helobiales” type 
of endosperm. White (1928) believes that this kind of endosperm, 
formation (nuclear) of Philippine seeded banana is probably a char- 
acteristic of the fertile Eumusae in general. Soon after fertilization, 
the primary endosperm nucleus begins to enter active divisions. Not 
all of the daughter nuclei actively divide, as some may enter a rest- 
ing condition. Some, however, appear to be more active than the 
others, and continue to divide rapidly, forming isolated groups of 
endosperm nuclei. The isolated groups of endosperm nuclei may 
become invested with distinct cytoplasmic wall, and form vescicles 
which extend into the embryo sac (pi. 3, fig. 40). White (1928) 
observed that in several cases these groups of endosperm vescicles 
may themselves become constricted from the parent sac and attach 
themselves variously to the perisperm wall and develop as separate 
endosperm masses falsely suggesting apogamous origin of embryos. 

At about four weeks after pollination the coenocytic condition 
of the endosperm disappears and walls begin to form. Wall for- 
mation takes place first around the proembryo at the micropylar por- 
tion of the embryo sac and progresses downward until the whole 
nucellar cavity is filled up. In the development of the endosperm, 
the nucellar tissue is not wholly destroyed, so that a greater portion 
of this tissue which lines the coats persists in the mature seed. This 
endosperm in the mature seed usually fills up the whole nucellar 
cavity as is the case in Heliconia (Humphrey, 1896), but in some 
cases it may fail to form in the central portion of the cavity. 

The seeds from the sterile form of this variety of banana may 
show normal development of endosperm until wall formation and 
even after. If wall formation ever takes place in their endosperm, 
they usually fail to show any sign of deposition of starch grains in 
it. In the mature seeds, therefore, there may be normally developed 
embryos with endosperm devoid of the starch grains much needed 
for their normal development. In fact, White (1928) claimed that 



108 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


failure of the endosperm to form in some seeds he had examined was 
responsible for their failure to germinate. 

Seed coats , When the megaspore mother cell has just finished 
elongating and is in synapsis, the two integuments are fully differ- 
entiated on the megasporange (pi. 4, fig. 49). The inner integument 
consists of two to three layers of cells in longitudinal section. The 
outer integument is thicker and consists of several layers of cells, 
usually about nine or less in number. By the time the mega- 
sporange is about to be fertilized, the two integuments grow very 
rapidly so that they nearly cover the micropyle, the outer integument 
further increasing in thickness especially near the micropylar region 
and at the junction between the megasporange and the funiculus (pi. 
4, fig. 44). 

Outer coat or testa. Before fertilization, the outer integument 
becomes very massive (pi. 4, fig. 48). Because of the pressure from 
within, the layers of the cells of the outer integument adjacent to its 
inner epidermis become flattened longitudinally (pi. 4, fig. 52) ex- 
cept the two or three layers below the outer epidermis. This elon- 
gation of the cells of the outer integument becomes more pronounced 
as the young seed matures. The inner epidermis remains small, 
while the outer epidermal cells may enlarge somewhat. Later, the 
outer epidermis elongates radially and unequally at various points on 
the seed (pi. 4, fig. 45 and 47) and remains parenchymatous. This 
makes the seed regular in outline when freshly taken from the 
mature fruit. Being parenchymatous, a slight mechanical pressure 
will destroy these epidermal cells and expose the hypodermal tissue 
within. The hypodermal cells, however, -never elongate radially, 
but are compressed by the outer epidermal cells. Instead of elonga- 
ting radially, they increase their length parallel to the long axis of 
the seed. At regions where the epidermal cells have not elongated 
considerably they actually grow in that direction and push them- 
selves outward, rendering, therefore, the outer surface of this hypo- 
dermal tissue of the outer coat irregular in outline. Thus, before 
lignification, the testa consists of (1) radially palisaded or irreg- 
ularly elongated epidermal cells, (2) a hypodermal region consist- 
ing of smaller, many tangentially elongated cells, and (3) inner 
region composed wholly of elongated cells deliniited inside by the 
small squarish or rectangular inner epidermis. 

At maturity of the seed, all the cells enclosed by the outer 
epidermis of the testa become lignified and constitute the shell to the 
seed. The outer epidermis remains parenchymatous and easily 



FLORAL MORPHOLOGY OF MUSA ERRANS 


109 


separates from the shell at the slightest pressure from without. If 
these epidermal cells are not destroyed mechanically, they usually 
shrivel through rapid loss of water through their walls. Some of 
the cells of the shell become pitted (pi. 4, fig. 60-51). 

The testa of the sterile soft seed shows the same identical mor- 
phological structure found in the fertile seed, except that lignifica- 
tion of the shell is rather slight, thus rendering the testa compara- 
tively soft and not resistant to any appreciable pressure from with- 
out. 

Inner coat or tegmen. The inner integument always maintains 
its thickness of two cells instead of three as is found in the young 
megasporange. During the enlargement of the young seed, the teg- 
men is compressed against the heavily developed testa and its cells 
flatten out. They become rectangular in shape with their long axes 
parallel to the length of the megasporange. At some portions the 
perisperm reaches the inner epidermis of the testa of the seed so 
that the tegmen at these regions is greatly compressed, and its cells 
are obliterated leaving only the remnants of their walls (pi. 4, fig. 
61). The tegmen, therefore, appears only in alternating regions of 
the seed just below the testa. These remains of the tegmen become 
lignified in the mature seed. 

The tegmen of the soft seed may persist as compressed cells 
within the testa and never become lignified to any great extent. 

Perisperm. The nucellar tissue of the young seed is not com- 
pletely absorbed by the developing endosperm and embryo, and re- 
mains as distinct tissue below the tegmen of the seed. It consists of 
large rectangular cells (pi. 4, fig. 61) which are later filled up with 
abundance of starch grains in the mature seed. On the outer tan- 
gential walls of the peripheral cells of this perisperm is deposited a 
thick callose-like material (pi. 4, fig. 61). 

SUMMARY 

The terminal, pendant, spicate inflorescence from both forms 
of Musa errans (Blanco) Teodoro var. botoan Teodoro differentiates 
quite early at the apex of the pseudostem, and forms acropetally 
lateral appendages or bracts in a 3-ranked spiral. In the axils of 
these bracts the fascicular primordia arise as mammillate humps 
which bifurcate, and these form the primordia of the 2-rowed flow- 
ers in a fascicle. Female or pistillate flowers are borne below, fol- 
lowed by a few clusters of neuter or “pseudo-hermaphrodite” flowers, 
and the rest of the terminal flowers are male or staminate. 



110 


THS PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUBIST 


The development of the floral organs of all the three kinds of 
flovirers produced on the inflorescence is acropetal, and they arise as 
follows: outer perianth lobes, inner perianth lobes, stamens, and 
pistil. All the outer three perianth lobes together with the two 
abaxial lobes of the inner perianth form the perigonium, while the 
remaining inner perianth lobe gives rise to the scale. Nearly all 
or all of the stamens may abort in the female and neuter flowers, 
while the pistil becomes degenerated in the neuter and male flowers. 

Usually one of the stamens becomes aborted in the male flower, 
and the functional stamens form filaments and anthers quite early. 
The archesporlal tissue as well as the tapetum arise by simple region- 
al differentiation in the lobes of the anther, and this archesporial 
tissue functions direct as the microspore mother cells. The tapetal 
cells which are at first uninucleate, become binucleate at the time the 
microspore mother cells have completed dividing. The tapetum and 
a greater portion of the parietal tissue are crushed and destroyed 
during the growth of the microspore mother cells. Only the outer 
layer (endothecium) and the layer of cells below this persist in the 
mature anther. 

The microspore mother cells divide successively, and linear or 
tetrahedral forms of tetrads are developed. Degeneration of mi- 
crospores are noted, and many of the microspores possess super- 
numerary tube nuclei before they are dehisced. 

The individual macrosporange starts as a mammillate outgrowth 
■ from the axillary placenta, and this grows at a right angle to the 
ovary wall. By one-sided growth the megasporange becomes an- 
atropous, with its micropyle pointing in all directions. By the time 
the inner integument is fully formed, a single hypodermal arche- 
sporial cell differentiates at the summit of the nucellus of the mega- 
sporange, which divides periclinally into an outer primary parietal 
cell and an inner megaspore mother cell. The primary parietal cell 
does not become very active, so that usually one, two or three layers 
of parietal tissue intervene between the nucellar micropylar epiderr- 
mis and the megaspore mother cell. The megaspore mother cell by 
two successive divisions forms a row of four daughter megaspore 
cells, the chalazal megaspore of which becomes functional. For- 
mation of three megaspores is not uncommon in this variety of ba- 
nana. 

A normal seven-celled megagametophyte is formed. The syner- 
gids and antipodals may remain in the sac until after fertilization. 

The zygote remains dormant long after fertilization and this 
gives rise to a small embryo in the mature seeds. 



FLOBAL MOSPBOLOOT OF MUSA BBBANS 


111 


The endosperm is of the nuclear type, and its development 
follows that of many of the angiosperms. It usually fills completely 
the nucellar cavity, and is not totally absorbed by the embryo 
at maturity of the seed. In the soft seeds of the sterile form of 
this banana the endosperm fails to store starch grains at maturity. 
The nucellar tissue is not totally destroyed by the enlargement of 
the nucellar cavity, and this remains in the mature seed as the peri- 
sperm. 

The ovary wall of the pistil very early differentiates into two 
distinct regions or layers; namely, (a) an exocarp, and (6) an 
endocarp. The endocarp contributes to the formation of the edible 
portion of the fruit, while the exocarp forms the skin or peel of the 
same fruit. In parthenocarpic varieties even the aborted seeds form 
a part of the sum total of the fleshy edible portion of the fruit. 

Pollination is necessary for the proper development of the fruit 
in this seedy variety of banana. 

The development of the seed is described. The outer integument 
of the megasporange gives rise to the outer soft, juicy and translucent 
outer covering of the seed which easily sloughs off, and to the hard 
shell within this. The inner integument may persist in the mature 
seed as a thin, iignided tissue below the shell. The seed of the sterile 
form possesses an embryo devoid of a well developed endosperm, 
and this is responsible for its inability to germinate. The softness 
of the seed in this form is mainly due to the fact that very early after 
fertilization or even before, the inner integument together with the 
nucellus may collapse and actually separate from the outer integu- 
ment. The outer integument develops as usual, and while the seed 
may appear normal from the outside, it is actually devoid of contents, 
hence, is sterile. 


LITERATURE CITED 

Brown, W. H., and L. W. Sharp. 1911. The embryo sac of Epipactis. Bot. 
, Gaz. 52: 439-463. PI. 10. 

Campbbll, D. H. 1900. Studies on the Araceae. Ann. Bot. 14: 1-25. PI. 1-3. 

Chambimlain, C. J. 1897. Contribution to the life history of Lili^m philadel- 
phieum. II. Bot. Gaz. 23 : 423-430. PL S5~S6. 

Chamberlain, C. J. 1924. Methods in plant histology, xi + 314 p., 118 fig. 
Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press. 

CotnuiER, J. M., and C. j. Chamberlain. 1903. Morphology of angiosperms. 
x-l-348 p., 113 pi. New York: D. Appleton & Company. 

JI’Angremond, a. 1912. Parthenocarpic und Samenbildung bei Bananen. Ber. 
Deuth. Bot. Gessells. 30; 686-691. PI. SO. 



112 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


D’Angremond, a. 1914. Parthenocarpie und Samenbildung bei Bananen. 
Flora 107: 67-110. PI. A-11; fig.; 

Elayda, a., and E. K. Morada. 1931. Banana culture in the Philippines. 

Philippine Jour. Agric. 2: 27-49. PI. 1-22. 

Fullmer, E. L. 1898. The development of the microsporangia and micro- 
spores of Hemerocallis fulva. Bot. Gaz. 28: 80—88. PI. 7—8, 

Frye, T. C. 1901. Development of the pollen in some Asclepiadaceae. Bot. 
Gaz. 32: 326-331. PI. IS. 

Gatin, C. L. 1906. Un cas de polyembryonie le Miisa ensete. Bull. Soc. Bot. 
de France 52: 277-278. Fig. 1. 

Guignard, F. 1882. Recherches sur le sac embryonnaire des phanerogames 
angiospermes. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. (Paris) vi. 13: 136-199. PI. 3-7, 

Holperty, G. M. 1901. Ovule and embryo of Potamogeton natana, Bot. Gaz. 
31: 339-346. PI. 2-3. 

Humphrey, J. E. 1896. The development of the seeds in the Scitimineae. 
Ann. Bot. 10: 1-40. PI. 1-J^, 

lKEa)A, T. 1902. Studies in the physiological functions of antipodals and 
related phenomena of fertilization in Liliaceae. 1. Tricyrtis hirta. 
Bull. Agric. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 5: 41-72. PI. 3-6. (Cited by Coulter and 
Chamberlain) . 

Jones, H. A. 1927. Pollination and history studies of lettuce (Latuca sativa 
L.). Hilgardia 2: 436-478. PI. 1-16. 

liOTSCHER, P. K. 1906. Ober den Bau und die Funktion der Antipoden in der 
Angriospermen-Samenanlagen. Flora 94: 213-262. PI. 1-2, 

Quisumbing, E. 1919. Studies on Philippine bananas. Philippine Agric. 
Rev. 12: 9-73. PI, 1-^U. 

Radermachera, a. 1926. Die Gametophyten von Nipa fruticana und Actino- 
phloena Mdcarthurii Becc. Msc. sowie ein Versuch die Systematik der 
Angiospermen durch die haploide Generation zu erganzen. Ann. Jard. 
Bot. Buitenzorg 35: 1-64. PI. 1-6. 

Rosenbesig, 0. 1901. tlber die Embryologie von Zostera marina L. Bih. 
Svensk. Vetensk-Akad. Handl. iii 27: no. 6, pp. 26. PI. 2. (Cited by 
Schnarf ) . 

SCHACHNER, J. 1924. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Bliiten- und Samenentvrick- 
lung der Scitamineen. Flora 117: 16-40. PI. 1. 

SCHAFFNER, J. H. 1897. The development of stamens and carpels of Typha 
latifolia. Bot. Gaz. 24: 93-102. PI. U-6. 

SCHNARF, K. 1929. Embryologie der angiospermen. xxi + 673 p., 69 illus. 
Berlin: Verlag von Gerbriiden Bertraeger. 

SchDrhoff, P. N. 1926. Die Zytologie der BlUt^pflanzen. xi + 792 p., 282 
fig. Stuttgart; Verlag von Ferdinand Enke. 

Skutch, a. F. 1927. Anatomy of the leaf of banana, Musa aapientum Linn, 
var. Hort. Gros-Mickel Bot. Gaz. 84 : 337-391. PI. 1-U. 



FLORAL MORPHOLOGY OF MUSA ERRANS 


113 


Skutch, a. F. 1931. Anatomy of the axis of the bananas. Bot. Gaz. 93: 
233-268. Fig. 1-^10. 

Smith, W. R. 1898. A contribution to the life history of the Pontederiaceae. 
Bot. Gaz. 25: 324-337. PL 19--20. 

Strasburger, E. 1879. Die angiospermen und gymnopermen. vii + 173 p., 
20 pi. Vienna: Verlag von Gustav Fischer. 

Strasburger, E. 1901. Einige Bermerkungen zu der Pollenbildung bei Ascle- 
piaa. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gessells. 19: 450-461. PL 2J!f. 

Tbodoro, N. G. 1915. A preliminary study of Philippine bananas. Philippine 
Jour. Sci. 10 (C): 379-421. PL 1-12, 

Tischler, G. 1910. Untersuchungen iiber die Entwicklung des Banananen- 
Pollens I. Arch. f. Zellforschung 5: 622-670. PL 30-^1, (Cited by 
Schnarf). 

Tischler, G. 1913. Dber die Entwicklung der Samenanlagen in partheno- 
karpen Angiospermen- Fruchten. Jahrb. wiss. Bot. 52: 1-84. PL 1-2, 

Vesque, J. 1879. D4veloppement du sac embryonnaire des Phanerogames 
angiospermes. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. (Paris) vi. 6: 237-285. PL 11-16, 

White, P. R. 1928. Studies on banana: an investigation of the floral mor- 
phology and cytology of certain types of the genus Muaa Linn. 2ieitsch. 
Zellforsch. u. Mikroskop. Anat. 7: 673-733. Fig, 1-130, 

WiEGAND, K. M. 1899. The development of the microsporangia and micro- 
spores in Convallaria and Potamogeton, Bot. Gaz. 28: 328-369. PL 
2^-25, 

WiEGAND, K. M. 1900. The development of the embryosac in some monocot- 
yledonous plants. Bot Gaz. 30; 25-47. PL 6-7, 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES 

Parts of the inflorescence, the flower, the fruit and the seed are designated 
as follows: antipodals (an), bract (5), carpel (c), megagamete (e), endothe- 
cium (ed), embryo (em), endosperm (end), funiculus (/), fascicular primor- 
dium (/p), inner coat or tegmen (ic), inner integument (ii), inner perianth 
lobes (ip), micropylar plug (mp), mucilage tissue (mt), nucellus (n), nucellar 
yass (nm), outer coat or testa (oc), outer integument (oi), outer perianth 
lobes (op), floral primordium (p), palisaded epidermis of the testa (pa), 
perisperm (pe), polar nuclei (pn), perigonium (pr), pollen tube (pt), stamens 
(«), scale (sc), shell (ah), staminodium (st), synergid (ay), tannin cells (tc), 
endosperm vescicle (va), and zygote (zy). 

Part I 

(Fig. 1, 7-8, and 11 are from the soft-seeded form; the rest from the 
hard-seeded). 

Fig. 1. Portion of the longitudinal section of the young inflorescence showing 
the bracts, fascicular primordia and floral prin^rdia. X 18.4. 

Fig. 2. Longitudinal section of a male floral primordium showing the outer 
perianth lobes already cut off. X 43.6. 



114 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Fig. 3. An older male flower with the inner perianth lobes well differentiated. 
X 43.6. 

Fig. 4. Longitudinal section of a male flower showing the outer and inner 
perianth lobes, and the stamens already formed. X 43.5. 

Fig. 5. Longitudinal section of an older male flower showing the carpels. X 
43.6. 

Fig. 6. An old male flower with all its parts fully differentiated. This was 
cut through the dotted line in fig. 8. X 26. 

Fig. 7. Transverse section of the male flower near its apex showing the rela- 
tive positions of the stamens, outer perianth segments, inner perianth 
segments, and the scale. X 66. 

Fig. 8. Transverse section of an older male flower cut near the apex of the 
ovary showing the carpel, stamens, staminodium, scale, and perigonium. 
X 43.6. 

Fig. 9. Axial view of a single neuter flower with scale removed. X 0.76. 

Fig. 10. Axial view of a female flower with the scale removed. X 0.76. 

Fig. 11. Lateral view of a female flower with two of its stamehs functional. 
X 0.75. 

Fig. 12. Lateral view of a male flower. X 0.76. 

Plate II 

Fig. 17 and 27 are from the soft-seeded form; the rest are from thj 
hard-seeded form). 

Fig. 13. Longitudinal section of a young megasporange showing the archcs- 
porial cell; note the inner integument. X 530. 

Fig. 14. Longitudinal section through a megasporange showing the archesporial 
cell divided, forming an outer primary parietal cell and an inner megaspore 
mother cell. X 630. 

Fig. 15. An older megasporange showing enlargement of the megaspore mother 
cell. X 630. 

Fig. 16. A much older megasporange with the megaspore mother cell in sy- 
napsis. Note the thickness of the parietal tissue, and the elongation of 
the epidermis of the nucellus. X 630. 

Fig. 17. Portion of the transverse section of the ovary showing the anatropous 
megasporange with its two integuments and the filamentous outgrowths 
from its funiculus. X 66. 

Fig. 18. Showing first division of the megaspore mother cell. X 530. 

Pig. 19. Two megaspore cells. X 630. 

Pig. 20. Showing one of the two megaspore cells degenerating. X 630. 

Fig. 21. A row of three megaspore cells, the two micropylar ones degenerating.. 
X 630. 

Fig. 22. Tetrad. X 530. 

Fig. 23. Uninucleate megagametophyte. X 630. 

Fig. 24. Binucleate megagametophyte. X 630. 

Pig. 26. Binucleate megagametophyte; polarity. X 630. 

Fig. 26. Quadrinucleate megagametophyte. X 630. 

Pig. 27. Mature megagametophyte showing the magagamete, synergids, polar 
nuclei and the antipodal. X 630. 



FLORAL MORPHOI.OGY OF MUSA ERRANS 


115 


Plate III 

(Pig. 28, 40, 42-43 are from the hard-seeded form; the rest are from the 
soft-seeded form). 

Fig. 28. Transverse section of the ovary of the neuter flower showing the 
generated loculi. X 12.5. 

Fig. 29. Diagram of a transverse section of an anther of the male flower. 
X 117.5. 

Pig. 30. Transverse section of anther showing the archesnorial tissue or micro- 
spore mother cells and the tapetum. X 630. 

Fig. 31. Transverse section of an older anther showing the microspore mother 
cells beginning to round off; the tapetum separating from the parietal 
tissue. X 530. 

Fig. 32. Microspore mother cell in synapsis. X 530. 

Fig. 33. Dyad. X 446. 

Fig. 34. Linear tetrad. X 446. 

Fig. 36. Tetrahedral tetrad. X 446. 

Pig. 36. Linear tetrad. X 446. 

Fig. 37. Young microspore before division of its nucleus. X 530. 

Fig. 38. Microspore before dihiscence. X 270. 

Fig. 39. Mature microspore showing seven tube nuclei and a single generative 

nucleus. X 270. 

Fig. 40. Embryo sac showing the zygote on the side of which is the pollen 
tube; endosperm formation is on; note the endosperm vescicle at the anti- 
podal region of the embryo sac. X 246. 

Pig. 41, Longitudinal section of a portion of a mature anther showing its epi- 
dermis, endothecium and remains of the parietal tissue. Note the micro- 
spores. X246. 

Pig. 42. Median section of the megasporange to show parts. X 49.6. 

Fig. 43. Median section of a megasporange showing shrinkage of the nucellus 
and the inner integument. X 49.6. 

Plate IV 

(Fig, 49 and 63 are from the soft-seeded form; the rest are from the 
hard-seeded form). 

Pig. 44. Longitudinal section of a young seed showing the position of the 
embryo sac and the nucellar mass. X 23.6. 

Fig. 46. Longitudinal section of an older seed showing its parts. Dark portion 
^shows lignification. X 10. 

Pig. 46. Portion of the transverse section of the mature pericarp showing the 
separation point between the exocarp and the endocarp. Note the pres- 
ence of starch grains in the endocarp. X 43.6. 

Pig. 47. Portion of the longitudinal section of a nearly mature seed showing 
the palisaded epidermis and the hypodermal sclerenchymatous cells of the 
shell. X 270. 

Fig. 48; Portion of the longitudinal section of the young megasporange show- 
ing its integuments and part of the nucellus. X 246. 

Fig. 49, Portion of a longitudinal section of a young megasporange showing 
the two integuments fully developed. Ovule has megaspore mother cell 
in synapsis. X 246. 



116 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Fig. 60. Portion of the longitudinal section of a nearly mature seed showing 
the inner longitudinally elongated cells and the outer smaller cells of the 
shell (from outer coat or testa). X 270. 

Fig. 61. Portion of a longitudinal section of a nearly mature seed showing the 
persistent inner coat or tegmen. X 270. 

Fig. 62. Portion of the longitudinal section of a young seed showing the im- 
mature testa and tegrmen, and a portion of the perisperm. X 246. 

Pig. 63. Portion of the transverse section of the pericarp showing the for- 
niation of air spaces in the endocarp. X 206. 

Fig. 54. Transverse section of the pericarp showing differentiation of the ex- 
ocarp and the endocarp. Note the absence of vascular bundles in the 
endocarp, X 206. 

Fig. 55. Portion of the transverse section of an older pericarp showing much 
more decided differentiation of the exocarp and endocarp. Note the for- 
mation of air spaces in the endocarp. X 206. 

Plate V 

Pig. 66. Showing mature bunch of fruits from the hard-seeded form. X 0.05. 

Pig. 57. Showing the effect of bagging on the production of fruits (hard-seed- 
ed form) . X 0.06. 

Fig. 68. Showing persistence of the bracts. Fruits have dropped off. X 0.05. 

Pig. 69. Showing the effect of clipping off the stigmas and natural pollination 
on fruit production. X 0.125. 

Fig. 60. A hand which had never been clipped or artificially pollinated. X 
0.126. 

Fig. 61. Showing the effect of clipping off the stigmas and artificial poll- 
ination. X 0.126. 

Fig. 62.’ Nearly mature bunch of soft-seeded form showing the effect of clip- 
ping on fruit production. Note the small fruits that had been clipped. 
X 0.126. 

Pig. 63. Showing young seedlings from the hard-seeded form. X 0.33. 












Plate V 






COST OF PRODUCTION OF LOWLAND RICE IN THE 
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE ^ 

ALEJANDRO B. CATAMBAY AND JULIAN C. JUGO 
' Of the Department of Agricultural Engineering 

INTRODUCTION 

Viewed from the standpoint of economic importance, rice is 
undoubtedly one of the most important crops of the Philippines. It 
is not only the principal food of the people but is also the principal 
feed for live stock. Statistics show that in the Philippines this is 
the crop that exceeds in quantity all the other cultivated grains taken 
together. Many studies and experiments have been conducted with a 
view to improving its culture and increasing its production. Among 
the most important studies are those on seed selection, fertilization, 
standardization of commercial rice, acclimatization of introduced 
high yielding varieties, and survey of cost of production in various 
rice regions of the Islands. 

Cox (1920) defines the cost of production in three ways: (1) 
More strictly speaking, the term “cost of production” is applied to the 
labor, the pains undergone either in producing or in waiting for the 
fruits of toil. (2) Cost of production may be used in the sense of op- 
portunity cost; opportunity cost means that the farmer could have 
been doing something else. (3) Cost of production is most frequent- 
ly used in this sense of expense of production; that is, money cost. 
Cost of production used in this sense includes every expense of what- 
ever nature, whether overhead or operating expenses, necessary to 
obtain the product. 

The cost of production must be known in order to put the farm- 
ing business on a sound basis and, if possible, make it a profitable 
enterprise. Every farmer ought to know at all times how much a 
particular crop cost him to produce, so that he can be in a position 
to talk intelligently about it as a successful business man is able to 
do. Business men usually know what it costs them to acquire cer- 
tain goods before they offer them for sale. Otherwise, they could 
not fix a price that would make a satisfactory gain. 

' Portions of the material in this paper were presented by the junior author 
in his thesis presented for graduation, 1933, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Agriculture, from the College of Agriculture No. 349; Experiment 
Station contribution No. 891. 


127 



128 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUHIST 


The study of the cost of production gives useful information 
on the farming methods followed in a certain locality, thus better 
economic farming operations may be accomplished. 

In the Philippines, very few studies have been made on the cost 
of production of rice. As to methods of investigation, some invest- 
igators worked by cost accounting, others by personal interview and 
some others by questionnaires. The present investigation was made 
by cost accounting and personal interview methods. No matter 
what method was used most of the investigators claim that the cost 
figure they used in determining cost of production of a certain crop 
was not definite and specific. Factors of production differ widely 
on different farms and even in the same place variation has been 
noticed from season to season. 

Sacay (1927) reported that rice crops cost the Pangasinan 
farmer an average of 2.64 capongos of seed, 66.91 days of man labor 
and 14.96 days of animal labor. In Nueva Ecija, he found that it 
cost the farmer an average of P3.06 to produce a cavan of rice. And 
in this province a hectare of land requires 20.6 gantas of palay seed 
and P66.33 worth of labor. 

Isidro (1919) compared the costs of producing upland and low- 
land rice in the College of Agriculture, in Maahas and in Anos, Los 
Banos, Laguna. He reported that the cost of production per hec- 
tare was P83.36 for lowland rice in Maahas and P67.31 for upland 
in Anos. As to cost of production per cavan, he stated that it cost 
P2.60 for lowland and P2.63 for upland rice. He claimed that the 
results in the College cultures were not conclusive. He reported 
that the cost of production was P164.73 per hectare for lowland rice 
and P146.26 for upland. 

The objects of this work were to determine the cost of produc- 
tion per cavan of lowland rice grown according to the method used 
in the College of Agriculture which is representative of the methods 
followed in the vicinity of Los Bafios, Laguna, and to determine the 
net gain per hectare in this farm enterprice. 

The cultural operations were begun in August, 1932, and were 
finished in February, 1933. The study was conducted in the lowland 
rice fields of the College of Agriculture, Los Banos, Laguna. 

MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS 

Land 

The land used is owned by the College of Agriculture, University 
of the Philippines. It is divided into fields and these fields are sub- 
divided into paddies. Each field is farmed by a farmer who provides 



COST OF PRODUCTION OF LOWLAND BICE 


129 


the capital. As his share he gets four-fifths of the harvest left 
after deducting the share of the harvesters and threshers. The other 
fifth goes to the College as its share. The lowland rice fields under 
study have a total area of 31.0716 hectares. There is no controlled 
irrigation system but irrigation water is supplied by two creeks, the 
Maitem and the Boot, which have their sources on Mount Maquiling. 
Draining the field is not a problem as the land is sloping. 

Seeds 

The amount of seed used to plant 31.0716 hectares was 275 
gantas or 29 cavans, an average of 23.32 gantas per hectare. The 
seeds came from the Farm Crop Division of the Agronomy Depart- 
ment. The varieties of rice used were, Elonelon and Ramai, which 
are classified as late maturing varieties. They mature in from 150 
to 160 days under Los Banos conditions. They are considered as 
high yielding varieties, especially the Ramai. Both are introduced 
varieties in the Islands and are acclimatized in this place. 

Plows and harroios 

Homemade plows were used. Teodoro (1925) stated that some 
parts of the native plow, as the moldboard and the share, are bought 
as separate pieces and other parts as the beam, the handle, the mold- 
board support and the landside are usually cut by the farmer him- 
self from hard trees in thp forest. He further stated that an ex- 
pert usually charges from P4.50 to P5.00 for labor cost in construct- 
ing the plow. The finished plow costs the farmer from PIO to P25 
depending upon the quality of the materials used. A plow that has 
been used and proved to work well commands a higher price, usually 
from P26 to P30. Catambay (1931) gives the cost price including 
the accessories of a native plow of the upland type, as P17. 

The harrows used were the native peg tooth harrow or calmot 
and the native comb tooth harrow, the suyod. The calmot is made 
of bamboo stumps fastened together with a short portion of a branch 
in the node left uncut, projecting, to serve as teeth. The suyod is 
shaped like a comb with 13 steel teeth about 25 centimeters long 
and spaced 15 centimeters apart. The usual price of the calmot is 
P6.00 and the suyod, P9.00. Each of these native implements, the 
plow, the calmot and the suyod are pulled by one carabao. 

CULTURAL METHODS 

In the Philippines there are two methods usually followed in 
growing rice; namely, the direct planting and the indirect. In the 
direct method, no seed bed is used. All upland varieties of rice 



ISO THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTHBIST 

maturing in from 90 to 140 days are planted by the direct method. 
Occasionally, lowland rice varieties are also planted directly into the 
field, thus avoiding the expenses incurred in the preparation of seed 
bed and in transplanting. 

In the indirect planting, the seed bed is necessary. This method 
is used with the lowland rice varieties. Indirect planting was used 
in the present work, as it dealt with cost of producing lowland rice. 
The requirements of a good seed bed are: (1) the soil must be light, 
fairly rich and easily worked; (2) it must contain abundant mois- 
ture; (3) soil must be thoroughly prepared, free from weeds and 
trash before the seeds are sown; (4) it must be fenced; and (5) if 
possible it should be so located that it can be watered or drained at 
any time. 


Preparation and planning of the seed bed 

Plowing, harrowing and cleaning. The total area of seed bed 
plots prepared was 14,813.92 square meters or 1.4814 hectares. 
The plots were plowed one time with a native plow. After plowing, 
the dikes were repaired and cleaned with a bolo. Then about 
two or three days after plowing, harrowing was begun ; a suyod was 
used. The bed was harrowed from three to six times depending 
upon the quantity of grass and trash present and the character of 
the soil puddle. When the soil was thoroughly puddled, it was leveled 
with the suyod stuck into a banana stalk about 1.5 meters long. 
After leveling, the seed beds were fenced with one strand of barbed 
wire set about one meter above the ground and fastened to posts 
about two meters apart. 

Sovring. The seeds were placed in sacks and soaked in water 
for about 24 hours, then placed in the shade, covered with trash and 
left for three days. By this time the seeds had germinated and 
were ready for broadcasting. The sowing was done by a man who 
could broadcast the seed fairly uniformly. During the grrowing 
period of the seedlings water was kept in the seed bed. Rain was 
the main source of irrigation. 

Preparation of the field 

Plowing. After preparing the seed beds, the farmer turned his 
attention to the preparation of the field. The first operation was 
plowing which was done with the native plow when the field was 
subnfierged in water. In many cases after plowing, the field was 
left for about two weeks without touching it because of the lack of 
water. The plowed fields dried up, baked, sometimes cracked so 



COST OF PRODUCTION OF LOWLAND RICE 


131 


that the next operation which was harrowing was difficult, although 
the field had again been submerged in water. In some cases a 
second plowing was necessary. 

Repairing the dikes. Right after plowing, the dikes were re- 
paired and cleaned. The parts of the dikes destroyed during plow- 
ing were filled up with clods from the furrow slices. 

Harrowing. The first harrowing was done lengthwise with the 
field submerged in water. If the field was thickly covered with 
weeds, the calmot was used first to crush them in the soil. This 
first harrowing was to break the large clods of soil. After a few 
days the field was harrowed lengthwise; the object was to puddle 
the soil thoroughly, and at the same time level the field. These three 
operations were made with the fields covered with water, otherwise 
the puddling would not be thorough. 

Transplanting 

PuMng up and bundling the seedlings. About 40 days from 
the time the seeds were sown, the seedlings were pulled up by hand 
and bundled. The soil that stuck to the root systems was shaken off 
by striking the base of the seedlings against the toes before the 
seedlings were bundled. The seedlings were set on a small circular 
piece of board supported b^’ a long peg so that the. base of the seed- 
lings were at the same level. The bundles were tied with bamboo 
fibers, each bundle being about five centimeters in diameter. After 
bundling, the seedlings were topped to about 20 centimeters in length 
by sliding the bundles against the sharp edge of a bolo mounted on 
a support and held firmly. The bundles were then taken to the field 
on a sled pulled by a carabao and piled along the dikes of the paddies 
to be planted. 

Transplanting. The planters, men and women, planted an 
average of four seedlings to a hill with an estimated spacing of from 
16 to 20 centimeters each way. The bundled seedlings were distrib- 
uted and given to the planters by women. The planters and those 
distributing the seedlings were provided with food by the farmer. 

Care of the, standing crops 

Draining and irrigating. A week after transplanting, some of 
the paddies were visited to drain off the water if they were too full 
and to turn it on if there was too little. Inasmuch as the source of 
water was rain the farmers were careful to prevent leakage through 
the dikes. 



182 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Fertilizing. Some of the fields under survey were fertilized 
by thesis students in the Farm Crops Division usinsr aimnonium sul- 
fate, Ammo-phos, Corona No. I and Corona arroz. Ammonium sul- 
fate and Ammo-phos were applied to a field with an area of 14,998 
square meters, divided into halves and one half was treated with 
ammonium sulfate and one half with Ammo-phos. Corona No. I wa? 
applied to another field with an area of 9,034 square meters and Coro- 
na arroz to a field of 9,412 square meters. The fertilized fields were 
divided into lots and each lot was treated with a different rate of 
application. These rates were 100, 150, 200 and 260 kilograms per 
hectare. The fertilizers were broadcast into the fields two weeks 
after the transplanting. Before applying the fertilizers, the dikes 
were repaired so that water could not flow from lot to lot and thus 
lose the fertilizers. 

Weeding. A month or more after transplanting the fields were 
partially weeded. Only the paddies where weeds grew faster than 
the rice plants were weeded. The dikes were occasionally cleaned by 
cutting the weeds with a bolo. 

Driving away the birds. One of the worst enemies of rice are 
the birds commonly called mayas, the Philippine weaver bird called 
mayang pula, {Mnnia jagori Martens) and the Java sparrow called 
mayang costa {Padda oryzivora Linn.). The simplest way to 
control these pests is to drive them away. A small hut roofed with 
coconut leaves was constructed in the middle of each field. Then 
lines from 60 to 100 meters long, depending upon the size of the 
field, were put up. One end was attached in the hut, and long bam- 
boo poles spaced about 15 meters apart, tied along the line stretched 
across the field. On the top of the poles were fastened petroleum 
cans which made a considerable noise when the lines were pulled by 
a boy in the hut whenever he saw a flock of birds coming. The noise 
scared the birds away. The driving away of the birds was cawied 
oil from 6 :00 to 10 :00 a. m. and 3 :00 to 5 :00 p. m. from the milking 
stage of the plants up to harvesting time. 

Harvesting 

Method of harvesting. Harvesting, which was by hand, started 
in January and was finished in February. Men, women and chil- 
dren were employed. Africa (1919) classifies the various methods of 
hand-harvesting of rice as follows: (a) Cash payment system; (6) 
part cash, part share payment system ; (c) share payment system. 



COST OF PRODUCTION OF LOWLAND RICE 


133 


In this work the share pasrment was used. In harvesting, the rice 
plants were cut off about half way between the head and the base 
of the plants with the yatab or pangani, which is a handy implement 
with a blade about 13 centimeters long and 4 centimeters at the 
widest part. It is fastened at the middle of a handle made of cylin- 
drical piece of wood about 12 centimeters long and about 3 centi- 
meters in diameter, the size depending upon the owner. The rice 
was cut usually just below the last node of the panicles from 10 to 
15 centimeters below the grain. The cut heads were left piled on 
the rice straw. After the grain was cut these piles were gathered 
into one big pile in the place where threshing was done. 

Threshing 

Method of threshing. Threshing was done after the cut 
panicles were gathered into the big pile. Men and women did the 
threshing by trampling upon the cut panicles placed on buri mats. 

Cleaning and curing 

After separating the grain from the head, the straw and chaff 
were separated from the grain by hand picking and winnowing. 
When cleaning was finished, the palay was sacked and carried to the 
huts where it was divided in shares by volume, that is, one-fifth went 
to the harvesters and threshers. The remaining four-fifths were 
divided again into five parts and one part went to the College as its 
.share. The farmer delivered the College share to the College bodega. 
The grain which was turned in by the farmer was not thoroughly 
dry and clean. The final drying and cleaning of the College share 
were done at the expense of the College. 

BIXPEBIMENT AND RESVI.TS 

The results of this experiment are presented in tables 1 to 9. 
Table 1 shows the labor requirements in preparing the seed bed 
plots. It may be observed from this table that there were twenty 
seed bed plots with a total area of 14,813.92 square meters or 1.4814 
hectares. With the native plow the beds were plowed in 147.25 
hours; their dikes were repaired in 36.5 hours; they were harrowed 
with a lowland harrow in 152.5 hours; leveled in 40 hours; and were 
fenced with one strand of barbed wire in 76.5 hours. The .seed bed 
plots required 725 gantas or 29 cavans of seed which was treated 
in 31.5 hours and sown in 28.67 hours. 



184 


THB PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Table 2 shows the labor requirements in preparing the land. 
It is shown in this table that with the native plow a total area of 
31.0716 hectares was plowed in 2611.5 hours; harrowed three times 
with the lowland harrow in 2838 hours; dikes were repaired in 608 
hours; and cleaned with the bolo, in 207.6 hours. 

The cost of transplanting rice seedlings is shown in table 3. 
The seedlings from 29 cavans of 'seeds sown in seed bed plots, as 
shown in table 1, were pulled up and bundled in 482 hours with a 
total labor cost of P104.63. They were topped with the bolo in 102.5 
hours at a cost of P10.25. Hauling seedlings to the fields required 
145.6 man hours and 63.5 animal hours with a total cost of P19.90; 
distributing seedlings to the planters required 476.5 man hours with 
a labor cost of P23.83. The total area of 31.0716 hectares, as shown 
in tables 2 and 3, was planted with rice seedlings in 1966.5 hours, 
at a labor cost of P127. The cost of subsistence in planting this 
area was P103.23. The total cost of transplanting was P254.06. 

Table 4 shows the data on harvesting and threshing. It may 
be observed in this table that the crop covering an area of 31.0716 
hectares was harvested and threshed in 7407.5 hours by 1759 har- 
vesters and threshers. The actual production obtained was 1902.10 
cavans. One-fifth of this production was 380.42 cavans, the share 
of the harvesters and threshers. This share cost P760.84 at 2 pesos 
per cavan. 

The cost of the different farm operations for 31.0716 hectares 
and for one hectare are shown in table 5. On the basis of one hectare 
the total cost of the different operations in preparing the seed bed 
plot was P2.72. Of this, plowing cost P0.94 ; harrowing, P0.98 ; re- 
pairing dikes, PO.ll; leveling, P0.26; treating seeds, PO.IO; seeding, 
0.09; and fencing, P0.24. 

In the preparation of the land the plowing cost per hectare was 
P16.48; harrowing, P18.26; repairing dikes, P1.97; and cleaning 
dikes, P0.92. * 

Pulling up and bundling rice seedlings to be planted to one 
hectare cost P3.41; topping seedlings, P0.33; transporting, P0.60; 
distributing to planters, P0.75; and planting, P7.20. 

On the basis of one hectare the cost was P0.08 to partly drain 
and irrigate the fields; to partly fertilize, P0.67; to drive away the 
birds, PD.49; and to harvest and thresh the crop, P24.49. The cost 
of harvesting and threshing was based on one-fifth of the total har- 
vest valued at P2.00 per cavan. The total labor cost of the different 



COST OP PRODUCTION OF LOWLAND RICE 


135 


farm operations for 31.0716 hectares was P2439.73. This makes 
P78.36 as the computed labor cost per hectare. 

The supplies and land costs are shown in table 6. 

The cost of seeds to plant 31.0716 hectares was P116. The cost 
per hectare was P3.73. 

The total cost of fertilizers applied was P32.08, or P1.03 per 
hectare. 

The rent of land was based on P20.00 per hectare a year, which 
was the prevailing rate in Los Banos, Laguna. The total land cost 
for the area cropped was P621.43. The total cost of supplies and 
land for 31.0716 hectares was P769.51 or P24.76 per hectare. 


TABLE 6 

Supplies and land costs 
(31.0716 Ha.) 


ITEMS 

TOTAL COST 

COST PER 
HECTARE 

Land 

peao8 

621.43 

pesos 

20.00 

Seeds 

116.00 

3.73 

Subsistence for transplanting . 

127.06 

4.09 

Fertilizers 

32.08 

1.03 

Total 1 

896.57 

28.86 


Table 7 shows the depreciation of implements and interest on 
the investment for 31.0716 hectares. The total implement cost for 
the area was P19.60 or P0.63 per hectare. 

In computing the charges for the implements the formulas by 
Catambay (1931) were used. These are: 


Depreciation in pesos - 
Interest in pesos = — 


erd 

365 


cd 

ym 


where c = 
d = 
m — 


r = 


cost of implement or machinery 
number of 9-hour days used 
maximum number of days used in one year 
number of years of life of the implement 
or machinery 
annual rate of interest 



136 


TOE PHIUPFINB AGRICXILTUKIBT 


Table 8 ahowB the cost of production. The labor cost, the sup- 
plies and land costs, and the implement cost per hectare are shown 
in this table. The labor cost, supplies and land costs, and imple- 
ment cost were P74.96, P28.86 and P0.63, respectively, making a total 
of P104.43 as cost of production per hectare. The average produc- 
tion per hectare was 61.22 cavans. The cost of production per 
cavan was P1.71. 


TABLE 8 

Coat of prodiiction 


Labor cost per hectare F74.95 

Supplies and land costs per hectare 28.85 

Implement cost per hectare (Depreciation and interest) 0.63 


Total cost of production per hectare P104.43 

Average production per hectare 61.22 cavans 

Cost of production per cavan PI. 706 


Table 9 shows the cost of production borne by the farmer. The 
labor cost was P74.95 per hectare. The total cost of production per 
hectare was P104.03. The average production per hectare was 61.22 
cavans. The cost of production was P1.6990 per cavan. 


TABLE 9 

Farmer's coat of production 


Labor cost per hectare P74.95 

Supplies cost per hectare 8.85 

Land cost per hectare (value of College share of 9.8 cavans or 1/5 
the amount left after deducting share of harvesters and threshers 

which was 1/5 of total production) 19.60 

Implement cost per hectare 0.63 


Total cost of production per hectare P104.03 

Average production per hectare 61.22 cava^ns 

Farmer's cost of production per cavan PI. 699 


DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 

Labor requirement per hectare 

On account of the financial status of the College farmers they 
hired as little labor as possible. Most of the plowing and harrowing 
was done by exchange of labor. Thus, by mutual understanding, 
they grouped themselves with their own animals and implements 
and worked first one field then another until the operation was 



COST OF PBODUCTIOM OF liOWLAND BICE 


137 


finished. By nuiking a work schedule among themselves, they per- 
formed their field operations according to the .season. The total 
number of hours, however, put in by these farmers on each field was 
recorded so as to determine the labor requirement for each opera- 
tion. 

Table 5 shows the itemized labor requirement per hectare for 
the different farm operations. It may be observed that the total 
number of hours required to prepare a seed bed plot for one hectare 
of land was 27.35. This time was distributed as follows: plowing, 
4.74 man and 4.74 animal hours ; repairing of dikes around seed bed 
plot, 1.11 man hours; harrowing, 4.91 man and 4.91 animal hours; 
leveling, 1.29 man and 1.29 animal hours; treating seeds, 1.01 man 
hour; sowing, 0.92 man hour; and fencing, 2.43 man hours. It may 
be seen in table 1, that the total area of seed bed plots prepared was 
14,813.92 square meters and in table 2 that the total area of the 
land to be planted with the seedlings was 31.0716 hectares. The 
area of seed bed plot, therefore, was 476.77 square meters for one 
hectare of land. 

It required a total of 379.51 hours per hectare including both 
man and animal labor to prepare the land. The time was distributed 
as follows: plowing, 84.94 man and 84 animal hours; repairing of 
dikes, 19.57 man hours; harrowing, 91.33 man and 91.33 animal 
hours; and cleaning dikes, 9.20 man hours. It may be noted that 
the number of hours required to plow a hectare was rather high. 
This was because some of the fields required a second plowing owing 
to there being little rainfall which resulted in the drying up and 
baking of these fields. 

The planting per hectare required a total of 103.83 hours dis- 
tributed among the following operations: pulling up and bundling 
of the seedlings, 15.51 man hours ; topping seedlings, 3.29 man hours ; 
transporting seedlings, 4.68 man hours and 1.72 animal hours; dis- 
tributing bundled seedlings, 15.34 man hours and transplanting, 
63.39 man hours. 

Draining and irrigating required only 0.83 man hours, because 
most of the water supply was rain. On an average, only 5.71 man 
hours per hectare were spent on weeding. 

Harvesting and threshing which were done by women, men and 
children required 238.40 hours per hectare. This item was second 
to the land preparation in the length of time consumed. Although 
the expenses for harvesting were based on the share basis, the actual 
number of hours required to harvest and thresh the rice crop from 
one hectare was also recorded. 



138 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTHBIST 


Labor cost of different operations per hectare 

Table 5 shows the labor cost of the different farm operations. 
The total labor cost per hectare was P74.96. 

The cost of preparing the seed bed plots for one hectare of land 
was P2.72, for preparation of the land, P37.63; for transplanting, 
P8.89; for irrigating and draining, P0.08; for fertilizing, P0.08; for 
weeding, P0.67; for driving away birds, P0.49; and for harvesting, 
P24.49. 

These figures show that the largest item of expense was for the 
preparation of land which was 36.06 per cent of the total cost of 
production. 

The second largest item of expense was the cost of harvesting 
and third was transplanting. The cost of harvesting was 23.46 per_ 
cent of the total cost of production and of transplanting, 8.51 per 
cent. 

It may be noted that the cost of harvesting was figured on the 
share basis, valuing one cavan at P2.00. Table 4 shows that the 
total production for 31.0716 hectares was 1902.1 cavans and one- 
fifth of this amount which was given to the harvesters and threshers 
was 380.42 cavans. At 1P2.00 per cavan which was the prevailing 
price in the locality at the time of harvest the total cost of harvesting 
was P760.84. Table 4 also shows that the time required to harvest 
31.0716 hectares of the crop was 7407.5 hours. With P760.84 as the 
cost of harvesting and threshing and 7407.5 hours for the work, the 
harvesters' and threshers were actually paid a little more than PO.IO 
per hour. The actual cost of harvesting and threshing per cavan 
was P0.40. 


Supplies and land costs 

Table 6 shows the supplies and land costs. The land cost ^as 
figured on P20 per hectare a year, which is the prevailing land rent 
in the vicinity of Los Banos, Laguna. Although the land was ac- 
tually used only from the first operation in August, 1932 to February, 
1933, a period of 7 months, the enterprise was charged with the an- 
nual rental of P20 per hectare inasmuch as the land was used solely 
for lowland rice. No other crop was raised from the time the rice 
was harvested until the next planting season. During this period 
of rest, the land was very dry and cracked because it was summer, 
and no crop can be grown in this season. 



COST OF PRODUCTION OF LOWLAND RICE 


139 


Twenty-nine cavans of seed were used for 31.0716 hectares and 
cost P116.00, or P3.75 per hectare. The seeds were selected and 
furnished by the Farm Crops Division. The seed cost was based on 
P4.00 a cavan. 

Table 6 also shows the cost of subsistence during the transplant- 
ing of the seedlings. In addition to the wages paid the transplanters 
they were also given lunch and a light merienda in the afternoon 
after the transplanting. The subsistence cost P127.06 for planting 
31,0716 hectare or P4.09 per hectare. 

Fertilizer was applied in a portion of some of the fields as part 
of other research work. Inasmuch as that field was a part of the 
land in this study the cost of fertilizer was included. It amounted 
to P1.03 per hectare. 

The total supplies and land cost was P896.57 for 31.0716 hec- 
tares, or P28.85 per hectare. 

Cost of production 

Table 8 shows the general cost of production per hectare and 
also the cost of producing one cavan of palay. The total cost of pro- 
duction per hectare was P104.43, distributed as follows: labor cost, 
P74.95; supplies and land cost, P28.85; and implement cost (from 
table 8), P0.63, With an average production of 61.22 cavans per 
hectare, the cost of producing one cavan of clean palay was P1.706. 

Table 9 gives the results of computation of cost of production 
borne by the farmer. 

The cost of production per cavan of clean palay borne by the 
farmer, as shown in table 9, was P1.699. The labor cost was 
P74.95. The harvesting and threshing were paid in palay, that is, 
one-fifth of the total production. The average production being 
61.22 cavans per hectare, the harvester and thresher received 12.24 
cavans for their labor. The remaining 48.98 cavans were further 
divided into five parts, one-fifth or 9.8 cavans going to the College as 
its share. With F2.00 as cost of palay, the value of the College share 
of 9.8 cavans or charge for the use of the land was P19.60. The total 
cost of production, therefore, was P104.03 per hectare, or PI. 699 
per cavan. 

The College share of 9.8 cavans per hectare at P2.00 per cavan 
gave the College P19.60 for the use of the land, with P20 as the land 
rent per hectare a year the College loist P0.40 per hectare, or P0.007 
per cavan. Adding the farmer’s cost of production per cavan which 



140 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


was P1.699 and the College loss of P0.007 the final sum is equivalent 
to the general cost of production of P1.706 per cavan as shown in 
table 8. 

Percentage return on the investment 

The success of any business or farm enterprise is gauged by the 
percentage return on the investment. 

Table 8 shows that the average production per hectare was 61.22 
cavans. At the local selling price of P2.00 per cavan the gross in- 
come from one hectare was P122.44. The cost of production per 
hectare, as shown in this table was P104.43. The net gain there- 
fore, was P18.01 per hectare or 17.35 per cent on the total invest- 
ment. 


SUMMARY 

1. The preparation of seed bed plots for one hectare of land re- 
quired a labor cost of P2.72 

2. It required 476.77 square meters of seed bed plot per hectare 
of land. 

3 . The average amount of seeds sown in seed beds for one hectare 
of land was 23.32 gantas, costing P3.73 at P4.00 per cavan of 
seed palay. 

4. The preparation of the land was the largest item of expense in 
the production of lowland rice. The cost was P37.63 per hec- 
tare or 36.06 per cent of the total cost of production. 

5. The labor cost for transplanting the seedlings to a hectare of 
land was P8.89. The subsistence of the planters cost P4.09. 
The total cost of transplanting seedlings to one hectare was 
P12.97 which was 12.42 per cent of the total cost of production. 
Harvesting and threshing the crop was the second largest item 
of expense. With one-fifth of the total harvest as the share 
of the harvester and thresher, it cost P24.49 to harvest and 
thresh the crop from one hectare of land, which was 23.45 per 
cent of the total cost of production. 

7. It took 7,407.50 hours to harvest and thresh the crop from 
31.0716 hectares, or 238.40 hours per hectare. 

8 . With the share of the harvesters and threshers valued at P24.49 
for one hectare and considering the number of hours, 238.40, 
required to do this work, the actual labor wage in harvesting 
and threshing was a little over than PO.IO per hour. 

:9. The actual cost of harvesting and threshing was P0.40 per cavan. 



COST OF PRODUCTION OF LOWLAND RICE 


141 


10. The total labor cost of the different farm operations was 
P74.06 per hectare. 

11. The actual production from 31.0716 hectares was 1902.10 cavans 
or an average of 61.22 cavans per hectare. 

12. The total cost of production per hectare was P104.43, distrib- 
uted as follows: labor cost, P74.95; supplie.'^ and land cost, 
P28.86; and implement cost, P0.63. 

13. The cost of producing one cavan of palay considering the land 
as farmed by an owner was PI .706. 

14. The net income per hectare was P18.01. 

16. The percentage return on the investment was 17.25 per cent. 

16 . It cost the farmer PI. 699 to produce one cavan ; at P2.00 a cavan, 
the current selling price, his gain was P0.301. 

17. The College received for the use of the land 9.8 cavans per hec- 
tare, equivalent to P19.60. Considering the land rent as P20.00 
per hectare per year the College lost P0.40 per hectare. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Africa, Angel A. 1919. The cost of harvesting and threshing rice by various 
hand methods. The Philippine Agriculturist and Forester 8: 277-292. 

Catambay, Aleuandro B. 1931. Plows and plowing: iv. Cost of plowing 
with different plowing outfits. The Philippine Agriculturist 20: 410-422. 

Cox, A. B. 1920. Cost of production; its relation to price. Texas Agric. 
Exper. Sta. Circ. 26: 3-11. 

Isidro, Rupino A. 1919. Comparative culture of upland and lowland rice, 
with special reference to cost of production and distribution of income. 
The Philippine Agriculturist and Forester 8: 213-233. 

Sacay, Francisco M. 1927. The cost of producing rice 1926-^27. The Phil- 
ippine Agriculturist 16: 235-247. 

Teodoro, a. L. 1925-1926. Plows and plowing: I. and II. Plowing, a power- 
consuming operation on the Philippine farm. The Philippine Ag^ri- 
culturist 14; 37-38; 135-142. Fig. 1-2. 



TABLE 1 

Labor requirements in prepaHng the seed bed plots 


142 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTUHIST 


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eg 




COST OF PRODUCTION OF LOWLAND RICE 


143 


TABLE 2 

Labor requirements in preparing the land 


LOT 

NO. 

AKEA 

prx)wiNc: 

KKPAIKINr. 

DIKES 

. . 

HARROWING 

CLEANING 

DIKES 

Man 1 

labor 1 

Animal 

1 labor 

Man 
i labor 

Man 

labor 

Animal 

labor 

Man 

labor 


Ha, 

hours 

hours 

hours 

hours 

hours 

hours 

1 

1.0804 

70.6 

70.5 

14 

82 

82 

8 

2 

0.9412 

116.0 

116.0 

i 24 

102 

102 

8 

3 

0.8598 

93.0 

93.0 

22 

61 

61 

15 

4 

1.9426 

214.0 

214.0 

124 

186 

186 

7 

6 

1.2596 

68.5 

68.5 

1 22 

72 

72 

8 

6 

1.6782 

131.0 

131.0 

32 

141 

141 

9 

7 

2.1966 

81.0 

81.0 

74 

253 

263 

35 

8 

0.8822 

144.0 

144.0 

72 

102 

102 

15 

9 

1.4000 

158.5 

158.5 

24 

197 

197 

16 

10 j 

3.0904 

241.0 

241.0 

9 

368 

368 

12 

11 

2.8080 

248.0 

248.0 

12 

316 

316 

12 

12 

1.3464 

137.0 

137.0 

25 

91 

91 

6 

13 

1.1708 

58.0 

58.0 

6 

85 

85 

7 

14 

1.4920 

134.0 

134.0 

8 

146 

146 

8 

16 

1 . 1680 

116.0 

116.0 

36 

100 

100 

14 

16 

2.9730 

216.0 

216.0 

14 

182 

182 

— 

17 

0.9376 

64.0 

64.0 

9 

130 

130 

8.5 

18 

1.9272 

208.0 

208.0 

24 

104 

104 

8 

19 

1.6384 

98.0 

98.0 

56 

97 

97 

8 


0.2792 

16.0 

16.0 

1 

23 

23 

3 


1 31.0716 

1 2611.5 

1 2611.5 

1 608 

1 2838 

1 2838 

1 207.5 


Coat of transplanting rice seedlings 


144 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


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COST OF PRODUCTION OF LOWLAND RICE 


145 


TABLE 4 


Data on harvesting and threshing 


LOT 

NO. 

AKEA 

irAUVE.STEItS 

AND 

THRESH EI^S 

LABOR 

1 

PRODUCTION ® 

SHARE OF 
HARVES- 
TERS AND 
THRESH- 

j Bits ( 1/5 

OF TOTAL 
HARVEST) 

COST OP 
SHARE AT 
f2 PER 
CAVAN 

Actual 

Per 

hectare 


i/o. 

number 

hour 

cavans 

cavans 

cavans 

pesos 

1 

1.0804 

35 

116 

104.60 

96.82 

20.92 

41.84 

2 

0.9412 

61 

269 

56.25 

69.76 

11.25 

22.60 

3 

0.8598 

74 

456 

76.85 

89.38 

16.37 

30.74 

4 

1.9426 

213 

682 

173.26 

89.38 

34.65 

69.30 

6 

1.2596 

65 

260 

65.66 

52.16 

! 13.13 

26.26 

6 

1.6782 

104 

257.5 

65.16 

52.11 

11.03 

22.06 

7 

2.1966 

104 

669 

136.85 

80.94 

27.17 

54.34 

8 

0.8822 

100 

266 

119.76 

35.57 

23.96 

47.90 

9 

1.4000 

85 

466 

63.00 

45.43 

12.72 

1 25.44 

10 

3.0904 

161 

806 

151.05 

48.97 

30.21 

60.42 

11 

2.8080 

149 

381 

183.60 

63.39 

36.72 

73.44 

12 

1.3464 

84 

676 

103.45 

79.07 

20.69 

41.38 

13 

1.1798 

61 

212 

90.05 

! 76.33 

18.01 

36.02 

14 

1.4920 

72 

283 

96.55 

64.71 

19.31 

38.62 

15 

1.1680 

116 

287.6 

73.85 

63.22 

14.77 

29.54 

16 

2.9730 

101 

426.5 

133.45 

44.89 

26.69 

63.38 

17 

0.9376 

46 

165 

30.35 

32.37 

6.07 

12.14 

18 

1.9272 

69 i 

256.5 

70.90 1 

36.79 

14.18 

28.36 

19 

1.6384 

63 

602.5 

101.95 1 

62.23 

20.38 

40.78 

20 

• 

0.2792 

18 

105 

16.95 

67.19 

3.19 

6.38 

Total 1 

31.0716 1 

1769 1 

1 7407.5 1 

1902.10 1 

1 1232.67 1 

1 380.42 1 

760.84 


^ Average production per hectare was 61 . 22 cavans. 



TABLE 5 

Co8t of different farm operations for 31,0716 hectares 


146 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


COMPUTED 
LABOR COST 

PER HEC- 
TARE 

. t- t- p-» CO CO O OJ '^^t-COCOOl rH CO CO l> lO O 00 00 l> Oi Oi 

2 Tf« tH r-l »H iH O W WC<1 OStHiHC0 -tJ* CO tH 00 O O lO Tf 

i, OOOOOOOOOO obo0r4alo>0 CO O O O O CO o o o o ^ 

OJi 

74.95 

TIME PER 
HECTARE 

* -"i* tH iH Oi Oi tH CO rl* TJ* t- CO CO O tH 00 W tI* 05 CO CO pH CQ O 

K f t- rH 05 05 oa Ol O 05 Tf O O 50 CO CO N lO CM «D l> CO CSI 00 00 t- 04 

i ’Tf tH »H iH iH O OJ 05 tH tH 05 50 CO -Pf tH tO CO O O 50 «0 00 

00 00»HCJ505 pH pH?0 pHCO 

CM 


LABOR COST 

CO CO LO iO 50 O O LO b* iO 10500000 T}< lO 50 50 CO 05 O O 50 01 

2 t- t- CO OJ 01 O O pH 00 50 »H rH 00 00 00 CO O CQ 50 CO 00 05 CO CD rH 00 

2 rl* CO 50 50 'Pj* CO 01 t- pHpHOCOCOOO CO O 50 CO C- OI 04 t- 50 O 

ftrHiH tH tH COCOCOOOOC04 O pH rH 03 pH pH iH CO 

03 03 03 03 pH pH l> 


WAGE 

PER HOUR 

20000000000 OOOOOO 03 O O O 50 CO O O O CO 
^ ^p-^pHpHpHpHpHpHpHtH pH pHpHpHpHpH 03pHpHpHOOpHpHpHO 

ftoooddooood ddddod dododooooo 


TIME 

50 lO 0- 

„ 03CM5050500050C050 50500000 0505050 50 500050050 

5 CO 03 030 0 pH 00 50 pH pH 00 00 d CO 03 03 50CodddcOC-'Pl‘t- 

j -p^t PJJI eo 50 50 TT ’•t CO 03 fHpHOCOCOOO 00 O 50 I> CO 03 03 o- o o 

pH pH pH pH CD CD CO 00 00 OI Hf pH pH 05 pH 50 HP 

03 03 03 03 pH t- 


KIND 

OF LABOR 

Man 

Animal 

Man 

Man 

Animal 

Man 

Animal 

Man 

Man 

Man 

Man 

Animal 

Man 

Man 

Animal 

Man 

Man 

Man 

Man 

Animal 

Man 

Man 

Man 

Man 

Man 

Man 

Man 



Preparation of seed bed: 

Plowing 

Repairing dikes 

Harrowing 

Leveling 

Treating seeds 

Seeding 

Fencing 

Preparation of land: 

Plowing 

Repairing dikes 

Harrowing 

Cleaning dikes 

Transplanting: 

Pulling up and bundling seedlings , . . 
Topping seedlings 

Transporting bundled seedlings 

Distributing bundled seedlings 

Planting 

Draining and irrigating 

Fertilizing 

Weeding 

Driving away birds 

Harvesting and threshing . T 

Total 1 



TABLE 7 


COST OF PRODUCTION OF LOWLAND BICE 


147 


*0 

s 

Q> 

5 


.8 

I 

8 

o 


V. 


1 


I 


TOTAL DE- 
PRECIATION 
AND IN- 
TEREST PER 
HA. 

pesos 

.4736 

.1141 

.0026 

.0005 

0271 

0053 

0078 

^ n 

o 

o 

GO 00 

CD CD 

1 o o o o o O o 

o d 1 


pesos 

14.7162 

3.5441 

0.0821 

0.0163 

0.8418 

0.1640 

0.2411 

CD 

s s 

ipi 

d o> 

vH r-l 



^1 

H 

s 

pesos 

.4603 

.8072 

.0062 

0004 

0438 

0113 

0183 

1 

1 

g 

tH o o o o o o 

1 

Ig 

Cd O O 00 

SCvlt-OOl>THCQ 


I" 

W 00 o o o o o 


NUMBER OP 
HOURS AC- 
TUALLY 
USED 

2708.25 

2989.50 

41.00 
28.666 

96.00 

53.00 
343.80 


RATE OF 
INTEREST 
PER YEAR 

01 

OT 

OT 

01 

OT 

01 

01 


«> 

ft 


MAXIMUM 
NUMBER OF 
DAYS (9 
HR.) USED 
IN ONE 
YEAR 

100 

100 

100 

100 

200 

90 

150 


~s 




00 CO tH rH so N 





COST 

pesos 

17.00 

9.00 

5.00 
0.50 
0.25 

7.00 
1.75 



suyod . 


IMPLEMENTS 

Native plow 

Lowland harrow, or 
Harrow, or calmot 
Winnowing baskets 

Sacks, 60 

Sled, or paragus . 
Native bolo 

Total 



A STUDY OF THE RESULTS OF THE SECOND PHILIPPINE 
EGG LAYING CONTEST ^ 

F. M, FRONDA 

Of the Departvient of Anhnal Husbandry 

The Second Philippine Egg Laying Contest was started in the 
College of Agriculture on September 1, 1931. The contest was run 
for a full year, 366 days, and was closed on August 31, 1932. The 
regulations under which this contest was conducted were essentially 
the same as those that governed the First Philippine Egg Laying 
Contest. * 

Entries. Eight pens were entered in this contest. The breeds 
represented, together with the names of the owners, were as follows : 

1. Los Banos Cantonese, Ordoveza Poultry Farm, 

Bay, Laguna. 

2. S. C. White Leghorn, Parahaque Poultry Farm, 

Parahaque, Rizal. 

3. Nagoya, Nagoya Breeding Farm, 

20 San Juan Addition, Rizal. 

4. Mikawa, Nagoya Breeding Farm, 

20 San Juan Addition, Rizal. 

. 5. Los Banos Cantonese, College of Agriculture, 

Los Banos, Laguna. 

6. Nagoya, College of Agriculture, 
t Los Banos, Laguna. 

7. S. C. White Leghorn, College of Agriculture, 

Los Banos, Laguna. 

8. S. C. Rhode Island Red, 

Hacienda Carmelita, Inc., 

San Jose del Monte, Bulacan. 

Ration used. The ration consisted of equal parts of grain and 
mash. The grain was composed of equal parts of corn and palay 
and the mash was made up of six parts, by weight, of rice bran, one 
part of com meal, one part of copra meal and two parts of shrimp 
meal. It will be noted that the composition of the mash used in this 
contest differed from that of the First Philippine Egg Laying Con- 
test.2 rpjjig change was made in accordance with the suggestion 


' Experiment Station contribution No. 892. Received for publication May 
9, 1933. 

* Fronda, F. M. 1932. A study of the results of the First Philippine Egg 
Laying Contest. The Philippine Agriculturist 20: 596-603. 

* loc. cit. 


148 



SECOND EGG LAYING CONTEST 


149 


received from study of the results obtained in an experiment carried 
in this College on the influence of various mashes on egg produc- 
tion. * 

Although minor changes had to be made in the composition of 
the feed in all pens during certain parts of the year, these changes 
were made gradually. At current prices, the cost of the grain mix- 
ture used was P0.0481 a kilogram and that of the mash, P0.0626 a 
kilogram. The average cost of the ration was therefore P6.63 a 
hundred kilograms. 

Care and management. Upon arrival in the College, the birds 
were placed in temporary quarters and given their contest numbers. 
The grain feed was given to them morning and afternoon and the 
mash was given dry in mash hoppers that were kept oi)en at all times. 
The same system of feeding was followed after the birds were trans- 
ferred to the contest houses in the morning of September 1, 1931. 
All feeds consumed were carefully recorded. The birds were weighed 
at the end of every month, and the weights recorded. Each entry 
was penned in one contest house, 1.8 meters by 2.4 meters, provided 
with two grassy yards which were rotated at regular intervals de- 
pending upon the supply of green feed in the yard. 

Egg production. Careful records were made of egg production. 
All eggs produced were weighed in the afternoon of the day they 
were laid. Only the trapnested eggs of the ten highest birds in the 
pen were included in the official pen production. The unidentified 
eggs, “out eggs”, were not included in the computation of the official 
records of each pen, but these eggs were included in the determina- 
tion of the returns from the sale of eggs, after these had been equally 
distributed on the basis of ten birds. 

All eggs produced in the contest were sold at current table egg 
prices, based upon the following classification and with the corre- 
sponding prices per dozen : 


C.A. Primes (60 grams or over each) PO.84 

C.A. Specials (55 to 59 grams each) 0.72 

C.A. Extras (50 to 54 grams each) 0.60 

C.A. Standards (45 to 49 grams each) 0.48 


C.A. Undergnrades (44 grams or less each) . . . 0.36 

RBSUIVTS 

The birds entered. All the birds that were entered in this 
contest were apparently in excellent condition at the beginning of 
the contest. The average weights of the different entries at the 

* Fbonda, F. M. 1932. Comparative studies of the values of different 
mash mixtures for egg production. The Philippine Agriculturist 21: 96-105. 



150 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


beginning and at the end of the contest are given in table 1, by ref- 
erence to which, it may be seen that, in general, the birds all gained 
in weight. The probable exception to this statement is that of S. 
C. White Leghorn, Entry No. 7, which recorded a decrease of 0.20 
kilograms. This decrease may have been due to the heavy egg pro- 
duction of this entry, as is noted elsewhere in this report. Entries 
Nos. 1, 2, 6, 7, and 8 reached their maximum weights in February, 
or six months after the contest was started, the weights being 1.61, 
1.33, 2.03, 1.64 and 2.15 kilograms for Entries Nos. 1, 2, 6, 7, and 8, 
respectively. Entries Nos. 4 and 5 reached their maximum weights 
of 1.99 and 1.89 kilograms each, respectively, in March, while Entry 
No. 3 did not attain its maximum weight of 2.14 kilograms until 
May. 

TABLE 1 

ShovAng the weights of the birds entered in the contest ^ 19S1-S2 


ENTRY 

NO. 

BREED 

AVERAGE WEIGHT 

September 

1931 

Aucrust 

1932 

Year 



kgm. 

kgm. 

kgm. 

1 

Los Banos Cantonese 

1.31 

1.44 

1.46 

2 

S. S. White Leghorn 

1.09 

1.16 

1.20 

3 

Nagoya 

1.66 

1.87 

1.90 

4 

Mikawa 

1.78 

1.86 

1.85 

6 

Los Banos Cantonese 

1.36 


1.59 

6 

Nagoya 

1.62 

1.91 

1.88 

7 

S. C. White Leghorn 

1.44 

1.24 

1.45 

8 ’ 

S. C. Rhode Island Red 

1.98 


2.06 


The average weights recorded in the last column of table 1 rep- 
resent the average of all the monthly weights of the different en- 
tries recorded during the year. According to these figures, the aver- 
age weights of the different breeds represented in the contest were 
as follows: S. C. White Leghorn, 1.35 kilograms; Los Banos Can- 
tonese, 1.53 kilograms; Mikawa, 1.85 kilograms; Nagoya, 1.89 'kilo- 
grams; and S. C. Rhode Island Red, 2.06 kilograms. 

Egg production. Fourteen, or 17.5 per cent of the eighty birds 
entered in this contest, made a record of over 200 eggs each. The 
records of these birds ranged from 201 to 257 eggs each in 366 days. 
The highest record of individual egg production was made by a S. C. 
White Leghorn pullet. No. 83, Entry No. 7, with 267 eggs to her 
credit. This is 15 eggs better than the highest individual record 
made last year. * Two pullets, S. C. White Leghorn No. 87, Entry 


loo. eit. 





SECOND EGG LAYING CONTEST 


161 


No. 7, and S. C. Rhode Island Red No. 101, Entry No. 8, tied for 
the second place as each bird laid 264 eggs. Of the fourteen birds 
in this group, eight were S. C. White Leghorn pullets with records 
varying from 203 to 257 eggs each, three were Mikawa pullets with 
201 to 216 eggs each, two were Los Banos Cantonese pullets with 
production of 201 and 203 eggs each, and one, S. C. Rhode Island 
Red pullet with 254 eggs to her credit. 

TABLE 2 


Showing the egg production of each entry 


ENTRY 

NO. 

BREED 

NUMBER OF EGOS PKODUCED 

Recorded | 

“Outs" 1 

Total 

1 

LfOS Banos Cantonese 

1660 

92 

1742 

2 

S. C. White Leghorn 

1500 

60 

1660 

3 

Nagoya 

1696 

148 

1844 

4 

Mikawa 

1734 

141 

1876 

5 

Los Banos Cantonese 

1543 

138 

1681 

6 

Nagoya 

1557 

183 

1740 

7 

S. C. White Leghorn 

2085 

129 

2214 

8 

S. C. Rhode Island Red 

1777 

178 

1966 


Total 

1 13542 

1 1069 

{ 14611 


As may be seen in table 2, a total of 13,642 eggs were recorded 
in 366 days from the 80 birds entered in the contest. This rep- 
resents an average “official” production of 169.2 eggs each or 46.2 
per cent. The total production of each pen ranged from 1,500 eggs 
to 2,086 eggs, 41.0 to 57.0 per cent. Entry No. 7, S. C. White Leg- 
horn, produced a total of 2,085 eggs or an average of 208.5 eggs each. 
Entry No. 8, S. C. Rhode Island Red, produced 1,777 eggs, 177.7 
eggs each; this pen occupies the second place. The. Mikawa pen, 
Entry No. 4, occupies the third place with 1,734 eggs, 47.4 per cent, 
to its credit. 

This egg production does not include those eggs that were not 
identified, or the “out eggs”. There were 1,069 of the.se eggs, which, 
together with the recorded eggs, totalled 14,611 eggs. The “out 
eggs” represented, therefore, 7.3 per cent of the total number of eggs 
produced during the year. The “out eggs”, however, did not change 
the ranking of the first three best entries. Entry No. 7, S. C. White 
Leghorn, the first. Entry No. 8, S. C. Rhode Island Red, the second, 
and Entry No. 4, Mikawa, the third. The average production per 
bird, including the “out eggs” becomes 182.6 eggs. 

The distribution of egg production of the different breeds in 
the contest is presented in table 3. By referring to this table it will 



162 


THE PHIUPPINE AOBICULTURIST 


be seen that the distribution of egg production was normal in all 
breeds. The trend of egg production followed is similar to that of 
the last year’s, pens. 


TABLE S 

Showing the distribution of egg production of the different breeds in the contest 


MONTH 

BREEDS 

ALL 

BREEDS 

S. C. White I 
Leflfhorn 1 

Los Banos 
Cantonese 

Nasoya 

1 Mikawa 

S. C. Rhode I 
Island Red I 

September 

49.8 

1 48.8 

61.8 

36.3 

27.3 

42.8 

October 

54.6 

* 47.4 

40.0 

' 45.2 

49.3 

47.3 

November 

66.3 

42.6 

37.6 

40.7 

60.3 

46.3 

December .... 

69.7 

1 38.8 

48.7 

1 61.0 

63.8 

64.4 

January 

63.8 

48.7 

66.1 

62.6 

68.4 

61.3 

February 

66.2 

66.2 

64.4 

65.6 

73.8 

• 63.0 

March 

61.4 

64.2 

58.6 

61.3 

66.1 

68.3 

April 

48.8 

47.6 

62.0 

66.3 

48.3 

60.4 

May 

46.8 

60.8 

48.0 

67.1 

63.6 

61.0 ^ 

June 

31.3 

43.6 

45.6 

47.0 

46.0 

42.7 

July 

43.7 

40.9 

40.1 

46.8 

63.2 

44.7 

Auirust 

40.6 

40.4 

46.3 

36.8 

60.0 

42.6 

Average 

1 61.7 

1 46.6 

1 49.1 

1 61.1 

1 63.3 

1 60.3 


Feed consumption. A total of 1,333.4 kilograms of grain and 
1,390.2 kilograms of mash were consumed by the birds in all pens 
during the efttire contest year. These amounts do not include feed 
consumed by the alternates. This gives an average consumption of 
16.67 kilograms of grain and 17.38 kilograms of mash, totalling 
34.05 kilograms for each pen. The feed consumption of the differ- 
ent pens ,and the cost of these feeds are given in table 4. 


Showing the amount and cost of feeds consumed by each pen, computed on the 

basis of ten birds 


ENTRY 


Feed consumed 

COST OP 

NO. 


Grain | 

Mash 1 

Total 

PEED ® 



kgm. 

kgm. 

kgm. 


1 

Los Banos Cantonese 

169.9 

147.9 

307.8 

P16.9:3 

2 

S. C* White Leghorn 

166.8 

166.3 

313.1 

17.31 

3 

Nagoya 

169.2 

180.4 

339.6 

18.93 

4 

Mikawa 

172.9 

183.3 

366.2 

19.77 

5 

Los Banos Cantonese 

142.4 

154.7 

297.1 

16.52 

6 

Nagoya 

163.4 

176.6 

840.0 

18.90 

7 

S. C. White Leghorn 

184.0 

181.6 

366.5 

20.19 

S 

Sa C. Rhode Island Red . . 

194.8 

209.6 

404.3 

22.46 

_ 

1 Average 

■ m -T ;7- 

16.67 

1 17.38 

1 34.06 

1 ri.sg 


'Grain @ r4.81 a huilujired kilograms. 
Mash @ P6.25 a hundred kilograms. 



SECOND EGO LAYING CONTEST 


153 


By roference to table 4 it may be seen tiiat the feed consumptions 
of the two Los Banos Cantonese entries, Entries Nos. 1 and 5, were 
fairly uniform. The same is true of the two Nagoya pens, Entries 
Nos. 3 and 6. There was a wide difference between the .feed con- 
sumption of the two S. C. White Leghorn entries. Entries Nos. 2 and 
7. This was apparently due to the great difference in the number 
of eggs produced by these two pens, as is pointed out in the first part 
of this paper. 

When computed on the basis of feed consumption per bird ac- 
cording to breeds represented, it was observed that the S. C. Rhode 
Island Red fowls consumed the most, 40.43 kilograms of feed each. 
The Mikawa fowls consumed 35.65 kilograms each, the Nagoyas, 
33.98, while the S. C. White Leghorns consumed 33.93 kilograms of 
feed each. As in the previous year, the Los Banos Cantonese fowls 
consumed the smallest amount of feed, only 30.04 kilograms for each 
bird. 

Table 4 also gives the cost of the feeds consumed by each pen. 
By reference to this table, it will be seen that the cost of feeds con- 
sumed by each pen during the year varied from P16.62 in Entry No. 
5, Los Banos Cantonese to P22.46 in Entry No. 8, S. C. Rhode Island 
Red. According to breeds represented in the contest, the cost of 
the feeds consumed were as follows: Los Banos Cantonese, P16.73; 
S. C. White Leghorn, P18.75 ; Nagoya, P17.92 ; Mikawa, P19.77 ; and 
S. C. Rhode Island Red P22.46. 

Returns from the sale of eggs. In computing the income from 
the sale of eggs, the total pen production, including the “out eggs”, 
that is, those that were laid outside the trapnest, distributed on the 
basis of ten birds was used. The total number of eggs thus pro- 
duced by each pen (see also table 2), the percentage of eggs in each 
of the grades used in the contest, with the total income derived from 
these are given in table 5. 

By reference to table 5, it may be seen that the S. C. Rhode 
Island Reds, Entry No. 8, had the largest return from the sale of 
eggs, being P112.17. This pen was only second in the number of 
eggs produced, but the eggs produced were the largest of all the 
entries. Entry No. 7, S. C. White Leghorns, produced the largest 
number of eggs, but the eggs were smaller than those of the S. C. 
Rhode Island Reds. This pen brought in pnly P93.26 from the sale 
of eggs. 



154 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE 6 

Showing the total pen production of the different entries and the distribution 

of the sine of eggs 


ENTRY 

NO. 

B1CEEJ3 

TOTAL 

ECKJS 

LAID 

SIZE DISTRIBUTION ^ 

VALUE 

Under- 

Ifrade 

Stand- 

ard 

Extra 

Spe- 

cial 

Prime 




per 

per 

per 

per 

per 


. 



cent 

cent 

cent 

cent 

cent 

pesos 

1 

Los Banos Cantonese . . 

1742 

82.4 

16.3 

2.1 

0.1 

0.1 

66.07 

2 

S. C. White Leghorn . . 

1560 

38.3 

37.9 

21.0 

2.8 

— 

60.66 

3 

Nagoya 

1844 

26.8 

32.3 

31.3 

7.6 

3.0 

79.12 

4 

Mikawa 

1876 

29.1 

36.4 

24.6 

7.9 

3.0 

78.82 

5 

Los Banos Cantonese . 

1681 

64.2 

37.0 

8.4 

0.5 

— 

60.26 

6 1 

Nagoya 

1740 

12.6 

60.4 

27.7 

' 4.0 

6.4 

76.38 

7 

S. C. White Leghorn . 

2214 

20.9 

42.8 

30.7 

6.3 

0.3 

93.26 

8 

S. C. Rhode Island Red 

1956 j 

0.8 1 

6.6 

29.8 

44.1 

18.8 

112.17 


Average per pen 

1826 

1 33.0 

1 32.2 

1 22.0 

9.0 

1 3.8 

1 77.08 


** Including “out eggs”. 

6 C. A. Underg^rades, 44 grams or less each. 
C. A. Standard, 46 to 49 grams each. 

C. A. E^ra, 60 to 64 grams each. 

C. A. Special, 66 to 69 grams each. 

C. A. Prime, 60 grams or more each. 


According to the breeds represented, the total incomes derived 
from the sale of market eggs were as follows : Los Banos Cantonese, 
P68.16; Nagoya, P77.75; Mikawa, P78.82; S. C. White Leghorn, 
P81.91; ^nd S. C. Rhode Island Red, P112.17. The average returns 
derived from each bird in the contest was P7.71. 

Returns from the sale of eggs over the cost of feeds. Table 6 
gives the cost of feeds consumed and the value of the eggs produced 
during the year. By deducting the cost of feeds consumed from the 
value of eggs produced, the returns over, the cost of feeds was ob- 
tained. 

By reference to table 6, it may be seen that the returns from 
the sale of eggs over the cost of feeds varied from P89.71, Entry No. 
8, S. C. Rhode Island Red, to P39.14, Entry No. 1, Los Banos Can- 
tonese. According to breeds, the returns were as follows: Los 
Banos Cantonese, P41.44; S. C. White Leghorn, P58.16; Nagoya, 
P58.84; Mikawa, P59.05; and S. C. Rhode Island Red, P89.71. In 
this connection, the large eggs produced by the S. C. Rhode Island 
Beds proved to be a decided advantage to this breed. ' 


SECOND EGG LAYING CONTEST 


155 


TABLE R 

Showing the cost of feeds consumed, the value of eggs produced and the returns 

above the cost of feeds 


ENTRY 

NO. 

BREED 

COST OF 

FEED 

VALUE OF 
ECOS 

RETURNS 
ABOVE THE 
COST OF 
FEEDS 

1 ' 

Los Banos Cantonese 

VesOiS 

1 16.93 

ptdOS 

66.07 

pesos 

39.14 

2 

S . C. White Leghorn 

17.31 

60.56 

43.25 

3 

Nagoya 

1 18.93 

79.12 

60.19 

4 

Mikawa 

19.77 

78.82 

59.05 

5 

Los Banos Cantonese 

16.52 

60.26 

43.73 

6 

Nagoya 

18.90 

76.38 

57.48 

7 

S . C. White Leghorn 

20.19 

93.26 1 

73.07 

8 

S . C. Rhode Island Red .... 

22.46 

112.17 1 

' 89.71 


Cost of producing one dozen eggs. The cost of producing one 
dozen eggs, based upon the amount of feeds consumed by each of the 
pens entered in the contest is given in table 7. 

TABLE 7 

Showing the cost of producing one dozen eggs 


ENTRY 

NO. 

BREED 

FEED 

TO PRODUCE 

1 DO/.KN EGOS 

FEED COST 

TO PRODUCE 

1 DOZEN EG('>S 

TOTAL COST * 

TO PRODUCE 

1 DOZEN EGGS 



kgm. 

centavos 

centavos 

1 

Los Banos Cantonese .... 

2.12 

11.7 

19.4 

2 

S . C. White Leghorn 

2.41 

13.3 

22.1 

3 

Nagoya 

2.21 

12.2 

20.2 

4 

Mikawa 

2.28 

12.6 

20.9 

6 

Los Banos Cantonese . . . 

2.12 

n .7 

19.4 

6 1 

Nagoya 

2.34 

12.9 

21.4 

7 

S . C. White Leghorn 

1.98 

10.9 

18.1 

8 1 

S . C. Rhode Island Red . . 

2.48 

13.7 

1 22.7 


“If feed represents 60.3 per cent of the total cost of production. 


By reference to table 7 it may be seen that the amount of feeds 
required to produce a dozen eggs varied from 1.98 kilograms (Entry 
No. 7, S. C. White Leghorn) to 2.48 kilograms (Entry No. 8, S. C. 
Rhode Island Red) . The cost of feeds varied from 10.9 centavos to 
13.7 centavos a dozen. If the cost of feeds represents 60.3 per cent 
of the total cost of production, * the total cost of production varied 
from only 18.1 centavos to 22.7 centavos a dozen eggs. According 

* Fbonda, F. M., and Pedro S. Paje. 1930. Factors in the cost of egg pro- 
duction. The Philippine Agriculturist 19; 337-363. ChaHs 1-i. 


166 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


to breeds represented, the costs of producing a dozen eggs were as 
follows: Los Bafios Cantonese, 19.4 centavos; S. C. White Leghorn, 
20.1 centavos; Nagoya, 20.8 centavos; Mikawa, 20.9 centavos and S. 
C. Rhode Island Red, 22.7 centavos. 

MortaMy. Of the total of 104 birds in the contest, 8 died dur- 
ing the year, which represents a total mortality of only 7.7 per cent. 
No mortality was recorded in Entries No. 3, Nagoya, No. 6, Los 
Banos Cantonese and No. 8, S. C. Rhode Island Red. One bird died 
in each of Entries No. 6, Nagoya and 7, S. C. White Leghorn; 
and two birds died in each of Entries No. 1, Los Banos Cantonese, 
No. 2, S. C. White Leghorn, and No. 4, Nagoya. The mortality in 
the First Philippine Egg Laying Contest was 13.58 per cent. ® 

SUMMARY 

1. Eight pens were entered in the Second Philippine Egg Lay- 
ing Contest. Two of these were Los Banos Cantonese, two were S. 
C. White Leghorns, two were Nagoyas and one each of Mikawas and 
of S. C. Rhode Island Reds. 

2. All entries gained in weight during the year. 

3. Fourteen or 17.6 per cent of the eighty birds entered in this 
contest made a record of over 200 eggs each. 

4. The highest record of individual egg production was made 
by a S. C. White Leghorn pullet with 267 eggs to her credit. 

6. 'The average “official” production was 169.2 eggs each bird; 
including the “out eggs”, the average was 182.6 eggs. 

6. The average feed consumption per pen was 34.05 kilograms. 
The S. C. Rjhode Island Reds consumed the most feed, 40.43 kilograms 
to each bird and the Los Banos Cantonese the least, 30.04 kilograms 
to each. 

7. The average returns from the sale of eggs was P7.71 each 
bird. The S. C. Rhode Island Red entry had the highest return, 
?112.17. 

8. The S. C. Rhode Island Red entry produced the largest eggs. 
This entry Kad also the largest return over the cost of feeds from 
the sale of eggs. 

9. The cost of producing a dozen eggs varied from 18.1 to 22.7 
centavos. The Los Banos Cantonese breed produced the most econom. 
ical eggs, the S. C. Rhode Island Red, the most expensive. 

10. The mortality in all pens during the year was only 7.7 per 

cent. 


'loe. cit. 



ABSTRACT 


Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas Linn. vs. Calopogonium muco- 
noides Desv., a legume, as pasture crops for growing pigs. Ale- 
jandro V. Soriano. {Thesis presented for gradvMtion, 1931, from 
the College of Agricidture, No. 350; Experiment Station contribu- 
tion, No. 893 ) — The object of this work was to compare the effi- 
ciency of Calopogonium with sweet potato, as a forage for growing 
pigs on a ration mixture consisting of 20 parts corn, 60 parts rice 
bran, 17 parts copra meal, and 3 parts shrimps for weanlings and 
on a ration mixture made up of 20 parts corn, 60 parts rice bran 
and 20 parts copra meal for shotes. 

Thirty-five 24-kgm. Berkjala pigs were put on a 70-day feed- 
ing test; they were divided into five lots of 7 pigs each. The pigs 
in lot I were given a full ration in dry lot ; those in lot II were given 
a limited ration with Calopogonium soilage ; lot IV was full fed with 
access to sweet potato pasture; and lot V was full fed with access 
to Calopogonium pasture. 

The pastures of Calopogonium and sweet potato were of the same 

age. 

The following results were obtained: From the point of view 
of rate of gains made, lot IV was first with an average daily gain 
per pig of .22 kgm. ; lot I, second with .19 kgm. ; lot II, third with 
,18 kgm. ; lots III and V, last with .15 kgm. each. Basing calculations 
on feed required to make a given unit of gain, lot IV was again 
first with 2.1 kgm, feed consumed to make a kilogram gain; lot II, 
second with 2.7 kgm. ; lot III, third with 3.1 kgm. ; lot V, fourth with 
3.2 kgm.; and lot I, fifth with 3.9 kgm. The camote soilage of 315 
kgm, given lot II had a feed value equivalent of 103 kgm. ; or 3 kgm. 
camote soilage is equivalent to 1 kgm. of the ration mixture used. 

• Basing conclusion on the comparative results obtained from lots 
I and IV, a hectare of camote pasture had a feed value equivalent 
of 1,146 kgm. and at the price of the feed mixture used at the time 
it was worth P86.17. The principal reason the Calopogonium lots 
gave the poorest results was that the pigs found the Calopogonium 
unpalatable. The fact that lot III was given the same amount of 
ration as lot II, similarly with lots IV and V, and that the pigs in 


* Abstract presented as part of work required in English 3a, Colleg^e of 
Agriculture. 


157 



168 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


the Calopogonium lots hardly made use of their Calopogonium for- 
age caused the pigs in these lots (III and V) to be underfed. In 
other words the Calopogonium lots did not do as well as the camote 
lots, not because of any ill effects from eating Calopogonium but be- 
cause they did not get the full feeding they needed. For this same 
reason it was impossible to calculate the feed value equivalent of 
the Calopogonium forage. The experiment did show, however, that 
Calopogonium is not relished by pigs. 

The author conducted another 70-day feeding trial with 28 38- 
kgm. Berkjala pigs divided into four lots. Lot I on sweet potato 
pasture was given full ration; lot II on sweet potato pasture, one- 
half ration ; lot III on Calopogonium pasture, full ration ; and lot IV 
on Calopogonium pasture, one-half ration. 

The trial gave the following results : basing calculations on rate 
of gains made, lot I gave the most satisfactory result with an aver- 
age daily gain per pig of .29 kgm. ; lot III, second, with .21 kgm. ; lot 
II third, with .18 kgm.; and lot IV fourth, with .15 kgm. From 
the results from the amount of feed necessary to make a given gain, 
lot II was first with 3.3 kgm. feed for every kilogram gain; lot IV 
second, with 4.0 kgm. ; lot I third, vidth 4.1 kgm. ; and lot III fourth, 
with 5.6 kgm. feed. 

The outstanding result obtained is the marked superiority of 
sweet potato over Calopogonium as pasture for hogs, full fed or on 
limited rations. Another result of importance is that where rapid 
growth and development is the object sought, as for breeding stock, 
full feeding with access to a good pasture like sweet potato is a bet- 
ter practice than limiting the ration. 

Abstract by A. D. Pablo 


CURRENT NOTES 

One hundred years ago, consumption of sugar in the United 
States totalled 61,000 long tons, at the rate of only 9.96 lbs. per head. 
Fifty years ago consumption aggregated 1,061,000 tons, or 45.09 lbs. 
per head of population. The figures for 1932 (preliminary) showed 
a per capita consumption of 101 3/4 lbs., as against 108.4 lbs. in 
1931 

The Auttralian Sugar Journal, March 9, 1933. 


In some cases prices for this fibre (Manila hemp) fell to the 
lowest level on record. Unfortunately for the producing side, Ma- 
nila fibre is a most vulnerable target for the slings and arrows of 



CURRENT NOTES 


159 


adversity, being one of the worst sufferers from such a world-wide 
depression as we are now up against in the shipbuilding trade in 
all its sections, new craft, repairs, renewals. 

Tropical Life, February, 1933. 


Doctors and hospitals are rapidly becoming used to prescribing 
honey in the diet of invalids and particularly those suffering from 
diabetes. Some conclusive evidence is being brought out to the ef- 
fect that many invalids who cannot use sugar and similar sweets in 
their diets, may use honey more or less freely without any of the 
serious effects which ordinarily develop from some other sweets. 
Quite a number of people suffering from diabetes have found that 
honey may be used, and cases have been reported showing that honey 
may be used quite freely without any ill effect. It is also known 
that bacteria which cause some of our common diseases, such as 
typhoid and dysentery cannot live in honey for more than a few 
hours. We may therefore expect to find, when proper investigations 
have been made, that honey has strong medicinal qualities, and that 
it will be deemed as necessary in the diet of people as many of the 
products now used for the healthful development of the human body. 
The Journal of the Jamaica Agricultural Society, January, 1933. 


The education of farmers’ daughters who are to remain on the 

land is of quite as much importance as that of the sons 

Classes in butter making and poultry keeping are organized 
throughout the counties at which instructions largely of a practical 
nature are given by the County Instructress. Lectures on these sub- 
jects are also given at schools in rural areas 

The only State school for girls is the Munster Institute. The 
school is run primarily for the training of girls who are to return 
to the land, but it is also used to a lesser extent for the training of 
teachers in butter making and poultry keeping. The normal period 
of training for girls returning home is two terms each of about 22 
weeks duration, and four terms for girls who qualify as teachers. 

The Farmers’ Gazette (Ireland), February 18, 1933. 


In spite of the low prices last year of coconut, the value of pro- 
duction of which was 40 per cent less, resulting in a loss of some 
P30,000,000 to the owners, the planting of coconut did not stop. Over 
2,000,000 coconut trees on 12,000 hectares were planted last year. 
Commerce and Industry Journal, (Philippines) April, 1932. 



160 


THE PHIUPPINE AGRICULTUSIST 


Now that regulations governing the retail sale of eggs are in 
force, it is the duty of all producers to see that retailers are sup- 
plied with eggs that will comply with those regulations. The more 
efficiently the producers do their job, the quicker will be the turn- 
over by the retailer, and the greater the satisfaction of the consum- 
ers. This will quickly lead to increased consumption. Every 
purchaser of eggs from shop, stand, or stall, is entitled to be supplied 
only with eggs of specified quality and of the weight he or she desires 
or can afford. 

Briefly, the provisions as to quality laid down in the regulations 
are that : — “No person shall sell any egg unless it is sound and whole- 
some; on candling the white is translucent and the yolk translucent 
or but faintly visible. The air cell must not exceed one-quarter of 
an inch in depth. Chilled eggs must be branded with the word 
‘chilled,' and the air cell must not be greater than three-eighths of 
one inch.” Eggs must be sold in the following grade weights : — 

“Special” must weigh not less than 2 1/4 oz. each. 

“Standards” must weigh not less than 2 oz. each. 

“Medium” must weigh not less than 1 3/4 oz. 

“Small,” all eggs less than 1 3/4 oz. 

The proprietor of any shop, stand, stall, &c., where eggs are 
sold is required to keep the various grades of eggs in separate re- 
ceptacles and to affix to each a placard, on which shall be printed 
or written the grade of eggs in plain and legible characters plainly 
visible to customers. 

Journal of Agriculture, (Australia) March, 1933. 


COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 

Mrs. Harriet Richards formerly of the faculty in the Cebu 
Branch of the University of the Philippines succeeds Miss Williamson 
as instructor in English in the Rural High School of this College. 


Mr. Zosimo Montemayor B. Agr. '24, B. S. Agr. '28 was a wel- 
come Campus visitor in May. Mr. Montemayor is Principal of Cam- 
arines Agricultural High School. Rumor says that he is doing 
exceptionally good work in this school. He is making it a real farm 
school. The enrollment is between two and three hundred. Mr. 
Montemayor has changed, the dormitory system with free board and 
lod^ng to a living on the farm plan. There is a credit or school 
exchange system whereby products grown by students are received 



COLLEGE ANO ALUMNI NOTES 


161 


and necessities bouerht. In the 1933 graduating class 37 students 
had P800 coming to them from this exchange. One or more of these 
students who received the larger shares, bought from one to two 
hectares of land with their student profit. 


On May 1 at six o’clock in the morning in the Catholic Chapel 
with Father Casey officiating, Miss Victorina Adriatico and Mr. Es- 
teban Collado were united in marriage. 

The trees and shrubs gently swaying in the breeze in the morn- 
ing sunshine were framed as pictures in the windows and doors of 
the chapel, and within the green palms and white flowers, a white 
floral wedding bell, and the white canvased aisle all made a perfect 
setting for the marriage ceremony. The bride in a white satin gown 
with train and wearing the conventional veil was all a bride is ex- 
pected to be as she walked up the aisle on the arm of her father to 
the strains of the Lohengrin wedding march played by Miss Villegas. 
The groom — and never was there a groom on whose countenance hap- 
piness was written with clearer lines — met the bride at the altar. 
To add the perfect touch, during the ceremony and the mass, many 
birds in the trees sang their good wishes in their best and gayest 
morning voices. 

A wedding breakfast was served to a large number of friends 
in Molawin Hall. 

Miss Adriatico has been a chief nurse in the College Infirmary 
since it opened in 1930. Mr. Collado, a B. Agr. '19 and M. S. '22, 
has been on the Chemistry staff as graduate assistant and instructor 
since his graduation. 

All College friends of the bride and groom and this includes all 
members of faculty, student body and employees wish them hap- 
piness, health and prosperity. 


The following excerpt is from Tropical Life, (London) March, 
1933: 

The Philippine Agriculturist for December (1932) (published by the College 
of Agriculture, Laguna, P. I.) includes two articles. The first one by Mr. Mar- 
tin S. Celino, plant pathologist, starts by telling us that in January, 1930, a 
dead coconut leaf miner (Promecotheea cumingii Baly) which was pasted by, 
a fungous growth dn the under surface of a coconut' 'plhVia, was found on one 
of the trees in the nursery of the College of Agriculture at Los Bafios, Laguna, 
Philippine Islands (Celino, 1930). The fungous growtii appeared almost white 
and chalky and it nearly covered the body of the insect. Microscopic examina- 



162 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


tion of the powdery mass showed smooth, hyaline, septate mycelium and nu- 
merous smooth, small, spherical spores with olive buff contents. This fungous 
disease of Promeeotheca cumingii has not been known hitherto in the Philippine 
Islands. 

Summing up, we are told the fungus Beauveria bassiarui (Bals.) Vuill. is 
parasitic on the coconut leaf miner (Promeeotheca cumingii Baly) in the Philip- 
pines. This entomogenous fungus, under laboratory conditions, causes from 
43 to 68 per cent, of mortality of the insect host. 

In the same exchangfe, pp, 491-504 are given up to an article, by Claro C. 
Bagalso, on “Top-working old coffee trees which are poor yielders,^' which 
surely would interest any coffee planter. Unfortunately we cannot ’give a use- 
ful resume in a few lines. Of course the idea is not a new one. Java, for in- 
stance, had made use of top-working with most encouragring results. 


Quoting again from Tropical Life, (London) March, 1933: 

The “P.A.,” [Philippine Agriculturist, December, 1932] in its “College and 
Alumni” notes at the end, speaks of the “Mimics* Club** presenting the popular 
and well-beloved Gilbert and Sullivan*8 Opera [The Mikado] on Loyalty Day 
(October 10), in Baker Hall, named after our good friend, the late Professor 
Baker, Dean of the Colleg^e. “Only praise can be given for the performance 
on every point,** we are told, and can well believe it, especially with such in- 
teresting names for the artistes who took the parts of Yum- Yum, Pitti-Sing 
and Peep-Bo, as Illuminada Torres, Andrea Balbin and Virginia Mondohedo. 
We should much like to have been present. 



SOME THOUGHTS ON PRODUCTION 

A summary of the figures of production and trade relating to 
plantation crops has recently been issued by the Empire Marketing 
Board and furnishes most interesting matter for contemplation. 

The average values of the world’s trade in rubber, tea or tobacco 
for the years 1926-31 were greater than those in beef, pork, maize or 
barley. In other words, on the whole, countries tend to produce their 
food more at home and import their luxuries from outside. The 
very reverse of conditions in Ceylon. A much higher proportion of 
the world’s tobacco crops enter international trade than of dairy 
produce, meat or grain. To what an extraordinary state do many of 
the producing countries of plantation crops find themselves in the 
dangerous situation of depending very largely, too largely, upon one 
staple! The value of Ceylon’s tea consists of some 52 per cent of 
her total exports. Sugar constitutes over three-quarters of the value 
of the exports of Cuba and over half of that of those of Dominica, 
Hawaii, Porto Rico. Barbados, British Guiana and Fiji. Brazil, 
Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala and San Salvador depend for over 
90 per cent of their trade upon coffee. The Gold Coast to 80 per 
cent upon cocoa. One half the export trade of British Malaya is 
in rubber in comparison to one-fifth in the case of Ceylon. One half 
of the value of the export trade of Greece and three-quarters of that 
of Nyasaland consists of tobacco. Zanzibar lives largely on her 
trade in spices, mostly cloves, which constitute 68 per cent of the 
value of her exports. India and the United States are the largest 
consumers of cloves. 

Whilst the Empire is the world’s largest exporter of tea yet on 
the whole she is not a net exporter of the commodity. The Empire 
production and consumption approximately balance. 

India’s chillies go mostly to Ceylon and seven per cent of her 
ginger. In both of these Ceylon could be more than self-supporting. 
India enjoys a large export trade in ginger with Aden and Arabia, 
less than one-quarter of her shipments of this spice go to Europe. 
The sole spice in which Ceylon possesses a monopoly is cinnamon of 
which Mexico is the largest consumer, Spain and the United States 
coming next in order. 

PHILIPPINE AGHICULTUBIST VOL. XXII, No. 8, AUGUST, 1988 


163 



164 


THE PHILIPPINE AGEICULTURIST 


The world's total production of tobacco is more valuable than 
that of sugar although less than one-tenth the quantity. The average 
value of tobacco exported from Cuba is some £180 a ton in compar- 
ison to £123 from the United States, £89 from the Dutch Blast Indies 
and £60 from India. 

The area of the world under sugar is estimated at some 20 
million acres. There are over 12 million acres under coffee and about 
half that under tobacco. Plantation rubber covers nearly 8 million 
acres, cocoa about 3 1/2 million and tea under 3 million. The world's 
area under sugar is about one-quarter of the wheat area in Russia, 
which is about the same size as the rice area ini India, and one-fifth 
of the area under maize in the United States. The world's area 
under coffee is less than that planted with wheat in France. 

The Tropical Agricxdturist (Ceylon) February, 1933 


The man who thinks he knows it all has merely stopped thinking. 

Penn State Farmer 


I believe thoroughly in agricultural education. I regard it as 
one of the most important and essential branches of the whole educa- 
tional effort that is being carried on in the United States. I am a 
firm believer also in the value of the cooperative research and experi- 
mental work and the extension service, which state institutions in 
codperation with the Federal government are rendering. 

I think it would be nothing short of a disaster if any of this work 
were seriously curtailed. Particularly in these times when farmers 
are having such a desperate struggle to maintain themselves. . I think 
it supremely important that they should have the benefit of the expert 
advice that colleges, experiment stations and extension services are 
able to give them and it is equally important that we should continue 
to hold out to their children opportunities for an education that will 
make them something more than field drudges 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 
West Virginia Farm News 


A watch without hands won’t tell the time of day. 

A farmer without accounts doesn't know where he gets his pay. 

The Agricvltural Student (College of Agriculture, 

Ohio State University) 



A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF PUPILS IN VOCATIONAL 
AGRICULTURE ^ 

FRANCISCO M. SACAY 
Of the Department of Agricultural Education 

One of the important requirements in the proper conduct of 
the educational process is to have a full knowledge of the pupils, 
or the individuals to be educated. The aim of the survey reported 
in this article was to discover certain characteristics of the student 
population in schools of agriculture of secondary grade. Such infor- 
mation may not only contribute to the solution of problems pertain- 
ing to the teaching process, but also aid in solving problems con- 
cerning organization and administration of vocational education in 
agriculture in the Philippines. 

METHOD OF STUDY 

The data reported in this paper were obtained through ques- 
tionnaires sent to pupils through teachers who were requested by 
the writer to help in gathering the necessary facts. Other informa- 
tion was obtained from the principals of the schools included in the 
survey. The greater portion of these data was collected in 1931. 
Facts on the elimination of students were recently obtained. 

PATRONAGE AREA OF AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS 

In 1932, 26 provinces in the Philippines had at least one agri- 
cultural or rural high school. In one province, there were as many 
as three such schools. The total number of secondary schools giv- 
ing instruction in vocational agriculture numbered 31 in 1932. 

In studying an agricultural school, the first question which should 
be answered is: Where does the student body of the school come 
from? What is the size of the patronage area of the school? Is the 
whole province served by the agricultural school of that province? 
The figures in table 1 attempt to answer these questions. 

* General contribution from the College of Agriculture, No. 348. Received 
for publication, April 12, 1933. 

Materials embodied in this paper were taken from pages 192 to 203 and 
pages 211 to 220 of a dissertation presented by the author to the Faculty of 
the Graduate School, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., in partial fulfillment 
of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 


166 



166 


THE PHIUPPINE AGBICXn^TtmiST 


TABLE 1 

Enrollment in agricultural schools and its sources 


SCHOOLS 

TOTAL EN- 
ROLLMENT 

ENROLLMENT 
FROM TOWN 
WHERE 
SCHOOL IS 
LOCATED 

ENROLLMENT 
FROM PROV- 
INCE WHERE 
SCHOOL IS 
LOCATED 

PUPILS COM- 
ING PROM 
OUTSIDE THE 
PROVINCE 

1 


per cent 

per cent 

per cent 

Rural High : 





Zambales 

52 

53.8 

98.1 

1.9 

Batac 

76 

88.0 

97.3 

2.7 

San Carlos . . . 

446 

61.7 

79.6 

20.4 

Agricultural High : 





Lagangilang . . 

167 

a 

48.5 

61.6 

Baybay 

177 

19.8 

1 68.4 

31.6 

Camarines 

248 

a 

25.8 

74.2 

Trinidad 

566 

a 

93.6 

6.4 

®Not reported. 


It will be seen that the rural high school gets its enrollment 
principally from the province in which it is located. The agricul- 
tural high school, on the other hand, obtains a high proportion of 
pupils from outside the province. This is because agricultural schools 
usually have facilities for board and lodging for pupils from other 
towns. The other two factors which may affect the proportion of 
pupils coming from other provinces are the size of the province and 
nearness 6f competing schools of agriculture. The low percentage 
of outside students attending Trinidad is due principally to the size 
of the province served by the school, and the presence of agricul- 
tural schools in the nearby provinces. In the case of Camarines, the 
small size of the province and the absence of similar schools in near- 
by provinces result in a high percentage of its enrollment being 
from outside. 

Table 1 also indicates that the patronage area of the rural high 
school is primarily local, as the percentage of pupils coming from 
the town where the school is located ranges from 53.8 to 88.0 per cdht. 
Similar results were found by the Monroe Educational Survey Com- 
mission * in the case of academic high schools. The percentage of 
high school enrollment in academic high schools coming from with- 
in a radius of 20 kilometers ranges from 43.0 to 68.5 per cent. 
According to the Commission the geographical factor is important 
in determining attendance. 

’The Board of Educational Survey. 1926. A survey of the Educational 
System of the Philippine Islands. (By Monroe Commission) 677 p, Manila: 
Bureau of Printing. 



PUPILS IN VOCATIONAL AORICULTUBE 


167 


The high percentage of pupils in a rural high school coining 
from the province where the school is located has a great signifi- 
cance on the nature of contents of the subjects in asrriculture taught 
in these schools. It indicates that much attention should be given 
to the problems and needs of the system of farming found in the 
province. 

AGE OF PUPILS IN AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS 

A total of 339 pupils were included in this study. These pupils 
were distributed among the following schools: Bunawan, Central 
Luzon, and Mampising agricultural high schools, and Nueva Vizca- 
ya rural high school. 


TABLE 2 

Ages of pupils in five schools of agriculture 


AGE IN 

YEARS 

FIRST 

YEAR 

SECOND 

YEAR 

THIRD 

YEAR 

FOURTH 
i YEAR 

13 1 

— 

1 

1 

— 

14 

2 

1 

1 

— 

16 

9 

3 

— 

— 

16 

16 

9 

1 

— 

17 

21 

13 

3 

— 

18 

18 

22 

12 

7 

19 

9 

9 

13 

8 

20 

11 

17 

19 

18 

21 

1 

9 

14 

7 

22 

9 

4 

13 

18 

23 

2 

1 

8 

14 

24 

2 

1 

1 

6 

25 

1 

— 

2 

8 

26 

1 

— 

2 

2 

27 

— 

— 

1 

3 

Median 

(years) 

16.9 1 

17.8 1 

19.8 1 

21.3 


• In table 2 is shown the range of ages of these pupils. The 
youngest pupil is 13 years and the oldest is 27 years. The median 
ages for the different years are as follows: first year, 16.9 years; 
second year, 17.8; third year, 19.8; fourth year, 21.3 years. It will 
be seen that agricultural pupils are relatively mature. The Monroe 
Commission found a similar situation in academic high schools. 
The Philippine pupils when they enter high schools are about three 
years older than those in the United States who usually enter high 
school at 14 or 16 years of age. The agricultural pupil is therefore 
physically mature for the task which he has to do in the school. For 



168 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICVLTURIST 


the school administrator another significance of this finding is in de- 
ciding the grade in the school system at which instruction in voca- 
tional agriculture may be given. 

SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF AGRICULTURAL PUPILS 

A knowledge of the social group from which the pupils come 
will indicate to the school administrator their previous experiences 
and probable attitude towards the vocation for which they are being 
trained. A total of 381 pupils from five schools indicated the oc- 
cupation of their parents. As shown in table 3, 307 are sons of farm- 
ers. This number comprises 80.6 per cent of the total. The Mon- 
roe Commission reported that in the academic high schools, 56.6 per 
cent of pupils are sons or daughters of farm owners and tenants, 
indicating the importance of the agricultural industry in the Phil- 
ippines. In the State of New York, Dr. T. H. Eaton » found that 
77.8 per cent of parents of pupils enrolled in vocational agriculture 
were engaged in occupations of agricultural nature. It appears that 
the schools of agriculture in the Philippines attract pupils who have 
had previous experiences in farm life and are agriculturally inclined. 


TABLE S 

Occupation of father a of pupils in agrictdture 


OCCUPATION 

AGRICULTURAL HIGH 

SCHOOLS 

RURAL HIGH SCHOOLS 

TOTAL 

Central 

Luxon 

|. Bunawan 

1 Mampisintf 

Nueva 

Viscaya 

Zambales 

Farming 

94 

83 1 


1 57 

27 

307 

Commerce 

3 

2 1 


2 

3 

10 

Skilled labor 

3 

1 


4 

1 

11 

Unskilled labor 

3 

0 


1 

0 

5 

Profession 

2 

0 


0 

1 

4 

Clerical 

0 

1 

0 

0 

0 

1 

Fishing 

3 

0 

1 

0 

0 

4 

Soldier 

0 

1 

1 

2 

0 

4 

None 

1 

6 

0 

1 

i ^ 


Not reported 

1 

4 

1 

6 

0 

12 

Deceased 

6 

5 

2 

2 

2 

16 

Total 1 

115 

1 102 1 

1 55 

1 75 

34 

381 


SIZE OF FARMS OPERATED BY PARENTS 

Whether the agricultural pupil will return to the farm and en- 
gage in farming after leaving school greatly depends upon the size 

’ Eaton, T. H. 19S2. Vocational education. Rural School Survey of New 
lork State. 293 p. Ithaca, N. Y. 















PUPILS IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE 


169 


of the farm operated by his father. Replies from 296 pupils dis- 
tributed in five schools were received. As shown in table 4, 149 of 
the 296 pupils have parents who operate one to five hectares. Many 
in this group operate two to three hectares. In other words, 60.3 
per cent of the home farms are less than five hectares in size. This 
small area indicates that many of these pupils will not be able to 
farm at once after leaving school because their fathers will not need 
their assistance, nor will their farm support a fair standard of liv- 
ing for a larger number of mature individuals. Consequently, many 
students are attracted to other types of work, as will be revealed 
from a study of their vocational intentions. 


TABLE 4 

Size of farms operated by pupils* parents 


SIZE IN j 
HECTARES 1 

CENTRAL 

LUZON 

BUNAWAN 

MAMPISINO 

NUEVA 

VIZCAYA 

ZAMBALES 

TOTAL 

1-5 j 

66 j 

24 


44 


149 

6-10 

16 

33 


6 


72 

10-16 1 

6 

8 

3 

3 


21 

16-20 

2 

8 

6 

— 

3 

18 

20-25 

6 

8 I 

6 

2 


22 

26-60 

4 

2 

4 

— 


10 

60-76 

1 

— 

1 

— 

— 

2 

76-100 

— 

— 

2 

— 

— 

2 

Total 

1 90 

83 1 

1 

56 { 

27 1 

296 


PERSISTENCE OF AGRICULTURAL PUPILS 

In the study of school persistence among students in agricul- 
ture, 202 distributed among three schools were included. These pu- 
pils entered the high schools either in 1928 or in 1929. The number 
completing the different high school grades is shown in table 6. It 
will be seen that 79.7 per cent of the original number successfully 
completed the first year. Less than one-half of the number which 
entered the agricultural school completed the course. Although two- 
thirds completed the second year, the number which continued to 
the third year and completed that year amounted to only 49 per 
cent of the original number. The factors which contributed to the 
elimination of many pupils were as follows: lack of financial sup- 
port, poor health, lack of interest in the work, and poor scholastic 
achievement. 


















170 


THK PHlUFPmE AOnCULTUaiST 


The fact that many papila do not go beyond the seomd year 
points to the importance of making the first two years of the cur- 
riculum of the greatest possible value to the prospective farmers. 


TABLE 5 

Peraiatenee of agricultural pupUa in achool 


8CH00UI 

STARTED 

1 COMPLETED 

COMPLETED 

COMPLETED 

COMPLETED 

1 IST YEAR 

2nd YEAR 

Srd year 

4th year 

Fatac Rural Higrh 

68 

51 


31 

30 

IndanfiT Rural High 

67 

43 


25 

23 

Lagangilang Agric. High .... 

77 

67 

64 1 

43 

33 

Total 

1 202 1 

161 

138 

99 

86 

Percentage 


79.7 

68.3 

49.0 

42.6 


OCCUPATIONAL INTENTION OF PUPILS 

Of the 381 pupils in five schools, 144, or 37.8 per cent of the 
total number, signified their intention to engage in farming at once 
after leaving school, as shown in table 6. Others, amounting to 24.1 
per cent, declared their intention to become farmers after saving suf- 
ficient capital from earnings in other lines of work. The proportion 
intending to teach was 24.4 per cent. The remaining 13.7 per cent 
reported their intention to engage in various occupational pursuits. 
Almost all of the pupils expressed a hope that they would be able 
to own and manage a farm bought with their savings within a rea- 
sonable number of years. Doctor Eaton found that about 76 per cent 
of New York students in agriculture intended to farm after leaving 
school. 

In table 6 is also shown the vocational choice of pupils accord- 
ing to his grade in school. One noticeable fact discovered is that 
among first year pupils a high percentage (58.0 per cent) desire 
to farm. Among fourth year pupils the percentage is only 22.8 iJer 
cent. On the other hand> the percentage of those selecting teaching 
is higher in the fourth than in the first year. If these figures are 
representative it seems that the longer the pupils stay in high school, 
the less the chances of their going into actual farming. This differ- 
ence in attitude may be due in part to the fact that the advanced pu- 
pils realize more clearly than the younger ones that they will not have 
sufficient capital when they graduate to start farming. To give an 
accurate explanation of the situation would require further study. 
















PUPILS m VOCATIONAL AGBICULTURE 


171 


TABLE 6 

Percentage of pupils intending to engage in different vocations 


OCCUPATIONS j 

FIRST 

YEAR 

SECOND 

YEAR 

THIRD 

YEAR 

FOURTH 

YEAR 

ALL 

pupil’s 

* 

1 per cent 

! per cent 

per cent 

per cent 

per cent 

Farming, after leaving school 

58.0 

32.9 

34.0 

22.8 

37.8 

Farming, as soon as enough capital 
is accumulated 

14.0 

30.8 

29.7 

23.9 

24.1 

Teaching 

18.7 

24.2 

20.9 

34.8 

24.4 

Commerce 

1.9 

— 

— 

1.1 

.7 

Skilled labor 

.9 

1.1 

2.2 i 

3.3 

1.8 

Forestry 

— 

2.2 

5.6 

2.2 

2.3 

Clerical work 

E9 



4.3 1 

1.4 

Professional service 

iHB 

HM 


3.3 

^3.9 

Soldier 




— 

.6 

Undecided 


■a 


4.3 

3.1 

Total 

100.0 

1 100.0 

1 100.0 

1 100.0 

1 100.0 


SUMMARY 

1. The patronage area of the rural high school is local in nature. 
The agricultural high school serves a wider area than the rural high 
school. 

2. The median age of first year pupils is 16.9 years which is 
two to three years higher than the median; age of the American pu- 
pils entering the high schooL 

3. The percentage of students coming from families engaged 
in agricultural pursuits is 80.6 per cent. 

4. With the majority of pupils their parents’ farms are not of 
sufficient size to enable the pupils to engage in farming when they 
leave school. 

5. Of the number of pupils enrolled in the first year, only 42.6 
per cent completed the course. 

6. Only about two-fifths of the pupils intend to farm at once 
wHen they leave school. Another fifth intend to farm if they can 
get or soon accumulate sufficient capital. The lack of available farms 
and necessary capital hinders many pupils from going direct to the 
farm. 



















THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOIL MEDIA ON THE RATE 
OF GROWTH OF CACAO (THEOBROMA CACAO L.) 

SEEDLINGS ^ 

PEDRO Z. MADRID 

WITH SEVEN TEXT PIOURFS AND TWO CHARTS 

The importance of soil media in determining and governing the 
vigor and growth of plant seedlings has been a subject of inves- 
tigation for many years. Much work has been done on determining 
the best combinations of soil media for various crops. Very little, 
if any, specific information has been obtained, however, regarding 
the best soil medium, under nursery conditions, for seedlings of 
Theobroma cacao L. It was for this reason that the present study 
on the effect of different soil media on the rate of growth of cacao 
seedlings was undertaken. 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE 

Holloway (1884) stated that nurseries either in beds, pots, bam- 
boo joints or baskets filled with a selected stiff good soil serves as a 
good planting medium. He pointed out that on no account should 
sandy soil be used for a nursery. He also suggested that seeds should 
be planted with the part nearest the raceme down ; if planted other- 
wise, the roots will come up and then turn back again to the soil. 

To quote Woods (1901) “Many agricultural plants have been 
more or less adapted to soils of a certain texture. If an attempt is 
made to grow a crop in soil not well adapted to it the crop is likely to 
suffer, unless the skill of the cultivator is able to modify the condi- 
tions of growth to meet the requirements of the crop.” 

According to Lyon (1906) a rich top dressing of well decomposed 
leaf mold mixed with sand will stimulate the early growth of caoao 
seedlings, and the production of stocky growth is encouraged when 
its roots enter the heavier soil below. He advised that the selected 
seed bed should be in a well shaded spot and, if possible, upon a rather 
stiff, plastic, but well-drained soil. 


* Thesis presented for graduation, 1933, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Science is Agriculture from the College of Agriculture, No. 361; Experiment 
Station contribution. No. 894. Prepared in the Department of Agronomy under 
the direction of Dr, Pedro A. David and Dr. Nemesio B. Mendiola. 


172 



SOIL MEDIA FOR CACAO SEEDLINGS 


173 


Wright (1907) recommended bamboo joints as pots in which to 
plant cacao seeds. In transplanting the seedlings with this type of 
pot there is little interruption of root development. 

Barrett (1913) stated that sandy soils which are not very well 
watered, and are rich and deep can not be recommended for growing 
cacao. He also suggests the bamboo pot as being the simplest and 
safest container for germinating the seed. The seed should be placed 
horizontally at a depth of about three centimeters below the surface 
of the soil ; the earth should not be pressed over the seed. 

Van Hall (1914) recommends that the soil used in the nurseries 
should be fertile, friable and well drained, and that compost or farm 
yard manure should be applied as it is always beneficial to the cacao 
seedlings. 

Quoting Van Slyke (1920), “farm manure in generous amounts, 
especially when used fresh, generally stimulates the growth of stems 
and leaves in a marked way, a condition characteristic of a high pro- 
portion of available nitrogen relative to available phosphorus and 
potassium. Under ordinary conditions, farm manure is regarded as 
a nitrogenous plant-food and as unbalanced with reference to the 
needs of most crops, relatively lacking in available phosphorus and 
potassium.” 

He also states that if nitrogen is lacking, there will be a decreased 
or stunted growth of the whole plant. 

Wester (1920) stated that the best germinating medium for 
cacao seeds is made up of a light sandy soil, fairly rich in humus, the 
particles of which can be easily pushed apart by the tender plant in 
its endeavor to penetrate the soil to the surface. For potting pur- 
poses, soil similar to that used in the seed bed may be used, but pref- 
erably a fairly heavy rich loam. 

Barrett (1928) advises that one seed be planted in a bamboo 
joint. Germination is thus insured and the seedling can be kept 
until it shows six to eight leaves. 

Williams (1929) states that the best soil for potting is prepared 
from a good fibrous turfy loam taken from old pastures and mixed 
with good cow manure or rotten leaves. 

OBJECT OF THE PRESENT WORK 

The object of the experiments reported in this paper was to de- 
termine which soil medium is best for the growth of cacao seedlings 
under nursery conditions in the College of Agriculture. 



174 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TIME AND PLACE OF THE PRESENT WORK 

This work was carried out in the Department of Agronomyi 
College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, Los Bafios, 
Laguna. The experiment was begun in April, 1931, and closed in 
September, 1932. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

MaterwXs used 

Scniree of variety. The seedlings used in this experiment were 
raised from freshly harvested cacao pods of the Forastero type grow- 
ing in the College Plateau Cacao Plantation. Only large and well- 
formed seeds were selected. The seeds were planted directly in bam- 



Fig. 1 . — Theobroma cacao L. seedlings eight months old. (o) Grown in 
ordinary garden soil; (6) in forest soil. 


boo pots containing different soil mixtures. Before sowing, the vis- 
cous pulp adhering to the integument of the seeds was removed by 
rolling them in dry ashes on a piece of cardboard. The pulp might 
induce fermentation which would have a very bad effect on the gei- 
minating embryo. Also seeds with the pulp left on are likely to be 
attacked by ants and other organisms that may be present in the dif- 
ferent soil media. 

Bdmboo pots. Bamboo pots of uniform size were used in this 
study because they were easily procured and were found to be adapted 
for raising cacao seedlings. The bamboo pots used varied in length 
from 30.5 to 32.6 cm. and from 7.6 to 8.5 cm. in diameter. Three 
small holes were made in the closed end of each pot and small stones 
placed in the bottom for drainage. 


SOIL MJBDIA FOB CACAO SEEDUNGS 176 

* 

Different soil media. In the preparation of the different soil 
media the following materials were used: (a) forest soil; (6) or- 
dinary garden soil; (c) sand; (d) compost; (e) chicken manure; 
and (/) horse manure. 

Undecayed leaves and twigs found mixed with the forest soil, the 
ordinary garden soil and the compost were removed by sifting, as they 
might contain fungi or bacteria that would be injurious to the cacao 
seedlings. To make it uniform in texture the fresh water sand which 
was gathered from the shore of Laguna de Bay was sifted through 
one-eighth inch mesh wire sieve. 

The chicken manure was gathered from the chicken houses of the 
Poultry Division, College of Agriculture. Before the chicken ma- 
nure was used, it was sun-dried and thoroughly pulverized. 



Fig 2 . — Tkeobroma cacao L. seedlings eight months old. (a) Grown in 
one-half forest soil and one-half compost; (h) in sand. 

The horse manure was gathered from the pit of the Animal 
Husbandry Department. It was also sun-dried and pulverized. 

With these materials the following media were prepared in the 
lal)oratory : 

(1) Forest soil, (2) ordinary garden soil, (3) sand, (4) one- 
half forest soil and one-half compost, (6) one-half ordinary garden 
soil and one-half compost, (6) one-half sand and one-half compost, 
(7) three-fourths forest soil and one-fourth chicken manure, (8) 
three-fourths ordinary garden soil and one-fourth chicken manure, 
(9) three-fourths sand and one-fourth chicken manure, (10) one-half 
forest soil and one-half horse manure, (11) one-half ordinary garden 
soil and one-half horse manure, (12) one-half sand and one-half horse 



176 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUBIST 


manure, (13) one-third sand, one-third ordinary garden soil and one- 
third horse manure, and (14) one-third sand, one-third ordinary 
garden soil and one-third chicken manure. 

These respective numbers of the soil media will be used in the 
discussions in this paper. 


Methods 

Analyses of samples of the different soil media. The determina- 
tion of total nitrogen, (N), phosphorus pentoxide, (PaOr,), and pot- 
ash, (KjO) of the different soil media used in this experiment were 
made through the cooperation of the Soils and Chemistry depart- 
ments. 

Planting the seeds and care of the seedlings. Twenty cacao seeds 
of uniform size were planted in each soil medium. The seeds were 
planted singly in a bamboo pot at a depth of about 3.0 cm. Each 
seed was planted in proper position, that is, the part nearest the 
raceme downward, if planted in the reverse position the hypocotyl 
will lengthen before the cotyledons rise above the ground. After 
all the seeds had been planted in the different soil media, the pots 
were carefully watered and labelled. The pots in each lot were num- 
bered for convenience in taking measurements. They were then 
placed under the shade about 15 cm. apart and all plants were treated 
alike during the progress of the experiment. Watering and weeding 
were done whenever necessary. 

Observation of growth. Monthly measurements on the growth 
of the iniiividual plants in each lot were made. These measurements 
were: (a) monthly increase in number of leaves; (b) monthly in- 
crease in elongation of stem; and (c) monthly increase in the diame- 
ter of stem. 

(а) Monthly counting of the number of leaves. The seeds were 
sown on May 12, 1931, and on June 10, 1931 or 29 days after sow- 
ing, the initial counting of the number of leaves on each individual 
seedling was made. The countings of the leaves were made in order 
of development, that is, from the oldest to the youngest leaf. The 
leaves were carefully handled, so that they were not in any way dis- 
turbed. 

(б) Monthly measurements of elongation and increase in diam- 
eter of stems. These measurements were taken on the same day 
the leaves were counted. The increase in diameter of the stems was 
measured by the use of a caliper. A base mark was made at exactly 
1.0 cm. from the terminal bud so as to avoid error due to sinking of 



SOIL MEDIA FOR CACAO SEEDLINGS 


177 


the level of the soil in the pots. This mark was also used as base 
mark for all subsequent measurements of the stem, elongation and as 
a fixed point where the monthly measurement of diameter was made. 
The marks were renewed at time of measurement so as to keep them 
always visible. The measurements of elongation and increase in 
diameter of stem as well as the counting of the number of leaves were 
taken every 31 days. 


RESULTS 

The results obtained in the experiments are given in tables 1 
to 3, in charts 1 and 2 and illustrated in figures 1 to 7. 

Table 1 presents the results of the analysis of the different soil 
media used. 

The direct associations of the different constituents in the soil 
media and the monthly mean increase in number of leaves, elongation 
of stems, and diameter of stems were determined. These results are 
presented in table 2. 

Table 3 shows the summary of results with brief notes on the 
general appearance of the seedlings in the different soil media. 

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 

Effects of the different soil media on the number of leaves 

produced 

It was noted that the different soil media had very distinct ef- 
fects upon the number of leaves produced (see fig. 1-7). The great- 
est total average increase in production of the number of leaves in 
all the treatments was during the fourth month after planting. Later 
the number of leaves produced gradually decreased. 

The average monthly increase in the number of leaves of the 
cacao seedlings for a period of eight months varied from 0.2 to 4.4. 
The seedlings grown in medium No. 3 (sand) gave an average in- 
crease of only 0.2 at the eighth month after planting. An average in- 
crease of 4.4 was found in medium No. 8, (three-fourths ordinary 
garden soil and one-fourth chicken manure) four months from the 
date of planting the seeds. 

All the soil media except that of No. 3, (sand) and No. 5, (one- 
half ordinary garden soil and one-half compost) gave after eight 
months practically the same average total increase in the number of 
leaves (see chart 1). 



178 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


The average total increase in the number of leaves at the close 
of this experiment varied from 9.4, as noted in medium No. 3 (sand) 
to 17.7 in medium No. 6 (one-half ordinary garden soil and one-half 
compost) . 

The frequency distribution of the monthly increase in the num- 
ber of leaves of cacao seedlings in the different media was made and 
it was found that the monthly mean increase of leaves in the different 
media varied from 1.42 ±: 0.06 in medium No. 3 (sand) to 2.62 
±: 0.08 in No. 6 (one-half ordinary garden soil and one-half compost) . 
Comparing medium No. 5 with the other media, a mean difference 
of more than 3 times its probable error was found, with the possible 
exception of medium No. 10 (one-half forest soil and one-half horse 



Fig. &. — Theobroma cacao L, seedlings eight months old. (a) Grown in 
one-half sand and one-half compost; (6) in one-half ordinary garden 
soil and one-half compost. 


manure) . This seems to indicate that media No. 5 and No. 10 had 
the same influence on the average monthly increase of leaves of the 
cacao seedlings. The standard deviation and coefficient of variabil- 
ity were calculated for each treatment and it was found that thOTe 
was no direct relation between them. Elach soil medium had a dif- 
ferent coefficient of variability. The seedlings in medium No. 
6 showed the highest coefficient of variability, while the lowest was 
found for medium No. 11 (one-half ordinary garden soil and one-half 
horse manure). 

Effects on the elongation of stems of the seedlings 

The shortest average monthly increase in the elongation of stems 
was found to be 0.08 cm. in medium No. 1 (forest soil) while the 


SOIL MEDIA FOR CACAO SEEDLINGS 


179 


longest was 6.26 cm. medium No. 8 (three-fourths ordinary garden 
soil and one-fourth chicken manure). The greatest average total 
increase after the eighth month was obtained in medium No. 6 
(one-half ordinary garden soil and one-half compost). The results 
show that different soil media have different effects upon the elon- 
gation of stems of cacao seedlings. This is further illustrated in fig- 
ures 1 to 7 and chart 1. It was also observed that the longest total 
average elongation of the stem occurred after the fourth month from 
planting. This observed monthly total average elongation of the 
stems gradually decreased as the seedlings approached the age of 
eight months. The average total increase after eight months varied 



Fig. 4. — Thcobroma cacao L. seedlings eight months old. (a) Grown in 
three-fourths ordinary garden soil and one-fourth chicken manure; 
(6) in three-fourths forest soil and one-fourth chicken manure. 


from 7.79 cm. in medium No. 3 (sand) to 26.68 cm. in medium No. 5 
(one-half ordinary garden soil and one-half compost). 

The frequency distribution of the monthly increase in the elon- 
gation of stems under each treatment for a period of eight months 
was made. MedSa Nos. 3 (sand) and 6 (one-half ordinary garden 
soil and one-half compost) gave means for elongation of stems, 1.06 
±. 0.06 and 3.81 i 0.14 cm., respectively. Comparing medium No. 
5 with the other media a significant difference was found except in 
the case of media Nos. 8, (three-fourths ordinary garden soil and 
one-fourth chicken manure) and 11, (one-half ordinary garden soil 
and one-half horse manure) . Media Nos. 8 and 11 gave practically 
the same mean of elongation of stems as that of No. 5 {see chart 1). 


180 


THE PHILIPPINE AOBICULTURIST 


The media which gave the greater increase in the elongation 
of the stem invariably showed higher standard deviation than me- 
dium No. 3 (sand). These different media showed no significant 
difference in their coefficient of variability as compared with medium 
No. 6. 

Effects on the increase in diameter of the stem 

The results for the average monthly increase in the diameter 
of stems of cacao seedlings as influenced by the different soil media 
show that the lowest average increase in the diameter of the stem 
was found in medium No. 3 (sand) , and the highest was observed in 
medium No. 8 (three-fourths ordinary garden soil and one-fourth 



Fig. 5 . — Theohroma cacao L. seedlings eight months old. (a) Grown in 
ohe-half forest soil and one-half horse manure; (6) in three-fourths 
sand and one-fourth chicken manure. 


chicken manure) which were found to be 0.02 and 0.13 cm., respec- 
tively . (see chart 2) . The highest total average increase in the diam- 
eter of cacao seedlings was observed after two months from the 
date of planting. The average total increase after eight months for 
medium No. 3 was only 0.25 cm. and for medium No. 11 (one-half 
ordinary garden soil and one-half horse manure) it was increased to 
0.58 cm. 

The mean increase in the diameter of the stem per month, stand- 
ard deviation and coefficient of variability, were calculated for each 
medium. The lowest mean increase per month in the diameter of 
the stem was observed to be 0.04 ± 0.004 for medium No. 3 (sand). 
When medium No. 6 was compared with the other media, a significant 
difference was noted. Exceptions were observed in media Nos. 8, 




SOIL MEDIA FOR CACAO SEEDLINGS 


181 


(three-fourths ordinary garden soil and one-fourth chicken manure), 
and 11 (one-half ordinary garden soil and one-half horse manure). 

The different treatments show a range in their means from 0.04 
±: 0.004 to 0.08 dt 0.001. Seedlings in medium No. 3, were found to 
be more variable than those in other media. 

Table 3 presents the summary of results obtained from the dif- 
ferent media used in this experiment. The means of the monthly 
increase in the number of leaves in the different media were compared 
with mean of medium No. 5 to determine whether or not there was 
really a significant difference. All differences marked with super- 
script a were found insignificant as compared with medium No. 5 
(one-half ordinary garden soil and one-half compost). The other 
media showed significant differences in favor of medium No. 5. 



Fig. 6 . — Theohroma cacao L. seedlings eight months old. (a) Grown in 
one-half sand and one-half horse manure; (6) in one-half ordinary 
garden soil and one-half horse manure. 


Taking the mean of medium No. 5 as the standard, it was com- 
pared with the mean of the monthly increase in elongation of the 
stpms found for each medium. The results of these comparisons are 
given) in column 4 of table 3. In media marked with superscript o 
no significant difference was found. 

Comparing the means of the monthly increase in the diameter 
of the stems for each soil medium as shown in table 3 with that of 
No. 6, a significant difference was noted in each case, except those 
marked with superscript a. 

Summarizing these results, it is obvious that media No. 5 (one- 
half ordinary garden soil and one-half compost) , No. 8 (three-fourths 
ordinary garden soil and one-fourth chicken manure) and No. 11 



182 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


(one-half ordinary garden soil and one-half horse manure) gave prac- 
tically the same results or influence on the increase of number of 
leaves, elongation, and diameter of stems. For similarity of the 
plants grown in these different media see figures 3b, 4a, and 6b. 

Relation of the growth of the seedlings to the analyzed constituents 
in different soil media 

It will be noted that for each soil medium different amounts of 
the important constituents were determined. 

In the study of relationships between total nitrogen and monthly 
mean increase in number of leaves, a correlation coefficient of 0.75 d: 
0.08 was determined. The results of this experiment show that the 
increase in number of leaves depends upon the total available nitrogen 



Fig. 7 . — Theobroma cacao L. seedlings eight months old. (o) Grown in 
' one-third sand, one-third ordinary garden soil and one-third chicken 
manure; (b) in one-third sand, one-third ordinary garden soil and 
one-third horse manure. 

and not upon the percentage of total nitrogen indicated by chemical 
analysis. This conclusion is corroborated by the results obtained by 
Gaton (1930). He claimed that, “The poor rice soils contain plenty 
of nitrogen in the potential form, but apparently they have poor 
nitrifying power and do not convert the nitrogen into assimilable 
form. That medium rice soils, however, gave less percentage of total 
nitrogen but a large amount of nitrate.” It will alsb be noted that 
medium. No. 3 (sand), which has the least amount of total nitrogen 
as analyzed, produced the lowest mean increase in number of leaves. 
This very low production of number of leaves was probably due to 
deficiency in its nitrogen content as shown in table 1. Woods (1901) 
states that nitrogen is responsible for the vegetative growth and if 
not present in proper amounts in the soil it will result in the reduc- 





SOIL MEDIA FOR CACAO SEEDLINGS 


183 


tion of leaf and stem growth of plants. This opinion was support- 
ed by Van Slyke (1920) in the statement, that if nitrogen is lacking, 
the result will be the general decrease or stunted growth of the whole 
plant. 

As shown in table 2 the correlation between total nitrogen and 
the mean increase in elongation of stems was also high. But it is 
to be noted that media which gave high nitrogen contents as analyzed 
did not produce greater monthly mean elongation of stem. This may 


■ 

■ 

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B 

B 

B 

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Bl 

B 

B 

B 

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■ 

B 

B 

B 

B 

B 

B 

B 

B 

B 

■ 

■ 

■ 

■ 

B 

B 

B 

B 

B 

B 

B 

B 

B 

B 

■ 

■ 

■ 

■ 

n 

n 

B 

B 

B 

fl 

B 

fl 

B 

B 

■ 

i 

■ 

■ 

i 

B 

B 

B 

H 

B 

B 

fl 

B 

■ 

N 

1 

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n 

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S 

m 

B 

B 

B 

3 

■ 


SI 


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P 

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Chart 1.— Legends: Effects of the different soil media on the mean 

• increase in number of leaves of Theobrom-a cacao Linn, seedling’s. 

Effects of the different soil media on the mean increase in the 

elongation of stems of Theobroma cacao Linn, seedlings. (In cen- 
timeters.) 

be explained in the same way as in the case of the relationship be- 
tween nitrogen content of the soil and that of the increase in the 
number of leaves. These findings tend to show that nitrogen content 
of the soil as a result of analysis does not give the amount present 
in assimilable form. It cannot then be assumed that soil medium fit 
for the raising of cacao seedlings can be chosen by the results of 
chemical analysis alone. It is quite possible for soil medium to 





184 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTUBIST 


contain all the nitrogen required for the growth of the cacao seed- 
lings and yet be unsuitable owing to the nitrogen being present in 
unavailable form. 

In the case of the relationship between total nitrogen content 
and the monthly mean increase in the diameter of stem, the corre- 
lation coefficient was determined to be 0.72 ± 0.09. It will be noted, 
however, that the media which produced a large diameter of stem 
did not show a high percentage of nitrogen. This again may be ex- 
plained by the fact that all nitrogen present in the media was not in 
available form for the growth of the young plants. 



Chart 2. — Legend: Effects of the different soil media on the mean 

increase in the diameter of stems of Tkeobroma cacao Linn, seed- 
lings. (In centimeters.) r 


The coefficients of correlation between the monthly mean in- 
crease in number of leaves, elongation of stems, increase in diameter 
of the stems and the total amount of phosphoric acid are all very 
high. It will be noted that media Nos. 7, 8, 10 and 11 contained 
high phosphoric acid content but did not show high increase in num- 
ber of leaves, elongation, and diameter of stems. This tends to show 
that the phosphoric acid found by chemical analysis was not all in 
available form for the proper growth of the young plants. 



son. MEDIA FOB CACAO SEEDLINGS 


185 


The potash content of the media was found to have very little 
effect on the characters studied. The coefficients of correlations are 
all insifirnificant and negative. 

The correlation coefficient between moisture content of the 
media and the mean increase in number of leaves, elongation and 
diameter of stems are significant, but media which showed high mois- 
ture content did not in general produce more leaves, longer and larger 
stems. These results seem to indicate that all the moisture present 
in the media analyzed was not in available form or in proper amount 
for the best growth of the young plants. The bad effect of the in- 
sufficiency of moisture in the soil may be seen in medium No. 3 (sand) 
which contained only 0.33 per cent moisture and gave the poorest 
results. Water is very necessary for the growth and development 
of plants and it has been found that nitrification can not take place 
in soil deficient in moisture. 

From the results given in table 2, it may be noted that the total 
nitrogen, phosphoric acid and moisture content of the media are 
directly associated with the characters studied. But there is nega- 
tive and very small correlation between potash and the characters 
analyzed as shown by the data in table 2. 

SUMMARY 

1. A soil medium consisting of a combination of equal propor- 
tions of ordinary garden soil and compost gave the best results for 
the rapid growth and development of cacao {Theobroma cacao L.) 
seedlings. 

2. The ordinary garden soil and sand were found to be poor soil 
media for cacao seedlings. 

3. Suitable soil medium for the raising of cacao seedlings can 
not be chosen from the results of chemical analysis alone. 

4. Cacao seedlings when planted in a suitable soil medium will 
be I'eady for transplanting in about three to four months from the 
^me the seeds are sown. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Barrett, 0. W. 1913. Cacao culture. The Philippine Agricultural Review 7; 
&-16. Fig. 1-i. 

Barrett, 0. W. 1928. The tropical crops, xviii 4- 446 p., 24 pi. New York: 
The Macmillan Company. 

Gaton, J. C. Chemical analysis of some Philippine soils. (Thesis presented 
for graduation with the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture 
from the College of Agriculture. 1930. Unpublished.) 



186 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Holloway, J. 1884. Advice to young: cacao planters. The Tropical Agricul- 
turist 4; 332-^33; 386-386; 478-479. 

Lyon, Wm. S. 1906. Cacao culture in the Philippines. Philippine Bur. Agric. 
Farmers’ Bull. 2: 1-24. 

Van Hall, C. J. J. 1914. Cacao, xvi+616 p., 140 fig. New York: The 
Macmillan Company. 

Van Slyke, L. L. 1920. Fertilizers and crops, xiv + 734 p., 110 fig. New 
York: Orange Judd Company. 

Wester, P. J. 1920. Plant propagation and fruit culture in the tropics. 
Philippine Bur. Agric. Bull. 32: 1-134. Fig, 1-5S, 

Williams, R. 0. 1929. The plant nursery in the tropics. Tropical Agricul- 
ture 6: 36-38. 

Woods, A. E. 1901. The relation of nutrition to the health of plants. U. S. 
Dept. Agric. Yearbook for 1900, p. 166-176. 

Wright, H. 1907. Theobroma cacao or cocoa, its botany, cultivation, chem- 
istry, and diseases, xii + 249 p., 18 fig. Colombo: Messrs. A. M. & J. 
Ferguson. 



Analyses of the different soil media 


SOIL MEDIA FOR CACAO SEEDLINGS 


187 



0 C 

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188 


THE PHILIPPINE AQRICULTUBIST 



1 

tfl 



STUDIES ON THE USE OF A PATEROS HATCHER 
IN INCUBATING CHICKEN EGGS » 

CESAR B. TANTOCO 

The artificial hatching of eggs has been practiced in certain 
parts of the world since the early stages of man’s civilized existence. 
In Egypt and China, artificial incubation can be traced as having 
been practiced long before the Christian Era (Lippincott, 1927). 
In the passing centuries artificial incubation has been steadily de- 
veloped until it plays a very important role in the economic life of 
the modern poultryman. 

In the Philippines, the use of a modified form of the Chinese 
type of incubator in the incubation of duck eggs, mainly for the pro- 
duction of balut \ and to a less extent for the hatching of ducklings 
has been used in Pateros, Rizal, for a long time, how long nobody 
knows, (Fronda, 1926). Although commercial poultry production 
is still in its infancy in the Islands, the modern method of hatching 
eggs artificially is rapidly gaining in importance. Prospects in this 
phase of poultry production is such as to merit further research to 
foster its development. 


THE PATEROS lNCUBAT(Mt 

The present work dealt with a series of experiments on incuba- 
tion in which a modification of Hie Pateros system of incubation was 
used. The Pateros incubator consists of cylindrical baskets about 
50 centimeters in diameter and about 95 centimeters deep. These 
baskets are placed inside a box insulated with rice hulls. In this 
incubator, heat is furnished during the early part of the incubation 
period by palay (whole rice) heated to about 40° to 43°C., but dur- 
ing the latter part of the incubation period, no additional heat is 
applied. The eggs are placed in these baskets during the first three 
weeks of incubation and after this period the eggs are arranged side 
by side on a hatching table to complete the hatch. When the eggs 


’Thesis presented for graduation, 1933, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Agriculture from the College of Agriculture No. 362; Experiment 
Station contribution No. 896. Prepared in the Department of Animal Hus- 
bandry, under the direction of Dr. F. M. Fronda. 

* Balut are eggs with the embryo developed to ages varying from 14 to 20 
days. 


189 



190 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


are on the hatching table no additional heat is applied, the hatching 
proceeds with the heat generated by the developing ducklings them- 
selves. The heat is maintained by placing two layers- of cotton cloth 
over the eggs. As soon as the eggs are placed in the hatcher they 
are turned every four hours day and night. 

In the present study, the eggs were incubated in a modern hot- 
water incubator during the first two weeks of the incubation period 
and in the latter part they were placed on a hatching table similar 
to the Pateros type to complete the hatch. The modern hot-water 
incubator took the place of the cylindrical baskets and heated palay 
used in the Pateros system of hatching. 

Fronda (1926) in his description of the Pateros type of incuba- 
tor and its operation stated that the owners of the hatcheries he 
visited claimed that of the entire number of eggs placed in these in- 
cubators, about 60 per cent reach the hatching table, 6 per cent be- 
come rotten, and the rest are either infertiles or with dead germs. 
Of the eggs placed on the hatching table, over 90 per cent hatch into 
strong, vigorous ducklings. He also reported that the operators 
claimed that cripples are not known to occur in these hatches. 
Burgos (1928) stated that “the owners claim that of the eggs placed 
in the hatcher, 60 per cent become ducks or halut, 5 per cent get 
rotten, 30 per cent penoy and 6 per cent ukbn which means eggs with 
dead developed germs.” 


■ OBJECT OF THE EXPERIMENT 

While the Pateros type of hatcher has been successfully used in 
the hatching of duck eggs, its use in the hatching of chicken eggs 
has not yet been tried. The object of these experiments was to de- 
termine the effects upon the hatchability of chicken eggs and upon 
the growth, maturity, and mortality of the chicks hatched therefrom 
of using the modem incubator and a Pateros type of hatcher. 

TIME AND PLACE OP THE EXPERIMENTS 

• ' 

The experiments were conducted in the Department of Animal 
Husbandry, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, at 
Los Banos, Laguna. They were begun in November, 1931, and closed 
in December, 1932. 


MATERIALS AND METHODS 

In this work Los Banos Cantonese eggs collected from the Col- 
lege flock, a six-hundred-egg Buckeye hot-water incubator, and a 
hatcher were used. The hatcher consistel of an ordinary wooden 
table, rice hulls, a buri mat, a piece of cotton cloth sufficient to cover 



PATEROS HATCHER FOR CHICKEN ECM3S 


191 


the table, and wooden board partitions. A balance sensitive to one- 
tenth of a gram was used in taking the weights of the chicks. A 
brooder and rearing houses were also used. 

The layers that produced the eggs used in this study were fed 
with the College ration consisting of equal parts grain and mash. 
The grain part of the ration consisted of cracked com and palay. 
The mash consisted of corn meal, shrimp meal, copra meal, and rice 
bran. In the feeding of the chicks, eggs were used to wet the corn 
meal and the mash during the first two weeks of the brooding period. 

Three hatches were made in all. The first hatch was made on 
February 18, 1932. Six-hundred-and-fifty eggs were used in this 
setting. The eggs were incubated in the ordinary way in a six- 
hundred-egg Buckeye hot-water incubator during the first two weeks 
of the incubation period. The eggs were candled on the seventh 
and on the fourteenth day of incubation when the infertiles and 
those having dead germs were removed. The eggs that were left, 
numbering 415, after the fourteenth day of the incubation period 
were equally divided into five lots, lots I, II, III, IV, and V. Lot V 
was the check lot and lots I, II, III, and IV were the experimental 
lots and received the following treatment: 

In lot I, the eggs were kept in the incubator for fifteen days and 
on the night of the fifteenth day the eggs were transferred to the 
hatcher to complete the hatch. 

In lot II, the eggs were kept in the incubator for sixteen days 
and on the night of the sixteenth day the eggs were transferred to 
the hatcher to complete the hatch. 

In lot III, the eggs were kept in the incubator for seventeen 
days and on the night of the seventeenth day the eggs were trans- 
ferred to the hatcher to complete the hatch. 

In lot IV, the eggs were kept in the incubator for eighteen days 
and on the night of the eighteenth day the eggs were transferred to 
the hatcher to complete the hatch. 

* In lot V, the check lot, the eggs were left in the incubator until 
the hatch was complete. 

The second hatch was made on April 11, 1932. In this setting, 
728 eggs were used. From these, 390 eggs were left after the second 
candling. The third hatch was made on May 8, 1932 when 600 eggs 
were placed in the incubator. After the second candling, 325 eggs 
were left. The eggs in both of these settings were treated like those 
of the first setting. 

The operation of the hatching table. As described elsewhere, the 
hatching table consisted of an ordinary wooden table, rice hulls, a 



192 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUBI8T 


buri mat, a piece of cotton cloth and wooden board partitions. The 
table was divided into four compartments. It was covered with a 
layer of rice hulls about five centimeters deep. The buri mat was 
spread over the rice hulls to prevent them from mixing with the 
eggs and to facilitate the turning of the eggs. The eggs were placed 
side by side standing on their small ends on the buri mat and cov- 
ered with cotton cloth to prevent the loss of heat generated by the 
developing embryos. 

The eggs on the hatching table were changed to different parts 
of the table every four hours during both the day and night. In 
changing, the eggs that were near the sides of the table were placed 
at the middle, and those in the middle were pushed toward the sides. 
The idea in changing was to subject, as much as possible, all of the 
eggs to the same condition. After changing, the eggs were covered 
with cotton cloth. This procedure with the eggs was repeated every 
four hours. 

The hatcher was placed in the incubator cellar to prevent draft. 
The temperature of the eggs on the hatching table was recorded. 
Owing to lack of incubator thermometers, four one-half-minute 
clinical thermometers were used. In taking the temperature, the 
thermometers were placed on top of the eggs, the bulb of mercury 
touching them. The temperature was carefully regulated by means 
of the ‘cotton cloth covering the eggs. Ordinarily, two layers 
of cloth were used, but when the temperature was too high only one 
layer was, used and when the temperature became too low a third 
layer was added. 

As soon as the chicks came out of the shells they were picked 
up and put into four boxes lined with rice hulls and the top partly 
covered with flannel. Each lot had one box placed near the table 
and properly labeled to avoid mixing the chicks. The chicks were 
allowed to harden in the box; about forty-eight hours after hatch- 
ing the chicks were properly leg-banded and weighed. 

Brooding and housing. All of the chicks were brooded together 
in a colony brooder house provided with a Buckeye charcoal burn- 
ing brooder. Adjoining the brooder house was a yard with green 
grass. After about eight weeks in the brooder house the birds were 
transferred to the rearing houses in the yard and thereafter given 
the same treatment throughout. 

Feeding and management. The chicks were given the same treat- 
ment from the beginning to the close of the experiments. The first 
feed consisted of corn meal to which one raw egg for every thirty 
chicks was added to moisten the feed. 



PATEROS HATCHER FOR CHICKEN EGGS 


193 


After the second week the chicks were given the normal College 
ration consisting of equal parts by weight of grain and mash. The 
grain mixture consisted of one part cracked com and one part palay. 
During the brooding period the mash mixture consisted of two parts 
shrimp meal, two parts com meal, and six parts rice bran. Near 
the rearing period the mash mixture was changed gradually to rear- 
ing mash consisting of two parts shrimp meal, one part corn meal, 
three parts copra meal, and four parts rice bran, all by weight. 

Growth record. The growth of the chicks was determined by 
their increase in weight every week. The weight of the individual 
chick was taken about forty-eight hours after hatching and weekly 
for three months and then monthly thereafter till they were six 
months old. From the beginning to the end of the experiment they 
were weighed in an arm balance sensitive to one-tenth of a gram. 

Careful records of mortality were kept. The length of maturity 
of the pullets was also observed. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 

Temperature of the hatching table. During the first four hours 
after the eggs were placed on the hatching table, the temperature 
was observed to become very low so that it was necessary to use three 
layers of cotton cloth, but after about eight hours on the hatching 
table the temperature began to increase. This rise and fall of tem- 
perature was regulated by means of the number of layers of cotton 
cloth, so that after eight hours on the hatcher only two layers of 
cloth were used. During warm days only one layer of cloth was 
used. It was not possible to keep the temperature constant through- 
out the incubation period because of the changes in the weather con- 
ditions. 

The temperature of the hatcher as recorded by the thermom- 
eters was observed to range from 37.2°C. (98.9°F.) to 42.2°C. 
(108.0°F.) with an average of 39.7°C. (103.5°F.). The tempera- 
tufe was recorded only up to the twentieth day of the incubation 
period, because it was not possible for the thermometers to record 
accurately after that date owing to the moisture coming from the 
newly hatched chicks coming in contact with the bulb of the ther- 
mometer, thus lowering the temperature beyond the graduation of 
the thermometers used. 

The effect of the hatching table on hatchability. The eggs in 
all the lots began to hatch on the twentieth day of incubation, and 
by the twenty-first day the hatch was complete. Table 1 shows the 
average percentage of hatchability of eggs in the different lots of the 



194 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTUBIST 


three sets. As shown in this table the average percentage of hatch- 
ability and the corresponding probable errors by lots were : lot I, . 
(eggs kept in the incubator for 16 days) 74.78 ±. 2.11 per cent; lot 
II, (eggs kept in the incubator for 16 days) 72.12 ± 3.05 per cent; 
lot III, (eggs kept in the incubator for 17 days) 69.91 ± 4.49 per 
cent; lot IV, (eggs kept in the incubator for 18 days) 72.12 ± 1.82 
per cent; and lot V, the check lot, 72.67 ±: 3.16 per cent. The prob- 
ablej errors of the differences between the means and the check lot 
(lot V) were computed and it was found that in each case the dif- 
ferences were not great enough to be considered significant. For in- 
stance, the mean difference between the hatchability in lot I and 
lot V together with the probable error was 2.21 ±: 3.80 per cent; be- 
tween lot II and lot V, 0.45 ± 4.39 per cent; between lot III and lot 
V, 2.66 ± 5.49 per cent; and between lot IV and lot V, the difference 
was 0.45 ± 3.66 per cent. 

From the results obtained it appears that chicken eggs may be 
removed from the incubator after fifteen days of incubation and 
transferred to a hatcher of the Pateros type and expected to give 
the same percentage of hatch as those kept in the incubator 
for twenty-one days. The value of this system may be appreciated 
in case there is a desire to increase the number of hatches within a 
certain period without a corresponding increase in the number of 
incubators. The eggs after fifteen days in the incubator may be 
taken out and placed in a hatcher to complete the hatch, thus making 
the incubator available for a new set of eggs. This method when 
employed will not only save seven days, but also reduce the consump- 
tion of kerosene. One of the difficulties that may be encountered in 
using this method is in maintaining the temperature. The amount of 
time expended in taking care of the eggs in the hatcher is another 
item that should be considered. 

Rate of growth of chicks. Table 2 shows the average weekly 
weights of the chicks during the brooding period in the different 
lots. It may be seen from this table that a day-old Los Banos Can- 
tonese chick hatched in the hatcher weighed on the average 27.3 
grams for lot I ; 28.3 grams for lot II ; 28.6 grams for lot III ; 28.0 
grams for lot IV ; while chicks hatched in the incubator weighed 
27.6 grams on the average. It may be noted that there was not 
much difference in the weight of the baby chicks whether hatched 
in the hatcher or in the incubator. 

In comparing the weight of the chicks used in this study with 
those used by the previous workers, it was found that Lindayag 
(1918) reported 26.6 grams average weight of Cantonese chicks 



PATEROS HATCHER FOR CHICKEN EGGS 


195 


about twenty-four hours after hatching. Dangilan’s chicks (1924) 
averaged 28.6 grams in weight after forty-eight hours. Mendoza 
(1927) gave 28.3 grams as the weight of the chicks after one day. 
Ordoveza (1927) reported 27.6 grams for chicks hatched in Decem- 
ber, 25.4 grams for chicks hatched in February, and only 19.4 grams 
for those hatched in April. Zaratan (1929) and Tioaquen (1932) 
reported 24.4 and 24.7 grams, respectively as the average weight of 
chicks about forty-eight hours after hatching. As may be seen, the 
chicks used in this work were on an average slightly heavier than 
most of those used by the previous workers named. 

At four weeks of age the chicks in the experimental lots were 
heavier than those in the check lot, though the difference was not 
great enough to be significant. Lot III, which was the heaviest 
among the experimental lots was greater by only 8.5 grams than the 
chicks in the check lot (lot V). At the eighth week of age the check 
lot became heavier than the experimental lots maintaining its place 
up to the end of the brooding period. 

It may be seen in table 2 that during the first six weeks of the 
brooding period the weights of the chicks in the different lots were 
almost the same, but after this period the chicks in lot III and let V 
showed an increase in weight and at the end of the twelfth week the 
chicks in lot V were the heaviest followed by those in lot III. These 
differences in the rate of growth in the different lots, however, were 
not consistent in all the three sets. The average weights of the birds 
at twelve weeks of age with their corresponding probable errors 
were: lot I, (chicks hatched in the hatcher after 15 days in the in- 
cubator) 354.1 ±: 12.0 grams; lot II, (chicks hatched in the hatcher 
after 16 days in the incubator) 338.7 ± 15.4 grams; lot III, (chicks 
hatched in the Hatcher after 17 days in the incubator) 380.3 ± 12.3 
grams; lot IV, (chicks hatched in the hatcher after 18 days in the 
incubator) 345.8 ± 15.4 grams ; and lot V, the check lot, 401.2 
± 15.0 grams. 

• A statistical study of the average weights from the standpoint 
of the probable errors of the means, indicated that there was no sig- 
nificant difference. The difference between the average weights of 
the chicks in lot I and those in lot V was 47.1 ± 19.2 grams; between 
the chicks in lot II and those in lot V, 62.5 ±: 21.5 grams; between 
those in lot III and those in lot V, 20.9 ± 19.4 grams ; and between 
those in lot IV and those in lot V, 55.4 dz 21.5 grams. 

When the average weights of the male and female birds in the 
different lots from hatch to the sixth month of age were compared 
it was observed that the increase in weights of the male chickens was 



198 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


4. There was no significant difference in the weight of the birds 
in the experimental lots and those in the check lot at any time up 
to the age of six months. 

6. The number of pullets that laid when six months old was 
larger in each of the experimental lots than in the check lot. 

6. The percentage of mortality in no experimental lot differed 
very much from that of the check lot. 

7. In case there is an over supply of hatching eggs and the incu- 
bator is very badly needed, the eggs after fifteen days in the incuba- 
tor may be placed on a hatching table to complete the hatch. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Burgos, Carlos X. 1928. The duck industry in the Philippines. 2nd. rev. ed. 
Philippine Bureau of Agriculture Circular 148; 1-16. PL 1-5; fig, 1-3, 

Dangilan, Luis J. 1926. Studies on the rate of growth of Cantonese chickens. 
The Philippine Agriculturist 15: 303-311. Chart 1, 

Fronda, F. M. 1925-26. Mammoth incubators in the Philippines. Poultry 
Science 5: 67-76. Fig, 1-4, 

Lindayag, Caspar y Magtira. 1918. A comparative study of Cantonese and 
Native chickens. The Philippine Agriculturist and Forester 7: 134-148. 
Charts 1-2, 

Lippincott, William Adams. 1927. Poultry production. 4th. ed., viii + 602 
p., 205 fig. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 

Mendoza, Jorge N. The rate of growth of grade Rhode Island Red-Cantonese 
chitkens. (Thesis presented for graduation from the College of Agri- 
culture with the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture. 1925. Unpublished.) 
Abstract in The Philippine Agriculturist 15: 313. 1926. 

Ordoveza, Fernando C. Effect of time of hatching on growth and maturity 
of pullets. (Thesis presented for graduation from the College of Agri- 
culture with the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture. 1927. Unpublished.) 

TioAQUEN, Telesporo. Comparative studies on the growth and maturity of the 
Cantonese and Nagoya chickens. (Thesis presented for graduation from 
the College of Agriculture with the degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Agriculture. 1932. Unpublished.) 

Zaratan, Ananias M. 1929. Studies on the effects on the growth of chicks 
of night feeding with the aid of artificial illumination. The Philippine 
Agriculturist 18: 387-396. 



PATEROS HATCHER FOR CHICKEN EGGS 


199 


TABLE 1 

Showing the average percentage of hatchahility in the different lota of the 

three seta 


LOT 

NO. 

EG<;a 

SET ® 

PIPPED 

CRIPPLED 

HATCHED ^ 

DIFFERENCE BE- 
TWEEN EXPERI- 
MENTAL AND 
CHECK LOTS 


number 

number] 

per cent 

number 

per eenV 

number 

per cent 

per cent 

I 1 

226 

8 

3.54 

3 

1.77 

169 

74.78 ± 2.11 

2.21 ± 3.80 

II 

226 

13 

5.76 

4 

2.45 

163 

72.12 ± 3.06 

0.45 ± 4.39 

III 

226 

6 

2.66 

2 

1.26 

168 

69.91 ±4.49 

2.66 ± 5.49 

IV 

226 

8 

3.64 

6 

3.68 

163 

72.12 ± 1.82 

0.45 ± 3.65 

V 

226 1 

10 1 

4.42 

2 

1.22 1 

164 1 

72.57 ±3.16 1 



® Eggs that were left after the second test (fourteenth day of incubation). 
Percentage was based on fertile eggs left after removing those whose em- 
bryos had died during the first and second weeks of incubation. 







200 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTUKIST 


n 


Ui 

n 

< 


oo 

o 



o 


00 

$ 



o 

CQ 


LOT V 

Av. 

weekly 

gain 

grams 

4.6 

9.5 

15.2 

21.3 

28.4 

35.3 

52.0 

35.6 

21.2 

63.3 

52.8 

35.5 

Av. 

weights 

grams 

27.5 

32.1 

41.6 
56.8 

78.1 

106.5 

141.8 

193.8 

228.4 

249.5 

312.9 

365.7 

401.2 

* 

'S 

number 

161 

143 

116 

102 

83 

75 

71 

60 

55 

51 

48 

45 

44 

LOT IV 

Av. 

weekly 

gain 

grams 

4.5 

11.0 

16.7 

24.6 

20.7 

31.4 

43.0 

37.1 

11.7 

37.7 

43.5 

35.9 

Av. I 
weights 1 

grams 

28.0 

32.5 

43.5 
60.2 
84.8 

105.5 

136.9 

179.9 

217.0 

228.7 
266.4 

309.9 

345.8 

Birds 

number 

157 

134 

107 

99 

78 

71 

65 

55 

51 

46 

42 

39 

38 

LOT III 

Av. 

weekly 

gain 

grams 

.... 

6.3 

9.9 

17.5 

24.5 

20.2 

33.9 

49.2 

33.4 

28.5 

47.2 

41.3 

40.1 

Av. 

weights 

grams 

28.5 
34.8 
44.7 

62.2 

86.5 

106.7 

140.6 

189.8 

223.2 

251.7 

298.9 

340.2 

380.3 

BC 

•H 

number 

156 

132 

111 

96 

86 

82 

75 

69 

61 

57 

55 

53 

52 

LOT II 1 

Av. 

weekly 

gain 

grams 

6.0 

10.5 

15.1 

30.3 
26,8 

28.1 

45.2 

29.8 

18.2 

32.7 

38.4 
39.3 

Av. 

weights 

grams 

28.3 

34.3 

44.8 

59.9 
80.2 

107.0 

135.1 

180.3 

210.1 

228.3 

261.0 

299.4 
338.7 

Birds 

number 

159 

134 

120 

104 

87 

83 

79 

67 

61 

55 

50 

47 

44 

LOT I 

Av. 

weekly 

gain 

grams 

6.1 

9.8 

15.8 

21.9 
27.4 

26.7 

45.6 

30.2 

16.7 

38.7 

41.7 

46.2 

Av. 

weights 

grams 

27.3 

33.4 

43.2 

59.0 

80.9 

108.3 

135.0 
180.6 
210.8 
227.5 

266.2 

307.9 

354.1 

Birds 

number 

166 

132 

115 

96 

73 

67 

64 

61 

60 

56 

55 

53 

50 

AGE 

weeks 

Initial 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



PATBROS HATCHER FOR CHICKEN EGGS 


201 


TABLE 8 

Showing the weights of the birds at the age of six months 


LOT 

NO. 

1 MALl'^S 1 

it:males 

1 Birds 1 

Average weisrhis j 

1 Birds 

1 Averafre weights 


number I 

pramx 

number 

gramn 

I 

20 

1263.6 ± 46.67 

21 

916.6 ± 38.12 

II 

19 

1233.1 46.86 

21 

837.2 ± 43.14 

III 

27 

1222.7 ± 46.06 

17 

1036.5 ±: 46.00 

IV 

la 

1266.2 ± 62.82 

15 

990.3 ± 56.58 

V 

16 

1338.8 ± 22.06 

20 

988.1 ±: 37.75 


TABLE 4 


Showing the maturity in all lots of pullets raised to six months 


ITEMS 

1 LOT I j 

1 LOT II 1 

1 lot 111 j 

IX)T I V 1 

LOT V 

Number of pullets raised to six 
months 

21 

21 

17 

15 

20 

Average age when first egg 
was laid (days) 

167 

156 

170 

165 

170 

Number of pullets that laid at 
six months of age 

4 

5 

3 

3 

2 

Percentage of flock laying at 
six months of age 

19.04 

23.80 

17.64 

20.00 

10.00 


A STUDY OF THE PALATABILITY AND FEEDING VALUE OF 
SOME PHILIPPINE PLANTS FOR GOATS » 

PELICISIMO D. SURATOS 

The fact that goats will eat even such material as paper, which 
is tasteless and dry, leads one to think that any kind of plant growth 
would be relished by them. It is also a common observation that 
these animals actually forage on a large variety of plants which other 
animals will not touch. Whether or not all common species of vege- 
tation are palatable to goats, and if so, to what extent each species is 
eaten by them, formed the main subject of this study. The relative 
feeding value of plants tested also forms part of this work. 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON THE SUBJECT 

Pepa (1927) conducted experiments with cattle using Napier 
grass, Guinea grass, cogon and culape. He found that the animals 
readily ate these plants, Guinea grass being the most palatable, fol- 
lowed by Napier grass and cogon, with culape being the least palat- 
able. 

Tuya (1930) conducted a similar work with horses. Barit, 
Guinea grass, Napier grass, sugar cane tops and peanut hay were 
fed. He found that these plants were not equal in palatability, al- 
though t|ie animals ate each of them readily. Guinea grass and barit 
were equal in palatability, followed by sugar cane tops, cut 15 cm. 
long, and Napier grass, cut 1.3 cm. Napier grass and sugar cane 
tops were equal in palatability when cut 1.3 cm. long. Culape and 
peanut hay were the least palatable, the latter being the poor- 
est. The results also showed that barit was more palatable than 
sugar cane tops fed in 1.3 cm. lengths. 

Soriano (1931) conducted an experiment with pigs, using Calo- 
pogonium mucunoides Desv. and sweet potato vines as pasture plants. 
The pigs on sweet potato pasture made much more gain in weight 
than those on Calopogonium pasture. 

Fajardo (1931) working on horses and feeding different varie- 
ties of peanut hay, found that the Tagalog variety was the most palat- 
able. The other varieties of peanuts were the Angat and Kinorales. 

* Thesis presented for graduation, 1932, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Apiculture from the College of Agriculture No. 363; Experiment 
Station contribution No. 896. Prepared in the Department of Animal Hus- 
bandry under the direction of Dr, Valente Villegas. 


202 



PHILIPPINE PLANTS FOB GOATS 


203 


Galansr and Paulino (1925) conducted experiments with bullocks 
using Napier grass and Guinea grass. They found that Guinea grass 
and Napier grass, when cut at the age of 20 days, were equal in palat- 
ability. But cut when 30, 40, 46, 60, 75 and 90 days old the palat- 
ability of Napier grass was lower than that of Guinea grass. 

OBJECTS OF THE WORK 

The objects of this experiment were, (a) to determine the de- 
gree of palatability of 22 common Philippine plants for goats as 
shown by consumption records; and (b) to compare the proximate 
chemical analysis of the same plants used in the experiment. 

TIME AND PLACE OF THE WORK 

The work was conducted in the Department of Animal Hus- 
bandry, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, from 
June 22, 1930 to February 23, 1932, covering a period of 1 year and 
S months. 

MATERIALS AND METHOD 

Animals. The animals used in this experiment were of two 
classes, young and old. 

In tihe first set of this experiment the 5 animals used were young, 
less than one year old. Animals 267 and 269 were males and the 
other 3 were females. Animals 261, 257 and 269 were Indian grades, 
the other 2, Anglo-Nubian grades. They were in good physical con- 
dition at the beginning and during the experiment. (See table 1.) 

In the second set, there were 6 mature goats, averaging over 
five years of age. One of them was a castrated male, the other 4 
were females. Animals 70, 78, 96 and 103 were Indian grades ; the 
castrated animal. No. 198, was an Anglo-Nubian grade. These an- 
imals were also in good health and condition at the beginning and 
during the experiment. (See table 1.) 

Plants. Twenty-two species of plants were used in this work. 
The description and distribution of these plants as presented by Mer- 
rill (1912) with the exception of saguing butuan and Calopogonium 
mueunoides follow: 

Guinea grass (Panictim maximum Jacq.). This is an erect, coarse, peren- 
nial grass attaining a height of 2 to 3 m. The stem is about 1 cm. in diameter 
and the nodes are bearded. It is a native of tropical Africa and was introduced 
into the Philippines in 1907 by the Bureau of Agriculture (1911). It is culti- 
vated in many tropical countries for forage purposes. 

Napier grass (Penniaetum purpureum Schum). This is a coarse, peren- 
nial grass attaining a height of 6 m. or more. It is a native of tropical Africa. 
According to Wester (1920) this grass was introduced into the Philippines in 
1918. It is cultivated for feeding purposes. 



204 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Pulang puet (Panicum colonum Linn,). This is a perennial grass with 
tufted stems attaining a height of from 10 to 40 cm;. The leaves are 6 to 12 
cm. long and 2 to 3 cm. wide. It is widely distributed in the Philippines, grow- 
ing throughout the year mostly by the roadside, in rice and com fields, and in 
open low places. Its introduction into the Philippines was incidental and its 
origin is not known. 

Culape {Paspalum conjugatum Berg.). This is a gregarious grass with 
spreading stems, branching from the lower surface. The branches that flower 
are from 20 to 70 cm. high. The leaves are 8 to 20 cm. long and .6 to 1.6 cm. 
wide. It is a native of tropical America. It grows in many regions in the 
Philippines. 

Sugar cane (Sacckarum officinarum Linn.). This is a coarse, erect, peren- 
nial and usually unbranched grass with solid stem. It attains a height of from 
1.6 to 3.6 m. The skin is either white, red, purplish, or yellow. It is a native 
of tropical Asia and is now very extensively cultivated in the Philippines for 
the production of sugar. The tops obtained during the harvesting period make 
available a large supply of forage during that season. 

Cogon (Imperata cylindrica var Koenigii (Retz.) Benth. ex Pilger.). This 
grass is erect, perennial, and unbranched, attaining a height of 30 to 80 cm. 
The stem is solid, slender, and the leaves are flat, 20 to 60 cm. long and 6 to 
9 mm. wide. It is widely distributed in the Philippines, growing mostly in dry 
open lands. 

A^ingay (Rottboellia exaltata Linn.). This is a coarse, erect, branched, 
perennial grass attaining a height of 1 to 2.6 m. The stem is stout and spongry 
inside. The leaves are from 20 to 00 cm. long and 1 to 3 cm. wide. It is found 
throughout the Philippines in open well-drained grass lands and thickets. 

Barit {Leersia hexandra Sw.). This plant is a weak, suberect slender grass 
reaching a height of 6 m. The leaves are from 6 to 20 cm. long and 3 to 7 
mm. wide. . The stem below is somewhat prostrate and usually with roots at 
the nodes. This is a cultivated grass grown commercially on low wet lands 
mainly for feeding horses. 

Butterfly <• pea (Centrosema phimieri (Turp.) Benth.). This is a twining 
herbaceous vine with a woody base, reaching a length of more than 6 m. The 
leaves are trifoliate 6 to 16 cm. long. This plant is not very common in the 
Philippines. It is a native of South America. 

Aurora (Ipomoea triloba Linn.). This is a twining herbaceous and slender 
vine. The stem is green and about 2.6 mm. in thickness. The leaves are partly 
or entirely trilobed and 4 to 11 cm. long. It is widely distributed in the Philip- 
pines. It is found growing in open, waste places. It was introduced into the 
Philippines from tropical America. 

Operculina turpethiim (Linn.). S. Manso. This is a scandent, herbaceous 
vine reaching a length of about 6 m. The stem is winged and purplish with 
2 to 4 angles. It flowers from October to April. It is widely distributed in 
the Philippines. It is not a native of this country; it grows mostly in thickets. 

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (Linn.) Poir). This is a spreading, pros- 
trate herbaceous tuber. The leaves are about 6 to 14 cm. long, subentire and 
ovate in form. It is cultivated extensively in the Philippines. It is a native 
of Africa. 

Saguing butuan (Musa errans var. botoan Teodoro). This is a variety 
of banana which produces 4 to 8 flowering stems to the stool. The mature plants 



PHILIPPINE PLANTS FOR GOATS 


205 


reach a height of from 365 to 385 cm. and a diameter 17 to 20 cm. at the base. 
The trunk is cylindrical and smooth. The trunk and leaves are deep green. 
The leaves are strong in texture. The fruits vary in size but are uniform in 
shape. The fruits have many seeds which are used as medicine for dysentery 
(1915). 

Culutculutan (Urena lohata Linn.). This is an erect, branching and shrub- 
by plant attaining a height of .6 to 2.5 m. The leaves are 3 to 9 cm. long, with 
lower surface pale. It was introduced into the Philippines and at present is 
found growing in waste places throughout the Islands. It flowers any time of 
the year. 

Tujod manok (Synedrella nodiflora (Linn.) Gaertn.). This is an erect 
annual dichotomously branched, glabrous herb attaining a height of about 1 m. 
The leaves are petioled and from 7 to 13 cm. long. This plant is found growing 
in open waste places, but is also quite abundant under bushes and shade trees. 
It is a native of Mexico. It flowers throughout the year. 

Dila-dila {Elephantopus spicatus Aubl.). This plant is an erect, stiff, gla- 
brous Iv^rb reaching a height of 20 to 60 cm. The leaves on the upper surface 
of the stem are smaller than those at the base. It is widely distributed in the 
Philippines, growing mostly in open waste places. It was introduced into the 
Philippines from tropical America. 

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea Linn.). This is an annual, spreading, hairy, 
branched herb, with stem reaching a length of 30 to 80 cm. The leaves are 
even, pinnate, 8 to 12 cm. long and with leaflets about 2 to 5 cm. long. The 
pods contain from 1 to 3 seeds. The peanut is a native of tropical America and 
is now widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical countries. 

Ipilipil {Leucaena glauca (Linn.) Benth.). This is an erect shrub or small 
tree 2 to 6 m. high. The leaves are 15 to 25 cm. long and pinnate. It is a 
native of tropical America, It is widely distributed in the Philippines; grows 
mostly in thickets and on hillsides. 

Acacia {Samanea sarrmn (Jacq.) Merr.). This is a large tree with spread- 
ing branches; grows to a height of 20 to 25 m. The leaves are bi-pinnate and 
16 cm long. It flowers from March to September. This plant is native of West 
Indies. It is widely distributed in the tropics and is planted as shade tree along 
roads and around town plazas. 

Cacauati {Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud.). This plant is a glabrous de- 
ciduous tree attaining a height of from 3 to 10 m. The leaves are about 15 to 
25 cm. long with 1 to 3 leaflets arranged opposite each other except one at the 
terminal end. It is a native of Mexico. It is now found throughout the Phil- 
ippines in thickets, hedge rows and in towns. It flowers from about December 
to April. 

Corn (Zea mays Linn.). Corn is a very coarse, erect grass about 2 m. 
high. The leaves measure 10 cm. wide and 1 m. long. The stem is solid. The 
male inflorescence is borne at the terminal part of the plant, while the female 
inflorescence is axillary. Com is a native of tropical America and is culti- 
vated in all temperate and tropical countries. It was introduced into the Phil- 
ippines by the Spaniards and is now widely cultivated in the Islands. 

Calopogonium mucunoidea Desv. This is a creeping scandent and often 
climbing woody vine. The stems are terete pubescent and covered with brown- 
ish, long, soft hairs. The leaves are trifoliate, borne on long pubescent pedun- 
cles and are subtended by a pair of persistent stipules. The pods also are cov- 



206 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUBIST 


ered with hairs. This vine is a native of Guiana. According’ to Soriano (1931) 
this plant was introduced into the College of Agrriculture, University of the Phil* 
ippines, Lagruna, by Dr. Nemesio B. Mendiola on April 18, 1927. It is exten* 
sively g^wn in Java for green manuring. 

Bam. The barn used in this experiment has a concrete floor. 
The goats were placed in sections with a wooden railing for parti- 
tions. Each inclosure is 2.5 m. square. 

Feed boxes. In each pen a feed box for forage was placed. The 
feed box was large enough to contain more feed than an animal could 
consume each test period. The feed boxes rested on legs 20 cm. from 
the ground to enable the goats to feed comfortably. 

Scales. For weighing the feeds the Renfrew portable scale was 
used. 

Feeding and management 

To make the animals more familiar with the test plants, they 
were fed, for a preliminary period of five days, more of the forage 
than they could consume. After this preliminary period, the test 
materials, except sugar cane tops and corn forage, were fed to all 
the animals for 10 days. The sugar cane tops and com forage were 
fed to the mature animals for only 8 days. (See table 2.) 

Feeding of test plants was between 6:30 a. m. and 1:00 p. m. 
daily. With the exception of barit, sugar cane tops and corn 
forage which were fed about 12 hours after they were cut, and pea- 
nut hay which was given as such, the feeds were collected about 
one hour previous to feeding. The feed was weighed and placed in 
the feed box provided in the individual inclosures where the experi- 
mental goats were kept. The feeding was carefully observed to de- 
termine the parts of the plants that were eaten. At 1 :00 p. m. the 
left-over was weighed and the difference between this and the 
amount placed in the box in the morning was considered to represent 
the amount consumed. 

After 1 :00 p. m. the animals were allowed to go with the College 
herd to the pasture for grazing. The extra feed that the animals 
could obtain in the pasture was considered necessary for the proper 
nourishment of animals in cases where the test plants fed were poor 
in palatability. The goats also received grain supplements in the 
barn when they were brought in from the pasture in the evening. 

The goats had free access to water and salt all the time they 
were in the barn. 



PHILIPPINE PLANTS FOR GOATS 


207 


Preparation of plants before feeding 

Pulang puet, aguingay, Guinea grass, cogon, tujod manok, dila- 
dila, Napier grass, culutculutan and culape were prepared in the 
same manner. That is, the plants were cut at the base and given to 
the animals without further treatment. 

Butterfly pea, aurora, sweet potato vine, Calopogonium mucu~ 
noides and Operculina turpethum- are vines; they were cut into 30 
cm. lengths before putting them in the feed boxes. 

Cacauati, acacia and ipilipil were fed in the form of leaves and 
the soft portions of stems gathered from the trees bearing them. 

Peanut Hay was given to the animals directly after weighing it. 

The .sugar cane tops and corn forage were cut into 1.3 cm. 
lengths with a forage cutter before feeding them to the animals. 

The barit used in this work came in bundles from a commercial 
barit plantation. The bundles were untied and then placed in feed 
boxes. 

Banana leaves were cut into portions about 50 cm. long. In this 
form the animals fed on them conveniently. 

Analysis of plant materials 

Samples of some of the plants tested were analyzed in the Ex- 
periment Station Section of the Department of Agricultural Chem- 
istry. Those which had been analyzed previously in the same lab- 
oratory were not submitted for analysis. 

Weighing of animals 

The animals were weighed at the beginning and end of each test 
period to find out if any radical change in weight was produced by 
the test plants. In no instance, however, was there any ill effect 
brought about by unpalatable test feed, because throughout the ex- 
periment the animals were allowed to feed in the afternoon on the 
pasture. 

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 

Palatal}ility with young goats 

In the tests on Guinea grass, pulang puet, butterfly pea, Napier 
grass, sugar cane tops and culape whole plants including the leaves 
and stems were eaten by young goats. In the tests on aurora, Oper- 
cvlina turpethum, tujod manok, dila-dila, acacia, culutculutan, sa- 
guing butuan, ipilipil and Calopogonium mucunoides, only the leaves 
were eaten. 



208 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Superior paiatability. Table 3 shows that the most palatable 
forage for young goats was Guinea grass of which the average con- 
sumption per head was 1.5 kgm. Assuming that all feeds of which 
over 1 kgm. per head was consumed were of superior palatability, 
it is apparent that Guinea grass, Napier grass, pulang puet, ipilipil, 
saguing butuan belonged to this class, the rank being in the order 
named. Taking Guinea grass as 100 per cent palatability, the per- 
centage palatability of other feeds in the class are as follows : Napier 
grass, 84.66 per cent; pulang puet, 78.0 per cent; ipilipil, 76.66 per 
cent ; saguing butuan, 68.66 per' cent. 

Medium palatability. If medium palatability is taken to include 
all feeds the consumption of which averaged from .76 to 1 kgm. per 
goat, culape, butterfly pea, Calopogonium miicunoides, culutculutan 
and sugar cane tops fall under this class in the order given. Basing 
computations on Guinea grass consumption, the percentage palat- 
ability of these plants are: culape, 59.33 per cent; butterfly pea, 
56.66 per cent; Calopogonium muctmoides, 54.00 per cent; culut- 
culutan, 52.66 per cent; and sugar cane tops, 51.33 per cent. 

Poor palatability. Under poor palatability were classified plants 
of which an average of .75 kgm. or less per animal was consumed. 
Following this criterion, aurora, tujod manok, Operculina turpethum, 
acacia and dila-dila, in the order given, should fall in this class. 
Acacia and dila-dila were so poor in palatability that on an average 
their consumption amounted to only .30 and .20 kgm. per head at one 
feeding. Compared with the consumption of Guinea grass, the per- 
centage palatability of plants in this class was as follows: aurora, 
45.33 per cent; tujod manok, 33.33 per cent; Operculina turpethmn, 
28.00 per cerit; acacia, 20.00 per cent; and dila-dila, 13.33 per cent. 

Palatability with mature goats 

With mature goats the leaves and stems of Guinea grass, pulang 
puet, butterfly pea, aurora, Operculina turpethum, culape, dila-dila, 
culutculutan, Napier grass, peanut hay, sugar cane tops, Calopogo- 
nium mueunoides, aguingay, sweet potato vine, barit and corn forage 
were eaten. Of acacia, saguing butuan, ipilipil, cogon, cacauati and 
tujod manok, only the leaves were eaten. 

Superior palatability. Table 4 shows the average consumption 
and percentage palatability of plants tested with mature goats. 
Using the same standard of consumption to indicate superior palat- 
ability of plants as in the case of young goats, it is evident that the 
following plants should belong to this class, the rank being in the 
order listed: corn forage, Napier grass, Guinea grass, pulang puet, 
sweet potato vine, Operculina turpethum., cacauati, saguing butuan. 



PHILIPPINE PLANTS FOE GOATS 


209 


sugar cane tops, cogon, and ipilipil. The percentage palatability 
among mature goats of these plants based on corn forage as 100 per 
cent is as follows: Napier grass, 93.19 per cent; Guinea grass and 
pulang puet, each 77.45 per cent ; -sweet potato vine, 68.94 per cent ; 
Operctdina turpethum, 65.96 per cent; cacauati, 54.04 per cent; sa- 
guing butuan, 53.19 per cent; sugar cane tops, 45.53 per cent; cogon, 
43.83 per cent and ipilipil, 42.98 per cent. 

With these plants, the consumption by all test animals was fairly 
uniform except in the case of the sweet potato vine where three of 
the test animals apparently did not relish it. However, two of the 
test animals liked it exceptionally well thus bringing the average con- 
sumption of the sweet potato vine for the 5 test animals fifth in rank 
after corn forage. This difference in consumption of sweet potato 
may be due to the individual taste of the animals used. 

Medium pcdatability. For mature goats only two forages ; 
namely, butterfly pea and culape, were classified as of medium palat- 
ability. The percentage palatability of these plants based on corn 
forage consumption is 41.70 per cent with butterfly pea and 36.17 
per cent with culape. 

Poor palatabUity. Plants which were classified as poor in palat- 
ability for mature goats were aurora, aguingay, culutculutan, pea- 
nut hay, acacia, barit, Calopogonium viucunoides, tujod manok and 
dila-dila in the order named. The animals disliked dila-diia so much 
that only an average of .13 kgm. of it was consumed per head each 
time, while with the corn forage, the consumption was 18 times as 
much. The percentage of palatability of these plants, based on 
corn forage consumption is as follows: aurora, 31.91 per cent: 
aguingay, 31.49 per cent; culutculutan, 28.51 per cent; peanut hay, 
28.09 per cent; acacia, 25.96 per cent; barit, 25.11 per cent; Calopo- 
gonium mucunoides, 22.13 per cent; tujod manok, 16.17 per cent; 
and dila-dila, 5.53 per cent. 

Consulting tables 3 and 4, it may be noted that while Operculina 
turpethum appears as one of the plants poor in palatability for young 
goats, the same species was one of those superior in palatability for 
mature goats. Sugar cane tops ranked lowest among plants that were 
medium in palatability for young goats but was of superior palat- 
ability for adult goats. Another forage deserving attention is Cd- 
lopogonium mricunoides. While this plant was consumed by young 
goats in amounts so as to be considered of medium palatability, in 
the case of mature goats it ranked low among plants classified under 
poor palatability. It is also of interest to know that while barit 
ranks next to corn forage in palatability for horses (Tuya, 1930), 
yet for goats, it ranks low under poor palatability. At the Hawaiian 



210 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Experiment Station, butterfly pea was used for grreen manuring and 
was considered as having no feeding value on account of its unpalat- 
ability for live stock (Shorey, 1906). 

Proximate constituents of plants 

The analyses for proximate constituents of the 22 species of 
plants reported in this study were performed in the Experiment Sta- 
tion Section of the Department of Agricultural Chemistry. The 
analyses of 11 of these plants were made during the period that 
this work was conducted; for the other 11, the analyses reported in 
work of others (Pepa 1927, Tuya, 1930, Soriano, 1931, Fajardo, 1931) 
were used. 

Table 6 shows the proximate constituents of all the plants 
studied. 

Moisture. On account of the cured form of peanut hay, it is 
evident that among all the forages studied its moisture content, 14.50 
per cent, would be far lower than that of the succulent plants. Such 
forages as aurora, dila-dila, sugar cane tops, pulang puet, Napier 
grass, Operctdina turpethum, sweet potato vine and butterfly pea, 
containing over 80 per cent of moisture, may be considered watery 
plants. Acacia, culutculutan, barit, aguingay and cogon having 
less than 70 per cent of moisture may be said to be concentrated 
forages. The other species; namely, ipilipil, corn forage, Guinea 
grass, culape, Calopogonmm mucunoides, saguing butuan, tujod ma- 
nok and cacauati having between 70 and 80 per cent moisture may 
be taken as an intermediate group. 

Ash. Peanut hay with 8.02 per cent and barit with 7.79 per 
cent were very high in ash. Because of the succulent nature of barit 
as compared with peanut hay, the high content of ash of this forage 
becomes more important. Other plants that were high in ash were 
aguingay, Guinea grass, tujod manok, and culutculutan, the percent- 
age a.8h constituent of these plants being over 3-1/2 per cent. Such 
plants as ipilipil, Opercvlina turpethum, aurora, sweet potato vine, 
cacauati, com forage, butterfly pea and sugar cane tops showed 
poorly in ash content, the amount being less than 2 per cent. Other 
forages as Napier grass, acacia, dila-dila, Calopogonium mucunoides, 
pulang puet, saguing butuan, culape and cogon gave intermediate 
amounts between 2 and 3-1/2 per cent. 

Crude proteins. The most nitrogenous feed analyzed was ipil- 
ipil in which the protein content amounted to 13.34 per cent. Pea- 
nut hay was next in richness as to protein content, amounting to 
13.26 per cent. Forages like acacia, tujod manok, culutculutan. 



PHILIPPINE PLANTS FOR GOATS 


211 


Operctdina turpethum, butterfly pea, cacauati, and Calopogonium 
mueunoides may be grouped together with peanut hay and ipilipil as 
being highly nitrogenous forages, 4 per cent or over of their con- 
stituents being in the form of crude proteins. Napier grass, culape, 
sugar cane tops, and sweet potato vine may be considered as poor 
protein feeds, there being less than 2 per cent of crude protein in 
them. Plants containing between 2 and 4 per cent crude proteins 
include aurora, pulang puet, corn forage, barit, aguingay, Guinea 
grass, cogon, saguing butuan and dila-dila. 

Crude fiber. The mast fibrous of the feeds analyzed was pea- 
nut hay, containing 18.96 per cent of this constituent. Acacia, co- 
gon, aguingay and barit with 10 per cent may be considered as highly 
fibrous materials. Feeds containing less than 5 per cent fiber, in- 
clude pulang puet, aurora, Opercvlvtia turpethum, sweet potato vine, 
tujod manok, dila-dila, ipilipil and cacauati. Plants containing be- 
tween 5 and 10 per cent of fiber were butterfly pea, culutculutan, 
saguing butuan, Calopogonium mueunoides, corn forage, sugar cane 
tops, culape, Napier grass and Guinea grass. ‘ 

Nitrogen- free-extract. The amount of nitrogen-free-extract in 
peanut hay was high, 43,67 per cent. Other plants containing over 
10 per cent of this substance were aguingay, corn forage, barit, cu- 
lape, cogon, culutculutan, acacia, aurora, saguing butuan and caca- 
uati; those containing less than 5 per cent were butterfly pea, ipil- 
ipil and Operculina turpethum. Guinea grass, sugar cane tops, Calo- 
pogonium mueunoides, pulang puet, Napier grass, sweet potato vine, 
tujod manok and dila-dila contained an intermediate amount, that is, 
between 6 to 10 per cent. 

Fat. Plants having one or more per cent of fat were aguingay, 
saguing butuan, Calopogonium nvucunoides, peanut hay, and cogon; 
those containing less than 0.5 per cent of fat were Napier grass, 
pulang puet, aurora, Operculina turpethum, sweet potato vine, and 
dila-dila. Culutculutan, corn forage, Guinea grass, culape, sugar 
cane tops, barit, tujod manok, acacia, cacauati, ipilipil and butterfly 
pea contained an intermediate amount, between .6 and 1.0 per cent. 

SUMMARY 

From the results obtained in this work the following statements 
may be made: 

1. That for young goats, because of their palatability, Guinea 
grass, Napier grass, pulang puet, ipilipil and saguing butuan are 
highly recommended for feeding purposes. 



212 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUBIST 


2. Because of reasonable consumption shown, culape, butterfly 
pea, CcUopogonium rrmcunoides, culutculutan, and sugar cane tops 
may be used to feed young goats in the absence of more palatable 
plants. 

3. Because of low palatability, aurora, tujod manok, Operculina 
turpethum, acacia and dila-dila, should not be, generally, considered 
as feed for young goats. 

4. For mature goats any of the following forages of superior 
palatability may be used as feed : corn forage, Napier grass, Guinea 
grass, pulant puet, sweet potato vine, Operculina turpethum, caca- 
uati, saguing butuan, sugar cane tops, cogon and ipilipil. 

6. Butterfly pea and culape were consumed in moderate amounts 
and may therefore be fed to mature goats in the absence of more 
palatable feed. 

6. The consumption of the following was so low that the feed- 
ing of these plants to mature goats would not be justified : aurora, 
aguingay, culutculutan, peanut hay, acacia, barit, Calopogonium 
mucunoides, tujod manok and dila-dila. 

7. Of the plants of superior palatability for young goats, sa- 
guing butuan showed the highest in total dry matter, followed by 
Guinea grass, then by ipilipil. Pulang puet and Napier grass are 
low in dry matter. Of these, the moist desirable is ipilipil which 
contains 13.34 per cent of crude protein; pulang puet, second in 
richness, contains 2.63 per cent. 

8. Of- the plants which were of medium palatability for young 
goats, culutculutan leads in the amount of dry matter it contains. 
Next to it is Calopogonium mucunoides, then culape. Both sugar 
cane tops and butterfly pea are more watery forages. Culutculutan 
is also the most desirable from the standpoint of crude protein con- 
tent while Calopogonium mttcunoides and butterfly pea, both legu- 
minous, come next in richness in crude protein. Culape and sugar 
cane tops are both very low in crude protein. 

9. For mature goats, among forages of superior palatability, 
cogon is the highest in dry matter and also in crude fiber. Guinea 
grass, cacauati, ipilipil and saguing butuan, come next in dry matter 
content. Napier grass, pulang puet, Operculina turpethum, sweet 
potato vine, sugar cane tops are more watery. From the standpoint 
of crude protein, ipilipil with 13.34 per cent of crude protein content, 
is far superior to cacauati with 6.79 per cent, the next highest in 
richness. OpercuRna turpethum with 4.67 per cent and saguing bu- 
tuan with 3.96 per cent are also fairly rich in crude protein. Napier 
grass, sweet potato vine, and sugar cane tops are poorest in crude 
protein. 



PHILIPPINE PLANTS FOR GOATS 


213 


10. Between culape and butterfly pea which are of medium 
palatability for mature goats the culape contains a greater amount 
of dry matter than the butterfly pea, whereas in crude protein con- 
tent the butterfly pea, being a legume, is the richer feed. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Fajardo, Abelardo J. A study of peanut and Indigofera hendecaphylla Jacq. 
as forage crops. (Thesis presented for graduation from the College of 
Agriculture with the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture. 1931. Un- 
published.) 

Galang, F. G., and Paulino, P. L. 1925. A progress report on forage crop 
investigations at the Lamao Exper. Sta. Lamao, Bataan. Philippine 
Agric. Rev. 18: 3-31. PL 1-9; fig, 1, 

Pepa, Maximo E. 1927. Comparative study on palatability of some forages. 
The Philippine Agriculturist 15: 547-555. 

Merrill, Elmer D. 1912. Flora of Manila. 75-472 p. Manila: Bureau of 
Printing. 

Shorey, Edwin C. 1906. Composition and digestibility of Hawaiian feeding 
stuffs. Hawaii Agric. Exper. Sta. Bull. 13: 1-23. 

Soriano, A. Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas Linn, vs. Calopogonium mucunoides 
Desv. a legume, as pasture crop for growing pigs. Abstract in The Phil- 
ippine Agriculturist 22: 157-158. 

Tbodoro, N. G. 1915. A preliminary study of Philippine bananas. Philip- 
pine Jour, of Sci. 10: 391-392. Section C. 

Tuya, Manuex. a comparative study of the palatability and proximate analy- 
sis of common forages for horses. (Thesis presented for graduation from 
the College of Agriculture with the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture, 
1930. Unpublished.) 



214 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABI E 1 

Showing breeding, sex, age and weight of experimental animals 


First set 


HFRD 

NO. 

RKEEUING j 

SLX 1 

AGE 

AV. WElGilT 
DIIKIVG lUIAl 


1 



hgm. 

257 

Indian grade | 

Male 

10 mo. 

15.2 

261 

Indian grade j 

Female 

10 mo. 

14.3 

265 

Anglo-Nubian grade 

Female 

9 mo. 

15.2 

266 

Anglo-Nubian grade 

Female 

9 mo. 

14.1 

269 

Indian grade 

Male 

7 mo. 

15.1 



Average 

9 mo. 1 14.8 

Second set 

70 

Indian grade 1 

Female 

7 yr., 2 mo. 

38.0 

78 

Indian grade 

Female 

6 yr., 9 mo. 

29.5 

96 

Indian grade 

i Female 

6 yr., 3 mo. 

29.9 

103 

Indian grade 

Female 

6 yr., 1 mo. 

30.5 

198 

Anglo-Nubian grade 

1 Male 

3 yr., 3 mo. 

41.2 


Average 5 yr., 11 mo. | 


33.8 



'table 2 

Showing the date of feeding of test plants 


PHILIPPINE PLANTS FOR GOATS 


o c 

cl 


tH rH ipH 

cococococoooeococoeocoeococococococococococo 

0 >< 7 )C> 0 )Cr> 0 )O 0 > 0 ) 0 > 0 d 0 ) 0 > 0 > 0 > 0 ) 0 )Cf> 0 ^ 0 > 0 ) 


C^JOit^lCCJ«DU 3 LOOOCOOOCOTH»HTj<t*CslOO’^^CO 
THrHrHCsjir-lrH r- 1 rH COrHrH OOCO^COC'i 



c .S 


•Sb*^ 


COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOOOCOCOCO 

0 >O 0 ) 0 doo 0 ) 0 > 0 ) 0 > 0 ) 0 d 0 ) 0 ^ 0 ) 0 > 0 ) 0 > 0 d 0 )cr)c> 


Tj*O 00 < 0 Ot*^'^ 0 i'n< 0 >i 0 C 0 Cai« 00 C 0 t-»i-JiCC ^<0 
C^J 1-1 <M (M CQ(M(M C^C<1(M <M i-H 


THi-l 00000 i-t 00 iHi -«000 

cocococococococococooococococo 

O) O O Od Od O Oi 0 > Od o> 


t:-csj^OT}»«ox}«t-ooaoocoiLOiir^Oi 

04 tH tH 01 rH tH i^ 

3<iiao03* <i>^<i>S5<poO 


be ^ 
c = 

II 

'S’" 


OiHOOOOOiHOOtHOOOO 
CO CO 00 co.co cocococococococoeoco 
CJi <Ji Oi Oi 0> O) O O Cfi O) 


OOnTcxrrH^OC^LOOOrHOOriifrt^COO 
Ol 01 i-» 1-t 01 01 rH 1-1 04 04 04 1-t 

^ ^ I * 1 1 ^ ^ -O o c cj bo ^ ^ 

3 CQ 3 O W 3 O QJ ^ S M ^ ^ ^ 



216 



216 


THE raiLIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE 8 

Showing average consumption and percentage palatability of plants tested with 

young goats 

First set 


PLANTS 

ANIMAL NO. 

AVERAOK 

CON- 

SUMP- 

TION 

PERCENT- 
AGE PALAT- 
ABILITY 
BASED ON 
GUINEA 
GRASS 

1 267 

1 261 

1 265 

1 266 

1 269 


kgm. 

kgm. 

kgm. 

kgm. 

kgm. 1 

kgm. 


Superior ® 








palatability 








Guinea grass . . 

1.43 

1.48 

1.66 

1.61 

1.34 1 

1.60 

100.00 

Napier grass . . 

1.02 

1.41 

2.04 

.77 

1.09 1 

1.27 

84.66 

Pulang puet . . . 

1.11 

1.09 

1.32 

1.16 

1.16 

1.17 

78.00 

Ipilipil 

1.20 

.93 

1.61 

.86 

1.16 ; 

1.16 

1 76.66 

Saguing butuan 

1.11 

1.11 

1.29 

.66 

.97 

1.03 

68.66 

Medium ^ 








palatability 








Culape 

.96 

.96 

.91 

.80 

.86 

.89 

69.33 

Butterfly pea . 

.96 

.80 

.77 

.87 

.86 

.86 

66.66 

Calopogonium 








mucunoides . 

.82 

.73 

.96 

.77 

.78 

.81 

64.00 

Culutculutan . . 

.82 

.80 

.80 

.78 

.73 

.79 

62.66 

Sugar cane tops 

.76 

.80 

.84 

.77 

.71 

.77 

61.33 

Poor ^ ^ 








palatability 

1 







Aurora 

1 .73 

.68 

.68 

.77 

.62 j 

.68 

46.33 

Tujod manok . 

.46 

.60 

.60 

.60 

.63 

.60 

33.33 

Operculina 





1 



turpethum . . 

.43 

.60 ! 

.30 

.36 

.60 

.42 

28.00 

Acacia 

.34 

.22 1 

.47 1 

.36 

.11 

.30 

1 20.00 

Dila-dila 

.18 

.26 j 

.26 1 

.18 

.16 

.20 

13.33 . 


“ Superior palatability applies to feeds of which an average of over one kilo- 
gram per head was consum^. 

Medium palatability refers to feeds the consumption of which amounted 
to an average of from .76 to 1 kilogram each goat. 

® Poor palatability applies to feeds of which an average of .76 kilogram or 
less per animal was consumed. 



PHILIPPINE PLANTS FOR GOATS 


217 


TABLE 4 

Shovnng average consumption and percentage palatability of plants tested with 

adult goats 

Second set 


PLANTS 

ANIMAL NO. 

A VERA OK 
CON- 
SUMP- 
TION 

PERCENT- 
AGE PALAT- 
ABILITY 
BASED ON 
CORN 
IX)RAGE 

19R 1 

70 1 

78 1 

96 1 

103 1 


kgm. 

kgm. 

kgm. 

kgm. 

kgm. 

kym. 


Superior ® 








palatability 








Corn forage . . 

41.11 

2.04 

1.79 

2.13 

1.67 

2.36 

100.00 

Napier gn^ass . . 

2.04 

1.46 

3.36 

2.84 

1.27 

2.19 

93.19 

Guinea grass . . 

2.72 

1.36 

1.82 

1.84 

1.34 

1.82 

77.45 

Pulang puet . . 

1.75 

2.. 00 

1.62 

1.70 

2.13 

1.82 

77.46 

Sweet potato 








vine 

.59 

.47 

3.68 

2.89 

.45 

1.62 

68.94 

Operculina 








turpethum . . 

1.81 

1.54 

1.93 

1.82 

.64 

1.65 

65.96 

Cacauati 

1.66 

1.07 

1.02 

1.36 

1.25 

1.27 

54.04 

Saguing butuan 

1.50 

.91 

1.59 

1.36 

.91 

1.25 

53.19 

Sugar cane tops 

1.15 

.80 

1.34 

1.61 

.57 

1.07 

45.53 

Cogon 

1.60 

1.04 

.86 

.97 

.79 

1.03 

43.83 

Ipilipil 

.96 1 

1.04 

1.18 1 

1.07 

.82 

1.01 

42.98 

Medium ^ 








palatability 








Butterfly pea . 

.59 

1,22 

.77 

1.02 

1.32 

.98 

41.70 

Culape 

.36 

.31 

1.70 

1.54 

.34 

.85 

36.17 

Poor^ 








palatability 








Aurora 

.36 

1.00 

.39 

.43 

1.57 

.75 

31.91 

Aguingay 

.61 

.46 

1.29 

.95 

.40 

.74 

31.49 

Culutculutan . . 

.56 

.64 

.84 

1.02 

.40 

.67 

28.51 

Peanut hay . . . 

.61 

.72 

.66 

.72 

.58 

.66 

28,09 

Acacia 

1.13 

.73 

,46 

.43 

.32 

.61 

25,96 

Barit 

.66 

.74 

.49 

.61 

.44 

.59 

25.11 

Calopogonium 








mucunoides . 

.22 

.29 

1.09 

.72 

.29 

.52 

22.13 

Tujod manok . . 

.18 

.27 

.58 

.58 

.27 

.38 

16.17 

Dila-dila 

.15 

.13 

! .15 

.09 

.11 

.13 

6.63 


® Superior palatability applies to feeds which were consumed on an average 
of over one kilogram per head. 

^ Medium palatability refers to feeds the consumption of which amounted 
to an average of from .76 to 1.00 kilogram each goat. 

^ Poor palatability applies to feeds of which an average of .75 kilog^ram or 
less per animal was consumed. 



218 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABI.E 5 

Showing average 'proximate analysis of plants used in the experiment 


PLANTS 

NUMUElt 

OF 

SAMPLES 

MOIS- 

TURE 

ASH 

CRUDE 

PRO- 

TEIN 

CRUDE j 
FIBER 

NITRO- 

GEN 

FREE EX- 
TRACT 1 

FAT 

Guinea grass 

18 

per cent 

76.95 

per cent 

3.92 

per cent 

2.33 

per cent 

7.79 

per cent 

9.41 

per cent 

.65 

Napier grass 

7 

83.16 

2.64 

1.37 

6.56 

6.79 

.46 

Pulang puet 

1 

82.17 ; 

2.71 

2.63 

4.77 

7.45 

.27 

Culape 


76.12 

3.10 

1.78 ' 

6.96 

11.38 

.68 

Cogon 

5 

66.28 

3.07 

2.18 

12.14 

16.33 

1.00 

Aguingay 

3 

61.46 

4.96 

2.09 i 

12.24 

17.61 

1.71 

Sugar carte tops . . . 

3 

81.07 

1.85 

1.17 

6.27 

9.14 

00 

Barit 

3 

62.35 

7.79 

2.64 

10.46 

16.33 

.54 

Corn forage 

6 1 

70.38 

1.83 

3.40 

6.94 

17.12 

.70 

Butterfly pea 

1 

83,22 

1.83 

4.00 

6.10 

4.16 

.69 

Calopogonium 
mucunoides 

1 

76,47 

2.03 

4.88 

7.82 

8.68 

1.12 

Peanut hay 

1 

14.60 

8.02 

13.26 

18.96 

43.57 

J .69 

Aurora 

1 

80.38 

1.77 

3.41 

3.66 

10.32 

.46 

Operculina 

turpethum 

1 

87.98 

1.41 

4.57 

2.90 

2.77 

.37 

Sweet potato vine . 

1 

84.81 

1.84 

1.96 

2.72 

8.41 

.28 

Saguing butuan . . . 

1 

74.40 

3.17 

3.96 

6.78 

10.06 

1.64 

Culutculutan 

1 

65.85 

3.70 

6.03 

1 7.10 

16.36 

.96 

Tujod manok 

1 

78.31 

4.17 

6.10 

3.32 

7.65 

.66 

Dila<<lila 

1 

81.89 

2.88 

3.00 

3.78 

8.25 

.20 

Ipilipil 

1 

78.18 

1.68 

13.34 

3.22 

2.93 

.65 

Acacia 

1 

58.12 

2.53 

10.76 

13.81 

1 13.93 

.85 

Cacauati 

1 

77.73 

1.90 

5.79 

3.67 

10.20 

.8l' 



NOTE: ROME AND AGRICULTURE 

This is Rome, Italy, not any of its unsung namesakes. 

The World Poultry Congress 

In September of this year the Fifth World Poultry Congress 
meets in Rome of the Seven Hills. 

Rome and a poultry exhibition! Rome and the Coliseum, Ha- 
drian’s Tomb, the excavated palaces of the Caesars, the Pantheon; 
Rome of processions celebrating victories with Zenobias chained to 
the triumphal car. But Rome as a meeting place for the world’s 
poultrymen! One is not exactly startled, but certainly interested. 

But there is a link between Rome and poultry. One morn, long, 
long ago, so the legend goes, sleepy Roman sentinels were roused by 
the cackling of faithful patriotic geese and Rome was saved. 

That the Fifth World Poultry Congress will be .successful there 
is little doubt. National committees in twenty or more countries are 
making preparations for participating in the congress and the ex- 
hibit. The Italian Committee is doing its utmost to make all arrange- 
ments for meetings of the congress and care of the delegates. The 
Exhibition will be held in Trajan’s Markets where, “Each stone of 
the majestic building seems to tell of the greatness of Rome and the 
splendor of its history.’’ Arrangements are being perfected for the 
delegates to see the famed buildings and parts of buildings that tell 
of old Rome, and her treasures of art will be thrown open. Also, 
excursions are being planned “to give visitors the chance of .seeing 
the improvements made in Italy in agriculture in general and espe- 
cially in poultry breeding. After the Congress an extensive tour 
through a great part of central and northern Italy will afford the 
members of the Congress an opportunity to visit the most important 
poultry breeding regions, and to see something of Italian scenery and 
'ffld and modern towns, such as Leghorn, Florence, Bologna, Venice, 
Milan etc.’’ 

Fortunate, fortunate delegates! 

The International Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics 

The International Institute of Agriculture which is in Rome, 
“by the yellow Tiber,” the Father Tiber that tosses its “tawny 
mane,” has recently published the 1931-32 edition of the Interna- 
tional Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics. 


21 » 



220 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUBIST 


All who are interested in questions related to production and 
distribution of agricultural products will find this volume of 800 
pages valuable. It is the result of wide investigation in internation- 
al agricultural statistics. 

This yearbook is divided into three parts. The carefully com- 
piled figures on area and population in the first part “reveal the situa- 
tion from the geographical, political and demographical point of 
view” in 208 countries in the post-war period. The second part in 
a series of tables gives data for about 60 countries on the uses for 
which the total area is used. The third part gives tabulated data 
for 40 agricultural products. The area, production and yield per 
acre in each of the 50 countries are given for 1923-1927 and for each 
year from 1928 to 1931. 


ABSTRACT * 

Some clarification characteristics of cane juice. Wenceslao 
N. Tingson. {Thesis presented for gradvMion, 1931, with the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Science in Sugar Technology from the College of 
Agricvlture No. 35U', Experiw^ent Station contribtdion No. 897.) 
— The author worked out a method of removing non-sugar sub- 
stances, either in solution or in suspension, with the least destruc- 
tion of glucose in the juice during clarification. He prepared 10 
samples of 1600 cc. each of mixed juice of sugar cane. One sample 
he used as control; the rest, he treated with different quantities of 
14 Brix lime Solution giving different pH values. In series 1, the 
pH values ranged from 6.5 to 9.8; series 2, from 5.8 to 11.8; series 
3, from 5.4 to 9.9. This treatment was termed toward alkalinity. 
From the same mixed juice one sample, 1600 cc., was taken as con- 
trol and another portion was heavily limed, from which 9 samples 
of 1600 cc. were prepared. The 9 samples were treated with dif- 
ferent quantities of acetic acid c.p. The pH values in series 1 ranged 
from 4.8 to 9.8; series 2, from 5.6 to 9.9; series 3, from 5.2 to 9.4. 
This treatment was termed hack to acidity. The treated samples 
were then heated to boiling for 6 to 7 minutes ; allowed to stand to 
obtain clear juice; and decanted. Determinations for pH values; 
percentage of glucose, PjO,, SO, ash, CaO, SiOi AljO,, Fe^Os and 
MgO; and conductivity were made. 

‘ Abstract prepared as part of required work in English 3a, College of Attri- 
culture. 



ABSTRACT 


221 


Mixed juice from the Calamba Sugar Estate and crusher juice 
from the College seedling canes were used in this work. 

The following results were obtained by the author: 

1. In the treatment toward alkalinity, an increased treatment 
of lime — ^which correspondingly increased the pH of the solution — 
increased the CaO in solution in the clarified juice, and the removal 
by precipitation of inorganic substances, as PaO.,, SO4, AI2O3, FejOj 
and MgO also increased. 

The maximum increase of purity from mixed juice to clarified 
juice reached a limit at certain pH. Further addition of lime did 
not bring any increase in purity. The Calamba Sugar Estate mixed 
juice attained the maximum purity for series 1 of 85.34 per cent 
at pH 8.7 giving an increase of 4.16 per cent over the control the 
pH value of which was 5.5, and for series 2 of 87.94 per cent at pH 
10.1 giving an increase of 3.7 per cent over the control whose pH value 
was 5.8. However, the percentage of glucose destroyed was 33.57 for 
series 1 and 27.4 for series 2. At pH 6.3 in series 1, the purity was 
84.33 per cent, or an increase of 3.15 per cent over the control ; the 
percentage of glucose destroyed was the minimum, 7.98 per cent. In 
series 2, at pH 7.7 the purity was 86.92 per cent, or an increase of 
2.68 per cent; the glucose destroyed was 7.18 per cent. The College 
crusher juice reached a maximum purity of 86.94 per cent at pH 
9.3 giving an increase of 0.74 per cent over the control. The per- 
centage of glucose destroyed was 25.65. At pH 7.5. the purity was 
86.58 per cent, or an increase of 0.38 per cent; glucose destroyed 
was 5.16 per cent. 

2. When the mixed and crusher juices were limed heavily to 
the highest pH, the percentages of the inorganic impurities were 
at minimum; the percentages were lower than those of the control. 
The addition of the acetic acid brought back into solution the precipi- 
tated inorganic substances. It also increased the amount of lime 
going into solution. The attendant effect of the lime and the im- 
purities going into solution was the lowering of the purity; hence, 
the ash of the treatment back to acidity increased from the highest 
pH values to low pH value. 

3. Results of the tests showed that clarification had little ef- 
fect upon conductivity. 


■Abstract by J. P. Mamiscu) 



222 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


CURRENT NOTES 

The prediction by Dr. Sven Hedin, Swedish explorer of Cen- 
tral Asia, that in 25 years the River Tarim in Chinese Turkestan 
would abandon its course and return to an ancient channel farther 
north has now been fulfilled, according to a communication received 
at Washington. The river isi running now where it did 1,600 years 
ago. Dr. Hedin’s attention was called to the wandering stream when 
he tried, to follow a Chinese map 1,600 years old. It appeared that 
the Chinese geographers had made a mistake, for the river on the 
map was not on the landscape, but instead there was a “new” river 
to cross 550 miles away. After studying geological conditions, Dr. 
Hedin justified the Chinese scholars and their map by explaining 
that the southern branch of the Tarim apparently swings back and 
forth like a pendulum. He predicted then that the accumulating 
silt would soon drive the river to seek its old course. 

Science 

The principal constituent of plants — carbon — comprising as it 
does about 45 per cent, of the matter of plants, is obtained from the 
air. 

Oxygen, of which plants contain nearly as much as they do of 
carbon, is obtained mainly from water and air, and to a lesser ex- 
tent in combination with other substances. 

Hydrogen, which comprises about 6 per cent of plants, is se- 
cured mainly from water. 

Nitrogen is collected from the air, stored up in the soil, and is 
taken by plants through their roots. 

The mineral matters, which are the other materials used by 
plants to build up their substance, are all secured from the soil. 

The Journal of the Department of Agriculture of 
South Australia, February 15, 1933 


A new nail chemically pitted to give a greater gripping power 
is estimated to be two or three times stronger in holding power 
than the common nail. 

Iowa Agriculturist, March, 1933 


Recent work at the University College of Science, Calcutta, 
has been carried out in an endeavor to synthesize a compound which 
might replace quinine, the production costs of which are very heavy. 



CURRENT NOTES 


228 


It is now reported that Professor H. K. Sen and Professor W. Basu 
have obtained a substance in the laboratory which on testing has 
been found to be a good substitute for quinine. Whilst having the 
same antiparasitic value, it has the advantage of not producing the 
side effects associated with quinine, and the taste in water is not 
so bitter. The compound is an ammonium salt obtained in work on 
coal tar derivatives, and it is stated to be moderately soluble in 
water. (Chem. and Ind., Vol. II., 1932, No. 43, p. 884) 

Reprinted in Tropical Agricvlture, February, 1933 


A leading American wholesale dealer in bananas, whilst recently 
visiting the Tweed district, stressed the careful attention given in 
his country to every detail to preserve the appearance of the fruit, 
so that it should be perfectly free from all blemishes, such as char- 
acterized bananas he had seen in Sydney. He held that a great 
deal more attention should be paid in this country to every opera- 
tion, from the cutting of the fruit until its delivery in the retail 
shop. In America, he added, bananas were handled as carefully as 
though they were eggs. 

The Australian Sugar Journal, April 6, 1933 


In these days when surplus stocks of sugar, coffee and other 
crops that cannot be stored in silos, have to be kept in good order for 
many months, and perhaps several years, can it be claimed that the 
soft-fibred jute is the ideal covering for such segregated stocks? 
The produce must be kept cool and dry, or as near so as possible. 
Can this be obtained as effectually and cheaply with jute as the 
covering as with sisal? Marked, and especially rapid, changes of 
temperature, must be avoided and the chances of sweating reduced 
to a minimum. Above all, which material, jute or sisal, will prove 
To give the greatest facility when handling the huge stocks that have 
to be tended and moved, and which fibre would give the best ven- 
tilation during storage. Surely, after various experiments, perhaps 
a mistake or two, we shall find that sisal will answer the purpose best? 

Tropical Life (London) March, 1933 


Etch surface of concrete to roughen it with muriatic or commer- 
cial hydrochloric acid. Dilute 1 part acid to 5 parts water. Apply 
acid to floor surface and allow to remain until desired amount of 



224 


THE PHILIPPINE AGSICULTUBIST 


roughness occurs. • Then remove by thoroughly washing with water 
to prevent further action. A second treatment may be given if de- 
sired. Sprinkling ordinary ground, limestone over the floor after 
cleansing also tends to prevent slipping. 

Queensland Agricultural Journal, April, 1933 


This disease [bud rot] if Coconutsi; was responsible for the loss 
of nearly 100,000 coconut trees after 1903’s hurricane. The reason 
for this was that the diseased trees had been neglected before the 
hurricane and left rotting in the fields. When the hurricane came 
along and damaged hundreds of thousands of trees, the broken sur- 
faces of the heart leaves became danger points for infection. 

After the drastic destruction of all infected trees and their 
burning up under guidance of the Plant Disease Inspectors the dis- 
ease almost ceased to exist and for years now the cases have been 
rare. 

There appears now however to be a gradually increasing in- 
cidence of cases showing up. All coconut growers should at once 
see that all ca.ses are cut down and burnt thoroughly now. Other- 
wise the same thing as happened after the 1903 hurricane will 
happen again. 

This warning is needed as it is quite certain it cannot be ex- 
pected that Jamaica will indefinitely be free of hurricane. 

The Journal of the Jamaicd Agricultural Society, June, 1931. 


COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 

Dean B. M. Gonzalez was the principal speaker at the grad- 
uation exercises of the Indang Rural High School, April 1, 1933. 


Dr. Miguel Manresa was the principal speaker at the gradua*' 
tion exercises of the Odiongan Rural High School, April 6, 1933. 
His theme was “Industries in Agriculture.” 


On June 1, Robert L. Pendleton returned from an extended 
leave of absence in China, to resume headship of the Department 
of Soils. For the greater part of the last two years Professor Pen- 
dleton has held the position of Chief Soil Technologist to the Na- 
tional Geological Survey. With headquarters at Peking, he has been 
responsible for the development of a soil survey for China. His 



COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 


225 


studies there included the training of a field survey staff, the erec- 
tion and equipment of a soils laboratory, and the publication of the 
results of soil research. Considerable progress has already been 
made in the mapping of typical soil areas in widely scattered parts 
of China, and also in encouraging cooperation between the various 
official, educational, missionary, and commercial organizations which 
are actively carrying on in some form soil research. 


On May 7, 1933, Mr. Engracio Basio gave a talk on poultry 
problems before an assembly of "tenientes del barrio” of the mu- 
nicipality of San Pablo, Laguna. 


In the meeting of the Society for the Advancement of Re- 
search held March 23, 1933 the following members were elected 
officers for the academic year 1933-1934. 

President Dr. G. O. Ocfemia 

Vice-President Dr. Miguel Manresa 

Secretary Dr. F. M. Fronda 

Treasurer Dr. Leon G. Gonzalez 

After serving as secretary for a term of three years Doctor 
Fronda was re-elected for another three years. 


The Department of Agricultural Engineering is carrying on 
some interesting field extension work on engine fuels. This work, 
made possible by the cooperation and generosity of manufacturers 
of and dealers in engines and fuels and the Calamba Sugar Estate, 
is of much practical value. Some idea of the work is given in the 
following paragraphs. 

The Department of Agricultural Engineering has just returned 
■to the International Harvester Company of Philippines, a 40 h. p. 
stationary unit which was loaned to the department for research 
studies., The engine was equipped with three sets of high compres- 
sion pistons. Experiments were conducted for almost a year using 
as fuels, kerosene, mixtures of kerosene and crude oil in various 
proportions, alcohol-gasoline combination, alcohol-kerosene-ether com- 
bination, alcohol-benzol-gasoline combination, and nearly straight al- 
cohol. Most of the fuels and oils were supplied by the Asiatic Pe- 
troleum Company, La Tondena, Socony-Vacuum Company, Central 
Azucarrera de Tarlac, and the Kavankalan Sugar Company. 



226 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


The Department has recently received a miodel XAH four- 
cylinder engine 3-5/8" X 4-1/2" from the Waukesha Motor Com- 
pany, Waukesha, Wisconsin, U. S. A. The Company furnished the 
engine at no charge to the College except the transportation from 
the United States to the Islands. As an accessory to the engine was 
included a high compression head for research work in alcohol. 
Some of the accessories necessary to set the engine for bench tests 
were provided by the Calamba Sugar Estate and the International 
Harvester Company of Philippines. The Department has also re- 
ceived for research purposes a 1929 Model A Ford Engine from 
the Manila Trading Company. 

The Department in cooperation with the Calamba Sugar Estate 
is carrying on very extensive research studies on the use of dif- 
ferent grades of alcohol and gasoline as fuels. The work began Jan- 
uary 1, 1933. Field tests on Chevrolet trucks which are used for 
cane hauling are completed. From 1000 to over 2000 km. of travel 
were covered by each truck using .special alcohol motor fuel, de- 
hydrated alcohol, and gasoline as fuels. Engine wear, carbon forma- 
tion, fuel and oil consumption, oil dilution, corrosion, valve sticking, 
ease of starting, and general engine behavior were a few of the 
objects sought in the tests. Laboratory tests were also made in the 
department, using as additional fuels, different grades of alcohol 
from -94 per cent to 99.6 per cent by volume. With more controlled 
apparatus, it was possible to accurately run the engines on the 
bench with variable speeds, loads, throttle of)ening, and different 
sizes of carburetor jets best suited for the special kinds of fuel used. 

At present, tests are being made using a high compression 
Waukesha four-cylinder engine as motive power. The crank case 
is supplied with a special Wakefield Castrol oil (with castor oil as 
base). The same kind of engine is now used by the International 
Harvester Company for one of the types of trucks which they han 
die. The laboratory tests are made under the supervision of some 
of the members of the staff of the Department of Agricultural En- 
g'ineering in cooperation with representatives from the Calamba 
Sugar Estate, International Harvester Company, and Wise & Com- 
pany. 


In the interest of their work in the College, Dr. F. M. Fronda 
of the Department of Animal Husbandry, Mr. Joaquin Ruiz de Arana 
of Service Division, Mr. Vicente M. Dawis and Mr. Moises Villaluz 



COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 


227 


of the Department of Agronomy went to Baguio on May 19 return- 
ing on May 22. Doctor Fronda was especially interested in ob.serv- 
ing the adaptation of temperate zone breeds of poultry to Baguio con- 
ditions, with an idea that this locality might be used as a sort of 
“introduction garden” in the gradual acclimatization of such breeds 
to Philippine conditions. Mr. Arana looked into the problems of 
road construction, especially as to ways and means of overcoming 
slopes, and the proper drainage of roads on inclines, and the sur- 
facing of roads with sharp grades. He also studied the methods fol- 
lowed in the construction of buildings on very sharply sloping loca- 
tions, and using such locations to advantage. Messrs. Dawis and 
Villaluz looked into problems of landscape gardening and architec- 
ture with a view to getting ideas for possible use on the Campus 
and beautification of similar situations elsewhere. 


The ninth graduation exercises of the extension course in the 
College of Agriculture given in the Summer School were held on 
May 20. This year, 61 students were enrolled and 48 certificates 
were awarded. Forty-two of these certificates were in Poultry Rais- 
ing and six in Propagation of Tropical fruit Plants. Four of the cer- 
tificates were awarded to women. 


Of the 61 students enrolled in the extension courses this year, 
14 were under 20 years old, 28 were between 20 and 29 years, 5 
were between 30 and 39, and 4 were between 40 'and 43 years old. 
These students were distributed in the following occupations: 20 
students, 13 teachers, 6 farmers, 6 poultry raisers, 4 merchants, 1 
fisherman, 1 dentist and 1 clerk. There were 19 provinces repre- 
sented. The provinces that had three or more representatives were : 

- R^ tangas. Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Manila, Pampanga, Occidental 
Negros, Rizal and Tarlac. 


About ten years ago the old silk house and the old green house, 
near Molawin Creek, were “remodeled” into a single building to 
house the then newly established Division of Soils of the Depart- 
ment of Agronomy. During May of this year the now separate 
Department of Soils was assigned the old veterinary building north- 
west of the main campus entrance, and in these new quarters the 
department is now housed. 



228 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUBIST 


After calling the second story of the Old College Building home 
for ten years, the Department of English on June 3 moved down 
the street a few rods into the second story of the building formerly 
occupied by the Department of Soils. 


The opening convocation was held in the Auditorium at eight 
o’clock on June 6. Dr. Miguel Manresa, Chairman of the Committee 
in Social Affairs, presided. Dean Gonzalez addressed the student 
body. The yells and singing of college songs went off with a snap 
under the leadership of Antonio Flores, Miguel Alba and Abel Silva. 

Jose Utzurrum, President of the Student Body, and Rafael Ro- 
ces, Jr. President of Junior Class gave vivid talks on the life of the 
students in the College. The talks showed that these young men 
saw the life quite fully and understandingly. 


Mr. Conrado B. Uichanco, B.S.A. ’33 is now Editor of The Phil- 
ippine Poultry Journal, succeeding Dr. F. M. Fronda, who was the 
founder and the first editor of this Journal. Heavy work in the 
College of Agricufture, compelled Doctor Fronda to withdraw from 
this editorial work. 


Miss Elena Caguicla B.Agr. ’32, B.S. ’33 is now employed in 
the chemistry division. Bureau of Science. 



WILLIAM ARNON HENRY, WISCONSIN PIONEER 

In this College no book is more frequently cited than Feeds and Feeding by 
Henry and Miorrison. On our faculty are several men who were graduate stu- 
dents in the University of Wisconsin and some who had courses under Professor 
Morrison before he resigned to accept the directorship of the New York Experi- 
ment Station at Geneva and professorship in animal husbandry in Cornell Uni- 
versity. 

The oft-quoted Feeds and Feeding has had a notable life or shall we say, 
career. It started out as a handbook written by Professor Henry for use in his 
classes; was enlarged with Professor F. *B. Morrison as joint author and pub- 
lished in 1898. In 1910, after nine editions had come from the press it was 
rewritten and enlarged, and ran through five editions in the next five years; was 
rewritten again in 1916, and the seventeenth edition was reprinted eight times 
between 1918 and 1921. The eighteenth edition, revised and illustrated, was 
published in 1922. The nineteenth edition, rewritten by Professor Morrison 
was published in 1928. It was translated into Portuguese in 1907 for use in 
Brazil and in 1912 into Russian. In response to an insistent demand for a 
briefer edition. Professor Morrison with editorial aid of Professor Henry, pre- 
pared an abridged edition of the eighteenth edition. This book was published in 
1917. The latest edition on our campus is the sixth, published in 1929. 

Because of our friendly contact with these two men, especially through Feeds 
and Feeding, and because of the value, personally and professionally, of knowing 
of the life work of men of worth and of deeds, the editorial on Dean Henry which 
appeared in the United States Department of Agriculture Experiment Station 
Record of April, 1933 is here reprinted. (Editor's note.) 

Although more than a quarter century has elapsed since the re- 
tirement of Dean and Director W. A. Henry, his death at San Diego, 
California on November 24, 1932, readily brings to mind his unique 
and timely service for agricultural education and research. The 
story of the upbuilding of the agricultural work of the University of 
Wisconsin under his guidance has often been told, arid his success in 
gfcflhing for the cause the confidence and support of farm people has 
been widely recognized as far-reaching in its influence. Nor has the 
passing of the years obscured the significance of what he did, but has 
rather brought into even clearer perspective his substantial contribu- 
‘^ion to the agricultural colleges and experiment stations at a critical 
stage in their history. 

Dean Henry himself said truly upon retiring in 1907 that his 
work had been that of a pioneer. Virtually it began in 1880 with his 

PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST, VOL. XXII, No. 4, SEPTEMBER, 1933 


229 



280 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


appointment as professor of botany and agriculture in the University 
of Wisconsin. He was then 30 years of age, a graduate the preceding 
spring from Cornell University and with several years of teaching ex- 
perience in high schools of Indiana and Colorado. 

At Wisconsin he soon discovered that although a professor of 
agriculture had been provided as early as 1868, his department had 
“no offices and no laboratories; there were no workers in research, 
no special faculty, and no students.” Most discouraging of all, there 
was little interest in his subject either within the institution or in the 
State at large. 

Opportunity was open for a limited amount of experimental work, 
however, and in 1882, when provision was made by the State legisla- 
ture for an experiment station. Prof. Henry became head of this sta- 
tion and continued in this capacity until his retirement. Speaking 
this phase of his activities. Dr. E. W. Allen said editorially in these 
columns in 1907, “he had a thorough appreciation of scientific work 
and was keenly alive to the needs of the farmer. Step by step he de- 
veloped different departments of the work, gathering around him a 
competent corps of workers, who were inspired by his enthusiasm and 
aided by his intelligent insight into the practical and scientific bearing 
of their work. Under his direction the Wisconsin Station has placed 
to its credit some of the most noteworthy contributions to the science 
of agriculture, and a multitude of results of practical importance 
which the institution has carried directly to the farmer”. 

Despite the efforts of Prof. Henry and his colleagues, interest in 
collegiate instruction continued to languish through the early eighties. 
Nevertheless, to quote Dr. Allen again, “he believed in agricultural 
education and was determined to see its value recognized. If this 
could not be accomplished under the conventional method of teaching, 
he was ready to develop and test a new plan, and he had the courage 
of conviction necessary to carry it out in the face of doubt, if unt 
opposition. And so he organized in 1886 the first successful short 
course in agriculture in this country ; and when its success had been 
demonstrated he established the first dairy school in America in 1890. 
Four years later he started the 10-day course for adult farmers, which 
attracted 176 men the first year and was attended (in 1907) by 607 
farmers.” 

These educational experiments, for such they may be termed, 
were closely observed and eventually adopted by other institutions, 
many of which had been facing similar conditions. As Professor 



WILLIAM ARNON HENRY 


291 


EJmeritus C. S. Plumb of Ohio State University, virtually a contem- 
porary in the field, has recently said, “all over the country the colleges 
became interested in the Wisconsin work, and vocational courses and 
laboratory work in dairying and judging farm animals were the enter- 
ing wedges of a new agriculture This vocational phase of 

agricultural instruction was the salvation of agricultural education in 
North America.” 

Aside from the intrinsic value of the short courses, they proved 
of even greater service by their stimulation of more advanced instruc- 
tion. Attendance in four-year courses picked up, and even graduate 
work was soon demanded. Organization of a college of agriculture 
became possible in Wisconsin in 1891, with Prof. Henry serving as 
dean until his retirement. At that time its enrollment was in excess 
of 600 students, and its buildings and equipment had become notable 
as among the best of their kind. 

Although Dr. Henry's institutional service for agriculture is as- 
sociated exclusively with Wisconsin, he was soon widely known and 
greatly esteemed beyond its borders. One extensive point of contact 
was the comprehensive manual entitled Feeds and Feeding, first pub- 
lished by him in 1898 and since familiar to every student of animal 
nutrition. His portrait constituted the first contribution to a gallery 
of men conspicuous for their service to the livestock industry, started 
in 1902 in Chicago under the auspices of the International Livestock 
Exposition. Thrice was he recipient of the honorary doctor’s degree, 
from the Universities of Illinois and Vermont in 1904 and the Michi- 
gan State Agricultural College in 1907. 

Dr. Henry was long an outstanding figure in the Association of 
American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, now the 
Association of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities. He represented 
the State of Wisconsin in the first convention of this body, held in 
1287, was chosen a member of its executive committee the following 
year, and in 1893 achieved the honor of being the first experiment 
station director to occupy the presidency. Subsequently he was un- 
failing in attendance, indefatigable in committee service, and the 
sponsor of an unusual number of worthy projects. 

In 1888 he argued for close contacts by the colleges and stations 
with farmers, opened a discussion of how the Federal Department of 
Agriculture could assist the stations by drawing special attention to 
the opportunity for centralized bibliographical work and the compila- 
tion of material from a broad national viewpoint, and pleaded for 



282 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTOKIST 


inclusion in the association’s membership of the staff members as 
well as the administrative heads. He early advocated the abstracting: 
by the Office of Experiment Stations of European investigations as 
well as those in this country, and took a prominent part in arranging 
active station participation in the World’s Columbian Exposition at 
Chicago and later expositions elsewhere. In 1901 he secured the 
passage of a resolution favoring more adequate accommodations for 
the Department of Agriculture, and for several years he served on 
a committee to promote cooperative relations with the Department. 
He introduced a resolution in 1900 and again in 1901 to the effect 
that directors and department heads of experiment stations should, 
if possible, devote their whole time to the work of investigation, and 
while this resolution was subsequently withdrawn, the discussion was 
doubtless beneficial. He obtained a reorganization of the association 
itself whereby a section of experiment station work was set up in 
1903. Many other items in the record attest the breadth of his interest 
and his prestige among his colleagues. 

Special mention should be made of his presidential address, de- 
livered on October 17, 1893. In this he reviewed the passage of the 
Hatch Act and the developments under its provisions during the in- 
tervening six years, and stated that “the more I study the work of 
our experiment stations, the more I am pleased with what we have 
accomplished and the larger grows my faith in the high position they 
are destined to occupy in American Agriculture.’’ Nevertheless, 
he stated rather bluntly that in his opinion serious mistakes had been 
made. Among the outstanding needs he cited the more careful plan- 
ning of work, greater continuity, concentration upon no more pro- 
jects than could be adequately maintained, greater cooperation be- 
tween stations, and especially a clearer demarcation and differentia- 
tion between teaching and research. 

Dr. Henry’s interest in improving the quality of the station 
research continued to develop with the years, and in 1906 many of 
his ideals found fruition in the passage of the Adams Act. Begin- 
ning with a conference with Mr. Adams in 1903, he had a large share 
in the initiation and drafting of this legislation. It was largely 
because of the stress which he and others laid on the need for the 
more fundamental investigations that the funds provided by the act 
were restricted “to paying the necessary expense of conducting origi- 
nal researches or experiments bearing directly on the agricultural 
industry of the United States.” 



WILLIAM ABNON HENKY 


233 


The final address of Dr. Henry before the association was given 
November 16, 1906, entitled The Agricultural College and the 
State: A Plea for a New Division of College and Station Workers, 
this address logically supplemented his previous pleas for a station 
staff freed as largely as possible from the distractions and burdens of 
other duties. “As a remedy for the present unsatisfactory situation,” 
he said, “I suggest that there be organized in every college and station 
a separate corps of workers whose sole duty shall be to serve as in- 
termediaries between the college and station on the one hand and our 
great farm clientage on the other. They will relieve the investigators 
and teachers of a large portion of their present extra college and 
station duties. High-grade research and the best quality of class- 
room instruction will then, and only then, be possible. With this 
corps of specially trained middlemen our colleges and stations will 
serve the farmers far better than is now possible.” By this advocacy 
of an extension force nearly a decade before the Smith-Lever Act, 
Dr. Henry showed himself to the end consistently the pioneer. 

The 27 years during which Dr. Henry did his principal work for 
agricultural education and research covered a period of much respon- 
sibility for the leaders in this field. There was serious danger on 
the one hand that the colleges and stations would fail to gain and hold 
the confidence of farm people, and that on the other the achievement 
of popularity would impair the depth and soundness of their work 
by a dissipation of energies in meeting immediate demands. Dr. 
Henry saw both these dangers and how to combat them. That these 
institutions find themselves to-day so firmly intrenched in public 
esteem seems due in no small degree to his practical common sense, 
his initiative and resourcefulness, and, above all, to his appreciation 
of and insistence upon high ideals. 


Let it please you to keep in order a moderate-sized farm, that so 
.thy, garners may be full of fruits in their season. — Hesiod. 


Farmers are actually becoming “soil conscious.” They are rec- 
ognizing that the soil is their one great asset and the basis of all 
their operations, of their success or of their failure. All people are 
coming to a realization that the soil is the national resource of the 
land which must be conserved to permit of a future agriculture, a 
future adequate production of good for the human race ! 

P. E. Brown. 


Pep without purpose is piffle. Penn. State Fanner. 



A REPORT ON A RICE INBREEDING EXPERIMENT IN THE 
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE ‘ 

TORIBIO MERCADO AND PEDRO JUACHON 

WITH THREE TEXT FIQURE8 

This paper describes the method followed in inbreeding rice in 
the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, and records 
the progress and important results that have been obtained up to 1933. 
The experiment was planned by Dr. N. B. Mendiola in 1927 while he 
was on research investigation work in Java where he found inbreeding 
on rice was being carried on. 

The writers found no literature on rice inbreeding in the Philip- 
pines or in any other rice growing tropical country. However, Dr. 
N. B. Mendiola of this College, in a paper entitled “Natural crossing 
in rice and its relation to rice improvement” * makes the statement, 
that although the rice flower is adapted to self-fertilization several 
cases of natural rice hybrids are found. Because of this, a certain 
amount of heterozygosity exists and by the inbreeding of these hetero- 
zygous plants different strains may be produced and the best of these 
isolated by selection. 


OBJECTS OF THE PRESENT WORK 

The objects of this work were: (a.) To record observations on 
the effects of self-pollination in Hambas variety of rice; (&) to isolate 
desirable strains which might be produced by inbreeding, and (c) to 
compare these selected strains with their mother variety. 

TIME AND PLACE OF THE WORK 

This work was performed from July, 1927 to March, 1933. •Mi 
cultures which covered six successive yearly plantings were made in 
the Experiment Station Grounds, College of Agriculture, University 
of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna. 

Experiment Station contribution No. 898. Prepared in the Department of 
^onomy under the direction of Dr. N. B. Mlendiola. Read in part before the 
Biological Club, September 24, 1931. Received for publication May 

IvOo. 

*Mendi^, N. B. 1926. Natural crossing in rice and its relation to rice 
Proceedings of the Third Pan-Pacific Science Cong^ss. Tokyo, 


284 



A RICE INBREEDING EXPERIMENT 


236 


MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Variety med 

After deliberation it was decided to use the Hambas variety of 
rice as it is grown commercially in the College and in rice fields in the 
locality and is a good yielder, possesses excellent cooking quality, and 
commands a good price. Hambas is a lowland variety. 

Preparation of the field and seed bed 

The practice of the rice growers in Los Banos was followed in 
preparing the paddies for this work. For water, rain and a small 
irrigation system were depended upon. The paddies were plowed 
once and then harrowed six to seven times or until all the weeds were 
buried in the mud and the soil was made uniformly soft. 

Different plantings made 

The original stock of seedlings was obtained from one of the 
College rice tenants. The initial planting was made in 1927 and 
consisted of 1,216 individuals from which 50 plants were selected and 
bagged. Seeds from these 50 plants were sown in line culture. From 
this sowing, 1,921 seedlings were set in paddies in 1928 and another 
50 plants were inbred, one plant being taken from each line. Seeds 
from these 50 inbred plants were sown in 1929 and from this sowing 
2,134 plants were transplanted. From this planting, 57 promising 
strains were selected in 1930. In the next season these 57 strains 
were compared with their mother variety. Twenty-four strains 
which gave a better yield per plant than their mother variety were 
selected in 1931 for the next trial planting. A comparative test of 
the twenty-four selected strains and their parent variety was made 
in 1931; the grain was harvested in February, 1932. The three 
strains which yielded more than the control variety were saved for 
the next planting. During the 1932-1933 season these three strains 
were again compared with the parent variety. Two strains were 
finally selected. 

In the first, second and third generations the seedlings were 
transplanted one plant to the hill and distanced one meter each way. 
The object of this distance of planting was to give space to encourage 
the full development of individual plants to maturity. 

In comparative tests the seedlings belonging to one strain were 
transplanted at a distance of 20 to 26 cm. each way. Two to four 
seedlings were placed in a hill. 





THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUBIST 


Numbering the seedlings 

The original stock seedlings were numbered from 1 to 1,216, con- 
secutively. Each seedling represented a single strain. 

At the second planting the seedlings were numbered according to 
the original strain number and the plant number in the strain. For 
example, in strain No. 908-16, 908 indicated the original strain num- 
ber and 16 indicated the plant number in the strain under test. 

At the third planting each selected strain consisted of three num- 
bers, the first two numbers represented the strain previously selected 
and the third number represented the number of the plant in that 
strain. At the fourth planting four numbers were used, the first 
three numbers represented the strain previously selected and the 
fourth number represented the number of the plant in the strain un- 
der test in the fourth generation culture. 



Fig. 1. — A rice inbreeding field showing bags on the selected strains. 


The parent seedlings were numbered thus, C,-l ; 0,-2 ; C,-3 ; etc. 
C means check and the last serial numbers, 1, 2, 3, etc. represent the 
plant numbers in each check. For check 2, Cj is used ; for check 3, 
C,; for check 4, C<; etc. From 30 to 40 plants were grown to rep- 
resent each strain. 

Bagging 

For bagging, a cage made of a bamboo frame covered with cloth 
was used. The frame was 90 centimeters high and 45 centimeters 
in diameter. Each cage was tied to a pole. Before the appearance 
of the flowers, the healthy, uniform and most vigorous individuals 
were selected and bagged. In bagging, the cage was placed at a 
height that would permit the plants in the cage to grow without in- 
jury. (See fig. 1.) Each cage was held in place by sticking the end 



A RICE INBREEDING EXPERIMENT 


237 


of the supporting pole about 30 cm. into the ground. Prolonged 
bagging encouraged the development of the tillers ; few bearing culms 
developed ^nd maturity was very irregular. The reason for this was 
that the inbred plants were kept in the cage until maturity. The 
bag should have been removed a week after the majority of the inbred 
grains had been pollinated. 

Care of the seeds and seedlings 

The seeds produced from each selected inbred strain were placed 
in paper bags. Care was taken not to mix the seeds of one strain 
with those of another. The pedigree number of the strain was writ- 
ten on the bag and the label was placed inside of it. 

To protect the seeds from rats, birds, etc., they were placed on 
a shelf enclosed with wire netting. 

Two weeks after the seedlings were set in paddies the missing 
hills were replanted. All the plants in each season culture were 
given the same treatment. To minimize the shattering of the grains 
the heads were handled carefully in harvesting and in hauling them 
to the Plant Breeding Laboratory. 

Characters studied 

During the first and second plantings the same agronomic char- 
acters were noted. These characters were number of bearing and 
non-bearing culms; relative proportion of completely filled, almost 
filled, half filled, partly filled, and empty panicles per stool; yield of 
the inbred strains, and of the check ; and presence of red and white 
cuticled grains. 

The plants were studied in the laboratory. The number of bear- 
ing and non-bearing culms was determined by separating the non- 
bearing culms from the bearing ones in one plant. A culm is con- 
sidered non-bearing when it does not produce flowers. Some plants 
reached the booting stage but no flowers came out, hence they were 
considered non-bearing. For the relative proportion of development 
of panicles, the number of filled and empty grains was determined 
from each hill. A panicle was considered empty when all the grains 
were empty ; it was considered partly filled when about one-half of the 
grains were partly filled. After this record of the culms was made, 
the panicles were threshed and the filled grains were separated from 
the empty ones. A representative sample fiom one group was taken 
and the grains counted. The number of grains was multiplied by the 
number of samples contained in the whole. The color of the cuticle 
was determined by actually opening about twenty grains from each 
plant and noting the color of each. 



238 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTOEIST 


During the time from flowering to maturity of the third planting, 
homozygous strains were selected with respect to the distinctly im- 
portant characters ; uniform height of the plants, heavy bearing, ex- 
ceptionally large or small sized grains and uniform maturity. In 
performing this selection, the whole field was gone over and each 
strain was compared with the parent plants. Repeated examinations 
were made during the maturing period of the plants. Final selection 
was made before harvesting. 

The selected seeds were harvested, the strains being kept sep- 
arate. They were taken to the laboratory. No study of these 
strains was made in the laboratory, but their seeds were cleaned, 
properly stored and then planted the next season. The strains were 
transplanted as described under heading, “Different plantings made.” 

At maturity, the different strains were harvested separately. 
Each stool was pulled up and all stools belonging to the same strain 
were put in one pile. The different groups of control plants were 
also harvested separately. In the field, the number of living stools 
was counted and the total number of bearing culms was recorded. 
All the panicles of the bearing culms from each strain were placed 
in cloth bags and taken to the laboratory for further study. Two 
labels were made. One was placed inside the bag and the other was 
tied outside. 

In the laboratory when the seeds were thoroughly dried the actual 
weights were taken before and after threshing. The percentage in 
weight of clean palay ® was determined by dividing the actual weight 
of the clean palay by the weight of the uncleaned and multiplying the 
quotient by 100 per cent. 

How the corrected yield per plant was found 

The corrected yield per plant was computed according to the 
method described by Mendiola (1926). This method is: The theo- 
retical check yields of non-check rows, that is, the possible yield of 
the parent variety had it been planted in the rows occupied by the 
strains being tested is found by subtracting the actual yields of two 
check yields and then dividing the difference by five or six since the 
check or parent variety was planted after every fourth or fifth strain. 
The quotient is either added to or subtracted from the first check 
yield. If the first check yield is greater than the second, the quotient 

• “Palay” means matured rice grains after threshing. Clean palay refers to 
rough rice free from empty or unfertilized grains. 



A RICB IKBRSBDING EXPERIMENT 


289 


is subtracted from the first check yield. The difference gives the 
theoretical check yield of non-check rows in place of the first strains 
actually planted there. The same quotient is subtracted from the 
first theoretical check yield of non-check rows to get the second, 
and so on. But if the first actual check yield is less than the 
second, the quotient is added to the actual first check yield to find the 
first theoretical check yield of non-check rows. For illustration, the 
yields of lots planted to check 1 and check 2 may be cited. Since the 
actual yield per plant of check 1 was 28.2 grams and only 22.7 grams 
for check 2, it may be assumed that there was a decrease in soil fer- 
tility from row check 1 to row check 2. The second check rows being 
planted in the sixth plot the difference in soil fertility as expressed in 
yield, which was 5.5 grams per hill, was divided by six. So the re- 
sulting quotient in this case, 0.92, should be subtracted from 28.20 or 
27.28 which now represents the first theoretical check yield if check 
rows were grown in place of strain No. 469-25-4. To get the second 
theoretical check yield, 26.366 grams, 0.92 is subtracted from the first 
theoretical check yield. For the third, fourth, and fifth strains the 
theoretical check yields were 25.449, 24.53, and 23.665 grams, re- 
spectively. 

The difference between the actual yield of a non-check row and 
the theoretical yield was then found and designated as minus or plus : 
by minus if the theoretical yield of the non-check row was greater 
than the actual yield and by plus, if less. 

The average theoretical yield of the check row was determined by 
adding the check yields both actual and theoretical, and dividing the 
sum by the number of yields added. The corrected non-check yield 
per hill of each non-check row was then found by adding or subtract- 
ing the difference between the actual and theoretical yields from the 
average theoretical yield. The difference was subtracted if it was 
minus and added if it was plus. The average theoretical and cor- 
rected yields were then used as bases of selection. That is, strains 
the corrected yields of which were on or above their respective 
average theoretical yields were selected and planted the next season. 

Following the method of computation described above, the theo- 
retical or coirected yield per plant was found in the strains between 
two check yields. 

In the 1931-1932 season, a comparative test of the promising 
strains and the parent variety was made. Their respective yields 
were measured and corrected yields were computed. 



240 


THE PHILIPPINE AGIIICULTURIST 


RESULTS 

The results of this experiment are found in tables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
and 7. 

Table 1 shows the production of bearing and non-bearing culms, 
empty and filled panicles per hill of selfed and non-treated plants. 

Table 2 shows the production by selfing of grains with red cuticle 
• and with white cuticle. 

Table 3 gives the number of red and white cuticled grains among 
mass and selected seeds. 

Table 4 shows the percentage of empty and filled grains of the 
selected grains and of the mother variety. 

Table 5 presents the actual and corrected yields per hill of the 
selected strains compared with the check rows. 

Table 6 gives the actual and corrected yields per hectare of four 
selected strains compared with their parents. 

Table 7 shows the relative sizes of grains of two inbred strains 
compared with their parents. 

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 

Maturity of the plants. Of all the characters observed, maturity 
and height of the inbred plants showed noticeable variations at the 
F, and Fj generations, but not so pronounced at the Fj. During the 
initial planting the individual plants exhibited irregularity in height 
and in time of maturity. The inbred plants at the third generation 
planting matured at the same time but the control plants did not. 

Bearing and non-hearing culms observed in the inbred rice plants. 
In the first planting (see table 1) there was obtained per plant an 
average of 43 bearing and 10 non-bearing culms and 1,178 filled grains 
and 6,039 empty. The plants produced in the open in Fj produced an 
average per plant of 38 bearing with 8 non-bearing culms and 1,637 
filled grains and 2,622 empty. Of the 60 plants which were selfed 
to produce Fj there were observed an average of 40 bearing with 11 
non-bearing culms and 1,438 filled with 4,001 empty grains per plant. 
Of the 1,174 seedlings planted in the open which produced Fj, there 
was an average of 29 bearing and 10 non-bearing culms and 2,706 filled 
and 1,206 empty grains. The check rows of F^ which consisted of 
184 plants had an average of 26 bearing and 8 non-bearing culms to 
a hill and 2,333 filled and only 896 empty grains. 

These data show that by inbreeding and then allowing the grains 
to mature in the bagging cage, fewer filled grains were produced than 
empty ones. The majority of the inbred grains were empty. By 



A RICE INBREEDING EXPERIMENT 


241 


comparing F, inbred seeds grown in the open with those of under 
the same conditions, the smaller number of bearing culms was ac- 
companied by a higher number of filled grains. These figures show 
that improvement by inbreeding is possible. 

A high degree of variation was shown in F, and Fj. The smaller 
number of bearing culms in Fj was accompanied by a greater pro- 
duction of filled grains. These results in the Fj seem to indicate 
the possibility of improving and purifying the variety. 

Production by selfing of grains with cuticle of different colors. 
As shown in table 2 there were found two distinct types, the red cuti- 
cled and the white cuticled in the Hambas variety of rice. (See fig. 
2.) This variety was claimed to have been mechanically mixed with 



Fig. 2. — (a) A mixture of white and red cuticled grains of Hambas variety 
of rice. (6) White cuticled grains of strain No. 908-16-30 after in- 
breeding followed by selection. 


red and white strains a long time ago. Of 402 plants from 18 red 
cuticled strains, 11 plants had white cuticled grains and 391 had red 
cuticled grains. Out of 847 plants from 32 white cuticled strains 
only 6 plants had red cuticled grains and 842 had white cuticled ones. 

These data show that upon selfing the red or white cuticled 
strains of the Hambas variety, plants with white or red cuticled grains 
may be produced to a certain degree. This segregation or throwing 
off of red and white biotypes from apparently distinct red and white 
strains supports the assumption that both the red and white types 
of Hambas are hybrid in nature and, therefore, of heterogenous geno- 
type. This points out that the occurrence of red and white types 
had probably resulted from natural crossing of varieties that were 



242 


THE PHILIPPINE AOElCtai'nntlST 


originally pure white or pure red. In all cases although different 
strains produced grains of two colors the original color prevailed. 
There were white strains originally which produced red after inbreed- 
ing. These white strains, however, produced few red cuticled grains. 
Examples are strains 34, 45 and 174. Strain No. 174 had the greatest 
number of individuals producing a color different from the parents. 
In strain 143 of which only one plant was saved from destruction in 
the field, Fj seeds with red cuticle produced seeds with white cuticle 
in Fj. Even in this plant it was evident that it produced both the 
red and white cuticle, but the white cuticle grain happened to be the 
only one saved. The genetics of red and white cuticled grains iso- 
lated through inbreeding is reserved for further studies. 

From data in table 3 it is evident that of the 310 mass selected 
plants 77.42 per cent had white cuticled grains and 22.58 per cent had 
red cuticled ones. In the line selected strains with white cuticle, only 
0.60 per cent of 833 plants had red cuticle and 99.40 per cent had 
white cuticle. Of the line selected strains out of 402 plants with red 
cuticle only 2.74 per cent had white cuticle and 97.26 per cent had 
red cuticle. The relatively low percentage of red and white cuticled 
segregates, which resulted from inbreeding of the red or white strains 
suggests at once the effectiveness of line or pedigree selection in 
purifying the variety. In the case of mass selected plants, it is in- 
dicated that in the future the chances of mixing the red and white 
strains would' be greater, if selection were not practiced. 

Percentage of empty and of filled grains of the selected inbredi 
strains and of their mother va/riety. It may be seen in table 4 that 
of the 54 strains tested more than two-thirds had a higher percentage 
of clean palay than the mother plant. Only 16 strains had a lower 
percentage of clean palay than their parent variety. The parent 
plants had 85.08 per cent of clean palay and only 14.92 per cent of 
empty grains. Plants having a higher percentage of clean palay than 
their parent variety had a range of from 85.83 to 96.89 per cent. Of 
these, the strains bearing pedigree numbers 546-24-35 had 96.89 per 
cent of clean palay; 783-4-7 had 93.75 per cent; 783-4-14 had 93.25 
per cent; 546-24-28 had 92.68 per cent; 783-4-13 had 92.47 per cent; 
546-24-38 had 91.57 per cent; 783-4-1 had 91.30 per cent; and 783- 
4-22 had 91.00 per cent. The rest had lower than 91 per cent, but 
higher than that of their parent variety. 

These figures indicate that with respect to high percentage of 
filled grains, better strains than their parent variety may be isolated 
by inbreeding followed by selection. 



A BICE INBREEDING EXPERIMENT 


243 


Actval and corrected yields per plant of the selected strains com- 
pared with the check rows. It may be seen in table 5 that the actual 
check yield ranged from 28.20 to 17.90 grams of clean palay per 
stool, showing that the fertility of the soil and other factors af- 
fecting the yield varied considerably. Hence, comparing only the 
actual yields of the check rows and the selected strains it is impos- 
sible to tell which of them were better than the control without 
finding first the average theoretical yield and then the corrected 
yield per hill of the selected strains. 

The data in fifth column of the same table show that the average 
theoretical yield per plant between two checks was lower than the 
actual check yield and ranged from 17-95 to only 25.46 per cent. 
Comparing the corrected yields of the selected strains planted between 
the two checks with the average theoretical yield, it is evident that 
some strains had lower yields per plant, while others yielded higher. 
Hence, those strains the corrected yields of which were better than 
the theoretical were considered promising. Of these strains under 
study, 24 were selected. These were 469-25-7, 518-8-36, 546-24-6, 
546-24-13, 546-24-15, 546-24-16, 546-24-20, 546-24-21, 546-24-23, 
546-24-25, 546-24-28, 546-24-38, 783-4-10, 783-4-13, 783-4-14, 908-16- 
20, 908-16-29, 908-16-30, 908-16-32, 908-16-36, 908-16-37, 908-16-38, 
908-16-39 and 908-16-41 gave better yields per plant than their re- 
spective control yields. Strain Nos. 908-16-29 and 546-24-28 gave 
exceptionally high yields. Strain No. 546-24-28 gave 30.53 grams 
of clean palay per hill, while strain No. 908-16-29 yielded 45.168 
grams which is more than two times that of the theoretical check 
yield which was 20.97 grams. The average theoretical check yield 
had only 18.167 grams. 

Yields per hectare of the selected inbred strains compared with 
that of their parents. The 1931-1932 test of four of the promising 
inbred strains and their parent variety was planted rather late in 
the season and consequently the plants suffered from the early drought 
that prevailed during that season. Three of the inbred strains, how- 
ever, gave higher yield than the mother variety. As shown in table 
6, strain Nos. 518-8-36, 908-16-29 and 908-16-30 gave a greater yield 
per hectare than the parent variety, while strain No. 646-24-28 gave 
a lower yield. Strain No. 618-8-36 gave a yield per hectare 19.679 
per cent higher than that of its parent; strain No. 908-16-29, 17.288 
per cent; and strain No. 908-16-30, 16.766 per cent. Strain No. 
646-24-28 gave a yield 27.492 per cent less than that of the parent 
variety. 



244 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUBIST 


During the 1932-1933 season test only two strains proved su- 
perior in yield to the parent variety. Strain No. 908-16-29 gave a 
yield nearly two and one-half cavans per hectare greater than the 
parent and strain No. 618-8-36 nearly two cavans greater. 

Size of grains of inbred strains compared with that of their par- 
ent. Relative size of grains of the different inbred strains was one 
of the characters used as a basis in preliminary selection. It was 
observed that the different inbred strains varied as to size and shape 
of grains. Some of the strains had larger grains than those of the 
parent plants while others had smaller. For example, strain No. 
783-4-13 had larger grains and strain No. 813 had smaller than those 
of their parents. (See table 7.) Strain No. 783-4-13 had grains 
averaging 9.459 d: 0.0188 cm. in length, 3.232 ±: 0.0067 cm. in 
greatest diameter; and 2.150 ± 0.0073 cm. in thickness. The parent 
variety had grains averaging only 8.30 ± 0.0130 cm. in length, 2.70 ±: 

0.0388 cm. in width, and 1.88 ±: 0.0102 cm. in thickness. Strain No. 
813 had grains averaging 7.460 ± 0.0001 cm. in length, 2.646 ± 
0.00001 cm. in width, and 1.995 dr 0.00001 cm. in thickness. Com- 
paring the grains of strain No. 783-4-13 with those of the parent 
plants, it was found that the difference was in favor of the strain and 
by computation the difference was found to be significant. The dif- 
ference of their means was 1.1590 d: 0.0445 grams. 

These figures show that by inbreeding it is possible to improve 
the size and shape of the grains. 

SUMMARY OF C»NCLUSIONS 

The results obtained by inbreeding Hambas variety of rice may 
be summarized as follows : 

1. Hambas, an old variety of rice grown for the market in Los 
Banos and other regions in the Philippines consists of two distinct 
types ; the red type with red cuticled grains and the white type with 
white cuticled grains. This variety is supposedly a natural hybrid 
between varieties, one of which had a red cuticle and the other a white 
cuticle. This supposition is supported by the production of white 
cuticled grains by selling the red cuticled strains. Red cuticled grains 
were also obtained by inbreeding some of the white cuticled strains. 

2. Some selected strains were found to have a longer period of 
maturity than the parent variety, others a shorter one. 

3. By selling, the production of filled grains was reduced, but 
through continuous planting of the inbred strains in the open the 
production of filled grains was increased. 



A RICE INBREEDING EXPERIMENT 


245 


4. By selfing it was possible to isolate strains with larger or 
smaller grains than the original variety. 

5. The percentage of filled and of empty grains in a panicle was 
increased by selfing. 

6. Inbreeding affected the yield of the 24 strains; of these, the 
yields were found to be higher than their average thefjretical check 
yields. Strains Nos. 908-16-29 and 546-24-28 had exceptionally high 
percentages of clean palay per hill. The other selected strains were 
Nos. 469-25-7, 518-8-36, 546-24-6, 546-24-13, 546-24-15, 546-24-16, 
546-24-20, 546-24-21, 546-24-23, 546-24-25, 546-24-38, 783-4-10, 
783-4-13, 783-4-14, 908-16-20, 908-16-30, 908-16-32, 908-16-36, 
908-16-37, 908-16-38, 908-16-39 and 908-16-41. (See fig. 3.) 

7 . In subsequent comparative te.sts the undesirable strains were 
gradually eliminated. At the sixth generation only two strains were 



Fig. 3. — Showing actual yields per plot of five of the selected inbred strains 
of Hambas variety (o, b, d, e, and /) and their parent plants (c). 
Note their respective yields per hill in the bottles. 


selected. These two selected strains of promising importance were 
Nos. 908-16-29 and 518-8-36. 

8. The inbred plants yielded fewer field grains than the check, 
although the check had fewer bearing culms This difference shows 
that the treatment had some effect on the production of bearing 
culms. 


BBXJOM MBNDATIONS 

1. As the Hambas variety is not pure with respect to grain 
color of cuticle, it is recommended that necessary steps be taken to 
lessen or stop altogether further propagation of the mixed strains for 
planting. A uniform color of the grain increases the commercial 
value of rice 

2. In handling the inbreeding work in a rice variety the more 
individuals planted the greater the chances of isolating the desired 
strains. 



246 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


3. While the plants are being studied in the laboratory, a room 
for storage should be provided. If the rice heads are piled as is the 
practice in handling many grains are shaken out and lost. 

4. The selected strains should be handled so as to prevent any 
mechanical mixing of the grains. Close personal supervision is very 
essential. 

5. In selecting the promising strains it is advisable to inspect 
the plants frequently from transplanting to maturity. 

6. The plants to be selfed should be bagged at proper time of 
blooming. 

7. While the breeder may plan to observe definite characters, 
other characters which may spontaneously arise during the progress 
of the work should be considered also. The final expression of the 
results of the work counts more than the theoretical observations. 

8. The selected strains 908-16-29 and 518-8-36 obtained should, 
with the cooperation of the rice growers, be propagated and tried with 
great care under various conditions. 

9. Undoubtedly, other commercial rice varieties in the Philip- 
pines have some varying degrees of mixtures either mechanical or 
genetic. Inbreeding should be practiced with each variety of rice 
with a view of purifying and isolating better strains which are es- 
sential to early production of desirable rice hybrids. 

NOTE 

After this paper was in press, the writers’ attention was called 
to the report of Dr. L. Koch on “Past, present and future in the 
obtaining and spreading of superior rice varieties in the Dutch East 
Indies” published, 1930, in the Reports of Fourth Pacific Science 
Congress, Java, 1929, Vol. IV, P. 9-14. The paper includes a sum- 
mary of rice inbreeding work in Java which is here quoted: 

Already during the first few years rice had been selected by the pure 
line method, but without strict inbreeding. The bagging of flowering 
ears proved later to be necessary as the air of Buitenzorg makes the 
chance of natural crossing far from negligible. 

Comparative trials between populations and lines (the latter inade- 
quately inbred) made it clear, that the method of selection followed up 
till 1915 was useless. 

A thorough investigation of this subject followed which lasted for 
three years. It proved clearly, that the so called lines were not bet- 
ter than the unselected varieties, most probably on account of: 

a) the insufficient homozygosity and superiority of the lines. 

b) the fact, that a mixture of lines and hybrids, such as found in 
the population, had the advantage of being more pliable and therefore 
more suited to varying conditions met with in general cultivation. 



A RICE INBREEDING EXPERIMENT 


247 


Inbreeding, by bagging and in some instances by planting wide 
apart, has been in use during the seasons following 1922, generally with 
success. 

The conditions for successful work had been much improved com- 
pared with those of 15 years earlier. 

Not only had a thorough knowledge of the cultivation of the rice 
plant been gathered, but much more was known about the I'oculiarities 
of several varieties, of the methods of breeding, the planning of variety 
trials etc. So, though leal successes were few, a great amount of 
valuable information was compiled, without which breeding could not 
have proceeded. 

After inbreeding and selecting some 13 standard varieties for sev- 
eral generations, the selected strains were compared during the rainy 
season of 1927-1928 with the unselected varieties. The results are in 
some degree remarkable. 

In several instances strains were procured, that outyielded the un- 
selected varieties up to 25%. Some other strains however gave less 
than the population. 



248 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTirRIST 


TA13I.E 1 

Production of hearing and non-hearing cidmSy empty and filled grains per hill of 
selfed and non-treated plants 


TKPATMFNT 

I'l VNTS 

srrnii d 

B^AR^NG 
.'ITIMa IM'U 
JIILL 

NON- 

lU AKING 
cUIMS 1*E1C 
HILL 

m iJ L> 
CHAINS 

H u mil 

1 MI'l-V 
(.UAINS 
l*?K 111! I 


numbrt 

nunib( 1 

niimbt r 

rut III b( 1 

nil III bt 1 

Selfed ‘plants to produce Fi .... 

50 

43 

10 

1178 

5,039 

Untreated plants to obtain Fi . . 

250 

38 

8 

1537 

2,622 

Selfed Fi plants to produce F. . 

50 

40 

11 

1438 

4,001 

Untreated plants to obtain F.. . 

1,174 

29 

10 

2706 

1,206 

Check rows of Fj 

184 

25 

8 

2333 

896 



A RICE INBREEDING EXPERIMENT 


249 


TABLE 2 

Production, by selling, of grains with red cuticle and urith white 

cuticle 

Original plant numbers with red cuticle 


' 

ORIGINAL 

HILLS 

STUDIED 

IflLIaS WITH 

HILLS WITH 

NO. 

PEDIGREE 

1 NO. 

WHITE CUTI- 
CLED GRAINS 

RED CUTICLED 
GRAINS 



niiiHber 

number 

number 

1 

43 

\ 35 

1 0 

1 35 

2 

47 

8 

0 

8 

3 

1 78 

31 

1 0 

31 

4 

83 

7 

0 

7 

5 

i 91 

18 

1 0 

18 

6 

1 100 

33 

1 

32 

7 

104 

6 

0 

6 

8 

137 

22 

0 

22 

9 

143 

1 

1 

0 

10 

174 

37 

5 

32 

11 

188 

39 

0 

39 

12 

256 

17 

0 

17 

13 

261 

31 

1 

30 

14 

285 

17 

0 

17 

15 

586 

13 

1 

12 

16 1 

641 

27 ! 

0 

27 

17 i 

709 

23 

2 

21 

18 

855 

37 

0 

37 


Total 

402 

1 'll 

391 


OHginal plant numbers with white cuticle 


1 

16 

1 33 

1 33 

0 

2 

19 

! 20 

20 

0 

3 

34 

25 

24 

1 

4 

44 

14 

14 

0 

5 

45 

39 

38 

1 

6 

59 

20 

20 

0 

7 

80 

34 

34 

0 

8 

113 

18 

18 

0 

9 

168 

34 

34 

0 

10 

199 

8 

8 

0 

11 

272 

19 ! 

19 

0 

12 

287 

34 

34 

0 

13 

302 

31 

29 

2 

14 

340 

24 

24 

0 

15 

400 

26 1 

26 

0 

16 

469 

18 1 

18 

0 

17 

475 i 

23 1 

23 

0 

18 

507 

39 

39 

0 

19 

518 1 

36 

36 

0 

20 

522 

34 

33 

1 

21 

524 

18 

18 

0 

22 

546 

36 

36 

0 

23 

668 

23 

23 1 

0 

24 

692 

26 

26 

0 

25 

745 

26 

26 

0 

26 

774 

23 

23 

0 

27 

783 

31 

31 

0 

28 

797 

24 

24 

0 

29 

816 

24 

24 

0 

30 

843 

32 

32 

0 

31 

892 

33 

33 

0 

32 

908 

22 

22 

0 


Total 

847 

842 

5 



260 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE 8 

Presence of red and white cuticled grains among mass and selected seeds 


TREATMENT | 

1 HILLS I 

STUDIED 1 

1 HILLS WITH WHITE 

1 CUTICLED CRAINS 

1 HILLS WITH RED 

1 CUTICLED CRAINS 


number 

number 

per cent 

number 

jicr cent 

Mass selected grains .... 

310 

240 

77.42 

70 

22.58 

Line selected hills with 






whitfe cuticled gn^ains . . 

833 

828 

99.40 

5 

0.60 

Line selected hills with 



1 



red cuticled grains .... 

402 

11 

2.74 

39 

97.26 







A BICE INBREEDING EXPERIMENT 


261 


TABLE 4 

Showing data on yield of the selected strains and their mother variety 


PEDIGREE 

NO. 

WEIGHT OF 
THULSHBD 
PALAY 

WEIGHT OF 
CLEAN 
PALAY 

WEIGHT OF 
EMPTY 
GRAINS 

CLEAN 

PALAY 

EMPTY 

GRAINS 



grams 

grams 

grams 

jter cent 

per cent 

469 - 25 - 4 

. . . 

1540 

1370 

170 

88.96 

11.04 

469 - 25 - 7 


2770 

2380 

390 

86.92 

14.08 

518 - 8-32 


2600 

2270 

330 

87.31 

12.69 

646 - 24 - 1 


1270 

1140 

130 

89.76 

10.24 

646 - 24 - 6 


2270 

1960 

310 

86.34 

13.65 

546 - 24-13 


1990 

1770 

220 

88.94 

11.06 

646 - 24-16 


1460 

1290 

170 

88.35 

11.66 

646 - 24-20 


1280 

1110 

170 

86.72 

13.28 

646 - 24-21 


1610 

1390 

220 

86.33 

13.67 

646 - 24-23 


1200 

1030 

170 

85.83 

14.17 

646 - 24-28 


2310 

2140 

170 

92.68 

7.32 

546 - 24-36 


1930 

1870 

60 

96.89 

3.11 

646 - 24-36 


1490 

1309 

181 

87.86 

12.15 

646 - 24-38 


1660 

1620 

140 

91.67 

8.43 

646 - 24-41 


1750 

1540 

210 

88.00 

12.00 

646 - 24-42 


1800 

1600 

200 

88.89 

11.11 

646 - 24-43 


1280 

1110 

170 

86.72 

13.28 

646 - 24-44 


1826 

1660 

165 

90.90 

9.04 

783 - 4 - 1 


1150 

1050 

100 

91.30 

8.70 

783 - 4 - 7 


1440 

1350 

90 

93.75 

6.25 

783 - 4-10 


2540 

2230 

310 

87.32 

12.68 

783 - 4-13 


1990 

1840 

150 

92.47 

7.53 

783 - 4-20 


2320 

2060 

260 

88.79 

11.21 

783 - 4-14 


2520 

2360 

170 

93.25 

6.75 

783 - 4-22 


3000 

2730 

270 

91.00 

9.00 

908 - 16 - 4 


2800 

2480 

320 

89.28 

10.72 

908 - 16-11 


3600 

3130 

370 

89.43 

10.57 

908 - 16-20 


3100 

2810 

290 

90.64 

9.36 

908 - 16-29 


5110 

4620 

490 

90.41 

9.59 

908 - 16-30 


3700 

3330 

370 

90.00 

10.00 

908 - 16-32 


3480 

3090 

390 

89.37 

10.63 

908 - 16-36 


2780 

2480 

300 

89.21 

10.79 

908 - 16-37 


2900 

2530 

370 

87.24 

12.76 

908 - 16-38 


3260 

2920 

340 

89.57 

10.43 

908 - 16-39 


3260 

2840 

410 

87.38 

12.62 

908 - 16-41 


3300 

2840 

460 

86.06 

13.94 

91 - 17 - 3 


3930 

3560 

370 

90.58 

9.42 

Control ® 


2566 

2179 

395 

85.08 

14.92 

469 - 26-17 


3370 

2800 

570 

83.09 

16.91 

618 - 4 - 4 


3000 

1360 

1640 

46.33 

64.62 

518 - 8-36 


3470 

2890 

680 

83.28 

16.72 

618 - 8-38 


2250 

970 

1280 

43.11 

66.89 

646 - 24 - 2 


1460 

1180 

270 

81.40 

18.62 

646 - 24 - 4 


2080 

1570 

410 

80.29 

19.71 

646 - 24 - 6 


1960 

1650 

310 

84.18 

15.82 

546 - 24 - 9 


1410 

1190 

220 

84.00 

16.60 

646 - 24-16 


2000 

1690 

310 

84.60 

16.50 

646 - 24-22 


930 

790 

140 

84.95 

15.06 

646 - 24-24 


3238 

1040 

2198 

32.12 

67.88 

646 - 24-26 


2360 

1920 

440 

81.36 

18.65 

783 - 4 - 9 


2190 

1740 

460 

79.46 

20.66 

783 - 4-11 


1770 

1350 

420 

76.27 

23.73 

908 - 16-17 


4670 

2460 

2220 

62.46 

47.64 

908 - 16-16 


3110 

1600 

1610 

46.30 

53.70 


® Average of all control rows. 




252 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICUI.TURIST 


TABLE 6 

Actual and cotTccted yields per hill of the selected strains compared with the 

check rows 


STKAIN NO. 

AV. WT. OF 

THEORETICAL , 
CHECK YIEIJtt I 
OF NON-CHECK. 
ROWS PER hill! 

DlFreRENCE 

BETWEEN 

AV. THEORETl- 

CORRECTED 

CLEAN I*ALAY 
PEK HILL 

ACTUAL AND 
THEORETICAL 

CAL YIELD PER 
HILL 

YIELD PER 
HILL 




YIELD PER STOOL 



Check 1 

1 grams 

1 28.200 

grams • 

1 

grams 

grams 

g tarns 

469-25- 4 

13.564 

27.283 

—13.719 


11.737 

469-25- 7 

1 27.674 

26.366 

-i- 1.314 


26.770 

469-25-17 

24.778 

25.449 

— 0.662 

25.456 

24.794 

518- 8-4 

1 11.525 

24.532 

— 12.995 


12.461 

518- 8-82 

23.402 

23.665 

— 0.198 


25.258 

Check 2 

518- 8-36 

1 22.700 

27.788 
9.797 

22.430 

22.160 

-f 5.358 
—12.363 


27.247 

9.526 

518- 8-38 


546-24- 1 

16.200 

21.890 

— 6.690 


15.199 

546-24- 2 

14.935 

21.620 

— 6.685 

21.889 

15.204 

646-24- 4 

21 .139 

21.350 

— 0.211 


21.678 

Check 3 

21.075 





546-24- 6 

17.934 

20.546 

— 2.612 


16.875 

646-24- 6 

20.861 

20.017 

-f- 0.834 


20.321 

546-24- 9 

14.337 

19.488 

— 5.151 

19.487 

14.336 

646-24-13 

21.324 

18.959 

[ 4- 2.365 


21.852 

646-24-15 

20.119 

18.430 

+ 1.689 


21.176 

Check 4 

17.900 





546-24-16 

23.035 

17.917 

+ .5.118 


23.068 

646-24-20 

20.943 

17.934 

+ 3.009 , 


20.959 

646-24-21 

18.533 

17.951 

4 0.582 1 

17.950 

18.5.32 

546-24-22 

17.954 

17.968 

— 0.014 


17.936 

546-24-23 

21.458 

17.985 

+ 3.473 


21.423 

Check 5 

18.000 

1 


1 


646-24-24 

11.818 1 

18.067 1 

— 6.249 


11.918 

646-24-25 | 

20.000 1 

18.134 

+ 1.866 

18.167 

20.033 

546-24-28 

30.571 

18.201 I 

+ 12.370 


30.537 

546-24-85 

16.260 

18.268 

— 2.008 


16.159 

Check 6 

18,333 





646-24-38' 

18.534 

18.480 

h 0.054 


18.827 

546-24-41 

18.554 

18.627 
18.774 1 

— 0.073 

— 2.108 


18.700 

16.665 

646-24-42 

16.666 

18.773 

546-24-43 

17.343 

18.921 

— 1.578 


17.195 

16.818 

546-24-44 

17.113 

19.068 

— 1.955 


Check 7 

19.213 




• 

783- 4- 1 

15.909 

19.343 

3.434 


16.168 

16.200 

783- 4-7 

16.071 

19.473 

— 3.402 


783- 4-9 

15.963 

19.603 

— 3.640 

19.602 

15.962 

783- 4-10 

21.238 

19.733 

4 1.505 


21.107 

783- 4-11 

17.763 

19.863 

— 2.100 


17.602 

Check 8 

19.990 





783- 4-13 

22.168 

21.204 

+ 0.961 


24.. 595 

783- 4-20 

21.237 

22.418 

— 1.181 


22.4,50 

783- 4-14 

24.478 

23.632 

+ 0.846 

23.631 

24.477 

783- 4-22 

23.135 

24.846 

— 1.711 


21.920 

908-16- 4 

21.946 

26.060 

— 4.114 


19.517 

Check 9 

27.272 





908-16-11 

25.447 

26.128 

— 0.681 


24.302 

908-16-17 

21 . 120 

24.984 

— 3.864 

24.983 

21.119 

908-16-16 

15.463 

23.840 

1 

— 8.377 


16.606 

Check 10 

22.695 

1 




908-16-20 

27.018 

22.121 

-f 4.897 


25.870 

908-16-29 

45.742 

21.547 

4-24.195 


45.168 

908-16-30 

31.121 

20.973 

4- 10.148 

20.973 

31.121 

908-16 82 

24.919 

20.399 

4- 4.520 


25.498 

908-16-36 

22.545 

19.825 

1 

f 2.720 


28.693 

Check 11 

19.252 

1 




908-16-37 

22.792 

19.699 

4- 3.093 


23.462 

908-16-88 

24.132 

20.146 

4- 3.986 


24.865 

908-16-89 

22.015 

20.593 

4- 1.422 

20.869 

21.791 

908-16-41 

28.278 

21.040 

4- 2.238 


22.607 

Check 12 1 

1 21.487 







A RICE INBREEDING EXPERIMENT 


263 


TABLE 6 

Actual and corrected yields per hectare of four promising inbred strains compared 

with their parent variety 


STRAIN NO. 

ACTUAL 
YIELD PER 
HECTARE “ 

THEORKTI- 1 
CAL YIELD , 
OF NON- ; 
CHECK ' 
STRAINS 1 

DIFFERENCE , 
RETWEEN 1 
ACTUAL ! 
AND TIIEO- , 
RETICAL 
YIELDS i 

AV. THEO- 
RETICAL 
YIELD PER 
HA. 

CORRECTED 
YIELD PER 
HA. 

INCREASE 

DECREASE 


eavana 

eavana 

eavana 

eavana 

eavana 

per eent 

per cent 

Control 1 . . 

30.39 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

518- 8-36 . . 

35.92 

30.042 

4-5.789 

— 

35.747 

19.679 

— 

^08-16-29 . . 

34.86 

29.696 

1-6.164 

29.869 

35.033 

17.288 

— 

Control 2 . . 

29.35 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

546-24-28 . . 

22.48 

31.390 

—8.91 

— 

23.50 

— 

27.492 

908-16-30 . . j 

38.54 

33.430 

-t-5.11 

32.41 1 

37.52 

15.766 

— 

Control 3 . . 

35.47 

— 

— 

1 ^ 

— • 

— 

— 


® The low yield of the parent (Hambas) variety and the promising selected 
strains was due to effects of drought in early part of 1931-32 season. 


TABLE 7 


Size of grains of inbred strains compared with their parent variety 


STRAIN NO. 

AVKUACE LENGTH 

AVERAGE GREATEST 
WIDTH 

AVERAGE THICKNESS 

783-4-13 

Parent variety 

813“ 

nnn. j 

9.459 ± 0.0188 

8.3 0.0130 

7.450 i 0.0001 

m m . 

3.232 ± 0.0067 

! 2.7 ± 0.0388 

! 2.646 ± 0.00001 

mm. 

2.150 ± 0.0073 

1.88 ±0.0102 

1.995 ± 0.00001 


“ This number was eliminated because of poor yield and small sized grains. 



ADDITIONAL CYANOPHORIC PLANTS OF THE MAQUILING 

REGION: IV ‘ 

JOS6 B. JULIANO 

Of the Department of Plant Physiology 

Herbert (1922), Juliano (1923) and Peralta (1928) published 
lists of cyanophoric plants found in the Maquiling region; the list 
herein given is an addenda to these three lists. Numerous species 
were tested and those found to contain prussic or hydrocyanic acid 
and not given in any of the three previous reports are included in 
this list. The simple modified Guignard test given by Herbert (1922) 
was employed in this study, and the procedure followed was that de- 
scribed by Peralta ( 1928) . Some of the tests were carried by College 
of Veterinary Science students working under the supervision of the 
writer in a course in Veterinary Botany at the College of Agriculture 
during December, 1932, and January, 1933. The scientific and ver- 
nacular names of the plants herein included were checked with Mer- 
rfll’s (1923-1926) An Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants. 

ACANTHACBAE 

Blechum brownei (dayang, sapin-sapin) : Negative in stems; trace in roots 
and leaves. 

Hemigraphis strigosa: Trace in roots and stems. 

P sender anthemum sp.: Trace in stems and leaves. 

AMARANTPIACEAE 

Altemanthera sessilis (bonga-bonga) : Trace in roots and leaves. 

ANONACEAE 

Anaxagorea luzonensis (dalairo, kdhoi>dalaga, kolestalano, sagaak, talaylo) : 
Positive in leaves. 

Artabotrys svxiveolens (susong-damulag) : Trace in stems; positive in 
leaves. 

APOCYNACEAE 

Alstonia scholaris (ditd, diUia) : Slightly positive in stems and leaves. 
Voacanga globosa (bayag-kambing, bayag-usd, pandacaking-kalabdu) : Posi- 
tive in leaves. 

ARACEAE 

Pothoidium lobbianum (bardlta, vara alta) : Slightly positive in stems; posi- 
tive in leaves. 

Seindapsus aureus (lukm6i) : Trace in stems and leaves. 

’Experiment Station contribution No. 899. Received for publication. June 
13, 1933. 


264 



ADDITIONAL CYANOPHORIC PLANTS 


255 


ARALIACEAE 

Nothopanax fmticosutn (papua) : Trace in stems and leaves, 

Schefflera odorctta (gfalAmai-amo, lima-lima) ; Trace in leaves; positive in 
stems. 

BIGNONIACRAE 

Parmentiera cereifera (candle tree): Trace in roots and leaves; slightly 
positive in fruits. 

BURSERACBAE 

Canarium viUosum (anunggi, pagsaingin) : Positive in roots and stems. 

CX)MPOSITAB 

Ageratum conyzoidea (damong-pallas, kolokong-kabayo) : Trace in roots 
and stems; positive in leaves. 

Cosmos sulphureus (amarillo) : Trace in roots and stems; positive in leaves. 

ElepJiantopus spicatus (dila-dila, sigang-dagat) : Trace in roots; slightly 
positive in stems; positive in leaves. 

Emilia sonchifolia (marsilanana, tagulinau, tagulinas) ; Trace in roots, 
stems, and leaves. 

OONVOLVULACEAE 

Hewittia sublobafa: Trace in roots. 

Ipomoea cairica (aurora) : Trace in roots and leaves. 

CUCURBITACEAE 

Bryonopsis laciniosa (melong-uak) : Negative in roots and stems; trace in 
leaves. 

CYPERACEAE 

Kyllinga monocephala (anuang, botoncillio, mutha, mustra) : Trace in the 
nutlets, roots and stems. 

DILLENIACEAE 

Tetracera scandens (malakatmon, malbas>tig-balang) : Trace in stems and 
leaves. 

DI0SCX)REACE1AE 

Dioscorea hispida (kalut, kdyos, nami) ; Positive in storage roots, stems, 
and leaves. 

ERYTH ROXYLACEAB 

ErythroxyloTi coca (cocaine plant) : Positive in leaves. 

EUPHORBIACEAE 

Acalypha 'ivilkesiana: Positive in leaves; trace in stems. 

Biophytum scnsitivum (damong-bingkalat, makahiang-lalaki, makahia) . 
Trace in stems and leaves. 

Claoxylon elongatum: Slightly positive in stems; positive in leaves and 
roots. 

Homalanthus populneus (baianti, botabota, buta, maladuron) . Trace in 
bark of stems; positive in leaves. 

Hura crepitans \ Positive in bark; trace in leaves. 

Mfiearanga grandifolia <bimSang, bingdbing, bil&un) : Positive in roots. 

Afocoranpo tartarius (bindnga) : Positive in stems; trace in leaves and 
roots. 

Melanolepis multiglandulosa (alim) ; Positive in leaves; trace in stems. 



256 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


GRAMINEAE 

Eleusine indica (parag-is) : Trace in flowers. 

Rotthoellm exaltata (agingai) : Trace in roots. 

Setaina palmifolia: Trace in roots. 

LABIATAE 

Hyptis suaveolena (suag-kabayo) : Trace in roots and stems; slightly posi- 
tive in leaves. 

LEGUMINOSAE 

Bauhinia tomentosa: Positive in fruits and more so in the leaves; trace in 
stems. 

Cassia bacillarts: Trace in stems and leaves; positive in roots. 

Cassia tora (katanda) : Positive in leaves and roots; trace in bark and 
fruits. 

Crotalaria juncea: Positive in stems. 

Dalbergia ferruginea (kulik-manok) : Positive in leaves and roots. 

Derris elliptica (tubli) : Trace in roots. 

Desmodium gangeticum (dikit-dikit, paiang-paiang) : Trace in leaves, 
stems, and roots. 

Desmodium laxiflorum (mangkit) : Slightly positive in leaves; trace in 
stems and roots. 

Desmodium triflorum (pakpak-lahgan) : Trace in leaves, 

Mucuna pmriens (lipai, nipai) : Trace in fruits. 

Teramnus labialis (mani-manian) : Trace in roots; positive in leaves. 

LBCYTIIIDACEAE 

Barringtonia racemosa (potat, putat) : Trace in stems. 

LILLACEAE 

Allium cepa (sibuyas) : Trace in leaves. 

Allium sativum (bauang) ; Trace in leaves. 

MALVACEAE 

Sida javensis (hapunang-niknik) ; Positive in roots; trace in leaves and 
stems. 

Urena lobata (kulutan) : Positive in roots, bark, leaves and fruits. 
MELIACEAE 

Dysoxylum decavdrum (igui, tadiang-kalabau) ; Trace in leaves and stems. 
Melia azedarach (paraiso) ; Positive in leaves. 

MBNISPI^MACEAE 

Anamirta cocculus (ligtang) ; Very positive in roots; slightly positive in 
leaves; Kalaw and Sacay (1925) found the acid only in the bark. 
Pycnari'hena manillensis (ambal, mamahgal) : Positive in roots; trace in 
leaves. 

MORACEAE 

Ficus minahassae (ayumit, hagimit) : Positive in leaves; slightly positive 
in stems. 

Streblus asper (kalios) : Positive in leaves; trace in stems. 

MORINGACEAE 

Moringa oleifera (malungai) : Trace in stems. 

MUSACEAE 

Heliconia bihai: Trace in roots and leaves. 

MYRTACEAE 

Memecylon floribiindum: Trace in stems, leaves and fruits. 



ADDITIONAL CY^NOPHORIC PLANTS 


257 


OPHIOGLOSSACEAE 

Helmintkostackys zeylanica (tungkod-langit) : Trace in roots. 
OXAUDACEAE 

Oxalis repens (taingang-dagd) : Trace in stems; positive in fruits. 
PIPERACEAE 

Piper umhellatum (kubamba) : Positive in leaves; trace in stems. 
RUBIACEAE 

Ophioi'rhiza mnngos (payang-payang-gubat) : Trace in leaves and stems* 

SAPINDACEAE 

Allophyllus dimorphus (laret, malalagiindi) : Positive in roots and leaves; 
trace in stems. 

Harpullia arborea (puas) : Positive in leaves; Kalaw and Sacay (1925) 
did not find any trace of the acid in leaves, bark, and roots of plants 
growing in Batangas and Bulacan. 

STBRCULIACEAE 

Pterospernuim obliquiim (bayog) : Trace in stems and leaves. 

TILIACEAE 

Corchorus acutangulus (salulot) : Trace in roots and stems. 

Corchorus olitorins (pasau-na-habii) : Trace in stems and leaves; positive 
in roots. 

ULMACEAE 

Celt is luzonica (seedling) (malaikmo) : Trace in roots. 

UMBELLIFERAE 

Ccntclla asiatica (takip-kohol, takip-suso, tapihgan-daga) : Trace in roots 
and leaves; Kalaw and Sacay (1925) found none of the acid in plants 
collected from Batangas and Bulacan. 

URTICACEAE 

Pipturus arborescens (dalunot) : Trace in leaves. 

VERBENACEAE 

Durant a I'cpcns: Positive in leaves and fruits. 

VITACEAE 

Columella gcniculata (sampang) : Trace in roots and stems. 

Leea manillensis (abang-abang, kulatai) : Trace in leaves. 

Tetrastigma loheri (ayu) : Trace in leaves and stems. 

ZINGIBERACEAE 

Costns specAosus: Trace in rhizomes and leaves. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Herbert, D. A. 1922. Cyanophoric plants of the Makiling region. The Phil- 
ippine Agriculturist 11: 11-16. 

JULIANO, J. B. 1923. Additional cyanophoric plants of the Makiling region. 

The Philippine Agriculturist 11: 231-232. 

Kalaw, M. M., and F. M. Sacay. 1925. Some alleged Philippine poison plants. 

The Philippine Agriculturist 14: 421-427. 

Merrill, E. D. 1923-1926. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants. 4 
vol. vii + 2136 p., 6 pL, 3 fig. Manila: Bureau of Printing. 

Peralta, F. de. 1928. Third list of cyanophoric plants of Maquiling region. 
The Philippine Agriculturist 17: 333-335. 



COST OF PRODUCING SUGAR CANE IN THE COLLEGE OF 

AGRICULTURE > 


ALEJANDRO B. CATAMBAY AND JESUS E. SEGOVIA 
Of the Department of Agricultural Engineering 

Sugar cane (Saecharum offidnurum) is one of the most impor- 
tant money crops in the Philippines. It is grown on both haciendas 
and small farms. It is important that cane growers should know 
what it costs them to grow sugar cane. 

The objects of this study were to determine the cost of producing 
sugar cane and the net gain per hectare and per ton of the cane pro- 
duced in the College of Agriculture. 

The work was conducted from January, 1930 to February, 1933, 
a period of twenty-six months. The plant cane culture covered a 
period of fourteen months from the preparation of land to harvesting, 
and the ratoon culture covered a period of twelve months. The field 
used was located in the College Experiment Station. Some of the 
canes were milled in the U. P. Sugar Mill located at the College and 
some were sent to the Calamba Sugar Estate at Canlubang, Calamba, 
Laguna. 


MATEKIALS AND METHODS 

Land 

A lot, 1.64 hectare in area, in the Experiment Station field was 
used for this experiment. The soil is clay loam and fairly suitable 
for the growing of sugar cane. There was no fertilization of any 
kind, but the field had been planted to leguminous crops the previous 
year. 

Variety of cane 

In this study three varieties of canes were used ; namely, Luzon 
White, Pampanga Red, and Mauritius 1900. Of these varieties, Lu- 
zon White was used in the greater quantity. The points were taken 
from the previous harvest of the canes grown in the College Experi- 
ment Station field. 

‘ Portions of the material in this paper were in the thesis presented, 1933, by 
the junior author for g^'aduation with the degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Agriculture, from the College of Agriculture No. 366; Experiment Station con- 
tribution No. 900. 


2S8 



COST OF PRODUCING SUGAR CANE 


269 


Plows and harrows 

Native plows. A general purpose native plow, such as is com- 
monly used by the farmers in Laguna, was used in the preparation 
of the land and in cultivation. It has an average width of cut of 
about four inches (10-16 cm.) and weighs about 17.5 kilograms. It 
has no landing adjustment, but has the necessary depth adjustments. 
It cost P17.00, including its accessories. 

Native harrow, or calmot. For harrowing, the native harrow, 
or calmot was used. It is made of bamboo stumps fastened together 
by long pegs. The nodes are cut off leaving about six to eight cm. 
which serve as teeth. The width of cut is about 1.21 meters. This 
harrow costs P5.00 and lasts three or four years. 

Tractor and tractor plow 

Tractor. The Standard Fordson model 1929 was used. This 
tractor has approximately 10 horse power at the drawbar and 20 
horse power at the belt when the engine is running at the speed of 
1000 revolutions per minute. For fuel, gasoline was used for start- 
ing the tractor and kerosene for field operations. 

Disc plow. With the tractor a disc plow, the Oliver No. 42, was 
used. It has two discs 24 inches in diameter. The whole mechanism 
is mounted on three wheels. There are two furrow wheels and one 
rear wheel. The rear furrow v’heel is inclined away from the land. 
It is heavier than the other two so that it will not be lifted out of 
the furrow but will hold the plow in position. In making the turn at 
the furrow end, the discs are lifted by means of a trip rope tied at 
the trip lever and connected to the driver’s seat. This is operated by 
the driver. There are two levers for depth and level adjustments. 

CULTURAL METHODS 

Plant canes 

Preparation of land. The first plowing was done with the disc 
plow hitched to the Fordson tractor. It took 12 hours to plow the 
whole area of 1.64 hectare. The second and third plowings were done 
with the native plows drawn by a bullock. 

The lot was harrowed thoroughly after the third plowing. The 
calmot pulled by a bullock was passed over the plowed lot several 
times until the large clods were pulverized. To make it heavier and 
so increase its efficiency, stones were placed on the harrow. 

Just before planting, the field was furrowed with the native plow. 
The furrows were made one meter apart and about 6 to 8 inches 
(15.24 to 20.32 cm.) deep. 



260 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Planting. When the points were cut, care was taken to select 
only good ones. The points were hauled to the creek and soaked for 
48 hours. They were then hauled to the field to be planted. 

In planting two men distributed the points in the furrows, drop- 
ping them at points 80 to 90 centimeters apart. These men were fol- 
lowed by two other men who covered the points. 

Cvltivation and weeding. The first work in cultivation was 
started a month after the canes had been planted. The soil was 
plowed towards the base of the plants on both sides. This process 
is called “hilling-up”. In this operation most of the weeds were 
plowed under. 

Three months after the first cultivation the plow was again 
passed along the rows near the base on each side of the plants so that 
the soil was thrown away from the plants. This process is called 
“off-barring.” 

A month later the final cultivation or “hilling-up” was done. Most 
of the weeds were killed during the three cultivations given. After 
the final cultivation the plants were left until they were mature and 
ready for harvest. 


Ratoon 

Cultivation. After harvesting the plant canes in February, 1932, 
the whole cane field was burned over. Two weeks later the plow was 
passed on each side of the base of the cane stubs throwing the soil 
away. This operation was the same as the “off-barring” in plant 
canes. ,Th€ field was left until about the end of the month of May 
1932, when the weeds began to appear. At that time the ratoons had 
germinated also. The second cultivation which was “hilling-up” was 
done. Most of the newly germinated weeds were plowed under. 

About the end of June, 1932, the plants were cultivated again 
which was the second “off-barring” but the third cultivation. A 
month later the plants were “hilled-up” which was the last cultivation. 
There was no other cultivation before the ratoon was harvested. 

HARVESTING 

Topping and cutting 

With bolos, topping and cutting were done at the same time but 
by different men. The men cutting the tops were followed by the 
cutters. In cutting the tops, most of the points were saved for the 
next planting. Before the canes were cut the base of the plants were 
cleared of dried leaves so that the cutting could be done very close to 



COST OP PRODUCING SUGAR CANS 


261 


the ground. The cut canes were then piled ready for hauling. Some 
of the canes were hauled and milled in the U. P. Sugar Mill which is 
about 1.2 kilometers from the cane field. 

E3CPEEIMENT AND RESULTS 

Table 1 shows the labor cost for the different farm operations 
for plant canes. The labor cost for plant canes per hectare was 
P164.77. In computing the cost of labor, the tractor driver was given 
a rate of P0.16 per hour, plowman, PO.ll per hour and animal, PO.ll 
per hour. 

Table 2 shows the labor cost for the different farm operations for 
ratoon. The labor cost per hectare was P66.31. 

Table 3 shows the depreciation of the different farm implements 
and interest on the investment. The depreciation and interest per 
hectare for plant cane was P5.94 and PI. 94 for ratoon. 

In computing the depreciation and interest on the investment in 
implements, the following formulas by Catambay (1931) were used: 

cd 

Depreciation per day in pesos 

ym 

Interest per day in pesos 

365 

Where c = Cost of machinery or imnlement in pesos 
d =: Number of days used (y hours a day) 
y ~ Life of implements in years 

m = Maximum number of days that the implement or machine is used 
in one year 

T ~ rate of interest in per cent per year on money invested in the 
machine or implement 

Table 4 shows the total supply and land cost. The supply and 
land cost for plant cane per hectare was P46.87 and P20.00 for ratoon. 
These figures include the cost of points used, cost of fuel and lubri- 
cant in plowing with the tractor and rent of the land. The land rent 
was based on P20.00 per hectare per year. 

Table 6 shows the cost of the different farm operations. The 
costs for plant canes per hectare were ; P34.63 for plowing, P3.47 for 
harrowing, P8.33 for furrowing, P8.88 for the preparation of cuttings, 
P8.60 for planting, P31.61 for cultivation, and P73.21 for harvesting. 

For the ratoon crop the cost per hectare was P32.76 for cultiva- 
tion and P36.26 for harvesting. 

Table 6 shows the itemized cost of production. The total labor 
cost per hectare for plant cane was P164.77 including hauling and 
PI 18.49 when cost of cut canes was excluded. For ratoon it cost 
P66.31 including hauling and P48.45 excluding hauling. 



262 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


The total depreciation and interest for plant canes was P5.94 in- 
cludinsr cost of hauling, and P3.97 excluding hauling. For ratoon it 
cost P1.94 including hauling, and P.97 when the cost of hauling was 
not included. 

The total supply and land cost was P46.87 for plant cane and 
P20.00 for ratoon. 

The total cost of production per hectare for plant cane was 
P207.58 including cost of hauling, and P169.33 excluding cost of haul- 
ing cut canes. For ratoon it cost P88.26 when the canes were hauled 
and P69.42 when the canes were just cut and piled in the field ready 
for hauling. 

Table 7 shows the cost of production per ton of canes. It cost 
P4.57 per ton for plant canes including hauling, and P3.73 when just 
cut and piled in the field ready for hauling. 

For ratoon it cost P4.79 per ton when hauled, and P3.77 when the 
cut canes were just piled in the field. 

Table 8 shows the cost of production per hectare when the canes 
were delivered to Calamba Sugar Estate, at Canlubang, Calamba La- 
guna. It cost P243.37 per hectare for plant canes, and P99.56 for 
ratoon. 

Table 9 shows the cost of production per ton of canes delivered to 
Calamba Sugar Estate. It cost P5.37 per ton for plant canes and 
P5.40 for ratoon. 


DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 

Field operations 

Preparation of land. The field was plowed for the first time 
with a 2-24 inch disc plow drawn by a Fordson tractor. The disc 
partly pulverized the soil so that the field was not harrowed after this 
operation. The second and third plowings, were with the native plow 
as the soil was not so hard as when the first plowing was done. The 
harrowing that followed the third plowing further pulverized the soil 
and made the field level and ready for planting. 

Furrowing. Sugar cane requires deep furrows. The native plow 
makes only a shallow furrow. So the plow had to be run three times 
before a furrow about 8 to 10 inches (20.32 to 25.40 cm.) deep was 
made. 

Planting. It was observed that in order to obtain the necessary 
compactness of the soil around the planted cuttings, the planters 
usually stepped on the soil after covering them. About ten days 
after planting the young plants came up. 



COST OP PRODUCING SUGAR CANE 


263 


Cultivation. During the first cultivation of the plant canes, 
which was a month after planting, very few weeds were killed be- 
cause few of the weed seeds had germinated. In the next cultivation, 
about three months later, most of the weeds were plowed under. At 
this time there was a rather thick growth of weeds between the rows. 
In the third and final cultivation fewer weeds were killed than in the 
second as only the survivors were left. 

In the case of the ratoon, the first cultivation was about two 
weeks after harvesting the plant canes in February, 1932. There 
were practically no weeds as the field had just been burned. The next 
cultivation was about the end of May, 1932 when the weeds had be- 
gun to grow. About the end of June, 1932, the ratoon field was again 
cultivated. At this time there was a rather thick growth of weeds. 
The fourth and final cultivation of the ratoon was about the end of 
July, 1932. The growth of weeds was thinner than at the third culti- 
vation but the height of the plants which was about one meter 
hindered the operation. 

Harvesting and hauling. It was observed that the cleaning away 
of trash around the base of the canes consumed considerable time, as 
it was thickly covered with dried leaves. It was necessary to remove 
these before the canes were cut, so the whole cane could be seen, else 
portions of the stem would be left as stubs. 

In loading the cut canes on null carts for hauling to the mill, it 
was found from about fifty trials that it took one man an average of 
37 minutes to load one cart. The average load of one bull cart was 
507 kilograms. The unloading took one man 19 minutes. In hauling 
the canes, it was found that the average speed of the animals pulling 
a loaded cart was 1.8 kilometers per hour. 

Labor requirement per hectare 

Plant canes. Under column 4 in table 1, the number of hours 
required for the different operations is recorded. It may be observed 
from this table that among the field operations harvesting required the 
longest time. The topping required 123.3 man hours. Cutting canes 
required 185.0 man hours. Hauling, including loading and unloading, 
required 164.9 man hours and 164.9 animal hours. The total labor 
requirement for harvesting, including hauling, was 473.2 man hours 
and 164.9 animal hours. 

Next to this operation in the number of hours consumed was the 
cultivation. The first cultivation, the “hilling-up”, required 23.4 man 
hours and 23.4 animal hours. The second cultivation, “off-barring”, 
required 86.4 man hours and 86.4 animal hours. The big difference 



264 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


in the number of hours consumed was caused by the thick growth of 
weeds encountered in the second cultivation. The third cultivation 
required 30.6 man hours and 30.6 animal hours which was higher 
than that of the first but lower than the second. The weeds that 
were plowed under in the third cultivation were those that survived 
the second cultivation. The three cultivations required 140.3 man 
hours and 140.3 animal hours. 

Planting was third as to the number of hours consumed in the 
operation. The preparation of cuttings required 46.4 man hours and 
31.8 animal hours. The planting alone required 77.3 man hours. The 
total number of hours consumed was 122.7 man hours and 31.8 animal 
hours. 

The first plowing which was done with the tractor required 7.8 
hours only. The disc plow cut so deep that only two more plowings 
with the native plow were required to prepare the land. The second 
plowing required 56.6 man and 56.6 animal hours ; the third plowing 
r^uired 52.0 man and 62.0 animal hours. 

Furrowing required 37 man and 37 animal hours which was more 
than double the harrowing requirement. Harrowing required 15.6 
man and 15.6 animal hours. 

Ratoon. Table 2 shows the number of hours required for the 
different operations for ratoon. It will be observed that four 
cultivations were necessary. The first cultivation, which was after 
burning the trash left in harvesting the plant canes, required 45.5 man 
and 45.5 animal hours. The soil was rather hard during the first 
cultivation. The second cultivation which was “hilling-up” required 
23.4 man and 23.4 animal hours. At the third cultivation there was 
a thick growth of weeds so it required 49.4 man and 49.4 animal 
hours. The fourth and final cultivation required 27.3 man and 27.3 
animal hours. The total number of hours required for cultivation 
was 145.6 man hours and 145.6 animal hours. 

In harvesting, the ratoon required 59.7 man hours for topping, 
89.6 man hours for cutting and 81.2 man and 81.2 animal hours for 
hauling. 

Cost of different farm operations 

Table 5 shows the cost of the different farm operations. Column 
2 shows the cost per hectare for plant canes and column 3, the cost 
for ratoon. It may be seen that for plant canes harvesting involved 
the largest expenditure which was P73.21. With a production of 46.36 



COST OF PRODUCING SUGAR CANE 


265 


tons per hectare the cost of harvesting and hauling per ton of canes 
was PI. 59. Column 3 shows that it cost P36.26 to harvest and haul 
the canes from one hectare of ratoon. 

In hauling, including loading, Henry (1929)* found that the cost 
of transportation per ton kilometer of canes was P0.25 with the use 
of truck and trailer and P0.50 with the use of carabao cart. In the 
present study, using carabao cart, this item of cost was considerably 
higher, being P0.84 per ton kilometer. 

In expense, plowing was second to harvesting. The plowing of 
the land cost P34.53 per hectare. It involved one tractor and two ani- 
mal plowings. The harrowing cost P3.47 per hectare. The total cost 
of land preparation per hectare was P38.00. Locsin (1923)* found 
that the land preparation per hectare was P34.80. It involved five 
animal plowings and harrowings. 

Cultivation cost P31.61 per hectare for plant cane and P32.76 for 
ratoon. It will be observed that the cost of cultivation for the ratoon 
was higher than for plant canes. This was because plant cane re- 
quired three cultivations while the ratoon required four. The cost 
of cultivation for plant cane, as found in this study, is very much 
lower than Locsin (1923) found. He reported P51.60 per hectare, 
which included cost of hilling with shovel and hoe. 

The cost of furrowing per hectare as shown in the same table 
(table 5) was P8.33 and the actual planting per hectare, P8.50. The 
actual cost of planting was higher than that found by Henry (1929) 
which was P6.25 to P7.50 per hectare and by Locsin (1923) which 
was P6.20. 

The total cost per hectare of different farm operations as shown 
in table 5 was P168.63 for plant canes and P68.02 for ratoon. 

Total cost of production per hectare 

Table 6 shows the itemized and total cost of production. Column 
2 shows the cost for plant canes when the canes were hauled from the 
field to the mill and column 3 shows the cost for ratoon. It will be 
observed that the labor cost for plant canes was P154.77 and P66.31 
for ratoon. The depreciation and interest on the money invested on 
improvements was P5.94 for plant canes and PI. 94 for ratoon. Land 


’ HmRY, Ives. 1928. Technical and financial conditions of production of sugar 
in the Philippines. Published by the General Government of Indo China, Hanoi. 
Translated from the French by Irwin McNiece, 1929. 109 p., 22 charts. Manila: 
Philippine Sugar Association. 

’Locsin, Carlos L. 1923. Cultivation of sugar cane in western Negros. 
Sugar Central and Planters News 4: part 2, p. 699 and part 3 p. 668-662. 



266 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


and supply costs were F46.87 for plant canes and P20.00 for ratoon. 
The land rent was based on the local rental rate of P20.00 per hectare 
per year. The land was used for 14 months for plant canes and 12 
months for ratoon. The cost of points was based on 28,000 per hec- 
tare at P6.00 per 10,000. The total cost of production was P207.58 
for plant canes and P88.26 for ratoon. 

Column 4 shows the itemized cost of production per hectare for 
plant canes and column 6 for ratoon when the harvested canes were 
piled in the field ready for hauling. For plant canes the different 
costs were P118.49 for labor, P3.97 for depreciation and interest, and 
P46.87 for land rent and supplies ; the total was PI 69.33. For ratoon 
the labor cost was P48.46 ; depreciation and interest, P0.97 ; and land 
rent, P20.00; the total was P69.42. 

Cost of prodv^tion per ton of canes 

Table 7 gives the cost of production per ton of canes. When 
hauling was included the cost was P4.57 for plant canes and P4.79 for 
ratoon. When hauling was excluded the cost was P3.73 for plant 
canes and P3.77 for ratoon. These figures were based on the actual 
production of 45.36 tons per hectare for plant canes and 18.43 tons 
for ratooii. 


Cost of production per ton of canes delivered to 

. Calamba Sugar Estate 

Table 8 shows the cost of production per hectare with canes de- 
livered to Calamba Sugar Estate. The cost of production per hectare, 
excluding hauling, was P169.33 for plant canes and P69.42 for ratoon. 
The cost of loading 45.36 tons which was the yield per hectare from 
plant canes was P6.00 ; and of 18.43 tons which was the yield from one 
hectare of ratoon was P2.45. The canes were loaded in trucks which 
transported them from the field to the College Station, a distance of 
about 2.2 kilometers. 

The cost of transporting the canes from the field to College Sta- 
tion was P45.36 for plant canes and P18.43 for ratoon. 

The cost of loading the canes on N. B. and J. P. cars was P22.68 
for plant canes and P9.26 for ratoons. The above figures were fur- 
nished by Mr. Silvio Lopez who took charge of the work. 

The total cost of production per hectare with canes delivered to 
Calamba Sugar Estate was P243.37 for plant canes and P99.66 for 
ratoon. Table 9 shows that the cost of production per ton of cane 
delivered to Calamba Sugar Estate was P6.37 for plant canes and 
P6.40 for ratoon. 



COST OF PBODUCING SUGAR CANE 


267 


Percentage return on the investment 

Basing calculations on P6.00 as the selling price per ton, figures 
furnished by Mr. Lopez, the net profit per ton was P0.63 for plant 
canes and P0.60 for ratoon. The net profit per hectare, counting 
46.36 tons as the production of plant canes was P28.68; and 18.43 
tons for ratoon was P11.06. With a total cost of production of P243.37 
for plant canes and P99.66 for ratoon, the percentage return on the 
investment was 11.47 per cent for plant canes and 11.11 per cent for 
ratoon. 


SUMMARY 

; 1. The cast of plowing one hectare preparatory to cane planting 
was P34.63. It involved one tractor plowing and two plowings with 
the native plow. 

2. The cost of harrowing per hectare was P3.47. The native 
spike tooth harrow or calmot was used. 

3. The furrowing cost was P8.33 per hectare. The depth of 
furrow ranged from 6 to 8 inches (15.24 to 20.32 centimeters). To 
attain this depth the plow was run through the furrow three times. 

4. The total cost of planting per hectare including cost of pre- 
paring the points was P17.38. 

5 . A total of 28,000 points was planted to one hectare. 

6. The cost of cultivating plant canes per hectare was P31.61. 
It involved three operations, first “hilling-up”, second the “off- 
barring” and the third, “hilling-up” again. 

7. The cost of cultivating the ratoon per hectare was P32.76. 
It involved four operations ; first, “off -barring” ; second, “hilling-up” ; 
third, “off-barring” ; and fourth, “hilling-up”. 

8. In the plant cane culture, practically no weeds were plowed 
under in the first cultivation, as few of the weed seeds had germinated. 
A thick growth of weeds was encountered in the second cultivation 
but fewer in the third. 

9. Harvesting was the most expensive operation in the produc- 
tion of canes. It cost P73.21 per hectare for plant canes and P35.26 
for ratoon. 

10. The total production per hectare was 46.36 tons for plant 
canes and 18.43 tons for ratoon. 

11 . The cost of production per hectare with canes cut and ready 
for hauling was P169.33 for plant canes and P69.42 for ratoon. In- 
cluding hauling it cost P207.68 for plant canes and P88.26 for ratoon. 



268 


THE PHILn>PmB AeSICCLTOKlST 


12. The cost of producing one ton of plant cane cut and ready 
for hauling in the field was P3.73 and P4.67 when hauled to the U. P. 
Sugar Mill. For the ratoon, the cost of production per ton when 
cut and ready for hauling in the field was P3.77 and P4.79 when 
hauled to the College mill. 

13 . The cost of producing one ton of cane delivered to Calamba 
Sugar Estate was P6.37 for plant canes and P6.40 for ratoon. 

14. The net gain per ton was P0.63 from plant canes and P0.60 
from ratoon. It was based on P6.00 as the selling price. 

16 . The net income per hectare was P28.68 from plant canes and 
PI 1.06 from ratoon. 

16. The percentage return on the investment was 11.74 per cent 
from plant canes and 11.11 per cent from ratoon. 



COST OF PRODUCING SUGAR CANE 


269 


TABLE 1 

Labor coat for the different farm operations for plant canes 


OPEKATION8 


1 KIND 

NUMllLU OF HOURS 

IJ^IIOR 


I OF 

For 1..S4 1 

hectare | 

Per 

hectare 

COST PER 



EAliOR 

HECTARE 






PC808 

Plowing: 






First with tractor .... 


Man 

1 12.0 

7.8 

1.25 

Second with animal . . . 

..J 

Man 1 

1 87.0 

56.5 

6.22 

i 

Animal 

1 87.0 

56.5 

6.22 

Third with animal . . . . 

...s 

Man 

80.0 

52.0 

5.72 

i\ 

Animal 

80.0 

52.0 

5.72 

Harrowing 

... S\ 

Man 

24.0 

15.6 

1.72 

i 

Animal 

24.0 

1 

15.6 

1.72 

Furrowing 

... s 

Man 

57.0 

37.0 ^ 

4.07 

l\ 

Animal 

57.0 

37.0 

4.07 

Preparation of cuttings: 






Cutting of points 


Man 

21.0 

13.6 

1.50 

Hauling 

... i 

Man 

49.0 

31.8 

3.50 

1 

Animal | 

1 49.0 

31.8 

3.50 

Planting 

Cultivation : 

Man 

119.0 

77.3 

8.50 


Hilling-up 

... ll 
l\ 

Man 

Animal 

1 

36.0 

36.0 

23.4 

23.4 

2.57 

2.57 

Off-barring 

... s 

Man 

133.0 

86.4 

9.51 

l\ 

Animal 

133.0 

86.4 

9.51 

Hilling-up 

... s 
1 

Man 

Animal 

47.0 

47.0 

30.5 

30.5 

3.36 

3.36 

Harvesting: 






Topping 


Man 

190.0 

123.3 

13.57 

Cutting 

. . . 

Man 

285.0 1 

185.0 

20.33 

Hauling 

... J 
\ 

Man 

1 Animal 

254.0 

254.0 

164.9 

164.9 

18.14 

18.14 


I 154.77 



270 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE 2 

Labor cost for the different farm operations for first ratoon canes 


1 

1 

KIND 

NUMBER OF HOURS 

LABOR 

OPERATIONS 1 

1 

1 

OF 

IJ^BOR 

For 1.64 
hectare 

Per 

hectare 

COST PER 
HECTARB 

Cultivation : 

Man 

^ 70.0 1 

^ 45.5 

1 pesos 

5.01 

Off-barring | 

Animal 

70.0 

45.5 

5.01 

Hilling-up 1 

Man 

36.0 

23.4 

2.57 

Animal 

36.0 

23.4 

2.57 

Off-barring | 

Man 

Animal 

76.0 

76.0 

49.4 

49.4 

5.43 

5.43 

Hilling-up 1 

Man 

42.0 

27.3 

3.00 

^1 

Harvosting: 

Animal 

42.0 1 

27.3 

3.00 

Topping 

Man 

92.0 

59.7 

6.57 

Cutting 

Man 

138.0 

89.6 

9.86 

Hauling | 

Man 

125.0 

81.2 

8.93 

Animal 

125.0 

1 81.2 

8.93 


66.31 




TABLE 3 

Depreciation of implements and interest on the investment 


COST OF PRODUCIKG SUGAR CANE 


271 




272 


THE PHILIPPINE AGHICULTURIST 


TABLE 4 

Land and supply costs 


ITEMS 

COST FOR 1.54 HECTARE 

COST PER 

HECTARE 

Plant cane | 

1 Ratoon 

1 Plant cane | 

1 Ratoon 

1 

pcHoa 

1 peaoa 

peaoa 

peaoa 

Land rent ® 

36.91 

30.80 

23.32 

20.00 

Points 

26.86 


16.79 


Fuel for tractor: 





Gasoline 

0.37 


0.24 


Petroleum 

6.72 


4.36 


Lubricant : 





Oil 

3.05 


1.98 


Grease 

0.27 


0.18 


Total 

1 46.87 1 

1 20.00 


® The land was used for 14 months for plant canes and 12 months for ratoon. 


TABLE 5 

Total cost for the different farm operations per hectare 


OPERATIONS 

PLANT CANE 

RATOON 


peaoa 

peaoa 

Plowing 

34.53 


Harrowing 

3.47 


Furrowing 

8.33 


Preparation of cuttings 

8.88 


Planting 

8.50 


Cultivation 

31.61 

32.76 

Harvesting 

73.21 

35.26 

Total 

168.53 

68.02 


TABLE 6 

Itemized cost of production per hectare 


ITEMS 

INCLUDING COST OF HAUL- 
ING CUT CANES 

EXCLUDING COST OF HAUL- 
ING CUT CANES 


i Plant canes | 

1 Ratoon ! 

Plant canes 1 

1 Ratoon 

Labor cost 

peaoa 

164.77 

peaoa \ 

66.31 1 

peaoa 

118.49 

peaoa 

48.45 

Depreciation and interest 

1 5.94 

1 1 

1 3.97 1 

1 0.97 

Land and supply costs | 

1 46.87 1 

20.00 1 

1 46.87 1 

20.00 

Total 1 

1 207.68 1 

1 88.25 1 

1 169.33 I 

1 69.42 






















COST OF PRODUCING SUGAR CANE 


27S 


TABLE 7 

Cost of production per ton of canes 


cnop 

COST OF I’ltODUCTION 
PER HA. 

! 

YIEIJ) PER 
HA. 

COST OF PRODUCTION 
PER TON 

IncIudinvT 
cost of 
haulin;; 
cut canes 

Excluding? 
cost of 
haulin^c 
cut canes 

Including 
cost of 
hauling 
cut canes 

Excluding 
cost of 
haul! ns 
cut canes 


jtcsoa 

pesos 1 

tons 

pesos 

pesos 

Plant canes 

207.58 

169.33 

45.36 

1 4.57 

3.73 

Ratoon 

88.25 

69.42 i 

18.43 

4.79 

3.77 


TABLE 8 

Cost of production per hectare ivith canes delivered to Calamha Sugar Estate 


ITEMS 

PLANT 

CANES 

RATOON 

Cost of production per hectare excluding cost of hauling . . . 

pesos 

169.33 

pesos 

69.42 

Cost of loading canes in trucks per hectare 

6.00 

2.45 

Cost of transporting canes from field to College Station .... 

45.36 

18.43 

Cost of loading canes on N. B. or J. P. cars 

22.68 

9.26 

Total cost of production per hectare of canes delivered to 



Calamha Sugar Estate 

243.37 

99.56 


TABLE 9 

Cost of production per ton of canes delivered to 
Calamha Sugar Estate 


CROP 

TOTAL COST 
OF PRODUC- 
TION PER 
HA. 

PRODUCTION 
PER HA. 

COST OF PRO- 
DUCTION PER 
TON 


pesos 

tons 

pesos 

Plant canes 

243.37 

45.36 

5.37 

Ratoon 

99.56 

18.43 

5.40 



STUDIES ON THE CONSUMPTION OF SUGAR FOR ONE 

YEAR BY FIFTY FILIPINO FAMILIES IN CALAUAN, 

LAGUNA ^ 

JOSfi C. ATIENZA 

In the Philippines, as in other countries, the amount of sugar 
that is us^ by the population is gauged by the per capita consump- 
tion. The per capita consumption, however, is only a statistical 
figure, and as such, can hardly be taken to represent the actual con- 
sumption. Writing on this subject, Mayo (1928)* stated, “that re- 
ported statistics of consumption represent really, not consumption, 
but distribution. Of course the sugar distributed through trade 
channels is consumed ultimately, but it may or may not be consumed 
during the year in which its distribution takes place, and the weight 
of evidence is that apparent fluctuations in consumption from year 
to year are due to vagaries in the trade movement of sugar.” Then 
there is also the so-called invisible supply, the surplus stock carried 
over from year to year, there being no actual data on this, the stat- 
istician must base his calculations upon estimates which of course 
vary ;'n accuracy. There are also a number of other factors which 
render, the per capita consumption figure of very dubious value. 

Just how much sugar then, does an average Filipino consume? 
A study of the consumption of sugar as it actually enters the diet 
of the people might give a fairly correct answer to this question. 
It might also be of help in ascertaining the possibilities of increasing 
our sugar consumption by nation wide propaganda, an undertaking 
recently began by the Philippine Sugar Association. 

The object of the present work was to study for a period of one 
year, from April, 1930 to April, 1931 the consumption of sugar, as it 
actually entered into the diet of fifty average Filipino families living 
in Calauan, Laguna. 

The analytical phase of the study was performed in the advanced 
laboratory of the Department of Agricultural Chemistry, College 
of Agriculture. 


' Experiment Station contribution No. 901. Part of thesis, No. 366, presented 
in 1932. Prepared in the Department of Agricultural Chemistry under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Francisco 0. Santos. Received for publication, May 24, 1933. 

’ Mayo, E. W. 1928. Are women eating less sugar? Pacts About Sugar 
23: 560. 


274 



CONSUMPTION OF SUGAR IN THE PHILIPPINES 276 

MATERALS AND METHODS 

The different kinds of sugar consumed by the fifty families 
during the study were analyzed for sucrose. There were twenty- 
three different samples. These included six kinds of sugar, four 
kinds of locally made sweets, twelve kinds of candies and one brand 
of sweetened condensed milk. 

Walker’s inversion method for sucrose determination, as given in 
Chemical Control for Cane Sugar Factories of the Association of 
Hawaiian Sugar Technologists, (1924)* was adopted in the analysis 
of the different kinds of sugar. 

In the analysis of five of the samples, this method was modified 
on account of the peculiar constituents of these samples. The modi- 
fication consisted of using the method worked out by Stokes and Bod- 
mer for sucrose determination in sweetened condensed milk, as de- 
scribed by Leffmann and Beam (1906)*. 

From five to six sucrose determinations were made of each of 
the twenty-three samples. 

The statistical phase of the study 

Subject of the study. Fifty Filipino families of moderate means, 
so chosen as to represent fairly any typical Philippine community, 
constituted the subjects of this study. 

Collection of primary data. Records of the quantity of sugar 
and other food articles containing sugar consumed every day were 
kept by each of the fifty families under study, for a period covering 
52 weeks. These records were collected by the writer at the end of 
every week. It may be stated here that the kind cooperation of tTiese 
families made the securing of authentic data possible. 

Methods of recording consumption. Various ways were employed 
to ascertain the quantity consumed. In most cases the weight of 
the material as bought and weighed on the scale in the retail stores 
was recorded by the family. Those who bought sugar reckoned by 
cost as so many centavos worth instead of by kilograms recorded 
their daily consumption in terms of centavos. Some used cups to 
measure the volume of sugar as it was being used and then recorded 
consumption by the number of cups, and still others took count of 


’ Anonymous. 1924. Chemical control for cane sugar factories. 114 p., 10 
fig. Honolulu: The Association of Hawaiian Sugar Technologists. 

‘ Leffmann, A. M., and Wiluam Beam. 1906. Food analysis, vi + 396 
P.. 66 fig. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston’s Son and Company. 



276 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


the number of spoonfuls of sugar used from day to day. Sugar food 
commodities which are bought by the piece, like panocha, caramelo, 
pilon cubes, sweets and candies, were recorded by the number of 
pieces. Whatever plan was followed in keeping track of consump- 
tion, the quantities were finally reduced to their weights in grams 
by a system of equivalents devised by the writer. 

Consumption always charged to the consumer. Consumption 
was always strictly charged to the consumer. If, for any reason, 
consumption could not be properly accounted for, the consumption 
data of the week which included the faulty record was discarded. 
For example, it not infrequently happened, during the period of 62 
weeks that a .social activity of some kind in the household brought 
about unusually large purchases of sugar which obviously could not 
have been consumed by the members of the family alone. As such 
a circumstance made the taking of correct data for the family im- 
possible, because of the abnormal consumption, these data were not 
considered in the calculations. As a rule, any condition that would 
alter the normal economy of the household, so as to make consump- 
tion not accountable, was considered as warranting the discarding 
of such record. 

Other data collected. Besides the data on consumption, the fol- 
lowing were also taken: (1) the number of persons (not infants) 
in the family, (2) estimated income of the family, (3) means of 
living of , the family and the (4) retail price of sugar from week to 
week. 


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

From the primary consumption data and other accessory data 
collected, and the results of the laboratory analyses, the following 
were determined: (1) the quantity of sugar consumed by each of 
the fifty families for one year, raw and refined value; (2) the total 
quantity of sugar consumed by the fifty families in one year, raw 
and refined value; (3) the per capita consumption, raw and refined 
values, by each of the fifty families; (4) the overall per capita con- 
sumption of the fifty families, raw and refined values; (5) the relative 
amounts of the different forms of sugars consumed during the study. 

Whatever relation income and the price of sugar may bear to 
the per capita consumption was also asceii;ained. 

The results of the study may be seen in tables 1 to 6. 



CONSUMPTION OF SUGAR IN THE PHILIPPINES 


277 


The sugar consumption of the fifty families (table 4) ranged 
from 6.317 to 24.031 kgm., refined value or 6.493 kgm., to 25.026 kgm., 
raw value. Eight families had a per capita consumption of from 6 
to 10 kgm.; eight families, from 10 to 14 kgm., nineteen families, 
from 14 to 18 kgm. ; eleven families, from 18 to 22 kgm. ; and four 
families from 22 to 25 kgm. ; all refined value. The total sugar con- 
sumption of fifty families composed of 421 individuals, 252 of whom 
were adults and 169, children (not infants), for one year, was 6763 
.252 kgm., raw value, or the equivalent 6362.326 kgm., refined value. 
This represents an overall per capita consumption of 16.604 kgm. 
raw value, or 14.416 kgm. refined value. This figure is much greater 
than the per capita .sugar consumption as produced by statistics 
for the Philippines, which is only 9.7 kgm. 

The per capita consumption and the income 

Table 5 shows that family 23 with an income of 1000 pesos had 
a per capita consumption of 24.031 kgm., whereas family 13 with an 
income of 4,800 pesos had a per capita consumption of 16.684 kgm. 
only. Family 30 with an income of 360 pesos had almost the same 
per capita consumption as family 39 with an income of 600 pesos. 
Family 50 whose income was two and a half times that of family 
37 had a per capita consumption about 5 kgm. less. It is generally 
supposed that the consumption of sugar is largely influenced by the 
ability to obtain it. Within the limits of income differences among 
the fifty families .studied, the ability to buy does not seem to be a 
very important factor. Of the fifty families, the consumption of the 
poorer ones was just as great per capita and sometimes greater than 
the more well-to-do ones. Consumption appears to be more a matter 
of the habit of the individual or individuals. 

On an average, an income of 836.08 pesos, for a family repre- 
sented a per capita consumption of 16.604 kgm. of sugar, raw value, 
or 14.416 kgm. .sugar, refined value. Twenty-three of the fifty fam- 
ilies belong to the farming class, 14 to the employee’s class, 9 to the 
laboring class, and 3 to the business class. It appears from table 
5 that families of sedentary occupation consume as much sugar as 
thc.se physically active. 

Of the total amount of sugar that was consumed by the fifty 
families for one year (table 6) 52.99 per cent was granulated re- 
fined sugar, 27.66 per cent was the commercial centrifugal sugar, 
9.11 per cent was the panocha turned out by the native antiquated 
mills, 0.5 per cent wa.s the pilon lump sugar, and 9.74 per cent was the 
aggregate of all kinds of locally made sweets and candies. 



m 


THE PHIUPPINE A6BICULTUBIST 


The retail price of the refined and commercial suerar, as bought 
by the families under study, fluctuated during the period of the 
study within two centavos per kgm. The cost of the locally made 
sweets and candies remained constant. The consumption of sugar 
by each of the fifty families was almost steady from week to week. 
Apparently, price was not a factor in sugar consumption. 

SUMMARY 

1. The per capita consumption of the fifty families ranged from 
6.317 kgm. to 24.031 kgm. sugar refined value, or 6.493 kgm. to 
25.027 kgm. raw value. 

2. The overall per capita consumption of the fifty families was 
16.604 kilograms raw value, or 14.416 kilograms refined value. 

3. The consumption of sugar in each family was steady through- 
out the year. Within the limits of the changes in the costs of sugar 
during the period of the study, price was not a factor in sugar con- 
sumption. 



CONSUMPTION OF SUGAR IN THE PHILIPPINES 


279 


TABLE 1 

Showing the consumption of different forms of sugar by fifty Filipino families 

for one year, raio value 


FAMILY 

coNsiJMrrioN 

TOTAL 

FOR 

EACH 

FAMILY 

Refined { 
suficar 

Com- 
1 mercial 1 
1 sugar 

Pilon 

sugar 

Pano- 1 
cha 

Pano- 

chitas 

Cara- 

melos 

Bali- 

kutsa 

] Candies 
Bukayo ' and 
, others 


1 

kgm. 1 

kgm. 

1 kgm. 1 

kgm. 1 

kgm. 1 

kgm. 1 

1 kgm. 

kgm. ] 

kgm. 1 

kgm . 

1 

13.830 

96.166 

3.946 ' 

17.927 ] 

6.610 

3.440 

3.106 

— 


144.914 

2 

65.000 

2.108 

— 

10.995 

8.335 

1.643 

1.216 

4.869 

29.418 

113.473 

3 

14.330 

199.790 

103.960 

19.000 


9.802 

32.906 

7.476 
8.919 ’ 

2.639 

6.494 

6.175 

4.616 

6.770 

6.497 


160.162 

286.037 

4 

7.917 



5 

163.960 

— 

4.651 

20.619 

7.508 

2.247 

1.500 

3.450 

26.604 

2.30..542 

0 

20.7601 

162.300] 

171.500 


11.680 1 
6.780 
14.778 
9.442 

6.075 

4.448 

5.295 

8.040 


227.788 

177.950 

163.727 

59.936 

7 

8.840 1 


8 

9 

125.200 

38.886 

6.626 

3.681 

4.616 

1.176 

6.390 

3.376 

6.217 

3.377 





10 

11 

12 1 
18 

86.260 

46.891 

114.600 

90.600 

4.862 


10.500 

23.731 

21.160 

33..J00 

7.702 

16.197 

19.524 

9.530 





109.314 

98.333 

180.366 

198.641 

4.799 

12.961 

6.1.58 

3.550 

2.760 

2.544 

2.820 

4.245 

3.825 

1 2..346 

5.316 ] 
4.079 




— 

48.505 

14 

166.4TJ0 

5.330 

— 

7.641 

4.710 

3.896 

3.540 

8.3.59 

3.492 

187.368 

16 

16 

76.259' 

21.8,501 

81.803 

— 

12.684 

11.413 

6.946 

10.327 

4.458 

4.603 

4.035 

4.830 

4.625 

6.849 

6.998 

130.857 

62.4511 

95.000 


82.844 

105.904 

17 

18 


7.403 
7.907 ' 

4.532 

2.795 

4.997 

2.130 

3.533 





69.770 

33.977 


4.224 

9.709 

3.938 

4.035 

6.016 

4.450 


19 

20 


8.048 

8.616 

1.996 

2.890 

73.991 

148.823 

81.683 

46.795 

— 

3.564 

21 

26.685 

10.118 

9.366 

6.371 

6.035 

3.181 

105.551 



22 

94.9181 


13.3.50 





108.268 


1 






23 

170.000 

— 


11.279 

4.977 

4.366 

2.620 

5.927 

0.761 

197.820 

24 

25 

70.096 

36.098] 

47.818 

— 

9.565 

1 11.870 

8.308 
3.843 1 

4.242 

1.886 

4.665 

5.309 

— 

150.003 

53.697 






26 

4.249 

36.273 

— 1 

9.162 

2.979 1 

1.037 

— 

— 

— 

63.690 

27 

81.215 

— 

— 

10.270 

3.959 

] 1..508 

0.870 

2.439 

1.649 ] 

107.910 

28 

29 

136.049] 

17.726 

49.144 

— 

21.933 

9.293 

8.393 

2.089 

2.295 

2.829 

2.882 

194.196 

68.437 

64.296 







30 


8.944 

73.239 

79.766 


6.785 

2.402 

3.480 

5.966 


81 

23.169 

13.309 

133.857 



82 

33 

76.461 

146.116 

41.378 

10.000 

— 

16.870 

24.480 

10.905 1 
11.438 ] 

4.614 

3.230 

6.373 

6.310 

6.890 

5.482 

7.326 1 

169.716 

206.055 



34 

35 

81.3261 

80.000 j 


8.193 

14.368 





89.618 

124.368 

30.000 













36 

37 

88 

75.416 

9.000' 

59.264 

84.260 

79.831 

39.000 


14.457 

1 9.107 

11.830 

10.276 

6.419 

] 1.180 
2.844 

1.290 
3.315 1 

2.656 
2.763 1 

40.423 

179.846 

113.269 

109.614 

1 j 








39 

40 

41 

64.760 

66.376 

85.747 

— 

1 

12.198 

19.952 

6.197 

7.019 

6.948 

2.861 ] 
2.860 ] 
2.984 

3.900 

4.036 

8.030 

4.588 

4.664 

6.760 

0,666 j 

95.059 

93.906 

133.767 

14.760 

3.323 

11,220 

i 

42 

39.828 

62.914 

— 

11.776 

7,166 

4.163 

3.736 

6.011 

4.916 

139.999 

43 

44 

46 

66.769] 

24.5331 

180.518] 

18.600] 

81.800] 

4.028] 

— 

11.270 

8.206 

16.484 

6.766 

4.427 

11.704 

3.408 1 
2.416 1 
2.867 

1.230 

3.820 

6.460 

2.616 1 
6.602 

7.334 

23.055 1 

122.614 

130.803 

190.195 

1 

11,820 

46 

66.967] 

2.763 

10.076 

7.969 

3.739 

4.440 

6.561 

101.499 


84.220 1 

47 

48 

49 

60 

67.966] 


] 13.336 
16.622 

1 6.316 

1 6.017 

3.187 

10.493 

3.226 

4.380 

3.281 

3.455 

1 90.781 

198.633 
109.124 
131.194 

1 169.666 


101.678] 

100.000] 


7.446 

10.538 


104.559 


6.437 


8.825 

5.835 

1 




Total for 

1 









! 

each kind 

|8371.909| 

11780.276 

1 33.647 

1 681.622 

281.890 

184.718 

140.191 

174.810 

214.389 

6763.252 

of susrar 

1 i 

! 

! 










280 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE 2 

Showing the sucrose content of the differeyit forms of sugar consumed 


KIND OF SUilAR 

\VT. PER 
PIECE 

aiTCKOSE 

EQUIVALENT 
100" SUGAR 


1 grama 

1 per cent 

grama 

Refined sugar 


1 100.00 

100.00 

Commercial sugar 

\ 

98.26 

98.25 

Pilon lump sugar 

13.0 

95.06 

12.35 

Panocha (1) 

130.5 

91.95 

119.99 

Panocha (2) 

92.0 

91.95 

84.59 

Panochitas 

20.3 

67.66 

13.73 

Caramelo 

16.7 

96.20 

15.10 

Balikutsa 

15.0 

85.78 

12.88 

Bukayo 

19.5 

36.53 

7.11 

Coco-caramel 

8.9 

86.06 

7.66 

Lemon candies 

4.3 

98.14 

4.22 

Lemon drops 

1.3 

95.73 

1.24 

Stick candy 

6.4 

54.43 

1 3.48 

Rock candy (1) 

8.2 

98.95 

8.11 

Rock candy (2) 

! 11.6 

96.12 

11.05 

Lollypops 

9.4 

98.77 

9.28 

Chocolate candy (1) 

4.5 

36.50 

1.64 

Chocolate candy (2) 

9.0 

34.00 

3.06 

Milk candy (1) 

8.1 

43.61 

3.53 

Milk candy (2) 

3.4 

74.18 

2.52 

Belecoy 

13.7 

39.71 

6.45 

Linga 

4.1 

23.85 

0.98 

Sweet condensed milk® 

435.0 

42.00 

182.70 


® The weight indicated is the weight per can. 



CONSUMPTION OF SUGAR IN THE PHILIPPINES 


281 


TABLE 8 

Showing the consumption of different forms of sugar by fifty Filipino families 

for one year, refined value 



CONSUMPTION 1 

TOTAL 

FAMILY 

Refined 

sujfar 

Com- 1 
mercial 

su2;;ar I 

Pilon 

su«:ar 

Pano- 1 
cha 1 

Pano- 

chitas 

Cara- 

melos 

Bali. 

kutsa 

Bukuyo ] 

Candies 

and 

others 

FOR 

KACH 

FAMILY 

1 

kgm, 

13.830 

kgm. 

94.421 

kgm. 

3.753 

kgm. 

16.493 

kgm. 

4.401 

kgm. 

3.309 

kgm. 

2.664 

kgm. 

kgm. 

kgm. 

138.871 

2 

55.000 

2.073 

— 

10.115 

5.634 

1.484 

1.042 

1.774 

14.124 

91.216 

3 

14.330 

102.193 

— 

9.018 

5.054 

2.528 

4.440 

2.971 

— 

140.534 

4 

199.790 

18.677 

7.529 

30.273 

6.029 

6.247 

3.874 

2.371 

— 

274,790 

5 

163.960 

— 

4.426 

18.969 

5.075 

2.062 

1.287 

1.287 

13.989 

211.027 

6 

20.750 

168.585 

— 

10.746 

4.107 

4.279 

4.543 

3.935 

— 

216.945 

7 

162..3.30 


8.407 

6.239 

13..596 

8.687 

7.086 

13.981 






176.976 

153.213 
• 54.000 
108.28 

93.134 

8 

9 

123.072 

38.224 

10.322 

23.328 

4.412 

2.488 

4.441 

1.131 

5.483 

2.896 

2.209 

1.233 





10 

11 

86.250 

45.891 

4.62 S 


3.244 

3.415 

2.419 

0.856 



12 

114.500 

20.800 

— 

17.962 

8.694 

2.646 

3.642 

1.940 

— - 

170.184 

13 

90.500 

32.931 

— 

8.768 

4.163 

2.447 

.3.282 

1.489 

23.260 

166.840 

14 

155.400 

5.239 

— 

7.030 

3.184 

3.748 

3.037 

1.226 

2.374 

181.239 

ir> 

76.259 

21.479 

— 

11.669 

4.695 

4.289 

3.462 

1.659 


123.512 

16 

17 

62.451 

80.412 

— 

10.500 

6.811 

6.981 

3.064 

4.428 

2.689 

4.144 

1.827 

2.500 

1.290 

4.079 

113.044 

78.132 




18 

93.000 

7.274 


4.807 



105.081 







19 

20 


49.907 

33.399 


7.404 

7.926 

2.855 

1.919 

2.870 

.3.379 
3.462 ' 

1.831 

1.624 


67.295 

1 139.761 

81.583 

45.795 

--- 

3.563 
6.331 ! 

2.424 

*21 

26.231 

9.308 

5.167 

4.320 

1.161 

98.313 



‘2*^ 

94.918 


12.282 





107.200 



1 






23 

170 000 



10.377 

3.365 

4.200 

2.162 

1.433 

0.718 

193.255 

24 

'25 

70.096 

36.098 

47.005 

- • 1 

8.300 
10.920 1 

5.606 

2.598 

4.081 1 
1.814 

4.006 

1.938 

— 

141.532 

51.430 

35.656 





26 

4.249 

8.420 

2.014 

0.997 

51.336 





27 

81.215 

— 

— 

14.968 

2.676 

1.451 

0.746 

0.890 

1.121 

103.085 

28 

29 

136.049 

17.425 

48.308 


20.178 

8.549 

5.673 

2.009 

1.969 

1.023 

2.958 

187.084 

56.857 

64.295 







30 


8,228 

72.523 








31 

23.969 

78.400 

— 

12.244 

3.910 

2.311 

2.986 

21.740 

— 

125.194 

32 

76.461 

40.674 

— 

15.520 

7.372 

4.342 

4.610 

2.515 

4.981 

156.475 

33 

34 

146.115 

81.325 

9.830 


22.522 

7.537 

7.732 

3.107 

4.556 

2.001 

— 

195.863 

88.862 

29.490 







35 

80.000 

13,228 

122.718 







36 

37 

75.415 

9.000 

33.668 

78,474 

— 

13.000 

7.478 

6.946 

4.339 

1.1.35 

2.736 

1.107 

2.844 

0.933 

1.005 

19.779 

152.283 

105.876 



38 

59.264 

38.337 

10.442 





108.043 


4.189 

4.745 

4.697 

2.752 

2.751 

2.871 

3.346 

3.462 

2.599 

1.675 

1.702 

2.102 

0.486 

39 

40 

41 

64.750 

55.876 

85.747 


11.222 
18,356 j 
10.322 

88.420 

86.892 

126.002 



14.499 

3.165 

— 

42 

39.328 

61.844 

— 

10.834 

4.847 

4.005 

3.205 

2.199 

3.343 

129.605 

43 

44 

50.769 

24.533 

18.175 

80.409 

— 

10.368 

7.549 

4.574 

2.993 

3.278 

2.324 

1.055 

3.277 

0.955 

2.045 

8.223 

102.397 

123.130 



45 

46 

47 

48 

180.518 

66.957 

57.965 

3.959 

2.711 

■ 

14.245 

9.269 

12.268 

14.280 

7.912 

5.360 

4.270 

3.391 

2.748 

3.597 

3.066 

10.093 

5.534 

3.809 

2.767 

3.758 

2.677 

2.030 

1.198 

1.261 

8.038 

175.625 

93.733 

33.116 

189.734 


3.316 

156.951 


101.678 



49 

50 


6.850 

9.695 





108.528 

122.237 

102.781 


4.351 

2.129 

3.281 

2.129 





Total for 











each kind 

8871.909 

1749.889 

81.908 

580.106 

190.534 

129.484 

120.282 

65.207 

113.013 

6362.326 



2S2 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE 4 

Showing the total and the per capita consumption of sugar by each of the fifty 
Filipino families for one year, raw and refined values, and their averages 


■ 


NUMBER 


TOTAL CON- 

PER CAPITA 
CONSUMP- 

TOTAL CON- 
SUMPTION, 

PER CAPITA 
CONSUMP- 

FAMILY 

Adults 1 

Chil- 1 
dren | 

Total 

SUMPTION, 
RAW VALUE 

TION, RAW 
VALUE 

refined 

VALUE 

TION, RE- 
FINED VALUE 

1 

5 

3 

8 

kgm. 

144.914 

kgni. 

18.114 

kgm. 

138.871 

kgm. 

17.358 

2 

3 

2 

5 

113.473 

22.694 

91.246 

18.249 

3 

6 

0 

6 

150.152 

25.025 

140.534 

23.422 

4 

9 

3 

12 

286.037 

23.836 

274.790 

22.899 

5 

4 

9 

13 

230.542 

17.741 

211.027 

16.232 

6 

8 

6 

14 

227.788 

16.270 

216.945 

15.496 

7 

7 

2 

9 

177.951 

19.772 

176.976 

19.664 

8 

4 

3 

7 

163.727 

23.389 

153.213 

21.887 

9 

4 

1 

5 

59.936 

11.987 

54.659 

10.931 

10 

4 

1 

5 

109.314 

21.862 

108.286 

21.657 

11 

2 

4 

6 

98.330 

16.388 

93.134 

15.522 

12 

8 

0 

8 

180.356 

22.544 

170.184 

21.273 

13 

6 

4 

10 

198.641 

19.864 

166.840 

16.684 

14 

5 

3 

8 

187.368 

23.421 

181.239 

22.654 

15 

4 

4 

8 

130.857 

18.694 

123.512 

15.439 

16 

4 

4 

8 

125.823 

15.728 

113.044 

14.130 

17 

3 

9 

12 

82.844 

6.903 

78.132 

6.511 

18 

6 

1 

9 

105.904 

16.129 

105.081 

15.011 

19 

5 

3 

8 

73.991 

9.249 

67.295 

8.412 

20 

7 

2 

9 

148.823 

16.535 

139.761 

15.529 

21 

5 

4 

9 

105.551 

11.727 

98.313 

10.923 

22 

4 

1 

5 

108.268 

21.653 

107.200 

21.440 

23 

7 

1 

8 

197.820 

24.727 

192.255 

24.031 

24 

6 

4 

10 

160.003 

15.000 

141.532 

14.153 

25 

3 

0 

5 

56.697 

17.899 

51.430 

17.143 

26 

4 

2 

6 

53.690 

8.948 

51.336 

8.557 

27 

2 

7 

9 

107.910 

11.990 

103.085 

11.453 

28 

5 

5 

10 

194.196 

19.419 

187.084 

18.708 

29 

^ 5 

4 

9 

58.437 

6.493 

56.857 

6.317 

30 

4 

5 

9 

73.239 

8.137 

72.523 

8.085 

31 

5 

3 

8 

133.857 

18.732 

125.194 

15.649 

32 

6 

3 

9 

169.716 

18.857 

156.475 

17.386 

33 

5 

5 

10 

206.055 

20.605 

195.863 

19.586 

34 

3 

4 

7 

89.518 

14.953 

88.862 

12.694 

35 

6 

4 

10 

124.368 

12.437 

122.718 

12.272 

36 

4 

6 

10 

179.846 

17.984 

152.283 

15.228 

37 

4 

3 

7 

113.269 

16.181 

105.876 

15.125 

38 

3 

3 

6 

109.614 

18.269 

108.043 

18.007 

39 

4 

6 

10 

95.059 

9.506 

88.420 

8.842 

40 

6 

3 

9 

93.906 

10.456 

86.392 

9.590 

41 

6 

1 

7 

133.767 

19.109 

126.002 

18.000 

42 

5 

4 

9 

139.999 

15.555 

129.605 

14.400 

43 

6 

0 

6 

122.614 

20.338 

102.397 

17.066 

44 

6 

1 

7 

130.803 

18.686 

123.130 

17.590 

45 

4 

7 

11 

190.195 

17.290 

175.625 

15.965 

46 

5 

2 

7 

101.499 

14.499 

93.733 

13.247 

47 

3 

4 

7 

90.731 

12.961 

84.850 

12.121 

48 

5 

5 

10 

1 198.533 

19.853 

189.734 

18.973 

49 

10 

3 

13 

1 109.124 

8.398 

108.528 

8.3^8 

50 

7 

5 

12 

1 131.194 

10.932 

122.237 

10.186 

Total 

average 

252 

169 

1 421 

i 6763.252 

16.604 

6362.326 

1 14.416 



CONSUMPTION OF SUGAR IN THE PHILIPPINES 


283 


TABLE 6 

Showing the estimated income of the fifty Filipino families 
and their per capita sugar consumption 


FAMILY 

OCCUPATION 

PER f^APITA 
CONSUMPTION 

ESTIMATED 

INCOME 

1 

Farmer 

kgm, 

17.358 

peao'i 

600.00 

2 

Office work 

18.249 

1200.00 

3 

Office work 

23.422 

800.00 

4 

Farmer 

22.899 

720.00 

6 

Mechanic 

16.323 

600.00 

6 

Merchant 

15.496 

850 . 00 

7 

Farmer 

19.664 

600 . 00 

8 

Farmer 

21 . 887 

950.00 

9 

Office work 

10.931 

720.00 

10 

Office work 

21.657 

960.00 

11 

Barber 

15.522 

500.00 

12 

Farmer 

21 . 273 

1000.00 

13 

Farmer 

16.684 

4800.00 

14 

Office work 

22.654 

2040.00 

15 

Laborer 

15.439 

480.00 

16 

Laborer 

14.130 

660 . 00 

17 

Farmer 

8.690 

500 . 00 

18 

Farmer 

1 15.011 

1 800.00 

19 

Farmer 

1 8.412 

1 850.00 

20 

Office work 

15.529 

! 600.00 

21 

Barber 

10.923 

500.00 

22 

Office work 

21.440 

1200.00 

23 

Farmer 

24.031 

1000.00 

24 

Farmer 

14.153 

500.00 

25 

Farmer 

17.143 

900.00 

26 

Farmer 

8.557 

400.00 

27 

Merchant 

11.453 

720.00 

28 

Farmer 

18.708 

1200.00 

29 

Office work 

6.317 

480.00 

30 

Laborer 

8.085 

360.00 

31 

Office work 

15.649 

600.00 

32 

Farmer 

17,386 

480.00 

33 

Merchant 

19.586 

1000 . 00 

34 

Farmer 

12.694 

480 . 00 

35 

Laborer 

12.272 

500.00 

36 

Office work 

15,228 

900 . 00 

37 

Laborer 

15.125 

400.00 

38 

Office work 

18.007 

720.00 

39 

Farmer 

8.842 

600.00 

40 

Laborer 

9.599 

500.00 

41 

Office work 

18.000 

840.00 

42 

Farmer 

14.400 

600.00 

43 

Farmer 

17.066 

1500.00 

44 

Office work 

17.590 

850.00 

45 

Farmer 

15.965 

600.00 

46 

Farmer 

13.247 

600.00 

47 

Farmer 

12.121 

480.00 

48 

1 Farmer 

18.973 

1000.00 

49 

Carpenter 

8.348 

700.00 

50 

Office work 

10.186 

1000.00 


Averagre I 14,416 | 836.08 



284 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE 6 

Showing the relative amounts of the different forms of 
sugar consumed by fifty Filipino families for 
one year, refined value 


FORM OF SITOAR 

QUANTITY CONSUMED 

Refined sugar 

kffiu. 

3371.909 

per cent 

52.99 

Commercial sugar 

1749.889 

27.66 

Pilon sugar 

31.908 

0.50 

Panocha 

580.106 

9.11 

Panochitas 

190.534 

2.99 

Caramelos 

129.484 

2.03 

Balikutsa 

120.282 

1.89 

Bufcayo 

65.207 

1.03 

Gandies and others 

113.013 

1.80 

Total 

6352.332 

100.00 



HENS AND PULLETS AS SOURCES OF EGGS FOR 
FOUNDATION STOCKS * 

CONRADO B. UICHANCO 

One of the poultryman’s greatest concerns in the improvement of 
his flock is the proper selection of his foundation stock. For a long 
time, how long no one knows, selection for improvement, not only in 
poultry, but also in other classes of live stock, has been emphasized, 
even in the less advanced countries of the world. The earliest actual 
reference to poultry states that the Chinese Emperor, Fu-Hsi, who 
lived from 3341 to 3227 B. C., taught his people to breed fowls (Lip- 
pincott, 1927). 

It has often been argued that hens are better than pullets as the 
source of eggs for the foundation stock. But some poultry breeders 
contend that pullets are better than hens in this respect. This study 
was undertaken to find out which of these assertions is applicable to 
the Los Banos Cantonese breed. 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE 

Richardson (1925) repor^^ed that ninety-five per cent of the com- 
mercial poultrymen in New Hampshire use pullets exclusively as 
breeders. Hays (1928) observed from results obtained with Rhode 
Island Reds that yearling hens gave a slightly higher percentage of 
hatchability than pullets. According to Stewart and Atwood (1909), 
two- and three-year-old White Leghorn hens gave better results than 
pullets in respect to percentage of eggs hatched, average size of 
chicks, and percentage of chick mortality. Kempster (1921) reported 
that White Leghorn hens gave a hatchability 4 per cent greater than 
the pullets. 

Lippincott (1927) stated that in selecting eggs for hatching pur- 
poses, by far the most important consideration is the health and vigor 
of the parent stock. Pearl (1923), reasoning from the biology of 
poultry on the one hand, and of duration of life through his extensive 
studies on the other, stated, “If I were in a position to do so I should 
like to try, for a period of years, the experiment of breeding each 

* Thesis presented for graduation, 1933, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Agriculture from the College of Agriculture No. 867; Experiment 
Station contribution No. 902. Prepared in the Department of Animal Hus- 
bandry under the direction of Dr. F. M. Fronda. 


2SS 



286 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


year the oldest hens which could be had, and from which it was pos- 
sible to get any chicks at all. To insure a reasonable degree of fertil- 
ity, I should use younger male birds. Such offspring as were ob- 
tained would be kept as a wholly separate flock and line bred, working 
in all the time as much high longevity blood as possible.” He figured 
out that after about five years, he would have a flock of astonishingly 
strong constitution, extremely low chick mortality, and probably high 
egg production. 

Waite (1929) stated that the second year of production is recog- 
nized as a much more favorable age for breeding purposes than the 
pullet year, because the birds have already had the opportunity to ex- 
hibit their qualities as layers, so that only the best and most vigorous 
birds may be selected. Commenting on the theory that pullets are 
more satisfactory breeders than hens on account of their youth and 
vigor, he stated that although this may be true, there may be some 
disadvantages that far outweigh any advantages of youthful vigor, 
inasmuch as pullets as a rule do not lay large eggs, and small eggs do 
not hatch into large chicks. Also, according to Jull (1930), chicks 
from yearling hens are nearly always larger than those from pullets, 
since yearling hens lay larger eggs than pullets, there being a definite 
relationship between the size of the egg and the size of the chick, as 
found by Jull and Quinn (1925) and Upp (1928). 

• OBJECT OP PRESENT WORK 

The object of this experiment was to compare hens and pullets 
as sources of' eggs for foundation stocks. The Los Banos Cantonese 
breed was used, because it is at present recommended as the best 
breed of chickens that has been adapted to Philippine conditions 
(Fronda, 1924). 


TIME AND PLACE OF PRESENT WORK 

The work was begun on September 1, 1931, and closed on October 
11, 1932. It was conducted in the Department of Animal Husband- 
ry, College of Agriculture, Los Banos, Laguna. 

MATERIALS METHODS 

Stock. The original stock used in this experiment consisted of 
100 hens and 100 pullets. The hens used were over two years old. 
When the eggs for the first hatch were collected, the pullets were 10 
months old ; for the second hatch, 12 months old ; and the third hatch, 
14 months old. The birds were kept in separate pens. Clean water 
and dry mash were available at all times of the day, and wet mash 



HENS AND PULLETS AS SOURCES OF EGGS 


287 


was given at nine o'clock daily. The mash feed consisted of two parts 
by weight of dried shrimps, one part corn meal, three parts copra 
meal, and four parts rice bran. A grain mixture of one part cracked 
com and one part palay was fed early in the morning and late in the 
afternoon. The birds were trapne.sted every two hours. 

Four weeks prior to the collection of eggs for hatching, the roost- 
ers that were running with the flocks were removed. Eight selected 
Cantonese roosters of the same age were equally distributed at random 
to the two pens one week before the collection of the eggs that were 
hatched. Alternate mating was followed to make conditions in both 
pens more nearly identical. The roosters in both pens were inter- 
changed every evening, thus precluding the possibility of accounting 
for the greater number of infertile eggs, dead germs, weak chicks, 
etc., produced in any lot by the roosters used. 

Hatching. The eggs collected for hatching were held for not 
more than ten days, as recommended by Leoncio (1924). Careful 
attention was given to the size, shape, and texture of the shells of 
the eggs used. An equal number of eggs was selected daily from 
each lot. Each selected egg was identified with a number marked 
with a lead pencil on the blunt end, from 1 to 400. The weights of the 
eggs were taken on a Cenco trip balance (accurate to 0.1 gram), and 
recorded in a notebook with their corresponding serial number. There 
were three hatches made ; the first hatch was taken off the incubator 
on December 25; the second on February 13; and the third on 
April 11. A 600-egg Buckeye kerosene-burning hot-water incubator 
was used in incubating the eggs. 

Testing was done after the first and second weeks each time, the 
usual procedure being followed. In doubtful cases, the eggs were 
marked with a “D”, returned to the incubator, and observed again in 
the following candling. The results of these candling tests were 
checked by opening the eggs after the candling operations. 

On the eighteenth day of incubation, each egg was separately 
placed in a sinamay pedigree bag approximately 12 cm. by 18 cm., 
and labeled with numbers corresponding to those on the blunt end of 
each egg. To prevent the chicks from getting out, the free ends of 
the bags were held together with safety pins. At the end of the hatch, 
the number of eggs that failed to hatch, the pipped, and the cripples 
in both lots were separately recorded. 

The newly hatched chicks were leg-banded and weighed s^n 
after normal drying. The leg-band number and the corresponding 
serial number of the egg from which the chick was hatched were 
noted for identification purposes. The chicks were taken down from 



288 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


the incubator on the twenty-second day and placed under a Buckeye 
charcoal-buminir brooder in a colony brooder house where the chicks 
always had access to clean drinking water and green grass. A mash 
mixture consisting of the regular “2-2-6 chick ration” of two parts 
shrimp meal, two parts corn meal, and six parts rice bran, by weight, 
and a grain ration of corn meal were given to the chicks. 

Weighing. The chicks were weighed on an arm balance, week- 
ly for the first twelve weeks, and every two weeks thereafter until at 
the close of the experiment, when a spring balance was used. 

Separation of the sexes and culling. The males and females 
were separated at the end of the twelfth week. After the sex and 
corresponding number had been recorded, the males were discarded. 

Culling was also done at this period. In culling, particular at- 
tention was given to size, health and vigor, length and width of back, 
depth of body, width of the span, handling quality, color of the comb 
and wattles, pigmentation, and general conformation, rather than to 
plumage color and other breed and varietal characteristics. The 
number of culls in each lot was recorded. 

Maturity. After the fourth month, the birds were transferred 
to a pen provided with trapnests. The “2-2-6 chick ration” was 
changed to the College mash mixture No. 2 (2-1-3-4) consisting of 
two parts shrimp meal, one part corn meal, three parts copra meal, 
and four parts rice bran. 

The date of laying of the first egg by each bird that laid before 
the sixth month was recorded. The first ten eggs of each individual 
bird were weighed on an arm balance, and the weights were carefully 
recorded in a notebook. 


RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 

Weight of the eggs set. By reference to table 1, it may be noted 
that in the first two trials made, the hens’ eggs were heavier than the 
pullets’ eggs, but in the last hatch, the pullets’ eggs were slightly the 
heavier. This result may be explained by the fact that at the time 
the first hatch was made, most of the pullets had just begun to lay, 
hence the presence of many small eggs in the pullets’ lot. By the 
time the third hatch was made, most of the pullets had been laying 
for some time, so that the size of the eggs produced had become 
larger than the earlier ones. It is a matter of common observation 
that the first egg produced by a pullet is small ; it gradually increases 
to the normal size as the bird continues to lay. 

A statistical study of the average of the three trials from the 
standpoint of the probable error of the mean, showed a significant 



HENS AND PULLETS AS SOURCES OF EGGS 


289 


difference in the weights of the eggs produced by the hens and those 
produced by the pullets. The average weight of the hens’ eggs from 
the three trials was 43.4 ± 0.1068 grams ; for the pullets’ lot, the aver- 
age weight of the eggs was 42.1 ± 0.0975 grams. The difference 
between the two means is 1.2660 ± 0.1445 grams, which is 8.75 times 
its probable error, showing that hens’ eggs were definitely larger. 

An examination of the eggs used in the first two sets revealed 
that there was a wider range of variability in the weight of the pul- 
lets’ eggs set, than in the hens’ eggs. This result was because some 
of the pullets had just started laying, while others had been laying 
for some time. The size distribution of the eggs used in the third 
set showed that there was a close similarity between the hens’ eggs 
and the pullets’. By this time, all of the pullets had been laying for 
some time, so the eggs were fairly uniform. 

Fertility. Referring to table 1 again it may be noted that in all 
of the three hatches made, there were more infertiles in the hens’ 
lot than in the pullets’. This higher percentage of fertility of the 
pullets’ eggs consistently appearing in all trials leaves no doubt 
that in fertility the pullets’ eggs were better than the hens’. When 
the total percentage of the fertility in all the sets was considered, it 
was found that the pullets averaged 7.4 per cent better than the hens 
in this respect. 

Dead genns: First week. As may be .seen from table 1, 9.5 per 
cent of the eggs from the hens’ lot had dead germs at the end of 
the first week, while for the pullets’ lot, there was only 4.0 per cent, 
when the first hatch was made. In the second hatch, the hens had 
4.5 per cent dead germs, the pullets, 5.5 per cent. In the third and 
last hatch, 13.5 per cent of the hens’ eggs had dead germs, while in 
the pullets’ lot, there was 16.0 per cent. An average of the three 
trials showed that the mortality for the first week in the hens’ lot 
was 9.1 per cent; in the pullets’ lot, the mortality was 8.5 per cent, 
the difference being 0.6 per cent. 

Second week. Table 1 also shows that during the 
second week of incubation, in the first hatch, there was 3.0 per cent 
dead germs from the hens’ lot, and 2.0 per cent from the pullets’ lot. 
In the second trial, there was 7.0 per cent dead germs from the hens’ 
eggs and 2.5 i)er cent from the pullets’. In the last trial, 8.0 per 
cent of the eggs from the hens’ lot had dead germs, and 10.5 per cent 
from the pullets’ lot. An aggregate of the three trials showed that 
there were 6.0 per cent dead germs from the hens’ lot and 5.0 per 
cent for the pullets’ lot, the difference being only 1.0 per cent. 



290 


THE PHILIPPINE AGEICUI.TURIST 


Third week. By reference to table 1, it may be 
seen that for trial 1, there were 7.5 per cent dead germs from the 
hens’ lot and 6.6 per cent from the pullets' lot. In the second hatch, 
there were 8.0 per cent dead germs from the hens’ lot, and 6.0 per 
cent from the pullets’ lot. For the third hatch, there were 6.6 per 
cent dead germs from the hens’ lot, and 7.0 per cent in the pullets’ 
lot. An aggregate of the three trials showed the very slight differ- 
ence of 0.9 per cent ; there was 7.0 per cent dead germs in the hens’ 
lot, and 6.1 per cent in the pullets’ lot. 

Pipped. An examination of table 1 shows that in the first hatch, 
2.5 per cent of the eggs from the hens’ lot were pipped, but did not 
hatch ; in the pullets’ lot, there was only 1.0 per cent. In the second 
trial, there were 1.6 per cent pipped in the hens’ lot and 0.5 per cent 
in the pullets’ lot. In the third hatch, 3.0 per cent of the hens’ eggs 
were pipped, and only 1.0 per cent in the pullets’ lot. The average 
of the three trials gave a difference of 1.5 per cent in favor of the 
pullets’ eggs. This result indicates that the embryos in the pullets’ 
eggs were considerably more vigorous than those in the hens’ eggs. 

Cripples. Further examination of table 1 will show that there 
was not a very great difference in the percentage of crippled chicks 
that were hatched from both lots. In the first trial, there were 5.0 
per cent cripples from the hens’ lot and 4.6 per cent from the pullets’ 
lot. In the third hatch, there was an even percentage of cripples in 
the two lots, being 1.0 per cent in each. A total of the three hatches 
shows that there were 2.3 per cent cripples from the hens’ lot and 2.0 
per cent from the pullets’ lot, the difference being only 0.3 per cent. 

HatchabUity. Computing the hatchability on the basis of eggs 
set in each hatch, the pullets gave a higher percentage of hatch than 
the hens. As may be seen from table 1, the pullets had always a con- 
sistently higher percentage of hatchability than the hens in all the 
three trials. When the average for the three trials was considered, 
there was a difference of 11.3 per cent in favor of the pullets’ lot. 

This difference was so consistent that practical breeders of poul- 
try would probably find it advantageous to select eggs for hatching 
purposes from younger birds instead of from older ones. 

Weight of the chicks at hatch. Referring to table 1, again, it 
may be noted that in the first two trials the chicks which were hatched 
from the hens’ eggs were slightly heavier than those which were 
hatched from the pullets’ eggs. In the third hatch, however, there 
was no difference noted in the average weights of the chicks at hatch. 
In the aggregate of the three trials, a statistical study showed a very 
significant difference in the average weights of the chicks, in favor 



HENS AND PULLETS AS SOURCES OF EGGS 


291 


of the hens’ lot. The chicks from the hens’ e^gs weighed, on an 
average, 29.9 ± 0.0964 grams, while those from the pullets’ lot 
weighed 29.2 ±: 0.0837 grams, the difference of the means being 
0.71 ± 0.1276 grams. 

Jull and Quinn (1926) and Upp (1928) stated that there is a 
definite relationship between the size of the egg and the size of the 
chick. Our results in this study corroborated this statement. The 
heavier average weight of the chicks which were hatched from the 
hens’ eggs may be accounted for by the heavier average weight of 
the hens’ eggs set. 

Growth. As has been previously stated, in the first two hatches, 
the chicks from the hens’ eggs averaged slightly heavier than the 
chicks which were hatched from the pullets’ eggs; but in the last 
hatch, the difference was slightly in favor of the pullets. The growth 
records of these chicks are given in table 2 by reference to which it 
may be seen that there is a clear indication that there was practically 
no difference in the growth of the two lots. 

It may be seen from table 2 that for the first trial, during the 
early brooding period, the average weight of the chicks from the pul- 
lets’ eggs gradually became greater than that of the chicks hatched 
from the hens’ eggs. From the time they were hatched, the rate of 
increase of the birds in both lots gradually increased, and as the birds 
grew older, there seemed to be a proportionate increase in the weight 
at the last weighing. After the twelfth week, a faster rate of in- 
crease was noticed. The birds were culled at the end of the twelfth 
week, which may have accounted for the more rapid increase in their 
weights. The growth of the chicks in the second hatch, as may be 
seen in table 2, is quite similar to the growth curve for the first trial, 
except that there was a closer coincidence of the growth curve for 
the hens’ lot and that for the pullets’ lot in the second trial. With the 
chicks that were hatched in the third trial the behavior was essentially 
the same as in the first two trials. 

CttUs at three months. An examination of the weight records 
of the individual birds showed that at the age of three months the 
chickens that were raised from the hens’ lot were a little more uni- 
form than those raised from the pullets’ lot. This finding may be ac- 
counted for by the greater range in the weight of the pullets’ eggs, 
than in that of the hens’ eggs, as previously noted. 

It may be seen from table 3 that there was a very slight dif- 
ference in the percentage of culls at the age of three months in the 
first two hatches. In the third hatch, however, there was 63.8 per 
cent culls in the pullets’ lot, and only 39.1 per cent in the hens’ lot. 



292 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUKIST 


This may have accounted for the greater percentage of birds laying 
at the age of six months in the pullets’ lot of the third hatch, as may 
be seen in table 4. An average of the three trials showed that there 
were 39.6 per cent culls for the hens’ lot, and 43.5 per cent for the 
pullets’ lot, with an insignificant difference of only 3.9 per cent. 

Maturity. As shown in table 4, the bird that laid the first egg 
in the lot for each trial was always from the pullets’ lot. For the 
three trials, an average of the age of the pullets that laid the first eggs 
in the lots showed no appreciable difference. For the hens’ lot, the 
average age was 134 days, for the pullets’ lot, 130 days, the difference 
being only 4.0 days. 

It may also be seen from table 4 that in the first two trials made, 
there was a higher percentage of birds laying at the age of six months 
in the hens’ lot, while in the last hatch, there was a considerably 
higher percentage of birds laying in the pullets’ lot at this age. The 
average for the three trials showed that in the hens’ lot, 12.1 per cent 
of the birds laid at the age of six months, in the pullets’ lot, 12.4 per 
cent, giving a difference of only 0.3 per cent. 

The average weights of the first ten eggs produced by the birds 
that laid before the age of six months may also be seen in table 4. 
The average weight of the eggs laid from the hens’ lot was 29.9 grams, 
for the pullets’ lot, 29.0 grams, the difference being 0.9 grams. 

In the three hatches made, comparing the weights of the birds 
at the age of six months, it was found that the two lots were almost 
the same as to the uniformity of the individuals. 

Mortality. In all cases, mortality was heaviest during the first 
four weeks of brooding, as may be seen from table 5. This may be 
because this is the period in which the chicks are the most susceptible 
to colds and other diseases. It may also be noted from the same table 
that as the birds grew older, the percentage of mortality decreased. 
The weak and sick birds having died, or been culled at the age of 
three months, such a result might be expected. A further examination 
of table 5 showed that there was no consistent difference in the 
average mortality of the two lots in the three trials made, which tends 
to show that there was no appreciable difference in the vitality of the 
individuals hatched from both lots, 

SUMMARY 

1 . Although selected hens’ eggs were only slightly heavier than 
selected pullets’ eggs, this difference between the hens’ and pullets’ 
eggs was decidedly significant. 



HENS AND PULLETS AS SOLACES OF EGGS 


293 


2 . In the Los Banos Cantonese chicken, the fertility and hatcha- 
bility of the pullets’ eggs were found to be higher than those of the 
hens’ eggs. 

3. There was a greater tendency for the occurrence of more 
pipped eggs from the hens’ eggs than from the pullets’. 

4 . A significant difference was observed between the weights of 
the chicks hatched from the hens’ eggs and those hatched from the 
pullets’ eggs. 

5. In both lots, chick mortality was heaviest during the first 
four weeks of the brooding period. 

6 . There was no appreciable difference noted in the gro>vth of 
the birds in the two lots. 

7. The difference between the average weights of the first ten 
eggs of the birds in the two lots that were laid before the sixth month 
was very slight. 

8 . No discernible difference was noted in the vigor and vitality 
of the birds raised from the hens’ eggs and those raised from the 
pullets’ eggs. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Fronda, F. M. 1924. Cantonese, a new breed of poultry. Jour. Hered. 15; 
371-B76. Fig , 1 - 6 , 

Hays, F. A. 1928. Relation of ajre of parents to hatchability, livability, etc., 
in the domestic fowl. Poultry Science 7; 106-115. 

JULL, Morley a. 1930. Poultry husbandry, ix + 639 p., 229 fig. New York: 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 

Jull, Morley A., and J. P. Quinn. 1925. The relation between the weight of 
eggs and the weight of chicks according to sex. Jour. Agric. Res. 21: 
223-226. 

Kempster, H. L. 1921. Age as a factor in poultry breeding. Missouri Agric. 
Exper. Sta. Bull. 179: 1-75. 

Leoncio, Martin O. 1924. The effect of age on the hatchability of eggs. 

The Philippine Agriculturist 12: 349-354. 

Lippincx)TT, W. a. 1927. Poultry production, viii + 602 p., 205 fig. Philadel- 
phia: Lea and Febiger. 

Pearl, Raymond. 1923. Duration of life as an index of constitutional fitness. 
Poultry Science 3; 1-10. 

Richardson, A. W. 1925. How New Hampshire poultrymen use pullets as 
breeders. Poultry Science 6: 51-64. 

Stewart, J. H. and H. Atwood. 1909. Some factors influencing the vigor of 
incubator chicks. West Viriginia Agric. Exper. Sta. Bull. 124: 1-30. 

Upp, Charles W. 1928. Egg weight, day-old chick weight, and rate of growth 
in Single Comb Rhode Island Red chicks. Poultry Science 7: 161-155. 
Waite, Roy H. 1929. Poultry science and practice, ix 4- 433 p., 337 fig. New 
York; McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 



THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


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TABLE 3 
Culling record 


296 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 



Percentage laying at 6 months . 12.9 10.2 \ 12.9 j 7.1 10.5 20.0 12.1 ! 12.4 

Av. wt. in grams of first ten eggs | ! . j 

laid prior to six months of age ! 28.0 ' 26.7 I 29.5 j 29.2 i 32.2 31,1 29.9 j 29.0 



Mortality record 


HENS AND PUL.I.ETS AS SOURCES OF EGGS 


297 




A REVIEW: “POULTRY BREEDING”* 

Over thirty generations of hens have pas,=:ed since the rediscovery 
of Mendel’s papers dealing with the laws of heredity, and it has 
been shown beyond doubt that the numerous characters which the 
domestic fowls possess are inherited in accordance with Mendelian 
principles. Many of these characters are of great economic impor- 
tance. It is generally accepted that improvement in methods of rear- 
ing and feeding would do much toward increasing the returns from 
the average flock within the limits set by heredity but beyond which 
further improvement is impossible. 

In the book under review, Doctor Jull who is senior poultry hus- 
bandman in the United States Bureau of Animal Industry has not only 
put together scattered facts about the breeding of poultry but has suc- 
ceeded in explaining clearly the manner by which the various charac- 
ters possessed by the domestic fowls are transmitted from parent 
to offspring in each succeeding generation. His explanations are 
founded upon elucidations by the numerous researches which have 
served as the bases for further and more rapid improvement of the 
different breeds. Doctor Jull also presents the most successful prac- 
tices in breeding now used in the United States and elsewhere. These 
two discussions and other features should make the book of interest 
to Philippine poultry raisers, students and teachers in general but 
more particularly to the investigators in the field of poultry hus- 
bandry. 

The subject matter is presented very .succinctly in twelve well 
balanced chapters, the most important of which, from a practical 
view point, are the breeding practices and the poultry breeding im- 
provement plans. Reading these chapters one gets a very definite 
idea of what constitutes a breed. He distinguishes between facts 
and notions regarding sex reversal, atavism, telegony, inheritance of 
acquired characters and prepotency, appreciates the importance of 
the problem of disease resistance, and gets a good perspective of the 
objectives sought in the different methods of breeding. 

Of particular interest to the breeders of poultry in the Philip- 
pines is the statement that new breeds have been produced from a 

’Jull, Morley A. Poultry breeding. 1932. 

xiv -f- 376 p., 71 fig. Price, $3.76 net. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 

General contribution from the College of Agriculture No. 356. 


298 



CURRENT NOTES 


299 


very small number of ancestral forms by crossing existing breeds 
and then practicing rigid selection until the desired characters were 
transmitted with reasonable regularity and that breed improvement 
can be carried on largely from the standpoint of perpetuating desir- 
able characters possessed by races and strains of poultry. These 
principles are, of course, not unknown to modern breeders of live stock. 
Neither is it unknown that all breeds of poultry have their merits 
and demerits in different places in different times. But the author 
has not limited himself to mere statement of facts— he tells how im- 
provement has been accomplished and how further progress may be 
made. 


Miguel Manresa 

Of the Department of Animal Husbandry 


CURRENT NOTES 

From time immemorial coir has been used for matting, brushes, 
ropes and cord. Its elasticity and resistance to decay make it an 
excellent material for these purposes, but the older methods of prepa- 
ration have limited the uses, as the fibre so obtained was brittle, and 
dark in colour, with low tensile strength. The improved methods of 
preparation have resulted in the production of material of lighter 
colour which is soft enough to be spun and woven on jute machinery. 
This has opened up a new field of uses, particularly for sacks, carpets 
and rugs. As a protective material for underground pipes and cables 
the experimental stage has now been passed. The high resistance to 
decay by water or bacterial action, added to the fact that impregna- 
tion with tar or bitumen is easy, make coir very suitable for this pur- 
pose, and the increased pliability renders it possible to cover pipes of 
narrow bore with good contact all round. 

Research into the uses of coir has received a strong fillip from 
the chemical methods of preparation, and rapid developments are 
probable. 

Tropical Agriculture, (Trinidad, B. W. I.) April, 1933. 


Goat’s milk can be used wherever cow’s milk can; it is in every 
way as suitable an article of diet as cow’s milk. Moreover, goats 
never suffer from tuberculosis, they are cheaper to buy than cows 
are, and they can be kept under many conditions where it is impos- 
sible to keep cows. 



300 the PHILIPPINE AGBICULTUKIST 

Goat’s milk needs to be kept just as carefully from contamination 
by harmful germs as cow’s milk; these germs are generally carried 
by flies or dust. It therefore needs to be kept clean, cool, and covered. 
It should be brought to the boil directly it is received, poured straight 
into a freshly-scalded jug, cooled down quickly, and kept in the 
coolest possible place — preferably standing in water in a draught 
with a saucer resting on a piece of butter muslin covering it. The 
corners of the muslin should be dipping into the water, thus keeping 
the milk cool by evaporation. Milk treated in this manner should 
keep perfectly fresh for at least twelve hours, even in the hottest 
weather. 

Queensland Agricultural Journal (Australia) May, 1933. 


At the present time, Palestine has an area of roughly 120,000 
donums or approximately 28,000 acres under citrus fruits, a consider- 
able portion of which is not yet in full bearing. This season’s export 
is estimated as being in the neighbourhood of 3,250,000 cases, more 
than twice that of South Africa, and it is anticipated that within a 
few years exports will have increased from 6,000,000 to 8,000,000 
cases. It will thus be seen that in proportion to its size, Palestine 
produces more citrus fruits than any other country in the world. 

'The present season’s prices are disastrously low. . . 

The reasons for these low prices are in the main : 

(a) heavy competition from Spain and the other Mediterranean 
countries ; 

(b) low standards of grading and packing, with the consequent 
exceptionally high percentage of wastage in transit. 

The Tropical Agriculturist (Ceylon) April, 1933. 


Larger local consumption of sugar to the extent of 45 pounds 
per capita, if possible, instead of only 21 pounds, is being urged by the 
trustees of the Philippine Sugar Association. The plan is to make 
the country consume annually no less than 250,000 tons of its actual 
sugar production. “The consumption of the Philippines in the last 
few years has been calculated to be 125,000 metric tons, which, among 
the approximate thirteen and half million people, would average a 
consumption of 21 pounds,’’ said a statement of the trustees. “'The 
consumption of New Zealand per capita is approximately 120 pounds, 
while the annual consumption in the United States is approximately 
107 pounds per capita. It is thought that if the energy-given value 



COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 


301 


of sugar is appreciated in the Philippine diet, the consumption here 
could easily be increased to 40 or 50 pounds per capita, which would 
relieve the export of the Philippine crop by some 300,000 tons, or 
about one-third of the present production.” 

Commerce and Industry Journal (Philippines) April, 1933. 


Cuban plantation concerns are beginning to recognise that cane 
grown on unsuitable land, cane transported for tonnage, not only 
yielded no profit when turned into sugar, but had the effect of reduc- 
ing the value of the entire crop. 

The Australian Suyar Journal, September 8, 1932. 


It is known that where pigs are supplied liberally with skim 
milk, mineral substance, and nutritious grass or legumes, they will 
do less rooting than where they are underfed on palatable foods. 

A pig roots to satisfy a desire for food nutrients. The desire 
may result from underfeeding, from poorly balanced rations, or from 
rations not as palatable as some substance a pig may find in the 
soil .... 

The Farmers’ Gazette, (Ireland) October 15, 1932. 


COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 

Dean Gonzalez went on July 3 to Baguio where he plans to spend 
on accrued leave two and a half months. Mrs. Gonzalez and the 
children accompanied him. This is the first extended vacation the 
Dean has taken since his return from the United States in 1923. In 
addition to doing some real resting in the City of the Pines, Doctor 
Gonzalez is planning to do some writing which has been deferred 
because of lack of time. 

The College faculty, students and employees wish for him days 
of relaxation in the mountain sunshine and nights of the peaceful 
rest that only the pine scented air of Baguio can bring. Baguio where 
budgets cease to trouble and the pedagogue can play. 

Dr. N. B. Mendiola, head of the Department of Agronomy is 
Acting Dean during Doctor Gonzalez’s absence. 


Of interest to the College are the following items. . They show 
forcibly the importance of Los Banos as a scientific center and the 
part the College of Agriculture has played in the development of 
scientists and scientific work in the Philippines. 



302 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


In the fifth edition of American Men of Science, 1933, a bio- 
graphical directory edited by J. McKeen Cattell and Jaques Cat- 
tell of New York, 69 names appear from the Philippines, 50 of which 
are Filipinos and 19, Americans. Of the 50 Filipinos, 23 are alumni 
of the College of Agriculture. Four of the Americans are at present 
or were in the faculty of the College of Agriculture, and three of the 
other Filipinos listed are or have been members of the faculty of the 
College also. 

The following alumni of the College appear in the list: Dr, 
Felipe T. Adriano ’19, Dr. Vicente C. Aldaba ’15, Dr. Dionisio I. 
Aquino ’21, Dr. Jose M. Capinpin ’20, Dr. Pedro A. David ’19, Dr. 
Rafael B. Espino ’15, Dr. Bienvenido M. Gonzalez ’13, Dr. Leon G. 
Gonzalez ’22, Dr. Alexander Gordon ’23, Dr. Jose B. Juliano ’23, 
Dr. Nemesio B. Mendiola ’14, Dr. Jose J. Mirasol ’15, Dr. Gerardo 
0. Ocfemia ’15, Dr. Elias H. Panganiban ’16, Dr. Eduardo Quisum- 
bing ’18, Dr. Francisco 0. Santos ’19, Dr. Anastacio L. Teodoro ’18, 
Dr. Nicanor G. Teodoro ’15, Dr. Juan P. Torres ’19, Dr. Leopoldo 
B. Uichanco ’15, Dr. Toribio Vibar ’12, Dr. Deogracias V. Villadolid 
’19 and Dr. Valente E. Villegas ’13. 

The four Americans listed that are or were on the faculty of 
the college are: Professor Reginald H. King, Dr. Robert L. Pendle- 
ton, Dr. Edwin B. Copeland and Dr. William H. Brow.n. A number 
of former professors of Los Banos listed in the directory are no longer 
Philippine residents. 

The other three Filipinois who are or have been members of the 
College faculty are : Dr. Miguel Manresa, Dr. Vicente G. Lava and 
Dr. Angel S. Arguelles. 

At the convention of the Philippine Scientific Society on Feb- 
ruary 14 to 18, of the 115 scientific papers read, 44 were from 
members of the College of Agriculture faculty and alumni. 

These figures point out the importance of Los Banos as a scien- 
tific center and the part played by the College of Agriculture in the 
development of scientists and scientific work in the Philippines. 


The eighty-third regular scientific meeting of the Los Banos 
Biological Club was held in the Lecture Hall of the Poultry Building, 
College of Agriculture on Thursday, June 22, 1933, at 7 :30 p. m. 

The following papers were read and discussed: 

“Destructive distillation of some agricultural waste products.” 

By Dr. A. I. de Leon and Mr. R. Reyes. 
Paper read by Mr. Reyes 



COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 303 

“Truck field tests in Calamba Sugar Estate using denatured alcohol, dehy- 
drated alcohol and gasoline as fuels.” 

By Dr. A. L. Teodoro and Mr. Jesus P. Mamisao. 

Paper read by Doctor Teodoro 

“The Los Banos Biological Club: Ten years of continuous active interest.” 

By Dr. Miguel Manresa 

Reprinted in Tropical Agriculture, (Trinidad B. W. L), June 
1933 from Horticultural Abstracts, Vol. Ill, No. 1, is an abstract of 
the article, by Claro C. Bagalso on '‘Top working old coffee trees 
which are poor yielders” which was published in The Philippine Agri- 
culfurist, December, 1932. 


Dr. Vicente Dawis with the assistance of his class in Agronomy 
21 (Floriculture and Landscape Gardening), is making an effort to 
induce residents on and near the College Campus, especially those 
living by the road from Barrio San Antonio to the Campus, to beau- 
tify their yards by planting ornamental or flowering plants. Some 
noticeable results have already been obtained. 

Mr. Juan Villanueva, as a special student, is pursuing an inten- 
sive course in making soap from coconuts this semester. His 
course is mainly lectures on use of oils in Agronomy 16, and labora- 
tory work in soap making. Mr. Villanueva is from Bolinao, Panga- 
sinan. In this province soap making is largely in the hands of the 
Chinese. Mr. Villanueva hopes as a soap manufacturer to break into 
this monopoly. 

Among the experiments on cover crops carried last year by the 
Department of Agronomy was one on Coronilla varia on the sugges- 
tion of the United States Department of Agriculture. A planter in 
Negros had written to the department for seed of Coronilla: varia. 
For fear that this plant might turn out to be a pernicious weed in 
this country the department sent the seed to this College with soil 
inoculating material for study. The study, run for 14 months, shows 
that there need be no fear of Coro7iillu varia as a pernicious weed, 
also that as a cover crop its qualities are inferior to many now in use 
in the Philippines. 

Mr. Simplicio Tiglao, B. Agr. '28 of Mabalacat, Pampanga ac- 
companied by two brothers were recent Campus visitors. The prin- 
cipal object of their visit was to make inquiries in the Department of 
Agronomy about cassava culture and starch manufacture. They 
obtained planting materials of the four best varieties. 



304 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Other visitors seeking information about cassava starch manu- 
facture were Mr. Gregorio Katigbak from Lipa, Batangas and his 
brother, a former student in the College. 

The Department of Agronomy has in storage a quantity of cassa- 
va starch of high quality which is for sale. 


Mr. Roberto Tirol, B. S. Agr. ’32 was a recent Campus visitor. 
His special objects were seeking counsel on some agricultural mat- 
ters and obtaining seed of mungo, cowpea and avocado. Mr. Tirol 
is in charge of a 100-hectare coconut plantation on the home ha- 
cienda in Ibajay, Capiz. He has just started a cattle ranch on Cara- 
bao Island with a herd of 40 selected native cows and a Nellore bull. 


The Secretary of the College reports that the total registration 
in the College of Agriculture for the first semester of the college 
year 1933-1934 is as follows; 


College of Agriculture 510 students 

Cross registrations from : 

(a) U. P. Rural High School 27 

(b) School of Forestry 18 ” 

Total registration 555 students 



GRASSES AND MAN 


Human life has been and is more dependent upon grasses than 
upon any other, group of living things. 

Geologic grassUind and primitive man 

The Miocene epoch is characterized by the formation of exten- 
sive grassland areas which replaced the swampy vegetation of the 
preceding epochs. It also presents a world-wide prevalence of the 
ancestors of most grass-eating (herbivorous) mammals. These ani- 
mals, by contrast with their weak-toothed and short-limbed ances- 
tors, possessed long-crowned and strong teeth adapted for grinding 
grass and relatively long feet adapted for running over hard and 
dry grassland in search of water and to escape from enemies. The 
abundance of grass favoured the multiplication of the herbivorous 
mammals. This in turn furnished an increased food supply for flesh- 
eating (carnivorous) animals, and, as a consequence, these also in- 
creased in number. The grasses were thus the controlling influence 
in the Age of Mammals. 

The human importance of this fact is that primitive man was 
obliged to follow these animals — his almost exclusive food supply — 
as they wandered from grassland to grassland. Even after he dom- 
esticated certain of the mammals — ^the horse, ox, sheep, goat, pig and 
dog — ^he continued to be a nomad because he still had to herd these 
animals from one favourable grassland to another. Virtually all prim- 
itive men were characterized by this wandering life until certain 
of them, in various parts of the earth, observed that several of the 
grasses which their animals ate produced seeds which were not only 
edible food but were capable of remaining so for a considerable time. 
Man, in other words, discovered that he could store good food for 
himself. Thus man ceased to be dependent entirely for his food upon 
his animals, which in turn fed upon the pasture grasses. The cereal 
grasses became a direct portion of man’s diet and furnished him 
with some nourishment which he could obtain by staying in one place. 

By thus becoming a grass-eater, man changed his life from that 
of a nomad to that of a settler. This change was tremendously im- 
portant for mankind of all times. There have not been any begin- 
nings of civilization apart from agriculture. The earliest known 

PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST. VOL. XXII. No. 5, OCTOBER, 1933. 


305 



306 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUEIST 


agriculture was the cultivation of the cereal grasses, which resulted 
in the conservation of the human energy formerly wasted in roam- 
ing, in a sense of ownership, in the development of tools and appli- 
ances from various metals, in periods of leisure time during which 
thought, language, literature and art could make their first appear- 
ance in human life, in the beginning of settled and social life, and, 
in fact in the introduction of most aspects of civilization. 

Every known primitive civilization was built directly upon one 
or another of the cereal grasses, sometimes supplemented with pas- 
ture grasses. 

Civilization in Asia 

In Japan, millet and rice were cultivated since primitive times. 

Human life in China, in the Indian Archipelago, in the Malay 
Peninsula and in the Philippine Islands was dominated by rice. 

The primary food of the Aryans in northern India consisted of 
rice. Barley and sugar cane were also used extensively. The Aryans 
had pasturelands on which they grazed their animals which fur- 
nished meat and the means of transportation. Guests and gods were 
honoured by being seated on grass mats. To their gods they offered 
up roasted grain (probably barley) and cooked rice. 

The Proto-Nordics were an entirely pastoral people. They were 
nomadic and followed grasslands in Central and Western Asia. The 
invasions of the Huns, Tartars and Mongols were motivated by the 
necessity of finding new grasslands for their animals. 

In Persia wheat was the chief constituent of human diet. 

In Babylonia, about 3100 B. C. land was paid for by bronze and 
by grain. About 1400 B. C., there was an appliance for ploughing 
the land and sowing the seed of grain in the same operation. In 
450 B. C. the Historian Herodotus wrote: “the soil is peculiarly 
adapted to grain ; no fruit trees are grown ; only barley, wheat and 
millet are grown.” 

In the palace of the King of Iberia stood gold and silver vessels 
filled with barley juice. 

The Hebrew patriarchs were shepherds of animals on grass- 
lands. Joseph in his first dream, saw “sheaves of grain.” Moses 
promised the Hebrews that “He (God) will put grass in your fields 
for your cattle.” Nearly all of the religious sacrifices included a 
grass eating animal or grain of the cereal grasse.s. The story of 
Ruth is built around barley and wheat. There are numerous other 
references to grasses in the Bible. 



GRASSES AND MAN 307 

Civilization in Africa 

In Egypt, wheat and barley were cultivated by 400 B. C. In the 
Egyptian “Book of the Dead,” King Osiris states: “I am Osiris, I 
live as Grain. I grow as Grain. I am Barley.” The Pharaoh of 
J oseph s time, in his first dream, saw seven fat cows grazing in the 
meadow grass, and his second dream pertained to “seven ripe and 
seven thin ears of grain” (probably barley). 

In other parts of Africa, civilization was based on another group 
of grasses, the sorghums. Barley and millet were also important ar- 
ticles of food. 

Civilization in Europe 

In what is now Switzerland and northern Italy, the chief crops 
cultivated by the Lake-dwellers were barley, wheat and millet. Wheat 
was cultivated in Hungary during the Stone Age. Thel Macedonians 
when invading Asia became familiar with the cereal grasses grown 
there and introduced them into their own country as food-crops. 

In Rome the first known reaper was invented in connection with 
the harvest of grain. Polenta, a porridge made from barley, was fed 
to gladiators who were called hordeari from hordeum, the Latin name 
for barley. The word “cereal” is from the Latin cerealia which were 
grain festivals in honour of the goddess Ceres, 

The Lithuanians, Germans, Celts, Gauls, Illyrians, Thracians (in 
modern Hungary) and Numantians (in modern Spain) ate millet, 
barley and wheat, and drank beverages made from these grains. 

Civilization in America 

The physical, social and religious life of the Mayas, Aztecs, Incas, 
Guatemalans, Peruvians and other American peoples was based on 
maize or Indian corn. 

The early settlers in America brought with them from Europe 
seed of rye, wheat, oats and barley, and planted these for crops as 
early as 1625. 

Other aspects of civilization 

The calendar came into existence as a matter of necessity con- 
nected with cereal agriculture. Nomadic life required no calendar ; 
the natural division of time into day and night was sufficient. "But 
the cultivation of the cereals, to be successful, required a calendar 
according to which planting and other agricultural operations could 
be performed at the time found by previous experience to be best. 
In the earliest Babylonian calendar, the names of eight of the twelve 
months of the year refer to grain. In the Egyptian calendar, certain 
of the names of the months also refer to cereals, “Sprouting of the 



308 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Grain,” “Making and Watering Barley,” “Ripe Grain,” and “Lady 
of the Granary.” 

The earliest problems in various branches of arithmetic con- 
cerned grasses — ^their agriculture, their conversion into flour and 
loaves of bread, and their distribution to the labourers. Some of the 
beginnings of geometry were likewise related to grasses — ^the meas- 
urement of the areas of grain fields and the consideration of various 
forms— cylinder, rectangle, or parallelepiped — as the most econom- 
ical shape for granaries. What was probably the very beginning of 
astronomy was the institution of observing the moon as a basis for 
performing the steps in the cultivation of the cereal grasses at cer- 
tain times. (Many people, even in civilized countries in this cen- 
tury, plant seeds of crops according to the moon.) 

There were a few plants other than grasses which were culti- 
vated before historic times, e.g., the soybean, datepalm, hemp, flax, 
peach, apricot and grapevine. In no case, however, was any civiliza- 
tion dependent upon any of these plants, whereas every known civil- 
ization has been made possible and necessary by the cultivation of 
one or another of the cereal grasses. 

Characteristics of the grasses 

The grasses are apparently ideal pasture-plants because, instead 
of growing as other plants do, at the tips of the leaves which are 
eaten off by the grazing animal, grasses grow at the joints, the lower- 
most of which are generally inaccessible to the animal’s mouth and 
are therefore uninterrupted in their growth. This explains, too, the 
ability of lawn grasses to continue providing a turf in spite of fre- 
quent cutting. 

As food for man, a cereal grass produces each year a large yield 
of edible, storable and transportable food, containing a great deal 
of nutriment for its volume. The grasses, in addition, grow in a 
greater variety of conditions of climate and of soil than do any other 
large plants. Grasses are the chief plants which possess all the char- 
acteristics in the right proportion for constituting man’s basic food. 

Uses of grasses 

Bread is still the “staff of life.” Breadstuffs, furnishing the 
sole or chief food of most of mankind, are made from grasses. 

As foi^ meat, it is true almost literally that “all flesh is grass.” 
Animals feeding on grasses furnish beef, mutton, pork and poultry, 
and such by-products as milk, cream, butter, cheese, oil, eggs, wool 
and leather. 



GRASSES AND MAN 


309 


Most of the world’s supply of sugar is made from the grass, 
sugar-cane. Molasses is made from sugar-cane and sorghum. Beers 
and similar beverages are made by fermenting the seeds of grasses 
—maize, barley, rice, bamboo, millet and others. 

Grasses, in the form generally consumed by man, are deficient 
in both minerals and vitamins and must be supplemented, if growth 
and health are desired, by fruits and vegetables. 

Building material and land Reclamation 

Where the bamboos grow, they constitute the material out of 
which houses, furniture and scores of other construction objects are 
built. Grasses are used in the tropics to build huts and tree-houses. 

For the reclamation of useless or troublesome types of land, 
grasses are the leading plants. Beach grass is the pioneer for re- 
claiming sanddunes in the temperate regions of the world. Cord 
(“Rice”) grass (Spartine spp.) is the prime plant used to reclaim 
mud-flats and tidal estuaries. Both of these plants are used notably in 
North America and in Europe. For reclaiming alkali lands for agri- 
cultural utilization, several grasses are the best adapted plants known. 

Grasses in the landscape 

Grass lawns render houses and other buildings attractive. Parks 
owe much of their beauty and probably all* of their utility to grass. 
Golf courses and athletic fields are grass turfs. Some grasses are 
used as ornamental plants in gardens, e.g., bamboo, pampas grass, ze- 
bra grass, quaking grass and “gardener’s garters.” 

Miscellaneous uses 

A small portion of the world’s supply of paper comes from 
grasses. “Straw” hats are made from the stalks of various grasses. 
Whisk-brooms and sweeping-brooms are manufactured exclusively 
from a grass known as broom corn. The standard feed for birds is 
the seed* of canary grass. Fishing-rods, and the vaulting poles used 
in Olympic games, are the stems of bamboo. 

Corn stalks yield furfural, which is used as a solvent in resins 
and lacquers, and as a preservative in veterinary embalming mate- 
rial, Corn-starch is used in the stiffening and finishing of textiles, as 
a finisher and filler in the manufacture of writing-paper, as a stiffener 
in laundry work, and as a constituent of baking-powder, pies, pud- 
dings, soap, paints, adhesive substances and asbestos products. 

The bamboos furnish cooking and other domestic utensils, mu- 
sical instruments, hats, smoking-pipes, clothing and literally hundreds 
of other every-day needs of millions of people living in the tropics. 



310 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTUEIST 


The grasses cause more hay fever than probably any other group 
of plants. Although constituting one of the largest families of plants, 
the grasses contain hardly any poisonous representatives, only the 
stunted or second growth of the sorghums being poisonous to animals. 

Extent of grasslands 

Grassland is the prime form of vegetation on the great plains and 
prairies of North America, on the savannahs and pampas of South 
America, on the veldt covering immense areas of Africa, on the 
enormous steppes of Russia, Siberia, China and Manchuria, on the 
grasslands of Australia and New Zealand, and on the lesser grassland 
areas distributed elsewhere on the earth’s surface. 

Much land is covered with cultivated grasses. For example, 
Indian corn is grown in the United States on over 100,000,000 acres, a 
greater area than that of California. Similarly, rice, wheat, barley, 
millet, oats, sorghum, sugar-cane, bamboos and pasture grasses cover 
very large areas of the earth’s surface. In all probability, grasses 
occupy a greater portion of the dry surface of the earth than all 
artificial and other natural formations combined. 

Grasses grow in the Arctic regions, where they constitute ap- 
proximately one fourth of all the flowering plants and are now nu- 
merous than any other single family of large plantl. Grasses grow, 
by contrast, in the hottest portions of the tropics. They are found 
at sea-level and on the highest mountains, in the open and in shade, 
on plain's and on hillsides, in water and in sand, in forests and in 
deserts, on alkali soils and on acidic soils. In fact, grasses are found, 
often to a dominant extent, in any environmental condition in which 
plants can grow. 

The family of grasses contains a larger number of individuals 
than all other families of large plants combined. 

Vcd/ue of grasses 

The most valuable crops in the world are grasses — ^the cereals, 
sugar-cane, bamboo and hay. Statistics do not include the grass on 
ranges and pastures which is consumed directly by animals without 
going into commerce, where its value can be recorded. In the United 
States, maize, hay, wheat, barley, oats, and rye have an annual worth 
of about six billion dollars. Morris Halperin, University of California. 

Published in The Scientific Monthly, March, 1983. 

Keprinted in The Tropical Agriculturist (Ceylon) May, 1983. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE DECOMPOSITION OF CELLULOSE 
IN CERTAIN PHILIPPINE FOREST SOILS ^ 

D. I. AQUINO AND D. P. TABIJE 

WITH ONE TEXT FIGTIKE 

Cellulose is one of the organic constituents of plants and under 
favorable conditions, the more plant residues, green manure and 
stable manure added to the soil, the more cellulose will be decom- 
posed. 

The transformation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous substances 
has been attributed mainly to the activities of microorganisms in the 
soil, while the dissolution of minerals primarily depends on the satu- 
ration of the soil solution with carbonic acid and other organic acids, 
which are the products of the action of organisms on organic matter 
of the soil. 

Various groups of organisms, including fungi, bacteria and ac- 
tinomyces readily attack proteins to get their food. These organ- 
isms utilize the cellulose as a source of energy and transform a cer- 
tain amount of the carbon contained in it into microbial protoplasm. 
For the synthesis of the cell substance, definite amounts of nitrogen 
are required. In other words, within certain limits, there is a def- 
inite ratio between the amount of cellulose that will be decomposed 
in a given soil and the nitrogen that is made available to the micro- 
organisms decomposing cellulose, the ratio varying somewhat with 
the organisms active in the decomposition of the cellulose and with 
the environmental conditions. The intensity of this decomposing 
power can be determined either by the evolution of carbon dioxide 
or by the actual extraction of residual cellulose. The more fertile a 
soil is, the faster will be the decomposition of the soil organic mat- 
ter, liberation of nitrogen, and decomposition of the cellulose (added 
to the soil, in the form of filter paper or straw). Thus the amount 
of cellulose decomposed in a given soil at a given time may serve 
as an index of the total amount of nitrogen that would become avail- 

’ Part of the data in this paper was taken from the thesis presented by the 
junior author for graduation in 1932 with the degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Agriculture, from the College of Agriculture No. 358; Experiment station con- 
tribution No. 904. Received for publication May 22, 1933. 


811 



312 


THE PHILIPPINE AOBICULTURIST 


able in such a soil in that particular period of time. The quantities 
of cellulose decomposed may differ with different soils, but in this 
case the relationship between the cellulose decomposition, carbon 
dioxide evolution, and nitrogen assimilation is practically the same. 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE 

According to Waksman and Heukelekian (1924), Christensen 
was the first to suggest that the power of soils to decompose cellulose 
may serve as an index of soil fertility. This was in 1910. Chris- 
tensen showed that neither the physical condition of the soil, nor its 
reaction influence greatly its cellulose decomposing capacity. He 
also claimed that the presence of available nitrogen and the microbial 
flora exerts an influence in cellulose decomposition. In other words, 
this phenomenon of cellulose decomposition is stimulated by chemical 
and microbiological soil conditions. 

Bear (1929) stated that while the organic matter content of the 
soil is an important factor in determining its productivity, yet it is 
not only the accumulation of organic matter in soil that is essential, 
but the constant passing through the soil of rapidly decomposing or- 
ganic matter. 

According to Waksman (1917) after organic matter is added to 
the soil, various groups or microorganisms act on it, a part of the 
organic matter is completely decomposed, with the formation of car- 
bon dioxide, water, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, etc.; another part is 
reassimilated by the microorganisms and synthesized into proto- 
plasm; another is left undecomposed, being more resistant to the 
action of other native soil flora; and another part is left in the form 
of intermediate products. These are due either to their greater re- 
sistance to the microbial actions in general and to certain specific 
groups in particular, or to the fact that products are formed hinder- 
ing the further development of the organisms. 

Waksman and Heukelekian (1924) showed that “cellulose is de- 
composed in the soil by fungi, actinomyces and bacteria, including 
aerobic and anaerobic forms, thermophilic and denitrifying organ- 
isms. Probably all soils contain some, if not all, of these groups capa- 
ble of decomposing cellulose." When cellulose is added to the soil, 
one of these groups may be favored more than the other, depending 
upon the presence of available nitrogen and phosphates in the soil. 

The use of nitrogen by fungi is always associated with the use 
of an energy material. It has been pointed out by Coleman (1916), 
Waksman and Skinner (1926) that this nitrogen, if not an absolute 



DECOMPOSITION OP CELLULOSE 


313 


necessity in the decomposition of cellulosic material, is an aid in this 
process and hastens the utilization of the cellulose by the fungi. A 
definite relation between the cellulose decomposed and nitrogen as- 
similated by soil organisms, especially in the case of fungi, was found 
by Waksman and Heukelekian (1924). Waksman and Starkey 
(1923) and McBeth (1916) observed that the development of fungi 
in the presence of nitrogen was stimulated in a marked degree by the 
addition of pure cellulose to the soil. 

The power of soil microbiological flora to decompose cellulose 
from the organic matter should not be underestimated. Numerous 
investigators have given due recognition to this fact. Evidently, the 
study of the organisms concerned in the decomposition of cellulose 
and some factors which tend to influence their activities has attracted 
the attention of many investigators. So far as the writers are aware, 
no work of this nature as yet has been undertaken for Philippine soils. 

OBJECTS OP THE WORK 

The present work was planned to study the rapidity of cellulose 
decomposition in certain Philippine forest soils as influenced by 
different conditions of management: and to determine the influence 
of certain chemical and physical properties on the amount of cellulose 
decomposed in soils. 


SOIL STUDIES 

A reconnaissance survey of the estate in question was made in 
April, 1931, and a more thorough soil survey was conducted from 
time to time until the close of the work. 

The different lots were located first. Then their respective topog- 
raphy, soil texture, area and vegetation were noted. The elevation 
of the place is approximately 100 meters above Laguna de Bay. A 
detailed description of the lots and soils is shown in table 1. 

As a whole, the topography of the land including the'' lots under 
investigation varies from rolling and sloping to steep slopes. The 
soil texture of the surface soil, however, is practically uniform in all 
of the lots, except lot V where the soil was mixed with brownish-yel- 
low particles of apparently volcanic tuff materials. The present 
vegetation can not be used as a basis for describing the soil iri the 
different lots because it is composed more or less of cultivated crops. 

In the determination of the cellulose decomposition in the soil 
the method suggested by Waksman and Heukelekian (1924) was 
used. 



314 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


The moisture content and the water-holding capacity of the soil 
were determined with the use of the methods outlined in Soil Char- 
ucteristics by Emerson (1927). 

The colloid content of the soil samples was determined with the 
use of the hydrometer method employed by Bouyoucos (1926). 



Fig. 1. — ^Apparatus used in the determination of the colloid content of 
the soil. 


The quinhydrone pH indicator was used in the determination 
of the hydrogen ion concentration of the soil. The total nitrogen 
content of the soil was determined with the use of the Kjeldahl meth- 
od (Hibbard-Gunning modification) as given in the Official Methods 
of Analysis of the Association of Official Agrictiltui;al Chemists 
(1926). 




DECOMPOSITION OP CELLULOSE 315 

The data for rainfall and soil temperature were obtained from 
the weather stations of the Department of Plant Physiology, College 
of Agriculture, and the School of Forestry. 

RESULTS 

Table 1 shows the description of the soil of the Paliparan estate 
(a portion of Maquiling National Park). 

There were 288 trials made for the cellulose determination. 

Table 2 shows the averages obtained for the different determina- 
tions covering the entire period of investigation. 

The averages of results obtained in the cellulose decomposition 
experiments are shown in columns 7, 8 and 9 of table 2 and in the last 
three columns of table 3. The cellulose decomposition is the amount 
of cellulose precipitated with 80 per cent alcohol from the treatments 
(as check, treated with filter paper alone, and treated with filter 
paper and 100 milligrams of sodium nitrate (NaNOg). 

The data presented in table 3 are averages of the different de- 
terminations of the entire period. 

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 

As shown by the data presented in tables 1 and 3, the lots under 
consideration are under varied systems of forest management with 
varying topography and vegetation which seem to account for the 
variation noted in the results. 

An examination of the results in table 3, shows that the soil sam- 
ples did not change markedly in soil reaction. The colloid content 
and the soil temperature, although the latter decreased moderately 
during the progress of the work, did not show any appreciable bear- 
ing on the cellulose decomposing power of the soil. It may be noted 
that there was variation in the water-holding capacity, moisture con- 
tent and total nitrogen content of the soils. This variation may be 
attributed to alternate heavy rains and sun exposure, especially dur- 
ing August, October and November, 1931, and to the steep topography 
with consequent soil erosion and disturbances in microbial' activities, 
all of which may possibly have altered the conditions of the soil with 
special reference to the nitrogen content. 

The effect of the amount of cellulose and nitrogen added under a 
constant period of incubation for each treatment upon the decom- 
position of cellulose in the soil is shown in columns 7, 8 and 9 of table 
2, and in columns 8, 9 and 10 of table 3. 



816 


THE PHIUPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


It is interesting to note that there was only a slight increase in 
the actual amount of cellulose decomposed with the addition of sod- 
ium nitrate and filter paper, and so with cellulose (filter paper) 
alone. This may be due to the disturbances that occurred in the 
soil with special reference to microbial flora caused by changing con- 
ditions mentioned above. 

As shown in table 3, there seems to be an apparent correlation 
of the total nitrogen content and the soil reaction with the amount 
of cellulose decomposed in all the three treatments. 

The effect of the different systems of forest management and 
the physical and chemical properties on the cellulose decomposing ca- 
pacity of the soils found in these determinations are given in table 
3. 

Under the six systems of forest management considered ; namely, 
cogonal, caihgin, cultivated, cut-over area (2 months old), cut-over 
area (6 months old), cut-over area (5 years old), it seemed that the 
moisture content and the water-holding capacity were affected by 
topography and vegetation. Lots I, II, IV, V showed high moisture 
content, and lot I was apparently the highest in water-holding ca- 
pacity. 

An examination of the data in column 6 of table 3, shows that 
lots I and VI are slightly more acidic than any of the other lots. 
The apid condition of lot I may be due to cogon grass which, accord- 
ing to results of various investigations, is an acid producing plant. 
The acidity for lot VI may be attributed to the low moisture content. 

The' data in column 8 of table 3, show that lot I is the poorest in 
fertility as evidenced by the low percentage of cellulose decomposed, 
which may be accounted for by its acidic reaction, hindering the 
activity of some soil organisms. 

The importance of leguminous plants like ipilipil (Leucaena glau- 
ca Linn.), etc, for a second growth forest in maintaining and in- 
creasing the fertility of the soil seems not to hold true in this study, 
as shown by the results obtained. 

The averages of the results of cellulose decomposition and total 
nitrogen content from lots I, II and III are greater than those of lots 
IV, V and VI, showing that the former conserves fertility more than 
the latter. This may be due to the steep topography of lots ly, V 
and VI, which influenced sheet erosion of the soil, reducing thereby 
the organic matter content, and bacterial population that are re- 
isponsible for cellulose decomposition. Fewer organisms mean less 
microbiological activity. 



DECOMPOSITION OF CELLULOSE 


817 


It is obvious that the results of these determinations are not 
enough to justify conclusive statements, but it is hoped that they 
may prove useful in pointing out the fact that there is a difference 
in effect of the various systems of forest management and the exist- 
ing conditions on the fertility of the soil. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

1. The results brought out in this study indicate the determina- 
tion of the power of the soil to decompose cellulose, yielding infor- 
mation on the part played by microbiological flora and available nitro- 
gen in the decomposition of cellulose. 

2. A comparative study of the influence of some of the physical 
and chemical factors in the soil, and the effects of different systems 
of forest management upon the soil bacterial activity with special 
reference to its cellulose decomposition was made. 

3. The colloidal content of the soil varied from 38.62 per cent in 
lot I to as high as 46.07 per cent in lot V with no apparent correlation 
with any of the soil characters investigated. 

4. The soil reaction remained slightly acidic throughout, the co- 
gonal area being the most acidic of all the lots. 

5. The soil reaction and the nitrogen content appear to have 
some slight bearing on the cellulose decomposing power of the soil. 

6. The percentage of cellulose decomposed decreased with the 
addition of cellulose particularly with the cut-over areas covered with 
ipilipil {Leucaena glauca Linn.). 

7. The extent of cellulose decomposition in the soil with the addi- 
tion of available nitrogen in the form of sodium nitrate is quite 
marked as compared with the cellulose addition and the check. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Anonymous. 1925. Official and tentative methods of analysis. Association of 
Official Agn^'icultural Chemists. 2nd ed., iii + 566 p. Washington, D. C. 

Bear, F. E. 1929. Theory and practice in the use of fertilizers, vii + 348 p., 
69 fig. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 

Bouyouoos, G. J. 1926. The hydrometer as a new and rapid method for de- 
termining the colloidal content of soils. Soil Science 23: 319-332. 

Coleman, D. A. 1916. Environmental factors influencing the activity of soil 
fungi. Soil Science 2: 1-66. 

Emerson, P, 1926. Soil characteristics, x -|- 222 p., 6 fig. New York: 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 



318 


THEl PHILIPPmB AGRICULTURIST 


McBeth, G. J. 1916. Studies on the decomposition of cellulose in soils. Soil 
Science 1: 437-488. 

Waksman, S. a. 1917. The influence of available carbohydrates upon ac- 
cumulation by microorganisms. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 39: 1503-1512. 

Waksman, S. a., and 0. Heukelekian. 1924. Microbiological analysis of 
soil as an index of soil fertility: VIII. Decomposition of cellulose. Soil 
Science 17: 275-294. 

Waksman, S. A., and C. E. Skinni». 1926. Microorganisms concerned in 
the decomposition of celluloses in the soil. Jour. Bacteriol. 12: 51-84. 

Waksman, S. A., and R. L. Starkey. 1924. Microbiological analysis of soils 
as an index of soil fertility: VII. Evolution of carbon dioxide. Soil 
Science 17: 141-161. 



DECOMPOSITION OF CELI^ULOSE 


319 


TABLE 1 

Giving the deacHption of the soil of the Paliparan Estate (m portion of Maquiling 

National Park) 


LOT 

NO. 

CHAItACTEU OF THE 
IX)T 

AKEA 

TOI*OCRAPHY 

TEXTUUE 

ve«p:tation 

I 

Cogonal 

8(J .?H. 1 

538 1 

Rolling 

Clay loam, residual 

Cogon 

II 

Caingin 

2,340 

Rolling and 

surface soil 

Clay loam, residual 

Rice 

III 

Cultivated 

2,160 1 

sloping 

Rolling 

surface soil 

Clay loam, residual 

Rice and corn 

IV 

Cut-over area 

1,115 

Steep slope 

surface soil 

Clay loam, residual 

Ipilipil 

V 1 

(2 months old) 
Cut-over area 

609 

Steep slope 

surface soil 

Clay loam, residual 

Ipilipil 

VI 

(6 months old) 
Cut-over area 

620 

Steep slope 

surface soil 

Clay loam, residual 

Ipilipil 


(5 years old) 



1 surface soil 




320 


THB PHILIPPINE AOBICULTtmiST 



The data given here are averages per sampling period. 



Showing the cellulose decomposing capacity of the soil as influenced by its physical and chemical properties, and different 

systems of forest managements^ 


DECOMPOSITION OP CELLULOSE 


321 





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The data given here are averages of the different determinations of the entire period. 



MECHANICAL INJURIES TO ROOTS AND CORMS OF ABACA 
IN RELATION TO HEART-ROT DISEASE ^ 

MARIANO M. RAMOS 

The importance of heart-rot as a disease of abaca {Musa textilis 
Nee) has been reported by Ocfemia (1927, 1930, 1931) and Ocfemia 
and Mendiola (1932). These reports state that of the abaca heart- 
rot cases in bunchy-top districts 11 to 17 per cent are secondary symp- 
toms. These investigators also noted that the combined effects of the 
infestation of abaca corms with weevils {Cosmopoliies sordidus Ger- 
mar) and infection with bunchy-top produce more than 80 per cent of 
heart-rot. They stated that the destruction of the feeding roots by 
various causes sometimes results in the production of the same trou- 
ble. 

In the abaca heart-rot cases examined by the writer, practically 
all of the roots of the plants were rotted. Only the corms were left 
at the base of the pseudo-stem. In fact a heart-rotted abaca plant 
may be readily pulled out of the soil because the anchorage organs 
are dead and oftentimes completely rotted. Young roots may be pro- 
duced but these sooner or later yellow and then rot. Observation 
of this condition suggested that, in addition to the physiological ef- 
fect of bunchy-top on abaca, the destruction of the roots by parasites, 
such asi fungi, bacteria and nematodes might cause heart-rot. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The field observations were made on a total of 1000 abaca plants 
infected with bunchy-top. The occurrence of heart-rot as a final stage 
of bunchy-top was recorded. Heart-rot resulting from bunchy-top 
was identified by the browning of the youngest furled leaf. In, case 
of doubt the presence of heart-rot was ascertained by cutting the sus- 
pected plants either crosswise or lengthwise. The presence of a black- 
ened central cylinder was an indication of heart-rot. From these 
heart-rot cases, attempts were made to isolate the associated organ- 
isms. The infected materials were cut under aseptic conditions and 

’ Thesis presented for graduation, 1933, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Agriculture from the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines 
No. 369; Experiment Station contribution No. 906. Prepared in the Depart- 
ment of Plant Pathology under the direction of Dr. G. 0. Ocfemia. 


322 



HOOTS AND CORMS OF ABACA 


323 


plated out on sterilized corn meal in petri dishes. From the colonies 
of the organisms that developed, subcultures were made on potato- 
dextrose agar. The pathogenicity of these organisms was tried in 
controlled artificial infection experiments. 

On the 1000 heart-rotted abaca plants, observations were made 
to determine the percentage which had root weevil. Cosmopolites sor- 
didus, injury and the percentage with roots entirely rotted because 
of nematode, Heterodera radicicola (Greef) Muller infection. The 
occurrence of injuries caused by these two animal parasites was noted 
by digging up heart-rotted abaca plants and examining the roots and 
corms. It was first ascertained that the presence of tunnels in the 
corms was due to root weevils. Galls, varying from five millimeters 
to one centimeter or more in thickness, in the roots indicated infec- 
tion by nematode. In doubtful cases the materials were examined 
under the microscope for the presence of nematodes. 

In the determination of the production of heart-rot by cutting 
off portions of the roots of healthy abaca plants, seedlings of Puti- 
tumatagacan and Itom varieties obtained from Mr. Domingo Baybay 
of the Guinobatan Abaca Experiment Station of the Bureau of Plant 
Industry at Binogsacan, Guinobatan, Albay were used. The seeds 
were germinated and the seedlings transplanted in sterilized soil in 
24-centimeter pots, following the method described by Ocfemia 
(1930). When the potted seedlings were about 30 centimeters tall 
they were divided into lots. In the first lot (1) about one-half of the 
entire root system was cut off with a sterilized sharp knife; in the 
second (2) about three-fourths of the roots were cut off; and in the 
third (3) about four-fifths. The roots were cut off as close to the 
corms as possible. To facilitate the cutting off of tho roots the soil 
around the base of the plant was removed and after the roots were 
cut off it was put back. 

Inoculations of young healthy abaca seedlings with the fungus 
isolated from heart-rot specimens were made, using pure cultures of 
the organism. At the time of inoculation the abaca seedlings were 
from two to five months old, counting from the date of transplanting. 
The fungus was applied on the injured and uninjured bases of the 
young and furled leaves. To' make the injuries at the bases of the 
leaves they were punctured with the point of a needle. The control 
seedlings received the same treatment as the inoculated abaca except 
that they were treated with sterile water and sterile potato-dextrose 
agar instead of fungous cultures. 



324 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTUBIST 


RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 

The relation of bunchy-top, root weevil and nematodes to the 
production of, heart-rot 

The field surveys were made in the abaca fields of the Depart- 
ment of Agronomy of the College of Agriculture at Los Banos, Lagu- 
na and in Silang, Cavite. The data gathered in these surveys® are 
shown in tables 1 and 2. 

It may be seen in table 1 that heart-rot cases following bunchy- 
top range from 10.49 to 22.1 per cent. 

TABLE 1 

Abaed heart-rot cases following hunchy-top in the abaca field in Silang, Cavite 
and in the College of Agriculture fields at Los Banos, Laguna 


LOCATION OF ABACA FIELDS 

DATE OF OBSERVATION 

i 

BUNCH Y- 
TOPPED 
PI^NTS 
EXAMINED 

HEART- 

ROTTED 

PLANTS 

IIEART- 
UOT IN- 
FECTION 

Department of Agronomy . 

July 

21, 1930 

number 

\ 105 { 

number 

16 

per cent 

14.28 

Silang, Cavite 

December 28, 1930 

200 

31 

15.50 

Department of Agronomy . 

1 March 

28, 1931 

86 

9 

10.49 

Silang, Cavite 

October 

13, 1931 

110 

20 

18.10 

Silang, Cavite 

January 

2, 1932 

i 87 

20 

22.10 

Silang, Cavite 

1 April to May, 1932 

! 413 

72 

17.40 


The writer noted that some of the heart-rotted abaca plants 
were associated with advanced stages of bunchy-top. This result 
corroborates Ocfemia’s (1927, 1930, 1931) finding that in bunchy- 
top infected districts, 11 to 17 per cent of the heart-rot cases are 
final stages of bunchy-top. 

As shown in table 2, heart-rot cases following root weevil inju- 
ries range from 53.3 to 90 per cent and heart-rot resulting from nem- 


TABLE 2 

Abaca heart-rot cases following animal injuries to the roots and corms 


1 

DATE OF OBSERVATION | 

HEART- 

ROTTED 

PLANTS 

PIJkNTS 

1 WITH ROOT 
WEEVILS 

ROOT 1 

■WEEVIL IN- 
FESTATION 1 

PLANTS 

WITH 

1 NEMATODES 

NEMATODE 

INFECTION 

July to Oct., 

»30 

number 

276 

number \ 

181 

per cent | 
66.6 

number \ 

47 

per cent 

17.03 

Nov. to Dec., 

’30 

105 

56 

63.3 

16 

14.3 

Jan. to Oct., 

’31 

200 

180 

90.0 

19 

9.5 

Nov. to Dec., 

’31 

100 1 

83 

83.0 

13 

13.0 

Jan. to May, 

’32 

312 

216 

68.9 

63 

20.6 


•The writer desires to express his thanks to the owners of the abac& fields 
ID ^Silang, Cavite and to the workers employed for their kind assistance and 
cooperation when he was conducting his field work. 






BOOTS AND CORNS OF ABACA 


325 


atode attack ranges from 9.5 to 20.5 per cent. It was noted that 
plants with their roots rotted because of nematode and weevil infes- 
tation had heart-rot. 

The relation of the destruction of the roots and removal of 
the conns to heart-rot incidence 

The effect of the removal of about one-half of the entire root 
system: Experiment 1 . On February 20, 1931, the roots and portions 
of the) corms were cut off of 13 healthy abaca plants of the Puti va- 
riety, seven months old. • Four days later, the seedlings were placed 
outside of the laboratory under partial shade. 

On May 10, 1931, or about four months later, ssonptoms of 
heart-rot were shown by 29 per cent of the plany of which portions 
of their root systems had been cut off. 

Experiment 2. On September 25, 1931, 22 healthy abaca 
plants of Item variety, six and one-half months old, were treated as 
in experiment 1. On February 13, 1932, seven abaca plants, or 31.8 
per centthad symptoms of heart-rot. 

The effect of removal of about three-fourths ^of the entire root 
system: Experiment 1. On February 22, 1931, three-fourths of the 
roots were cut off of 15 healthy abaca seedlings of Puti variety, seven 
months old. Six days later the seedlings were placed outside of the 
laboratory. 

On May 11, 1931 or about four months later, five abaca seed- 
lings, or 33 per cent of the plants, showed heart-rot. 

Experiment 2. The experiment was repeated on Septem- 
ber 23, 1931. Twenty-two abaca seedlings of variety Itom, which 
were about six and one-half months old were used. On February 
10, 1932, or four months later, 8 seedlings or 36 per rent of the 
plants had heart-rot. 

The effect of removal of about four-fifths of the entire root 
system of the abaca seedlings: Experiment 1. On February 26, 1931, 
about four-fifths of the roots were removed from 26 seedlings of 
abaca, variety Puti, which were seven months old. After four days 
the seedlings were placed outside the laboratory in a partially shaded 
place. 

On May 17, 1931, or after about four months, 27.2 per cent of 
'.the seedlings showed heart-rot. 



326 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Experiment 2. On September 23, 1931 another experiment 
was conducted using 22 abaca seedlings ofi Itom variety which were 
six and one-half months old. On February 11, 1932, 45.4 per cent 
of the seedlings had heart-rot. 

Experiment 3. A third experiment was conducted on May 
25, 1932 using 10 seedlings of Puti-tumatagacan variety which were 
eight months old. On October 2, 1932, or after about five months, 
3 of the abaca seedlings or 33.3 per cent had heart-rot. 

The symptoms of the heart-rot developed in seedlings when por- 
tions of their roots were removed were similar to those of the heart- 
rot which followed bunchy-top. The disease was characterized by the 
rotting of the youngest furled leaf. The rotting began at the top and 
gradually advanced downward leaving the older leaves in a stunted 
condition. 

When the diseased plants from all of the experiments were dug 
up, however, their corms were heavily infested with root weevil. The 
insects had bored holes through the corms and reached as far as the 
central cylinder. The injury caused by the insect on the corms of 
the plants seems to be the cause of the rotting of the heart. 

The writer found that pruning off portions of the root systems 
of abaca seedlings weakened the plants and perhaps predisposed them 
to animal injuries which resulted in the production of heart rot. 

Doptor Ocfemia is of the opinion that in addition to the destruc- 
tion of the feeding roots, the production of heart-rot seems to be due 
to some physiological effect of a pathogen on the host plant. This 
physiological effect is perhaps toxic in nature. It prevents or re- 
tards considerably the growth of the apex. The rotting of the tis- 
sues immediately surrounding the apex prevents the youngest leaf 
from passing through them and causes it to rot also. 

The relation of the fungus isolated from heart-rot cases to the 
development of the disease in artificial inoculation experiments 

The occurrence of a species of Fusarium in some of the heart- 
rot specimens was noted by the writer. This was of interest because 
the heart-rot of abaca has been attributed by Lee and Serrano 
(1923), Teodoro (1925), and Teodoro and Serrano (1926) to a spe- 
cies of Fusarium similar to, if not identical with the banana wilt 
fungus, Fusarium oxysporum Schl. f. 3 Wr. {Fusarium cubense EFS). 
Ocfemia and Mendiola (1932) identified the fungus associated with 
certain cases of heart-rot with Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon var. 
subgltUinans Wr. and Rg. 



BOOTS AND CORMS OF ABACA 


327 


Artificial inoculation experiments were conducted in the labor- 
atory to study the pathogenicity of the Fttsarium from, abaca heart. 
Morphological and cultural studies of the fungus were made and the 
results were compared with those of Ftisarium moniliforme Sheldon 
var. subglutinans Wr. and Rg. of Ocfemia and Mendiola (1932). 

Morphology: The fungus was studied to determine the color, 
septation, branching and contents of the mycelium; types, size and 
the contents of the spores; and the types, color and abundance of 
growth on the different media used. 

Mycelium. In young cultures the mycelium is granular and 
the cells of the hyphae are short. With agq the hyphae become less 
granular and vacuolate. They are straight, uniform in diameter and 
rarely constricted at the septa. 

Conidiophores. The conidiophores are produced by the 
aerial hyphae or in the pionnotes. They are short lateral branches 
of the mycelium. On some culture media, especially oatmeal and 
potato dextrose agar and steamed rice, the conidiophores are well de- 
veloped, much branched and constricted at the point of origin and at 
the septa, and sometimes bulge in the middle. 

Conidia. In a 24 hour-old culture, conidia were present. 
They were numerous in older cultures. The conidia vary in size, 


shape and septation. 

Microconidm. The microconidia are hyaline, oval or elong- 
ate and either 0- or 1-septate. Curved 0- or 1-septate microconidia 
were also produced. The 0-septate microconidia were from 6.6-21.6 
X 2.4-4.7/.; average 14.1 X 3.4j^. The l-septate microconidia were 

from 16.7-29.5 X 3.3-5.1 /x; average 22.6 X 3.7 #<,. 

Macroconidia. The macroconidia are hyaline, elongate or 
sickle-shaped and vary from 2- to 5-septate. The 2-septate macro- 
conidia were from 22.5-33.5 X 3.3-4.7,x; average 27.0 X 4.1, x. The 
3-septate macroconidia were from 26.6-41.3 X 3.8-5.1,x; - 

X 4.6u. The 4- and 5-septate macroconidia were very rare an 
found only on oatmeal agar and steamed rice. The 
conidia meaaared from 36.fM3.4 X 3 .^. 0 ^, average 
The 5-septate macroconidia measured from 57.J 
averaire 60.7 X 4.1/ji. 

The measurements of the spores on the different media are 
follows : 



328 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Six-day old culture on corn meal : 

0- septate, 6.5-19.5X1.S-4.1 

average 11.3X3.4^; 

1- septate, 12.&—23.7X3.2— 4.3 

average 18.6X3.5^; 

2- septa te, 21.8-29.6X3.1-4.6^; 

average 25.7X3.9^; 

3- septate, 24.7-39.9X3.4-4.7 

average 32.6X4.2^. 

Eight-day old culture on oatmeal agar: 

0- septate, 7.1 — 36.6X1.8 — 4.3^; 

average 27.9X3.5^; 

1- septate, 27.1-38.9X3.2-4.4^; 

average 31.6X3.9^; 

2- septate, 27.1-41.2X3.6-4.2^; 

average 34.6X4.0 

3- septate, 28.0-43.2X3.9-6.3^; 

average 36.9X3.9^; 

4- septate, 43.9-64.3X4.0-4.1^; 

average 46.4X4.0^; 

6-septate, 67.9-70.7X3.6-4.4^; 
average 60.7X4.2 

Eleven-day old culture on steamed rice: 

0- septate, 6.4-21.7X1.9-4.3 

average 12.5X3.3 /«,; 

1- septate, 12.8-31.8X3.4-4.5 

average 22.8X3.6^; 

2- septate, 19.6-36.4X3.5-5.3 fx\ 

average 28.5X3.9 

3- septate, 23.1—39.9X3.3—4.5 

average 30.9X4.1 

4- septate, 27.8-42.6X3.2-4.0 

average 34.8X3.6 

Fifteen-day old culture on potato agar 4- 10 per cent dextrose: 

0- septate, 6.4-16.1X1.9-2.6 j^i; 

average 10.4X3.6^; 

1- septate, 16.6-28.9X3.6-7.4^; 

average 21.8X3.9^; 

2- septate, 21.4-33.2X3.4-4.7 

average 32.1X4.2^; 

3- septate, 33.6—43.4X6.1' — 6.3^; 

average 36.6X6.3 fi. 



ROOTS AND CORMS OF AEACA 


329 


Fifteen-day old culture on potato-dextrose agar : 

0- septate, 4.6-23.7X2.6-4.3^; 

average 11.9X3.3^; 

1- septate, 17.9-28.6X3.6-4.1 

average 21.8X3.7 

2- septate, 22.1-28.9X2.6-3.9^; 

average 26.1X3.9^; 

3- septate, 24.9— 39.3X3.7— 4.5 

average 31.0X4.1 

4 

Seventeen-day old culture on potato agar; 

0- septate, 8.9-14.3X2.9-5.9^; 

average 11.4X3.9^; 

1- septate, 14.1-25.3X3.2-6.1^; 

average 18.6X3.7 

2- septate, 23.2-30.3X3.8-5.6^; 

average 27.1X4.8^; 

3- septate, 25.7-42.3X3.6-5.4 

average 34.7X4.2 


Average measurement of spores : 

0- septate, 6.6-21.8X2.4-4.7 

average 14.1X3.4 

1- septate, 16.7-29.5X3.3-5.1 ju,; 

average 22.6X3.7 

2- septate, 22.5-33.5X3.3-4.7 

average 27.0X4.1 

3- septate, 26.6-41.3X3.8-5.1 fxl 

average 31.8X4.3^; 

4- septate, 35.8— 43.4X3.6— 4.0 

average 40.1X3.9 

5- septate, 57.9-70.7X3.6-4.4^; 

average 60.7X4.1 


It was found that the differences between the averages presented 
above and those of Wollenweber (1931) and Ocfemia and Mendiola 
(1932) for Fv^arium moniliforme Sheldon var. subglutinans Wollen- 
weber and Reinking (p. 397) are not significant to an extent to jus- 
tify its segregation from this variety. (See table 3.) 

The conidia germinate by the production of germ tubes, one at 
each segment. The cells of the conidium swell and become con- 
stricted at the septa at germination. The conidia do not produce 
chlamydospores. Ocfemia and Mendiola (1932) found m a three- 
month old culture on oatmeal, chlamydospore-like structures m tl e 



330 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICTJLTUIUST 


hyphae. These structures occurred either singly, in pairs or in 
chains. These authors, however, believe that the swollen short cells 
are not chlamydospores but only swellings of the hyphae. 


TABLE 8 

Shovdng the comparative length and width of conidia of Fusarium moniliforme 
Sheldon var. subglntinana and the Fusarium under study 


TYPES OF CONIDIA 

FUSARIUM MONILItXlRME 
SHELDON VAR. 
SUBGLUTINANS 

FUSARIUM 

UNDER STUDY 


j length 

width 

length 

width 






0-septate 

! 16.6 

3.6 

14.1 

3.4 

1-septate 

23.2 

3.9 

22.6 

3.7 

2~s€ptate 

26.2 

4.2 

27.0 

4.1 

3-septate 

31.2 ! 

4.1 

31.8 

4.3 

4~septate 

40.0 

3.6 

40.1 

3.9 

5-septate 

60.3 

39 

60.7 

4.1 

Mean 

2^33 ^1 

I 3.83 

27.33 

1 3.98 

Standard deviation I 

13.58 1 

0.313 

13.58 

i 0.218 

Probable error of mean | 

±3.738 ( 

±0.079 

±3.68 

±0.156 


Forma of fructification. The hyphae on the surface of the agar 
media and the aerial mycelium produced the conidia and the slimy 
masses or pionnotes. In older cultures on potato-dextrose agar, 
wart-like and grayish pink sporodochia were formed. These struc- 
tures when crushed in water gave numerous conidia. 

Cultural characters. The fungous growth was abundant on 
oatmeal, dorn meal, steamed rice and potato-dextrose agar. On 
potato agar its growth was thin and scarce. The aerial mycelium 
was typically rare and varied in color in the different media. 

The aerial mycelium on agar media without dextrose was scanty, 
short and of pale flesh color.® On agar media containing dextrose 
the growth was profuse and the color ranged from dark violet to 
blackish purple. The presence of dextrose to some extent affected 
the substratum of the medium. The color of the media was a little 
deeper when they contained more dextrose. 

a. Cultures four days old on corn meal agar were characterized 
by submerged, slimy, deep lavender to dark violet and blackish pur- 
ple growth with short, woolly and purplish lilac aerial mycelium. 
When seven days old the growth remained the same and the sub- 

“The color nomenclature followed in these studies is that of Robert Ridg- 
way. 1912. Color standards and color nomenclature. 43 p., 63 colored pi.; 
1116 named colors. Washington, D. C. 





ROOTS AND CORMS OF ABACA 


331 


stratum was changed from Bishop’s purple to Rood’s violet. When 
twelve-days old, the growth became thick and the substratum be- 
came Mathews’ purple. When eighteen days old the growth became 
thick with large slimy dark violet masses of spores and purplish 
lilac aerial mycelium. The substratum was Mathews’ purple to 
Bradley’s violet. The same characteristics were observed when the 
fungus became old. 

b. Cultures four days old on steamed rice were characterized 
with submerged, slimy, white and light mauve growth. There was 
scanty, short, woolly and mauvette aerial mycelium. The substratum 
was changed from light mauve to Mathews’ purple. 

When seven days old the aerial mycelium was medium dense, 
short, woolly and mauvette to Spinel pink. The substratum did not 
change in color. 

When twelve days old the aerial mycelium changed from Spinel 
pink to lilac and amparo purple. As the culture became old the 
same characteristics were observed except that the growth thickened 
somewhat. 

c. Cultures four days old on oatmeal agar were characterized 
by submerged slimy, white and pale pinkish buff growth with scanty, 
short, woolly and dirty white aerial mycelium. The substratum was 
changed to light mauve and pale amparo. When seven days old the 
substratum was changed to light mauve and pale hortense violet. In 
the twelve-day old culture the growth became thin and light amparo 
purple. The stroma was shiny in some parts with light mauve pion- 
notes. The substratum was changed to Mathews’ purple and Brad- 
ley’s violet. When twenty days old the stroma possessed dark violet 
pionnotes and the substratum remained Mathews’ purple and Brad- 
ley’s violet. 

d. Cultures four days old on potato agar plus two per cent dex- 
trose were characterized by the presence of scanty aerial mycelium. 
The hyphae were short, twisted, woolly and pale lavender violet in 
color. Slimy light buff stromata were present. The substratum 
was changed from pale lavender violet to Mathews’ purple. When 
seven days old there was no change observed except that the growth 
was somewhat thickened. When twelve days old the aerial myce- 
lium was changed to pale flesh color. A few petunia violet pion- 
notes were produced. The substratum was changed to petunia vio- 
let. When twenty days old the growth remained the same in color 
but the substratum became dark violet. 



3S2 


THE PHILIPPINE AGHICULTURIST 


e. Cultures four days old on potato agar plus ten per cent dex- 
trose were characterized by an aerial mycelium which was scanty, 
twisted and mauvette to light mauve. When seven days old the sub- 
stratum was Mathews’ purple. 

When twelve days old the aerial mycelium became dense, short, 
woolly and lilac in color. The whole growth was a deep purplish 
vinaceous. The stroma was slimy and rood’s violet in color. When 
twenty days old the aerial mycelium became scarce and purple in 
color. Blackish red purple pionnotes which were grouped together 
were produced on the stroma. The substratum became dark violet 
to blackish purple. 

/. Cultures four days old on potato agar were characterized 
by an aerial mycelium which was scanty, short, and pale cinnamon 
pink. The substratum appeared transparent. When seven days 
old the substratum became sea-shell pink. When twenty days old 
the substratum changed to light buff and light ochraceous buff. 

Test of the pathogenicity of the fungus. Inoculation experi- 
ments with the Fusarium were conducted by the writer. Two to 
five months old potted abaca seedlings of Puti-tumatagacan and 
Itom varieties were used. The potted abaca seedlings of each variety 
were divided into four lots. 

Spraying tvith a spore stispension the injured bases of the 
young and furled leaf of the abaca seedlings checked by a control: 
Experiment 1. On April 24, 1931, seven abaca seedlings were inoc- 
ulated with a heavy suspension of spores. A twelve-day old culture 
of the fungus was used as a source of inoculum. The fungous spores 
were spray^ on the pricked bases of the young and furled leaves. 
Three seedlings were used as checks. The control seedlings were 
sprayed with sterile water. 

On April 28, 1931 the inoculated seedlings were infected while 
the controls remained free from the disease. 

Experiment 2. On November 10, 1932, the experiment was 
repeated. Twelve potted abaca seedlings of Puti variety, about four 
months old, were used. The seedlings were inoculated with a 
twelve-day old culture of the fungus. Four seedlings were used for 
control. On November 14, 1932, all of the inoculated seedlings had 
symptoms of heart-rot while the control seedlings remained healthy. 

Spraying the uninjured bases of the young and furled leaves 
of the abacd seedlings tvith a spore suspension: Experiment 1 . On 
April 24, 1931, the leaf bases of seven abacd seedlings of Itom varie- 
ty four months old were sprayed with a heavy suspension of spores. 
Three abaca seedlings were used as control. The leaf bases of the 



SOOTS AND COBMS OF ABACA 


333 


control seedlings were sprayed with sterile water. On April 29, 1931 
all of the inoculated plants showed definite symptoms of heart-rot 
while the control plants remained healthy. 

Experiment 2. On November 10, 1932, twelve four months 
old abaca seedlings of Itom variety were inoculated. Four abacd 
seedlings of the same variety were used as control. On November 
15, 1932 definite symptoms of heart-rot were shown by the inoculated 
plants while the control plants remained healthy. 

Placing pieces of fungous mycelium on the injured bases of 
the yo^mgest furled leaves of the abaca seedlings: Experiment 1. 
On April 24, 1931, seven abaca seedlings four months old were inoc- 
ulated with twelve-day old culture of Fusarium. Spores and fun- 
gous mycelium were applied on the pricked base of the young and 
furled leaf. Three abaca seedlings were used for control. Sterile 
potato dextrose agar was applied on the pricked base of the furled 
leaf of the control seedlings. 

On April 29, 1931 all of the inoculated seedlings were infected 
while the check seedlings remained healthy. 

Experiment 2. On November 10, 1932, twelve, four months 
old seedlings of Itom variety were inoculated. Four abaca seedlings 
were used as control. On November 14, 1932 all of the inoculated 
seedlings showed heart-rot infection while the controls remained 
healthy. 

Plcucing pieces of fungous mycelium on the uninjured bases of 
the young and furled leaves of the abaca seedlings: Experiment 1. 
On April 24, 1931, seven seedlings of Itom variety were inoculated 
with a twelve-day old culture of Fusarium. The fungous spores and 
mycelium were applied on the uninjured bases of the young and 
furled leaf. Three control seedlings were used. The control seed- 
lings were treated in a manner similar to that of the inoculated plants 
except that sterile potato dextrose agar was used instead of fungous 
mycelium. 

On April 29, 1931 all of the inoculated seedlings developed 
heart-rot but the controls remained healthy. 

Experiment 2. On November 10, 1932 the experiment was 
repeated. Twelve abaca seedlings of Itom variety four months old 
were inoculated. Four seedlings were used for control. Five days 
after inoculation, the treated seedlings showed definite symptoms of 
heart-rot. The control seedlings were all free from infection. 



334 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


All of the inoculated and control seedlings in each of the above 
experiments were placed in the moist chamber for four or five days. 
Under damp-chamber conditions, the inoculated seedlings showed in- 
fection by the fungus. 

In four to six days after inoculation water soaked lesions were 
noted. These appeared as light to dark brown areas on the seed- 
lings. The symptoms were produced on the leaf sheaths and young- 
est furled leaves where the spore suspension was sprayed. Larger 
lesions were produced on seedlings previously pricked. 

The rotting of the youngest furled leaves and the leaf sheaths 
started from the top and advanced toward the lower portion of the 
pseudostem. As the disease advanced, the infected areas were 
transformed into soft, dark-brown tissues. Later on, yellowing, 
wilting, bending over and finally dying of the infected leaves oc- 
curred. 

Thirty-five to forty days after inoculation, healthy leaves de- 
veloped and the infected seedlings nearly recovered. 

Relation of the fungus isolated by the toriter from heart-nrot to 
Fusarium moniUforme Sheldon var. subglutinans 
Wollenweber and Reinking 

The two Fusaria were similar in (1) size of spores, (2) cultural 
characters, (3) absence of chlamydospores and (4) forms of fructi- 
fications produced on artificial media. 

Size of spores. According to Ocfemia and Mendiola (1932) 
the 0- and 1-septate microconidia of Fusarium moniUforme Sheldon 
var. subglutinans ranged from 16.6 to 23.2 by 3.6 to 3.9 ^ and the 
2-, 3-, 4- and 6-septate macroconidia ranged from 26.2 to 60.3 by 
3.6-4.1 p. In the writer’s Fusarium the 0- and 1-septate microco- 
nidia measured from 14.1 to 22.6 by 3.4 to 3.7 p and the 2-, 3-, 4- and 
6-septate macroconidia measured from 29.0 to 60.7 by 3.6 to 4.6 p. 
The two Fusaria agree very closely in spore size. 

Cultural characters. It was noted that there is very slight 
difference in the cultural characters. Fusarium moniUforme Shel- 
don var. subglutinans and the one isolated by the writer from heart- 
rot appeared similar in every medium used. The two Fusaria exhib- 
ited copious growth on corn meal agar, steamed rice, oatmeal and 
on potato dextrose agar and scanty and thin growth in potato agar. 
Their colors on medium of the same composition appeared similar. 
When compared with the color standards of Ridgway (1912) Fusa- 
rium monMforme Sheldon var. subglutinans was slightly darker in 
color than the writer’s Fusarium. 



ROOTS AND CORMS OF ABACA 


336 


Absence of chlamydospores. In examination of the mycelium 
of twenty-day old cultures of Fusarium monilifonne Sheldon var, 
subglutinans Wollenweber and Reinking on oatmeal the writer noted 
small globose, thin walled and granular chlamydospore-like struc- 
tures, either singly or in pairs. Microscopic examination of the 
writer's Fusarium from heart-rot of the same age and on the same 
medium also showed swellings of the hyphae which were globose, 
granular, thin walled and single. To verify the absence of chlamyd- 
ospores, conidia were germinated in hanging drops of sterile water. 
The result showed that the fungus does not produce chlamydospores. 

Forins of fructification. Examination of a twelve-day-old cul- 
ture on potato dextrose agar of Fusanum monilifonne Sheldon var. 
subglutinans showed that conidia were produced by the submerged 
hyphae or by the aerial mycelium. On older cultures pionnotes were 
formed. Similar studies of a twelve-day-old culture of Fusarium 
from heart-rot was made and the writer found that conidia were 
also produced by the aerial mycelium and also pionnotes. 

Morphological and cultural studies showed that the heart-rot 
Fusarium, under study was identical with Fusarium moniliforme 
Sheldon var. subglutinans Wr. and Rg. The fungus belongs to the 
section Liseola (Wollenweber, Sherbakoff, Reinking, Johann and 
Bailey, 1926a, and Wollenweber and Reinking, 1925b). The fun- 
gus Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon var. subglutbians Wr. and Rg., 
is characterized by: microconidia on aerial mycelium, 0-1-septate, 
thin walled, chlamydospores absent; macroconidia subpedicellate to 
pedicellate and 2-5-septate. The 1-septate measure 22 6 X 3.7 /x; 2- 
septate 29.0 X 4.1/x; 3-septate 33.8 X 4.6 /x; 4-septate 40.1 X 3.9 u; 
and 6-septate 60.7 X 4.2 ^x. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

1. Heart-rot of abaca, or Manila hemp ( Musa textilis Nee) oc- 
curs on weakened abaca plants. It may be regarded as a secondary 
trouble. 

2. In the present study it was found that from 10.49 to 22.1 
per cent of the abaca plants infected with the bunchy-top disease 
die of heart-rot. 

3. Root weevil. Cosmopolites sordidus Germar, is a serious in- 
sect pest. It causes serious damage on abaca in the field. It was 
found that heart-rot cases following root weevil injuries ranged 
from 63.3 to 90 per cent. 



336 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


4. It was found that heart-rot cases following nematode infection 
range from 9.6 to 20.5 per cent. 

6. Cutting off portions of the roots of abaca weakens the plant 
and predisposes it to various agencies which sometimes result in the 
production of heart-rot. 

6. The fungus isolated from heart-rot of abacd caused rotting 
only under damp-chamber conditions. As soon as the seedlings 
were taken out of doors, they outgrew infection and recovered from 
the disease. 

7. Infection is produced more readily on the injured than on the 
uninjured bases of the youngest leaves. 

8. It takes from four to six days for the disease to appear after 
inoculation and from thirty-five to forty days for the plants to re- 
cover from the disease. 

9. The fungus isolated from heart-rot cases of abaca is iden- 
tical with Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon var. subglutinans Wollen- 
weber and Reinking. 


LITERATURE CITED 

Lee, hi Athhiton, and F. B. Serrano. 1923. Banana wilt of the Manila 
hemp plant. Phytopath. 13: 263-256. 

Leoncio, J» B. 1930. The relation to abaca, or Manila hemp, of the banana 
wilt fungus Fusarium cubense EFS. The Philippine Agriculturist 19: 
27-42. Fig. 1-2. 

OCFBMiA, G. 0. 1927. Second progress report on bunchy-top of abaci, or 
Manila hemp. Phytopath. 17: 255-257. Fig. 1. 

OCFEMiA, G. 0. 1930. Bunchy-top of abaca, or Manila hemp: I. A study of 
the cause of the disease and its method of transmission. Amer. Jour. 
Bdt. 17: 1-18. PI. 1-i. 

OCFEMIA, G. 0. 1931. The bunchy-top of abaci and its control. The Philip- 
pine Agriculturist 20; 328-340. Fig 1-6. 

OCFEMIA, G. 0., AND M. R. Calinisan. 1928. The root-knot of abaci, or Ma- 
nila hemp. Phytopath. 18: 861-867. Fig. 1-2. 

OcFBMiA, G. 0., AND V, B. Mendiola. 1932. The Fusarium associated with 
some field cases of heart-rot of abaci. The Philippine Ag^culturist 21: 
296-308. Fig. IS. 

Tix>doro, N. G. 1926. The plant pest and disease control service of the Phil- 
ippine Bureau of Agriculture. Philippine Agric. Rev. (4th Quarter) 
18: 463-649. Fig. 



ROOTS AND CORMS OF ABACA 


337 


Tbodoro, N. G., and F. B. Serrano. 1926. Abacd heart-rot and bunchy-top 
diseases and their control. Philippine Bur. Agn^ic. Circ. 190: 3-16. 

WOLLBNWEBER, H. W., C. D. Sherbakoff, O. A. Reinking, Helen Johann, and 
Alice A. Bailey. 1925. Fundamentals for taxonomic studies of 
Fusarium, Jour. Agric. Res. 30: 833-843. Fig, 1, 

Wollenweber, H. W., and 0. A. Reinking. 1926. Aliquot Fusaria tropicalia 
nova vel revisa. Phytopath. 15: 156-169. 

Wollenweber, H. W. 1930. Fusaria autographice delineata. Tab. 974. 

Wollenweber, H. W. 1931. Fusarium-Monographie fungi parasitic! et sa- 
prophytic!. Zeitschrift fiir Parasitenkunde (Abt. F der Zeitschrift wis- 
senschaftliche Biologic) Band 3: (Heft 3) 269-515. Textabhildungen 1-71. 



COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE GROWTH AND MATURITY 
OF LOS BASOS CANTONESE AND NAGOYA CHICKENS » 

TELESFORO TIOAQUEN 

WITH ONE CHART 

Two of the outstanding and popular breeds of poultry imported 
into the Philippines are the Cantonese and Nagoya. The Cantonese 
fowl was introduced into the College of Agriculture about sixteen 
years ago and it has readily adapted itself to its new environment. 
Fronda and Gonzalez (1927) stated that because of its adaptability 
to local conditions the Cantonese fowl may become an important fac- 
tor in the development of the poultry industry in this country. 

The Nagoya chicken is relatively a recent immigrant, but the 
indications are that it will become a close competitor of the impor- 
tant breeds now found in the Islands. Nagoya chickens are now 
profitably raised in some suburbsi of Manila and in the near by prov- 
inces. Fronda and Gonzalez (1929) described the recent introduc- 
tion of this new breed into the College of Agriculture from Japan. 
The first Nagoya birds that were hatched in the College in 1926 be- 
haved fayorably under Philippine conditions, and during later years, 
highly marked improvements have been noted in the shortening of 
the period of maturity and the productiveness of the birds. 

The interest of poultry raisers in these two breeds, the Los Ba- 
nos Cantonese and the Nagoya, is becoming so great that compara- 
tive studies on their growth and maturity should be timely and of 
value. The facts and conclusions gathered from such work may be 
of some help in the development of the poultry industry in the 
Philippines. 

A number of experiments on observing and comparing the rate 
of growth of the Cantonese chickens vdth other breeds of poultry 
have been carried in this College. Lindayag (1918) compared the 
Cantonese and Native chickens and observed that the average num- 
ber of days a Cantonese required to mature was 248.2. Dangilan 
(1924) studied the rate of growth of Cantonese chickens and found 

’ Thesis presented for graduation, 1932, with the degree of Bachelor of Sci- 
ence in Agriculture, from the College of Agriculture, No. 360; Experiment 
Station contribution No. 906. Prepared in the Department of Animal Husbandry 
under the direction of Dr. F. M. Fronda. 


8S8 



CANTONESE AND NAGOYA CHICKENS 


339 


that on an average the pullets laid their first eggs when they were 
212.8 days old. Mendoza (1925) compared the rate of growth of 
Cantonese and Rhode Island Red-Cantonese crosses and recorded 
that the Cantonese laid their first eggs at the average age of 174 
days. Ordoveza (1927) found that, on an average, Cantonese pul- 
lets from eggs hatched in December matured in 163 days; those 
hatched in February, in 266 days, and those hatched in April, in 
220 days. 

Referring to the Nagoya breed in Japan, Shinji (1927) in his 
paper. On Nagoya, one of the dval-purpose povltry breeds originated 
in Japan, said, in part, that, “the chickens make good broilers in two 
months, and surplus cockerels may be fattened and make good roast- 
ers at four months of age. Pullets lay their first egg in their sixth 
month.” Fronda and Gonzalez (1929) writing on The Nagoya, a 
new immigrant from Japan, stated that among the four pullets pro- 
duced from the thirty Nagoya eggs brought here from Japan in 1926, 
the earliest bird to mature laid her first egg at the age of ten months 
and twenty-three days and the latest maturing bird laid her first egg 
when twelve months and eight days old. 

The present work had for its object the comparison of the rate 
of growth and maturity of the Cantonese and Nagoya chickens. Ob- 
servations were made on three sets of birds, the first being from 
October 30, 1930 to July 17, 1931, the second from January 6, 1931 
to September 16, 1931 and the third from March 11, 1931 to Decem- 
ber 26, 1931. This work was conducted in the Poultry Division, 
Department of Animal Husbandry, College of Agriculture, Los Ba- 
nos. 


MATERIALS AND METHODS 

A total of 255 Cantonese chicks and the same number of Nagoya 
chicks were used in this study. Pireless brooders made out of 
empty petroleum boxes were used in brooding the chicks. The chicks 
in each lot were kept separately in these brooders all night and dur- 
ing the day they were allowed to go out for feeding, drinking and 
exercise in yards enclosed with poultry wire-fencing. 

At the age of eight weeks all the birds in each set were put into 
portable rearing houses and placed in grassy yards. In these 
houses the birds remained for four weeks, then the sexes were sep- 
arated. In each set all the males from the two breeds were put 
together into one of the rearing houses and all the females were 
placed in the laying house. 



340 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTURIST 


The grain feed used during the first four weeks was ground 
corn. Then a mixture of equal amounts of palay and cracked corn 
was given instead of ground corn alone. The mash feed was com- 
posed, by weight, of two parts shrimp meal, two parts ground corn, 
and six parts rice bran. During the first four weeks, hard-boiled 
infertile eggs, chopped fine and mixed with the regular mash feed, 
were given once a day to the young chicks, allowing one egg daily 
-for every thirty chicks. Chopped green grass was also provided. 
After four weeks one part copra meal by weight was added to the 
mash mixture. 

For the greater part of the time they were under observation, 
the Cantonese and Nagoya chicks in each set were kept and fed 
together. The chicks were allowed all the feed that they would 
consume. 

The initial weight of each chick was taken about twenty-four 
hours after the hatch was taken off. From the day they were first 
weighed to the end of the study each bird was weighed weekly. Dur- 
ing the first four weeks a pan balance sensitive to one gram was 
used; for the remainder of the time an ordinary spring balance 
sensitive to 26 grams. 


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Weight of day-old chicks. Table 1 gives the average weekly 
weights of the chicks of the three sets of hatches made in this study. 
This table includes only the weights of the birds before they were 
separated as to sex at three months of age. It may be seen that 
at the outset the average weight of the Cantonese chick was 24.7 
grams, of the Nagoya chick, 28.2 grams, the Nagoya being 3.5 grams 
the heavier. In the case of the Cantonese chicks the average initial 
weight was doubled between the second and third weeks and much 
more than doubled in the third week. With the Nagoya chicks 
the average initial weight was doubled between the second and the 
third weeks, also, and slightly more than doubled in the third week. 
Dangilan (1924) and Mendoza (1925) both reported that the initial 
average weight of Cantonese chicks was doubled at about three 
weeks of age; a result very similar to that observed in the study 
here reported. 

Generally, as table 1 shows, there was not much difference in 
the two breeds in the gain in weight nor in the percentage of gain 
from the first day to the twelfth week. The Nagoya chicks during 



CANTONESE AND NACSOYA CHICKENS 


341 


the twelve weeks showed a higher gain in weight than the Canton- 
ese, but a lower percentage of gain. The differences in the gains 
in weights during this period may be considered insignificant. 

In comparing the observations on the Cantonese chicks used in 
this study with those on chicks used by previous workers, it was 
found that Lindayag (1918) reported 26.5 grams as the average 
weight of Cantonese chicks after twenty-four hours. Dangilan’s 
chicks (1924) averaged 28.6 grams in weight after forty-eight hours., 
Resananda (1925) reported 29.7 grams as the weight of the chicks 
when forty-eight hours old, this weight representing the average 
weight of chicks that were hatched from March, 1923 to February, 
1924 and consisting of sixteen hatches. Mendoza’s (1925) chicks 
weighed 28.3 grams after one day. Ordoveza (1927) reported 27.6 
grams for one-day old chicks hatched in December, 25.4 grams for 
chicks hatched in February, and only 19.4 grams for those hatched in 
April. As may be seen the Cantonese chicks used in this work, weigh- 
ing 24.7 grams at the age of one day, averaged a little lighter in 
weight than most cf those reported by the previous workers named. 

In the following weeks, however, the average Cantonese chick 
raised in this experiment made such rapid growth that after six 
weeks it outweighed most of the chicks reported by the previous 
workers cited. In the seventh week Lindayag’s chicks averaged 
172.2 grams in weight; Dangiian reported 143.5 grams; Mendoza 
recorded 206.1 grams; and Ordoveza in his three sets of experiments 
reported 163.7 grams, 129.1 grams and 141.3 grams, respectively. 
In the present work the average weight of the Cantonese chicks at 
the same age was 175.6 grams, second to the highest weight re- 
ported by Mendoza. In the eighth week, Lindayag reported 212.2 
grams, as the average weight for his Cantonese chicks; Dangiian, 
175.5 grams; Mendoza, 251.4 grams, and Ordoveza in his three sets 
of work obtained 190.2 grams, 155.1 grams and 187.4 grams. In the 
present work, the Cantonese chicks at this age averaged 212.6 grams 
which was again second to that reported by Mendoza which was the 
highest weight given for this age. 

Comparative groivth of males and females: The males. Tables 
2 and 3 give the average weekly weights and gains in weight in the 
three sets of observations made. As shown in these tables, the 
average initial weight of the male Cantonese was 24.9 grams and 
the male Nagoya, 28.6 grams, giving a difference of about 4 grams 
in favor of the Nagoya. Throughout the period of this work the 
Nagoya male averaged heavier than the Cantonese male, although 
during the first few weeks the differences were very slight. The 



342 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


highest weekly gain, 97.4 grains, was by the Cantonese males during 
the eighteenth week. The Nagoya males made the highest weekly 
gain, 115.9 grams, in the twenty-fourth week. In the eighth week 
the average weight of the Cantonese males was 229.9 grams, the 
Nagoya males, 262.9 grams; in the sixteenth week the Cantonese 
averaged 805.5 grams and the Nagoya, 859.4 grams; in the twenty- 
fourth week the Cantonese weighed 1401.5 grams, the Nagoya, 1538.6 
•grams, and in the thirty-second week the Cantonese weighed 1703.7 
grams and the Nagoya, 1965.2 grams. 

The females. Looking at the averages given in table 2 it may 
be noted that, on the whole, until maturity the weekly weights of 
the Cantonese females were always lower than the weights of the 
Nagoya females during the corresponding periods given in table 3. 
The initial weight of the Cantonese females was 24.6 grams and the 
Nagoya, 27.9 grams, giving a difference of 3.3 grams in favor of 
the Nagoya. After eight weeks the average weight of the Cantonese 
was 211.9 grams and of the Nagoya 237.5 grams. After sixteen weeks 
the Nagoya pullets registered 668.3 grams and the Cantonese, 714.0 
grams; in the twentieth week the average weight of the Cantonese 
was 925.8 grams, the Nagoya, 963.2 grams; and in the twenty-fourth 
week the Cantonese averaged 1127.3 grams in weight and the Na- 
goya, 1246.2 grams. 

Very similar to the Cantonese males the Cantonese females made 
their highest percentages of gains in weight during the period from 
the first to the fifteenth week, with the highest percentage, 38.7, in 
the second week. The lowest percentage was in the twenty-third 
week. The Nagoya chicks presented the same similarity ; the Nago- 
ya females like the Nagoya males made their highest percentages 
of gains during the period from the first to the thirteenth week, and 
the highest percentage of gain, 46.7, in the fifth week. The lowest 
percentage was produced in the twenty-first week. 

Chart 1 presents graphically the average weekly weights of 
both the Cantonese and Nagoya males and females. The chart 
shows that in the first five weeks the average weights of the males 
and females of both breeds were very close. Generally speaking, 
according to the results obtained in this study, the Nagoya chicks 
grew a little faster than the Cantonese chicks, although the difference 
may be considered insignificant. 

Table 4 gives the monthly mean weights and their corresponding 
probable errors. The table shows that as the weights increased 
there were corresponding gradual increases in the probable errors 
on account of the fact that the greater the weight the greater is the 



CANTONESE AND NAGOYA CHICKENS 


343 


chance of increasing the error made in weighing. By reference to 
this table, it may be seen that during the first day, fourth, eighth, 
twenty-fourth, twenty-eighth and thirty-second weeks the differences 
of weights between the Nagoya and the Cantonese males were found 



2 4. 6 8 10 12 14 le 18 20 22 24 

AGE in WEEKS 

Chart 1 . — Average weekly weights of Cantonese and Nagoya males and 
females up to twenty-four weeks of age. 

to be significant, and insignificant only in the twelfth, sixteenth and 
twentieth weeks. With regard to the Nagoya and the Cantonese 
females all the differences in weights were significant, except in the 
twentieth week. This table, therefore, shows that the Nagoya 




344 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


chickens made better and more significantly important mean monthly 
weights than the Cantonese did during the same time. 

Further examination of table 4 will reveal that in spite of the 
increase of the probable error as the weights increased, there was, 
generally, remarkably large gradual increases in the differences of 
weights of both the Nagoya and Cantonese, either male or female, 
so that the proportion of the difference and its probable error be- 
came greater until maturity. Since the differences generally in- 
creased and were very distinctly significant, it may then be assumed 
that in general the Nagoya had more marked gains in weight and 
size than the Cantonese and that this condition became more and 
more evident up to maturity. 

Growth of feathers. Careful observations on the growth of the 
feathers were made. At about four weeks of age the average female 
Cantonese chick used in this work had grown its primary wing 
feathers and the secondary wing feathers were beginning to form. 
The males at this age, with some exceptions, showed scarcely any 
feather development. At eight weeks, the average female Cantonese 
was fully feathered. The male Cantonese, on the other hand, were 
still feathering. Their wing, back, saddle and side feathers had 
grown almost fully, with the neck and tail still showing new and 
undeveloped feathers. At this age the birds often flew or ran rap- 
idly whenever they were called for feeding. At twelve weeks old, 
the average male and female Cantonese were fully feathered. 

The Nagoya chicks at four weeks old showed almost no develop- 
ment of feathers. At eight weeks old, the female Nagoya chicks 
appeared similar to the male Cantonese as regards feather covering. 
The average male Nagoya had grown only its wing, back and part 
of the saddle feathers. At the age of twelve weeks the Nagoya 
male and female showed full feather growth. 

Sex. At three months of age the sex in Cantonese and Nagoya 
could easily be distinguished by external appearance. Even as early 
as two months the sexes in Cantonese could be distinguished by the 
size of their combs and wattles, and by examination of the saddle 
and back feathers. The combs, wattles and feathers of the Nagoya 
chicks developed much later than the Cantonese, thereby making it 
difficult at this period to separate them according to sex. Although 
the Nagoya birds used in this study were actually separated accord- 
ing to sex when three months old, among the Cantonese the males 
were determined when they were two months of age by their more 
developed combs and wattles and by their pointed and long saddle 
and back feathers. 



CANTONESE AND NAGOYA CHICKENS 


345 


Maturity. The laying of the first egg was used as a guide in 
the determination of maturity among the pullets. Fronda (1928) 
stated that “maturity as applied to fowls means the laying of the 
first egg.” Also, according to Hays and Bennett (1923), egg laying 
may be considered as a manifestation of sexual maturity in the 
pullet. 

Table 6 gives the ages in days of the pullets at maturity. The 
first set of the observations showed the least number of days for the 
pullets to reach maturity; the second set the next number, and the 
third set the highest number of days. The mean or average ages 
at maturity of the Cantonese were 154, 191 and 193 days, in the first, 
second and third sets, respectively, with an average of 179 ± 8.5 
days. Of the Nagoyas the three means were 175, 204 and 224 days 
with an average of 201.0 ± 9.6 days. 

It may be seen also in table 5 that in the sixth month the per- 
centages of birds that were laying in the flocks of Cantonese were: 
first set, 100 per cent, second set, 18.6 per cent and in the third set, 
23.5 per cent. At the same age, in the first set of the Nagoyas 
there was 76.4 per cent laying birds; second set, 6.9 per cent; and in 
the third set there was none. As the birds were never given forced 
feeding that might have stimulated an early maturity, but instead 
were kept, so far as possible, under the same types of conditions, 
management and care, an explanation for the great differences of 
time to maturity recorded in the three sets of each breed studied must 
be sought in the different weather conditions and seasons of the year 
under which the birds were grown. 

The first hatch was taken off on November 21, 1930, so the birds 
were about seven months old at the end of May, 1931. The first 
hatch, therefore, was reared under the most ideal conditions. The 
second hatch was taken down on January 28, 1931, hence, the birds 
were four months old when the rainy season began, so that a consid- 
erable portion of their lives from chick to maturity was spent in 
the hottest part of the dry season and in the rainy period. The 
third set was taken down on April 14, 1931 and the observations 
closed in December, 1931. It has been the experience of poultrymen 
in the Philippines that chicks reared during the hottest part of the 
dry season and during the months of heavy rainfall of the year are 
not as vigorous as those that are grown during the season when the 
weather was not too wet and the rainfall fairly distributed. Ordo- 
veza (1927) made record of this experience in the three sets of 



346 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


hatches he made. A similar result was obtained in the present 
work. One important thing, however, that may be noted in table 
5 is that, under whatever conditions the birds were reared, the Can- 
tonese matured earlier than the Nagoya. 

Table 6 is presented to show the percentages of birds maturing 
at different periods of the experiment. At the age of twenty-one 
weeks there were in the Cantonese 3 out of 90 birds or 3.3 per cent, 
and in the Nagoya 2 out of 76 birds or 2.6 per cent, that had laid 
their first egg. At the age of twenty-four weeks in the Cantonese 
35 out of 90 birds or 38. 9 per cent and in the Nagoya 3 out of 76 
birds or 3.9 per cent had reached maturity. In the twenty-eighth 
week in the Cantonese 70 out of 90 or 77.8 per cent and in the Na- 
goya 37 out of 76 or 48.6 per cent had laid their first egg. The 
period with the highest number of maturing birds in the Cantonese 
was between the twenty-second and the twenty-third weeks, and 
in the Nagoya between the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth weeks. 

Comparative weights of eggs. Additional observations were 
made to determine the average weight of the first five eggs laid by 
the pullets (see table 7). By reference to this table it may be noted 
that the Cantonese pullets under the same age laid lighter and smaller 
eggs than the Nagoya pullets. Furthermore, the earlier the pullets 
matured the smaller were the eggs laid and as the pullets advanced 
in age there was a corresponding increase in the size of the eggs 
produced at maturity. 

The original eggs from Japan from which the College Nagoya 
flock began had an average weight of 62.0 grams. In the present 
work, the average weight of the first five eggs that the Nagoya pullets 
laid was only 39.4 grams. 

Mortality. Table 8 gives the number of dead chicks and the 
percentages of mortality up to the twelfth week. Dangilan (1924) 
and Mendoza (1925) both reported that the period of highest mor- 
tality among Cantonese chicks was within the first eight weeks. 
The same result was observed in the present experiment, with the 
heaviest mortality within the first month. Among the Cantonese 
chicks, the highest mortality was recorded between the fourth and 
fifth weeks, and among the Nagoyas, the largest number of deaths 
was registered between the third and fifth weeks. From the fifth 
to the twelfth week most of the deaths were due to roup or chicken 
pox. From the twelfth to the thirty-second week there were but 
few losses, most of which were probably due to stray cats or hawks. 
One Nagoya pullet at twenty-nine weeks of age was attacked by a 



CANTONESE AND NAGOYA CHICKENS 


347 


disease which could not be identified; she was removed from the 
flock and killed. According to the results of observation on mortal- 
ity, the Nagoyas showed less resistance to the ill effects of local 
conditions, yielding more easily to disease and unfavorable weather 
than the Cantonese. 


SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS 

1. The average weight of baby chicks of the Cantonese breed 
was 24.7 grams and of the Nagoya, 28.2 grams. 

2. The average initial weights of both the Cantonese and Nago- 
ya chicks were doubled between the second and the third weeks. 

3. The most rapid growth among the Cantonese chickens was 
observed to be from the first to the fifteenth week, with the highest 
percentage in the second week, while the most rapid growth among 
the Nagoya chickens was from the first to the thirteenth week with 
the highest percentage in the fifth week. 

4. In general, the Nagoya chick's made greater increases in 
weight than the Cantonese chicks. 

6. The Nagoya males made the highest average weekly weights. 

6. The Cantonese chicks developed their feathers earlier than 
the Nagoya chicks. 

7. Sex could be easily distinguished among the Cantonese chicks 
when they were about two months old; with the Nagoya, when about 
three months old. 

8. Cantonese pullets laid their first egg at the average age of 
179 days. The Nagoyas laid their first egg at the average age of 
201 days. 

9. Early-maturing birds laid smaller first eggs than the late- 
maturing birds. 

10. The Cantonese pullets laid smaller and lighter eggs than the 
Nagoya pullets. 

11. Both Cantonese and Nagoya breeds showed the highest mor- 
tality during the first eight weeks. 

12. Nagoya chicks showed a higher mortality than Cantonese. 

LITERATURE CITED 

DaSgilan, Luis J. M. 1926. Studies on the rate of growth of Cantonese 
chickens. The Philippine Agriculturist 15: 303-311. Chart 1. 

Fronda, F. M. 1928. Poultry raising, xviii -f- 269 p., 61 fig. Manila: Orien- 
tal Commercial Co., Inc. 



348 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Fronda, P. M., and B. M. Gonzalez. 1927. Developing the Cantonese chicken. 
The Philippine Agriculturist 15: 481-485. Fig. 

Fronda, F. M., and B. M. Gonzalez. 1929. The Nagoya, a new immigrrant 
from Japan. The Philippine Agriculturist 17; 559-563. Fig. 1-^. 

Hays, F. A., and J. S. Bennett. 1923. The correlation of sexual maturity to 
annual egg record. Poultry Science 2: 205-206. 

Lindayag y Magtira, Gaspar. 1918. A comparative study of Cantonese and 
Native chickens. The Philippine Agriculturist 7: 137-148. 

Mendoza, Jorge N. The rate of growth of grade Rhode Island Red-Canton- 

ese chickens. (Thesis presented for graduation from the College of 

Agriculture with the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture. 1925. Unpub- 
lished.) Abstract in the Philippine Agriculturist 15: 313. 1926. 

Ordoveza, Fernando C. Effect of time of hatching on growth and maturity 
of pullets. (Thesis presented for graduation from the College of Agri- 
culture with the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture. 1927. Unpublished.) 

Resananda, Nai Thongdee. 1924. Determination of the best season for hatch- 
ing eggs in the Philippines. The Philippine Agriculturist 13: 81-91. 

Shinji, Susaki. 1927. On Nagoya, one of the dual purpose breeds originated 
in Japan. Proceedings of the World’s Poultry Congress (Ottawa, Cana- 
da) 60-63. 



CANTONESE AND NAGOYA CHICKENS 


S4d 


TABLE I 

Average v>eekly weights of Cantonese and Nagoya chicks 
(Average of first, second ami third sets) 


AGE 

CANTONESE 


NACH^YA 


Number 

of 

chicks 

Av. 

weekly 

weights 

Av. 

weekly 

gain 

Gain 

Number 

of 

chicks 

Av. 

weekly 

weights 

Av. 

weekly 

gain 

Gain 




granib 

grams 

jter cent 


grams 

gi ams 

per rent 

1 day . . 


255 

24.7 

‘ — 

— 

255 

28.2 

— 

— 

1 week . 


247 

31.3 

6.6 

26.7 

246 

35.3 

7.1 

25.2 

2 weeks 


237 

43.4 

12.1 

38.6 

236 

47.1 

11.8 

33.4 

3 weeks 


232 

58.5 

15.1 

34.7 

224 

61.7 

14.6 

30.9 

4 weeks 


227 

74.9 

16.4 

28.0 

199 

84.3 

22.6 

36.6 

5 weeks 


215 

101.3 

26.4 

35.2 

181 

118.3 

34.0 

40.3 

6 weeks 


211 

131.5 

30.2 

29.8 j 

180 

156.8 

38.5 

32.5 

7 weeks 


208 

175.6 

44.1 

33.5 1 

175 

211.6 

54.8 

34.9 

8 weeks 


200 

212.6 

37.0 

21.1 ! 

165 

245.7 

34.1 1 

16.1 

9 weeks 


196 

269.4 

57.2 

26.9 

165 

302.0 

56.3 

22.9 

10 weeks 


185 

327.8 

58.4 

21.7 

157 

373.2 

89.4 

31.5 

11 weeks 

••• ! 

185 1 

390.8 

63.0 1 

1 19.2 1 

157 1 

442.5 1 

69.3 j 

18.6 

12 weeks . 

. — — — 


178 

460.1 

69.4 

1 17.7 

152 

514.6 

72.1 

16.2 


360 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE 2 

Average weights of Cantonese males and females 
(Average of first, second and third sets) 


AOE 

NUMBER OF 
BIRDS 

AV. WEEKLY 
WEIGHT 

AV. WEEKLY 

GAIN 

GAIN 

Male 

Female 

Male 

Female 

Male 

Female 

Male 

Female 




grama 

grama 

grama 

grama 

per cent 

per cent 

1 day 

87 

91 

24. 

9 

24.6 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 week .... 

87 

91 

32. 

7 

30.7 

7.8 

6.1 

31.3 

24.7 

2 weeks . . . 

87 

91 

46 

6 

42.6 

13.9 

11.9 

42.6 

38.7 

3 weeks . . . 

87 

91 

63 

2 

58.9 

16.6 

16.3 

36.6 

38.2 

4 weeks 

87 

91 

80 

3 

75.3 

17.1 

16.4 

27.0 

27.8 

6 weeks . . . 

87 

91 

109 

8 

102.0 

29.6 

26.7 

36.7 

36.4 

6 weeks . . . 

87 

91 

139 

.7 

132.1 

29.9 

30.1 

27.2 

29.5 

7 weeks . . . 

87 

91 

189 

.3 

174.1 

49.6 

42.0 

35.5 

31.7 

8 weeks . . - 

87 

91 

229 

.9 

211.9 

40.6 

37.8 

21.4 

21.7 

9 weeks . . . 

87 

91 

288 

.3 

261.6 

68.4 

49.7 

25.4 

23.4 

10 weeks . . . 

87 

91 

344 

6 

316.7 

66.3 

56.1 

19.6 

21.0 

11 weeks . . . 

87 

91 

412 

8 

375.8 

68.2 

59.1 

19.7 

18.6 

12 weeks . . . 

87 

91 

484 

5 

437.9 

71.7 

62.1 

17.3 

16.6 

13 weeks . . . 

87 

91 

577 

0 

508.5 

92.6 

70.6 

19.0 

16.1 

14 weeks . . . 

86 

90 

654 

1 

559.7 

77.1 

51.2 

13.4 

10.0 

15 weeks * . . 

86 

90 

736 

3 

623.1 

82.2 

63.4 

12.6 

11.3 

16 weeks . . . 

86 

90 

805 

5 

668.3 

69.2 

46.2 

9.3 

7.2 

17 weeks . . . 

86 j 

90 

884 

0 

718.9 

78.5 

50.6 

9.7 

7.6 

18 weeks . . .t 

86 

90 

981 

4 

796.3 

97.4 

76.4 

11.0 

10.6 

19 weeks . . . 

86 

90 

1053, 

,4 

872.6 

72.0 

77.2 

7.3 

9.7 

20 weeks . . . 

86 

90 

1126. 

.4 

925.8 

73.0 

63.3 

6.1 

6.1 

21 weeks ... 

83 

87 

1204. 

2 

977.3 

77.8 

51.6 

6.9 

6.5 

22 weeks . . . 

83 

78 

1274, 

1 

1049.0 

69.9 

71.7 

6.8 

7.3 

23 weeks . . . 

83 

61 

1341, 

9 

1066.2 

67.8 

16.2 

6.3 

1.5 

24 weeks . . . 

82 

55 

1401. 

5 

1127.3 

59.6 

62.1 

4.4 

5.8 

25 weeks ® . . . 

82 

— 

1465. 

5 

— 

64.0 

— 

4.5 

— 

26 weeks . . . 

82 

— 

1506. 

7 

— 

41.2 

— 

2.8 

— 

27 weeks . . . 

82 

— 

1549. 

,4 

— 

42.7 

— 

2.8 

— 

28 weeks . . . 

82 

— 

1580. 

2 

— 

30.8 1 

— 

1.9 

— 

29 weeks . . . 

82 

— 

1629. 

0 

1 

1 

48.8 

— 

3.0 

— 

30 weeks . . . 

82 

— 

1650. 

6 


21.6 

— 

1.3 

— 

31 weeks . . . 

82 



1665. 

8 

1 — 

16.2 



0.9 

— 

32 weeks . . . 

82 



O 

CO 

7 

— 

37.9 

— 

2.2 

— 


^Weighing of the female? was discontinued. 





CANTONESE AND NAGOYA CHICKENS 


361 


TABLE 3 

Average weekly weights of Nagoya males and females 
(Average of first, second and third sets) 


AGE 

NUMBER OF 

BIRDS 

AV. WEEKLY 
WEIGHT 

AV. WEEKLY 1 

GAIN 1 

GAIN 


Male 

Female 

Male 

Female 

Male 

Female 

Male 

Female 




grams 

grama 

grama 

grama 

per cent 

per cent 

1 day 

76 

77 

28.6 

27.9 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 week .... 

76 

77 

36.6 

36.4 

8.0 

7.5 

27.9 

26.8 

2 weeks . . . 

76 

77 

61.6 

47.2 

14.9 

11.8 

40.7 

33.3 

3 weeks . . . 

76 

77 

68.7 

63.2 

17.2 

16.0 

33.3 

33.8 

4 weeks . . . 

76 

77 

88.9 

85.6 

20.2 

22.4 

29.4 

35.4 

6 weeks . . . 

75 

77 

128.9 

117.7 

40.0 

32.1 

44.9 

46.7 

6 weeks . . . 

75 

77 

168.0 

156.3 

39.1 

38.6 

30.3 

32.7 

7 weeks . . . 

76 

77 

226.1 

205.2 

57.1 

48.9 

33.9 

31.3 

8 weeks . . . 

75 

77 

262.9 

237.5 

11.2 

26.0 

4.9 

12.6 

9 weeks . . . 

75 

77 

310.6 

296.6 

74.3 

65.4 

31.4 

28.2 

10 weeks . . . 

75 

77 

379.9 

365.5 

69.3 

68.9 

22.3 

23.2 

11 weeks . . . 

75 

77 

455.1 

435.1 

75.2 

69.6 

19.8 

19.4 

12 weeks . . . 

75 

77 

528.0 

603.9 

72.9 

68.8 

15.8 

15.8 

13 weeks . . . 

75 

77 

643.9 

577.7 

115.9 

73.8 

21.9 

14.6 

14 weeks . . . 

76 

77 

726.0 

619.8 

82.0 

42.1 

7.4 

12.7 

16 weeks . . . 

76 

77 

792.3 

668.8 

66.3 

49.0 

9.1 

7.9 

16 weeks . . . 

72 

77 

859.4 

714.0 

80.6 

45.2 

10.3 

6.7 

17 weeks . . . 

72 

77 

911.8 

751.3 

52.4 

37.3 

6.1 

5.2 

18 weeks . . . 

71 

76 

1008.1 

830.6 

93.8 

79.3 

10.2 

10.5 

19 weeks . . . 

69 

76 

1099.0 

898.7 

91.0 

68.1 

9.0 

8.1 

20 weeks . . . 

69 

76 

1174.6 

963.2 

75.5 

64.5 

6.8 

7.2 

21 weeks . . . 

69 

74 

1266.2 

1018.2 

91.6 

38.0 

7.7 

3.9 

22 weeks . . . 

69 

74 

1373.2 

1111.8 

107.0 

93.6 

8.4 

9.2 

23 weeks . . . 

68 

73 

1460.3 

1181.3 

87.1 

69.5 

6.3 

6.2 

24 weeks . . . 

68 

73 

1638.6 

1246.2 

78.3 

64.9 

6.3 

6.4 

26 weeks ® . . . 

67 

— 

1613.4 

— 

74.8 

— 

4.9 

— 

26 weeks . . . 

67 

— 

1671.6 

— 

68.2 

— 

3.6 

— 

27 weeks . . . 

67 

— 

1724.9 

— 

53.3 

— 

3.1 

— 

28 weeks . . , 

65 

— 

1791.6 

— 

66.6 

— 

3.1 

— 

29 weeks . . . 

66 

— 

1845.4 

— 

53.9 

— 

3.0 

— 

30 weeks . . . 

64 

— 

1896.9 

— 

61.5 

— 

2.7 

— 

31 weeks . . . 

64 

— 

1928.5 

— 

43.7 

— 

2.3 

— 

32 weeks . . . 

64 

— 

1966.2 

— 

36.7 

— 

1.9 

— 


^Weighing of the females was discontinued. 




362 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


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TABLE 5 

Showing age of matvnty in days 


CANTONESE AND NAGOYA CHICKENS 


353 




354 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE 6 

Showing percentages of birds laying 


AGE 

1 CANTONESE | 

NAGOYA 

Total 

number 

of 

birds 

Total 

number 

of 

birds 

laying 

Percentage 

Total 

number 

of 

birds 

Total 

number 

of 

birds 

laying 

Percentage 

20 weeks 

90 

— 

— 

76 

— 

— 

21 weeks j 


3 

3.3 


2 

2.6 

22 weeks 


12 

13.3 


2 

2.6 

23 weeks 


29 

32.2 


3 

3.9 

24 weeks 


35 

38.9 


3 

3.9 

26 weeks 


39 

43.3 


21 

27.6 

26 weeks 


50 

66.5 


21 

27.6 

27 weeks : 

1 

60 

66.6 


35 

46.0 

28 weeks 


70 

77.8 


37 

48.6 

29 weeks 


74 

82.2 

76“ 

42 

66.3 

30 weeks 


75 

83.3 


44 

67.9 

31 weeks 


78 

86.7 


46 

60.6 

32 weeks 


85 

94.4 


60 

66.7 

33 weeks 


86 

96.5 


56 

73.7 

34 weeks - 


87 

96.7 


61 

80.3 

35 weeks 


90 

100.0 


72 

94.7 

36 weeks 


— 

— 


74 

97.3 

37 weeks 


— 

— 


75 

98.7 


‘ One Nagoya pullet became sick in the twenty-ninth week and was killed. 









CANTONESE AND NAGOYA CHICKENS 


355 


TABLE 7 

Showing the averages of the average weights of the first five eggs la/id 



NUMBBK OF BlltOS 

THAT lAID 

AVERAGE OF AVERAGE 
WEIGHT IN GRAMS 

Cantonese 

Nasroya 

1 Cantonese 

Naflroya 

First set 

30 

17 

27.4 

34.8 

Second set 

43 

42 

34.3 

40.2 

Third set 

17 

14 

34.6 

43.2 

Average 

— 

— 

32.1 

39.6 


TABLE 8 

Number of dead chicks and percentage of mortality up to the twelfth week 


PERIOD 

CANTONESE 

NAGOYA 

Number 

of 

chicks 

Number 

of 

dead 

chicks 

Percent- 
asre of 
mortality 

Number ' 
of 

chicks 

Number 

of 

dead 

chicks 

Percent- 
asre of 
mortality 

1 day 

255 


— 

255 

— 

— 

1 week 

247 

8 

3.1 

246 

9 

3.5 

2 weeks 

237 

10 

4.0 

236 

10 

4.1 

3 weeks 

232 

6 

2.1 

224 

12 

6.1 

4 weeks 

227 

6 

2.1 

199 

26 

11.2 

5 weeks 

216 

12 

6.3 

181 

18 

9.0 

6 weeks 

211 

4 

1.9 


1 

0.6 

7 weeks 

208 

3 

1.4 

176 

5 j 

2.8 

8 weeks 

200 

8 

3.8 

165 


6.7 

9 weeks 

196 

4 

2.0 

165 


0.0 

10 weeks 

186 

11 

6.6 

167 

8 

4.8 

11 weeks 

186 

0 

0.0 

157 


0.0 

12 weeks 

178 

7 

3.8 j 

162 

6 

3.2 

Total 

1 - 

1 77 

1 . 30.2 

— 

103 

1 40.9 














THE AMOUNT OF RESIDUAL ARSENIC ON LEAFY VEGETA- 
RLE CROPS SPRAYED AND DUSTED WITH 
ARSENICAL INSECTICIDES ^ 

JUAN N. SAMSON 

Vegetables can not be raised without insect depredation and de- 
struction by disease. To prevent, or at least to lessen these losses, 
control measures should be adopted. Leaf-eating insect pests can 
be controlled effectively by arsenical insecticides, such as lead arsen- 
ate, calcium arsenate and Paris Green. 

Arsenical compounds are very poisonous; the lowest fatal dose^ 
for human beings (Winslow, 1919) is 1.5 grains or .0972 gram of 
arsenic as AS 2 O 3 . Vegetables sprayed or dusted with arsenical in- 
secticides may retain arsenic in amounts which might prove inju- 
rious to the consumer. A perusal of the available literature reveals 
that no quantitative estimate of residual arsenic on vegetables 
sprayed and dusted with arsenical insecticides in the Philippines has 
been published. Hence, the importance of the work here reported is 
the information it will furnish as to the possibility of improving the 
raising -of vegetable crops in the Islands by the use of arsenical in- 
secticides without danger to the consumer. 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE 

According to Bertin-Sans and Ros, as cited by Lynch, McDonnell, 
Haywood, Quintance and Waite (1922), “the chief danger in the 
use of arsenicals arose from mistakes due to carelessness and that if 
suitable regulations were enforced no danger was to be feared.” 

Bourcart (1913) states that the poison does not enter into the 
treated plant. Within twenty to twenty-four days, the poison remain- 
ing on the surface wholly disappears. 

Lynch, McDonnell, Haywood, Quintance and Waite (1922) con- 
cluded from the results of their analyses, that to avoid excessive 


’ Thesis presented for graduation, 1933, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Agnriculture from the College of Agriculture, No. 361. Experiment 
Station contribution No. 907. Prepared in the Department of Agricultural 
Chemistry under the direction of Mr. Ramon A. Cruz. 


356 



RESIDUAL ARSENIC ON SPRAYED CROPS 


367 


amounts of spray residue on vegetables, the spray schedules recom- 
mended by the bureaus of Entomology and Plant Industry of the 
United States should be followed. 

Davis, as cited by Lynch, McDonnell, et al., analyzed celery that 
had been sprayed with Paris green at the rate of one pound (.46 
kgm.) to 175 gallons (662.38 liters) of water. The samples were 
washed and prepared as for market. The results of his determina- 
tions were as follows: sprayed once and sprayed twice gave .0244 
grain (1.66 mgm.) and .0368 grain (2.36 mgm.) of As.Oj per pound 
(.45 kgm.) of celery, respectively. 

The result of O’Kane, Hadley and Osgoods’ experiment, as cited 
by Lynch, McDonnell, et al., gave the following amounts of arsenic 
(calculated as As^Oj) on vegetables sprayed with dry lead arsenate 
equivalent to 3 pounds (1.35 kgm.) of lead arsenate paste to 50 gal- 
lons (189.25 liters) of water, “cabbage gathered 2 and 8 days after 
spraying, from 43.5 to 51.4 milligrams per head ; and lettuce gathered 
1 and 6 days after spraying, from 1.6 to 10.6 milligrams per head.” 

Robinson and Hartman (1927) working on apples stated that 
“there are wide variations in the amount of spray residue present 
on individual fruits, even when they have received the same spray 
treatment during the season.” In their analyses of two lots of fruit 
from the same tree, they found .06 grain (3.85 mgm.) of As^O., per 
pound (.45 kgm.) of fruit in one case and .09 grain (5.75 mgm.) per 
pound (.45 kgm.) of fruit in the other. 

Hartzell and Wilcoxon (1927) following the Gutziet method of 
analysis worked on 47 apples from trees sprayed five times with lead 
arsenate at Yonkers, New York. They found an average of .173 mgm. 
and a maximum of .704 mgm. of arsenic trioxide per kilogram of 
fruit. 


THE PRESENT WORK 

The object of the present work was to find the amount of resid- 
ual arsenic on leafy vegetable crops sprayed and dusted with arsenical 
insecticide. 

The investigation was begun on April 1, 1932 and terminated 
February 15, 1933. 

The vegetables were raised in the College of Agriculture, Rural 
High School Reservation. Chemical analyses were performed in the 
laboratory of the Department of Agricultural Chemistry of the Col- 
lege of Agriculture. 



368 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT 

Leafy vegetable crops 

The vegetables used were: 

Lettuce, Lactuca aativa Linn. var. Grand Rapids. 

Cabba^, Brassica oleracea Linn. var. Burpee’s all head early. 

Pechay, Brassica cemua (Thumb.) Forbes and Hemsl. var. Cabbage Head. 
Celery, Apium graveolens Linn. var. Golden Self blanching. \ 

Mustard, Brassica integrifolia (West) O. E. Schulz, var. Southern Giant 
Curled. 

Onsoi, Apium spp. 

Dusting materials 

Lead arsenate powder 2 parts by weight 

Air slaked lime 10 ” ” 

Spraying materials 

Lead arsenate powder 300 grams 

Quick lime 100 ” 

Water 100 liters 


Apparatus 

In addition to the apparatus required to carry out an ordinary 
quantitative analysis, a small Gutziet apparatus was also used. 

Plots 

The "plots were seven meters long and one meter wide. The dis- 
tances of planting, as recommended by Elayda, and Morada (1928), 
were followed and are here given : pechay and mustard, 50 cm. apart; 
cabbage, 60 cm. apart in each row; lettuce, 25 cm. between the rows 
and 25 cm. apart in rows; celery, 30 cm. between the rows and 20 
cm. spacing in the row ; onsoi was sown in rows 30 cm. apart. 

EXPERIMENTS 

Spraying and dusting 

The vegetables were sprayed late in the afternoon after the 
leaves regained their turgidity and dusted with arsenical insecticides 
early in the morning when the leaves were still moist with dew and 
there was no breeze. 

Spraying and dusting were carried out in accordance with 
Uichanco’s recommendation, (Uichanco, 1932) and both operations 
were performed on the same date. 

The amount of insecticides used and the length of time spent in 
spraying and dusting were noted. 



RESIDUAL ARSENIC ON SPRAYED CROPS 


369 


The frequency of spraying and dusting was detennined by the 
severity of attack by the insect pests and by the weather conditions. 

The vegetables were harvested on the same day. They were 
prepared as for market by cutting off the roots and the old dried 
leaves. 


Method of analysis of the residv/U arsenic 

Representative samples of the vegetables were taken and individ- 
ual heads of pechay, cabbage and mustard were analyzed; with let- 
tuce, celery and onsoi two or more heads were analyzed. The plants 
were chopped into small pieces with a large sharp knife so the sam- 
ple could be well mixed. From this prepared sample, the moisture 
was determined and the remainder was dried in an oven with tem- 
perature at 60°C., gradually increasing to 100°C. From these dried 
samples, the rest of the analyses were made. 

The modified Gutziet method of determining small amounts of 
arsenic as recommended by Scott (1925) was used. 

Control determinations were made also with untreated plants. 
The figures reported are for residual arsenic. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Table 1 shows the amount of residual arsenic in the plant receiv- 
ing treatments. The figures arc averages of at least two concordant 
determinations and those used in this discussion, unless otherwise 
stated, are expressed in mgm. of As^O, per kgm. of dry material. 
It may be seen in the table that the amount of residual arsenic is 
dependent on the frequency of application of insecticide. In the first 
set of dusting, using cabbage for the material, where six applications 
were made and the vegetable was harvested 13 days after the date of 
last application, a range of from 33.1 to 66.08 mgm. was found, giving 
an average of 46.88 mgm. for the set; whereas, in the second trial 
using the same plant with three applications and harvesting 7 days 
after date of last application, a range of from 5.83 to 10.86 mgm, 
was obtained, giving an average of 7.39 mgm.. Where spraying was 
used, a range of from 39.96 to 109.70 mgm., giving an average of 
56.18 mgm. for the first set was found ; whereas, for the same treat- 
ment in the second set a range of .39 to 2.01 mgm. of arsenic w’as 
obtained, giving an average of 1.48 mgm. 

Pechay dusted twice and harvested 5 days after the last appli- 
cation contained residual arsenic varying from 9.24 to 21.98 mgm. 
giving an average of 16.66 mgm. Pechay, sprayed twice and ex- 



360 


THE PHILIPPINE ACRICULTUBIST 


posed to the same conditionsj on analysis gave arsenic in amounts 
ranging from 9.26 to 22.80 mgm. with an average of 16.97 mgm. In 
the second set of experiments, using the same vegetable dusted twice 
and harvested 25 days after date of last application, residual arsenic 
was found to vary from traces to none at all. 

In the first set of experiments lettuce which was dusted once 
and harvested 12 days after application contained residual arsenic 
which varied from 1.74 to 3.81 mgm., with an average of 2.89 mgm. 
On the same vegetable in the second set of experiments dusted once 
and harvested 6 days after application of the insecticides, a range of 
from 15.37 to 29.12 mgm. with an average of 21.59 mgm. was found. 

Where spraying was done on lettuce for the first set a range of 
from traces to 4.71 mgm., giving an average of 3.19 mgm. of residual 
arsenic was found. For the same treatment in the second set, a 
range of 35.93 to 40.20 mgm. was found, giving an average of 38.20 
mgm. 

Mustard in the first set of experiments, which was dusted twice 
and harvested 13 days after the last application, contained residual 
arsenic varying from 5.04 to 21.25 mgm., giving an average of 11.49 
mgm. In the second set of experiments with the same vegetable 
dusted twice and harvested 18 days after the last application, a range 
of from 3.05 to 18.05 mgm. was found, giving an average of 8.36 
mgm. 

For the first set, where spraying was done on mustard a range 
of from 25.43 to 42.97 mgm., giving an average of 37.07 mgm. of 
residual arsenic was found. For the same treatment in the second 
set, a range of 3.44 to 20.88 mgm. of arsenic was found, giving an 
average of 10.22 mgm. 

In the first set of experiments, celery which was dusted once 
and harvested 22 days after application of the insecticides, contained 
residual arsenic which varied from 2.76 to 3.61 mgm., with an aver- 
age of 3.06 mgm. In the second set of experiments, with the same 
vegetable dusted once and harvested 20 days after application, a 
range of from traces to 5.97 mgm. was found, giving an average of 
4.09 mgm. 

In the first set, where spraying was done on celery a range of 
from 3.49 to 4.13 mgm., giving an average of 3.77 mgm. of residual 
arsenic was found. For the same treatment in the second set, a 
range of 12.43 to 21.04 mgm. of residual arsenic was found, giving 
an average of 16.28 mgm. 



RESIDUAL ARSENIC ON SPRAYED CROPS 


361 


Onsoi, dusted once and harvested 16 days after application, con- 
tained residual arsenic varying from 2,60 to 3.77 mgm., giving an 
average of 3.17 mgm. The same vegetable sprayed once and ex- 
posed to the same conditions, on analysis gave arsenic in amounts 
ranging from 3.42 to 4.19 mgm., with an average of 3.85 mgm. 

In the second set of experiments, using the same vegetable 
dusted once and harvested 8 days after application of insecticides, 
residual arsenic varied from 2.83 to 7.40 mgm., giving an average 
of 4.40 mgm. The same vegetable, sprayed once and exposed to the 
same conditions, gave residual arsenic in amounts ranging from 18.76 
to 25.42 mgm., giving an average of 21.38 mgm. 

To determine whether or not dusting and spraying operations 
would be a paying proposition, the amount of arsenicals and the 
cost of operation were computed. The results are shown in table 2. 

The writer paid Pl.OO per kgm. for lead arsenate in Botica 
Boie, Manila and calcium oxide cost P.03 per 10 grams in the College 
of Agriculture chemistry stock room. The cost of labor was com- 
puted on a wage of P.IO an hour. From this computation, the cost 
of material and operation for 100 plants of the different vegetables 
used in the experiment was computed. From the data it will be 
found that it cost more to dust plants than to spray them. The 
treatment was found expensive with cabbage, as the plant was treated 
more frequently than the other vegetables. It may also be found 
from the table that even if only one application had been made, the 
same operation would vary in cost with the different plants because 
of the different amounts required, depending on the nature of the 
plants. One dusting on onsoi cost P.04 per 100 plants. Six dustings 
on cabbage cost PI. 10 per 100 plants. One spraying on onsoi cost 
P.02 per 100 plants. Six sprayings on cabbage cost P0.55 per 100 
plants. 

To find whether or not the treatments affect the yield, the 
same number of plants, treated and untreated, in a set planted in 
plots side by side were weighed. The results are given in table 3. 
Studying the data in this table, it may be found that where plants 
like cabbage, pechay and mustard are especially susceptible to in- 
sect attacks the treatments certainly had a decided effect. It may 
be seen that the total yield for control plots of cabbage was 331 
grams, whereas sprayed plots yielded 4532 grams and dusted plots 
4329 grams. For pechay there is little advantage of the treated 
over the control. Control pechay yielded 3081 grams, sprayed pe- 
chay yielded 3478 grams, and dusted pechay yielded 3447 grams. 
For mustard, the control plants gave a yield of 2600 grams, sprayed 



362 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


mustard yielded 2828 grams, and dusted.mustard yielded 2924 grams. 
With such plants as lettuce, celery and onsoi which are not so sub- 
ject to attack by insects as cabbage, pechay and mustard there was 
hardly any effect noticeable and there were cases where the control 
gave the better yield. This experiment was run two times and the 
results in both were similar. 

Referring to table 1 for data on residual arsenic on sprayed cab- 
bage (set 1, trial No. 1 of the experiment) the amount of 109.70 
mgm. of arsenic per kgm. of dry material is found. This amount is 
greater than the lowest fatal dose for human beings, which accord- 
ing to Winslow (1919) is 97.20 mgm. of arsenic as ASjO,. On a 
kilogram of fresh cabbage, 7.41 mgm. of residual arsenic were found. 
From the results of the experiment, excluding the 109.70 mgm. of 
arsenic found on sprayed cabbage, of no vegetable would enough be 
eaten by an individual to contain a dangerous dose of arsenic, even if 
expressed on dry vegetable basis. Calculated on fresh vegetable 
basis, even if the vegetables were not washed, there would not be 
enough arsenic on them to be harmful to consumers. It may be in- 
ferred from these data that no danger need be apprehended from 
dusting and spraying the vegetables used in this experiment under 
the conditions of the trials. A study of the table will reveal that 
plants harvested some time after treatment usually gave less resid- 
ual arsenic than plants harvested within a shorter time, probably 
because of weather conditions. That is, if it is rainy the insecticides 
may be washed off and if it is dry and windy they may be blown off. 
The same result was found by Bourcart (1913) who stated that after 
twenty to twenty-four days, the poison had wholly disappeared from 
the surface of the plants. 

It may also be seen from table 1 that with the exception of the 
second set for cabbage the averages of residual arsenic from the 
sprayed plants were more than from the dusted ones. 

Determining their differences they were found significant in 
cabbage, set 2; lettuce, set 2; mustard, set 1; celery, sets 1 and 2; 
and onsoi, sets 1 and 2. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

1. Two sets of experiments were carried with six different 
plants; namely, cabbage, pechay, mustard, lettuce, celery and onsoi, 
testing effect of dusting and spraying with insecticides on yield, 
amount of residual arsenic, and cost of insecticides and operation. 



RESIDUAL ARSENIC ON SPRAYED CROPS 


363 


2. Under the conditions in which the experiments were carried, 
dusting cost more than spraying, because, (table 2) the amount of 
chemicals used for dusting was always more than for spraying. 

3. The amount of arsenical together with the cost of operation 
is dependent on the frequency of application and nature of the vege- 
table. 

4. With plants like cabbage, pechay and mustard which are sus- 
ceptible to insect attacks the yield was affected by both dusting and 
spraying; with plants not so susceptible no difference in yield be- 
tween the control and treated plants was observed. 

6. The time between treatment of plant and harvesting affected 
the residual arsenic content. The shorter the time the greater the 
amount of residual arsenic. 

6. The difference between residual arsenic in sprayed and 
dusted plants was found significant in celery and onsoi and in cab- 
bage, set 2, lettuce, set 2, and mustard, set 1. 

7. No amount of residual arsenic per kilogram of fresh material 
was found to exceed the lowest fatal dose for human beings. 


LITERATURE CITED 


Bourcabt, E. 1913. In.secticides, fungicides and weed-killers, xxxv -j- 431 p., 
12 fig. London: Greenwood & Sons. 


Elayda, Aniano, and Emilio K. Morada. 1928. Vegetable gardening and 
truck farming in the Philippines. Philippine Bur. Agric. Bull. 44: 1-77. 
PI. 1-9. 


Hartzell, Albert, and Frank Wiixxixon. 1927. The arsenic content of 
sprayed apples. Jour. Econ. Entomol. 20: 204—213. 

Lynch, W. D., C. C. McDonnell, J. K. Haywood, A. L. Quintance, and M. B. 


Waite. 1922. Poisonous metals on sprayed fruits and vegetables, U. S. 
Dept. Agric. Farmers’ Bull. 1027: 1-66. 


Robinson, R. H., and Henry Hartman. 1927. A progress report on the re- 
moval of spray residue from apples and pears. Oregon Agricultural Col- 
lege Exper. Sta. Bull. 226: 1-46. Fig. 1-i. 

Scott Wilfred W. 1925. Standard methods of chemical analysis. 4th ed., 
'xxxvii -f- 749 P-, 73 fis- New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. 

UlCHANCO, Leopouw B. 1928. Laboratory exercises in Entomology 1., 1-88. 
Los Banos: College of Agriculture (Mimeographed copy). 


UlCHANCO, Lbopoldo B. 1932. A handy duster for the small garden. The 
Philippine Agriculturist 20; 647-649. Fig. 1. 

Winslow, Kenelm. 1919. Veterinary materia medica and therapeutics. 8th 
ed 640 p. Chicago: The American Veterinary Publishing Company. 



864 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE 1 


Residiial arsenic per kilogram of the vegetables 


Cabbage, set 1 


SAMPLE 

DATE OP 
APPUCATION 

DATE 

HARVESTED | 

1 i 

MOISTURE 

TOTAL RESIDUAL 

ARSENIC 

Dry 

basis 

j Fresh 

1 basis 


1932 

1932 

per cent 

mgm. 

ingm. 

1 



92.36 

56.26 

4.22 

2 

Dusted 


91.06 

42.72 

3.82 

3 

July 1, 14 


89.88 j 

38.18 

3.86 

4 

Aug. 2, 15 

Sept. 18 

92.09 

33.10 

2.62 

5 

” 27 


90.42 

66.08 

6.09 

6 

Sept. 6 


90.79 

67.77 

5.67 

7 



91.49 i 

36.07 

2.98 

Average 




46.88 

4.04 

Probable error of average 



±3.287 


1 



93.25 

109.70 

7.41 

2 

Sprayed 


92.79 

49.90 

3.60 

3 

July 1, 14 


93.41 

1 42.22 

2.78 

4 

, Aug. 2, 15 

Sept. 18 

94.09 

39.96 

2.36 

6 

” 27 


92.30 

47.76 

3.68 

6 

Sept. 6 


92.08 

58.34 

4.62 

7 



91.20 

45.41 

4.00 


Average 

Probable error of average . 
Probable error of difference 


Cabbage, set 2 


66.18 I 4.06 
:t6.204 

9.30 ±7.021 (Insig- 
nificant) 


SAMPLE 

1 DATE OP 

j APPLICATION 

DATE 

HARVESTED | 

MOISTURE 

TOTAL RESIDUAL 

ARSENIC 

Dry 

1 basis 

1 Fresh 

1 basis 


1932 

1932 

per cent 

mgm. 

mgm. 

1 

Dusted 1 

1 

94.98 1 

10.86 

0.65 

2 


Dec. 26 

94.61 

6.61 

0.36 

3 

Nov. 26 


93.71 

7.22 

0.46 

4 

Dec. 1, 19 


94.69 

6.44 

0.35 

5 

1 


92.84 1 

6.83 1 

0.42 

Average 




7.39 

0.43 

Probable 

error of average 



±0.6035 


1 

1 Sprayed 



1.78 

0.09 

2 

Nov. 26 

Dec. 26 


2.01 

0.09 

3 

Dec. 1, 19 



0.39 

0.03 

4 

1 



1.75 

0.09 

5 




1.46 

0.09 

Average 




1.48 

0.08 

Probable error of average 



±0.2232 


Probable 

error of difference 


6.91 ± 0 

.6427(Signif- 


icant) 







RESIDUAL ARSENIC ON SPRAYED CROPS 


365 


TABLE 1 (Continued) 


Pechay, set 1 


SAMPLE 

DATE OP 

DATE 

MOISTURE 

TOTAL RESIDUAL 

ARSENIC 


APPLICATION 

HAKVESTED 

Dry 

basis 

Fresh 

1 basis 

1 

19S2 

Dusted 

19 S2 

per cent 

91.82 

11.77 

I mgm, 

0.96 

2 

1 Nov. 10, 18 

\ Nov. 23 

91.44 

9.24 

1 0.79 

3 


I 

92.70 

15.60 

1.14 

4 



91.32 

20.32 

1.76 

6 



91.18 

10.38 

0.92 

6 


1 

89.76 

14.30 

1.46 

7 


1 1 

91.02 

14.77 

1.33 

8 


1 

90.18 

18.67 

1.83 

9 


1 

i 89.35 

19.58 

2.09 

10 

1 

I 

1 90.16 

1 21.98 

1 2.17 

Average 

Probable 

error of average 



15.66 
:ii 0.9332 

i745 ’ 

1 

Sprayed 


92.49 1 

1 9.26 1 

0.70 

2 

Nov. 10, 18 

Nov. 23 

91.31 

1 13.81 

1.20 

3 



92.43 1 

1 19.98 i 

1.51 

4 



89.04 1 

11.98 

1.31 

5 



91.74 

12.10 

1.00 

6 



90.17 

19.17 

1.94 

7 



92.35 

19.01 

1.45 

8 



91.05 

20.62 

1.85 

9 



91.18 

22.80 

2.01 

10 



89.96 

20.94 

2.10 

Average 

Probable 

Probable 

error of average 

error of difference 


16.97 
±1.00;i 
1.31 ± 

1.51 

1.368 (Insig- 


nificant) 


Pechay, set 2 


SAMPLE 

DATE OF 
APPLICATION 

DATE 

HARVESTED 


TOTAL RESIDUAL 

AILSEXIC 


1 Dry 

' basis 

Fresh 

basis 


1932 

1 1933 

per cent 

mgm. 

mgm. 

1 

Dusted 



Trace ® 


2 

Dec. 21, 28 

Jan. 22 


Trace ® 


3 




Trace ® 


4 




None 


6 




None 


1 

Sprayed 


“91.29 

0.13 

0.01 

2 

Dec. 21, 28 

Jan. 22 


Trace ® 


3 




Trace ® 


4 




Trace ® 


6 




Trace ® 


Average 




0.13 

o^of ' 


® Trace not included in average. 


366 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE 1 (Continued) 
Lettitce, set 1 


SAMPLE 

DATE OP , 

APPLICATION 

DATE 

HARVESTED 

1 MOISTURE 

I TOTAL RESIDUAL 

1 ARSENIC 

Dry 1 

basis 1 

1 Fresh 

' basis 


19SS 

19SM 

per cent 

mgm. 

1 mgm. 

1 

Dusted ! 


92.63 

3.27 


: 2 

Sept. 26 

Oct. 7 

92.82 

3.62 


3 



93.30 

2.92 


4 



93.40 

2.99 


6 



93.33 

2.49 


6 



93.44 

3.10 


7 



93.38 

2.65 


8 



92.65 

1.74 


9 



93.03 

2.30 


10 



92.65 

3.81 



Prob ab le er ror of av erage ±0.1 322 


1 

Sprayed 


92.76 

2.46 

0.17 

2 

Sept. 26 

Oct. 7 

92.98 

4.71 

0.34 

3 



92.80 

3.86 

0.29 

4 



92.39 

3.17 

0.24 

6 



93.11 

2.24 

0.15 

6 




2.37 


7 



92.65 

2.96 

0.22 

8 1 



93.04 

2.99 

0.21 

9 




3.94 


10 



WBM 

Trace ® 


Average 


3.19 

0.24 


Probable error of average ±0.1869 

Probable error of difference 0.30 ± 0.2289 (Insig- 

nificant) 

® Trace not included in average. 


Lettuce, set 2 


SAMPLE 

DATE OF 

DATE 

MOISTURE 1 

TOTAL RESIDUAL 

ARSENIC 

APPLICATION 

HARVESTED 

Dry 1 

Fresh 





' basis 1 

basis 


198t \ 

19SS 

per cent 

mgm. 

mgm. 

1 

Dusted 


92.88 

29.12 

.2.07 

2 

Dec. 1 

Dec. 7 

93.07 

16.37 

1.06 

3 



93.61 

16.76 

1.07 

4 



92.25 

25.99 

2.01 

5 



92.60 

20.71 

1.63 

Average 

Probable 

error of average 



21.69 

±1.777 

1.66 

1 

Sprayed 


^ 92.49 

38.80 

2.91 

2 

Dec. 1 

Dec. 7 

92.77 

36.68 

2.66 

3 



92.66 

35.93 

2.64 

4 



92.02 

40.20 

3.21 

5 



93.50 

39.39 

2.66 

Average 




38.20 

2.79 


Probable error of average ±0.6488 

Probable error of difference 16.61 ± 1.860 (Signif- 











RESIDUAL ARSENIC ON SPRAYED CROPS 


367 


TABLE 1 (Continued) 


Mustard, set 1 


SAMPLE 

DATE OP 
APPLICATION 

■Wir ; 

DATE 

HARVESTED 

MOISTURE 

1 TOTAL RESIDUAL 

1 ARSENIC 

1 Dry 

1 basis 

Fresh 

basis 


19SS 

19 St 

per cent 

mam. 

mam. 

1 

Dusted 


89.99 

13.82 

1.38 

2 

Nov. 25 

Dec. 14 

84.37 

11.76 

1.84 

3 

Dec. 1 


88.51 

5.04 

0.58 

4 



87.97 

10.99 

1.32 

5 



86.24 

6.10 

0.84 

6 



85.02 

21.25 

3.18 

Average 




11.49 1 

1.52 

Probable error of average . 



i:1.613 


1 

Sprayed 


84.96 

40.32 

1 6.06 

2 

Nov. 25 

Dec. 14 

82.55 

36.45 

6.36 

3 

Dec. 1 


82.94 

39.91 

6.81 

4 



83.35 

25.43 

4.23 

5 



86.60 

42.97 

5.76 

6 



85.86 

1 

37.33 

5.28 


Average 37.07 | 5.75 

Probable error of average ±1.695 

Probable error of difference 25 . 58 ± 2 . 34 ( Signif- 


icant) 


Mustard, set 2 


SAMPLE 

DATE OF 
APPLICATION 

DATE 

HARVESTED 

MOISTURE 

TOTAL RESIDUAL 

ARSENIC 

Dry 

basis 

1 Fresh 

1 basis 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

19 St 

Dusted 

Dec. 21, 28 

193S 

Jan. 15 

per cent 

90.85 
89.53 
91.00 
90.12 
90.89 1 

mgm. 

14.09 

3.32 

18.05 

3.31 

3.05 

mgm. 

1.29 

0.36 

1.64 

0.33 

0.29 

Average 




8.36 1 

1 0.78 

Probable 

error of average 



±2.164 


1 

Sprayed 


90.20 

4.07 

0.40 

2 

Dec. 21, 28 

Jan. 15 

90.82 

4.49 

0.41 

3 



89.95 

20.88 

2.10 

4 



88.45 

3.44 

0.40 

5 



89.61 

18.24 

1.90 


Average 10.22 | 1.04 

Probable error of average ±2.589 

Probable error of difference 1.8C± 3.341 (Insig- 

nificant) 


368 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE .1 (Continued) 


Celery, set 1 


SAMPLE 

DATE OF 
APPLICATION 

DATE 

HARVESTED 

MOISTURE 

TOTAL RESIDUAL 

ARSENIC 

Dry 

basis 

Fresh 

basis 


1932 

1932 

per cent 

ingm. 

mgm. 

1 

Dusted 


86.24 

3.05 

0.42 

2 

Sept. 24 

Oct. 16 

86.68 

3.61 

0.48 

,3 



86.23 

2.76 

0.38 

4 



86.70 

2.99 

0.40 

6 



86.30 

2.88 

0.39 

Average 




3.06 

0.41 

Probable error of average 



±0.09774 


1 

Sprayed 


86.34 

4.13 

0.66 

2 

Sept. 24 

Oct. 16 

86.92 

4.05 

0.63 

3 



86.14 

3.55 

0.49 

4 



86.00 

3.62 

0.51 

5 



86.30 

3.49 

0.48 


Average 3.77 | 0.61 

Probable error of average ±0.09049 

Probable error of difference 0.71 ± 0.1332( Signif- 


icant) 


Celery, set 2 


SAMPLE 

DATE OF 
APPLICATION 

DATE 

HARVESTED 

MOISTURE 

TOTAL RESIDUAL 

ARSENIC 

Dry 

basis 

Fresh 

basis 


1 1932 

[ 1933 

per cent 

ingni. 

mgm. 

1 

Dusted 


1 86.25 

3.17 

0.44 

2 

! Dec. 19 

Jan. 8 

87.44 

Trace ® 


3 



86.92 

4.15 

0.54 

4 



86.82 

6.97 

0.79 

6 



85.46 

3.07 

0.42 

Average 




4.09 

1 0.65 

Probable 

error of average 



±0.4533 


1 

Sprayed 


87.00 

16.96 

2.07 

2 

Dec. 19 

Jan. 8 

86.12 

12.43 

1.73 

3 



86.91 

18.39 

2.41 

4 



86.78 

21.04 

2.78 

5 



87.00 

13.60 

1.77 


Average 16.28 | 2.15 

Probable error of average ±1.069 

Probable error of difference 12.19 ±1.161 (Signif- 

icant) 


^ Trace is not included in average. 




RESIDUAL ARSENIC ON SPRAYED CROPS 


369 


TABLE 1 (Continued) 
Onaoif set 1 


SAMPLE 

1 

1 

j DATE OF 

APPl.lCATION 

DATE 

MAUVEHTED 

MOLSTIJKE 

TOTAL RESIDUAL 

ARSENIC 

Dry 

basis 

1 Fresh 

1 basis 


1932 

1932 

per cent 

wgm. 

mam. 

1 

Dusted 


86.28 

3.41 

0.47 

2 

Oct. 7 

Oct. 23 j 

86.12 

3.47 

0.48 

3 



86.00 

2.61 

0.37 

4 


! 

86.63 

3.77 

0.50 

6 



86.14 

2.60 

0.36 


Averaere 3.17 I 0.44 


A. X vy X X/ JL WX Vf « X V/ X X 


1 

Sprayed 


86.19 

i 4.19 

0.58 

2 

Oct. 7 

Oct. 23 

86.15 

3.97 

0.55 

3 



86.29 

3.77 

0.52 

4 



86.22 

3.42 i 

0.47 

6 



i 86.13 

3.90 i 

0.54 


Average 

Probable error of average . . . 
Probable error of difference 


Onaoi, set 2 


3.85 I 0.53 
±0.08532 

0.68 ± 0.1822( Signif- 
icant) 


SAMPLE 

DATE OF 
APPLICATION 

DATE 

HARVESTED 

■■ ■ ‘1 
MOI.STUP.n 1 

TOTAL RESIDUAL 

AR.SEMC 

Dry 

basis 

Fresh 

ba.sis 


1932 


per cent 

mgm. 

mgm. 

1 

Dusted 

j 1932 

86.16 

3.67 

0.51 

2 

Dec. 19 

j Dec. 27 

86.39 

4.33 

0.59 

3 


! 

86.14 

7.40 ! 

1.02 

4 



84.44 

2.83 

0.44 

6 



87.48 

3.77 

0.47 


Average 4.40 | 0.61 

Probable error of average ±0.6309 



1932 

1932 

per cent 

mgm. 

mgm. 

1 

Sprayed 


89.00 

20.33 

2.24 

2 

Dec. 19 

Dec. 27 

88.51 

25.42 

2.59 

3 



84.47 

21.28 

3.30 

4 



84.39 

21.11 

1 3.30 

6 



83.46 

18.76 

3.20 


Average 

Probable error of average . 
Probable error of difference 


21.38 I 2.93 
±0.7466 

16.98 ± 0.9164 (Signif- 
icant) 


TABLE 2 

Showing the amount and coat of operations 


370 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


COST OF 
OPERA- 

llUiX 

PER 100 
PLANTS 

isg 

0.59 

0.24 

0.24 

0.13 

0.40 - 
0.13 

0.30 

0.15 

0.12 1 0.35 
0.04 1 0.12 

0.06 

0.03 

0.08 

0.04 

o.os 

0.05 

80*0 

80*0 

0.05 

0.02 

^ CO 

o © 

© © 

TOTAL 

pesos I pesos 
0.082 0.20 
0.188 ! 0.10 

0.042 0.10 

0.038 0.04 

0.042 0.09 

0.061 0.05 

0.129 0.13 

0.040 0.04 

0.051 0.12 

0.054 0.06 

0.010 1 0.02 

0.011 1 0.01 

0.013 0.04 

0.016 0.02 

0.018 1 0.05 
0.022 1 0.03 

0.019 1 0.06 
0.022 1 0.02 

0.031 i 0.016 0.05 

0.001 1 0.021 0.02 

0.019 1 0.05 
0.026 ! 0.03 

COST OF MATERIAL 

AND LABOR 

o 

X 

0.030 

0.040 

CaO 

pesos 

0.106 

0.004 

0.052 

0.002 

0.043 

0.001 

0.09 

0.002 

t- ©1 

tc o 
© © 

© © 

0.082 

0.002 

0.011 

0.026 

0.001 

0.032 

0.003 

0.038 

0.001 

0.032 

0.001 

9" 

X 

£ 

§ t- -TP 

« o o 

S o o 

c> 

0.003 

0.002 

0.003 

0.001 

0.006 

0.002 

0.004 

0.002 

0.005 

0.002 

0.0007 

0.0004 

0.002 

0.0008 

©4 rH 
© © 

© © 

O O 

100*0 

800*0 

0.002 

0.001 

0.002 

0.001 

AMOUNT OF 

MATEBLA.L USED 

o 

X 

cc. 

1392 

616 

460 

600 

731.7 

600 

130 

260 

10.80 ! 

0.33 I 325 

CO 

390 

400 

CaO 

grams 

36.50 

1.39 

17.8 

0.62 

14.3 

0.46 

30.0 

0.60 

22.3 

0.73 

27.30 

0.60 

81*0 

09*8 

8.65 

0.26 

12.50 

0.33 

10.40 

0.39 

10.80 

0.40 

9 

<! 

5 

grams 

7.10 

4.18 

3.46 

1.85 

2.86 

1.38 

© o 

O 00 

to »H 

4.46 

2.20 

5.46 

1.80 

0.72 

0.39 

1.73 

0.78 

2.16 

0.98 

2.50 

0.99 

2.08 

1.18 

2.16 

1.20 

TOTAL AMOUNT 
OP TVSPnTT- 

CIDES USED 

42.7 grams 
1392 cc. 

OQ 

OD 

O US 
d »-• 

17.2 grams 
460 cc. 

1. 

© 

to © 

CO o 
© 

<o 

h 

00 t- 

© »-• 
©4 CO 
t- 

B 

Is 

00 

©i © 

CO © 

© 

4.3 grams 
130 cc. 

10.4 grams 
260 cc. 

13.0 grams 
825 cc. 

n 

B 

Es 

© 

in o 

»-l CO 

eo 

12.5 grams 
390 cc. 

13.0 grams 
400 cc. 

TIME RE- 

D 

or 

minutes 

51 

55 

«© 

04 CO 

00 lO 
»-t 04 

©4 

CO eo 

19 

25 

© t- 

00 o 

11 

14 

©4 ^ 

© CO 

©4 © 

FRE- 

QUENCY 

to 

CO CO 

Ol 04 

04 Ol 

©4 ©4 

©4 ©1 


rH fH 



^ fH 

.-1 1-1 

0. 


number 

18 

18 

p- t- 

00 00 

CO CO 

W ©4 

00 00 

© © 

CO CO 

U9 l© 

00 CO 

© © 
in in 

© © 

© © 

in m 1 

100 

100 

120 

120 

TREATMENT 

Dusted 

Sprayed 

Dusted 

Sprayed 

Dusted 

Sprayed 

Dusted 

Sprayed 

Dusted 

Sprayed 

Dusted 

Sprayed 

Dusted 

Sprayed 

Dusted 

Sprayed 

Dusted 

Sprayed 

Dusted 

Sprayed 

Dusted 

Sprayed 

Dusted 

Sprayed 

VEGETABLE 



Cabbage 
set 2 

Pechay 
set 1 

Pechay 
set 2 

Mustard 
set 1 

Mustard 
set 2 

Lettuce 
set 1 

Lettuce 
, set 2 

Celery 
set 1 

Celery 
set 2 

Onsoi 
set 1 

Onsoi 
set 2 


0.03 



RESIDUAL ARSENIC ON SPRAYED CROPS 


371 


TABLE 3 

Showing the difference in yield of the treated and untreated plants 


VEGETABLE 

TREATMENT 

SET 1 

SET 2 



Plants 1 Weight 

Plants 1 Weight 


Cabbage 

1 1 

I Dusted 

Sprayed 
Control 

number \ 

18 

18 

18 

a rams 

4329 

4532 

331 

number 

17 

17 

17 

grams 

6602 

6823 

3309 

1 

Dusted 1 

38 

3447 

32 

8412 

Pechay j 

Sprayed | 

38 

3478 

32 

8600 


Control 

1 38 

1 3081 

1 32 

1 8098 


Dusted 

40 

j "^4 

34 

5009 

Mustard 

Sprayed 

40 

1 2898 

34 

5271 


Control 

40 

1 2600 

34 

4897 


Dusted 

1 -35 

716 

60 

1 1868 

Lettuce 

Sprayed 

1 35 

699 

50 

1 1893 


Control 

{ 35 

703 

50 

1 1865 


Dusted 

60 

722 

75 

1301 

Celery 

Sprayed 

60 

. 719 

75 

1106 


Control 

60 

739 

75 

1220 

! 

Dusted 

100 

1098 

120 

1766 

Onsoi 

Sprayed 

100 

1100 

120 

1738 


Control 

100 

1120 

120 

1780 



NOTE: ON BANANA 


As an instance of neighborly exchange of scientific knowledge 
and products the following is of interest. 

Under date of June 22, 1933 Dr. H. Wenholz, Director of Plant 
Breeding in the Department of Agriculture of the^ Commonwealth 
of Australia wrote Doctor Mendiola, Head of the Department of 
Agronomy in this College, telling him they were undertaking work in 
banana improvement. Their immediate objects were to obtain 
varieties resistant to bunchy-top and Panama diseases and also able 
to withstand strong winds. “Since the Philippines is a country 
which is very rich in species and varieties of Musa, I have thought 
that it would be possible for us to grow a number of seedlings from 
introduced seed amongst which we may obtain the varieties we are 
seeking.” 

Doctor Wenholz further asked Doctor Mendiola for advice as 
to the best lines on which to proceed, and also for some seed for 
raising banana seedling plants. Doctor Wenholz also wanted to 
know whether we had in this College any records of any varieties or 
species of Musa which are resistant to Bunchy-top. 

Replying to Doctor Wenholz’ letter, Doctor Mendiola wrote on 
July 26, 1933 as follows: 

Dear Doctor Wenholz; 

Referring to your letter of June 22nd just received, I would like 
to say that I do not know of any banana variety now grown in the 
Philippines which has been affected by the bunchy-top disease of our 
abaca. It is possible that your bunchy-top disease of banana is dif- 
ferent from that of our abaca. I am enclosing a memorandum, pre- 
pared by our plant pathologist, which might interest you. 

I am now gathering seed of some of our bananas and plantains 
and will send them to you as soon; as possible. I would say, however, 
that the varieties of our banana from which seed may be gathered are 
far from being the commercial and the table kinds and that plants 
raised in New South Wales from our seed were reported by Prof. 
Goddard of New South Wales to have developed their bunchy-top. 

Our banana that approached the export kind is the Bungulan 
which is resistant to Panama disease. This variety, however, is seed- 
less. If you care I could send you some corms by mail. 

* General contribution from the College of Agriculture No. 367. 


372 



NOTE: ON BANANA 


373 


The memorandum prepared by Dr. G. O. Ocfemia, plant; pathol- 
ogist and referred to in the above letter follows : 

Since 1926, when the undersigned began work on the bunchy-top of abaca, 
or Manila hemp (Musa textilis Nee) he has never seen a case of banana in- 
fected with bunchy-top. Even bananas planted between hills of abaca in- 
fected with bunchy-top have not been attacked by the disease. In an article by 
the writer published in American Journal of Botany, Vol. 17, p. 2, 1930 it was 
stated that: 

‘Although abaca is very seriously infected by bunchy-top in Cavite and 
Laguna provinces the writer has not seen the disease on Philippine varieties 
of banana, Musa sapient um^ and plantain, Musa paradisiacal in the field.’ 

In the second paper of the bunchy-top of abaca series, now in preparation, 
the undersigned will describe experiments on transmission of the abaca bunchy- 
top to Philippine bananas since 1928, and discuss the probable relation of the 
banana bunchy-top virus in Australia to the abaca bunchy-top virus in the 
Philippine Islands. 

In regard to the Philippine commercial varieties of bananas resistant to the 
Panama disease the following: Saba (Musa sajrientnm L. var. compressa Teo- 
doro) ; Ternate, or Gloria (M. sapientum var. ternaJensis Teodoro) ; Buhgulan 
(M. sapientum var. suaveolens Teodoro) ; and Lacatan (M. sapienfum var. laca- 
tan Teodoro) are highly resistant to this malady. 


M. R. Monsalud 

Of the Dejmrtmcnt of Agronomy 


In the Sunrise Islands of Japan, Yusuke Tsurumi, a wise Japa- 
nese leader, was showing an American visitor through his picturesque 
garden. 

‘"Here,” he said, ‘'fifty years ago my father planted a tree. Last 
week I cut down the tree. It had given shade, comfort, and nut 
products for sustenance these many years and to all our family it is 
a grateful memory. I hesitated to cut it down and only did so when 
I had satisfied myself’ —he paused a moment. “Look at the vista.” 
The guest looked, and before his eyes a volume of beauty, its pages 
splashed with color, with vine and shrub flecked with shadow and the 
gleam of sunshine, and then as far as eye could see, as the pages 
turned, dancing waves of the open sea, waves that invited to larger 
adventuresomeness. 

“I only cut down the tree,” said the leader of the youth of Japan, 

“when I found what a vista would be opened thereby.” 

President W'illiams, University of Missouri 
What the Colleges are doing, May, 1933. 



CURRENT NOTES 


Directions for packing Bombay mangoes for export. 

Fruit for export should be fully developed and reaped by stem 
cutting, leave about 14 inch stem on the fruit. 

Wipe dry and discard any with the slightest bruise and wrap 
with fine tissue paper. 

Use flat crates about 4 inches deep and containing only one layer 
of fruit. (Something similar to the tomato crates). The crates 
should if possible be lined with wood wool. 

The crates should hold only one or two or at most three dozens 
each. If necessary, two or three small crates can be tied together for 
shipment. 

The Journal of the Jamaica Agricultural Society, April, 1933, 


Hay made by passing hot air through grass in a new apparatus 
is said to have three times the protein content of the naturally dried 
article. It is thus three times as good for feeding live-stock. 

The New Zealand Dairyman, February 20, 1933. 


More than 160 delegates, representing 22 countries, are arrang- 
ing to assemble in London as we go to press, for the three-days’ cen- 
tenary celebrations of the Entomological Society of London. 

Among its many claims to distinction the Society can point to 
Charles Darwin as a former fellow. It can trace its ancestry back 
to 1745, and is the oldest society in the world devoted solely to in- 
sects, It is the father of economic entomology, a science which has 
achieved savings in agriculture valued at millions of pounds. 

The pioneering connection of the Society is well brought out in 
a finely produced historical volume which has been published by the 
Society in connection with this week’s celebrations. 

Of special interest in the Society’s history is clear proof pro- 
vided that its members were the first to recognize the practical im- 
portance of their subject. In June, 1834, the Society’s first prize 
essay was instituted, the subject being the turnip fly, which was 
then a serious pest. 

Tropical Life, May, 1933, 

874 



CURRENT NOTES 


375 


“Less than twenty years ago," says Sir Frederick Keeble, “all 
the nitrogen which occurs in the earth and in the bodies of plants 
and animals was due to one natural agency. There are in the soil, 
widespread in all fertile earth, invisible but innumerable bacteria. 
They include the nitrogen-fixing bacteria; that is to say, bacteria 
which have the power to make the free nitrogen of the atmosphere 
enter into combination with other elements. They and they alone 
bring the nitrogen into that fruitful combination in which it can 
serve as food for plants and animals. 

“But within the span of twenty years man has wrought a rev- 
olution more pregnant for the welfare of mankind than any other 
he has ever made. He can now supplement and surpass the work 
of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria; he can draw upon the vast supplies 
of the free elemental nitrogen which exists in the atmosphere, and, 
compelling the nitrogen to enter into union with oxygen and other 
elements, he can provide the essential nitrogenous food which the 
world, far more numerous and far more flourishing than it is at 
present, would require.” 

The Planter (F. M. S.), June, 1933. 


A sample manurial trial with ginger carried out on four ran- 
domised blocks at Siyambalagoda in the Yatinuwara district, show- 
ed that definitely significant yield increases are obtained by manur- 
ing with sulphate of potash and a complete mixture. The average 
increase was nearly 80 per cent over the control in the case of 
the latter and nearly 40 per cent with the former. These increases 
are statistically significant, the probability being over 20 to 1 that 
the sulphate of potash and over 100 to 1 that the complete mixture 
are responsible for the increased yields. 

The Tropical Agriculturist (Ceylon), May, 1933. 


Mix equal quantities of milk and petrol; bottle and shake well. 
Keeps kid shoes lovely and white. 

Live Stock Bulletin, April 1, 1933. 


Dr. Ryan, Minister for Agriculture, received a deputation from 
the Irish Dairy Shorthorn Breeders’ Society at Leinster House last 
week, and discussed with them the outlines of a national scheme 
for a “Drink More Milk” campaign which was prepared by the 
Society. 



376 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Mr. P. J. Halliden, Secretary, in outlining the scheme, said 
while the Irish were probably the largest butter-eaters in the world, 
they were very poor milk-drinkers compared with U. S. A., Sweden, 
Switzerland, etc. 

He was afraid that the physique of the children was suffering 
seriously because milk was not more extensively used in their diet, 
and in this matter parents had a big responsibility. He promised 
to assist the campaign in every possible way and to go into the mat- 
ter at once, with the object of getting a grant from the Ministry of 
Finance for the purpose. 

The Farmers' Gazette (Ireland), May 13, 1933. 


COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 

Dr. Rui Feng, Director of Agriculture and Forestry of Kwan- 
tung Province and Dean of College of Agriculture, Lingnan Univer- 
sity, Canton, China accompanied by Generals Weng Shat-lang and 
Wei Swei-shing and Colonel I^ui Ting-eng who are interested in im- 
proving breeds of Chinese cavalry horses and Mr. Sheet Bo-kwan in- 
dustrial chemist spent two days on the Campus in August guests 
of the College and School of Forestry. 


Dr. T. Shibuya of Taihoku Imperial University, Government 
Central Research Institute, Formosa, Japan, was a recent visitor to 
the College. He is interested in breeding and selection of important 
crops. He was much impressed with the various varietal hybrids 
of some introduced cotton varieties produced by the Plant Breeding 
Staff of the Department of Agronomy. 


Dr. Robert L. Pendleton has received from soil scientists in dif- 
ferent parts of the world, warm words of appreciation of his trans- 
lation from the Dutch of Dr. E. C. Jul. Mohr’s book on Tropical soil- 
forming pfocesses and the development of tropical soils. This 
translation was issued by this College in mimeographed form in 
1930, and early this year was published by the National Geological 
Survey of China. 


Mr. Leopoldo P. Abes, '27, sugar agronomist of the Nueva Ecija 
Sugar Mills, Inc., donated to the Department of Agronomy an im- 
plement locally known in Niieva Ecija as tapil. It is commonly used 



COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 


377 


for planting cane points in Nueva Ecija. With the use of the tapil 
a planter, according to Mr. Abes, can plant 10,000 points a day, 
earning a wage of 60 centavos. 


The eighty-fourth regular scientific meeting of the Los Banos 
Biological Club was held in the Lecture Hall of the Poultry Building, 
College of Agriculture, on Thursday, July 20, 1933, at 7 :30 p. m. 

The following papers were read and discussed: 

‘‘Harmful effects of rice straw when added to soil in pots upon young rice 
and maize plants.*' 

By Dr. R. B. Espino, and Mr. F. T. Pantaleon. 

(Paper read by Doctor Espino.) 

“A proposed method of determining the area of a circular segment: Its 
application in the computation of the volume of slabs from cylindrical 
logs.” 

By Mr. Justino Seguerra. 

“Effect of various methods of storing corn on the degree of damage due 
to weevils.” 

By Dr. L. B. Uichanco, and Mr. S. R. Capco. 

(Paper read by Doctor Uichanco.) 


The following paragraph is quoted from an editorial in Peking 
and Tientsin Times of May 25, 1933 on agricultural improvement in 
China. Dr. Pendleton is head, Soils Department in this College. 

A great deal is now being done in unobtrusive ways to prepare for this 
immense task. The work of the China International Famine Relief Commission 
is familiar to everybody, though not in all its provincial ramifications perhaps. 
The Agricultural College of Nanking University has been a powerful and in- 
valuable worker in the same field. The Geological Survey has been conducting 
a Soil Survey in the North-West, under the direction of Mr. Robert L. Pendle- 
ton — an experienced scientist — and a group of Chinese colleagues, the printed 
reports of which, with illustrations and minute detail, are of great value. These 
enterprises constitute the beginning of what may well prove to be the most 
useful constructive phase of China's present activities, for they can be pur- 
sued through all the vicissitudes of higher politics and other grave troubles by 
local and voluntary effort and enthusiasm. 


The Bureau of Plant Industry purchased from the Depart- 
ment of Agronomy, through Mr. Paul L. Villyar, B. Agr. ’17, an em- 
ployee of the bureau, 100 meters of cassava cuttings of each of the 
varieties, Aipin Mangi, Aipin Valenca, and Mandioca Basiorao. 
These cuttings were shipped to the Experiment Station of the Bureau 
of Plant Industry at Alabang, Rizal. 



378 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


At the meeting of the U. P. Chapter of the Phi Kappa Phi so- 
ciety on June 20, Dr. N. B. Mendiola was elected corresponding 
secretary. The new members from the College elected at the meet- 
ing were: Dr. L. B. Uichanco, Dr. F. O. Santos, Dr. G. 0. Ocfemia, 
Dr. F. M. Fronda, and Mr. Dennis Molintas, B.S.A. ’34. The other 
members of the society from the College are: Dean B. M. Gonzalez 
(first president). Dr. Valente Villegas, Dr. A. L. Teodoro, and Dr. 
F. M. Sacay. 


Messrs. Dennis Molintas and Porfirio R. Manacop of the Class 
of 1934 were elected associate members in the Society for the Ad- 
vancement of Research, a scientific and honorary society, in the 
meeting of the society held on July 6, 1933. 


Mr. Nicomedes C. Flores B.S.A. ’27 was recently appointed prin- 
cipal of Odioflgan Rural High School, Romblon, succeeding Mr. Flo- 
rencio Bagui, B.Agr. ’13, retired. 


Mr. Fernando D. Luistro, B.Agr. ’15, in charge of the Marida- 
gao Rubber Experiment Station of the Bureau of Plant Industry at 
Pikit, Cotaboto, was a Campus visitor on August 8, 1933. Mr. Luis- 
tro had not seen the College for about thirteen years. He marvelled 
greatly at the changes on the Campus. Mr. Luistro obtained seeds 
of Kawisari coffee from Doctor Mendiola. 


Mr. Dominador D. Clemente, ’33, passed the teacher’s examina- 
tion given by the Bureau of Civil Service in Laoag, Ilocos Norte, on 
April 7-8, 1933. This qualifies Mr. Clemente to teach in any of the 
academic high schools in the Islands. He is at present the principal 
teacher of the Maquiling School, private elementary school conducted 
under the supervision of the Department of Agricultural Education 
for the children of the faculty and employees of the College of Agri- 
culture and School of Forestry^ 


Mr. Olimpio Fontanilla, ’33, formerly working in The Econo- 
mic Garden, Bureau of Plant Industry, Los Banos, was recently 
placed in charge of the provincial nursery of Negros at Bacolod, 
Occidental Negros. 


Mr. Conrado B. Uichanco, ’33, is enrolled as freshman in the 
College of Law, University of the Philippines. 



COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 


379 


At a meeting of the Mimics held in Molawin Hall Club Room 
on August 3, 1933 the following officers were elected : 

Raoul Arana President 

Andres Caranto Vice-President 

Federico Reyes Secretary 

Venancio Duarte Treasurer 

Felix de Leon Flores Business Manager 

Victorio Antonio Advertising Manager 

Gabriel Flores Stage Manager 

Pedro Lorenzo Property Custodian 

In addition to officers old members are: 


Martin Rosell 
Primo Castro 
Romulo Gines 
Laureano Lucas 
Rasuman Macalandong 

New members received are: 


Flaviano Olivares 
Celestino Quilang 
Felix Remigio 
Abel Silva 
Constantin Valera 


Antonio Ocampo 
Romeo Espino 
Francisco Gomez 

Miss Anne Cole, of the Department of English is Director of the 
Mimics, 

On July 11, the Associated Women Students (A. W. S.) of the 
College of Agriculture held their first meeting of the College Year 
in the club room in Molawin Hall. 

As the members of the association are few in number this year, 
the Adviser decided to include the girls from the U. P. Rural High 
School. This makes the membership of the A. W. S. twenty-three. 

The following officers were elected, for the first semester : 

President Felicidad Chan 

Vice-President Asucena Bigomia 

Secretary Elsa Roa 

Treasurer Lydia Arnaldo 

Reporter Leona E. Atienza 

The adviser of the association is Mrs. Harriett Richards, in- 
structor in English in the U. P. Rural High School. 


IN MEMORIAM 

Mateo D. Jimenes, B.Agr. '26; B.S.A. '28. 

Teacher in Odiohgan Rural High School, Romblon 1929-1933. 

Odiohgan, April 29, 1933. 






INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN AGRICULTURE^ 

It is inevitable that the Philippines in the development of scien- 
tific agriculture as well as in the development of the general field 
of science and education have as a whole been influenced by tem- 
perate regions. For three hundred years, Spain was the source of 
the cultural development of the Philippines, while during the last 
three decades the guidance has come largely from the United States. 
The inevitable result of trained teachers and scientific researchers 
from the temperate Occident combined with a paucity of local in- 
structional material has been a real handicap in the growth of an 
indigenous scientific point of view. This has resulted in a limiting 
of the horizon and of the conception and development of new oppor- 
tunities. 

Because of this long and close connection with temperate regions, 
in agriculture we have failed to adequately tap and use the vast 
resources of scientific research and practical experience accumulated 
in other parts of the tropics. Java, Sumatra, Malaya, Ceylon, In- 
dia, Indo-China and Taiwan all have much to contribute in the way 
of agriculture and scientific experience. Forestry in the Philippines 
is perhaps the one exception, for a strong policy of conservation 
and rational development of the forest resources has been provided 
here from the commencement of American sovereignty, and the in- 
come obtained from our vast forests has stimulated the development 
of tropical forestry to an extent unexcelled in the world. 

The travels of the writer in China during the last two years, 
particularly in South China, which is subtropical and in many ways 
similar to the Philippines in general agriculture and forestry prob- 
lems, has revealed the same tendency in that country. South 
China, as well as the rest of that country, has been looking to the 
temperate Occident for help and leadership in agriculture and forest- 
ry. From the United States and from France Chinese students 
have returned to lead in agricultural work, while Germany has been 
a leading inspiration for forestry. South China has not only inad- 
equately realized the great advantages of tapping our limited stores 
of knowledge in the subtropical Philippines, but is apparently even 

* General contribution from the College of Agriculture No. 362. 

PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST, VOL. XXII, No. 6, NOVEMBER. 1988. 


881 



882 


THE PHILIPPINE AGEICULTURIST 


unaware that there are vast resources of scientific knowledge and 
experience which are to be had for the asking from elsewhere in 
the tropics. 

An added reason for China’s technical leadership looking to 
the temperate Occident is that government scientific institutions 
in China have been greatly handicapped by the political instability 
of the country. The burden of making and developing scientific 
contacts has thus fallen to a great extent upon private institutions 
and the encouragement and support of missionary institutions such 
as Lingnan University and Nanking University. These all have 
their bases in the temperate Occident. 

An example of a less than the best possible development in 
South China, owing to a failure to obtain help from the tropics has 
been the efforts at afforestation in Kwangtung according to Euro- 
pean methods. Such methods for European regions are unexcelled, 
but are far from being the most suitable for humid oriental sub- 
tropical regions. The methods of afforestation developed right here 
in Los Banos in our Bureau of Forestry for the afforestation of cogon 
lands by the use of ipilipil and similar trees is much superior to 
anything thus far used in South China, or probably elsewhere in 
the world. 

Recently, however, among Kwangtung authorities there has been 
an awakening to the possibilities and advantages of looking for help 
from the tropical regions rather than exclusively from temperate 
countries. Last June, three undergraduates, Ho Chak Man, Ho Pak 
Ping, and Wong Tit from the College of Agriculture of Lingnan 
University were sent to our College for a year for special work in 
animal husbandry. It is interesting to hear their comments upon 
and enthusiastic approval of the spirit they find here and the dig- 
nity in which labor is held on our Campus. They contrast this with 
school spirit in China where students would not think of feeding 
pigs in a Chinese agricultural college. 

A more recent evidence of the realization of the advantages of 
international study and cooperation in agriculture and forestry is 
the visit of Dr. Rui Feng and his party from Kwangtung and Kwangsi 
provinces. Doctor Feng is Director of Agriculture and Forestry of 
Kwangtung Province and at the same time Dean of the College of 
Agriculture, Lingnan University. Accompanying Doctor Feng were 
five other men. Of these, Generals Weng Shat-lang and Wei Swei- 
shing and Colonel Lui Ting-eng were particularly interested in horses, 
because of the need of developing a better breed of horses for the 
cavalry in South China. Mr. Sheet Bo-Kwan, a commercial and in- 



INTERNATIONAL' COOPERATION IN AGRICULTURE 


383 


dustrial chemist, was particularly assigned to study the problems of 
sugar cane milling and plantation white sugar production with a view 
of developing these in Kwangtung, Doctor Feng and General Wei 
were also interested in the afforestation work because of the vast 
extent of lands in South China that might well be producing trees for 
fuel and timber. Mr. W. K. Smith was the financial adviser to the 
group. The party as a whole were also interested in the improved 
strains of cattle, pigs and poultry that have been developed here. 
They realize the great advantage of the disease-resistance of the local 
Berkjala strains that have been developed for our subtropical con- 
ditions. 

It is unnecessary to describe in detail the itinerary of this party 
in the Islands. They visited many of the government departments 
and cattle breeding farms on the island of Luzon and a number 
of private establishments for agricultural and commercial activities. 
Dr. Victor Buencamino of the Bureau of Animal Industry acted as 
one of the leading representatives of the Philippine government in 
planning their itinerary and in entertaining them. It fell to the 
writer, because of his work in China, to represent the College of 
Agriculture. 

The entire party, accompanied by Doctor Baladad, a graduate 
of our College of Veterinary Science who is now of the faculty of 
Lingnan University, and Mr. Theodore Nickelsen of Iloilo, arrived 
on our Campus on the morning of August 17. After meeting the 
Acting Dean, Dr. N. B. Mendiola, the party visited a number of the 
main College departments. The visitors were particularly interested 
in sugar cane breeding, poultry and animal husbandry. At noon, 
the faculty entertained the visitors at luncheon in Molawin Hall. 
Messrs. Smith, Sheet, Baladad and Nickelsen returned to Manila 
after the luncheon. Doctor Feng and the three others of the party 
that remained over-night visited the School of Forestry and the 
Maquiling National Park. 

The visitors were given an idea of the nature and results of the 
ipilipil afforestation of cogon lands as carried out in the Paliparan 
tract above Los Banos. They then ■visited the Bureau of Plant In- 
dustry’ s Economic Gardens which occupy the old Camp Eldridge site 
at Los Banos. In the afternoon the party accompanied by Professor 
Curran and the writer was driven through the coconut regions to 
Pagsanjan and the Botocan Falls Power Plant. From Botocan, Doc- 
tor Feng and the three other members of his party returned direct 
to Manila. 



884 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


That the interest of the visitors in improved plants and animals 
as verbally expressed was not mere idle words is evidenced by the 
fact that the party purchased from our College, from the Bureau of 
Forestry and from the Bureau of Plant Industry, and other organi- 
zations, large quantities of forest trees and seeds of various kinds, 
budded fruit trees such as avocados and mangoes, new varieties of 
sugar cane and a wide selection of poultry and live stock. They 
were disappointed that at the present time there are not available 
any Canton poultry nor Berk j ala pigs, both breeds of which appealed 
to them very much. The collection of plants and animals purchased 
in the Philippines were taken to China by Doctor Baladad on the 
S. S. City of Pittsburg which left Manila on August 6. 

In connection with the proposition of encouraging increased 
cane cultivation and the establishment of a small modern sugar cen- 
tral in Kwangtung, several of the party spent considerable time and 
effort in visiting sugar centrals and consulting sugar mill experts, 
including Professor King of our faculty. Then W. G. Hall, Vice- 
president of the Honolulu Iron Works, and Mr. Brown of the same 
corporation accompanied the party back to Kwangtung for a recon- 
naissance survey. 

It is very much to be hoped that this successful exchange of 
visits of technical specialists is only the beginning of a much closer 
cobperation in agricultural and forestry research and demonstration 
work that will continue for years and which is certain to react to 
the great niutual benefit of both regions. 

Robert L. Pendleton 
Of the Department of SoiU 

I have heard Mr. Hoover poke fun at the overworked methods 
of “efficiency” by telling the story of an efficiency engineer who was 
sent to revise a faraway industry. 

The man arrived in a heavy snowstorm and was met by an Irish- 
man driving a sled that was equipped with a. buffalo robe. The effi- 
ciency expert climbed into the sled, and the Irishman started to wrap 
the robe around him with the hair outside. 

“Oh, no,” objected the engineer. “Don’t you know that it is more 
impervious to wind, and therefore warmer, with the hair inside?” 

The Irishman turned the robe and tucked it in, but when he 
mounted to his seat began to chuckle. 

“What are you laughing at?” asked the efficiency expert. 

“I was just thinking,” replied the Irishman, “what a mistake 
that buffalo made.” Hoop and Homs, Arizona 

Reprinted in, What the Colleges Are Doing 



DISTRIBUTION OF MOSAIC AND FIJI DISEASES IN SUGAR 
CANE STALKS; EFFECTS OF THESE MALADIES O'N 
THE GERMINATION OF THE EYES AND TRANS- 
MISSION OF THE VIRUSES BY PIN PRICKS ‘ 

G. 0. OCFEMIA. EVARISTO A. HURTADO AND 
CRISPINIANO C. HERNANDEZ 
Of the Department of Plant Pathology 


WITH SIX TEXT FIEUBES 

In 1929, Stahl and Faris of the Tropical Plant Research Founda- 
tion in Cuba described the behavior of the new POJ canes (Saccharum 
officinarum L.) in relation to grass mosaic. These authors noted 
that when the highly resistant POJ canes are attacked by mosaic 
disease and the infected plants are planted the number of eyes that 
produce mosaiced stalks vary. They did not find stalks which pro- 
duced mosaiced plants from all of the eyes as is the case with sus- 
ceptible canes. From their observation, Stahl and Faris (1929) 
stated that in highly resistant POJ sugar cane varieties the mosaic 
is not distributed throughout the whole stalk as it is in susceptible 
canes. 

An instance similar to this was reported by Ocfemia (1932) in 
which he found that some of the eyes of one stalk of a native variety 
of sugar cane, Linabnig, produced shoots that were free from mosaic 
symptoms. In this case, however, Ocfemia noted that although the 
plants were free from mosaic symptoms they contained the infective 
principle. This conclusion was arrived at when the apparently 
mosaic-free shoots were used as source of inoculum in transmission 
experiments to susceptible canes following the pin-prick method of 
Wilbrink (1929) and Sein (1930). 

As it seems to be universally accepted that the infective material 
of virus diseases is present throughout the plant, although as a rule 
the roots may not be seriously affected, the present work was under- 
taken to determine the behavior towards mosaic and Fiji disease of 
the sugar cane varieties in common culture in the Philippines. 


' This paper is based on data used in the theses presented by the junior 
authors for graduation, 1933, with the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agricul- 
ture from the College of Agriculture Nos. 363 and 364; Experiment Station con- 
tribution No. 910. 

Received for publication August 22, 1933. 


3S5 



386 


THE PHILIPPINE AGKICULTUEIST 


THE MOSAIC AND THE FIJI DISEASES OF SUGAR CANE 

Literature relating to came and methods of transmission 

Many papers have been published which deal with various phases 
of both mosaic and Fiji diseases of sugar cane. Only articles dealing 
with the cause of each of these two diseases are reviewed in this 
paper. The virus nature of the mosaic disease was shown by Bran- 
des (1920, 1923) who found that the corn aphid {Aphis maidis Fitch.) 
disseminates the sugar cane mosaic in the field. The insect-transmis- 
sion of mosaic of sugar cane reported by Brandes was confirmed by 
Wilbrink in Java, by Kunkel in Hawaii and by Bruner in Cuba 
(Johnston, 1924). Our students at the College of Agriculture at 
Los Banos have repeatedly obtained successful transmission of the 
mosaic disease of sugar cane with Aphis maidis as vector. 

In 1919, Matz noted what appeared to him as an organism in 
the tissues of sugar cane attacked by mosaic, but later he showed 
that the plasmodium-like bodies were not consistently present in the 
mosaiced cane tissues. Kunkel was also reported by Johnston in 
1924 as having found definite bodies of protozoan nature. The true 
character of these bodies, however, could not be ascertained. Cook 
(1926a,b) studied the effect of mosaic on the content of the cells and 
the photosynthesis of the sugar-cane mosaiced plant. 

A method for mechanically transmitting sugar cane mosaic was 
reported by Wilbrink (1929) in Java and described in detail by Sein 
(1930) in Porto Rico. A new method for artificial transmission of 
sugar cane mosaic with the use of expressed juice of diseased plants 
was recently described by Matz (1933). 

Tower (1919) reported failure to transmit sugar cane mosaic by 
crushing and rubbing mealy bugs from diseased canes on the develop- 
ing buds and shoots of healthy plants. This author further reported 
that he was unable to infect sugar cane with mosaic by forcing 
crushed insects into punctures made in the buds and shoots. 

In the Fiji disease, Lyon (1921) reported the presence of plas- 
modium-like bodies in the gall cells of the infected plants and sug- 
gested the name NorthieUa sacchari for these bodies. Reinking 
(1921a, b) at that time plant pathologist of the Experiment Station 
of the College of Agriculture at Los Banos, Laguna, Philippine Islands 
and Kunkel (1924a) in Hawaii also noted these intracellular bodies. 
McWhorter (1922) working also in the College of Agriculture at Los 
Bafios concluded that the intracellular bodies in the gall cells of Fiji- 
infected canes are foreign organisms.’ This author regarded these 



DISTRIBUTION OF MOSAIC AND FIJI DISEASES 


387 


bodies, which he named and described as Phytamoeba sacehaH, as 
of etiologric significance to the Fiji disease. Although the existence of 
Fiji disease was first reported in 1910 by Lyon (1921), from speci- 
mens and photographs sent to him in Hawaii by Mr. D. S. North of 
Australia, the nature and method of transmission of the disease were 
not definitely known for more than two decades. 

In the October, 1932 issue of The Philippine Agriculturist and 
in the November, 1932 issue of Sugar News (Manila) appears our 
first record that successful transmission of the Fiji disease of sugar 
cane by PerkinsieUa vastatrix Breddin was obtained by G. O. Ocfe- 
niia of the Department of Plant Pathology of the College of Agricul- 
ture at Los Banos, Laguna, Philippine Islands. * The detailed report 
of the experiments is in press in the American Journal of Botany. 
The paper by Mungomery and Bell (1933) of the Queensland Bureau 
of Sugar Experiment Stations, Australia corroborates our results at 
Los Banos that Fiji disease is transmitted by the sugar cane leaf 
hopper. According to Mungomery and Bell (1933, p. 20, 21) their 
last series of experiments which produced infection on February 4, 
March 6, and April 1, 1933, definitely establishes the fact that the 
Australian species of sugar cane leaf hopper, PerkinsieUa sacchari- 
cida Kirk., is a vector of the Fiji disease in Queensland. 

These authors further state that a field chemist at Nausori, Fiji 
who made continuous observations for about two years was much 
inclined to attribute the increase in the rate of transmission of Fiji 
disease to the increase in the number of PerkinsieUa vitiensis. Ac- 
cording to Mungomery and Bell (1933) this observation, together 
with the short report in the October, 1932 issue of The Philippme 
Agriculturist that Ocfemia had successfully transmitted Fiji disease 
with PerkinsieUa vastatrix, and their own success in transmission 
with PerkinsieUa saecharicida at Queensland would seem to indicate 
that the dissemination of the Fiji disease is not confined to a single 
species of the genus PerkinsieUa. 

In addition to the paper by Stahl and Faris (1929), however, 
very little has been done to determine whether or not the mosaic and 
Fiji diseases are distributed throughout the entire sugar cane plant. 

* The paper entitled “The transmission of the Fiji disease of sugar cane by 
an insect vector” was read by the senior author before the section meeting. 
Agriculture Veterinary and Forestry, of the Second Philippine Science Conven- 
tion at Manila, Philippine Islands, February 16, 1933. In the evening of the 
same day the author read at the eighty-first meeting of the Los Baflos Biological 
Club at the College of Agriculture a paper entitled “Evidence relating to the 
transmissibility of the Fiji disease of sugar cane by an insect vector”. 



388 


THE PHIUPPINE AOBICXHiTUItlST 


The economic importomce of the mosaic and Fiji 
diseases of sugar came 

The mosaic and Fiji diseases of sugar cane are two of the mala- 
dies of major importance to the sugar cane industry of the Philippine 
Islands. Lee (1923) reported that in certain districts in Negros the 
mosaic disease was causing 10 to 60 per cent of loss and the Fiji 
disease from 10% to 25 per cent. Lee, formerly of the Philippine 
Sugar Association, in his annual report in 1929 stated that the loss 



Fig. 1. — Part of the leaf of H-109 sugar cane attacked 
by the mosaic disease showing the mottling symptom. 

(All photographs, except figure 5, by the Photographic 
Division, Department of Soils, College of Agriculture.) 

caused by mosaic disease is about 46 to 70 per cent in the tonnage 
and sugar yield per hectare in the native varieties of sugar cane and 
about 21 to 66 per cent in the introduced varieties. 

Lyon (1921) reported that the Fiji disease was very serious in 
the Fiji Islands at one time. Reinking (1921a, b) stated that in 
extremely serious cases losses of 50 to 75 per cent of the crop were 


DISTRIBUTION OF MOSAIC AMD FUI DISEASES 


889 


not rare. Roxas (1926) noted an infection caused by Fiji of 2 to 
76 per cent of the canes in the field. In June, 1926 there was a 
serious outbreak of Fiji disease on the ratoon crops in fields aggre- 
gating: 300 hectares in Dayap, Calauan, Laguna. Estimates made by 
the Department of Plant Pathology of the College of Agrriculture at 
Los Banos, from the badly infected areas ranging from one-third to 

f 
[■; 


I 


i 


i 


Fig. 2, — Portion of a stalk 
of sugar cane variety 
Badila attacked by 
the mosaic disease, 
showing the cankered 
areas on the rind. 

one hectare patches showed that from 21.7 to 71.6 per cent of the 
canes were affected by Fiji disease and were very much stunted. 
(Ocfemia, 1926). 

How the two diseases may be distinguished from each other 

The mjosaic disease. The distingruishing symptoms of the mosaic 
disease have been described by various authors. The disease may be 



390 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


easily recognized by the mottling of the leaves with a lighter shade 
of green or yellowish green (fig. 1). The mottled areas are more 
or less elongated into streaks which are arranged with their long 
axes parallel with the veins of the leaves. The chlorotic streaks are 
broken and never form continuous stripes. The mottling may be 



Fig, 3. — Portion of the base of the youngest 
expanded leaf of shoot 7c of POJ 2878 
sugar cane used in experiment 4 of Fiji- 
disease transmission on October 4, 1932, 
photographed on February 5, 1933 to show 
in the advanced stage of the disease a gall 
38 millimeters long and two millimeters 
wide on the back of the midrib. 


distinct or indistinct depending upon the stage of the disease, age 
of the leaf, and the variety of cane attacked. 

The severe infection of cane by mosaic in a field can be seen 
easily, even at a distance, on account of tiie light green color of the 
leaves of infected plants. 


DISTRIBUTION OF MOSAIC AND FIJI DISEASES 


391 


In some varieties of sugar cane, canker of the stalk is a distin- 
guishing symptom (fig. 2) . The canker of the stem corresponds very 
closely in shape and size to those of the mottled areas on the leaves. 



Fig. 4. — The lower portion of 
the leaf of shoot 8b of cane 
variety POJ 2878 used on 
October 4, 1932 in Fiji-dis- 
ease transmission experi- 
ment 4 with Perkinsiella 
vastatrix Breddin showing 
in the advanced stage of 
the disease a gall 10 centi- 
meters long on the back of 
the midrib. Note the short- 
er galls on the blade close 
to the left margrin of the 
leaf. Photographed March 
23, 1933. 

The Fiji disease. The most characteristic and reliable symptom 
of Fiji disease is the appearance of elongated galls on the veins. 
These galls are easily seen on the nether surface of the leaves and 


392 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


midribs and on the leaf -sheaths. In advanced cases of Fiji disease 
obtained from insect-transmission experiments, grails which are 38 
(fig. 3) to 100 millimeters in length and one to one and one-half 
millimeters in width (fig. 4) may be found on the nether surface 
of the midribs. These large galls may also be found on the leaf 
sheaths of the infected canes. Later, these large galls rupture and 
become brown in color. 

In very advanced stages of the Fiji disease, galls may not be 
produced. Instead, the diseased canes produce short or narrow more 
or less erect and stiff leaves which have a tendency to tear into 
strips. The leaves are darker green in color than those of healthy 
plants but the color is dull. 

When the main shoot begins to produce short and malformed 
leaves the eyes may grow and send out leaves causing the canes to 
present a bushy or fan-like appearance. Tillers may also be produced 
in abundance. The leaves of the lateral shoots and tillers are also 
short and malformed like those of the central bud (fig. 5). 

Sugar cane is susceptible to Fiji disease during its entire life. 
If plants are infected at emergence of the shoots no stalks are pro- 
duced. 

EXPERIMENTS TO DETERMINE THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE MOSAIC DISEASE AND 
FIJI DISEASE IN THE STALKS OF SUGAR CANE 

On account of the economic importance of mosaic and Fiji 
diseases of sugar cane a knowledge of the distribution of these 
diseases in the infected stalks is of great importance. This knowl- 
edge will enable us to attribute the absence of mosaic or Fiji disease 
symptoms either (1) to some property of the protoplasm of the host 
which prevents the production of adverse effects and manifestation 
of characteristic symptoms, or (2) to absence of the virus in such 
shoots. At this point it seems pertinent to consider three of the 
terms used in connection with sugar cane mosaic. Stahl and Faris 
(1929) explain resistance to mosaic as the power of some canes to 
ward off infection. These authors explain immunity as the ability 
of the canes to ward off the disease completely. When sugar cane 
varieties readily become infected but are only slightly affected by 
the disease these canes are said to be susceptible but tolerant to the 
trouble. Stahl and Faris (1929) doubted whether they were dealing 
with tolerant canes in their work although they state that POJ 26 
is reported as of this type. 



DISTRIBUTIOH OF MOSAIC AMD FUI DISEASES 


393 


Kunkel (1928) states that virus diseases are systemic, although 
conspicuous ssmiptoms are produced only in the leaf and stem tissues. 
Not much seems to be known of the effect of virus diseases on the 
roots. Working on the mosaic of tobacco in 1914 Allard found that 
the roots contain virus. Other workers, notably CSroldstein (1926), 
and Rosen (1926) found the virus in the roots of infected plants. 



Fig. 6. — An advanced stage of the Fiji disease of 
sugar cane showing the short distorted or mal- 
formed leaves and the production of lateral 
shoots. (Photograph by the Bureau of Science, 
Manila.) 


Kunkel (1928) further states that the grass mosaic causes lesions 
throughout the stalk tissues in some varieties of sugar cane and the 
Fiji disease produces galls throughout the infected stalks. 

Materials and methods 

Came varieties vsed and their sources. Of the sugar cane varie- 
ties used in this work healthy, mosaic infected, and Fiji-disease in- 


894 


THE PHILIPPINE AGKICOLTUBIST 


fected stalks were secured. The varieties used for determining the 
distribution of the mosaic and Fiji diseases in the stalks are presented 
in the following tabulation: 




number of stalks used 

VARIETY NAMES 

SOURCES 

Healthy 

Mosaiced 

Fiji- 

infected 

Luzon White 

Vicinity of the College of 
Agriculture 

15 

15 

15 

Pampanga Red . . 

Vicinity of the College of 
Agriculture 

12 

12 

12 

Mauritius 1900 . . 

Department of Agronomy . . 

12 

12 

12 

POJ 2727 

Calamba Sugar Estate and 
Department of Agronomy . 

11 

0 

15 

UXD 1 

Calamba Sugar Estate 

4 

0 

4 

E.K. 28 

Calamba Sugar Estate 

2 

0 

2 

Badila 

Lemery and Nasugbu, Batan- 
gas 

6 

4 

5 

P.S.A. 14 

Del Carmen, Pampanga 

4 

4 

2 

H-109 

Calamba Sugar Estate 

4 

4 

4 

H-27 

Calamba Sugar Estate 

2 

2 

2 

Q-409 

Department of Agronomy . . . 

2 

2 

2 

N.G. 24.B 

Nasugbu, Batangas and De- 
partment of Agronomy . . . 

3 

2 

4 

N.G. 24 

Department of Agronomy . . . 

2 

2 

2 

POJ 24 

Nasugbu and Lemery, Batan- 
gas 

4 

0 

4 

POJ 2714 

Nasugbu and Lemery, Batan- 
gas 

2 

0 

2 

POJ 2878 

1 Del Carmen, Pampanga 

10 

24 

8 


Generally, in each experiment, one healthy, one Fiji infected and 
one mosaiced cane stalk of each variety was used. However, there 
were instances when one healthy stalk of each variety was used as 
check for two or more Fiji-infected or mosaiced stalks of the same 
variety. 

Preparation of the soil. Surface soil taken from the farm of 
the College of Agriculture was used in this work. The soil was 
sterilized by placing it on a pan of galvanized iron and heating it 
from one to two hours. It was stirred occasionally to expose as much 
as possible all portions of the soil to the surface of the heating pan 
and to prevent burning much of the organic matter of the soil. The 
sterilized soil was put in kerosene cans cut in halves and in pots for 
planting. 

The soil was sterilized in order to kill fungi, bacteria or nema- 
todes which might affect seriously the germination of the buds. 



DISTRIBUTION OF MOSAIC AND FIJI DISEASES 


395 


Treatment of the canes vised. Mature healthy stalks as well as 
mosaic-infected and Fiji-diseased c^nes were secured from each 
variety. The method of securing canes in the field, the precautions 
observed in the handling of the canes and the preparation of one- 
node cuttings were as described by Ocfemia in the detailed report 
on insect-transmission of the Fiji disease. One-node cuttings were 
used in all of the experiments described in this paper because under 
conditions obtaining in the Philippines all results with the use of 
cuttings with more than one eye would be unreliable. In transmis- 
sion studies the unreliability of the results increases when the cuttings 
are taken from different stalks. 

The one-node cuttings were labeled properly using ordinary 6- 
inch garden labels, cutting them into two and sharpening one end 
and driving it into the upper end of the cuttings. The cuttings were 
planted in pots or in cans filled with sterilized soil one cutting to 
each pot or can. The same treatments were applied to the healthy, 
mosaic-infected and Fiji-disease infected canes. 

In all the processes of preparing the cane points care was taken 
to prevent the contamination of the healthy with the diseased canes 
either by the hands and knife or through contact. 

Observations: criteria of results. The appearance of symptoms 
of mosaic or Fiji disease on the young shoots and the nodes which 
produced them were recorded. The criteria used for determining 
the appearance of the early symptoms were as follows : 

(1) For grass mosaic. Appearance of small, irregular, pale 
yellow patches, alternated with green on the first developed leaves. 

(2) For Fiji disease. Appearance of one or more elongated 
vein swellings on the nether surface of the leaves. 

In this work, buds which germinated but died soon after emer- 
gence without symptoms of either mosaic or Fiji disease, as the case 
might be, were, for convenience, called non-viable buds. If mottling 
was noted on the leaves the shoots were considered mosaiced. If 
galls were present they were considered Fiji infected shoots. 

Restdts and discussion 

Experimental. From the results it was noted that all of the shoots 
that came from the mosaic infected and Fiji infected stalks produced 
symptoms of the disease after emergence.* These results are in 
accord with the consensus of opinion that the infective principle in 
virus diseases is distributed throughout the whole diseased plant. 

’ The tables containing detailed data of grermination studies by Bvaristo A. 
Hurtado are in the files of the Department of Plant Pathology of the Colleige 
of Agriculture. 




Pig. 6. — Shoots from the mosaiced stalk D of variety POJ 2878 sugar cane 
from which determination of presence or absence of virus was made. 
Eyes 1, 6 and 7 produced apparently mosaic-free shoots. Eyes 8, 10, 
11, 12, 13 and 14 produced mosaiced shoots. On account of the small 
size of the photograph the symptoms are not shown in the figure. Eyes 
2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 for unknown reason did not germinate. 


The occurrence of apparently mosaic-free shoots from infected 
stalks. Of the 24 mosaic-infected POJ 2878 canes used, only one 
(stalk D), behaved differently from the other stalks of this and of 
all the other varieties. The buds that emerged from three of the 
eyes on nodes 1, 6 and 7 (fig. 6) produced leaves which were entirely 
free from mosaic symptoms. Buds 8, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of the 


DISTRIBUTION OF MOSAIC AND FIJI DISEASES 


397 


same stalk developed shoots that showed clear mottling on the leaves. 
Eyes 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9, for unknown reasons, did not germinate. The 
occurrence of the three apparently free shoots from the infected stalk 
resembles the behavior towards grass mosaic of the POJ canes 
described by Stahl and Paris (1929 p. 7 and 9, fig. 2) who report 
that in resistant varieties like the POJ canes the mosaic is not dis- 
tributed throughout the whole stalk. The healthy-looking plants 
obtained by these authors from mosaiced stalks remained healthy- 
looking through the first ratoon and seed pieces cut from these plants 
produced healthy-looking plants. 

Detemdruition of the presence or absence of infective material 
in apparently mosaic-free shoots. As Kunkel (1924b) reported that 
certain varieties of sugar cane recover from the mosaic disease, and 
recently, Ocfemia (1932) showed that in the native variety Linabnig 
the canes that did not exhibit mottling of the leaves contained the 
virus in their sap, experiments were carried out to determine if the 
apparently mosaic-free shoots from the infected stalk D of the 24 
stalks of POJ 2878 canes tested did not have mosaic virus. Ocfemia 
(1932) found that the apparently mosaic-free Linabnig canes con- 
tained virus although they did not show symptoms of mosaic. Fur- 
thermore, compared with those that showed mottling on the leaves, 
this author noted that the plants from the apparently mosaic-free 
shoots of Linabnig were larger and taller than the shoots with the 
mottled leaves (Ocfemia, 1932, fig. 1). 

In the present experiments, 12 shoots of Luzon White cane which 
came from one stalk were used. Nine seedlings, each one coming 
from one-node cutting, were inoculated on December 9, 1932, follow- 
ing Wilbrink’s (1929) and Sein’s (1930) method of sugar cane 
mosaic transmission by means of pin-pricks. The other three shoots, 
also coming from one-node cuttings, were used as checks. After an 
incubation period of 19 to 25 days three of the inoculated shoots, or 
33.33 per cent, were infected while all the checks remained healthy. 
The result showed that the apparently mosaic-free shoots of stalk 
D of POJ 2878 canes had mosaic but they did not show symptoms 
of the disease. This result was strengthened by the fact that the 
checks remained healthy until February 3, 1933. For unknown 
reasons the other shoots did not become mosaiced. According to 
Kunkel (1928) “virus diseases seldom cause 100 per cent infection 
of field crops”. He further states that “even in the worst cases of 
spread there are usually some plants that escape” infection. Recently 
Kunkel (1933) in his experiments on transmission of the peach 



398 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


yellows with Macropsis trimacidata (Fitch.) as vector did not obtain 
more than ten per cent of infection. 

Another experiment was conducted to check the results of the 
first transmission trial by pin pricks. Thirteen healthy shoots of 
Mauritius 1900 which came from one stalk were used. Eleven seed- 
lings were inoculated on January 22, 1933 following the same method 
as before. On February 1 and 2, 1933, or after an incubation period 
of 10 to 11 days, three of the inoculated seedlings, or 27.27 per cent, 
showed infection while the checks were healthy. This confirmed ear- 
lier results that the apparently mosaic-free shoots of POJ 2878 and 
Linabnig canes (Ocfemia, 1932) had mosaic although the plants did 
not show symptoms of the disease. Johnson (1926) at Wisconsin 
reported that he was able to produce a virus disease on tobacco by 
inoculation with the sap of a healthy potato plant. Kunkel (1928), 
however, claimed that Johnson (1925) did not prove that the pota- 
toes he used in his experiments contained the virus only the symp- 
toms were not shown because they were masked. If Johnson’s healthy 
potatoes were masked carriers of mosaic virus the apparently mosaic- 
free shoots of POJ 2878 may perhaps be classed in the same category. 

Significance of this behavior in sugar cane culture. This char- 
acteristic of sugar cane towards grass mosaic may be of value in 
places where only mosaic-resistant varieties of canes are grown. This 
behavior of the cane, however, may have a distinct disadvantage 
in fields and localities where susceptible varieties of canes are also 
planted, in adjacent fields. The cane plants which behave like stalk 
D of POJ 2878 mosaiced canes and Linabnig are constant sources 
of inoculum or hold-overs of the mosaic virus. 

In mo'saic-susceptible varieties of sugar cane the results obtained 
by the writers agree with those of Unite and Capinpin (1926) who 
concluded that within an infected stalk, the buds invariably produce 
infected shoots. 

Occasional cases of apparently healthy cane stalks in Fiji dis- 
eased stools may be noted in the fields. Sooner or later, however, 
these stalks produce the typical Fiji disease .symptoms. According 
to Cottrell-Dormer and Ferguson Wood (1927) in Queensland if these 
stools are ratooned every stalk produced shows Fiji infection. Simi- 
larly, if stems are taken from stools that received secondary infection 
and these stalks are used as source of cuttings for seed before the 
symptoms of Fiji disease become manifest, the stools arising from 
the cuttings show distinct Fiji-disease symptoms. Cottrell-Dormer 
and Ferguson Wood further report that the shoots are infected be- 
cause the material used for planting was infected. The same results 



DISTRIBUTION OP MOSAIC AND FIJI DISEASES 


399 


were noted by the present writers in all of the varieties used in ger- 
mination experiments. 

The rare cases of stalks apparently free from Fiji disease in in- 
fected stools do not behave in a manner similar to the occasional ap- 
parently mosaic-free shoots in stalks of resistant varieties of sugar 
cane. In apparently mosaic-free nodes the mosaic-free looking stalks 
can be planted and produce healthy-looking shoots at germination. 
The shoots coming from ratoons of these stalks are also healthy look- 
ing. It is not known whether or not all of the shoots will produce mo- 
saic-disease-free shoots if cuttings are taken from them for planting. 
In Linabnig cane, Ocfemia (1932) noted that in the second generation 
a few of the plants from the apparently mosaic-free shoots showed 
mosaic symptoms. It seems, however, that by gradual elimination 
of the canes that show symptoms a strain that does not show mottling, 
though it has the mosaic, may be produced. In apparently Fiji- 
disease-free stalks this freedom from symptoms and effects is only 
temporary in nature. 

Conclusions. From the foregoing experiments it seems that the 
following conclu.sions are justified: 

1. In the limited varieties of the native and introduced varieties 
of sugar cane used in the experiments the infective principle or virus 
of the mosaic and Fiji disease was found to be present in the shoot 
that developed from each of the eyes. 

2. A very small proportion (four per cent) of the stalks from 
a mosaic-infected resistant sugar cane, POJ 2878, produced shoots 
from a few of the eyes that were free from mottling in the leaves. 
A similar behavior was not shown by any of the cane stalks infected 
with the Fiji disease. 

3. The apparently mosaic-free shoots that developed from mosaic 
infected resistant POJ 2878 canes, when used as a source of inoculum 
in artificial transmission under controlled conditions, produced mot- 
tling in the leaves of some of the inoculated shoots. 

EXPERIMENTS ON GERMINATION OF THE EYES OP HEALTHY, MOSAICH) AND 
PIJI-INPECTED STALKS OP SUGAR CANE 

A knowledge of the effect of either grass mosaic or Fiji disease 
on germination and growth of the eyes of a cane is of importance on 
account of the widespread distribution of these two diseases in the 
Philippines, the increasing popularity of the POJ canes and the dif- 
ferent degrees of susceptibility to mosaic and Fiji diseases of the 
different varieties. Very little if any record is available to show 
whether or not all of the eyes of a cane grow with the same vigor as 



400 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


the corresponding eyes of a healthy cane. Stahl and Faris (1929, 
p. 7 and fig. 2) obtained poor germination of the eyes of infected 
stalks in many cases, especially with varieties POJ 2727 and POJ 
2726. Our experience with POJ 2727 at the College of Agriculture 
at Los Banos is that even with healthy stalks, single-eye cuttings 
produce poor germination. In the sereh disease of sugar cane (Lyon, 
1921, p. 22) suspected canes may be singled out readily because the 
upper eyes of the stalks which have been topped are not capable of 
producing shoots. They remain dormant and do not germinate. 
According to Kunkel, 1928, in most cases virus diseases do not kill 
the host, although he (Kunkel, 1924b) states that grass mosaic may 
predispose sugar cane to the attack of red rot caused by Colletotrichum 
faZcatum Went. 

Materials and methods 

Sugar cane varieties used. As in the experiments to study the 
distribution of mosaic and Fiji diseases, healthy stalks and Fiji-and 
mosaic-diseased canes of a few commercial varieties were secured 
for this study. The canes were obtained from different places; 
namely, Lemery and Nasugbu, Batangas, Del Carmen, Pampanga, Ca- 
lamba Sugar EJstate, Canlubang, Laguna and from the Experiment 
Station of the College of Agriculture at Los Banos and in its imme- 
diate vicinity. The varieties of sugar cane used and the number of 
stalks of each taken for germination studies are given in the follow- 
ing tabulation : 



1 



NUMR 


number 

NUM3KH 

NUMBER 

OF 


OF 

OF 

OF 

STALJ 

NAMES OF VARIETIES USED 

TRIALS 

STALKS 

STALKS 

WITl 


MADE 

USKl) IN 

V/ITII 

MOSA 



CONTROL 

?IJI USED 

USE) 


Luzon White 

7 1 

14 

[ 14 

14 

Pampanga Red 

6 ; 

12 

1 12 

12 

Mauritius 1900 

6 

12 

12 

12 

POJ 2878 ' 

12 

24 

1 21 

24 

POJ 2727 

7 j 

14 

14 



Badila 

6 

12 

1 12 

12 

Hawaii 109 ! 

4 1 

8 

8 

8 

Hawaii 227 

4 1 

8 

8 

8 

New Guinea 24-A 

4 i 

8 

8 j 

8 

New Guinea 24-B 

4 

8 

8 

8 

Demarara 52 

3 

6 

6 

6 

Queensland 409 

3 

6 

6 j 

6 

UXD 1 

2 

4 

4 


P.S.A. 14 

3 

6 

6 

6 

POJ 24 

2 

4 

4 

— 



DISTRIBUTION OF MOSAIC AND FIJI DISEASES 


401 


The preparation of the soil, selection and preparation of one- 
node cuttings were all done in the same way as in the experiments 
to determine the distribution of the mosaic and Fiji diseases in cane 
stalks. 

In this work the criterion for germination of the eyes of the 
canes was emergence of the shoots through the soil. The shoots 
which were killed by fungous and insect attacks after emergence 
were considered germinated. 

In the types of germination obtained in the tests, both strong 
and weak were observed. Strong germination is used to indicate 
that the young shoots came out early and grew vigorously, as shown 
by the long and large leaves, well developed root systems and in some 
cases production of young suckers. Weak germination signifies that 
the shoots produced were slender, the leaves narrow or short, usually 
few and pale green and the roots poorly developed. 

Results 

Germination of the eyes of healthy, mosaiced and Fiji-infected 
canes. The results * obtained by the writers from the comparative 
study of the germination of the eyes of healthy, mosaiced and Fiji- 
infected canes of the 16 commercial varieties of native and intro- 
duced sugar cane showed that in some varieties (1) the mosaic 
disease did not affect the germination of the eyes, (2) in others the 
disease reduced the percentage cf germination, and (3) in still others 
mosaic stimulated germination of the eyes. In regard to the effects 
of Fiji disease the following were noted: (1) in some varieties of 
canes the disease stimulated germination, (2) in others the disease 
reduced the germination of the buds considerably and (3) in still 
others Fiji disease did not affect germination. In many cases the 
differences in percentages of germination in favor or against the 
disease were significant. The results seem to show that the differen- 
ces in percentages of germination can not be attributed to infection 
by the disease alone but to other factors which were not studied. 

Relation of the age of the nodes to germination of the eyes. In 
all the germination experiments, the roots began to emerge from the 
older nodes on the fourth day and those of the younger nodes on the 
fifth day. By older nodes are meant the first five to six nodes of 
the stalk counting from the base of the plant, upwards. The shoots 
came out vdthin 6 to 9 days in the younger or top nodes and in 11 
to 44 days in the older nodes. Barber (1920) stated that the dif- 

‘ Tables 1-31 containing the results of the experiments of Crispiniano C. 
Hernandez are filed with the original copy of his thesis with the Librarian of 
the College of Agriculture. 



402 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


ference between old and young joints of the sugar cane stalks is 
that in the young tissues the cells are filled with sap for the building 
up of fresh tissues. The cells in the older joints are filled with sugar 
and they remain inert or inactive. 

The greatest number of failures in germination and deaths of 
shoots occurred in the older nodes. No shoots in the younger or top 
nodes failed to germinate or died. Strong germination was always 
shown by the top nodes in all of the cane varieties used. Weak 
slender seedlings generally developed from the older nodes. The 
same results were obtained by Calma (1933) . In the mosaic- and Fiji- 
infected canes the shoots from the basal to the top nodes of each 
stalk were stunted in growth. Compared with the growth of the 
shoots from the healthy stalks the mosaiced and Fiji canes showed 
very marked differences in the height of the stalks and length of 
leaves. The difference was especially conspicuous in the Fiji-infected 
seedlings. 

In the germination studies in many of the eyes that did not 
germinate and occasionally in dead young shoots Ceratosiomella para- 
doxa Dade, an undetermined species of Fusarium and Pythium, and 
in a few cases, nematodes, were associated. With the exception of 
the nematodes these organisms were, perhaps, either carried by the 
canes, or by wind. Spore-catching experiments conducted by us at 
various, places on the farm of the College of Agriculture and at 
various times show that conidia of many fungi like Cercospora, Sep- 
togloeum, CoUetotrichum, Helminthosporium, Fusarium, etc.; oos- 
pores of phycomycetes (possibly of Sclerospora from the wild sugar 
cane, Saccharum spontaneum L., etc.) ; chlamydospores of the sugar 
cane smut Ustilago scitaminea (Rabh.) Syd.) and urediniospores of 
rusts are often carried by the wind. The Fusarium was found 
frequently in the dead eyes, CeratostomeUa paradoxa in the stalk and 
dead eyes and Pythium and nematodes {Heterodera radicicola 
(Greef) Miiller) in the rotting roots. 

THE TRANSMISSION OF MOSAIC AND FIJI DISEASES BY THE PIN-PRICK METHOD 

The transmission to healthy canes of the infectious materials of 
mosaic and Fiji diseases by the pin-prick or mechanical method 
(Wilbrink, 1929 and Sein, 1930) will be found applicable in cane- 
breeding experiments. It affords a method for determining rapidly 
the relation of cane varieties to both of these diseases, and whether 
an apparently healthy shoot is free from the virus or the symptoms 
are merely masked. 



DISTRIBUTION OF MOSAIC AND FIJI DISEASES 


403 


Mosaic disease 

A few varieties of sugar cane were used in transmission of 
mosaic disease by the pin-prick method of Wilbrink (1929), and Sein 
(1930) under carefully controlled conditions. The method of arti- 
ficial transmission described by Matz (1933) was not tried in these 
experiments. The varieties used in inoculation experiments were 
Pampanga Red, Mauritius 1900, Luzon White, POJ 2727, POJ 2878, 
P. S. A. 14, New Guinea 24-A, and Queensland 409. The results of 
these experiments were as follows; 

Pampanga Red. In this variety, 27 healthy shoots were inocu- 
lated and 17 shoots or 78.31 per cent were infected with an average 
incubation period of 18 days. 

Mauritius 1900. Of the nine shcots that were inoculated, seven 
shoots or 77.77 per cent were infected with an average incubation 
period of 18.57 days. 

Luzon White. Out of the 29 shoots inoculated, 16 shoots or 
52.27 per cent were infected. The average incubation period was 17 
days. 

P.S.A. H. Of the 12 shoots that were inoculated, three or 25 
per cent became infected. The average incubation period was 26 
days. 

New Guinea 2k-A. Seven healthy shoots were inoculated. Two 
became infected or 28.57 per cent. The average incubation period 
was 25 days. 

POJ 2727. In this variety, 61 shoots which were free from 
mosaic were inoculated, but none of them became infected. 

POJ 2878. In this variety, 25 healthy shoots were inoculated 
but none of them showed any symptom of mosaic infection. 

Queensland Jf09. Of the seven shoots that were inoculated none 
became infected with mosaic. 

In these inoculations POJ 2727, POJ 2878 and Queensland 409 
were not infected but all the other varieties tested gave positive 
results. The control shoots used remained free from infection of 
the mosaic disease throughout. 

On account of the rather easy transmission of the mosaic disease 
by the mechanical or pin-prick method there is need of exercising 
care not to use the same knife for cutting infected or doubtful canes, 
and for preparing tops or cut-back seed pieces for planting purposes 
without disinfecting it. If a knife has been used for cutting mosaiced 
canes it should be sterilized with 1 :1000 mercuric chloride solution or 
other disinfectants in order to remove the virus from the blade. 



404 


THE PHIUPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Fiji disease 

The transmission of Fiji disease to healthy shoots was tried a 
number of times using the eight varieties of sugar cane tested for 
mosaic infection. The pin-prick method was followed in these ex- 
periments. The results of the experiments, however, show that the 
Fiji disease can not be transmitted by the mechanical methods which 
will communicate the grass mosaic disease. Mungomery and Bell 
(1933) also report negative results with this method of Fiji trans- 
mission. From this result it seems that there is little danger of 
transmitting Fiji disease by the use of a knife that had been em- 
ployed for cutting Fiji-infected stalks. 

SUMMARY 

1. The mosaic and Fiji diseases are two of the major diseases 
of sugar cane in the Philippines. They cause enormous losses to the 
sugar industry. 

2. The mosaic disease is shown by mottling of the leaves. The 
mottled areas may be elongated into streaks but these do not con- 
tinue to form stripes. The streaks are lengthwise with the leaves. 
In some varieties of sugar cane, cankers of the stem are additional 
symptoms. 

3. The most characteristic symptom of Fiji disease is the pres- 
ence of elongated galls on the veins. These galls are very conspicuous 
on the nether surface of the leaves and on the leaf sheaths. The 
leaves become short, narrow, brittle and tend to tear into strips. 
The color is darker green than that of healthy plants. 

4. Both mosaic and Fiji disease are caused by virus. The 
mosaic disease is transmitted by Aphis maidis Fitch, and by pin- 
pricks or mechanical means. In the Philippine Islands Fiji disease 
is transmitted by PerHnsieUa vastatrix Breddin and in Australia 
P. saccharicida Kirk, is said to be the vector. Germination experi- 
ments of one-node cuttings of 16 commercial varieties of native and 
introduced canes show that the mosaic and Fiji diseases of sugar 
cane are distributed throughout the entire stalks of the infected 
plants. 

6. All shoots coming from the buds of all the mosaic-infected 
stalks of POJ canes used in the present work showed mosaic ssrmp- 
toms except those from buds 1, 6 and 7 of the stalk D of POJ 2878. 
Transmission experiments to susceptible cane varieties using the ap- 
parently mosaic-free POJ 2878 shoots of stalk D as source of inoculum 
showed that the absence of mottling in the leaves is not due to ab- 
sence of the mosaic virus but to a masking of the symptoms. 



DISTRIBUTION OF MOSAIC AND FIJI DISEASES 


405 


6. The stalks, apparently free from Fiji disease, in the Fiji- 
infected stools are not of the same nature as the apparently mosaic- 
free canes. They show the symptoms of Fiji disease later or when 
the stalks are planted. 

7. A study of the germination of the eyes of healthy, mosaiced 
and Fiji-infected stalks using 16 commercial varieties of both native 
and foreign canes showed that (a) in some varieties the healthy 
canes gave higher percentage of germination of the eyes than mosa- 
iced and Fiji-infected canes; (b) in others the healthy stalks pro- 
duced lower percentages of germination of eyes than Fiji-infected 
and mosaiced stalks; and (c) in still others the presence of the dis- 
ease did not materially affect the germination of the eyes. The 
results seem to indicate that factors other than presence of Fiji dis- 
ease or mosaic disease influence the germination of sugar cane buds. 

8. In all cases shoots emerged earlier from the top nodes than 
from the lower nodes, although the roots came out earlier in older 
nodes than in younger. Moreover, strong germination was pro- 
duced by the top nodes and weak and slender shoots appeared from 
the older lower nodes. Failure of germination of the eyes or death 
of shoots generally occurred in the older nodes of the stalks. 

9. In addition to old age, failure of germination of the eyes was 
perhaps caused, in part at least, by the associated CemtostomeUa 
paradoxa Dade, Pythium, sp. and nematodes. 

10. The mosaic of sugar cane was easily transmitted by the 
pin-prick method to varieties Pampanga Red, Mauritius 1900, Luzon 
White, P. S. A. 14, New Guinea 24-A. Varieties POJ 2878, POJ 
2727 and Queensland 409 could not be infected when inoculated by 
the pin-prick method. Fiji disease could not be transmitted by the 
pin-prick method. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Allard, H. A. 1914. Mosaic disease of tobacco. U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 40; 
1-33. PL 1-7. 

Barbes, C. a. 1920. The growth of sugar cane. Internat. Sugar Jour. 22: 
198-203. PI. 1-S. 

Brandes, E. W. 1920. Artificial and insect transmission of sugar cane mosaic. 

Jour. Agric. Res. 19: 131-138. PI 8-12; fig. 8. 

Brandes, E. W. 1923. Mechanics of inoculation with sugar-cane mosaic by 
insect vectors. Jour. Agric. Res. 23: 279—284. PI. 1—2. 

Calma, V. C. 1933. Studies on germination, degree of tillering and vigor of 
plants of tops and cut-back seed-pieces of POJ 2878, sugar cane (Sac- 
charutn offieinarum). The Philippine Agriculturist 21: 68&-612. Fig. 



406 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Cook, MIelvillb T. 1926a. The effect of mosaic on the contents of the plant 
cell. Jour. Dept. Agric. of Porto Rico 10; 229-238. PL 1-6. 

Cook, Melville T. 1926b. Photosynthesis of the sugar cane mosaic plant. 
Jour. Dept. Agn^ic. of Porto Rico 10: 239-242. 

Cottrell-Dormer, W., and E. J. Ferguson Wood. 1927. Report of the Fiji 
disease situation in Queensland. Queensland Agric. Jour. 28: 125-141. 
PL 20-^28; fig. 1-P. 

Goldstein, Bessie. 1926. A cytological study of the leaves and growing points 
of healthy and mosaic diseased tobacco plants. Bulletin Torrey Botanical 
Club 53: 499-599, PL 18-29; fig. l-J^. 

Johnson, James. 1925. Transmission of viruses from apparently healthy 
potatoes. Wisconsin Agric. Exper. Sta. Res. Bull. 63: 1-12. PI. 1-8. 

Johnston, John R. 1924. The mosaic disease of sugar cane. The Planter 
and Sugar Manufacturer 73: 30-32. 

Kunkel, L. 0. 1924a. Histological and cytological studies on the Fiji disease 
of sugar cane. Bull. Exper. Sta. Hawaiian Sugar Planters^ Assoc. Bot. 
Ser. 3; 99-106. PL 2^-28. 

Kunkel, L, 0. 1924b. Studies on the mosaic of sugar cane. Bull. Exper. 
Sta. Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Assoc. Bot. Ser. 3: 115-166. Fig. l-H. 

Kunkel, L. 0. 1928. Virus diseases of plants. Chapters 9, p. 336-364. PL 
ISf in Filterable viruses edited by Thomas M. Rivers, ix + 328 p., 15 
pi. and 27 fig. Baltimore, Md.: Williams and Wilkins Company. 

Kunkel, L. 0. 1933. Insect transmission of peach yellows. Contributions from 
Boyce Thompson Institute 5; 19-28. Fig. 1-3. 

Lee, H. Atherton. 1923. Report of the committee on cane diseases. Sugar 
News 4; 506-620. 

Lee, H. Atherton. 1929. Annual report of the Director of Research, Phil- 
ippine Sugar Association. Program and Annual Reports for the Seventh 
Annual Convention of the Philippine Sugar Association, Manila, September 
19-21, 1929. (Article cited p. 15-36). 

Lyon, H. L. 1921. Three major cane diseases: mosaic, sereh, and Fiji disease. 
Bull. Exper. Sta. Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Assoc. Bot. Ser. 3: 1-43. 
Part 1. 

Matz, J. 1919. Infection and nature of the yellow stripe disease of cane 
(mosaic, mottling, etc.) Jour. Dept. Agric. of Porto Rico 3: 66-82. 

Matz, J. 1933. Artificial transmission of sugar cane mosaic. Jour. Agric. 
Res. 46: 821-839. Fig. 1. 

McWhorter, Frank P. 1922. The nature of the organism found in the Fiji 
galls of sugar cane. The Philippine Agriculturist 11: 103-111. PL 1-2; 
fig. 1-2. 

Mungomeky, R. W., and Arthur F. Bell. 1933. Fiji disease of sugar-cane 
and its transmission. Queensland Bur. Sugar Exper. Sta. Div. Pathol. 
Bull. 4; 6-28. Fig. 1-8. 



DISTRIBUTION OF MOSAIC AND FIJI DISEASES 


407 


OcFEMiA, G. 0. 1926. Fiji disease of sugar cane. Supplementary Reports of 

the Committee on cane varieties, diseases, and fertilizers of the Phil- 
ippine Sugar Association, Manila, 1926: 1-14. 

OCPEMIA, G. O. 1932. An interesting reaction of sugar cane variety to grass 
mosaic. The Philippine Agriculturist 21: 414-419. Fig, 1-2, 

Reinking, Otto A. 1921a. Fiji disease of sugar cane. Sugar Central and 
Planters News 2: 94-102. 

Reinking, Otto A. 1921b. Fiji disease of sugar cane in the Philippine Islands. 
Phytopathology 11; 334-337. PI, 15-16, 

Rosen, H. R. 1926. The mosaic disease of sweet potatoes with special ref- 
erence to its transmissibility. Arkansas Agric. Exper. Sta. Bull. 213: 
2-16. Pl„ 1 (col,); fig, 1-4. 

Roxas, M. L. 1926. Diseases and pests. Report of the Committee on cane 
varieties, diseases and fertilizers for the Fourth Annual Convention of 
the Philippine Sugar Association, Manila, 1926: 30-36. 

Sein, Francisco, Jr. 1930. A new mechanical method for artificially trans- 
mitting sugar cane mosaic. Jour. Dept. Agric. of Porto Rico 14: 49-68. 

Stahl, C. F., and James A. Faris. 1929. The behavior of the new POJ canes 
in relation to sugar cane mosaic in Cuba. Tropical Plant Research 
Foundation Bulletin 9: 3-12. Fig, 1-4. 

Tower, W. V. 1919. Mottling disease of sugar cane. Ann. Rept. Porto Rico 
Agric. Exper. Sta. 1919; 21-26. 

Unite, J. O., and J. M. Capinpin. 1926. Selection of mosaic-free cuttings of 
sugar cane. The Philippine Agriculturist 15: 67-73. 

WiLBRiNK, G. 1929. Mechanical transmission of sugar cane mosaic. Pro- 
ceedings Third Congress of International Society of Sugar Cane Tech- 
nologists 1929: 155-161. 



CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR POSSIBLE SOURCES OF OILS OF 
FORTY-FIVE SPECIES OF OIL-BEARING SEEDS * 

SALVADOR P. PADILLA AND FLORENCIO A, SOLIVEN ^ 

There is a great variety of plants in the Philippines in a wild or 
semi-wild state; undoubtedly a large number of them bear fruits 
which would yield useful oils. A number of medicinal plants which 
contain oils are cultivated. There are also a few plants from which 
oils are extracted for local use, some of which enter into foreign 
commerce. One, coconut oil, is very important in the commerce of the 
Islands and is the basis of important domestic industries. Another oil 
which may in the future command a place of importance in foreign 
commerce is lumbang oil ; at present it is crudely produced for soap 
and paint manufacture. There may be other plants that would prove 
to be sources of oils equally as good as' coconut and lumbang. 

A svstematic chemical studv of oil-bearing seed plants found 
in the Philippines to determine their usefulness should be very im- 
portant. A number of these seeds have been analyzed for the amount 
of oil they contain. In table 1 is given the names of the plants, the 
names of the workers, and the results of these analyses. With a few 
exceptions the results are, however, far from complete. 

The s^dy, the results of which are presented in this paper, had 
for its object the determination of the proximate chemical analysis 
of oil-bearing seeds of forty-five species of Philippine plants. 

The work was carried out in the Department of Agricultural 
Chemistry, College of Agriculture from November 30, 1931 to De- 
cember 10, 1933. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Seed oils 

The species of oil-bearing seeds used in this study were obtained 
from the School of Forestry, the College of Agriculture, and in Pe- 
naranda, Nueva Ecija. The following were the seeds used in this 
study *. 

‘The data used in this paper formed part of the thesis presented by the 
senior author for graduation, 1933, with the degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Agriculture from the College of Agriculture No. 366; Experiment Station con- 
tribution No. 911. 

’These different species of oil-bearing seeds were identified by Mr. Ma- 
merto Sulit, of the School of Forestry and Dr. Jo84 B. Juliano of the Depart- 
ment of Plant Physiology, College of Agriculture. 


408 



ANALYSIS OF OIL-BBARING SEEDS 


409 


1. Aleurites moluccana (Linn.) Willd., lumbangr (Tag.) 

2. Aleurites trisperma Blanco, baguilumbang (Tag.) 

3. Anacardium occidentale Linn., balubad (Tag.) 

4. Arachis hypogaea Linn., mani (Sp.) 

6. Caesalpinia crista Linn; kalumbibit (Tag.) 

6. Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., bitaog (II.) 

7. Canarium ovatum Engl., pili (Tag.) 

8. Ceiba pentandra (Linn.) Gaertn., bulak (Tag.) 

9. Chisocheton cumingianus (C. Dc.) Harms, balukanag (Tag.) 

10. Chisocheton pentandrus (Blanco) Merr., catongmatsing (Tag.) 

11. Chrysobalanus icaco Linn., icaco (Tag.) 

12. Cinnamomum mercadoi Vid., calingag (Tag.) 

13. Cocos nucifera Linn., niog (Tag.) 

14. Croton tiglium Linn., camaisa (Tag.) 

15. Delonix regia (Boj.) Raf., fire tree. 

16. Dysoxylum decandrum (Blanco) Merr., taliktan (Tag.) 

17. Entada phaseoloides (Linn.) Merr., bayugo (Tag.) 

18. Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud., madre de cacao. (Sp.) 

19. Gossypium sp. cotton seed 

20. Heritiera littoralis Dryando, dungonlate (Tag.) 

21. Hevea hrasiliensis (HBK.) Muell-Arg., Para rubber. 

22. Hydnocarpus alcalae C. DC., dudra (Bicol) 

23. Hydnocarpus hutchinsonii Merr., bagarbas (Lan.) 

24. Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) 0. Kuntze, Ipil (Tag.) 

26. Jatropha curcas Linn., tuba (Tag.) 

26. Leucaena glauca (Linn.) Benth., ipilipil (Tag.) 

27. Mcdlotus phUippensis (Lam.) Muell.-Arg., banato (Tag.) 

28. Moringa oleifera Lam., malongai (Tag.) 

29. Nephelium mutabile Blume, bulala (Tag.) 

30. Crania palindan (Blanco) Merr., niogniogan (Tag.) 

31. Pachyrrhizus erosus (Linn.) Urb., sincamas (Tag.) 

32. Pahudia rhomboidea (Blanco) Prain, tindalo (Tag.) 

33. Pangium edule Reinw., pangi (Bicol) 

34. Parashorea malaanonan (Blanco) Merr., lauanpute (Tag.) 

36. Parkia javanica (Lam.) Merr., kupang (Tag.) 

36. Pithecolobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth., camanchile (Tag.) 

37. Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Merr., bani (Tag.) 

38. Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (Linn.) DC., calamismis (Tag.) 

39. Ricinus communis Linn., tahgan-tahgan (Tag.) 

40. Samanea soman (Jacq.) Merr., acacia (Sp.) 

41. Sesamun orientale Linn., linga (Tag.) 

42. Sesbania grandiflora (Linn.) Pers., caturai (Tag.) 

43. Sterculia foetida Linn., calumpang (Tag.) 

44. Swietenia mahogoni Jacq., mahogany. 

45. Tamarindus indica Linn., sampaloc (Tag.) 

Methods 

Sampling. From two to five kilograms, depending on the sup- 
ply, of representative samples of each species of seeds were collected 



410 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTURIST 


and put in separate containers. The samples were identified pre- 
vious to analysis. 

Determination of kernel. A known weight of each of the sam- 
ples was taken and the shells removed. The weight of the kernel 
was found and from these data the percentage of kernel was cal- 
culated. 

The preparation of the sample for analysis. The analyses here 
reported were based on the kernels. The kernels which could be 
reduced to powder were ground in a porcelain mortar and passed 
through a sieve having a mesh of one millimeter in diameter. To 
prevent undue loss of moisture from the sample, the grinding and 
sifting were done as quickly as possible. The ground materials were 
stored in well-stoppered containers. 

The kernels that were plastic were ground in a porcelain mortar 
until they were reduced to a fine doughy mass. This grinding was 
also done as quickly as possible to prevent loss of moisture through 
evaporation. 

Chemical analysis. The methods of chemical analysis were in 
accordance with the directions embodied in the Official and Tenta- 
tive Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Agiricidtural 
Chemists (1925). 

Triplicate determinations for each constituent of the different 
species of the oil-bearing seeds were made. The averages of concord- 
ant determinations are reported in table 2. 

RESULTS 

The results of the analysis of the forty-five species of oil-bear- 
ing seeds are' given in tables 2 and 3. 

1. The percentage of kernels varied considerably, the range 
being from 16.82 per cent for Canarium ovatum to 100.00 per cent 
for Sesamum orientate. 

2. The range of moisture in the kernels of the seeds analyzed 
was from 2.43 per cent for Chrysohalanus icaco to 48.46 per cent 
for Cocos nucifera. 

3. The mineral or ash from the kernels of the different species 
of seeds varied from 1.48 per cent in Calophyllum inophyUum to 
7.92 per cent in Delonix regia. 

4. The amount of crude protein varied in different seeds, the 
range being from 6.30 per cent in Orania palindan to 76.13 per cent 
in Sesbania grandiflora. 

6. The amount of crude fat in different species varied con- 
siderably, ranging from 1.57 per cent for Orania palindam to 84.00 
per cent for Callophyllum inophyUum. 



ANALYSIS OF OIL-BSABING SEEDS 


411 


6. The amount of carbohydrates varied from 3.91 per cent in 
Gliricidia sepium to 90.35 per cent in Oranid palindan. 

7. The following* seeds were found to yield a greater amount of 
oil per kilogram of seeds than lumbang seeds : Nephelium mutabile, 
Cinnamomum mercadoi, Chisocheton cumingianus, CalophyUum 
inophyllum, Jatropha curcas, Hydnocarpits alcalde and Pongamia 
pinnata. The following seeds were found to yield a greater amount 
of oil per kilogram of seeds than coconut: Swietenia mahogoni, 
Morhiga oleifera, Gliricidia sepium, Pangium edule and Hevea brasi- 
liensis. It is recommended that the oils be studied for possible use. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Anonymous. 1926. Official and tentative methods of analysis of the associa- 
tion of official agricultural chemists. 2nd ed., iii - 4 - 535 p. Washington, 

D. C.: Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 

Adriano, F. T., and M. Manahan. 1931. The nutritive value of green, ripe, 
and sport coconuts, (buko, niyog, and makapuno). The Philippine Agri- 
culturist 20: 195—198. 

Aguilar, R. H. 1919. The lumbang-oil industry in the Philippine Islands. 
Philippine Jour. Sci. 14: 275-285. 

Andes, Louis Edgar. 1917. Drying oils, boiled oil, and solid and liquid driers, 

2nd ed. revised, xii + 339 p. London: Scott, Greenwood & Son. 

Brill Harvey C., and Francisco Agcaoili. 1910. Philippine oil-bearing 
seeds and their properties. Philippine Jour. Sci. 10: 105-121. 

Luacks, I. F. 1919. Commercial oils, vegetable and animal, viii \- 138 p. 
New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 

Lewkowitsch, I. 1901. Laboratory companion to fats and oils industries, 
xi -f- 147 p. New York: The Macmillan Company. 

SOLIVEN, Florencio A. 1927. The proximate composition of palomaria seed, 
oil, and resin. The Philippine Agriculturist 13: 65-80. PI, 1-2, 

Soliven, F. a. 1928. The seed and oil of Jatiopha curcas. The Philippine 
Agriculturist 16: 687-596. 

West, A. P., and F. L. Smith. 1933. Commercial products from lumbang oil. 
Philippine Bur. Forestry Bull. 24: 1-39. PI, 1-5, 

West, Augustus, P., and William H. Brown. 1920. Philippine resins, gums, 
seed oils, and essential oils. Philippine Bur. Forestry Bull. 20: 1-230. 



Collected analyses of oil-bearing seeds 


412 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTintlST 


^ 1 ^ I 

“ I 


CO . to o> 

to g lO CO 

1-1 I 

IjO CO 

Ti* la CO 


04 CSl O) 


I ^ ^ 4 - 

•<; o c cj 

i ^ ^ 

g § § Ig I 

> ^ ^ ^ .2 

'SI ^ ^ ^ 

'o n C S'O £ 

w m M 


lo lo lo 



TABLE 2 

Showing the proximate chemical composition of the kernels of forty-fine species of Philippine oil-hearing seeds 


ANALYSIS OF OIL-BEARINO SEEDS 




IP 

00 

00 

p 

9 

P 

Oi 

PI 


oo 

CO 


PI 

"in 

00 

p 


rH 

00 

p 

00 

O 

00 


c 

(M 

o 



p 

P 


rH 

kp 

l> 


PI 

00 

P 

00 

o 

00 

© 

© 

PI 

o 

rH 

Hf 


fe 

LO 


PI 

00 

PI 

P 


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CO 

p 

00 

p 

t- 

t- 


oi 

00 

PI 

© 

rH 

t> 

kO 


a. 


CO 

PI 


p 





p 

p 


p] 

rH 

rH 

l> 

p 


rH 


CO 


rH 



o 

o 

p 

p 

n* 



P 

rH 

00 

CO 

PI 

p 

■^ 

PI 

rH 

Tf 

© 

PI 

© 

© 

P 

00 

-9.2 

i 

iH 

o> 

o 

o 

tH 

o 

CO 


rH 

p 

GO 

c- 

p 

00 

PI 

O 

o 

CO 

P 

p 

Hf 

P 

© 

II 

v. 

IP 

o 


00 

o 



00 

Ci 

00 

CO 

p 

CO 

P 

P 

PI 


CO 

rH 

PI 

CO 

Hf 

00 

Ct* 

o, 


00 

PI 


p 





p 

P 


rH 

rH 

rH 

Hi* 

p 


rH 


PI 


rH 


e 

00 


00 


p 

o 


PI 

P 

rH 

o 

p 

PI 

PI 

Hi* 

PI 

oo 

00 

OO 

Hf 

t* 

PI 

l> 

fc-s 


rH 


a> 

o 

p 

o 

rH 

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P 

rH 

oo 

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00 

Oi 

00 

t- 

PI 

o 

o 

© 

t> 

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eo 

aj 

u 

IP 

o 

CO 

T|i 

rH 


P 


O 

kP 


rH 

rH 

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O 

PI 

pi 

o 

oo 

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P 


rH 


a, 

CO 




PI 

00 


CO 

l> 

rH 

PI 

P 

P 

00 

rH 



00 

00 


Hf 

P 

P 


IS 

CO 

t- 

a> 

00 

P 

PI 


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P 


h- 

P 

rH 

c- 

00 

p 

t- 

PI 

© 

Hf 

rH 

t- 

© 

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Vt 

IP 

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CO 

o 

P 

c- 

O 

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PI 

PI 

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P 

rH 

P 

Hi* 

o 

rH 

o 

CO 

P 

PI 

CO 

|l 


00 

00 

00 

PI 

O 

o 

pi 

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CO 

rH 

CO 

tH 

t- 

a> 

rH 

PI 

P 

Hf 

p 

o 

Hf 

kO 



CO 

CO 

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PI 

p 

p- 

CO 

p 

rH 

PI 

■Hi* 

00 

00 




PI 

00 


Hf 

Hf 

p 


c 

(N 


00 

PI 

PI 

r- 

p 


CO 




P 

rH 

rH 

PI 

00 

P 

Hi* 

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Hf 

00 

p 

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cq 



00 

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00 

p] 

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rH 

00 

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t- 

00 

© 

o 

o 

© 

o 

p 


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TjJ 



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00 

i> 

PI 

l> 

kp 

rH 


o 

O 

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P 

p 

rH 

CO 

oo 

© 

rH 

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ft 

PI 

pa 

PI 


PI 


rH 

P 

rH 

rH 

rH 

00 

rH 

Hi* 

P 

rH 

PI 

P 

Hf 


rH 

PI 

rH 


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rH 

t- 

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CO 

00 

o 


t- 

O 

o 

rH 

o 

00 

O 

00 

Hf 

00 

Hf 

Hf 

«.2 


IP 

00 


t> 

rH 


P 

p 

CO 

p 

t* 

t- 

00 

00 

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p 

OO 

p 

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P 

OO 

t- 

ll 

u. 

kp 

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kp 

pi 


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P* 

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CO 

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CO 

00 

Hi* 

00 

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b-* 

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PI 


PI 


rH 


rH 

rH 

rH 

00 


00 

P 


PI 

p 

CO 


rH 

rH 

rH 

>».2 

1 

kP 


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a> 

PI 

oo 

PI 

PI 

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00 

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p 

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p 

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p 

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ft 

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CO* 

pi 

pi 

CO* 

rH 

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p* 

pi 

pi 

rH 

rH 

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00* 

t-* 

00* 

pi 

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p* 

pi 

00 

Hf 

CO 


a 


PI 

o 


P 

b- 

Oi 

o 

p 


PI 

rH 

00 

00 

PI 

t- 


00 

00 

p 

OO 

© 

o 

11 



PI 

CO 

p 


O 

a> 


p 


t- 

t- 

o> 

rH 

Hi* 

oo 

PI 

p 

PI 

Hf 

© 

CO 

PI 


ft 

CO 

CO 

pi 

pi 

CO 

rH 

pi 

IP 

PI 

PI 

rH 

rH 

O 

00 

t> 

rH 

pi 

CO 

p 

rH 

pi 

pi 

00 


l" 


kp 

p 

00 

p 

00 

p 


o 

<Ji 

CO 

P 

P 

rH 

i> 


Oi 

p 

00 


© 

Hf 

Hf 


V) 

ta 

CO 

p 

p 

p 

t> 

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OO 


rH 


00 

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P 

co 

t- 

© 

tH 

Hf 

PI 

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CO 

t- 


V 

PI 

CO 

i> 

rr 


C- 


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pi 

pi 

p 

00 

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CO 

CO 

Ok 

CO 

o 

CD 

rH 

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© 


ft 






Pl 




rH 


rH 

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Hi* 


rH 

rH 

Hf 

rH 

00 



1 

Cr- 

PI 

PI 

o 

rH 

P 

PI 

<Ji 

o 

CO 

PI 

PI 

Hi* 

00 

Hf 

o 

P 

~*r 

o 

OO 

rH 

o 

rH 


u 

tH 

CO 

00 

o 

00 

rH 

OO 

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PI 

rH 

CO 

Hi* 

PI 

p 

t- 

o 

00 

p 

00 

Hf 

© 


rH 


V. 

Tjl 

kp 

o 

pi 

00 

00 

kO 

oi 

00 

r> 

pi 

o 

Hf 

p’ 

Hf* 

kO 

p* 

Hi* 

CO 

O 

© 

rH 

rH 


ft 

CO 

CO 

CO 

a> 

rr 

P 

rH 

p 

p 

oo 

p 


P 

p 

PI 

t- 

p 

00 

p 

P 

Hf 

P 

CO 


i 

i2 ^ 
§ 8 « 


.-S.-s-g 

II I 


1?^ s 

o BS 


3 ’i. "2 s § 

i 

il « * I « 
:|il|l 

e p o S 2 

•§ •§ r i 

O O O o o I 


* ^ V 

: 8 S 

* c 

* c« ^ 


o8 j 


‘ N t 

III; 

Q < 5 \^ < 


Hydnocarpus hutchinsonii 


TABLE 2 (Continued) 


414 


THE PHIUPPIMB AGBIGULTURIST 





o 

00 

CO 

xf 

CO 

to 

Cl 

CO 

CO 

o 

tA 

O 


xt 

o 


d 

x|« 

OS 


d 

i 


CO 

a> 

o 


a> 

pH 

CO 

CJ 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

pH 

pH 

d 

O 

00 

00 

CO 

d 

i 



00 

ci 



cd 

o 

xf 

o 

XJ* 

CO 

pH 

CO 

IH 


iH 

cd 

CO 

OS 

tA 

IH 

00 



tH 

tH 

iO 

pH 

pH 

o 

Cl 

t- 

CO 

00 

CO 

CO 

CO 


pH 

pH 


iH 

pH 

CO 



























9 00 

iC 

CO 

00 

CO 

Oi 

xf 

CO 

CO 


o 

O 

o 

d 

d 

CO 

CO 

OS 

d 

CO 


tH 


•a .3 

i ^ 

Cl 


XJ« 

pH 

CO 

lA 

Cl 

CO 

00 

pH 

CO 

x»< 

CO 

d 

t- 

CO 

O 

00 

tA 

00 

d 

3 



CO* 

o 


tH 

^* 

lA 

Cl 

t> 

CO 

tA 

a 

00 

d 

pH 

cd 

Xf 

tA 

00 

xji 

cd 

OS 


C«h-2 

a 

tH 

tH 

lO 

pH 

pH 

CO 

Cl 

tA 

Cl 

tA 

Cl 

d 

CO 

CO 


pH 

pH 


pH 

pH 

tA 



cent 

46 


r- 


h- 

00 

r- 

Ci 

Cl 

CO 


d 

pftj 

00 

CO 

IH 

CO 

pH 

pH 

tA 

O 

00 

2s 

b-s 

to 

Cl 

o 

00 

OJ 

tA 

o 

a 

Cl 

tA 

d 

CO 

CO 

CO 

lA 

CO 

OS 

OS 

00 

OS 

CO 

q| 

fc 

00 

iO 

ci 

xji 

CO 

pH 

00 

a 

a 

xf 

o 

d 

d 

xi« 

cd 

d 

tA 

IH 

xt 


CO 

a ^ 

Xf 

tH 

pH 

CO 

CO 


Cl 


XT 


d 

d 

CO 

pH 

tA 

pH 

xf 


tA 

CO 


1 ” 
h 


S <D 

o 

00 

lA 

o 

00 

xj« 

pH 

o 

o 

wH 

a 

OS 

CO 

pH 

tH 

CO 

tA 

OS 

CO 

OS 

Xj< 

Fresh 

basis 


xj* 

CO 

tH 

CO 

Cl 

CO 

ci 

00 

pH 

pH 

00 

tA 

pH 

00 

tA 

00* 

a 

ci 

00 

00 

CO 

IH 

CO 

00* 

pH 

cd 

CO 

cd 

pH 

pH 

d 

cd 

o 

tH 

d 

o 

iH 

d 

tA 

tA 

a 

a 

xj< 

pH 

pH 

CO 

lA 


Cl 


CO 


pH 

pH 

d 

pH 

tA 

pH 

xf 


tA 

CO 




S 00 

00 

00 

00 


C3 

o 

Ci 


t- 

pH 

CO 

o 

OS 

iH 

IH 

CO 

pH 

CO 

00 

d 

IH 




CO 

CO 

pH 

00 

Oi 

CO 

Ci 


CO 

t* 

tA 

d 

tA 

t- 

d 

IH 

CO 

pH 

tA 

tA 

CO 

m 

as 


CO 

cd 

o 

oi 

cd 

cd 

Cl 

cd 

xjt 

CO 

d 

00 

CO 

tA 

d 

IH 

pH 

CO 

tA 

CO 

d 

'/i w 

§x 

ft. ^ 

CO 

CO 

CO 

xj< 

pH 


xi* 

pH 

pH 


xjt 

CO 

d 

xt 

CO 

CO 

CO 

IH 

d 

pH 

d 


1 S3 

CO 

o 

l> 

CO 

lA 

t- 

o 

tA 

xf 

tH 

xl« 

OS 

OS 

CO 

pH 

d 

O 

d 

xl< 

pH 

os 


'S-S 

00 

CO 

(M 

lA 

xf 

tA 

tA 

xf 

Cl 

Cl 

IH 

00 

d 

00 

CO 

t- 

tA 

d 

xl< 

00 

CO 




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t> 

00 

cd 

tA 

xjJ 

d 

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pH 

xf 

OS 

OS 

CO 

pH 

o 

OS 

OS* 

00* 

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LA 

OS 


a ^ 

CO 

to 

Cl 

xt 



CO 

pH 

pH 


CO 

d 

d 

xt 

CO 

tA 

d 

CO 

d 

pH 

pH 



§ 00 

CO 


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00 

t- 

00 

o 

tA 

t- 

Cl 

o 

OS 

OS 

CO 

CO 

OS 

CO 

d 

00 

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n'S 

rH 

o 

Cl 

00 

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00 


t- 

Cl 

O 

pH 

OS 

00 

Xt 

IH 

o 

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IH 

pH 

CO 

00 

tH 

tt 

Q Jg 


xjl 

cd 

ci 

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ci 

pH 

xjj 

CO 

ci 

ci 

tA 

d* 

CO 

tA 

xf 

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cd 

cd 

CO 

d 

d 

tm 

3 


§ O 

l> 

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pH 

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Cl 

C- 

d 

tA 

pH 

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tA 


tA 

CO 

IH 

00 

IH 

tH 

IH 


$ ‘58 

V) LO 

00 

x|< 

CO 

pH 

CO 

Cl 

CO 

XT 

CO 

CO 

tA 

d 

o 

d 

00 

OS 

CO 

Xt 

CO 

t» 

CO 



t Cl 
a 

CO 

to 

ci 

cd 

ci 

pH 

xd 

csi 

pH 

pH 

tA 

ci 

CO 

lA 

cd 

d 

CO 

tA 

CO* 

d 

d 

g 


s *> 

LO 

s 

CO 

Cl 

i> 

CO 

pH 

tA 

O 

t> 

CO 

CO 

pH 

xj« 

xjt 

CO 

OS 

OS 

tH 

CO 

CO 

I 


CO 

CO 

lA 

o 


pH 

CO 

00 

CO 

tA 

tH 

xf 

tA 

pH 

00 

tH 

CO 

CO 

CO 

pH 

S9 


fc CO 


cd 

cd 

cd 

oi 

t> 

00 

00 

pH 

cd 

cd 

pH 

ci 

00 

tA 

pH 

tA 

cd 

00 

xl< 

cd 

'S 


^ cu 


pH 




Cl 


pH 

Cl 

CO 


d 

pH 



pH 


pH 



pH 

3 

S 


cent 

62 

CO 

o 

CO 

c> 

CO 

tA 

CO 

o 

o 

xjt 

OS 

CO 

CO 

xf 

CO 

tA 

o 

OS 

CO 

OS 

OS 


Xf 

lO 

Xf 

O) 

CO 

t- 

iH 

o 

o 

Cl 

CO 

tA 

pH 

x!« 

CO 

O 

o 

d 

OS 

CO 

xl« 

os 


£ 00 

CO 

Cl 

00 

00 

oi 

O 

O 

C> 


x|t 

tA 

o 

xd 

tA 

00 

pH 

o 

pH 

tA 

OS 

OS 

d 

S3 

t. 

a *> 

CO 

to 

X** 

CO 

00 

00 

00 

t- 

tA 

00 

xf 

IH 

OS 

00 

CO 

tA 

tA 

CO 

CO 




1^11 

Co CQ ig 


The shells were not removed since for practical purposes they are edible. 



ANALYSIS OF OIL-BEARING SEEDS 


416 


TABLE 8 

Showing the amount of kemelSg crude protein and crude fats that could he ob- 
tained from one kilogram of seeds 


SCIENTIFIC NAMES 

^ KERNELS 

CRUDE 1 

PROTEIN 1 

CRUDE 

1 FATS 


grams 

1 grams 

1 grams 

Aleurites moluccana (Linn.) Willd 

342 

I 87 

217 

Aleurites trisperma Blanco 

666 

154 

266 

Anacardium occidentale Linn 

308 

78 

134 

Arachis hypogaea Linn 

920 

393 

387 

Caesalplnia crista Linn 

488 

103 

100 

Calophylhim inophyllum Linn 

532 

34 

323 

Canarium ovatum Engl 

168 

26 

114 

Ceiba pentandra (Linn.) Gaertn 

600 

286 

207 

Crisocheton cumingianus (C.DC.) Harms 

582 

96 

393 

Chisocheton pentandnis (Blanco) Merr 

871 

118 

116 

Chrysobalanus icaco Linn 

523 

66 

111 

Cinnamomiim mercadoi Vid 

904 

287 

393 

Cocos nucifera Linn 

542 

29 

1 172 

Croton tiglium Linn 

656 

261 

263 

Delonix regia (Boj.) Raf 

247 

1 149 

24 

Dysoxylum decnndrum (Blanco) M-err 

750 

67 

1 11 

Entada phnseoloides (Linn.) Merr 

554 

1 130 

i 12 

Gliricidia septum (Jacq.) St«ud 

845 

456 

221 

Gossypium sp 

568 

219 

194 

Heriiiera litieralis Dryand 

605 

26 

32 

Hevea brasiliensis (HBK.) Muell.-Arg 

499 

93 

202 

Hydnocarpiis alcalae C.DC 

614 

85 

272 

Hydnocarpus hutchlnsonii Merr 

311 

56 

172 

Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) 0. Kuntze 

786 

87 

88 

Jatropha ciArcas Linn 

635 

202 

295 

Leuoaena glatica (Linn.) Benlh 

526 

301 

69 

Mallotus philipponsis (Lam.) Muell.-Arg 

485 

137 

66 

Moringa oleifera Lam 

690 

321 

225 

Nephelium mutabile Blume 

891 

139 

622 

Crania palindan (Blanco) Merr 

808 

37 

9 

Pachyrrhizus erosus (Linn.) Urb 

802 

317 

207 

Pahudia rhomboidea (Blanco) Prain 

770 

104 

62 

Pangium edule Reinw 

670 1 

64 I 

220 

Parashorea mcdaomonan (Blanco) Merr 

842 

36 

26 

Parhia javanica (Lam.) Merr 

454 

180 

86 

Pithecolobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth 

706 

211 

125 

Pongamia pinna, ta (Linn.) Merr 

941 

219 

270 

Psophoca't'pus tetragonolobus (Linn.) DC 

864 

358 

112 

Ricinus communis Linn 

686 

210 

368 

Samanea saman (Jacq.) Mlerr 

610 

306 

57 

Sesamum orientate Linn 

1000 

291 

433 

Sesbania gra'ndiflora (Linn.) Pers 

553 

377 

39 

Sterculia foetid a Linn 

400 

94 

201 

Swietenia mahogoni Jacq 

397 

63 

239 

Tamarindus indica Linn 

706 

139 

39 






A STUDY ON THE COMPARATIVE ECONOMY OF EGG PRO- 
DUCTION OF THE NAGOYA AND OF THE LOS BASOS 
CANTONESE BREEDS OF FOWLS ^ 

LADISLAO G. MARTI^t 

In a previous report (Tioaquen, 1933), the growth and maturity 
of the Lost Banos Cantonese and of the Nagoya breeds of fowls were 
compared. As many of the poultry raisers around Manila and in the 
neighboring provinces are concentrating their attention on these two 
imported breeds, the question as to which of them produces eggs the 
most economically becomes an important one. For this reason this 
study on the comparative economy of egg production by these breeds 
which was conducted in the Poultry Division of the Animal Hus- 
bandry Department is timely and should be of value. It covered a 
period of 366 days from September 1, 1931 to August 31, 1932. 

REVIBW OF UTEBATURB 

Fronda and Gonzalez (1927) reported that the average yearly 
egg production of the Los Banos Cantonese pullets in the College of 
Agriculture in 1917 to 1918 was 29.8 eggs and in 1923 to 1924 was 
109.7 eggs. In 1929, they reported that the yearly egg production 
in 1927 *of the four Nagoya pullets that were produced out of the 
30 Nagoya eggs imported from Japan in 1926 were 106, 98, 91 and 
74 eggs. This record, for a newly imported breed, was considered 
satisfactory. 

Fronda and Paje (1930) reported that among the Los Banos 
Cantonese chickens it cost 38.8 centavos to produce a dozen eggs 
from pullets, 43.6 centavos from yearlings and 49.0 centavos from 
hens. They stated that of these costs, 60.3 per cent represented 
the cost of feeds; 18.6 per cent, labor; 6.8 per cent, use of fences 
and building; 4.2 per cent, use of capital stock; 3.7 per cent, depre- 
ciation; 3.8 per cent, insurance; 2.3 per cent, repairs; and 0.3 per 
cent, use of land. 

Fronda (1931) reported that in the First Philippine Egg Laying 
Contest held in 1930-1931, the feed consumption per bird was 31.16 

* Thesis presented for graduation, 1988, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Agriculture from the College of Agriculture, No. 366; Experiment 
Station contribution No. 912. Prepared in the Department of Animal Hus- 
bandry under the direction of Dr. F. M. Fronda. 


416 



ECONOMY OF EGG PRODUCTION 


417 


kgrm. for the Nagoya chickens and only 27.43 kgm. for the Los Ba- 
ftos Cantonese. He further stated that the returns above the cost 
of feeds ranged from P38.72 to P66.43 for the three Los Banos Can- 
tonese lots entered and P48.66 and P63.18 for the two Nagoya lots. 
The Los Banos Cantonese laid a larger number of eggs but the eggs 
were rather small so that the income was not as large as that from 
the Nagoya pens. Each pen in the contest consisted of ten birds. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Thirty Los Banos Cantonese pullets and 30 Nagoya pullets were 
placed in separate pens. The chickens were about six months old 
when placed in the pens. They were selected from the College 
flocks that were hatched during the same season of the year. Two 
roosters were placed in each lot. Both lots were given the same 
ration during the whole year. The grain feed consisted of equal 
parts by weight of corn and palay, and the mash feed consisted of 
two parts shrimp meal, one part corn meal, one part copra meal and 
-six parts rice bran. 

Effort was made to have the birds consume equal parts of grain 
and mash. The monthly feed consumption for each pen was re- 
corded. Grain was given to the birds in the morning and afternoon 
and wet mash some time before noon. Dry mash was open to the 
birds at all times during the day. Fresh water was available at 
all times. 

The hens were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and 
-every month thereafter. Those which showed signs of broodiness 
were confined at once in the broody coop and released after broodi- 
ness was broken, which was in from four to five days. The weights 
and mortality of the birds were recorded. 

The eggs were collected from the trap nests at about 9:00 and 
11 :00 a. m. and 1 :00 and 4 :00 p. m. All the unidentified eggs, “out 
eggs”, were included in the computation for the pen production. 
The eggs were classified and sold as table eggs according to the 
College classification which is as follows: eggs that weigh less than 
45 grams each are recorded as “undergrade” or “pullet” eggs, and 
"those that weigh 45 grams each or over are recorded as “standard” 
eggs. The undergrade eggs were sold at P.03 each and the standard 
eggs were sold at P0.04 each. 

Only normal eggs were incubated. An equal number of eggs 
of the Nagoya and the Los Banos Cantonese lots were incubated in 
the same incubator and at the same time. Three trials were made 
.and the combined results of the three trials are here reported. 



418 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTURIST 


Cost factors 

To determine the net cost of production the following cost 
figures used by Fronda and Paje (1930) were used: 

Labor. The actual amount of labor required for the care and 
management of the pens was used. On an average one and one- 
half hours a day were needed for both pens. At ten centavos an 
Hour, P54.90 was charged for labor against the two pens for 366 
days or P27.45 against each pen. 

Use of hvMding and fences. The present book value of the 
house and fences is P388.89. This value is rather high but the 
records show that this house was built when labor was high and 
materials expensive. At six per cent a year as rent, P23.33 was 
charged against the two lots or P11.66 against each pen. 

Interest on capital stock. The local selling price of a Nagoya 
pullet is P6.00 and that of a Los Banos Cantonese pullet is P3.00. 
The 30 birds in the Nagoya lot therefore cost P180.00 and the 30 
birds in the Los Banos Cantonese lot cost P90.00. At the rate of 
six per cent per annum as interest, P10.80 was charged against the 
Nagoya pen and P5.40 against the Los Banos Cantonese pen. 

Depreciation. Taking 3.3 per cent on the present value of the 
building and fences as depreciation, the amount of P12.83 was 
charged against the two lots or P6.41 against each pen. 

Insurance. At the rate of five per cent per annum as insurance, 
the annual insurance for each lot was P9.00 for the Nagoya and 
P4.50 for the Los Banos Cantonese lot. At 0.25 per cent per annum, 
the insurance for the building was P0.97 or P 0.49 was charged against 
each pen. Thus the sum of P9.49 was charged against the Nagoya 
pen and P4.99 against the Los Banos Cantonese pen for insurance 
of both the birds and the building. 

Repairs. For the repair of building and fences the rate of two 
per cent was used. The amount that was charged against each pen 
was P3.88. 

Use of land. The four adjoining yards, including the place 
where the building is located, covers about 720 square meters. At 
P500.00 a hectare and with the interest at six per cent, PI .08 was 
charged against each pen for rent of land. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 

Percentage of monthly egg production. The percentage of 
monthly egg production of the two lots is shown in table 1. Refer- 
ring to this table it may be seen that each of the two lots produced 
practically the same number of eggs throughout the year except in 



ECONOMY OF EGG PBODOCTION 419 

September when the Los Bahos Cantonese pen produced 44.8 per 
cent, while the Nagoya pen produced only 32.8 per cent. These 
productions during September were expected because the Los Ba- 
nos Cantonese are earlier maturing birds than the Nagoya (Tioa- 
quen, 1933). The difference between the two lots in the percentage 
of egg production during the month was 12.0 per cent. 

There was a decrease in egg production in October. The 
decrease in the Los Banos Cantonese was because many of the birds 
were broody. There was a steady increase in egg production in the 
two lots from November to January and then up to August a gradual 
decrease. Similar observations were reported by Fronda (1928). 
The percentage of egg production increa^ from September to Jan- 
uary and then up to August it gradually decreased. 

The average yearly percentage of egg production was deter- 
mined ; it was observed that there was hardly any difference between 
the two breeds. On an average, a Nagoya hen laid 134.8 eggs in 
one year and a Los Banos Cantonese hen laid 136.0. The range in 
individual egg production during the year varied from 80 to 177 eggs 
in the Nagoya lot and from 100 to 191 eggs in the Los Banos Can- 
tonese lot. 

In the Nagoya lot, one hen laid 80 eggs, six hens laid from 110 
to 119 eggs; four hens, from 130 to 139 eggs; three hens, from 140 
to 149 eggs; two hens, from 160 to 169 eggs; and one hen, from 
170 to 179 eggs. In the Los Banos Cantonese lot, two hens laid 
from 100 to 109 eggs; four hens, from 110 to 119 eggs; five hens, 

from 120 to 129 eggs; eight hens, from 130 to 139 eggs; two hens, 

from 140 to 149 eggs; two hens, from 150 to 159 eggs; two hens, 

from 170 to 179 eggs; and one hen, laid 191 eggs. 

If the egg production of only the birds that completed the year 
is considered, the average production per bird in the Nagoya lot 
would be 131.8 eggs and that in the Los Banos Cantonese lot would 
be 134.6 eggs. The figures are slightly lower in both lots when 
computed on the basis of the birds that completed the year than 
when the averages for the lots are considered, owing to the fact 
that some of the birds that died happened to be heavy producers. 
While both bases of computations are correct, in fairness to each of 
the two lots studied, the figures, 134.8 eggs for the Nagoya lot and 
136.0 for the Cantonese, should be taken as the correct figures for 
the average egg production of each lot. 

Number and value of eggs produced. Table 2 shows the actual 
number and the value of eggs produced in each of the two lots. Out of 
the 3366 eggs laid by the Nagoya pen, 1641 eggs, or 46.89 per cent. 



420 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


were standard egga; of the 3726 eggs of the Los Banos Cantonese 
only 261 eggs or 18.98 per cent were standard eggs. The Nagoya 
eggs that were produced cost a total of PI 17.09 and the Los Banos 
Cantonese eggs cost a total of PI 16.99. The Los Banos Cantonese 
lot produced more eggs than the Nagoya lot but the income was lower 
than that of the Nagoya lot because the Los Banos Cantonese eggs 
were rather small. The results were to be expected because the 
Nagoya pen produced larger eggs than the Los Banos Cantonese 
pen. 

Feed consumption. Referring to table 3 it may be seen that 
the Nagoya lot consumed 407.8 kgm. of mash and 406.5 kgm. of 
grain or a total of 814.3 kgm. of feeds during the year. At the 
current prices of feeds, a kilogram of the mash mixture cost P0.064 
and a kilogram of the grain mixture cost P0.048. The total cost of 
feeds consumed by the Nagoya lot, therefore, was P45.62. Com- 
puting the feed consumption on the basis of the individual bird, it 
may be seen that the average consumption for each bird in the Na- 
goya lot was 16.4 kgm. of the grain mixture and 16.3 kgm. of the 
mash mixture or a total of 32.7 kgm. of feeds a year, valued at P1.84. 
Computing the feed consumption on the basis of a kilogram live 
weight, the average consumption of each bird in the Nagoya lot for 
the year was 9.6 kgm. of mash mixture and 9.67 kgm. of grain or 
a total of 19.27 kgm. of feeds valued at P1.08. 

Referring to the same table, it may be seen that the Los Banos 
Cantonese lot consumed 398 kgm. of the mash mixture and 401 kgm. 
of the grain mixture or a total of 799 kgm. of feeds valued at P44.72. 
The average consumption per bird for the year was 14.5 kgm. of the 
mash mixture and 14.6 kgm. of the grain mixture or a total for 
the year of 29.1 kgm. of feeds valued at PI. 63. Computing the feed 
consumption on the basis of a kilogram live weight, the average con- 
sumption in the Los Banos Cantonese lot was 9.6 kgm. of mash mix- 
ture and 9.68 kgm. of grain mixture or a total of 19.28 kgm. of 
feeds costing P1.08. 

The results clearly show that there is no significant difference 
in the feed consumption of the two lots if the feed consumption is 
based on a kilogram live weight. But if the feed consumption is 
based on the average per individual bird, the Nagoya lot consumed 
12.8 per cent more feeds than the Los Banos Cantonese lot. Fronda 
(1931) reported that for the Nagoya hen the annual feed consump- 
tion was 31.16 kgm., while for the Los Banos Cantonese hen it was 
only 27.43 kgm. 



ECONOMY OF EGG PBODOCTION 


421 


Cost of egg prodtu}tion includmg the different charges made 

Value of eggs over the cost of feeds. Table 4 shows the returns 
from the sale of eggs, and the cost of feeds needed to produce a 
dozen eggs. Actually, the Nagoya lot produced a smaller number 
of eggs than the Los Banos Cantonese and the total feed consump- 
tion was more. The returns from the sale of eggs over the cost of 
feeds would have been the same in the two lots if the lots had pro- 
duced eggs of the same size. The actual returns received from the 
sale of eggs from the Nagoya lot was P71.47 more than the cost of 
feeds; for the Los Banos Cantonese lot, P72.27, thus griving P0.80 
in favor of the latter lot. 

Profit. Table 4 gives the summary of the actual expenses in- 
curred in each lot of 30 birds. The total cost, including the cost 
of feeds, labor, the use of building and fences, interest on the value 
of capital stock, depreciation, insurance, repairs and the use of land 
amounted to PI 16.39 for the Nagoya lot and PI 05.59 for the Los 
Banos Cantonese lot. That the expense incurred in the Nagoya lot 
was greater than in the Los Banos Cantonese lot was due to the in- 
terest and insurance on the value of the capital stock, as the 30 
Nagoya hens were valued at P180.00 and the 30 Los Banos Cantonese 
hens at only P90.00, obviously, the profit in the Nagoya lot is less 
than in the Los Banos Cantonese lot. Subtracting the total expenses 
from the returns from the sale of eggs, it is seen that the Nagoya lot 
gained P0.70 or 0.6 per cent on the total investment and the Los 
Banos Cantonese lot gained P11.40 or 10.79 per cent. The value of 
manure was not taken into consideration as no record was kept of 
the amount produced. These results conclusively show that under 
the conditions of this experiment, the Los Banos Cantonese breed 
was more profitable than the Nagoya. 

It cost 41.6 centavos to produce a dozen eggs in the Nagoya 
lot and 34.0 centavos in the Los Banos Cantonese lot. These figures 
clearly show that the Los Banos Cantonese pen produced eggs a 
little more economically than the Nagoya pen. On an average, the 
Los Banos Cantonese lot required 2.57 kgm. of feeds consisting of 
both mash and grain to produce a dozen eggs; the Nagoya lot re- 
quired 2.91 kgm. 

It is interesting to note that in the study conducted by Fronda 
and Paje (1930), the average amount of feeds consisting of both 
grain and mash required by the Los Banos Cantonese pullet to pro- 
duce a dozen eggs was 2.6 kgm. By using the actual expenses in- 
curred these writers reported that with the Los Banos Cantonese 
pullets the average cost of producing a dozen eggs was 38.8 centavos. 



422 


THE PHIUPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Under the conditions of the present study, the cost of producing a 
dozen eggs was less than that reported by Fronda and Paje. The 
difference was due to the fact that at the time they conducted their 
experiment the cost of a kilogram of feed was P0.09, while the cost 
of a kilogram of feed in the present study was only P0.066. Further- 
more, the cost of labor at that time was higher than it is at present. 

Mortality 

Table 6 shows the percentage of mortality of the birds in the 
two lots. Referring to this table it may be seen that six N'agoya 
hens and four Los Banos Cantonese hens died during the year. It 
may be also noted that five birds in the Nagoya lot were stolen on 
June 7, 1932. However, this loss was not considered as mortality 
in this study. 

Two Nagoya hens were choked by the doors of the trap nests, 
and two died of egg bound as determined after a post-mortem 
examination. The eggs that were taken from the oviducts of these 
birds were of regular size but the birds were not able to expel them. 
The other two birds died on December 13, 1931. The causes of the 
deaths were not determined. Basing the computation of the per- 
centage of mortality on the total number of birds in the pen, it 
was found that the Nagoya lot had 20.0 per cent mortality which 
was considered rather high. 

Four birds died in the Los Bafios Cantonese pen. Bird 1567 
died in September and bird 1529 in October. The causes of the 
death of thege birds were not determined. Bird 1593 died on Feb- 
ruary 2, 1932. She was broody for a long time and as a result she 
decreased considerably in weight and finally died. The other bird 
died in June, 1932. If the percentage of mortality is based on the 
total number of birds in the pen, the Los Banos Cantonese pen had 
13.3 per cent mortality. 

In general, the birds in the two lots increased in body weight. 
The increase made by the Nagoya lot was 398.4 grams or 25.9 per 
cent of the initial body weight, while that of the Los Banos Canton- 
ese lot was only 231.1 grams or 16.7 per cent of the initial body 
weight. The increase in the body weight was due to the increase 
in the size of the body and the deposit of fat. 

Incubation results 

Table 6 gives the percentage of fertility and hatchability of the 
eggs set from the two lots. The averages of the three hatches made 



ECONOMY OF EGO PRODUCTION 


42a 


were used in the computation. It was found that 89.3 per cent of 
the Nagroya eggs set were fertile and only 71.8 per cent of the Los 
Banos Cantonese. 

It may be observed by reference to this table that 47.6 per cent 
of the Nagoya eggs set were hatched, and only 36.0 per cent of the 
Los Banos Cantonese. These percentages of hatchability were based 
on the total number of eggs set. If based on fertile eggs only, 53.2 
per cent of the Nagoya eggs hatched, and only 47.0 per cent of the 
Los Banos Cantonese. 

Taking the average of the initial weights of the chicks in the 
three trials, it was observed that a Nagoya chick weighed 30.1 
grams and the Los Banos Cantonese chick, 27.6 grams. This dif- 
ference was to be expected because the Nagoya chicks were hatched 
from larger and heavier eggs than the Los Banos Cantonese. The 
larger and the heavier the egg, the larger the chick it will produce. 
Tioaquen (1933) also reported that on an average the Nagoya chicks 
were heavier than the Los Banos Cantonese. 

From unpublished data in the files of the Poultry Division, it 
was found that the average weight of the chicks hatched from the 
Nagoya eggs imported from Japan in 1926 was 39.46 grams. It 
will be noted that this weight is very much greater than the average 
weight of the chicks hatched from the Nagoya eggs in this study. 
These differences were to be expected because the 1926 chicks were 
hatched from selected Nagoya eggs. The average weight of the im- 
ported eggs was 62.0 grams which was considered extra heavy. The 
eggs set in this study were .selected at random from the Nagoya eggs 
laid during the first laying year. The effect of the new environment 
may also have had some influence on the decrease in the size of the 
Nagoya egg. 

SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS 

The results of a study on the comparative economy of egg pro- 
duction of the Los Banos Cantonese and the Nagoya breeds of fowls 
are here reported. 

1. It was observed that in the Nagoya lot the birds averaged 
134.8 eggs and in the Los Banos Cantonese lot, 136.0 eggs. But, 
if only the egg production of the birds that completed the year is 
considered, the average egg production per bird in the Nagoya lot 
would be 131.6 eggs and that in the Los Banos Cantonese lot, 134.6 
eggs. 

2. Of the 3366 eggs laid by the Nagoya lot, 45.83 per cent were 
standard; and of the 3726 eggs laid by the Los Banos Cantonese 
lot, only 13.98 per cent were standard. 



424 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


3. Basin? the computation on the present selling price of eggs, 
PI 17.09 was realized from the sale of the Nagoya eggs produced 
during the year and P116.99 from the sale of Los Banos Cantonese 
eggs. 

4. The Nagoya lot consumed 814.3 kgm. of feeds costing P45.62 
and the Los Banos' Cantonese lot consumed 799 kgm. of feeds costing 
P44.72. The average consumption of a Nagoya hen was 32.7 kgm. 
t)f feeds costing P1.84 ; of a Los Banos Cantonese hen, 29.1 kgm. 
of feeds costing P1.63. When based on a kilogram live weight, the 
average feed consumption per bird was 19.27 kgm. of feeds costing 
P1.08 for the Nagoya lot, and 19.28 kgm. of feeds costing P1.08 for 
the Los Banos Cantonese lot. 

6. The total expenses incurred, including the cost of feeds, labor, 
use of building and fences, interest on capital stock, depreciation, 
insurance, repairs and the use of land was P116.39 for the Nagoya 
lot and PI 06.59 for the Los Banos Cantonese lot. 

6. The average cost of producing a dozen Nagoya eggs was 41.6 
centavos, of a dozen Los Banos Cantonese eggs, 34.0 centavos. 

7. Deducting the total expenses from the amount received from 
the sale of eggs, the net returns in the Nagoya lot was P0.70 or 0.6 
Iier cent on the total investment: in the Los Banos Cantonese lot 
it was P11.40 or 10.79 per cent on the total investment. 

8. The percentage of mortality in the Nagoya lot was 20.0 per 
cent, and only 13.3 per cent in the Los Banos Cantonese lot. 

9. The ayerage percentage of fertility of the eggs set was 89.3 
per cent in the Nagoya lot and only 71.8 per cent in the Los Banos 
Cantonese lot. The average percentage of hatchability of the total 
eggs set was 47.5 per cent in the Nagoya lot and 36.0 per cent in 
the Los Banos Cantonese lot. 

10. The average initial weight of the Nagoya chick was ob- 
served to be 30.1 grams; of the Los Banos Cantonese chick, 27.6 
grams. 


LITERATURE CITED 

Fbonda, P. M. 1931. A study of the results of the first Philippine egg laying 
contest. The Philippine Agriculturist 20: 596-603. 

Fronda, P. M. 1928. The seasonal distribution of egg production: the normal 
egg production curve. The Philippine Agriculturist 17: 25-36. Charts 1-2. 

Fronda, P. M., and B. M. Gonzalez. 1927. Developing the Cantonese chickens. 
The Philippine Agriculturist 15: 481-485. Fig. 1-4. 



ECONOMY OF EGG PRODUCTION 


425 


Fronda, F. M., and B. M. Gonzalez. 1929. The Nagoya, a new immigrant 
from Japan. The Philippine Agriculturist 17: 569-663. Fig, IS. 

Fronda, F. M., and Pedro S. Pajb. 1930. Factors in the cost of egg produc- 
tion. The Philippine Agn^iculturist 19: 337-363. Charts 1-A* 

Tioaquen, Tblesporo. 1933. Comparative studies on the growth and maturity 
of the Los Banos Cantonese and Nagoya chickens. The Philippine Agrri- 
culturist 22: 338-366. Chart 1, 


TABLE 1 

Showing the percentage of monthly egg production of 
the Nagoya lot and of the Los Banos 
Cantonese lot 


MONTHS 

BREEDS 

Najaroya 1 

Cantonese 

September 

per cent 

32.8 

per cent 

I 44.8 

October 

32.6 

31.3 

November 

36.3 

38.1 

December 

39.1 

37.5 

January 

49.8 

60.1 

February 

46.6 

43.9 

March 

45.3 

44.3 

April 1 

37.6 

36.9 

May 

32.4 

32.3 

J une 

31.9 

29.8 

July 

26.3 

26.3 

August 

27.6 

26.4 

Average | 

1 36.6 1 

1 36.7 



426 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE 2 

Showing the number and value of eggs produced in the Nagoya lot and the Los 

Banos Cantonese lot 



BRKKDS 

MONTHS 

Nasoya I 

Cantonese 

Stand- 1 
ard ® 1 

Under- I 
nrrades b 1 

Total 1 

Value 

Stand- 1 
ard I 

Under- I 
tirades 1 

Total 1 

Value 


number 

number 

number 

pesos 

number 

number 

number 

pesos 

September . . 

110 

186 

295 

9.96 

19 

376 

395 

12.04 

October 

166 

137 

302 

10.71 

27 

263 

280 

8.67 

November . . . 

159 

163 

322 

11.26 

20 

300 

320 

9.80 

December . . . 

196 

135 

330 

11.86 

32 

294 

326 

10.10 

January 

177 

226 

402 

13.83 

44 

399 

443 

13.73 

February , . . 

90 

257 

347 

11.31 

17 

328 

345 

10.62 

March 

136 

211 

347 

11.77 

65 

306 

371 

11.78 

April 

110 

161 

271 

9.23 

69 

222 

291 

9.42 

May \ . 

109 

132 j 

241 

8.32 

34 

237 

277 

8.47 

June 

132 

48 

180 

6.72 1 

67 

182 

239 

7.74 

July 

135 

20 

165 

6.00 

35 

197 

232 

7.31 

August 

123 

41 

164 

6.15 

102 

111 

213 

7.41 

Total 

Average per 

1641 

1716 

3366 1 

117.09 

6^ 

3206 

3726 

116.99 

bird® 



134.8 

4.69 



136.0 

4.24 


Standard egg (46 grams and up) at P0.04 each. 

Undergrade (44 grama and below) at f0.03 each. 

® Total number of birds, 24.9 for the Nagoya lot and 27.4 for the Cantonese 


lot. 



ECONOMY OF EGG PRODUCTION 


427 


TABLE 8 

Shovnng the anuyu/nt and coat of feeds conaumed by the Nagoya lot and by the 

Loa Bahoa Cantonese lot 


RIILCDS 


MONTHS 

i 

Nu^roya 



Cantonese 


1 

Mash ® 1 

Grains b | 

Total 1 

Value 

Mash 1 

Grains 

j Total 

1 Value 


kgm. 

kgm. 

kgm. 

pesos 

kgm. 

kgm. 

kgm. 

pt’.SOS 

September . . 

39.5 

44.0 

j 83.5 

4.64 

39.0 

42.0 

81.0 

4.52 

October 

36.0 

31.0 

67.0 

3.79 

31.0 

28.0 

59.0 

3.32 

November . . . 

44.5 

39.0 

83.5 

4.72 

37.5 

38.0 

75.5 

4.22 

December . . . 

32.5 

41.0 

73.5 

4.05 

31.0 

40.0 

71.0 

3.90 

January .... 

44.0 

33.5 

77.5 

4.43 

44.0 

33.0 

77.0 

4.40 

February . . . 

35.5 

40.0 

75.5 

4.19 

35.5 

40.5 

76.5 

4.22 

March 

30.5 

30.0 

60.5 

3.39 

31.0 

31.0 

62.0 

3.47 

April 

32.0 

29.5 

61.5 

3.47 

31.0 

29.0 i 

60.0 

3.37 

May 

29.5 

44.5 

64.0 

4.03 

30.0 

34.0 

64.0 

3.55 

June 1 

32.3 

19.8 

52.0 

3.02 

25.0 ! 

22.5 1 

47.5 

2.68 

July 1 

26.0 

26.4 

52.4 

2.93 ' 

32.8 

35.6 

68.5 

3.81 

August 

25.5 

27.8 

53.3 

2.96 

30.2 

27.4 

57.6 

3.25 

Total 

407.8 

406.5 

814.3 

45.62 

398.0 

401.0 

799.0 

44.72 

Average per 
bird ® 

16.4 

16.3 

32.7 

1.84 

14.5 

14.6 

29.1 

1.63 


® Mash mixture at P0.064 a kilogram. 

Grain mixture at P0.048 a kilogram. 

Total number of birds, 24.9 in Nagoya lot and 27.4 in Cantonese lot. 



428 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


TABLE 4 

Returns over the total expenses incurred (including the cost of feeds and capital 
charges) and the total cost of producing a dozen eggs 


Najroya I Cantonese 


Value of eggs produced 

pesos 

117.09 

per cent 

pesos 

! 116.99 

per cent 

Total cost of feeds consumed 

45.62 

— 

44.72 

— 

Returns above the cost of feeds 

71.47 

— 

72.27 

— 

Percentage returns 

— 

61.03 

— 

61.8 

Total expenses (including capital charges 
and cost of feeds) 

116.39 

_ 

106.69 

___ 

Net returns above total expenses 

0.70 

— 

11.40 

— 

Percentage net returns 

— 

0.60 1 

— 

10.79 

Total cost of producing one dozen eggs . . . 

0.416 

— 

0.34 

— 


TABLE 5 

Showing the number and weights of the birds, at the beginning and at the end 

of the experiment 


ITEMS 

BREEDS 


NaRToya 

Cantonese 

Number of birds at the beginning, September 1, 
1931 

30 

30 

Average weight of the birds at the beginning . . 
Number of birds at the close, August 31, 1932 . . 

1636.8 grams 
19® 

1383.3 grams 
26 

Average weight of the birds at the close 

1936.2 grams 

1614.4 grams 

Average increase in weight % 

Percentage of increase 

Number of birds that died during the year 

Percentage mortality during the year 

398.4 grams 
25.9 

G 

20.0 

231.1 grams 
16.7 

4 

13.3 


^ Five birds were stolen on June 7, 1932. 







ECONOMY OP EGO PRODUCTION 


429 


TABLE 6 

ShoTJoing the percentage of fertility and hatchability of the eggs 
set in each of the two lots ® 



BREEDS 

OBSERVATIONS 


. 


Nagoya 

Cantonese 

Number of eggs set 

210 

210 

Percentage of infertiles ^ 

10.7 

28.2 

Percentage of Di® 

8.3 

6.2 

Percentage of 

6.2 

9.3 

Percentage of Da® 

27.3 

20.3 

Percentage hatched 

47.5 

36.0 

Average initial weight of chicks in grams . . 

30.1 

27.6 


® Average of the three hatches were used. 
Infertile eggs. 

Eggs with dead embryo after the first week. 
Eggs with dead embryo after the second week. 
^ Eggs with dead embryo after the third week. 



A STUDY OF COCONUT SEEDLINGS IN RELATION TO SHAPE 

OF THE NUTS ^ 

FELICISIMO S. MACEDA 

WITH TWO TEXT FIGURES 

The study of coconut seedlings in relation to shape of the nuts 
is a fundamental problem in coconut production. It is important to 
determine the relation, if any, between the shape of the nuts and 
the agronomic characters of the seedlings that grow from them. If 
such a relation could be established it should prove valuable in the 
improvement of coconut plantations, especially large ones. 

Some experiments have been made in connection with coconut 
seeds and seedlings. Blackman (1919) stated that the food stored 
in the seeds is the factor mainly responsible for the weight of seed- 
lings and that the annual growth of a plant, at least in its early 
stages, follows approximately the “Compound Interest Law.” 

Lacson (1921) and Novero (1922), in their studies of the “size 
and shape of coconuts as indicators of their meat content” found 
that orbicular, ellipsoid, obovoid and oblong nuts had a smaller 
amount of meat than round nuts and that with equal volume of un- 
husked nuts, the nuts from type A (round nuts) contained more 
meat than those from any other type. These investigators recom- 
mended round nuts for seed because the products of round nuts are 
the most desirable for copra production. Under each type a large 
unhusked nut is an index of a correspondingly large amount of meat. 
These authors further reported that other types possess relatively 
thicker husks. 

Munro and Brown (1920) claim that “the seed should be selected 
from trees which are bearing well at the time of collection and 
from those which, by previous statistics, show that they have for a 
considerable period given consistently good average yearly crops; 
preference being given to the nuts of fair size and of a rounded shape. 
Very large nuts and those of a particular oblong shape are better to 

■ Thesis presented for graduation, 1933, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Agriculture from the College of Agriculture, No. 367; Experiment 
Station contribution No. 913; Prepared in the Department of Agronomy under 
the direction of Dr, Pedro A. David and Mr. Teofilo P. Novero. 


430 



STUDY OF COCONUT SEEDLINGS 


431 


be avoided, as in the former case there will, as a rule, be few nuts 
on the spathe, and in the latter they will not usually contain so 
much meat in the kernel as rounded nuts.” 

Sampson (1923), reports that “on the Malabar coast the long 
nut is generally considered to be the best for copra, but in many 
other countries the round nut is preferred.” 

The purpose of the present experiments was to find out the dif- 
ferences between round and oblong nuts as to average number of 
days and percentage of germination; average growth of seedlings; 
average number of leaves developed; average weight of seedlings; 
average number of roots developed; average length of the roots. So 
far as the author knows this is the first report on the study of coco- 
nut seedlings in relation to the shape of the nuts from which they 
grew. 


MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Nuts of two shapes were used in this study, the round and the 
oblong. The term round, as applied to the nuts, means that the polar 
and the equatorial circumferences of the fruit are equal or almost 
equal. The term, oblong, means that the length of the nut is greater 
than its width. 

A week before planting, five hundred nuts of each shape were 
secured from the barrio of Pagsawitan, Santa Cruz, Laguna. They 
were taken from one lot. The mother trees from which the nuts 
were gathered range in age from 40 to 45 years. In gathering the 
nuts care was taken not to allow them to fall to the ground. A 
man climbed the tree, picked the matured nuts and with a long rope 
slowly lowered them to the ground. Those nuts which accidentally 
fell in being lowered were discarded. It took two days for ten men 
to gather 1000 nuts. The nuts were brought from Santa Cruz to 
the College of Agriculture nursery in a truck. 

After the nuts had been gathered they were classified. Five 
hundred round nuts of approximately the same size were selected. 
The size was determined by the water displacement method. A 
gasoline can was provided with a spout on the side and then filled 
with water to the level of the spout. Each nut was then immersed 
in the water and pushed below the surface with an iron tripod. The 
water that was displaced ran out through the spout into a graduated 
cylinder which recorded its volume and thus gave the size of the 
nut which displaced the water. Five hundred oblong nuts were 
selected and measured in the same manner. 



482 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


Two seed beds, one for the round and one for the oblong nuts 
were made by digging the ground to about 30 centimeters in depth 
and then pulverizing the soil. On the same date the nuts were 
planted in rows, 30 centimeters apart, buried to about two-thirds 
of their size in a slightly oblique position with the acute end down- 
ward and the germinating eye near the upper surface. The nut was 
placed in an oblique position because, as only two-thirds of the nut 
is buried, it would have more surface area exposed to the ground 
and the supply of water to the embryo would be moderate. (See 
figures 1 and 2.) Sampson (1923) made a study on the coconut 
fruit and its development. According to him, “if the fruit be exam- 
ined, it will be found that one side is narrower than the other two. 
If the nut be examined it will be found that one segment has a wider 
angle than the other two and that the center of this widest segment 
is opj^site the angle formed by the two widest faces of the fruit. It 
is this widest segment which has the soft or germinating eye.” 

The seeds were watered twice a week during the summer 
months. Each lot received the same amount of water. No water- 
ing was done after the rainy season started. The beds were weeded 
occasionally. All other subsequent treatments given to the lots 
were similar in application and nature. 

EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS 

.In the present study, oblong and round nuts of practically the 
same size, as measured by water displacement method, were used. 
The measurements of the 500 oblong and the 600 round nuts studied 
are given in table 1. 

During the period of the experiment, only 468 oblong and 447 
round nuts germinated. These nuts were studied to determine 
whether the shape of the nut has any influence on its germination. 
The nuts in each group were observed daily in the field at practically 
the same hour and the exact number of days from planting to germi- 
nation for each was recorded. As a rule, the seedlings in each group 
appeared quite healthy and all developed normally. (See figures 1 
and 2.) Statistical analysis of the data obtained was made. The 
results are presented in table 2. 

The percentage of germination of 468 oblong and 447 round nuts 
was determined. After the daily examinations of the dates of 
germination in each group, the actual daily percentage of nuts ger- 
minated was calculated. The results of these observations are 
shown in table 3. 



STXTDY OF COCONUT SEEDLINGS 


438 


Twelve months from the date of planting, the average length of 
the leaves of each seedling was carefully measured. In this study, 
there were 462 seedlings grown from oblong nuts, and 440 seedlings 
from round nuts. The mean length of the leaves and standard de> 
viation for each group were determined. The results of these de- 
terminations are presented in table 4. 

In the studies on the number of leaves on the seedlings the num- 
ber of leaves developed in each seedling under each group was counted. 
Table 6 gives the mean number of leaves and standard deviation of 
the seedlings from the 462 oblong and from the 440 round nuts. 



Fig. 1. — Showing oblong nut seedlings after 336 days. 

The nuts of the two different shapes were compared as to the 
weights of the seedlings developed from them. Each seedling was 
dug up, great care being taken not to cut any part of its roots. All 
the soil clinging to the roots was carefully removed. Then each seed- 
ling was weighed. All the seedlings were weighed on the same day. 
The results of the measurements as analyzed are presented in table 
6 . 

The number of roots per seedling was determined in the field 
when the weight was taken. Long and short roots on each seedling 
were combined to give the total number of roots for that seedling. 
Table 7 shows the results of the statistical analysis of the data ob- 
tained. 




434 


THE PHILIPPINE AOHICULTUKIST 


After the nuts were weighed and their roots counted, the length 
of all roots on each seedling was measured. The average length of 
the roots on each individual seedling was taken as the root length 
for that particular seedling. The results are recorded in table 8. 

DISCUSSION OP RESULTS 

Volume of nuts 

As shown in table 1, the seed nuts used, taken as a whole, were 
of practically the same size, as measured by water displacement 
method. The mean difference in volume between the two types of 
nuts was 1.20 ± 0.59 cubic centimeters. This difference is insignif- 
icant. 

Number of days from pUmting to germination 

Table 2 shows the frequency distributions, means and standard 
deviations for the number of days from planting to germination for 
nuts of each shape. The most interesting fact observed in this table 
is the earliness of germination of round nuts as compared with that 
of oblong nuts. The mean difference between the round and oblong 
nuts in the number of days required for germination was 2.65 ±: 0.60. 
The significant difference mayj)^ explained by the fact that round 
nuts have thinner husks than nuts of any other shape. Lacson 
(1921) and Novero (1922) reported that nuts of type A (rounded 
nuts) have a thinner husk than the nuts of any other shape. It is 
assumed that the thin husk of round nuts offers little resistance to 
the emergenpe of the tips of the shoots, although there were a few 
round nuts which developed some deformed shoots. The results 
suggest that the round nuts are to be preferred for seeds when early 
germination is desired. 

Percentage of germination 

As shown in table 3, the oblong and round nuts gave 93.6 and 
89.4 total per cent germination, respectively. The difference between 
the two types of nuts in the percentage of germination was only 
2.42 ± 1.53 per cent. This is an insignificant difference. It may 
also be noted that the greatest number of nuts of both types germ- 
inated after 47.5 days from planting. Some of the nuts of the two 
types failed to germinate. These were attacked by brown ants 
(Pheidologiton diversees Jordan) and termites {Macrotermes gUvua 

Hogen). The round and the oblong nuts were equally susceptible to 
these pests. 



STUDY OF COCONUT SEEDLINGS 


486 


Length of leases 

The statistical analysis of the data on. length of leaves of the 
seedlings produced from round and from oblong nuts is given in 
table 4. As shown by the means the seedlings from the two types 
of nuts produced practically the same length of leaves. No signifi- 
cant difference was found in the standard deviations in the round and 
the oblong nuts. These results seem to indicate that round and 
oblong nuts of nearly the same size have the same ability to carry on 
leaf development. (See fig. 1 and 2.) 



Fig. 2. — Showing round nut seedlings after 336 days. 

Number of leaves 

The mean number of leaves of the seedlings from the two shapes 
of nuts is presented in table 5. Comparing the means of the two 
types of nuts it is shown that seedlings from round nuts had a greater 
number of leaves than seedlings from oblong nuts. A mean differ- 
ence of 0.63 ± 0.04 leaf was found. This difference is small but still 
considered statistically significant. There is some evidence of a dif- 
ference in the number of leaves produced by seedlings from round 
and from oblong nuts in favor of the round nuts. This difference 
may be explained by the fact that round nuts contain more endosperm 
than oblong nuts of the same size. This work was reported by Lac- 
son and Novero in their studies on the “size and shape of coconut as 



486 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICVLTUBIST 


indicators of its meat content.” Of 462 seedlings from oblong nuts, 
216, or nearly 60 per cent produced seven leaves twelve months after 
planting in the nursery. Of 440 seedlings from round nuts, 169, 
produced seven leaves. In the number of leaves produced, the seed- 
lings from round nuts were found to be more variable than those 
from oblong nuts. 

Weight of seedling 8 

In this experiment it was found that the mean weight of seed- 
lings from oblong nuts was 2.77 ± 0.001 kilograms and from round 
nuts, 2.86 dr 0.002 kilograms. The difference between these means 
is 0.08 rt: 0.002 kilogram which is significant. (See table 6.) The 
standard deviations show that there was a slight difference in favor 
of the round nuts. The round nuts were more variable, as shown 
in table 4. Blackman (1919), reports that the “Compound Interest 
Law” is applicable to some extent to the growth of higher plants. 
“The plant is continually unfolding its leaves and increasing its as- 
similating power. Successive increase in the weight of the plant 
can not therefore be treated as a discontinuous geometric series, as 
if the new material (interest) were added to the end of the daily or 
weekly periods. New material is added continuously during day- 
light, and during rapid growth the plant is continuously, or almost 
continuously, unfolding its leaves and increasing its assimilating 
rate. The growth of the plant more nearly approximates money 
accumulating at compound interest where the interest is added con- 
tinuously.”' Blackman further states that the food stored in the 
seeds is the factor mainly responsible for the weight of seedlings. 
The data shoyr that seedlings from round nuts were on the average 
heavier than the seedlings from oblong nuts (see table 6). The re- 
sults suggest that with nuts of the same size round nuts are pref- 
erable for planting. 

Nwmbet of roots 

It may be noted in table 7 that the seedlings of round nuts have 
a greater number of roots than the seedlings of oblong nuts. The 
difference between the means is 1.30 ± 0.16, which is significant. 
No significant difference was found between standard deviations for 
number of roots of the round and oblong nuts. Copeland (1921) 
reports that “the young part of the root immediately behind the cap 
is covered by a very delicate epidermis; it is through this that the 
root absorbs water and the mineral food dissolved in the water.” It 
may be added that as a general proposition the more roots the seed- 
lings have the more vigorous they will prove to be. 



STUDY OF COCONUT SEEDLINGS 


487 


Length of roots 

Referring to table 8 it may be seen that the length of roots from 
both tjTies of nuts was practically the same. No significant dif- 
ferences were found in the standard deviations in the two types of 
nuts. It may be stated, therefore, that the length of roots is not 
influenced by the shape of nuts studied. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

The investigations here reported deal with the relation between 
certain characters of coconut seedlings and shape of the nuts which 
produced them. The data on hand obtained from 1000 individual 
nuts of Laguna type and 902 seedlings seem sufficient to warrant 
the establishment of the following generalizations : 

1. With equal volume, round nuts germinated earlier than the 
oblong nuts. 

2. No difference in percentage of germination between oblong 
and round nuts was found. 

3. The length of leaves of coconut seedlings is not influenced by 
the shape of the nuts. 

4. The seedlings from the round nuts produced more leaves than 
seedlings from the oblong nuts. 

5. The seedlings from round nuts were heavier than the seed- 
lings from oblong nuts. 

6. The seedlings from round nuts produced a greater number of 
roots than those from oblong nuts. 

7. The length of roots of seedlings did not depend upon the type 
of nut used. 


LITERATURE CITED 

Blackman, V. N. 1919. The compound interest law and plant growth. An- 
nals of Botany (London) 33: 536-660. 

Copeland, E. B. 1921. The coconut. 2nd rev. ed., xvi + 225 p., 218 fig. Lon- 
don: Macmillan and Co. Ltd. 

Lacson, P. Size and shape of coconut as indicators of its meat content. 
(Thesis presented for graduation from the College of Agriculture with 
the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture. 1921. Unpublished.) 

Munro, R. W., and L. C. Brown. 1920. A practical guide to coconut planting. 

2nd ed., x + 203 p., 92 fig. London: John Bale, Sons & Danielsson, Ltd. 
Novbro, T. P. Volume and shape of coconut as indicators of the meat content. 
(Thesis presented for graduation from the College of Agriculture with 
the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture. 1922. Unpublished.) 

Sampson, H. C. 1923. The coconut palm: the science and practice of coconut 
cultivation, xiv -f- 262 p., 40 pi. London: John Bale, Sons <& Danielsson, 
Ltd. 



Comparison of frequency distributions, means and standard deviations for the volume of oblong and round nuts 


438 


THE PHIUFPINE AGRICULTIJRIST 



Difference 



Comparison of frequency distributions, means and standard deviations for the percentage of germination of oblong and 

round nuts 


STUDY OF COCONUT SEEDLINGS 


48S 




C omparison of frequency distributions, means and standard deviation for the number of leaves of seedlings from oblong and 

round nuts 


440 


THE PHILIPPIKE AGBICULTURIST 



0.08 ±0.002 I 0.03 ±0.001 



C<ymparisun of frequency distributions, means and standard deviations of roots of seedlings from oblong and round ruUs 


STUDY OF COCONUT SEEDLINGS 


441 



Difference 



ABSTRACT ^ 


A further study of nitrification in the Philippine soils. Vicen- 
te B. Aragon. (Thesis presented for gradmtion, 1918, with the 
degree of Bachelor of Agriculture from the College of Agriculture 
No. 368; Experiment Station contribution No. 911.) — The main 
'"object of this work was to make a further study of nitrification in 
some Philippine soils. Five samples of soil taken from different 
parts of the College Farm and four nitrogen foods, ammonium sul- 
fate, dried blood, horse manure and waste molasses were used in 
the experiment. The rate of nitrification on different soils in the 
same nitrogen foods was determined. The effects of aeration, cal- 
cium carbonate, double superphosphate, kainite, moisture content of 
the soil and calcium oxide upon the rate of nitrification of the nitro- 
gen foods used were also determined. The “beaker method” was 
used in the preparation of the soil culture, and the phenoldisulfonic 
acid (colorimetric) method for the determination of the rate of nitri- 
fication. 

The author found that in all the five samples of the soil treated 
the percentage of nitrogen nitrified was highest in ammonium sul- 
fate (33.20 per cent) ; second highest in dried blood (22.24 per cent) ; 
lowest in horse manure (1.26 per cent) ; there was no apparent nitri- 
fication in waste molasses. In the samples to which sand freed from 
carbonates was added in the proportion of one to two, the rates of 
nitrification were higher than in the samples where the proportion 
added was one to three. In the samples where calcium carbonate 
was added, the rate of nitrification increased with increase of weight 
of calcium added, the increase being proportionately much greater 
in horse manure than in dried blood. In soil B, taken from a field 
which had been planted to different kinds of legumes and at the time 
of sampling was planted to rice, and D, nursery soil where different 
ornamentals had been planted, the rate of nitrification was decreased 
with increase in the amount of magnesium carbonate in horse ma- 
nure, dried blood and waste molasses. A mixture, however, of equal 
amounts of calcium and magnesium carbonates increased the rate of 
nitrification in horse manure, dried blood and molasses when three 
grams of the mixture were added to the sample treated. The addi- 

* Abstract prepared as part of the required theme work in English 3a, 
College of Agriculture. 


442 



CTJBRENT NOTES 


443 


fion of 40 mflligrams of double superphosphate to every 100 grains 
of soil decreased the rate of nitrification in horse manure, dried blood 
and waste molasses. The addition of kainite to the soil samples also 
decreased the amount of nitrate nitrogen, the decrease ranging from 
23 per cent to 79 per cent. Before adding the molasses to the soil, 
the addition of 1.5 to 2.5 grams of calcium oxide to one gram in- 
creased its nitrification to about 3.95 per cent in the samples treated. 

The author arrived at the following conclusions: 

1. Soils that had been growing one crop continuously for some 
time gave a lower rate of nitrification than the soils where the crop 
had been varied. 

2. Ammonium sulfate was nitrified at a rate about 50 per cent 
greater than dried blood. 

3. Application of calcium carbonate at the rate of 15 tons to 
the hectare practically doubled the rate of nitrification. 

4. In the case of waste molasses to which five grams of calcium 
carbonate had been added, the addition of one and one half grams 
of magnesium carbonate brought an increase of about 100 per 
cent in the amount of nitrites that accumulated in the soil. 

5. The application of sand or other materials which would tend 
to make the soil loose is beneficial to nitrification. 

6. Kainite like double superphosphate and magnesium carbonate 
when applied alone in the soil interfered with the rate of nitrification. 

Abstract by PorfiHo R. Manacop 


CURRENT NOTES 

The second floating exposition, like the one held last year, had 
for its main object to help popularize articles of Philippine manufac- 
ture or origin. To accomplish this object, Philippine manufac- 
turers were invited to send their products to the exposition not only 
for demonstration but also for sale 

Twenty-two ports located in sixteen provinces of Mindanao, the 
Visayan Islands, and the Bicol region were visited by the exposition. 
The cruise lasted twenty-two days. During that time, sales amount- 
ing to P24,050.19 were made, or more than twice the amount sold 
during the first exposition 

Forty-two new trade connections, consisting mostly of agents 
or manufacturers’ representatives appointed to act as distributors, 
were actually established during the last trip. Many more applied 
for agency connections but their requests could not be acted upon 



444 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTUBIST 


for lack of authority from the manufacturers to appoint them as 
agents. The manufacturers and dealers concerned will be duly in- 
formed of these requests 

A manufacturer of slippers in Batangas, who personally went 
with the second floating exposition, and whose articles were among 
the fastest sellers in the whole show, established fifteen agencies for 
the distribution of his products while traveling with the exposition. 

Philippine Journal of Commerce, June, 1933 


Oranges should have an important place in the diet. Although 
a flavour fruit which stimulates the appetite, the orange has an 
actual nutriment value of 240 calories to the pound, due principally 
to its high sugar content. This fruit sugar, which is an energy-giv- 
ing food, is in a form easily digested and assimilated by the body. 
In addition, the orange contains a small quantity of protein, the 
muscle-building food element, and a high proportion of valuable min- 
eral salts and acids. These minerals are particularly important, 
since they are not found in some of the foods of which we commonly 
eat large quantities such as meat, white rice, potatoes, white bread 
and sugar. 

While known as acid fruits, oranges are often prescribed in 
cases of acidity. This is due to the fact that these fruits have an 
alkaline reaction after digestion, and thereby counteract acidity. 
Orange juice is rich in vitamins, important factors in the prevention 
of disease and regulation of body processes. Orange juice should 
form a regular part of the diet of young babies, to supplement the 
vitamin deficiency sometimes found in milk, making a complete and 
perfect food for the young child. 

Farming in South Africa, May, 1933 


The production of margarine and soap in Great Britain is de- 
pendent upon supplies of suitable oils and fats which are not home 
produced. It is. However, satisfactory to know that the Empire is 
able to supply a considerable proportion of the raw materials re- 
quired by these industries. The Empire now produces 65 per cent. 
of| the palm oil, 60 per cent, of the copra, 59 per cent, of the sesame 
seed, 58 per cent, of the palm kernels, and nearly one half of the 
groundnuts consumed throughout the world. Omitting large quan- 
tities of soya beans grown and used in China, and of cotton seed in 
the United States, the Dominions and Colonies provide more than 
one half of the world’s oilseeds and nuts. . . . 



COLLEGE AKD ALUMNI NOTES 


445 


The manufacture of margarine has become a very important 
industry in Britain, some five million cwts. being produced per an- 
num. It is now accepted as a high-grade foodstuff, and special 
products of the largest manufacturing organization have been avail- 
able for some years with a vitamin content equal to that of the 
best summer hutter. The relative absence of vitamins A and D 
from ordinary margarine is perhaps the most serious criticism that 
can be levelled against its use to replace butter. Not only has this 
difficulty been overcome, but an advance of some importance ap- 
pears to have been made in margarine. It is based on the discovery 
that the characteristic aroma of freshly made butter is due, in the 
main, to the presence of an extremely small proportion of diacetyl. 

Tropical Agriculture, (Trinidad, B. W. I.) July, 1933 


The United Kingdom drinks six times as much tea as it drinks 
coffee, while the United States drinks sixteen times as much coffee 
as tea. South Africa leans distinctly to coffee, Canada has a slight 
preference for tea, while Australia is definitely a tea drinking coun- 
try. 

Agriculture and Live-stock in India, May, 1933 


COLLEGE AND ALUMNI NOTES 

The Laguna Fair Association met at the College of Agriculture 
in the morning of August 29. Acting Dean Mendiola was invited to 
attend the meeting and the luncheon in Molawin Hall. 

This association which is duly incorporated held a provincial fair 
in May, 1924 on the College of Agriculture Campus. The Association 
has at present a fund of more than P900 which it wants to dispose 
of or invest in a worth while undertaking. For this purpose, a 
committee of three, consisting of Mr. E. Barreto, chairman, Mr. A. B. 
Latham, representing the Calamba Sugar Estate, and Prof. I. Elay- 
da as members, was appointed to study this matter. Acting Dean 
Mendiola made a plea for our Baker Memorial Fund for the support 
of the deserving self-supporting senior students in this College. 


In a letter to the Dean of this College Mr. L. de Los Santos of 
Balasan, Iloilo requests information as to availability of two grad- 
uates in Agriculture, one to manage a property consisting of 16,000 



446 


THU PHILIPFINB AG^CULTUBIST 


coconut trees, all productive, 40 hectares of rice land, and 150 hec- 
tares of fishponds all completely constructed ; and one to take charge 
of hog, poultry, and duck projects carried on a large scale and also 
a soap factory. 


Mr. H. V. Costenoble, a farmer of San Juan, Malitbog, Leyte, 
in a letter to Prof. N. B. Mendiola dated September 1, writes of some 
of the problems he is at present meeting. Excerpts from Mr. Cos- 
tenoble's letter follow: 

I have let a long time pass by before answering your letter of June 7th 
because I wanted to let you know the results of the seeds you did send me. 
The coffee germinated splendidly and I am now transplanting it into the 
permanent positions. The Gloria bananas both are also growing fine. 
The pepper seeds, however, are somewhat under your estimate — about 
twelve would come up you thought — ^but only five have came to life. If it 
ia possible for you to send me sonie more I would be very grateful. 

, Of the materials you wished me to send you I am sending today Uie 
suckers of that navel pineapple. I wished to give you some more but 
could not find out for certain which plants produced the navel fruits, they 
had been harvested before I got your letter. Only one plant was un- 
doubtedly of that variety so I am sending you its suckers. 

The cacao is not ripe yet; as soon as it. is ready I shall send you 
fruits of it. 

Soybeans I believe will not do well here, it is too wet for them. Two 
varieties 1 had planted produced seeds but they were all shrunken and 
did not germinate. It is hard to even grow mungos here; we have prac- 
tically only two months to plant them, January and February. Any other 
time they do not produce any full seeds. I have taken to sitao and seguU 
dUlas therefore which grow practically all the y^ar round and produce 
something eatable and saleable at the same time. 

I am highly satisfied with the climate here which is really the best 
I have yet found anywhere in the Philippines but one trouble is the low 
price of our products, abaca and copra, and the other, the abundance of 
pests, namely, locusts and rats. I have given up planting rice and corn 
on their account and produce in my fields only camote, mungos, tobacco, 
ube, cassava, etc. 

These are not eaten by the locusts and not too much damaged by 
the rats 


The eighty.fifth regular scientific meeting of the Los Banos 
Biological Club was held in the Lecture Hull of the Poultry Building, 
Collegcj of Agriculture, in the evening of August 24, 1933. 



COLL$:€IB AND ALUMNI NOTES 


447 


The following papers were read and discussed : 

"Protein supplements in poultry rations: I. Comparative studies of 
the effects of shrimp meal, meat scraps, tankage and fish meal as supple- 
ments in rations for growing chicks." 

By Dr. F. M, Fronda, Mr. Juan S. Padilla 
and Mr. Acelo C. Badelles. 

Paper read by Doctor Fronda. 
"Shrinkage in Philippine Woods." 

By Mr. Calixto Mabesa. 

"Blight of Cinchona seedlings." 

By Mr. M. S. Celino. 


The following is quoted from Tropical Life June, 1933 number. 

In the Philippine AgriculUcrist for March, pp. 666-676 are very wisely 
given up to a study of "A Brown Bark Rot of the Trunk of the Cacao 
Tree," by Sres. G. O. Ocfemia and Martin S. Celino of the local Department 
of Plant Pathology. When the trouble was discovered in November, 1930, 
the excised portions of the diseased cacad trunk were brought to the Plant 
Pathology Institute, and isolations were made. These yielded a Fmarium 
which produced a perfect stage, the characteristics of which belonged to 
the genus Nectria .... One of the most conspicuous effects of the 
disease is the stimulation of the plants so that they produce an enormous 
number of flowers. Many fruits are formed from these flowers but they 
do not mature. When they reach the size of two to five centimeters they 
begin to wilt and shrivel, and then'soon die. The dead fruits persist on 
the branches and trunk of the tree. On the other hand, infected trees 
begin to shed the greater portion of their leaves. The newly-formed 
leaves are smaller than those produced before the trees are infected. 
When all the leaves have fallen off, the bare branches begin to die, start- 
ing at the tips. 

All this may be new to the Philippines, but is it new elsewhere? Die- 
back is, of course, an old enemy, and maybe a different trouble to the 
above. We shall be glad to hear reports on the matter from other cen- 
tres, for whether with cacao or other crops, the tendency is for pests rather 
than profits to rule the roost and that of course must be stopped. 


Dr. Robert L. Pendleton, head Department of Soils spent part 
of August and September in Mindanao. He accompanied Dr. E. B. 
Copeland, technical adviser in Bureau of Plant Industry. Special 
object was some investigational work in Cotabato. This is a com- 
mendable effort in cooperation between this College and the Bureau 
of Plant Industry. 


Mr. Juan Padilla, B.Agr. '32 (Baker Scholar), at present in 
chaise of the Trinidad Poultry Farm in Baguio, owned by Mrs. J. J. 
Elizade was a Campus visitor on August 24-25. Mr. Padilla brought 



448 


THK PHILIPPINE AGRICULTOBIST 


from this farm two pens of 13 hens each which he entered in the 
Third Egg Laying Contest conducted by the Poultry Division. One 
pen is Rhode Island Reds and the other White Leghorns. Accord- 
ing to Mr. Padilla, the climate in Baguio is excellent for temperate 
breeds of chickens. The Mikawa, a Japanese breed is also raised 
on the Trinidad Farm. The Trinidad Poultry Farm covers an area 
of about 4 hectares and has about 3,000 chickens, 1000 of which are 
faying hens. 

Not a single chicken was lost in the recent epidemic of fowl 
cholera in Baguio. We may add, Mr. Padilla is far too modest to 
so claim, that this clean bill of health is largely due to Mr. Padilla’s 
ability as a poultryman and far more to his industry in maintaining 
strict sanitation. 

Mr. Padilla joined the benedicts last April. 


Mr. Pedro S. Paje, ’27, second assistant superintendent in the 
Iwahig Penal Colony, wrote Mr. V. B. Aragon of the Department of 
Agronomy asking for some definite information on certain phases of 
lowland rice culture such as the control of pests ; the names, days of 
maturity, and average yields per hectare of some lowland rice varie- 
ties now being grown commercially in the Philippines; some factors 
affecting the tillering habits of lowland rice plants; the advantages 
or disadvantages of maintaining water in lowland rice paddies 
throughout the entire growing season; etc. 


Lieutenant Nemesio A. Catalan B.S.A. ’20 was a recent Campus 
visitor. Lieutenant Catalan who deserted agriculture for the army 
some ten years or more ago has just returned from the United States 
where he was in the school for officers at Ft. Sill, Oklahoma, special- 
izing in motors and other mechanical lines. Lieutenant Catalan was 
the first instructor in Military Science in the College of Agriculture. 
He is now stationed at Camp Stotsenberg. 


Mr. Thuan Komkris B.S.A. ’33 writes Professor Yule that as 
an employee of the Department of Agriculture, Siam he will be as- 
sistant supervisor in the Experiment Station at Kuan Nieng (near 
Singora, South Siam). Mr. Thongdee Resananda B.S.A. '24 is su- 
pervisor of the station. Mr. Resananda now bears the title Luang 
Suvanwahjakgasigy a free translatioir of w'hich is “Sir Speaker of 



COLLEOB AND ALUMNI NOTES 


449 


Grolden words on Agriculture". Mr. Komkris writes that Roem 
Purnariksha B.S.A. ’28 is on the teaching staff of the Agricultural 
school associated with this station. Also, Swasdi Viradeja B.S.A. 
’82, Charas Sundarasinha B.S.A. ’28, Sankvien Tulalamba a former 
College student, who was graduated last June from Iowa State Col- 
lege of Agriculture are employed in the Experiment Station and 
Agricultural School at Korat, Central Siam. Mr. lang Chandrastitya 
B.S.A. ’21 is supervisor of this station and school. Mr. Chandras- 
titya is now Luang Inka Srikasikam, which very freely translated 
is “Sir Wise in Agriculture”. Charoon Suebsaeng B.S.A. ’28 is at 
Kon Kaen, East Siam. It is gratifying to know that these, our 
graduates, are having the opportunity to put to use in the much 
needed agricultural development of Siam, the training and knowledge 
they received in this College. Mr. Komkris writes of his longing 
for College friends and the Campus “which had become a home to 
me!” 


Dr. Tomas V. Rigor, formerly assistant in the Department of 
Agricultural Chemistry of this College and at present Farm Adviser 
in the Culion Leper Colony, wrote the Department of Agronomy re- 
questing information on the agronomic descriptions of some native 
and foreign sugar cane varieties grown in the Philippines. 


The first convocation under the auspices of the U. P. Student 
Council was held in Baker Memorial Hall, August 31. The princi- 
pal speakers were Ex-Speaker Manuel Roxas, Hon. Arsenic Bonifa- 
cio and Hon. Feliciano Gomez, Representatives from Laguna. Mr. 
Dennis Molintas, College representative in U. P. Council presided. 
Dr. M. Manresa and Mr. Ramon Enriquez, president, U. P. Student 
Council introduced the speakers. 


Domingo Anioay, B.S.A. ’32, reports that he is now employed 
as temporary insular teacher in Central Luzon Agricultural School, 
Munoz, Nueva Ecija. He is teaching four sections in horticulture 
and two sections in general science. 


Mr. Albino Jison of Silay, Occ. Negros and Dr. Maximo Borro- 
meo of Cebu, Cebu bought from the College of Agriculture in August 
cassava graters manufactured by the Department of Agronomy. 



460 THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTURIST 

The Mimics was host at a’ party at which the Associated Women 
Students were the favored fi^iests in the evening of September 15. 
The party was given in rooms of Department of English. Dancing 
and games and much youthful gayety made the evening a merry one. 




THE SOCIETY FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF RESEARCH ' 

F. M. FRONDA 

Secretary^ Society for the Advancement of Research 

The Society for the Advancement of Research was organized to 
encourage original investigation in pure as well as applied sciences. 
It is a scientific honorary society, the charter members of which are 
all members of the Sigma Xi, an honorary scientific fraternity in the 
United States. The original plan was to organize a Sigma Xi chap- 
ter in the Islands to which new members might be elected. Because 
of certain difficulties that would have to be surmounted, the original 
plan was given up and instead a society, different in name but with 
aims similar to those of the Sigma Xi, was formed. 

The Sigma Xi Club which formed the nucleus of this Society was 
organized on September 11, 1928. The Society for the Advancement 
of Research, however, was not formally organized until two years 
later, September 10, 1930. The constitution and by-laws of this 
society are modeled after those of the Sigma Xi, and similar standards 
for the election of new members were also adopted.* 

Membership in the Society is of two kinds, active and associate. 
The active members are the charter members; those who may be 
elected to ac^tive membership by the Society; and other members of 
the Sigma Xi residing in other parts of the Islands who have become 
active members by application and payment of dues. The associate 
members are senior students in the Associated Colleges at Los Banos 
who have been elected by the Society. Only students who show orig- 
inality and promise of ability in scientific investigation and who 
have high scholastic records may be elected as associate members of 
the Society. 

The Society started with an original membership of eleven ac- 
tive members. Since its organization, three became active members 
by affiliation and seven were elected to active membership by the 
Society. To date, the Society has ten associate members. Thus, 


* General contribution from the College of Agriculture No. 364. 

^ See also Fronda, F. M. 1931. History of the Society for the Advancement 
of Research. Proceedings of the Society for the Advancement of Research 1 
(No. 1) : 1-3. 

PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST. VOL. XXII, NO. 7. DECEMBER, 1983 


451 



462 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


the Society for the Advancement of Research now has twenty-one 
active and ten associate members. A directory of the Society follows 
this article. 

The officers of the Society are a president, a vice-president, 
a secretary and a treasurer. The president and vice-president are 
elected annually and the secretary and treasurer, every three years. 
The officers of the Society for the first year were : 

President — Mr. N. B. Mendiola 
' Vice-President — Dr. R. L. Pendleton 

Secretary — Dr. F. M. Fronda 

Treasurer — Dr. Jose B. Juliano 

By action of the Society on July 11, 1931, the election of officers 
that year was postponed till March 11, 1932. In this election. Dr. 
L. B. Uichanco was elected president and Dr. A. K. Gomez, vice- 
president. Doctors Fronda and Juliano continued as secretary and 
as treasurer, respectively, for another year. In the election of offi- 
cers held on March 23, 1933, the following officers were elected : 

President — Dr. G. 0. Ocfemia 

Vice-President — Dr. Miguel Manresa 

Secretary — Dr. F. M. Fronda 

Treasurer — Dr. Leon G. Gonzalez 

The Society for the Advancement of Research has presented five 
public programs. The inaugural program was on September 17, 
1931. A complete report of this meeting was published in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Society. The second public program of the Society 
was on Noveihber 14, 1931 ; Professor L. R. Jones of the University 
of Wisconsin was the guest of honor and principal speaker. A sum- 
mary of his address entitled “Disease Resistance in Plants” is pub- 
lished elsewhere in this issue of The Philippine Agriculturist. 

The third program was on August 4, 1932. The guest of honor 
and principal speaker was Doctor E. B. Copeland, founder and first 
dean of the College of Agriculture. Doctor N. B. Mendiola, past 
president of the Society, in introducing Doctor Copeland spoke as 
follows: 

In previous gatherings and assemblies which our guest of honor has ad- 
dressed he has been introduced in several important capacities. He has 
been introduced as the founder of the College of Agriculture of the University 
of the Philippines. He has been introduced also as the first dean of the same 


'See Proceeding's of the Society for the Advancement of Research 1 (No. 1) 
November, 1931. 



SOCIETY FOR ADVANCEMENT OF RESEARCH 


463 


college. Mention must have been made of his being a former botanist of the 
Philippine Government and author of several books on Philippine agriculture. 
Important as these capacities are and while together with other attainments 
they show how versatile and learned the man is, for me, these are not as ili- 
teresting as the roles in which I prefer to introduce him to you tonight. I desire 
to introduce him to you in his roles which are most inspiring and which are of 
immediate interest to our Society and these are as a man of science and as an 
active research man. Being a member of the faculty of this College, I happen 
to know something about its fortunes and misfortunes, and I sometimes wonder 
what kind of a college of agriculture ours would have been, if as its founder 
and first builder, Doctor Copeland were not a scientist and had allowed his scien- 
tific judgment of the Filipinos to be affected by the very unscientific prejudice 
against their race. As it happened he was one of those responsible for the 
breaking of the barrier of prejudice against Filipino scientific capacity. One 
of his significant acts in this connection was the sending of graduates of this Col- 
lege to the United States for post-graduate work, in the face of criticism from 
those belonging to the so-called white race, and placing of great scientific re- 
sponsibility on their shoulders upon their return. 

In the early days of this College when those who now compose the Society 
for the Advancement of Research were comparatively unschooled in science, it 
was not as easy for me as it is now to understand the cause of Doctor Cope- 
land’s scientific attitude and the effect of this on his daily acts. It seems to 
me he could not help but have the scientific regard for daily things if he was and 
is always active in research. A man of this attitude is a constant source of 
inspiration. It is for this reason coupled with a brilliant literary style that the 
writings of our guest of honor, his addresses and conversation fascinate his 
readers or his listeners. 

In the scientific world Doctor Copeland is better known as a fern specialist 
than as a worker with other plants. I believe he is the world’s authority on 
Tndo-Malayan ferns. Tonight he is giving a Los Banos audience a privilege 
which I do not remember he has ever given before. This evening he will 
tell us a few things about his work with ferns.^ I am therefore very happy to 
introduce to you Doctor Copeland, not the founder or the first dean of this 
College, but Doctor Copeland the research man, and member of the Society of 
the Sigma Xi. 

A scientific program was presented on March 23, 1933 in con- 
nection with the initiation of new active members that year. On 
this occasion. Dr. N. B. Mendiola presented an illustrated paper en- 
titled ''A Method of Plant Improvement Based on Production through 
Injury of Heritable Variations.” This paper appears in this issue 
of the College journal, The Philippine Agriculturist. The fifth 
public program that was sponsored by the Society was given on Octo- 
ber 26, 1933. This evening, the Reverend Miguel Selga, S. J., Director 


* Parts of this lecture were later published by Doctor Copeland under the 
title “Trichomanes”, in the Philippine Journal of Science 51: 119-280. PL ISl, 
1933. 



456 


THE PHILIPPINE AGEICULTURIST 


deal, of course, rests on the interpretation of what constitutes re- 
search. Indiscriminate and perhaps superficial gathering of an as- 
sortment of data without any attempt made at rearranging the 
facts in order to draw relevant conclusions is not research in a scien- 
tific sense. “There’s a vast difference,” says Lorimer, “between 
having a carload of miscellaneous facts sloshing around loose in your 
head and getting all mixed up in transit, and carrying the same as- 
sortment properly boxed and crated for convenient handling and 
immediate delivery.” Large funds to draw from, and expensive 
equipments, although admittedly a great help in the hands of the 
right individuals are not a prime essential to the pursuit of scienti- 
fic investigation. There is a minimum point, however, in which a 
scientific laboratory can be maintained without seriously impairing 
its efficiency. Especially in these days of financial retrenchment, 
there has been an increasing feeling that research centers maintained 
through public subsidy must limit their activities to projects that 
will have immediate practical application. Soviet Russia, for in- 
stance, is reported to have placed a ban on the pursuit of science for 
purely intellectual gratification as being anti-social. The idea, on the 
face of it, cannot but appeal as a strongly commendable attitude; 
for why waste funds and effort on gazing at stars and counting 
chromosomes when depleted coffers need immediate rehabilitation? 
There is, however, one serious hitch in the adoption of this policy, 
and that is the fact that, strictly speaking, the distinction between 
applied sciencp and pure science is largely illusory. It is generally 
admitted that there is only one kind of science, and that is the so- 
called pure science; so that what we commonly term applied science 
is but application of pure science. Any curtailment of activities to 
mere application may not only lead to reducing scientific men of our 
country to a state of stagnation but also to drying up the basic source 
of productive work. 

The vast, unexploited field for research in the Philippines has 
been repeatedly pointed out. A visiting scientist coming into this 
country for the first time usually, after a few days of field work, 
waxes enthusiastic over its rich opportunities. The magnitude of 
problems, however, and the versatility of situations that one en- 
counters at every corner in his work not infrequently has at times 
an overwhelming effect, so that a beginner, especially, soon faces the 
danger of finding himself lost in a maze of details. Scientific work, 
like other; creative pursuits, is necessarily individualistic. Efforts 



SCIENCE AND THE SCIENTIST 


467 


in the past at harnessing groups of scientific men together into a 
single working unit have resulted in standardized mediocrity. But 
resistance to organization in scientific research does not imply an 
alternative of individual isolation. Stimulating contacts with fellow 
workers must be maintained whereby as colleagues they may discuss 
their problems, share in each other's success, and even profit by each 
other’s mistakes. Cooperation is a bilateral relationship and is not 
without its parallel in the biological relationship of other living 
organisms. The mutual help extended need not always be in the 
form of bouquets; for constructive criticism, given and taken in 
the proper spirit, has done more for the advancement of scientific 
knowledge than all the volumes of eulogy. Personal aspersions are 
not constructive criticisms and have no place in scientific discus- 
sions. The author may be proved to be suffering from certain phys- 
ical or even mental defects ; but the impartial reader judges the work 
on its intrinsic merits. Honesty, more than in any other branch 
of human activity, is a fundamental requirement in scientific work. 
Half truths, distortion of facts, except where unwittingly committed 
owing to errors in interpretation, appropriation of another person’s 
data or of his intellectual products without giving proper credit — 
these are not in keeping with high scientific standards and the per- 
petrator when found out soon loses caste among his fellow workers. 

Before concluding, I would like to point out one other matter; 
Contemporary scientific literature has grown so enormously in ex- 
tent in recent times that the investigator working in a particular 
field very seldom finds the inclination to delve further into older writ- 
ings. By ignoring them he deprives himself of perhaps an impor- 
tant clue to the solution of his problems. The attitude of mind of 
deprecating an old paper or an old idea merely because it is old is in 
effect an abdication of one of the most important prerogatives of 
mankind which has placed him at an advantage over other animals, 
and that is his ability to profit by the experience of his predecessors. 
Taking an extreme case, we know that no modern astronomer, with 
his instruments of precision and more advanced scientific knowledge, 
has been able to calculate the annual movements of the sun and the 
moon with the same accuracy as the Chaldean Kidinnu, 400 years 
before Christ, the difference being due to the fact that the latter 
had before him 360 years of lunar observations on which to base his 
conclusions while our contemporaries have not such data (Breasted, 
Science 74: 643. 1931). During the Spanish regime, a certain 



458 


iraB raiUFPINB AGRICUTiTOiaST 


amount of scientific work was done in the Philippines and published 
either by resident or by visiting workers. In addition, there was 
a large mass of printed data, particularly from the pens of priests, 
as Fray Caspar de San Agustin, Martinez de Zuniga, Aduarte, Juan 
de Placensia, Chirino, Colin, Murrillo y Velarde, and Delgado, which 
while not strictly of a scientific nature are a prolific source of im- 
portant data for certain branches of science as applied to the Phil- 
ippines. To the average scientist, these records are a closed book 
but they need not remain permanently so, for they contain a mine 
of useful information on matters which sometimes are just what 
we require for the proper pursuit of our work. 



DISEASE RESISTANCE IN PLANTS ^ 


L. R, JONES 

Professor of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin 

In the address that I delivered before the Los Banos Biological 
Club last evening I called attention to the importance of plants as 
experimental subjects, touching on the cell theory and the discovery 
of protoplasm, I also spoke of the work of the German mycologist, 
Anton de Bary on the causal relation of fungi to disease in plants. I 
discussed the researches of the Russian botanist, Woronin on cellular 
pathology; that is,. the interaction between the cytoplasm of the host 
and the cytoplasm of the parasite. In discussing parasitism and 
disease in plants I mentioned the importance of the fungi as causal 
agents of plant maladies and that these were later on followed by 
the bacteria; also, that the virus diseases are becoming increasingly 
important as studies on them are being made. 

For a proper understanding of disease in plants it is necessary 
to know what a normal plant is. A plant in health is in a state of 
equilibrium inside with outside conditions. Diseases cause a dis- 
turbance of the equilibrium in nature. 

BIOLOGICAL EQUILIBRIUM 

In nature, plant and animal life are in a state of equilibrium. 
The predominance of one over the other disturbs this equilibrium. 
As examples of this disturbed equilibrium may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing: In Australia, a species of cactus was introduced as a pot 
plant. Later, the plant escaped cultivation and was increasing so 
prodigiously that it threatened to cover the land with impenetrable 
spiny-plant covering. To control the very rapid spread of the cactus 
it was necessary to introduce into Australia the following enemies 
of the cactus: (1) A caterpillar which bores tunnels through the 
plant; (2) a plant bug and (3) a cochineal insect which sucks the 


' Notes prepared by G. 0. Ocfemia from an address delivered by Professor 
L. R. Jones of the University of Wisconsin when he wasi a guest of honor at the 
annual meeting of the Society for the Advancement of Research held in the 
College of Agriculture Auditorium on November 14, 1931. Doctor Ocfemia as- 
sumes full responsibility for errors in statements and interpretations made in 
these notes. 

General contribution from the College of Agriculture No. 366. 


459 



460 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


juice of the plant and (4) a mite which scratches the surface of 
the plant. 

In Hawaii the sugar cane industry was threatened with destruc- 
tion by weevils and the use of parasites saved the industry. The in- 
troduction into Hawaii of the Minah bird for combating insect pests 
of the sugar cane; the work in the Philippines of the entomologists 
of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association to secure parasites of 
insects attacking sugar cane in Hawaii are instances of activities to 
restore disturbed equilibrium. Other instances which may be men- 
tioned are the control in Kenya Colony of the mealy bugs of coffee 
with the use of the lady-bird and the control with a parasitic fly of 
the coconut moth, whose caterpillar destroyed the leaves of the palms 
in the Fiji Islands. In plant pathology, equilibrium has a different 
biological basis from that with insects and parasites. 

In the introduction of a new crop in a new country at least three 
easily definable factors are involved. 

(1) Adaptation of the crop plant to the new environment. 

(2) Presence of potential new parasites. 

(3) Relative susceptibility or resistance of plant to parasites. 

A knowledge of these factors is very important especially in 

new cultures in the Philippines. 

DISEASE RESISTANCE 

The control of plant diseases by the production of highly resist- 
ant varieties, strains or individuals through breeding and selection 
consists of changing the nature of the plant in such a way that it 
is no longer 'susceptible to a given disease or pathogen. The pro- 
duction of resistant plants will probably be the ultimate solution of 
plant-disease control problems. 

Disease resistance is not a new idea with us. The work on 
disease resistance at Wisconsin has been done by members of the 
staff, especially Dr. J. C. Walker and students. 

Illustrations of disease resistance may be seen from the history 
of plant pathology in Europe and America. Take grape diseases 
and European grapes versus American grapes. There are many 
varieties of these grapes and they have many parasites. A uni- 
versal resistance to destruction occurs among these grapes. 

A generation ago, American grapes were introduced into Europe 
because the American roots are resistant to Phylloxera. In Europe 
the American grape was almost completely wiped out by the downy 
mildew and only the discovery of Bordeaux mixture saved the in- 
dustry. Now, in Europe the use of spray for the control of the 



DISEASE RESISTANCE IN PLANTS 


461 


mildew is widespread. It is possible to get resistant vines by hybridi- 
zation but because spraying is practical the work for production of 
resistant plants has never been finished. 

European potato breeding obtained relative resistance which 
could be maintained by skillful attention to source of seed and cul- 
tivation of the plants in the field. Unlike the work on grape mildew 
no spray that offers better advantages for the control of the disease 
than by breeding resistant plants is used in potato. 

• BREiailNG FOB DISEASE RESISTANCE IN THE UNITED STATES 

Norton in 1913 published the results of his work on breeding as- 
paragus for resistance against the rust, Puccinia asparagi DC. The 
occurrence of the rust on asparagus in the United States was dis- 
covered in 1896. About 1902 the disease was prevalent and destruc- 
tive wherever asparagus was grown. As different strains varied 
in their susceptibility to the rust, breeding was started as a means 
of controlling the disease. Norton’s work showed that struc- 
tural differences were the cause of resistance to ru.st in the aspara- 
gus and that vigor of the plants was not necessarily correlated 
with resistance. It became necessary for growers and breeders of 
asparagus to adopt methods for satisfactorily keeping out the disease 
from the fields and follow pedigree breeding work or the production 
of resistant strains. 

On bean diseases, breeding for disease re.sistance has resulted 
in the production of the variety Robust against the bean mosaic and 
Red Kidney against the anthracnose. 

WISCONSIN WORK WITH CABBAGE 

Dr. J. C. Walker has been engaged on plant-breeding work for 
ten years. In his work. Doctor Walker found pure line for resist- 
ance and susceptibility. According to him disease resistance is a 
single factor which is dominant. 

Of the work with other Fusarium-wilt diseases may be men- 
tioned that on peas by Linford (1928) who describes varieties re- 
sistant to the disease. 


Cabbage yellows 

Cabbage yellows is caused by the fungus Fusarium conglutinans 
Wollenw. The fungus attacks the roots of cabbage in the seed bed 
or within a short time after transplanting. The infected plants are 



462 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTURIST 


stunted and the leaves become pale and then yellow. The cabbaere 
may be uniformly attacked or the disease may first appear on one side 
with the result that a curving of the stem and leaves may follow. 
Infection begins with the fibrous roots. From the roots the fungus 
passes to the stem tissues where it may first be noted in the vascular 
bundles. The vascular bundles first become water-soaked in ap- 
pearance. Then they become darker colored and finally assume 
brownish black. The cortical tissues lying over these bundles grad- 
ually die and collapse. The infection of the root and stem of the 
cabbage causes reduction of the supply of water and food materials 
from the soil. The fungus continues invading the upper parts of 
the plants. As soon as this takes place the plants begin to shed 
their lower leaves. The cabbage may be killed in a week or so 
after transplanting although some may live for a month or more. 
Less severely infected cabbages may live through the summer with- 
out production of heads. 

In badly infected soils in southeastern Wisconsin the loss ranges 
from 60 to 96 per cent. 

The development of cabbage yellows is favored by high soil 
temperature. The disease is worst when a period of dry hot weather 
prevails after the young plants are set in the field. Once Fiisarium 
conglutinans is introduced into a soil it persists indefinitely so that 
even crop rotation does not affect the disease that it produces. 

The disease cannot be controlled by treatment of cabbage seed, 
seedlings and soil. Steam sterilization is effective but the applica- 
tion of this is 'restricted to seed bed. 

Cabbage yellows can be controlled only by the use of resistant 
varieties or strains. 

In Wisconsin the standard winter varieties of the Hollander or 
Ball Head type are the ones suited to commercial cultivation, but 
these are very susceptible to the yellows. Selections were made 
from sound heads in the worst diseased fields in the autumn. Seeds 
were raised from these sound heads and the seedlings from these were 
grown in badly infected soil. The sound plants which were left were 
saved as source of seed. 

By repeated selection, strains of the winter cabbage of the 
Hollander type were secured. These have proved highly resistant 
against the cabbage yellows besides possessing the best commercial 
qualities. The best selected head strain. Villa 26, compared with 
the commercial susceptible strain behaved as shown in the following 
table. 



DISEASE RESISTANCE IN PLANTS 


463 


TABLE 1 

Wiseonsin Hollander cabbage; second generation selections 


PERCENTAGE DISEASED 

PERCENTAGE 

LIVING 

PERCENTAGE 

OF HEADS 

AV. WT. OP 
HEADS IN 
POUNDS 

YIELD IN TONS 
PER ACRE 

Commercial, Ferry 81 

Resistant, Villa 251.5 

46 

100 

24.5 

98.0 

2.65 

5.45 

2.1 

18.8 


NATURE OP DISEASE RESISTANCE 

There are several bases of resistance in plants. Only two of 
these may be mentioned in this connection. Conant (1927) working 
on the black root rot of tobacco caused by ThieUivia basicola Zopf. 
found that there is a close correlation between the histology of the 
roots of tobacco and resistance to the parasite. The tips of the roots 
and the elongating region are highly resistant to the disease, per- 
haps because the fungus cannot penetrate the epidermis. Further 
back from the region of elongation the epidermis is broken when 
the activity of the cambium is in progress. As no cork is present 
in this region the tobacco roots are very susceptible. Thielavia 
basicola is unable to penetrate cork. As soon as the roots begin 
to lay cork on the walls of their cells the tobacco is no longer suscep- 
tible to infection. 

In the smudge of onion, Walker (1923) noted that although the 
volatile oil of the onion has a retarding effect upon germination and 
growth of the fungus Colletotrichum eircinans a sub.stance closely 
associated or identical with the red and yellow pigments is apparently 
the chief factor causing resistance to smudge infection. 

It has been shown in the onion that the color of the bulb deter- 
mines the relation to the disease. Red has been found to be resist- 
ant, yellow, resistant, but white, susceptible. The question has been 
raised: Is it anthocyanin or some associated elements that is re- 
sponsible for this resistance? They have found associated with the 
colored scales of the onion derivatives of phenol. They have isolated 
protocatechic. In the cabbage what is the substance to which re- 
sistance is due? 

Link and Bailey (1926) working on Fusariam species which 
cause bulb rot of onions first in the field and after harvest in transit 
and storage found that red, yellow and white varieties are equally 
susceptible. These fungi readily produce decay when inoculated into 
wounds of onion bulbs. 







464 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


APPLICATION TO PHILIPPINE PROBLEMS 

The knowledge of disease resistance of plants has very important 
applications to Philippine problems. The question of the control of 
banana wilt, cabbage wilt, cabbage black leg, a disease which is now 
present in the region around Baguio, tomato, sugar cane mosaic, 
pineapple diseases, and diseases of new crops depends on isolation of 
varieties or strains which are highly resistant. In the United States 
,the tomato industry is only possible in many sections by disease re- 
sistance. 

Of course, in addition to the question of disease resistance for 
the control of plant diseases, it is supplementary to guard against 
introduction of the disease, contamination of the soil, seed treatment 
and spraying, important cultural conditions and careful selection of 
environment to suit crops. 


REFERENCES 

CoNANT, George H. 1927. Histological studies of resistance in tobacco to 
Thielavia baaicola, Amer. Jour. Bot. 14: 457-480. 

Jones, L. R., and J. C. Gilman. 1916. The control of cabbage yellows through 
disease resistance. Wisconsin Agric. Exper. Sta. Res. Bull. 38: 1-70. Fig» 
1 - 23 . 

Linford, Maurice B. 1928. A Fumrium wilt of peas in Wisconsin. Wiscon- 
sin Agric. Exper. Sta. Res. Bull. 85; 1-44. Fig. 1-15. 

Link, George K. K., and Alice A. Bailetst. 1926. Fusaria causing bulb rot 
of onions. Jour. Agric. Res. 33: 929-952. Fig. 1-8. 

Norton, J. B. 1913. Methods used in breeding asparagus for rust resistance. 

U. S. De^t. Agric. Bur. Plant Indus. Bull. 263: 1-60. PI. 1-18; fig. 1-4. 
Walker, J. C. 1923. Disease resistance to onion smudge. Jour. Agric. Res. 
24: 101^1040. PI. 1 (coZ.), 2—J!^; fig. 1-4. 



A METHOD OF PLANT IMPROVEMENT BASED ON THE 
USE OF HIDDEN HERITABLE BUD VARIATIONS 
AND THOSE PRODUCED THROUGH INJURY ' 


N. B. MENDIOLA 
0/ the Department of Agronomy 

WITH EIGHT TEXT KIGURES 


INTRODUCTION 

It is well known that the improvement of plants is based on 
heritable variations. Methods of plant improvement vary. In the 
last analysis, however, all methods of plant breeding consist funda- 
mentally in the selection of certain mother plants for propagation 
purposes from a group of varying individuals. These methods dif- 
fer only in details and as regards the variations involved. 

In a sense we can say that the variations on which selection 
methods have been based so far are natural, exposed variations. 
These may be classified into four groups: 

1. Variations already in existence in groups of plants. This 
group may be subdivided into : 

a. Natural species which are products of natural evolution 

b. Seminal mutations 

c. Natural hybrids 

d. Bud sports unintentionally propagated 

2. Variations produced by artificial crossing. 

3. Variations produced by seed propagation without previous 
inbreeding of mother plants which are ordinarily propagated veg- 
etatively. Seed propagation gives a chance for the effects of hidden 
factor mutations and chromosomal variations to come out. 

4. Variations produced by inbreeding which gives a chance for 
the effects of hidden heterozygosities to manifest themselves. 

In the future a new kind of variations is bound to enter into 
our work of plant improvement and to add new methods to our sys- 
tems of plant breeding. These variations may be called artificial 
variations. For example, an attempt is now being made to produce 

' Paper read before the Society for the Advancement of Research at the 
second public meeting for the academic year 1932-1933. 

Experiment Station contribution No. 917. 


465 



466 


THE PHILIPPINE AGBICULTURIST 


new variations by treatment with X-rays. This has been done with 
sugar cane, maize, barley, oats, wheat (Stadler, 1930) ; cotton (Hor- 
lacher and Klllough, 1931) ; and tobacco (Goodspeed, 1930) ; ra- 
dium rays have been used on Datura (Gager and Blakeslee, 1927) ; 
chloral hydrate solution, on Phaseolus vulgaris (Hofmann, 1927), 
and on other plants by other plant breeders. There are experiments, 
also, in which low and high temperatures and low and high light in- 
tensities have been tried as agents. 

In this paper I am suggesting a new method of plant breeding. 
I have formulated this method after many years of experience with 
numerous varieties of plants. The method makes use of hidden and 
artificial variations. These variations consist either of (1) latent 
heritable variations, that is those already initiated in plants but ly- 
ing dormant and only to be released by stimulated shoot production 
and vegetative propagation, and (2) those to be initiated by injury 
caused by mutilation, wounding, or by vegetative propagation itself 
as by cuttage and by graftage and by exposure to unfavorable en- 
vironment. 


LATENT HERITABLE VARIATIONS. DO THEY EXIST 

We can not deny that new heritable variations are being ini- 
tiated in the cells of the plant. Whether they are initiated owing 
to certain inherent tendencies in the germ cell or to external in- 
fluences or to both is immaterial in the present discussion. Neith- 
er is it necessary to inquire here how the new variations are 
shown, — whether by factor mutations, by chemical or cytoplasmic 
variations, pr by what are called saltations. The important thing 
is that such variations originate in the plant and that in plant im- 
provement it is important that these variations are given a chance 
to manifest themselves. I have already pointed out that propagation 
by seed is a method of giving such a chance in plants propagated 
vegetatively. Variations produced in this way are called seminal 
variations. There are, however, certain va,riations which appear 
vegetatively and which we usually call bud sports. Heretofore, we 
have been content to wait for them to appear. No attempt has even 
been made as a regular method of plant improvement to produce 
them artificially and increase our materials for selection. Why 
should we not give such variations as have been initiated already 
but are unable to manifest themselves vegetatively, a chance to ap- 
pear? Or if they will appear, why should we not hasten their ap- 
pearance? If we do this for seminal variations, there is no reason 
why we should not for bud variations. 



A METHOD OF PLANT IMPROVEMENT 


467 


If we bear in mind that in a multicellular plant, the type to 
which most of our agricultural plants belong, all the cells come 
originally by successive divisions from the zygote, that many cells 
have not lost the power of regeneration, that in fact many of them are 
destined to develop into dormant vegetative buds, branches, and 
stems, and that in the millions and millions of cases of cell divisions 
which take place in the development of a plant many irregularities 
in chromosome divisions or pairing or even gene mutations may 
occur, then it is not difficult to imagine that in any plant there must 
be the initiations of heritable variations which ordinarily remain 
latent until an opportunity comes for them to manifest themselves. 
For many cells capable of regeneration, no such opportunity ever 
comes. If the cells mature or die or if the plants containing them die 
before this opportunity arrives then these latent variations die with 
them. 

We know from the results of breeding experiments and seed 
propagation that certain changes taking place in the germ cells give 
rise by seed propagation to new varieties or even new species. This 
being the case we should expect that similar changes are taking 
place in cells which never become seed germs but become vegetative 
buds actually or potentially. To such changes are due the numerous 
cases of bud sports which have been reported by many observers 
over a long period of time. There is reason to believe that such 
changes are as frequent as those manifested sexually. Speaking, 
for example, of tetraploid species, Jorgensen (1928) says that he 
can not agree that most species exhibiting double chromosome num- 
bers are hybrids and that he considers that tetraploidy induced in 
the somatic tissue much more widespread than the gametic duplica- 
tions. Also, Stout (1916), comparing variations obtained by vege- 
tative propagation of Coleus with those obtained by seed propaga- 
tion of the same parents found that in this genus asexual and sexual 
reproductions are not fundamentally different in respect to the extent 
and range of variation. 

Assuming that the initiation of variations within the cells of 
a plant are shown in changes in the number and structure of chromo- 
somes, we should find within a plant variability among the cells 
in these respects if our assumption of the existence of latent varia- 
tions in the cells is correct. This variability we might call intra- 
cellular chromosome variability. There seem to have been no sys- 
tematic studies made to determine to what extent such variability 
exists within an individual plant. What evidence we have in this 
connection is derived from cytological studies done for other pur- 



468 


THE PaiLIPPlNE AGRICULTURIST 


poses. However, such studies have resulted in showing the exist- 
ence of such a variability. To cite a few instances: Hance (1918) 
reported that within a plant of Oenothera scintUlans, the somatic 
chromosome number varied from 15 to 21, that this variation 
existed throughout the same plant and that the percentage of the 
different classes of variants was approximately the same for the 
three generations studied. According to Dr. Jos6 Capinpin of this 
College, L. L. Burlingame of Leland Stanford University reported 
in the Cleveland meeting of the A. A. A. S., December, 1930, which 
Doctor Capinpin attended, that in Clarkia, the number of chromo- 
somes in somatic cells varies in the plant from 6 to 12. Condit (1933) 
determined the chromosome number of 31 species of Ficus, He 
found that the diploid number in each of these species is 26 but in 
a single cell of meristematic tissue of F. pumUa minima he found 
a tetraploid number. He also reported that in an earlier study he 
found a polyploid and euploid condition in the endosperm cells of 
F. caHca and F. paimata. 

One cause of variability in number of chromosomes is either 
non-disjunction or doubling of chromosomes. Mol (1923) reported 
occasional doubling of chromosome number in Hyadnthus orientalis 
and attributed the phenomenon to the physiological effects of prema- 
ture harvesting or cutting off the leaves. Mol (1926) also reported 
somatic variations in tulips and narcissi With or without change in 
chromosome number. Blackburn and Harrison (1924) found that in 
Rosa tomentosa the microspores carry 7 chromosomes in the nuclei, 
while in the egg cells, 28. Longley (1927) made a study of the num- 
ber of chrbmosomes in several old and well established varieties of 
Zea mays. The diploid number found was usually 20. However, he 
found plants with a somatic number of more than 20 chromosomes in 
six varieties. Kostoff (1930) reported that in one root tip of a 
Nieotiana hybrid, he found that the cells of one-half of the root had 
20 chromosomes, and the other half had 40. This is called chromo- 
somal chimera. According to Kostoff chromosomal chimera has been 
observed by himself in other Nieotiana back-crosses and reported by 
other authors in tomato and Crepis. McClintock (1929) has reported 
this in a case of an 5% maize. In a plant there were found both 2n 
and 2n-l cells. The occurrence of polyploid cells in the tissue of 
normal diploid plants has been reported as a regular feature in a 
number of species, among which are Spinacia oleracea (reported by 
De Litardiere, 1923), Cannabis sativa (De Litardiere, 1924 and Bres- 
lawetz, 1926, 1932), sorghum species (Huskin and Smith, 1932) and 
Acer plotanoides (Mewman, 1933). Somatic cells containing diploid 



A METHOD OF PLANT IMPROVEMENT 


469 ' 


and polyploid chromosome numbers have been discovered in meroi- 
riaMs annua (De Litardiere, 1924), Solanum lycopersicum (Mann 
Lesley, 1926), Melandrium album (Breslawetz, 1926) and Cucumia 
sativtis (Koschuchow, 1928). 

It would be highly interesting and instructive if we could map 
out the consistent occurrence of this variability for each variety of 
every species. A map of a plant showing chromosomes variability 
would furnish a breeder, using the method suggested in this paper, 
a guide in the stimulation of shoot production, would tell him where 
to mutilate or wound a plant so as to cause the development of buds 
located in the regions where the varying cells are found. 

Having discussed the existence of latent heritable variations in 
plant cells, I shall now explain hotv these latent heritable variations, 
particularly in somatic cells, could be released. 

If in a plant there are cells in which gene or chromosome 
changes have taken place and these cells are capable of developing 
into vegetative buds and .shoots, variations due to these chromosome 
changes could be released by allowing dormant buds to develop by 
cultural methods or by using such horticultural treatments as we 
now use, such as pruning, wounding, ringing and girdling. The 
stimulation of shoot production is already a regular practice in the 
propagation of hybrids by grafting or budding. It is done, however, 
with no thought of releasing hidden variations. Parent hybrid plants 
are propagated vegetatively to avoid seminal segregations. And in 
the case of the original Kawisari B coffee plant and the original 
mother plants of the different Para rubber cions in Java, Sumatra, 
and other countries, the parent hybrid plants had been pruned se- 
verely and intermittently in order to induce the production of shoots 
which later on were cut to become sources of buds for budding on 
numerous stock plants. It is likely that if we made it a regular 
practice to induce a plant to produce shoots at parts where ordina- 
rily they do not produce them we should be witnessing the appear- 
ance of bud sports, which otherwise would never appear, and be 
enabled to carry on bud selection where we have not been able to 
do so. More will be said on this subject in the discussion of the 
suggested new method of plant breeding. 

ARTIFICIAL INITIATION OP HERITABLE SOMATIC VARIATIONS 

In this paper I am using the term “somatic variation” as synon- 
ymous with bud variation,” or “vegetative variation” and “somatic 



470 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


cells” with “vegetative cells,” therefore it is not intended that they 
should exclude cases in which the germ tract as well as the soma is 
involved. 

The method of improvement suggested in this paper calls for 
the artificial initiation of heritable somatic variations, similar to 
the initiation of heritable germinal variations, by injuring the plants. 
We can not depend exclusively on chance variations in somatic cells. 
They might be very few after all. Hence we should, if possible, 
cause variations to be initiated and then released for use of the 
breeder. 

It is possible that there are several agents which may be used 
in the production of these variations in somatic cells, such as mechan- 
ical injury and radical changes in environmental factors like tem- 
perature, pressure, light intensity, and irradiation. In this paper, 
however, it is mainly mechanical injury that will be considered. 

FIELD OBSERVATIONS SUGGESTING INITIATION OF VARIATIONS BY INJURY 

Injury due to vegetative propagation and pruning. In a num- 
ber of papers on variations published in the years 1919 to 1932 
(1919, 1922a, 1922b, 1923, 1926a, 1926b, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1931, 
1932), I reported many instances of somatic or bud sports which 
I had encountered while engaged in the culture and study of many 
species and varieties of plants. In a paper which was read for me 
by Doctpr Capinpin before the First Philippine Science Convention 
and an abstract of which was published recently (Mendiola, 1932) 
a summary list of these bud sports numbering 39 separate cases, 
was presented. In speculating then about the cause or causes of 
these variations I suggested the possibility that mutilation was a 
cause of bud sporting in many of them. I pointed out the significance 
of the fact that the 39 cases of bud sports reported consisted of 14 
species and that a majority of these 14 ; namely, sugar cane, cassava, 
banana, pineapple, hibiscus, sarasa, croton, gardenia, and papua, 
are propagated vegetatively, that is, by process involving mutila- 
tion. In one case of variation, that of the change of sex expression 
in Carica papaya as a result of decapitation, the change can be pro- 
duced many times artificially. 

The suggestion of the possibility that mutilation is a cause of 
bud sporting in many plants has led me to study to what extent in- 
jury to plants has been found a factor in the production of heritable 
variations. A survey of pertinent literature has resulted in confirm- 
ing my opinion and in the discovery that injury in fact has been used 
in the artificial production of chromosome changes. 



A METHOD OF PLANT IMPROVEMENT 


471 


Injuries may be inflicted on an organism in various ways, either 
by mutilation or by wounding without involving severance of parts. 
The mutilation or wounding may be either by artificial or by nat- 
ural agents. 

Referring to cultivated plants mutilation is involved in certain 
regular practices such as pruning, propagation by cutting, by graft- 
age, and by marcottage. In nature, injury is inflicted by numerous 
plant enemies, fungi, insects, and other animals and plant parasites 
with which the plants and the farmer have to contend. To these 
there might be added also the plant itself. In certain cases a plant 
would be found with self-inflicted injuries. Pruning consists, in re- 
moving a certain portion of the leaves or stems or branches of a 
plant. One effect of pruning on the pruned plant is the development 
of dormant buds. If the cuttings obtained in pruning are placed in 
a proper environment, — planted in the soil or placed in water — dor- 
mant buds also develop from the cuttings. I have observed a num- 
ber of cases in which such buds have developed into what we or- 
dinarily call bud sports. These are sudden vegetative changes which 
come true to type generally when propagated vegetatively and some- 
times even sexually. In other words, such buds have shown new 
heritable variations. What, it may be asked, initiated these varia- 
tions? I believe such variations appear as a response of the plant 
to the injury. This is just a hypothesis, proof might not be forth- 
coming. But, assuming for the present that injury does not initiate 
the variations or even that the genes for these variations appear 
without any stimulus, we can not deny that their manifestation was 
made possible by the development of dormant buds and this develop- 
ment in turn was due to the injury. In other words, even if injury 
might not be an initiating factor, it is surely a releasing factor. 

Darwin in a discussion of variation under domestication in : The 
Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, states that not all 
variations arise sexually, that he had presented a list of sporting 
plants which had suddenly produced a single bud with a new and 
sometimes widely different character from that of the other buds 
on the same plant and that these bud variations can be propagated 
by grafts, offsets, etc, and sometimes by seed. He also pointed out 
that these bud variations occur rarely under nature but frequently 
under culture. To me this is a very significant statement of a con- 
dition which is to be expected, for under domestication, plants in 
successive vegetative generations have suffered more intentional mu- 
tilations than in nature. 



472 


THE PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURIST 


I will now list and describe a number of the cases of bud varia- 
tions which have been encountered in vegetatively propagated plants. 
Considering these cases in the light of cytological results of many 
workers to be reviewed later, it is highly probable that in these 
bud variations, injury was, if not the initiating, at least the releas- 
ing factor. Cases with which I am familiar are described briefly, 
together with supporting cases observed by other workers. Other 
cases with which I am not as familiar but which have been reported 
by others are given in table 1. 

Sugar cane (Saccharum officiruirum Linn.) is an important cultivated trop- 
ical plant. It is commercially propagated by cuttings, that is by a method 
which causes injury to the planting material right at the start. When new 
varieties are desired, true seeds are used in propagation, but once the new 
varieties are obtained, they are subsequently propagated exclusively by cuttings. 

Numerous cases of bud mutations in sugar cane, arising from vegetatively 
propagated plants, have been reported by different authors from different re- 
gions, as Mauritius, Louisiana, Hawaii, West Indies, British India, Queensland, 
Porto Rico and the Philippines. Because I am familiar with the cases in the 
Philippines, as they were reported by my collaborators and myself, they will 
be described. Regarding cases reported in other countries, the following papers 
may be consulted: Stockdale (1906), Pomeroy (1919), Barker (1931), and 
Shamel (1922). 

A description of the cases in the Philippines follows: A stalk with a row 
of double eyes at one side and a row of single eyes at the other formed through- 
out the entire stalk observed in a stool of P. B. 117 cane variety: a stalk of 
Mauritius Malagache bearing a node at the upper end of the stalk with more 
than five eyes; a stalk with eyeless nodes at the end of a flowering stalk; 
stalks withouit stripes produced by variety Gulisan, a white cane with green 
stripings; stalks with yellow stripes produced by Mauritius Malagache, which 
is a red unstriped cane; striped stalks produced by Luzon White, an unstriped 
variety; yellow stalks produced by a stool of Big Tanna which is a variety 
possessing stalks with purple and yellow stripes; a stalk bearing yellow stripes 
was found in M-1900, a variety with solid red stalks; a striped stalk was found 
in P.O.J. 213, an unstriped variety; a stalk half of which is striped and the 
other non-striped was found in Delagrabe variety, which is striped; a stalk 
with striped leaves was found in P.B, 363 cane variety; a branching stalk was 
occasionally observed on a number of seedling canes ; a stalk of Linabnig showing 
mosaic infection on the leaves with side shoots not showing the leaf symptoms 
although carriers of the virus. 

The different classes of bud variations found in sugar cane and reported 
in various countries may be grouped into the following classes: (a) side 
shoots differing from the parent stalk, (6) stalks in One stool differing in 
color from stalks in the same stools representing the parent variety, (c) a 
stalk with some joints striped and some unstriped, id) & stalk showing variabil- 
ity in number of buds per node, (e) a stalk showing buds in unusual position, 



A METHOD OF PI.ANT IMPROVEMENT 


478 


(/) a stalk with striped leaves, (g) a stalk showing susceptibility to mosaic, 
bearing side shoots which were carriers of mosaic virus but not showing the 
disease. 

Plant breeders have noted that the difference between the bud variations 
and mother plant in sugar cane is often as great as between recognized 
varieties, if not species. In fact there have been many clonal varieties of sugar 
cane in cultivation at one time or another which are of bud origin. For 
example the Louzier was the standard variety in Mauritius for many years. 
In that island alone, it is said, there were at one time eight or nine varieties 
which originated as sports and that some of them were line canes and were 
extensively grown. Other examples are the Yellow Caledonia from Big Ribbon 
and the Rose Bamboo, or Cristalina, in Cuba from the parent variety Striped 
Mexican (Shamel, 1922). Actual experimental data are available to show the 
value of