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Agricultural Research Institute 

PUSA 





Nature 

A WEEKLY 

ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OP SCIENCE 




Nature 

A WEEKLY 

ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 


VOLUME XXXVIII 

MAY 1888 to OCTOBER 1888 


“ To the solid ground 

Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for ayef — Wordsworth 


Iponbon Hnb 

MACMILLAN AND CO. 



Richard Clay and Sons, Limited, 

LONDON AND BUNGAY. 



22 , 


INDEX 


Ahhk (Prof. Cleveland) ; Macclesfield Observations, 365 ; Note 
on his Wtjrk, 503 

Abercromby (JTon. Ralph) : a Meteorolprist at the Royal Aca- 
demy, 225; the Weather in the “ Doldrums,” 238; and R. 
II, Scott, F.R.S., on Meldrum’s Rules for Handling Ships in 
the Southern Indian Ocean, 358 ; Photographs of Lightning- 
Flashes, 547 

Aberdare Hall, Cardiff, 257 
Al>crdeen University, 552 
Aberration, Constants of, 185 

Abney (Captain W. dc W., F.R.S.) : Colour Photometry, 212 ; 
Photometry of Colour, 286 ; on the Determination of the 
Photometric Intensity of the Coronal Light during the Solar 
EoUi^se of Au^st 28, 29, 1886, 407 
Abscess, Microbism and, Verneuil, 4*^^ 

Absorption Spectra, the, of Crystals, M. Uecqucrel, A. P'.. 
Tutton. 343 

Academy of Sciences, Propose^ Czcck, 302 
Acari, A. D. Michael on, 94 

Acheson (E. G.); Measurementit of Sparking Distance in Air 
of Alternate Currents used in Electric Lighting, 305 ; Inquiry 
into Influence of Disruptive Discharges of Pow^Tful Alter- 
nating CuTMts, 577 . ^ 

Azores, Excunhons Zoologiques dans les, Jules de Guerne, 113 
Actlnometer, Electro- chemical, Gouy and RigoHob If9 
Adam (Paul), New Omnic Compounds of Diphenyl, 599 
Adelaide Botanic Garden, Report of the, 623 
Advancement of Science, the Australasian Association frtr the, 

-Eofotropic Elastic Solid-:, C. Chree on, 165 
Aerolites, on the Orbits of, H. A. Newton, 63, 250 
Aeronautics ; Proposed Steel Vacuum Balloon, 185 ; Aeronaut- 
ical Society of Great Britain, 230 ; a Compressed-Air Engine 
for Flying Machine, L. Hargrave, 463 ; War Aerostation in 
France, 552 

Agassiz Seaside Assembly, 263 

Agriculture ; in Canada, 87 ; Agricultural Education in Nor- 
thern Italy and in Prussia, 138 ; the Principles of Agricultural | 
Practice as an Instructional Subject, Prof. John Wrightson, 
320 ; New School of Agriculture at West Lavlngton, 228; 
Report of the British Consul al Hakododi, on Agriculture of 
Yezo, Ja}>an, 373 ; the Rothamsted Experiments on the 
Growth of Wheat, Barley, and the Mixed Herbage of Grass 
Land, William Fream, 465 ; Professorship of Agriculture 
founded at Virginia University, 552 ; Rural School P^ducati 
in Agriculture in Scotland, Prof, Robert Wallace, 576; Pro- 
posed Agricultural College, 598 , 

Afforestation in America, ^7 
Afghans, the, M. L. Roussefet, '431 

Afghan Delimitation Conamission, the Botany of the, J. E. T. 

Africa; iSUif jPtes'inj .TR, G. Haliburton, If2; Tropical 
Africa^ l^efUyr'Bi^mmondf 171 ; LieuUnants* Kund and 
Top|>en^fc^^ Expedition into Camerd^s, 186; a Century 
of Afric^i®j^>A»Jon, Dn SAIpon* 186 ; Report of the South 

J Julei Borelli’s African Ex- 
; f 39 ? % Extra*Tropieal Species 


of South African' Butterflies. Rowland Trlmen, F.R.S., 266; 
Inewadi Yam a, or Twenty Years’ Personal Experience in 
South Africa, J. W. Matthews. 295 ; German East African 
Possessions, Dr. Hans Meyer, 305 
Ain, Notes on the Departement del’, Dr. Aubert. 431 
Ainos : Folk-Lore of the, 87 ; Burial Customs of the, Rev. J. 
Batchelor, 331 

Air : Determination of the Weight of, M. J. M. Crafts, 192 ; 

Movement of, in the Atmosphere, Dr. Lummer, 192 
Air and Water, the Micro-organisms of, Dr. Percy F. P'rank- 
land, 232 

Aitchison (J. E. T., P'. R.S), the Botany of the Afghan 
Delimitation Commission, 219 

Aitken (Sir William, F. R.S.), the Animal Alkaloids, &c., 
J 70 

Alaska, Lieut, Emmon s Ethnographical Collection from, 64 
Al-Biruni s India : an Account of the Religion, Philosophy, 
Literature, &c., of India about A n. 1030, 97 
Albuminoid Substances in the White of an Egg, Study of. 164 
{ Alcohol, a Treatise on, with Tables of Spirit Gravitie*-, Thomas 
vStevenson, loi 

Alcoholism and Criminality, M. Marambat, 135 
Aldiavtmdia vestcithsa, M. Korzchinsky on, 

Alexander (G. W.), Humming-bird and Mantis, 383 
Alexander (Dr. H.), New Platinum Base obtained by, 256 
Alexander (J.) and Prof. Carnclly on the Colour of some 
Carbon Compounds, 141 

Alkaline Phosphites, on the Action of the, on the Alkaline- 
Earthy Oxides, M. L. Ouvrard, 168 
Alkaloids, the Animal, Sir William Aitken, F.R.S,, 170 ; 
A. M. Brown, 170 

Allen (Grant), and Electro- physics, 22T 
Allcne, the Gas, Gustavson and Demjanoff, 552 
Alps, Western, on the Constitution and Structure of the 
Crystalline Schists of the, Prof. Cii. Lory, 506 
Aluminium ; on Or^nic Compounds in their relations to Haloid 
Salts of, G. Gustafson, 139 ; in certain Vascular Cryptogams, 
on the Occurrence of, Prof, A. H, Church, 1 40, 228 ; Cowles’s 
Process for the Production of, 162 ; the Vapour-density of, 
239 ; Production of, H. T. Castner, 326; Present Position of 
the Manuficture of, 592 ; Freezing- point of Solutions of 
Organic Compounds of, Louise and Roux, 608 
Amaryllidcaf, Hand-book of the, J. G. Baker, F.R.S., 362 
Amber in West Jutland, Discovery of, 598 
America; Scandinavian Colonization of, 17; American Na- 
. tional Academy of Sciences 63 ; American Association for 
Advancement of Science, 64. 256, 452 ; American Journal 
of Science, 91, 189, 430, 462, 559 ; American Journal of 
Mathematics, 164, 582 ; American Meteorological Journal, 
112, 204, 326, 502; Implements of PalceoUlliic Type in 
America, 184; New York “Blizzard,” 204; Dr. David 
T. Day’s Pottery Collection, 206 ; American Observa- 
tories, 231, 626; the International Congres*' of Ame- 
ricanists,” 256, 552 ; Trans- MI^Aifi•.ippi Rainfall, 326 ; 
American Statistical Association, Wsovr- power employed in the 
United States, 349 ; American Philosophical Society, 351 ; 
Native Birds of Noith America, 373 ; Cincinnati Exposition, 



VI 


INDEX 


XNaHtf't^ AW. 22, tS86 


373 ; National Zoological Park at Washington, 397 ; Report 
of the Trustees of the Museum of Natural History, Now 
York, 422 jvAmerican Geology, 452 ; the Fourth Centenary 
of the Discovery of America by Columbus, 487 ; Afforestation 
in America, 487 ; American Association, 500, 552 ; American 
Academy of Afts and Sciences, 511 ; American Geographical | 
Society, J39 

Amoriftti (Felix) y Carlos M. Morales, Teoria Elemental de las 
Determinantes y sus Principates ApUcaciones al Algebra y la 
Geometiia, 537 

Amorphous Antimony, M. F. Herard, 432 
Ampere, Statue of, ^8 

Amsterdam ; Royal Academy of Sciences, 24, I20, 216, 33^: 
633 ; Zoological Society, 62 

Anagyrine, on, MM. E. Hardy and N, Gallois, 360 r 
AnaiysCs Laboratory Companion, Alfred E. Johnson, 564 
Anatomy, Comparative, Modifications of First and Second j 
Visceral Arches, Hons Gadow, 47 j 

AncScres, Les, de nos Aniinaux, dans les Temps Gtologiques, ; 

Prof. Albert Gaudry, 4 ' 

Ancient Canoe in Norway, 134 ' 

Ancient Monuments of Egypt, H. H. Howoith, M.P,, Sir J. 
Fergusaon, M.P., 326 

Ancient Town, Kemains of, on Right Bank of Volga, 374 
Andre (Ch.), on the Luminous Bridges observed during the 
Transits and Occultations of the. Satellites of Jupiter, 359 
Andrews (Thos.), Electro-chemical Effects on Magnetiring Iron, 
2d2 

Anenometers : Prof. Waldo, 112 ; Report on Experiments with, 
G. M. Whipple and \V. H. Dines, 191 
Afaglesey Rocks, Prof. Blake, 597 

Anmial Alkaloids, Sir William Aitkcn, F.R.S., T70; A, M. 
Brown, 170 

Anmial Life, Forms of, George Rollcston, K.R.S., 25 
Animals, Effect of Earthquake on, Prof, Milne, 500 
Animals’ Institute, the, 500 

Animals and Plants, Distribution of, by Ocean Currents, A. 

W. Buckland, 245 ; Isaac C. Thompson, 270 
Another World, or, the Fourth Dimension, A. T. Schofield. 
3^3 

Anschitt/s Instantaneous Pho’ographs, 119 
Antagonism, F. Howard Collins, 7 ; Thomas Woods, 56 
Antarctic Islands, Flora of the, \V. T. Thiselton Dyer, F.R.S,, 
Dr- H. B. Guppy, 40 

Antarctic Regions, German Exploration of, 228 
Antbrarobin and Chrysarobin, Dr. Weyl’s Researches on the 
Physiological Action of, 144 

Anthropology: Les Pygmees, A. de Quatrefages, 4; Pygmy 
Races of Men, Prof, flower, F.R.S., 44, 66 ; Anthropological 
Institute, 23, 214, 287 ; Dr. Topinard on the History of, in 
1788, 212; Dr. P. Topinard on Neolithic Skull, 212; 
Ethnographic Types frnm the Monuments of Egypt, Rev. H. 
G. Tomkins, 214; Fixedness of the American Type, Dr. 
Brmton, 256; Anthropology at the Cincinnati Exhibition, 
279 ; the Nicobar Islanders, E. H. Man, 287 ; Paris 
Anthropological Exhibition, 371 ; Journal of the Anthropo- 
Ic^ical Insiitute, 396; Japanese “ go-hei ” and Shinto Worship, 
Basil Hall Chamberlain, 396 ; Mr. Fawcett on the Saoros of 
jhe Ganjam Hill Tracts, 453 ; Philosophy from an Anthropo- 
logical Point of View, Dr. Fauvelle, 462 ; Anthropological and 
Ethnological Study of Cambodia, Dr. E. Maurcl, 463 ; the 
Hand and Figure of Native East Indians, Dr. Mugnier, 463 ; 
Platycncmia in Man and the Anthropoda, Manouvrier, 463 
Anticyclones in Europe, Dr. P. Biounow, 63 
Antipodean Notes, 29 

Aoutchin (M.), on Use of Sledges, fire., at Burials, 134 
AjMiaratus (or the Measurement of the Co-efficient of Expansion 
^ Heat, Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S., and Prof. J. Perry, 
F.R.S,, X4> 

Aral)ia Deserta, Travels In, C. M. Doughty, 195 
Archseological Society of Sweden, 87 
Archer's (W. J.) Journey in the District ofChicngmai, 280 
Archibald (E. Douglas) : Whirlwinds, V/aterspout.s, Storms, and 
Rotating Spheres, C.L. Weyher, 104 ; Faye's Theory of Storms, 
*49 ; Cloud Electric Potential, 269 ; Life of Matthew 
Fontaine Maury, 339 

Arcs, on tiie Suj^mumerary, accompanying the Rainbow, M. 
Boitel, 143 

Arctic Regions, Contributions to our Knowledge of the Meteoro- 
lotgy of the, 625 


Argentine Oraitholo^, P. L. Sclater, F.R.S., and W. H- 
Hudpon, Prof, R. Bowdler Sharpe, 587 
Argyll (the Duke of, F.R.S.) : Functiontess Organs, 341, 4 ** J 

Prophetic Germs, 564, 615 

Arithmetic : Graphical, the Elements of, and Graphical 
Static'S, John Y. Gray and Geo. I owson, 4 ; Arithmetic 
for Peginnerfi, Rev. J. B. Lock, 7^1 AiilhmeUc, a Higher, 
and Elemental^ Mensuration, P. Goyen, 2iS ; Arithmetical 
Exercises, H. S. Hall and S. R, Knight, 490 
Arizona, Discovery of Prehistoric Cities in, 43 
Arizona, Hemenway K,xpedition in, Thos. Wilson, 629 
Armour of the Middle Ages, a Collection of, 134 
Armstrong (Ford), on Technical Education, 313 
Armstrong (Prof. IL E., F.R.S,): Report of the British 
Association Committee on Isomeric Napthalene Derivatives, 
596; Valency, 596 
Amaud(M.), Strophanthine, 311 
Aromatic Monnmine'^, M. Leo Vignon, 2 x 6 
Art Wood-cni-ving, School of, 574 

Arteries, on the Proliferation tf EndothcIium-cells in, M. 
Pckelhnring, 216 

Asbestos its l^ioduction and Use, R. H. Jones, 148 

Asia, Central: Lieut. Vounghusband's* Journey across, 65; 

General Prjevnlsky’s Proposed Fourth Journey in, 66 
Asiatic Society of J.-yan, 87 
Assaying, Manual of Practical, J. Mitchell, 148 
Assessors, Scientific, in Courts of Ju'-tice, 289 
Asteroids, the .Shott Period Comets and, Prof. Kirkwood, x 14 : 

Photometric Observations of, Henry M. Parkhurst, 554 
Astronomy: Astronomical Phenomena for the Week, *8,43, 
65, 89, 115, 136, 161, !86, 207, 231, 258, 279, 304, 328* 
35L 375. 39S, 423, 454, 487, 503. 529. 554, 577, 601, 626; 
Astronomical Column, 43, 88, 114, 1S5, 206, 231, 258, 328, 
350* 375. 397. 423, .503, 528, 553. 576, .600, 626 ; New Minor 
Planets, Herr Palisa and M, Charlois, 43 ; Comet 1888 tjr 
(.Sawerthal), 43 ; Cincinnati Zone Catalogue, 43 ; Publi- 
cations of Lick Observatory, 43; Comet l888 a (Sawerthal), 
Prof. Lewis Boss, 88 ; New Minor Plant, 88 ; Observations of 
the Channels in Mars, 95 ; Cornel 1888 a (Sawerthal), 114, 
186, 258, 328; the .Short Period Comets and Asteroids, Prof. 
Kirkwooil, 114; New Minor Planet, 115 ; Study of Mars, K. 
Terhy, 119 ; JVof. Russell on Chinese Astronomy, 134 ; Report 
of the Astronomer- Royal, 153 ; Report of the P^ris Observa- 
tory, J79 ; Dr. GilPs Propo.sed Star Catalogue^ 180 ; Photo- 
graphic Chart of the Heavens, 180 ; the CofStftnt of Aber- 
ration, 185; the Markings on Mars, 185; New Kinga of 
Saturn, Dom Lamey, 19 1 ; King.s of Saturn and on the 
Planet Mars, M. Perrotin, 216; American Observatories, 
231 ; Minor Planets, 231 ; the Rings of Saturn, 231 ; Rota- 
tion P’eriod of the Sun from Fnculoe, Dr. J. Wilsing, 206; 
Researches on the Accidental Errors oocurring th» Obser- 
vations of Transits, M. G. Rayet, 216 ; the Canals of the 
Planet Mars, 239 ; the Markings on Mars, M. Perrotin, 
258, 31 1 ; Liverpool Astronomical Society, 277; the New 
Astronomy, Samuel Pierpoini Langley, A. M, Clerke, 291 ; 
Projected Astronomical Observatory at Pekin, 503 ; Astro- 
nomical Instruments for International Photographic Survey of 
the Heavens, Sir H. E. Roscoe, M.P,, F.R.S., 325 ; Variable 
Stars, Mr. Sawyer, 328 ; Paris Astronomical Society, 336 ; the 
Red Spot on Jupiter, W. F. Denning. 34a ; MichelPs Pn>h- 
Icro, Joseph Kleiber, 342 ; Encke's Comht, 350 ; the Maas 
of Titan, 350 ; Names of Minor Planets, 351 ; the Lick 
Observatory, Prof, Holden, 355 ; on the Luminous Bridges 
observed during the Transits and OcculUitiqp^of the Satellites 
of Jupiter, M, Ch. Andr^, 359; Globular Star Clusters, A. 
M. Clerke, 365 ; Portia) Eclipse of August 7, A. E. Cronme- 
bn, 364 ; Macclesfield Observations, Prof. Cleveland Abbe, 365; 
a Lunar Rainbow, T. D. A. Cockerell, 365 ; Further Cometary 
Di.scoverief=, 375 ; Comet iSWr (Books), Dr. H* Kreutz, 307 ; 
Yale College Observatory, 397 ; Gravitatiem in the Stellar 
Systems Prof. Asaph Hall, 398; on th6 Determination of 
the Photometric Intensity of the Coronal Light dttting the 
Solar Ecliwe of August 28-29, ,1886, Giitarn W. de W. 
Abney, F.R.S., and T, E. Thorpe, 4?74 Summary 

of the SoIar Obsefyai ions made At the Ona^atoty of 


theCollegio Koiaano, ScopndC^rterof hf^]P.^TAc<^inr^ 
408 : Resignation of FrrfT, iTOriJhnyUi, 



INDEX 


Vll 


Nm. 32, ^S8S] 


4uHag OppQuitlon of iSS8, L, Nieslen, 511 ; Comet 188S e 
{Barnard), 538 ; Comets Brooks and Faye, Dr, H. Kreuto, 
528 ; Comet 1888 c (Brooks), Dr. H. Kreutz, 503 ; Dis* 
eovery of a New Comet, 1888 K. E. Barnard, 503 ; the 
, Total Lunar Eclipw of January 28, 553 : Photometric Obser- 
vations of Asteroids, Henry M. Parkhurst, 554 ; New Cata** 
logue of Vari^le Stars, S. C. Chandler, 554 ; Minor Planet 
No, 275, 554 ; the Light-curve of U Ophiuchi, S. C. Chandler, 
576 ; Comets Brooks and Faye, 576 ; Comet 1888 ^ (Barnard), 
W, K. Brooks, 576 ; Astronomical Instruments, Lord Craw- 
ford^s Collection of, 508 ; the Solar Parallax from Photographs 
of the last Tranait of Venus, 600 ; the Markings of Mars, 601 ; 
Freish Calculation of Jupiter^s Mas?:, E. de Haertl, 608 ; Prof. 
Egoroff's Report on ilie Observations made in Russia and 
Siheria during the Eclipse of the Sun of August 19, 1887, 
625 ; the Ring Nebula in Lyra, Prof. Holden, 626 ; Comets 
Brooks and Faye, 626; Comet 1888 ^ (Barnard), Herr A. 
Berherich, 626 ; American Observatories, 626 ; Fearnley and 
Geelmuyden Zone Observations of the Stars, 626 
Astrophysical Observatory at Potsdam, Puhltcaiioua of the, 206 
Atkinson (W. S.), Description of the New Indian Lepidopterous 
Insects from the Collection of Frederick Moore, 266 
Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, Charts Showing the Mean 
Barometrical Pressure over the, 196 
Atlantic, Nonli, Currents, Monthly Charts, M. Simort, 143 
Atlantic, North, Pilot Chart of, 86, 204, 422 
Atlantic Ocean, Models of the Bed of the, 327 
Atlantic SlojK, Three Formations of the Middle, W. J. McGee, 
190 

Atlas, Mr. Joseph 'Ihoinson s Propos<xl Expedition to the, 112, 


S55 

Atmosphere in Channel, Extraordinary Rarefaction of, 256 
Atmosphere, Thermo-dynamics of the, Prof, von Bezold, 144 
Atmosphere, Transparency of the, J. Parnell, 270 
Atmospheric Nitrogen, on the Relations of, to Velable Soil, M. 

Th. Schlmsing, 383 
Atolls, Formation of, 5 
Atomic Weight, Prof. Hartley, F.R.S., 142 
Aubert (Dr.), Notes on the Departement de TAin, 431 
Aurivillius (Dr. C.), on the Skeleton of the so-called Sweden- 
borg Whole, Euhai^mi Lillj., 134 

Aurora BoreaUs observed at Motala, Sweden, 16 ; at Orebro in 
Central 16 

Aurora Boreatll^, Origin of, Jean Luvini, 143 
Aurora Borealia at Rock Ferry, 54 
Aurora in Spitzbergen, Dr. H. Hildebrandsson, 84 
Auatralia ; the Rabbit Pest in, 42 ; Curious Apparent Motion 
of the Moon seen in, T, MeJiaicI Kcade, I02 ; Wraggs’s Daily 
Weather Charts for Australia, 303 ; Lieut, Israel’s Exploring 
Party, 374 ; the Australasian Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, 437 ; Report of the Australian Museum, 
S75 ; a New Australian Mammal, E. C. Stirling, 588 ; 
Female Figures modelled in Wax discovered among Aus- 
tralian Al^riginals, 623 ; Australian Association Ibr the 
Advancement of Science, 623 ; Catalogue of the Fishes in the 
Australian Museum, Sydney, 624 
Auaina, Carious Relic of Mediaeval Superstition in, 454. 
Austrian Alps, New Measurements of the, 280 
Aveling (Edward), Mechanics, 587 
Avocet Rock, the, 4aM 

Ayrton (Prof W. E., F.R.S-) : Apparatus for the Measurement 
of the Coefheient of Expansion by Heat, 141 ; and Prof. 
L Perry, on Elegtromotocs, 190 ; Electric Transmission of 
Power, 508, 533 ' 

Atonaphthol Compounds, on the Constitution of the, Prof 
Meldola, 623 


Babylonian Characters, the Old* and their Chinese Derivates, 
by Tetfrien de Lacouperie, Prof A. II. Sayce, 122 
^acVbpttSe (T, the Slcy-coloared Clouds, 196, 270; the 


ZodmaiJ 
Bacteria in 

(Nay. 

Atlantic, 
Ban for Sea'FjU^termeiv 


Duck, 'MM, Cornil and Toupet, ai6 

Charts of Mean Barometrical 
> and Pacific Oceans, 196 
ipjdy of, G, C. Bourne, 318 


Baker (C. Weatherall), a Magnificent Meteor, 203 
Baker (J. G., F.R.S.) : Flora of the Hawaiian Iwland's, William 
‘ Hillehrand, 49 ; Reserving the Colour of Flowers, 245 ; 
Synoptical Flora of North America, Prof Asa Gray, 242 ; 
Hand-book of the Amaryllideoe, 362 
1 Balance, Physical, Theory and Use of, J. Walker, 146 
Balance, the Voltaic, Dr. G. Gore, F.K.S., 335 
I Balland (M.), on the Development of the Gr&in of Wheat, 

! 16S 

Balloon, Captive, at Barcelona Exhibition, Destruction by 
Lightning of, 578 • 

I Balloon Journey, a, Lieut. Moedebeck, 48 
Balloon, Proposed Steel Vacuum, 185 

Ballot (Dr. Buys), on the Distribution of Temperature over the 
Surface of the Earth, 374 
Baltic, Remarkable Mirage on the, 304 

Bamford (Alf. J.), Turbans and Tails, or Sketches in the Un- 
romantic East, 269 

Banart^ (A.), Experiments with Marine Telephone, 464 
Banbury (G. A. Lethbridge), Sierra Leone, or the White Man's 
Grave, 244 

Handai-San Eruption, the, 452 

Barcelona Exhibition, Destruction of Captive .Balloon by Light- 
, ning, 578 

Barlt^, Experiments on Hybridism or Crossings with Common, 
33^ 

Barnard (E. F..), Discovery of a New Comet, 1888 503 ; 

Comet j888 r, W. R. Brooks, 576, 626 
Baroda, Science in, 41 
Barometer, a New, T. H, Blakesley, 287 
Barometrical Pressure over the Atlantic, Indian, ami Pacific 
Oceans, Charts showing the, 196 
Baiitelot (Major), Murder of, 499 

Bashforth (Rev. F.), Calculation of Ranges, &c., of Elongated 
Projectiles, 

Basingstoke,' Discovery of Piehistoric Remains near, 553 
Basset (A. B.>, Treatise on Hydro- dynamics, 243 
Batavia, Dr. Guppy's Expedition to the Coral Reefs of the 
Indian Archipelago, 228 

Batchelor (Rev. J. ) : on Aino Folk-Lore, 87 ; Burial Customs of 
the Ainos, 331 

Bath : Natural History and Antiquarian Field-Club, 304 ; 

Meeting of the Briiiah Associatibn, 346, 382 
Bather (F, A.), Lightning and Milk, 30 
Baudot (M.), an Isochronous Regulator, 384 
Bauer (G.), Spelin, Eine Allsprache, i 

Beat of the Human Heart, on the Electromotive Variations 
which accompany the, Dr. Augustus D. Waller, 619 
Beatty- Kingston (W.), a Wanderer’s Notes, 196 
Becqucrel (M. b the Absorption Spectra of Crystals, 343 
Beddard (Frank E.}, the Nephridia of Earthworm^, 221 
Bedford (ID, Derivation of the Word CUrct, 113 
Bedford College, Shacn Wing, 372 

Beevor (Dr. Charles E>) and victor Horsley, F.R.S., Note on 
some of the Motor Functions of certain Cranial Nerves and 
of the Three First* Cervical Nerves in the Monkey 
sinum), 357 

Belgium, Report of Royal Commission on Condition of Labour, 
J33 

Bell (Prof. A. Graham), and Deaf Mutes, 13a 
Bell (Mr.), on Manure Gravels of Wexford, 597 
Bellarlonna, the Constituents of, 240 
Benda (Dr.), the Structure of Striated Muscle-Fibres, 360 
Benham (Dr. Wm. B.), British Earthworms, 319 
Bengal, Meteorological Report for, 574 
Bengal, Monsoon Storms in, 158 
Bentham (George), Prof. W. T. T. Dyer on, 116 
B^enger-Ferand (M. le Dr.), Recurrence of the Myth of 
Ibicus among Provcn<^ls, 212 

Berget (M* Alphonse), Measurement of the CoefiicienU of 
Thermic Conductibility for Metals, 359 
Berichte^ Chemistry of the Rare Earths, Drs. Kruss and 
Kiesewetter on the, 326 

Berlin: Academy of Sciences, 302; Awards of, 16; Meteoro- 
logical Society, 48, 119 ; Report of the Berlin Meteorological 
Society, 278 ; Physiological Society, 24, 96, 119, 144, 240, 
264, 312, 360, 464; Physical Society, 72, 119, 143, 192,311 ; 
Skuil of Bhinoctros Uchorrhiuns found near, 304 
Bcmheim (M. J. )and M. G. Rousseau on the Decomposition 
of the Ferrate of Baryta, 216 


via 


INDEX 


Nmh iSifS 


BeraouUi and^Haticker, Formula of, for the Lifting Power of ! 

Magnets, Prof. S. P. Thompson, 190 
Bert First Elements of Experimental Geometry, 295 

Berthelet end Fadire, the Chemistry of Tellurium, 63 
Berthelot (M.) : Experiments on the Fixation of Nitrogen by 
certain vegetable Plants and Soils, 40^; and G. Andre, 
Remarks on the Quantitative Analysis of Nitrogen in 
Vegetable Soil, 359 

Bertrand (M. J.), Note on Target Practice, 359 
Bessarabia, Disease ^f the Tobacco Plant in, 278 
Bezold (Prof, von). Therm o-dyn am ic‘< of the Atmosphere, 144 
Bhabur Grass, the Kew Bulletin on, 277 
BUloveski (A.), Dreams, 56 

Hihliaeraphy of Meteorology, C. J. Sawyer's, 574 ‘ 

Riltz (Dr. J, on the Vapour-Density of Sulphur, 229 
Biology: G. C. Bourne elected Director of the Marine Bio- 
logical Association, j 6; a Text -book of Biology, J. K- 
Ainsworth Davis, 52 : Biological Society of University 
College, 1 14: Text-book of, J. K. Ainsworth Davis, 126; 
FoSniI FUh Remains from New Zealand, 137 ; Mammals 
of Liberia, 137 ; on New England Medusit, 137; Biological 
Note?, 137: Davis’s Biology, 149; Opening of the Marine 
Biological l aboratory at Plymouth, 198, 236 ; Marine Bio- 
logical laboratory, Wootl’iii llol), Massachusetts, 348 ; 
Studies Iroin the Biological Laboratory of Johns Hopkins 
University, 336 ; Natural Scavengers of f lench Beaches, 
HaDex, 598 : Colorado Biological Association, 625 
Bird Pests of the Farm, 599 

Birds: Ilissemination of Plants by, W. Betting llemsley, 53 ; 
Dispersal of Seeds by, Dr. H. B. Guppy, 10 1 ; the Birds of 
Dorsetshire, a Contribution to the Natural History of the 
County, J. C. Manscl-Pleydcll, 1 25 ; Notes on the Birds of 
Herefordshire, Itr. H. G. Bull, 125 ; Manual of Briti^h Birds, 
Howard Saunders, Pi of. Alfred Newton, F.K.S., 145 ; 
Hisioi7 of the Birds of New Zealand, Sir Walter Buller, 159 ; 
Native Birds of North Ameiica, 371; Key-List of British 
Birds, TJeiit. -Colonel L. Howard, Prof. fU BowdJer Sharpe, 
587 ; Sea-Birds, how they Dine, Earl Compton, 6i8 ; Birds* 
nesting and Bird-skinning, a Complete Description of the 
Nests and Eggs of Birds which Breed in Britain, Edward 
Newman, Prof. R. Bow<ller Sharpe, 587 
Bis-cobra, Origin of the Belief in, G. A, Da Gama, 624 
Bismuth, Effect of Magncli.sm and Heat on the Electiic Resist- 
ance of, 19 

Bismuth Spirals (Flat) for Measuring Intensity of Magnetic 
Field, Lenard and Howard, 577 

Blaine (Robert G.), Numerical Examples in Practical Mechanics 
and Machine Design, 563 
Blake (Prof.), Anglesey Rocks, 597 

Bfakesiey (T. H.). on Magnetic Lag and the Work Lost due 
to Magnetic Lag in Alternating Current Tiansformers, 14I ; 
on a New Barometer. 287 
Il’anchard (Prof.), La Vie chez les Klres animes, 17 
I lanchci’fi (M.) Speech at the Sorbonne on Educaiion, 325 
Blanford (H. F., F.R.S.), the Kclationsj of the Diurnal Baro- 
metric Maxima to Conditions of Temperature, Cloud, and 
Rainfall, 70; the Incurvature of the Winds in Tropical 
Cyclones, 18 1 

JUaiiford (W. T., F.B.S.), Fauna of British India, including 
Ceylon and Burma, 513 
Blincfness, Statistics of, in Russia/ 279 

Blindness, Snow*, Nose* Blackening as Preventive of. Prof. E. 

Ray Lankester, F.K.S., Edmund J. Power, 7 
Blood : on the Coagulation of the, Profs. W. D, Haliburton and 
E. A. Schafer, F.K.S., 331 ; the Gases of the, Prof. John 
Gray McKendrick, F.K.S., 376, 399 
1 lown Sand, the Corniijh, K, H. Curtis, 55 
Blunt (A. H.), Euclid’s Method, or the Proper Way to Trent 
on Geometry, 363 

Bodies, l.acent Colours of, M. G. Govi, 631 

Bohemian Caddis-flies, Transformations of, Prof. Klnpalek, 553 

Biullot (M. A.}, Experiments with a Non-oscillating Pendulum, 

Boia^-Reymond (Prof. Claude du), Photograph of the Eye by 
Flash of Magnesium. 15 

lioisbaudran (Lecoq de), Fluorescence of Ferruginous Lini^, 

2t6 

Bologna University, Octocentenary of, 113 

Bologna, the University of, and the 7iV/rrr Correspondent, 302 

Bolometer, New Form cf, Dr, R. von Helmholtz, 311 


Bolton (H. Carrington), Sonorous Sands, 

Bombay Natural History Society, 623 

Bombay Presidency, J*oisonous Snakes of the, H. M. Phlpson, 
284 

Bombay, Proposed Zool^ical Garden in, 623 
Borelli^s (Jules) African Explorations, 2J9 
Borelly (278), Observations of, M. Esmiol, 1 43 
Borgman Dr.), the Transmission of Electric Currents through 
Air with Flames ns Electrodes, 577 
Bort (M. de), Storm Warnings, 4.19 
Boss (Prof. Lewis), Comet 1888 a (Sawerlhal), 88 
Boston (U.S.A.), Proposed Zoological Garden at, 4^ 

Botany : Flora of the Antarctic LJand-s, W. 'i'. 'I'hiselton Dyer, 
F.R.S., Dr. H. B. Guppy, 40; Flora of the Hawaiian 
Islands, William Hillebrand, J. G. Baker. P'.R.S., 49 : 
Dr. Tiimens Report on the Botanic Gardens of Ceylon, II2; 
n Remarkable Case of Fasciation in Haw,, 

Dr. A. Ernst. 131 ; Flora of West Yorkshire, F. A. X-ecs, 
147 ; M. Korzchinsky on Ahirovandia vesicuhsa, 1 60 ; 
Btiinnica) Drying Paper, 183 : the Botany of the Afghan 
Delimitation Commission, J. F.. T. Aitchison, F.R.S,, 219 ; 
Prof. Chuich on Aluminium in Plants, 228 ; the Botanical 
Magazine, 238 ; the fotrrnal of Botany, 238, 430 ; Nuovo 
Giornale Boianico Italiano, 238 ; Synoptical Flora of North 
America, Prof. .\sa Gray, J. G. Baker, 242 ; Bhabur Grass 
for Manufacturing Jhirposes, 277 ; Annual Report of i he Royal 
Botanic (iaidcns, Trinidad, 278 ; Pflanzcn-Teratologie, Max- 
well T. Masters, 341 ; Botanical Gazette, 430, 582 ; the Cen* 
tenjiiy of the Calcutta Botanic Garden, 493 : Geological 
History of Plants, Sir ]. W. IXawson, F, K.S.,5jSj t^erman 
Botanical Journal, 552 ; the Queen’s jubilee Prize Essay of 
the Royal Botanic Society ot London, 504 ; Flora of the 
Kermadec Islands, W. Hotting Hemslcy, 622 ; Rei>ort of the 
.Adelaide Botanic Garden, 623 
Bolt (Dr. W.)nndJ. Ik Miller, Pyrocicsoh, 596 
Bouic (M. Marcellin), Stratigraphic Palxontolccy in Relation to 
Man, 21 1 ; Stjaligiaphic Palaeontology of Man, 357 ; Strati- 
graphic Palreoniology of Man, 431 
Bourgeois (M. L, ), Researches on Hydrocenisite and Cerusile, 

191 

Bourne (G. C.): C’ora! Formations, 5; elected Director of the 
Marine Biological Association, t6 ; the Supply of Bait for 
Sea Fishermen, 318 

Bourne (Consul) : Report on the Non Chinete Races of China, 
345, 455 ; Report on his Journey to South-West China, 455 
Pouty (M. E.) ami M. L. Poincare, on the Electric Conducii- 
bility of Mixtures of Salts in Solution, 384 
Bowles (Dr. Robert L.), Nose-Blackening as Preventive of 
Snow-Blindncs'-, 101 

Bowman (Sir Wm.) Testimonial Fund, 325 
Boys(C. Vernon) : Radio-micrometer, 19, 46 ; on Soap Bubbles, 
22 ; Magnetic and Electric Experiments with Soop Bubbles, 
162 

Brain, M, Brown* Sequard on the Action of the, 168 
Bramwell (Sir Frederick, F.R.S.), Inaugural Address to the 
British Association at Bath, 440 

Bronchial Clefis of the Dog, on the, with special reference 1<> 
the Origin ot the Thymus Gland, Dr. F. Mall, 356 
Brassard (M.), Recording Rain-Gauge, 205 
Brauncr (Dr. B. ), Sun Columns, 414 

Brazil : the Bahia or Bendego Meteorite, 349 ; Meteorological 
Observatory establisbed in Brazil, 42 ; Brazilian Government 
Expeditions for Exploration of Interior of, 455 
Bridge Construction, a Practical Treatise on, T. Claxton Fidler, 
Prof. A. G. Greenhill, F.R.S., 2 
Bridge, the Forth, 39 
Bright (Sir Chas.), Death of, 41 

Brinton (Dr. David G.) : Fixedness of the American Type, 256; 

the Alleged Mongoloid Affinities of the American Race, 552 
Bristol Naturalists’ Society, 486 
British Archaeological Association, 421 
British Association : President for 1889, 16 ; General Ar- 
rangements, 85 ; the Bath Meeting of the, 34^, 382 ; Ad- 
dms of the Retiring President, Str Henry J^coe, 

' i; F.R.S;, 439; Inaugural Address by Sir Frederick Bmm- 
well, P.R.S., President, 440; Attendance thej 46$; 
Chetnistiy at the, 595 ; Keppit of (he Cominlttw cm tfie 
Action of Light on ihte Kydracids in Presep<^ of 
Dr, Richardson, 5^ ; tbe Study of MlnejNdbfy, Jrrbf. 
Sterry Hurt, 596 ; Chemical Problems presented 6y LWfng 



as, i8i(8] 


INDEX 


IX 


Tiodiett, Prof Micliaet Fosiei, 596 ; Incutnpletenefts of 
Combustion on Explowon, Prof. H. Jl. Dixon, and II. W. 
Smith, 596 ; Report of the Commiifoe on the Teaching of 
Chemistry, Pro.f Dunstan, 596 : Chemistry as a School 
Subject, Rev. A. Irving, 596 ; Discussion on Valency, Prof. 
Armstrong, Ur. Morley, 596 ; Report of the Committee on 
Isorncric Naphthalene Derivatives, Prof. Armsirong, 596; 
Note on the MoiecuUr Weight nf t'aoutchouc aiul other 
Bodies, Dr, J. H. Gladstone, K.R.S. , and W. J, Hibben, 
596 ; the Action of Tight on Water Colour*, Ur. Richard- 
son, 596 ; Pyrocresols, Dr. W. Bolt and J. B. Miller, 596 ; 
Geology at the, 596 ; Recent Rniotion in Vulcano, Dr, 
johnston-Lavu, 596 ; Report on Vesuvius, I)r. Jjdinston- 
597; hormaiion of Lava, Logan Lobley, 597; 
Tables to show the Distribution of Japanese Laithquakes 
1 1 Connection with Venrs, Season.s, Months, and Hour> of 
the Day, Prof. J. Milne, 597 ; Paper'* on the Oolitic and 
Carljoniferoiis Rocks, Horace Woodward, 597; Report on 
the Manure Gravels of Wexfoid, Bell, y)^ ; Report oi the 
Catboniferous Flora, Prof. Williamson, 597 ; Minerological 
Evolution, Dr. Steiry Hunt, 597 : Anglesey Rocks, Prof, 
Blake, 597 

Sec tion {Mathcmntual ami Physical H ience ) — Opening 
Address by Prof, G. t. P'ltzgeraid, M.A., F.R.S.. Presi- 
dent of the Section, 446 ; Lightning Conductors, W. H. 
Preece, F.R.S,, 546; Prof. Oliver J. Lodge, 54 ^; 
Hon. Ralph Abercromby, 547; la)rd Rayleigh, F. R.S., 
547 ; Sir William Thomson, F.R.S., 547 ; W. de Fon* t 
vielle, 547 ; Sidney Walker. 547 ; G. J. Symons, F.R.S.. 
547 ; a Simple Hypothesis for Electro-magnetic Induction 
of Incomplete Circuits, with Consequent Equations of 
Electric Motion in P'ixed Homogeneous or Heterogeneous 
Solid Matter, Sir William Thomson, P'.K.S., 569; on the 
Tnansference of Electricity within a Homogeneous Solid 
Conductor, Sir William Thomson, F. R.S., 571 ; Five 
Applications of Fourier’s Law of Diffusion illustrated by a 
Diagram of Curves with Absolute Numerical Values, Sir 
William Thomson, F.R.S., 571 ; on the Mechanical Con* 
ditions of a Swarm of Mete.orires and on Theories of Cos- 
mogony, Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S , 573 ; Dr. j,anssen 
on the Spectrum of Oxygen, 605 

Sectiovi B {Chemical Sci(nct \ — Opening Address by Prof. 
William A. Tilden, D. Sc. Lond.. F.R.S.. F.C.S., Presi- 
dent of the Section, 470 

Section C [Geology ) — Opening Address by W. Boyd Dawkins, 
M.A.. F.R.S., F.G.S., F.S.A., Professor of Geology and 
Palaeontology in Owens College, President of the Section, 


Section D (y?/>/ucy)--Opening Address by W. T. Thiselton- 
Dyer, C.M.G,, M.A., B.Sc., F.R.S-, F.L.S., President 
of the Section, 473 

Section £ {Geo^^a^hy) — Opening Addrew by Colonel Sir C. 
W. Wilson. K.E., K.C.H., R.C.M.G., D.C.L,, LL D,. 
F.R.S., F. R.G.S., Director-General of the Ordnance 
Survey, President of the Section, 480 
Section G (Afechankai .SWr*«r<')— Opening Address by Wil- 
liam Henry Preece, F.K.S., M.Inst-C.E., ii.e., Pre-ident 
of Che Section, 494 

Section H -“-Opening Address by Lieutenant- 

General Pitt-Rivers, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.S.A., 
President of the Section, 516, 542 
British Birds j Key List of, Lieut. -Colonel L. Howdrd Irby, 
Prof. R. Rowdier Sharpe. 587 
British Earthworms, Dr. Wm, B. Benham, 319 
British Medical Association, Annual Meeting, 347 
British Museum, ParUacnencary Paper on, 486 
British Petrography, J. J. Harris Teall, Prof. John W. Judd, 
3®5 

British Pharmaceutical Association, 452 

Brooks {W. K.), on the Life -History Kii\Efenthesis mccraydi^ 

BilkuiW . K.), Further Cometary Discoveries, 375 
BroioksV New Comet, 432, 576, 626 ; Dr. H. Kreuii, 397, 503, 
548 

Brottgh (Beiwott H), « Treatise on Mioe-Surveying, C. le Ne^e 
Fovtar, n// > ^ 

BfOiMWW (Dr.), AoU^ydones in Europe, 63 
Brontn (A, Treatise on the Animal Alkaloids, 170 
Brown (H. T,) hud Or. (£, H. Morris’s Determination of 
MolecnUr Weigbu ol Carbo-hydrates, 1 17 


Brown (J Allen), Discovery of EUphas primi^ius associated 
with Flint Implements at Southall, 383 
Brown (Marie), on the Scandinavian Colonization of North 
America, 17 

Brown (Robert), Eulogy on, Sir J. Hooker, 1 16 
Brown- Scc^uard (M.), on the Action of the Brain, 168 
Btiin'g Railway, the, 502 

Brunn ( Dr. Otto), Elimination of Arseniuretted Hydrogen from 
Sulphuretted Hydrogen by means of Iodine, 575 
Bruyne (Dr. de). Pulsation in the Lower Animal (Organisms, 310 
Buchheim (Arthur), Obituary Notice of, Praf. J. J. Sylvester, 
F.K..S., 515 

Buckland (A. W.), Distribution of Animals and Plants by 
(>cean Currents, 245 ; Preserving the Colour of Flowers, 270 
Budge (Dr. Ludwig Julius), Death of, 302 
Buiten;;org, Java, Annales du Jardiii Boranique de, 344 
Hull (Di. H. G.), Notes on the Birds of Herefordshire, 123 
Bullcr (Sir Walter), History of the Birds of New Zealand, 159 
Bulietinde I’Acadc^mie Impc^riale des Sciences deSt. Petersbourg, 
5f2 

Bulletin de 1 ’ Academic Royalc de Belgique, 20, 91, 164, 310, 
5 ” 

BuUetin of Paris Geographical Society, 455 
Bulletin dc la Societi^ d’ Anthropologic de Paris, 309 
BuUetin cle la Societe des Naturalistes de Moscou, 139 
Burbury (S. IL), on the Induction of Electric Currents in 
Conducting Shells of Small Thickness, 333 
Burial Customs, the, of the Ainos, Rev. J. Batchelor, 331 
Burials, on the Use of Sledges, jicc., at, M. Anutchin, 134 
Burma, Upper, the Survey of, 1 15 
Burnra, Upper, Major Hobday on Operations in, 136 
Burton (C, V.), on Electromotive Force by Contact, 94 
Butterffies of the Eastern United States and Canada, 5 . H. 
Scudder, 624 

Butterflies, South African, a Monograph of the Extra-Tropical 
Species, Rowland Trimen. F.R.S., 266 
Bussorah, Agriculture in, 278 
Binler (E. A.), Silkworms, 386 


Caddis -flies, Bohemian, Transformations of, Prof, Klapolek, 
553 

Cae-(iw yn Cave, Nonh Wales, 22 

Cailletet (M.) and M. E. Colardeau, Researches on Refrigerant 
Mixtures, 19 1 

Calcium, Influence of Temperature on, 23 
Calculation of Ranges, &c., of Elongated IVojecliles, Rev. F. 
Basbforth, 468 

Calculus, a Chapter in the Integral, A. G. Greenhill, F.R.S., 218 
Calcutta: Indian Museum, and the Insect Pests of India, 17 ; 

Botanic Garden, the Centenary of the, 493 
California : Live Lobsters sent to, 327 ; Hand-book of the Lick 
Observatory of the University of California, Prof. Edward S. 
Holden, 410 

Calorimeter, an Ethes, Prof. Neesen, 312 
CamViodia, Anthropological, &c.. Study of. Dr. E. Mautel, 463 
Cambrian Faunas in North America, Stratigraphical Succession 
of the, Prof. Chasi B. Walcott, 551 
Cambridge ; Head Growth in Students at the University of, 
FrancU Gallon, F.R.S., 44 ; Speeches delivered, June 9, by 
Dr. Sandys at, 163 ; Dr. Alex. Hill elected Master of Down- 
ing College, 182 ; Natural Science Examinerships, ; 
Awards in Natural Science, 189 ; Cambridge Philosophical 
Society, 215 

Cameron (Sir C. A.) ami John Macallan, on the Compounds of 
Ammonia with Selenium Dioxide, 46 
Cameroons Territory i Vnldau and Knutson’s Explorations in 
the. 136; Lieutenants Kund and Tappenbeck’s Expedition, 
186 

Campbell (F. M.), on the Reappearance of Pallas's Sand Grouse 
{Syrrhuptes paradoxus) in Europe, 77 
Canada: Agriculture in, 87; Sir J. W. Dawson, r.R.S., on 
the Eozotc and Palaeozoic Rocks of the Atlantic Coast of 
Canada, (49 ; Geological and Natural History of, 257 
Candles, Soaps and, Dr. C. K. Alder Wright, F.R.S,, 292 
Canoes, Ancient : found in Norway, J34 ; in Sweden, 304 ; in 
the River Hamble, 598 
Canton, Medical Missionary Society of, 279 
Cape of Good Hope, Meteorological Service of, 454 



INDEX 


as. tSSfr 


Cft^lanes, Prof. Ficlt's* Scheme of Blood-pressure in the, Prof. 
Gad, 120 * 

Carbon Compounds, Colour of some, Prof. CarneBy and J. 
Alexander, 141 

Carbon and Copper combined to form n Compensated Resist* 
ance Standard, Prof, NichoI«i, 232 
Carbon pisulphide in Prisms, &c., a Substitute for, H. G. 
Madan, 413 ' 

Carbon, Researches on the Spectrum of, Prof. Vogel, 72 
Caiboniferouft Flora, Prof. Williamaon, 597 
Cardiff, Aberdare Hall, 257 

Cardinal Numbers, the, with an Intnxluctory Chapter on 
Numbers generally, Manley Hopkins, 27 
Carguet (M. !e) and P. Topinard, Population of the Ancient 
Pagus-Cap'Sizun, Cape du Raz, 212 
Carlet (M. G.), on the Poison of the Hymenoplera, 216 
Carnclly (Prof.) and J. Alexander, Colour of some Carlwn 
Compounds, 141 

Catnot (M. A.), on a New Method of Quantit.itive Analysis for 
the Lithine contained in a Large Number of Mineral Waters, 

360 

Carolina Rail, the Osteology of, 279 

Caron on the Position of Timbuktu, 288 

Carpenter (W, Lant), New Form of Lantern, 214 

Cartography, Early European, 375 

Carus-Wilson (Cecil), Sonorous Sand In Dorsetshire, 415 

Casey (John, F.R. S. ), a Treatise on Plane Trigonometry, 21S 

Caspian Sea Deposits, M. Netchayeflf, 160 

Casiner (H. T.), Production of Aluminium, 326 

Catchpool (Edmund), Circles of Light, 342 

Caterpillars, the Recent Plague of, 277 

Catgut as a Ligature, Prof. Munk, 312 

Catholic Missionaries, the Services of, in the East, to Natural 
Science, 434 

Caucasus : General Uslnr’s Works on the, 159 ; Ethnography of 
the, Baron Uslar, 623 
Cave (Charles), a Shadow and a Halo, 619 
Caves, Cae-Gwyn, North Wales, 22 
Celtic Heathendom, Prof. A. H. Sayce, Prof. J. Rhys, 361 
Centenarians in France, Emile Levasseur, 288, 501 
Centenary of the Calcutta Botanic Garden, 493 
Cephalojrads, Observations on the Development of, Homology 
of the Germ-layers, S. Wata.se, 356 
Ceylon: Botanic Gardens of, Dr. Trimeti's Report on, ria; | 
Ethnology of the Moots of, P. Ramanathan, 135 ; Report of 
the Conservator of I'brcsts, 373 ; Forest Conservancy in, | 
Colonel Clarke, 606 i 

Expedition, Zoological Results of the, 337, 561 ! 

Chamberlain (Basil Hall), Japanese “go-hei" and Shinto j 
Worship, 396 

Chandler (S. C.), New Catalogue of Variable Stars, 554; 
Light-curve of U Ophiiichi, 576 

Chani^M of Potential of VoUaic Couple’?, KfTccts of Different 
Positive Metals, fisc.* upon the. Dr. G. Gore, F. R. S., 335 
Channel, Extraordinary Karcfaction of Atmosphere in the, 256 1 

Chaperon (G.) and E. Mercadier, on Eltclro-chcmical Radio- 
phony, 168 

Chaperon and Mercadier, Electro- chemical Radiophony, 305 
Chappell (William, F.S.A.), Death of, 421 
Cbappuis (J.), on Mechanism of Elccirolyais by Process of 
Alternative Currents, 263 

Charoddidie, the Geographical Distribution of the Family, 
Henry Seebohm» R. Bowdler Sharpe, 73 
Charleston Earthquake, Captain C. E. Dutton’s Monograph on, 
16 

Chart of the Heavens, Photograjjhic, 38 
Charts, Monthly, of the North Atlantic Currents, M. Simart, 


Titanium, 133 ; on Organic Compound!? in their relations to 
Haloid Salts of Alumininm, G. Gustafson, IJ9; Atomic 
Weight of Osmium, Prof, Seubert, 183; Silicon Tetmduoridc 
Compounds, Comey and Loring Jackson, 203 jN«w Double 
Phosphates in the Magnesian Series, M. L, Ouvrard, 216 
Aniline, Monomethyl Aniline, and Dimcthylaniline, M. Leo 
Vignon, 216 ; Ferrate of Baryta, MM. G. Rousseau juid I. 
Bemheim, 216 ; the Decadence of the Chemical Profession in 
Government Opinion, 217; New Platinum Base obtidned 
by Dr. H. Alexander, 256 ; the Choice of a Chemist ^ U> 
the Navy, 265 ; Dr. Rebs on the Composition of Persulphide 
of Hydrogen, 278 ; a New Base in Ten, Dr. Kossel, 303 ; 
Conditions of Evolution of Gases from Homogeneous Liquids „ 
V. H. Velcy, 310; Strophanthine, M. Arnaud, 311 ; Vitro- 
titatiite of Arcndal, Drs, Kruss nnd Kicsewettcr, 3®^ 
Hydrofluoric Acid, Vapour* Density of, Prof. Thorpe and F 
L Hambly, 373 ; J’henyl-thiocarbiinidc, H, G. MaeUn, 413 ; 
Molecular Physics, an Attempt at a Comprehensive Dynamical 
Treatment of Physical and Chemical E'oices, Prof. F. Linde- 
mann, G. W. de Tunzelmann, 458, 578; Three New Sulpho 
chlorides (»f Mercury, Polcck and Goercki, 527 : the Ga>v 
Allcne, Gusiavson and Demjanoff, 552 ; a New Crystalline 
Substance, vSilicoietraphenylamide, l*rof, Emerson Reynolds, 
F.R.S., 575 ; Elimination by means of lodineof Arseniurett^d 
Hydrogen from Sulphuretted Hydrogen, Dr. Otto Urunn, 575 ; 
Apjdications of Dynamics to i'hysics nnd Chemistry, J- J* 
Thomson, F.R.S., 585 ; Chemistry as a School Subject, Kev. 
A. Irving, 596 ; Valency, Prof. Armstrong, 596 ; Dr. Morley,. 
596 ; C'hemistry of Modern Method of Manufacturing Chloro- 
form, Orndorffand JeascI, 598; l.aboratories at 'Irinity College, 
Dublin, 598 ; New Organic Compounds, Diphenyl, Paul Adam, 
599 ; Persciie, Mnquenne, 608 ; Heals of Combustion of Acids^ 
Louguinine, boS ; breezing- Points of Solutions of Organic Com- 
pounds of Aluminium, Louise and Roux, 608 ; Vapour-Densitiej^ 
of Chromic Chlorides, Profs. Nilson and Pctlervson, 624 
Chcvreul (M ), his 102nd Birthday, 452 
Child, the Mind of the, Prof, W. Preycr, 490 
China; Earthquake in the Yunnan Province of, 16; Meteoro- 
logy of South-Eastern, Dr. Dobcrck, 118; Chinese perivates- 
and Old Babylonian Characters, Tcriien de Lacouperie, Prof. 
A. H. Sayce, 122 ; Prof. Russell on Chinese Astronomy, 
* 34 ; Scientific Works published by Dr. Dudgeon in Chinese^ 
302 ; Taxation in China, Dr. 1 >. J. Maegowan, 364 j Consul 
Bourne’s Report on the Non -Chinese Races of China, 345 ; 
Consul Bourne’s Report on his Journey to South-Western 
China, 455 ; the Teaching of Mathematics in China, Gundry, 
485 

Chinook Wind, the, C. C. McCauI, 502 
Chitin Solvents, on Experiments with, T. H. Morgan, 356 
Chloride, on the, Bromide, and Sulphide of Vllrium and Sodium, 
M. A. Duboin, 360 

Chlorine, on the Denrity of, and on the Vajxiur- Density of 
Ferric Chloride, MM. C. Friedel and J. M. Crafts, 384 
Chloroform, the Modern Method of Manufacturing, Orndorff 
and Jcssel, 598 

Cholera, Cure of, by Inoculation, I^r. Gamaleia, M. Pasteur, 
395 

Chree (C.) : on /l^lotropic Elastic Solids, 165 p Effect of Electric 
Current on Saturated Solutions, 215 
Christiania University, Scientific Scholarship* at, 574 
Christmas Island : Captain W, J, L. Wharton’s Exploration of, 
207 ; Dr. Guppy's Expecliiion to, 228 
Chromic Chlorides, Vapour-Densliies of, Profs. Nilson and 
Pettersson, 624 

Chrysarobin, Physiological Action of Anthrarobin and, Du 
Weyl, 144 

Church (Prof. A. H.), on the Occurrence of Alumbiium in 


Charts showing the Mean Barometrical Pressure over the 
Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, 196 
Charts, Synoptic, G. Rollin, 575 

Chemistry : Influence of I’emperature on Calcium, 23 ; Thermo- 
chemical Constants, 23 ; Chemical Society, 23, 117, 141; a 
New Sulphur-Acid, M. Villiers, 41 ; on the Co.mpounds of 
Ammoqia and Selenium Dioxide, Sir C. A. Cameron and 
John Macallan, 46 ; Hea‘s of Combustion of Isomerous Acids, 
W. l^ugttinine, 48 ; Tellurium, Beithelot nnd Fabr^ 63 ; 
Elementary Chemistry, William S. FumCauit, 76 ; Determina- 
tion of Molecular Weights of Carbo-hydraies, H. T. Brown 
and Dr. G, H. Morris, 117; New Cblorine Compounds of 


I certain Vascular Cryptogams, 140 
Cinchona Bark, Extraction of AlkalouU from, by Cold Oil, 17 
Cincinnati Zone CaUloguei 43 
I Circles of Light, Edmund Catch|>oo!, 34a 
Circuits, Incomplete, a Simple Hypothesis for Eleclro-mupielic 
Induction of, with consequent Equations of Electric Motion 
in Fixed Homogeneous or Heterogeneous Solid Mattes, Sir 
William Thornaon, 5^ 

City ond Guilds of London Institute ; Lectures, 43 ; Leict^fta 
on Electricity at, 228 ; Statistics of the Past Ytar< 45J • 

Civil List PtnMons, 325 ' ; 

Claret, Derivation of the Word, H. Bedford, I t J . 

Clarke (C. B.), on Root- Pressure, 94 


M$Utr0^ M>v. t&3S] 


/NDMX 


XI 


Clftrk« (Dr. Hyde), Imiian Life StalUtics 297 
Clarke. jColonid), Kore$i Conservancy in Ceylon, 606 
Clarification of the Various Sp'ciea of Heavenly Uo lies Sug- 
gestiom on the, J. Norman Lockyer, F R.S., 8, 31, 56, 79 
Clayton (H. Halm), Docs rrccipitatiou Infiiiencc the Movement 
01 Cyclones ?, .301 

Claueiu* ( Prof. Rudolf Julius KmanucI). Obituary Notice of, 

G. W. tie Tunaelmann, 438 ; Prof. Geo. Kras. Fitzgerald, 
F.R.S.. 491 

Clerke (A. M.) : Early C'orrespontlrnce of Christian Huygens, 
193 ; the Now Astronomy, Samuel Pierpoint Langley, 291 ; 
Globular Star Clusters. 363 
Climate of the British Empire, 1887, 422 
Climate of Quaternary Times, i6d 
Climatology of Constantinople, M. Coumbary, 133 
Climatology and Hydrology^ International Congress of, 348 
CUnical Thennomeiers, the Verification of, 372 
Cloud' Electric Potent ial, E. Douglas .\rchibaUi. 260 
Cloud Electric Potential, Prof. J. IJ. Everett, F.K.S., 342 
Clouds, Sky Coloured, T. W. Backhouse, 196, 270 ; K. T. 
Omond, 220 

Coagulation of the Blood, on the, Prof. \V. D. Haliburton, 
Prof, E. A. Schafer, F. R.S., 331 
Cockerell (T. D. A.), a Lunar Rainbow, 365 
Cod and W’hnle Fisheries in North of Norway, 1 60 
Coefficients of Induciiun, \V. E. Sumpner, 22 
Colen8o(\V,, p*.K.S.\ Ancient Tide-Lorr, 373 
College at Tientsin, the New Foreign, 302 
Collins (F. Mouarii). AnlagonUm, 7 
Colloidal S ate, Winssinger on the, 20 
Colorado, Biological Association, 625 

Colour of some Carbon Comj>ounds, Prof. Carnelly and J. 
Alexander. 141 

Colour of Flowers, Pre-^erving the, A. W. Buckland, 270 
Colour, Photoiwclry of, the Measuretrient of Reflected Colours, 
Captain W. tW W, Abney, F.K.S., and Maj •r*General 
Festing, F.R.S , 212 ; Captain Abney, F.K.S., 286 
Colour, Preserving the, of Flowers, J. G. B.ikcr, F. R.S., 245 
Colours, Latent, of Hodiea, M. G. Guvi, 631 
Columbia (British), IV. Dawson's Exploration of, 115 
Columbus, the Fourth Centenary of the Discovery of America 
by, 487 

Columns, Sun, Henry Harries, 566 

Combustion, Incompleteness of, on Explosmn, Prof. H. B. 
Dixon and H. VV, Smith* 596 

Combustion of Organic Substances, the Slow, Th. Scldaejiing, 48 
Comets: Comet 1S88 a (Sawerthai), 43, 114, 168, 186, 258, 
328 ; Prof. Lewis Boss, 88 ; Kneke’s Comet, 350 ; John 
Tebbult, 423 ; Comet 1888 (Brooks), Dr. H. Kreutz, 397, 
432, 503 ; Brooks and Kaye, 576, 626 ; Dr. H. Kreutz on, 
528 ; Faye’s Comet, 432, 503 ; Discovery of a New Comet, 
1888 K. E. Barnard, 503, 528, 626; W, R. Brooks, 57^ ; 
the Short Period Comets and Asteroids, Prof. Kirkwood, 114; 
Ls^;raIlBe'^ Hyix?th€^i:i on the Grigin of Comois and Meicor.tes, 

H. Faye, 215 ; Further Comelary Discoveries, W. K. Brooks, 

375 

Comey and Loring Jackson on a Sodium Salt of Zincic Acid, 
86; on Silicon Teirafluoride Compounds, 203 
Companion to the Weekly Problem Papeis, Rev. John Milne, 

76 

Cotnpariaon of the Cranial with the Spinal Nerves, on the, Dr. 

W. H. Oaskell, F.R.S., 19 
Compreas^ Oxygen Furrmce, Flercher’s, 606 
Coffipre«aibilUy of Water, Salt Water, Mercury, and Glass, 
Prof. P. G. Tait, 581 

Compton (Eail), How Sea-Birds Dine, 6t8 

Concrete Quantities, Multiplication and Division of, A. Lodge, 

281 

Conductors, Item, Self-Induction in, Prof. J. A. Ewing, 55 
Conference, International Maritime, 553 

Coi^ and W>at Africa, Baron H. von Schwerin's Expedition 
' to the^ 404 

Coifgea^aof Americanists, International, 552 

CoQ^^reaii, wernatipoal Geological, Prof. J. Prestwich, F.R.S., 

^ m S4» 

Congrest; RnHWiadlmernational Geographical, 259 

CoiWMwai Projeoted Sckndfic, in Paris, 255 

Conk Secttoliv* Sndtitium^ of the Examples in an Elementary 

treatiae Ctm. Smhh, 588 


Conics, the Geometric Interpretation of Monge’s Diffkreatial 
Equation to all, Prof. Asutosh Mukhopadhyay, 564, 619 
Coninck(M. O. de), Contribution to the Study of the Ptomaines, 
168 

Constant of Aberration, 185 
Constantinople, Climatology of, 133 

ConUfnporary J^evieiv for June, Dr. Romaneses Article in the, 
Edward H. PouUou, 295, 364 

Contraction* Theory of Mountain* Formation, History of, Charles 
Davison, 30 

Convulsions produced by Cocaine, Infiuetice of the Organic 
Temperature on, MM. P. Langlois and Ch. Kichet, 168 
Cook on the Part of American Geologists to the Internatiomd 
Geological Congress, 452 

Copper and Carbon Combined to form a Compensated Resistance 
Standard, Prof. Nichols, 232 
Copier, Specific Resistance of Pure, 232 

Coral Formations, G. C. Bourne, 5 ; C. R. Dryer, 6 ; Robert 
Irvine, 54 

Coral Reefs, Foundations of, Captain W. J. L. Wharton, 5 )^ 
Coral Reefs of the Indian Archipelago, Dr. Guppy’s Expedition 
to, 22S 

Corfield (W. H.), Electric Fishes, 515 

Cornil and Tou]>ct (MM.), Bacterial Disease of the Duck, 2i6 
Cornish Blown Sands, the, K. H. Curtis, 55 
Coronal Light during the Solar Eclipse of August 28-29, >886* 
on the Determination of the Photometric Intensity of the, 
Captain W. de W. Abney, F.R.S., and T. E. Thorpe, 407 
Corry (J. II.) and S. A. Stewart, Flora of the North* East of 
Ireland, 514 

Cosmogony, on the Mechanical Conditions of a Swann of 
Mcteoiiies and on Theories of, Prof. G. 11. Darwin, F.R.S. , 
573 

Cotes (E. C.), Investigations on the Insect Pe Is of India, 17 
Coudreau (M.), Explorations in Guiana, 398 
Couttte (.M. M.), on a New Apparatus for studying the Friction 
of Fluids. 408 

Coumbary (M.), Climatology of Constantinople, 133 
Courts of Ju'»tice, Scientific Assessors in, 289 
Cowles’s Process for the Production of Aluminium, 162 
Cranial Nerves on the Comparison of the, wdih the Spinal 
Nerves, Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S., 19 
Cranial Nerves Note on some of the Motor Functions of 
certain, and of the three first Cervical Nerves in the Mtmkoy, 
Chas. E. Beevor and V. Horsley, F.R.S,, 357 
Crawford^s (Lord) Collection of Astronomical Instruments, 598 
Crawford (P.), Kemini>cenceB of Foreign Tiavel, 126 
Creation, the Method of, Henry W, Crosskey, 5 
Cii^p fKrank), Micromillimetre, 222 

Ciotiui (William A.}, United States Geological Survey, 421 
Croft (W. B. ), W’atches and the Weather, 245 
CrommeHn (A. E.). Partial Eclipse of August 7, 365 
Crosskey (Henry \V.), the Method of Creation, 5 
Cryptogams, on the Occurrence of Ahiminiuoi in certain Vaaculgr, 
A. H. Church, 140 

Cryital Models, n> System for the Consiructlon of, John 
Gorham, 411 

CrvRiaUinc Rocks, on the Origin of the Primitive, A. Michel* 
Levy, 525 

Crystalline Schists, on the Classification of the, Prof. Albert 
Heim, 524 

Crystalline SchUts, on, Dr. I*. S terry Hunt, F.R.S., 519 
Crystalline Schists, sonoe Questiom connected whh the Problem 
presented by the, together with Contributions to their Solution 
from the Palaeozoic Formations, Prof. K. A. Lo&sen, 522 
Crystalline Schists, Remarks on some of the more Kecoiit Pub* 
lications dealing w ith the, Prof, J. Lehmann, 549 
Crystalline Schists of the Western Alps, on the Consiitutioii 
and Structure of the, Prof. Ch. Lory, 506 
Crystallization, on Solution and, Prof. Liveing, 215 
Crptals, the Absorption Spectra of Crystals, M. Becquerel, A. 
E. Tutlon, ^3 

Cudworib (William), Life of Abraham Sharp, 304 
Cunningham (Lieut. -Colonel Allan), Geometric Meaning of 
Difierential Equations, 318 
Curious Resemblance, a, W. J. Lockyer, 270 
Curtis (Charles E.), Praciical Forestry, 171 
CurtU (R. H), the Cornish Blown Sands, 55, 

Curve Piotures of London for the Social Reformer, Akx, B, 
Macdowatt, 410 




xii 


IHOBX 


IMafufitt Mftt, at, iSto 


with Absolute Numerical Values, Five' Applications of 
FouHer’a Law of Diffusion illustrated by a Diagram of, 
Sir William Thomson, F.R.S., 571 
Curves, Movements in, 160 

Cushing (Franny, Discovery of Prehistoric Cities in Arirona 

42 ^ 

Cydone ar Havannah, Frightful, 485 

Cyclones, Doei^ Precipiiation influence the Movement of?, 
H. Hdm Clayton, 301 

Cyclones, the Incurvature of the Winds in Tropical, Henry F. 
Blanford, F.K.S.,'^181 

Cygni, Spectrum of R, Kcv. T. E. Espin, 423 
Cxeck Academy of Science, Projected, 302 


Da Gama (G. A.), Origin of the Belief in the Bis-cubra, 624 
Dacca 1'ornado, the, 42 

Dana (J. D. ), History of Changes in Mount Loa Craters, 462, 
^59 

Darwin (Charles), Address on, Prof. W, H. Flower, F. R.S., 1 16 
Darwin (Prof. G. H., F*R, S. ), on the Mechanical Conditions of a 
Swarm of Me'eorites and on Theories of Cosmogemy, 573 
Darwinian Theories, Prn|>osed Chair for the Teaching of, 182 
Darwinian Theory, Pari'i Professorship of, 276 
Darwinism, Lamarckism 7 Jirsm\ Prof. R. Meldolo, F.R.S., 388 ; 
Edward B, Poulton, 295* 588, 434 ; Dr. Geo. J, Romanes, 
F.R.S., 364, 413, 490 

Davis (L R. Ainsworth), a Text-book of Biol >gy, 52, 126, 149 
Davis (James W.), Yorkshire Geological and PoTyiechnic .Society, 


590 

Davison (Charles), History of the Contract ion -'I'heory of 
Mountain -P'ormatioD, 30 

Dawkins (Prof. W. Bo;|rd, F.R.S.), Opening Address in Section C 
(Geology) at the British Association, 449 
Dawson (Dr. G. M.), Exploration of British Columbia, 115 
Dawson (Sir J. W., F.R.S.)* on the Eozoic and Paheozoic Rocks 
of the Atlantic Coast of Canada, 142 ; Imperial Geological 
Union, 157 ; Geological History of Plants, 538 
Dc La Noe (LieutenanbColonel G.), Les Formes du Terrain, 
614 

Deaf and Dumb, Report of the Association for the Oral Instruc- 
tion of the, 159 

Deaf-Mutes, Rcwal Commission on, and Prof. Graham Bell, 132 
D^^bray (Juks Henri) ; and A. loly, Researches on Ruthenium, 
143 ; Death of, 359 ; M. Janssen's Obituaiy Address, 396 
^^Tki^cnce of the Cnemicarprofesslon in Government Opinion, 


417 

Djjer in New Zealand, J. W. Fortescucu 328 
Definition of the Theory of Natural Selection, Prof. Geo. J. 
Romanes, F.R.S., 616 

Deffbrm (M.) and M. C. Wolf, on a Point in the History of 
the Pendulum, 191 

Demjanoff and Gustavson, the Gas Allene, 552 
Denmark, the Oyster Banks of, 1 14 
Denmark, Sand Grouse in, 158 * 

Denning (W, F.) : the Metw»ric Season, 276 ; the Red Spot on 
Tunker, 342 ; a History of the August Meleors, 393 ; Fire- 
ball of August 13, 415 ; August Meteors, 415 
Densi^ and Specific Gravity, Prof. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S., 
6 ; £. Hospitaller, 6 ; Harry M. Elder, 55 
Ddpartoent de I'Ain, Notes on the, Dr, Aubert, 431 
Determinants : Teorfa Elemental de las Determinantes y sus 
Princii ales Apbeaciones at Algebra y la Geometrfa, Felix 
Amoretti y Carlos M. Morales, 537 
Determinants, Nomenclature of, Dr, Thos. Muir, 5S9 
Deutsche Geographische Blatter, 424 
Dewar (T. I.), Resistance of Square Bars to Torsion, 126 
Dewar and Livcing (Profs.), Investigations on the Spectrum of 
Magnesium, 165 

Di-cakium Arsenite, Artificial Production of, M, Dufet, 17 
Dielectric, Rilcker and Boys, i6i 

Dieterici (Ur.), Experiments on the Determination of the 
Latent Heat of Evaporation of Water at o* C., 143 
Differentia] Equation to all Conics, Geometric Interpretation of 
Monge’s, 619 

Diffraction of Sound, Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S., 208 
Dimti Minimi Decessus, 622 

Ditttte Solutions and Gases, on the Analogy between. Prof, 
van't Hoff, Prof, Ramsay, F.R.S., 213 


Dine, How Sea-Birds, Earl Compton, 618 
Diphenyl, New Organic Compounds of, Paul Adorn, $ 9 ^ 
Dispersal of Seeds by Birds, Dr. H. B, Guppy, loi 
Dispersion of Seeds and Plants, E, L. Layard, 296 
Disseminaton of Plants by Birds, W. Botting Hemsley, 53 
Distribution of Animals and Plants by Ocean Currents, A. W. 

Buckland, 245 ; Isaac C. Thompson* 270 
Divergent Evolution, GuHck on, Dr. Alfred R. Wallace, 490 
Dixon (Prof. H. B., F.R.S.) and H. W. Smith, Incompletenefts 
of Combustion on Explosion, 596 
Doberck (Dr. W. C.): on the Rainfall and Temperature at 
Victoria Peak, Hong Kong, 78 ; Meteorology of South-East 
China. 118; Upper and Lower Wind Currents over the 
Torrid Zone, 565 ; on the Grass Minimum Thermometer^ 
619 

Dog, Prof. Nehring on the Origin of the, 87 
Doldrums, the Weather in the, Hon. Ralph Abercromby, 238 
Donders Memorial Fund, 41, 62, 112 
Donkin (Bryan, Jun.), Furl-testing Station for London, 172 
Dorsetshire : the‘ Birds of, I. C, Mansell- PIcydell, K. Bowdler 
Sharpe, 125 ; Sonorous Sand in, Cecil Cants Wilson, 415 
Double- Star Observations, Milan, Prof. Schiaparelli, 433 
Doughty (C. M.), Travels in Arabia Deseita, 195 
Draper (Harry Napier), Fact nnd Fiction, 221 
Draper (Henry) Memorial, the Progress of the, Prof. Edward 
C. Pickering, 306 

Drawing Instruments, Mathematical, W. F. Stanley, 230 
Dreams, 103 ; A. Bialoveski, 56 
Drummond (H.), Tropical Africa, 171 
Dryer (C. K.), Coral For mat ion ‘i, 6 

Duhoin (M. A.), on the Chloride, Bromide, and Sulphide of 
Yttrium and Sodium, 360 

Dublin, Chemical Laboratories at Trinity College, 598 
Dublin Science and Art Museum, 114 

Duck, Bacterial Disease of the, MM. Cornil and Toupet, 2l6 
Dudgeon (Dr.), Scientific Works published in Chinese by, 302 
Dufet (M.), Artificial Production of Di- calcium and Pharmaco- 


lite, 17 

Duflield (A. J.), Nose-Blackening as Preventive of Snow-Blind- 


ness, 172 

Dumple (K. T.\ the Texas Shell Mounds, 454 
Dundee, Science-Teaching in, 574 

Dunman (T.) : Sound, Light, and Heat, 125 ; Electricity and 
Magnetism, 125 

Dumtan (Prof.), Report of the British Association Committee on 
the Teaching of Chemistry, 596 
Duplex Pendulum Seismograph, Prof. J. A. Ewing, 30 
Durazzo (Prof.), Map of Massawa District, 161 
Durham Salt District, E. Wilson, 214 
Dust, a Column of, Hugh Taylor, 415 

Dutton (Captain C. E.), Monograph on the Charleston Earth- 
quake, lo 

Dwarf Races in Africa, R. G. Haliburton, 112 
Dyer (F. W.), Lingualumina, or Language of Light, 1 
Dyer (Henry), the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical 
College, 428 

Dyer (W. T. Thiselton, F.R.S.) t Flora of the Antarctic hlanda, 
Dr. H. B, Guppy, 40 ; on Geo. Bentham, 1 16 ; Opearag 
Address in Section D (Biology), at the British Assoclodio^ 
473 

Dynamics; Prof, Greenhill on Kinematics and, Prof* J* G, 
MacGregor, 149 ; Applications of Dynamics to Phyilcs and 
Chemistry, J, J. Thomson, F.R.S., 585 
Dynamo Machine, on the Condition of Self-excitation in a, Prof. 
S. P. Thompson, 141 


Earth- Knowledge, W, J. Marrison and H. R. Wid^efield* 583 
Eanh-Piliars in Miniature, Cecil Carus-YfUson, 197 
Earth- Sculpture, Lieut. -Colonel G. De la Noe, 614 
Earthquakes: Supposed Earthquakes in Norway* l6> Earth- 
quake in the Yunnan Province of China, 163 at Ludhttii, 16 5 
Earthquakes in Norway and Sweden, 43, 434; pr* Hiiff 
Reusch's Report, 326 ; Captain C. E. Duttpii*! 
on the Charleston, 16; Earthquake at Florenon, NowMber 
I 4 > 1887, 165 ; Remarks on the, Prof, P, G. f 

at Julfa, Eriran, 183 : in Uemi^, 404 ; Kepoit 01^, 
nyi, 2Qd; in Monte Video, ; in 4781 lb mrt# 

Zealand, 433 ; in Mexko, 485 ; Effect of, bn AnlnMlii* Prof* 


Mv- sa# iS&Sj 


hVDEX 


Xlil 


Milne» 500 ; Earthquakes, and How to Measure Them, Prof 
h A. £winf, F.R.S., 299 J Karthrjuake-Intensity in San 
Francisco, Edward S. Holden, 189 
Earthworms ! the Nephridia of, Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer, 
197 ; Frank E. Bcddard, 221 ; British Karth worms, Dr. Wm. 

B. Benham, 319 
Earwig, Plague of, 277 

Eclectic Physical Geography, Russell Hinman, 615 
Eclipse, Partial, of August 7, A, C. Crommelin, 364 
Eclipse, Solar, of August 28-“ 29, 1886, on the Determination of 
the Photometric Intensity of the Coronal Light during the, 
Captaia W. dc W* Abney, F.K.S., and T. E. Thorpe, 

407 

Eclipse of the Sun of August 19, 1887, iVof. EgorofTs Report 
on the Observations made in Russia and Silx;ria durinc the. 
62s 

Eclipse; Total Lunar, of January 28, 553 
Edinburgh Kt^al Society, 47, 118, 263, 311, 383 
Edinburgh : Heriot-Watt College Calendar, 327 ; Iron and 
Steel Institute, Autumnal Meeting, 395 
Education; Technical, 573 J Lord llarlington on, 40; the j 
National Association for the PromiHion of, 63, 255 ; the ! 
Advancement of Higher Education in l.ondon, 41 ; London : 
Chamber of Commerce Scheme for Tmpmvemcnt of Com- 
mcrcial Education, 158 ; Agricultural Education in Northern | 
Italy and in Prussia, 138; Education in India, 277; M. 
Blanchet’s Speech at the Sorbonne on Education, 325 ; M. 
Lockroy’s Sjicch at the Sorbonne on, 325 ; Science Teaching 
in Elementary Schools in England and Wales, 576 
Edwards-Moss (J. E.), a Season in Sutherland, 220 
Egg, Study of the Albuminoid Substances in the While of an, 

Egg'Masses on Ifydr&ffia ulvtt^ iVof. W". A. Herd man, 1-97 
Egoroff (Prof.), Report on the Observations made in Russia 
and Siberia during the Eclipse of the Sim of August 19, 1887, 
625 

Egypt : Ethnographic Types from the Monuments of, Rev. H. 
(J. Tomkins, 214 ; Preservation of Ancient Monumenis in, 
IL H. Howorlh, M. l\, and Sir 1 . Kerguason, M.P., 326 
Eider-fowl caught in Fi^ihermen's Nets on Swedish Lo.Vst, 304; 

Eider-fowl Preservation in Sweden, 527 
Rimer (Dr.), on the Origin Species, 123 
Elastic Solid Bodie«, on a General Property of, Maurice Levy, 

431 

Elastic Solids, .^Eolotropic, C. Chree, 165 
Elburz, Mount, Ascent of, by Baron llngern Sternberg, 501 
Elder (Harry M.), Density and Specific Gravity, 55 
Electricity ; Electrical Column, 19, 161 ; Effects of Magnetism 
and Heat on the Electric Resistance of Bismuth, 19 ; C. 
Vernon Boys’ Radio- micrometer, 19 ; Dynamical Action of 
the Current of Electrodes, 19; the Electric Organ of Knia 
bitis^ Prof. J. C, Ewan, 70 ; on the Heating Effects of 
Electric Currents, W. H, Precce, F.K.S., 93; on the 
Structure of the Electric Organ of the J^aia drenhris. Prof, J. 

C. Ewart, 94 ; C. V. Burton on Electromotive Force by Con- 
tact, 94 ; the Electric Light in Marine Biology, U2 ; Prof. 
W, A. Herdman on, 130 ; Incident in Patent Electric Light- 
ing Cose, Edison and Swan Electric Lighting Company v, 
Holland, 1x4; Measurements of Sparking Distance in Air 
of Alternate Currents used in, E G. Acheson, 305 ; 

' Electric Light at St. Catherine’s Point Lighthouse, ^oi ; 
Measurements in Electricity and Magnetism, Prof. A. Gray, 
413; Electricity and Magnetism, Thomas Dunman, 125; a 
Tveatise on Electricity and Magnetism, E. Mascart and J. 
Joubert^ 241 ; Effect of Chlorine on Electromotive Force of 
Voltaic Couple, Dr. G. Gore, F.R.S., 117 ; Electromotive 
Properties of the Leaf of Di^naa in the Excited and 
UnexcUed States, J. Burdon'SaDdenoD, F.R.S., 140; Elec* 
ttlc Fishes In the River Uruguay, Dr. P. L. Sclater, 
F-R.S.t 448 ; Rikker and BoW Dieletric, 161 ; Blondlot^s 
Experiments, 162 ; Cowles's Process for the Production of 
AttttifdiUO, 162 ; Magnetic and Electric Experimenls with 
Sekp Bubbles, C. vemtm Boys, 162; Electro-chemical 
R#dio|^oniy,‘ MM* G, Chaperon and £. Mercadier, t68 ; 
Note pn ine Governing of Electromotors, Profs, W. E, 
Ayrton and J. Perry, 190; Electric Mountain Raitw'ay near 
Etocefnei 4jj j Rffect of Electric Current on Saturated Solu- 
, ; tfOns, C. Cnt^ aU ; lectures at the City and Guilds of 

t^dob Institute pn ISect Notes, 231, 


305* 555 » 577 J Meteorological Society’s Report on Thunder- 
iitorma, 238 ; Electro-chemical Effects on Magnetizing Iron, 
II., Thos. Andrews, 262 ; Cloud Electric Potential, E. 
Douglas Archibald, 269; Prof. J. D, Everett, F.R.S., 
343 ; Changes of Potential of Voltaic Couple, Dr. G. 
Gore, F.R.S., 28$; Note on Continuous Current Trans- 
formers, Prof. S. P. Thompson, 286 ; Undulatory Move- 
ment accomjmnying the Electric Spark, 287 ; Electro- 
chemical Radiophony, Chaperon and Mercadier, 305 ; 
Proportionality between Velocity of Light, Conduction of 
Heat, and Electric Conductivity in Metals, Kundt, 305 ; In- 
fluence Machines, J. Wimshurst. 307 ; Electric Oijan of 
814.116, Prof. J. C. Ewart, 310 ; on the Induction of Electric 
Currents in Conducting Shells of Smalt Thickness, S. H. 
Burbury, 333 ; on the Electric Conductibility of Mixtures of 
Salts in Solution, MM. E. Bouty and L. Poincar^, 384 ; Elec- 
tricity and Thermo-dynamics, the Storage of, M- Gouy, 384 ; 
Modern Views of Electricity, Prof. Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S., 
389, 416, 590 ; Sir Wm. Thomson on Clerk-Maxwell’s 
Theory of Electro-magnetic Induction for Incomplete Circuits, 
500; Electric Transmission of Power, Prof, Ayrton, F.R.S., 
508, 533 ; Electric Fishes, W. H. Corfield, F.K.S., 515 ; In- 
troduction of Electricity into Paris Omnibus .Service, 527 ; 
Diffusion of Rapidly-alternating Currents in Substance of 
Homogeneous Conductor-*, Sir W. Thomson, 555 J Applied 
Electricity in United States, 555 ! Ibe Decomposition of 
Water by Alternate Currents of Electricity, 555 ; Influence of 
Plane of Transverse Section on Magnetic Permeability of Iron 
Bar, Prof. Ewing, 555 ; the Volta Prize, 555 \ Lord Rayleigh’s 
Experiments as to Variation of Velocity of Light by Electric 
Current through Electrolyte, 555 ; Electro- Magnetic In- 
duction of Incomplete Circuits, a Simple Hypothesis for, 
with Consequent Equations of Electric Motion in Fixed 
Homogeneous or Heterogeneous Solid Matter, Sir William 
Thomson, 569; on the Transference of Electricity within 
a Homogeneous Solid Conductor, Sir William Thom- 
son, 571 ; Five .Applications of Fourier’s Law of Diffusion 
Illustrated by a Diagram of Curves with Absolute Nu- 
merical Values, Sir William Thomson, 571 : Hom<igeneoas 
Solid Conduclor, on the Transference of Electricity within a, 
Sir William Thomson, 57 1 ; Hertz's Experiments on the 
Fdectric Ether, 577 ; Static Electricity, a Vortex Analogue of. 
Prof. Hicks, 577 ; the Transmission of Electric Currents 
through Air with Flames as Electrodes, Dr. Borgman, 5^7 ; 
Lcn.ird and Howard's Flat Bismuth Spiral for Measuring 
Intensity of Magnetic Field, 577 ; Acheson’s Inquiry intO) , 
Influence of Disruptive Discharges of Powerful Alternating 
Currents, 577 ; the Oscillatory Character of the Leyden Jar 
Discharge, 578 ; Experiments on Electrolysis, W. W. HaUliM 
Gee and H. Holder, 190 ; on Mechanism by Alternative 
Current Process of Chappuis and Maneuvrier, 263 ; Electro- 
lytic Decomposition of Protcids, Dr, G. N. Stewart, 422 ; 
Electromotive Variations, on the, vi/hich accompany the 
Beat of the Human Heart, Dr. Aumstus D. Waller, 619 
Elements, Equivalents of the Simple Bodies, 96 
Elephant, African, Possibility of utilizing the, J. Meng^es, 529 
Ekphas primi^enius^ Discovery of, Associated with _ Flint 
Implements at Southall, J. Allen Brown, 283 
Elimination, Natural Selection and, Prof. C. Lloyd Morgan, 

Ellington (E.B.), Hydraulic Power in London, 17 
Elongated Projectiles, Calculation of Ranges, &c., of, Rev. F. 
Bash forth, 468 

Emin Pasha : Letter from, 238 ; the German Plan for rescuing, 
Herr Gerhard Rohlfs, 486, 529 

Emmon’s (Lieut.) Ethnographical Collection from Alaska, 64 
.Empiricism vtrsui Science, 609 
Encke’s Comet, 350 ; John Tebhult on, 423 
Energy, Work and, Rev, Edwan! Geoghegan, 77 
Engel (M.), Neutral Chloride of Platinum, 30 
Engineering Schools, Prof. George Francis Fitzgerald, F.R.S., 
322 

Engler's Jahrlnicher, 583 

Entomology: the Insect Peats of India, 17; the Pyralidinaof 
the Hawaiian Islands, 95 ; Entomological Society, 95, 191, 
287, 383, 580^ 607 \ H* McI achlan on Cold Winters in relation 
to Insects, 226 ; the Recent Plague of Caterpillars, 277 ; Indian 
I Museum Notes on Economic, 27B ; Entomologist’s Monthly 
I Magazine, Augw-t, 327 ; Scent Organs of Male Moth 


XIV 


IJtTDEX 


Mtt, »V> if 


minia iarsi^Hnaiis, Prof* MeldoUi 4S6 ; Transfonafttion* of 
Bobemiao Caddis fties^ Prof* Klapalek, 553 
Xntfftehune der Art^n aof Grand von Vererben erworbencr 
Eigoaschaften 'na<ih den Geseta«n organ ischen Wachseos, von 
Dr. G, U. Theodor Eimer, 123 

KoBoic and Paleeozoic Rocks of the Atlantic Coast of Canada, 
on the, Sirfi W. Daws jo, F.R.S. ^ 142 

fHccr€kydi^ on the Life- History of, W. K. Brooks, ^5^ 
Epi^lorhydrine, Action of Aniline on, M. Ad. Fauconmcr, 

3^ • 

Equations, Geometric Meaning of Differential, Lieut. -Colonel 
Allan Cunningham, 31S 

Equatorial, MM. I.roewy and Puiseux, on New Theory of,0i43 
l^uidean, a Quaternary, M, Poliakoff, 309 
EquUibrium, on the, of a Heterogeneous Mass in Rotation, M. 
H. Poincar^, 168 

Ericsson (Captain John) : the Sun Motor, 319 ; hL Eighty-fifth 
Birthday, 37 

Ernst (Dr, A.}, a Remarkable Case of Fasciation in Fonra^oya 
cuh^HsiXy Haw., 131 

Erskine (C. U.), Freaks of Nature, 104 

Erakine (Major D.), Freaks of Nature, 104 

Eruption, Japanese Volcanic, 466 

Esptn (Rev. T. E.), Spectrum of R Cygni, 423 

Etnno®raphic Types from the Monuments of Egypt, Rev. II, 

G. Tomkins, 214 

Ethnography of the Caucasus, General Udar, 159; Baron 
Uslar, 623 

EtbnoJpgy ; Lieutenant Emmon’s Collection from Alaska, 64 ; 
Ethnology of the Himal^an Hill Region of Sikhim, 89 : 
Dwarf Races in Africa, R. G. Haliburton, 112; Ethnology 
of the Moors of Ceylon, P. Ramanathan, 135 ; Internation- 
ales Archiv Fur Elhnologir, 279 ; the Alleged Mongoloid 
Affinities of the American Race, Dr. D. G. Brin ton, 552 
Euclid's Method, or, the Proper Way to Treat on Geometry, A. 

H. Blunt, 363 

Europe, Glaciers of. Dr. Svenoniu.s, 574 

Eustachian Tube, on the Development of the, Middle Ear, 
Tympanic Membrane, and Meal us of the Chick, Dr. F. Mall, 
35^ 

Evaporation and Dissociation, a Study of the Thermal Proper- 
ties of Propyl Alcohol, Drs. Ramsay and Young* 238 
Evaporation of Water, Dr, Dieferici’s Experiments on the 
Determination of Latent Heat of, 143 
Eve (A. S.), a Shadow and a Halo, 589 
Everett (Alfred), Return of, from Borneo, 302 
Everett (Prof. J. D., F-R.S.), Cloud ^Electric Potential, 342 
Evolution, Geological Evidences of, Angelo Heilprin, 50 
Evolution and its Relation to Religious Thought, Joseph Le 
Conte, too 

Ewart (Prof. J. C.) ; the Electric Organ of A\im bath^ 70 ; on 
the Structure of the Electric Organ of AWr; urcuUris^ 94 ; 
Electric Oiwan of the Skate, 310 
Ewing (Prof. 7- A., F. R*S,)r Duplex Pendulum Seism(^raph, 
Self-Induction in Iron Conduator.s, 55 ; Magnetic 
QcuUUies of Nickel, 117, 336; Fjirthquakes and how to 
measure them, 399 ; Influence of Plane of Transverse Section 
on Ma^etic Peiineability of Iron Bar, 555 
Explorations and Adventures in New Guinea, Captain John 
Strachan, 315 

Eye, Photograph of the, by Flash of Magnesium, Prof. Claude 
du Bois-Beymond, 15 


Fabre, Berthelot and. the Chemistry of Tellurium, 63 
Fabritius (Captain H.), Hydrographical Researches in Norway,, 
421 

Fact and Fiction, Henry Napier Draper, 221 
Factors in Ufe, H. G. Seeley, F.R.S., 367 
Farm, Bird Pests ol‘ the, 599 

Faaciation in Founrpy^ eubensis. Haw., a Remarkable Case of, 


Dr. A. Ernst, 131 
'aoeomikfr (M, Ad,}, 
560 


Action of Aniline on Epichlorhydrinc, 


Famm off British India, including Ceylon and Burma, W, T, 
Bhtnford, F.R,S., 304, 513 / 

Faima, the, and Flora of the Lester Antilles, 370 ; H. A. Alford 
Nicholls, 566 


Fauvelle (Dr.), Philosophy from an Aolhropolagical Point of 
View, 463 

Fawcett (Mr.), on the Saoros of the Ganjam Hills, 453 
Faye (H.) : Theory of Storms, E. Doimlas ArchiSud, I49 ; 
Lagrange’s Hypothesis on the Origin of Comets and Meteor- 
ites, 215 ; Reply to E. Douglas Archibald’s Strictures on his 
Theory of Storm Laws, 3&3 ; on a Recent Change in the 
Views of Meteorologists regarding Gyratory Movements, 408 
Faye and Brooks, Comets, Dr. H. Kreutz, 538 
Faye's Comet (rSiM d), 432, 503, 

Fearnley and Gcelmuydcn, Zone Obswvations of the Stan, 6*6 
Felsitcs, Perlitic, Frank Rutley, 239 
Ferns, Filmy, the late Cooper Foster's Collection of, 86 
Ferrate of Baryta, on the Decomposition of the, M. G, Rousseau 
and M. J. Bernheim, 216 

Ferruginous Lime, Fluorescence of, M. Lecoq de Boisbaudran, 
216 

Fesiing (Major-General, F. R. S.), Colour Photometry, 312 
Fewkes (1. Walter), on New England Medusae, 137 
Fiction, Fact and, Il.arry Napier Draper, 221 
Fidler (T. Claxion), a Practical Treatise on Bridge Construction, 
Prof. A. G. Grecnhill, 2 

Field, Shell-Collector's Hand-book for the, Dr. J. W. Williams, 
Dr Henry Woodward, F. R.S., 103 
Fievez (C.), Researches on Optic Origin of Sj>ectral Rays in 
connection with Undulatory Theory of Light, 51 1 
Filmy Ferns, the late Cooper Foster’s Collections of, 86 
Finsch (Dr. O. ), on Mikluho-Maclay, 424 
Fire, Milk 7 'ersvx, F. M. Wickramasingha, 342 
Fire-ball of August 13, August Meteors, W. F. Denning, 415 
Fischer (P,), Testudo perpiniami^ 464 

Fish : Another .Specimen of LfpUiosirfn para 4 Joxa^ Prof. Henry 
H. Giglioli, 102 ; Fossil Fish Remains from New Zealand, 
137 ; Electric Fishes in the River Uruguay, Dr. P. L. Sclater, 
F.R.S., 147; Cod and Whale Fisheries in the North of 
Norway. itSo ; Note on the Tariwn or Silver King 
thrissoidfs). Prof. W C. McIntosh, F.R.S., 309; Poison- 
glands of Trachinus, 329 ; Self repnxlucing Food for FUh, 
63! J Recent Visit of Naturalists to the Galapagos, Leslie A. 
Lee, Dr. P, L. Sclater, F. R.S., 569 ; Electric Fishes, W. H, 
Corficld, $\S\Jacka( Fisheiy Expwlition, 527; the Scotch 
Fishery Board, 574 ; Fisheries of Australian Colonies, 60J ; 
Catalogue of the Fishes in the Australian Museum, Sydney, 
624 

Fison (Dr. A. H.), on a Method of comp.iring very Unequal 
Capacitie<, 213 

Fitzau (Herr August), on the Region of the North-West African 
Seabird, 424 

Fitzgerald (Prof. George Francis, F.R.S.); Engineering Schools, 
322 ; Opening Address in Section A (Mathematical and Phy- 
sical Science) at the Briti-^h Association, 446; the Death of 
Clausius, 491 

Fletcher's Compressed Oxygen Furnace, 606 
F'lint Implements at Southall, Discovery of Ehphas primi^i»Ms 
associated with the, J. Allen Brown, 283 
Flora of the Antarctic Islands, W. T. Thisciton Dyer, F.R.S., 
Dr, H. B. Guppy, 40 

Flora of the Hawaiian Islands, William Hillebrand. J. G, 
Baker, F.R.S., 49 

Flora of the Kermadec Islands, W. Botting Hemtieyi 62V 
Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Fauna and, H, A. Alford NlcholU, 
566 

Flora of the North-East of Ireland, S. A. Stewart and T, IL 
Corry, 514 

Flora, Synoptical, of North America, Prof. Asa Gray, L O. 
Baker, F.R.S*, 242 

Flora of West Yorkshire, F. A. Lees, I47 
Florence, Earthquake at, November 14, 1887, Prof, P. 0. 
Qiovannozu, 165 

Flower (Prof. W. H., F.R.S,) : Pygmy Racei of Men, 44, 66 ) 
Address on Cnarles Darwin, i (6 
Flowers, Preserving the Colour of, J. G. Baker, F.R.S., 243$ 
A. W. BuclcUmd, 270 

Fluorescence of Ferruginous Lime, M, Lecoq de Bofrbaoidgiim 
216 , ' 

Flying Machine, a Compressed-Air Engine for, L» Hirifrifee, 

T& (M. A. P.), on the Mechanical Actkm hud 
Altenrtkms of Animal ProMplaroi, 16S * ; 


1888J 


INDEX 


XV 


Folk-Lore of th« Ainoa, 87 

FoftvieUe (W. de), on Lightning Conductors, 547 

Food» Sel^reprodacing, for Young Fish, 631 

Foote (Bmce), on Neolithic and Palaeolithic Finds in Southern 

India, 87 

Foramihifera, Recent and Fossil, from 1565 to 1888, a Biblio' 
graphy of thcj C. Davies Sherborn, 562 
Form (Kenry 0.)i Director of the Canterbnry Museum, New 
Zealand, 3^ 

Forbes's Attempt to reach the Owen Stanley Peak, 424 
Foreign Travel, Reminiscences of, R. Crawford, 126 
Forestry : ‘Forest-Culture in Hesse, 17 ; Proposed Forest School 
at Kandy, 41 ; Practical Forestry, C. E. Curtis, 171 ; Report 
of the Conservator of Forests in Ceylon, 373 ; Forestry School 
in Spain, 461 ; Forest Conservancy in Ceylon, Colonel Clarke, 
606 

Formations, Coral, Robert Irvine, 54 
Formosa, the People of, 89 

Forms of Animal Life, George RoUeston, F.R.S., 25 
Formulae of Bernoulli and Haecker for the Lifting Power of 
Magnets; Prof. S, P. Thomp'on, 190 
Fortescue (J. W.), Deer in New Zealand, 328 
Forth Bridge, the, 39 
Forticula (Earwigs), Plague of, 277 
Forts, Underground, Colonel Hennebert, 502 
Fossil Fish Remains from New Zealand, 137 
Fossil Mammals, on the Gigantic Dimensions of some, M. 
Albert Oaudry, 384 

Fossils of the Caspian Sea, M. Netchayeff, 160 
Foster (C. Neve), a Treatise on MinCvSurveying, Bennett 11. 
Brough, 317 

Foster (Cooper), his Collections of Filmy Ferns, 86 
Foster (Prof. G. Carey, F.R.S.), Density and Specific (Gravity, 6 
Foster (Prof. Michael, F.K.S.), a Tcxt‘book of Physiology, 
new edition, 5^; Chemical Problems presented by Living 
Bodies, 596 

Foundations of Coral Reefs, Captain W. J. L. Wharton, 
F,R.S., 568 

Founraya ctihtnm^ Haw,, a Remarkable Case of Fasciation in, 
Dr. A» Ernst, ni 

Fourier’s Law of Difhision, Five Applications of, illustrated by 
a Diagram of Curves with Alwolutc Numerical Values, Sir 
'William Thomson, F.R.S., 571 

Fowls, the GapC'Worm of {Syngamus iiaih£aU$\ Lord Walsing- 
ham. F.R,S., 324 

Fraipom (Prof, Julien), the Tibia in the Neanderthal Race, 


212 

France ; Meteorology in, 42 ; French Meteorological Society, 
41, 256 ; French Meteorological Office, 599 ; French Scientific 
Missions, 255 ; Centenarians in, Emile Levosseur, 288, 501 ; 
M. Renduel’s Rej>ort on Sprat Fisheries, 349 ; War Aerostation 
in, 553 ; Projected French Special Mission to map the Coasts 
of Madagascar, 577 

Frankfort-on-the-Mnin, Third International Congress of Inlaml 
Navigation, 395 

Froakfort-on-Oder, Discovery of Funereal Urns near, 486 

Frankland (Dr. Percy F.), the Micro-organisms of Air and 


Water, 232 

of Nature, 


Major D. Erskine, 104 ; C. H. Erskine, 


Freaks 

Fream (William), ibe Rothamsted Experiments on the Growth 
of Wheat, Barley, and the Mixed Herbage of Grass Land, 
4^5 

Freeman (John), Lights and Shadows of Melbourne Life, 29 
Frktioo m i^uids, on a New Apjnuratus for studying the, M. M- 

Conette, 408 

Friedcl (M, C.Vaiid M, J. M. Crafts : on the Denvity of Chlorine, 
and on the Vapour-Density of Ferric Chloride, 384 ; on the 
of the Peiihloride of Gallium, 384 
Friefc (Frof*), Eulogy on LinnKus, 1 16 
Ffdhlkh iTiiiat, imnts from, 230 
Jrot Fintfttotlon in the Cofonles, Kew Bulletin, 

Stailba for London, Bryan Donkin, 
rmicgoQlem Otgami, Prof E, Ray Lankester, _ . 

Duke of Argyll, F.K.S,, 34L 4^ ; Prof. J, 
Samuel F. WiUon, 387 ; Joseph 

S'*™?*?** Oxyoen, 606 

IktMBtaiy ChemiMty, J6 


i.f: 


140 

un., 173 
F.R.S,, 364; 


Gad (Prof.) : on Prof, Pick's Scheme of Blood-Pressure in the 
Capillaries, t2o ; on ScA$s/os/t?^ osmundoiM, 144 
Gaduw (Hans), Modifications of First and Second Visceral 
Arches, 47 

Gairdner (Prof.), the Physician u Nd^uralist, 347 
Galapagos, Recent Visit of Naturalists to the, Dr. P. L. 

Sclater, F.R.S., Leslie A. Lee, 569 
Galileo, Proposed Complete Edition of the Works of, 277 
Gallatly ( W. ), the Elements of Logarithms, 1 73 
Gallon (Francis, F.R.S.) : Head Growth in StudenU at the 
University of Cambridge, 14 ; Personaf Identification and 
Description, 173, 30i 

Gamaleia (Dr.), Cure of Cholera by Inoculation, 395 
GanjfOn Hills, Saoros of, Fawcett on the, 453 
Gape -worm, the, of Fowls {SyngAWUs tracheaUi)^ Lord 
Walsingham, F.R.S., 324 

Gases of the Blood, the, Prof. John Gray McKendriefc, F. R.S.* 
376. 399 

Ga'^es from Homogeneous Liquids, Conditions of Evolution, 
V. H. Vcley, 310 

Gases, Ignition of Platinum in Different, Dr. W. R. Hodgkinson, 
6 

G4askell (Dr. W. H.» F.R.S ), on the Comparison of the Cranial 
with the Spinal Nerves, 19 

Gaudry (Prof. All>ert) : Le< Ancetres de nos Animaux dans les 
Temps Geologic|iics, 4 ; on the Gigantic Dimensions of some 
Foshil Mammals, 384 

Gee (W. W. Haldane) and H. Holden, Experiments on 
Electrolysis, 190 

Gehnchtcn (Dr. van der), Minute Structure of Striated Vessels 
in Veitebrala and Arthropoda, 264 
Geikie(Dr. A., F.R.S.)*: Geology of the North-West Highlands, 
70 ; on the Geological Structure of Scandinavia and the 
Scottish Highlands, 127 

Genealogy of Mam the Latest Stages of the, M. Topinard, 357 
Geoghegan (Rev. Edward) ; Work and Enei^, 77 ; the Problem 
by Vincentio Viviani, 78; a Shadow and a Halo, 619 
Geography : Lieut, van Gelc’s Exploration of the River Mobangi, 
fS ; Percy Smith’s Visit to the Kermadec Islands, 18 ; Dr, Hans 
Meyer’s Exploration of Kilimanjaro, 19 ; Exploration of the 
Meikong River, 19 ; Geographical Notes, j8, 65, 89, 115, 136, 
161, 186, 207, 259, 280. 305, 375, 398, 423, 455, ^29, 5SS, S77. 
601 ; Bulletin of the Italian Geographical Society, 90 ; Dr. 
Dawson’s Exploration of British Columbia, 115; the Survey 
of Upper Biirmah, 115 ; Col, Strahan’s Survey of the Nicobar 
Islands, 115 ; Major Hobday on Operations in Upper Burnnah, 
136; Cameroons, MM. Valdau and Knutson’s Explorations, 
136; Hudson’s Bay and Hudson’s Strait, Commander 
Markham, 16 1 ; Prof. P. Duroa^o’s Map of the Massawa 
District, i6r j Lieutenants Kund aud Tapi>enbeck’s £x^>edilioa 
into Cameroons, 186 ; a Century of African E^xploration, Dr. 
Supan, 186 ; Proposed International Geogiaphical Congress, 
259 ; Dr. Meyer’s Ascent of Kilimanjaro, 359 ; Jules 
Borclli’s African Explorations, 259 : New McasuremenU of the 
Austrian Alps, 280 ; Teaching ol Geography in Russian Uni- 
versities, 280; W.J. Archer’s Journey in Siam, 280; Position 
of Timbuktu, Caron, 288 ; Early European Cartography, 375 ; 
M, Coudreau’s Explorations in Guiana, 398 ; Mr. Joseph 
Thoms ill’s ^Explorations in Morocco, 398; Mr. Mackinder's 
Report to the University of Oxford, 423 ; North-West 
African Sea-bonrJ, Herr August Fitzau, 424 ; Mikluho- 
Mad ay, Dr. O. Finsch, 424 ; Tenasserim. Leonardo Fea’s 
Explorations in, 424 ; Indo-China Explorations, M. Pavie, 
424 ; Owen Stanley Peak, Mr. Forbes’s Kejxirt, 434 ; Lukoma, 
Lake Nyassa, K. G. Ravenstein, 424 ; Deutsche Geographische 
Blatter, 424 ; Geography of the Dutch East Indies, Herr MeU* 
ger, 424 ; Bourne”s K^ort on his Tourney to South-West 
China, 45s ; Brarilian Government &peditions for EapTora- 
tion of the Interior, 455 ; BoUettino of the Italian Geo- 
graphical Society, 424 ; Congo and West Africa, Baron Dr. 
Tl. von Schwerin, 424 ; Proceedings of the Royal Geographi- 
cal Society, 423; Scottish Geo^aphical Magazine, 424; the 
Nicobar Archipelago, Dr. Svoboda, 501 ; Joseph Thomson’s 
Atlas Mountain Expedition, 555 ; Nossilofs Exploration of 
Novaya Zemlya, 555 j Geography of British New Guinea, 555 ; 
Projected French Special Mission to map Coasts of Madaj^- 
car, 577 ; t Census of lllherates in various Countries ol the 
World, 601 ; Eclectic Physical Geography, Russdl Tfinmaib 
615 



XVI 




iiVv/ illiS 


Geolojy ; the Cac Gwvn Cave, North Wales, Dr. H. Hicks, 
92 1 Geological Society, 32, 70, irS, 142, 214, 239; the 
Geological Evidences of Evolution. Angelo Heilprin, 50 ; 
Reports on the Geological Survey of New Zealand, 53 ; Geo* 
logical Field Class, London, 64 ; Geology of the North-West 
H^hlai^ds, Dr. A. Geikie, F.R.S., 70; Hayden Memorial 
Geolon^l Fund, $6 ; Bruce Foote on Neolithic and Palaeo- 
lithic rinds in Southern India, 87 ; the International Geo- 
* logical Congress, 86, 188, 415, 499, 518, 548; International 
Geological Congi;f»s, Prof. J. Prestwich, F.R.S., 503; the 
Stockdale Shales, Marr and Nicholson, 118; Geology for 
All, J. Logan l^bley, 125 ; the Geological Structure of 
Scandioavia and the Scottish Highlands, Arch. C^ikie, 
F.R.S., 127 ; Spheroid-bearing Granite, Dr. Fred. H. Hatch, 
143 ; on the Eozoic and Palaeozoic Rocks of the Atlantic 
Coast of Canada, Sir J. W. Dawson, F.R.S., 142; 

' Imperiid Geological Union, Sir J. W. Dawson, F.R.S., 157 ; 
J. J. H. Teall appointed to the Geological Survey, 102 ; 
Report on Northern Alberta, J. B. Tyrrell, 184 ; Relations 
of the Laramie Group to Earlier and Later Formations, 
Charles A. White, 189 ; the Gabbros and Diorites of the 
Cortlandt SeHes, George H. Williams, 189 ; Three Forma- 
tions of the Middle Atlantic Slope, W. J. McGee, 190 ; 
Dr. Hans Reusch on the Bbmmel and Karm Islands, 194 ; 
Crystalline Schists, 194 ; Saliferous Rocks (Durham), 214 ; 
Geological and Natural History of Canada, 257 ; Discovery 
of EUpha^ pHmiginim associated with Flint Implements at 
Southall, J. Allen Brown, 283 ; the Geologists* Association, 
302 ; Allgemeinc Geologic, von Dr. Karl von Fritsch, 3S7 ; 
Theoretische, Geologic, von Dr. E. Reyer, 409 ; Les Dislo- 
cations de l*Ecorce l^rrestre, Essai de Definition et de 
Nomenclature, Prof. John W, Judd, F.R, S., 433 ; American 
Geology, Mr. Cook, 452 ; the Part of American Geologists in 
the International Geological Congress, Mr. Cook, 452 ; on 
the Constitution and Structure of the Crystalline Schists of the 
Western Alps, Prof. Ch, Lory, 506 ; on Crystalline Schists, 
Dr, T. Steiry Hunt, F.R.S., 519 ; some (Questions connected 
with the Problem presented by the Crystalline Schists, together 
with Contrilmtioas to their Solution from the Palxozoic 
Formations, Prof. K. A. Lossen, 522 ; on the Classification 
of the Crystalline Schists, Prof. Albert Heim, 5^ ; on the 
Origin of the Primitive Crystalline Rocks, A, Michel- L^vy, 
^25 ; Remarks on some of the more Recent Publications Deal- 
ing with the Crystalluie Schists, Prof. J. Lehmann, 549 ; 
Goologicaf History of Plants, Sir J. W. Dawson, F.R.S., 
egS ; the Stratigraphical Succession of the Cambrian Faudas 
in North Amenca, Prof. Chas. B. Walcott, 551 ; Geologicil 
Record, 576 ; Geological Results of the last, Sayan Expedition, 
L, A. jaezewski, 577 ; Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic 
Society, 590 

Geometry : First Lessons in, B. Hanumaiita Rau, 53 ; the 
Geometric Interpretation of Mongers Dififerentiai Equation to 
UH Conics, 619; Prof. Asutosh Mukhopadhyay, 173, 197, 
^ ; Multiplication and Division of Concrete Qiamtities, A. 
Lodge, 281 ; First Elements of Experioi^tal Geometry, Paul 
Bert, 295 ; Geometric Meaning of Dififerentlal Equations, 
Lieut.^Colonel Allan Canningham, 318 ; Geometry of the 
Triangle, M. £. Vigarie, 634 

Germany : Association of Naturalists, Meeting at Cologne, 16 ; 
Vital Statistics of, M, Ch. Grad, 135 ; German CAological 
Society, 277 ; the German East African Possessioos, Dr. 
Hans Meyer, 305 ; German Emin Pasha Expedition, 529 ; 
German Botanical Journals, 552 

Germs, Prophetic, Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., 539, 588; 

the Duke of AtwII, F.R.S., 564, 615 
GiglioU (Prof. Henry H.) : Another Specimen of Ltpidosirtn 
pamdoxa^ 103 ; Prof, G. B. Howes on, 126 
GUbert (Dr. J. H.^ F.R.S.), the Growth of Root Crops, 605 
Gilchrist Engineering Scholarships, 430 
Gill (Dr.)i Proposed Star Catalogue^ 180 
Gitilg (Charles A.), Tours and Excursions in Great Britain, 
Stephen F. Smart, 318 

GioVannozzi (Prof. P. G.), Remarks on Earthquake at Florence, 

Gtac^rs : on the Veined Structure of the Mueller Glacier, New 
Zealand, F. W. Hutton, 77 ; Glaciers of Europe, Dr. 
Sveoonitts, 574 

Gladstone (Dr. J. H., F.R.S.) and W. J. Hibbeit, Note on the 
Molecular Weight of Caoutchouc and other Bodies, $96 


Glanville (Miss), Death of, 348 * - 

Glasgow J British Medical Association Meeting, 347 ; the Glas* 
g<w and West of Scotland Technical College, Mcmy I)yer, 

Glass, Compressibility of Water, Salt Water, and, Prof. F. Qm 
Tail, S8i 

Globes, Old, in the MidtUe Temple Library, 327 
Globular Star Clusters, A. M. Clerke, 365 ^ -j 1 

Glycerine, on the Quantitative Analysis of, by Oxidation, M. 
Vidor Planchon, 360 

Godwin-Austen (H. H., F.R.S.), the Land and Frwh- Water 
Mollasca of India, 217 

Goercki and Poleck (Drs.), Three New Sulpho chlorides of 
Mercury, 527 

Gold-Field discovered in .Surinam, 88 

Golden Mullet {AfttgU aura^ust Risso) caught at Stromstad, 
Sweden, 397 

Goldsmith’s Company, the. and Technical Education, 573 
Gore (Dr. G., F.R.S.) ; Effect of Chlorine on Electromotive 
Force of Voltaic Couple, 1 17 ; Changes of Potenthl of Voltaic 
Couple, &c., 284 ; Effects 'of Different Positive Metals, &c,, 
upon the Changes of Potential of Voltaic Couples, 935 : the 
Voltaic Balance, 335 

Gorham (John), a System for the Construction of Crystal Models, 

411 

Gossage (A. M.), the Volumetric Determination of Uric Acid, 
263 

Gosse (P. H., F. R..S. ), Death of, 421 
Gould’s Astronomical Journal, 328 

Goulicr (M. C. M.), ProviHional Laws determining the Sub- 
sidence of the Land in France, ^32 
Gouy (M.), the Storage of Electricity and Thermo-dynamics, 

. . 

Gouy and Rigollol, Elcctro-chemical Actinometer, irp 
Government Opinion, Decadence of the Chemical Profession 
in, 217 

Govi (M. G. ), Latent Colours of Bodies, 631 
Goyen (P.), a Higher Arithmetic and Elementary Mensuration, 
218 

Grad (M. Ch.), Vital Statistics of Germany, 135 
Gramme (M. ), the Volta Prize given to, 555 
Granite, Spheroid -bearing, Dr. Fred. H, Hatch, 142 
Grant (G. L.), Nesting Habit of the House Sparrow, 590 
Graphical Arithmetic and Graphical Statics, Gray and Lowson, 4 
Grass Minimum Thermometer, on the, Dr. W. Doberck, 619 
Grasses, Fodder, of Northern India, J. F. Duthie, 350 
Gravitation in the Stellar Systeoi, Prof. Asaph Hall, 398 
Gray (Dr. Asa) : Tribute to the Memory of, 16 ; Bequest to 
Harvard College, 182; Synoptical Flora of North America, 
J. G. Baker. F.R.S., 242 

Gray (Prof. A.), Measurement in Electricity and Magnetism, 
113 

Gray (John Y.) and Geo, Lowson, the Elements of Graphical 
Arithmetic and Graphical Statics, 4 
Great Britain, Tours and Excursions in, Charles A. GUUg, 318 
Green (Prof. J. R.), Vegetable Rennet, 274 
Green (Seth), Death of, 396 

Grceohill (^Prof. A. G., F.R.S.): on a Practical Treatise ot. 
Bridge Construction, by F, Claxton Fidler, 2 ; Weight ^tid 
Mass, 54 ; on Kinematics and Dynamics, Prof. J. G. 
MacGregor, 149 ; a Chapter in the Integral Calculus, 218 
Greenland, Dr. Nansen’s Expedition to, 302, 372, 49a, 527 
Greenwich, Report of Astronomer -Roy^, 153 
Greyhounds, Notes on the Reproduction of Rudimentary To«a 
in, Dr. R. W. Shuleldt, 56 
Griess (Dr. Peter), Death of, 485 
Grieve (W. H.), Lessons in Elementary Mechanics, 244 
Griffiths (A. B., F.R.S. Edin.), Further Resekithes on ihe 
Physiology of the Invertebrata, 28s 

.548 

Fretun, 

Guerne (Tttles de), Excursions Zoologiqaes dans les AcdreSi tifj 
Guiana, M. Coudreau’s Explorations in, 398 
Outick, on Divergent Evolution, Dr. Alfrrf R. Wallace, ^ 
Gundsy, the Teaching of Matheittktics in China, 4I5 
Guppy (Dr. H. B.j: Flora of the Antarctic W: T. 

leltoa Dyer, F.R.S,, 40; DisperiMl of Seeds 



WDEX 


A’ov. n, lliSS] 


kvii 


tot i Expedition io the Coral Reeft of the Indian Archipelago, 

OuatafMn (G.), on Oiganic Compounds in their Relations to 
Haloid ^ts of Alum in Iqth, 139 
OMtrtavaon and DemjanoflT, the Allene, 552 


Haem (E. de), Fresh Calculation of Jupiter’s Mns.«i, 608 
Haidin^'erite, Optical Propertlei. of, 23 
Haliburton ^R. G. ), Dwarf Races in Africa, 112 
Haliburton ,(Prof. W* D.), on the Coagulation of the Blood, 331 
Hall (Prof Asaph), (he Extension of the Law of Gravitation to 
Stellar Systems, 398 

Hall (H. S.) and S. R. Knight, Arithmetical Exercises, 490 
HatleK (M. ), Natural Scavengers of French Beaches, 598 
Hallucinations, Unilateral, Prof. A. Raggi, 512 
Halo, a Shadow and, 540 ; A. S. Eve, 589 ; Rev. Edward 
Oeoghegan, 619 ; Charles Cave, 619 
Hamhie River, Prehistoric Cave discovered at, 598 
Hamilton’s Numl>ers, Prof f. J. Sylvester, F.R. S , 21 
Hamlet (W. M.), Hand book of Sydney, 575 
Hampson (P.), the Romance of ^fathenlatics, 28 
Hamy (Dr. E. T. ), Report on the Excavations made in the 
Bed of the I.iane, 357 

Harding (C,), Temperature of 1887-88, 238 

Hardy (M. E .), ana M. N. Galloia, on Ana^rine, 360 

Kara rave (L.), a Compressed-Aii Engineer Flying Machine, 

463 


Harley (George, F. R.S.), and H. S. Harley on the Chemical 
Composition of Pearls, 21 

Harpur Euclid, the, E. M. Langley and W. S. Phillips, 2t8 
Harries (Hy . ), Sun Columns, 566 

Harrison (W. J.)and H. R. Wakeheld, Earth Knowledge, 563 
Hart (J- H.), Annual Report of the Royal Botanical Gardens, 
Trinidad, 278 

Hartington (Lord), on Technical Education, 40 
Hartley (Prof, F.R.S.), on Salicylic Acid, 142; on Atomic 
Weight, 142 

Harvam College : Dr. Asa Gray’s Bequest, 182 ; Prof 
Lovering's Resignation, 182 
Hatch (Dr. Fred. H.), Spheroid-bearing Granite, 142 
Havannab, Frightful Cyclone at, 48c 

Hawaiian Islands, Flora of the, William Hdlebrand, J. G. 
Baker, F.R.S., 49 

Hayden Memorial Geological Fund, 86 

Hazen (Prof. H. A.), Hand-book of Meteorological Tables, 527 
Head Growth in Students at the University of Cambridge, 
Francis Galton, F.R.S., 14 

Heart, Human, on the ElectromotiveVariations which accompany 
(he Beat of the, Dr. Augustus D. Waller, 619 
Heat, New Edition of Balfour Stewart’s, 135 
Heat in India, 203 
Heat, Intense, in Norway, 304 

Heating Eflfects of Electric Currents, W. H. Preece, F.R.S., 93 
Heavenly Bodies, Suggestions on the Classification of the 
Various Species of, jT Norman Lockycr, F.R.S., 8, 31, 56, 
79 

Heavens, Photographic Chart of the, 38 
Heaviside (Colonel), Retirement of, 452 

Msumijlora^ Physiological Action of, Gaucher, 
Cotnbemale, and Marestang, 560 
Heilpiin (Aih^o), Geological Evidences of Evolution, 50 
Heim (Prot Albert), on the Classihcaiion of the Crystalline 
5®4 

Helwlaod, Meteorological Observatory, 205 
Himann (Df. G.)i on the Rainfall of the Iberian Peninsula, 
II Torrential Rainfal] in Germany, 5<» 
boUa (Dr, R. von), New Form of Bolometer, 311 
aiaayExpeditlon in Arisdna, Thos. Wilson, 629 
> (W. Botddg) : Dissemination of Plants by Birds, 53 ; 
saw Vegetatkm of KrakattCb, 344 ; Flora of the Kerinadec 

(HL T.), an Elementary Treatise on Mensuration, 490 
(CodoneS), Ofkdetgronnd Forts, 301 
Sditmc Writings of, 98 

iOvtf, 197 


Herc<Uty, Dr. August Weismanh on, 156 
Heredity in Political E^omy, M. de Lapouge, 212 
Herefordshire, Notes on the Birds of, Dr. H. 0. Bull, R. 
Bowdler sWpe, 125 

Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh, Calendar, 327 

Hemd, HarthOuakeJn, 204 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society, 64 

Hertz’s Experiments on the Electric Ether, 577 

ffermtma farsifenna/is. Scent Organs of Male Moth, Prof. 

Meldola, 486 « 

Hesehus (Prof^), Meteorological Observations made in Russia 
and Siberia during the Ecupse of the Sun of August 19, 1887, 

^25 « 

PI esse, Forest Culture in, 17 
Hessian Fly, Parasites of the, 221 
Hetcrocera, New Species, Mr. Warren, 215 
Heymans (Dr.) ; the Nerve- Endings in Unstriated Muscle-Fibres 
of Medicinal l.ecch, 264 ; on the Relative Toxicity of Oxalic, 
Malonic, Succinic, and Methyl-succinic Acids, and of their 
Sodium Salts, 360 

Hibbert Lectures for 1887, Prof. J. Kh^s, 361 
Iiibl>ert (W. T.) and Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Note on the Mole- 
cular Weight of Caoutchouc and other Bodies, 596 
Hicks (Dr. Henry, r.R.S.), on Cae Gwyn Cave, North Wales, 
22 

Hicks (Prof.), a Vortex Analogue of Static Electricity, 577 
Hildebrandsson (Dr. IL), Aurora in SpiUhergen, 84 
Hill (Dr. Alex.), elected Master of Downing College, Cam- 
bridge, 1S2 

Hill (<i. W.). the Moss of Titan, 350 

Hill (S. A.), the Life Statistics of an Indian Province, 24S, 565 
Hiilebrand (William), Flora of the Hawaiian Islands, J. G. 
Baker, F.R.S., 49 

Himalayan Hill Region of Sikhim, Ethnology of, 89 
Himc (Lieut. -Colonel H, W. L.), Meteor, 414 
Hinman (Russell), Eclectic Physical Geography, 615 
Hobday (Major), on Operations in Upper Burma, 136 
Hodgkinson (Dr. W. R.), Ignition of Platinum in Different 
Gases, 6 

Hoff (Prof van ’t). Analogy l>etween Dilute Solutions and Gases, 
2*3 

Holden (Prof. Edward S.) : Earthquake- Intensity in San Fran- 
ciiwro, 189; the IJck Observatory, 355 ; Hand-book of the 
Lick Ob^rvatory, 410 ; Ring Nebula in Lyra, 626 
Holmes (G. C. V.), the Steam-Engine, 169 
Honduras, Earthquakes in, 278 

Hong Kong : Report of Inspector of Schoolsr *05 ; Report of 
the Meteorological Observatory, 229 
Hooker (Sir J.), Eulogy on Robert Brown, 116 
Hopkins (Manley), the Cardinal Numbers, 27 
Hornes (M, M.), Palmontology in Austria-Hungary. 357 
Horny Tissue, Dr. Blaschko on the Development of, ^ 

Horse, Genealogy of the, 140 

Horsley (Victor, F. R.S.), Note on some of the Motor Functions 
of certain Cranial JCJerves, and of the three first CerVical 
Nerves in the Monkey, 357 
Hospitaller (E.), Density and Specific Gravity, 6 
Howard and Lenard’s Flat Bismuth Spirals for tneasuriog 
Intensity of Magnetic Field, 577 
Howes (Prof. G. B.), Dr. GigUoli and Leptdosiren, ia6 
Hudson (W, H.) and P. L. Sclater, F.R.S., Argentine 
Ornithology, Prof. R. Bowdler Sharpe, 587 
Hudson’s Bay and Straits, Commander Markham on, 161 
Human Locomotion, Representation of the Altitudes of, M. 
Marey, 191 

Humidity in Rooms, on the Measurement of the Increase of. 
Dr. W, C. Marcet, F.R.S., 191 
Humming-bird and Mantis, G. W. Alexander, 303 
Hunt (A, R.), Sonorous Sands, 540 

Hunt (Prof. T. Sierry, F.R.S.): on Crystalline Schists, 519 ; 

the Study of Mineralogy, 596; Mineralogical Evolution, |97' 
Hurst (J. TO. Functionless Orgahs, 364 
Hatton (F. W,), on the Veinea Structure of the Mueller GladcW 
New Zealand, 77 

Huygens (Christian), Early Cortespondenoe of, A. M. Clerkti 
*-93 

Hydraetds in Presence of Oxygen, Action of Light on thei 
Report of jtlM British Assoemtion Committee, Dr. B. W. 
Richardson; FiR. S. I 595 ^ ' 




iNmx 


Hydrates, on some New Gaseous, M. li^Ard, 168 
Hydraulic Power in l^ondon, B. EUit^ton, 17 
I^rohia M/evF, Egg Masses on, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 1^7 
Hydrocetusite and Cerusite, Researches by M. L. Bourgeois, 191 
Hydrochloric XcMf Actiaa^^of, on the Solubility^ of Stannous 
Chlori^i 95 ^ 

Hydrodynamics, Treatise on, A. B. Basset, 243 xT' 
Hydrofluoric Acid, Vapour-Density of, 373 
Hydrogen, Arseniuretc^, from Sulphuretted Hydrogen, Elimina- 
tion oy means of Iodine of, Dr. Otto Brunn, 575 
Hydrogen, PerSuli^ide of, the Composition of, Dr. Rebs, 278 
Hydrographic Survey of Canadian Water5, 132 
Hydrographical Researches in Norway, Capt. IF. Fabrilius, 421 
Hydrology and Climatology, International Congress of, 348 
Hydrostatics, Elementary, with Numerous Examples, &c., S. R 
Mukerjee, 76 

Hygiene Exhibition at Ostend, 228 

Hymenopteru, on the Poison of the, M. G. Carlet, 216 


Iberian Pehin^^ula, Rainfall of, 229 | 

Ice Wall, Village buried by a Gigantic, 2115 I 

Ignitii^n of IMatinum in Different Gases, Dr. W. H. Hodgkinson, j 
6 

Illiterates in Various Countries of the World, 601 
Images of Stars seen by Reflection on the Surface of the Sea, on 
the Deformation of the, M. C. Wolf, 631 
Implements found in Mound at Ogue, 205 

Implements of Paleolithic Type in America, 184 1 

Impregnation, on Partial, Prof. A. Weismann and C. Iscbikawa, ! 
3*9 

Incurvature of the Winds in Tropical Cyclones, Henry F. 
Blanford, F.R.S., 181 

inewadi Yama, pr Twenty Years’ Personal Experienae in South 
Africa, J. W. Matthews, 295 

India: the Imect Pests of, 17; Phenomenal Storms in, 42: 
Bruce Foote on Neolithic and Palaeolithic Finds in Southern 
India, 87 ; A1 Birfinfs India, Dr, E. Sachau, 97 ; Meteorology 
of India, 133, 278; the Land and Fresh-Water Mollusca of, i 
H. H, Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., 217; Heat in India, 203; 
Coral Reefs of the Indian Archipelago, Dr. Guppy’s Expedi- 
tion to, 228; the Life Statistics of an Indian Province, S. A. 
Hill, 245 ; Indian Life Statistics, S. A- Hill, 565 ; Dr. Hyde 
Clarke, 297 ; Description of New Indian Lepidopterous 
Insects from the Collection of the late Mr. W. S. Atkinson, 
Fred. Moore, 266 ; State Education in, 277 ; India in 1887, 
Robert Wallad^, 294 ; Fauna of British India, 304 ; Fauna 
of British India, including Ceylon and Burma, W. T. Blanford,^ 
F.R.S., 513 ; Fodder Grasses of Northern India,}, F. Duthie, 
350 ; Prof. Oppert on the Original Inhabitants of Bharatavarsa, 
373 ; on the Head and Figure of Native East Indians, Dr. 
Mugnier, 463 ; F'awcett on the Saoros of the Ganjam Hills, 
453 ; Catalogue of the Moths of, 624 ; Indo-China Explorations, 
M. Pavie, 424 

Induction of Electric Currents in Conducting Shells of Small 
Thickness, S. H. Burbury, 333 
Industrial Instruction, R. Seine], 148 
Industrial Training, Mansion House Meeting, 155 
Influence Machines, J. Wimshnrst, 307 
Inland Navigarion, I’hird International Congress of, 395 
Ino Chukei, Biographical Note on. Dr. Knott, 205 
Inoculation, Cure of Cholera by, Dr. Gamaleia, 395 
Insect Life, 625 
Insect Pests of India, 17 
li^ts and Cold Winters, 228 

Insects, Description of New Indian Lepidoplerous, from the 
Collection of the late W. S. Atkinson, Frederick Moore, 
366 

Institote, the Sanitary, 574 

Institution of Civil Engineers, 17, 598 ; Annual Meeting. I42 ; 

5 ^mber of Membere. 623 *6. ^ » 

l|iiatntion of Mechanical Engineers, 3O2, 325, 600 ; Annual 
Meetifw of the, 46 

Integral Siculus, a Chapter in the, A, G. Greenhill, 218 
IntertiatiOfnaJ Bureau of Weights and Measures, the, 574 
International Geolcgical Congress, 188, 415, 518, 548; Prof. J. 
PreslwicE, F.R.S., 503 

International Meteorology, Robt. H. Scott, F.R.S., 491 


tnternational Photc^apKic Survey of the Heavens, A$troaoniical 
^^IMtruments for, Sir H. Roscoe, M.P., 3*5 

tnlernationalcs Archiv fiir Ethnographic, SS3 , . ^ . . 

Invertebraia, Further Researches on the Physiology of the, A. 

B. Griffiths, F.R.S. Edin., 285 , ^ 

Iodine, Elimination of Arseniuretted Hydrogen m>m SuF 
phuretted Hydrogen by means of, Dr. Otto Brunn, S/S 
Irby (Lieut.-Colon^ L. Howard), British Birds, Key List, Prof. 

K. Bowdler Sharpe, 587 , ^ „ j ^ « 

Ireland, Flora of the North-East of, S. A. Stewart and T. H. 

Corry, 514 ^ ^ 

Ireland, Technical Education m, 325 
Irish Art, Ancient, 114 
Iron, Cast, Silicon and Sulphur in, 90 
Iron Conductors, Self-Induction in, Prof. J. A. Ewing, 55 
Iron, Electro- chemical Effects on Magnetizing, 11 ., Thos. 
Andrews, 262 

Iron as Oxide in the Organs of Animals, 96 
Iron and Steel Institute, Annual Meeting, 90, 395 
Irruption of Syrrhaptes, the Renewed, Prof. Alfred Newton, 
F.R.S,, 295 

Ii-vine (Robert), Coral Formations, 54 
Irving (Rev. A.), Chemistiy as a School Subject, 596 
Ischikawa (C.) and A. Weismann on Partial Impregnation, 
3*9 

Islands of Vulcano and Stromboli, Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis, 
>3 

Isochronous Regulator, an, M. Baudot, 384 
Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives, Report of the British Asso- 
ciation Committee on, Prof. Armstrong, F. R. S. , 596 
Italy : Meteorology in, 63 ; Italian Meteorological Society 
Meeting, 183 ; Vital Statistics of, 90 ; Geographical Society 
of^, 90; Agricultural Education in Northern, 138; Italian 
Government Commemoration of Discovery of America by 
Columbus, Projected, 487 
izvestia of Russian Geographical Society, 529 


Jacka^ Fishery Expedition, 527 

Jackson (Coring) and Comey on a Sodium Salt of Zincic Acid, 
86 

jaezewski (L. A.), Geological Results of the l^ast SayMi Expe- 
dition, 577 

Jamacia Botanical Department, Bulletin, 63 
Jameson (Mr.), Death of, 526 
Janssen (Dr.), on the Spectrum of Oxygen, 605 
Japan : Natural Science in, 83, 485 ; Asiatic Society of, 87 ; 
Jno Chukei, Dr. Knott’s Biographical Note on, 205 ; Volcanic 
Eruption in, 303 ; Japanese Volcanic Eruption, 466 ; Burial 
Customs of the Ainos, Rev. J. Batchelor, 331 ; Report of 
British Consul at Hakodadi, on the Agriculture of Yeeo, 373 i 
Go-hei” and Shinto Worship, Basil Hall Chamberlain, 396; 
the Bandai- San Volcanic Eruption in, 452; Imperial Jitpan 
University, 552 ; Tables to show the Distribution of Japanese 
Earthquakes in Connection with Years, Seasons, Months, and 
Hours of the Day, Prof. J. Milne, 597 
Jentink (Dr. F. A.), Mammals of Siberia, 137 


Jersey, Lepidoptcra of, Dr, R.^C. R, Jordan, 327 
Jessel and Orndorff, the Chemistry of Modern Methods of manu- 
facturing Chloroform, 598 

Johns Hopkins University, Register for 1887- 88, 230 \ Studies 
from the Biological I.aboratory of, vcl, iv.« No. 4, June 
1888, 356 

Tohnson (Alfred E.), Analyst’s Laboratory Companion, 564 
Johnston-Lavis (Dr.), Recent Eruption in Vulcano^ 596 ] Report 
on Vesuvius, 597 

Joly (A.) and H. Debray, Researches on Ruthenium, 143 
Jones (Chapman), an Introduction to the Science and Practice 
of Photi^aphy, 563 

Jones (K. H.), AsMtos, its Production and Use, 148 
Jordan (Dr. R. C. R.), Lepidoptcra of Jersey, 127 
Jordan’s New Photographic Sunshine Rrcorder» t!8 ^ ■ 

Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, $24 ' 

journal of Botany, 238, 430, 581 ' T- ; 

Journal of the College of Sdence of the Imperial ysuvei 4 |^ wf ' 

Japan, 485 

TfljPiil of the Rittsiatf tnd Cheiniiad ' 

JttiKProf. John W., F.U,S.)! British Pclr^jg^Swi 


ethods of manu- 


22f iSBS] 


INDEX 


XIX 


^ 0 trioc*tions de I'^orcc Terrcstre, Essai de Dt^finitioa 
Nomenclature, 433 

f ul^ Eartb^uake at^ 1^3 
ttlten (Alexia Sonorous Sandsi 515 
ttttw(V. A.), Tables of Recipjocals, 77 
upiter. the Red Spot on, W. F. Dennin(£, 342 
uptter’s Mast, Fresh Calculation of, E. de Haerti, 608 
Jutland t Discovery of Ancient Clay Urns in, 454 ; Excavation 
of a Viking Mound in, 454 ; Oi>ening of the Oyster Banks at 
SUd, 553 ; Discoveiy of Amber in, 598 


K^dy, Froposed Forest School at, 41 
Kara ttrsi in Varna Vineyards, 134, 172 
Kaean Observatory, Jubilee of, 186 
Kent (Saville), Australian Fisheries, 600 
Kcrmadec Islands: Exploration of, iS ; Flora of the, \V. Botting 
Hemaley, daa 

Kew Bulletin. 63, 203, 349, 485, w 

Kew Magnetometer, on some Additions to the, Prof. Thorpe, 
P.R.S., and Prof. Kiicker, P'.K.S., 214 
Kibbler (Dr.), New Stand and Camera for Photomicrography, 
167 

Kilimanjaro ; Exploration of, 19 ; Dr. H. Meyers Ascent of, 259, 

529 

Kina Balu Expedition, 301 

Kinematics and Dynamics, Prof. Ureenhill on, Prof. J. G. 
MacGregor, 149 

Kirchhoff (Alfred), Votapuk or Universal Language, i ; Key to 
the Volapiik Grammar, 1 

Kirkwood (Prof.), the .Short Period Comets and Asteroids, 

H4 

Klapslek (ProfOi Transformations of Bohemian Caddis-dies, 

(Joseph), Michell’s Problem, 542 
Knight (Sw R,)and H. S. Hall, Arithmetical Exercises, 490 
Knott (Dr.), Biographical Note on loo Chukei, 205 
Knowledge, Earth, W. J. Harrison and H, R. Wakefield, 563 
KnuCion (M.), River Mimeh Explored by, 136 
Koenig’s (Dr. A.) Measurements of Intensities of Light in 
Speclrnm, 11^ ; Experiments on Fechners Psycho- Physical 
Law in Relation to Use of >Sight, 464 
Koenig (Dr.J and Dr. von dcr Pfordten, New Chlorine Com- 
pounds of Titanium, 133 

Konigabetg Physico-Eoonomic Society, Prof. F. Idndemann on 
M< 3 ecaiar Physics, 404 

Korxchinsky (M. ), on ve icuhsa^ 160 

Kossel (Dt.), a New Base in Tea, 303 

Krakat^o, the New Vegeution of, Dr. M. Treub, W. B. 
Hemaley. 344 

KmkaitCb Committee of the Royal Society, the Report of the, 

Kwa (M.), on a Telephone with Closed Magnetic Field, and 
Plaque with Equal Concentric Cylindrical Sections, 384 
Kreuta (Dr* H.), Comet 1888 c. Brooks, 397, 503 j Comets 
Brooks and Faye, 528 

Kkuss and Kiesewetter (Drs.), Chemistry of the Rare Earths, 
326 

KUhne (Dr. W.), on the Origin and Causation of Vital Move- 

Kund and T^penbeck (Lieuis.), Expedition into Cameroons, 

tS8 

Kttildt, Proportionality between Velocity of Light, Electric 
Conductivity, and Conduction of Heat in Metals 305 


lAbour in Belgium, Report of Royal Conrmission on Condition 

ct it3J 

lacoapcria (Ptof Terrien), on "the Old Babylonian Characters 
and tlM^ Chinese Dortvates, 122 

I Hypothesis on the Origin of Comets and Meteorites, 

(l^iUan)^ Projected Exploi’ation of, 529 

(Mi 01*), Determination of the Mean Level of the 

Lanmrekftm Ptof* R. Meldola, F.R.S.,i^ ; 

PjNtrd B. 3^ 434 ; Prof, George J, RoOmaiis, 


Lamey (Dom M.), Rin^pf bf Saturn, 19L 23X 
Land and Freah* Water Mollusca of India, H. tl. Godwin - 
Austen, F.R.S*, 3 X^ 

Land of the Pink PeaH, L. D. Powl^, loi ^ * 

Landslip at the, 268 

Langley (B. JK), Further Use of Ptolemy's Theorem (Euclid 
Vl. D) fora Problem in Maxima and Minima, V49 
Langley (P^. M.) and W. S- Phillips, the Harpur Euclid, 218 
Langley (Samuel Picrpoini), the New Astronomy, A. M. Clerke, 
291 , ^ 

Langlois (P, ) and Ch. Richet, on the Influence of the Organic 
Temperature on Convulsions produced by Cocaine, i68 
Lanke^ter (Prof. E. Ray. F.R.S.) t Nose- Blackening as Preven- 
tive af Snow- Blindness, 7 ; Function less Organs, 364 ; Pro- 
phetic Germs, 539, $88 

Lantern, W. l.ant Carpenter, on New Form of, 214 

Laos States, Exploration of, 19 

Lapouge (M. de), Heredity in Political Economy,! 2ia' 

Laramie Group, Relation of the, to Eat Her and Later Forma- 
tions, 189 , ^ 

Latent Colours of BfaBes, M, G. Govi, 631 
Latham (Baldwin), Strange Rise of Wells in Rainless Season, 
198 

Lava, Formation of, Logan T^obley, 597 ^ 

Lavis (Dr. H, J. Johnston), Islands of Vulcano and Stromboli, 
t 3 

Lawrence (H. N ), Thunderstorms and Lightning Accidents, 
172 

lanyard (Consul E. L.) ; an Unusual Rainbow, 270; a Shell 
Collector’s Difficulty, 566 

Le Conte (Joseph), Evolution and its Relation to Religious 
Thought, 100 

Lee (Leslie A.), Recent Visit of NaturaUsls to the Galapagos, 
Dr. P. L. Sclater, F.R.S., 569 

Leech the Medicinal, Nerve Endings in UmtHated Muscle- 
Fibres of, Dr. Heyraans, 264 
Lees (F. A.), Flora of West Vorkshire, 147 
Lehaie (Jcan-Cbarles HouTieau de), Death of, 277 
Lehmann (Prof. J.), Remarks on iiome of the more Recent Publi- 
cations dealing with the Crystalline Schists 549 
Luidi^ (M. ), Resfarches on some Salts of Rhodium, 360 

Lemurs, Placentation of the, an Additional Contribution to the. 
Prof. Sir William Turner, Knl., F.R.S., 190 
Lenard and Howard's Flat Bismuth Spirals for measuring In- 
tensity of Magnetic Field, 577 

Lenses, Focal Length of, Dr. Lumraer, 192 ; Prof, von Helm- 
holtz, 192 

Lepidoptera of Jersey, Dr. R. C. R. Jordan, 327 
Lepidoptera, New Works on, 266 

Lepidopterous Insects, Description of New Indian, from the 
Collection of the late Mr. W. S. Atkinson, F. Moore, 266 
Lq^idositen, GigUoU (Dr.), Prof. G. B, Biowes, 136 
l^pidmrrn paraAoxa^ Another Specimen of, Prof. Henry H. 
Giglioli, 102 

Lesser Antilles, the ^auna and Flora of the, 370 ; H, A, 
Alford Nichoib, 566 

Leihi-us cephalotes^ the, A. J. Shipley, 172 
l^vasseur (Emile), Centenarians w France, 288, 501 
L<ivy (Maurice), on a General Pioperty of Elastic Solid Bodies, 
43 * 

Lewis (Prof, H, Carvill), Death of, 302 

Leyden Jar Discharge, the Oscillatory Character of, 578 

Leyden Museum, Notes from the, vo). x* No- 3, July i88fl^ 

356 

Liane, Report on the Excavations made in the Bed of thq Dr* 
E. T. Haray, 357 

TJberia, Mammals of, Dr. F. A. Jentink, 137 
Lick Observatory, the* 257 ; Prof. Holden, 355 ; Pubtlcations 
of, 43 ; Forthcoming Bland-book of the, i *3 ; a Guide to the. 
Prof. Edward S Holden, 410 
Life, Factors in, H. G, Sedey, F.R.S., 267 
Life Statistics of an Indian Province, S. A* BTiU, 245, 

Dr. Hyde Clarice, 397 

lifting Power of Magnets, Formuke of Bmmonhi and Haecker 
for the, Prof. S. P. Thompson, top 
ligament, on the Laminous^ in the iWtits and Oecultatioug <*f 
Jupiter's Satellites* Ch. Andr^, 632 
Light : Wave-Leitgtns of, Louis Bell, 01 ; a Comparispn of the 
EJaslic and the Electric Theories of Xight, J. WillarJ Gibbs, 


XX 


4A'£>EX 


Nw, MA, tm 


190 ; Circles of Light, Edmund Catchpool, 342 ; Report of 
Effects of Light on ’Water-ColouiB, Dr. W. j. Russell a^d 
Captain Abney, ^8 ; Light' Curve of U Ophiuchi, S. C. 
Chandler, 576 ; ^diacal Light, O. T. Sherman, 594 ; Dr. 
Henry Mutrhead, 618 

lighthouse, St. Catherine's Point, the New Light at, 501 
Lightning, Destruction of Captive Balloon in Barcelona Ex- 
hibition by; 57S 

Lightning, Meteorological Society’s Report on, 338 
Liptning and Milk, F. A. Bather, 30 ; Rev. John Cyprian 
Rust, 103 *■ 

Lightnit^ Photographs, 203, 374, Dr. Oliver J. Lotlgc, F.R.S., 
344 i M. Ch. Moussettc, 432 

Li^ining-Conductors, W. H. Preecc, F,R.S., 546/ Prof. • 
Oliver J. Lodge, 546 ; Hon. Ralph Abercromby, 547 ; Lord ! 
Rayleigh, F.R.S., 547 ; W, de Fonvieile, 547 ; Sidney ; 
Walker, 547 ; G. J. Symons, 547 
Lightning^Flashes of several Seconds’ Duration, Trouvelot, 555 
Lightning' Flashes, Successive, Prof. KHhii Thompson, 305 1 

Lights, Mysterious Sky, W. Mattieu Williams, 102 j 

Lights and Shadows of Melbourne Life, John Freeman, 29 | 

Lime, Fluorescence of Ferruginous, M. Lecoq de Boisbaudran, i 
316 1 

Lindemann (Prof. F.), Molecular Physics, an Attempt at a i 
C^prehensive Dynamical Treatment of Physical and Che- | 
mical Forces, G, W. de Tunzelmann, 404, 458, 578 I 

Lingualumina, or Language of Light, F. W. Dyer, i ' 

Linnseus, Eulogy on, Prof. Fries, 116 i 

Linnean Society, 94, 191, 214; Hundredth Anniversary Meet- 
ing of, S6t 116 t 

Linnean Society of New South Wale'«, 583, 623 
Litbine, on a New Method of Quantitative Analysis for the, i 
contained in a Large Number of Mineral Waters, M. A. | 
Carnot, 360 t 

Liveing (Prof.), on Solution and Crystallization, 215 I 

Livcing and Dewar (Profs.), Investigations on the Spectrum of | 
Magnesium, 165 j 

Liverpool Astronomical Society, 277 | 

Liversidge (A.), the Minerals of New South Wales, 75 t 

Lizards, Scaling of Renewed Tails, G. A. Boulcnger, 215 I 

Lobley (J. L.) : Geology for All, 125 ; Formation of Lava, 597 ] 
Lobsters, Live, sent to California, 327 j 

Lock (Rev. J. B.) ; Arithmetic for Beginners, 76 ; Weight and | 
Mass, 77 i 

lx>ckroy’s (M.) Speech at the Sorbonne on Education, 325 | 

Lockyer (J. Norman, F. R. S. ) : Suggestions on the Clashifica- I 
tion of the Various Species of Heavenly Bodies, 8, 31, 56, 79 ; ^ 
Notes on Meteorites, 424, 456, 530, 556, 602 ; the Maximum 1 
of Mira Get i, 631 ; 

Lockyer (W. J,), a Curious Resemblance, 270 
Locomotion, Rispresentation of the Attitudes of Human, M. i 
Marey, J91 I 

Lodge (A.), the Multiplication and Division of Concrete I 
Quantities, 281 

Lo^e (Dr. Oliver J., F.R.S. ) ; Photography of Lightning, 244 ; 1 
Modern Views of Electricity, 389, 4^6, 590 j on Lightning 
Conductors, 546 

Logarithms, the Elements of, W, Gallatly, 172 
Lwdon, Curve Pictures of, for the Social Reformer, Alex. B. 
Mecdowall, 410 

London, Fuebtesting Station for, Bryan Donkin, 173 
London Mathematical Society, List of Names for the New 
Council, 623 

Lory (Prof. Cb.), on the Constitution and Structure of the 
Crystalline Schists of the Western Alps, 506 
Lossen (Prof. A. K.) Some Questions connected with the 
Problem presented by the Crystalline Schists, together with 
Contributions to their Solution from the Palaeozoic Forma- 
tions, 532 

Lm^inine (W.), Heats of Combustion of Isomerous Acids, 48, 

L^e and Roux, Freezing-Points of Solutions of Organic 
: Compounds of Aluminium, 608 

Lovering (Prof.), Resignation of Chair at Harvard College, 182 
Lowson (Gen.) and John Y. Gray, the Elements of Graphical 
Arithmetic and Graphical Statks, 4 
l.uceme, £1ec*ric Mountain Railway near. 453 
Lummer (Dr.): Movement of Air in the Atmosphere, 193; 
Focal Length of Lenses, 192 


Lunar Eclipse of January 28, t88$, 21 ; as observed at 
‘ 553 

Lunar Rainbow, T. D. A. Cockerell, 365 
Lupton (Sydney), Michell’s Problem, 272, 4 H 
Luvini (Jean), Origin of the Aurora Borealis, 143 


Macallan (John) and Sir C. A. Cameron, on the Compounds cf 
Ammonia with Selenium Dioxide, 4^ 

McCaul (C. C.), the Chinook Wind, 500 
Macclesheld Observations, Cleveland Abbe, 365 
Macdowall (Alex. B.), Curve Pictures of London for tbe Social 
Reformer, 410 

McGee (W. J.), Three Formations of the Middle Atlantic 
Slope, 190 

Maegowan (Dr. D. J.), Taxation in China, 3^4 
MacGregor (Prof.), on Kinematics and Dynamics, 149 
McIntosh (Prof. W. C., F.R.S. 1, Note on the Tarpon or Silver 
King Mm.woVf), 3^*9 

McKendrick (Prof. John Gray, F.R.S.) : the Gases of the Blood, 
376, 399 ; a Text-book of Physiology, Dr. L. C. Wooldridge, 
489 

Mackinder (Mr.), Geography at Oxford, 423 
Maclachan (R., F.R.S. ), on Cold Winters in Relation to 
Insects. 228 

Madagascar, Projected French Mission to map Coasts of, 577 
Madan (H. G.), a Substitute for Carbon Disulphide in Prisms, 
&c . 413 

Magnesium. Investigations on the Spectrum of, Profs. Liveing 
and Dewar, 165 

Magnesium, Photograph of the Eye by Flash of, Prof. Claude 
du Bois-Reymond, 1$ 

MnCTCtism : Magnelic Properties of Iron and Nickel, H. 
’fomlinson, 95 ; CJraphic Treatooent of the Lament -Frolich 
Formula for loducea Magnetism, 95 ; Magnetic Qualities of 
Nickel, Prof. J. A. Ewing, F.R .S., 117, 336 ; Measurements 
in Magnetism and Electricity, Prof. A. Gray, 113; Mag- 
netic and Electric Experiments wdth Soap Babbles, C. V. 
Boys, 162 ; Electricity and Magnetism, a Treatise on, E, 
Mascart and J. Joubert, 241 ; on Magnetic Lag, and the 
Work lost due to Magnetic Lag in Alternating Current 
Transformers, T, H, Blakesley, 14 1 ; Prof. S. P. ITiompson 
on the Formulae of Bernoulli and Haecker for the Lifting 
Power of Magnets, 190 ; Magnetic Determinations in the 
Basin of the West Mediterranean, M. Tb. Mourenux, 359 ; 
Magnetic Charts of the West Mediterranean Basin, M. Th. 
Moureaux, 3«4 ; on an Explanation of the Action of a Magnet 
on Chemical Action, 430 

Magnetometer, Kew, on some .\dditi0n3 to, Prof, Thorpe, 
F.R.S., and Prof. Kiicker, F.R.S., 214 
Magnus (Sir Philip), Report on Technological Examinations, 
1888, 372 

Malet (Sir E. ), Report on Agricultural Education in Nortbem 
Italy, 138 

Mall (Dr. F.) : on the Branchial Clefts of the Dog, with Special 
Reference to the Origin of the Thymus Gland, jSb ; on the 
Developnfent of the Eustachian Tube, Tympanic Membrane, 
and Meatus of the Chick, 356 
Mammal, a New Australian, E. C. Stirling, 588 
Mammalia during Geological Time, PraL A. Gandvy’s Work 
on, 4 

Mammalia, Mesozoic Structure and Classiftoation of, H. F. 
Osborn, 6ri 

Mammals of Siberia, Dr. F. A. Jentink, 137 
Man (E. H,), the Nicobar Islanders, 287 
Man, Strati^phic Palaeontology in Relation to, Maroellin 
Boule, 2X1, 431 

Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, Memobr* and 
Proceedings of, 230 ^ 

Manchuria, Exploration of, 90 

Maneuvrier (G.), on Mechanism of Electrolysis by Process of 
Alternative Currents, 363 
Manganese, Application of, to Metallurgy, 20 
Mangoo (Herv^) : Death of, 86 ; Obituary Notice of, 11 x, i|& 
ManseKPleydell (J. C.), the Birds of Dorsetshire, 1I5 
Mentis, Humming-bird and, G. W. Alexahder, $03 
Training School, C. M. Woodward, $ 

Manure Gravels of Wexford, Mr. Bell, 597 •' 



INDBK 


XXX 


xMS] 


Par««ite, 60S 

Mmoibat (M.)» Alcoholism and Criminality, 135 
Mamt (0r. W. C,, F<R.S.), oh the Measurement of the 
Increase of Humidity In Kooms, lot 
Mord) Stormif H. C. ktusell, F.R.S.« 491 
Maiey (M.), Repreaentaiion of the Attitudes of Human Locomo- 
tion, 191 

Marine Biological Aivociation, Plymouth, 158 ; G. C. Bourne 
electetl Director, 16 ; Opening of, 198, 236 
Marine Biological Laboratory, Wood’s Holf, Massachusetts, 348 
Marine Biology and the Electric Light, ti2; Prof. W. A. 
Hardman,, 130 

Marine Biology, Proposed Station at Ostend, 112 
Marine Telephone, Experiments with, A. Banarc, 464 
Maritime (Intemntional) Conference, 553 
Markham (Commander}, on Hudson’s Bay and Strait, 161 
Marr (J. £. ) and Prof. H, A. Nicholson, the Stockclale Shales, 
1X8 

Mart; M. Perrotin, 95, 216, 258, 311 ; Study of, F. Tcrby, 
119; Markings of, 185, 601; the Canals of, 239; 

Satellites of, 432, 553 ; Physical Aspects of Mars during the 
Opposition of i888, L. Niesten, 511 
Mascart (E ), on the Rainbow, 16S 

Mascart (E.) and J. Joubert, a Treatiae on Electricity and Mag- 
netism, 241 

Mass of Titan, G. \V. Hill, 350 

Mass, Weight and, Prof. A. G. Greenhill, F.R.S., 54 ; Kev. 
John B. Lock, 77 

Massawa District, Prof. I\ Durazzos Map of, 161 
Masters (Lr. Maxwell ‘I*. ) : elected Coresjwnding Member of the 
Institute of France, 182 ; Alpine Strawberry, 327 ; Pflanzen- 
Teratolr^ic, 341 

Mathematics : the Romance of Mathematics, P. Hampson, 
28 ; Mathematical Society, 95, 214 ; Barlow’s Tables of 
Reciprocals, 114; American Journal of Mathematics, 164; 
Plotting, or Graphic Mathematics, R. Wormell, 172 ; Com- 
mercial Mathematics, 196 ; a Chapter in the Integral Cal- 
culus, A. G, (ireenhill, F.R,S., 21S ; a Treatise on Plane 
Trigonometiy, containing an Account of Hyperbolic Func- 
tions, with Numerous Examples. John Casey, F.R.S., 218; 
a^ Higher Arithmetic and Elementary Mensuradon, P. 
Goyen, 118 ; the Harpur Euclid, £. M. Langley and 
W. S, Phillips, 218 ; Mathematical Drawing Instruments, 
W. F. Stanley, 230 ; the Teaching of Mathematics in China, 
Gundry, 485 ; Teoria Elemental de las Determinontes y sus 
Principales Applicaciones al Algebra y la Geometrin, Felix 
Amoretti and Carlos M* Morales, 537 
Matthews (J. W.), Inc wadi Yama, or Twenty Years’ Personal 
Experience in South Africa, 295 
Maorel (Dr. K.)» Anthropolcwical Study of Cambodia, 463 
Maury (Matthew Fontaine), Life of, E. Douglas Archibald, 339 
Maxima and Minima, Further i^Use of Ptolemy’s Theorem 
(Euclid VI. D) for a Problem in, E. M. Langley, 149 
Maximum of Mira Ceti, J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S., 621 
Meaaurement of the Coefficients of Thennic Concluaibility for 
Metalc, M. Alphonse Berget, 359 
Meclumit^ Edward Aveling, 587 
Medbanios, Lessons in Elementary, W. H. Grieve, 244 
M^inmrtmtier^ M, Ch. Lallemand, 191 
Meduwi, on New England, J. Welter Fewkes, 137 

tkriis^n^ Note on the Tarpon or Silver King, 
fipof W. C, McIntosh, F.R.S., J09 
Meikong Riter, Exploration of, 19 

M^lboarpe Life Lights and Shadows of, John Freeman, 29 
MeMdla (Prof, R., F*R,S.) : Lamarklsm versus Darwinism, 388 ; 
Scent Organs of Male Moth, Jierptiuiu J'arsipennaUs, 4S6 ; 
00 the Constitution of the Asonaphihol Compounds, 623 
MeUntIBft’s Rules, on, /or Handling Ships in the Southern 
itidii^ Ocean, Hon* Ralph Abercromby, R.H. Scott., F.R.S., 

Mmh (River), Explored by Mr. Knutson, 136 
de la Soddtd d'Anthropologie, 462 
df pdessa Sode^ of Naturalists, 140 
Races of, ProC Flower, F.R.S,, 44* ^ 

7;), Pqa^blHty of UUlising the African Elephant, ^29 
^ an Elen^ Treatise on, E. T. Henchie, 490 

mt^ndtor iad Clmperpn^t ElectrO' chemical Radiophony, 305 
Company, Agricultural College ptx)jected by 


Merrier (Dr. Chaa), the Nervous System and the Mind, 7 

Mercury and Glass, CoibpresslbiUty of Water, Salt Water, and. 
Prof, P. G. Tait, 581 

Mercury, the Specific Reristance of, 232 

Mercury, Three New Sulpho-chlorides of, Poleck and Goercki, 
527 . ’ , 

Mesoeolc Mammalia, Structure and Classification of, IL hr 
Osborn, fill 

Metallurgy, Application of Manganese to, 90 

Metals, Effects of Different Positive, upon the Changes of 
Potential of Voltaic Couples, Dr. G, Gore, F.R.S., 335 

Meteorites i Diamantiferous Meteorite, Analysis of, MM. lero- 
feieff and Latchinoff, 192 ; Lagrange’s Hyj^hesis on Meteor- 
ites and Comets, M, H. haye, 215 ; on the Orbits of 
Aerolites, H. A. Newton, 250 ; the Meteoric Season, W. F, 
Denning, 276 ; the Bahia or Bendego Meteorite, 349 ; Note*! 
on Meteorites, J, Norman Lockyer, F.R.S., 4*4* 4S^» 53^, 
556, 602 ; on the Mechanical Conditions of a Swarm of 
Meteorites, and on Theories of Cosmogony, Prof. G. H, 
Darwin, F.R.S. , 573 

Meteorology : Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean, 16, 86, 
304, 303, 422. 574 ; Storms in the Philippine Archipelngo, 
16 ; Meteorological Ob^ervato^ efitablishra in Brazil, 42 ^ 
Meteorology in France, 42; French Meteorological Office^ 
^59* 599 J ihe Dacca Tornado, 42 ; Phenomenal Stems 
in India, 42 ; M. Coumbary on Climatology of Con- 
stantinople, 133 ; India, 133; Meteorology in ihe^orth-West 
Provinces of India and Oudh, 278 ; Meteorology in Italy, 63 ; 
Meeting of the Italian Meteorological Society, 183 ; Anti- 
cyclones in Europe, Dr. Broun ow, 63 ; the Relations of the 
Diurnal Barometric Maxima to Conditions of Temperature,. 
Cloud, and Rainfall, H. K. Blanford, F.R.S., 7o*» the 
Rainfall nnd Temperature at Victoria Peak, Hong Kong, Dr. 
W. C. Dobcrck, 78 ; Meteorology of South-East China, Dr. 
W. C. I)olrerck, iiS ; Thermo- dynamics of the Atmosphere, 
Prof, von Bezold, 144 ; M, Kaye’s Theory of Storms, E. 
Douglas Archibald, 149 ; the Incurvature of the Winds in 
Tropical Cyclones, Henry F. Blanford, F.R.S., 181 ; Storm- 
Signals, 183 ; New York Blizzard, 204 ; 'Waterspouis, Grosses- 
Itaffand Dammau8ch,205; Observatory in Heligoland, 205; M. 
Brassard’s Rain-Gauge, 205 ; Ice Wall at Kersriikaranza, 205 ; 
a Meteorologist at the Royal Academy, Hon. Ralph Aber- 
cromby, 225 ; Prizes for Essays on Tornadoes, 229 ; the 
United States Weather Bureau, 229; Report of the Hong 
Kong Observatory for 1887, 229 ; Dr. Hellmann on the Rain- 
fall of the Iberian Peninsuln, 229 ; Reply to Mr. Douglas 
Archibald's Strictures on the Storm Laws, H. Faye, 263 ; Re- 
port of the Berlin Society of, 278 ; Temperature of 1887-88, 
C, Harding, 238 ; the Weather in the Doldrums, Hon. Ralph 
Abercromby, 238 ; Royal Meteorological Society, 238 ; Does 
Precipitation influence the Movement of Cyclones ?, H. Helm 
Clayton, 301 ; Wragge** Daily Weather Charts for Australia^ 
303 ; International Meteorological Committee, 326 ; American 
Meteorological Journal, 326 ; Trans- Mississippi Rainfall, 326 ; 
Year-book of the Magdeburg Journal, 348 ; Annuaire of the 
Municipal Observatoi|r of Montsouris, 348 ; Dr. £. Bruckner, 
Observations at Kingua Fjord (Cumberland Sound), 374 ; Dr. 
Buys Ballot on the Distributtofi of Temperature over the 
Surface of the Earth, 374 ; Portuguese Government, Meteoro- 
l^ical Signals, 396 : Winter Temperature of Werchojansk, 
Siberia, 303 ; on a Recent Change in the Views of Meteoro- 
logists regarding Gyratory Movements, M. H. Faye, 4O8 ; 
Storm Warnings, M. de Bort, 419 ; American Meteorological 
Magazine, July, 422 ; Symons's Monthly Meteorological 
Magazine, Au^t, 422 ; Climate of the British Empire, 422 ; 
Meteorolwical Stations in the United States, Lohiness of,. 
453 ; the Central Meteortalt^ical Observatory of Mexico, 454 ; 
Meteorological Service of Cape of Good Hope, 454 ; 
Meteorologische Beobachtungm in Deutschland, 486 ; 
Meteorology of St. Helena, 486 ; the March Storms, H, C, 
Russel), F.R,S., 491; International Meteorology, Robert 
11. Scott, F.R.S., 491 ; Meteorological Report for Bengal, 
574; Meteorological Reports of Straits Settlements, 51^4 
the Chinook Wind, C. S. McCaul, 592 j Torrential Rainfall 
in Gertnany, Dr. G. Hellmann, 50a ; Hand-book of Meteoro- 
logical Tables, Prof.. H. A. Hasen, 527 ; Bibliogra^diy o£ 
Meteorologty, C. J. Sawyer’s, 574 ; G. Rollin on Synoptic 
Charts, 575 ; Meteouological Obiiervations mode in Russia and 
Siberia during the Eclipse of the Sun of August 19, 1887^ 




xxti 


"AJ'.V--, 


.JiSijA 




Prof He»ehiUi 625 ; Contributions to our Kno^letlge of tho 
Meteorology of the Arctic RegloiH^ 6a5 
Meteors ; Meteor seen at Kalmar^ Sweden, 15^ ; Meteor seen 
from 8.P. jPrefmftA^Sf C. Weatherall Baker, 203 ; Meteor 
eeen at Smdiand, Sweden, 328 ; a History of the August, W. 
F, l)^mag;i 393 ; Meteor, Lieut. -Colonel H. W, L. Hime, 
414 ; Meteor wen at IJnkoping, Sweden, 422 ; Zodiacal Light 
and Meteors, T. W. BackhouNe, 434 ; Brilliant Meteor in 
Sweden, 527 

Meitico : the Central Meteorological Observatory of, 454 \ Severe 
Earthn^iake in, *485 

Mmr (Dr. A. B.), on the Reappearance of PalWs Sani 
Grouse (S^rrAapiies faratfoxus) in Europe, 53, 77, 34* ; F. M. 
Campbell, 77 ^ 

Meyer*a (Dr. 11.) Ascent of Kilimanjaro, 239, 529 j the German 
East African Possessions, 305 
Meyrick (E.), Pyralidina of the Hawaiian Islands, 95 
Michael (A. I>.), on Acari, 94 

Michel'Levy (A.), on the Origin of the Primitive Crystalline 
Rocks, 525 

Michell’s Problem, Sydney Lupton, 272, 414 ; Joseph Kleiber, 

342 

Microbism and Abscess, M. Verneuil on, 488 

Micrometer, Airy's Double- Image, J, A. C. Oudemans, 120 

Micromillimetre, Frank Crisp, 221 ; Arthur W. Kiicker, 

F.R.S., 344 

Micro-Organisms of Air and Water, the, Dr. Percy F. Frank- 
land, 233 

Microscopical Science, Quarterly Journal of, 91, 430 
Microscopy : Camera Lucida ; Adapter ; Microscope, by M. 
Dumaige, 167 ; New Stand and Camera, Dr. Kibbler, 167 ; 
HcLplodiscu^ pig€i\ W. F. R. Weldon, 430 ; Ornithorhyechus, 
E. B. Poulton, 430 ; Note on Microscopy, Prof. Aser Poll, 
^31 ; South lx»ndon Microscopical and Natural Hisiory Club, 

Mikluho-Maclay, Dr. O. Finsch cm his W^o.k, 424 
Milan Double- Star Observations, Prof. Schiaparelli, 423 
Milk r'. Fire, F. M. Wlckramnsingha, 343 
Milk, Lightning and, F. A. Bather, 30; Rev. John Cyprian 
Rust, 103 

Miller (J. B.), Dr. W. Bott and, Pyrocresols, 596 
Milne (Prof. John) Japanese Order bestowed on, 302 ; Tables 
to show the Distribution of Japanese Earthquakes in Connec- 
tion with Years, Seasons, Months, and Hours of the Day, 597 
Milne {Rev^ John), Companion to the Weekly Problem Papers, 
716 

Mtnd ofih« Child, the, Prof. W. Preyer, 49° 

Mlhd, the Nervous System and the, Dr. Chas. Mercier, 7 
Mine-Surveyingy a Treatise on, Beiraett H. Brough, C. Lc Neve 
Foster, 317 

Mineralogy : Artificial Production of Di-calcium and Pharma- 
colUc, M. Dufet, 17 ; the Study of, Prof. Sterry Hunt, F.R.S., 
596 ; Mineralogical Evolution, Prof. Sterry H unt, 597 
Mlnetaiqgical Magazine, 2 $7 
Miheralogical Society, 71, 287 

Minerals of New South Wales, the, A. Civersidge, 75 
Minimum Thermometer, on the Grass Dr. W. Doberck, 619 
Minnesota, Report of Geological and Natural History Survey, N. 
H, WinChelf, 206 

Minor Planets, New, 88, 115, 331 ; Herr Palisa and M. Charlois, 
43 ; Names of, 351 ; Minor Planet No. 275, 554 
Mfra Cetl, Maadmum of, J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S., 621 
Mirage, Remarkable, on the Baltic, 304 
Missions^ French Scientific, 255 
Mkchell (L), Manual of Practical Assaying, 148 
Mitchell (P, ChaJfners), Dr, August Weismannon Heredity, 156 
Mobangi, the KivW, Exploration of, 1 8 
Modern Views of RJectridty, Prof. Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S., 

a Balloon Joumgr, 48 

Motecular I^yaics, an Attempt at a Comprehensive Dynamical 
Treatment off Physical and Chemical Forces, Prof. F. Linde- 
jpfcnn, G. W. He Tuhaclmann, 404, 458, 578 
MoHosca, the Land an^ Fresh-water, of India, H. H. Godwin* 
Attsten, r,R,S., 217 

Monge^a Differential Equation to all Conics, Geometric Inter- 
gmation of, Prof. Atptosh Mukhopadhyay, I9;7, 3^, 

05 


Sdenlific Investigator, the, 237 


^ 

Monkey. Three Ftri tervicaJ Nervwin tbe^ Cbga & 
and victor HbnU#, 'F.R.S., 357 
Monsoon Storms in Bengal, 138 
Mont Blapc, Three Days on the Summit ofi 33 
Monte Video, Earthqu^es In, 256 
Moon, Curious Apparent Motion of the, in Australia, 

Reade. t02 

Moore (Frederick), Description of New Indian Lepld6)|rtefoiis 
Insects from the Collection of the late W, S. Atkinson, 266 
Moors of Ceylon, EthnolMry of, P. Ramanathan, 135 
Morales (Carlos M.) y FrfuSc Amoretti, T^oria EleuMtital do la* 
Determinaotes stts Principales ApHoaciones at Algebra y la 
Geometrfa, 537 

Morgan (Prof, C. Lloyd), Natural Selection and EUmiaatlon, 

370 

Morgan (T. H.), on Experiments with Chilln Solvents, 33® 
Morley (Dr.), Valency, 596 
Morocco, Joseph Thomson's Explorations in, 398 
Morocco, Timfwdon saUator in, 133 

Morris (Dr. G. H.) and H, T. Brown, Determination of 
Molecular Weights of Carbo-Hydrates, 1 17 
Moths of India, Catalogue of the, 624 
Motor, the Sun, Captain John Ericsson, 319 
Mouchet (Admiral), Report of Paris Observatory, 179 
Mount Lou Craters, History of Changes in, II., J. D. Dana, 

462 

Mountain- Formation, History of the Contraction-Theory of, 
Charles Davison, 30 

Moureaux (M. Th.), Magnetic Determinations in the Basin of the 
West Mediterranean, 339, 384 
Moussette, (M. Ch.), Lightning Photographs, 43* 

Mueller Glacier, New Zealand, on the Veined Structure of the, 
F. W. Hutton. 77 

Mugnier (Dr.), the Hand and P'igure of Native East Indians, 

463 

Muir (Dr. Thos.), Nomenclature of Determinants, 589 
Muirhead (Dr. Henry), Zodiacal Light, 618 
Mukerjee (S. B.), Elementary Hydrostatic!, with Numerous 
Examples, 76 

Mukhopadhyay (Prof. Asuloab), the Geometric Interpretatkm of 
Monge’s Dlnerential Equation to all Contes, 173, 197, 564 
Multiplication and Division of Concrete Quantities, A. Lodge, 
281 

Munk (Prof.), Catgut as a Limitare, 312 
Muntz (M. A.), Analysis of me NHe Waters, 360 
Murphy (Joseph John), Functionleis Ormns, uif 
Muscle* Fibres, the Structure of Striated, Dr. Benda, 360 
Muscular Movements in Man, and their Evolution in the Infiuit, 
a Study of Movement in Man, and its EvolutioOi Ftoncis 
Warner, M.D., 238 
Mus^ Guinet, Opening of the, 255 
Mnsenm Association, Proposed, 41 
Museum, Australian, Report of, 575 
Museum, Dublin Science and Art, 114 
Mushketoff (Prof.), Report on Earthquakes at Vyemyi, X04 
Mysterious Sky Lights, W. Mattieu Williams, io2 
Myth of Ibicus, Recurrence atnong the Provenvals, H, I4 Dr. 
B^renger-Fdrand, 212 


Nansen (Dr. Fridtjof) : Greenland Expedition, 302^ 372 ; 

Scarcity of Seals on the Coast of Greenlandt 4*3 
Natural History Collections, British Muaenm, 487 
Natural History of the Koman Numemla, Edw« Tiogeari 385 
Natural Selfctioii, Definition of the Theory ol^ Frof. Oeo; J. 
Romanes, F.R.S., did 

Natural SritOtion and Eliminatioaf Frof. C. Xio^d MomUi tyib 
Natural Seienoe tn Japan, S3 < 

Natural Sci^ce, the Services of Catholic Mifesionaries hft the 
East to. 434 

Naturalists, German Assodation of, Maettng at Cobgaa* 4A 
Naturalists, ReCent Visit of, to the Oalapagoa, 

Sdater, LesBe A. Lee^ 569 :;r r 

Nature, FreUki of, Mhjor D, Ersldhe, 104 i C, ft. SiWkiM 
Naturals Fairy-Umd, Hamhlas by Woodland, Maadoikry 
and^vore, H. W. 8. Woreley^Bmiibe, *4^ ^ 

Nnvy, the Choice of a Chemiat to the, afis , 

Neandertba! Race, the Tibia in the, Piof. JullU* FndpoalK: 



. aa. 






Ether palorimeter, 

10 Mwui'ement of the Velbetty of 


etherification. 


KeImM t?ror-)i on (be Orisin of the Dog, 8? 

:^^lUtnC Skull, Dft To^nard on, 2t2 

and PaUeolbhic Kinds in Southern India, Hruce Foo^e, 

i!iF«^Tldia» the^ of Earthworms, Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer, 
t^7 ; Frank E. Beddard, 221 
Nerve, Transplantation of, from Rahbti to Man, 88 
Nerve-Centres and their Modes of Action in expressing Thought, 
Pr. Francis AVamer, 238 

Nerves 3 on' the Comparison of theCranial with the Spinal, Dr. 
Vf. H. Gaskell, F.R.S., 19; Note on some of the Motor 
Functions of certain Cranial Nerves, and of the Three First 
Cervical Nerves in the Monkey {Afaca^us simeus). Dr. Charles 
E. ^etfvorand Victor Horsley, F.R.S., 357 
Nervous System, Anatomy of the Central, of Vertebrate 
Animals, Alfred Sanders, 92 
Nervous System and the Mind, the, Dr. Chas. Mercicr, 7 
Nesting Habit of the House Sparrow, G. L. Grant, 590 
NetehayefiT (M.), on Fossils of Caspian Sea, 160 
Neutral Chloride of Platinum, M. Engel, 396 
New Cross Institute, the Goldsmiths’ Company, Proposed, 574 
New England Medtisse, on, J. Walter Few'kes, 137 
New Guinea, British, 555 

New Guinea, Explorations and Adventures in, Captain John 
Straeban, 315 

New South Wales : the Minerals of, A. Liversidge, 75 ; Journal 
of the Royal Society of, 206 
New York BlUzard, 204 

New Zealand: Reports on the Geological Survey of, 53; the 
Plague of Rabbits in, 87 ; Fossil Fish Remains from, 137 ; 
•Sir Walter fiuller’s History of the Birds of, 159 ; Deer in, 
3^ ; Earthquakes in, 452 

Newman (Edward), Birdsnesting and Birtl-skinning, a Com- 
plete Description of the Nests and Eggs of Bird^ which breed 
in Britain, 587 

Newton (Prof. Alfred, F.R.S.) : the Renewed Irruption of 
Syrrhaptes, 103, 295 ; the Boy>' V'arrell. 145 
Newton ^rof. H A.), the Orbits of At:^olite^, 63, 250 
Newton (Sir Isaac), Bibliography of the Works of, 184 
NichoDs (H. A. Alford), Fauna and Flora of the Lesser Antilles, 
566 

Nichols (Prof.), on Carbon and Copper Combined to form a 
Compensated Resistance Standard, 232 
Nicholson (Prof. U. A.) and J. E. Marr, the Slockdale Shales, 

118 

Nicikel, Magnetic Qualities of, Prof. J. A. Ewing, 117, 336 
NicoW Islands, Colonel Slrahtn, 115 ; E. H. Man, 287 ; Dr. 
Svoboda, 501 

Nicol (Dr.), Report of the British Association Committee on 
the Properties of Solutions, 596 

Niestan (L), Physical Aspects of Mars during the Opposition of 
iBSS, cii 

Sky-coloured Clouds at, K. T. Omond, 220 
NUf Delta, the Borings in the, Colonel l urner, 63 
Nile Waters, Analysis of the, M. A, Muntz, 360 
Nilson (Prof.) and Prof. Peitersaon, Vapour^Densitics of Chromic 
Chlorides, 624 

Nitrogen, Remarks on the Quantitative Analysis of, in Vegetable 
Sous, MM. Bertbelot and G. Andre, 359, 408 
KHropheiiol, Metallic Derivates of Ortho- and Para- nit rophenol, 
Pm/Camelly and Mr. J. Alexander, 14 f 
NomeWclmture of Determinants, Dr, Thos, Muir, 589 
N^n-Chinese Races of China, Mr. Bourne's Report on the, 345 
N)Qirit& America : Synoptical Flora of. Prof, Asa Gray* J. O. 

F.R.S,, 24a; the Stratigmphical Succession of the 
C^brliU) Faunas in^,prof. Chas. B, Walcott, 551 

Ariapric Ocean* Pilot Charts of; 86* 143, 204, W3, 574 
Ntl^y* Earthquakes in, 16, 42 ;; Dr. Hans ReusclTs Report 
{ Ancient Canoe found in, 134; Cod and Whale 
Mn North ofj 160 ; ImplcmenU found in Mound 
; koi sT^tenae Heat in, 304 ; Ring-Throstle Nesting 

S iiN^rwegleh Geology, Dr. Hans Rausch, 194; Nor- 

beni^ as f^eniive of Snow-Blrndnets, Prof. E* 
imM&kqster, Ed^ Power, 7 j Dr, Robert 

^ ‘.A* J. 


Nossilof's Exploration of Novaya Zcmlya, 555 
Nova^ Zemlya, Nossllors Exploration oC 5^5 
NumMrs, the Cardinal, Manley Hopkins, a) 

Numbers, Prime, on certain Jnequalities Relating to, Prof. J. 
J. Sylvester, F.R.S., 259 

Numerical Examples in Practical Mechnnics and Machine 
Design, Robert G, Blaine, 563 
Nuovo Giornale Butanico Italiano, July, 431 


Observatories : Americar Observatories, 231, 626 ; Heligoland 
Observatory, 205 ; Jubilee of Kazan, 186 ; the Lick, 257 ; 
Publications of, 43; Forthcoming Hand-book of tl^e, 113; 
ProL Edward S* Holden on the, 355 ; Central Meteorological, 
of Mexico, 454 ; Oxford Univeraiiy Observatory, 227 ; Pro- 
posed Connection between Paris and Greenwich, 527 ; Pro- 
jected Astronomical, at Pekm, 302 j Yale College Oraervatory^ 
397 

Ocean Currents, Distribution of Animals and Plants by, A. W. 

Buckland, 245 ; Isaac C. 1 'hompson, 270 
Odstreil (Dr. Johann), Death of, 277 
Ohm, Determination of the, M. H. Wuilleumiet, 168 
Oil, Use of, in Smoothing Waves in Stormy Weather, 16 
Omond <R. T.), Sky-Coloured Clouds at Nuht, 220 
Oolitic and Carboniferous Rocks, Horace W^dward, 597 
Ophiuchi, U, Light-Curve of, S. C. Chandler, 576 
Opossum, Monkey and, 25^ 

Oppert (Prof.), on the Original Inhabitants of Bhamtavarsa, 373 
Optical Model, on an. Prof. A. W. RUckcr, P'. U.S., 287 
Optics, Experiments on P'echner's Psycho-physical Law in 
Relation to Sense of Sight, Dr. A. Kbnig, ^4 
Orbits of Aerolites, on the, II. A. Newton, 250 
Organic Substances, the Slow Combustion of, Th. Scbloesiog, 
48 

Oigans, Functionless, the Duke of Argyll, F.R.S,, 34T, 411 ; 
Prof. E. R# Lankester, F.R.S., 364 ;J. T. Hurst, 364; 
Prof. J. Burdon-Sanderson, F.R.S,, Samuel F. Wilson, 387; 
J. J. Murphy, 41 1 ; William White, 412 
Origin and Causation of V^ital Movement, on the, Dr. W, 
Kiihne, 627 

Origin, the, and Growth of Religion as Illustrated by Celtic 
Heathendom, Prof. J Rh^s, 361 
Origin of Species, Dr. Eimer on the, 123 
Orndorff and Jcssel, the Chemistry of Modern Meth:>d of 
Manufacturing Chloroform, 598 

Ornithology ; on the Reappearance of Pallas’s Sand GrouVe 
{SyrrhapUs paradoxus) in Europe, Dr. A, B. M^er, 53, 77, 
342 ; F. M. Campbell, 77 ; Prof. Alfred Newton, F.R.S., 103, 

1 1 2, 295 ; a Specimen presented to the Zoological Gardens, 
132; W. B. Tegetmeier on, 230; the Geographical Dis- 
tribution of the Family Cbaradriidae, Henry Seebohm, IL 
Bowdlcr Sharpe, 73 ; the Birds of Dorsetshire a Cofitribution. 
to the Natural History of the County, J. C. Mansel-Pleydell, 
R. BoiVdler Sharpe, 125; Notes on the Birds of Hertford- 
shire, Henry GraveMulT, Prof. R, Bowdlcr Sharpe, 125 ; the 
Illustrated Manual o? British Birda, Howard Saunders, Prof. 
Alfred Newton, F.R.S., 145; Ring-Throstle Nesting in 
Norway, 304; Argentine Ornithology, P. L. Sclater, F.R..S., 
and W. H. Hudson, 587; British Birds, LUt. Lieut. - 
Colonel L. Howi^ Irby, ^7 ; Birdsnesting and Bird- 
skinning, a Complete Description of the Nests and Eggs of 
Birds \\hicb Breed in Britain, Edward Newman, Prol. R. 
Bowdler Sharpe, 587 ; Bird Pests of the Farm, 599 
Osborn (H. F. ), Structure and Clatsification of Mesozoic 
Mammalia, 611 

Osmium, Atomic Weight of, Frof, Seubert, 183 
Osteology of Parzana careUm^ 279 

Oudemans (J^ A. C.), on Airy's Double-Image Micrometer, ipo 
Ouvrard (M. L.) ; on the Action of the Alkaline Phosphates m 
the Alkaline -Earthy Oxidtss, i68 ; on some New DonMe 
Phosphates in the Magnesium Series, 216. 

Owen Stanley Peak, Forbes on his Attempts to reach the, 4H 
Oa ens College, 4I 

Oxalic, Malonic, Succinic, and Methyl- Succink Adds, on the 
Relative Toxicity of, and of their SoAtam Salts, Dr. Heymans, 
360 , 

Oxford : Geography »t, Mr, Mackinder, 423 ; University 
Observatory, 2I7 



xxiv 


lUDEX 


IJNihtri, Mv^ n. ■' 


Oiiygen f'urtucje, Fletcfcer’s Comprensed, 606 
Oxygen, Spectrum of, Dr. Janssen on, 605 
Oyster Banks of Denmark, the, 114, 553 
Osone, on the l^ro^uction of, by Electric Streaks, MM. Bichat 
and Qunt;r, 3S4 


l^agus Cap-Sizun, Cap du Kar, on the Population of the 
Ancient, MM. Le Carguet and P. Topinard, ai2 
PalLBoIithic Type, fmplement of, in America, 184 
Palaeontology : Les Anc£lres de Kos Animaux dans les Temps 
Geologiques, Albert Gaudry, 4 ; Stratigraphic Paloeontology 
in ReTation to Man, Marcellin Boule, 211, 431 ; Pafteonto- 
logical Society, 239 : a Quaternary Equidean, M. Poliakod', 
309 ; Palasontology in Austria-Hungary, M. M. Homes, 
357 ; Testudo perphtianaj P. Fincher, 464 
PalcBozoic Formations, some Questions connected with the 
Problems presented by the Crystalline Schists, together wkh 
Contributions to ilwir Solution from the, Prof. K. A. Los&en, 
522 

Palestine, the White Race of, Prof. A. H. Sayce, 321 
Palgrave (W. Gifford), Death of, 552 
Palisa (Herr) and M. Charlois, New Minor Planets, 43 
Palisa (279), Observations of New Planet, MM. Rambaud and 
Sy, 143 

Pallas’s Sand Grouse {SyrrhapU-^ paradoxus)^ on the Reappear- 
ance of, in Europe, 103, 1 12, 158, 295 ; Dr. A. B. Meyer, 53, 
77* 34* ; F. M. Campbell, 77 : in Denmark, W. B. Teget- 
meier, 230 ; presented to the Zoological Gardens, 132 
Paper, Botanical Drying, 183 
Parasites of the Hessian Fly, 221 

Paris: Academy of Sciences, 23, 47, 71, 95, 118, 143, 168, 191, 
2t5. 239* 288, 31 1, 359, 383, 408, 431, 463. 488. 512. 

1 29* 560, 583, 60S, 631 ; Paris Geograpnical Society, 66 ; 
Report of Paris Observatory, 179 ; Terrestrial Globe at the 
Exnibition of 1889, I&3 ; Projected Scientific Congresses in 
Paris, 255 ; Professorship of the Darwinian Theory at the 
Sorboune, 276 ; Introduction of Electricity into the Paris 
Omnibus Service, 527 ; Astronomical Society, 336 ; Revue 
d'Anthropoiogie, 357; Anthropological Exhibition, 371 
Parish Patches, A. Nicol Simpson, 341 
Parkes Museum, 485 

Parkhurst (Henry M,), Photometric Observations of Asteroids, 
5S4 

Parnell (J.), Transparency of the Atmosphere, 270 
Pasteur (M.), Cure of Cholera by Inoculation, 395 
Patents, Designs, and Trade-Marks, Report of the Comptroller- 
General, 349 

Pavie (M.), Indo-China Explorations, 424 
Peabody Institute, the Library of the, 229 
Pearls, Chemical Composition of, George Harley, p.R.S., and 
H. S. Harley, 2i 

Fekelheriog (M.), on the Proliferation of £ndothe]ium*CelU in 
Arteries, 216 

Pekin, Projected Astronomical Observatiflfy at, 302 
Pendulum : on a Point in the History of the, M. Defforgcs and 
M, C. Wolf, 1 91 ; Experiments wuh a Non -Oscillating, M. 
A, Boillot^ 192 

Pendulum Seismograph, Duplex, Prof. J. A. Ewing, 30 
Perchloride of Galium, on the Vapour-Density or the, M. C. 

PriedetandL M. Crafts, 384 
Perlewitz (Dr.), Aperiodic Variations of Temperature, 119 
Perrotin (M.) : Observations of the Channels in Mars, 95, 216, 
358, in ; the Rings of Saturn, 316 
Perry (Prof, J., F.R.S.): Apparatus for the Measurement of 
the Coefficient of Expansion by Heat, 141 ; and Prof. W. £. 
Ayrton, on Electromotors, 190 
* Perseite, Maquenne, 608 

Personal Identification and Description, Francis Galton, F,R.S., 

173. 

Persnlphide of Hy<Irogen, the Composition of, Dr. Rebs, 

278 

Petermann^s Mittheilungen, 601 

Petttrsson (Prof.) ana Prof. NUson, Vapour* Densities of 
Chromic Chloridei, 634 

Petrography, British, J. J* Harris Teall, Prof. John W. Judd, 
"F.KtS., ^5 

P^rotogyt Prof Rosenbuich^s Work on, 30 
Pflanxen-Teratologie, Maxwell T. Masters, 341 


PharmacoUte : Artificial Production of, M. Dtifet, ij ) Opticttf 
Properties of, 23 

Phenacite and the Emerald, Reproduction of, 240 
Philippine Archipelago : Storms in the, t6 ; the Tamaron of 
the, Dr. P. L. Sclater^ F.R.S , 363 ; Volcanic Eruption in, 
528 . 

Phillips (W. S.), E. M. I^ngley and, the Harpur EttcUd, aiB 
Philosophical Society of Cambridge, 215 
Philosophy from an Anthropological Point of View, Dr. Fau- 
velle, 462 

Philothion, J. de Rey-Pailhade, 264 

Phipson (H. M.), the Poisonous Snakes of the Bombay 
Presidency, 284 

Phosphates, on some New Double, in the Magnesian Series, M. 

L. Ouvra^d, 216 

Photography : Photograph of the Eye by Flash of Magnesium, 
Prof. Claude du Bois-Reymond, ; Photographic Chart of 
the Heavens, 38, 180 ; Photographic Survey of the HeaYens, 
International, Astronomical Instruments for, Sir H. Roscoe, 

M. P., F.R.S , 325 ; Anschutz’s Instantaneous Photoginaphs, 
119: Proposed Intel-national Exhibition of Amateur rhoto- 
graphs and Photographic Apparatus in Vienna, 132 ; Lightning 
Photographs, 203 ; Lightning Photographs, Ch, Moussette, 
432 ; Photography of Lightning, Dr. Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S,, 
244 ; Landscape Photography, by H. P. Robinson, ajo ; 
Meeting of the Photographic Convention, Birmingham, 276 ; 
Adaption of a Telescope for Photography, 257 ; the Photo- 
grapher’s Note-lwok, Si'' David Salomons, 269 ; an Intro- 
duction to the Science and Practice of Photography, Chapman 
Jones, 563 ; the Beginneris Guide to Photography, 588 ; the 
Solar Parallax from Photographs of the Last Transit of 
Venus, 600 

Photometric Intensity of the Coronal Light during the Solar 
Eclipse of August 28*29, 1886, on the Determination of the, 
Captain W. de W. Abney, F.R.S., and T. E. Thoi^c, 407 
Photometric Observations of Asteroids, Henry M. Parkhurst, 
554 

Photometry of Colour, Captain W. de W. Abney, F.R.S., 286 
Photometry of Colour, Captain W. de W. Abney, F.R.S., and 
Major-General Fesling, F.R.S., 212 
Physical Balance, Theory and Use of, J. Walker, X46 
Physical Geography, Eclectic, Russell Hinman, 615 
Physical Society, 22, 94, 141, 190. 2x3, 286 
Physician, the, as Natu^ali^t, Prof. Gairdner, 347 
Physics and Chemistry, Applications of Dynamics to,' J. J. 
Thomson, F.R.S., 585 

Physics, Molecular, an Attempt at a Comprehensive Dynamical 
Treatment of Physical and Chemical Forces, Prof. F, Linde- 
I nmnn, G. W. de Tunzelmann, 404, 458, 578 
Physics in Schools, Teaching of, 500 

Physiology : Physiological Society of Berlin, 96, 340 ; an 
I Elementary Text -book of Physiology, J. McGregor Ro^nson, 

99; a Text-book of Physiology, J. C. McKendrick, F.R.S., 
Dr. L. C. Wooldridge, 489 ; a Text-book of Physiology, M. 

I Foster, F.R.S., 564; Prof. Gad on Prof. Pick's Scheme oS 
Blood-pressure in the Capillaries, X20 ; the Blood-vessels of the 
Eye in Carnivora, Dr. H. Virchow, 264 ; the Ner\'e-endi^ 
in Unstriated Muscle-fibres of Medicinal Leech, Dr. Heymans, 
264 ; Further Researches on the Physiology of the luvertehratib 
A. B. Griffiths, F.R.S. Edin., 285 ; the Minute Structure of 
Striated Vessels in Vertebrata and Arthropoda. 264 ; Pulia- 
tion in the Lower Animal Organisms, Dr. de Bruyne, 310 
Piclering (Prof. Edward C,), the Progress of the Henry 
Memorial, 306 

Pidgeon (D.)t Sonorous Sands, 590; a Shcll-CoUectoris Dld- 
culty, 590 

Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean, 16, 86, 204, 303, 4l2| 

Pink^ Pearl, the Land of the, L. D. Poiii^es, loi 
Pisciculture : Export of Salmon Ova to the Argentine Re|iub(i^ 
xi| ; Acclimatisation of Salmonldm in Tasmania, P. $. Seager^ 

Pitt-Rivers (iycm.-Genert^^ F.R,?.). Opening AMtm ixi 
Section H (Anthropology) at the British AssodAtl^ llfi, 

54a f', ’'L, 

Flacentation of the Lemurs, an Additional Contdbtttlbti 1 
Prof. Sir WUham Turner, F. R. S. , X90 
iK^xgyddus Gf Mmurus) fir0^v 349 

Planobon (M. Vlctor),i on the Quandtattve Anaty^ d/OMkM 
by Oxidation, 360 w , 


INDEX 


XXV 


as, i$to] 


Triigonomatry^ % Treatise on, John Casey, F.R.S,, 

iPunatft, Minor : New Minor, 88, 11$, 231 ; Herr Palisa and 51 . 
dMurloiSj 43 ; Names of, 351 

Plants: piaicmiiiation of, by Birds, W. Hotting Hemaley, 53 ; 
Aiuttkioium in, Prof. Church, 228 ; Distribution of Animals 
'and Plants by Ocean Currents, A. W. Buckland, 245 ; Isaac 
Ci Thompson, 270 ; Dispersion of Seeds and, £. L. Layard, 
296; Geological of, Sir J. W. Dawson, F. R.S., 

5,^ ; Influence of Eclipse on Plants and AnimaH, 625 
Platinum : Ignition of, in Different Gases, Dr. W. R. Hodg- 
kinson, 6 ; Neutral Chloride of, M. Engel, 396 ; Discovery 
of a New Platinum Base, Dr. H. Alexander, 256 
Platycnemia in Mon and the Anthropoda, Manouvrier, 463 
Plotting, or Graphic Mathematics, R. Wormell, 172 
Plymouth, Opening of the Marine Biological Laboratory at, 
198, 236 

Poincart^ (M. H.), on the Equilibrium of a Heterogeneous Mass 
in Rotation, 168 

Poison of the Hyraenoptera, M. G. Carlet, 216 

Poisonous Snakes of the Bombay Presidency, H. M. Phipson, 

284 

Poieck and Goercki (Drs.), Three New Sulpho-chlor/dc'i of 
Mercury, 527 

PoU (Prof. Aser), Note on Microscopy, 431 
Poliakoff (M. ), a t^uatcrnary Lqiiidean, 309 
PclUical Economy, Heredity in, M. de Lapouge, 212 
Polytechnic Institute, the, 73 
Polytechnic Institutes in South London, 155 
Population of the Ancient Pagus-Cap^Sizun, Cnpe du Raz, 
MM. Ic Carguet and P. Topinard, 212 
Portuguese Government and Meteorological Signal^, 396 
J^rtana Carolina, the Osteology of, 279 

Potato Disease, Earpevimenl on the Treatment of the, M, 
Prillieux, 432 

Potsdam, Publications of the Astrophysical Observatory, 206 
Pottery Collection, David T. Day, 206 
Potts^T. H.), Death of, 527 

Poulton (Edward B.): on Dr. Koniancs’s Article in the tV;/* 
tfmforary RiDte%if for June, 295 ; l.amarcki»m venous Darwin^ 
ism, 388, 434 ; on the Tiue I'eeth and on the Horny Plates 
of Ornithorbynchus, 430 

Power (Edmund J,), Nose-blackening as Preventive of .Snow- 
Blindness, 7 

Power, Electric Transmission of, Prof. Ayrton, F. R.S., 508, 


538 

Powles tL. D.), the Land of the Pink Pearl, loi 
Practical Mechanics and Machine Design, Numerical Examples 
iff, Robert G. Blaine, 563 

Precipitation, Does it mfluence the Movement of Cyclones?, 
H. Helm Clayton, 30* 

Preeoe (W. H., F.R. S.): on the Healing Effects of Electric 
Currents, 93 ; on Lightning-Conductors, 546 ; Opening Ad- 
dress in iiection G (Mechanical Science) at the British 
Auociation, 494 

Prehistoric Canoe discovered in River Hamble, 598 
Prehistoric Remains near Basingstoke, Discovery of, 553 
Presiwich (Prof. J., P'.R.S. ), International Geological Congress, 

503 

Prayer (Prof. W.), the Mind of the Chiltl, 490 
Prlflkwx (MJ, Experiment on the Treatment of the Potato 
Disease, 433 

Prime tiunibers, on certain Inequalities relating to, Prof. J. 
J, Sylvester, F.R.S,, 359 

PntiDB, Ac., a Substitute for Carlmn Disulphide in, H. G. 
Madan, 413 

PlljevaWty ^Gweral) t Proposed Fourth Journey in Central Awa, 
1 Filth journey to Tibet, 45 1 

PnmbiUty, the Theory of, Michell's Problem, Sydney Lupton, 

Companion to the Weekly, Rev. John Milne^ 

Frs^etD liy Viac^tlo Viviani, Rev. Edward Geohegan, 78 
of the Royal Geographical Society, 4SS» 

PriSie {C A: V ^Wtowy Notice of, 49 

br tite mli kpf to increase the, Prof. John Wrighteon, 

I of B, Wondd-SmUh, 221 

hlongttted, Cidoviktion of Ranges, Rev. F. 
tifertb, 4^ 


Proliferation of Endothelium -Celts in Arteries, M. Pekelbaritig, 
3i6 

Prophetic Germs, Prof. E, Ray Lankester, F.R..S., 539, 588; 

the Duke of Argyll, F.R.S., 564, 615 
Propyl Alcohol, Thermal Properties of, Drs. Ramsay and 
Young, 238 

Protoplasm, on the Chemical Action and Vegetative Alterations 
of Animal, M. A, P, Fokker, 168 
Prussia : Agricultural Education in, 138 ; Bir £. Malet's Report 
on, 138 

Psychology, M. Ribot on Contemporary, i6<r^ 

Ptolemy’s Theorem, further Use of (Euclid VL D) for a Problem 
in Maxima and Mintina, £, M, Langley, 149 
Ptomaines, Contribution to the Study of the, M. CEchsner de 
Coninck, 168 

Pygmees, Les, A. de Quatrefages, 4 
Pygmy Races of Men, Prof. Flower, F.R.S., 44, 66 
Pyraiidinn of the Hawaiian Islands, E. Meyrick, 95 
Pyrocresols, Dr. W. Bott and J. B. Miller, 596 


Qualitative AnaJysi.s Outlines of, Geo. W. Slatter, 100 
(Quantities, Concrete, Multiplication and Division of, A. Lodge, 
281 

Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 91, 430 
(Quaternary Times, Climate of, 164 
Quatrefages (A. de), Les Pygmees, 4 

(Queen’s Jubilee Piize Essay of the Royal Botanic Society of 
London, 594 


Rabbit Pest in Australia, the, 42 ; in New Zealand, 87 
Races, Pygmy, of Men, Prof. Flower, F. R.S., 44, ^ 

Radio- micrometer, C. Vernon Boys, 19, 46 
Radiophony, Llectro-chcmical, Chaperon and Mcrcadier, 305 
Raft, the (Jreat, abandoned on the Coast of New England, 
229 

Raggi(Prof. A.), Unilateral Hallucinations, 512 
A\tia cireuhrts, on the Structure of the Electric Organ of, 
Prof. J. C. Ewart, 94 
Railway, the Biunig, 502 
Railway near Lucerne, Electric Mountain, 453 
Rain, on the Distribution of, over the British Isles during the 
Year 1887, G. J. Symons, F.R.S., 363 
Rainbow, M. Mascart, 168; an Unusual, E. L. Layard, 270; 
Lunar Rainbow, T. D. A, Cockerell, 365 ; Remarkable Rain- 
bow, 414 

Rainfall in Germany, Torrential, Dr, G. Hellroann, 502 
Rainfall and Temperature at Victoria Peak, Hong Kong, on the, 
Dr. W. C. Doberck, 78 
Rainfall, Trans-Mississippi, 326 
Rain-Gauge, M. Biassard, 205 
Rainless Season, Simnge Rise of Wells in, 103 
Ramanathan (B.), Ethnology of the Moors of Ceylon, 135 
Ramsay (Prof., F.K.S.), Analogy between Dilute Solutions and 
Gases, 213 

Ramsay and Young (Drs.), Thermal Properties of Propyl Alco- 
hol, 238 

Range*', See., Calculation of, of Elongated Projectiles, Rev. F. 
Babhionh, 468 

Raoult (M. F. M.), on the Vapour-Tensions of Solutions made 
in Alcohol, 432 

Rail (B. Hanuraanta), Firet I.essons in Geometry, 53 
Ravox (L.) and Pierre Vfata, on Diseases of the Vine, 216 
Ray, the Electric, Prof. J. C. Ewart, 70 

Rajjet (M. G.), Accidental Errors in the Observations of 
Transits, 216 

Rayleigh (Lord, F.R.S.) : Diffraction of Sound, 208 ; Experi- 
ments a« to Variation of Velocity of Light by Electric Cur- 
rent through Electrolyte, SSS ; Lightning Conductors, 547 
Reade (T. Mellard), Curious Apparent Motion of the Moon in 
Australia, 102 

Rebs (Dr.), the Composition of Persulphide of Hydrogen, 378 

Recate^cence of Iron, H. Tomlinson, 95 

Reciprocals: Tables of, V. A. JuliuS) 77 ; Barlow’s Table* of, 

H 4 . 135 

Red bpot on Jupiter, W. F. Denning, 342 

Reefs, Coral, Foundations of, Captkin J. L; Wharton^ 568 ; 



xxvi 


'MiiOureii Keuwt^t^ b^ MM. Cailletet ind £. 

* ComraiiiM ^91 

Evolution and its ReUtioo to, Joseph 

Cotdei tbo 

RemtnificeBcee of Eorei^ Travel, Robert Crawford, jt 6 
Rendieonti del Reale Istltuto Lombardo, 21, 91, 3S4, 512 

Rennet, Vegietahle, Prof J. R. Green, 374 
Resemblance, a Curious, W. J. Loclc;^ 370 
ReslsUmoe of Square Bars to Torsion, T. J. Dewar, 126 
Reapiration, Method of Measuring Gaseous Interchange durbg, 
Prof. Zuntc, 

Reusch (Dr, liaoa} : on the Bommel and Karm Islands, 194 ; 

Report on Earthquakes in Norway, 526 
Revue d’Anthropologie, an, 357, 431 ^ 

Key-Failhade (J. de), Philothjon, 264 
Reyer (Dr. E.), ITieoretische Geologie, 409 
Reynolds (Prof. Emerson, F.R.S,^, Silicotetraphenylamide, 575 
XAinoc^ros tichon^hinus at Rixdorf, Skull found, 304 
Rhodium, on the Sesquuulphide of, 143 ; Salts of, M. .E. 
l.eidi<*, 360 

Rh^s (Prof. J.), the Origin and Growth of Religion as illustrated 
by Celtic Heathendom, 361 
Ribot (M.), on Contemporary Psychology, 160 
Riccb, Reflected Image of Sun on Marine Horizon, 6ofl 
Richardson (Dr. B. w., F.R.S.): the Storage of Life as a 
Sanitary Study, 276 ; Report of the British Association Com- 
mittee on the Action of Light on the Hydracids in Presence 
of Oxygen, 595 ; the Action of Light on Water-Colours, 

596 

Rigollot and Gouy, Eleciro-chemical Actinometer, 119 
Rmg Nebula in Lyra, Prof. Holden, 626 
Rings of Saturn, M. Perrotin, 216; Dom M. Lamey, 191, 231 
Rivistn Scientiflco-Industriale, 91,165, 431 
Robertson (J. McGregor), an Elementary Text -book of 
Physiology, 99 

Robinson (H. P.), Landscape Photography, 230 
Rock, the Avooet, 332 

Rock^ Primitive Crystalline, on the Origin of, A. Michel- Levy, 

535 

Rodger (J. W.) and Prof. Thorpe, Thiophosphorylfluoride, 34B 
Rohlfs (Herr Gerhard), the German Plans for Rescuing Emin 
Pasha, 486 

Rolleston (Gecurge, F.R.S.), Forms of Animal Life, second 
edition, 35 

Rollin (G.), Synoptic Charts, 575 

Roman Numerals, Natural History of the, Edw. Tregcar, 565 
Romance of Mathematics, F. Hampson, 28 
Romanes (Dr. G. J,, F. R. S.) Article in the ConSemporary Review 
for June, Edward B. Poulton, 295) 364 ; Lamarckism verens 
Darwintsm, 4*3^ 49® i Definition of the Theory of Natural 
Selection, 6x6- 

Root Crops, the Growth of, Dr. J. H. Gilbert, F.R.S., 605 
Root Pressure, C. B. Clarke on, 94 

Roscoe's (Sir Henry, M.P., F.R.S.), Technical Education Bill, 
I2X ; Address on Technical Instruction, i 36 ; Astronomical 
Instruments for International Pbotugranhic Survey of the 
Heavens, 325 ; Retiring Address as President of the British 
Association, 439 

Rosenbosch’s (Prof.) Work on Petrology, 30 
Rotating Spheres, Whirlwinds, Waterspouts, &c., C. L. Wcyher, 
£. Douglas Archibald, 104 

Rotation Period of the Sun from Faculee, Dr. J. Wilsing, 206 
Rothamsted ExperimentB on the Growth of Wheat, Barley, and 
the Mixed Herbage of Grass Land, William Fream, 465 
Rousseau (M. 0 . ) and J. Bernheim, on the Decomposition 
of the Ferrate of Baryta, 316 
Rousselet (M. L.), the Af^ns, 431 

Roux and Louise, Freezir^- Points of Solution of Organic Com- 
pounds of Aluminium, <S>8 

Royal Academy, a Meteorologist at the, Hon, Ralph Aber- 
cromby, 225 

Ro^ Exhibitions, National Scholarships, and Free Student- 
ships, Successful Candidates, 430 
Royal Geograpbicol Society, 161 ; Anniversary Meeting of the, 

ti6 

Royal Institution, 41 

Royal McteorolDgical Society, 1 18, 191 

Royal Microscopical Society, 167 

Royal Observatory, Report of Astronomer-Royal, 153 

Royal Society, if, 46, 70, 92, X13, 117^ 140, 1651 190, 312, 


y8, 36^, 384 * 3«Of 33^. ,357. W 
Election, ix ; i6» 60 j Election of Fomm 

Members, 133; Election of Follows, islli Ropott 01 w 
Krakatab Committee of the, 540^ 566 
Royal sSocicty of Canada, 576 
Royal Society of New South Wales, 463 
Royal Society of Tasmania, 599 

Riicker {Frofi A. W., F.R.S.) r on some Additions to the Kew 
Magnetometer, 214; Microniillim«titt« 3441 an Optical 
MoaCl, 387 

KUckcr and Boys's Dielectric, x6x 
Runic Inscriptions in Sweden, 87, 527 
Russell (H. C,, F.R.S.), the March Storms, 491 
Russell (Prof.), Chinese Astronomy, 134 
KnmsL : Statistics of Blindness in, 379 ; Teachiqg of Geography 
in Universities of, 280; Prof. Egoroff’s Report on tfile Ob- 
servations made in Russia and Siberia during the Edipae of 
the Sun of August 19, 1887, 62$ i Projected Exploration of 
Russian Lakes, 529 

Rust (Rev. John Cyprian), Milk Lightning, 103 
Ruthenium, ReseareWs on, H, De^ay and A. Joly, 134 
Ruticy (Frank), on Pcriitic FclsUes, 239 


St. Helena, Meteorology of, 486 

St. Thomas's Hospital, 255 

Salicylic Acid, Prof. Hartley, F.R.S,, on, 141 

Salisbury (the Marquess of), on Industrial Training, 155 

SalmonidEC and Tasmania, P. S. Seager, 528 

Salomons (Sir David), the PhotografMiens' Note -book, 369 

Salt District, Durham, £. Wilson, 314 

Salt Industry in the United States, Thomas Ward, 39 ; F. 
Tuckerman, 148 

Salt Water, Mercury, and Gloss, Compressibility of Water, 
Prof.?, G. Tail, 58* 

Salts of Rhodium, Researches on some, M. E. Leidie, 360 
San Francisco, Earthquake Intensity in, Edward S. Holden, 
189 

Sand Grouse, Pallas s {Syrr/tap/es patadoxus ) : in Europe, on 
the Reappearance of, 103, 113, 295 ; Dr. A. B. Meyer. 53, 77, 
342 ; F. M. Campbell, 77 ; in Denmark, 158 ; W. B. Tcget- 
meier, 230 ; Presented to the Zoolo^cal Gardens, 132 
Sand, Sonorous : in Dorsetshire, Cecil Carus Wilson, 415 ; A. 

R. Hunt, 540; H. Carrington BoUon and Alexis A. Julian, 
515 ; D. Pidgeon, 590 
Sander on Runic Inscriptions in Sweden, 87 
Senders (Alfred), Anatomy of the Central Nervous System of 
Vertebrate Animals, 92 

Sanderson (J. Burdon, F.R.S.): on the Electromotive Properties 
of the Leaf of Dionsca in the Excited and Unexcited States, 
140 ; Functionless Organs, 387 
Sands, the Cornish Blown, R, H. Curtis, 55 
Sandy-s (Dr.), Speeches at Cambridge. 163 
Sanitary Inspection Association, North-Eastarnt Report, 327 
Sanitary Insj^ctors, Lectures for Instruction of, 485 . 

Sanitary Institute of Great Britain, 255, 376, 574 
Satellites of Mars, 432, 553 

Saturated Solutions, Efiect of Electric Current on, C, Cluee. 
315 

Saturn, the Rings of, M. Perrotin, 3X6 ; Dom M. Lamey, JOl, 
231 

Saunders (Howard), Illustrated Manual of British Birds, Prot 
Alfred Newton, F.R.S., 145 
Sawerthal, Comet 1888 o, t68, 186, 258, 338 
Sawyer's (C. J.) Bibliography of Meteorology, 574 
Sayan Expedition, Geological Results of the Lust, L. A, J«e* 
xewski, 577 

Sayce (Prof. A. IL) : the Old Babylonian Characters and HMf 
Chinese Derivatives, Prof. Terrien de Lacouperie, 12a : the 
White Race of Palestine, 321 ; the Origin and Qmtm 
Religion as illustrated by Celtic Heathendom, J. Rh^S, 
Sc^inavia, Geology of, Dr. A. E. Tbrnefeohm, Dr. ArchHwId 
Geikie, F,R.S., ,127 v 

Scandinavian Colonization of North America^ 17 ! ;> 

Scavengers, Natural, of French Beadhes, Hallez, sog / ■ : 
SchMer (Prof. E. A., F. R.S.), on the Coagulation of the jBfobd, . 

r':, 

Schiaparelli (Prof.), Milan PouWe-Star 0 b«trvgri<w|ii 
Schntostigc^Qsnmndaeea^ Prof. Gad on, 144 t TT. 


W-sWJ' 




xxvu 


Scfbimk. CtystalliM i of the Westers A]]>s» on the ConstituUos 
lim MuikQre of the, Cb, Ufuj, 506; Dr. T. Steriy 
'Htlittt, 519; some Questions consecM with the Problems pre- 
Wiptei by the, together with* Contributions to their Solution 
fi^ the PelseoKoic FornuUions, Prof. 1 C. A. Losses, 512 ; os 
ite<^ie$eificetion of the* Prof. Albert Heim, 524; Kemorks 
on some of the mom Keeent Publications dealing with the, 
Fioff LehmeoAv 54^ 

Sd^omiag fM. Hi.)! the Slow 'Combustion of Organic Sub- 
stances, 4S } on the Relations of Atmospheric Nitrogen to 
Vegetable SoUs, 

Schoneld (A. T.), Another World, or the Fourth Dimcnston, 

sd^arshjp for Women, Miss Williams, 206 
Sdhbols, Teaching of Physics in, 5co 
SchoHemmer (Prof.), Complimentary Dinner to, 182 
Science, Advancement of, the Australasian Association for the, 

Science, Empiricism xvrsust 609 
Science, Natural, in Japan, 83 
Sdence Teaching in Dundee, 574 

Science Teaching in Elementary Schools in England and Wales, 

576 

Saentihc Assessors in Courts of Justice, 289 
Scientihc Missions, French, 355 

Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M. S. CAa/lengtr during 
the Years 1873-76, Report on the, 561 
Scientific Value ofVolapUk, 

Scientific Writings of loseph Henry, 98 
Schrter(Dr. P. L., F.K.S.) : Electric F^^hes in the River Uru- 
^ay, 148; the Tamaron of the Philippine Islands, 363 ; Recent 
Visit of Naturalists to the Galapagos, Leslie A. Lee, 569 ; and 
W. H. Hudson, Argentine Ornithology, Prof. R. Bowdler 
Sharpe, 587 

Scotland t Geology of the North* West Highlands of, Dr. A* 
Oeikie, F.R.S., 70; Geology of the Scottish Highlands, Dr. 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., 127 ; Dr. A. E. Ttimebohm, 127 ; 
Scottish Meteorological Society, 302 ; Scottish Geographical 
Magaeine, 424 ; Scotch Fishery Board, the, 574 ; Return of 
H.M.S. yackal, 613 

Scott (Robert H., F.R.S.), International Meteorology, 491 
Scudder (S. H.), the Butterflies of the Eastern United States and 
Canada, 6^ 

Sea, Deiermf nation of the Mean Level of the, M, Ch. Lallc- 
mand, 191 

Sea-Birds, how they dine, Earl Compton, 618 

ScB-Fisherics in the United Kingdom, Return of the Board of 

Trade, 349 

Sea-side and Way-side, Julia McNair Wright, 125 
Seager (P. S.), Salmonidse in Tasmania, 528 
Sca», S^rcity of, on the Coast of Greenland, Dr. Nansen, 422 
Season in Sutherland, a, J. E. Edwards-Moss, 220 
Seebohm (Henry), the Geographical Distribution of the Family 
Chmdritdm, k. Bowdler Sharpe, 73 
SeCd^, Dispersal of, by Birds, Dr. H. B. Guppy, 

Seeds and Plants, Dispersion of, E. L. Layara, 396 
Seeley (H. G., F.R.S. ), Factors in Life, 267 
S^el (K.), Industrial instruction, 148 
Sdsmolpgy ; Z>upleY Pendulum Seitmogr^b, Prof. J. A. Ewing, 
JO I Re^rt ott Earthquake at Vyernyi, Frof. MushketofiT, 204 ; 
TWO Vears^ SeUmometric Observations inTokio, Prof. Sekiya, 
^ ; Tables to show the Distribution of Japanese Earthquakes 
in ^doip^tion with Years, Seasons, Months, and Hours of the 
Day, Pittf. J, MMne, 597 ; Earthquakes and how to measure 
illein, jprof, J. A. Ewiag, F.R.S., 399 
S^Jya^Pvof.), Two VeirT, Seismometric Observations in Tokio, 


lOX 


t Society, Lower Thames Valley, Branch of, 277 
pner, 30 


beiboroe Society, Lower Tha 
Self-lodnctiofi, W. E. Sumpi.... „_ 

Stdfilttdueiion in Iron Canduclors* Prof. J, A. Ewing, 55 
Food for Voting Fidi, 631 

Atctotic Weig^Jt of Osmium, 183 

340 ) A* S* Eve, 589 ^ Rev. Edward Geoghc* 
Cave, 619 

and Hiebolson, fi8 
MeCfed alSocM^^ Garden at, 59S 
4“jfj^ra|&ti4, Cndworth, 3®4 

Pw* R. Bdw^) s tbeGeograpfileel DisirJbutsOn of the 
mh^, 73 1 thn Bltda of 


Devombirei, J# Mansd-PleydelJ,, 105 ; Notes ow.ibe of 
Herefordshire, Henry Graved' Ball, 12$ ; Birasneetk^ and 
Birdskinning, a Compete Description of the Nests Bags 
of Birds wmch breed in Briliim, S ®7 » HrUtsh Birds, ICey 
List of, Lieut. -Colonel L. Howard Irby, 5B7 ; AigeOline Orni- 
thology, P. Li Scleter, FwR.S., 5S7 ^ 

Shell-Collector's Difficulty, a, Consul -R. JU IfOyoKl, 566; D. 
Pidgeon, 590 

Shell-Collector's Hand-book for the FieAd, llr. J. W. Williams, 
$1, 103 ; Dr. Henry Woodward, F.R. 8^103 
Sherborn (C. DavieB),a Bibliography of the FoxminifSera, Reoent 
and Fonil, from 1565 to 1S88, $62 
Sherman (O. T. ), Eodiocal Light, 594 
Shih-Ping, China, Earthquake in, t6 
Shipley, J., IMhrus £iphalottt^ 17a 

Ships, on Meldnim's Roles for Handling, in the Southern Indian 
Ocean, Hon. Raljdi Aberero|aby, 358 
Shufeldt (Dr, R. W.), Notes on the Remroduction of Rudi- 
mentary Toes in Greyhounds, 56 ; the Osteology of Pm'sana 
Carolina^ 279 

Siam, W. J. Archer's Journey in, 380 

Siberia; Winter Temperature of Wercbojansk, 303 ; First 
University of, 350; the Question of CotnmuAtGation with, Dr. 
Torell, 601 

Sierra Leone, or the White Man's Grave, G. A. Lethbridge 
Banbury, 244 

Siemens (Dr. W'ernef) Ennobled, 41 

.Sikkim, Ethnolop' of the Himalayan Hill Region of, 89 

Silicon and Sulphur in Cast Iron, 90 

Silicon Tetrafluoride Compounds, Comey and Loring Jackson, 
303 

Siitcoteiraphenylamide, Prof. Emerson Reynolds, F.R.S., 
575 

Silk, Researches on, Dr. Weyl, 144 
Silkworms, E. A. Butler, 386 

Silver King, Note on the Tarpon or {Migal^ps Prof. 

W. C. McIntosh, F.R.S,, 309 

Simart (M.), Monthly Charts of the North Atlantic Currents, 

143 

.Simple Bodies, Eouivalents of the, 96 
Simpson (A. Nicol), Parish Patches, 341 
Skate, Electric Organ of, Prof. J. C. Ewart, 310 
Skin Colouring, Dr. Klaatsch on, 96 

Sky-coloured Clouds, T.W. Backhou.^e, 196, 270; R. T. Omond, 
220 

Sky Lights, M>^terinus, W. Mattieu Williams, 102 
Slatter (Geo. W.), Outlines of Qualitative Analysis, 100 
Sledges, &c., at Burials, on the Use of, M, Anutchin, 134 
Smart (Stephen F.), Tours and Excursimis in Great Britain, 
Charles A. Gillig, 318 

Smith (Chas.), Solutions of the Examples in on Elementary 
T realise on Conic Sections, 588 
Smith (Dr, G. M. ), Wast< d Sunbeams, 205 
Smith (H. W.) and Prof, H. B. Dixon, F.R.S., incompleteness of 
Combustion on Explosion, 596 
Smith (Percy), Visit to tj^e Kermadec Islands, iS 
Smyth (Prof. I'iazsi), RcSlgnation of, 421 
Snakes, Poisonous, of the Bombay Presidency, H. M. Fhipson, 
284 

Snow-Blindness, Nose- Blackening as Preventive of, Prof, E, 
Ray Lankester, F.R.S., 7 ; Edmund J. Power, 7 ; Dr. Robert 
L. Bowles, loi ; A. J. Duffield, 17a 
Snow-water Rivers, Cause of Peculiar Green of, L. Uchermani^ 
5*7 

Soap-Bubbles, 177 ; C. V. Boys r>n, 22 ; Mi^netlc and Electric 
Experiments with, C. V. Boys, 162 
Soaps and Candies, Dr. C. R. Alder Wright, F.R.S., 292 
Society of German Engineers, $98 
Sodium Salt of Zincic Acid, 86 

Soil, How to, increase the Produce of the, Profi John Wrightson, 

Sol» Eclipse of August 28 1886, on the Determination of 
the Photometric l^ngity of the Coronal Light during the, 
Captain W, de W. Abney, F.R.S,, and T. £. Thorpe, 407 
Solar Parallax firotn Photographs of the last Transit of Venus, 
600 

Solar Phenomena for 1887, Distributions in Latitude of, P. 
Tocchinl, 47 

Solid Matter, a Simple Hypotheala for Eleotro^mo^tic Induo^ 
tion of loeomplete Circuits eririi Consequent IkpsotioM of 




XXViU 





in Homognnnciix o^^ttcAatjfeiy^, 

6lrplttTOmAi<m,^m ™ ; 

^ jliitoi i^oldtropic JElMtic, C* Chree, 165 > 

ScApiVtoii UUhdk ^iroj«cted Third Expedition of Mtv C, M. 
, WoodfbrdvtOf 1^5 

' Sdlt^ioa nhd CiyitnlHwtiOo, on; Prof. Liveing^ 21$ 

< 'Soidtid^, EflTeaC of iA E^loctric Current on Saturat^^ C. Chree, 

%tK 

Soiutiotin» Report of' the British Association Committee on the 
Properties of» Dr« Kicol. 596 
Sonnets, 347, 4*1 

Sonorous Sands ; in Dorsetshire, Cecil Carus-Wilsoa, 415 ; IT. 
Carrington Bolton and Alexis A. Julien, 515; A- R. Hunt, 
S40 ; D. Phteeon, 5TO 

Soxbonne, Piomorshipof the Darwinian Theory at» ^82, 276 
Sound, Didroction of, Lord Rayieigh, F.R.S., 208 
Sound, apd Heat, Thomas Dunmon, 125 
Southall, Discovery of MUphAs ptimigcnius^ associated with 
Flint Implements at, J. Allen Brown, 283 
Sow, a Six-Legged, 257 , , 

Spain, Forestry School in, 461 

Spark, Electric, UnduUto^ Movement accompanying, 287 
Spanow, Nesting Habit of the House, G. L, 0-ant, 590 
Species, Origin of, Dr. Eitner, I2j 

Specihc Gravity, Density and, Prof. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S., 
6 ; E. Hospitaller, 6 ; Harry M. Elder, 55 
Spectra of C^stals, the Absorption, A-’ E, Tutton, 343 
Spectrum Anidysis : Researches on the Spectrum of Carbon, 
Prof, Vogel, 72 ; Dr, Koenig’s Measurement of Intensities of 
Light in Spectrum, 119; the Progress of the Henry Draper 
Memorial, Prof. Edward C. Pickering, 306 ; Experiments on 
Change in Wave length of Spectral Lights necessary to produce 
Perceptible Difference^ in Colour, Dr. Uhtboff, 464 ; Re- 
searches on the Optic Origin of the Spectral Rays in Con- 
nection with Undulatory Theoty of Light, C. Fievex, 511 ; 
Profs. Liveing and Dewar’s Investigations on the Spectrum of 
Magnesium, 1165 ; Dr. Janssen on the Spectrum of Oxygen, 
605 ; Rev. T. E. Espin on the Spectrum of R Cygni, 423 
Spelin, Eine Allsprache, G. Bauer, i 

Spencer (Prof. W; Baldwin), the Nenhridia of Earthworms, 197 
Spinal Nerves, on the Comparison of the Cranial with the, Dr. 

W. H. Oaskcll, F*R.S., 19 
Spitzbergen, Aurora in, Dr. H. Hildebrandsson, 84 
Sponge Fishery, Report of British Consul at Tunis, 349 
Sprat Fisheries of France, Report of M. Renduel, 349 
Square Bars to Torsion, Resistance of, T. J, Dewar, 126 
Stanley <W. F0» Mathematical Drawing and Measuring 
Instruments, 230 

Stars ; Double, on the Variation o( the Personal Equation in Che 
Measurement of, 19* ; Stars, Variable, 328 ; New Catalogue 
of, S. C. Chandler, 554 ; Globular Star Clusters, A. M. 
Clerke, 365 ; Stars, Zone Observations of the, Fearnlcy and 
Geetmuydea, 626 ; on the Deformation of the Images of Stars 
seen by Reflection on the Surface of the Sea, M. C. Wolf, 
fljr ; on the Observation of Stars by Reflection, M, Pdrigaud, 
632 

Statics, the Elements of Graphical, byTJray and Lows on, 4 
Statistics of Blindness in Russia, 279 

Statistics of Indian Life, Dr. Hyde Clarke, 237 ; S. A. Hill, 

56s 

Statistics, the Life, of an Indian Province, S. A, Hill, 245 
Steam-Engine, the, G. C- V. Holmes, 169 
Steel, Increase in the Production of, 

Steel Vacuum Balloon, Proposed, 185 
Steiner (P.)f Elementor Qrammatik zur Weltsprochc, I 
Stellar Systems, Gravitation in the, Prof. Asaph Hall, 398 
Sternberg (Baron Ungertt), Afcent Mount Elburz, 501 
Stevenson (Thomas), a Treatise on Alcohol, with Tables of 
Spirit Gravities, lot 

Stewart (Prof. Balfour), Elementary Treatise on Heat, 135 
Stewart (Dr. G. K), Electrolytic Decomposition of Proteids, 422 
A.) and T. H. Conf, Flora of rhe North-East of 

Stirling (E.^ct), a New Australian Mammal, 588 
Stockoue SholM, tbc, Mtrr and Nicholson, 118 
Stocklioim Royal Academy of Sciences, 120, 168, 584, 632 
Stpn^ of Lite as a Sanitary Study, Dr. B. W. Richardoon, 
F.^S., 276 

Stdrm Signola, Recently Established, 183 
Storm Warnings, M. de Sort, 419 


Sforino, the March, H. C. Raisel], F.IL 5 .I 4P ' 

StOMsj^in the North Otson, jEjkof OM 4 ^ng, 

Storms, Phenomenal, UhTtidia* 4* 

Storms in the Philippine Arohipdagp, 16 
Storms and Rotattng SphtfMf, V^irlwinds and Wotartj^a, 
C- L. Weyber, E. Douglas Archibftldf 104 
Storms, Thmy of, M. Faye, £. Douglas Arcliibal 4 » 149 
Straeban (Captain John), Explorations and Adventures in Mew 
Guinea, 3i< 

Scrahan's (Cotonel) Survey of the Nicobar Islands, 11$ 

Straits Settlements Meteorological Report, 599 
Stratigraphic Palteontology of Man, M. MarceUm Boule, ail, 
357. 43t 

Stratigraphical Succenion of the Cambrian Faunas in North 
America, Prof. Chas. B. Walcott, 351 
Strawben^, Alpine, Dr. Masters, 327 

Stfomboli, Islands of Vulcano and, Dr. II. J, Johnston -tA vis, 

13 

Strophanthine, M. Arnaud, 31 1 

Subsidence of the Land in France, Provisional Laws deter- 
mining the, M. C. M. Goalier, 432 
Substitute, a, for Carbon Disulphide in Prisms, d:c., H. G. 
Madon, 413 

Sulphur, the Vapour-Densitv of, Dr. Blitz, 229 
Sulphur- Acid, a New, M. Villiers, 41 
Sumpner (W, E.), Coefficients of Induction. 32, 30 
Sun Columns: Dr. B. firauner, 414 ; Hy. Harries, 566 
Sun Motor, the. Captain John Eriecson, 319 
Sun, Reflected Image of, on Marine Horizon, M. Ricc6, 60S 
Sun, Rotation Period of the, from Facular, Dr. J. WiUing, 
206 

Sunbeams, Wasted, Paper by Dr. G. M. Smith, 205 
Sunday Lecture Society, 600 
Sunshine Recorder, Jordan's New Photc^raphic, 118 
Supan (Dr.), a Century of African Exploration, 1S6 
Superstition in Austria, Curious Relic of Medioeval, 454 
Surgery, Catgut of a Ligature, Prof. Munk, 312 
Surinam, Gold-Field discovert in, 88 
Sutherland, a Season in, J. £. Ed wards -Moss, 220 
SvenoniuB (Dr, F.), Glaciers of Europe, 574 
Svoboda (Dr.), the Nicobar Archipelago, 501 
Sweden: Aurora Borealis in, 16 ; Earthquake in, 42 ; Meteor 
seen at Kalmar, 158 ; Meteor at Smdland, 328 ; Meteor in, 
$27 ; Archfeological Society of, 87 1 Sw^ish Academy at 
Science, 114; Prehistoric Canoes found in, 304 ; Two Hundred 
Eider Fowl caught in Fishermen’s Nets off Coast on, 304 ; 
Preservation of Eider- Fowl in, 527 ; Runic Stones discovert 

in, 527 

Swedenborg Whale {EuitaUna svgdenhrHi^ Lillj. ), 134 
Sword-lisb [Xipkias) captured in Long Reach, MUtoh Crock, 
Sittingbourne, 623 

Sydney, Hand-book of, W. M. Hamlet, 575 
Sylvester (Prof. J. J., F.R.S,) : on Hamilton’s Nurabert, 3X ; 
on certain Inequalities relating to Prime Numbers, 259.; 
Obituaiy Notice of Arthur Buchheim, 515 
Symons (G. J., F.R.S.) : on the Distribution of Rain over the 
British Isles during the Year 1887, 363; Lightning Con- 
ductors, 547 

Syngamus trathtalU^ the Gape- worm of Fowls, Lord Wahing- 
ham, F.R.Sm 334 
Synoptic Charts, G. RoUin, 575 

SyrrJiaptes paradoxus, Pallas's Sand Grouse, on the Reapp^Olr* 
ance of, In Europe, Dr. A. B. Meyer, 53, 77, 342; W. M. 
Campbell, 77 ; Prof. Alfred Newton, F.R.S., 103, 112, 295? 
W. B. Tegetmeier, 230 ; Specimen at the Zoological Gatdoos, 

132 


Tables of Reciprocals, V. A. Julius, 77 
Tacchini (P.) : Distributions In latitude of the SMor FhOoo- 
meoalbr 1887, 47 r Summary bf the Solar Observorioik 
at the Roym Observatory of the CoUegio Romoao^ Beem 
Quarter of 1888, 408 

Tail (Prof. P. G.), Comprassibility of Water, 8 ^ 

Gloss* S&i ^ 

Tomaron, the, of the PhilUppine Islands, Dn P. S 
F.R.S., 163 

Target Practice, Note 00, M. J, Bertriuidi dS 9 ; \ 



or Silver Kl&g ihrUm<ies\ Note on the» 

WsSf, W. C, Hcbiloib, F.R.S., 3o^j,VT 


Biiigv Snad Orome, Appearance of, ^ Dei 
xiM$, tja 

Sftlmotiida: in> P, S. Seageri 538 
'ait^» Sente of, 7 

'aoatlnn in China, Dr. D. J. McGowan, 364 
^lyW (Httfh), a Colnmn of Dutt^ 415 


Denmark and Scandi- 


Tea, a New Conatltnent of, 340 ; Dr, Kotsel, 301 

feall (J. Jt Harris) : a|^;K>lnted to the Geological Survey, 183 ; 


Britwh Petromphy, 385 
rebbutt (John), Encke’s Comet, 423 

TechnicaX College, the Glasgow and West of Scotland, Henry 
Dyer, 438 

rechni'eat Education, 573 ; I^rd Hartington on, 40 ; Lord 
Aritittrong on, 313; Sir Henry Roscoe's Bill, I2f, 186; 
Technicai Instruction, the Bill for the Promotion of, 137 ; 
Government Bill for the Promotion of Technical Education, 
I2t, ijjr ; the Technical Instruction Bill, 355 ; the National 
Association for the Promotion of, 63, 377 ; Technical £duca> 
tion in Ireland, Mr. Carhuti, 32$; Tecluiological Examina* 
tions, 1888, Sir Philip Magnus ’ii Report on, 372 
regetmeier (W. B,), Pallas’s Sand Grouse, 230 
Telephone, on a, with Closed Magnetic Field, and Plaque with 
Equal Concentric Cylindrical Sections, by M. Krebs, 384 
Telephone (Marine), Experiments with, A. Banare, 464 
Telephonic Communication between Trains in Motion, 24 
relescot>e. Adaptation for Photography of, 2J7 
I'ellurium, the chemistry of, Bertlielot and T abre, 63 
Timtutd^ saltaiifr in Morocco, 133 
Temperature, Aperiodic Variations of, Dr. Pcrlewitz, 119 
Temperature of 1887^88, C. Harding, 238 
Temperature, Rainfall and, at Victoria Peak, Hong Kong, I)r. 
W. C. Doberck, 78 

Temperature, Winter, of Werchojansk, Siberia, 303 
Tenasserim, Leonardo Tea's Explorations in, 424 
Terby (F.), Study of Mars, 119 
I'errestHiil Globe, Paris Exhibition, 183 
Tcitudo perpiniana^ P. Fischer, 464 
'Texas Shell* Mounds, the, E. T. Dumple, 454 
Theophylline, Dr. Kossel, 303 
Theoretical ecology, 409 

Theory of Naturu Selection, Definition of the, I'rof. Geo. J. 

Romanes, F.R.S., 616 
Thermo-chemical Constants, 23 

Thermo-dynamics of the Atmosphere, Prof, von Be/old, 144 
Thermometer, on the Grass Minimum, Dr. W. Doberck, 
619 

Thtopbosphoryl Fluoride, 348 

Thompson (Isaac C.), Distribution of Animals and Plants by 
Ocean Currents, 370 

Thompson (Prof, S. P.) : on the Graphic Treatment of the 
Lomont-Frollch Formula for Induced Magnetism, 95 ; on the 
Condition of Self- Excitation in a Dynamo Machine, 141 ; on 
the Formulee of Bernoulli and Haecker for the Lifting Power 
; Note on Continuous Current Transformers, 
186 

Thomson fProf. Eiihu), Successive Lightning- Flashes, 305 
Thomson yoseph) ; Propo.sed Expedition to the Atlas, 112; 
Atlas Monntaiits Expedition, 555 \ Explorations in -Morocco, 

39^ 

Thornton (J; F.R.S.), Applications of Dynamics to Physics 

, and Chemtor. 585 

T^imson (Sir WUUatn, F.R.S.) ; on Clerk -Maxwell’s Theory of 
Etec^rp-pisttiietic Induction for Incomplete Circuits, 500 ; on 
Conducton, 547 ; Dififusion of Rapidly Alternating 
Ctuteats In Substance of Homogeneous Conductors, 555 ; a 
Hynotbeslt rerEleciro- Magnetic Induction of fncom- 
imteCiromtSp wUb Cbnaequent Equations of Electric Motion 
in HomogCacuus or Heterogeneous Solid Matter, 569 ; 

Traaifetenceof Electricity within a Homogeneous Solid 
571 ; Five Amlicarions of Fourier's Law of Diffu- 
by i Diagram of Ourvos with Absolute 

; on some Additions to the Kew 
M#gneto»eteBi;to the Peieiwinaiion of the Photometric 

wamyjif ibe trJght during the Solar EcUi>se of 

88^*39^ '' ' 


E.; F.R.S.) and; F, J. HemWy, 

DensUy of ffydronttoric Add, 

Thoi^t, Religious, Evolution ana its ReUrion to, Joaeffh 
Le Conte, 106 ^ ^ 

Three Americas PerinsCncnl Exhibition, PTOpOMd^. 

Three Da^ro the Summit of ^ 

Throstle, Ring, in Norway, 304 ^ t " w . 

Thunto, a Prognostic of, B, Woo<U'54p^^: 

Thunder- Axe, Eabrai^ Tregeor, ^390 ■ 

Thunderstorms, Meteorologies Society's Repoit on, 358 
Thunderstorms andXigbtning Accidents, H. N^Lawreime, 17a 
Tibet, General Frje^llky's Fifth Journey to, 4 sr 
Tibia, the, in the Neanderthal Race, Prof. JtlHcb Fraipont, 
312 '' ' ' 

Tlde*Lor#, Ancient, W. Colenso, F.R.S., 373 . 

Tientsin, the New Foreign CoUc^ab 3°^ 

Tilden(Prof. WtUiamA., F.R.&), Owning AcM^m in Section 
B (Chemical Science) at the Mtish Association, 470 
Timber, and some of its Diseases, Prof. H. Marshall Ward, 
F.R.S., 108, 127, 270, 397, 367 
Timbuktu, Position of, Caron, 288 > 

Tim^i Correspondent, the. and the L^imiitty of Bologna, 303 
Titan, Mass of, G. W. Hill, 350 

Titanium, New Chlorine Compounds of, 133 ^ 

Tobacco, English-^grown Samples, 183 
Tobacco- Plant, Dueasebf^ in Russia, 378 


Tobacco- Plant, D&easebf^ in Russia, 378 
Toes, Rudimentary, Noies on the Reprodjuction of, in Grey- 
hounds, Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, $6 
Tokio Mathematical and Physical Society, $98 
Tokio, Two Years’ Seismometric Observations in, Prof. Sekiya, 
302 

Tomkins (Rev. H. O.), Ethnographic Types from the Monu- 
ments of Egypt, 214 

Tomlinson (H.), Recalescence of Iron, 95 
Tomsk University, 574 

Topinard (M.), the Latest Stage of the Genealogy of Man, 
357 

Torell (Dr.), the Question of Commnaicatton w«h Siberia, 601 
Tornado, the Dacca, 42 
Tornadoes, Prizes for Ess^s on, 229 
Tbrnebohm (Dr. A. E.), Geology of Scandinavia, 127 
Toionto, Canadian Institute Sociological Circular, 349 
Torrid Zone, Upper an(l Lower Wind Currents over the, Dr. 
W. Doberck, 565 

Torsion, Resistance of Square Bars to. T. J. Dewar, 136 
Total Lunar Eclipse of January 38, 553 
Tours and Excursions in Great Britain, Charles A. Gillig, 
Stephen F. Smart, 318 

Toxicology : Physiological Action of Hedwigia balsamijl^ra^ 
560 ; Gaucher, Combemale, and Warestang, 560 
Transformers, Note on Continuous Current, Prof. S. P. Thomp- 
son, 286 

Transit of Venus, the Solar Parallax from Photographs of the 
last, 600 

Transits, Accidental Errors in the Observations of, M. G. 
Kayet, 216 

Transnussion of P.^wer, Electric, Prof. Ayrton, F.R.S., 508, 
533 

Transparency of the Atmosphere, J. Parnell, 370 
Tregcar (Edward) : the Thunder- Axe, 296 ; Natural Hg^dry of 
the Romm Numerals, 565 

Treab (Dr. ), Annales du Jardin Botamque de Buitenzorg, 344 
Triangle, Geometry of the, M. E. Vlgane, 634 
Trigonometry, -a Treatise on Plane, John Casey, F.R.S,, 318 
Trimen (Rowland, F.R.S.), South African Butterfiies, a Mono- 
graph of the Extra-Tropical Species, 266 
Ttimen's (Dr.) Report on Botanic Gaideos of Ceylon, its 
Trinidad, Annual Report of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 27S 
Tropical Africa, Henry Drummond, 17 1 
Trouvelot, Lightning- Flashes lasting Several Seconds, 555 
Tuberculosis, Congress at Paris, 373 
Tuckerman <F.^ tbe Ssdt IndUstiy in the United States, 148 
Tunis, Sponge Fishery, Report of British Consul, 349 


Tunis, Sponge Fishery, Report 
Tunzelmann (G. W. de) ; Mol« 


Molecular Physics, an Atteumt at a 
Comprehensive Dynamical Treatment of Physied hod Chemical 
Forces, Prof. F. Lindemann, 458, 57® ; Obituary Notice 
of Prof. Rudolf Julius Emanuel CUostus, 438 
Turbans and Toils, or Sketches in the Unromantic East, Alf. 
J, Bamford, 369 

Turner (Colond), the Borings in tbe Nile Delta, 63 









AH A^^tiood 'C<my||^ 

‘ jto ^^MLoiBIltllHott M th« ^ 

fUjittoA {Ah E.X Spectra of Crjc^aU^ 34 j 

Hmig Kiong Observatqity o!r, 339 
Twfrt <J^ of^^art of iS^rthwa Alb^tiu i«4 

■ ’V-V. v> ’ '<7^? m '# 




ow^water Rivers* 


^ Peculiar it i 

,, ‘EaiM^iments in Wave-Leng^ of 

produce Peii|||ptible Diffinr^e in 

iKief, on A ^ethod of coxaparing ver^* Dr. A. 

^^Vmffrd ^States :j^t Cburt'of the North Atkmic Ocean, i5, 
^ 433/574 i' Sf^ inwtry in the, Thomas Ward, 39 ; 
^ F. TuckennaiH ; Ftrop^aed Alteration in the Weather 
Huteau, 229 ; Aothropolo^ and Ethnology at the Gmdnnati 
Centennial, ^9 ; United States Fish Commission sending 
Eohsters to Californji^, 337 ; Applied Electricity in, ^55 ; 
Loftiness of the Me^i;plogical Stations in the, 433 ; United' 
y States and Canada^ Fwarnias of the Eaatem, S. H. Soudder, 

Universities : Octocentcaaiy oi Bologna, 113 ; the Tinw Cone* 
spoodent on, 303 Scunlidc Schoiarsh^ at Cbriatiama, 
574 ; Gilchrist Engineering Scholarships at University College, 
Lood<^ 430; Hjdversity and Educational Intelligence, no, 
46, 69, U6, 139; 163, 189, 337, 331, 439,607; Imperial 
Japan University, 553 ; Tomsk University, 574 ; University 
Tmining for Women, 3^ 

Uric Acid, the Volumetric Determination of, A. M. Gossage, 
363 

Urns, Ancient Clay, in JMIand, Discovery of, 454 
Uins, Funereal, near Fn&kfort-on-Oder, Discovery of, 486 
‘Uruguay, Electric Fishes in the River, Dr. P. L. Sdater, 

F.R,S., 147 

Usiar (General) i Works on the Caucasus, 159 ; Ethnography of 
the Caucasus, ^33 


Vail (Alfred), Proposed Purchase of his Telegraphic Instrument, 
330 

Vdcncy, Prof. Armstrong and Dr. Motley, 596 
Vapour-Tensions, on the, of Solutions made in Alcohol, M. F. 
M. Raoult. 432 

Variable Stars, 328 ; New Catalogue of, S. C. Chandler, 554 
Varna Viiieyards* Aara ierzi in, 133 
Vegetable Rennet, Prof. J, R. Green, 274 
Ve«tation, the New, of Krakatab, Dr. M. Treub and, W* B. 
Hemslcy, 344 

Veined Structure of the Mueller Glacier, New Zealand, on the, 
F. W. Hntton, 77 

Veley (V. PL), Conditions of Evolution of Gases from Plomo* 
geneous Liquid^ 310 

Velocity of Etherification, Measurement of the, M. Negreano, 
192 ^ 

Venus, Transit of, the Solar Parallax from Photographs of the 
Laftt* 600 

Vermf^ Microbism and Abscess, ^8 

VerteoUte Animals, Anatomy of the Central Nervous System 
of, Alfred Sanders, 92 

Vesuvius, Report on, Dr, Johnston-Lavis, 597 
Veitin (Dr.), Daily Periodicity of Wind- Velocity, 119 
Viala (Piene) and L. Kavao, on Diseases of the Vine, 216 
Victoria Institute, 143 

Victoria Peak, Hong Koug, on the Rainfall and Temperature 
at, Dr. W. C. Doberck, 78 
Vigarie (M. E.), Geometry of the Triangle, 624 
Vignon (M, Leo), Heat of Combioation of the Primary, Second* 
ary, and Tertiary Aromatic Monamines with the Acids^ ai6 
Viktag Mound in Jutland, Excavation of a, 454 
VlBjjge buried by a Gigantic Ice-WalL 205 
Vtfj^ (M.), on some New Gaseous Hydrates, 168 
ViUiers (M. ), a New Sulpbor-Acid, 41 
Vine, DiseoMs of the, MM, Pierre Viala and {#. Ravae, I16 
Virchow (Dr. HX Ibt Bload-vess^s of the Eye in Carnivora, 

( 2 fT4 

Virginia Unfvenity, the Miller Proie»orship of Agriooltiiir««t, 

553 


Vital Movetnent, on the Oridn khd ;Catuiatk>p of. 
KUhiJe,637 ^ 

Vital Statistia of Genmy, M. Ch, Grad, fJS / ; ■ ^ 
Viyiani, Vincent io, Probleih'byf Rev, Edward 
Vogel (Profi ), Researches on the Spoetnrin of Carbon« 74 ^ 
VoiapUk Grammar, Key to the, Alfred KirchboflT^ t - / 
Volapiik, Pasilinsuat Spelin, Lingualumlna, t V . 

Volapiik, SdentiSe Value q( 351 \ , 

Volapiik, or Universal language, Alfred KJrohhbff, I 
Votcanic Eruption, Island m vukano, 348 
Volcanic Eruption in Japan, 303, 452, 

Volcanic Eruption in (be Pniuppine Islands, sa^ 

VolcaiioeE, History of Chani^s in Mount Loa Criders, J. 
Dana, 462 

Volga, Remains of an Ancient Town op the Right Bank of tlur, 
874 

Voltaic Balance, the, Dr. G. Gore, F. R. S., 335 
Voltaic Couple: the Minimum- Point of Change of Potential 
of a, Dr. G. Gore, F.R..S., 284 ; on the Change of a Poten- 
tial of a, by Variation of Strength of its Liquid, Dr. G. 
Gore, -F.R.S., 285; Influence of the Chemical Energy of 
Electrolytes upon Voltaic Couple io Water, Dr. G. Gore, 
F.R.S., 2S5 ; Effects of Different Positive Metals, &c., upon 
the Changes of Potential of, Dr. G. Gore, F.R.S., 335 
Von Fritsch (Dr. Karl), Allgemeine Geologie, 387 
Von Helmhotu (Prof.), Focal Lengths of Lenses, 192 
Vulcano and Stromboli, Islands of, Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis,- 

13 

Vulcano, Volcanic Eruption io the Island of, 348; Dr. H. 

Johnston-LavU, 596 
Vyemyi, Report on Earthquake at, 204 


Wagner (Prof. Paul), the Increase in the Produce of the Soil 
through the Rational Use of Nitrogenous Manure, 330 
Wakefield (H. R.) and W. J. Harrison, Earth Knowledge, 563 
Walcott (Prof. Chas. B.)» ihe Htratigraphical Succession of the 
Cambrian Faunas in North America, 551 
Waldo (Prof.), Anemometers, 112 
Walker (J,), Theory and Use of a Physical Balance, 146 
Walker (Sidney), Lightning Conductors, 547 
Wallace (Robert), India in 1887, 294 

Wallace (Prof. Robert), Rural School Education in Agriculture 
(Scotland), 576 

Waller (Dr. Augustus D.), on the Electromotive Variations 
which accompany the Beat of the Human Heart, 619 
W'alsingham (Lord), the Gape-worm of Fowls 
frach^a/iVf 324 

Wanderer’s Notes, a, W. Beatty-King^iion, 196 
Ward (Prof. H, Marshall, F.K.S.), Timber, and tome of its 
Diseases, 108, 127, 270, 297, 367 
Ward (Thomas), Salt Induet^ in the United States, 29 
Warner (Francis, M.D.), Muscular Movements in Man, and 
their Evolution in the Infant, a Study of Movement hi Man, , 
and its Evolution, 238 

Washington, Projected Zoological Park in, 64 
Watase (S.), Observations on the Development of Cephalopoda, 
Homology of the Germ-layers, 356 
Watches and the Weather, W. B. Croft, 245 
Water-Colours, Effect of Light on, 348 ; Dr, B. W. RichariUon, 
F-R.S., 

Water, ComptessvbUity of, Salt Water, Mereu^, and GU«s,Bxq|, 
P. G, TaU, 581 

Wate(& Evaporation of, t)r. Dietcrici, 143 ' ! 

Water, the Mioro-oiganisins of Air and, Dr. Percy F. Ftaskl^, 
232 

Water-Power employed in the United^Statei, 349 
Waterspouts, Greses and Dammausc^ 204, 305 
Waterspouts, Stoemi^ and Rotating Spheres, Whirlwithls, 
,C. L. Weyher, E. Douglas ArchibaM, Jid^t 
Wavm, Enonnous, Irie of Rngen, 432 
Weath^ CNwis for Australia, Wwgge’s tlaily, 303 * 

Weather in the Doldrums, Hon* Ralph AbtrrMsby^ 3^; v r 
Weather, Watches and the, W. 0, Cr^, 345 ' ' ^ 

Weekly Probjoin Papria, Caai|nmton to the, 


otoht and Matt. Prof. A. O. GrcmAili; 

’Weight, Mta Xtomm, Iat«iMtiaiMt 


■w 



29^ amj 


■ ■ 

(I>r^ Auguit) I oil Heredity, P. Chftlmen llitcheil, 
r| / C« IromKAW, on Partial impregnatioti» 329 

IL)t oA Mpry 430 

Ril^ of, m Ramieu Season, 103; Baldwin 

^ Elementar Grammatik zur, Pa&Uingua, P* 

$^ioer, 1 

.W^Sier (C. L«)i Whirlwinds, Waterspouts, Storms, and 
Hotating Spbe^, E. Douglas Archibald, 104 
Weyl <Dr.); Researches on Silk, 144; on the Physiological 
Action of Anthrarobin and Cbrysarobin, 144 
WbMton (Captain W, J, L., F.R.S.) i Foundations of Cora! 

Heefs, 568 ; Exploration of Christmas Island, 207 
Wheat Cultivation t Prof. John Wrightson. 163 ; on the Deve* 
lopment of the Grain of, M. Balland, 108 ; Kothamsted Ex- 
periments on the Growth of, William Freatn, 465 
Whipple (O. M.) and W. H. Dines, Report on Experiments 
with Anemometers, 191 

White Race, the, of Palestine, Prof. A. H. Sayce, 321 
White (William), Functionless Organs, 412 
Whitel)^d (John), Return t>f, 301 

Whirlwinds, Waterspouts, Storms, and Rotating Sphere*, C. 

L. Weyber, E. Douglas Archibald, 104 
Whitworth S^oiarships and Exhibitions, 1888, Successful Can- 
didates, 429 

Wlckramasingha (F. M.), Milk v» Fire, 342 
Williams (Dr, J. W.), ShelUCoIlcctor’s Hand-book for the 
Field, $1, 103 

WUliams (Miss), Scholarship for Women, 206 
WUiiatns (W. Mattleu), Mysterious Sky Lights, 102 
, WilHatnson (Prof.), Carboniferous Flora, 597 
WHsIng (Dr, J.), Rotation Period of the Sun from FacuJa;, 
206 

Wilson (Cecil Carus) : Earth Pillar^s in Miniature, 1 97 ; Sonorous 
^d, 415 

Wilson (Sir C. W,, F,U.S.), Opening Address in Section E 
(Gec^niphY) at the British Association, 480 
Wilson (E.), Durham Salt l>istrict, 214 
Wilson (Samuel F.), Functionless Organs, 3S7 
Wilson (Thos.), the Hemenway Expedition to Arizona, 629 
Wtmshurst (J.), Influence Machines, 307 
Wind Currenta, Upper and Lower, over the Torrid Zone, Dr. 
W. Doberck, 565 

Wiod-Velodty, Daily Periodicity in, Dr. Vettin, 119 
Winds, the Incurvature of the, in Tropical Cyclones, Henry I'. 
Blanford, F.R.S,, 181 

Wissmann (Lieutenant), Afrfcan Explorations, 207, 529 
Wolf (M. C.), on the Deformation of the Images of Stars seen 
by Reflection on the Surface of the Sea, 631 
Woman, Bust of a, Carved in the Root of an Equine Tooth, 

HI 

Women, University Training fur, 257 
W^ood-Carving, School of Art, 574 
Woodd'Smith (B.), a Prognostic of Thunder, aai 


mi>EX 


XXXI 




^#’‘^tand;T^k 


and Ciifhorilflnrai^ Rocks, 597 
k TexL^k of . Pbywobgy, J. C. 


W;oodffel (Mr. C. M.), Projected Third Visit to Solomon 
Islandfs, 115 - 

Woods (Thomas). AntagonisiU, <6 
Woodward (C. M.), Manu4 Trs^in. 

Woodward jJDr. Henru* RR-SA j® 
for the F^d, 103 
Woodward (Hon 
Wtwldridge (Dr. 

Afc Rend rick, 4*^y ..vifi ,t! ^ 

Work and Energy, Rev, KdwalwiCooghegaa^ 77 ‘ J 

World, Another, oni,|he Fourth Dij^nsion, 

363 ^ t ■ 

Wormell (R.), Plotting, or Graphic Mathefna|;i^ ns " 

Wori.lev-BenUon (H. W. S,), Natii^ Fidry^^l, Ramhtes 
by Woodland, Meadow, Sireanv^ and Slmro^.F^ " 

Wragge’s Daily Weather Charts foT^A|Btralia, 303 
Wright (Dr. C. R. Alder), Soap%;^d Candles,’ 292 
Wright (Julia McNair), Sea -side and Way-side, 125 
Wrightson (Prof. John) : Wheat Cultivation, 162 ; the Principles 
of Agricultural Practice as an Instruct j^al Subject, 2ao ; How 
to increase the Produce of the Soil, 

Wroblewski (Dr. S.) : Death of, 41 > OW^ry Notice of, 598 
Wuilleumier (M. H.), Determination of the Ohm, 168 


Yale College Observatory, 372, 397 
Yarrell, the Boy's, Prof. Alfred Newton, p'.|il,S., 145 , 

Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society, . Jumes W. 
Davis, 590 

Yorkshire, West, Flora of, F. A. I^ees, 147 
Younghusband's (Lieutenant) Journey across Central Asia, 65 


Zincic Acid, a Sodium Salt of, 86 

Zodiacal Light and Meteors, T. W. Backhouse, 434 ; 0 :‘ T, 
Sherman, 594; Dr. Henry Muirhead, 618 
Zone Catalogue, Cincinnati, 43 

Zone Observations of the Stars, Fearnley and Geelmuyden, 626 
Zoological Gardens, Additions to, 18, 43, 64, 88, 114, 136, 161, 
18s. ao6, *30, 258. 279. 304, 3 * 8 . 350, 374 . 397 . 4 **. 454 . 
487. , 50 *. 5*8. 553. 576. 600, 626 

Zoological Garden in Bombay, Proposed, 623 
Zoological Garden at Shanghai, Proposed, 598 
Zoological Park in Washington, Proposed, 64 
Zoological Results of the ChalUng^r Expedition, 337, 561 
Zoological Society, 23, 71, 1x8, 142, 214, 23S 
Zoological Society of Amsterdam, 62 

Zoology : Forms of Animal Life, Geoige RoUostou, F. R.S., 25 f 
Excursions Zoologiques dans les A9ores, J^les de Oueme’ 

113 

Zog, the Landslip at, 268 

Zuntz (Prof.), Method of measuring Gaseous Interchange during 
Respiration, 312 ^ 



A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIIiNCE. 

** To the solid ground 

Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for ayef — WoRDSWORTH. 


THURSDAY. MAY 3, 1888. 


VOLAPUK, PASlIJNGUAy SPELIN, 
LINGUALUMINA, 

Vclapuk or Universal Language. By Alfred KirchhoflT. 

(London : Swan Sonnenschein and Co.. 1888.) 

Key to the VolapUk Grammar, By Alfred KirchhoflT. 

(London: Swan Sonnenschein and Co., 1888.) 
Eiementar Grammatik sur Wclisprache {Pasilingua). 

By P. Steiner. (Berlin : Louis Heuser, 1887.) 

Spelin^ Eine AUsprache. By G. Bauer. (Agram : Franz 
Suppan, 1888.) 

Idngualuminay or Language of Light, By F, W. Dyer. 
(London : Industrial Press, 1875.) 

** TF only we had been consulted at the creation of the 
■I world, good as the general working of the machine 
is, how many little improvements might have been intro- 
duced I This remark, not meant to be irreverent, is 
often heard when people suffer from toothache either at 
the arrival or at the departure of their molars, or when a 
sadden frost sets in and destroys the blossoms on all the 
fruit-trees in their garden. Volapiik seems suggested 
bjr the same kind of sentiment. Languages, the adher- 
entt of Volapiik seem to say, are all wonderful machines, 
but, if we could only have been consulted by the original 
fnuners of human speech, how many little irregularities 
might have been eliminated, how much might the whole 
woriring of the machine have been simplified, and what 
a saving of fuel might have been effected if instead of a 
Aouaaitd of these linguistic machines, each having its own 
gauge, there bad been one engine only, taking us from 
Fiieiopd to Iceland without any change of carriages, 
^ose who lament the imperfections of human speech 
dkimi however, this advisntage over the grumblers at 
kige, that they are quite prepared to produce 
a befille az^de* Again and again has the world been 
pieseniOd, tfkh new alphabets and new systems 

nf apetlb^f languages. Of late, 

IfedFOVefi thti^ a good measure of them 

|aesse44own aiidVt^^ At the head of our article 

Vo V 9 M. 


we have mentioned four only, called respectively Vola~ 
fuk, Spclistf Pasilingua^ and Lingualumina. But there 
have been several more proposals for a universal language 
sent to us lately from various quarters of the world, all 
equally ingenious, though we are sorry we cannot disinter 
them from beneath that mighty cairn of pamphlets which 
is growing up from week to week in our library. 

All these proposals have one thing in common. ^ ;Thcy 
start from a fact which cannot be disputed, that llihrls too 
short to learn more than four or five languages well, and 
that it is perfectly wicked to write books on scientific 
subjects in any language but English, French, German, 
or Latin, They then go off into raptures about the days 
when *^the whole earth was of one language and one 
speech,” and they even appeal to prophecy that it has 
been promised “ that a pure language will be turned to 
the people, that they may all call upon the name of the 
Lord, to serve him with one consent.” 

And how is that prophecy to be fulfilled ? Here the 
answers begin to vary a little. Some people say, Let every- 
one learn English, and the problem is solved at once. So it 
would be, so perhaps it will be> when the leopard shall lie 
down with the kid. But till that comes to pass different 
kinds of compromise are suggested. First of all, as to 
grammar, there is 40 excuse for any irregular nouns or irre- 
gular verbs, for gender as different from sex, for obsolete 
degrees of comparison, or for any involved syntactical con- 
structions. These ought all to be abolish^. Secondly? 
as to the dictionary, it is quite clear that if 15,000 words 
sufficed for Shakespeare, a dictionary of 250,000, like the 
English dictionary now being published by the University 
of Oxford, is the most fearful extravagance ever b&own. 
Here all inventors of a new language insist on retrench- 
ment, The inventor of Volapiik was satisfied at first with a 
dictionary of 10,000 words, but we are now promised a 
new one of 20,00a 

There is a great difference of opinion, however, when 
the question arises from what source these words ou^ht to 
be derived. Some draw their words at random from a 
number of the best-known languages, others confine them- 
Mlves, as much as possible, to words common to G«^an, 
French, and English. Volapiik draws on several btmles, 
chiefly on Engli^, but it clips its coins fearfully. Thus, its 

B 


t 


NATURE 


\M^y 3, iS88 


very name, VolapUk^ is iakeix ifanMa Cifgw mA SmtiA. ; 
Voi represents tbefiiMW Wtii 0 Ah'$ifmAk,\ 

so that ifWiA in Ae sanw ^ 

manner a/>MMrliw abrndatm^ 

by bundan^ MdUmtr bus ymdkl^ Aous^ hy 

In many ctiCf Ihcic teeww e rf .miw^ haw been sp muA 
changed that tt i$ diieitft Jiecognwe them. Hew 
Pasilingua has a great JMlvMiafe. AH words aemiiid 
us of a Teutooic ar .Bansanic prototype, or of English^ 
which has these two elements in Its dic- 

tionary. Volap^ often requires a cmumentaiy^ whaw j 
Pasilingua allows us to guess with a good d^oe of 
success. Thus — i 

What o*clock is it ? is in Volapiik Dup kimid binos? in | 
Pasilingua Quota kora er alt 

Where do you live? is in Volapuk Kiplace lodensf in 
Pasilingua Ubi habitirs tusf 

The sentence, Advertisements arc to the man of busi- 
ness what steam is to industry, has been rendered in Vola- 
piik by Lenunc binoms jafaman otos kelos stcmplo dustor^ 
in Pasilingua by Anndneius ers pro tos affiiriros qua ta 
vap^a pro ta iuduUfiu. 

After Volapuk has once chosen what may be called its 
stems, which consist mostly of a consonant, a vowel, and 
a coAsonant only, everything else becomes easy enough 
Thus if stands for father, we get a simple declen- 
sion ; — 


Si<U);ulnr, FUiral 


.N. /z/, fsiher 

fats 

G. fata 

fatas 

D. fate 

fates 

A. fail 

fatis 

Pasilingua declines : — 

Singular. 

Plural. 

N. menu, the death 

G. mortude 

mortas 

[ mortasde 

D. mortuby 

mortas by 

A, mortun 

mortan 

Spelln declines 

Sit^uUr. 

Plural. 

N. mik^ a friend 

inikocs 

G. doe mik 

doe mikoes 

D. in mik 

tu mikoes 

A. mik 

mikoU 


It is clear that there are ever so many ways by which 
the same result might be obtained, so long as the prin- 
ciple is strictly adhered to that each case shall have but 
ooe sign, and that the same sign is to be used in the 
plural and the singular, while the plural again is indi- 
cated by a sign of its own. In Bengali and many other 
laaguages the same principle is carried out with consider- 
able consistency. What applies to declension applies to 
conjugation, to degrees of comparison, and to derivation. ^ 
All becomes regular, simple, intelligible, whatever set of 
sui^txes, prefixes, or infixes we adopt. Thus, to have is ^ 
/ab in Volapiik. Hence i 

Stoiular Plural. 

tabobf 1 have lahobs^ we have I 

lahol^ thou hast tahols^ you have I 

tahom^ he has laboms^ they have 

she has 
lakos^ it has 
labon^ one has 

By .assigning to each suffix one peculiar power, Pasilingua 
difUnguitihes ; mortn^ death, mortOy d^, morte^ dead 
mortUy dead (neirt.), moriiroy dying, mortaroy | 


mmimtmtiat h^atawmeitt nf ausnkr, 

churchyard, 
AMt asMAAk to kilt, 
I wifirirtrvtn lir (k mi ^ ii mumi i fr i tw iH i^ iiw wiiilir; iTfr 1r*”_ mortar^ 

I to bey Bed, &c. 

I Thoie fm eactMieis iwnders an idea of what 

! they bavetoexpict Bw mid Spe/tn, 

Spekn Isas nothing to 4e wkhfpeUing* It m ikrived from 
iM, the abbii^viated 5tem«f JWg.jfcwwtt Greek pas) 

sound is 

SMidiedieiii cellce^ summm rheace s^iin means all- 
laagnagie, or Pasilmgua^ 

The study of these systems is by no means without 
interest and advantage. It will help to clear people's 
ideas about the great consplexity of language, and 
show how simple a process grammar really i8> If 
more generally adopted, as Volapuk seems likely to 
be, such a system of writing may become even prac- 
tically useful, particularly for telegraphic, communication- 
That it could ever supplant our spoken language is out 
of the question, and Dr, Schleycr, the inventor of 
Volapuk, distinctly disclaims any such intention {“ Haupt- 
gedanken,'* p, lo, note). One protest only we have to 
enter before leaving the subject. Nothing could be a 
greater mistake than to imagine that these clever and 
amusing experiments have anything in common with 
Leibniz's conception of a philosophical language. What 
Leibniz had in his mind may be gxicssed from the “ Essay 
towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language/’ 
by Bishop Wilkins, London, i668, of which an abstract 
is given in Max Muller's “ Lectures on the Science of 
Language ” (vol. ii. p. 50). This is as different from 
Volapuk as the Kriegspiel is from real warfare. For 
spending a dreary afternoon pleasantly, an experimental 
study of VclapUky Pasilingua^ or Speliny may safely be 
recommended. Lingual umina is a more serious matter. 
It is built on an exhaustive analysis of the notions that 
have to be expressed, and thus approaches nearer to the 
ideal which Leibniz had conceived of a perfect and 
universal language. 


BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION, 

A Practical Treatise on Bridge Construction : being a 
Text • book on the Design and Construction 0/ Bridges 
in Iron and Steel, For the Use of Students, Draughts- 
men, and Engineers. By T. Claxton Fidler, M.Inst, 
C.E. (London : Charles Griffin and Co., 1887.) 

T his book is principally intended for practical use by 
engineers and draughtsmen, who are now being 
called upon to design and constmet bridges of unprece- 
dented magnitude, like the Forth Bridge, whi^ ike 
introduction of iron, and latterly more especially of eteel, 
has rendered possible. The execution of these requiee^ 
ments has brought forward a mimber of new proUems 
to be solved in Statics, and the Elasticity and Strength 
of Materials, and has invested old probkixis with an \m^ 
pottance which they did not before possess. Evolution in 
this branch of creation has gone on so rapidly that the 
Darwinian student of the ** survival of the fittest ” oodglit 
turn to this hook for striking exemplifications of Ids 
theories, which he would ^nd in the daiitficaUon irf 


MfMy 3^ 1888] 


NATURE 


3 


bridges, described and illustrated in the second section of 
tibe^ork. But while in the animate kingdom the mammoth 
animals have become extinct from insufhcient mobility 
and relative strength to carry their own n eight, the con- 
verse operation is observable in engineering construction. 
Bone and muscle are of the same strength as formerly, 
but the improved manufacture of steel has placed in the 
hands of the engineer a material with which he can safely 
attempt his mammoth creations ; and should metal- 
lurgical science provide commercially for the engineer a 
new metal, as strong as, or stronger than, steel, but of less 
weight — say, aluminium— then we may expect to see still 
more marvellous developments in bridge building. 

Tlic bridge, on a large scale, resembles the mammoth 
or giant in requiring its whole strength to keep itself up- 
right 5 and one of the most interesting tbeoretiral ques- 
tions discussed in the present treatise is the consideration 
of the maximum span possible with the material in hand — 
say, steel. When the span is large, the greatest economy 
in details must be practised, as the chief stress is due to 
the dead weight of the bridge, and not to the relatively 
insignificant weight of the moving load. Thus in the Forth 
Bridge a weight of 20,000 tons of steel is required in a 
single span to provide it with the necessary strength to hold 
itself up, so that the stresses due to a train of 200 tons 
running across may be left out of account. 

I'he weight of metal worked into a bridge is at once 
a measure of the stresses in the material, and also of the 
quantity, and consequently the cost, of the materi al used. 
The author employs the customary units of engineers, 
the pound or ton as a measure of force and of weigh, 
and measures stresses m pounds or tons per square inch. 
He does not find it necessary to express his stresses in 
poundals per square foot, nor does he measure quantity j 
of material in units of mass, which pounds or tons, ; 
as we arc taught in theoretical text-books, j 

The mathematical student, to whom the book is , 
partially addressed, will find it, while valuable as a hand- j 
book for a practical engineer, at the same time stimu- j 
lating to his imagination in the realms of pure Abstract 
Mechanics, which at present run the risk of wandering 
away from reality, because the writers of modern text- 
books of mathematics do not look to the wonderful 
creations of modern engineering science for illustrations . 
of theory. Thus the methods of Graphic Statics, largely 1 
employed in this treatise, arose out of the requirements j 
of an engineer’s office : a draughtsman was found using 
the method, and Prof. Maxwell seised upon it and elevated 
it to the rank of a new method in Mechanics. 

Scientific treatises on Practical Mechanics are more 
common in America, where the requirements of opening | 
up a vast continent have given great employment to the 
engineer and the bridge-builder ; and it must be owned 
that these treatises are far superior to our own. But we 
hope ^e psesent treatise will do something to take away 
this reproach. 

We may flatter ourselves that the Forth Bridge 
now in progress Is the greatest thing of the kind in 
Use world, but a rival in the Poughkeepsie Bridge 
is pre^tetL Thesh two bvidfes^ wiU exemplify the 
difference of practice of the Old WorWf and the New. 
In our practice the whole bridge is riveted up into a rigid 
structure as mudi a» possible; while in America the 


articulated system of triangular cells, with pin joints per- 
mitting rotation, is adopted, the stress in individual 
members being thus a simple pull or thrust. So far the 
American system has scored one in securing the contract 
for the Hawkesbury Bridge in Australia. This system 
affords the best theoretical illustrations of elementary 
Statics — the subject of Part I. of the present treatise — until 
the question of the bending moment (it is gratifying to 
find the term ‘‘tendency to break” of the abstract 
treatises discarded) comes into consider'ation, when the 
Old World bridge affords the requisite illustrations. 

In Bart III., on the “ Strength of Materials,” the author 
begins with the resistance of columns and struts to flexure, 
and here theory and practice have long worked together 
almost in harmony. The expression “breaking load” of 
a column — to mean the load which just starts flexure of 
the column — is apparently usual, but like the expression 
“tendency to break” should now be discarded for some- 
thing m'bre suitable. The theoretical strength of a column, 
according to liluler, which requires the assumption that the 
column is straight, and the actual strength 

against flexure, arc represented in a diagram (p. i6a) ; and 
the author has shown very ingeniously how the actual state 
of things encountered in practice can be imitated theo- 
retically by a strut composed of two flanges of unequal 
elasticity (p. 163). Such a strut will begin to cur\^e imme* 
diately as the load is gradually applied, and will thus repre- 
i sent very closely the actual behaviour of a continuous 
[ column, as great variations are found experimentally in the 
' elasticity of iron or steel in specimens cut from one piece 
' of metal (p. 167). When crushing or tearing takes place 
j from continually applied pressure or tension, only cm’* 
pirical formula^ are suitable ; but, as in actual structures 
the stress is kept by Board of Trade rules much below the 
elastic limit, the theoretical equations depending essen- 
tially on Hooke’s law, that Tension and Extension are 
in the ratio of the Elasticity of the material, may be 
employed. Even with the low stresses permissible 
by law, Wohler’s researches on the fatigue of metals 
show that permanent deformation may keep on accu- 
mulating, and, in consequence, modern engineering 
practice is in some respects not so daring as formerly. 
Gordon’s empirical rules (§ 124) (originally due to 
Tredgold) have been shown by Prof. J. H. CotteriU to 
rest on a theoretical basis, if the compression of the 
material due to the thrust previous to flexure is taken 
into account. 

For very long spans, the only two rival methods of con- 
struction are the cantilever and the suspension principles, 
of which the Forth Bridge and the Brooklyn Bridge arc 
the great respective examples. In the Cantilever method 
we build out equally on each side of a pier, so as always to 
preserve stable equilibrium, while in the suspension method 
the roadway is suspended from the chains or steel ropes. 
The chief drawbacks of the suspension principle, its 
defect of stiffness and great sensibility to changes of 
temperature, are shown by the author to be avoidable by 
the system of bracing in his “ rigid suapeosion bridge 
(Fig. 22), 

The disastrous fall of the Tay Bridge Viaduct in a 
hurricane has forcibly redireaed the attention of en- 
gineers to the importance of the theory of wind- pressure 
and wind-bracing (Chapter XXIV,), and now we may 



4 


NATURE 


IMay 3, r 888 


feci secure that in the new Tay Bridge of Mr. Barlow, 
as well as in all recent structures, ample alio wan ce of 
strength is provided for against the effect of wind. 

The book is copiously illustrated with excellent dia* 
grams of real practice in the construction of bridges, 
based on the theories of the text, and should prove not 
only an indispensable hand-book of the practical en- 
gineer, but also a stimulating treatise to the student of 
mathematical m^echanics and elasticity. 

A. G. Greenhill. 


TIVO FRENCH BOOKS. 

Les Pygmees. Par A. de Quatrefages. 

Les Anctires de nos Ammaux, dans les Temps Ghologiques. 
Par Albert Gaudry. (Paris : J. B. Bailli^rc ct Fils, 
i8«7-88.) 

T HP-SE two works form two volumes of Dailli^re et 
Fils’ “ Biblioth^que Scientifique Contemporaine.” 
The first, by the eminent Professor of Anthropology at 
the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, treats of the Pygmies, 
a diminutive race of mankind known to the ancients, 
alluded to by Homer, insisted upon as really existing by 
Aristotle, next believed to be but myths, and now estab* 
lished as a veritable race of the human kind. The author 
accepts for them the terms, suggested by Hamy, of 
Negritos and Negrilles, the latter being confined to the 
African Pygmies, and the former to those of the Asiatic 
Isles. 

Avowedly a compilation, this little volume has all the 
p>eculiar charm that distinguishes Prof. Quatrefages* 
writings, and abounds with much curious and interesting 
details. The first chapter treats of the Pygmies from an 
historic point of view ; the second, third, and fourth, of 
the Negritos, they being exclusively insular. The Negritos 
are to be found in New Guinea, and [all over the Mela- 
nesian Archipelago, as far as Fiji ; but, while the typical 
Negrito is confined to this area, conquest, emigration, 
and slavery have spread the race to Timor, Ceram, Bouro, 
Giloto, to the western shores of Borneo, and so to other 
islands of the Pacific Ocean. Northwards they can be 
traced to the Carolines, and southwards to New Zealand 
where they preceded the Maoris. Mr. Ten Kate reports a 
Melanesian skull found in the little Isle of Santo Spiritu, 
off the coast of California. To the northwards they can 
be traced to the Loochoo Isles, Formosa, &c., while 
their western limits seem to be the Nicobar and Andaman 
Islands. 

The question of the mixing of races on the borders 
of their distribution is discussed, and a good deal of 
recent information on this subject is given, The various 
modifications dependent on the wide range of distribution 
arc also investigated, and the manners and habits of the 
several groups are described at some length. Good copies 
of photographs of native heads and figures are appended. 

Chapter VI. treats of the Negrilles, or African Pygmies, 
the details of the Akkas, Tobbo and Chairallah, reared 
in Italy by Count Miniscalchi Eritzo being full of 
interest. The last chapter is devoted to the Bushmen 
of the Cape, and in connection with them' there is an 
account of the Hottentots. The volume has thirty-one 
figures intercalated with the text. 


The second work is by an equally well-known wnter, 
— though of a very different school from that of Prof. 
Quatrefages — Prof. Albert Gaudry, also a Member of the 
Institute, and the Professor of Palaeontology at the 
Museum. Well known for his able writings, and for 
' his liberal and modern views on science, he has in this 
little volume given us a most delightful account of his 
ideas on the origin and development of the Mammalia 
during geological time. The volume begins with a 
chapter on the history of the progress of palaeonto- 
logy, followed by one on evolution and Darwinism. 
Though a disciple of D'Archiac, who was a strong op- 
ponent of Darwin*s views, Prof. Gaudry read ** The Origin 
of Species** with the most passionate admiration, and his 
labours since then have very materially helped to com- 
plete the palaeontological record. The third chapter is 
devoted to the subject of the evolution of the Mammalia 
in geologic time ; the fourth introduces us to the author*s 
researches at Pikermi, where, as he tells us, he spent 
some of the most pleasurable moments of his life, en- 
gaged in excavating the remains of the quadrupeds which 
in times long ago roamed at liberty over the plains of 
Greece. Here were found an assemblage of animals 
of large size, such as has never been found before within 
so limited an area. Beautiful figures of many of these 
are given, and their relations to existing forms are ex- 
plained. In another chapter we find an account of similar 
researches carried on at L^beron, near Cucuron (Vau- 
cluse), where the remains were chiefly those of Herbivores, 
and an interesting table is added of the succession of 
the terrestrial Mammalia in France during the Tertiary 
period. In a concluding chapter there are some short 
sketches of the well-known palaeontologists of the 
Museum : Alcide D'Orbigny, D’Archiac, Edouard Lartct, 
followed by a description of the fine new gallery for 
fossil forms at the Museum. 


OHR BOOK SHELF. 

The Elements of Graphical Arithmetic and Graphical 
Statics, By John Y, Gray and George Lowson, M.A. 
(London and Glasgow: W. Collins, Sons, and Co., 
1888.) 

In the year 1871, Prof. Crofton, F.R.S., emlained before 
the London Mathematical Society his diagrams illus- 
trative of the stresses in Warren and lattice girders, and 
in the course of his remarks said that he had not found 
anything to help him in English text-books, and referred 
to papers bjr Profs. Ranldne and Clerk-MaxwelL It was 
at this meeting (April 13) that Prof. Henrici drew atten- 
tion to a work then little known in this comity, viz. 
Culmann'fl Graphischc Statik 'M'excellente 'Graph- 
ische Statik* de M. Culmann'* (Prof. Cremona)— and 
showed that Prof. Crofton's constructions had been 
anticipated and the methods applied to a very aide 
range of subiects. On this occasion also Profi Henrid 
illustrated the subject by a simple and ingenious 
notation. He subsequently drew up an abstract of 
Culmann's work (1806}, which was printed in the 
Appendix to vol. iii. of the above-named Society's Pro- 
ceedings (pp. 320-22). The work is now well known, and 
its methods are very generally employed by engineer^, 
and are the subject of lectures in more than one of our 
Colleges. 

The object of the book before us is to give an demont-v 
ary account of the fundamental princi{des of tiM subfect 


NATURE 


5 


May 3, 1888] 


in a handy and cheap form> as well as to discuss some 
simj^e examples of their application. 

Inc finrt part — which dves an explanation of graphical 
methodSr iUusttates graphical arithmetic^ and shows how 
to represent areas and volumes by lines — is very carefully 
and clearly worked out^ and leads one to see that this 
part of the subject might well come in at a fairly early 
date in school- work. Our idea is that the second part^ 
“ Graphical Statics," would be improved by more fullness 
of detail. It comprises an account of the following 
matters ; kinematics, forces in one plane acting at 
a point, the funicular polygon, resolution of forces, 
nu)ment 5 | couples, bending moment and shearing force 
in a simple beam, rolling loads, framed structures, eifects 
of wind-pressure on roofs, bridge-girders, and centres of i 
gravity. 

We have noted only two or three typographical errors. 
The notation employed is one most frequently termed ! 
“ Bow's notation ” in this book, from its having “ been 
brought into use by Robert H. Bow, Esq., C.E.,” but a 
note states that the method seems, however, to have 
been first suggested by Prof. Henrici." We presume that 
Prof Hcnrici^ notation was the one we have referred to 
in the opening paragraphs of this notice. The immediate 
object of the book is to furnish help to students preparing 
for the South Kensington Examinations and for those of 
the City and Guilds of London Institute. 

Tkt Manual Training SekooL By C. M. Woodward. | 

(Boston : D. C. Heath and Co., 1887.) 

Mr, Woodward has by no means a high opinion of the 
results of the efforts that have hitherto been made in 
European countries to promote technical education. In 
1885 ne spent five months in examining “ trade schools” 
on this side of the Atlantic, and all the schools visited by 
him, with the exception of the French Government 
school at ChAlons, disappointed him. He admits that 
they have ‘'many excellent features ” ; but their manual 
training is generally, he holds, “ very narrow," and he 
condemns “their long daily sessions, their long terms, 
and the conventional nature of their curricula.” Manual 
training, according to Mr. Woodward, is in a much more 
fiourishing condition in America. There it has been 
introduced “ not for a trade or a profession, but for the 
healthy growth and vigour of all the faculties, for general 
robustness of life and character”; and he is of opinion 
that it has been developed in a way that places it “ far in 
advance of any model in a foreign land/' Whether or 
not this comparative estimate is accurate, no one who 
reads Mr. Woodward’s book will dispute that the 
Americans have begun to understand thoroughly the 
importance of technical instruction, and that the leaders 
of opinion on the subject have done much to diffuse 
enlightened ideas as to the true aims and methods of 
manual training. Unfortunately, Mr. Woodward has not 
the art of presenting facts and arguments in an attractive 
style* He has, however, brought together a great mass 
of useful information about a subject of pressing import- 
ance, and his work, although relating chiefly to institu- 
tions founded in his own country, ought to find readers in 
England as well as in the United States. He does not 
enter, in detail^ into the theory and practice of manual 
training in primary and grammar schools. He limits 
himself to the training of pupils beyond the age of 
fourteen* The value of the work is increased by a 
number of good woodcuts illustrating shop exercises 
in woods and metals. 

Th$ Method of Creation. By Henry W. Crosskey. 
(London; The Sunday School Association, 1888,) 

This Jjttle volume belongs to a series of “Biblical 
Mkmials^^ edited by Prof. J. Eatlin Carpenter. With the 
polemical parts of the book we have, of course, nothing 


I to do. In the chapters in which Mr. Crosskey devotes 
himself simply to the exposition of scientific truths he 
writes with full knowledge of his subject and in a clear 
and pleasant style. “ How ‘ dry land ' was formed ” is the 
subject of an excellent chapter, in which the writer brings 
together some of the more striking of the facts which 
prove that rocks have been formed by various agencies, 
that there is no single period at which any kind of rock 
has been specially produced, that the crust of the earth 
consists of rocks in ordered succession, and that there has 
been an unvarying order in the succession of rocks. 
There are also good chapters on the history of plants and 
animals, and on the antiquity of the human race. 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

[TAe Editor does not hold himself respmsible for opinions 
expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he under’ 
take to return^ or to correspond with the writers of 
rejected manuscripts intended for this or any other part 
of Nature. No notice is taken of anonymous communi- 
cations. \ 

Coral Formations.” 

Dr. Gujtv’s Jetler shows that I have not been sufficiently 
explicit on the subject of the formation of atolls, yet I cannot 
well understand that I have been obscure on the subject of his 
first question. Surely it is a sufficient reason for rejecting the 
theory of subsidence as applied to the Chagos Group that I 
fancy myself, in conjunction with M. Spurs, to have detected 
evidences of elevation in Diego Garcia. Darwin laid great 
stress on the character of the Great Chagos Bank as affording 
evidence of his theory of subsidence ; he considers it to be an atoll 
drowned by a too rapid act of subsidence ; but, as I have pointed 
out, if this were so it is impossible to understand how two atolls 
such as the Great Chagos Bank and Centurion’s Rank could have 
been thus destroyed without Six Island.? or Egmont’s Atoll, which 
lies directly between them, being involved m their destruction. 
Further, the raised atolls north of Madagascar are unquestion- 
able proofs of upheaval in this region, yet in the same region arc 
low-lying atolls, ntoll-shaned reefs awash, and submerged atoll- 
shaped banks. Clearly the theory of subsidence does not apply 
to these groups, and I do not see any reason for supposing that 
the Laccadive and Maidive Islands have been formed differently 
to the other atolls in the Indian Ocean, though I am unable to 
bring forward any fresh arguments with regard to them. 

Secondly, because I do not agree with Mr. Murray in thinking 
that lagoons arc due largely to the solvent action of sea-water, 
it is no reason that T should disagree with other parts of his 
theory. Indeed, after Dr. Guppy’s striking observations at 
Santa Anna and other islands, it would be idle to deny that 
organic deposits have formed the bases of many atolls, perhaps 
of all. Il did not scerrrto me necessary to deal with this part of 
the subject, because as a resident on an atoll without the means 
of making sectional soundings I had nothing new to say on the 
subject. 

Perhaps you will allow me space to add that before reading 
my paper 1 had not had the advantage of meeting Mr. Murray. 

1 nave since had that advantage, and on comparing notes with 
him I find that I am much more in accord with him than my 
paper would seem to show, I still maintain my point that the 
rale of organic growth in the lagoon of Diego Garcia is suffi- 
cient to counterbalance the solvent action of the sca-water. In 
other }>oint8 I agree with him, and believe that my observa- 
tions confirm his view that atolU tend to spread outwards like a 
fairy-ring. Mr. Murray has convinced me that 1 laid undue 
stress on the direct influence of currents in determining the 
growth of corals, and this section of my paper was in con- 
sequence omitted in the account which appeared in the columns 
of Nature. Judging from the local effects which I observed at 
Diego Garcia, where currents often swept through narrow chan- 
nels with great force, and from Prof. Moseley's account of the 
oceanic currents sweeping past St. Paul's rocks, 1 was led to an 
exaggerated estimate of the rate of oceanic currents. No doubt 
a current runni^ at the rate of some thirty-five miles in the 
dav would modity or retard coral growth, hut such currents art 
only found in narrow passages. G. C. Bourne. 



6 


MATURE 




I LATELY discussed Murray** theory of coral formation \sfiih a 
class of boys and girls (fourteen to sixteen years of age), and 
(hry rai«ted two questions which I am unable to answer, (i) If 
aea water dissolves the coral near the surface at such a rate as to 
form a lagoon, why does it not dissolve the limestone foundation 
even more rapidly ? (2) After a reef has progressed a considerable 
distance ftom the shore, and a channel of open water is formed 
'between, why should not the reef extend back again shorewards ? 
How could such a channel as exists between Australia and its 
Great Barrier Reef ever have been kept open ? These seem 
to be valid and nerious objections : will some expert be kind 
enough to answer them ? CttAKLES R. Dryer, 

Fort Wayne, Indiana, U.S.A., April 16. 

• 

Density and Specific Gravity. 

The point raised by Mr, Cummins in last week's Nature 
( voh xxxvii. p. 584), as to the use of the words density arul 
specific gravity is, it seems to me, of some importance. For 
many years pa^t I have, in niy lectures, taken the law into my 
own hands in this matter, and, defining density as the mass of 
unit volume, 1 have defined specific gravity, in the way Mr. 
Cuinming "'Uggests in the last paragraph of his letter, as the weight 
of unit volume (or rather, lest 1 should cause any to offend 
against the examiner, I have thus defined rt/W«/^sj)€ciftc gravity, 
or specific gravity proper, and have pointed out that the defini* 
tion commonly given was the definition of relative specific 
gravity). \Vc thus get the parallel relations — 

M = and W == rV, 

also 

W = and s ss gp. 

Thus regarded, si-iecific gravity is to density just what weight is 
to mass. When force Is expressed in absolute units of any 
kind, specific gravity and density must of course have different 
numerical values, just as weight and mass have. But in the very 
large number of cases in which weights are the only forces that 
have to be considered, and in which it is not needful to take 
account of the small changes of weight dependent on changes of 
geographical position, the local weight of the unit of mass may 
be conveniently taken as the practical unit of force — that is, we 
may take 1. In all such cases we have, nunieHcatlVy 
weight = mass, and specific gravity = density, though the idea 
of weight IS essent 'ally different from that of mass, and the idea 
of specific gravity from that of density. 

Of course, na Mr. Gumming points out, when specific grflvity 
is defined aa weight of unit volume, its numerical value for a 
given substance depends on what is taken as unit of weight and 
what as unit of volume. With the weight of i pound avoir- 
dupois and the cubic foot as units, the specific gravity of water 
becomes 62 ’5, and that of platinum 1312'J, instead of i and 21 
aa given in the ordinary tables of (relative) specific gi*avities. 
If, on the other hand, wc tale as unit of weight the \\eighl of 
unit volume of the standard substance, as is done when weights 
are expressed in grammes and volumes in cubic ccniimetres, or 
weights in kilogrammes and volumes in litres, absolute specific 
gravities and relative specific gravities *becomc equal, and the 
ordinary specific gravity tables can be used for practical puqv)ses, 
which ifi one of the great adv.antagcs to be gained by using the 
metrical system of weights and mea-sures. With any other 
*3 stem, the numbeis given in the tables require to be multiplied 
by the specific gravity of water— that is, they must be translated 
into absolute specific gravities— before they arc of use for almost 
any real calculation, such as oc tirs either in experimental jihysics 
or in engineering practice, hnr instance, we weigh a measured 
length of copper wire and want to know its diameter, or we 
weigh the quantity of mercury that fills a glass bulb of which wc 
require the capacity, or that fills a measured length of a tube of 
which wc require the bore ; or an engineer compares his pressurc- 
^uge against a mercury-manometer in order to convert its 
indications into pounds- weight per square inch ; or he has to 
calculate the pressure exerted by a brick wall so many feet high, 
or the weight of a mass of rock of so many cubic feet. In alt 
theae cases it is the absolute specific gravity that comes into 
Eccotint ; it is no use to tetl us that cornier is 8*9 times as heavy 
as water, and mercury 13*6 times as heavy, unless we are told 
how heavy the unit volume of v ater itself is. 

I maintain, in short, that the weight of unit volume of a tnb- 
atance is a quanti^ of very great practical importance, for which 
specific gravity is u suitable name, whereas the ratio 
usually defined as specific gravity is of Ihtle or no use outside 


examination questions, and that if it needs a name it should be 
called relative density. 

Further, my experience is that the definition here advocated 
presents considerable advantages fi'om the |K>int of view of 
systematic teaching. G. CAREY FOSTER. 

University College, London, April 21. 

Je crois que la notion de speeific gravity doonde par M. 
Gumming dans Nature du 19 avril (rob xxxvii. p. ^84) est de 
nature k puzx'er les efudiants plus encore que la vrau definition 
physique de la densite. 

La densttd d’un corps est le rapport de s« masse k son volume*^ 



Dans le sysltme C.G.S. la densitd doit done ^re exprimee en 
grammes masse par eenti mitre tube ^voy. Everett, “Units and 
Physical Constants *')- Le poids spccifiquc est Ic rapport du 
piuds d’un corps k son volume et devrait ^tre exprim^, dans le 
systi'me C.G.S. en i/ynes par centtmHre cube. Mais il y aurait 
alors le grave inconvenient pratique k cette di^oition rigoureute 
que le poids specifique varierait avec acceleration due k la 
pesanteur, tandis que la densite resterait constante. 

La confusion provient de cc que le mot tveighly comine le mot 
poids en fran9ais. s’appHque indistin clement ^ la masse d’un 
corps en grammes -masse et h la force qu’excrce la pesanteur sur 
Ic corps exprimee en grammes. 

La solution logique e.{t de simprimer le mol poids du langage, 
h cause de son double sens, et de ne parlcr que de la s/tasse ou 
de la /(>ree exercee par la pesanteur, suivnnt que J’un ou Tautre 
facteur intervient dans les calculs. 

En tout cas, expriiner Ic poids .spt^ifique en iivres ou en 
grammes est aiissi absurde que d’exprimer les vitesses cn metres?, 
et la puissance {ptnver) d’une machine en ergs ou en foot-pounds. 

J .e respect de I’homogcn^ftc dcs formulcs est la condition 
essentielle des definitions des quanlitOT physiques, et cette 
homog^eke n’est pas re 9 pcct 4 e dans la nit ion doimee par 
M. Cummicig. E. Hospitalier. 

Paris, le 23 avril. 

The Ignition of Platinum in Differont Oaaea. 

An abstract ap|»eared a few weeks ago in Nature relating to 
the ** Occlusion of Gases by Platinum and their Expulsion by 
Icaition," which induces me to mention some curious r^ults 
obtained by Mr. Lowndes and myself by the ignition of platinum 
in different gases. We were led to the experiments by auother 
investigation on the behaviour of carbon at high temperatures 
in various gases. We find that when a platinum wdre is heated 
to nearly melting by a current in an atmosphere of chlorine, the 
walls of the glass vessel become covered with a yellow deposit, 
which is insoluble in water, but dissolves in hydrochloric acid, 
and then, after addition of a liiilc nitric acid, gives the re- 
actions of platinic chloride. The yellow deposit U in (act 
platioous chloride. At the same time the thick part of th» 
platinum wire conveying the current, and which was not heated 
very highly, became intrusted with very fine long crystals of 
platinum. Some of these were more than the sixteenth of on 
inch in length, and apparently considerably more were located 
on that end of the thick wire leading to the negative pole than 
on the other. 

There was also a very decided hut lambent flame playing 
around the ignited and part of the cooler wire during the pas- 
sage of the current. The arrangement used was a wFde-neated 
flask, stopped with a glass bulb, through which a deliv^y-Wbe 
for the chlorine, and ihc two No. 12 platinam wires leodii^ tlw 
current, passed. The ignited parts of the wire are Utile oods of 
No. 24 wire separated by a I -inch piece of No. 1 a. On beat- 
ing the flask externally up to the softening of the glass, 6»e 
appearance of a flame around the wire increased riightly. 

On repeating the experiment with bromine, very nearly the 
larae effects were observed. The amount of platinous bromide 
was much less than in the case of the chloride, but the flame 
appearance was very much more pronounced. Oft 
chlorine into the bromine, so as to form chloride of bromine, 
both the flame appearance and'the action on the platinum were 
largely increased. With iodine in the flask, vgpflrieed^by hMt- 
ing externally, lUrie cbemica] action on the phuiniUD mo ob- 
served, only the sUghtest deposit being fotm^ of a ptadinRttt- 
iodine compound on the ,glass ; but, on posaing chkdttie inb> 
this also, a stJU more vigorous action on the metal tomt 
the deposH containiAg only chlorine and plarintim* The flattw 



3 , tftSS’ 


NATURE 


tppMittttoe' filled the entire fleek. The spectrum of these flames 
mum no Unee in anv case. They are all oontinucnu^ The 
IngtHft OTiitals of platiDum were obtained with the JClg. 
ittfomide of iodine behaved like iodine. 

^e have tried a number of other substances in a similar 
manner, Oxy^en^ sulphur, sulphur dioxide, nitric oxide, mercury 
vapour ^ve ne^live results as far as wc could see. With 
liydrochToric acid some iHCIj was formed, but no flame 
apMarance. Phosphoric chloride gave a slight flame, anr! some 
riCIj ; but phosphorus is liberated, and then unites with 
the platinum, meJling it. A current of very dry hydrogen 
fluoride was passed through the flask ; l^efore the wire was 

X ited no' action on the glass of the flask was apparent, but 
lost immediately on passing the current the glass became 
much con-oded by, probably, liberated fluorine. Owing to the 
flask breaking, we cannot say if platinous fluoride was firmed. 

With silicon fluoride a singular action lojk place, the wire, 
especially the negative half, becoming covered with long semi- 
transparent crystals of, we think, silicon. The silicon fluoride 
was very dry, and passed for a long time through the flask 
without any action until the wire was ignited, when simul- 
taneously with the production of these crystals the glass vessel 
became much corroded. A small quantity of a soluble platinum 
salt was formed at the same time. We are continuing these 
experiments. 


In regard to the association of moral insanity with an average 
amount of intellect, 1 would only observe that the brother 
alienists of J>r. Mercier, including Dr. Maudsley, contend that, 
not only may this be met with, but that moral insanity may co- 
exist with nn undisordered intelligence. Dr. Mercier’s conten- 
tion that ** in moral insanity intelligence is always disordered’^ 
would therefore be still in conflict with the experience of some 
experienced alienists, which was the position 1 took. 

Both these points, however, are only small matters compared 
with the general subject-matter of the work under review, and I 
repeal that it is gratifying to find there does not appear to have 
been any important mis-statement of Dr. Mercier’s views in the 
friendly criticism of The Reviewek. 

April 24. — _ 

Nose-Blackening as Preventive of Snow-Blindneus. 

My friend Mr. Edmund J. Power sends me the following 
account of what appears tome to be an interesting fact. J should 
like to obtain suggestions from physiologists as to the possible 
explanation of the phenomenon, on the assumption that the 
blackening of the nose and eyelids really does prevent the 
injurious action of sunlight on the eyes ; and further, T should 
like to know whether (quite apart from the fact of its utility or 
futility) the custom has possibly a remote origin in some ceremony 
or ritual. K, Kay I-ANKKSTER. 


We do not think the platinum salts formed in this way are 
simply shot out by “ volcanic” action, as they arc quite uniformly 
Spread over the sides of the glass vessel, and seem to be really 
volatile at the temperature and under the conditions. We have 
failed to find any record of platinum salts being volatile when 
heated under ordinary conditions, but it is probable that in the 
presence of fl^e halogen they would be volatile. 

Whether there lie any true electrolytic action in these cases 
we m not at the moment prepared to say. 

Royal Military Academy. W. R. Hodokinson. 

**Thc Nervous System and the Mind.” 

Wilt, you allow me to account for one or two of the dis- 
crepancies in my book which your very able reviewer points out 
in the current issue of Nature ? 

He cannot reconcile the statement that ** everyone nowadays 
admits that the evolution of mind and tl>e evolution of the 
nervous system have proceeded /art /asstt^ and are indeed hut 
two aspects of the same process,” with the further statement that 

this way of studying tnem is so greatly neglected, is indeed 
derided and scouted,” It is pointed out, however, in the 
passage from which he quotes, that the Utter charge is laid at 
the door of my brother alienists only ; while the former 
statement applies to psychologists at large. 

Were it worth while, I could substantiate my charge by 
chapter and verse, but as the general movement is at Ust begin- 
ning in the direction I advocate, to do so would be to cause the 
C17 fitJin the wilderness to approximate too much to the character 
of the voice of chanticleer. 

Your reviewer states, as if in controversion of my doctrine, 
that *' experienced alienists tell us (hey find it necessary to 
admit a moral insanity with an avera^ amount of intelligence.” 
TMs I have never denied. My position is not that in moral 
insanity ” intelligeace is deficient in amount. What I say is, 
that in “moral insanity” intelligence is always dtsora^^t/. 
Disorder of intelligence is very different from deficiency of 
intelligence. Chas. Mkrcikr. 

Catford, S,E., April 23. 

I AM glad that Dr. Mercicr has found so little to complain of 
In the review of his recent work. I am lx>und to accept his 
explanation of the discrepancy I ventured to point out, although, 
on re-reading the two apparently antagonistic pussnaes again, I 
dp Hot find the distinction between ]^choIogists and alienistR, to 
whiebbe now refers, clearly stated^ The expression “ everyone ” 
(p^ 4)' appears' to include both. Dr. Merder’s “brother alien - 
are^ irsmaa, uxcluded from the class that can graap the 
UnMh that tiMr mflutlon of mind ami the nevvoua syatem are but 
two asptfoW of tha apme process, and belong to that uninfornaetl 
dsMiiJltat “deride and toemt” it. 1 certainly should have 
h — st a t ed to insdentand this to be the author's meaning, but, 
beln|E to, 1 must leave his benighted confrhes to settle their 
edth hinii Th^ may perchance think that in this 
of the passaM *^the v^m of ^anticleer” haa already 
beobmemsiociated with the vox <lamantis in thr wilderness f 


“Can you or some of your friends explain the following? 

“When in Colorado shooting the end of last year, nsy friend 
bad a very bad attack of snow-blindness, caused by a long march 
on Know w iih bright sun. My eyes also were very bad the next 
day and caused much pain. 

“Some days after 1 uas under similar circumstances, when my 
guide stopped, and taking some burnt wood from a stump 
blackened his nose and under the eyes well down on the 
cheek -bone. 

“On asking him the reason, he told me it stopped snow- 
blindness, and as the glare was very strong I did the same, and 
found immediate relief. 

“ I did this all the time I was out, and never found the snow 
affect my eyes in any way. 

“P'veryonel spoke to about it could give no reason for it, 
but ail used it on the march. Some use glasses, but, as my man 
remarked, ‘glasses cost dollars, dirt nothing.’ 

“ Perhaps some of your friends can enlarge on the subject, as 
it is of great interest to me, and may be so to Alpine people, os 
glasses are hot to climb in, and from my own experience it is not 
easy to stalk in glasses and then take them off and shoot.” 

“ Antagonisni.” 

The author of “The Correlation of the Physical Forces” 
has, I am sure, our sympathy when he relates how he has been 
forestalled by Prof. Huxley. 

As Sir William Grove subsequently says that “it is always 
useful to know the truth,” he will, perhaps, excuse my su^est- 
ing that his views upop antagonism as pervading the universe 
have been anticipated in a work published more than a quarter 
of a century ago. I allude to “First Principles,” and more 
especially to the chapter in it upon “The Rhythm of Motion,” 
in which the effects of antagonist forces are shown to beevety- 
where present, and are copiously illustrated and expounded from 
the stand points of astronomy, geology, biology, jisychology, and 
sociology. After reading this chapter, and especially its con- 
cluding sentence — “ Given the co-existence everyw'here of an- 
tagonist forces, 0 postulate which, as we have seen, is 
nrce.<sitated by the form of our experience ” — we cannot, I 
think, but add another eminent name to that of Prof. Huxley as 
anticipating Sir W. Grove : it is that of Mr. Herbert Spencer. 

F. Howard Collins. 

Churchfield, Edgbaston, April 29. 

Sente of Taste. 

The curious difference between male and female observers in 
detecting feeble traces of qainine, sugar, acid^ &c., in water as 
mentioned in Nature on p. 557 (voT xxxvii.), is possibly owing 
to the sense of taste being injured in the males by the use of 
tobacco. 

1 have hod occasion t6 epply delicate tests of smell and taste, 
and I find that even moderate smokers are unable to dietefct 
odours and taetes that are quite distinct to noiv-smcdien. 

Dunstable^ W. O. 


s 







NATURE 


9 


tbe aroa wilt show D absorbed, and the other 
hiit I) bright ; and in the resulting spectrum D will have 
diaappearedf on account of the equ^ity, or nearly equality^ 
of'theradiation added to the absorption of the conunuous 
spectrum. The light from the interspace just dlls up and 
<Kditerat68 the ab^rption. 

But if the temperature is such that the green line is 
seen as wdl as p ; in consequence of its poor absorb* 
111^ effect there will be no dark line corresponding to it 
in the resulting spectrum, but the bright green line from 
the interspace will be superposed on the continuous 
spectrum, and we shall get the apparently paradoxical 
resulf of the green line of sodium visible while D is 
absent This condition can easily be reproduced in the 
laboratory by volatilizing a small piece of sodium —be- 
tween the poles of an electric lamp. The green line will 
be seen bright, while D is very dark. 

In the bodies in which these phenomena apparently 
occur — for so far I have found no other origin for the lines 
recorded 569, 570, and 571 — the wave length of the green 
sodium line being 5687, such as Wolf and Rayet's three 
stars in Cygnus and in 7 A^gOs, the continuous variability 
of D is one of the facts most clearly demonstrated by the 
observations, and it is obvious that this should follow if 
from any cause any variation takes place in the distance 
between the meteorites. 

In all meteoric glows which have been observed in the 
laboratory, not only D but the green line have been seen 
constantly bright, while we know in Comet Wells most of 
the luminosity at a certain stage of the comet’s history 
was produced by sodium. It is therefore extremely 
probable that the view above put forward must be taken 
as an explanation of the absence of D when not seen, 
rather than an abnormal chemical constitution of the 
meteorites— that is to say, one in which sodium is absent. 
This may even explain the fact that up to the present 
time the D line of sodium has not been recorded in the 
spectrum of any nebula.' 


Detailid Discussiofi of the Spectra of some Bright’ 
Line Stars. 

These things then being premised^ I now submit some 
maps illustrating this part of the inquiry, although it 
will be some time before my investigations on the 
bright-line stars are finished. These maps will indi- 
cate the way in which the problem is being attacked, and 
the results already obtained. To help us in the work we 
have first of all those lines of substances known to exist in 
meteorites which are visible at the lowest temperatures 
which we can command in the laboratory. We have also 
die results of the carbon work to which reference was 
made in the previous paper ; and then we have the lines 
which have been seen, although their wave-lengths have 
in no case been absolutely determined, in consequence of 
the extreme difficulty of the observation, both in stars 
and in comets, which 1 hold to be almost identical in 
structure. 

, In the case of each star the lines which have been 
recorded in its spectrum are plotted in the way indicated 
in the maps. The general result is that when we take 
into account the low temperature radiation, which we 
bhm ftbua the laboratory work, not only can we account 
for the existence of the lines which have been observed, 
blit amarent absorptions in many cases are shown to be 
coinewent with the part of the spectrum in front of a 
bright carbon fluting. 


* In 1^ Uctur* th« author htne roferrtd to th* *pectruin of a Cell, as photo- 
gmftbttd by Prof. Pickering for the Hoory Draper Memorial, the ilide having 
haaa kindw pHacod at Mu dUpoMl hy the Council of the Royal Astronomicel 
StMBbly* AlUbe bright hydre^lfaMi tb the violet and ultra-violet are sHoon 
m^ f fcotof i nph; adriilhtf«coep«)oit of the oae which » naarly poinoidetic 
uddl H. The apparaat ab^aoe of thU line is in all probabiUty due tp the 
tnWkibg eflect of riut abeomtipa-kna of calcium. In thU cue. then, it 
a#^Mta that the catriun vapour la duUMa the hot hydrosut utd this there- 

^ Ilea ImIpi giveb by dm 


A continuation of this line of thought shows us also 
that, when in these stars the spectrum is seen far into the 
blue, the luminosity really proceeds first from the carbon 
fluting, and in the hotter stars^ from the hydrocarbon 
one in addition, which is still more refrangiUe. In the 
stars which have been examined so far, the dark parts of 
the spectrum, which at flrst sight appear due to absorption, 
are shown to be most likely caused by the gap in the 
radiation in that part of the spectrum where there is no 
continuous spectrum from the meteorites, and no bright 
band of carbon. 

All the observations, it would appear, can be explained 
on the Assumption of low temperature. 

Notes on the Maps. 

Lalande 1341 2. — Doth Vogel and Pickering have 
observed the spectrum of this star and have measured 
the wave-lengths of the bright lines. 

Vogel gives a sketch of the spectrum as well as a list 
of wave-lengths. 

Vogel mentions a dark band at the blue end of the 
spectrum, and gives the wave-length in his sketch as from 
486 to 473. 

Both observers measure the bright 486 hydrogen (F) 
line. 

Vogel measures a bright line at 540, while Pickering’s 
measure is $45 ; but Pickering in another star, Arg.- 
Oeltzen 17681, has measured this line at 540, so there 
can be little doubt that is the correct wave-length. 

Vogel measures a line at 581, but this has not been 
noticed by Pickering. 

The bright part of the spectrum extending from 473 
towards the blue with its maximum at 468 is, I would 
suggest, the carbon band appearing beyond the continuous 
spectrum, the rest of the carbon being cut out by the 
continuous spectrum, although 564 asserts itself by a 
brightening of the spectrum at that wave-length in Vogel’s 
sketch, and by a rise in his light-curve. 

The line at 540 is the only line of manganese visible 
at the temperature of the bunsen burner, while the 581 
measurement of Vogel is in all probability the 579 line, 
the strongest line of iron visible at low temperatures. 

In this star therefore we have continuous spectrum from 
the meteorites, and carbon bands, one of them appearing 
beyond the continuous spectrum in the blue as a bright 
band; bright lines of hydrogen, manganese, and iron 
being superposed on both. There is no absorption of any 
kind, the apparent dark band being due to defect of 
radiation. 

Vogel’s results are given in the Pubiicationen des 
Astrophysikalischen Observaioriums zu Potsdam^ vol. iv. 
No. 14, p- 17. 

Pickering's are published in the Astrenomiseke 
Nachrichteny No. 2376; Science y No. 41; and quoted 
in Copernicus y vol. i. p. 140, 

znd Cygnus.—h.Xy. -f 35“, No. 4013. — Messrs. Wolf and 
Rayet, in 1867, first observed the spectrum of this star, 
and measured the positions of the bright lines. Micro- 
meter readings and reference lines are given by them 
from which a wave-length curve has been constructed. 
Tht wave-lengths of the bright lines in the star thus 
ascertained are : 581 (7), 573 (p)» 540 (^),and 470 (a) ; the 
relative intensities being shown by the Greek letters. 

**La ligne /3 est suivie d’un espace obscur; un autre 
espace tr^s- sombre prdc^de a” 

Vogel afterwards examined the spectrum, measured 
the positions and ascertained the wave-lengths of the 
bright lines, drew a sketch of the spectrum as it appeared 
to him, and a curve showing the variation of intensity of 
the light throughout the spectrum. 

The wave-lengths given by Vogel are 582 and 570, and 
of a band with its brightest part at 464, &ding on in both 
directions and according to the sketch having its red 



K> 


NATURE 


lAii. 


liinil at 4C^3* the light curve Vi^el not only shows 
S&a attd 570 hjaes, but al^a bright lines in poshioQs which 
by a Garre have been found to correspond to wave-lengths 
540 aasd 6^. Vogel indicates in his sketch a dark 
band extenJung from 486 to the bright band 473, and an 
apparent absorption 00 the blue side of the 57a line, this 


absorpHon being ended at 564. Tbeae two heedi 
in position with the dark apacee ohfeeved by H 
Wolf and Rayet. The briglk band in the blue at 473 it 
most probably the cadion band appearing blight upon a. 
faint continuous spectrum, this Reducing the apparent 
absorption from 4TO to 473. If the bright carbem really 



Fig. 4.— Mar showiag th« proV»ble origin of UwsjMCtnm of Lakade X34M. 



Fro. 5*— Maa. showing tb« probuMe origin of the tpecuum of WoK* and Rayot's and star \n Cygnue. 

aw—a* for tbo appoorance of a dark band botw«eB the toroperature iron lino. The $70 lino i* 

and 564 . in thin st»r, all the appartnt abaorp* ere« aodijain fine the atoaeneeof ttar ■ ■■•iS 

tion it explained as due to coatraot of bright bands on a being exidhined by t^ half-attd>half 
fainSenooadnami 'Bpectnta dne.to red-hot motoariteK tadiotiosi moBCioiMd in »w 
Xltefiawnlt 5 fi 0 in dio only litnr ef manssiMM viaita]« in maok end present the appearance of the «» rr. i« « 





NATURE 


II 


fttie Une^t 636 is in the red just at the end of the con- 
«peetrtitt), and as yet no origin has been found for 
it, aldkehigh it has been observed as a bright line in the 
Limeriek meteorite at the temperature of the oxyhydrogen 
btow^pipe. 

This star therefore gives a continuous spectrum due to 
radiation from meteorites, and on this we get bright 
one carbon band appearing separate in the 
hiibis)9 bright lines of iron, manganese, sodium, and 
attjnae ns y^t uBdetermined substance giving a line at 636 
|lL Ihe^aj^ydrogen blow-pipe. 

iWiilf .Afnd Eayet'S results are given in the Comptes 
bcv. p. 392. 

S>r> Mlgel'B ati from iht Pu 6 /icaitmten des Aitrophy- 
sikudMhm Obstrwtoriums zu Potsdam^ vol. iv. No, 14, 

^ "TSi above arc ’only given as examples of the seven 
bright<^ltne stars explarned in the lecture. 

{To he continued!) 


TNE ROYAL SOCIETY SELECTED 
CANDIDA TES. 

'T'flE iotU owing fifteen candidates were' selected on 
» Thursday last by the Council of the Royal Society 
to be tecommended for election into the Society. The 
faifcbot will take place on June 7, at 4 p.m. We print 
uWi the name of each candidate the statement of his 
qualifications : — 

Thomas Andrkws, F.R S.E., 

FX^Suf, Assoc.M.Intit.C.lL. Ironmaster and Metallurgist. 

by the lAsdtution of Civit Engineers, for original 
niftaUBKiical Mnd physical researches, a 1 elford Medal and a 
Tsifoid Premium, Session 1SS4; agatn a Telford Premium, 
^nsmlnn ittk : aod another Telfora Premium, Session 1S86. 
Alldibr of the following eighteen papers In Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Loud, (four ^pers)* ** Electromotive Force from difference of 
Sidhsky in Tidal Streams,*’ ** Action of Tidal Streams on 
Metals during digusion of Salt and Kresli Water,” “ Reversals 
^.ElBBiMvnBotive Force between Metals of High Temperatures 
W^Kuaed Salts, Ol>«ervations on Pure Ice and Snow” (a 
datsamination of their relative conductivity for heat, and the 
gMt COftfracrioQ of ice at extremely low temperatures, &c.) ; 
Tr«ii|i. «nd Proc, Roy. Soc. Edin. (four papers), “On 
£UlLsrive.£lectro*cheinical Poritions of Iron, StceU, and Metals 
in ,Sca Water,” “Apiwirent Lines of Force on passing a 
Chamt throiigh Water,” “Resistance of Fused Halogen 
SaUs.^ “Electromotive Force between Metals at High Tcm- 
p^rahim”; Proc. lost. Civ. Eng, (four papers), “On Galvanic 
hatween MeUlii) loog exposed in Sea Water,” “Cor- 
rdsUo Mntals kmg exposed in Sea Water,” Author of an 
iwvertjgliiiDn on “ Effects of Temi^erature on Strength of 
A«lea,” part I., II., and III., conducted by the author 
<U a of nearly ;f8oo, to determine on a large .scale the 
t^^taoee of metals to a sudden concussion at varying tempera- 
turndown to aero P'. Author also of papers “On Variations 
of of River Waters” (Chem. Soc., 1875), and 

from Colliejy Mineral Waters” 
(Irii Asm. tle|L, Chemicid Section, 1879), and “ On Strength 
of ; Weitiagbt Ireii Railway Axles *V(Tr»ns. Soc. Eng., 1879 ; a 
pinearhtIMh for this paper). At present engaged 

**00 st>m< Novel Magneto-Chemical Effects on 
Iroi^^ and **Onthe Construction of Iron, StecK 
at Low Temperaturet - s®** F.,” and ** On the 

James Thomson Bottomt-ey, M.A., 
Etawmoatratiar ^ Experimental Physics in the University of 
Claigaat After beliw sovcnl years with Ur, Andtews in 
pupil, AmT as aaiUtaut afterwards, he aaec^ as 
DMw&ilNaMnr in Chamilat^ in King’s College, I.oadoa. under 
Qr. W, A. Millar, end tubMm*eatly as uemonstvator And 
Laadnwrdtt Nemaal Mdtwn, nnder Pref. W. G. Adams, till 
Ae mmt Hn kk ptmmt post in the University of 
fifanipe. AaApar of **%iiaaBk9/’ iot the Science tad Act 


Department ; “ Hydrostatics,” ditto ; “ Mathematical Tables 
for Physical .Calculations ; ” Essay on the Progress of Science 
since 1833 (“ ConversationB- Lexicon ”) ; all the articles on 
Electricity and Magnetism in Moxon's “ Dictionary of Science.” 
Also of many scientific articles describing hU own expertmental 
researches, including “Thermal Conductivity of Water” (Phil, 
Trans., 1881) ; “ Permanent Tein|»t:rature of Conductors, &c/' 
(Proc. Roy. Soc. Kdin.), &c. 

Charuis Vernon Boys, 

A. R. S. M. Demonstrator of Phyrie^, Normal School of .Scienoe 
and Royal School of Mines, Author and joint. author of the 
following;— “Magneto- Eiecfcric Induction” (Proc. phys, 60c., 
1879 ana 1880) ; ** An Ibtegrating Machine^* (Proc. Phys. Soc., 

188 1) ; “Integratii^ and other Apparatus for the Moaaaeemciit 
of Mechanical and Electrical Forces ” (Free. Phyi fine.,* .e88z) ; 
“Apparatus for Calculating Efficiency* (Proc. Phya Sec,, 

1882) ; “ Measurement of Curvature and Refractive Index ” 
(Pioc. Phys. Soc., 1882); “Vibrating Electric Meter” (Proc. 
Roy. Inst. 1883); “New Driving Gear” (Soc. Art. Lect., 
1884) ; and other papers. 

Arthur Herbert Church, NI.A, (Oxon.), 

F.C.S , F.I.e. Professor of Chemistry in the Royal Aeodeaiy 
of Arts. Sometime Professor of Chemistry in the Roym 
Agricultural College, Cirencester. kesearchfig tn Aniiii^ 
Vegetable, and Mineral Chemistry, e.,f. TnraciB, no OBimal 
pigment containing copper (Phi). Trans., 1869); Colam, the 
l>igment of Co/eus Verse kaffeliii (Journ. Chem. Soc , 11677) ; 
Aiuminiwtn in certain Cryptogams {Chemical Nem^ il6^) $ 
Vegetable Albinism ( Journ. Chem. SoC., 1879, 18^, -tdinft, 
Pts. I. -I II.); New Mineral S()ecies, CKurchite, TavLstook&fte, 
Hayldonite {ihtdt 1865) ; Namaqualite 1870} ; Amalyau 

of Mineral Phosphates and Arseniates j 868, l^o, 1673, 

1875, &c., Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 1883), &c. 

Alfred George Greenhill, M.A.,, 

Professor of Mathematics for the Advanced Class of Artillery 
Officers at Woolwich. Was Second Wrangler and bracketed 
Smith’s Prieeanan in 1870. Has been ModeistoraMid ifiwwahtef 
for the Mathematical Tripoli, University of Cambridge, ia 
1875, *77, ’78, *81, ’83, *84, Author of “ DjfrcMiitial ,«ad in- 
tegral Calculus” (1886); Article on HydroneefannbB dtt due 
“ Encyclopaedia Britannica.” Also of the following 
the Proceedings of the Royal Atullery 
required for Stability of Elongated Projediles'” (roU 
“ Motion in Resisting Medium ” {ihid) ; “Tn^Mtwry ftWiCubk 
Law of Kesistanoe’^ (veil, xiv.) ; “Reducrion of Salffifrnftih^ 
Experiments”. (vol. xv.) ; “ Siacci’s Method fbraolMidg flaWirtic 
Problems ” (vol. xiv.). In the J^mal di Pkmi^e r— friir 4 « 
Magnetisme induit crun KllitMoide creux” (mx). Amtrumn 
Joumnl of Mathematies — “ Wave Motion ha Hydoodiwinifil 
(vol. ix.). In the Screw -pro pelkr fimcietkcy” 

(18H6). In the Quarterly Journal of M<Uhtm 0 ties PreoeMintL 
and Nutation ” (vol. xiv*") ; “ Plane Vortex Motion” (wol. «v;) ; 
“Motion of Top” “Motion of Water in Rotating 

Paraliclopiped ” (*W); “Fluid Motion between Confocu 
Ellipsoids’* (vol. xvi.) ; “Solution by Elliptic Knpctioiu of 
Problems in Heat and Electiicity ” (vol. xvu.) ; “Functional 
Images in Cartesians” (vol. xviii.) ; “Complex MaUipUcacion 
of Elliptic Functions” (vol. xxii.), and otma In Messtn^, 
of Alatkemaihs : — “Fluid Motion” (vola. viit-x.) ; “Lord. 
Rayleish's Theory of Tennis Ball” (vol, ix.) ; “ Period£qttatlon 
of Lateral Vibrations ” (vol. xvi. “Sumner Hoes on MercatorU 
Chart ” (fiJitVf.) ; “Solution of Cubic and Quartic” (voL xrik}. 
In the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society : — 
“Rotation of Uqiiid Ellipsoid” (voJj*. 115 ^, iy.) ; **G4f«ien?a 
Function for Rectangular Parallelopiped " (vol, iU.) j ** Integrals 
expressed by ■ Inverse Elliptic Fwncti<MW;(*W, ) ; “Conjugate 
Functions of Cadesiatts” (vol. iv.) Greatest Height a Tree 
can grow” (i^fV.) ; “Complex Multiplication of Elliptic Ptinc- 
tions” (vols. iv., v.). In Proceedings InstHmion MeChamcM 
Engineers: — “ Stability of Shafting” (1883), 

LrEUT.-GENKRAL StR WILLIAM FrANCIS 

JERVDIS, ILE., G.C^M.G., 

Governor and Comntanderriii -Chief of ,N«w Zwland. .lEliiaiw* 
guiahed m A Mibtaiy EsgiABV From 1841 to 2848 muji; 
tn liouth Airica; duriitgvahich Uroe heoroded 



12 


NA TURE 3 » 


workSf and added largely to the topokwaphical knowled|^ of 
that part of the world, discovering the true feature of ihe 
Quathlamba Mountains and making a minute topographical 
funrey of KafTraria ; his map, published by E. Stanford, bung 
a wonderful delineation of most di/ficult and rugged cwintry. For 
nearly twenty years, from 1^5^ t®75» employed in the design- 

ing and execution of the fortifications of the Empire at a most 
critical period, when, owing to the introduction of iron armour, 
a complete revolution took place in mattera relating to ships, forts, 
and artillery. Was a member of the ’Scientihe Commission 
(1861-62, &c.) appointed to investigate the subject of the ap- 
plication of iron armour to ships and forts. Governor of Straits 
Settlements, 1875-77. In 1877 selected to advise the Govem- 
menls of Australia on the defence of their principal htr hours. 
His recommendations have been adopted and carried out. In 
1877 appointed Governor of South Australia, and in that 
capacity, as also in that of Ciovemorof New Zealand (since 1882), 
has promoted the progress of Science in various ways. 

Charj.es Lapworth, 

Professor of Geology in the Mason Science College, Birmingham ; 
Hon. LL.D. (St. Andr. ). Most important contributions to the 
right understanding of the stratigraphy of the North-West 
Highlands and the Southern Uplands of Scotland, and invesli- 
gations of the Palceozoic and other strata, as published in his 
papers on "The Moffat Series,” "The Girvan Succession,” 

" The Stratigraphy and Metamorphism of the Duness and 
Eriboll District,” the "Secret of the Highlands,” the "Close 
of the Highland Controversy,” "Discovery of the Cambrian 
Rocks in the Neighbourhood of Birmingham,” ami on "The 
Classification of the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks,” &c., — papers 
published between 1878 and 1887 in the Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc , 
and the GeoL Afa^. Also for his Palseontological work, es- 
pecially among ' the Rhabdophora, mainly published in six 
papers between 1873 and 1887. Recipient of the Murchison 
and of the Lyell Funds, and of the Bigsby Medal of the 
Geological Society. 

T. Jeffrey Parker, 

Professor of Biology. Author of the Memoirs enumerated below. 
Distinguished as a Comparative Anatomist and as a Teacher. 
Has introduced an important new method of preserving the 
skeletons of cartilaginous fishes for museum pumoses, and has 
rendered service to the cause of Science in the Colonics by his 
creation of the Otago Museum, and by his popular lectures and 
addresses. He has published thirty- three original papers on 
Biological subjects in the Proceedings and Transactions of 
various Societies — Royal, Zoological, Royal Microscopical, &c. 
Amongst these may be mentioned the following, viz. ; — "On 
the Stomach of the Fresh-water Cray-fisfi,” "On the Stridu- 
loting Organ of Palinurus vttigarisy* " On the Intestinal Spiral 
Valve in the Genus Raia” "On the Histology of Hydrg, 
fitsca^*" "On the Venous System of the Skate,” "On the 
Osteology of Pe^tcus argenteus^'' " On the Blood-vessels of 
Mustelus antarcticus^^ Stc. • 

John Henry Poynting, M,A., B.Sc. 

professor of Physics in the Mason College, Birmingham. 
Author of the following papers " On a Method of Using the 
Balance with great Delicacy ” (Proc. Roy. Soc., vol. xxviii.) ; 
''On the Graduation of the Sonometer ” (/ 54 iV. Mar., 1S80) ; 
"On a Simple Form of Saccharimeter” {ih'd., 1880); "On 
Change of State : Solid-Liquid ” 1881) ; " On the Con- 

nection between Electric Current and the Electric acd Magnetic 
Inductions in the surrounding Field ” (Proc. Roy, Soc., vol. 
xxxviii.) ; " On the Transfer of Energy in the Electro-magnetic 
Field” (PbU. Trans., 1K84, Part U.J. 

William Ramsay, 

Ph.D, (Tub.). F.C.S., F.I.e. Professor of Chemistry, Uni- 
versity College, London. President of the Bristol Society of 
Naturalists, and of the Bristol Section of the Society of 
Chemical Industry. Distinguished as a Chemist, and especially 
for hts researches in Chemical Physics. Author of the following 
papers :—"Orthotoluic Add and its Derivatives” (tudi/i 
AmtaitHf 187^); " Picoline and Us Derivatives” (/%i 7 . Mag,, 
1876-^78}; "The Oxidation Products of Quinine and allied 
AlkaloidB" (Joum. Cbem. Soc., 2878^79); " Sp<wific Volemes ” 
i879-«i) ; " The Volatilization erf Solids ” (Phil. Tiant-, 


— ' - 

Pt I., 1884)'; " The Vapour Pressures of Solids and Liquids ” 
(Phil. Trans., Pt. 11 ., 18S4) ; " A Stttdv of the Theim^ 
Properties of Alcohol ” (Proc, Roy. Soc., ml, xxxviii^ p. 5*9) 1 
" On Evaporation and Dissociation ” (Preliminary Notice^ Rep« 
Brit. Assoc., 1884). 

Thomas Pridgin Teale, M.A. (Oxon.), 

F.R.C.S., 1857. Surgeon to the Leeds General Infirmary. 
Late Lecturer on Su^ry, Leeds School of Medicine. Memb^ 
of the General Medical Coundl, Eminent as a Sanitary Re- 
former, and Suigeon and Ophthalmologist. Author cu— (a) 
various Papers and Lectures bearing upon Public Health and 
Sanitary Reforms, among which are (1} "Dangers to Health 
in our own Houses,” a lecture at the Le^s Lit. and Phil. Soc.f 
1877 ; (2) " Dangers to Health ; a Pictorial Guide to Domestic 
Sanitary Defects,” 4ih ed.. 1883 (also in French and Genaan) ; 
(3) " Economy of Coal in House Fires,” 1882 ; (4) " Address on 
Health ” (dealing with the effects of Modern Educational Systems 
upon Health), delivered as President of the Health Section of 
the Social Science Congress at Huddersfield, 1883. (^) Papers 

of value in Surgery and Ophthalmology, extending fiom 1850 to 
1885 — (i) "On the Treatment of I^icorymal Obstructions, with 
suggestions to use Bulbed Probes ” {Med, Timts and Gax,, 1866} ; 
(2) " On the Relief of Symblepharon by the TranspUmtation of 
Conjunctiva” (Ophth. Hosp. Rep., vol, iii., and Report of the 
International Ophthalmic Congress in London, 1872) ; (3) " On 
Extraction of Soft Cataract by Suction ” (Ophth. Hosp. Rep., 
vol. iv.) ; (4) " The Relative Value of Atropine and Mercury to 
Acute Iritis” (iUd., vol. v. ) ; (5) "Enucleation of Nkvus” 
(Tnms. Med. and Chir. Soc., 1867) ; (6) "On Atrophy induced 
by Cicatrix ” {BHt. Med Journ., 1867) ; (7) "On the Stimulation 
of Hip Disease by Supnuraiion of the Bursa over the Trochanter 
major” (Clin. Essay, ISlo. 2, Lancet, 1870); (8) "Ovariotomy 
during Acute Inflammation of the Cyst” {Lancet, 1873); ( 9 ) 
" Ovariotomy in extremis” (Clin. Essay, No. 4, Lancet, 1874); 
(10) " Exploration of the Abdomen in cases of Obstruction of 
the Bowel” (Clin. Essay, No. 5, Lancet, 1875); (ii) "On the 
Treatment of Vesical Irritability and Incontinence in the Female, 
by Dilatation of the Neck of the Bladder” (Clin. Essay, No. 6, 
Lancet, 1875) ; (12) "The Surgery of Scrofulous Glands” (Med^ 
Times and Gazette, 1885). 

William Topley, 

F.G.S., Assoc. Inst, C.E. .Student of the Royal School of 
Mines, 1858-61. For twenty years engaged in the Geological 
Survey ; and has mapped parts of Kent, Surrey, Durham, Noi^- 
umberland, &c., with illustrative sections and memoirs. Author 
of a general Memoir on the Geology of the Weald of Kent and 
Sussex, Author of various papers in Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. ; 
of a paper on the Relation of Geology to Agriculture, in Journ. 
Roy. Agric, Soc. ; and on the Channel Tunnel, in <^rt, Journ. 
Sci. Assisted Dr. Buchanan in a Report to the Privy Council 
Medical Officer, on the Distribution of Phthisis as affected by 
dampness of soil. Secretary (1872-81) of the Geol. Section of 
Brit. Assoc. Member for England of the Committee for 
preparing an International Geological Map of Europe. Editor 
of the Geological Record. President, Geolc^ists' Association. 
Author of Report on "The National Geological Surveys of 
Europe” (Brit. Assoc., 1884). 


HENRY TRIMKN, M.B. (Lond.), 

F.L.S. Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens Ceylon. Dp 
voted to the study of Botany, systematic, descriptive, economic, 
geographical, and historical. Editor of the Journal of 
Botany^ i^a-79. Author (in conjunction with Mr W. T. 
Thiselton Dyer, F.R.S.) of "Flora of Middlesex ” (i860) ; of 
the Botanical oortion of Bentley and Trimen*s "Medictnaj 
Plants” (1875-80) ; and of more than sixty papers on bouhic^ 
subjects, including:— "Descriptions and Critical Obiejrvatious 
on the Successive Additions to the British Flora” (/tfitrrw. cd 
Bot., 1866-79); "The funcacea of Portugal” (i3frf,, 187a); 
" Sptneeria, a new genus of /Rosacea ” {i&id., 1879) ; " Fkyli^- 
cA$s, a new genus Of Oraminea*" (i&id.) ; "Notes on 
»nd Bota” (Unn. Soc. Joum., 1877-79}; “Syntemrtlc 
logue of the Pbenerog;ami and Fern* of Ceylon" (Toani. Aite 
Soc. Cejrlon, 1865); '‘Note, on the Fl^ of wS; 

p^ptioM ^ many new ipecie*" ef AfT/iStei, 

* Hemunn t Cqrlon Herbanum end Xinnceni*, • FltfM &f. 
kntee ’ ”1^ t criticut emminetion of the oluiti of ibnM^ 
detcribed tyXiaiMeiii (Linn. Soc. Jonm., 1W7), 1» 



NATURE 


13 


th« Mbdru Government on the Cinchona Plantationn of that 
" {1883) ; '* Annual Reports of the Botanic Gardens, 

Ceyto^”(i88o-85)> 

Hekry Marshall Ward, M.A., 

F«L.S. Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge. Professor of 
Botany, Royal Indian Engineering College, Cooper’s Hill 
(Forestry Branch.) Distinguished for his researches in Histo- 
I<y$aJ and Cryptogamic Botany. Appointed by the Secretary 
ofState for the Colonies to visit Ceylon, 1879-81, to investigate 
the Coffee- l^eof Disease. Has published numerous researches, 
of which the following are the more important On the 
EmbiyO’Sac and Development of Gymnodenia conopsea ” {Quarts 
hum* Micros. Sci.^ 1880, pis. 3) ; “A Contribution to our 
knowled^ of the Embryo^sac in Angiosperms" (tourn. Linn. 
Soc., l8w, pis. 9) ; First, second, and third Reports on the 
Coff^Leaf Disease, Ceylon, i88o-8x {iftid,) ; Researches on 
the Morphology and Life-history of a tropical Pyrenomycctous 
Flll^S (/fj/eWwa) *' {Quart. Journ, Micros. Sci.^ 1882, pis. 2); 

Cmervations on the genus PythuenV* {Quart. Journ. Micros. 

1884, pis. 3); “On the Structure, Development, and 
Life-history of a tropical Epiphyllous Lichen [Strifruia com- 
piumiaY* (Tmns. Linn. Soc., 1883, ]^s. 4) ; “On the Morpho- 
logy and the Development of the Perithecium of Melioh^ a 
genus of tropical Epiphyllous Fungi” (Phil. Trans., 1883, Pis. 
3) : *VOn the Structure and Life -history of Entyloma Ranun- 
rift” (Phil, Trans. 1887, pis. 4); “On some points in the 
Histology and Physiology of the f'lMits and Seeds of the genus 
Rhamnus** {Annals of Botany ^ 1887, jds. 2). Translator of 
"tieciurea on the Physiology of Plants,” by Julius von Sachs 
(Clarendon Press, 1887), 


William Henry White, 

Assistant Controller and Director of Naval Const ruction. Charged 
with principal responsibility for design and construction of all 
ships of the Royal Navy. Author of a “Manual of Naval 
Architecture,” adopted as a Text -book in the Royal Naval 
College, issued to the Royal Navy, translated into German and 
Italian, and officially issued to both fleets. Author of numerous 
papers on the science and practice of Shipbuilding, most of these 
being published in the Transactions of the Inst, of Naval 
Architects, of which he is a Member of Council. In these 
papers there is a_ large amount of original scientific work, 
notably in “ Calculations for the Stability of .Ships,” 1871 
(wiitten jointly with Mr. M. John) ; The Geometry of Meta- 
centric Diagrams,” 1878; “The Rolling of Sailing Ships,” 
1881 ; “The Course of Study at the Roy. Nav. College,” 1877. 
Engaged in extensive theoretical investigations and experi- 
ments on the Structural Strength of Ships, and the Strains to 
whidi thev are subjected at sea. Many of the results published 
in the “ Manual of Naval Architecture " and Trans. Inst. Nav. 
Ar^itects. Has had much to do with the extension of system- 
atic observations of rolling, pitching, and general behaviour of 
H.M. ships at sea, from which much good has resulted to Ship- 
de^n, and valuable additions have been made to trustworthy 
iafofniation on Ocean Waves. Has also been able to render 
good service to the general extension of scientific methods of 


Ohservlng and analyzing the steam trials and turning trials of 
H.M. Ships. Was closely associated for some years with the 
late Mf. Froude, and with the practical development in the 


dfiigjas of H.M. ships of the principles deduced from model 
eapOrim^ts originated and conducted by Mr. Froude, which 
eVqsoHmMts are now superintended by the late Mr. Froude's 
son, Mr. R. G, Froude. Is the designer of some of the swiftest 
s|hm affoat, both armoured and unarmoured, in which designs 
^^tartures were made from previous practice. Is a 
of the Inst. Civ. Eng. ; of the Council of the Inst. 
NkW Ardkitects; Hon, Mem. of the N.E. Coast Inst, of 
and Shipbuilders ; Member of the Roy. Unit, Serv. 
UK Mas tUploxna as Fellow of the Royal School of Naval 


la$ tUploxna as Fellow of the Royal School of Naval 
tnee (highest class). Professor of Naval Architecture at 


ith lUmimgton^ l 87 i‘ 73 » and at Royal Naval College, 


f^fSlA^TDS X)F VULCANO AND STROM BOLL 

f It, ^ gpriBg of last y«ar, accompanied by my friend 
f Qietano Pktania* I passed a month in a 

IPMpnw nmtble through the ABoiiao islands. In con- 


sequence of such a short stay, no observations were carried 
out with sufficient detail and accuracy to be worthy of 
publishing, especially after the many important observa- 
tions that we already possess from Spallansani to Judd. 
Unfortunately, the isolated position of the group, and the 
absence of any sufficiently qualified local observer, render 
it impossible to have continuous records of the vulcano- 
iogical and seismological phenomena of the islands ; in 
fact, what little is known has come from the few scientific 
travellers who from time to time visit this out-of-the-way 
locality. It is for that reason, therefore, that the following 
notes have been written, in the hope of saving a few of 
the links in the broken chain of the record of the two active 
volcanoes of StromboU and Volcano. 

Wc arrived at Vulcano on May 24, 1887, and left the 
island on May 28. The ermption that had occurred 
during February and two following months of 1886 
had drilled out the bottom of the crater, so that the 
lower half of the path (on the west side) leading down 
to the bottom of the crater had been removed, and 
its lower end terminated abruptly in a cliff sheer down 
to the crater bottom. In consequence we were unable to 
descend, but we could on two days get a good view of the 
crater bottom. Much hissing and blowing off of steam 
was going on from the fissures of the floor of the crater, 
which was covered by a layer of purplish-gray ash 
washed down from the sloping sides. The edges of the 
fissures in the bottom and lower part of the crater sides 
were covered by a yellow crust of what was no doubt 
sulphur, boric acid, &c. 

6n the somewhat flattened ridge forming the northern 
lip of the crater, and not very far from the head of the 
celebrated obsidian lava stream, was a very large fumarole 
emitting a strong and large jet of steam under pressure, 
having about the size and force of that of the bocca grande 
of the Solfatara. With our sticks we removed some of 
the stones choking the hole, which on their cooler parts 
were covered with deposits of sulphur and realgar. When 
this was exposed to the full jet of steam, the minerals were 
melted, and blown away or over the surface of the blocks, 
forming a kind of reddish varnish or patina, whilst a rain 
of drops was thrown into the air, so that our clothes and 
hats were bespattered with beads of a variable mixture of 
sulphur and realgar. To the cast side, where are dis- 
tinguishable three crater rings, a considerable number of 
fumaroles exist, depositing chiefly sulphur, but also boric 
acid where hottest. Mr. Narlian, a resident in the island, 
says that not since the i886 eruption “has the crater 
entered into its former quiescent condition.” 

On the upper portion of the northern slopes of the 
cone, to the east of the obsidian stream, all the ground is 
fumarolic, and choked with sulphur, where that mineral is 
extensively quarried. 

Vulcanello seems on the verge of extinction, it being 
possible to find only slightly warm exhalations of watery 
vapour in a few fissures. 

During the days we were at Vulcano we noticed that 
the apparent quantity of vapour emitted had a very 
marked relationship to the moisture of the atmosphere, 
and therefore, indirectly, to the winds. The same wc also 
observed to be the case at Vulcano as we saw it from time 
to time during our stay on the Island of Lipari. 

June 1, 2, and 3 were spent at Stromboli. In ascending 
the volcano, we, on leaving the town, skirted the northern 
coast of the island, and after passing the Punta Labronzo 
commenced the ascent, gradually approaching the north- 
east limit of the Sciarra. It is a track that passes chiefly 
over hard rock, and to be stronp^ly recommended in pre- 
ference to anv other paths, which are mostly over loose 
materials. Sfarting the crater, one walks along the ridge 
of the mountain which overhangs and partly hides tnh 
crater ; we commenced to descend a little on the south eide 
of the volcanic mouth, until we arrived at a small pin- 
nacle of rock, where a good view of the crater vita 


14 


NATURE 


IM0^ 3, iMi 


obtaioabk. HerCi under very great difiSculties, from the 
loosesiMia^f the ground of about two square metres upon 
which we stood, an attempt was made to take two instant- 
aneous photographs of the crater as we looked down into 
it. Ui^odtunately, both of these were useless, as we foresaw, 
from the vapour blowing towards us. 

The enter was very quiet, only throwing out a very 
few fragiments of pasty lava cake, with about four or five 
explosions during the four hours we remained near by. 
There were other explosions, but too weak to eject any- 
thing. 1 descended to the crater edge, but could not 
remain long, on account of the heat of the ground and the 
acid fumes, which seemed to be in great part composed of 
HCl with a good dash of SOg. 

On returning from the crater edge and descending a 
little lower on the south-west of the Sciarra, a good view 
is obtainable of that slope and the crater. Here two 
successful photographs were taken, which show very well 
the crater with its relative position to the summit of the 
mountain and to the Sciarra. On the following day the 
tour of the island was made in a boat, and, as only a 
few stones were being ejected, we were able to land on 
the narrow ledge or beach at the foot of the Sciarra. 
Two successful photographs were taken from the Scoglio 
dei Cavassi, from which a fine view is obtainable of the 
Sciarra and the crater. 

During our residence on the island, and our stay at 
Salina and Panaria, we always noticed that the amount 
of visible vapour issuing was in direct proportion to the 
humidity of the atmosphere. On account of the great 
quietness of the volcano, it was impossible to form any 
judgn>ent as to whether there was any relation of increased 
or diminished activity to the barometric pressure, and so, 
indirectly, to the winds. 

Since leaving the island, correspondence has been kept 
up between Signor Giuseppe Rcnde, the post and 
telegraph master, and myself. The following information 
I have been able to glean from that gentleman^s letters. 
From Tune to November 1887 the volcano remained in its 
normal state. On November 18, a moderate eruption 
{eruzione mediocre)^ and the wind blowing from the west, 
a shower of scoria (? fragments) {aride pi€tre\ fell amongst 
the vines near the village. This was accompanied by 
explosions which, it appears, considerably frightened 
the pfic^le. Later, the scoria {potnici) fell into the sea, 
which it covered as far as the eye could see. Un- 
fortunately, Signor Rende did not preserve any of the 
€ject<mtentay but, judging from what one sees composing 
recent deposits of the island, the material was a pumiceous 
scoria, or a light scoria, as it appears to have floated on 
the sea. 

In answer to further inquiries. Signor C. Rende tells 
me that the floating scoria extended eastwards as far 
as the eye could reach. No lava appeared, but a small 
mouth opened at the edge of the crater, but in a very few 
days disappeared. He then goes on to say : — 

“ I draw your attention in this letter to a very remark- 
able fact. On the 25th of last February (/>, 1888), at 4.31 
p.m., occurred two little shocks of earthquake of un^ 
dulaiory character, followed by a subsuUory one, so that 
we thought it would be the end of the world for us. 
Never had a suhmfU>ry earthquake been felt. It split 
v^ious houses, overturned walls, and made earth-banks 
slip. Those who had their eyes fixed on the mountain 
aeemed to sec the summit of it fiaU over from south to 
north. People who were working amongst the vines fell 
on their faces. N^o victims. Neither Panaria, Lipari, nor 
the other islands noticed the shock. The volcano (Le. 
Stromholi) was in no way affected {non fece mmm 
eilcund),^^ 

Prof, ^encalli has collected together what is kt»wn 
of the hi&tory of Volcano and Stromboli. He also 
published accounts of the state of these volcanoes during 
the years 1882-86 inclusive Natura deile enuioae 


Stromboli,” Atti della Sac. Hal. di Sc. J\lal^ Nol ; 
“Notizie sullo state attuale .dei vulcani atiivi 
tdid. vol. xxvii. ; La fossa di Vulcano e Jo StcomboU dal 
1884 al 1886,” rbtd. vol. xxix.). 

The eruption of November 18, 1887, is curiously near 
the date of November 17, 1882, when one of the strongest 
modern eruptions of Strom boli occurred, and when five 
lateral mouths opened on the Sciarra about 100 metres 
l)elow the crater edge, but without the ejection of a lava 
stream. As on one or two other occasions, tlm last erup- 
tion extensively covered the sea with scoria, a fact of 
no small importance when we take into consideration that 
Stromboli is a very basic volcano, in a unique state of 
chronic activity, and is yet able to produce scoria or 
pumiceous scoria, sufficiently vesicular to float on the sea, 
and so be transported to great distances. 

With regard to the position of lateral eruptions of this 
mountain, the only situation in which dykes are visible is 
on the north-west side and near the Sciarra, where a con- 
siderable number are to be seen. One of these is visible 
in section near La Serra, showing it continuous with a lava 
flow that oozed from it only a few metres above sea4cvel, 
indicating that not very long since a lateral eruption gave 
rise to a lava stream ; another, close to the crater, stands 
out as a great wall at right angles to the present eruptive 
axis of Stromboli, and certainly must have been formed 
when the crater was at a very much higher level. No less 
than three dykes at Stromboli are hollow ones, with their 
interspace filled in from above by loose materials, show- 
ing that they must also have been drained below present 
sea-Ievcl, as they reach — as hollow dykes — down to the 
beach. 1 believe I was the first to draw attention to this 
peculiar variety of dyke, in describing the eruption of 
Vesuvius of May 2, 1885, where it was possible to watch 
the process of formation (“ L’Eruzione del Vesuvio nel 
2 Maggio, 1885,*’ Ann, d. Accad. O. Costa dAsp. Natu- 
ralistic Era 3, vol. i. ; and “ Lo Spettatore del Vesuvio,'^ 
Napoli, 1887). These hollow dykes of Stromboli may be 
seen at La Serra, the northern limit of La Sciarra, and at 
Punta Labronzo. I expected them to be rare, as there is 
no mention of them made in any liteKiture known to 
me ; but as it is also well shown near the Punta del 
Corno, at Vulcano, it can hardly be tlie case. 

In conclusion, I take this opportunity of thanking 
Signor Narlian, of Vulcano, and Signor Rende for their 
past kindness, and for the promise of further notes on 
these two isolated, neglected, but interesting volcanoes. 

H. J. Johnston Lavis. 


HEAD GROWTH IN STUDENTS AT THE 
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE.^ 

T N the memoir read by Dr. Venn, on April 24, at the 
Anthropological Institute, upon the measurements 
made, during the last three years, of the students of Cam- 
bridge, one column is assigned to what he terms Head 
Products,” and which may fairly be interpreted as ** Relative 
Brain Volumes.” The entries in it are obtained by 
plying together the maximum length and breadth of the 
head and its height above a specified plane. The pre^aot 
of the three detcmiines the contents of a rectangular box 
that would just include the portion of the head referr^ to. 
The capacity of this box would be only rudely propor- 
tionate to that of the skull in individual cases, but ought 
to be closely proportionate in the average of many cam. 
The relation they bear to one another affords, as it aeemS 
to me, a trustworthy basis for the -following dtsettsaien. 
especially u all the laeasiunmefits were nfutd* 
a uniform plan, but by the same operator. 


Mky 3; r888] 


NATURE 


'5 


It Will be convenient to reproduce Dr. Venn's figures in 
fl separate table, neglecting the second decimal : — 


Head Products. 


Ag». 

CkwA. 
“Hifih 
honour^ men. 

1 

Class B. 
The remain- 
ing’ ** honour*' 
men. 

Number of 
mtasures. 

’ Class C. 
Poll " men. 

} 

Number of 
measures. 1 

19 

2419 

17 

237 1 

70 

229*1 

53 

ao 

244 ‘3 

54 

237-9 

149 

335 ‘* 

102 

21 

241*0 

S 3 

2364 

»I 7 

240*2 

79 

22 

348'! ! 

50 

2417 

73 

240 0 

66 

23 ! 

244-6 1 

37 

239-0 

33 

235 0 ! 

23 

34 1 

245-8 j 

35 

251-2 


244-4 j 

U 

35 ! 

) , 






and 
up- ! 

[ 248-9 j 

33 

239-1 

20 

243-5 

26 

wards.! 

) 





1 

Z] 

1 258 


476 

! 

361 


The figures in the table arc thrown into diagrams in 
Figs. I., II., and HI., in which curves are also drawn to 
interpret what seems to be their signihcance. The great 


irregularity in Fig. 1 1 ., corresponding to the age of twenty- 
four, may be fairly ascribed to the smallness of observa- 
tions, only thirteen in number, on which it is founded. 
The three resultant curves are shown by themselves in 
Fig. IV., where they can be easily compared. It will then 
be seen that the A and C curves are markedly diHfevent, 
and that the B curve is intermediate. Acce^wng these 
curves as a true statement of the case— and they are 
beyond doubt an approximately true statement — we find 
that a “ high honour ” man possesses at the age of nine- 
teen a distinctly larger brain than a “ poll ” man in the 
proportion of 241 to 3 30 5, or one that is almost 5 
per cenw larger. By the end of his College career, the 
brain of the “ high honour man has increased from 241 
to 249 ; that is by 3 per cent, of its size, while the brain 
of the “ poll ” man has increased from 230*5 to 244' 5, or 
6 per cent. 

Four conclusions follow from all this : — 

(1) Although it is pretty well ascertained that in'the 
masses of the population the brain ceases to grow after 
the age of nineteen, or even earlier, it is by no means so 
with University students. 

(2) That men who obtain high honours have had con- 
siderably larger brains than others at the age of nineteen. 

(3) That they have larger brains than others, but not to 


Length y Breadth x ILeight of ILcaJy in inches ^ of Cambridge University Men at different Ages {from Dr. Penns Tades). 



A, First Class Men ; B, Honour Men, not First Class j C, Poll Men. 


the same extent, at the age of twenty* five ; in fact their 
predominance is by that time diminished to one-half of 
what it was. 

(4) Consequently “high honour” men are presumably, 
as a class, both more precocious and more gifted through- 
out than others. We must therefore look upon eminent 
University success as a fortunate combination of these 
two helpful conditions. 


PHOTOGRAPH OF THE EYE BY FLASH OF 
MAGNESIUM. 

^ HE effect of complete obscurity on the normal pupil 
* bias hitherto been seen only by the light of electric 
dischotges^ which allowed of no measurements. 

MM^ Miethe and Gaedicke, by their invention of the 
well-known explosive magnesium mixture, have furnished 
m with mothod. A photograph of the eye can 

m a pavfiectly dark room, showing the pupil 
ftijly dilated, as its reaction docs not begin until after 
anMsmre; 

, ; Miethe^. aatremomer at the Potsdam Observatory, 
hma^at inyat^^iHAtoii uadertoek to execute the acc«an- 
panyi^g {dictograph oC a normal eye, life-size, after a 
Wi^iaar « an hour’s rest in a carefully darkened room. 

waa iwea«Mw lo mtSL horuontaily (the 


breadth of the cornea being 13 mm.). A reflection of 
the flash is seen on the cornea. 

This kind of photography may prove a new and 
valuable method for many other branches of scientific 



research, but it is of especial utility to ophthalmology, as 
the eye, by its mobili^ and sensitiveness, has hitherto 
been a most difficult subject for the camera. 

CLAU1>£ DU BQXarRgVMOHO. 




i6 NAT[/Ii£ 


NOTES. 

The Council of the British Association has nominated Prof. 
Flower for the Presidency of the meeting to be ' held next year 
at Newcastle. 

The annual con'Mf sazione of the Royal Society will be held 
on Wednesday, May 9. 

The Council of the Marine Biological Association has 
appointed Mr. Gilbert C. Bourne, M.A., F.L.S.» Fellow of 
New College, Oxford, to be Director and Secretary of the Ply- 
mouth Laboratory. Mr. Bourne began the study of biology 
under Dr. F. Herbert Carpenter at Eton College, ai\d in 1881 
obtained an exhibition in natural science at New College. After 
studying under Prof. Moseley at Oxford and Prof. Aug. Weis 
mann at Freiburg in Baden, Mr. Bourne was placed in the first 
class in the honour school of natural science at Oxford in 1885. 
Immediately after taking his degree he proceeded to Diego 
Garcia in the Indian Ocean, with the purpose of investigating 
the fauna and flora of that island. On his return to England 
he became assistant to Prof. Moseley at Oxford, and has per- 
formed the duties of Lecturer and Demonstrator in Animal 
Morpholep for the last two years. In October last Mr. Bourne 
was elected to an open Fellowship at New College. 

On the evening of April 5, about one hundred and fifty persons 
interested in science met in the hall of the Columbian University, 
Washington, to pay a tribute to the memory of Asa Gray. 
Prof. Langley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
presided, and addresses were delivered by Prof. Chickering, 

‘ Dr. Vasey, Prof. L. F, Ward, and Dr. C. V. KUey. 

The sixty-first meeting of the German Association of Natural- 
ists will take place at Cologne from the i8th to the 23rd of 
September next. Prof. Bardenheuer and the chemist Th. Kyll 
are the secretaries. The subjects to be considered will be 
divided into thirty sections. 

The following sums for the furtherance of scientific studies 
have been presented by the Academy of Sciences at Berlin : 
1500 marks {;f75,) to Dr. Goldstein (Berlin), a physicist ; 2000 
marks (jf'ioo) to Dr. Fabrlcius (Berlin), the archaeologist, and 
Dr. Suhlmann (Wilrzburg) ; and 900 marks (jf45) to Prof. 
Gerhard (Eislebcn). 

Captain C. E. Dutton, of the U.S. Geological Survey, is 
writing his monograph on the Charleston earthtiuake. The re- 
ports on which it will be based are complete, and in shape for 
the printer. Science is of opinion that no earthquake of ancient 
or modem times has been observed wiili such care and fulness 
of detail. Besides the observations made by Professors in several 
Colleges, by hundreds of railway officials, and at signal stations,, 
a large number of intelligent private citizens have given an 
account of their own experiences. The volume which Mr, Dutton 
is editing will also contain a report on the Sonora earthquake. 

On the night of April 17 a magnificent display of the aurora 
borealis was observed at Molala, in Sweden, in the northern sky. 
On the same night at 9.5 p.m. a phenomenon was seen in the 
north-western sky at Orebro, also in Central Sweden, having the 
appearance of a bright horizontal flash of lightning, but without 
any report. It was followed by the appearance of an unsteady 
and varying aurora. The thermometer stood at 21* C. 

On the night of March 27 a rumbling noise like that of a 
distant earthquake was heard at Aaseral, in Southern Norway, 
but no shock was felt. It could not have been thunder, as the 
weather was clear and intensely cold. 

According to the official report of the recent great earth- 
quake in Yunnan Province of China, the shocks commenced 
between 5 and 6 p.m. on January 14, and lasted till 4 o'clock 
the following morning. During this period about ten serious 


shocks were counted, all beixig accompanied by a noise like 
thunder. In district dries in die south of the provioed^ (tie tow^ 
walls were either thrown down or cracked, while public offices 
and temples shared the same fate. In the city of Shih-ping large 
numbers of private houses were destroyed, those tn the south 
and east quarters suffering most, while those which remained 
standing had cracked or slanting walls. Two hundred persons 
were killed in this town alone, and 3000 were injured. In and 
around this single city about 5000 persons were killed and in- 
jured. Most of the people were left without homes, and were 
starving, as the provisions were buried in the ruins of the houses. 
In one town the gaol was thrown down by the shocks, and all 
the prisoners escaped. The earthquake is said to be the most 
destructive ever recorded in China. The locality in which it was 
most violent is mountainous, and produces copper and a parti- 
cular kind of tea for which Yunnan is famous. The area of 
disturbance is said to be about 770 miles from east to west, and 
60 from north to south, Shih-ping being near the centre. The 
direction of the shocks appears to have been at right angles to 
the prevailing direction of the valleys, lakes, and rivers of the 
region. This, at least, is how the Pekin corr^opdent of a 
Shanghai newspaper reads the report ; and that from the 

centre of intensity, a little to the west of the city of Shih-ping^ 
there was a decided extension of the earth quake- wave north- 
ward in the direction of the Vunnaii lake Tienchih, as well as 
westward to the city of Weiyuen. 

It is curious to notice that on the day when this earthquake 
occurred there was one also at Luchon, a town in the Sxechuen 
Province, about 350 English miles north-cast of the locality of 
the Y unnan earthquake. Much loss of life is said to have taken 
place here also, and there was a great subsidence of land. No 
official report respecting this second earthquake has yet made 
its appearance. 

The Manilla Government has intrusted to the Sub-Director of 
the local Observatory the task of studying the causes of the 
numerous storms which prevail along the coast of the Philippine 
Archipelago as well os inland, with a view to drawing a 
meteorological chart of the islands, and of establishing their 
magnetic positions. 

The Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean for the 
month of March, issued by the United States Hydrographer, 
contains the following interesting facts. Three pronounced 
cyclonic storms passed over the North Atlantic during the 
month. One of these was in some respects one of the 
most remarkable and destructive storms ever experienced 
along the Atlantic coast of the United States. After 
traversing the entire American continent from west to east 
without any noteworthy eneigy, it gained terrific force on 
reaching the coast to the southward of Hatteros on the X Ith, 
Its progress eastward was delayed from the lith to the iSth 
by an area of high barometer, and it then resumed its course 
easterly with renewed energy, crossing the 40th meridian in 
about 50'' N, latitude. Much less fog was experienced off the 
Grand Banks than usual during March. Field ice was encoun- 
tered as far south as 43® N., and between 46® and do" W., but 
the amount reported was not great* Earthquakes were expe; 
rienced by the United States store-ship at Coquimbo on January 
4, and by the British ship Diadent in latitude 26^ 2' N,, 
longitude 63" 19' W , on March 1, The sensation in the latter 
cose was os though the vessel had grounded upon a reef, 

In the storm to which reference is made in the preceding note, 
oil seems to have been freely used off the coast of the Uoifed 
States for the calming of the waves. According to ScUmt^ mm 
than a dozen captains and sailing-maslers caught in the 
when at its worst believe their vessels were saved this cx* 
pedient. The sailing-master of the yacht iqporU 


NATURE 


17 


i^gg] 


whe^ furioiu waves with an immense comb were approaching 
they were deprived of their power to do harm by a patch of 
oil 00 Utrger than a dining-room table.'" 

Another interesting mineral synthesis has just been effected 
by M. Dufet. Native di-calcium arsenate, pharmacolite, occurs 
very sparingly upon the known parts of the surface of our globe, 
and is so rarely found in well-defined crystals that M. Des 
Cloizeaux has only just completed his investigation of its 
mineralogical and optical properties. Generally tc is found in 
the form of silky fibres, but is at times met with in perfect 
monoclinic prisms of pearly lustre and frequently possessing a 
pink tint, M. Dufet has succeeded in producing these beautiful 
crystals by a very ingenious method. Two concentric vases, 
the outer containing nitrate of lime and the inner di -sodium 
arsenate, were filled with water, and so ananged that very slow 
diffusion occurred between the two liquids. The conditions of 
Nature w^ere evidently very closely imitated, for the very gradual 
precipitation thus brought about resulted in the formatiem of j 
groups of crystals, exactly resembling those of pharmacolite. 
Goniometrical measurements showed that they belonged to the 
naoDOclinic system ;and the close approximation of the fundamental 
angles to those of the mineral given by ffaidinger and Schrauf, 
and especially the still more remarkable closeness to the values 
just arrived at by M. Des Cloueaux, leave no doubt as to the 
identity of the artificial with (he natural. The chemical analysis 
of M. Dufet’s crystals leads to the formula HCaA804 4 - aHgO, 
and it thus becomes chemically as well as physically isomur- 
phous with brushite, the corresponding phosphate of calcium, 
HCaPO^-f 2 H, 0 . This result clears up the discrepancy between 
the acknowledged formula of the latter mineral and that given 
by older mineralogists for pharmacolite, 2HCaAs04 4-5U30. 
The number of minerals which have now been reproduced in 
the laboratory must be very considerable, and every day the 
likelihood is increasing that those noble species which have for 
ages been prized os gems may discover the secret of their 
formation to some indefatigable worker. Rubies and sapphires 
have already yielded, possibly the diamond may not prove 
refractory much longer. 

A VALUABLE paper, describing a new method of extraction 
of the alkaloids from Cinchona bark by cold oil, as used at the 
Government Cinchona Factory in Sikkim, was lately drawn up 
by order of the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, and has now 
been issued. Dt. King, the Superintendent of the Sikkim 
Plantation, carried on a long series of experiments on an acid 
and alkali process of manufacture, by which he succeeded in 
producing an excellent quinine. He never, how ever, succeeded 
in recovering much more than half of the amount contained in 
the bark on which he operated. The acid and alkali process 
hod, therefore, to be abandoned, as wasteful and inefficient. 

A process depending on the maceration of the bark in spirit 
was next tried, but, after much experiment, it was in turn aban- 
doned. During a visit which Dr. King paid to Holland in 
1S84, he obtained some hints as to a process of extraction by 
means of oil. Benefiting by the advice of some chemical 
friends, Mr. Oammie, the resident manager in Sikkim, has been 
able to perfect this process, with the result that the whole of the 
quinine in yellow bark can be extracted in a form indistinguish- 
able, cither chemically or physically, from the t>cst brands of 
European manufacture. This can be done cheaply, and the 
Bengal Government has caused an account of the matter to be 
printed, in order that private growers of Cinchona may be 
enaUed to take full advantage of the process, and that f 
pennat^t reduction in the price of quinine may ensue. 

tkE Trustees of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, have issued a cir- 
CttUw ttafitouncing that they have had under their consideration the 
means ivhereby a useful scientific examination of the insect-pests 


of India can be best effected. Bearing in view the great economic 
importance of the investigation, they have directed the first 
assistant, Mr. K. C. Cotes, to consider it an essential portion of 
his duties, and have instructed him to communicate with persons 
interested in the subject, and likely to aid the inquiry, in order 
to collect materials which may form a sufficient basis for really 
scientific conclusions. Mr. Cotes will gradually record the 
entire life-histories and practical methods of dealing with the 
principal insect- pests, publishing from time to time, as materials 
accumulate, the information collected, and distributing it to 
those interested. Those who live in the districts where the 
insects ocour, and have actual experience of the pests, are in- 
vited to send to Mr. Cotes accounts of facts they have observed ; 
and the circular includes a full statement of the points upon 
which information is wanted. 

Readers interested in (he science and practice of forestry 
w ill be interested in the perusal of a Report by the American 
Consul at Mayence, on Forest-Culture in Hesse, contained in the 
January issue of the Consular Reports of the United States. 
The writer discusses the organizations and functions of the 
department having the care of forests, the duties of the various 
classes of officials employed in forest-cultivation, the economical 
results of the system pursued, the course of instruction followed 
in the schools of forestry, the organization and methods of the 
institution for experimental forestry, and the degree and amount 
of control assumed by the State over private forests. The 
Report is exceedingly detailed, and is practically a hand- 
book of forestry as practised in the Grand Duchy. 

Prof. Blanchard, the well-known entomologist, has just 
published in Paris a book on La Vie chez les litres animes," 
in which he discusses Darwinism at length, but in a very 
incomplete manner, and of course In a hostile spirit. 

The address delivered by Mr. A, D. Michael, President of 
the Quekett Microscopical Club, on the 24th of February last, 
is printed in the Club's Journal, and has also been issued 
separately. The subject is “ Parasitism.’* 

Prof. Henry Drummond has in the press a new book, 
“Tropical Africa,” which will be published immediately by 
Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton. It will contain an account of 
the author’s recent travels in Central Africa, with one or two 
chapters of natural history. 

Mr. Lewis, of Gower Street, will publish immediately a 
volume of “ Physiological and Pathological Researches,” by 
the late T. R. Lewis, F. R.S. (elect). The work is edited by 
Sir William Aitkcn, F.R*S., G. E. Dobson, F.R.S., and A, E, 
Brown, and contains five maps, forty-three plates, including 
chronij-liLhograplis, and sixty seven wood engravings. 

At the meeting of the Institution of Civil Engineers on 
Tuesday, April 24, Mr. E. B. Ellington read a paper on the 
distribution of hydraulic power in London. In the course of 
his remarks he took occasion to refer to the large extent to 
which lifts are now used, and he considered it necessary, he 
said, to urge the importance of securing the greatest possible safety 
ill their construction by the general adoption of the simple ram. 
Suspended lifts depended on the sound condition of the ropes or 
chains from which the cages hung. As they became worn and 
untrustworthy after a short period, it was usual to add safety 
appliances to stop the fall of the cage in case of breakage of 
the suspending ropes, but these appliances could not be expected 
to act under all circumstances. 

Miss Marie Brown, well known for her researches on the 
earliest colonization of North America by the Scaadioavians, 
has presented a petition to the United States Congress urging 
that steps should be taken to secure a thorough search of the 



i8 


NATURE 




a»d other Italian libraries with a view to further light 
bring thrown this question. 

Wr. W, Chandler Roberts- Austen will give the discourse 
on Friday evening, May ii, at the Royal Institution in place of 
Mr. W. H. Barlow, who is unwell 

The ad^dUions to the Zoological Society’s Gardens during the 
past week include a Bonnet Monkey {Macacus sinicus 9 ), from 
India, presented by Mr. Lionel H. llanbury ; a Macaque 
Monkey (A/a^nirus cynomolgus 6 )( from Burma, presented by 
Mrs. G. E. Buchanan ; a Scarlet Ibis {Etidocimus ruhfr\ a 
Roseate Spoonbill {Platalea ajaja\ from Brazil, presented by 
Mr. Charles Booth ; a Common Kestrel { 7 \nnuttculus 
alaudarim)^ British, presented by Mr. H. Weetman, F.Z.S. ; 
a Hoffmann’s Slotli (Cholopus hoffmanni\ from Panama, 
deposited ; three Lined Finches {Spermophila Hneola)^ from 
South America, purchased ; two Persian Gazelles [GazeEa 
sub^iterosa S $ ), two Chinchillas {Chinchilla born 

in the Gardens. 


ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA FOR THE 
WEEK 1888 MA y 6-12. 

/T7OR the reckoning of time the civil day, commencing at 
' ^ Greenwich mean midnight, counting the hours on to 3 ^, 
U here employed.) 

Al Grtenwich on May 6 

Sun rises, 4h. 24m.; souths, uh. 56m. 25 '9s. ; sets, I9h. 29111. ; 
right asc. on meridian, 2h. 55 ‘5m. ; decl. id’’ 44’ N. 
Sidereal Time at Sunset, irit. 29m. 

Moon (New on May rt, ih.) 3h. 1501.; 

8h. 49m.; sets, i4h. 34m.: right a^c. on meridian, 
*3^. 47 ' 5 ™* J decl. 5® 36' S. 

Right aae. and declination 

Planet. Ri««i. Souths. Seta. on meridian. 

h. m. h. m. h. m. h. m. ^ , 

Mercury,. 4 r6 ... 11 36 .. 18 56 ... 2 3S‘r ... 14 29 N. 

Venus ... 3 56 ... 10 49 ... 17 42 ... I 47 9 ... 9 35 N. 

Mars ... 16 9 •. 21 $1 ... 3 33*... 12 51*5 ... 4 IS S. 

Jupiter ... 20 53*... 1 9 ... 5 25 ... 16 67 ... 19 52 S. 

Saturn ... 9 16 ... 17 13 ... 1 lo*... 8 12*5 ... 20 35 N. 

Uranus... 16 13 ... 21 52 ... 3 31*... 12 S2‘3 ... 4 52 S. 
Neptune.. 5 7 ... 12 50 ... 20 33 ... 3 49-6 ... 18 25 N. 

* ladicatetthat the rieingis that of ihepreceding evening and the setting 
that of tha following morning. 

May. h. 

9 ... 9 ... Venus in conjunction with and 3“ 50' north 

of the Moon, 

10 ... 22 ... Mercury in conjunction with and 5® 6' north 

of the Moon. 

IX ... o ... Mercury in superior conjunction with the 

Sun. 

Saturn, May 6. — Outer major axis of outer ring » 40" *2 ; 
outer minor axis of outer ring = 14" 7 : southern surface visible. 
Variablt Stars, 


Star. 

R.A. 
h. m. 

Bed. 

h. m. 

R Andromedfie 

... 0 |8'I .. 

. 37 57 N. ... May lo, 

M 

U Cephei ... 

... 0 52-4 .. 

. 8116N. ... „ 7, 

2 19 m 

( Geminorum 

... 6 S7 S 

» la. 

• ao 44 N 10, 

I 5S M 
0 0 m 

S Librae 

... J4 iS’o 

8 4 ^ 

zi 12 m 

U Coronet ... 

... 15 i3'6 

• 3a 3 N 7, 

20 39 w 

U Ophiuchi... 

... 17 10*9 .. 

. » aoN 7, 

2 56 m 

Z Sagittarii .. 

... 18 14*8 .. 

and al imerval. of 
• 18 SS S 8. 

20 8 
00m 

U Sagittarii... 

... 18 25'3 .. 

■ «9 »a S 7, 

2 0 m 

irAquiLss 

... 19 46*8 .. 

.1 10, 

■ 0 43 K 8. 

I oAI 

0 0 A f 

T Aquarii ... 

... 20 44*0 .. 

■ S 34- S 7. 

w 

S Cephei' ... 

... 22 25-0 .. 

• 57 S» N 8, 

23 0 M 

IVritr Cratesis 
„ a Covanse 

.Sf slgniflttsAMtlinurnr; #r mtnlimui. 

M€U 0 r-Shawtrs, 

R.A. Dad. 

170 ... wSs ... Very slow.. 

>32 ... 27 N. ... Rather faint and slow. 


260 . 

64 N, ... Rather slow. 


GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

The Mouvtmeni Giogt-uphiqut contrina detrils o£ V<n 
GHc’s recent exploration of the Rivet Mobangi, the gaeat tribu- 
tary of the north bank of the Congo, which discharges a little 
below the equator. It will be remembered that the Rev, Qeoxge 
Grenfell succeeded in making bis way up the river as far as 4,® 
N, latitude, where he was stopped by the Zongo rapids, Lieut, 
Van G^Ie started on October 26 last, and reacned the ra|)fds on 
November 21. Tliere are six of them, covering ft space of 34 
miles. They are situated in what is really a mountain goi^, 
the mountains, in gentle slopes, coining down to the river banlca. 
The steamer En Avani had to be unloaded several times and 
dragged up the rapids. Tlie spaces between the rapids are 
mostly covered with islands, with great bar-s of rock stretching 
btrtween them. The counlry on each side is described as 
being fine, fertile, and covered with villages. The people here 
are all of the same tribe ; head shaved except at the nape, 
bristling moustaches, and no tattooing. Above the middle falls, 
the Bukomh^ inhabit the country. These arrange the hair in 
queues^ some of which are over 6 feet long. From the upper 
end of the falls the river continues in a north-east direction for 
;il)out 32 miles, when it rounds to the east, it has a breadth of 
about 2600 feet, and the navigation is easy, the average depth 
being 14 feet. The easterly direction is maintained as far as the 
A'« Avani went, about 172 miles further. The mountains dis- 
appear from the right bank, and the left is marked by low hills, 
with grassy plains and woods alternating. The villages are at 
some distance from the river, but the people came down to the 
vessel in crowds all the way up, and were perfectly friendly until 
the last few days. Over the whole course tropica] cuUurea of 
every kind were abundant, as well fts sheep, goats, and fowls. 
The natives on the right bank belong to the Bornka and Maduni 
tribes ; those on the right to the Bflkangj, the MotnbafSe, and the 
Banzy. They mostly snsve the head so as to leave » fttengle utf 
hair, with the forehead as base. The ears are emormeuily doll- 
gated with heavy copper rings. The river here is covert with 
islands, mostly cultivated and inhabited. Among the Banzy the 
huts have the shape of huge conical extinguishers, resting on a 
circular wall about 2 feci high. These huts are ranged in circu- 
lar rows, forming broad streets, well kept, and with a common 
meeting-house in the centre. Each hut U divided into two 
apartments, one used for sleejiing. Iron is admirably worked 
into all sorts of implements, weapons, and ornaments. Ivory is 
abundant, but used only for bracelets, anklets, and ptlellot lip- 
ornaments. About 100 miles above the Zongo rapidft a second 
is met with, at Bcmay. The vessel succeeded in passing it, and 
a third 25 miles further up. Just alK)vc Bcmay, the only tribu- 
tary met with from the Zongo rapids upwartU—lhe Bangasso — 
discharges into the right bank of the Mobanri. Above the 
river the country is densely peop!e<l by the Mombongo and 
Yakoma, and these showed themselves distinctly hostile to the 
expedition. There were unfortunately several conflicts, itt which 
lives were lost on both sides. Rocks and sand-banks obstructed 
the navigation, and after getting as far as 21® 55' E., Lieut. Van 
Gcic turned back, making his way downwards whh some diffi- 
culty, as the river had lowered about 10 feet. Hi arrived at 
Equator Station on February i. The river was about 8000 feet 
wide at the furthest point, and covered with islands, mostly in- 
habiletl. On the north bank of the river, one village extended 
along a distance of 3 miles. As Dr. Junker’s furthest point on 
the Wellt; was 22® 55' E., only 1® of longitude separates his 
point from Van GMe’a furthest, or about 68 miles. As they are 
both on the same line of latitude, there can be no doubt that the 
Mobangi and the Welle are the same river. 

From an official Report by Mr. Percy Smith, Assistant Sur- 
veyor-General of New Zealand, on a visit to the Kermadec 
Islands, in August last, we glean some information as to this 
recent annexation to the British dominions. The group is situ- 
ated between the parallels of 29” 10' and 31® 10' S. lat., and 
between the meridian of 177® 45' and 179* W. long. There 
are four islands, with some outlying islm and rocks, (he moet 
northerly, Raoul or .Sunday Ishura, being 674 miles nerib^eaitof 
Auckland. The islands are all volcanic ; in two of thMi 
indeed, signs of volcanic activity are to be seen at the prasent 
day, though on a limited scale. They appear to be situated OD 
an oceanic plateau which extends from New Zealand to the 
Tofifw Grom on which soundings are obialned at dedifiii- mn^ 
1^8 in. the adjacent areas^ but still so gtaotaa to.ri^ow4hftt 
iho.isUad» form, as it. wece^ the tops of vricaidc cooes i^iog to 


May 3, 1SS8] 


NATURE 


19 


ftfrtAt height above their bases. The group is situated on the 
flMth Msttttix ^ojection of the axis of the volcanic zone of the 
Bay of Pknty, which, continued still further north-eastward, 
'i^trncei the Tt>nga and Samoan Groups, places where volcanic 
asHtion is still going on. Two, if not three, volcanic disturb* 
micas bane taken place at the Kermadec Islands within recent 
wean, and earthquakes were very frequent there at onetime; 
Wt ainoe the eruption of Tarawera, June 10, 18H6, they have 
ceased entirely. On Sunday Island the mot-t prominent feature 
ta the ktfge crater near the centre of the island. It is 1) mile 
Jong by 14 mile wide; its walls are generally over looo feet 
high. Steam escapes occasionally from the Green La 1 ^c on the 
Kdnth aide, and from the crevices in the precipitous cliffs of 
Denham Hay, while warm water oozes out of the sand on the 
north coa^t. 

DH* Hans Mkyer, who recently ascended Kilimanjaro, and 
Dr, O. FJaumann, who accompanied Dr. Lenz up the Cong*>, 
are preparing to start on a new expedition to East Africa. Their 
object will be to make a thorough exploration and survey of the 
whole of the Kilimanjaro region. 

Recent issues of the journals published in French Indo-China, 
contain on interesting letter from M. Gauthier, describing a 
journey down the Meikong River, from Luang rrabang® into 
Cambodia, The traveller spent forty days on the journey, and 
passed twenty cataracts, in one of which his l>oat was almost 
dashed to pieces. He visited the Laos States, and describes its 
inhabitants as doing nothing except laughing, smoking, and 
singing throughout the day, such business as there is being wholly 
in the hands of the Chinese. 


OUR ELECTRICAL COLUMN. 

Gouy has found that the attraction between two electrified 
surfaces maintained at n constant potential -difference is one 
httodred times greater in distilled water than in air. 

Admirably well -equipped public electrical laboratories have 
been established in Paris and Vienna. When are we to see one 
in London ? 

Van Aubei. (.-fri //. df GeuH^r^ xix. p. 105, 1888) has been 
studying the effect of magnetism and heat on the elcclric resist- 
ance of oismuth and of it^ alloys with lead and tin. Contrary 
to alt other metals, the resistance of bismuth sometimes increases 
with reduction of temperature. He also verified the fact that 
the resistance of bismuth at low tenifieratures increases in the 
magnetic field. The effect ia very feeble with alloys. 

FqePPL {Ann. Wiedemann^ xxxiii. p. 492) has been endea- 
vour^ to prove Ediund’s hypothesis that a perfect vacuum is 
aoonduotor, but has completely failed to do so. lie makes the 
rnsiaunce of a vacuum to be three million times greater than 
that of copper. 

Mr. C. Vernon Hoys has communicated to the Foyal 
Society aoiue further details of his beautiful radio micrometer. 
It is a ihermo-tdeclric circuit, consisting of a bar of aniimony 
and bismuth, of small sectional area, the ends being formed by 
a loop of coppt^r wire, sustyended by a toraion fibre in a strong 
magnetic field. It is possible to observe by its means a difference 
of temperature of one ten- millionth of a degree Centigrade. 

C, L. Weber {CtntralblaH fi(r EUk'rotcchnik^ 1887, vol. ix.), 
experimenting on various amalgams and alloys of tin. bismuth, 
lead, and cadmium, has found that many of them have a liigher 
condnetivity than that of each of their constituents, 

Fiekr, of Deventer (Holland), has found a peculiar dynamical 
action of the current on the electrodes. An electrical current 
pasadog ibno^gh a solulion of CuSO^ between two electrodes of 
copper, which are varnished at the back, pulls both agaimt the 
direction of the positive stream. Independently of the con- 
centration, if only high enough to prevent the formation of 
ga^et, the pressure at the anode and the traction at the kathode 
amount to nearly 1 gramme per ampeie and per square metre. 


ON TStE CO^rPARISON OF THE CRANIAL 
WITH THE SPINAL NERVES. 

of 'Vertebrate auiteMih is to be found according to 
* ^ awMfvnmiphologiBts hi those iovertebraites which are com- 
Poaod'^aiseoHes Of oegmonts, mtA one of the chief aigwnents In 
farOut hf this view has alw^ heen the fact that rise spinal 


nerves are arrai^ed segmentally. It has, however, long been 
felt that the cranial nerves ought to give evidence of a segmental 
arrangement as clearly as the spinal before it is possible to 
speak of a segmentation based upon the arrangement of the 
nervous system ; and indeed many ingenious tables have been 
manufactured by morphologists in order to bring the cranial 
nerves into the same system as the spinal. The failure of these 
attempts is to my mind due largely to the following reasons : — 

1. Confusion has arisen because anatomists have been in the 
habit of looking upon the nervous system of the vertebrate as 
compt.sed of two separate nervous systems, viz. the cerebro- 
spinal and sympathetic. 

2. In the comparison of cranial and spinal nerves the morpho- 
logists ha’se directed their attention too exclusively to the exits 
of the nerves from the central nervous system without taking 
into account the place of origin of the nerves in the central 
nervous system itself. 

3. It has been assumed on insufficient grounds that the 
presence ot ganglia in connection with motor cranial nerves 
indicates that the cranial nerves do not follow Bell's law, 
and are therefore not strictly comparable with spinal nerves. 

'rhese difificiiUies are all found to vanish as soon as a clear 
conception is obtained of what is meant by the nerves of a 
spinal segment. 

Since the time of Charles Bell it has been recognized that a 
spinal nerve is formed by two roots ; the one, posterior, which 
contains only afferent fibres, le. fibres which convey impulses 
from the periphery to the central nervous system ; and the other, 
anterior, containing exclusively efferent fibres which convey 
impulses from the central nervous system to the periphery. In 
correspondence with these two sets of fibres the grey matter of 
the spinal cord is divided into two portions, named respectively 
ths posterior and anterior horns. Another division, however, 
exists of almost equal importance, which is not so generally 
recognized, viz. a division both of the nerve fibres and their 
centres of origin in the grey matter for the purpose of supplying 
the iniemr.1 and external portions of the body — a division of 
nerves and nerve centres into splanchnic and somatic as well 
as into affei>ent and efferent. The centres of origin of the 
splanchnic nerves are situated in the internal part of the grey 
matter of the spinal cord, being arranged in groups in the 
neighbourhood of the central canal, and the nerves themselves 
supply the viscera and internal surfaces of the body, t^ether 
with certain muscles of respiration and deglutition whi^ arc 
derived from special embryonic structures known as the lateral 
plates of mesonlast. On the other hand, the centres of origin 
of the somatic nerves are situated in the outlying horns of grey 
matter, and the nerves themselves supply the integument and 
the ordinary muscles of locomotion, &c., — muscles which ore 
derived from the muscle-plates or myotomes. 

Further, these two sets of nerves are arranged in the posterior 
and anterior roots in a special manner, the significance of which 
is the key to the whole question of the .segmental nature of the 
cranial nerves. In the posterior roots the afferent fibres of both 
splanchnic and somatic systems pass into the spinal ganglion, 
which is always situated vm the nerve root soon after its exit 
from the central nervous system ; so that we may speak of the 
afferent fibres of I^oth systems as being in connection with a 
ganglion which is stationary in position. In the anterior roots, 
on the other hand, we find that some of the fibres are in con- 
nection with no ganglia, while others are in connection with 
ganglia which are not fixed in position, but are found at various 
distances from the central nervous system (it is this system of 
ganglia which has hitherto been looked upon as forming a 
separate nervous system, viz. the sympathetic system), so that 
the fibres of the anterior root, all of which are efferent, are 
chvistble into a ganglionated and a non-ganglionated group, of 
which the ganglionatcd group belongs to the splanchnic system, 
and is characterized by the smallness in the size of its fibres, 
while the non -gangU mated group is composed both of somatic 
and splanchnic nerves, and forms the ordinary large-sized motor 
nerve fibres of the voluntary striped muscles both of respiration 
and deglutition as well as of locomotion. 

Again, it has been shown that these efferent ganglia are in 
reality offshoots from a primitive ganglion mass situated on the 
spinal nerves into which both afferent and efferent fibres ran. 

We see, then, that both roots of a fully formed spinal nerve are 
ganglionatcd, so that the presence of a ganglion is no longer the 
sign 6 f a posterior root, and we most define a spinal nerve aa 
being formed by-- ' 



20 


NATURE 


3i 


• I, A posterior root, the ganglion of which is stationary in 
position and is connected with both splanchnic nod somatic 
afferent nerves. 

3. An anterior root, the ganglion of which is vagrant, and is 
connected with the efferent sinwl- fibred splanchnic nerves. 

Also it is not a fundamental characteristic of a spinal nerve 
that the anterior root should necessarily pass free from the 
spinal ganglion, for it is clear that both anterior and posterior 
roots may pass into the same stationary ganglionic mass if the 
whole or part of the efferent ganglion has not travelled away 
from the parent mass. This passage of the fibres of the anterior 
as well os of the posterior roots into the spinal ganglion is com- 
mon enough in the lower animals, and is a peculiarity of the 
first two cervical nerves in such an animal as the dog. « If, then, 
the cranial nerves are formed on the same plan as the spinal, 
their efferent roots ought to be divisible into a large-fibred non- 
ganglionated portion and a small- fibred ganglionated portion, 
the ganglia of which may be vagrant in character, while their 
afferent roots should possess stationary ganglia near their exits 
from the brain ; also the centres of origin for the different sets 
of nerve fibres, i.e. for the splanchnic and somatic nerves, ought 
to be the direct continuation of the corresponding centres of origin 
in the spinal cord. Such I find to be the case ; if we leave out of 
consideration the nerves of special sense, viz. the optic, olfactory, 
and auditory nerves, the remaining cranial nerves are found to 
divide themselves in(o two groups — 

(1) A foremost group of nerves, which in man are entirely 
efferent, viz. third, fourth, motor part of fifth, sixth, and seventh 
nerves. 

( 2 ) A hindmost group of nerves of mixed character, viz. ninth, 
tenth, eleventh, and twelfth nerves, and the sensory part of fifth. 

The nerves of the first group resemble the spinal nerves as far 
os their anterior roots are concerned, for they are composed of 
‘large-fibred non-ganglionalcd motor nerves and small-fibred 
splanchnic efferent nerves, which possess vagrant ganglia, such 
as the ganglion oculomotorii, the ganglion geniculaturo, See, 

They resemble spinal nerves also as far as their posterior roots 
are concerned, for they have forme<l upon them a ganglion at 
their exit from the brain corresponding strictly to the stationary 
osteriorroot ganglion of a spinal nerve. One great difference, 
owever, exists between their posterior roots and those of a 
spinal nerve, for neither the nerve fibres nor the ganglion cells of 
these roots are any longer functional ; they exist simply in the 
roots of this group of cranial nerves in man, and other warm- 
blooded animals, as the phylogenetically degenerated remnants 
of what were in ages long since past doubtless functional ganglia 
and functional nerve fibres. 

This foremost group of cranial nerves, then, is built up on 
precisely the same plan as the spinal nerves ; the apparent 
difference being due to the fact that the afferent roots with their 
ganglia have degenerated. 

The hindmost group of cranial nerves is also composed of the 
same constituents as the spinal nerves, and their different com- 
ponents arise from centres of origin in the medulla oblongata 
and in the cervical region of the spinal cord which are directly 
continuous with the corresponding groups of nerve cells in other 
parts of the spinal cord. Here, however, the deviation from 
the spinal nerve type which has taken place consists not in the 
suppression of any particular component, but in the scattering of 
the various components, so that none of the nerves of this group 
form in themselves complete segmental nerves, but rather the 
whole of them taken together form a broken up group of 
segmental nerves which are capable of being rearranged not 
only into afferent and efferent but also into splanchnic and 
somatic divisions of precisely the same character as in a group 
of spinal nerves. 

I conclude therefore that both these two great groups of cranial 
nerves are built up on the same plan os tne spinal nerves, not 
only with respect to the structure, function, and distribution of 
their nerve fibres, but also as far as the arrangement of the 
centres of origin of those nerve fibres in the central nervous 
system is concerned ; and I think it probable that the reason for 
the deviation of the cranial nerves from the spinal nerve type is 
bound up with the changes which occurred at the time when a 
Urge portion of the fibres of the foremost group of cranial 
nerves lost their functional activity. I Imagine that in the long 
past history of the vertebrate animal .some extensive tract in 
connection with the foremost part of the nervous system has 
become useless and disappeared, and in consequence the nerves 
supplying those parts have degenerated. In this phylogenetic 


degeneration the whole of the splanchnic and somatk 
nerves of that region were involved, and probably also Jome w 
the efferent nerve fibres, with the result that certain only 
motor elements have remained functional. In the further histoty 
of the vertebrate, the parts which have replaced those wfaiefa 
became useless have received their nerve suimly from tracts of 
the central nervous system situated behind this foremost group of 
nerves ; in consequence of which the component parts of that 
hindermost group have become more or less sepsrated from each 
other. The extent of the area involved is especially well seen 
when the sensory nerves of this area, both somatic and splanchnic, 
arc considered ; for we see not only that the sensory part of the 
trigeminal, representing the somatic sensory elements, and the 
sensory part of I he vagus, representing the splanchnic sensory 
elements, are derived from their respective ascending roots, 
arise in connection with a series of nerve segments extending 
well into the cervical region, but also that the peripheral distri- 
butions of these two nerves are very extensive. Without specu- 
lating further at present upon the nature of the change which 
has disturbed the orderly arrangement of the cranial nerves, 
enough has been said to prove that the cranial nerves considered 
in this article are built up on the same plan as the spinal nerves. 
Further it is worthy or notice that just as the aivision into 
somatic and splanchnic has thrown great light upon the concep- 
tion of the manner in which a segmental nerve is formed, so also 
it lends aid to the consideration of the segmentation of structures 
other than the nervous, for we find that two distinct segmentations 
exist in the body which do not necessarily run parallel to each 
other : the one, a segmentation which may be fitly called splanch- 
nic, and is represented by the orderly arrangement of visceral 
and branchial clefts ; and the other, a somatic segmentation, 
characterized by the formation of somites, i.^. of vertebra and 
somatic muscles arranged also in orderly sequence. 

The splanchnic segmentation is most conspicuous in the cranial 
region, the somatic segmentation in the spinal region, and it is 
most advisable to remember that a valid comparison between 
cranial and spinal segments can only be made when like is com- 
pared with like, for it by no means follows that the somatic and 
splanchnic segmentations have proceeded on identical lines ; 
consequently, in comparing cranial with spinal nerves, we must 
compare structures of the same kind, and seeing that the spina) 
nerves are arranged acconling to somatic segments so also must 
the cranial nerves be arranged in accordance with their relation 
to the somatic muscles of the head, and not in relation to the 
branchial and visceral clefts. 

It is not advisable in this article to enter upon any discussion 
as to the number of segments supplied by the cranial nerves, or 
to speculate upon the nature of the changes which have taken 
place in the past history of the vertebrate animal, whereby the 
present distribution of the cranial nerves has been brought about. 

1 desire only to imt as shortly as possible before the readers of 
Nature the general results of my recent investigations into the 
structure of the cranial and spinal nerves. 

W. H. GASKtttL. 


UNlVERSiry AND EDUCATIONAL 
INTELLIGENCE. 

Cambridge. — Mr. T. C. Fitzpatrick, of Christ's College, has 
been appointed an Assistant Demonstrator of Physics. 

Prof. H, M, Ward, M.A., of Christ's College, has been 
appointed Examiner in Botany in the place of Prof. Bayley 
Balfour. 

Dr. R. D. Roberts has been appointed an Elector to the 
Harkness Scholarship. 

The name of Mr. Adami, the new Demonstrator of Pathology, 
was misprinted Adams in our last issue. 


SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 

BulUtin de lAcadhnie Royale de February. — 

Researches on the coll >idal state, by C. Winssinger. Tbl| is 
the first part of a memoir describing a series ofexpeHments 
undertaken to determine the various conditions of the colloidal 
8tate-*that is, of the state assumed under certRln droumsUOces 
by bodies generally insoluble in water. Tot the premt the 
author confines himself to describing the mode of pr^ratioh 
and the chief properties of the coUoidal substances, All the 



NATURE 


21 


ifoy 3 .. IB88] 


liftMn fulphides Studied by him (those of mercury, zinc, tung- 
ste^^xao^ybfUne, indium, platinum, gold, palladium, silver, 
tbelBdna, ^ lead, bismuth, iron, nickel, and cobalt) have been 
obUioed in the colloidal state. They bring up to thirty-one the 
number of colloids now known to science. Some have been pre- 
pared by Graham’s method, others directly by treating the oxides 
suspended in the water with hydrosuJphuric acid. — On the pre- 
tended pro-atlas of mammals and Ifaitcria punctata^ by Julc^ 
Cornet. The bony process between the occipital and the atlas 
known as the pro-atlas or proto-vertebra, and found in crocodiles 
and some other reptiles, is here shown not to exist in the 
mammals as supposed by some naturalists. The view of Smets 
regarding its absence from Hatteria is also confirmed.— On the 
process employed bythe fresh- water Gasteropoda, for crawling over 
the liquid surface, by Victor Willem. This process is shown to 
be somewhat analogous to that of snails moving on dry land, 
being effected by secreting a mucus which enables the mollusk to 
adhere to the surface. — Researches on the volatility of the carbon 
compounds ; chloro-oxygenated compounds, by Louis Henry. 
The object of these researches is to examine, in reference to 
their volatility, the compounds in which chlorine and oxygen are 
simultaneously combined with carbon. The subject is discussed 
under three heads : (z) the compounds comprising the system 
>C “ O ; (2) the system ->C - OX ; (3) the mixed derivatives 
simultaneously including both these systems. 

Rfnduonii del Realc Istituto Lombardo^ March 22. — Obser*^ 
vations made in the brera Observatory, Milan, during the total 
lunar eclipse of January 28, 1888, by G. V. Schiaparelli. These 
observations were made under favourable conditions in accord- 
ance with the instructions issued by the Pulkova astronomers, 
with the ultimate view of determining more accurately than has 
yet been possible the exact length of the diameter of the moon. In 
the accompanying tables are given the results of the observations, 
compriaing the ^comparison-stars with their magnitudes and 
numoers as in the catalogue distributed by the Pulkova 
astronomers. 


SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 

London. 

Royal Society, March 22, — ^^The Chemical Composition of 
Pearls." By George Harley, M.D., F.R.S., and Harald S, 
Harley. 

(l) As r^ards oyster pearls. Of these, three varieties were 
examined— British, Australian, and Ceylonese. 

The qualitative analyses showed that they all had an identical 
composition, and that they consisted solely of water, organic 
matter, and calcium carbonate. There was a total absence of 
magnesia and of all the other mineral ingredients of sea -water— 
from which the inorganic part of pearls must of course be ob- 
tained. Seeing that ordinary sea- water contains close upon ten 
and a half times more calcium sulphate than calcium carbonate, 
one n^ht have expected that at least some sulphates would have 
been found along with the carbonates, more especially if they 
are the mere fortuitous concretions some persons imagine them 
to be ; a view the] authors cannot Indorse, from the fact that by 
steeping pearls in a weak aqueous solution of nitric acid, they are 
able to completely remove from them all their mineral constituents 
without in any way altering their shape, and but very slightly 
changing their naked eye appearances, so long os they arc per- 
mlttM to remain in the solution. When taken out they rapidly dry 
Md shrivel up. Dr. George Harley will take occasion to point out 
in his next communication, which will be on the microscopic 
structure of pearls, that a decalcihcd crystalline pearl bears an 
intimate resemblance to a decalcified bone, in so far as it 
possesses a perfectly organized matrix of animal matter. No 
phosphates whatever were found in any of the three before-named 
varieties of pearU. 

The next point being to ascertain the exact proportions of the 
substances composing the pearis, and pure white pearls being ex- 
pensive, from having osoerttdned that all the three kinds they 
were operariqg upon had exactly the same chemical composition, 
instj^taff of maki^ separate quantitative analyses of them, they 
aim^ Sslected two pearls from each variety, of as neariv the 
aame rise and welght-^ghring a total of 16 grains— and analyzed 
them qolSeerively, the result obtained being : carbonate of lime 
917^ pur cent ; ozgimic matter (animat), 5 '94 ’’per cent ; water 
3'X3.per.oent 


(2) Composition of cocoa-nut pearls. 

A portion of a garden pea sized cocoa-nut pearl, weighing 14 
grains, was subjected to analysis, and found tnat, like shell-fish 
pearls it consisted of carbonate of lime, organic matter (animal), 
and water. 

It had all the external appearances of the pearls found in the 
large clams {Tridacna gigas) of the Southern Ocean, being per- 
fectly globular, with a smooth, glistening, dull white surface, and 
resembling them exactly in microscopic structure. Besides which 
in chemical composition it bore no similarity to cocoa-nut milk, 
to which it is supposed to be related ; for cocoa-nut milk is said 
to contain both the phosphate and the roalate, but not the 
carbonate of lime. That there are pearls found in cocoa-nuts 
the authors ^do not presume to deny ; all they mean to say is that 
they are doubtful if the specimen examined had such an origin. 

(3) As regards mamm^ian pearls. 

These so-called pearls have been met with in human beings 
and in oxen. 

In so far as naked-eye appearances are concerned, a good 
specimen of the variety of pearl now spoken of is quite undis- 
iinguishable from a fine specimen of Oriental oyster pearl, from 
its not only being globular in shape, and of a pure white colour, 
but from its also possessing the iridescent sheen so characteristic 
of Oriental oyster pearls of fine quality. 

In chemical composition, however, mammalian pearls bear no 
similarity whatever to pearls found in shell-fish, for they are com • 
posed of an organic instead of an inorganic material — namely, 
cholesterin. In microscopic structure again, they bear a marked 
resemblance to the crystalline variety of shell -fish pearls. 

April 19. — “On Hamilton's Numbers. Part II.” By 
J. J. Sylvester, D.C.L., F. K.S., Savilian Professor of Geo- 
metry in the University of Oxford, and James Hammond, 
M.A. Cantab. 

§ 4. Continuation^ to an infinite Number of Terms^ of the 
Asymptotic Development for Ifypothenusal Numbers. 

In the third section of this paper (Phil. Trans. A., vol. clxxviii. 
p. 311) it was stated, on what is now seen to be insufficient evi- 
dence, that the asymptotic development of ^ the half of any 
hypothenusol number, could be expressed as a series of powers 
of q ~ r, the half of its antecedent, in which the indices followed 
the sequence 2, I, j, i, . . . 

It was there shown that, when quantities of an order of mag< 
nitude inferior to that of {q - r)i are neglected, 

P - t = {l- '•)’ + }(?->•)• + H(f - r) + it(f - r)| ; 
but, on attempting to carry this development further, it was 
found that, though the next term came out T^(f ~ there 
was an infinite series of terms interposed between this one and 

“ r)i. 

In the present section it will be proved that between (q - r)i and 
(q - r)4 there lies an infinite series of terms whose indices are — 

s» iV ait tA> • ■ • 

and whose coefficients form a geometrical series of which the 
first term is iffr and the oommon ratio f. 

We shall assume the law of the indices (which, it may be re 
marked, is identical with that given in the introduction to this 
paper as originally printed in the Proceedings but subsequently 
altered in the Transactions), and write — 

/» - ? = (f - >•)’ + - '•)l + lt(? - >•) + i!(f - r)l 

+ A(? “ ^ - ^)» 

+ - r)H + ~ E(y - r)iW *+■ Sec, f ad inf, . . (i) 

3® 3^ 

+ e* 

The law of the coefficients will then be established by proving 
that— 

A = B=:C = D = E= = 41. 

If there were any terms of an order superior to that of 
{q - r)l, whose indices did not obey the assumed law, any auch 
term would make its presence felt in the course of the work ; for, 
in the process we shall employ, the coefficient of each term has 
to be determined before that of any subsequent term can be 
found. It was in this way that the existence of terms between 

* In the text above, 9 represeuts some unknown function, the asymptotic 
value of whose ratio to {q - is not infinite. 



32 


NATURE 


3, liSlU 


-<r>B &nd {</ ~ r)! was made manifest in the unsuccessful 
attempt to calculate the coefficient of - r)i. 

It thus appears that the assumed law of the indices is the true 
one. 

It will be remembered that/, - . ■ < halves? of 

the sharpened Hamiltonian Numbers hn + i» E«i E« - i, 
.... and that consequently the relation — 

I 1 -T> I " 0 _ Em+i(Kw-| - l)( Ew ~~ ^ ^4- 

1.2 1 . Ta . . . 3 

may be written in the form — 

/ =r 1 + - 't 2r - l}{ 2r-2 ) J(2J-I)(2.T" 2 )( 2s~^) 

2 - 2 . 3 . . 4 

- ^ (2^- l)(2/-2 )(2/ 7 3 ,)( 2 {“^ 

2.3.. 74 ;";5 

l)(2K -2)(2// - 3)(2«-4)(2^- 5) ! 

2 • . . 3 ■ 4 ■ 5 • 7. 6^ 

“ (2) 

I 

The comparison of this value of / with that given by (l) 
furnishes an equation which, after several reductions have been 
made in which special attention must be paid to the order of 
the quantities under consideration, ultimately leads to the 
determination of the values of A, B, C, . . . . in succession. 

"^Physical Society, April 14. — Slielford Bidwcll, KK.S., 
Vice-lVesident, in the chair. — Mr. W. E. Sumpner read a paper 
on the variation of the coefficients of induction The author 
pointed out that there arc three ways of defining the coefficient 
of self-induction of a circuit, expressed by the following 
equations — 

fi (/C 

(I) r ^ Lj- ; (2) N - L/: : 

(3) T = 4 L,C^ 

where r = l:iack E.M.K. due to change of current, C = current, 
N = total induction through the circuit, and T the kinetic energy 
of the circuit. If the medium be air, Lj, Lj, an J I g are identical, 
but in the case of iron this is no longer the case. When lha 
curve of magnetization is given, their values, corresponding with 
any value of C, can be easily determined by the above equations. 
Majcwell’s absolute method of measuring self-induction gives Lj, 
and by a modification due to Prof. Ayrton, where the current is 

altered from Cj to Cj instead of from o to C = — the 

value of L obtained is approximately Li, if Cj - Cj is small 
compared with C. From the known character of the curves of 
magnetization of iron, it is easily seen that the value of Lj, in- 
creases with the current when the current is small, then becomes 
nearly constant, and afterwards decreases. For an electro- 
magnet having a horse-ahoe core of best Swedish iron diameter 
and 14" long, wound will) 800 convolutions, the value of for 
currents between *047 and *107 amp. was found to satisfy the 


current are described. They ariee chiefly from the thatio^ 
order to obtain strong currents, the resistances must bei 
This makes the ** time constant ’’ larg(, and in ord^ to obtttin 
the values of L in absolute measure, a ballistic galtanometer ot 
very lung period would be required. A method of calibrating a 
galvanometer of comparatively short pericMl to give approximate 
results is described. Where the ma^etising force is produced 
by an independent coil> no such difficulties present themselves. 
Results obtained for the coefficients of self-induction of a 
gramme armature (A type) for different currents round the field' 
magnets vary from *0215 for current o to ’0x17 for a current of 
29 amperes. The value of 1 - for a given point on the curve of 
magnetization is not a definite quantity, but has always two or 
more distinct values, depending on whether the m^paetizatlon is 
increased or decreased by the test currents, and on the previous 
history of the iron. That this must be the case is easily seen 
from the curves obtained by Prof. Ewing in hia " Experimental 
Researches on Magnetism.” The values of L corresponding to 
the three sides of a small Ewing's cycle are denoted by 
L/ {proj^ressivc roefficimts^ {rNurtt coefficient) and X*e {cycitc 
coefficient). E/ is always the largest, whether the magnet- 
ization be increased or decreased by the testing current. 
Numerical values of and L.* obtained from a Kapp 
and Snell transformer are given, can be very accurately deter- 
mined by Profs. Ayrton and Perry’s secobmmeter, and some of 
the results given in the paper were thus obtained. Having 
given the curve of magnetization and that connecting impressed 
K. M,?’. and time, a simple graphical method is described for 
drawing the current curve. Applying this to an altcmatinp current 
where the E.M. F. is a pure sine function of the time, it is shown 
that the resulting current curve differs considerably from a .‘'ine 
curve. The case of the rise of current in the magnet coils of a 
dynamo excited by accumulators is also discussed, the derived 
curves being in accordance with observation. In concluvion the 
author pointed out that the time taken to discharge a owdenser 
through a given resistance may be decreased by adding self- 
induction to the circuit, piosided E is less than 4 KR*. When 
L — IKK", the discharge is completed in one-haU the lime 
vequiicd when I- = o. This may account for the remarkable 
results observed by Dr. l.odge in his cx|>eriment 3 on iron and 
copperas lightning-conductors. — Mr. C. V. Boys described and 
performed some experimenU on soap-bubbles, and by their aid 
demonstrated in a remarkable manner the phenomena of surface 
tension, diffusion, and the magnetic proi>ertiea of gases. By 
blowing one bubble inside another, he showed that there is no 
electrical force inside a closed conductor. A peculiar property 
of soap-bubbles is their refusal to come into contact when 
knocked against each other ; they may receive violent shocks 
and still remain separate. If, however, an electrified body be 
brought in the vicinity, they immediately coalesce. So sensitive 
are iney to electrical attraction that a potential difference due 
to one Leclanch^ cell between the two nubbles causes them to 
unite. They may thus serve as very delicate electroscopes. 
Many other beautiful and extremely interesting experiments on 
liquid films of diflfcrent shapes were performed in a masterly 
manner. 


equation I., 


A 

5 


+ ‘0425, w'bcrc A = current in amperes. 


A 


method of comparing self-induction with capacity is described, in 
which the arm of a Wheatstone^s bridge opposite the one con- 
taining self-induction is shunted by a condenser of capacity K. 
The bridge is balanced for steady currents, and the deflection, 
of the galvanometer observed on breaking the battery circuit. 
Oj is 1^ - K/j, where / and s are the resistances of the two 
remaining arms of the bridge* The condenser is then disconnected, 
and another swing, 0^^ obtained, on again breaking the battery 
circuit, is : : Eg,*) 


Lj “ K/j 


or Lj 



-K/J. 


Further experiments were made on the eicctro-magnet when its 
poles wer^oined by a piece of soft iron, the currents being 
mversed. The resulting values of 30 ii Sb ^*>< 1 M given in 
absolute roemure, and from them the author deduces-^ 


Lj = *05 + 3-9A, 2T0 + 

33 as 2TD 3^ -h 730 JR*, for values of A between *06 and ’9, 


The difficulties experienced in detencining the induction^ co- 
efficients for strong magnetising, forces produced hx tbe testing 


Geological Society, April ii.— W. T. Blanfordf F.R.S., 
i'resident, in the chair. — The following communications were 
rend On the lower beds of the Upper Cretaceous series in 
Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, by W. Hill, — On the CaeOwyn 
Cave. North Wales, by Dr. Henry Hicks, F.R.S. ; with an ap* 
pendiK by C- £. De Ranee. The author gave an account of the 
exploration of the cavern during the latter port of And during 

1886-87. He considered' that the results obtained^ during that 
time proved conclusively that there was no foundarion for the viewe 
of. those who contended that the drift which covered over the 
entrance and extended into the cavern was l»it theyi 

proved that the deposits which lay over the bone^earih wereiiw 
sitUf and were identical with the normal glariat deposits of tile 
area. These deposits had once extended continimnaljrsioraatthe 
valley, and the cavern (400 feet above Oidnannn- datum) had 
consequently been completely buried beneath themi The aaam 
must hue been occupied fay anitnola dvriig the foriwtiiMi uftfau 
bone^carth, before any of the glacial deposits tujirfiHKiid^ thm 
had aceumtilated, and^a thick floor of staUgmifo hodiaowSFedrthia 
"eacthf'' before , the caweroi had been subjected' to^wuilusN^^ 
ThtsaetioDrhad braken up the floor, end ootupArte^fweuriUMlu 
mflterials^and added sandy endgruvellymaleviidllNtedepoi^ 
this sand and gctwl had famn examined hgr^rod Biyi BiiwilitoSL 
who found that it agr^ in every particular with thwghwiefc mm 




J% 3. i«ii3 


NATUJtE 


*S 


in the vdley a Uttle way above. The larfe 
iln^nltooe huKfca in the cavern had alao been evidently disturbed 
by water^ action ; they were invariably found in the lowest 
depotits, and were covered over by laminated clay, sand, and 
era vela. The author considered k certain that the caverns had 
been eeip^letely filled with these materials, and in the case of 
the Ohe^Gwyn Cave they appeared to have been conveyed mainly 
(hrtm^ the entrance recently discovered under the drift. The 
stratiheanion at this entrance was so mncJceti, and could be traced 
so c o nt hmea dy inwards over the bone-earth, that there could be 
no dodht Chat this was the main entrance. There was not the 
slighteet e^ridence that any portion of the material had been con- 
veyed in through a swallow-hole, and the conditions witnessed 
thfou g hm t t were sudi as to predade aoy such idea. 7 'he author 
quoted a Report by t>r. Geweie, who considered that the wail of 
the cavern had given way, but before the deposition of the 
glacial deposits, which were subsequently laid down against the 
riniestoiue hank so as to conceal this entrance to the cavern. In 
conclusion, he referred to the presence of reindeer remains in 
these caves, in conjunoUon with those of the so called older 
Pleistocene Mantmaiia, proving that these had reached the area 
long before the period of submergence, and evidently at an early 
stage in the Glacial period. It was important to remetnlier that 
reindeer remains haa been found in the oldest nvcr-gravels in 
which in^ 3 ieInents bad been discovered. Man, as proved by the 
iiuplemaals discovered, was also pre:^en( at the same time with 
the rei ade er, and it was therefore natural to suppose that he 
migrated iafo this area io company with that animal from some 
QOithern aourcc, though this did not preclude the idea that be 
might aiwo have reached this country from some eastern or 
southern source, perhaps even at an earlier j^ericKl, In the 
course of the discussion which followed the reading of this 
paper, I)r. Evans said the arcfaseological evidence was against 
Dr. Hicks's views. 


Chemical Society, April 19. — Mr.W. Crookes, F R.S.,inthe 
choir. — The following papers were read :—The influence of tern • 
fusrature on the composition and solubility of hydrated calcium 
sulphate and of calcium hy<lroxide, by Messrs. W. A. Shenstone 
andj. T. Cundall. The authors find, contrary to the usual state- 
ments on theeubject, that hydrated calcium sulphate, whether of 
natural or of artificial origin, parts with a portion of its water at 
moderate temperatures, e.^. 40” C., and that it may be almost 
completely dehydrated in dry air at tem|:^raiures below loo" C. 
The effect of heat in diminishing the solubility of calcium sulphate 
in water at tcmfieratures between 40® and 150® may therefore be 
possibly due to the unequal solubility of the hydrated and an- 
hydrous salts. Calcium hydroxide is likewise less soluble in hot 
than in cold water, but the authors have failed to obtain evidence 
in favour of the view that the diminished solubility in this case 
may depend upon the dissociation of the hydroxide or of some 
^onrte of the hydroxide.— Thermo-chemical constants, by Mr. 
S!. U. Pickering. In a criticism of several deductions drawn by 
Thomsen from thermo-chemical data, the author refers to the 

S osed ** common constant of affinity ” — a quantity whose 
iples by numbers up to 10 are supposed to represent various 
reactions, «ome of which are similar, and others totally dis- 
similar {Btr. Deutsik, Ckem, Grs., v. 170, vi. 239) ; and points 
out that any number taken at random, e.g, 15.000 cal, would 
have gtven results similar to those xjbtarned by employing 
Thomsen's value of the cotistant, vi*. 18,361 cal—Action of hot 
copper on the mixed vapours of phenol and carbon bisulphide, 
by Prof. T. Camelly and Mr. J. Dunn. A small yield of a new 
dfphenylene ketone (m.p. « fij®) is obtained in this reaction.— 
Oxidation of oxalic acid by potassium bichromate, by Mr. E. 
A. Wemer. — The action of phenylhydrazine on urea and on 
some of Its derivatives, by Mr. S. Skinner and Dr. S. 
Rithemann.— Derivatives of phenyl isobutyric acid, by Dr. L. 
Edeleann. — The logarithmic law of atomic weights, by Mr. G. 
J. Stoney, r.R.S. 


Zoological Society, April 17.— Dr. St. George Mivart, 
F.K.S., Vice-President, in the chair. — The Secretary read a 
rmrt on the additions that had been made io the Society’s 
Menagerie during the month of March t888.— Mr. C. Stewart 
exhiUtod » ptoparotion showing the structure and development 
of Uhe brood-ponch of a Marsupial Tcee-Freg {N»totr€ma mar- 
Mr. Boulenger exhibited and psade remarks on the 
type specimen of a new species of Marsupial Tree-Frog {Nota- 
if$ma recently discovered by Mr« G. A. Kamage near 

Pemoaahttcp, in BracU.— Me, Htrb^ Druce read the descri^ 
ions of some new species of Heterocera collected by Mr. C. M. 


Woodford at ^va, VHi Levsi, Fiji (skmds. The e i tt e c tkwi 
had been made during the tnontks of February, March, and 
April, 1886, and was especially inteiesting on account the 
exact localities being-noted, as wreAl os for m new species it con- 
tained. Ninety-four speeies were represented, >01^ of which 
were described by the author os new to scienee. — A oomiBuniea- 
tion was read from Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell, contahitng some 
remarks on atavism, with reference to a paper on the same sub- 
ject read by Mr. J. Bland Sutton At « {devious meeting of the 
Society. — Prof. G, B. Howes gave an account of the vocal pouch 
of Rhinodei-ina darwim\ and described in detail the mode of its 
attachment and the position of the embryos in it. The author 
controverted the idea of Espodu that tlie alimentary functions 
were arrested during the development of the embryos in this 
Batrachian.-AMr. Oldfield Thomas read a paper describing a 
new genus and species of Muridss obtained by Mr. H. O. ForMS 
during his recent expedition to New Guinea. The author pro- 
posed to call this form, which was characterized by the possession 
of a prehensile tail, Ckintromys ftfrhesi^ after ks discoverer. — 
Lieut. -Colonel Godwin- Austen, F. R, S., read the first of a pro- 
posed series of papers on the Land-MoHusca of Burma. The 
present communication gave an account of the shells collected 
by Capt. Spratt, R.A., in Upper Burma, among which were 
specimens of several new and very interesting species. A com- 
munication was read from Mr. K. Bowdler Shar]:^, containing the 
sixth of his series of notes on the specimens of the Hume collection 
of birds The present paper treated of some of the species of the 
genus Digtnea. 

Anthropological Institute, April 34. — Francis Galton, 
F.R.S., President, in the chair. — A paper by Dr. Venn on 
recent anthroj^ometry at Cambridge was read, and was followed 
by a communication by the President on the head -growth of 
Cambridge students. The President’s paper we print elsewhere. 
Mr. Galton also read a paper on the answers he had received 
from teachers in reply to questions respecting mental fatigue. 

Paris. 

Academy of Sciences, April 23.— M. Jans^ien, President, 
in the chair. — Influence of gravity on the co-ordinates measured 
by means of equatorial s, by MM. Leewy and P. Puiseux. The 
paper deals mainly with the equatorials coud 4 s^ such os the large 
instrument intended for the Paris Observatory, and gives the 
general formulas of reduction.— On the aperiodic regulation of 
the amortisement and of the phase in a system of synchronized 
oscillations, by M. A. Cornu. The principle is explained of 
this aperiodic method of control, which is shown to possess 
several advanta^tesover the systems at present in use. It reduces 
to a minimum, if not to zero, the influence of the more ordinary 
disturbing causes, and supplies a continvous check for the 
regulating apparatus as well as a simple means of readjustment 
should it get out of order. — Remarks on M. Stoletow’s recent 
communication on a class of electric currents set up by the ultra- 
violet ra}s, by M. IMm. Becquerel. The note referred to the 
passage of an electric current between two disks, or metallic con- 
ductors, placed parallel to, and at a little distanee from, each 
other, by means of the layer of intervenmg air, whkh requires 
to be more or less heated by the radiation of a voltaic arc. M. 
Becquerel points out that these effects appear to be analogous to 
those which he observed and analyzed in a different way in the 
year 1853. He then showed that heated gases may conduct 
electric currents, these effects being functions of the nature and 
density of the gases, as well as of the relative dimensions of the 
electrodes.— On the fixation of nitrogen by vegetable soil, by 
M. Berthclot, This is a reply to M. Schloesiog’s recent remarks, 
the main object of the note being to more clearly establish the 
history of these researches and their present character. — On the 
optical properties of natural pharmacolite, by M. Dea Cloizeaux. 
The author, having recently resumed his interrupted studies of 
this crystal, finds that its optical crystallographic properties are 
absolutely identical with those of the artificial ctystals lately 
obtained by M. Dufet, The only difference ie an excess of 
about 4 per cent, of water as determined by previous ana- 
lyses of the natural crystals. But these crystus are hygro- 
metric, and lose some of their water at too® C, The 
specimens analyzed were also probably mixed with a little 
wapplerite, whidi has rielded as mudh os 29 per cent, 
of water, and which in the state of an efflorescent powder is 
usually associated with pharmacolite.— Note <m the optical 
characters of haidtngerite, by M. Des Cloizeaux. An examina- 
■ion of some small specimens of this extremely rare crystal found 




24 


NATUHB 


[May 3, 1^3 


in association ^ith a few fragments of pharmacolite shows that 
it must be grouped with the family of the positive acute bisector 
crystals. One of its indices of refraction, formerly measured by 
Haidinger on a natural prism of 40^ formed by two opposite 
facets, /i' and w, must be the maximum index, a = 1*67. — 
Observations of Palisa^s new planets 275 and 276, made at the 
Observatory of Algiers, by MM. Tripled, Ram baud, and Sy. 
These observations, which were made with the 0*50 m, telescope, 
cover the period April 17-18, when the two planets were of the 
respective estimated magnitudes li and ii'5. — On the employ- 
ment of gas thermometers, by M. Crafts. These remarks are 
made in connection with the hydrogen instrument recently 
described by M. Cailletet, who mentions an analogous type of 
thermometer devised ten years ago by M. Crafts. — On a new 
system of telephonic communication between trairs in motion 
and the neighbouring stations, by M. P. Germain. A series of 
electric measurements effected on rails from the stand-point of 
their resistance, insulation, and diffusive electric power, has 
satisfied the author that the two metallic parts of the same line 
connected together constitute an excellent conductor, provided 
the circuit and pile be insulated from earth. He has established 
ctirves of resistance for the rails according to the variations 
caused by the temperature and by the humid condition of the 
ballast. A new line shows less resistance than an old, owing to 
the oxidation of the points and the slow transformation brought 
about in the molecules of steel under the influence of vibration. 
By setting up the necessary apparatus in the stations and in the 
guard’s van, telephonic correspondence may be carried on in 
both direction.? ; but the details of the process are for the present 
withheld. — On anew fossil fish of the Coramentry (Aliier) Coal- 
measures, by M. Charles Brongniart. This fish, of which several 
goo<l specimens have been found, presents peculiarities distin- 
guishing it from all other fishes extinct or living. It is here 
consequently constituted a separate order of Pleuracanthides, 
as the prototype of the star-hsh, Ceratodus, and ajlied forms. 
The present specimen is named gaudtyi, in honour of M. 
Albert Gaudry. 

Berlin. 

Physiological Society, April 13.— Prof. Munk, President, in 
the chair, — Prof. Gad made a complementary communication to 
his previous one dealing with the proof of the Wallerian law. 
His experiments were carried out, in conjunction with Dr. 
Joseph, on the vagus nerve and its jugular ganglion. The nerve 
was cut through either on the central or peripheral side of the 
ganglion, and after six or eight weeks degeneration was looked 
for m the ganglion and nerve. These exijeriments yielded only a 
general confirmation of Waller's law ; at the same lime they 
brought to light so many peculiarities and divergencies, that, even 
with the heip of physiological experiment, it was found im- 
possible to deduce any universal laws from the details com- 
municated to the Society.— Dr. Bapinski spoke on the Bacteria 
normally present in the faeces of children which are being fed on 
the milk of the mother. As is well known, Eschricht has dis- 
tinguished two kinds among the above, vir. Bacterium laciis 
and Bacterium eoli ; of these the first is said to be capable of in- 
ducing the lactic fermentation of mijk-sugar. The speaker had 
investigated the truth of this statement by cultivating the 
Bacterium lactis^ with all needful precautions, in a solution of 
milk-sugar to which neither peptone nor any other nutrient 
fluid had been added. When the fermentation was at an end, 
the fluid was strongly acid, bm no lactic acid, or at most 
the minutest trace of this acid, could be discovered in it : all the 
reactions which it did yield pointed to thepresence in it of acetic 
acid. This Bacterium lactis (which should now rather perhaps 
be called BacteHum aceti) produced no effect on casein or 
any other proteid, and no putrefactive change was induced. 
Similarly it had no action on starch paste. Bearing in mind the 
practical medical interest which attaches to fermentative 
)>rocesses which may occur in the alimentary canal of children at 
the breast, Dr. Baginski had next investigated the behaviour 
of the Bacterium and the nature of the fermentation it produces 
when deprived of air and oxygen, and found that the fermentation 
was in all respects the same as that which takes place with access 
of air. The gaseous products of the fermentation were carbonic 
add .gas, hydrogen and marsh-gas. From among the various 
substances whose action on the Bacterium was tried, it is suffident 
to mention that acetic acid very speedily killed it, so that no 

S owth of the organism was observed in gelatine made add with 
e product of its own activity. This product therefore plays 
the part of an active poison as regards the further life of the ] 


organism.— Dr. Mertsching spoke on the histdoCT of the slcln 
and hairs, and in some detail on fbe mode of tmdn of homy 
growths, 'fhe speaker exhibited a large number of preparations 
in support of his views. 

Amsterdam. 

Royal Academy of Scienoea, March 3i.^Mr. Martin 
stated that he had been charged by Mr. van Lansberge, late 
Governor- General of Dutch India, to present to the t^jyden 
Museum a portion of a jaw of a gigantic ichthyosaurus from the 
south coast of Ceram. From this fossil the existence ol 
Mesozoic strata in that island may be inferred ; and the fact that 
in British India and in Australia remains of the same animal 
have been found in the Chalk suggests that in Ceram also there 
may be a Cretaceous formation. The statement made in 
Berghaus's Physikaiischer Atlas, to the effect that a Palteozoic 
formation is to he found on the south coast of Ceram, is without 
foundation. 


BOOKS. PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED 
FOR REVIEW. 

The Auitralian R«ce. 4 vob. ; E. M. Curr(Trfibner).— Ahhandlunnn imcl 
Berichte des K. Zoologischen und Anthropologisch-KlhnognLphuchen 
Muficnnift zu Dresden : Dr. A. B. Meyer (Fried Hinder^— 'Diamagnetism and 
Magne-Crystallic Action ; New Edition : John Tyndall (Longmans), -—Silk- 
worms : E. A Butler fSonnenschein). — A Treatise on Hydrodynamics, vol. 
L : A B. Basset (Deighton, Bell, and Co ).— 'Publications of the Lick Obser- 
vatory of the University lof California, vol. i , 1887 (Bacramento).— 
Methodik der Gesamten NaturwisHensebaft ; K- Koilbnch (Leipzig),— 
Turbans and Tails : A. J. Bamford ( I .owX— -Antipodean Notes : AVanwrer 
(Low). — Lights and Shadows of Melbourne Life : J. Freeman (Low). — The 
Land of the Pink Pearl : L. D. Powles (Low).— The Birds of Dorsetshire : 
J. C. Mansel Pleydell (Porter).— Argentine Ornithology ; A l>escriptive 
Catalogue of the Birds of the Argentine Republic, vol. i. : P. L Scloter and 
W. H. Hudson (Porter).— Dr. H. G. Bronn’s Klassen und Ordnungen des 
ThierReichs ; Krster Band, Protozoa : Dr. O. Bfttschli (Williams and 
Norgate) — Mdmoire sur la 'I'hdorie de la Figure des PUnbtes : M. O. 
Callandjeau. — Bulletin de I'Acaddmie Rewale des'' Sciences de Belgique, 
No. 3, i388 (Bruxelles). — Transactions of the New Vorit Academy of 
Sciences, vol. vl, (New Vork). 


CONTENTS. PAGB 

VolapUk, PaaiUngua, Spelin, Lingualumina .... 1 

Bridge Construction. By Prof. A. O. Qreenhill ... 2 

Two French Books 4 

Our Book Shelf 

Gray and Lowson : ** The Elements of Graphical 

Arithmetic and Graphical Statics ” 4 

Woodward : “ The Manual Training School " . . . , 5 

CroBSkey : The Method of Creation 5 

Letters to the Editor : — 


Coral Formations.*' — O. C. Bourne ; C. R. Dryer . 
Density and Specific Gravity. —Prof. Q. Carey 

Foster, F.R. 8 . ; B. Hoapitalier 

The Ignition of Platinum in Different Gases. —Dr. W, 

R. Hodgkinson 

“The Nervous System and the Mind." — Dr. Chas. 

Mercier; The Reviewer 

Nose- Blackening as Preventive of Snow- Blind ness, — 
Prof. £. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. ; Edmund J, 

Power • 

"Antagonism." — F. Howard Collins 

Sense of Taste. — W. Q. 6 

Suggestions on» the Classification of the Various 
Species of Heavenly Bodies. HI. (B/us/ra/ed,) By 

J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S 

The Royal Society Selected Candidates 

The Islands of Vulcsno and StromboU. By Dr. H. J. 

Johnston Lavts 

Head-Orowtb in Students at the University of Cam- 
bridge. (With Diagram,) By Francis Qalton, F.R.S, 
Photograph of the Eye by Flash of Magnesium. 
{Illustrated,) By Prof. Claude du Bois-Reymond , 

Notes . 

Astronomical Phenomena for the Week x088 

May 6-12 

Oeogmphieal Notes 

Our Elsctrical Column 

On the Comparison of the Cranial with the Splnid 
Nerves. By Dr. W, H. Qaskell, F.R.S. . . * VT. 

University and Sdueatlonal tnteUigsiice 

Scientist Strlids . * . 

Societies and Academies ... 

Booke, Pamphlets^ and Serials Received for Review 


5 

6 
6 
7 


S 

XI 

0 

14 

18 

18 
*9 

19 

so 

20 
21 




NATURE 


25 


THURSDAV, MAY 10, 1888. 


FORMS OF ANIMAL LIFE. 

Forms of Animal Life, A Manual of Comparative 
Anatomy, with Descriptions of Selected Types. By 
the late George Rolleston, D.M., F.R.S., Linacre Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy and Physiology in the University 
of Oxford. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged 
by W. Hatchett Jackson, M.A., Natural Science Lec- 
turer, St John’s College, Oxford. (Oxford : Clarendon 
Press, 1888.) 

T he first edition of Prof. Rolleston’s Forms of 
Animal Life” was published in 1870. Avowedly 
an educational work, and written expressly for btudents, 
it came at a time when the teaching of zoology was in a 
very different position from that which it now hold'?, and 
opportunities for systematic laboratory instruction were 
rare. 

At Oxford there already existed an admirably equipped 
Museum, in the arrangement of which the wants of 
students received special attention ; facilities for labora- 
tory work were also offered, and among the Linacre 
Professor’s pupils were men destined to become the 
leaders of the younger school of English zoologists. 
Elsewhere, however, the conditions were less favourable. 
The Cambridge school of biology, which has made for 
itself so great and honourable a reputation, as yet had no 
existence. Indeed, it was not till the year of publication 
of Prof. Rolleston’s volume that the Trinity Prielcctor in 
Phjsiology entered on the duties of his new office ; and 
it was in October of the same year that the late Prof. 
Balfour commenced his brilliant University career. 

In other centres the state of things was very similar. 
Zoology was taught almost exclusively by lectures, often 
indeed of great value, but supplemented at most by 
demonstrations. Individual students worked hard at 
dissections or in museums, but organized laboratory in- 
struction, in direct connection with systematic lectures, 
existed on a very small scale, if at all. 

There was, however, a firm conviction on the part of 
those most directly and intimately concerned, that a great 
change was necessary ; and a determination to carry out 
this reform at the earliest possible opportunity. In 1872, 
Prof. Huxley entered into possession of the new Biological 
Laboratories at South Kensington, and at once inaugur- 
ated a system of combined lecture and laboratory in- 
struction which has formed the model on which all 
subsequent courses have been framed. Three years later 
he published, in conjunction with Prof. Martin, the 
** Course of Elementary Instruction in Practical Biology,” 
and from that time the teaching of biology by lectures 
only became impossible. 

This same year, 1875, witnessed the commencement of 
Prof. Balfour’s systematic courses of practical morphology 
at Cambridge, and the introduction, by its newly elected 
Professor of Zoology, of the reformed system into one 
of the most eminent of the London medical schools. 
The change spread rapidly throughout the country, and 
tbe adoption of the new methods of teaching, pushed to 
its logical conclusion, led to the establishment of numer- 
ous appointments, and to the building and equipment of 
You XXXVIU.— No. 967. 


the splendid Laboratories at Cambridge, Manchester, and 
elsewhere. 

It would not be wise to attempt to estimate too accur- 
ately to what extent Prof Rolleston’s book was instru- 
mental in bringing about this reform, by which the whole 
scope and method of biological teaching were altered. It 
must be noted, however, that the time of its appearance 
was most opportune, and that the two leading principles 
of the book, in which it differed most markedly and most 
deliberately from all other works of the time, were pre- 
cisely the characteristic features of the new school. 
These afre, in the first place, the insistence on accurate and 
practical examination of selected types before a student 
is allowed to proceed to the systematic study of the groups 
to which the types belong ; and, secondly, the importance 
of direct reference to the original sources of information. 
On ilie first of these points, Prof Rolleston says, in his 
preface : — 

“ The distinctive character of the book consists in its 
attempting so to combine the concrete facts of zootomy 
with the outlines of systematic classification as to enable 
the student to put them for himself into their natural 
relations of foundation and superstructure. The founda- 
tion may be made wider, and the superstructure may 
have its outlines not only filled up, but even considerably 
altered, by subsequent and more extensive labours ; but 
the mutual relations of the one as foundation and of the 
other as superstructure, which this book particularly aims 
at illustrating, must always remain the same.” 

On the importance of direct reference to the original 
authorities he speaks very positively : — 

“ In some cases, even the beginner will find it necessary 
to consult some of the many works referred to in the 
descriptions of the preparations and in the descriptions 
of the plates ; but the bibliographical references have 
been added with a view rather to the wants indicated in 
the words *Fur akademische Vorlesungen und zum 
Selbststudium,’ so often prefixed to German works on 
science, than to those of the commencing student.” 

Forms of Animal Life” was the first student’s text- 
book in which these principles were distinctly formulated 
and deliberately adopted ; and there can be no doubt 
that it played a moit important part in stimulating and 
enforcing a direct study and accurate acquaintance with 
type forms as a necessary prelude to systematic zoological 
work ; just as the admirable series of preparations by 
Mr. Robertson, the description of which forms so charac- 
teristic and important a feature of the book, have fur- 
nished a model from which other museums have copied 
freely and to their great advantage. 

Prof. Rolleston took great interest in his book : during 
the later years of his life he was actively engaged in pre- 
paring the second edition ; and very early in this work 
he a.ske(l Mr Jackson to act with him as joint author. 
Some f>rogrcss was made in this joint work, but it was 
soon interrupted by the illness which, in the winter of 
1880, compelled Prof. Rolleston to go abroad, and which 
proved fatal only a few months later. 

“When Prof. Rolleston went abroad,” says Mr, Jack- 
son, “he put me in possession of his plans for the rest of 
the work, handed his papers to me, and expressed a hope 
that, if he were disabled from completing the new edition, 
I might be the person to do it in his stead. It is almost 
needless for me to add that in fulfilling this sacred trust 

C 


26 


NATURE 


[May 10 , 1888 


] have endeavoured to carry out his wishes, which were 
mainly three: (0 to enlarge the descriptions of the pre- 
parations and accounts of the various classes of animals, 
and to bring them to the standard of contemporary 
knowledge ; (2) to add to each class or group a brief 
classification ; and (3) to give as full a bibliography as 
space would admit/' 

The new edition which is now before us has been most 
carelully revised throughout ; very considerable additions 
have been made, especially in the systematic jiortion, 
whkh has been entirely re-written by Mr. Jackson ; and 
the volume is more than double the si/e of its predecessor 
— extending to upwards of 900 pages. 

The book, as before, consists of three main sections; 
the descriptions of the selected preparations; the descrip- 
tions of plates illustrating the sidient features in the 
anatomy of certain of these types ; and, thirdly^ the 
systematic accounts of the several groups into which the 
animal kingdom is divided. The arrangement of these 
sections has been altered ; for while in the former edition 
the descriptions of the preparations and plates were 
placed after the systematic part, the relative positions 
have in the new edition been reversed. The present 
arrangement is a more natural one, and the change, which 
was contemplated by Prof. Rolleston, is ceitainly an 
improvement. 

The selected preparations, the description of which 
fornis the first section of the book, arc for the most part 
the same as those of the former edition. The skeleton 
and certain parts of the muscular system of the rabbit, 
and the alimentary canal, urinary, and generative organs 
of the same animal, have been added ; the privet hawk 
moth has been substituted for the death s head ; and the 
skeleton of the pigeon and a few invertebrate preparations 
have been omitted. Though the number of the prepara- 
tions remains practically the same as before, this portion 
of the book has been increased by nearly a hundred 
pages ; the expansion being due mainly to the insertion 
of much fuller accounts of allied forms, and partly to 
a large addition in the bibliography. 

It would be an easy matter to take exception to the 
plan of this part of the book, and to urge that the space 
devoted to the description of particular specimens, which 
the majority of readers can never have a chance of seeing, 
might have been allotted, with far gfeater advantage to 
students, to thorough descriptions of the anatomy of typical 
ammals selected as representatives of the several groups. 
Accounts such as tliese aj^e much waiMed, and the oppor- 
t unity for providing them was an exceptionally favourable 
one. The criticism, however, loses all point as directed 
againat this second edition, for Mr. Jackson, regarding 
hks task as a trost, has rightly refrained from interfering 
with the scheme of arrangement of this, perhaps the 
moat characteristic section of the book. 

He has, however, subjected the whole to very careful 
revitioa. The deacriptions are admirably clear and con- 
cise, and the additional paragraphs have given Mr. Jack- 
son opportunity for introducing references to alhed forms 
which are always important, and in many cases of very 
h^h value indeed. 

The second port of the book, containing the plates 
with their descsiptiotta, ia lest satisfactory. Of the twelve 
plates of the fim $ditUm tern have been retained without 


change, one has been slightly altered, and one cancelled. 
Three new plates, which had been prepared and com- 
pleted under Prof. Rolleston's own direction, have been 
added, illustrating points in the anatomy of the skate, 
of the oyster, and of certain Arthropoda respectively. 
Wc sincerely wish these plates had been omitted. 
They form no essential part of the book ; the subjects 
are not well chosen ; and the drawings themselves are not 
always correct. The figure of the reproductive organs of 
the earthw orm, for instance, is very misleading ; and the 
nephridia, ns shown in the same figure, are entirely 
wrong. The new plates show no improvement on the old 
ones : llic figure of the oyster is not of sufficient import- 
ance to Justify its insertion, while the plate supposed to 
illustrate the anatomy of the skate is one of the very 
worst we hav'e ever seen. We cannot but feel the highest 
respect for the conseientious and sclf-efTacing spirit in 
which Mr. Jackson lias can ied out a most laborious and 
delicate task ; but we believe most sincerely that he 
would have done more honour to the memory of his chief 
by suppressing most if not at) of these plates, which are 
in every way unworthy of the book and of its authors. 
I'Tom the fact that this part of the book has alone 
undergone compression, we suspect that Mr Jackson, 
who has no responsibility in connection with the plates 
save that of retaining them, agrees with us as to their 
merits. 

About a dozen woodcuts have been inserted in the 
descriptions of the preparations : these are well chosen 
and will prove useful, though the absence of descriptions 
in two or three cases is somewhat exasperating. At the 
present time accurate and original figures illustrating the 
anatomy of typical animals arc so urgently needed that 
we cannot but regret that the resources of the Clarendon 
Press were not drawn on more largely in this respect 

The third and concluding portion of the book contains 
the systematic descriptions of the groups ; and here the 
changes are very great indeed. Occupying less than two 
hundred pages in the former edition, it has now increased 
to si.x hundred. This part of the book is by far the most 
important, and is exceedingly well done. Short descrip- 
tions of the larger groups are followed by most accurate 
and comprehensive accounts of the several classes. The 
further subdivision of the classes into orders and other 
minor groups is given in all cases ; and the most recent 
researches are referred to, without being given undue 
prominence. 

For this part of the work Mr. Jackson is entirely re- 
sponsible, and we congratulate him very heartily on the 
sidmtraUe manner in which he has effected it. We have 
indeed but one corrifrfaijit to make— namely, that, as in 
the former edition^ the groups are described in descending 
order, Vertebrates being taken first, and Protoioa last. 
This is a serious fault, giving the effect of an uncomfort- 
able drop as we pass from group to group, and, forther- 
more, rendering discussion of the mutual relations of the 
several groups very difficult, and in many cases futile or 
hnposcible. 

Apart from this, we have nothing but praise to offer. 
Limits of space will not allow that we should deal at length 
with the several dfasscs^ but a few points may b« noted. 
The Entcropneueta arc left amoog the ^‘Worms'*; 
their vertebrate afifoihles are mentionedy though Mr. 



May lo, 1888] 


NATURE 


27 


Jackson does not appear lo favour their claims to rank 
among the higher group. The vexed question of the 
homologies of the Arthropod appendages is treated fully 
The antennules of Cnistacea are doubtfully classed as 
true appendages, while the Crustacean antennie, with the 
chelicera:: of Arachnida are regarded as post-oral ap- 
pendages which have become pre-oral by shifting for- 
wards. The antennae of Myriapods and Insects are ruled 
out, “as being apparently processes of the prorephalic 
lobes ; ** while the suggestion that the telson represents a 
region rather than a somite will meet with very general 
approval. 

Brauer’s classification of Insects is adopted, with some 
slight modifications, and is given in considerable detail 
The leeches are tieated with caution as an isolated 
group, and no suggestion is made of their possible 
affinities with Turbellaria. 

Among the lower groups the Ccelenterata arc dealt 
with very thoroughly. The possibility of near kinship 
between the Acraspcdole Medusat and the Anthozoa that 
has found favour of late with Gottc and others is men- 
tioned, but rejected. 'J'he ITotozoa also receive very 
liberal and thorougli trentinent, more than a hundred 
piiges being devoted to them. As regards classification 
three main divisions are adojited : the Acinetaria, Ciliata 
and Mastigophorvt are classed together as Tlegepoda, a 
group equivalent to the Siomatophorous Corticala of 
Lankester, and for which the old term Infusoria might 
conveniently be used. The remaining divisions are the 
Endoparasita or Sporozoa, and the Khizopoda, the latter 
group being equivalent lo Lan I ester’s (/vmnomyxa. 

Mr. Jackson is a singularly modest writer, and seldom 
allows his own hand to lie seen ; a note on the blood- 
vessels of the earthworm, in which he (luestions the 
existence of the so-called subintestinal vessel, is of con- 
siderable interest ; and throughout the volume there is 
abundant evidence of iptimatc practical acquaintance 
witli the groups he describes so well. 

The importance, even for the junior student, of direct 
reference to original papers was, as we have noticed 
above, one of the points on which Prof, Rollesion insisted 
most strongly. In this respect Mr. Jackson has afforded 
assistance of a singularly efficient character. Possessed 
of a most unusually accurate and extensive acquaintance 
with the zoological literature of all countries, Mr. Jackson 
has given the full benefit of his knowledge to readers of 
his book. Every page teems with evidence of the most 
diligent research amongst aulhoritica, and none but a 
specialist in each group can estimate rightly the enormous 
amount of labour that its preparation must have cost him. 
Only less admirable is the restraint which has enabled 
him to refrain from burdening the book with an undue 
number of references, while those that are given have 
been selected with the utmost care, and arranged in such 
way as to afford the student aid of a kind hitherto denied 
him. “ The method I have adopted,” says Mr. Jackson, 
““is to cite the most important and recent authorities, which^ 
when consulted, will in most cases give the names of all 
other accounts worth reading, so as to form a really very 
complete index to the state of present knowledge.*' It is 
this ** index " which constitutes the characteristic feature 
of the new edition ; and in the care and thoroughness 
with which he has compiled it, Mr. Jackson has conferred 


an inestimable boon on zoologists, and has rendered his 
%vork indispensable to teachers and students alike. 

The earlier edition of “Forms of Animal Life” was 
marked by a certain singularity, at times almost gro- 
tesque ness, of diction, which interfered to some extent 
with ihe popularity of the book ; we are glad to observe 
that care has been taken to remove this blemish, though 
an occasional tendency to reversion may be noticed in 
such statements as that “ the anterior prostate is divaric- 
able into two lobes,” or that a given figure is “one-half 
Jess lhaft naiural size.” 

Jl would be better, too, if zoologist.s could completely 
emancipate themselves from the traditions of human 
anatomy, and cease lo speak of the anterior part of a 
rabbit as the “upper half,” or lo use .such terms as 
“vena cava desrendens.” “Urogenital,” too, which 
thre.atens to establish itself permanently, should not be 
used for urino genital ; and the term “pseud-haemal” is 
ol)Jectu)nable, and, as applied lo the vascular system of 
an earthworm, meaningless. 

However, these are but small points ; and in concluding 
we acknowledge in the fullest degree the singularly pains- 
taking and cons ientious manner in which Mr Jackson 
has fulfilled his task, and the signal service he has thereby 
rendered- to /oologisis. “Forms of Animal Life” is a 
unique book ; none but Prof. Kolleston could have written 
it ; and probably there is no one who could have retained 
and developed more successfully than Mr. Jackson has 
done the exactness and thoroughness lo which Prof, 
lluxlcv long ago alluded as its special charm. 

A M. M. 


77/ A' U./AVV.VJA A7 '.l////7v\S'. 

77/c %vtth <fn Introductory Chapter on 

i\umlh'r^ iltncniliv. Hy Manley Hopkins. London : 
SamphiOii Low, 1887 ) 

U N LI K k- H udibras, who could, as we are told, “ extract 
numbers out of matter,” Mr. Hopkins proposes in 
tlic essay before us to extract matter front numbers, or, as 
he says in the preface, “ to show that every-day things— 
numbers being one of them— possess in themselves 
materials worth investigation, and connections with other 
subjects of thought and study.” Our author does not 
attempt any systematic investigation of the properties 
of numbers: to do so wt)uld far transcend the modest 
limits to wliith he confines himself. He prefers to con- 
sider numbers in their relation to such svibjccts as religion, 
music, poetry, mythology, and superstition. Some purely 
numerical facts are, however, given, which either are, or 
else ought to be, found in every text-book of arithmetic — 
for instance, the rules (given on p. 75, at the beginning of 
the appendix) for determining w^hen a number is divisible 
hy any of the first twelve numbers, 7 only excepted. The 
cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 inclusive are treated 
sepantely in ten distinct chapters. These, with the 
introductory chapter and an appendix, the principal 
portion of which is taken up with magic squares, form the 
whole of the work. 

The nature of our author’s remarks will be best seen 
by making a few quotations. Thus in the chapter on 
Number C ne, after speaking of the unity of the Godhead 
and the oneness oiF self, he goes on to say : - 



28 


NATURE 


[May lOb 1^ 


"Geography and natural history abound in word» 
which express the separateness an object, its isolation, 
its ofu-/iuess. Similar to the number i, and to the 
pronoun I, there are found in different languages and 
dMtects referring to local separation, the words t\ ey^ eye^ 
0 ggi^xA here think of the Latin ego and the Greek fyu), 
eyoi^ oitj iftch^ inms^ tie, isUy intfer^ insula^ isota^ isla ; 
and connote some of these with the animal eye and egg^ 
having a similar separation as an island in geography. All 
the latter have the same meaning, and express a portion 
of land segregated, cut off from other land and surrounded 
by water— oneness." 

With the above we may compare Shakespeare's use of 
the -word eye in the passitgc— " The ground, indeed, is 
tawny. With an eye of green in 't" (“ Tempest,” Act IL, 
sc. i). 

Respecting the celebrated twos in profane myth and 
history, we read in the next chapter ; — 

" Prominent among these are Romulus and Remus ; 
Brutus and Cassius ; and in Irish legend £ber and Airem ; 
concerning Whom we are informed that £ber was slain by 
his brother Airem. He was the hero of the Ivemians, the 
ancient non-Celtic inhabitants of Ireland. Airem was the 
ancestor of the Celt.s who conquered the country." 

The Hibbert Lecture, May 1886, is referred to in a foot- 
note as the source from which this Irish version of the 
story of Romulus and Remus was taken. It is new to us^ 
and will probably be so to most of our readers. 

In the chapter on Number Three we are told the origin 
of the heraldic Jleut‘ de lys : — 

" It was the device of three fishes, tied together with a 
ribbon, which formed the fieur de luce — luce being the 
name of the fish ; but which was afterwards transfigured 
into the more elegant emblem of the fieur de lys^ the 
flower of the iris, taking the place of ths fish, its three 
petals still presenting a trine." 

It will be remembered that Justice Shallow, in the 
opening scene of the " Merry Wives of Windsor," speaking 
of " the dozen white luces ” in his coat, remarks that “ the 
luce is the fresh fish." 

To the noble army of circle-squarers we leave the task 
of refuting the following argument'; merely remarking 
that it may with equal facility be used to disprove the 
quadrature of the parabola, which has been believed 
in by all orthodox mathematicians since the time of 
Archimedes ; — 

“ In a quadrangle, the space may be divided into the 
minutest squares, leaving no space undivided ; but in a 
circle, every sauare applied to its periphery will always 
leave an angular space ; and however far the process 
of smaller angles may be canied, an ultimate undivided 
space will remain.'' 

Apparently our author is not quite satisfied with this j 
for in the next paragraph (on p. 47) he proves, in another 
manner, that the circle cannot be squared- In both proofs, 
for the words " a circle " we may substitute " any curve, 
including the parabola," without thereby affecting the 
argument. 

We have never heard of Montrecla, to whom we are 
referred for an account of attempts to square the circle ; 
but jfwsslbly Montucia is meant, who in 1754 published 
a " Hi|tpry of Researches relating to the Quadrature of the 
Circle,** a second edition of which (by Lacroix) appeared 
in 1831; This conjecture is strengthened by the fact that 
our author's list of the principal calculators of w ends 
with Vega (horn in i7S4 And murdered in r8ox), 


obtained its value to 140 decimal places, making ho 
mention of Rutherford and Shanks, who In more recent 
times pu^ed on the calculation to $00 and 707 places 
respectively. 

From Chapter VIL, which treats of a variety of Buhiecta, 
including among them "the number of the beast and 
the fine distinction between six and halfia-douen^ we select 
for comment the following sentence : — 

" Six, also, is the least number of the points of fixature; 
so that a body cannot und^r all circumstances be im* 
movable unless ‘secured (or resisted) at six points." 

Having only common sense to guide u$, and being unable 
to divine what train of reasoning could have led the 
author to the above conclusion, we should imagine that 
whenever any two points, A, B, of a body are fixed every 
other point in the straight line AB is also fixed, so that the 
body can only rotate round the line AB. Consequently 
if any third point (not in the straight line AB) is also 
fixed the body is immovable. Do the words " under all 
circumstances " imply that the body is immovable even 
when all six of our author's " points <A fixature " are in the 
same straight line ? If not, we are at a loss to know what 
they mean. 

The appendix contains among other things a method 
of filling up magic squares which is said to have been 
communicated by a Russian mathematician to Prof. 
Sylvester and by him to a friend of the author. As some 
portions of the Russian Empire are not very far distant 
geographically from the land of the Chaldseans, this tradi- 
tion may have had its origin among the magicians, 
astrologers, Chaldseans, and soothsayers of the Court of 
Nebuchadnezzar, to whom magic squares weie doubtless 
well known. We hope Mr. Hopkins will be able to trace 
it to its source, even though it would take some time to 
do so, and the appearance of a second edition of " The 
Cardinal Numbers "might thereby be delayed. The public 
need not be impatient, for they can in the meantime allay 
their curiosity concerning the properties of magic squares 
by a perusal of the " Mathematical Rccrcations"of Ozanam 
and a host of more modem writers. 


OC//i BOOK SHELF, 

The Romance of Mathematics, Beii^ the Original 
Researches of a Lady Professor of cfirtham CoU^ 
in Polemical Science, with some Account of the Soend 
Properties of a Conic; Equations to Brain- Waves; 
Social Forces ; and the Laws of Political Motion. By 
P. Hampson, M. A., Oriel College, Oxford. (I..ondoh: 
Elliot Stock, 1886.) 

Our first acquaintance with the title, which we bpva 
copied in full, was limited to its four opening 
These suggested various ways in which the sublect 
be treated ; we had no idea that the task before us was 
to examine and report upon a somewhat mild Jeu 
The editor, who poses as a Cambridge siudeni ana 
quondam pupil of the Cirtham Professor, and subiMir 
quentlyas her husband, discovers, in a weii-wosn de$k| 
certain lectures, essays, and other matter. In Idf 
duction he says it is not his intention to disclose ^ 
came into possession of the papers; in the closing 
he is caught in bis work of reading and 
and length we gained our poin^azMi 
fiiU sanction of the late Lady Professor of 
lege to publish her papers," Thus her obeA^^^H^ 




NATURE 


29 


4^ to* iS88] 


him,** and also to remove from the mind of the reader the 
unpleasant leelinK he has all along had whilst perusing 
jdte papers, that he was a party to a mean action in so 
doing. 

The earliest essay, in an unfinished form, written whilst 
10 siaiu fkUpillafiy is entitled ^‘Some Remarks of a 
Girtham girl on Female Education/* and combats those 
female sycophants'* who would prevent us from com- 
peting with you ; you would separate yourselves on your 
isUnd of knowledge, and sink the punt which would bear 
us over to your privileged shore. Of all the twaddle — 
forgive me^ male sycophants ! — that the world has ever 
beard, I think the greatest is that which you have talked 
about fiemale education.*’ 

. The second paper is a “ Lecture on the Theory of Brain - 
Waves, and the Transmigration and Potentiality of 
Mental Forces.’* She takes the usual equation 

J sin («V - r), 

and determines X by the method of mesmerism. “ We 
£nd the ratio of brain to brain— the relative strength 
which one bears to another ; and then, by an application 
of our formula, we can actually determine the wave of 
thought, and read the minds of our fellow-creatures. An 
unbounded field for reflection and speculation is here 
suggested. Like all great discoveries, the elements of 
the problem have unconsciously been utilized by many 
who are unable to account for their method of procedure. 

. . . The development of this theory of brain- waves may 
be of great practical utility to the world. It shows that 
great care ought to be exercised in the domain of thought, 
as well as that of speech.** Some verses follow, and then 
we have Papers iii. and iv., which are, in our opinion, the 
best part of the book, viz. a “ Lecture on the Social Pro- 
perties of a Conic Section,” and the Theory of Polemical 
Mathematics.** Paper v. contains a Lecture upon Social 
Forces, with some Account of Polemical Kinematics,** 
and Paper vi carries on the preceding into ** Polemical 
Statics and Dynamics ; Paper vii. expounds the Laws 
of Political Motion,** and Paper viii. closes the book with 
a lecture “ On the Principle of Polemical Cohesion.** We 
ought to apologize for going into such detail, but our 
account will show our readers that the present work does 
not deal with mathematical discoveries, ft is a ‘*skit,’* 
with the perusal of which a reader acquainted with 
mathematics may while away, not unpleasantly, an odd 
half-hour or two. 

Antipodean Notes. By ** Wanderer.** (London : Sampson 

Low, 1 888.) 

Lights and Shadows of Melbourne Ufe. By John Free- 
man. (Same publishers.) 

The “notes'* in the first of these two books do not 
embody the results of a very wide experience. They 
simply record some observations made by the author in 
the course of a nine months* tour round the world. 
“Wanderer” does not, however, pretend to offer an 
exhaustive account of any of the subjects on which he 
touches. He has an easy, pleasant style, and gives with 
some vividness his first impressions of the scenes he 
describes. The greater part of the book relates to New 
Zealaiul, the practical, commercial, and social aspects of 
whldh be tiad, be thinks, more and better opportunities of 
studying Ibafl arc obtainable by the majority of “globe- 
There is a short but interesting chapter 
on Ihe Maoris, of whose qualities, as they have been 
affiMsd by contact with civiltsation, “Wanderer** has 
no ve^ exited opittiom He admits, however, that 
thtsre int eaceptibns to vdiat he calls “the average 
^ Oneol the native members of the 

House of l^epresentatives is, he says, “ highly cdu- 
iblbll^ea even eloquent.” The question 

to the House was 
speech of this deputy on the 


subject was “ by far the most brilliant and entertaining 
of a debate in which many colonial legislators soared 
above the ordinary level of dull mediocrity.** 

The second book consists of a series of papers, some 
of which were originally contributed to Melooiirne news- 
papers. They are written in rather too “ smart ** a style, 
but contain much information which it would be hard 
for Englishmen who may be interested in Melbourne to 
find elsewhere. The book will no doubt be welcomed by 
many visitors who will go this year to Melbourne to see 
the Centennial International Exhibition. 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR, 

[The Editor does net hold himself responsible fir opinions 
expressed by his correspondents. Neither can Ar uHcUr- 
tMe to return^ or to correspond with the writers ofi 
rejected manuscripts istiended fir this or any other part 
of Naturb. No notice is taken of anonymous communi^ 
cations,'] 

The Salt Industry In the United States. 

I CAN sympathize to a great extent with your correspondent 
George P. Merrill cn the question of salt statistics. For a 
num^r of years 1 have l>een accumulating information on the 
whole subject of salt, and have found the greatest difficulty in 
obtaining much of a trustworthy character. The most extensive 
salt literature is in Germany : even there the statistical part of the 
subject is not deaU with so extensively as the geological, geo- 
graphical, chemical, and manufacturinc. Perhaps the moat com- 
plete salt literature is that of India, which is issued yearly by the 
Government ; but it deals almo-t exclusively with Indian salt. 

I am not much surprised that the information in our Encyclo- 
paedias respecting the salt industry of the United States should 
be so scanty. Moat of the information derivable respecting it 
has to be obtained from* public newspapers, trade pamphlets, or 
papers in scieniihc journals. It is true thnt, so far as the deposit 
of Petit An&e, in Louisiana, is concerned, the United States 
Government publisbetl an account of it shortly after'tbe termina- 
tion of the great war. Dr. Sterry Hunt, whom I had the 
pleasure of meeting at Manchester at the British Association, has 
written probably more than anyone else on American salts ; but 
it must be borne in mind that it is only within the last twenty 
years that the great salt discoveries in Western New York and 
Michigan have been made. I have a complete or nearly com- 
plete list of all the Michigan works, which was issued in the 
Chicago Triimne of January 24, 1888. I have also before me a 
copy of llic Sagnaxv Courier of December i8, 1887. This gives 
some valuable tables respecting the Michigan ' alt. In Michigan, 
in 1887, 3,944,309 barrels of salt were inspected by the salt 
in«5ector. In 1869, only 561,288 barrels were made ; and in 1880, 
2,676,588. There was more salt made in Michigan in 1887 than 
had been made previously to 1869 in that State. Ilie growth of 
the salt manufacture has-been exceedingly rapid in the States ; 
hence the reason why so little is known of it outside the persons 
interested in the trade. 

Witi tin the last five or six jears there has grown up a most 
extensive salt manufacture in the Wyoming Valley in Western 
New York. Already this new district bids fair to ait out entirely 
the old Syracuse or Onondaga district. The make of American 
salt ha< much more than doubled itself in the last ten years. 1 
am sure that personally I shall be much pleased if Mr. Merrill 
will, either through your columns or direct to me, give any in- 
formation more accurate than is obtainable from our Encyclo^ 
pmdias. I am striving to establish at Northwich, the centre of the 
Cheshire salt trade, a Salt Museum, and although I hove been for 
a long time accumulating specimens of salt from all parts, and 
have, thanks to the East Indian Government, and through the 
kind exertions of Mr. J. T. Bnmner, M.P., our Parliamentary 
representative, who is most handsomely furnishing the Museum, a 
complete set of specimens of Indian salt, yet I find great difficulty 
in obtaining works treating on salt, also mw, plans, and diagrams. 
I trust, by degrees, to have n Museum perfectly unique, I believe. 

When I say that until the last two or three years our English 
salt statistics have not been trustworthy, and ihUt it Is only by the 
indefatigable exertions of Mr. Jpseph Dickinson, H.M. In^ctor 
of Mines, assisted by myself and one or taxi oth^ gentlemen 
connected a ith our salt trade, that they are now very nearly 
plete, Mr. Merrill most not be surprised at the difficulty of ^tting 



NATURE 




iOi 


trui^tMorthy inform Atlon> For some seventeen years 1 have kept 
^ complete list of alt salt ex^KJtts from the Mersey ports, and this 
list, 1 think, is the only complete one published, tl^ogh the Salt 
Chamber of Commerce here professes to have a list, which it 
does not issue for public use. Indeed, 1 re^rret to say that it is 
almost impossible to get any assistance or information from this 
body. ^ 

The French povemmettt issues at times a list of salt manu- 
ihotured or raiiwd ftom mines. The last I received, viz, 1879, 
gave, as the production for that yefar, *83,000 tons of sea salt and 
*9^000 tons of rock salt. 

Ish;^lt be glad to give any information I possess to Mr. Merrill^ 
and should be jglnd if any of your readers could give any in- 
formation or assistance that would enable me to mnkeoi comjdetc 
as possible the Salt Museum We are here forming. 

Nurthwich, Cheshire. I’HOMAS Ward. 

Prof. Ronenbuich’n Work on Petrology. 

Prof. PoNNEY’b letter (NAtURE, vol. x.sxvii. p. 556) makes me 
Vifhlurc once more to a^sk permission for space for a few remarks. 
One of the objects I had in view in writing to you at first is 
partly attained by the appearance of Prof. Bonney's “ friendly 
protest ; and his remark that but for my letter he should have 
refrained “ for a season*' leads me to hope that in due course 
this oWeCt may be still further realized. 

ProL Bonney secs great objections to Rosen busch's system of 
classiheation, and demurs to some of his groups altogether, both 
as to those admitted and those omitted. Naturally, then, he 
desires that thrfs system shall not, by students of petrology, be , 
too readily Accepted nor tOo blindly followed. I do not think 
there is much danger of this, nor do 1 think that the viaduct 
was too much cotnidimented either by Dr, Hatch or myself, the 
defective found. it ion of the piers in question being quite 
s«dficienCly aihided to for the time being. 

The position, however, seems to to this. The number of 
camcBt students of petrology is larger now than formerly, and 
is on the increase. They feel that no satisfactory system of 
classification had yet l>een offered to th'^m, and indeed are rather 
bewildered by the fact that opinions as to what is the best 
system have been almost as many in number as the teachers 
who could by any means claim to be authorities entitled to 
Instruct in thi* matter. Also, it is now a long time since any 
detailed system of classification, covering the whole ground*, 
has been attempted. 

Now we have such an attempt offered to us by Rosenhusch, 
and there is no doubt that to many it will be very welcome and 
will be largely used, in spite of the defects undoubtedly seen in it. 

Prof. Bonoey olyects to the viaduct because of the weakness 
of some of its piers, and stiJ! more strongly objects to it, I think, 
b^ase he considers that when a student has crossed it he will 
arrive at a point from which he will obtain a view of the sur- 
rounding country which will not be n good or correct view, and 
which wdi insovne respects confine the knowledge of that country 
already obtained and atUl to be sought for. 

Would neft this be just exactly the Ijesl time for some 
authority of great experience to come forward and point out lo 
us younger workers wherein the viaduct is defective, and wherein 
we shall see wrongly from the ground on the further side of it ; 
and to tell ns hi* opinion.^ as to a better viaduct, so placed as to 
lead us to a better point of outlook ? 

May we hof>e that Prof. Bonney will himself give us such n 
detailed critidsm of the subject ? It would be received with 
great attention and gratitude by many who, like myself, are 
looking for “light and leading*'^ in thi$ branch of study, 

A. B. 

History of the Contraction Theory of Mountain. 
ForrOatioi). 

Ik hi* “physical Geology," iccond edition, p, 674, Prof. 
Green aays : “The notion that the earth's contraciicm ha* been 
the cause of the displacement of the rocks and the elevations 
of (he surface seems to have occurred first to Descartes <ed. 
(ran^aise, ififiS^p. 3*2)/’ 

It does not seem to be generally known that, a few years 
later, the same idea occurred to Neaion^ In a, letter to 
Thomas Burnet he refers to that writer’s “Sacred Theory of Ihs 
the jLotin edition of which was published in a(^ 
con^ders the creation of the earth in connection with the Mosaic 
aocoemt. Ait^ sHggesticg illnsi rations of the “genei:atjo|i of 


hills,*’ Newton conblndes thus : “ I forbear to deserfho oUter 
causes of mountatiu, as the breaking out of vapoute from hwklw 
before the earth was well hardened,— 

ff/ tht whok j^obf after the u^fer re^ians or surftiee hfffm to fe 
hard though he adds, “ I have not set down anything I have 
well considered, or will undertake to defend.’* 

The letter, which is written in reply tp one of Burnet’s, (Uted 
January 13, i 65 o- 8 i, is given in full tn Brewster’s “Memoirs of 
Sir Isaac Newton," vol. ii. Appendix 4. The manttscript from 
which it is printed l» a copy of the letter, with<^t date or 
signature ; but, according to Brewster, whole is distinctly 
written in Sir Isaac's hand." ChaRLBS DaViBOK. 

Binninghamy April 23. 

Lightning and Milk. 

Emin Pasha (Nature, vol. xxxvii. p. 583) mentions the 
African Kuperalttion “ that fire kindled by a flash of lightning 
cannot be extinguished until a small quantity of milk has l>een 
poured over it." This idea is embodied in a Russian proverb, 
and has also existed in parts of Germany (Boyes, Lacon, 
p. 157). Emin Pasha adds that, in tempering swortU made 
from meteoric iron thunderbolts), the blacksmith tis^s 

not water, but milk. Are other instances of this custom known ? 
Has any explanation been offered ? Indian folk-lore furnishes 
two ideas wnich may illustrate it : one, that the fall of a meWor is 
a bud omen (Mdia/i JSfo/es amt Queries^ July 1887, 674) ; the 
other, that evil spirits arc very fond of fresh milk (id., Decern ' 
ber 1886, 19B), Meteorites and lightning are connected in the 
minds of ignorant people, particularly, as Euain Pasha tells us, 
in the present instance. 1 ne milk, ibereforc, whether ap^died 
by smith or fire-man, may be rather intended a* a propitia- 
tion than used for its intrinsic power of tempering .steel or 
extinguishing flame. F. A. BATHER. 

20 Campden Hill Road, Kensington, W,, April 29. 

The Duplex Pendulum Seismograph. 

As the accuracy of the duplex pendulum seismograph has 
been impugned by a writer in Nature, vol. xxxvii. n. 571, 
who at the same time adopts the instniment (with modincatiou.s 
which are, in my opinion, the reverse of improvements) 1 forward 
to you comparison diagrams. They show side by side the record 
given by the seismograph itself, and the real motion of the base 
of the instrument when that was artificially shaken in a manner 
that closely imitated on earthquake. The real motion wa« re- 
corded by means of a multiplying lever hinged by a universal 
joint in a bracket fixed to a sep irate support. In both records 
the motion is magnified about six times. The agreement of the 
two demonstrates the accuracy of the insinimenias an earthquake 
recorder, alike for large and for small motions. These are ex- 
amples of tests which I have been in the habit of applyh^ to 
seismographs since 1880 (see Proc, K. S., vol, xxxi. p. 440). In 
the present case the test was made with one of the duplex 
pendulum seismographs made and sold by the Cambridge 
IScienrific Instrument Company, and described by me in Natuxx, 
vol. xxxiv. p. 343. J. A, Ewino. 

University College, Dundee, April zo. 

Self- Induction. 

1 HAVE to apolq^ze for erroneously attributing to Dr. LodM 
a suggestion with reference to the self-induction of wires (Sr 
high-tension electric discharges. 1 do not, however, consider, 
as Prof. Lodge appears to do, that for such discharges H is “(Mi 
the face of U absurd ’’ to suppose that the self-induction Of iroo 
wires is less than that of copper wires of the same dimensioaa, 
Prof. Ewing has suggested that for very small values of the 
magnetUing force, H, iron may p >sribly behave as a diamagnoitc 
body, and the corresponding values of the magnetic sus* 
cepiiWlity, may be negative. The values of the magnetfc 
induction, B, which are given by the equation — 

B as (i -h 

will be less tiian H, because ^ is negative. The rate of increi^ 
of B with H will be less than unity for iron if this 
Is ttnd, and will be equal to unity for copper, for whioh 
suppose that the valuedf k is negligible. The coriflfiefent 
Indwctioa, which will be proportional to the of inen^ ^ 
® N of the saWte dlOseftafocW WlR 

be less for Ibe iron than for the oopperl 
City and OoUds Institute, M^y a. W. JT 


May 10 , 1888 J ^ NATURE 


31 


SUGGESTIONS ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF 
THE VARIOUS SPECIES OF HEAVENLY 
BODIES^ 

IV. 

m-ON THE SPECTRA OF STARS OF GROUP IT. 

I N the previous part of this memoir I have attempted to 
give a general idea of that grouping of celestial bodies 
which in my opinion best accords with our present know- 
ledge, and which has been based upon the assumed 
meteoric origin of all of them. 

I now proceed to test the hypothesis further by showing 
how it bears the strain put upon it when, in addition to 
mneral grouping, it is used to show us how specific 
differences are arrived at. 

I. General DtscussroN of Dun^r's Observations. 

In the paper communicated to the Royal Society on 
November 17 1 pointed out that the so-called “stars'' 


It will be clear at once that in the case of the ^arE 
flutings the dark bands should agree with the irxxe 
tion of the vapours, and that when the amount of absorp- 
tion varies, only that wave-length away from the maximum 
of the flutings will vary. Thus, the same fluting may be 
represented as in Fig. 6, according to the quantity 
of the absorbing substance present. 

I n the case of the flutings, however, the dark bands 

on either tide may in some cmes be produced partly by 
contrast only, and (be brighter and wider the bright flutings 
are the more they will appear to vary, and in two ways ; 
first, they will dim by contrast when the bright fluting 
is dimmer than ordinary ; and secondly, the one on the 
side towards which the bright fluting expands from its 
most decided edge will diminish as the bright fluting 
expands (see Fig. 7). 

There is also another important matter to be borne in 
mind. As these spectra are in the main produced by the 
integration of the continuous spectra of the meteorites, 
the bright flutings of carbon, and the dark flutings pro- 
duced by the absorption of the continuous spectra by the 




Fig. 6 , — Diagram xhomng how an abBor;()tioa (luting varies in width according 
to the qiKUitUy of absorbing substance present. 


of Class 11 1 . were not masses of vapour like our sun, 
but swarms of meteorites ; the spectrum being a com- 
pound one, due to the radiation of vapour in the inter- 
spaces and to the absorption of tbc li^ht of the red- or 
white-hot meteorites by vapours volatilized out of them 
by the heat produced by eoUiwpns. 

I also showed that the radiation was that of carbon 
vapemr^ and that some of the absorption was produced by 
the 4i{ef flutings of Mb in* 

Oohd^ln his map gives eleven absorption bands, chiefly 
to Clasa tifa, but in the case of the tenth and 
bondathere is some discrepancy between his map 
and the text, to wtilch te^noe wilt be tttade subsequently. 

of the 


m4 Si tbfe Koyst Socisty os AfirU tt, by 
itmUtfU fiwiip. ri.' 





vapour surrounding each meteorite ; the proportion of 
bright fluting area to dark fluting area will vary with ‘the 
reduction of the spacing between ihe meteorites; 

If any bright or dark flutings occur in the same region 
of the spectra when the spaces are greatest, the radia- 
tion effect will be stronger, and the absorption fluting will 
be “masked where they are least the radiation itself 
will be masked. This reasoning not only applies to 
flutings but to lines also. 

The Rcu^ia/ion E/tAieig^s* 

We will first deal with the radiation ffdUnge— those of 
carbon. The brightest less refrangible edge of the chief 
one is at wave-length 517, where it shotjSy outs off the 
tail end of the absorption of the magnesium fluting the 
darkest edge of which begins at 5 so, as the carbon 
from the interspace pales the absorption. The aonaa 












32 


NATURE 


\my Id. iiin 


thing happens at the more refrangible edge of the other 
absorp^on of Mg at 500, as Dundr^s figures show. 

Lc«s refrftngtbJc edge. More refrangible ehatp edge« 

! 5oa 496 in a HercuUs. 

50 f 496 in j; Persci. 

503 496 in R Leonis Min. 

505 496 in fi Pegasi. 

If this explanation of the rigidity of the less refrangible 
edge may be accepted, it is suggested that the rigidity of 
the end of band 8 at 496, near the nebula line 495, seems 
to indicate that we may have that line as the bright, less 
refrangible, boundary of another radiation fluting. 

The duting at 5 17 is the chief radiation fluting of carbon. 
The next more refrangible one, which would be most easily 
seen, as the continuous spectrum would be less bright in 
the blue, has \u less refrangible and brightest edge at 474. 

This in all probability has been seen by Duner, though, 
as before stated, there is here a discrepancy between his 
maps and his text. It lies between his dark bands 9 and 
10, the measurements of which are as follow : — 

Lefts refranjnble edge. Mon refrangible edge. 

Band 9 4 S 3 ... 476 in a OrionU. 

484 477 m $ Pegasi. 

Band 10 472 460 in a Ononis. 

474 ... .. 462 in a HercuUs. 

It is not necessaty for me to point out the extreme and 
special difficulty of observations and determinations of 
wave-len^hs in this part of the spectrum. Taking this 
ihto consideration, and bearing in mind that my observa^ 
Hons of the chemical elements have shown me no other 
bands or flutings in this region, 1 feel justified in looking 
upon the narrow bright space between bands 9 and 10 as 
an indication of another carbon fluting — the one we 
should expect to find associated with the one at 517, with 
its bright edge at 473 instead of 476, where Dundr*s 
measurements place it. There is a bright fluting in this 
position in Nova Orionis. 

1 shall refer to both these points later on. 

The third fluting, the carbon one with its brightest edge 
at 564, is certainly also present ,* though here the proof 
depends upon its masking effect, and upon the manner 
in which this effect ceases when the other flutings narrew 
and become faint. 

In addition to these three flutings Of carbon, which we 
shall distinguish in what follows as carbon A, there is 
sometimes a fourth more refrangible one beginning at 
wave-length 461, which is due to some other molecular 
form of carbon. It extends from wave-length 461 to 451, 
and, as we shall presently see, it is 3his which gives rise 
to the apparent absoimtion band No. 10 in the blue; 
this we snail distinguish as carbon B, 

It is very probable also that in some cases there is, in 
addition to carbon A and carbon B, the hydrocarbon 
fluting which begins at wave-length 431, the evidence of 
this Ming Dundr's apparent absorption band 11. It may 
be remarked here, that although most of the luminosity 
of this fluting is on the more refrangible side of 431, 
there is also a considerable amount on the less refrangible 
side. 

With regard to bands 9, lo, and n, then, there is little 
doubt that they are merely dark spaces between the 
bright blue flutings of carbon, and that whether they are 
seen or not depends upon the relative brightnesses of the 
carboiv flutings and the continuous spectrum from the 
incandescent meteorites. When the continuous spectrum 
Is fliint, it will not extend fkr into the blue, and the re- 
ai^Ag space between the bright carbon A fluting at 
474 and the end of the continuous spectrum is the ongin 
of the ^^iparent absorption band 9. When con- 
tinuous s^tnipi gets very bright, band 9 and 

does, disappear- On remrence to the maps Of rite 
spectra of the ^^stars ".with bright lines, it wiN be seen 
that the broad apparent absorption band in the blue 


agrees exactly in position with band^ and It undoubtedly 
has the same origin in boih cases. Iws band may there- 
fore be regard^ as the connecting link between the 
bodies belonging to Group 1 . and those belonging to the 
group under consideration. 

Band 10 is the dark space between the bright carbon 
A fluting at 474 and the carbon B at 461, and can oiily 
exist as long as the carbon flutings are brighter than the 
continuous spectrum. Dun^r’s mean values for the band 
are 461-473, and on comparing these with the wave- 
lengths of the carbon flutings (see Fig. 10, which will be 
given in the next instalment) it will be seen that the 
coincidence is almost perfect. 

There is a little uncertainty about band 11, which 
Dundr was only able to measure in one star, but it very 
probably has its origin in the dark space between the 
oright carbon B fluting and the hydrocarbon fluting at 
431 fsee Fig. 10). This would give a band somewhat 
broader and more refrangible than that shown in Dundr’s 
map ; but, as already pointed out, great accuracy in this 
part of the spectrum cannot be expected. 

C/tem$ca/ Sul>sfaffccs indicated by f/te Absorption Flutings 
and Bands, 

1 may state that 1 have now obtained evidence to show 
that the origin of the following absorption flutings is 
probably as under; — 

WAve-i*ngth of 
Wave-length of less refrangible 

No. of Fluting. Origin. dnrkeftt most re- tod, given by Dundr 

frangible edge. Aft measurad In 
q Orionis. 


2 

Fe ... 

... 616 

628 

3 

Mn (2) 

. . . !!5 

595 

4 

Mn (i)> 

564 

5 

Pb(i)^ 

-- 544 

550 

6 

Ba» ... 

- 5*4 

526 

7 

Mg 

... 5*1 

517 

8 

Mg ... 

... 500 

495 


These flutings are characteristic of the whole class, 
and Dundr’s catalogue consists chiefly of a statement of 
their presence or absence, or their varying intensities, in 
the different stars. 

He gives other bands and wide lines which he has 
measured specially in a Orionis. 1 have* also discovered 
the origin of the majority of these. They are as 
follows 

WAve-leagth. 

1. Fluting of Cr(i) 581 

H. ? S 70 -S 77 

HI. Fluting of Pb (2) 567 

IV. ? 543 

V. Line of Mn seen in bunacn ... 538-540 

VI. Band of Ba 534 "$^ 

f i. Fluting of Cr (2) 559^ 

2. „ M ( 3 )-. 536 

J 3. Line of Cr seen in bunsen 530 

Lines 4. Baband 514® 

5. 1 f 

6. > 1st, and, and 3rd Ba flutings ... -I 634 

l 7 ‘) 

Band i, which extends from wave-length 649-5 fo 663*8, 
has not yet been allocated. 

Tesh at our Disposal, 

In order to prove that my explanation of the nature of 
these celestial bodies is sufficient, a discussion of the 
individual observations of them, seeing that diflerences in 

* leen la q SeonittaiidaOHoaU* Ondas 

Oaowrarm th« mspJa ihaiwMpdper, thii laclae. 

3 U the «Bd(md bdiktut Wid, wavA-teogth fas. Tht Swt, nwire- 

Sutine ot Or at 53S if teokl net vxplalii tin ass«nM< mmse ef me 

^ In early etagu^ ^and is wssM Sy the 
the cadten in ike Inwocnea** 


NATURE 


33 


lo , 1888] 


ipftctra are knOM to exist, should show that all the 
4ii&reQce6 can be accounted for in the main by differ* 
ences in the amount of interspace ; that is to say, by a 
4i%tence between the relative areas of space and 
meteorite in a section of the swarm at right angles to the 
line of sight. I say in the main, because subsequent in* 
quiry may indicate that we should expect to find minor 
differences brought about by the beginnings of condensa* 
tion in large as opposed to small swarms, and also by the 
actual or apparent magnitudes of the swarms varying 
their brilliancy, thus enabling a more minute study to be 
made of the same stage of heat in one swarm than in 
another. 

How minor differences may arise will be at once seen 
when we consider the conditions of observation. 

The apparent point of light generally seen is on my 
view produced not by a mass of vapour of more or less 
regular outline and structure, but by a swarm of meteorites 
perhaps with more than one point of condensation. 

An equal amount of light received from the body may be 
produced by any stage, or number of nuclei, of condensa- 
tion ; and with any ‘differences of area between the more 
luminous centre and the outliers of the swarm. 

Alt these conditions producing light of very different 
qualities are integrated in the image on the slit of the 
spectroscope. 

I have said generally seen/' because it has been long 
known that many of the objects I am now discussing are 
variable, as well as red, and that at the minimum they 
are not always seen as sharp points of light ^ but have 
been described as hazy. 

The severe nature of the tests at our disposal will be 
recognized when we inquire what must follow from the 
variation of the spacing. Thus, as the spacing is 
reduced— 

I. The temperature must increase. 

a. Vapours produced at the lowest temperatures 
will be the first to appear. 

0 , The spectrum of each substance must vary with 
the quantity of vapour produced as the 
temperature increases, and the new absorp- 
tions produced must be the same and must 
fallow in the same order as those observed in 
laboratory experiments. 

II . The carbon spectrum must first get more intense 
and then diminish afterwards as the spaces, now smaller, 
arc occupied by vapours of other substances. 

o, The longest spectrum will be that produced by 
mean spacing. 

The masking of the dark bands by the bright 
ones must va^, and must be reduced as the 
mean spacing is reduced. 

HI. The continuous spectrum of the meteorites must 
increase. 

a. There will be a gradually-increasing dimming 
of the absorption-bands from this cause. 
fi. This dimm'utf will be entirely independent of 
the width of the band. 

IV. The spectrum must gradually get richer in absorp- 
tion-bands. 

«. Those DTbduced at the lowest temperatures will 
be rdattvely widest first 
Tltose produ^ at the highest temperatures will 
be relatively widest last 
y. They must ait finally thin. 

These necessary eohdflionii ^lem havii^ to be fulfilled, 
now proceed to discuss M« Duner's individual observa- 

TyiS?ii‘^ tVft In quowi by AieneD, 


tions. I shall show subsequently that there are, in all 
probability, other bodies besides those he has observed 
which really belong to this group. 

II. Discussion ok Dun^r^s Individual Cbservations. 

Consideration of ike Extreme Conditions of Spacing. 

Cceteris paribus^ when the interspaces are largest wc 
should have a preponderance of the radiation of carbon, 
so far as quantity goes. The bands will be wide and 
pale, the complete radiation will not yet be developed ; 
a minifiium of metallic absorption phenomena— that is, 
only the fiutings of magnesium (8 and 7), the first fluting 
of manganese (3), and the first fiuting of iron (2) ; but the 
great width of the bright band at 517 will mask band 8. 

When the interspaces are least, the radiation of 
carbon should give place to the absorption phenomena 
due to the presence of those metallic vapours produced 
at the highest temperature at w>hich a swarm can exist 
as such ; the bright fiutings of carbon should be dimin- 
ished. and the true absorption fiutings ofMg, Fe, Mn, Pb, 
and tne band of Ba, should be enhanced in intensity. 

There will be an inversion between the radiation and 
absorption. 

The highest intensity of the absorption phenomena will 
be indicated by the strengthening of the bands 2, 3, 4, 5. 
and 6 ; and the appearance of the other fiutings and 
bands specially recorded in a Orionis, The bands 7 and 
8 will disappear as they are special to a low temperature, 
and will give way to the absorption of manganese, iron, 

&c. 

This inversion, to deal with it in its broadest aspect 
should give us at the beginning 7 strong, and 2, 3 weak, 
and at the end 7 and 8 weak, and 2, 3 strong. 

The first stage, representing almost a cometic condition 
of the swarm before condensation has begun, has been 
observed in Nos. 3,^ 23, 24, 25, 36, 68, 72, 81, n8, 247, 
249. There is a very large number of similar instances 
to be found in the observations. The above are only 
given as examples. 

The last stage, before all the bands fade away entirely, 
has been observed in Nos. i, 2, 26, 32, 33, 38,40, 61, 64, 
69* 7 ** 75 * 77 , 82, 96, loi, 1 16. As before, these arc only 
given as instances. 

It is natural that these extreme points along the line of 
evolution represented in the b^ies under consider- 
ation should form, as 1 think they do, the two most 
contrasted distinctions recorded by Dundr — that is, re- 
corded in the greatest number of cases. 

Origin of the Discontinuous Spectrum. 

1 have already shown that when the meteorites are 
wide apart, though not at their widest, and tliere is no 
very marked condensation, the spectrum will extend 
farther into the blue, and therefore the fiutings in the blue 
will be quite bright ; in fact, under this condition the chief 
light in this part of the SMctrum, almost indeed the only 
light, will come from the bright carbon. Under this same 
condition the temperature of the meteorites will not be very 
high, there will therefore be little continuous sx>ectrum to 
be absorbed in the red and yellow. Hence we shall have 
discontinuity from one end of the spectrum to the other. 
This has also been recorded, and in fact it is the condi- 
tion which gives us almost the most beautiful examples of 
the class (196, a Herculis, 141, 172, 229). 

The defect of continuous ligbt in the blue in this class, 
after condensation has commenced and the carbon fiutings 
are beginning to disappear, arises from defect of radiation 
Of the meteorites, and hence in all fttlly-developed swarms 
the spectnim is not seen far into the blue for the reason 
that the round each meteorite are at a tempera- 

* la* fsfafvawi Me 16 tlw QwnbMt of the etent la I>uASr^t cetalegue. 




NATURE IMay i6, i8S8 


tiire 5uch that fluting absorption mainly takes places 
although of course there must be some continuous ab- 
sorption in the blue. This is perhaps the most highly- 
developed normal spectrum-giving condition ; 44, 45, 55, 
60, 65, 86, 9a, 37B are examples. 

* , 

T/ic Paling of the Fiutings. 

Subsequently, the spectra are in all cases far from being 
discontinuous, and the flutings, instead of being black, 
are pale. Thus, while the bands are dark in the stars we 
have named, they are not so dark in a Ononis,. Here, 
in short, we have a great distinction between this star 
and « Herculis, o Ceti, R Lyrae, and p Persei. 

Obviously this arises from the fact that the average 
distances between the meteorites have been reduced ; 
their temperature being thereby increased as more col- 
lisions are pc^ssible, the vapours are nearly as brilliant- 
as the meteorites, and raefiation from the interspaces 
cloaks the evidences of absorption. Nor is this all : 
as the meteorites are nearer together, the area producing 
the bright flutings of the carbon is relatively reduced, and 
the bands 10 and 9 will fade for lack of contrast, while 8 
and 7 will fade owing to the increased temperature of the 
system generally carrying the magnesium absorption into 
the line stage ; d is now predominant (see 102, 157, 163, 
H4, 125, 135). 

Under these conditions the outer absorbing metallic 
atmosphere round each meteorite will in all probability 
.consist of Mn and Fe vapours, and in this position the 
masking effect will least apply to them. This is so 
(114, 116); they remain dark, while the others are pale. 

Here we have the indication of one of the penultimate 
stages already referred to. 

Pkenanuna of Condensation. 

Dealing specially with the question of condensation, -- 
I have already referred to possibly the first condition of 
all, recorded by Dundr in the observations now discussed 
— I may say that the first real and obvious approach to it 
perhaps is observed when alt, or nearly ail, except 9 and 
10 of the flutings are wide and dark. The reasons will be 
obvious from what has been previously stated. Still 
more condensation will give all, or nearly all, the bands 
wide and pale, while the final stage of condensation of 
the swarm will be reached when all the bands fade and 
give place to lines. We have then reached Class 11 . (toy, 
139, 264) ; 2 and 3 should be and are perhaps the 

last to go (203), 

T/te Bands 9 and 10. 

WKh regird specially to the bands 9 and 10, which 
include between them a bright space which I contend is the 
second fluting of carbon, 1 may add that if this view is 
sound, the absence of to should mean a broad carbon 
band, and this is the condition of non-condensation, 
though not the initial condition. The red flutings should 
therefore be well marked— whether broad or not does not 
matter ; but they should be dark and not ^a/e. Similarly 
the absence of band 9 means non-condensation. 

Therefore 9 and 10 should vary together, and as a 
matter of fact we find that their complete absence from 
the spectrum, while the metallic absorption 15 srrong, is a 
very common condition (i, 2, 6, 16, 26, 32, 39, 40, 46, 
54, 60). 

That this explanation is probably the true one is shown 
by further consideration of what should happen to the 
red flutings when 9 and 10 are present. As the strong 
red flutings indicate condensation, according to my view 
this condensation (see ante) should pale the other 
flutings. This happens (3, 8, 13, 28, 35, 45, 30 ; and last, 
not least, among the examples, 1 give 50, a Orionis). 


HI. Results OF THE Dt$cu 3 SioN. 

TAe Line of Evolution, 

1 have gone over all the individual obiervattons 
recorded by Dundr, and, dealing with them all to the 
best of my ability m the light afforded by thd alloea- 
tion of the bands to the various chemical substances, 
the history of the swarms he has observed seems to be 
as follows : — 

(1) The swarm has arrived at the stage at which, owing 
to die gradual nearing of the meteorites, the hydrogen 
lines, which appeared at first in consequence of the great 
tenuity of the gases in the interspaces, give way to carbon. 
At first the fluting at 473 appears (as in many bright-line 
stars), and afterwards the one at 517. This is very 
nearly, but, as 1 shall show subsequently, not quite, the real 
beginning of Class lll.rt, and the radiation is now accom- 

anied by the fluting absorption of Mg, Fe, and Mn — 
ands 7, 2, 3. This is the absorption produced at the 
temperature" of the oxy-coal gas flame, while the Stars 
above referred to give us the bright line of Mn seen at 
the temperature of thebunsen. 

(2) The bright band of carbon at 517 narrows and un- 
veils the Mg absorption at band 8. We have 8 now as 
well as 7 (both representing Mg), added to the bands 2 
and 3, representing Fe and Mn, and these latter now 
intensify. 

(3) The spacing gets smaller ; the carbon, though re- 
duced in relative quantity, gets more intense. The second 
band at 473 in the blue gets brighter as well as 
the one at 517. We have now bands 9 and 10 
added. This reduced spacing increases the number of 
collisions, so that Pb and Ha are added to Mg, Fe, and 
Mn. We have the bands 2, 3, 4, 5, f>, 7, 8, 9, and 10. 
This is the condition which gives, so to speak, the normal 
spcctium 

(4) This increased action will give us a bright atmo- 
sphere round each meteorite, only the light of the 
meteorite in the line of sight will be absorbed : we shall 
now have much continuous spectrum from the int^spaces 
as well as the vapour of carbon. The absorption flutings 
win pali\ and the Mg flutings will disappear on account 
of the higher temperature, while new ones will make their 
appearance. 

(5) Greater nearness still wifi be followed bv the 
further dimming of the bright carbon flutings including 
the one at 517. The blue cud of the spectrum will 
shorten as the bands fade, narrow, and increase in 
number. If the star be bright, it will now put on the 
appearance of a Orionis ; if dim, only the flutings of 
Fe nd Mn(i), bands 2 and 3, will remain prominent, 

(6) All the flutings and bands gradually thin, fade, and 
disappear. A star of the third group is the result. 

in the latter higher- temperature stages we must 
expect hydrogen to be present, but it need not necessarily 
be visible, as the brignt lines from the interspaces tn^y 
cancel or mask the absorption in the line of sight of the 
light of the meteorites ; but in case of any violent action, 
such as that produced by another swarm moving with 
great velocity, we must expect to see them bright, and 
they are shown bright in a magnificent photograph of 
o Ceti, taken for the Draper Memorial, which 1 owe to 
the kindness of Prof. Pickering. 1 shall return to 
question. 

Stages antecedent to those recorded by Dufidr, 

So far I have referred to the swanjiis observed by 
Dundr. The result of the discussion has been to show 
that all the phenomena are included in the hypothesis 
that the final stages we have considered are anteoedent 
to the formation of surs of Group Ut, bodies which give 
an almost exclusively line absorption, though these bodies 
are probably not yet Stars, if we use the tern etat to 



May lo. 1888] 


NATURE 


55 


oxpre«s complete volatilization, similar to that observed in 
the case of oar sun. 

The question then arises, Are all the mixed fluting 
stages really included among the objects already con- 
sidered } 

It will be remembered that in my former communica- 
tion 1 adduced evidence to the effect that the mixed 
fluting stage was preceded by others in which the swarms 
were still more dispersed, and at a lower temperature. 
The first condition gives us bright hydro^’cn ; the last 
little continuous spectrum to be absorbed, so that the 
spectrum is one with more bright lines than indications of 
ausorption ; and, in fact, the chief difference between the 
spectra of these swanns and of those still sparser ones 
which we call nebulae lies in the fact that there are a few 
more bright metallic lines or remnants of flutings ; those 
of magnesium, in the one case, being replaced by others 
of manganese and iron. 

If my view be correct— if there are stages preceding 
those recorded by Dundr in which wc get both dark and 
bright flutings — it is among bodies with spectra very 
similar to these that they should be found. 

The first stage exhibited in the objects observed by 
Dundr is marked by flutings 7, 3, and 2 (omitting the less 
refrangible one not yet allocated), representing the flutings 
Mg, Mn, and Fe visible at the lowest temperatures. 

The stars which 1 look upon as representing a prior 
stage should have recorded in their spectra the flutings 
7 and 3 (without 2), representing Mg and Mn. 

(To continued) 


THREE DAYS ON THE SUMMIT OF 
MONT BLANC 

A lpine men are already beginning to think of the 
work of the coming season. We commend to their 
attention the following notes relating to the experiences 
of M. Richard, who spent three days during the past 
summer on the summit of Mont Blanc, with a view to 
making a series of continuous meteorological and other 
olsservations. There arc many Alpine men who might, 
if they pleased, follow his example without much incon- 
venience to themselves and with considerable advantage 
to science. The following is a summary of the record 
which M. Richard has contributed to La Nature .* — 

The summit of Mont Blanc is a station of the utmost 
importance to meteorology, since it rises to a great 
height (^10 metres), and overtops the whole Alpine 
group. But it had not hitherto been considered possible 
to remain there for any length of time. De Saussure, 
whose statue is erected at Chamounix, passed some days 
in i7iS,,on the G^ant hill, at the height of 3510 metres. 
In 1844. Martin'f, Bt-avais, and Le Filcur, pitched their 
tent at the Grand-Plateau, 4000 metres high, nnd here 
they passed several days, and made numerous and im- 
portant observations. Hitherto no explorer had remained 
on the summit of the mountain itself for any length of 
toe i tourists making but a very short stay— usually only 
a few minutes From these facts we can sec the import- 
ance of the scientific expedition carried out in the 
sufmner of 1867, with great success, by M. Joseph Vallot, 
onv of the most darirtjg and able members of the Alpine 
Qub* Having made, in 1866, a series of physiological 
ob^rvations, during the ascent of some of the highest 
peuks of the Alps, he determined to establish on Mont 
Bbmc three temporary meteorological observatories, the 
first at Chamounix, lojo metres high, the second on the 
rocks of the Grande-Muleis^ 3059 metres high, and the 
third cm the summit of Mont Blanc. He constructed 
motofolt^ical sheds, and furnished each of them with 
motoring instruments constructed by MM. Richard 
Bwto#— a barometer, a themometer, and a hygrometer, 
Tl^ Jhatruments placed at Chamounix and the Grand 1- 


Mulcts were inspected every week, but those at tire 
summit could not be reached for fifteen days, on 
account of bad weather. To superintend the lower 
stations he procured the assistance of M. Henri 
Vallot, a distinguished engineer, on whose competence 
and carefulness be could rely. At Chamounix, M. 
Joseph Vai lot’s plan was considered impracticable. 
He executed it, liOAve^’cr, in company with M. F. M. 
Richard, one of the makers of the registers. No less 
than tw'eniy-four guides were necessary, on account of 



Fig. 1, 


the great weight of the baggage (250 kilogrammes). At 
midday, July 27, 1887, they began the ascent to the 
Grands-Muiets. On account of the late start, the party, 
overtaken by night, arrived at the Grands* Mulets at 10 
o’clock, Getting to bed at 1 1 o’clock, the travellers set 
out again the next morning at 3, after a light meal. 

M. Richard then proceeds to tell the story of the jour- 
ney and of the time spent on the top of Mont Blanc. 
The ascent from the Grands* Mulcts is difiicuit, but not 
very dangerous when the snow is good. Crevasses have 



36 


NATURE 




to be crossed by ladders, and very steep banks of snow 
must be struggled through. They arrived at the Grand- 
Plateau at 7 o'clock, anoL stopped there for refreshment 
and repose. At the Tournette rock, one of the bearers 
was forced to stop from fatigue, and to give his load 
to one of the more robust, and about 3 aclock in the 
afternoon they arrived at the summit. All the ^ides 
but two deposited their burdens on the snow, and imme- 
diately took their d^arture. When ascending the last 
hill, MM. Vallot and Ki-.:hard were attacked by mountain- 
sickness, and for some hours did not recover. M. Richard 
compares the shape of the mountain-top to a pear cut in 
two and resting on a plate, the stalk of the fruit well 
reprd^nting the narrow ridge by which one ascends. 
Between this ridge and the dome, which ineasures scarcely 
more than 20 metres in diameter, is a small indentation, 
in which they fixed their tent. Having driven the stakes 
into the snow, they secured the tent by a long rope. None 
of them had at that time the strength or courage to 


arrange the baggage. They were conmUed to take 
shelter from the wind, and having refreshed t^enisely^d 
with a little soup, made with melted snow and pi;eiierv^ 
bouillon, they stretched themselves on the ground, with 
their heads on the boxes of instruments and the cookii^ 
utensils. 

Overcome by his efforts in erecting the tent, M. Richard 
fell asleep ; but during part of the night M. VaUbt made 
gallant efforts to hx his instruments, but he was at length 
compelled by the snow to return* After some hburs of 
sleep, the cold woke M. Richard, and, fearing the effectsof 
the carbonic acid gas engendered by the breathing of four 
persons, with the consent of the others he allowed some 
air to enter, and, lighting a lantern, placed it on 
ground, believing it would be extinguished before theib 
would be any danger of suffocation. However, the wind 
which raged outside kept the tent well ventilated, and 
froze them to the marrow. About 4 o’clock they all went 
out of the tent and watched the sun rise— a sight which, 



Fig. 9. 


M. Richard says, was worth all the pains and fatigues 
they had endured. The thermometer, when placed on 
the snow, stood at 19*’ C below zero. The sun rose, and it 
was a most marvellous sight. As the day-star shone out, 
rosy clouds enveloped the snow-clad tops of the surround- 
ing mountains ; little by little, the shadows in which the 
rocky peaks emerging from the snow were clothed dis- 
appeared, leaving the peaks covered with the richest 
tints. The clouds below sometimes appeared like a rough 
sea, with its waves dashing against a rocky shore, and 
sometimes like a thick veil thrown over valleys by the 
night. Then these clouds dissolved Into air under the 
innuence of the sun's rays, seeming to disappear as if by 
magic, leaving no other trace of their existence than a 
light mist clinging to the sides of the mountains. 

They nowb^n to put their instruments into poaitiom 
The large actinometer, made by M. VioUe, was placed bn 
a small table ; and the others-^e actinometers of Arago 


and M. Violle, the thermometers, and the Fontin barometer 
—being fixed (Fig. 2), M. Vallot at once commenced his 
observations. Then they made their tent more comfort- 
able with a floor of double-tarred cloth, and, above this, a 
mattress, hard, no doubt, but to them a vety welcome 
addition. The tent was 4 metres square, and i '50 metre 
high. The health of the party was not very good ; M. 
Richard and one of the guides suffered from severe hei^- 
aches, with feverish symptoms. The least effort, even 
ordinary movement, caused such fatigue that they were 
compelled to lie down durii^ a great part of the day. 
They had a visitor the first day, in the p^son of Baroh 
Munch, coming ftom Courmnyeur, in Italy, into Chamou^ 
nix, who was athated to find sojourners on the 
Mont Blanc. The second night was not so trying eg tii^ 
first ; they had pitlows. which were softer than m 
and pans> and they thus had a most i^shsiig aim. 
The tent was very ^cturesqn& M. Vallot had brought 






NATURE 


37 


^ ib, i88«] 


ior tbf party j^ita-percha snow-boots, which they put on 
ovor fu-lined boots. Thanks to this precaution their 
fabt wsre kept free from frost-bite. Their leather shoes 
otno use ; thev had been dried in the sun and hung 
dii a Btrng stretchea aloft across the tent. On this string at 
night were also hutig the glasses which are always ncces- 
tnotict theeyes from ophthalmia in those regions. 

Vallot had also brought coverings for the ears and 
Bedi^ and linen masks to preserve the skin of the face. 
Equipped in this manner the aspect of the travellers was 
conousand even terrifying (Ftg. 4). The tent with the 
various articles hung up, with the boxes of provisions, 
the blazing stove, and the boiling soup, had a most pictur- 
etoM appearance (Fig. 3). 

T^e sec^d day was spent in making observations. 
The provisions were almost neglected ; they never had 
an appetite during their stay. The different preserved 
meats, though very tempting, did not entice their 
benumbed stomachs, and twice each day they took 


nothing but a little preserved bouillon, in which a small 
piece of cheese had been broken. Their drink was warm 
coffee ; on the first day tea had made them ill, and they 
never could take it again during their three days' sojourn : 
the guides, however, drank a little of it. 

On July 30, the observations began at sunrise. Towards 
10 o'clock the little colony received a second visitor, an 
Englishman, who, on bis departure, wished to take away 
with him some letters dated from the top of Mont Blanc. 
A yellow-beaked crow settled herself time after time near 
the observers. The guides declared that her presence 
was a sign of good weather ; but it did not prove so. 
Towards* 2 o'clock enormous clouds began to forn> on 
the side of Mont Pelvoux ; then their colour changed ; 
the gloom turned to darkness ; and while the weather 
remained fine over Chamounix, the valley of Aosta and 
the Savoy Alps were soon hidden by a terrible thunder- 
storm. A furious wind drove the observers into the tent. 
It was 4 o’clock, and they had almost made up their 



Fio. 4 . 3- 


minds to descend, but as there was not time to put all 
their instruments in safety, they decided to remain and 
weather the storm. They held the ropes of the tent, and 
piled snow all around it to keep it steady. Towards 9 
o'clock, M. Vallot havinf gone out, found himself sur- 
rounded by electrical clouds, which played around his 
ckmea ana his head, but he escaped any actual shock. 
Dudn; the hours that they thus anxiously passed in ihc 
lent they were compelled to close the last opening to pre- 
vent the snow from geUing in. But the time was not 
l^bent u^ithout profit. M. Vallot made some physiological 
mkgrams^ The beatings of the pulse, of the carotid, dec., 
Hrere to have so much the more interest because they 
whuld differ firom those which would be obtained when 
mt ^ obtHt stay is made, tho travellers now having been 
twofdays kt the summit. These observations made them 
st tMt twabfes- Art huit, about 2 o’clock in the 
hing, the teihpest passed away, and, althou^^ the 


wind continued to blow violently, they got a refreshing 
sleep. 

They decided on the following day, July 31, to continue 
their observations till 9 o'clock, then to bring every- 
thing into the tent, and to redescend to Chamounix. The 
guide Payet was suffering from a violent head- ache, with 
a high fever, and was compelled to keep his bed, but 
about II o'clock he bravely offered to descend at once, 
and even desired to carry his knapsack. M. Vallot had 
not given orders for help to be sent to take their 
baggage away j they therefore left the greater portion be- 
hind them in the tent j still there were many things that 
could not be left. These were divided into bundles, and, 
with a last glance at the ma^ificent view, they began 
the descent The guide Michd had warned them mat 
this would be very difficult, since last night's storm 
would have obliterated all traces of the usual paths. And 
so it was found to be. After the Grand-Plateau, the 


38 


NATURE 


jouraey was most dangerous. At this height it bad 
rained, and the snow had become so soft that they often 
sank to the waist in it. in the rapid slopes, where they 
were forced to descend zigzag, the snow slipped from 
under their feet, but, after inucli care and fatigue, they 
anrived at the Grands-Mulels. A good meal, a denser 
air, and a AiiWer temperature, soon restored them to their 
usual health. Towards 7 o’clock they came to Cha- 
mounbe, where they received an enthusiastic welcome. 

It had thus been proved that it was quite possible to 
live and make observations at those high altitudes. The 
greatest danger is in the violent storms that burst almost 
without notice, and which may become terribly tempests 
against which any temporary observatory would not 
stand. M. Richard says that the results of the observa- 
tions will be published when the papers have been 
inspected and classiRcd. 


THE PHOTOGRAPHIC CHART OF THE 
HE A HENS. 

VVT R reprint from the Odscf^^atory for May the 
^ ^ following article by the editors : — 

The “ Bureau du Comit 6 international permanent pour 
Texdcution photographique de la Carte du Ciel ” has 
published, amongst other more technical papers relating 
to this subject, one by Dr. Gill, of a very remarkable 
character, to which we wish to draw attention. Most of 
those who attended the Conference understood that the 
work in contemplation was to make a photographic chart 
• of the heavens, to take pictures of the stars oy photo- 
graphy, showing, with the greatest care, the appearance 
of tnc heavens as they arc at the present time, in order 
that at a future turn these pictures might be used, by 
comparison with other pictures taken under similar con- 
ditions or directfy with the sky, to determine the many 
questions tha* couki be dtealt with in this way— to enable, 
in fact, the astronomer of the future to have the sky of 
his past and bis fnesent to deal with. That this was so 
will be seen from a consideration of the three following 
resolutiotts which were agreed to unanimously by the 

“l. The progress made in astronomical photography 
demands that the astronomers of the present day should 
unite in tmdcrtakmg a description of the heavens by 
photographic means. 

“ a* Th» work sbovild be carried out at selected stations, 
and with instruments which should be identical in thetr 
essential parts. 

The principal objects are («) to prepare a general 
photographic chart of the heavens for the present epoch, 
and to obtain data .which will enable us to ^termine with 
the greatest possible accuraOy the positions and the bright 
ness of aU the stars down to a given magnitude (the 
magnitude being understood in a photographic sense to 
be defined) ; O; to provide for the I>ebt means of utilizing 
both at the present day and in the future the results of the 
data obtained by photographic means/' 

These were the fundamental resolutions ; others, 
recommended by the two sections into which the Con- 
ference divided, were adopted as explanatory of the first. I 
Amongst these was one In which it was decided to take I 
I* a second series of plates down to the 1 tch magnitude, 
in order to insure greater prectekm in the micrometric 
measurement of the rcference*stai*s, and render possible 
the construction of a catalogue.^' We have stated these 1 
fundamental resolutions at length as bearing on the 
ouestion of a catalogue of stars, for the paper by Dr. I 
Gill contains the astounding proposition of cataloguing 
no less than 2,000,000 stars ; that is to say, Dr. Gin 
gravely and seriously proposes the establishment of a 
Cratra! Bureau, consisting of chief, assistants^ secret- 
aries, and a staff of measurers and computers, to lake 
the photographs and measure them, and make a catalogue, 



the work to go on for twenty-five years at a cost Of 
250,000 francs, or per annnni, or hr fifir yeUM 

at 1 50,000 francs. 

It is quite true that tlria is only a propositbh tkkt 
Dr. Gill makes ; but if such a proposition is possible In 
face of these direct resolutions of the Conference, H is 
quite time tltat everyone interested in the success of the 
work the Conference met to consider (that is, the photo^ 
graphic chart of the heavens) should bestir himself and 
see that the proposed work is not endangered by such 
astounding proposals. 

To tack on to a work such as that sanctioned by the 
Conference — a work eminently practical, that has the 
support of all astronomers, and that has already been 
taken up by many of the (iovernmenis who were expected 
to join— a gigantic work such as Dr. Gill proposes, a work 
beside which that juoposed by the Conference sinks into 
insignificance, would neither be fair to the Conference 
nor just to those (iovernments who have joined in the 
undertaking. The feature of the international scheme 
that makes it possible to obtain the assent of Government 
is that the work is proved to be practicable by experiment, 
and that it can be done at a moderate cost in something 
like five years, while ilie results are good for as long as the 
plates will last. To increase this work by extending it to, 
at the lowest computation of time, twenty-five and possibly 
fifty years, and to add enormously to the cost, would be to 
jeojwrdize the whole scheme. 

Dr. Gill .states that the actual state of astronomical 
science demands a catalogue of stars to the nth magni- 
tude. He thus raises the question on its merits ; and we 
would here state that it is more than possible that not 
only is there no need of such a catalogue, but tliat the use 
of such catalogues as he proposes has for ever ceased. 
The minds of some astronomers move in grooves, and it 
will, no doubt, never be conceded by them that catalogues 
can be superseded ; they will die as they have lived, in 
the strong belief that the only way to use the stars is to 
catalogue them. 

Till recently the knowledge we had of the stars was 
only to be gained from a written description of their 
brightness and position with regard to each other ; hence 
the catalogue was an absolute necessity if we needed to 
know the number or brightness Certain stars in any 
part of the sky at any previous thme ; and we could only 
find this out if we had a catalogue of (hat time Our 
catalogues of stars arc aU we have to show what has been 
observed up to the present time ; bet when we have a 
photographic chart ot the heaven^ we have hr our record 
not a catalogue, but a representation. That eatalog:ue i of 
staxs such as are used for fondaniental places will be 
always goes without saying; the pbobigraphkplates 
tliemseJves, and the four or five stars on each required as 
the fiducial points atwl for identification, will of course be 
catalogued ; but, beyond this, to c ualogue the stars on 
each plate, to measure them for the purpose only of getting 
their places written down, would be the most utter waste 
of time, labour, and money that it could enter the miiid 
of man to conceive. 

The profp^ition brought forward by Dr. Gill should be 
settled decisively so far as the proposition concerns the 
work proposed by the Conference, There can be no^ 
question that such a thing was never intended ; had suda 
a thing been thought of, we should have had a Conferanci^ 
for discussing the best way of making a Catalogue of 
Stars by pliotography.” 

As this was not done, it can be done now ; and if thW 
is the great need of a catalogue of Stars ter the 
magnitude felt by so many astronomers, as stated by 
pr. Gill, it is a thing of so mu:h greatetr impottawcU at 
far as cost and time are concerned, that it ^outd to 
considered and dealt with entirely a^rt itm the 
work. A nw Congress might discuss H) the onet^kili 
met ip 1S87 IS not in any way committed to such a 


NATURE 


39 


lo, i888] 


T//E FORTH BRIDGE. 

W £ have bean enabled, through the kindness of Mr. 

Baker, to reproduce one of the photographs of 
the Forth Bridge, showing what is known as the 
junction” at the end of bay i, between tie j, strut 2, 
and the bottom member* 

A general account of the F'orth Bridge has been so 


recently placed before the readers of Nature (vol. xxxvi. 
p. 79), in the lecture by Mr. Baker, on May 20, 1887, 
before the Royal Institution^ that it is unnecessary to 
cover the same ground again. The progress made in 
erection since that date is indicated by our engraving, 
showing the successful completion of the lower portion ^ 
the first bay. 

The junction we have illustrated is nothing more nor 



l^s that) the connection of the web of a lattice girder 
with one of its bopma, but here the junction alone weighs 
as much as an ordinary iron railway bridge of loo feet 
span. This mas® of steel work is suspended 80 feet above 
bigh water* and projecu i3o feet beyond the masonry 
piers^ Considerable nwces are sometimes needed to bring 
the Ikbes hUo their correct positkm ; and as in the case of 
the Sriteninia Bridge, which on a hot day moves 3 inches 


horUontally and 2J inches vertically between sunrise and 
sunset, so l)ere considerable movement takes place during 
the day, and by carefiil watching the great tubes can 
sometimes be caught and retained in proper position, 
without the intervention of hydraulic or other power. 

The weight of steel employed in the Junction now 
under consideration is about 90 tons. The attachments to 
the strut ana tie am made by means of strong gusset 


40 


NATURE 


IMay IP, im 


plates, the bottom member itself being strengthened 
internally at the junction by suitable diaphragms 

The importance of this junction will be readily under- 
stood, when it is stated that a load of some 6000 tons— 
the weight of an American liner — will be transmitted 
through it,^ ii) the finished structure, on its way to the 
masonry pier. Some 16,000 rivets are required for the 
junction ; and large as this number may appear, it bears 
but a small ratio to the eight million rivets used in 
the whole structure. The method of construction of the 
junction was that uniformly adopted in dealing with these 
members. The junction was erected on the drill roads 
attached to the workshops at South QueenSferry, all 
holes drilled by specially designed plant ; and, having 
been marked for re-erection, it was taken down and trans- 
ported plate by plate, and finally hoisted into position 
in the finished structure from a steam barge, by a crane 
working from the internal viaduct. 

The tie was built downwards from the top of the 
vertical column ; the timber cage— shown in our Illustra- 
tion —in which the men worked being attached to and 
following it as length by length was added. To design 
and build a structure of steel to bear a load of some 
6000 tons is no mean task in itself, but what shall we 
say of the whole undertaking, when this junction alone 
contains but one five-hundredth of the material required 
for the completed Forth Bridge ? 


FLORA Oh THE ANTARCTIC ISLANDS. 

M r. W. B. HEMSLEY, who elaborated at Kew 
the collections made during the ChalUnger 
expedition illustrative of the floras of oceanic islands, 
has handed to me the following interesting letter from 
Dr. Guppy. The materials and notes accumulated by 
this skilful observer during his travels in the Western 
Pacific threw a good deal of light on the mode in which 
oceanic islands were stocked with plants, and Mr. 
Hemsley was able to make an advantageous use of them 
in discussing the collections made in the same region by 
Prof. Moseley. 

I myself am very much impressed with the probable 
truth of the views expressed by Dr. Guppy. It would 
be very desirable to obtain additional observations which 
would serve to test their accuracy. ‘ It is with this object 
that I have obuined Dr. Guppy's permission to com- 
municate his letter 10 Nature. 

W. T. Thiselton Dver, 
Royal Gardens, Kew, April 28. 

17 Woodlane^ Fahnouth^ ApHl%^ 1888. 

As I am likely to be proceeding soon to the South Seas, I 
have been re-petusing your volume of the Botany of the 
ChalUnger^'^ more especially the remarks concerning the dispersal 
of plants, which I hope to take the opportunity of following up 
in a more systematic way than before. 

I was thinking that if you thought it worth while you might 
direct the attention of masters of ships going round the Horn 
and the Cape of Good Hope to the chance of finding seeds in 
the crops of the oceanic birds that follow the shtM m the 
regions of the westerly winds. 1 am inclined to bdieve that 
important results would be obtained. Judging from my 
experience, about one bird in twenty-five would contain a send in 
its crop. 

1 am still inclined, if you will pardon my sayttip so, to the 
belief that the agency of birds like the Cape pigeofis may 
explain some of the difficulties in the floras of the isiaods ib the 
Southern Ocean. To return to the instance of my eeed, 1 bgve 
since found an account where a Cape pigeon, aro<ind the neek 
of which a ribbon had been tied, follow^ a ifliip on Us way 
home from Australia for no less than 5000 miles (Coppinge/s 
'* Cruise of the Alert*' 1885, p. iS) ; and on consulUng other 
voyages 1 find that the Cape pigeon appears to perform the 
circuit of the globe in the r^ion of the Westerlies, to that my 
seed might readily have been transferred from Tristan d^Acuntui 
to Amsterdam}. 


A remarkable point has occurred to me wHilft reading yottf 
remarks (doubtless you have already thought of it). In a 
botanical sense, and also in a geographical sense, the 
Islands seem to be arranged Tn two parallel xoneo. Tnot^ 
d'Acunha, Amsterdam, and St. Paul's, lying between tb^ parallels 
of 37’ 1040^ S. lot., have similar floras. Further aottth is Ibe 
second zone, between 47” and <5” (riVro), in which the land 
and islands (Fueda, Crozels, Kerguelen, Bdoequarie, fte.) are 
characterized by their common floras. Now, how are these two 
parallel botanical zones to be explained ? It seems to me that 
if you grant that the northern zone may largely derive its 
common characters by the agency of birds following the 
westerly winds, such as I believe to have been the case, you 
are almost forced to the conclusi m that the floras of Fuegla, 
Kerguelen, Macquarie Island, &c., in the southern zone have 
obtained their common characters in the same way. Of course 
the distinefiveness between the floras of the two parallel zones 
would then be explained by the difference in the climatic con- 
ditions arising from difference in latitude. For my own part I 
do not think the hypothesis of a sunken southern tract (or tracts) 
of land to be supported by geological evidence. Is not the 
geological character of the remote oceanic islands strongly 
negative of the idea that they are portions of ancient submerged 
tracts? Can Kerguelen, Amsterdam, &c., be in any aenae 
continental islands as regards their rocks? AAfith reference 
to New Zealand, if geologists are right in regarding it as lying 
along the same volcitiic line that extend •( south warn through the 
Western Pacific from New Guinea, then it is probable tlit the 
vast post-Tertiary upheaval of the island groups (Solomon Islands, 
New Hebrides, &c.) which T have shown to have taken place 
along this line of volcanic activity in the Western Pacific, has 
been represented in New Zealand by elevation rather than de- 
pression, I believe that subsequent investigation will confirm 
my belief that the great island groups of the Western Pacific, with 
New Caledonia and New Zealand, have been always insular. 
This U, 1 think, the great lesson I learned in the Solomon 
Islands. H. B. GUPPY. 


LORD HARTINGTON ON TECHNICAL 
EDUCA TION 

T he Marquis of Hartington wa^ the chief guest at the 
anniversary banquet of the Institution of MechaniciU 
Engineers held on Friday, May 4^ at the. Criterion 
Restaurant. Mr. Edward H. Car butt, President of the 
Institution, occupied the chair. In responding to the 
toast of “ Our Gueit/' proposed by the Chainoan, Lord 
Hartington, after speaking of the part whidi the me- 
chanic^ engineering profession of this country takes in 
the maintenance and the extension of our material and 
industrial supremacy in the world, refefted to the vast 
importance of technical education. He had never pro- 
fessed to be an authority on the subject of technical 
education— he was no authority on that subject [ all be 
could do in the position he held was to endeavour to 
arouse such interest as he could in that subject, to enlist 
in the minds of the ordinary public — the unscientific 
public of whom he formed a part— an interest in this 
question, and to listen to the advice and attend to the 
counsel which, were given to the public by those who were 
authorities on the subject, and to whose advice he held 
it was most important that attention should be paid- He 
bad been greatly struck by the fact that in emy couptiy 
in Europe which competed with us in industrial or Com- 
mercial pursuits greater attention had recently been peld 
to giving a practical direction to the national educetloa 
than had hitherto been considered necessary in EngUad^ 
We had; like other countries— perhaps somewhat in arrear 
of them— established a national and toletaMy complete 
instimetionj but they, earlier than w«, had emtoabid 
the idea of making that national instruction not on^ ’e 
literary instruction, but a technical and commerciid eiti*. 
cation. But he could not help thinking that iii tMt 
resppet they had gained some considmhie 
wer ourselves. He did not think there w^s any wmimi 
for us to take a desponding or a wrtr OJf #0 


. NATURE 


May lo, 1888] 


Sfliiatieih* had great confidence in the energy, the 
8 kH 4 and the inteifi^ence of our people. But he believed 
there i^ere facts which it would be madness on our part 
to ignore* If a new process, a new invention, were dis> 
covered in any other country — if a new process of manu- 
facture were discovered greatly superior to that which was 
in existence among ourselves— we should at once admit 
that it was necessary for us either to improve that 
invention or che to resign ourselves to being defeated 
in the competition for the production of that article. 
But if it were true, as he believed it was, that the system 
of national education in other countries was being devoted 
to purposes which made the manual labour of the working 
population more intelligent, more skilled, and therefore 
more valuable, that was a fact which was Just as important 
and which had consequences of exactly the same character 
as if foreign nations were to discover an invention wdiich 
was not available for our own use. These facts had been 
investigated by a Royal Commission, and by a great num- 
ber of private individuals for their own purposes ; and there 
was no sort of doubt that foreign countries had not only 
attempted to give, but had to a very considerable extent 
succeeded in giving, a more practical turn to the education 
of their people in all branches of industry and commerce 
where science and art could be usefully and successfully 
applied. If it were the fact that we had fallen behind 
in this branch of the instruction of our people^ it appeared 
to him that it would be worse than idle, it would be 
criminal, on our part if we were for a moment to ignore 
the conseauences of those facts, and the consequences 
which might result not only to our temporary commercial 
and manufacturing position in the world, but to the 
future industrial position of England. He was sure there 
were none to whose advice great employers and leaders 
of industry in this country would more cheerfully and 
more willing listen, none who exercised a greater influence 
over the public mind of this country, than those w'hom 
he bad the honour of addressing ; and it was a great 
satisfaction to him to be assured by the words that had 
fallen from their Chairman that they were giving their 
earnest and anxious attention lo the subject of technical 
education. 


NOTES. 

A RoVAr CoMMJSSH)N has been appointed to inquire 
“whether any and what kind of new University or powers is 
or are required for the advancement of higher education in 
London The Commissioners are Lord Sel borne, Chairman ; 
Sir Jfames Hannen, Sir William Thomson, I)r. J. T. Ball, Mr. 
G. C, Brodrick, the Re/. J. E. C. Welldon, and Prof, Stokes, 
r.R.S. Mr, J. L, Go.idan .1 is appointed Secretary to the 
CommUsion, 

Much troubli* was taken to secure the success of the annual 
of the Royal Society held Iasi night. We shall 
give womt occottot of it next week. 

Thx Emperor Ft'cderick has marked the opening of his reign 
by codferHi^ personal honours on some eminent (Jermans. Dr. 
Wemer Siemens, the electric an, is one of those who have been 
tunobledor dignified with the prefix “Von.^’ 

Tux t>oader» Memorial Fund, to which we called attention 
MUkift Utne ago, now amounts to abottt £2000, of which /250 
has. twhi^bed in England* Prof. Djntlirs' seventieth 

birthday faUi on Sunday, the aytSi tnst. ; bul it has been decided 
thM l^,q^ebrAtioh m hU honour shall lake place on tiie follow- 
ing day^ The atibacsiptioalkt, so far as this country is conceraed» 
wiB b«>alai0d on thi 14th lust* 

At genaial meeting of the Royal InstUution, 

dn lir. I^^ndaH was elected Honorary Professor, 

^Mitissor, of NauiWil Philosophy. 


41 


A PRELIMINARY meeting, called hj invitation of the Councils 
of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, to consider ihe desira- 
bility of forming a Museum Association, was held in York on 
May 3. Among the Museums represented at the meeting were 
those of Liverpool, Manchester, York, Sheffield, Notting- 
ham, Bolton, Bradford, Sunderland, and Warrington. It was 
unanimously decided that a Museum Association should be 
formed, and that it should consist of curators or those engaged 
in the active work of Museums, and also of representatives of 
the Committees or Councils of Management of Museums. 'I'he 
Association will consider ( 1 } whether it may not be possible to 
secure a compendious index of the contents of all provincial 
museums and collections ; (2) the most eflectual methods of 
faciliiating the interchange of specimens and books between 
various museums ; (3) the best plans for arranging museums and 
classifying their contents ; (4) the organization of some concerted 
action for the obtaining of such Government publications as are 
interesting or important from a scientific point of view. 

Prof. Arthur Schuster, F.R.S., has been appointed 
to the Langworthy Professorship of Physics and Directorship of 
the Physical Laboratory at the Owens College, in successioji to 
the late Prof. Balfour Stewart. 

'Phe Gaekwar of Baroda is reported to have decided to send 
a numl>er of young men, carefully selected for the purpose, to 
study scientific and technical subjects in England, under ihe 
supervision of Mr. Gajjar, Professor of Biology in the Baroda 
College. 

The Government of Ceylon have sanctioned the opening of . 
a F orest School at Kandy. 

Wk regret to have to record the death of Sir Charles Bright, 
the eminent electrician. He died last Thursday, at the age of 
fifty-six. 

Dr. Sigismond Wr^blewski, Professor of Experimental 
Physics at the Polish University of Cracow, died on April 16 ' 
last, in consequence of injuries received through the explosion 
of some petroleum lamps. Prof. Wroblewski lived for some 
time in London, and was aflerwards a Piofcssor at the Univer- 
sity of Sirasburg. He also worked in the laboratory of Prof. 
Debray in the Ecole Normalc, Paris. He accepted the ap- 
pointment at Cracow in 1S82. His researches on the liquefaction ^ 
of gases are well known. 

The sodium salt of a new sulphur acid, of the composition 
Has been prepared by M. VilUcrs (ffui/. dt Sac. Chim.^ 
1888, 671). It was obtained by the action of sulphur dioxide 
upon a sttoag solution of sodium thiosulphate, and is tolerably 
stable, cryatallizing in welLdeveloped prisms. A quantity of 
crystalline sodium thiosulphate contained in a flask was treated 
wi h an amount of water insufficient for complete solution ; , 
the flask was immersed in iced water, and a current of sulphur 
dioxide pas ed, with constant agitation, until the solution was 
saturated and all or nearly all the thiosulphate had dissolved. 

If any of the latter crystals remained undissolved, a little more 
water was added, and the solution again saturated with the gas, 
repeating this treatment until all had passed into solution. After 
leaving the liquid thus obtained at the ordinary temperature for 
two or three days, it was found to be capable of taking up a 
further considerable volume of sulphur dioxide, the former 
quantity having evidently entered into chemical combination in 
some way or other. It vi as therefore agaiq aaturated, and left 
for another day or two, after which the solution was evaporated 
in vacuo over sulphuric acid. It was then found that a precipitate 
uf sulphur was gradually deposited upon the base of the 
containing dish, while fine white prisms of brilliant lustre were 
fotmed at the surface. On analysis they were found to be • 



NATURE [A/ajf lo. tm 


Government of Brasil han established a Meteorological Service 
there, by decree dated April 4 last. The Olrector is Senhor A* 
riaheiro, who has visited this country on several occasloos# 

At the meeting of the French Meteorological Society, on tbe 
3rd of April, M, Vaussenat presented and analysed a long aeries 
of photographs of clouds taken nt the Observatory of the Pic-do- 
Midi, from 18S0 to 1887, under all conditions of the atmosphere* 
lie drew special attention to the importance of the systematic 
observation of clouds, at that mountain observatory, and stated 
that by the aid of such observations he had been able to 
issue local predictions of weather which hcd acquired great 
accuracy. M. Grad gave portictilara jespecting the present 
meteorological organization in Alsace and Lorraine. In 1S70, 
the Meteorological Commission presided over by M. liira 
established a complete network of stations, but this service was 
interrupted by the war which broke out soon after. At present 
there are twenty stations in the two provinces. One of these, 
viz, Strnsburg, possesses an unbroken scries of observations since 
i8of. It has been decided to establish a service theixs for the 
issue of weather forecasts for the benefit of agriculture. 

Mr. T, Wilson, of the Smithsonian Institution, gives in the 
Afftfrican NaiuraHs/ ttn Interesting account of some recent disco- 
veries made by Mr. Frank Cushing, who has not only been adopted 
by the tribe of ZuRis, but initiated into the order of their priest, 
hood. While at Tempe, in Arizona, in the *;pring of 1887, Mr. 
Cushing heard of a large truncated moun 1 in the desert 6 or 
7 miles to tlie south-eaftt. lie visited it, nnd declared it to be 
of artificial formation. Workmen were brought from Tempe, 
and in a short time they came upon the rums of aO immense 
building. Mr. Cudiing at once arrived at the conclusion that 
this building had been used as an Indian temple. He ol>serve<l 
■many ihing-i which corresponded in a remarkable degree with 
the Zufli religion, and which he was able to recognize in con* 


.anhydrous, ami yielded numbers corresponding to the formula 
NOjSiOg or NaSj04. They dissolve<I in water with formation 
of a neutral solution. On again evaporating this solution under 
the receiver of the air-pump, crystals of a hytlrate, NajS40g-f- 
jIIjO, separated out. From the remarkable similarity in pro- 
perties betv^oen oxygen and sulphur, it is probable that this 
new acid by no means exhausts all the possible combinations, 
for it appears as if one is capable of replacing the other to any 
■extent, forming compounds which may perhaps be considered 
as oxygen substitution derivatives of polysulphides. M, Villiers 
has not yet completed his investigation of the properties and 
constitution of the new acid, further details of whfch will be 
awaited with considerable interest. 

On April 2 a severe shock of earthquake was felt at Kalleli, 
in the LyseQord. It occurred simultaneously with one nt Gjtesdal, 
also on the west coast of Norway. In the former place three dis- 
tinct shocks were felt, causing the windows to rattle, clocks to 
’Stop, &c. A loud subterranean rumbling was heard. On the 
other side of the narrow fjord no shock was felt, but a deep 
rumbling detonation was heard. 

On the morning of April 18 a severe shock of earthquake was 
felt at Vexio, in the south of Sweden. It lasted fully two 
minutes and was followed by subterranean detonations. This is 
the third earthquake observed in this district during the last six 
months. 

. The Calcutta Correspondent of the Times telegraphs that 
India has been visited by a series of what he calls “pheno* 
menal " storms, partaking very much of the character of the 
Dacca tornado. At Moradabad, 150 deaths are reported, 
eaused chiefly by hailstones. Many of the houses were un- 
roofed, trees were uprooted, and masses of frozen hail remained 
lying about long after the cessation of the storm. At Delhi 
(here was an extraordinary hailstorm lasting about two minutes, 
which was virtually a shower of lumps of ice. One of 
the haibtones picked up in the hospital garden weighed 

lb. ; another, secured near the Telegraph Office, was of the 
size of a melon, and turned the scale at 2 lbs. At another 
place the Government House suffered severely, 200 panes of 
glass being broken by hail. In Lower Bengal, at Kayebati, 
2000 huts were destroyed, while twenty persons are reported to 
have l>een kille 1 and 200 severely injured. Chudressur, close to 
Serampore, was almost completely wrecked. The storm lasted 
only three mimitei, its course extending for a mile and a half, 
and its path being 300 yards wide. Its advent was preceded 
by a lomi booming noise. Large boats were lifted out of the 
Tiver, and in one case a small boat was blown up into a tree. 

According to an official report, the substance of which has 
been given by the Calcutta Correspondent of the Times ^ an im- 
mense amount of injury was done by the Dacca tornado. No 
fewer than 118 persons were killed, excluding those drowned, and 
J20O wounded had to be treated. The amount of the damage to 
proj>erty is estimated at Rs.6, 78,428. Three hundred and fifty- 
eight houses were completely destroyed, 12X boats were wrecked, 
and 148 ’brick-built houses were partially, and 9 were com- 
pletely, destroyed. Shortly after th^ Dacca tornado, another 
visited part of the Murebagunje subdivision, and 66 deaths and 
128 cases of injury are reported. All the houses struck were 
-completely destroyed. The Dacca tornado travelled altogether 
3l miles. Its rate of speed varied from t2 to ao miles, and its 
greatest width was ^ yards, It was accompanied by a rumbling 
hissing sound, the clouds over it were illuminated, and liquid 
mud was deposited along its track, and was ingrained \n the 
wounds of the injured. 

We are glad to be able to report, on the authority of Captain 
•de Brito Capello, Director of the Lisbon Observatory, that the 


sequence of the experience be ha4l gained as a priest. Continu- 
ing his explurations, he found the remains of a city 3 miles 
lo ig and at some places I mile wi<lc. This city was somewhat 
irregularly laid out, consisting principally of large squares or 
blocks of houses surrounded by a high wall, apparently for pro- 
tection. The stale of the buildings clearly indicated that the city 
had been ruined by an earthquake. Many bodies crushed by 
fallen roofs and walls were found. Mr. Cushing also discovered 
a number of graves, believed to be the graves of priests. The 
symbols and decorations on the pottery found in these graves 
resemble the symbols and clecoraiions on modern ZuRi pottery. 
About 10 or 15 miles from this ruined city, which Mr. 
Cushing calls Los Muertos, the City of the Dead, he has lately 
found the remains of another prehistoric town, in connection 
with which there are many traces of extensive works for 
irrigation. 

The Boston Society of Natural History proposes to, ^stabUsh 
a Zoological Garden in that city. The enterprise will be thoroughly 
educational. The chief object will be to show specimens of 
American animals, especially those of New Engl.md* 

According to a telegram from Sydney, the Conference upon 
the means of dealing with the rabbit- pe^it in Australia h^S rC' 
suited in the selection of an island where M. Pasteur'a and other 
methods of extirpation will be thoroughly tried. The liabUity 
of other animals and birds to infection by the same means wilt 
also be tested. 

During the month of July the following oourses,. for ievhniasl 
tCMhers and others, will be given in the new buiWimrs of the 
City and Guilds of London Institute Elementary PriaQlufl^ ,0^ 
Machine-Designing, by Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.ILS^ i PrwJtfc^ 
Lessons in Organic Chemistry, intended moiidy fof 9^ 

technological subjects by Prof, Armstrong. F.R.S.^ 
struction and Uee of Electrical Measn^hg InattfumenWi Profc ' 


NATURE 


43 


"May JO, 1888] 


Ayrtoiii F,R. S. ; Experimental Mechanics, by Vrof, Henrici 
F<KtS«j the Principles of Uread-makiog, by Willtam lago ; 
PtiOtQgmphy, by CapU Abney, F.R.S. ; Mathematical and 
Surveying InstrumenU, by Arthur Thomas WalmUley; Gns 
Manufacture, by Lewis T. Wright ; the Application of Modern 
Creofnetry to the Cutting of ^lids for Masonry and other 
Technical Arts, by Lawrence Harvey ; and the Craft of the 
Carpenter, by John Slater. 

The additions to the Zoological Society’s Gardens during the 
pait week include two Long-eared Bats {PUcoius aHrttus)^ from 

Cornwall, presented by Mr. F. A. All chin ; a Roe 

{CApre&ius 9 ), from Corea, presented by Mr. F. Ilarston 

Eagles I two Burrowing Owls {Speotyto cunicularia)^ from 
Buenos Ayres, presented by Mr. J. Clark llawkshaw ; a Blue 
and Yellow Macaw {Ara ararcmna\ from Para, presented by 
Mt». Yarrow ; two Crested Ducks {Anas cris(aiHs), from the 
Falkland Islands, presented by Mr. F, E. Cobb, C.M.Z.S. ; an 
Asp Viper {Vlpttra aspis), from Italy, presented by Messrs. 
Paul and Co. ; a Common Viper ( Vipera herns), from Burnham 
Beeches, presented by Mr. F. M. Oldham ; two Japanese Deer 
{Cervus sika 6 6\ from Japan ; a Macaque Monkey {.\facafus 
cynofHotgus d)» from India, a Vulpine Phalangcr {i^halangista 
veUpina <5 ), from Australia, two Burrowing Owls {Speotyto 
rupti^ularia), from Buenos Ayres, deposited ; a .Spotted Cavy 
{Cteh^^enys /ora), bjm in the Gardens, 


OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. 

New Minor Planets.— Herr I^alisa, at Vienna, discovered 
a new minor planet, No. 276, on April 17, and M. Charlois, at 
Nice, discovered a second, No. 277, on May 3, the sixiy-fouith 
and third discoveries respectively of the two astronomers. No. 
273 has been named Atropos. 

Comet 1888 a (SawertHAL), — The following ephemeris 
{Dun Rcht Cirmlir, No. 155) is in continuation of that givouin 
Nature, vol xxxvii. j). 520 : — 

I'or Creenwhh 


seventy -five proper motions, nearly all of them new, is like wise" 
added. 

PuBt.iCATioNs OF Lick Observatory. — The first volume 
of the Publications of the Lick Observatory has been received. 
It is chiefly occupied with the details of the progress of the insti- 
tution from the date of Mr, Lick’s first deed of trust, 1874, and 
with the description of the smaller instruments, the great 
refractor being reserved for a future volume. Meteorological 
observations taken on Mount Hamilton from 18S0 to 1885, and 
reduction tables for the Observatory occupy a large part of the 
volume. Amongst the most interesting reports ore those of 
Prof. Newcomb, on the glass for the great objective ; of Mr. 
Burnham, on Mount Hamilton as an observing station ; and of 
Prof. Todd, on the transit of Venus, 1882. A report on the 
structure of the mountain is also given by Profs, Irving and 
Jackson. 


ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA FOR THE 
WEEK 1888 MAY 13-19. 

R the reckoning of time the civil day, commencing at 
Greenwich mean midnight, counting the hours on to 24, 
is here employed.) 

At Greenwich on May 1 3 

Sunrises, 4h. 12m. ; souths, iih. 56m. 97s. ; sets, I9h, 40tn. : 
right asc. on meridian, 3h. 22 '8m. ; deck 18° 34' N. 
Sidereal Time at Sunset, iih. 8m. 


Moon (at P'irst Quarter May 18, 23h.) ri«cs, Sh. 58m. ; 
souths, I3h. 54m. ; sets, 21 n. 57m. : right asc. on meridian, 
sh. 21 •2m. ; deck 19* 46' N. 


Planet. 

RUe«. 

Southti. 

Selsi. 

Right aflc. and dedination. 
on meridian. 


h. m. 

h. m. 

h. m. 

h. m, 

. 19 50 N. 

Mercury.. 

4 16 ,. 

. 12 8 . 

. 20 0 . 

3 34 8 

Venus 

3 45 •• 

• JO S4 • 

. 18 3 . 

2 20*6 . 

. 12 38 N, 

Mars 

15 36... 

, 21 19 . 

■ 3 2‘ 

12 46 9 .. 

. 4 6 S. 

[upiler. ... 

ao 21 .. 

. 0 38 .. 

• 4 55 . 

16 3*2 .. 

19 43 S. 

Saturn,... 

8 SI .. 

. 16 47 - 

• 0 43^ 

8 14*5 •• 

. 20 29 N. 

Uranus ... 

«S 44 •• 

. 21 23 .. 

■ 3 2 *. 

5« 5 •• 

. 4 47 s. 

Neplune.. 

4 4> .. 

, 12 24 .. 

20 7 . 

3 50 7 . 

. j8 28 N. 


* Indicale<% lhat the rising is that of the preceding evening and the setlingr 
that of the following tnomiog. 



188B. 

R.A. 

Deal 

Lug .J. 

Log K 

Bright- 


h. m. «. 

0 

39 '8 N. 



nesjs. 

May 10 

23 45 45 

3 * 

0*2242 

01003 

0 14 

12 

23 50 0 

32 

337 

0 ‘ 2 $ 6 o 

01198 


14 

23 5 J 9 

33 

*58 

0*12 

16 

23 58 12 

34 

i6’i 


01386 


18 

028 

35 

47' 

0*2470 

0*11 

20 

0 5 58 

35 

51 7 


0*1566 


22 

094* 

36 

37‘2 

0'2572 

009 

24 

0 13 20 

37 

21 ’2 


0M738 


26 

0 16 51 

38 

3*9 

0*2666 

008 

28 

0 20 16 

38 

45*3 




30 

0 23 35 

39 

2S'6 

0*2752 

0*1904 

007 


The brightness at discovery is taken as unity. 


Cincinnati Zone Cataloouk.— No. 9 of the Publications 
of tlm Cincknmti Observatory contains a zone catalogue of 
4050 ttiue observed during 1885, 18H6, and the early part of 
(Is? with the 3-inch transit insirumeni of the Observatory, made 
by Bofir and licrgcr. The region covered by the zones is from 
S, £)«Cl. 18* 50' to S, Deck 22* 20', most of the stars down 
fo 8*5 having been olieerved, besides a considerable numljer 
of ikliiter ones. A low pawer was employed, so as to give a 
field of 5(y In breadth, and as the zones were taken 15' apart, 
ca<l| Atar was thus usaolty ob«erv«d in three zones. The 
R.A,‘il were deduced from transits, recorded on a chrono- 
graplL * system of five vertical wires ; the declinations, from 
niicetlcns by a micrometer wire, two readings being taken for 
each MAT whenever practicid)le. The probable error of a single 
cbsefvathm was found to be R,A. ±0*1234., Deck ± i''*84, 
the dhMurvittkms being a Iktle rougher than oouJd have been 
dtkiM; ib 00Ds«<ttiettce of the low magnifying power used. An 
portion of the work has been the comparison of 
thBipj^lting ptooes with those the same stars in earlier cata- 
a COQsidetablo number of errata in Lalande’a, La- 
and othw caialoguea have been detected. A list of 


OccuUaiians of Stars hy the Moon (visible al Greenwich). 

Correspond i DR. 
angtoauom ver- 

Mny. Star. Msg. Diup. Reap. tex to right for 

inverted image. 

hr m* h. m* „ „ 

15 ... 61 Geminorum .. 6 ... 21 48 near approach 212 — 

16 ... c/'Cancri 6 ... 23 5 ... 23 45 ... 74 337 

May. h. 

15 ... o ... Mercury at least distance from the Sun. 

16 ... 22 ... Saturn in conjunction with and o* 42' north 

of the Moon. 


VariahU Stars, 


Star 

U Cephei ... 

R.A. 
h. m. 

0 S*-4 . 

Deck 

, 81" 16 N. 

... May 17, 

h, 

I 

ni 

38 m 

f Geminorum 

6 STS • 

. 20 44 N. 

... ,, 


0 

oM 

U HydrEc ... 

10 38-0 . 

. 12 48 S. 

... , , 

IS. 


m 

W Virginis... 

13 *0-3 • 

. 2 48 S. 

... ,, 

*7, 

1 

oM 

R Draconis ... 

16 3»’4 • 

.67 0 N. 

... ,, 

14. 


m 

U C3phiuchi .. 

. 17 10*9 • 

. r 20 N. 

... ,, 

18, 

0 

36 m 

W Sogitiarii 

■ 17 57’9 . 

*9 35 S. 

... ,, 

17. 

3 

0 m 

B Lyr* 

. 18 46 0 . 

53 >4 N. 

... ,, 

17. 

23 

0 M 

R Lyrse 

. 18 51*9 . 

43 48 N. 

... ,, 

187 


m 

11 Aqui1«e 

. 19 46*8 . 

043N. 


19, 23 

0 m 

WCygni ... . 

21 31*8 . 

. 44 S3 N. 


18, 


M' 

5 Cephei 

. 22 25*0 . 

57 S‘ N. 


15. 

23 

oM 


M eignificfl maximum ; m minimum. 


Mettor'Shmers, 
tt.A. Deck 


Near ij Aquilie ... 

... 295 

« 

0 

... May 15. Very swift. 

From Delphinus ... 

... 314 

ISN. 

May 13-18, Very 
swift. Streaks, 


44 


NATURE 




THE PYGMY RACES OE MEN? 

I. 

TT is well known that there existed among the nations of 
^ antiauity a wide-spread belief in the existence of a race or 
races of numan beings of exceedingly diminutive stature, who 
-dwelt in BoiDS^ of the remote and unexplored regions of the earth* 
These were called fygfnUs^ a word said to be derived from 
which means a hst, and also a measure of length, the 
distance from the elbow to the knuckles of an ordinary-sized 
man, or rather more than 13 inches. 

In the opening of the third book of the lUadt the Trojan hosts 
are descrit^d as coming on with noise and shouting, ** like the 
cranes which dee from the coming of winter and sudaen rain, and 
fly with clamour towards the streams of ocean, iiearing slaughter 
and fate to the Pygmy men, and in early morn offer cruel battle,’^ 
or, as Pope has it — 

'* So when inclcmsnt winters vet the plaipp 
With ptercins Trasts, or thick Jescendinjc rain, 

To warmer seas the cranes emhodied fly, 

With noise and order through the midway sky, 

To Pygmy nations wounds and death they bring, 

And alt the war descends upon the wing.’* 

The combats between the pygmies and the cranes are often 
alluded to by btc classical writers, and are not unfrequently 
depicted upon Greek vases. In one of these in the Hope collec- 
tion at Deepdene, in wluch the %ures are represented with 
reat spirit, the pygmies are dwarfl»h-looking men with large 
eads, n^ro features, and close woolly or frizzly hair. They arc 
armed with lances. Notices of a less poetical and apparently more 
scientific character of the occurrence of very small races of human 
beings are met with in Aristotle, Herodotus, Ctesias, Pliny, 
Pomponius Melo, and others. Aristotle places his pygmies in 
Africa, near the sources of the Nile, while Ctesias describes a 
race of dwarfs in the interior of India. The account in 
Herodotus is so circumstantial, and has such an air of truthful- 
ness about it, especially in connection with recent discoveries, 
that it is worth quoting in fult.^ 

“I did hear, indeed, what I will now relate, from certain 
natives of Cyrfin^. Once upon a time, they said, they were on 
a visit to the oracular shrine of Ammon, when it chanced that, 
in the course of conversation with Etearchus, the Ammonian 
king, the talk fell upon the Nile, how that its sources were un- 
known to all men. Etearchus up m this mentioned that some 
Nasamonians h^d once come to his Court, and when asked if 
they could give any information concerning the uninhabited parts 
of Libya, had told the following tale. The Nasamonians are a 
Libyan race who occupy the Syrtes, anti a tract of no great 
size towards the east. They said there had grown up among 
them some wild young men, the sons oT certain chiefs, who, 
when ihe^ came to man's estate, indulged in all manner of ex- 
travagancies, and among other things drew lots for five of their 
number to go and explore the desert parts of Libya, and try if 
they c.)uTd not penetrate further than any had done previously. 
The young men therefore dispatched on this errand by their com- 
rades with a plentiful supply of water and provisions, travelled at 
first through the inhabited region, passing which they came to the 
wild beast tract, whence they finally entered upon the desert, which 
they proceeded to cross in a direction from east to west. After 
journeying for many days over a wide extent of sand, they came 
at last to a plain where they observed trees growing : approach- 
ing them, and seeing fruit on them, they proceeded to gather it. 
l^ile they were thus engaged, there came upon them some 
dwarfish men, under the middle height, who seized them and 
carried them off. The Nasamonians could not understand a 
word of their language, nor had they any acquaintance with the 
language of the Nasamonians. They were fed across extensive 
marshes, and finally came to a town, where all the men were of 
the height of their conductors, and black-complexioned, A 
great river flowed by the town, running from west to east, and 
eontainini^ crocodiles." 

It is satisfactoiyr to know that the narrative concludes by say- 
ing that these pioneers of African exploration, forerunners of 
Bruce and Park, of Barth, Livingstone, Speke, Grant, Sohwein- 
furth, Stanley, and the rest, ** got safe back to their countiy." 

Extension of knowledge of the natural products of the earth, 

« A Lffoture defivored at tha Rwal In^tUuticm on Friday cveniiur, April ra, 
iSSe. by Pmf. Lurf., F.R.S., Director o?The SSto^r 

Depvtnwati of the Bridsh Mutoum. 

* H«rod<Htts, B63k II. Ra«rlinsoti*s tranilatioo, p. 4f* 


and a more critical sjnrit on the part of authors, ted to Attempts 
of explanation of this belief, and the discovery of races 
keys— of the doings of which, it must be said, more or less fabu- 
lous stories were often reported by travellers — generally sufficed 
the commentators and naturalists of the last century to explain 
the origin of the stories of the pygmies. To this view the great 
authority of Buflbn was extended. 

Still more recently-acquired information as to the actual con- 
dition of the human noimlation of the globe has, however, led 
to a revision of the ideas upon the subj^r, and to more careful 
and critical re’^earches into the ancient docatnenti. M. de 
Qualrcfages, the eminent and veteran Professor of Anthropoloey 
at the Musifum d'Histoire Naturelle of Paris, has specially 
carefully examined and collated all the evidence bearing upon 
the question, and devoted much ingenuity of argument to prove 
that the two localities in which the ancient authors appear to 
place their pygmies, the interior of Africa near the sources of 
the Nile, and the southernmost parts of Asia, and the charactm 
they assign to them, indicate an actual knowledge of the exist- 
ence of me two groups of small people which still inhabit these 
regions, the history of which will form the subject of this lecture. 
The evidence which has convinced M. de Quatrefages, and 
which, I have no doubt, will suffice for those who take pleasure 
in discovering an underlying truth in all such legends and myths, 
or in the more grateful task of rehabilitating the veracity of the 
fathers of literature and history, will be found collected in a very 
readable form in a little book published last year in the *' Biblio- 
th^que scientifique conteroporaine," called Les Pygmees," to 
which I refer my readers for fuller information upon the subject 
of this discourse, and especially for numerous references to the 
literature of the subject, which, as the book is accessible to all 
who wish to pursue it farther, I need not give here. 

It is still, however, to my mind, an open question whether 
these old stories may not be class^ with innumerable others, 
the offiipriog of the fertile invention of the human hmin, the 
potency of which as an origin of myths has, I think, sometimes 
been too much underrated. I shall therefore now take leave of 
them, and confine myself to giving you, as far as the brief space of 
time at my disposal admits, an account of our actual knowledge of 
the smallest races of men either existing or, as far na we know, 
ever having existed on earth, and which may therefore, taking 
the word in its current though not literal sense, be called the 

pygmies" of the species. 

Among the various characters by which the different races of 
men are distinguished from one another, stJ€ is undoubtedly one 
of considerable importance. Not but what in each race there is 
much individual variation, some persons being taller, and tome 
shorter ; yet these variations arc, especially in the purer or less 
mixed races, restricted within certain limits, and there is a 
general average, both for men and women, which can be ascer- 
tained when A sufficient number’ of accurate measuremeots have 
been recorded. That the prevailing size of a race U a really 
deeply-sealed, inherited characteristic, and depends but little ott 
outward conditions, as abundance of food, climate, &o., is 
proved by well-known facts. The tallest and the shortest races in 
Europe arc respectively the Norwegians and the Lapps, living in 
almost the same region. In Africa, also, the diminutive Bushmen 
and the tallest race of the country, the Kaffirs, are close neighbours. 
The natives of the Andaman Islands and those of many islands 
of the equatorial region of the Pacific, in which the condirions 
are simUar, or if anything more favourable to the formuTf m at 
opposite ends of the scale of height. Those not occostomed to 
the difficulties both of making and recording such measurements 
will scarcely be prepared, however, to learn how mei^tre, un- 
satisfactory and unreliable our knowledge of the stature of most 
of the races of mankind is at present, aUhough unqttestionab^ it 
has been considerably increaam within recent years. We musti 
however, make use of such material as we posaesi:, and tnsii to 
the future correction of errors when better opportunities occur- 

It is convenient to divide men, according to their he^t, Into 
three groims-— tall, medium, and short ; in Topkutrd's sysfom^ 
the first being those the average height (of the men) of whfoh 
is above x'^00 metres (S fo«t 7 inches), the latter those 
1*500 metre* (4 feet ii inches), and the middle division 
bttweeiL the two. In the last division are included td 

the Mon^Uan or yellow races of Asia, as the Bomoyed^, titu 
Ostiaks, the Japanese, the Siamese, and the Anuandte* ; >1*0 
the Veddahs 4^ Ceylon and certain of the wild of 

Southern India. . These all range between 1 *5*5 mid l 
—say between 5 feet and 5 feet 3 inches. 


Ip, 1888] 


NATURE 


45 


It is of noflc of Uiese people of whom I am going to speak 
Are Ai) on a still smaller scale* the average 
hdgtht of the men being in all cases below 5 feet* in some cases, 
as we shall see, considerably below. 

jB^sides their diminutive sire, X may note at the outset that 
they all have in a strongly-marked degree the character of the 
hair diistiti|nished as fmly— f,r. growing in very fine, close 
curls, and ftattened or elliptical in section, and therefore, what- 
ever other structural differences they present, they all belong to 
the same primary branch of the human species as the African 
N»ro ana the Melanesian of the Western Pacific. 

I will first direct your attention to a group of islands in the 
Indian Ocean — the Andamans— where we shall find a race in 
many respects of the greatest possible interest to the anthropo- 
logist. 

These islands are situated in the Bay of Bengal, tietween the 
lOth and lath parallels of north latitude, and near the meridian 
95° east of Greenwich, and consist of the Great and Little 
Andamans. The former is about 140 miles long, and has a 
breadth nowhere exceeding ao miles. It is divided by narrow 
channels into three, called respectively North, Middle, and 
South Andaman, and there are also various smaller islands be- 
longing to the group. Little Andaman is a detached island lying 
about aS miles to the south of the main group, about 27 miles in 
length and 10 to 18 in breadth. 

Although these islands have been inhabited for a very great 
length of time by people whose state of culture and customs have 
unctrgone little or no change, as proved by the examination of 
the contents of the old kitchen-middens, or refuse heaps, found in 
many places in them, and although they He so near the track of 
civibzation and commerce, the islands and their inhabitants were 
practically unknown to the world until so recently as the year 
1858, It is true that their CKistence is mentioned by Arabic 
writers of the ninth century, and again by Marco Polo, and 
that in tySS an attempt was made to establish a penal colony 
upon them by the East India Company, which wag abandoned 
a few years after ; but the bad reputation the inhabitants had 
acquirM for ferocious and inhospitable treatment of strangers 
brought by accident to their shores caused them to be carefully 
avoided, and no permanent settlement or relations of anything 
like a friendly character, or likely to afford any useful infor- 
mation as to the character of the islands or the inhabitants, were 
established. It is fair to mention that this hostility to foreigners, 
which for tong was one of the chief characteristics by which the 
Andamanese were known to the outer world, found much justifi- 
cation in the cruel experiences they suffered from the malpractices, 
especially kidnapping for slaveiy, of the Chinese and Malay 
tmders who visned the islands in search of d^c/ie de mer and 
edible birds’-nests. It is also to this characteristic that the in- 
habitants owe so much of llieir intei'est to us from a scientific 
point of view, for we have here the rare case of a population, 
confined to a very limited lymce, and isolated for hundreds, 
perhaps thousands, of years fitim all contact with external in- 
fluence, their physical characters unmixed by crossing, and their 
culture, the*r beliefs, their language entirely their own. 

In l«7, when the Sepoy mutiny called the attention of the 
Indian Covernment to the necessity ol a habitation for their 
numerous convict prisoners, the Andaman Islands were again 
thougfht of for the purpose, A Commission, consisting of Dr. ¥. J. 
Mouat, Dri G. Playfair, and Lieut. J. A. Heathcote was sent to 
the islAuds to report upon their capabilities for such a purpose ; 
and, aoiilAg ut^n its recommendations, early in the following 
year the iSanda were taken possession of in the name of the 
East India Company by Captain (now General) 11 . Man, and 
the British flog hoisted at Port Blair, near the southern end of 
Oresat Andaman, which thenceforth became the nucleus of the 
setUement of invaders, now numbering about 15,000 persons, of 
whom more than three-fourths are convict prisoners, the rest 
«oldierti| police, and the usual accompaniments of a military 
starioik 

The offhet of this limnd upon the unsophisticated native 
ivipt^alion, who* though apread over the whole area of the 
were far less numerous, may easily be imagined. It is 
riihn^ri^eterloration of character, moral and physical decay, and 
finally ^taction. The newly-introduced habits of life, vices, 
and d»ehse«i on spreading at a fearful rate, and with deadly 
effect. In this sad history ore, however, two redeeming 
Wtbleh ouroechpation ofthe Andamans from 

*h<rt ef Tasmania, whei^ a simHarthlgedywaa played outdaring 


the present century. In the first ^dace, the British Govemora 
and residents appear from the first to have used every effort to 
obtain fur the natives the most careful and considerate treat- 
ment, and to alleviate as much as possible the evils which they 
have unintentionally been the means of inflicting on them. 
Secondly, most careful records have been preserved of the 
physical characters, the social customs, the arts, manufacture^ 
traditions, and language of the people while still in their primi- 
tive condition. For this most important work, a work which, 
if not done, would have left a blank in the history of the world 
which could never have been replaced, wc are indebted almost 
entirely to the «;cientific enthusiasm of one individual, Mr. 
Edward Horace Man, who most fortunately happened to be in 
a position As<;istant Superintendent of the Islands, and spe- 
cially in charge of the natives^ which enabled him to obtain the 
required information with facilities which probably no one else 
could have had, and whose observations ** On the Aboriginal 
Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands,” published bv the An- 
thropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, are most 
valuable, not only for the Information thev contain, but as 
correcling the numerous erroneous and misleading statements 
circulated regarding these i>eople by previous and less well 
informed or less critical authors. 

The Arab writer of the ninth century previously alluded to 
states that their complexion is frightful, their nair frizried, 
their countenance and eyes frightful, their feet very large, and 
almost a cubit in length, and they go ouite naked,” while Marco 
Polo (about 1285) says that "the people are no better than wild 
beasts, and I assure you all the men of this island of Angamanain 
have heads like dogs, and teeth and eyes likewise ; in fact, in the 
face they are just like big mastiff dogs. ” These specimens of 
mediftival anthropology are almost rivalled by the descriptions 
of the customs and moral character of the same people pub- 
lished as recently as 1862, based chiefly on information obtained 
from one of the runaway sepoy convicts, and which represent 
them as among the lowest ana most degraded of human things. 

The natives of the Andamans arc divided into nine distinct 
tribes, each inhabiting its own district. Eight of these live upon 
the Great Andaman Islands, and one upon the hitherto almost 
unexplored Little Andaman. AUhoogn each of these tribes 
possesses a distinct dialect, these are afi traceable to the same 
source, and are all in the same stage’of development. The obser- 
vations that have been made hitherto relate mostly to the tribe 
inhabiting the south bland, but it does not appear that there is 
any great variation either in phy.sical characters or manners, 
customs, and culture among them. 

Wiih regartl to the important character of size, we have more 
abundant and more accurate information than of most other 
races. Mr. Man gives the measurements of forty -eight men 
and forty -one women, making the average of the former 

4 feet 10 j inches, that of the latter 4 feet mches, a difference 
therefore of 3^ inches between the sexes. The tallest man was 

5 feet 4I inches ; the shortest 4 feet 6 inches. The tallest 
woman 4 feet iij inches ; the shortest 4 feet 4 inches. Measure- 
ments made upon the living subject are always liable to errors, 
but it is possible that in so large a series these will compensate each 
other, and that therefore the averages may be relied upon. My 
own observations, based uixin the measurements of the bones alone 
of as many as twenty-nine skeletons, give smaller averages, viz. 
4 feet 8J inches for the men, and 4 feet 6i inches for the women ; 
but these, it must be recollected, are calculated from the length 
of the femur, upon a ratio which, though usually correct Tor 
Europeans, may not hold good in the case of other races. ^ The 
hair U fine, and very closely curled ; woolly, as it is gener- 
ally called, or, rather, frizzly, and elliptical in cection, aa 
in the Negroes. The colour of the skin is very dark, although 
not absolutely black. The head is of roundish (brachycephalic) 
form, the cephalic index of the skull being about 8a. The 
other cranial characters are fully described in the papers just 
referred to. The teeth arc large, but the jaws are only slightly 
prognathous. The features possess little of the Negro t]^pe ; at 
all events, little of the most marked and coarser peculiarities of 
that type. The projecting jaws, the prominent thick lips, the 
broad and flattened nose of the genuine Negro are so aoffened 
down in the Andamanese as scarcely to be recognized, and yet in 

' S«e the Oatoology Mod Affiaitiu of th& KatiwS of the Andaman 
Islandit*' (Journal Anihiopological Institute, vol. ix. p, xoB, 1879); ead 
** Additions ObiMveitotiH on the OttAolqgy of the Natives of the Andaraan 
Islandi ” (4^., vol. xV. p. 1884). 



46 


NATURE 




the relative proportions of the limb-hones, especially in the short- 
ness of the humerus compared with the fore-arm, and in the form 
•of the pelvis, Negro affinities are most strongly indicated. 

Id spealting of the culture of the Andaman^, of course I 
•only reler to their condition before the introduction of European 
civilisation into the islands. They live in small villa||[es or en- 
campments, in dwellings of simple and rude construction*, built 
only of branch A and leaves of trees. They are entirely ignorant 
of agriculture, and keep no poultry or domestic animals. They 
make rude pots of clay, Bun-driccl, or partially b.'iked in the fire, 
but these are hand -made, as they are ignorant of the use of the 
potter’s wheel. Their clothing is of the scantiest description, 
and what little they have chiefly serves for decoral ive or 
ornamental purposes, and n>t for keeping the Iwdy warm. 
They make no use of the skins of animals. They have 
fairly well-made du'-out canoes and outriggers, but only fit 
for navigating the numerous creeks and straits between the 
islands, and not for voyages in the open sea. They are expert 
swimmers and divers. Though constantly using fire, they are 
-quite ignorant of the art of producing it, and have to expend 
much caie and labour in keeping up a constant supply 
of burning or smouldering wood. They are ignorant oi all 
metals ; l)UL for domestic purposes make great use of shells, 
especially n species of Cyrenc found abundantly on the shores of 
(he islands, also quartz chips and flakes, and hamloo knives* 
They have stone anvils and hammers, and they make good 
string from vegr. table fibres, as well as baskets, fishing-nets, 
sleeping -mats, &c. Their principal weapons are the bow and 
arrow, in the use of which they are particularly skilful. They 
have harpoons for killing turtle and fish, but no kind of shield or 
breastplate for defence when fighting. The natural fertility of 
the island supplies them with abundance and a great variety of 
food alt the year round, the purveying of which affords occupa- 
tion and amusement for the greater part of the male population. 
This consists of pigs {Stis amiumaneHsis), which are numerous 
on the islands, paradoxurus, dugong, and occasionally porpoise, 
iguanas, turtles, turtles* eggs, many kinds of fish, prawns, 
mollusks, larva* of large wood-boring and burrowing beetles, 
honey, and numerous roots (as yams), fruits, and seeds. The 
food is invariably cooked before eating, and generally taken 
when extremely hot. They were ignorant of all stimulants or 
intoxicating drinks— in fact, water was their only l>everage ; and 
tobacco, or any substitute for it, was quite unknown till 
introduced by Europeans. 

(7b be continued^ 


THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL 

ENGJNEEES. \ 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers held its annual 
^ meeting at the bouse of tbe Insiiiudon of Civil Engineers 
in Great George Street, Westminster, on the 3rd and 4th inst., 
under the pre.sidency of Mr. E. H. Carbutt. 

The papers brought forward for reading and discussion were : 
the Third Report of the Research Committee of the Institu- 
tion on Friction ; "‘Description of the Emery Testing Machine,” 
by Mr. Henry R. Towne, of Stamford, Connecticut, U.S.A. ; 
and " Supplementary Paper on the Use of Petroleum Refuse as 
Fuel in Eocomotive Engines,” by Mr. Thomas Urquhart, Loco- 
molive Superintendent, Grazi and Tsaritsin Railway, South- 
East Russia; the third of which was deferred till the next 
meeting of the Institute. 

The third report of the Friction Committee Is on experiments 
on the friction of a collar-bearing. The general conclusions of 
the Committee are that this kind of bearing is inferior to a 
cylindrical journal in weight- carrying power. The coefficient of 
friction is also much higher than for a cylindrical hearing, and 
the friction follows the law of the friction of solids more nearly 
than that of liquids, due doubtless to the less perfect lubrication 
applicable to this form of bearing compared with a cylindrical 
one. The coefficient of friction appears to be independent of the 
epecd, but to diminish somewhat as the load is increaaecl and . 
may be stated approximately at at 15 tbs. per square inch* 
diminishing to at 75 lbs, per square inch. 

In the Broad principles of construction on which the Emery 
system of testing and weighing machinery rests are included two 
radically new and highly important elements— n4«iiely» An : 
arrangement of hydraulic chambers and diaphragma 'eap4^ nf 
receiving without injury pressures and shocks of great intonsHy, 
and of transmitting them simultaneously, without loss from 


frictioo, to a convenient point for the purptsee of measuring 
recording them, and ca^xible also of reducing them to such tower 
term of degree as mey be desirable ; and a means for flexibly 
uniting a vibrating scale-beam either to a fixed abutment or td 
another beam of the same system, in such a maimer as absolntely 
to eliminate friction, and to preserve inclefmitely the fulcrum 
intervals or distances precisely as first adjusted, and to resist and 
transmit all the pressares and shocks to which the fulorums 
are subjected, without in the slightest degree impairing their 
sensitiveness or durability. 

The hydraulic construction is such that through it the strain 
on the specimen is transmitted without loss to a hydraulic 
chamber containing a thin film of liqilid, which is again 
transmitted through a small copper tube, without loss rtotn 
friction or otherwise, to a much smaller chamber containing 
a similar thin film of liquid. The acting area of the 
liquid in the smaller chamber is less than that in the larger 
in the proportion in which the load on the specimen is desired to 
be reduced before it is received upon the beams in the scale-case 
where it is measured. In the scale-ca^e containing the weighing 
mechanism, the pressure transmitted from the smaller chamber 
is received at one end of a system of levers, and measured by 
means of devices which are shown in detail in the figures whicn 
accompanied the paper. 


UNIVEES/TV AND EDUCATIONAL 
INTELLIGENCE. 

Oxford. — Among ihe courses of lectures announced for this 
Term we may notice the fallowing 

In Physics, Prof. Clifton is lecturing on Optical Properties of 
Crystals*, and Mr. S'elhy on Absolute Electrical Units, at the 
Clarendon I.alx)ratory. At Christ Church, Mr. Baynes lectures 
on Thermo-dynamics, and on the Transfer of Energy in on 
Electro-m^netic Field. 

The University has made a grant to Mr. Smith, in aid of the 
Millard Engineering Laboratory, and practical work on the 
physical bads of engineering is regttlarly carried on there. 

In Chemistry, besides the usual courses, Mr. Velcy is lecturing 
on Thermo-chemistry, and Mr. Marsh on Recent Organic 
Re.starch. 

The work of the Geological Chair is at present being done by 
Mr, W. W. Watts (M. A. Camb. ), who is lecturing for a terra 
in order that Prof, lireen moy complete his session at the 
Yorkshire College. 

Owing to Pi of. Moseley’s continued illness, Dr. Hickson is 
still aciing as Deputy Linacre Professor, and is lecturing on tbe 
Morphology of the Chordata, Mr. Bourne, who is to assume 
his post as Superintendent of the Plymouth Marine Station in 
a month, is lecturing on Embryology, and Prof. Westwood on 
the Winged Arthropoda, 

Dr. liurdon-Sanderson lectures this Term on Nutrition, and 
Dr. Gilbeit on the Rotation of Crops. 

Jn Ihe absence of any Pix>feBSor of Botany, Mr, J. B, Farmer 
is conducting the ncceasary elementary courses. 

Cambridge. — Prof. Adams is appointed one of t?ie four 
representatives of Cambridge at the Sooth anniversary of the 
foundation of the University of Bologna, in June next. 

An additional class-room for students of Mineralogy is to be 
formed. 


SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 

Lokdon. 

Royal Society, April 19. — ‘*The Radio-Micrometer.*' By 
C. V. Boys. 

The author ^ave the result of a mathematical investigation 
made with a view to arrive at the best possible construction 
of the radio-micrometer already described by him. At 
conclusion of the meeting he showed in action an instrument 
which he had made, having the best proportions, which was both 
simpler in consttuction and far more sensitive than the one He 
exhibited on a previous occasion. 

“On the Compounds of Ammonia with Selenium Dioxide-^ 
By Sir Charles A. Cameron, M.D., F.R.C.S.L, and Joihn 
Macallan, F.I.C. 

On pasriog aininonia into a adutjon of Mleniuhn dioxide 
in absolute mcghal« u comj>Qund is formed to which the outHbrs 
have usigned iHe name ammonium selenosamate, ,an4 the 
formula NH 4 ,SeOjNH,. It is the ammonium salt of a new 


NATURE 


47 


Msfy 10, iSSS] 




Qttneljr, H^^eO^KHf. It in untUblc, continuously 
evnl^ff 8iMin^n)»^ ttld uUim&tvly becoming z stable acid Ralt, 
Nlf|tH4$60}N The neutral suit forms hexagonal prisms 

imd’^ pyrsvnidft^ aim the acid forms prismatic crystals. The 
ntniCttl <alt distohres in iidpaftaoT alcoholic ammonia, but is 
decmnipbtied tqr absolute alcohol or by water. 

Aprii the Modifications of the First and Second 

Vlsc^al Arches, with es]>ecial Keference to the Homologies 
of the Auditory Ossicles.'^ By Hans Gadow, rii.t)., M.A , 
SCnckiand Curator and Lecturer on Compaiative Anatomy in 
the University of Cambridge. Communicated by Prof. M. 
Foster, Sec. R.S. 

The phylogenetic development of the first two visceral arches 
show* us some most interesting changes of function, which we 
can follow upwards from the Tower Selachians to the highest 
Mammals, 

Originally entirely devoted to respiration as gilblx'aring 
structures, the whole hyoidean arch b^omes soon a factor in 
the alimentary system. Its (Hoximal half forms the hinge of the 
masticatory apparatus, it << distal half remains henceforth connected 
with the process of deglutition. Then this suspensorial arrange* 
ment is superseded by a new modification ; the hyomandibula is 
set free and would disappear (it does nearly do so in Dipnoi and 
certain Urodela), unless it were made use of for a new innetion ; 
with its having entei'cd the service of the conduction of sound, 
it haa entered upon a new departure, and it is saved from de- 
generation. The whole system of the 00-; to four elements of 
the middle ear, which all have the same function ns conductors 
of sound, is to be looked upon as Ofte organ of oue common 
origin, — namely, as a modincation of the hyomandibula, the 
primitive projrimaj para mere of the second visceral arch. 


Succisnve Modifications of the Mandibular nml Hyoidean 
Visceral Archc}>, 

T. Primitive condition (Notidanidiv). The palato quadrate 
bar alone carries the mandible. The second arch is indifferent. 
Hyomandibula and quadrate (the palatine part is an outgrowth) 
are both attached to the cranium. 

II. The hyomandibula gains a fibro cartil.-iginous connection 
with the mandible, the masticatory ayiparatus becomes amphi* 
stylic and occasionally hyosiylic (Kajid.o, most S-Iachians). 

The hyoid gains a cranial attachment (many RajidiJt). 

III. The quadrate or aiitostylic snspensorium becomes pie* 
IKjnderant ; the hyomandibula is, ns in Teleosteans, divided into 
a proximal and into a distal (symplectic) element. The proximal 
part is received into a fenestra of the otic capsule, and is con- 
verted into a stapes, whil.^^t the distal half either remains 

Siren^ Mmofioma) or is lost (other Urodela). The whole hy«- 
mandibula would have Ijccn lost owing to its excalaiion from 
a«$pe08orial function'^, unless it had entered the auditory 
service, 

IV. The autoatylic arrangement prevails. The whole hyo- 
mandihula remains, gaioH an attachment on the “ tympanum ” 
and differentiates itself into several conjointed pieces, notably 
stimes or columella proper, and extra-coUimclla or malleus. 

The extra-columella gams connection with the parotic cartilage ; 
this connection frequently remains, but in Wwr/ra alone itconatins 
a fecial element of probably parotic origin. 

The quadrate forms an important part of the tympanic 
frame. 

IVfl. Collateral departure of the Anura, The connection 
between the tympanal part of the hyomandibula wHh the 
nfaadible is lost. 

The quadrate aitUl forms the principal suspensorial part of 
the mandible. The extra-columelia, or malleus, retains for a long 
time its previously acquired connection with Mcckors cartilage 

V«. The top end of the hyoid is attached to the cranium 
Mammalia)^ and is occasionally fused with the extra- 
odumella (Mz/f/rfu). 

VA Or, the proximal portion of the hyoid is removed from 
dm iktill and remains otherwise well developed {masi Lnards) ; 
or IH poxhnal portiott becomea ndnoed and lost {Cktl^uh 
Cre«od</ns, Qfihidin, Atw)* 

Vr. Tile extra-colifinella eakit an attachment to the quadrate, 
swamosal, or pterygoid, whTisl its cosnections with the mandible 
{OpAidif. CA(tmau0i9)t mtA the lymptnnm, are lost. 

Vl The quadrate g)radfla% Me iii imhmlhtioii with the 
tmdihle ; the latter gains a new otkeer anlcttlarkon whb the 
iqhsiiMCmti the qwAie mtth idbaow tntMy » n tyntpatric 


frame. Incus and malleus fuse sometimes with each other, and 
lean on to the parotic region. The masticatory joint is doubly 
concave-convex {Ahnotremata). 

VII. The quadrate is converted into the principal part of the 
tympanic frame, viz. annulus tymiwiicus. The mandible has 
lost Us articulation with the quadrate, and the masticatory joint 
is a single concave-convex one, the convexity belonging to the 
mandible {AfonodAfhia), 

Edimiurgh. 

Royal Society, April 2. — Rev. Prof. Flint, Vice-President, 
in the chair. — Prof, Crum Brown commtmicalcd a paper by Dr. 
Prafulla Chandra RAy on the conjxigated sulphates of the 
copjxjr-mognjsium group.- — Dr. John Murray read a paper by 
Mr. A. Dickie on the chemical analysis of water from ine Clyde 
area. — Sir W. Turner read a paper by Prof. His on the 
principles of animal morphology. — Prof. Tait communicated 
two mathematical notes. 

April 16. — Prof, ChrysfftI, Vice-President, in the chair. — Dr. 
Buchan gave an analysis of the Challcnj^^ r meteorological 
observations, pointing out various impoitant meteorological 
conditions the existence of which had been revealed by the 
work of the Expedition.— Dr. John Murray read n 

description of the rocks of the Island of Malta, comparing them 
with tleep-sea deposits. — Prof. Chrystal described an electrical 
method of reversing deep-sea thermometers. — Dr. Tliorras 
Muir read a paper on a cias** of alCcniants exf)rcssible in terms 
of simple aliernants. — Prof, Tait communicated a quaternion 
note. 

Paris. 

Academy of Sciences, April 30. — M. Jans en, President, 
ill the chair. — On the consequences of the equality assumed to 
exist between the true and the mean value of a polynome, by M. 
|. Bertrand. The author show.$ by a rigorous demonstration 
that the rule is not justified which gives a posteriori the precise 
value of a sysicin of observations, although this rule is frequently 
applied with complete confiticnee in its accuracy. — On the 
theory of the figure of the earth, by M. Maurice Levy, ^ The 
]>omt here mainly discussed is the difficulty of establishing a 
satisfactory agreement between the theory of fluidity and that of 
prect'bsion in cotmecrion with Clairaut^s dififerential equation and 
the subsequent researches of Lii>schitz inserted in val. Ixii, of the 
Jouruai de CrelU. — Remarks in connection with Pere Dochev- 
rens’ recent note on the ascending movement of the air in 
cyclones, by M, H, Faye, In order to solve by direct observa 
lion the question of the ascending or descending movement of 
the alniosphtre in cycionea, Perc X^echevrens has devised a 
special anemometer for his observatory of Zi-Ka-Wei in Chinn. 
But he suggests that more trustworthy results might perhaps be 
obtained by fitting up a similar apparatus at a greater elevation 
from the ground ; for instairce, on the top of Eifl'cr« Tower, 300 
metres hi^, now being ertcted in Paris. M. Faye accepts this 
suggestion, confident that, if carried out, it cannot fail to confirm 
his own views on the movemenl of the atmospheric currents in 
cyclones. — An elementary proof of Dirichlet’s theorem on 
arithmetical progressions in cases where the ratio is 8 or 12, by 
Prof. Sylvester. In this demonstration the author starts from 
the following principle : To show that the number of prime 
numbers of a given form is infinite, let an infinite progression be 
constructed of integers relatively prime to each other, and each 
containing a prime number at least of the given form, — Distribu- 
tion k) latitude of the solar phenomena recorded during the year 
1887, by M. P. Tacchini. A table is given of the spots^ 
eruptions, faculae, protul>crances, as observed in each zone of in'* 
intne two solar hemispheres. The hydrogenic protuberances 
occur in ail the xones, whereas the other phenomena were 
almost entirely restricted to the central region between 0° and 
'k. 40”, as in the previous year. Tlie spots, faculse, and metallic 
eruptions present an agreement in the respective zones of maxi- 
mum frequency between and d: 20^ ; a maximum for each of 
the three orders of phenomena corresponds to the zone o^-io" 
exactly aa hi 18S6. The spots were confined to the equatorial 
zone (-f30*-2«P)t the eruptions and the facuUe occurred at 
much higher lotitu^s, in fact as far as +50"* and - 60”. Hence 
there are zones with faculsa and eruptions, but without spots, 
while ott a great pan of the solar surface hydrogenic protiiber- 
aweet aie observed in Che total absence of spots.— In a second 
eommunication, M. Tacchinl gWes a summary of the solar 
obeerrations made at kom« during the first quarter of the year 


48 


NATURE 




188$. From this sammftfy it appoars that the phenomena of 
apots and facalde still continue to decrease, while the pro- 
tuberanees have increased. This confirms the remark already 
made that there is no dose relation between these two orders of 
phenomena.— Determination of the heats of combustion of the 
isomerous acids corresponding to the formulas C4H4OJ and 
CbHjO* by M. W. lAJuguinine. The constituent formulas of 
the fumaric Aftd pyromalic, as well as of the mesaconic, cttra- 
conic, and itaconic acids have been the subject of frequent 
discussions amongst chemists. In order to throw some light on 
these obscure cmestions, the author here determines the heats of 
combustioh of tne acids in question. He concludes generally that 
fumaric differs greatly from pyromalic acid, the former being the 
lower homologue of one of the three acids with formula CpH^Oi. 
The formulas corresixmding to these three acids dre evidently 
closely related, the di0ereoce Here being of quite another order 
from that which exists between the formulas corresponding to 
the fumaric and pyromalic acid^. — On the slow combustion of 
certain organic substances, by M. Th. Schloesing. The author’s 
experiments ^vith tobacco seem to show that the combustion 
arising in heaps of foliage, hay, and the like is in the first 
instance due to the action of micro-organisms, but with the 
increase of temperature it gradually assumes a purely chemical 
character. The influence of living organisms appears to cease 
between 40'' and 50’ C,, after which the chemical action rapidly 
increases, 

BjERZ.tN. 

Meteorological Society, April to. — Dr. Vettin, President, 
in the chair. — Dr. Zenker communicated the second part of his 
research on the distribution of heat over the earth’s surface. In 
the first part, of which he had spoken at the last meeting of the 
Society, he had shown that the distribution of heat depends not 
only upon the radiation from the sun and absorption by the atmo- 
sphere, but additionally upon (he nature of the earth’s surface, 
whether it is land or water. In previous researches on the 
distribution of heat, the mean values were determined from and 
based upon empirical observation; Dr. Zenker, on the other 
hand, has calculated the distribution of heat over the surface of 
the sea with the help of Hann s isothermal charts, starting with 
the temperature of a point on its surface which was quite unin- 
fluenced by the neighbouring continents, and was consequently 
equally unaffected by any warm or cold current*. Using this 
factor, and the formulae deduced in the theoretical part of his 
paper, he has calculated the distribution of heat from the pole to 
the equator for each successive parallel, and compared it with the 
distribution of solar radiation. As a basis for the discribution 
of heat over the surface of the land, it was first neceasary to 
determine the conditions under which the Influence of the “e^h- 
bouring sea is cither nothing or minimal in amount. The 
starting-point for this was the fact that the temperatures on 
continents exhibit very great variations, and from these was 
determined for each area, as a percentage, the relative influences 
of the sea and continent upon its temperature. The region 
where the Influence of the sea was proved to be nil (or where, 
as the sp^ker said, the continentality ” was 100 per cent.) was 
in the neighbourhood of the east coast of Asia, whereas all other 
points were found to be affected by the neighbouring sea to a 
gt eater extent ; the observed temperature on the land was there- 
fore only partly dependent upon the position of the place on any 
given parallel, other influences making themselves more or less 
felt. Hence it was possible to calculate for each parallel the 
real and ** accessory ” temperature. The amount of heat radiated 
down from the sun was compared with these temperatures, and 
was found to be about the same for each 10® C. of difference 
in temperature; from o®-io*C., however, quite considerable 
differences of radiation were necessary. In conclusion, Dr, 
Zenker compared the temperatures which really exist on the 
earth’s surface with those which he had deduced, and found that 
in reality the climate on the sea of the southern hemisphere Is 
colder than it should be accordu^ to calculation— a result which 
must be attributed to the oceanic currents of cold water. The 
continental climate in the northern hemisphere is slightly too 
warm, in' consequence of the disturbance introduced by the Gulf 
Stream.— Lieutenant Moedebeok gave an account of a Imlloon 
journey which he made on March 31. The marked pheno- 
menon (luring the same was the influence of rWers t thus, after 
the balloon had risen to a height of 300-500 metreti, and was 
passing away over Berlin, itsamt so rapidly over the Sptne that 
when It was about 50 metres above the earth a large qmintjty of 
ballast had to be thrown out^ At an elevation e? fUeires i 


he met with a long nfcftow ralo’-cloud, in passing wyoh 

the dry-bulb tbermotneter registered i®*5 C., the wet^bolb 
an elevation of 1300-1400 metres, both titerWHMneterS teenrdfia 
the Fame temperature of C At this height, and in dreum* 
scribed areas, a few vetysmtdisemt-soflhailxtonesweie obBemd, 
Shortly after this the bdloon began to sink, and while still above 
the cloud, but at a lower level, somewhat larger but similar haft* 
stones were observed for the second time. As soon as the 
balloon had passed through the cloud, rain fitU for a short time, 
as the result of which the balloon was so weighted that it dc** 
scended rapidly to the earth. The atmosphere above the cloud 
was not clear but rather misty. 


BOOKS. PAMPHLETS, end SERIALS RECEIVED 
FOR REVIEW. 

Land and Frash-water Mollutca of Indliu Parts 1 to 6, and plates ; IJevt - 
CoK H. H. Godwin Austen (Taylor and Pnuieis).— Botany An* Beginners, 
edition : Rev. Prof. 0 . Hcnslow (Stanford).— Botany of the Afghan 
Delimitation Commission (Linnean Socie^): J. £. T. AitchisoO (Long. 
roan<<).— Report on the Meteorology of India In 1686 : I. Rliot (Calcutta).— 
Indian Meteorological Memoirs, vol. iv. part 4 (Calcutta). — Memoir* 
on the Winds ana Monsoons of the Arabun Sen and North todfan 
Ocean : W. L. Dallas (ralcxttta). — A Short Text-book of Electricity 
and Magnetism: T. Dunman (Ward, L ck, and Co.>.— A Short Test- 
book of Sound, Light, and Heat : T. X>uninan (Ward, Lock, and Co,), 
— A life of Matthew Fontaine Maury : D, I>\ M- Corbin (lowX— 
An Illustrated Manual of DritUh Birds, part s : H. Sliders (Gurney 
and Jackftoiil^ — Bibhothek der Oesetwhaft fUr Erdkunde xu Berlin 
(BerhoX— Es*ai de DdAnaton et dc Nomenclature ; Le$ Dblocadons d« 
rdcorce Terrastre : E. de Margerie and Dr. A Heim (j^uricKX— Nature' % 
Fairy l.nnd: W. S. Wontley-Beoison (Stock).— Evolotion and its Rel*- 

tion to Krligious Thought : J. Le Conte (Appleton, Ne«r YorkX— Recoid uf 
Expen ments conducted by the Commissioner of Amculture in the Manu&c- 
ture of Sugar from Sorghum and Sugar Canes, 168^^8 (Wuhinpton).— I'he 
Constants of Nature, xst Supplement to Part 1 : F. W. C^rke (Waahii^oa), 
—The Vegetable Resources of the West Indies ; D. Morris (Silver).— Fruii : 
Dr. Crespi ( HeywotKi). — Journal of the Royal ^ricultural Society, April 
(Murray).— Quarterly Journa/ of Microscopical Science, April(Chufchi 21 }. — 
Ueoiogicai Magaxina, May (l>RbDer).— Journal of the Society of Telegraph 
Engineers and Electricians, v<>I. xvii. No. 74 (SponX— Schrifteader Natiir- 
fortchenden Oesellftchaft in Danctg, Siebentnr Band. Erste* Heh (Danzig). 
—Bulletin of the (Jatifornia Academy of Sciences, vol. ii, No. 6. 


CONTENTS. PAGE 

Forma of Animal Life 25 

The Cardinal N umbers 27 

Our Book Shelf 

Hampson: The Romance of Mathematics *’ .... 28 

“Wanderer” : “Antipodean Notes ” ; and Freeman: 

“ Lights and Shadows of Melbourne Life ” .... 29 

Letters to the Editor t — 


The Salt Industry in the United Statca — Thomas 

Ward 

Prof. Rosenbusch’s Work on Petrolo^. — A. B. . . . 
History of the Contraction Theory of Mountain Forma- 
tion. —Charles Davison 

I.ightning and Milk.— F. A. Bather 

The Duplex Pendulum Seismograph.— Prof. J. A< 

Ewing 

Self-Induction.— W. E. Sumpner 

Suggeatlons on the Clasaifleation of the Various 
Species of Heavenly Bodies. IV. (/f/wi/refrif.) ^ 

J. Norman Loel^Fer, F.H. 8 

Three Days on the Summit of Mont Blanc. 

trmted,) * « 

The Photographic Chart of the Heavens 

The Forth Bridge. {Hlusirattd.) * , . . 

Flora of the Antarctic Islands. By W. T. ThissHon^ 
Dyer, C.M.Q., F.R.S. ; Dr. H. B. Quppy . . . ^ 
Lord Hartington on Technical Education ..... 

Notes » . 

Our Astronomical Celnmn 


29 

30 

30 

30 

30 

30 


31 

n 

39 

40 

40 

4t 


New Minor Planets . ‘ 43 

Comet 18S8 a (Sawerthal) - - 43 

Cincinnati Zone Catalogue 43 

Publicatkma of Lick Observatory 43 

Astronomical Phenomena for the Week s 98 | 

May 13-19 . > 43 

The Pygn^ Races of Msn. L By Ptot, Flower^ 

C«B.f F.R.S, . 4 . . . , f * • . % 44 

The InatUotldn of Mochanlcid Bag^neOrw « . v . ; 'M. 
I^rnlyetsRyASd RdotationM IhttMlttfonce > 4 v i 46 


NATURE 


49 


THTURSTJAY, MAY 17, 1888. 


FLORA OF THE HA WAHAN ISLANDS. 

Ftffrm th$ HcgwaUm hlands; m Description of their 
Phanerogams and Vascular Cryptogams* By William 
HiUebnukd, M.D. Annotated and Published after the 
Author's death by W. F. Hillebrand. 8vo, pp. 673, 
with Frontispiece and Four Maps. (London : Williams 
and Norite, 1888.) 

T he Sandwich Islands, from a botanical point of 
view, are a group of peculiar interest. There are 
about a dozen of them, and they form an area of which 
the northern end fails just within the tropical zone, at a 
distance of 3000 miles from America, and separated from, 
it by a deep gulf. From the nearest points of Polynesia 
proper, the Marquesas Islands and Tahiti, they are 
distant i860 and 3190 milea. The largest island, Hawaii, 
is the most southern of the group. It has an area of 
about 5000 square miles, and its mountains, one of which 
is an active volcano, rise to a height of nearly 75,000 
feet. The other islands, all taken together, are not equal 
to more than half the area of Hawaii. The capital of 
the group, Honolulu, is situated on the south side of the 
small island of Oahu. The average annual temperature 
of Hmiolulu is 75° F., the general range of the thermo* 
meter being from 70° to Sj*", so that within an area about 
equid to that of Yorkshire we have every variation of 
temperature from equatorial heat to perpetual snow. 
Dr. Hlllebrand estimates the total dora of the islands 
(Phanerqgamia and Vascular Cryptogamia) at 999 species, 
representing 365 genera, and 99 orders. Of these 999 
species, 653 are absolutely restricted to the Sandwich 
Islands, 207 native species are known elsewhere, 24 
species were introduced by the natives in remote times, 
and 115 species are weeds of recent introduction. 
Leaving the introductions out of account, we have I 
therefore a native flora of 860 species, of which three out 
of four are endemic. A vegetation thus individualized 
makes the group one of the most interesting fields of study 
in the world. 

Dr. HiUebrand may be said to have devoted his life 
to the study of this question. He was born in West- 
frfuUia in rSai, and studied medicine at Gdttingen, 
Heidelbogr, and Berlin. After taking his degree, he 
settled down for a short time in practice in Germany, but 
his health soon broke down, and he sailed for Australia. 
Alter visiting the Philippine Islands and California, he 
made the Sandwich Islands his home, and his health 
became quite restored. He lived at Honolulu, mastered 
the taa^ui^jte, and practised his profession with great 
aaceess. He became private physician to the king, a 
mendbetof the Pnvy CouncU^ an active member of the 
Ibdatd of Health, and physician to the Queen’s Hospital 
abdiliie pt^clpal lunatic asylum. DurihgWenty years he 
deyeih^ hie Msure to srorfcing eul the botany of the 
IMpv tnd set^ ta^ and other 

M the islands in 187^ but 

various residents 
and whb sent hun farther 
' pit after "cemi^eting 
W Srork, which has 


been edited by.his son, who lives in America, and who 
has prefixed to it the introduction which was drawn up 
by Mr. Bcntham for our British colonial floras. His 
name is commemorated by the genus Hilkhrandiay 
which is the only representative of the Begomacem in 
Polynesia, and which was named after him by Prof. 
Oliver. The type specimens of Che present work have 
been presented to the Berlin Herbarium, and the Prus« 
sian Government has made a grant towards the expense 
of its publication. 

The book, which is dedicated to the HawaUan people, 
consists almost entirely of careful descriptions, in English, 
of the orders, genera, species, and varieties, that form 
the flora, accompanied by full details of their distribution 
through the different islands, and the sort of places in 
which they grow. Nearly all the native plants are trees, 
shrubs, or perennial herbs. Comparing the islands with 
one another, Dr. Hitlebrand's general view is that the 
flora of Kaui, the comparatively small north-eastern 
island of the group, is Che richest and most individualized, 
and that of the laige southern island of Hawaii, where 
the mountains rise the highest, is the most monotonous 
and least attractive. The total number of species here 
described as new is 180, but in some cases, as, for 
instance, by Mr. C. B. Clarke, in his Monograph of the 
Cyrtandraccic,” issued in 1 883, the publication of these 
has been anticipated, and the earlier names will have to 
be adopted. It is much to be regretted that the author 
did not live to work out fully his generalizations. A great 
deal has been written during the last few years on the 
general subject of plant-distribution, and in particular 
Wawra and Englcr in Germany, and in England 
Wallace in “ Island Life,” and Hemslcy in the “ Botany 
of the Challenger f have discussed the various points of 
interest connected with the flora of these islands. What 
is wanted now is that Dr. Hillebrand’s added facts 
should be compared together and summarized, and that 
the general conclusions which they establish should be 
carefully traced out 

The following is his outline of the zones of vegetation 
and their charactesistics : — 

** ( 1 ) The Lowland Zone* — Open country, grass-covered 
after the rains, with isolated clumps of trees, represented 
by Paritium tiliaceum^ Erythrina^ Re^oidsia^ Pan- 
danus* Capparis^ Gossyidumy Abuiilon incanunu This 
includes also the littoral zone. 

“ (2) The Lower Forest Zo/w.— Tropical in character, its 
upper limit between 1000 and 2000 feet above the sea. 
Its physiognomy is marked distinctly by Aleurites moluc- 
canoy the pale foliage of which, in contrast with the green 
colour around, attracts at once the eye of the beholder. 
The woods are rather open ; Zinziber Zerumbei covers 
the ground, Cordyliney Eugenia domesticay Zimiber 
Zerumbety and other species, are strictly confined to it. 
Pandanus odoratissimus and Paridum tiUaceum do not 
pass beyond it, but Freycinetia does. To its upper por- 
tion, but extending also into the lower part of the next 
zone, belong also most SapoiaceoBy Apocynacea* Gardenia^ 
Psy^oirtay Maboy most Urticaceafy Pisiniay ElaocarpuSy 
AurantiaceajBX^itdhm* 

" (3) Thimddk /J<wvnfZfl«z.-^Thislies within the region 
of clouds, and dev^ps the greatest luxuriance in trees 
and jungle. PiAea elxA Cl^roikHdkm are representative 
genera. The prevaiit^ trtta are indeed Metrodderos 
Mymorpha and Amcm tCoa; but, although they reach 
here their greatest devdopment in size smd number, they 



50 


NATURE 


\May. 17 , 


are not confined to this zone, but ascend above and 
descend b^ow it. It is the home of all ^.utaceous and 
most Araliaceous trees, the ubiquitous V^^doncpa vwasa, 
Atphitania^ and Coprosma, The ferns luxuriate in it, and 
tree-ferns attain only here their full dimensions. Old 
trunks are wr^ipped in creeping ferns, mosses, and lichens. 
Here also the L&bdiaceay the peculiar pride of our flora, 
exhibit their most striking forms, invariably in isolated 
individuals. The upper limit of this zone may be drawn 
at an elevation of 5000 to 6oop feet. 

(4) The Upper Forest Zone , — This extends as high as 
8000 to 9000 feet, and is characterized by stunted trees, 
chiefly Sophora ckrysophytlas Cyathodes,, Myoporum^ 
arborescent Ratllcerdiety Wiksiromioe^ and Coprosma 
Menstiesi'i, Between them luxuriate shrubby Compost ta 
{Raillardia^ Dnbautia^ Camphylothecay and Artetnisic^y 
with strawberries, brambles, and Vacciniunt, Ferns are 
scarce, and mostly belong to widely spread species .Our 
shrubby Geraniums and silvery-leaved Argyroxipkium 
extend beyond this zone to the upper limit of vegetation, 
which on Mauna Kea may be placed at 11,000 feet. 
Santalum belongs to this zone and the upper levels of 
the last. 

“ (S) A place apart must be assigned to the bog flora of 
the high table-land of Kaui and the broad top of Mount 
Eeka, on West Maui. The turfy soil is covered with 
tussock-like Graminece and CyperaceeSy all endemic 
species, with Sphagnunty creeping forms of woody 
Metrosiderosy CyathodeSy Geraniuvty Lysitnachiay and a 
number of rare, mostly single, representatives of genera 
which have their home in the Antarctic regions, New 
Zealand, the Falkland Islands, and the Southern Andes.” 

As a whole the flora of the Sandwich Islands stands 
out remarkably isolated from those of the two nearest 
great botanical regions, Polynesia and Central America, 
and has curious aflinlties with those of Australia, North 
America, the north temperate zone of the Old World, the 
Mexican highlands, the Andes, and the Antarctic regions. 
The subject is well worth working out in the same 
thorough way in which Sir J. D. Hooker has dealt with 
the floras of Tasmania and New Zealand. 

Dr. Hlllebrand’s book is also valuable as a contribution 
to the study of varieties. In the Sandwich Islands we 
get a comparatively small number of species, that have 
lived for a long time in a country where there arc great 
variations in temperature and humidity and little inter- 
ference from man. In many of the endemic genera the 
species are very difficult to individualize, and he has 
named and characterized a great number of varieties. 
Altogether the book is of exceptional value, not only to 
the systematic botanist, but to all who are interested in 
the problems connected with the origin and distribution 
of ^cies. J. G, Baker. 


.student knows, has been almost surpriisingly 
ened and augmented during the thirty years which have 
elapsed since the publication of Darwin's great worit. It 
is, however, owing to the nature of the case, scattered 
and down various scientific periodicals, many of which 
are practically maccesstbJe to the genei^ public, so that 
both Its amount and its force are under^timated^ and 
the old objections are confidently reiterated by thaft itUl 
numerous class to whom Darwinism” is a bugbear, and 
the very name of ** evolution” an absolute abomination. 
As Prof. Heilprin states in his preface, ** There has not 
thus far appeared, to the knowledge of the author, any 
collective or consecutive statement of the evidence which 
geology and palaeontology present in support of organic 
transmutation ; ” so ** with the view of partially filling 
this gap in the literature of Darwinism, the author haa 
*prcpared, at the request of many of his friends, the fol- 
lowing pages, which represent, somewhat broadened, the 
substance of a Friday evening discourse delivered at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.” Thus 
this little book, while scientific in conception and method, 
is popular in style. While there is no attempt at an 
appeal to prejudices, scientific terminolc^ is as far 35 
may be avoided, and the illustrations appended enable 
any reader, with a very moderate knowledge of natural 
history and palaeontology, to comprehend the line of 
reasoning followed by the author. 

It is needless to add that he is a thorough going evo- 
lutionist, though, like his master, he is candid in admitting 
defects in the record, and transitions which as yet are 
merely hypothetical. In one case, however, he venturea 
on a statement which seems to us over bold : U is not 
my purpose to-night to discuss the status of evolution, 
which has long since passed from the realm of pure 
and simple theory, but to present to you such of the more 
salient facts bearing upon its proof, drawn from my own 
department of geology and p^aeontology, as will permit 
you to understand why the greater number of naturalists 
consider the doctrine as firmly established to day as is 
the Copcrnican theory of planetary revolution, the theory 
of gravitation, or the undulatory theory of light.” 

We cannot but think that, in making this confident 
assertion, Prof. Heilprin has exposed a joint in his har- 
ness to the arrows of his adversaries. In years to come, 
evolution, as stated by Darwin, may assume, probably 
will assume, the position of the above-named theories In 
physical science, but surely the evidence for it is yet 
either so complete or so conclusive as for them. iienfM 
it is unwise thus abruptly to exclude any possible modi- 
fication or supplement. In scientific argumentsit is beuer 
not to imiute the practices of political orators, but to mr, 
if at all, on the side of understating rather than of over- 
stating a conviction, and to impress by caution 
reasoning rather than to dazzle by rhetoric. 

This, however, is a matter of o^itinian : we p^8$ on to 
indicate briefly the line of argument followed by Prof. 
Heilprin. At the outset he calls attention to tw^ ims- 
conceptions relating to evolution which are widi^ 
lent, and ere cdten made the ground of assaults a|iq« 
hypothesis. These are ; that if the idstung foiii^ life 
could all be recovered, they would a 
chain, and that progressive modidee^ 

organic need be, or ind^d has ^ 


T//F GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES OF 
EVOLUTION 

The Geological Evidences of Evolution. By Angelo 
Heilprin, Professor of Invertebrate Palieontology at 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
{Philadelphia: Published by the Author, 1888.) 

F ew chapters in the “ Origin of Species ” arc more 
impressive, from their perfect candour and their 
far-sighted prescience, than those dealing with the ob- 
jections which might be urged agaipst the author's bypp- 
theais, on the ground of the comparatively small palseonto- 
logical evidence in its fevour. But this evidenoe, as every 


NATURE 




Mity 17 , I §88] 


advanc^^ Past and present organic life, as 
himself carefully pointed out, are combined, not 
in a continuous chain, ^t in a genealogical tree ; '‘evo- 
lution fOCognSies modldcatiOns in the most divergent 
difOCtiona, and the tree of life that it restores is not a 
straight stem growing from a continuous apical bud, but 
a ft^m, or possibly even a limited number of stems, 
branching in varying directions.*' Thus the progress 
among (ffganic beings is analogous to that in the develop- 
ment of civilization. The united world advances, whereas 
individual tribes or nations remain at a standstill, or even 
degenerate and decay. Such is precisely the history of 
the organic development of our planet : new and more 
complicated organic types are being continually evolved, 
but side by side with these forms we still meet with those 
of a lower grade of organization, while still others, 
belonging to the earlier periods of the world's history, 
have completely dropped out.*’ 

After a brief sketch of the first appearance of vertebrate 
life, Prof. Heilprin describes the relations of the fishes, the 
amphibians, and the reptiles, indicating the affinities of 
the first and second, which have led Prof. Huxley to treat 
them as sub-groups of a single division, the Ichthyopsida. 
In the structure of the heart, mode of breathing, and 
nature of circulation, the young frog agrees with a fish, 
while in these respects the mud> fishes {Ceratodus) agree 
with the amphibians. Now this link between these great 
groups exists in very early times, as the hypothesis would 
demand. " Dipterus and Its allies are fishes that belong 
to the Devonian period of time,” and Ceratodus itself was 
living in the Permian, and thus represents the oldest 
living vertebrate type known to naturalists.” The peculiar 
•tructure of the teeth of the labyrinthodonts, found also 
hi some of the earliest fishes, and still retained by the 
alligator-gar, is another link. Next, in regard to the date of 
the appearance of birds and mammals, which is sometimes 
regatded as rather anomalous, Prof. Heilprin points out 
that both the earliest birds and the earliest mammals 
have marked reptilian affinities, which in the former are 
very distinct, so that such forms as ArchcFopteryx and 
some of the early dentigerous birds on the one side, and 
€lxt Pterosauria tya the other, do much to link together 
the two claases. Further, the ancestry of the non-flying 
li^ds, such as Dinomis and its allies, may be traced 
with greatest probability to members of the Dinosanria, 
such as Iguanodon, Hadrosaurus, and Compsognathus. 
In like way the affinities of the monotremes with the 
rsptiks are pointed out, and attention is called to the 
s^tficant fact that " the earliest reptilian forms-^those 
of thh Permian period— are the only animals which possess 
idle mnarkable dental characters of the Mammalia.” 

In fbe second section of the book Prof. Heilprin deals 
mm tspeoiolly with the development of the Mammalia 
themselm, instancing the position occupied by the 
Eoeene between the now widdy divergent 

and /ns^cHpomt the relarionShips among the 
ctf the farmer, and of the latter to the lemurs, the 
pedigree of the horse, the hncestiy of the 
Remise Tinning of the horns of the 

hsdie early Oervines 
Miocene to the compfietted forms assumed 
ahd niOre tlmc^ Cm/dkdr 

tiio newly^isdeyered link between the 


Canada stag and the elk, also receives notice, as does the 
relation of the homocercal and heterocercal to the 
primitive diphycercal fishes. Attention is also called to 
the development of the brain in various vertebrates. 

In the third section the author glances at the question 
of the antiquity of man. In regard to some of the alleged 
evidence he exercises a wise scepticism, and states that 
up to the present time he has been unable " to find satis- 
factory proof of man's belongings having been found in 
deposits very much (if at all) older than the Post-Plio- 
cene,” though he thinks it not unlikely that such may 
ultimately be found. In connection with this subject he 
mentions some human vertebrae, mineralized by limonite, 
of unknown but evidently high antiquity, discovered by 
himself in Florida. 

Lastly, he calls attention to a class of evidence which 
the comparative persistency of conditions in certain parts 
of the United States has rendered accessible to American 
geologists — namely, the relation of living forms to their 
more immediate predecessors. Instances of this may be 
obtained in the sheltered regions of the Gulf of Mexico 
and in the comparatively modem rocks of the Florida 
peninsula. As examples, species of the genera Stromhus^ 
Voluta^ FulguTy and Melongena^ are figured, showing the 
gradual transition from an extinct to an existing species, 
and to these are added a group of Paludin® from the 
Middle Tertiary of Slavonia, illustrating successive varietal 
and specific forms. 

The book is attractively written, though we must 
venture to protest against* two instances of American- 
English ; “ The swift-footed animal . . . elevates the 
body so as to weight it principally upon the extremi- 
ties of the toes ; ” and “ the evidence is . . . but a 
mere Jrgment of that which pertains to zoology.” The 
first gains so little that brevity can hardly be pleaded as 
its excuse ; the second, unless a misprint, is worthy of 
Mrs. Malaprop. T. G. B. 

THE SHELL-COLLECTOR^S HAND-BOOK FOR 
THE FIELD. 

The Skell-Colleclor's Hand-book for the Fields By J- W. 

Williams, M.A., D.Sc. Small 8vo, pp, 148 (interleaved). 

(London : Roper and Drowley, 1888.) 

H andy books for collectors, whether of birds, beasts, 
fishes, mollusks, or other organisms, are always 
most acceptable when well put together and carefully 
contrived, even if they be not original. 'Fhe present little 
book might at first sight lay claim to having fulfilled all 
these conditions. It is sm^l enough for the pocket, and 
the type is clear and legible ; but when we enter upon the 
work itself, alas ! we do not find our dream of a typical 
collector’s hand-book realized by any means. Chapter L 
"The Anatomy of a Snail,” and Chapter IL "The 
Anatomy of a Fresh- water Mussel,” should have 
been altogether omitted. They are not cleverly com- 
piled, they are sadly full of mistakes, and these too 
clearly betray the fact that the author himself Is not 
familiar with MoUistCk ft*om an anatomical point of view, 
but rather has got: sidijeCt after the style of “ Cousin 

CratnehUd.” Tkui, tKe mttmr of the shell (says Dr. 
Williams), intirdy in the pmosiracum or 

dermit. We woidd advM the learned author to try and 



52 


NATURE 




remove the epidermis from a snail-shell and observe the 
result* 

, The lip or aperture of a snaiPs shell is not generally 
called the p^iritreme but the peristome. The lines of 
growth in a stairs shell are not “ arranged concentrically 
with the HudeusJ^ ^though this is the case with the 
growth-lines in bivalves. 

We fail to understand how the operculum of a snail 
“differs from the true shell in having more conckiolin 
entering into its composition.^’ Surely the author meant i 
to say less conckiolin and more chitine f * i 

The epiphragm^ or layer of hardened mucus, sometimes | 
strengthened with carbonate of lime, closing the aperture j 
of the shell of land-snails during hibernation is called 
here also the clausilium f (p. 5). The description of the | 
odontophore with its radula and jaws (pp. 6 and 7) is very 1 
inaccurately rendered, and in copying Prof. Lankester the 
author has carefully also quoted a mis-statement as to | 
the formula of the teeth. 

The eggs of snails are said by the author to be “ laid 
in a string, which is called the nidamental ribbon^ or 
inclosed in horny capsules.*^ This is true of sea-snails, 
such as the whelks {Fus^us^ Buccinum^ &c.), but it is not 
the case in land-snails, of which Dr. Williams is dis- 
coursing. In these the eggs are separate and protected 
by a shell, which is sometimes membranous and flexible) 
at others calcareous and brittle, while those of the fresh- 
water species are deposited in small glairy masses of soft 
transparent jelly-like consistence. 

Turning from the snail to the fresh- water mussel (Chapter 
II.), the author, in describing the animal of the latter, 
appears to have made a mistake similar to that which he 
has made with regard to the garden snail : not knowing 
his subject well, he has in fact described a siphonated 
Mya^ when he fondly imagined he was writing about a 
non-siphonaled Unio or Anodon. 

Turning to the species enumerated by the author, we 
regret to observe that here the discrimination of the 
expert is alike wanting. For txSimp\Qf'Anodonta anatina, 
Linn., figures as a good species, whereas it is merely a 
variety of A. cygttea^ Linn. It seems rather absurd to give 
in a shell-colicctoris hand-book such shells as Pkysa acuta^ 
Drap., “Hab. In one of the lily-tanks in Kew Gardens, 
imported ” (p, 72) ; Bulimus Goodalliiy Miller (intro- 
duced into a green-house with exotic plants) ; Vertigo 
tumida, Westerlund, another “casual”; P. dilatatus^ 
Gould, in the canals around Manchester, “introduced 
from America in cotton bales.” If these are admitted, 
why omit Clausilia parvula and C solida^ also “ casuals/* 
which appear both in Sowerb/s last edition, and in 
Gwyn Jeffreys, v. 161-62 ? 

Far too much prominence is given to worthless varieties 
of the common snail Helix aspersa^ such as minor, 
maxima, albida, and sinistrorsum, &c. ; but, having put 
them in, why should the author omit such a one as 
Unto Hmidus var. ponderosa f Many of the genera, 
too, need revision to be brought up to date. Thus, 
Achatinaadcula^oy^^ be Cacilianellaacicula; Bulimus 
acutus should be Helix (Cochlice/la) acuia ; Zonites should 
htPiyalinia. By the way, is omitted 

altogether, although known for years. 

Tbe habiuts of many of the species are badly given. 
Thus, Testacelia Afaugei is said to be found in gardens 


and fields, wherea$ it has been met wiOt in the 
hood of Bristol, whence it lias BpmA to a few 
localities. 

Why are the thf^ known localities for V^iigo nuntHki- 
siana (p. 129) omitted P-^ltchcn Valley, near OttetheWMS ^ 
near Hitchin ; and near ttye-House, Her^s. Other qiiiie 
local species are recorded as if they occurred everys^ere, 
as Helix pisana and H, obvoluta, &c. 

A few woodcuts are insetted, but they are very popr 
and not accurately drawn. TesimcHla Miotidea is 
reversed. 

The minute characters of the shells, $0 tiseful in many 
instances in the field, are omitted. The book is inter* 
leaved, which doubles its thickness for field-work, and we 
at first wondered why so much plain paper was added. 
It has since occurred to us that the author bad the con- 
venience of the reviewer in his mind’s eye, and we must 
say we found the blank pages most useful in correcting 
the text as we turned over the leaves. 

Is it too much to hope that the author may be 
able to give some attention to the living land and fresh- 
water Mollusca before he brings out a new edition of his 
handy shell-collector’s manual, and so avoid those pit- 
falls into which he who compiles unskilfully and without 
practical acquaintance with his subject is sure to slip ? 


OUR BOOK SHELF. 

A Text’-book of Biology. By J, R. Ainsworth Davit, 
B.A., Lecturer on Biology in the University of Wales, 
Aberystwith. (London : Griffin and Co , 1888.) 

This is one of a class of books which the system of 
examining the whole world on a limited schedule, drawn 
up by a Board of disinterested philanthropists, is bound to 
produce. It will delight the misguided student whose 
sole desire is “to get through” with the least know« 
ledge possible, and will disgust every competent teachen 
Mr. Davis is in error in stating that his book supplies a 
gap in literature. The little text-book by Prof.„ Lloyd 
Morgan is on the same lines, and appears to us to be far 
less objectionable, inasmuch a$ it is, though of smaller 
dimensions, a more genuine exposition of the priiici{des 
of the subject, less of a cram-book than the present work, 
and written with maturcr judgment and literary jpower- 
Thc only way to prevent the study of biology, as directed 
by the University of London, from sinking into a wortUmts 
exercise of memory applied to the contents of such Hitfe 
books as this by Mr. Davis, is to change the animals Md 
lants enumerated in the schedule every three yeam* 
'his, however, would hardly suit the ubiqilfuOtts aspimi^s 
to a degree for whom alone the Imperial Uatvenilty 
arranges its curriculum. Nor would it suit My. Jpavis 
and other more distinguished authors of regu|atio2t 
books. The fact is that genuine education in biolGgy as 
a science, and the influence of personal contact and 
association with an active investigator and dfscovenfr as 
teacher and friend, are destroyed by the Imperial syttto 
of schedule and examination ; and their place is 
! weary grinding at little bopks written by teatftm 
authorl^,and too often ignorant as well as 
Mr. Davis has borrowed a number of 
to illustrate hb book, which is nothing mog* 
a strictly limited, and in minor j^nts aa 
d«tcriptim«f ttie^^types ium«d in tbe •oKndtAi-aC.IlM, 
Univeraity of Loiidoa. Tlie neir fifoMf fttellp[|Loadt|lto 
short general introduction is not iilof% WKMOW m 
eironeotts, the account of ftotooiatm aittf flifi tijmar 
statement Cdiffeteh^betweM^n^a^anW^ 



NATUm 


53 


ih$ (hoi^gi^al Survey qf New Zealand. • 

finite of an indesc to the ReportB of the Geolc^c^ 
Survey of New Zealand* ft^m t866 to 1885 inclusive, 
enalto us to see at a glance how laige an amount of 
viOaal^ jnatetial has b^o accumulated hy the staff of 
this Survey, under its accomplished and energetic Direc- 
torj Sir James Keeton Several editions of the useful 
Mok^cal map of the colony have appeared, the latest 
qateef 1B85 ; and the volumes containing the yearly 
iwports of progress are now eighteen in number. Mono* 
spraj^s on the palaeontology of New Zealand are stated to 
be m preparation, and there are, besides these, museum 


and laboratory reports, meteorological returns, and mis- 
celianeous publications The difficulties felt in correlating 
the strata of so isolated an area as New Zealand with the 
rocks of other districts must always be very great, and 
it is therefore not surprising to find that warm and ani- 
mated discussions are taking place among the different 
geologists of the colony as to the and relations of 
some of the fossUiferous deposits. We may feel assured 
that the solution of these questions will be fraught with 
important results having a direct bearing upon some of 
the most difficult problems that now confront geologists. 

First Lessons in Geometry, For the Use of Technical^ 

Middle* and High Schools, By B. Hanumanta Rau, 

£.A. (Vepery : Printed at the S.P.C.K. Press, 1888.) 

TBIS is a second edition, revised and enlarged, of a very 
good book for those who are beginning the study of geo- 
metry. Much stress is laid all through on the construe* 
tion and careful drawing of the figures, and great pains 
seem to have been taken by the author to make his 
meaning as dear as possible by means of simple ex- 
amples, thereby inducing the reader not to learn the 
piwositions hy heart. 

The volume is well arranged as regards the order of the 
subjects, and teachers, as well as taught, will find in it a 
good amount of useful information. 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

{ 7 ( 1 # Editor does not hold himself rtspomihU for opinions 
oxentsed iy kis correspondents. Neiiker can he under- 
take to return, or to correspond with the writers of, 
r^teJ memssscripts intended for this or any other part 
of NATuaa. No notice is taken of anonymom communi- 
cations.} 

Dissemination of Plants by Birds. 

1 VUtLY agree with Dr, Guppy that birds may have effected 
much motre m the disidbution of plants than is generally ad- 
mitted, and I think it is most desirable that hTs sitggestion 
respecting the examination of the contents of the crops of birds 
shot at sea in high southem latitudes should be carried out. At 
the same time 1 am of opinion that his explanation of the prob- 
able odgin of the vegetation of the distant islands in the South 
Athmtle and South Indian Oceans is insufficient to account for 
the endemic element, unless we suppose a former belt of vegeta- 
^nn tn a lil)|her latitude than these islands, which is now extinct. 
Amundiig W existence of such a belt of vegetation at some 


endng w existence of such a belt of vegetation at some 
lete period, it would not be difficult to ex^ain the relation- 


ehto between the floras of Amenoa and Australasia, os well 
in these islands of plants not known to exist 

Frfmid^ dntiseorkttfica, the Kerguelen cabbage, is the most 
^gyan umte of the endemic plants. As a genus, it is as well 
** ^ majority of the genera of the Cnicifeim ; 
mV wiiat fi^ it has no near ally in the southern 

behm most nearly leleied to the northern genus 
^a Aqwii, dsfiMng from it more in habit of growth than many 
jMetand peealfaiity; it la one of t^oommonest plants in the 
Prince Idhynd^honp to the Macdonald Group, and 

os Is known, confined to 
Mqp^pn 4 Km< la mie ^ the dsgeaded types of the Catyo- 


phyllesE^Pelycarpese, and nearly related to the Andine genus 
PycnopkyllwH, and the North Mexican genus Cerdia. 

To my mind there are other difiicalties in the way of such a 
derivation of this insular vegetation as that suggested by Dr. 
Guppy, but I will not enter into them here, as it would occupy 
too much space. W, Bottino Hemsley. 

On the Reappearance of Pallas’s Sand Grouse 

{SyrrhapUs paradoxus) in Burope- 

This bird suddenly reappeared at the eiul of April of this year 
at dii!ferent localities of Central Europe, tK>t having mlmted so 
far since 1863. A. R. Wallace, in his important work, ** The 
Geographi|^ Distribution of Animals,’' publish^ in 1876, 
figured this sand grouse among the characteristic birds of Mon- 
golia (vol. i. p. 2X6, plate 3), and remarks:— “A curious 
bird, whose native country seems to be the high plains of 
Northern Asia, but which often abounds near Pekin, and in 
1863 astonished European ornithologists by appearing in con- 
siderable numbers in Central and Western Europe, in every 
part of Great Britain, and even in Ireland.” Vol* ii. p. 337, 
the same author says in the work quoted: — **Syrrhaptcs nor- 
mally inhabits Tartary, Thibet, and Mongolia to the country 
around Pekin, and occasionally visits Eastern Europe. But a 
few years back {1863) great numbers suddenly appeared in 
Europe, and extended westward to the shores of the Atlantic, 
while some even reached Ireland and the Faroes.” 

Mr. Wallace, speaking here of the geographical distribution 
of SyrrhapUs^ has in view the two species of the genus, 
vis. S. paradoxus, Pallas, from Tartary and Mongolia, and 
S. tibetanus, Gould, from Thibet ; whereas in the following 
sentence, treating of the extraordinary migration, only S. para- 
doxus appears to be meant. At least I am not aware that the 
second species has ever been observed in Europe. 

Two years later not one bird of those that immigrated in 1863 
appears to have been observed again here ; they may have di^ 
or been cruelly killed, or may have retumea to their native 
steppes. No special notice having been taken of their move- 
ments, we did not learn the raason of that uncommon migration, 
nor the rapidity of their wandering, nor whether they returned 
to Asia or not. 

The reappearance of the sand grouse in large flocks, con- 
sisting apparently of innumerable individuals, now gives us the 
opportunity of watching their movements in detail. This should 
be done everywhere, and for this reason I communicate the fol- 
lowing notes, comprising all that 1 have learned till to-day 
about it. 1 am sure that many more observations will have 
been made in these days, and perhaps those who can add some- 
thing to the following list will do so through the columns of 
Nature. Observers should especially try to find out whether 
there are specimens of S. tibetanus among them. 

April 21, Plock, Poland. On the same day specimens on the 
River Pilica, near Radom, and in the market of 
Warsaw, Poland. 

„ 24, at 5 p.m., near Pima, Saxony. 

,, 25-26, in the n^ht, near Leipzig, Saxony, 

,, 26, Kalisch, Poland. 

»i 27, 3 p.m., near Grossenhain, Saxony; on the same day 
several flocks there. 

„ 27, 4 p.m., near Pima, Saxony. 

„ 27, Brandenburg, Prussia. 

„ 27, Elbing, Prussia. 

„ 27, near Leipzig, Saxony. 

„ 28, near Leipzig, Saxony. 

„ 28, Kuchelb^, Silesia. 

„ 28, Czerwinsk, Poland. 

„ 28, Warseba, Poland. 

„ 29, Cemowitz, Bohemia. 

On the last days of April near Gdig^my, Transylvania, and near 
Konigstein, Saxony. 

May 1, near Grossenhain, Saxony. 

„ t, LiobschUtx, Saxony. 

„ I, Niedertolbriick, Sileaia. 

„ 2, Ratsebuig, HoUtein. 

ft 3^3* fo the night, near Grossenhain, Saxony, 

„ 3 , near GrosaanhaiD, Saxony. 

„ ^ near BauUdk, Saxony. 

„ near Sehneebexg, S«ccmy» 

„ 3, near Fj^edebatg, Sile^ 

„ ^ near Omsaenhidh, Saxony ; several flocks. 



54 


NATUm 


Mfiy: 5 ,. 4 «.i!n.| n«ar QrossttohdUf Saxony, 
n 5, labnd of Riigan, on the Baltic. 

near 'Fraibeigr Saxony* 
ti 6i^aittr KimigateUi, Saxony* 

,, 6, war Ken£bui%f HoBteio. 

,, 7» RekheoAu, Saxony. 

yy 7, near ^klin, Brandenburg, Prussia. 

,, 7, Palczyn^ Pos^cn, Prossia. 

,, 7, near Leipzig, Saxony. 

A. B. Mever. 

Koval Zoological Museum, Dresden, May 12. 


** Coral Formations.” , 

In ft recent paper read before the Koyal Society of Edinbuqjh, 

I have pointed out the importance of taking into consideration 
the molecular condition of carbonate of lime in relation to its 
solubility in sea water. 

The (tabulated) results of an exhaustive series of tests (see 
Nature, voI. wxvii. p 605) show in a striking manner this 
difference between the crystalline (or massive) and the 
amorplious conditions of that body. 

In Table TI. the amount of caibonnte of lime taken up by sea- 
w^atcr from decomposing shell -fish is shown to be very great, the 
clear newly filicrcd solution giving 0*384 grammes per litre I 
(other determinations since made giving still higher results) ; I 
this is due no doubt to the formation of carbonic acid, the result ! 
of the oxidation of the organic matter in the putrefying mass. 

The clear (foul-smelling) liquid on standing exposed to the air 
rapidly decomposes, ammoniacal salts being formed j and a great 
portion of the amorphous carbonate of lime which was dissolved 
during the first stages of putrefaction is thrown out of solution 
and deposited in a crystalline and practically nearly insoluble 
form. 

This may be due to the lo.s< of carbonic acid, or its com- 
bination with ammonia, produced during decomix)sition of 
nitrogenous organic matter ; or to the well-known action certain 
salts of ammonia (especially the carbonate) exert in degrading 
the solubility of carbonate of lime in water ; but the result so 
produced, 1 think, meets all the objections Mr. T, Mellard 
Rcadc brings forward against the solution theory, which is Dr, 
Murray’s explanation of the formation of coral lagoons. 

Again, when a clear saturated solution of amorphous carbonate 
of lime in seawater (see Table I F., a and />) is allowed to stand for 
a few hours at ordinary temperatures, the solution becomes 
turbid and ultimately throws out in a crystalline condition a 
considerable proportion of the carbonate of lime it held in 
solution. 

Dr. Murray, in a paper on *' Structure, Origin, and Distribu- 
tion of Coral Reefs, &c.,” read before the Royal Institution, 
London, on March 16, refers to this cliange of condition as 
follows ; — 

“The whole of ^ coral reef is permeated with sea water like a 
sponge ; as this sea-water is but slowly changed in the interior 
parts it becomes saturated, and a deposition of crystalline car- 
bonate of lime frequently takes place among the interstices of the 
corals and coral debris.*^ 

These facts seem to me quite sufficient to account for the 
formation of coral lagoons by the more rapid solution of the 
amorphous form of carbonate of lime, found in dead and decom- 
posing corals. At the same time other deposits are preserved 
from wholesale solution by the change in the molecular condition 
which carbonate of lime undergoes,-— always the after result of 
sofution. 

I n^eed not here refer to other influences at work in maintain- 
ing the balance of absorption and secretion of lime salts in the 
ocean, because I consider the difTcrence in solubilUy of various 
forms which carbonate of lime assumes equally accounts for the 
^mation of lagoons and the preservation of coral reefs and shell 
beds or banks. Robert Irvine. 

Royston, Oranton, Edinburgh, May 14. 


Aurora BoroaUa. 

borealis was visible here on Sunday night. May 6. 
We have difficulty m identifying it in this neighbourkoJid with^ 
out spectroscopic aid, because the lights of Liverpool and its 
suburbs extend over the eastern horizon, and the^y to the 
north-east and north is filled with a ^ow from Bortle and 


shy was not- to bo mistaken } and boCm a a 

curved bluioh^white bemn-^-lwp mVant aides a wl 

brighter rounded an^o of about 70 *— ^shbt up from tbe 
apex coming first, and attalnSpg a hei^t of oO^ the stdUS , - 

being about 1* broad ; the extremities df the sides, i * 
toucbii^the horizon in the north-north-west and south-sow* 
east. This beautiful beam remained a few seconds, ^len w«l|t 
as it came, the apex disappearing last* The general pncnomeiMia 
seemed to Increase in bri^aess, but sub^uent bbseevirtipas 
show that it could not then be satisfiietorily diatingsiahnd froui 
the early dawn and reflected lights. L. J. 

Rock Ferry, May n. 

Weight and Mass. 

Ths of a body is the quantity which Is measured out 
by the operation of To a body it Is pla^ tn 

*one of the scales of a balance, and equilibrated by staadaid 
weigk/s formed of lumps of metal called pounds, hundred- 
weights, tons, &C.J or kilogrammes in the metric systiem ; and 
the sum of these weights is {pace Mr. R. £. Baynes) called the 
tveighi of the body* 

The mathematician may now call this quantity, if he UbeSr 
the mass of the body ; but the world at large uses the word 
weighty with the advantage of having the corresponding 
“ to weigh," which the suV>stantivc ** mass " doe* not possess t 
we arc not yet accustomed to speak of a body ** massing "100 
tons. The numerous circumlocutions to express one sin^e idea 
in Prof. MacGregor’s examples arise from the want of the vbrb 
**to mass." 

The ’'extraordinary and peculiar " language is, then, that of 
the elementary text-bwks of Mechanics, which tell us th^t the 
weight of a body is the force with which it is attracted by 
earth (Lodge, Elementary Mechanics," p. 66). 

It is true, as Sir Philip Magnus points out in his " Mechanics/' 

§ 46, that the word 7 veight is made to do double duty, somedipcs 
standing for force and sometimes for mass ; and that these two 
significations must be carefully distinguxhed. 

But the "ordinary he or she" would no more accept the 
"pull or heft required to lift a body" as a correct measure of 
the weight, than the Red Indian of to-day would accept the 
we^ht of the Hudson Bay factor’s fiat as one pound. 

The theorist must then exert his ingenuity to invent a new 
word to express the force idea, to associate with the word masSy 
already invented by him ; but to attempt to restrict the meoAi^ 
of the word weight in a manner not usual in ordinary language 
can only lead to confusion. In any engineering, chemical, ot 
ordinary journal we shall always find weight used in the sense 
of meusy as defined in the text-books of elementary dynamics ; 
and even in these treatises we shall find in the parts on Statics 
the word weight used in its ordinary sense. For instance, on 
p. 196 of Dr. Lodge’s " Mechanics" we find, Ex. 10, "A moss 
of wood (sp. gr. 0*6) is counterpoised by t05 correct gramhl^ 
of iron (sp. gr. rs) ; find the mass of the wood (or its 
weight in vacuo) f 

Sometimes it is not possible to employ the balance to eitk»^ 
the weight (or mass) of a body ; as, for instance, when, ^ 
chemUt evolves a certain we^hi of hydrogen in a chornkM) 
bination, when the artillerist speaks of a gun weigJi^fig 1 1.0^^ 
I tons, and when the astronomer the earth» -^in OttiCb 

1 cases the weight or mass, whichever it is colled, is cajcul^ded V 
the product of the volume and the density t detttmUia ^ 
example the wekht of 1000 cubic feet of steeh The W 
(or moss M) is then found theoretically from the fomnla vV {or 
M) 5= pV, but r^ly practically from the formnU W ^ 
where W or M is given in pounds, when V U given 4 a mfrdio 
feet, and p Ss then called the density, and s the speemi 
(the densitjf relative to water)y and it is the specific gravity for 
which tables are given ; but In the metric system m 

pV = jV, n^re W pr M is given ingtammes, when V isgiifwi 
m cu^c cmtthnetiresi and the density p, and the 

cdlldd tht U the imii. p tho dA&ibjF. MHl'i' 


NATURE 


5S 


iiere derfrad £t^in thft «qttatloA W » ^g, the 
aU coohpion in Dynamics and It is gtatlfying to ^nd 
/mom MeadehhaU that ft cnuade against it is in progmts in 
America. 

It is. naedlesc to repeat here the objections against this 
laqaatloni but it is easy to see bow it arose, 

MaUumatidsms now meastirc mass in pounds, so that the mass 
of ft body is the number of pounds of matter in the body {tk^ 
fcwi^riii the vernacular) ; ana the equation W = means that 
the ft^igbt of M pounds is M/ p^odals, accoroing to their 
definitbn that 'Hhe weight of a b^y is the force with which it 
k attracted by the earth^* ; but this was not so originally. 

&iT|y writers on Dynamics, before Gauu invented the absolute 
unit of force, always employed the statical gravitational unit, 
and then if a weight of W pounds was acted on by a force of 

P pounds, the equation of linear motion was = P. 

g i 

♦ W 

To avoid the necessity ot writing and prbting — • it was 

replaced by the letter M, and called the mass \ the unit of mass 
being thus ^pounds. But now the invariable quantity, the mas«, 
is measured in terms of a variable unit, while the variable unit 
of force is the attraction of the earth on a i -pound weight. 

Although such words as *'a force equal to the weight of the 
mass of lo pound weights do not occur in Prof. MacGregor’s 
book, they are strictly derived from his own delinitiotis ; and so 
is the following, “ the weight of 32 pound weights on the Earth 
is at the surface of Jupiter a force of 71 pounds’ webht.” I 
bring forward these illustrations lo show that the fine dktinction 
between “ 10 pound weights and ** 10 pounds’ weight " is not 
workalde ; ana to show that the addition of the word 7 ueighi to 
pounds does not convey the idea of font in ordinary language, 
and is not clear even in the language of the precisionists. 

Nor can the equation p = g^% in Hydrostatics be defended, as 
capable of expressing a pressure in pounds on the square foot 
(or more commonly on the square inch) ; for, if Prof. MacGregor 
applies this equation to a numerical example, he will find himself 
dmding by^ m one operation, only to multiply by in the next. 
The unreal character of these changes of units is apparent when 
we cme to numerical examples ; the defect of our dynamical 
teaching is that the student is so rarely brought before a practical 
numerical illustration on a large scale. 

, The rest of Prof. MacGregor’s remarks I must answer very 
briefly, for fear of occupying too much space. 

The kilometn a as aesigned to be the centesimal minute of 
latitude, to replace the ^gt^phical or sta which is the 
veKogesimal minute of latituae ; the quadrant of the earth is there* 
fore 10,000 kilometres, or loP centimetres, and 90 x 60 = 5400 


geographical or sea miles. 
Tne cosmopolitan unit o 


The cosmopolitan unit of speed at sea is the knoi^ which is a 
wiocitjf of one geogra(^tcal mile an hour ; if 10 knots, spaced 
about 50 feet apart, pass over the taffrail in half a minute, the 
vessel is said to be going 10 kno^s. All civilized nations 
measure speed at sea in knots, in French ftofu</s, German k noton, 
Duteh knoopm, Italian nodi, Spanish ntutos, Sec. In precision 
knots an hour is on a par with atfnosphms per square inch. 

It is unfortunate that we have not yet reached uniformity in 
the use of the words elongation and extension. The French | 
treats, and our practical writers, Ronlctne, Unwin, &c., use 
and extension, pressure and compression, to denote 
eimple longitudinal stresses and their corresponding straliie ; the 
fhtio df Unsim to extension; or odpressmr to emnpression, being 
the moMm oj Haetieipp, llik^vscriiidloxi ia tenninology must be 
ejlkkAt by fbileie a^ Kart Peanon. 

eebehikioti, iphakkit on of engineers and practical 
1 bett/o that, the tTftfttment of tnt subjects of weight, 
ordinary text-books of Mechanics is by 
iMfb^eahs or satkfisetory, and rMttires caeefol revision. 

" A- G. GaEftNuiLL, 


.|p Mtv ot sptecijk gnipityho accepted, 

iMn eotiAkfon, mln»dy serfons enoten, in the minds of beginners 
% between mm end wilt be mtseb inoeased. 

9n>m the best and deaemt ^dmtens of dmd& tmd s/ee^ 
those m and Sbaw^ ** Praotioal 

WW?*” P- These dimon- 

In tMiw ebd i|Nic|.TBid a ^n« nuibber, 

TMiaie nw niany ndroiknges^ ei a ratio, 


and not the least among them is that the numbers in tables of 
specific gravities are independent of any system of units, while 
in a table of quantities having dimensions the numbers given 
depend on the system of units used. Thus the density of platinum 
would have to be given in an English table os 134375 pounds, 
or in a metrical table as 31*5 grammes^ Ag^n we should lose 
the very useful analogies between the definitions of density and 
thermal capacity and specific gmtHiy and specific heat, to which 
I I drew attention in a letter to Natitrb, vol. xxxiii. ^ 391. 

Prof. Carey Foster seems to think it would be useful to 
have a table telling us the force with which unit volume of any 
b^y is attracted towards the earth, and that this should l>e 
called a table of absolute specific gravities. But 1 fail to see 
any advantage in this, for it Is adding a totally new definition to 
be remen^reil, and one which would certainly create con- 
fusion in a beginner’s mind ; and the objection applies to this, that 
the numbeTR given would depend on the system of units us^, to 
say nothing of the value of gravity at the place for which the 
table was calculated. Supposing even that the latter were 
ignored, It is not more troublesome to convert, with ihe aid ol 
the known weight of unit volume of water, the specific ^avity 
of any material into the weight of a given volume of it, than to 
convert a number given in one system of units into the numbe’* 
representing it in the system we may happen to be using, 

if we are to take Mr, Cummii^’s definition as he expresses it, 

I would submit that a pound avoirdupois is a quantity of matter 
and not a force ; and to say that the specific gravity of water is 
62*5 pounds avoirdupois is simply taking the density of water 
and calling it specific gravity. Pace Mr. Grccnhill and the 
engineers it is hard enough to eradicate the notion that the 
quantity of stuff In a bod/ and the force with which it is pulled 
towards the earth arc one and the same without having the task 
made more difficult by our definitions. 

50 City Road, E.C. Harry M. Elder. 

The Comiah Blown Sands. 

In the description of the raised sea beach at Newquay, which 
Sir Henry De la Beche has given In his “ Survey of Devon and 
Cornwall,” he makes no reference to a curious feature observable 
in a part of the beach, and to which I should like to direct 
attention, with a view to obtaining some explanation of the Cause 
of its formation. As far n$ I know, the appearance is only to 
be found at one spot, on what is known as Luile Fistrel, to the 
westward of the town. It consists of a number of cylinders of 
indurated sand, separated from each other by thin walls, often 
only an inch or two thick, and forming the base of the cliff or 
bank, which is perhaps 10 or 15 feet high at the place. These 
cylinders rest upon abed of rock (argillaceous slate ?), which runs 
down from the bottom of the bank to the sea in a series of 
shelving ledges. The cylinders, which are locally known as 
Pixie Holes, weather out from the bank,. but unfortunately few or 
none of them are now to be seen in a perfect state, their walls 
having been broken d>wn by people scrambling up the bank, and 
also by quarrying operations, which I learn have recently been 
carried on close by. 1 am told that formerly the cylinders were 
very perfect, and often of laigc site ; I myself have seen them, 
fifteen or sixteen years ago, staudiqg up like little towers along the 
base of the cliff, and I have often sheltered myself perfectly from 
a shower of rain by standing In one and covering myself with my 
umbrella. I have recently had a photograph taken of the best 
group to he found, and a c<w of this, together with a piece of 
the wall of one of the cylinders, is with Mr. Goodchlld, of the 
Geological Survey, Jermyn Street, who will show it to anyone 
interested in the matter; the srxe of one of the cylinders 
photographed is 51 inches deep and afij; inches in diameter. 

R. H. Curtis. 

[The sand in question is well known to geologists as an 
example of blown Und ag^utinated into a compact stone by car- 
Wate of lime derived from the solution of calcareous organisms, 
which here on the surface consist largely of land-snaiS. The 
tubular cavities are no doubt due to the removal of the calcareous 
cement by percolating water, and are thus of the same nature as 
the pot-holes in chalk, asnl the cavernous holes and tunnels in 
hard limestone.-* ED,] 

in Iron CradvlctOTa. 

Mr. SuMPlint qtmtos (Nature, May to, p; »), in support of 
the idea that itop cxwfMctors may have k» self-induction than 
copper ones of tm same ditbemiotia, a suggestion of mine that 



56 


NATURE 


17, |J^8 


far very feeble mstguetlrltig forces, iron oSAy be dUmsgnetic 
Ulmi sittfiefltioo confessedly speculative i ils basis was the 
i^lon that the Weber- A.mi>^re eleotro-magnetlo molecules suffer 
ifemeth^g akin tb static fnction when the process of magnetisa- 
tihn ittempUlto bring them into aligament. Since it was thrown 
MU Rayleigh has proved that the susceptibility of iron is 
eO^ant, and has a felrly high positive value, for magnetic forces 
ranging from op3 to 0*04 C.G.S. downwards. Below the 
lowest force he has investigated, it is still conceivable that there 
may be a change in the susceptibility, but it is extremely im- 
probable. In all likelihood, Lord Rayleigh’s straight line in 
the curve of B and II or of I and 11 extends back to the ofigin. 
Ibis at least is certain, that if there is any region at the begin- 
ning of magnetization within which the permeability is less than 
unity, or even no more than unity, it must be $0 infiaitesiinally 
narrow that its existence has no practical interest. Kor such 
magnetic forces os act on a lightning-conductor when a dis- 
charge is passing* iron is, beyond any question, strongly paramag- 
netic, and the s^f-induction with the iron conductor consequently 
greater than with the copper. J. A. Ewing. 

Dundee, May w. 

Hotea on the Reproduction of Rudimentary Toes in 
Greyhounds. 

At the present writing, I have under my observation a fine 
male, light clay-coloured, smooth haired greyhound, which at 
certain intervals well illustrates the reproduction of the rudiment- 
ary digits of its feet, after they have l>een accidentally amputated. 
To-day this dog has growing on the inner aspects of both its 
fere and hind icet, and situated some 9 centimetres above the 
soles, on each limb, a str^g rudimentary toe. If we choose, 
say, this toe on the right hind foot as an example of them all, we 
find it to be loosely attached, rather more than a centimetre 
long to the base of the claw, which latter is large and strong, 
powerfully curved, and fully as big as any of the claws on the 
foot phalanges. I further find that thiatoe has a well-marked pad 
on its under side, but careful examination fails to detect any 
bone in the proximal joint, from which I also infer that the 
ungual phalanx likewise lacks one, though this is not so easily 
determined without cutting through the horny theca forming the 
claw. About four months ago this dog was coursing hares over the 
prairie of this region, which chances to be overgrown with a 
stiff growth of sage-brush, about 2 feet to 3 feet high. The wiry 
stems of this plant, os the dog bounded among them, snipped off 
all four of these rudimentary digits, close down to the leg in each 
case, as nicely as though it hail been done with a knife, leaving, 
linear wounds about half a centimetre long. Now, instead of 
the Ups of these wounds healing across, as one would naturally 
suppo.se they would, they immediately form the bo-sis, in each 
case, for the growth of another rudimentary clawed toe, fully as 
perfect os the one which originally sprang from the same site. 
These subsequent growths take about three months to attain 
their full size again, when they are very likely to be removed by 
a similar process, and once more grow out as before, and so on 
indefinitely, 

From several points of view, this case, as occurring in a 
vertebrate so high in the scale as a do^, has interested me 
very much indeed, and I further find that it is no uncommon thing 
to meet with greyhounds that have never possessed these rudi- 
mentary pollices and halluces, and it is fair to presume that in 
this race they are gradually disappearing. 

R. W. SHUFKI.DT. 

Fort Wingate, New Mexico, March aS. 

Dreams. 

In discussing the differences between dreams and real life, 
Schopenhauer expresses the opinion that the distinction between 
these two activities of our representative power consists merely 
in the possibility of the representations of real life being con- 
nected in an uninterrupted successive scries, while dreams 
reaemble the separate of a book torn asunder, and put 

tc^etber again in complete confusion. Some personal observa- 
tions of my own do not quite agree with this view. I have 
watched my dreams for some years, and have remarked that 
many of them kre connected with one another in separate series. 
Itii^pcns to me very often chat my dreams consist of a series 
of re^nesentadons logically develops (akboa^h sometimes the 
logic IS absurd) from other series of representations dreamed long 


before. It would be Interesting to know tf W W 

observed anything of thfe kitid. ^ 

Oostkamaiogorsk* Western Siberia, ApHlo* ; f ' > 


^'AnugoAiesn/^ 

Mr. Collins (Nattjrr, May 3, 7) dain» #at,MrV 

Herbert Spencer anticipated Sir Wm. Grove and Prolf 
in the expression of the idea of an^oigirniim. 1 i^liirk thiw 
priority to all of them must be given to the mithdr^bf Ecc^ 
siasticus in the Apocrypha, who says (chap, xlii:,' verse <4)1 
“All things are double, one against the other. Hejiath maoO 
nothing imperfect." THONtAa "WoOBS. 

jParsonstown, May 13. 


S[/GGESTIOJVS ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF 
THE VARIOUS SPECIES OF HEAVENLY 
BODIES} 

V. 

Classification into Species. 

are now in a position to apply all that has gone 
before In a suromarised statement of the various 
spectral changes^ including those connected with hydrogen, 
which take place not only in these oMects studied by 
Dun^r, but in those others to which 1 have referred as 
forming the true beginning of the group. 

The following statement, however, must not be taken 
as anything else than a first approximation to the real 
criteria of specific differences. I am convinced that 
further thought is required on it, and that such further 
thought will be well repaid. 

The Sequence of the Various Bands In the Spectra of the 
Elements indicated by Bodies of the Group. 

In comparing the spectrum of an element which has 
been mapped in the laboratory with the absorption bands 
in the sp^trum of a “ star," we need only consider those 
bands and flutings which stand out prominently and are 
the first to flash out when there is only a small quantity 
present. Thus^ in the flame spectrum of barium there is 
an almost continuous background of flutings with a few 
brighter bands in the green, and it is only important to 
consider the bands., as the flutings would mainly produce 
a general dimming of the continuous ^ectrum. In 
order to show at a glance what portions of the sp^trum 
of an element it is most important for us to consider in 
this discussion, I have reconstructed the map of low- 
temperature spectra which I gave in my previoua paper, 
with reference to those elements which are indic^tj^ 
in the spectra of bodies of Group 11 . Five orders 6f 
intensities are represented, the longest lines, flutings, or 
bands being the brightest. The lines, flutings, or bands 
in the lowest horizon, in the case of c^ch eiemeot, ate 
those which are seen at. the lowest temperature, i^Whkh^ 
are the first to appear when only a quality ojt 
substance is present. Those in the upper horfeonk am 
the faintest, and are only sben when the tempemtm tk 
increased, or a considerable amount of ^ li 

volatilized. The map shows If them Ulty 
tions of magnesium, for instance, in bddi^ 0 
peratures, the fluting at 500 will be seen, pos^bily ; 
out the other flutings or lines. The first ^ , 

manganese will be the fluting at 358^ and so on. 
on account of the masking effect of the spectrum m 
element upcm that of another, we may sometifttes 
clement indicated in a star spectrum, not by the bt^htelA V 
band or fluting in its spectrum, but by the scfcoiid or lMe 
third in brightness ; this, df ooursk^ Only occurs ^ 
darkest band falls on one of the tol|[f^eiit fi 

*Tlw Bakarira aeJivwM at Hk Royal 

J. Hdratian Lockyor, F,R.S. Cootinaed ftaoi p. 39. 



ly , 1888] 


NATURE 


57 






i 



Fio. 8 .— Map showing the lines, bonds, and flutings seen in the spectra of the elements which are indicated in bodies of Group II. The map is intended to show 
also the rtWive intensities of the different lines, bands, and flutings, the lines, &c., seen in the lowest horixon being those seen at the lowest temperature. 



4 t. 








Fio, ahowlng th« offarti MtlalloM H width of the ffutUys of carbon upoo int«rrt»d sp«tm of carbon rad^n* Md maffnesium a^ 

lOanganaae absoiption, as tbeiy Oetur in ^crant speciea of b^ies rf Omup Ii, The carbon radlatbn alone would give bright h^s, while ^ 
aoserptUm abne w^d give dl^ onesi but if the bright and daA bands iUl In the ttflM rulonsof the apectruin, the £uutt will be enfeabM 
vadtadon, enfeebled absorption, or iw 7 , aooording to the retadve qiMUtmiet of radiating and abaw^ suhetanoes present. Thus, in species a, the 
magnesiuas ff utlng at 500 ts.maiked hr the carbon flntling at 5r7» ^ the quantity of carbon dlminuhest it apfMars as an absorptioa band. 




58 


NATURE 


[May 17 , • 18 


carboDi or upon a dark band in the spectrum of some 
other element. In the former case the dark band will be 
cancelled or masked ; in the latter case the two 
absorptions will be added together, and form a darker 
band of a different shape. 

Ths Quisfion of Masking. 

If we consider the masking effects of the bright carbon 
Datings upon the absorption spectrum of each of the 
elements which, according to the results obtained, enter 
into the formation of Dundr^s bands, we have the follow- 
ing as the main results ; — 

Magnesium* — There are two flutings of magnesium to 
be considered, the brightest at 500 and the other at 5201. 
In the earlier stages of Dundr’s stars only the fainter one 
at 5201 is visible, but the absence of the brightest at 500 
is accounted for by the masking effect of the bright carbon 
fluting starting at 5/7. As the carbon fades, the sty 
fluting narrows and the absorption of magnesium 500 
becomes evident. 

Manganese. — The two chief flutings of manganese are 
at 558 and 586, the former being the brightest fluting in 
the spectrum. The second fluting is seen in all of Dundr’s 
stars. The first fluting, 558, however, does not appear 
as an absorption fluting until the radiation fluting of 
carbon starting at 564 has narrowed sufficiently to unmask 
it. It is thus easy to understand why, in some stars, there 
should be the second fluting of manganese without the 
first, ' 

Barium. — The spectrum of barium consists of a set of ! 
flutings extending the whole length of the spectrum, and i 
standing out on this as a background are three bright , 
bands ; the brightebi band is at 515, the second is at 525, j 
and the third, a broader band, is about 485, The second ! 
band is recorded as an absorption band in 1) undr’s stars, | 
the apparent absence of the first band being due to the ! 
masking effect of the bright carbon at 517. The third 1 
band at 485 probably forms a portion of band 9. A j 
fourth band, at 533, and the three brightest flutings at 
602, 635, and 648 are also seen in a Ononis. 

Lead. — The brightest fluting of lead is at 546. This 
first appears in species 5, as a result of increased tem- 
perature, and not on account of the removal of any 
previous mask. The second fluting of lead, at 568, also 
appears in two cases. 

Chromium.— The flutings of chromium do not form 
portions of the ten principal bands of Dundr, but the 
brightest arc seen in a Orion is. The brightest fluting is 
at 580, and this forms band 1. ; the second, at 557, is 
masked by the manganese fluting at 558, and the third at 
536 is seen as line 2. The chromium triplet about 520, 
which is visible in the bunsen, is seen as line 3. 

Bismuth. — The brightest fluting of bismuth is at 620, 
the second is at 571, the third at 602, and the fourth is 
at 646, The first is masked by the iron fluting at 61 5, the 
second is probably seen in n Orionisas band II. (570-577). 

The points 1 consider as most fimly established are 
the masking effects of the bright carbon flutings and the 
possibility of the demonstration of the existence of some 
of the flutings in the spectrum by this means, if there 
were no other. There are two chief cases, the masking 
of the nebula ” fluting 500 by the bright carbon fluting 
with its brightest, less refrangible edge at 517, and that of 
the strongest fluting of Ma « Mn(i) 558, by the other with 
brightest edge at 564. I have little doubt that in some 
oaarters my anxiety not to be content to refer to the second 
fluting of Mn without being able to explain the absence 
of the first one, will be considered thrown away, as it is so 
easy to ascribe any non-uadecstood and therefore " ab- 
mntnal ” spectrum to unknown physical laws ; but when 
a special research had shown me that at all temperatures 
at which the flutings of manganese are seen at all, the one 
at ts8 retained its supremacy, I felt myself quite justi- 
fied in ascribing its absence in species 1-4 to the cause I 


have assigned, the more especially as the Mg 
which is visible even in the nebula followed suit. 

The Characterisius of the Various Sfiecin* " 

1 append the following remarks and references to the 
number of the bodies in Dun(Sr*s catalogue, in which the 
specific diflerences come out most strongly, to theHifasfliMr 
statement. 1 also refer to some difficulties. 

Sp. I. The characteristic here is the almost obmetary 
condition. All three bright carbon flutings genera% seen 
in comets are visible ; 474 standing out beyond the end 
of the dull blue continuous spectrum of the mett^ites, 516 
masking Mg 500, and 564 masking Mn(i) 556. tlie bai^s 
visible in the spectra of bodies belonmng to this species 
will therefore be Mnf2) 586, and Mg(2) 521 ; band 9 will 
be so wide and pale that it would most likely escape dc* 
tcction. It is very doubtful whether any of the oodles 
the spectra of which have hitherto been recorded can be 
classed in this species, but laboratory work assuredly 
points to their existence ; it will therefore be extremely in- 
teresting if future observations result in their discovery. 
It is possible, however, that No. 150 of Dun^r’s list belongs 
to this species, but the details are insufficient to say with 
certainty. His description is as follows:-— 150. IJ me 
parait y avoir une bande ^troite dans le rouge, et une plus 
large dans le vert’^ (p. 55). 

Sp. 2. Characteristics : appearance of Fe. The number 
of bands now visible is three — namely, 2, 3, and 7* The 
iron comes out as a result of the increased tempera- 
ture. Mg(i) and Mn(i) are still masked by the bright 
carbon flutings, and there is still insufficient luminosity 
to make the apparent absorption band 9 dark enough to 
be noticed. 

Sp. 3. Characteristics : appearance of Mg 5C0, which 
has previously been masked by the carbon bright flut- 
ii^g 517* ^ And 7 are now the darkest bands in the 
spectrum, 37. 

Sp. 4. Characteristics : appearance of Pb(T) 546, />. 
band 5. This, if present in the earlier species at all, 
would be masked by the bright carbon at 564. , 

Sp. 5. Characteristics: Mn^i) is now unmasked. The 
bands now visible are 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8, the two latter 
still Veing the widest and darkest, because they are 
essentially low-temperature phenomena. 

Sp. 6. Characteristic : band 6, />. Ba(2), 525, is now 
added. The first band of Ba at 515 is mask^ by the 
bright carbon at 5 1 7. The bands now visiblci^ 1-B, y 
and 8 still being widest and darkest. They will all be 
pretty wide, and they will be dark because the continuoua 
spectrum will be foebly developed. 

Sp. 7. Characteristics ; appearance of band 9. This, 
which has been already specially referred to, has been too 
wide and pale to be observed in the earlier species. U<| 
present appearance is due to the narrowing and brightSi^ 
ing of the carbon at 474 and the brightening of 
tinuous spectrum, the result being a gresetet cqiitraat. 
Hands 7 and 8 still retain their supremacy, but at( tiW' 
bands will be moderately wide and dark, 

Sp. 8. Characteristics; all the bands 2-9 arw niKmS 
prominent, so that 7 and 8 have almost lost the^ 
supresnacy, * > 

Sp. 9. Characteristic: appearance of band T* 
origin of which has not yet been detemrined. Alt™> 
bands are well seen, and are moderately wide and , 
Sp. 10. Charact^stics ; aj^iearance of band zo, oMf 
in some cases u. These become visible on account of 
the brightening of the carbon B fluting and the hydro- 
carbon fluting at 431. The spectrum is now at its greatest 
beauty, and is discontinuous. 

Sp. II. Characteristics; the bands are now bteomim 
wider, and 2 and 3 are gaining in suprerttacy ; 7 and 1 
become narrower on account of the increased 
ttire. 1 and 10 are only occasionally seen in this 
species. 


17, 1888] NATURE 59 

12* Cbamcteristics : with the expansion of the becoming wider and paler, while 2 and 3 still gain in> 
continuous spectrum towards the blue, band 9 becomes supremacy. 

very nanow, and cannot be observea with certainty. Sp. 13. Charaaeristics ; 9 has now entirely disap- 
The otlier hands, with the exception of 7 and S, are peared, 2 and 3 still retaining their supremacy. 


M.1 


i/ 









PiCi slwwlnf the epectra of the varioui specief of the bodies of Group II. » and the probable orisin of the bands. The carbon flutings are widest in 

the nmt ipechesr and gradually narrow until, in the last species, only a trace of 5x7 remains. The length of the continuoui spectrum gradually 
tncrcaMt as the carbon Butlngs narrow. The carbon B* fluting, and the hydrocarbon fluting are only seen m species 8 to la. 

14. Characteristics : all the bands are pale and group, 2 and 3 now alone remain visible : they are wide, 
narrow ; 3 and 3 wilt still be darkest, but the difference but feeble, as the continuous spectrum which has been 

will be so great as in the species preceding. rapidly dcvclopmg during the htst changes is now 

$p. 15* CharfvcteristlcB : in ordinary memWs of this strong. 







TABLE A.— Specific Differenxes in Group II. 


to 


NATURE 


[Afay^ tf, i8S8 



y ** ^ >n WP ^ w y * 


{To U continued^ 


THE ROYAL SOCIETY CONVERSAZIO^B. 

first convtrsasione of the season if as held On 
A May 9, and was very numerousty attended. More 
pains than ever seemed to have been bestowed on the 
arrangements, and the results entirely justified them. As 
the carefully prepared programme covers eighteen closdy 
printed pages, we can only give a very summer account 
of the most important demonstrations and exhibits. 

Following recent precedents, the meeting-room was de- 
voted to demonstrations by means of the electric lantern, 
the following being given : image of electric spark, by 
Dr. Marcct ; Mr. Pouiton’s teeth of Omithorhynchus, by 
Dr. Hickson; Forth Bridge, by Mr. Baker; collieries, 
by Mr- Sopwith. 

The chief exhibits in the other rooms were as follow : — 

Experiments on the optical demonstration of electrical 
stress, shown by Prof, A. W. Rucker, F.R.S., and Mr. 
C. V. Boys. These experiments are similar to those de- 
vised by Dr. Kerr, the arrangements being modified so as 
to render them suitable for exhibition in public. Con- 
ductors of various forms are immersed in bisulphide of 
carbon and placed between crossed Nicol prisms. When 
the conductors are oppositely electrified the medium is 
thrown into a state of stress, and the light which bad been ex- 
tinguished by the analyzing prism is restored. The various 
forms of conductors employed are — parallel cylinders, 
concentric cylinders, parallel planes, a plane and cylinder, 
and plates bent so as to represent a section of a Leyden 
jar- Many of the phenomena exhibited by crystals 
in plane polarized light are imitated — e,g, the black 
cross and the production of colours similar to those in 
Newton’s rings. A bright field can be maintained by the 
introduction of a plate of selenite between the Nicols, in 
which case the electrical stress is indicated by change of 
colour. 

Large electrical influence machine, exhibited by Mr. 
James Wimshurst. It has twelve disks of 2 feet 6 inches 
in diameter ; each disk carries sixteen metal sectors. The 
machine is self-exciting in any condition of atmosphere. 
It shows large and perfect brush discharge at its terminals. 
With Leyden jars it will give sparks 13! inches in length. 

Photographs of flashes of lightning, exhibited by the 
Royal Meteorological Society, 

Radio-micrometer, exhibited by Mr. C. V. Boys. TTiis 
is probably the most delicate instrument for measuring 
radiant heat yet made. It consists of a circuit made of 
antimony, bismuth, and copper hung by an exceedingly 
fine fibre of quartz in a strong magnetic field. A s^e 
model of the circuit, twenty times the size or 8000 times 
the weight, shows the construction of the suspended part 
of the instrument The fibre, if magnified to the same 
extent, would still be finer than spun glass. The propor- 
tions of the several parts are those which have been 
found by calculation (confirmed by experiment) tb give 
the greatest possible delicacy. 

Experiments with soap-bubbles, also shown by Mr. 
Boys. These experiments arc arranged to show chiefly 
the power of an air- film to prevent two bubbles firom 
coming into real contact. Thus, among other experi- 
ments, the outer of two bubbles may be pulled out until 
it squeezes the inner one into a long oval, but no real 
contact takes place. An inner bubble filled with gas ufill 
carry up an outer one to which are attached a wire ring 
and other things without really touching it at all A 
bubble will roll down a spiral groove, also made of soap* 

I film, or jump one or two steps at a time down a spiral 
I staircase made of soap-film, without touching the spiral 
film or being injured in the least. Some the experl* 
ments show the effects of difiasion, of vibration, of mag-^ 
netism, or of electricity upon bubbles or groups of bubbrn 

and diagrams illustrative of the recent work of 
the Geological Survey in the North-West Highlands, 

^ exhibited by the Director-General of H.M. Geological 



Aiay 17, 1888J 


NATURE 


61 


Purvey. The mapsj on the scale of 6 inches to a mile, 
show the remarkable geological structure of the west of 
Sutherland. A series of enormous dislocations runs in a 
^utheriy direction from the mouth of Loch Eriboll to 
Skye. By these disruptions the most ancient rocks 
have been torn up from great depths, and have 
bMn launched bodily westwards, sometimes for several 
miles. The displaced masses now rest upon other shifted 
portions or upon wholly undisturbed rocks, and the ex- 
traordinary structure is presented of vertical and highly 
inclined strata, with their unconformable junctions stand- | 
ing upon gently inclined and much younger rocks. The 
diagrams arc taken across some of the more typical parts 
of the district, and give some idea of the physical prob- 
lems presented by this region, which undoubtedly ex- 
hibits the most complicated geological structure in the 
British Isles. 

Sections and specimens illustrating the recent borings 
in the Delta of the Nile, exhibited by Prof. j. W. Judd, 
F.R.S., on behalf of the Delta Committee, The whole of 
the samples obtained in these borings have now reached 
the Royal Society, and the examination of the materials 
reveals some facts of great geological interest. The 
alterations and mixtures of blown sand and Nile alluvium 
were found to continue down to the depth of 121 feet from 
the surface and 95 feet below the level of the Mediter- 
ranean. At that depth a remarkable change in the 
deposits took place, and beds of gravel containing both 
pebbles and subangular fragments of quartzite, chert, 
compact limestone, with some mctainorphic and igneous 
rocks, were found ; and similar beds occur at intervals 
down to the greatest depth reached. Up to the present 
•time no contemporaneous organic remains have been 
found in these deposits. 

Fossil plants from Ardtun in Mull, exhibited by Mr. J. 
Starkie Gardner. These plants are from a small patch of 
limestone beneath the gravels and silts of an old river 
course sealed up in the great trap flows of Western 
Scotland. The limestone is rather below the leaf-bed 
found at Ardtun by the Duke of Argyll, and directly 
overhangs the sea, the cliffs beneath being columnar and 
worn into caverns. The plants were until recently 
believed to be Miocene, but are now recognized to be 
very low down in the Eocene— recent writings of 
Sir W. Dawson and the Marquis de Saporta. The same 
plants ranged over Greenland and North America during 
the Tertiary, perhaps not synchronously, and an allied 
flora seems to exist at the present day in China and 
Japan. 

Photographs illustrating experiments in mountain- 
building, exhibited by Mr. Henry M. Cadell, H.M. 
Geological Survey of Scotland. These have already 
been referred to in Nature. 

Set of thermometers specially constructed by Casclla 
for use by Mr. Symons in determining the present tem- 

E erature of the mineral springs in the Pyrenees, exhibited 
y Mr. G. J, Symons, F.R.S. ; and Immisch^s avitreous 
thermometer, constructed for the above investigation. This 
thermometer is absolutely perfect, its verification at Kew, 
before and after its use in the Pyrenees, being o'^-o at all 
points from 50* to 130®. 

An apparatus for determining the hardness of metals or 
other substances, exhibited by Mr. Thomas Turner. 

Robertson’s writing telegraph, exhibited by Mr. John 
M. Richards. 

A Coulomb-meter, exhibited by Prof. George Forbes, 
F.R.S. This consists essentially of a conductor of iron wire 
in the form of a spiral, or a double ring with cross wires. 
Above the conductor a set of vanes is pivoted. This con- 
sists of a circular disk of mica with a hole in the centre in 
which is fixed a paper cone carrying at its apex a pinion 
with a ctmcentric ruby cun. Round the circumference of 
l^e mica disk eight small cylinders of pith are fixed at 
equal distances, and eight vanes inclined at 45^ to the mica 


disk are attached to the pith cylinders, these vanes being 
made of the thinnest mica. This set of vanes is supported 
by the ruby cup resting on a steel point fixed to the base 
of the instrument. The pinion engages with the first wheel 
of a train of wheel work actuating the indexes, which show 
dials the number of revolutions made bjr the vanes. 
The action of the instrument is very simple. The electric 
current passing through the iron conductor creates heat, 
which sets up a convection current in the air, and this 
causes the vanes to rotate about the vertical axis and 
drive the clockwork. The number of revolutions indicated 
on the dials is, through a considerable range of currents, 
an exaqt indication of the number of coulombs or 
ampere-hours which have passedth rough the conductor. 
The friction of the ruby cup on the pivot determines 
the smallest current which can be accurately measured, 
and the friction of the clockwork is barely perceptible. 
The resistance of a meter to read from 1 ampere upwards 
is 0 02 ohm. 

Electrical translucent balloon for flashing signals by 
night, invented and exhibited by Mr. Eric Stuart Bruce. 

The new iridio* platinum incandescent gas-burner 
(Lewis and Sellon’s patents), exhibited by Messrs. 
Johnson, Matthey, and Co. 

Apparatus for measuring the changes produced by 
magnetization in the dimensions of rods and rings of iron 
and other metals, exhibited by Mr. Shelford Bidwell, 
F.R.S. The instrument exhibited is capable of measur- 
ing changes of length to a millionth of a millimetre 
or a twenty-five-millionth of an inch. An iron rod when 
magnetized becomes (as is well known) at first slightly 
lengthened. But if the magnetizing force is sufficiently 
increased it again contracts, and ultimately becomes 
actually shorter than when unmagnetized. A colfaU rod 
contracts under magnetization, reaching a minimum 
length in a field of about 500 C.(LS. units, beyond which 
point it becomes longer. A nich^/ rod also contracts ; the 
limit of its contraction not having been reached with the 
greatest magnetizing forces yet used. Bismuth is slightly 
elongated in intense fields. (See Proc, Roy. Soc., vol. xliii., 
1888, p. 406.) 

Experiments illustrating low-temperature spectra, in 
connection with the spectra of meteorites, shown by 
Mr. J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. 

Skeleton of an Akka, a Negro tribe from Central 
Africa, the smallest known race of men. (Height exactly 
4 feet.) Sent by Dr. Emin Pasha for the British Museum, 
and exhibited by Prof. Flower, C.B., F.R.S. 

Charts showing lines of equal values of the magnetic 
elements (epoch 1 880) — declination or variation, inclina- 
tion or dip, horizontal force (British units), vertical force 
(British units) — exhibited by Staff-Commander E. W. 
Creak, R.N., F.R.S. From the original charts at the 
Admiralty, compiled by Staff-Commander E. VV. Creak, 
and prepared in their present form for the “ Report on 
the Magnetical Results obtained in H.M.S. Challenger 
in the concluding volume of the “Voyage of H.M.S. 
Challenger^ The small maps show — (i) The track of 
H.M.S. Challenger where magnetic observations were 
made. (2) The approximate distribution of the secular 
change in the declination or variation (epoch 1840-80), 

Photographs of the polar axis of a 5-foot telescope, 
December 1887, January 1888, exhibited by Mr. A. A. 
Common, F.R.S. 

Sir William Thomson’s models of or froth con- 
sisting of equal bubbles, exhibited by Pr^* G. H. Darwin, 
F.R.S. Each bubble is a curvilinear founwn-faced space. 
If a single bubble be dissected from the mass, it is found 
to be derived from the regular octahedron (two square 
pyramids base to base) by truncating the six solid angles. 
Thus the eight faces of the octahedron give rise to eight 
curvilinear hexagons, and the six stflid angles to six solid 
curvilinear squares. In the foam three films meet at I30 
at each edge, and of the three which meet two are hexa- 



62 


NATURE 


[Matjr 17 , 


gons and one is a square. (Sec FAt'l, Mag.j vol xxiv., 
1887, p. 503.) 

Model of nuximum pressure anemometer, designed by 
Mr. Whipple, Superintendent of Kew Ob9er\'atory, ex- 
hibited by the Kew Committee. In this instrument eight 
small metal di^s, each of o‘oi foot in area, are supported 
vertically against the wind by levers weighted in accord- 
ance with the various pressures of the wind on Beaufort’s, 
or some other accepted scale of force. A vane keeps 
their surfaces normal to the wind’s direction. By their 
displacement the maximum wind pressure during any 
desired period is registered. The large perforated disk 
against which they are pressed serves the purpose of 
removing the indicating disks beyond the action of the 
eddies of the wind playing round the edges of the plate. 

Specimens of gold showing the effect of small quantities 
of impurity on the fracture of the metal, exhibited by Mr. 
W. C. RobertB-Austen, K.R.8. 

Miners’ electric safct>'-lamps, exhibited by the Schan- 
schieff Electric Light and Power Company. (1) A three- 
cell lamp capalilc of giving lA candle-power for 9 hours. 
Each cell contains 5 fluid ounces of solution, and con- 
sumes 2 pound of zinc in 48 hours. The light is more 
than four times more powerful than that of the Clanny 
oil lamp, and its working cost is 5^/. per shift of 9 hours, 
or 3}^. per week, 'J’he weight when fully charged is 
about pounds. The elements consist of carbon and 
zinc, and the excitant is a mercurial solution of Mr. 
Schanschieff’s invention. (2 and 3) Four-cell batteries, 
one round and one square. Each cell contains 5 fluid 
ounces of solution, and at a cost of j//. fiirmshes a light of 
nearly 2 candle-power for 9 hours. The weight when 
fully charged is pounds. (4) A four-cell reversible 
battery, i.e. put in or out of action by reversing it. The 
charge consists of 24 ounces of solution, and giving a light 
of 2 candle-power will burn from ro to J2 hours at a cost 
of id. The batteries can be used for many purposes 
other than mining-lamps, viz. for microscopical purposes, 
house-lighting, photography, diving, railway-lighting, gun- 
firing, gas-works, 


THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMSTERDAM. 

'T'HE celebration of the jubilee of the Zoological 
-*• Society of Amsterdam i^Natura Ariis Magtstra), 
on Tuesday and Wednesday, May i and 2, passed off 
with great hint. Dr. Wcsiennan, who has been Director 
of the Gardens for more than fifty years, may well be 
congratulated on the success of the jubilee fites; and 
the vigour with which he spoke at the banquet on May l, 
and again at the distribution of honours on Wednes- 
day, shows that his eighty years sit lightly upon him. 
One of the most interesting features <)f the jubilee 
commemoration was the performance of a festival 
cantata, specially composed for the occasion by Mr. De 
Langa, and this had to be repeated on Thursday 
for the benefit of half the members of the Society, for 
whose accommodation the enormous concert-room proved 
insufficient on the opening day. All the streets in the 
vicinity of the Zoological Gardens were gaily decorated 
with flags, and the rooms of the Society were ornamented 
in the day-time by a mass of gorgeous flowers and at 
night with brilliant illuminations. After the reception of 
the guests by the Committee on Tuesday morning, an 
adjournment was made to the King’s Saloon, which was 
densely crowded, to hear an address from Prof. Stockvis. 
Luncheon followed, and then the cantata was given in 
the concert hall, and in the afternoon the new EthnO'^ 
graphical Museum was formally opened. The excellent 
way in which the collections had been arranged was 
generally remarked, and the Curator, Mr. Pleyte, was 
warmly congratulated. The public spirit which charac- 
terizes modern Amsterdam will doubtless soon cause this 


new Museum to become famous, as there is a vast; Md 
for research among the Netherlaad possessions in the 
East Indies. At the banquet in the evening, covers were 
laid for nearly 200 persons, and after the usual toasts, the 
health of the Queen of England was drunk by the 
assembled company with the ^eatest enthusiasm, and 
was responded to by Mr. BowdJer Sharpe, of the British 
Museum, who spoke in English, and took the opportunity 
of thanking the Dutch nation for the hospitality which he 
and his countrymen always received from the Nether- 
landers, to which he could testify from an experience of 
over twenty years. Speeches were also given by the 
Ministers of Finance and of the Interior, the Burgomaster 
of Amsterdam, and others ; and the company then 
adjourned to witness a torchlight procession of students, 
who sent a deputation of their Senate to congratulate the 
venerable Director and the Committee of the Society., 
The young President of the Students’ Senate, Mr. Van 
Schevichaven, made a most eloouent address, and was. 
enthusiastically received. On Wednesday, May 2, a 
special reception of the Committee was held to confer 
diplomas on the new honorary members, and Prof. 
Hubrecht, of LUrecht, Dr. Jentink, the Director of the 
Royal Museum of Natural History at Leyden, and Mr. 
Biiuikofer, of the same Museum, were the first recipients ; 
being followed by Mr. A. D. Bartlett, the Superintendent 
of our Zoological Gardens in the Regent's Park, and Mr. 
Bowdler .Sharpe. Amongst those who were unable 
to be present, but to whom the honorary membership 
of the Society was given, were Prof. Flowers, Dr. 
A. B. Meyer, &c- The large bronze medal of the Socie^ 
was conferred on Mr. Charles Jamrach and Mr. u. 
A. Frank for services rendered in the formation of 
zoological collections, as well as on several other well- 
known zoologists. Mr. Jansen, the Librarian of the 
Society, and Mr. F. E. Blaauw, the Secretary, also received 
medals and diplomas. The latter gentleman has a large 
private menagerie, and is an enthusiastic supporter of the 
Society. Simultaneously with the festival celebration, 
the Society has issued a jubilee number of its B^jdragen 
ioi de Dierkunde.^ containing several important memoirs, 
of which the following is a list (i) The opening address 
of Prof. Stockvis. (2) Mr. Maitland’s review of the 
Society and its work, with a plan of the Gardens. (3) 
An account of the aquarium with 2 plates, by Dr. C. 
Kcrbeit, the Curator. (4) A list of all the animals 
which have lived in the Gardens from 1838 to 1888 by Mr. 
K. N. Swierstra. (5) A list of the birds of the Nether- 
lands, by Mr. H. Kollcr, with an enumeration of the 
specimens in the Society’s collection. (6) Descriptiosiot 
a new species of Froechtdna {P. viihstssvna) and an 
account of Cams juhata^ by Prof. Max Weber ; this article 
is illustrated by 2 plates, (7) A list of the Macrolepido^ 
ptera of Holland, by Dr. J. T. Oudemans. The Gardens 
of the Society seemed to be m flourishing condition, and 
the collections of Cranes and Antelopes were as remark- 
able as ever. 


NOTES. 

The ceremony at Utrecht on May a8 to celebrate the seventieth 
birthday of Prof. Donders, and his consequent retirement from 
his Professorship, will comprise a formal presentation, at 1.30 p.m., 
of the sum collected, together with the roll of subscribers, and 
a public dinner at 5.30 p.m. After the ceremony of pre^ 
senlation the Professor will name the scienlific purpose to w^ch 
he proposes that the fund shall be applied/ The complete lul 
of sub^ribers from thU country is to be seen in onr advcrtisiitg 
columns on page xviii. Any subscriber may verify the amomit 
of his subscription by applying to Mr. Brailey, 1 1 Old EorUi^ton 
Street, where the audited list may be seen. The total amount 
eoBected here sSo I fr. lOdT. Prof. Humphryi Dr. HttghBogs 


May ly, 1888 ] 


NATURE 


63 


Jickson, Mr. Hutchinsort, and Mr. Brailey have been invited to 
attend as delegates to represent the subscribers, and it is hoped 
that many others may be able to attend, and by their presence 
do honour to Prof. Donders. 

The meeting of the National Academy of Sciences, lately 
held at Washington, seems to have been remarkably successful. 
According to Scutui, the most important pa|>er3 read at the 
meeting were, the orbits of aerolites, by Prof. H. A. Newton ; 
preliminary notice of the object, methods, and results of a 
systematic study of the action of definitely related chemical 
compounds upon animals, by Profs. Wolcott Gibbs and Uobart 
Amory Hare ; and report of progress in spectrum photography, 
and note on the spectrum of carbon and its existence in the sun, 
by Prof, H. A. Rowland. Prof, Newton, in his paper, sub- 
mitted the two following propositions : — (i) The meteorites 
which we have in oiir collections, and which have been seen to 
fall, were originally (as a class, and with a very small number of 
exceptions) moving about the sun in orbits that had inclinations 
to the ecliptic of less than 90® ; that is, their motions in the solar 
system were direct and not retrograde. (2) The reason why we 
have only this class of stones in our collections is not a reason 
wholly, or even mainly, dependent on the habits of men; nor 
on the times when men arc* out of doors ; nor on the places 
where men live ; nor on any other principle of selection acting 
at or after the arrival of the stones at the ground. Either the 
stones which are moving across the earth’s 01 bit in the solar 
system move in general in direct orbits, or else, for some reason, 
the stones which have retrograde orbits do not in general come 
through the air to the ground in solid form. 

Two gold medals were presented at this meeting : the 
Lawrence Smith gold medal to Prof. Newlon for his study of 
meteors ; the Henry Draper gold medal to Prof, E. C. Pickering 
for researches in stellar photography. On the evening on which 
these presentations were made the following obituary memoirs 
were read : on the late Prof. Henry Draper, of New York, by 
Prof. G. F. Barker, of the University of Pennsylvania; on 
Prof. Walson, of the University of Michigan, by Prof. Comstock ; 
on Capt. J. B. Eady, by Mr. W. Sellers, of Philadelphia. 

We are glad to see that the National Association for the 
Promotion of Technical Education is hard at work, and that it 
is likely to do excellent service to the cause it supports. In 
reply to circulars sent out in August and September 18S7 a good 
deal of information has been provided from various industri.al 
centres, which it is hoped may form the basis of a fairly com- 
plete report as to what is being done for technical education in 
the United Kingdom at the present time. Meetings have been 
held in a good many towns, and in some cases branches or cor- 
responding Associations have been established. The Association 
is also issuing a series of publications, each consisting of a page 
or two, and presenting in a clear, popular style some important 
aspect of the sulycct. Some of these papers are sold at sixpence, 
others at a shilling, per hundred, and we may hope that large 
numbers of them will be widely circulated. In a series of more 
elaborate publications the Association has included the admirable 
address delivered by Prof. Huxley at n meeting held in the Town 
Hfidl, Manchester, on November 29 last. 

COLONET. Turner’s Report on the present state of the 
borings in the Delta of the Nile has been received at the Royal 
Society. The total result of the whole operations is to prove 
that no rock exists M a depth of 345 feel at Zagazig ; at a depth 
of 4$ feet at Kosr-el-Nil ; at 84 feet at Kafr-Zayat ; or at 
73 feet at Tantah. 

May number of the Kew Bulletin contains an interesting 
an account of the attempts that have been made to 
intfodooe ipecacuanha into India, and the successful cultivation 


of the plant in the Straits Settlement. There are also valuable 
papers on Brazilian gum arabic, Trinidad coffee, patchouli, 
Cochin China vine, Madagascar ebony, and Shantung cabbage. 

About a year ago the Botanical Department, Jamaica, began 
to issue Bulletins. Six numbers have been sent to us, and each 
of them contains some contrilmtion or contributions worthy of 
attention. The compilers very wisely keep local industrial needs 
steadily in view. 

In a Report on the province of Florence, just laid tiefore 
Parliament, Mr. Colnaghi, British ConsubOencml, says th.it 
meteorological stations, both public and private, are now estab- 
lished at the following places in the province: — Florence (5), 
Fiesole, Vallombrosa, Prato, Pistoia, Scandicci, Empoli, 
Fiorenzuola, Castaletti, and thermo -pin viometrical stations 
at S. Minialo, Mercatale (in Rocca San Casciano), Pontas- 
sieve, and Barberino di Mugello. Amongst the more im- 
portant of these, he mentions the Observatory of the Royal 
Museum of Physical Science, that att.'iched to the medical sec- 
tion of the Reale IstiuUo di Stiidi Superiori, chiefly devoted 
to the study of the Variadons of the atmosphere, and the Osser- 
vatorio Ximeniano, which is, at the same time, astronomical,- 
meteorological, and seismical, and is under the direction of the 
Fathers of the Scuole Pie. For many years, he adds, experi- 
ments have been made by Prof. F. Mcucci, of the Observatory 
of the Royal Museum of Physical Sciences, for the purpose of 
jvseertaining the correlation of meteorological phenomena with 
the productiveness of the soil, and a series of Reports have been 
published. In 1880 the Royal Tiisc.sn .Society of Horticulture 
established, in its experimental garden at Florence, a Meteoro- 
logical and Physical Obsen^atory, by means of which the rela- 
tion existing between the vegetation of plants and the meteoric 
phenomena can be studied. The Royal Astronomical Observa- 
tory of Florence Is established at Arcctri, and is under the 
direction of Prof. Tempel, 

Volume X. of the Ke^ertorinm fur Meteorologies issued by 
the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg, and edited 
by Dr. H. Wild, contains, among other interesting discussions, 
one upon the anticyclones in Europe, by Dr. P. Brounow, 
He has investigated by means of synoptic charts the barometrical 
maxima which passed over Europe in the years 1876-79, with 
especial reference to their movements and their causes — questiona 
which up to the present lime have received but little 
attention, although they arc intimately connected with the 
movements of cyclonic areas. The number of the maxima whose 
paths are drawn on the charts, are most frequent in August, and 
least so in July and March ; and, generally speaking, their motion 
is towards east -south-east, while their motion towards the north- 
westerly portion of the compass is very rare. Among the chief 
results of his inquiry may be mentioned that the prevalent move- 
ment of the maxima does not coincide with that of the barometric 
minima, but deviates from it by an angle of 67!®. There appears 
to be no important difference in the mean velocity of their motion 
in different seasons, and although they move more slowly than 
the depressions, the difference of velocity is not so great as is 
generally assumed. Their origin is attributed to two principal 
causes : (i) terrestrial radiation, and (2) the proximity of two or 
m:>re barometric minima. The work is accompanied by sixteen 
charts, from which the author concludes that the maxima 
advance generally in the direction in which the lowest temperature 
exists, and that the lower the temperature sinks the quicker the 
centre of the maximum advances, without reference to the season 
of the year. 

An important addition to the chemistry of the element tel- 
lurium U contributed by MM. Berthelot and Fabre to the Mny 
number of the AntMUes ile ChimU et de Physique. They find 
that this metalloid, one of the most remarkable links between the 


64 


NATURE 


non-metals and true meUls, is capable of existing in three 
distinct allotropic forms. Besides the vrell-known cxystalHne 
fonDf exhibiting so strongly the metalTic lustre, the form in which 
one always obtmos it by volatilization in an atmosphere of hydro- 
gen, it may be obtained by precipitation in two very different 
amorphous varieties. One of these is the product of the reduc- 
tion of tellurous or telluric acids by sulphurous acid, and the 
other is formed when solutions of the alkaline tellurides are 
exposed to the oxidizing action of the air. Both these amor- 
phous varieties ore dork-coloured powders very liable to oxidation 
in the air, and only to be obtained pure by working in an atmo- 
sphere of nitrogen. The physical dtderenoe between*the (wo is 
most strikingly shown, however, by their thermo-chemical 
behaviour. All three varieties are rapidly dissolved by a mixture 
of bromine and bromine water, and during the reaction in case 
of both the crystalline variety and the amorphous form obtained 
by oxidation of tellurides 33*4 heat units are evolved, while in 
case of amorphous tellurium derived by reduction with sulphurous 
acid only 21^3 units are disengaged. There was no mistake as 
to the purity of this latter kind, for it was completely converted 
to crystals on sublimation in a current of hydrogen. Hence it 
follows that one of the precipitated forms of tellurium cor- 
responds to the crystalline state, and the other possesses an 
entirely different physical nature. It is curious, moreover, that 
all three modifications have the same specific heat. These 
interesting facts render the analogy between sulphur, selenium, 
and telJnrium still more complete. MM, Berthelot and Fabre 
hdve also discovered a new and far superior method of preparing 
telluretted hydrogen. They first pass vapour of tellurium over 
metallic magnesium heated in a current of hydrogen, and after- 
wards treat the magnesium telluride thus formed with dilute 
hydrochloric acid in an apparatus previously filled with an 
atmosphere of nitrogen. The telluretted hydrogen, which is 
obtained in a very pure state by this new method, is very un- 
stable, decomposing on standing in a tube over mercury even in 
the dark, coating the interior with tellurium and leaving its own 
volume of hydrogen. Decomposition is immediate in contact 
with moist air. In conclusion, the French chemists show that 
the combination of the elements of the sulphur group with 
hydrogen is attended with a beautifully graduated series of 
thermal changes, from water with heat of formation + 59 units 
down to telluretted hydrogen with - 35 units. 

gives an interesting account of a magnificent ethno- 
graphical collection from Alaska, brought together by Lieut. 
Etnmon. It has been presented to the American Museum of 
Natural History in New York, and forms a valuable supplement 
to the Powell collection from British Columbia, in the same 
Museum. While the latter includes principally specimens of 
llaida and Tsimpshian origin, the objects in the new collection 
come from the territory of the Tlingit, in whose country Lieut. 
Emmon spent more than five years. Tire collection includes a 
large number of masks. They are especially valuable, as Lieut. 
Emmon took great pains to ascertain the meaning of the masks, 
which thus became a rich source of information for the student 
of ethnology. A comparison of these ma^ks with others col- 
lected on Vancouver Island and in Dean Inlet shows that the 
style of North-West Amcriennort, although uniform in general 
outlines, has its specific character in various localities, The 
imitation of animal forms is mut^ closer here than in the 
southern regions, where the forms are more conventional, certain 
attributes of the animal alone being added to hum^n figures. 
Another and a very Interesting peculiarity of these masks, is to 
be found in the figures of animals attached to the fisoes. The 
Eskimo tribes of Southern Alaska carve their masks in the same 
iiishim, numerous attachments belonging to eadi. This Is 
another probf of the influence of Indian art Upon that of the 
Eskimo. The figures attached to the laces referi as a rule, to 


[Majy ir, 


certain myths ; and the like is true of the Eskimo maski and tbeir^ 
characteristic wings and figures. A coasideruble number of 
masks show deep hollow eyes and suhk^ cheeks. They repit^ 
sent the beads of dead men. Masks wiai thick lips and beards, 
and eyebrows tpade of otter skin, represent the fabulous Kush* 
taka, the otter people, of which many tales and traditions are 
told. Another remarkable mask is that of the mosquito. This, 
is of special interest, as the m^uito is among the southern 
tribes the genius of the cannibal ; and as cannibalistic ceremonies 
are not known to be practised by the Tlingit, it may be assumed 
that the myth referring to the mosquito is found in a somewhat 
altered form among the Tlingit. 

We learn from that a Bill providittg for the establish- 

ment of a zoological park in Washington has been introduced 
into the United States Senate. The Bill creates a Commission,, 
which is directed to secure one hundred acres of land bordering 
on Rock Creek, about one mile from the city, to prepare the 
grounds and erect suitable buildings upon it. The park is then 
to be transferred to the regents of the Smithsonian Institutioa 
for their future custody and care^ The site indicated is one of 
the most beautiful in the District of Columbia. It is composed 
of rolling ground, with the beautiful Rock Creek flowing through 
it, and it is adjacent to Woodley Park, one of the most charming 
of the recent additions to Washington. A street-railway to h 
i& already projected. 

The United States Bureau of Education has issued an 
elaborate report Of the proceedings of the Department of Super- 
'ntendence of the National Educational Association at its meet- 
ing at Washington from March 15 to 17, 1887, The volume 
includes addresses and papers by some of the most eminent 
American authorities on questions relating to education. 

The people of Cleveland, where the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science will meet in August, have 
already begun to prepare for the meeting, which is expected to 
mark an epoch in the history of the city. At a recent meeting 
of citizens, summoned for the purpose of appointing various local 
committees, an Interesting address on the history of the Associa- 
tion and its objects was delivered by Prof. F. W. Putnam, the 
Peabody Professor of American Archseology and Ethnology in 
the Univeraity of Harvard, and Permanent Secretary of the 
Association since 1873. 

Accordiko to the Colonies and India^ the Government of South 
Australia have issued Part 8 of a work on ** The Forest Flora 
of South Australia,'* which is said to be the best illustrated 
publication ever issued in the colony. Mr. Brown, Conservator 
of Forests, under whose direction the book is brought out, 
supplies the letterpress descriptions of the plants pictori^ly 
represented. 

The American publishers, Messrs. D. C. Heath and Co., 
have in the press a book of ** Chemical Problems,” by 
Drs. Grabfield and Bums, of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, 

A FOURTH edition of Prof. G. Henslow's “Botany for Be- 
ginners” (Stanford) has just been issued. In this little book 
Prof. Henslow provides a short course of elementary instrocUon 
in practical botany, for junior classes and children. 

At the anniversary meeting of the Hertfordshire Natural 
Histoiy Society, held on February 21 last, Mr. F. ManleCamp* < 
bell, the President, delivered an interesting address xm the 
means of protection possessed by plants. This addl^ 
printed in the Transactions qf the Society, and hiss 
issued separately. " V : . r 

The London Geological Field Class, under the diiei^iQii W 
VtdL H. ;G. Seeley, begins the sumt&n exchtslone on 
Monday, at, and wilt continue titem o^t 
noons (faereafler up to 14. The icAbtrli% inndng Aonte 



NATUJRE 


^5 


iof tht plftCM which wiU he visited i Lefttherhecid and BoxhUl, to 
eWlinc the gorjfe of the Mole In chalk ; Maidstone and the 
vlcioityf fcnr grovels ; Woolwich and Reading bedS| chalk gault, 
and lower greensand ; Erith and Crayford, for river gravels ; 
Gtays (in Essex), Northdeet^ and Oxsted, for studies in chalk ; 
and other places besides. Intending students should apply for 
tickets at once, as only a limited number are issued. Application 
forms may be had from Mr. W, P. Collins, 157 Great Portland 
Street. 

The additions to the Zoological Society’s Gardens during the 
past week include a Blue and Yellow Macaw {Ara ararauna), 
from South America, presented by Mrs. Warrand ; two White 
Ibis {SudoHmus o/^wr), from South America, deposited ; two 
Black -backed Geese (Sarcttitorms mdanon< 4 a d 9 ), from India, 
purchased ; a Puma (Pelis concolor)^ two Long-fronted Gerbilles 
{GerbiUus longifivns^ a Hog Deer {Cervus porcinus)^ a Sambur 
Deer \fitrvus aHstoUlu d ), bom in the Gardens. 


ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA FOP THE 
WEEK 1888 MAY 20-26. 

/pOR the reckoning of time the civil day, commencing at 
^ ^ Greenwich mean midnight, counting the hours on to 24, 
is here employed. ) 

At Greenwich on May 20 

Sun rises, 4h. 2m.; souths, ith. 53 m. 2i*Oj. ; sets, I9h. 50m. : 
right asc. on meridian, 3h. 50 6m. ; deck 20“ 8' N. 
sidereal Time at Sunset, nh. 45m. 

Moon (Full on May 25, I4h.) rises, I3h. om. ; souths, 
Iph. 49tn, ; sets, 2h. 23m.* t right asc. on meridian, 
iih. 44 ‘2m. ; deck 6" 3' N. 

Right asc. and declination 


PUmet. 


Rises. 

h. m. 

Mercury.. 4 25 ... 
Venus ... 3 35 ... 
Mars ... 15 7 ... 
Jupiter ... iQ 49^.., 
Saturn ... 8 27 ... 
Uranus... 15 16 ... 
Neptune., 4 13 


Sooths, 
h. m. 
*2 41 
n o 
20 49 
o 7 
16 22 
20 55 ^ 
M 57 


on mendian. 


4 37'3 
2 54*0 
12 44 '« 
15 59 ’S 
X67 


Sets, 
h. m. 

21 I 

18 25 

2 3 £» 

4 25 
o 17V.. 

2 34*... 12 SO‘8 

19 4 * 3 SI '8 

Indicates that the rising is that of the preceding evening and the setting 
that of the following morning. 

Occuitations 0/ Stars by the Moon (visible at Greenwich). 

Corresjpouding 
angles from ver- 
tex to right for 
inverted image. 


23 42 N. 
IS 26 N. 
4 12 S. 
«9 33 S. 
20 22 N. 

.JSn. 


May. 

Star, 

Mag. 

Di&ap. 

h. m. 

Reap. 

h. m. 

xo .. 

B.A.C. 3996 

... 6 . 

. 19 0 

near approa 

XI 

b Virginis... 

... 6 . 

- 0 57 

... I 44 

24 .. 

n Librae ... 

... 6 . 

.. 22 52 

• 23 23 

*5 ' 

8 labne ... 

... 4 i . 

. 3 45 

••• 4 39 t 

x6 .. 

B.A.C. 5700 

... 64 . 

. 4 14 

• • 4 44 


May. 

XI 

XI 

S2 

n 

25 


h. 

X 

23 

5 

IX 

7 


Suf. 

UC»^ 


139 254 

128 184 
8s 322 
17s 236 

t Below horixon at Greenwich. 

, Jupiter in conjunction with and 0° 2' north 
of 0 Scorpik 

Mars in conjunction with and 4” 32' south 
of the Moon. 

. Jupiter in opposition to the Sun. 

Mars stationary. 

. Jupiter in conjunction with and 3® 34' south 
of tlxe Moon. 

VarUkhU 

R.A. ]>ack 

b. m. , , 

0 5x^4 ... 81 16 N. 


WVilginia... 

s ... 


... Xi4r8.., 58 4N. ... 

... 13 ao I ... X 4S S. .. 

-15 * 3 ’? -I* 3^,... 

... 17 10^ ... 1 xoN. ... 

... 19 50^9 ... x6 xoN. ... 

... xo 9*0 ... td 23 N. ... 

... X04B7,.. ^7 50 N. ... 
a4 ... $7 31 N. „ 


May 22, 

h. 

I 

m 

17 m 

fi 

22, 


m 

II 

26, 

3 

0 m 

»* 

2Si 

a SS w 

»i 

23 i 

I 

22 m 

II 

2Si 

3 

0 m 

If 

93 i 


m 

If 

33. 

2 

oM 

II 

2tS. 

2 

0 J 9 I 


GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES, 

At Monday’s meeting of the Royal Geographical Society 
Lieut. F. £. Vouoghusband gave an account of his journey 
across Central Asia, from Manchuria and Peking to l^hmir 
and the Mustagh Pass. This is the most important paper which 
has been read at the .Society during the present session, and the 
journey one of the most remarkable ever made, considering its 
length, the time taken— April to November, 1887 — and the 
novelty and value of the results. We have only space to refer 
briefly to Lieut. Younghusband’s observations on the Mustagh 
Pass, which he has been the first European to cross. He crossed 
the Gobi Desert to Hami by a route lying between those of 
Marco Polo and Mr. Key Elias. Mis observations in the 
Gobi are oj much interest. The clearness and dryness of the 
atmosphere were remarkable. Everything became parched up, 
and so charged with electricity that a sheepskin coat or blanket, 
on being opened out, would give out a loud crackling noise, 
accompanied by a sheet of fire. At the western end of the 
Hurku Hills, beyond the Galpin Gobi— the most sterile part of 
the whole Gobi— is a most remarkable range of sand-hills. It 
is about 40 miles in length, and is composed of bare sand, with- 
out a vestige of vegetation of any sort on it, and in places it is 
as much as 900 feet in height, rising abruptly out of a gravel 
plain. With the dark outline of the southern hills as a back- 
ground, this white, fantastically-shaped sand-range presents a 
very striking appearance. It must have been formed by the 
action of the wind, for to the westward of this range is an im- 
I mense sandy tract, and it is evident that the wind has driven the 
! sand from this up into the hollow between the Hurku Hills and 
the range to the south, thus forming these remarkable sand-hills. 
It was near this region that traces of the wild camel were met 
with, and both wild asses and wild horses seen. As far as 
llami the country continues to be mainly desert. From Hami, 
Lieut. Younghusband went on to Yarkand, and by the Yarkand 
Kiver to the Karakorum Ea^e, which he meant to cross 
by the Mustagh Pass. The dimcuUies, owing to the enormous 
glaciers, the rugged nature of the mountains, and great 
height of the pass, were very great for Lieut. Younghusrand, 
his men, and his pionies. The glaciers here are of enormous 
size, and Lieut. Younghusband has added considerably to 
the information obtained by Colonel Godwin-Austen, who 
surveyed the region ^lo the south of the pass twenty- 
six years ago. *’The appearance of these mountains,” 
Lieut. Younghusband slalca, **is extremely bold and rugged 
os they rise in a succession of needle peaks like hundreds 
of Matterhoms collected together; but the Matterhorn, Mont 
Blanc, and all the Swiss mountains would have been two or three 
thousand feet below me, while these mountains rose up in solemn - 
grandeur thousands of feet above me. Not a living thing was 
seen, and not a sound was heard ; all was snow and ice and 
rocky precipices ; while these mountains are far too grand to 
support anything so insignificant as trees or vegetation of any 
sort. They stand bold and solitary in their glory, and only per- 
mit man to come amongst them for a few montns in the year, 
that he may admire their magnificence and go and tell it to his 
comrades in the world beneath.” After some extremely dilficult 
pros})ecting, Lieut. Younghusband made up his mind to cross the 
old and long-abandoned Mustagh Pass, instead of the new one. 
“Next morning,” he stated, “ while it was yet dark, we started 
for the pass, leaving everything behind, except a roll of bedding 
for myself, a sheepskin coat for each man, a fe^w dry provisions, 
and a large tca-keltlc. The ascent to the pass was quite gentle, 
but led over deep snow in which we sank knee-deep at every 
step. We were now about i9,ocx) feet above the sea-lcvel, and 
quickly became exhausted. In fact, as we got near the sum-^ 
mit, we could only advance a dozen or twenty steps at a time^ 
and we would then Jean over on our alpenstocks, and gasp 
and pant away as if we had been running up a sleep hill 
at a great pace. But it was not till midday that we reached 
the suramu, and then on looking about for a way down 
we could see none. Huge blocks of ice had fallen from the 
mountains which overhang the pass, and had blocked up the 
path by which travellers used formerly to descend from it, and 
the only possible way now of getting to the bottom was by 
crossing an icy xilope to a cliflT, which waa too steep for a particle 
of snow to Ic^e on it, even in that region of ice and snow. 
From thh we should have to descend on to some more ic^ 
slopes which could be seen below. . . . We had first to cross • 
the ky slope ; it was of smooth ice and very steep, and about 
thirty yams below us It Snded abruptly, and we could sOe - 




d6 


NATUBB 


irn^ 17 * im 


Yiothing over the edge for miny hundreth of feet WaH 
hewed the steps we advanced st^ by step after him, leaning 
back against the slope, atl the time facing the preoipiCe, and 
koowlng that if we slipped (and the ice was veiy slippety, for 
the sun was just powerful enough to molt the surfeoe of it), we 
should roll down the icy slope and over the precipice into 
eternity, Afte^^a time we reached /tfr/’o Jirmj in the shape of a 
projecting piece of rock, and from here began the descent of 
the cliff. We had to let ourselves down from any little lodge, 
taking every step with the greatest possible care, as the rock 
was not always sound ; and once a shout came from above, and 
a huge rock, which had been dislodged, came crashing past me 
and as nearly as possible hit two of the men who already 
got some way down. At the ]:>ottom of the cliff wrt came to 
another steep ice-slope." After eighteen hours of this task the 
party were glad to lie down for a few hours^ rest. At daybreak 
next mominc they were on their legs again, and after a few 
hours* travelling emerged on to the great Baltoro CJlacier, which 
was explored by Colonel Godwin- Austen in 1862, when making 
(he Kashmir survey. They travelled all that day, and for two 
■days more, till they reached Askoli, a little village on the Braldo 
River, surrounded by trees and cultivated lands. 

Lieut. Younghusbanu remarked as follows on the Altai 
Mountains : — ** These mountains are perfectly barren, the 
upper portion composed of bare rock and the lower of 
Jong gravel slopes formed of the debris of the rocks above. 
In su 5 i an extremely dry climate, exposed to the icy cold 
winds of winter and the fierce rays of the summer sun, 
and unprotected by one atom of soil, the rocks here, as also in 
every other part of the Gobi, crumble away to a remarkable 
extent, and tlnere being no rainfall sufficient to wash away the 
debris, the lower features of the range gradually get covered with 
a mass of debris falling from the upper portions, and in the 
course of time a uniform slope is created, often 30 or 40 miles in 
length, and it is only for a few hundred feet at the lop that the 
original ja^ed rocky outline is seen." Again, with regard to 
Chinese 'I^kistan If you could get a bird's-eye view of 
Chinese Turkistan, you would see a great bare desert surrounded 
on three sides by bacren mountains, and at their bases you would 
aee some vivid green spots, showing out sharp and distinct like 
blots of green paint dropi>ed on to a sepia picture. In the 
western end round Kashgar and Yarkand the cultivation is of 
greater extent and more continuous than in the eastern half, 
where the oases arc small and separated from each other by rj 
■or 20 miles of desert. These oases are, however, extraordinarily 
fertile, every scrap of land that can be cultivated is used up, and 
• every drop of water is drained off from the stream and us^ for 
irrigation.” At the conclusion of Monday’s meeting of the 
Royal Geographical Society, General J, T. Walker proposed, 
and Sir Henry Rawlinson seconded, that the peak in the Kara- 
korum known as KTi, 28,500 feet high, be baptired Mount 
Godwin- Austen— a proposal heartily approved by the meeting. 

The Paris Gcomphical Society has awarded gold medals to 
the Rev. P, Roblet, for his map of Madagascar ; to MM. 
Bonvalot, C.ipus, and P^pin, for their journeys in Kafirlstan 
and the Pamir ; to M. Chaffanjoo, for his exploration of the 
sources of the Orinoco. 

General Pk;kvalskv will start in August next on hU 
fourth journey in Central Asia. His ultimate destination will be 
Lhassa, the capital of Tibet, and he will be equipped for two 
years’ travel. He will be accompanied by an escort of twenly- 
■eight persoas, including twelve Cossacks, and two scientific 
-companions, Lieut. Robrowsky and Sub-Lieut. Koslow. 


THE PVGMV PACES OF MEN} 


II. 

IKE all other human beings existing at present in the nwld, 
^ however low in the scale of civilization, the social life of the 
Andamanese is enveloped in a complex mAze of tinwritten law or 
• costom, the intricacies of which are most difficult iot any Stronger 
to unravel. The relations they may or may not irtorry, the food 
they ore obliged or forbidden to partake of at paitfetdof epochsof 
life or masons of the year, the words and nattss they m«y or 
^ l»ronottnoe ; all as well as their traditions, .ftttpeniti- 

Deparoiwnis ofthe Britbh MewaUk Cundoaed ftoiii p. 4% 


tioM, and beHefe, thefr occupations, gamise, and amaaetnstiti 
of which they seem to have no lack, would take fer (do long 
to describe hero ; but, before leaving these interesting ^people, 
I may quote an observation of Mr. Man's, which, uAlm be has 
seen them with too caulmr^r^^te eyesight, throws a very fkvemr- 
able light upon the primitive unso^itacated life of these poor 
little savages, now so ruthlessly broken into and destroyea by 
the exigences of our ever-extending Empire. 

*‘Itlias been asserted/' Mr. Man says, “that the 'com- 
munal marriage ’ system prevails among them, and that * marriage 
is nothing more than taking a female slave * ; but, so far from 
the contract being regarded as a merely temporary arrangement, 
to be set aside at the will of either party, no incompatibility of 
temper or other cause is allowed to dissolve the union ; and 
while bigamy, polygamy, polyandry, and divorce are unknown, 
conjugal fidelity till death U not (he exception but the rule, and 
matrimonial differences, which, however, occur but rarely, ate 
easily settled with or without the intervention of friends/' In 
fact, Mr. Mon goes on to say, “ One of the most striking 
.features of their social relations is the marked equality and 
affection which subsists between husband and wife, and “the 
consideration and respect with which women are treated might 
with advantage be emulated by certain classes in our own l^d." 

It should also be mentioned that cannibalism and infanticide, 
two such common incidents of savage life, were never practised 
by them. 

We must now pass to the important scientific question, Who 
are the natives of the Andaman Islands, and where, among the 
other races of the human species, shall we look for their nearest 
relations ? 

It is due mainly to the assiduous researches into all the docu- 
mentary evidence relating to the inhabitants of Southern Asia 
and the Indian Archipelago, conducted through many years by 
M. de Quatrefages, m some cases with the assistance of his 
colleague M. Hamy, that the facts I am about to put before you 
have been prominently brought to light, and their significance 
demonstrated. 

It is well known that the greater part of the large island of 
New Guinea, and of the chain of islands extending eastwards 
and southwards from it, including the Solomon Islands, the 
New Hebrides, and New Caledonia, and also the Fijis, are still 
inhabited mainly by people of dark colour, frizzly hair, and 
many characters allying them to the Negroes of Africa. These 
constitute the race to which the term Melanesian, is commonly 
applied in this country, or Oceanic Negroes, the “ Papouas” of 
Quatref^es. Their area at one time was more extensive 
than it is now, and has been greatly encroached upon by the 
brown, straight-haired Polynesian race with Malay affinities, 
now inhabiting many of the more important islands of the 
Pacific, and the mingling of which with the more aboriginal 
Melanesians in various proportions has been a cause, among 
others, of the diverse aspect of the population on many of the 
islands in this extensive remon. These Papouas, or Mela- 
nesians, however, differ greatly from the Andamanese in many 
easily defined characters; which are, especially, their laj^jer 
stature, their long, narrow, and high skulls, and their coarser 
and more Negro-like features. Although undoubtedly allied, 
we cannot look to them as the nearest relations 0/ our Ijltle 
Andamanese. 

When the Spaniards commenced the colonization of the 
Philippines, they met with, in the mountainous r^ion In the inte- 
rior 01 the Island of Luzon, besides the prevailing native po|hi- 
lation, consisting of Ta^s of Malay origin, very i^mall people, 
of black complerion, with the frizzly hair of the African Negroes. 
So struck were they with the resemblance, that they catted 
them “Nemitos del Monte" (little Negroes of the moemtaiA). 
Their local name was Aigtas, or Inagtas, said to signliy 
“ black,” and from which the word Aista, generally now applied 
to them, U derived. These people have lately been sttulled 
by two French ttavelleis, M. Marche and Dr, Montano } the 
result of thefr measaretnents gives 4 feet inches aathenveraM 
height of (be men, and 4 feet fit fnehes the average fer the 
womea. to many of their morel characteristics they^wembk 
the Aodamenese. The Aetas are faithful to their osMtfepe 
vows* and have but one wife. TbO; affeetkm of perwte fir 
children is very strang» end the latter have for their Add 
mother ee mifeh love and, respect. The marriage aeMemny, 
acoordine to Montano, is very remarkable. The nmeoeed 
paw dlmb riwo fiexible trees xdaced otfltr to each oriier One of 
the elders df the tribe behds them earii orifeh When 






NATURE 


67 



of iho wrcSupeloeo^ Paoay. Mindanao, &c,, and that th^ 
Okllrely some Uttlc ulands-r^among others, Bougas 

lihuul, or 1^ de los Negros/' 

. Aa ihe islands of these ea tern seas have become better 
known, Atrther discoveries of the existence of a small Negroid 
pppulation have been made in Formosa, in the interior of 
Hcraeo, the Sandal Islands (Sumba), Xulla, Bourou, Ceram, 
Flores, Soler, Pantar, Lomblem, Ombay, the eastern pcnin&ula 
of Celebes, &c. In fact, Sumatra and Java are the only large 
lUands of this great area which contain no traces of them 
except some doubtful cross-breeds, and some remains of an 
industry which appears not to have parsed beyond the Age of 
Stone. 

The Sunda Islands form the southern limit of the Negrito 
area j Formosa, the last to the north, where the race has pre- 
served all its characters. But beyond this, as in Lew-Chew, 
and even the south-east portion of Japan, it reveals its former 
existence by the traces it has left in the present population. 
That it has contributed considerably to form the population of 
New Guinea is unquestionable, in many parts of that great 
island, small round-headed tribes live more or less distinct from 
the larger and longer-headed people who make up the bulk of 
the population. 

But It is not only in the islands that the Negrito race dwell. 
Traces of them are found also on the mainland of Asia, but 
everywhere under the same conditions ; in scattered tribes, 
occupying the more inaccessible mountainous regions of countries 
otherwise mainly inhabited by other races, and generally in a 
condition more or less of degradation and barbarism, resulting 
from the oppression with w'hich they have been treated by their 
invading conqiierers ; often, moreover, so much mixed that 
their original characters are scarcely recognizable. The 
Semangfi of the interior of Malacca in the Malay peninsula, 
the Sakays from Perak, the Moys of Annam, all show traces of 
Nep to blood. In India proper, especially am mg the lowcU 
and least civil iaed tribes, not only of the central aiul southern 
districts, but even almost to the foot of the Himalayas, in the 
Punjab, and even to the west side of the Indus, according to 
Quatrefages, frizsly hair, Negro features, and small stature, 
are so common that a strong argument can be based on them for 
the belief in a N egrito race forming the basis of the whole pre- 
Aryan, or r>ravidian as it is gencrolly called, population oJ the 

E eninsula. The crossing that has taken place with other races 
as doubtless greatly altered the physical characters of this 
people, and the evidences of this alteration manifest themselves 
in man}r ways ; sometimes the curliness of the hair is lost by 
the admixture with smooth straight-haired races, while the black 
complexion and small stature remain ; sometimes the stature is 
increased, hut the colour which seems to be one of the most 
perstttent of characteristics, remains. 

localities in which thesj people are found in their greatest 
purity, either in almost inaccessible islands, as on the Amuimans, 
or elsewhere in the mountainous ranges of the interior only ; their 
social positions and traditions, wherever th<7 exist — all point to 
the fact that they were the earliest inhabitants ; and that the 
Mongolian and Malay races on the east, and the Aryans on the 
west, which are now so tanidly exterminating and replacing them, 
are later comers into the land, exactly as, in the greater part of , 
the Pacific Ocean, territory formerly occupied by the aboriginal 
dark, frizily-haired Negroid Melanesians has been gradually and 
slowly invaded by the brown Polynesians, who in their turn, but 
by a muoh more rapid process, are being replaced by Europeans. 

We now see what constitutes the great interest of the Anda- I 
rnonese natives to the student of the ethnological history of the i 
Eastern world. Their long isolation has made them a remark- 1 
aMy homogeneons race, stamping them all with a common ! 
metnbtance not seen in the mixed races generally met with in 
conrinental areas. For although, as with most savages, marriages 
within the fkmily (using the in a very wide sense) are most 
all such aUiances havo necessarily been con- 
to natives of! the islands. Tl^ey are the loMt modified ^ 
IStoreMgatitives of the people who as as we know, the 
muMte ibhahitimts of .a laige portion of the earth's surfacei 
W ivho am now veiling on It is, however, not 

t^Oosaeaxy to svj^^ose thjd the Andaman Jslanden ghre us the 
enact mraeteis and feabmi nfati the other bmohec of the 
rabe. Diflhreiices in detidrdbebileeeenietftd^^dl^^ 


are almost alwawi sure to arise whenever races become iBolated^^ 
from each other for long periods of time. 

In many cases the characters of the ancient inhabitants of a land 
have been revealed to us 1 ^ the preservation of thetr actual re- 
mains. Unfortunatdy we nave as yet no such evidence to tell ua 
of the former condition of man in Bimtfaern Asia, We may, how- 
ever, look upon the Andamanese, the Aetos, and the Semangs,^ 
as living fossils ; and by their aid conjecture the condition of 
the whole population of the land in ancient times. It is possible, 
also, to follow Quatrefages, and to see in them the origin of the 
stories of the Orientabpygmies related by Ctesias and by Pliny. 

We DOW pass to the continent of Africa, in the interior of 
which thes pygmies of Homer, Herodotus, and Aristotle have 
generally been placed. Africa, as is well known, is the home 
of another great branch of the black, frizzly-hai^, or Ethiopian 
division of the human upccics, who do, or did till lately, occupy 
the southern two- thirds of this great continent, the northern 
third being inhabited by Hamite and Semite branches of the 
great white or Caucasian primary division of the human species, 
or by races resulting from the mixture of them and the Negroes. 
Besides the tnie Negro, there has long been known to exist m the 
southern part of the continent a curioudy modified type, consist- 
ing of the Hottentots, and the Bushmen— Bosjesmen (men of 
the woods) of the Hutch colonists— the latter of whom, on 
account of thtrir small size, come within the scope of the present 
subject. They lead the lives of the most degraded of savages, 
dwelling among the rocky and more i" accessible mountains of 
the interior, making habitations of the natural caves, subsist- 
ing entirely by the chase, being most expert in the use of the 
bow and arrow, and treated as enemies and outcasts by the 
surrounding and more civilized tribes, whose flocks and herds 
they show Tittle resi^cct for when other game is not within reach. 
Ihc physical characters of these people are well known, as 
many specimens have been brought to Europe alive for the pur- 
pose of exhibition, llieir hair snows the extreme of the frixzly 
tjpe, being shorter and less abundant than that of the ordinary 
Negro ; U has the appearance of growing in separate tufts, which 
coil up together into round balls compared to “peppercorns." 
The yellow complexion difiei-s from that of the Negro, and, com- 
bined with the wide check-bones and form of the eyes, so much 
recalls that of certain of the pure yellow races that some anlhropo- 
logisls aie indiiied to trace true Mongolian affinities and 
admixture, although the extreme crispness oftbe hair makes such 
a supposition almost impossible. The width of the cheek-bones 
and the narrowness of the forehead and the chin give a lozenge 
shape to the front view of the face. The forehead is prominent 
and straight ; the nose extremely flat and broad, more so than in 
any other race, and the Ups prominent and thick, although the 
jaw's are less prognathous than in the true Negro races, The 
cranium has many special characters by which it can be easily 
distinguished from that of any other. It has generally a very 
feminine, almost infantile, appearance, though the capacity of 
the cranial cavity is not the smallest, exceeding that of the 
Andamanese. In general form the cranium is rather oblong than 
oval, having straight sides, a flat top, and especially a vertical 
forehead, which rises straight from the root of the nose. It is 
moderately dolichocephalic or rather mesaticephnlic, the average 
of the index of ten specimens being 75 ■4* ^ height is in all 

considerably less than the breadth, the average index being 71 'i. 
The glabella and infra-orbital ridges are littje developed except 
in the oldest males. The malar bones project much forwards,, 
and the space between the orbits is very wide and flat. The 
nasal bones are extremely small and depressed, and the aperture 
wide ; the average nasal index being 60*8, so they are the most 
platyrhine of races. 

With regard to the stature, wc have not yet sufficient 
materials for giving a reliable average. Quatrefages, following 
Barrow, gives 4 feet 6 inches for the men, and 4 feet for the 
women, and speaks of one individual of (he latter sex, who was 
the mother of several children, measuring only 3 feet 0 inches 
in height ; but later observations (sUl), however, insumcient in 
number) give a rather larger stature : thus Topinard places the 
average at i *404 metre, or 4 feet Inches ; and Fntsch, who 
measured six male Bushmen in South Africa, found their mean 
heiffbt to be 1-444 mUttt or nearly 4 f«et 9 inches. It is 
proMhle (hid, taks^ thorn idl tqgetheri they differ but Uttle in thia 
respect freup the in coknur, in form of 

h^ infoatates, aadlntho ptoporrioiM of the body, they mpt 
wkkiy fensovod from Afvu 




68 


MATURM 




TherQ ia etery Teason to beMeve that these Bushmoo repment 
the catlieBt race of which we have, or are ever likely to have, any 
koowledce, which inhabited the southern portion « the African* 
oontincnt, but that long before the adv:^nt of Europeans upon 
^he scene, they had ^en invaded from the north by Nwo 
tribes, who, being superior in size, strength, ai^ dvilization, had 
taken possession of the greater part of their territories, and 
mingling fr^y with the aborigines, had produced the mixed 
race called Hottentots, who retained the culture and settled 
;pastoral habits of the Negroes, with many of the physical fea> 
tures of the Bushmen. These, in their«turn, encroached upon 
by the pure-bred Bantu Negroes from the north, and by the 
Dutch and English from the south, are now greatly diminished, 
and indeed threatened with the same fate that wilt eurely soon 
-befall the scanty remnant of the early inhabitants who still 
retain their primitive type. 

At present the habitat of the Bushman race is conhned to 
certain districts in the south-west of Africa, from the coniines of 
'the Cape Colony, as far north as the shores of Lake N^tni. 
Further to the north the great equatorial region of Africa is^ 
occupied by various Negp-o tribes, using the term in its broadest 
sense, but oelonging to the divisions which, on account of pecu- 
liarities of language, have been jpouped together as Bantu. 
They all present the common pbysteal characteristics typical of 
■the Negro race, only two of which need be specially mentioned 
here — medium or large stature, and dolichocephalic skull 

• (avere^e cranial index awut 7|*5)> 

It is at various scattered {Uaces in the midst of these, that 
the only other small people of which I shall have to speak, the 
veritable pygmies of Homer, Herodotus, and Aristotle, accoi^iog 
to Quatref^es, are still to be met with.' 

The first notice of the occurrence of these in modem times is 
contained in '^The strange adventures of Andrew Battell of 
‘Leigh in Essex, sent by the Portugals prisoner to Angola, who 
lived there, and in the adjoining regions near eighteen yeares “ 
(1589 to 1^7), published in “Purchos his Pilgrimes” (1625), 
lib, vii, chap. iii. p. 983 : — 

** To the north-east of Mani-Kesock^ are a kind of little people, 

• dialled Matimbas ; which are no bigger than Boyes of twelve 
yeares old, but very thicke, and live only upon flesh, which they 
kill in the woods with their hows and darts. They pay tribute 
to Mani- Knocks and bring all their elephants* teeth and tayles 
to him. They will not enter into any of the Maramba^s houses, 
nor will suffer any to come where they dwell. And if by chance 
any Maramba or people of Lmgo pass where they dwell, they 
will forsake that place, and go to another. The women carry 
Bows and Arrows as well as the men. And one of these will 
walk in the woods atone and kill the Pongos with their poysoned 
Arrows.'* 

Battell’s narrative, it should be said, is. generally admitted as 
having an air of veracity about it not always conspicuous in 
those of travellers of his time. In addition to the observations 

• on tbe human inhabitants, it contaiiis excellent descriptions of 
animals, as the pongo or gorilla, and tbe zebra, now well 
known, but in his day new to Europeans. 

Dapper, in a work called “ Description de la Basse Eihiopie,*' 
publimed at Amsterdam in 1686, speaks of a race of dwarfs 
inbabitir^ the same region, which he calls Mimosox Bakkt-Bakke^ 
but nothing further was heard of these people until quite recent 
times, A German scientific expedition to Loango, the results of 
which were published in the Zeitschrift fur Eihnologit^ 1874, and 
in Hartmann's work, " Die Negritier,** obtained, at Chinchoxo, 
photographs and descriptions of a dwarf tribe called ** Baboukos,** 
whose heads were proportionally large and of roundish form 

• (cephalic index of skull, 78 to 81). One individual, supposed to 
be about forty years of age, measured 1 *365 metre, rather under 

. 4 feet 6 inches. 

Dr. Touchard, in a “ Notice sur le Gabon," published in the 
R^vui Mariiittie et Cohnialt for *86 1, describes the recent 
destruction of a population established in the interior of this 
-country and to which he gives the name of "Akoa.** They 
: seem to have been exterminated by the M’Pongos in their 
expansion towards the west. Some of them, however, remained 
at slaves at the time of the visit of Admiral Fleuriot de Limde, 
who in 1868 photographed one (measuring about 4 feet d 
dikh) and brought nome some skulls, which were examined by 
Hamy, and all proved veiy small and sub-brochyoephalle. 

^ The soattored infarmadoa upon this subject was first toUeCted tUicl^r 
'fay Hamy m bis Bmi de uo-or 4 uMtion des NCot^ux idcsiuaisuteiieuSilns 
sur rethaulugie des Nderilles ou Pygmdet de TAtHque Sqimwbm/* Rftbk, 
i’air. Ji /'anr, to ue lb (se*. lil), *879, r* 7> 


Another tribe, the M'BouWus, inhaUring thd Obast 
of the Gaboon River, have been detcrlbw hy M. Harm 
as probably the primitive race of the eonntn* They Uvi m 
little viHagea, keeping entirely to theois^ves, though sarroonded 
by tbe uSf^ tribes, M'Pongos and BakaUus, who are 

encroaching upon tnem so closely that their numbers are rapidiy 
diminishing. In i860 they were not more than 3000 ; iti 1879 
much less numerous. They are of an earthy-brown colour, and 
rarely exceed i’6qo metre in height (5 feet 3 inches). In the 
rich collections of skulls made by Mr. R. B. walker and fay M. 
Dtt Cbaillu, from the cbiilt of this region, are many which ore 
remarkable for their small size and round form. Or many other 
notices of tribes of Negroes of diminutive aize, living near the 
west coast of Equatorial Africa, I need only mention that of 
Du Challlu, who gives an interesting account of bis visit to an 
Obongo village in Ashango land, between the Gaboon and the 
Congo ; although unfortunately, owing to the extreme shyneas and 
suspicion of the inhabitants, he was allowed little opportunity 
for anthropological observations. He succeeded, however, in 
measuring one man and six women ; tbe height of the former was 
4 feet 6 inches, the average of the later 4 fi^t 8 inches.' 

Far further into the interior, towards the centre of the rtfion * 
contained in the mat bend of the Congo or Livingstone River, 
Stanley heard of a numerous and independent population of 
dwarfs, called Watwas," who, like the Mtimbas of Battell, are 
great hunters of elephants, and use poisoned arrows. One of 
mese he met with at Ikondu was 4 feet 6} inches high, and of a 
chocolate -brown colour.^ More recently Dr. WoGf describes 
under the name of ** Batouas " (perhaps the same as StaDley*8 
Watwas), a people of lighter colour than other Negroes, and 
never exceeding 1 *40 metres (4 feet 7 inches) high, but whose 
average is not more than 1*30 (4 feet 3 inches), who occupy 
isolated villages scattered through the terntory of the Bahonbas , 
with whom they never mix,* 

Penetrating into the heart of Africa from the north-east, in 
1870, Dr. George Schweinfurth first made us acquainted with a 
diminutive race of people who have since attained a consider- 
able anthropological notoriety. They seem to go by two names 
in their own country, Abba and TUbbt-Bkbi, the latter reminding 
us curiously of Dapper’s Bakke-bakke, and the former, more 
singularly still, having been read by the learned Egyptologist, 
Mariette, by the side of the figure of a dwarf in one of the 
monuments of the early Egyptian Empire. 

It was at the court of Mounza, king of the Monbuttu, that 
Schweinfurth first met with tbe Akkas. Th^ appear to live 
under the protection of that monarch, who had a regiment of 
them attached to his service, but their real country was further 
to the south and west, about 3* N. laL and 2$^ £. long. 
From the accounts the traveller received they occupy a consider- 
able territory, and are divided into nine distinct tribes, eacli 
having its own king or chief. Like all the other pygmy African 
tribes, they live chiefly by the chase, being great hunten of toe 
elephant, which they attack with bows and arrows. 

In exchange for one of his dogs, Schweinfurth obtained from 
Mounza one of these little men, whom he intended to bring to 
Europe, but who died on the homeward journey at Berber. Un- 
I fortunately all toe measurements and observations which were 
made in the Monbuttu country by Schweinfartb perished in toe 
fire which destroyed so much of the valuable material he bad 
collected. His descriptions of their physical characters are there- 
fore chiefly recollections. Other travellers-*- Long, Mamo, and 
Vossion— though not penetrating as far as toe Altoa coimtty, 
have given observations upon it^viduals of the race they have 
met with in their travels. The Italian Miani, fcdlowing the foot- 
steps of Schweinfurth into the Monbuttu country, also obtained^ 
^ barter, two Akka boys, with the view of bringing toetn to 
Efurope. He himself fell a victim to tbe fatigues of the joum^ 
and dimate, but left his collections, including the yonng Akkas, to 
toe Italian Geographical Society. Probably no two Individuals 
of a savage race have been so much honoured by the attentions 
of the scientific world. Fbst ai Cairo, and afterwmds in Italy, 
Tebo (or Thibeut) mad Chairallah, as they were named,, were 
described,ineasared,and photogT^ed,and have been tod sheets 
of a Hbirafy of memotru, their mbltogmpbers Including toe names 
of Owen. Fanceri, Cotnalia^ Mantegassa, GiglioU and Zattttetti, 
Broca, Hamy, and de QUatrefages. On tbeit arrWul in lU^, 
they were presented to tim King and Queen, tnfmduoed btto w 


t M 
« 14 

9JU 


5. 




7» i 


NATURE 


69 


moit Aod settled down ss members 

of of doont MUuscAlchi Erizro, at Verona, where 
tbK 7 a European education, and performed the duties of 

T-p., to an addressed to my friend Dr. Giglioli, of j 

FloMo^^hear that luSbaat died of consumption on January 
3i8/ 1BS3, haiog then about twenty-two years of age, and was 
buried \n ^e cemeteiy at Verona. Unfortunately no scientific 
examiaatiou of the bray was allowed, but whether Chairallah 
atiU lives or not 1 have not been able to learn. As Giglioli has 
not heard of bU death, h <6 presumes that he U still living in Count 
Miniscalchi’s palace. 

One other specimen of this race has been the subject of 
carefiil observation by European anthropologists — a girl named 
Saidd, brought home by Komoto Gessi (Gordon’s lieutenant), 
and who is still, or was lately, living at Trieste as servant to 
M* de GesiL 

The various scattered observations hitherto made are ob- 
idoosly insuEficient to deduce a mean height for the race, but 
the nearest estimate that Quatrefages could obtain is about 
4 feet 7 inches for the men, and 4 feet 3 inches for the 
women, decidedly inferior, ther^ore, to the Andamanese. With 
regard to their other characters, their hair is of the most frizzly 
kind, their complexion lighter than that of most Negroes, but 
the prognathism, width of nose, and eversion of lips'characterUtic 
of the Ethiopian branch of the human family are carried to< an 
extreme d^ree, especially if Schweinfurth’s sketches can be 
trusted. The only essential point of difference from the ordinary 
Negro, except the size, is the tendency (o shortening and breadth 
of the skull, although it by no means assumes the ** almost 
spherical shape attributed to it by Schweinfuith. 

Some further information about the Akkas will be found in 
the work, just published, of the intrepid and accomplished 
traveller in whose welfare we are now so much interested, Dr. 
Emin Pasha, Gordon’s last surviving officer in the Soudan, 
who in the course of his explorations spent some little time lately 
in the country of the Monbuttu. Here he not only met with 
living Akkas, one of whom he apparently still retains as a 
domestic in his service, and of whose dimensions he has sent -me 
a most detailed account, but he also, by watching the spots where 
two of them had been interred, succeeded in obtaining their , 
skeletons, which, with numerous other objects of great scientific 
interest, safely arrived at the British Museum in September of 
last year. I need hardly say that actual bones, clean, imperish- 
able, easy to be measured and compared, not once only, but 
any number of times, furnish the moat acceptable evidence that 
an anthropologist can possess of many of the most important 
physical cKaracters of a race. There we have facts which can 
always be appealed to in support of statements and inferences 
based on them. Height, proportions of limbs, form of head, 
characters of the face even, are all more rigorously determined 
from the bones than they can be on the living person. Therefore 
the value of these remains, imperfect as they unfortunately are, 
and of course insufficient in number for the purpose of establishing 
average characters, is very great indeed. 

As I have enter^ fully into the question of their peculiarities 
elsewhere, I can only give now a few of the most important 
and most generally to be understood results of their examination. 
The first point of interest is their size. The two skeletons are 
both those of full-grown people, one a man, the other a woman. 
There is no reason to suppose that they were specially selected 
as exceptiosially tmall ; they were clearly the only ones which 
Emin bad an opportunity of procuring ; yet they fully bear out, 
laore than bear out, all that hu been said of the diminutive 
size of the race* Comparing the dimensions of the bones, one 
by, one, with those of the numerous Andamanese that have passed 
through my hands, 1 ffisd both of these Akkas smaller, not than 
the average, but ei^alUr than the stnallest ; smaller also than 
any Bushman whose skeleton 1 am acquainted with, or whose 
dimensions have been published with scientific accuracy. In 
fact, they are both, Inr they are nearly of a size, the iiwlest 
normal humim ekdetons which I have seen, or of which I can 
.fipd any istePSdt t m normal, because they are thoroughly 
WfB grown and fumortloned) without a tntoe of the deformity 
almost always asepmaied with individual dwarMaess in a taller 
raae^ One that the ^ sufficiently perfect for 

liirtfcuhi^om After dMallowaacefbrioa^ and 

for the uttervett^ural ^uicea, the skeletoD measures from the 
crown of tlmheadmtMipfmd eus^ metre. 

AhofUthslfjm^iaehttoiWior skin of the 


head and soles of the feet would complete the height when 
alive* The other (male) skeleton was by the length 

of the femur) about a quarter of an inch shorter. 

The full-grown woman of whom Emin gives detailed 
dimensions is stated to be only 1*164 metre, or barely 3 feet 10 
inches.' These heights are aU unquestionably Irtss than any- 
thing that has been yet obtained based upon such indisputable 
data. One very interesting and almost unexpected result of a 
careful examination of these skeletons is that they conform in 
the relative proportions of the head, trunk, and limbs, not to 
dwarfs, but to tull-sizcd people of other races, and they are 
therefore strikingly unlike the stumpy, long-bodied, short- 
limbed, largC'headed pygmies so graphically represented fighting 
with their lances against the aaneS on ancient Greek vases. 

The other characters of these skeletons are Negroid to an 
intense degree, and quite accord with what has been stated of 
their external appearance. The form of the skull, too, has that 
sub-brachycephaly which ha<) been shown by Hamy to charac- 
terize.all the small Negro populations of Central Afirica. It is 
quite unlike that of the Andamanese, quite unlike that of the 
Bushmen. They arc obviously Negroes of a special type, to which 
Hamy has given the appropriate term of Negnlh, They seem 
to have much the same relation to (he larger longer- headed 
African Negroes that the small round-headed N^^os of the 
Indian Ocean have to their larger longer-headed Melanesian 
neighbours. 

At all events, the fact now seems clearly demonstrated that at 
various spots across the great African continent, within a few 
degrees'north and south of the equator, extending from the Atlantic 
coast to near the shores of the Albert Nyanza (30" E. long.), 
and perhaps, if some indications which time will not allow me to 
enter into now (but which will be found in the writings of Hamy 
and Quatrefages), even further to the east, south of the Galla 
land, are still surviving, in scattered districts, communities of these 
small Negroes, all much resembling each other in size, appearance, 
and habits, and dwelling mostly apart from their larger neigh- 
bours, by whom they are everywhere surrounded. Our informa- 
tion about them is still very scanty, and to obtain more would be 
a worthy object of ambition for the anthropological traveller. In 
many parts, especially at the west, they are obviously holding 
their own with difficulty, if not actually disappearing, and there 
is much about their condition of civilization, and the situations in 
which they are found, to induce us to look upon them, as in the 
case of the Bushmen in the south and the Negritos in the east, as 
remains of a population which occupied the land before the in- 
coming of the present dominant races. If the account of the 
Nasamonians related by Herodotus is accepted as historical, the 
river they came to, “ flowing from west to east,” must have been 
the Niger, and the northward range of the dwarfish people fiir 
more extensive twenty-three centuries ago than it is at the 
present time. 

This view opens a still larger question, and takes us back to 
the neighbourhood of the south of India as the centre from Whi^ 
the whole of the great Negro race spread, east over the African 
continent, and west over the islands of the Pacific, and to our 
little Andamanese fellow subjects as probably the least modified 
descendants of the primitive members of the great branch of the 
human species characterized by their black Mn% and frizzly hair. 


UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
INTELLIGENCE, 

CAMBRiDGE.^In a reccnt discussion on the proposed appro- 
priation of the whole of the Botanic Gardens site for Natural 
Science Departments, it seemed to be generally agreed that the 
Mechanical Department ought to ^ removed from a locality 
where it must cause vibrations injurious to microscopical or 
physical research. The suggested removal of the Herbarium 
to the Botanic Gardens was^approved of by the Professor and 
his Assistant-Curator. The proposed appropriation of the 
present Chemical Rooms for Pathology waa generally approved. 
Mr. J. W. Clark emphatically condemned the present Museum 
of Human Anatomy and Sm^ry as a discredit to the Univer- 
sity. Prof. Hughes further put in a claim that the Geolo^^cal 
Museum should extend to the extreme east of the ske, and that 
the erection of the boUldings should be begun at once. 

* Id Ms lettsrt Bmtasp^eraa dkka manos **3 M6 Inohtti blgfa, thouf li 
this nvofamm hs a sdsittlAoSllr aceuraM ohtervaiian, as diMs dU 

Ba Ids bodv Was eersmd hr thtek. stUT 

hair, idmest llkt ^ |ii» was w^h iUthe Akkas hs bsd yet axOmind. 



70 


NATURE 


\Msty 1 7 , 1 


The first llarkness Scholershlp for Geology artd Paleontology 
Is to be assarded in June next : names of candidates are to be 
-sent in by May next. Caqdldates must be Bachelors of Arts 
-of not more than t^ 70 -and-a^llalf years^ standing. 

The Sheepshanks Astronomical Exhibition will he awarded 
next Decern oer, at Trinity College. It is open to all under- 
'gt^tuLtes of the Univentitv, but the person elected must become 
a member of ^nity College. The conditions may be learnt 
from Dr, Glaisher, Trinity College. 


SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES, 

London. ® 

Royal Society, April 26 — ** On the Development of the 
Electric Organ of Raia bcUis'' By J. C. Ewart, M.D., Rcgiut 
Professor of Natural History, University of Edinburgh. Com- 
municated by J. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 

The paper consists of a short description of the electric organs 
found in the skate genus, and of an account of the development 
■of the electric or^n of the common grey skate {Raia hatis). 

It is shown tW while in some skates ^4/iV) the 

organ is made up of disk-sha|>cd bodies, in others {e,g,, Raia 
fiShnira) it consists of numerous cup-shaped structures provided 
withJon^orshort stems. 

The disks (with the development of which the paper chiefly 
deals) consist essentially of three layers, viz. (z) an electric plate 
in front in which the nerves end ; (2) a striated layer which 
supports the electric plate ; and (3) an alveolar layer, posterior 
to which is a thick cushion of gtlattnous tissue. Each disk is 
formed in connection with a muscular fibre, InJ young embryos 
there is no indication of an electric organ, but in an embryo 6 or 
7 cm, in length, some of the muscular fibres at each side of the 
notochord arc found in process of conversion into long slender 
-clubs having their heads nearest the root of the tail. 

The club-stage having been reached, the muscular fibre next 
assumes the form of a mace, and, later, the anterior end further 
expan^ to form a relatively large disk, while the remainder of 
the original fibre persists as a slender ribl>on*shai*ved appendage. 
As the head of the club enlarges to form a disk, it passes 
through an indistinct cup-stage, which somewhat resembles the 
-cups of the adult Raia fu/Unthit hence it may he Inferred that 
in Raia ^Uonica the oigan has been arrested in its develop- 
ment, The conversion of the muscular fibre into a club is 
largely caused by the increase, at its anterior end, of muscle- 
-corpuscles. These corpuscles eventually arrange themselves, 
either in front of the hewl of the club, to give rise to the elec- 
tric plate, or they migrate backwards to form at the junction of 
the head of the club with its stem the alveolar layer. The 
striated layer, which is from the first devoid of nuclei, seems to 
be derived from the anterior striated portion of the club. 

The gelatinous tissue between the disks, and the connective 
tissue investing them, are derived from the embryonic connective 
tissue corpuscles, which exist in great numbers around the clubs 
and developing disks. 

May 3.—** On the Relations of the Diurnal Barometric Maxima 
to certain Critical Conditions of Temperature, Cloud, and 
Rainiall.” By Henry K, Klanford, F.R.S. 

^ The author refers to an observation of Lamont^s that the 
diurnal barometric variation appears to be compounded of two 
distinct elements, viz. a wave of diurnal period, which is very 
variable in different places, and which appears to depend on the 
horUontal and vertical movements or the atmosphera and 
changes in the distribution of its mass, and a semi-diurnal 
element which is remarkably constant and seems to depend 
more immediately on the action of the sun. Then, referring to 
the theory of the semi-diumal variation, originally put forward 
by Espy, and subsequently by Davies and Kreil, the author 
points out that the morning maximum of pressure approximately 
•coincides with the instant when the tem^rature i« rising most 
rapidly. This is almost exactly true at Progye, Yarkand, both 
in winter and summer, and in winter months at Melbourne. At 
the tropical stations, Bombay, Calcutta, and Batavia, and at 
Melbourne in the summer, the barometric maxinram follows the 
instant of most rapid heating by a shorter or longer interval ; 
and the author remarks that ^is may probably be attributed to 
the action of convection, which must accelemte time of 
most rapid heating near the grotind surface ;-'while (hc l^fo- 
metric e^t, if rtai, must be determined by the cdnditlon of 


the atmosphere up to a great height. With reference to 
Lamont’s demonsti^ion of tne failure of Espy’s iheory* a ton- 
dition is pointed out which alters the data oi the prbhiem, vb, 
the resistance that must be offered to the passage of the pres* 
sure-wave throtigh the extremely cold and highly attenuated 
atmospheric strata, whose existence N proved by the phenomena 
of luminous meteors. 

With respect to the evening maxlmtim of pressure, it is pointed 
out that very generally, and especially in India, and also at 
Melbourne, there is a strongly-marked minimum in the dinmal 
variation of cloud between sunset and midnight, which, on an 
average, os at Allahabad and Melbourne, coincides with the 
evening maximum of the barometer. A similar coincident 
minimum, even more strongly marked, characterizes the diuimal 
variation of the rainfall at Calcutta and Batavia in their respect- 
ive rainy seasons. In the au thorns opinion these facts seem to 
point to a compression and dynamic heating of the cloud- 
forming strata, and he points to the existence of a small irregu- 
larity in the diurnal temperature curves of Prague, Calcutta, and 
Batavia, which may possibly he due to such action. It is further 
remarked that the evening maximum about coincides with the 
time when the evening fall of temperature,.aftera rapid reduction 
between 6 or 7 and 10 p in., becomes nearly uniform in rate, 
and it is suggested that the former may possibly he determined 
by the check of the rate of collapse of the cooling atmosphere. 
But it is observed that both the morning and evening waves of 
pressure probably involve other elements than the forced waves, 
and are in part rhythmic repetitions of previous waves. 

Geological Society, April 25. — W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., 
President, in the chair. — The following communications were 
read : — Report on the recent work of the Geological Survey in 
the Norih-Wcst Highlands of Scotland, based on the field-notes 
and maps of Messrs Peach, Home, Gunn, Clough, Hinxman, 
and Cadell. Communicated by Dr. A. Geikie. At the outset 
a review was given of the researches of other observers, in so 
far AS they forestalled the conclusions to which the Geological 
Survey had been led. Reference was made to the observations 
of Macculioch, Hay Cunningham, C. W. Peach, and Salter; 
to the prolonged controversy between Sir Roderick Murchison 
and Prof. Nicol \ to the contributions of Hicks, Bonney, 
Hiidleston, Callaway, Lapworth, Teall, and others. It was 
shown that Nicol was undoubtedly right in maintaining that 
there was no conformable sequence from the fossiJiferoUs quartzites 
anl limestones into the eastern schists. It was also pointed out 
that the conclusions of Prof. Lapworth regarding the nature and 
origin of the eastern schists involve an important departure from 
Nicol’s position, and are practically identical with those obtained 
indcpcndrntly 17 the G^logical Survey. The results of the 
recent survey work among the Archsean rocks may be thus 
summarized : (i) the eruption of a series of igneous rocks of a 
basic type in which pegmatites were formed ; (2) the develop- 
ment of rude foliation tn these masses, probably by mechanical 
movement, and their arrangement in gentle anticlines and syn- 
dines, the axes of which generally run N,E. and S.W. ; (3) 
the injection of igneous materials, mainly in the form of dykes, 
into the original gneisses, composed of (a) basalt rock®, (^) peri- 
dolite® and palteoplcrites, (c) fnicrodine-mica rocks, yi) granites ; 
(4) the occurrence of mechanical movements giviiw rise to dis- 
ruption-lines trending N.W. and S.E., E. and W.,, N.R. and 
S. W. ; (5) the effects of these movements on the dykes wbre to 
change the basalt-rocks into diorites and homblende<>echats» the 
peridotites and palawpicritcs into talcose schists, the microdine- 
mica rocks into mica schists, and the granites Into granitoid 
gneiss ; (6) the effects on the gneiss resulted in the formation of 
sharp folds trending generally N.W, and S.E,, the partial or 
complete reconstruction of toe original gneiss along the old 
foliation-planes, and finally the development of newer schist- 
I osity more or less parallel with the oromment disruptlondinea. 

I There is an overwhelming amonnt or evidence to prove tlmt all 
I these various changes bad been superinduced in the Ardiaean 
rocks in pre-Caml^an time. After reviewing the facts bearing 
on the denudation of the Archnan tand-sunace, the order m 
succession and thickness of the Cambrian strata were given, from 
which it is apparent that the deposits mdnelly increase in thiek- 
ness as we pass southwards from Dttmeas to Loch Btoom« 
Prior to the deposition of the Silurian sediments riie Cambrlaii 
strata were folded and extensively denuded^ ^ these nteans 
various Cambrian outliers were fbrmodfttr to tM east of llio 
resent Umits of to formatidn. Tbe oeder of tuoeeiston 61 to 
ilurian^strata along the Une of oomptoted structure tom 


NATURE 


71 


to Ullapool was dwcribod, reference being made to ibe 
farther fubdmsSon of ihe Fipe-rock*’ and the Ohrudaidh 
Umestones (Group I. of Durness section). None of the richly 
fOivUiferoas zones of Durness is met with along this line, as 
they occupy higher horizons. An examination of the fossils 
rcocAily ODlflin^ by the Geological Survey from the Durness 
Limestones confirms Salter's conclusions that they arc distinctly 
of an American type, the Sutherland quartzites and limestones 
being represented oy the Potsdam Sandstones and Cnlcifcrous 
Sana Group of North America, After the deposition of the 
limestones, the Cambrian and Silurian strata were pierced by 
igneous rocks, maioly in ihe form of sheets, producing important 
alterations in the sedimentary deposiu by contact>metamorphism, 
the quartzites becoming crystalline, and the limestones being 
converted into marble. When this outburst of volcanic aciiviiy 
had ceased, terrestrial displacements ensued on a stupendous 
scale. By means of powerful thrusts the Silurian strata were 
piled 00 each other, and huge slices of the old Archtean plat- 
torm, with the Cambrian ana Silurian strata resting on it, were 
driven westwards for miles. With the view of illustrating the 
extraordinary complications produced by these movements, a 
series of horizontal sections w'as described, drawn across the line 
between Kriboll and U llapooL The evidence relating to regional 
metamorphism was next referred to, from which it is obvious 
that with each successive maximum thrust there is a progressive 
amount of alteration in the displaced masses, as the ol)^>erver 
passes eastwards to the higher thrust -planes. Kventually the 
Archxan gneiss is so deformed that the pre* Cambrian foliation 
disappearii and is replaced by new divisional planc.s ; the Cam- 
brian ^rits and shales are con veiled into schists ; the Silurian 
Quartzites into quartz-schists ; tlie limestones become crystalline ; 
ine sheets of intrusive felsitc, <Uorile, and granitoid rock pass 
into aericite schist, hornblende' schist, and augen -gneiss respect- 
ively, These researches furnish a vast amount of evidence in 
suppoit of the theory that regional mclamorphism is due to tlie 
dynamical and chemical effects of mechanical movement acting 
on crystalline and elastic rocks. It is also e’ear that regional 
metamorphism need not be confined to any particular geological 
period, because in the N.W. Highlands, both in pre Cambrian 
lime and after the deposition of the Durness Limestone (Lower 
Silurip), crystalline schists and gneiss were produced on a 
magnificent scale. After the reading of this Keport, the Survey 
was congratulated on its work by tlie President, Prof. Lapworlh, 
Prof, Judd, and other speakers. — On the hori/onlal movements 
of rocks, and the relation of these movements to the formation 
of dykes and faults, and to denudation and the thickening of 
strata, by Mr. William Barlow. — Notes on a recent discovery of 
Stigmarii ficouks at Clayton, Yorkshire, by Mr. Samuel A. 
Adamson. 

Zoological Society, April 30. -Fifty-ninth Anniversary 
Meeting.— Prof. Flower, F, R.S., President, in the chair. — After 
the Auditors' Report had been read, and some other preliminary 
business had been transacted, the Report of the Council on the 
proceedings of the Society during the year 1887 was read by Mr, 
P. L. Sclater, F.R.S., the Secretary of the Society. It staled that 
the number of Fellows on January i, 1888, was 3104, showing 
a tlecrease of 42 as compared with the corresponding period in 
1887. A large number of vahiable communications received at 
the usual scientific meetings held during the session of 1887 had 
l>cen published in the annual volume of Proceedings, which 
contained 730 paces, illustrated by 55 plates. Besides this, one 
of the twemn volume, viz. Part C, of the Society’s quarto 
Transactions, illustrated by sevpn plates, had been issued, and 
severe! other parts of Transactions were in ti forward slate. 
7 'he volume of the ZoohgUal Record for 1 886 had been sent 
out in the month of January of this year to al>out 140 sub- 
scribers. The new edition of the Libra^ Catalogue, spoken of 
in the Ust Annual Report as ready for issue had been published 
last summer. Two- important additions bad been made to the 
buildings in the Society’s Gardens during the past year. The 
first of these, the wolves’ and foxes’ dens, wnich Were commenced 
in 1886, had been erected by the Society’s staff, under the super- 
vision of Mr, Trollope, by whom the plans were drawn, and 
completed in Novemoer last. The second addition was a new 
avjorv for flying birds which had been erected on the water- 
fowls' lawn, opposite the eastern avlaty. This a^dtry Is 105 feet 
h^ng, 62 feet broad, and ^7 foet high in the centre of the roof, 
which is formed of galvanized wire. The visitors to the Society’s 
Qatdens dtiring the year 1887 been *aHogethcT 56^898; 

the Qomaponding number in t 888 was 839,694. Mt, F. E, 


Beddanl, Prosector to the Society, had been appointed 
Davis Lecturer for Ihe present year, and had commenced a 
course of ten lectures on ** Reptiles, living and extinct.” Tliese 
lectures were a continuation of a series mven last year in con- 
nection with (he London Societjr for the Extension of University 
Teaching. The number of animals in th^ Society’s collection 
on the 31st of December last was 2325, of which 735 were 
mammals, 1331 birds, and 459 leptiles. Amongst the additions 
made during the past year, 13 were si>ecially commented upon as 
of remarkable inicreat. and in most cases representing species 
new 10 the Society’s cmlcction. About 29 species of mammaU, 
21 of birds, and 3 of reptiles, had bred in the Society’s Gardens 
during the summer of 1887, The Report concluded with a long 
list of the (.!{>nors and their various donations to the Menagerie 
during the past year. — A vote of thanks to the Council for their 
Report was ilicn moved by Dr. David Sharp, seconded by Mr, 
Robert Me La chi an, and carried imanimously. — I'lic Report 
having been adopted, the meeting proceeded (o elect the new 
Members of Council and the Officers for the ensuing year. The 
usual ballot having been taken, it was announced that Dr, Johtk 
Anderson, F.R.S., F. Du Cane' Godman, F.R.S., John W, 
Hulke, F.R.S., Osbert Snlvin, F.R.S., and Lord Wafsingham, 
F.K.S., had been elected into the Council in place of the retiring 
members, and that Prof. Flower, C.B., F.R.S., had been re- 
elected President, Mr. Charles Drummond, Treasurer, and Dr. 
Philip Lutley Sclater, F.R.S., Secretary to the Society, for the 
ensuing yeai, — The meeting terminated with the usual vole 
ofihai^s to the Chairman, proposed by Lord Arthur Rubscll, 
seconded by Prof. G. B. Howes, niid carried unanimously. 


Mincra’.ogical Society, May 8, — Prof. Bonney, F.R.S, 
Tieasurcr, in the chair, — The following papers were read : — 
Notes on some minerals from the Lizard, by Mr. J. J. H. Tenll. 
— Contributions to the study of pyrargyTile and proustite, with 
analyses by Mr. G. 1 '. Prior, by IMr. H. A. Miers. — On Cornish 
dufienite, by Prof. E, Kinch, — On a peculiar variety of hoi*n- 
blende from Mynydd Mawr, (Carnarvonshire ; on a picritc front 
the Clicker Tor District, by Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S. 


Paris. 


Academy of Science?, May 7.— M. Janssen, President, in 
the chair,— Note on the introduction of the element of mean 
averages in the interpretation of the results of statistical returns, 
by M. J, Bertrand. A demonstration is offered of the following 
theorem : Whatever be the numl>er of urns (ballot -lioxes and 
the like) and their composition, the law of discrepancies is the 
same for a single urn of given composition ; but this um will not 
yield the des-iicd mean average. Hence in order to comp.are 
the results of statistical returns with those of abstract calculation 


two different urns must be assumed, the mean results being 
assimilaled to the drawings made from the first, and the dis- 
crepancies to the results yielded by the second. — New theory of 
the cquatoii.ll coud}' (continued), by MM. Loewy and Puiseux. 
In this paper an explanation is given of the special processes 
applicable to the cquatori.il region, and of the physical methods 
employed to estimate the flexion of the axes. In a final paper 
the results will be given which have already been obtained in 
the application of this theory to the equatorial coud 4 cA the Paris 
Observatory. — On the convergence of a continuous algebraic 
fraction, by M. Ilalphen. Three years ago the author com- 
municated to the Academy the results of his researches concern- 
ing continuous fractions, which serve to develop the square roct 
of a polynonie of the third degree. In the present paper he 
extends his investigations to the cose of a continuous fraction 


obtained by developing the function /(.r) « zSSLLZ — , — 

J/ X 

where F indicates a polyncme of the fourth or of the thiid 
degree.— On M. Mai'sieu’s characteristic functions in thermo- 
dynamics, by M. H. Le ChatcUer. It is shown that these 
functions may be presented under a form somewhat different 


from that which they are usually mode to assume, but which is 


more convenient for practical purposes.— On the variation of the 
^ecific heal of quartz with the temperature, by M. Pionchon, 
From the experiments the results of which are here tabulated 
it appears that from aljout 400^ to 1200” C. the specific heat of 
quartz is constant aud ^ual to 0*305. Thus the increase iu the 
specific heat of this mineral is entirely confined to the intcival 
between o'’ and 400 *'C-f 2 result vrhich presents several points 
of interest in cotmeetfonwith M. Joubert’s researches on the opti- 
cal properties of the seme On the theory of diamag* 



72 


NATURE 


17 , .i8i8 


netinnj by M. R. Blomllot. The author’s experiments tendoom- 
pletely to confirm M. £<L Becquerel's r^arding the mutud 
relations of paramagnetic ^&d diemagne^c bodies, it is shown 
that these views are in no way affectM by Tyndall’s experiment, 
w^cb faik to prove the existence of dlamu^etlc polarity, and 
which is perfectly explicable by Becquerers theory.-— On the 
'electric pnenomena produced by the ultra-violet ra3rs, by M. 
Auguste Ri^i. In connection with M. Stoletow's recent com- 
munication on this subject, the author points out that several 
of the results here given were previously^ announced by him in 
a note presented to the Academy dci Lmcei on March 4, and 
printed at the time. — On the acid phosphites of the alkaline 
metals, by M. L. Amat. To the acid phosphite of ammonia 
(P0|H0)NH40,H0, previously prepared by himj the author 
here ad^ the corresponding salts of ^tassa and soda 
^PO,HO)KO,HO and (P03H0)Na0,H0, and explains their 
method of preparation. — On the crystalline form of the tri- 
thionate of soda, by M. A. Villiers. The author has succeeded 
in obtain ing crystals of this substance, the measurements of 
which are here given,— On terpinol, by MM. G. Bouchardat* 
and R, Voiry. It is shown that certain derivatives of the terc- 
benthenes generally supposed to be identical with List’s terpinol 
are really of different composition, although presenting some 
marked analogies with that substance. G. Demeny de- 
scribes a Duml^r of instruments which he has devised for the 
purpose of accurately determining the exterior form of the 
thorax, the extent of the respiratory movements, the profiles 
and sections of the trunk, and the volume of air inhaled and 
exhaled The last-mentioned is described as a self-registering 
spirometer. ” 

Berlin. 

. Phyaical Society, April 20. — Prof, du Bois-Reymond, 
President, in the chair. — Prof. Vogel communicated the results 
of hb researches on the spectrum of cofbon. In recent times 
the spectra of all the carton compounds have been recognized 
as being those due to carbon itself the sole exception being in 
the case of cyanogen, whose spectrum was considered to be that 
of the compound, not of carbon itself. The sj^aker had 
therefrom investigated the spectrum of cyanogen, with the help 
of photography. He obtained a spectrum which marked, 
from the r^ to the ultra-violet, by very characteristic lines. 
The spectrum of a Bunsen burner was next photographed, and it 
was found that its first three lines coincide in all respects with 
those of the spectrum of cyanogen ; in addition a series of lines 
lying between the above and also in the blue were found to be 
identical in both spectra. On the other hand, the two bands in 
die blue and ultra-violet were absent in the spectrum of the 
compounds of carbon and hydrogen, l^eiog replaced by a series 
of very characteristic double lines. Prof Vogel next photo- 
graphed the spectrum, of carbonic oxide, and found that its more 
highly refracted portion corresponded completely with that of 
cyanogen^ The bands in the blue and ultra-violet were 
particularly well marked, whereas the less highly refracted half 
of this spectrum did not correspond with that of cyanogen. 
Finally, the light emitted by the electric arc was photographed, 
and its spectrum resembled in all respects that of cyanogen. 
The spenlccr drew the conclusion from these observations that 
in all four cases he was really dealing with the spectrum of 
carbon. The differences in the several spectra are not dependent 
upon differences of temperature, inasmuch as the temperature of 
a Bunsen flame is higher than that of cyanogen, and notwith- 
sUnding this the latter gave a more higmy developed and 
complicated spectrum. The speaker was much more inclined to 
assume the existence of modifications of carbon, of which one 
yields its spectrum in the Bunsen flame, the other in the flame 
of .carbon monoxide, the two spectra being met with united in 
those of cyanogen and the electric arc respectively. In photo- 
graphs of the solar spectrum, the dark b^kground on which 
the line G is conspicuous shows such a marked correspondence 
with narrow banas in all the above four spectra that the 
existence of carbon in the sun must necessarily be assum^. — 
Prof. Vogel then spoke on colour-perceptions, which he explained 
Yjj means of experiments. It is well known that when a colour- 
chart is seen illuminated by the light of a sodium flame it 
appears colourless t the yellow appears to be pure white, and the 
other colours app^r gray, graduating into black. This result k 
not observed with other monochromatic light, such as that of 
thallium or strontium. The speaker was, however, able t6 jptoduoe 
the tame result by means of coloured glasses, whether ttOf green. 


or blue ; those oolouri always appeared to be white or vuly bright 
which most strongly reflected Ute light with wmeh the ocdoisr* 
chart was niuminated, all the other emom appearing to be either 
gray or black. When a eecond monochromatic light tras addai 
to a previous one, such as blue to a ^low tight, then definite 
colour-sensations were observed, which incrensra jin nunriw 
when a third source of monochromatic light was supetadded to 
the other two. Prof. Vogel laid great stress on the perception 
of white by monocbromatic Ulnmination of a uniformly coloured 
field of view. He was not prepared to give any explanation of 
the phenomena, but simply to Bring them to notice, with the 
intention of investigating them further. 


BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED 

Katun's Hygiene, ird edidon : C T. Klngsatt (Baillkre, Tindall, and 
Cox).— CEuvres Complkes de Christiaan Uuyaeiu ; I'cmt Fiainter, Cofra* 
^ndance 1636-56 (NOhoff, La HayeX—Ltnifmaiis' Junior School Ooognphy: 
G. G. Chiaholm (Longmans). — Kurzes Harabuch der Kohlenhydrat* ; Dr. 
B. ToUens (Trewendt. Breslau). — G«ol(wy for All : J. L. LobleyfRt^Mr and 
Drowley).— The Elements of Logantbms; W. Oallady (HSdmnj.— 
Natural Causation : C. B. Plumptre (Unwin).— -Tex t-bow of Aactical 
Metallurgy : A. R. Gower (Chapman and Hall).— Recherehes Bur l« Cen- 
tiuin Macrooeros : E. Penard (Geneve).— The Old Babylonian Characters 
and tlieir Chinese Derivates : Dr. T. de Lacouperie (KuttX — The Natural 
History and Flpldemiology of C^tolera : SirJ. Fayrw^Bak). — The Study 
of History \a American Colleges and UnlverBities ; H, B. Adanu (Washing- 
ton).— TokyO SOgaku Butsurisaku Kwai Kiji, Maki No. HI. Dai 3,— 
Asbestos : its Production and Use : R. H. Jones (C Lockwootl^— A Chapter 
in the Integral Calculus: A. G. Greenhill (HodgsonX — ^Jdttmal of the 
Chemical Society, May (Gurney and Jackson).— A nnaien der Pfaysik und 
Chentie, 18S6, No. 6 (Barth, Leipxig). — BvtUellns de la Socwl6 ^Antlvopo- 
logie de Paris, Tome X. (3 Seric). 4e. Fare. (Masson, Paris). — Mdmofcrie de la 
Socidtd d’Anthropologie' de Paris, Tome 111 . (ae. Sene) Fasc. 3 and 4 
(Masson, Paris).— Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, vol. 44, part 
3, No. 174 (LongmansX — Bufletin of the American Geological Society, yoL 
xix., Supplement 1887, vol. xx. No. i {New York).-*- Jamaica Annual 
Report on the Public Gardens and Plantations for the year ended September 
30, 1687 (Jamaica). 


CONTENTS- PAGE 


Flora of the Hawaiian lalmnda. By J, O. Baker, 

F.R.S 

The Geological Evidences of Evolution 

The Shell- Collector’a Hand-book for the Field . , » 
Our Book Shelf : — 

Davis i ** A Text-book of Biology ” 

** Reports of the Geological Survey of New Zealand ” . 
Rau : ** First I.essons m Geometry 
X^ettera to the Editor : — ' 

Dissemination of Plants by Birds, — W. Botting 

Hemaley 

On the Reappearance of Pallas’s Sand Grouse (S^r- 
rliaptes paradoxus) in Europe. — Dr. A. B. Meyer . 

Coral Formations,"— Robert Irvine 

Aurora Borealis. — L. J, H 

Weight and Maas. — Prof. A. O. Greenhill 

Density and Specific Gravity. — Harry M. Elder , . 

The Cornish Blown Sands.— R. H, Curtia 

Self-Induction in Iron Conductors,— Prot J, A. 

Ewing 

Notes on the Reproduction of Rudimentary Toes in 

Greyhounds. — Dr. R. NV, Bhufeldt 

Dreams. ^A. Bialoveaki 

** Antagonism."— Tbomaa Woodi 

Suggeationa on the Ctaaalftcation of the Various 
Species of Heavenly Bodiea. V. {Hiusiratod,) By 

J. Norman Locky<^ F.R.S 

The Royal Society Conwrsaxime , . . , 

The Zoological Society of Amaterdam 

Notea 

Aftronomieal Phenomena for the Week xfiflfi 

May 30-26 , . , , . 

Oeograpfalcal Notea 

Tte^y|ii^^Racea of Men, 11. By Prof. FloiFerf 

Ui&^enily and Educational Intehigeace 
Sodetiae and Aoademiea 

Buok% Pampitota, and Sackdi Raodvod ... V . 


49 

50 

51 

5» 

53 

S3 


53 

53 

54 
54 

54 

55 
55 

55 

56 


60 

62 

62 


fl9 

n 




NA TURE 


73 


THURSDAY, MAY 24, 1888. 


THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE. 

E very mlddle-aged inhabitant of the British Islands 
must recall more than one occasion when the mind 
of our country has been strongly stirred on the question 
of national defence. The adverse evidence of an expert, 
a rousing article in a newspaper, has often awakened 
general anxiety of more or less continuance, and followed 
by more or less adequate results. But it is far more 
difficult to awaken any widespread concern on behalf of 
those gr^at abiding national interests which it is our 
charge and heritage to defend. And yet there are signs 
of no uncertainty which must to all thoughtful and 
instructed minds, from many directions, suggest the 
questidn whether that industrial leadership which has 
hitherto made our small and crowded country the 
world’s workshop, and almost the world’s mart, is 
not slipping from us. This is a question not of 
more or less wealth or luxury, but of very livelihood to 
the masses of the people under the special conditions of 
our national existence. If work ceases to come to a 
workshop, there is nothing for it but prompt dispersal of 
the workmen. All authorities seem agreed that the popu- 
lation of five or six millions inhabiting England and 
Wales in the time of Queen Elizabeth represents pretty 
nearly what their areas can sustain as agricultural, self- 
supporting countries. But the population of England and 
Wales alone was shown by the census of i88i to have 
reached nearly twenty-six millions. So that seven years 
ago there was in the southern half of Great Britain an 
excess of twenty millions above what the country 
could reasonably support, except as a community of 
artificers and traders, and general carriers, by im- 
port and export, of the world’s merchandise. It 
needs only a glance into past history to see that this, 
while an enviable position for a nation while prosperity 
lasts, is practical extinction when the channels of com- 
merce are turned, or lost advantages have transferred pro- 
duction to new centres. Macaulay’s fancy picture of the 
New Zealander sketching the ruins of St. Paul’s from the 
broken arches of London Bridge seems of very little con- 
cern to the present citizen, whose ears are deafened with 
the ceaseless roar and traffic of the streets. And yet pre- 
cisely that doom of silence and decay has befallen many 
a proud mother-city of which now “ even the ruins have 
perished.*’ It would far exceed present limits to show in 
detaU how many articles of our own immemorial pro- 
duction we ourselves now largely import, because 
the foreign workman produces them better, or produces 
them at less cost The evidence will be fresh in the 
recollection of the readers of this journal. Neither 
can they fail to recall with what persistence we have 
pointed out the remedy. There is but orie real remedy : 
the better tritining of the workman ; and— if we may 
be aiiowed to say it — of his employer too. Everyone 
who, wlthopt prejudice, has opportunity to watch a fair 
specimen of the British workman at his work must admit 
that the ra^sr niatcrial is as good as ever it was ; that in the 
quantity and qiu^atity of the work he can turn out in a 
given thne^few of any nationality can equ«d, and none 
Vou xxxvm.— No. 969. 


surpass him. But in the training he receives, and in the 
opportunities of his receiving it, there is much left to be 
desired. And, meantime, there is not only the grave 
fear, but, in many branches of industry, the accom- 
plished fad, that other nations may and do outstrip 
us in the race. 

Perhaps there is some belated merit in seeing that 
now ; but all honour to those who, with heart and 
means to labour towards the better training of our 
artisans, devoted themselves to the endeavour when the 
need for*ii was less comparatively obvious. Honour 
especially to one man, Mr. Quintin Hogg, who, close upon 
a quarter of a century ago, at an age when most young 
men are concentrating iheir best energies on cricket, or 
football, or lawn tennis (all good things in their way), 
made it his life’s task to raise the skilled workman of 
London, and furnish him more fully for his labour, for his 
own sake and for ours. Probably most of our readers know 
how that small enterprise has become a great one indeed, 
with the old Polytechnic for its present home and centre, 
and with a fuller variety of classes and branches, and 
with a greater comprehensiveness of scheme, than wc 
can now attempt to describe. But all has hitherto 
rested on the shoulders, and been sustained by the 
purse, of Mr. Hogg himself, who, during the past six 
years, has spent, speaking broadly, some 100,000 in 
establishing and sustaining these admirable schools. But 
the time has now come when so great a burden, for the 
work’s sake as well as for his own, should no longer 
depend upon the means and life of a single man ; and 
there is now an opportunity of securing for the Insdtutc 
something like an adequate endowment. The Charity 
Commissioners have offered to endow it with ;^25oo per 
annum on condition that the public find /35,ooo as a 
supplementary fund. ;(;[ 8,000 have already been promised 
by the personal friends of the founder; but^i7,ooo still 
remain to be raised — a large sum no doubt, but a small 
one compared to our still unrivalled resources, and the 
national value of the Institute, not only for its own im- 
mediate results, but as a model for similar efforts in .all 
the great centres of our industry. Those who believe in 
science— that is, in faithfully accurate and exact know- 
ledge— as the only sure basis for any national prosperity 
that is to bear the stress of the fierce competition of our 
times, are earnestly invited to make themselves ac- 
quainted with the work of the Institute, and to con- 
tribute to its funds, ( Eighty-one thousand members 
and students have joined since it was moved to the Poly- 
technic, 309 Regent Street, in 1882, All donations or 
subscriptions will be thankfully received there, or by Mr. 
Quintin Hogg, 3 Cavendish Square, W. 


THE GEOGRAPHJCAL DISTRIBUTION OF 
THE FAMILY CHARADRIIDAt. 

The Geographical DElribuiion 0/ the Family Cliara' 
driidee; or the Plotters ^ Sandpipers^ Snipes^ and dheir 
Allies, By Henry Seebohm. (London : H. Sotheran 
and Co., 1888.) 

T his is a handsome volume of more than 500 pages, 
and it is Illustrated by twenty-one coloured plates, 
drewn in Mr. Keuleman’s best style. Mr. Seebohm has 
eschewed giving much information as to the habits of 

E 




74 


NATURE 


\May 24, 1888 


these families of wading birds, and has made a special 
point of ther geographical distribution, a branch of the 
subject wtiich cannot fail to attract the interest of every 
true natuf'alisf. The introductory chapters treat of (i) 
the Classification,” and (2) the “Evolution” of Birds. 
Chapter HI. details the author’s views on the “ Diflfer- 
entiation of Species," and Chapter IV, deals with the 
“ Glacial Epoch.” Chapters V. to IX.* are devoted to the 
migration of birds, and end with a scheme of classifi- 
cation of the Charadriida ^ Here arc, in fact, enunciated 
clear!/ all the' articles of the Seebohm faith 1 
Evolutionists will probably join issue with Mr. Seebohm 
on many of his conclusions, and geologists may have 
something to say as to the possibility of glacial epochs 
causing all that the author claims for them, but ornitho- 
logists are scarcely likely to accept all his conclusions at 
once. If we are to believe Mr. Seebohm, there is very 
little progress being made in oimilbological work in the 
Old World, his sympathies being evidently more with the 
American school of ornithologists, for whose method of 
nomenclature he has great respect. The non-adoption of 
trinomial principles Mr. Seebohm attributes to the “con- 
servative views of British ornithologists,” though he is 
mindful to add : “ It is, however, only fair to remembci 
that much allowance must be made for the narrow, 
because insular, views of British ornithologists.” Shade 
of -Darwin ! The author lias singled out the present writer 
as one of those who seem to have liad “ no definite idea of 
what they meant by a sub-species” ; but we may assure 
Mr. Seebohm that in r874 we did not use the term of 
Gyps hi<(paniotensis as .1 sub-spccics of G.fulvus “in an 
absolutely arbitrary manner,” and we did not expect to 
find our nomenclature discussed under the heading of a 
“ vague use of trinomials.” Our object was to rc:ogni2e 
evident facts, but at the same time to retain a binomial 
form of name for every bird, and llie uncertainty which 
still surrounds the American metliod of trinomial names 
has not yet encouraged us to abamlon tJic simpler and 
decidedly less clumsy way of expression. Surely Mr. 
Seebohm himself must admit that to have to speak of an 
Oyster-catcher as } hnnafopus mycr aicriyi 311) is not an 
advanlage, and this is only one result of pushing trinomial 
nomenclature to its extreme. Tlierc are not wanting 
signs that the advocates of the system are beginning to 
groan under the weight of the burden they have placed 
on their own shoulders ; and when the inevitable return to 
the old simple path of binomial nomenclature takes place, 
the only tangible result will have been to have weighted 
the already frightful list of ornithological synonyms with 
an additional number of long names. Even Mr. Seebohm 
tries to modify the task of quotation of books by simplify- 
ing some titles ; as, for instance, when he speaks of 
“ Coues and Co., Check-List ” (p. 427), as if the authors 
of the admirable A.O. U. “ Check- List of North American 
Birds” had formed themselves into a Limited Liability 
Company for the manufacture of trinomials. 

Another point on which Mr. Seebohm may fairly be 
called to task is for the number of new names which 
his book propounds. On the back of the title-page he 
quotfcs Wise S^ws from the writings of John Ray (1878), 
A. R. Wallace (1^6), and Henry Seebohm (1883), con- 
cerning the necessity of having simple names for birds, 
and gbnei^ly undefstanded of the people. Here 


are his own words : — I have adopted a scheme which 
appears to me to be the most practical method of any 
which have been suggested. It may not satisfy the nv- 
quirements of poetical justice ; but it is at least consistent 
with common-sense. I adopt the name which has been 
most used by previous writers. It is not necessary fbr me^ 
to encumber my nomenclature with a third name, either 
to denote the species to which it refers, or to flatter the 
vanity of the author who described it : all my names are 
uuctorum plurimorumP Either our author had forgotten 
that he had nailed this flag to the mast when he began the 
present book, or the system of auctorum plurimorum does 
not suit the Charadriidee ; for the next student of these 
birds will find that for the 235 species enumerated by Mr, 
Seebohm, he is responsible for giving to sixty-five of 
them names not previously in vogue ; and the number 
would have been greater, had not Schlegel worked 
somewhat on the same line of ideas, while many of the 
trinomial combinations had been anticipated by Coues 
and Co.” 

The book is profusely illustrated by woodcuts, showing 
the specific characters of the difi'erent species, and these 
will be invaluable to the student of these difficult birds. 
In fact, no work has ever been so remarkably treated in 
this respect, and it will be the book of reference for the 
CharadriidiP for many years to come. The “ Keys to the 
Species "are also excellent, and Mr. Seebohm deserves 
every credit for having given us such a complete arrange- 
ment of some of the most tiresome of all the birds which 
it falls to the lot of the ornithologist to determine. Every 
naturalist who works out his facts as completely as the 
author has done is permitted to account for them by any 
theory which seems to him good ; ani Mr. Seebohm's 
arguments as to the origin of the species and their distri- 
bution are not only examples of clever writing, but are 
plausible enough if once the absolute certainty of the 
Ckaradnidcr having been driven from the Polar Basin by 
successive glacial epochs is conceded. Many ornitho- 
logists, however, will think that he carries his theory a 
little too far, as, for instance, when he places the Avocets 
and Stilts in one genus, Himantopus, How they origin- 
ally came from the nor£h, were split up in bands, became 
some of them “ semi-Stilts ” and “ semi-Avocets ” ; how 
they thought nothing of emigrating (cause not hinted 
at) from the New World across the Atlantic to the Canary 
Islands and Spain, or from the Chilian sub-region across 
the Pacific to New Zealand and Australia — these and 
many other interesting theories of distribution will reward 
the student of Mr. Seebohm's book. Most ornithologists 
will be more grateful for small mercies than Mr. Seebohm 
is, and thank Dame Natuue for having giveti them charac- 
ters whereby in a few lines a genus can be written down. 
Take, for instance, the members of the genus Esacus^ 
which Mr. Seebohm unites to XEdicnemus^ and yet his 
woodcuts show that the former genus has an enormous bill, 
longer than the head itself — surely a genuine character of 
importance. Then, again, Anarhynckus^ with its asym- 
metrical bill —confined to New Zealand — need not be 
united to Charadrius so on. With his theory of 
distribution strong in his mind, the Avocets, with up-tutned 
bill, are united to the Stilts, with their straight bill, becatiie 
Mr. Seebohm has no doubts as to their eopitnaii origin 
in the distant past ; but looking the preettlit klmtkt 


May 24 , 1888 ] 


NATURE 


75 


identical distribution of Himantopus melanopterus and 
Hecurvirostra avocetia^ H. mexicanus and R. americanay 
it would seem as if they had long ago been separated as 
distinct generic forms, as they would have no business 
ta occupy the same areas, if Mr. Seebohin’s theory were 
true. Is it not possible that they were developed as 
Avocets and Stilts in very remote times, and that similar 
causes have driven them to occupy the same areas of 
distribution? And may not both have had a southern 
instead of a northern origin? Thus Cladorhynchus in 
Australia, Himantopus andinut in the Andes (apparently, 
from Mr. Seebohm's illustration, belonging to a distinct 
genus), and the various species of Stilts in Australia, New 
Zealand, and Brazil, would remain as isolated species of 
a former stock, which probably inhabited a continuous 
area in the South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans. 
Where circumstances were favn arable to their stay, some 
may not have migrated northwards, and the differences 
in some of the southern species could be accounted for 
by tbeir subsequent isolation, rather than by their incon- 
sequent flight from Chili to New Zealand, as Mr. Seebohni 
supposes. 

Besides the woodcuts of heads, tails, &c., and other 
specific characters, the present volume is crowded with 
woodcut illustrations by Mr. John Millais, Mr. Lodge, 
and Mr. Holding. I'hey are mostly extremely well done, 
but Mr. Millais seems a little inclined to fashion his Waders 
on the model of a peg-top. 

R. Bowdi.kr .Shakpe. 


THE MINERALS OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 

The Minerals of New South Wales^ By A. Liver- 
sidge, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry and 
Mineralogy in the University of .Sydney. (London ; 
Triibncr and Co,, Ludgate Hill, 1888) 

I T was a very happy thought of Prof. Liversidge to 
celebrate the centenary of the foundation of the 
colony of New South Wales by the publication of this 
handsome and comprehensive volume. Giving, as it 
does, a very clear account of what is known of the mineral 
resources of the oldest of the Australian colonies, it 
brings clearly before the mind of the reader how much 
has already been accomplished in developing the subter- 
ranean resources of an important part of the British 
Empire, and how large is the promise for the future. 
The term ** mineral,*’ wc may mention, is not employed 
in this work in its narrower scientific sense ; coals and 
oU-shales, and even mineral waters, receiving a due 
amount of notice in it. 

The basis of the present work is found in a paper pub- 
lished by the author in the Transactions of the Royal 
Society of New South Wales, in 1874, of which memoir 
a second edition was published by the Mining Depart- 
ment of the colony in 1882, Prof. Liversidge has added 
very largely to his original memoir ; and the numerous 
analyses of minerals and rocks, made by himself, Mr. W. 
J. Dixon* F.I.C., and the Government Analyst of the 
Mining Department, greatly increase the value of the 
book. Owing to the absence of the author from the 
colony during the past year, the work has been printed 


and issued in this country ; but, as a proof of the manner 
in which the book has been brought fully up to date, 
we may note the statement, on p. 185, of the dis- 
covery, by Mr. T, W. Edgworth David, of the Geological 
Survey of New .South Wales, of the sparsely distributed 
mineral leucitc in the Australian colony, the fact having 
only been announced to the Mineralogical Society so 
recently as October jn last year, 

A considerable amount of space is naturally devoted 
to discussions concerning the occurrence of the precious^ 
metals — tBc account of gold occupying 34 pages, and that 
of silver 13 pages. The interesting .series of assays of 
New South Wales gold, and an account of the chief 
nuggets found in the colony, are of much interest, Iri 
connection with this subject, we have in the work before 
us a very clear and concise, but very carefully drawn up, 
statement concerning the often-disputed question of the 
original discoverer of gold in Australia. The author states 
his facts and sources of information, taking groat care to 
give references in all cases, and those interested in the 
question will have little difficulty in arriving at a decision 
as to the relative merits of the claims which have been 
put forward on behalf of Count Strzelccki, the Rev. W. 
H. Clarke, Sir Roderick Murchison, and other less known 
individuals, to whom the discovery has been ascribed. 
One of the most interesting and instructive among the 
many tabular statements in this work is that which in- 
dicates the number of minerals which have yielded, on 
assay, larger or smaller quantities of gold and silver. 
This table seems to indicate that, even should the alluvial 
washings and quartz-reefs be exhausted of their auriferous 
rontenu, there still remain in Australia many available 
and very valuable sources of the preciou.s metals 

Still more important in its bearing on the future wel- 
fare of the colony is the account of the common metallic 
ores, and of the coal, lignite, and oil- shale deposits. 
There are few, if any, of the metals used in the arts, of 
which abundant sources of supply are not found within 
the limits of the colony. The coal-ficJds arc said to cover 
about one-half tlie area of those of Great Britain, and 
numerous analyses and other details enable us to judge 
of the quality of the fuels which they yield. In the dis- 
cussion of this important question, Prof. Liversidge’s great 
knowledge and experience as a chemist invest his opinions 
with the highest value. 

Although the book is not a technical mineralogical 
treatise alone, mineralogists will find very careful descrip- 
tions of all the minerals, including the gem stones, which 
have been found within the colony. Their study of the 
subject will be much facilitated by the large coloured 
map which forms a frontispiece to the volume. 

In concluding this notice we cannot but congratulate 
the author upon the enterprise and energy which have 
enabled him to prepare such a treatise as the present 
one. The objects aimed at in such books as Zepharovic’s 
** Mineralogisches Lexicon fiir das Kaiserthum Oester- 
reich ” may seem at first sight incompatible with those to 
which works like Mr. Albert Williaihs’s ** Mineral Re- 
sources of the United States” are devoted; but Prof. 
Liversidge has shown that this is by no means the case, 
and he has achieved the feat in the case a young and 
rising colony, wliere the difficulties of the undertaking 
must have been more than usually great. The colony, 




76 


NATURE 


\May 34, 1888 


too, is to be congratulated on its good fortune in having 
as an occupant of the Chemical Chair in its University, 
one who has shown himself so successful in attaining 
practical, while not losing sight of the scientific, results 
of his researches. 


OUR BOOK SHEi^F. 


Elemintary Chemistry. Uy William S. Furneaiix, 

F.R.G.S., Science Demonstrator, London School 
Board, (London ; Longmans, Green, and C^)., i888.) 

The main object of this little work is to assist young 
students intending to sit for the chemistry examination of 
the Science and Art Department in the new alternative 
elementary stage. It appears to be, in fact, an illustrated 
expansion of the detailed syllabus published by the 
D^artment in their Directory. 

The want of such a work has possibly been felt by 
many teachers of this alternative’' or **naturar' 
chemistry, which appears to be rapidly becoming more and 
more popular with young beginners. There is something 
truly fascinating in learning these mysteries of common 
things, and, what is still more important, the knowledge 
gained has its practical applications in every-day life. 
In order to afford teachers some idea of the methods 
recommended of performing the class experiments them- 
selves, the Department have caused to be placed in the 
western galleries of the South Kensington Museum a 
pmplete set of apparatus, as simple and inexpensive as 
is compatible with the object in view, arranged under the 
personal direction of the examiners, to illustrate the 
method of performing each of the experiments indicated 
in the syllabus. It is to be hoped, therefore, that all who 
are interested in the teaching of the alternative elementary 
stage of chemistry, anJ who can conveniently do so, will 
avail themselves of this opportunity of comparing the 
exj^ri mental methods there recommended with those 
which they themselves have previously adopted. One 
cannot help thinking that many of the methods illustrated 
by Mr. Furr»eaux are much too complicated, and it is to 
be regretted that his book was in the press before the 
completion of the collection in the western galleries, 
whicn was accomplished about two months ago. 

The majority of the theoretical explanations leave little 
to be desired. The ideas of the author, however, as to 
the nature of the Bunsen flame appear scarcely to accord 
with more recent investigations, the effect of mixture with 
an inert gas being entirely overlooked A. E. T. 


Companion to the Weekly Problem Papers, By the Rev. 

John Milne, M.A. (London ; Macmillan and Co 

1888.) 

The title of this work gives no adequate idea of its 
contents. It consists of some 340 pages, which, if about 
w pages be excepted, are devoted entirely to geometry. 
Besides the author, several other mathematicians are 
contributors, viz. Mr. R. F. Davis, Prof. Genese, Rev. T, 
C. Simmons, and Mr. E. M. Langley. 

The object of the book seems to be to give prominence 
to whAt is here designated “ The Modern Geometry of 
the Triangle.” This is seen to consist of a group of 
pretty theorems which arise from a consideration of the 
^ points ” and the “ Lemoine point ” of a triangfe. 

I he successive chapters bear the titles, “ Anliparallcls, 
sogonals, and Inverse Points,” ‘‘ The Brocard Points ancf 
Br^ard EUij>se, The Lemoine Point and Triplicate 
l^tio prcle, The Brocard Circle and First Brocard 
TnangV' Jncker Circles,” '^Tbe Cosine and 

Faylor Circles,” '‘The Co-Symmedian and Co-Brocardal 
Tnanele^and Miscellaneous Theorems and Construc- 
tions. They comprise a good and almost cohiolete 
account of the present knowledge of these subjects. 


Dn p. 180 there is a rJsumJ of the bibliography, 
which has evidently been carefully compiled by the knot 
of enthusiasts in ihii country who have followed in the 
footsteps of M. Le noine M. Brocard, M. Vigaritf^ Prof 
Neuberg, M. Catalan, and others. To these investigators 
on the Continent most of the results here given were 
known prior to 1881 ; they were subsequently arrived at 
independently by mathematicians in England who were 
unacquainted with the work already accomplished, in the 
same field of research, abroad. In fact, in the rSsum^, 
discoveries, and rediscoveries, and rediscoveries of re- 
discoveries succeed one another in bewildering fashion. 
The reasons which have led to the nomenclature in 
certain cases are difficult to fathom. We find, for 
instance, a circle associated with the nams of one mathe- 
matician, when, admittedly, the same circle had been 
examined by a Continental investigator some years 
previously, whose name, if name be necessary, it ought 
to bear. 

The algebraic portions comprehend sections on 
“Theory of Maximum and Minimum," “Theory of 
Elimination,” “ Summation of Series,” “ Binomial Series,” 
and “Algebraical and Trigonometrical Identities.” 

The book will be chiefly useful to those who take an 
interest in recent triangular geometry ; it will enable them 
to refer to original sources in Continental mathematical 
publications, and to follow further developments in English 
magazines. They will also find collected here most of 
the leading propositions given in a form which is without 
doubt both judicious and attractive. 

I Elementary Hydrostatics ^ with Numerous Examples 
and University Papers, By S. B. Mukerjee, M.A. 
(Calcutta: Thacker, Spink, and Co., 1888.) 

j The compiler of this handy little work is Assistant Pro- 
1 fessor of Mathematics in the Lahore College, who, having 
been, as is the wont of his order, unable to select from 
the nu nerous text-books in existence one which seemed 
fully to meet the wants of his classes, has culled his ele- 
gant extracts from them, and so got what he wanted. 
This proceeding is a good one for his pupils, and saves 
them the trouble and expense of purchasing and reading 
many text-books. The selection is well made, and the 
compiler suitably acknowledges his indebtedness to the 
English writers (especially to Dr. Besant’s classical work). 
The subjects handled are definitions and first principles, 

^ density and specific gravity, equilibrium of fluids, total 
pressures and resultant pressures on immersed su^aces, 
floating bodies, on air and gases, determination of 
specific gravities, and the application of hydrostatical 
principles in the construction of instruments and ma- 
chines. Then follow several papers of problems set in the 
Calcutta University Examinations from 18^ to 1884; and 
the book closes with an appendix of formulae to be re- 
membered, and another appendix which gives a short 
history of the growth of the principles of hydrostatics, 
taken for the most part from Whewell's “ History of the 
Inductive Sciences,” In the body of the work are given 
numerous illustrative examples, many of which have been 
carefully worked out. Putting on one side the manufac- 
ture of the book — and herein, perhaps, Mr. Mukerjee is 
only more honest in making known his indebtedness than 
m.iny are in the writing of tect-books— we can congratu- 
late the students on ha'ung such a good work in their 
hands, and can indorse the favourable opinion expressed 
upon it by Prof. T. C. Lewis, Principal of the College. 

Arithmetic for Beginners: a School Class-boob of 
Commercial Arithmetic. By the Rev. J. B. Lock, M.A. 
(London : Macmillan and Co., 1888.) 

It is not necessary to report upon this little book at any 
length. It 18 founded upon the author’s larger work, but 
modifications as to arrangement and treatment of some 
of tM Bub|Mt 8 and as to the exami^ have been intro- 
duced. Then, with an eye to the requirements of the 



May 24 , 1888 ] 


NATURE 


77 


examination for commercial certificates, a chapter on 
exchange and foreign money has been added (in a worked- 
out example on p. 151 there is an error of some pecuniary 
magnitude), and the chapter “ On Recurring Decim ils, 
not required by Commercials/' finds a place at the close 
of the text. Mr. Lock is generally so careful in his 
explanations that we are surprised at his omitting all 
reference to brokerage in his account of the transferment 
of stock. Numerous examples are given in the text, 
and six examination-papers and answers to all questions 
complete a capital hand-book. 

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

[T^tf Etiitor dots not hold kimstlf respomiblt for opinions 
txprtsstd by kis correspondents. Neither can he under- 
take to return^ or to correspond with the writers of 
rejected manuscripts i. it ended for this or any other part 
of Nature. No notice is taken of anonymous communi- 
cations.'] 

Weight tnd Mass. 

PROK. Greknitill, in bis letter which appears in Nature 
of May 17 last (p. 54)* has n;nin repeated his views on the use 
of the word 7 veij^ht. He has not, however, replied to the 
criticisms of those who differ from him (see Nature, vol. xxxvi. 
pp, 221, 317). 

His opponents wish to know how practical engineers who use 
the word weight as synonymous with the physicists' mass, treat 
a problem involving inertia. Prof. GrecnhilJ has not yet 
given us an example of such a problem taken from some modern 
text-book of the practical engineer ; nor has he yet given us in 
simple language a definition of weight. Prof. Greenhill some 
time ago referred me to Kennedy's “ Mechanics of Machinery ” 
for such a definition, but 1 veniui e to 'say that there is no such 
definition to be found in that standard work. 

My own idea is as follows : Matter has many properties — 
inertia, weight (the force with which the earth pulls it), volume, 
&c.— and Newton’s great discovery consisted partly in seeing 
clearly that the universal property of matter by which it must 
be measured is its inert ia^ defined as its capacity for resisting 
change of velocity. 

The mass of a body is that which can be ascertained by the 
operation of massing ; such an operation, that is, as the follow- 
ing : Tea given lump of matter apply some strain or force, and 
observe the acceleration produced in the matter by that force ; 
then ascertain by experiment to how many lumps of matter called 
pounds this same force will communicate an equal acceleration. 

The weight of a body is that which is ascertained by the 
operation of weighing. I'o weigh a body it is placed on a 
spring balance, and the force of the earth’s attraction is ob- 
served by showing the compression of the steel spring of the 
machine. 

It happens, however, that the mass of a body is proportional 
to its weight ; consequently it is sufficient to ascertain whether 
the weights of two masses arc equal in order to ascertain that 
their masses arc equal. The weights of two masses are ascer- 
tained to be equal by putting them each on one side of a 
balance, and observing that the force of the earth’s attraction 
on each is the same. Hence the very difficult operation of 
massing os described above is replaced by the easy operation of 
weighing. 

Prof. Greenhill tells us that “now the invariable unit, the 
mass, is measured in terms of a variable unit.” Is this so ? Is it 
not a fact that those who use exclusively the force of the earth's 
attraction as the measure of matter, rarely if ever have any 
conception of the idea of inertia? When the practical engineer 
has to do with inertia, as in cases of ** centrifugal force f he 
works by formulae or rule of thumb. 

Prof, GreenhiU's sentences, “a force equal to the weight of 
the mass of 10 pound weight^/’ and “the weight of 32 pound 
weights on the Earth Is at the surface of Jupiter a force of 71 
pounds’ weight,” are entirely original. 

I believe he means to express “ the weight of 10 pounds,” and 
the we%ht of 3a pounds on the earth is a force equal to the 
Wi^ht of 71 pounds on the surface of Jupiter. 

Cains Colle^, May 21. John B. Lock. 

Work and Energy, 

While a discussion of the BomeneKsture of mechanics is going 
on in Natueb, 1 would venture to fuggei-t that an effort s^uld 


be made to get rid of the practice of expressing energy in foot- 
pounds or foot-poundals. There are certain quantities of work, 
not of energy. To speak of a foot-pound of energy is quite as 
incorrect as it would be to speak of a pint of velocity, a yard of 
acceleration, an acre of momentum, or a pound of duration. 
There is great need of a short name for the unit of 

Bardsea, May 21. Kdvvard Oeoghegan. 

On the Reappearance of Pallas’s Sand Grouse 

{Syrrhaptes paradoxH‘i) in Europe. 

T BEG to 
of May 1 2 
(see Natu 
A pril 22, Gernozitz, Bohemia, 

,, 26, Poriitr, near Leipzig, .Saxony. 

,, 27, Guttmannsdorf, near Reichcnhach, Silesia. 

,, 27? near Hanover. 

,, 27-28, near Herinannstadt, Transylvania. 

,, 29, Marmarosch-Comit.'ite, Hungary, 

Last days of April : Alsofcher-Comitnte, Transylvania. 

Gebhardsdorf, SiIe^ia. 

Brod, Bohemia. 

First days of May: Tullner- field, near Vienna, 

Moravia. 

Hungary. 

Knzersdorf, near Vienna. 

Anclara, Poinerani.i, I’russia. 

May 6, Haida, Bohemia. 

,, 6, Eidclstedt, near Hamlmrg. 

,, 7? near Schweinitz, Silesia. 

,, 7, Oederan, Saxony. 

t» 7 » 6.30 a.m., near Oederan, Saxony. 

,, 8, Wiener Neusladl, Austiia. 

,, 8? Dalmatia, 

,, 8? Grossvoigtsberg, Saxony, 

,, 8? near Leipzig, Saxony. 

,, 8? near Ilerrenhut, Saxony. 

,, 9, Oederan, Saxi ny, and nearly' every following day 

there. 

,, 13, Selb, Saxony. 

,, 13 ? Gro' svoigtsberg, Saxony. 

,, 13, Schluckenau, Bohemia. 

,, 16, 5 p.m, Oederan, Saxony. 

A. B. Meyer. 

Royal Zoological Museum, J>resden, May 20. 

A farm in this neighbourhood was visited yesterday by a 
flight of about forty sand-grouse (pin-tailed). They were first 
seen about 6 p.m, feeding on a ploughed field. On rising 
they took a north-westerly course. pair which were shot by a 
gamekeeper are in my posse- sion. The presence of these birds 
in our country is, I believe, of sufficiently rare occurrence to 
justify me in asking whether they have been noticed in other 
districts during the last few days. ' F. M. Campbell. 

Rose Hill, Hoddesdon, HeHs, May 21. 

Tables of Reciprocals. 

In investigating spectral phenomena it is often necessary to 
convert wave-lengths in frequencies. Can any of your corre- 
spondents inform me if there exist in England tables of reci- 
procals, by which this may be done easily and with sufficient 
accuracy? V. A.JULIUS, 

Delft, Holland, May 19. 

On the Veined Structure of the Mueller Qlaclerf 
New Zealand. 

The Mueller Glacier, in the Mount Cook district, has a total 
length of between six and seven miles, with a breadth of one mile 
in its lower portion. Like most, if not all, of the New Zealand 
glaciers of the first order, the lower mile or two is so thickly 
covered with rook debris that the ice can only be seen in the 
crevasses* AH tHrough the lower portion of the glacier the 
veined or ribboned structure is well marked, running nearly in 
the direction of the glacier. But at the terminal face there are 
two systems of veined structure, with the same strike but crossing 
one another at angles between is'* end 20°. In one system the 
blue bands ace smell, from a half to one inch thick, and separ- 
ated from eadi other by liands of white ice, with large air- 


add the following statements to my communication 


78 


NATURE 


\May 24, 18&8 


bubbles, about twice the thickness of the blue bands. 7'be blue 
bamls sxt ieregular and sometimes anastomose. This system is 
similar to the veined structure found higher up the glacier. 

The second system is formed by large and regular blue bonds 
from three to sIk inches broad and from two to six or more feet 
apart. This coarser system is only occasionally developed. 
The finer system forint a well-maiked synclinal curve on the 
terminal ice cliffs, which are from 250 to 3C0 feet high. 

The ice h^ne contains in places numerous antjular stones, 
principally of slate, scattered irregularly through it, and these 
fragments al\^ays have their broad, or cleaved, surfaces 
parallel to the smaller system of veins. These stones have no 
doubt entered the ice through the numerous mouiins and 
crevasses which are found higher up the glacier, but as they are 
not found in bands nor in pi[»cs, they must have been moved in 
position by the flowing of the ice, consequently they must 
originally have been variously oriented, arwl their piesent 
parallelism to the veins is a decisive proof that the smaller 
.‘‘ystem is due to pressure at light angles to the structure. The 
origin of the coarser system is not so cleai. I did not notice it 
higher up the glacier, as 1 ouglu to have done if it had been an 
older system than the smaller veins. While, on the other hand, 
if it is a new ei system the r(,)ck fragments would probably have 
been oriented parallel with it instead of with the finer system. 

'I'he clear blue ice. is generally supposed to resist melting 
better than the white ice, and to stand out in ridges ; but I 
observed nothing of this on the Mueller Glacier, lioth kinds t>f 
ice melt here w'lth about equal rajiidity. 'Phe grooving of the 
ice, by runlets of water, is certainly parallel to the structure 
when lliat sIrncUire is vertical or highly inclined ; but the 
grooves are formed in several layers of both kinds of ice, and it 
seemed to me that iltu l)liie ice melted rather more rapidly than 
the white ice. 1 cannot suggest any cause for this difference 
between the ice of the Mueller Glacier and that of the Swiss 
glaciers. F. W. HuTTON. 

Christchurcli, New Zealand, Afatcli 22 . 

On the Rainfall and Temperature at Victoria Peak, 
Hong Kong. 

Tuft, first column of tlie following table shows the month of 
the year ; the second, the mean rainfall at the Observatory 
(about foo feet above the sea) from ten years’ records ; the 
third, ^ the mean of the past (oiu years' fall ; the fourth, same 
for Victoria Peal; (about iSoo feet above the sea) j the fifth, 
the proportion between the figures in the two preceding 
columns ; the sixiJi, ilic height of ascent in feet for one 
Fahrenheit degree of decrease of temperaluve (mean of the 
past four years) : — 


1. 

ri. 

III. 

IV. , 

V. 

vr. 

January 

.. j -47 

2-97 

4 ' 6 j 

rsfi 

2S8 

February ... 

.. r 06 

2 ’30 

3-56 

1*55 

305 

March 

. 3'53 

3 - 4 > 

3 60 

1-06 

489 

April 

6-55 

7 '89 

919 

1 -16 

407 

May 

.. 9*82 

4-86 

6 29 

1*29 

309 

June 

..12 67 

14-42 

16-71 

I -i6 

259 

Ju'y 

. 16-41 

16-55 

20-29 

1*23 

274 

August 

,,i 6 ' 9.3 

IS 27 

17-53 

1-15 

289 

September... 

9'«9 

7-98 

7-01 

0-88 

283 

October 

.. «;'o6 

2 ’S 7 

2 -06 

o*So 

281 

November... 

.. V04 

0-77 

1*19 

i '54 

267 

December ... 

.. o '49 

0-97 

I '21 

1-25 

278 

Year 

...85-52 

79-96 

93 '^7 

I-I7 

3^0 


The rainfall at the Teak exceeds the record at (he Observatory 
by about one^ sixth of the whole amount, and this appears to be 
due to the circumstance ili.it the mountain presents an obstacle 
to the wind from whatever side it blows, in consequence of 
which the air is forced to rise, and being thereby cooled it pre- 
cipitates more moist vuc in the form of rain. Even when the air 
is moderately dry at sen-Ievc! its temperature may be decreased 
Iwlow the d«w*point in the course of such a ri'^e. . The compara- 
tively great rainfall in hilly districts must beattributed to this, for 
a hill must of cottrse exercise its influence at a distance all round. 
Our rainfall would therefore be smaller if there were no hills 
in this neighbourhood. But during the months of September 
and October lets rain is collected at the upper level. This is 
explained, h^ the drcomstance that mo.st of the rain in those 
montha is due to typhoons, wlien the air is everywhere as- 


cending, even above the open sea ; and the defect at the Peak ia 
most noticeable daring the raging of a typhoon. The fact 
less rain is measured above musti however, be farther investi- 
gated. It is very doubtful whether it would not he as well to ear 
jxise the funnels of the gauges 4 feet above the ground, where they 
would not be so much affected by the rain drifting along the 
surface of the earth in typhoons, as to have them 1 fool above 
the grass, as is the case here. 

The last column of the table proves the great variability ol 
the fall of temperature with increasing he^ht. It depends 
iqion the humidity of the air. ITie astronomical refraction near 
the hoiizon must be affected by this, but it is rather doubtful 
whether the effect should be ascertained by comi>aring observed 
refractions with m el eorol epical registers kept on mountains on 
account of the condensation of moisture which tends to raise 
the temperature on the top of the hill. But it would appear to be 
lime that some astronomer studied the refraction in connection 
with daily weather-maps, seeing that the variation of tempera- 
ture with increasing height is so different in cyclones and 
anticyclones, (Jf course near the centre of a cyclone it is 
scarcely possible to make astronomical observations, Bessel’s 
theory of refraction is considered a failure within 5* of the 
horizon. Ivory’s theory might possibly be made to account 
for the refraction nearly down to the horizon by observing the 
value of the conj-tant/in connection with the isobars. It, on the 
whole, represents the variation of temperature high up in the air 
as estimated by meteorologists. W, C. DOBEKCK. 

Hong Kong Observatory, February 11. 


Problem by Vincentio Viviani. 

'I’o pierce in an hemispherical dome four windows such that 
the remainder of the surface shall be exactly quadrable. It was 
solved by Leibnitz, J. Bernoulli, and others. Viviani himself, 
in 1692, pulilished the construction, but without proof. Divide 
the base of the dome into quadrants ; on the fimr radii as dia- 
meters tiacc semi circles, one in each quadrant ; the four right 
semi cylindi rs, of which these are the bases, will pierce the dome 
in the required windows. The following simple pi oof, for which 
T am subsianti.illy indebted to Prof, Francis W. Newman, 
would piol)aidy interest many renders of Nati;rv, : — 

OXVZ is cpiaiter of dome ; AB, generator of cylinder meeting 
dome in B ; BCD, plane parallel to base. Hadiils of dome — - R = 
OX OB;nngleCDB = XOA = 0; DC == DU = OA ^ Rcosff; 
OB. cos BOA = OA ^ U. cose; .‘.BOA arc KB = 



arc BC = 0 . R cos 0. Element of surface of window is BC . 

= R’0 . cos . 0 . surface of window is the intep^I of this 

from 0 ~ o to 0 = It. Integrating by parts, and taking limits, 
surface of window = R® (Jv - j) ; the remainder of the surface 
XYZ is R^, which is exactly quadrable. Q.E.D, 

Ccr, The quadrable part of the quarter-dome is equal to the 
surface of the semi- cylinder which is within the dome. For, if 
AB » a, and arc XA « r a R0, element of surface of the 
cylinder is s . «/r ** R* . sin 0 . (/0 ; the entire surface within 
the dome is the integral of this from 0 as 0 to Iw, via* 

A general discussion of Viviani’s problem may be seen in 
Lacroix, **Traitd du Calcul Differentiel et da Calcnl Integral/’’ 
tome il pp. 2t9-aa. EmvAKD GEoOHBoAtff. 

Bardsea, May z. 



Mtty 24, i£S8] 


NATURE 


79 


SUGGESTIONS ON THE CLASSIFICA TION OF 
THE VARIOUS SPECIES OF HEAVENLY 
BODIES.^ 

VI. 

ON THE CAUSE OF VARIATION IN THE LIGHT OF 
BODIES Of GROUPS I. AND II. 

I. Gp:neral Views on Variability. 

I N my former paper I referred to the collision of 
meteor-Bwarms as |Mroducitvg • ** new stars,” and to the 
periastron passage of one swarm through another as 
producing the more »&!t less regular variability observed 
in the case of some stars of the class under consideration. 

1 propose now to esmsider this question of variability 
at somewhat greater lec^h, but only that part of it which 
touches non- condensed swarms ; ue, 1 shall for the pre- 
sent leave the phenomena of new stars, and of those 
whose variability is caused by eclipses, aside. 

It is not necessary that 1 iuoukl pause here to state at 
length the causes of stellar variability which have been 
suggested from time to time, it will suffice, perhaps, 
that 1 should refer to one of the first suggestions which 
we owe to Sir 1. Newton, and to the last general discus- 
sion of the matter, Which we owe to Zdllner (‘‘Fhoto- 
metrische Untcrsuchungen,” 76 and 77, p. 252). 

Newton asetibed that special class of variability, to 
which I shall have most to refer in the sequel, as due to 
the appulse of comets. 

Sic etiam stellar fixre, qua? paulatim expirant in lucem 
et vupores, cometis in ipsas incidentibus refici possunt, et 
aHmento accensa pro stellis novis kaberi, Hujus 
generis sunt sielhe fixae, qu« subito apparent, et sub 
initio quam maxime splendent, et subinde paulatim evan- 
cscunt. Tabs fuit Stella in cathedra Cassiopeia? (piam 
Cornelius Gemma octavo Novembris 1572 lustrando 
illam cccli partem nocte serena minime vidit ; at nocte 
proxima (Novem. 9) vidit fixis omnibus splendidiorem, et 
luce sua vi\ cedentem Veneri. Hanc Tycho Braheeus 
vidit undecimo ejusdem mensis ubi maxime splenduit ; 
ct ex eo tempore paulatim decrescentem et spatio men- 
sium sexdecim cvancscentem observavit” (“ Principia,” 
p. 525, Gla.sgow, 1871). 

With regard to another class of variables he makes a 
suggestion which has generally been accepted since. 

“ Sed fixjE, qua? per vices apparent ct evanescunt, 
qua?que paulatim crescunt, et luce sua fixas tertia? 
magnitudinis vix unaunm superant, videntur esse generis 
alterius, et revolveudo partem lucidam et partem obscu- 
ram per vices ostendere. Vapores autem, qui ex sole ct 
stellis fixis ct raudis cometarum oriiintur, incidere 
possunt per gravitatem suam in atmosphaeras planetanim 
ot ibi condensari et converti in aquam et spiritus 
humidos, et subinde per Icntum calorem in sales et 
siilphura ct ti net liras ct limum et lutuin ct argillam ct 
areftam et lapides et coralla et substantias alias lerrestres 
paulatim migrare.” 

Zdllner, in point of fact advancing very little beyond 
the views advocated by Newton and Sir VV. Herschcl, 
considers the main causes of variability to be as 
follows. He lays the greatest stress upon an advanced 
stage of cooling, and the consequent formation of scoriae 
which float about on the molten mass. Those formed at 
the ]Mle3 are driven towards the equator by the centri- 
fj^d force, and by Uie increasing rapidity of rotation 
they are compelled to deviate from their course. These 
facts, and the meetiitg which takes place between the 
molten matter, flowimig^iin im o^qiosite direction, influence 
the form and position df the cold nOft4uminous matter, 
and hence vary the rotational effects, and therefore the 

• The Bskerlmi I.«ctur«. delivered at the Royal Society on April la. by 

J. Nonaon Leokyar, F.ltS, Coatfauied from p. 60. 


luminous or non^uminous appearance of ikfi body to 
distant observers. 

This general theory, however, does not exclude other 
causes, such as, for instance, the sudden illumination of a 
star by the heat produced by a collision of two dark 
bodies, variability produced by the revolution of a dark 
body, or by the passage of the light through nebulous 
light-absorbing masses. 

If the views 1 have pul forward arc true, the objects 
now under consideration are those in the heavens which 
are least condensed. In this point, then, they differ 
essentially from ail true stars like the sun. 

This fundamental difference of structure should be re- 
vealed in the phenomena of variability; that is to say, 
the variability of the bodies we are now considering 
should be different sn kind as well as in degree from that 
observed in bodies like the sun or a Lyra?, taken as 
representing highly condensed types. There is also little 
doubt, I think, that future I'esearch will show that, 
when we get short-period variability in bodies like these, 
we are really dealing with the variability of a close 
companion. 

II. On the Variability in Group I. 

That maru' of the nebulas arc variable is well known, 
though so far as I am aware there are no complete re- 
cords of the spectroscopic result of the variability. But 
bearing in mind that in some of these bodies we have the 
olivine line by itself, and in others, which are usually 
brighter, we have the lines' of hydrogen added, it docs not 
seem unreasonable to suppose that any increase of tem- 
perature brought about by the increased number of col- 
lisions should add the lines of hydrogen to a nebula in 
which they were not previously visible. 

The explanation of the hydrogen in the variable stars 
is not at first so obvious, but a little consideration will 
show that this must happen if my theory l>e true. 

Since the stars with bright lines are, as 1 have attempted 
to show, very akin to nebula; in their structure, we might, 
reasoning by analogy, suppose that any marked variability 
in their case also would be accompanied by the coming 
out of the bright hydrogen lines. 

This is really exactly whal happens both in ^ Lyne 
and in y Cassiopeiae. In ^ Lyric the appearance of the 
lines of hydrogen has a period of between six and seven 
days, and in y CassiopeicC they appear from time to time, 
although the period has not yet been determined. 

III. On the V^AUiABri.iTY IN Groi;p IL 

This same kind of variability takes place in stars with 
the bright flutings of carbon indicated in their spectra, 
o Ceti being a marvellous case in point. In a (jrionis, 
one of the most highly-developed of these stars, the 
hydrogen lines are invisible ; the simple and sufficient 
explanation of this being that, as I have already sug- 
gested, the bright lines from the interspaces now at 
their minimum and containing vapours at a very high 
temperature — lesle the line-absorption spectrum now be- 
ginning to replace the flutings— balance the absorption of 
the meteoritic nuclei. 

Anything which in this condition of light -equilibrium 
will increase the amount of incandescent gas and vapour 
in the interspaces will bring about the appearance of 
the hydrogen lines as bright ones. The thing above all 
things most capable of doing this in a most transcend- 
ental fashion is the invasion of one part of the swarm by 
another 0(De movingiwith a high velocity. This is exactly 
^et 1 T^ostulate. The >wondciful thing under these 
circumstances then would be that bright hydrogen should 
nof add itself to the bright carbon, not only in bright- 
line stars, but in those the spectrum of witwcA ijonsists of 
mixed flutings, bright carbon representing the radiation. 


So 


NATURE 


[May 24, 18SS 


I now propose to use this question of variability in 
Group 11. as a further test of my views. 


The first test we have of the theory is that there should 
be more variability in this group than in any of the 



Fig. 


collisions IS cnormoluiy hiawsed. 



Fig. ifl.— fiarplaiuuion of th< vat-iahiUty of bodies of Group II. (a) Modium varia^n. Tb«» wiH bo a greatoj* number of coUUions at periastroa^ban at 
ether parts of the orbit, but the variation In the Ujtht will not be very great omder the coiutitioDi represented, as the revolving swarm never gets very 
near the niddle of the primary one. 


Others. Others are as follows. ( 2 ) When the swarm is \ lisions, but ( 3 ) when it is fedrly condensed, the effect at 
most spaced, we shall have the least results from col- j periastron passage (if we talre the simplest case of a 




May 24, 1888] 


NA rURE 


81 


doable star in possi) will be greatest of all, because (4} 
condensation may ultimately bring the central swarm 
almost entirely within the orbit of the secondary (cometic) 
bodyj in which case no collision could happen. 

In the light of what biuf gone before it is as easy to 
test these points as the former ones. 

^ 1 will take them in order* 

The Frequent Occurrence 0/ Variability in Group //, 

The total number of stars included in Argelander’s 
Catalogue, which deals generally with stars down to the 
ninth magnitude, but in which, however, are many stars 
between the ninth and tenth, is 324,118. The most com- 
plete catalogue of variables (without distinction) that we 
nave has been compiled by Mr. Gore, and published in 
the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (series ii. 
vol, iv. No. 2, July 1884, pp. 150-^3). I find 191 known 


variables are given, of which in are in the northern 
hemisphere and 80 in the southern hemisphere. 

In the catalogue 'of suipecied variable stars given in 
No. 3 of the same (January 1885, pp. 271-310), 

I find 736 stars, of w;tdcV 361 arc in the northern and 
355 in the southern hemisphere. 

Taking, dien, those in the northern hemisphere, both 
known and suspected, we have the number 492. 

We have then as a rough estimate for the northern 
heavens one variable to 659 stars taken generally. 

The number of objects of Group II. observed by Dunfr, 
and recorded in his admirable memoir, is 397 of these, 
forty-four are variable. 

So that here we pass from i in 657 to i in 7. 

Of the great development of variability-conditions in 
this group then there can be no question. 

To apply the other tests above referred to, I have 
made a special study of the observations of each variable 



Kig. 13.— I.jEpIanation of the vurwSillty of th<i bodies of Group 11 . (5) Mini oum variaiion. UnJer the conditions repreMOted, the smaller swarm will 
never be entirely out of the larger one, and at periastron the number of collitions will not be very greatly inoreoMd ; consequently the variation in 
the amount of fight given out wJI be small. 


recorded by Dunfr. I find they may be grouped as 1 3- Fands wide and strong, especially t and %. 

. ' ‘ 


follows : — 

1 . All ba ids visible but narrew. 

No. in 
Dundr 

Name. 

Max. 

Mia. 

Period 


No. in 








- 




l>ua6r 

Cat. 

Name, 

Max. 

Mia. 

Peri'Al, 


23 

Vi 

T Arietis 

s 

rs 

7 

fi 

9-10 

<13 

<ii 

<n-ia 

3 H 

326 

332 

360 


369 

M Cephei ... 

4? 

■ s? 

irreg. ! 

' 

U 

76 

S Canis Min, 

R Caficri 

H TeonU Min. 
R Urs. Mij. 


2. Bands well marked, but Jedfler in Red. 

91 

100 

1 

ft 

10 

12 

<9 

<n-i3 

12 

12-13 

<*i 

11-12 

12 

12 

3«3 


No, in 

Dun^ 

Cat. 

Nantr. 

Maa. 




1 IQO 

118 

i »S9 
! 165 

170 ! 
iSi 
192 
I9S 

R t orvi 

R Bodtis 

S Ubroe 

I< Serpeniis, 

U Hcrcu is. . 

S UercttlU... 

R Ophiuchi. 

> 0 

i i 
8 

S’® 

67 

« 

7'8 

319 

aaj 

190? 

35® 

408 

303 

30a 


186 

3U 

Si 

W Hercnlt* 

{?V) 

R Surittarii 

S H^re ... 

>8 

7 

7-8 

<12 

12 

<*3 

290? 

270 

256 






83 


NATURE 


\May 24 > 


^ All hands markedl/ widt and 


Nq. in 
I>uner 

Name. 

Max.; 

Mliu 

Period. | 


Cat. 


i 

_____ _ i 

1 


18 

0 Ccti 

2-S 

8-9 ' 

(33O 


TO 

RCeti 

8 

<13? 

167 


^ 1 

p Verpei 

3'4 

4’2 

ilTCg. 1 

Many lines. 

92 

R Leonis ... 

5 

lO 

313 


MI 

R Ilydnc ... 

4*5 

1 4 * 0 ? 

( 437 ) 


158 

V Boons ... 





166 

S Coronuc ... 

6 

12 

361 i 


184 

Herculis ... 

5 

6 

irreg. 

r Nearly circular 
[ orbit. 

196 

a Herciilis ... 

3 

4 

irreg. 

• 

217 

R Lyr«e 

4*3 

4*6 

46 


221 

R Aquilx 

67 

1 1 

345 


239 1 

X Cygni ... 

4 

13 

406 


293 ; 

R Aqiiarii ... 

6 

11 

38S 



5. Bauds widt\ hul pate^ 


No, in 
Dutn-r 

1 

Max. 

Min. 

Period. 


Cut. 

j 1 

1 




3 

'V Catsiopcite 

67! 

i 11 

436 


125 

' T Urb. Maj. 

7 

12 

256 ! 


127 

RVirginis... 

67 1 

II 

146 1 


*57 

RCamel ... 

8 

12 ? 

266 


23* 

1 R Cygni 

6 

1 

425 

382 


281 

e IVfJrt.i .. 

7 

12 1 


210 ' 

T Ucrculis 

7 

12 

165 


4 

U Androin. 

S-6 

<12-13 

405 



6 

. Bands thin and pale. 

No. in 
Punfir 

Name. 


Min. 

Period. 


Cat. 






50 

a Orionis .. 

1 

, 1 

1 4 

irreg. , 


128 

S Uvs. Maj. 

7-8 

11 

225 


187 

R Draconis 

67 

n-^12 

247 


238 

S Vuipce. ... 



261 

R Vulpcc.,.. 

7-8 

13 

137 



A glance at the above tables will show that the kind of 
variability presented by these objects is a very special one, 
and is remarkable for its great range. The light may be 
stated in themost general terms to viiry about six magni- 
tudes, from the sixth to the twelfth. This I think is a fair 
average ; the small number of cases with a smaller varia- 
tion I shall refer to afterwards. A variation of six 
magnitudes means roughly that the variable at its 
maximum is somewhere about 250 times brighter than at 
its minimum.* 

I have already indicated that, with regard to the various 
origins of the variability of stars which have been sug- 
gested, those which have been always most in vogue 
consider the maximum luminosity of the star as the 
normal one ; and indeed with regard to the Algol type of 
stars of short periods, which obviously are not here in 
question, there can be no rcasonabkj doubt, that the 
eclipse explanation is a valid one ; but in cases such as 
wc are now considering, when we may say that the 
ordinary period is a year, this, explanation is as much out 
of place on account of period, as are such suggested 
causes as stellar rotation and varying amount of spotted 
area on a stellar surface, on account of range. 

' ObuineJ by the formula I For differences of 

5, 6, 7 and 8 mag. wc get 

jwo. . I.«+j 
= » 5 i-a 4 . 

= + , 

= 1585-33. + , 

T M ^ light of a star t f magnitade m. 

»» >* sAwagnitude* faioJor 


We are driven, then, to consider a condition of thii^gs in 
which the minimum represents the constant conditionjand 
the maximum a condition imposed by some cause which 
produces an excess of light ; so far as 1 know the 
explanation on such a basis as this that has been 
previously offered is the one we owe to Newton, who 
suggested such stellar variability as that wc are now con- 
sidering was due to conflagrations brought about at the 
maximum by the appulse of comets. 

Ho%v the Difficulty of Regular ViXriahUity on Neivton's 
Viciv is got m^er in mine. 

It will have been noticed that the suggestion put forward 
by myself is obviously very near akin to the one put forward 
by Newton, and no doubt his would have been more 
thoroughly considered than it has been hitlierto, if for a 
moment the true nature of the special class of bodies we 
are now considering had been cn dviiience. We know that 
at their minimum they put on a special appearance of their 
own in that haziness to which I have before referred as hav- 
ing been observed by Mr. Hind. My researches show that 
they are probably nebulous, if indeted they arc not all of 
them planetary nebulie in a further stage of condensation, 
and such a disturbance as the one I have suggested would 
be certain to be competent to increase the luminous 
radiations of such a congeries to the extent indicated. 

Some writers have objected to Newton’s hypothesis 
on the ground that such a conflagration a.s he pictured 
could not occur periodically, but this ob)eciioa I imagine 
chiefly depended upon the idea that the conflagra- 
tion brought about by one impact of this kind would 
be quite sufficient to destroy one or both bodies, and 
thus put an end to any possibilities of rhythmically re- 
current action. It was understood that the body con- 
flagrated was solid like our earth. However valid this 
objection might be as urged against Newton’s view, it 
cannot apply to mine, because in such a swarm as 1 have 
suggested, an increase of light to the extent required might 
easily be produced by the incandescence of a few hundred 
tons of meteorites. 

I have already referred to the fact that the initial species 
of the stars we are now considering have spectra almost 
cometary, and this leads us to the view that we may have 
among them in some cases swarms with double nuclei— 
incipient double stars, a smaller swarm revolving round 
the larger condensation, or rather round their common 
centre of gravity* In such a condition of things as this, 
it is obvious that, as before stated, in the swarms having 
a mean condensation this action is the more likely to take 
place, for the reason that the more the outliers of the 
major swarm arc drawn in, the more likely is the orbit of 
the smaller one to pass clear. The tables show that this 
view is entirely consistent with the facts observed, for 
the greater number of instances of variability occur in 
the case of those stars in which, on other grounds, mean 
spacing seems probable. 

The Cases of Small Range. 

So far, to account for the greatest difference in 
luminosity at periastron passage, we have supposed the 
minor swarm to be only involved in the larger one during 
a part of its revolution, but we can easily conceive a con- 
dition of things in which its orbit is so nearly circular that 
it is almost entirely involved in the larger swarm. Under 
these conditions, collisions would occur in every part of 
the orbit, and they would only be more numerous at 
the periastron in the more condensed central part of the 
swarm, and it is to this that I ascribe the origin of the 
phenomena in those objects — a very small number — In 
which the variation of light is very far below the normal 
range, one or two magnitudes instead of bix or seven. Of 
course, if we imagine two subsidiary swarms, the kind of 
variability displayed by such objects as ^ Lyrae ir easily 
explained. 


May 24 , 1888 ’ 


NATURE 


83 


NATURAL SCIENCE IN JAPAN. 

W ITH the close of our eventful Jubilee year there 
was completed the first volume of a new journal 
of science which is destined to play a very important part 
in the advance of knowledge. We refer to the Journal 
of the College of Science of the Imperial University of 
Japan p already noted in these page’s. 

This periodical is issued under the Joint editorship of 
four professors in the College whence it originated. These 
gentlemen^ one only of whom is an Englishman, constitute 
a publishing committee : they have adopted the wise plan 
of issuing all communications on all subjects recognized 
within the one cover, and under their supervision there 
have already appeared a senes of original papers of con- 
siderable interest, so far at least as those biological are 
concerned. The work is being well done ; authors, 


editors, publishers, and craftsmen appear to be working 
harmoniously in the production of a journal which, while 
it reflects the utmost credit on all, leaves nothing to be 
desired. Twenty-one original monographs have been set 
up, three of them in German, the rest in English. Of 
these five arc biological, while six arc devoted to physics, 
four to chemistry, three to seismology, and two to geology 
propel'. It is to the first-named that we wish now to 
refer. The first paper published deals with the life-history 
of a parasite {Ugimya sericaria) which works fearful 
havoc among the silkworms in Japan ; this monograph is 
in itself interesting, apart from its intrinsic merit, as 
showing jhat our Eastern friends are fully alive to the 
so-called practical application of their work. This and 
other valuable papers which we might name testify most 
satisfactorily to the thoroughness of, at any rate, one side 
of the undertaking ; others there are which show that 



The Marine Biologlcul StiU.on of the Irapetial University at Misaki. 


these investigators are fully prepared to face some of the 
most formidable problems now exercising the mind of the 
zoologist, and in dealing with such problems they display 
a diligent attention and cautious generalization, such as 
are occasionally looked for in vain in writings nearer 
home. If this excellent beginning is, in these respects 
indicative of that which is to follow, only results of the 
greatest value can ensue. 

Of the zoological communications two are excep- 
tional — we refer to those contributed by Prof. K. 
Mitsukuri, of the Imperial University, Tokio. One of 
these, on the germinal layers in Chelonia (produced in 
conjunction with his assistant, Ishikawa), has previously 
^{^ared in our own Journal of Microscopical Science. 
The other is deserving of especial comment, for it brings 
tidmga of the establishment of amarine biological station 
of the Imperial University, at Misaki. 


Misaki is a fishing settlement to the west of the Bay ol 
Tokio, easily accessible, we are told, from Tokio or 
Yokohama in a day. Its waters have a direct interest for 
Western zoologists, in the fact that they have given birth 
to most of those museum specimens of Hyalonema, with 
which the skilful Japanese so long duped the rest of the 
world. Geographically, the relations of Japan to Asia 
may be appropriately compared with those of Britain to 
Europe : in their greater climatic variations, however, the 
Easterns have an advantage, if only by way of variety in 
the fauna and flora thereby induced. Agfain, Misaki, says 
Prof. Mitsukuri, has ^Mong been a favourite collecting 
ground for naturalists ; almost every group of animals 
is represented in this region in more or less abundance,” 
and he gives it as his opinion that zoologists have by no 
means ** become acquainted with even a small part of all 
the interesting animals to be found/’ When we reflect 





84 


NATURE 


\Mmy 24, 1888 


Upon this, mindful of the climatic features of the district, 
and in view of the enumeration given of known inhabit- 
ants of its waters, great expectations are conjured up, and 
the importance of the enterprise upon which our friends 
have embarked becomes self-evident. 

The station has been founded by the Department of 
Education and the authorities of the ImperiHl University, 
as a special adjunct to the biological laboratories of the 
latter. As it is fair to assume that the governmental 
body will, like all others, expect ** something practical 
for its money, we anticipate that attention will early be 
given to questions of economic importance. The Japanese 
have a fishing population of more than 1,500,^00 active 
workers, while it is computed that 3f),cxx),ooo persons, in 
all, are more or less dependent upon fish as food. When, 
in view of the total area and population of our own islands 
as compared with those of Japan, it is remembered that 
our own fishing population numbers little over 540,000, it 
becomes needless to point out that the Japanese are par 
excellence a fishing folk. They moreover appear to possess 
an ancient but limited literature on the subject. 

The establishment, by the Japanese, of this and other 
similar institutions has been necessitated by the adoption 
of the products of Western civilization, almost, it would 
seem, in return for that “devout and learned admiration ” 
so long accorded them by the Western nations. Rapid 
indeed has been their progress under influences which 
are bringing their wares into open competition with 
Western markets, and who shall say but that we proud 
Europeans may not yet be, perforce, to no small extent 
dependent upon them for edible produce? 

• The founding of this marine station is, biologically, a 
sign of the times. More than this, however. It is a 
mo ement upon which, in the long run, the intellectual 
as well as the commercial prosperity of a large section of 
the community must depend ; for in the spread of that 
true science which seeks to unravel the knowledge of 
causes, there now lies the only sound basis for national 
prosperity. Prof, Mitsukuri’s association with the under- 
taking is, in itself, a guarantee that these interests will 
be upheld. His earlier work was executed under the 
guidance of, and in fellowship with, American subjects 
whose names will be for ever memorable in the history 
of marine zoology : his association with them and with j 
the illustrious Balfour, and his acknowledged indebted- 
ness to Dohm, are, in themselves, auguries of success. We 
note with much satisfaction that “arrangements will be 
made by which students in the biological course of the 
University will be required to pass at least one term in the 
station ” : workers will be thus assured, and we tender 
them our sincere congratulations and hearty good wishes 
for a prosperous development of their enterprise. It 
must not be forgotten that the Japanese waters have 
lately yielded us the interesting Chlamydoselacbe, and it 
would be a most interesting circumstance should the far- 
fismed Hyalonema.to which Prof. Mitsukuri so frequently 
reverts in his article quoted, receive final consideration at 
the hands of his countrymen. 

The following is a brief description of the station 
itself, extracted from the original article. “ The building 
is of plain wood, and one story high, except in the middle 
part, which has a second floor. The main laboratory-room 
?a), which occupies the whole sea-front, is 48 feet long, 12 
feet wide at the two ends, and 18 feet in the middle, and 
is able to accommodate about ten workers. A number of 
small aquaria for the use of investigators will be placed 
in this room. Of the rooms at the back of the main 
laboratory, one (b) has a cement floor and is for assort- 
ing and preserving specimens brought in from the sea. 
Another (K) is to be used as the Uhrary-Tootn, and a third 
(c) as the store-room. The second floor over the central 
part of the building is able to give sleeping accommoda- 
tion for a few persons. From a tank frfaced outside the 


building, fresh sea-water is carried into the main labora- 
tory-room and the assort ing-room, and is delivered out of 
many facets." G. B. H, 


THE AURORA IN SPITZBERGEN} 

T he best observations hitherto made on the aurora 
borealis are those made at Bossekop, by Bravais, 
during the expedition of the French corvette Le Recherche^ 
1858- 40. Bossekop is also situated in the maximum zone 
of the auroras, on the coast of Northern Norway. Con- 
sidering that Spitzbergen lies a little north of the same 
zone, and nearly on the same meridian as Bossekop, it 
was resolved that the observations of auroras should be 
made with the greatest possible care at the Swedish In- 
ternational Polar Station at Spitzbergen in 1882- S3. This 
work was confided to Mr. Carlheim-Gyllenskibld, and the 
auroral observations are the most complete that have 
been made by any of the international expeditions during 
that year. The results are now printed, and form a large 
quarto volume of 409 pages, with a great number of 
tables, illustrations, and figures. The results confirm and 
enlarge those of Bravais, and of other observers of this 
brilliant phenomenon. 

{]) The first qtiestion is the determination of the mean 
co-ordinates of the auroral arch. A mean of 371 mea- 
surements gave the azimuth of the culminating point or 
summit of the auroral arch in S. 24^' 13' E. As early as 
1834, Argehinder, in Abo, Finland, found that the azi- 
muth of the culminating point of the auroral arch differs 
about 10'’ from the magnetic meridian. At Bossekop 
the magnetic declination was N. ro' 8' W., and the de- 
clination of the culminating point of the auroral arch 
N. 22® 4' W., the anomaly being, of course, about W. 
The magnetic declination at Cape Thordsen was found to 
be N. 12" 45' W., and of course the auroral anomaly from 
the m^netic meridian was 1 1° 27' W. 

(2) Eighty-seven measures on the position of the 
corona borealis were made, and the position of the centre 
of the corona was found nearly in the magnetic zenith, 
and not in the same vertical as the highest point of the 
arch. The means are : — 


Position of the centre of the ^ ^ , 

corona H 5= 79 55 .. Az. =s S. 7 12 E. 

Position of the magnetic zenith H = 80 35 ... Az. = S. 12 4 E. 
Position of the culminating 

point of the arch 11= — ... Az. = S. 24 12 E. 

This confirms the mcasvirements made during the past 
century by Wilcke, Mairan, and others.' 

13 ) The breadth of the auroral arches varies with their 
elevation above the horizon. The arches consist of rays 
running in the direction of the breadth of the arch, and 
converging towards the magnetic zenith. Thus they form 
a long fringe of rays parallel to the dipping-needle, sus-* 
pended, like a curtain, from cast to west, but with a small 
extent of breadth from north to south. If this curtain of 
rays moves from the horizon to the zenith, the breadth 
varies according to the laws of perspective. The formula 
gives the greatest breadth at a height of 45®. In the 
neighbourhood of the zenith the arches are very narrow, 
stretching as a luminous band across the heavens, 

(4) Besides the arches and rays, the auroral light some- 
times formed a true spherical zone pnrallel with theearth^s 
surface, thus floating in space as a horizontal layer of light, 
often crossed by several arches. This form is seldom to 
be seen in lower latitudes. These auroral zones were 
apparently much broader in the zenith than at their ex- 
tremities nearer to the horizon. When such an auroral 
zone was lying wholly over the heavens, with the cxcep- 


Suddoise. T( mt U. (t) Auror«» bordftleB. Pfcf Owlb«i«4>ylteimm£ 



May 34, 1888] 


NATURE 


85 


tion of a low segment near the horizon, a dark segment 
was produced by contrast. Sometimes the luminous zone 
was broken, and then dark spots or irregular spaces were 
produced in the same way. These dark spaces were 
n^quently seen tinted with a faint rosy light. 

(5) The movement of the arches is ordinarily reported 
to be from north to south, at places situated to the south 
of the maximum zone, and, from the opposite direction, 
at places within the maximum zone. Thus, at different 
stations between the latitude of Rome and the latitude of 
Bossekop, 69*6 per cent, of the auroral arches have moved 
from the north ; at Mossel Bay, Franz-Josef Land, and 
Discovery Bay, on the contrary, 62’ s per cent, have moved 
from the south. At CapeThordsen it was of course expected 
that the most part of the auroral arches would move from 
the south. Yet this was not the case. On the contrary, 57 6 
per cent, moved from the north. The movements were, of 
course, almost the same in both directions. 

* (6) The anomalous forms of arches were very frequent, 

and were made a matter of accurate investigation. Some- 
times an auroral arch presents the form of a sinuous band, 
or resembles a brilliant curtain with deep folds. At other 
times the arches appeared as regular spirals. Seen from 
the outside of the earth, or from above, the spirals were 
almost all contorted in a direction contrary to the motion 
of the hands of a watch, and the undulations folded as 
an 8. The motion was, in 80 per cent, from west to east. 
The folds of the auroral draperies had very different 
dimensions on different occasions. Sometimes a regular 
arch showed only a slight undulation ; at other times, 
only a part of an immense auroral drapery was seen 
above the horizon, as a pseudo arch. 

(7) Often, waves of light are running along the arches, 
and then the rays or beams are apparently in vivid 
motion. This appearance of the aurora is known in 
Plngland as ** the merry dancers," In 103 cases the waves 
were running from west to east, and in 101 cases from 
east to west. The mean angular velocity per second was 
38'’6, For a mean vertical height of the aurora of 100 kilo- 
metres above the earth’s surface, or 222 kilometres from the 
observer’s eye, this gives the immense velocity of about 
2*5 kilometres per second. The light of the aurora was 
often suddenly changing as to the distribution and in- 
tensity of light, but the geometrical form of the whole 
phenomenon was only slowly varying. The rays were 
sometimes observed to have a slow proper motion from 
west to east, or vice versd. 

(8) As to the classification of the auroral forms, the 
author rejects that of Weyprecht. The different forms 
of the aurora in the classification of Weyprecht are, in 
fact, only different views or projections, as, for instance, 
the forms III. = beams or rays, and IV. corona. The 
corona results, according to the rules of perspective, when 
a large number of separate beams parallel to each other 
and to the direction of the dipping-needle seem to con- 
veiw to one point, viz. the magnetic zenith. A regular 
and fully-developed arch consists, as we have said before, 
of a long friMe of rays, and so on. The author considers 
only two different forms of auroral light, viz. zones, or 
horizontal layers of light ; and arches, composed more 
or less of distinct rays parallel to the dipping-needle. 
The arches present themselves in four different condi- 
tions ; (i) arch, or a regular band ; (2) band, or drapery ; 
(3) spiral ; and (4) pseudo-arch. 

(9) The light of the aurora is, according to the author, 
of two kinds: (1) the yellow light, entirely monochro- 
matic, and lowing in the spectroscope the well-known 
yellow line of Angstrttm ; (2) the crimson or violet light, 
resolved in the spectroscope Into several rays and bands, 
spread over all MrW of tne spectrum. In the following 
table we give (L) the lines observed by the author, (IL; 

lines observed by several authors before the year 
1884, and (III.) the spectrum of lightning, accewding to 
the observations of Herschel, Vogel, Schuster, and the 


author. The unity for wave-length is, as usual, the 
0*0000001 of the millimetre. 


I. 


n. 

nr 

6306 ± 

7 3 

... 6294 ± 6’4 

6300 

5776 ± 

30 

5776 ±30 

— 

5664 ± 

30 

5664^3*0 

568s 

5568 ± 

1 '6 

5570 ± 0'9 

— 

5353 ± 

3 

5353 ± 3*3 

5338 

5264 ± 

2 5 

5280 ±18 

5260 

5228 ± 

27 

5226 ± 3'2 

— 

5001 ± 

4-2 ■ 

5003 ± 2*7 

5004 

4837 i 107 

4862 ± 1-5 

4860 

4707 ± 

51 

4702 ±2*9 

— 

464^ db 

3*3 

4636 ± 2‘4 

4632 

4236 ± 

67 

4286 ± 4'4 

— 


There were twelve other extremely faint auroral rays 
to be seen occasionally, but their position could not be 
exactly observed. 

As to the further discussion of the different auroral 
spectra and their supposed connection with different 
auroral forms, we must refer to the original paper. 

(10) No sound was ever heard from the auroral light. 
The feeble rustling noise sometimes heard was observed to 
come from the loose agile surface-layer of snow driven to 
and fro by the lightest wind over the underlying layers. 
Nor was a “ smell of sulphur" observed. 

(i i) As to the height of the aurora, it may first be men- 
tioned that the aurora was never seen to descend below 
the mountains or the lower clouds. Only two or three 
times it is possible that the light was seen below the 
upper clouds. Yet sometimes the auroral light was seen 
to be refiected from the surface of the snow. Direct 
measures of the parallax from the end of a short base 
(573 metres), by means of auroral theodolites of Mohn’s 
construction, gave an average height of 551 kilometres ; 
from observations of the corresponding amplitudes and 
heights of the arches, according to Bravais’ method, 
577 kilometres ; and by several other observations and 
calculations, about 60 kilometres was found to be the 
probable mean height of the aurora. 

(12) As to the annual and diurnal periods of the aurora, 
no annual variation in the frequency could be proved. 
The apparent daily period gave a maximum at 8h. 50m. 
Gdttingen time, or 9h. 13m. local rime, in the evening ; and 
a minimum at exactly the same hour in the morning. 
This apparent period must be corrected for the influence 
of the quantity of clouds and for the influence of the 
twilight. If F represents the apparent frequency of the 
aurora, and Q the quantity of clouds in tenth parts of the 
whole sky, there was found F = i - 0*0730 Q, in taking 
for unity the apparent frequency when the heavens were 
totally clear 

Further, the apparent frequency when the sun was 
lo*’ 47' below the horizon was the half of the true fre- 
quency, and the influence of the sun’s light was sensible 
as far as to a depth of the sun of 17° 45' below the hori- 
zon. Once only the aurora was seen when the sun was 
not more than 5“ 25' below the horizon. 

Taking into account these sources of error, the true 
daily range has a maximum at 3h, 3m. p.m., and a 
minimum at 8h. 3m. a.m. local time. 

Finally, there was also a well-marked daily liSlgc in 
the form of the aurora. The most brilliant phase of the 
phenomenon occurred at 4h. p.m. ; the aurora then ap- 
peared as a complete regular arch. On the other hand, 
the minimum brilliancy took place at 9h. a.m. ; the arches 
then were resolved into whirling fragments. 

Upsala, April. H. Hilbebrandsson. 


NOTES. 

The general arrangements for the Bath meeting of the British 
Association have now been made. The first meeting will be 
held on Wednesdayi September 5, at 8 p.m. precisely, when 


86 


NATURE 


\May 24, i 9 SS 


Sir tl. E. Roscoe will resign the chair, and Sir F. J. Bramwell, 
President-elect, will assume the Presidency, and deliver an 
address. On Thursday evening, September 6, at 8 p.m,, there 
will be a ; on Friday evening, September 7, at 8.30 p.m., 
a discourse on “ The Electrical Transmission of Power," by 
Prof. W. Ej Ayrton ; on Monday evening, September 10, at 

8.30 p.m., a discourse on ** 1 'he Foundation Slones of the 
Earth's Crust,” by Prof. T. G. Bonney ; on Tuesday evening, 
September ii, at 8 p.m,, a soirt^c. On, Wednesday evening, 
September 12, the concluding general meeting will be held at 
a. 30 p.m. Excursions to places of interest in the neigh bourhootl 
of Bath will be made on the afterno^mof Saturday, S^^Uember 8, 
and on Thursday, Septcmbci 13. 

The fourth session of the International Geological Congress 
will be opened on Monday evening, September 17, and will last 
during the whole of the week. The meetings will be held in 
the rt>oms of the University of London, Burlington Gardens. 
The Honorary President of the Congress will be Prof. Huxley; 
the EVesident, Prof. Brest wich ; the Vice-Presidents, the 
Director-General of the Geological Survey, the President of the 
Geological Society, and Prof. McK. Hughes ; Treasurer, Mr. 
K. W, Rudler ; and General Secretaries, Mr. J. W. Hulkeand 
Mr. W. Topley. Up to the present date 395 geologists have 
signified their intention of being present. Of these 210 are 
British, and 185 foreign. The number of countries represented 
is 22. 

Ths Linncan Society liuKK its centenary celebration to-day. 
The following is the programme of the procccrlings At 

2.30 p.m. the President will receive the visitois. At 3 p.m. the 
President will take the chair. After introductory remarks by 
the President, and the formal business of the anniversary meet- 
ing, the Treasurer will lay before the meeting an account of the 
financial condition of the Society during the last century ; the 
Secretaries will lay befijre the meeting n history of the Linnean 
books, herbarium, and olhe> collections; the President will 
deliver the annual address. The following Eulogia will be pro- 
nounced : On Linnaius, iiy Prof. 'I'hote Fries, the present 
occupant of the Chair of Botany at Upsala ; on Robert Brown, 
by Sir Joseph Hooker; on Charles Darwin, by Prof. Flower; 
on George Henlham, by Mr. W. T. Thiselton Dyer. The 
Linnean Gold Me<l.al, instituted by the Society on the occasion of [ 
its centenary, will be presented to Sir Joseph Hooker (botanist), 
and Sir Richard Owen Zoologist). (In subsequent years the 
presentation will be alternately to a botanist and zoologist.) At 

6.30 p. in. the annual dinner will bo held at the Hotel Victoria, 
Northumberland Avenue, the Presiilcnt in the chair. To- 
morrow (May 2Sth), fit S.30 p.m., the President and Officers will 
hold a i-cccption of the members and visitors in the Rooms of 
the Society, when the Linnean ctd lections and relics will be 
exhibited. 

TiiE late Mr. Cooper Fo^te^, of Grosvenor Street, for many 
years senior surgeon to Guy’s Hospital, was famous among 
horticulturists as a collector and grower of Hy menophyllums, 
Tridmmanes, and Todias, popularly known as Filmy Ferns, 
With very few exceptions, the whole of these plants are ex- 
tremely difficult to cultivate. The conditions under which they 
grow naturally are not easily imitated, Mr, Foster, however, 
c:)rUrived to keep a very rich collection of species, many of them 
unknown in gardens excejil nt Kew, where the collection of Filmy 
Ferns U perhaps unique ; and even Kew did not possess several 
kinds which Mr, Foster possessed. When it is remembered that 
these extremely delicate plants were cultivated in one or two small 
greenhouses at the back of a house in Grosvenor Street, Mr, 
Foster's success appears still more remarkable. After his death 
the Filmy Ferns were removed to his son's residence at Binfield, 
Berks. Recently, however, Mrs Foster offered the whole 


collection to Kew, and it has lately been transferred to these 
Gardens, special accommodation having been provided for It in 
the house (No. 3) where the bulk of the Kew collection is 
grown. Among the most noteworthy of the plants comprised in 
the Cooper Foster collection are T^^t/wmanes a 

magnificent specimen a yard across, bearing hundreds of fine 
healthy leaves ; 7 \ parvuittm, which has a compact cuahion-lilw 
mass of tiny palmate leaves ; 71 alahamensct HymenopkyUwn 
fTmghiosumi IL (hUoense^ H. eruenium^ //. Af. 

/•fis/efiannntj // fetdnatumy If. pttk^errimuHii and some grand 
masses of ff. dcfnissu/fi. This magnificent gift to the naticmal 
gardens nt Kew will no doubt receive the appreciation from the 
public which its intrinsic beauty, scientific interest, and actual 
pecuniary value deserve, 

Mrs. Emma W. Hayden has given to the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia tn trust the .sum of 92500.00, to 
be known .as the Hayden Memorial Geological Fund, in com- 
memoration of her husband, the late Prof. Ferdinand V. Hayden. 
According to the terms of the trust, a bronze medal and the 
balance of the interest arising from the fund are to be awarded 
annu.ally for the best publication, exploration, discovery, or re- 
search in the sciences of geology and paheoiiLology, or in such 
particular branches thereof as may be designated. 'fhe award 
and all matters connected therewith are to l>e determined by a 
Comnnttcc, to be .selected in an appropriate manner by the 
Academy. The recognition is not to be confined to American 
naturalists. 

Accordind to the and fniUa^ the appointment of 

Suj>erintendent of the Botanical Gardens, Singapore, has be- 
come vacant owing to the death of Mr, Canllcy in 'rasmania. 

M. Herve Mangon, Member of the Paris Academy of 
Sciences, and President of the Fiench Meteorulogical Councils 
died on the i6lh inst,, at the age of sixty seven. He was 
Minister of Agriculture in the Brisson Cabinet, and was a high 
authority on drainage and agricultural improvements. 

The Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean for May show, 
that, generally, fine weather prev.ailed over that ocean during 
April. Storms accompanied by electric phenomena occurred 
about once a week north of the 40tli parallel. A cyclonic storm 
of great stretigih was generated on April 15 in about 35* N, and 
60“" VV., moving across the Banks from the i6ih to the 1 8th, in which 
the wind reached force ii. There was also n gale of consider- 
able strength to the north-easi ward of the Azores during the 
second week of April, and a " norther ” was felt in the western 
part of the Gulf of Mexico on the I3tli. Considerable fog 
was met with off the Grand Banks, and southwards. The 
amount of ice encountered was unusually small, and was con- 
fined for the most part to the south-east coast of Newfound- 
land. Although it has been delayed in its southward movement 
by the unusual prevalence of south-easterly winds, it Is uow 
liable to appear in quantity, and to constitute a source of danger 
for several months. Careful observations of the Gulf Stream 
and the equatorial current are now being made at certain points 
by the United States steamer Blaki. 

A SODIUM salt of zineic add has at last been obtained in the 
crystalline state by Messrs. Comey and Loring Jackson, of 
Harvard University {Berichte^ 1888, 1589). Every analyst is 
aware that zinc hydrate is soluble in potash or soda, and although 
it has been presumed Uiat rincates of the alkalies or compounds 
of the alkaline oxides with zinc oxide are formed under these 
circumstances by replacement of the hydrogen of the hydrate by 
potassium or sodium, no such compouncU have hitherto been 
isolated. Messrs. Comey and Jackson, however, find that when 
a concentrated solution ^ zinc or zinc oxide in aoda i« shsdeen 
«ith deohol the mixture separates on standing Into ti#o tajers 


May 24 , 


NATURE 


87 


n bcAwier atitteous and a lighter alcoholic layer. V/hen the treat- 
nufn# o£ the heavier layer w ith alcohol is repeated once or twice, 
it eventually solidifies to a mass of wliiie crystals ^^hich melt 
below too^ Cr Moreover, on allowing the alcoholic washings 
to sta&d, long brilliant white neediest, often more than a centi- 
Bketre ia length, ore deposited. These latter crystals differ very 
markedly in melting-point from those obtained from the aqueous 
portion^ ns they remain unfiised even at 300'^. They were 
finally purified and subjected to analysis, the results of which 
point very clearly to the composition aNallZnOj + yH^O, or 
aZnfOHKONa) + 7II0O, Ifcncc lliis new salt may be re- 
garded as hydrogen sodium ;cincate. It is soluble in water and 
alcohol holding soda in solution, but is decomposed both by pure 
water and alcohol. The crystals obtained from the n/pieous 
solution above mentioned appear to differ from thnse just de- 
scribed only in containing more water of crystallization, the 
amount of which has not yet been fixed with ctTlainty. The 
fact that zinc oxide behaves so negatively towards the more positive 
alkalies, playing as it evidently does the of an acid, is now 
happily a proved one, and it is to be hoped that the American 
chemists will continue their rcsearclies until they have been as 
fortunate in preparing the normal salt of zincic acid. 

At the last meeting of the Asiatic Society of Japan, the Rev. 
J. batchclor read a paper on “ Some Specimens of Aino KolU- 
Lore.” There were seven of these taken down as they were 
sung, chanted, or recited by the Aino bard or story-teller. 
After telling these stories, Mr. liatchelor obsei*ved Ihxit among 
the Ainos there are still prophets and prophetesses, but tliey 
Unlit their powers now to tcdling the cause of prescribing 

mctliciiie, using charms, and the like. A person when pro- 
phesying is suppu,cd to slec[) or otherwise lose consciousness, 
and to become, so to speak, the mouthpiece of the gods. The 
prophet is ntit even supposed to know whai he himself utters, 
and often listeners cannot understand the meaning the utter- 
ances. 'I'hc burden of the prophecy sometimes conics out in 
jerks, but more often in a kind of sing-song monotone. Mr, 
Batchelor described one scene of Aino proj)hesying at which he 
was present. Absolute silence reigned around, old men with 
gray beards sat with eyes full of tears, in rapt alientioii ; the 
prophet himself was apparently quite carried away with his 
subject ; he trembled, perspired profusely, and beat himself 
with his hands. At length he finished exh.iustcfl, and as he 
opened his eyes for a momeiu, they shone with a wild light.” 
During the discussion whicli followed, it was stated tliat the 
author of the paper was engageil in tlie preparation of nn Aino 
dictionary, for which seven or eight thousand words hart .already 
been collected. "Such a dictionary," said Piof. ChandK^rl.ain, 
** would in all likelihood be a kind of tomb in which the 
rapidly dying language would remain enshrined for ages. Even 
now it was striking to observe how all except tlie oldest men 
and women were really bi-lingiul, speaking Japanese as easily 
as Aino. " 

Mr. Bruce Foote, Superintendent of the Geological Survey 
of India, lately contributed to the Asiatic Society of Bengal 
some most interesting "notes" on recent Neolithic and PnUvo- 
llthic finds in Southern India. These notes have now been 
reprinted from the Society’s Journal. One of thejfacts to which 
he calls attention is that '* the old Stone-folk of the Bellary- 
Anantapur country, where great numbers of Neolithic settle- 
ments have been found, selected grax>ite-gneiss hills as the sites 
of their settlements. Four considerations may, he thinks, have 
infiuenced them in Uiis choice : — (i) The more perfect isolation 
of the graakc-gneiss hills, which mostly rise singly out of the 
plains, or, if in dusters, are yet individually detached, and 
theveCore more suitable for defence than posts on continuous 
such as are generally Jformod by jthe }schistose mcks. 


Some of the granite-gneisb hills are nearly perfectly castellated 
by the disposition of the rock -masses. (2) Rock-shelters of 
great efficiency and comfortable terraces are to be found in 
numbers on many of the granitoid hills, but hardly ever on the 
schistose hills. {3) The collection of rain water and its storage 
would, from the nature of the ground, be much easier on the 
average granitoid rock than on the average schistose hill. 
(4) The schist 0*^0 hills are, in very many cases, generally, in 
fact, surrounded by a heavy and broad Inins most detrimental to 
easy agricultural woilc. The granitoid hills, on the contrary, 
form, as a rule, no great talus, but rise up straight out of the 
great cottpn-soil plains, so that the Neolithic field labourers 
could have been quiie close to places of refuge in cases of attack 
from other tribes, and yet have been able to carry on their 
agricultural work. 

At the last meeting of the Archaeological Society of Sweden, 
Iferr N. F. Sander read a paper on the wholly or partly un- 
deciphered runic inscriptions in Sweden, which he divided into 
three classes: (i) (hose composed of 01 dinary runic leltei-s, but 
in which the runic "staf " or sign i, when signifying i or c had 
purposely been left out, in one inscription even twenty- five 
times ; (2) the conventional runic signs, which were really runic 
cipher: and (3) the so-called Sudermania *Gjvist" (sprig or 
faggot) runes, as well as the " icc ’ runes. Here the secret lay 
in the circumstance that the three "sets” of letters had been 
purposely misplaced, so that in the inscrijitions the third set 
r)c.i,mc first; first set (/, //,/, //, -(-) second; and second 
set (//, I, a, i) third. Referring to seven of the first-named order 
of inscriptions whidi had recently been deciphered, Iferr Sander 
stated that five of them, all situated in the province of Upland, 
had the same contents, and contained some curious objurgations. 
In four of them appealed the word Pif/i or Pimentii.e. a strong 
drink ct)mpo.sed of wine, honey, and spice\ which, as well as 
Klarfty was mentioned in the of Kollo the Ganger and the 
Normans. All these inscriptions were referred to the close of 
the pagan age. One of them read as f.dlows : " Rcksessr, only 
Thynne’s son (son of), assigned (to himself)— f.c. wedded — asa- 
Askra ; (she) is daughter of 'rhynnc-Signil and the giant." At 
the mouth of the Kivcr Aby, close in which this stone was found, 
is a little island called 'i'hynnc 01 U'onno. 

jN an interesting aiticle in a recent number of the Natnr* 
7 vn %euschaftti( he I / W/n n fr/;/ ;//, Prof. Nchring discusses tlie ques- 
tion as to the origin of the dog. lie expresses his belief that it 
is descended from various still -surviving species of wolves and 
jackals. 'The taming of jaclal.s, lie says, presents no particular 
difficulty, and ninny uttemjils to domesticate wolves have been 
successfully made in recent times. Herr Rong^ has so com- 
pletely lamed a young wolf ilnii it follows him exactly as a dog 
might do. 

The United St.atcs Consul at Auckland, in a recent report, 
says that rabbits liave so eaten out the ranges in New Zoatand, 
that the capacity for maintaining sheep has greatly lessened, .and 
the flocks have fallen oft* in num'jcrs. At the Stock Conference 
of 1S86 it was stated that va)))>its reduced by a third the feeding 
capacity of land, and that the weight of fleeces had decreased 
by I lb. to lb. each. The number of lambs decreased from 
30 to 40 per cent., while the death rate increased from 3 to 13 
per cent. Since 1882, when the Rabbit Act became law, 
Government has expended /‘7000 on Crown lands alone,. and it 
is estimated that during the last eight years private persons have 
spent jf2,400,000 in extirpating rabbits. The methods gener- 
ally in favour are fencing, poisoned grain (generally phosphorized 
oats), and ferrets, weasels, and stoats. 

The Canadian Minister of Agriculture in his report for the 
past year refers to various measures taken by the Government 
ibr the advance of scientific agriculture in the Dominion. Five 


88 


ITATURE 


24, 1 898 


experimental farms in various parts of the country were provided 
by the Legislature, a botanist and entomologist were appointed, 
nnH a lai^e number of experiment;* to ascertain the roots and 
cereals most suited for the circumstances of Canada— especially 
its short summer — were carried out under scientific supervision. 

A RICH gold-field has been discovered between the two 
rivers. Lava and Papanahoni, in Surinam. It is an open 
question whether this district of 20,000-25,000 square kilometres 
Xiongs to France or Holland. M. Condreau, the French 
traveller, who has been closely investigating the district, con- 
siders that it will be as productive as the gold-fields ol^Australia 
and California. 

The University of Christiania has despatched a zoologist, 
Herr J. Jversen, to Sumatra, for the purpose of collecting natural 
history objects for that institution. 

A SUM of ;f 550 has been grantetl by the Danish Government 
towards the expenses of publishing the zoological and botanical 
results of Lieut. Hovgaard's Arctic expedition in the Dijmphna 
in 1880-81. The work w ill soon be issuetl. 

In addition to a sura already granted, the Norwegian Govern- 
ment has given ^^300 towards the publication of Prof. Friis’s 
ethnographical chart of the provinces of Tromsb and Finmarken. 

The number of visitors to the Natural History Museum, re- j 
corded by aid of lienton's “(>” register up to 6 o’clock on 
Whit Monday, was 4567, and the Museum was open for two 
hours longer. This number compares with 6010 and 6589 
admissions on the Whit Mondays of the two prece ling years. 
During the week ending Saturday last, 149,583 jiersons visited 
the Museum in the present year, being an increase of 8cx)o on 
last year. 

The honorary degree of LL.D. has been conferred by the 
McGill University, Montreal, upon Prof. W. Fream, B.Sc. 
Lond., of the College of Agriculture, Downton, Salisbury, in 
recognition of his contributions to agricultural science and of 
his services to Canadian agricuUuic. 

Much interest has betn excited by the successful transplanta- 
tion of nerve from a rabbit to man. The operation was i>cr- 
formed by Dr. Gersung, of Vienna, and the patient was Dr. 
von Fleischl, Profess.or of Physiology in tlie University of that 
city. . Sixteen years ago Dr. von Fleischl accidentally wounded 
himself while conducting a poH vioUcm examination, and the 
consequent severe in flam mat inn of his right arm and hand led 
ultimately to the loss of the terminal joint of his thumb. The 
end of the stump having become painful, amputation somewhat 
further back was performed, This was followed by the forma- 
tion of “neuromata.” In the hope of obtaining relief he 
underwent seveial fruitless operations. Ultimately, Dr. Gersung 
suggested that the herves might be repaired, and the missing 
portions replaced, by means of fresh nerve taken from a rabbit. 
The 7 tmcs of Tuesday gives the fjllowing account of the opera- 
tion : — “Just as there is nothing special in any individual human 
nerve, and as any one of them would be capable of discharging the 
duty of any other, so, it may be assumed, there is no difference 
between the endowments of the nerves of man and those of the 
lower animals, which fulfil identical functions in an identical 
manner. It was, therefore, inherently probable that the nerve 
of an animal, if a piece could be obtained of the proper size and 
length, an<l if transplantation and union could be successfully 
effected, would suffice to make good any loss of nerve in man ; 
and, in the present instance, which is, we believe, the first of 
the kind on record, not only have the transplantation and union 
been succcs ful, but the new piece of nerve seems to have over- 
come the tendency of the old to undergo degenemtioo of struc- 
ture at its divided extremity. A portion, six centimetres in 


length, of the great nerve of a rabbit's thigh was selected, and 
was so removed from the freshly killed animal as to include the 
natural bifurcation of the main trunk into two branches. The 
divided stem was secured by stitches to the stump of the nerve 
in Prof, von Fleischl’s arm, and the ends of the branches were 
secured in like manner to the nerve terminations which remainedf 
in his fingers, and which were rendered useless by their separa- 
tion from the trunk to which they belonged. The whole 
operation, as a matter of course, was conducted with strict 
adherence to those principles of antiseptic surgery without which 
failure would have been more than likely ; but, by the observance 
of which, union, almost anywhere or of any thing, can with a 
near approach to certainty be secured. The wound healed 
kindly, the transplanted nerve soon became at home in its new 
position ; and already, after the lapse of a little more than twa 
months, it is reported that sensation is returning to the fingers. 
At the same ttme there has been no return of pain, and no fiesb 
indication of the development of neuromata, so that hope of an 
absjlutely successful issue may now with some confidence be 
entertained.” 

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the 
past week include three CapeCrownefl Cranes {Balcarica ckryso- 
pelavgus) from Zanzibar, presented by Colonel E. Smith ; two 
Peregrine Falcons {Falco feregrimis) from India, presented by 
Mr. J. Davidson ; a Gannet {Sitla has 5 ana\ British, presented by 
the Baroness de Taintegnies ; a Three- toed Chalcis {Chakides 
tridactylus) from France, presented by Mr. J, C. Warburg ; an 
Indian Python {Python molur^ts) from India, received in ex- 
change ; an Elliot’s Pheasant {Phasuxnus dlioti Q ) from China, 
purchased ; an American Bis an {Bison amonrnnus)^ a Great 
Kangaroo {Macropus gignntexts 6 ), seven Suricates {Suf icata 
Utradactyia) born in the Gardens. 


OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN, 

Comet 188S a (SawerihaI.),— S everal computers having 
shown that the Cape observation of this object made on 
February 18 cannot be harmonized with those made since peri- 
helion by means of parabolic elements, Prof. Lewis Boss has 
computed elliptic elements for it, based on the above-mentioned 
Cape observation, and observations obtained at Albany on 
March 17 and April i8. His first effort was to find a parabolic 
orbit from the last two observations, and another, also made at 
Albany, on March 30 ; but the resulting parabola not only entirely 
failed to satisfy the Cape observation, but also left residuals too 
large to be admitted, for other observations at his disposal which 
had been made since perihelion. The ellipse, on the contrary, 
which he obtained from the places of February 18, March 17, 
and April 18 satisfied these other olwervations very fairly, the 
largest differences being given by the observation of March 30, 
viz. (C - O)-* 

Ao = - 8" *5. AS = - 7" '2. 

llie residuals point to a somewhat larger eccentricity than that 
given below, hut are probably due in great part to comparatively 
small errors in the first and last ol>servattoas used. 

The elements are as follow : — 

T ;= 1888 March 16-9987 G.M.T. 

• * 3°S9 54 S|'4 ) „„„ 
fi s 345 33 46*6 > i888'o 
» = 43 15 331 ) 
log f = 9-297790 
loj ^ - 9-844339 
Period t= 1615 years. 

Prof. Boss suspects, however, that the true period will be found 
decidedly greater than 2000yeara. 

* ^[9*^389] sin {v + 3^ 9 7 *6.', 
y =s r [9*999604] sin {v + 256 29 13 *9). 
z = ^[9787085]sln [v -f 323 4a 17-9). 

Jn the some number of GouM's Asironomicai fournai in 
the above elements appear, the fUv. G. M. aaind^** 


May 24 ^ i 888 ] 


NATURE 


89 


pendent elUptic orbit very closely resembling that computed by 
ProC Boss. The first two places used are the same as tbose 
Pro£ Boss employed i the third is one obtained on April 16 at 
Harvard Collie. Prot Bass gives the following ephemerts for 
Greenwich midnight : — 


iftSS. 

R.A 

h. vn, t. 

D«cl. 

38 i 45 N. 

Log r. 

Log a. 

May 26 

0 17 I9'4 

0*17274 

0*26595 

28 

0 30 45 *6 

38 43 8 

018109 

0*27036 

30 

034 5 ‘S 

39 *3 19 

018928 

0 27459 

June I 

0 37 19 0 

40 2 24 

0*19730 

0*27864 

3 

0 30 26*1 

40 40 25 

0*20516 

0*28252 

5 

0 33 26 6 

41 17 26 

0*21287 

0*28623 

7 

0 36 20 '5 

41 S 3 30 

0*22042 

0*28978 

9 

0 39 7 6 

42 z8 39 

0*22783 

0*29317 

11 

0 41 47 -8 

43 2 56 

0*23509 

029639 

13 

0 44 21 '1 

43 36 23 

0*24222 

029947 

*S 

0 46 47-5 

« 9 « N. 

0*24921 

0*30240 

The light ratio on June 

15 is 5(1 of that 

at discovery. 


New Minor Plankt, — A new minor planet, No. 278, was 
discovered by Men Talisa at Vienna on May 16, 


ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA FOR THE 
WEEK 1888 MA Y i.-j—JUNE 2. 


/prOR the reckoning of time the civil day, commencing at 
' ^ Greenwich mean midnight, counting the hours on to 24, 
is here employed.) 


AC Greenwich on May 27 

Sun rises, 3h. 54m. ; souths, iih. 56m. S7'88. ; sets, igh. 59m. : 
right asc. on meridian, 4h. i8‘8in. ; dec!. 21** 25' N. 
Sidereal Time at Sunset, I2h. 22m. 

Moon (at Last Quarter June 1, I3h.) rises, 2ih, lom.*; 
souths, th. 27m. ; sets, 5h. 41111. : right asc. on meridian, 
lyh, 47'6in. ; clccl. 20* 31' S. 

Right asc. and declinatioo 

Planet. Rises. Souths. Sets. on meridian. 

h, m. h. m. h. m. h. m. o « 

Mercury.. 4 42 ... 13 14 ... 21 46 ... 5 3^8 ... 25 29 N. 

Venus 3 26 ... II 6 ... 18 46 ... 3 28*2 ... 17 56 N. 

Mars 14 42 ... 20 22 ... 2 2* .. 12 45‘i ... 4 31 S. 

Jupiter. 19 12 ... 23 31 ... 3 50*... 15 5S’3 ... 19 22 S. 

Saturn.... 8 2 ... 15 57 ... 23 52 ... 8 I9'3 ... 20 14 N. 

Uranus... 14 47 ... 20 27 ... 2 7*... 12 50 2 ... 4 39 S. 

Neptune.. 3 47 ... 11 31 .. ij 15 ... 3 52 8 ... 18 35 N. 

* Indicates that the rising is Chat of the preceding evening and the setting 
that of the following morning. 


Oceultaiions of Stars by the Moon (visible at Greenwich). 


M.iy. Siar. 

Mag. 

Disap. 

Reap. 

Corrosponding 
angles from ver- 
tex to right for 

27 ... 31 Sagittarii 

.. 6 

h. m. 

. 22 I7t . 

h. m, 

• 23 23 

inverted image. 

0 n 

... 49 240 

30 ... 20 Capricorni . 

.. 6 ... 

2 45 

3 38 

... 40 322 

t 

In horizioii at (ircfinwlch. 



Star 

U Cephei ... 

U Cancri ... 

S Leonis 
K Corvi 
R Bobtis 
U Coronse ... 
S Libras 
R Scoipii ... 
U Ophiuchi... 

W Sagitterii 
Z Sa^ttarii... 

B Lyrse, 

R Lyrie 
S Vulpeculse 
S Sagtttee ... 
T Volpecttlse 

S Peg^ 


Variable Stars, 


R.A. 
h. m. 
o 52*4 

8 29-4 
n S'* 
12 13 8 . 

H 32-3 
15 I3‘6 . 


Dec'. 

81 16 N. 


. May 27, 
June I, 
17 N. ... May 28, 
4N. ... 27, 

iS 38 S. ... June 2, 
27 13 N. ... May 29, 
32 3 N. ... June I, 


19 

6 


57 w 

36 m 
M 
M 
M 
M 

37 

m 


... - • 

... 16 110 . 

' -7 -• 

. 23 40 S. 

... May 30, 


Af 

... 17 10*9 . 

. 1 30 N. 

... ,, 28, 

2 

8 m 


and at Intervals of 

20 

8 

... 17 57 ? . 

• *9 35 S. 

... May 27, 

21 

oM 

... 18 14*8 . 

. li ss s. 

0 . „ 27 * 

1 

0 M 



II 3 L 

0 

0 m 

... 18 46*0 . 

• 33 *4 N. 

... 1, 301 

21 

oM 

... 18 $1*0 . 

. 43 48 N. 

... June 2, 


M 

- 19 43*8 . 

.27 I N. 

... May 29, 


m 

19 50*9 , 

. 16 90 K. 

... II as, 

3 

oM 

... 20 467 . 

.. 97 SO N. 

... M 3 L 

*3 

oM 



June 2, 

1 

0 m 

... 22 25^ . 

. sr s« N. 

X| 

1 

0 M 

4.. 23 I 4’9 * 

. S18 N. 

... May 29 * 


M 




Meteor^ Showers, 


Near x Bobtis 
,, 54 Draconis 

From Vuipccula ... 
Near I Pegasi 


R.A. Ded. 

... 227 ... 30 N. ... June 2. 

... 290 ... to N. ... Slow, short. May 30. 
.. 303 ... 24 N. ... Swill. 

... 332 ... 27 N. ... Swift, Very long 
paths. Streaks. 


GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES, 

Refers I VG to the ethnology of the Himalayan hill region o 
Sikkim, where a small British force is at present in occupation, 
the Madras MaUwf& that the population may, broadly speak^ 
ing, be divided into three nationalities : the Lepchas, who are 
the aborigines ; the Nepalese immigrants, now forming nearly 
half the entire population ; and the Bhuteas, or Bhutanese, who 
very closely resemble the Tibetans, and are pure Tartars. It is 
remarkable that the last-named are like the Chinese in the make 
of their hats, clothes, and bcols, and in their pig-taiU, but their 
language is somewhat like Turkish in its sound. It is sup|>osed 
that this people originally came from Tibet, though they ap- 
parently derive their name from Bhutan, which lies to the east of 
Sikkim. They arc tall, strong, and hardy, though they are 
accused of being lazy. They have their Buddhist temples, and 
creel long poles round their houses, with paper streamers on 
which are printed prayers in Chinese-looking characters. One 
may often meet them on the roads 1 wirling their praying- machines, 
which are cylinders of brass or copjKr, with a printed roll of 
prayer inside, and small weights attached to it to ntake it re- 
volve when once it is set going. It is thought that amongst them, 
like the Tibetans, polyandry prevails. The women arc large and 
coarse-fcalured ; they wear thick woollen clothes of bright colours, 
and numerous massive gold and silver ornaments. Some of 
them smear themselves with a hrownidi ointment which makes 
their faces appear as if a coating of French polish had been 
put on. With regard to the aborigines of Sikkim, they are a 
Mongolian race, snort and stout. In appearance they resemble 
closely the Nepalese, though, far different from the latter, who 
arc brave soldiers, they are the most arrant cowards. They live 
by cultivating small tracts of the forests, which they clear by 
setting fire to the trees and brushwood, and move to a fresh spot 
each year. As may be supposed, their agriculture is of the most 
primitive description, and in their language they have no word 
lor a plough. They worship the forces of Nature under the form 
of demons ; the Bhuteas also, though professed Buddhists, pro- 
pitiate evil demons, the same sort of imaginary beings as the 
Nats of the Burmese. The Lepchas are monogamous. The 
race is gradually dying out. The Limboos are a race of half- 
breeds between the Nepalese and the Lepchas, but resembling 
the former more than the latter. There arc several similar 
mongrel races to Vie found in Sikkim, for the Nepalese immigrate 
in vast numbers, being driven out of their own country by press 
of over-population. Few ever return to their own country, and 
great numbers of them work as coolies on the tea estates. Their 
religion is a mixture of Buddhism and Brahminism, and they 
boast of their caste distinctions. Many of them carry curved 
weapons in their belts, while the Bhuteas and Lepchas use 
straidit-bladed weapons, The Bhutea sword is like that of the 
old Roman legionary, but the hill has no guard, after the 
Mongolian fashion. Amongst the jungles of Perai there are 
some curious aboriginal tribes, who do not appear to suffer from 
the malaria which attacks everybody else who sets foot in their 
territory ; but it is said that If they leave their jungles they are im- 
mediately attacked themselves by fever, the malarial i>oison with 
which they have become inoculated thus finding an exit when they 
quit their own locality. All the natives of the plain call these races 
indiscriminately ** Pahariyas,” or “ hill-men,^' who, though they 
differ from each other, differ still more from the inhabitants of 
the plain in their language and mode of life. They are all moun- 
taineers and Mongolians, and have all great physical strength. 
A story is told of a Bhutea woman who once carried a grand 
piano up the Ghaut from Punkabari to Darjeeling in three days, 
and arrived on the third day quite fresh and unexhausted at her 
destination with her burden on her back. 

A RECENT number of the China Review (vol. xvi. No. 3) 
contains a long paper by Mr. Taylor, whose publications on 



9 ^ 


NATURE 


\May 24 , i 8 $S 


Formosa and its people have frequently been noticed in these 
<olumn8, entitled “A Ramble through Southern Formosa.” It 
ireally describes a long journey along the almost wholly unknown 
^ast coast, and has much information respecting the various 
tribes, their relations to each other and to the Chinese Govern- 
iinent-^thc Tipuns, Paiwans, Dinramocks, Atnias, and others. 
Mr, Taylor refuses to discuss gravely the theory of a cataclysm 
put forwaM to account for the aborigines in Formosa. "One 
'might just as well introduce the mythical convulsion which lost 
Atlanta to Europe, and detached Great Britain from the neigh* 
bourinp; ontinent, to acount for the painted savages Ctesar 
found in England.” The Tipuns are probably descended from 
emigrants from some northern islands, probably Japan ; the 
Paiwans as a rule inhabit the mountains of the interior, and are 
’head-hunters, a cruel, predatory, and passionate r&ce, probably 
-of Malay origin, and the very earliest settlers in Southern 
Formosa. The Pepohoans probably came from Loochoo ; they 
have no language of their own, speaking only Chinese, while all 
the other triljcs have their own tongue. The Diaramocks arc 
the most dreaded Lril>e of the south part of the island ; they are 
reputed cannibals, but Mr. Taylor doubts whether they arc not 
accused without cause, Tt»e paper concludes with some vigorous 
•engravings of representatives of the different tribes, including a 
Biaramock, a 'Pipun chief, an Amia, a Paiwan, a Tipiin warrior, 
.a Nicka, and Tipun weapons. 


The BoliettiHo of the Italian Geographical Society for April 

g nbiishes the results of some preliminary studies, by Prof. Giulio 
leloch, of the Roman Universily, on the vital statistics of Italy 
during the last three centuries. According to these stmlies, the 
total population of the [>eiiinsiila has incrcase<I from a little over 
11,000,000 in 1550 to 13,000,003 in 1700, 16,500,000 in 1775, 
over 18,000,000 in 18H0, a?id nearly 30,000,000 in 1887. The 
-growth of the population for some of the larger States is given 
4is under - 


St-'itos. 

'Naples 

Sicily 

-States of the j 
Church ... \ 
Tuscany 
Venetia 
'Mil.ino^e ... 
'Piedmont 
Sardinia 


Year. 

Pfiji In 
mini ms. 

«sn 

2*7 

1570 

1-07 

1560 

1*6 

1562 

0-8 

1548 

16 

1542 

I *0 

1569 

1*05 

*575 

0-15 


V«ar. 

Pop. in 
millions. 

1700 

30 

1714 

I *12 

I 701 

I *98 

1738 

089 

1700 

1-8 

1724 

11 

*723 

*55 

1728 

o '3 


Year. 

I'on. ip 
Tnillions. 

1770 

409 

J770 

1*48 

1769 

2*17 

1766 

0*94 

1766 

2*24 

1773 

I *i 

1773 

^■3 

*775 

042 


A OEOi.OGlCAi- Expedition, under the leadership of MM. 
TvanofT ainl Konshin —the two well-known investigators of the 
geology of Turkistan — is to be sent out this summer for the 
exploration of the Iktor.al region 0/ Russian Mantchnria. The 
orography of this regi m is hardly yet known, and the Expe- 
pition will certainly throw so ne light on th-* structure of the 
chains of moimtaiiH wliich are still hypothetically represented 
on our maps. 


TJ/E /ROy AND STEEL INSTITUTE. 


'T'HE annual meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute took 
place last week at the theatre of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, under the presidency of Mr. Baniel Adamson. On 
the motion of the President, His Royal Highness the Prince of 
Wales was unanimously elected an honorary member. Sir 
Henry Bessemer presented the Bessemer medal to the President, 
and rele:*red in the course of his remarks (o the circumstance 
that whereas in ShefHcld, the stronghold of steel-making, he 
-CTukl hnd no one to investigate his process when he first brought 
It out, fortunately for him — and he might add, fortunately for the 
r resident, Mr. Daniel Adamson, did so, and having 
“inaself as to its applicability determined to employ itT 
ine 1 resident, whose mvcstimitiona with regard to steel are well 
known, thanked Sir Henry Bessemer and the Council of the 
the award, and referred to his early connection 
with Bessemer steel, which metal he had continued to use ever 
since. 

the address, which w«, 

.Tnamly statistical m character. The Iron and Steel Institute had 


been nineteen years in eaUtence, during which period 2Ud 
members had been elected, including seventy-two mected at the 
present meeting. He drew attention to the falling off Which had 
taken place in uie production of manufactured iron in this country 
since 1884, and the large increase in the production of steel dur- 
ing the same period. Thus in 1884 about one and a quarter million 
tons of Bessemer steel ingots were iwoduced, and in 1887 about 
two million tons, being an increase of about 60 per cent. ; in 1884 
nearly half a million of tons of Siemens open-hearth steel ingots 
were cast, and nearly a million tons last year, the actual increase 
during the period being over io6 per cent., besides which plant 
I is at present in course of erection estimated to produce another 
quarter of a mitJxon tons annually. During the same period there 
has l>een an enormous increase in the application of steel to ship- 
building purposes. Thus from a table supplied to the President 
by Mr. William Parker, Chief Engineer to Lloyd’s RegUt^ of 
British and Foreign Shipping, it is found that whereas in 1878, 
under 3000 tons of steel were employed in the manufacture of 
steamers and sailing-vessels built under Lloyd’s survey, and over 
300,000 tons of iron, last year over 2 to, 000 tons of steel were 
employed and about 52,000 tons of iron. The proportional 
increase in the use of steel in the last three years has been about 
cent, per cent., and the falling ofl' in the use of iron during the 
same period 350 per cent. Before leaving the subject of steel, 
the President referred to the papers read at the Institution of 
Civil Pmgtneers on Manganese in its Application to Metal- 
lurgy,” and on “ Some Novel Properties of Iron and Manganese,” 
wherein it was shown that whereas 2*5 to 7*5 per cent, of 
manganese in steel makes it as brittle as glass, breaking under a 
much less transverse load than cast iron, 12 to 14 per cent, of 
manganese in the metal .secures high carrying power with great 
elongation. Thus a bar of the composition — carbon 0*85 per 
cent., silicon 0*23 per cent., sulphur 0*08 per cent,, j^hosphorus 
o'oq per cent., and manganese 13*5 per cent., carried a load of 
57*02 tons to the snuarc inch, and took a permanent set at 
29 J tons, with an elongation of 39*8 per cent. This metal 
is toughened by heating it to a high temperature, and plunging 
it into water at a temperature of 72^ r. It is diflioult to 
machine, which would militate against its practical application 
for many piirpo.scs, unless cooling in water whilst developing 
strength and toughness should also have a softening tendency. 
The President concluded his address hydrawing attention to the 
influence of the alloys they contain on the various applications of 
pig metal, as outside f>f high-class hmnmtitcs that are used for the 
manufacture of Bessemer and open-hearth steel, selections may 
be made giving the highest results without using some of the 
liigltcr-pricc<l irons that are now considered necessary for given 
purposes. 


Mr. Carbutt, President of Ihe Institution of Mechanical 
Engineers, in proposing a vote of thanks to the President for his 
adtiress, drew attention to the interesting circumstance noted by 
Mr. Parker that loo tons can now be curried one mile by steam- 
ships at the rate of thirteen mile*> an hour, at a total cost, including 
fuel, insurance, &c., of seven- eighths of a penny. 

'I'hc papers read and discussed at this meeting ranged over a 
large variety of subjects. Mr. T. Turner’s paper on ** Silicon 
and Sulphur in Cast Iron,” read at a previous meeting, wa.s 
discussed. The conclusions at which the author arrives are that 
in the blast furnace three chief agencies are at work tending to 
eliminate sulphur, of which in Cleveland practice not more than 
one-twentielh passes into the iron : (l) a high temperature tends 
to prevent the absorption of sulphur by iron ; (2) a slog rich in 
lime readily combines with sulphur ; and (3) the amount of 
sulphur actually retained by the metal is influenced by the pro- 
portion of silicon and probably certain other elements present 
in the iron— the more silicon the less sulphur. This paper was 
discussed by Messrs. Snelin, Gautier, Riley, Bauerman, and Sir 
Lowtbian Bell ; but the author, in his reply on the discaa&Ion, 
considered that nothing had been brought forward to disprove 
what he maintained, viz. that if they put silicon and valphur 
together in iron, they would not combine tliere, ihc sulphur 
would pass off and the silicon remain. 

Mr. Gautier read a paper on the melting in cupola furnaces 
of wrought iiw or steel scrap mixed with firro-silicon, the con- 
clusion at which he arrived being that ordinary wrtMurht-lrDU 
scrap so heated may yield results a« good as those obUiited from 
castings made with oMinary atcel scrap. This conoluidoQ Was 
contested} however, bv various speakers in discussion. 

A ^ ™ meeting of the Institute by Mr, 

A, Wilson, m ‘*The Use of Water Ga$ for Metalluigical 



May 24 , i8S8] 


NATURE 


9 


Pnrpo&«s/' WM dtscuAsed. llie Author hod found water gasi and 
promts gw prAGticaUy ccjoal both os regarded cost of production 
and hoalmg Talues, 

Mr. H. Ecciea drew Attention, in a paper on “An Imperfection 
in Mild Steel Plates considered chemically," to want of care in 
aampling steel before casting, whereby defects in the ingots were 
rollm out into the plates ; and it appeared in the disatssion, as 
well AS in a paper by Major Cubillo, on “ The Manufacture and 
Treatment of Oninance at Trubia," that the ingot was much 
improved when the steel was made and heated in a radiation 
furnace. Another paper by Major Cubillo, on “Steel Castings 
for the Manufacture of Guns," gave rise to a highly technical 
discussion ; as did aliso papers on “The llehaviour of Arsenic in 
Ore and Metal during Smelting and Purification Processes," by 
Messrs. Patlimon and Stead, and on “ The P'.ffect of Arsenic on 
Mild Steel," by Messrs. Harbord and 'J'ucker. 

The last paper read was on “A New Instrument for the 
Measurement of Colour, more e8]>ecially as applied to the 
Estimation of Carbon in Steel," by Mr. H, Le Neve Foster. In 
the instrument are two fields of view under siintlar monocular con- 
ditions, freed from any erroi-s which arise from the introduction 

of unequal side lights, and also the different power of distinguish- 
ing colour that often exists in the eye of the obfierver ; in con- 
junction with the instnimcnt is a standard set of coloured glasses, 
each set being the same colour, but regularly graded for depili 
of tint. The instrument consists of a lube, divided by a central 
])artition terminating at the eye*pit*ce in a knife-edge, which, being 
inside the range of vision, is not seen when the instrument is in use 
At the other end of the instrument are two apertures* of equal 
size, and alterable in size or shape by means of diaphragms, The 
two apertures are divide*! by the thick end of the central parti- 
tion, which, together with the sides, is recessed so as to hide the 
edges of the standard glasses, as well as the sides of the gauged 
glass vessels, which are used to contain the liquid that requires 
to be matched or compared. The only light coming to the eye 
must pass in equal quantity through the gauged glass vessel and 
the standard glasses reajiectively. 

The instninient has been used by dyers, brewers, and sugar, and 
various other manufacturers. It forms a ready means of measuring 
the depth of colour in water, and is also applicable for Ncssler’s 
ammonia test, as used in water analysis. For the estimation of 
carbon, the author finds the best results are obtained by dis- 
solving 0*5 gramme of steel in lo c.c. nitric acid, sp. i'20, and 
bailing for twenty minutes, and then diluting to 50 c.c, and 
placing the liquid in a I inch cell. For mild steel this, gives an 
easy colour to match, the results olitained agreeing well with 
those found by the Kggerty method. 


SCIENTIFIC SEEIALS, 

The Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science for April, 
1888 (vol, xxviii. part 4) contains : — A monograjdi on the 
species and distribution of ilie genus TV‘ripatus, Gitllding (plates 
34 to 40), by Adam Sedgwick, F. R.S., gives an account of all 
the known species of the genus, with a bibliography (d nmst of 
the literature relating to them. Many of the figures are 
coloured from nature. — Notes on the anatomy of TerifeUtss 
capensis and P, novcr-zealauaur^ by Lilian Sheldon, Bathurst 
Student, Newnham College, Cambrulge. Gives details about the 
crural glands, the seginental organs, the accessory glands of the 
male, and the vns deferens. — On the construction and purpose 
of the so-called labyrinthine apparatus of the I abyrinthinc 
fishes (plate 41), by Dr. Nicholas ZograflT. —Studies on the 
comparative anatomy of sponges; (i) on the genera Ridlcia, 

gen*, and Quasillina, Norman (plate 42), by Arthur Dendy 
— Klemenberg on the development of I.opadorhynchus, by G. C. 
Boame. This paper gives a rlsunul of Prof. Klcinenbcrg’s very 
detailed account of the development of the Polyuhicte Annelid 
Lopadorhynchus, which extends over 225 pages of the Zeitschrift 
fur l^iutnseha/lliclu Zoologie. 

Armrican Journal Stunce^ May. — The absolute wave- 
length of Hght, Pim 2, by LottU Bell. In continuation of lus 
previous communication the author here gives the angular 
memrements, 4ind the details of the measurement and cali^ 
brntian the gratings, together with the final resulu. He also 
mqiui^ into the probable sources of error in some recent deter- 
miti^ODS of wave-lea^h« HU own final determination of the 
**^5? absolute wavelength for the line Dj is 

58^^18 in air at 760 mm^ pressure ana 20® C. temperature, or 


fzr v/rcM? 5897*90^ which be comiders not likely to be in error 
^ an amount as great as one part in two hundred thousand.— 
Tbreeforniations of the Middle Atlantic ^ope (continued), by W. 
J. McGee. In this paper the author deals with the Columbian 
fommlion alone, describing in detail the general characters of 
its fiuvial and incerfiuvlar phases. By the Jiwuial phase he 
understands the thicker and more conspicuous formattona 
commonly occurring along the great rivers at and for some 
miles below the fall line, while the iutcrjluvial comprises 
the thinner deposits forming the surface over the re- 
mainder of the coastal plain. These interfluvial deposits 
are shown to corroborate and extend the tedimony of 
the deltas, all the phenomena conjointly recording a brief 
period of si^bmcrgence of the entire coastal plain in the 
Middle Atlantic slope reaching rco feet in the south and over 
400 in tlic north, with coxval cold, long anterior to the terminal 
moraine period. — On some peculiarly-spotted rocks from Pigeon 
Point, Minnesota, by W, S. Hailey. The character anil orhfin 
arc dhicussed of some curious circular spots occurring here and 
thereon the quartzites of Pigeon Point, a district projecting about 
3^ miles into Lake Superior, and consisting mainly of a great 
dyke of coarse olivine gabbro or diabase. — The Taconic system 
of Emmons, and the use of the name Taconic in geological 
nomenclaiurc (continued), by Chas. D. Walcott. In Ibis paper 
the author deals with the subject of nomenclature, discussing the 
use of the names 'Paconic and Cumbrian, and concluding with a 
classification of the North American Cambrian rocks,-— Prof. R. 
D, Salisbury has some remarks on the terminal moraines of 
North Germany, and Carl Barus communicates a short note on 
the viscosity of gases at high temperature, and on the pyrometric 
use of the principle of viscosity. 

Bullet in de I'AcadImie Bojmle dc Belgique^ March. — Remarks 
on some stone implements found in Spain by MM. II. and L. 
Siret, by A. F Renard. Amongst the rich arch Lcologi cal finds 
recently made by MM. Siiet in the Carthagena and Abneria 
districla arc some polished st*)ne halcbcls of small size and 
beautiful workmanship. With a view to determining the 
material of which these implements were made, the authoi has 
subjected them lo a caieful analy-nb, and finds that this material 
is fibrolitc, which occurs in many parts of Spain. In appeMrance 
it sonicwlial resembles jade, but its chemical composition and 
general propcitics show that it is quite distinct fiom that sub- 
stance. — Determination of ilie variations in the specific lieai of 
fluids near the critical point, by P. de Ileen. It is suggested as a 
working hypothesis, that fluids are formed of molecular gioups 
which may be called liquidogenie molecules. These groups and 
their constituent elements, presenting the aspect of little vortices, 
would appear simply to be the molecules as regarded in the gaseous 
state (gasugenic molecules). The transition from the liquid to 
the gaseous slate at tlie critical lenq^erature might then be thus 
interpreted. It niny be udinitlctl that at a given teinperature 
the gaso^enic molecules cease to move in closed curves, and 
describe the rectilinear trajectories of M. Clausius. The 
author^ researches, as here described, tend mainly to confirm 
this view. 

Rendieonfi del Beale Ttifulo^ Lombardo^ April. — On the 
importance of the phagoriti in the morphology of the Metazoi, 
by Prof. I.eopoldo Magi. The author ^ rescMches generally 
tend to confirm the conclusions of Metschnikoff regarding the 
physiological functions of the pha|™iti. Me considers that 
“ phagocitism " — that is, the rntracellnlar digestive procesa—is a 
function which attests in the morphology of the Metaz.oi, or 
pluriccllular organisms, their genetic descent from the Protoxoi. 
Thus physiology,* ns well as embryology and paleontology, 
confirms the now commonly accex>ted view's regarding biological 
volution in animal organisms. 

Rivista Scientifico-IndustriaU^ April 30. — On borne recent 
discoveries in electro-optics, by Prof. Ercole Fostati. In con- 
nection with the recent researches of Hertz and Hallewachs on 
the influence of light on electrified couduclora, attention is 
directed to the analogous experimenta made by Morichini at the 
beginning of the present century. Reference u made more par- 
tieniarly to this ii^ysicLSt's observations oa the magnetization uf 
steel by the effect of light alone, independently altogether of any 
action caused by heat or terrestrial magnetism. — HSsearches on 
ma^etic thermogenesis, by Prof* Giaseppe MartinoUi. The ex- 
penmenU described in this ami previous papers lead to the 
general conclusion that heat is develo|^d when soft iron, or any 
other magnetic body, is successively magnetized ; and that the 


92 


NATURE 


\May 34 , 2833 


heat is increased by reversing^ or even simply interrupting the 
currenti which is in accordance with the mciiern theories on 
thermodynamics and molecular polarization. But all these ex 
perlments are merely prelim ina^ studies in a field of vast and 
increasing importance, the cultivation of which may ultimately 
lead to the greatest discovery of modern times, the deter- 
mination and application of the laws by which the material 
universe is governed even in phenomena of a psychic order. 


SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 

London. 

f 

Royal Society, March 8 . — ** Contributions to the Anatomy 
of the Central Nervous System of Vertebrate Animals ; 
Anatomy of the Brain of Cn'atodus forsteri.^^ By Alfred 
Sanders, M.R.C.S., F.L S. 

The brain of Cerntodus has the following general arrangement ; 
the membrane which represents the pia mater is of great thick- 
ness and toughness ; there are two regions where a tela choroidea 
is developed ; one where it covers in the fourth ventricle, and the 
other where it penetrates through the third ventricle and separates 
the lateral ventricles from each other. 

The thalamencephalon and the mesencephalon are narrow, 
and the medulla oblongata is wide. The ventricles are all of 
large size, and the walls of the lateral ventricles are not com- 
pleted by nervous tissue. All the cranial nerves are to he seen 
except the abducens and the hypoglossal. There is a large 
communicating branch between the trifacial and the vagus. The 
glossopharyngeal has no separate root, but is a branch of the 
vagus ; the p;anglion of the vagus is not the termination of the main 
trunk, but is an off-shoot from the ramus lateralis \ the ganglion 
gives off the branchial nerves and the ramus intcstinalis, the 
ramus lateralis passing on without entering it. 

The minute structure of the dorsal part of the cerebntm 
presents four layers : externally a layer of finely granular 
neuroglia, with slight indications of radial striation ; next a 
layer of larger-sized cells ; then another layer of neuroglia, 
with fibrilhe having a tendency to a longitudinal direction ; and 
internally a layer of rounded cells closely crowded together. 
The ventral part of the cerebrum has only two layers, the 
external of neuroglia, and the internal of rounded cells. 

The olfactory I^cs resemble the cerebrum in structure, there is 
an internal layer of celU continuous with those of the cerebrum, 
and an external layer of glomeruli olfactori, which seem as if 
they were the external layer of the cerebrum condensed ; and 
between the two, a layer of longitudinal fibres, on which 
fusiform cells are developed. 

The optic lobes also consist of four layers : externally there 
is a layer of longitudinal fibrils derived frotn the optic tract ; 
then a layer of smoothly granular neuroglia ; then a layer of 
transverse fibritl^e which collect into a commissure in the central 
line at the dorsal surface. 'Hiis layer also contains fusiform 
and rounded cells sparsely scattered through it ; and inter- 
nally there is a layer of cells mostly rounded. At the central 
line on the dorsal surface there is a ganglion of large cells 
resembling those of the optic lobe of the Plagiostomata. 

The cerebellum is a mere bridge over the fourth ventricle. 
Its structure presents the usual number of layers i internally the 
fibrous layer, which ultimately forms the crura ccrcbelli ad 
medullam ; then the granular layer, the cells of which are of 
large size compared to those of the same layer in Teleostei and 
Plagiofitomata ; then a layer of Purkinje cells, of which the form 
aud the number of processes are not uniform ; externally is the 
molecular layer, which consists of a coarsely granular network 
derived from the processes of the Purkinje cells, also a network 
of finer fibrils and many rounded cells. 

In the spinal cord there ate three columns of longitudinal fibres 
on each side in the white substance : viz. the ventral columns 
between the two ventral roots of the spinal nerves ; the lateral 
columns between the dorsal and ventral roots ; and the dorsal 
columns between the two dorsal roots. Fibres of large size are 
scattered throughout the two former columns, but collected 
principally in the ventral. The dorsal consists entirely of minute 
fibres. 

The principal feature in the white substance is a fibre of gigantic 
size, which is situated on tl • summit of the ventral ooli^mns, one 
on each side; it consists of a common medullary sheath ; incIosiRg 


(where (he fibre is largest) about 40 to 50 axU-eylifideri ; these 
have the character of the axis- cylinders of the ordinary fibres of 
the white substance, but have no separate medullary sheaths ; 
this fibre is traceable throughout the spinal cord ; commencing 
opposite the posterior end of the abdomen, It extends to a short 
distance behind the exit of the facial nerve ; it varies in size, 
and becomes of the greatest diameter near the iiosterior end of 
the medulla oblongata ; its axes escape througn the medullary 
sheath, and join the longitudinal fibres of the ventral columns. 
Near its anterior termination all the axes have escaped except 
one ; at this point it bears a great resemblance to Mauthner’s fibre 
in the Teleostei. This remaining fibre decussates with that of 
the other side a short distance behind the exit of the facial nerve, 
and enters the rool of that nerve on the opposite side. 

In the gray substance of the spinal cord, there are two series 
of ganglia, one in the ventral horn, which consists of multipolar 
cells often of very large size. They send procc'sscs into the ventral 
and lateral columns, which often '^come the smaller-sized longi- 
tudinal fibres. The cells of the other series of ganglia are of 
smaller size, and are situated in the substantia gelatinosa cen- 
tralis ; they are smooth in outline, and give off one or two pro- 
cesses ; they probably have to do with the dorsal roots of the 
spinal nerves. Cells also of this kind occur at other places, as 
in the fibr» recta;, and in the field of the ventral columns. 

The transverse commissures are : one in the spinal cord, which 
passes through the substantia gelatinoLsa centralis over the central 
canal ; another on the ventral side of the anterior part of the 
medulla oblongata, which corresponds to the commissura ansu- 
lata of the Teleostei, and is connected with the commissure in 
the dorsal part of the optic lobes ; then there is the posterior 
commissure at the posterior p.irt of the third ventricle ; and a 
commissure at the posterior end of the cerebrum which is the 
anterior commissure. 

There is no chiasma of the optic nerves visible externally ; what 
there is of it, is situated in the substance of the thalamencephalon. 
The anterior root of the fifth nerve arises from a ganglion 
occupying a broad swelling at the lateral port of the gray matter 
of the floor of the fourth ventricle. The posterior root arises 
from the summit of the restiform bodies. 

The facial passes backward in a small tubercle at the junction 
of the floor of the fourth ventricle with the restiform bodies. 

The ocusticus arises from a bundle of fibres which oie situated 
on the summit of the ventral column, and appear to be a con- 
tinuation forward of part of the multi-axial fibre which has not 
decussated. 

The five roots of the vagus pass backward, and enter in suc- 
cession the same tubercle as, and to the outside of, the facial 
nerve ; the three posterior roots arc double, so that the vagus 
is equivalent to eight nerves, and consists entirely of dorsal 
roots. 

Two nerves are given from the vcnirnl side of the medulla 
oblongata, each of which has two roots ; they do not join the 
vagus, and pass back some distance within the vertebral canal, 
and emerge on a level with the exit of the dorsal roots of the 
spinal nerves. 

The second and third spinal nerves supply the pectoral fin, 
and follow the course usually pursued by tne hypi^Iossal when 
that nerve is present in Teleostei. 

The fibres of the ventral roots of the spinal nerves enter in a 
direction upward and forward toward the inner edge of the multi- 
axial fibre, between it and the central canal, and then passing 
over the dorsal edge of the satne are either lost in the ^ay sulv 
stance of the ventral horn, join a process of one of the multi- 
polar cells, or become one of the longitudinal fibres of the 
ventral columns of the cord. 

The brain of Ceratodus presents an embmnic condition in 
three points : viz. first, in the extreme size of the ventricles and 
the tenuity of the sub^nce of their walls ; second, in the alter- 
nating origins of the dorsal and ventral roots ; third, in the origin 
of the dorsal roots close to the central line. 

Compared to Protoptems, it differs in the shape and imper- 
fection of the cerebral lobes, and in the fact of iu naving a welt- 
developed rhinenoephalon ; but it agrees in the narrowness of 
the mesencephalon, and breadth of the medulla ohloiigata, and 
in the mdimentary character of the cerebellum* 

Ceratodus agrei^ also with the Ganoids in the oompontive 
narrowness of the mesencephalon, and in the proportions of tlm 
cerebellum* 

With the PlagloftomaU it agrees in the structure of the 




May 34, 1888J 


NATURE 


93 


lobet, both ordon jireyeDtiDg a ganglion of large cells in the 
dbri^ part. 

With the Teieofttei it agrees in the malti-axial hbre, which 
anteribr to its termination resembles the Maothner’s fibre, also 
in the position and fact of its decussation. 

With the Petromyson it i^rees in the structure of the tela 
choroidea which covers the ^urth ventricle. 

April 19, — “On the Heating Effects of Electric Currents, 
No. III." By W. H. Preeco, F.U.S. 

1 have taken a great deal of pains to verify the dimensions of 
the currents as detailed in my paper read on December 22, 
1S87, required to fuse different wires of such thicknesses that 
the law 

C = 


is strictly followed ; and I submit the following as the final values 
of the constant “ a " for the different metals : — 


Copper 

Inches. 

10244 

Centimetres. 

.. >873 

MiUimctres. 
... 8o-o 

Aluminium 

7585 

... 59‘3 

Platinum 

5*7* 

.. 1377 

... 404 

German silver 

5*30 

.. 1292 

... 408 

Platinoid 

4750 

.. 1173 

... 37-1 

Iron 

3*48 

777’4 

... 24*6 

Tin ... 

1642 

405-5 

... 12*8 

Alloy (lead and tin 2 to i ) 

1318 

3255 

... 10-3 

l^ad 

*379 

.. 340-6 

... 10*8 


With these constants I have calculated the two follouing 
tables, which I hope will be found of some use and value ; — 


Table shmving the Current in Amjteres required to Tme Wires #/ Various Sizes and Afaterials\ 

C - 


No. 

S.W.G. 

Diameter. 

Inches, 


Copper. 
a = 10344. 

Aluminium. 
a =5 7585. 

Platinum, 
a =5172. 

Ger. .Silver 
rt 5230. 

Platinoid. 
a = 4750. 

Iron, 
tf = 3148. 

Tin. 

/I := 1642. 

Tin-Lead 
Alloy, 
as 1318, 

Lead. 

« = 8379 - 

14 

o'oSo 

0*022627 

231-8 

171*6 

117*0 

U8-3 

107-S 

71*22 

37>5 

29*82 

31*20 

16 

0*064 

0*016191 

165 *8 

122 *8 

8373 

84-68 

76-90 

50-96 

26*58 


22*32 

tS 

0*048 

0*010516 

107-7 

79*75 

54 37 

54’99 

49*95 

33*10 

17-27 

13 86 

14-50 

20 

0*036 

0*006831 

69-97 

51*81 

35 '33 

35 7 * 

32 ‘44 

21*50 

11-22 

9-002 

9-419 

22 

0*028 

0 004685 

48 00 

35-53 


24-50 

22*25 

» 4 * 7 S 

7692 

6-175 

6-461 

24 

0*022 

0003263 

33-43 

2475 

26*88 

17-06 

15-50 

10*27 

5357 

4-300 

4-499 

26 

0*018 

0*032415 

24*74 

18*32 

12-49 

12-63 

11*47 

7*602 

3 '965 

3«83 

3-3,^ 

2$ 

0*0148 

O'OOX^I 

18-44 

13-66 

1 9 ‘ 3 n 

9-416 

8*552 : 

5*667 

2-956 

*•373 

2-483 

30 

0*0124 

0*001381 

14 - >5 

10*47 

i 7-142 

7-222 

6 559 ! 

4*347 

2*267 

1*820 

1-904 

32 

0^108 

0 001122 

11*50 

8*512 

5 *805 ’ 

5-870 

5-330 i 

( 

3*533 

1-843 

1*479 

1-548 


Table giving the Diameters of PVire. of Various Mater iah w\ich will be Fused by a Current of Given Strength. 




.s . 

Diameter in inches. 

II 

Copper. 

Aluminium. 

Platinum. 

German Silver 

Platinoid. 

Iron. 

'J'in. 

Tin-Lead alloy. 

Lead. 


a St 10344. 

a s= 7585 


n = 5*30. 

a 4750. 

/I = 3*48. 

0 = 164s. 

0 = 1316. 

a = 1379. 

1 

0*0021 

0*0026 

00033 

0*0033 

00035 

00047 

00072 

0*0083 

00081 

2 

0*0034 

0'0Q4I 1 

0-OOS3 

0*0053 

00056 

0*0074 

0*0113 

0*0132 

0*0128 

3 

0*0044 

0*0054 
00065 ! 

00070 

0*0084 

0*0069 

0*0374 

0-0097 

1 0-0149 

00173 

O‘oi68 

4 

0*0053 

0*0084 

0*0089 

OOII7 

: o*oi8i 

0*0210 

0*0203 

5 

0*0062 

0*0076 

0*0098 

00097 

0*0104 

0*0136 

0*0210 

0*0243 

0*0236 

10 

00098 

0 V 120 

0*0155 

0*0154 

0*0164 

0*0216 

00334 

00386 

0*0375 

IS 

0*0129 

0*0158 

o*oao3 

0*0202 

0*0215 

0*0283 

0-0437 

0*0506 

00491 

20 

0*0156 

00191 

o'oaaO 

00245. 

0*0261 

00343 

0*0529 

0*0613 

0-0595 

00690 

25 

0*0181 

0*0222 

0*0286 

0*0284 

0*0303 

00398 

0*0614 

0 0 

30 1 

0*0205 

0*0250 

0*0333 

00320 

0*0342 

0*0450 

010694 

0-0779 

0-08^ 

35 ! 

0*0227 

0*0277 

00358 

00356 

00379 

0*0498 

00769 

00890 

40 

0*0248 

0*0268 

0*0303 

0*0328 

00391 

0*0388 

0*0414 

0-0545 

0-0589 

00840 

0-0973 

0*0944 

45 ‘ 

0*0423 

0*0420 

0*0448 

0*0480 

0*0909 

0*1052 

0*1021 


0*0288 

0035a 

0*0454 

0*0450 

0*0632 

0*0975 

0*1129 

0*1095 

0*0325 

0*0397 

0*0513 

0*0509 

00542 

0*0714 

O'lIOI 

01275 

0*1237 


o'03^io 

0*0440 

0*0568 

0*0631 

0*0564 

o‘o6io 

o*o6ot 

0*0791 

o'o8^ 

0*1220 

0*1413 

0*1371 

60 

0-0394 

0*0426 

0*0401 

00657 

0*1334 

0*1544 

01671 

0*1499 

01621 

90 

j 0*0520 

00672 

0*0667 

0*0711 

0093s 

0*1443 

100 

120 

ox>457 

0*0516 

0*0558 

0*0630 

0*0720 

0*0814 

0*0715 

o’o8o8 

0*0762 

o*o86i 

0*1003 

0*1133 

o*i 54 f 

0*1748 

0*1792 

0*2024 

0 1739 
0*1964 

\t 

180 

0*0572 

0*0635 

0*0670 

0*0M 

0*0763 

0^)826 

010902 

O'O^ 

o‘io66 

0*0895 

0*09^ 

o'lojfS 

0-0954 

0*1043 

0*1128 

0I2SS 

0*137* 

0*1484 

0*1937 

0*2118 

0*2291 

0-2243 

0*2452 

0*2653 

0*2176 

0*3379 

0*2573 

m i 

6*0(735 

0*0886 

0*1144 

0*1 135 
0*1228 

0*1210 

0*1592 


0*2845 

0*2760 

iiS 

0*0^ 

0Xl|4l 

0*0958 

01237 

0*1309 

o;ip2 

0-3077 

0*2986 

»So 

Si 

0*1028 

0*1327 j 

0*1^17 

0^1404 


0^51 

0*3301 

0*3203 

[ 0*0950 

OIOM 

o*xm 

0'I4»4 ^ 

01498 

0^404 

0*1487 


O't^ 

o'aw 

0*3038 

0*3220 

0-3515 

o-37aB 

0-34*3 

0*3617 




9* 


NATURE 


{M^ay 24, i8il6 


, May 17, — ** Oa the Stnicture of the Electric of 
^inularis/* By T. C- Ewart, M.D., Regius rrofessor of 
Natural History, university of Edin’iurgh. Commaaicated by 
Prof. J. Burdon Satidtrson, F.R.S. 

This paper gives au account of the stincture of the cap -shaped 
bodies, which, as nieiitioned m a previous paper read on April 26, 
18^, make up Khc electric organs of certain members of the 
skate family. The stnicture of these electric cups has been 
already studied in three species of skate, viz. Rata /uUonta, R. 
^adtata^ and R. circulans. The present paper only deals with the 
-electric organ of R. circularise It shows that the cups In this species 
are large, well-rlefined bodies, each resembling somewhat the cup 
-of the familiar cup and ball." The cop proper, like the disks 
■of R. hatiSy consists of three distinct layers, (i) the lining, which 
is almost identical with the electric plate of bat is ; (2) a thick 
meriian striated layer ; and (3) an outer or cortical layer. The 
lining or electric plate is insrpnrahly connected with the terminal 
branches of the numerous nerve-fibres, which, entering by the 
wide mouth in front, all but fill the entire cavity of the cup, and 
ramify over its inner surface, the intervening spaces being 
occupied by gelatinous tissue. This electric layer, which is 
richly nucleated, presents nearly as large a surface for the ter- 
minations of the electric nerves as the electric plate wliich 
-covers the disk in R. baits and R. davala. The striated layer, 
ns in R. batis^ consists of numerous lamella:, which have an 
extremely contorted appearance, but it differs from the corre- 
sponding layer in Re batis^ in retaining a few corpuscles. The 
cortical layer very decidedly difl'ers in af>pearaace from the 
alveolar layer in R* bat is. It is of considerable thickness, con- 
tains large nuclei, and .sometimes has short blunt processes 
projecting from its outer surface. These short processes ap- 
parently correspond to the long complex projections wbicli in 
R. b/ttis give rise to an irregular network, and they seem to 
indicate that the conical liwer of R. circular is essentially agrees 
with the alveolar layer of K. baits ^ differing chieffy in the amount 
of complexity. Surrounding the cortex there is a tliin layer of 
gelatinous tissue in which capillaries ramify. This tissue evidently 
represents the thick gelatinous cushion which lies behind the 
< 3 isk in R. batis^ and nils up the alveoli. 

The stem of the cup is uynally, if not always, longer than the 
diameter of the cup. It consists of a core of altered muscular 
substance, which is surrounded by a thick layer of nucleated 
protoplasm continuous with the cortical layer of the cup, and 
apparently also identical with it. 

The cups arc arranged in oblique rows to form a long, slightly- 
flattened spindle, which occupies the posterior two-thirds of the 
tail, being in a skate measuring 27 inches from tip to lip, slightly 
over 8 inches in length, an<l nearly a quarter of an inch in width 
at the widest central portion, but only about 2 lines in thickness. 

The posterior three -fifths of the organ lies imbiediately beneath 
the skin, and has in contact with its outer surface the nerve of 
the lateral lir». The anterior two-fifihs is surrounded by fibres 
of the outer caudal muscles. It is pointed out that while the 
organ in R. circularis is larger than in A\ raiiiata^ it is relatively 
very much amalfer than the organ of R. baiis. 

Linnean Society, April 19,— Mr, Carruthers, F.R.S., 
President, in the chair. —Prof. Martin Duncan exhibited 
specimen of /JeteroeenToius mamillatus, showing the apertures 
of three of the genital ducts to be in the median interradial 
sutures, the corresponding basal plates being imperforate. A 
■discussion followed, in which Mr. W, Percy Sladen and Dr. C. 
Stewart took part.— Mr. George Murray exhibited some 
specimens of Spongocladia^ with explanatory coloured diagrams, 
and made some interesting remarks on the presenpe of sponge- 
spicules on Algae at present unaccounted for. — Mr, D, Morris, 
of Kew, exhibited, and made remarks upon, the bird -catching 
sedge, Uncinia Mr. John R. Jackson, of Kew, 

exhibited some table mats from Canada made of the highly 
scented grass f/itrochha borealis^ and a sample of the so-cmled 
pine wool prepared from the leaves of the American long- leaved 
or turpentine-yielding pine, Pinus attstralisj with a mat made 
from the wooli an industry which has recently been started on a 
1arg:e scale at Wilmington, North Carolina,— Mr. J. E, Halting 
exhibited a living specimen of Natterer's bat, which had been 
-captured the previous day at Christchurch, Hants, together with 
a water-colour drawing from life of Daubenton’s bat recently 
taken at the same place, —The first jMiper of the evening was by 
the Rev. George Post (communicated by Mr. Thiselton Dyer), 
and OQotamed desorptions of plants from Palettine. In 
Che absence of.tbe author, the salient points in the paper were 


admirably demonstrated by Mr. T G. Baker, F.R.S., who 
exhibited specimens of the plants alluded to. — A paptf was then 
read by the Botanical Secretary, Mr, B. J^ydim Jackaon, on 
behalf of Profi Freom, on the flora of water meadows. An 
interesting discussion followed, and the meeting adjourned. 

May 3. — Dr, John Anderson, F.R.S,, Vice-President, in 
the chair. — The Chairman announced a resolution of the 
Council to found a gold medal, to he called the ** Linaean 
Medal," to be awarded at the forthcoming anniversary 
meeting to a botanist and zoologist, and in future years 
to a Iwtanist and zoologist alternately, commencing with a 
botanist. — Dr. Francis Day exhibited sime specimens of Loch- 
levcn an<l sea trout raised at Ilowietniin to illustrate his obser- 
vation that the markings usually relied up>n to distinguish the 
sj-tccies are not constant, and therefore, taken alone, of no value 
for the purpose of identification. He also exhibited specimens 
of trout from Otago, New Zealand, descendants of some 
which had been introduced there, presenting some curious modi- 
fications of structure. A discussion fidlowed, in which some 
inicrcsting remarks were made by Prof. Howes and Mr. WilUs 
Bund. — On behalf of Mr. Miller Christy, the Botanical 
Secretary (Mr. B. Day don Jackson) exhibited some specimens of 
the Bard field oxlip (Primula chvior^ Jacquin), gathered near 
Dunmow, and occurring only in this part of England (cf. 
Trans. Essex Field Club, iii. p. 148). — Mr. A. D. Michael read 
.1 ])aper on the life-histories of the Acari Glycipha^us douusticus 
and Ge spinipes. After describing in detail observations and 
dissections extending over three years, the author concludes that 
there is a hypopial stage in the life-history of Clycipha^^uSy but 
far less developed th.an in and not an active stage 

in the species observed ; that it does not occur to all individuals 
of a species, and it has not lieen ascertained whether it occurs in 
alt species ; that the stage is not the result of desiccation or un- 
favourable conditions ; and that it occupies the period between 
the penultimate eedysis and that immediately previous, Dr. C, 
Stewart criticized \fr. Michael's researches in favourable terms. 
— A communication was tlien made by Mr. C. B. Clarke on 
root- pressure. He contested the view of A, Sachs (and his 
followers) that root-pressure is sufficient to .su-tain the weight of 
a column of water of the height of lOO (or even 30) feet, and 
to force out drops at particular points of the leaves. He main- 
tained that it w.as a mathematical error to apply the equation 
P — to the case of water in plants, .ind mat in a collection 
of cells and longitudinal tubes of varying '•ize (all very small) 
the only mcchanic.il ideas that could be applied were those of 
capill.iry attraction and motion. In the discussion which 
followed. Prof. Mai-shall Ward thought root-inessure necessary 
10 explain the admitted results of manometer experiments. Mr- 
A. W. Bennett, on tlie other hand, regarded the assumption of a 
high fluid tension in tlie cells of roots to drive moisture to the 
summits as nothing more than an expression of our ignorance 
as to what the water does move. —A paper on the ovicclls of 
sv^me Lichenoporae was read by the Zoological Secretary (Mr. W. 
Percy Sladen in the absence of the author, Mr, A. W. Waters. 

Physical Society, April 28.— Prof. Reinold, F.R.S., 
Pre.sidcnt, in the chair. — 'Phe following communications were 
read On electromotive force by contact, by Mr. C. V. Burton. 
The object of the paper is to discuss the seats of the electro- 
motive forces developed by the contact of conductors. By 
considering the distribution of electricity on the surfaces of 
the conductors, and from the fact that the potentials 
throughout their masses are constant, except about a thin layer 
near the junction, the author deduces that molecular actim 
which gives rise to a eontacl E,MeFe between two conductors is 
confined to the tmmedicUe tteighbourhoo i of the junctiouP If 
E be the contact E. M.F,, and M the quantity of electricity which 
passes across the junction when two metals originally at the 
same potential are placed in contact, it is shown that the work 
done IS KM, half of which is spent in producing heat and half in 
raising the potential energy of the system- Since the omductoi* 
are supposed to bo kept at constant teuiperatare, and the action 
which gives rise to the E.M.F. is confined to the intmediote 
neighbourhood of the junction, the molecular anergy must ,be 
absorbed at the junction. By supposing the surface of contact 
very small, and the capacity of the system Jarge* ft is shown 
that heat and chemical mcHon are the only kinds of eneity wMdl 
fulfil the required ^ndhions of simplyii^ an ktd^nke atnomilt 
of energy. Hence, for aubstanoes chemioaTly Inactivw, trm 
contact EeMeF is equal to their of the FelHerefftot 


24: 1888] 


NATURE 


95 


^Xpntsid in cbs^tuU Measure*^; and for substances chetnically 
octiVQi but devoid of Peltier efTectf ** tht is iqucU to the 

ene^'g^ of eomhintUion of one elcctro-chemical equivalent/^ 
SInCtt m^tal-mi^tal contacts can only l>e the scats of PblUer 
It U inferred that the apparent contact E.M.F. 
(mencurrd inductively) must be due cfiiedy to air- metal contacts. 

A list of analogous properties of Peltier and chemical E. M.F/s is 
given in parallel columns. The results of some experiments on 
the wtact E.M.F. of glass and ebonite with mercury are 
tabulated, but they ore very irregular, and the author concludes 
that ll^re is no true anef dcdnlte contact E.M.F. between 
conductors and non-conductors. Profs. Ayrton, Schuster, 
Thompson, and Perry discussed the points raised, and it was 
considered that direct experiment on contact E.M.F. in a very 
perfect vacuum could alone decide the (|uestion<i.- On a theory 
concerning the stidclen loss of m^netic properties of iron and 
nickel, by Mr. H. Tomlinson. Experiments by himself ami 
other observers have shown that ine temperatures at which 
iron and nickel lose their magnetic properties depend on the 
sj^ecimens used, and the magnetizing forces employed ; but the ] 
tctnj>erature at which they oegin to lost these properties arc 
defimie — for nickel about 300® (J., and iron about 680® C. The 
author’s own experiments on Recnlescence of iron ” show two 
critical temperatures j anrl Pinchon has shown by calorimetric ! 
measurements that between 660® and 720® C., and between 1000® 
and 1050^ C. , heat becomes latent. All these facts seem to indicate 
a molecular rearrangement about these temperatures. In his 
liroi>osed theory, he assumes that the molecuks of iron (say) 
contain magnetic atoms capable of motions of translation and of 
rotation. These tend to form closed magnetic circuits, but at 
ordinary temperatures arc unalde to do so on account of the 
close proximity of their centrCvS. On raising the tem|>ciaturc, 
their centre.s are further separated till at about 680“ C. their polar 
extremities rush logclhcr, forming complete circuits and exhibiting 
no external magnetic properties. On cooling down, the centres 
approach until the gravitation attraction overcomes the magnetic 
attraction of their poles, when the magnetic properties reappear. 
Prof. Ayrton asked whether the author had made experiments 
on the reappearance of magnetic properties when raised to a 
white heat, and Prof. Thompson inquired whether cobalt had 
been tested. Both questions were answered negatively. — Note 
on the graphic treatment of the Lament* Frolich formula for 
induced magnetism, by Prof, S. P. ThoJipson. The formula 

referred to is N = N ^ ^ ; where N - total induction when 
saturated, N =; induction due to S/ ampere turns, and h “ 
value of S* which makes N - ^ N, Sirnple geoinetrical con, 
structions are given for plotting the curve when N and b arc 
known, and for finding N and b when two pairs of values of N 
and Si have been determined. The use of the formula is shown 
to be justified in practice, for, as pointed out to the author by 
Prof. Perry, the curves connecting permeability, ju, and induction, 
B, are straight lines from B = 7000 to B = 16,000, between 
which dynamos arc usually worked. A method of predetermining 
N and b is given for magnetic circuits of known form and 
materials, thus removing the objection often urged against the 
above formula^ viz. that it involves two constants which had to 
be determined after the magnet was made. 

Mftlhematioal Society, May 10. — SirJ. Cockle, F.R.S., 
President* in the chair. — Mr. E. B. Elliott communicated a 
fourth paper on cyclicants or ternary reciprocants and allied 
functions. — Mr. Cook Wilson gave a sketch of some theorems on 
parallel straight lines, togclher with some attempts to prove 
Euclid’* twelfth axiom. Messrs. Elliott, Buchbeim, and Prof. 
Henricl, F.R.S., took part in a lengthened discussion of the 
paper.*^The following Were taken as read J*-On the flexure and 
the Vibrations of a curved bar, by Prof. H. Lamb, F.R. S.— On the 
Allures formed by the intercepts of a system of straight lines in a 
pikne and on analogous relations in space of three dimensions, by 
S. Roberts, F.R.S. —On Lamp’s diffbrenthtl equation; ana 
gtabvUly of orbits, by Prof, Greenhill. 


St^txiolo^^jal Society, May 2 .— Dr. D. Sharp, President, 
in tkfis chair*— Dr. P. B. Mason exhibited an hermaphrodite specL 
mcoaf SoJutnia earpini^ from Lln^ffl, and another specimen of 
ihj ipectes wito dye w^s, bred at Tenby.— Herr Jawby 
exhl^ted fetdale Speclmeht of collected by Mr. 

1. It; Leei^ in Ji^an, and caRed attention to a sexual structure id 
cf Sb lUideiiefiu^ sCgimt.-^Mr. Adkk a 

vhwiiyof Hill.— Mr. W. F. 


Kirby exhibited, for Dr. Livett, a curious discoloured female- 
specimen of OrnithopUm mims, Cramer.— Mr. H. Goss ex- 
hmited, for Mr. W. Denison- Roebuck, a number of spccimena 
of an exotic species of bee obtained by the Rev. W. Fowler, of 
Liversedge, from split logwood. The cells or pouches were very 
irregular and rou^, and altogether unlike those of any known 
British species.— Dr. J. W. Ellis read a paper entitled '‘Re- 
marks on the British Specimens of Afhodivs ntclanostictns, 
Schmidt,” and he exhibited a number of .specimens and drawings 
of this species and of, AfhoHius inquinatus^ F. A discussion 
ensued, in which Dr. P. B. Mason, Dr. Sharp, Mr. Champion, and 
Dr, Ellis took part.— Mr. E. Mcyrick communrcnlcd a pft|>er on- 
the PyralidioA the Hawaiian Islands, the material for which 
paper consisted principally of the collcclion of Lepidopteia 
Hetcrocer.1 formed by the Rev. T. Blatkburn during six years' 
residence in the Hawaiian Islands. Mr. Meyrick pointed out 
that the exceptional position of these islands renders an accurate 
knowledge of their fauna a subject of gicat intcre^-t. He stated 
that, of the fifty- six known species of Hawaiian Pyralidina, nine 
had probably been introduced through the agency of man in 
recent limes ; but he bclie^’ed the remaining forty-seven to be 
wholly endemic : of these latter the author referred twenty-six 
species to the Botydida^ twelve to the ScofaHadtr^ four to the 
herof>hondt€, three to the C^ambidi^^ and two to the /V/yriViV/rf-. 
Dr. Sharp, Mr. McLachlan, Dr, Mason, and Mr, E. B. Poulton 
took part in the discussion which ensued. 

Paris. 

Academy of Sciences, May 14.— M. Janssen, President, i» 
the chair. — On diamagnetism, by M. Moscart, In connection 
with M. Blondlot’si recent communication describing an experi- 
ment on the apparent diamagnetism of a solution of the per- 
chloride of iron in a more concentrated solution of the same 
substance, it is pointed out that in 1845 Faraday showed that 
the action of the magnetic forces on a body depends on the 
uiedium in which it is plunged, ns it results from the difference 
of their coefficients of magnetic induction. If ihe intensity of 
magnetization remains proportional to the magnetizing force, 
which is the case with all diamagnetic and slightly magnetic 
Irodies, the theory then shows that the magnetizm on the surface 
of the body in question changes il.s sign when the outer medium 
has a high coeflicient. — Remarks accompanying the presentation 
of a map of Massaya in Abys.sinia, by M. d’Abbadie. Attention 
was ilrawn to some cartographic improvements introduced into 
this map by the author with the view of rendering the nomencla- 
ture more distinct, and more in accordance with the local pro- 
nunciation of geographical names. In alj cases such foreign 
descriptive terms as Has, Jebely &c., give place to their equiva- 
lents Cape^ .A founts &c. ^Fluorescence of cupriferous lime, by M. 
Lecoq cfe Itoisbaudian After calcination in the air, carbonate 
of lime containing a little oxide of copper yields a substances 
which gives in vacuum an extremely bright green fluorescence. 
No spectral rays have been observed. When calcination takes 
place in hydrogen, instead of the green fluorescence, a more or 
less pink or reddish light is obtained, at times somewhat intense, 
but always greatly inferior to the green fluorescence. — Observa- 
tion.s of the new planet 277, discovered on May 3, at the 
Observatory of Nice, hy M. Charlois. The observations extend 
over the period from May 3 to May 9, when the planet appeared 
to be of the thirteenth magnitude.— Observations of the sama 
planet are recorded for the period May 5-12, taJeen by M. 
Tripled, at the Observatory of Algiers. — Observations of the 
channels in Mars, by M. I’errotin. Some important modifica- 
tions ore described, that have taken place in these appearances 
since they were first observed by the author in 1886. The 
triangular continent, somewhat lai^er'than France (the Lybia of 
Schiaparelli’s map), w’hich at that time stretched along both 
sides of the equator, and which waa bounded south and wt»l 
by a sea, north and east channels, has disappeared. The 
place where it stood, as indicated by the reddish- white tint of 
land, now shows the black, or rather deep blue colour of the 
seas of Mare. The Lake Moerts, situated on one of the 
channels, has also vnnbhed, and a new channel, about ao® long 
and I® or i'‘'S broad, is now visible* tunning parallel with the 
equator to the north of the vanished continent This channel 
forms a direct conthmation of a pieviowdy existing double 
diannel, whidi it now connects with the sea. Another change 
is the unexpected apptfntMme about the north pole of another 
passage, which seetAs to eonnotft two neighbouring seas through 
the | 3 orae Ice.— Acdoit of hydfOdihutit odd on the solubility of 
itanwott* chloride ; hydroenlortte of otoimoits chloride, by M. 




96 


NATURE 


\May 24 , i8S8 


Engel. It is generally assumed th'at the solubility of stannous 
chloride in water increases in the pre*ience of hydrochloric acid. 
But the experimexits here described show that this is the 
case cM)Jy wnen the quantity of acid added to the saturated 
solution of the chloride attains a certain value. The hydro- 
chlorate of st^nous chloride, here also described, has for 
formula, SnCI* f llCIa + 3 H, 0 . It crystallizes and melts at 
about - 27®.— On the existence of a pyrophosphorous acid, by 
M. L. Amat. The existence here demonstrated of this body is 
a brilliant verification of the theory of AVurtz r^arding the con- 
stitution of the phosphorous and hvpophcfephorous acids. — Essay 
on the equivalents of the simple bodies, by M. Delauncy, 
Taking as unity the equivalent of hydrogen, the equivalents 
of the simple bodies may be obtained by th^ expression, 

5 ? ^5'-* ~ where N and « are integers, the values of « 

being obviously restricted to 0, i, 2, 3, or 4. According to these 
several values of n the elementary bodies are dispo8e<{ in so 
many famHj groups, from which chlorine alone is excluded, 
while its neighoour, bromine, appears to belong to as many as 
three of the groups. This classification seems natural, the first 
family supplying the true metals — copper, gold, lead— below 
which, in the descending scale, the fifth family corresponds to the 
alkaline metals and metalloids. From all this is deduced a 
carious molecular theory based on the assumption of a primitive 
molecule formed of six atoms. Around one of these the other 
five describe circles with radii i, 2, 3, 4, 5, all moving in the 
same plane, and the central atom revolving round its own axis 
perpendicular to the plane. The atoms at the distances I, 2, 3, 4 
revolve in the same direction as the central, the outer in the 
contrary direction, the molecule thus constituting a sort of 
astronomic system, infinitely small, but analogous to the stellar 
groui^s. All these considerations go to confirm in principle, if 
not in fact, the views of those chemists who hold that all the 
simple bodies are ultimately reducible to one—that i.s, hydrogen. 
—Researches on the synthesis of the albuminoid and proteic 
substances, by M. P. Schutzenberger. Having completed his 
analytical studies of albumen, fibrine, ca'^cine, gelatine, and 
other proteic substances, the author has now begun the study of 
their synthesis. In this paper the first results arc given, showing 
that the leuceine obtained by the synthetic process is identical 
with that yielded by decomposition. 

Bermn. 


Physiological Society, April 27.— Prof, du Bois-Reymond, 
President, in the chair. — Dr. Bloschko spoke on the develop- 
ment of homy tissue. Between the rele Malpighii and the 
corneous layer (stratum corneum) of the epidermis two layers 
arc found— the stratum grauiilosum and the stratum lucidum — in 
which the cells of the rete, producetl karyokinetically, mu>.t 
undergo their conversion into the epidermal cells of the stratum 
corneum. The speaker confined himself first to a consider- 
ation of the granules of the stratum granulosum, about which 
most widely different views have been advanc^ by various 
writers. Th^ have been regarded as consisting of lat, chole- 
sterin, amyloid substance, proteid, keratin, and hyalin ; and 
further as fluid, semi-fiuid, or solid. Dr. Blaschko has satisfied 
hims^^lf that the granules are not fluid, but that they contain 
more water than the cells of the epidermis;. He has further 
proved by employing all the chemical reactions which are charac- 
teristic of such different substances as fat, cholesterin, proteid, 
&c., that the granules cannot be regarded as composed of any 
of the above. The curious colour they assume when stained 
with hsematoxylin, and their behaviour with chemreal reagents, 
shows that their proper place is one intermediate between 
albumen ard keratin ; the speaker hence proptwed to give the 
oanie of prokeratin to the material of which the granules are 
composed. -^Dr. Klaalsch had made a series of preparations 
from the skin of monke)[s, by u hich he shows that it is possible, 
by using various colouring- matters, to give different colours to 
the stratum lucidum and stratum corneum in one and the same 
specimen, thus making it easy to distinguish these layers each 
from the other and from the stratum granulosum. He shows 
further that in the skin of monkeys, as in that of man, alter- 
nating elevations and depressions are met with ; the former, or 
gkod-billcKks, cover the glands of the skin, while the latter, or 
folda, are joined by tense bundles of connectlVedissue passing 
throimh the rete, and thus forming an attachment for the ^kin. 
Finally, and in the third place, the preparations showed that the 
nuclei of the celte in .tlMf rete are still here and there reoognhcable , 
in the stratum oomeum as spaces which are proUbly formed by i 


a disappearance of the nuclear substance, the nuclear membrane 
being MrsUtent.— Dr. R. Schneider has carried on a series of 
researenes, extending over nearly every class of anipaals, on the 
absorption of iron and on its occurrence as oxide in the organs 
and tissues of the animals. Up to the present time all the 
animals examined, whether living in water, mud, or under- 
ground, have contained oxide oT iron ; which detected, 
u^ing all due precautions, by emplm^ing ferrocyanide of potas- 
sium and dilute hydrochloric acid. The K)>eaker gave an account 
of the behaviour of single animals taken from the Protozoa, 
Ccelenterates, Worms, Arthropods, Gasteropods, Fishes, and 
Amphibia. Among Vertebrates, oxide of iron was found in the 
cells of the alimentary canal, in the liver and Spleen, occasion- 
ally in the kidneys and teeth, and in Proteus it occurr^ throt^h- 
Out the whole skeleton. Among the Invertebrates oxide of iron 
was found to occur in the cells of the liver and intestine, 
in the respiratory organs, the shells and chitinous envelopes. 
The oxide occurred chiefly in tlie protoplasm of the cells, but 
also frequently in the nuclei. It is impossible here to enliuge 
further upon the interesting details of which Dr. Schneider 
supplied an extended scries. 


BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED. 

TheoratUchc Geol^wie : Dr. E. Reyer (E. SchweixerbAchscha).— Pracucal 
besNOiB in the Uw or English : M. F, Hyde (Heath, Bostonjl — 7 he Origin 
uf Floral Structures : Kev, G Heniilow (Kegan Paul).— The Baths and Wells 
ofEuroM, 3rd Edition, revised: J Maraherson (Stanford).— Jahrbuch der 
Naturwlsiienschaften, 1887-B8 : Max Wildcrmann (Herder, Freiburg}.— A 
Manual of General Pathology : J F. Pj^nc (Smith. Elder).— Practical 
iCoology, and edition : Marsbidf and Hurst (Smith, Elder} —Tropical Africa ; 
H. Drummond (Hudder and Stoughton). — A Manual of Practical Aasayinx, 
6th edition : J. Mitchell ; edited ^ W. Crooke« (Longmans). — Hand-book 
for the Stars, ^th edition : H. W. Jeans; revised by W. R. Martin (Long- 
mans).— Desenptions of New Indian l.,ep id apterous Insects from the C^nec- 
tion of the late Mr. W. S. Atkinson ; Part 3. Heteroccra (continued) : F. 
Moore (Calcutta). — Memoirs of the Geolojgiiiil Stirvey of Indi^ Palnonto- 
logia Indtca, *er xiii., Salt Range Kos^i^, vol. i. Part 7 : W. Waagen 
( I rubner). — ficitnigc xur Kenntniss der Nagelfluh der Schweix: Dr. J. J. 
Fnih (Williams and Norgate) —Plotting, or Graphic Mathematics : Ifr. K. 
Wormell (WaterlovO-^Uylomorphism of Tnought— Being Part 1 Theory 
of 'I'hought : Rev, T, Q- Fleming (Willtams and Norgate) —Transactions of 
the SiKiety of >faturahsts of Cracow University, 18B7,— M^molres de In 
Soctdtd dc Physjque et d’Histoire Nattirelle de Centve, tome xxi*. seconde 
partio (Genfcvc) — drain, April (Macmillan). 


CONTENTS. PAOi 

The Polytechnic Institute 73 

The Geographical Distribution of the Family Chara- 

driidfie. By R. Bowdler Sharpe 71 

The Minerals of New South Wales ....... ve 

Our Book Shelf 

Furneaux ; ** Elementary Chemistry ” 76 

Milne : “ Companion to the Weekly Problem Papers 76 

Mukerjec : Elementary Hydrostatics ** 76 

Lock ; Arithmetic for Beginners * 75 

Letters to the Editor 

Weight and Mass, — Rev. John B. Lock 77 

Work and Energy.— Rev. Edward Geoghegan ! ! 77 
On the Reappearance of Pallas’s Sand Grouse {SjfF- 
in Europe.— Dr. A. B. Meyer ; 

Tables of Reciprocals,— V. A. Julius . 77 

On the Veined Structure of the Mueller Glacier. New 

Zealand.— F. W. Hutton 

On the Rainfall and Temperature at Victoria Peakj 

Hong Kong. — Dr. W. C. Doberck ng 

Problem by Vincentio ViWani. {With 

Rev. Edward Geoghegan 7g 

Suggestions on the Classification of the Various 
Species of Heavenly Bodice. VI. iinustmUd) Bv 

J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S ^ *0 

Natural Science in Japan. {lUuHraud) * 81 

The Aurora in Spitebergen. By Dr. H, Hilda' 

brandsson 

Notes ^ ' 

Our Astronomical Column 1-- 

Comet 1888 a (Sawerthal) 

New Minor Planet ! . *' 

Astronomical Phenomena for the Weak 


*5 


May a?— June a 

Qeo^^wHetM 

The Iron and Steel Inetltute 

Seientille SeUaile 

Soeietiea.MUl Acadeaiea 

Bedke, VumpUete, end Seriate Kdee^ 


tSM 


I9 

w 


NA TU RE 


97 


THURSDAY, MAY 31, i888. 


AL-BlRt>Nf. 

India : an Account of the Religioix^ Philosophy ^ 
Literature^ Chronology^ Astronomy^ Customs, Law, and 
Astrology of India about a.d. 1030. Edited in the 
Arabian original by Dr. Edward Sachau. (London: 
Triibner and Co., 1 887.) 

I T lias often been said that India has no history and 
no historians. We look in vain through the ancient 
Sanskrit literature for any Herodotus or Thucydides. 
The very idea of chronicling the events of the day or 
gathering the recollections of the past seems never to have 
entered the Hindu mind, and their ancient chronology 
is hardly more than astronomical mythology. The histo- 
rical growth of Indian literature, religion, and philosophy 
would indeed have remained a perfect riddle but for the 
few glimpses which we are able to catch of the real 
history of the country through other nations which were 
brought in contact with it. These are the Greeks, the 
Chinese, and the Arabs, whose successive accounts run 
like three broad bands of longitude across the ill-dchned ! 
map of ancient India. 

The Greeks do not tell us very much of what they saw 
of India, either before or after Alexander’s invasion. We 
miy indeed gather from Hecataeus (r.c. 549 486) that 
India existed, and that its chief river, the Indus, had a 
name of Sanskrit origin. We know, therefore, that 
Sanskrit was the spoken language of India in the sixth 
century n.C. But even that name had clearly passed 
through Persian channels before it reached Hecaticus, for 
it is only in Persian that the initial s of Sind/us, the river, 
could have been changed into h, and afterwards been 
dropped. Herodotus also mentions some Indian names — 
such as the Gandarii, the Gandhdras of the Veda — which 
clearly show that at his time the peoples and rivers and 
mountains of India had names which find their explanation 
in Sanskrit only. With Alexander’s expedition wc might 
have hoped that the full light of history would have burst 
upon India. But most of the works written by Alexander’s 
companions have been lost, and even the work of 
Megas^nes, who stayed as ambassador at Palimbothra, 
the modern Patna, at the court of King Sandracottus, has 
been preserved to us in fragments only. Still the date of 
Sand:^ottuS| in Sanskrit Chandragupta, has proved the 
sheet-<anchor of ancient Indian chronology, and has once 
for all fixed the date of Chandragupta and of his grandson, 
the great Buddhist monarch Asoka, in the fourth and 
third centuries B C. 

The next witnesses to the actual state of political, 

social, and religious lifb in India are the Chinese. 

Buddhism had been adopted as a third State religion 
in China ra the first century a.ix From that time the 
relight intertoursb between China and India was never 
entir^y interrupted. Buddhist priests travelled from 
India to Chhm, and pious pilgrims went from China to 
Indlh aa the holy land bf ^eir rdigion. Some of these 
have laft very idtl of what they saw 

and: in India# the mon^ important being those by 

iSaijrhH Hiouen-thaang I-tsing 

^*nle# who visHpd India in 964, at the 

ycfc.xxicvm.--Na 9:^ 


head of 300 pilgrims. Most of these travels and diaries 
have been translated into French and English by 
Remusat, Stanislas Julien, Beal, and Legge ; and they 
give us a picture of Indian life during the Middle Ages 
of which we should have had no idea if we had been 
restricted to Indian sources alone. 

More important, however, than the descriptions of 
these Greek and Chinese authors, is the work to which 
we wish to call attention — namely, the account of India 
written by AI-BIrOni in the year 1030 a.d., and now 
published •for the first time by Prof. Sachau, of 
Berlin. Al-Birdni was a native of Khwdnzm, the modern 
Khiva, bom in 973. He had devoted himself to the 
study of astronomy and philosophy, and when Khiva was 
taken by Sultln Mahmfid of Ghazna in 1017, AI-Birfint 
was induced to accompany him to India. The famous 
Avicenna, i.e, Abu Ali Ibn Sina, declined the same 
honour, and remained at home. During the thirteen 
years that Al-BlrCkni spent in India, he devoted him- 
self sedulously to the study of Sanskrit, and Sanskrit 
literature. He does not use the name of Sanskrit, but 
calls the language of India, both literary and vernacular, 
Hindi, Indian ; the fact being that Sanskrit was not 
yet used as a proper name of the ancient literary idiom, 
but only as an epitheton ornans. What progress Al-Btrhni 
made in his studies seems somewhat doubtful. It was 
formerly supposed that he translated not only from Sanskrit 
into Arabic and Persian, but likewise from Arabic and 
Persian into Sanskrit. But Dr. Sachau has clearly proved 
that his knowledge of Sanskrit was far too elementary to 
enalde him to perform such tasks by himself. He shows 
that he depended chiefly on the assistance of* his pandits, 
like many Sanskrit scholars of more recent times, and 
that ail we can assert with safety is that he was able to 
direct and to check their labours. With all that, Al-Blrfini 
was a most exceptional man for his time, a man of wide 
sympathies, a true philosopher, and acute observer. The 
very idea of learning a foreigpi language, except perhaps 
l^ersian and Turkish, never entered the head of a 
Muhammedan. His weapon was the sword, not the 
pen. Al-Bfrfint, however, to quote Pro£ Sachau's 
words, “ convinced that those who want to meet the 
Hindus on the battle-ground of intellectual warfare, and 
to deal with them in the spirit of Justice and equity, must 
first learn all that is peculiar to them in manners and 
customs as well as in their general modes of thought, pro- 
duced a comprehensive description of Indian civilization, 
always struggling to grasp its very essence, and depicting 
it with due lights and shades, as. an impartial spectator.” 
The title of the book tells its own story : “ An accurate 
description of all the categories of Indian thought, as welt 
those which are admissible, as those %vhich must be 
rejected^ 

’ The existence of this work of Al-Birfinl’s has been 
known for many years, and Sanskrit scholars have long 
clamoured for its publication and translation. Their 
appetite was first whetted by the specimens which 
Reinaud published in 1845 in his ** Fragments Arabes et 
Persans relatifs h Tlnde,’' and some years later in his 
invaluable M 4 moire surlTnde” (1849). When Reinaud 
declined to undetiake the editing of the whole text of 
AI-BtrfinPs ** lndica>^ Woepeke and MacGuckih de Slane 
, undertook diiR^ult task. The former, however, died { 

F 



98 


NATURE 


\May 31 , 1888 


the latter began to feel the approach of old age^ and the pro- 
spect of a speedy termination of this important undertaking 
become more and more doubtful, when, in the year 1S72, a 
yofung German scholar, Dn Sachau, boldly stepped into the 
breach, and promised to devote all his time to this great 
enterprise. Aft A fifteen years of hard work he has redeemed 
his pledge. He has given us the Arabic text of Al-Birflni, 
and he is now engaged in printing an English translation' 
of it. We doubt whether anyone could have been found 
so well qualified for the task. Dr. Sachau has long been 
known as a hard-working, honest, and thoroughly sound 
scholar. He stands in the first rank among the students of 
Arabic and Persian, and he possesses, at the same time, a 
fair knowledge of Sanskrit. He is now one of the brightest 
stars in the Univerity of Berlin, and has lately been ap- 
pointed there as Director of the newly-founded Imperial 
School of Oriental Languages. He was well prepared for 
his task by having previously published another work of 
Al-Blruni’s, the text and English translation of “ The 
Chronology of Ancient Oriental Nations.” Few people 
can appreciate the enormous difficulties of publishing for 
the first time an Oriental text like that of Al-BirQnt. Dr. 
Sachau was, no doubt, more fortunate than his predeces- 
sors in securing a manuscript of AI-Birtini’s, belonging 
to M. Schefer, which professes to have been copied from 
a copy in the handwriting of the author. But even thus 
the labour of editing and translating such a text, which 
had never been edited and translated before, was enor- 
mous. When speaking of the difficulties which he had ' 
to overcome in editing Al-Birfini’s chronological work, 
Dr. Sachau writes ; I have boldly attacked the some- 
times rather enigmatic style of the author, and if I have 
missed the mark, if the bewildering variety and multi- 
plicity of the subject-matter have prevented my reaching 
the very bottom of every question, I must do what more 
or less every Oriental author does at the end of his work 
—humbly ask the gentle reader to pardon my error and 
correct it." There is the true ring of the bond fide scholar 
in this. No one is nowadays considered a real Oriental 
scholar who has not won his spurs by an ediiio princeps. 
After a text has once been constituted by a comparison of 
manuscripts more or less faulty ; after a translation has 
once been accomplished, however imperfect, it is easy 
enough to print a new so-called critical edition, or a new 
so-called improved translation. But the scholars who take 
the first, and the scholars who take the second, step 
belong to different races. They differ as Columbus who 
discovered America differs from the traveller who now 
crosses the Atlantic in seven days. Generations of 
scholars," as Dr. Sachau says, “ have toiled to carry the 
understanding of Herodotus to that point where it now 
is, and how much is wanting still ! " To expect, there- 
fore, that Al-Birfinf’stext, as edited here for the first time, 
or its translation, should be free from mistakes would 
only show a complete ignorance of the conditions under 
which Oriental scholars have to work. There may be 
hereafter better editions of Al-Blrfinl ; there never can 
be one so creditable to its author as this eMtio princeps. 
We could have wished that a work of such importance 
to students of Indian history had been carried out by an 
English scholar. But, failing that, we have at least the 
safcbfitction that the expense of publishing the Arabic 
origUHd of the **l&dica" has been geftenmsly defrayed 


by the Indian Government, following in this respect the 
noble example set by the patron of Al-BtrQni himself, the 
powerful Sultdn Mahmfid of Ghazna. 


THE SCIENTIFIC WRITINGS OF JOSEPH 
HENRY. 

The Scieniijic Writings ofi Joseph Henry. Two Vols. 
8vo, pp. 1082. (Washington ; Smithsonian Institution, 
I 1886) 

U NDER the above title, two handsome volumes have 
recently been published by the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, Washington, containing the papers published by 
its late distinguished Secretary in various scientific serials 
through the long period of fifty-four years. It is character- 
istic of the man that, although for thirty-two of those years 
he had almost unrestricted command of the publishing 
resources of that great institution, not one of his papers was 
given to the world through the medium of the “ Smith- 
sonian Contributions ” or ** Miscellaneous Collections," 
or in any way at the expense of its funds. They range 
over a great variety of subjects, chiefiy in electrical 
physics and meteorology, and in date from 1824 to 1878. 

As may be inferred from the earlier of these dates, 
when Faraday was still an assistant to Sir Humphry 
Davy, in the laboratory of the Royal Institution, and 
Henry a private tutor in a family at Albany, New York, 
many of these papers are reprinted for their historical 
interest rather than for their present scientific value j but 
his fellow-countrymen, in acknowledging Faraday^s pre- 
eminence, delight to point out in how many particulars 
Henry w'alked pari passu with him in the then nearly 
untrodden paths of electro-magnetism, under immense 
relative disadvantages. As early as 1835, Henry, then a 
Professor at Princeton, New Jersey, connected his resid- 
ence with his laboratory' in the Philosophic Hall by a 
telegraph, in which the galvanic circuit was completed 
through the earth — probably the first realization of that 
familiar property on which all our telegraph circuits are 
now dependent. It was a little later (in 1842) that he 
showed the writer of this short notice, under promise of 
secrecy, an experiment which at the moment greatly in- 
terested him. A long bar of iron was wrapped in a coil 
or ribbon of copper, half an inch wide ; two copper wires, 
each terminating in a small ball, were soldered to the 
bar. On holding these balls to the ears, and transmitting 
a strong current through the coil, a very distinct musical 
note was heard each time the current was made or broken. 
He narrowly missed forestalling Faraday in the great 
discovery of producing electric currents by the rotation 
of an electro-magnet or movement of its armature. 
Henry caused an electro-magnet of unusual power to be 
constructed in August 1831, with a view to realizing his 
conceptions on this subject. He was at the lime accident- 
ally interrupted in pursuing his experiments, and did not 
resume them until May or June J832; and in the mean* 
time (in February 1832) Faraday had made his tade* 
pendent discovery.^ Ascarly as 1843, Henry proposed 
new method of applying the instantaneous transtnlaaioh 
of an electrical action to determine the time Of the 
passage of a (cannon) ball between two screens, |)lated 


31. 1S8S] 


NATURE 


99 


aA a distance from another in the path of the 
pnjtciiW* and contrived a self-recording apparatus 
reading to the one-thousandth part of a second. As at 
that time Hutton and the ballistic pendulum reigned 
fti^reme — and this is not an e^cperiment easily made in a 
laboraitory— it does not appear that he carried it out 
Perhaps the most elaborate of his numerous researches 
is that on the transmission of sound in relation to fog- 
signaRing, carried on at the expense of the United States 
Lighthouse Board for several years from 1865 onwards, 
concurrently with those on which Prof. Tyndall was at 
that time engaged for the Trinity Board. That these 
distinguished men did not always meet with the same 
effects, or draw the same conclusions from them, is but a 
natural consequence from the extreme complexity of the 
phenomena. 

The great work of Prof. Joseph Henryks life — in which 
his strength and calmness of judgment, his high-minded 
independence and self-effacement, enabled him to achieve 
the highest results — was the organization of the Smith- 
sonian Institution upon its present liberal basis, in the 
face of not a little opposition from persons of more 
contracted views. 

** These I's are and not oculiy* is a line from some 
forgotten squib which he was wont to quote when self- 
interest seemed to obscure the only interest precious to 
him — that of science in its widest scope, and the advance- 
ment of human knowledge. He lived to see the wisdom 
of his policy gratefully acknowledged by his countrymen 
and the scientific world. Although a very fertile inventor, 
and the author of many ingenious contrivances now in 
use to facilitate the working of the electric telegraph, 
he never patented anything. In his own words, he “did 
not consider it compatible with the dignity of science to 
confine the benefits which might be derived from it to 
the exclusive use of any individual. The expression is 
not carefully chosen; it simply means that he declined to 
derive selfish advantage from his discoveries. A very 
brief and modest statement by himself of what these were 
in relation to the electro-magnetic telegraph is reprinted 
in vol. ii. from the Smithsonian Annual Report for 1857. 
In collecting and reprinting these papers, the Institution 
has raised a worthy monument to Henry’s memory, and 
made a valuable contribution to the history of physical 
science. J. H. L. 


AN ELEMENTARY TEXTBOOK OF 
PHYSIOLOGY. 

An BUnuntca^y Text-hoak of Physiology. By J. 
MtGntgor Robertson, M.A., M»B., Senior Assistant 
in the Physiological Department, University of Glas- 
gow. 350 pp. (London : Blackie and Son, 1887.) 

I K compiling this volume the author has sought to 
'^present the essential facts and principles of 
^ysiology, not in a series of disconnected paragraphs, 
bat woven mto a continuous story.** This being so, wc 
look fat a readable book rather than for the more 
entp$rital treatise nowadays predominant ; and the 
ihe Bbe^s of the work must consequently depend, in 
t;he main, upon the manner in which the narrative is 
•tmng together. T^at the book really is a readable 
*One Uiere can be no doubt, and for style and general 


accuracy it is very satisfactory. When we consider 
the method of arrangement adopted, however, wo must 
confess that it is disappointing. The author lays it down 
as a tenet that “we cannot properly understand the physio- 
logy of the human body without reference to the form 
and build, . . . and thus we shall have to note the rnnin 
anatomical facts regarding a part of the body before going 
on to consider the ^work which that part does.” Very 
proper, and true to the letter. In spite of this, however, 
the reader is led straight away into a consideration of 
the chemical constitution of the body as a whole. 
Surely it would be more logical to treat of the constitu- 
tion of the several structural elements in order of presen- 
tation, deferring the more general statements for a final 
rIsumL A similarly dangerous position is approached 
when the writer deals with structure itself. Chapter 11 . is 
devoted to “Elementary Structures,” that is to say, the 
author discusses the structural unit before entering upon 
a consideration of those organs and tissues which are its 
aggregates. This is an old grievance, and all experience 
shows that this method, though at first sight apparently 
natural, is in reality seductive, if not illogical. It is 
fair to the author to state that he does not adopt it 
throughout. In view of it, however, the following state- 
ments are the more unfortunate ; “ cells are little masses 
of a jelly-like material ” ; “ usually the cell has an outer 
covering or membrane, called the cell-watV^ \ “ from little 
nucleated masses of protoplasm cells are produced, and 
then from cells all the other textures of the body arc 
derived.” 

As the work is of a readable character, we expect, 
furthermore, to find comparisons and illustrations drawn 
from the experience of daily life, and in this we are not 
disappointed. Stock comparisons, like that of the human 
body with the steam-engine, come in as a matter of 
course, and in his choice of novel ones the author has 
been very successful. Nothing can, however, be more 
easily overdone than this. If, for example, the human 
eye is compared with the photographer’s camera, care 
ought to be taken to point out in what the two difier, 
especially when considering the lens in accommodation. 
This has not been done. 

Taking the book as a whole, the author is to be con- 
gratulated, and especially so upon his treatment of certain 
leading topics— notably that of diet. By far the weakest 
parts of the work are those devoted to histology. The 
interminable striped muscle question is most feebly treated, 
and who but the author is to know what is meant by 
the words ‘*the nerve-tubes end, it has been seen, in 
the (muscle) fibres”? The description of a secreting 
gland generally given is so worded as to imply that 
the “ basement membrane ” is a leading, if not the 
chief, constituent thereof. These and other defects re- 
ferred to in the sequel demand immediate attention, and 
we would fain sec the elimination of such old heresies as 
the capillary or “ hair-like vessel ” and the transmission 
of “messages” along the nerve-fibre. There would 
appear to be a fatality in the persistency with which 
teachers of a certain class continue to thrust these and 
similar stumbling-blocks in the way. 

This volume Oojifessedly designed for the “ require- 
ments of candidates for the examinations of the Science 
and Art Department and of the Local Examination 


100 


NATURE 




Boards of the Universities/' and the syllabus of the first* 
named body is appended to it. The book thus finds 
a place among the legion of cram-books which now 
threaten to overwhelm us. The majority of these are, 
as everybody knows, notoriously bad, and readers of 
Nature will not need to be reminded that strong 
measures are being proposed for the purpose of checking 
the evil consequent upon their jnultiplication, and 
that of elementary text^books in general. Conspicu- 
ous among these is the recent proposal to establish 
a Publication Committee, whose members shall sit in 
judgment on all text-books, with power to suppress or 
modify at will. With this suggestion we have no 
sympathy ; it is unscientific in principle, while its adop- 
tion would tend towards the establishment of a con- 
servatism and narrow cliquism greatly to be dreaded. 
The introduction of such a measure would, in our opinion, 
only serve to strengthen that spirit of popery which 
threatens to invade certain branches of science in our 
own lands. The evil will assuredly work its own end, 
and, so far as professed cram-books are concerned, the 
publication of works of such relatively general excellence 
as the one before us cannot fail to be a far more potent 
remedy — a more natural one it most certainly is. 

Chief among the defects referred to above, as standing 
in' need of revision, are the following. Too little import- 
ance is throughout attached to the sources and evolution 
of heat in the animal economy ; the parts played by the 
muscles and liver need especial comment, and we note 
that in the table of gains and losses given no count is 
taken thereof. The functional importance of the dia- 
phragm in the mechanism of respiration is over-stated ; 
on the other hand, that of the withdrawal of water by the 
kidney is under-stated as a fundamental of excretion. 
The distribution and function of glycogen are insufficiently 
noted. The references to non-nucleated cells (p, 26), and 
to the comparative anatomy of the central nervous system, 
might well be excised ; while the long rhumk (pp. 255-58) 
of brain functions given mightbe advantageously replaced 
by a more concise description of the actual facts deter- 
minable in a typical case. The relegation (p. 48) of the 
sutures of the cranial bones to the category of “ imperfect 
joints'' is groundless. 

Numerous illustrations are employed, and of these 
many are new and highly satisfactory. Figs. 42, 45, 80, 
and 1 18, are, however, little short of useless. It is a fact, 
and not a “ view;' that the life of the body is the sum of 
the lives of the individual cells composing it," and it cannot 
be said that with the study of the anatomy of the lungs 
we begin our *^view'* of the means of purification of the 
blood. 


OUR BOOK SHELF. 


Evolution and its Relation to Relij^ous Thought. By 
Joseph Le Conte, Professor of Geology and Natural 
History in the University of California. (New York ; 
D. Appleton ; London : Chapman and Hall, 18B8,) 


The title of this book is somewhat misleading. The work 
is in efibet a concise account of evolution and its princizMd 
evidences^ contained in 353 pages, supplemented Ba 
pages givinfr the authors views on the relation of evoSntion 
to matttiaitsm, which he rejects, and to several selifinus 


questions, of which we can only say in these coKmios 
tnat they are dealt with in a candid spirit, on the basis 
ihat the law of evolution is thoroughly established, and is ^ 
indeed “ a necessary condition of rational thought/' The 
exposition of evolution is well -planned, the main problems 
and their significance and the modes of proof being dearly 
and simply set out. so that the general reader with a 
modicum of knowledge of natural history may realize them 
to a considerable extent These chapters are illustrated 
by a number of well-selected comparative figures, such as 
the fore and hind limb of typical vertebrates, the 
evolution of the horse family, and the vascular sptem and 
brain of vertebrates. Prof. Le Conte cordially accepts 
Mr. Romanes's “physiological selection" as the most 
important advance in the theory of evolution since 
Darwin ; and it is significant that this new view should 
have already found a place in a popular work written by a 
man of science. It is, however, a little hazardous to 
apply with so much confidence a theory still requiring 
proof ; and this appears to lead the author to put forward 
a still less proven idea, not new it is true, that the steps of 
evolution at certain times become comparatively rapid, so 
that there may be few generations, or perhaps only 
one, between successive species. Some of the author's 
statements are undesirably broad, as when he says, “ All 
vertebrates, and none other, have a number of their 
anterior vertebral joints enlarged and consolidated into a 
box to form the skull, in order to inclose and protect a 
similar enlargement of the nervous centre, viz. the brain." 
Of course the author is excluding Amphioxus, but he docs 
not say so. Similarly the statement that “ by extensive 
comparison in the taxonomic and ontogenic series the 
whole vertebrate structure in all its details in different 
animals may be shown to be modifications one of another ” 
is a little vague. Hut on the whole the book is sufficiently 
accurate, and should prove useful. 


Outlines of Qualitative A naif sis. By George W. Slatter, 

Science Master at the Salt Schools, Sbipley. (London ; 

Thomas Murby, 1888.) 

This further addition to the already large number of 
books on elementary analysis is compiled from the 
author’s laboratory notes issued to his students in the 
Salt Schools. Most teachers appear to have a few par- 
ticular methods of their own, and the custom of writing 
a book to embody them seems to be fast gaining ground! 
With the matter of Mr. Slatter’s book one can find very 
little fault ; but at the same time, except for the use of his 
own students, one can scarcely see any reason why another 
book should be presented to the public, when all the facts, 
in a much more complete form, are already given in most 
of the larger laboratory guides now in vogue. 

'I he majority of the methods recommended are cer- 
tainly well-tried and convenient ones ; and a very good 
point is the trouble taken in explaining the theory of the 
analysis tables. Exception, however, maybe taken to 
Mr. Slatter's mode of separating antimony and tin by use 
of Marsh's apparatus : while theoretically MdA, experi- 
ence shows that accidents are liable to ha«ML and 
is especially the case among young studen®S^Jce the 
platinum and zinc electrolytic is 

preferred. The author seems also tahave a {iMilidiion 
for the use of nitro-hydrochloric acid in ^e 

sulphides of nickel and cobalt in Group IiL| whUe^i^ 
can be no doubt that potassium chlorate and hydrt^h^ 
acid work far better, there being no danger of iakeiAa 
nitrates in the solution. * , ^ * 

The method of analyzing phosphates U one Wo 
very wH, and is nnbbably the best known. I 

analysis of double cyanides by ignU% With 
nitrate and sulphate is the one 38 h in 
if botk £e limptost aod 


NATURE 


18883 


lor 


Tk^ Jjmd of thi Pink Pearl. By L. D. Powles. (London : 
Sampsoti Low, 1888.) 

Mil Powles served for some time as a circuit justice in 
(he Bahama Islands, and in the present volume he com- 
ntunicates the impressions produced upon him both by 
the islands themselves and by their inhabitants. He 
makes no profession of an intimate knowledge of any 
branch of science, so that the work contains few elements 
of interest that call here for special notice. We may 
say, however, that the book is written in a lively and 
agreeable stvle, and that the author has brought together 
much useful general information about what he calls 
** this obscure comer of Her Majesty*s dominions.” The 
most valuable passages are those in which he deals with 
the relations between the white and the coloured popula- 
tion. His statements on this subject are certainly not 
lacking in vigour, for he speaks of the African race in 
the Bahamas as being ground down and oppressed in a 
manner which is a disgrace to British rule.” When Mr. 
Powles went to the Bahamas, he had an impression that 
negroes were ‘Mntended by Nature to be kept in subjec- 
tion by the whites.” Experience, however, led him to 
modify this extravagant notion. Refening to the state- 
ment, so often made, that “it is impossible to produce 
anything by free negro labour,” he sensibly suggests that 
“perhaps if the Imperial Government would establish an 
a^icultural college and give the coloured race in the 
Bahamas a fair chance, wc might see a different state of 
things,” The physical deterioration of the coloured 
people is, he thinks, sufficiently accounted for by their 
wretched food and by the unhealthy nature of the places 
in which they are compelled to live. Curiously enough, 
Africans in the Bahamas retain their original tribal 
distinctions ; and Mr. Powles says that every August 
some tribes elect a queen whose will on certain matters 
is accepted as law. 

A Treatise on Alcohol^ with Tables of Spirit- Gravities, 
By Thomas Stevenson, M.D. Second Edition. (Lon- 
don ; Gurney and Jackson, 1888.) 

The present edition of this useful little work, originally 
published under the title of “ Spirit- Gravities,” contains 
a critical account of the various determinations of the 
specific gravity of alcohol, and introduces the most recent 
investigations — those of Messrs. Squibb — on this subject. 
These Investigations do not, however, affect the accuracy 
of the akoholometric tables, which are therefore reprinted 
unchanged. 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

{The Editor does not hold himself respomUle for opinions 
ex^essed ip his correspondents. Neither can he under- 
take to retumt or to correspond with the writers of 
rejeeted manuscripts intendsd for this or any other part 
of Natuke. Ho notice is taken of anonymous communi- 
cations.] 


The Dispersal of Seeds by Birds. 

It should be borne in mind by readers of Nature in variou 
pai^ of the world that many facts bearing on this matter may b 
eoUected with very little trouble. At Mr, Thiselton Dyer’ 
wgg^tion I take this Opnortonity of supplementing my letter t( 
Hemaley (Nature, voI. xxxvHL o. 40). 

TheAigate-bIrdB, petreU, gannets, boobies, w,, that frequen 
in nmbexs the guano islands tff.the Paciftc, will present oppor 
tunkies of invesugating this subject rarely found elsewhere. No 
ooly the cro^, but also the feathers and mt shoidd be examined 
jmee f^s have been sometimes found adhering to sea-birds ths 
haiw been Sitthig m broken eggs. The Industries connecter 
vto ocean- rmtgl^ tnatton-um in Ibasa's Straits, and witl 
Amerlta/ttiay’ aflford other opportunities 
TWfSpHMher ift the Soatbsra Ocean, and the sportsman o: 
; .eom iOMceoorsl the voyager the Cape, and tb 


lighthouse- keeper in southern dimes, these and many others 
ought take a practical interest in this subject. It is important 
that not only should the seeds and fruits be preserved and sent 
to Kew, but that the species of bird should be known ; and for 
this purpose, where there is any doubt, the wing or head of the 
bird might also sent. H. B. Guppy. 

May zy. 


Nose -Blackening as Preventive of Snow-Blindness. 

As a partial answer to Prof. Ray Lankester*! inquiry on 
nose-blackening as preventive of snpw-blindness, may I offer 
some obsenmtions which I have made in my many wanaerings in 
the higher Alps in early summer, when I have necessarily had 
much experience of the effects of snow on the human body ? 

But hrst 1 should like to draw attention to a letter of the Hon. 
Ralph Abercromby in Nature (voI, xxxiii. p. 559), which he was 
kind enong h to send me, relating some experiences on nose and 
face blackening in Morocco to prevent sand glare, in Fiji to 
prevent water glare, and in Sikkim to prevent snow glare. It 
was very curious that the Fijians, who onlinarily painted their 
faces white and red for ornament, would, before going fishing on 
the reefs in the full glare of (he sun, blacken them. Mr. A^r- 
cromby draws attention very naturally to the strange anomaly of 
physiological experience apparently contradicting the teachings of 
pure physics. Charcoal black, which is used in physical experi- 
ments as the best absorbent of every kind of heat radiation, is 
practically used by three races at least, to protect one of the most 
sensitive human or^ns from reflected light and heat.” 

Experience has, 1 think, sufficiently shown that snow-blindness 
and snow -burn, or sunburn on snow, own the same causes for 
their production ; and, as nowadays both guides and climbers in 
the Alps invariably take the precaution of protecting their eyes 
with coloured spectacles, snow- blindness is rarely heard of. 
My observations are almost entirely conflned to the causes of 
sunburn. 

It will, I think, he readily conceded by Alpine climbers that 
sun on the snow burns more quickly than on rocks or in the heated 
valleys at a lower elevation. This increased power of bomiog 
appears somewhat singular when one reflects that the heat rays 
must be occupied in the melting of the snow, and thus rendered 
latent. 

Iron-workers, glass-workers, and others are constantly exposed 
to a heat of 400'' or 500* F., and yet do not become burnt ; and 
there can be little doubt that the enormous radiation from heated 
rocks and valleys, in addition to the direct rays of the sun, make 
up an amount of heat far greater than is ever experienced on even 
a very sunny snow slope, and yet one does not become sunburnt. 
Nodmbt the surface of the snow reflects and disperses much 
heal, but certainly far less than it receives, ns heat rays are ab- 
sorbed and rendered latent by the snow- melting and evaporation. 
Experience fully corroborates this, for one may often lie on one’s 
back and freely expose the face for Ipng periods to the sun and 
yet remain unburnt. There must therefore be some other factor 
in sunburn than heat alone. 

In discussing the subject with Prof, Tyndall, he added the 
very interesting and significant fact that he was never more burnt 
on snow than whilst experimenting with the electric light at the 
North Foreland Lighthouse, where there was no beat sufficient 
I to produce such an effect. 

1 am aware that sometimes, in peculiar conditions oftfie atmo- 
sphere, the direct sun's rays will burn, I have met with some 
singular instances where several persons have been burnt on the 
same day, even in England, who had never previously suffered in 
that way. 1 am further aware that sometimes (not always) in a 
dead calm on a ship's deck one may be severely burnt, and that 
in boating on a river the same may occasionally happen. Masks 
and veils nave been long used as a protection on snow, and are 
more or less successful ; drown veils and glasses in my experience 
being the most efficient. As hearing upon this, I may mention 
that a friend of mine after on ascent on snow had an enormously 

often face, and I observed that in the general swelling there 
were many pits or depressions, and that cadi pit corre^nded to 
a freckle f the irritating rays had been intercepted by tne brown 
colour of the freckle. About the same time, I encountered a 
paragraph in the Lancet, saying that a German samnt had been 
experimenting on the ef^ts ol sunlight on the retina, and'had 
found that it nad destrOTed the visual purple of the retina, but 
that the action was modmedby transmitting the sun’s rays through 
various coloured glasses^ and that when transmitted through 



X02 


NATURE 


[Afay 31, iS$8 


br0wn glass tht parple of the retina was uncbang^. I haye 
never taeen any corroboration of these assertions, but thejr arc 
worthy of farther consideration. Stimulated by these observation*^, 
1 painted my face brown with water-colour, and spent many 
hours on the snow of the Gorner Grat on the same day that 
about eighty out of a hundred people who were staying at the 
Riffel Alp v^ent up to witness the first ascent of the season of 
Monte Rosa. In the evening everyone except myself and my 
daughter, who had carefully protected herself with a brown veil, 
was more or less severely sunburnt, whilst the remaining visitors, 
who had spent the day on the rocks and mountain- skies in the 
fall sun, were untouched. Connected with this is the fact that 
vUitors to the Engadine in winter become extremely brown, as 
though coloured by walnut -juice, whilst in summer, unless they 
go on the snow, this is not so, although of course the heat is 
greater. 1 have been there in winter and summer, and have had 
many opportunities of confirming this observation. Then again 
tljc very Wown colour of the chdUts is only to be seen at high 
altitudes where snow is, and even those parts of tfac cMUts 
which by their position cannot receive rays reflected from snow 
do not become brown. And over the doors of these brown 
chdlHs in which the cows are kept the wood is invariably white 
and colourless just at that part which would always have, steam- 
ing up. Che warm moist breath of the cows, and by this moisture 
the reflected rays would be intercepted. I think that all the-'C 
observations bear upon and are related to the question raised by 
Prof. Ray Lankester. 

1 have made many other experiments and observations, but 
fur brevity's sake I omit them, as I think 1 have said enough 
to show that the subject is a large one, and worthy of con- 
sideration. In Q comment on Mr. Abercromby's letter above- 
mentioned, Petrie says, ** We should not look at the surface skin, 
ahich is constructed to bear local variations of temperature, &c., 
but at the delicate tissues l>eneath. White skin/’ be adds, is 
translucent, but black stops out solar energy.” It is possible 
that sunlight reflected from snow may have an influence in pro- 
ducing the improved health of consumptives who remain in the 
Engadine in winter, and Mr. Abcrcromhy reminds me that the 
quality of heat which causes snow -burnt is not that which causes 
sun«stroke. Sun-stroke is very rare (if known at all) on mount- 
ains. Equatorial countries— Ceylon, Borneo, West Indies, &c.— 
arc not the worst for sun -stroke ; but sub-tropical and semi-tropical 
dry countries, such as Scinde, Norlh-Wesl Bengal, United States, 
luly, &c. 

He also says that photography is much slower in equatorial 
than in these latter countries. The cause undoubtedly is the 
absorption of violet and ultra-violet rays by water vapour, which 
u kt excess i>ear the Line. Photography is rapid— except for blue 
sky — at high altitudes. Robert L, Bowles. 

Folkestone, May 2j. 


stretching across the sky” have been due to sunlight reflected 
from the meteoric matter lying outside of the earth^s attnosptere ? 
Such a spurious xodiacal Hght does not dei^nd our actual 
ing into the meteoric stream producing it, but should w 
ol^rvable whenever sarb a stream exists between m and w 
sun, its apparent brekdth varying with its actual breadth and its 
proximity to the earth. 

On p. 85 of the same volume is a diagram of the Blala 



meteor-path showing its relation to the earth’s orbit and to the tttn. 
From this, reprinted above, it is evident that the meteors should dis- 
play a spurious zodiacal light at the time named, and onto that of 
the winter solstice, and later. In vol. xi. of NATURE, p. 115, 
reference is made to a letter from Mr. Hind, dated December 7, 
1874, in which he points out “ that the zodiacal light has been 
conspicuous for the last few evenings ; and for several years past 
this phenomenon has been much more marked in December and 
January than about the vernal equinox.” 

The pages of Nature and those of some of the older volumes 
of the GentUman^s Magazine contain many records of mysterious 
streaks and bands and ** pillars” of light seen after sunset, 
variously ascribed to zodiacal light, to aurora borealis, celestial 
phosphorescence, &c. If 1 am right in assigning the spurious 
zodiacal light of the period above named to the Bicia meteors, 
careful olwervalions of such celestial luminosity in relation to 
other well-known meteor-streams may be very fnii ful. 

The Grange, Neasden. W. Mattieu Williams, 


Mysterious Sky Eights. 

On turning over some back volumes of Nature in search of 
information concerning the spectrum of the zodiacal light, I 
have discovered something which appears to be interesting and 
suggestive, viz. several communications describing what the 
writers supposed to be abnormal displays of the zodiacal Hght, 
displays occurring at the wrong time, i,e» near to the periods of 
the solstices instead of those of the equinoxes, and displays 
having the wrong shape, lacking the conical outline, but never- 
theless nearly in the right place. The most interesting of these 
letters arc from Mr. Maxwell Hall, and dated from Jamaica. 
He was so much exercised by the heterodoxy of the appearances 
he obacFved that he suggested a new theory, and illustrated it by 
a diagram on p. 204 of vol. vii. 

He says in this letter that *'for several nights lately the 
aodiacal U^ht has been exceedingly bright and well-defined, and 
Mwrr parhtmiarfy on the nights of Hovembtr 24 and 27 ; on the 
•refiing of the 24th 1 found an explanation of what had often 
|»ende«od me before, viz. the existence of a faint, isolated band 
nf li|[ht across the zenith, but as soon as it vras dark in the 
ewttJBg, the zodiacal light was distinctly seen to streUh aci-oss’' 
tht whmi sfyt fiormiug that faint ^nd of Hght previously ob- 
served ; I then began to note its position, 6ut the Aest ohjervatioMs 
were made on the night of the 2^th, when it was most distinet** 

The italics in the above are n^c. The dates given, November 
44 and #7r >^7^1 those of the remarkable meteoric shower 
supposed to be cooneeted with the lost comet, Biela. The 
grii^st display was on the aytfa. May not the lomiobsity 


Curious Apparent Motion of the Moon seen in 
Australia. 

Can any of your readers explain the phenomenon described in 
the following extract from a letter received from my daughter 
residing in Maryborough, Queensland, Australia 

** We ?aw such a curious phenomenon on Sunday night, about 

10.30. Miss C ,.Miss M , and 1 were silting in the balcony, 

when we noticed the moon apl^rently dancing up and drum. It 
is on the wane, so looked so extraordinary. The motion was 
visible only when she was behind a narrow stratum of cloud, 
and continued at intervals for thirty minutes. I felt quite sea- 
sick with watching it, and Miss H. was so frightened ; she thought 
there might be an earthquake coming, so went to lied in her 
clothes to Ije ready foi an emergency. Our house would soOQ 
fall in an earthquake, its walls are thin, and no cellars.” 

1 presume the phenomepon is connected with the varying 
frangibility of the atmosphere, perhaps arising from the umvIw 
of hot and cold air ; but should be, glad of further infomnatioau 

T, Mellard K«at>g, 

Park Comer, Blundellsands, May 27. 


Another Specimen of Lepidosiren paradoeea. 

It may interest some gf your readers to know Umt I 
lately r^ved anotbor speciiwen of this rare flrii iiromtny ftlewd 
Dr. J. Barbosa Rodrigue*, the ooeigeiic Ditector the Mu*#u 
Botimicodo Amasonas at Manios. This is the Mth apethm 
ktiowiL A short notiwofthefourdispMimen« aa adidt ieipalaof 
large aiae, caught the Igmpddo AterroiiewMiuriMStetso pfe- 


May 1888 ] 


NATURE 


103 


MSted to lafi bf Dr. Barbosa Rodri^ez, appeared in Natcthe 
mrore tbin a ^ar ago (vol. xxxv. p. 343). Dr. Rodriguez pub- 
liibed a note on that specimen in the J^rnal do Commn'cio of 
Rio ifte Janeiro for October 15^ t886. I state this as his note 
ndi^t eaailjr be overlooked, not having appeared in a scientiAc 
p^odical. 

The last specimen received was caught at Autaz near the 
Madeira River in September 1887 ; it came, Dr. Rodriguez 
writes, ftom a mud-pool, whence it issued forth wriggling on the 
mud during rain-storms. My friend received it dead and in a 
state of inapient decomposition ; he did all he could to insure 
iU preservatjon, but when it reached me all I could save was 
the skeleton and portions of the skin and tougher muscles. 
These I have put in strong alcohol for future study. This 
specimen is considerably smaller than the one previously 
received, being, as far as I can judge, about om. 400 millim. in 
length. 

At Autaz this fish is called Trayra ooia^ or Turtun boia ; the 
latter name is onomatopoeic for 'I'urunt^ which expres.ses the grunt 
made by the fish, and hoia means snake." On tne Rio Mahu, an 
affluent of the Rio Branco, Dr. Rodriguez tells me that the name 
of this fish in the Makuchy dialect is Arani 6 . 

Hknry II. Gigltom, 

Royal Zoological Museum, Florence, May 22. 


Dreams. 


In the yearn of our Lord i6oi and uppon ye 14 day of May 
beinge ihursday ther was great thundrin^e and lightninge and 
ye fyer descencUnge from heaven kindled in a white-thorne bush 
growinge neere to a mudd-wall in Brook-street westward from 
Thomas Wake his house, It burned and consumed ye bush and 
tooke into ye wall about on ^eard then by milke brought in 
tyme it was quenched and it did noe more' hurt. 

Tohn Cyprian Rust, 

The Vicarage, Soham, Cambridgeshire, May 23. 


The Renewed Irruption of Syrrhajda, 

Mr. SclaVer having requested me to contidbute to The Ibis 
an account of the present visitation of Syrrhapte% similar to that 
which I compiled for that journal in 1S64, I would ask for in- 
formation on the subject to be sent to me, and especially cuttings 
from foreign newspapers, the name of the publication and the 
date being always indicated thereon. I must add that I do trust my 
task will not be the unpleasant one of merely recanting senseless 
slaughter. In 1863 the species bred both in Denmark and m 
Holland. There is no reason why it should not, if unmolested, 
breed this year in many parts of Britain. The visitations of 
1872 and 1876 were of insignificant proportions, but that of the 
present year would seem to be of considerable magnitude, and 
sanguine hopes might be entertained ns to the result if the 
malign inlliience of the “ collector ” could be neutralized or 
withstood. Al.FREn Newton. 


Mr. R. L, Stevknso.v, in his ‘‘Chapter on Dreams” in 
Scribner's Magazine for January last, brings forward one difficult 
point that must have puzzled many dreamers besides himself. 
The point is that the dreamer is often in the position of an 
ignorant onlooker, who, only when the plot or story is complete, 
sees the drift and motive of the different incidents that hav:* been 
enacted before his eyes by what Mr. Stevenson calls “the Little 
People who manage man’s internal theatre.’’ 

Perhaps it is one step further on in the puzzle to have the 
interpretation only vouchsafed to one after awaking ; and the 
following example may be of some interest. 

Much of my dreaming goes on in the form of reading ; and it 
once happened to me to awake while looking at the outside of a 
pamphlet I dreamt I was holding. T saw it vividly enough 
before me ; it had a mud-coloured cover, and the title was 
printed on it in plain Roman capitals : “ Tood, or the astrology 
of every day/* “But this is nonsense,” I thought ; until, still 
having a vivid view of the title before me. I observed that the 
rough brown paper had been nibbed up after the word “ the,” 
and that there was a wide gap between it and the “astrology.** 
Evidently a letter was missing, and I at once conjectured that 
the word had been printed “ gastrology. ” But this I did not 
arrive at till I was wide awake. 

I come back to Mr. Stevenson’s query, “ Who are the TJttle 
People?” and how comes their amazing independence of their 
enployers ? E. H. 


Strange Rise of Wells in Rainless Season. 

A HOUSE near Fareham, standing in its own grounds, is 
principally supplied with water by two wells, about 16 feet deep. 
They are usually quite full in winter, and gradually empty before 
autumn. Owing to the small amount of rain last winter, the 
beginning of March found the wells with only 3 feet and 2 feet 
of water respectively i when, after a continuance of north-east 
wind, without rain^ but with half a gale blowing, the water in 
tbwe wells rose 14 feet and is feet. 

Can 3^ or any of your readers explain this mystery ? There 
is n tradition In the neighbourhood that it is customs^ with the 
wells in the district to n»e with a heavy gale even without rain ; 
and a similar phenomenon has been observed before by my 
informant E. H. 

May aj. 


Milk w. Lightning. 

In ^in P^a’s letter published in Nature (vol. xxxv 
^ S| 3 )* the Sudan Arabs are said to have a superstiti' 
fire kindled by a dash of Ikhtniivg cannot be extinguish 
^ mUkHm been pouted upon it. 

wUef seems to have eafoted formerly in this count! 
^.^iett register-book of this par^ oontains the folfowii 


Magdalene College, Cambridge, May 27. 


“ The Shell-Collector'a Hand book for the Field.*’ 

As your reviewer (Nature, May 17, p. 51) has shown that the 
little book which hears the above title is certainly worth a laige 
share of “ powder and shot,*’ I may, in all fairness, he allowed 
to reply to those strictures made by him which are the most unfair, 
and which I consider warrant a reply from me. In the first place, 
it is quite apparent that he has never used the “Authenticated 
British List ’ published by the Conchological Society, where he 
would have found Ciausiiia parvnfa^ C. so/ida^ and Zonites 
drapanmldi excluded, doubtless, on reliable authority ; while 
Bnlimu^ Goodallii^ Vertigo iumida^ and Planorhis dilatatus are 
included, also, doubtless, on reliable authority, as recognized 
members of the British fauna, even if they be “casuaU.” He 
has also, it is quite apparent, never read Prof. Macalister’.s 
“Introduction to Animal Morphology," where he will find it 
stated on p. 286 that “the operculum has always more conchiolin 
in its composition than the shell whose mouth it closes.’’ He 
does not know, it is also quite apparent, that Pisidium and 
Sphocrium nre British fresh-water mussels, and siphonated British 
fresh-water mussels too, there being one siphon mthe former and 
two in the latter genus (cp. the description of these genera in 
Westerlund’s “Fauna of Sweden and Denmark”). He can 
scarcely know that theepiphragm has been called by some authors 
(as instance Macalister) the clausilium ; and although recognizing 
this on p. 5 of my “ Hand-book,” 1 have described in a footnote 
to the genus Clausilium (p. 44) the only structure which we 
recognize to-day under that name. He does not know, it is 
evident, that Prof. Milnes Marshall (“ Practical Zoology,” p. 106) 
states that “the perioptracum or outer layer is homy and 
uncaldfied. To it the colour of the shell is due,” and that “ the 
middle layer” “is dcn.sely calcified, and has an opaque 
porcellanous appearance.” And he scarcely knows that in 
Huxley and Martin’s “Course of Elementary Instruction in 
Practical Biology,” p. 274, the aperture of the shell is spoken of 
as the periiretne and not as the perisiotnty and that in the majority 
of works on comparative anatomy it is also solely mentioned 
under that name. I think it also my duty to tell yiur reviewer 
that the teeth- formulce were not copUd from Lankester, as he 
supposes, but from Woodward, and that upon comparison I find 
the copy correct (cp. Jeffrey Bell, "Comparative Anatomy and 
Physiology,” p. 136), 

In the second place, with regard to those other strictures 
which I can charaoterhee by no other name than men whims. 
It 1 $ a mere whim, for instance, to consider Anodonta anatina as 
a variety of A. cygnea^ since such has never yet been generally 
recognised. It » a mere whim to believe that Achatina acicula 
should be OmeilUmelkt ucimh ; Bulimm acuius should be Helix 
{Co€hUteiieP\ mmta; Zonites should be Hyaiinia^'* and I had 
rather veomln with my old system of nomenclature than get so 


104 


NATURE 


\May 31, 1S88 


inextricably entangled in the ^medley of new systems made by 
Continents workers^ all of which systems differ the one from 
the other as ** chalk from cheese/’ It is a mere whim to imagine 
that chapten on ** The Anatomy of a Snail ” and ** The Anatomy 
of a Fresh-water Massel ” should have been excluded since the 
basis of systematic zoology is anatomy. And it is a mere whim 
to cavil at the inclusion of the vara, minor ^ maxim », and ** albida^ ” 
Uxalbida^ if you please, Mr, Reviewer, for so was it named by 
Menke), andthe mDnstrosity of Hdix aspersa^ since 

Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys and Moquin-Tandon have named varieties and 
userl variety -names, and since Prof. £. von Martens, than whom 
no better conchologist, expressly mentions that *‘it is certainly 
desirable that every local form, well-marked zoolsjgically or 
geographically, should have a distinct name.” And may I turn 
a reviewer on my own book, and ask myself how it is that I did 
not, as your reviewer desires, give the localities for every 
species, and make the book costly, and, by sq doing, take 
it away from the reach of the poorer classes? Why also did I 
not give the definite localities f^or'the now local species, when I 
considered rightly that some of them may turn up in other, and, 
perhaps, far distant spots to those now known ? In conclusion, 
I would point out to your reviewer— for I must not occupy your 
valuable space to any greater extent — tliat as there is a virtue in 
the every-day affairs of this our mundane life which, to c^uotc 
Seneca, is *‘thc only immortal thing that belongs to mortality,” 
so, as certainly, is there a virtue in right reviewing which is quite 
as exacting and quite as important to alwayi» bear in one’s 
remembrance. J. W, Williams. 

51 Park Village East, N.W. 


In reviewing I)r. Williams’s little book, I wished not merely 
to. point out the author's mistakes, but to guard young concho- 
logists, to whom the book is addressed, from placing too great 
reliance on the statements it contains. 

I felt also convinced that the author was not practically con- 
versant with his subject ; indeed, that his knowledge was purely 
derivative, and this the foregoing letter fully confirms. 

I will not occupy space with a detailed criticism on the author’s 
method of compilation, but will simply refer to a single instance, 
quoted to show his want of care in referring to the original 
sources of information, so needful in such a task. The method 
of numeration of the tooth -f yrmula, referred to by me as incorrect 
at p. 7 of the ** Hand-book,” is now justified by the author, 
who quotes Woodward as his authonty ; but upon referring 
to my brother’s ‘‘Manual” I find that my statement was 
fully justified by the fact that the quotation is not cotrect^ 
it having been taken by Dr. Williams from Prof. Jeffrey Bell’s 
“ Comparative Anatomy,” where my brother's name is given as 
the authority for the instances quoted, and not for the whole 
paragraph to which it is appended, and which does not appear 
in his book. To the second part of Dr. Williams’s •whimsical 
letter I feel sure it is needless to reply, 

Hbnry Woodward. 

129 Beaufort Street, S.W., May 28. 


Freaks of Nature. 

I INCLOSE a letter from my grandson Charles, a boy, son of 
Sl Vincent Erskine, the explorer, with whose travels you arc 
probably acquainted. 

This singular instance of a change in the habits of birds, 
consequent on the advance of civilization, is extremely important 
and interesting, ns it evinces almost reasoning powers and 
adaptation of habits to circumitances. As you are aware, some 
birds in South Africa build their nests on the pendant boughs 
of willow-trees as a defenoe against snakes and iguanas. 

These willows, like other trees in Natal, are rapidly becoming 
scarcer, as they are cut down, whilst the who take the nests 
increase. This is, no doubt, the cause of the birds changing 
their nests to the telegraph-wires, where they are also safer from 
their natural enemies. 

It would lie interesting to know whether similar instances 
Occur elsewhere, D. Erskine. 

47 Gratlon Road, Kensington, May 25. 

P.S.— It is remarkable also that the hole is at the side instead 
of the bottom, showing that the bird was aware that the situation 
was snakei>roor. Darwin would have been glad of this proof 
of evolution. 


While watching the landscape of Natal between Ladysmhfh 
and Pietermaritzburg .from a Natal Government Railway 
carriage, I saw some nests of the /'golden weaver ” bird. There 
were four of them hanging in a row, close together. They were 
the round kind, without the long arm. On one of the n^s sot 
a cock weaver bird, but I saw no hens. 

The nests seemed to be one or two years old, except on<» 
which was greener than the others, and most certainly one of 
this season’s. The chief peculiarity seemed to lie in the fact 
that the birds had woven ^ass round the wire for some six or 
eight inches, and two or three inches in circumference, before 
beginning to make the nest, and that the bird had to deal with 
a horizontal wire instead of a vertical stick or a branch. The 
bird always twists the grass round the branch (if he builds on a 
vertical twig) for some way up among the leaves and stalks, 
leaving the long ends free, thus forming his foundation. Weavers 
prefer to build on trees where the long slender twigs droop to- 
wards the ground, and so aObrd a nice vertical slender support. 
They arc especially fond of rhe wee ping -willow, whose slender 
switches generally branch off into two small shoots at the end ; 
between these the bird loves to build his nest. Besides, the 
willow b^s lots of leaves very near together, and so holds the 
straws very well. On the wire he had no such support, but had 
to trust to his own ingenuity to overcome the novel situation, 
which task he seems to have accomplislied very well. 

The entrance to these nests was not at the Ijoltom, as usual, 
but by a hole in the side, and all the nests did not look the same 
way. 

I suppose there was only one nest a season or two ago, with 
a single pair of birds ; soon we shall liave a long .string, or 
rather wire, of these ingeniously built homes with their happy 
quarrelsome occupants, making enough noise to stop all the 
messages ever sent that way. They will hear all the " Govern- 
ment ” secrets : then we will be able to say truly, "A little bird 
told me.” C. H. Erskine, 


WHIRLWINDS, WATERSPOUTS, STORMS, 
AND ROTATING SPHERES,^ 

T T is often necessary, in many branches of science, to 
* halt in our steady progress along the beaten roads of 
induction, and say, Fiat experimentum*^ We may not 
always be able by this means to reproduce exactly all the 
physical conditions of the phenomenon, we are investigat- 
ing, or to evolve a test crucial enough to enable us to decide 
between rival hypotheses. Nevertheless, the power we 
thus gain, especially in the case of an atmospheric pheno- 
menon, of seeing the entire system of action in a coup 
fceil, of gauging its relative proportions, and of examining 
its dependence and effects on its entourage, can hardly be 
over-rated. 

Such would appear to have been M. Weyher's object 
in the delicate and ingenious experiments which he has 
so skilfully elaborated and described in the pamphlet of 
91 pages before us, 

The physical theory of atmospheric eddies, including the 
rotating flat disk or cyclone, and the rotating column 
which manifests itself as a tornado, waterspout, or dust- 
whirl, according to variations in its intensity and surround- 
ing circumstances, has lately been developed to an extent 
not generally known, principally by FerreJ, Sprung, Ober- 
beck, and Marchi. It is therefore decidedly aat^factory 
to those who believe in the progress of meteorology by 
rational theory and deduction, to find that the motions 
e:^ibited in M. Weyher’s experiments, in which the con- 
ditions in Nature are very fairly imitated, agree in every 
point with those which have been deduced from their 
physical theory. 

Theory, for example, shows that a tornado is due 
pnmatilpr to an unstable condition of saturated ain 
companicd by a gyrating motion (which may initliliy be 
very small, and which is practically alWays 




May 1888] 


NATURE. 


105 


some extent, owfn^; to the earth's rotation), relative to 
some centra] point ^ 

Given these conditions, the rest follow as necessary 
consequences, viz. (1) a current ascending up the axis^ 
combined with rapid rotation round it ; (2) a hyperboloidal 
funnel of rarefied air tapering downwards, and reaching 
the earth when the action is powerful, round the sides of 
which a condensed vapour-, or so-called water- spout, should 
usually prevail, owing to the sudden rarefaction of the air 
entering the central area through the sides or at the base, 
the consequent lowering of the plane of condensation 
from the cloud-level which it usually occupies. When, 
therefore, it is said that waterspout is simply the cloud 
brought down to the earth by the rapid gyratory motion 
of the tornado,”^ it is not meant that the cloud is actually 
carried downwards by an aerial current, since by theory 
the motion is precisely in the opposite direction ; but that 
the conditions of condensation are propagated downwards 
from the cloud- stratum where they first commence. 
Neglect of this consideration, as well as the physical fact 


that condensation can only occur under most exceptional 
circumstances in a downward current, has led to many 
false deductions from apparent circumstances. 

Theory, moreover, indicates that the current up the 
axis, together with gyration round it, which, by the con- 
servation of rotational momentum, may become exceed- 
ingly rapid as the air approaches it, must combine to give 
a spiral character to the movement near the axis, wnile 
the conditions of continuity equally demand that there 
should be a compehsatory descending current somewhere 
in the vicinity, gyrating spirally in the same sense, and of 
only moderate velocity, owing to its greater distance from 
the axis. 

At the base of a tornado, or its milder form of water- 
spout, there should also be a rising up of the water at sea, 
or of light objects on land, which are supported by the 
ascending current until their collision or size carries them 
outside the central area, when they fall back to the earth, 
or to points where they are again brought within tfie 
influence of the whirl-currents. These and many other 



minor characteristics of tomadic action are confirmed and 
illustrated by M. Weyher's experiments. 

M, Weyher commences by examining the conditions 
which prevail in an eddy produced in water, cither by an 
outjSow through a sluice, or a momentary rotation im- 
pMed hy the stroke of an oar. In the former case the 
motion is well known, but in the latter it is somewhat 
new to find that besides the rotation round a vertical axis 
there is an interchanging vertical motion such that each 
particle descHbes a amending helix down the axis of the 
and ascends in a helix of the same sense to regain 
the surface. 

1 shows the same circulation produced by the 
revqS»ti|nn of a toumlquet, A. 

. If this %ure be looked at upside down, it substantially 

to «*»lew of Soo NMWi^t In the Unit^ 
teWH) dte ntows* Invsrtobly cyclomc. 

(w«w.r 


depicts what is believed to be the motion of the air in a 
whirlwind, waterspout, or tornado, and is precisely similar 
to what is found to be the motion round those artificially 
produced by M. Weyher. 

The important point to notice with respect to these 
water eddies, which are introduced mainly to show their 
analogy to air-whirls, is that, according to M. Weyher, 
their source of action must be at some distance below the 
surface. By artificially causing the liquid to rotate at its 
surface only, he found it impossible to obtain the central 
descending funnel of a complete water eddy. 

A similar condition is found to hold in an inverse sense 
in the case of artificially-produced air-whirls. The action 
must in their case originate in the upper part of the air- 
column, whence the motion is communicated by degrees 
to Sts lower boundary. The analogy, therefore, between 
the water eddy with a defending motion round its axis 
and the atmospheric whirlwind is completely invorse^ 
and not direct^ as some have Supposed. 



io6 


NATURE 


31, 18^ 


M. Weyher next proceeds to discuss the motions which 
shouid theoretically occur in an air-whirl. These are 
shown in vertical section in Fig. 2. 

In the annular region bordering the inner rarefied 
sptice, and represented by Kacc^ the air is 

asmmied to be rendered denser chan the normal by the 
centrifugal force of gyration, and according to M. 
WeyhcT it is by the descent of this denser air upon the 
depression caused by the air below rushing up to fill the 
central area, that the rotation system* propagates itself 
from above towards the earth. 

We do not think this explanation is either qprrcct or 
necessary. It is contrary to the physical theory that 
there should be a sheath of dense air surrounding the 
rarefied region, and, apart from this, friction, ana the 
transference of air up the axis from its lower end amply 
account for the downward propagation. 

The most interesting of M. Weyher’s experiments arc 
those in which he artificially produces the phenomena of 
the waterspout. By means of a rotating tourniquet placed 
over cold water, an aerial eddy is caused which draws up 
the water, in the form of a spout composed of drops, to a 
considerable height ; but when the water is heated, a 
clearly-defined condensed-vapour-, or, as it is popularly 



termed, water-spout, makes its appearance, like tbai 
shown in Fig. 3, which represents a form of the 
apoaratus suitable for a chamber experiment.^ 

With from 1500 to 2000 rotations per minute, the 
vapour from the heated water is found to condense itscll 
into a visible sheath enveloping a clearly-defined and 
rareiW central nucleus, conical, and tapering downwards. 
The diameter of the sheath is from | inch to i inch 
Besides this vapour-spout, water-drops are carried up as 
m natural marine spouts, until they are thrown out 
beyond the influence of the upward current. 

Other futures of spouts are then imitated, particularly 
what IS called the hirisson, which appears to be identical 
wth what the French sailors call the buisson, or bush- 
pbughmg up of the sea, which occurs at their bases, 
TOth before and during the period of complete formation. 

^ placing twenty or thirty small air- 
b^wns m the place of the water, underneath the 
tphtniquet These are then seen to rise up a short 

• to npMt th* expMrimftitt tb* dimcBsioM m* » 

nwle of tin from 5 to 6 incheo in diutwtor by t 
Tfwreore frOm so to la roctnoftihir faaa i 


distance, and foil back in graceful interlacing elliptical 
curves. The entire motion throughout the k/fissMt, is 
well as the whole system, is further studied by pUong 
underneath the tourniquet a quantity of oatraead in a 
glass vessel, and observing its motion Iw means of eye-* 
pieces fitted into the top m the vessel. The motions are 
thus seen to be precisely the same as those theoterically 
inferred, and when the rotation is stopped, the ascending 
spires of the currents at the lower end, are found engraven 
in lines on the finer particles, which, in obedience to these 
currents, lie in a conical heap round the vertical axis of 
the whirl. 

Several other experiments are made with cotton«wool 
and smoke, each of which exhibits some special feature 
characterizing the spouts of Nature. 

The pressure ana temperature conditions in different 
parts or the area are next investigated. 



Fio. 3. 

By means of a manometer, it is found that the rarefoc- 
tion at the centre of the rotating tourniquet is transmitted 
almost unaltered in intensity (probably proportionally 
diinmishcd in area) to the centre of the whiri on tbe 
surface, while the thermometer at the same point, at first 
shows a fall and then a rise of temperature, the latter 
evidently due to the friction of the rapidly movltw air 
against the surface. ^ ™ 

an^logdus pbenptnenon of « cycione is vory bitiv 
imitated % the apparatus shown in the acconpmyiMr 
diagram (Fig. 4), consisting of a laige toamiourtiSS^ 
over a taw covered with a niitnber of pins meoiiMl siMi 
movable thnade of red wool. The toumioiiot is KtttoMtd 
to M to be capable, of transiatioii as wch asrota^kipuAi 
the cent^ 1^ ^lo is pierced with a anMOtlMttM ^ 
communicaUiw by means of a caoutchouc itibt ^ a 
manometer, which thus registers the chasg a, 




NATURE 


107 


May 31, 1&8S] 

as thA sapposed cyclooc passes over it. On rotating the the rotation is doubtless kept up^ after it has once beeiv 
and passing it id<mg over the table, the direc- started in the air at some distance above the surface, by^ 
tkmftand positions of the threads are seen to indicate the upward movement along the axis, and the con 
not only the horiaonial, but also the vertical components sequent aspiration of the surrounding air into the area 
of the winds thus produced, including the region of caJm of ^ration. With this exception, however, there se«m» 
in ^ centre, as well as tl« downward and outward little wanting. 

motioci at the anttcycionic border The variations of The position of the source from which the vapour is 
pftssnre recorded by the manometer, when plotted out, drawn is not so important as might be thought, since the 
show a curve similar to that in a symmetrical cyclone, vapour condensed in the natural waterspout is not the 
incl^ng the rise of pressure at the border where the cloud actually brought down to the surface, any more 
motion is descending and outwards. than it is—cxcept for the space of a few feet at its lower 

Kail is then explained, as being caused by vapour extremity — the water bodily carried up, but is the resutt 
drawn up into the AMsson of what M. Faye terms a trombe of the condensation, by rarefaction, of vapour previouriy 
which descends from the upper regions as contained invisibly, but certainly amply enough for the 
far «is the surface of the cloud, whence the hail proceeds, purpose, right down to the earth^s surface. In fact, the 
The rest of the explanation, which mainly involves a origin of the vapour, being at the base, more neariy 
coiHinuai churning up and down of the froren particles, imitates Nature tnan if it were only supplied above in the 
is similar to that given by Fcrrel and MbJlcr, except that form of a cloud. 

the hailstones impinging upon one another at the focus M. Weyher*s experiments so far, therefore, bear out the 
of tlw are supposed, by the heat thus engendered, hypothesis lhat a system of rotating air-currents above 

to aid in effecting the temporary melting of their surfaces the earth’s surface, causes tomadic, waterspout, and <kigl- 
mcesftary to account for the concentric coats of snow and spout phenomena, by an aspiration towards^ and a How 
ice they usually exhibit. up^ its axis, and show that such a system can propagate 

M. W^^her's experiments do not, of course, fulfil all itself and its accompanying effects downwards wJthoat 
the conditions which prevail in Nature,. since in that case assuming any downward component along the axis. 



Fui. 4. 


The last part of the work is devoted to a description of axis in opposite directions, and meet on the plane of 
certain curious effects produced by rotating spherical the equator. From thence the air jointly brought by 
tourniquets. Fig. 5 shows a convenient form of the these inner helices is driven outwards, and returns by 
apparatus*, in which s represents a sphere made of eight similar helices, like the downward return- current of the 
or ten circular fans, fixed on an axis passing through two tornado, to the points at the extremities of the prolonged 
vertical disks whose function it is to keep off disturbing polar axis. So far well, but we cannot quite admit the 
currents, and also to concentrate the action, m is an air- validity of the manometer experiment by which, on p. 74, 
balloon^ which, when the tourniquet is set in motion, is the author attempts to show the existence of the aspira- 
found to revolve round it in the plane of its equator, and tion in the plane of the equator requisite to explain the 
be attracted instead of rcpeli^. attraction it exerts on the air-balloon. The effect of 

M. Weyher thus explains this, at first sight, paradoxical velocity in decreasing pressure, as exemplified by Hawfcs- 
va^km* A rotating spherical ventilator draws in the air bee’s famous experiment, would probably mask any othear 
cldefiy at its poles, and expels it in the plane of the vortical effects such as those sought by M. Weyher. 
equ^er, but, except in this piam^ there is a general It appears to be a recognized custom for an author, 
moUan tat air all round towards the ventilator. The after describing his experiments, to indulge in some pet 
stream of air issuing from the ventilator in the plane of speculations, and even to make the orthodoxy of the 
the^tqtialor is divided by the balloon, and forms vortices, former an excuse for the frequently Utopian character of 
wych^^jether with the cunwats centrally directed on its the latter. 

sme^ tend to urge it towards the ventilator. M. Weyher certainly treats himself to an ampte dessert 
wtodtelhiB explanation be considered satisfactory or of this description in his concluding section, in which, 
tlet balloon certainly revolves Uke a satellite round asauming the existence of a ponderaik ether, the {dieno- 
W fiy nuHKis of bating gcdd-leares, the mena ctf the tmhk't/on are by acalc^ transferred to 

isioente cads^ the splaT system, which is snpposed to be the h&tsson ^ 

whose Inner , gyrisrions comtpenoing at some a whirl system teachiing it from space, the sun being m 
gttnqfiai^ r^ the focus, and in which the planets, by the mutual 


io8 


MATURE 


[4^ 3i» 


influent ^ iht ethereal whirls due to their axial rotation^ 
cause Mmuhaueously spots on the sun and cyclones on 
the earth. 

AVe fail to follow M. Weyher here, and think it would 
have heen better if he had not only hesitated, as he 
admits he (^d, but decided not to publish such wild 
speculations. His experiments are exceedingly instructive 



Fig, 5. 


and suggestive, and if he can ultimately succeed in imi> 
tating the conditions of Nature more closely, we shall 
doutnless have an end of the theoretical polemics which 
have hitherto retarded rather than aided the progress of 
our knowledge of ai^rial motions and their causes. 

IL PouGLAS Archibald. 


TIMBER, AND SOME OF ITS DISEASES^ 
VII. 

T F we pass through a forest of oaks, beeches, pines, and 
^ other trees, it requires but a glance to see that various 
natural processes are at work to reduce the number of 
branches as the trees become older. Every tree bears 
more buds than develop into twigs and branches, for not 
only do some of the buds at a very early date divert the 
fopd-supplies from others, and thus starve them off, but 
they are also exposed to the attacks of insects, squirrels, 
&c., and to dangers arising from inclement weather, and 
from being struck by fulling trees and branches, &c., and 
many arc thus destroyed. Such causes alone will account 
in part for the iTregulariiy of a tree, especially of a Conifer, 
in which the buds may be developed so regularly that if 
all came to maturity the tree would be symmetrical. But 
that this is not the whole of the case, can be easily seen, and 
is of course well known to every gardener and forester. 

If we remove a small branch of several years' growth 
from an oak, for instance, it will be noticed that on the 
twigs last formed there is a bud at the axil of every leaf ; 
bpt ^ examining the parts developed two or three years 
previou^y it is easy to convince ourselves of the existence 
of certain small scars, above the nearly obliterated Icaf- 
ffcars, and to that if a small twig projected from each 
of these scars the symmetry of the branching might be 

< Continued firom yol. xxxvii, p. 516. 


complete 4 Now it is certain that buds or twigs were formed 
at these places, and we know from careful observs^Wts 
that they have been naturally thrown off by a process 
analogous to the bedding of me leaves j in other wor^, 
the 0^ sheds some of its young branches naturally evmy 
year. And many other trees do the same ; for instance, 
the black poplar, the Scotch pine, Dammara^ dec. ; in some 
trees, indeed, and notably in the so-ca^ed swamp pyjtress 
{Taxodium dtsEchum) of North America, the habit is so 
pronounced that it sheds most of its young branches 
every year. 

But apart from these less obvious causes for the sup- 
pression of branches, wc notice in the forest that the 
majority of the trees have lost their lower branches at a 
much later date, and that in many cases the remains of 
the proximal parts of the dead branches are slicking out 
from the trunk like unsightly wooden horns. Some of these 
branches may have been broken off by the fall of neighbour- 
ing trees or large limbs ; others may have been br&en by 
the weight of snow accumulating during the winter ; others, 
again, may have been broken by hand, or by heavy wind ; 
and y.:t others have died off, in the first place because the 
over-bearing shade of the surrounding trees cut off the 
access of light to their leaves, and secondly because the 
flow of nutritive materials to them ceased, being diverted 



Fig. ai.— Portion of a tree from which a branch ha* been cut olT doK to the 
stem. C\ the cambium of the branch ; Bt the cortex. 

into more profitable channels by the flourishing, growing 
parts of the crown of leaves exposed to sunlight and air 
above. 

The point I wish to insist upon here is that in these 
cases of branch-breaking, however brought about, open 
wounds arc left exposed to all the vicissitudes of the 
forest atmosphere ; if we compare the remnant of such 
a broken branch and the scar left after the” natural 
shedding of a branch or leaf, the latter will be foimd 
covered with an impervious layer of cork, a tissue which 
keeps out damp, fungus-spores, &c., effectually. 

It is, in fact-^s a matter of observation and experiment 
—these open wounds which expose the standing timber to 
so many dangers from the attacks of parasitic fungi ; and 
it will be instructive to look a little more closely Into the 
matter as bearing on the question of the removal 6f 
large branches from trees. 

If a fairly large branch of a tree, such as the oak^ is; Cut 
off close to the trunk, a surface of wood is eapose^ 
round^ by a thih ring of cambium and bark (as Iki FlgS- 
21 and 22). We have already seen what the funictipiw 
of the cambium are, and it will be observed that 
edge of the cambium (C) is suddenly pUc^ unto 
conditions from the usual ones ; tnC chief imd 

the only one we need notice at preienL is that 'ihe'^ 
bium in the neighbcuriiood of the cut surface is 



NATURE 


109 


31, 1S88] 


thfy compressing influence of the cortex and bark, 
0WiAg to this release of pressure it begins to grow out 
at the edges into a cushion or ** callus/' as shown in Figs. 
3 j£aitd 24. A very simtiar ^ callus " is formed in the 
opiratian of multiplying plants by ‘'cuttings/' so well 



FiC. 3a.*;;»The same in longiiudinal section. /*, the pith of xtem and branch : 
on oith«r side of thi» are the twelve annual zjnci of wood producecf 
duHng the yean iS67'78, as marked. The cambium, C, sc|>arates these 
from the cortex, E. 

known to all ; the cambium at the cut surface of the 
“ slip” or “ cutting/' is released from the pressure of the 
cortex, and begins to grow out more rapidly in the direc- 
tions of less pressure, and forms the callus. 

Now this callus (Fig. 23, 0)!7)isin all cases something more 



Fig. 93.— l*be same fdoce of «era four yeare later, ‘I’he cushlon-liko devc- 
lopmeatt vetutdng from the ovmarowlh of the cambium and conical 

tietttSe ol tm out bruich, kei ajctmidod eome dutanoe from the edget, 
and le eoycriitg In the expwl woodv E is the dead outer corky tissue, 
Mcapidde of g^wdi, and putlally cracked under the preseums exerted by 
uie .Akheiiiinjf of the eteia* The Utur is eomewhat swollen trars- 
verMlyt dwfnf to the rateaee of nresnire in this reffton enabling the 
td develop alittle mora aenVety here : the quiver growth m the 
jKdudmg OWihioa ui the )u»rieontal dlrcodon U due to the same cause. 

^an €ambiit|iu-H>r rather# as the cambium extends 
by i^m the cut edge of the wound, its outer 

into cortex; aad its inner parts into wood, 
to tfe honn^l casCi Thd consequehce is that we have 
ilowiy crec^njr from the margins of the 


wound, new layers of wood and cortex with cambium 
between them (r ig. 24) ; and it will be noticed that each 
year the layer of wo(kI extends a little further over the 
surface of the wound, and towards the centre of the cut 
branch ; and in course of time, provided the wound is 
not too large, and the tree is full of vigour, the margins of 
the callus will meet near the middle, and what wa^ the 
exposed cut surface of the branch will be buried beneath 
layers of wood and cortex, between which lies the cam- 
bium, now once more continuous over the whole trunk of 
the tree (Figs. 25 and 26). 

It is not^herc to the purpose to enter into the very in- 
teresting histological questions connected with this c^us- 
formation, or with the mechanical relations of the various 
parts one to another. It is suffleient for our present 
object to point out that this process of covering up, or 
occlusion^ as I propose to term it, requires some time for 
its completion. For the sake of illustration, I have num- 
bered the various phases in the diagram, with the years 
during which the annual rings have Been formed ; and it 



Fio. 34.— The same in longitudinal section : A*, and C m before. The four 
new layers of wood formed during 1879-6 a ar« arti6cially separated 
from the preceding by a stronger line. {.)n the left side of the figure it 
will be noticed that the cambium (and therefore the wood devebped from 
it) projected a little further over the cut end of the branch each year, 
carrying the cortical layers iCo*") with it. At , in both figurrs. there is 
necessarily a deprasslon in which rain-water, &c , is apt to lodge, and 
this U a particularly dangerous place, since fungus-sporee may here settle 
and develop. 

will be seen at a glance that, in the case selected, itre- 
quired seven years to cover up the surface of the cut 
branch (cf. Figs. 21-26). During these seven years 
more or less of the cut surface was exposed (Fig. 24) to 
all the exigencies of the forest, and it will easily be under- 
stood that abundant op^rtunities were thus .affoii^bd for 
the spores of fungi to fall on the naked wood# and for 
moisture to condense and penetrate into the interior ; more- 
over, in the ledge formed at X in Figs. 23 and 24, by the 
lower part of the callus, as it slowly creeps up, there will 
always be water in wet weather ; and a sodden condition 
of the wood at this part is insured. All this is, of course, 
peculiarly adapted for the germination of spores ; and, 
since the water will soak out nutritive materials, nothing 
could be more favourable for the growth and development 
of the mycelium of a fungus. These circumstances, 
favourable as they are for the fungi, are usually rendered 
even more so in practice, because the sawyers often allow 
such a branch to fall, and tear and crush the cambium 
and cortex at the lower edge of the wound. These and 


no 


NATURE 


\ M ^ 31, 


Other details must be passed over^ however^ asd ovr 
attentkm be cofufined to the fact diat here arc ample 
chancer for the spores of parasitic and other fungi to 
fiill Ml a surface admirably suited for their development 



VlO. a5,“TT»e same piece of stem six years later still: the suiface of the 
Cut branch has now been covered in for some time, and only a bossdike 
projection marks where the previous cut surfbcc was. '1 his projection ts 
' protected by cork layers, like ordinary outer cortex, the old outer cortex 
cracking more and more as the stem expands. 


The further fact must be insisted upon that numerous 
fungus'spores do fall and develop upon these wounds, and 
that by the time the exposed surface is covered in (as in Fig. 
25) the timber is frequently already rotten, usually for 



Fro. ae.— The ««m In longitudinal Motion : lottaring as bcfeni. Ski n«^ 
htpen of wood have been developed, ond the cut end of the hraach nvas 
compMely occluded before the last three were foriDod— at the end 
of (885. After that the cambhim became once more ooirtfnuotn round the 
adlolt «tem, md, beyond a alight pMtubennee over the ooclndod woood 
And cho WEged edges of th« deM corky outer loyocar there cie «o 
efgna of g breach. 


some distance down. In the event of fungi, such as have 
been descHbed above— parasites and wouad-oarasitew-" 
ffldning a hold on such wounds, the ravages of the myce- 
lium will continue after the occlusion is complete, and I 


have seen scores of trees, apparently sound and wMSp 
the interior of which is a mere mass of rottenness : vrbeft 
a heavy gale at length blows them down, such trees are 
found to be mere hollow shells, the ravajges of tJie 
mycelium having extended from toe point of entry hstb 
every part of the older timber. 

In a slate of nature the processes above referred to do 
not go on so smoothly and easily as just described, and it 
will be profitable to glance at such a case as the following. 

A fairly strong branch dies off, from any cause what- 
ever— from being overshadowed by otfier trees. All 
its tissues dry up, and its cortex, &c., are rapidly 
destroyed by saprophytic fungi, and in a short time we 
find only a hard, dry, branched stick projecting from the 
tree. At the extreme base, where it joins the tree, the 
tissues do not at once perish, but for a length of from 
half an inch to an inch or so the base is still nourished by 
the trunk. After a time, the wind, or a falling branch, or 
the weight of accumulated snow, &c., breaks off the dead 
branch, leaving the projecting basal portion : if the 
branch broke off quite close to the stem, the wound 



Fig. 27.— Baw; of a strong branch which had perUbed naturally twtnty.four 
yean* previously to ihc stage figured. 'Hie branch decayed, and the 
{)ase was gradually occluded by the thickening layers of the stem : the 
fall of the rotting brunch did not occur till six year* ago, however, 
as can be determined from the layers at / and /, which then began to 
turn inwards over the stump. Meanwhile, the )^« had become hollow 
and full of rotten wood. jf. It is interesting to note how ihght the 
growth is on the lower side of the branch baie, /, as compared with that 
at h above : the line numbered 24 refers to the annuel zones in each case. 
As seen at b and < 7 , the rotting of the wood pasjtei backwards, and may 
invade the previously heahhy wood for some distance. (After Hartig.) 

would, or at least might, soon be occluded ; but, as it is^ 
the projecting piece not only takes longer to close in, but 
it tends to rot very badly (Fig. 37), and at the best forms 
a bad “ knot ” or hole in the timber when sawn up. Of 
course what has already been stated of cut branches applies 
here ; the wounds are always sources of danger $0 long as 
they are exposed. 

It is beyond the scope of these articles to sot forth the 
pros and cons as to the advisability of adopting any pro- 
posed treatment on a large scale : the simile question of 
cost will always have to be decided by those contomedl. 
But wither it is fwracticable or not on a lairge icaJe^ 
there io no question as to the desirability of adc^ng 
some such treatment as the following to preserve vatnaMe 
trees a»d timber irtm the ravins of these 
sites. Branched which break off should be cut ctom 
down to the stem, if possible in winter, and the clean ebt 
made so that no tearing or crushing of the pm 

cortex occur; the surface should then be ptA^aMiPm a 
thorough coating of tar, and the wound left to bebiodktM* 
If the cutdrig is accomplished in spring or 
trouble will be caused by the tar not stidking to M ^ 


NATURE 


lit 


M «^ 31, 1888] 

suited AUhoufh this is not an absolute safeguard 
against the attacks of fungi— simply because the germinal 
tubes from spores can find their way through small craclcs 
at (be margin of the wound, &c. — still it reduces the danger 
to a imnimunii and it is certain that valuable old trees 
have been preserved in this way. 

Before passing to treat of the chief diseases known to 
start from such wounds as the above, it should be re- 
marked that it is not inevitable that the exposed surface 
becomes attacked by fungi capable of entering the timber. 
It happens not unfrequently that a good closure is ejected 
over the cut base of a small branch in a few years, and that 
the timber of the base is sound everywhere but at the 
surfisce : this happy result may sometimes be attained in 
pines and other Conifers, for instance, by the exudation of 
resin or its infiltration into the wood ; but in rarer cases 
it occurs even in non-resinous trees, and recent investiga- 
tions go to show that the wood formed in these healing 
processes possesses the properties of true heart-wood. 
At the same time there is always danger, as stated, and 
we will now proceed to give a brief account of the chief 
classes of diseases to which such wounds render the tree 
liable. 

The first and most common action is the decay which 
sets in on the exposure of the wood surface to the 
alternate wetting and drying in contact with the atmo- 
sphere : it is known that wood oxidizes under such 
circumstances, and we may be sure that wounds are no 
exception to this rule. The surface of the wood gradually 
turns brown, and the structure of the timber is destroyed j 
as the process extends. - | 

The difficulty always arises in Nature, however, that | 
mould-fungi and bacteria of various kinds soon co- I 
operate in and hurry these processes, and it is impossible , 
to say how much of the decay is due to merely physical j 
and chemical actions, and how much to the fermentative j 
action of these organisms, We ought not to shut our 
eyes to this rich field for investigation, although for the j 
present purpose it suffices to recognize that the combined 
action of the wet, the oxygen of the air, and the ferment- 
ing action of the moulds and bacteria, &c., soon converts 
the outer parts of the wood into a mixture of acid 
substances resembling the humus of black leaf-mould. 

Now as the rain soaks into this, it dissolves and carries 
down into the wood below certain bodies which are 
poisonous in their action on the living parts of the 
timber, and a great deal of damage may be caused by 
this means alone. lJut this is not all : as soon as the 
decaying surface of the wound provides these mixtures of 
decomposed organic matter, it becomes a suitable soil for 
the development of fungi which are not parasitic — i,e, 
which cannot live on and in the normal and living parts of 
the tree— but which can and do thrive on partially decom- 
posed wood. The spores of such fungi are particularly 
abuQfdAnt, and most of the holes found in trees arc due to 
their action* They follow up the poisonous action of the 
^uiew referred to above